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Full text of "Race or mongrel: a brief history of the rise and fall of the ancient races of earth: a theory that the fall of nations is due to intermarriage with alien stocks: a demonstration that a nation's strength is due to racial purity: a prophecy that America will sink to early decay unless immigration is rigorously restricted"

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A brief history of the rise and fall of the ancient 
races of earth : a theory that the fall of nations is 
due to intermarriag e with alien stocks : a demon- 
stration that a nation's strength is due to racial 
purity: a prophecy that America will sink to early 
decay unless immigration is rigorously restricted. 





Copyright, igo8 

By L. C. Page & Company 


Entered at Stationers* Hall, London 

All rights reserved 

First Impression, July, 1908 

Colonial $rrss 

Electrotyped and Printed by C. H. Simonds & Co. 

Boston, U. S. A. 

The writer desires to acknowledge his 
indebtedness to the works of Conte A. 
de Gobineau, Mr. Houston Stewart 
Chamberlain, Dr. Albrecht Wirth, and 
Dr. Ludwig Woltman. 

The writer's hearty thanks are due to 
E. H. and F. D. 




I. The Mongrel in Nature 1 

II. The Mongrel in History 5 

III. The Hamites in India 10 

IV. The Chaldeans 12 

V. The Phoenicians 19 

VI. The Carthaginians 26 

VII. The Egyptians 29 

VIII. The Jews 34^ 

IX. The Gipsies 45 

X. The Hindoos 47 

XI. Hellas 62 

XII. The Greeks 86 

XIII. The Pan - European Mongrel in Rome . . 97 

XIV. Sicily 109 

XV. The Lombards in Italy 112 

XVI. Heredity and Language 124 

XVII. Race Problems in German Lands . . . 135"^ 

XVIII. The South American Mongrel .... 147— 

XIX. The Monroe Doctrine 164 

XX. The Yellow Races 168 - 

XXI. The Anglo - Saxons 180 f 

XXII. The Anglo - Saxons in America . . . 213 

XXIII. Immigration: Who in America? .... 248 

XXIV. Immigration: Men or the Balance-sheet? . 280 
XXV. Immigration: Anglo - Saxons and Germans . 294 

XXVI. Immigration: The German - Americans . . 299 

XXVII. Immigration: The Pan - European in America 321 

XX VIII. The American Negro 331 - 

XXIX. Conclusion 349 

Bibliography 353 

Index . . 355 




In scientific usage the result of a fertile cross between 
two distinct species is called a hybrid; the result of 
a fertile cross between two varieties of the same species 
is called a mongrel. As, however, the distinction between 
species and varieties is one, not of kind, but of degree, 
varieties being species in the nascent stage and species 
having aboriginally existed as varieties, the distinction 
between . hybrid and mongrel is also one of degree. 
The Latin word " hybrida " is derived from the Greek 
" v/3pi$," an insult or outrage, an outrage on nature, 
a mongrel. 

In nature the hybrid is very rare, species shun crossing , 
instinctively. In captivity the crossing of animals, 
not of the same variety, is sometimes brought about by 
man, by the employment of ruse or force. 

From the study of biology we learn that — 

Crossing in nature is extremely rare. Animals as 
closely related as hare and rabbit rarely breed together. 

When species are crossed^ fertilization rarely follows. 


Sometimes there is a physical impossibility preventing 
the male element from reaching the female ovule, as 
is the case with a plant having a pistil too long for 
the pollen tubes to reach the ovarium. It has also been 
observed that, when the pollen of one species is placed 
on the stigma of another species, though the pollen 
tubes protrude, they do not penetrate the stigmatic 

The male element may reach the female element, but 
be incapable of causing an embryo to be developed. 

A great many of the few embryos which develop 
after crossing perish at a very early period. The early 
death of the embryo is a frequent cause of the sterility 
of first crosses. 

Of the very few embryos that are normal at delivery 
a great many die within the first days of their life. 
Darwin writes: "Mr. Salter has given the result of 
an examination of about five hundred eggs produced 
from various crosses between three species of Gallus 
and their hybrids; the majority of these eggs had been 
fertilized, and in the majority of the fertilized eggs 
the embryos had either been partially developed and 
had then perished, or had become nearly mature; but 
the young chickens had been unable to break through 
the shell. Of the chickens which were born, more than 
four-fifths died within the first few days or, at latest, 
weeks, without any obvious cause, apparently from mere 
inability to live; so that from five hundred eggs only 
twelve chickens were reared," 


Many of the very few hybrids that are viable are 
sterile, as the mule. 

Of the very few hybrids that are not sterile, some 
breed with the parent species, These offspring revert 
to the parent species, the hybrid disappears. 

Others of the very small number of fertile hybrids 
breed inter se only. The very small number of these 
hybrids causes very close inbreeding, with its conse- 
quences, — degeneration, sterility, and death. Nature 
destroys the mongrel. 

In the development of species the accumulative 
action of selection, whether applied methodically and 
quickly, or unconsciously and slowly but more effect- 
ually, has been the predominant power, the importance 
of crossing being insignificant (Darwin). 

What J s said of the hybrid is true of the mongrel, 
the mongrel of the domestic animals being the only 
exception. Domesticated animals, however, bear a 
similar relation to animals in nature that plants propa- 
gated by cuttings, buds, and so forth, bear to plants 
propagated by seed. With plants propagated by cut- 
tings, buds, etc., the importance of crossing is immense; 
for the cultivator may here disregard the extreme 
variability both of hybrids and of mongrels and their 
sterility; but plants not propagated by seed are of no 
importance in the development of species. Their endur- 
ance is only temporary (Darwin). 

Domestic animals exist as long as man breeds them, 
feeds them, or fancies them. They lead no life of their 


own. Turn the domestic animals loose, leave them to 
nature, and in ten years no mongrel will exist. 

From the foregoing considerations we derive this 

Nature prevents the development of the mongrel; 
in the few cases in which nature has for the time being 
successfully been outraged and a mongrel produced, 
nature degrades that mongrel mercilessly and in time 
stamps it out. 

Nature suffers no mongrel to live. 

Read " The Origin of Species," by Charles Darwin. 



Biology and the corelated sciences of anatomy, 
physiology, embryology, and medicine prove that man 
is subject to all the laws which govern animal life; 
that the rules of nature rule him as rigidly as they govern 
the animal world, that the violation of any of these 
laws on his part is always and without exception fol- 
lowed by the disastrous consequences which are the 
corollary to that law. 

The poets and writers of the middle ages well knew 
that promiscuous intermarriage was bad. The bastards, 
they depict in their works, are the mean, the low, the 
sordid, cowards and felons, vermin of humanity. Not 
great criminals; strength of character, a requisite of 
greatness even in the field of crime, is the one quality 
that the mongrel is utterly destitute of. 

The fact that most of our domestic animals were 
domesticated by the savage of antiquity, and that we 
had but little success in the domestication of wild 
animals, does not prove the greater intelligence of 
the savage. Their success was due to the fact that 
species were then in their nascent stage and more 


A community of men, that has not yet become highly 
specialized, that still consists of crude material, can 
become absorbed by another more highly developed, 
not in one generation, but in a dozen or more genera- 
tions. The absorbent capacity of every race, however, 
is limited. It is our conviction that we are absorbing 
and have absorbed countless numbers of the highly 
specialized Celts, Slavs, Latins, Scandinavians, and 
Germans. It is a presumption indicating paranoia. 
External evidence alone prevents us from asserting 
that we absorb the negro in two generations. Probably 
a small amount of negro blood can be absorbed by a 
large white community; in fifty or a hundred generations 
every trace of the negro blood will have disappeared. 

Selection is at work continually throughout organic 
nature; it uses not only the individual as a unit, but 
also every cell, every one of the elements that con- 
stitute that individual.*^ The necessary time being 
given^ nature casts out every^a^e^Twhich the har- 
^mony of the individual is destroyed. This result selection 
cannot accomplish if a considerable amount of foreign 
blood is continually injected into a body politic. A 
homogeneous people cannot develop; selection favours 
the stronger element in the individual, that is, the one 
fittest to survive, not necessarily the best. Where many 
people meet and intermarry, this stronger element is 
not the same in each individual of the nation. The 
result is a nondescript mongrel mass, devoid of character, 
without a future. With the thoroughbred, not with 


the mongrel, rests the future, rests the hope of the 

Races do not fall from heaven, they are bred. The 
Aryan., the Semite, the Hamite, never existed. These 
terms are abstractions. It has been found that some 
races have fundamental characteristics in common, 
and these are Aryan races; others have other char- 
acteristics in common, and these are Semitic races, 
and so forth. A race can without degenerating absorb 
another race of the same stock, if this race is small in 
numbers and the period of inbreeding following the 
crossing long. The absorption of a race belonging to 
a different stock is usually followed by degeneration, 
thus all Hamitic-Semitic people decayed, the Jews 

(^h The intermarriage of people of one colour with people 
of another colour always leads to deterioration. Prof. 
Agassiz says, " Let any one who doubts the evil of the 
mixture of races, and is inclined from a mistaken phi- 
lanthropy to break down all barriers between them, 
come to Brazil. He cannot deny the deterioration 
consequent upon an amalgamation of races, more wide- 
spread here than in any country in the world, and 
which is rapidly effacing the best qualities of the white 
man, the negro, and the Indian, leaving a mongrel 
nondescript type, deficient in physical and mental 

The most favourable opinion held in regard to the 
white-Indian half-breeds in Brazil is very poor. They 


are a lazy and a troublesome class, and much inferior 
to the original stock.. (From " Brazil/' by C. C. An- 

Darwin notes in half-breeds a return toward the 
habits of savage life. He says : " Many years ago, 
before I thought of the present subject, I was struck 
with the fact that in South America men of complicated 
descent between negroes, Indians, and Spaniards rarely 
had, whatever the cause might be, a good expression.' ' 
Livingstone, after speaking of a half-caste man on 
the Zambesi, described as a rare monster of inhumanity, 
remarks : " It is unaccountable why half-castes such 
as he are so much more cruel than the Portuguese; 
but such is undoubtedly the case." Humboldt speaks 
in strong terms of the bad character of the Zambos, 
or half-castes between Indians and negroes, and this 
conclusion has been arrived at by various observers. 
An inhabitant of Africa remarked to Livingstone, that 
God made the white man, God made the black man, 
but the devil made the half-castes. 

Klapproth states that the intermarriage of Caucasians 
and Mongolians produces half-breeds in whom the 
Mongolian type is always predominant, whatever may 
be the sex of the half-breed. Burmeister, who studied 
the mulattoes of South America and of the West Indian 
Islands, denies that the mulatto is exactly the mean 
between his two parents. In the immense majority of 
cases his characteristics are borrowed from both races, 
but one of them is always predominant, and that is 


nearly always the negro race. Prunser-Bey passes the 
same judgment as far as the mulattoes of Egypt are 
concerned. He observes the marked predominance of 
the negro type. It is manifest in the form and dimensions 
of the skull, in the forehead, usually low and receding, 
in the curly woolly hair and in the prognathism (Ribot). 
Does the bastard depicted by the medieval writers, 
and already referred to, personify the mongrelized 
peoples and nations? The following pages endeavour 
to answer the question. 



Before the advent of the Hindoos, a Hamitic race 
produced a culture in India. Of this Hamitic people 
in India, we know very little. Rawlinson says: " Lin- 
guistic discovery shows that a Hamitic race did, in the 
earliest times, people the whole peninsula of India. 
The cities on the northern shores of the Persian Gulf 
are shown by the brick inscriptions found in their 
ruins to have belonged to that race." 

The Hamites were seamen, merchants, and agricul- 
turalists, and formed powerful communities. That 
they were able builders and engineers is proved by the 
remains of temples, castles, extensive excavations, 
artificial lakes, and canals. 

. We cannot with certainty prove what caused the 
death of this ancient civilization. There was no hostile 
invasion, the Hindoos came later and from the north. 
It was not overthrown. It decayed. The decay was 
due to the same causes that later caused the degenera- 
tion of the Hindoo civilization. The Hamites found 
in India a population of yellows and blacks. Inter- 
marriage was at first prohibited either by law or by 
public sentiment. Passion, then as now, observed no 



restrictions, and a semi-Hamitic population came into 
hping. Intermarriage was considered less objectionable, 
coloured blood was thus introduced into the veins 
of the Hamites. 

In a like manner, Americans do not intermarry with 

coloured people, and yet they have little objection to 

the introduction of that blood by the semi- whites of 

h America, Cuba, Portugal, Mexico, Hungary 

(Magyars), and other places. 

As the influx of coloured blood conti nued, obje ctions 

to intermarriage decreased, with the result that the 

itic stock became thoroughly corrupt. The mongrel 

-pring was unable to continue the work and the 
civilization of his ancestors, the Hamitic civilization 
ne stagnant. Soon the mongrels became unable 
{•• nderstand their ancestors and their civilization. 
The old forms persisted for a time, but the spirit that 
had given them life was dead. The stagnant civiliza- 
tion fell into decay and crumbled to pieces. This 
process continued through the centuries, until there 
remained but few traces of that civilization of which 
the mongrel was unworthy. 



The Chaldeans were a Hamitic race. Their kingd(- 
Chaldea lasted millenniums. The astronomical recc-i .• 
found at Babylon begins with the date 2234 b. 
Rawlinson mentions an inscription that goes back 
the year 3200 b. c. Chaldea is now thinly inhabi 
by nomadic tribes, where as formerly it was the m 
populous region of the globe. The ruins of rm 
great cities are within that territory, among which 
Ur, Nipur, Larsa, Erech, and Babylon. 

The Chaldeans were merchants and scientists. T 
were the people that laid the foundation of our civi 
tion. They began the study of astronomy and were 
famous for it throughout the world; attributed comets 
to natural causes and could foretell their reappearance. 
Their astronomical appliances show their knowledge of 
that science. The most important astronomical work 
of the Chaldeans was the formation of the calendar 
and of the sun-dial. They were devoted to maritime 

Rawlinson says " the ships of Ur are constantly 
mentioned in connection with those of Ethiopia." The 
Chaldeans established the first administrative regula- 



tions, the first system of religious rites and ceremonies, 
and their legal literature was very extensive. The 
rights of women were strictly guarded. Their com- 
mercial relations extended from the Indian Ocean to 
the Atlantic. This high civilization originated with 
and was developed by the Chaldeans, and not by the 
Assyrians. The science of Assyria was derived from 

The year 1273 b. c. marks the beginning of the 
Assyrian empire. Babylon was a province of Assyria for 
650 years. At times its vassalage was little more than 
nominal, and at times it was held in very rigid subjec- 
tion. The Assyrian empire was great in extent and 
very powerful during six centuries. It comprised many 
races. That Assyria deprived Chaldea of its indepen- 
dence was of comparatively little importance. The 
loss of independence solely has never destroyed a great 
race and its civilization. The civilization of Chaldea 
was produced by a people, the members of which pro- 
fessed the same religion, and followed the same tradi- 
tions, that is by a people of one race. As Chaldea was 
the most prosperous country of the time, it had before 
the time of Assyria an immigration, and Aryan, Semitic, 
and Turanian elements are noticed. This early immi- 
gration, not having been excessive, was absorbed. 
It was, at all events, not sufficient to affect the fibre of 
the race. 

When Babylon, however, became a province of 
Assyria, conditions changed. The different races that 



lived in the empire rushed to its most prosperous 
province. In the later ages of Babylon there was a 
remarkable mixture of races in Chaldea. The immi- 
gration was so great that the Hamitic language fell out 
of use. At the time of Nebuchadnezzar the Hamitic 
tongue had disappeared and the Semitic Aramaic had 
taken its place. In this race jumble the marvellous 
vigour of the Chaldean race was passing away. It was 
passing away as the Chaldean race itself was passing 
away, and civilization with it. In Alexander's time 
there was not much left of the ancient Chaldean culture. 
The Hamitic - Semitic - Aryan - Turanian mongrel was 

Aramaic was the language adopted by the different 
races of the Assyrian empire. The fusion of these 
different races progressed rapidly, and the worthlessness 
of the mongrel was in direct proportion to the extent 
of the fusion. Although speaking the same language, 
each of the different race elements was unable to make 
itself understood by the elements of the other races. 
This was true also of the different race elements of which 
the individual was composed. Mental faculties declined, 
confusion and anarchy prevailed, material prosperity 
vanished; the mongrelization was followed by stag- 
nation, deterioration, decline, and death. Nature 
destroyed the mongrel. 

The Assyrian empire existed no longer than the blood 
that had created it. It expanded rapidly and included 
many races. Desirous of becoming a homogeneous 


people, they forced their Aramaic language upon the 
races of the empire. As the Assyrians were not very 
numerous, absorption by them of these different races 
was out of the question. As but one language was 
spoken in Assyria, fusion took place rapidly, with the 
result that the offspring were not homogeneous. Each 
individual was compounded of several natures, natures 
of frequently contradictory, mutually exclusive tenden- 
cies and predispositions. This is the reason why the 
mongrel cannot continue the development of a race, 
why the mongrel has no future. 

In a few centuries the Assyrian empire had run its 
course. The mongrels called Assyrians had proved 
their inability to create anything. 

The empire of the Medes was of still shorter duration. 
They were Aryans. Objecting to the caste system of the 
Hindoos, they had separated from them. The Medes 
suffered from the delusion that one race was as good as 
another, and were therefore very prone to intermarry. 
They had never been very numerous. These two causes 
rendered their mongrelization and their decay inevitable. 
In less than a hundred years their race was run. 

The Persians, like the Medes, suffered from inadequacy 
of numbers. Herodotus states that, of Xerxes' army 
of seven hundred thousand men, only twenty-four 
thousand were Medes and Persians. The Persians had 
no pronounced caste system, though their pure religion 
could have taken the place of one, had they not been 
anxious to make proselytes. They succeeded for a time 


in checking the cruel rites into which the cults of the 
Hamites, Semites, and others had degenerated in the 
Hamitic-Semitic-Turanian mongrel herd. A deplorable 
success. It hastened fusion, and the final result was, 
not the elevation of the mongrel mass, but the degenera- 
tion of the Persians and of their religion. The Medes 
and Persians disappeared in the worthless race jumble 
of Asia Minor. During the rule of the son of Xerxes, 
it became clear that the Persians had lost their 
race character and with it the strength and the 
right to be numbered amongst the lords of the 

A century and a half after the Medes had taken 
Nineveh the Medes and the Persians were enervated 
and exhausted. Mongrels, without a future. 

There is but one hope for the mongrel, that of being 
absorbed by a worthy race, a process that takes a very 
long time. The sooner the mongrel disappears, the 
better for him and the better for the world. 

To cite a concrete example, look at the Magyars. 
The number of real Magyars is small. They are appar- 
ently dying out, and the oligarchy, the dictators, the 
so-called parliament of Hungary, is anxious to increase 
their number artificially by Magyarizing by force the 
better races that live in Hungary. The Magyars are a 
minority of the people that live in Hungary, and that 
in spite of the fact that they count every man a Magyar 
that can speak two words of their Asiatic barbaric 


Many Jews, Roumanians, Slavs, and Germans are 
forced to call themselves Magyars; for, if they do not, 
they are differentiated against by the courts, and 
prevented from voting. Every stupid election clerk 
has practically the right to disfranchise any voter that 
is not a Magyar. 

No other country, not even Russia, is as tyrannically 
governed as parliamentary Hungary. Germans, Jews, 
Slavs, and Roumanians must become Magyars, is the 
Magyar demand. They might as well demand that white 
men shall become negroes. The Magyars are no race, 
they are the debris of the Huns, a race that is fortu- 
nately dead. They cannot absorb any other race; they 
can only be instrumental in causing the degeneration 
of better races. 

As soon as two people have diverged and have de- 
veloped, each in its own way, sufficiently far to be 
classed, each as a distinct individual, or race, a great 
number of the one can be absorbed by a very much 
greater number only of the other, and that only in a 
very long time. The internal selection, by which the 
foreign elements that do not belong in a homogeneous 
unit are cast out, demands time; without much time 
mongrelization is inevitable. Promiscuous crossing, 
that is, crossing not followed by inbreeding, results in 
mongrelization. The craze for world power has ruined, 
degraded, deteriorated many peoples. Only those 
nations are great that have become great through their 
own organic development. It is they who have produced 


art, science, literature, music, philosophy, culture. 
With them rests the future of the world, not with the 
mongrels. Not with the nations that grow by accretion, 
the growth of the dead rock. 



The history of Phoenicia, like that of many other 
nations, proves that, not the country, not the location, 
not the environment, creates the worth of a nation; 
but that, on the contrary, the nation, the race of the 
people, gives to the country its social, moral, economic, 
and political worth. The race creates its environment, 
not the environment the race. When the Phoenicians 
came to the Syrian coast, they found it a desolate stretch 
of arid land, and changed it into a home of temples and 

De Lapouche says: " The great importance of race 
is usually overlooked. Geography and external in- 
fluences are supposed to explain everything. Thus 
the power of Phoenicia, of England, of Holland. The 
environment school tells us ' Phoenicia was an arid, 
inhospitable country and could prosper through com- 
merce only, and that it therefore became an incomparable 
sea power/ 

" Why did not another similar power develop along 
the coast of Arabia? The land was there, the environ- 
ment was there. No such power came into being, 
because no race came there which had the necessary 



i ' 

capacities. Be it remembered that the Phoenicians 
were at first settled on the Persian Gulf (Erythrean 
Sea); that they were about to become the commercial 
people of the Indian Ocean when they were driven out 
and forced to seek refuge on the Syrian coast. On the 
Syrian coast they became the greatest sea power of 
antiquity. Environment had little to do with the 
formation of this power; and it decayed as the Phoeni- 
cian race became corrupt. When an insurrection drove 
out of Tyre the aristocrats, they, the last of the Phoeni- 
cians, took their abilities with them to Carthage. Car- 
thage flourished, and Tyre fell into decay." 

The Phoenicians were a Hamitic race. Many of their 
cities were as old as the Egyptian cities. Herodotus 
tells us that Tyre was founded about 2,300 years previous 
to his time. He states that religion, letters, and civiliza- 
tion came to Greece from Phoenicia and Egypt. The 
towns of Phoenicia were active in various industries 
and arts. Glass work, purple dyeing, and embroidery 
were arts brought to perfection by the Phoenicians; 
and they communicated these arts, that of writing, 
and the Chaldean inventions, to the nations of the 
Mediterranean Sea. The Phoenicians were skilful 
seamen, the most skilful of antiquity, for which reason 
the ancients considered them the inventors of naviga- 

The Phoenician influence extended over the whole 
world. Traces of their influence prove that the Phoeni- 
cians were the traders of Western Asia, of Southern 


Europe, and of Northern Africa. They were the first 
to create an extensive colonial empire. They had 
settlements in Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Spain, and 
Gaul. In Africa, Carthage arose. They can be traced 
far down the coast of Africa, where they had many 
towns and trading stations. They went as far as Sofola 
(Ophir) and worked the gold mines . of Zimbabwe. 
Phoenician remains have been found in the mines of 
Mashonaland. A Phoenician trading station existed 
on the coast of Guinea. They occupied the Canary 1 

The trading stations of the Phoenicians reached far 
beyond their colonies. 

It was their skill as seamen, which caused Pharaoh- 
Necho to send a Phoenician expedition to circum- 
navigate Africa. This was accomplished 611-605 b. c. 
At this time Phoenicia had already lost its independence, 
and its colonial empire shared the decay of the mother 

}Vhat causes led to the decay of Phoenicia ? A glance 
at its history will tell us. Phoenicia was an industrial 
country, and required the services of many workmen. 
The nobility was the only part of the population that 
carried arms; the rest of the people worked. They 
were generals without armies. They therefore engaged 
mercenaries to fight their battles for them. These 
mercenaries were men of different Semitic tribes, 
Karians, Pisidians, Lydians, and others. Many of 
these, attracted by the prosperity of the country, 


stayed there as the workmen of the aristocratic captains 
of industry. The migration of the Hellenes, Hindoos, 
Medes, and Persians brought an enormous pressure to 
bear on the northern Semitic tribes and forced many 
of them southward into the Hamitic states. 

The prosperity of the country attracted many others; 
for, besides being great seaports, Tyre and Sidon were 
great centres of industry. Phoenicia gave work to all 
who were willing to work. These immigrants belonged 
to all branches of the Semitic stock, and were very 
variously mixed. (Of the Semitic races, the Jews alone 
endeavoured consciously to keep their race pure.) 
Those that came from Chaldea-Assyria had different 
blood in their veins from those that came from South 
Arabia or Egypt, who brought negro blood with them. 
Those coming from" North Chaldea had intermarried with 
Aryans; others that came from the region of the Cau- 
casus carried the blood of yellow races in their veins. 
Many coming from Phrygia had Greek wives or mothers. 
In addition to these, there came Hamites from the East, 
people that in their development had diverged far 
enough from the Phoenicians to be classified as distinct 
races. Many of these were the debris of Hamitic races 
that had been, and that no longer existed; other new- 
comers were Egyptians and negroes. 

The newcomers changed the ingredients of the body 
politic, and also the ingredients of the individual. 
This could not but have an effect on the form of the 
government. The theocratical government of the 


monarch, limited by the power of the priests, at first 
became more liberal; later, as the mongrel had to be 
ruled, it changed to an absolute oligarchy; and, finally, 
to anarchy and ruin. T hat in this race jumble, respect 
for rac e could not exist, is evident. Promiscuous 
intermarriage was the rule. The immigration into 
Phoenicia was so great that the language became 
corrupted in its vocabulary and in its forms until it no 
longer resembled itself, and became a semi-Semitic 
language. The great emigration from Tyre carried 
to Africa a dialect different from that of Carthage, 
proving that the corruption did not extend to that 

It has already been stated that promiscuous inter- 
marriage had become the rule in Phoenicia. To this, 
however, there was one important exception. The 
nobles married daughters of the nobility only, and 
thus preserved the great qualities of their race. In time 
this had the effect of making them a people differing 
in race from the people they governed. They were 
a homogeneous class, ruling a heterogeneous, non- 
descript mass. They were foreigners in the land 
of their fathers, and insurrections against the rule 
of these foreigners broke out. These were at first 
put down and the insurgents deported to the 
colonies. The time came, however, when numbers 
and brutality proved stronger than intelligence and 

Sidon was the first to suffer. The mongrels expelled 


the nobility, which founded at Arados a new city. 
Commerce and prosperity went with them, and Sidon 
fell into decay. It remained in ruins. Tyre met the 
same fate. The nobles recognized that in Tyre they 
would be forced to disappear in the mongrel mass, or 
be murdered, as the high priest of Melkart had been 
murdered, and decided to emigrate. With them went 
their administrative art and their Phoenician abilities; 
and with these qualities went the prosperity of Tyre. 
They took them to Carthage. 

After the departure of the nobles (the last of the 
Phoenicians), Tyre founded no new colonies. The 
government went from bad to worse; the different race 
spirits wanted their different instincts gratified; to 
come to an understanding was impossible, anarchy 
prevailed. The colonies left Tyre and grouped them- 
selves around Carthage, — a most natural transfer of 
allegiance. The race that had created the colonies 
now made its home at Carthage. Carthage became the 
great colonizer. For a short time only, after the depar- 
ture of the nobles, did Tyre govern, or rather misgovern, 
herself. In this short time Tyre rendered herself 
infamous on account of her spirit of insurrection, 
bloody revolutions, concupiscence, and cruelty. It 
was the curse of Canaan. 

It was about eighty years after the emigration that 
Tyre was brought into subjection by the Assyrians. Its 
depravity continued. When Alexander besieged it, 
the Syrian cities were eager to supply him with ships 


in order to subdue it. According to local traditions, 
Alexander's decree that condemned many of the people 
of Tyre to death on the cross, and the others to slavery, 
met with loud approval. This was the legal punishment 
of rebellious slaves, and into slaves the mongrel offspring 
of the noble Phoenicians had degenerated. 

The history of this part of the earth, henceforth, is 
the history of the decline of the Hamitic races. The 
land was transformed, because the race that had made 
it great had ceased to exist. It had disappeared in a 
mongrel mass of which the members had lost all the 
virtue, character, and ability inherited at first from their 
varied ancestry. The Phoenician-Chaldean-Egyptian- 
Negro-Greek mongrel was worthless. Nature degrades 
and finally destroys the mongrel. 



The Phoenician emigrants from Tyre came to 
Carthage in the year 813 b. c. Carthage was a small 
Phoenician colony before this time. After the arrival 
of the immigrants, it is Carthage that continues the 
history of Phoenicia. In time, the Carthaginian empire 
became very extensive. In Africa it extended from 
the Atlantic to Cyrenaica. Carthage possessed as 
provinces Malta, the Balearic Islands, Sardinia, and 
settlements in Sicily, in Gaul, and in Spain. There 
seemed to be no reason why the civilization of Carthage 
should not last to the end of time. The following, 
however, took place: 

In Africa her subjects consisted of three classes, 
Lybio-Phoenicians, Lybians, and Nomads. The first 
were the products of intermarriages between the Lybians 
and earlier colonists of Phoenicia. They were regarded 
by the Carthaginians with suspicion. The Carthagini- 
ans of pure blood had in mind the fate of mongrelized 
Phoenicia. The Lybians were of entirely different race, 
and most of them did not understand the Punic language. 
They were therefore not considered dangerous. The 
suspicions of the Carthaginians concerning the Lybio- 



Phoenicians were well founded; for, being related to 
the Carthaginians to some extent, intermarriages soon 
took place and African blood was introduced into their 
veins. As the immigrants from Tyre had not been very 
numerous, these intermarriages could not but affect 
the fibre of the race. 

One of the first results was a change in the govern- 
ment. The heads of the government had been the 
sufletes, who held office for one year, and were capable 
of reelection. Under them was a senate. The people 
had a voice in the government. This gradually changed. 
The form of government remained the same for a time. 
The power, however, concentrated more and more in 
the hands of the captains of industry. A few capitalists 
usurped the authority, and ruled a mass of outlawed 
slaves. The history of Tyre repeated itself. Insurrection 
followed insurrection; internal dissensions tore the 
city asunder; and the successful faction wreaked cruel 
vengeance on the unsuccessful rivals. 

Aristotle praises the Carthaginian constitution on the 
score of its stability, and its success in securing the 
happiness of the people. He wrote of Carthage, not of 
the mongrel post-Carthaginian community that still 
called itself Carthage. 

The religion of the Carthaginians became corrupted. 
The worship of Moloch was substituted for that of 
Astarte and Baal. Mothers cast their children into 
the flames as sacrifice to Moloch. Intellectually and 
morally the Carthaginians were moribund before the 


first Roman war. The post-Carthaginian mongrels 
practised vices of so gross a nature, that the rotten 
Orientals turned from them with disgust and loathing. 

This was the Carthage that Cato hurled his " Car- 
thaginem esse delendam " against. This was the Carthage 
that Rome destroyed; — and well was the work done. 
Seventeen days the city burned, and its very site was 
concealed by a heap of ashes. The plough was passed 
over it and the ground was cursed for ever. Scipio 
did his work well. 

Read " The Inequality of the Human Races," by A. 
de Gobineau; " Die Grundlagen des Neunzehnten 
Jahrhunderts," by Houston Stewart Chamberlain; 
" Volkstum und Weltmacht in der Geschichte," by 
Albrecht Wirth. 



It is not known to which stock the Egyptians belonged. 
Sir Gardner Wilkinson and Conte de Gobineau think 
that they were a branch of the Hindoos. 

Sir Gardner Wilkinson says: " In manners, in lan- 
guage, and in many other respects Egypt was certainly 
more Asiatic than African; and though there is no 
appearance of the Hindoo and Egyptian religion having 
been borrowed from one another, yet it is not improbable 
that those two nations may have proceeded from the 
same original stock, and have migrated southwards 
from their parent country in Central Asia." 

Others have maintained that the Egyptians were a 
Hamitic race. Sir Henry Rawlinson states that the 
Chaldeans and the Egyptians were of a common origin. 
It is the opinion of Lepsius that the early Hamites crossed 
the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, occupied the upper Nile 
valley, and later planted colonies in Lower Egypt. Sir 
Gardner Wilkinson says that civilization advanced 
northwards from Thebaid. The hieroglyphic inscrip- 
tions prove that the cities of Upper Egypt were the 
oldest in the country, that civilization came from the 



Whether they were of the Hamitic stock or of the 
Aryan stock we do not know, but we do know that they 
were a white people. We do know that, very early, 
they had reached a high degree of civilization. The 
pyramid of Memphis was built (c.) 2120 b. c. They 
made considerable progress in astronomy, and their 
observations and their appliances prove their knowledge 
of that science. They were great architects. Medicine, 
surgery, and chemistry were studied. In the manu- 
facture of linen they were never surpassed. Their glass 
was little inferior to that of the Greeks. Their art 
was dignified. 

The government was monarchical, but not despotic. 
Women could reign. The Egyptians, like the Hindoos, 
had a caste system, although it was not as well developed 
as that of the Hindoos, and not efficient in preventing 
the intermarriages between the Egyptians and the 
other inhabitants of Egypt. Intermarriages, however, 
before the invasion of the Hyksos were rare. 

According to the " Recherches anthropologiques en 
Egypte " of Ernest Chantre, who examined the graves 
of the different periods, the old Nilotic Egyptians show 
no trace of negro blood. The skulls are delicocephalic, 
with an index of remarkable uniformity (72-73). When 
the Hyksos came there was a great infusion of Syrian 
blood, a greater quantity than could be absorbed, and 
the mummies of this time show the signs of it. The 
uniformity of the skull index no longer exists, negroid 
characteristics are found. 


The Pan-White mongrel no longer holds his blood 
sacred, he intermarries with the coloured races. Nothing 
disgusts him. Promiscuity becomes common, and as 
the mongrelization proceeds the faces become broader, 
the ears bigger, the cheeks protrude, nose and lips 
become thick. 

As the mongrelization advanced the civilization of 
Egypt became stagnant and gradually decayed. His- 
torians tell us that the present degraded state of the 
Egyptians is due to the rule of the Turks. Again they 
tell us that no cause can be assigned for the decay of 
Egypt, and that it began before 1300 b. c. And again 
they tell us that the stagnation and the decay of Egypt 
was caused by the priests. Why not by the cats or by 
the crocodiles? Why not by the last solar eclipse? 

No constitution can be indefinitely upheld that is 
utterly out of sympathy with the sentiments and 
abilities of the people. Priests have been powerful 
elsewhere and civilization progressed. Moreover, the 
priests of antiquity were themselves the astronomers, 
investigators, scientists, writers, and artists. True, 
the Egyptian priests formulated rules, codes, laws, 
canons of art and of almost everything else. This they 
probably did because they recognized that the Egyptians 
were no longer the Egyptians of old. Those of old had 
been creators. The priests were anxious that the New- 
Egyptians, having no originality, should at least remain 
good copyists; they overestimated the abilities of the 


The stability which they intended to give to Egyptian 
civilization went into stagnation and fell into decay. 
Soon the mongrel was no longer able to fight his own 
battles and Greek mercenaries preserved the independ- 
ence of Egypt for some time. When Artaxerxes III 
of Persia marched against Egypt, the only resistance 
offered was by the Greeks, while the Egyptians fled 
everywhere; the king, Nekht-nebf, to Ethiopia, 340 b. c. 

The degeneration of the Egyptian religion gives a 
picture of the degraded state of mind of the Egyptian 
mongrel. The early religion of the Egyptians was a 
monotheism. Their writings 'speak of one god, the 
creator of heaven and earth. The local divinities were 
mere personifications of the attributes of God. The 
papyrus of Ptah-hotep, composed under Dynasty V, 
speaks of God, showing that the writer had the idea of 
one god. What did this religion become in time? 
Julius Africanus tells us that, in the reign of Kaiechos, 
it was established that the bull and the goat were gods. 
Later the Egyptians became infatuated and worshipped 
the cat, the bug, and eventually vegetables. 

Juvenal writes (Satura XV): "Who knows not the 
sort of monsters Egypt in her infatuation worships? 
One part venerates the crocodile, another trembles 
before an ibis gorged with serpents. The image of a 
sacred monkey glitters in gold, where the magic chords 
sound from Memnon broken in half, and ancient Thebes, 
with her hundred gates, lies buried in ruins. In one 
place they venerate sea fish, in another river fish, there 


a whole town worships a dog; no one Diana. It is an 
impious act to violate or break with the teeth a leek 
or an onion. holy nation ! whose gods grow for them 
in the gardens. Every table abstains from animals 
that have wool. It is a crime there to kill a kid, but 
human flesh is lawful food. Were Ulysses to relate this 
at supper to the amazed Alcinous, he would perhaps 
excite the ridicule or anger of some as a lying babbler. 
. . . Does he suppose the heads of the Phseacians so 
void of brain." 

What deterioration ! What degeneration ! What per- 
version! A faith in accord with the vitiated Pan- 
Hamitic-Semitic-Greek-Egyptian-Negro blood. 

The mongrel was worthless, and he has remained so 
ever since. 

Read " Recherches anthropologiques en Egypte," 
by Ernest Chantre; " The Inequality of the Human 
Races," by A. Conte de Gobineau. 



The Jews had in very early times a knowledge of that 
law of nature which demands purity of blood. We 
read that Abraham sent to the land of his fathers in 
order to find there the wife for his son. The Jews had 
marriage regulations which prevented promiscuous 
intermarriages, and frequently the)' expelled from the 
Jewish society the offspring of the Abramitic stock 
which they considered illegitimate, as the Ishmaelites 
and the Edomites. When the Jews settled in Egypt, 
they continued to hold to their traditions, their institu- 
tions, their language, and their race purity. 

The Egyptians attempted to destroy their nationality 
and exacted forced labour from them. Moses taught 
them to resist and to regard resistance as a religious duty. 
Here we meet for the first time with an expression of 
that sentiment which later caused them to merge the 
ideas of race, religion, and god into one ideal, that of 
Judaism. The Jews sought freedom in the wilderness. 
Wnen the Jews settled in Palestine, they found it 
inhabited by a population great in numbers. Notwith- 
standing their numerical inferiority, the Jews main- 


tained their individuality. It was their pride of race ^ 
that prevented their disappearance. 

The Lombards went to Rome under similar circum- 
stances; and, lacking the knowledge of that, law of 
nature which insists on the purity of race, became 
mongrelized in a relatively short time. 

The wonderful instincts of the Israelites led them to 
evolve a religion which had race purity as its central 
idea. Jehovah was the god of Israel, and the Israelites 
were his chosen people. To break away from this 
religion was breaking away from the Jewish race; and 
on the other hand, vitiation of the race meant expulsion 
from the chosen people. In the war with the Philistines, 
Benjamin and Judah supplied Saul his most able 
supporters. These were the two tribes in which, as 
later history proves, the importance of race purity was 
most clearly recognized. In the war with the Philis- 
tines, Israel was welded into one. The consciousness 
of their race superiority became more intense. Solomon 
built the temple in Jerusalem, which later proved of 
great importance not only for religion, but also for the 

After the death of Solomon ten of the twelve tribes 
seceded. Israel was at first stronger than Judah. Race 
and religion, however, had become inseparable, and 
the breaking away from Judah was soon followed by a 
less strict observance of the marriage regulations. This 
was disastrous, for they were in numbers vastly inferior 
to the surrounding mass. When Israel seemed most 


prosperous Amos prophesied the downfall of the 
kingdom. Assyria was the threatening enemy. In 
721 b. c. Samaria was taken and Sargon carried all 
inhabitants of mark into captivity. The exiled Israelites 
disappeared in the surrounding herd without leaving 
a trace. The Israelites had vitiated their blood, and 
their mongrelization was rapid. 

The population of Judah, on the other hand, held 
fast their faith, and that meant their race, throughout 
the period of the Babylonian exile. It was their race 
particularism that enabled them to maintain their 
individuality there, and later everywhere else. After 
the fall of Samaria, Judah continued the history of 
Israel, and the preaching of the prophets increased the 
race particularism. In the year 597 b. c, Jerusalem 
was taken by Nebuchadnezzar and many of the inhabi- 
tants were carried into exile. 

In the year 538 b. c. Cyrus gave the exiles leave to 
return. A great number returned, but a greater number 
remained in the diaspora, without, however, losing 
their nationality. Those that returned found it necessary 
to protect themselves against the threatening mixture 
with other races; for other races had pressed into the 
depopulated territory, and some of these had amalga- 
mated with the older Jewish population, which had re- 
mained in Judah. These, although professing Judaism, 
were regarded by the Jews as half-breeds. They gave 
a friendly reception to the returning Jews. The Samari- 
tans were anxious to make common cause with them, 


but they were not met with reciprocal cordiality. Not 
the native of Judah, but the man of pure blood, was 
reckoned as belonging to the community. 

Ezra first attempted the strict separation between 
the pure Jews and the other inhabitants. His legisla- 
tion enabled the Jews to maintain their nationality 
artificially, when all conditions of national life failed 
them. They were able to maintain their nationality, 
because they refused to have their blood corrupted. 
Their nationality the Jews preserved with an energy 
and an ability that was truly marvellous. In later 
times, in the post-Grseco-Roman empire, the Jews 
alone had character; they alone deserved respect. 

The history of Manasseh testifies to the anxiety with 
which the Jews endeavoured to keep their race pure. 
He was expelled from Jerusalem by Nehemiah in 
432 b. c, for refusing to separate from his Samaritan 
wife. The book of Chronicles regards Samaria as a 
heathen kingdom because the Samaritans were less 
severe in the maintenance of race purity. Their religion 
was so much like that of the Jews, that Manasseh 
organized the Samaritan church on the Jerusalem 
pentateuch. The Jews were determined to keep their 
race pure. 

As a consequence of the wars and revolutions in the 
East, the Jewish diaspora spread rapidly. In Asia 
Minor, in Syria, and in Egypt many Jews settled. The 
thoroughbred being always more able than the mongrel, 
the Jews rose to prominent positions at the court of 


the Ptolemies, earning in consequence the hatred of 
the population. 

The only time when the Jews were in danger of mon- 
grelization was the time when the East was " Hellen- 
ized." The upper classes began to feel ashamed of their 
Judaism and began to conceal it. The Jewish names 
were Hellenized; Joshua became Jason; Eliakim, 
Alcimus; Monahem, Menelaus; and so forth. The 
Greek language came into general use. The Palestine 
gravestones, until the time of the Romans, bear Greek 
inscriptions with only a few liturgical words in Hebrew. 
Jewish-Greek literature soon became extensive. The 
Jews seemed ripe for Hellenization, which at this time 
meant mongrelization. Antiochus attempted to com- 
plete the Hellenization by force; but the Jews resisted, 
and under Judas Maccabaeus arose in rebellion. The 
Greek influence was broken and the Jews continued 
the development peculiar to the race. 

The Romans came and harassed them, Jews they 

Jesus taught and Jews they remained. It was a 
foreign race that spoke in Jesus. He was a Galilean 
and not a Jew. Not a Jew by race. The Jews did not 
consider the Galileans as belonging to their community. 
A marriage of Jew to Galilean was impossible. So 
little had the people of Galilee in common with the 
Jews, that King Solomon ceded a part of Galilee to the 
King of Tyre in payment for cedars and gold. King 
Hiram found it very sparsely inhabited and settled 


colonists there, who were not Jews. After the time of 
Solomon, Israel was divided; and, for a thousand 
years, there existed no intimate political relation between 
Galilee and Judah. 

Moreover, in 720 b. c. the Assyrians came and laid 
waste Northern Israel. All of the population was said 
to have been deported. The Assyrians settled their 
colonists there. Later, Alexander settled Greeks and 
Macedonians in Galilee. We are told that the number 
of Greeks that immigrated to Galilee in the last three 
centuries before Christ was considerable. The Old 
Testament tells us how the foreigners of Northern 
Palestine came to embrace the Jewish faith. In the 
depopulated country beasts, of prey multiplied. The 
scourge was considered the revenge of the local god. 
No one knew how he was to be worshipped, and the 
Galileans sent to the King of Assyria, and entreated 
him to send them a Jewish priest to instruct them in 
the faith of the land, and appease the wrath of the 
neglected deity. This request was complied with and 
a Jewish Levite taught the people the worship of 

Thus people without a drop of Jewish blood in their 
veins became Jews in their religion. Later some Jews 
immigrated into the cities of Galilee; but they also 
refused to recognize the Galileans as fellow Jews. Simon 
Tharsi, the Maccabaean, collected the small number 
of people of Jewish blood in Galilee and induced them 
to leave the country, and to settle in Judah. This was 


before the time of Jesus. There is therefore not a 
trace of evidence in favour of the view that Jesus was 
a Jew, and much evidence in favour of the view that 
Jesus was not a Jew. To which race Jesus belonged it 
is impossible to say. According to the Bible, he was 
the son of God and Mary; according to one of the 
apocryphic gospels he was the son of a Greek officer 
and Miriam. That Miriam was not a Jewess is evident 
from the history of Galilee. Many of the disciples, 
likewise, were Galileans, not Jews. The New Testament 
is as little the continuation of the Old Testament as it 
is the continuation of the teachings of Buddha or 
Confucius. The sentiments that Jesus expressed were 
not in accord with the Jewish race instincts, and the 
Jews fortunately refused to accept them. Had they 
accepted Christianity, they would have shared the 
fate of the Eastern mongrel; and he has proved his 
worthlessness in the course of centuries. 

Jesus belonged to one of the Aryan races; his teachings 
are in accord with the race instincts of the Aryans only. 
Other races refused to accept Christianity, or became 
Christianized in name only. With the exception of 
Magyars and Finns, who have, however, been semi- 
Germanized, the Magyars by the Germans and the Finns 
by the Swedes, Christianity is the religion of an Aryan 
for Aryans only. The non- Aryan Christians, including 
Magyars and Finns, are not four per cent, of the total 
number of Christians. Many Asiatics and Africans 
had been Christianized after a fashion; but when the 


Islam was preached, their Christianity melted away 
as spring snow does in the sun. 

Indians, negroes, Chinese, Tartars, and others are 
called Christians with scant justice. Their Christianity 
is akin to that of the Haytians, who worship to-day 
the Christian God and to-morrow a fetish in whose 
honour they devour the " goat without horns," — ■ 
Christians who are cannibals! With these peoples 
Christ is the name of a new fetish, added to or taking 
the place of their other fetish. Travellers in Russia 
tell us that the baptized Tartars at the present time 
are as far from being Christians as they were in the 
sixteenth century. 

Gautama Sacyamuni taught Buddhism. As his 
name indicates, he was a yellow and not a Hindoo. The 
religion of resignation and death was not acceptable to 
the race instincts of the Hindoos; it expressed the race 
instincts of the yellows, and found its followers among 
them, — Tartars, Mongols, Koreans, Chinese, Japanese, 
and Malayans. In not accepting Buddhism, the Hin- 
doos remained true to themselves; with its acceptance 
they would have committed self-destruction. In a 
like manner the Jews refused to accept Christianity. 
Christianity was not too good for them, it was not 
too bad for them; it was foreign to them and to their 
race instincts. 

In the year 70 a. d. Titus took Jerusalem. The city 
was levelled with the ground. The extinction of their 
commonwealth the Jews met with an even more inten- 


sified exclusiveness. And this exclusiveness they carried 
with them into the diaspora. Their race they retained 
pure wherever they went. In Rome, in Egypt, in Syria, 
among the Goths as well as among the other German 
tribes, in England, in Russia, in Germany, in Spain, 
they refused to dilute and vitiate their blood, and 
consequently had no part in mongrelizing the people 
among whom they lived. 

The history of the Jews testifies to the tremendous 
importance of race. Their knowledge of the physio- 
logical law that promiscuous crossing degrades, deterio- 
rates, mongrelizes the participants, enabled them to 
evelop from a small Eastern tribe into one of the 
great nations of the earth. In spite of most bitter 
persecution, in the face of the greatest of obstacles, 
without a country of their own and without a common 
language, they became a nation more important than 
many nations that are in possession of these advantages. 
Everywhere they are increasing in importance and in 
numbers. The good-will of the native population they 
secure nowhere, on account of the jealousy and hatred 
entertained against them as a race of quality. To 
many, the Jewish singularities are objectionable. The 
Eastern mongrel has accomplished nothing; the Jews 
have brought forth poets, writers, artists, scientists, 
financiers, and philanthropists. 

Some of the poets of the Jewish race are Halevi, 
Gabirol, Morpurgo, Ascarelli, David Levi, Manuel, 
Frankl, Kalisch, Kuh, Steinheim, Heller, Hartmann, 


Sachs, Rapoport, Heine, d'Almeida, Moses Mendez, 
Emma Lazarus, Cora Wilburn, Rebecca Hynemann, 
Morris Rosenfeld; the dramatists, Arnstein, Bueschen- 
thal, Mosenthal, Fulda, Jacobson, Schlesinger, v. Weilen, 
Halevy, Cremieaux, Millaud, David Belasco, Sydney 
Rosenfeld, and others; the novelists, Auerbach, Disraeli, 
Zangwill, Fanny Lewald, Maurus Jokai, Grace Aguilar, 
and others. 

Boerne, Riesser, Blind, Disraeli, Bernays are essayists 
of the Jewish race. Many of the influential newspapers 
and periodicals of the United States, most of those of 
Germany and of England, are either owned or edited 
by Jews. 

Musicians of the Jewish race are Mendelssohn, Meyer- 
beer, Offenbach, Goldmark, Moscheles, Damrosch, 
Rubinstein, Rosenthal, and others. 

Among painters and sculptors are Israels, Solomon, 
Schlessinger, Meyerheim, Worms, Hart, Mayer, Mosler, 
Lazarus, Soldi, and others. 

Scientists of the Jewish race are Philo, Maimonides, 
Moses Mendelssohn, Steinthal, Lazarus, Neander, Graetz, 
Da Costa, Marx, Lassalle, Morpurgo, Herschel, and 

As physicians and jurists many Jews have won renown. 
As financiers they excel. The leaders of the Socialists 
are Jews. The leading managers are Jews. 

Why do the Jews succeed? Because they deserve to 
succeed. They belong to a great race, and they kept and 
do keep that race pure. The greatest mongrelizing 


machine of antiquity, the empire called the Roman, 
did not succeed in mongrelizing them. America will 
not be able to destroy them. In the Pan-European 
herd of imperial Rome, the Jew alone stood out as a 
character. In America, he is rapidly making his way to 
the front. The business interests (wholesale and* 
retail), the newspapers, the periodicals, the theatres, 
the operas, the banks, are in the hands of Jews, or are 
getting into the hands of Jews. Many Jews are physi- 
cians, lawyers, judges, politicians, and scientists. If 
the Jews continue as they began, the future belongs to 

The Jews have overcome well-nigh insurmountable 
obstacles; they are succeeding everywhere, because 
they have been and do remain true to themselves, that 
is, true to their race instincts. They demonstrate to 
the world that the blood that courses in the veins of 
the individual is more sacred than gold, silver, territory, 
flag, and country. 

/ Promiscuous crossing reduced Greece, Egypt, the 
Hindoos, the Romans. Race purity is the secret of 

I the success of the Jews. 

Read Graetz, " Geschichte der Juden; " Mendels- 
sohn, " Gesammelte Schriften; " Milman, " History 
of the Jews; " Houston S. Chamberlain, " Die Grund- 
lagen des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts;" Albrecht 
Wirth, " Volkstum und Weltmacht in der Geschichte." 



The Gipsies left India about 500 a. d. They emigrated 
to China, to Persia, and to Arabia. From Arabia they 
came with the Mohammedans to Africa and Spain. 
From Asiatic Turkey they went to Eastern Europe, 
and were soon found in every European country. In 
the eighteenth century they came to America, and 
in the nineteenth century to Siberia. They have reached 
the Pacific, both in the East and in the West. Every- 
where they have retained their race characteristics. 
They have one thing, and one thing only, in common 
with the Jews, and that is their instinctive knowledge 
of the physiological law that race purity is essential 
to their maintaining themselves. This and this alone 
has enabled them to continue to exist throughout the 
centuries. They are a race of vagabonds. They have 
no military abilities, and no civil virtues. The Gipsies 
demonstrate clearly the fact that the possession of 
these is not essential to the expansion and continued 
existence of a race. Race purity alone is sufficient to 
preserve even a worthless race. Ignorance of the 



physiological law, which states that promiscuous 
crossing causes degeneration of every race, destroyed 
many of the best races. The Greeks, the Romans, 
and the Hindoos perished, but the Gipsies live. 



The Hindoos were one of the Aryan races. That is, 
they belonged to the people that called themselves 
" Aryans " (the noble, the honourable). When they 
came to India, they found there a mass of yellow- 
black-white mongrels, and recognized that the absorp- 
tion of this mass was impossible. They also recognized 
that crossing with these people would destroy the 
Hindoos quickly. 

The Hindoos were fanatical Aryans, and among the 
yellow-black-white mongrels, they developed an intense 
exclusiveness. They described the old inhabitants of 
the country as Dasyus, Rakshasas, fiendish creatures 
and monsters. When allied to them, they speak of their 
allies as monkeys and of their king as the king of 

In the Veda we find these sentiments : 

" Indra hurl thy shaft against the Dasyu, and increase 
the might and glory of the Arya." 

" Distinguish Indra the Arya and those who are 

" Indra having killed the Dasyu, protected the 
Aryan colour." 

■ 47 


" I do not give over the Aryan name to the Dasyu." 

" Indra, increase the Aryan power." 

" Indra, the companion of the Arya." 

" Indra uncovered the light for the Arya. The 
Dasyus was left on the left hand." 

" I gave the earth to the Arya and rain to the liberal 

" The gods spread all over the earth the Aryan laws." 

Arya was considered a name of honour. Darius 
calls himself Ariya and Ariya kitra, an Aryan and of 
Aryan descent. The same element enters into many 
Persian names, Ariaramnes, Ariobazanes, Atrabages, 

The Hindoos recognized that, unless they took 
vigorous precautions, the Aryans would soon be lost 
in the mongrel herd. To protect themselves they 
invented the caste system, one of the greatest inventions 
of the human mind. The Aryans were the three upper 
castes, viz., the Brahmanas, Cshatriyas, and Vaisyas. 
The classes they called varna, which meant colour, 
and has since come to mean caste. The priests, who, 
among primitive people, are the observers, scientists, 
artists, and poets, constituted themselves the first 
caste, the caste of the Brahmins. They were of the 
purest Aryan blood. The Aryans of warlike tendencies 
were constituted as the Cshatriya caste, and the rest 
of the Hindoos were constituted as the Vaisya caste, 
the householders, the merchants, and the cultivators 
of the soil. 


The importance of the Vaisya caste was recognized by 
the Hindoos. The Manava-Dharma-Sastra says: " The 
means of subsistence peculiar to Vaisya are merchandise, 
attending on cattle and agriculture; but with a view 
to the next life; . . . with vigilant care should the king 
exert himself in compelling merchants and mechanics 
to perform their respective duties; for when such men 
swerve from their duty, they throw this world into 

The rights of each caste were rendered hereditary 
and inalienable. The king himself could not abrogate 
the rights of caste. Outside of these three castes there 
were no Aryans, no twice born men. The natives were 
constituted as a fourth caste, the Sudra. Their monopoly 
was the laborious and humble work, and their condition 
was better than that of the helots or serfs elsewhere; 
for it was strictly enjoined upon the three upper castes 
to treat the Sudra well. The Hindoos considered it 
just that intelligence should rule, and that muscle 
should work. Their assumption, which underlies the 
caste system, that intelligence and the better qualities 
were characteristics of the Aryan and not of the Sudra, 
their history of five thousand years verified. 

The Hindoos were never more than a small minority 
of the people of India; and of the people of India, the 
Hindoos alone produced art, science, literature, civiliza- 

As the Vaisyas were not as pure Aryans as the Csha- 
triyas, and the Cshatriyas not as pure as the Brahmins, 


it was ordained that the different castes should not 
intermarry. Manava-Dharma-Sastra says: " In all 
classes they, and they only, who are born in a direct 
line of wives equal in class and virgins at the time of 
marriage are to be considered as the same class with 
their fathers. ... A woman of the servile classes is 
not mentioned, even in the recital of any ancient story, 
as the wife of a Brahmin, or of a Cshatriya, though in 
the greatest difficulty to find a suitable match." 

The intermarriage of the members of one caste with 
members of another caste was strictly prohibited. The 
Madana-Ratna-Pradipa says: " The marriage of twice 
born men with damsels not of the same class . . . these 
parts of ancient law were abrogated by wise legislators.' ' 

" From a Cshatriya with a wife of the Sudra class 
springs a creature called Ugra, with a nature partly 
warlike, and partly servile, ferocious in his manners, 
cruel in his acts. . . . Him who was born of a sinful 
mother, and consequently in a low class, but is not 
openly known, who, though worthless in truth, bears 
the semblance of a worthy man, let people discover by 
his acts. Want of virtuous dignity, harshness of speech, 
cruelty and habitual neglect of prescribed duties betray 
in this world the son of a criminal mother." 

There were in India savage tribes unable to perform 
the duties of the Sudra class. These miserable tribes 
the Hindoos called Mlekha. They were also gained over 
to the Brahminical system. The Brahmins went as 
hermits into the settlements of the Mlekha, and 


preached their system of metempsychosis, and were 
cut down. Other Brahmins came to take their places. 
They again were killed. Still others came, and the 
cheerfulness with which these men went to suffering 
and death struck terror into the souls of the natives, 
who began to question, " Who are these men? " 

And this answer was returned, " We are the most 
exalted of men, kings bow down before us. We have 
reached this station not without desert, and in the next' 
life we shall become one with Brahma, the God of gods, 
a unit in the divine essence. In previous lives we 
were as miserable as you are. Believe us, be virtuous 
and dutiful and you will become exalted. The virtuous 
Mlekha is reborn as a Sudra, the virtuous Sudra as a 
Vaisya, the virtuous Vaisya as a Cshatriya, the vi rtuous 
Cshatriya as a Brahmin, and the virtuous Brahmin 
as one with the divinity. On the other hand, the Brah- 
min who neglects his duties will be punished in hell and 
be reborn as a Sudra, a Mlekha, or lower even in the 
scale of life." The Hindoos had no eternal hell. As 
the son of a Sudra may thus attain the rank of a 
Brahmin, and as the son of a Brahmin may sink to the 
level with Sudras, even so must it be with him who 
springs from a Cshatriya; even so with him who was 
born of a Vaisya. (v. Manava-Dharma-Sastra.) 

The conviction of the Brahmins convinced the 
Mlekha, and they were ready to become the lowest 
order of the Brahminical system. 

There were Hindoos in India who disregarded the 


caste system, and a half-breed population began to 
spring up. The Hindoos, intent on keeping their race 
pure, sought to remedy the evil. It was not always 
possible to strike at the parents, and so they struck 
at the offspring. They declared the half-breed popula- 
tion Chandalas. They were considered the most con- 
temptible of the base born; their touch was polluting, 
a pollution of which the Cshatriya could purify himself 
by cutting the Chandala down. The brook that they 
had taken water from was cursed. Their places of 
refuge were to be destroyed. They were refused admis- 
sion into villages and cities. That was the law. Its 
enforcement was prevented by the gentleness of the 
Hindoo character. The Chandala was despised, but 
he lived; lived in villages, that the Hindoo had the 
right to burn down. The contempt in which the Chan- 
dala was held had this good effect: it prevented the 
mongrelization of the Hindoos for several thousand 
years. History attests that the Chandala fully deserved 
the contempt which the Hindoos entertained for him. 

About 500 b. c. Gautama Sacyamuni taught 
Buddhism. Brahmanism demanded active virtues, 
Buddhism was content with passive, cloistered virtues. 
Brahmanism demanded self-sacrifice and work; Bud- 
dhism was satisfied with the admission of sin, and 
established the confession. The sinner confessed to 
the priest that he was a scoundrel, and he promptly 
became a saint. Brahmanism taught purification by 
faith and virtue and final union with God (eternal life). 


Buddhism taught the confession and eternal death. 
Virtue in the Brahminical sense meant the performance 
of duty, faith, self-abnegation, work. Contemplation 
and confession satisfied the Buddhists. It was but 
natural that this religion of ease soon found many 
followers; being the religion of a yellow, it appealed 
to the race instincts of the yellows. 

Nothing demonstrates the superiority of the whites 
over the yellows better than the fact that for a thousand 
years Buddhism existed in India, without being able to 
change the Brahminical order in the least. About 
500 a. d. Buddhism considered itself strong enough to 
supplant Brahmanism. The result was war, which 
finally ended in the complete expulsion of Buddhism 
from India. This success the Brahminical order achieved, 
notwithstanding the fact that it was continuously at 
war with foreign enemies. 

After the time of the Sultan of Ghasna, the Brahmini- 
cal society did not have a moment's peace. After 
Mahmud's Persians came the Turks, the Mongols, the 
Afghanists, the Persians of Nadir Shah, the Portuguese, 
the French, and the English. None of them was able 
to break the Brahminical system. 

Buddhism had this baneful effect upon India, that, 
by disregarding the caste system, the Buddhists in- 
creased the Chandala class enormously. The time came 
when there was no family without mongrel members ; the 
meaning of varna was forgotten. It came to mean 
work, occupation; and the mongrel was no longer held 


in contempt, but the workman. The caste system, that 
wonderful invention which for millenniums enabled the 
Hindoos to remain true to themselves, to produce art, 
science, a great religion, civilization, has become a 
curse and a folly. Why should there be a caste system 
where all are Chandalas? The white-yellow-black 
mongrel is worthless. As far as the progress of civiliza- 
tion, the progress of man is concerned, three hundred 
million rats might as well be fed as three hundred 
million mongrels. The caste system has no power 
to demongrelize vitiated blood. 

In the last centuries Brahmanism has degenerated 
rapidly, and it is now fast crumbling to pieces; not 
because the English are in India, but because the impetus 
which the Hindoos, before they became extinct, gave 
to it is expending itself. In a like manner the Roman 
system outlived the death of the last Roman by several 
centuries. The English rule India to-day; and that 
foreigners, Aryans, should rule the degenerate offspring 
of the Hindoos is not only just, but in accordance with 
the Hindoo Scriptures: " Indra is the companion of 
the Arya and increases the Aryan power, Indra gives 
the earth to the Arya and spreads all over the earth 
the Aryan laws." The literature of the Hindoos is the 
only one in India deserving of the name. Sanscrit is 
the only language of poetry, drama, law, philosophy. 
The deterioration of the Hindoos can be traced through 
the centuries, in their art, their science, their literature, 
and their religion. 


Many surgical operations, which we consider triumphs 
of modern surgery, were invented by the Hindoos. 
They were skilled in performing amputations, lithotomy, 
abdominal and uterine operations; they operated for 
hernia, fistula, piles; they set broken bones and had 
specialists in rhinoplasty or operations for restoring lost 
ears and noses, operations which modern surgeons have 
borrowed from them. To-day the medical and surgical 
knowledge of the mongrel calling himself Hindoo is 

The Hindoos invented the so-called Arabic notation 
of numbers, and algebra; to-day they have no mathe- 
matical science deserving of the name. 

The later epics of the Hindoos are of an artificial 
character. The ancient epics are great works, which 
abound in passages of high poetic beauty. Plays written 
later than the eleventh century belong to the period 
of decline. One of them, the Anargha-Raghava, a 
drama full of obscurities and of commonplace senti- 
ments, enjoys a higher reputation with the mongrels 
of the present age than the masterpieces of Kalidasa. 
Many of these later dramas are incomplete in their 

The absurdities of modern Brahmanism are known. 
The great Brahmins of the Saras vati would regard it as 
defiled by association with the Dasyu. 

The study of the literature of the Hindoos taught us 
that the vicious practices which prevail in India are 
late innovations; that is, inventions of the post-Hindoo 


mongrels. Thus the rite of suttee (cremation of the 
widow) sprang up as a local habit, and on becoming 
more prevalent received the sanction of the Brahminical 
mongrels. The English stamped out the atrocious 
custom, and the depraved instinct of the mongrels 
invented the " cold suttee." The Hindoo Scriptures 
do not authorize the cremation of the widow, but bid 
her return to her home and resume her duties. The 
cow has always been held in India in high esteem. She 
was not, however, the " Saint Cow " that she now is. 
To-day the eating of a beef steak in India is a cardinal 
sin, while in Hindoo times beef was an ordinary article 
of food. 

The position of women in India to-day is degraded. 
The Maha-bharata tells us of the esteem in which women 
were held in Maha-bharata times: 

" A wife is half the man, his truest friend, 
A loving wife is a perpetual spring 
Of virtue, pleasure, wealth; a faithful wife 
Is his best aid in seeking heavenly bliss; 
A sweetly speaking wife is a companion 
In solitude; a father in advice; 
A mother in all seasons of distress; 
A rest in passing through life's wilderness." 

In order to clearly demonstrate the height from which 
the Hindoos have fallen, it will be best to quote from 
their ancient writings; and it will be noticed that many 
of the Brahminical sentiments are identical with Chris- 
tian sentiments as we find them in the Gospels, an 


identity due to the fact that both are religions by 
Aryans for Aryans. The ancient Hindoos had a simple 
theistic creed, now innumerable gods crowd the Pan- 
theon, appealing to the instincts of the mongrels. The 
post-Hindoo is ripe for Buddhism, for Christianity, the 
vegetable pantheon of the Egyptians, or any other 
creed that may be preached him. The mongrel, being 
destitute of character, can accept and adopt anything. 
I quote from the Bhagavad-Gita : 

" Many are my births that are passed, many are thine 
too, Arjuna; I know them all, but thou knowest them 
not." (Cf. John viii. 14.) 

" For the establishment of righteousness am I from 
time to time born." (Cf. John xviii. 37, John hi. 3.) 

"lam dearer to the wise than all possessions, and he 
is dear to me." 

" The unbeliever, the ignorant, and he of a doubting 
mind perish utterly." (Cf. Mark xvi. 16.) 

" In him are all beings, by him this universe was 
spread out." (Cf. Acts xvii. 28.) 

" Deluded men despise me when I have taken human 
form." (Cf. John i. 10.) 

" In all the Vedas I am to be known." (Cf. John v. 

Read Chapter XI, called " The Vision " (Krishna and 

In Panini, the Hindoos have produced the greatest 
grammarian that ever lived, whose grammar is the 
great standard of Sanscrit. It is one of the most remark- 


able literary works that the world has ever seen, and 
no other country produced a grammatical system at 
all comparable to it, either for originality of plan or 
for analytical subtlety. Panini's grammar was criticized 
by the celebrated Katyayana. His great rival was 

We know from the Rig-veda that the movements of 
the moon and its use as the time measurer were studied 
by the Hindoos as early as 500 b. c. Aryabata knew 
the causes of solar and lunar eclipses, and noticed the 
motion of the solstitial and equinoctial points. He 
taught that the earth is a sphere and revolves on its 
own axis. To the Hindoos is due the invention of 
algebra and its application to astronomy and geometry. 
They were acquainted with the properties of the magnet. 

From Yajnavalkya's law book I quote: 

" Some expect the whole result from destiny or from 
the inherent nature of things; some expect it from the 
lapse of time, and some from man's own effort. Other 
persons, of wiser judgment, expect it from a combination 
of all these." 

" When a Brahmin is a thief, he must be marked 
with a hot iron and banished from the country/ ' 

" Whoever falsifies scales, and edicts, measures or 
coins, or does business with them so falsified, should be 
made to pay the highest fine." 

" Any one who adulterates medicine, or oil, or salt, 
or perfume, or corn, or sugar, or other commodities, 
should be made to pay sixteen Panas." 


" The highest fine should be imposed on those who, 
knowing the rise or fall in prices, combine to make a 
price of their own to the detriment of workmen and 

Of the ancient Hindoo epics, Monier Williams says: 
" Notwithstanding the wilderness of exaggeration and 
hyperbole through which the reader of the Indian epics 
has occasionally to wander, there are in the whole 
range of the world's literature few more charming 
poems than the Ramayana. The classical purity, 
clearness, and simplicity of its style, the exquisite 
touches of true poetic feeling with which it abounds, its 
graphic descriptions of heroic incidents and nature's 
grandest scenes, the deep acquaintance it displays with 
the conflicting workings and most refined emotions of 
the human heart, all entitle it to rank among the most 
beautiful compositions that have appeared at any 
time or in any country. It is like a spacious and delight- 
ful garden, — here and there allowed to run wild, but 
teeming with fruits and flowers, watered by perennial 
streams, and even its most tangled thickets intersected 
with delightful pathways." 

The following sentiments are found in the Ramayana 
and in the Maha-Bharata : 

" Even to foes who visit us as guests 
Due hospitality should be displayed; 
The tree screens with its leaves the man, who fells it. 

" This is the sum of all true righteousness. 
Treat others, as thou wouldst thyself be treated. 


Do nothing to thy neighbour, which hereafter 

Thou wouldst not have thy neighbour do to thee. 

In causing pleasure, or in giving pain, 

In doing good, or injury to others, 

In granting or refusing a request, 

A man obtains a proper rule of action 

By looking on his neighbour as himself. 

" No being perishes before his time, 
Though by a hundred arrows pierced; but when 
His destined moment comes, though barely pricked 
By a sharp point of grass, he surely dies. 

" He by whose hands the swans were painted white, 
And parrots green, and peacocks many hued, 
Will make provisions for thy maintenance. 

" Strive not too anxiously for a subsistence, 
Thy maker will provide thee sustenance, 
No sooner is a human being born, 
Than milk for his support streams from the breast." 

(Hitopadesa, Monier Williams.) 

Of Hindoo dramatists, Kalidasa and Bhavabhuti are 
superior to most of the Western poets. Kalidasa's 
" Sakuntala " drew unqualified praise from Gothe, in 
the following words : 

" Wouldst thou the young year's blossoms and the fruit of its 

And all by which the soul is charmed, enraptured, feasted, fed? 
Wouldst thou the earth and heaven itself in one sole name combine? 
I name thee, Sakuntala, and all at once is said." 

(Monier Williams.) 

The Hindoos were a great race. Their death was a 
loss to the world, a loss that it is impossible to over- 


estimate. Men who call themselves Hindoos still exist, 
Sanscrit derivatives are still spoken, the Hindoo spirit, 
however, is dead; the noble blood has been lost in the 
Indian quagmire, in the yellow-black-white swamp. 

It would seem that nothing in this world could bring 
about the deterioration and degradation of as great 
a race as the Hindoo race; but bastardization, mon- 
grelization, continued throughout many centuries, has 
done it. 

The history of the Hindoos, like that of the Jews, 
proves that race is more important than home, country, 
flag, and everything else put together. 

Great was the Hindoo; worthless is the mongrel. 

Read " Indian Wisdom," by Monier Williams; " The 
Inequality of the Human Races/ ' by A. Conte de 
Gobineau; " Volkstum und Weltmacht in der Ges- 
chichte," by Albrecht Wirth. 

Note. The translations are from Monier Williams's " Indian 



The Hellenes were an Aryan race. They tell us that 
before they came to Greece the country was inhabited 
by the Pelasgians. These were not felt to be alien from 
them (Thucydides, Homer), and we now know that the 
Pelasgians were the ancestors of the Hellenes. Philolo- 
gists tell us that " Pelasgian " means " the emigrant " 
and was the name given by the Hellenes to their kinsmen 
who first emigrated to Greece. 

The early history of Greece is the first chapter in the 
history of Europe. From the very first we recognize 
the great qualities of the race which later produced a 
culture which, in its uninterrupted development and 
in the grandeur of the works produced, is unique. The 
old legends of European Greece; tell us of elements in 
their civilization which came from the East. Be it 
remembered that the East was not an Oriental East, 
but a Hellenic East. At that time the coast of Asia 
Minor was Hellenic. 

As early as 1000 b. c. the Greeks had attained to a 
high degree of culture. The centre of Hellenic life then 
was Mycenae. It was the Greece of Homer. The 
government was a limited monarchy. Like all races of 



the Aryan world, they recognized the principle that 
no rule should be absolute. The king was bound by 
the traditions of his people, and guided by a council of 
elders. All matters of importance were brought before 
the assembly. The Achaeans distributed the spoil, 
not Agamemnon. There was no priest rule. The judi- 
cial function rested with the elders. 

The influence of Egypt and Phoenicia on early Greek 
art was not great; everything that the Greeks borrowed, 
they assimilated. They changed it, not only in degree 
but in kind, by impressing their genius upon it. K. 0. 
Miiller says that the organic development of Greek 
culture was like the organic development of a plant. 
He denies altogether a foreign influence. 

Mycenae was one of the oldest of Greek towns. Its 
walls furnish an example of the skill of the ancient 
Greeks. The masonry .of the " treasure houses " shows 
remarkable skill. In the Mycenaic period buildings, 
built of polygonal blocks, of great size and completion 
existed. The column was known. Their fortifications, 
their palaces, their tombs, and their fountains excited 
the admiration of antiquity. Theii«- skill in working in 
metals was great. They made well-shaped vessels of 
gold, silver, and other metals, bracelets, rings, belts, 
and other ornaments. 

The art of pottery was known. They were carvers in 
wood and ivory. Sculpture in low flat relief was prac- 
tised; weaving and embroidery were done by the 
women. It was once supposed that the many ornaments 


found were imported from Egypt and Assyria, but we 
know now that not only the architecture, the plastic 
works, and the mural paintings were home products, 
but also the metal ornaments and the cut stones. 
Foreign elements are not absent, but they are not at 
all numerous. The beauty and completion of some of 
the works of art of Mycenae are the works of the Hellenic 
genius. It is this early Hellenic culture in praise of 
which Homer sings his mighty song. 

The Iliad and the Odyssey represent the highest 
development of epic poetry. They are revelations of 
the Greek genius. Homer was more to the Greeks 
than the Bible ever was to Christians. " As soon as 
a child is able to learn anything at all," says a Greek 
writer, " Homer gives him the first lessons; the young 
soul is nourished with his heroic songs, as the most 
wholesome milk. Homer remains the companion of 
adult life, the friend of old age." 

Homer's influence on Alexander the Great was com- 
mented upon by the ancients; and we know that he 
carried with him everywhere a copy of Homer's Iliad 
and that his proud motto was the word of Peleus to 
his heroic son, " Be ever the first and strive to do better 
than others." 

Sophocles was called the Homer of tragedy, on 
account of the sweetness and harmony of his language. 
Aeschylus speaks of his tragedies as " crumbs from the 
rich banquet of Homer." The wonderful statues of 
Hellas, breathing eternal youth, are the reflections of 


the Homeric sun. We are told that a few verses of 
Homer inspired Pheidias to the creation of his 

The episode which Homer chose for his song is the 
" anger of Achilles." The Iliad is historical in character. 
The interest is purely dramatic. Homer's power of 
characterization is as great as Shakespeare's. Every 
actor he introduces is an individual: Agamemnon, 
irritable and easily discouraged; Achilles, the embodi- 
ment of chivalric nobility; Aias, valiant and proud and 
haughty; Diomedes, modest and loyal; Nestor, the 
wise counsellor; the laconic Menelaos; and all the 
others down to the misshapen Thersites. In the Trojan 
camp the hoary Priam; Hector, the noble and unfor- 
tunate opponent of Achilles (his farewell to Andromache 
depicts the tender love of the strong man for wife and 
child); Andromache, Helen, and Hecuba, all reveal a 
wonderful power of characterization. 

It is due to Homer, to his similes and figurative 
expressions, that we know the life of Greece of the 
Mycenaic period as well as we know that of Athens in 
the time of Pericles. We see the moon and the stars 
shine on the lonely shepherd. The infinite ocean 
stretches before us, the storm rises, and powerless 
does man view the raging of the elements. We observe 
the animals in the woods, the soaring of the swans 
and cranes; we see the men at work, the carpenter, the 
potter, the smith in his workshop, the reaper on the 
field, the hunter following the chase, the wood-cutter 


in the forest, the shepherd and his flock, the women 
spinning and weaving. We see the life of the soldier 
and of the sailor. 

Family life is patriarchal and is eminently humane. 
Polygamy is unknown, the position of women is high. 
Many of the pictures of life presented breathe a noble 
simplicity of character. Lord and serf share troubles 
and enjoyments, and even the vagrant beggar is under 
the protection of Zeus. 

Truly sublime is the Homeric frankness. " Hateful 
as the portals of Hades is he who conceals in his heart 
other thoughts than he utters," is as true of Homer as 
of Achilles. Homer's scenes are as effective and as 
dramatic as the best of Shakespeare. The way in which 
he makes the characters reveal themselves, his sincerity 
and conscientiousness, are truly Shakespearian. Char- 
acters are sketched in a single scene. 

Shelley says: "As a poet Homer must be acknowl- 
edged to excel Shakespeare in the truth, the harmony, 
the satisfying completeness, the sustained grandeur of 
his images; " and Matthew Arnold says: " The trans- 
lator of Homer should above all be penetrated by a 
sense of four qualities of his author : that he is eminently 
rapid; that he is eminently plain and direct both in 
the evolution of his thought and in the expression of 
it; that he is eminently plain and direct in the substance 
of his thought; and, finally, that he is eminently noble." 

In Homer the interest centres in the characters he 
depicts, and any adventure happening to them is 


interesting. The interest is dramatic, lying wholly in 
the feelings and actions of the characters. There are 
but very few poems in the world's literature that rank 
with the Iliad, and every one of these is the work of 
the Teutonic genius. The Niblung or Volsungen Saga 
belongs to all Teutonic peoples, and is in substance, 
though not in workmanship, as noble a work as the 
Iliad. Shakespeare's Hamlet and Gothe's Faust are as 
epics not inferior to the Iliad, and the dramatic vigour 
of the Iliad is surpassed not even in Shakespeare or 

With the migration of the Dorians commenced the 
development of an independent style of architecture. 
The acquisitions of the Mycenaic period continued to 
be practised, and the wooden column continued to 
be used. In the main, however, new styles had to be 
created. The Mycenaic architects had built castles, 
palaces, spacious houses for the living and for the 
dead; now the Greeks desired to build temples for their 
gods. The massiveness and extent of the Assyrian 
and Egyptian temples appealed not to the Greeks, 
who developed a style in which they built, at a later 
period, temples that were never surpassed in the spiritu- 
alization of all forms and ornaments, in their perfect 
harmony and simplicity and their exquisite beauty. 
The conception of beauty in architecture as created by 
the Greeks has become the common possession of all 
peoples. As beautiful as the style of architecture, are 
the ornaments that the Greeks employed. There is 


not a single form, not a single ornament, which has not 
permeated the art of later times. 

First in importance in Grecian architecture is the 
use of the columns. The three orders are the Doric, 
the Ionian, and the Corinthian. A perfectly cylindrical 
column would in the atmosphere of Greece appear 
constricted, and to counteract that effect, the Greeks 
had the columns swell a little toward the middle. It 
is a swelling of the most delicate curvature, and is 
an aesthetic effect counteracting an optical illusion. It 
is due to the same peculiarity of the atmosphere that 
in strong light columns appear flat, not round. The 
Greeks, therefore, furrowed the columns; and, as each 
of the furrows is again a cylindrical figure, it adds to 
the appearance of rotundity. 

The Ionic order was first employed in Asia Minor. 
The shaft of the column is more slender than the shaft 
of the column of the Doric order, and it has a base 
and a capital with volutes. Vitruvius says: " In the 
Doric order the Greeks imitated the naked simplicity 
and dignity of man; in the Ionic order the delicate 
beauty and the ornaments of women. They put a 
base to the column, like the sandals of a woman, and 
formed the capital with volutes, like the hair which 
hangs on both sides of her face." Columns with foliated 
capitals (Corinthian order) were not used in a single 
Greek temple. In the Caryatic order the Greeks em- 
ployed statues of women instead of the regular columns. 
The mouldings of the Greek temples are remarkable 
for grace and beauty. 


The oldest Greek statue of a woman is the Nikandre 
of Delos, which belongs to the seventh century b. c. 
It is a very rough figure. Another early statue is 
that of Hera of Samos. It is as wooden as the 
Nikandre. As early as 600 b. a, a school of 
architecture existed in Chios. Archermos, a member 
of this school, is said to have made the first figure 
of a flying goddess of Victory. This marks a very 
great improvement over the earlier figures. The god- 
dess is, however, not at all beautiful ; the face is without 
expression, and she swings her arms and legs awkwardly 
in the air. The Apollo by Canachus is a great advance, 
for it is less pervaded by rigidity than the earlier works. 
The name of Calamis is associated with the rendering 
of expression in the female face. His female figures 
have a soul, and are related to the maidens that, beauty 
clad, walk on the frieze of the Parthenon. 

In the domain of literature this period produced 
Anacreon, Alcaeos, Simonides, and Sappho, the greatest 
of female poets. Her one ode to Aphrodite contains 
more poetry than all the novels and poems written by 
all the other female writers of all ages. 

We come to the time of the Persian wars. Never have 
men been greater than Leonidas and his companions 
" when they combed their long hair in the golden sun, 
awaiting certain death in obedience to the law." Never 
have men shown a moral fibre superior to that of the 
Athenians when they twice forsook their city, and left 
it to the Persians, declaring that the sun would leave its 


course before they would accept the Persian offer that 
would make Athens the ruler of Hellas. The battles of 
Thermopylae, Salamis, Plataea, and Mycale proved 
the heroic stuff that the Greeks were made of. Another 
evidence of their strength and of the national enthusiasm 
that stormed through the Hellenic world, is the fact 
that at the time when the Greeks defeated the Persians, 
the Greeks of Sicily repulsed the Carthaginians. 

After the Persian wars Greek culture reached its 
highest development. The barbarians had demolished 
the temples. The Hellenes were eager to rebuild them. 
They had broken the statues. The Hellenes were eager 
to erect others. The works produced in this period are 
masterpieces. The first great sculptor is Myron. We 
have only few copies of his statues. He seized for his 
representation the moment of most rapid action, 
indicated by his discobolus and his Marsyas. The 
anatomy of the body is faultless. The face of Marsyas 
exhibits fear and covetousness. Myron's figures had 
an ethical substance. He created not only muscular 
athletes but youths of strong will, transfigured by 
enthusiastic zeal. 

The works produced in the time of Pericles were 
famous for their beauty throughout the world at the 
time of their creation, and they are sublime to-day. 
Eternal youth hovers about them. The chief artist 
of the period is Pheidias, the greatest sculptor that 
the world has produced. His fame rests chiefly on the 
colossal statues of Athene and Zeus. These statues 


were in gold and ivory. The head of Zeus was so 
singularly powerful, and at the same time so mild and 
benevolent, that an early Christian artist copied it for 
a type of Christ. The opinion has been advanced 
that the Olympic Zeus of Pheidias is the original of the 
well-known type of Christ with the beard. In the 
sculptures of the Parthenon we have works which were 
modelled by Pheidias, some finished by his own hands, 
others executed under his care and supervision. 

The Parthenon is a masterpiece of architecture. It 
is a temple of the Doric order, and was erected by the 
architects Ictinos and Kallicrates. It was built entirely 
of white marble. In its exquisite beauty of form and 
proportion, its perfect harmony and simplicity, it 
produces the highest effects that architecture is capable 
of producing. The decorations of the building are the 
works of Pheidias. They consist of sculptures in the 
round on the pediments, the metopes in high relief, and 
the frieze in low relief. The metopes were ninety-two 
in number. Scenes of combat were the subjects which 
filled the metopes ; in the east the gods fought with the 
Titans, in the west the Athenians with the Amazones, 
in the north and south the Centaurs with the Lapithae. 

Along the top of the wall of the temple, on the outside, 
ran a frieze, on which were sculptured figures represent- 
ing the Pan-Athenian procession. The beauty of this 
frieze is marvellous, though the ancients attributed to it 
a merely decorative importance. The procession wends 
its way from the west toward the eastern entrance. 


Every variety of movement is introduced. We see 
priests, elders, singers, musicians with their instruments, 
Athenians on prancing coursers (215 horses are in the 
procession), youths and maidens, chariots, and lambs and 
oxen for sacrifice. On the east side the gods are sitting, 
reviewing the procession. The glories of the Parthenon 
were the sculptures of the two pediments. On the 
eastern pediment was represented the birth of Athena, 
and on the western the contest between Athena and 
Poseidon for the possession of Athens. But a few of 
these statues remain, and not one of them is in perfect 
condition. The few that have come down to us, however, 
are the most powerful that plastic art has ever produced. 

Among the many glories of the Acropolis, the Propy- 
laea, the Erechtheion, and the temple of the Goddess 
of Victory are magnificent. The six statues of women, 
that are used in the Erechtheion in place of columns, 
and some of the figures of the Nike temple are almost 
as perfect as the sculptures of the Parthenon. 

Nearly as famous as Pheidias was Polyclitus. He 
delighted most in producing the forms of ideal athletes. 
The statue representing the Goddess of Peace, the 
figure of mother and child by Kephisodotos, is of remark- 
able beauty. Greater than he was Praxiteles. His 
Aphrodite is the most beautiful woman that ever lived 
in stone. The face of his God of Love, " Eros," indicates 
by its expression of reverie and sadness that the god 
suffers the pangs of love. 

The Greeks coupled the name of Skopos with that of 


Praxiteles. Not one of his statues has come down to 
us. Another famous sculptor of this time was Leochares. 
The Apollo of Belvedere and the Diana of Versailles are 
said to be his works. Other famous works of art of 
this time are the groups representing the slaughter of 
the children of Niobe, and Menelaos with the body of 
Patroclus. The last great master, the one that stands 
between the great Hellenic time and the little Hellenistic 
time, was Lysippus. He was as famous for his 
figures of deities and ideal athletes as for his portrait 

When the conquest of Alexander spread a crust of 
Greek culture over the East it had the more important 
result of destroying the Greek race. With the corruption 
of the Hellenic blood, the Hellenic genius declined, 
and little is produced, after the time of Alexander, 
worthy of the Hellenic name. The sculptors no longer 
created ideal types of gods and men, but made portraits. 
For a time portraiture inclined to idealism. The idealism 
soon evaporated and the sculptors were no longer artists 
but artisans. They were content to copy the types of 
the old masters. 

In architecture the same phenomenon is observed. 
Greek architecture ceased almost immediately after 
the beginning of the corruption of blood that depended 
on Alexander's conquest. The architects adhered 
closely to the old models — mere imitators. Many 
centuries elapsed before in the domain of architecture 
works of art were produced that were equal to the works 


of the great Greek masters; and these works were the 
creations of the Teutonic genius — the Gothic churches. 
Gothic architecture has produced in France, in England, 
and in Germany monuments second to none in the 
world. Be it remembered that the Gothic is, in these 
countries, essentially national in its complete develop- 
ment and character. 

There is no art that is not based on race and nation- 
ality. There is no international art. That art has the 
greatest influence on the art of every country which is 
the most national. 

In the domain of architecture, we have deteriorated 
to that international level, lauded by the friends of 
eternal peace and of universal uniformity, with the 
result that we have no architecture. Architecture with- 
out art is building, constructing, but not architecture. If 
the modern buildings of Washington, London, Paris, 
or Berlin were transferred from any one of these cities 
to any other city, they would be as much in place there 
and as much out of place there as everywhere else. 
They have no character. Interna tionality means 
imitation. We erect fine buildings, such as the capitol 
at Washington; but these buildings are imitations, 
not art, and it takes greater men than imitators to 
produce art. 

Where there is no national style, nothing great is pro- 
duced. This is as true of literature, of music, of painting, 
of every effort, as it is of architecture. Internationally, 
cosmopolitanism, eternal peace, universal uniformity! 


It is difficult to say which of these is the greatest evil, 
the meanest folly, the vilest curse. In Greek literature 
Pindar stands alone. He is the greatest of Greek lyric 
poets. An important part of Greek life lives before us, 
when we witness with him the Olympic games. His 
works abound in deep thoughts. " Become (develop 
into) the man, that you are," " Time is the best deliverer 
of the just," etc. 

" Both tragedy and comedy," says Aristotle, " origi- 
nated in an unpremeditated manner, — the first from 
the leaders of the dithyramb and the second from those 
who led off the phallic songs." That is, both originated 
in the usages of religious worship. 

The three great masters of Greek tragedy are Aeschy- 
lus, Sophocles, and Euripides. Aeschylus took his plots 
from the epic poems. A few of Homer's verses contained 
for him a whole tragedy. The diction of his poetry, his 
dramatic imagination, are sublime. A titanic spirit 
breathes in his works. In his Clytaemnestra, Aeschylus 
has created a character which is not surpassed in the 
world's literature. Clytaemnestra has killed Agamem- 
non; and, in a terrible speech she describes and justifies 
the murder. Her personality attracts and repels us. 
She is another Lady Macbeth. 

Sophocles gave to Greek tragedy the highest degree 
of ideal beauty. His power of characterization, the 
harmony of his language, made him the greatest of 
Greek dramatists, the Homer of tragedy. Two thousand 
years elapsed before another play was written equal to 


the Oedipus Tyrannus. In Shelley's opinion King Lear 
is its modern equivalent. With Euripides Attic tragedy 
loses its highest beauty. In Medea and Hippolytos he 
created characters that will last to the end of time. 
Most of his heroes, however, are sophists, and some of 
his plays are spectacular plays (Hecuba). In untying 
complications he was not very skilful and so he intro- 
duced the Deus ex machina. 

Down to the time of Alexander the Great, Athens 
remained the home of tragedy. After his time, theatres 
existed everywhere, but nothing was written for them 
that was worth anything. Alexandria was for a long 
time the literary centre, but Greek comedy, as Greek 
tragedy, ceased to be productive. Of the " new comedy" 
it was said, " They enjoy the follies of men in our rotten 
state as flies enjoy fruit in its decay." In the year 217 
a. d. the worthless Caracalla abolished the worthless 
performances in the worthless Alexandria. In the 
Hellenistic world, the world of the tri-continental 
mongrel, the externals of Greek culture existed, Greek 
was the language in general use, the columns, the 
temples, the statues were there, but the genius which 
had given life to all these things was dead. 

In the domain of the natural sciences and of the 
speculative sciences, the Greeks were as great as in the 
domain of art and literature. It was Hippocrates who 
first delivered medicine from superstition and sophistry. 
He first recognized that disease was due to natural 
causes, and that nature cures, not the physician. " The 


physician is but her servant." He used many of the 
drugs which we use. He used water in the treatment 
of disease, and knew more of hydrotherapy than the 
medical profession after him until the time of Wimter- 
nitz. He was father of surgery as well as of medicine. 
He insisted on the coaptation of fractured bones, per- 
formed tapping, trephining, resected bones, opened the 
chest and the abdomen, and explored the bladder for 
stones by sounds. He used a raw tar water (a crude 
carbolic acid, in fact) in the treatment of wounds. His 
advice to physicians was " do good or at least do no 
harm." His many discoveries were forgotten by the 
post-Hellenic mongrels and had to be rediscovered by 
the Western races. 

With Thales of Miletus begins the science of as- 
tronomy. He taught that the earth was a sphere, and 
that the moon receives its light from the sun. He 
observed eclipses and determined the position of the 
stars which form the Lesser Bear by which the Phoeni- 
cians guided themselves in their voyages. Anaximender 
invented geographical charts. Pythagoras taught the 
obliquity of the ecliptic, and recognized that the sun 
is a fixed star, and that the earth is a planet revolving 
round it. (This system was revived by Copernicus.) 
He taught the diurnal motion of the earth about its 

It is remarkable that the mystic Pythagoras 
taught the heliocentric system, that the idealist Plato 
recognized the same truth, had just notions of the 


causes of eclipses, and taught that gravity compelled 
the celestial bodies to move in curves; while the realist 
Aristotle taught these Pythagorean and Platonic obser- 
vations to be speculative nonsense. Aristarchus meas- 
ured the relative distances of sun and moon. Hipparchus 
found the length of the tropical year to be 365 days, 
5 hours, and 49 minutes, which is only twelve seconds 
greater than the truth. He discovered the eccentricity 
of the solar orbit, and the precession of the equinoxes. 
He determined the eccentricity of the solar and of the 
lunar orbits. He first undertook the formation of a 
catalogue of the heavenly bodies. Hipparchus was the 
last great astronomer that the Hellenic race produced. 

The post-Hellenic tri-continental mongrel was inca- 
pable of continuing the work. Ptolemy was not a great 
astronomer. His chief work was the collection and 
arrangement of the ancient observations. His observa- 
tions are computed from the table of Hipparchus. 
Long before the time of Ptolemy, the creative power 
of the Hellenic race had perished in the post-Hellenic 

Men of the Teutonic stock continued the work,; — in 
the fourteenth century George Beurbach, John Muller, 
of Konigsberg, John Werner, Copernicus (knowing the 
Poles and their history, we are justified in assuming 
that Copernicus was not a Pole, and recent investigations 
have established the fact that he was a German, not a 
Pole), Tycho Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, Beyer, Newton, 
Huygens, Halley, and others. In later times men not 


of the Teutonic stock contributed to our knowledge of 
astronomy. These depended on the Teutonic thinkers 
as the Arabs depended on the Greek scientists. 

In the domain of philosophy the greatest before 
Socrates was Heraclitus. In his work " About Nature," 
he foreshadows more than one modern theory. He 
holds that all life is the perpetual struggle between 
contrary forces, and there is no death. Death is birth 
into a new form, and birth is the death of a previous 

Pythagoras founded a brotherhood, a monastic com- 
munity, with aims that were religious, philosophical, 
and political. He taught monotheism, immortality, 
and the transmigration of the soul; that there is one 
God, eternal, unchangeable, ruling and upholding all 
things. Empedocles knew that blood was sacred. 
Anaxagoras taught that there was no other change 
except change of place and grouping. " The notion 
of change of essence is a contradiction.' ' 

Democritus is the founder of the materialistic school. 
He taught the atomic theory, on which much of our 
science is based. Socrates taught that the first step to 
knowledge is the consciousness of ignorance. The next 
step is to get clear notions. Truth and right are the 
same for all. Right action is reasonable action. No 
action is virtuous that is not based on self-knowledge. 
There is one supreme God; the soul is immortal, and 
has in it divine elements, the inward monitor, Socrates' 
daimonion. There is one thing that man can know, 


and that is man. We can know what we ought to be, 
and what the aim of our life is. Moral ideas are funda- 
mental to humanity. Education creates nothing. It 
merely develops the inherent capacity for knowledge. 

The sophists had dissolved the union of philosophy 
of mind and philosophy of nature. Plato reestablished 
it. He says: " The ends of ethics are the ends of 
ontology, their ultimate notions are identical." Plato 
uses the word idea in the sense of species, type, race. 
The highest idea is the idea of good. It is identical with 
God. The perfect man looks for reality in the intelligible 
world, not in the world of the senses. The idea, the 
type, the race is eternal and persists; the copy, the 
individual perishes. The idea (the race) is neither a 
mere notion, nor purely individual knowledge, but 
an eternal reality. We can know ourselves, and can 
attain to the knowledge of the highest good through 
an infallible inner sense. 

" This inner sense," Socrates said, " is the moral 
conscience." Socrates was a skeptic as far as natural 
philosophy was concerned. Plato was not. According 
to Plato, this infallible inner sense is not only moral 
conscience, but also reason; and is capable of revealing 
to us the absolute, the necessary essence of things. The 
idea is the universal, the spaceless, and timeless arche- 
type of the individual. The ideas, the types, the races 
are eternal. It is because the soul is already familiar 
with the archetype (by heredity, by race) that it is 
capable of being reminded of it when it sees its shadow 


in the phenomenal existence. All learning is reminis- 
cence, and can be traced back to the intuitive conscious- 
ness of the soul (race, heredity). 

The highest idea, the idea of good (God), comprehends, 
contains, summarizes them all. God is the absolute 
idea, the One. He exceeds being and essence in dignity 
and power. He is the universal author of all things, 
parent of light, source of truth and reason, the supreme 
wisdom, the supreme justice, lawgiver, and highest law, 
who rules the beginning, the end, and the middle of 

The ideas are endowments of the mind, they form its 
very essence (heredity). They are at first latent in 
the mind and we are not conscious of them. The senses 
show us their external copies and remind us of the 
original existing in us. Sensation (education) provokes 
ideas, but it does not produce them. Absolute truth is 
in God alone. God has absolute truth, because he is 
absolute truth. The immortal part of man, the reason, 
is of like substance with the soul and essence of the 
world. God is perfect goodness and righteousness, and 
he of us who is most righteous is most like him. Virtue 
should be desired for itself. To do injustice is worse 
than to suffer injustice. The highest mission of the 
state is the developing of virtuous and noble citizens. 
The highest good is being made like to God, and this 
is effected by that yearning after the ideal which we 
know by the name of Love. 

Plato-Socrates says: "Those of us who think that 


death is an evil are in error. There is great reason to 
hope that death is a good. For either death is a state 
of nothingness, or there is a migration of the soul from 
this world to another. Now if there is no consciousness, 
but a sleep undisturbed by dreams, death will be a 
gain, for eternity is then but a single night. But if 
death is the journey to another place, and if there all 
the dead are, what good, my friends, can be greater 
than this, to converse with Homer, Hesiod, and others? 
Above all, I shall then be able to continue my search 
after knowledge. . . . Therefore, be of good cheer 
about death, and know of a certainty that no evil can 
happen to a good man either in life or in death. To 
be released is better for me. I am not angry with my 
accusers. They have done me no harm, although 
they did not intend to do me any good, and for this I 
may gently blame them." When drinking the hemlock: 
" The hour of departure has arrived and we go our 
ways, I to die and you to live. Which is better, God only 
knows." One of his disciples asked him how he would 
like to be buried, and he answered, they might bury 
him any way they pleased if they could catch him; he 
did not expect to be there. 

This religion of Pythagoras, Socrates, and Plato is 
the essence of all religion. It is a Christianity without 
a dogma. 

Aristotle's writings deal with all the sciences known 
to the ancient world, mathematics, physics, meteorology, 
logic, zoology, philosophy, ethics, theology, psychology, 


politics, and sociology. In his philosophy, matter has 

no reality apart from form. Reality is a concrete thing, \ ■ 

consisting of constitutive elements, which reason dis- / 
tinguishes. / 

The most important of these elements is the idea, 
which is to Aristotle identical with essence or soul. 
Matter is its indispensable support. The idea is essential 
and the cause proper; matter is of secondary importance 
and a mere condition. Matter and form are eternal; 
they presuppose and supplement each other. Evolution 
mediates between them and transforms the former into 
the latter. 

The Supreme Being is the first cause and the final 
goal of things. God is both the law and the lawgiver, 
the imminent essence of things and transcendent. 
Everything is organized, ordered, and harmonized by 

Aristotle recognized that man was a political being, 
a social animal. He saw that there were men who were 
slaves by nature and others who were free men by 

In his principles of ethics Aristotle diverges little from 
Plato. As regards the theory of human good, the aim 
of life, and the highest good of the soul, Aristotle's 
agreement with Plato is almost complete. " Nor, again, 
is Aristotle's divergence from the Socratic principle, 
that all virtue is knowledge, substantially greater than 
Plato's. Both accept the paradox in the qualified 
sense: that perfect virtue is inseparably bound up with 



perfect wisdom or moral insight. Both, however, see 
that this moral insight is not to be imparted by mere 
teaching, but depends rather on careful training in 
good habits applied to minds of good natural disposition 
(heredity, race). 

Pleasure in Aristotle's view is not the essence of well- 
being but rather an inseparable accident of it. Human 
well-being is essentially well-doing, excellent activity 
of some kind, whether its aim and end be abstract truth 
or noble conduct; but all activities are attended and 
in a manner perfected by pleasure, which is better and 
more desirable in proportion to the excellence of the 
activity. In general they agree in their ethics, and the 
doctrine that vicious pleasures are not true or real 
pleasures is so characteristically Platonic that we are 
almost surprised to find it in Aristotle." (" Ethics," 
Encyclop. Br.) 

Plato and Aristotle represent the climax of Greek 
thought. In the depth of his genius, the power of 
his intuition, the brilliancy of his observations (v. 
Astronomy), Plato is the greatest master that Hellas 

After Aristotle, Hellas produced no great philosopher. 
The post-Hellenic mongrels were as incapable of pro- 
ducing philosophy and science as they were incapable 
of producing literature and art. Writers of moral 
platitudes were considered philosophers, and the time 
came when Greece was unable to produce writers of 
platitudes. What Nietzsche says of contemporary 


university philosophy, may with much greater truth 
be said of the post-Hellenic philosophers and scientists: 

"It is really an inferior race that at present lords 
it . . . and if Schopenhauer had now to write his 
treatise on ' University Philosophy ' he would no longer 
require the club, but would conquer with a bulrush. . . . 
They look sufficiently like sucklings and dwarfs to 
remind us of the Indian proverb, ' According to their 
deeds men are born stupid, dumb, deaf, and misshapen.' 
Those fathers deserved such posterity. . . . They 
know little, and are never at a loss for a mystifying 
phrase to deceive us with regard to their ignorance. 
They always find reasons why it is more philosophical 
to know nothing than to learn something. Their secret 
impulse is to flee from the sciences and establish a gloomy 
kingdom in one of their gaps and obscurities/' 

After the time of Pericles and Alexander, that is, 
after the complete corruption of the Hellenic blood, 
the history of the Greek cities is very similar to the 
history of the South American republics. The military 
prestige of Sparta declined. Sparta itself was changed. 
Political confusion prevailed. The history of Athens 
during this time is an inglorious history. At length, in 
146 b. c, Greece became a Roman province and the 
Greek cities succumbed to the Roman yoke. 

The next chapter discusses more fully the corruption 
of the Hellenic blood, on account of which the Hellenes 
deteriorated into Graeculi, and the Graeculi into the 
Greeks of modern Greece. 




As the Greek cities increased in wealth, the number 
of immigrants became very large, and the number of 
slaves enormous. " With the industrial growth of the 
commonwealth, the resident aliens, or, as they were 
termed, metoeci, grew in number and consideration. 
They were more numerous in Athens than in any other 
state" (McCullagh). 

When the Macedonians became rulers of Greece, 
Athens had twenty-one thousand citizens, ten thousand 
resident aliens, and four hundred thousand slaves. 
The change that the population underwent is evident 
from the following : In the battle of Platea, Sparta had 
fifty thousand combatants, among them five thousand 
Spartan citizens. In the battle of Leuctra, Sparta 
could place in the field only one thousand citizens. 
Sparta had to fight her battles with freed helots. In 
370 b. c. Sparta had to liberate six thousand helots in 
order to be able to defend herself. In 270 b. c. only 
seven hundred Spartan families were counted in Sparta, 
one hundred of which owned land; the others were 

A new citizenship was formed by creating Perioecs 



resident aliens, and helots Spartan citizens. At Sel- 
lasia these new citizens were destroyed by Antigonas 
and the Achteans. Two hundred men only escaped. 
Mechanidas and Nabis created new citizens by again 
elevating Perioecs, helots, and resident aliens to that 
rank. The resident aliens were mainly Aryan-Hamitic- 
Semitic-Egyptian-Negroid mongrels. The rulers of 
the Greek cities could give to these men the rights 
of citizens; they could not give to them the Greek 
race, not the character, the genius of that race. Grad- 
ually the Greeks of the Greek cities were replaced by 
the Greek-speaking mongrels. The number of foreigners 
that had drifted into Greece before the time of Pericles, 
increased by the very great number that came during 
the time of Pericles, was greater than could be absorbed. 
Mongrelization was inevitable. 

The vitiation of the Hellenic blood caused the rapid 
decline of the Greek cities. There was but one part of 
Greece that was still Greek, Macedonia. For Macedonia 
it would still have been possible to re-Hellenize Greece. 

Alexander was not content with ruling Greece; his 
aim was the conquest of the Eastern world, and he 
succeeded. If Darius could have placed Medes and 
Persians in the field against Alexander, history would 
have a different story to tell; but the mongrel herd at 
the command of Darius was no match for Alexander's 
Macedonians. Alexander planned to fuse the Greeks 
and the people of Asia Minor by intermarriage, and 
founded many cities in Asia Minor and settled Greek 


colonists there. In short, he did everything to mon- 
grelize the Greek race. We are told that, as the con- 
sequence of Alexander's conquest, the East became 
Hellenized. The truth is that a Hellenic varnish was 
given to the East, and that Hellas became Asianized, 
the Greek race thoroughly mongrelized and completely 
destroyed. The mongrelization of Hellas put an end 
to the true Hellenic spirit, to its productive genius, its 
literary and artistic abilities. 

It is true that the same kind of civilization prevailed 
in Asia Minor, Egypt, Greece, and the Greek com- 
munities; that Greek had become the world language, 
and was spoken in the lands stretching from the Indus 
to the Pillars of Hercules. It is not less true, however, 
that that vast herd of men speaking Greek was not 
able to produce anything at all comparable to the works 
produced by the Greeks, by the Egyptians, or by the 
Persians. The whole was smaller than any of its parts 
had been. The Greek-speaking mongrel said very little 
that was worth reiterating, nothing that was comparable 
to the utterances of the Greek genius. 

In the course of time the Hellenic blood was cor- 
rupted to a still greater extent. In 146 b. c. the Romans 
conquered Greece, and many Greeks perished in the 
war. When Mummius took Corinth, he ordered the 
city sacked and burned to the ground. All the men 
were killed, the women and children sold into slavery. 
Later the Goths invaded Greece. In 434 Attila became 
the leader of the Huns. Under him they made savage 


incursions into Greece, laid waste the land, and expelled 
or exterminated the inhabitants. After his death, some 
of the old inhabitants returned, and with them came 
Herulians, Gepidae, and Sarmatic Slavs into the de- 
vastated land. In the North Huns and Alanes remained. 
In the civil war between Zeno and Basilicus both called 
the Ostro-Goths for help. These came and brought new 
settlers with them. Most of these, however, a few years 
later, went to Italy. 

Shortly after their departure, the Bulgarians, with 
Huns and Slavs, invaded the country, laid waste Thrace, 
and exterminated most of the inhabitants before they 
retired. In these invasions the inhabitants who still 
had some Hellenic blood in their veins were exterminated. 
Justinus I settled many Illyrians in Greece. In his 
reign the invasions of the Slavosinians commenced. In 
the year 539 Greece was again invaded by Huns, Bul- 
garians, Slavs, Antes, and Gepidae. This time the 
defence of Thermopylae was inadequate to protect the 
country. Thebes, Athens, and Corinth alone resisted. 
The land between Thermopylae and the Gulf of Corinth 
was changed into a desert. Procopius states that in 
his time the Slavs had extended their dominions to the 
boundaries of Hellas. Diocletianopolis had, in an 
attack by the Slavs, lost all its inhabitants and was in 

Men and the elements seem to have conspired to wipe 
out every trace of Hellenic blood that still existed. In 
531 the plague visited Greece, and its ravages lasted 


fifty years. At the same time, earthquakes devastated 
Greece; many cities were destroyed and buried. In 
Petras alone, four thousand inhabitants were killed by 
falling houses. Procopius states that, during the 
reign of Justinian, wars, famines, earthquakes, and 
the plague killed one hundred million people in the 
countries of the Mediterranean basin. 

About this time the Avares came from Asia to Europe. 
Bajan-Chan, their leader, incited the Slavs to invade 
Greece in 578. They crossed the Danube, a hundred 
thousand men strong, invaded Greece, and extended 
their incursions as far as the Peloponnesus. Menander 
states that Hellas was torn to pieces by the Slavs. A 
few years later Bajan-Chan was at war with the emperor, 
and at his instigation other hordes of Slavs with Avares 
poured into Greece. Evagrius writes that in 587 and 
in 593 the Avares conquered all of Greece and devastated 
it with fire and sword. After these invasions the Slavs 
and Avares did not again leave Greece. They remained 
as the lords of the land, with them Huns and Bulgarians. 

When peaceful conditions were again established, a 
great number of the inhabitants were Slavs, who retained 
their customs, religion, and language for a long time. 
Cities, villages, brooks, mountains now have Slavic 
names. Marathon is Vrana; Salamis, Kiluri; Plataea, 
Kochla; Olympia, Miraka; Delphi, Kastri; and other 
places are named Goritza, Vostiza, Caminitza, Pirnatsha, 
Chlumutzi, Slavitza. Names similar to these are found 
in Galicia, Poland, and other Slavic countries. Hellenic 


they are not. During the reign of Empress Irene, 
Greece became again a part of the Byzantine empire, 
and the Greek language was gradually adopted by the 
inhabitants of Greece. As far as language was con- 
cerned, Greece was again Hellenized. This was not 
brought about, however, by Hellenes, but by the Greek- 
speaking tri-continental mongrel of Constantinople. 

In 1204 Venice, having a German-Frankish army at 
her command, declared war on the Eastern empire and 
took Constantinople. A Frankish army was landed at 
Patras (Morea), and many of the knights received 
latifundia in the Peloponnesus and subsequently re- 
mained in Greece. In the fourteenth century the 
Albanians invaded Greece, and settled there. The 
influx of Albanians continued for a considerable time. 
In 1407, we are told, Theodor Paleologus settled ten 
thousand Albanians, with their wives and children, in 
the Peloponnesus. Mazari, writing in 1446, states that 
the Greeks of his time were not a race, but a mixture 
of the debris of other races. He mentions Tshacones, 
Italians, Peloponnesians, Slavonians, Illyrians, Egyp- 
tians, and Jews. Not even the Jews escaped Mon- 
grelization; many of them intermarried with the in- 
habitants and became as corrupt as they were. 

" These nations of different descent have crossed to 
the extent that in baseness and wickedness they have 
become a homogeneous mass. They enjoy quarrel, 
strife, riot, and the shedding of blood; they are men- 
dacious, cunning, and deceitful; they are as stupid as 


they are proud, perjured, and faithless, without morals 
and without virtue " (Mazari). 

The Italoi of Mazari are the descendants of the people 
who immigrated during the feudal rule, most of them 
from Naples, Sicily, and Spain; that is, from the most 
mongrelized parts of Europe. Later, Arabic blood was 
infused into the mongrel mass. 

Sultan Mohammed II settled Turks in the Pelopon- 
nesus. In the seventeenth century Venice succeeded 
in freeing the Peloponnesus from the Turkish rule. 
According to the Venetian officials, the character of 
the inhabitants was very bad. They found the character 
of the inhabitants to be as Mazari had found them two 
centuries before. When the Turks began the reconquest 
of Greece, the " Greeks " betrayed the Christians with 
the same stolidity as the Turks. Later, Wallachians 
settled in Greece. 

From the foregoing it is evident that but very little 
Hellenic blood is left in Greece, and that little is so 
thoroughly vitiated that its disappearance is but a 
question of time. No race inhabits Greece. The 
" Greeks " are the descendants of races so different that 
their crossing can never produce anything else than 
human mongrels. Their ancestors were Greeks, Hel- 
lenized Asiatics and Byzantine Greeks (i. e. Hamitic- 
Semitic-Greek-Egyptian-Negroid mongrels), Slavs, Sicil- 
ians, Spaniards, Huns, Bulgarians, Walloons, Franks, 
and Albanians. The blood of these races could have 
no other effect than that of increasing the race confusion. 


The only difference between the modern Greeks 
and the other Balcanaks lies in the fact that the environ- 
ment of the modern Greeks is the environment of the 
Hellenes. The environment, however, has no power 
whatsoever to change the mongrel into a race, and the 
Greeks have not been changed by it. We are told that 
the Hellenes owed their greatness largely to the country 
it was their fortune to dwell in. To that same country, 
with the same wonderful coastline and harbours, moun- 
tains and brooks, and the same sun of Homer, the 
modern Greeks probably owe their nothingness. 

In the war for independence the effective work was 
done by the people of Suli, Hydra, and Poros, that is, 
by people of pure Albanian blood. Foreigners incited 
the revolution, not Greek love for freedom and inde- 
pendence. The Greeks, as the other Balcanaks, have 
not yet proved that they deserve a national independent 
life; intellectually, mentally, they are dead. After the 
Batavian revolution, after the American revolution, the 
people of these countries proceeded on the path of 
progress. Greece is, after many years of independence, 
miserable and degraded. The methods of cultivating 
the soil are primitive. Fields are cropped till they are 
exhausted and then left fallow. The farmers have no 
idea of manure. Their houses are sheds of wood or 
huts of mud, without windows. 

Modern Greece produces bankers, brokers, politicians, 
liars in abundance, but has not produced a single 
great man. Not a single Greek name can be mentioned 


that surpasses mediocrity ; hardly one that approaches 
mediocrity. It is blood that tells. 

Ribot says : ' ' From the Greeks the Byzantine derived, 
besides language and literary traditions, a subtlety 
which, for want of mental force to strengthen it, degen- 
erated into low cunning. The love of the Greek for 
rhetoric and brilliant conversation became the braggart 
self-assertion of the Byzantine, the subtle sophistry of 
the philosophers degenerated into the empty scholas- 
ticism of the theologians, and the versatility of the 
Grseculus into the perfidious diplomacy of the emperors. 

" Historians usually explain the decline of nations 
by their manners, institutions, and character, and in 
a certain sense the explanation is correct. These reasons, 
however, are rather vague, and, as we see, there exists 
a more profound, an ultimate cause, an organic cause, 
which can act only through heredity, but which is 
altogether overlooked. These organic causes will prob- 
ably be ignored for some time to come, but our ignoring 
them will not do away with them. As for ourselves, 
who have for purposes of our own attempted to study 
the decay of the lower empire, — the most amazing 
instance of decay presented by history, — tracing step 
by step this degeneration through a thousand years, 
seeing in their works of art the plastic talents of the 
Greeks fade away by degrees, and result in the stiff 
drawings of the Paleologi; seeing the imagination of 
the Greeks wither up and become reduced to a few 
platitudes of description; seeing their lively wit change 


to empty babbling; seeing all the characters of mind 
so disappear that the great men of their latter period 
would elsewhere pass only for mediocrities, ... it 
appears to us that beneath these visible, palpable facts, 
the only facts on which historians dwell, we discern the 
slow, blind, unconscious working of nature in the 
millions of human beings who were decayed, though 
they knew it not, and who transmitted to their descend- 
ants a germ of death, each generation adding to it 
somewhat of its own. 

" Thus in every people, whether it be rising or falling, 
there exists always as the groundwork of every change 
a secret working of the mind and consequently of a 
part of the organism, and this of necessity comes under 
the law of heredity." 

Gibbon writes: " I should have abandoned without 
regret the Greek slaves and their servile historians, had 
I not reflected that the fate of the Byzantine monarchy 
is passively connected with the most splendid and 
important revolutions which changed the state of the 

Jacob P. Fallmerayer closes his history of Morea 
with these words: " After studying the history of 
mediaeval Greece, is there any one still willing to main- 
tain that the character of the Greeks declined and 
degenerated to the present level during the Turkish 
administration? Is there any form of villainy and base- 
ness of which the Greeks were not past-masters before 
the time of the Turks? Has anywhere an administration 


been more corrupt, judiciary more venal, magistrates 
more thievish, archontes more contemptible, public 
and private morals more depraved, than in mediaeval 
Greece? In what way or manner could a Turkish govern- 
ment be worse? The Osmanli are better than their 
government; their morals are simple and severe, they 
hate lie, deceit, and thievishness; they are honest in 
their dealings; in short, superior to the Greeks in every 

There is no truth whatsoever in the statement that 
the Turks are responsible for the degeneration of the 
Balcanaks and of the Greeks. It is as false as the 
assertion that Catholicity caused the degeneration of 
Spain and of the South American countries. Pro- 
miscuous crossing, mongrelization, is the cause of their 

The mongrel is worthless everywhere, and the Greek 
mongrel is no exception. 

Read " Morea," by Jacob P. Fallmerayer; " Die 
Grundlagen des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts," by Hous- 
ton S. Chamberlain; " The Inequalities of the Human 
Races/' by A. de Gobineau; "Heredity," by Th. 



" Cloaca Gentium." (H. S. Chamberlain.) 

" Aetas parentum pejor avis tulit 
Nos nequiores mox daturos 
Progeniem vitiosiorem." (Horace.) 

The Roman race developed from a fusion of Sabines, 
Umbrians, Sicilians, and other Latins. The crossing of 
these related races was followed by a very close inbreed- 
ing for several hundred years. It was 403 years after 
the founding of the city that Southern Etruria was an- 
nexed. The absorption of the not closely related 
Etruscans proceeded very slowly. There is no evidence 
that any of the communities which combined to form 
Rome was Etruscan. There was no Etruscan trace in 
the Roman blood. The Etruscans were slowly absorbed; 
the internal selection had time to expel everything 
Etruscan that was out of harmony with the Roman 

Slowly, very slowly did Rome expand and absorb the 
other closely related inhabitants of Italy, and the " right 
of connubium " was not extended to every Italian 
community. How long the inbreeding following the 
crossing lasted is clearly shown by the fact that, at 



the outbreak of the first Punic war, in the 489th year 
after the founding of Rome, although Rome had become 
the undisputed mistress of Italy, she had expanded not 
even sufficiently to embrace Central Italy. This slow 
expansion made the development of the strong Roman 
race possible. 

After the Punic wars, paranoia took possession of 
Rome. She wanted to grow and become enormous. 
Numbers were more important than race, and the 
vagrants of the whole world were invited to share the 
greatness of Rome. The spirit of moderation had left 
the Romans. After the Hannibalic war, Cisalpine Gaul 
was rapidly Romanized, and the rapid so-called Roman- 
ization of the world had commenced. Magna Grseca, 
Sicily, and Spain became Roman provinces. Iberians, 
Gauls, Greek mongrels, and the Hamitic-Semitic-Negroid 
mongrels of Carthage flocked to Rome. In the years 
553-556 Greece was brought under the Roman sway. 
In 564 the settlement of Western Asia was commenced. 
In eleven years, 554-565 after the founding of the city, 
Rome established her protectorate throughout the 
Eastern Mediterranean. 

A protectorate did not suffice her, and she commenced 
the policy of annexation in the East. In 146 b. c. (608 
years after the founding of Rome), Macedonia became a 
Roman province. A few years later, all of Greece was 
put under the control of the Roman governor of Mace- 
donia. Rhodes and Pergamum fared no better. In 
Syria, Rome intervened, on the death of Antiochus 


Epiphanes, and placed her creature Antiochus Eupator 
on the throne. In 168 Egypt formally acknowledged the 
suzerainty of Rome. The West had fallen to Rome as 
the prize of victory over Carthage and, the Carthaginian 
power having been broken, there was no hindrance to 
the establishment of Roman rule in Sicily, Sardinia, 
Spain, and finally in Africa. In little more than a hun- 
dred years Rome had become the supreme power in the 
civilized world. " By all men," says Polybius, " it was 
taken for granted that nothing remained but to obey 
the commands of the Romans." 

The Romans outlived adversity, their success des- 
troyed them. The immigration to Rome had been 
considerable before its expansion; now it was enormous. 
This could not but change essentially the Roman race. 
As the immigration was very much greater than could 
be absorbed, and consisted of races not closely related, 
the crossing following the immigration not only changed 
the Roman race, but destroyed it. Rome was hence- 
forth inhabited not by a race, but by a mongrel herd. 
Rome had become the " cloaca gentium." 

The Roman constitution, being the product of the 
Roman genius, was in harmony with the instincts of the 
Roman race. It did not and could not be made to rule 
the mongrel herd. In a mongrel herd there is no race 
harmony, therefore two forms of government alone are 
possible, anarchy or despotism. After Sulla's time, 
Rome was flooded by foreign races. Oriental and African 
blood, injected into the Pan-European mongrels, bas- 


tardized the Romans to a still greater extent. The 
deterioration was as rapid as it was complete. Syrians, 
Cappadocians, and negro slaves inundated Southern 
Italy and Sicily (v. Sicily) ,a^^^uJ^u^ ***%£} 

When Rome was Roman, the form of the constitution 
was that of a democracy, and no order of nobility was 
recognized. The offices of state were open to all and 
the will of the people was supreme. Now in practice the 
government had become an oligarchy. The Senate 
ruled Rome, and the Senate was in the hands of a class 
which constituted itself a nobility. This was the first 
change. It is easier to run down than to walk down an 
inclined plane. Rome plunged into revolution and 
anarchy. The period of revolution lasted from 146 b. c. 
to 49 b. c, in which year Caesar made himself dictator. 
Rome had changed into an absolute monarchy, limited 
solely by the good will or the caprice of the despot. The 
old constitution was not formally abrogated. Caesar 
professed to hold his authority by the will of the people. 
The Senate continued its existence; the assembly met; 
there were still consuls, praetors, aediles, and tribunes. 
But Senate, assembly, and public officials had to obey 
the command of the dictator. 

All authority concentrated in Caesar's hands. Augus- 
tus and Tiberius elevated the Senate to a place beside 
themselves in the government, but it never again 
directed the policy of Rome. The comitia retained no 
other prerogative than that of formally confirming the 
emperor in the possession of his authority. Men of 


judgment soon recognized the deterioration of the 
Romans, that the mongrel was destitute of character, 
that his oath was worth as little as his word, and that 
valour and courage had fled with his character. German 
soldiers formed the body-guard of Caesar. Germans 
decided the battle of Pharsalus. Teutons formed the 
body-guard of the emperors of the Eastern as well as of 
the Western empire. A thousand years after Caesar, 
Normans protected the Byzantine emperors. 

Germans fought the Allemanni, Germans fought the 
Parthians, Germans broke the power of the Ostro- 
Goths in Italy. Belisarius was a Goth, and Totila was 
killed in the battle at Gualdo Tadino by Asbad, a Ger- 
man. The Lombards sent auxiliary troops to Belisarius 
and Narses. In spite of these facts, Procopius, writing 
of the Gothic war, speaks of Roman victories. In the 
Flavian war, Antonius treated the praetorians with con- 
tempt, and reminded them of the fact that they were 
only Italians, while the soldiers of the legions were Ger- 
mans and Gauls. The time came when Romans and 
Italians were no longer suffered to bear arms, and the 
praetorians were superseded by soldiers from the North. 

It was dimly recognized that Romans had ceased to 
exist, and a new word, Romanitas, was coined for the 
post-Roman herd in contradistinction to Barbaria, 
which word was applied to all who lived outside of the 
mongrel Roman herd. The southern provinces brought 
Syrians, Cappadocians, Egyptians, Arabians, Numidi- 
ans, Thessalians, Lydians, and others to Rome, who 


vitiated the mongrels' blood to a still greater extent. 
When fusion was complete, when all were equally 
mongrelized and consequently degraded, it was but just 
that the citizenship should be extended to all. Cara- 
calla, the pseudo-punic beast, bestowed the citizenship 
upon them all. There was no reason why a Roman 
should be the emperor of that non-Roman, post-Roman 
herd. The words senatus populusque romanus ceased to 
have any meaning. The legions elected the emperors. 
The Flavians were the last Italian family to wear the 

After the Flavians came Spaniards, after the Spaniards 
came Africans, after the Africans Syrians, again Africans; 
then an Arabian, whom a Pannonian dethroned. After 
him men from everywhere wore the imperial purple, but 
never again a Roman. There was no reason why Rome 
should remain the capital of the empire. Rome was 
everywhere; that is, it was nowhere. Diocletian re- 
moved the capital to Sirmium, Constantine to Byzan- 
tium. Later, Ravenna, Milan, Paris, Aachen (Aix la 
Chapelle) and Vienna were capitals of the empire; 
Rome no more. 

The sterility of Rome is remarkable. Virgil, Horace, 
Titus Livius, Ovid, Vitruvius, Cornelius Nepos, Catull, 
Valerius Flaccus, Plinius, Seneca, Statorius Victor, 
Martial, Luca, were not Romans. The mongrelization of 
Rome was so very rapid and complete because the 
foreign blood came from everywhere, and came as an 
inundation with the force of a cataract. The degenera- 


tion and depravity of the mongrels was so great that they 
deified the emperors. And many of the emperors were 
of a character so vile that their deification proves the 
post-Roman mongrel's soul to have been more depraved 
than that of the Egyptian mongrel, who deified nothing 
lower than dogs, cats, crocodiles, bugs, and vegetables. 

The praetorian band scarcely numbered fifteen thou- 
sand men, and yet populous Rome could not defend her- 
self against them. The praetorians killed off emperors 
that did not suit them, elected others, whom the Senate 
obediently confirmed, killed them off again, and, 
eventually, after they had murdered Pertinax, pro- 
claimed that the Roman world was to be disposed of 
to the highest bidder by public auction. And why not? 
Does a herd of cattle not exhibit more reason and more 
dignity than the post-Roman herd? Are herds of cattle 
not sold? Why not the post-Roman herd? 

Julian purchased it. The Senate meekly acknowl- 
edged him. Septimius Severus dethroned him, and was 
acknowledged by the Senate. Severus filled the Senate 
with polished and eloquent slaves from the Eastern 
provinces. They differed from the Roman Senatorial 
slaves in that they were polished and eloquent. Severus 
was followed by his two sons, Caracalla and Geta. 
Caracalla murdered Geta. His cruelty was that of a 
monster. He feared the friends of Geta and every one 
who had maintained the smallest correspondence with 
Geta, who lamented his death, or who even mentioned 
his name, he ordered executed. Twenty thousand per- 


sons of both sexes suffered death. In the midst of peace 
he issued his commands at Alexandria for a general 
massacre. From a secure palace he directed the slaugh- 
ter of many thousand citizens. 

Caracalla was killed by Martialis, a desperate soldier, 
who had been refused the rank of centurion. The 
Senate granted this beast, Caracalla, a place among the 
gods. Macrinus succeeded Caracalla. Elagabalus suc- 
ceeded Macrinus. Both were murdered. Alexander 
succeeded the infamous Elagabalus. He was murdered 
and succeeded by Maximin, who was also murdered. 
The history of mongrelized Rome is similar to the history 
of the South American herds. Usurpation followed 

" There was a rapid' and perpetual transition from 
the cottage to the throne, and from the throne to the 
grave " (Gibbon). There was no other way of disposing 
of the Roman emperors. In South America it usually 
suffices to send the President into oblivion. 

The people demanded bread and the public shows 
only. Vices of the most unnatural kind flourished. The 
arts, science, and letters declined as the post-Roman 
herd declined. The philosophers were men, who wore 
a beard and a Greek cloak; the latter was essential. 
One day they declared there was no god, and the next 
day they were priests in a temple of Mithra, Isis, or some 
other Asiatic deity. 

The poets and writers were imitators, and the voice 
of poetry was silent. Words strung together in the 


form of a vase or the form of a lyre were poems. The 
theatres had been closed a long time. Gladiatorial 
shows, cock-fights, and chariot-races had taken their 
places. The Greek works of art were no longer valued. 
A sculptor was a man who removed the head of a statue, 
and put another head, frequently the removed head of 
another statue, in its place. The ruins of Spalatro are 
expressive of the decline of architecture in the time of 
Diocletian. All religions flourished in Rome, especially 
the Asiatic cults, which were associated with wild, un- 
natural orgies. 

Courage, bravery, virtue, family life, everything that 
was good and sacred, had vanished from Rome. The 
body was as degenerate as the soul. Gibbon tells us: 
" This diminutive stature of mankind was daily sinking 
below the old standard, and the Roman world was in- 
deed peopled by a race of pygmies when the fierce giants 
of the North broke in and mended the puny breed. 
They restored a manly spirit of freedom, and after the 
revolutions of ten centuries, freedom became the happy 
parent of taste and science." 

This was the Rome that the Northern tribes destroyed. 
Had Romans still existed, there would be a different 
story to tell. Who, however, was the Roman of this 
time? A puny mongrel of weak constitution and a 
feeble mind, a coward in whose veins flowed the blood of 
many races; in his own opinion the lord of the universe, 
the most exalted of men, in proof of which he was 
brazen, ignorant, cunning, thievish, vulgar, servile, 


depraved, ready to sell to the highest bidder his wife, 
his mother, his daughter, his sister, his friends, his 
country. Withal he had an almost unnatural fear of 
work, trouble, poverty, suffering, and death. 

Who, on the other hand, were the Germans? Men 
tall of stature, broad of shoulder, with blond hair and 
white skin; of strong constitution, powerful as the 
bears of their native forests, daring, brave, virtuous, 
chaste. Men who feared nothing in the world, and 
death less than anything else. Men with minds as 
strong as their bodies. Is it not remarkable that these 
so-called barbarians valued the works of the Greek 
genius? Theodoric and the Goths appreciated Greek 
art, and sought to protect it. They had contempt for 
the post-Roman and his pseudo-art. The barbarian 
existed, but not under the white skin of the German. 

The depraved Roman world recognized that foreigners 
alone could prolong its life. The post-Romans con- 
tinued to revile and imprecate the German barbarians, 
and at the same time suffered them to fill all the offices 
through which the Roman world was ruled. Germans 
were the soul of the legions, and filled the highest mili- 
tary positions. Germans had become the nerve, the 
vigour, the arm of Rome, long before the first German 
tribe came in a body to take possession of Roman 

Many Germans had been emperors of Rome before 
this time. When the Germans demanded Roman terri- 
tory, they demanded that to which they had a right; 


for Germans had defended that territory for centuries. 
Rome could not but grant their request. Teutons were 
settled at Chartres, Batavians at Bayeux, Suevians at 
Coutances, Le Mans, and Clermont, Alanes at Auttun 
and Poitiers, and Franks at Rennes. The Goths were 
the first who came in a body to demand Roman lands. 
The request was not granted. The Goths cared little, 
but took the lands they coveted, leaving it to the Romans 
to drive them out if they dared. Franks and Bur- 
gundians did as the Goths did. Angles, Saxons, and 
Jutes took possession of the British Isles, the Lombards 
of Northern Italy. 

Wherever these tribes went, a new civilization soon 
came into being. Their history is the history of a 
new race with different instincts, greater abilities and 
higher virtues than those of any other race. The influ- 
ence of the post-Roman herd on some of these tribes 
was pernicious in that it mongrelized them and conse- 
quently degraded them. This was the fate of the Goths 
and of the Lombards. 

In the lands that the German tribes had taken pos- 
session of, they were the lords, not the Romans. It 
was evident that henceforth Germans only, not Romans, 
or Germans disguised as Romans, could be rulers of 
Rome; but the mutual jealousies of the German tribes 
prevented any one of them for a long time from gaining 
the ascendency, and from reserving the imperial purple 
for itself. This ascendency was gained in the next 
centuries by the Franks, and Karl the Great became the 


first emperor of the " Roman empire of the German 

" Ex septentrione lux." 

Read " Die Grundlagen des Neunzehnten Jahrhun- 
derts," by Houston Stewart Chamberlain; " The 
Inequality of the Human Races/' by A. Conte de 
Gobineau; " The Decline and Fall," by Gibbon. 



What is said of Rome applies to Southern Italy and 
Sicily as well. Race decomposition was complete. It 
was even more thorough than in the North. Syrians, 
Cappadocians and negro slaves had inundated Sicily 
and Naples. Moreover, no race ever came to Southern 
Italy in sufficient numbers to maintain itself for any 
length of time. The number of Normans and Suabians 
in the South was very much smaller than the number 
of Lombards in the North. Their mongrelization, con- 
sequently, was very rapid. 

The Lombards in the North maintained their race for 
a sufficiently long time to produce a great civilization, 
the so-called " Italian Renaissance." Even to this day 
the difference that exists between the Southern Italian 
and the much less mongrelized Lombard of the North 
is apparent to every one. The quantity of Teutonic 
blood in Northern Italy is not sufficient to absorb, to 
demongrelize, the Southerners, and the mongrelization 
of the Northerners is gradually progressing. The history 
of Rome is repeating itself, and the Northerner is gradu- 
ally deteriorating to the level of the Southerner. 

It seems that even in the time when the Roman race 



was still in existence, Sicily was mongrelized. Sicily had 
been settled by races not of the same stock; by races 
so different that their fusion could not produce a 
harmonious personality. Sikels, Greeks, and Phoeni- 
cians settled in Sicily. The Greeks, that came later, 
carried to Sicily the blood of various Asiatic races or 
debris of races, and the Carthaginians brought negro 
blood with them. Had Rome at the end of the Punic 
wars contented herself with absorbing Lower Italy and 
Sicily, it might still have been possible for Rome to 
absorb these mongrels, and, by inbreeding, create a 
harmonious Roman race. This Rome did not do. She 
conquered the world and destroyed herself. Asiatics 
and Africans poured into Southern Italy, and slaves of 
all nationalities filled Sicily and increased the race con- 

In the ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries, Saracens 
settled in Sicily, a race belonging to the Semitic stock. 
As these disappeared in the Sicilian mass, race confusion 
was increased to an almost incredible extent. Normans 
came, and Frenchmen and Latins, During the rule 
of the Normans, each race kept its own laws and lan- 
guage. This enabled the handful of Normans to escape 
mongrelization for a short time. They were the creators 
of the short-lived brilliancy of Sicily. The Suabians, 
that came with the Hohenstaufens, prolonged this 
period of progress for a short time. As fusion proceeded, 
the Normans and the Suabians became mongrelized, 
and Sicily fell into decay. 


In 1461, 1532, and 1744 Albanians immigrated to 
Sicily and Calabria. More races, more confusion. The 
modern Sicilian who is known the world over is the 
product of this race confusion. 

The mongrel is worthless everywhere. 



Tacitus describes the Longobardi as a tribe which, 
though few in numbers, more than held their own among 
the numerous powerful neighbours, by their daring and 
love for war. In the year 568 a. d., following the line 
of movement of the Goths, they invaded Italy. They 
created a kingdom, which retained its independence 
for more than two hundred years. In 774 it was incor- 
porated with the empire of Charles the Great, and 
Charles assumed the title of King of the Franks and 
Lombards. Their nationality survived the loss of inde- 

When the Lombards took possession of Italy, little 
resistance was offered. The post-Roman mongrel was 
subtle and cunning and weak, exhausted, dispirited, 
and unwarlike, while the Lombards were cruel, like the 
Franks and the Anglo-Saxons. After they had occupied 
Upper Italy, they still continued to send forth bands 
to plunder and destroy, thus making room for people of 
their own race. The greater part of the mongrel mass 
that still called itself Roman fled, and many were killed. 
Those that remained were brought into a state of servi- 
tude, or reduced to a class of half-free aldii. The civil 



rights of the " Romans " were greatly restricted. The 
Lombards were rough and harsh, and the Italiots never 
ceased to hate them, never ceased to fear them. The 
Lombards, on the other hand, had the most profound 
contempt for the mongrels. As long as the Lombard 
kingdom lasted, there was no fusion of Lombards and 
" Romans," and for several centuries after the incorpora- 
tion of Lombardy into the empire the Lombards were 
conscious and proud of their Teutonic nationality. 

In the tenth century Liutprand was sent in an official 
capacity to Constantinople, and he states in his report 
that Emperor Nicephorus reproached him with the fact 
that he was a Lombard and not a Roman. Liutprand 
answered: " We Lombards, Saxons, Franks, Lotha- 
ringians, Bavarians, Suabians, and Burgundians despise 
the Romans to the extent that we apply the term 
' Roman ' to the enemy that we hold most in contempt. 
This term ' Roman ' embraces baseness, cowardice, 
mendacity, and every depravity in existence. " 

Although the Lombards lost their Teutonic speech 
early, it is evident that with sentiments such as these 
there was no amalgamation of Lombards and mongrels. 
The Lombards retained their own legal code until the 
early part of the sixteenth century. The Goths had 
been mongrelized quickly, for the reason that they were 
few in numbers (modern investigators say not more 
than one hundred thousand), and that they did 
not expel and exterminate as well as the Lombards 
did. In Toscana, however, they held their own for a 


long time, and the Gothic code existed until the eleventh 
century. The little Gothic blood that still existed was 
absorbed by the closely related Lombards. The Lom- 
bards, for a long time, were Latinized externally only. 
Owing to the fact that for a long time there was no 
amalgamation of Lombards and mongrels, the Lombards 
were able to produce the civilization which is known as 
the " Italian Renaissance." It was no renaissance, it 
was a new creation by a new race. 

Houston Stewart Chamberlain writes: " Without 
exaggeration it can be said that the less Teutonic a 
country is, the less is it civilized. Whoever travels from 
London or Berlin to Rome steps from high culture into 
semibarbarism, into filth, coarseness, ignorance, perfidy, 
lie, and misery. Italy flourished as long as it contained, 
although externally Latinized, pure Teutonic elements. 
For several centuries the country that, during the 
empire, had already declined to absolute sterility, 
possessed a reservoir of pure Teutonic blood. Lombards, 
Franks, Goths, and Normans had inundated the whole 
country, and for a long time they remained unmixed, 
especially in the North. 

This was due partly to the fact that, having come as 
warriors, they formed a caste, and partly to the fact 
that they had their own legal system. These two causes 
prevented fusion for a long time. Here, where the un- 
cultivated German came in contact with a higher 
civilization, he awoke to the consciousness of his own 
worth, and here many of the causes by which the world 


was remade had their origin: erudition and industry, 
the obstinate upholding of civil rights, and the first 
blossom of Teutonic art. 

Northern Italy, from Verona to Sienna, resembled 
in its particularistic development a Germany whose 
emperor lived north of the Alps. Everywhere German 
counts took the place of the Romans as heads of prov- 
inces. Thus the tendency common to all Teutonic 
tribes to create free, independent towns developed early 
in Italy, and became the ruling power in the country. 
This development commenced in the extreme north, 
and ever memorable cities, the birthplaces of Dante, 
Petrarca, Correggio, Leonardo, Galileo, and other im- 
mortals, arose. 

Florence, especially, became the home of anti-Roman 
individualism, the city of Dante, Donatello, Leonardo, 
and Michelangelo. Now impotent Rome was able to 
adore herself. The industry and the spirit of enterprise 
of the Northerners procured vast sums for the papal 
chair, and at the same time their genius awoke. The 
Rome that, during a history of two thousand years, had 
not brought forth one artistic thought, this same Rome 
suddenly had at her disposal many men of creative 
genius. All arts and industries flourished. Genius 
soared to amazing heights, but more quickly than it 
flared up was it extinguished. This sudden decline was 
owing to two causes, the fusion of the Teutonic people 
with the post-Romans, and the extermination of the 
Teutons in the civil wars, in the wars between the cities, 
and in personal feuds." 


Milan was a city of importance during Lombard rule. 
As early as 739 it had magnificent walls and towers, 
beautiful palaces and edifices. Genoa was successively 
a city of the Goths, Lombards, and Franks. Its com- 
merce was very extensive. The Teutonic character of 
the city is proved by the year-books of the chancellors 
Cafarus, Obertus, and Ottobonus. Pisa and Florence 
were likewise Teutonic towns. The families that in 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries were of impor- 
tance in Florence were Teutonic families. In the 
thirteenth century, after a period of quiet development, 
it began to take the lead in Italian intellectual life ; that 
is, after Teutonic knights, artisans, and peasants had 
displaced the Romans. 

It was fortunate that in the North the Teutonic 
element was not only a ruling caste, as in the South, 
but that the whole society was Teutonic. In some of the 
districts fifty per cent, of the population was Teutonic. 
The Teutonic race brought Teutonic ideals with it. The 
Teutonic invaders brought with them the sentiments of 
honour and freedom, the dignity of man and respect for 
women. They held Roman depravity in contempt. 
Morals became purer. 

The term " Barbarian " became a term of reproach 
after the newcomers had lost the consciousness that they 
were Teutonic, believed themselves to belong to the 
Latin stock, and began to hold the Germans respon- 
sible for the destruction of the Roman empire and of 
antique art. The barbarian invaders, on the contrary, 


protected the ancient works of art. Theodoric the 
Great was the first to appoint officials to collect and 
preserve the Greek works of art against the destructive 
instinct of the mongrel herd. 

Theodoric also encouraged the production of art. 
" He loved to build cities and to beautify them/' says 
Valesianus. He built castles, palaces, and churches; 
in Pavia, palaces, baths, amphitheatres, and new city 
walls; in Ravenna, Verona, and Spoleto, magnificent 
edifices. Goths were the builders, and we are told that 
they had their own peculiar style. (The writers speak 
of a " manu gotica") As early as 530 a. d., three Teu- 
tonic architects are named, Oelinth, Bulius, and Aldo. 
There were Teutonic goldsmiths and armourers. 

The art ideal became Teutonic. About the same 
time that the Germanic type began to prevail in painting, 
it also became the ideal of poetry, first in the Minnesang 
of the Trovatori. The " biondo capelli " and the " biondi 
treccie," with the snow-white skin, was the ideal of 
female beauty of the poets from Jacobo de Lentino to 
Dante, Petrarca, Ariosto, and Tasso. 

When Lombardy was an independent kingdom, art 
began to flourish in the courts of the princes of Bene- 
vento, Spoleto, Friaul, and Pavia> In course of time 
the Lombards lost their language and the consciousness 
of their descent, but their race, and the capacities and 
abilities of that race, they retained for a considerable 
time. For a long time they spoke both their language 
and Latin. They did not, moreover, accept the Latin 


language as they found it. They accepted the Latin 
vocabulary and impressed their grammar on it, influ- 
enced the structure of words, their inflection, etymology, 
and pronunciation, and helped to create the Italian 
language. From this race issued the industry and the 
genius that made Italy famous. L. Passerini, in " Genea- 
logia e storia della famiglia Corsini," states: " The 
noble families of Florence are all of feudal origin ; a few 
claim to be of Roman descent, but all those whose 
descent can be proved by documentary evidences spring 
from the Northern barbarians. All those that were of 
importance in history were of Teutonic origin. Woltman, 
in " Die Germanen und die Renaissance in Italien," 
Pompeo Litta, in " Famiglie celebri dTtalia," Pas- 
serini and Giulini, in " Sommario delle 125 famiglie 
celebri Toscane," and Passerini's monographs prove 
that nearly all men and families of importance in the 
political and intellectual life of Italy were Teutons. 

Lombard goldsmiths were famous in the sixth century. 
In the ninth century Wolvinus, a Lombard, erected the 
altar of San Ambroglio in Milan. The following Italian 
sculptors and architects are of Teutonic origin: Willi- 
gem, Nicolaus, Wiligelmus, Regerius Anselm of Milan, 
Niccolo Pisano, Andrea Pisano, Ghiberti, Brunellesco, 
Donatello and Alberti, Michelozzo Michelozzo, Leon 
Battista Alberti, Donato Bramanti, Michelangelo Buano- 
rotti, Antonio da Sangallo, Benvenuto Cellini, and others. 

Of painters Italy has a very great number, and again 
the great majority are of Teutonic blood. Among these 


are Auripert, the first Lombard painter mentioned, Fra 
Giovanni da Fiesole, Filippo Lippi, Giovanni Bellini, 
Andrea Mantegna, Giovanni Cimabue, Giotto di Bon- 
dono, Allesandro Botticelli, Pietro Perugino, Leonardo 
da Vinci, Tiziano Vecellio, Giorgio Barbarelli, Mercan- 
tonio Raimundi, Raffael Santi, and Andrea del Sarto. 

Many of the saints and the most prominent theologians 
were Lombards. Thomas of Aquinas was of a Lombard 
family which held the principalities of Salerno and 
Capua. His grandfather Thomas was married to a 
sister of Emperor Barbarossa, and his mother Theata 
was of a Norman family entitled to royal rank. 

In poetry the Teutonic influence was even greater 
than in the domains of sculpture and painting. In the 
earliest middle ages the Goth Helpidius and the Lom- 
bard Paul Warnefrid are named as poets. In the 
eleventh century Alphanus and Gaiferus wrote Latin 
poems. The songs of the troubadours inspired the 
Lombard nobles to write similar poems, and the most 
famous of these Italian troubadours were Manfred II, 
Lancia, Alberto Malaspina, Rambertino Buvaletto, 
Lanfranco Cigala, Jocobo Grillo, and Sordello of Mantua. 

The Sicilian troubadours were mainly Suabians and 
Normans. Among them were Emperor Frederick II, 
his son Enzio, Mazzo, Ricco Rinaldo d'Aquino, Rugieri 
Apugliese, Ranieri of Palermo, and Guido delle Colonne. 
The greatest of Italian poets is Dante Alighieri, of pure 
Teutonic descent in both the male and the female line. 
He was born in Florence, the Teutonic character of 


which has been pointed out before. Other Italian poets 
of Teutonic blood are Petrarca, Boccaccio, Luigi Pulci, 
Ariosto, Matteo Bandello, and Francesco Tassoni. 

The Normans and Suabians held a position in Southern 
Italy, especially in Sicily, similar to that held by the 
Lombards in the North. The Normans carried their 
style of architecture to Sicily and Southern Italy, and 
it flourished there. The best known of these South 
Italian Norman architects are Mainhard of Ariano, 
Oderismus of Rome, Savolus, Raymundus de Podio, 
Leonardus of Atri, Petrus, Cataldus Fusco of Ravello, 
Robert of Calabria, Wilhelm de Gifono, and Landulf. 
The two families that were of importance in the develop- 
ment of architecture in Sicily were the Chiaramonti and 
the Sclafani, both of Teutonic stock. Not a single 
building of later times can be named equal to those 
built in Hohenstaufen times by the Normans and 
Suabians, as, for instance, those of Bari and Bitonto. 
The Normans and Suabians never formed more than a 
small minority of the population, and their importance 
in the political and intellectual history is out of all 
proportion to their small number. They were strong 
supporters of the papacy, and Thomas of Aquinas, 
Telesius, and Filangieri were of Norman-Suabian blood. 
When the Suabian-Hohenstaufen rule came to an end, 
the influx of Teutonic blood ceased. The small number 
of Normans and Suabians rendered their fate inevitable, 
and they disappeared in the mongrel mass that infested 
the land. 


It has been said that the papacy and the power of 
the papacy was a creation of the post-Roman Italiots. 
Nothing is more false. The papacy itself is the con- 
tinuation of the office of the Roman pontifex, an institu- 
tion founded by the Romans, not by the mongrels that 
lived in Italy after the time of Augustus. The elevation 
of the papacy to a world-power was likewise not the 
work of the post-Romans. It was the work of the 
Teutonic race. When the different German tribes fought 
for the mastery of Italy, they contended for the papal 
crown, and it became theirs as the imperial crown be- 
came theirs. 

This is demonstrated clearly by the list of popes. 
Not less than forty Germanic popes are mentioned as 
rulers between the years 700 and 1150. It is proved by 
the list of cardinals and bishops that the Church was 
Germanized to a remarkable extent. The struggle 
between emperor and pope, that lasted for centuries, 
was one not between German and Roman, but between 
Teuton on the one side and disguised Teuton on the 
other. Thomas of Aquinas, who furnished the Church 
its logical weapons, was of a Lombard family. Not the 
papacy, not the elevation of the papacy to a world- 
power, was the work of the Italiots. 

In the foregoing pages it has been shown that in the 
Italian Renaissance it was the wonderful Teutonic 
genius that soared to amazing heights. Ludwig Wolt- 
man, in " Die Germanen und die Renaissance in Italien," 
gives the history, genealogy, and anthropological 


characteristics of two hundred famous Italians, and 
finds that one hundred and eighty of these, that is, 
ninety per cent., are of Teutonic blood. The researches 
of Italian scholars, as those of Pompeo Litta, " Famiglia 
celebri dTtalia," Passerini and Giulini, " Somario delle 
125 famiglie celebri Toscane," and Passerini, in his 
monographs, establish the same truth. The " Italian 
Renaissance " was the work of a foreign race, and it is 
for this reason that it had so very little influence in 
shaping the Italian character. 

In the course of centuries the Lombards became 
mongrelized. Had the Lombards been allowed to con- 
tinue their work, had Karl the Great not interfered, 
they would probably have continued to expel and kill a 
great many of the worthless post-Romans, and would 
have absorbed the rest. They would have created an- 
other Germany, another England, where now there is 
only an Italy. In the course of time their cruelties 
would have proved less cruel than the humanity of 

In the mingling of races the cruel fact of numbers 
counts for more than all the other factors combined. In 
the south of Italy and in Sicily the Suabian and Norman 
element was quickly swallowed up by the mongrel 
mass. In the north of Italy, mongrelization was slower, 
for the number of Lombards there was much greater 
than the number of Lombards in the south. In a few 
districts the Lombards formed fifty per cent, and more 
of the population. This, however, was true of very few 


districts only, and the total number of Italiots was 
much greater than that of the Lombards. 

Mongrelization was inevitable, and is now going on. 
The Italians of the North are still far superior to the 
Italians of the South, so much so that they seem to be a 
different people. Their superiority to-day, however, 
is not by far as great as it was a century ago. This 
change is due not to any improvement of the Sicilians, 
but to the fact that the Italians of the South were for 
many centuries so thoroughly mongrelized and degener- 
ate that they could not very well become more degraded, 
while in the North there was great scope for degenera- 
tion. It is well known that the Teutonic type is not yet 
extinct in Northern Italy, but it is not less well known 
that it is rapidly disappearing. Mongrelization is doing 
its work; degeneration and degradation are progressing 
in direct proportion to the fusion taking place there. 

Abstract ideas have no power to improve vitiated 
blood, neither have laws, declarations, constitutions, or 
other papers with ink on them. 

Read " Die Germanen und die Renaissance in Italien," 
by Dr. L. Woltman; " Die Grundlagen des Neun- 
zehnten Jahrhunderts," by Houston S. Chamberlain; 
" The Inequality of the Human Races," by A. Conte de 



""7^ That children resemble their parents is an every-day 
observation. The hereditary influence manifests itself 
in the limbs, head, trunk, colour of the skin, shape and 
size of the body, nails, hair, gait, countenance, and ex- 

Obesity is frequently the result of heredity, and it is 
not uncommon for it to appear at a certain age in hard- 
working men, who are suffering want. The osseous 
system is under the control of heredity. Anomalies of 
the osseous system are frequently hereditary. There 
are families in which for many generations members are 
born with six toes and six fingers. The characters of 
the digestive, circulatory, and muscular systems like- 
wise are transmitted. There are families of bleeders, in 
whom a slight wound causes death from loss of blood. 
The bleeding cannot be checked. There are families in 
which the heart and blood-vessels are very large ; others 
again in which the heart and blood-vessels are very 

The character of the nervous system likewise is in- 
herited. Idiosyncrasies are hereditary. There are 
families who enjoy immunity from infectious diseases, 



others who inherit a disposition to these diseases. There 
are families in which the hair falls out early; others in 
which the hair turns gray in early youth. Weakness of 
the inguinal ring, which leads to hernia, is hereditary. 
Harelip is hereditary. Colour-blindness is hereditary. 
Excess of pigmentation or deficiency of pigmentation 
(Albinism) is hereditary. Often there is a great re- 
semblance between the handwriting of a father and a 
son. Everybody has seen peculiarities of the parents 
reappear in the children, though these may have never 
known their parents. The instincts are hereditary; a 
fish does not come to life with the instincts of a bird, 
nor the eaglet with the instincts of the dove. No St. 
Bernard is born with the instincts of the pug, and no 
Anglo-Saxon with the instincts of the Hottentot. 

The talents for music and painting are very often 
transmitted. Now and then they persist through four 
or five generations. The history of art thus shows that 
creative imagination is transmissible by heredity. We 
often find families of painters, poets, musicians. Poets 
rarely leave a family. And yet Ribot, in examining the 
familys of fifty-one poets (from which list no poet of 
eminence is omitted), finds twenty-one who had dis- 
tinguished relatives. 

Gothe, the brilliant genius in science as well as in 
poetry, recognized the importance of heredity. He 
says of himself: 

" Vom Vater hab ich die Statur, 
Des Lebens ernstes Fiihren, 


Vom Miitterchen die Frohnatur, 
Die Lust zu fabulieren. 

" Urahnherr war der Schonsten hold, 
Das spuckt so hin und wieder; 
Urahnfrau liebte Schmuck und Gold, 
Das zuckt wohl durch die Glieder. 

" Sind nun die Elemente nicht 
Aus dem Komplex zu trennen, 
Was ist denn an dem ganzen Wicht 
Original zu nennen? 

" Und endlich wird ihm offenbar, 
Er sei nur was ein andrer war." 

Man is his ancestors. Families of painters are not 
rare. Every one has heard of the Landseers, Bonheurs, 
Bellinis, Caraccios, Teniers, Van Ostades, Van der 
Veldes, and Mieris. In a list of forty-two painters, — 
Italian, Spanish and Flemish, — held to be of the highest 
rank, Galton found twenty-one who had illustrious 
relatives. Heredity appears plainly in the art of music. 
The Bach family produced in less than two hundred 
years one hundred and twenty musicians of merit, many 
of them of the first rank. Families eminent in science 
are not rare. Many scientific men take after their 
fathers. The mothers of numerous men of science were 
remarkable women. 

" The best that we have is not of our own creation; 
our reason, our abilities, the form in which we think, 
feel, and act are transmitted to us " (Herder). 

Depraved mentality likewise is transmitted. Suf- 



ferers from alcoholism leave children who are physically, 
morally, and intellectually degenerate. Dipsomania is 
hereditary. In the descendants it is often represented 
by neurasthenia, hysteria, epilepsy, idiocy, insanity. 
Mental maladies are transmissible; hallucination, para- 
noia, dementia, epilepsy, idiocy reappear in the same 
family again and again (v. Ribot). 

Professors tell us that language is not hereditary; 
they tell us that if a child of a highly civilized race were 
exposed in a forest, and brought up there in isolation 
(brought up presumably by gorillas or by professors), 
that child would not speak the language of his ancestors. 
This is logic produced by a wonderful cerebration. 
These same professors tell us that the musical abilities 
of Bach and of Mozart were inherited. Probably they 
assume that these were born with pianos dangling about 
their necks, and singing at birth Schubert's songs in- 
stead of the usual baby singsong. The professors prob- 
ably are willing to admit that, if these men, who in- 
herited their musical genius, had been brought up in 
isolation under the tender care of gorillas or professors, 
they would never have become the masters they de- 
veloped into. Even the professors admit that education 
did not give them their genius. If at birth the leg of a 
child be flexed on the thigh and the foot on the leg, and 
the whole leg from the hip to the toes be tightly bandaged 
and left in that condition for twenty years, the child 
will not be able to walk; the leg will be so thoroughly 
crippled that the tortured human being will never be 
able to use that leg, 


s Such crippling of the leg is in every way analogous to 
the crippling of the brain, on which as a premise the pro- 
fessor bases his conclusion. Not the speech itself is 
inherited, but the ability to acquire that speech. Educa- 
tion cannot create something out of nothing. It cannot 
do more than develop that which is in us. If the germ 
of language is not in us, not a hundred thousand pro- 
fessors, not all the education in the world, will make us 
able to use language. 

The importance of education is immensely overesti- 
mated. Almost any living creature can be trained to the 
mechanical trick of reading and writing, a trick that 
most coolies are up to. Dogs are trained to perform 
more wonderful tricks than that, as may be seen at any 
circus. Education produces nothing; it creates neither 
thinking power nor originality nor genius; but fre- 
quently it stamps these out by its levelling tendency. 
The lives of the great generals, poets, artists, and thinkers 
prove that the influence of education on them was in- 

To a large part of those who read, reading is an ano- 
dyne, a narcotic, a substitute for opium, cocaine, alcohol; 
more detrimental, possibly, than these poisons. Libra- 
ries, public schools, novel and newspaper reading have 
educated the public to such an extent that it believes 
anything that is in print; for instance, the wildest 
patent medicine advertisement. Even the quack who 
sells rings for the cure of diseases finds his dupes among 
the reading public: "Rheumatism now relieved by 


science. The relief is obtained by the elimination of 
.uric acid. It is done by wearing a ring on the ringer. A 
trial convinces the most skeptical. One ring, $2. Be- 
ware of imitations! " Reading frequently obliterates 
the native wit. 

" The power of instruction is seldom of much efficacy, 
except in those happy dispositions where it is almost 
superfluous " (Gibbon, " Decline and Fall of Rome.)" 

When the Greeks began establishing vast libraries, 
they had long been a mongrelized, rotting race. It is 
said that the Goths, when they had captured Athens, 
were preparing to burn the splendid libraries which 
adorned the city, but a Gothic soldier dissuaded them 
from it by telling his countrymen that it was better that 
the Athenians should continue to waste their time in 
their halls and porticos over their books than that they 
should occupy themselves with manly exercises. Gibbon 
thinks that the Goth reasoned like an ignorant barbarian. 
George Finlay thinks that the barbarian reasoned like 
an able politician. Education, let it again be said, pro- 
duces nothing. The power to use language is an inherited 
ability. More than that, a great language is the greatest 
production of a great race. It has been developed not 
by one generation, but by a thousand generations, nay, 
by thousands of generations. More powerfully than 
any other factor, probably more powerfully than all the 
other factors combined, has it helped to shape the brain, 
the mind, the soul of that race. A great language is a 
sacred heirloom. It is inseparably united with the soul 


of the people. Separate the two, and the soul withers. 
If there is any truth in heredity at all, if it is true that 
children resemble their parents (and if they do not, they 
are certainly monsters), then it is also true that the 
ability to feel and think most clearly and most thoroughly 
is greatest in the mother tongue, and is hereditary. 

When Greek was spoken by the Greeks only, works 
were produced which are even now the wonder of the 
world. When Greek had become the world language 
and was spoken from the Euphrates to the Pillars of 
Hercules, nothing was produced in that language. The 
speaking of the same tongue leads to promiscuous 
crossing, which soon stamps out all race characteristics, 
and all greatness with them. The history of the Latin 
language illustrates the same truth. After the time of 
Augustus, Rome accomplished nothing that was great. 
Justinian's collection of laws was a compilation in which 
the now fossilized Roman law continued to petrify. It 
was after new races had developed and created languages 
of their own that creative power reappeared in Spain, 
Gaul, and Italy. 

It can be proved that this condition exists in the 
United States, (v. Chapter XXVI.) 

A people that adopts another tongue can do so without 
degenerating only if it becomes a people capable of using 
both languages for generations. When many Huguenots 
went to settle in Berlin they were exempted from taxa- 
tion for a considerable time, and the Germans paid for 
the schools in which French was the language of instruc- 


tion. For a long time they spoke French as well as 
German. The Germans recognized that speaking the 
German tongue and shouting the praise of the Elector 
was not sufficient to make them Germans. A slow, 
long-continued process of absorption was necessary for 
that and the Huguenots have become absorbed and 
Germanized to the marrow of their backbones. 

In regard to the Poles, the Germans pursue the same 
policy of slow and thorough absorption. The number of 
Poles that was incorporated with Prussia one hundred 
and thirty-five years ago was less than one million ; the 
receiving population of Germany was more than twenty 
million. The Germans gave the Poles public schools in 
which Polish was the language of instruction, and Ger- 
man was taught as a foreign tongue. Very gradually 
German was made the language of instruction in dif- 
ferent subjects, and this year they began to use German 
as the language of instruction in all subjects. The Ger- 
mans have civilized and Germanized the Poles. The 
German Poles differ from the Austrian Poles and 
Russian Poles as much as the Italians of the North differ 
from the Italians of the South. 

One hundred and fifty years ago the Poles of Prussia 
were German-Slavic mongrels, and their worthlessness 
is proved by every page of their history. The Germans 
are not anxious to replace the Polish-speaking mongrel 
by a German-speaking mongrel. They want Germans 
there. And they are succeeding. There are to-day in 
the Eastern provinces of Germany 7,808,808 Germans 


and 3,081,832 Poles. They do not wish to absorb the 
Poles quickly. They are content if the number of Poles 
they absorb, plus those that emigrate, is a little greater 
than the birth-rate. " Throughout nature noble growths 
are slow." 

As Germany prospers it is in need of workmen. Slavs 
from Russia and Austria are permitted to come to Ger- 
many and earn money, but they are not permitted to 
settle in Germany. Russian and Austrian Poles are 
compelled to leave Germany every year for a number of 
months. When times become less prosperous, Germany 
expels all foreign workmen. Millionaires and land- 
owners exclaim against this restriction policy and brand 
it inhuman, illiberal, cruel, not in accordance with the 
spirit of the time, and what not. The people of Ger- 
many, however, will allow their race to deteriorate 
neither for the sake of French phrases nor for the sake 
of landholders and millionaires. 

The Germans know that the importance of language 
is second to that of blood only. 

The Jews also know it. They do not readily yield the 
language which their ancestors have spoken for centuries. 
Spain has not treated her Jews well, and yet the Spanish 
Jews hold tenaciously to the Spanish tongue. They 
know that by rapidly forgetting their ancestors' tongue, 
they become less able than they were before. The Ger- 
man Jews do not forget the German language; they 
acquire rapidly the tongue of the people among whom 
they live. They are as good citizens as the men of other 


races, but they know that the language that has been 
spoken for centuries impresses itself on the brain, and 
that if they neglect that language they will become less 
able men, less worthy citizens. 

It seems that a language spoken for a long time 
creates its own physiological brain-centre. It is known 
that in the third left frontal convolution a centre exists 
which controls the capacity for language. Upon the 
integrity of this centre the ability to use language de- 
pends. The ability to read and to write depends upon a 

Cases of aphasia have been reported which seem to 
indicate the probability that each language creates its 
own subordinate brain-centre. The following case was 
recorded in New York. Man, sixty years old, born in 
Alsace before that province was ceded by France to 
Germany. French and German were spoken in the 
family for at least a hundred years. Spoke English 
fluently. Affected with aphasia. He first lost the ability 
to understand spoken German and spoken English. As 
the aphasia progressed, he lost the ability to understand 
spoken French and the ability to speak and write Eng- 
lish. Then he lost the ability to speak and read German. 
Finally he was able to read a sentence written in English, 
and to write an answer to it in German. He had lost all 
other capacity for language. 

Similar cases have been reported. Patients suffering 
from aphasia have lost the ability to use one language, 
and retained their ability to use another for a consider- 


able time. These cases suggest the probability at least 
that the disease attacked at first the location where the 
centre for the one language was situated, and later 
extended to include the centre of the other language. 
The same holds good for the writing and for the reading 
centres. The importance of language is second to that 
of blood only. 

The brain-centre which has been active for generations 
is hereditary, and cannot be replaced in a few generations 
by another centre. Conscious thought grows out of the 
subconscious mind; it is its flower, as it were, its least 
important part. The subconscious mind is the repository 
of the thought and experience of many generations. 
The language of the race forms the connecting link be- 
tween these generations. Man as he comes into this 
world is not dead matter at the mercy of his environ- 
ment. Many generations have contributed to make 
him as he is. He comes into this world with a nervous 
system, with brain-centres, with a soul, which predis- 
pose him to think, to feel, to act, to speak as his an- 
cestors have thought, felt, acted, and spoken. 

Very slowly can one race absorb another ; the attempt 
to do so quickly leads to the degeneration of both. Very 
slowly can one language be substituted for another. If 
it be done quickly, nothing will be said in the acquired 
tongue that is worth hearing, (v. The Greek language, 
the German-Americans.) 

Read " Heredity," by Th. Ribot. 


" apeivoves TraTpayv." (Homer.) 

Political boundaries shift. The term Germany in 
this chapter stands not for the German empire only, but 
for the German lands of Europe. Only sixty-five per 
cent, of the Germans live in the empire. Germany ex- 
tends from Riga in the east to Holland and Flanders in 
the west, and includes those countries; it extends from 
the North Sea, Denmark, and the Baltic Sea in the north 
to the Adriatic Sea and the Carpathian Mountains in the 
south and southeast. The countries included in that 
territory that do not belong to the empire are separated 
from the empire politically only. Intellectually, morally, 
racially they always have been and never ceased to be 
German provinces; as German as Bavaria, Prussia, 
Saxony, or any of the other German states. Politically 
these countries have been parts of Germany for cen- 
turies, even until comparatively recent times. Probably 
in a short time they will again be united to the German 

The Austrians in 1866 did not secede, but were forced 
out of the German Union. They have never ceased in 
their efforts at getting back. The Swiss in 1499 did not 



secede from Germany, but threw off the tyranny of the 
Habsburgs. Political relationship continued to exist 
between Switzerland and the other German states until 
very recent times. Economically Switzerland has be- 
come a German province within the last twenty years. 
Without the German trade Switzerland would be very 
poor indeed. Moreover, of what does the independ- 
ence of Switzerland consist? Of nothing but a coloured 
patch on the map. In reality those small German 
countries, that are fractions and not units, are depend- 
ent. When they were surrounded by other fractions of 
the same unit, they were of some importance, but to- 
day they depend entirely on the good-will of their 

The character of the people begins to reflect the real 
dependence of the country. Formerly Switzerland was 
a country of stalwart mountaineers. To-day it is a 
country of hotel-keepers, waiters, barkeepers, and 
servants. And not only of servants, but of serviles. 
The Bavarians, Saxons, and others, who have exchanged 
the independence of the coloured patch on the map for 
real independence in union with their brethren, are 
becoming freer, prouder, and more independent every 
day. This development is but natural, for the loss of a 
finger cripples a man, but does not destroy him. The 
severed finger, however, can never be the man. The 
Netherlands have been separated from Germany polit- 
ically since 1648. In every other way the relation be- 
tween the two has always been very intimate. 


All of Prussia was originally a Low-German (Dutch 
and Flemish) colony. The inhabitants of Holland are 
about five million Low-Germans. The total number of 
Low-Germans is about twenty-five million. Most of the 
Low-Germans consider themselves Germans also in their 
political relationship. The people of Flanders (Vlamens, 
Flemings) are Low-Germans like the Dutch, and the 
chief difference between the two consists in a line on the 
nmp. There are about four million Vlamens in Belgium, 
about nine million Low Germans in the two Netherlands. 
The Dutch and Flemish languages are so much alike 
that after some differences in spelling have been elimi- 
nated, the two become one dialect. 

This change has lately been agreed upon by the Low- 
German language conference. Dutch, on the other 
hand, is a Platt-Dutch, that has developed but little 
apart from other Platt-Deutsch dialects. Dutch differs 
but very little from the Platt-Dutch dialects spoken in 
the northwestern part of Germany. German poets 
have written works in Flemish, which can be read and 
understood by every intelligent German, as he can under- 
stand the works of Reuter. Dutch is a Platt-Dutch 
dialect that has adopted local colours, as every one of 
the Platt-Deutsch dialects spoken in Germany has. 
German historians always regarded the Dutch as Ger- 
mans, and always considered the history of the Nether- 
lands as a part of the history of Germany. A history 
of Germany without the history of the Netherlands is 


Germany and the Netherlands stand and fall together. 
The conditions which enforce a union are : unity of race, 
of spirit, of language, of economic interests, and the dis- 
tress of the Netherlands. They have an enormous trade, 
which they cannot protect; they have colonies which 
are at the mercy of any country that cares to take them; 
they have a large population which they cannot feed. 
Politically their independence, like that of Switzerland, 
consists in the different colour on the map. To-day they 
are the valet of one nation, to-morrow of another. The 
Netherlands can regain their former importance, inde- 
pendence, activity, and honour only in close union with 
their brethren. 

Economically the Netherlands are German provinces. 
Their trade is enormous, out of all proportion to the 
size of the country. It is this enormous trade alone 
which enables them to support more than three hundred 
inhabitants to the square mile. And this trade comes 
from Germany. It is Germany that gives food and 
shelter to at least half the population of the Nether- 
lands. If the low countries were inhabited by Slavs or 
Latins, the Germans would have built a Rhine canal 
many years ago, and would have thereby diverted their 
trade from Dutchland to Deutschland. The Dutch, 
however, are Germans, and the hundreds of millions of 
dollars that the Dutch gain are not considered lost. 

The Germans do not wish to annex the Netherlands. 
It is their custom to do their work slowly and thoroughly. 
Slowly, silently, steadily do German ideas and ideals 


become Dutch ideas and ideals, and Dutch ideas ajad 
ideals German ideas and ideals. Deutschland began the 
conquest of Dutchland long ago by awakening and 
developing race consciousness; by allowing German 
trade to drift freely into these lands, bringing it home 
to the Dutch that the two countries belong to each 
other, and that it is the smaller brother who gains the 
most by clasping hands with the stronger brother. 
Moreover, Germany is a federal country, like the United 
States, and state rights are held more sacred in Germany 
than anywhere else. As one of the kingdoms of the 
German empire, the Dutch and Flemish lands would 
retain complete local autonomy. The Germans will not 
annex the Netherlands; they will wait until these 
German lands will join the German federation. And the 
sentiment " One with Germany " is becoming more 
powerful every day. The Flemish movement in Belgium 
is very strong and is increasing in vigour and intensity. 
A large part of the work is being done by the " Society 
for the Unification of Germany, the German Culture 
Society " (Alldeutscher Verband). 

Many of the best men of Germany, Holland, Austria, 
and Flanders are among its most active members. Their 
work is a slow work, consisting mainly in creating and 
strengthening the desire for the completion of German 
unity. As far as the Netherlands are concerned, the 
Boer War helped them considerably. The Dutch con- 
sider the Boers fellow Dutchmen, and the war an outrage 
against themselves, who suffered many outrages at the 


hands of England and France; because the Nether- 
lands were small, not a nation, but the small fragment of 
a nation. The Boer War brought it back to them that 
it was England that took from them New Amsterdam; 
that it was France and England that deprived them of 
Brazil; that it was England that took from them Cape 
Colony, Demerara, Essequibo, and other colonies; that 
it was England that destroyed their commerce; that 
it was France that deprived Holland of all her ancient 
privileges and her local autonomy and made her a depart- 
ment ruled from Paris. 

Other races besides the German live in the German 
lands of Central Europe. In the northeast are Livonians 
and Lithuanians. In the east, Poles; in Belgium, 
Walloons ; in the north, Danes ; in Switzerland, French- 
men and Italians; in Austria — Slovenians in Styria 
and Carinthia, Czechs in Bohemia, Italians in Tyrol, 
Magyars, Slowacks, Roumanians and Servians in 
Hungary, Poles and Ruthenians in Galicia. 

What do the Germans intend to do with these peoples? 
Are they eager to Germanize them? By no means. 
France is to have the French parts of Switzerland and 
Belgium. Italy the Italian canton. Germany, France, 
and Italy are the three magnets that attract the German, 
French, and Italian splinters in Switzerland. The Danes 
in the North are becoming Germanized rapidly. They 
are of a race very closely related to the German. Inter- 
marriage of German and Dane is no crossing. The Ger- 
mans absorb the Poles in the eastern provinces. Many 


of these Poles are Germans who during the reign of 
Catherine settled in Poland, and who were forced to 
accept the Polish language. 

The re-Germanization of these does not deteriorate 
the German race. For one hundred and fifty years the 
Germans have been absorbing Poles slowly in order to 
prevent a great influx of Polish blood into German 
veins. They gave the Poles schools in which the Polish 
language was used as the language of instruction, and 
very gradually German was substituted. The Germans 
are well satisfied if the number of Poles they absorb 
plus the number of those that emigrate is a little greater 
than the birth-rate. Emigration of the Poles is en- 

Poles from Austria and Russia are not allowed to 
settle in Germany, in obedience to the physiological 
law that crossing must be followed by inbreeding if it is 
not to lead to the deterioration of the race. Lithuanians 
and Livonians are not absorbed. They differ from the 
Germans considerably, and the number of Germans in 
that territory is small. The Germans are content if 
Germans remain the upper caste they have formed for 
seven hundred years. As the number of Slovenians is 
small, the rapid absorption of them does not endanger 
the German race. The Germans, however, prefer to 
go slowly. They do not wish to absorb any race 

In 1846 there were 640,300 Germans and 364,700 
Slovenians in Styria; in 1900 these numbers had changed 


to 902,300 for the Germans and 409,000 for the Slo- 
venians, so that the percentage of Slovenians has fallen 
from thirty-six to thirty. As Germanization proceeds, 
the process becomes quicker and in the years 1890 to 
1900 the relative gain of the Germans and the loss of the 
Slovenians was annually eighty-eight per thousand. 
Carinthia shows the same development. In Bohemia 
the Czechs are endeavouring by all means, fair and foul, 
to repress the Germans, but in vain. The spreading of 
the Germans seems to be as irresistible as fate. The 
census reports indicate a German gain of one per cent, 
for every ten years. Not that they will never absorb the 
Czechs is a cause of anxiety to the Germans, but that 
they are absorbing them too rapidly. 

The Germans are not sorry that German scholars 
studied the half-forgotten Czechs' tongue and revived 
that language for them. Promiscuous crossing vitiates 
the blood, and the future of Germany lies in the blood. 
A Germany inhabited by a German-speaking mongrel 
is worthless, no matter how rich it may be; race is more 
important than riches. Not the greatest happiness of 
the greatest number, but the greatest efficiency of the 
greatest number, is the German ideal. The thoroughbred 
alone is efficient. The Germans recognize that the Anglo- 
Saxons in America have overestimated their absorbent 
capacity immensely. The Germans make it difficult 
for people not of the German race to settle in Germany. 

" Was Euch nicht angehort, 
Miisset Ihr meiden; 


Was Euch das Inn're stort 
Diirft Ihr nicht leiden," 

admonishes Gothe his fellow citizens. 

Promiscuous crossing destroys the harmony of the 

The number of Slowacks who emigrate to the United 
States is greater than the birth-rate. They are, in fact, 
becoming transplanted to the United States, and the 
Germans are well satisfied with the transplanting. 

Germany must expand or it will suffocate, and it is 
no nation's duty to commit suicide. Austro-Hungary, 
Germans "demand, must again become a German colony. 
Southeastern Europe is the German colony of the 
future. The German and Austrian demands are : 

Austro-Hungary must be maintained at all costs, by 
war, if necessary. The two countries form an indissoluble 
union each guaranteeing to the other the maintenance 
and independence of its territory. Both adopt the same 
system of taxation, railway-tariff, postal-telegraph and 
telephone systems; the same economic laws for the 
protection of workmen, women, widows, children, and 
orphans; the same insurance laws against sickness, 
accident, and invalidity. Germans are allowed to move 
freely from the one country to the other. Each of the 
two countries reserves the right to make more difficult 
or to prohibit the immigration of other races. 

German is the language of both armies. Every 
officer must prove his ability to speak German fluently. 
German recruits only are drafted for the artillery, 


engineer, telegraph, telephone, railway, and aeronaut 

Citizens of the one country may become citizens of the 
other country without losing their citizenship in the 
former. Citizens of both countries may serve in the 
army of either country. German is the language of the 
army and of the navy, and of the postal, telegraph, 
telephone, railway, police, and customs services. 

No attempt must be made to absorb Czechs, Rouma- 
nians, South Slavs, and Magyars. That the Hunnic- 
Slavic-Wallachian mongrel calling himself Magyar is 
worthless, every page of his history attests. Civilization 
does not owe one thought, not one suggestion (unless 
it be that of goulach) to the Magyars. Petofi was a 
Slav, and Maurus Jokai a Jew. 

In order to prevent the rapid absorption of these 
peoples, the following languages are recognized in Austro- 
Hungary : 

German alone in Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Ger- 
man Bohemia, German Moravia, German Silesia, North 
Tyrol, Vorarlberg, Styria, Carinthia; German and 
Czech in parts of Bohemia, Moravia, and. Silesia; Ger- 
man and Magyar in Hungary, with the exception of 
Transylvania, Slavonia, and Croatia; German and 
Roumanian in Transylvania; German, Roumanian, 
and Ruthenian in Bucovina; Polish and Ruthenian in 
Galicia; South-Slavic in Croatia, Slavonia, Dalmatia, 
and Bosnia; German, Italian, and South-Slavic in 
Triest and Istria. 


The language of the public schools is the mother 
tongue of the pupils. 

Every official and government employee must be 
able to speak, besides German, another of the recognized 
languages of Austro-Hungary. In every part of Austro- 
Hungary where German is not a recognized language, 
the Germans pay for their own schools and are exempt 
from the school tax. 

By these means the Germans will effectually prevent 
a rapid absorption of non-German races. German 
emigration will again be diverted into Austro-Hungary. 
All of Central Europe will eventually become German- 
ized, if they go about it as slowly as they have hereto- 
fore; if they do not begin to suffer from paranoia, and 
to think that they can absorb several millions of people 
and their descendants in a century. They can mongrel- 
ize them, degrade them and themselves, but absorb and 
Germanize them in a century they cannot. 

The Germans, however, recognize that promiscuous 
crossing destroys the race, and that even moderate 
crossing must be followed by inbreeding, or the crossing v 
will be detrimental. Their recognition of this law and 
their obedience to this law will make them the strongest 
of races, the most powerful nation that has ever come 
into being. The future of Germany is in the blood. In 
life the straight line is not always the shortest distance 
between two points. 

Promiscuous crossing does not produce a new race, 
but stamps out all race characteristics and all greatness. 


" Crossing obliterates character " (Darwin). 

" So viel ist wohl mit Wahrscheinlichkeit zu urteilen, 
dass die Vermischung der Stamme, welche nach und 
nach die Charactere ausloscht, dem Menschengeschlecht, 
alles vorgeblichen Philanthropismus ungeachtet, nicht 
zutraglich ist " (Immanuel Kant). 

" Tied down by Race and creed and land and station, 
Go learn to find thy strength in limitation." 

Read "Deutsche Politik," by Ernst Hasse; "Die 
Zukunft des Deutschen Volkes," by Karl Jentsch; " Die 
alldeutsche Bewegung und die Niederlande," by Fritz 
Bley; "Die Schweitz," by Prof. Hunziker; "Die 
Ostmarken," by Ch. Petzet; " Steiermark, Krain, und 
Kustenland," by Dr. P. Hofman von Wellenhof ; " Boh- 
men und Schlesien," by Karl Tiirk; "Tyrol," by H. 
Nabert; " Ungarns Tausendjahrung," by Heinrich 
Wastian; " Deutschtum und Magyarisirung," by Dr. 
Fr. Guntram Schultheiss; " Alldeutsche Blatter," " Der 



It has been said that the degeneration of Spain is due 
to the fact that Spain is Catholic, a statement in which 
there is as much truth as in the statement that the 
deterioration of Egypt was caused by the Egyptian 
priests. When Spain was Gothic it was great and it was 
Catholic. The Northern races were great before they 
were Protestant, when they were Catholic, and great 
before they were Christian. Christianity sends many 
to heaven, many more to the other place, but regenerate 
a race it cannot. It cannot change the blood that rolls in 
the veins. 

Race impresses its characteristics on the religion that 
a people profess. The Catholicity of Gothic Spain was 
not the Catholicity of modern Spain. With the post- 
Gothic Spaniard, the Iberian-Gothic-Moorish-African 
mongrel, Catholicity degenerated into the crass fetishism 
which is the religion of modern Spain. The Catholicity 
of Southern Italy is likewise a fetishism in accord with 
the African blood that flows in the veins of the Southern 
Italian. The Iberian fetishism became degraded to a 
still greater extent in South America, in consonance 
with the progressive degradation of the American mon- 




grel, the American Spaniel, and Portugack. The 
Catholicity of the Irish or of the French is essentially 
different from that of the Iberians. The Catholicity of 
the South German is love for art, colour, music, life. 
Gothe, although a Protestant, preferred in life and in 
art the warm glow of the Catholic Church. 

Religion does not cause the degeneration of a race, it 
degenerates with the race. The Spaniard who, in com- 
paring Germany and Spain, thinks that the difference is 
due to the university system of Germany, that German 
patriotism and superiority, that the greatness of the 
empire, is created by schools and universities, is over- 
estimating the importance of universities immensely. 
German universities accomplish so much, because the 
German race is a great race. A thousand German uni- 
versities in Spain could do nothing for Spain. In a short 
time they would deteriorate to the Spanish level. Great 
races have great schools, but schools never make a race 
great. It all depends upon the blood. 

As long as Gothic blood prevailed in Spain, Spain 
was great. After the Moorish wars were over, the 
Spaniards and the Portuguese fused with the Moors 
that remained. The Moors introduced Arabian and 
negro blood. In the fifteenth century the Portuguese 
acquired African possessions, and, carrying negro blood 
in their veins, elective affinity caused them to cross 
freely with the negroes. At first the negro blood came 
to Portugal in droplets; later it became a flood. It 
flooded Spain as well as Portugal. 


These Iberian-Gothic-Arabian-negro mongrels colo- 
nized South America, Mexico, Central America, and the 
West Indies. What have they accomplished? Is it not 
true that Iberia laid rotten eggs in South America, and 
that the United States acted as their incubator and 
brooder? Let us examine the facts. 

After the Cuban war we were told that the Cubans 
were freedom-loving, independent, and able; in short, 
that they were supra-Americans. To-day we know that 
the Spanish-negro mongrel is worthless, incapable of 
appreciating, incapable of maintaining self-government, 
and that Cuba is a bigger Santo Domingo. We have 
them on our hands, and do not know what to do with 
them. Annex them, and have a flood of negro blood 
injected surreptitiously by the quasi-whites of Cuba? 
Self-government has been tried in Cuba; it has failed. 
There always is one general " Idiotes," who is not elected, 
and he takes to the brush as heretofore. 

Rottenness will continue to prevail. Autonomy may 
be tried again, the Cubans will fail again. Fail, because 
the people of Cuba are worthless. Weyler's reconcen- 
trado system is the only one that will make these bush- 
rangers work. They are rotten to the core. And that 
degraded humanity we want to absorb? Self-degrada- 
tion is the only possible consequence. 

The fusion of whites and Indians produces mestizos, 
the fusion of negroes and Indians produces Zambos. 
Both mongrels are vastly inferior to the pure Indian. 
It has been said that it is physiologically inexplicable 


why only the bad qualities of the whites and of the negro 
are transmitted to the mongrel offspring and never the 
good qualities of the Indian. All laws of nature are in- 
explicable; we recognize them, but we cannot explain 

\ That the mongrel is worthless is a law of nature. 
Every animal breeder knows that the canine mongrel 
is inferior to the parent races. There is no reason what- 
soever for the opinion that man is exempt from the 
penalties which are the consequences of violating nature's 

Mexico is a country inhabited by whites, Indians, 
and white-India mongrels. The latter class com- 
prises four-fifths of the population. In the brief life 
of Mexican national existence are recorded no less 
than three hundred revolutions. We are told that, 
since Diaz has been President (dictator), the Mexicans 
have kept the peace, that they are progressive and 
prosperous. This means that absolutism is the only 
possible form of government for the mongrel. It is 
more than probable that the death of Diaz will 
precipitate a revolution. It is very improbable that 
another dictator of Diaz's calibre will be found. 
Probably one general " Idiotes " after the other will 
usurp the government; and the chaos, which for the 
time being is more or less concealed, will again become 

The prosperity of Mexico, its progress, are due entirely 
to the foreigners, Americans, Germans, and English. 


Where these are not, there is not a sign of progress. Of 
natives there are practically two classes in Mexico; 
those of Spanish origin, narrow-chested, and lacking 
in physical vigour as well as in character and mental 
strength, men of whom the white race has no reason 
to be proud; far superior, however, to the other four- 
fifths. Excluding the government lands, the 767,000 
square miles of Mexico's territory are in possession of 
six thousand persons belonging to this upper fifth. The 
other four-fifths are slow-witted, stupid, without indi- 
viduality. They are animals, and their only human 
qualities are their superhuman mendacity and their 
ability to consume pulque. 

Engineers have seen the peon, instead of trundling 
wheelbarrows along planks laid down for that purpose, 
take up the planks and carry the wheelbarrows ^bodily 
up the embankment, each wheelbarrow on the shoulders 
of two men. That Diaz forced his subjects to keep the 
peace, speaks well for Diaz, but says nothing for the 
Mexicans. Guzman Blanco forced the Venezuelans to 
keep the peace for twenty years, but improve them he 
could not, and they remained as degraded as they were 
before Blanco's time. The despots Lopez I and Lopez 
II, who ruled Paraguay for many years, forced their 
mongrel subjects to submit to their absolute rule, and 
Paraguay reached a comparatively high degree of 
wealth and material well-being, but they could not 
regenerate the people. 

The Mexicans are as degraded to-day as they were 


before Diaz's peace era. These people we want to 
absorb! It has been said that the day is not far off 
when we will have absorbed Mexico. That absorption 
cannot but cause the degeneration of the people of the 
United States. Our expansion costs more than it is 
worth. When A. von Humboldt was consulted as to 
the future of Mexico, he said: " The United States will 
absorb it, and then crumble to pieces." With the 
degradation incident to the absorption of the Mexicans 
his gloomy prophecy would soon be realized. 

In Central America we have whites, negroes, Indians, 
and the great mass of mixed breeds, the Ladinos. The 
small upper class is arrogant, stupid, lazy, mendacious. 
The others are like the peons of Mexico. These are 
countries belonging to the richest, most fertile, most 
blessed regions of the globe. A race that is worth some- 
thing could change them into a paradise. We prefer 
to support these so-called republics, and to prevent 
decent Europeans from establishing flourishing Switzer- 
lands, spreading civilization. We support communities 
that reek with rottenness, degradation, and disease. 

Travelling statesmen tell us that we should extend 
the respect toward the South Americans which they so 
well merit; that they are honourable men. To mention 
Venezuela is disproving the statement. The English 
language has not adjectives sufficiently strong to even 
suggest the rottenness, the concupiscence, the men- 
dacity, and the cowardice of that Spanish-Indian-negro 


Of the Brazilians Mr. Biggs Wither says: " They 
might live like princes with such wealth of nature 
around them; but in the great majority of instances 
they certainly seem to prefer to live like pigs." Ex- 
Consul C. C. Andrews writes: " The condition of pri- 
mary instruction is deplorable. Pernambuco still shows 
some traces of a quarter of a century of Dutch govern- 
ment and especially of the administration of that able 
statesman, Prince Maurice of Nassau. The Dutch 
occupied an important part of Brazil, including Per- 
nambuco, thirty-seven years, from 1624-1661, and 
then, through the influence of England and France, 
were made to yield it up to Portugal. It would have 
been better for the rest of Brazil if so thrifty a nation- 
ality had remained a near neighbour." (From " Brazil," 
by C. C. Andrews). 1 

France and England wanted vermin and nothing but 
vermin in South America then; we want vermin and 
nothing but vermin in South America now. " The 
half-breeds are a lazy and troublesome class, much 
inferior to the original stock." Mr. Andrews continues: 

"Alfred Wallace says of the Amazon valley: 'In 
the districts we passed through, cotton, rice, coffee 
might be grown in any quantity and of the finest quality. 
... A man can work as well here as in the hot months 
in England, and if he will work only three hours in the 
morning and three hours in the evening he will produce 
more of the necessaries and comforts of life than by 

1 Courtesy of D. Appleton & Co. 


twelve hours' daily labour at home. . . . It is a vulgar 
error, copied and repeated from one book to another, 
that in the tropics the luxuriance of the vegetation 
overpowers the efforts of man. . . . The primeval 
forest can be converted into rich pasture and meadow- 
land, cultivated fields and gardens, with half the labour 
and in less than half the time required at home. . . . 
In the whole Amazon valley no such thing as neatness 
has ever been tried.' " He recommends the Rio Negro 
country for settlement and cultivation. 

Professor Agassiz says: " Two things are strongly 
impressed on the mind of the traveller in the upper 
Amazon valley, — the necessity of a larger population, 
and of a better class of whites, before any fair beginning 
can be made in developing the resources of the country." 
Not only is the white population too small for the task 
before it, but it is no less poor in quality than meagre in 
numbers. It presents the singular spectacle of a higher 
race receiving the impress of a lower one, of an educated 
class adopting the habits and sinking to the level of 
the savage. It is a mistake to suppose that this valley 
is abundantly supplied with subsistence. 

" In the midst of a country which should be overflowing 
with agricultural products," Mr. Agassiz states, " neither 
milk nor butter nor cheese nor vegetables are to be 
had. You constantly hear the people complaining of 
the difficulty of procuring even the commonest articles 
of domestic consumption, when, in fact, they ought to 
be produced by every landowner. In the Upper Amazon 


valley, a well-stocked turtle tank is to be found in almost 
every yard, as the people depend largely upon turtles 
for their food." With reference to the mixture of races, 
Professor Agassiz records the following opinion: " Let 
any one who doubts the evil of this mixture of races, 
and is inclined from mistaken philanthropy to break 
down all barriers between them, come to Brazil. He 
cannot deny the deterioration consequent upon the 
amalgamation of races, more wide-spread here than 
in any country in the world, and which is rapidly 
effacing the best qualities of the white man, the negro, 
and the Indian, leaving a mongrel, nondescript type, 
deficient in physical and mental energy " (From 
11 Brazil," by C. C. Andrews). 

The Portuguese, carrying the blood of coloured 
races in their veins, readily crossed with the Indians 
when they came to South America. They degraded 
themselves to the social level of the Indians. Mr. 
Bigg Wither says: " In the great majority of cases they 
certainly prefer to live like pigs." In the streets of 
Rio, Sao Paulo, and other cities, silk chimney-pot 
hats and Prince Albert coats, Parisian gowns and hats, 
are more common than on Fifth Avenue in New York; 
in every other way they " prefer to live like pigs." Filth 
and impurity, physical and moral, characterize Brazil. 
In Sao Paulo sexual perversion is more than common. 
The population is depraved to an incredible extent. 
It is considered indecent for a man to own a 
mare. On many haciendas she-goats are not kept, 


for the same reason. And they are all honourable 

Concerning the Germans in South Brazil they are 
decent and worth something only as long as they 
remain German. The Brazilianized descendants of 
Germans in Sao Paulo are more degraded, if possible, 
than the natives. It is deplorable that the Germans 
there, becoming Brazilians, serve only the purpose of 
injecting activity into a lazy, vicious, filthy mass. The 
mongrelization of the Germans of Rio Grande do Sul 
is a question of time only; their number is too small 
to prevent it. At present there are towns in Southern 
Brazil that are German in every way, inhabited by clean 
men, clean women, and clean children, but their degen- 
eration is inevitable. The German immigration to 
Brazil is very small; in every way possible Germany 
discourages emigration to South America. Germany 
wants no colony there, for she is collecting her forces 
to colonize semi-Asia, i. e. Southeastern Europe. 

Decency is to have no home in South America. Ex- 
Consul C. C. Andrews says: " On the whole, I should 
not advise any of our Americans to emigrate to Brazil; 
we have much better openings at home for our people. 
. . . Since the Civil War probably four thousand 
Americans emigrated from the Southern States to 
Brazil, of whom many were experienced agriculturists 
and possessed means; but four-fifths of these have 
returned to the United States, and many look forward 
to doing the same. . . . There are a number of our 


people in the Amazon valley, engaged in agriculture, 
who bitterly regret having come to this country, and 
who are only struggling to make a little money to allow 
them to return" (From "Brazil," by C. C. Andrews). 
Decency is to have no home in South America. It will 
have no home there until better races take possession 
of and rule these countries. 

Peru is the country of complete moral, intellectual, 
and material bankruptcy. The degeneration there is 
even greater and has been more rapid than in the other 
South American countries, and the cause is the infusion 
of Chinese blood into the veins of the white-negro-Indian 
compound. There are scarcely any Indo-Europeans of 
pure blood in Peru, for with the exception of pure 
Indians in the interior, the population consists of mes- 
tizos, Zambos, mulattoes, terceroones, quadroons, 
cholos, musties, fusties, and dusties; crosses between 
Spaniards and Indians, Spaniards and negroes, Spaniards 
and yellows; crosses between these people and the 
cholos, rau«ties, and dusties; crosses between mongrels 
of one kind and mongrels of the other kinds. All kinds 
of crossbreeds infest the land. The result is incredible 
rottenness. The so-called whites are narrow-chested, 
anaemic, lacking in physical vigour and in character. 
The men stand on the corners talking scandal, and 
utter obscenities whenever a woman passes. The streets 
of the cities swarm with beggars. 

Peru abounds in natural resources, — and its moun- 
tains are full of coal, petroleum, gold, silver, copper, 


platinum, tin, and other metals. Owing to differences 
of elevation, it includes regions with every variety of 
climate. Where is the race that will settle there and 
utilize these riches? It cannot come as long as the 
United States is the protector and therefore the dis- 
seminator of rottenness and depravity in South America. 

Paraguay and Uruguay are as fertile as Central 
Europe, and the climate is delightful. If Paraguay 
and Uruguay were as thickly inhabited as Central 
Europe, they would contain a population of forty-five 
millions and more. These figures show that the Monroe 
Doctrine, which prevents honest people from taking 
possession of these lands and creating flourishing 
countries there, is the greatest crime,, the most abomin- 
able atrocity, that was ever perpetrated by white people 
against the white races. 

The Paraguayans, the Uruguayans, like the Peruvians, 
Brazilians, Chilians, and the other mongrels, are useless 
for progress. They are worthless. They are as lazy as 
they are incapable and depraved. Work they will not. 
The men do nothing; they make the women do the 
little work that is to be done, beat their wives, and get 
drunk. The Paraguayan has mandioca and oranges; 
why should he work? In order to make the Paraguayans 
work, the destruction of the orange-groves has been 
recommended. One of the despots of Costa Rica had 
many of the bananiers destroyed in order to make his 
mongrel subjects work. The mongrels, however, did 
not work. Nature soon supplied them with bananas 


again. Why should they work? The destruction of the 
orange^groves in Paraguay would have no different 
effect than the destruction of the bananiers had in Costa 
Rica. Some little progress has been accomplished, 
but it has been accomplished by gringos, foreigners, 
Germans, and English; not with the help of, but in 
spite of, the Paraguayans and Uruguayans. 

Lack of character, coarse, brutal materialism, is as 
characteristic of the Argentinian as of the other South 
Americans. Prince Albert coats and Parisian gowns 
are common in Buenos Ayres, but they cannot conceal 
the inner barbarity. The men are effeminate, brutal, 
coarse, obscene, and without respect for women. They 
stand around the streets and insult the women who 
pass; and the women are insipid and brainless. Their 
only ideal is to resemble the fashion-plates. There is 
character nowhere. The traveller in Argentina is struck 
by the utter absence of moral restraint, by the brutal 
materialism of the people. Never in the vilest slums of 
Europe and North America, they tell us, have they 
seen more complete moral destitution and more abomi- 
nable and stupid brutishness than in Buenos Ayres 

In the rural districts the Argentinian is worse, if 
possible. Countries ruled by vermin attract as settlers 
vermin only, and it is the scum of the scum of Europe 
that has been deposited in Argentina. For the Argen- 
tinian, the traveller cannot but entertain contempt. 
In the rural districts, in the Pampas where these colonists 


eettle, his contempt becomes disgust and loathing. The 
idescendants of the immigrants assimilate the worst 
j qualities of the natives, their immorality, their vices, 
and their unscrupulousness, readily. Many of them 
are worse than brutes; they have not the cleanly 
instincts of the four-legged beast. It is disgusting, it 
is vile, it is rank. 

Let us turn to the " Yankees " of South America. 
Chili is the best of the South American countries, which 
is very far from meaning good. Chili was settled by 
people from the north of Spain, that is, by the least 
mongrelized Spaniards, many of whom did not cross 
with the coloured races. Still, between twenty and 
thirty per cent, of the Creoles are of relatively pure 
blood, and furnish the oligarchy which rules Chili. 
The fact that these rulers of Chili are the least mon- 
grelized people of South America has conduced to 
make Chili the most progressive country of the continent. 
More important is the fact that all the industries of 
Chili are in the hands of Germans and Englishmen. Take 
the English and the Germans away from Chili, and Chili 
will cease to differ from the other countries of South 
America. The peons, semi-Indians, much inferior to the 
Araucanian Indians, the mass of the population, live 
like pigs. Their life passes in getting drunk and multi- 
plying. Fortunately the death-rate is very high. 
Children die like flies. Their death causes no grief. 
They become angelitos, and what better excuse for 
interrupting work and getting drunk could there be 


found? No European labourer can compete with the 
peons, who sleep on the bare ground, and live on beans 
and water. Drunkenness is their only pleasure and 

Chili prospers commercially; this, however, is due to 
the English and Germans, not due to the Chilians. 
Wherever Chilians are left to themselves, there are 
indolence, incapacity, and slovenliness. They are no 
better than Peruvians, Brazilians, Argentinians, and the 
other South Americans. Commercially Chili is an Eng- 
lish-German province. Valparaiso is an English town. 
Valdivia is a German town, like Joinville and Blumenau 
in South Brazil. It is the most flourishing and charming 
colony in Chili. It is so because it is German, not Chilian. 
The inhabitants, the language, the stores, the tanneries, 
and other industries are German. Take away the Ger- 
mans, take away the English from Chili, and the real 
rottenness of the country, the incapacity and depravity 
of the mongrel of Chili, will at once become apparent. 
He is no better than the mongrel of Argentina, Peru, 
Paraguay, Brazil, and the other countries of South 
America. The prosperity of Chili is due to the foreigners 
to those that do not become Chilians. 

The foreigners who settle in Chili are, like the Germans 
of Brazil, in danger of mongrelization. Chilianized Ger- 
mans, Chilianized Englishmen, soon become as degraded 
as the native Chilians. The number of these settlers is 
not sufficient to absorb the Chilians, and their absorption 
by the Chilians can have no other effect than that of 


increasing the race confusion and degradation. With 
the exception of a few Creole families, who refused to 
degrade themselves and to cross with the coloured races, 
the mass of the Chilians is fully as degraded, as venal, 
as foul-mouthed, as mendacious and immoral as the 
Spanish-Indian-negro mongrel in every one of the South 
American oligarchies. 

Why are the South Americans not better than they 
are? There are writers who tell us that in parts of South 
America the soil is not fertile; others tell us that in 
South America nature is so full of exuberant strength 
that she becomes the enemy instead of the friend of man. 
She overpowers his efforts. One place has too much 
water, another has not sufficient water. Many similar 
reasons are alleged. All these explanations or excuses 
are insipid. The cause of the bad condition of these 
countries is the people that infest these countries. A 
better class of whites is what South America needs in 
order to turn it into a number of happy, rich, and flourish- 
ing countries. Let no good Europeans, however, settle 
there as long as the mongrel controls these lands. The 
lot of the immigrants is miserable. The government of 
these countries, as, for instance, that of Chili, induces 
them to come to Chili under false pretences. In 
Chili they are maltreated by the officials; and the 
existence of the gringos is lamentable indeed. 

It would have taken an impossible degree of stupidity, 
an impossible degree of dementedness, to accomplish less 
in South America than has been accomplished. It is a 


continent reeking with rottenness, degradation, and 
disease. The pressure of the outside world alone en- 
forces some appearance of civilization. None of these 
countries deserve to exist, and only pressure of the out- 
side world enables them to exist. By supporting them, 
we abstract light, air, and food from millions of good 
men and women. We are casting pearls to swine. The 
obstacle to the development of South America is the 
South Americans. They are worthless, useless for prog- 

Why are the South Americans so utterly degraded? 
It is their nature to be so. The mongrels of Mexico, 
Cuba, Central America, and South America are the chil- 
dren of most unnatural lewdness, bastards of incom- 
patible races, the descendants of two, three, and more 
cultures that have nothing in common, of races that be- 
long to different periods of development, or, rather, to 
developments essentially different in source, character, 
and tendency. That the fate of mongrels so compounded 
cannot be anything but degeneration is evident. The 
animal was given instinct and it shuns crossing. Man's 
instinct also abhors crossing; but man was given reason 
in addition to instinct, and he uses it frequently to be 
more a beast than any other beast. 

The mongrel is worthless, and the pan-world mongrel 
is the most worthless of all mongrels. 

Read " Brazil," by C. C. Andrews; " Spanish-Ameri- 
can Republics/' by Theodor Child; " Die Grundlagen 
des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts," by Houston Stewart 



What does it do for South America? 

It has the tendency to change the whole continent 
into an enormous Santo Domingo or Cuba, by handing 
it over to a worthless herd. It is a bar to civilization. 
It prevents decent people from colonizing South America. 
Only the scum of humanity is willing to degenerate into 
Brazilians, Argentinians, Peruvians. It gives an arti- 
ficial life, or, rather, galvanizes into the appearance of 
life the South American despotisms; countries that are 
cadavers, reeking with rottenness and degradation, 
crying out for decent burial. The Monroe Doctrine pre- 
vents their interment. It insists on the deterioration of 
Englishmen, Germans, Frenchmen, and other people 
that live in South America, forcing them to become like 
tfye native vermin. 

It prevents Switzerlands from developing for the sake 
\/7of Uruguay, Paraguay, and the other collections of 
* worthless herds. It protects vice, ignorance, con- 
cupiscence, lewdness, and bestiality, handing over a 
whole continent to these abominations. 

What does it do for the United States? 

It makes the United States the ally, friend, cause, and 




disseminator of utter rottenness and depravity. It tends 
to mongrelize the United States, both by directing the 
course of immigration to the United States, and by forc- 
ing the United States to take control of these countries 
in order to check the rottenness. 

Our trade with Canada is the most important on the 
whole Western Hemisphere; in many important articles 
it is more valuable than our trade with the whole of 
South America combined with that of Mexico and with 
that of the West Indies. Our trade with Germany, our 
trade with England, is enormous. If a country of these 
races existed in South America, our trade with it would 
be as great as our trade with Canada, Germany, or Eng- 
land now is. The Monroe Doctrine is therefore a bar to 
the growth of our trade. 

It depresses wages, or prevents them from rising, be- 
cause it acts as a bar to our trade, and because it directs 
the course of immigration to the United States. 

That the Monroe Doctrine must be maintained for our 
own repose, is the statement of cowardice, concealed by 
the spread-eagle attitude. 

We do not want the European system in America. 
And why not? Is it not true that, with the help of that 
system, the races living between the Firth of Forth and 
the iEgaean Sea, the Loire and the Vistula, accomplished 
more and produced more greatness than all the other 
races combined? 

What does the Monroe Doctrine do for Europe? 

It keeps Europe overpopulated. Many Europeans, 


and among them the best that Europe has, remain in 
Europe because they prefer poverty and their nationality 
to material prosperity. Least of all are they anxious to 
disappear in the South American quagmire. 

As it keeps Europe overpopulated, it keeps wages 
down, which in its turn has the tendency to keep wages 
down in America, or to prevent them from rising. 

As it increases poverty in Europe it causes more 
misery, destroys more happiness, cripples more homes, 
and prematurely fills more graves; in short, is more 
fatal to the white races than the ferocity of Turk or 
Mongol has been. 

It is the duty of no race to commit suicide ; increasing 
overpopulation is suicidal. Expansion alone can pre- 
vent it. Expansion in Europe means war. Every war 
that is necessary is just. There is no reason whatsoever 
for the assumption that the next European war will last 
but a few months. The fact that the last European 
wars lasted only a short time is without significance for 
the future. The temple of Janus was closed for two 
hundred years; for the future that meant nothing. 

German generals (" Das Volk in Waffen," von der 
Goltz) are of the opinion that the next European war is 
more likely to last seven years than seven months. A 
war between England, Germany, and France means for 
humanity, no matter which is victor, the destruction of 
the best for the survival of the worst, — in South 

Judging the Monroe Doctrine fairly, it must be con- 


sidered the most abominable atrocity that was ever 
committed by white men against the white races. Great 
American statesman, who eject humanity phrases in 
support of the absurd doctrine, put your phrases in your 
pipe and smoke them, and find out that they are worth 
not even a paper of tobacco. 



In many respects the Chinese are superior to the 
whites. Their family life is purer. Children respect 
their parents more. Age is more respected. Agriculture 
is held in the highest esteem. Nowhere is the soil more 
perfectly tilled than it is in China. The landowner who 
does not till his ground loses it. There are no land- 
sharks in China. The canonical writings of the Chinese 
are not attributed to divine inspiration, and they in- 
fluence the life of the Chinese more than the Scriptures 
influence ours. Every sentence of the Chinese canonical 
writings can be read in an English family without caus- 
ing offence. The same cannot be said of the Scriptures. 

Tshang-Ki-Tong, in " La Chine et les Chinois," ex- 
presses the conviction that Chinese ethics are in practice, 
if not in theory, purer than European or American 
morals. The Chinese never neglected education, and 
have evening schools for those who cannot attend during 
the day. Chinese merchants enjoy the highest respect 
for their probity. Alcoholism is almost unknown. 
Centuries of conscious effort have practically eradicated 
it from the country. In the year 2285 b. c, a man was 
banished for having discovered the means of obtaining 



alcohol from rice. In 2200 b. c, the Emperor Yu de- 
clared that wine will drive kings out of their kingdom, 
and prohibited its use at his court. When China at- 
tempted to stamp out the opium habit, the Christianity 
of England prevented it (Opium War). Much has been 
written concerning the corruption of the Mandarins, but 
this corruption, as depicted by those best informed, is 
not greater than the American home product. 

The Chinese are prohibited by ancient laws from 
marrying members of another race. This prevents 
degeneration. This gives China its remarkable stability. 
It is the only country that has had an existence of five 
thousand years. 

The Chinese are not inferior to the Japanese. Mang- 
Tse says: "I have heard that the barbarians have 
learned from China, but never that China has learned 
anything from the barbarians." " Until our own time 
this has been true. China was to the surrounding na- 
tions, Thibet, Burmah, Siam, Annam, Corea, and Japan, 
what Greece was to Rome and to Western Europe. It 
gave to these nations its ethical teachings, its system of 
writing, and its political and social organizations. For 
centuries China was the instructor of these countries 
and the alma mater of their scholars " (Von Brandt). 

Physically the Chinese are superior to the Caucasians. 
They are industrious, intelligent, temperate, and superior 
to the Slavs by far. They have no nerves; nothing 
fatigues them; they prosper in every clime, and they 
work in the torrid zone as well as in the arctic circle. 


Colonel Grandprey, of the French legation, states in the 
Revue de Paris that the Chinese are excellent army 
material. They are long-lived, rarely sick, indifferent 
to exertion and suffering, intelligent and obedient. 

Chinese women are not too lazy to give birth to chil- 
dren and not too lazy to nurse them. It is true that 
young children are frequently killed in China. So are 
they in Europe, and so are they in America. White 
mothers kill more children in utero than they give birth 
to. In Japan and in China one hundred and thirty-two 
children out of a thousand die before they are one year 
old; in the white world this number is two hundred to 
three hundred out of a thousand. This high death-rate 
has its cause. Probably the drugs which many white 
mothers take in order to kill their child before its birth 
cause the child to be born with diminished vitality. 
Many white mothers are too lazy to nurse their child. 
God and nature ordained that mother's milk is the child's 
nourishment. Many women think that a patent powder 
does equally well. There is no substitute for mother's 
milk. We have no right to point the finger of scorn at 
China. It is the story of the mote in the other man's 

Economically the Chinese are underestimated. China 
has millions of the best workers in the world. They 
have no nerves, they are never tired, and can be had in 
limitless numbers for a third of the wages of Europeans. 
China has more than four hundred million inhabitants, 
which means one hundred million workmen. Artisans, 


miners, and agricultural labourers get about ten cents a 
day. As soon as the industrialization of China is com- 
plete, the whole yellow market will be lost to the Western 
world; and the neutral markets will be won by the goods 
which are as well made and much cheaper than the 
European productions. 

The result will be an enormous decline in wages every- 
where in the world. Pene-Siefert states, in " Jaunes et 
blanc en Chine," that the time is rapidly approaching 
in which the white man will not be able to sell anything 
at all in China. Paul Leroy-Beaulieu thinks that our 
grandchildren will curse us for having forced China to 
become an industrial country. Richthofen calls the in- 
dustrialization of China, on the part of Europe and 
America, a suicidal process. The industrialization of 
China, however, cannot be checked. 

" Where Europeans and Americans leave, Japanese 
take their places, to teach the Chinese to compete with 
English factory girls and artisans " {Daily Chronicle). 
" The slumbering factors of an immense industrial pro- 
duction exist in China " (Richthofen). Her resources 
are unlimited. Her soil is very fertile. She has in close 
proximity the most extensive mines of iron and coal in 
the world. The " Open Door Farce " is not worth 
discussing. It is a triek of incapable statesmen to open 
doors, every now and then, on little pieces of paper. The 
Chinese are born merchants. Maier calls them the best 
merchants in the world. The commercial centres of the 
East, Hongkong, Shanghai, Kiautchou, Hayphong, 


Saigon, Singapore, Bangkok, Penang, and Colombo would 
dwindle into insignificance if the Chinese were to leave 
them. The Chinese are good seamen. The crew of most 
of the ships that ply in the Indian and Pacific Oceans 
are Chinamen. 

The Japanese have proved that they are not mere 
imitators. Japanese physicians made important medical 
discoveries. Doctor Kitasato, the assistant of Behring 
and Koch, discovered the germ of bubonic plague; 
Doctor Shiga discovered the bacillus of dysentery. The 
commerce of Japan with China is growing rapidly, at 
the expense of the commerce of other countries. Japa- 
nese goods are very much cheaper, and they can be 
carried to China in a very much shorter time than they 
can from America or Europe. The white world will 
never be able to compete with Japan for the commerce 
of China. The Japanese are a race closely allied to the 
Chinese race, and they therefore understand and can 
satisfy the wants of the Chinese much better than we can. 
At the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese war, the Japanese 
pretended to fight for the open door principle. The 
truth is, that Russia kept the door open in Manchuria, 
and Japan closed the door promptly when she acquired 
Formosa. Moreover, the Japanese officials restricted 
the white merchants to such an extent that they were 
soon forced out of business. 

China will do on a much grander scale what Japan has 
done on a smaller scale. China will adopt steam, elec- 
tricity, railroads, telegraphs, telephones, and manu- 


factures of all kinds. Japan taxed all articles which 
foreigners exclusively consume one hundred to four 
hundred per cent. Will China not do likewise, in order 
eventually to expel the hated white devils, without en- 
forcing exclusion laws? If as many Americans went to 
Japan as Japanese are coming to America, they would 
be in the position of pariahs, and be treated as such. 
The feeling against foreigners is very strong in Japan, 
and they are doing their best to stimulate the feeling of 
hatred and distrust that the Chinese entertain for the 
white man. 

That the Japanese are dangerous competitors, the 
Calif ornians know. There the Japanese have monopo-* 
lized the flower and fruit trades, and in the clothing 
branch they are gaining the upper hand by forcing the 
Jews out. Their sweat-shop methods are worse than 
those of the Jews. The hop and sugar-beet fields, the 
ranches, the orchards, and the vineyards are filled with 
Japanese labourers. Some time ago there was war be- 
tween the Italian cobblers and the Japanese cobblers, 
and prices were cut savagely, until the Japanese had 
gained the upper hand. Almost all curiosity shops are 
owned by Japanese. They own much real estate in 
California, whereas in Japan the law prevents foreigners 
from holding real estate. Most of the Japanese in Cali- 
fornia have come from Hawaii, where they have forced 
the white element out of most industries. The same 
yellow cloud hangs over California. 

It is scarcely possible to overestimate the economic 


yellow peril. Samson-Himmelstjerna states that on 
account of its old culture, its severe morality, its un- 
limited resources, its intelligent, industrious population, 
China will surprise the world even more than Japan 
did. In fifty }^ears, Sir Robert Hart declares millions of 
Boxers, soldiers as good as the Japanese and equally 
well drilled and equipped, will be ready to fight for China. 
General Frey (" L'Armee Chinoise ") thinks that China, 
in a short time, will be able to wage war successfully not 
only against one Western country, but against a coalition 
of the powers. 

In the meantime Japan has undertaken the reorgani- 
zation of the Chinese army and navy. Hundreds of 
Japanese officers are in China as military instructors, 
and hundreds of Chinese officers are studying in Japanese 
war-schools. Japanese officers are the instructors in 
the military schools of Peking, Canton, Paotingfu, and 
Wutshang. Thousands of Chinese students are studying 
in Japan. Japanese newspapers are printed in Chinese 
and spread broadcast all over China. The Japanization 
of the East is rapidly progressing. 

In 1899 the Toadoboun-kai was founded (Eastern 
Culture Society). Its aims are, develop race conscious- 
ness, cherish race traditions, and proclaim and bring 
about the solidarity of China, Japan, and Corea. This 
powerful organization is presided over by Prince Konoye, 
brother of the Emperor of Japan, and president of the 
House of Peers. The watchword " Asia for the Asiatics " 
is a weapon used in a hundred centres at once. Religion 



is pressed into service. Buddhistic high priests meet in 
Tokio, in order to unite the different sects in a common 

In India the Mahabodhi society represents their views. 
Hostility to the Christian missions is the common cause. 
The propaganda is anti-Christian, that is, anti-white, and 
therefore very powerful. In Siam the Japanese influence 
is as powerful as it is in China. Japanese officers are the 
councillors of the king and Japanese officers are in the 
navy of Siam. The Japan-Siamese society of Tokio and 
Bangkok is doing for Siam what the Eastern Culture 
Society is doing for China and Corea. 

It has been said, " When China's military education 
by Japan has in a measure been accomplished, let 
Europe beware." 

Why Europe? Europe is overpopulated, its soil 
tilled for centuries. Its mines are not very rich; indeed, 
many of them are exhausted. Europe is at the farthest 
distance from East Asia, most difficult to reach, and can 
protect herself best. The yellows can acquire better 
possessions, with less risk and trouble. The islands of 
the Pacific, Australia, and parts of the two Americas 
are the places they covet. Who is considered their arch 
enemy by the yellows? Professor Jonizu, of Tokio, tells 
us, and his fellow countrymen as well as the Chinese 
agree with him. That enemy is the United States of 
America. Several centuries ago the English and the 
French wanted nothing but vermin in South America, 
and they expelled the Dutch from Brazil. To-day, it is 


we who want nothing but vermin on that continent. 
That the vermin will not for ever be lord of that beauti- 
ful land is evident. We want no decent white neigh- 
bours in South America; possibly we shall in time have 
decent yellow neighbours. 

The military abilities of the yellows are greatly under- 
estimated. It is forgotten that Ghenghis Khan collected 
armies that were superior in numbers to those of the 
modern great powers; that he carried death and 
destruction to every place he went; that his armies 
destroyed five million lives. It is forgotten that 
the lame Timour was victorious in thirty-five cam- 
paigns and led his yellows to Moscow. The battle 
with the Tartars is forgotten, in which the German 
knights repulsed the Asiatics before the walls of Liegnitz. 
It is forgotten that the yellows ruled Russia for several 
centuries. It is forgotten that in the eleventh century 
a. d. the Chinese were about to introduce universal 

The hatred that the yellows entertain for the white 
races, especially the American, is intense. The Bushido 
spirit is not dead in any of the yellow races. Is there a 
military yellow peril? Yes, and it is greater than the 
economic yellow peril. It is more imminent than we 
think. And it is against America that it is chiefly di- 
rected. At present the Pacific is a Japanese lake. Our 
position is similar to that of Russia before the war. 

The yellow peril does not consist in their great number, 
but in their moral and physical superiority. We are 


their superiors intellectually only, and that intellectual 
superiority is becoming smaller every day. The yellow 
peril can be met only by making ourselves the moral, 
physical, and intellectual superiors of the yellows. A 
strong race must be created here; our family life must 
become purer; children must be taught to respect their 
parents and old age. Women must not murder their 
children, either before or after birth. Alcoholism must 
be stamped out. We must become able, if we are not, 
to do our own work. If we leave it for all times to the 
immigrants, we shall finally be compelled to call the 
coolies to do it for us. 

The nervous system alone does not make a man, nor 
does it make a nation. A strong, muscular system must 
support that nervous system, or something is wrong. 
Let us build more ships. Men-of-war assure international 
courtesy. The conviction that the opponent is strong, 
powerful, and well armed has a tendency to preserve the 
peace. It frequently takes the edge off a crisis. The 
soothing syrup and lollipop of the eternal peace maniacs 
is impotent. 

The empire of the Mikado to a Japanese is a spiritual 
empire as well as a material empire. The Mikado is the 
religious head of the nation, typifying the Bushido 
(war spirit) of the people; and the aim of that spirit is 
to satisfy Bushido, the god of war. Where will war be 
found? The American is the most hated of the white 
devils, and fifty thousand men are working day and night 
in the arsenals to perfect the equipment of the army 


and of the navy. Twenty thousand men are at work 
day and night in the cartridge factories. Every day 
hundreds of shrapnel-shells are stored away. 

" Why such daily cast of brazen cannon 
And foreign mart for implements of war? 
Why such impress of shipwrights, whose sore task 
Does not divide the Sunday from the week? 
What might be toward, that this sweaty haste 
Doth make the night joint-labourer with the day? " 


As the yellow terror is threatening us, and will prob- 
ably soon be at our throats, the propaganda of the 
peace maniacs is pernicious. The Hague farce is a dis- 
gusting spectacle. It is based on lie, bluff, hypocrisy, 
and cant. 

England proposes limitation of armaments. A few 
centuries ago Holland shared the control of the ocean 
with England, and there was no other sea power. For 
reasons akin to those for which England waged the 
" Opium War," she made war on Holland. In the war 
the Dutch proved themselves good seamen and good 
soldiers. Holland, however, being not a nation, but a 
fragment of a nation, was not strong enough to prolong 
the struggle indefinitely, and, when exhausted, she had 
to yield. England ruled the waves. This was the time 
when England claimed that the seaboard of other 
countries was her boundary. 

Now the ocean has become free to all people. English 
supremacy cannot be maintained. America, Germany, 


France, and Japan share the control of the ocean with 
England. England still predominates, and she wants 
the status quo preserved. She cannot accomplish that 
end by making war on any of these powers; for, even if 
victorious, her opponent will have dealt her such blows 
that England will have ceased to be a great sea power. 
For this reason England has become unctuous, and re- 
commends disarmament. She claims that the English 
navy alone is for defence; all other navies are for the 
purpose of attack and aggrandizement. England, there- 
fore, should police the sea, and nations should cease 
building ships. 

Past history does not warrant us in believing that 
England would police the seas impartially; and, even 
if she did, we must decline to become her vassal. Ger- 
many declines, France declines, and Japan declines. 
Let England disarm, if she so wishes; let us build ships. 
The peace conference is a farce, and it is folly to send 
men to take the part of clowns in The Hague circus. 



" This happy breed of men, this little world, 
This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England." 

The history of England is the history of the Anglo- 
Saxons. It therefore commences on the Continent; for 
as Arnold says, " The English are wholly unconnected 
with the Romans and Britons, who inhabited this 
country before the coming of the Saxons, and, nationally 
speaking, the history of Caesar's invasion has no more to 
do with us than the natural history of the animals which 
then inhabited the forests." 

A glance at the map of Europe, at the accession of 
Augustus, indicates chaos in Northern Europe and 
order in Rome. The chaos in Northern Europe, how- 
ever, was merely political as the order in Rome was 
merely political. Racially the North was homogeneous, 
Rome was a chaos. The German tribes of Europe then 
differed from one another not more than the people of 
Hanover differ from the people of Westphalia, Bavaria, 
or Holland to-day. The Romans classified the German 
tribes into two main divisions, the Suevic tribes and the 
Saxon tribes. Among the Saxon tribes they reckoned 
the Cherusci, Saxons, Vandals, Chattuari, Chaucii, 



Frisii, and others. More than two hundred years before 
Hengist and Horsa put out for England, the Cheruscans, 
Saxons, Angrivarii and other tribes had coalesced, and 
they were all known as Saxons. 

Extreme individualism characterized all people of the 
Teutonic race. The individual is everything. His per- 
son and his liberty are sacred. He will not disappear in 
a mass. In the herds of Slavic, post-Roman, and post- 
Hellenic mongrels, the individual disappeared. They 
counted as masses only. The greater the race jumble 
became, the less important and the more worthless 
became the individual. 

The Teuton is a personality. He has self-respect and 
commands the respect of others. Contrast his rough 
worth with the depravity of the post-Roman Italiot. 
His manliness, his bravery, his spirit of personal free- 
dom, his loathing of pollution and meanness, his domestic 
virtues, his love of home, his respect for women, and the 
purity of his women. Elsewhere women were considered 
incapable of judging of higher things; among the Ger- 
mans, duties of the highest kind were entrusted to their 
care. They were nurses to the sick and wounded, they 
were the preservers of the medical knowledge and of the 
sacred runes. 

Teutonic women handed down to us some of the songs 
of the Sagamen, among others the Niblung or Volsungen 
Saga, which, while inferior to Homer in execution, has 
other excellencies which make it in many respects 
superior to the Greek masterpiece. The German Ni- 


belungenlied (the German Iliad) of the twelfth century 
is still a great epic, but has lost some of the grandeur of 
the old tale. Thus Brynhild, the heroine of the V61- 
sungen Saga, the most fascinating heroine that ever 
figured in poetry, disappears in the later epic as the 
clown does in King Lear. In both epics, however, 
breathes the Titanic temper which belongs to the Teu- 

Tacitus points out the important part played by the 
women in the life of the Germans. Two characteristics 
which chiefly distinguish them from all other races are 
their respect for women and their chastity, and their 
independence and love of personal liberty as far as was 
consistent with the liberty of their equals. 

The Teutonic religion was in accord with the high 
spirit of the race. The gods and life after death were to 
them not theories, but convictions; more than that, 
they were an internal experience. There was no death. 
Death was a transition, a thoroughfare, and scarce that. 
There was nothing about death that changed their 
character, their tendencies. They were not through fear 
of death subject to bondage. They knew that five 
minutes after death they would be what they were five 
minutes before death. Why, then, should they yield to 
any power whether of earth, or of heaven, or of hell? 

Cry out for quarter? Never! Neither to gods nor 
Nornes. Defy destiny, and the Nornes must cringe. 
We, the bravest of men, are invincible. Fate must 
falter. Our life was short, but was it not beautiful? 


Have we not been valiant men, and have we not loved 
brave women? And when death comes, does the Valkyr 
not carry the fallen hero to Valhalla? What kind of a 
place will that be? It will be as we and the gods make 
it. Who will be over there? We and the gods. Whom 
shall we meet? The gods and our ancestors, the best of 

Life after death was with them not an open question, 
it was a self-evident truth. To them " God was closer 
than breathing, and nearer than hands and feet." 
Entertaining such convictions, many preferred not to 
live to the last stage, — 

" That ends this strange, eventful history, 
Is second childishness and mere oblivion, 
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything." 

They were not willing to go out like a snuffed candle, 
and they wrote death runes on their own breasts and 
wrists. They knew that the day prophesied, the day of 
Ragnarok, was sure, when they became the equals of the 
gods, when, shoulder to shoulder, the gods and they 
should fight the brood of evil and destroy it. In the 
combat they themselves will perish with their gods; 
but has Wodan, when god Balder the beautiful died, 
not whispered in Balder's ear the word " Resurrection? " 
The gods will return greater than before, and the brave 
will outlive the dusk of the gods? (v. Note.) 

These were the men and women who were the an- 
cestors of the English as well as of the Germans. Their 


chief vice was their excessive desire for independence, 
which led them to split up into little tribes, every 
tribe suspicious of its next neighbour. The Romans 
recognized that Teutonic strength alone could break 
Teutonic strength. They therefore fostered jealousies 
among German families and tribes, and fomented dis- 
sensions and wars among them. By the employment of 
craft, duplicity, insinuations, and bribery they set one 
German tribe against the other. Thus they were suc- 
cessful in having the Bructeri destroyed by the neigh- 
bouring tribes. 

It was part of the subtle policy of Rome to systemat- 
ically corrupt young Germans, who had either been per- 
suaded to go to Rome, or who had been carried to Rome. 
On these Rome conferred rank and privileges. In 
Rome many Germans persuaded themselves to believe 
that Rome and civilization were synonymous terms; 
that the civilization of the German tribes was desirable; 
and that, therefore, the Romanization of Germany was 
a necessity, not a calamity to be striven against, but 
an opportunity eagerly to be sought. It was an insidious 
system that Rome employed, and it helped Rome gain 
many advantages over the Germans. The mongrel was 
very crafty and cunning, and Rome extended her 
frontier from the Alps to the Danube and to the Rhine. 

Had Rome been successful in Romanizing the Germans 
there would never have been a Germany, never an Eng- 
land, never a United States. A herd of worthless pan- 
Europeans, such as infested Rome, would have infested 


all of Europe; incapable of withstanding the attacks 
of the Mongols, Saracens, Huns, and Turks that at 
different times attempted the subjugation of Europe, 
and who would have destroyed the Aryan races, had 
Teutonic strength not expelled them. The resistance 
of the Teutons to Rome was therefore the most momen- 
tous struggle of history, and in it the Saxons took the 
chief part. 

Between the years 12 and 9 b. c. Drusus made four 
campaigns in Germany, in all of which he fought princi- 
pally with Saxons. Cassius Dion tells us that in his 
fourth campaign Drusus was stopped near the Elbe by a 
German woman, a prophetess, who bade him return, and 
warned him that he was near his grave. The Valleda 
spoke the truth. On his return Drusus fell from his 
horse and died. To Tiberius was now given the command 
of the Roman forces in Germany. He had to wage war 
almost constantly against the tribes of Northwestern 
Germany. In the year 4 b. c, he advanced with a large 
army to the Elbe, while Roman fleets, sailing from Gaul 
and Britain, cooperated with the land forces. After this, 
peace prevailed for a number of years. It was the calm 
before the storm. 

In the year 6 a. d. Quintilius Varus became governor of 
Germany. He attempted to Romanize the Germans, as 
the Gauls had been Romanized before. He believed, 
as many now pretend to believe, that all men (that were 
not Romans) were born equal. He had been proconsul 
of Syria before he came to Germany; and, accustomed 


to govern the depraved Eastern mongrels, thought that 
he might with equal impunity make himself " master 
absolute " of the Germans. 

While this subjugation was attempted, the avenger of 
his people's wrongs, Herman, a prince of the Saxon 
tribe of the Cheruscans, was being raised up. He had 
served in the Roman army, and had been raised to the 
rank of the equestrian order. He had remained un- 
bought by money and privileges, uncorrupted by the 
Roman poison. He was conscious of the power of 
Rome. He knew that the Roman legions in Germany 
were the best that Rome had, veterans in the highest 
state of equipment, officered by the most skilful of 
Roman generals, and ready to move instantly on any 
spot where a popular uprising might be attempted, and 
that half of Germany was occupied by Roman garrisons 
and covered by Roman fortifications. 

The Germans, on the other hand, were ill-armed and 
undisciplined, without a single walled town, and with- 
out military stores. They had never stormed a forti- 
fication. There was no hope of foreign aid. The task 
of liberating Germany seemed hopeless. Nevertheless 
it was attempted. Herman, and other leaders of North- 
western Germany, formed a conspiracy and swore death 
to every Roman on German soil. To encounter the 
legions in a pitched battle would have been a suicidal 
undertaking. The Germans were ill armed and had no 
defensive armour. The Romans were fully equipped with 
helmet, cuirass, greaves, and shield. Stratagem was 


therefore indispensable. In order not to arouse the 
suspicion of Varus, the German chieftains continued to 
frequent his headquarters, until Herman gave the tribes 
the secret order to take up arms and collect near the 
Weser and Ems. 

In order to quell the insurrection, Varus marched his 
legions thither. When he reached the Teutoburg 
forest, the time of the Germans had come. Woods, 
marshes, and ravines rendered the march difficult, and 
heavy rains increased the difficulties. Here the Ger- 
mans fell upon the Romans. Here the battle was fought 
which decided the history of the world more than any 
other, either before or since. It was the bloodiest 
butchery which had yet befallen the Romans. The 
battle lasted three days. On the second day Numonius 
Vala attempted to escape with the cavalry of which he 
was the commander. The Germans intercepted the 
squadrons; the horsemen were overpowered and 
slaughtered to the last man. When all hope of success 
or escape had vanished, Varus fell upon his own sword, 
to escape captivity. The Roman infantry still held out. 
At last, on the third day, in a series of desperate attacks, 
led by Herman, the columns were broken through and 
the Romans either fell sword in hand or perished in the 
swamps in their effort at flight. Those who laid down 
their arms in hope of quarter were massacred on the 
spot. The few that were taken prisoners were offered up 
at the altars of the German gods. 

Klopstock has the bards sing this hymn after the 


" Herman outspoke: ' Now victory or death.' 
The Romans: ' Victory.' 
And onward rushed their eagles with the cry. 
So ended the first day. 

" ' Victory or death,' began 

Then first the Roman chief; and Herman spoke 
Not, but homestruck; the eagles fluttered — broke. 
So sped the second day. 

" And the third came — the cry was ' Flight or death.' 
Flight left we not for them who'd make us slaves — 
Men who stab children. Flight for them? No. Graves. 
'Twas their last day." 

At about the same time that the Romans were de- 
feated in the Teutoburg forest, the Roman garrisons 
were cut off throughout Germany, and within a few weeks 
the Romans were driven out of the country. Never 
was victory more decisive, never was the liberation of an 
oppressed people more complete. Rome was in an agony 
of terror. Suetonius tells us that even months after the 
battle, Augustus, in grief and alarm, beat his head 
against the wall and exclaimed, " Quintilius Varus, give 
me my legions back." 

So great was the horror of the Romans, that they be- 
lieved a number of terrific portents to have occurred at 
the time. The summits of the Alps were said to have 
fallen. Many comets blazed forth together. The statue 
of Victory, pointing toward Germany, had of its own 
account turned around and now pointed to Italy. The 
Romans recognized the importance of the German 
victory. And indeed, as the result of this battle, the 


face of the world was changed. By it were determined 
the characteristics of our own time. Its narrative forms 
as much a part of the national history of England as it 
does of Germany. For it was the fatherland of the Eng- 
lish which the brave Teutons there rescued, and many of 
the men who fought in the battle were ancestors of the 
men and women who, four centuries later, crossed the 
German ocean to take possession of England. 

Herman himself was a Saxon, for the Cherusci were 
a Saxon tribe; and with the Angles and Saxons came 
to England the spirit of Herman and of the old Saxons. 
It can be traced throughout England's history, and it is 
alive to-day. Herman is the one hero who belongs to all 
the Teutonic peoples; for, without that battle in the 
marshy glens between the Lippe and the Ems, there 
never would have been a rejuvenated Europe, and the 
race which is the greatest that the world has produced 
would have been destroyed by Roman promiscuity. 
That the Anglo-Saxons considered Herman as one of 
theirs is evident from the fact that traces of the divine 
honours that were paid to him for centuries in Germany 
are found also among the Anglo-Saxons, after their 
settlement in England. During the middle ages his 
fame survived both among the Germans and among the 
English, (v. E. C. Creasy, " Decisive Battles.") 

In the year 15 a. d. Drusus, the son of the first Ger- 
manicus, attempted to avenge the terrible defeat sus- 
tained by Varus. With eighty thousand men he invaded 
Germany. He had no less than a thousand ships built 


to cooperate with the land forces. Drusus marched his 
army to the Teutoburg forest, and, in gloomy silence, the 
men passed the place of the awful carnage. Naked 
skulls stared down on them from the branches of the 
trees. The altars on which Roman centurions had been 
sacrificed to the gods were still standing. Drusus had 
the ghastly relics of the legions of Varus buried and had 
funeral honours paid to them. He advanced farther 
into the country and was met by Herman. A battle was 
fought, in which the Roman losses were so great that he 
resolved on retreating across the Rhine. Rome aban- 
doned all hopes of ever avenging the death of Varus. 
Herman had secured the independence of the Teutonic 
race for ever. 

When Drusus withdrew his legions, he had one legion 
retreat by land, and embarked with the others, in order 
to return to the Rhine by way of the North Sea. The 
fleet met with a severe tempest. Tacitus says: "A 
number of the ships went down, a greater number were 
driven out of their course to distant islands, and, as the 
islands were uninhabited, many of the soldiers perished of 
hunger. The trireme of Drusus ran ashore not far from 
the land of the Chauci. Day and night Drusus wandered 
about the rocks and projections of the coast, and accused 
himself of having caused the destruction of the fleet. It 
was with difficulty that his friends prevented him from 
seeking death in the same sea." While the misfortune 
that their fleet had encountered intimidated the Romans 
and scared them from the North Sea, it had the opposite 


effect on the Saxons. It awakened their naval genius, 
which so far had slumbered, and which was henceforth 
destined to play a most important part in the develop- 
ment of the world. They saw that the Romans were not 
able to cope with the northern gales and the uncouth 
northern sea. They saw, from the misfortune that the 
Romans had suffered, that the Roman vessels were not 
suitable for the North Sea, and their reason told them 
that their own imperfect boats were likewise inefficient. 

They had to invent forms and constructions suitable 
to their needs. They succeeded in this in a remarkably 
short time. They soon became the terror of the coasts 
of Gaul and Britain, and the Romans had to recognize 
that, on the sea, they had found their master. As 
early as 47 a. d., the Romans experienced this. Gannask, 
a Saxon, led piratical expeditions to Gaul. The brave 
Saxon's name struck terror into the heart of Corbulo, 
the Roman governor, and he had Gannask secretly 
poisoned. The remarkable rapidity with which the sea- 
manship of the Saxons developed is incontestably 
proved by the boat found in the Nydamer Moor in Schles- 
wig. It is a perfectly seaworthy boat. It is certain that 
the Saxons used the sail very early, and that they 
discovered how to sail close to the wind, and to tack 

Claudian, in " De laudibus Stilich, II," has Britannia 

" Ulius effectum curis, ne litore tuto 
Prospicerem dubiis venturum Saxoni ventis," — 


Fear the Saxons, even though the wind is against them. 
The Edda makes mention of this discovery, which the 
Saxons kept secret for centuries. 

In the year 70 a. d. the Batavians, Frisii, and the 
Kaninefates, a Saxon tribe, rose against the Romans. 
The war began with unheard of fury. Whole cohorts of 
Romans were cut down; whole legions were made 
captives, and their prefects and centurions were killed. 
Brinno, a Saxon, unexpectedly attacked a Roman camp 
from the sea, cut the garrison down, and sacked the 
camp. The Romans considered their fleet endangered, 
and concentrated it in the Rhine. Brinno attacked 
it, and took all the twenty-four ships. Then Cerialis, 
the Roman commander, secured the aid of the Roman 
fleet from Britain. Again the valiant Saxons attacked 
it and sunk or took most of the vessels. A few days 
later the Romans suffered another naval defeat. The 
Saxons boarded the ships, overpowered the crew, and 
took the vessels. The ship of Cerialis they presented 
to their prophetess Velleda. 

In the third century the Saxons undertook piratical 
expeditions, not only to Gaul and Britain, but into the 
Atlantic. They visited Spain, went through the Strait 
of Gibraltar and sacked Tarragona, laid Syracuse under 
contribution, made a landing in Egypt, sacked the 
cities on the coast of Greece, and returned. Their naval 
ability Hengist and Horsa and their followers took 
with them to England; and, like the spirit of Herman, 
it can be traced throughout England's history and is 
as alive to-day as ever. 


Teutonic seamanship is superior to the seamanship 
of other races. This is shown by the fact that, pro- 
vided the disparity was not too great, Teutonic seamen 
were never vanquished except by Teutonic seamen. 
In her naval wars with the Latin nations, England 
very rarely suffered defeat, and that only when the 
disparity was very great. Usually the English were 
victors, whatever the disparity of numbers. In Eng- 
land's wars with the Hansa, the Dutch, and the Ameri- 
cans, she was defeated as often as she was victorious. It 
takes Teutonic strength to break Teutonic strength. 

As the decomposition of Rome increased, it had to 
leave Britain to herself. According to Saxon sources, 
Vortiger called Hengist and Horsa to aid him against 
the Picts and Scots. They defeated Vortiger's enemies; 
and he, in order to hold them in England for his protec- 
tion, allotted them lands. Hengist and Horsa saw that 
the land was fair, and called other Saxons to Britain, 
in order to conquer the land they coveted. The Celts 
had to yield to them the south of Britain. This de- 
cided the fate of England; for it was the spirit of Her- 
man, the spirit of the Saxons, that made England the 
power to which Rome in the height of her glory is not 
to be compared. It is this spirit that made England 
the ruler of the waves. The racial characteristics of the 
Saxons differ as much from the racial characteristics of 
the Celts as the history of England differs from the 
history of Ireland. 

It was in the year 449 a. d. that the three Saxon 


" keels " landed in England. Gildas says: " A multi- 
tude of whelps came from the lair of the barbaric 
lioness." They soon seized the land for themselves. 
Their conquest was the complete displacement of one 
people by another. The land was gained by the edge 
of the sword. They destroyed everything that Rome 
had left so completely that now there is no trace that 
a Latin speech ever was spoken at any time in England. 
The Saxons tell us that the Britons fled before them 
as from fire. The wars were wars of exterminations. 
It was a struggle for life and death. There was no 
blending of Saxons and Celts. Nowhere did the con- 
querors and the conquered live on side by side as the 
Lombards and Romans did in Italy. 

It is true that the Saxons spared many women. It is 
true that British blood was infused into the English. 
But the quantity was so small that nature soon ex- 
pelled everything Celtic that was out of harmony with the 
tendencies of the Teutonic race. The Celtic element does 
not exist in the English makeup. It was absorbed; 
and it is for this reason that the Celtic blood had no 
effect whatsoever on the national being of England. 
The English are as Teutonic to-day as they were in the 
time of Herman. When they came to England, they 
displaced the Britons everywhere. They accepted 
nothing from the Britons, neither language, customs, 
traditions, nor religion. 

The conquest was a gradual one, spread over several 
centuries, so that the little British blood that was 


inoculated could be completely absorbed before more 
of it was injected. It was only after most of the land 
was thoroughly conquered, that is, after the old inhabi- 
tants of most of the land had been destroyed, that the 
Teutonic invaders began to carry on their conquest 
in such a fashion that death or flight was no longer the 
only alternative for the Britons. At this stage the 
Teutonic element in England was so strong that a 
slight infusion of British blood was no longer of racial 
importance. Moreover, the sentiments of Saxons 
and Celts were such as to prevent intermarriages. 

It is for this reason that the conquest of England 
was never completed. A large part of Britain remained 
in Celtic hands, and the ancient race, their language, 
their customs, their traditions, lived on. A part of the 
island still speaks its ancient speech. Very gradually 
Wessex extended her dominion at the expense of the 
Britons. At first the Britons were either killed or forced 
to flee; later the Saxons were content with bringing them 
into subjugation. As late as the time of the laws of Ine 
(675-693) the Britons were considered an inferior class, 
an inferiority which their legal status expressed. The 
Briton's oath was of no value against the Saxon's word. 
A Briton's life was not considered as being of much 
value. This different legal status again had the effect 
of preventing any large infusion of British blood into 
English veins. The Britons were absorbed slowly. 
There never was promiscuity. By the time of Alfred 
(871-901), Wessex had become purely English. 


It seems as if the naval genius of the Saxons had 
succumbed during the centuries of the conquest of 
England. For centuries we hear nothing of their sea- 
manship. They seemed to have forgotten the time 
in which they were a power on the ocean. It was 
another Teutonic tribe that aroused them. The Danes 
visited England, and devastated the country, for the 
Saxons had neither ships nor seamen to oppose them. 
The Scandinavian incursions continued until the time 
of Alfred. 

Alfred recognized that the Saxons would be able to 
navigate as soon as they were aboard. He therefore 
had war-vessels constructed by Frisian workmen from 
designs made by himself; and, as early as 872, in the 
second year of his reign, the Vikings were defeated 
off the coast of Dorsetshire. At first Alfred's crew con- 
sisted of Frisians. When, however, twenty-five years 
later, the sea-king Hasting, after he had sacked Wight 
and Devonshire, was met by an English fleet, the 
vessels that defeated him were manned by English- 
men. Alfred's fleet is the beginning of the English 
navy. He roused the old Saxon spirit, and England 
continued to develop it until she became the mistress 
of the ocean. 

" The Normans, finding the Saxons strong on the 
* element they considered their own, now turned to Gaul, 
and in 912 took possession of Normandy. Not content 
with Normandy, the Normans coveted England, and 
in 1066 Duke William, with about sixty thousand men, 


crossed the channel. The English navy, by a strange 
fatality, could not be there to intercept him. He landed 
on the 14th day of October, 1066, and the hostile forces 
met near Hastings. A harder battle was never fought 
in England. The Saxons were defeated, and William 
became king of England. The history of England 
after 1066 is not the history of a new race. Normans 
and English sprang from the same parent stock; and 
although they had become differentiated to an extent, the 
deviation was not yet great. Nevertheless, several 
centuries passed before they were completely blended. 
The infusion of Norman blood was no crossing, and 
consequently did not interfere with the development 
of the English race. 

The Normans brought a Roman tongue with them; 
the English language, however, did not become Latinized. 
It is true that, of the words in the English dictionary, 
only one-quarter are original English words. The 
number of words between the two covers of a book 
is, however, of very little significance; the words used 
in speaking and writing alone are of importance, and 
the words so used, the words of the Bible, of literature, 
of the street, of business, of the fireside, include all the 
Teutonic words and only a very small number of the 
other words. About ninety per cent, of the words 
used in an ordinary book are Teutonic words. In scien- 
tific treatises the number of Anglo-Saxon words is very 
much smaller. Scientific men of every Teutonic nation 
still prefer semi-Latin to their mother tongue, and 


the pseudo-scientists find a Latin word or a Latin phrase 
most convenient to conceal the absence of a thought. 

Most of the English idioms are Teutonic, and many 
are common to both the German and the English lan- 
guages. They cannot, in spite of slight deviations, 
deny their common origin. Thus, the German is blind 
as a " mole," his English cousin is blind as a " bat; " 
the former is " over his ears," the latter " over head and 
and ears," in love. The German girl is as " homely as 
night," the English girl as " homely as sin; " the former 
is as cold as " ice " and hands him a " basket," the 
latter is as cold as a " cucumber " and hands out " mit- 
tens." The German is " outside of himself," the English- 
man is " beside himself." Later, the former laughs " in 
the fist," the latter " in the sleeve." The former has 
" his hand in the game," the latter only " his finger 
in the pie." The former " escapes with a blue eye," 
the latter with " a black eye." The German takes time 
by " the top lock," the Englishman by the " forelock." 
At last the German " bites the grass," the Englishman 
" the dust." Both cross the bar, and the former goes 
to the " great army," the latter to the " majority," 
and so forth. Not only are all the words that are in 
common use Teutonic, but the words of foreign origin 
must conform themselves to Teutonic usage. English 
is therefore in every respect a Teutonic language. 

In 1204 England lost Normandy. This was a fortu- 
nate event, for thereafter the prejudices that the 
Normans entertained against the English abated. 


Normans and English recognized that there were no 
essential differences between them, that they were 
one race, and one people. 

Teutonic people were always characterized by their 
love of independence and the love of their free institu- 
tions. A loss of these could never be more than tempo- 
rary ; and it was the assertion of this spirit which forced 
King John to grant the Great Charter, which provided 

" No free man shall be imprisoned or proceeded against 
except by his peers or the law of the land. 

" Justice shall neither be sold, denied, nor delayed. 

" All dues from the people to the king, unless other- 
wise distinctly specified, shall be imposed only with 
the consent of the National Council." 

The charter rendered secure to the English the free 
institutions, which had been theirs since time out of 
mind. It was this same spirit that dethroned Edward II, 
and the same spirit that demanded the emancipation of 
the working classes. 

It is the same Anglo-Saxon spirit that in Scotland 
resisted the English. Scotland resisted because it refused 
to become a part of England on unfair terms. " Scot- 
land," says Carlyle, " is not Ireland. No. Because 
men arose there and said, ' Behold ye must not tread us 
down like slaves, and ye shall not, and ye cannot.' " They 
might have added: "For we are Saxons, like yourself." 

Part of England was at an early time detached from 
England to form a part of Scotland, and it is from this 


southern part of Scotland that the Anglo-Saxon char- 
acter and the English language spread with English 
blood over Scotland. It is from this southern, Anglo- 
Saxon Scotland that the stubborn resistance against Eng- 
land came. The Celts of Scotland, the Scots proper, had 
nothing to do with it. Bruce, Hastings, Balliol, and the 
< other brave men that Carlyle alludes to, were essentially 
Englishmen. The Anglo-Saxons of Southern Scotland 
had adopted Scottish names and had acquired a pa- 
triotism hostile to England. That, however, did not 
change their race. And the Anglo-Saxons of England 
found it impossible to impose conditions upon the 
Anglo-Saxons of Scotland which they themselves would 
have refused to accept. It was on just and equal terms 
only that Scotland became a part of England. It is 
from the Anglo-Saxon Scotland that the great men 
of Scotland came. 

The spirit of rebellion against authority is a trait 
of the Teutons. This same spirit, which characterized 
Luther, also characterized Wickliffe. Wickliffe's place 
in religion, in political history, and in the history of 
English literature is analogous to that of Luther in the 
history of Germany. The kinship cannot be denied. 
It was at about this same time that the merchant 
adventurers began to compete successfully with the 
Hansa. Here again it took Teutonic strength to break 
Teutonic strength. It was the Hansa spirit that ani- 
mated the bold adventurers, for both were animated 
by the old Saxon spirit. 


The reformation was preached. Its hero, Luther, was 
a man of a Teutonic race, and he found his followers 
chiefly among men of the Teutonic stock. In the time of 
Henry VIII steps were taken which made reformation 
in England inevitable. England entered the lists in the 
spirit of the new doctrine. England was its place of 
refuge in the gloomy days of the Smalkaldic war. 
Elizabeth ascended to the throne. Never did a greater 
monarch sit on any throne. Now the English Church 
was organized in the spirit of the reformation on the 
Continent, on a strictly national foundation. 

This meant opposition to Spain. The power of Spain 
was then at its height. The resources of England to cope 
with it seemed most scanty. At her accession Elizabeth 
had found an encumbered revenue, a foreign war, a 
divided people, and a pretender to the crown. Many 
of her subjects looked upon her as an heretical usurper. 
England had no ally against Spain except the Dutch. 
Philip II desired to strike a decisive blow at England, 
the bulwark of Protestantism, and he fitted out his 
" Invincible Armada." 

Again, as in the time of Herman, Teutonism and 
Latinism stood against each other. " The fate of 
humanity was in the balance," writes Ranke. It was the 
spirit of Herman, however, that animated England. 

The spirit of the old Saxons was alive in Francis Drake, 
the " arch-pirate," the terror of every Spanish coast; in 
John Hawkins, in Martin Frobisher, in Lord Howard, in 
Walter Raleigh, and in the other brave mariners aboard 


the English ships. The English Catholics fought for 
their country as valiantly as the Protestants. The 
whole energy of Spain was directed toward the equip- 
ment of the Armada. In 1587 Drake dashed into the 
port of Cadiz and destroyed many of the Spanish ships. 
This delayed the sailing of the fleet for a year. In May 
the Armada sailed. It consisted of 129 large vessels, 
carried 27,755 men, besides slaves as rowers, and 2,431 

The ships of the royal English navy at this time 
amounted to no more than thirty-six; but, by the addi- 
tion of merchantmen, it was increased to about one 
hundred and eighty vessels. These carried about 
eighteen thousand men, but they had not half the 
weight of the Spanish artillery, and were scantily sup- 
plied with ammunition and provision. In spite of the 
disparity of numbers, the English commenced the 
engagement. The English ships were so admirably 
handled that the Spaniards found it impossible to inflict 
any injury on them. For more than a week the English 
harassed the Armada, and had the ammunition held 
out, the English would have completely destroyed it. 
As it was, the injury inflicted was enormous. 

The Spaniards, rather than face the English fleet 
again, resolved on retreating by the North Sea. Howard 
and Drake chased them for some distance northward, 
till the want of provision compelled them to return. 
"They left them/' as Drake said, "to those boisterous 
and uncouth northern seas." Fifty-four shattered 


vessels reached Spain, and they conveyed only nine 
thousand men. " The Armada did not in all their sailing 
around about England so much as sink or take one 
ship, barque, pinnace, or cock-boat of ours, or even 
burn so much as one sheepcote on this land " (Drake). 
(v. E. C. Creasy, " Decisive Battles.") 

Protestants were jubilant everywhere. With re- 
sounding steps England took the leadership of the 
world. Wealth and well-being increased, and commerce 
expanded. In a short time England's flag waved on 
every sea. 

During the revolution, Cromwell, that epitome of 
everything Anglo-Saxon, saw that, if the country was to 
be kept together, it must be by decided measures which 
neither law nor constitution justified. He was not a 
zealot, yet he conducted a war of extermination against 
the Irish. He was not a tyrant, yet he expelled Parlia- 
ment and made himself protector. He knew what 
England needed. He was cruel, it is true; but deliber- 
ate cruelty, when necessary, has always been, since the 
time of the Sagamen, a trait of the Teutonic races. 
And who will deny that they accomplished most where 
they were most cruel; as, for instance, the Anglo-Saxons 
in England, the Teutonic Order in Prussia, and the 
Anglo-Saxons in America? 

After the revolution, in the consciousness of her 
strength, England dictated a law to the whole world, 
the Navigation Act. Since that time England has 
continued to expand and to increase in power and 


wealth. Not even the loss of her best American colonies 
weakened England materially. England attempted to 
force America to become a part of the English empire 
on unfair and tyrannical terms; she encountered, 
however, the same spirit that animates herself, the 
Saxon spirit, with its love for free national institutions, 
and consequently she failed. In 1782 England had to 
acknowledge the independence of her former colonies. 

In the Napoleonic wars it was the spirit of the Saxons 
that led England from victory to victory. It was that 
spirit which ran up the signal, " England expects every 
man to do his duty." It was the spirit of Herman that 
fought with Wellington and Bliicher at Waterloo. 
After the Napoleonic wars, England was supreme, and 
forced her will on the European powers. England's 
constitution represents the development of the old free 
national institutions of the Saxons. It is their spirit 
that made England the leader in the development of 
constitutional government. To this spirit are due the 
Great Charter, the Petition of Right, the Bill of Rights, 
the Act of Settlement, the Bill of Attainder, and the 
Habeas Corpus Act. 

The English colonial empire is not as old as its magni- 
tude leads us to think. In Elizabeth's time there was 
not a single English settlement outside of Europe. 
All attempts at colonization, from those of Hore in the 
time of Henry VIII to those of Gilbert and Raleigh, 
had proved failures, and even in Ireland there were 
very few English colonists. It was in the eighteenth 


century that the English empire expanded to enormous 
proportions. The battle of Arcot, 1751, gave England 
control of Southern India. The battle of Plassey, 1757, 
permanently established the English power in India. 
As a result of the Seven Years' War in Europe and 
America, England gained an empire in America. Jamaica, 
Trinidad, and the Bahama Islands she took from Spain; 
South Africa, Guiana, and Ceylon from Holland. In 
the year 1788 England commenced to deport convicts 
to Botany Bay; to-day Australia is one of the leaders 
of Anglo-Saxon civilization. The same is true of New 
Zealand. At the time of Queen Victoria's accession, 
England had an area of less than 3,000,000 square miles; 
to-day more than one-fifth of the earth is under English 
rule. The English realm embraces about twelve million 
square miles. During Queen Victoria's reign about one 
hundred and fifty thousand square miles on the average 
were added every year to England's possession. Anglo- 
Saxon enterprise is now transforming Egypt. 

The southern extremity of every continent is in one 
form or another in England's hands. Nearly all the 
narrow friths and straits are under English control. 
No ship can pass them without England's good will. 
The eastern passage from England to Japan is con- 
trolled by the following possessions: Gibraltar, Malta, 
Cyprus, the Suez Canal, Aden, Socotra, Ceylon, Singa- 
pore, North Borneo, and Hongkong. England expects 
to control the western passage to Japan, by way of 
the Panama Canal, as effectually as the eastern passage, 


by the possession of the chain of islands that stretches 
from Florida to South America, — the Bahama Islands, 
St. Croix, Anguilla, Barbuda, Antigua, Dominica, S. 
Lucia, Barbadoes, Grenada, and Trinidad, and by the 
possession of Jamaica and British Honduras in Central 
America, and Guiana in South America. 

In South Africa England is not as strong to-day as 
she was before the Boer War. England, by destroying 
the homes of thirty thousand Boers, sacrificing twenty- 
two thousand of her own men, and spending more than 
one billion dollars, has succeeded in consolidating 
the Boers and in making them more powerful than they 
ever were before the war. The English bona-fide settlers 
(not the vagrants that gathered about Johannesburg) 
are supporting the Boers, because they recognize that 
the Boers knew more about the negroes than Downing 

Before the white man came to Africa, the negro's 
property and the negro's life had no value whatsoever; 
to-day the white man gives him protection. The white 
man builds streets and railways. The negro accepts 
and makes full use of these gifts, and does voluntarily 
nothing in return. In America and in Europe men 
are taxed; that is, they pay for the protection that 
the state gives them; in Europe every healthy man 
is in addition liable to military duty. There is no 
reason whatsoever why the negro should not be taxed 
so that he is forced to work. The English settlers agree 
with the Boers that work alone will raise the negro 


to that very moderate degree of civilization which he is 
capable of producing. They agree with the Boers that 
the English native policy is most pernicious. Is it not 
the height of folly that coolies are imported to do some 
of the necessary work in a country that abounds in 
healthy muscle? 

The taxation of the white man is not considered a 
brutality; why should the taxation of the black man 
be considered a brutality? It is not true that the 
white man is taxed according to his income. He is 
taxed without regard to his income; and, in order to 
be able to pay that tax (in the form of the higher prices 
of food and other necessaries, such as rent), he is forced 
to work. If he cannot pay that tax, he becomes a 
vagrant, and soon lands in the penitentiary, where 
forced labour is exacted from him. Why a system of 
taxation, which is considered just in the case of the 
white man, is slavery in the case of the black man, 
reason fails to grasp. 

The present system prevents the development of 
Africa. As long as the superiority of the white man 
is not recognized, as long as his superiority finds no 
adequate expression in his legal status, the white man 
cannot prosper in Africa. This system is not less detri- 
mental to the black man; because it makes him, for the 
sake of theoretical considerations and liberality phrases, 
a lazy lout. It encourages slavery ; for the negro, instead 
of working, forces his wives to work, and keeps them 
in most abject slavery. Probably reason will eventually 


prevail, for the good of the white man as well as for 
the good of the black man. The Teutonic genius has 
solved more difficult problems than the negro problem. 

Vast as the English empire is, its boundaries do not 
mark the limit of England's power. Portugal has for 
generations been England's obedient vassal. Belgium 
and Holland, mere splinters of a nation, suffering from 
the paranoical delusion that they are complete nationali- 
ties, must on account of that delusion be the shield- 
bearers, the knaves of England. Spain is in the position 
of Portugal. The South American herds owe their 
national existence to England. 

When Canning, referring to South America, said, " I 
have called the new world into being in order to estab- 
lish the equilibrium in the old," he stated a fact. Many 
of these so-called republics, among them Chili, are 
England's vassals. Several of the Balkan states owe 
their nominal independence to England, and the pariahs 
of that part of the world are England's serfs. One of 
these countries is Greece. When the king of " inde- 
pendent Greece," Otho the Bavarian, refused to be 
England's " man," England secured his dethronement. 
Since then the Greek rulers have been on their good 
behaviour. France follows England's leadership, and 
in the Far East, Japan is doing England's work. 

" England is a power to which, for purposes of 
foreign conquest and subjugation, Rome in the height 
of her glory is not to be compared," said Webster. At 
that time England's foothold in India was uncertain, 


the settlement of Australia, New Zealand, and Africa 
had scarcely commenced. To-day, with the expansion 
which took place in the last hundred years, the British 
Empire is the most extensive, the most populous, 
the greatest that the world has ever seen. More than 
seventy per cent, of the world's commerce is in its 
hands. In industries, in manufactures, in agricultural 
and pastoral pursuits, the British Empire is second to 
none. Sixty per cent, of the merchantmen of the world 
wave the English flag. As a naval power England is 

In her literature, in her science, is readily recognized 
that fearless spirit of investigation, that spirit of rebel- 
lion against authority in religion as in science, which is 
the heirloom of all Teutonic races. Who can deny that 
a kindred spirit animates Darwin, Lyell, Livingstone, 
Tyndall, Spencer, Kant, Huxley, Haeckel, Shakespeare, 
Gothe, Wickliffe, Luther, Parker, Channing, the Dis- 
senters, in fact, all Teutonic thinkers, and the Sagamen 
of old, who yielded to no power, who took a buffet from 
the " All Father " himself and returned it? 

It is the doubting attitude of mind, which is as far 
removed from atheism as it is from superstition, that 
characterizes all Teutonic thinkers. They are, in a 
certain sense, all mystics; the deepest of Teutonic 
minds, Shakespeare and Gothe, not less so than the 
Sagaman of old. Compare Hamlet, Faust, and the old 
Teutonic songs. " Who knows God, who knows him 
not? " And is not this true also of Kant (" Critic of 



Practical Reason ")., and of Spencer, when he declares 
that the one thing we know more certainly than any- 
thing else in the world is the existence of an infinite 
and eternal energy back of all phenomena, from which 
all things proceed; that this energy is akin to us; that 
that which wells up in us under the form of conscious- 
ness is of the same essence as this infinite and eternal 
energy? Is it not true of Huxley, when he says that, 
as an honourable scientist, if he were compelled to choose 
between Buchner and Berkeley, he would be obliged 
to stand with Berkeley? Is it not true of Tyndall, who 
tells us that it is utterly impossible to explain conscious- 
ness in any materialistic way; that the gulf between 
matter, force, and consciousness is as impassable in 
the height of modern science as it was to primeval 

In literature and in science the old spirit is alive. 
England is great because Englishmen are great; Eng- 
lishmen are great because the spirit of their ancestors 
is alive in them; and that spirit is alive in them because 
the blood that courses in their veins is the blood that 
rolled in the veins of the old Saxons. Never have 
Englishmen practised promiscuity, never have they 
vitiated their blood. This race purity makes the English 
the greatest and the strongest of races. 

There are a few people the nationality of which is 
a biological fact. The English is one of them. In that 
sense the English dictum, " Once an Englishman, 
always an Englishman/ ' is certainly true. Citizenship, 


allegiance to a country, is something external, super- \ 
ficial, temporary, and revocable. Nationality is some- J 
thing inborn, sacred, irrevocable. A little ink on a little 
piece of paper changes a man's citizenship. Nationality 
is changed only by destroying it. Men of a distinct 
nationality can become absorbed by another nation if 
that nation is of a strong race and sufficiently numerous, j 
In that case several generations make the descendants / 
of these men members of that other race. Nature expels j 
everything that is out of harmony with that race. 
Where no such absorption is possible, nationality is 
destroyed by promiscuity alone; and it takes several 
generations of promiscuity before the destruction 
is complete. Change of nationality in the latter case 
always and without exception leads to deterioration, 
degeneration, and ultimately to utter depravity. The 
mongrel is worthless. (lfj~ , \ 

Allegiance to a state is a matter of convenience and of\ l^-, 62* 
choice; nationality is a matter of necessity. It is j^ ^t 
the epitome of the capacities, tendencies, and labours a% • , 

of many generations. Nationality is infinitely better! 
than citizenship, just as blood is better than ink. 

The English became great, because they remained true 
to themselves, true to their race instincts. Their con- i ^m<^jJT { 
servative adherence to race, their repulsion of foreign 
races, is the source of their greatness. 

The innate qualities of the race have, in peace and 
war, won imperishable glory. Who can doubt that its 
future will be as great as its past? 


" Then comes another, 
Yet more mighty. 
But him dare I not 
Venture to name. 
Few farther may look 
Than to where Wodan 
To meet the wolf goes." 

(The Edda.) 



The difference between the racial characteristics of the 
Anglo-Saxons and Latins expresses itself in the difference 
between their respective colonial histories. The Latins 
sought adventure and gold; the Anglo-Saxons a new 
home, a home where they could be independent men 
and women. On the North American continent the 
Spaniards never gained a secure footing, and the French 
had to yield to the superiority of the English. 

It is not mere courtesy that leads the world to call 
a small island Great Britain. It is the independent, 
enterprising spirit, and the common sense of the English 
race, that has made the small island great. Their Saxon 
spirit came with the English to America. In the year 
1607 the first permanent English colony in America 
was established on the coast of Virginia. The energy 
and determination of John Smith made the enterprise 
a success. 

The year after this enterprise was undertaken another 
band of emigrants went out from England. They went 
to seek religious freedom. King James had declared 
that he would make all men conform to the Established 
Church, or harass them out of the country. Accordingly 



those who did not conform were persecuted, fined, im- 
prisoned, and beaten. After sixteen hundred years of 
Christianity, Holland was the only place in the world 
where these nonconformers were free to worship God 
according to their convictions, where they were at 
liberty to think their own thoughts. 

In the neighbourhood of Scrooby, a village in Notting- 
hamshire, Postmaster William Brewster, William Brad- 
ford, John Carver, and others had organized, an inde- 
pendent church with John Robinson for its minister. 
They were considered outcasts, and they became con- 
vinced that, so long as they remained in England, they 
could never be safe from persecution. They decided to 
emigrate to Holland. They made their headquarters 
in Leyden, and there, under the leadership of Robinson, 
they flourished and prospered. The Dutch did not 
hinder them from living their own life. 

As the years went by they recognized clearly that they 
would become absorbed by the Hollanders, lose their 
nationality, and cease to be Englishmen. They recog- 
nized that the loss of nationality is the most direful 
misfortune that can befall the individual, and makes it 
impossible for a race to develop in its own way. They 
recognized that in the case of a strong race denationaliza- 
tion always spells deterioration. A number of the 
Pilgrims in Holland succeeded in obtaining from King 
James the privilege of emigrating to America. They 
decided to emigrate to America, in order to be among 
people of their own race and speech, where they could 


continue to develop the capacities and tendencies which 
were their heritage. 

A London trading company agreed to furnish the 
Pilgrims passage, but the terms were so hard that the 
Pilgrims said the conditions were fitter for thieves and 
bondslaves than honest men. The London company 
took them over on the miserable little Mayflower. 
They started out for the northern part of Virginia, but 
drifted ashore north of Cape Cod. There they were free 
to shape their own government. Before landing, a 
number of the Pilgrims drew up this compact: 

" In ye name of God, Amen. We, whose names are 
underwritten, the loyall subjects of our dread soveraign 
Lord, King James, by ye grace of God, of Great Brit- 
tains, France and Ireland, King, defender of ye faith 
etc. haveing undertaken for ye glorie of God, and 
advancement of ye Christian faith, and honour of our 
king and countrie, a voyage to plant ye first colonie 
in ye northern parts of Virginia, doe by these presents 
solemnly and mutually in ye presence of God, and one 
another, covenant and combine ourselves together into 
a civill body politick, for our ordering and preservation, 
and the furtherance of ye ends aforesaid ; and by vertue 
hereof to enacte, constitute and frame such just and 
equall lawes, ordinances, acts, constitutions and offices 
from time to time, as shall be thought most meete and 
convenient for ye generall good of ye colonie, unto which 
we promise all due submission and obedience." 

(Signed by forty-one men.) 


Landing at Cape Cod, they established a colony at 
Patuxent, since called Plymouth, on the basis of equal 
laws for the general good. The Pilgrims were hard- 
headed and practical men. They were ready to face 
all hardships for the sake of their convictions. They 
were ready to fight the Indians, the savage winter, and 
the barren soil. Yet, like their forefathers in the forests 
of Northwestern Germany, they were seers, visionaries, 
dreamers, and mystics. They dreamed of a better 
future, a better form of government, a greater freedom, 
and they set about to realize their dreams. 

In the life of hardship that colonists meet, rank, title, 
and even learning count for nothing; for it is the steel 
in the blood, the race alone, that is of value. The 
first settlement of Plymouth numbered one hundred 
and one. The principal men were William Bradford, 
Miles Standish, Samuel Fuller, John Howland, and 
Edward Winslow. John Carver was the first governor. 

A much larger number of Puritans settled at Salem. 
Charlestown, Boston, and Roxbury in 1628 and 1630. 
The men who settled Massachusetts brought with them 
the Teutonic desire to learn and investigate, and as early 
as 1632, £400 were granted for the support of a school 
at Cambridge. This school has grown into the most 
famous high school of America, Harvard Univer- 

The little handful of men that came with the May- 
flower created the mould into which this great republic 
has been run. They gave form to the government, 


and, for a long time, everything that happened to the 
country came along the lines which they laid down. 

When the Pilgrims landed, the building of nineteen 
houses was considered necessary for shelter, but when 
seven were completed, there was no need of more, for 
half of the colonists had perished. Their former minister, 
Robinson, wrote to them from Leyden: " In a battle 
it is not looked for but that diverse should die. God, 
I hope, hath given you the victory after many difficul- 

In the first years, the Plymouth people were frequently 
on the brink of starvation. The poverty of the settlers 
was extreme. Bradford tells us, when newcomers had 
arrived that they were much daunted and dismayed. 
Some wished themselves in Enlgand again, and others 
fell a-weeping, fancying their own misery in what they 
saw now in others. Between 1620 and 1640 about 
twenty-two thousand Puritan emigrants sailed to 
America from English and Dutch ports. 

The rule of the Puritans was stern and severe. Their 
government was theocratic, and no experience of the 
individual's life was free from the interference of public 
authority. Public authority ruled his person, his family, 
his religion. It was a grim rule of bigotry and intoler- 
ance. It was, however, not tyranny; for they them- 
selves were the source of the authority of the govern- 
ment. They believed that their plan of government 
was not theirs, but God's, and that they obeyed the law 
of God. Their devout sincerity of purpose cannot 


be questioned. Their vices were the excesses of their 
virtues. They believed that the Bible was God's word; 
that the only rule of guidance, therefore, was con- 
science enlightened by the Bible; that, according to the 
Bible, the world was a fallen and an evil place; and 
that nearly all men were doomed to perdition. They 
were determined to save their own little selves. 

The sole aim of life was to keep from folly and sin. 
Light heartedness was wicked. It was their creed 
that made them bigoted, austere, and harsh. Puritan 
men and women were grave and stern. Sumptuary 
laws forbade vanity of dress, gay manners, and light 
speech. Sober tints and quiet manners alone were 
tolerated. All revelry was prohibited. A dance was 
sinful; no one was allowed to own a pack of cards, 
or a set of dice; there was no theatre, no place for a 
public amusement of any kind. Late hours were for- 
bidden. On Sunday all noise was hushed, all toil 
ceased, and all passing from place to place, save for 
necessity, was prohibited. Attendance upon public 
worship was compulsory. The Puritans were too 
austere in their mode of living, for, in their attempt 
to promote virtue, they chilled life. Yet, even with the 
Puritans, nature was stronger than theory, and there 
were outdoor sports and indoor games, and youngsters 
were youngsters. 

The Puritans were intolerant. They imprisoned, 
persecuted, whipped, banished, and famished heretics. 
Does the Puritan rule for that reason deserve the con- 


tempt and the expressions of invective and abhorrence 
which have been visited on it? Were they more intoler- 
ant than the English Church, which persecuted Puritans, 
Catholics, and Quakers? When they assigned to infants 
" the coolest room in hell," were they more intolerant 
than Luther when he said, " Any man who holds that 
some of those not baptized escape perdition is a heretic? " 
When they persecuted heretics, were they more intoler- 
ant than Calvin when he burned Servetus at the stake? 
Were they more intolerant than the Inquisition, which 
burned many thousand heretics at the stake? What 
tolerance was there in the offensive language and in 
the insulting behaviour of the Quakers, who spoke 
of the people of New England as " cruel English Jews, 
the most vainest and beastliest place of all bruits, the 
most publicly profane and the most covertly corrupt? " 
Their intolerance does not render them more blame- 
worthy than all men of the age. Their vices were the 
vices of the time, their virtues were their own. 

The standard of morality among them was very high; 
and, as far as their bigotry and austerity was concerned, 
Puritanism produced the corrective influences which 
were constantly reducing its fanaticism. Puritanism 
favoured activity of mind. In their schools and high 
schools they offered the education which developed the 
great qualities of the race, and led them to test their 
principles. Liberalizing influences made themselves 
felt; and, toward the close of the seventeenth century, 
we notice that the old rigidity of doctrine no longer 


existed; manners and customs were less austere and 
the habits of life less harsh. This development con- 
tinued and led, in the nineteenth century, to the most 
liberal theology of the land, that of Emerson. 

In 1642, Lechford, an Episcopal lawyer, wrote of the 
colonists: "I think that wiser men than they, going 
into a wilderness to set up another strange government, 
might have fallen into greater error than they have 
done." The severest judges of the Puritans admit 
their noble qualities, — their full sincerity, their lofti- 
ness of purpose, their love of liberty, their fidelity and 
truthfulness, their intelligence and their good judgment. 

The Puritans were, as Milton said, " faithful and free- 
born Englishmen and good Christians, constrained to 
forsake their dearest home, their friends and kindred, 
whom nothing but the wide ocean and the savage 
deserts of America could hide and shelter from the 
fury of the bishops." With them came to America the 
Saxon spirit; and, when the colonists had to fight for 
free national institutions, it was Massachusetts that, 
with Virginia, became the leader against the attempted 

The Massachusetts of old is dead; Plymouth Rock 
has become a legend; scant courtesy is paid to the Pil- 
grims and the Puritans and their institutions. The men 
who allow the Puritan purposes a fair presentation are 
accused of partiality and hypocrisy. Contempt for the 
Puritans is considered their just desert. And yet 
these men laid the corner-stone of this republic. They 


determined the direction in which this great common- 
wealth had to develop. 

In 1607 one hundred English settlers established 
the first English colony in America. This settlement 
was made at Jamestown, May 13th. To the colonists 
and their descendants were granted all the rights of 
natural-born Englishmen. The colony prospered, and 
in 1619 the first legislative body of North America met 
at James City. Like the Massachusetts settlers, the 
Virginians, animated by the same spirit, were friends 
of higher learning, and in 1693 " William and Mary 
College " was established. 

During the Commonwealth in England many royalists 
fled to Virginia. Among them the ancestors of Wash- 
ington, Jefferson, the Lees, Randolphs, and many other 
families. In 1716 Governor Spotswood crossed the Blue 
Ridge, and is said to have been the first white man to 
enter the Great Valley. The treaty of 1763 made the 
Mississippi the western boundary of Virginia. 

Massachusetts and Virginia were the two centres 
from which Anglo-Saxon ideas and ideals spread with 
the Anglo-Saxon blood over the country. The men of 
the North represented the Teutonic character, in its 
austerity. In the Southern colony the sunny char- 
acteristics of the Teutons impressed themselves upon 
the land. The Virginians loved life. They were less 
introspective, less self-tormenting, but not less relig- 
ious than the Puritans, though there was no bigotry 
in their religion. They were more amiable and not less 


energetic than the men of the Northern colony, 
and their force of character and will-power failed 
not to impress itself upon the future of the whole 

Novels and histories, written with the intention of 
painting slavery blacker than it was, have depicted 
the Virginians as a class of cruel braggarts, drink- 
ers, and gamblers. The very fact that Virginia has 
produced in the field of public service some of the 
greatest men of the country, among them Washington, 
Jefferson, Madison, and Marshall, and the fact that, 
for half a century, in the council of the young republic 
Virginia's influence was preponderant if not dominant, 
gives the lie to these ballad-mongers. 

There were very few cities in the colony, and these 
were small and of no social importance. The planters 
were little kings on their plantations, where stately 
men and lovely women ruled. As the plantations were 
far removed from one another, there were scarcely any 
schools. This fact did not in the least hinder Virginia 
to become socially the leader of the colonies, and to 
share with Massachusetts the political leadership when 
the war for independence broke out. 

The Southerners' gaiety and love of life was not more 
immoral than the Puritans' austerity. Men and women 
led an outdoor life. They were fond of sport. They 
enjoyed horse-races, fox-hunting, cock-fights, boxing- 
matches, wrestling-matches, prize-fights, and boat- 
races. They enjoyed a dance, a game at cards, and a 


glass of wine. They drank a little too much at times, yet 
drunkenness was unknown at a time when in England 
no gentleman went sober to bed. They were ardent 
patriots, true friends, and honest enemies. In short, 
they were a race of noblemen. 

The women were as high-minded as the men. They 
were fond of outdoor life. They rode from plantation to 
plantation, frequently danced from night till morning, 
to spend the next day on another plantation and con- 
tinue the round of pleasures. They have been accused 
of loving amusement and of being fond of dress. (Some 
men assert, no doubt they are calumniators, that women 
elsewhere are also fond of these diversions.) Withal 
they were the best of wives and mothers. The men and 
women of the old colony were of a thoroughly healthy 
stock, and they produced a race that, at the time of 
the revolution, had not its equal anywhere. George 
Washington himself was a typical Virginian; not at all 
the cold, stiff, and tiresome individual that the text- 
books call George Washington, whose last and only 
prank was the cutting down of cherry-trees. Washing- 
ton, on the contrary, was very sociable. He was fond 
of a game at cards and a glass of wine. He played 
billiards, followed the chase, loved and bred horses. 
He was a good dancer, and very fond of it. His hospi- 
tality at Mount Vernon was equal to that of the other 

Although the State still bears traces of the brilliant 
life of the past, the Virginia of to-day is not the Virginia 


of a hundred and fifty years ago. The old Virginia is 
dead. The Civil War has made it a myth. 

Virginia led in recommending to the colonies " inter- 
colonial committees/ ' and by these means the colonies 
took counsel together for common action. Virginia 
was the first to recommend to the other colonies an 
annual congress of delegates. In the War of Inde- 
pendence it took a leading part. At the close of the war 
the United States was deeply in debt. One way of 
paying it was through the sale of unoccupied lands. 
It was proposed that the States give up their lands to 
the Union. Virginia was the first to do this. In the 
War of 1812 and in the war with Mexico Virginia bore 
a conspicuous part. The Mexican War drew but very 
few volunteers from the North. .**,&» 

Between the beginning of the seventeenth century 
and its end, the immigration to America consisted almost 
entirely of Anglo-Saxons. There were a few Germans, a 
few Dutchmen, a few Swedes, and a few Frenchmen. 
Their number, however, was very small in comparison 
with that of the Anglo-Saxons. Most of them were 
of the race that is closest akin to the Anglo-Saxon race, 
i. e. the German. This kinship and the smallness of their 
number rendered their absorption easy. Their denation- 
alization was not a deterioriation, for in a few generations 
they became Anglo-Saxons. In Pennsylvania, where 
many Germans lived, the absorption was slow, slow and 
thorough. There was no mongrelization, although the 
absorbent capacity of every race is limited, even in 
respect to a kindred race. 


There is a very distinct difference between coloniza- 
tion and immigration. Colonization means, in addition 
to immigration, the creation of law, order, and customs. 
It includes the bringing of civilization. The same men 
are in one place colonizers, in another only immigrants. 
Thus Americans or Germans who go to Hungary are 
colonizers, if, like the brave Saxons of Transylvania, 
and the Suabians of Southern Hungary, they refuse to 
deteriorate into Magyars, if they refuse to disappear 
in the muddy Magyar swamp. 

In England they are immigrants only. The men 
who came to America when it was a wilderness, the 
men who had to create law, government, and civilization 
in America, the men who established the country and 
impressed upon it the mould in which it had to develop, 
were colonists. The men who came later, who found a 
civilization here established, were immigrants merely. 
All men that came after 1783 must be considered im- 
migrants. Immigrants are of value to a country if the 
immigrants are of a race akin to that of the inhabitants, 
and if their number is not greater than can be absorbed. 

Excessive immigration is of the same detriment to the 
immigrant as to the native, for it destroys the race 
of both, and it reduces them both to a nondescript 
something-nothing mongrel without worth. The mon- 
grel is everywhere worthless. All nature proves this, 
and the history of humanity declares not less distinctly 
the same truth. Why should a law of nature that holds 
good everywhere not hold good in America? Is it be- 


cause Americans have pretty eyelashes or pretty teeth? 
Or is it because the advocates of unrestricted immi- 
gration do not like that law? 

Estimates agree that by 1640 there were about 
twenty-five thousand colonists in British America, nearly 
all of them in New England and Virginia. Twenty- 
five years later the population had increased to about 
eighty thousand. For 1689 Bancroft's estimate is 
two hundred thousand. By 1740 the number had 
reached a million. In 1790 the first census was taken, 
and it found a population of 3,929,214, not including 
Vermont. After the first settlements the increase in 
population was almost entirely natural. In the hundred 
years between the end of the seventeenth and the end of 
the eighteenth century, the white world seems to have 
suffered from general exhaustion. The westward move- 
ment in America continued, but there was not the energy 
and rapidity in colonization that had characterized the 
period between the beginning and the end of the seven- 
teenth century. 

European colonies changed masters, but Europeans 
established no new colonies. In South America the 
seaboard only was held. In many places the 
Europeans yielded to the coloured races. The Bantus 
migrated to the Zambesi, and destroyed the Portuguese 
rule, while on the Guinea coast the natives pressed 
back the Europeans. The Dutch, who as early as 1680 
had trekked to the Orange River, confined themselves 
to the vicinity of the Cape. Arabs and Persians con- 


quered Mombas, Aden, and Ormudz. Zanzibar became 
a more important commercial centre than the European 
trading stations. In 1670 the French discontinued their 
attempts at the acquisition of Madagascar. 

The Russians, who had conquered all of Siberia, and 
seemed near taking possession of Manchuria, by the 
treaty of Nertshinsk, relinquished their claims to the 
whole Amur basin. The Turks advanced for the third 
time upon Vienna. 

A time of general exhaustion is not a time for 
emigration; and there was very little from Europe, very 
little to America. The immigration consisted of a small 
intermittent flow of newcomers, not at all sufficient 
to influence the race characteristics of the settlers. 
During the colonial period the population doubled about 
every twenty-five years by natural increase. The 
settlers married early, and were fond of children. Large 
families were the rule. Between 1783 and 1820 the 
immigration was likewise very small. Emigration at 
that time was not the free right of the individual, and 
permission to emigrate was frequently refused. The 
wars of the French republic and of Napoleon pre- 
vented almost all emigration from the Continent. 
During this time the United States was for many years 
on unfriendly and hostile terms with England, which 
prevented emigration from Great Britain and Ireland. 
On the other hand, there was very little in America to 
induce immigration, for times were hard, and embargoes 
and wars interfered with commerce. 



The number of immigrants between 1783 and 1820 
was, according to the bureau of statistics, two hundred 
and fifty thousand. Up to 1820 the growth of the 
country was by natural increase, not by immigration; 
and its growth was so rapid that, after the close of the 
war of 1812, a new State was admitted every year: 
Indiana in 1816; Mississippi in 1817; Illinois in 1818; 
Alabama in 1819; Maine in 1820; and Missouri in 1821. 

In 1820 the population numbered about ten millions. 
During the time of Anglo-Saxon America, the popu- 
lation doubled about every twenty-five years. It is 
therefore seen that without immigration the United 
States would now hold about as many people as it does 
with an immigration of more than 22,000,000 people 
and their descendants. Thus for 1820, 10,000,000 
doubled every twenty-five years gives for 1845, 20,000,- 
000; 1870, 40,000,000; 1895, 80,000,000. 

Suppose the population had increased to 40,000,000 
only. A country that holds 40,000,000 people of a strong 
race is better, stronger, and greater than a country 
that has 100,000,000 of a mixtum-compositum from 
everywhere. It is apparent, however, that immigration 
did not strengthen the country even in numbers, but 
simply displaced the earlier inhabitants. As long 
as this displacement was by members of another Teu- 
tonic race, the difference may not have been very great, 
although unlimited numbers even of a kindred race can- 
not be absorbed. When, however, members of the 
Teutonic races are displaced by South Europeans, 


Slavs of Southeastern Europe, and Slavic-Hunnish 
mongrels called Magyars, the displacement cannot 
but lead to the deterioration of the whole country. 

The objection that it is a question of the survival of 
the fittest is of no validity whatsoever. The survival 
of the fittest is frequently not the survival of the best; 
surely not if, for the sake of theoretical considerations 
and liberality phrases, the best refuses to protect 
himself. In nature the survival of the fittest is not 
necessarily the survival of the best. The ass prospers 
where the horse dies. The coolie flourishes where the 
white man perishes. Yet no one has ever declared that 
the ass is superior to the horse, or the coolie to the white 

Why did California have the Chinese exclusion act 
passed? Economic reasons were given, but were they 
the real ones? The Chinaman had been useful in devel- 
oping the resources of the State; he was an excellent 
labourer in the mines; he had reclaimed marsh lands 
where malaria would have killed the white man; in the 
rural districts he was the only domestic servant that 
could be obtained. The Chinese did not compete with 
skilled labour; they took the drudgery. Economically 
the Chinaman was a benefit to California. It was 
asserted that the " Six Companies " exercised absolute 
authority over the Chinese, and that they assisted a 
coolie traffic. It was proved that the " Six Compa- 
nies " were mutual benefit organizations similar to the 
Odd Fellows, and that there was no coolie traffic. 



Personally the Chinese were more cleanly than many 
white people. They were hardy and their rate of 
morbidity and mortality was low. They smoked opium, 
but they did not drink. They were law-abiding, and 
very few of them were criminals. There was proportion- 
ally less criminality among them than among the white 
inhabitants; and the little criminality that existed 
was directed exclusively against members of their own 
race. Why, then, were they excluded? They were 
excluded not for economic but for racial reasons. The 
Californians, having seen Magyars and other yellow- 
white mixtures, either knew that the white-yellow 
mongrels were among the most worthless of mongrels, 
or their instinct told them the same truth. The desire 
of the West to keep people of the yellow races out of 
America has something instinctive about it. Racial, 
not economic reasons, cause the clamour against the 
admission of the Japanese. It is for this reason that it 
will not cease. 

The Japanese, on the other hand, either because 
they have seen Magyars and people of similar breed, 
or because their instinct tells them that the mongrel 
is worthless, do not allow foreigners to hold property 
in Japan, on the supposition that people who are differ- 
entiated against by the law will not come to Japan, 
if they come, will not stay. Japan is poor and 
s money. Economically, therefore, the law is a 
bad one for Japan. The reasons for its existence are, 
however, racial, not economic. 


In California the Mongolian blood was to a large 
extent excluded, while in New York it pours in freely 
under cover of a European name. From the yellows 
let us return to the Anglo-Saxons. 

The Anglo-Saxons brought with them to America . 
that love of independence and free national institutions ' 
which had characterized their forefathers in the Saxon 
forests, and which had accompanied them to England. 
Animated by that spirit, provisions for the liberty of 
the colonists were made. The charters given to the 
colonies contained the declaration that the emigrants 
to America should enjoy the same privileges as if they 
had remained within the realm. The colonial legisla- 
tures were under little or no outside control. The 
colonists governed themselves by their own laws, 
and pursued their interests as they thought best. At 
the outset they attempted to establish a state church, 
and this led to persecutions. The spirit of religious 
freedom, however, soon predominated, and after a short 
time men worshipped God everywhere in British America 
according to their convictions. England for a hundred 
and fifty years exercised a liberal policy toward the 
colonies, and their commerce grew by leaps and 

When England began to oppress the colonies in 1764, 
it met that same Saxon spirit. In 1764 England 
subjected the colonists to taxation by the British 
Parliament. The colonists, not being represented, 
refused. They believed that taxation and representa- 


tion were inseparable, and that freemen cannot be taxed 
without their consent. 

Before 1764 there were reasons for dissatisfaction with 
English rule, such as the Navigation Act, which closed 
American ports against foreign vessels, obliging the 
colonists to export their productions only to England, 
and to import European goods solely from England and 
in English ships; and the subjection of all industries 
and manufactures that might interfere with those of 
England to unjust restrictions. Nothing, however, so 
aroused the colonists as the attempt to tax them. 

In 1760 the attempt was made to collect duties on 
sugar and molasses. The duties were not paid. The 
custom-house officers applied for writs of assistance. 
The merchants opposed the application. James Otis 
argued eloquently in their favour. " Then and there," 
said John Adams, " was the first scene of opposition 
to the arbitrary claims of England. Then and there 
American independence was born." 

When the Stamp Act was passed the colonies were full 
of indignation. The legislature of Virginia immediately 
adopted this resolution: " That any person who by 
speaking or acting should assist or maintain that any 
class of men except the general assembly of the province 
had a right to impose taxation, he should be considered 
an enemy to his Majesty's colony." 

The determined spirit of the Americans rendered the 
enforcement of the Stamp Act impossible. In 1766 
it was repealed. New acts of oppression, the imposing 


of duties on tea, glass, paper, etc., caused new indigna- 
tion, however, and the stationing of troops in Boston 
increased it. In 1769 Parliament passed a bill directing 
the governor to send those accused of treason to Eng- 
land for trial. The legislature of Virginia immediately 
passed resolutions denying the right of England to 
remove an offender out of the colony. The governor dis- 
missed the legislature. The members met, however, 
and agreed not to import any of the articles that England 
had laid a tax on. Their example was extensively fol- 

In 1770 all duties except that on tea were removed. 
England shipped great quantities of tea to the colonies. 
In the colonies the sentiment prevailed that the tea 
must not be sold. In Charleston the tea was landed, 
but not allowed to be sold. In New York and Phila- 
delphia the tea was not landed; the ships were sent 
back with their cargo. In Boston the " tea party " 
boarded the ships and threw the contents of three 
hundred and forty-two chests into the water. To punish 
the inhabitants of Boston, Parliament passed the Boston 
Port Bill, by which the port was closed and the seat 
of government transferred to Salem. In the following 
year Parliament repealed the Charter of Massachusetts 
by vesting all power in the Crown, and authorized the 
governor to send all persons accused of certain offences 
to England or some other colony for trial. 

At the suggestion of Virginia, " committees of corre- 
spondence " had already been formed. In 1774 it was 


proposed that the colonies should send delegates to a 
general convention or congress. In September, 1774, 
this first Continental Congress met under the presidency 
of Peyton Randolph, of Virginia. This Congress passed 
the resolution to cease all importation from Great 
Britain, and organized committees to see that this 
resolution was enforced. 

In Massachusetts the situation became alarming. 
Public speakers, such as the Adamses, Dexter, Hancock, 
Winthrop, Prescott Phillips, and others, boldly defended 
the right of the people to withstand oppression. The 
people collected arms and prepared themselves to turn 
out at a moment's notice. 

On April 17, 1775, General Gates ordered a detach- 
ment of troops to destroy the military stores which 
the colonists had collected. The Americans resisted, 
and at Lexington the first blood was shed. In July, 
1775, the Continental Congress undertook to organize 
the army, and appointed George Washington com- 
mander-in-chief. The army consisted of undisciplined 
men, unprovided with arms and ammunition, but they 
were brave men, animated by that spirit which was their 

It is seen that Massachusetts and Virginia, that is, 
the colonies that were most homogeneous, assumed 
the leadership. In the dispute with England before the 
war, they were the leaders, and during the war they 
maintained this leadership by nature, as it were. In 
the war it became evident that the Saxon, in America 


as elsewhere, can swim as soon as he gets into the water, 
and that he can fight on the ocean as soon as he has a 
plank under him. Under Paul Jones with the Serapis 
the American navy achieved its first victory. 

Independence was won, the constitution was adopted. 
It assured to the individual as much liberty as is con- 
sistent with the liberty of others. It did not destroy 
home rule and State rights, for it declared that the 
enumeration of certain rights shall not be construed 
to deny or disparage others retained by the people; 
and that the powers not expressly granted to the central 
government nor prohibited by it to the States are 
reserved to the States respectively or to the 

The spirit that framed the constitution was akin to 
that which animated the Teutonic warrior of old, 
who pledged his sword not to any master, but to the 
master of his choice, and not unconditionally, but on 
conditions of his own. In 1790 the United States was a 
third-rate power. Twenty-two years later she coped 
a second time successfully with the strongest nation in 

In the war of 1812, it was the Saxon seamanship 
which led the little American navy from victory to 
victory against a nation that had heretofore no rival 
on the ocean. England had no rival on the ocean, 
because the Saxon spirit had made it the greatest 
sea-power in the world; but American seamen were 
able to defeat her, because they were animated by the 


same Saxon spirit. Out of fifteen naval engagements 
the Americans won twelve. Captains Porter, Hull, 
Decatur, Bainbridge, Lawrence, Perry, Stewart, and 
others won imperishable glory. 

It was the same spirit that led Doctor Whitman across 
the continent, that made known the value of Oregon 
and settled within a short time three thousand Americans 

Many Americans had made their homes in Texas. It 
was but natural for Saxons to rebel against Mexican 
rule. Texas won her independence. 

In the war with Mexico the Americans won every 
battle, whatever the disparity of numbers. Several 
battles were fought against armies four times as large 
as the American forces, (v. Chapter XVI.) 

Toward the middle of the nineteenth century the sla- 
very question began to agitate the country. Massachu- 
setts had a similar influence in bringing on the Civil 
War that she had in bringing about the Revolutionary 
War. The North held that the negro had the right to 
be as vicious and as lazy as his nature impelled him 
to be. The South denied this right. In 1860 the number 
of free States was eighteen: Maine, New Hampshire, 
Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, 
New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, 
Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, California, Minne- 
sota, and Oregon; to which, in 1861, Kansas was added. 
The slave States were Virginia, Missouri, Maryland, 
Delaware, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, 


Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi, 
Arkansas, Texas, and Florida. 

The population of the United States at this time 
was thirty-one million, of which the the slave States 
held twelve million. Among them, however, were 
four million slaves and two hundred and fifty thousand 
freed negroes, leaving for the slave States less than 
eight million white people. The population of the 
free States was nineteen million. Virginia was the 
greatest of the slave States. She was, however, cur- 
tailed by the secession of West Virginia. 

There was a time when Virginia had furnished the 
Union with its ablest leaders; now Virginia furnished 
the Southern army with its ablest leaders, Lee, Jackson, 
Johnston, and Ewell. The South was numerically 
much weaker than the North, and it was still further 
weakened by the fact that Missouri, aside from Virginia, 
the most powerful slave State, cast her lot with the 
Union, and that three other slave States, Maryland, 
Kentucky, and Delaware, declared in favour of the 

The disparity in favour of the North in wealth, in 
resources, and in numbers was so great that the North 
believed that the rebellious States would be compelled 
to obedience in a short time. Mr. Seward, the Secretary 
of State, promised that the war would be over in three 
months. There was, however, one important factor 
in favour of the South, its homogeneousness. The 
Southerners were pure Saxons. There had been prac- 


tically no immigration to the South. It was the Saxon 
spirit that made the resistance of the South so formidable 
that the war was not over in three months, nor even in 
three years. The war showed what heroic stuff the 
Southerners were made of. 

The call for troops was answered by overflowing 
numbers, in the South as in the North. In April, 1861, 
the first blood was shed in Baltimore. The Battle of 
Bull Run opened the eyes of the North. The end of 
the second year of the war found the Northern and 
Southern forces in nearly the same position as at the 
beginning of the war. The Battle of Gettysburg was 
the turning point. The Southerners were defeated, 
but not without fighting a tremendous battle, in which 
they lost forty thousand men. 

Although the population to draw from was much 
greater in the North, although the States offered boun- 
ties as a stimulus to volunteering, Congress was com- 
pelled to pass conscription acts very similar to those 
passed by the Confederate Congress. Draft-riots were 
, the result, the most notable being the riots in the least 
| homogeneous city of the land, New York. 

Long before the end of the war, the financial conditions 
of the South were in a wretched condition. It could 
not issue and sell bonds. The expense had to be met 
by paper issues; and with each issue the value of the 
paper dollar declined, until one dollar in coin was 
worth fifty dollars in paper. As the value of the money 
decreased, the price of commodities increased. Flour 


was worth $270 a barrel, butter $16 a pound, and the 
price of other articles was equally high. The entire 
population was reduced to extreme poverty. 

The difference in the financial condition of the North 
and of the South was great, and the difference in the 
number of men enrolled during the war was as great. 
The Union enrolled 2,778,304 men; while the Southern 
armies reached their greatest strength in 1863, when 
they numbered about seven hundred thousand. 

When all is considered, it must be admitted that the 
v South exhibited a much greater strength in upholding 
the rebellion than the North did in crushing it; that the 
Southern commanders exhibited an ability superior to 
that of the Northern commanders; that, in short, a 
homogeneous people is stronger than a race weakened 
by the infusion of blood from everywhere. Who can 
doubt that had the four Southern States, Missouri, 
Maryland, Kentucky, and Delaware, instead of joining 
the Union, making the disparity in favour of the North 
still greater than it was, joined the Confederacy, the 
South would have won the prize for which it fought, — 

After the war came the pernicious, preposterous 
attempt to make the South a black man's country; I 
to make the negro the ruler of the white man; to drive 
the white man out of his Southern home. That is what 
the unconditional enfranchisement of the negro meant. 
The spirit of the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments 
made the white men of the South the bitter enemies 


of the negroes; it caused the Southerners to see in the 
victory of the Union only corruption and the destruction 
of their society, a government of ignorance, and an 
abominable abuse of power; it made the South the 
irreconcilable enemy, not of the Union, but of the party 
that saved the Union. 

What was the effect on the negro? Has it made him 
better, more able, more industrious, happier than he 
was before the war? Not at all. The negro of to-day 
is in every way inferior to the negro of the time before 
the war. It is the white man's power, the white man's 
authority alone that in the South supports the negro, 
and prevents him from falling back into the state of utter 
savagery to which the liberated slaves of Hayti, Santo 
Domingo, and Liberia have returned. In spite of bills, 
resolutions, Constitution, and amendments, the negro 
in the South does not vote. The Southerners have 
succeeded in keeping the South what it was before the 
war, — a white man's country. The disfranchisement 
by constitutional amendment had that good result. 

Since the war the growth of the United States in 
wealth, resources, and power has been remarkable, 
its progress and development phenomenal. Less than 
a hundred years ago the United States was not considered 
a factor in the politics of the world; to-day she is a 
world-power second to none. 

Considering the history of the United States, this 
fact is clearly observed: that everything accomplished 
that had something of greatness in it, everything that 



was above the commonplace, was accomplished either 
by Anglo-Saxons directly, or was due to Anglo-Saxon 

There is but one exception to this rule. Men have 
come to America who pledged their services to the 
United States and who served the United States well. 
I refer to such men as Steuben, Lafayette, DeKalb, 
Schurz, and others. These men, however, brought 
with them the characteristics and abilities of their 
respective races. The American descendants of the 
races to which these men belonged did not retain 
these capacities and abilities, (y. chapter, " The 
German- Americans.") In other words, they deterio- 
rated. That this deterioration does not include 
the Jews, Chapter VI proves. The Irish escaped it to 
an extent; for in their case religious reasons pre- 
vented promiscuity for a long time. With the influx 
of Slavs and Latins, that is changing, not to the benefit 
of the Irish. The North of Ireland men are Irishmen 
geographically only; racially, they are Anglo-Saxons 
and share their fate. The deterioration of Germans 
and Scandinavians is marked. They had not the strong 
race consciousness of the Jews, nor the religious con- 
victions of the Irish. 

What is true of politics is also true of literature, art, 
and science. Everything above the commonplace is 
either directly accomplished by Anglo-Saxons or is 
due to Anglo-Saxon initiative. 

In a booklet entitled " The Unitarian Church: Its 


History and Characteristics. A Statement by Joseph 
Crooker," I read under the heading " By their fruits 
ye shall know them." We are willing to let the facts 
speak for themselves. The record shows that Unitarians 
have been fruitful in good works far beyond what could 
reasonably have been expected of them. Our American 
churches have never embraced more than one two- 
hundredth part of the population of the United States. 
If, therefore, our people have contributed one two- 
hundredth to the various beneficent activities of our 
country, our faith will show an average fruitfulness. 
Any larger proportion than this means so much extra 
credit. Let us, then, from this point of view, consider 
a few facts. 

" On the ceiling of the vestibule of the Boston Public 
Library are the names of some score and a half Americans 
who have been most eminent in art and literature, in 
law and science. Of these belonging to the nineteenth 
century nearly four-fifths are the names of Unitarians, — 
some hundred and fifty times our proportion. Chief 
Justice Coleridge, of England, in making an address . . . 
referred to the American authors most known and hon- 
oured abroad; every one whom he mentioned was a 

" In any list of the thirty most eminent Americans 
in literature that may be made we shall find at the 
head Emerson, and after him Longfellow, Lowell, 
Holmes, Hawthorne, Bryant, Bancroft, Motley, Thoreau, 
Prescott, Parkman, Miss Alcott. . . . We can claim 



at least half the names in such a list, however made up, 
and these by far the most distinguished. Or, in other 
words, about a hundred times our proportion. 

" Another list of names could be made of those 
distinctly or essentially Unitarians that would contain 
as many distinguished persons as could be found outside 
our fellowship, such as: Bayard Taylor, George William 
Curtis, Helen Hunt, Bret Harte, Henry C. Lea, Edwin 
P. Whipple, William R. Alger, Thomas Wentworth 
Higginson, 0. B. Frothingham, Mrs. A. D. T. Whitney, 
John Fiske, Jared Sparks, George Ripley, Charles Eliot 
Norton, James T. Fields, Richard Hildreth, J. T. Trow- 
bridge, and many others. ... In a series of biographies 
known as ' American Men of Letters/ eleven of the eight- 
een are the lives of Unitarians, not including the Unita- 
rian Quaker, Whittier. . . . 

" In the ' History of Education/ by Compayre, the 
two names mentioned in the chapter on the United 
States are William Ellery Channing and Horace Mann, 
both Unitarians. When we add to these the names 
of Elizabeth P. Peabody, the pioneer in Kindergarten 
work in America; William G. Eliot, our apostle of all 
the humanities at St. Louis and the founder of Wash- 
ington University; Ezra Cornell, who made the insti- 
tution bearing his name possible; Peter Cooper, who 
created Cooper Institute, a pioneer in its line; Jonas 
G. Clark, who created Clark University; Dr. Samuel 
G. Howe, the teacher of the blind; President Charles 
W. Eliot, who in reorganizing and developing Harvard 


University has done a monumental work for education 
in America, we have at least a quarter of the names 
of those most influential in the educational progress of 
our land during the past century, — a number out 
of all proportion to our size as a religious body. 

" Some of the activities along the lines of philanthropy 
have already been indicated; but there are others to 
be added, and they may be represented by the following 
names: Joseph Tuckerman, the first in this country 
to organize charity work in Boston according to what 
we now know as approved scientific methods; Dorothea 
L. Dix, the world's greatest philanthropist among 
women ; Henry Berg, who inaugurated the work for the 
suppression of cruelty to animals; John Pierpont, the 
fiery advocate of all reforms, but more especially tem- 
perance; Susan B. Anthony, Mary A. Livermore, Samuel 
J. May, — names that represent some of the noblest 
efforts ever made for the higher life of the race; Henry 
W. Bellows, who was the creative and presiding genius 
of the Sanitary Commission; Edward Everett Hale. 
When we add Doctor Channing, we have ten in any list 
of the twenty-five names of the most eminent Americans 
belonging to this class, nearly a hundredfold more 
than our proportion. . . . 

" The man who started the agitation for civil service 
reform, Representative Jenckes, of Rhode Island, was a 
Unitarian. Dr. James Freeman Clarke and Dr. Henry 
W. Bellows were for a long time the only clergymen 
of prominence who gave this reform earnest and untiring 



support. George William Curtis and Dorman B. Eaton 
(both Unitarians) shared with Carl Schurz the leadership 
of this great movement. The two men who were its 
most valiant and powerful advocates in the Senate 
for years were Hoar and Burnside. Though the smallest 
of churches, we have played the largest part in this 
vital reformation of our national life. . . . 

" It is an interesting and significant fact that nine of 
the twenty-eight persons included in the ' American 
Statesmen Series ' were Unitarians, — vastly more 
than what could reasonably be called our share. . . . 

u Recently tablets were dedicated in the Hall of Fame 
to twenty-five Americans who had been selected for 
these highest honours by the votes of a large and com- 
petent jury. Of this number, the following twelve, 
or eighty times our proportion, were Unitarians : Emer- v v 
son, Longfellow, Hawthorne, Horace Mann, Peter \ 
Cooper, Channing, John Marshall, Joseph Story, John * 
Adams, Franklin, Jefferson, and Webster." 

American art and literature are thoroughly Unitarian. 
Why is it that the small Unitarian Church has produced 
so many great men in America? This is the answer: J 
The Unitarian Church has as its followers Anglo-Saxon ] 
Americans almost exclusively. The great qualities 1 
of that race give to that church the great number of 1 
men of genius, a number out of all proportion to its 
numerical strength. The church doctrine has nothing 
whatsoever to do with it; it is the race of its members 
that is essential, and that makes it great. 


There are Unitarian Magyars who share with Catho- 
lic and Lutheran Magyars the honour of having added 
not a single thought, not a single suggestion, to civiliza- 
tion. Francis David, the prominent first bishop of the 
Unitarian Church in Transylvania, was a Saxon, not a 
Magyar. Petofi was a Slav, Maurus Jokai was a Jew. 
Compare the small handful of Saxons in Transylvania 
with the Magyars, and this must be admitted : that the 
two hundred thousand Saxons there are, as far as the 
progress of man and civilization is concerned, vastly 
more important than the whole herd of eight million 
Unitarian, Catholic, Lutheran, or anything else Mag- 
yars. " By their fruits ye shall know them." 

Why is it that people of the Anglo-Saxon race alone 
have accomplished so much? Why is it that races that 
elsewhere are as active as the Anglo-Saxon race have in 
America deteriorated to the level of the Magyars? 
(v. chapter, " The German-Americans/') For this 
reason : in the United States the Anglo-Saxon race alone 
continued its normal development. The Anglo-Saxon 
alone did not discard his mother tongue (v. chapter, 
" Heredity and Language ") and a sense of superiority 
has prevented promiscuity to a considerable extent. 

Promiscuousness is becoming general. Soon it will 
have destroyed the great qualities of the Anglo-Saxon 
race, as it has destroyed the great qualities of other 
Teutonic people in America, if they do not prefer 
to die out. As the Anglo-Saxon birth-rate in many 
communities is rapidly decreasing, in some falling below 


the death-rate, it seems that the Anglo-Saxons prefer 
extinction to degeneration. In fifty years, probably, 
the last of them will have drowned himself in the Pacific. 
Will the country outlive the death of its Saxon heart? 
(v. " The Pan-European Rome.") 

immigration: who in America? 

The first census was taken in 1790. 

Table I gives the number of inhabitants according 
to the censuses taken every ten years, and the per- 
centage of increase. 







































Notice that before the immigration commenced the 
percentage of increase was not smaller than after 1820. 

Table II gives the annual immigration between 
1820 and 1905. 


















































































































































































In the years 1847, 1848, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1852, 1853, 
1854, 1870, 1873, 1881, 1882, 1883, 1903, 1904, 1905, 
1906, immigration exceeded one per cent, of the re- 
ceiving population. Be it remembered that every year 
the receiving population was less homogeneous than the 
year before. 

The race of the population, its homogeneousness, 
however, is of very much greater importance than its 

In 1900 the population of the United States was 
76,303,387, the total white population was 66,990,802. 


Native whites of native parents 
Native whites of foreign parents 
Foreign born 














76,303,387 100.00% 


Table IV gives the foreign born in the United 
States by birthplaces (1900). 







Great Britain 



Sweden and Norway 
























Other parts of Europe 






Latin America 






All others 





Observe that the natives of Russia have increased 
from practically 0.00% to 6.14% of the foreign born, 
the natives of Austro-Hungary to 6.10%, and the 
natives of Italy to 4.67%. 

Another way of looking at the subject is by comparing 
the number of immigrants of the different nationalities 
for the different periods. 

Observe the decline of immigration from Germany 
from 29.7% to 27.6% to 14.1% to 4.5%. 

Observe the decline of immigration from Great Britain 
from 17% (1881-1890) to 3.3% (1901-1903). 

Observe the decline of immigration from Ireland 






















































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from 30.2% (1821-1880) to 10.8% (1881-1890) to 
4.7% (1901-1903). 

Observe the increase of immigration from Austro- 
Hungary from 0.7% to 6.7% to 15.5% to 24.6%. 

Observe the increase of immigration from Italy from 
0.7% to 17.0% to 27.3%. 

Observe the increase of immigration from Russia from 
0.9% to 5.7% to 15.4% to 16.4%. 

In addressing the Senate March 16, 1896, Senator 
Lodge said: " Down to 1875 there had been scarcely 
any immigration to this country except from kindred 
or allied races, and no other which was sufficiently 
numerous to have produced any effect on the national 
characteristics, or to be taken into account here." 

In 1903 more than 70.0% of the immigration came 
from Austro-Hungary, Russia, and Italy. Who can 
doubt that, had the proportions which obtained in the 
last twenty years obtained in the earlier period of the 
country's history, the country would not have de- 
veloped as it did? 

The influx of these races cannot be without conse- 
quences. The surgeons at the ports of immigration 
observe that the present immigrants have a much higher 
per cent, of loathsome diseases, and that, in general 
physique, it is very much inferior to the immigration 
of thirty years ago. The history of the races now 
coming proves beyond doubt their mental inferiority 
to the races that immigrated before the advent of Slavs 
and Latins. If immigration is still a blessing, then the 


sturdy Northern races are in every way preferable to the 
Southern and Southeastern debris of races that have 
been. The free admission of these latter prevents the 
coming of the former, for if content to compete with 
Slavs and Latins, the Northerners need not migrate 
as far as the United States. Much more important than 
the economic effects of immigration are the racial effects 
of immigration. 

It was Darwin's opinion that where selection 
(inbreeding) is not practised, distinct races are not 
formed, and that it is by incessant selection and 
close attention alone that noble races are maintained. 
To improve a race, close inbreeding is indispensable. 
Too close inbreeding leads to weakness and sterility. 
In case of man, the latter danger is nonexistent. God 
Cupido prevents it. It cannot be considered even as 
a possible danger in the case of a nation that consists 
of more than ten million souls. 

There are historians who assert that primeval man 
lived in promiscuousness, but they cannot give a single 
reason for the assertion, nor quote one tribe as an 
example to support their theory. The fact is that even 
the lowest of savages, the natives of Australia, have 
very complex marriage regulations; and that all races 
which have stepped from darkness into the light of 
history had constitutions founded on the strictest 
race purity. Pride of race characterizes them all. 
Nearly every one of these peoples considered itself the 
pure descendant of one hero and of one heroine; and 



the Teutons traced their line of descent back, not to 
any gods, but to the German gods. 

\Many of the early religions considered marriage out- 
side the tribe a most heinous offence. All nations that 
left their mark in history were of pure race. It is evident 
that inbreeding alone produces a national character. 
Biologists tell us that it takes at least ten generations 
with very careful selection before characteristics be- 
come fixed. A very much longer time than ten genera- 
tions is necessary to fix a national character. Keen 
observers have recognized that nations and individuals 
of pure breed alone have character, but that the mongrel 
has none, long before biology proved the fact. No nation 
can exist and remain powerful that is not essentially 

Immigration, not followed by selection, lessens and 
eventually destroys homogeneousness. It is beyond a 
doubt that the immigration of the last half-century 
was larger than could be absorbed. The immigrants 
were denationalized. Denationalization of a good 
race without thorough absorption by another strong 
race always spells degeneration. Their descendants 
spoke English and called themselves Americans. What, 
however, is in a name? The anthropological contents 
alone is of importance, not the name. The herd that 
infested the empire called itself Roman long after the 
death of the last Roman. 

When noble races, hypnotized by theoretical consider- 
ations and phrases that smack of humanity, begin to 


entertain contempt for their healthy instinct, then only- 
do they begin to practise promiscuousness. Noble races 
abhor crossing. Statistics prove this to be the case, also, 
in the United States. Where in any one locality many 
people of a particular race live, the men choose wives 
of their own race. And the race that was least clannish, 
that for a time was the most eager to practise French 
phrases, that most had " the native hue of resolution 
sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought/' the German, 
was the quickest to degenerate. The same cause is 
beginning to have the same effect on the Anglo-Saxons. 

Up to the middle of the last century a distinct national 
character was developing in the United States, and 
certain distinctive traits were forming. The addition 
of millions of other races has caused a decomposition 
which prevented the endurance of these characteristics, 
and caused this development to cease. 

Why do nations decline? Does conquest destroy a 
race? The history of the Jews, of the English, of the 
Irish, of the Germans, and of other peoples, proves that 
it does not. 

Luxury cannot be held responsible. This is confined 
to the upper class, and the luxury of this class in Rome 
and Greece was not greater than that of the same class 
in America, England, Germany, and other countries 

Immorality and vice cause national decay only in the 
case of peoples of corrupted blood. Nations of race 
suffer from periods of immorality, but soon become dis- 


gusted with depravity, and the disease is cured without 
leaving permanent effects, (v. The history of England 
in the seventeenth century, the history of Prussia in 
the eighteenth century.) 

One cause only is sufficiently powerful to cause the 
decay of a nation. This cause is promiscuousness. A 
nation is decayed that consists of degenerates, and it 
consists of degenerates when it no longer constitutes 
a distinct race. A degenerated race is one that has no 
longer the same internal worth which it had of old, for 
the reason that incessant infusions of foreign blood have 
diluted and weakened the old blood. In other words, 
a nation is deteriorated that consists of individuals not 
at all related or very distantly related to the founders 
of the nation. 

The impetus which the founders of the nation have 
given it will persist for a time. Their ideas, their ideals, 
their civilization will for a time seem to be alive, like 
a galvanized corpse. Soon after the death of the race, 
however, its institutions, its morals, its customs, will 
perish. The same words begin to signify different things, 
for ideas have the same meaning to people of the same 
blood only. As the Romans perished, Roman institu- 
tions and Roman government changed. It carried 
the name long after it ceased to be a republic. A nation 
consisting of a heterogeneous mass of men has no future. 
Its first defeat marks the moment of its death. 

Germanic elements are still dominant in the United 
States. It is a sacred duty to preserve them, for the 


Germanic heritage is the greatest the world has. The 
cosmopolitan humanitarianism based on hysterical 
French phrases alone prevents the United States from 
asserting and preserving its Teutonic character. The 
phrases of equality and the brotherhood of man led the 
French to guillotine many of their best men. Very 
soon after the enunciation of the absurd principles, 
Napoleon put an end to all that nonsense as far as France 
was concerned. Elsewhere the phrases have worked 
inestimable harm. 

The principle that all men are created equal is still 
considered the chief pillar of strength of the United 
States. It is a little declamatory phrase, and only one 
objection can be raised against it, that it does not contain 
one iota of truth. Every man knows that the phrase is 
a falsehood. The truth is that all men are created 
unequal. Even the men of one and the same race are 
unequal; the inequalities, however, are not greater 
than the inequalities existing between the individual 
leaves of one tree, for they are variations of one and 
the same type. The differences between individuals 
of distinct races are essential, and, as they are the differ- 
ences that exist between one species and another, they 
are lasting. The attempts at creating perfect man, 
man pure and simple, or " The American," by a fusion 
of all human beings, is similar to the attempt of creating 
the perfect dog by a fusion of all canine races. Every 
animal breeder knows that it cannot be done. 

The thing " dog " does not exist in nature; the term 


is an abstraction. The term " man " or " human being " 
is likewise an abstraction. It is a term almost void of 
meaning. The being " man," which we attempt to 
create here by promiscuousness, which never existed 
and never will exist except as a figure of speech, cannot 
even be pictured by the mind. The imagination refuses 
to create such a being. Let the mind imagine " man," 
and the mind's eye sees either a white man, a black man, 
a yellow man, or a red man. The " man " that the mind 
imagines is not only a white man, but he bears in addition 
the characteristics of his particular race. The mind's eye 
sees a Jewish head on Jewish shoulders, or an English 
head on English shoulders, or a German head on German 
shoulders. Or it sees a worthless thing, a mongrel, with 
its characteristics, of which the chief is lack of character. 
The mental differences are very much greater than the 
physical differences, great as these are, for they extend 
from white to black. The mental differences can be 
studied by tendencies, capacities, and results accom- 
plished only; and, that the tendencies of the mongrel are 
vicious, the post-Romans, the post-Hindoos, and the 
other mongrels clearly prove. 

The United States is not much less cosmopolitan 
to-day than imperial Rome was. 

The friends of universal uniformity and of eternal 
peace will say: " Well, as soon as we are equally worth- 
less, we will not know it, and happiness and peace will 
prevail." The conclusion is false. The mongrels are 
equally worthless, but there is no harmony in the 


depraved lot. The instincts of the different races do not 
entirely disappear, but they cannot develop. The result 
is internal unhappiness as far as the individual is con- 
cerned, and discord, chronic civil war, as far as the state 
is concerned. Anarchy within the individual, anarchy 
in the state. 

And why should promiscuousness in the United States 
have a different effect than it had in Rome and else- 
where? The opinion is advanced that the public schools 
change the children of all races into Americans. Put 
a Scandinavian, a German, and a Magyar boy in at one 
end, and they will come out Americans at the other end. 
Which is like saying, let a pointer, a setter, and a pug 
enter one end of a tunnel and they will come out three 
greyhounds at the other end. 

Public schools are in our time not educational institu- 
tions, but information bureaus, and the cultivation of the 
memory predominates. The children of every race can 
be trained to the cultivation of the memory, but they 
cannot all be educated alike. The instincts of the differ- 
ent races are too much out of harmony. It is for this 
reason that the schools give information, with very 
little education. Schools cannot accomplish the impos- 
sible. To express the same opinion biologically, " All 
animals cannot be fed with the same fodder." 

One race cannot borrow at will the essential character- 
istics of another race, and the school cannot instil 
the peculiarities of one race into children of another 
race. The school cannot change the internal essence, 


although it may produce outward conformity. Possibly 
its influence on the children of immigrants is a bad one, 
because it deprives them of their mother tongue. Statis- 
tics show that not the immigrants, not the immigrant 
children, but that the native-born children of the immi- 
grants are the most criminal class. It is three times 
as criminal as the class composed of the children of 

We know that nature is more powerful than theory, 
and that the individual is the product of many genera- 
tions, and yet we believe that the reading of the Decla- 
ration of Independence will change the essence of the 
child. Man is, to a very small extent only, himself; 
his ideals, his instincts, his forms of thinking are not his 
own, but his ancestors 7 . Never mind; flag exercises 
have a retroactive effect and will change all that! 
The darkest middle ages did not practise nor believe in a 
witchcraft as absurd and as silly as the public school 
witchcraft that we believe in and practise. 

There are some who hold that the common use of the 
same language will produce a homogeneous race. Have 
the Irish, because they accepted the English language, 
become English? Let us look at extremes, and the 
absurdity of the statement becomes evident at once. 
Many negroes speak English. Have they for that 
reason become Englishmen? Have their tendencies, 
ideals, and capacities become akin to those of the 
Anglo-Saxon race? (v. chapter, "Heredity and Lan- 
guage.") Were the post-Romans Romans because 


they spoke Latin and believed themselves to be 

Others maintain that the same environment produces 
men essentially equal. Why has environment failed 
to accomplish such a result in the case of the Indians? 
Why have the Indians not produced a George Washing- 
ton or a Jefferson or an Emerson? What strange 
fatality has prevented them from inventing the steam- 
boat or the telegraph? The environment idolators 
answer perhaps: "We admit that, in the case of the 
coloured races, the statement that all men are created 
equal is a phrase, a falsehood, but all white men (so 
called) are created equal, or the same environment makes 
them equal.' ' Why is it that in the United States the 
Anglo-Saxons accomplished so much and the other 
races so little? The history of politics, of art, of science, 
and of literature proves that the Americans of German 
descent are very much inferior to the Americans of 
Anglo-Saxon descent. Why? Does not the same 
environment surround both? And is the German not 
a great race? Why this inferiority? 

The opinion has been advanced that the German- 
Americans have not accomplished more because the 
immigrants were only farmers and artisans. The sen- 
tence contains a fallacy and a falsehood. The statement 
itself is the falsehood, for they were not all farmers. 
and artisans. The fallacy is the implied slur on the 
farmer. " Farmers are not worth anything, what can 
you expect? " In fact, the agricultural population is 


the best part of the population of every country. It 
is the source of its strength. Why, then, this inferiority? 
This is the answer: The Anglo-Saxons continued in 
America their normal development, while the Germans 
neither became absorbed nor continued the develop- 
ment peculiar to the race. Environment had nothing 
to do with it. 

Why is the Egypt of to-day not the Egypt of the wise 
priests of Memphis? Why is it that Chaldea, in times 
gone by a most populous and flourishing community, 
is to-day a desolation inhabited by nomads? Why is 
it that Asia Minor produced a culture that was second 
to none when a great race lived there? Greek culture 
had its origin partly, at least, in Asia Minor. Was it the 
environment or the race that produced Homer, Thales, 
the father of Greek philosophy, Pythagoras, Herodotus, 
Alcaeus, and Sappho? Was it the environment or the 
genius of the Greek race that produced in Asia Minor 
the Ionic order of architecture? If the environment 
had anything at all to do with it, why was it powerless 
to produce another culture equal to that of the Greeks 
when people of different race took possession of Asia 
Minor? Why, indeed, is it so utterly powerless to-day? 

Why is Greece not the Hellas of old? Has the environ- 
ment changed? Does not the same sun shine, and does 
not the same sea wash the shores of Greece? If environ- 
ment is all-powerful, why has it in two thousand years 
not produced another Hellas? 

Why has the environment of Southern Europe not 


produced another Rome, if the first was due to it? Is 
it because the Mediterranean Sea has lost a few grains 
of salt? 

A number of races live in Austro-Hungary. They 
are surrounded by the same environment, and live under 
the same political institutions. Why has only one of 
these races produced literature, art, science, culture? 
Look at the long list of poets that the Germans of 
Austro-Hungary have produced, from the Singer of the 
Nibelungenlied and Walter von der Vogelweide to 
Grillparzer, after Gothe and Schiller the greatest of 
German poets, to Lenau, to Anzengruber, and Rosegger 
of our own time. Look at the long list of German artists 
and scientists. Where are the poets, the artists, the 
scientists that the Slovenians, Croatians, Slovaks, 
Magyars, Gipsies and the other more or less interesting 
peoples of Austro-Hungary have produced? Why, 
indeed, has the environment been powerless in their case? 

Political institutions, likewise, produce nothing, be- 
cause they are the products of a race and change with 
the race. There is no constitution which is the best 
constitution. The constitution which a race deserves 
is the best for that race. In the white world, people of 
race always preferred limited governments. Absolute 
government, despotism, exercised by a monarch or by 
a boss, is the government that mongrels deserve, and all 
nondescript herds are eventually so ruled, (v. Rome, 
South America, Mexico, the rule of the bosses in South- 
ern Italy and elsewhere.) 


This is the truth: schools, political institutions, and 
environment are utterly incapable to produce anything. 
No man can ever become anything else than he is 
already potentially and essentially. Education and 
schools are favourable or detrimental to develop- 
ment. They cannot create. To express it differently, 
no man can ever learn anything or know anything 
that he does not know already potentially and 
essentially. In that sense Plato's statement, that all 
knowledge is reminiscence, is true. Biologically ex- 
pressed, this sentence reads as follows: A young pug 
develops into nothing but an old pug, a young grey- 
hound into nothing but an old greyhound; and never, 
in all the ages between the creation of the world and 
doomsday, does a pug develop into a greyhound, no 
matter what the education, the training, the political 
institutions, and the environment. 

I have said that the ideas, ideals, and institutions 
of a nation change with its racial composition. The 
change of ideas and ideals becomes manifest only in 
changed tendencies and changed institutions. Is such 
a change traceable in the political institutions of the 
United States? 

Many of our industrial centres are under the absolute 
rule of a boss. That his power is exercised under cover 
does not make it less absolute. The heterogeneousness 
of the population makes Tammany Hall rule possible 
in New York. Heterogeneity makes boss rule possible 
in every city. In the municipal governments the greatest 


possible evils have developed. The deterioration of 
the city governments cannot be questioned. London, 
Berlin, Hamburg, and other cities prove that the size 
of the city is not responsible for this deterioration. The 
city republics, Hamburg, Bremen, and the cities of 
Switzerland, prove that the democratic form of govern- 
ment is not responsible for it. Why, then, this deteriora- 
tion of the governments of our cities? The race confusion 
js responsible for it. In our towns, in many of which 
there is little or no race confusion, the governments have 
remained good to the present day. 

In most cities the republican form at least is still 
respected, while in others even that is not the case. 
Look at New York. A mayor was to be chosen. Mr. 
McClellan was declared elected. The day after election 
many voters doubted McClellan's election. His efforts 
at preventing an honest recount convinced the majority 
of the voters that he was not elected. Why, if he was 
certain of his election, did he object to a recount? 
And why, as a man of honour, if he was not certain of 
his election, did he oppose a recount? The fact is that 
Mr. McClellan had nothing to do with it. The boss 
ordered his man to the mayoralty, and his man was 
seated. The little diversion of election day had nothing 
to do with it. Public officials in New York are no 
longer dependent upon the electorate. 

After the election many dollars were spent for the 
watching of the ballots. It was considered a certainty 
that without special watchers the packages of ballots 


would be opened, the ballots marked so as to conform 
to the boss dictator's command, and resealed. Corrupt 
practices in election have increased as the race confusion 
increased. There was a time when the direct bribery 
of the voters was the only corruption practised, but 
later the votes were bought en bloc. Now by foul means 
the illiterate voters are made to mark their ballots 
not for their candidate, but for the candidate of some- 
body else. Does it not occasionally happen that bosses 
pack the conventions of the rival party in order to 
secure the nomination of a " yellow dog " ticket? Are 
not frequently large sums of money spent to hire obliging 
election officials to miscount votes, or to render votes 
void by additional marking of the ballots? How about 
the courts? Are the hirelings not promised immunity? 
Are they not told that the boss controls the courts and 
that judges are obliging? 

As such corruptions are practised and as they become 
general, popular government is becoming a phrase, 
and its end is in sight. The original democracy no longer 
exists. Everywhere in the United States the power 
of executive officers is increasing, while that of the legis- 
lative bodies is decreasing. Absolute government is 
the only one possible wherever race confusion prevails. 
Limited government is possible only where the race 
instincts of the people are the same. The United States 
is not immune. There is no destiny that ensures her 

As far as the States are concerned, we know that many 


of them are owned by private interests. Mr. Lincoln 
Steffens has proved this for Missouri, Illinois, Rhode 
Island, New Jersey, Ohio, and Wisconsin. The railways 
owned Wisconsin; the baking-powder ring Missouri; 
a lot of cheap organizations New Jersey, and so forth. 
To call Mr. Steffens a muck-raker and a scandal-monger, 
because he exposes bribery, corruption, perjury, knavery, 
and rascality of every kind and of huge proportions, is 
not disproving his assertions. Denial and dispute as to 
the fact are impossible, for Mr. Steffens cites lawsuits 
and convictions proving the facts. 

Legislators steal and are the slaves of corporations. 
According to Mr. Steffens, " free speech and free press 
have become humbugs," " the corporations rule and 
their subjects graft." " That is the way popular 
government works in the United States." 

Are there not men in the United States who consider 
themselves entitled to think if not to say: "The little 
diversion of voting once a year does the people good. 
They vote as they please, or they think they vote as 
they please. We induct into office whomsoever we 
please, and do as we please all the year around." The 
constitution guarantees to each State a republican form 
of government, but it has nothing to say as to the sub- 
stance. Are there not States in the Union with a govern- 
ment essentially akin to that of the South American 
republics, a government in form republican, in fact 
the absolute rule of a boss or an oligarchy? 

Look at Pennsylvania, look at Colorado. During the 


time of the miners' strike in Colorado, the mine-owners 
gave the peremptory order that certain of the strikers 
be expelled; and they were taken out of the State by 
violence, without even the shadow of a trial. Not even 
the republican form was respected. Russia does not 
send her culprits to Siberia in a more autocratic manner. 
However, we are in the United States, where, in times 
gone by, popular government prevailed. When the 
next election came around, Colorado refused to reelect 
Peabody, and Adams was elected governor. Who, 
except the damned voter, cared? The real rulers of 
Colorado did not want Mr. Adams, and he was not seated. 
The legislature calmly stole the governorship. 

How about the national government? Can similar 
changes, tending to the despotizing of American insti- 
tions, be detected there? They can. Is it not true that 
centralization is progressing rapidly, and that State 
rights are becoming less important every day? Personal 
executive encroachments are deplorable; not, however, 
by far as important as the change that Congress has 
undergone. In the House, debate is smothered. It is, 
in fact, no longer a deliberative body. The real power 
has passed from the House to the Senate; and in the 
Senate a practice has developed by which each Senator 
has practically a veto on any piece of legislation. 

In times gone by the President appointed the admin- 
istrative officers, and the Senate had a veto power; 
to-day the Senators (men not elected by the people) 
appoint these officers. The President vetoes their 


appointments at his peril, for the Senate can keep out 
of office every man whom the President appoints, even 
the members of the Cabinet. The Senator, by controlling 
the federal offices, has the administration of his State 
under his hands, and at times that power is exer- 

All this despotizing of American institutions is bad; 
much worse, however, is the development of an irre- 
sponsible government by the handful of men that owns 
the United States. No one has ever accused these men 
of being wise, just, or honest; no one has ever accused 
them of having any interest in the country's welfare. If 
they had they would not use their corrupting influence 
and power to the extent that they do. Look at the con- 
tempt for law that the hydrocephalic monster combines 
entertain. Is it not almost surprising that the masses 
still entertain respect for law when the " irresponsibles " 
that rule the country are demonstrating to them that 
they live under a system essentially unjust? 

Which is better, government by an absolute ruler 
whose interests, frequently at least, are the interests 
of the country, or the absolute rule of these irresponsibles, 
whose interests in their country consist in the sum they 
can squeeze out of it? They are vampires, who have 
learned the trick of sucking gold in addition to the trick 
of sucking blood. 

Political institutions change with the blood that has 
created them. A strong race carries its institutions with 
it; and, if it displaces another race, its institutions 


displace those of the displaced race, even though the 
old forms are retained. 

Wherever promiscuousness destroys a race, its institu- 
tions share the decomposition of the race. Declarations, 
constitutions, statute books, and other papers with 
ink on them, are not decisive. With another race, words, 
ideas, and ideals have another meaning or cease to have 
any meaning. 

That the institutions of the United States have 
essentially changed admits of no doubt. " We have 
hitherto had some fundamental principles," said Senator 
Hoar; " ideals to which we looked up. Have you any- 
thing to give us to take their place? " 

Rome carried the name long after it ceased to be a 
republic. Can other tendencies be traced in the United 
States that indicate changed ideals? Let us see. Has 
not the police organization of more than one city de- 
teriorated into a criminal or semicriminal organization? 
Has crime not increased, absolutely as well as relatively? 
Has in particular the class of juvenile culprits not 
increased enormously? Do statistics not prove that the 
native-born children of the immigrants are the most 
criminal class? Highway robbery is in the cities of 
the United States an every-day occurrence, while in 
Northern Europe it is a very rare crime. 

Are there not corporations who ask and who receive 
corporation favours? If by any trick of politics, corpo- 
rations get money that belongs to the public, these 
corporations and the hireling officials that are their 


accomplices are thieves. Are they in jail? No, they are 
in the seats of honour ! Have you ever heard of a railway 
president or director going to jail because the greed of 
their corporation murders many thousand individuals 
every year? Have you ever thought that the criminals 
who sold jungle beef to the country for years ought to 
be in jail? Do you know that in the United States most 
commercial crimes go unpunished? Have you ever heard 
of a criminal prosecution in cases where rascality of 
incredible proportion was perpetrated under cover 
of high finance? 

Do you know that the following crimes are perpe- 
trated continually and that criminal prosecution is very 
rare: fraud in the organization, management, inflation, 
and destruction of corporations (to fleece the public); 
fraud in the railway business, to wit, stock juggling, 
rate juggling, grafting, and rebates; frauds on shippers, 
discriminations, wrong classification, and underbilling 
(to fleece the public); fraud in adulteration and mis- 
representation of goods (to fleece the public) ; fraud in 
concealing and conveying property to avoid the just 
demands of creditors (to fleece the public), and many 
other crimes? 

The Armstrong Committee has shown that ten thou- 
sand millions of insurance belonging to five million 
policy-holders were under the absolute control of a 
dozen men, a fact which in itself is a huge scandal. 
Each day the committee brought fresh evidences of 
corruption and knavery. The insurance scandal did 


not prove an American Panama or Dreyfus scandal be- 
cause we had no Zola, and because the public, not having 
as acute a sense of honour as the French, did not force 
the district attorney to prosecute. 

Make money and keep out of jail. The law exists for 
the stupid only. How to keep out of jail? Hire a shrewd 
lawyer to help you commit crimes under cover of a 
thousand laws. Lawyers receive fees, never bribes. 
Look at San Francisco. 

Look at the extortion and bribery going on. Look 
at the many prosperous brigands in the seats of honour, 
and admit that the United States has more criminals 
than any other country that the sun shines on. Admit, 
at the same time, that the proportion of criminals who 
escape jail is greater here than anywhere else. 

That these crimes are perpetrated is bad; that the 
big criminals are not prosecuted is worse. Worst of 
all, however, is the fact that public sentiment has 
deteriorated to a level where it scarcely considers the 
political and commercial brigands as criminals. Race 
confusion changes ideals. 

In what other respects have ideals changed? There 
was a time when Americans were attached to family 
life. The right to the pursuit of happiness implied 
the assertion that the American home was to be a happy 
home. To-day the home, the bed-rock of the nation, 
is upon the decline, and the incredible host of boarding- 
houses which infest the land proves this. The tendency is 
to view marriage in a more and more contemptuous way. 


In the United States, with the geographical centre 
a thousand miles west of the centre of population, 
there ought to be no reason for a concentration of 
advantages by artificially restricting the birth-rate. 
Yet this is the case. The women want to amuse them- 
selves, and they consider children a burden; they are 
tending toward superficiality and shallowness. The 
fact that in the Southern States the birth-rate remained 
high proves that immigration is, to an extent at least, 
responsible for the falling of the birth-rate elsewhere 
in the United States. The South has received very little 

President Eliot's report for 1902 shows that out of 
881 graduates of the classes 1872-1877, 634 were married 
and had 1,262 children. In other words, 1,268 men and 
women had 1,262 children. They did not even reproduce 
themselves. Mr. Eliot's observations are confirmed 
by the observations of Professor Thorndike. He finds 
that in the case of Middlebury College, a hundred years 
ago, the average number of children to each graduate 
was 5.6. In 1875-1879 it was only 1.8. In the case 
of Wesleyan University the average dropped from 4.5 
to 2.6; in case of the New York University from 4 to 

The same tendencies to artificial restriction of births 
are operating among the descendants of the earlier 
Teutonic and Celtic immigrants. They cannot hold 
their own against the Slavs and Latins. By destroying 
her old citizens, the United States pays a heavier fine 


for the new citizens than they are worth. The hordes 
of Southern Europeans are driving the American toward 
the setting sun. Many settlers, in every way more 
desirable than the newcomers, are leaving the United 
States. Emigrants from the United States are settling 
Manitoba, Alberta, Assiniboia, and Saskatchewan. It 
is a leak at the top. In New England the Anglo-Saxon 
is dying out. Many are leaving and many are deteriorat- 
ing. The rural districts are in many cases hopelessly 

The birth-rate of the inferior European races is high. 
Under the conditions normal to them the high birth-rate 
is associated with a high death-rate. The infant mor- 
tality is very high, so that their actual increase is smaller 
than that of the better races. The Magyars, for instance, 
in spite of a high birth-rate, are afraid of dying out; 
and, for that reason, they are attempting to Magyarize 
by force the better races that live in Hungary. When 
people of these races migrate to a country where a better 
race legislates for them, and forces them to be moder- 
ately clean, the high birth-rate continues and the death- 
rate falls. Necessarily they displace the better race. 
The fight resolves itself for the better race into a fight 
against the multiplication table. The better race has 
the right, the sacred duty, to protect itself. When the 
immigrants came from Northern Europe, their quality 
was better and their number smaller. Other conditions 
prevail to-day, and we must break with the laissez jaire 
doctrine. We must break away from humanitarian 


phrases for which there is no justification in nature, 
or we must degenerate. The result of promiscuousness 
is degeneration. 

Restriction is protection. History proves the value 
of a national character, and that without restriction 
a national type cannot develop. The observations 
contained in the English Blue Book prepared by Ronald 
C. Lindsay, secretary of the British Embassy at Wash- 
ington, are quite true. He says: " There is no such 
thing as an American type. Many generations must 
elapse before Americans can be physiologically differ- 
entiated from Europeans to the extent, for instance, 
that the French are from the Germans.' ' 

William Archer, speaking of Americans, says: " The 
great advantage which these superbly vital people 
possess over all other nations is their material and moral 
plasticity. There is nothing rigid, nothing oppressive, 
nothing inaccessible to the influence of changing con- 
ditions about them." Let us trust that Mr. Archer's 
remarks do not characterize the Americans, for they 
characterize the mongrel. The mongrel's plasticity 
is great; there is nothing rigid, nothing oppressive, 
nothing inaccessible in the mongrel, because it has no 
character. There is something rigid, something oppress- 
ive, something inaccessible in race, for there is some- 
thing sacred, something inexplicable in race. 

Race has character. The mongrel is very plastic; 
it is at home everywhere, because it has no depth. 
" Aryavarta is the home of the Hindoo," says the 


Hindoo Scripture; "the Sudra may dwell anywhere." 
People of race alone have worth, and restriction of 
immigration alone makes possible the development 
of a race in America. There are those who oppose re- 
striction on humanitarian principles, and spread out 
their sympathy over so wide an area that it becomes 
very superficial. They declare that their sympathy 
embraces Aryans, Magyars, and Chinamen; pigeons, 
frogs, and snakes; their neighbour, their neighbour's 
servant, and their neighbour's devil. When, however, 
their sympathy is taxed anywhere, none is found. It 
is so shallow that it volatilizes. The humanitarian 
phrases, more frequently than not, are a cloak for the 
most brutal egotism. 

V Sympathy and respect for his own race is the most 
sacred duty of the individual. The individual who 
honours and respects his own race does the best he can 
do for the world. Never mind about your sympathy 
for other races; they do not need it. China, for instance, 
has done very well without your phrases. She has pro- 
duced a strong race, a civilization of her own, and has 
managed to exist for five thousand years. It is not at 
all probable that America will do as well; for every day 
we are becoming more like Magyars and Southeastern 
Europeans. The very first condition ensuring perma- 
nency America has not fulfilled. She has not yet pro- 
duced a race. Never mind, therefore, your phrases, 
and restrict immigration. 

" All the necessary crossing has been done," says 


Mr. Luther Burbank. " Now comes the work of refining 
and eliminating, until we shall get an ultimate product 
which will be the finest human race that has ever been 
known.' ' If it is not the finest human race, be content 
if it is a race at all. The mongrel alone is entirely worth- 
less. We must eliminate, select, and restrict immigration 
if a race is to come into being here. 

" Self-love, my liege, is not so vile a sin as self- 
neglect" (Gothe). 

"It is difficult to convince mankind that the love 
of virtue is the love of ourselves " (Cicero). 

" Become (develop into) the man that you are " 



In the beginning of the nineteenth century the 
republican sentiment was so strong in Europe that 
Napoleon was justified in saying: " In fifty years 
Europe will be republican or it will be Cossack." To-day 
the monarchical sentiment is stronger in Europe than 
it ever was. Monarchism was never more secure on its 
foundations than it is to-day. France is a republic; 
not because republican sentiments are strong in France, 
but because the Bonaparte monarchists hate the Orleans 
monarchists more than they hate the republic. The 
same sentiment animates the Orleans monarchists. 
The republic is a temporary compromise between 
factions contending for the crown. When, a short time 
ago, the Norwegians, the most democratic people of 
Europe, perhaps of the world, chose a government, 
they decided by an overwhelming popular vote to have 
nothing to do with a republican form of government. 

A hundred years' trial of democracy in America con- 
vinced them of the truth of Aristotle's observation, that 
democracy was not government for the people. They 
probably read De Tocqueville and Steffens. The way 
popular government works in the United States has 



probably brought them to Bismarck's conviction, that 
democracy and liberty are not synonymous terms, 
or to Fagute's conclusion, that democracy never is 
liberty. Perhaps it justified them in agreeing with 
Talleyrand, that democracy is an autocracy of black- 
guards. The Norwegians assumed that the best possible 
form of democracy was the American form; and that 
was the one which they were least willing to have in 
Norway, no matter how much wealth was connected 
with it. They attributed to the republican form of 
government, and to the mere form at that, the conse- 
quences of race confusion. 

Every man has a stomach and two hands; not every 
man has a brain, and very few have a brain that is as 
good as their stomach. This is a truism very important 
in studying the economic effects of immigration. The 
present immigration differs from that of forty years 
ago in that it increases the number of hands in the 
United States, not the number of brains. The men of 
hands and brain not only do work, but they also make 
work, but the men of hands without brain do work only. 
They therefore oversupply the labour market and 
reduce the standard of wages and the standard of living. 
They crowd better men out of their places, and increase 
the army of the unemployed. It is a folly to maintain 
that these elements are desirable immigrants. 

One of the pamphlets of the New Immigrants Pro- 
tective League states that the immigrants gradually 
adapt themselves to American standards, and the 


second generation has familiarized itself with American 
conditions. Suppose for the moment that the second 
generation is as good economically as the generation 
which it has displaced (that it is not as good racially, I 
have proved in the preceding chapters), is there not 
another first generation of the same immigrants in 
the country to reduce the standard of living? Is the 
vicious circle not complete according to the Immigrants 
Protective League? 

Conditions, however, are very much worse. The 
second generation is not Americanized (economically) 
to the extent that the Protective League assumes. 
Statistics show, for instance, that the tendency to 
illiteracy extends to the second generation. We know 
that the French Canadians in New England fail to 
educate their children, and that father, mother, sons, 
and daughters work. Their second generation does not 
in any respect take the place of the generation which 
it has crowded out. The second generation of Italians 
and Magyars, like French Canadians and others, live as 
the first generation has lived, and it continues to lower 
the standard and average of intelligence, ability, and 

The statement is made that the native American does 
not do manual labour. Is it because he does not want to 
work? No, it is because he cannot work for the wages 
that Slavs and Latins work for. Although he has already 
learned, in the big cities, to live with his family in a hole 
in the wall and call it his home, he has not yet learned 


to live upon rotten fruits and decayed vegetables, with 
mouldy bread and putrid meat as an occasional delicacy. 
He has not yet learned that the filth and vice of many 
tenement-house districts are the American economic 
ideal, because the cheap labour there assures an enor- 
mous trade balance in America's favour. In short, he 
has not yet recognized that he is a cur. 

It was Mr. Friedrich Kapp who said that the sum 
which it would cost to bring him up in America repre- 
sents the money value of the immigrant. Mr. Kapp, 
happy man, evidently never met men that were not 
worth the cost of their bringing up. A man who is 
w T orth nothing is worth nothing, no matter what the 
cost of his bringing up. On the other hand, is a man 
who is worth anything at all not worth much more than 

No one will maintain that the United States, with a 
population of more than eighty million, cannot supply 
her own labour force. As the present immigration 
consists of people who do work, but who do not make 
work, its effect is a displacement of the native worker 
by the immigrant. There are but few States in the 
Union that want immigrants, and these do not want 
the immigrants that are now coming. Most of these 
States have emphatically declared that they do not 
vant settlers from the immigrant quarters of the 
Eastern cities. The South wants as immigrants men 
of responsibility, farmers and agriculturalists, men 
of brain and hands. In other words, the South wants 


immigrants that she cannot have; men who have sense 
enough to stay at home; men who know that they can 
elsewhere succeed better than in the United States, 
where competition with the cheapest of European 
labourers cannot but have a detrimental effect. 

These are the economic effects of the present immigra- 
tion. The direct competition of the immigrant with the 
native labourer lowers wages, which in turn lowers 
the standard of living and degrades civilization. The 
low standard of living of many of the immigrants 
makes competition with them for the native impossible, 
and he is crowded out. Immigration, therefore, in- 
creases the army of the unemployed and again lowers 
the standard of living, degrades civilization, and causes 
discontent and crime. 

When wages are low, the workmen strike, in the effort 
to better their conditions. The immigrant is always 
there to take the striker's place. Immigration, there- 
fore, causes strikes to assume the proportions of civil 
war, and usually the defeat of the strikers. Immigra- 
tion prevents wages from rising (wages have in the 
United States actually fallen when compared with the 
cost of living). In Northern Europe wages are now 
higher than formerly, not only absolutely but also 
relatively. Immigration forces the native to accept 
the low wages, for he is frequently placed before the 
alternative " work or starve." Free trade in labour 
forces him down to the low standard of the immigrant; 
the country, in other words, by suffering the competition, 
makes the workmen helots. 


The low wages make it impossible for the man to 
provide for his family, and make it necessary for his 
wife and children to work. We have, in fact, more than 
five million women in gainful occupations, not counting 
the millions who keep one or two boarders in the stingy 
holes in which the low wages force them to live. Child 
labour is the great crime of the country. Immigration 
forces women and children to work. The low wages make 
it impossible for many men to marry and bring up 
children. Immigration, therefore, causes the native 
stock either to deteriorate or to die out. 

The woman at work is forced to meet the same per- 
nicious competition. It lowers her wages; and sewing- 
women, crocheting-women, belt-making-women, and 
others have to work for the merest pittance. She and 
her family are usually underfed. Suppose she becomes 
unable to work for a few days? With starving children, 
what will she do? The only thing she can do, — solicit 
employment on the street. The c ountry, therefore, by _ 

not restricting immigra tion makes many wnmpn harkitfc 

" linnnjpaTion not only lowers wages, but it also raises 
rents. Dr. E. R. Gould (ex-city chamberlain, New 
York) says: " The raising of the rents is partially 
attributable to the influx of a certain class of immigrants 
who are willing to occupy more crowded spaces than the 
preceding tenant, and are willing to pay a higher rent. 
. . . The trouble is that . . . life on the East Side 
seems to have become almost an obsession with many 
tenement-house dwellers. They leave it in many cases 


only to wish to return. " In other words, they feel 
happy only when surrounded by the filth, vice, and 
depravity of certain sections. 

Immigration, by keeping wages near the starvation 
point, prevents the development of a middle class, 
which alone has the power to bridle the trusts. The 
consequence is that an ever-increasing proportion of 
the nation's wealth concentrates in the hands of a few 
men. They are slave-holders, and the rest of the people 
ire their slaves. 

" Fifty years ago," says Mr. Henry L. Call, in a paper 
read before the Economic Section of the Academy for 
the Advancement of Science, " there were not to exceed 
fifty millionaires in the United States, and their combined 
fortunes, including the half-millionaires as well, did 
not exceed a probable one hundred million dollars or 
one per cent, of the then aggregate wealth of the nation. 
Sixteen years ago the combined fortunes of this class 
were estimated at thirty-six billion, five hundred million 
dollars, or fifty-six per cent, of our national wealth. 
To-day a bare one per cent, of our population owns 
practically ninety-nine per cent, of the entire wealth 
of the nation. As a result of this wealth concentration, 
industrial society is practically divided into two classes, 
the enormously rich and the miserably poor. Our 
eighteen million wage-earners receive an average of 
but four hundred dollars per year; nine-tenths of our 
business men are notoriously failures; our clergy receive 
an average annual salary of about five hundred dollars, 


while the average for the educators of the land is even 
lower; and the income of other professional men in 
proportion. Of our six million farmers, one-third are 
tenants, and the homes of one-third of the remaining 
two-thirds are mortgaged. A debt burden is almost 

Mr. Steffens thinks that free press and free speech have 
become humbugs; but much more important is the fact 
that free contract labour has become a humbug. The 
workman is told to work, slave, or starve. He has no 
choice; and yet we continue to speak of free contract 
labour. He knows, as well as you do, that by accepting 
he becomes a helot. What, however, is he to do? Is 
not the immigrant always there to take the place? He 
does accept; he becomes a helot, and loves his country, 
which invites the unjust competition that makes him a 

What chance, indeed, have the poor in New York 
or in any of our cities? The special Committee on 
Standard of Living of the New York State Conference 
of Charities and Correction states in its report: " From 
investigation recently completed it appears that the 
two dollar a day man, who is the six hundred dollar a 
year man, spends on the average more than he takes 
in, if he have an average family of wife and three children 
under working age. His rent of one hundred and fifty- 
four dollars in New York gives him two, rarely three 
rooms. His food, costing two hundred and seventy 
dollars for the year, gives him just twenty-two and a 


half cents a day for himself, which is just one half-cent 
more than the minimum necessity for nourishment 
fixed by Dr. Frank P. Underhill, professor of physiolog- 
ical chemistry at Yale. His fuel and light, twenty-five 
dollars, are so little that he must collect free fuel and 
have his children bring in sticks from the streets. 
For sickness he can spend eleven dollars; for educa- 
tion, practically nothing, but daily papers,*five dollars. 
For recreation, he and his wife and his three children 
have three dollars or twenty-five cents a month, in 
addition to eight dollars spent for club and church dues 
and taxes." 

Let us take a concrete example. Go through the 
department stores, and in the shipping department 
you find men, most of them men with family, working, 
and working hard, for eight dollars, nine dollars, and ten 
dollars a week. The men work from eight to six. When, 
however, there is a sale, they work overtime, frequently 
until ten, eleven, and twelve o'clock at night. There 
is at least one big trash store in New York which pays 
its men not one cent for the overtime except during 
Christmas week. During that week it pays overtime 
for three hours, not considering the fact that the men 
frequently work until one and two o'clock in the morn- 
ing. Is not the owner of that store a blood-sucker? 
Let one of his dogs growl, and out he goes. The immi- 
grant is there to take his place. 

How can these men support their families and live 
like human beings? They cannot. They live with their 


family in two holes in the wall, euphuistically called 
rooms or apartments, and the wife either goes to work 
or takes boarders. They chase their children to work 
before they get into their teens. In New York children 
four and five years of age have been found at work. 
In one factory three hundred children, under fourteen 
years of age, were working until two or three o'clock 
in the morning during the busy season. 

And what about the law? The law against child labour 
cannot change the conditions which force the parents 
to sell their children. Suppose the law, instead of being 
the dead letter that it usually is, were enforced. Would 
it not force the parents to sell their sons and daughters 
to the street instead of to the factory? And, in truth, 
the increase of rowdyism in the cities is appalling. 
Let Mr. Bigelow tell you that more vagabonds infest 
the country roads between Chicago and New York 
than the country roads between any two cities a thou- 
sand miles apart in Northern Europe. 

What do these stores pay to their saleswomen? Rarely 
more than five dollars, six dollars, or seven dollars a week. 
They are supposed to dress well. How can they do 
it and pay for board and shelter? Their salary does not 
enable them to live like human beings. Many of them 
are assisted by other members of the family, and a few 
others, by a rare heroism, manage to struggle along; but 
how about the others, who have not in them the stuff 
that heroines are made of, and have no one to assist 


How do they manage? God alone knows, and perhaps 
the policeman on the beat. If she growls, out she goes, 
the immigrant is always there to take her place. 
Is not the economic system of the big figures on the 
trade-sheet a remarkable system? Why should men 
and women love their country, which for the sake of the 
big numbers on a sheet of paper exposes its men and 
women to an unjust competition that makes men crimi- 
nals and women harlots? 

The man gets sick. Well, what of it? We will give 
him poisoned drugs and adulterated milk when sick, as 
we fed him on diseased beef when healthy. We have a 
pure food law. Well, have we not laws against thieves, 
and is a big thief ever prosecuted criminally? We 
are a hysterical people; the moral hysteria will subside 
and — the law will look very well on the paper! The 
law demands that the ingredients of the nostrums 
that are sold in the market must be plainly published. 
When he has his next " cold " he will probably have 
sense enough to take a course in materia medica before 
going to the drug store and buying a catarrh powder! 
Pure food laws ! Many of the old laws are not enforced. 
What guarantee is there that the new ones will be en- 
forced — after the moral hysteria has subsided? 

The man dies. What of it? Is a man not cheaper 
than a mule? And is the immigrant not always there 
to take his place? 

The man becomes permanently incapable of working. 
This is a free country; free press, free speech, and 


free contract labour are humbugs. He has, however, the 
liberty to hang himself. Has he? If the rope tears, 
he is arrested and sent to the penitentiary. He has the 
liberty to starve. He cannot be deprived of that; but 
it is a liberty that he can do very well without. 

Free immigration can be defended by those only who 
hold that the government exists for the sole purpose 
of enabling the country to turn out this year a million 
more matches than the year before, who are induced 
to hilarity because America turns out this year a million 
more toothpicks than Germany or England; by those 
who believe that the chief aim of government is to 
enable Wall Street gamblers to bathe themselves in 
champagne this year, when they drank it last year; by 
vampires, railroads, contractors, and mine-owners; by 
all those, in short, who believe that the balance-sheet 
is the soul and essence of civilization. 

A nation, a government is constituted, not for the 
purpose of feeding the greatest number of human 
animal?, but for the purpose of making possible the devel- 
opment of efficient and noble men and women. If it 
fails in that respect, it is a complete failure and has lost 
the right to continue its existence. 

Civilization is measured, not by good machines, not 
by political institutions, not by scientific progress, 
and not even by the holy balance-sheet; it is measured 
by social, intellectual, moral, and spiritual progress 
and perfection. An immigration that does not conduce 
to these is degrading civilization. 


In the economic life of the nation conditions exist 
which are the perpetual threat of an earthquake; in 
the industrial world we are now living on the top of a 

Paul Bourget says : " Factors are at work in the United 
States which are gradually dividing America into two 
Americas, into an American and a cosmopolitan America, 
which have absolutely nothing in common, neither blood, 
nor ideas, nor ideals, nor traditions. The phrases of 
general reform have in the United States not more mean- 
ing and not more honest adherents than in France. 
Behind these problems quiver convulsively other real, 
irreducible powers. Race instinct is one of these forces. 
When the excess of immigration will have produced 
two Americas, the conflict will be as irrepressible as that 
between England and Ireland, or Germany and France. 
As soon as the second America will have produced an 
even more abnormal national life, civil war will break 

Civil war in a race jumble is perpetual civil war, and 
the periods of truce that interrupt it are periods only 
of utter exhaustion. Every man's hand is against every 
other man. There is no possible basis on which the 
factions can agree. Where blood is not in common, 
nothing is. The first race that attacks the nondescript 
herd will destroy it. Nothing occurs in the United States 
that has not occurred elsewhere. Carthage was a rela- 
tively greater industrial centre than New York; Hellas 


was in every way greater and Rome more powerful than 
America. The cause that has destroyed these will not 
be less powerful in America, the modern Rome. There 
is no destiny that ensures our perpetuity. 



The eternal peace fiends tell us that, as the com- 
mercial relations become more extensive and more 
firmly established, the different peoples of the earth 
are becoming more and more alike, so that in a short 
time the same kind of hotchpotch will inhabit or infest 
the world, — a statement which contains as much truth 
as the Socialist slogan that all men are the same 
kind of Hottentots. A hundred years ago the white 
world was gorged with French phrases, one of which 
concerned the equality of men. For a long time it was 
intoxicated with these phrases, and the Socialists have 
not yet become sober. The peace fiends are more of a 
menace to the country they live in than Socialists. 
When better men, including the Socialists, will rush to 
the defence of their country, the peace fiends will still 
be whining " arbitration, disarmament, conference, 
Hague," and what not. s 

The eternal peace mania is not in accord with human 
nature. By natural instincts, boys love the heroes of 
old and desire to emulate them, and arms have an 
irresistible attraction for men. The eternal peace fiends 
will say that is the bulldog in us ; to which the answer 



may be returned, that the bulldog in us is better than 
the whining cur in them. We will have eternal peace 
as soon as we all have become cretins. The probability 
that we all will become cretins is much greater than the 
probability that the mouse will ever kiss the cat. Peace 
fiends tell us that arbitration is a wonderful invention 
of theirs. It is not theirs, nor is it as good as they want 
to make us believe. Time out of mind people have 
settled many of their differences by treaty, agreement, 
arbitration, or conference. It is not an honour to be a 
party to many arbitration cases. The man who holds 
his goods justly, or considers himself as holding them 
justly, does not arbitrate; the thief, however, is 
willing to shout arbitration every time he is caught. 

Some nations improve, others deteriorate. It is right 
that the better overthrows and supplants the inferior. 
And who will decide which is the better? The wisdom 
of the peace fiends? They will say, perhaps: " We have 
a full stomach, and want sleep. That nation is the better 
which has the greater capacity for sleep." 

When chaos gave birth to cosmos it was by differen- 
tiation, by the development of its different parts in 
different directions. And the longer the development 
proceeded, the greater the differences became. The 
man travelling from England to France and from France 
to Germany meets in these three countries three distinct 
races. However much alike they were two thousand 
years ago, to-day they are three distinct races. The Eng- 


lish crossed to a small extent with the Celts, and later 
with the Normans; and, be it remembered, that, 
although the Normans had been differentiated from the 
English for not many centuries, it required several 
centuries before the fusion of the English with the 
Normans was complete. Three hundred years after 
the battle of Hastings English was first recognized 
by the courts as the national tongue. The Germans 
crossed with Celts and Slavs. The fusion was likewise 
not complete before the lapse of several centuries. And 
in both cases the fusion was followed by centuries of 
inbreeding. The Anglo-Saxons were originally a German 
tribe. For fifteen hundred years, however, their develop- 
ment has been independent of and different from that 
of the other German tribes. The people they crossed 
with were not the same as those the Germans crossed 
with. In each case those elements of the foreign race 
which were in harmony with the Teutonic race were 
absorbed, and those characteristics which were out of 
harmony with the genius of the Teutonic stock were 
expelled, the period of inbreeding following the crossing 
having been long. The elements absorbed differed in 
each case, and this absorption, followed by the develop- 
ment of centuries, made them two distinct races. And 
with every century the difference becomes greater. 
Shakespeare is much more a German poet than Gothe 
is an English poet; not because the one is greater than 
the other (they are both incommensurable), but because 
between Shakespeare and Gothe lies the development 


of two hundred years. The two races have developed 
from the same centre along different radii, and the greater 
the distance they travel on these radii, the greater the 
gulf that separates them. 

When Germany and England had developed, each in 
its own way, for a thousand years, the two had become 
so different and distinct that they must be spoken of 
as two distinct races. Both recognized that they had 
become different and distinct. In the later middle ages 
the Germans knew little of England and cared less. 
Everything that was not German was " Welsch," and, 
if it was particularly absurd, it was " Spanisch." This 
included England. England was as ignorant of the 
Germans as the Germans were of England. To the 
English everything that was absurd and contemptible 
was Dutch (German). German was the language of 
sorcery. One of Fletcher's dramas says: " In what 
language shall I conjure in: High Dutch, that's full in 
the mouth." At the time when in England no gentleman 
went sober to bed, German drunkenness was ridiculed. 
" The drunken Dutch," " Dutch bellied," " Dutchman- 
like drinking," became current phrases. A " Dutch 
bargain " is so called because, as it was said, " many 
Dutchman will never bargain but when they are drunk." 
German courage is ridiculed as the courage of the 
drunkard. " Dutch courage " — "A gill of brandy, the 
best thing in the world to inspire courage in a Dutch- 
man." The expressions, " Dutch comfort," " Dutch 
breeches," " Dutch gold," " Dutch concert," became 


current. The chastity of the German girls was ridiculed. 
Chapman, in his " Alphonsus," says: 

" I think the girls in Germany are mad. 
E'er they be married, they will not kiss, 
And being married, will not go to bed." 

To the English the German language was a barbaric 
tongue spoken by a race of heathens. 

It is clear that the two people had developed into two 
distinct races, and the development of fifteen hundred 
years cannot be undone in America any more than any- 
where else. It follows that they can no longer cross 
promiscuously with impunity. Promiscuous crossing 
of the two races will lead to the deterioration of both, 
and as they are the best two races that the world has, 
the degeneration of even a few of them is an inestimable 
loss to the world. The denationalization of a strong 
race, without thorough absorption by another strong 
race, always and without exception spells degeneration. 
Let us examine the German-Americans. 

Note. At the dedication of a church the minister's remarks 
were interrupted by the cackling of a hen. One of the bystanders 
remarked, " That hen evidently thinks it has laid the foundation." 

A fable which, if not found in iEsop, might be there: "At last 
universal peace has been established." Says Mr. Fox, " We will 
at last devour our fowls without being continually on the lookout 
for these infernal shotguns that malicious foxophobiacs invented." 

" Der Mensch will Eintracht; aber die Natur weiss besser, was 
fur seinse Gattung gut ist: Sie will Zwietracht" (Kant). 

immigration: the germ an - Americans 

In this chapter the term German-Americans stands 
for the descendants of the German immigrants, not for 
the immigrants. A man can change his political affilia- 
tion, but he cannot get out of his skin. The virtues 
and abilities of the immigrant shed lustre on the country 
of his birth rather than on the country of his adoption. 
What is said of the German-American applies to the 
Scandinavian-American as well. 

The history of politics, of art, or morals, of philosophy, 
of the sciences, of literature, and of music does not 
permit the Anglo-Saxon to claim superiority over the 
German. The history of commerce likewise forbids it. 
The Germans had their Hansa times. Incessant warfare 
for religious liberty and for national existence destroyed 
the greatness of the Hansa. Hansa times have come 
back. There was a time, not many years ago, when 
the German flag was rare in American harbours. 
Look over the lists any day and see the number 
of German ships that enter American ports to-day. 
Germany sends vessels to every seaboard. Germans 
take the cream of the trade with the Levant; their 
South American trade is growing by leaps and 



bounds; they go to Bombay, Calcutta, Melbourne, 
Montreal, Egypt, and the West Indies. They suc- 
ceed in crowding the British out of their own 
colonies. England itself is flooded with German goods. 
The history of commerce does not substantiate any 
Anglo-Saxon superiority over the Germans. The two 
races, the two best that humanity has produced, are 

The history of politics, of morals, of commerce, of 
philosophy, of the sciences, of art, of literature, and 
of music, does not evince any superiority of the American 
Anglo-Saxon over the European Anglo-Saxon. Any 
superiority of the Anglo-Saxon American over the 
German-American therefore can have one cause and 
one cause only. The deterioration of the German- Ameri- 
can. Is there any such Anglo-Saxon superiority in 

Between the years 1821 and 1900 5,083,518 Germans 
came to America, and in this number are not included 
the Germans who came from Switzerland, Netherlands, 
Austro-Hungary, and Russia. The addition of these 
will raise the number above six millions. Many Germans 
came before 1821. Germans have come to America 
for more than two hundred years. The Germans have 
not adopted the two-children system. They believe 
that if a race is worth something, the more 
there are of that race the better for the world. The 
Anglo-Saxon French contention that restricting the 
quantity improves the quality cannot be maintained. 


Destroying one-half of a diamond does not increase the 
value of the other half. As the Germans did not bring 
the two-children system with them, the number of 
their descendants must be at least fifteen million, and 
is probably greater. According to German-American 
statistics it is twenty million. Perhaps this is right. 
The number of Anglo-Saxon Americans is not greater 
than that. If the two races remained equal in America, 
the number of men of German descent who helped to 
make the country great is equal to the number of men 
of similar calibre of Anglo-Saxon descent. " By their 
fruits ye shall know them." 

It is remarkable that good histories of America have 
been written which do not mention the German- Ameri- 
cans at all. Steuben, De Kalb, Schurz, Franz Lieber, 
Herkimer, Stallo, Praetorius, and Raster were immi- 
grants. Have as many men of German descent been 
prominent in American history as men of Anglo-Saxon 

A list of the candidates for the Presidency and Vice- 
Presidency, a list of more than two hundred names, 
does not include a single German name, d*hj KPV PY S h 

The Second Continental Congress considered defi- 
nitely the question of independence. A committee 
was elected by ballot to propose a full declaration. It 
consisted of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin 
Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert Livingston. 
The commissioners sent to France during the war were 
Benjamin Franklin, Silas Deane, and Arthur Lee. 


The American commissioners to the treaty of peace were 
Jay, Franklin, Adams, and Laurens. The generals 
and military leaders in the war for independence were 
Washington, Wayne, Sumter, Marion, Morgan, Ward, 
Putnam, Greene, Lee, Schuyler, Gates, Pomeroy, 
Montgomery, Heath, Thomas, Spencer, Sullivan, Moul- 
trie, Lincoln, and Paul Jones. 

For the convention called to meet in Independence 
Hall, Philadelphia, May 14, 1787, the States sent their 
ablest men to represent them. The most prominent 
were Washington, Edmund Randolph, George Mason, 
Madison, George Wythe, Hamilton, Rufus King, Strong, 
Gerry, Franklin, Robert Morris, Gouverneur Morris, 
James Wilson, Paterson, Sherman, Johnson, Ellsworth, 
Rutledge, and the two Pinkneys. Not one German- 
American in the beginning of the country's inde- 
pendent history the equal of these Anglo-Saxon 
Americans. I^H P I 

In the war of 1812 the military leaders were : Generals 
Harrison, Hull, Jackson, Brown, Scott, Macomb, Com- 
modore Decatur, Commodore Macdonough, Captains 
Porter, Hull, Jones, Perry, Allen, Stewart, and Burrows. 
The United States peace commissioners were Adams, 
Bayard, Clay, Russel, and Gallatin. In the war of 
1812 not one of the generals, not one of the sea-captains, 
not one of the statesmen, has a German name. Not one 
German-American the equal of these Anglo-Saxon 

In the Mexican War we have the generals Taylor, 


Kearney, Fremont, Doniphan, Scott. Not one German 

The leaders in the Civil War were: Lincoln, Seward, 
Generals McClellan, Stone, Fremont, Hunter, Halleck, 
Grant, Butler, Sherman, Buell, Thomas, Pope, Banks, 
Shields, McDowell, Burnside, Hooker, Nelson, Wallace, 
Rosecrans, Gillmore, Sedgwick, Meade, McPherson, Sey- 
mour, Hancock, Terry, Wilson, Colonel Mulligan, Com- 
modores Farragut, Porter, Foote, Stringham, Dupont, 
Goldsborough, Captains Wilkes, Lyon, Winslow, Jeffer- 
son Davis, Generals Beauregard, Lee, Jackson, Ewell, 
Evans, Polk, Price, McCullagh, Johnston, Bragg, Kirby 
Smith, Longstreet, Hill, Hood, Captains Davis, Semmes. 
Neither on land nor at sea, neither on the Northern nor 
on the Southern side, does one German-American dis- 
tinguished leader appear. The Germans always had 
military genius in abundance, but in America it has 
been Americanized out of them. The Germans always 
were fond of the sea. They had their Hansa times, and 
as soon as the empire was founded Hansa times reap- 
peared. In America the Hansa spirit has been Ameri- 
canized out of them. The Germans are, as we know, 
not devoid of literary ability; Germany has a veritable 
Minnesanger Zeit now. Have the traditions of German 
literary life been maintained by the Americans of Ger- 
man descent? Who are the men that created American 
literature? Among historians are George Bancroft, 
Richard Hildreth, Jared Sparks, Prescott, Irving, 
Motley, Ticknor, Parkman. In polite literature we 



have Irving, Cooper, Charles Brockden, Brown, Poe, 
Nathaniel Hawthorne, Holmes, Willis, Lowell, Artemus 
Ward, Channing, Parker, Emerson, Longfellow, Thoreau, 
Halleck, Bayard Taylor, Bryant, Whitman, Whittier, 
Stoddard, Stedman, Aldrich, Read, Leland, Gilder, Faw- 
cett, Helen Hunt Jackson, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Lucy 
Larcom, Celia Thaxter, Trowbridge, Hayne, Lanier, 
Howells, Hay, Bret Harte, Joaquin Miller, Carleton, 
Field, Henry James, Mark Twain, Cable, Miss Jewett, 
Rose Terry Cook, Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, Mary Wil- 
kins, Mary Murfree, Hale, Stockton, Wallace, Annie 
Fellows Johnston, Louisa Alcott, Julian Hawthorne, 
Mitchel, Higginson, Curtis, and Burroughs. Not one 
German-American appears in the list. (From this list 
no writer of eminence is intentionally omitted.) The 
traditions of literary life have in America not been 
maintained by the descendants of the German immi- 
grants. Literary ability has been Americanized out of 

German influences have made American music. 
Almost all American composers have studied in Ger- 
many. The prominent teachers that have come from 
Europe have been Germans or musicians trained in 
the German school. It is estimated that of Germans 
at least fifty per cent, understand music. No other 
race brings so large a volume of intelligent appreciation 
to the art. It is among Germans that music attains 
its noblest heights. The Germans are a musical nation, 
— the musical nation. Have the descendants of the 



Germans in America retained their musical abilities? 
Mr. Rupert Hughes in " Contemporary American Com- 
posers " (L. C. Page & Company, Boston), gives the 
following list of American composers: Edward Mac- 
Dowell, Edgar Stillman Kelley, Harvey Washington 
Loomis, Ethelbert Nevin, John Philip Sousa, Henry 
Schoenfeld, John Knowles Paine, Horatio W. Parker, 
Frank van der Stucken, George Whitfield Chadwick, 
Arthur Foote, Henry K. Hadley, Adolph M. Foerster, 
Charles Crozart Converse, Louis Adolph Coerne, Henry 
Hoi den Huss, Harry Rowe Shelley, Frederick Field 
Bullard, Homer A. Norris, Frederick Grant Gleason, 
William H. Sherwood, A. J. Goodrich, Wilson G. Smith, 
Mrs. H. H. A. Beach, Margaret Ruthven Lang, Maurice 
Arnold, N. Clifford Page, Dudley Buck, Howard Brock- 
way, Gerrit Smith, Homer N. Bartlett, C. B. Hawley, 
John Hyatt Brewer, Reginald de Koven, Victor Harris, 
William Mason, Albert Ross Parsons, Arthur Nevin, 
C. Whitney Coombs, J. Remington Fairlamb, Rubin 
Goldmark, Frank Seymour Hastings, John M. Loretz, 
Richard Henry Warren, Smith N. Penfield, Frank Taft, 
Charles Fonteyn Manney, Arthur Farwell, Harry Hop- 
kins, Carl V. Lachmund, G. E. Whiting, G. W. Marstons, 
Clayton Johns, William Arms Fisher, James C. D. 
Parker, Charles Dennee, B. L. Whelpley, W. H. Neid- 
linger, Johan H. Beck, James H. Rogers, Patty Stair, 
William Schuyler, Irene Baumgras, Mrs. Clara Kern, 
Laura Sedgwick Collins, Fanny M. Spencer, Julie 
Riveking, Harriet P. Sawyer, Mrs. Jessie L. Gaynor, 


Constance Maud, Jenny Prince Black, Charlotte M. 
Crane, Helen Hood, and Louis Moreau Gottschalk. 
\ Observe in this list the very small number of German- 
l Americans. Frank van der Stucken is one of the most 
important musicians of our times. He was born in 
Texas in 1858. His father is a Fleming (i. e. a German), 
his mother a German. After the Civil War the family 
returned to Europe. In 1878 Frank van der Stucken 
began his studies in Leipzig. Later he was kapellmeister 
at the Breslau Stadt-Theater. As an adult he returned 
to America. He is of German birth, of German educa- 
tion and training, and his sentiments are German. He 
does not belong in a list of American composers. He 
is a German musician living for the time being in 
America. This takes the most important name out of 
the list of American composers. 

Among the foreign-born Mr. Hughes mentions the 
following: C. M. Loeffler, Bruno Oscar Klein, Leopold 
Godowsky, Victor Herbert, Walter Damrosch, Julius 
Eichberg, Hugh C. Clark, Lois V. Saar, Otto Singer, 
Asgar Hamerik, August Hyllested, Xavier Scharwenka, 
Rafael Joseffy, Constantin von Sternberg, Adolph Koell- 
ing, August Spanuth, Aimee Lachaume, Max Vogrich, 
W. C. Seeboeck, Julian Edwards, Robert Coverley, 
William Furst, Gustav Kerker, Henry Waller, F. A. 
Schnecker, Clement R. Gale, Edmund Severn, Platon 
Brounoff, Richard Burmeister, Augusto Rotoli, Emil 
Liebling, Carl Busch, John Orth, Ernst Perabo, Ferdi- 
nand Dunkley, Mrs. Clara Rogers, Miss Lewing, and 
Mrs. Young. 


In this list observe the very great number of German 
names. In music as in literature, in literature as in 
the military and naval arts and sciences, the inferiority 
of the German-American to the Anglo-Saxon American 
or to the German is phenomenal. The Germans are 
in every way superior to their American descendants. 

Among the great American inventors there is not one 
German- American. The principal American inventions 
are, probably, the lightning-rod by Franklin; the 
steamship, by Fulton; the telegraph, by Morse; the 
telephone, by Bell; the use of anaesthetics in surgery, 
by Morton; the reaping-machine by McCormick; the 
intubation tube, by O'Dwyer; the method of vulcanizing 
rubber, by Goodyear; and the sewing-machine, by 
Hunt and Elias Howe. The inventive genius is evidently 
Americanized out of the American descendants of the 

Prof. Karl Lamprecht, in his " Americana, " speaks 
of American painting and mentions the following names : 
Copley, Gilbert Stuart, Trumbull, Allston, Cummings, 
Dunlop, Durand, Inman, I. F. Kensett, Thomas Cole, 
Doughty, Innes, Wyant, Homer Martin, James M. Hart, 
Gaudens, Eaton, Warner, Gifford, and Tiffany. Where 
are the names of the German-American artists? They 
are not there, they do not exist. Is the Holbein, 
Rembrandt, Rubens, and Diirer spirit dead in the 
Germans of to-day? The fact is that some of the work 
of contemporary German painters ranks with the best 
that the world has ever produced. Arnold Boecklin 






ranks with the greatest painters in the history of the 
art. He is the poet of the brush. Hans von Marees, 
Franz von Lenbach, Anselm Feuerbach, and Wilhelm 
Leibl are a few of the Germans doing some of the best 
work that is being done in the world. There are many 
painters in Germany, and art activity is very great. 
In the art of painting the German-American is as 
inferior to the German as he is to the Anglo-Saxon 

In architecture Germany does some of the best work 
that is being done to-day. Its tendencies there are 
higher than anywhere else. The Germans have recog- 
nized that the eternal imitation of the Greek orders and 
their modifications is not art. They have recognized 
that oak is a material differing from marble, demanding 
and deserving treatment of its own. Architecture 
should express stability, security, harmony, and con- 
formity to its surroundings. This ideal German archi- 
tects strive to realize. Where is the architecture of 
a German-American? 

A German paper printed a list of names of men that 
it considered worthy of a place in the Hall of Fame. 
These were the names: George Washington, Benjamin 
Franklin, Abraham Lincoln, Samuel Adams, John 
Adams, Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, Salmon Portland 
Chase, Stephen A. Douglas, James A. Garfield, Alexander 
Hamilton, Patrick Henry, Andrew Jackson, Thomas 
Jefferson, James Monroe, William H. Seward, Charles 
Sumner, Daniel Webster, Ulysses Grant, Philip Sheridan, 


Robert E. Lee, Winfield Scott, Zachary Taylor, David 
Glascoe Farragut, Peter Cooper, William Lloyd Garrison, 
George Peabody, John Hancock, Rufus Choate, Robert 
Fulton, Samuel B. Morse, Eli Whitney, Henry Ward 
Beecher, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Edward Everett, 
Horace Greeley, W. H. Prescott, Noah Webster, William 
Cullen Bryant, J. Fenimore Cooper, Nathaniel Haw- 
thorne, Washington Irving, H. W. Longfellow, Edgar 
Allan Poe, and Horace Mann. Not one German-Ameri- 
can in the list. 

It would seem that the German-Americans were 
destined to establish the link between German and 
American culture. Have they done so? No. They 
failed in this respect, as in every other respect. The 
relation between German and American culture was 
established by Anglo-Saxon Americans who went to 
Germany for the purpose of study; particularly the 
Harvard men, George Ticknor, Edward Everett, Long- 
fellow, and others. 

The traditions of German intellectual life have in 
no respect been maintained. 

The first generation of German-Americans begins to 
show signs of decay and deterioration. They are not 
the equals of the Anglo-Saxons or of the Germans. 
Prof. Karl Lamprecht and Prof. Karl Knortz speak 
of them with contempt. Prof. Lamprecht, in " Ameri- 
cana/ ' writes: " Man sehe nur die Rolle, die dem 
typischen Deutschen im americanischen Lustspiel wie 
in der komischen Literature zufaellt. Da ist er der 


Maun der Uberall zu spat kommt, immer viel will, und 
wenig erreicht, von den anderen im stillen oder im lauten 
verachtet, wenn auch voll einiger Zuge Deutscher 
Gemutlichkeit. Diese Karrikatur redet doch bis zu 
einem gewissen Grade wahr, und jedenfalls ist sie bis 
ins kleinste durchgearbeitet und Produkt langer Beo- 
bachtung durch dritte. Ist das genug fur eine heitere 
Zukunft und wurdig einer grossen nationalen Ver- 
gangenheit? Bang und bitter muss es ausgesprochen 
werden: Der Deutsche als Deutscher versagt. Es ist 
nicht einmal an dem dass er der bekannte Volkerdiinger 
ware. Er steht geistig keineswegs besonders hoch; 
schreiben und lesen kann heute am Ende jeder besserr 
Neger, und in der Energie des Denkens, die zunachst in 
America verlangt wird, iibertrifTt ihn der Englander 
gewiss, vermutlich auch der Slave. Wer die Biergarten 
Milwaukee's besucht hat, insbesondere den ungliick- 
seligen Pabstpark, das Muster einer kindischen und 
stumpfsinnigen Anlage moderner sogenannter Vergnii- 
gungstempel der muss sich sagen, dass eine Bevolkerung, 
die solche Lokale besucht und in naivster Weise schatzt, 
nicht dazu geeignet ist, in America geistig zu konkurriren. 
" Dazu der traurige Mangel an politischem Verstand- 
niss. Man rede nicht von der politischen Misswirt- 
schaft in den Vereinigten Staaten. Hatten die Deutschen 
iiberhaupt Lust an der Politik so hatten sie den politi- 
schen-moralischen Status verbessern konnen. Aber 
sie sind einer Beteiligung an der Politik einfach nicht 
faehig. ,, 


Translation: "Consider the part played by the 
typical German in American comedy and the comic 
press; it is he who always and everywhere is too late, 
who is quietly or openly despised by others, even though 
he has many traits of German good nature. This 
caricature is true to a certain extent. It is represented 
in its smallest details and is the result of long observa- 
tion (by others). Does this speak well for a bright future 
and worthy of a great national past? The truth must 
be out, however unpleasant and humiliating it may be, 
the German-American is a failure. He is not even a 
fertilizing element in the community; intellectually 
he is by no means on a high level. Every decent negro 
can write and read nowadays. . And in energy of thought, 
which is of prime importance in America, he is sur- 
passed by the English, presumably also by the Slav. 
Any one who has visited the beer-gardens of Milwaukee, 
particularly the miserable Pabst Park — an example of 
so-called modern recreation grounds, that are remarkable 
for childishness and stupidity, will be convinced that 
a people that frequents and values such places for 
recreation and entertainment is not intellectually 
capable of successful competition in America. 

" Then we have the sad incapacity in the field of 
politics. Let him not complain of political corruption 
in the United States. Had the German-Americans in 
general taken interest in politics, they would have been 
able to improve the politico-moral status. The fact is 
that they are incapable of participation in politics." 


Professor Knortz writes: " Das Graulichste aber sind 
die sogenannten literarischen Vereine. Mich uberlaufts 
wenn ich daran denke, welcher Missbrauch mit dieser 
Bezeichnung in America getrieben wird. Jedem Kaf- 
feeklatsch, jedem Kneip und Karten Abend muss jener 
Name zur Beschonigung dienen. . . . Wo sich Deutsche 
versammeln da wird auch Bier verzapft. Nach dem grie- 
chischen Philosophen Thales ist alles aus Wasser ent- 
standen; das Bestztum der deutsch-amerikanischen 
Kirchen, Gesang und Turnvereine ist meist auf den 
Bierverkauf zuruckzufuhren. Manche dieser Organisa- 
tionen sollten sich zum Wappen ein Bier-fasschen 
wahlen und darunter die Inschrift setzen ' In hoc 
signo vinces.' Kein Wunder dass die Deutschen immer 
mannhaft zusammenhalten und zahlreiche Protest- 
versammlungen veranstalten, wenn der Bierverkauf in 
Gefahr gerat, oder wenn am Sonntag die Wirtschaften 
geschlossen werden. Da ist die personliche Freiheit, 
wie es heisst, gefahrdet und dies darf unter keinen 
Umstanden geduldet werden." 

Translation: " Horrifying are the so-called literary 
clubs. I feel cold shivers when I think of what that 
name has to stand for. It serves as a plausible excuse 
for every gossipy tea-party, drinking-bout or card-party. 
Wherever Germans congregate, beer is on tap. Accord- 
ing to the Greek philosopher Thales, water was the 
origin of all things; the origin of the property belonging 
to German-American churches, musical societies, and 
turnvereine is mostly the sale of beer. Many of these 


organizations should adopt a beer-cask as a coat of 
arms, with the words, ' In hoc signo vinces,' as a motto. 
It is not a matter of surprise, therefore, that the German- 
Americans stand manfully together and hold numerous 
meetings of protest when the consumption of beer is 
interfered with or the saloons are closed Sundays. 
For personal liberty is then said to be in danger, and 
that is a serious matter.' ' 

I have before me a pastoral letter, which reads as 
follows : 

" Pro Bono Publico 

National German-American Alliance 

of the 

United States of America. 

" Philadelphia, Pa. 

" An open letter to the German-Americans and the 

other tolerant and liberal-minded voters of 

(State) : 

" The Executive Committee of the National German- 
American Alliance, a patriotic American organization, 
requests the German-Americans and all liberal-minded 

voters of the State of to join the ward clubs which 

the branches of the State Alliance are organizing for 
the election of men who are imbued with the spirit of 
the founders of our great republic, and who have the 
divine right of personal liberty at heart; men who, 

as we do, consider Prohibition laws like the laws, 

as tending to increase drunkenness and vice; men who 


will endeavour to have this obnoxious law repealed. 
The time has come for fanaticism and hypocrisy to 
demask, and for voters to be independent of those 
party leaders who have become the tools of fanatics. 
The National German-American Alliance, being strictly 
nonpartisan, calls all tolerant and liberal-minded 
voters to throw aside party affiliations, whenever the 
rights of personal liberty are at stake. 

" We make it our duty to oppose candidates who 
favour or uphold Prohibition measures, as they tend 
to increase intemperance, because we favour true 
temperance, and indorse men who have the courage of 
their convictions. 

" We indorse with great pleasure the Honourable . 

(He) was one of the first ... to comprehend that 
the . . . Prohibition measure ... is unconstitutional. 
He upheld the sovereignty of the people and the con- 
stitution of the United States, and did not hesitate to 
submit a minority report. His arguments helped to 
kill the bill. . . . 

" For the Executive Committee of the National 
German-American Alliance: 

" , President, 

" , Secretary." 

Beer, beer, beer, Holy Saint Beer! Temperance laws 
in America are apparently inconsistent with the divine 
right of personal liberty. 

Professor Knortz continues: " Der Leipziger Natur- 


wissenschaftler Werner Stille veroffentlichte kiirzlich 
in der Zeitschrift ' Die Alcoholfrage ' einen Artikel 
uber die schadlichen Wirkungen des Alcoholgenusses 
auf die Deutschen in America. Der Verfasser glaubt, 
auf Grund seiner angeblich erschopfenden Ermittelungen 
die Ansicht aussprechen zu diirfen, dass das gewohnheit- 
smassige Bier trinken eine groesere Sterblichkeit in 
riistigen Jahren unter den Deutsch-Americanern verur- 
sache, als unter den Anglo-Americanern. Letztere 
seien fast durchgangig abstinent. Dieser Umstand sei 
auch die Ursache, dass die Deutsch-Americaner fiir 
geistige Dinge weit weniger Interesse bekundeten als 
die Anglo-Americaner. Jeder ins Leben gerufene 
Vereine werde binnen kurzem zum Bier klub. Die 
Lesesale und Bibliotheken standen leer, wahrend die 
Biersale gepackt voll seien.' ' 

Translation: " Recently Werner Stille, a scientist of 
Leipzig, drew attention in the periodical, ' The Alcohol 
Question/ to the injurious effect upon the German- 
Americans of the indulgence in alcohol. Basing his 
conclusions upon exhaustive research, he considers he 
is justified in declaring that the habitual indulgence 
in beer superinduces greater mortality among the robust 
middle-aged German-Americans than among the Anglo- 
Americans. The latter are almost total abstainers. 
This accounts for the fact that the German-Americans 
take far less interest in intellectual pursuits than the 
Anglo-Americans do. Every new-fledged society evolves 
in a short time into a beer club. Reading-rooms 


and libraries are deserted, while beer saloons are 
crowded.' ' 

Saint Beer has become what Saint Cow is to the 
Hindoos. The German educational system is one of 
the best in the world, yet the different societies, lodges, 
singing societies, turnvereine, working men's organiza- 
tions, labour unions, young men's associations, women's 
associations, and others, demanded further improve- 
ment. They formed an organization, the purpose of 
which is to supply all lodges, singing societies, sick- 
benefit organizations, turnvereine and other societies 
which so desire, with lecturers, demonstrators, and 
teachers. In the year 1905, 4,887 societies participated, 
among these lodges, sick-benefit organizations, women's 
organizations, turnvereine, 758 working men's associa- 
tions and labour unions, and other societies and clubs. 
Many of these societies have as many as forty lectures, 
demonstrations, and concerts during the season. 

How do the German-American organizations compare 
with these German societies? According to the annual 
report of the " North-American Turnerbund," 237 
vereine belonged to the Bund. In these 237 vereinen 
were delivered one hundred lectures during the season. 
In very few only of the German-American societies does 
a desire for intellectual improvement exist, and in 
general, there is not the slightest inclination for intel- 
lectual culture. Even leading German-American socie- 
ties, which are in a flourishing condition financially, 
have for such purposes not a cent in the treasury. They 


content themselves with the repetition of programmes 
that are essentially the same from year to year: during 
the winter two or three concerts, and so many dances, 
one or two balls, card-parties, bachelor reunions, and 
Narrensitzungen. According to Hind's Classic German 
Dictionary Sitzung means sitting, session, seat, meeting ; 
and Narr means fool, buffoon, lunatic, madman, idiot. 
What the compound means I do not know, it does not 
appear in Hind's Classic Dictionary. 

The German-American societies are vastly inferior 
to the German societies. 

The opinion has been advanced that in building up 
the country the German-Americans have employed all 
their genius. The German-Americans have not helped 
to make the country more than have the Anglo-Saxon 
Americans. What caused the utter sterility, the 
lethargy, the mental death of the German-Americans ? 
Is it a flaw in the German character? Fifty years ago 
Germany was politically a chaos ; socially, in the middle 
ages; economically, in a condition similar to that of 
Thibet. To-day Germany is also one of the great 
powers. The Germans have built up a great country, 
and had to overcome obstacles greater than those which 
we had to contend with. In the building up of Germany 
the high qualities of the Germans were not stamped 

To-day Germany marches at or near the front of 
progress. In industry, in commerce, in the construction 
of ships, in growth of wealth and income, in education, 


in history, in scientific activity and research, and in 
music Germany holds the leadership. It stands first 
also in the cultivation of the soul. No other country 
brings so large a volume of intelligent appreciation to 
the arts. Literature, poetry, music, the plastic arts, 
and the stage exert a powerful influence in Germany. 
Shakespeare has greater popularity in Germany than 
in England or in America. There is nothing degenerate 
about the Germans. 

Had the German-Americans retained the abilities and 
virtues of the Germans, as the Anglo-Saxon Americans 
retained the virtues and abilities of the European Anglo- 
Saxons, the leadership in literature, music, philosophy, 
and all the arts and sciences, would be held by America. 
The German-Americans did not do their share. They 
failed utterly. That in comparison with Anglo-Saxons 
or Germans the German-Americans are degenerate, 
cannot be denied. What caused their deterioration? 
. One cause is the neglect of their mother tongue. 
(v. Chapter XVI.) It frequently happens that parents 
cannot converse with their children. The absurd rapidity 
with which they discarded their .mother tongue has 
not made them better citizens, but it has made them less 
able citizens. There is no reason whatsoever for dis- 
carding the mother tongue in the acquirement of the 
English language. Prof. Julius Gobel says: " Why 
have the many millions of German-Americans accom- 
plished so very little for the higher mental life of our 
country? Because in discarding their mother tongue 


they choked the source of life from which high mental 
activity subconsciously proceeds. " 

There is another and still more important cause. The 
Anglo-Saxon Americans objected to clannishness yet 
practised it to a large extent. The Irish-Americans 
preached and practised clannishness, as long as America 
was Teutonic, for religious reasons. The Germans who 
came to America after the revolutionary disturbances 
were liberals, who were afflicted with French phrases. 
The wisdom of the French revolution was with them the 
end of all wisdom. That all men were created equal 
was to them a self-evident truth, a practice, not a mere 
theory. They had solved all problems, there was 
no God in heaven and no race on earth. Hence their 
tendency to intermarry with other races was extreme. 
Promiscuous crossing has the same effect in America 
as everywhere else. The German-Americans deteriorated, 
degenerated, because their race, their blood, was not 
sacred to them. They squandered their inheritance, 
and degenerated because they deserved to degenerate. 

Es taten seine Enkel sich 
Ihs Erbteil gar abdrehen; 
Und huben jedermanniglich, 
Anmutig an z u krahen. 

Und schleudern elend durch die Welt, 
Wie Kiirbisse, von Buben 
Zu Menschenkopfen ausgeholt, 
Die Schadel leere Stuben. 


" Wie Wein von einem Chemicus 
Durch die Retort getrieben, 
Zum Teufel ist der Spiritus, 
Das Phlegma ist geblieben." 


Read: The History of the United States; " Ameri- 
cana/ ' by Prof. Karl Lamprecht; " Deutsch in Amer- 
ica/' by Prof. Karl Knortz; " Contemporary American 
Composers/' by Rupert Hughes. 

Note. " Ich habe zu Gott geflehet, dass er die ganze Bier- 
brauerei verderben mochte. . . . Ich habe den ersten Bierbrauer oft 
verwtinscht. Es wird mit dem Brauen so viel Getreide verderbet, 
dass man da von ganz Deuschland mochte erhalten." 

(Martin Luther, " Tischreden.") 



At the beginning of the nineteenth century the United 
States had about five million inhabitants. To these 
five million and their descendants were added in the 
nineteenth century more than nineteen million people 
and their descendants. The following table gives the 
nationality and number of the immigrants between the 
years 1821 and 1903: 

1821-1900 1900-1903 

Great Britain 2,974,954 65,590 

Ireland 4,076,425 94,999 

Germany 5,083,518 90,041 

Switzerland 204,993 8,528 

Netherlands 133,183 8,634 

Belgium 64,778 7,616 
Denmark 1 

Sweden V 1,437,390 170,919 
Norway J 

France 404,499 11,845 

Italy 1,045,531 544,993 

Spain, Portugal 29,777 22,346 

Russia 995,149 328,697 

Austro-Hungary 1,033,244 491,390 

In addition to these, Balcanaks, immigrants from 
China, Japan, other parts of Asia, from Africa, British 
America, from Cuba, Porto Rico, Mexico, Central 
America, and South America. 


In the year 1900 there were more than ten million 
people in the United States of foreign birth. 

Great Britain 












Denmark 1 
Sweden f 




South America 


Norway J 

In 1904 the number of immigrants was 812,870; in 
1905 it was 1,026,499; in 1906 it was 1,200,735; in 
1907 it was 1,333,166. In the public schools of New 
York are children of eighty-two nationalities. The bulk 
of our present immigration is from Italy, Austro-Hun- 
gary and Russia. Entire races are transplanted to 
America. The number of Sicilians we " absorb " is 
greater than the birth-rate of Southern Italy. The 
Croatians, Slovaks, and Slovenians of Austro-Hungary 
are similar cases. Besides these, Austro-Hungary 
sends Magyars, Ruthenians, Dalmatians, Bosnians, 
Czechs, Herzegovinians, Moravians, Italians, and Jews. 

Russia sends Jews, Poles, Finns, Lithuanians, Livon- 
ians, Ruthenians, Russians, and others. Greece sends 
many immigrants. Southeastern and Southern Euro- 
peans (with the exception of the South Americans the 
most mongrelized people of the world) form the bulk of 
our immigration; nationalities that now are, and that 
for centuries have been, the pariahs of better races, 
infinitely inferior to the much-maligned Turk. Their 
presence cannot but deteriorate and make impossible 


the development of an American race. The East Slavs 
inject the blood of yellow races into our veins. How 
thoroughly mongrelized they are, the writings of Prince 
Uchtomsky give an inkling. 

He states that the relation of Russia with Chinese and 
Turks is closer than that with Europeans, and recom- 
mends that Russia consider the yellow element of her 
constituents the basis of her power. Mexicans and 
South Americans inject Indian and negro blood. South 
Europeans inject negro blood. It is blood that tells in 
the end. Education has little or no effect. Naturam 
expelles furca, tamen usque recurret. The future of Ger- 
many is in the blood, is the German axiom. The future 
of America is in the blood. 

People that carry coloured blood in their veins no 
longer object to breeding with the coloured races 
(marriage that form of bastardization cannot be called). 
The nationalities mentioned inject the blood of coloured 
races. The final result will be mongrelization. The 
California girl, no longer a beauty, will seek love and 
comradeship in the arms of the Corean coolie; and the 
Southern maiden, no longer proud, in the arms of the 
Congo black. 

Let immigration continue and a wonderful race will 
in time infest this land of " unlimited impossibilities.' ' 
Will it be a race? We are told that the American type 
is still unfinished; that " it is the unique glory of America 
that it has taken all the rest of the world to make it." 
Ours is a cosmopolitan republic. It is not more cos- 


mopolitan a republic and not less cosmopolitan a republic 
than Rome was under Augustus. The time when Rome's 
death-agony commenced, Augustus flattered himself with 
having saved the republic. Had he not done so the 
sycophant Horace would not have praised him for it. 

The demand is that the immigrant must not have old- 
world prejudices (synonymous with, he must have no 
respect for his race), he must talk and think and be 
United States. This demand practically all immigrants 
desire to fulfil. Can they do it? Is it possible for a 
man to creep out of his skin and into another skin? 
Can he throw off his mental, physical, and moral makeup, 
inherited through many generations? It takes genera- 
tions before a homogeneous community can absorb 
people of another race, and thus give them a new race. 
What can we give the immigrants? Do we absorb 
them in one generation, as we pretend to do? Absurd. 
We can and do deprive them of the best they have, of 
their race, and in return we give to some of them 
material prosperity. They sell their inheritance for a 
mess of pottage. 

Excessive immigration is the greatest injustice and 
injury to the immigrant himself. 

We are told that our truly amazing assimilative power 
will produce the finest human race that has ever been 
known. The truly amazing assimilating power of Rome 
succeeded in destroying the Roman race, and the final 
result was the worthless post-Roman mongrel of the 


Races are combined here in a fashion more crude 
than that in which the chemist combines his elements. 
The chemist knows that some elements combine easily; 
that others combine with difficulty, and separate again 
with ease. He knows that some elements do not com- 
bine at all. They merely mix. Other elements, when 
brought together, tear asunder with so great a force 
that the chemist will not live to see the result of his 

The laws of life are simple sacred laws which govern 
all life, that of man not less than that of the animals. 
No dog fancier ever thought that the promiscuous 
crossing of bloodhound, terrier, greyhound, St. Bernard, 
pug, Newfoundland, and spaniel produces anything but 
worthless mongrel curs. Moral lepers. The difference 
between the different human races that have developed 
is greater than the difference between St. Bernard and 
pug or between Newfoundland and badger dog. 

Promiscuous crossing never produces a homogeneous 
race, and it destroys every race, even the strongest race. 
Darwin writes: " Many cases are on record showing 
that a race may be modified by occasional crosses, if 
aided by the careful selection of the individuals which 
present the desired character; but to obtain a race 
between two quite distinct races would be very difficult. 
Sir J. Seabright expressly experimented with this object 
and failed. The offspring from the first cross between 
pure breeds is tolerably and sometimes quite uniform 
in character, and everything seems simple enough; 


but when these mongrels are crossed one with another 
for several generations, hardly two of them are alike, 

r and then the difficulty of the task becomes manifest." 
The laws of nature rule man as rigidly as they rule 
\i animal life. 

It has been said that American institutions assimilate 
[every race. That is confusing cause with effect. Institu- 
tions are the products of men, not men the products of 
/institutions. Institutions founded by a great race may 

/ outlive that race for a time, but eventually they will be 

I changed to harmonize with the changed race instinct. 

' National character can form only in a population which 
is stable. The repeated introduction of other races 
prevents the formation of a race. Excessive immigra- 
tion is destroying the Teutonic character of America. 
To be a man of no race is to be without character and 
without worth. The institutions, religion, and customs 
of a good race cannot remain the institutions, customs, 
and religion of the mongrel. They are out of harmony 
with his depraved instincts. The form may persist for 
awhile, but the spirit is dead. Let immigration continue, 
and an American race will never develop. Never was 
anything great accomplished by a mongrel herd of men. 
It is essential that an American race be produced, for on 
the solution of this problem depends not only the pros- 
perity of the country, but its future, its very existence. 
Crossing must cease or America will develop into another 
imperial Rome. Immigration must be prohibited. 
Free immigration is a suicidal process, and its prohibition 


an act of self-preservation. Let the Northern races 
colonize South America. Let us cease to demand that 
German, English, and other colonists in South America 
shall become like the native vermin; and Switzerlands 
will flourish, where we now insist on having Uruguay, 
Paraguay, Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, and other collections 
of filth, fleas, laziness, mendacity, and utter de- 

Spain and Portugal laid rotten eggs in South America, 
and the United States declared itself their incubator 
and brooder. We are not afraid of an English colony 
as our neighbour; we fear not Germany, three thousand 
miles away; but the thought of a New England, of a 
New Germany, five thousand miles away in South 
America, terrifies us out of our senses. Let the continent 
be divided among decent nations. Immigration will 
soon go to a decent South America. Flourishing nations 
will come into being, and our trade with them will be 
as great as our trade with England, Germany, and 
Canada now is. Above all, their will be no mongrelized 
United States. Let immigration continue, and no race 
will exist in America that is worth anything. The 
great American drama, the great American novel, will 
never be written, unless written very soon, for the 
mongrel will never produce it. 

The accompanying diagram illustrates the develop- 
ment of America (if immigration and expansion con- 
tinue), the development of the Anglo-Saxon into the 




America Anglo-Saxon 





America Teutonic. 
The Teutons being 
Protestant, the Irish 
Catholic, intermar- 
riages were not very 



of the 



Fusion com- 

Confusion com- 


America of the 
Anglo-Ya- i 
hoo. L 









Eastern Slavs 

South Eastern 


Southern and 

Southwestern Euro 


Central Americans ? 
South Americans J 



Teutonic type broken 

Inject blood of the 

yellow races. 
Inject Mongol and 

negro blood. 

Inject negro blood. 

Inject Indian and 
negro blood. 

Inject Indian, negro, 
and Mongol blood. 

As the amount of coloured blood in our veins 
increases, the objection to intermarriage with 
the coloured races diminishes. It has already 
been seriously maintained that the infusion of 
Japanese blood will increase certain virtues 
of which our supply is short; that a Japanese 
infusion will be good for our development. There 
will be added Japanese, Chinese, Coreans, other 
Asiatics, negroes. We have annexed Porto 
Rico, and shall annex Cuba, Central America, 
and other places. Then we shall have still 
more Colorado Maduro Americans to vitiate 
the blood. 


Is it still possible to prevent the mongrelization of 
the United States, and to create a race here that will 
not be very much inferior to the Northern races of 
Europe? It is, if the means adopted are sufficiently 
rigorous. These are : 

1. Prohibition of immigration. It is not necessary 
to settle every foot of territory within the next century; 
it is not necessary to open or exhaust every mine within 
the next hundred years. Let the immigration be turned 
to South American possession of the good European 
races. People who are worth something in South 
America are of more value to us than the decaying 
artificially preserved countries of South America, — 
corpses that are crying out for decent burial. 

2. All expansion must cease. If we were a homo- 
geneous race we might be able to absorb Cubans, Mexi- 
cans, and others; but, as we are not, the influx of white- 
Indian-negro blood can have no other effect than that 
of hopelessly vitiating the United States. We have 
too many melanoid Americans as it is. Our strength 
lies in limitation. 

3. See to it that the people that are now in the United 
States do not become " Americanized " too quickly. 
Children of foreign parentage should know their mother 
tongue as well as English. Losing it, they become 
inferior to their ancestors. The deterioration of Ger- 
mans, Swedes, Danes, and others is a loss to America, 
a loss to the world. (v. Chapters XVI and XXVI.) 
Whether South American mongrels or South European 


mongrels have nothing to say in English, or have 
nothing to say in their mother tongue, is, as far as they 
are concerned, a matter of indifference, but not as far 
as America is concerned. These people are the most 
mongrelized in the world, and the slower they are 
absorbed the better. Therefore these also should receive 
their education in their mother tongue. 



We enjoy the best of all possible forms of government, 
a representative, parliamentary government of the 
people, for the people, by the people. Fifty names of 
members of the House of Representatives include all 
those who are entities. Whom do the others represent? 
In the Senate we have Senators who could not poll one 
hundred votes for any office of honour, profit, or trust 
within the gift of the public. Do the two discredited 
men, whose gray hair cannot even command respect, 
represent the good people of New York? Representative 

In one of the States a governor is elected, and the 
governorship is calmly stolen by the legislature. New 
York elects a mayor. Who was elected? Nobody 
knows. Every attempt to obtain an honest recount is 
baffled by legal cunning. Government by the people? 

Our Western lands, the greatest heritage a nation 
ever had, are being squandered. More than three 
million acres of the best land have been practically 
given away in the last few years. The small farmer is 
being squeezed out, and thousands of them are going 
to Canada. 



The idea that we are so crowded that emigration is 
necessary is ridiculous. And still they are going. In 
the years 1903 and 1904 more than ninety thousand 
Americans made their home in Canada. Ere long they 
will go in numbers of a hundred thousand and more a 
year, while our Western lands are gobbled up by or- 
ganized greed, by interests that resort to forgery, 
bribery, perjury, and every form of knavery. Govern- 
ment for the people? 

Three life insurance companies, the New York, the 
Mutual, and the Equitable, have actual assets on hand 
of more than $1,245,000,000. This sum is sufficient to 
pay our national debt and leave hundreds of millions of 
dollars in the treasury. Our insurance laws are such 
that if a dozen men chose to agree, they could do as 
they pleased with this vast sum, the property of two 
million policy-holders. Government for the people? 

Our railroads kill more people in one week than the 
German railroads kill in one year. For every railroad 
accident in France or in Germany somebody has to 
suffer, occasionally somebody is hanged. There are 
no tinder-box cars in these countries. Why can we not 
abolish them? In 1904 the American railroads killed 
10,046 persons, and injured 84,155. These figures are 
official. Ten thousand killed in one year. The railroads 
of Great Britain and Ireland, transporting over a billion 
passengers, outside of the surburban service, to our 
750,000,000, killed twenty-five persons in 1904 and 
injured 769. In 1905 our railroads killed 9,703 persons 


and injured 86,008 persons. In five years we allowed 
our railroads to kill 46,632 persons and to cripple 
364,717. Think of it. Government for the people? 

In the three months ending September 30, 1906, 
there were 19,850 casualties, an increase of 2,913 
over the preceding three months. This includes acci- 
dents to passengers and employees only, not the acci- 
dents to trespassers and other outsiders. Among the 
latter, the mortality is greater than among all other 
classes combined. The State of New York recognizes 
that grade crossings are avoidable, and its legislature 
passed a law for their" gradual abolition. Under this 
wonderful piece of legislation grade crossings will be 
abolished in about eight hundred years. How many 
thousand men will in that time be killed by the mur- 
derous laxity or corruption of their fellow countrymen 
who allow the railroads to continue the killing sport? 
Trolley-car butcheries increase the fatalities. 

Old boxes are allowed to run as boats and to invite 
passengers. In the Slocum disaster a thousand women 
and children were murdered, murdered by the laxity of 
their fellow citizens, who allow greedy corporations to 
transact business as they deem best. Not one guilty man 
was hanged. The captain was sent to the penitentiary, 
and everybody knows that he was not responsible for 
the rotten condition of the boat. Government for the 

The German railroads carry nine hundred million pas- 
sengers a year and cripple almost none of them. Besides 


this, there are no dividends on watered stock, no re- 
bates, no grafting, no rate jugglings, no discriminations, 
no underbilling, no wrong classifications, no frauds on 
shippers, and no hesitation to pay damages for goods 
that are lost, injured, or delayed in transit. 

The Germans are not afraid of economic and socialistic 
experiment. Besides owning the railroads, they are also 
in the insurance business. The insurance of the working 
people against accident, illness, and old age was an 
enormous economic experiment. In the year 1904 
two and one-half million persons were insured against 
sickness, 18,376,000 against accident, and 13,756,000 
against incapacity and old age. This insurance is for 
purely benevolent purposes. As there is no grafting, 
as no dividends on watered stock are to be paid, as there 
are no persons connected with the insurance company 
who can allot to themselves, their families, and other 
drones enormous salaries, surplus money is used to 
build sanatoriums for consumptive patients. Many 
patients are saved, that in America are allowed to die. 
What of it? That does not touch the sacred dividends. 
The German government operates the telegraph and 
telephone systems. It owns coal-mines and is a shipper 
of coal. By these means the Germans have prevented 
capital from becoming the hydrocephalic monster that 
it has become with us. 

In the business world there is no greater power than 
that of making rates of interest and rates of freight. 
The men who wield this power control the trade and 


wealth of the country. In America this power is in the 
hands of a very small group of men, who own the country. 
Government for the people? 

We have a system of taxation, and a wonderful system 
it is. It is easier on the rich and harder on the poor 
than that of any other country. Men who are known 
to be worth many millions are assessed on one hundred 
thousand dollars and many of them refuse to pay the 
tax on that sum. Every little estate, however, in the 
hands of trustees for the benefit of widows and orphans, 
being on record, is mulcted. Government for the 

Contractors are allowed to put up buildings which 
reduce the streets to air-shafts. Houses are allowed to 
exist that are not fit to live in. According to the " Hand- 
book on the Prevention of Tuberculosis," there are in 
Manhattan over two hundred thousand and in Brooklyn 
over one hundred and twenty-five thousand dark 
interior rooms, without a window of any kind, and with 
no means of light or ventilation. Through the city are 
thousands of tenements with air-shafts less than five 
by five. Rooms opening on these are technically dark, 
and as bad as the rooms with no opening at all. These 
rooms are closets, holes in the wall. Houses of that 
construction ought to be taken down without delay. 
With us vested interests are more important than 
health and life. What do we do to cure the tuberculosis 
that we breed? The Society for the Prevention of 
Tuberculosis says: 


u How inadequate is the provision for the treatment of 
the twenty-two thousand consumptives who, it is 
estimated, are now in New York outside of New 
York City, may be gathered from the comparison of 
the number of beds in use on April 1, 1905, by State cases 
and city cases respectively. Two thousand and forty 
out of the thirty thousand consumptives in New York 
City were being cared for in special hospitals, homes, 
or sanatoriums; i. e. there was one occupied bed for 
every fourteen cases. Two hundred and nineteen out 
of the twenty-two thousand State cases were being 
similarly cared for. Since of this total of 219 beds 
in use, 72 were for local use only in Buffalo, Rochester, 
and Westchester County, for the estimated 18,250 
State cases outside of these three places, there were 
but 147 beds occupied, or one bed for every 124 cases. 
How far attributable to lack of proper provisions for 
care and segregation were these 18,250 cases and the 
4,636 deaths which occurred in 1903 in those parts of 
this State for which these 147 beds were avail- 
able? " 

According to the " Handbook on the Prevention of 
Tuberculosis: " " We have in this country sanatoriums 
for the well-to-do, sanatoriums for those in moderate 
circumstances, but no santoriums for that large class 
of consumptives who are unable to pay anything. 
What is needed is just what has already been done in 
Germany with wonderful success. Each city of any 
size should establish its own sanatorium and look after 


its own consumptive poor. It has been estimated that 
the amount of money that could be saved in New York, 
allowing a six months' residence in the sanatorium and 
the return of the patient to his occupation as wage- 
earner, as would occur in the majority of cases, would 
be a saving of over a million dollars per year. In Ger- 
many all classes, when they become consumptive, the 
prince or the pauper, enter one of the innumerable 

From the " Handbook on the Prevention of Tubercu- 
losis " we learn: "I know of one family, with five 
children, where every cent was scraped and saved 
from the push-cart earnings in the Ghetto to send the 
father to Germany to a sanatorium there. I am told this 
happens with hundreds in our Ghetto. 

" There is a class of sanatoria in Europe, and 
especially in France, which have given the most wonder- 
ful results. I refer to what are known as the sea-coast 
sanatoriums for scrofulous and tuberculous children. 
The statistics in Germany show that fifty per cent, of 
these little ones leave these institutions perfectly cured. 
We have none in this country, and we say it to our 
shame. ... On the coast of Germany, Holland, France, 
and Italy thousands of lives have been saved. Over 
here our plague-stricken children, if cared for at all, 
are kept in city hospitals at an expense far greater, 
with suffering far worse. 

" There is a scarcity of hospitals and sanatorium 
facilities for thousands of poor consumptives who could 


be cured, if only taken care of in time. Sanatoriums 
for consumptive adults, as well as seaside sanatoriums 
for scrofulous and tuberculous children, are a crying 
and urgent need for the majority of our large American 
cities. The more consumptives we cure, the more 
breadwinners we create, and the fewer people will 
become burdens to the communities. As the conditions 
now are, in most of our cities and towns, the majority 
of our consumptives are doomed to a certain and 
lingering death; and if they are careless and ignorant 
of the necessary precautions, they will infect some of 
their own kin and neighbours." 

Germany takes good care of her consumptives, and 
cures eighty per cent, of them. Sanatorium treatment 
in Germany is possible not only for the rich. We, 
however, are poor, and have a government for the 
people. Government for the people! We have the 
phrase, others seem to have more of the substance. 

In the Cuban War Spanish guns killed a number of 
our men, embalmed meat killed a much greater number ; 
and not one of the hyenas who furnished the poisoned 
food was hanged. Mr. Neill and Mr. Reynolds inspected 
the Chicago packing-houses and found the conditions 
revolting. How many men, women, and children have 
been killed in the course of years by being fed on meat 
from the " jungle " will never be revealed. No one was 
branded a criminal for feeding jungle beef to his fellow 
countrymen, no one was hanged. Erasmus, speaking 
of adulterated food, says: "We hang men who steal 


our money. These creatures really steal our money 
and our lives in addition, and yet go free." 

Unhealthy work of women and children does profound 
harm to the nation. The evils of women's work are 
increasing. Five million women in the United States 
are wage-earners. England, Germany, Holland, and 
Austria have found protective measures a necessity for 
the welfare of women and children. They declare that 
women and children should not work in the factories at 
night. In New York such protective measures are 
declared unconstitutional. We have child labour. It 
is the national crime. It murders the soul of the children, 
if not the body. In thousands of factories and mills 
are children ground into dividends. One million seven 
hundred and fifty thousand children under fifteen 
years of age are in the United States engaged in 
gainful occupations. Twenty thousand children under 
twelve years of age are at work in the Southern 
States. Pennsylvania has forty thousand under six- 
teen, the greater number of them under twelve. 
Children eight and nine years of age are at work in 
the coal-mines. We destroy child life in coal-mines, 
in glass factories, in candy factories, in cigar factories, 
in sweat-shops, and in box factories. What of it? 
Nothing is cheaper in America than human flesh. 

Is there any other civilized nation that grinds children 
into cash? Is there a nation of barbarians that robs 
children of their childhood as we do? Government 
for the people? 


In Europe the best of all possible forms of government 
works about as well as in America. It seems that the 
best of races are not yet ripe for that best of all possible 
forms of government. No race ought to receive the 
franchise that has not somewhere, at some time, shown 
some capacity for the ballot. 

That the enfranchisement of the negroes was an 
injustice, an injury inflicted on the white man, lias been 
both asserted and denied. The white population of 
the South knows the truth. The sudden liberation 
and enfranchisement of the negro was an even greater 
injustice and injury inflicted on the black man. There 
are men, they usually pose as philanthropists, who 
hold that the negro's soul is the same as the white 
man's soul; that colour is skin deep only. The Scan- 
dinavian is a bleeched negro, and the negro a tanned 
Scandinavian, — an assertion implying the accusation 
that God committed a huge practical joke when he gave 
to souls essentially alike skins so various. 

The truth is, that the souls of the white man, the 
yellow man, and the black man are as different as their 
! bodies. Open your eyes, and recognize that this is a 
l s truism. There have been men who declared that the 
negro is the equal of the white man, but, as yet no one 
has been sufficiently demented to hold that the black 
man is superior to the' white men. The sudden liberation 
and enfranchisement of the negro demanded that he 
should accomplish overnight what it took the white 
man two thousand years to accomplish. It took the 


white man two thousand years to progress from slavery 
to free contract labour. We attempted to force the 
negro to cover the same distance overnight. Could the 
superfluity of philanthropy, which was content with 
nothing less than absolute liberation and enfranchise- 
ment, work otherwise than harm to the negro? And 
inconceivable harm it has wrought. 

Before the war, the negro who assaulted a white 
woman would have been hanged by his fellow slaves. 
To-day the black brute is a local hero. Then the black 
man was at least a good working-tool; to-day he is as 
lazy as he is arrogant. If by working two days he can 
earn enough to live six, why should he work more than 
two days? The South complains of the negro's increasing 
laziness, his natural inclination to loll about, and of 
his incapacity. There is no reliance to be placed in the 
negro, and his untrustworthiness and unreliability are 
increasing every year. It is a mistake to believe that 
public schools and colleges will change the negro essen- 
tially. To believe that there are short cuts from bar- 
barism to civilization is the height of folly. Neither 
the Tuskegee Industrial and Normal Institute nor 
Clark University nor seminaries nor Baptist colleges nor 
theological schools will in the long run prove to be such 
short-cuts. Christianity is no such short-cut. To the 
negroes, Christianity is largely a form of fetish worship. 
(v. Chapter XVI.) The name of the fetish has changed, 
and that is about all. This may be sufficient to trans- 
plant the worshipper to heaven, but it is not sufficient 


to civilize him. In South Africa the opinion is that the 
Christianized Kaffirs are worse than the others. Ninety- 
five per cent, of the black convicts are Christianized 
Kaffirs. There is no short cut from savagery to civiliza- 
tion. Hard work as slave, as serf, as bondman, and as 
free man has civilized the white man, and hard work 
alone will civilize the black man, if the capacity to become 
civilized is latent in him. The capacity to imitate is 
in itself not civilization. The ability of the negro to 
copy the white man's vices is without limit, but he 
rarely emulates the white man's virtues. 

The best that the American negro has produced is 
very, very little indeed. He has produced nothing that 
is original or creative in any sense. The best is not more 
than a more or less successful copy of the white man's 
work. Who are the negroes whose names are con- 
sidered worth mentioning? Booker T. Washington, 
George White, Daniel Williams (the surgeon), Rev. 
Alexander Walters, Reverend Douglas, Henry Tanner, 
Paul L. Dunbar, Professor Scarborough, Professor 
Du Bois, and George W. Williams, who wrote a history 
of the negroes. 

The best of the negro aristocracy would pass un- 
noticed as mediocre, if their skin were white. They are 
considered as men of consequence because they are 
negroes. As far as the negroes are concerned, the 
democratic system has broken down completely. Forty 
years ago the right to sell his vote was given to the 
negro, and he has exercised it. Never has he anywhere 


used it to promote any measure for his improvement. 
Has the negro anywhere else shown capacity for self- 
government? Has he anywhere been able to legislate 
for his own welfare? Let us see. 

Three republics exist that have been founded by 
liberated slaves, Hayti, Santo Domingo, and Liberia. 
The first two have existed as independent States more 
than a hundred years. In Hayti seventy per cent, of 
the population is black, thirty per cent, mulatto and 
white. In Santo Domingo forty-five per cent, of the 
population is black, thirty-five per cent, mulatto, and 
twenty per cent, white. In both of them revolutions 
are more common than elections. Occasionally a mule 
is the cause of a revolution, more often it is a bloodhound. 
The loss of life in these internecine frays has been 
appalling. It is little wonder that some, at least, of the 
inhabitants of the two places, are anxious for some one 
to come to save them from themselves. The constitu- 
tions, the institutions of these two countries are shaped 
after our own. The constitutions contain all the political 
wisdom that our own contains. Not a trace of the 
African spirit exists in them. They abound with 
liberality phrases; the equality of man, the inalienable 
rights that the Creator endowed all men with, among 
these life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, and all 
the other phrases that the French revolution brought 
forth live on the paper. Apparently these negroes are 
good statesmen, wise educators, honest politicians; in 
short, in everything but skin, Anglo-Saxons or Germans. 


/ What are they in reality? They are as ignorant, as 
depraved, as brutal as the negroes of Central Africa. 
The men who had to deal with the African negroes do 
not speak of the negro race as a child race, for their 
brutality does not entitle them to that appellation 
which absent-minded philanthropists (so called) applied 
to them. The negro of Hayti and of Santo Domingo 
has one care only: to pour alcohol into himself, chew 
tobacco, rip bellies open from time to time, and keep 
on the good side of the medicine-man. When Santo 
Domingo was a colony, refinement, culture, and civiliza- 
tion had a home there. In course of the century, Santo 
Domingo, a region by nature one of the fairest and 
richest of the globe, has sunken from a state of com- 
parative civilization to one of sheer savagery. And 
yet for the sake of liberality phrases, we do not draw 
the evident conclusion, that the negro of Santo Domingo 
belongs to a race, not only different from, but inferior to 
the white races. 

It is a race without capacity for self-government, and 
therefore not entitled to self-government. Equal rights 
for equal men is justice, but equal rights for men that 
are not equal is tyranny, the tyranny of the inferior 
over the superior. 

The negro of Hayti is, if possible, worse than the 
negro of Santo Domingo. His laziness, his mental 
inertia, his drunkenness, are extreme. They have an 
army there, as many generals as privates. The soldiers 
sell their guns to the highest bidder. A post-office 


service exists. The Europeans of Hayti prefer to use 
the Hamburg-American line to the post-office service. 
The merchant sends his letters to the steamers, in 
order to avoid the post-office. That a clerk sells the 
mail-bag for as much as he can get for it, is not uncom- 
mon. If a merchant has a letter for the interior, he 
generally has it taken there, rather than entrusted to 
the Hayti mail. 

In South America and in Central America we are the 
friends, protectors, and disseminators of vice, rotten- 
ness, and depravity. In Hayti we are, in addition, the 
protectors, and therefore the cause, of cannibalism. 
European powers are stamping out cannibalism on 
the most out-of-the-way islands of the Southern Sea, 
we suffer it at our very doors. Officially, the Roman 
Catholic is the religion of the Haytians, but it is the 
religion of their epidermis only. For many years Catholic 
priests have endeavoured to make them real Christians. 
Their self-sacrifice and devotion have met with but 
indifferent success. The religion in the heart of the 
Haytians is the Voodoo cult. It is a serious matter to 
displease the papaloi and the mamaloi of Vandoux. 
The papaloi has given him orders to procure the " goat 
without horns " for the next feast. The papaloi is a 
powerful medicine-man and human flesh is a food for 
the daintiest palate. He will procure the " cabrit." 
He will kidnap somebody's child, possibly that of his 
own sister. The night of the festivity has come; 
the black crowd has assembled; a poison has been 


administered to the " goat sans comes," rendering him 
semiconscious. He is placed in the centre of the black 
circle. The mamaloi (priestess) strangles him, and 
the papaloi (priest) cuts his head off. The blood is 
caught, mixed with rum, and the beasts gorge it until 
mad with drunkenness. Then the devils dance, and the 
most unnatural orgies commence. 

This crazy religion is not confined to the riffraff. 
Toussaint, the " emperors " Dessalines, Christophe, 
Solon, and the presidents Salomon and Salnare were 
papalois. Two presidents were opposed to this religion 
for beasts, Goffrard and Brissord. They had a number 
of papalois and mamalois tried and executed. Since 
then nothing has been done. Such is the depravity 
which we suffer, and to which we therefore are accom- 
plices. And that at our very doors. 

Liberia is the third free negro republic. American 
philanthropists bought the territory in Africa, with the 
intention of transplanting freed negroes to Liberia. In 
1820 a number of ships brought the first families of 
American negroes to Liberia, most of them from Pennsyl- 
vania and Maryland. By the year 1838 four thousand 
families of American negroes had been transplanted to 
Liberia. More followed. As long as white agents ruled 
the republic, there was some civilization there. The 
negroes, however, became unruly, expense and troubles 
increased, and the Americans withdrew. In 1847 
Liberia was declared independent. A constitution after 
the pattern of our own was given it, and Liberia was 


left to herself. The immigrant negroes ceased to work, 
did nothing to civilize the natives, added the vices 
of the white man to the vices of the black man, and, in 
a short time, civilization gave way to utter savagery. 

Nowhere has the negro shown the slightest ability 
for self-government. He has no capacity for the ballot. 
Why should he have the right to the ballot? His 
enfranchisement in America has not educated him in 
citizenship. It has not taught him that rights exist 
for those only that respect duty. 

What is to be done with our negroes? If conditions 
that now exist continue, nothing need be done. The 
problem will solve itself. The immigration of Southern 
mongrels is injecting more and more negro blood into 
our veins. The policy of expansion will bring Cuba, 
the West Indies, probably Mexico, into the Union, and 
more blood of coloured races will be surreptitiously 
injected into our veins by the white-Indian-negro mon- 
grels. The Monroe Doctrine will help to inject another 
quantity. / 

As soon as the amount of blood of coloured races in 
our veins will be equal to the amount that flowed in the 
veins of the Spaniards or Portuguese when they came to 
America, the negro problem will have ceased to exist. 
There will no longer be any talk of separation of the 
races, of social inequality, or of disfranchisement. The 
prospect of a negro son-in-law will seem not at all 
hideous to a sub-white-melanoid Southern Senator, 
with muddy skin, broad face, protruding cheeks, big 


ears, thick nose, and thick lips. The sub-white American 
girl, no longer a beauty, will be well content with a 
tenth, eighth, seventh, quarter, half, wholly red, 
black-yellow-white, or anything at all mixtum-com- 
positum spouse. A worthless herd will infest the land, 
but " Three cheers for the red, white, and blue." 




The statement has been made that a nation that has 
no immigration will soon deteriorate through inbreeding. 
This danger does not exist for any race consisting of 
more than ten million individuals. It is probably a 
very remote danger for races having less than ten 
million members. Promiscuous crossing destroyed many 
of the noblest races. The better the race, the greater 
the danger of degeneration through crossing. Pro- 
miscuous crossing destroyed the Hamitic and most of 
the Semitic races. Promiscuous crossing destroyed the 
Hindoos, the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans, and 

No historic race was ever destroyed by inbreeding. 
More than that, no historic race that practised inbreed- 
ing was ever destroyed by any cause. The Jews suffered 
persecution, torture, martyrdom, and persisted. The 
Gipsies, a race that has nothing in its favour, were 
saved by inbreeding alone. The English are to-day the 
strongest of European races. They crossed with Danes, 
Scandinavians, and Normans; but the immigration 
of these people never amounted to an inundation; and, 
moreover, these immigrants were of pure race and 



closely related to the English race. The absorption of 
Celts was slow. Since the Norman invasion, Germans 
from Germany, Holland, and Flanders, and Huguenots 
came to England. The number of these immigrants 
was never large. They were absorbed, not mongrelized. 
The centuries of inbreeding following the crossing made 
the English the strongest of the European races. 

In Germany the gospel of race purity is preached and 
taught, and the Germans act according to its sacred 
laws. There are more than eighty million Germans in 
the German lands of Europe, — eighty million Germans, 
not eighty million inhabitants. This is probably the 
most powerful single community in existence. If 
they continue to remain sane, if they do not allow 
themselves to commence suffering from paranoia, if 
they do not commence emulating the nation that is 
anxious to assimilate Porto Ricans, Cubans, Mexicans, 
and others, to control two continents, the moon, and 
several of the fixed stars, they will soon be the greatest 
of races. There is no reason why a race that remains 
true* to itself should not exist to the end of time. 

Let us create a race in America that is not very much 
inferior to these two races. It can still be done, but not 
without the employment of rigorous means. Immigra- 
tion must cease, for we cannot stand another drop of 
melanoid blood. There must be no further expan- 
sion; the blood injected by West Indian, Mexican, 
and South American mongrels is more vitiated and 
vicious than that of the Southern Europeans. The 


corollary follows that the Monroe Doctrine must be 
discarded. A race inhabiting a small territory is incom- 
parably more worthy than a vast mongrel herd infesting 
several continents. " For what is a man profited if 
he shall gain the whole world and lose his soul? " 

That environment is of little importance to the 
development of a race is clearly demonstrated by the 
fact that when Hellenes lived in Greece, Greece was 
great. Since their mongrelization, Greece has pro- 
duced nothing. As long as Romans existed, Rome 
was great; when they were mongrelized, Rome was 
dead. The Lombards came to Italy, and they produced 
the Renaissance. Their mongrelization left only an 
Italy. The Phoenicians produced a great civilization; 
it perished with them. 

The same phenomenon can be observed the world 
over. Where a great race is, civilization flourishes; 
where the great race is not, the best possible environ- 
ment cannot produce it. 

A world language is not desirable. It is an active 
factor in bastardizing the people who speak it. There 
was a time when Greek was the world language; there 
was a time when Latin was the world language. Greek 
was a great tongue as long as it was spoken by Greeks 
only; but, when it was spoken the world over, it 
had ceased to be a great language. The same is true 
of the Latin tongue. An everybody's tongue is a no 
man's tongue. It is a language spoken by mongrels. 
And the mongrel is everywhere worthless. 


If uniformity of the world is desirable, if eternal 
peace is as great a blessing as the peace fiends will have 
it, if bastardization of all races is a consummation 
devoutly to be wished, then let us continue to expand, 
and spread the English language all over the planet. 
Let us encourage immigration, and in a hundred years, 
another Horace, in another " cloaca gentium," will have 
reason to repeat: 

" Aetas parentum, pejor avis, tulit 
Nos nequiores mox daturos 
Progeniem vitiosiorem." 

" Our parents, worse than our grandparents, have borne us more 
degraded, who will bring forth a still more vicious progeny." 



Ammon, Otto. "Die Gesellschaftsordnung und ihre natiirliche 

Andrews, C. C. " Brazil." 
Chamberlain, Houston Stewart. " Die Grundlagen des Neun- 

zehnten Jahrhunderts." 
Chantre, Ernest. " Recherches anthropologiques en Egypte." 
Child, Theodor. " Spanish-American Republics." 
Creasy, E. S. " The Fifteen Decisive Batties of the World." 
Dahn, F. " Die Germanen." 
Dahn, F. " Urgeschichte der germanischen und romanischen 

Darwin. " Origin of Species." 
Dehn, Paul. " Weltpolitische Neubildungen." 
Driesmans, H. " Rasse und Milieu." 
Drummond. " The Ascent of Man." 
Ellis, George E. " Puritan Age and Rule." 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. The corresponding articles. 
Fallmerayer, Jacob P. " Morea." 
Finlay, George. " Mediaeval Greece." 
Furtwangler, A., and H. L. Ulrichs. " Denkmaler griechischer 

und romischer Skulpturen." 
Gibbon. " Decline and Fall of Rome." 

Gobineau, A. de. " Essai sur i' inegalite des races humaines." 
Graetz. " Geschichte der Juden." 
Hall, Prescott F. " Immigration." 
Hasse, Ernst. " Deutsche Politik." 
Hearn, Lafcadio. " Kokoro, Hints and Echoes of Japanese 

Inner Life, Gleanings in Buddha Fields." 
Hughes, Rupert. " Contemporary American Composers." 
Klein, W. " Geschichte der griechischen Kunst." 
Knortz, K. " Deutsch in America/' 
Lamprecht, K. m Amerikana." 



Lamprecht, K. " Deutsche Geschichte." 

Lapouche, G. Vacher de. " L'Aryen, son role sociale." 

Lapouche, G. Vacher de. " Les selections sociales." 

Le Bon, Gustave. " Lois psychologiques de revolution des 

Lefman, S. " Geschichte des alten Indiens." 
Mayor, Joseph B. " Sketch of Ancient Philosophy." 
Meyer, E. H. " Mythologie der Germanen." 
Michaelis. " Der Parthenon." 
Mommsen. " Romische Geschichte." 
Ribot, Th. " Heredity." 

Smith, Richmond M. " Emigration and Immigration." 
Stefpens, Lincoln. " The Struggle for Self-Go vernment." 
Uberweg, Friedrich. " Geschichte der Philosophic" 
Weber, Alfred. " History of Philosophy." 
Williams, Monier. " Indian Wisdom." 

Wirth, Albrecht. " Volkstum und Weltmacht in der Geschichte." 
Woltman, Ludwig. " Die Germanen und die Renaissance in 

Zeller, Eduard. " Die Philosophic der Griechen." 

. The History of England. 

. The History of the United States. 


Abraham, 34 

Abramitic Stock, 34 

Achaeans, 63, 87 

Achilles, 65, 66 

Adams, John, 232 

Aden, 205 

Adriatic Sea, 135 

Aeschylus, 64, 75 

Afghanists, 53 

Africa, 8, 21, 23, 26, 45, 99, 206, 
207, 209, 253, 321, 346 
Central, negroes of, 344 
South, 205, 206, 342 

African, 27, 29, 99, 110, 147, 148, 

Africans, 40, 102 

Agamemnon, 63, 65 

Agassiz, Louis, 7, 154, 155 

Aias, 65 

Aix la Chapelle, 102 

Alanes, 89, 107 

Albanian, 93 

Albanians, 91, 92, 111 

Alcaeos, 69, 264 

Alcimus, 38 

Alcinous, 33 

Alexander (Roman Emperor), 

Alexander the Great, 14, 24, 25, 
39, 64, 73, 76, 85, 87, 88 

Alexandria, 76, 104 

Alfred, 195, 196 

Allemanni, 101 

Amazon valley, 153, 154, 157 

America, 44, 45, 165, 166, 170, 
171, 172, 173, 175, 176, 177, 
178, 203, 204, 205, 206, 257, 
264, 278, 280, 283, 292, 293, 
298, 300, 301, 303, 304, 319, 

322, 323, 326, 327, 330, 334, 
335, 339, 340, 347, 350 
Anglo-Saxons in, 213-247 
Immigration to, 224-229 
Immigration: who in, 248- 
American, 167, 168, 169, 176, 
204, 235, 236, 241, 242, 259, 
271, 277, 281, 282, 283, 292, 
299, 323, 326, 327, 332, 338, 
346, 347 
Composers and musicians, 305- 

Historians, 303 
Inventors, 307 
Names in Hall of Fame, 308- 

Names famous in literature, 

Negro, The, 331-348 
Painters, 307 
Revolution, 93 
Spaniel, the, 148 
Americans, 11, 150, 156, 171, 
173, 193, 225, 232, 234, 237, 
243, 256, 261, 263, 274, 276, 
277, 329, 332, 346 
Famous, names of, 301-309 
Supra-, 149 
Amos, 36 
Anacreon, 69 
Anaxagoras, 79 
Anaximender, 77 
Andrews, C. C, 8, 153, 155, 156, 

157, 163 
Andromache, 65 
Angles, 107, 189 
Anglo-Saxon, 125, 262, 263, 276, 
299, 300, 301, 302, 307, 




308, 309, 317, 318, 319, 327 

American, 300 
Anglo-Saxons, 112, 142, 257, 263, 
264, 318, 343 

And Germans, 294-298 

In America, The, 213-247 

The, 180-212 
Anglo Yahoo, the, development 

of, 327-328 
Anguilla, 206 
Annam, 169 
Antes, 89 
Antigua, 206 
Antiochus, 38 
Antiochus, Epiphanes, 98 

Eupator, 99 
Antonius, 101 
Aphasia — case noted, 133 
Arabia, 19, 22, 45 
Arabian, 102, 148 
Arabians, 101 
Arabic, 55, 92 
Arabs, 79, 226 
Arados, 24 
Aramaic, 14, 15 
Araucanian Indians, 160 
Archer, William, 277 
Archermos, 69 
Argentina, 159-160 

Mongrel of, 161 
Argentinian, 159 
Argentinians, 161, 164 
Aristarchus, 78 
Aristotle, 27, 75, 77, 82, 83, 84, 

Ariya, 48 
Ariya Kitra, 48 
Armada, The, 201-203 
Arnold, Matthew, 66, 180 
Artaxerxes III, 32 
Arya, 47, 48, 54 
Aryabata, 58 
Aryan, 7, 30, 40, 47, 48, 49, 54, 

57, 62, 63, 185 
Aryans, 15, 22, 40, 47, 48, 49, 54, 

57, 278 
Aryavarta, 277 
Asbad, 101 
Asia, 90, 253, 321 

Central, 29 

East, 175 

Semi-, 156 

Western, 98 
Asianized, 88 
Asia Minor, 16, 37, 62, 68, 87, 88, 

Asiatic, 29, 104, 110 

Turkey, 45 
Asiatics, 40, 110, 176 

Hellenized, 92 
Assyria, 13, 15, 36, 64 
Assyrian, 67 

Empire, 13-15 
Assyrians, 13, 15, 24, 39 
Astarte, 27 
Athenians, 64, 71, 129 
Athens, 65, 70, 76, 85, 86, 89 
Atlantic, 13, 26 

Islands of the, 253 
Attila, 88 
Augustus, 100, 121, 130, 180, 

188, 324 
Australia, 175, 205, 209, 253, 

Austria, 132, 139, 140, 141, 339 
Austrian, 143 

Poles, 131, 132 
Austrians, 135 

Austro-Hungary, 143, 145, 251, 
252, 254, 265, 300, 321, 322 

Languages recognized in, 144 

List of German poets of, 265 
Auttun, 107 
Avares, 90 

Baal, 27 

Babylon, 12, 13, 14 

Babylonian, 36 

Bach family, The, 126, 127 

Bahama Islands, 205, 206 

Baian-Chan, 90 

Balcanaks, 93, 321 

Balearic Islands, 26 

Balkan States, 208 

Baltic Sea, 135 

Barbadoes, 206 

Barbuda, 206 

Basilicus, 89 

Batavian Revolution, 93 

Batavians, 107, 192 



Battle of Arcot, 205 

Bull Run, 238 

Gettysburg, 238 

Gualdo Tadino, 101 

Hastings, 197, 296 

Leuctra, 86 

Lexington, 234 

Mycale, 70 

Pnarsalus, 101 

Plassey, 205 

Plataea, 70, 86 

Salamis, 70 

Selasia, 87 

Thermopylae, 70 
Bavaria, 135, 180 
Bavarians, 113, 136 
Bayeux, 107 
Behring, 172 
Belgium, 137, 139, 140, 208, 252, 

Belisarius, 101 
Benevento, 117 
Benjamin, 35 
Berkeley, 210 
Berlin, 74, 114, 131, 267 
Bhavabhuti, 60 
Bigelow, Mr., 289 
Bismarck, 281 
Blanco, Guzman, 151 
Bley, Fritz, 146 
Boer War, 139, 140, 206 
Boers, 139, 206, 207 
Bohemia, 140, 142 
Boston, 216, 233 
Botany Bay, 205 
Bourget, Paul, 292 
Bradford, William, 214, 216, 

Brahma, 51 
Brahmanas, 48 
Brahmanism, 52, 53, 54, 55 
Brahmin, 50, 51, 58 
Brahminical, 50, 51, 53, 56 
Brahmins, 48, 49, 50, 51, 55 
Brazil, 7, 8, 140, 153, 155, 156, 
175, 327, 

Mongrel of, 161 
Brazilians, 153, 156, 158, 161, 

Bremen, 267 

Brewster, William, 214 
Brinno, 193 

Britain, 185, 191, 192, 193-195 
British, 300 

America, 226, 231, 253 

Empire, 209 

Honduras, 206 

Isles, 107 
Briton, 193-195 
Britons, 180, 193-195 
Bructeri, 184 
Biichner, 210 
Buddha, 40 

Buddhism, 41, 52, 53, 57 
Buddhists, 53 
Buenos Ayres, 159 
Bulgarians, 89, 90, 92 

The, 89 
Burbank, Mr. Luther, 279 
Burgundians, 107, 113 
Burmah, 169 
Burmeister, 8 
Byzantine, The, 94, 95 

Emperors, 101 

Empire, 91 

Greeks, 92 
Byzantium, 102 

Caesar, 100, 101, 180 

Calabrians, 111 

Calamis, 69 

California, 173, 229-231, 323 

Calif ornians, 173 

Call, Mr. Henry L., 286-287 

Calvin, 219 

Cambridge, 216 

Canaan, 24 

Canada, 165, 251, 327, 331, 332 

Canary Islands, 21 

Canning, 208 

Cape Colony, 140 

Cappadocians, 100, 101, 109 

Caracalla, 76, 102, 103, 104 

Carinthia, 140, 142 

Carlyle, 199, 200 

Carthage, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26, 27, 

28, 98, 99, 292 
Carthaginian, 99 
Carthaginians, The, 26-28, 70, 




Carver, John, 214, 216 

Catherine, 141 

Cato, 28 

Caucasians, 169 

Caucasus, 22 

Celtic, 194, 195, 275 

Celts, 6, 193, 194, 195, 200, 296, 

Central Africa, Negroes of, 344, 

America, 149, 152, 206, 253, 
321, 345; Mongrels of, 163 

Asia, 29 
Cerialis, 193 
Ceylon, 205 
Chaldea, 12, 13, 14, 264 

Assyria, 22 

North, 22 
Chaldean, 20 

Chaldeans, The, 12-18, 29 
Chamberlain, Houston Stewart, 

28, 44, 96, 97, 108, 114, 123, 

Chandala, 52, 53 
Chandalas, 52, 54 
Channing, 209 
Chantre, Ernest, 30, 33 
Chapman, 298 
Charles the Great, 112 
Chartres, 107 
Chattuari, 180 
Chaucii, 180, 190 
Cheruscans, 181, 186 
Cherusci, 180, 189 
Child, Theodor, 163 
Chili, 160-162, 208 
Chilians, 158 
China, 45, 168-172, 173, 174, 175, 

251, 253, 278, 321 
Chinamen, 278 

Chinese, 41, 157, 168-172, 173, 
174, 175, 176, 323 

In California, 229-231, 250 
Chios, 69 

Christian, 41, 56, 147, 175 
Christianity, 40, 41, 57, 82, 147, 

169, 341 
Christians, 40, 41, 64, 92 
Cicero, 279 
Cisalpine Gaul, 99 
Civil War, The, 224, 236-239 

Free States in, 236 

Leaders in, 237, 303 

Slave States in, 236-237 
Claudian, 191 
Clermont, 107 
Coleridge, Chief Justice, 242 
Colorado, 269, 270 
CompayrS, 243 
Compound, White-negro-Indian, 

Confucius, 40 
Constance, 107 
Constantine, 102 
Constantinople, 91, 113 
Copernicus, 77, 78 
Corea, 169, 174 
Corean, 323 
Coreans, 41 
Corinth, 88, 89 

Gulf of, 89 
Corsica, 21 
Costa Rica, 158, 159 
Creasy, E. C, 189, 203 
Croatians, 265, 322 
Cromwell, 203 
Crooker, Joseph, 242 
Cshatriya, 48, 50, 51, 52 
Cshatriyas, 48, 49 
Cuba, 149, 164, 321, 347 

Mongrels of, 163 

Semi- whites of, 11 
Cuban, 149 

War, 338 
Cubans, 149, 329, 350 
Cyprus, 205 
Cyrenaica, 26 
Cyrus, 36 
Czechs, 140, 142, 144, 322 

Dane, 140 

Danes, 140, 196, 329, 349 

Dane Alighieri, 119 

Danube, 90, 184 

Darius, 48, 87 

Darwin, Charles, 2, 3, 4, 8, 146, 

209, 255, 325 
Dasyu, 47, 48, 55 
Dasyus, 47, 48 
De Kalb, 241 
De Tocqueville, 280 



Demerara, 140 
Democritus, 79 
Denmark, 135, 251, 252, 321, 

Diaz, 150, 151, 152 
Diocletianopolis, 89 
Diocletian, 102, 105 
Diomedes, 65 
Dion, Cassius, 185 
Dominica, 206 
Dorians, 67 
Drusus, 185, 189-190 
Dutch, 137, 138, 139, 153, 175, 

178, 193, 201, 214, 217, 226, 

Piatt-, 137 
Dutchmen, 139, 224 

East, The, 98 

Eastern Empire, The, 91, 101 

Edomites, 34 

Edward II, 199 

Egypt, 20, 22, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 
192, 205, 264 
Lower, 29 
Mulattoes of, 9 
Upper, 29 

Egyptian, 20, 22, 29, 31, 32, 67, 

Egyptians, The, 29-33, 34, 57, 88, 
91, 101, 349 

Elagabalus, 104 

Elbe, 185 

Eliakim, 38 

Eliot, President, 275 

Elizabeth, 201 

Emerson, 220, 263 

Empedocles, 79 

England, 19, 42, 74, 122, 140, 
153, 165, 166, 169, 178, 179, 
180, 181, 189, 192, 193, 194, 
195, 196, 197, 198-212, 213, 
214, 217, 221, 223, 225, 227, 
231, 252, 257, 258, 292, 295, 
297, 300, 327, 339, 350 
And the Colonies, 231-234 

English, 53, 54, 150, 152, 159, 
160, 161, 168, 171, 175, 178, 

179, 180, 183, 189, 193, 194, 

195, 196, 197, 198-212, 213, 
217, 221, 256, 257, 260, 262, 
296, 297, 298, 318, 327, 329, 
349, 350, 352 
Jews, 219 
Englishmen, 160, 164, 215, 220, 

221, 262 
Erasmus, 338-339 
Erech, 12 

Erythrean Sea. See Persian Gulf 
Essequibo, 140 
Ethiopia, 12, 32 
Etruria, 97 
Etruscan, 97 
Etruscans, 97 
Euphrates, The, 130 
Euripides, 75, 76 
Europe, 62, 90, 92, 135, 159, 165, 
170, 171, 172, 175, 180, 185, 
189, 204, 205, 206, 227, 251, 
280, 337, 340 
Central, 140, 145, 158, 166 
Eastern, 45 
Northern, 180, 272, 276, 284, 

Southern, 276 
Southeastern, 143, 156, 278 
Western, 169 
European, 165, 166, 168, 204, 
226, 227, 231, 232, 276, 284, 
300, 329, 345, 349, 350 

Europeans, 152, 165, 170, 171, 
226, 277, 322, 323 

Pan-, 184 

South, 228, 323, 350 
Evagrius, 90 

Fagute, 281 

Fallmerayer, Jacob P., 95, 96 

Families of painters, 126 

Finlay, George, 129 

Finns, 40, 322 

Flavian, 101, 102 

Flanders, 135, 137, 139, 350 

Flemings, 137 

Flemish, 137, 139 

Florence, 115, 116, 118, 119 

Florida, 206 

Fox, Mr., 298 



France, 74, 140, 153, 166, 179, 

208, 251, 252, 259, 280, 292, 

321, 332, 337 
Frankish, 91 
Franks, 92, 107, 112, 113, 114, 

French, 53, 130, 131, 132, 140, 
148, 213, 227, 257, 259, 280, 
300, 319, 343 

Canadians, 282 
Frenchmen, 110, 140, 164, 224 
Frey, General, 174 
Friaul, 117 
Frisian, 196 
Frisians, 196 
Frisii, 181, 192 
Fuller, Samuel, 216 

Galicia, 140 

Galilean, 38 

Galileans, 38, 39, 40 

Galilee, 38, 39, 40 

Galton, 126 

Gannask, 191 

Gaul, 21, 26, 130, 185, 191, 192 

Cisalpine, 99 
Gauls, 98, 101, 185 
Gautama Sacyamuni, 41, 52 
Genoa, 116 
Gepidae, 89 

German, 42, 101, 106, 107, 108, 
114, 115, 121, 131, 148, 156, 
161, 176, 180, 184-189, 224, 
256, 257, 260, 261, 263, 265, 
296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 
302, 303, 304, 306, 307, 308, 
309, 316, 317, 323, 327, 332, 
333, 334 
Americans, The, 134, 241, 244, 

263, 298, 299-320 
Frankish, 91 
In German Lands, 350 
Jews, 132 
Lands, Race Problems in, 135, 

Painters, 307-308 
Poles, 131 
Germanic, 117, 121, 258, 259 
Germanized, 121, 131 
Germans, 6, 17, 40, 101, 106, 107, 

116, 130, 131, 132, 150, 156, 
159, 160, 161, 164, 181, 182, 
183, 184-189, 224, 225, 241 
257, 264, 294-298, 299, 300, 
301, 303, 304, 307, 308, 309, 
317, 318, 319, 329, 334, 343, 

Germany, 42, 74, 115, 122, 131, 
132, 135-146, 148, 156, 165, 
166, 178, 179, 184-189, 200, 
216, 251, 257, 292, 295, 297, 
299, 303, 304, 308, 317, 318, 
321, 322, 323, 327, 332, 336, 
337, 338, 339, 350 

Geta, 103 

Ghenghis Khan, 176 

Gibbon, 95, 104, 105, 108, 129 

Gibraltar, 205 

Gilbert, 204 

Gildas, 194 

Gipsies, The, 45-46, 265, 349 

Giulini, Passerini and, 118, 122 

Gobel, Professor Julius, 318 

Gobineau, A., Comte de, 28, 29, 
33, 61, 96, 108, 123 

Goltz, Von der, 166 

Gothe, 60, 67, 125, 143, 148, 209, 
265, 279, 296 

Goth, 101, 129 

Gothic, 74, 114, 129, 147, 148 
War, 101 

Goths, 42, 88, 106, 107, 112, 113, 
114, 116, 117, 129 

Gould, Dr. E. R., 285-286 

Graeculi, 85 

Graeculus, 94 

Graetz, 44 

Grandprey, Colonel, 170 

Great Britain, 213, 251, 321, 322, 

Grecian, 68 

Greece, 20, 44, 62, 65, 84, 85, 98, 
169, 192, 208, 257, 264, 322, 

Greek, 22, 32, 38, 63, 64, 68, 69, 
70, 73, 74, 75, 76, 79, 84, 
85, 104, 105, 106, 117, 130, 
134, 181, 208, 264, 351 
Jewish, 38 

Greeks, 30, 32, 39, 46, 62, 63, 64, 



67, 68, 70, 72, 76, 86-96, 
110, 129, 130, 264, 349, 351 
Of modern Greece, 85 

Grenada, 206 

Guiana, 205, 206 

Guinea, 21, 226 

Half-breeds, White-Indian, 7 
Hamburg, 267 
Hamite, 7 
Hamites, 22, 29 

In India, The, 10-11 
Hamitic, 11, 14, 22, 25, 30, 349 

Race, 10, 12, 20, 29 

Semitic people, 7 
Hanover, 180 

Hansa, The, 193, 200, 299, 303 
Hapsburgs, The, 136 
Hart, Sir Robert, 174 
Hasse, Ernest, 146 
Hasting, 196 
Hayti, 343, 344, 345 

Europeans of, 345 

Negro of, 344 
Haytians, The, 41 

Religion of, 345-346 
Hector, 65 
Hecuba, 65 
Helen, 65 
Hellas, 62-85, 88, 89, 90, 264, 

Hellenes, 22, 62, 70, 85, 91, 93, 

Hellenic, 62, 64, 70, 73, 78, 85, 

87, 88, 89, 90, 92 
Hellenized, 38, 88, 91 
Hellenization, 38 
Hengist, 181, 192, 193 
Henry VIII, 201,204 
Heraclitus, 79 
Herder, 126 
Herman, 186-190, 192, 193, 194, 

201, 204 
Herodotus, 15, 20, 264 
Herulians, 89 
Hesiod, 82 

Hindoo, 29, 41, 277, 278 
Hindoos, The, 10, 22, 29, 30, 41, 
44, 46, 47-61, 349 

Caste system of, 15 

Hipparchus, 78 
Hippocrates, 76 
Hiram, King, 38 
Hoar, Senator, 272 
Hohenstaufen, 120 
Hohenstaufens, The, 110 
Holland, 135, 137, 139, 140, 178, 

180, 205, 208, 214, 252, 337, 

339 350 
Homer, 62, 64, 65, 66, 75, 82, 

93, 135, 181, 264 
Honkong, 205 
Horace, 97, 324, 351 
Hore, 204 

Horsa, 181, 192, 193 
Hottentot, 125, 294 
Howland, John, 216 
Huguenots, 130, 131, 350 
Hughes, Mr. Rupert, 305-306, 

Humboldt, A. von, 8, 152 
Hungary, 16, 140, 225, 276 

Semi-whites of, 11 
Huns, The, 17, 88, 89, 90, 92, 

Hunsiker, Professor, 146 
Huxley, 209, 210 
Hybrid, The, rare in nature, 1-4 
Hydra, 93 
Hyksos, 30 

Iberia, 149 
Iberian, 147 
Iberians, 98, 148 
Ictinos, 71 
Illyrians, 89, 91 

Immigration : Anglo-Saxons and 
Germans, 294-298 
Economic effects of present, 

Men or the balance sheet, 280- 

The German Americans, 299- 

The Pan-European in America, 

To America, 224-229 
Who in America, 248-279 
India, 10, 45, 47, 49, 50, 51, 53, 
54, 55, 56, 175, 205, 208 



Indian, 85, 150, 323 

Ocean, 13, 20, 171 
Indians, 41, 149, 150, 152, 155, 

157, 160, 250, 263 
Indo-Europeans, 157 
Indra, 47, 48, 54 
Indus, The, 88 
Ireland, 193, 199, 204, 251, 252, 

292, 321, 322, 332 
Irene, The Empress, 91 
Irish, 148, 203, 241, 257, 319 
Ishmaelites, 34 
Isis, 104 
Islam, 41 
Israel, 35, 36, 39 
Israelites, 35, 36 
Italian, 97, 102, 116, 118, 122, 
140, 173 

Architects, 118 

Painters, 119 

Poets, 119-120 

Renaissance, The, 109, 114, 
121, 122 

Sculptors, 118 

Troubadours, 119 
Italians, 91, 101, 122, 140, 282, 

Of the North, 123, 131 

Of the South, 123, 131, 147 
Italiots, 113, 121, 123, 181 
Italoi, The, 92 

Italy, 89, 97, 98, 122, 130, 140, 
251, 252, 254, 321, 322, 337, 

Central, 98 

Lombards in, 112-133 

Lower, 110 

Northern, 107, 109, 115, 123 

Southern, 100, 109, 110, 120, 
147, 265, 322 

Upper, 112 

Jamaica, 205, 206 
James, King, 213, 214 
Jamestown, 221 

Japan, 169, 170, 172-175, 179, 
205, 208, 230, 321 

Siamese, 175 
Japanese, 41, 169, 171, 172-175, 

176, 177, 230, 250 

Jason, 38 

Jefferson, 221, 222, 263 
Jehovah, 35, 39 
Jeutsch, Karl, 146 
Jerusalem, 35, 36, 37, 41 
Jesus, 38, 40 

Jews, The, 7, 17, 22, 34-44, 45, 
61, 91, 132, 173, 241, 257, 
322, 349 

German, 132 
Jewish, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 
42, 260 

Essayists, 43 

Musicians, 43 

Novelists, 43 

Painters, 43 

Poets, 42-43 

Scientists, 43 

Sculptors, 43 
John, King, 199 
Jokai, Maurus, 144, 246 
Jones, Paul, 235 
Jonizu, Professor, 175 
Joshua, 38 
Judah, 35, 36, 37, 39 
Judaism, 34, 36, 38 
Judas Maccabaeus, 38 
Julian, 103 
Julius Africanus, 32 
Justinian, 90, 130 
Justinus I, 89 
Jutes, 107 
Juvenal, 32 

Kaffirs, 342 

Kaiechos, 32 

Kalidasa, 55, 60 

Kallicrates, 71 

Kant, Immanuel, 146, 209, 298 

Kapp, Mr. Friedrich, 283 

Karians, 21 

Karl the Great, 107, 122 

Katyayana, 58 

Kephisodotos, 72 

King of Assyria, 39 

The Franks and Lombards, 

Tyre, 38 
Kitasato, Dr., 172 
Klopstock, 187 



Knortz, Professor Karl, 309, 

312-313, 314-316, 320 
Koch, 172 
Konoye, Prince, 174 

Ladinos, 152 

Lafayette, 241 

Lamprecht, Professor Karl, 307, 

309-311, 320 
Lapouche, De, 19 
Larsa, 12 

Latin, 116, 117, 118, 130, 193, 
194, 198, 263, 351 

America, 251 

Semi-, 197 
Latinized, 114, 197 
Latins, 6, 97, 110, 138, 213, 241, 

254, 255, 275, 282 
Le Mans, 107 
Lechford, 220 
Leochares, 73 
Leonidas, 69 
Lepsius, 29 

Leroy-Beaulieu, Paul, 171 
Leyden, 214, 217 
Liberia, 346-347 
Liegnitz, 176 
Lindsay, Ronald C, 277 
Lithuanians, 140, 141, 322 
Litta, Pompeo, 118, 122 
Liutprand, 113 
Livingstone, 8, 209 
Livonians, 140, 141, 322 
Lodge, Senator, 254 
Lombards, 35, 101, 107, 109, 
349, 351 

In Italy, The, 112-123, 194 
Lombardy, 113, 117 
London, 74, 114, 215, 267 
Longobardi, The, 112 
Lopez I, 151 
Lopez II, 151 
Lotharingians, 113 
Low German, 137 
Luther, 200, 201, 209, 219, 320 
Lybians, 26 
Lydians, 21, 101 
Lysippus, 73 

Macedonia, 87, 98 

Macedonians, 39, 86, 87 
Macrinus, 104 
Madison, 222 
Magna Graeca, 98 
Magyar, 144, 246, 261 
Magyars, 11, 16, 17, 40, 140, 144, 

225, 246, 265, 276, 278, 282, 

Maier, 71 
Malayans, 41 
Malta, 26, 205 
Manasseh, 37 
Manchuria, 172 
Mang-Tse, 169 
Marshall, 222 
Martialis, 104 
Massachusetts, 216, 220, 221, 

222, 233, 234, 237 
Maurice, Prince of Nassau, 153 
Maximin, 104 
Mazari, 91, 92 
McClellan, Mr., 267 
McCullagh, 86 
Mechanidas, 87 
Medes, The, 15, 16, 22, 87 
Mediterranean, 20, 90 

Eastern, 98 
Melkart, 24 
Memnon, 32 
Memphis, 30, 264 
Menander, 90 
Mendelssohn, 44 
Menelaus, 38, 65 
Mestizos, 149 
Mexican, 150 

Mexicans, 150-152, 329, 350 
Mexico, 149, 150-152, 165, 253, 
265, 321, 322, 323, 347 

Mongrels of, 163 

Semi- whites of, 11 
Mikado, The, 177 
Milan, 102, 116 
Milman, 44 
Milton, 220 
Miriam, 40 
Mithra, 104 
Mlekha, 50, 51 
Mohammed II, 92 
Mohammedans, 45 
Moloch, 27 



Monahem, 38 
Mongol, 166 
Mongolian, 231 
Mongols, 41, 53 

Mongrel, Mongrels, 14, 15, 57, 
61, 87, 111, 112, 113, 114, 
121, 122, 150, 158, 161, 163, 
260, 277 

American, 147, 148 

Aryan - Hamitic - Semitic- 
Egyptian - Negroid, 87 

Brahminical, 56 

Eastern, 40, 42, 186 

Egyptian, 32, 103 

German-Slavic, 131 

German speaking, 131, 142 

Greek, 96, 98 

Greek speaking, 87, 88 

Greek speaking tri-Continen- 
tal, 91 

Hamitic - Semitic - Aryan- 
Turanian, 14 

Hamitic - Semitic - Greek- 
Egyptian-Negroid, 92 

Hamitic-Semitic-Negroid, 98 

Hamitic-Semitic-Turanian, 16 

Hunnic - Slavic - Wallachian, 

Iberian - Gothic - Arabian - 
Negro, 149 

Iberian - Gothic - Moorish - 
African, 147 

In History, The, 5-9 

In Nature, The, 1-4 

Mexican, 350 

Of Argentina, 161 

Of Brazil, 161 

Of Central America, 163 

Of Cuba, 163 

Pan-European in Rome, 97- 

Pan- White, 31 

Pan-World, 163 

Phoenician - Chaldean - Egyp- 
tian - Negro - Greek, 25 

Post-Carthaginian, 27, 28 

Post-Hellenic, 77, 84, 181 

Post - Hellenic - tri - Conti- 
nental, 78 

Post Hindoo, 55, 57 

Post Roman, 103, 112, 181, 

Roman herd, 101 

Slavic, 181 

Slavic-Hunnish, 229 

South American, 147-163, 329, 

South European, 329-330 

Spanish-Indian-Negro, 152 

Spanish-Negro, 149 

Tri-Continental, 76 

West Indian, 350 

White-Indian, 150 

White-Indian-Negro, 347 

Yellow-black-white, 47 
Monroe Doctrine, The, 158, 164- 

168, 347, 351 
Moors, 148 
Morea, 91, 95 
Moscow, 176 
Moses, 34 
Mozart, 127 
Muller, K. O., 63 
Mummius, 88 
Mycenae, 62, 63, 64 
Mycenaic, 63, 65, 67 
Myron, 70 

Nabert, H., 146 

Nabis, 87 

Nadir Shah, 53 

Naples, 92, 109 

Napoleon, 259, 280 

Nebuchadnezzar, 14, 36 

Negroes, 250 

American, The, 331-348 
Noted, Names of, 342 

Nehemiah, 37 

Neill, Mr., 338 

Nekht-Nebf, King, 32 

Netherlands, The, 136, 137, 138, 

139, 140, 251, 300, 321 
New England, 219, 226, 276, 282, 

New Germany, 327 
New York, 266, 267, 287, 289, 

292, 331, 332, 333, 336, 337, 

New Zealand, 205, 209 



Nicephoras, The Emperor, 113 

Nietzsche, 84 

Nile, 29 

Nineveh, 16 

Nipur, 12 

Nomads, 26 

Norman, 120, 122, 350 

Suabian, 120 
Normandy, 196, 198 
Normans, 101, 109, 110, 114, 119, 
120, 296, 349 

The, 196-199 
North, The, 101, 105, 140, 180 
North America, 159, 221 
North American, 213 
North Borneo, 205 
North Sea, 135, 190, 191 
Norway, 251, 252, 281, 321, 322 
Norwegians, 280, 281 
Numidians, 101 

Ophir. See Sofola 
Opium War, The, 169, 178 
Osmanli, The, 96 
Ostro-Goths, 89, 101 
Otho the Bavarian, 208 
Otis, James, 232 

Pacific, The, 45, 171, 175, 176, 

Paleologi, The, 94 
Palestine, 34, 38, 39 
Pampas, The, 159 
Panama Canal, The, 205 
Panini, 57, 58 
Pannonian, 102 
Paraguay, 151, 158, 159, 327 

Mongrel of, 161 
Paraguayan, 158 
Paraguayans, 158, 159 
Paris, 74, 102, 140 
Parker, 209 
Parthians, The, 101 
Passerini, L., 118, 122 

And Giulini, 118, 122 
Patanjali, 58 
Patras, 91 
Pavia, 117 
Pelasgians, 62 
Peloponnesus, 90, 91, 92 

Peloponnesians, 91 
Pene-Siefert, 171 
Pennsylvania, 224, 269, 339, 346 
Pergamum, 98 
Pericles, 65, 70, 85, 87 
Persia, 45 
Persian, 70 

Gulf, 10, 20 

Wars, Time of, 69 
Persians, 53, 87, 88, 226 
Persians, The, 15, 16, 22, 69, 70 
Pertinax, 103 
Peru, 157-158, 327 

Mongrel of, 161 
Peruvians, 158, 161, 164 
Petofi, 144, 246 
Petras, 90 
Petzet, Charles, 146 
Phaeacians, 33 
Pharaoh-Necho, 21 
Pheidias, 65, 70, 71, 72 
Philip II, 201 
Philistines, 35 
Phoenicia, 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, 63 

History of, 19 
Phoenician, 20, 21, 24, 26 
Phoenicians, The, 19-25, 77, 110, 

Lybio-, 26, 27 
Phrygia, 22 
Picts, The, 193 
Pilgrims, The, 214-217 

Compact of, 215 
Pillars of Hercules, 88, 130 
Pindar, 75, 279 
Pisa, 116 
Pisidians, 21 
Plato, 77, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 

Plymouth, 216, 217 
Poitiers, 107 
Poland, 90 
Pole, 78 
Poles, 78, 132, 140. 141, 322 

Russian, 131, 132 
Polish, 131, 141 

-Speaking Mongrel, 131 
Polybius, 99 
Polyclitus, 72 
Poros, 93 



Porto Ricans, 350 

Rico, 321 
Portugack, 148 

Portugal, 4, 148, 153, 208, 321, 

Semi-whites of, 11 
Portuguese, 53, 148, 155, 226, 

Post Graeco-Roman Empire, 37 

Hellenic Philosophers, 85 

Hindoos, 260 

Roman herd, 101, 102, 103, 
104, 107 

Romans, 260, 262 
Praxiteles, 72, 73 
Priam, 65 

Procopius, 89, 90, 101 
Prunser Bey, 9 
Prussia, 131, 135, 137, 203, 258 

Poles of, 131 
Ptah-hotep, 32 
Ptolemies, 38 
Ptolemy, 78 
Punic, 26, 98, 110 
Puritans, The, 216-221, 222 
Pythagoras, 77, 79, 82, 264 

Race, Absorbent capacity of 

every, limited, 6, 224 
Races, 7 

Northern, 255 

Yellow, The, 168-179 
Raleigh, 204 
Randolph, Peyton, 234 
Ranke, 201 
Ravenna, 102, 117 
Rawlinson, Sir Henry, 10, 12, 29 
Rakshasas, 47 
Rennes, 107 
Reuter, 137 
Reynolds, Mr., 338 
Rhine, 184, 190, 192 
Rhodes, 98 

Ribot, Th., 9, 94, 96, 125, 134 
Richthofen, 171 
Riga, 135 
Rio-Negro, 154 
Robinson, John, 214, 217 
Roman, 28, 44, 54, 85, 97, 98, 99, 
100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 

106, 107, 109, 110, 112, 113, 
116, 118, 121, 130, 180, 185, 

186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 
192, 197, 256, 258, 324 

Anti-, 115 

Empire, 108, 116 

Post-, The, 106, 115, 121, 122 

Romans, 38, 44, 46, 88, 98, 99, 

100, 101, 102, 107, 113, 115, 

116, 121, 180, 184, 185, 186, 

187, 188, 190, 191, 192, 194, 
258, 262, 263, 349, 351 

Virgil, Horace, Livius, etc., not, 
Rome, 28, 35, 42, 44, 97, 98, 99, 
100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 
106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 114, 
115, 130, 169, 180, 184, 185, 
186, 188, 190, 193, 194, 208, 
257, 260, 261, 265, 271, 293, 
324, 326, 351 
Pan-European Mongrel in, 97- 
Roumanians, 17, 140, 144 
Russia, 17, 41, 42, 132, 172, 176, 
251, 253, 254, 270, 300, 321, 
322, 323 
Russians, 227, 322 
Ruthenians, 140, 322 

St. Croix, 206 

St. Lucia, 206 

Sabines, 97 

Salem, 216, 233 

Salter, 2 

Samaria, 36, 37 

Samaritan, 37 

Samaritans, 36, 37 

Samson-Himmelstjerna, 174 

San Francisco, 274 

Sanscrit, 54, 57, 61 

Santo Domingo, 149, 164, 343, 

Saracens, 110, 185 
Sarasvati, 55 
Sappho, 69, 264 
Sardinia, 21, 26, 99 
Sargon, 36 
Saul, 35 
Saxon, 180, 186, 189, 191-196, 



200, 201, 213, 220, 231, 234, 

235, 236, 238, 247 
Saxons, 107, 113, 136, 180, 181, 

185, 189, 191-196, 197, 199, 

204, 210, 225, 236, 237, 246 
Saxony, 135 
Scandinavian, 196, 261, 340 

American, 299 
Scandinavians, 6, 241, 349 
Schiller, 265 
Schleswig, 191 
Schopenhauer, 85 
Schubert, 127 
Schultheiss, Dr. Fr. Guntram, 

Schurz, Carl, 241, 245 
Scotland, 199-200, 252 
Scots, The, 193, 200 
Scottish, 199, 200 
Scrooby, 214 
Seabright, Sir J., 325 
Semite, 7 
Semites, 16 
Semitic, 13, 21, 22, 110, 349 

Semi-, language, 23 
Servetus, 219 
Servians, 140 
Severus, Septimius, 103 
Shakespeare, 65, 66, 67, 209, 296, 

Shelley, 66, 76 
Shiga, Dr., 112 
Siam, 169, 175 
Siberia, 45 

Sicilian Troubadours, 119 
Sicilians, 92, 123, 322 
Sicily, 21, 26, 92, 98, 99, 100, 
109-111, 120, 122 

Greeks of, 70 
Sidon, 22, 23, 24 
Sienna, 115 
Simonides, 69 
Simon Tharsi, 39 
Singapore, 205 
Sirmium, 102 
Skopos, 72 
Slav, 144 

Slavic names, List of, 90 
Slavonians, 89, 91 
Slavs, 89, 90, 92, 132, 138, 

169, 241, 254, 255, 275, 282, 

East, 323 

Sarmatic, 89 

South, 144 

The, 6, 17, 90 
Slovenians, 140, 141, 142, 265, 

Slovaks, Slowacks, 140, 143, 265, 

Smith, John, 213 
Socotra, 205 
Socrates, 79, 80, 81, 82 
Sofola, 21 

Solomon, 35, 38, 39 
Sophocles, 64, 75 
South Africa, 205, 206, 342 
South America, 8, 104, 147, 149, 
153, 155, 156, 157, 158, 161, 
162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 175, 
176, 206, 208, 226, 253, 265, 
321, 327, 329, 345 

Mongrels of, 163 

Mulattoes of, 8 

Semi-whites of, 11 

" Yankees " of, 160 
South American, 96, 157, 160, 
164, 166, 269, 299, 329 

Herds, 208 

Mongrel, 147-163, 350 

Republics, 85 
South Americans, 152, 159, 161, 

162, 163, 322, 323 
South Italian Norman architects, 

Spain, 21, 26, 42, 45, 91, 96, 98, 

99, 130, 132, 147, 148, 160, 

192, 201, 208, 253, 321, 327 
Spaniard, 147, 148 
Spaniards, 92, 102, 148, 157, 160, 

213, 347 
Spanish, 132, 148, 151 
Spalatro, 105 
Sparta, 85, 86 
Spencer, 210 
Spoleto, 117 
Standish, Miles, 216 
Steffens, Lincoln, 269, 280, 287 
Steuben, 241 
Styria, 140 



Suabian, 122 

Hohenstaufen, 120 
Suabians, 109, 110, 113, 119, 120, 


Sudra, 49, 50, 51, 278 

Sudras, 51 

Suetonius, 188 

Suevians, 107 

Suevic, 180 

Suez Canal, The, 205 

Suli, 93 

Sulla, 99 

Sultan of Ghasna, 53 

Sweden, 251, 252, 321, 322 

Swedes, 40, 224, 329 

Swiss, 135 

Switzerland, 136, 138, 140, 152, 

164, 251, 252, 267, 300, 321, 

Syria, 37, 42, 98, 185 
Syrian, 19, 20, 24, 30 
Syrians, 100, 101, 109 

Tacitus, 112, 190 
Talleyrand, 281 
Tartars, 41, 176 
Teuton, 121 

Teutonic, 67, 74, 79, 109, 113, 

114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 

120, 121, 122, 123, 181-185, 

189, 190, 193, 194, 195, 196, 

197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 203, 

208, 209, 216, 221, 228, 235, 

246, 259, 275, 296, 319, 326 

Architects, 117 

Stock, Men of the, 78 

Teutons, 107, 115, 118, 181-185, 

189, 200, 221, 256 
Texas 236 

Thales of Miletus, 77, 264 
Thebes, 32, 89 
Theodor Paleologos, 91 
Theodoric, 106, 117 
Thermopylae, 70, 89 
Thersites, 65 
Thessalians, 101 
Thibet, 169 
Thomas of Aquinas, 119, 120, 

Thorndike, Professor, 275 

Thrace, 89 

Thucydides, 62 

Tiberius, 100, 185 

Timour, 176 

Toscana, 113 

Totila, 101 

Trinidad, 205, 206 

Tshacones, 91 

Tshang-Ki-Tong, 168 

Turanian, 13 

Turk, Karl, 146 

Turk, 166, 322 

Turks, 31, 53, 92, 95, 96, 185, 

227, 323 
Tyndall, 209, 210 
Tyre, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 
Tyrol, 140 

Uchtomsky, Prince, 323 

Ugra, 50 

Ulysses, 33 

Umbrians, 97 

Underhill, Dr. Frank P., 288 

Unitarians, 241-246 
Distinguished, 243 
Educators, 243 
Eminent in literature, 242 
In Hall of Fame, 245 
Philanthropists, 244 
Reformers, 244-245 
Statesmen, 245 

United States, 130, 139, 143, 
]*49, 152, 156, 158, 164, 165, 
175, 184, 224, 227, 228, 235- 
247, 250, 251, 253, 255, 257, 
258, 259, 260, 261, 263, 266, 
268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 
274, 275, 276, 280, 281, 283, 
284, 286, 292, 321, 322, 324, 
327, 329, 339 

Ur, 12 

Uruguay, 158, 327 

Uraguayans, 158, 159 

Vala, Numonius, 187 
Vaisya, 48, 49, 50, 51 
Vaisyas, 48, 49 
Valdivia, 161 
Valesianus, 117 
Valparaiso, 161 



Vandals, 180 

Varus, Quintilius, 185, 187, 188, 

189, 190 
Venezuela, 151, 152, 327 
Venice, 91, 92 
Verona, 115, 117 
Victoria, Queen, 205 
Vienna, 102, 227 
Virginia, 215, 220, 221-224, 226, 

232, 233, 234, 237 
Vitruvius, 68 
Vortiger, 193 

Wales, 252 
Wallace, Alfred, 153 
Wallachians, 92 
Walloons, 92, 140 
War, Wars, Civil. See Civil War 
Cuban, 338 
Gothic, 101 
Hannibalic, 98 
Mexican, 224, 236; Leaders 

in, 302-303 
Napoleonic, 204 
Of Independence, 224, 234- 

235; Leaders in, 302 
Of 1812, 224, 235; Naval com- 
manders in, 237; Leaders 
in, 302 
Russo-Japanese, 172 
Seven Years, 205 
Smalkaldic, 201 

Washington, George, 221, 222, 

223, 234, 263 
W^astian, Heinrich, 146 
Webster, 208 
Wellenhof, Dr. P. Hofmanvon, 

Wessex, 195 
Westphalia, 180 
West Indian Islands, West In- 
dies, 149, 165, 253, 347 

Mongrels of, 350 

Mulattoes of, 8 
Western Empire, The, 101 
Weyler, 149 
Wickliffe, 200 
Wilkinson, Sir Gardner, 29 
William, Duke of Normandy, 

196, 197 
Williams, Monier, 59, 60, 61 
Wimternitz, 77 
Wirth, Albrecht, 28, 44, 61 
Wither, Mr. Biggs, 153, 155 
Woltman, Dr. L., 118, 121, 123 

Xerxes, 15, 16 

Yajnavakya, 58 

Yu, The Emperor, 169 

Zambesi, 8, 226 
Zambos, 8, 149, 157 
Zeno, 89 
Zimbabwe, 21 




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