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PREPARATION of this volume was begun primarily in the interest of the former 
service men of Racine County. It was realized as early as January, iqiq, that im- 
mediate steps must be taken to collect their records while the facts were still obtain- 
able, or the task would become impossible of accomplishment. 

It was the hope and expectation of the author that others would assume the work, 
but when it became evident that they would not, he reluctantly agreed to attempt it. 
Previous efforts had been made to have a similar project financed with public funds, but 
had failed because of the large amount involved. Several suggestions were made as to 
the best way of insuring the success of the book from a business standpoint In most 
instances they involved contributions, or sale of space. Such plans, while legitimate, and 
often necessary, usually give rise to charges of favoritism or prejudice, and they were re- 

In the end it was decided to accept no donations of any sort and depend entirely upon 
the sale of books to cover the expense. It is gratifying to find that the former service men 
and civilians have supported the venture so generally in sub.scribing to the edition that 
there will be no financial loss. 

After spending a year upon the preparation of '"Racine County in the World War." 
the author is more than ever convinced of its importance. It would be difficult for the 
average reader to realize the difficulties which beset the path of one seeking the truth in 
regard to some of the simplest matters connected with the recent war. Many organiza- 
tions of civilian war workers kept no complete records; in other cases the documents 
had been mislaid or lost. It was assumed that it would be an easy matter to gather photo- 
graphs of soldiers and sailors for publication, when no charge was made for the insertions 
of a picture, but it was anything but simple. The main difficulty lay in the fact that most 
of the "subjects " had to be persuaded that there was no hidden scheme to get money 
from them. Arguing with 5.000 men takes time in itself, but it is disheartening task 
when there is added to it the job of first catching the ' men with whom one desires 
to argue. 

The principal part and purpose of this project was the gathering of individual records 
of former service men and women. This involved copying records of the History Committee 
of the Council of Defense, the Red Cross, the various local Boards and lists published from 
time to time in the newspapers. These were cheeked against "honor rolls" of numerous 
societies, churches, townships, schools and industrial plants. Note was made of all who 
applied for the state bonus for ex-service men. Where complete information was not then 
at hand regarding a man, letters of inquiry were sent to his last known address and efforts 
made to get in touch with his friends or relatives 

There was no official record to which reference could be made. If any are unrepre- 
sented, it is not due to any lack of effort on the part of the publishers, but because the men 
themselves and their relatives have ignored the pleadings for information presented to 
them in newspaper articles, letters, advertisements and circulars. 

It should be a fact worthv of some thought that in the .Autumn of iqiQ. one year 
after the World War was ended, there was no complete record of the men who served their 
country in that war from this county: in fact, not even an accurate list of the Racine men 
who gave their lives for thcircountry. If the disclosure of that truth arouses enough interest 
to insure that the search will be continued until that record is completed, it will have 
justified many times over the time and labor spent upon this book. 

In regard to this volume itself, it may be said with absolute confidence that it con- 
tains as correct a list of records as could be obtained at this time, and a far more complete 
list than is possessed by any county in the state of Wisconsin, That being true, the author 
feels that no apologies for minor errors are necessary. Where misstatements of fact occur, 
the only explanation to be made is that the data was gathered in the great part from the 
men themselves: more than ^.'ioo were interviewed personally and nearly this number 
of certificates of discharge were copied. As to the others, every available source of in- 
formation was sought. 

It may be that the names of some who were not legal residents of the county are 
included in the list of service men. WTiere doubt existed on that point it was decided to 
give the benefit of it to the man affected and not risk doing an injustice to him by being 
too technical in interpreting the term resident. " There aie also many Racine County 
men who now reside elsewhere, but who are strictly ot Racine County in an historical 
sense. Others who entered service elsewhere are now full fledged Racine County citizens 
and as such are entitled to a place in this work, whieli will serve to make easier their ab- 
sorption by the community. 

Arrangement of the cliapters of the book followed no exact plan, but it was intended 
that they appear in a sort of chronological order. There was no purpose of arranging them 
in the order of the importance of the topics discussed. Broadly speaking, most people 
will remember the events of the war as having occurred about in the way they appear in 
the subsequent chapters — military and naval preparations, civilian activities at home 
for several months, and then the gradual development of the military strength of the 
nation until it culminated in a complete and glorious victory over the foe 

To make clearer some facts of local interest it became necessary to develop the topic 
of military operations somewhat beyond the lines originally laid down, but it is hoped that 
this will serve to make the pages the more interesting. The collection of pictures, both of 
local and general subjects adds a great deal to the value of the work. 

The story of the civilian war work was taken almost entirely from official records- 
Names of workers were obtained from those who were empowered to select and publish 
them. For instance, the names of Liberty Loan workers were obtained from the Chairman 
of the Liberty Loan Committee and where any question has arisen as to the personnel of 
the various sub-committees, his list has been referred to as authoritative. 

For the interesting collection of portraits in the book, the thanks of the entire com- 
munity are due to E. I". Billings, Harry J. Leonard, John A. Hood, G. A. Malmc, Julius 
Pavek, Tom Anderson, 1. B. Grant, and, in fact, almost every local photographer for their 
generous cooperation in selecting and reproducing photographs of former service men. 
It has been found impossible to give them credit for this in connection with the pictures 
themselves in every case, and this opportunity is taken to express my own appreciation 
and that of the men so generously served. 

Fred. A. Wright, took pictures of almost every draft contingent before it departed 
from the city, and the great majority of these groups have been furnished, and arc repro- 
duced here. They are of great historical value. 

John A. Hood, not only offered the use of his collection of wartime views, but very 
generously gave over his studio I'or many days for the purpose of rc-photographing portraits 
which were not suitable for engraving in the shape they were received. Views from his 
collection will revive wartime memories when readers scan many pages of this work. 

It would be impossible to give due credit to the scores of war veterans and other 
citizens who gave of their time without stint and in various ways assisted in gathering and 
preparing material for this work. Lieut. -Col. William Mitchell Lewis, William Horlick, 
Jr., Frank J. Hilt, Max J. Zirbes, John A. Brown, Mrs. J. G. Chandler, Eugene 
W. Leach, Walter H. Reed, Miss Minnie Queckenstedt, William W. Storms, and 
many others have rendered very great assistance in the work, and offered to do even 
more if desired, with no other purpose than to see that a suitable record was made of 
those events which soon would have become a dim memory if not collected in some per- 
manent form. 

The ex-service men showed their very great interest in the historv at all times and 
they have been the principal supporters of the project from the standpoint of the business 
management. It is earnestly hoped that their support will pro\e to ha\ e been justified 
as it was in their interest that the task of preparing the volume was undertaken. 

The author feels that this work is not entirely completed, and will not be for some 
years. The request is made now of all readers that if errors are detected, or omissions 
noticed, that the fact be communicated to him by mail and at some future time it may 
prove possible to publish these corrections in some form so as to make the work more 
nearly perfect, W, L. HAIGHT 


Page 237 and 241— Under cut, second lini-'. it should read "Next to bottom" instea.i of 
"Third" and "Next to top" instead i)f "Second". 

Patre 243— Third line under cut. first name should be "Louis Wawrzynkewici". 

PitKu 264-FollowinB twenty-sixth line, first column, the f.illowinB should be inserted; "Di- 
visions narticipatinic in the Mueae- Ar^onne battle were those numbered 1, 2. 3. 4. 5. 
6. 2G. 28. 29. 32. 33, 36, 37, 42. 77. 7B. 80. 82. 89. 9(1. 91 and 92". 


Chapter 1 
The Outbreak of the War 1 5 

Chapter 1 1 
Racine County Prior to Hostilities IQ 

Chapter 111 
Preparing to Fight ^3 

Chapter IV 
Navy Clears for Action 27 

Chapter V 
Racine National Guardsmen Called iq 

Chapter VI 
Volunteers Join the Colors 35 

Chapter VII 
Racine and the Selective Service Law 3q 

Chapter VI II 
Training Camps in America 5 1 

Chapter IX 
Protection at Home 53 

Chapter X 
Racine County Council of Defense 57 

Chapter XI 
Women's Committee, County Council of Defense 67 

Chapter XII 
American Protective League 75 

Chapter XIII 
Semi-Official Auxiliary Organizations 85 

Chapter XIV 
Racine's Financial Offering qi 

Chapter XV 
Racine Chapter, American Red Cross 112 

Chapter XVI 
Saving Food to Win the War 133 

Chapter XVII 
The Effect of the War on Home Life 158 

Chapter XVIII 
Clubs, Societies, Politics and Incidents 171 

Chapter XIX 
Effect of War on Racine Industries 

Chapter XX 
The A. E. F. in Battle iq7 

Chapter XXI 
The Navy in Action 213 

Chapter XXII 
Battery C, 121st Field Artillery 225 

Chapter XX! 11 
Battery F, 12 1st Field Artillery 235 

Chapter XXI\' 
1 he Racine Ambulance Company 247 

Chapter XX\' 

Facts Regarding Various Branches of the Army 263 

Chapter XXVI 
Soldier's Songs: Getting Wounded 287 

Chapter XXVI I 
A Racine Man's Experiences in the Army 2Q5 

Chapter XXVlll 
The End of the War 3 1 q 

Chapter XXIX 
How Wciunded Men arc Cared For 324 

Chapter XXX 
Some Letters from Men in Service 330 

Chapter XXXI 
The Soldiers Return: \ eterans' Societies 34q 

The War in Pictures 3L11 

Chapter XXXI I 
Incidents of All Sorts From Everywhere 401 

Chapter XXXI II 
Some Figures and Facts About Casualties and War 417 

Chapter XXXIV 
The Wonderful Occasion of a Supply Train Wreck 425 

Chapter XXXV 
Work of Welfare Associations 432 

Died in Service 435 

Chapter XXXVI 

Records of Men and Women in Service 467 

Additional Records jqq 

Index of Illustrations 601 

Racine County 
IN The World War 



Captain, iiist Field Artillery 



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Published at Racine. Wisconsin, in January, iqio 
By W alter L. Haight and Frank P. Haight 

Copyright iqzo by 
W. L. and F. P. Haight 

Engraved and Printed by 

Western Printing & Lithographing Co. 

Racine. Wis. 


Scene at the raising of Rarine County's Service Flag, with its 1500 stars, February 22, 191S. 

{Illustration Next Page) 




WHEN an assassin's bullet slew Arch- 
duke Francis Ferdinand of Austria at 
Serajevo on June 28, 1914, it is doubt- 
ful whether anyone in the whole world antici- 
pated that the act would precipitate a conflict 
involving all the great powers. 

Austria sent her insolent ultimatum to Ser- 
bia on July 23, and the statesmen of Europe 
grew grave. Even then but few foresaw more 
than another "Balkan storm cloud" such as had 
frequently threatened European peace, but 
which usually had been banished by a wave of 
a diplomatic wand. As the days passed, the 
very stupendousness of the conflict which was 
threatened made it appear impossible that 
civilized governments could permit its begin- 
ning. With Germany upholding Austria's 
stand; Russia declaring herself bound to sup- 
port Serbia; France assuring Russia that the 
republic would lend every aid to the autocracy 
in case of war; Great Britain insistent that 
Germany should not attack France by sea or 
through Belgium, the consequences of the first 
offensive step were certain to be of tragic im- 
port. It did not seem that the Central Powers 
would dare assume the responsibility of un- 
leashing the whirlwind of war. 

Through these fateful days, America watch- 
ed from across the seas — at first with an air 
of amused tolerance at "much ado about noth- 
ing," later with surprise at the growing crisis 
and finally with the startled, shocked expres- 
sion of one who for the first time recognizes 
that what he deemed a clever bit of stage play 
is, instead, a gory tragedy of real life. 

Then, on August 1, 1914, the storm broke. 
Germany declared war on Russia. The Aus- 
trian army advanced toward Serbia and man- 
ned her own eastern borders. Russian troops 
assembled all along the Teutonic frontier. 
Germany's green and gray clad hordes, gather- 
ed together almost over night by means of her 
marvelous mobilization methods, dashed toward 
France over the ravished fields of neutral Bel- 
gium. France called her manhood to the col- 

ors and began the long and terrible fight for 
her very existence. Great Britain hesitated 
but three days, and then her navy sallied forth 
to check the marauding German ships of war, 
and her first regiments joined the French on 
the continent. The Balkan nations armed 
themselves and prepared to take sides as their 
best judgment dictated. Italy, for years in the 
Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria, de- 
clined to take part with them in the assault 
upon the peace of the world, and became an 
armed camp, albeit neutral. 

In the brief span of a week, there was hard- 
ly a city in all Europe unaffected by the con- 
flict. And before many months had passed 
Belgium, eastern France, Poland and Serbia 
were drenched with the blood of their defend- 
ers and of the invading hosts. 

Neutral nations, aghast at the holocaust, 
sent words of horror-stricken appeal to all 
warring peoples, and silence was the answer. 
The Central Powers, by their mighty blows, 
hammered their way almost to the gates of 
Paris in September and were checked and 
driven back across the Marne, Belgium was a 
ruin, held by the invading forces of the Kaiser. 
Russian armies penetrated into Germany and 
then were hurled back in a rout far inside their 
frontier. Serbia was overrun. Montenegro 
took arms in behalf of Serbia and then Turkey 
joined her fate with that of Germany and 
Austria. Italy was finally forced into the 
Allied camp in 1915. Japan early had put her 
navy to the task of avenging a hatred felt 
against Germany ever since the Chino-Japanese 
war, and entered the Alliance against the Cen- 
tral Powers. 

On land the movements of armies soon nearly 
ceased and trench warfare was ushered in. 
The opposing forces faced each other across 
mined areas and barbed wire entanglements, 
the warriors in systems of earthworks which 
reached across Belgium and France from the 
English Channel to Switzerland, from the Tyro- 
lean Alps along the northern Italian border. 



through the Balkans, and from the Carpathians 
to the Baltic sea. 

On the seas, the German merchant marine 
rushed to friendly or neutral ports to be in- 
terned. Teutonic raiders, bold and desperate, 
darted across the sea lanes destroying Allied 
shipping and spreading terror to distant colo- 
nies until they were finally sunk or driven into 
permanent hiding. The German and Austrian 
fleets were bottled in their fortified harbors, 
from where they continued to threaten their 

In the air, great fleets of aeroplanes crossed 
and re-crossed the firing lines to spy out ene- 
my movements and spread death along the 
highways and railroads. As the struggle pro- 
gressed, bombing planes were developed which 
dropped explosives upon towns and forts and 
railroads. Dirigible balloons were sent from 
Germany to strike terror and carry destruc- 
tion to English cities. London was bombed re- 
peatedly and many innocent non-combatants 
were victims of the ruthless campaign of hor- 
ror. Paris was also an occasional victim of 
aerial attacks. 

Effort after effort to win a decision on land 
failed. The battle lines remained almost sta- 
tionary for two and a half years. New de- 
vices of warfare appeared. The German chem- 
ists reverted to an ancient and discarded 
method of killing, and developed poison gases 
that could be released from tanks, or convey- 
ed into the enemy lines in shells and bombs. 
They suffocated, burned and in other ways 
slew and tortured thousands. The Allies re- 
ciprocated in kind, and soon all soldiers at the 
front were provided with grotesque looking 
masks containing chemicals to rob the gases 
of their power to kill. 

Clumsy gasoline tractors were armored and 
armed, and rechristened "tanks." They ground 
their way across trenches and wire entangle- 
ments to deal death among the foe. Machine 
guns and automatic rifles of great ingenuity 
were perfected, and on battle-fields in time of 
action a veritable typhoon of bullets swept 
from side to side from concealed positions. 
Artillery was developed to a point of efficiency 
hitherto undreamed of, and the long range, ac- 
curacy and destructive power of the great mis- 
siles made territory within their reach impassa- 
ble by human beings at times. Opposing in- 
fantry lines were so close that hand grenades, 
bayonets and short-range mortars replaced 
rifles for raids and daily minor brushes. The 
efficiency of weapons of all sorts almost totally 
prevented daytime actions in the field, and 
fighting was done at night or in the misty gray 

of the dawn, when Nature clothed the troops 
in a mantel of partial invisibility. 

Finally, terrified by the blockade which was 
threatening her existance, Germany launched 
her trump card — the submarine. Creeping out 
of her naval bases, the U-boats issued forth to 
sea hidden under the waters. They passed the 
blockading fleets and invaded the sea lanes 
along which ships brought food and other ne- 
cessities of life to Great Britain. From their 
safe position beneath the waves, the command- 
ers of the submersibles searched the seas 
with periscopes, located the merchant vessels, 
and launched the torpedoes which sent them to 
the bottom. Hundreds and hundreds of Brit- 
ain's finest ships were thus destroyed with 
heavy loss of life. Frequently no attempt was 
made by the assailing U-boat to save passen- 
gers or crews of their victims. 

Driven to desperation by her own domestic 
troubles, Germany threw caution to the winds 
and sank every craft which could be success- 
fully attacked, regardless of its nature, provid- 
ed that it was being used to help feed and 
clothe the hated British. 

Passengers from neutral countries were num- 
bered among the victims. Ships of neutral na- 
tions engaged in trade with the Allies were 
sunk. Protest after protest was made. The 
German government explained, apologized, ex- 
cused her actions by various subterfuges — but 
the disregard for international law and for 
the rights of humanity continued with a few 
intermissions. When the Cunard liner Lusi- 
tania, bearing hundreds of Americans to Eng- 
land was sunk off the coast of Ireland with a 
loss of nearly 1,.500 lives of men, women and 
children, in May 1915, the United States gov- 
ernment finally spoke. President Wilson, af- 
ter a year of patient efforts to keep this coun- 
try from becoming entangled in the awful con- 
flict, sent to Germany a note which demanded 
that her disregard for law and decency cease. 
For nearly a year the German navy indicated 
an effort to respect the rights of neutrals while 
still carrying on a successful submarine cam- 
paign against British and French shipping. 
Admiral von Tirpitz declared, after the war, 
that had the Kaiser continued to disregard 
neutral rights at that time England would have 
been decisively defeated before America could 
have entered the war in force, and would then 
have been able to prevent American transports 
from crossing the Atlantic when this country 
finally declared war. He declares that the- 
mildness of the campaign for the rest of that 
year enabled England to take steps to over- 
come the submarine menace to some extent. 
However that may be, it was the following- 




This was the day the Batteries left for war. Some of the old campaign hats of the men may be seen far in the crowd. 
The Battery men were sure some attraction that day. Lower picture shows an exciting moment. 



spring when U-boat commanders again became 
heedless of neutral rights and on April 19, 

1916, President Wilson sent an ultimatum to 
Germany threatening to break off all relations 
with her unless the killing of American citi- 
zens on the high seas cease. Again the Ger- 
man government hesitated between the two 
possible courses of action and again the danger 
of starvation was temporarily lessened in the 
British isles while a more humane policy of 
warfare was being followed for a time by the 
Central Powei-s. 

On January 31, 1917, the advocates of un- 
restricted submarine warfare against the 
Allies, regardless of any neutral rights, won 
out in Germany and the Kaiser declared his in- 
tention to the world of destroying England at 
all costs. The United States immediately on 
receiving this insolent declaration, severed 
diplomatic relations with Germany and armed 
her merchant vessels. She could not permit 
any nation to close the high seas to her law- 
ful commerce, as Germany frankly stated it 
intended to do and plainly was trying to do. 

As this rebuke had no salutary effect upon 
Germany but rather seemed to incite her to 
new acts of lawlessness against American ships 
and American lives. President Wilson in April, 

1917, addressed Congress asking that war be 
declared against Germany, and it was so de- 
clared on April 6. 

In his address President Wilson cited the 
many acts of barbarism committed against 
America and Germany's refusal to heed words 
of friendly warning; action of the German gov- 
ernment in sending hundreds of spies and 
secret agents to this country to wreck indus- 
tries, promote strikes and disorders and influ- 
ence legislation; and her recently detected ef- 
fort to incite Mexico to engage in war with the 
United States. 

At the time this country officially entered 
the war our military forces were on a peace- 
time basis and entirely unprepared as to 
strength, equipment or supplies to begin any 
offensive action except on the sea. 

Germany was flushed with victories on land, 
and with three years of successful effort to 
prevent invasion of her own soil. Great Brit- 
ain was on the verge of starvation. Admiral 
William S. Sims, U. S. N. is authority for 
the statement that the British government in- 
formed him officially in April that the Allies 
would be forced to admit complete defeat with- 
in five months if some means were not devised 
to end the submarine menace. 

Russia had withdrawn from the Alliance 
totally defeated by the Central Powers in a 
military sense and torn by revolution within. 

Italy had made no headway against the Aus- 
trians and was soon to suffer a terrible defeat 
on the Isonzo front. In France the Allied 
spring drive, upon which Germany's foes had 
staked everything had just proved almost a 
total failure. 

The world at large did not realize the terri- 
ble straits in which the Allies found themselves 
at this stage. The rigid censorship kept the 
curtain of secrecy between the terrible picture 
of future disaster, and the public. At all costs, 
Germany had to be kept in ignorance of how 
near she was approaching to victory. 

Only in Asia Minor did comparatively un- 
important victories come to the British ban- 
ners, and they helped to break the spirits of 
the Turks and Austrians who might otherwise 
have aided Germany more effectively on the 
western front. 

The manhood of France had been decimated 
by the war. Every house, it seemed, mourned 
its dead. There were no more reserves. Great 
Britain and France had both put forth their 
greatest efforts and failed. From now on they 
could only hope to ward off total defeat until the 
Americans could come to their aid. And Amer- 
ica had to start almost from the bottom to create 
an army. Its navy alone was ready for war. 

That was the situation in April, 1917. 

It was nearly a year later when the first 
American combat units were in action against 
the Germans in France. But by July 1918, the 
Central Powers had received their first severe 
defeat on the western front since 1914. In 
September the Americans administered two 
decisive defeats to the foe. Early in October 
the whole German front in France and Ger- 
many collapsed under the combined pressure of 
the Allies. In November, the Kaiser abdicated 
his throne and fled, and the German govern- 
ment accepted terms of surrender which were 
practically unconditional. 

The American navy had furnished the addi- 
tional strength necessary to overcome the sub- 
marine menace; American industries had fur- 
nished the necessary material and ammuni- 
tions; American money had financed the bank- 
rupt Allies; the American people had thrown 
their whole heart and soul and strength into 
the struggle; American soldiers had met and 
mastered the German hosts every day for 
weeks; American military strength had given 
the Allies sufficient power to drive the hither- 
to victorious foe to his knees. 

That, in brief, is the story of the great war. 
Racine men and women played their part in it, 
and it was a part which will be remembered 
with pride as long as patriotism and love of 
country survive in America. 


RACINE county is a typical inland Amer- 
ican community. Like thousands of 
other counties in the United States it is 
populated by intelligent, progressive citizens. 
A considerable proportion of the inhabitants 
are native born and descended from a line of 
pioneer stock. There are likewise a great 
many who are immigrants or the offspring of 
immigrants who came from foreign shores to 
seek their fortunes in this land where Nature 
smiles encouragingly upon the hopeful and the 
energetic. A dozen nationalities are well rep- 
resented here. 

The two principal cities of the county — Ra- 
cine and Burlington — are factory centers. The 
former has for years manufactured and ship- 
ped to all parts of the earth a varied assort- 
ment of products, ranging from clothing and 
prepared foods to automobiles, machinery and 
leather goods. Surrounding these centers, and 
tributary to them is an area of rich, highly 
cultivated farm land where dairying and agri- 
culture is carried on by the most modem meth- 

There are millionaires in Racine county, and 
there are laborers. There are high salaried 
specialists and skilled mechanics. There are 
representatives of almost every class known to 
American life. It has daily newspapers and 
good schools. Its connections with the outside 
keep its people in touch with adjacent and dis- 
tant lands, and its numerous transportation 
lines make travel to all parts of the country 
easy. Its prosperity has kept its people happy 
and contented. Its steady growth has resulted 
in continued optimism. Briefly, it is a thriv- 
ing American county, with the qualities and 
characteristics typical of American communi- 

The history of Racine county's part in the 
World War, therefore, is much the same, in 
all probability as that of the great majority of 
places in the United States. The story of its 
sacrifices and trials and accomplishments is 
similar to that of the nation. What America 
did, Racine did in a smaller way. What Ra- 

cine and its neighbors experienced, the towns 
and villages and cities of the entire country 

The whole story of the great conflict which 
deluged the world with suffering and misery 
and death from 1914 to 1918 has not yet been 
told. It may be a generation before there will 
appear an historian able to do justice to such 
a theme and with means to assemble all the 
data required for such a monumental work. 

But it is not too early to attempt to put into 
words the tale of one county's part in the war. 
It is possible to depict armies and navies in 
terms of men whose faces are familiar to the 
reader; to explain America's mighty industrial 
efforts during the war in words which paint 
the tasks performed in local plants; to recall 
the nation's financial support to her armies 
while many who peruse the lines still own the 
bonds which helped to purchase victory; to 
describe the loving efforts made in home, and 
club and church to provide comfort for those 
who had donned the khaki or blue; and above 
all to keep fresh the memories of those who 
made the great sacrifice for country, while 
their families still wear the bands of mourning 
on their arms. 

At the outbreak of the World War in 1914, 
this community had but little fear that the 
distant conflagration could spread to this side 
of the Atlantic. That Racine might be send- 
ing men to France, England and Russia to 
fight their country's battles seemed more like 
the figment of a disagreeable dream than the 
unavoidable and logical result of the turmoil 

For more than two years Racine county, in 
common with the greater part of America, 
watched the progress of the terrible struggle 
in Europe with startled fascination. From the 
flood of charges and countercharges, defenses 
and denials, protests and arguments, which 
came from the various governments involved, 
few people seriously assumed the power to 
tell with certainty who was responsible for the 
holocaust. Almost everyone denounced Ger- 



many for her base violation of Belgium's neu- 
trality, and sympathy was quite generally with 
the Belgians. When Great Britain came into 
the war, most Americans were inclined to as- 
sume that Germany's fate was sealed, now that 
the "iron ring" was closing about her at sea as 
well as on land. As days passed, and the 
armies settled down to trench warfare, the 
lingering- idea that the war might spread to 
America almost disappeared. 

Pacifists opposed any military preparations 
on our part, assuming that the vast armaments 
of Europe were the cause of the trouble there. 
Looking back to the days of 1914-1915, it seems 
as if a majority of Racine people had the same 
sort of interest in the World War then as they 
might have had in some well advertised cham- 
pionship prize fight. They discussed in homes, 
cafes, cigar stores and clubs the merits of the 
various antagonists. They cited statistics on 
land and naval forces, and on population and 
wealth and resources. They cheered the brave 
French poilus for driving the German invaders 
back at the Marne: they applauded the Ger- 
mans for turning apparent defeat on the Rus- 
sian front into an overwhelming victory which 
almost destroyed the Czar's armies; they ex- 
pressed admiration for the boldness of the 
Kaiser's raiders going forth on the seas to al- 
most certain destruction, yet spreading terror 
and death from Gibraltar to the East Indies 
before they met their fate. 

There were few, indeed, who hoped for a 
real German victory. 'The brutal methods of 
the invaders in Belgium and eastern France 
caused even the friends of the Teutonic Em- 
pire to blush for shame, and dread the adoption 
of such rule in wider spheres. Yet there was 
also a feeling that Germany was handicapped 
in the struggle by her lack of food and other 
supplies and to many she appeared as a brave 
people being slowly starved into submission 
despite her magnificent fight. Americans, too, 
had never been inclined to feel, as individuals, 
much friendliness for Great Britain. They had 
been taught in the schools of our troubles with 
her in the Revolution, the War of 1812 and the 
Civil War. The Irish-American population had 
also told tales of British rule which had not 
been without their effect. 

Probably, the preponderance of sentiment in 
Racine county was in favor of the Allied cause. 
But quite frequently the feeling seemed to be 
as disinterestedly neutral as that of the woman 
who, seeing her spouse in combat with a 
grizzly, exclaimed, "Go it husband! go it, b'ar! 
May the best one win!" 

Early in 191G new factors entered into their 

opinions and sympathies. German-Americans, 
loud in their defense of the Fatherland were 
noticeably backward about trying to get back 
to the old country to fight, while quite a num- 
ber of young men of French and English, and 
particularly Canadian, nativity were quietly 
packing up their suitcases and starting for 
Allied ports to enlist. Very shortly most of 
us could claim some acquaintance with men in 
the Allied ranks. 

Then the German government began a course 
of action which forever lost her the support of 
even her admirers. No one claiming to be a self- 
respecting American could hear without anger 
and resentment in his heart the stories of 
American lives lost in the ruthless attacks by 
German submarines upon defenseless ships. 
Every principle of international law required 
that a warship provide for the safety of pas- 
sengers before sinking any unarmed vessel, 
and this the Germans persistently refused to 

Then came the revelations of German intri- 
gue in Mexico, and the exposure of the official 
instructions from Berlin to agents in Mexico 
to stir up a war against the United States. 
This followed after the discovery of plots, in 
some cases successful, to destroy American 
factories which sold goods to the Allies, these 
plots being contrary to all law and often times 
with utter disregard for human life. 

The indiscriminate bombing of English and 
French towns with heavy loss of life among 
the women and children was also generally de- 
nounced. All these things tended to germinate 
a feeling of dislike and distrust. The Allies 
themselves did many things to grate upon our 
feelings, but they did not kill Americans, de- 
stroy American property or show a total dis- 
regard for the rights of neutrals. Perhaps the 
most serious complaint against the Allies was 
due to the British rule that neutrals could ship 
but a limited amount of food and manufactured 
goods to countries bordering upon Germany, it 
being claimed that Holland and the Scandina- 
vian countries were furnishing the Germans 
with supplies. Cargoes stopped in transit and 
seized, were paid for, however, so there was no 
actual loss. Efforts to stop this interference 
with trade were being made when Germany's 
actions finally forced us into the war and 
then, of course, we were in accord with the 
Allies' policy. 

Racine people took active part in the plans 
to send food and clothing to the Belgian refu- 
gees prior to our entry into the struggle, and 
funds were contributed by many to aid the 
French orphaned children. In Milwaukee, 





The upper picture shows recruits for Batteries C and F out for drill in a quiet street of the city, early in 1917. Officers 
were trying to teach them the mysteries of keeping step when marching, and how to halt in unison. These men did not 

get uniforms until they went to Camp Douglas. 

The lower picture was a familiar one after September, 1917. It depicts a draft contingent leaving for a cantonment, the 
yards of the North-western depot being crowded with friends and relatives of the departing men. 



where there was a large German population, 
there were fairs and entertainments held to 
raise money for the German and Austrian 
civilian sufferers and contributions to these 
causes, also, were made here. The Red Cross 
Society, being an international organization 
for the amelioration of suffering, did work on 
both sides of the fighting lines in Europe and 
maintained an impartial attitude. 

At times, during our period of neutrality, 
there were hot arguments and even some fistic 
encounters on the streets as a result of differ- 
ences of opinion over the war. But it is prob- 
ably not far from the truth to say that up to 
the spring of 1916 there were very few people 
in this part of the country who were so parti- 
san that they would have cared to see Amer- 
ica enter the war on either side, or who would 
have been heart-broken at the defeat of any 

of the combatants. Reference to newspaper 
files bear out this view of the country's senti- 

Probably in future years, this attitude of 
our people will seem one of the strangest fea- 
tures of the history of America during the 
period of the war. 

President Wilson was re-elected in 1916 as a 
result of a campaign which had as its political 
battle-cry, "He kept us out of war." Yet, 
when in the following April he solemnly set 
forth the reasons why we could no longer be 
at peace, the nation quietly, sternly and with 
undoubted loyalty and determination, trans- 
formed itself into a mighty fighting machine 
pledging its last man and last dollar to the 
task of defending the ideals of democracy from 
the onslaughts of arrogant militarism and au- 


THE United States army was unprepared 
for war on April 6, 1917. The country 
had plenty of warning that we might 
be drawn into the fray, but the administration 
felt that any public move to enlarge the army 
or actually prepare for battle might precipi- 
tate a crisis which could otherwise be avoided. 
The extent of the work to put the country in a 
position to operate against an enemy had been 
confined chiefly to the formulation of a plan 
for drafting the young manhood of the land 
into service; a hasty census of manufacturing 
plants to determine which ones might be 
quickly transformed into munitions and army 
supply factories; a quiet hunt to disclose the 
identity of as many German and Austrian 
agents in America as possible; and the plans 
of the general staff of army and navy for form- 
ing a large offensive and defensive force by 
using the regular personnel to direct the train- 
ing of recruits. 

Immediately upon the declaration of a state 
of war the draft bill, or Selective Service Act, 
as it was called, was introduced in Congress 
and after a lengthy debate was passed on 
May 17, 1917. The project was to require the 
registration of all men between the ages of 21 
and 30, both inclusive, and to make all of these 
eligible to the draft as needed, excepting where 
exempted for causes to be determined. The 
polling booths were to be used for ths regis- 
tration, and in Wisconsin it was decided to uti- 
lize the election machinery and officials to 
handle the work. June 5 was set as registra- 
tion day. 

Recalling the draft riots of Civil War days, 
many officials feared there might be trouble on 
June 5, but there was none. The young men 
of the nation quietly answered the call of the 
president. Over 218,000 were registered in 
Wisconsin alone. More than 10,000,000 regis- 
tered in the country as a whole. There was 
less disturbance than at any general election 
ever held in the country. Th's fact did more 
to convince foreign observers of the unanimity 

of the national feeling regarding the war than 
any other single thing. 

Following the registration, it became neces- 
sary to plan for the work of selection. For this 
purpose there was a local board appointed by 
the governors of states in each assembly dis- 
trict, whose duty it should be to review all 
questions of exemptions from the draft law. 
There was also a district board for each fed- 
eral judicial district to review on appeal, and 
modify, affirm or reverse any decision of the 
local board. 

After the registration, numbers were assign- 
ed at random to all registrants, and placed 
upon their cards. In each district these num- 
bers ran from 1 to 10,500, if that many regis- 
tered. It was decided to have a drawing at 
Washington to determine the order of liability 
of registrants for service. Numbers were 
drawn in a central lottery, and then put down 
in the order of drawing. This was the "mas- 
ter list" and as it was published every regis- 
trant could tell the relative order in which his 
serial number had been drawn. As soon as it 
was determined how many men must be raised 
by each district on the first draft, registrants 
would report in the proper order for physical 
examination and to have their claims of ex- 
emption passed upon if any were made. Wis- 
consin's quota was given as 28,199, but the 
state received credit for 15,274 already enlisted 
voluntarily, so only 12,976 were actually re- 
quired to be furnished by the draft. In this 
respect Wisconsin was the ninth highest state 
in the union proportionate to population. 

Following their examinations, the first men 
were to report at designated training camps 
on September 5, 1917. 

In the meantime, immediately after war was 
declared the National Guard of the various 
states was ordered to be recruited to war 
strength at once. This was completed, and the 
final muster rolls in Wisconsin showed 14,266 
in the Guard. The Third regiment was order- 
ed into federal service in April and put at 



work guarding bridges, tunnels and munitions 
plants in the state. The others assembled at 
Camp Douglas, Wis., in July. 

Army and navy recruiting for the regular 
establishments was continued on a voluntary 
basis for the greater part of the war 

While these steps were being taken to pro- 
vide the men for fighting, great cantonments 
were being constructed in record time to house 
the recruits. In southern camps the men usu- 
ally depended upon tents for shelter. In the 
north two-story frame barracks were built, 
each camp being arranged to hold from 2.5,000 
to 30,000 men. 

Factories were taken over by the government 
for the manufacture of guns, munitions uni- 
forms, foodstuffs, and other necessities. Steps 
were taken to conserve food and fuel. Alien 
enemies were sought out, listed and kept under 
observation, or interned. They were all requir- 
ed to register. Plans were made for raising- 
vast sums of money by the sale of government 
bonds to every American citiEen. 

There seemed to be little cheering or bluster; 
not much wild enthusiasm for war. The peo- 
ple knew too well the horrors of the conflict 
which had already been raging for three years. 
Yet the whole country had accepted the war as 
a grim business which must be tackled; a duty 
which must be done; and it was proposed to 
perform the task as rapidly as possible, as 
thoroughly as possible and with as little lost 
motion as possible. 

Central organizations to direct the work of 
civilian workers were effected. Every effort 
was made to prevent waste of money and ef- 

Perhaps the most significant feature of the 
conduct of the work at home is that almost 
every office was filled by men serving without 
pay. Volunteers stepped quickly forward to 
assume the work of selective service board 
members, resident secret service agents, fiscal 
agents, etc. 

A few small units of troops were sent to 
France and England during the summer and 
fall of 1917. Several regiments of regulars 
were there by Christmas. At about that time 
National Guard divisions began to move toward 
the ports of debarkation. The Forty-second 
or Rainbow, division, containing three com- 
panies of Wisconsin guardsmen, was among the 
first to be sent across the ocean. All troop 
movements were shrouded in secrecy. By the 
middle of March 1918, the Wisconsin Nationai^ 
guardsmen were all in France. The First divi- 
sion, composed of the residue of many regular 
units, was in minor actions about that time. 

The navy now had succeeded in perfecting 

methods of convoying transports across the 
ocean with reasonable safety against enemy 
attacks. Troop movements began at great 
speed. A hundred thousand, two hundred thou- 
sand, three hundred thousand trained soldiers 
from American camps were put on ships and 
rushed overseas each month. The arms and 
equipment were provided, too. Despite the 
great distance from their base, there was al- 
ways on hand in France from 30 to 60 days' 
rations for every soldier there. 

At home the government proceeded upon the 
idea that the war might last for two or three 
years and all military, naval, financial and in- 
dustrial plans were made with that thought in 
view. Huge factories were built to meet the 
needs of the distant future. Contracts were 
let for goods which would not be needed for 
many months. No stone was left unturned to 
insure the ultimate victory of our arms, and 
there was to be no let-up of effort if over-con- 
fidence should come. In fact, every branch of 
war work continued up to the very signing of 
the armistice just as though the end of the 
war was not yet a possibility. 

The selective service law was modified to 
make it more perfect in the light of experience 
here and abroad. Rules for exemptions be- 
cause of dependencies, work in essential in- 
dustries, etc., were made clear. One main pur- 
pose of the law was to exempt married men 
who were actually supporting their families. 
This was deemed wise from an economic stand- 
point, as well as from the standpoint of the 
morale of the army and the folks at home. 
Wisconsin sent fewer married men to the Na- 
tional army (composed of selective service 
men) than any other state. While providing 
her full quota of men for every draft, she sent 
but 914 married men, or a percentage of 3.83 
as compared with 10.37 in the country as a 
whole. To September 13, 1918, more than 23,- 
908,000 men between the ages of 18 and 45 had 
registered and been classified in the United 

By the first of November, 1918, the armed 
land forces of the United States numbered 
3,893,000 men. There had been in France ap- 
proximately 2,086,000 men, and of these 1,390- 
000 had been in action 

To show what this meant to the Allies in 
terms of figures, it is only necessary to refer 
to a confidential chart kept by the British Gen- 
eral staff, published by Mrs. Humphrey Ward 
in her book, "Fields of Victory." The statis- 
tics reveal beyond question that had not that 
wonderful troop movement taken place from 
America in the spring and summer of 1918, the 






In the upper picture is shown a portion of the first great loyalty parade which marked the opening of the first Liberty 
Loan campaign in May. 1917. The white clad figures in the other group are women members of the Red Cross, the ban- 
ners showing the various auxiliaries of the organization. They were a part of the parade. 



Germans would have won an overwhelming vic- 
tory on land. 

In July 1916 the British had 680,000 fighting 
men in France. In April 1917 the British com- 
bat force reached its maximum, 760,000, on the 
eve of the drive which was intended to win the 
war but failed. When the Germans started 
their second "march toward Paris" in March 
1918, the British force numbered but 620,000, 
and this dwindles to 540,000 in May and 465,- 
000 on November 11. In the battle of the 
Argonne-Meuse, the Americans had 546,000 
men actually engaged besides an additional 
112,000 at the same time in action with the 
British and French armies; a grand total of 
658,000 actually fighting at one time. Just 
how large the French forces were at this time 
no one knows as the French government has 
never disclosed its exact strength on the fight- 
ing lines, but the belief of experts is that they 
were not much larger than the British. 

In addition to this preponderance of fighters, 
and our possession of additional millions as 
reserves for use when needed the American na- 
tion was supplying in the last year of the war 
the bulk of all material needed by all the 

Allies with the exception of artillery and aero- 
planes, and these were being produced in large 
quantities at about the time the war ended. 
Had the conflict lasted until the spring of 1919 
America would have been fighting the Germans 
in France almost single handed and was prepar- 
ed to crush the foe by a tremendous superiority 
of everything that counts in warfare. The 
German military leaders saw this plainly after 
the battles near Chateau-Thierry and St. Mihiel. 
General Von Ludendorf, chief quartermaster 
and practically chief of staff of the German 
armies, admitted it frankly in his post-war 
memoirs and said he recommended the suing 
for peace as soon as he realized in September 
that the Americans were coming too rapidly to 
enable him to hope to ever put on another suc- 
cessful offensive. 

The story of the military accomplishments of 
America in the war must be left to other 
hands. This work cannot pretend to do more 
than touch upon anything but Racine's part in 
the war excepting insofar as it is necessary 
to explain the greater things briefly so the pur- 
pose and effects of the local efforts may be 
made clear. 




THE United States Navy, the nation's first 
line of defense, was ready for war when 
war came. Always a popular branch of 
the service for young men, its ranks were kept 
filled to whatever degree was desired by volun- 
tary enlistments during the first months fol- 
lowing the outbreak of the European conflict 
in 1914. Warships were in first-class condition 
and the armament and ammunition supply and 
reserve was equal to the desires of the depart- 
ment heads. This much could be done by 
America during the period of neutrality with- 
out arousing the ire of foreign combatants. 

The first important duty of the navy was to 
supply guns and gunners for American mer- 
chant vessels when the unlimited submarine 
campaign was begun by Germany. It was 
maintained that even a neutral country had 
a right to prepare its merchants vessels to meet 
piratical attacks at sea, and that vessels so 
equipped could not be classed as fighting ships. 

Our government, in common with its people, 
had been kept in ignorance of the straits in 
which the Allies found themselves in the spring 
of 1917. From the President down, our peo- 
ple believed the censored reports from France 
and England to the effect that the submarine 
blockade by Germany was a failure, and that 
the menace would soon be entirely removed by 
devices recently perfected. 

Admiral William S. Sims, U. S. N., was sent 
to England late in March when it was seen that 
America would certainly be forced into the 
war by Germany's attitude. When he reached 
there, war had been declared and he was taken 
entirely into the confidence of the British ad- 
miralty. He was then informed frankly that 
"Germany was winning the war, and winning 
at a rate that means the unconditional sur- 
render of the British empire in four or five 

The full statement of the extent of sub- 
marine sinkings had not been made public be- 
cause of the probable effect upon the Allied 
morale, and the fact that the Germans them- 

selves did not know how successful their 
U-boats had been. The total sinkings in Feb- 
ruary, 1917, had been 536,000 tons; in March, 
603,000 tons; and a destruction of 900,000 tons 
in April was anticipated. These figures were 
about three times as large as the ones publish- 
ed by the government. It was feared the 
situation would get much more serious, as it 
was becoming summer when the U-boats would 
have longer periods of daylight and fair 
weather in which to operate. 

Admiral Sims, in his memoirs from which 
these facts are gleaned, said that he was as- 
tounded and asked Admiral Jellicoe if there 
was no remedy. 

"Absolutely none that we can see," was the 
reply. "It is impossible for us to go on with 
the war if these losses continue." 

Briefly, the situation was this: The trans- 
portation of supplies to the British army and 
navy, and the civilian population was being 
effectually stopped. The nation was threaten- 
ed with starvation. Not many U-boats oper- 
ated at sea at a time — perhaps not more than 
fifteen or twenty at the most, but they had the 
advantage of invisibility and could range 
around the British isles and as far south as 
the Mediterranean with safety. The length of 
their cruises was limited only by the number 
of torpedoes carried and used. About the only 
defense against them was the use of swift, 
shallow draught vessels of the destroyer or 
steam yacht type. These boats could approach 
them before they could submerge deeply, and 
drop depth bombs which would destroy them 
or put them out of commission if they explod- 
ed nearby. 

But the Allies did not have enough of these 
vessels to convoy their merchant fleet effective- 
ly. Many were required to protect the high 
seas fleet and the transports. The Germans 
had deliberately sunk one or two hospital ships, 
knowing that the Allies would use destroyers 
to protect other hospital ships in the future. 
It was a barbarous thing to do, but the plan 



worked. Thereafter no more were attacked. 
Before America entered the war a large "mer- 
chant submarine" visited these shores, and af- 
ter we were in the war a naval submarine sunk 
a few ships off the New England coast in the 
hope that we would keep our destroyers at 
home to defend our own shipping. The Unit- 
ed States saw through this ruse, however, and 
did not allow itself to be led into abandoning 
the protection of vessels in the real danger 
zone off France and England. 

Speaking of the situation in April, 1917, 
Admiral Sims says: 

"What a dark moment in the history of the 
Allied cause: Not only were the German sub- 
marines sweeping British commerce from the 
seas, but the Germans were also defeating 
French and British armies in France. The 
high peak of success of the U-boats was achiev- 
ed at the very moment that General Nivell's 
offensive failed on the western front." 

At this time, says Admiral Sims, Premier 
Lloyd George was the only high British official 
who was at all optimistic, and his view was 
explained by his faith in God and in a divine 
ordering of history which was so profound that 
a German victory never seized his mind as a 

In April 1917 the British had 200 destroyers. 
Of these 100 had to remain at all times with 
the grand fleet, prepared for battle in case 
the German fleet should leave its base. Of 
the remaining hundred, those that could be re- 
leased from other essential work to guard mer- 
chant shipping were pitifully inadequate to 
patrol the vast reaches of the Atlantic ocean, 

British channel, Irish sea and the North sea. 

The first work of America was to see that 
the Allies were not defeated. Therefore, the 
first request of Admiral Sims was that all 
available American destroyers and other light 
craft be ordered to Queenstown to cooperate 
with the British in their anti-submarine cam- 
paign. This was done, and immediate action 
was taken to build additional craft of similar 
or smaller types. 

Two more steps were considered at once. 
One was the manufacture of vast quantities of 
mines, which at a future date could be used 
to cut off the exit of the German surface and 
submarine vessels from their bases. The oth- 
er was the construction of merchant shipping 
to replace that already destroyed. As a re- 
sult of the first work, a "mine barage" was 
almost completed from Scotland to Norway 
before the war ended — a task so stupendous 
that the ability of the Allies to perform it had 
not even been considered prior to America's 
entry into the war. In regard to the other 
plan, it was working out in magnificant style 
during the following year, when millions of 
tons of shipping were turned out by the typic- 
ally Yankee method of manufacturing stand- 
ardized parts for ships in factories all over the 
country, and then assembling them into the 
completed ship in a few weeks at yards on the 

But the use of the destroyer fleet was the 
first big naval assistance given the Allies, and 
it began to turn the tide against the Central 
Power at once and contributed largely to their 
ultimate defeat. 



FOR eighteen years following the Spanish- 
American war, Racine county had no 
representation in the National Guard. 
Lack of a suitable building for armory pur- 
poses was one of the main reasons why Wis- 
consin's second largest city had not maintain- 
ed a military company. 

The World War broke out in August, 1914. 
Far-sighted citizens who were interested in 
National Guard matters to a greater or less 
degree, began to feel that America might get 
involved in the conflict and that it would be 
wise to plan for the establishment of Guard 
organizations in all of the cities of the state. 
The matter dragged along for a year and a 
half. The federal govei-nment apparently hesi- 
tated to provide for larger defensive forces. 
President Wilson constantly urged, with all 
the eloquence at his command, that the people 
of America be neutral in thought, word and 
deed and there was a pretty general feeling 
that Wilson would keep us out of the war, as 
he had up to that time. 

In 1916 the Mexican situation became too 
serious to be longer ignored. The Mexican 
government was powerless to control the bandit 
and revolutionary forces which swarmed in the 
mountains and plains near the Texas border, 
and these bands of armed men made frequent 
forays on the American side of the Rio Grande, 
stealing and slaying. 

Most of the regular army was sent to the 
border and the National Guard was told to pre- 
pare for a call into federal service in June, 
1916. Authority was given to increase the 
number of companies, and under this order 
Major Westfahl of Milwaukee offered to allow 
his battalion of field artillery to be completed 
by the raising of a Battery at Racine if so 
desired there. 

Immediate steps were taken to see if the 
battery could be recruited. Captain Henry C. 
Baker, a veteran guardsman and then chief of 
police was a leader in the movement. The 
probability of active service at the border prov- 

ed a sufficient incentive, and within a few 
weeks the necessary 110 men had enlisted and 
been accepted. In June, 1916, the Adjutant 
General of the state approved the organization 
at an inspection in the Commercial Club 
rooms, and the next day the governor commis- 
sioned as captain, George W. Rickeman, a vet- 
eran officer of the Spanish-American war. 
James W. Gilson and Richard Drake, were 
named first lieutenants. Richard G. Bryant 
was named second lieutenant, and a few weeks 
later Harry J. Sanders was also named as sec- 
ond lieutenant. 

Drills were held twice a week at the Lake- 
side Auditorium. The older guard organiza- 
tions from other parts of the state were called 
into federal service and dispatched to the Mex- 
ican border in July. The Racine unit, now 
known as Battery C, 1st Wisconsin Field Artil- 
lery, expected to follow shortly. Its officers 
and a number of men were detailed to go to 
Texas and take part in the maneuvres there 
with Battery A of Milwaukee until their own 
battery should be called out. They remained 
three weeks or more, some men staying for 
several months. 

August 14, 1916, the Battery was ordered to 
Camp Douglas, Wis., but as there were no guns 
or horses for it, the men spent days in foot 
drill and then were sent back to Racine. 
Nothing more was done about providing equip- 
ment, excepting uniforms, so these boys missed 
their first chance to see action. The rest of 
the Guard returned from the border duty in 
the vianter. 

After quite a campaign of oratory, the peo- 
ple of the city voted at a special election to 
have the city build a $50,000 armory, and au- 
thorized a bond issue of that amount so that 
the battery could obtain guns and horses from 
the government. Before it could be built, it 
was decided by some of the city officials that 
it would be better to put more money with the 
$50,000 and erect a structure large enough to 
use for public auditorium purposes. Eventu- 



ally this was put up to the people, but the re- 
quest for authority to issue $100,000 bonds ad- 
ditional was defeated. Before the council could 
get busy again on the $50,000 building project, 
the National Guard had started for France and 
the whole proposition was allowed to drop. 

In April, 1917, war was declared against 
Germany. The National Guard quota was 
again increased and all organizations ordered 
to be filled to war strength. Battery C was 
recruited to 200 men, and it was decided to 
have another battery in Racine to complete the 
1st Wisconsin artillery regiment. The work 
continued, the Battery C members acting as re- 
cruiting agents. There were also three or 
four public meetings held. One, on the ex- 
treme south side, resulted in the enlistment of 
a score of Polish young men. One at Union 
Grove added a dozen men to the battery from 
that village and surrounding tovras. 

A month after war was declared the new 
battery was completed, assigned to the regi- 
ment as Battery F, and began drilling three 
times a week under direction of Battery C of- 
ficers. On June 16, the governor promoted 
Captain Rickeman to major, and made the fol- 
lowing promotions and assignments: 

Battery C. 

1st Lieut. Richard G. Bryant to be captain. 

2nd Lieut. Harry J. Sanders to be 1st lieu- 
tenant . 

Ludwig Kuehl to be 1st lieutenant. 

Sergt. Harry J. Herzog to be 2nd lieutenant. 

Pvt. Harrison L. Clemons to be 2nd lieuten- 

Battery F. 

1st Lieut. James W. Gilson to be captain. 
Hugo A. Rickeman to be 1st lieutenant. 
Walter L. Haight to be 1st lieutenant. 
Harry C. Stearns to be 2nd lieutenant. 
George H. Wallace to be 2nd lieutenant. 

All of Battery F officers had been members 
of Battery C. Lieutenant Bryant had become 
the senior officer in Battery C when Captain 
Rickeman was promoted, due to the prior resig- 
nation of Lieutenant Drake. The officers at- 
tended a two weeks' school of instruction at 
Whitefish Bay, Wisconsin, the last two weeks 
in June, 1917. 

While the Batteries were being completed. 
Dr. William W. Johnston of Racine was asked 
to raise a motor ambulance company in the 
city to become a part of the National Guard. 
The work proceeded as rapidly as expected and 
the full quota of 143 officers and enlisted men 
was obtained by early in July. Dr. Johnston 
was commissioned 1st lieutenant and given 

command, Drs. William Salbreiter, William J. 
Hanley, Clarence O. Del Marcelle and Luther 
N. Schnetz, were given commissions as lieu- 
tenants and assigned to the company when 
Lieutenant Johnston was promoted to captain 
and the company ordered to report at Camp 
Douglas, Wisconsin, on July 30, 1917. 

Batteries C and F left Racine for Camp 
Douglas on July 2d to join the rest of the 
artillery regiment, which was composed of 
Green Bay and Milwaukee units. The occa- 
sion was a dramatic one. The country had 
begun to see that the United States would 
have to engage in active hostilities against 
Germany and it was anticipated that the Na- 
tional Guard would be sent overseas as soon as 
transports could be provided. Parents did not 
know whether they would ever see their boys 
again, or if they should, whether it might be 
years before they would be reunited. The en- 
tire city turned out to watch the soldiers' de- 

The batteries answered roll call at the Audi- 
torium at 6 o'clock in the morning. All the 
recruits, including all of Battery F, were with- 
out uniforms. They carried home-made kit 
bags containing toilet articles and a few per- 
sonal belongings. None were loaded up with 
surplus baggage, and most of them showed by 
their countenances that they realized that the 
adventure they were starting upon might be a 
tragic one. 

Shortly before 7 o'clock the two batteries, 
headed by a drum corps composed of members 
of the two units, marched up Third street to 
College avenue, then to Seventh Street and 
east to Main street, going then between two 
lines of massed humanity to the C. M. & St. P. 
railroad, where a special train was awaiting 
them. The G. A. R. and Spanish-American 
War Veterans acted as escort of honor. Fif- 
teen minutes was allowed in the depot yards 
for a last farewell. Then came the command to 
get aboard, and within two or three more min- 
utes the long train had started on its trip 
to Camp Douglas, with Racine's first contribu- 
tion — 410 picked young men — to the great war. 

Fully 30,000 persons saw the boys depart. 
Main Street and the vicinity of the railroad 
depot were a solid mass of humanity. State 
street and Fourth street bridges were jammed 
from the girders to overhead arches. Along 
the railroad right-of-way people crowded near 
the tracks to shout a farewell to the boys. 
The fences were lined with men, women and 
children almost the entire distance to Corliss. 

An almost equal demonstration was given on 
July 30th when the ambulance company started 
for Camp Douglas. 




The parading of troops in the streets, the entertainments and the packing up, the good-byes and the drilling, were every 
day occurrences in the opening days of the war. The batteries recruited up to war strength and spent much time drilling. 
On the day of departure the men. some in uniform and some in "civvies," all with packs and bags, marched to the St. 
Paul station to leave for Camp Douglas. The pictures show Milwaukee batteries of the 121st Field Artillery off for war. 



As the government had not yet completed 
the construction of its mobilization camps, the 
Wisconsin National Guard was kept at Camp 
Douglas, Wisconsin, the state reservation, for 
some time. The men were equipped with uni- 
forms, and the Racine batteries began the long 
period of intensive training that was to fit 
them for overseas service. The older Milwau- 
kee and Green Bay batteries had obtained four 
3-inch field pieces and caissons apiece, and the 
regiment had some sixty horses, which were 
utilized by all the batteries in turn for drill 

In addition to the artillery regiment, there 
were six regiments of infantry and two brig- 
ade headquarters, a regiment of cavalry, a 
battalion each of engineers and signal corps 
and three ambulance companies. The total 
strength August 5th was 15,266 men. 

Captain William Mitchell Lewis of Racine, 
who had commanded Company F of this city 
during the Spanish-American war, offered his 
services to the state in any capacity desired, 
and he was commissioned a major and given 
command of the battalion of the signal corps. 

Rev. Frederick S. Penfold of St. Luke's 
church was appointed chaplain and assigned 
to the 1st Field Artillery. Dr. Frank H. 
Fancher was commissioned 1st lieutenant in 
the dental corps, and Dr. Roy W. Smith was 
2nd lieutenant in the veterinary corps, both 
being attached to the artillery regiment. 

B. F. Crandall of Racine was commissioned 
1st lieutenant in the signal corps and served 
as adjutant for Major Lewis. 

There were also quite a number of Racine 
men who enlisted in Milwaukee companies of 
the National Guard because they preferred 
other branches of the service to the artillery. 

Members of the guard went through the 
required physical examinations, innoculation 
against typhoid and para-typhoid, and vaccina- 
tion against smallpox. On July 15th both 
batteries were mustered into federal service 
and during the month that followed the entire 
guard went through the same ceremony. On 
August 5th an act of congress disbanded the 
National Guard as such and all members were 
drafted into the United States army, although 
National Guard units continued to be designa- 
ted by that title for several months in offcial 
orders. The following spring all distinction 
between regulars, guardsmen, reserve officers 
in service and selective service men was drop- 
ped officially, as the frequent shifting of men 
due to the enlarging of units, replacement of 
casualties and changes in organizations made 
it impossible to keep the regiments filled with 
men from the various parent bodies. For in- 

stance, 1,500 men from the Wisconsin Guard 
regiments were transferred in a body to the 
1st division, generally termed a Regular Army 
division, before that organization, went into a 

After six weeks at Camp Douglas, Battery 
F was selected as one of a number of organi- 
zations to precede the rest of the Guard to 
Camp MacArthur, Waco, Texas, and prepare 
the camp there for the balance of the troops. 
It had but two days' notice of the plan, and 
most of the boys did not have time to say 
good-bye to their folks, although many people 
visited Camp Douglas from Racine during the 
training period there. On September 12th the 
rest of the 1st Artillery regiment, including 
Battery C, arrived at Waco and by the latter 
part of the month the Wisconsin contingent 
was all present and had been joined by the 
Michigan National Guard. State officials of 
both states had protested against taking the 
men so far away from home for training, but 
the war department believed it was the better 
policy as no provision could be made for hous- 
ing men at Camp Douglas. At Waco tents 
were comfortable for most of the year. The 
climate was mild all year around excepting for 
occasional freezing spells in winter and fre- 
quent dust storms in the autumn. 

The Wisconsin and Michigan units were 
combined into the 32nd division, U. S. army. 
The regiments were enlarged and renumbered. 
The Wisconsin infantry regiments formed the 
127th and 128th infantry, as well as portions of 
the divisional supply, sanitary and ammuni- 
tion trains, and military police companies. 
The 1st Wisconsin Field Artillery regiment be- 
came the 121th Heavy Field Artillery, and the 
1st Wisconsin cavalry was transformed into 
the 120th Field Artillery. There was much 
mourning over the loss of old regimental identi- 
ties, particularly in the infantry, and at the 
wholesale shifting of officers entailed. But the 
government declined to consider personal de- 
sires or sentimental arguments. 

For the next three months the division drill- 
ed steadily for six days a week from sunrise 
to sunset and were not entirely idle on the 
seventh day. At Christmas time it was de- 
clared ready for combat service, and was the 
picture of efficiency and strength. As yet the 
artillery had not received its guns, which were 
to be furnished in France. 

Transports were not ready, however, the di- 
vision waited impatiently until January when 
the entrainment for Camp Merritt began. The 
artillery and ambulance companies left in Feb- 
ruary, the batteries entraining February 5th. 

They remained at Camp Merritt for almost 




Active military training began when the troops arrived at th? state reservation. The men were Riven uniforms and rifles 

and camp equipment and were started into a period of dr.llinfr and army practice which continued at Camp MacArthur, 

Texas, until the next January. Hundreds went to Camp Douglas to see their soldier friends and relatives and the camp 

scenes shown above were as familiar to Racine civilians, almost as to the boys themselves. 



a month, during which many of the men were 
quarantined for scarlet fever or mumps. Most 
of them were released by March 1st, but a 
number were left there and went to France in 
casual detachments a few weeks later. 

Some of the first units of the division sailed 
in January on the transport "Tuscania," which 
was torpedoed and sunk off Ireland. Thirty 
Wisconsin lives were lost in the disaster. The 
artillery brigade, including the Racine batter- 
ies, boarded the transport "Leviathan," former- 
ly the giant German liner "Vaterland," and 
sailed for France March 4, 1918. 

They landed at Liverpool six days later, en- 
trained for a rest camp at Winchester, Eng- 
land, crossed the English channel from South- 
hampton to LeHavre five days later, and after 
three days at Camp Sanvic entrained for Guer, 
in Brittany, where they were provided with 
French 155 mm. howitzers. For two months 

they studied gunnery and the science of artil- 
lery under French instructors, firing every day. 
on the range. They were then ordered to join 
the rest of the division, which had been scat- 
tered through various training camps in France. 
On June 8, Battery F entrained for Belfort 
and on June 11th its guns were in position near 
Bretton, across the frontier in old Alsace, with 
the remainder of the personnel at Ettonfont-le- 
bas, the rear echelon position. From that 
time on its history is closely connected with 
that of the 32nd division, and is given more 
in detail in later pages of this book. 

Battery C, like certain other selected units 
of the brigade, was ordered to report to an 
officers' training camp to act as school bat- 
tery temporarily. The ambulance company 
from Racine preceded Battery F into the Bel- 
fort sector. Their records also will be recount- 
ed on other pages. 


VOLUNTARY recruiting for the Regular 
Army, Navy, National Guard, Coast 
Guard, and Marine Corps was begun 
energetically immediately after the declaration 
of war, but at no time was the great effort put 
forth in this direction that marked similar 
situations in the Civil war or even the Spanish- 
American war. There were several reasons for 
not depending entirely on volunteers. 

First, the people of the whole world had be- 
come intimately acquainted with the disagree- 
able side of warfare through reading accounts 
of the European conflict for nearly three years. 
Glamor of army service from the standpoint of 
pure adventure or romantic excitement was 
missing among most people, just as it wears 
off after actual service in the field. No one 
could look on this war as any sort of picnic. 
They knew only too well what modem warfare 
meant in terms of casualties. 

Second, the United States planned to put 
in the field such a large army that it was out 
of the question to raise it quickly by voluntary 
enlistment, judging by the speed of such en- 
listments during the Mexican trouble in 1916 
or in previous wars. The selective service act 
was the only means of getting as many men 
as were wanted, just exactly as rapidly as 
they were needed, and no faster. 

Third, as a matter of justice all military 
experts were opposed to the idea of putting the 
burden of fighting the nation's battles upon 
the men who felt the obligation to offer them- 
selves. All who claimed to be American citi- 
zens should bear their share. Also, many 
might volunteer who could help more efficiently 
by remaining on jobs at which they were ex- 

Fourth, the Selective Service act was before 
congress right after war was declared, and 
many men who might otherwise have enlisted 
felt that they were acting entirely within their 
moral and legal rights if they waited until the 
government asked for them, and occupied the 
intervening time in arranging their affairs so 

as to suffer as little material loss as possible 
from their service. At no time did the gov- 
ernment question the fairness of this view- 

On the other hand the army and navy need- 
ed men at once for the purpose of bringing 
regular establishments to a war basis, and 
men who volunteered their services gained 
some advantages by doing so. They were 
pretty sure to see early service overseas. 
They could generally pick the branch of serv- 
ice they desired to go in, and wherever possi- 
ble they were permitted to join the regiments 
they selected. Only men of perfect physique 
were permitted to enlist; many who were re- 
jected upon attempting to do so returned home 
only to be drafted and sent to camps a few 
weeks later to serve with the National army. 

In May, 1917, the army sent a recruiting 
sergeant to Racine to assist in filling the quota 
for the ambulance company of the National 
guard, and during most of the summer regular 
army and navy recruiting parties were station- 
ed in the Commercial club rooms. Every post- 
master of the country acted as part of the re- 
cruiting service to the extent of seeing that 
men who desired to enlist could reach a re- 
cruiting station if none existed near his home. 
Some advertising posters were put out urging 
men to join the colors. The Commercial Club 
donated its rooms as a recruiting office, and 
another was established in the Knights of 
Pythias building a week after the war started. 

In spite of the somewhat mild campaign for 
voluntary enlistments Racine contributed about 
700 men to the regular army, marine corps and 
navy by thatf method before the rule was put 
in effect that no more men would be accepted 
in the army excepting through the selective 
service machinery. 

Some of these enlisted here, others went to 
Chicago or Milwaukee to take the oath. Upon 
doing so they were usually sent to recruit de- 
pots for preliminary training and then assign- 
ed to regiments as needed. 



In Congress, some of the members put up a 
fight against the selective service law on the 
alleged grounds that America could always de- 
pend upon her volunteer soldiery; but their 
real reason was that they feared such a 
stupendous measure, put into effect without 
having its necessity absolutely proven by ex- 
perience, might have a bad effect upon the 
political chances of those who supported it. 
Army officers pointed out that it would be 
several months before the first men could be 
inducted into service, anyway, and by that time 
a huge army would be needed. Their view pre- 

Some older men, recalling draft riots and 
bounty jumpers of Civil war days, were insist- 
ent that men raised by a draft would be of no 
value as fighters. Happily, their theory was 
proven wrong. 

During April, May and June the navy got 
most of the Racine recruits who did not care to 
join the artillery batteries or ambulance com- 
pany. As many as fifteen a day enlisted and 
were sent to Great Lakes training station near 
Lake Bluff, 111. 

In May orders were received from Washing- 
ton that no married men should be recruited, 
and that those already in service should be dis- 
charged upon request. The only exceptions 
were in cases where it was shown that the 
wives would not be dependent upon the sold- 
ier's pay for a livelihood. Of course, some men 
who should have come under this ruling evaded 
it and remained in service, but it gave the first 
indication that the government intended to 
raise its army with men who would not leave 
dependents at home to become public charges. 

Later the rule was modified somewhat, and 
married men who wished to serve and who 
alloted half their pay to dependents could also 
obtain an additional $1.5 per month from the 
government to be paid to those actually de- 
pendent upon the soldiers for support. 

By autumn, the War Risk Insurance law was 
made effective, and under this act a soldier or 
sailor who might become disabled in service 
was guaranteed a certain compensation, based 
upon $30 per month for total disability. He 
also had the privilege of taking out life insur- 
ance in any sum up to $10,000 at a low month- 
ly rate. If he were killed or died in service, 
this amount would be paid to wife, children, 
mother or dependent father, as he should 
specify in his policy, in monthly installments 
of $58 for twenty years. He himself would be 
able to collect on the policy only in case he 
were totally, and permanently disabled. The 
obvious purpose of the law was to end the 

veteran's pension system, and particularly as 
applied to families of ex-soldiers. 

In practice, the sums awarded for compensa- 
tion were entirely inadequate. For instance, 
if a person were 50 percent disabled it is quite 
likely that he would be unable to get a job, yet 
his compensation would be but 50 percent of 
$.30, or $15 per month, which would not buy 
meals for one at prices prevailing just after 
the war. This law was altered after the war. 

Late in the summer of 1917, it was decided 
that the selective service act was ready for 
actual operation, and efforts to obtain volun- 
teer recruits were abandoned excepting in the 
navy and marines. It was found easy to get 
almost enough men for the navy by enlistment, 
as there was a definite limit on the number of 
men who could be used. Also there was no 
heavy loss of life to require replacements. 
The marine corps was small, and the splendid 
advertising given it enabled it to obtain most 
of its quota by voluntary enlistment. All the 
recruiting done during the last part of the war 
was at the larger centers, such as Chicago and 
New York. 

A couple of years before the declaration of 
hostilities between America and Germany the 
government had tried an experiment. It es- 
tablished a "Reserve Officers Training Camp" 
at Plattsburg, N. Y., to enable business men 
who desired to do so to take three months in- 
tensive training as soldiers, and then become 
members of the army reserve if qualified. 
Even the army officers who originated the 
plan were astounded, not only at the eager re- 
sponse to their invitation, but at the apparent 
efficiency of the officers thus graduated. The 
military experts had declared for so many 
generations that it took at least three years 
to make a soldier, that they would not admit 
that even a start at creating an officer could 
be made in three months. 

The men who took the course at Plattsburg, 
however, were mature. They knew business 
methods and were accustomed to handling men 
and also handling problems. They mastered 
the elements of military methods in short or- 

When the war broke out this plan of obtain- 
ing officers from picked classes of men recom- 
mended for special training, was tried out at 
once. It could be seen that it was the only 
possible way of getting officers for the million 
National army men who would come into 
camps as soon as the Regular and National 
Guard divisions were on their way to the front. 

Into these camps, then, went hundreds of 
young men, mostly college graduates or busi- 




First Row — R. P. W. Capwell. Paul V. Brown, Gust Newman, W. O. Axtell, John Strankowski, Archie Knudsen 

Second — Edward J. Peters, Harry Herzog, William White. Harry Wagner, Howard Brotherson. Hubert Wendt. 

Third — A. C. Owen, Roy Smith, Benoyt S. Bull, Shirley Enimett, John C. Gist, H. Christanson. 

Fourth — Hugh Webb, Ludwig Kuehl, Frank H. Fancher, Phillip Clancy, Jack Ramsey. Stanley Belden. 

Fifth — John Belden. Judge E B. Belden, Rev. F. S. Penfold, Joseph Oliver. John C. Fervoy, Ted Gushing. 

Sixth — Griffith Townsend. Richard G. Bryant. Charles Smader, H. L. Bickel, James Nelson. Harry A. McCuUough. 



ness men holding executive positions. The 
candidates from Racine went to the Fort 
Sheridan camp in most instances. Some went 
to training camps in the west and east. Ra- 
cine contributed several score of young men to 
the army through the medium of these camps. 
Physicians were commissioned in the medi- 
cal corps without any examination excepting a 

physical one. Their college diploma, license to 
practice and recommendation by public officials 
was all that was required. Generally medical 
men were sent to special training camps where 
they listened to lectures on sanitation and 
army surgery part of the day, and spent the 
rest of the time in drill and fatigue duty just 
like the cadets at other training camps. 



THE success of the Selective Service law 
was due to the fact that the American 
people realized that if we were to win 
the war, in a military sense, we must put in the 
field an army large enough to crush Germany. 
The sooner this army was ready the better, 
and while half a million men promptly volun- 
teered for the army and navy, this number was 
not enough. The actual induction of men into 
service by means of the draft was not carried 
into effect until the volunteer method had been 
shown to be too unreliable to answer the pur- 
pose of modem warfare. The American peo- 
ple were ready to accept the draft cheerfully, 
because they had seen all other nations in the 
war gradually adopt universal military service 
as the only fair method of providing enough 
men for their armies and navies. 

It would not be truthful to say that all 
young American men accepted gladly the 
chance to get into service via the Selective 
Service law. There are cowards and slackers 
in this country as elsewhere; there are men 
who place their personal prosperity and com- 
fort above their country's welfare. 

Local boards foresaw more trouble from 
"slackers" than actually )ccurred, however. 
The great majority of eligible men, certainly, 
accepted the order to report for service with- 
out protest. A few opposed their induction 
bitterly, taking advantage of every possible 
claim to exemption. Some even swore that 
they had dependents and otherwise perjured 
themselves to escape service. Usually such 
subterfuges were of no avail. Their claims 
for exemption had to be proven worthy, and 
were judged by strict rules laid down by the 
judge advocate general's department. 

As a general thing, Racine county draft 
boards gave the benefit of the doubt to the 
government in case of a dispute. Protesting 
parents and other relatives were lectured 
upon their obligations to the government, and 
weak-kneed candidates were handled firmly but 

tactfully in an effort to arouse their patriotism 
and courage. 

However, these cases of would-be slackers 
were but the exceptions that proved the rule. 
The public accepted and favored the draft law. 
Criticism of it was considered unpatriotic and 
decidedly bad form, especially as no one could 
question the fairness of either the law itself 
or its administration. Those who were called 
to the colors under its terms realized this and 
of all the thousands thus summoned, few in- 
deed were intentionally delinquent. 

Racine was the headquarters of the district 
exemption board, which heard appeals from 
the decisions of the local boards. Its members 
were Harry W. Bolens, Port Washington, 
chairman; A. J. Horlick, Racine, secretary; 
Chester D. Barnes, Kenosha; Dr. Grove Hark- 
ness, Waukesha; G. L. Harrington, Elkhorn; 
Stephen Benish, Racine, chief clerk. 

The following account of the work of the 
local boards, written for the Times-Call by 
Chairman E. W. Leach of Board No. 1, Racine, 

I is so complete and interesting that it is re- 

y produced here in full: 

A few days after his appointment as chair- 
man of the Registration Board in May, 1917, 
the writer met a well known manufacturer of 
Racine at the Post Office corner, who without 
breaking his stride as he proceeded up Main 
street, greeted him with an expressive wave 
of the hand and the following reassuring pre- 
diction: "Gene, in three weeks you will be the 
most hated man in Racine." If his idea was 
to "throw a scare" into us he did not succeed, 
for our mind was made up to stay with that 
job if it was the last thing we ever did. What- 
ever his notion then he has since given full 
proof of his patriotism to the credit of himself 
and his home community. 

At that time, however, there was a general 
feeling of uncertainty, bordering on appre- 
hension, concerning the attitude of the people 
toward the Selective Service Law when its 



administration should be begun, and the pre- 
diction seemed safely within the probabilities. 
It may now be stated truthfully that not 
"three weeks" after that day, nor at any time 
since, has any member of Local Board Number 
One been made aware that he had incurred 
the hatred of any person whose approval would 
have been worth having. 

On the contrary, it may be recorded as a 
fact concerning Racine county, that although 
the United States Government, for the first 
time in more than a half century, was under- 
taking the experiment of drafting men for war, 
and for war in a foreign country, the response 
of our people in the emergency was so nearly 
unanimous in approval, that what little opposi- 
tion was felt, was, for prudential reasons, al- 
most entirely self-suppressed, and the local 
boards had the enthusiastic, effective co-opera- 
tion of nearly all of the factory, fraternal and 
church organizations, as well as the encourage- 
ment and support of influential individuals 
when and where they were needed. 

The work of the local boards was serious 
business. Not since the Civil War, if ever in 
this country, has such power been given civilian 
bodies as was theirs to exercise in their discre- 
tion, under the regulations, in the raising of 
the new National Army. There were 4,648 of 
these boards, including those in the territories, 
with a total membership of 14,416. That there 
should have been some misuse of that power 
was to be expected under the circumstances; 
that such misuse was in fact a negligible quan- 
tity and did not at all seriously affect the gen- 
erally efficient administration of the law, is 
the testimony of Provost Marshal General 
Crowder, author and administrator in chief of 
the Selective Service system. In closing his 
report on the work of the local boards he said: 
"But it is idle to attempt to put into words 
here the full story of what the local boards 
achieved. Every military man must recognize 
what they did for the Nation's army; and ev- 
ery civilian must recognize what they did for 
the Nation's Liberty and welfare. And every 
American is proud of them. Whatever of 
credit is accorded to other agencies of the 
selective service law, the local boards must be 
deemed the cornerstone of the system." 

With the power placed in their hands there 
was laid on the local boards also a burden of 
very great responsibility, the sobering effect 
of which, in connection with the fact that not 
only were the board members acquainted, more 
or less intimately with the people with whom 
they had to deal, but the people knew the 
board members who dealt with them, operated 
generally to secure a just administration of the 

law, through mutual sympathy and under- 
standing. Attention is called here to the para- 
graph in the final report of the Provost Marshal 
General to the Secretary of War in which this 
phase of the work of the local boards is dis- 

Gen. Crowder says: — "It will be seen that the 
responsibility of the Local Boards was stag- 
gering. Men hitherto safe from the turmoil 
of life were being withdrawn from sheltered 
homes; to be thrown into the maw of a military 
machine. The course of lives was being radic- 
ally and violently turned. Most of the selec- 
tives were severing family ties. All were called 
for the supreme sacrifice of their lives. Any 
other than a democratic government would 
have scouted the idea of intrusting to civilians, 
in most cases untrained in administrative 
capacities, such an enormous and complex task. 
The tremendous menace of the German mili- 
tary machine was never more obvious than at 
the time America took up arms. Many wise 
men of our own government doubted the feasi- 
bility of creating an army entirely through 
civilian agencies. It is an irrefutable proof of 
the high capacity of our people for self-govern- 
ment, and an everlasting vindication of true 
democracy, that a system so intimately affect- 
ing the lives of our people should have been 
entrusted to untrained representatives of the 
local community and that it should have been 
so well executed." 

The success of the local boards was, in our 
opinion, due chiefly to the fact that the law 
which they were called upon to administer, was 
perfectly adapted for the purpose for which 
it was devised. It was reasonable, just and 
fair, and where honestly administered left no 
room for criticism. As the war progressed 
and the system developed, difficulties were en- 
countered, in the meeting of which it was a 
frequent cause of surprise and satisfaction to 
the local boards to discover that almost every 
eventuality had apparently been foreseen and 
provided for in the law and the regulations. 

Another thing that contributed largely to 
the efficient working of the Selective Service 
System was the policy of the Provost Marshal 
General and his aids in disclosing to the local 
boards only one step at a time in its develop- 
ment with the result that for many weeks af- 
ter their organization there was not at any 
time any great amount of work in view ahead. 
The regulations came along in a series, one set 
for each developing phase, and each a little 
more serious in its demand on our resources 
of time and talent, until it seemed that we had 
been extended to the limit, and still they came, 
and the apparently impossible had to be done. 




Top Row — L. H. Iverson. H. F. Jacobs, A. Anderson, Joe Chiappetta. David DelariEre, F. A. Bauer, J. P. Vakos. 
Second — K. C. Blonde, W. B. Tomlinson. A. Knitenski, P. Buechaklian, L. Malinowski, Earl Olson, Arthur C. Johnson. 
Third — Wm. Proost, Edw. G. Klepel, H. M. Bohn. Ernest Piepenbersr, Ernest Roever, John P. Nelson, James Brehm. 
Fourth — Alex Last, Walter Kobrierski, E. A. Hegeman, Wm. Sopko, Robt. E. Davies. Daniel Dexter. Nels Martin. 
Fifth — M. J. Mickulecky, James Matson. Thorwald Pedersen, Frank Granger, H. Hansen, T. E. Morgenson, Jr., J. W. Fall. 
Bottom — A. E. Hader, John Hyduke. Paul Kristopeit. A. W. Kohl, Simon Kinosian, Sato Gayegian. Cornelius J. Rooney. 



and was done. It is our conviction tliat if the 
whole scheme of the Selective Service System 
had been a matter of public knowledge at the 
beginning of the war, the final report of its 
operation would have been a different and less 
satisfying story. 

In this connection we are reminded of a scene 
in the board room on the day that the "mobi- 
lization regulations" came, that we will not 
soon forget. The new rules contained the first 
intimation that had been given them that the 
local boards would have charge of the actual 
drafting and mobilizing of the soldiers. From 
the manner in which they were received it was 
evident that no hint of that responsibility be- 
ing put upon them had previously entered the 
mind of any member our board. 

As John B. Simmons read the document 
aloud, and the serious nature of its contents 
began to appear, the faces of the men made an 
interesting study in expression which we will 
not attempt to interpret now. The surprise 
was so complete, and the prospect appeared so 
serious, that there was nothing else to do but 
to have a good laugh at the situation in which 
we found ourselves, and then to settle down 
to get an understanding of the instructions, 
and woi-k out the program outlined therein, 
which we proceeded at once to do. 

The administration of the selective service 
law in Racine began with the appointment by 
the Governor of two registration boards, one 
for the city of Racine, and one for the county 
outside the city. The members of the city 
board took the oath of office and organized for 
business on May 28, 1917, about six weeks af- 
ter the declaration of a state of war between 
the Imperial Government of Germany and the 
United States. The board was composed of 
three members: 

E. W. Leach, Chairman. 

E. R. Burgess. 

F. W. Pope, Jr. 

Charles A. Ryba, city clerk, was elected to 
act as secretary of the board. 

At this meeting Mayor T. W. Thiesen. ten- 
dered to the board for the transaction of its 
business, the use of his offices in the city hall, 
which offer was promptly accepted and these 
rooms were the headquarters of the registra- 
tion board, and of Local Board for Division 
Number One, during the entire period of the 
war, from May 28, 1917 to March 31, 1919, 
when the work of the local boards was officially 

The uniform courtesy of the city officials in 
granting us also at all times the free use of 
offices, committee rooms and the council cham- 
ber, frequently at inconvenience to themselves. 

is entitled to public acknowledgment; without 
this co-operation the work of the board would 
have been much more arduous and difficult. 

The Racine Registration Board had charge 
of the registration in the city on June 5, 1917, 
of all men of the ages of 21 to 30 inclusive, of 
whom there were 6,461 who reported, (includ- 
ing late registrants). The regular polling 
booths were used, and the work was accomp- 
lished without cost to the government, by the 
voluntary assistance of 114 registrars, under 
the supervision of the board. 

The mayor and city council very generously 
provided the funds necessary to employ clerks 
to copy the registration cards, and to publish 
complete lists of the names and addresses of 
the registrants in the Journal-News and the 
Times-Call, the total appropriation being 

The registration in the county was accomp- 
lished under the supervision of the County 
Registration Board, composed of the sheriff, 
Peter Breckenfeld, executive officer, and the 
county clerk, Joseph Patrick, clerk, with 
headquarters in the office of the latter in the 
courthouse. There were registered in this 
jurisdiction, on June 5, 1917, 1,930 men of the 
ages of 21 to 30 inclusive. 

The work of the registration boards was 
finished in June, and they were superseded, 
early in July, by three local boards in Racine 
county which were designated as follows: — 
Local Boards for Division Number One and 
Number Two for Racine City, and Local Board 
for Racine County, Burlington, Wis. 

Local Board for Division Number One Ra- 
cine had jurisdiction over the following wards: 

First, second, fourth, seventh, eighth, ninth 
and fifteenth. 

Local Board for Division Number two had 
jurisdiction over the third, sixth, tenth, 
eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth 

The jurisdiction of Local Board for Racine 
County included the entire county outside the 
City of Racine. 

Local Board for Division Number One, City 
of Racine was organized June 30, 1917, as 

H. J. Smith, Chairman; E. W. Leach, Secre- 
tary; F. H. Schulz, J. C. Hamata, E. R. Bur- 
gess, J. B. Simmons, F. W. Pope, Jr. 

Dr. Pope, however, did not qualify on ac- 
count of his enlistment at this juncture in the 
Medical Department of the army, and R. C. 
Thackeray was appointed physician member 
of the board on July 6, 1917. 

There was appointed for each local board a 
government appeal agent whose chief duty it 




Top Row — Harvey Piette, R. V. Davis, Arthur >Viii. Fox, Joseph t ic»rf, Alex Hansen, James H. Garrick. 
Second — Sophus Hansen, Axel Hansen, Walter Hansen, Har ry Hansen. Harold Helding, Wm. J. Houston. 
Third — Erwin Juedes. J. C. Jacobsen, Arthur Rattle, Lester Jirucha, Ben Kolander, Paul Kamien. 
Fourth — George Rroes, L. P. Lalonde, Albert Lindeman, Lo uis Lorum, Ed. Lord, Ernest Malmquist. 
Fifth — Frank F. Martin, E. G. Nelson, Edward Peters, I. Reiff, C. J. Salak. Oscar C. Smith. 
Bottom — Kenneth Collier. B. Sharkey. Jake Ulger, W. H. Watson. Wm. Clayton Dow, John Charmock. 



was to safe-guard the interests of the govern- 
ment in the classification of the registrants. 
When in his judgment an exemption was im- 
properly granted, or secured, it was his duty 
to appeal the case to the district board in an 
effort to hold the man for service. John H. 
Liegler was government appeal agent for local 
board number one. 

Each local and district board was authorized 
to appoint a chief clerk, whose duties were 
those which would naturally devolve upon such 
an officer. Miss Muriel Fischer was chief 
clerk of Local Board Number One, and it is a 
notable fact in connection with her service that 
from July 31, 1917, when it began, until April 
1, 1919, when it ended, she was not absent from 
duty for one hour, except to attend the funeral 
of an uncle during the afternoon. 

Local Board for Division Number Two, 
City of Racine, was organized, June 30, 1917 as 

W. W. Storms, Chairman; W. S. McCaughey, 
Secretary; Geo. Porter, Ward Gittings, I. O. 
Mann, C. H. Krogh, Wm. C. Hanson. 

Dr. Hanson served as a member of the board 
until Nov. 1, 1917, when he entered the Medical 
Department of the army, and E. A. Taylor was 
appointed physician member in his stead on 
the same day. W. S. McCaughey resigned as 
secretary on November 20, 1917, and George 
Porter was elected secretary the same date, 
and served until March 31, 1919. 

Board Number Two was located first in 
rooms at the branch library, corner of Wash- 
ington and Hamilton Avenues, but these soon 
proved unsuitable, and on July 16, 1917 a suite 
of rooms on the second floor of a new store 
building at 1508 Washington Avenue was leas- 
ed which was thereafter continuously occupied 
until the close of the war. 

Milton Knoblock was government appeal 
agent for board number two. The board had 
two chief clerks as follows: 

Emil White from December 6, 1917 to March 
15, 1918, and James Peterson from March 15, 
1918 to March 31, 1919. 

Emil White entered the military service of 
the United States in March 1918. 

Local Board for Racine County, City of Bur- 
lington, was organized July 2, 1917 as follows: 

L. H. Rohr, chairman, Burlington; A. J. 
Topp, secretary, Waterford; John J. Wishau, 
Route 1, Racine; F. A. Malone, Waterford; 
George Ella, Rochester. 

Lewis J. Quinn, Racine, was government ap- 
peal agent for this board. There were three 
chief clerks in the course of its history; Louis 
F. Reuschlein served from July 23, 1917, to 

March 26, 1918; J. H. Wards from April 1, 1918 
to June 15, 1918; and Florence Strassen from 
June 15, 1918 to March 31, 1919 when the work 
of the board was ended. J. H. Wards, entered 
the military service of the United States on 
the day his service as Chief Clerk ended. 

Although the registrations under the juris- 
diction of this board were only about three fifths 
as many as those of either of the city boards, 
its work was much more difficult because of 
the natural disadvantages under which it la- 
bored, which made it difficult to get in touch 
quickly with its registrants, for the reason 
that they were widely scattered over the coun- 
ty on farms and in small communities. 

The headquarters of the County board were 
located in the offices of Mr. Rohr, its chair- 
man, who contributed their use to the govern- 
ment during the whole course of the war with- 
out compensation. They are located on the 
second floor of the Bank of Burlington Build- 
ing, on the third floor of which are also located 
the rooms of the Burlington Business Men's 
club which the board was permitted to make 
gratuitous use of for the physical examina- 
tion of registrants. 

The first serious duty that the local boards 
were called upon to perform was to assign to 
each registrant an order number, which num- 
ber determined the order of his liability to call 
to service. These numbers were assigned in 
conformity with a master list of serial numbers 
which had been furnished the boards from 
Washington. It will not be practicable to 
make here a detailed explanation of the method 
by which this master list was made and the 
order numbers assigned, but it may safely be 
said that no single official action of any branch 
of the government was ever before examined 
with so close scrutiny to detect flaws, or watch- 
ed with so universal and jealous an interest to 
insure fairness, as was that first drawing of 
serial numbers in Washington, on July 20, 

When the drawing was finished and the or- 
der numbers were assigned, there was universal 
and complete acceptance of the result. Since 
that first drawing three others have been made 
for as many registi'ations, and none of them 
caused a ripple of question concerning the wis- 
dom of the method or the fairness of its opera- 

The physical examination of registrants to 
determine the degree of their fitness for mili- 
tary service was a matter of the first import- 
ance. Special regulations governing the meth- 
od of conducting them were promulgated, 
which were amended from time to time as ex- 



9 m 

Top Row— W. A. Durstlinp, H. George, Lawrence J. Schcvel, E. L. Hill, A. F. J. StofFel. H. A. McPherson. J. A. Marck. 
Second — H. J. Walter Coutu, Konstant Kumiszeo, C. K. Nelson, H. N. Clfroerer, L. N. Schnelz, O. Junkhan, R. J. Schnetz. 
Third — H. C. Helgeson, John Hammiller, B. C. Behrend. F. P. Doonan. John Jacobson. L. T. Krebs, L. M. Metten. 
Fourth — G. O. Williams, E. G. Loehr, A, C. Christiansen, P. K. Koprowski, G. E. Kuypers. N. E. Jacobson, A. P. Heidenreich. 
Fifth — Burton Rowley, Chas. B. Sudgen, Robert Connolly. Ralmundo Llada, William Reis, John W. Kinsler, Nick Schuit. 
Bottom — Joseph W. Peil, Louis J. Pitsch, Guy M. Breene, Wm. Musil, Herbert E. Brown, Lester L. Cook, H. Christiansen^ 



perience revealed the need. This branch of 
the work was under immediate supervision of 
the physician member of the board, and he was 
provided with as much assistance as was neces- 

Local Board Number One with whose opera- 
tions the writer is most familiar was fortunate 
in its staff of examiners. Twenty-two hundred 
and eight men were examined by them, but the 
work was so systematized that the great 
amount of time and labor involved was reduced 
to a minimum. It nevertheless was an exact- 
ing and laborious service that they, in common 
with examiners of other boards, performed as 
a patriotic contribution toward the raising of 
an army and the winning of the war, and 
should be given fitting recognition. 

The names of the regular examining staff of 
board one are: 

R. C. Thackeray, H. E. Breckenridge, C. F. 
Browne, F. B. Marek, John Meachem, A. J. 
Williams, S. Sorenson. 

They were assisted at intervals by the fol- 
lowing physicians and dentists: 

J. T. Corr, Jens Anderson, F. A. Wier, Francis 

What has been said in appreciation of the 
examiners of board number one, is true also of 
the other boards of the county. The regular 
examining board for board number two was 
composed of the follovnng physicians: 

William C. Hanson, E. A. Taylor, Chresten 
Olson, R. C. Peterson, Peter J. Brown. 

They were assisted on various occasions by: 

A. J. Williams, S. Sorenson, N. B. Wagner. 

The board of examiners for Racine county 
board was composed as follows: 

W. E. White, John W. Powers, W. A. Prouty. 
W. A. Fulton, and L. N. Hicks, Burlington; 
F. A. Malone and M. G. Violet, Waterford; 
R. W. McCracken, C. A. Obertin, and H. C. 
Werner, Union Grove; L. G. Hoffman, Chicago, 

The regulations governing the first draft 
provided that every registrant should be phy- 
sically examined, and that those found fit 
should be called for service in the order of their 
liability. Only those were to be exempted who 
were pronounced physically unfit, or who made 
claim of exemption, and produced satisfactory 
evidence in the form of affidavits in support of 
the claim. 

This procedure was early recognized as being 
cumbersome, slow and otherwise unsatisfactory 
in practise, and in November, 1917, new regu- 
lations requiring all registrants, except those 
already sent into United States service, to 
answer, execute and file with their local boards, 
a questionnaire, which was the basis to be used 

by the local boards in classifying or fixing the 
status of the registrant in his relations to the 
draft were issued. 

Five classifications were provided for under 
these rules: in class one were placed all those 
who were first to be called. In classes two, three 
and four were placed all others who were liable 
to call, but whose call was deferred, and those 
so classified were to be called in regular order, 
only when the class above it was exhausted. 
In actual practice the supply of men in class 
one was never exhausted, and none in classes 
two, three, or four were called for service. In 
class five were placed those who were entitled 
to complete exemption from call, which in- 
cluded among others those physically unfit, and 

In the spring of 1918, large drafts were made 
on the local boards for men to be sent to can- 
tonments to be trained for over-seas service, 
and the numbers of those in class one were 
being rapidly depleted. It was the very evi- 
dent desire and purpose of the government that 
none but class one men should be called, and in 
order to provide for the emergency that threat- 
ened, a registration of all men who had at- 
tained the age of 21 years since June 5, 1917 
was called for June 5, 1918. Another similar 
registration was had on August 24, 1918, and 
the result of these two registrations was the 
addition to the lists of registered men in Racine 
county of 738 names, divided as follows: 

Local Board No. 1 312 

Local Board No. 2 236 

County Board 190 

The men who came in under the two last 
registrations were called the class of June 5, 
1918, and for very obvious reasons furnished 
a much larger proportion of class one men than 
the class of June 5, 1917. They furnished 
enough at any rate to supply all needs until 
September 12, 1918. when all men between the 
ages of 18 and 4.5 both inclusive, who had not 
previously reported, were required to register. 
At this registration 10,191 men reported in the 
county, divided as follows: 

Local Board No. 1 4014 

Local Board No. 2 351S 

County Board 2659 

This made a total registration in the county 
of 19,320, divided among the boards as fol- 
Jurisdiction June June Sept. 

1917 1918 1918 Totals 
Local Board One.. 3363 312 4014 7689 
Local Board Two.. 3098 236 3518 6852 
County Board .... 1930 190 2659 4779 

Totals 8391 738 10191 19320 



Top Row — Aloys Vos, Fred D. Liegler, Earl D. Follansbee. Arthur Lui, Albert J. Wittey, Peter Peterson, D. McElroy. 
Second— Albert J. Elsen, Wallace White. Carroll Lange, Harold W. Knoedler. W. Dean Mitchell. T. M. Jensen, J. Michel. 
Third— Felii Hone Jr.. Wm. M. Palmer. Lambert Bax. Howard R. Deschler. H. J. Bowman. R. Murphy, L. M. Mullen. 
Fourth — Frank L. Westrich. J. Harold Graves. Jerome E. Murphy. B. Thompson. G. Oberjr. L. S. Nelson. L. C. Stewart. 
Fifth — Albert T. Jensen, Robert J. Schulte, Victor Falck, Allie M. Zirbes. J. A. Petersen. F. E. Anderson, Arthur Moe. 
Bottom — Edwin M. Niebler. Martin Smollcn, Frank Keis, Emil Nelson, Edward Weber, Ed. C. Murphy, Peter J. Marsch. 



The mobilization of the men called for serv- 
ice, including their entrainment for camp, was 
the culminating feature of the work of the 
local boards. It was a more or less continuous 
performance, once it got started. Every en- 
trainment of newly-made soldiers was an event 
of compelling, vital interest to a large num- 
ber of people the number varying with the 
size of the contingent going to camp. 

Except on occasions when very few men were 
leaving there was always a parade, and the 
men were escorted to their train by the city 
and county officials, and military, semi-military 
and other organizations, accompanied by one 
or more brass bands. Each occasion was a 
historic event that will not be forgotten by 
those who were a part of, or who witnessed it. 

The men were always entrained at the regu- 
lar passenger platforms at the railroad sta- 
tions with one exception; this was on July 26, 
1918, at 2:00 p. m. when 447 men were sent to 
Camp Zachary Taylor, Louisville, Kentucky, 
from the two Racine City boards alone. A 
special train was provided for them, the yards 
south of the C. & N. W. station were cleared, 
and one of the largest gatherings of the people 
of Racine that ever assembled, was there to 
see them off, and bid them God speed. 

The first entrainment by Racine boards was 
on September 6, 1917, when eleven men were 
sent to Camp Custer. The last contingent en- 
trained was on November 11, 1918, (the day the 
armistice was signed) when 191 men were 
started for Camp Logan, Texas, by the city 
boards. They did not get quite as far as Chi- 
cago, however, being stopped by a telegram 
from the war department, and they returned 
to Racine the same day, a disgusted lot of 
"raw" recruits. They were discharged on No- 
vember 13th, and given three days pay. 

When a call for men came to a local board, 
accompanied by a train schedule, a list of the 
correct number of names was made up in the 
order of their liability to service, and an im- 
pressive notice was sent to each man to the 
effect that he had been selected for service, 
and directing him to appear for roll call at a 
certain hour of a certain day which was fixed 
so that it was not less than six nor more than 
twenty-four hours before the hour of entrain- 

A second roll call Tvas had at board head- 
quarters an hour or thereabouts before the hour 
of entrainment and a third at the railroad sta- 
tion on arrival there. From the hour designat- 
ed for the first roll call, the inducted man was 
in the service of the United States whether he 
had put in an appearance or not. If he failed 

to appear for entrainment he was reported as 
a deserter, which in time of war is a very seri- 
ous matter. 

The total number of men inducted into serv- 
ice and entrained for camp by the local boards 
of Racine county was 2881, divided as follows: 

Board One, Racine 1088 

Board Two, Racine 1036 

County Board 757 

All of the local boards availed themselves 
freely of some very generous and competent 
voluntary assistance, without which patriotic 
co-operation their record for efficiency would 
have suffered. Pupils of the High School, and 
of Wisconsin Business College, did much valu- 
able copying for Local Board Number One and 
some forty or fifty grade teachers in the public 
schools came day after day and helped in more 
important work, under the supervision of prin- 
cipals W. L. Hood of the Winslow school and 
D. A. Shepard, of the Garfield school. 

Besides these there were individuals who 
helped at various times when the work was 
crowding, and altogether the volunteer assist- 
ance was a valuable and much appreciated con- 
tribution towards the success of the work of 
the local boards. 

At Board Number Two, principal H. U. Wood 
of the Howell school, with the assistance of 
Ann Rank and Hazel Wichern did valuable 
work in October and November of 1918, in mak- 
ing up reports called for by the Provost Mar- 
shal General at a time when the other work of 
the boards was most pressing. 

In the late summer of 1918, it appeared to 
dawn on the military authorities that special 
preliminary instruction in military tactics, and 
in many other matters of interest to prospec- 
tive soldiers,, was desirable and feasible, and 
in special regulations sent out in August, local 
boards were directed to appoint Boards of In- 

A detailed account of the work of these 
boards would be an interesting and informing 
story, but it will be enough to say here that 
before the signing of the armistice on Novem- 
ber 2nd, they had had time to demonstrate 
clearly the wisdom of the plan; each succeeding 
contingent of men went away better trained, 
better informed, in better spirits, and in every 
way better fitted to begin camp life than the 
preceding one. It is a matter for regret that 
these boards could not have gotten into action 
sooner, for the value of the work they did in 
the little time they had, was not only very 
great, but promised greater things for the fu- 
ture had it been necessary to go on. 

The board of instruction connected with Local 





Top Row — F. G. Mahler, Fred Dacquisto, E. Kraupa. M. W. Younffs, Bert Fisher, J. Jacobson. 
Second — F. J. Jadrny. P. J. Henkes. Chas. Frisco, S. H. Roche. Edgrar Olson, Thos. Sadowski. 
Third — George Kloster, Arthur Clausen, P. J. Hartman, S. R. Harrison, H. W. Falk, Joe Kwojeski. 
Fourth — Neil Bach, Walter Gothe. Finer A. Evenson. J. W. Itzenhuiser, L. L. McConnell, Harry Nelson. 
Fifth — Walter Remkus, Geo. Dokletor, Lawrence Quirk, Wm. King, Tony Castrovilli, R. P. Bragar. 
Bottom— G. H. Wallace, Clar. Nelson. C. F. J. Delschaft, E. Peterson, P. Araboglaus, H. L. demons. 



Board for Division Number One was organized 
September 18, 1918, as follows: 

Henry C. Baker, Chairman; Charles A. Ryba, 
Secretary; Fred Haumerson, John Olson, John 
H. Liegler. 

The board of instruction connected with Local 
Board for Division Number Two was composed 
as follows: 

Wm. C. Hood, Chairman; L. C. Brooks, Sec- 
retary; Paul Matson Henry Clark, E. A. Tay- 
lor, Chris. Krogh, Wallace Loomis. 

The board of instruction connected with Local 
Board for Racine County was as follows: 

William E. Smieding, Jr., Racine; E. John 
Wehmhoff, Burlington; F. L. Witter, Burling- 

As the members of the local boards review 
the labors of the twenty-two months of war 
service, there is one feeling that dominates, 
and that compensates for all the weariness and 
the worry, and that is a sense of gratitude that 
we have had the privilege of helping in a small 
but more or less vital and effective way to win 
the great war. Nothing else matters much in 
comparison. All else will pass. That will re- 

The following gives the date, number of men 
and cantonment camps, to which selective men 
were sent from Racine in groups under call of 
Provost Marshall Crowder: 












117 . 





















Columbus Bar. 










Ft. Riley 





Columbus Bar. 





Columbus Bar. 




















Syracuse, N. Y. 









12 (negroes) Custer 





Jefferson Bar. 





Syracuse, N. Y. 










Kansas City 





Iowa City 





Wisconsin Univ. 










Beloit, Wis. 





Peoria, 111. 






























Jefferson Bar. 





Wisconsin Univ. 





Beloit College 










Jackson Bar. 








THE mobilization camp for the National 
Guard of the states of Wisconsin and 
Michigan was Camp MacArthur, just 
■outside the city of Waco, Texas. The National 
army cantonments to which the majority of 
Racine selectmen were sent were Camp Grant, 
Rockford, 111.; Camp Custer, Battle Creek, 
Mich.; Camp Zachary Taylor, Louisville, Ky.; 
Camp McClellan, Anniston, Ala., and Columbus 
Barracks, Columbus, Ohio. Men were sent to 
the camps near their homes when practicable, 
but when replacements were needed elsewhere 
they were forwarded direct or transferred from 
cantonments which had an oversupply. 

The local boards always appointed one of 
the selectmen as captain of the contingent 
leaving home, and other men were named as 
non-commissioned officers, these appointments 
being for the period of the journey only. The 
train schedules were provided by the govern- 
ment. Upon arrival at a cantonment, the con- 
tingent was met by camp officers who guided 
them to their section. The men undressed and 
were put through a rigid medical examination. 
They passed thirty or forty doctors in turn, 
each one examining but one organ or function. 
Each physician would examine two or three 
men a minute. Following this, clerks would 
examine the men as to their occupation in civil 
life, preference as to branch of service, quali- 
fications as to military work, education, mental 
ability, etc. By the time the examination was 
concluded each recruit was pretty thoroughly 

Uniforms and full equipment was then fur- 
nished and he was assigned to a barracks, and 
a company or detachment. On about the sec- 
ond or third day in camp his regular schedule 
of military training began. The company of- 
ficers in the National army were generally 
graduates of the Reserve Officers Training 
camps. Non-commissioned officers were ap- 
pointed as rapidly as possible, and if they prov- 
ed inefficient there was no hesitancy in reduc- 

ing them to the ranks and naming their suc- 

Following is a typical schedule of calls for 
one day in a training camp: 
A. M. 
.5:45 First call. 
5:.55 Reveille. 
6:00 Assembly for roll call and setting-up 

6:.30 Mess. 

7:00 Police and sick calls. 
7:30 Drill. 
11:30 Recall from drill. 
12:00 Mess. 
P. M. 
1:00 Drill. 

4:30 Recall from drill. 
5:00 Guard mount 
5:30 Retreat and parade. 
6:00 Mess. 
7:30 Officers' School. 
9:30 Call to quarters. 
10:00 Taps. 

On Saturday afternoon in most camps there 
were athletic events in which all men were re- 
quired to take part. Sunday morning was 
given over to inspection of equipment and 
clothing, and church. On Sunday afternoons 
and evening the men were free from duty ex- 
cepting for their turns as guard, kitchen police 
or other fatigue work. Non-commissioned of- 
ficers generally attended school two or three 
evenings a week. Details of such matters vari- 
ed in the different camps, however. 

Camp barracks were two-story frame build- 
ings, capable of housing from 200 to 300 men 
each. There was one large room upstairs and 
one large room and a small office room down- 
stairs. The men slept on cots. The buildings 
were well heated. The camps were laid out 
to hold from 25,000 to 30,000 men and were 
constructed in sections, each section having its 
own mess halls, drill grounds, officers quarters, 

In the southern camps, tents were used by 



the soldiers for sleeping quarters, but the 
severity of northern winters made this out of 
the question at such camps as Grant or Custer. 
In all camps, however, there were frame mess 
halls with screened doors and windows. Gar- 
bage incinerators were provided, and great at- 
tention was paid to sanitation. 

Had it not been for the terrible epidemic of 
Spanish influenza which swept through Europe 
and America in 1918, the death rate from di- 
sease in the war would have been kept to a 
very low figure. Thousands died in almost 
every large city and military cantonment as a 
result of this dread disease. 

Every recruit in the military and naval serv- 
ice was vaccinated against smallpox and inno- 
culated against typhoid fever. As a result 
there was almost an entire absence of these 
diseases, which usually take such heavy toll of 
lives from armies in war time. 

It was the original intention to raise a com- 
plete combat division of approximately 27,000 
men in each cantonment. In most cases the 
plans went awry, as constant requisitions were 
made on the cantonments for replacements to 
be sent to divisions already in the field. For 
that reason the National Army organizations 
were frequently broken up and scattered just 
as they were becoming well trained. 

This usually happened after the company and 
higher officers had worked diligently to create 
a fine spirit of pride in the organizations. The 
war department's disregard for the morale of 
units was one of the greatest causes for com- 
plaint and dissatisfaction on the part of men 
and officers. It was only after most heart 
rending protests on the part of divisional and 
regimental commanders in France that Gen- 
eral Headquarters would lend any assistance to 
soldiers desiring to return to their old com- 
mands after having been separated from them 
for a time, due to Mlness, wounds or other 
causes. At no t'me was it easy for them to do 
so. This was the first time in American his- 
tory that the war department failed to make 
an effort to foster pride in regiments and divi- 
sions, and its policy in this respect was un- 
questionably a serious error, although it may 
have been a means for saving some expense. 

Some of the National Army necessarily had 
to become replacement outfits, under the sys- 
tem which abolished voluntary enlistments for 
the Regular Army and National Guard. Be- 
fore a good plan was perfected to provide these 
replacements without destroying the effective- 

ness of whole new divisions, the war was end- 

The 8.5th division, formed at Camp Custer, is 
a good example. It was organized and train- 
ed. Then a large number of its men were 
sent to other divisions as replacements. New 
men were sent to the 8.5th and there was more 
training. The division went to Europe, and 
one whole regiment of infantry was sidetrack- 
ed and sent to Russia, while the rest of the 
division went to France. There on the eve of 
going into the lines, a call for army replace- 
ments depleted almost every unit in the divi- 
sion again to the point where they could hard- 
ly be termed organizations at all. 

The rules at the training camps were quite 
severe. The strictest observance of the mili- 
tary forms and courtesies was insisted upon. 
During drill hours, only ten minutes rest was 
permitted out of every sixty, and usually no 
smoking was allowed on the drill field at all. 
Passes to leave the camp area were seldom giv- 
en, general permission to do so being granted 
only for the hours between evening mess and 
taps, without a pass. The government requir- 
ed the closing of saloons in the vicinity of all 
cantonments, and the selling of liquor to men 
in uniform was prohibited all through the 
country. Immorality of all kind was severely 
frowned upon and limited in every possible 
way. Weekly inspections of all men in service 
was one of the many methods adopted to in- 
sure the maintenace of a high standard of phy- 
sical health among the troops. 

The army Y. M. C. A. had "huts" at every 
camp, where men were encouraged to gather 
for entertainment, and to write letters home. 
Stationery was furnished free. "Sings" were 
held frequently, when thousands of men would 
attempt en masse to raise the very roof with 
the power of their more or less harmonious 
choral efforts, under the direction of song lead- 
ers. Moving pictures were exhibited at camps, 
and there was a general policy of attempting 
to keep the new soldiers in a cheerful and con- 
tented frame of mind during their periods of 
recreation. The Knights of Columbus did ex- 
cellent social service work through their field 
secretaries, and the Y. W. C. A. established 
"hostess houses" where relatives of soldiers 
could rest while on visits to the cantonments. 
Books were donated by citizens all over the 
country and most camps, hospitals and ships 
had quite large libraries for the use of the men> 
especially toward the end of the war. 



WITH the departure of the National 
Guard troops of the various states 
to their mobilization camps, the states 
themselves were left without any military 
forces. The same, or greater necessity existed 
for them during war time as in days of peace. 
The suppression of riots, enforcement of law 
when local authorities were unable to maintain 
order, the training of citizens in the use of 
arms, the maintenance of a force at home 
which could be called upon by the government 
in times of peril — all of these duties had been 
shouldered by state militia organizations since 
the foundation of the government. 

On August 24, 1917, a meeting was held at 
the Commercial club rooms in Racine and it 
was decided to raise two companies of militia 
in Racine for home guard service during the 
war. Most of those accepted were men unfit- 
ted by age or physical condition for active serv- 
ice with the combat forces, or exempt from 
such service by reason of dependencies or their 
employment in essential industries. Neverthe- 
less, they desired to be trained for military 
duty, and stood ready to "do their bit" as far 
as possible. 

The state guard was to be subject to the call 
of the governor at any time for duty within 
the state, and probably could have been sum- 
moned into federal service anywhere within 
the boundaries of the nation to repel invasion 
or suppress insurrection, if needed. 

On September 28, 1917, the two local com- 
panies organized by the election of the follow- 
ing officers by ballot: 

Co. I. — Captain, Paul M. Matson; 1st Lieu- 
tenant, Wallace F. McGregor; 2nd Lieutenant, 
Rudolph P. Peterson. 

Co. K. — Captain, Richard Drake; 1st Lieu- 
tenant, John T. Olson; 2nd Lieutenant, John H. 

When Captain Drake resigned to enter the 
United States army, Lieutenant Olson was com- 
missioned Captain, 2nd Lieutenant Owens be- 

came 1st Lieutenant, and F. C. Haumerson was 
named as 2nd Lieutenant. 

The two companies were mustered into serv- 
ice October 4, 1917, and eventually were as- 
signed to the Seventh regiment, of which 
Horace M. Seaman of Milwaukee was colonel, 
and Henry C. Baker of Racine lieutenant-col- 

The annua] encampment of the regiment at 
Camp Douglas, July 6-13, 1918 was attended 
by practically the full membership. 

During the year drills were held weekly. 
The muster rolls showed 65 men in each com- 

The state guard was held in service until 
steps could be taken to reorganize the national 
guard regiments after the demobilization of 
the national army. Fortunately, there was no 
need for any demonstration of the fighting 
ability of the citizen soldiery, but undoubtedly 
they would have rendered good account of 
themselves had there been any cause for their 
shouldering rifles, for serious work. 

The non-commissioned officers of the two 
companies are as follows: 

Co. L— First Sergeant, J. E. Wilson; Q. M. 
Sergeant, C. B. Washburn; Sergeants P. F. 
Peterson, A. W. Johnson, Ed. Rasmussen, A. W. 
Clutter. Corporals: William Myers, S. E. 
Craig, D. C. Washburn, A. E. Wilkins. 

Co. K. — First Sergeant, John Konnak; Q. M. 
Sergeant, W. M. Rodgers; Sergeants, B. M. 
Kerr, T. M. Kearney, Jr., Lee Archer; Corpor- 
als, Charles Nelson, A. D. Hermes, Peter Ver- 
heyen, E. Findley, Arthur Ehrlich, Elmer Dur- 

The state guards did valuable service in help- 
ing to train selected men who expected to be 
called to the colors soon. Many of these 
drilled with the local companies and obtained 
an elementary knowledge of drill and tactics 
which resulted in their rapid promotion after 
they were inducted into federal service. 



THE raising of an American army by 
means of the selective draft necessarily 
brought the war home to every com- 
munity, every factory, every farm and every 
family in the county. The public attitude to- 
ward the draft might have been one of curiosity 
or distrust or even hostility; but in fact it was 
one of active sympathy with its purposes and 
was marked by a real desire to help. 

The deep-seated patriotism of the Racine 
people could never be doubted. From the very 
day war was declared the great majority of 
men and women were asking themselves and 
each other "What can I do to help?" A state 
of bewilderment existed. All felt that big 
tasks would be required of them. What these 
were no one knew. 

The privilege of fighting for one's country is 
not given to all. Age, sex, infirmities, de- 
pendencies and other causes may and do make a 
large share of the people unfitted for the bat- 
tlefield. Production must be kept up or armies 
are helpless. 

In Racine, as everywhere, there was an im- 
mediate attempt upon the part of many peo- 
ple to "organize something." Realizing that 
the civilian population must do its part, there 
naturally arose numerous ideas and sugges- 
tions as to what it had better do and how it 
had better do it. Each advocate had his or her 
ideas on the subject, and proposed to demon- 
strate their value. 

Fortunately, clear-sighted men and women 
began at once to evolve a system which would 
obtain the greatest results from the work of 
civilians with the least amount of waste mo- 
tion and useless expense. The government it- 
self gave the matter careful consideration. 
Within a short time the civilian activities were 
pretty well concentrated along the following 

First: A central body which should assume 
the responsibility of telling the people what 
the government wanted done, and provide 
means for doing it. This was the County 

Council of Defense. Its principal subsidiaries 
were: (a) Local organizations to assist in 
financing the war, such as Liberty Loan, 
Thrift Stamp and War Chest Committees: (b) 
A Women's committee to aid in directing the 
efforts of women in the home and elsewhere, 
solving industrial problems aff'ecting the se.x, 
and cooperating with the other branches of the 
Council and of the government; (c) Certain 
bureaus and committees charged with the 
work of giving information to the public, con- 
serving the necessities of life and industry, and 
increasing production. Examples of these are 
the Food Administration, Four Minute Men, 
War Garden Committees, Etc. 

Second: The local branch of the American 
Red Cross. This was part of the nation-wide 
organization which supplied comforts to men in 
service, conducted relief work, maintained con- 
tact between men in service and their families, 
and assumed the task of providing certain 
surgical supplies for army hospitals as well as 
recruiting nurses for hospital work. It had 
32,000 members in Racine. 

Third: Organizations created at the request 
of the government to assist in administration 
of draft laws, alien enemy legislation, etc. 
Among these were the Legal Advisory Board 
and American Protective League. 

The ofl'-shoots of the County Council of De- 
fense in many cases assumed the importance 
of entirely separate organizations and perhaps 
over-shadowed the council itself at times, but 
they were all part of a co-ordinated whole. 
The council outlined plans, appointed those to 
execute them and turned to new problems. 
The Council was what it was intended to be, 
the directing spirit of civilian war work out- 
side of certain specified lines. 

There were many other organizations which 
must be given due credit for their useful and 
patriotic labors. Most of them, however, were 
adjuncts of the parent bodies named above, or 
in some cases merely temporary or neighbor- 



hood associations intended to deal with certain 
phases of the larger problems. 

There were hundreds of individuals also who 
did valuable work outside of the organizations 
formed upon the broad lines indicated. The 
scope of their efforts was so varied that it 
would be impossible to attempt to record them. 
One of the great duties of the civilian popula- 
tion was to maintain the morale of the armies 
in the field, and there is no one who can esti- 
mate the actual worth to the nation of the 
cheerful letters sent to homesick boys in can- 
tonment and field; the burdens assumed by 
patriotic women that men might be enabled to 
serve in uniforms; the individual financial sac- 
rifices made to assist the country in its time 
of peril; the welfare work done for those in 
service, and the almost unanimous attitude of 
willingness to do whatever task might be re- 
quired to add to the effectiveness of the na- 
tional efforts regardless of inconvenience, dis- 
comfort or expense. 

Racine, like other communities, presented a 
united front to the enemy; its people were 
eager to do their share, and did their part to 
prove that a peaceful nation, ambitious only 
for its prosperity, freedom and happiness, can 
none the less be relied upon in times of na- 
tional danger to sacrifice anything and every- 
thing that our democracy may live. 

On April 16, 1917, President Wilson outlined 
a practical plan for civilian work. He propos- 
ed a central administrative body, the National 
Council of Defense, with State Councils at 
each State capital appointed by the governors, 
and subordinate to them, the County Councils 
of Defense which would be the basic, responsi- 
ble unit. These organizations were semi-offi- 
cial, with the authority of the government and 
state back of their work, and yet they had no 
legal executive powers. Probably they accom- 
plished more than they would had they been 
armed with an autocratic authority to compel 
obedience for the American people dislike to 
be driven. The County Council soon had local 
committees in every town and village, so that 
in case of need an order from Washington 
could be transmitted to almost every fireside 
within a few hours, by the orderly function- 
ing of this large organization. The same plan, 
reversed, enabled the central body to collect 
information and obtain an expression of senti- 
ment promptly. 

Before America entered the conflict there 
had been in existence a Committee of Ten, in 
this and other cities, for the purpose of outlin- 
ing a scheme for the mobilization of national 
industries and resources in case of war. This 

was the outgrowth of a plan prepared by Mar- 
tin J. Gillen, a Racine- attorney, and adopted 
throughout the country. 

The Committee of Ten responded to the 
presidential announcement of the new plan by 
calling together a number of leading men of 
the city to form the Racine County Council of 
Defense. The first gathering of this body was 
held at the Commercial Club at 8 o'clock on 
the evening of Tuesday, April 17, 1917. The 
aims of the organization were read by J. H. 
Brannum, who acted as chairman, and then 
he went right to the point by stating that the 
first order of business was the election of a 
permanent chairman, and that Captain Wm. 
Mitchell Lewis was the man. His election fol- 
lowed and in a brief utterance Captain Lewis 
tersely charged the group with their duties. 

"It is necessary that every member of this 
body go the limit to accomplish what may be 
set out for them to do," he said. 

Like the people generally, the members felt 
that great responsibilities were being assumed, 
but they did not know yet just what they were. 
In the first days of its organization the Council 
members were much at sea as to their duties, 
their powers and their objects — but they dis- 
creetly said little about it and let the public 
believe what it would. They awaited instruc- 
tions from Madison. 

Wisconsin was the first state to create a 
state council of defense by legislative enact- 
ment (April 12, 1917) and it was the first state 
to perfect its state and county organizations. 
The legislature in May authorized a county 
tax to provide funds for the County Councils. 

At the first meeting of the Racine Council of 
Defense referred to above, the following ob- 
jects were outlined : 

To assist nation and state in doing all things 
necessary to bring about the highest effective- 
ness and to co-ordinate all activities; to re- 
ceive, distribute and execute orders and sug- 
gestions from the National and State Councils; 
to increase production and conserve food pro- 
ducts; to aid the military plans; to study 
sources of supplies; to investigate the acts of 
persons suspected of disloyalty, and to inter- 
est all organizations and citizens in problems 
which might arise and secure their aid in solv- 
ing them in such a manner as will result in the 
greatest possible benefit to the nation. 

Following the election of Captain Lewis as 
chairman, there were spirited addresses by Mr. 
Gillen and Rev. C. S. Nickerson. 

William H. Armstrong, later elected mayor, 
was made vice-chairman. At the suggestion of 
Captain Lewis a conference was arranged with 




Top Row — W. J. Pearmain, L. C. Pedersen, Arthur Kick. A. C. Hanson, A. L. Affne, Theo. Jacobson, E. T. Bjorkman. 
Second — Anthony Miller, J. J. Menkes, Frank Abbati. Fritz Reichert, Theo. Schliesmanii, Wallace Kelly, Chas. Wratten. 
Third — Edw. Wurz. L. E. Ganss, F. A. Frudenwald, B. F. Crandall. Edw. Piepmeyer. H. Trinke, Rud. Prott. 
Fourth — R. R. Green, R. P. Driver, L. L. Georee, A. R. Miles, A. A. Bradlev, Ephrlam Hansen. J. W. Gulbrandsen. 
Fifth— R. A. Fisher, N. P. Hansen, W. A. DeYoung, W. R. Wadewitz. C. T. Peterson, G. W. Schutten, R. F. Jungck. 
Bottom — J. H. Mura, A. J. Christensen, E. N. Mangold, L. J. Christiansen, E. H. Wood, Oscar Johnson, T. R. Foxwell. 



William Horlick, Jr., in the hope of getting him 
to act as treasurer. The hope was realized. 
Miss Minnie I. Queckenstedt was suggested as 
permanent secretary. This capable young 
woman accepted, although declaring that she 
was not quite sure what she was getting into, 
but was willing to answer the call of duty. 
As it turned out her worst fears were confirm- 
ed, but she remained at her post to the last and 
when it was all over, was probably glad of it. 
As a matter of fact none of the council was 
just sure what lay ahead, but all were willing 
to "take a chance," and after Captain Lewis 
concluded one of his terse, characteristic 
speeches, in which he said that the idea was to 
"go to it" and to deliver, the spirit of deter- 
mination was born in that organization. 

Subsequently the membership was subjected 
to changes by resignation, etc., but following 
is a complete list of all those who served at 
one time or another during the war: William 
Mitchell Lewis* and F. Lee Norton, chairmen; 
Wm. H. Armstrong, vice-chairman; Minnie L 
Queckenstedt, secretary; William Horlick, Jr., 
treasurer; Peter T. Stoffel, Milton H. Pettit, 
Frank H. Miller, Jacob Heim, A. C. Mehder, 
O. C. Friend*, Mrs. F. R. Pettit*, Mrs. John W. 
Owen*, Peter J. Myers, John D. Jones, Jr., 
Frank B. Renak, Jr., W. J. Hansche, S. B. 
Walker, John H. Dwight, Mrs. Stuart Webs- 
ter*, W. T. Harvey, N. C. Nelson, Mrs. R. S. 
Preble and Mayor T. W. Thiesen, ex-officio, 
all of Racine; A. S. Titus and Henry Caley, 
Waterford; A. G. Cady*, A. B. Steele and M. H. 
Herzog, Corliss; H. A. Runkle*, Mrs. W. G. 
Rasch, C. Roy McCanna*, George W. Walker, 
Albert Hanson and D. A. Warren* of Burling- 
ton; Joseph Smerchek*, John H. Kamper* and 
L. C. Christensen Franksville; O. P. Graham*, 
Robert Nugent and J. Z. Collier, Union Grove; 
Matt Lavin, Kansasville; George Ela, Roches- 

The earlier meetings of the council were oc- 
cupied largely with matters concerning the 
organization — getting into its stride and feel- 
ing its way about in regard to its powers and 
duties. One of the first matters to come up 
for action was the report that many sailors on 
furlough from the Great Lakes Naval Train- 
ing station were getting liquor in Racine and 
had lately appeared in all sorts of stages of 
intoxication, in spite of the government order 
that prohibited the selling or giving liquor to 
men in the uniform of the United States. In- 
vestigations were carried out and one report 
submitted stated that the boys got their liquor 
at South Milwaukee. At about that time the 

•Indicates resignations. Captain Lewis resigned to en- 
ter service and F. Lee Norton was elected to succeed him. 

military authorities caused action through fed- 
eral civil channels which resulted in a much 
stricter observation of the rule against selling 
liquor to men in uniform. The practice of uni- 
formed men going into saloons had not been 
prohibited, and when one of them would stand 
alongside a civilian customer who had a drink 
before him, and take it and consume it, pro- 
secution was out of the question for there was 
no law against the men taking drinks if they 
could get them. 

The organization for the First Liberty Loan 
was also before the council in this period and 
hardly had that plunge "over the top" by Ra- 
cine county been properly recorded before plans 
for the Second loan in October were taken up. 
The loan campaigns, which were problems 
primarily in the hands of the council, are de- 
scribed in another portion of this volume. 

Functions and powers of the council were 
by this time fairly well defined. The council 
had altered somewhat in personnel. Captain 
Lewis had gone into the army as a Major of a 
signal battalion, Mrs. F. R. Pettit had resigned 
and Mrs. John W. Owen has succeeded her. 
But the old guard, Milton H. Pettit, Peter Stof- 
fel, Mrs. W. G. Rasch, Wm. Horlick, Jr., and 
others were regularly on the job. F. Lee Nor- 
ton had succeeded to the chairmanship and 
also had a lot of other work on other war- 
time organizations. The routine concerned the 
lining up of "slackers" of various kinds — 
Liberty loan, selective draft and the like and 
the encouragement of various wartime service 
organizations. A canteen had been established 
at the home of Mrs. Paul Ostergaard, where 
visiting soldiers and sailors were fed, enter- 
tained and extended various comforts. The 
Motor Corps had been organized to answer 
Red Cross, Secret Service, Home Service and 
Council calls. The Women's Committee of the 
Council, as a co-ordinate of the Council had 
been organized and was producing some re- 

The general effectiveness of the Council soon 
became apparent. The experiment of an or- 
ganization to carry out the federal and state 
plans, which extended to wards and precincts 
in cities and townships and even sections in 
the country, had proven a mighty institution. 
Should another national crisis arise which de- 
manded universal activity from President to 
the humblest workman, this system will doubt- 
less be used, and at another time its organi- 
zation and effectiveness can be developed in a 
fraction of time that was employed in estab- 
lishing it in 1917-8. 

Along in October the labor shortage question 




nwr?*?=ss«~ ^ * i^*v'it«*Ai 


Top Row — Fred Danzer. Louis Demant. Ingv, Amundsen, August Sustachek, B. W. Kolander, And. Jensen. T. Thompson. 
Second — B. Dembrowski, !>. J. Swencki, Apkar Markarian, Paul Citiagro, Arthur Petersen. Arthur Konrad. Joseph Block. 
Third — Myrl E. Ward, Ba^has Yahnian, Nels Nelson, Giura^ros Hurshostian. Gustav Zelmer. Kobt. Smitt. M. J. Thomsen. 
Fourth — Ermino Zamin. Louis Buisse, Matt M. Mohr, Martin Nurnberger. Herman Nissen, Emanuel Carlson. Ed. Stegner. 
Bottom — Julius Weiss, H. E. Pfarrdrescher, Anthony Pinuta, A. E. Stephans, C. Paolocci. Mike KalaRian. L. E. Brierly. 



became serious both on Racine county farms 
and in the city factories. It was reported to 
the council that hordes of loafers were about 
town and many of them were aliens and not 
susceptible to the selective laws. The problem 
was before the council for months in an effort 
to get a special law to deal with this class of 
"birds," but the war had nearly ended when the 
"Work or Fight" order was promulgated. 

Another matter developed at the October 11 
meeting. That was a tendency of some mem- 
bers of the council, itself, to shirk. It was 
found that a number of members had not at- 
tended more than one or two meetings, and it 
was finally decided to notify delinquents that 
unless they appeared at the meetings or sent 
sufficient excuses, their resignations would au- 
tomatically follow. Three members were drop- 
ped at the next meeting as a result. But there 
also was a feeling that the council was not 
getting the proper reach and the question of 
enlarging the membership was taken up, so 
that its influence would extend into the coun- 
try districts. In addition to the decentraliza- 
tion of the council into the corresponding local 
or community councils, it was decided that 
standing committees of the County Council 
should be made up of members of the council, 
who were to gather about themselves an ad- 
visory body of men and women especially fitted 
for handling the problems presented. In all its 
efforts the Council had the support and aid of 
other organizations engaged in war work. 

In December, 1917, the council proposed the 
curtailment of Christmas giving, both as an 
aid to thrift and to reduce the need of extra 
help in stores. At about the same time in- 
vestigation of stories of alleged disloyalty was 
begun and several persons of pro-German pro- 
clivities w-ere put on the grill and warned to 
mend their ways. 

"Daylight saving," procured by setting the 
clocks ahead an hour in the summer, was given 
local approval and finally was accomplished by 

The more important, definite tasks of the 
Council are discussed in later chapters devoted 
to its subsidiary bodies — the Liberty Loan 
Committees, Women's Committee, Food Ad- 
ministration, etc. Numerous problems, how- 
ever, were handled by the membership of the 
board itself. Among the principal committees 
were those on: 

Agriculture — A. S. Titus, W. J. Hansche, 
A. B. Steele, Peter J. Myers, Frank B. Renak, 
John D. Jones, Jr., S. W. Walker, and A. L. 
Thomas. Purpose, to encourage production. 

aid in securing seeds and fertilizer, and assist 
in finding markets for products. 

Labor— G. A. Kanters, E. A. Policy, H. C. 
Berger, Jacob Heim, J. H. Smith, John F. 
Kovar, John H. Dwight, A. J. Hay and Joseph 
Christianson. Purpose, to analyze the labor 
situation, discourage idleness, and cooperate 
with the government in matters affecting the 
supply, distribution and welfare of labor. 

Re-Classification of Farm Labor — A. E. Pol- 
ley, A. B. Steele, John D. Jones, Jr., and A. L. 
Thomas. Purpose, to see that justice was done 
in respect to the exemption claims of farm 
workers. Some confusion existed as to wheth- 
er the owner or employe on a farm was the 
essential worker in the industry, and as to 
what constituted a skilled farmer. It was 
also reported that some men were getting ex- 
emption from service as "farmers" when their 
only claim to distinction in that line came from 
recent purchases of rural property. 

Threshei-men's Committee — H. M. Thomas, 
W. T. Harvey, and A. E. Policy. To eliminate 
waste in the threshing and regulate rates. 

Boys' Working Reserve — L. W. Brooks, A. R. 
Graham, W. E. Stone, A. E. Policy, E. V. 
Donaldson, Frank LaBudde, H. C. Berger, Al- 
bert Koehn. To encourage boys under draft 
age to engage in productive agriculture during 

Marketing— M. H. Pettit, A. J. Lunt, D. E. 
Fitzgerald, W. H. Reed, C. E. Brewer, W. H. 
Armstrong, Mrs. W. H. Reed, Mrs. N. C. Nel- 
son. This committee started three public mar- 
kets for produce. It also arranged for the pur- 
chase and sale, w-ith no administrative cost, 
of several carloads of potatoes and apples, and 
large quantities or rutabagas, fish and beans. 
Nearly 200 farmers were supplied with seed 
corn during the shortage in 1918. 

Old Glory Committee — Thos. G. Dickinson, 
Oscar P. Hoppe, E. D. Kosterman, Vilas E. 
Whaley, T. J. McCrory, Henry S. Keefe, Julius 
Jappe, A. C. Hanson, Christian H. Heck, Gus- 
tave Hilker, O. E. Gertenbach, H. P. Kohlmann, 
Ed. Hilker, Peter J. Myers, Thorwald Thomp- 
son, Max C. Lau, H. S. Mogensen, William G. 
Maxted, Elmer J. Knudson, Louis Peterson, 
A. J. Eisenhut, Cliff Russell, Mat Myrup, 
Robert Hurley, Axel W. Richard, E. G. H. 
Wendt, John P. Barry. This committee made 
a pei-sonal call at every residence, business 
house, office and factory, asking that the Na- 
tional Colors be displayed. 

War Gardens— A. J. Lunt, Max W. Heck, 
W. H. Reed, James Pottinger, Mesdames A. A. 
Guilbert, W. G. Rasch, and J. W. Owen, and 
the members of the city park board. This com- 






Top Row — Olaf Anderson. J. D. Christensen, J. O. Siebert, H. M. Holden. W. McK. Christensen, S. A. Titus. S. Martino. 
Second — H. F. Schulz. Alex Wolgat. John Fachko, Frank Ma nko. J. T. Saras. Francesco Brancaccio. E. H. Alstad. 
Third — J. Kurianowicz. F. Lloneo. John Sadowski. P. Yenidunian. Henry Black. Wm. Miller. Alf. Anderson. 

Fourth W. F. Wolff. Arthur Moe. Chas. Vrana. R. Maritat o. Keshan Kenasian. Mihram Dadian. Frank Higgins. 

Bottom — Nichola Riviello. Frank Maur, Vine. Cefalu. Adolp h Sopinski. H. C. Anderson. Ulgar Peterson. A. Christensen. 



mittee listed the vacant property in cities and 
towns, arranged to get permission for amateur 
gardeners to plant vegetables, and then re- 
ceived applications and assigned the lots. The 
committee provided 364 lots in 1917, 450 in 1918 
and 250 in 1919. In addition, it reported 3,427 
war gardens which were not under its supervi- 
sion. The Boy Scouts assisted in protecting 
these war gardens from theft and school chil- 
dren aided in cultivating and protecting them. 

Non-War Construction — F. Lee Norton, Her- 
bert F. Johnson and James V. Rohan. Its duty 
was to carry out the order of the War Indus- 
tries board to reduce non-essential building to 
a minimum that men and materials might be 
used for war work. As a result, construction 
work of an unnecessary nature almost entirely 
ceased until after the armistice. It was con- 
sidered unpatriotic to make repairs that could 
be postponed. As in other movements of the 
kind, the public took pride in living up to every 
suggestion of the committee. 

There were also numerous committees named 
for temporary work in connection with the 
gathering of information of all sorts for the 
state and national Councils. There was even 
a committee appointed which successfully car- 
ried out its purpose of encouraging community 
singing of patriotic airs. 

The Council secured a list of enemy owned 
property in the county; took the initiative in 
seeking a law providing for the arrest of per- 
sons circulating propaganda which might hind- 
er the successful prosecution of the war; co- 
operated in a rigid enforcement of vagrancy 
laws to stamp out idleness; kept a record of 
men in service; presented a huge Service Flag 
to the county; arranged patriotic parades on 
Memorial day, 1917 and April 13, 1918, the 
largest ever held in the county; collected cloth- 
ing for the destitute people of France; distri- 
buted posters; assisted in arranging housing 
for employes of the government (Dupont) high 
explosive plant; assisted in organizing the 
Home Guards; enrolled 400 men for the Ship- 
building board; supervised solicitation of funds, 
and discouraged all campaigns not approved 
by the state council; collected maps and pic- 
tures of localities in western Germany for use 
of the army; secured donations of field glasses 
for the navy; aided in the elimination of weeds 
and insects injurious to crops; took up the 
"soldiers' pal" movement, to insure that all 
soldiers had correspondence from home people; 
and assisted in the Americanization of foreign- 

Early in 1919 it was decided to take definite 
steps to insure the collection and preservation 

of facts and records which would show Racine 
county's part in the war. A general commit- 
tee was named, consisting of E. W. Leach, 
chairman; F. R. Starbuck, George W. Waller, 
Mrs. W. G. Rasch, W. S. Goodland and J. Z. 
Collier. Localities were represented on a sub- 
committee which included Henry Caley, A. S. 
Titus, T. H. Skewes, W. J. Hansche, Robert 
Nugent, George Ela, Albert Hanson, F. B. 
Renak, Jr., John D. Jones, Jr., Matt Lavin, 
L. C. Christenson and Clarence Beaumont. 
Mr. Leach took active charge of the work. 
He obtained a room in the public library for 
the collection of data and within ten months 
had almost completed the labor of listing all 
men and women in service, collecting photo- 
graphs and indexing newspaper files so that it 
will be simple for future seekers of knowledge 
to obtain the data and information which they 
seek. The results of his labors will be per- 
manent property of the county and will be of 
great value as the years pass. He has filed for 
reference a mass of interesting facts which 
would provide material for a dozen volumes the 
size of this. 

One of the interesting activities of the Coun- 
cil of Defense was in connection with the sup- 
pression of all pro-German talk. Information 
coming to the Council in April, 1918, of the 
meetings of the Staats verbund here, a com- 
mittee was appointed to investigate. As a re- 
sult of the disclosures regarding the society, 
the Council advised it to disband, which it did. 
The funds in the treasury was used to purchase 
Liberty bonds. 

In September there was complaint from Bur- 
lington that the Schwaebsden Saengerbund of 
Chicago had been having a three day "session" 
at Burlington, talking entirely in German and 
singing German songs. Burlington men who 
had attended the parties said the songs were 
merely drinking songs. As there was no wit- 
ness handy who could testify that the songs 
were German patriotic melodies, the matter 
was dropped. 

During the Fourth Liberty loan drive re- 
ports came in regarding disloyal talk at Water- 
ford, and a visit was paid there by representa- 
tives of the Council to warn certain German- 
Americans that they had better exercise more 

About the same time it was discovered that 
slips of paper containing poems in the German 
language were being circulated in Burlington. 
Investigation disclosed that they were the work 
of an old man entering his "second childhood" 
and the poems when translated had little or no 




Top Row — Theo. E. Beach, C. K. (Bud) Carey, C. J. Griese, H J. McKinsey, Alfred Noll, James Milner. 

Second — O. E. Seaholm. E. J. Kate. F. T. Hueller. Mathew Milkie, Fred Hansen, Nicholas Schroeder. 

Third — Wm. P. Pooch, J. I. Chour, J. J. Meyer. Andrew Wojcik, Wm. J. Swoboda, B. I. Middleton. 

Fourth — Roy L. Johnson, John J. Johnson. Louis Swoboda, Jack H. Swan, Walter Sharpinski, Reinholdt Forwark. 

Fifth — C. P. Christensen. Edward Zika, Harry James, Herb. Fel^enhauer. L. C. Alleman. Anton Fedders. 

Bottom — R. J. LaFortune, L. W. Powless, Andrew Pallesen, Nick Venetos, Roscoe Guilbert, Harry Wagner. 



As an example of the things which frequently 
came up in Council meetings, there might be 
cited the case of Miss Johnson's haylot. It 
seems that Miss Anna Johnson owned 40 acres 
in Mt. Pleasant, and the hay was not cut on 
it. Neighbors wanted to know why, and the 
usual rumors ran their course. Inquiry devel- 
oped that she had had some trouble with the 
man who usually bought the hay, and as he 
wouldn't carry out his alleged agreement she 
had decided to let the field remain uncut. She 
finally told the Council it could have it cut 
and use the proceeds as it wished. By that 
time the hay was too old for use, and the 
matter ended with an agreement that the next 
season would see the field used for adding to 
the food or forage supply of the nation. 

Another tempest in a teapot arose over a 
petition from people in the town of Raymond 
that L. C. Christensen, a member of the board, 
be asked to resign. In an effort to find out 
what was the matter, a committee was sent 
there to conduct a hearing and a large number 
of farmers appeared as witnesses. It appear- 
ed that Mr. Christensen had aroused criticism 
by his efforts to have the rules of the Council 
strictly enforced. The report of the board 
completely exonerated him. When the town 
board refused to appropriate money to carry on 
the work, the Council of Defense decided to pay 
all necessary expenses of the local branch. 

The County Council of Defense disbanded on 
August 28, 1919, after a remarkable record of 
service and usefulness. The last business was 
the turning back to the city and county the bal- 
ance of the funds on hand, and passing resolu- 

tions thanking Chairman F. Lee Norton for his 
conscientious labor in behalf of the Council. 
In responding Mr. Norton expressed his appre- 
ciation of the cooperation of the Council mem- 
bers in performing their arduous and often 
thankless tasks. 

"I know why you have done it," he concluded, 
"and you each know why. You sacrificed your 
time and your business that you might aid this 
community in doing its full share in support- 
ing our nation in carrying on the war to a 
successful conclusion. Racine county has made 
an enviable record through the work of the 
Council of Defense. Not only you gentlemen, 
but practically every citizen of the county has 
done his share. I think we are all entitled to 
feel well pleased at what was accomplished." 

During the year and a half of its existence, 
the County Council of Defense had a total of 
$14,726.60 at its disposal, $9,000 coming from 
the county treasury and $4,852.70 from the 
city. The balance was the proceeds from en- 
tertainments, interest on bank deposits and 
sale of vegetables. When the Council dis- 
banded it had money on hand, and returned it 
to the principal sources from which it came, 
'.16 to the county and $474.56 to the city. 

Most of the money spent was for advertising 
and printing; decorations; general office ex- 
penses and hall rental. The Minnesota fire suf- 
ferers were given $1500; the collection and filing 
of war history material cost $2,641, and there 
was expense of about $2,600 in connection with 
the Liberty Bond campaigns for advertising 
and luncheons for workers. 


ABOUT the middle of April, 1917, Mrs. 
/-\ F. R. Pettit obtained authority to or- 
-^ -*■ ganize in Racine a branch of the Na- 
tional League for Women's service. She called 
a meeting of women at the public library April 
26, 1917, and this group endorsed the plan and 
immediately elected officers, as follows: Chair- 
man, Mrs. F. R. Pettit; vice-chairman, Mrs. 
E. P. Kastler; Mrs. Martin Clancy and Mrs. 
D. H. Flett; Recording secretary, Mrs. John W. 
Owen; corresponding secretary. Miss Katharine 
Lewis; treasurer, Mrs. Paul Ostergaard; com- 
mittee chairman, Registi-ation, Mrs. John W. 
Owen; Social and Welfare, Mrs. E. P. Kastler; 
Red Cross Co-operation, Mrs. Emil Podlesak; 
Food Conservation, Mrs. J. Welti; Motor Serv- 
ice, Mrs. James W. Gilson. 

This was the beginning of an organization 
which eventually developed into the Women's 
Committee of the County Council of Defense, 
and as such became officially responsible for 
the organizing of the women of the county for 
whatever work might be required outside of 
the Red Cross, and for cooperation with all 
branches of the government during the war. 
Like most war-time associations, this one went 
through a period when a good deal of its en- 
ergy was exerted in trying to And out what was 
wanted of it; this being followed by strenuous 
efforts to keep up with all the tasks assigned 
to it, and then a reorganization and decentral- 
ization plan was adopted which enabled it to 
fulfill every requirement at about the time the 
first year of the war came to an end. 

The promoters of the plan realized at once 
that they could accomplish nothing without the 
support of the women of the community, and 
they first set out to ask the women's clubs to 
assist, and also to register as many individuals 
as possible who would signify their willingness 
to cooperate. 

Office rooms were obtained through the gen- 
erosity of I. Friedman, and Miss May Burgess 
was appointed chairman of the office adminis- 
tration division. In May, note was made of 

the fact that the County Council of Defense 
was willing to assist in meeting expenses of 
organization, and considerable advertising was 
done. There was a plan made to have a series 
of "mass meetings to inform women of the 
necessity for activity in war work," but this 
was called off at the suggestion of the National 
Council. It is doubtful whether it was neces- 
sary. The women merely wanted to know 
what to do. Attention was then centered upon 
the big Patriotic parade to be held on May 29, 
and which was one of the big affairs of the 
year. Nearly ten thousand men and women 
took part in it. 

The Central Council of Women, composed of 
representatives of various clubs, discontinued 
its meetings and the clubs and societies gradu- 
ally turned to the League for leadership in war 
work outside of the Red Cross activities. Sev- 
eral committees were added, including: Home 
Economics, Mrs. E. J. Stormer, chairman; Com- 
forts Committee, Mrs. Ella Lewis; Ward Or- 
ganization, Mrs. S. L. Phippen; War Orphans, 
Mrs. Stuart Webster; Baby Welfare, Mrs. 
John Reid, Jr. 

Funds were raised to provide for many 
orphaned French children, and yarn was pro- 
vided for women desiring to knit sweaters, etc., 
for men in service. On July 2 silken guidons 
were presented to Battery C and Battery F, 
prior to their leaving for mobilization camp. 

In July Mrs. Pettit resigned as chairman, 
and Council of Defense selected Mrs. John W. 
Owen to succeed her as presiding officer of 
the League and as member of the County Coun- 
cil of Defense. Mrs. Stuart Webster was 
chosen secretary. 

A committee consisting of Mrs. John Reid, 
Jr., Mrs. Harry Mann and Miss Lydia Fuller 
was appointed in July to arrange for dances 
and other entertainment for enlisted men visit- 
ing Racine. One was held in September as 
an experiment, and later on they became regu- 
lar events. The boys from the Great Lakes 



Naval Training station came in large numbers 
to attend these affairs. 

Word was received in August that the boxes 
of clothing collected for French war sufferers 
had been lost at sea when a freighter was tor- 

Following the request of the National Coun- 
cil of Defense the league c?ianged its name to 
the Women's Committee of the County Council 
of Defense in November, and became an in- 
tegral part of that organization in name as 
well as in fact. By this time the work of the 
various departments had become somewhat 
systematized and through the ward organiza- 
tions assistance was rendered to the Red Cross 
work and public movements such as the Liberty 
Loan and Savings Stamp drives. Strict at- 
tention to duty was required of members of the 
executive board and several were dropped be- 
cause of failure to attend meetings without 
sending satisfactory excuses. Among the new 
members added were: Mrs. Fred Osius, Mrs. 
Merrell, Mary L. Thomas, Mrs. B. E. Nelson, 
Miss Helen King, Mrs. E. E. Lewis, Mrs. I. B. 
Grant and Miss Helen Gorton. 

Much attention was given to the truly femi- 
nine problems of cookery and food conserva- 
tion. War recipes were prepared and distri- 
buted, canning was encouraged and various de- 
vices found and put into effect for effecting 
economies in the kitchen. While each family's 
share in this work was small, it resulted in the 
saving of millions of tons of food in America 
during the war and was a great factor in keep- 
ing all the Allied peoples and armies in com- 
parative comfort. 

On March 6. 1918. Mrs. John W. Owen re- 
signed as chairman and was succeeded by Mrs. 
Stuart Webster. As some minor difficulties 
and friction had developed by this time, as was 
natural in such a large organization with such 
a multiplicity of objects, it was decided that 
all committee chairmen should resign, and 
leave the new chairman free to entirely re- 
organize the Women's Committee. Mrs. Owen 
remained as an active member of the commit- 
tee and did remarkable work as organizer of 
the county women in the Liberty Loan drives. 

One of the innovations soon established was 
the "Thrift shop," a store where people could 
donate cast-off articles of all sorts, and have 
them sold for the benefit of the war work. 

The report of Mrs. Webster, on October 1, 
1918 six weeks before the close of the war, 
indicated the scope of the tasks accomplished. 
The committee was divided into nine major di- 
visions under a chairman, and the following 
shows the lines of work followed : 

Division 1. Ward Organization. — A general 
chairman was named in each ward, and she had 
as assistants eight department chairmen to 
carry out the work planned by the chairmen 
of the corresponding division of the Women's 
Committee. The ward chairman was respon- 
sible to the Women's Committee executive 
board for all the work done in her ward. The 
ward chairmen met each week with the execu- 
tive committee. One thousand women were 
active workers in these organizations. The 
ward chairmen and one member in each ward 
acted as sugar deputies to enforce food ad- 
ministration regulations. 

Division 2. Social Service. — This depart- 
ment studied the problems of health and re- 
creation for girls in the community, and pro- 
vided dancing parties and other clean enter- 
tainment for visiting sailors from the training 
station. It worked in hannony with the War 
Camp Community service. 

Division 3. Soldiers and Sailors Canteen. — 
Mrs. Paul Ostergaard had offered her home on 
College Avenue as a canteen in 1917, and the 
committee helped her to make it a real home 
for visiting service men, to whom "Mother" 
Ostergaard greatly endeared herself. Thous- 
ands of meals were served there in addition to 
the free distribution of lunches, cigarettes, etc. 
The Patriots fund and many citizens contri- 
buted directly to this work. 

Division 4. Thrift Shop. — This was con- 
ducted at 804 Villa Street by Mrs. J. G. Wil- 
liams. It showed a profit of more than $1000, 
part of which went to the Social Service com- 

Division 5. Home Economics. — Every effort 
was made to teach housewives the value and 
best uses of wheat substitutes, and to do all 
possible to conserve the nation's food supply. 
It urged the reduced use of sugar in baking 
and canning and various displays, lectures and 
meetings were held throughout the county in 
the interest of the movement. Mrs D. E. Cal- 
lender arranged with sixty-two merchants to 
have potato exhibits in their windows in one 
week and a great increase in the sales of this 
food was the result. A corresponding reduc- 
tion in the demand for breads resulted, the city 
bakers reported. Miss Helen Gorton arranged 
to have ministers preach on the merits of the 
potato as food. More than 19,000 women were 
supplied with literature regarding war cookery. 
About 200 women devoted many hours each 
week to the work of "winning the war through 

Division 6. Liberty Loan and Speakers 
Bureau. — Hundreds of thousands of dollars 




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were raised by this department in the drives, 
as will be shown in subsequent pages. Women 
speakers made dozens of addresses regarding 
war work throughout the county. 

Division 7. Child Welfare. — A census of 
children was taken and 90 percent of them 
were weighed and measured, 10 percent being- 
examined by physicians and nurses. Classes 
were established for mothers and newspapers, 
moving pictures and other agencies were 
utilized to interest people in child welfare as 
one of the big war time problems. 

Division 8. Motor Corps. — Twenty-one 
girls, fifteen of them driving their own cars, 
enrolled and were put in active service with 
distinctive uniforms provided. They took a 
course in automobile mechanics. They were 
at all times ready to answer calls from County 
Council of Defense, Red Cross, Home Service 
department or the secret service. They ren- 
dered most excellent service and devoted many 
hours daily to their arduous tasks. 

Division 9. Cooperation With Red Cross. — 
Through the co-operation of ward chairmen, 
this department provided the Red Cross with 
several hundred sweaters, socks, wristlets and 
knit helmets for the army and navy. 

In addition to these sustained departments, 
the members did publicity and war propaganda 
work for all phases of government work. 

On October 6, 1918, Mrs. Webster resigned 
as chairman on account of leaving the city, and 
Mrs. Robert S. Preble was chosen to carry on 
the work. Mrs. Webster was made honorary 
chairman in recognition of her excellent serv- 
ice. Mrs. Preble proved to be a very capable 
and tactful executive. 

Owing to the ban on public meetings during 
the epidemic of Spanish influenza, little work 
could be done in the following month except- 
ing relief work for the victims of the epidemic. 
The canteen was utilized to provide soup for 
sufferers and the motor corps rendered splendid 
assistance during the crisis. Clothing and bed- 
ding was gathered to aid sufferers in emer- 
gencies. A girls, bicycle corps was also or- 
ganized for messenger service. The announce- 
ment of the armistice found the Women's Com- 
mittee prepared to meet any demands that 
might be made upon it. It had already accom- 
plished great things in assisting every phase 
of civilian war work. 

The following roster gives an idea of the 
size and strength of the organization. Owing 
to occasional resignations, etc., no such list can 
be completely accurate, but it shows the ac- 
tive workers at a period shortly before the 

close of the committee's labors, during the 
chairmanship of Mrs. Preble: 

Board Members — Chairman, Mrs. R. S. Pre- 
ble, Mrs. E. P. Kastler, Mrs. Martin Clancy, 
Mrs. E. J. Stormer, Mrs. Prostrednik, Mrs. 
H. M. Wallis, Mrs. F. R. Pettit, Mrs. W. T. 
Walker, Mrs. H. G. Mitchell, Mrs. Stuart Webs- 
ter, Mrs. Paul Ostergaard, Mrs. J. G. Chandler, 
Mrs. Wm. H. Crosby, Mrs. J. B. Simmons, Mrs. 
John Reid, Jr., Mrs. J. F. Clancy, Mrs. O. W. 
Johnson, Mrs. M. M. Barnard, Mrs. H. E. Mer- 
rell, Mrs. B. E. Nelson, Miss Mary Thomas, 
Mrs. E. L. King, Mrs. John W. Owen, Miss 
Helen Gorton, Miss Arminda Wood, Miss 
Dorothy Kastler, Miss Stella Blake, Miss Mae 
Burgess, Mrs. S. L. Phippin, Mrs. F. W. Merri- 
man, Mrs. W. F. McCaughey, Mrs. N. C. Nel- 
son, Mrs. B. Talbot Rogers, Mrs. T. F. Powers, 
Mrs. Wm. Harvey, Jr., Mrs. E. W. Rapps, Miss 
Sarah Morrison, Mrs. Harry Mann, Dr. Susan 
Jones, Mrs. Wallace MacGregor, Mrs. H. F. 
Foster, Mrs. Fred Osius, Mrs. G. B. Wilson, 
Miss Hannum, Miss Kate Mehder, Miss Kate 
Shields, and Mrs. Fannie Botsford; Miss Flor- 
ence Apple, of Franksville; Mrs. Gittings, Mrs. 
O. P. Graham, Mrs. R. W. McCracken, of Union 
Grove; Miss Edith Thomas, of Caledonia; Mrs. 
Louise Smader, Mrs. Thomas Kearney, Jr., 
Mrs. F. L. Pierce Mrs. John Lutz, Mrs. W. S. 
Dooley, Miss Millie Le Prevost, Mrs. Frank 
Wtipil, Mrs. Millard S. Edmonds, Mrs. M. J. 
Goepfert, Mrs. D. Raffone, Miss Elizabeth Git- 
tings, Mrs. Arthur Ehrlich, Mrs. A. J. Eisen- 
hut, Mrs. J. Hanson, Mrs. J. O. Tobias, Miss 
Dorcas Miller, Mrs. Helen Van Arsdale Bebb, 
Mrs. J. G. Williams, Miss Martha Shelp, Mrs. 
W. C. Harvey, Mrs. Harriet Harvey, Mrs. Clin- 
ton Skewes, Mrs. John Dwight. 

The executive committee was composed of 
the following division chairmen: 

Social Service — Mrs. E. P. Kastler. 

Health and Recreation — Miss Geneva Bower. 

Canteen — Mrs. Paul Ostergaard. 

Thrift Shop— Mrs. Jack Williams. 

Juvenile Protection — Miss Kate Mehder. 

Home Economics — Mrs. Elsie Stormer. 

Child Welfare— Mrs. Willard Walker. 

Ward Organization — Miss Mae Burgess. 

Co-operating — Mrs. Jos. Prostrednik. 

Publicity — Mrs. David Grisvvold. 

Speakers Bureau — Mrs. E. E. Herrick. 

Motor Corps — Mrs. Helen Bebb. 

Women in Industry — Mrs. Arthur Ehrlich. 

Bureau of Information — Miss Hazel Buck. 

Ward Chairmen — General chairman. Miss 
Mae Burgess; First Ward, Mrs. Louise Smader; 
Second Ward, Mrs. Thomas Kearney; Third 
Ward, South Precinct, Mrs. F. H. Foster, North 



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Precinct, Mrs. L. F. Pierce; Fourth Ward, Mrs. 
Joseph Prostrednik; Fifth Ward, Mrs. John 
Lutz; Sixth Ward, Miss Millie Le Prevost; 
Seventh Ward, Mrs. Frank Wtipil; Eighth 
Ward, Mrs. M. S. Edmonds; Ninth Ward, Mrs. 
M. Goepfert; Tenth Ward, Miss Elizabeth Git- 
tings; Eleventh Ward, Mrs. Arthur Ehrlich; 
Twelfth Ward, Mrs. August Eisenhut; Thir- 
teenth Ward Mrs. Eben Burroughs; Fourteenth 
Ward, Mrs. Thomas Powers; Fifteenth Ward, 
Mrs. J. Hanson. 

Home Economics Committee — Mrs. E. J. 
Stormer, Mrs. Fred B. Stafford, Mrs. Taylor 
Jelliff, Mrs. John F. Hyde, Jr., Mrs. H. E. 
Breckenridge, Mrs. H. J. Cadwell, Mrs. Jens 
Jensen, Mrs. Whalen, Mrs. Frank Wtipil, Mrs. 
Jude, Mrs. John Erlands, Mrs. Wm. F. Kaiser, 
Miss Nan Gorton, Mrs. Frank Kammerer, Mrs. 
John Overson, Mrs. Eben Burroughs, Mrs. John 
Pugh, Jr., Mrs. Fachko, Mrs. J. O. Tobias. 

Sugar Deputies — First Ward, Mrs. Louise 
Smader, Mrs. Fred B. Stafford. 

Second Ward — Mrs. T. M. Kearney, Jr., Mrs. 
Taylor Jelliffe, Mrs. John F. Hyde, Jr. 

Third Ward— Mrs. H. F. Foster, Mrs. H .E. 
Breckenridge, Mrs. L. F. Pierce. 

Fourth Ward — Mrs. Jos. Prostrednik, Mrs. 
Albert Stoffel, Mrs. Fellows, Mrs. H. J. Cad- 

Fifth Ward — Mrs. John H. Lutz, Mrs. Jens 
Jensen, Mrs. Christ Larsen, Mrs. Wm. Dittman. 

Sixth Ward — Miss Millie Le Prevost, Mrs. 
Arthur Wilkins, Miss Margaret Seater, Mrs. 

Seventh Ward — Mrs. Frank Wtipil, Mrs. Gus 
Derrick, Mrs. John Konnak, Mrs. Nicholas 

Eighth Ward— Mrs. M. S. Edmonds, Mrs. 
Harold Smith, Mrs. Clarence Ticknor, Mrs. 
Sherman Blandin, Mrs. A. J. Fatten. 

Ninth Ward— Mrs. M. J. Goepfert, Mrs. 
Wm. F. Kaiser, Mrs. F. L. Mitchell. 

Tenth Ward— Miss Elizabeth F. Gittings, 
Mrs. F. A. Botsford, Miss Nan Gorton. 

Eleventh Ward — Mrs. Arthur Ehrlich, Mrs. 
Thomas Hay, Mrs. Frank Kammerer. 

Twelfth Ward— Mrs. A. J. Eisenhut, Mrs. 
John Overson. 

Thirteenth Ward — Mrs. Eben Burroughs, 
Mrs. Harriet Harvey, Mrs. S. W. Chamberlin, 
Mrs. George Due. 

Fourteenth Ward — Mrs. Thomas Powers, 
Mrs. John Pugh, Jr., Mrs. Fachko. 

Fifteenth Ward — Mrs. J. Hanson, Mrs. J. O. 

County Territory — Mrs. Wm. Osborne, Mrs. 
C. B. Washburn, Mrs. Thomas Harcus, Mrs. 
S. B. Walker, Mrs. R. W. McCracken, Mrs. 
Wesley Shepard, Mrs. Bullis, Mrs. Hawkins, 
Miss Flora Apple, Mrs. Dessie Wishau, Mrs. A. 
Lawer, Mrs. Clint Ellis, Mrs. C. G. Fancher, 
Mrs. Frank Fost, Iva Ives, Mrs. Mogenson, 
Mrs. George Smith, Miss Edith Carmen, Dr. 

Child Welfare — Mrs. Willard T. Walker, 
Chairman; Mrs. Louise Smader, Mrs. P. H. 
Batton, Miss Mooney and Mrs. John Powers, 
Mrs. Mrvicka, Mrs. John H. Lutz Miss Millie 
LeProvost, Mrs. Frank Wtipil, Mrs. George 
Peterson, Mrs. Goepfert, Miss Borne, Mrs. 
Arthur Ehrlich, Mrs. M. Nelson, Mrs. Harriet 
Harvey, Mrs. W. P. Marr, Mrs. Diem. 

Speakers Bureau — Mrs. E. E. Herrick, Chair- 
man; Miss Medora Roskilly, Miss Rose Webbers, 
Miss Louise Springhorn, Miss Rosa Pope, Mrs. 
Clarence Adams, Mrs. E. A. Cornwell, Mrs. 
George Van Wie, Mrs. I. B. Grant, Mrs. F. L. 
Stafford, Mrs. J. W. Owen, Mrs. J. W. Carter, 
Mrs. W. F. McCaughey, Miss Perkins, Mrs. 
W. H. Reed, Miss Ethel Estberg. 

Publicity Committee — Mrs. David Griswold, 
Chairman; Mrs. M. M. Barnard, Mrs. Wm. 
Harvey, Jr., Mrs. W. F. MacGregor, Mrs. Harry 
Wilson, Mrs. W. F. McCaughey, Miss Hannun, 
Miss Wratten, Miss Lucy McCaughey, Mrs. 
Helen Haight. 

Knitting Chairmen — Mrs. Louise Smader, 
Mrs. George Miller, Mrs. E. A. Taylor, Mrs. 
Charles Miller, Mrs. George Gates, Mrs. Gay- 
lord Shephard, Mrs. Clara Ticknor, Mrs. Louise 
Nelson, Mrs. Charles Nelson, Mrs. Mills, Mrs. 
B. Talbot Rogers, Mrs. LaPogevin. 

Girls Motor Corps — Helen Van Arsdale Bebb, 
Major, Dorcas Miller, Captain; Helen Knight 
Townsend, First Lieutenant; Lucy McCaughey, 
Second Lieutenant; Pearl Trumbull, Hildegard 
Bauman, Helen Merriman, June Dietrich, Agnes 
Clancy, Alice Clancy, Josephine Carroll, Henri- 
etta Fuller, Bernice Greene, Margaret Breed, 
Florence Miller, Margaret Flett, Majorie Pauli, 
Marjorie Morey, Mrs. Opitz, Luella Ray, Zelda 
Stoffel, Alice Wackerhagen, Anna Van Arsdale, 
and Mrs. Arthur Ehrlich, Mrs. Walton Miller, 
Mrs. Willard T. Walker, Reserve List. 

Bicycle Corps — Mrs. Helen Van Arsdale 
Bebb, chairman; Catherine Rugh, Beth Davies, 
Florence Mainland, Mildred Lewis, Betty Rus- 
sell, Jean MacGregor, Anona Driver, Sophia 
Wiegand, Letitia Rabe, Edna Gunther, lona 
Johnson, Jeanette Tooman, Ruth Kisterous, 
Pearl Wickern, Delta Sorenson, Lorrian Olle, 
Anna Margaret Clifford, Polly Lewis, Julie 




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Cahoon, Katherine Dietrich, Collene Smith, 
Jean Murphy, Marjorie Alschuler, Katherine 
Ramsey; Reserve List, Florence Held, Lorraine 
Hunt, Rebecca Ellis, Jean Barnes, Isabella 
Hamilton, Josephine Dietrich, Katherine Marr, 
Beth Bloom. 

Juvenile Protective Division — Miss Rosa 
Pope, Henrietta Wiechers, Sena Jensen, Ada 
Briggs, Margaret Eaton, Mrs. Archer, Gertrude 

Fratt, Louise Jensen, Maud Wolcott, Madeline 
Sieger, Mrs. M. GriflFith, Mrs. Goepfert, Miss 
Ruth Beckus, Miss Minnie Veth, Mrs. Miller, 
Miss Gertrude Hanson, Helen Blythe, Nettie 
Meljinek, Mrs. Margaret Anderson, Miss Lillian 
N. Sharp, Mesdames J. F. Clancy, Gruhn, 
Gaffey, George Gorton, Henry Hall, Miss Mat- 
tie Hermes, Jennie Hanson, Nellie Jones, Dr. 
Susan Jones, Miss Bertha Morgan, Anna Neit- 
zel, Mrs. Phippen, Mrs. H. C. Severance, Mrs. 
H. M. Wallis. 


DETECTIVE stories have a fascination 
for most red-blooded people. Some day 
the full story of the secret service work 
of the American government in war time may 
be published. That it will be intensely inter- 
esting is beyond any question. 

Just as the voluntary organization of ex- 
emption boards throughout the country made 
the successful operation of the selective service 
law possible within a short time, so a volun- 
tary society of American business and profes- 
sional men, serving without pay and receiving 
not even public credit for their work, perform- 
ed the work of seeking for enemy agents; aid- 
ing draft boards; discounting enemy propa- 
ganda; enforcing the laws against sabotage 
and espionage; investigating the character of 
applicants for military and civil offices, and 
performing numerous other functions generally 
placed in the hands of the investigation division 
of the United States Department of Justice. 

The name of this organization of civilian 
agents was the American Protective League. 
It had 300,000 active members in the country. 
It had half a hundred local agents in Racine 
county. It was the "eyes and ears of the gov- 
ernment." A. Bruce Bielaski, chief of the 
bureau of investigation. Department of Jus- 
tice, declares that the United States was the 
best policed country engaged in the war, and 
that in spite of the fact that the outbreak of 
the war found the government with only a few 
score operatives in the secret service branch. 

The national organizers and directors of this 
league were A. M. Briggs, Charles D. Frey and 
Victor Elting. They got into communication 
with a few men of prominence and of un- 
questioned loyalty in each state. These men 
were asked to head a state division of the lea- 
gue. The state was then divided into local 
districts and a man chosen in each to act as 
local chief. He was told of the purposes of the 
organization and asked to name an assistant 
chief, and half a dozen captains who would be 
in charge of the operatives. Each captain then 

recommended names of from ten to twenty 
operatives and a lieutenant or two. If they 
were approved by the chief, they were given 
necessary instructions and credentials after 
taking the oath of service. 

This work of organization proceeded very 
rapidly. Soon every important county in the 
country had representatives at work. The op- 
peratives and local officers reported to the 
local chief. In many instances the operatives 
knew no members of the league other than 
those in his own squad. 

The local chief reported directly to the gov- 
ernment department of justice office in his 
district, or to the national headquarters of 
the league at Washington, according to the na- 
ture of the matter in hand. Mail and tele- 
grams were franked. The league's telephone 
messages to headquarters took priority over 
all private calls. 

It is a matter of regret that the membership 
of the Racine organization cannot be made 
public even yet. The chief is a prominent 
business man whose connection with the league 
was quite generally known or suspected. Some 
of the operatives were known as a result of 
their activities in specific cases. But many of 
the most effective workers were men in shops, 
or even members of alien societies and clubs 
whose efficiency was due to the fact that their 
connection with the league was never suspect- 
ed. Some allowed themselves to become ob- 
jects of suspicion. It is contrary to the policy 
of the government to permit publication of 
names of persons engaged in such work. 

The work of the American Protective league 
was second in importance only to the military 
branches of the service themselves. 

A brief recital of conditions at America's 
entry into the war will explain the necessity 
for a large secret service force of some kind 
in this country. 

For three years the German and Austrian 
governments had been attempting to prevent 
the Allies from purchasing supplies in niutral 



nations. The legality of such sales could not 
be questioned under international law, but the 
Central Powers were proceeding on the prin- 
ciple that necessity knows no law. When the 
submarine blockade, so-called, did not prevent 
these shipments from reaching England and 
France, it was decided to have secret agents 
destroy machinery, burn factories and ships, 
create discord among workmen, "corner" raw 
material and interfere with transportation 
service. This disregai-d for the rights of a 
friendly people was one of the causes of our 
entry into the war. 

In our own population were many families of 
German birth or descent who sympathized 
with the Fatherland to some degree early in 
the war, and most of them had been taught 
from childhood to hate Great Britain and 
France. When the Central Powers appeared 
to be gaining a military victory, they were 
pleased and said so. While not entirely proper 
in a neutral country like ours, there was no 
way of preventing this. The right of free 
speech is guaranteed to all in times of peace. 
Funds were raised for German Red Cross work 
and for German charities in America, just 
as they were for French and Belgian charities. 
This sort of thing tended to solidify the Ger- 
man-American element and encouraged many 
of them to express openly their hopes for a 
German victory in the war. When America 
was forced into the war, this situation im- 
mediately assumed a grave character. Those 
who had been shouting for Germany did not 
feel like changing their tune at once. Besides 
those who were actually enemies at heart, and 
perhaps under pay of the German govern- 
ment, there were many who were on record 
as being anxious to see the Kaiser victorious. 

It was essential that reports be made upon 
every one of these men and women; that the 
traitors and spies be jailed or interned; that 
other pro-Germans be warned and made to 
keep quiet; that the many rumors about Ger- 
man-Americans be investigated and the truth 
sifted from the falsehoods. It was, obviously, 
too big a job for the small secret service force. 
It was also realized that there would be soon a 
tremendous work in sight in connection with 
the enforcement of the selective service law 
and registration of aliens. 

When the American Protective league offered 
its service to the Department of Justice, the 
offer was accepted. As a result, they later put 
on the job a quarter of a million high-class, 
intelligent men eminently suited for the work, 
and yet they were the sort who in ordinary 
circumstances could never have been hired by 

the government. Their accomplishments more 
than justified the confidence placed in them. 

Operatives scattered in every shop and office, 
in hotels and banks, working on railroads and 
boats, and members of lodges and societies, 
quickly made reports on all seditious utter- 
ances. They investigated complaints against 
alleged German sympathizers. They passed 
upon the loyalty of all candidates for commis- 
sions and government positions. They traced 
to their source the numerous stories circulated 
with intent to injure the morale of army and 
citizens. They prepared evidence regarding 
suspects. They inquired into the business of 
men travelling from place to place for mysteri- 
ous purposes. They unearthed the names of 
all who had contributed to German war work, 
and of German reservists in America. 

When their facts were assembled and writ- 
ten — and only provable facts were accepted — 
they transmitted them through their local 
chiefs to the governmental agencies. The 
chief often added his recommendation as to 
desirable action. The government then con- 
cluded the case — procured an indictment, re- 
leased a suspect, published facts to counteract 
some enemy lie, interned an enemy alien, or 
continued the investigation through other chan- 
nels, as the case might be. The league mem- 
bers did not make arrests; they gathered evi- 

Aside from the actual work done the league 
had a tremendous effect upon enemy activities 
in this country because it soon became appar- 
ent that the government had "eyes and ears" 
everywhere; that it was dangerous to indulge 
in seditious remarks anywhere. No one knew 
who the federal agents were, but it was evident 
that they were numerous and in every conceiv- 
able place. 

The reports sent out from the Racine branch 
to the department of justice were numbered in 
the hundreds. A few examples of the duties 
of operatives may be cited: 

A circular from headquarters asked all local 
operatives to be on the lookout for a foreigner 
wanted elsewhere. He was suspected of seek- 
ing information in factories making products 
for the government. It was found that this 
man had been in Racine, stopping at a local 
hotel. The suspect had paid a bill with a 
check. Inquiry at a bank here showed he had 
deposited $5000 in a lump at that bank. The 
league arranged to watch that account. A few 
days later a check for the total balance was 
drawn on the local bank in favor of a bank in 
an Ohio manufacturing town. The local league 
chief notified the department of justice. It 



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notified the Ohio league agents. They located 
the man and put him under surveillance. Evi- 
dence was found that he was using the money 
for bribing employes of factories engaged in 
war work. The secret service was given the 
evidence. They siezed the man. His fate is 
not known here. The ultimate outcome of but 
few cases was known to the league members, 
as the government did not often report results 
to the organization. 

Late in July 1918, the league branches were 
told to take steps to round up all slackers and 
draft evaders; to carry out the "work or fight" 
rule. The Racine branch chose thirty citizens 
to act as squad captains, and one hundred state 
guardsmen and fifty Spanish War veterans to 
assist. They were summoned quietly to the 
court house, and the squads formed. The three 
companies of men supposed they were to take 
part in a parade to greet a visiting notable. 

On the night of August 3, all these men were 
ordered to report at the Lakeside auditorium. 
Thirty automobiles were waiting near the junc- 
tion, supposedly to meet a delegation of Great 
Lakes Jackies and band. The raiding squads 
were told that they were to pick up slackers. 
Each squad had certain blocks in which to oper- 
ate. All instructions were given quietly. The 
autos then came to the auditorium, picked up 
the raiders and carried them to their scenes of 
operation. Within fifteen minutes the round- 
up had commenced. Every man of draft age 
who did not have a registration card with him 
was taken to the auditorium. There he was 
examined, and if he could not produce proof 
of his identity and of being properly register- 
ed, he was required to produce the necessary 
witnesses or was turned over to the police. 

Many humorous and semi-tragic incidents 
occurred. For several days the newspapers 
had carried notices that all men within the 
draft age should carry their cards with them 
at all times, so no excuses were accepted. 
Men coming from theaters were taken away 
from the sides of girls they had escorted. One 
man stepped from an automobile containing 
his wife and baby, to do some shopping. He 
was nabbed and unable to return to his 
waiting and much worried spouse for nearly 
two hours. A blonde young man wept copious- 
ly as he told the investigators that he was "in 
bad" with his wife and had only been allowed 
to go down town that evening on his promise 
to be back at 10 o'clock. He feared he never 
would be allowed to go out of the house alone 
again. He didn't get home until midnight, but 
a league representative went with him to ex- 
plain to the wife that her recreant husband had 

not been carousing but was "engaged in gov- 
ernment business and unavoidably detained." 

Out of 1500 men rounded up that night, 
seventeen were put in the custody of the police 
as slackers, suspects or unregistered citizens. 

Congress provided the Department of Jus- 
tice with efficient instruments when it passed 
the espionage act and the anti-sabotage act. 
These made it a crime to assist an enemy, talk 
against the government, discourage enlist- 
ments, interfere or attempt to prevent bond 
sales, attempt to prevent manufacture of goods 
needed by the government in the war, interi-upt 
transportation service, or otherwise hamper 
the carrying on of the war. With these defi- 
nite laws on the books, the operations of enemy 
sympathizers slowed down to a marked de- 
gree, and it was possible to promptly arrest 
and punish violators. Reports were made on 
the character and activities of almost every- 
one in Racine suspected of enemy sympathies. 
These reports were favorable to the suspect in 
many cases, but frequently they resulted in 
having the man called "on the carpet," at Mil- 
waukee or Chicago and warned by a United 
States district attorney as to what was ex- 
pected of him. In a few instances Germans or 
Austrians were taken from the city in custody 
of secret service agents and never returned 

A fruitful source of information relative to 
men's views on the war was the reports from 
civilian committees selling government securi- 
ties — Liberty Bonds and Savings Stamps. Fre- 
quently men would supplement their refusal to 
buy bonds with some remark to the effect that 
they didn't "propose to give money to help 
England oppress poor Germany," or that 
"America has no business in this war." Oc- 
casionally boys who were planning to enlist 
would repeat the story of how some one ad- 
vised them not to enter the army or navy "be- 
cause Germany was sure to win, and American 
transports were certain to be sunk." All these 
things were followed up to see whether the 
man making the comment was inspired by real 
feelings of treachery to America, or whether 
he merely had expressed himself more em- 
phatically than was intended, due to some 
temporary excitement. 

Enemy propaganda was the most difficult 
thing with which to deal. No satisfactory 
method could be found to reach it without cur- 
tailing freedom of press and speech. Warn- 
ings from the department of justice generally 
had a salutary effect upon persons circulating 
harmful stories. 

The Protective league did its share in con- 





trolling the menace of I. W .W. agitators and 
a few other anarchistic and revolutionary 
workers during the course of the war. Such 
menaces could be reached only through some 
such organization, which would be able to 
place agents on the inside of secret societies 
and gain the confidence of the promoters. Af- 
ter this was done, the task of scattering the 
members and breaking up their organizations 
was not impossible. 

The American Protective league remained in 
effect after the armistice. It was disbanded 
officially on February 1, 1919, when it received 
the thanks of the department of justice and 
the military intelligence department of the 
army. Most of the members will never receive 
any public acknowledgment of their valuable 
work. At the most they will only have as 
souvenirs the little badges which were used in 
emergencies to identify the wearers to mem- 
bers of police departments or government 
secret service bureaus. These agencies placed 
full confidence in the league and acted hand in 
hand with it. 

The national directors, in closing the affairs 
of the league stated in part: 

"The mainspring of action of the American 
Protective league has been voluntary subordi- 
nation to authority, and strength rather than 
weakness has developed. The unquestioning 
perfoi-mance of arduous tasks; the cheerful ac- 
ceptance of rulings on debatable questions of 
policy and the complete self-effacement of 
most of the members contribute an inspiring 
chapter to the league's work in the war. We 
admire beyond words the spirit that endured 
in silence when everywhere about was the ex- 
citement of work in the open, crowned with 
public praise. Other citizen leaders and work- 
ers were known in their communities and re- 
warded with open gratitude of their neighbors. 
Others marched with waving flags or spoke 
from the public platform. Not so with mem- 
bers of the league. So far as their daily work 
in the public view was concerned, their lives 
gave no answer to the question, 'What are they 
doing to win the war?' But their spirit en- 
dured and they should have the thanks of a 
grateful country." 

The very fact that unseen forces were busy 
in Racine to root up enemy works and silence 
enemy advocates was sufficient to start the 
"rumor factories" working overtime. Almost 
the first week of the war, stories spread like 
wild fire affecting the avirful fate of certain 
prominent citizens of German extraction. So 
rapidly did these tales spread that there was 
no chance to stop them. In April, 1917, a man 

went to Milwaukee to buy a suit of clothes. 
He returned the same evening, and before he 
reached home had been told by no less than 
seven persons of a generally-credited report 
that he had been taken to Ft. Leavenworth 
prison that afternoon by agents of the govern- 

A real estate man with relatives in Germany 
finally had to ask the assistance of the news- 
papers in squelching a tale to the effect that he 
had been "beaten to a pulp" for expressing 
pro-German sentiments and was even then un- 
der arrest awaiting trial for his life as a spy. 

During the war rumors constantly sprang up 
regarding the fate of soldiers in France. At 
one time, the story spread over night that Bat- 
tery F had been wiped out in one day's fight- 
ing near Chateau-Thierry and it was a long 
time before parents of boys in the battery were 
entirely convinced that there was no basis for 
a story which was retold by hundreds. Mail 
service was so slow to France that similar 
stories had plenty of time to go the rounds 
before they could be disproved. Use of cables 
for private messages was almost entirely pro- 
hibited and the censorship made news dis- 
patches generally indefinite when dealing with 
the identity of units in action. 

Along in May, 1917, a report became cur- 
rent that a certain Racine man who was bom 
in Germany, was preparing to raise a regiment 
of his former comrades and march against 
Canada. The story gathered momentum as it 
travelled, until it carried such details as the 
point of rendezvous for his troopers near the 
Canadian border; the amount he was paying 
for horses with which to equip his cavalry 
troop; the hiding place of old army rifles and 
shot guns with which he would arm his forces, 

When someone finally confronted him with 
all these "facts" and denounced him as a traitor 
in our midst, he was probably the most as- 
tounded man in the community. He had never 
heard a single whisper of the story until it 
was put up to him in the most damning form, 
with all details complete and seemingly accur- 
ate. Fortunately he was able to prove his in- 
nocence of the charge. It is doubtful if his 
accuser would have been satisfied with the 
mere knowledge that the old gentleman was 
in no physical condition to ride from here to 
Canada, much less to mount a fiery steed and 
lead his army across the country to attack 

One of the interesting incidents with the 
rumors about enemy activities had as its hero, 
or victim, no less a personage than Mayor 
















T. W. Thiesen of Racine. Mayor Thiesen was 
in New York when the two local batteries re- 
ceived order to board the transport Leviathan 
on March 4, 1917. Troop movements were sup- 
posed to be kept secret, of course, and the fact 
that the 57th Field artillery brigade was to 
sail that day was not known to many persons 
outside of Camp Merritt. 

The Leviathan was a big ship, however, and 
it had a big crew. It was known in New York 
city that she was in the Hoboken slip across 
the river and was the object of great interest 
to passengers on the ferries. The fact that she 
was to sail that week was quite generally 
known throughout the city, because even sail- 
ors talk sometimes. The writer, for one, was 
told by a total stranger on the streets of New 
York that the transport would sail on March 
3 or 4. 

Mayor "Bill" Thiesen was told by some of 
the people at the camp that the 121st F. A. 
was to go on the boat. He was asked not to 
say anything about it until they left, and he 
agreed, or course. 

The day of sailing came. Battery C had 
embarked March 2 and Battery F on March 3, 
and on March 4 the great vessel backed out of 
the slip, and steamed down the bay past the 
Statue of Liberty, while thousands upon thou- 
sands of men and women cheered her from of- 
fice windows, ferry boats and housetops along 
the shore. Aeroplanes escorted her, whistling 
tugs accompanied her for a ways, and an ob- 
servation balloon preceded her, high in the air. 
Early in the afternoon the Leviathan was out 
of sight beyond the eastern horizon. That 
night Mayor Thiesen decided that he owed it 
to the anxious parents and friends of the Ra- 
cine soldiers to let them know that the boys 
had sailed, for the rules prohibited them notify- 
ing their parents in advance. He could see no 
harm in doing so then, as the facts were well 
known by everyone in New York. 

He therefore sent three telegrams to Racine 
telling of the batteries' departure. They were 
addressed to city officials, and one suggested 
that the newspapers be informed of the big 
news next day. They were. 

Then the storm broke. Someone suggested 
that the Germans, reading the news, would 
send a submarine out to sink the Leviathan. 
Everyone knew the Germans would do it if 
they could, and didn't stop to think that all the 
German agents in New York saw the ship sail 
twenty-four hours before anybody in Racine 
heard of it and they could communicate with 
Berlin rather more easily than a spy could from 

It was reported that the telegrams from the 
Mayor were signed with various names. This 
was substantiated. One had been signed "Bill," 
one "Thiesen" and one "Prexy," a nickname ac- 
quired by Mr. Thiesen when he was president 
of the city school board. Added to all this evi- 
dence was the undoubted fact that the mayor 
was of German parentage. 

When Mr. Thiesen arrived home, expecting 
to cheer up the soldiers' parents by telling how 
nicely the boys got away on their long journey, 
he was met with icy stares. Argument avail- 
ed nothing. The fact that the sailing of the 
Leviathan was public knowledge all over the 
country didn't help him. That he was one of 
the most patriotic of war workers couldn't off- 
set his German name. The fact that almost 
everybody in town was in the habit of calling 
him by one or another of the names signed to 
the telegrams could not discount the statement 
that the use of those different signatures "look- 
ed mighty suspicious." 

A Racine man wrote a highly colored account 
of the matter to the United States district at- 
torney. The mayor heard of it and hastened 
to Chicago prepared to be thrown in jail as a 
spy. He related the whole story frankly. He 
was told to return home and "forget your trou- 
ble; we don't want you." 

But it will be a long time before "Bill" Thie- 
sen forgets the outcome of his efforts to spread 
good cheer and comfoi-t to the friends of the 
Battery boys. 

"If the U-boats had ever sunk the Leviathan, 
I would have been strung up to a lamp post 
before I could have said a word," said Mr. 
Thiesen a year later in recounting the episode. 
"I don't know yet how they figured that there 
could be anything suspicious in my perfectly 
plain telegrams, which were accepted without 
question by the government telegraph company 
at New York, but I guess some people thought 
the messages proved me to be the head of the 
enemy intelligence service in America." 

Nothing was more significant of the tense 
nerves of the nation than the uncanny speed 
with which rumors of tragedies and catastro- 
phes spread from coast to coast, from the 
Canadian border to the gulf. 

All that was necessary was for some person 
to pass some remark, such as "I guess that 
tuberculosis is taking a heavy toll of lives 
among the soldiers in France," and if two or 
three persons heard it, the idea would gain 
ground until within a week almost everyone in 
the United States would be repeating the 
s.ory of terrible lists of deaths as gospel truth, 
whether there was any foundation for it or not. 





There is hardly a person today who does not 
remember the story that a shipload of Belgian 
children had arrived in New York, all of them 
with one or both hands cut off by Germans. 
The government press bureau declared that the 
source of the story could not be traced, al- 
though hundreds of intelligence officers and 
A. P. L. agents tried to locate its origin. There 
is a question whether any Belgian children ever 
had their hands cut off by Germans. If they 
did, they probably died as a result. None 
came to America. 

There was a rumor current that hundreds of 
American soldiers had returned minus both 
legs and both arms and that, classified as 
"basket cases" because they were kept in a 
sort of clothes basket arrangement, the grue- 
some company occupied one entire floor of a 
New York hospital. Plenty of people had 
"talked with those who had seen them." But 
no such case was ever recorded in the annals 
of the army medical department during the 
war. To a person who took time to think about 

it, there would seem little chance for a soldier 
who was thus injured on the battlefield to 
survive even long enough to be put in a basket. 

Almost every civilian in the country "knew 
a friend who saw" trainloads of Japanese soldi- 
ers going across this country on their way to 
France. But none ever went. 

In regions from which certain army divisions 
came, there would come occasional reports that 
entire organizations were drowned at sea or 
killed in battle. The war department felt 
morally bound to deny these fabrications. 
These were the only "wireless rumors" which 
the government felt might have eminated from 
enemy agents. The purpose may have been to 
get the government to disclose the location of 
organizations in order to correct the false- 
hoods. This would have given the foe valu- 
able military information. If this was the 
plan, it failed as the location of units was never 
given until it was known that the Germans 
were aware of the fact through other sources. 



THE Legal Advisory Boards and the as- 
sociate legal advisers appointed to as- 
sist the boards, performed one of the 
most important tasks in connection with the 
administration of the Selective Service Law. 

The legal adage that "ignorance of the law 
excuses no one" could not, as a general proposi- 
tion, be applied to the execution of the provi- 
sions of this law. After a few months it was 
realized that a law applying alike to literate 
and illiterate, and the success of which de- 
pended upon the promptness with which the 
registrants complied with its provisions, could 
be successfully enforced only by careful in- 
struction of the people as to its requirements. 
The American Bar Association volunteered 
to assist in finding the remedy for the draft 
boards' troubles, and within one week an- 
nouncement was made that in every state a 
central board of attorneys had been created, 
and that within a few days each county would 
have a committee of attorneys known as the 
Legal Advisory Board, who would see that ev- 
ery registrant had an opportunity to obtain 
competent legal advice regarding the law. free 
of charge. 

The bar associations took a firm stand 
against any lawyer charging fees for any 
service in connection with the draft law, af- 
ter the Legal Advisory Board was created. 
Claimants for exemption were not permitted 
to appear by counsel, as a general thing. 

It was so arranged that men could take the 
somewhat complicated questionnaire to one of 
these advisers and get all necessary assistance 
in filling it out. Offices were opened for this 
purpose in each draft district. 

As a result, the draft boards had but little 
difficulty in sorting over and classifying the 
questionnaires and they were relieved of the 
endless labor which would have been the result 
if each registrant had descended upon the 
board to have things explained to him. 

Legal Advisory Boards were consulted rela- 
tive to legislation affecting the selective serv- 

ice act. They gave advice to the various war 
work organizations. They cooperated with 
local boards in effecting the rectification of 
classifications in May, 1918 when it was seen 
that Class I was not as large as it had been 
anticipated. In September, 1918, they were 
confronted with a task equal to all they had 
accomplished before when the new registra- 
tion brought forth thousands of new regis- 

The legal advisory board appointed for Ra- 
cine county consisted of Peter J. Myers, Fulton 
Thompson and George W. Waller. 

The associate members of the board were: 
Racine — O. E. Ahrens, M. Armen, H. N. Bacon, 
Rev. J. M. Bach, John C. Barry, Thorwald Beck, 
Arthur N. Bell, A. J. Berg, Charles O. Beach, 
Guy A. Benson, C. O. Bergener, E. B. Belden, 
J. F. Bickel, M. C. Bidwell, A. E. Black, George 
S. Bliss, Helen L. Blythe, George H. Bolton, 
John Breese, J. H. Brannum, R. E. Browne, 
Dr. C. F. Browne, George L. Buck, E. E. 
Cahoon, Rev. J. W. Carter, Charles V. Carter, 
George N. Case, W. H. Carpenter, Martin 
Christiansen, Jens A. Christensen, Nels Chris- 
tensen, W. S. Coley, H. G. Cowles, S. E. Craig, 
George G. Dana, William C. Davis, Joseph 
Domanik, Frank F. Dunse, H. F. Edmands, 
M. S. Edmonds, W. M. Edmonds, Arthur Ehr- 
lich, George N. Ellefson, S. L. Emmett, John O. 
Erlands, Malcolm E. Erskine, John B. Ettel- 
dorf, E. L. Evans, Thomas A. Fagan, David H. 
Flett, Jerome J. Foley, Fred H. Foster, Leslie 
M. Fowler, Russell Frank, E. F. Freeman, 
H. C. Freeman, H. G. Fyhrie, W. C. Gausch, 
John A. Gemmill, C. C. Gittings, Elmer E. 
Gittins, E. H. Glantz, H. Goldsworthy, Frank S. 
Gordon, Arthur Haas, R. G. Harvey, H. V. 
Harvey, E. B. Hand, Edward J. Hate, Frank 
L. Haven, Max W. Heck, T. S. Hegard, E. J. 
Herrington, Fred J. Hermes, Geo. H. Herzog, 
H. E. Hinkle, John C. Hood, W. F. Hood, Josiah 
Hocking, Knud Holland, H. G. Hulett, Chas. O. 
Jandl, A. R. Janecky, Arthur R. Janes, Sophus 
Jeppesen, Arthur N. Jerstad, O. W. Johnson, 



P. E. Johnson, A. Gary Judd, Thomas M. Kear- 
ney, Thomas M. Kearney, Jr., Henry S. Keefe, 
George H. Kehl, Roswell P. Kelley, A. W. 
Koerner, H. M. Koelbel, Martin P. Koke, E. J. 
Kraft, Isadore Krasnow, Charles Krenzke, 
Prof. Lannerd, A. R. Laube, E. R. Lehman, 
H. D. Mann,, W. F. MacGregor, Leo C. Maut- 
ner, W. F. McCaughey, Walton H. Miller, 
Frank G. Miller, Louis Mogenson, F. A. Morey, 
P. W. Morrissey, H. J. Mueller, A. J. Nack, 
Rev. J. M. Naughtin, J. C. NeCollins, Harry 
F. Nehoda, F. P. Nelson, Sophus Nelson, N. C. 
Nelson, C. R. Nevin, Rev. C. S. Nickerson, B. F. 
Nield, Charles O'Connor, J. B. Overson, John 
W. Owen, Walter C. Palmer, Edward J. Parker, 
Joseph J. Patrick, L. A. Pease, P. Walter Pet- 
erson, Al. Pfister, T. J. Pryce, William H. 
Pugh, Lewis J. Quinn, Walter H. Reed, E. F. 
Reitmeier, Edward N. Rice, J. A. Ritt, J. V. 
Rohan, C. S. Roherty, John D. Rowland, L. H. 
Rowlands, John E. Schelling, Simon H. Sauter, 
William Smieding, Robert J. Statz, J. W. 
Spenee, A. M. Schneider, W. F. Schimming, 
Arthur Simonson, Rev. V. Slavinas, John 
Preston Smith, L. W. Smith, Walter S. Smalen- 
ski, Viggo Sorenson, T. W. Stewart, F. B. 
Swingle, W. D. Thompson, Jack Verfuth, Dr. 
P. T. Van Ornum, Harry C. Voss, Mortimer 
Walker, Warren H. Walker, D. C. Washburn, 
Vilas H. Whaley, J. E. Wilson, W. J. William- 
son, A. B. Wilty, John A. Wood, Julius J. 
Wosilait, Edward L. Wratten. 

Burlington — Joseph T. Groff, John T. Git- 
tings, H. W. Halbach, T. Parker Hilbome, 
R. H. Fitch, Mattie E. Karcher, Fred W. Kemp- 
er, G. F. Meredith, Herbert A. Moussa, Henry 
Plucker, William Sanders, F. H. Schwaller, 
George E. Stickney, George W. Waller, How- 
ard A. Wood, E. J. Wehmhoff, K. A. Stimpson, 
Louis H. Zimmerman. 

Waterford — Charles E. Apple, Fred Cooper, 
Max T. Huber, Richard K. Manaton, Raymond 
McCrory, A. J. Smith. 

Union Grove — John T. Asby, Henry Barnes, 
Anthony N. Erz, W. E. Stone. 

In Racine there were from fifteen to twenty- 
five of these men on hand at the court house, 
and as many at the city hall, all day and until 
10 o'clock every evening. The courts adjourn- 
ed for weeks at a time so attorneys would be 
free to perform these tasks and so that court 
rooms could be used for headquarters. At times 
one or two hundred men would be lined up 
awaiting advice from the hard working board 
members and numbered cards were given out 
to them so they would be sure to keep their 
proper place in line. Some members of the 

board devoted almost all of their time to this 
work, without any reward. 

Offices were established for the board mem- 
bers in most of the large factories so the em- 
ployes could get the necessary assistance with- 
out going down town. With every question- 
naire mailed to a registrant went a letter of 
instructions showing where he could get free 
counsel in regard to the manner of filling it 

The board fulfilled an arduous duty well, and 
its labors went far toward making the suc- 
cessful administration of the draft law possi- 
ble. Perhaps no single factor outside of the 
draft boards themselves was as important. 

The Medical Advisory Board was created in 
each community to examine physically those 
registrants whose claims for exemption had 
been appealed by the registrant, a government 
appeal agent or the local board. The boards 
were made up of specialists in various branches 
of medicine and surgery, and to them were re- 
ferred doubtful cases of registrants who had, 
or claimed to have, obscure physical defects. 
The members served without compensation at 
considerable sacrifice to themselves. Natural- 
ly, their work was of incalculable value to the 
draft boards. The Racine county Medical Ad- 
visory Board consisted of Dr. J. S. Keech, W. 
P. Collins, W. S. Haven, Emil L. Tompach, 
L. E. Fazen, G. W. Nott, T. J. McCrory, J. G. 
Meachem, P .T. Van Ornum and F. C. Christen- 

Four Minute Men 

The Four Minute Men were speakers who 
volunteered their services to lecture on the 
war, on drives for funds or such other topics as 
the Committee on Public Information at Wash- 
ington desired to have put before the people. 
Wherever there was an assemblage of people 
(as, for instance, at theaters, clubs, political 
meetings, etc.,) a Four Minute man made his 
appearance to discuss in forceful language 
some issue which the government desired to 
have elucidated. In this way it was practic- 
able to reach those men and women who did 
not read the daily newspapers thoroughly. 

A. J. Lunt was in charge of the local organi- 
zation of Four Minute Men. He arranged to 
fill all requests for speakers, and also saw that 
invitations for speakers were forthcoming from 
such meetings as might prove fertile ground 
for the seeds of thought the orators were pre- 
pared to scatter. 

The following men enlisted for this unique 
service: Rev. Charles S. Nickerson, Jerome J. 
Foley, Rev. J. M. Naughtin, Elmer E. Gittins, 
Milton J. Knoblock, R. G. Harvey, Rev. B. Tal- 



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bot Rogers, Peter J. Myers, William D. Thomp- 
son, William H. Armstrong, Elbert B. Hand. 
L. J. Quinn, Mortimer E. Walker, Guy A. Ben- 
son, Max W. Heck, William Smieding, Jr., 
Thomas Kearney, Jr., Thorwald Beck, the Rev. 
Arthur MacDavitt, the Rev. J. W. Carter and 
Vilas Whaley. 

The speakers visited churches, schools, and 
public halls to deliver their four minute mes- 
sages. One-minute community singing was 
finally added to the plan, and this feature was 
developed under the direction of Miss Lillian 

To assure the official character of the brief 
speeches they were prepared at National Head- 
quarters in continued consultations with the 
proper officials of each Government depart- 
ment responsible for them and were published 
in the form of bulletins from which the speak- 
ers were required to select the material for 
their speeches during each campaign designat- 

With the exception of the first two or three 
which were put on before the oi-ganization was 
formed in Racine, Racine Four Minute men 
put on the campaign for every bulletin furnish- 
ed by the National organization in Washing- 
ton and the following- table will serve to indi- 
cate just what the Racine Four Minute men 
talked about in 1917 and 1918 until their dis- 
charge in December 1918. 

"Onward to Victory." 

"Second Liberty Loan." 

"Food Pledge." 

"Maintaining Morals and Morale." 

"Carrying the Message." 

"War Savings Stamps." 

"The Shipbuilder." 

"Eyes for the Navy." 

"The Danger of Democracy." 

"Lincoln's Gettysburg Address." 

"The Income Tax." 

"Farm and Garden." 

"President Wilson's Letter to Theaters." 

"Third Liberty Loan." 


"Second Red Cross Campaign." 

"The Meaning of America." 

"Mobilizing America's Man Power." 

"Where Did You Get Your Facts?" 

"Certificates to Theater Members." 


"Four Minute Singing." 

"Fourth Liberty Loan." 

"Food Program for 1919." 

"Fire Prevention." 

"United War Work Campaign." 

"Red Cross Home Service." 

"What Have We Won." 

"Red Cross Christmas Roll Call." 

"A Tribute to the Allies." 

It is impossible to set an adequate value on 
the good accomplished in this patriotic service. 
Heavy calls were made upon their time but 
they responded willingly and cheerfully and 
the high standard of their work was reflected 
in the great aid given to the various drives. 

Another organization which did good work 
during the war was the Wisconsin Loyalty 
Legion. This was a state society founded 
primarily to stamp out sedition by patriotic 
propaganda and, where deemed necessary, to 
take part in political campaigns to insure the 
election of loyal men to office. The main thing 
done was the distribution of literature from 
the Bureau of Public Information. Some 4,- 
000,000 documents were thus distributed. The 
newspapers of the state were supplied with 
matter for publication, and the league offered 
to provide speakers for large gatherings in 
any part of the state. Walter S. Goodland of 
Racine was a vice-president of the legion. 

Solving the Labor Problem 

Wisconsin was first in carrying out the 
government's war labor program and received 
much praise from national authorities. George 
P. Hambrecht was State Director as well as 
chairman of the State Industrial commission. 
An agent of the United States Public Service 
Reserve was named in each county to assist 
in recruiting labor for essential industries. A 
community war labor board was named in each 
industrial center to handle labor questions and 
see that there was "a man for every necessary 
job." The position of the government was ex- 
pressed thus: "If we can have enough shells 
in France we can blast our way to Berlin. To 
the extent that we fall behind in the supply of 
material, we shall have to make up the deficit 
from the living bodies of our young men. This 
is not rhetoric. It is cold, precise, military 
calculation. As soon as Americans realize it 
they will cease to carry on 'business as usual' 
and swarm into war work." 

In every community hundreds of men were 
recruited for essential industries and placed in 
suitable positions. Toward the end of the war 
the hiring of common labor through other chan- 
nels than these agencies was prohibited. The 
Racine employment office was in charge of 
Arthur P. Kuning, W. R. Levy, H. G. Presser, 
examiners, and Miss Anna Behrmann, superin- 
tendent of women's division. 

The Community Labor board consisted of 
Arthur P. Kuning, chairman, Angus R. Callen- 
der and Miss Sarah Jelliflfe, employers; William 






H. Sommers and Miss Sadie Devine, employes. 

The local branch of the United States Public 
Service Reserve consisted of Warren H. Walk- 
er, G. A. Kanters, John Konnack, Russell S. 
Olson, Walter H. Reed, Frank Starbuck and 
D. E. Callender. 

E. A. Polley of Rochester was the county 
labor agent. 

Isabel Swantz of Union Grove was county 
director of the Boys' Working Reserve, design- 
ed to aid farmers during vacation periods. 

With the first approach of cold weather in 
October, 1917, the government asked a survey 
of the fuel situation in all parts of the coun- 
try. While it was desired to provide enough 
fuel to keep American homes comfortable, it 
was essential that necessary industries be sup- 
plied with all the coal they needed, that trains 
and ships be kept moving and, if necessary, 
that provision be made to export fuel to our 

The County Council of Defense appointed a 
committee consisting of Messrs. A. C. Mehder, 
M. J. Pettit and William Horlick, Jr., to in- 
vestigate local conditions. It seemed probable 
that Racine had sufficient coal in sight for the 
winter, but the question had to be viewed from 
a national standpoint and every possible energy 
exerted to conserve the supply. The winter 
proved to be the most severe in many years. 

The Council of Defense finally created a 
County Fuel Administration consisting of F. 
Lee Norton, Herbert F. Johnson and James V. 
Rohan. The state sent a commissioner to 
Washington to represent the governor in an 
effort to secure shipment of coal to lake ports. 
By vigorous action, the county administration 
was able to procure through that channel 
enough fuel to obviate the danger of a fuel 
famine, but citizens resorted almost entirely 
to use of soft coal for furnaces. Wood also 
became popular as fuel during the war and 
people who had not swung an axe in forty 
years were glad to obtain a wagon load of 
chunks for use in furnace or stove. The Wis- 
consin Gas & Electric Company was a big fac- 

tor in preventing a fuel famine, for it manu- 
factured hundreds of tons of coke weekly as a 
by-product of its gas plant. Wagons were of- 
ten lined up all night near the plant waiting 
for the opening of the yards in the morning, 
when the night's output would be ready to dis- 
tribute. The company sold the coke as fast 
as it was made, reserving only the right to 
give priority to the needs of hospitals, public 
institutions and homes where there were sick 
persons or little children. It also limited de- 
liveries to one ton at a time. 

Fortunately the winter of 1918-1919 was very 
mild and the supply of coal received here up 
to the time of the armistice agreement was 
ample to carry the city through until spring. 

To conserve fuel the public everywhere re- 
sorted to such methods as "lightless nights," 
"lightless streets" during the greater part of 
the night, and the elimination of electric signs, 
lights in show windows, etc. When this tend- 
ed to cause people to seek substitutes for lights 
obtained from the use of coal, the government 
actually prevented a shortage of gasoline for 
warships, motor transport and aeroplanes by 
decreeing that no gasoline should be used on 
Sundays by civilians. It was not a law — only 
a request — yet no law was ever more strictly 
observed or enforced. A man riding in an 
automobile on Sunday was hooted, scoffed at 
and perhaps assaulted. A few had forgotten 
the edict on the first gasolineless Sabbath, but 
they never forgot it again. One experience 
with a stern public sentiment was enough. 

The patriotic people operated furnaces in 
their homes only when absolutely necessary 
during the war. There were certain days upon 
which no stores were to be heated. Small 
things, these seem, yet in the aggregate 
amounting to huge sums for the whole country. 
And it was these small things, earnestly and 
enthusiastically carried into effect by all the 
people, which enabled America to go through 
the war with a minimum of suffering and with- 
out ruining her normal industrial structure and 
upsetting her habits of life for all time. 


THERE were many remarkable features 
connected with the financing of the war 
by the sale of government bonds to the 
people of the country. Racine county's ex- 
perience in finance is like that of other places, 
excepting that it was a pioneer in some re- 
spects and conducted its campaigns more effi- 
ciently than most communities. 

In previous wars it had been customary to 
sell war bonds to banking houses, which under- 
took to dispose of them, for a premium, to 
wealthy investors. Taking a hint from the 
methods used in Europe, the United States 
started out to make as many people as pos- 
sible owners of the bonds. This would give 
every family a new sort of personal interest 
in the conflict and in the welfare of govern- 
ment. It offered additional opportunity for 
spreading government propaganda. Immense 
amounts must be paid in interest on the bonds, 
and it was felt that this should go to as many 
people as possible, inasmuch as everyone 
would have to assist in redeeming the paper 
later on. Instead of paying fiscal agents to 
sell them, the interest rate could be made more 
attractive to the prospective purchaser, at no 
greater cost to the government. Finally, it 
was believed that everyone was anxious to help 
as best he could, and the people would wel- 
come this method of aiding the forces in the 

The first big problem was that of educating 
the masses to the character and purpose of 
bonds. Probably not one in five hundred men 
had ever owned one. This universal ignorance 
of long term investments made the progress of 
the first loan slow. The difficulty decreased 
with each succeeding loan until by the time the 
Victory loan was floated in the spring of 1919 
there was no one who did not know all about 
the advantages of government bonds. 

The first loan demonstrated, however, that 
merely offering the bonds for sale at banks 
and other places would not answer the pur- 

pose. Volunteer salesmen must go into the 
offices and homes, explaining the project and 
appealing to the patriotism of the individuals. 
There wei'e few who could raise the objection 
of poverty, for the bonds were in denomina- 
tions as low as $50 and $100, and were to be 
sold on the installment plan. By the practice 
of economy, which the nation demanded of 
everyone anyway, a bond was within the reach 
of all who were earning money or obtaining 
any sort of an income. To overcome the last 
possible obstacle, the banks were willing to 
loan money to those temporarily unable to buy, 
but who wanted to do so. 

When the loans began to be floated, there 
was one question which was in the mind of 
thinking men: What effect will it have upon 
our banks to draw out these millions of dol- 
lars in deposits and have the vast sums sent 
away to be used for government purposes ? It 
did seem as though it might decrease the de- 
posits to almost nothing. However, the banks 
saw their duty, and from the start of the war 
asked for no quarter in this respect. They 
knew the government must have the money, 
and if it closed them up in the process they 
would take their medicine. Incidentally, they 
proposed to handle the bookkeeping for the 
installment payments, and subscribe to large 
amounts of bonds themselves. 

Without waiting to put the details in their 
proper chronological order, a summary of the 
effect of the bond sales upon the banks of the 
county will show the unexpected climax: 

Deposits in Racine city banks 

Oct. .31, 1914 $ 7,296,794.44 

Deposits in same banks June 

30, 1919 13,498,450.79 

Deposits in country banks Oct. 

31, 1914 2,539,517.50 

Deposits in same banks June 

30, 1919 4,028,937.40 

A total gain in deposits of $ 7,691,076.26 



But during- that same period the people had 
boug-ht Liberty Bonds of the value of $16,- 

These figures indicate that the people of the 
county gained in actual money wealth some- 
thing like $23,892,000 during the war, for the 
bonds they bought were as good as gold when 
the victory came to the banners of the Amer- 
ican army. Of course there should be sub- 
ti-acted from that amount the unknown sums 
previously hoarded in homes. 

The people had more money than ever, the 
banks had prospered beyond all precedent, 
wages were high (and prices also) and all this 
in spite of the fact that the nation was turn- 
ing its energies to the manufacture of things 
meant only for destruction, and 4,000,000 of 
the most efficient men of the nation had been 
engaged in unproductive employment in army 
and navy. 

Before the war started in Europe, statesmen 
said it could not begin because the financial 
condition of the countries involved was too 
poor to permit of a titanic struggle such as 
was forecast. 

After the war opened, many financiers said 
it could not continue many weeks, because 
every belligerent nation would be bankrupt 
and unable to supply their armies and navies 
with necessities. 

They were wTong. No belligerent did with- 
out a single gun, a single ship or a single 
round of ammunition because of lack of mon- 
ey. Germany, suiTounded as she was by the 
encii'cling ring of her enemies, had millions 
and millions in gold ready to buy everything 
she needed if the means could only be found 
to import them. Great Britain and France 
were able to purchase every item they wanted 
in America and in other neutral countries. 
Their only limitation was in the number of 
vessels in which to carry the goods across the 
seas. They could have paid for any number 
of ships if there were any to be bought. The 
credit of every nation remained ample. All 
that was necessary was to mortgage the future 
for as many generations as was deemed suffi- 
cient. Lack of money did not bother them as 
much as it did the Confederate States, which 
fought for three years after they were bank- 
rupt in 1862. 

America had profited immensely from the 
war up to the time of her entry into it. For- 
eign gold and paper came in great quantities 
to pay for war supplies, and there was noth- 
ing the belligerent nations had to offer us in 
exchange for the goods, excepting money. 

Our impoi'ts almost ceased. As a result our 
own money stayed at home. Millions of dol- 
lars annually remained here which in normal 
times would have been expended in foreign 
travel and for the pui-chase of such luxuries 
and souvenirs as travellers are accustomed to 

The people of this country, watching the 
struggle abroad, were more cautious of ex- 
penditures. Factories were inclined to save 
their profits instead of expanding during such 
unsettled times Individuals cut down ex- 

When we entered the war the habits of 
economy became more pronounced among the 
masses. The government needed supplies 
pi'omptly and spent money lavishly to get 
cjuick results. Protected by government con- 
tracts, many manufacturing concerns expanded 
their plants and hired all the men they could 
get. Farmers raised more, and were paid 
higher rates than ever under government 
guarantee of prices. Everyone who worked 
prospered. Only the soldier, the sailor and 
the people living on small fixed incomes suf- 
fered financially from the war. As so often 
happens, some people made fortunes through 
favorable war contracts, and many, indeed, 
earned them by their services, sorely needed. 
Many wealthy men gave their services to the 
government at a salary of $1 a year. 

In Racine, people who had been in the habit 
of spending their money in larger cities re- 
mained at home. Travelling was discouraged. 
Economy was urged. Money earned here was 
either spent here or banked. Factories mak- 
ing war supplies drew back to Racine much of 
the money which had been sent away for Lib- 
erty bonds. Other plants manufacturing lines 
outside of war supplies were busy supplying 
customers with tractors, farm machinery, mo- 
tors, and hundreds of other products which 
were necessary to carrying on the nation's 

They brought added millions of money to 
town. Even those concerns whose output was 
limited by government order appeared to pros- 
per because of increased prices. 

A vei-itable "wheel of fortune" resulted; a 
circular chain of finance. The people saved 
money and bought bonds, which enabled the 
government to buy supplies here and else- 
where, which gave local factories lots of work, 
which brought money to the city, which was 
paid out in wages and dividends, which were 
again invested in bonds, and so on. Just as 
the banks of Germany were overflowing vnth 





money after four years of devastating warfare, 
so the banks of Racine found themselves ex- 
panded beyond their wildest dreams by the 
very process which had seemed more likely to 
reduce them to the proportions of a village 
counting house. 

Of course, some one has to pay for the ex- 
pense of the war. Future generations of 
Americans will do it in part. The present 
generation is doing it now. But the custom- 
ary post-war decrease in the value of money 
already has tended to make the burden much 
easier than might have been expected. It is 
not hard to pay a debt of $1 with a $1 which 
is worth only half in labor or goods what it 
was when the debt was contracted. In 1914 
a dollar was a third of a day's pay for skilled 
mechanics in many lines. It was the equiva- 
lent of a bushel of wheat. In 1919 the dollar 
used to pay off the debt, was but a sixth of 
the same mechanic's daily wage. It took less 
than half a bushel of the fai-mer's wheat to 
pay off his dollar of indebtedness. 

The United States financed the war largely 
by bonds. The five issues amounted to $18,- 
500,000,000. The amount was huge, but every 
issue was over-subscribed. In the case of the 
last two or three, it required only a couple of 
weeks to sell them all. 

For the entire country, the per capita sales 
averaged $162.54. In Racine county, the aver- 
age sale per capita was $192.40, or 147 per 
cent of the amount of bonds allotted to the 
county. Of the total, the banks of the city of 
Racine themselves subscribed to $1,696,100. 
The other banks of the county took bonds 
worth $262,350. The city banks took rather 
more than their share according to the per- 
centage of deposits, while those outside of the 
city took less. All together, they absorbed 
11 Vs per cent of the county's total of bonds. 

Following is a tabulation showing the dates 
of the various bond issues during the war, the 
amount of them allotted to this county, the 
number of individual purchasers, and the value 
of the bonds bought: 

Date Quota Buyers Amount 

May, 1917 $ 941,000 6,663 $ 1,815,350 

Oct., 1917 2,646,000 9,418 3,384,350 

Apr., 1918 1,641,000 20,394 3,360,200 

Oct., 1918 3,601,800 23,224 4,427,050 

Apr., 1919 2,776,400 18,330 3,214,050 

Total $11,606,200 78,029 $16,201,000 

Every loan saw Racine county "go over the 
top" with a large margin to spare. In the 
third loan, floated just as the American army 

was preparing to take a major part in the 
operations in France and the first large casual- 
ty lists were beginning to appear, the county 
subscribed to bonds amounting to 221 per cent 
of the quota assigned. There were 20,394 in- 
dividual subscribers. This percentage was 
never equalled, but the total sales and number 
of subscribers was exceeded on the fourth 
loan, floated just at the time that Germany 
was being crushed beneath the weight of the 
American armies this money was helping to 
equip and supply. 

The Council of Defense was appealed to by 
the government to handle the first loan, in 
May, 1917. No instructions were given or 
advice offered. The county was asked to take 
$941,000, which seemed a pretty big sum at 
the time. A committee consisting of F. Lee 
Norton, W. H. Armstrong, H. N. Bacon, War- 
ren J. Davis, W. C. Hood, A. F. Erickson, Wil- 
liam Horlick, Jr., O. W. Johnson, F. J. Osius, 
L. J. Quinn, H. J. Rogers and John Weichers 
was appointed to plan the sales. 

It was decided to try selling the bonds over 
the counter at the banks. To assist in this, 
advertising space was used in newspapers and 
the banks themselves urged their customers 
to invest. In three weeks a third of the issue 
was sold, but as the campaign was to close 
June 15, it was realized that something must 
be done to speed matters up, and it was also 
appreciated that what was needed was the 
education of the people to both the necessity 
and the wisdom of buying the Liberty bonds. 

It was to assist in the advertising of this 
loan that the huge Loyalty parade was held 
on May 29, 1917. Business was suspended and 
practically the entire city participated in this 
parade, despite a drizzling rain. On June 7 
the loan committee called a meeting of a num- 
ber of business men and it was decided to fin- 
ish up the campaign -ttith a week's drive simi- 
lar to those organized in years past to raise 
large sums of money for local institutions. 
In substance, this involved the appointment of 
a central executive board which would appeal 
to wealthy people and factories, and a large 
number of "teams" of five workers each, headed 
by a "major," who would by dint of numbers 
be able to make a rapid canvass of houses, 
stores and factories. This sort of organization 
was formed roughly and the members of the 
teams were carefully coached in the educa- 
tional talks which must be given to the people, 
if the bonds were to be sold. 

Although the plan was hastily adopted, it 
sent Racine county "over the top" within the 



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week, and not only that but the subscriptions 
were ahnost double the allotment. These 
pioneer workers had answered the question of 
how to do it, and thereafter the subscription 
of Liberty loans was never a matter for worry 
in Racine county. 

Other problems than the mere amount of 
money to be gotten did arise, however. It was 
desired that everyone should become a partner 
of the government in this war enterprise, and 
as time went on the faithful solicitors not only 
tried to over-subscribe their quota, but they 
"hitched their wagon to a star" and proposed 
to devote their utmost efforts to see that every- 
one in the whole county owned at least one 

While this was not accomplished literally, 
perhaps, the total sales to 78,029 subscribers 
in five drives indicate that they did not fall 
far short of their goal. In the first loan little 
attempt was made to sell bonds outside of the 

When announcement was made regarding 
the second loan, the people of this and every 
other community received a jolt. They had 
decided that by hard work they could dupli- 
cate the result of the first campaign, in spite 
of the fact that many had subscribed to an 
amount which they felt was their limit. But 
they drew a deep breath when they were in- 
formed that Racine county's quota this time 
would be three times as great as before, or 
$2,646,000. The solicitation of such an amount 
of money w-as by all odds the biggest thing 
ever attempted in the covmty. However, there 
was no faltering. It had to be done, and it 
was deemed wise to take another leaf from 
the book of peace-time solicitors and do it 
quickly. It was resolved to finish it in one 

On Oct. 3, 1917, a meeting was held at the 
Commercial club to perfect an organization 
for selling the bonds. J. V. Rohan, John 
Dwight, Otis \V. Johnson, F. Lee Norton and 
Herbert F. Johnson formed the executive 
board. 0. W. Johnson was chosen as general 
chaii-man. J. V. Rohan was given charge of 
the work in the city, and Peter J. Myers of 
the woi-k in the rest of the county. John 
Weichers was to have charge of solicitation 
in factories. Mrs. John W. Owen, chainnan 
of the Woman's Committee of the Council of 
Defense agi'eed to organize the women to as- 
sist. At another meeting on Oct. 1.3 it was 
decided to incorporate the Boy Scout troops 
into the Liberty Loan organization, and they 
did fine work in all subsequent drives. 

The second campaign began Oct. 15, and at 

noon that day the captains of the various 
teams reported about $800,000, or veiy near- 
ly a third of the quota, subscribed. By Thurs- 
day, Oct. 18, only $100,000 was needed. On 
the following day the quota was $125,000 
over-subscribed, and the workers decided to 
keep on so as to overcome a possible shortage 
elsewhere. By Saturday night sales of $3,- 
384,350 were recorded. 

It was six months later when the third loan 
was floated, and Racine sui-passed all its 
previous records. The drive was fixed for the 
week beginning April 13. It opened with a 
half holiday. All places of business were 
closed in the afternoon, and at 2:30 o'clock 
there was a huge civic parade, headed by a 
naval band from Great Lakes naval station, 
and including nearly 16,000 men and women. 
More than 1,500 marched under the banner 
of the Red Cross society. Business institu- 
tions were represented by floats. Two features 
were a huge replica of a howitzer, and a "life- 
sized" tank, bristling with guns. These were 
made at the plant of the J. I. Case T. M. Co. 
After the parade a great mass meeting was 
held at Lakeside auditorium, where W. S. 
Goodland of Racine, Clarence Darrow of Chi- 
cago and others delivered patriotic addresses. 

The first meeting and luncheon for workers 
was held the following day, Tuesday, and it 
was reported that sales of $1,000,000 worth 
of bonds had been made. Before the end of 
the week the whole quota was taken, and it 
was agreed to double it. The workers went 
at the job with a whoop, and continued the 
campaign for another five days until the total 
had reached $3,360,200, or 221 per cent of the 
allotment. Hardly a family could be found 
which had not invested in one or more bonds, 
and those who did fail to buy were marked 
from that time forth. 

Just as the families who had boys in the 
ai-my would not give aid and sympathy to 
"slackers" desiring to evade sei-\'ice, so those 
who had "given until it hurt" would accept no 
excuses from those who v.-ere unwilling to loan 
their money to the government in time of need. 
Refusing to purchase a bond, or trying to sell 
it after it was purchased, was looked upon as 
a despicable act, and mere excuses did not 
sei-ve to clear the name of the offender. The 
selling of the bonds was discouraged because 
it was thus passed on to a person who might 
othei-wise have purchased from the govern- 
ment, and was now unable to do so. 

One man was subjected to very severe criti- 
cism. He bought a considerable quantity of 
bonds— perhaps $10,000— later sold $9,000 of 




There were listed for entrainment the following: — Marius E. J. Wisby, Erwin H. Sorenson. Cornelius Rooney, William R. 

Raney. Olaf J. A. Furrenes. 


There were iisted for entrainment the following: — Franit J. Kaiser, Edward Kunz, Charles L. Erickson, James Aceto, Jim 
Sabo, Herbert H. Stoffen, Nazar Dadien, Rosso Gogliardo. 


The following were listed for entrainment: — Edward Jos. Ruetz, Herbert C. Hoffert, John M. Albino, Louis L. Nielsen, 
Gerald O. Bernard. Floyd P. Shephard. George W. Bartlett, George B. Gates, George R. Spangenberg, Joseph Fucilla, 
John Andersen, Walter C. Schubert, Romain Lonage, Wallace E. Baumann, Aaron C. Matson, Stanley Boguszewicz, 
Nicholas Baddaker. Those shown in the picture are: — Byron A. Gere, Fred Wm. Schacht, Franklin A. Schacht, Harold V. 

Brown, Edward J. Cashman. 



them for $8,700. He felt willing to stand the 
loss of the ?300 and thought liis action all 
right. The public felt differently, however. 
They pointed out that he had received praise 
for making a generous purchase of bonds. 
Therefore he should keep them. The men who 
bought of him would have then been able to 
buy 88,700 worth of bonds from the regular 
salesmen and thus increase the county's show- 
ing. In other words, the original buyer had 
obtained considerable advertising for the sum 
of $300 and had sidestepped his obligation. He 
was bitterly spoken of by all who heard the 

Bonds were supposed to be purchased to 
the very limit of one's ability, and then were 
to be kept. That was the unwritten rule. 
To do othenvise would be like a soldier hiring 
a substitute, and this was prohibited absolute- 
ly by law. 

The government desired that the bonds be 
held by as many persons as possible. It 
would have prohibited traffic in them were it 
not that they had to be negotiable to be a de- 
sirable investment for the future. So public 
sentiment was depended upon to do what could 
not be done by law. 

The county was presented with a service 
flag bearing a bar for each time the county 
went "over the top" on a drive. For doubling 
the quota in the third loan, it received a star 
on its flag. 

The fourth loan was floated in October, 
1918. The end of the war was in sight if 
America continued to exert evei-j- ounce of 
effort. It was believed that the way the peo- 
ple responded to this new demand for loans 
would have an appreciable effect upon our 
Allies as well as our enemies. By this time 
the people knew all about bonds. The need 
for education had passed. All were prepared 
to give and give again to the vei-y end of their 

The campaign opened on October 8 with 
practically the same organization as before. 
Nearly two-thirds of the quota was subscribed 
the first day. Enthusiasm ran high at the 
meeting of workers. Following an address 
by Ml'. Rohan, he was authorized by unani- 
mous vote to send a telegram to President 
Wilson declaring: "We are unanimous in de- 
manding unconditional surrender as the only 
terms to be considered." 

On Friday the quota of $3,601,000 had been 
suipassed by $300,000. On the following day 
another half million dollars was reported. Of 
all the campaigns, this was the easiest from 
the standpoint of the solicitors. Fonner sub- 

scriptions were duplicated, then doubled and 
tripled without argument or urging. 

Prior to the opening of the campaign, cards 
had been prepared showing what each person 
had bought before. No one could make any 
false claims about his foiTner record on bonds, 
if he wanted to. Various devices invented 
elsewhere to humiliate "slackers," such as "yel- 
low tickets," painting a house yellow, visits by 
"night riders," etc., were not needed in this 
county to obtain the desired total of sales. In 
a fe\\- instances some rather harsh language 
was used to men who still maintained that 
their interest in the war did not waiTant them 
investing money in Liberty bonds. But not 
even people of pro-Gei-man tendencies cared 
to be brought to public attention through their 
failure to do this much for their country. 

Five months after war ended, the fifth, or 
Victory Loan, was floated by the government. 
It was required to close up the war, bring 
the troops back home, and pay for many of 
the things used in bringing the conflict to a 
successful conclusion. 

Now that the fighting and the shouting 
had become things of the past it was suspect- 
ed that it might be rather difficult to sell the 
county's quota of $2,776,400. The fears were 
not realized. The same workers as before 
assumed the task on April 2.5, 1919. Within 
two days the county had almost subscribed its 
full share, and by the end of the week all lo- 
calities were able to report the task com- 
pleted. The subscriptions totaled $3,214,050. 
Considering the conditions, this result was 
perhaps the most remarkable of any in the 
history of the five drives for funds. 

The men who devoted their time and best 
efforts to the accomplishment of the Libei-ty 
Loan work are desei-\'ing of great pi'aise. 
Their task was hard, often disagi"eeable and 
had no reward beyond the knowledge of a duty 
vrell done. 

It is impossible to give the names of all 
who participated in eveiy Loan campaign. 
There were some who were appointed to teams, 
and then dropped because they failed to give 
the necessary time to it. Some worked dili- 
gently in some campaigns, and were prevent- 
ed from doing so in others, by reason of ill- 
ness, absence from the city or pressure of 
other affairs. 

In the main, however, the organization re- 
mained the same throughout the year and the 
list of Victory Loan workers presented here- 
with is also fairly representative of all the 
other drives: 

O. Vi. Johnson, Racine County Chaimian. 

J. V. Rohan, City of Racine Chainnan. 



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P. J. Myers, Chairman Outside of Racine 

Horace Sims, Chainnan Speakers' Bureau. 

Arthur Simonson, Publicity Chairman. 

Executive Committee — F. Lee Norton, chair- 
man; M. H. Pettit, A. J. Lunt, Arthur Simon- 
son, O. W. Johnson, J. V. Rohan, H. F. John- 
son, Wan-en J. Davis, F. J. Osius, J. H. 
Dwight, George Murphy, W. H. Loomis, Horace 

First Ward — David Winters, major; William 
Pultz, J. R. Powers, Edward Zahn, Edward 
Schowalter, Fred Hei-mans. 

First and Eighth Wards — A. F. Erickson, 
major; M. N. Gales, E. E. Gittins, W. E. 
French, F. J. Hermes, J. A. Christensen. 

Second Ward— E. E. Russell, A. A. Steel, 
O. J. Thomas, L. P. Munroe, Elmer Durgin. 

Third Ward — R. E. Browne, major; G. G. 
Jones, P. Walter Peterson, T. J. Dickinson, 
Oscar Hoppe. 

Fourth Ward — Thoma?; A. Fagan, major; 
George L. Buck, Sol Haas, Fred Greene, E. B. 
Funston, Fred Bauman, F. A. Morey, Robert 
Sieber, George Caystile, Edward Freeman, P. 
T. Stoffel, V. Joseph Jandl. 

Fifth Ward— C. R. Nevin, major; John 
Carls, Leslie Fowler, A. G. Hemies, Frank R. 
Starbuck. N. Rice. 

Sixth Ward— E. B. Hand, major; P. H. Bat- 
ten, W. J. McElroy, Elmer C. Green, J. H. 
Brannum, W. F. McGregor, Jerome I. Case, 
John Reid, Arthur Ehrlich, Fred Laper, D. B. 
Eisendrath, George B. Wilson. 

Seventh Ward — John A. Bro^\'n, major; 
John Peterson, Frank Weiss, Ernest Mrkvicka, 
Joseph Dollister, Peter Nelson, R. M. Har- 

Ninth Ward — W. T. Dooley, major; George 
Due, N. C. Christensen, Dan Casterton, Rob- 
ert Hindley, Jlathew Keefe, C. C. Mortenson, 
C. E. Pollard, L. W. Smith, W. R. Gittings, 
Edward Acklam, Josiah Hocking. 

Tenth Ward — Boyd Adams, major; J. F. 
Bickel, A. A. Bishop, W. E. Loomis, Frank 

Eleventh, Twelfth and Fourteenth Wards — 
Warren H. Walker, major; R. P. Howell, A. H. 
Harris, M. L. Blodgett, A. H. Black, C. W. 
Chapin, Otto Hueifner, Arthur Schroeder, W. 
A. Walker, C. B. Cook, Thomas Lloyd, James 
Pritchard, Fulton Thompson, N. C. Nelson, 
Jerome Ritter, W. F. Kisow, Fred Haumerson, 
Will Rohan, William Richardson, W. F. Saw- 
yer, A. H. Barnes, James Bennett, D. Eugene 
Callender, Caleb Olson, James Collier, Horace 
Sims, John Pugh, Matt Cooper, William Os- 
borne, A. A. Guilbert, Louis Hoi'^ath. 

Thirteenth Ward — W. H. Carpenter, major; 

J. S. Hart, J. M. Jones, Jolm Sieb, E. McAvoy, 
Fred Foster, N. Christensen, Edward Cahoon, 
E. J. Harvey, Henry Wiegand, J. D. Rowland. 

Fifteenth Ward — Harold Smith, major; A. 
J. Ki'oupa, B. J. Rohan, Joseph Kaiser, J. E. 
Bright, George Schmitz, J. H. Asdahl, E. H. 
Wadewitz, M. E. Erskine, L. J. Quinn. 

Lakeside — L Friedman, major; Willianr 
Smieding, Jr., W. C. Davis, Charles Van 
Oi-num, W. F. Walker, W. S. Goodland. 

Coimty Employees — W. C. Palmer, major; 
John J. Barry, Martin Christensen, George 

City Employees — George Jorgenson, major; 
P. H. ConnoUey, August Eisenhut, Charles 
Ryba, James Cape, H. C. Baker, C. E. Longe- 

Factory Team — M. H. Pettit, major; Warren 
Walker, F. J. Kidd, Harold Freeman, A. R. 
Calendar, R. C. Rueschaw, P. H. Batten, W. 

E. Loomis, George Wherry, D. B. Eisendrath, 
R. P. Howell, C. A. Armstrong, A. H. Barnes, 

F. R. Pettit, B. M. Pettit. 

Women's Committee Chaimian — Mrs. Jolin 
W. Owen. 

First Ward — Mrs. Joseph Mrkvicka, major; 
Mrs. W. P. Pultz, Mrs. Gertrade Williams, 
Mrs. Fred Laper, Mrs. A. A. Mack, Mrs. L. 
V. Hinds. 

Second Ward — Mrs. T. F. Powers, major; 
Mrs. W. B. Robinson, Mrs. J. Lawton, Mrs. 
William H. Annstrong, Mrs. E. R. Wagoner. 

Third Ward — Mrs. W. J. Payne, major; Mrs. 
Harry Campbell, Miss Rose Tears, Miss Clara 
Driver, Mrs. Harry Mann. 

Fourth Ward — Mrs. Joseph Prostrednik, 
major; Mrs. John Konnak, Mrs. Jacob Bauni- 
stark, Mrs. Rose Jensen, Mrs. Sidney Miku- 
lecky, Mrs. John Burkhert. 

Fifth Ward — Mrs. Jens Jensen, major; Miss 
Louise Jensen, Mrs. J. E. Wilson, Mrs. J. T. 
Chj-noweth, Mrs. J. H. Campbell, Mrs. Holger 

Sixth Ward— ]\Irs. W. C. Dow, major; Mrs. 
Charles Van Omum, Mrs. Marshal Moses, 
Miss Camille Bennett, Mrs. Charles Nelson, 
Mrs. Charles Killian. 

Seventh Ward — Mrs. W. S. Dooley, major: 
Mrs. John Lutz, Mrs. F. W. Archer, Mrs. 
George Herzog. 

Eighth Ward— Mrs. Matt Wilke, major; 
Mrs. George E. Peterson, Mrs. E. F. Hilker, 
Mrs. George Lynch, Mrs. Alva Foster, Mrs. G. 
E. Gustafson, Mrs. Gruetzmacher. 

Ninth Ward — Mrs. M. J. Goepfert, major; 
Mrs. George Goepfert, Miss Olga Rasmussen, 
Mrs. Louis Nelson, Mrs. Charles Kammerer. 

Tenth Ward — Mrs. Joseph D. Williams, 
major; Mr.s. H. C. Lawton, Mrs. Fred Fair, 




There were listed for entrainment the following: — Robert J. Chappell. Louis Wesa, John H. Rulle. Frederick C. Nielsen, 
Leo R. Draves, Sigilfredo Governatori. Percy S. DeBrier. Lor in \V. Clark, Ray W. Blatz, Georjre Miller. Geo. Halberstadt, 
G. B. Rierson, David Wright. Harry F. Krupp, Joseph Summsrs, C. Plocek, J. J. Schwartz. Ed. Amundson, M. Catapana. 


There were listed for entrainment the following:: — John A. Thorjr?nson. Adolph H. Knolle, Lars R. Meyer. Joseph J. 
Mastiaus. Edwin Schuiz, William H. Shook. Finer Hansen. WilLam H. Rwapil. 


There were listed for entrainment the following: — A. C. Wa^ilewski, Camelo Minitte, Arthur A. Pahl, Howard L. Machia. 
George B. Sleigh. Henfy Cipar. John Halverson, Ezegial Antrasian, Walter E. Anderson. Gaetono Presta, Frank Rahdatz, 
Bernard Loener, Hans Prins. Adolph P. Zimprich. Peter Rasniussen, Austin Jannes Craney, James Gibbs. John Bohrmann. 
Harry Alperson, Joe Tappy. Hugas Melkesian. Pietro Carraro. Peter N. Boye, Frank Lia, Reinhold Hopke, Carl B. Thomp- 
son, Arthur Francis, Ben Silvermann, Frank J. Schliesmann, Paul F. Wolff Jr., Nick J. Jerger, Sahag Kaiserlian, Raffaele 
Nicotera, Herbert Falk, Irving F. James. George Jensen. Adolph Hoppe, Henry Qualheim, Chas. Lamar, Howard Layton, 
Joseph Zabac, Charles W. Arndt. Frederick E. Coles, Harry Maidens. 



Mrs. W. C. Palmer, Mrs. Charles Van Omum, 
Mrs. John R. Powers, Miss Tessie Mooney. 

Eleventh Ward — Mrs. S. Sklute, major; 
Mrs. Prank Miller, Mrs. L. F. Miller, Miss 
Bessie Spence. 

Twelfth Ward — Miss Ada Johnson, major; 
Miss Amanda Johnson, Mrs. H. C. Hotchkiss, 
Mrs. A. P. Vreeland, Mrs. Charles Personette, 
Mrs. E. E. Bailey. 

Thirteenth Ward — Mrs. R. L. Soule, major; 
Mrs. W. H. Carpenter, Mrs. Andrew Dietrich, 
Mrs. A. T. Kerr, Mrs. Louis Swenson, Mrs. 
William Pauli, Mrs. Menzo Wait. 

Fourteenth Ward— Mrs. C. W. Carter, 
major; Mrs. Boyd Adams, Mrs. Mary Rohan, 
Mrs. Raymond Weins. 

Fifteenth Ward — Mrs. E. A. Taylor, major; 
Mrs. J. C. Spencer, Mrs. John Pugh, Jr., Miss 
Josephine Carroll, Mrs. E. C. Billings, Miss 
Frances Herzog, Miss Margaret Eaton. 

Burlington — H. A. Runkel, Eda Meinhardt, 
Albert Meinhardt, Herbert A. Moussa, George 
A. Uebele, John T. Prasch, G. C. Rasch, Fred 
Itzen, C. Roy McCanna, Walter Keebler, H. E. 
Zimmermann, L. H. Zimmermann, W. R. Dever, 

F. N. Brehm, Mrs. G. A. Harper, Mrs. J. W. 
Powers, Miss Minnie Schwaller, Mrs. J. M. 
Christenson, Rev. P. H. Dreis, Rev. T. P. Hil- 
bourne, Mrs. John T. Prasch, Ralph Storey, 
William Rosenberg, Fred L. Wilson, Robert 
Southey, John C. Yonk, Dr. W. A. Prouty, I. G. 
Wheeler, George W. Waller. 

Caledonia — Frank McCullough, John D. Dan- 
ek, Arthur Kittinger, George L. Smith, Joseph 
Smerchek, Q. P. Sand, W. C. Robotka, Joseph 
Stephan, Philip Siegel, N. H. Fuhrman, Leon- 
ard Thelen, Herman Erbe, Joseph Peterka, 
John Kovar, Mat Matson, Joseph W. Miku- 
lecky, John Spang, John Smerchek, Alex Sand, 

G. J. Ellis, Patrick Williams, Vincent Novak, 
Sr., A. L. Thomas, Hub Sebastian, William Ul- 
rich, Frank Morris, W. G. Lorence, Arthur 
Peklo, Edward Robotka, Paul Smerchek, Ruebin 
Klofanda, George Bouska, Frank Kwapil, Er- 
nest Frudenwald, Erwin Halter, Albert H. 
Braun, Frank Peterka, Edward Schelling. 

Burlington Township — William Beck, Leo 
Albright, William K. Bushnell, George J. 
Bieneman, Mrs. Louise A. Cunningham, Jacob 
Kramer, D. A. Warren, William Bauman, 
Frank Boschert, Newton Bottemley, Nettie E. 

Noi-way Township — H. F. Johnson, Robert 
Smiley, Albert Smiley, Albert Andersen, Mar- 
tin Anderson, H. J. Ellertson, Albert Malchin, 
Jul. Christenson, J. E. Jacobson, J. A. Jacob- 
son, Thomas Overson, J. L. English, J. A. An- 
derson, Thos. Hanson, Abe Storley, Harvey 

Britton, H. P. Olson, Theodore Bauer, O. M. 
Johnson, J. J. Buckstorf, Albert Hanson. 

Corliss — A. G. Cady, Charles Nystrom, E. H. 
Christensen, J. E. Christensen, M. H. Lee, J. 
T. Lee, J. L. Holm, Joseph Weber, H. M. 
Lingsweiler, Elmer Acklam, Chris Jacobsen, 
William Osborne, J. C. Burns, J. W. Simmons, 
Louis Kradwell, Harry Sorenson, Louis Ras- 
mussen, A. O. Spear, John Hanson, M. H. 

Waterf ord Village — Charles E. Frost, 
George Sopham, Arthur Smith, Walter Jones, 
William Sanders, G. W. Schenkenberg, Ed- 
ward Leakee, Ernest Miller, J. D. Robei'ts, 
Walter Belt, Jr., A. S. Titus. 

Waterford Township — R. E. Bennett, Charles 
Meyer, H. C. Greeley, Arthur Peacock, George 
Peacock, H. O. Bayley, Mrs. Bert Brown, Bert 
BrovsTi, Herbert Weltzine, James McDonald, 
William Herbert, H. M. Bendickson, Mrs. E. 
Beardsley, Elaine Beardsley, James Greeley, 
Henry Krueger, John Alasson, Ira Earushaw, 
Morris Healy, Le Roy Morrow, Walter Morton, 
Elisha Lewis, Jr., Fi'ed Mochu, Ernest Rauke, 
John Peters, Mrs. John Bennett, Henry Caley, 
Fremont Utter, O. H. Bayley, Mrs. Elaine But- 
tles, Elaine Buttles, G. H. Caley. 

Raymond — Mrs. Thomas Morgensen, Miss 
Viola Lindeman, David Ketvis, Stephen Jonas, 
Jacob Stephenson, Charles Hindel, Thomas 
Morgensen, Michael Posansky, Elmer W. 
Moyle, Allen J. Hay, Hans E. Kastinson, Wal- 
ter Shimmway, Sherman Brice, L. C. Christen- 

Mount Pleasant — John D. Jones, Charles 
Ybema, Arthur Schacht, Emmert Emmertsen, 
Walter Pearce, W. R. Rowley, P. E. Kimpel, 
Clarence Smith, Walter Buhler, C. C. Chris- 
topherson, Christ Matson, C. P. Nielson, Roy 
Freeman, De Grove Bull, A. Bell, J. Kedke, 
Frank Kaiser, Robert Wherry, Jr., N. S. Drum- 
mond, Henry Halter, Thomas Piper, E. L. 
King, A. M. Seidell, H. W. Lewis, W. J. 
Hansche, Tony Olson, Irving Gillette, L. A. 
Hansche, Henry Lange, Sam Walker, Henry 
Harmann, Louis Sorenson, B. O. Tradwell, W. 
J. Davis, George Smith, Joseph P. Weber, Les- 
lie Herzog, Martin Larson, B. F. Kimpel, N. P. 
Larsen, Louis Lamp, N. M. Christensen, F. E. 
Anderson, George Gillette, George Burgess, 
James Torpegaard, T. C. Roberts, W. C. Fan- 
cher, Louis Foster, Fred Bose, Walter Chris- 
tenson, Nels Nielsen, E. E. Gittins, F. F. 
Sewell, A. B. Steele. 

Union Grove — J. Z. Collier, Joseph Alby, 
Merrit Anderson, Henry Barnes, W. D. Bixby, 
R. T. Bosustow, Thomas Bufton, W. J. Cal- 




There were listed for entrainment the followlns:. with seven men who were transferred from other boards : — George B. 

Rosenberg, John Matranga, August C. Sauer, Peter Kapolos, Antonio Aceto. Adolph Taicher. Jacob M. Hansen, Edward 

Boehlman. Irving W. Walch, Joseph Stegncr, Peter Rasmussen. Roy McCarthy, Jesse C. Blount, Ruffalo Derose. 


There were listed for entrainment the following: — Richard Aul, William H. Jenks, George E. Davies, Seggar M. Rood, 
Clarence Howe, John Saras, Alfred E. Poulson, Henry C. Roest. Edward Block, Arthur G. Anderson. 


There were listed for entrainment the following: — Arthur J.Jacobsen, Charles W. Tiede, Edgar R. Lehman. Oscar Christ- 
ensen. Sterling W. Albright, Lester McLennan, Christian An dersen, Albert H. L. Bartz, Edward F. Studey, John M. 

Gizinski, Jerome P. Danhauser, Louis Schrader. 



lender, J. C. Colby, F. A. Dixon, Peter Engel- 
rup, J. T. Jacobson, Frank Jones, John Jones, 
F. W. Callender, C. A. Martin, Mrs. R. W. 
McCracken, Mrs. W. H. Morgan, C. W. Price, 
W. G. Roberts, George Rodhe, Rev. William 
Rowlands, A. F. Ruzicka, Richard Salm, A. J. 
Smith, William Smith, W. E. Stone, E. H. 
Swantz, Henry Swantz, Miss Isabel Swantz, 
W. D. White, A. M. Wilson, Henry Vyvyan. 

Yorkville — Martin George, Bert Rosendale, 
Charles De Groot, Alex Sumpter, Don Martin, 
Edgar Bertke, George Vyvyan, Edward Sh3p- 
hard, Thos. Skewes, Wendle Birchell, Harry 
Dale, William Tucker, Arthur Scutt, Roland 
Lee, Frank Bullis, Henry W. Frichen, R. R. 

Rochester — A. A. Burgess, George Wallis, 
Frank Patten, Rev. J. W. Jordan, W. J. Ed- 
wards, Clarence Beaumont, J. B. Willmer, 
Samuel Prent, Henry Millei', Roy Vaughan, J. 
W. Summers, Charles Reesman, Mrs. Jessie 
Burkett, John Penpenny, Hari-y Bauman, 
George Ela, Ferdinand Paulson, Theodore Al- 
by, Leslie W^illey. 

Dover — Edward Edwards, Edward Rov^ti- 
tree, Gilbei-t Ballock, George Beaumont, M. A. 
Loomis, J. W. Gomann, J. H. Smith, Stephen 
Cox, John Hardie, Charles Mealey, Thomas 
Finan, H. Spriggs, Al. Noble, Andrew Hinch- 
cliff, Dennis Callahan, Fred Schroeder, Gus 
Bratz, Lee Cunningham, Robert Wilson. 

War Savings Stamps 

In addition to the Liberty bonds, the gov- 
ernment floated another form of security 
knowni as the War Savings stamp. It was de- 
signed to encourage people to save small sums 
and invest them in such a way as to assist in 
carrying on the war. The War Savings stamps 
had a face value of $5, tut could be purchased 
for less, as the face value represented the pur- 
chase price plus interest for five years, at the 
end of which period they would be redeemed. 

As a part of the plan the Thrift stamp was 
devised. This could be bought for 25 cents. 
When a card was filled with sixteen of these, 
it represented the value of a War Savings 
stamp at the beginning of the current period. 
It could be exchanged for a "W.S.S." although 
after the first week there would be a litt'.e ac- 
crued interest to pay — varying from one cent 
to twenty cents according to the date of pay- 

Despite the sale of more than $16,000,000 in 
Liberty bonds here, the county purchased 
Thrift and Savings stamps for which they 
paid .$1,143,308.65. A large part of this came 
from children. The contents of most toy sav- 

ings banks were spent for these unique secur- 

The campaign for the sale of the War and 
Thrift stamps, was inaugurated in the spring 
of 191S'^nd it was placed in the hands of a 
committee consisting of Warren J. Davis, 
president of the J. I. Case T. M. Co., Post- 
master George H. Herzog and Mrs. John W. 
Owen, who had been very active in previous 
campaigns for funds. 

It was decided that the Racine postoffice 
should act as the central office for the dis- 
tribution of these stamps for the entire county, 
excepting the City of Burlington, the sales 
there to be in charge of Postmaster Henry 

A plan of campaign was mapped out and 
with the assistance of the committees in charge 
of Liberty Loan drives, became interesting and 
was most successful. 

School children played an active part in the 
great campaign by making a house to house 
canvass in their respective districts. Cele- 
brating of the Fourth of July was dispensed 
with and the work of selling stamps was sub- 
stituted for the usual fireworks. 

In factories, schools, business houses, of- 
fices and other places the campaign was waged. 
Pledge cards were passed about, each signer 
agreeing to purchase a number of War Sav- 
ings stamps, during a period from June to 
December, 1918. 

The people, especially children, were urged 
to purchase Thrift Stamps and later to ex- 
change them for War Savings Stamps. Pen- 
nies were saved and they soon resulted in pur- 
chases, at 25 cents each, of Thrift stamps, and 
later these were exchanged for War Savings 
Stamps of a valuation of $5 each. 

When the campaign closed, early in the win- 
ter, the committee found that the War and 
Thrift Stamps of a cash value, not face value, 
of §1,037,104.04 had been distributed from the 
Racine post office and through the Burlington 
office War and Thrift Stamps of a value of 
$106,704.61 had been distributed, making a to- 
tal value of stamps sold of $1,143,808.65. The 
total number of War Stamps sold through the 
Racine post office was 229,800 and of Thrift 
Stamps 299,332. 

The letter carriers of the city delivered and 
sold 73,377 War Stamps, each of a value of $5 
and over 100,000 Thrift Stamps. 

The remainder of the stamps sold in the dis- 
trict outside of Burlington, were sold through 

The Burlington postoffice distributed $103,- 




The Appeal Board had jurisdiction over appeals made from seventeen Local Boards in Waukesha. Sheboygan. Fond du 
Lac. Ozaukee. Green. Marquette. Dodge. Washington and Racine counties. The members were (above) Geo. Harrington. 
Elkhorn; A. J. Horlick. Racine; Stephen Benish. Racine (belovi) Chester D. Barnes. Kenosha; Harry W. Bolens. Port 

Washington; Dr. Grove Harkness, Waukesha. 

The board consisted of (left to right in picture) — Fulton Thompson, Peter J. Myers and Geo. W. Waller. 



387.61 of War Savings and $3,317 in Thrift 
Stamps, the latter having been purchased by 
children. Pledges which were made to the 
campaign workers were fulfilled to a very high 
percentage, the committees reported, thus 
again proving the loyalty of the residents of 
Racine county. 

It is regretted that the names of all who 
served in various capacities in the Liberty Loan 
and other war fund work do not appear in the 
official lists made during the final weeks, but 
the explanation of t h e omission of many 
names appears in another place. As example 
of such instances may be cited two typical 
ones. Mrs. Harry Mann was the major of a 
women's team in the first four Liberty Loan 
drives and did most excellent work, but as she 
was unable to participate in the fifth drive, her 
name does not appear in the list in this chap- 
ter. She was also chairman of the Girls' Sen.-- 
ice Units. Ed Makovsky was recognized as 
one of the most active workers for the Liberty 
Loans and War Relief funds in the town of 
Calendonia, in the team captained by Frank 
Renak, but by some oversight his name was not 
in the official record at all. Probably there 
are other cases of the same sort. 

County War Relief Fund 

One of the most ingenious plans growing out 
of war conditions was the Racine County War 
Relief Fund. It was designed to enable people 
to contribute money to war relief work of 
various kinds, with the assurance that it 
would be expended intelligently. Besides this, 
and equally as important, it did away with any 
obligation, moral or otherwise, to give money 
to any other project excepting for the pur- 
chase of government securities. 

In brief, the scheme provided for a central 
council of fifteen men who would act as trus- 
tees for this fund. They would receive appli- 
cations for money from the various welfare 
and relief organizations, consider their merits, 
and appropriate from the treasury such pro- 
portion of the money on hand as they felt was 
reasonable and wise. If a I'equest was not ap- 
proved, the citizens in general were justified 
in feeling that the cause was not worthy of 
their individual support. 

The money was raised by voluntary, but very 
general, contributions in amounts based upon 
the earnings of the donor. All employes were 
expected to give the equivalent of one-half 
hour's work per week to the fund. The pay 
clerks were to deduct this from tha employes' 
pay. The employer would add an equal sum 
and give the total to the committee. Indi- 

viduals who could not be classed as either em- 
ployers or employes were put upon their honor 
to give a proportionate sum, and send their 
check to headquai'ters once a month. 

The factories and stores co-operated vrith 
such good effect that they were represented by 
100 per cent contributions in almost every 
plant and store. 

A thorough canvass was made of all per- 
sons in the city and county not thus reached. 
In cases where they had bank accounts, they 
signed a card which was kept by the commit- 
tee and which, when presented to their banks 
after the first day of each month, authorized 
the bank to pay out the specified amount from 
their accounts to the fund. In other instances 
the people merely signed a pledge card prom- 
ising to pay a certain sum each month. 

The secretary of the committee kept track 
of all the individual pledges and saw that the 
money was forthcoming. The employers did 
the accounting insofar as it affected their em- 
ployes, and sent a check for the total at regu- 
lar intervals. 

The proposition was so entirely fair, and at 
the same time so necessary, that it became 
almost compulsory. A man seeking a job was 
frequently required to show that he gave to the 
War Relief Fund and had bought Liberty 
Bonds, before he could obtain a position. 

The idea of the fund above described origi- 
nated in Kenosha. Secretary Walter H. Reed 
of the Commercial Club learned that it was be- 
ing discussed there and made inquiries. On 
Dec. 17, 1917, he brought up the subject at a 
meeting of the Commercial Club and strongly 
urged its adoption. His suggestions received 
instant support, because there were dozens of 
patriotic organizations planning campaigns to 
raise huge sums, and the average citizen felt 
helpless to refuse them or to decide intelli- 
gently between them if forced, for financial 
reasons, to make a choice. 

The president of the Commercial club, P. T. 
Stoffel, appointed F. Lee Norton, J. H. Bran- 
num, W^alter H. Reed, Fulton Thompson and 
Herbert F. Johnson to arrange for the pro- 
posed organization. 

The committee was authorized to increase 
its member.ship if it desired, and it decided 
upon a total membership of fifteen. The addi- 
tional ones appointed were William Horlick, 
Jr., L. P. Christensen, John H. Dwight, George 
Jorgenson, John D. Jones, Jr., C. Roy Mc- 
Canna, F. J. Osius, M. H. Pettit, J. V. Rohan 
and Stuart Webster. Mr. Webster resigned in 
September, 1918, and W. T. Hai-\'ey succeeded 














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him. Mr. Norton was chairman, Mr. Johnson 
vice-chairman, Mr. Horlick treasurer, and 
Horace P. Edmands was secured as an execu- 
tive secretary. The outline of the plan was put 
into writing and approved by the Council of 
Defense, Commercial club and business men 
in general. On Dec. 20, 1917, a meeting of 
manufacturers was called to arrange the de- 
tails of methods of handling factory subscrip- 

On March 18, 1918, a ten-day campaign was 
put on to get everyone to sig:n the pledge 
cards and the remarkable number of 27,207 
people in the county subscribed. This was 
fully a third of all the men, women and chil- 
dren in the county. It was understood that 
the pledges were to remain in effect until the 
termination of the war and that any funds 
then left on hand could be used in the dis- 
cretion of the committee for some public 
charitable pui-pose. 

All of the soldiers' and sailors' welfare 
organizations were beneficiaries of the fund. 
It was customary in national drives for money 
for the Y. M. C. A., Red Cross, Salvation Army, 
Knights of Columbus, War Camp Community 
Senice, American Library Bureau, Jewish 
Welfare Board, etc., to allot a certain amount 
to be raised in each county throughout the 
nation, and through the local relief fund here 
these assessments could be met without fur- 
ther solicitation or trouble. 

The Racine County War Relief fund was 
variously knowai as the War Chest, Patriots' 
Fund, and other titles, most of which had been 
applied to similar organizations in other 

A total of $500,880.06 was paid into the 
fund, and about $?.00,000 had been expended 
when the armistice was sig^ned. A balance of 
$130,000 remained on Nov. 11, 1919, and the 
committee of fifteen were still trying to decide 
what to do with it. 

The subscribers to the fund included: 

One hundred and thirteen factories, 12,318 
factory employes, 221 merchants, 75.5 em- 
ployes of merchants, 3,568 personal pledges 
from the city of Racine and 4,232 subscnbers 
of all classes in the county outside of Racine. 
The country subscribers were divided as fol- 

Towns of Burlington, 278; Caledonia, 482; 
Dover, 230; Mount Pleasant, 420; Noi-way, 
211; Ra^^nond, 344; Rochester, 53; Waterford, 
252; Yorkville, 283; City of Burlington, 975; 
Villages of Corliss, 137; Rochester, 91; Union 
Grove, 244; Waterford, 231. 

The factories and merchants and their em- 
ployes gave $364,870. The personal pledges 

in the city netted $88,246. The other portions 
of the county gave as follows: 

Town of Burlington $ 2,534.70 

To^\Tl of Caledonia 5,557.51 

Town of Dover 2,994.60 

Town of INIount Pleasant 5,259.79 

Town of Noi-way 1,688.00 

Town of Raymond 2.302.27 

Town of Rochester 510.00 

Town of Watei-ford 2,342.30 

Town of Y'orkville 2,739.45 

City of Burtington 16,000.00 

Village of Cortiss 1,440.47 

Village of Rochester 704.37 

Village of Union Grove 1,969.00 

Village of Waterford 1,720.66 

Total $47,763.12 

At the meeting held May 13, 1918, it was 
agreed that in order to gain a comprehensive 
knowledge of the various organizations doing 
war relief work, who had already or who 
might in the future ask for appropriations 
from this fund, it would be necessary to 
fomiulate a questionnaire that would meet 
the requirements of the Committee of Fifteen. 

A committee consisting of M. H. Pettit, J. 
H. Brannum, and Fulton Thompson was ap- 
pointed to meet with the Secretary and draft 
a foi-m of questionnaii-e, with the result that 
the following foi-m was presented and ap- 
proved by the full committee: 

"The Racine County War Relief Fund Com- 
mittee of Racine County, AVisconsin, being the 
custodians of a Public Fund raised for War 
Relief purposes only, can make no disburse- 
ments for any purpose unless full infonna- 
tion is given them regarding the objects for 
which the money is used, and the conditions 
surrounding its e.xpenditure. Applicants for 
contributions are, thei'efore, requested to fill 
out the following questionnaire, to be filed 
with the records of the Committee: 

1. Is your committee or organization incor- 
porated? (Yes or no) 

2. (a) Have you a national organization? 

(Yes or no) 

(b) Give the names and addresses of 
officers of your National Organization. 

3. (a) What is the total amount of fund 

now to be raised throughout the 
country ? 


(b) For how long a penod? 

4. What amount was raised and disbursed 

by your committee in 19 ? 


5. (a) Have you a Wisconsin State Or- 

ganization? (Yes or no) 




The members were (at the top) George Ela, A. J. Topp, secretary: John J. Wishau, (below) Dr. F. A. Malone and L. H. 

Rohr, chairman. 


At the rear are Jens Jensen. Wm. Erick, J. E. Evans and J. J. Otradevec. Seated at the table are Fred Radewan. Frank 
Luxem. Lester Bowman, W. T. Harvey, S. W. Chamberlin, Charles Christensen, Sidney Mikulecky. 



(b) Give the names and addresses of 
officers of your State Organization. 

6. What amount, derived from any source, 
was paid out in salaries or commis- 
sions in 19 ? 

Furnish the numbei' of people working 
■ on salaries or commissions and cite 
representative salaries or commissions 
paid, including the highest. 

7. What is the salary or commission ex- 

pense contemplated for 19 in na- 
tional or local organization. 

8. Is this application a part of a general 

campaign throughout the United 
States for funds? (Yes or no) 

9. State ratio of expense to relief in such 
a way that our committee can ascer- 
tain what proportion of money con- 
tributed by Racine County War Re- 
lief Fund will go to actual relief. 

10. State how you believe the Racine 

County Relief Fund should conti-ibute 
to this campaign, together with your 
reasons for this and any computation 
upon wliich they are based. 
(The population of Racine County is 

11. On what basis was the quota of Racine 

County deteiTnined ? 

12. Is the above pro rata set up as Racine's 

"Fair share" in line with an equally 
suitable call upon all other communi- 
ties of approximately the same size? 

13. Are equal monthly payments satisfac- 

tory? ( Yes or no) 

14. If not, state reason. 

15. State specifically how money is to be 

spent by giving budget, or listing 
large items. 

16. (a) Is this work in any way a duplica- 

tion of the American Red Cross ? 

(Yes or no) 

(b) Or any other national organization 
now in existence? (Yes or no) 

17. Why is this not a duplication of the 

Red Cross woi'k ? 

18. Does not the Home Sei-vice Department 

of the Red Cross do this work? 

19. Explain as fully as possible why there 

should be a special organization for 
this woi'k. 

20. What various kinds of woi'k will your 

funds be used for? 

21. Give the names and amounts other war 

chest fund committees are appropriat- 
ing to your fund. 

22. What other similar committees or or- 

ganization are collecting for or dupli- 
cating your work? 

23. Under whose authority or by whose ap- 

proval or sanction is your fund being^ 
raised ? 

24. Make any further statements you think 

will assist the committee in making a 
just decision as to your application. 
"The foregoing questionnaire has been filled 

out accuiately for the 

at this by 

their duly authorized agent. 



"Without the satisfactory filling out of this 
questionnaire no war relief organization seek- 
ing money for their work will receive an ap- 

Each questionnaire, as well as all other 
available infonnation was sci-utinized care- 
fully and if thought necessai'y the organiza- 
tions seeking appropriations were requested 
to give further infonnation. 

A summary of the organizations to which 
appropriations have been made, together with 
the amounts appropriated, is shown on the op- 
posite page. 



Organization Date Amount 

National Surgical Dressings Committee Apr. 9, 1918 $ 21.76 

Armenian-Syrian Relief May 6, 1918 5,000.00 

Salvation Army May 6, 1918 6,000.00 

Woman's Committee (Soldiers and Sailors' Canteen) — 

$1,000.00 May 6, 1918 

500.00 Jan. 27, 1919 

116.57 Jan. 27, 1919 

1,000.00 Apr. 14, 1919 2,616.57 

Franco-American Corrective Surgical Appliance Committee. . . . May 15, 1918 250 00 

American National Red Cross $50,000.00 May 13, 1918 

Memberships 26,755.00 Dec. 9, 1918 76,755.00 

Racine Chapter Red Cross 5,000.00 May 15, 1918 

10,000.00 Sept. 9,1918 15,000.00 

Boy Scouts of America July 8, 1918 2,500.00 

Comforts Forwarding Committee (Christian Science) July 8, 1918 1,200.00 

Fatherless Children of France — 

$3,650.00 July 8, 1918 

3,650.00 Mar. 10, 1919 7,300.00 

American Chocolate Fund Aug. 16, 1918 200.00 

Methodist War Relief Fund Aug. 12, 1918 1,200.00 

American Jewish Relief Committee Sept. 9, 1918 10,000.00 

Nurses' Fund Sept. 9, 1918 180.71 

Medical Advisory Board Sept. 9, 1918 

(Reclamation work on men to fit them for the service) 

St. Luke's Hospital $ 93.90 

St. Mary's Hospital 779.75 

Burlington Hospital 86.43 960.08 

National Allied Relief Committee Oct. 14, 1918 500.00 

French Heroes' Lafayette Mem. Fund Oct. 14, 1918 1,000.00 

**United War Work Fund Nov. 11, 1918 185,000.00 

Y. M. C. A 58.65 per cent 

Y. W. C. A 8.80 per cent 

K. of C 17.60 per cent 

Jewish Welfare Bd 2.05 per cent 

War Camp Service 8.80 per cent 

American Liberty Association 2.05 per cent 

Salvation Army 2.05 per cent 

Children of the Frontier Nov. 25, 1918 500.00 

Permanent Blind Relief Fund Nov. 25, 1918 1,500.00 

Polish Victims' Relief Fund Nov. 25, 1918 6,000.00 

Committee for Relief in the Near East Jan. 15, 1919 18,000.00 

Roumanian Relief Committee Jan. 27, 1919 325.00 

American Fund for French Wounded Jan. 27, 1919 1,000.00 

National Lutheran Council Feb. 10, 1919 3,500.00 

Serbian Aid Fund Nov. 25, 1918 200.00 

Apr. 14, 1919 500.00 

American Jugo-Slav Relief Mar. 10, 1919 650.00 

Italian War Relief Fund of America Mar. 10, 1919 1,000.00 

Permanent Blind Relief Fund July 21, 1919 1,500.00 

Near East Relief Committee Dec. 16, 1919 12,000.00 

Total $362,359.12 

*Balance unpaid Jan. 1, 1920 60,000.00 


THE American Red Cross is the greatest 
relief organization in the world. Main- 
tained in peace time to I'ender prompt 
service in emergencies due to fire, famine, 
wrecks, storms, epidemics and other disasters, 
it also is constantly prepared to meet such de- 
mands as may be made upon it in time of war. 
When the World War began the American 
Red Cross sent hospital units and supplies for 
civilian sufferers to all the belligerent countries 
impartially, but it never lost sight of the fact 
that America might be drawn into the conflict 
and the government would need all the co-op- 
eration which the Red Cross could give. Plans 
were made early in 1914 for expanding the 
membership, raising funds, listing available 
nurses and physicians and outlining the poli- 
cies to be followed if a declaration of war 
should come. 

As a result of the foresight of the society's 
officers, the activities of this splendid organi- 
zation during our participation in the war can 
not but afford gi'atification to the hundreds of 
thousands of men, women and children who 
supported it so generously throughout the 

When the armistice was signed, the Ameri- 
can Red Cross was operating twenty-two mili- 
tary hospitals, had treated 89,5.39 men in these 
institutions and had extended assistance in one 
form or another to 2,800 French hospitals as 
well as maintaining welfare workers in all 
American army hospitals. Its paid workers 
manufactured all the splints used by ai'niy 
surgeons, manufactured the nitrous oxide gas 
used as an anaesthetic, supei'vised emergency 
hospitals, diet kitchens, dispensaries and con- 
valescent homes. 

More significant than those figures, howev- 
er, are the records of the labor performed at 
home by the army of women who saw in the 
Red Cross a suitable agency through which to 
do those things for the men in service whi:-h 
every patriotic woman wanted to do — to pro- 
vide comforts for the men aboard ship, in 

camp, on the battlefields, and, above all, in the 
hospitals. The government authorized the Red 
Cross to perform many of those acts which 
made the lot of the soldier and sailor much 
more bearable, but which the authorities them- 
selves felt they were unable to do properly. 
The grim nature of a Depf.rtment of War 
during hostilities did not lend itself readily to 
such tasks as writing letters for bed-ridden 
victims of battle, furnishing music and even 
flowers for homesick wounded men, informing 
parents of the whereabouts and health of their 
boys, buying games and books for convalescent 
patients or supplying wounded men with pa- 
jamas. Yet the sternest-visaged army com- 
manders realized that such things had actual 
value, as aids to recovery and maintaining 
the good spirits of men whose services might 
be needed again in the field. 

To obtain the material necessary for Red 
Cross work, the women at home devoted every 
available moment. Without reward or even 
hope of official recognition of any sort, Ameri- 
can women prepared and delivered more than 
22,000,000 surgical dressings in the last nine 
months of 1918; made thousands of quilts and 
comforters; provided enough pajamas and 
socks to furnish all that were needed to all 
of the wounded in base hospitals, and in ad- 
dition to these great tasks met every demand 
for garments for civilian sufferers in France 
and Belgium, and for numerous smaller I'e- 
quii-ements in the way of aprons, mittens, knit 
helmets and sleeveless sweaters for vai'ious 
branches of the army and navy. 

The Red Cross was also able to supply the 
army with 77,000 surgical instruments, 3,000 
cots and vast quantities of drugs from its re- 
serve stores. 

Racine county was one of the banner counties 
in the country from the standpoint of propor- 
tionate production of supplies for the Red 
Cross. The chapter here was efficiently organ- 
ized and more than met every requisition 
made upon it. It had an actual membership 



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of 32,000 men and women who paid $1 a year 
for the privilege, and as the county had a to- 
tal papulation of barely 70,000 the member- 
ship figures show the almost unanimous co- 
operation given the Red Cross. 

The policy of the Racine chapter was, in 
brief, to furnish everything asked by the na- 
tional organization, and as much more as pos- 
sible. The men of the county, particularly, 
were asked to provide all funds necessary for 
buying yarn, cloth and other material, and 
the women were to transform this into the 
articles required. The program was carried 
out with an enthusiasm and success which is 
a cause for real pride to every citizen of the 

The Racine Chapter of the Red Cross was 
organized Sept. 20, 1915, with twelve charter 
members. The meeting had been called owing 
to the patriotic foresight of Mrs. William How- 
ard Crosby; working hand in hand with her 
and ably seconding every effort were Mis. 
James G. Chandler and Mrs. Otis W. Johnson. 
At this first meeting, the following officers 
were chosen: 

Chairman — Mrs. James G. Chandler. 

Vice-Chairman — A. J. Horlick. 

Secretary — Mrs. William H. Crosby. 

Treasurer — Malcolm Erskine. 

Work was begun immediately to enlarge the 
membership, and gratifying results were at- 
tained. In January, 1917, at the request of 
J. J. O'Connor, manager of the central division 
of the Red Cross at Chicago, the constitution 
of the chapter was extended so as to include 
the entire county. 

In April, 1917, Herbert F. Johnson was elect- 
ed chairman of the finance committee and 
largely as a result of his energetic manage- 
ment, the citizens of the county donated $118,- 
000 to the Red Cross in the first War Fund 
campaign. The quota assigned to Racine 
county was only $60,000, and the procuring of 
nearly f-wice this amount shows plainly enough 
how the people felt toward the society which 
had been termed "the greatest mother in tbe 
world." Later, on the resignation of A. J. 
Horlick, Mr. Johnson was made vice-chairman. 

At the first annual meeting of the Racine 
Chapter Mrs. Frank J. Miller was elected sec- 
retary to succeed Mrs. Crosby, who resigned 
on account of ill health. Special recognition 
is due to Mrs. Miller for her service. The sec- 
retarial work had assumed enormous propor- 
tions, but no high salaried executive could have 
been more faithful or efficient. Assisting Mrs. 
Miller every day up to the time of her depar- 
ture from the city was Mrs. Ralph W'ilson. 

The following directors have served on tht 
governing board of the Racine Chapter since 
its organization: 

1916 — J. G. Meachem, Mrs. F. J. Pope, elect- 
ed for one year; Mrs. E. C. Beyer, Mrs. Jas. E. 
Bush, Mrs. W. R. Kirkby, F. A. Morey and 
W. H. Reed, elected for two years; Mrs. Jas. G. 
Chandler, Mrs. W. H. Crosby, A. J. Horlick, 
Malcolm Erskine, and the Mesdames J. D. Hal- 
lowell, 0. W. Johnson, W. T. Lewis, G. F. Mc- 
Nitt and A. 0. Simpkins, elected for three 

1917_H. C. Baker, J. S. Blakey, A. F. Erick- 
son, M. J. Gillen, A. T. Titus, George A. Waller, 
Miss Bertha Kelley and the Mesdames John F. 
Clancy, Warren J. Davis, John Dickson, P. S. 
Fuller, A. R. Huguenin, J. S. Keech, J. P. 
Pearce, J. S. Sidley and Stuart Webster. 

1918— H. F. Johnson and Mrs. Frank J. Mil- 
ler, elected for two years; Jerome J. Foley, 
O. P. Graham, John D. Jones, Jr., Walter C. 
Palmer, A. C. Mehder and Mrs. W. W. Ramsey, 
elected for three years. 

Prior to our entry into the war, the Racine 
women had been doing a considerable amount 
of knitting and sewing, and sending the fin- 
ished garments to the Red Cross headquarters 
at Milwaukee or Chicago. As the demand for 
more work increased, paralleling the growth 
of our army and navy, Mrs. Chandler quickly 
saw the necessity of having more and more 
volunteer workers and providing means for 
them to do what was wanted. For this pur- 
pose, she adopted the excellent plan of form- 
ing Red Cross auxiliaries from the member- 
ship of the various women's clubs, churches 
and societies of all kinds, and also community 
auxiliaries in rural towns. Owing to its size 
and importance, Burlington was authorized to 
form a "branch" of the Red Cross, with the 
customary subsidiary departments. In other 
cases, the local "auxiliaries" performed only 
assignments of specific types of work request- 
ed by the Racine County Chapter with head- 
quarters in Racine. Mrs. George A. Harper 
was chairman of the Burlington branch and 
they had eight auxiliaries there. 

Union Grove had the distinction of forming 
the first auxiliary, with Mrs. O. P. Graham 
as chairman. 

Following is a list of the town, village, 
church and society auxiliaries, with their chair- 
men : 

Caldwell Auxiliary, Mrs. A. H. Peacock, 

Caledonia Auxiliary, Mrs. George Smith, 



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Corliss Auxiliary, Mrs. William Osborne, 

Franksville Auxiliary, Mrs. A. Lower, Chair- 

Honey Creek Auxiliary, Mrs. Frank Page, 

Hood's Creek Auxiliary, Mrs. Phillip Olley, 

Ives Grove Auxiliary, Mrs. Frank Beach, 

Kneeland Auxiliary, Mrs. Isaac P. Kotvis, 

Mt. Pleasant Auxiliary, Mrs. W. R. Rowley, 

North Cape Auxiliary, Miss Anna Apple, 

Raymond Auxiliary, Mrs. Thomas Morgen- 
.sen. Chairman. 

Rochester Auxiliary, Mrs. F. Patten, Chair- 

South Lake Shore Auxiliary, Mrs. W. F. 
Hansehe, Chairman. 

St. Mary's Dover Auxiliary, Mrs. F. W. Mc- 
Manus, Chairman. 

Union Grove Auxiliary, Mrs. J. H. Youngs, 

Waterford Auxiliary, Mrs. Fred Cooper, 

Yorkville Auxiliary, Mrs. Clinton Skewes, 

Bethesda Auxiliary, Mrs. Ann Seager, 

Catholic Woman's Club Auxiliary, Mrs. J. F. 
Clancy, Chairman. 

Church of Atonement Auxiliary, Mrs. Louis 
Jensen,. Chairman. 

Czech Ladies Auxiliary, Mrs. J. Prostrednik, 

Dania Ladies Auxiliary, Mrs. S. Soi-enson, 

Danish Bethania .Auxiliary, Mrs. Knud Han- 
son, Chairman. 

Danish Immanuel Auxiliary, Mrs. Louis 
Christensen, Chairman. 

Danish Sisterhood Auxiliary, Mrs. C. S. Ras- 
mussen, Chaii'nian. 

Daughters of Israel Auxiliary, Mrs. Gluck, 

Eagles Auxiliary, Mrs. Anna Amundsen, 

Emaus Auxiliary, Mrs. Nels Hansen, Chair- 

First Baptist Auxiliary, Mrs. J. E. Pritchard, 

First Congregational .Auxiliary, Miss Louise 
Jensen, Chairman. 

First Evangelical Auxiliary, Mrs. H. O 
Frank, Chairman. 

First Luthei-an Auxiliary, Mrs. H. Dahlen- 
burg, Chairman. 

Junior Relief Auxiliary, Miss Jeanette Hilk- 
er. Chairman. 

Gethsemane Auxiliary, Mrs. Jorgensen, 

Good Shepherd Auxiliary, Mrs. F. W. Logan, 

Grange Avenue Auxiliary, Mrs. W. L. Gar- 
rett, Chairman. 

Harvey School Auxiliary, Mrs. Chas. J. Root. 

Holy (jommunion Auxiliary, Mrs. John P. 
Hansen, Chairman. 

Holy Innocents Auxiliary, Mrs. Anne Mc- 
Caughey, Chairman. 

Immanuel Episcopal Auxiliary, Mrs. J. Os- 
borne, Chairman. 

Italian Baptist Auxiliary, Mrs. A. Raffone,, 

Joan Club Auxiliary, Mrs. Catherine B. 
Irons, Chairman. 

Lakeview Auxiliary, Mrs. C. Kristerius,. 

First Methodist Auxiliary, Mrs. Mable Sax- 
ton, Chairman. 

National Woman's Relief Auxiliary, Mrs. 
Dora Undemvood, Chairman. 

North Side M. E. Auxiliary, Mrs. J. E. Hay- 
man, Chairman. 

Our Savior's Auxiliary, Mrs. Geo. Due, 

Plymouth Auxiliary, Mrs. S. M. Harbridge, 

First Presbyterian Auxiliary, Mrs. L. L. Ga- 
boon, Chairman. 

Pythian Sisters Auxiliary, Mrs. Geo. E. Rod- 
gers. Chairman. 

Sacred Heart Auxiliary, Mrs. Geo. Sideski, 

Salvation Army Auxiliary, Mrs. Annie A. 
Knudson, Chairman. 

Soldiers' Relief of the PolisTi Auxiliary, Mrs. 
A. Rademacher, Chairman. 

St. Hedwig's Auxiliary, Mrs. Frank Fachko, 

St. John's Lutheran Auxiliary, Mrs. Peter 
Stoffel, Chairman. 

St. John's Nep. Auxiliary, Mrs. Jos. Chadek, 

St. Joseph's Auxiliary, Mrs. Peter Prudent, 

St. Luke's Auxiliary, Mrs. G. A. Gallagher, 

St. Paul's Lutheran Auxiliary, Mrs. Harvey 
Nelson, Chairman. 

Stephen Bull School Auxiliary, Mrs. Henry 
Wiegand, Chairman. 





107th Field Signal Bn. Col. Lewis was the RankinK Officer in the U. S. Army From 

Racine County 




Swedish Lutheran Auxiliary, Mrs. Einar 
Beck, Chairman. 

Swedish M. E. Auxiliary, Mrs. Emil Bloom, 

Tabernacle Auxiliary, Mrs. R. G. Roberts, 

Tabor Czech Auxiliary, Mrs. Anna Swanda, 

Trinity Lutheran .\uxiliary, Mrs. J. Makov- 
sky. Chairman. 

Woman's Club Auxiliary, Mrs. .John Dickson, 

Local workers for the Red Cross were not 
expected to purchase and contribute manufac- 
tured goods; what was desired was the mobili- 
zation of the nation's womanhood to perform 
woi'k of manufacture at home in order that 
increased production would be obtained. The 
purchase of machine and factory made goods 
was made by the national Red Cross where 
needed, but they were not supposed to be ac- 
cepted from local chapters. The output of the 
auxiliaries, therefore, was an absolute net gain 
in estimating the productive power of the na- 

With perhaps 20,000 workers at her service, 
the local chairman, Mrs. Chandler, realized 
that it would be impossible for her to continue 
to give personal supervision to all the details 
of work and she proceeded to complete an 
organization which would function as efficient- 
ly as any great industrial corporation. With 
the president as the executive and supervising 
head of all departments, she divided the cen- 
tral body into sections conforming with the 
organization of the national society of the Red 
Cross. Each section had its chairman and 
executive committee. Each of these chairmen 
received instructions as to the woi'k to be 
done, and then worked out her own plan for 
accomplishing it. At the service of these de- 
pai-tments, were placed the total membership 
of the numerous auxiliaries, which received 
their instructions through their chairmen from 
the department heads of the Red Cross with 
the approval of the president. 

Yarn, cloth and other materials were fur- 
nished the auxiliaries by the central organiza- 
tion. Rooms were provided where the workers 
could sew and knit, if desired. As these were 
occupied every hour of the day by some group, 
quick action could be obtained on any requisi- 
tion for completed work. 

For the efficiency of the organization as a 
whole in Racine county, Mrs. Chandler cer- 
tainly is entitled to unstinted praise. The 
management of the business problems; the co- 
ordinating of the effort of thousands of women; 

the maintenance of enthusiasm of toiling heads 
of departments; the smoothing out of occasion- 
al differences between women from every class 
and station of life; the responsibility for the 
financial policy of the chapter; the constant 
demand for her services in organizing new 
auxiliaries, answering questions and soliciting 
support — certainly these duties required tact 
and managerial ability of the highest order, 
and their possession by Mrs. Chandler was 
amply shown by the remarkable results ac- 
complished here. 

The direct responsibility for results natural- 
ly fell upon the department heads, and they 
are every one deserving of the credit and en- 
comiums given them, not only by the chapter 
chairman but by those whose efforts they su- 
pervised. In many instances, these patriotic 
women devoted their entire time to the work 
to the utter disregard of their personal and 
household affairs. 

Following are the departments and their 

Hospital Garments — Miss Bertha C. Kelley. 

Surgical Dressings — Mrs. John S. Sidley 
(1917) and Mrs. Herbert F. Johnson (1918). 

Knitting — Mrs. Otis W. Johnson. 

Comforts for Fighting Men — Mrs. Warren 
J. Davis. 

Civilian Relief— Lt.-Col. H. C. Baker. 

Finance — Herbert F. Johnson. 

Instruction for Women — Mrs. Arthur Hugu- 

Motor Corps — Mrs. W. H. Reed (captain). 

Foreign Refugee Relief — Mrs. John Barr. 

Canteen — E. L. Wratten. 

Conservation — Mrs. Ralph Rugh. 

Junior auxiliaries — F. M. Longanecker. 

Three of these departments had almost un- 
limited tasks in view from the very start. 
They were the ones devoted to the supplying of 
surgical dressings, hospital garments and knit- 
ting. The others had tremendous demands 
upon them part of the time, and less urgent 
work at other periods. 

Of course, the accomplishment of their 
labors would have been impossible but for 
the unselfish and whole heai'ted response to 
every demand of the nation by the men, women 
and children of the county — particularly the 
women. Each was ever ready to perform her 
share, and more, of the humanitarian work re- 
quired by the great war. Each one did her 
part in making the Red Cross the strongest 
and best organization in the world for the 
relief of suffering humanity. 

The Hospital Garments department was giv- 
en the arduous task of keeping all the auxili- 






aries supplied with work and assembling the 
output for inspection and shipment to the 
central division in Chicago. Material was cut 
out to pattern a hundred or more at a time 
by an electrical cutting machine and then sent 
to the various auxiliaries for completion. 

Miss Kelley had as her assistants: Mmes. 
Bernice Sherman, Clara Copeland, W. H. Fan- 
cher, Evan Catteral, A. H. Barnes, M. C. Bar- 
rington, J. C. NeCollins, Louis Christiansen, 
Owen McKivitt, and Miss Mary Roberts. These 
women worked most faithfully in the base- 
ment of the Badger building. During the war 
about 7.5,000 garments were inspected and 
shipped by this committee. Especial mention 
should be given Mrs. Bernice Sherman, who 
with Miss Kelley did this volunteer work for 
the Red Cross every single day from the time 
America entered the war until the armistice 
was signed. 

Following is a list of articles shipped by 
this committee during 1918 and a portion of 
1919 for hospital use and the relief of refugees 
in France and Belgium: 

7 Knit Afghans, 500 Women's Aprons, 60 
Bedside Bags, 420 Hospital Bags, 2,500 Water- 
proof Bags, 335 Chemise, 1,070 Drawers, 35 
Children's Dresses, 23,226 Hospital Garments, 
3,479 Refugee Garments, 2,565 Handkerchiefs, 
815 Jackets, 20 Layettes, 1,500 Masks, 1 Muf- 
fler, 425 Night Gowns, 1,345 pairs Pajamas, 165 
Petticoats, 65 Pinafores, 190 Bath Robes, 72 
Scrap Books, 315 Shirts, 190 shirts for men, 
5 skirts for women, 25 suits, 1,336 Under- 
shirts, 185 Boys' Underwear, 200 Vests, 180 
Boys' Blouses; Waists, 11,000 Gun Wipes, 
Total .53,461. 

When the demand for more and still more 
work became evident, the surgical dressings' 
section became a department of its own. Mrs. 
John Streeter Sidley, daughter of Wni. Hor- 
lick, was made the first Chairman. 

Preparations for the establishment of this 
department were really made in the spring of 
1917. Mrs. Sidley, who was a graduate Red 
Cross instructor, opened her home, "The Oaks" 
lor the purpose of conducting a class. A sec- 
ond class was formed by Mrs. Arthur Hu- 
guenin, chairman of the department of instruc- 
tion classes for women, and Miss Bessie Greene 
of Milwaukee was engaged as its instructor. 
Mrs. Percival Fuller opened her home to 
classes soon after, and Mrs. Huguenin's class 
and other volunteers made dressings there and 
became known as the South Side auxiliary. 

Under Mrs. Sidley, the following were gradu- 
ated as instructors: Mesdames W. V. Adams, 
E. W. Bartley, John Dwight, James W. Gilson, 

A. J. Horlick, H. F. Johnson, John Reid, Jr., 
E. Von Buddenbrock, Mortimer E. Walker, and 
Misses Arnold, Gertrude Davis and Edna Wil- 
liams. From Mrs. Sidley's classes were also 
graduated the following supervisors: Mes- 
dames Walter H. Reed, Maxwell, A. F. Erick- 
son, Walter Karll, Willard Walker, F. R. Wash- 
burn, C. F. Johnson, Witmer, J .V. Rohan, E. F. 
Freeman, Leo Miller, Joseph Miller and Warren 
Walker, and the Misses Virginia Gordon, 
Mabel Judd and Elizabeth Gaboon. 

Under Miss Greene, the following instruct- 
ors were graduated: The Misses Edna Bil- 
lings, Edith Chandler, Mildred Dickson, Bertha 
C. Kelley, Helen Kelley, Nellie Mae Olson, and 
the Mesdames Richard G. Bryant, William 
Fish, Percival Fuller, Arthur Huguenin, F. W. 
Pope, Jr., Henry D. Robinson, Stuart Webster 
and Henry G. Mitchell. 

The following supervisors were graduated 
under Mrs. M. E. Walker: The Misses Louise 
Clarke, May Nelson, Estelle Keech, Anna 
Weeks, Fidelas Rawson, Mabel Walker, Rade- 
macher and the Mesdames Lutz, Edith Gard- 
ner, William Sawyer, Goldsworthy, Andrew 
Simonson, Arthur Simonson, and P. L'Heureux. 
Mrs. Herbert F. Johnson succeeded Mrs. 
Sidley in January, 1918, and the department 
was recognized and ably carried on as one of 
the most important activities of the Chapter. 
The Wisconsin Telephone company at this time 
donated its former office building as headquar- 
ters for the committee, with heat and light 
furnished, for the duration of the war. Miss 
Mary Colville was assistant to Mrs. Johnson, 
followed by Mrs. Grace Fish, who was also 
made chairman of inspection and packing. She 
was assisted in this work by Miss Clarke, Miss 
Nelson and Miss Mabel Walker. Mrs. J. S. 
Keech was chairman of the cutting work, as- 
sisted by the Mesdames L'Heureux, Simonson, 
Merrell, Maxwell, Belden, Rohan, Gorton, Bots- 
ford and Thorby and Miss Cahoon. Messrs. 
Tom Jones and Andrew Raymond donated their 
services as experts to supervise the cutting of 
the dressings. 

The committee more than met all demands 
for supplies, and upon occasions turned out as 
many as 6,000 dressings a day. The heaviest 
quota asked was for 10,000 dressings to be 
completed in two weeks, and the department 
delivered double this number within seven 
days. All kinds of dressings were made, in- 
cluding triangle bandages, pneumonia jackets, 
rolls, pads, tempons, compresses and abdominal 
bandages. Llore than 800 women gave their 
time to the work. Often during the working 
hours, songs were sung, letters from "over 


















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there" were read, or Miss Hannan of the public 
library would read books and articles of inter- 
est to the women as they cut and stitched. 

During Mrs. Sidley's chairmanship of the 
section, 58,806 surgical dressings were made, 
and during- Mrs. Johnson's regime there were 
added to this, 164,788 di'essings. Eight hun- 
dred women assisted in the work. 

Mrs. Otis W. .Johnson, chairman of the knit- 
ting department, had as members of her com- 
mittee Mmes. Walter H. Stearns, John B. Sim- 
mons, Jerome I. Case, Miss Emma Sage, Mrs. 
Henry G. Mitchell, Mrs. H. M. Wallis, Mrs. 
F. J. Osius, Mrs. L. P. Monroe, Mrs. W. V. 
Osborne, Mrs. Ralph N. Soule, Mrs. J. S. Keech, 
Miss Nellie Gorton, Mrs. Lizzie Merrell, Mrs. 
Belle Galloway and Mrs. Louisa Smader. 

This department assumed the responsibility 
of providing yarn to the various auxiliaries 
and individual workers and inspecting and col- 
lecting the completed articles. 

As much of this work was done in the homes 
and could not be completed under the personal 
supervision of the volunteer inspectors, criti- 
cism and rejection of garments was often a 
most embarrassing duty devolving upon the 
committee. It was made necessary by the 
strict regulations of the central division. Knit- 
ting was the universal war work of all women, 
including aged women, invalids and little girls. 
There was no mother or housewife so busy but 
that sTie was able to devote some hours every 
day to the task. It became a custom for 
women to never let their hands be idle. Their 
knitting was carried on wherever they went, 
in the street cars, trains, public meetings, and 
even during church services. Even some men 
with idle time at their disposal acquired the 
habit. Many women who wei'e expert at this 
art volunteered their services as instructors. 
For example, Mrs. F. J. Osius offered to devote 
her whole time to this work and hundreds of 
women came to her home at all hours of the 
day and evening to receive instruction in purl- 
ing, and the intricate rules for making the 
Kitchener toe and the heel: "Slip 1, Knit 9, 
Slip 1, Knit 1, pass slipped stitch over knitted 
stitch; Knit 1, Turn." 

From June, 1918, to the end of the war, the 
knitting department provided the following 
articles for men in service: 

Four Ear Muffs, 5 Refugee Garments, 387 
Knit Helmets, 35 Mufflers, 393 Children's Muf- 
flers, 5,933 pairs Socks, 66 Stump Socks, 918 
Children's Stockings, 1,639 Sweaters, 739 Chil- 
dren's Sweaters, and 430 Wristlets. 

Four Thousand articles had also been sent 
during the three months ending Feb. 1, 1918. 

The Comforts Department of the Red Cross 
had the duty of supplying as many comforts 
as possible for the fighting men — both at home 
and overseas. 

Each man who left Racine was presented 
with a perfectly equipped comfort kit, and hun- 
dreds of letters received from the boys testify 
to their appreciation of this gift. 

This Department also supplied aviators' 
jackets, mess bags, Christmas boxes, and took 
entire charge of inspecting, wTapping and ship- 
ping all Christmas parcels which were sent to 
soldiers overseas in 1918. 

The following is a brief summary of the 
work of the Department: 

2,587 Comfort Kits made and sent to Central 
Division, Chicago. 

3,238 Comfort Kits packed and distributed 
to Racine men in Army and Navy. 

1,500 Christmas parcels packed and shipped 
to soldiers in United States Camps, Christmas 
of 1917. 

50 Aviators' Jackets made and shipped to 
Central Division, Chicago. 

320 Mess Bags made and shipped to Camp 

1,368 Christmas parcels inspected, packed 
and mailed to soldiers overseas, Christmas of 

The Committee in charge of this department 
was: Mrs. Warren J. Davis, Chairman; Mrs. 
Frank K. Bull, Vice-Chairman; Mrs. Andrew 
Simonson, Mrs. A. F. Erickson, Mrs. W. W. 
Ramsey, Mrs. Fannie Botsford, Mrs. J. S. 
Keech, Mrs. A. J. Eaton, Mrs. Geoi-ge Gal- 
lagher, Mrs. Donald McClure, Miss Estelle 
Keech, Miss Margaret Eaton, Miss Nellie Goi-- 
ton. Miss Anna Gorton, Miss Helen Clancy. 

The Junior League gave very valuable as- 
sistance in the making of comfort kits, as well 
as in other branches of the work, and a gi-eat 
many women gave freely of their time to as- 
sist the Committee in sewing garments, pack- 
ing and shipping of supplies, etc. 

It seems appi'opriate to embody in this re- 
port a letter received from the Local Board, 
Division No. 1: 

November 25, 1918. 

"We are retui-ning today about one hundred 
comfort kits for which we expect to have no 
use because of the cancellation of calls for the 
men for whom they were intended. 

"Will you permit us to take this opportunity 
to express our appreciation of the very practi- 
cal service your society has rendered the select- 
ed men in furnishing these 'kits,' and to assure 



There were listed for entrainment the following: — Charles E. O'Connor, Charles M. Creuziger, Soren Christ Clausen, 
Floyd R. Bassindale. Elmer Ross Hermes, Wm. LeRoy Petersen, John Curico. 


There were listed for entrainment the following: — Sterling W. Albright, Lester McLennan, Christian Andersen, A. H. L. 

Bartz, Edward F. Studey, John M. Gizinski. Jerome P. Danbauser, Louis Schrader. .John Theodore Corombo, William 

King, John J. Kropp, Walter C. Maibohm, Arthur Johnson, Charles Tiede. 


There were listed for entrainment the following: — Peter Sukulawsky, Andrew Poulson, Arthur Haley, Harry H. Lempke, 

Orville B. Newcomb, Alex Kennedy. 


There were listed for entrainment the following: — Harold Avard. Fred M. Williams, Swend B. Nelson Victor Matoskio, 

Wm. H. Lahiff. 



you that the men themselves have given abun- 
dant evidence of their appreciation. 

"Not a single man has declined to accept 
one, and sometimes when it appeai'ed that he 
might be overlooked, the soldier has inquired 
about the 'Red Cross Kit.' It is worth remark- 
ing also that not a single man has gone out 
for whom a comfort kit has not been ready. 
Very respectfully, 



The comfort kits were in the shape of leath- 
erette folders, about 10 inches by 8 inches, with 
pockets and holders containing useful articles 
such as soap, shaving material, needles and 
thread, extra buttons, tooth brush, mirror, etc. 

Mrs. John Barr was in charge of the collec- 
tion, sorting and marking of old clothes which 
were shipped overseas for the use of civilian 
refugees of the Allied countries. She devoted 
a great deal of time to this arduous work. 
During 1918, this committee sent 8,6.57 pounds 
of garments, in addition to 486 garments and 
14 large boxes of clothing which wei-e not 

The Salvage Bureau of the ways and means 
committee also collected old rubber tires and 
books, which were sold for $796, the money 
being turned into the treasury of the chapter. 
Mrs. Sarah Edmonds was in charge of this 
work. Mrs. R. E. Rugh was chairman of a 
committee to collect peach pits and nut shells 
for use in making gas masks. More than a 
ton of these were gathered and shipped. 

The Racine Chapter of the American Red 
Cross Motor Corps came into existence Oct. 1, 
1918, to meet the demand for training women 
for overseas service in the Motor Ambulance 
Corps and to supply efficient transportation 
wherever needed by the local Red Cross Chap- 

Mrs. Walter H. Reed was selected as Cap- 
tain. Volunteer service was offered to hos- 
pitals, charitable institutions, home service 
bureau and local health department. The other 
officers were: 1st Lieuts., Clara Driver and 
Mrs. H. C. Severance; Adjt., Carrie K. Rapps. 

The influenza epidemic swept over the city 
about this time and the motor corps gave in- 
valuable service to the city nurses, responding 
to 277 calls and giving 790 hours of service 
during the month of October. 

Each day the need for workers brought 
new recruits and shortly the records showed 
an active membership of 44 and 17 reserves, 
with 4.5 cars ready for use. 

October 30th the Red Cross society pur- 
chased a regulation Ford Ambulance which 

proved to be most useful during the epidemic, 
conveying a large number of patients to the 
local hospitals. The Motor Corps sei'ved as 
Ambulance Corps. 

A class in automobile mechanics was oi'gan- 
ized with an enrollment of sixty-three women. 
Dean W. Payne of the U. S. Ordnance Depart- 
ment was instructor and gave a course of six- 
teen lessons at the Stephen Bull Garage and 
Case South Works. At the close of these class- 
es the Motor Corps was instructed in military 
drill and discipline by Lieut. McGregor. 

From the time of its organization during 
the remaining period of the war, the Motor 
Corps, through volunteer service, rendered 
great aid to chapter officials and home service 
workers, to the Health Department for civilian 
relief and ambulance work, to Central Associa- 
tion and Public School nurses, and to the local 
hospitals, responding to 793 calls and giving 
2,077 hours of service. The members of Red 
Cross Motor Corps were: Camilla Bennett, 
Mrs. Mabel Brandeis, Mrs. Amanda C. Crooks, 
Clara Driver, Margaret Cosgrove, Elizabeth R. 
Fratt, Gertrude Fratt, Mrs. Stuart M. Har- 
bridge, Nina Huie, Carrie Rapps, Sarah Jel- 
liffe, Florence Jelliffe, Georgie A. Malone, Mrs. 
Margaret L. Nelson, Mrs. Leone P. Miller, Olga 
Piper, Mrs. H. C. Sovei'ance, Amelia Smieding, 
Mrs. Walter H. Reed, Tillie E. Thorkelson, Eli- 
nor Parker, Mrs. Willard Walker, Mrs. Warren 
H. Walker, Mrs. J. H. Brannum, Mrs. E. F. 
Freeman, Mrs. Blanche Secor Rixton, Mrs. 
Frank Alshuler, Mrs. E. E. Bailey, Louise E. 
Bolton, Edith Schulz, Mrs. Walter Brown, Mrs. 
Opal J. Gist, .Jeannette Hilker, Mrs. Taylor 
Jelliffe, Louise M. Jensen, Vera E. Johnson, 
Katherine L. Kearney, Mrs. Fred E. Koehler, 
Mrs. Henry C. Miller, Nellie K. Mohr, Mrs. 
Milo Griffith, Esther Holmn, Lilly H. Peterson, 
Mrs. Dick Kennedy, Mrs. Helen Lewis Wilson, 
Dessie Wishau, Mrs. William V. Osborne, Mrs. 
Berniee Sherman, Grace Laursen, Margaret S. 
Fergus, Ethel E. Olle, Erabelle M. Ingersoll, 
Abbie L Munn. 

The Red Cross chapter as a whole did some 
remarkable work in connection with the "flu" 
epidemic, referred to above. The necessity 
for an emergency hospital was seen at once, 
and the only available empty house of sufficient 
size was that belonging to Richard Robinson 
at Eleventh and Main streets. Mr. Robinson 
was in Florida, but a telegram was sent to 
him explaining the situation and asking for 
the use of the palatial residence. He answered 
immediately granting the request and offering 
any other assistance he could give. Newspaper 
notices were published asking the donation of 




There were listed for entrainment the following: — Paul Struck, Hubert Stuart Stanton. John Youtes. Henry Johnson, 
Louis Orval Davis, Emilian Alban. John Joseph Heinisch, Harry Wright Lewis, David E. Davis. Edward J. Bowers. 


There were listed for entrainment the following: — Knute G. Anderson, John Chickadaunce. Harry O. Johnson, August J. 
Grapentin, James F. Middleton, George Wholust, Bakdasar Bokaholian, Vaghan Koroghlanian, Rapan Manandician, A. J. 

Pluhar, H. Macullin. 


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There were listed for entrainment the following: — Edward Joseph Tecktonius. David D. Stone. Finer H. Jacobsen, Ed- 
mund R. Jayne. Arthur Hay, Thomas Allen. Chris M. Sorenson. Fred Levinson, Walter Malonowski. 


There were listed for entrainment the following:: — Joseph Zaborowicz. Peter A. Johnson. Jos. Petak. Benny Ryskiewicz, 
George Earl Gatfield, Ludwig Nissen, Harold T. Rosenquist. 



beds, rugs and other fui'niture and plenty were 
forthcoming immediately. The house was reno- 
vated from top to bottom, the furniture in- 
stalled, and within four days the place was 
opened as a hospital with 40 beds. Thirty- 
eight patients were installed at once. Three 
died there. Nursing service was also provided 
at twenty-five homes where no one remained 
untouched by the disease to care for others 
who were sick. 

The Civilian Relief department had its be- 
ginnings through the untiring efforts of Mrs. 
Arthur Huguenin, who urged that preparations 
be made to assist in maintaining the morale 
of the army by assuring the men that in case 
of emergency their families would be cared 
for, and at the same time aid in keeping up 
the spirits of the folks at home by serving as 
a channel of communication between families 
and absent men. The first task could not be 
conducted as a public charity, but must be per- 
formed in a way to make the recipients of the 
service feel that they were in the care of 
friends. The second feature of the work was 
possible the vai-ious branches and 
agents of the Red Cross throughout the world, 
in co-operation with government officials, as- 
sumed the job on a wide scale and local branch- 
es were given the benefit of the entire organi- 
zation's operations. 

The importance of having some sort of in- 
formation bureau to which worried parents 
could go for advice can be realized only by 
those who remember the censored letters, the 
aggravating delays in mails, the "losing" of 
men due to transfers from one organization to 
another in France and the weeks and months 
of waiting before the government foi-warded 
any definite news in regard to the whei-eabouts 
or fate of men reported sick, wounded or 
killed. In every hospital representatives of 
the Red Cross were furnished lists of the pa- 
tients, and from the American headquarters at 
Washington they received lists of men regard- 
ing whom information was wanted at home. 
In this way trace was often found of men 
whose mail, sent to' old addresses, had been 
returned unopened, or who had failed to write 
for one reason or another. 

Lt.-Col. H. C. Baker was chairman of this 
local section during the war. The advisory 
committee consisted of E. B. Hand, Dr. A. J. 
Williams, Miss Kate Mehder and Miss Rose 
Webers. After the war Mr. Baker resigned 
and J. H. Brannum acted as chairman. War- 
ren Walker was also added to the committee. 
Headquarters of the department were in the 
Postoffice building until the spring of 1919, 

when they were moved to a suite of roOmS 
in the Baker block. 

With the return of the men from the army 
and navy, the nature of the work changed but 
it did not decrease. The department, re-named 
the Home Service section, accepted the respon- 
sibility of acting as adviser for returned sol- 
diers in solving problems relating to errors in 
pay, allotments, insurance and compensation 
for disability. The department was given in- 
structions as to the proper method of getting 
desired information, and by its efforts was 
able to relieve the government of much cor- 
respondence and confusion in settlement of 

Mrs. C. A. Hamilton acted as secretary of 
the Home Service section from March, 1918, 
through the rest of the war and then during 
the period of demobilization. Owing to the 
amount of work in the office, she was author- 
ized to employ several assistants. 

There is no possible way in which well de- 
served credit can ever be given to the thou- 
sands of women who devoted their time to the 
Red Cross work. Many who served for an 
hour or two a day did so at a great sacrifice 
because this time was in addition to a long 
day's work in homes, factories or offices. Some 
whose sacrifice of time meant little in respect 
to other occupations, were gladly giving up 
pleasures and more congenial occupations 
which might have been theirs had they pre- 
ferred. Still others left remunerative positions 
to as great an extent as they possibly could 
in oi'der to knit and sew for soldiers, and there- 
by sacrificed their own financial welfare. 
Many assumed labors which were distasteful 
to them, and trained themselves in unaccus- 
tomed work, because they felt that they must 
help where their help was most needed, regard- 
less of personal preferences. 

It was taken for granted that everyone was 
willing to do all that could reasonably be ex- 
pected, and then more, and this faith in our 
women by the government and the Red Cross 
organization was justified beyond all pi'ece- 

It was planned that some sort of record be 
kept of the time spent in Red Cross work by 
the various individuals, but it was soon agreed 
that time spent in keeping such records might 
be more profitably used in productive employ- 
ment. Also, it was realized, as previously 
stated, that to lots of women the giving up of 
a few hours each day or each week might be 
more of a sacrifice than the donating of all 
the waking hours of another. 

However, in order to give some official recog- 



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nition of service rendered it was decided that 
badges be given all who had 800 hours' service 
for the Red Cross, and a decorative bar be 
added for each additional 800 hours. Workers 
were asked to keep an account of their own 
time for this purpose. Those awarded the 
badges were: 

Mrs. E. B. Adams, Mrs. Stanley Anderson, 
Mrs. John Barr, Maria A. Burns, Mrs. Louis 
L. Cahoon, Annie Catterall, Edith C. Chandler, 
Mrs. J. G. Chandler, Mrs. E. E. Cheesman, 
Mrs. L. C. Christensen, Mrs. Floyd Coling, 
Clara Copeland, Mrs. Wm. H. Crosby, Mrs. C. 
Ehlers, Mrs. R. Jones Evans, Grace S. Fish, 
Mrs. Christ Gabrielson, Mrs. Geo. Gallagher, 
Mrs. Wm. Garrett, Mrs. Theo. Godske, Jane B. 
Goldsworthy, Nellie L. Gorton, Mrs. O. P. Gra- 
ham, Mrs. Florence Grant, Mrs. Clara F. Grif- 
fith, Mrs. M. E. Hamilton, Mrs. Anna M. Han- 
sen, Mrs. Kirsten, Mrs. C. W. H'Doubler, Mrs. 
Chas. Horner, Mrs. Petrea Jensen, Miss Anna 
Johnson, Mrs. Marie Johnson, Mrs. O. W. 
Johnson, Mrs. Walter E. Jones, Bertha C. Kel- 
ley, Mrs. E. L. King, Mrs. Mamie Laper, Mrs. 
W. La Venture, Mrs. Ollie Leichtwelhs, Alta 
J. Lewis, Mrs. H. W. Lewis, Jessie Stage L' 
Heureux, Mrs. F. W. Logan, Mrs. J. H. Lutz, 
Mrs. Cathryn McKivett, Mrs. John G. Meach- 
em, Mrs. L. K. Merell, Minnie W. Miller, Mrs. 
Henry G. Mitchell, Mrs. Louis P. Munroe, Mrs. 
J. N. NeCollins, May E. Nelson, Mrs. Thos. 
Olle, Mrs. Wm. Osborne, Mrs. John V. Pearce, 
Mrs. F. G. Peehn, Mrs. Charles J. Pfost, Mrs. 
J. Prostrednik, Mrs. Ada Pultz, Miss Mayme 
Rademacher, Mrs. Wm. Rimhardt, Mrs. Annie 
E. Roberts, Miss Mary C. Roberts, Mrs. Henry 
D. Robinson, Mrs. Geo. E. Rodgers, Mrs. W. R. 
Rowley, Mrs. R. Saim, Helen Sargent, Alma M. 
Schaefer, Bertha Schroeder, Mrs. A. M. Sewell, 
Mrs. Bernice Sherman, Mrs. S. Sorenson, Mrs. 

A. P. Speer, Mrs. Walter H. Stearns, Caroline 

B. Stebbins, Mrs. Geo. Van Wie, Sarah Vetter, 
Mrs. D. M. Walker, Mrs. Sam Walker, Mrs. 
Stuart Webster, Mrs. A. Darlington, Mrs. S. F. 
Harcus, Mrs. W. F. Hansehe. 

Miss Bertha C. Kelley had the remarkable 
record of having donated 5,652 hours to the 
Red Cross. Others who gave more than 2,000 
hours were Mrs. J. G. Chandler, Miss Edith 
Chandler, Mrs. Grace S. Fish, Mrs. Charles 
Horner, Alma M. Schaeffer, Mrs. Bertha 
Schroeder, Mrs. S. B. Walker and Mrs. Stuart 

Like all other wartime organizations which 
were suddenly called upon to assume tremen- 
dous responsibilities without time for adequate 
preparations or selection of personnel, the 

American Red Cross was occasionally sub- 
jected to criticism for certain minor policies, 
but this criticism was never directed against 
its local organizations in Racine county. 

One of the aggravating features of all war 
work was the occasional necessity of deciding 
between two or more conflicting orders, or of 
interpreting orders which were not entirely 

There are few women who worked for the 
Red Cross who do not remember the piles of 
neatly finished pajamas, or socks or surgical 
dressings which were returned as "disap- 
proved" by some overly conscientious inspector 
at Chicago or Washington. Probably every 
article passed by the local inspectors was en- 
tirely suitable for the purpose intended, but 
very frequently some "higher up" would decide 
that a seam was turned the wrong way, or a 
surgical dressing was not an exact rectangle, 
or a sock was possessed of a casting which 
would not allow it to stretch easily to a 14 
inch circumference at the top. Protests and 
arguments were useless; everyone was under 
voluntary discipline in war time and was not 
supposed to question any order or ask the 
reasons why. Then it became the sad duty of 
the local inspectors and advisors to explain to 
the proud and willing donors of work and sup- 
plies that their efforts had been of no use, 
and the garments must be reduced to their 
original elements and then reconstructed in 
accordance with the exact rules laid down. 

The difficulty arose from the fact that gen- 
eral rules at national headquarters to guide 
the workers were interpreted too literally by 
divisional inspectors who did not understand 
the uses to which the articles were to be put 
finally. For instance, there was a general im- 
pression that the socks knit at home were to 
go to the men in the trenches to keep them 
warm in winter, and that therefore the least 
irregularity in knitting might chafe the feet 
of marching men or cause a blister on a man 
standing at his post. In actual practice, com- 
bat troops in the American army received socks 
of the regular issue of heavy, machine-made 
type, and the home knitted articles went to 
men in hospitals. Often they were merely bed 
garments. In the course of hasty issuing and 
haphazard laundering there, no patient ever 
received the same pair of socks twice and was 
fortunate if he drew two socks of the same 

In the case of surgical dressings, women 
v/orkers were urged to prepare these in exact 
sizes, some of the inspectors going to such 
lengths as to require the pulling of a thread 



In the rush of sending men away some of the photo groups were not properly identified. The above was one of them. 


Identifying members of the draft group, which the Local Board and photographer failed to enumerate on the copy, will 
be easy for those who are part of it, but rather difficult for persons who are not familiar with the faces. 


Neilher the namfs of the members of the quota nor the destination of the group could be obtained from the photo-print. 
Those shown in the picture will recognize, no doubt, names and dates. 


The passion for running away from food was characteristic of the A. E. F. Here are a number of men in the act of 
breaking out through the windows of the mess hall in the barracks at (it is believed) Is-Sur-Tille, France. 



to make them perfect, or sewing the edges over 
again to make them the proper shape. In the 
hospitals they were cut and slashed to make 
them some convenient size to cover wounds, 
regardless of any exact measurements. Had 
the facts been understood the surgical dress- 
ing classes could have made many times the 
number of dressings they actually turned out. 

The same is true of pajamas and similar 
articles. Stress was placed upon the impor- 
tance of making the garments with a certain 
shaped collar band, and a misplaced pocket 
was deemed cause for rejection at Chicago. 
The chapters were not allowed to use their 
odds and ends of cloth to make pajamas which 
had a coat of one color and pants of another. 
In hospitals, such garments did not return 
from the laundry to the men who had sent 
them, but were issued promiscuously as need- 
ed. Often a patient would have a blue striped 
coat made for a man twice his size and a pink 
lower garment which barely reached his ankles. 
This was no cause for worry to men who had 
been sleeping in their uniforms in mud for 
weeks at a time, and who asked only for fairly 
clean clothing at the hospitals without regard 
for appearances. 

It undoubtedly was the original intent of 
the national directors of this work to ask care- 
ful workmanship, and nothing more, but at 
times the regulations were carried to extremes 

In this connection it may prove interesting 
to record a copy of rules issued to knitters by 
a chapter of the Red Cross in connection with 
directions for knitting the various gai-ments 
wanted : 

"Don't Cast on Tightly — In setting up a sock 
the casting on should never be done tightly. 
An otherwise well knitted sock may become 
useless by a tight cord at the top. The tcp 
of a sock should be large enough to stretch 
over a cardboard seven inches long. . 

"Don't Knot Your Wool — Join the ends by 
running one end into the other with a darning 
needle for about six inches. Finish off threads 
OP wrong side by running thread with darning- 
needle through a bias run of stitches in two 
or more opposite directions. 

"Don't Make a Heel With a Seam on the 
Sole — Remember, a man may not have a 
chance to change his socks for many days, and 
a lump or knot brings a blister. If the blister 
breaks blood poisoning may set in and result 
in the loss of a foot or even a life. We cannot 
afford to lose our men through negligence or 

"Don't Fail to Make the Kitchener Toe — 

This has been proved to be the best toe for 
men in service. 

•'Don't Use Needles too Fine for Wool — The 
knitting should be elastic and loose, but not too 
loose; if too tightly knitted the sock becomes 
hard and felt-like from bad washing and steri- 

"Don't Make Double Heels — Bad washing 
and sterilizing shrink them in a hard, felt-like 

"Don't Make a Foot Less Than Eleven Inches 
Long — The average sizes of 11 to 11% are 
best. Use judgment in making pi'oportions of 
sock correct — a leg suitable for size of foot, 
and vice versa. People do not seem to realize 
that making a foot size 12 with a leg and 
ankle suitable for a size 9 shows lack of judg- 

"Don't Knit Bands of Color into Top of Sock 
without first boiling the wool for ten minutes 
in salted water and rinsing. This is to set 
the color and prevent blood poisoning from 
color running. One can save much wool by 
using up odd bits of contrasting color in this 
way. The men love it, as it helps them to 
match up their socks when washing, and they 
have a superstition that it is lucky and keeps 
them from being wounded. 

"Cast on loosely and count rows so that 
socks will mate when finished. 

"Wash socks before turning them in. This 
should be done in warm water, and the rinsing 
should be in a light suds. Ironing is not neces- 
sary. Lay them on a flat radiator top and pat 
into shape, and you will be surprised to find 
your sock looks .50 per cent better and feels 

"Darn sock lightly at point of gusset, if 
there is a hole there caused by needles not 
being held tightly together while narrowing. 
Also darn lightly any other place that the sock 
is thin or stitches separate. 

"A soldier who had been unable to change 
his socks for several days felt that a blister 
was coming on one of his toes. On removing 
the sock he found a little roll of paper which 
had been rubbing his toe. On it was written, 
'God bless your poor tired feet!' 

"All garments made from yarn purchased or 
given out at Red Cross Knitting Headquarter? 
must be returned there." 

Mrs. Arthur Huguenin was appointed chair- 
man of the department of instruction for 
women in the autumn of 1916, and in the fol- 
lowing January several First Aid classes were 
formed. These were followed by classes in 
home nursing, diatetics and surgical dressings. 
Mrs. L. A. Schnetz was appointed secretary 



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Reading from left to right they are: — Ward Gittings. I. O. Mann, George Porter. W. \V. Storms (chairman), W. S. 
McCauphey (secretary). Dr. E. A. Taylor, C. H. Krogh. Jame; Peterson. 


IN iiitiiiiii tmiiiitn 


Readiner from left to risht they are: — Upper Row — E. R. BursesB. F. H. Schulz. Dr. Thackeray. J. C. Hamta. Lower 
Row — -J. B. Simmons. H. J. Smith. (Chairman). E. W. Leach. (Secretary). 



of classes, and Mrs. Fanny Botsford and Mrs. 
F. H. Pope were added to the committee. 
Rooms were given the committee in the Racine 
public library. About 200 students took les- 
sons in First Aid. 

The following physicians patriotically do- 
nated their services as instructors: Drs. E. 
Von Buddenbrock, W. W. Johnston, J. H. Ho- 
gan, C. F. Browne, F. C. Christensen and S. 
Sorenson. Dr. Susan Jones gave her services 
as examiner for all the classes. 

About 85 women attended the classes in home 
nursing which began in May, 1917. Red Cross 
nurses who directed these classes were the 
Misses Edna McGovern of Milwaukee; Amanda 
Schmidt, E. Fees and Gertrude Davis of Ra- 
cine. All of these nurses were later in serv- 

The Misses Bessie C. Nevin, Elizabeth Hood, 
Verna Glllen and Mabel Wilton were made 
Red Cross dietitians and instructed seventy- 
five high school girls. During the vacation 
period the school board donated the use of 
the domestic science kitchen in the high school 
and Miss Gillen donated her services as in- 
structor there. 

Miss Elizabeth Greene of Milwaukee in- 
structed several classes in surgical dressings 
and later a number of ber graduates were made 
instructors in this work. Mrs. Percival Fuller 
opened her home and fitted out several rooms 
in the required manner. Here several thou- 
sand dressings were made by volunteer work- 

In October, 1918, under the chairmanship of 
Mrs. LaVenture, the department conducted 
several classes in home nursing and first aid 

The junior auxiliaries of the Red Cross were 
organized in the public and parochial schools 
in 1918. Children were asked to take mem- 
berships at 25 cents each, or else the school 
must qualify as an auxiliary by subscribing 
an amount which would average 25 cents per 
pupil, even though each individual did not 
contribute. St. Patrick's Catholic school on 
Douglas avenue was the first one to qualify 
with a 100 per cent subscription. 

All Red Cross supplies sent from Racine 
were carried to Chicago by the Goodrich 
Transit Company without charge, and all ship- 
ments reached their destinations safely. 


THERE was no more interesting feature 
of civilian war work than the almost 
unanimous efforts of American citizens 
to conserve the food supply of the nation, so 
our army abroad and the inhabitants of Allied 
nations could be fed. "Saving Food Will Win 
the War," was one of the earliest of war-time 
slogans, and while it could not be tenned the 
sole cause of winning the war it unquestion- 
ably proved one of the important factors in the 
ultimate victory. Soldiers can and often do 
fight without adequate aiTns and ammunition; 
patriots will "carry on" while clad in rags and 
tatters, but no army can fight and no nation 
can support its armed forces if starvation 
stalks in its midst. 

France was nearly self-supporting as to food. 
Italy needed to import a great deal of wheat. 
England depended almost entirely upon the 
outside world for her sustenance, and the sub- 
marine campaign had cut off her maritime 
connections with her colonies. The vast wheat 
fields of Russia were of no use to the rest of 
the world with Turkey holding the Dardanelles. 
An unexpectedly large proportion of the 
world's tonnage was being used for naval and 
transport purposes, and to carry munitions of 
war. In addition to the needs of the Allied 
peoples, America was sending hundreds of 
thousands of men overseas who must depend 
upon their own country for their food. To 
make conditions more serious, the United 
States and Canada both suffered from very 
short crops in 1917. 

To meet this situation, the co-operation of 
every man, woman and child was asked, and 
government representatives were appointed in 
every county to advise them what was expected 
of them. Few laws were passed, and the 
arbitrary powers given the Food Administra- 
tors of nation, state and county were seldom 
needed. As in other matters affecting the war, 
public sentiment proved moi'e efficient in ob- 
taining results than all the laws that could 
have been placed upon the statute books. 

William T. Hai-vey was County Food Ad- 
ministrator for Racine county. He gave his 
sei-vices voluntarily and for more than a year 
devoted practically all of his time, without re- 
muneration, to the task. He was ably as- 
sisted by his wife, Mrs. Jane B. Hai-vey, who 
transacted most of the correspondence and de- 
voted many hours each day to planning oi'gan- 
ization and detail work. 

When the drastic regulations were first 
published, there was more or less good-na- 
tured grumbling. It took some time to get 
used to such things as coming into a town af- 
ter a long auto ride and stepping into a 
re.staurant with the intention of devouring a 
huge steak and a generous dessert, only to be 
informed that it was a meatless day, and that 
desserts were taboo, and each customer could 
have but one spoonful of sugar. But like 
everything else, it soon became a matter of 
course and "food slackers" who sought to 
evade the government i-ules were scorned by 
their more patriotic neighbors. 

One of the problems arising was that of the 
right of a fanner to use all the white flour 
he wanted, inasmuch as he himself had raised 
wheat. The Food Administration i-uled that 
the person producing food should not be ex- 
empted from the rules which others were ex- 
pected to obey. One of the farmers protested 
to Mr. Han"ey one day, and said that inas- 
much as he had raised a large crop of wheat 
he should not be required to sell any more of 
it than he wished, and he should be allowed 
to have it made into any kind of flour he 
wanted for himself and family. 

"See here," answered Mr. Harvey, "your 
next door neighbor raised a boy, and the gov- 
ernment took him into the anny. Lsn't it fair 
that the government should also take as much 
of your wheat as it deems necessary in order 
to feed that boy? Especially when you are 
being paid a good price and are not asked 
to starve yourself?" 

The agriculturist saw the point, and grinned. 



"You are right," he said. "I never thought 
of it that way before. You will never hear 
another kick from me on any i-ule the govern- 
ment makes." And he became one of the ac- 
tive workers in spreading the "Save Food" 

A Racine physician was inclined to assist 
people who asked permission to use more wheat 
flour than the government allowance, by de- 
claring that it wa? necessary for their health. 
Mr. Haivey obtained written opinions from 
half a dozen leading doctors to the effect that 
oat meal bread, com meal and even the de- 
tested barley bread was more healthful than 
bread made of fine patent flour. This fact 
was publi.shed, and people were warned not 
to try to circumvent the law by such subter- 
fuges. The trick was never tried again and 
the abashed physician retired into his shell 
for the period of the war. 

From the very start of hostilities, the sei-^'- 
ing of a fourth meal in the afternoon or late 
at night was discontinued. If banquets were 
to be held, they were limited to plain food and 
were served at such a time as to replace a 
regular meal. Cakes and pastry became rare 
sights, and fancy frostings requiring consider- 
able sugar almost disappeared entirely for 
many months. 

The Food Administration's work was notable 
because it proved so entirely successful; it 
was the first time that anything of a similar 
nature had been attempted in America, and 
because more than any other one thing it 
touched the lives of every individual in the 
United States. 

Eligible young men might escape army serv- 
ice; women might neglect to do their part 
for the Red Cross or other organizations; 
wealthy people could "get by" without 
buying Liberty bonds, under certain condi- 
tions, but there was no one who could fail to 
feel the strong hand of a free and democratic 
government upon them when every meal con- 
tained some reminder of the work of the Food 
Administration, and when gold itself could not 
give them any advantage over their neigh- 
bors when they tried to obtain a better quality 
or a greater quantity of certain staple food 

There was never any attempt to get the 
American people to cut down their food to 
the point where there was any real discom- 
fort. It was felt that the greater part of the 
people actually were in the habit of over-eat- 
ing and sen-ing food wastefully. All that was 
asked was that waste be eliminated, that meals 
be prepared in a simple and inexpensive man- 
ner and that substitutes be used for those 

forms of food products which could most 
easily be transpoi'ted to Europe or used in the 
army camps at home. 

Oatmeal, potatoes, cabbage and hash became 
a symbol of American patriotism. 

Congress passed the Food Act on August 
10, 1917. In this law, the President was given 
autocratic power over the food supply of the 
whole country. Herbert Hoover was made 
Federal Food Administrator on August 17. 
His experience in Belgium made him the log- 
ical man for this great responsibility. It was 
evident that the available food resources of 
the world were going to be less than the re- 
quirement: that America must provide not only 
for her own people, but also for much of 

Further, it was foreseen that as the demand 
became greater than the supply, prices would 
advance to a point where the laboring people 
would be unable to obtain sufficient food with- 
out tremendous advance in wages. Prior to 
the passage of the food act, flour was selling 
at $18.00 to $20.00 per barrel retail. Congress 
fixed the price of the 1918 wheat crop at $2.20 
per bushel and limited the profit of the millers^ 
wholesalers and retailers of flour. Under this 
arrangement, flour sold at $12.00 to $14.00 a 
barrel. This plan was later extended to the 
1919 wheat crop and the price of flour was in 
this way stabilized for the period of the war 
and a year or more thereafter. 

The Food Act contained three major pro- 

1. To encourage production. 

2. To control distribution. 

3. To consen-e supply. 

To encourage production, the farmers were 
urged to do everything possible to produce 
more wheat and com, oats, sugar beets, beef, 
pork, poultry, eggs and daily products. 

The city and village inhabitants with back 
lots, were urged to plant war gardens. 

The to these appeals was so great 
that 1918 crops were record breakers. The 
wheat crop of the United States for 1918 was 
918,000,000 bushels, or nearly fifty per cent 
greater than 1917. 

Racine County had raised very little wheat 
for many years, but the spring of 1918 saw at 
least a few acres of wheat on every faiTn. 
Many fields averaged over 40 bushels per acre 
and the total production for the countiy was 
estimated at forty thousand bushels. Back 
yards and vacant lots were converted into 
vegetable gardens which furnished a large 
amount of food and enabled every family to 
save on the wheat, meat, fats and sugar which 
were needed for the amiies in the field. 



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While the people of the country at large are 
entitled to great credit for tlie unanimous re- 
sponse to the appeal of the food administra- 
tion for the large production of food, we must 
also give credit to Providence for favorable 
weather conditions throughout the season. 

In assuming control of the distribution of 
food, the Food Administration issued licenses 
to all manufacturers of food and to all whole- 
sale dealers in food. No manufacturer or 
dealer was permitted to charge more than a 
reasonable profit over the cost price of food 
products. This was done to prevent them 
from taking advantage of the food shortage 
and did much to steady the market. 

These concerns were required to make 
monthly ]-eports showing the cost of their 
goods and also their selling prices. In addi- 
tion to this, inspectors were sent out by the 
Food Administration to check them up. 

The retail dealers were not licensed but in 
cases where they did not comply with the rules 
of the Food Administration, the wholesalers 
were notified to sell them no more goods and 
in this way it was possible to control them. 

Racine County food dealers, with few excep- 
tions, showed a fine spirit all through the war 
period. In only two cases were dealers asked 
to contribute §25.00 to the Red Cross, as a 
penalty for overcharging for fiour in one case 
and for selling canning sugar without a permit 
in another case. 

In order to control prices of all food stuffs, 
dealei-s both wholesale and retail, were per- 
mitted to charge only a reasonable percentage 
of profit over their cost prices. The profits on 
such staples as flour, sugar and coffee are al- 
ways much less than on luxuries. The pre- 
war basis of profit on any item of food was 
acceptable to the Food Administration. If a 
grocer had a big stock of canned salmon 
bought at a low price he had to give his cus- 
tomers the benefit of his purchase. Racine 
County, like all other counties, had a "Fair 
Price Committee," composed of the following: 
W. T. Hai-vey, Chaimian, John Wiechers, 
Fred Radewan, Jens Jensen, Clarence R. 
Nevin, Chas. Christensen, Chris Sorenson, 
Frank Luxem, Jos. Otradovec, Lester Bowman. 
George Black, Sidney Mikulecky, J. K. Evans, 
Stewart Chamberlain, Wm. Eric and Percy 
Conroe. These men met faithfully once or 
twice a week for the entire year of 1918 and 
adopted a price list for the more staple lines 
of food. These prices were published in the 
local papers and served as a guide to prevent 

In the great work of conservation of food, 
Mr. Hoover had to make the choice between 

voluntary conservation or rationing the people 
He saw that rationing would be a tremendous 
task, requiring a large force of inspectors and 
decided that he would appeal to the patriotism 
of the people to conserve the essential foods. 
To accomplish this, a great publicity cam- 
paign was necessary and the first great effort 
was the distribution of twenty million home 
pledge cards. 

These cards appealed to the housewives of 
the country to conserve food in every pos- 
sible way. They provided for wheatless and 
meatless days in each week and also one 
wheatless and meatless meal each day. Ev- 
ery housewife, boarding house, restaurant and 
hotel proprietor was asked to sign a pledge 
card to help save the food that was necessarj 
to win the war. 

The co-operation of the people of the country 
was so hearty that in a few months it was 
possible to release some of the meat i-estric- 
tions, as the farmers and packers complained 
that meat was not being consumed as fast as 
it was being produced and transportation fa- 
cilities were not adequate to carry the surplus 
to Europe. 

Our wheat crop of 1917 was only 62.5.000,000 
bushels: bai-ely enough for our o\^m require- 
ments and for seed. In spite of this fact we 
sent large quantities to Europe and our people 
used the wheat substitutes, viz: — corn, barley, 
rice, oats, etc., during the first half of 1918. 
In December, 1917, the Food Administration 
decided upon what was known as the "snbsti- 
tute rule" requiring that, for everv pound of 
wheat flour purchased, the dealer nnKt s^ll 
and the buyer must take one pound cf sub- 
stitute consisting of corn meal, corn flour, 
bai-ley flour, oatmeal, rice, etc. This was done 
to compel everyone to share alike, in the use 
of wheat and of the substitutes. This rule 
was kept in force until the 1918 wheat crop 
was ready for the market. Had it not been 
for the wide use of these substitutes, the 
wheat supply of the country would have been 
entirely exhausted early in 1918. 

This substitute rule pi'obably aroused more 
complaint on the part of the selfish and un- 
patriotic than any other restriction. They 
complained that their stomachs w-ere weak and 
that white bread was the only bread they could 
eat. Nothing short of a doctor's certificate 
was sufficient to enable them to get wheat 
flour without a substitute. One woman living 
in a fine home just outside the city was re- 
ported to have a considerable amount of white 
flour stored away. When ask to repoi-t, she 
admitted that she had about 100 lbs., while 



1 ho COS by Malme-Pavek-Grant 

Top Row — Edward A. Christensen, Herman Kugel, Edward Bahlman, Frank Luedke, Albert (i. Gcrber, August Luedke. 
Second — Micheal Howoicik, R. C. Evans, Theodore Meyer, Perry Osterffaard, Orville C. Anderson, Einer Christensen. 
Third — David Jacobson. Caprial Keshishian, John Iverson, William Dymacek, Stephen Tieser. Joseph Mazurkievicz. 
Fourth — Miram Chordig. Theo. W. Held, Herbert H. Held. Edward Dudek. LeRoy Butler, August Rudat. 
Bottom — Lawrence Markisen, Allie Markisen, John Stallman, John P. Greene, Hans Nygaard, Stanley W. Bergstrom. 



25 lbs. was the maximum any one could have 
at that time. As an excuse she claimed that 
her hired man didn't eat anything but white 
bread. She had 10 lbs. of cornmeal and was 
asked to donate all but 10 lbs. of her white 
flour to the hospitals and then get herself and 
servants on the half wheat, half substitute ra- 

All the best hotels and dining cars pledged 
themselves voluntarily, to use no wheat dur- 
ing the period of the shortage. Rye bread, 
corn muffins and Johnny cakes were used in 
place of wheat bread. 

Flour was milled in one grade and the mills 
had to make 74 lbs. of flour for every 100 lbs. 
of wheat — the other 26 lbs. being middlings 
and bran for cattle. 

Fine patent white flour of which only 49 
lbs. could be made from 100 lbs. of wheat was 
not permitted during the war. 

The bakers were required to make bread out 
of 75 per cent wheat flour and 25 per cent sub- 
stitutes. In order to compel a uniform observ- 
ance of this rule the bakers organized in every 
county and elected one of their number "cap- 
tain." O. B. Schulz was captain of the Racine 
County bakers. Monthly meetings were held 
and methods of making good bread wath the 
required amount of substitutes were developed. 
The most palatable substitutes were corn 
starch, corn flour, rice flour and oat meal. 
Barley flour was the most unpopular. 

In the spring- of 1918 we were almost at the 
bottom of the wheat bins. Farmers were noti- 
fied to bring in all wheat left after seeding, 
and no one was allowed to feed wheat to stock 
or poultry. Fortunately the 1918 crop ripened 
early and an abundant supply was available 
from the Southern harvest fields by mid-sur.- 

In the early part of 1918 the supply of sugar 
was short of the requirements. Prior to this 
time, the Food Administration had urged con- 
stant conservation of sugar and had made very 
strong rules regarding the hoarding of sugar. 
The people were requested to buy not more 
than five pounds at one time in the city and 
ten pounds in the country. This method of 
voluntary conservation would doubtless have 
pioved sufl'icient had it not been for the sudden 
appearance of German submarine boats on the 
west side of the Atlantic and the sinking of a 
considerable number of ships carrying sugar 
from the West Indies. 

The canning season was at hand, calling for 
large quantities of sugar for preserves and 

The Food Administration immediately issued 

oi'ders to all dealers that they must sell only 
three pounds of sugar for each person per 
month. Later this was reduced to 2 lbs. per 
month. The retail merchants were compelled 
to file statements of the amount of sugar 
bought the previous year and were allowed 
only fifty per cent of this amount. In addition 
to this, they were required to keep "a sugar 
book" and make a record of every sale of 
sugar. The merchants were further required 
to sell only to their regular customers and 
inasmuch as they had a limited supply it was 
necessary for them to comply with this rule. 

The candy factories, pop and soft drink fac- 
tories were allowed only fifty per cent of 
their former sugar supply. Factories pre- 
serving food for future use were allowed their 
full requirements. 

Housewives requiring sugar for canning had 
to obtain permits from the County Food Ad- 
ministrator or his deputy and they had to 
pledge themselves to use the sugar, so ob- 
tained, for canning or preserving purposes. 
At the beginning, the limit was placed at 
t^venty-flve pounds which a housewife could 
purchase at one time for canning purposes. 
This was later reduced to ten pounds, but ad- 
ditional ten pound lots could be obtained pro- 
vided the applicant produced satisfactory evi- 
dence that she had no sugar on hand and need- 
ed more sugar for canning purposes. 

In order to carry out this work, fifty women 
deputies wore appointed throughout the County 
who were authorized to issue permits to buy 
canning sugar. The work of these sugar depu- 
ties was one of the outstanding features of 
the food administration work of this county. 

It was a serious problem to distribute the 
shoi't supply of sugar so that every family 
could get a reasonable supply for canning. 
The grocers were permitted to sell each family 
on their regular list of customers one-half 
pound for each person per week for table use 
and cooking. To get sugar for canning the 
pui'chaser had to obtain a signed permit from 
one of the sugar deputies. These permits were 
all returned each week to the County Food 
Administrator's office by the grocers. Here 
they were filed and anyone who tried to get 
more than a fair amount was notified to repoit 
and explain. 

The County Food Administi'ation had auto- 
cratic power in such cases and where it was 
evident that anyone had misrepresented the 
facts to get sugar he or she was requested to 
make a donation of $10 or $25 to the Red 

Very few such penalties were inflicted be- 



Photos by Pavek-Grant-Billings 

Top Row — John Hansen, C. A. Hansen. C. H. Hauser, Arthur Johnson. P. J. Ebben. R. J. Gieseler. H. P. Saugman. 

Second — Peter Lange. Jens Christensen. Alex Lehti. C. J. Stork. O. A. Wespelal. Frank Bohn, F. P. Scharping. 

Third — Clar. Thompson. H. E. Hebblelhwaite. C E. Godske. C. O. Matson, A. F. Brautigam. F. C. Spychalla. C. Morganson. 

Fourth— Oscar M. Jones. F. E. Welsh. Conrad Akvick. Alb. Kuchti. Vahan Kurigian. W. J. Iselin. OUe Nystrom. 

Fifth — Tinus Christensen. G. Nalbantian. H. Durgerian, M. Mangialardo. E. Zauierucha. A. W. Nickel. H. H. Reth. 

Bottom — Ray S. Hamper. I. I.. Driver. Carl Christensen. Chas. Krueger. John Mandro. R. L. Peterson. R. J. Goebel. 



cause the people generally realized that we 
were in the midst of a terrible war, and that 
it was just as necessary for those at home to 
do their part as it was for the armies in the 
field to obey orders. 

During all this time of sugar shortage, the 
price was maintained at 9 and 91/2 cents per 
pound. Had there been no restrictions sugar 
would have undoubtedly sold for twenty-five to 
thirty cents per pound, and those who needed 
it most would have been unable to secure suf- 
ficient supply. In fact, after the war the price 
rose to 20 cents a pound within a year. 

The work of the United States Food Admin- 
istration was cai'ried on entirely by voluntary 
service. There was a Federal Food Adminis- 
trator in each State and there was also a 
County Administrator in each County. 

The County Administrator, Mr. Harvey, had 
jurisdiction over all grocery stores, bakeries, 
meat mai'kets and public eating houses. It 
was necessary to hold frequent meetings of 
grocers, bakers and the proprietors of hotels, 
restaurants and boarding houses to keep them 
all informed of the rulings of the Food Admin- 
istration. The co-operation of the people at 
large was hearty and it was rare that any- 
one resented any of the food rules. In case 
of objection, an explanation of what the Food 
Administration was doing, was usually suffi- 
cient to enlist the support of the objector. 

In the spring of 1918 the National Food 
Administration organized a department cover- 
ing all threshermen. 

It was necessary for every thresherman to 
procure a license to operate and sign a pledge 
to avoid all possible waste in threshing. 

A county committee consisting of County 
Food Administrator W. T. Harvey, County 
Agent E. S. Polley of Rochester, and H. M. 
Thomas of the Case T. M. Co. held a meeting 
of the threshermen in June and instructed 
them fully on the rules of the Food Adminis- 
tration. Later this committee inspected as 
many of the machines in operation as possible. 

It was estimated that this effort saved thou- 
sands of bushels of grain in every county. 

Herbert Hoover's decision to appeal to the 
people of the United States to do their part 
in the production and conservation of food 
and their response to this appeal will always 
be one of the glories of the great war. The 
nation produced moi-e, prices were maintained 
on staples such as flour and sugar at reason- 
able figures; food was distributed fairly, so 
that no one had to go without, and the people 
conserved so well that they were able to spare 

large quantities of food for the people of 
Europe who were threatened with famine. 

The various women's organizations gave 
hearty co-operation to Mr. Harvey throughout 
his administration. Housewives everywhere 
exercised the greatest ingenuity in planning 
meals so as to conserve food. 

The Home Economics Department of the 
Woman's Committee of the Council of De- 
fense, for example, bought and canned 300 lbs. 
of beans when, through a shortage of labor, 
it was feared many beans would be wasted. 
The work was done by the girls and teachers 
of the Vocational school, supervised by Miss 
Elizabeth Fratt. This furnished a valuable 
canning lesson to over .500 girls. By the ef- 
forts of Miss Elizabeth Hood, her corps of 
teachers and the gii'ls of the High School, 
1000 quarts of fruit and vegetables were 
canned. Five hundred glasses of jelly and 
many bottles of fruit juices were made. The 
jelly was made with part syrup to save sugar. 

The materials were furnished by the women 
of the community who were too busy with 
war work to do their own pi'eserving. One 
quart from every twelve was kept by the de- 
partment for the work done. 

A group of twenty volunteer workers trained 
under Miss Helen Henderson, Home Demon- 
stration Agent, demonstrated the use of sub- 
stitute floxirs — the making of sugarless cakes, 
etc., and canning by the "cold pack" method 
throughout the County. Also demonstrations 
were held in evei'y school in Racine, once a 

Demonstrations were held in each of the 10- 
cent stores with great success. 

Twenty thousand pamphlets and bulletins 
were distributed to interest women. This liter- 
ature was obtained by Miss Helen Gorton of 
the Public Library,- who acted as librarian for 
this department of the Food Administration. 

Three Conservation shows were held, at 
which the fruits and vegetables canned by 
the High School and Vocational School stu- 
dents were sold. Demonstrations of economi- 
cal dishes were given by women of various 
nationalities, such as how to make Bohemian 
breads, eighty ways of preparing Italian 
spaghetti, etc., as well as demonstrations of 
wheatless breads and sugarless cakes. 

Prizes were given for best assortment of 
canned vegetables, fruits and juices. 

Invaluable service was rendered by the 
Gii'ls' Motor Corps of the Woman's Commit- 
tee, carrying baskets of materials, demonstra- 
tors and bulletins to their destinations. The 
honorary member, Edward Stormer, 12 years 



^Bt mattt^W^ ^ 



Photos by Billings 

Top Row — Frank Hensman. Paul Johnson. Edward Jayne, Joe Wilfer. G. M, Hixon. Lee Homan, E. Elliott. 

Second — E. O. .Sorensen, Peter Krogh, Geo. Porter, C. M. Cain. Arthur Zratzky. Sidney Wright. John Christenson. 

Third — Adolph Tandrup. Roy Howarth. Harold Brown. C. Anderson. M. F. Sorenson. Anthony Marsch. Peter Skandor. 

Fourth — Peter Mickelsen, John Usik. Howard Sumpter. Joe Jirush. Joe Garbo. P. W. Paulson. Wm. K. Alcorn. 

Fifth — Fred DeBroder. I. L. Pratt. John Skrivcr. A. J. Rowlfv. W. J. Nissen. Wm. Weyres, Geo. Sorenson. 

Bottom — Walter Butzine. fi. Micheloni. E. Sargen. A. E. Nielsen. S. Hughes, E. F. Schowalter, W. C. Peterson. 



old, drove 5,000 miles while helping- in this 

The sugar deputies were selected by the 
Woman's Committee, and their names appeal 
in the chapter devoted to that organization. 
Mrs. E. J. Stormer was chairman of the Home 
Economics division and as such had charge of 
the important work of planning for co-opera- 
tion between the public and the Food Adminis- 

By July, 1918, most of the rulings of the 
Food Administration had become thoroughly 
understood by all, but there was a great 
amount of detail work in connection with the 
County Administrator's office. To take care 
of the many questions coming up, Mr. Hai'vey 
appointed Walter Uebele and Walter Keebler 
deputies for Burlington, and John Gittings 
and A. S. Titus for Union Grove and Water- 
ford, respectively. Miss Louise Bolton volun- 
teered her services in the main office, and she 
assisted Mr. and Mrs. Harvey for the remain- 
der of the year. Mr. Harvey had turned one oT 
the rooms in his residence into an office, and 
from 6 o'clock in the morning until 9 or 10 
o'clock at night there was an almost endless 
series of visitors and telephone requests for 
information and instructions. The correspond- 
ence alone occupied several hours of the da> 
for Mrs. Harvey and Miss Bolton. 

The requirement that a merchant must show 
his record of sugar purchases for the previous 
year before he could buy his supply for 1918 
caused much excitement for it developed that 
many of the smaller storekeepers had kept 
no records. They were in the habit of buying 
a few bags as they needed them, paying cash 
and destroying the receipt. Mr. Harvey had 
to use his judgment regarding the amount re- 
quired by them. 

The deputies had many funny experiences. 
One had had to give a bit of a lecture to a 
woman who had declined to hang a food 
pledge window insignia in the window, be- 
cause she thought it was not an artistic deco- 
ration. She was given one of these as well 
as the card of instruction to hang in the 
kitchen and told that the government wanted 
all patriotic women to display the emblem. 
She agreed. A few days later the deputy was 
standing in front of the house, which was on 
a corner, and noticed that both the emblem 
and the kitchen card were in the front win- 
dow. The deputy had been waiting for a 
friend, and when the latter caught up they 
walked around the corner. To her surprise she 
saw the two cards in the side window. Her 
curiosity was aroused sufficiently so that she 

went back after a few minutes, and found that 
the front window was empty. Apparently the 
lady of the house had wanted to be sure that 
the deputy knew she was obeying' the letter 
of the law, if not its spirit. 

The canning-sugar regulations caused a 
great deal of labor in the food administrator's 
office. Record was kept of the names of all 
purchasers of sugar, together with the amounts 
received. There were many thousands of these 
cards. Several school teachers donated their 
time in spare hours to help keep these ac- 
counts. They were the only means possible 
for finding "repeaters." 

One housewife applied for a third 25-lb. lot 
of sugar. The sugar deputy thought that the 
number of glasses of jelly reported as made 
ought to be enough for the winter. The ap- 
plicant appealed to Mr. Harvey, who said that 
he agreed vfiih the deputy. 

"You can't eat more than that amount of 
jelly," he said. "That should last all \\antei-." 
"All winter!" she exclaimed. "Why it's al- 
most all gone now. We like it fresh!" 

She then learned to her surprise that the 
sugar rationing was not for the purpose of 
providing tempting morsels at the time, but 
to aid in preserving the food supply until 

As a rule, the poorer families and the for- 
eign element of the population caused but little 
trouble and obeyed the regulations without a 
murmur. Most of the violations were the acts 
of owners of automobiles, who could go from 
store to store and even town to town and 
establish their trade sufficiently to get a few 
extra pounds of sugar. One family was showTi 
to be buying sugar in three counties^Racine, 
Walworth and Kenosha. When the three 
County Food Administrators got on their trail 
it proved to be pretty expensive sugar. 

A woman who was quite prominent in war 
work was found to be buying sugar from a 
store, although she boarded out. A letter was 
sent to her asking that she call at Mr. Har- 
vey's office. She ignored it. A few days later 
Mrs. Harvey was surprised to see her come 
briskly up to the door and knock. Upon being 
admitted, she said she was soliciting funds 
for some patriotic scheme and wanted a dona- 
tion for the cause. Mrs. Harvey said, "I will 
speak to Mr. Harvey." The visitor gasped and 
said, "Does Mr. Harvey live here? Oh I 
thought this was someone else's house." And 
she beat a hasty retreat. A second letter 
mailed that day brought her to the office again, 
when she reluctantly admitted that she had 
been getting extra sugar to cari'y to the 



P!io'^05 by Grart-Leonard-Billings 

Top Row — Wm. Juranck. Norman Anderson, Frank Speiker. Henry Vandermeier, David Stone, Jas. Clausen, E. Giordano. 

Second — John Tauskela. Har\ey Mattery, G. A. Case, J. N. O'Brien, W. F. Richow, Joe Holy. Earl Harding. 

Third — G. W. Jones. Geo. Smollen, Eugene Morelle, Joseph Kubek, C. P. Nelson. Percy De Brier, Anthony Shinski. 

Fourth — C. H. Ouimette. G. A. Dase, P. Szimanski. M. Ohly, F. C. Fisher. E. Breckenfield, John Scholzen. 

Fifth — J. A, Forsman, Clar. Wagner, G. Deshais, L. J. Cisco, Martin Nelson, C. O. Schimelpfenig, Wm. Jensen. 

Bottom— A. B. Quella, C. B. Klippel. G. F. Mrotek. T. W. Harris, G. F. Erbe. Paul Palazzo. Harold Van Bree. 



boarding' house table, as she and her husband 
liked plenty of it with their meals. She later 
contributed the value of the sugar to the Red 
Cross, by request. 

A baker whose report showed that he had 
not been using the proper amounts of substi- 
tutes for flour was asked for an explanation. 
He sent by mail a statement that the recipe 
he had would not make bread, and enclosed as 
evidence a loaf so hard that it could not be 
nicked with a butcher knife. He said he had 
tried to feed it to his chickens, but they could 
get no nourishment from that batch of bread. 
Mr. Harvey found a new formula for him 
which produced a more edible form of bread 
and pardoned the first offense. 

The Home Economics department of the 
Woman's Committee gave valuable assistance 
to the F'ood Administration. Mrs. E. E. Storm- 
er was chairman, and the advisory committee' 
was composed of Mrs. Stormer, Mrs. John F. 
Clancy and Mrs. H. M. Wallis. A group of 
members, consisting of Mrs. Anna Prostrednik, 
Mrs. Raffoni, Mrs. Polk, Mrs. Harry Mann, 
Mrs. Bullis and Mrs. Zagora volunteered to 
demonstrate a number of economical foreign 
dishes at the domestic science kitchens of the 
schools. They accomplished such feats as pre- 
paring macaroni in eighty different ways; 
serving- burdock stems so that they I'esembled 
asparagus; baking Bohemian bread, etc. In 
October, 1917, a War Garden exhibit was held 
at the Commercial club rooms under direction 
of the Council of Defense. Mrs. Clancy had 
charge of the daily cooking demonstrations 
there. Among the exhibits at that show was 
a single barrel filled with earth in which 
nearly a bushel of potatoes had been pro- 

There were numerous women volunteers who 
went wherever asked to demonstrate the use 
of wheat substitutes. Among these were Mrs. 
Angus R. Callender, Mrs. Edward Hoernel, 
Mrs. Louis Hahn, Mrs. George Kettelson, Mrs. 
George Lynch, Mrs. F. B. Stafford, Mrs. F. A. 
Kamerer, Miss Angela Hegnei', Mrs. H. J. Cad- 
well, Mrs. P. H. Connolly, Miss Margaret Ro- 
han and Mrs. A. G. Miller. 

A woman who had been watching a demon- 
strator in a downtown store was much inter- 
ested and said she would like to do that work. 
She was told to get in touch with Mrs. Storm- 
er, who told her where she could take a week's 
course of intensive training. She did this, and 
provided herself with the uniform apron used 
by demonstrator.s, and then at her request was 
told where to go to address a meeting the next 
day. At that point she asked about the amount 

of salary paid. She was told that this was all 
volunteer work. 

"Good night!" she exclaimed. "Do you think 
I am going to do this kind of woi-k for noth- 
ing?" And she swept out of the place while 
the other volunteers looked on in astonishment. 
The instructors had taken it for granted that 
she understood the situation and were as much 
surprised as she was at the climax. 

Women who were skillful cooks cheerfully 
gave their services as instructors in preparing 
and preserving foodstuffs. Teachers in do- 
mestic science were especially in demand and 
most of them devoted all their spare hours to 
this task. Miss Alice Brown of the staff of 
the County Agricultural school at Rochester 
was one of the most active of these, and trav- 
elled from one end of the county to the other 
for many weeks, demonstrating the "cold 
pack" method of preserving, and other devices 
for canning food cheaply and effectively. 

Never in all history was so much canning 
done in any country. Every fruit and vege- 
table not required for table use was "put down" 
for the winter. If sugar was not available for 
making jelly, the fruit juice was kept in air- 
tight jars until the sugar could be obtained. 
Sweet corn was parched. String beans and 
beets were canned by the bushel in most 
homes. Root cellars were constructed and 
used. Stated briefly, each household tried to 
put itself upon a basis which would not re- 
quire the purchase of canned goods imported 
from other parts of the country. The wild 
nut crops were carefully saved. Pumpkins 
were not used for Hallowe'en celebrations. 
Home grown apples replaced fancy southei'n 
and imported fruits. Public markets were es- 
tablished to enable farmers to dispose quickly 
of their products, and housewives to obtain 
them while they were still in first-class condi- 

Besides raising some wheat, every farmer 
was asked to raise some sugar beets to help 
reduce the sugar shortage. Every foot of till- 
able land was expected to be used to produce 
food or forage. 

It was the custom of Mr. Harvey, the County 
Food Administi'ator, to provide the newspa- 
pers every day with a list of fair prices for 
staple products, and it was urged that all citi- 
zens refuse to pay more than these amounts. 
Examination of these shows that despite the 
shortage of food throughout the world, the 
prices in Racine during the war were main- 
tained at much lower figures than in the period 
following the signing of the armistice. The 
following is the price list published on April 



. l>y Billings-Leona'-d-Hood 

Top Row — John Korosos, Harry Johnson, C. J. Hille, W. S. Taylor. Wm. J. Clemens, Alfred Bohn. 

Second — E. F. Johns. Leo Hollmaier, Rube Duda. Leo Krebs, A. D. Jepeway, Frank Davies. 

Third — A. N. Johnson, Herbert Haudek, E. F. Behrend, Clarence J. Jensen, Theo. Christiansen, Curtis Hall. 

Fourth — C. Bellaire, M. Selbach. John Baker, Getmer Weiter, Christopher Pugh, R. L. Fiedler. 

Fifth — David Chandler. R. C. Jennings. Marius Jensen, A. Laatz, Leo Scholzen, Geo. Admadt. 

Bottom — R. B. Allen, Harold Johnson, R. A. DeMint. John Proost, Fred Thomas, Hugo A. Rickeman. 



23, 1918, when the situation was moi-e grave 
than at almost any other time; 


Strictly Fresh 37-40c per dozen 


Whole 32-36C per lb. 

Sliced . 40-50cperlh. 


Whole Pieces 3.5-50c per lb. 

Sliced . 40-55c per lb. 

Best Kettle Rendered 

In cartons 31-34c per lb. 

Standard Pure 

In bulk . 30-.32C per lb. 


In bulk 26-28cperlb. 


Creamery . 44-48c per lb. 

Brick . 46-49cperlb. 

Standard Grades 

In cartons 32-35c per lb. 

In rolls 26-30cperlb. 

In bulk 25-30cperlb. 


Evaporated (Unsweetened) 7- 8c per can 

Condensed (Sweetened) 14-1.5c per can 


Brick . 27-33cperlb. 

American . 30-36c per lb. 

No. 1 White iy2-2cperlb. 


Fancy Head 13-14c per lb. 

Blue Rose 10-12c per lb. 


Navy, Hand Picked 17-20c per lb. 

Lima . 19-20c per lb. 

Granulated in bulk 9c per lb. 


Wheat 1/8 bbl. 1..50-1.60 


In 5 lb. bags 7c per lb. 


In .5 lb. bags 8- 9c per lb. 


In 5 lb. bags 7- 8c per lb. 

Bulk . 8c per lb. 

Bulk . 7- 9c per lb. 

All hotels and restaurants co-operated with 
the Food Administration and although it was 
feared at first that measures might have to be 
adopted to force compliance with the rules, 
experience showed that public eating houses 
actually met the requirements of the govern- 
ment more promptly than many private citi- 
zens. The fact that they did so was of great 
assistance to- the Food Administration and not 
only helped to advertise the regulations re- 
garding food but prevented people from evad- 
ing the rules meant for homes by going to 
restaurants to eat. It probably will prove of 
interest to people of future generations to read 
one of the summaries of general orders issued 
to restaurants, and carried out by them to the 

"For the purpose of the following general 
oi-ders, public eating-places shall be defined to 
include all hotels, restaurants, boarding houses, 
clubs, dining cars, and steamships and all 
places where cooked food is sold to be con- 
sumed on the premises. 

"The following general orders have been 
issued by the Ignited States Food Administra- 
tion governing the operations of all such public 
eating-places, these orders to be effective Oc- 
tober 21, 1917. It has not been deemed advis- 
able or necessai-y at the present time actually 
to license the operation of such public eating- 
places, but in cases where the patriotic co-op- 
eration of such public eating-places can not 
be secured by other means, the United States 
Food Administration will not hesitate to se- 
cure compliance with its orders through its 
control of the distribution of sugar, flour and 
other food supplies. 

■'A failure to conform to any of the follow- 
ing orders will be regarded as a wasteful prac- 
tice forbidden by Section Four of the Food 
Control Act of August 10, 1917. 

"General Order 1 — No public eating-place 
shall serve or permit to be served any bi'ead or 
other bakery product which does not contain 
at least 20 per cent of wheat flour substitutes, 
nor shall it serve or permit to be served more 
than 2 ounces of this bread, known as Victory 
Bread, or if no Victory Bread is served, more 
than 4 ounces of other breads (such as corn 
bread, niufiins, Boston brown bread, etc.). 
Sandwiches or bread served at boarding camps, 
and rye bread containing 50 per cent or more 
of pure rye flour, are excepted. 



Photos by Leonard 

Top Row — Allen F. Gere, Emil White. E. R. Pick. R. L. Fidler, Ralph Millar, Glenn DeMars, John F. Devitt. 

Second — Laurits Molbach, J. M. Comply, W. R, Christenson, A. Hay, Lowell C. Wadmond, S. Thravalos, P. L, Johnson. 

Third — Art Miller, Geo. Bronson. Natale Giardina, D. A. Vicillen, H. L. Mapes. R. R. Green, E. P. McConnell. 

Fourth — Armand Prudhomme, Lars C. Pedersen, Steve Steibel, H. W. Kranz, Walter Henry, Geo. Hansen, G. R. Ratchford. 

Fifth — Joe Adamski, Vincent Lon;?o, C. A, Fancher, O. J. A. Furrenes, W, C. Lohse, Ernest Lud\vig:, Carl O. Neuman. 

Bottom — James P. Peterson, Louis Bartlett, Einer Knudsen, J. Van Eimeren, S. F. Overson. H. Christenson, H. E. Raush, 



"General Order 2— No public eating-place 
shall serve or permit to be served bread or 
toast as a garniture or under meat. 

"General Order 3— No public eating-place 
shall allow any bread to be brought to the 
table until after the first course is served. 

"General Order 4— No public eating-place 
shall serve or permit to be served to one pa- 
tron at any one meal more than one kind of 
meat. For the purpose of this rule meat shall 
be considered as including beef, mutton, pork, 
poulti-y and by-products thereof." 

Later on this rule was amended to permit 
the serving of liver and bacon together. 

"General Order 5— No public eating-place 
shall serve or permit to be served any bacon as 
a garniture. 

"General Order 6— No public eating-place 
shall serve or permit to be served to any one 
person at any one meal more than one-half 
ounce of butter. 

"General Order 7— No public eating-place 
shall serve or permit to be served to any one 
person at any one meal more than one-half 
ounce of Cheddar, commonly called American, 

"General Order 8— No public eating-place 
shall use or permit the use of a sugar bowl 
on the table or lunch counter. Nor shall any 
public eating-place serve sugar or permit it 
to be served unless the patron so requests and 
in no event shall the amount served to any 
one person at any one meal exceed one tea- 
spoonful or its equivalent. 

"General Order 9 — No public eating-place 
shall use or permit the use of sugar in excess 
of two pounds for every ninety meals se^ed, 
including all uses of sugar on the table and 
in cooking, excepting such sugar as may be 
allotted by the "Federal Food Administrators 
to hotels holding a bakery license. No sugar 
allotted for this special baking purpose shall 
be used for any other purpose. 

"General Order 10— No public eating-place 
shall burn any food or permit any food to be 
burned and all waste shall he saved to feed 
animals or reduced to obtain fats. 

"General Order 11— No public eating-place 
shall display or permit to be displayed food on 
its premises in any such manner as may cause 
its deterioration so that it cannot be used for 
human consumption. 

"General Order 12— No public eating-place 
shall serve or permit to be served what is 
known as double cream or cream 'de luxe;' 
and in any event, no cream containing over 20 
per cent of butter fat shall be served." 

Of course, numerous other orders were is- 

sued from time to time. For instance, people 
were asked to reduce the amount of coffee 
used so that so many ships would not be need- 
ed for importing this staple. The same was 
true of tropical fruits. 

Everyone was asked to devise ways for using 
all left-overs, and the gospel of the clean din- 
ner plate was preached everywhere. Children 
were taught "to help lick the Kaiser" this way. 
As a result of the tremendous savings effected 
through the co-operation of all of our people, 
it was seldom necessary to ask the substitu- 
tion of one foodstuff for another excepting in 
the case of wheat flour for bread. The rule 
became a general one: "Save all foods." One 
of the minor results of the Food Administra- 
tion laws was a universal saving of money due 
to decreased budgets for the table. Another 
was a more general effort on the part of 
housewives to learn the relative food values 
of various dishes and plan their meals more 
intelligently from this standpoint. 

Families got in the old fashioned habit of 
having- but one big meal a day. Suppers or 
luncheon frequently consisted of one or two 
dishes, such as soup, or salmon and a vegetable. 
Many housewives discovered the merits of a 
food made by boiling small pieces of meat 
with corn meal, and then serving this sliced 
when cold. Desserts became a rarity, almost 
extinct. Here are some of the recipes for bread 
issued by the government and used by almost 
all American families, although the methods 
were varied with practice: 

Bran Bread 
"Soak 1 cake of compressed yeast in V4 cup 
of warm water and add to the following batter: 
% teaspoon salt 
1 tablespoon molasses 
114 cups cooled, scalded milk 

1 cup raisins soaked and seeded 

2 tablespoons shortening 
214 cups whole wheat flour 
1% cups bran 

Barley Bread 
2 cups whole wheat flour 
4 cups barley meal or barley flour 
1 cup water 

1 cup milk 

2 tablespoons molasses 

V2 yeast cake (compressed) 

1 teaspoon salt 

"Boil milk and water and cool. Add molass- 
es, salt and yeast mixed with a little cold 
water. Stir in flour and barley meal (or 
barley flour) which have been sifted together. 
Knead to a soft dough, adding more flour if 
necessary. Cover and let rise until the mix- 



Top Row — Alexander Salagin, T. Fredericksen. A. C Monty. Wm. Sigwart. H. Bedvilen. H. Bagdissian. B. M. Kuehnert. 
Second — Otto F. Luedke, Mike Kachickian. Arthur Patzke, Gianni Jennello, J. Schleck, C. Petavina. H. E. Hanson. 
Third — John Theos, Giuseppe Greco. Erline J. Septon. Martin Ra-smussen. Geo. F. Studey, John Riolo, Karabet Bokosian. 
Fourth — Paul F. Wolff. R. H. Esson. John Biluk. Giacento Furno, Max Budko, Mike Gougisian. John Kuspudis. 
Fifth — Mike Shimeta, Kaspar Sabastian, Dominic Sister. Joseph Leitner, James Giolli. Archie Berlin, Antonio Caruso. 
Sixth — Jacob Jacobson, M. Simeoni. Mihren Bashirian. Henry Barsamian, David Collins. S. C. Anderson. R. H. Leissner. 
Bottom — Wm. J. Beller, Clifford Valley. Albert Mixdorf, Felix Gliniecki. Vincent Wacker. L. W. Daniels. Wm. L. Ulrich. 



turo is double its bulli. Knead a second time, 
form into loaves, place in well-greased pans 
and let rise a second time until the dough has 
doubled its bulk. Bake in a hot oven from 
one-half to one hour, the time depending on 
the size of the loaves. 

Rye Bread 
"Use any method for white bread but be 
careful to use 2 cups of rye flour for each cup 
of wheat flour mentioned in the recipe. Rye 
bread should be softer than white bread but 
well kneaded. When light, form into loaves 
and allow to rise to double their size. Brush 
over with water and egg and bake in a slowei 
oven than for white bread. 

Rolled-Oat Bread 

"Scald one cup rolled oats in 1 cup boiling 
water and allow to stand one hour. Make a 
sponge of 

1 cup water 

1 cake compressed yeast 

1 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons molasses 
2 teaspoons shoi'tening 

% cup flour 
"Add rolled-oat mixture to sponge and then 
flour to make medium soft dough. Form into 
loaf and let rise to double its bulk and bake. 

Cornmeal Bread 
"Use either white or yellow cornmeal. Pro- 
ceed as in the case of rolled-oat bread. Sub- 
stitute two teaspoons of sugar for molasses 
and use the same method. 

Rice Bread 

"Follow directions for rolled-oat bread but 
use 1% cups cooked rice instead of the scald- 
ed oatmeal. 

"All the preceding recipes may be made into 
rolls. When the dough has risen the first 
time, form into rolls of desired shape and al- 
low to rise until very light. Bake in hot oven. 
If desired, the amount of sugar and shortening 
used may be increased. 

Potato Bread 

1 cup mashed potatoes 
1/2 cup potato water 

% teaspoon salt 

V2 cake compressed yeast 

2 teaspoons sugar 

2 teaspoons melted shortening 

V2 cup flour 

"Make into a sponge. Keep warm. When 
light, add sufficient flour to make a mediun. 
soft dough. Let rise to double its bulk and 

Housewives wei'e all asked to sign a card 

containing a pledge to conserve food, and these 
were kept on file so that in case of violation 
of the Food Act the culprit could be confront- 
ed with her previous promise and properly re- 
buked. Later on a food pledge insignia card 
was provided and this was displayed in the 
windows of homes where the pledge had been 
signed. Celluloid buttons were also provided 
which could be woi'n on the go\vn or coat lapel 
to signify the same thing. 

In homes and hotels it was urged that the 
use of china, silver and table linen be limited 
so as to reduce labor. Rigid economy regard- 
ing ice was asked. This was especially true 
in the South. Ammonia, which is used for 
making artificial ice, was needed in the manu- 
facture of munitions. 

In all sections of the country, people were 
asked to eat local and seasonable foods, as 
these did not require abnormal use of railroads 
and steamships to transport them, at a time 
when all ships and cars were needed for war 
purposes. This was one of the factors in the 
popularity of the "war gardens" in back yards 
and vacant lots in all cities and villages. 

In every home, the government Food Ad- 
ministration asked to have displayed the fol- 
lowing rules and suggestions regarding con- 
servation of food, and provided copies of them 
on printed cards for the purpose: 

"Our problem is to feed our Allies this win- 
ter by sending them as much food as we can 
of the most concentrated nutritive value in the 
least shipping space. These foods are wheat, 
beef, pork, dairy products and sugar. 

"Our solution is to eat less of these and 
more of other foods of which we have an 
abundance, and to waste less of all foods. 

"Bread and cereals — Have at least one 
wheatless meal a day. Use corn, oat, rye, 
barley, or mixed cereal rolls, muffins, and 
breads in place of white bread certainly for 
one meal and, if posfiblc, for two. Eat less 
cake and pastry. 

"As to the white bread, if you buy from a 
baker, order it a day in advance; then he will 
not bake beyond his needs. Cut the loaf on 
the table and only as required. Use stale 
bread for toast and cooking. 

"Meat — Use more poultry, rabbits, and es- 
pecially fish and sea food in place of beef, 
mutton and pork. Do not use either beef, 
mutton or pork more than once daily, and then 
serve smaller portions. Use all left-over meat 
cold or in made dishes. Use soups more free- 
ly. Use beans; they have nearly the same 
food value as meat. 

"Use all of the milk; waste no part of it. 



Photos by Pavek-Grant 

Top Row — Oscar J. Curley. Henry Stuebe. Harry Hanson, Elmer C. Petersen, Erwin A. Schroeder, Mariniis Peterson* 

Second — T. G. Morris, Chris Sorensen, Ray Gleason, H. R. P. Hansen, Frank J. Kaiser, Ernest R. Aul. 

Third — J. J. Mohrbacher, LeRoy A. Olson, Harry R. Hughes, Walter C. Roth. J. S. Driver, Chas. W. Frudy. 

Fourth — Otto Hansen, Honas Green, Edward L. Comply, John E. Jensen, John A. Campbell, Fred C. Sondergaard. 

Fifth — L. A. McDowell, Marius Jensen, Hiram James, Paul Nerenberg, Einer A. Erickson, C. A. Schneider. 

Bottom — G. M. Guilbert, Edmund C. Sorenson, Jos. Youska, John L, Sieger, Jos. E. Misorski, Otto Musiel. 



The children must have whole milk, there- 
fore, use less cream. There is a great waste 
of food by not using all skim and sour milk. 
Sour milk can be used in cooking and to make 
cottage cheese. Use buttermilk and cheese 

"Dairy butter has food values vital to chil- 
dren. Therefore, use it on the table as usual, 
especially for children. Use as little as pos- 
sible in cooking. Reduce the use of fried 
foods to reduce the consumption of lard and 
other fats. Use vegetable oils, as olive and 
cottonseed oil. Save daily one-third of an 
ounce of animal fat. Waste no soap; it con- 
tains fat and the glycerine for explosives. 
You can make scrubbing soap at home, and, 
in some localities, you can sell your saved fats 
to the soap makei-, who will thus secure our 
needed glycerine. 

"Use less candy and sweet drinks. Use less 
sugar in tea and coffee. Use honey, maple 
syi'up, and dark syrups for hot cakes and waf- 
fles without butter or sugar. Do not frost oi 
ice cakes. Do not stint the use of sugar in 
putting up fruits and jams. They may be used 
in place of butter. 

"We have a superabundance of vegetables. 
Double the use of vegetables. They take the 
place of part of the wheat and meat, and, 
at the same time, are healthful. Use potatoes 
abundantly. Store potatoes and roots properly 
and they will keep. Use fruits generously. 

"Coal comes from a distance, and our rail- 
way facilities are needed for war purposes. 
Burn fewer fires. If you can get wood, use it. 


"Buy less; cook no more than necessary; 
serve smaller portions. 

"Use local and seasonable supplies. 

"Patronize your local producers and lessen 
the need of transportation. 

"Preach and practice the 'gospel of the eleaii 

"We do not ask the American people to 
starve themselves. Eat plenty, but wisely, and 
without waste. 

"Do not limit the plain food of growing 

"Do not eat between meals. 

"Watch out for the waste in the community. 

"You can yourself devise other methods of 
saving to the ends we wish to accomplish. 
Under various circumstances and with varying 
conditions you can vary the methods of econ- 

"Abstain from meat on Tuesdays and wheal 
on Wednesdays. 

"The men of the Allied Nations are fight- 
ing; they are not on the farms. The produc- 
tion of food by these countries has therefore 
been greatly reduced. Even before the war it 
was much less than the amount consumed. 
The difference came from America and a few 
other countries. Now this difference is great- 
er than ever and, at the same time, but little 
food can be brought in from the outside ex- 
cept from America. 

"Therefore, our Allies depend on America 
for food as they have never depended befoi'e, 
and they ask us for it with a right which they 
have never had before. For today they are 
our companions in the great war for democ- 
racy and liberty. They are doing the fight- 
ing, the suffering, and dying — in our war. 

"England, France, Italy, and Belgium, taken 
together, import in peace time forty per cent 
of their breadstuffs. But now, with their re- 
duction in harvest, they must import sixty 
per cent. We must increase our normal ex- 
port surplus of 88,000,000 bushels to 220,- 
000,000 bushels. It can be done but in one 
way: by economizing and substituting. The 
people of the Allies can not substitute corn 
alone for bread, as we can. They are using 
other cereals added to wheat flour to make 
war bread, and can thus use up to twenty-five 
per cent of corn for wheat. We have plenty 
of corn to send them, but, except in Italy, 
whose people normally use it, our Allies have 
few corn mills, and corn meal is not durable 
enough to be shipped by us in large quanti- 
ties. Moreover, the Allied peoples do not make 
their bread at home; it is all made in bakeries, 
and corn bread can not be distributed from 
bakeries. There is but one way: we must re- 
duce our use of wheat. We use now an aver- 
age of five pounds of wheat flour per person 
per week. The whole problem can be met if 
we will substitute one pound of corn or other 
cereal flour for one pound of wheat flour 
weekly per person; that is, if we reduce our 
consumption of wheat flour from five pounds 
a week to four pounds a week. 

"The food animals of the Allies have de- 
creased by 3.3,000,000 head since the war be- 
gan ; thus the source of their meat production 
is decreasing. At the same time, the needs of 
their soldiers and war workers have increased 
the necessary meat consumption. Our meat 
exports to our Allies are now already almost 
three times what they were befoi'e the war. 
The needs of the .\llies will steadily increase, 
because their own production of food animals 
will steadily decrease because of lack of feed 
for them. If we will save one ounce of meat 



Top Row — Stewart Sloan. Frank Mertens, Herbert Goeffrey, A. J. Kramer, R. F. Wood, Gazaroo Hagopian. G. S. Jensen. 
Second — F. L. Stemmer, Peter Redewald, Sam Abresch, J. G. Young, Eugene Ireland. E. C. Mensior, L. Kuchenbecker. 
Third — Earl H. Nelsen, W. A. Halbach, V. D. Gleason, I. C. Eckert, Stanley Borns. Henry E. Hansen, Joe Candido. 
Fourth — Stanley Rusinski, Wm. Harpke, Irv. Christiansen, N. Kaylegian, Jas. Kinnerup, Kai H. Studt. I. D. Mosher. 
Fifth — T. L. Weyres. E. F. Studey. Henri Bovyn, P. Karalumas, B. V. Jensen, Edwin Bauer, Christ Olsen. 
Bottom — L. H. Thelen, Harold Kinberg. T. B. Jorgenson, Joe Petraitio, C. S. Thompson, T. M. Coryell, Melvin Christensen. 



per person per day we can send our Allies 
what they need. 

"The decreasing herds and the lack of fodder 
mean a steady falling off in the dairy products 
of our Allies. They have been asking for larg- 
er and larger exports from us. Last year we 
sent them three times as much butter and al- 
most ten times as much condensed milk as we 
used to send them before the war. Yet we 
must not only keep this level up, but do still 

"Before the war France, Italy, and Belgium 
produced as much sugar as they used, while 
England di-ew most of its supply from what 
are now enemy countries. France and Italy 
are producing less than they need, while Eng- 
land is cut off from the source of seventy per 
cent of her usual imports. These three Allied 
countries must now draw 1,. 500, 000 tons more 
of sugar than they did before the war from 
the same sources from which we draw our 
supplies. We must divide with them. We can 
do it by economizing. The usual American 
consumption per person is just double that of 

"Let us remember that every flag that flies 
opposite the German one is by proxy the 
American flag, and that the armies fighting 
in our defense under these flags cannot be 
maintained through this winter unless there 
is food enough for them and for their women 
and children at home. There can only be food 
enough if America provides it. And America 

can only provide it by the personal service and 
patriotic co-operation of all of us. 

"The small daily service in substitution can 
be done by all; the saving in waste by the ma- 
jority, and the lessening of food consumed by 
many. This individual daily service in 20,000,- 
000 kitchens and on 20,000,000 tables multiplied 
by 100,000,000, which is the sum of all of us, 
will make that total quantity which is the solu- 
tion of the problem." 

The work of the Food Administration was 
completed when the work of bringing the 
American Expeditionary Forces back from 
overseas had gotten well under way. In Feb- 
ruary, 1919, the office of County Food Admin- 
istrator was abolished and at that time Mr. 
Harvey sent the following letter to the trades- 
men in Racine who had co-operated so willing- 
ly in the conservation of food, often at con- 
siderable loss to themselves: 

"Racine, Wis., Feb. 12, 1919. 

"To the Bakers, Grocers, Hotels, Restau- 
rants and Markets, whose business came under 
the jurisdiction of the United States Food Ad- 

"On Aug. 10, 1918, the Congress of the 
United States passed the Food Act to encour- 
age production, control distribution, and con- 
serve supply, in order that all — rich and poor 
alike — might be assured a supply of the staple 
articles of food while we were at war. 

"Such interference with business had never 
been attempted in this country before. Deal- 


llitllliiiliiiiiiillitlllllllillll iiiiilllllllllllllltllltlltitililiillililllllllllllllllilllil 

The personnel of Board No. 2's contingent which left on 
July 26, 1918. (See illustration on page 155). — Leo Mater- 
nowski, Oscar Rose. Martin W. Severance, Richard M. 
Siejrmund, Thorlief Anderson, William G. Groelingr, Raf:ii 
Gineit. Svend Peter Haboff. Nels C. Hansen, Dominek 
Swensky, John Aug. Dresen, Frank Mikel Meischke, Petsr 
Koetting. Chas, B. Frankel, Louis Borgenson. Willard A. 
Blosser, Thomas Langlois. Edwin Gustave Carlson, Ralph 
Millar, Clarence Mauger, Casimer J. Radevich. HaroVl 
Jance. Allen W. White, Otto Albert Oertel. Edward Wjh. 
Lensart, L. L. Cook, Andrew Chris Davidson, Reinhold 
Pels, Joseph J. Small, George Sorenson, Fredrick P. 
Scharping, Nick Venetos. John J. Pawzum, Arnold M. 
Anderson, Tom Kuzt, Walter Hansil Martin, Nick Schram, 
Jim Kozlowsky, Hilten Hansen, John G. Jensen, Chris E. 
Sorenson, Jr., Harold E. Olsen, Michael Hansen, Louis E. 
Bartlett. Stanley Shadiz, Theodore Jacobsen, John Thomas 
Mauger, Joseph Henry Timer, Edward J .Hodges. John 
Wisewaty, J. A. Dembosky, Walter Jenas, Ralph Gentile, 
Sote Jayejian, Shukel Hasa. Stef Swareewicz. Albert G. 
Wrixton, Raymond J. Johnson, Peder B. Jensen, Carl C. 
Johanson, George Kenderis, Claude Conant, Bernhard J. 
Dreher. Charles C. Anderson. Vincent Szymobeski, W. J. 
Netzinger, Netzinger. Martin Nelson, Edward N. John- 
son, Axel Christensen. Julian Kosakowski, Carl Poulson, 
Helmuth G. Sorensen, Robert J. Burns, Viggo Rasmussen, 
Joseph Duski, Peter F. Peterson. James L. Jensen, Jake 
Roeschen, Tony Slabodianiuk, Peter Bertelson. Conrad 
Akvik, Walter Remkus, Albert Szkopiec. Rome S. Kas- 
provich, B. Peter Rodewald. Fred Anderson, Axe! M. 
Andersen. George Jensen, Jerome H. Kosterman, L. E. 
Hagen, Hans Madsen, Charles F. Wratten, Thomas J. 
Pryce, Albert J. Huck, Karl John Ki'ug, John Spezelanin, 

Felix Gliniecki, Walter Obry. John Nielsen, Joseph Milusz, 
Paul Koraiumas. Grover F. Grosse. Herman Pearson, 
William Fick. Arthur C. Amend, Joe Zuk. Stanislaus 
Grobowski, Harry E. Dibble. Harold Braunling. Peter 
Peterson, John Ambrose Budnik, Carl Jensen, Joseph 
Mazurkiewicz. Frank John Pfister. Morris N. Jorgenson, 
Jno. Wojtowitz, Joseph Kubek, Joseph H. Webster, Jno. J. 
Larsen. Louis Plantz. Louis John Bronenkant, Walentz 
Orzol, William P. Meischke, Thomas E. Flood. Peter J. 
Bohn, Richard D. Butler, Leo Wellnitz, Christian P. 
Thomassen, Penfield Kapiak. Joseph Latka. George Emil 
Barth, Alexander Bunka. Magus Wm. Petersen, George 
Klein. George L. Hughes. Stephen J. Brown, William H. 
Watson, Steve Krapdlowski, Henry Stadther, Leonard C. 
Jenkins. Albert C. Iggulden, Geo. Sarkis, Mores Falwich, 
Robert E. Davies, George Miskinis, John W. Madden, John 
Petaka, Louis M. Schrader, Thomas A. Jensen. John W. 
Roberts, Axel Johnson. Martin Sorenson. James A. Mat- 
son. Emil Petersen. David Hdishian. Jno. Higgins, Stanley 
Wroblewski. Michael Wieprucas, Michael Korostick. A. J. 
Holmes, Charles Mattie. M. N. Jensen, Michael PeganoflF. 
W. C. Williamsen. Geo. H. Pertwood. George Kriatseulas. 
Patrick Cullen. Frank Karos. Abraham Silver, R. T. 
Smith, W. L. Toohey, Walter Holtz. Arthur F. Wernicke, 
Joseph Miniat. Cazimir Kudirka. Emilo L. Fellice, Jacob 
Sokolosnsky. Thos. Johnson. Alele Safakes. Carl Prokop. 
Charles J. Nelson, Benny Wessualski. Frank W. Walker. 
Carl L. Funk. Jacob A. Forsman. Joseph Litwinowicz, 
John S. Sholzen. Stanley S. Schneider. C. A. Streiner, 
Frank J. Julka, David Collins. Anton L. Moutry, Jacob M. 
Beck, Marvin J. Lloyd. Viggo A. Helding. Charles F. 
Beyer, Hans P. Olson, Herman Henry Schaars, Harry P. 
Sinnen. Harry E. Schoolcraft. 







r my. 




. J5Pi^^»^ 

.1' Ji ■ 











ers in food were confi'onted with rules that 
were difficult to understand and still more 
difficult to follow. 

"The administration of the food laws was 
left to a Federal Food Administrator for each 
County. Some kind friend recommended me 
for appointment as Racine County Food Ad- 
ministrator and in Nov., 1917, I accepted that 

"I have now received instructions to close 
the office but before doing so, I wish to ex- 
press to each of you my appreciation of the 
conscientious and patriotic effort you made at 
all times to carry out the rules of the Food 
Administration. You did this cheerfully and 
many times at a sacrifice of business and prof- 

"During the year 1918, our stocks of wheat 
and sugar were inadequate to supply our arm- 
ies and civilians with a normal quantity. The 
fighting men got their flour and sugar first; 

we divided what was left among our home 
folks, each taking a pound of substitutes with 
a pound of wheat flour and each one limiting 
to two pounds of sugar per month. 

"The patriots smiled and claimed that sub- 
stitutes improved their health; the selfish 
grumbled and protested, but we saved the flour 
and sugar and we won the war. We will not 
say that food won the war but we can say that 
the war could not have been won without food. 

"The Food Administration taught the people 
to produce more food; to distribute it cai'efully 
to all alike and at much lower prices than 
would have prevailed without it; and to save 

"Therefore, the Food Administration helped 
to win the war. My association with the Food 
Mei-chants of Racine County duiing the great 
war will be a pleasant memory. Yours sin- 


Personnel of Board No. I's contingent. July 26. 19 IS. 
(See illustration Page 157). — James Plunkett, Joseph F. 
Schliesniann, Chas. F. Prudent, Bank Maksimoniz, Harry 
Loff. Paulo Citrangola. John Theos, George A. Gatzke. 
Harabed Tamooiian, Joseph Zoborowicz, E. J. Chadek, 
Arnien Kurkjean, John S. Walker. Bernard H. Steiner, 
Louis Kraft, Nels B. Johnson. Frank W. LaFave. Charles 
Fiebach, Alfred C. Simonsen, August Gioninni. Philip 
Pinekenstein, Carl Anderson, William T. Colbert, Peter 
Araboglous, John Mandro. Arthur Bicha, Andrew Mura. 
Emil B. Hansen, Viggo Peterson, Edward G. Halberstadt. 
John H. Weill, Jr., Lester F. Bowman, Herman P. Kugel, 
Edward J. Zimpi'ich, Frank Stolpa, John Olson. David 
Sheppard, Marine Michele. Han-y Vartasian. Edward 
Hueffner, August Schnik. Carl E. Anderson. Allen Peder- 
sen, Guiseppe Chiappetta. Lawrence S. Bakken. Joseph 
Peshek, Frank R. Karasek. Charles Krueger. Rudolph 
Greer, Tom Sadowsky, John S. Langenfeld, Palolo Palazo. 
Frank Mauer, Edwin Emil Nelson. Elmo V. Donaldson, 
Thomas E. Lavin, Giovanni Scaglione, Peter Cauglosi. 
Rafaele Maritato, Louis G. Bergholte. Edward Dvorak. 
William C. Krupp, Nels C. R. Beck. Walter Anderson. 
Carl H. Nielsen, Marderos Mekailian, Hacher Monachian, 
Carl E, Peterson, Elmer Breckenfeld, Henry C. Eickhorst, 
Peter E. Matson, Angelo Mangiavillano, Geo. C. Whiteney. 
John Johnson, J. C. A. Boye, Arthur Gall, John Sadowski. 
Miran Chrodijian. Hans Bonde. Nick Dacquisto. Joseph J. 
Mohrbacher. Joseph Ciolina. William Ernest, Celestino 
Paclossi, Rudolph F. Miller. Edward C. Sage. Wiliard J. 
Iselin, F. N. Siebold. Dick Akgorbian. Orrin F. Bilhorn, 
Louis Lee Landon, Antonio J. Ruzicka, Geo. E. Bronson, 
William Augustsen, H. Christsensen, Antonio Giagliardo. 
John E. Preuss. Hooseph Bagdasian, Charles E. Hanson. 

Rexford T. Fryer. Frank Filpi, Walter Block, Rufus E. 
Junck, Tatios Keochakian. Frank Hynek, Harold Wm. 
Duerr, William Gutzman, Frank Korzinek. John Kaplan, 
Francesco Abatti. Enevold Anderson, Otto P. Nitzke, 
George Nazarr. Harry E. Carlson, Erling J. Seton, Profilio 
Modesti. Harry DeRocher, Evald G. Nelson. Van David 
Gleason, Mike Aromian, Paul A. Hansen, John Block. 
Irving J. Albright, Leo Chobanian, William Buending. ' 
Jacob Roedema, Thurber W. Gushing, Geo. B. Rindfleisch, 
Louis Theama. Charles Theama, David Jacobsen, Carl T. 
Olson, Charles Petavino, Charles R. Petrizilka, H. W. 
Rasmussen, Frank J. Svec, Alfred Sorenson, Jas. Elbing. 
Nels Dybrad, E. C. Peterson, Abraham Noshbin, Arvid C. 
Carlson, Hari-y Yahnian, Salvatore Migaldi, Guiseppe 
Greco. Sarkis Astickies, Channes Ekizian, Mihran Kar- 
gunian. Tony Matranga, Charles Sieger, Fred J. Weiss. 
John Hosp, Theo. J. Schliesman, Conrad M. Moe, HeniT 
Keup, Joseph Denman. Jr.. Griffith T. Roberts, Louis 
Pinnow, Edmond Collins, Folmer H. Jorgenson, Wm. A. 
Keup. Ed. H. Miller, Edward Kroupa. Henry Hausner, 
Charles J. Sohr, Theodore J. Schmitt, Carl F. J. Larson. 
Anton Karwely, Soren C. Christensen, Armen Meghrouni. 
Fred Lensert, Fred Gaulke, William F. Bindel. Amintore 
Silvani. Andrew G. Prestos, Frank V. Flannigan, Sahag 
Jansouzian, Margas Shakinian, Arthur E. Nelson. P. P. 
Koleske, Jos. Naveratil, Joseph Ruffalo. Minas Minasian, 
John Klenn, Vincent Degardio. Chris Sandergaard. J. W. 
Larson, Arthur Gulbrandson, Nicola DeBonis. Dominic 
Sesto, Ohannes Davidian, Walter R. Voss, Loritz Jorgen- 
son. Lwarence E. Spreeberg. Hagop Manandian, Russell 
Burdick, Arthur A. Rick, Arthur W. Kosterman, H. L. 
Paulsen. Chas. O. Jandl. Mike Chobanian. F. H. Christen- 
sen, Roy Buamann, Oscar A. Beyer, John A. Wiesechel, 
George W. Wilkins. Vito Peccorano. 




THE pomp and glory of mai'ching hosts, 
the excitement and din of battle, are 
far removed from the quiet hearths of 
a nation at war. Young men find compensa- 
tions even for the weariness and discomforts 
and dangers of campaigns against a powei'ful 
enemy. Youth provides its own panacea for 
ills such as these. But heavy rests the hand 
of the war god upon the shoulders of those 
who are left at home to wait and watch and 
endure, while their loved ones are facing un- 
knowi\' and terrible dangers, and they are pow- 
erless to offer aid. 

It has been the lot of mothers in all ages to 
see their babes grow to stalwart manhood and 
face the hour of duty and sacrifice; to watch, 
sad-eyed and heavy-hearted, as their sons 
marched away, and yet to smile encourage- 
ment and seek to strengthen them in the pa- 
triotic purpose which might cost their lives. 
The father shouts a last and perhaps a jovial 
farewell to his boy departing for an adven- 
ture the end of which no one can foresee, and 
turns away to hide his unaccustomed tears. 

Then, like mothers and fathers everywhere, 
the parents wend their way homeward to mu- 
tually pledge that none but messages of good 
cheer and optimism should go forth from them 
to their young hero, and that thenceforth every 
bit of energy, every ounce of strength, should 
be exerted to the end that their boy and other 
boys in khaki and in blue should have the 
clothing and equipment, the guns and ammuni- 
tion, the food and the medicines, which are 
necessary to insure an early and decisive vic- 
tory for American arms. No words of criti- 
cism, even though deserved, must hamper those 
directing the nation's destiny. No call for 
money or labor or supplies must be ignored if 
needed to aid our growing armies. No habits 
of life, no social customs, no individual's con- 
venience, must be allowed to stand in the way 
of America's thorough mobilization of all re- 

sources in this titanic struggle against a for- 
eign foe. 

That was the predominant spirit in Racine. 
And no more remarkable sight was ever seen 
in the history of the world than the voluntary 
placing of almost every citizen of this free 
land under the discipline and direction of the 
governmental authorities. Few laws were 
passed to control the actions of our people. 
Few were needed, because a suggestion, a re- 
quest or an appeal from any recognized agency 
met with a whole-hearted instantaneous re- 
sponse which resulted in the accomplishment 
of any task, no matter how difficult. 

Was more food needed? The farmers pro- 
duced it. Was more clothing necessary? 
Women's hands provided it. Did the govern- 
ment require huge sums of money? Millions 
of dollai's more than was asked for was forth- 
coming in a twinkling. Men, gold, supplies- 
all were offered without stint, and the people 
of America asked only that they be taught 
other ways in which to show their patriotism 
and support of the country's ideals. There 
was little time for cheers — or tears. All must 
keep busy, lock out of their minds all thoughts 
of possible tragedy, and do everything to back 
up the men at the front. 

A letter written by a Racine woman to her 
son in France in November, 1918, is so inter- 
esting a story of the experiences of one per- 
son during the dark days of 1917-1918, and so 
typical of the cheerful messages sent by hun- 
dreds of parents to boys across the sea, that it 
is reproduced here almost without alteration. 
It tells better than a mere author could of the 
meaning of war when applied to the "home 

My Own Dear Son: We have been reading 
good news in the paper these days. It seems 
as if our prayers are about to be fulfilled, and 
once more an American army is to return home 
ci'owned with victory. Oh! you boys have been 
doing some wonderful deeds over there and 



Top Row— John H. Raiser, R. F, Miller, Ed Wilfer. Elmer K?ehan. H. B. George. Geo. M. Nelson. Ralph Geneit. 

Second — Edw. C. Engman. J. H. Davidson, E. P. Siegel. L. B. Hansen, Louis C. Bradshaw. L. F. Mehlhouse, R. R. Harcus. 

Third — Olaf Johnson, Enrico Lucarelli, Carl N. Frost, F. J. Abrahamson, Mike Camalo, C. T. Larson, Henry Erbe. 

Fourth — F. B. Jorgensen, Arthur Peterson, Jas. L. Anderson, R. E. Johns, Ole Valde, M. Boyaffian, Chas. Sorenson. 

Fifth — Christ Nelson, Wm. Foxwell. Joe Cicero, P. A. Petersen. Otto DuBois. G. Sweetman. L. N. Nelson. 

Bottom — Marius Jensen, Fred W. Schacht, Nepoleone Calvino. Thomas J. Clark. C. Mashewsky. Ray Haag, Emil B. Hansen. 



everyone appreciates it and praises you to the 
skies. I hope that you are still well and as 
happy as when you wrote before. Please do 
not risk your life needlessly; that can do no 
good. Remember, dear boy, that we want you 
home again to tell us of your great adventures. 

We have all been trying to do our bit back 
here. You asked me to tell you something of 
the war work in Kacine and I vdll. 

The city really seems changed. People have 
a different attitude toward life. Working for 
others does us all good, I think, and that is 
what American people at home are doing now. 
Women who have not done work in years now 
spend hours every day knitting and sewing on 
hospital garments. I even heard that Mrs. 

, who has considered herself an invalid 

for a long time, forgot all about her supposed 
illness and is dashing around doing this thing 
and that, collecting garments, soliciting money 
and even making speeches occasionally. I 
don't suppose she will ever have time to be 
ailing again until the war ends. 

We all await letters from our boys in 
France very anxiously, of course, and when a 
bag of foreign mail arrives everyone in town 
knows it. We run to meet the postman, who 
tells us whether the letters have been dis- 
tributed or whether we must wait until after- 
noon to get ours. Those who receive letters 
first call up the other mothers and shout the 
glad news that "everything seems to be fine; 
a few boys have been slightly wounded, but 
none seriously," and then we settle dowii to 
wonder whether you tell us the whole truth 
about your hardships and perils. Perhaps you 
are trying to keep us cheered up! 

You never saw people read newspapers the 
way they do. One can hardly wait to get a 
daily paper and scan the bulletins to see 
whether the Americans have driven these aw- 
ful Germans back a few more miles. Usually 
they have! The long casualty lists make sad- 
der reading, but there are few surprises in 
them, for the government notifies families of 
the wounded and dead before the names are 
given to the press. Racine appeal's in the list 
quite frequently lately, as you probably are 
aware. How our hearts go out to the moth- 
ers who have lost their boys! 

I suppose the censorship of soldiers' mail is 
necessary to keep spies from getting news, 
but it seems hard that you cannot write all 
of your experiences and let us know where you 
are and what your regiment is doing. You 
must remember everything, and tell us later 
when you come home. 

Ever since the war began the women have 
been spending lots of time knitting so I sup- 
pose you will have plenty of sweaters and 
warm socks when winter comes. It is the 
custom for us all to carry our knitting and 
start working just as soon as we are seated 
anywhere — in a street car, on a train, at lec- 
tures or while making calls. There are no par- 
ties nowadays — just gatherings to work for 
the soldiers. Refreshments are never served 
by patriotic people, excepting sometimes just 
a cup of tea, outside of the regular three meal 
hours. I think there would be a riot if some- 
one were to give an old-fashioned reception 
or luncheon this year. 

These customs give time for work, and save 
food. You probably remember that a meatless 
and a wheatless day each week were instituted 
before you sailed. There is no law, but every- 
one is very strict in obsei'ving them. Mrs. 

went to Milwaukee last Spring and 

remained to dinner with a friend's family. It 
was a meatless day, and when the hostess 

brought on a roast beef, Mrs. just 

got up from the table, grabbed her wraps, and 
departed without saying good-bye! That's the 
way good people feel about such things. Wo 
have wheat flour, of course, but we are sup- 
posed to use as great a quantity of substi- 
tutes (such as corn meal or rice) as we do of 
the wheat and everybody is very careful to do 
so. In fact you have to buy the substitute 
when you buy the flour. When someone re- 
marked that she might feed the substitutes to 
the chickens, as she could aff"ord to buy plenty 
of wheat flour for her family, she got a cold 
shoulder right in the knitting bee the other 
day, and although we were all friends, some- 
body reported her to the food administrator 
to have her case investigated! You see, peo- 
ple are not supposed to even joke about cheat- 
ing you boys of your food and clothing. It is 
not considered decent, when so many are suf- 
fering and dying for us. 

The coal situation was pretty bad last year, 
and most of us ruined our wall paper and per- 
haps our furnaces by burning soft coal and 
anything else we could get for fuel. But we 
all are willing to wear our vwaps in the house 
occasionally if it will help give the navy the 
necessary coal. The heatless days in stores 
and public buildings certainly saved a great 
deal of fuel. I hope next winter won't be as 
cold as the last. For a while we had two heat- 
less days a week for stores and offices. 

Speaking about women's work, there has 
arisen the term "pig-knitting," which is ap- 



Top Row — H. C. Stearns, C. C. Clausen, H. C. Kamin. E. T. Anderson. Clifford Naleid, S. Ciampaglia. John Corombo. 
Second — R. W. Pinto. L. C. PuKh, S. E. McKee, O. C. Gastrow. F. L. Chour. W. H. Rastall. Mike Hijenia. 
Third — J. H. Hogan. Axel Olson. H. N. Chambers, O. Q. Chambers. Vincent Novak. M. Falewicz. J. J. Hilt. 
Fourth— H. Vartasen. T. Keochakian. A. W. King, S. C. Christensen, P. J. Wisriefsky. R. A. Hyde. F. C. Reinardy. 
Fifth — F. C. Pella. P. T. Weber. Earl Anderson. R. J. Buetow. Aug. L. Hanson. P. J. Prudhom. Marvin Whitton. 
Bottom — L. J. Heimes. Arthur Jensen. J. H. Ruelle. C. A. Pope. Modesti Proflis. N. Dadian. H. Yahnian. 



plied to work of this sort done for one's self 
when we are supposed to be knitting for serv- 
ice men. Rather a descriptive term, don't you 
think? One doesn't dare wear any knitted 
material, no matter how old, for fear she will 
be accused of pig-knitting. 

It is astonishing how many service flags are 
displayed around Racine. It seems as if three- 
fourths of the houses have them, many bear- 
ing two, three or even more stars to represent 
men in service. I think it is a pretty custom. 
Some have gold stars, now, to stand for those 
who have given their lives for the cause. The 
blue stars on a white field, surrounded by a 
rectangle of red, are very striking and signifi- 
cant. I am so proud of mine. The Stars and 
Stripes fly from almost every home. 

Sugar is scarce with us, as I suppose it is 
with you. We are limited pretty closely, and 
no one uses it any more for such useless things 
as frostings, puddings, etc. Restaurants give 
one lump per customer, to be used on the spot. 
We can get 10 pounds for canning if the sugar 
deputies are sure we will not waste it. Per- 
haps we can get more for this purpose if the 
supply equals expectations, as they try to en- 
courage canning in every way. 

One funny thing has resulted from the war. 
Attics that have not been cleaned for years 
and years are being emptied to meet requests 
from the government for war material. Old 
books and magazines, old copper kettles, feath- 
er beds, woolen and leather goods, and almost 
any kind of metal, is wanted. The Red Ci'oss 
collects old automobile tires, and car ovsTiers 
are expected to throw them in a heap which 
has been started on Monument square. We 
even collect nut shells and peach stones for 
making chemicals to go into gas masks. Rub- 
ber is badly needed and high in price. Long 
ago they asked for field glasses for the navy; 
old lenses of all sorts for cameras, etc., and 
worn out gloves to make wind-proof vests for 
aviators. We don't buy many new things 
either; it is considered unpatriotic to waste 
money on clothes, or decorating homes or in 
hiring done what we can do ourselves. Labor 
must be used for war work. Travel is also dis- 
couraged excepting when on government busi- 
ness. When one does go on a train, as likely 
as not he will be awakened in the middle of 
the night between stations to be informed 
that the car is to be taken off' and attached to 
a troop train. The meals on trains are avrful, 
too, since the government took hold. Even the 
little children have learned to refuse candy and 
to cut down their sugar ration at home to help 

the soldiers. They are so enthusiastic, and trj 
so hard to help! Many of them contribute 
their pennies to aid the funds raised to adopt 
orphans, and they help in every other way 
they can. Little Genevieve went without sugar 
on her oatmeal for two weeks, and said she did 
it so you could have plenty in your cofl^ee in 
France. Wasn't that sweet? 

Lately we have been having "gasolineless 
Sundays" at the request of the fuel administra- 
tion and it warmed my heart to see how 
promptly everyone discontinued the use of 
automobiles on Sunday. The streets were ac- 
tually deserted excepting for occasional old 
ramshackle horse-drawn rigs, and puffing 
pedestrians. And every Sunday has been 
beautiful weather for riding in the country, 
too. Howevei', people have that much more 
time to sit in the parks or on porches and knit 
for the Red Cross. It never was comfortable 
knitting in an auto, anyway. 

We have seen the order that we can send 
small packages to our boys in France for 
Christmas but we must have a form letter 
from you authorizing it. Only one package, 
the size of a 2-pound candy box can go to each 
soldier, and there is lots of speculation about 
what to put into it. We know so little about 
what you need. One woman plans to get thir- 
ty articles in the box, such as a stick of gum, 
stamps, a couple of cigars, cigarettes, kodak 
picture, fountain pen and so on. As nearly as 
I understand from your letter you would like 
a good pocket knife and some candy. If you 
really need anything else, please let me know 
when you send the order. I want so much to 
give you something you want. It has seemed 
hard not to be able to send you your cigarettes 
and candy every week as we had planned, but 
I presume if everyone did that there wouldn't 
be room on ships to carry food and ammunition 
to the two million over there. 

Father sends his love and tells you to keep 
after the Kaiser until you get him. He is 
working day and night on all sorts of war 
work. Liberty loans, etc., and I think he is 
feeling blue because he can't take a riffe and 
jump right into the thick of it. He is so 
proud that his son is on the firing line. You 
should hear him talk about you! Write us as 
often as you find time and tell us all you can. 
Mav God bless and keep you, my dear, brave 
boy. MOTHER. 

In the back yards of almost every home, 
men and women worked with spade and hoe 
and rake to help increase the production of 



I''s by Pavek-Grant-Malms 

Top Row — H. J. Sanders. I. F. GilUn. G. F. Botstord, Rudie Mensior. Edw. Buetow, Ernest Maik. W. C. Hieffins. 
Second — A. C. Sittic. H. A. LaFortune, Geo. Zieich. Walter Sorensen. F. H. Boehmer. A. P. Dienken, B. V. Olson. 
Third— J. Simonak. H. C. Bauer. L. T. Flynn. H. W. Phillips. Joseph Zobac. Frank Pfister. R. E. Heath. 
Fourth — C. T. Skow. Walter Jonas. H. E. Iverson. Otto Oertell. Adolph Jensen. Irvin Bauman. H. A. Ruston. 
Fifth — J. Pistulka. W. H. Frank. P. F. Rossman. M. Ohanian. Anseer Hanson. F. H. Schreiber. Thos. Evans. 
Bottcm — W. M. Dederich. John Herchen. Clinton Killips, J. J. Bonnar. J. Bohnsack. A. B. Madsen. C. J. Kannenberg. 



foodstuffs. To this purpose was dedicated 
the extra hour of daylight gained by setting 
the clocks ahead one hour. There were many 
blisters created and many spinal columns 
ached from the unaccustomed toil, but Racine 
people raised hundreds upon hundreds of 
bushels of vegetables and assisted mateiially 
in supplying the home demand for food. This 
not only saved money and relieved market 
conditions, but saved transportation by obviat- 
ing the necessity of bringing so much food- 
stuffs to the city by rail. This was an im- 
portant consideration and every community 
wliich tried to make itself self-supporting was 
doing a big work for the nation. 

Whatever was asked, whatever was de- 
manded, it was the intense public sentiment 
which kept every one hard at work, no matter 
how he might view any particular decree of 
the government. "Slackers" were not toler- 
ated; evasions of any nale or order were 
looked upon as little better than treason. 
Public opinion did what no autocratic law 
could ever have done in Ameiica, and it was 
fortunate that the goveniment was prompt to 
see this fact. The only legislation regarding 
civilians which was needed was an espionage 
law to control enemy aliens. Even the censor- 
ship of the press was voluntaiy — and there- 
fore much more strict than if the authorities 
had attempted to force it upon the news- 

What America accom.plished in her homes, 
and the way in which it was done, will be an 
eternal testimonial to the ability of a free 
people to adjust themselves to any conditions 
to uphold the nation of which they are a part. 

In addition to all organized war work, there 
were, of course, innumerable individual plans 
for helping the government and the men in 
sei-vice. Mrs. L. K. Merrell, for example, 
traveled to Waco, Tex., while the 32nd 
Division was encamped there, and spent sev- 
eral weeks sewing and darning for the Racine 
boys there. The number of socks repaired 
and buttons replaced is not a matter of rec- 
ord, but if the figures were Known they un- 
doubtedly would be astonishingly large. This 
unique service was much appreciated by the 
boys, not only because of the work itself, but 
because of the spirit in which it was done. 
Later on Mrs. E. B. Belden did similar work 
at Camp Custer, where her husband. Judge 
Belden, was gi\ang his time to camp Y. M. 
C. A. w'ork. 

One rather odd incident of the war was 
the attempt of some sentimental goveniment 
official to tack the name "Sammy" onto the 
American soldier. It was intended to be used 

as a casual greeting to a soldier, much as 
"Tommy" is applied to the English fighting 
man. There were two prompt reactions. The 
first was an acceptance of the idea by thou- 
sands of civilians all over the nation, who felt 
that any suggestion from Washington should 
be obeyed. The second was a sharp and un- 
mistakable roar of protest from every army 
camp and bivouac clear up to the front in 
France. No such "kiddish" title for thern! 
Well meaning and bene\-olent gentlemen were 
snubbed and even rebuked profanely for using 
it in addressing soldiers to whom they had 
not been introduced. All American soldiers 
. were "Yanks"; sailors were "gobs"; one man 
addressed another as "Buddy"; members of 
the infantry demanded and were granted the 
honored title of "doughboys." All the wel- 
fare artists in the world could not give birth 
to a poetical name that would be accepted in 
place of these. Among themselves, sei-vice 
men might yell to some stranger, "Hurry up, 
Jack," or "Hi, there, leather-legs," or even 
more weird and profane expressions, but the 
men preferred to have civilians call them 
"Soldiers" or even "Mister." They detested 
the idea of petting and coddling, and the 
diminutive "Sammy" smacked of this, even 
though it was derived from the name of the 
American national figure. Uncle Sam. This 
very objection to being considered as a crowd 
of little boys was what caused the fei-vent 
protest against measures taken to keep them 
from drinking, to protect their morals and to 
force them to save money. They were will- 
ing enough to admit the merit of all these 
ideas, but it grated upon them to have a part 
of the home-staying public assume a "holier 
than thou" attitude which allowed civilian 
"slackers" and "profiteers" to do about as 
they pleased while eveiy reformer and plat- 
foiTn lecturer and paid welfare worker insisted 
upon all sorts of restrictions being placed upon 
the habits of "our poor, innocent boys." 
Psychologists probably can discuss the whys 
and wherefores of this feeling on the part of 
the soldier better than can a mere writer. 
One veiy evident reason for it was that the 
majority of American soldiers were not boys, 
but gro\\'n men old enough to vote and con- 
duct themselves as men. Another was that 
the nonnal activities of a member of an army 
in training- allowed no opportunity for any 
carousing or dissipation, and he objected to 
hearing the constant implication that he was 
on the way to perdition, and needed the watch- 
ful care of some salaried uplifter. The Amer- 
ican army had the highest rating of all aiTnies 
for morality because it was composed of 



Photos by Billin[?s-Giant-Huud 

Top Row— Matty Smith. Thorwald M. Beck, Paul Collins, Clarence Lange, O. F. Bllhorn. Al. Wagner. 

Second — E. L. Woods. Herbert C. Holferl. A. C. Fredericksen. Harry Groenke. Walter Klapproth. Arthur Klapproth. 

Third — Geo. Salak. Earl Hanson. Harold R. Olson, R. V. Davis. Guy A. Benson. Werner G. Hinz. 

Fourth — Irving C. Kappel. Martin Buerger, A. C. Davidson. Wm. Sheahan. Albert Davies. J. T. Corr. 

Fifth — Newton Perry. Clarence Theisen. J. J. Waitesek. G. W. Frost. Bert Perry, Dell Van Wie. 

Bottom — Andrew Tilton. H. J. Rodgers, Arthur Fritchen. John Newman. Walter Hansen. Max Zirbes. 



American men, and not because of any laws 
or regulations. 

One of the tragic incidents in connection 
with the war was the epidemic of Spanish 
influenza, or flu, as it was called. This diead 
disease had taken its toll of deaths in Europe 
at intervals for many centuries, but never in 
modem times had it appeared in such malig- 
nant and fatal foi-m as in the autumn of 1918. 

Cases were reported during the summer 
from Austria, Spain, Gennany and France. 
Whispers were heard of its ravages in Europe 
during July and August, but the real extent 
of the scourge was not realized at first' be- 
cause of the belief of many physicians that 
its victims had succumbed to pneumonia, 
grippe, quick consumption or other diseases. 
It became epidemic in Spain before its exist- 
ence was really acknowledged. 

Late in August, 1918, reports of numerous 
deaths began to be publi-shed in .seaboard 
cities. By the middle of September the news- 
papers were commenting upon its spread in 
America. On September 30, an Associated 
Press dispatch told of seventy-five recent vic- 
tims, and health officers everywhere were 
warned to be on the lookout for it. Within 
three days it was announced in Washington 
that a careful survey had shown nearly 14,000 
cases in the anny camps. Movements of 
troops and draft contingents made its control 
impossible for a time, particularly as medical 
authorities were not certain of the exact steps 
to follow. Men going to camp were dying on 
trains. Morgues eveiywheie were full of flu 
victims. The civilian population was assailed 
by the plague. Hundi'eds were reported dead 
eveiy day in the larger cit'es. 

On October 7 a general warning was issued 
to close all theaters, prohibit public meetings, 
close public libraries and limit all traveling to 
a minimum. Eight thousand soldiers and sail- 
ors had died in American camps up to October 
10. Hospitals were unable to care for all the 
patients, and the over-worked nurses and doc- 
tors were giving way under the strain of al- 
most constant labor without a chance to rest. 
Many of them contracted the disease. The 
average daily deaths in camp rose to 800, and 
every effort was made to find a way to check 
the pandemic before it should wipe out the 
whole population. Bodies of several Racine 
soldiers were returned home here for burial. 

In Racine the disease made terrible headway. 
The Red Cross society was granted pemiission 
to use the Stephen Bull mansion. Eleventh 
and Main streets, as an emergency hospital 
and volunteer nuises were called for and pro- 

vided. The house was filled with patients and 
every possible agency was enlisted to insure 
suitable care of the victims. Doctors worked 
day and night. Professional nurses were 
rcarce in civilian life, and in many cases pro- 
vision had to be made to assist families where 
all the members were ill at the same time. 
The soldiers' canteen furnished soup to all 
who asked it. Newspapers published instruc- 
tions for preventing the spread of the dis- 
ease and caring for those who were ill. 
Placards containing similar information were 
posted in public places. In infected houses 
and hospitals, and visitors wore gauze 
masks over their faces. People were warned 
not to sneeze or cough when others were near. 

The epidemic here died down for a time, 
but there was a recurrence in December. 
Schools were closed for nearly a month. Even 
church sei-vices were taboo. By the first of 
the new year the disease was under control, 
but the long list of dead was sad evidence of 
its dire power. In all it is estimated that 
500,000 persons died in the United States of 
the flu, and 227 of these were inhabitants of 
this city. Many others were broken in health 
and some of these became victims of other 
diseases while in their weakened physical con- 
dition. Two hundred died here from pneu- 
monia which resulted from, or at least fol- 
lowed, the flu. 

During the long months between the arrival 
of the first contingents of American troops in 
France in 1917, and the ending of the con- 
flict, the people at home did but little celebrat- 
ing of American victories. Experience with 
"official bulletins" of other governments in 
1914-1.5-16 had caused them to place small 
faith in the communiques. So when the first 
official accounts were given of the successful 
exploits of our armies in the early summer of 
1917 the rejoicing, while sincere, was not 
noisy. As the days passed the fears of pos- 
sible untold disasters dissipated; the progress 
of the Allied aiTnies became too evident to 
admit of pessimism. By October, when the 
Yankee hordes had begun their drive through 
the hitherto impregnable fastnesses of the 
Meuse-Ai'gonne sector, there could no longer 
be any doubt of the superiority of the Amer- 
ican fighter over his foe, and then the daily 
reports began to be the subject of hearty 
cheers and enthusiastic applause undimmetl by 
any dread of possible defeat. 

Maps were posted up in almost every home, 
and families gathered around these each eve- 
ning, with colored pins and long strings in 
hand, to mark out the progress of the Allied 
armies since the last communiques. The 



Top Row — Andy Rierstad. M. Basaksisian, Fair Demir, Jens P. Jensen, Peter Hanson, Ben Silverman, James Clancy. 

Second — Christ Bcnda, Geo. Neidhardt, J. J. Hegeman, Herman Jenson, A. C. Larson, Victor Rasmussen, T. Linneman. 

Third — Phillip Tentcher. Paul Kopecky, D. R. Nelson, L. A. Fishman. W. A. Holtz, Vincent Conto, A. A. Foxwell. 

Fourth— Louis Matson. Sam Aiello, John Murouski. P .W. Pea. Henry Sonturi, H .J. Murphy, Rudolph Zank. 

Fifth — Paul Boranes. John Dolce, Tony Cappazzo, E. F. Duray, R. E. Harter. John Belden, G. O. Zitka. 

Bottom— Carl A. Larson. Jacob Adams, O. T. Jacobson. A. F. Rose, Edward Evans, A. A. Gatzke, Ernest B. Haase. 



United States then saw that her labors and her 
sacrifices had borne fruit. 

Only the rapidly growng casualty lists re- 
mained to cloud the ever-growing joy of the 
home folks. 

No overconfidence was permitted. Every- 
one settled himself to work more diligently 
than ever to perfonn every task which might 
help clinch the victory. On Oct. 12, thousands 
paused in their work, in response to a semi- 
official suggestion, to face the east and shout 
"No! No! No!" simultaneously as an answer 
to the reported proposal of the Germans that 
peace terms other than unconditional surren- 
der might be arranged. America was de- 
termined to see the thing through! 

The World War came to an end with the 
signing of the aiinistice on November 11. 

The whole world celebrated the cessation 
of hostilities after more than four years of 
bloody strife. 

Yet, by one of the strangest freaks of news- 
paper reporting in all history, the close of the 
war actually seemed but little more than an 
anticlimax to an announcement made on 
November 7, which spread from one end of 
the earth to the other despite frantic efforts 
of government officials and news bureaus to 
stop it. 

It had been known for a week that the Allies 
had the Germans so completely "on the i-un" 
that only capitulation could save their soi'ely 
harassed armies from capture or annihila- 
tion. An exchange of peace notes had shown 
the Kaiser that only by unconditional sur- 
render could his legions be saved. The world 
awaited the result with nei-ves aquiver. 

Suddenly there came a message fi-om France 
to the United Press Association that the 
armistice had been signed. Not a word of ex- 
planation followed, and the censorship pre- 
vented further communication on that subject 
for some reason still unknown. 

Before noon a bulletin had been posted by 
the Racine Times-Call at its office, and by 
newspapers all over the country. It consisted 
of these two brief dispatches: 

"Paris, Nov. 7 — The Allies and Germany 
signed an armistice at 11 o'clock this 
morning. Hostilities ceased at 2 o'clock 
this afternoon. The American aiTny took 
Sedan before the armistice became effec- 

"Paris, Nov. 7 — The greatest war of all 
times came to an end at 2 o'clock this 
afternoon. The Allies and GeiTnany signed 
an armistice three hours earlier on the field 

of battle. The German delegation had 

come into the Allied lines under a white 


The news spread like wildfire. Wliistles 
were blown and church bells rung. Men 
stopped work, put on their coats and left shops 
and offices without asking permission or saying 
goodbye. Women locked the doors of their 
homes and joined the throngs. Flags were 
flung to the breeze ever.vAvhere. For an hour 
or more thousands of celebrants besieged the 
newspaper offices for further news. None w^as 
forthcoming. There could be no denial ob- 
tained, either. Officials of the government at 
Washington merely replied to all queiies, "We 
have received no word. We cannot get into 
communication with headquarters in France. 
We do not know." This was considered as 
good as an acknowledgment of the truth of 
the story. The entire country accepted this 

The subsequent celebration seemed to run 
lai'gely to noise. Automobiles tore up and 
down the streets with strings of tin cans and 
bells tied behind. Homs were blown con- 
tinuously. Men yelled. Women cheered. 
Children shrieked. Perfect strangers shook 
hands with hitherto dignified citizens, and 
slapped them on the back, and the usually 
dignified ones responded to the strange assault 
by Comanche-like cries and outrageous antics. 

By early afternoon not a store was open. 
Business absolutely stopped evei-j^where with- 
out warning or reason. 

Evening came, with no further infomiation, 
denials or details. The Racine Joumal-News 
continued to stand fast on the word of the 
Associated Press that the government knew 
of no aiTTiistice, and was hooted for its pains. 
The Times-Call could get no confirmation or 
proof from the I'nited Press, which said it 
had told all it knew and believed its corre- 

Effigies of the Kaiser appeared in the hands 
of howling marchers, and were "burned" or 
"drowned" to the music of the crowds' 
screams. Hundreds of reputable and some 
disreputable citizens got frankly and openly 
drunk and even disorderly, while other thou- 
-sands were apparently as intoxicated with ex- 
citement and joy as those who had looked 
upon liquor when it was red. 

Mayor Thiesen issued a proclamation call- 
ing on everyone to join in a big time down- 
town in the evening, and the bedlam received 
renewed impetus. Before the sun had set 
every band in town was playing around Mon- 
ument square, and those who did not belong to 
hands brought various noise-making instru- 






P„_^.L? ll 


, 1 



• 1 




1; * 


1 1 

r^lf -»-^*- ^ 

Photos by John Hood 


It took place May 29. 1917. — The first picture shows the lad on a pony leading- the 30,000 marchers who turned out to 
*'show" the Kaiser. Then come Spanish War veterans, a throng at a corner, a motorcycle float, a fraternal order's con- 
tingrent, a Jackie band on Main street, a section of be-bloomered workwomen, another women's section, the loyalty meeting 
at the park and at the end is shown the ceremony of scattering flowers on the waters in honor of sailors who had given 

their lives. 



ments along and played them at the same 
time, regardless of measure or hai-mony. 

The joyous uproar continued until early 
moming. When official denials of the signing 
of the aiTnistice finally came, nobody would 
believe them. They seemed too preposterous 
after everyone had celebrated so unanimously. 
It was noon the next day before the town had 
fairly settled down again and there was a 
general acceptance of the fact that something 
important had been missing in the affair; 
namely, a good reason for it. 

But Racine did not need to be embarrassed 
among her neighbors. From Alaska's icy 
shores to the wind-swept plains of Argentina, 
from the villages of France to sunny Aus- 
tralia they were all doing it. Paris, London 
and Rome celebrated even as Racine, Corliss 
and Burlington. Chicago and New York were 
as bad as Milwaukee. And, strange to tell, in 
eveiy city and town evei-j-where, as far as can 
be learned, the same things happened in the 
same way. The people just naturally quit 
evei-ything and went out on the streets to 
make all the noise and uproar and disturbance 
that they possibly could to demonstrate their 
approval of the war's end. On November 8 
and 9 the public awaited impatiently for news 
of the actual finish of the war. On Sunday 
the 10th extra editions told of the abdication 
and flight of the Kaiser, and it was forecast 
that the annistice would be signed the next 
morning. Many sat up all night awaiting the 
fateful dispatch. Early in the morning the 
news came — authentic and correct beyond a 
doubt. Again the whistles blew and the bells 
rang. Again men, women and children sallied 
forth with all thoughts of the day's work cast 
aside. Once more the city, the nation and the 
whole world gave itself over to a day of 
noisy celebration. Joy was unconfined — and 
often unrefined. 

The celebration of the real armistice was an 

improvement on that of November 7 in only 
one way. After the populace had awakened 
after the first fete, many persons had thought, 
"If I had only done so and so, I could have 
made lots more noise yesterday." All these 
"hindsight" ideas were now put into execution, 
and new and improved devices for raising 
the Old Harry made the welkin ring more 
tumultuously than before. However, it is dif- 
ficult to call forth at will such a spirit of 
mischief -making and general abandon as arose 
spontaneously throughout the land on Novem- 
ber 7 and the justified celebration appeared a 
trifle forced. Too many of the people on the 
streets were there to get amusement from the 
antics of others, rather than let themselves go 
\vithout restraint in expressing their joy. At 
that, it was the second biggest day the country 
had ever seen. An old-fashioned national elec- 
tion celebration was a Quaker meeting in com- 
parison. But that first affair — well, that was 
SOME day. No one participating will ever 
forget it. In connection with the "fake armi- 
stice," as it was called, it probably should be 
stated as a matter of history that a full ex- 
planation has never been made. The United 
Press, a very large and reputable news asso- 
ciation, has always maintained that it i-eceived 
the infonnation regarding the annistice from 
a confidential source which it considered abso- 
lutely reliable at the time, and which it is 
still inclined to credit. Soldiers in France in 
large numbers maintained that the "kitchen 
wireless" carried some likely sounding stories 
to the effect that the agreement to end the 
war was actually made on November 7, but 
that delays were required in making it public 
so that the Kaiser could ran away before his 
people learned their fate. Probably there is 
nothing to the yam. The complete stoi-y of 
the ending of the war has not yet been pub- 
lished, and it may make some revelations bear- 
ing on the great hoax. 



ALL civic and fraternal organizations 
turned tlieir whole membership into 
committees for war and relief work dur- 
ing the period of hostilities. After the men 
began to i-eturn home from service, they as- 
sisted in giving them a cordial community wel- 
come and in most instances gave dinners and 
entertainments for their own returning mem- 
bers. Such lodges as the Masons, Knights of 
Columbus, Knights of Pythias, etc., had special 
bureaus to watch out for the welfare of their 
members everywhere. The Eagles provided a 
death benefit of $1,000 for families of all mem- 
bers who might die in service. Several Racine 
families were beneficiaries of this plan. The 
Elks made a special effort to assist the welfare 
work of the Salvation army and Red Cross, 
and were active in all lines of war work. It 
gave a big "welcome home" banquet to the 
members of the two batteries and the ambu- 
lance company after they had come back from 
France. All societies and lodges aiTanged to 
carry the membership of men in service with- 
out requiring payment of dues. They also 
sent gift packages to men in service. 

The Racine Commercial club was the lead- 
ing civic organization in the community at the 
outbreak of the war and embraced in its mem- 
bership about 500 of the leading business men 
of the city. It dropped almost every form ol 
activity excepting such as were related to the 
great conflict. Its offices were used for re- 
cruiting purposes, public meetings of all sorts 
were held there and many of the official gov- 
ernmental agencies made their headquarters 
in the club rooms on Main street, at the corner 
of Fifth street. It co-operated with all war 
organizations and originated the plans for 
many. It was Secretary Walter H. Reed who 
proposed the establishment of the War Relief 
Fund. The report of Secretary Reed on Nov. 
1, 1918, is given here in part to show the man- 
ner in which this and other organizations were 
transformed during the conflict: 

"It hardly seems necessary, in offering a 
summary of the various activities of the Com- 
mercial Club during the past year, to call at- 
tention to the fact that the first consideration 
of the organization was that which should un- 
questionably be supreme with evei'y individual 
citizen of this country, and that is to Help Win 
the War in which we are now engaged. All 
other activities which the Commei'cial Club 
could conduct at the present time would amount 
to but very little or even to nothing, if the 
lack of patriotic national support by every 
community would I'esult in the defeat of the 
thousands of 'our boys' engaged in the actual 
struggle against autocracy and Hunnish fright- 

"With a full appreciation of the crisis con- 
fronting our Democracy and the apparent need 
of whole-hearted support by every individual 
and every organization, the Racine Commer- 
cial Club has, during the past year, endeavored 
to meet every demand from this direction. In 
consequence it has been necessary to refrain 
from promoting many activities which normal- 
ly could easily have been taken care of, and 
without a doubt every loyal citizen of Racine 
approves that the Commercial Club continue 
to give prior consideration to all national is- 
sues and to all demands made upon it by the 
Government to assist as best it can towards 
the successful prosecution of the war. Be- 
cause of this policy the Club has been looked 
to by the community as the organization ex- 
pected to take the lead in the many issues of 
the past year, and a review of these activities 
will indicate that through the Club the com- 
munity forces were well mobilized and that 
success marked every endeavor. Accordingly 
the Club considers as its most important and 
foremost achievement the fact that it is help- 
ing to win the war. 

"Among the Government war agencies with 
which the Club actively and continuously co- 
operated were the War Industries Board, War 



Trade Board, U. S. Shipping Boai-d, the Emer- 
gency Fleet Corporation, U. S. Food Admin- 
istration, Railroad Administration, the United 
States Fuel Administration and the Council 
of National Defense. During the year fre- 
quent requests have come from different de- 
partments and boards of the Government for 
suggestions of men qualified and trained for 
particular lines of service in Government em- 
ployment. In many instances names have been 
furnished which have resulted in the selec- 
tion of men thus suggested for Government 

"The history of the year under review has 
demonstrated that the Club members are will- 
ing to make any sacrifice necessary to enable 
the nation to fulfill its destiny in helping to 
win the war. The conditions under which 
business has been conducted necessarily fluc- 
tuated from time to time, leaving the business 
men uncertain as to the amount of sacrifice 
really required, as to the regulation or proced- 
ure under which they should continue their 
affairs so that they might preserve their busi- 
ness integrity and thereby be prepai-ed to meet 
the nation's needs after the military side of 
the war is over. Through the vision and sol- 
emn judgment vested in the Directors and staff 
this organization has been able during the 
year to render great assistance to the business 
men in meeting the war problems surrounding 
the conduct of business. 

"Not a day passes by but some request is 
received from the Government to co-operate in 
some special respect or to furnish information 
or submit records. These requests come from 
the different commissions, administrations, 
boards and bureaus, all having as their ob- 
jective the successful prosecution of the war. 
At the request of Government depaitments the 
Club also distributed several hundred pam- 
phlets on various subjects, such as canning, 
preserving, selection of foods, conservation of 
fuel, federal income tax reports, etc. 

"The first year of participation in the World 
War by the United States has produced un- 
precedented problems both for Government and 
for business. In the attempt to solve these 
problems, co-ordination and co-operation be- 
tween Government and business is one of the 
necessary elements. The events of the past 
year have demonstrated that this is more and 
more being understood, and that to an increas- 
ing degree the machinery of such organiza- 
tions as the Racine Commercial Club, already 
existent and prepared for service, has been 
utilized and has proven to be an efficient in- 

strumentality for service in our present war 

"This fact emphasizes the opportunity af- 
forded to business men and business units for 
co-operating and serving through participation 
in such an organization." 

The local Knights of Columbus were very 
active throughout the war in supporting a field 
organization to distribute comforts to the men 
in service. Every member of this powerful 
Catholic organization was assessed for the 
purpose, not only in Racine but throughout the 
country. Less than two weeks after the start 
of the war the Racine lodge offered its serv- 
ices in any way desired to the County Council 
of Defense, and a committee consisting of Rev. 
A. J. Berg, George W. Miller, T. A. Fagan, 
James Higgins, Vilas H. Whaley, Jerome J. 
Foley, A. D. Hermes, Edmund Collins, Edward 
Kosterman, L. B. Sanders and Dr. John Hogan 
was appointed to carry out this purpose. 

Even children had their part in the war work. 
Through the schools and churches, they were 
organized to plant war gardens, sew for the 
Red Cross, dedicate their nickels and dimes to 
the purchase of Thrift Stamps, or to the re- 
lief of the orphaned children of France and 

Girls as young as six or seven years of age 
were taught to knit squares of woolen yarn, 
which were sewed together at Red Cross work- 
rooms and then sent to Europe to serve as 
shawls and blankets for refugees. 

The Boy Scouts proved a most valuable or- 
ganization. There was hardly a patriotic gath- 
ering during the war at which these manly 
young fellows did not play some part. There 
were eighteen Troops in Racine, with a total 
membership of about 400. 

The boys of these troops served as ushers 
at Liberty Loan meetings, and distributed 
posters for government agencies. They de- 
livered War Relief Fund information cards to 
practically every home in the city, and per- 
formed similar work for many of the war ac- 
tivities. When large contingents of draft men 
were leaving, they patrolled the streets along 
the line of march, and they were of great as- 
sistance to the police in regulating traffic dur- 
ing parades and upon the occasion of the bat- 
tery's homecoming. 

On the "gasless" Sundays they took the li- 
cense numbers of all automobiles seen on the 
streets. During the influenza epidemic they 
served as messengers for the Red Ci-oss and 
other relief organizations, and they even were 
utilized to call upon those who were back in 



Photos by Pavek-Malme-Grant 

Top Row — Anthony Kralicek. Wm. H. Hayman. Hubert Gree or, J. K. Wishau, C. S. Peterson. Jno. Sinsky. M. C. Kolinsky. 

Second — Jas. Kahn, Rueben Anderson, E. H. Frahm. Anton Pederson, Harry Rooney, A. S. Hunter, G. J. Jensen. 

Third — J. J. Schliesmann. E. J. Klema, Jacob Schwartz. Aug. Drisner. W. J. Parks, M. E. Hoyer, J. C. Santkus. 

Fourth — J. Msciwujewski, I. H. Nelson, August Jensen, Cornelius Post, Martin Sorensen, R. L. Parks, G. E. Dickson. 

Fifth — August Wolf, Einer T. Brown, F. R. Magnan, Joe Fazzan, K. Krikonian, A. N. Kramer, Matthew Kowder. 

Bottom — N. J. Klein, Caspar Rizzo, Leon Korpuk, V. Keorglanian, H. Y. Grossman, Ralph Miller, Segard Husby. 



their payments to the War Relief Fund. The 
various troops planted two acres of war gai-- 
dens. They secured 2,970 members for the 
Red Cross in 1918 and solicited $463,300 for 
Liberty bonds. Many received medals from 
the U. S. Treasury Department for selling 
Liberty bonds. Among- them were: 

Horace Burdick, Gregory Bush, Frederick 
Foster, Millard Williams, Einer Jacobson, 
Charles Dilday, John Christensen, George 
Field, Alfred Hansen, Marvin Ross, Harold 
Konnak, Theodore Ruffalo, Frank RufTalo, 
Evan Miller, Michael Gillotte, Rell Barrett, 
John Johnson, Gordon Walker, Robei't Hansen, 
George Christophei'son, Clyde Mehder, Richard 
Sorenson, Arthur Dunleavy, Ralph Kister, Le- 
roy Pruerner, Frank Dieter, Kenneth Hancock, 
Arnold Griesmer, Mervil Piel, Bert Burdick, 
Gabriel Balazs, Kenneth Kehl, Mel Russell, 
Louis Moe, J. Trumbull, Glen McCaughey, V. 
Parmenter, Erick Lucht, Jr., Lewis Payne, 
George Skow, Arthur Carpenter, William 
Hunn, Thomas Harvey. Allan Kidd, Roland 
Smiley, Francis Weins, Gordon G. Harris, Per- 
ry Thomas, Carl Lange, Kenneth Brown, Stan- 
ley Knudson, Sam Meyers, Harry Johnson, 
Mai-vin Jansen, Donald Wadewitz, Randall 
Roth, Ralph Kinpel, Waldemar Ernst, Milton 
Haumersen, Carl Scheible and Hari-y Theres. 

Congressman Cooper Defeated. 

The war had its effect upon politics. It was 
a vital issue in the congressional campaign in 
1918, and that bitter struggle at the polls re- 
sulted in the defeat of Congressman Henry Al- 
len Cooper of Racine, who had represented the 
First district for twenty-six years. 

Two years before, Mr. Cooper had been re- 
elected with but little opposition and it was 
becoming a popular belief that he would hold 
his seat as long as he lived. In 1916 President 
Wilson had been re-elected on a "He kept us 
out of war" slogan, and even this Republican 
district had been strong for Wilson against his 
Republican opponent, Hughes, who had started 
his campaign with intimations that Wilson was 
not taking a firm enough stand against Ger- 

Mr. Cooper may have interpreted the vote 
here as meaning that the First district was op- 
posed to war for any reason. At any rate he 
voted on cei'tain pre-war bills in such a way 
as to indicate that it would be better to stand 
discomforts from German activities rather than 
get embroiled in the conflict. When the mat- 
ter of declaring war came up, he and six other 
Wisconsin congressmen opposed it. He had 

previously opposed arming merchant vessels to 
protect them against submarine attacks. 

When the election of 1918 approached, his 
habitual political enemies combined with those 
who had turned against him because of his 
pre-war record, and they proceeded to go after 
him hot and heavy. An informal conference 
of 400 Republicans was held at Elkhorn, May 
13, 1918, at which resolutions were passed de- 
claring, regarding Mr. Cooper's record: "That 
the present representative from the First dis- 
trict has failed to represent or interpret the 
true spirit of loyalty to country and devotion 
to the liberties and institutions demanded by 
the great mass of our citizens, that in voting 
and speaking against war with Germany he 
failed to protect and guard the honor of the 

nation and the property of the people 

That by his actions he, in effect, justified the 
submarine atrocities against America and 

neutral nations That in voting against 

the espionage bill he refused to recognize the 
deliberate violation of the hospitalities of this 
nation by the official representatives of the 

German government That his action in 

eflrect tended to protect spies and propagandists 
who are engaged in attempting to spread dis- 
sension among our people." The committee 
on resolutions consisted of James Kavanaugh, 
O. A. Oestrich, F. A. Kiser, A. J. Lunt and H. 
M. Youmans. 

When the convention started to select an op- 
ponent to fight Cooper at the primary election, 
there was a deadlock for several hours, -with 
various members voting for W. S. Goodland of 
Racine; David Agnew, Waukesha; Judge Ran- 
dall, Kenosha; L. C. Whittet, Edgerton, and G. 
L. Harrington, Elkhorn. The convention it- 
self was informal, but an agreement was 
reached whereby each county had a propor- 
tionate number of votes, and the ones to cast 
the ballots were to be decided by the delegates 
who weie present. 

Eventually Judge Clifford E. Randall of 
Kenosha was chosen and given unanimous en- 
dorsement. A campaign followed in which every 
voter in the district was reached by canvass- 
ers, mail and newspaper articles. On Aug. 6, 
Congressman Cooper came home to defend him- 
self. He held a meeting at Lakeside audito- 
rium. It was one of the hottest days of the 
year and barely 300 persons turned out. He 
challenged his foes to show that he was dis- 
loyal, and said he had voted since war was de- 
clared for every measure that the President 
had signed. He charged his enemies with per- 



Photos by Hood 


At the top, the throng that Kreetcd the batteries home: below, a draft contingent leaving. Next shows the crowd view- 
ing a war exhibit and camouflaged railway coach; below. Horlick employes forming to join Loyalty parade. At top, right, 
a feature of the Armistice celebration: below. President Wilson speaking from a train. Next is a group of returned bat- 
tery boys (note admiring kids in front) ; below, captured German U-boat docked at Racine on way to Chicago. 



sonal animus. On Aug. 25, the Joui'nal-News 
contained a lengthy attack upon Cooper by 
Martin J. Gillen, in which it was alleged that 
Mr. Cooper had taken no hand in war work, 
and had failed to encourage his neighbors at 
home in their efforts. His opponent, Mr. Ran- 
dall, maintained that Mr. Cooper was derelict 
in not even sending a message occasionally to 
Liberty Loan workers, and to the draft con- 
tingents about to leave for camp. 

On Aug. 30 Mr. Cooper held another meet- 
ing at Dania hall, attended by 200 persons. 
E. E. Gittins introduced him. At the previous 
meeting Albert Linck of the Trades & Labor 
council had presided and was the only person 
on the stage with the Congressman. 

The primaries were held on Sept. 3 and al- 
though Cooper carried Racine county by 445 
and Walworth by 73, Judge Randall got a ma- 
jority of 467 in Kenosha county, 94 in Wauke- 
sha and 110 in Rock, and was declared the Re- 
publican nominee by a majority of 153. 

Congressman Cooper believed that the ver- 
dict did not express the will of the people, and 
after a fervid defense of his record in a speech 
before Congress on Sept. 19, he announced him- 
self as an independent candidate for election, 
and obtained the necessary number of signa- 
tures to get his name on the ballot in that 

The Democi-atic candidate was Calvin Stew- 
art of Kenosha, who had run for the office sev- 
eral times before. Another fierce campaign 
followed and the candidates and their friends 
were kept busy making speeches and circular- 
izing the voters. Several newspaper advertise- 
ments regarding his record appeared in the 
newspapers over Mr. Cooper's signature. He 
made a strong fight and his wide acquaintance- 
ship stood him in good stead throughout the 
district, but he was defeated ovei-whelmingly 
at the election Nov. 5. Racine county gave 
him a plurality of 1000 over Judge Randall, 
but he was swamped elsewhere. Judge Ran- 
dall was elected by 750 over Stewart and 3848 
over Cooper. Congressman Cooper retired 
March 4, 1919, and was given a good federal 
job at Washington. 

Despite the result of the election, there was 
never any reason to believe that Mr. Cooper 
was really disloyal. The outcome merely is 
an indication of the popular attitude that any 
person whose record did not show continuous 
and hearty support of all measures to main- 
tain American rights against Germany was 
not a suitable man for public office. 

There was considerable contrast in this re- 

spect between the feeling in the First district 
and in Milwaukee, which had thousands of pro- 
German sympathizers. Victor Berger, a So- 
cialist, was an active speaker against govern- 
ment war measures even after war was de- 
clared and not only was his newspaper barred 
from the mails, but he was indicted and con- 
victed for treasonable utterances. Despite this 
he was re-elected to Congress from the Fifth 
district. Congress promptly refused to per- 
mit him to be seated and declared the election 
null and void, in accordance with numerous 
precedents. Berger, while awaiting an appeal 
from his prison sentence, in November, 1919, 
became a candidate for the office again and 
actually was elected again due to the numer- 
ous Germans and Socialists of his district. In 
fact, so un-American was the district that the 
most pronounced objection to his election again 
seemed to be the fact that the voters felt he 
would not be able to serve because he would 
either be unseated again or be in the peniten- 
tiary. During the campaign the national con- 
vention of the American Legion was held and 
passed resolutions asking Congress to deport 
Berger to his native Austria. 

A Man Without a Country. 

America expected every citizen to do his 
part in the winning of the war. It co-operated 
with the governments of the Allied nations in 
procuring the enlistment of eligible men who 
were residents of the United States, but citi- 
zens of those countries. It could not. of 
course, require military service of men who 
were still subjects of alien neutral nations. 

As soon as the Selective Sei-^'ice act was 
passed, a question arose as to the status of 
those foreign-bom residents who had declared 
their intention of becoming citizens of the 
United States, but had not yet applied for 
their "second papers." Technically they were 
still subjects of their mother country if they 
cared to ask for protection there. 

In order to avoid any complications, these 
men were required to register and were as- 
sumed to be loyal Americans. To prevent any 
violation of international treaty obligations, 
however, Congress pro\'ided that any subject 
of a neutral countiy who had declared his in- 
tention of becoming an American citizen 
should be relieved from military sei-vice upon 
his making a foiinal declaration withdrawing 
his declaration of such intention. 

But by this action he would forever be de- 
barred from becoming a citizen of the United 

Records of the Provost Marshal General's 





The big G Farman planes used in aerial passenger service between Paris and London have to depend on Racine for effici- 
ent handling. The picture shows a Case tractor used to haul the planes to their hangars when they come in from a 
trip. It is an evidence of the many uses this versatile machine can be put to. and one of the results of war advance- 
ments. It also proclaims to the world that Racine is on the map. 


Racine figured in a great extent in the reclaiming of European lands which were laid waste by war. A fleet of Case 
farm tractors, plowing flelds in Italy, is shown in the illustration. They are manned by soldiers in uniform indicating 

the scene existed before close of hostilities. 



office show that 77,644 declarants were regis- 
tered. Of this number 818 in the whole 
United States obtained exemption by with- 
drawing their applications and thereby sacri- 
ficed forever the right to become American 

In the summer of 1918 there appeared be- 
fore Local Board No. 1 in Racine a certain 
Erik E. Ei-ickson, who had previously de- 
clared his intention of becoming a citizen, and 
was now called upon to maintain the honor of 
his adopted country by taking aiTns in her 
defense. But Erickson, who had left Sweden 
to take advantage of the opportunities offered 
by this free land, cared more for his own skin 
than he did for the country of his adoption, 
and wanted to keep out of the ai-my. All 
other methods failing, he decided to withdraw 
his declaration of intention. He finally per- 
fonned this grave act, although he was given 
several days to think it over before he was 
required to make a final decision. 

Walking from the office of the local board, he 
met an acquaintance and told him what he had 
done. His companion, who had been friendly 
with him for months, expressed his opinion 
of Erickson in no mild language and turned 
his back upon him. News of the matter 
I'eached the factoiy where Erickson worked, 

and at the request of fellow employes Erick- 
son was promptly discharged. 

Unable to obtain emplojTnent here, the "man 
without a country" went to Rockfox-d and ob- 
tained a job. A letter sent there, giving his 
history, resulted in his separation from his 
employers. He went to Minneapolis. His rec- 
ord followed him and he was refused work. 

On September 29, Erickson, poor of purse 
and broken in spirit, returned to Racine and 
appeared before the local board, begging for 
an opportunity to undo what he had done. He 
had seen the error of his ways, and he was 
then willing to don a unifonn and fight, or 
even die, to regain the priceless right which 
he had thrown away to escape temporary dis- 
comfort and danger. 

But it was too late. The law was inexorable. 
"By this action he shall FOREVER be de- 
barred from becoming a citizen," were the 
words which had been pointed out to him a 
few weeks before and which he had chosen as 
a refuge from ai-my sen-ice. 

With tears streaming down his face, he 
sunk his chin deep into his collar and slunk 
down the stairs, around a corner and thence 
into oblivion insofar as Racine is concerned. 

Where he went, or how, no one in this com- 
munitv knows — or cai'es. 



The roster of the Racine College S. A. T. C. fwhich is 
shown in the illustration on opposite page I contained 
the following: names: — Alfred L. Agne, Keith A. Beecher, 
Norman B. Bengtson, William C. Benson, Frank Borsh. 
Harvey L. Buslett, John A. Carpenter, William H. Cart- 
tington, William P. Cizek. Hugh C. Cordick, Earl G. Cril- 
singer. Grover F. D. Croll. James C. Cullen. Carlton E. 
Douglas, Allen J. Dinimm, William H. Dummer. Thomas 
Dumphy. Solomon J. Edwin, Eugene A. Erny, John W. 
Fitzpatrick, Russell G. Flagg, Van H. Fossler. Frederick 
W. Fredelake. Russell W. Frederick, Carl J. Freres, An- 
drew S. Gamble, Frederick D. Gebhardt. Roy W. Gower, 
Harry W. Groenke, Russell F. Groenke. Darwin E. Healey, 
Frederick E. Hegeman. Godfred F. Heinish. John E. Helm, 
Alfred Hermann, Wallace B. Hessler, Melvin F. Hoernel, 
Walter G. Horn. Clyde N. Home. Louis Horvath. Ralph J. 
Humble. Albin T. Johnson. Carl V. Johnson, David John- 
son. Neville Joyner. Frederick H. Joyner. Earl W. Kaiser, 
Fred B. Kark. Donald M. Kastler. Leon L. Katafiasz, 

Lawrence O. Kellogg, Edward P. Kersten. Joseph C. 
Kolinsky. Warren E. Lalande. Arthur G. Lunde. John D. 
McCarthy. Howard R. McVey. Harvey L. Marcoux. Eu- 
gene J. Mayer, Edward W. Mazzoni. Edwin B. Milne, 
Walter M. Mirow. Allyn L. Mogensen. Geo. W. Mogensen. 
Samuel Morgan. Earle J. Morser. Gus. V. Motteler, A. W. 
Neitzel, Edward Ossko. George B. Patrick. John Pekarske, 
LeRoy J. Penberthy, George Petersen. Victor A. Pezano- 
ski, Arnold O. Pieper. Walter M. Pohl, Ervin C. Raatz, 
Paul E. Riebs. Stanley M. Rose. Benjamin G. Schaefer. 
Cyril J. Schaller. Henry J. Schmidt. Ira Schnell. A. A. 
Schultz, Martin O. Schulz. George B. Scriven. George K. 
Seeber, John B. Shaughnessy. Walter J. Sieb. Walter S. 
Smolensk!, Ed. C. Sorensen. Harold Sorenson. Harold J. 
Strang, Joe E. Tennes, Walter V. Wagner. Emniett M. 
Wallace, Jerome Wexberg. Wm. E. Wiechers, Howard F. 
Wiesen. Walter E. Wilson. Ed. M. Wochinski, Claire A. 
Wolfe. Thomas S. Wood. Emerald G. Wright, Bernard H. 
Yopp, Otis G. Youngquist. Armin G. Zapf, W.atson W. 
Mitchel, Lieut. Cyrus J. Droppers, Porter B. Price. 





EVERY manufacturing plant in Racine 
felt the effects of the war in some man- 
ner. Before the United States became 
involved in the conflict, several concerns were 
engaged in making supplies of various sorts 
for the Allied countries. The Mitchell-Lewis 
Motor Company, which had absorbed the old 
Mitchell Wagon company, turned out a large 
number of baggage wagons and rolling kitch- 
ens for the Russian and French governments. 
The Gorton Manufacturing Company was mak- 
ing machines which facilitated the cutting of 
steel and iron for the manufacture of guns and 
shells. There was a project on foot in Janu- 
ary, 1917, to establish a huge shrapnel factory 
at Corliss to engage in a contract with the 
Trench and British governments. 

When America declared war, practically 
every factory in Racine offered its services to 
the government, either for the making of their 
normal products or for any other production 
that might be required. 

Naturally, the first effect of the war was a 
shortage of labor due to enlistment of the 
most patriotic of the young men of the com- 
munity. This matter threatened to become 
serious beyond woi'ds when the draft should 
begin to operate. The government had wisely 
foreseen all phases of the problem, however, 
and with the institution of the draft, exemp- 
tion was given to essential employes in all 
industries, and a large proportion of employes 
in essential industries, if their services were 
needed at home. 

While the employers were confronted with 
a likely shortage of labor, they soon were faced 
also with a shortage of material and rising- 
prices. For instance, the government restrict- 
ed the manufacture of inner tubes for automo- 
bile tires to 50 per cent of the previous year's 
production, to conserve the supply of rubber, 
while the price of pig iron and similar raw ma- 
terial advanced from 100 to 300 per cent, with 
deliveries limited to plants manufacturing 

necessary articles. The sugar shortage cur- 
tailed production of many foodstuffs. How- 
ever, the government adopted many wise meas- 
ures to keep any industry from being destroyed, 
and so well were matters arranged that gov- 
ernment contracts for essential things were 
distributed among factories which otherwise 
would have been closed as non-essential, and 
the industrial life of the nation was kept in a 
healthy condition. 

Inquiry among thirty or forty large manu- 
facturers of Racine county brought out the 
information that practically all of them ex- 
perienced these effects of the war, while it 
was in progress: 

First, shortage of labor and material. 
Second, it was easy to sell anything they 
could produce. 

Third, profits were larger than in peace 

The shortage of labor was offset to some 
degree by the fact that women and old men 
took the places made vacant by departing sol- 
diers and sailors, and the high wages were 
attractive to all who were able to work. Fur- 
thermore, there was an incentive for those at 
home to keep all industries going at high speed 
and thus help win the war. There was very 
little labor trouble here during the war. The 
government made it very plain that all who 
were not willing to work at fair wages must 
go into military service. 

Racine was fortunate iri that its manufac- 
tures were mostly of such a nature as to be 
classed as necessities for either the govern- 
ment or the civilian population. While no 
guns or ammunition was being manufactured, 
other things almost as important were being 
turned out in immense quantities. 

The Walker Manufacturing Company fur- 
nished the government with auto jacks and 
other accessories. The Hartmann Trunk Com- 
pany made locker trunks for army and navy 
officers. The Racine Tool & Machinery Com- 



pany was making' cut-off machines for cutting 
steel and iron. The Hill^er-Wiechers Company 
and the Alschuler Manufacturing Company 
made shirts and other parts of uniforms, and 
shoes were sold to army and navy by the Mill- 
er Shoe Company, and the Racine Shoe Com- 
pany. The J. I. Case T. M. Company was 
making tractors for the United States and 
Allied governments, and the J. I. Case Plow 
Company did the same with plows and har- 
rows. The Chicago Rubber Clothing Company 
manufactured rubber aprons and sheeting for 
hospitals, and rain coats for troops. The Hor- 
lick Malted Milk Company's products were 
used in many military establishments and hos- 
pitals, and the company was perfecting a con- 
densed emergency ration to be carried by all 
soldiers and sailors. The Mitchell-Lewis Motor 
Company had contracts for auto trucks and 
trailers, and the Gold Medal Camp Furniture 
Company sold all of its vast output of cots, 
tents and camp supplies to the army. 

No attempt will be made to list all of the 
products made here which were considered 
essential to the carrying on of the war, but 
it can readily be seen that Racine county in- 
dustries were doing their shai'e. 

The Racine Manufacturing Company, for 
example, practically originated a new line of 
industry — the building of lifeboats and life 
rafts in large quantities. Prior to this time, 
these were produced by hand work, and the 
process was very slow. The organization of 
the Emergency Fleet Corporation under gov- 
ernment auspices, and the announcement of 
plans for the construction of hundreds of sea- 
going vessels in a short time, made the pro- 
duction of these accessories very necessary. 
The lifeboats were made with a steel keel and 
a releasing gear, so they could be launched 
from their davits automatically. The lifeboats, 
as shipped from Racine, were complete with 
canvas cover, emergency rations for a capacity 
load for five days, oars, sail, boat hooks, pails, 
hatchet, matches, compass, lantern, cups, dis- 
tress signals, rockets, sea anchor and hand 
pump. The life rafts were nearly as well 
equipped with supplies. They consisted of two 
metal cylinders to which was bolted a frame- 
work of wood. The rafts were meant to be 
thrown in the water, so people could hold onto 
them until picked up by boats. 

The Freeman Manufacturing Company also 
rendered great sei'vice to the United States 
Shipping Board. When it was planned to con- 
struct a huge fleet of wooden ships, the Fi^ee- 
man Manufacturing Company accepted a con- 
tract for a special type of marine boiler and 

manufactured forty-two of the monsters. To 
do this it was necessary to interrupt work on 
many private contract jobs, and for a time the 
government would not allow the company to 
send out any of its men to repair boilers of old 
customers. Realizing the necessity for haste, 
the employes of the plant often worked thir- 
teen hours a day to get the work out for the 

The Silver Iron & Steel Company, organized 
to buy and sell scrap material, reported that 
they collected and shipped nearly a thousand 
tons a month of metal for use in war indus- 
tries during 1918. 

Practically every foundry in Racine had sub- 
conti'acts for making pai'ts of machinery used 
in war work of some sort. 

The factories were the centers for much of 
the war work at home. In all the Libei-ty 
Loan drives, for instance, there was an organi- 
zation at each plant to solicit from each em- 
ploye, and when the Racine County Relief 
Fund was instituted all employes donated the 
earnings of one-half hour each week to this 
fund, while the employers contributed a sum 
equal to the donations of all their employes. 

The J. I. Case Threshing Machine Company 
is the largest manufacturing institution in the 
county. There were 844 of its employes in the 
service of the government, or one out of every 
five of the 4,000 employed. Some of these 
were from bi'anch houses in other cities, but 
the majority were from the Racine works. 

As an example of the way in which the fac- 
tories assisted in civilian war work, it is worth 
while to record the following figures showing 
the record of J. I. Case T. M. employes in the 
Libei'ty Loan drives: 

Employes Per Company 

Sulweribed Capita Subscribed Totals 

First S 63,950. $21. $ 100,000. $ 16.3,050. 

Sieond .... !)0.000. m. 200.000. 290,000. 

Tliird 185,000. 62. 300,000. 4.S5,000. 

Fourth .... 251,000. 99. 400,000. 651,000. 

Fifth 276,000. 79. 400,000. 675.250. 

SS66.2O0. $1,400,000. $2,266,200. 

Besides buying Bonds to the limit, the em- 
ployees pui"chased $111,265.00 worth of War 
Savings Stamps. 

Early in the war, on the first Y. M. C. A. 
drive, a sum of $1,700.00 was raised at the 
plant. In November, 1917, when our country 
had become more deeply involved in the strug- 
gle, the people from the company I'aised $9,- 
211.75 for the "Y." This was twelve per cent 
of the entire allotment for Racine county. 

Probably the most war-like activities noticed 
around the plant was the period when a com- 
pany of the 37th Engineers from Fort Meyers, 
Virginia, were stationed at the South Works. 



■'^>'^' • V^'^'^''^ 


Official U. S. Photo 


The strange looking scenery shown above doesn't look very substantial from the ground, but when an enemy was above 
it, the strips of wiring presented a ground shadow which completely obscured moving troops or trains. 

Photo by H. J. Sanders 


Many Battery O men attended the Memorial services on May 30, 1918 at Camp Williams Cemetery, Is-sur-Tille. as shown 
in the illustration. On each of the graves a tiny American tlag fluttered the message of Liberty from those who lay 

sleeping there. 



These soldiers were sent here by the Govern- 
ment to study the operation and construction 
of the modern iron horse, the tractor. While 
they were in Racine, they were comfortably 
quartered at the Motor Works, which was con- 
verted into a fine barracks. They were fed at 
the South Works restaurant, on regular civil- 
ian chow. While here the men studied the 
ti'actor as it was constructed in the shops, and 
also did practical work of plowing and prepar- 
ing the seed bed on surrounding farms. Lec- 
tures and classes were also conducted by the 
Case Research Engineering and Educational 

Another phase of the v.-ar work in the Case 
plant, which while it did not assume to be any- 
thing tremendously great, yet it illustrated the 
splendid feeling of fellowship that existed be- 
tween the soldiers in overalls and the soldiers 
in khaki, was the Case Eagle jitney fund. This 
was purely and simply a stunt put on by the 
men in the factory themselves. 

Immediately after the boys of the Batteries 
and the Ambulance departed for camp, there 
was posted around the shop, a placard bearing 
the following slogan, "A nickel or more for 
the Case Boys at war," and was dubbed "The 
Jitney Fund." Everyone contributed anything 
from a nickel to a quarter each month. The 
money thus raised was used to purchase candy, 
tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, paper, pencils, shav- 
ing soap, tooth brushes, and other toilet ar- 
ticles, and in general, many of those little 
things which the boys were in the habit of 
having at home. A jitney package such as this 
was forwarded each month to every Case boy in 
service, as long as he could be kept track of. 
After the boys reached the other side, of course 
it was not as easy for the packages to reach 
their proper destination. While this fund was 
in active existence, it collected $2,800.56, and 
spent in jitney packages $1,597.44. At the 
end of the war there was quite a sum being 
held in trust, to be used to aid some worthy 
Case soldier or his family. Money from this 
fund was also used to send floral tributes to 

the funerals of Case soldiers who died and were 
buried in this country. 

There is published at the J. I. Case Thresh- 
ing Machine Company's factories, a little 
monthly factory paper, known as the "Case 
Eagle." On July 18th, 1917, the editor of the 
Eagle established a section in this paper, and 
termed it the "Old Abe Warrior." This de- 
partment was given over entirely to the doings 
of Case boys in service. Letters were pub- 
lished, photographs were printed, and anything 
interesting to Case soldiers could also be found 
on these pages. The Eagle was always mailed 
each month to every former employee in the 
service. Many interesting stories have been 
told how the "Eagle" helped many fellows to 
locate their friends, through reading the "Old 
Abe Warrior" section. 

The officials of the Company were also very 
active in the war. Warren J. Davis, the presi- 
dent of the company, served as Racine County 
Chairman of the War Savings Stamp Commit- 
tee. During the war Mr. Davis wrote letters 
to every boy in service, advising them on the 
matter of War Risk Insurance, and received 
hundreds of replies from the young men. Mil- 
ton H. Pettit, vice-president in charge of plants 
and production, was an enthusiastic worker 
in the Racine County Council of Defense. Oth- 
er officers and division sales managers were 
always prominent in the various drives. When 
the two companies of Wisconsin State Guards 
were formed, five out of the six commissioned 
officers were men from the Case organization. 
Richard P. Howell was in direct charge of most 
of the Liberty Loan and other financial war 
work at the plant. 

In the summer of 1918 Racine was on a war 
basis. Her young men wei-e rapidly being en- 
rolled in the armed forces of the nation. Her 
factories were working at high speed to make 
military supplies and products needed by the 
civilian population of America and the Allied 

Toward the end of July some strangers ap- 
peared in the city and made a hasty survey of 


These Boy Scouts were veteran scout troops. They were 
active in war garden work, liberty loan drives (capturin;^ 
highest honors in one) and in all kinds of service which 
their organization was called upon to give. There were 
other troops as active during war days, but photographs 
of them were not available at the time these pages went 
to press. In the photograph are shown : 

Top Row — Clarence Rassmusen, George Christopherson, 
Gabriel Balazs, Glenn McCaughey. Bui-t E. Burdick, Wil- 
liam Foster, George Peterson. 

Second — Clyde Mehder, Frank Dieter, Kenneth Hancock, 
Kenneth Russell, Ervin Shrader, Louis Moe, Arnold Bor- 

Third — Melvern Russell. William Wenszell, Arthur Kuck- 
enback, Harold Kuckenback, John Johnson, Robert Han- 
son, Ralph Kister, S. C. Burdick. 

Bottom — Leroy Puerner, Arthur Liesner, Arnold Gres- 
mer, W. J. Burdick, John Trumbull, Richard Sorensen, 
Rell Barrett. 

The insert upper left hand corner is Harold E. Burdick 
who died in service. 





lands lying north of the city, neai' Ives, in the 
town of Caledonia. They were followed by 
other men, who were evidently engineers of 
considerable authority, who checked over the 
work of their advance guard, and made in- 
quiries regarding railroad facilities, labor mar- 
ket, water supply, and other matters. They 
presented credentials to Secretary Walter H. 
Reed of the Commercial club. Postmaster Her- 
zog, and other prominent citizens, showing 
that they ^yere representing some government- 
al department. They kept their mission a 
secret, and asked that they be given such in- 
formation as they needed but that their opera- 
tions be not talked about. 

Officers of the Commercial club were in- 
formed that the government had in view some 
important construction work. As was custom- 
ary, details of such matters were not discussed 
in war time. 

After a few days spent here, the engineers 
began to ask for options on a huge tract of 
land near Ives, and the Commei'cial club and 
Council of Defense were asked to assist, as a 
patriotic task. Federal representatives came 
and went. It became known that all property 
between the Four and a Half Mile road and 
the Seven Mile road, and east fi'om the Chi- 
cago & Northwestern right of way to Lake 
Michigan was needed. 

Rumors began flying thick and fast. Some 
said an aeroplane factory was to be established. 
Others decided a big base hospital was contem- 
plated. One man claimed to know that a fac- 
tory for making naval guns was intended. A 
shipbuilding yard was deemed possible. 

Finally a party of engineers arrived to stake 
out a system of roads through the tract, and 
on some of their baggage were seen the words, 
"Dupont Engineering Company." The cat was 
then out of the bag and it was realized that 
this concern proposed to erect a plant for 
manufacturing high explosives. Eventually it 
was admitted that this was the case, and that 
the recently perfected "TNT" powder was to 
be made there. 

There was objection to the proposal at once, 
as citizens feai^ed to have such a dangerous 
neighbor. The Dupont people were unable to 
get their options. The War department then 
took a hand. 

Owners of property were appealed to as pa- 
triotic citizens to grant the option. Public 
sentiment, the most powerful instrument for 
any purpose during the war, was crystalized in 
favor of the project. Racine people felt that if 
their boys across the water could stand having 
TNT shot at them, the home folks could risk 

having it manufactured near them. On such 
grounds, the land owners, mostly farmers, 
agreed to give sixty day options to the govern- 
ment. A Mr. G. B. Groesbeck of Cincinnati 
was in charge of this work. 

While the options were being signed up, two 
representatives of the Industrial Service Divi- 
sion of the Department of Labor came here 
and obtained the assistance of prominent citi- 
zens in making- a thorough industrial survey 
of the community. In three days these men 
were able to give the government agents exact 
facts regarding every feature of the city and 
county which needed to be considered in con- 
nection with the establishment of a huge in- 

The Dupont company, as contractor for the 
government, then entered upon the 2,200 acres 
of land under option and proceeded to do some 
rather rapid work. Owners of the small farms 
were evicted. Signs were posted ordering 
trespassers to keep out, as it was a govern- 
ment reservation. Railroad sideti'acks were 
built into the tract. Trainloads of supplies be- 
gan to arrive. Laborers were imported by the 
thousands. All available lumber and building 
material in the city was purchased regardless 
of price. Teams and trucks were engaged at 
prices which then seemed fabulous. 

Buildings were erected almost overnight to 
house the workers, and other structures were 
begun for offices, engine rooms, warehouses, 
etc. A complete water system was installed 
with many miles of mains leading from a 
pumping station near the lake. Expensive 
roads were built. The tract was graded, and 
surface soil used to fill depressions. Along 
with this went crops of potatoes, cabbages and 
other vegetables which the contractors would 
not allow the land ovmers to remove lest they 
interfere with the work at hand. 

Expense seemed to be no object. On the 
contrary, no bill ever seemed to be questioned. 
Laborers and clerks were hired at wages high- 
er than they themselves asked. The rates of 
pay for everyone was far above what was paid 
for the same class of work in the city, and a 
serious industrial situation was thi'eatened in 
Racine due to the enticing of help from the 
local plants. Office girls who had been get- 
ting $40 to $75 a month in town were given 
jobs at $125 to $175 a month without any at- 
tempt being made to test their ability. Skilled 
mechanics could double their income by taking 
a job at the TNT plant. 

Special trains were run to the plant every 
day from Milwaukee and Racine, and the con- 
tractors paid half of the employes' carfare. 




The railway artillery guns moved up to the rail heads and from that point, with aid of aeroplane observation, were able 
to drop sufficient material upon the long-distance German pieces to nullify their operations against Paris. 


, . •••-- -. -v^ . 

^'^ . •*• 

^ v>*- s.^if. -.•■'». ..':.-■ 


The results are apparent to anyone and pay tribute to the excellent aim of American gunners. The M. G. crew is scat- 
tered about the landscape together with the equipment. Scenes of this kind were common to the advancing Yanks in the 
late days of the war as they followed the advancing barrages of their own artillery. 



So many men were working, that often there 
would be a line of 1,000 men waiting to check 
in at the timekeeper's gate at 8 o'clock, and 
the last man would not be at work for an hour 
or two later. But his pay went right on. 

It was stated that the Dupont company was 
to build the plant without profit, but it was 
the general belief that the contractors received 
cost plus 10% profit on the work. It seems 
reasonable, inasmuch as no eff'ort seemed to 
be made to reduce costs and there were indi- 
cations that high costs were preferred. Of 
course on a "cost plus" basis, the contractor 
would make more money if the cost was high. 

From 8,000 to 12,000 people were working 
on the munitions plant, and money was flowing 
like water, when the armistice was signed. 
With the suspension of hostilities, the great 
powers vested in the War department were 
suspended automatically. Construction was 
ordered stopped. No money was obtainable to 
pay for the land occupied under the options, 
and there was no way to get it. The govern- 
ment no longer wanted the land. That much 
was understandable by all. 

But what of the property o\vTiers ? When 
their land was seized they were informed verb- 
ally that the options were to be exercised and 
the property purchased. They were actually 
evicted from their premises. Some had borrow- 
ed money and made payments on new farms. 
Others moved into Racine and sought employ- 
ment while awaiting reimbursement. Their 
farms were ruined, in many cases. Concrete 
roads, frame buildings, I'ailroads and other 
"improvements" of this natui'e do not serve 
any good use on a farm. Much of the fertile 
top soil had been hauled away. Buildings had 
been torn down ruthlessly. Guards still pa- 
trolled the borders of the tract to prevent even 
the owners from entering. 

For a time, the owners waited patiently for 
word from Washington. Then they began to 
worry. Finally they started to hire lawyers. 
The public sympathized with them. The man- 
ner in which the nation's money had been 
wasted caused much bitter comment, and re- 
sulted in some grumbling during the last two 
Libei'ty Loan drives. Purchasers of bonds saw 
that any amount they could give would be 
wasted in a few minutes at the Ives plant 

As the winter passed, and spring came, 
every possible effort was made to learn the 
government's intentions. The men who had 
planned the munitions works had left the fed- 
eral service. Others answered letters ad- 
dressed to their departments, and often the 

successors would be gone before explanations 
could be completed. The owners could not get 
the land. There was no sign that they would 
be reimbursed for their sacrifices. The land 
was not being used, yet the government seemed 
unable to relinquish possession because of the 
large quantities of material stored there. 

Agents came to investigate and nothing was 
heard of their reports. Real estate men from 
Racine were asked to estimate the damages 
sustained by property owners. They made re- 
ports which disappeared into pigeon-holes at 
Washington, and even their pay for the ap- 
praisal was not forthcoming. 

Up to January, 1920, the only progress made 
was the announcement that the buildings on 
the premises would be sold to the lowest bid- 
der, and a Chicago firm obtained them at the 
auction. In the meantime it had developed 
that in other parts of the country land owners 
had been deprived of their property in a simi- 
lar manner for other government projects, and 
a congressional investigation of the methods 
used was decided upon. 

Other industries in Racine did not suffer 
greatly as a result of the sudden ending of the 
war. All of them had plenty of private con- 
tracts in sight as soon as the government busi- 
ness could be disposed of, and the transforma- 
tion of the factories from a war to a peace 
basis was accomplished with hai'dly a ripple 
of excitement. In fact, the year 1919 was 
by all odds the most prosperous ever experi- 
enced in the history of the city and only the 
scarcity of material with which to construct 
new buildings prevented a tremendous growth 
in population in that year. There was a great 
shortage of houses and it was also difficult for 
manufacturing plants to obtain material and 
sufficient labor for enlarging their plants, as 
they desired. 

Plenty of Jobs for Soldiers 

The federal government was determined 
that no former soldier or sailor who desired 
to work should enter upon a period of en- 
forced idleness upon return from the camps, 
after being mustered out. Elaborate plans 
wei'e made to furnish the agencies whei'eby 
men could be transported from one city or 
state to another, if necessary, in order to 
place them in jobs. Fortunately, the prosper- 
ous condition of the country kept the service 
from being absolutely necessai-y. Almost all 
service men were able to obtain lucrative em- 
ployment immediately and be earning high 
wages while seeking some particular position 
which they desired. 

The government proposed to use, and did 




'*'■ P- Shellberg, sailor, snapped, above, a line of ships on the near side of their smoke screen, with which they confused 

submarine commanders. The middle picture shows what sea weather and camouflage do to the images of two vessels. 

At the bottom an exploding mine is shown. An idea of its power is contained in the jet of water thrown up. 



use, the employment service organized during 
the war as the basis for the scheme. Refer- 
ence is made elsewhere to the Racine U. S. 
employment office, which was designed to regu- 
late the labor supply for war work. It had 
engaged some 1,400 men for the government 
TNT plant at Ives and about 500 men for 
construction work at Camp Grant and the 
Manitowoc Shipbuilding project. H. G. Pres- 
ser was superintendent of the office. 

For the purpose of placing men who were 
being mustered out, the Bureau for Returning 
Soldiers, Sailors and Marines was organized 
on December .30th, 1918, at the Council 
Chambers; a special conference having been 
called for this purpose. The following is a list 
of names of those present at this conference 
and the organization which each one repi'e- 
sented : 

Wm. Thiesen, Mayor of Racine. 
C. C. Gittings, representing the Y. M. C. A. 
Milton Pettit, representing the Manufactur- 
ers' Association. 

F. R. Pettit, representing the Manufactur- 
ers' Association. 

Mrs. F. R. Pettit, representing the Central 

Wm. Armstrong, President of the Eagles. 
Angus R. Callender, representative of the 
Community Labor Board. (Management.) 

Wm. Sommers, representative of Labor, of 
the Community Labor Board. 

A. P. Kunig, Chairman of the Community 
Labor Board. 

W. H. Levy, Examiner of the U. S. Employ- 
ment Service. 

H. G. Presser, Examiner of the U. S. Em- 
ployment Service. 

Miss Nellie M. Olson, Supt. of the Women's 
Division, Kenosha. 

Miss Anna Behrmann, Supt. of the Women's 
Division, Racine. 

Walter H. Reed, Racine Commercial Club. 
T. S. Rees, Vocational School. 
Wm. Pauli, Alderman. 
T. Olson, Alderman. 
Thomas Smader, Alderman. 
.John Heims, Council of Defense. 
Adolph Weber, Grand Army. 
Jens Peterson, Danish Lutheran Church, Sil- 
ver street. 

John Jones, Elks' Club. 

R. L. Bullock, Knights of Pythias. 

R. E. Brown, Sons of Veterans. 

W. W. Kradwell, Spanish War Veterans. 

S. F. Gates, Spanish War Veterans. 

J. H. Brannum, Brannum Lumber Company. 

Mrs. Foster, Racine Woman's Club. 

Mrs. Chas. Carter, Racine Woman's Club. 

Miss Harvey, representing Y. W. C. A. 

Miss Devine, Representative of the Commu- 
nity Labor Board. 

Rev. J. Dressier, Lutheran Church of Atone- 

Mr. Bradshaw, Y. M. C. A. 

E. W. Leach, Local Board No. 1. 

Carl Straubel, Walker Mfg. Co. 

Stanley Weinerowski. 

Rev. B. P. Burand, St. Stanislaus Church. 

R. C. Rueschaw, Mitchell Motors Company. 

W. B. Mitchell, American Skein Company. 

L. T. Vance, Ajax Rubber Company. 

Mr. Schwartz, Webster Electric Company. 

Albert Wirry, Walker Mfg. Company. 

Walter Rasmussen, Walker Mfg. Company. 

Henry Burns, Trades Labor Council. 

Rev. Rusten, State St. Lutheran Church. 

John Konnak, President of the Turnover 

Rev. G. M. Thimell, First Swedish Church. 

Miss Kate Mehder, Central Association. 

Mrs. Ostergaard, War Community Service. 

Rev. C. R. Nickerson, Preshyterian Church. 

A. J. Link, Trades Labor Council. 

N. C. Christensen, Trades Labor Council. 

The purpose of this Bureau was chiefly that 
the soldier, sailor or marine returning to his 
town or to a strange town could have some 
certain place to go to to find out information 
as to what kind of employment was open for 
him. At the time this Bureau was organized, 
many soldiers, sailors and marines and war 
workers were being demobilized; many going 
to cities where they were relatively unknown. 
Wherever they went, it was the duty of the 
community to see that every possible oppor- 
tunity was given to them to get jobs — to get 
the best jobs for which they are qualified. 
These men gave up their work at the country's 
call, without hesitation. To some of them, 
their old positions remained open, with others, 
such was not the case. Still others had ac- 
quired new purpose and strength and in many 
cases new skill, which fitted them for better 
work than they had formerly. It was both a 
national and a community duty to see that as 
they came back everything was done to enable 
them to return to positions wherethey could do 
most effective work. 

The co-operating agencies registered at this 
office all opportunities for employment which 
came to their attention. Employers were 
urged as a patriotic duty to register their op- 
portunities for employment with specifications 
as to types and kinds of men wanted and other 
necessary details. They kept the Bureau in- 



Photos by John Hood 


The series shows the head of a draft procession, accompanying ofTtcials, the line of the marchers and sidewalk specta- 
tors, crowds in the streets accompanyinff the boys. Home Guards and officials waiting for the train that was to carry the 
men away, sorrowing friends and relatives (note serious faces and woman with handkerchief pressed to eyes in next to 
bottom picture), and, finally, the contingent on its way, waving flags an dshouting farewells through the car windows. 



formed as such positions were filled or as new 
jobs were open. The full resources of the 
Bureau were open without charge to any re- 
turning soldiers, sailors, marines and war 
workers, regardless of where he or she first 
made application. The Bureau used all means 
at its disposal to furnish them with correct 
information on the various questions that con- 
fronted them, or directed them to places where 
such information couid be obtained. This was 
the general method of operating the Bureau. 

In charge of each Bureau was a Bureau 
Manager, who was selected by the Board of 
Management. H. G. Presser was selected as 
Bureau Manager for this Bureau. He was 
sworn into the Federal Service as a Special 
Agent of the U. S. Employment Service of the 
Department of Labor, and was entitled to the 
franking privileges of such Department, and 
subject in the e.xecutive details, to the in- 
structions of the Director General of the Em- 
ployment Service, and of the Federal Director 
of such Service for this city. 

The U. S. Employment Service appointed 
an agent to be stationed in every demobiliza- 
tion camp who was there assisted by the camp 
representatives of the affiliated organization. 
Each such agent so far as possible, was to 
telegraph the Federal State Director the prob- 
able time of arrival of discharged soldiers as 

soon as definite information was available. 
The Federal State Director in turn informed 
the Bureaus affected. As far as possible, this 
information contained the number of men who 
signified their intention to call on the local 
Bureau for assistance, and a general state- 
ment of the predominating kinds of woi'k de- 
sired. He mailed a cai'd for each man who 
had signified a desii'e for assistance, stating 
the kind of work desired. These cards were 
classified and filed by the Manager of the 
Bureau, and where possible, matched up with 
available opportunities before the man called 
at the Bureau, so that on arrival he could be 
at once referred to a definite opening. 

In Racine there was an average of about 
150 registrations per month, and an average of 
about 120 placed in employment. Of this 
amount thirty per cent were outsiders, that is. 
men coming here from different cities who had 
never before been in this city. A great many 
of these applied several times for the reason 
that their position was not available, while 
others took temporary positions until they 
could obtain their pre-war position. 

The office was maintained by the Govern- 
ment paying the salaries of the employes there- 
in and the city paid all other expenses, such 
as rent, fuel, heat, light and telephone charges. 





THE American Expeditionary Forces in 
Europe consisted of 2,079,880 men, all 
of whom had been transported from the 
United States after May 1, 1917. It was by 
far the largest army ever sent so far from its 
home base of supplies and its organization in- 
volved many new and difficult problems of 

Some of these difficulties may be realized 
from a brief statement of conditions confront- 
ing the Army and Navy. First of all, it was 
necessary to provide the arniy itself, and the 
manner in which this was done has been re- 
counted in previous chapters. The movement 
of 2,000,000 men across the Atlantic would be 
a big job at any time, but it was an enomious 
one when thei'e was a shortage of suitable 
transports, and enemy warships menaced every 
mile of the sea paths. 

After the army arrived in France, it had to 
be clothed and fed. Provision for this must 
be made before the men landed, because the 
submarine warfare might at any time sever 
the lines of communication for days or weeks 
at a time. It was the policy of the govern- 
ment to send to Europe at least a month's pro- 
visions for every man at the same time as the 
man himself embarked, and thereafter main- 
tained a reserve supply in France equal to that 
amount. Of course it was necessary to ship 
the supplies for the normal automatic issue of 
rations and equipment, also. 

To land the men and supplies it was neces- 
sary to provide ports, and vast wharves and 
warehouses were constructed by the Americans 
at the points designated as debarkation points 
for the Yanks. These were St. Nazaire, 
Nantes, Brest, Bordeaux and La Rochelle. 
Ti'oops were also landed at Le Havre from 
England, but no American tenninal facilities 
were provided there. 

French I'ailroads offered no possibility of 
transporting the needed men and supplies to 
the training centers and the front line sectors, 
so an Amoican railroad system was con- 

structed from the west coast right through 
to Verdun. Rails, spikes and rolling stock all 
had to be shipped from here. France could 
furnish little excepting wooden ties, and even 
these were scarce. 

Huge refrigerating plants were installed — 
the largest in the world, in fact. Vast supply 
depots were built. Training camps were con- 
sti-ucted. Artillery ranges were laid out. Of- 
ficers' schools were opened. 

As soon as war was declared, Gen. Pershing 
was sent to France to perfect the organization 
of this Sei-vice of Supply and plan for the 
utilization of the combat forces which the 
United States would send as soon as possible. 
Almost immediately there arose hundreds of 
exasperating questions, due to the ancient laws 
and customs of Europe. It was a difficult mat- 
ter for the government of France to condemn 
land quickly for use of the Allied annies. Ob- 
taining rights to build a railroad, American 
fashion, involved more red tape than our State 
Department ever saw in its palmiest days. 
Legal restrictions surrounded every step con- 
nected with the purchase of timber and other 
supplies. Eventually Pershing arranged to 
smooth out what difficulties he and his staff 
could, and then proceed to do what he wanted 
to on the assumption that claims could be made 
for damages later on. What could be brought 
fi'om America was brought. The troops first 
arriving were used mainly in the work of con- 
straction for several months, and several 
boatloads of ci\'ilian mechanics were brought 
from the United States to supervise the tasks 
of construction. Regiments of troops were 
formed of volunteers from many trades, such 
as railroad men, foresters, etc., and these pei'- 
formed gigantic tasks with a skill and ease 
which caused the more conservative Europeans 
to gasp in astonishment. The miles of wharves, 
warehouses and railroad yards at Bordeaux 
were constructed by American workmen in less 
time than the French engineers had estimated 



would be required to complete the plans and 
take out the lines. 

The British and French high commands pro- 
posed that American units be not utilized as 
parts of an American army, but be used as re- 
placement units to supply the Allied ranks as 
they became depleted through death, wounds 
and illness. The plan had merit only insofar 
as it provided a quick way of training soldiers. 
Fortunately Gen. Pershing knew his country- 
men well enough to be sure nothing but trouble 
could result from placing American soldiers 
under foreign commissioned and non-com- 
missioned officers. He insisted American 
troops fight under their own flags and under 
their own officers. Beyond this, he was will- 
ing to send them wherever they were needed, 
either acting as a separate force or sen'ing 
under British or French troops commanders 
when the latter were in danger of defeat. He 
urged that all the Allied armies be put under 
one commander-in-chief, so that they could act 
in harmony at all times. Failure to do so 
had been one of the contributing causes of the 
low ebb of the Allied cause in the spring of 
1917. Partly as a result of the American 
views, the plan was adopted and Field Marshal 
Foch of France was chosen to fill the important 
post. Prior to this time, the plan of unified 
command had been side-tracked for months 
because each of the Allies wanted its own 
army commander to be made generalissimo. 
America had no candidate for the job and 
favored Foch partly because of his known skill 
as a tactician, and partly because he repre- 
sented France, on whose soil the war was be- 
ing fought to a decision. 

For the puipose of training troops, Gen. 
Pershing obtained the sei'vices of numerous 
British and French instnactors. In artillery, 
particularly, it was necessary to depend upon 
the French as they were to furnish guns for 
the first contingent of Yanks and no American 
officei's were familiar with the now famous 75 
millimeter and 155 millimeter field pieces. At 
first, American quartenmaster department of- 
ficers were placed in charge of the oi'ganiza- 
tion of the Sei-xdce of Supply in France, but 
Gen. Pershing soon saw that while West Point 
turns out good soldiers it doesn't necessarily 
equip a man for a business career, and this was 
essentially a big business proposition. So 
America was drawn upon for some of its most 
famous engineers, bankers, contractors, mer- 
chants and other civilian leadei's to take charge 
of the work. They were given army rank and 
they showed the world what speed meant when 
applied to construction and distribution. 

Wherever possible, the French turned over 

buildings for hospitals, and furnished all sur- 
plus cars for use of the American transporta- 
tion service but the demand was far greater 
than the supply. 

As many troops would be sent to France 
via England, arrangements had to be made 
there for the care of men in transit. Lines of 
communication were established from Liver- 
pool, London and Southampton to numerous 
rest camps, training camps and ports, and 
across the Channel to France. All of this not 
only requires time and material but meant the 
detachment of many army officers and men for 
the operation of the sei-\-ice and to maintain 
laisson with the Allied governments and of- 

The spot in France where the first con- 
tingent of American soldiers set foot in 1917 
is not Brest, or St. Nazaire, or Bordeaux. It 
is not even on the seacoast of France. To find 
the landing place of the fii'st of the two mil- 
lion, you must go one hundi'ed miles up from 
the mouth of the river Seine, one hundred miles 
as the river winds through one of the most 
beautiful valleys in the world, until you come 
to the ancient town of Rouen, capital of the 
one-time province of Nonnandy, where Joan 
of Arc was burned at the stake. 

The stone quay that is the north bank of 
the river in the shadow of Rouen's Grand Pont 
was made historic on May 25, 1917, by the un- 
announced coming of the first boatload of 
Americans. That pilgrim band was not the 
vanguard of the First Division. It was not a 
Regular Anny detachment rushed over to 
buoy up the hopes of the Allies, for it was 
almost a month later that General Pershing 
and his escort of troops landed at St. Nazaire. 
That first band at Rouen was composed of sol- 
diers who had been civilians twenty days be- 
fore. It was Base Hospital No. 4 which had 
been assembled at Cleveland, Ohio, on May 
5, 1917. 

When, at 7 o'clock of the long spring twi- 
light of May 25, the British transport Western 
Australia swung to in the river channel in 
Rouen, there were strange unifomis at her 
rails. While the transport was edging toward 
her moorings, the word spread among the 
crowds at the tables under the trees of the 
terrasse of the Cafe Victor Hugo that the 
Americans had come. That crowd of the 
Rouen waterfront terrasses was indisputably 
the most cosmopolitan in all the world at that 
time, for Rouen was the place of all places in 
France where the conglomeration of i-aces 
fighting under England's flag i-ubbed elbows 
and at the same time mingled with the native 



Photos by John Hood 


At the top the waiting crowds at the railway stations : below scenes when the boys unloaded and got on the solid ground 

of Racine once more; in the upper picture at right a small admirer is looking at one of her heroes: below are scenes of 

the last marches of the boys before doffing the uniform and getting back into civil life. 



French and France's black colonials and yellow 

The whole cosmopolitan mass came to the 
waterfront to greet the Americans. Out from 
the cafes, out from every building, out of the 
street ends they hurried until the broad, cob- 
blestoned roadway was filled witli them. Ropes 
were stretched to keep them from crowding 
too closely, and from the boat decks it looked 
as if the first line behind the ropes was com- 
posed exclusively of mesdemoiselles, waving 
the earliest welcome. And behind the mesde- 
moiselles was the mixed mass of the British 
Army — for Rouen was the biggest B. E. F. 
base in France. 

Yes, and there was a platoon of German 
prisoners that stopped under escort. Such 
was the crowd which extended an impromptu 
welcome to the first of the A. E. F., a welcome 
that rang tnae despite the fact that Rouen had 
long before grown dulled to the unifonn and 
the march of men. 

Sergeant R. C. Madden, of Brooklyn, who 
had been two years in the Regular Army, had 
the honor of being the first man ashore. Af- 
ter him came the score of medical officers, 
thirty nurses and one hundred and fifty en- 
listed men who composed the unit. 

The record of organizing this first unit and 
landing it in France within twenty days is one 
of the unusual stories of the war. In addition 
to being the first in France, the unit also was 
the first to land in England, racing with the 
HaiTard unit to win the honor. 

Assembled in Cleveland on May 6, the outfit 
proceeded to New York on a special train, en- 
listment papers being completed on the train. 
On May 8 it sailed from New York on the 
Cunard liner Orduna. Losses from submarines 
in the week before the Orduna sailed had been 
heavier than in any other week of the war, and 
it was generally known aboard the boat that 
American destroyers were waiting off the coast 
of the British Isles to convoy the Orduna 
through the danger zone. On May 18 the 
Orduna sailed quietly into Liverpool. 

It was on board the Orduna that the enlisted 
men of the unit began their training as sol- 
diers. There had been no time to obtain and 
put on unifoiTns before sailing, so while the 
men were marching aboard in their civilian 
clothes great packing cases full of blouses and 
breeches, leggins and shoes and other equip- 
ment were being stowed on the lower decks. 

Several days out at sea, while the medical 
officers were still busy distributing shots-in- 
the-arm, while seasickness was still more 
powerful than the top-sergeant, the unit was 
introduced to the ways of the supply sergeant 

— and the recruit who had that job wished 
upon him had a hard time living down the 
memories of that first "issue" day. Clothing 
crates were knocked open and the men lined 
up to "take what you can get." The depot 
quartennaster at Philadelphia had thrown to- 
gether an assortment of sizes based on average 
AiTny requirements, so that Boy Scout sizes 
and 42-stouts predominated. 

The transfonnation from civilian clothes 
into uniform under the circumstances out- 
raged the sartorial sense of 150 men, and it 
was only by days of exchanging that the av- 
erage appearance approached presentability. 

Never was drilling done under more unusual 
circumstances. On tetering decks the entire 
command marched and counter-marched, first 
by squads, and then as a detachment. The 
proportion of men with at least a smattering 
of di-ill knowledge was so large that after 
seven days of continuous drilling the com- 
mander pronounced the unit as well drilled as 
the average recruit organization after three 

All the time the Cunarder kept zig-zagging 
in her course, and the strain of the submarine 
menace was as obvious in the boat crew as 
among the military passengers. Then, with 
the real danger zone several days ahead, came 
an ominous order. By command of the British 
captain of the boat, all Americans in uniform 
must take them off and keep them off until the 
ship had met her convoy. In case the ship were 
torpedoed and those aboard had to abandon 
her, the Gei-mans certainly would shell the 
lifeboats if they saw them filled with uniformed 
men, and the captain didn't want to take any 
chances of a new sea horror in which women 
civilian passengers might be victims. 

So off came the uniforms. Followed hasty 
bargaining with the British sailors who al- 
ready had come into possession of scores of 
Yankee suits and shirts and civilian shoes, and 
the ship I'etumed to the civilian aspect it had 
when it sailed from New York. About the 
same time, the captain of the ship gave orders 
that all bugling must stop. 

A real jolt came, however, when the word 
was spread about the ship that the Gei-mans 
had tried to lead the Orduna into a U-boat 
trap — that in order to escape, the ship had 
turned and was even then heading far north 
on her course. The Germans had sent a wire- 
less message, so the report was, pui-porting 
to arrange a meeting with the United States 
destroyer which was to convoy the Orduna to 
port. But they had slipped up. They had 
gi\en the name of the destroyer as the "Wads- 
worth" and none of the British officers could 





S. A. Titus was chairman of the County Board and Mayor T. W. Thiesen was head of the City Government. 

The lot of the public official during war time is not an 
enviable one. With public feelinRs running hiph, and 
every action subjected to the test of its value in winninp 
the war, a decision by any responsible official was likely 
to be "viewed with alarm" by a large portion of the popu- 
lation. Durint? the recent war, too, it was customary to 
cry "pro-German" at any who might entertain views con- 
trary to one's opinions. The county government was less 
in the limelight than the city, but even it had some trou- 

Mayor T. W. Thiesen was elected mayor of Racine in 
1915 and re-elected in 1917. He had proven a very capa- 
ble executive and his administration had resulted in much 
■constructive work on the part of the city government. 

One of the first matters presented to him was the prob- 
lem of finding an office for Local Board No. 1, and he 
solved this by giving the draft board the use of his rooms 
in the city hall. A good deal of the mayor's business was 
transacted in the city hall corridors thereafter. During 
the war he was called upon daily by the relatives of men 
in service to obtain information regarding them, and it 
later became his duty to notify families of deceased soldi- 
ers of the deaths of these men. When the Transport Tus- 
'Cania was sunk, and it was known that Lieut. Salbreiter 
and several Racine ambulance company men were aboard, 
he was in communication with Washington day and night 
until definite information could be obtained regarding 
these soldiers. When notified of the death of Sargeant 
Hawley it took considerable work to locate his relatives, 
who were in Milwaukee. 

Families of men in service appealed to him for all sorts 
of assistance, and on one occasion when two men called 
to the colors and dreaded leaving because their parents 
had no fuel in the house, the Mayor had to find a way to 
get it. He offered to give them half of the supply in his 
cellar but this was prohibited by the rules of the fuel ad- 
ministration and might open him to the "pro-German" 
accusation. Eventually he was able to divert to the de- 
sired goal a wagon load of coal intended for a friend of 
his who still had a ton or two on hand. Upon another 
■occasion when the fuel administrator wanted all city 
teams for hauling coal, there was quite an argument as 
to whether it would be of any use to utilize them thus 
until they had been used to haul enough snow from the 
istreets to allow coal wagons to travel. Finally the teams 

were put to the job hauling snow, and then when the streets 
were clear the teams were turned over to the other job. 

When the first thrift stamp campaign started, the state 
directors proposed that high school students conduct the 
drive. The boys and girls had just finished a drive for 
the Red Cross and Mayor Thiesen protested against keep- 
ing them from their studies again. He said that as it 
was desired to subscribe more than a million dollars it 
would be better to have an adult committee and he offered 
to take the chairmanship. The state officers would not 
give up their idea, however, and the school chilidren were 
enlisted. In the course of this. Mayor Thiesen was de- 
nounced as pro-German by a Milwaukee newspaper be- 
cause of his opposition to the scheme. It aroused lots of 
talk and much bitterness. However, the results vindicated 
his stand as it was necessary to get the grown-ups at 
work to make the campaign a success. 

The mayor had other disagreeable experiences whenever 
the city outlined any policy, such as discontinuing con- 
struction, etc. Whatever decision touched the pocket- 
books of some class of people, gave cause for criticism 
and charges which sounded very bad in wartime. Mr. 
Thiesen's former residence in Germany made his position 
particularly difficult, and the fact tiiat he was able to 
conclude his administration without doing anything which 
would subject him to criticism founded upon cool consid- 
eration of the circumstances is greatly to his credit. 

One of his final acts as mayor was the supervising of 
the armistice celebration, and his responsibilities on that 
day were not light, in view of the exuberance of spirits 
of the citizens. As an example of the mayor's duties in 
those days, it is recalled that on the armistice day. he had 
to arrange for the departure of two draft contingents in 
the morning while he was also considering petitions of 
ministers and others asking that saloons be kept closed 
all day. Seeing no authority for closing the saloons, he 
delegated men to help keep the crowds moving all day 
and provide attractions to keep them outdoors. By night 
everyone was so tired from the long celebration that they 
went home shortly after the supper hour. The firts word 
of the signing of the armistice came to Mayor Thiesen in 
the form of a telegram from the Chicago Herald-Ex- 
aminer, and after he had verified it by a message from 
Washington he ordered all whistles to be blown and bells 
rung. This was at 4 a. m., November 11th. 



find such a boat listed. Inquiries were made 
quietly among the Americans, and someone 
was found who thought that "Wadsworth" was 
the name of a boat to which a friend of his 
in the Navy had recently been assigned as 
purser. Then, in violation of Admiralty orders, 
the Orduna's wii'eless sending apparatus was 
unsealed and a message flashed out to the 
Wadsworth asking the name of her purser. 
Back came the answer, confirming the conjec- 
ture. The Orduna turned back into her course, 
and next morning, on the edge of the new 
graveyard of the Atlantic, the Wadsworth 
came bobbing over the horizon. 

After landing in Liverpool on May 18, the 
men of Base Hospital No. 4 electrified little 
groups of English civilians by a rapid march 
through the streets from the dock to the York- 
shire and Lancashire railroad station, but the 
secrecy of the arrival was maintained until 
London newspapers were allowed bi'iefly to 
note the occasion when the unit was given a 
tremendous welcoming at Blackpool, the At- 
lantic City of the British Isles. 

During June a few combat troops arrived in 
France. These were small detachments of the 
Regular ai'my. Eventually all the Regulars 
were organized into regiments and brigades in 
France and by adding a brigade of Marines, 
two divisions of about 20,000 men each, were 
organized. These were the First and Second 
divisions, the Marine brigade being a part of 
the Second. When the new tables of organiza- 
tion were prepared to make our units more 
like those of the French and British aiTnies, 
other contingents were added, most of the 
new men being trained soldiers from National 
Guard divisions. The ultimate number of men 
included in a division was about 27,000. In- 
fantry companies were increased to 250 men. 
Ten companies constituted a regiment, and 
two regiments a brigade. A division consisted 
of two infantry brigades, one artillery brigade 
consisting of three regiments, a battalion of 
engineers, a signal corps battalion, a trench 
mortar company, a quartermaster company, 
two or three ambulance companies, a field 
hospital, medical detachments assigned to each 
combat regiment, machine gun companies, 
bakeiy companies, headquarters companies and 
a few other organizations necessary to making 
a division a self-supporting unit in the field. 
Balloon companies and aerial squadrons were 
occasionally attached to divisions but more 
often functioned in connection with corps or 
ai-my headquarters. The same is ti-ue of rail- 
road and forestry regiments, intelligence de- 
partments, heavy artillery, mobile repair shops. 

Corps organizations, including three or more 

divisions, were perf"ected in the field in the 
spring of 1918. The American First anny was 
in action as a unit in the late summer of 1918. 
The Second army was formed just before the 
ai-mistice was signed, and was preparing for 
a drive through Lorraine. The size of a corps 
and an army was not a rigid matter. Gen- 
erally a corps included about 100,000 men, and 
an army might include from .300,000 to .500,000 
or 600,000. All of these units were much 
larger than ever before in American history, 
and they were supposed to be kept in full 
strength by the providing of replacements as 
rapidly as the ranks of any company or reg- 
iment were depleted. This system was a vast 
improvement over former methods. In the 
Civil war, for instance, the normal strength of 
a company was 100 men and of a regiment, 
1,000 men. But due to the depletion from 
death and disease, a company would often be 
in the field for months with only twenty-five 
or thirty men answering to roll call, and a reg- 
iment which had been in action a few times 
could seldom muster as many effectives as an 
infantry company had present continuously 
during the recent conflict. 

The following table shows the rapidity with 
which American troops were moved to Eng- 
land and France during the World War: 


May 1,543 

June 15,091 

July 12,876 

Aug. 19,403 

Sept. 33,588 

Oct. 40,027 

Nov. 23,722 

Dec 48,815 


Jan. 48,055 

Feb. 49,239 

March 85,710 

April 120,072 

May 247,714 

June 280,434 

July 311,359 

Aug. 286,375 

Sept. 259,670 

Oct. 184,063 

Nov. 12,124 

The war upset completely all the previous es- 
timates as to the length of time it requires 
army hostilities to train soldiers in large num- 
bers. While most military text books and 
critics had maintained that an efficient soldier 
required two years of intensive training, in this 
war the average American soldier who went to 
France received six months of training in the 
United States before he sailed and but two 
more months of training in France before he 
went into the battle line. This fact is deduced 
from a study of data on the training of the 
1,400,000 men who actually fought in France. 
One month in a quiet sector before entering 
battle was also a part of the average experi- 
ence of America's fighting men. 

The German drive that got fully under way 




I From *The War with Gormany: A 

Ll3 organization to arrival In Praaod ^'{^^r^^o^^ ^S^v'^T 

^■''■'\ Arrival in Franco to entering lln» 
t.,:\^l Entering line to active tattle servlco 
HB Service as active oom'bat division 

War Record of A. E. F. Divisions — How lon^ tliey trained, \\o\v long tliey fouglit ; A comparative 
Study of the character of service rendered by Regular, National Guard and National 

Army Divisions 



in June, 1918, cut down the average training 
period of the American soldier. After the 
starting of the drive in March American divi- 
sions were rushed to France after they had 
been filled out with best trained men, no mat- 
ter where they could be obtained. Divisions 
called to France in July had to meet numerical 
shortages vdth men called to the colors in the 
spring. By November the average of training 
in the United States had been cut to four 
months, and the average for the whole five 
months preceding the armistice probably was 
five months. 

After reaching Fi-ance men on the average 
received two months' training before entering 
the front lines, but this period was cut greatly 
for men in certain divisions which were made 
replacement outfits. At replacement centers 
in France a part of the effort made to prevent 
untrained men being sent to the front consisted 
in picking out the less skilled and putting them 
through a ten-day course of intensive rifle and 
bayonet work. 

The infantry soldier was trained in the di- 
vision, which was our typical combat unit. 
Training and sorting organizations of about 
10,000 men, known as depot bi'igades, were also 
utilized, but as far as possible the recruits were 
put almost immediately into the divisions which 
wei'e the organizations in which they would go 
into action. 

Before the signing of the armistice there 
were trained and sent overseas forty-two 
American divisions. The training of twelve 
more was well advanced, and there were four 
others that were being organized. The plans 
on which the army was acting called for eighty 
divisions overseas before July, 1919, and 100 
divisions by the end of that year. 

To carry forward the training progi-am, 
shelter was constructed in a few months for 
1,800,000 men. For the national guard and 
national army divisions, sixteen camps and 
sixteen cantonments were built in America. 

About 4,000,000 men served in the army of 
the United States during the war (April 6, 
1917, to Nov. 11, 1918). The total of men serv- 
ing in the armed forces of the country, includ- 
ing the army and navy, the marine corps, and 
the other services, amounted to 4,800,000. It 
was almost true that among each 100 Ameri- 
can citizens five took up arms in defense of 
the country. 

During the civil war 2,400,000 men served in 
the northern armies or in the navy. In that 
struggle ten in each 100 inhabitants of the 
northern states served as soldiers or sailors. 
The American effort in the war with Germany 

may be compared with that of the northern 
states in the civil war by noting that in the 
present war we raised twice as many men in 
actual numbers, but that in propoi'tion to the 
population we raised only half as many. 

More than 500,000 came in through the regu- 
lar army. Almost 400,000 more, or nearly 10 
per cent, entered through the National Guard. 
Jlore than three-quarters of all came in 
through the selective service or National army 
enlistments. Of every 100 men ten were Na- 
tional guardsmen, thirteen were regulars and 
seventy-seven belonged to the national army, 
or would have if the services had not been 
consolidated and the distinctions wiped out on 
Aug. 7, 1918. 

About 200,000 commissioned officers were re- 
quired for the army. Of this number, less 
than 9,000 were in the federal service at the 
beginning of the war. Of these, 5,791 were 
regulars and 3,199 wei'e officers of the national 
guard in the federal service. 

Figures show that of every six officers one 
had had previous military training in the 
regular army, the national guard, or the ranks. 
Three received the training for their commis- 
sions in the officers' training camps. The other 
two went from civilian life into the army with 
little or no military training. In this last 
group the majority were physicians, a few 
of them were ministers, and most of the rest 
were men of special business or technical 
equipment, who were taken into the supply 
service or staff corps. 

When combat troops first arrived in France, 
it was deemed advisable to let them learn 
something about the methods used in this war, 
from actual observation. For this reason after 
each division had spent a couple of months in 
training camps to receive instruction from 
French and British officers, they generally 
were sent into comparatively quiet sectors in 
Alsace-Lorraine to get their first experience 
in the trenches. It was especially important 
that they learn how to execute relief of troops 
in ti-enches at night, and how to carry out 
raids and scouting expeditions through No 
Man's land. The Americans, most of whom 
had read everything ever written on these sub- 
jects and had practiced the movements in 
training camps, felt ready for any sort of 
battle after a few days of the trench experi- 
ence. Incidentally, most of them determined 
they never would remain stationary in those 
muddy, smelly, vennin-infested trenches if 
they could obtain permission to attack and 
advance the lines. 

In the opinion of most impartial observers. 





the American troops as individuals were ready 
to fight and win long- before they were per- 
mitted to attempt it. High officers, particu- 
larly the European commanders, simply would 
not believe that soldiers could be made in such 
short time and they were terribly afraid that 
a defeat to the Americans might upset the 
growing morals of the Europeans, who wei'e 
depending entii-ely upon our ultimate strength. 

The newly commissioned American officers 
probably would have benefited from a longer 
course of training, but the line officers were 
generally able to handle small units efficiently 
in battle, and the intelligence of the American 
soldier was such that no such leadership was 
required for them as was needed in European 

Some American officers and detachments, 
particularly the higher staff officers, visited 
the various fronts during the summer of 1917, 
but it was October 21, 1917, when the first 
Yankee artillery and infantry took their places 
at the fi'ont as units, under the direction of 
French and British officers. They had "gone 
in" near Seichepi'ey, in a quiet sector. On 
January 19, 1918, the First division took over 
this Toul district as an exclusively American 
sector. On Sept. 12, 1918, the same division 
went over the top near the same spot at the 
beginning of the successful St. Mihiel battle. 

In June, 1918, the Thirty-second division 
went into the trenches east of Belfort in Al- 
sace, and from that time on, the Alsacian sec- 
tor which had been ruled by Germany since 
1871 became another American headquarters 
to hold during the war. 

The First division was completely organized 
during the winter of 1917-18 and functioned as 
a combat division at Cantigny on May 28, when 
this town was captured from the Germans in 
a brief but bitter night battle. Previous to 
this it had been in one or two minor defensive 
operations. The Twenty-sixth division had 
repelled a German raid in strength at Seiche- 
prey in April. Scattering Yankee medical de- 
tachments had been with the British at the 
Battle of Cambrai in 1917. 

Up to the first of June, 1918, the American 
casualty lists remained quite small, as neither 
side desired a battle during the winter, and 
while the Allies were waiting the completion 
of the American army the Germans were quiet- 
ly preparing for a huge offensive which they 
hoped would bring them victory early in 1918. 
For a time it seemed as if they might succeed. 

The campaign of 1918 opened with the Ger- 
mans in possession of the offensive. In a 
series of five drives of unprecedented violence 

the imperial great general staff' sought to 
break the allied line and end the war. These 
five drives took place in five successive months, 
beginning in March. Each drive was so timed 
as to take advantage of the light of the moon 
for that month. 

The first drive opened March 21, on a fifty 
mile front across the old battlefield of the 
Sonime. In seventeen days of fighting the 
Germans advanced their lines beyond Moyon 
and Montdidier and were within twelve miles 
of the important railroad centers of Amiens 
with its great stores of British supplies. In 
this battle, also known as the Picardy offen- 
sive, British and French troops were engaged. 

The attack upon Amiens had been but part- 
ly checked when the enemy struck again to 
the north in the Armentieres sector and ad- 
vanced seventeen miles up the valley of the 
Lys. A small number of Americans, serving 
with the British, participated in the Lys of- 

For the next attack (May 27) the Germans 
selected the French front along the Chemin 
des Dames, noi'th of Aisne. The line from 
Rheims to a little east of Moyon was forced 
back. Soissons fell, and on May 31 the enemy 
had reached the Marne valley, down which he 
was advancing in the dii'ection of Paris. At 
this critical moment our Second division, to- 
gether with elements of the Third and Twenty- 
eighth divisions, were thrown into the line. 
By blocking the German advance at Chateau- 
Thierry, they rendered great assistance in stop- 
ping perhaps the most dangerous of the Ger- 
man drives. The Second division not only halt- 
ed the enemy on its front, but also recaptui'ed 
from him the strong tactical positions of Bour- 
esches, Belleau Wood and Vaux. 

The enemy had by his offensive established 
two salients threatening Paris. He now sought 
to convert them into one by a fourth terrible 
blow delivered on a front of twenty-two miles 
from Montdidier and Noyon. The reinfoi'ced 
French army resisted firmly and the attack was 
halted for an initial advance of about six miles. 
Throughout this opei-ation (June 9-15) the ex- 
treme left line of the salient was defended by 
our First division. Even before the drive be- 
gan the division had demonstrated the fighting 
qualities of our troops by capturing and hold- 
ing the town of Cantigny (May 28). 

There followed a month of comparative 
quiet, during which the enemy reassembled his 
forces for the fifth onslaught. On July 15 he 
attacked simultaneously on both sides of 
Rheims, the eastern corner of the salient he 
had created in the Aisne drive. To the east 



of the city he gained little. On the west he 
crossed the Marne, but made slight progress. 
His path was everywhere blocked. In this 
battle 85,000 American troops were engaged — 
the Forty-second division to the extreme east 
of Champagne, and the Third and Twenty- 
eighth to the west, near Chateau-Thierry. 

The turning point of the war had come. The 
great German offensives had been stopped. The 
initiative now passed from Ludendorff to Mar- 
shal Foch, and a series of allied offensives be- 
gan, destined to roll back the German armies 
beyond the French frontier. In this continuous 
allied offensive there may be distinguished six 
phases of major operations in which the Ameri- 
can expeditionary forces took part. In four 
of the six operations the American troops en- 
gaged were acting in support of allied divi- 
sions and under the command of the generals 
of the allies. 

The moment chosen by Marshal Foch for 
launching the first counter-offensive was on 
July 18, when it was clear that the German 
Champagne-Marne drive had spent its force. 
The place chosen was the uncovered west 
flank of the German salient from the Aisne to 
the Marne. The First, Second, Third, Fourth, 
Twenty-sixth, Twenty-eighth, Thirty-second, 
and Forty-second American divisions, together 
with selected French troops, were employed. 
When the operation was completed (Aug. 6) 
the salient had been flattened out and the 
allied line I'an from Soissons to Rheims along 
the Vesle. 

Two days later the British struck at the 
Somme salient, initiating an offensive which, 
with occasional breathing spells, lasted to the 
date of the armistice. American participation 
in this operation was intermittent. From Aug. 
8 to 20 elements of the Thirty-third division, 
which had been brigaded for training with the 
Australians, were in line and took part in the 
capture of Chipilly ridge. Later the Twenty- 
seventh and Thirtieth divisions, who served 
throughout with the British, were brought over 
from the Ypres sector and used in company 
with Australian ti-oops to break the Hinden- 
bui'g line at the tunnel of the St. Quentin canal 
(Sept. 20-Oct. 20). 

In the meantime simultaneous assaults were 
in progress at other points on the front. On 
Aug. 18, Gen. Mangin began the Oise-Aisne 
phase of the great allied offensive. Starting 
from Soissons-Rheims line, along which they 
had come to rest on Aug. 6, the French armies 
advanced by successive stages to Aisne, to 
Laon, and on Nov. 11 were close to the frontier. 
In the first stages of this advance they were 

assisted by the Twenty-eighth, Thirty-second 
and Twenty-seventh American divisions, but by 
Sept. 15 all of these were withdrawn for the 
coming Meuse-Argonne offensive of the Ameri- 
can army. 

The day after the opening of the Oise-Aisne 
offensive the British launched the first of a 
series of attacks in the Ypres sector which con- 
tinued with some interruptions to the time of 
the armistice and may be tenned the 'Ypres- 
Lys offensive.' Four American divisions at 
different times participated in this operation. 
The Twenty-seventh and Thirtieth were en- 
gaged in the recapture of Mount Kemmel from 
Aug. 31 to Sept. 2. The Thirty-seventh and 
Ninety-first were withdrawn from the Meuse- 
Argonne battle and dispatched to Belgium, 
where they took part in the last stages of the 
Ypres-Lys offensive (Oct. 31 to Nov. 11). 

With the organization of the American first 
army on Aug. 10, under the personal command 
of Gen. Pershing, the history of the American 
Expeditionary forces entered upon a new stage. 
The St. Mihiel (Sept. 12-16) and Meuse-Ar- 
gonne (Sept. 26-Nov. 11) offensives were 
major operations planned and executed by 
American generals and American troops. 

In addition to the twelve operations above 
mentioned, American troops participated in the 
battle of Vittorio-Veneto (Oct. 24 to Nov. 4), 
which ended in the rout of the Austrian army 
in Italy. 

The first distinctly American offensive was 
the reduction of the St. Mihiel salient carried 
through from Sept. 12 to Sept. 15, largely by 
American troops and wholly under the orders 
of the American commander-in-chief. 

In the attack the American troops were 
aided by French colonial troops. The Ameri- 
cans were also aided by French and British 
air squadrons. 

The attack began at 5 a. m., after four hours 
of artillery preparation of great severity, and 
met with immediate success. Before noon 
about half the distance between the bases of 
the salient had been covered and the next 
morning troops of the First and Twenty-sixth 
divisions met at Vigneulles, cutting off the 
salient within twenty-four hours from the be- 
ginning of the movement. 

Two comparisons between this operation and 
the battle of Gettysburg emphasize the magni- 
tude of the action. About 550,000 Americans 
were engaged at St. Mihiel; the union forces 
at Gettysburg numbered approximately 100,- 
000. St. Mihiel set a record for concentration 
of artillery fire by a four-hour artillery prep- 
aration, consuming moi'e than 1,000,000 rounds 



of ammunition. In three days at Gettysburg 
union artillery fired 33,000 rounds. 

The St. Mihiel offensive cost only about 7,- 
000 casualties, less than one-third the union 
losses at Gettysburg. There were captured 
16,000 prisoners and 443 guns. A dangerous 
enemy salient was reduced and American com- 
manders and troops demonstrated their ability 
to plan and execute a big American operation. 
The object of the Meuse-Argonne offensive, 
said Gen. Pershing in his report of Nov. 20, 
1918, was "to draw the best German divisions 
to our front and to consume them." This 
sentence expresses better than any long de- 
scription not only the object but also the out- 
come of the battle. Every available American 
division was thrown against the enemy. Every 
available German division was thi'own in to 
meet them. At the end of forty-seven days of 
continuous battle our divisions had consumed 
the German divisions. 

The goal of the American attack was the 
Sedan-Mezieres railroad, the main line of sup- 
ply for the German forces on the major part of 
the western front. If this line were cut, a re- 
tirement on the whole front would be forced. 
This retirement would include, moreover, evac- 
uation of the Briey iron fields, which the Ger- 
mans had been using to great advantage to 
supplement their iron supply. The defense of 
the positions threatened was therefore of such 
importance as to warrant the most desperate 
measures for resistance. When the engage- 
ment was evidently impending the commander 
of the German Fifth army sent word to his 
forces, calling on them for unyielding resist- 
ance and pointing out that defeat in this en- 
gagement might mean disaster for the father- 

On the first day, the twenty-sixth of Septem- 
ber, and the next day or two after that, the 
lines were considerably advanced. Then the 
resistance became more stubborn. Each side 
threw in more and more of its man power un- 
til there were no more reserves. Many Ger- 
man divisions went into action twice, and not 
a few three times, until, through losses, they 
were far under strength. All through the 
month of October the attrition went on. Foot 
by foot American troops pushed back the best 
of the German divisions. On Nov. 1 the last 
stage of the offensive began. The enemy pow- 
er began to break. American troops forced 
their way to the east bank of the Meuse. 
Toward the north they made even more rapid 
progress, and in the seven days reached the 
outskirts of Sedan and cut the Sedan-Mezieres 
railroad, making the German line untenable. 

In the meantime (Oct. 2 to 28) our Second 
and Thirty-sixth divisions had been sent west 
to assist the French who were advancing in 
Champagne beside our drive in the Argonne. 
The liaison detachment between the two armies 
was for a time furnished by the Ninety-second 

The battle of the Meuse-Argonne was be- 
yond compare the greatest ever fought by 
American troops, and there have been few, if 
any, greater battles in the history of the world. 

Following is the number of German prison- 
ers captured by each American division during 
the war: 

Second, 12,026; First, 6,469; Eighty-ninth, 
.5,061; Thirty-third, 3,987; Thirtieth, 3,848; 
Twenty-sixth, 3,148; Fourth, 2,756; Ninety- 
first, 2,412; Twenty-seventh, 2,357; Fifth, 2,- 
356; Third, 2,240; Twenty-ninth, 2,187; Thirty- 
second, 2,153; Ninetieth, 1,876; Eightieth, 1,- 
813; Thirty-seventh, 1,495; Forty-second, 1,317; 
Seventy-ninth, 1,077; Twenty-eighth, 921; 
Eighty-second, 845; Thirty-fifth, 781; Seventy- 
seventh, 750; Thirty-sixth, 549; Seventy- 
eighth, 432; Eighty-first, 101; Seventh, 69; 
Ninety-second, 38; Sixth, 12; Eighty-eighth, 3. 
Total, 63,079. 

Following is the number of kilometers each 
United States division advanced against the 
enemy during the various offensives: 

Seventy-seventh, 71%; Second, 60; Forty- 
second, 55; First, 51; Eighty-ninth, 48; Third, 
41; Eightieth, 38; Twenty-sixth, 37; Thirty- 
second, 36; Thirty-third, 36; Ninety-first, 34; 
Thirty-seventh, 30; Thirtieth, 291/2; Fifth, 29; 
Ninetieth, 28%; Fourth, 241/2; Seventy-eighth, 
21; Thirty-sixth, 21; Seventy-ninth, 19 1/2; 
Eighty-second, 17; Thirty-fifth, 121/2; Twenty- 
seventh, 11; Tw^enty-eighth, 10; Ninety-second, 
8; Twenty-ninth, 7; Eighty-first, 51/2; Seventh. 
1: Sixth, 0; Eighty-eighth, 0. Total, 782 1/2. 

The aggressive tactics of the Americans and 
their constant superiority over the German 
soldiers are shown easily enough by the bare 
facts that no American unit ever lost a foot 
of ground which was not regained within twen- 
ty-four hours; that practically every American 
division which was in action at all had to its 
credit a considerable advance made against ac- 
tual opposition by the enemy; that the Ameri- 
can army gained every objective laid out for 
it by the high command, and while it had heavy 
casualties due to being constantly on the of- 
fensive, the American army lost only 2,082 
prisoners as opposed to more than 60,000 cap- 
tured from the enemy. Fully as significant, is 
the fact that the number of German dead 





" 1 


— 1 




















Ih — 





If — 





13 — 





























S 00000 









3 — 




2 — 





100, 000 



1 — 
























buried by Americans almost equalled the total 
number of Americans killed in action. 

During their operations in France, there 
never was a time when any American soldier 
felt any doubt, or had any real reason to have 
any doubt, as to his superiority over the Ger- 
man soldiers. 

"The total battle deaths in the recent war 
were greater than all the deaths in all wars for 
more than 100 years previous," says Col. Leon- 
ard P. Ayi'es in "The War With Germany." 

"Of every 100 American soldiers and sail- 
ors, who sei'ved in the world war, two were 
killed or died of disease during the period of 

"Russian battle deaths were thii'ty-four 
times as heavy as those of the United States, 
those of Germany thirty-two times as great, 
the French twenty-eight times, and the British 
eighteen times as large. 

"The number of American lives lost at home 
and abroad was 122,.500, of which about 10,000 
were in the navy, and the rest in the army 
and the marines attached to it. 

"In the American army the casualty in the 
infantry was higher than in any other service, 
and that for officers was higher than for men. 

"For every man killed in battle seven were 

"Five out of every six men sent to hospitals 
on account of wounds were cured and returned 
to duty. 

"In the expeditionary forces battle losses 
were twice as large as deaths from disease. 

"In this war the death rate from disease 
was lower, and the death rate from battle was 
higher than in any other previous American 

"Inoculation, clean camps, and safe drinking 
water, practically eliminated typhoid fever 
among the troops in this war. 

"Pneumonia killed more soldiers than were 
killed in battle. Meningitis was the next most 
serious disease. 

"Of each 100 cases of venereal disease record 
in the United States, ninety-six were contract- 
ed before entering the army and only four 

"During the entii-e war available hospital 
facilities in the American expeditionary forces 
have been in excess of the needs." 

Corrected figures a year after the war end- 
ed showed that the army abroad and marine 
corps units attached, had a total of 116,492 
killed and 205,690 wounded, a total of 322,182. 
These figures include losses to army and ma- 
rine units on all fronts. Killed in action to- 

taled 35, .585, or 11 per cent of the entii'e list; 
died of wounds, 14,742; died of disease, 58,073; 

died of accidents and other causes 8,092. 

A list of battle casualties by divisions fol- 
lows : 

Division Deaths. Wounded. 

Second 4,478 17,752 

First 4,411 17,201 

Third 3,177 12,940 

Thirty-second 2,915 10,477 

Twenty-eighth 2,551 11,429 

Forty-second 2,644 11,275 

Twenty-sixth 2,135 11,325 

Fourth __- 2,611 9,893 

Seventy-seventh 1,992 8,505 

Twenty-seventh 1,789 7,201 

Thirtieth 1,629 7,325 

Fifth 1,976 6,864 

Eighty-second 1,298 6,248 

Eighty-ninth 1,433 5,858 

Thirty-fifth 1,067 6,216 

Ninetieth 1,392 5,885 

Thirty-third 989 6,266 

Seventy-eighth 1,384 5,861 

Seventy-ninth 1,419 5,331 

Eightieth 1,132 5,000 

Ninety-first 1,414 4,364 

Thirty-seventh 977 4,266 

Twenty-ninth 951 4,268 

Ninety-third 584 2,.582 

Thirty-sixth 600 1,928 

Seventh 302 1.516 

Ninety-second 176 1,466 

Eighty-first 251 973 

Sixth 93 453 

Eighty-fifth 142 395 

Eighty-third 112 319 

Forty-first 154 263 

Fortieth 79 81 

Eighty-eighth 29 89 

Eightieth 6 29 

Eighty-seventh 2 30 

Two out of every three American soldiers 
who reached France took part in battle. The 
number who reached France was 2,084,000, and 
of these 1,390,000 saw service at the front. 

Of the forty-two divisions that reached 
Fi'ance twenty-nine took part in active combat 
service. Seven of them were regular army di- 
visions, eleven were organized from the nation- 
al guard and ele^'en made up of national army 

American divisions were in battle 200 days 
and engaged in thirteen major operations. 

From the middle of August, 1918, until the 
end of the war the American divisions held 
























during the greater part of the time a front 
longer than that held by the British. 

In October the American divisions held 101 
miles of line, or 23 per cent of the entire 
western front. 

On the first of April the Germans had a 
superiority of 324,000 in rifle strength. Due to 
American arrivals the allied strength exceeded 
that of the Germans in June and was more 
than 600,000 above it in November. 

In the battle of St. Mihiel 550,000 Americans 
were engaged, as compared with about 100,000 
on the northern side in the battle of Gettys- 
burg. The artillery fired more than 1,000,000 
shells in four hours, which is the most intense 
concentration of artillery recorded in history. 

The Meuse-Argonne battle lasted forty-seven 
days, during which 1,200,000 American troops 
were engaged. 

The total battle advances of all the Ameri- 
can divisions amount to 782 kilometers, or 485 
miles, an average advance for each division of 

seventeen miles, nearly all of it against des- 
perate enemy resistance. They captured 63,- 
000 prisoners, 1,378 pieces of artillery, 708 
trench mortars, and 9,650 machine guns. 

In June and July the American army helped 
to shatter the enemy advance toward Paris 
and to turn retreat into a triumphant offensive. 
At St. Mihiel they pinched off in a day an 
enemy salient which had been a constant men- 
ace to the French line for four years. In the 
Argonne and on the Meuse they carried lines 
which the enemy was determined to hold at 
any cost, and cut the enemy lines of communi- 
cation and supply for half the western battle 

American troops saw sei'vice on practically 
every stretch of the western front from Brit- 
ish lines in Belgium to inactive sectors in the 
Vosges. On Oct. 21, 1917, Americans entered 
the lino in the quiet Toul sector. From that 
date to the armistice American units were 
somewhere in the line continuously. 




THE United States Navy began to func- 
tion efficiently and with pronounced ef- 
fect from the very moment of the dec- 
laration of war on April 6, 1917. 

A telegraphic order put the ships that were 
in reserve into full commission. All supplies 
were on hand where needed. The wireless 
notified distant ships and stations that the war 
was on. The Navy was in action. 

Guns and gun crews wei'e placed on all 
American merchant vessels starting for the 
submarine zone. A destroyer flotilla was 
mobilized and started for Queenstown on 
April 24, to report to Admiral Bayly of the 
British Navy for convoy and other service 
off Ireland. Admiral Sims, U. S. N., had 
sailed to England before war was declared, 
and he was at once invested with the com- 
mand of the foreign fleets operating in Euro- 
pean waters. He became American member 
of the Allied naval council, with headquarters 
at London. Under his charge were subse- 
quently the destroyers at Queenstowoi, Brest, 
and Gibraltar, the submarine-chasers at Corfu 
and Plymouth, a mixed force at the Azores 
and the battle squadrons at Scapa Flow wath 
the Grand Fleet, and at Berehaven, Ireland. 

While Admiral Sims was commander-in- 
chief of all these detachments, and could send 
them wherever he wished, they were under 
the direct command of Bi'itish naval authori- 
ties when going out on specific missions. This 
situation was the same as that of American 
army units in France, which were under com- 
mand of Gen. Pershing but occasionally were 
sent to operate with British or French armies. 

The Navy's task was, first, to co-operate 
with the navies of the Allies in controlling the 
submarine menace and maintaining a fleet at 
Scapa Flow sufficiently large to insure the 
defeat of the German Navy if it should venture 
from its place of concealment. As soon as 
these missions were accomplished, or well be- 
gun, the Navy had to take charge of getting 

American soldiers to France. How well it did 
this is shown from the fact that 2,079,880 
troops were transported; 911,047 in American 
naval transports and 41,544 in other United 
States ships. British ships carried 1,066,987 
men across the Atlantic, and the balance trav- 
elled in French and Italian vessels. Not one 
American transport was sunk on the way to 
France, and only three on the return trips. 
The loss of life in these was very small. Sev- 
eral hundred lives were lost in the sinking of 
the British transports Tuscania, Moldavia and 
Otranto, carrying American troops. 

The American Navy furnished convoys for 
its owm transports and also for many of those 
belonging to our allies. This wonderful move- 
ment of troops will stand as a monument to 
both the Army and Navy as the greatest feat 
of the sort ever attempted. One ship, the 
Leviathan, formerly the German liner Vater- 
land, alone can-ied 100,000 soldiei's across the 
ocean without accident. She made her voyages 
without escort excepting for the last twenty- 
four hours of each east-bound trip, and for a 
similar period at the beginning of her return 

In addition to the work of the Navy at sea, 
sailors manning huge long range 14-inch guns 
were at the front in France before the war 
ended and did great work in destroying rail- 
road lines and gun emplacements far inside 
the German territory. 

Other gigantic tasks assigned to the Navy 
were the construction of the "mine barrage" 
of 70,100 mines across the North sea; the 
building of an oil pipe line clear across Scot- 
land, the reconstruction of poi'ts and wharves 
for landing men and supplies in France and 
the patrol of the French coast. 

The Navy operated all wireless stations in 
use in the United States, and constructed the 
largest radio station in the world at Bordeaux. 
It built its own aircraft factory at Philadel- 
phia and on March 17, 1918, the first aero- 



plane produced there was given its trial flight. 
Hundreds of seaplanes were turned out and 
sent abroad during- the summer following. 

The Navy also manufactured 2,800 cannon 
of medium calibre, 1,800 of which were placed 
in service. 

There were 344 serviceable vessels in the 
navy when the war began. When the armi- 
stice was signed, the Navy was operating 2,000 
ships of all classes, including transports, cargo 
carriers and barges. There were 777 strictly 
naval vessels, and 655 more of these under 
construction. Those in service included 39 
battleships, eight armored cruisers, twerity- 
three cruisers, ninety-two destroyers, seventy- 
nine submarines, thirty-seven gunboats, :!00 
submarine chasers, and numerous torpedo 
boats, tugs, monitors, hospital ships, fuel 
ships, converted yachts, etc. 

The main body of the Atlantic fleet was 
kept at home ready for a call to action from 
any part of the world. 

Among the inventions and perfected appli- 
ances credited to American genius are the Y- 
gun for firing depth charges at submarines; 
a depth bomb which was safe to handle under 
all conditions; a new star-shell for illuminating- 
enemy vessels without disclosing the position 
of the ship firing it; listening devices to de- 
tect the appi'oach of other ships; the paravene, 
to sweep mines from a ship's course and vari- 
ous minor devices. 

As camouflage was perfected on land to 
conceal the presence of men or material from 
the enemy, so on sea there was developed the 
"dazzle system" of painting ships -with gro- 
tesque designs to make it difficult for a sub- 
marine commander to determine its exact size 
and shape, and the direction of its course. 
All ships going into the submarine zones were 
given a "dazzle coat" and it probably proved 
of considerable value. The designs are impos- 
sible to describe in detail, but they often con- 
sisted of huge diagonal stripes of black, white, 
gray, blue and even red running from the 
water line to the top of the ship, these stripes 
being of different sizes on diff'erent sections of 
the ship, and running in one dii-ection near the 
bow and in the opposite direction near the 
stern. Near the waterline, curved lines were 
often painted in. The general effect in misty 
weather was to make a ship look like some 
shapeless monster. The camouflage could not 
make a vessel invisible against the sky, but it 
often fooled an enemy in regard to the proper 
place to direct a torpedo. Sometimes a lonif 
ship would lo^k like two small ones, when 
seen in the dusk or mist. 

The convoy system of conveying troops 
proved a success from the start. It was as old 
as maritime history, yet it had not been 
deemed useful under modern conditions. Ad- 
miral Sims pointed out its possibilities forcibly 
in April, 1917. The British naval council, 
pleading for more destroyers and sub-chasers, 
had declared that any square mile or two of 
sea could be made safe from submarines if 
destroyers were available. "Then," said Ad- 
miral Sims, "Why not make the square mile 
around a group of transports safe, and then 
move this square mile, so to speak, right 
across the ocean?" It was not hard to see the 
point, and the method was tried out and never 

The first convoy of 14 troop and cargo ves- 
sels under guard of six cruisers and twelve de- 
stroyers left New York in a dense fog June 
14, 1917. It was attacked t-wice on the way 
to France and in both cases the convoying 
destroyers chased the submarines away -with 

The first American transport to be sunk was 
torpedoed off Ireland on Oct. 17, 1917, and 
sank in four minutes -with a loss of 67 lives. 
It was the transport Antilles, homeward bound 
vrith 234 persons aboard. It was grouped -with 
five other vessels returning to America. Com- 
mander D. T. Ghent gives the following de- 
scription of the sinking, which was typical of 
hundreds of submarine attacks during the war: 

"Just after daylight a torpedo was sighted 
heading for us about two points abaft the port 
beam on a coui'se of 45° -with the keel. The 
torpedo was seen by the second officer on the 
bridge, the quai'termaster and signalman on 
watch; by the first officer and first assistant 
engineer from the port side of the promenade 
deck, and by one of the gun crews on watch 
aft. They estimated the distance from 400 
feet to as many yards. Immediately on sight- 
ing the torpedo the helm was put 'hard over' 
in an attempt to dodge it, but before the ship 
began to swing the torpedo struck us near the 
after engine-room bulkhead on the port side. 
The explosion was terrific; the ship shivered 
from stem to stern, listing immediately to 
port. One of the lookouts in the main top, 
though protected by a canvas screen about 5 
feet high, was thro-wii clear over this screen 
and killed on striking the hatch. This case is 
cited as indicating the power of the 'whip' 
caused by the explosion. Guns were manned 
instantly in the hope of getting a shot at the 
enemy, but no submarine was seen. 

"The explosion -wrecked everything in the 
engine room, including the ice machine and 



dynamo, and almost instantly flooded the en- 
gine room, fireroom, and No. 3 hold, which is 
just abaft the engine-room bulkhead. The en- 
gine room was filled with ammonia fumes and 
with the high-pressure gases from the tor- 
pedo, and it is believed that everyone on duty 
in the engine room was either instantly killed 
or disabled except one oilei-. This man hap- 
pened to be on the upper gratings at the tinio. 
He tried to escape through the engine-room 
door, which is near the level of the upper grat- 
ings, but found the door jammed, and the knob 
on his side blo^vn off. Unable to force the door, 
and finding he was being overcome by the gases 
and ammonia fumes, he managed to escape 
through the engine-room skylight just as the 
ship was going under. Within a few seconds 
after the explosion the water was over the 
crossheads of the main engines, which were 
still turning over slowly. Of the 21 men on 
duty in the engine I'oom and firerooms only 3 
managed to escape. Besides the oiler, 2 fire- 
men managed to escape through the fireroom 
ventilator. The fact that the engines could 
not be maneuvered and the headway of the 
ship checked added to the difficulty of abandon- 
ing ship. 

"Just as the torpedo struck us I was on 
the way to the pilot house from the scene of 
fire. Before I could reach the bridge the offi- 
cer of the deck had sounded the submarine 
alarm, and I immediately sounded the signal 
for 'Abandon ship.' The ofliicer on watch, quar- 
termaster, and signalman went to their boats. 
Radio Electrician Watson being relieved by 
Radio Electrician Ausburne in the radio room, 
reported on the bridge for instnactions. I sent 
an order to get out an S. O. S. signal. Radio 
Electi'ician Watson, who was lost, remained 
with me on the bridge until the gun crews for- 
ward were ordered to save themselves. He was 
wearing a life jacket and was on his way to 
his boat when I last saw him. 

"Before leaving port all boats had been 
rigged out except the two after boats, which, 
owing to their low davits, could not wdth safety 
be rigged out except in favorable weather. All 
hands had been carefully instructed and care- 
fully drilled in the details of abandoning ship. 
The best seamen in the ship's crew had been 
detailed and stationed by the falls; men had 
been stationed by the gripes of each boat, and 
all boats had been equipped with sea painters; 
two axes had been placed in each boat, one 
foi-ward and one aft, for the purpose of cut- 
ting the falls or sea painters in case they 
should get jammed, and men had been detailed 
to cast them off. That only 4 boats out of 10 

succeeded in getting clear of the ship was due 
to several causes — the short time the ship re- 
mained afloat after being torpedoed; the head- 
way left on the ship, due to the fact that the 
engine-room personnel was put out of action 
by the explosion; the rough sea at the time; 
the fact that the ship listed heavily; and that 
one boat was destroyed by the explosion. 

"When there was no one left in sight on 
the decks I went aft on the saloon deck, where 
sevei'al men were struggling in the water in 
the vicinity of No. 5 boat and making no at- 
tempt to swim away from the side of the ship. 
I thought perhaps these men could be induced 
to get clear of the ship, as it was feared the 
suction would carry them dovm. By the time 
that point was reached, however, the ship, 
being at an angle with the horizontal of about 
45 degrees, started to upend and go down, list- 
ing heavily to port. This motion thi-ew me 
across the deck where I was washed overboard. 
The ship went dovioi vertically. The suction 
effect was hardly noticeable. 

"The behavior of the naval personnel 
throughout was equal to the best traditions 
of the service. The t^vo foi^ward gun crews, in 
charge of Lieutenant Tisdale, remained at their 
gun stations while the ship went down, and 
made no move to leave their stations until or- 
dered to save themselves. Radio Electrician 
Ausburne went do^vn with the ship while at his 
station in the radio room. When the ship was 
struck Ausburne, realizing the seriousness of 
the situation, told McMahon to get his life pre- 
server on, saying, as he left to take his station 
at the radio key, 'Good-bye, Mac' McMahon, 
later finding the radio room locked and seeing 
the ship was sinking, tried to get Ausburne 
out, but failed. 

"As soon as the Henderson saw what was 
wrong she turned to starboard and made a 
thick smoke screen which completely hid her 
from view. The Willehad turned to port and 
made off at her best speed. The Corsair and 
Alcedo began the rescue of the survivors, the 
Corsair continuing to look for the submarine. 
The total number of persons on boai'd the An- 
tilles was 234, the Corsair rescuing 50 and the 
Alcedo 117. Too much credit cannot be given 
to the officers and men of the Corsair and Al- 
cedo for their rescue work and for their whole- 
heartedness and generosity in succoring the 
needs of the survivors. The work of the medi- 
cal officers attached to the above vessels was 
worthy of highest praise. 

"An instance comes back which indicates 
the coolness of the gun crews. One member 
was rescued from the top of an ammunition 



box which by some means had floated clear 
and in an upright position. When this young 
man saw the Corsair standing down to pick 
him up he semaphored not to come too close, 
as the box on which he was sitting contained 
live ammunition." 

In the above instance the German submarine 
commander made no attempt to rescue sur- 
vivors of the wi'eck. This was generally the 
policy, but sometimes a boat-load of sailors 
would be "given a tow" toward land, and on 
other occasions the lifeboats would be shelled 
and sunk by the assailant. It seemed to de- 
pend upon the nature of the U-boat captain 
rather than upon any rules recognized by the 
German navy. 

The methods used to combat the U-boat men- 
ace have been touched upon before in this 

Commander Taussig gave the following in- 
teresting description of the voyage of the first 
flotilla of destroyers and their work: 

"When the United States became a belliger- 
ent, one of the first requests the Allies made 
was that we send as many destroyers and oth- 
er patrol boats as we could possibly muster 
over to the other side to assist them in com- 
bating the submarines. At 9:30 one April 
night I received orders to proceed at daylight 
to my home navy yard to fit out for distant 
service. What was before us I did not know. 
There were five other commanding officers of 
destroyers who received the same orders, and 
at 5 o'clock the following morning we left 
Chesapeake Bay and were on our way to New 
York and Boston at a high speed, in order that 
"we might get ready, as soon as possible, for 
whatever it was to be. 

"So anxious was the Navy Department that 
the outside world in general know nothing of 
the movement of these ships that not even I, 
who was in command of the expedition, was 
informed of our destination. We went to the 
navy yards, the ships went in dock, had their 
bottoms cleaned and painted, we took en stores 
and provisions to last three months, and in a 
few days sailed from Boston. 

"My orders were to proceed to a point fifty 
miles east of Cape Cod and then open my 
sealed instructions. Until I got to that point, 
at midnight of the first night out, I did not 
know that our first port of call was to be 
Queenstown. It was quite natural that the 
few in authority who knew our movements 
watched with anxiety for news of our crossing. 
It was the first time that vessels of this type 
had ever made po long a continuous passage 

without refueling or without the company of 
larger vessels. 

"We were ten days in making the ti'ip, due 
mostly to a southeast gale, which accompanied 
us for seven of the ten days. So rough was 
the sea during this time that for seven of the 
ten days we did not set our mess tables; we 
ate off our laps. On the ninth day we were 
pleased to be met by a little British destroyer 
named the Mary Rose. She picked us up early 
one morning and came along flying the inter- 
national signal, 'Welcome to the American 
Colors.' To this we replied, 'Thank you, we 
are glad of your company.' The Mary Rose 
then accompanied us to Queenstown. I am 
sorry to say that three months later the Mary 
Rose was sunk wth all hands by a German 
raider in the North Sea. We received a very 
hearty welcome at Queenstown by the Bintish 
Admii'al, Sir Lewis Bayly, and by the others 
in authority there. They were very glad to see 

"Things were looking black. In the three 
previous weeks the submarines had sunk 152 
British merchant ships. It was manifest that 
this thing could not go on if the Allies were to 
win the war. The British Admiral gave us 
some wholesome advice in regard to how best 
to fight the submarines. We immediately pre- 
pared for this service by having what are 
known as depth charges or depth bombs in- 
stalled. We put ashore all of our surplus 
stores and provisions in order to lighten our 
draft, as it was possible that a few inches 
might save us from striking a mine. 

"The seriousness of the work before us was 
made evident, not only by the large number 
of vessels that were being sunk, but by the 
fact that the night before we entered the 
harbor a German submarine had planted 
twelve mines right in the channel. Fortunate- 
ly for us, they were swept up by the ever-vigi- 
lant British mine sweepers before we arrived. 
The day following our arrival one of the British 
gunboats from our station was torpedoed and 
her captain and forty of her crew were lost. 
Patrol vessels were continually bringing in the 
survivors from tlie various ships as they were 

"The British Admiral told us that we would 
go on patrol duty for six days at a time, and 
then come in for two or three days' rest. In 
this patrol duty we were assigned to certain 
areas, as far as 300 iniles off shore, as the 
submarines were then operating that far out. 
Our orders were to destroy submarines; to 
escort or convoy valuable merchant ships; to 




"The Lakes" was a familiar place to Racine people, for hundreds of local boys went into service there. The pictures 
above were taken when the station's roster was at its largest. Thousands occupied tents on the grounds and the walks and 
parade were thronged at all hours of the day. Below is shown contingents of men lined up with their kit bags really to 
entrain to coast points for sea duty. Men selected for these adventuresome journeys were told of it only a few hours be- 
fore their trains started and they had little more than time lo get their belongings together. 



save lives if we could. We did escort many 
ships, and we did save many lives. 

"I cannot say that we sank many subma- 
rines. The submarine, I found, is a very diffi- 
cult bird to catch. He has tremendous ad- 
vantage over the surface craft. In the first 
place, he always sees you first. This is be- 
cause when on the surface he is very low, and 
when submerged he has only his periscope out, 
or perhaps nothing at all. As he was not 
after destroyers, he avoided us whenever he 
could. That is, if he saw the destroyer on the 
horizon, the submarine immediately went the 
other way. 

"When we saw a submarine, which some- 
times happened frequently, and at other times 
several days might pass without seeing one, 
we would immediately go after him full speed, 
and open fire with our guns in the hopes of get- 
ting in a shot before he submerged; but he 
always submerged very quickly. Only once did 
my vessel in seven months succeed in actually 
fighting a submarine. He then went dowm 
after the fifth shot was fired. At that time 
he was five miles away. But what they are 
afraid of are the depth charges or depth 

"I will tell you how they operate. A depth- 
charge is about two or three hundred pounds 
of a high explosive. It is fitted so as to ex- 
plode automatically at any depth we may de- 
sire. The destroyers and patrol vessels carry 
them on deck at the stern. When we see a 
submarine submerge we try to find his wake, 
and if we can see the wake of a submerged 
vessel we run over it, di-op the depth charge 
by simply pulling a lever, and in a few seconds 
there is a ten-ific explosion. 

"This explosion is so great that on one or 
two occasions, when I happened to be in the 
chart house when they let go, I thought my 
own ship was torpedoed. They can be felt 
under the water for a distance of several miles, 
but, of course, they must be dropped very close 
to the submarine in order to destroy him. If 
we get it say within ninety feet of the hull, it 
may damage it enough to cause him to sink, 
other-wise only superficial damage may result. 

"The patrol duty was vei-y trying, as the 
ocean was strewn with wreckage for a distance 
of 300 miles off shore. It was hard to tell a 
periscope when we saw one. Fish, floating 
spars, and many other objects were taken for 
periscopes and fired at; we could not aff"ord 
to take a chance, as our whole safety depended 
on our being vigilant. 

"The submarines did less damage, as the 

summer woi'e on, due, undoubtedly, to our hav- 
ing moi'e patrol vessels. 

"Then the scheme was taken up of having 
convoys. The advantage of a convoy is that 
six or ten destroyers can protect from twenty 
to thirty merchant ships, while in the patrol 
system only one destroyer could be with one 
merchant ship at a time. The convoy system 
developed so that practically all vessels passing 
through the danger zone were in large convoys 
of from ten to thirty with an escort of from 
six to ten destroyers. 

"These convoy trips would take us out of 
port from six to eight days. They were very 
trying days, especially during the latter part 
of fall, when the weather got bad. When we 
are at sea in this way we do not take off our 
clothes, neither officer nor man. We must be 
ready at all times. We do not even have the 
pleasure of taking a bath, as something might 
happen and we would not be ready for it. As 
one young officer expressed it, we had to come 
down to the Saturday night bath habit, and if 
we happened to be at sea Saturday night we 
might be out of luck. 

"The night work was very difficult, as the 
danger of collision was great wth so many 
ships without lights operating in close proxim- 
ity. There are frequent collisions, and we 
must use our judgment as to whether we 
should turn on our lights and avoid the danger 
of collisions, and take the risk of a submarine 
seeing us,- or keeping our lights out and taking 
our chances. We have this to remember, that 
if a submarine sinks us she only sinks one ship, 
but a serious collision may result in the sink- 
ing of two ships, so it is a matter of judg- 

The American destroyers operating in the 
war zone had been on constant duty for seven 
months before the first and only one sunk 
by enemy submarine, the Jacob Jones, was tor- 
pedoed. The little Chauncey, of 592 tons dis- 
placement, had been, on November 19th, sunk 
in collision with a British transport, 18 lives 
being lost. The Cassin was struck by a tor- 
pedo on October 15, but was taken to port and 
repaired. But one man was killed. Gunner's 
Mate Osmond K. Ingram, who gave his life to 
save the ship. To commemorate this coura- 
geous act, Secretary Daniels named one of the 
new destroyers the Ingram. Commander W. N. 
Vernou was in command of the Cassin, which 
was patrolling off' the Irish coast about 20 
miles south of Mine Head when, at 1:.30 P. M., 
a submarine was sighted some distance away. 
The Cassin went at full speed for the spot, 
but the submarine had submerged. 



What occurred afterward is told in the offi- 
cial report: 

"At about 1:57 P. M. the commanding officer 
sighted a torpedo apparently shortly after it 
had been fired, running near the surface and 
in a direction that was estimated would make 
a hit either in the engine or fire room. When 
first seen the torpedo was between 300 and 
400 yards from the ship, and the wake could 
be followed on the other side for about 400 
yards. The torpedo was running at high speed, 
at least 35 knots. The Cassin was maneuver- 
ing to dodge the torpedo, double emergency 
full speed ahead having been signaled from the 
engine room and the rudder put hard left as 
soon as the torpedo was sighted. It looked for 
the moment as though the torpedo would pass 
astern. When about 15 or 20 feet away the 
torpedo porpoised, completely leaving the 
water and sheering to the left. Before again 
taking the water the torpedo hit the ship well 
aft on the port side about frame 163 and above 
the water line. Almost immediately after the 
explosion of the torpedo the depth charges, 
located on the stern and ready for firing, ex- 
ploded. There were two distinct explosions in 
quick succession after the torpedo hit. 

"But one life was lost. Osmond K. Ingram, 
gunner's mate first class, was cleaning the 
muzzle of No. 4 gun, target practice being just 
over when the attack occurred. With rare 
presence of mind, realizing that the torpedo 
was about to strike the part of the ship where 
the depth charges were stored and that the 
setting off of these explosives might sink the 
ship, Ingram, immediately seeing the danger, 
ran aft to strip these chai-ges and throw them 
overboard. He was blown to pieces when the 
torpedo sti'uck. Thus Ingram sacrificed his 
life in performing a duty which he believed 
would save his ship and the lives of the officers 
and men on board. 

"Nine members of the crew received minor 

"After the ship was hit, the crew was kept 
at general quarters. 

"The executive officer and engineer officer 
inspected the parts of the ship that were dam- 
aged, and those adjacent to the damage. It 
was found that the engine and fire rooms and 
after magazine were intact and that the en- 
gines could be worked; but that the ship could 
not be steered, the rudder having been blown 
off and the stern blown to starboard. The ship 
continued to turn to starboard in a circle. In 
an effort to put the ship on a course by the 
use of the engines, something carried away 
which put the starboard engine out of commis- 

sion. The port engine was kept going at slow 
speed. The ship, being absolutely unmanage- 
able, sometimes turned in a circle and at times 
held an approximate course for several min- 

"Immediately after the ship was torpedoed 
the radio was out of commission. The radio 
officer and radio electrician chief managed to 
improvise a temporary auxiliary antenna. The 
generators were out of commission for a short 
time after the explosion, the ship being in 
darkness below. 

"When this vessel was torpedoed, thei'e was 
another United States destroyer, name un- 
known, within signal distance. After being 
torpedoed, an attempt was made to signal her 
by searchlight, flag, and whi.stle, and the dis- 
tress signal was hoisted. Apparently through 
a misunderstanding she steamed away and 
was lost sight of. 

"At about 2:30 P. M., when we were in ap- 
proximately the same position as when tor- 
pedoed, a submarine conning tower was sight- 
ed on port beam, distant about 1,500 yards, 
ship still circling under port engine. Opened 
fire with No. 2 gun, firing four rounds. Sub- 
marine submerged and was not seen again. 
Two shots struck very close to the submarine. 

"At 3:50 P. M., U. S. S. Porter stood by. 
At 4:25 P. M., wreckage which was hanging 
to stern dropped off. At dark stopped port 
engine and drifted. At about 9 P. M., H. M. 
S. Jessamine and II. M. S. Tamarisk stood by. 
H. M. S. Jessamine signalled she could stand 
by until morning and then take us in tow. At 
this time sea was very rough, wind about six 
or seven (34 or 40 miles an hour) and in- 

"H. M. S. Tamarisk prepared to take us in 
tow and made one attempt after another to 
get a line to us. Finally, about 2:10 A. M., 
October 16th, the Tamarisk lowered a boat in 
rough sea and sent grass line by means of 
which our 8-inch hawser was sent over to her. 
At about 2:30 A. M. Tamarisk started towing 
us to Queenstown, speed about 4 knots, this 
vessel towing well on starboard quarter of 
Tamarisk, due to condition of stern described 
above. At 3:25 hawser parted. 

"Between this time and 10:37 A. M., when a 
towing line was received from H. M. S. Snow- 
drop, various attempts were made by the 
Tamarisk and two trawlers and a tug to tow 
the Cassin. An 11 -inch towing hawser from 
the Tamarisk parted. All ships, except her, 
lost the Cassin during the night. The Cassin 
was drifting rapidly on a lee shore, and had 
it not been for the Tamarisk getting out a 



line in the early morning, the vessel would 
unrloubtedly have grounded on Hook Point, as 
it is extremely doubtful if her anchors would 
have held. 

"About 35 feet of stern was blown off or 
completely ruptured. The after living com- 
partments and after storerooms are completely 
wrecked or gone, and all stores and clothing 
from these parts of the ship ai'e gone or 
ruined. About 4.5 members of the crew, in- 
cluding the chief petty officers, lost practical- 
ly everything but the clothes they had on." 

Lieutenant Isaacs, who was captured by the 
submarine which sank the Transport Presi- 
dent Lincoln, had one of the most remarkable 
experiences on record. The U-boat was 
bombed by American destroyers, and for a 
time it seemed that he would perish with all 
aboard the German vessel. Taken to Germany, 
after repeated attempts in which, time and 
again, he risked his life, he managed to es- 
cape, and made his way to Switzerland. De- 
scribing his experiences. Lieutenant Isaacs 

"The President Lincoln went down about 
9:30 in the moi-ning, 30 minutes after being 
struck by three torpedoes. In obedience to 
orders I abandoned ship after .seeing all hands 
aft safely off the vessel. The boats had pulled 
away, but I stepped on a raft floating along- 
side, the quarter deck being then awash. A 
few minutes later one of the boats picked me 
up. The submarine, the U-90, then returned 
and the commanding officer, while searching 
for Captain Foote of the President Lincoln, 
took me out of the boat. I told him my cap- 
tain had gone down with the ship, whereupon 
he steamed away, taking me prisoner to Ger- 
many. We passed to the North of the Shet- 
lands into the North Sea, the Skaggerak, the 
Cattegat, and the Sound into the Baltic. Pro- 
ceeding to Kiel, we passed down the canal 
through the Heligoland Bight to Wilhelms- 

"On the way to the Shetlands we fell in 
with two American destroyers, the Smith and 
the Warrington, who dropped 22 depth bombs 
on us. We were submerged to a depth of 
60 meters and weathered the storm, although 
five bombs were very close and shook us con- 
siderably. The information I had been able 
to collect was, I considered, of enough im- 
portance to warrant my ti-ying to escape. Ac- 
cordingly in Danish waters I attempted to 
jump from the deck of the submarine but wa.s 
caught and ordered below. 

"The German Navy authorities took me from 
Wilhelmshaven to Karlsruhe, where I was 

turned over to the army. Here I met officers 
of all the Allied armies, and with them I at- 
tempted several escapes, all of which were un- 
successful. After three weeks at Karlsruhe I 
was sent to the American and Russian officers' 
camp at Villengen. On the way I attempted to 
escape from the train by jumping out of the 
window. With the train making about 40 
miles an hour, I landed on the opposite rail- 
road track and was so severely wounded by 
the fall that I could not get away from my 
guard. They followed me, firing continuously. 
When they recaptured me they struck me on 
the head and body with their guns until one 
broke his rifle. It snapped in two at the small 
of the stock as he struck me with the butt on 
the back of the head. 

"I was given two weeks' solitary confine- 
ment for this attempt to escape, but continued 
trying, for I was determined to get my infor- 
mation back to the Navy. Finally, on the 
night of October 6th, assisted by several 
American Army officers, I was able to effect an 
escape by short-circuiting all lighting circuits 
in the prison camp and cutting through barbed- 
wire fences surrounding the camp. This had 
to be done in the face of a heavy rifle fire from 
the guards. But it was difficult for them to 
see in the darkness, so I escaped unscathed. 

"In company with an American officer in 
the French Army, I made my way for seven 
days and nights over mountains to the Rhine, 
which to the south of Baden forms the boun- 
dary between Germany and Switzerland. After 
a four-hour crawl on hands and knees I was 
able to elude the sentries along the Rhine. 
Plunging in, I made for the Swiss shore. 
After being carried several miles down the 
stream, being frequently submerged by the 
rapid current, I finally reached the opposite 
shore and gave myself up to the Swiss gen- 
darmes, who turned me over to the American 
legation at Berne. From there I made my 
way to Paris and then London and finally 
Washington, where I arrived four weeks after 
my escape from Germany." 

Within little more than a year the person- 
nel of the Naval service grew to a force of 
half a million. To house and train these re- 
cruits a score of new camps and stations were 
erected, each a little city in itself; and numer- 
ous schools were established to train men in 
special branches. Sir Eric Geddes, First Lord 
of the British Admiralty, said of this: 

"The dauntless determination which the 
United States has displayed in creating a huge 
trained body of seamen out of landsmen is one 
of the most striking accomplishments of the 




The commander of the Thirty-second Division (Les Terrtbles) who took command of Wisconsin and Michigan troops at 
Camp MacArthur, Texas in 1917 and led them until after the victory of the Allies over the German Hordes. He was 
promoted to command of a corps in the Army of Occupation but later, at his own request, was assigrned to command of 

the 32d Division on its return home. 



war. Had it not been effectively done, one 
would have thought it impossible." 

Secretary Daniels announced in 1917 that 
the entire war-building program of the Navy 
embraced nearly a thousand ships. Most of 
the vessels authorized by the three-year pro- 
gram of 1916 were contracted for early in 
1917; but the necessity of concentrating every 
energy on smaller craft to combat the sub- 
marines and the absorption of shipbuilding 
facilities, labor and material in our huge un- 
dertaking of building vitally necessary mer- 
chant vessels prevented the pushing of work 
on capital ships which could not be completed 
in time to be used during the war. Within 
a short time after hostilities began, contracts 
had been made for every destroyer that Ameri- 
can yards could build. But the call came for 
more, and yet more of these swift fighting- 
craft which had proved the most effective 
weapons against the submarine. To produce 
them, new facilities had to be created. The 
naval authorities set to work to solve the 
problem. Congress adopted the recommenda- 
tions of the Navy Department and on October 
6, 1917, appropriated $.350,000,000 additional 
for the construction of destroyers, the creation 
of new facilities and the speeding up of those 
already contracted for. That very week the 
contracts were signed, and work was begun on 
the enlargement of existing shipyards, the 
building of new yards and new factories to 
produce engines and forgings. The way in 
which this huge undei'taking was carried out 
was inspiring. 

Perhaps the most striking instance was the 
building of the Victory Plant, at Squantum, 
Massachusetts, where on land that had been 
almost a swamp, rose in a few months the 
largest and most complete plant in existence 
devoted entirely to the building of destroyers; 
and in April, 1918, six months after ground 
had been broken for the yard, the keels of 
five destroyers were laid in a single day. New 
records wei'e made in construction, vessels be- 
ing completed in eight months from the lay- 
ing of the keels when previously from twenty 
months to two years had been the usual time 
required. In a special instance, to see how 
quickly it was possible to construct a destroy- 
er, the Mare Island Navy Yard, by "field riv- 
eting" and other "hurry up" methods, succeed- 
ed in launching the destroyer Ward in 17% 
working days after its keel was laid and the 
vessel was put into commission in 70 days. 
On July 4, 1918, no fewer than 14 destroyers 
■were launched, eight of them at a single yard, 
the Union Plant of the Bethlehem Shipbuild- 

ing Company at San Francisco. The U. S. 
Na\'y has built or has under construction or 
contract more destroyers than any two navies 
possessed at the beginning of the European 
war — and our new destroyers are of the most 
modern type — 31.5 feet long, 28,000 horsepow- 
er, with a speed of 35 knots. 

The staunchness of our destroyers was 
proved on many occasions. When the Manley 
collided with a British steamship, depth- 
bombs on her rear deck exploded and her 
stern was almost blown oflf, yet she was suc- 
cessfully taken to port, repaired and put back 
into service. The Shaw was cut in two by a 
collision; the vessel was so badly smashed that 
it looked like scrap-iron; yet the two parts 
remained afloat and were towed to port. 

The largest naval training station in the 
country was located at Great Lakes, 111., about 
40 miles south of Racine. Most of the naval 
recruits and the draft men assigned to the 
navy were sent to this station for intensive 
training. Prior to the war the station con- 
sisted of a dozen roomy brick buildings to 
house officers and men, and dockage facilities 
for boats on the lake shore. After the begin- 
ning of hostilities, plans were put into execu- 
tion immediately to expand the camp, and 
about two square miles of additional property 
were acquired. On this in a few months were 
erected hundreds of barracks, and all the neces- 
sary adjuncts for the care and training cl 
80,000 sailors at one time. 

Racine people became very familiar with this 
station as it was near enough to permit of fre- 
quent visiting back and forth. Hundreds of the 
"gobs" came to Racine over each week end and 
parties innumerable were given for their en- 
tertainment. The women's clubs arranged 
dances, and it became quite the thing for peo- 
ple here to invite some of the young sailors to 
dinner each Sunday. Occasionally a big review 
would be held at Great Lakes, and it was a 
magnificent sight to see from 50,000 to 60,000 
young men in .their immaculate blue and white 
uniforms on pai'ade, marching to the music 
of a massed band of nearly 900 pieces. 

From Great Lakes, recruits were sent to 
training ships on the sea coast and then as- 
signed to duty with one of the naval squad- 
rons. Many Racine men were sent to officers' 
training school and obtained their commis- 

While American warships did not partici- 
pate in many important engagements at sea 
owing to the bashfulness of the German high 
seas fleet, the war's finale found many Yankee 
bluejackets at the front on dry land in France. 



The last shot of the American naval railway 
batteries excavated enough of the yard of the 
Longuyor railway junction for the basement 
of a skyscraper should the French ever care 
to build one there. It was fired from the 
greatest mobile land instrument of destruc- 
tion yet devised, the fourteen-inch railway bat- 
tery, the success of which the Navy had proved. 

Short as was the period of their activity 
in the struggle, the history of the five four- 
teen-inch railway batteries is one of brilliant 
achievement. The design, manufacture and 
shipment of guns, mounts, carriages, cars, 
locomotives and other necessary equipment 
I'epresented a stupendous task which was ac- 
complished in record time. 

Plans and drawings were completed by the 
Naval Gun Factory, January 25, 1918. In less 
than a month, February 23, arrangements had 
been made for material and manufacture, and 
the monster guns were in the making. 

As soon as actual work on construction was 
started, America's sailors of the land were 
selected, 500 men and thirty officers. Their 
training was a period the intensity of which 
they will not forget. Ninety per cent of the 
men were training station recruits, land sail- 
ors, but of a different sort. Their knowledge 
of naval guns was limited to rifles with which 
they had drilled at Great Lakes or Norfolk or 
Bremerton. They knew practically nothing of 
weapons of large caliber. 

The Navy's new dragon of war emitted its 
first roar on April 30. It was at the Sandy 
Hook pi'oving grounds. The gun discharged 
from a safe distance, a wire of considerable 
length being connected to the firing circuit, 
but the precaution was unnecessary. The 
sixty-foot weapon threw forth its 1,400-pound 
projectile, propelled by 484 pounds of smoke- 
less powder, recoiled the prescribed forty-four 
inches like a crouching animal, and then re- 
turned to battery gracefully and safely. 

The test was a success that gave navy of- 
ficials the thrill that is born of accomplish- 

The gun came apart in far less time than 
it was put together and soon was on its way, 
with four more, across the ocean in quest of 
more vital targets. The reassembling of the 
first locomotive and car, for the battery em- 
braced not only the gun but its equipment, for 
transportation to the front, began at St. Na- 
zaire, July 20. On August 11 the first train 
was ready for the front. 

Over more than 350 miles of Fi'ench rail- 
roads it went to Helles-Mouchy. Its six-miles- 
an-hour speed enabled it to pass many a troop 

train, though doughboys gazed with interest 
from their huit-cheveaux, de luxe coaches at 
the long train of the railway battery, and their 
interest changed to envy when they saw the 
comfortable berthing cars with their uppers 
and lowers. 

"How far do it shoot ? " one dusky infantry- 
man asked another of his outfit. 

"Man, it shoots a thousand miles and then 
throws rocks at yuh," his sophisticated brother- 
in-arms replied. 

The French knew of its coming. News had 
traveled faster than six miles an hour. Cheer- 
ing throngs greeted the bluejackets at every 
station as Battery 1 sped on to war. Flowers 
were showered upon them. Old salts wore 
blossoms in improvised button-holes in their 
greasy dungarees and so did young salts, or 
"boots," as the Navy calls its recruits. 

The French found a new awe and a new 
joy sweeping them when it was discovered 
that the -wTeaths they had made to bedeck the 
guns were not big enough to encircle the gi- 
gantic muzzles. 

But with the arrival of Battery 1 at Helles- 
Mouchy, August 23, and Battery 2 a day later, 
the Navy found on land just what it had 
found at sea. The Hun ran from the answer 
to his own challenge. The two batteries had 
come to fire upon the long-range gun which 
had startled the world with the shells it had 
dropped on Paris. B^ore they could get into 
position the Germans had moved their prize. 

Parisians still wonder what caused the ces- 
sation of the shower of shells it received at 
such a tremendous range. The firing stopped 
as suddenly and as mysteriously as it started. 
They have the naval guns to thank, although 
those guns did not fire a shot at the cause of 
the disturbance. Big Bertha beat it before 
they had a chance. 

When he ran he left Batteries 1 and 2 with 
nothing in particular at which to throw 1,400- 
pound projectiles. With no immediate mis- 
sion to perform Battery 1 was sent to the 
French proving ground to give demonstrations 
for French students of artillery. 

Battery 2 went on another search for battle. 
At Rethondes, in the forest of Compeigne, it 
took another stand, to fire upon the ammuni- 
tion dump at Tergnier. Again the thrill of 
action evaded the Navy. Only one shot had 
been fired when Tergnier fell. 

But action did not evade for long. Battery 
1 moved to Soissons and took a position near 
St. Christophe Cemetery on September 11. 
Battery 2 moved to Fontenoy-Ambley. And 
they were joined by the other three batteries, 



which arrived at the artillery base at Haussi- 
mont, Marne, on September 26. 

When the Germans started their retreat 
from Laon, September 28, the speed at which 
Hun legs scurried over the terrain was in- 
creased by the frequency with which the four- 
teen-inch guns dropped enormous and amaz- 
ingly destructive shells on objectives near the 
town. About 200 shots were fired by the big 
guns before the German retreat left the tar- 
gets in the hands of the French Tenth Army. 

It was real action, too. The Germans found 
the range of Battery 1 on October 5 and 
opened a spunky retaliatory fire. A shell 
burst directly over the big gun with no casual- 
ties. Shells fell on both sides of the train, 
but only one direct hit was scored. It sent 
a bucketful of "scrub and wash" clothes scat- 
tering over the landscape. The casualty list 
contained nothing closer to humanity than 
navy undei'wear. 

Another move sent Battery 2 to Flavy-le- 
Martel, near St. Quenten, and. it gave Mortiers 
a shelling from October 11 through October 
13. Batteries 3, 4 and 5 chugged away to 
Thierville, on the outskirts of Verdun, to fire 
upon Longuyon and other points of strategic 
importance. But soon Battery 4 was moved 
to Charny, where it was joined by Battery 2. 
From the forest of Velaine Battery 1 began 
firing on Bensdorf, November 6. Three days 
later Battery 2 moved up to a point twenty 
miles east and was given Saarburg, as an ob- 
jective. The two points were minor objec- 
tives on the path to Metz, and it is evident 
that the huge guns would have taken an im- 
portant part in the big drive of November 14, 
but again the Hun ran — this time holding aloft 

a white flag of surrender. The guns were 
blazing away at the finish. J. A. Koffla, ship- 
fitter, second class, fired the last shot at 
10:57.30 in the morning of November 11. 

The operations in which the five batteries 
engaged were not many. They fired only 782 
shells, Battery 3 leading with 236 and Battei-y 
.5 trailing with 112. They were fired on only 
twenty-five different days. But their fire was 
effective. Examination of the targets proved 
it, and German prisoners admitted it. Their 
ranges of fire at the front wei^e from 30,000 to 
40,000 yards. 

The batteries suffered only five casualties — 
one dead, four wounded, all of Battery 4. 

They fired only from prepared positions, al- 
though fire from the trucks on which they were 
transported was possible. 

Each battery train consisted of a locomotive, 
gun car, construction car, construction car with 
cranes, sand and log car, fuel car, battery 
kitchen car, two ammunition cars, three berth- 
ing cars, one battery headquarters car, battery 
headquarters kitchen car, and workshop car. 

The complement of each battery train em- 
braced a commanding officer, construction offi- 
cer, orientation oflicer, medical officer, chief 
turret captain, two gunner's mates, first class; 
gunner's mate, second class; two machinist's 
mates, second class; boatswain's mate, first 
class; two coxswains; electrician, first class; 
electrician, second class; chief machinist's 
mate; eight ship fitters, first class; eight ship 
fitters, second class; eight carpenter's mates, 
first class; twenty-three seamen; ship's cook, 
first class; baker, first class; ship's cook, sec- 
ond class, and four ship's cooks, fourth class. 


BATTERY C, 121st, F. A. 

BATTERY C, Racine's first unit in the 
new Wisconsin national guax'd, was or- 
ganized during the early summer of 
1916, and was formally mustered into the state 
service on June 8, 1916, by Col. John G. Salz- 
man, assistant to the adjutant general of the 

Its organization was part of the program of 
preparedness, which was then beginning to 
sweep the country. War with Mexico was 
looming on the horizon, and some of the more 
far-sighted wei'e urging the enlargement of 
the army in event the United States should be 
drawn into the European imbroglio. 

Originally it was intended as a three-inch 
battery. It was part of a battalion of artillery 
formed in this state, with Battery A of Mil- 
waukee, which had been organized for some 
time, as the nucleus. Battery B of Green 
Bay was the other unit in this battalion. 
There was a race between Racine and Green 
Bay for the honor of having the second battery 
formed in the state. Green Bay filled its mus- 
ter roll first, applied for admittance and com- 
pleted the other technicalities, however, and 
its organization was formally called Battery 
B. Racine was only one day behind. 

The Commercial Club rooms were the scene 
of the mustering-in of Battery C. Colonel 
Salzman had charge, and was accompanied by 
Chief H. C. Baker of Racine, Capt. Philip 
Westfahl (later colonel of the 121st F. A.) 
and Lieut. Reed, the last two of whom were 
then officers in Battery A. There were 12.5 
Racine young men on the roster, and as their 
names were called, they stepped forward. All 
took the solemn pledge to uphold the constitu- 
tion of the United States and to fight for it if 

The first drills were held at the Commercial 
Club rooms, which were turned over gratis for 
that purpose. When the troops were called 
to the Mexican border a short time later, Bat- 

tery C confidently expected to be among them. 
Owing to lack of uniforms, equipment and the 
short training, the Racine unit, together vrith 
Green Bay, was left behind. An appeal was 
made, however, for recruits to fill Battery A, 
which was called, to war strength. Several 
members of the battery responded and took 
l)art in the maneuvers in Texas. 

The battery received its first war training 
during the latter part of August, 1916, when 
it was ordered to Camp Douglas for a ten day 
training period. A hundred and ten men made 
the trip, leaving Racine on August 20, 1916, on 
a special train. The time was spent in foot 
drills, hikes, lectures on war subjects, and in 
other details of this kind. The officers endeav- 
ored to make the drill as varied and interest- 
ing as possible, so as to relieve the monotony. 
Captain George W. Rickeman (who later be- 
came a major) was the commanding officer, 
virith Richard Drake and Richard Bryant as 
lieutenants. George Wallace was the first 
sergeant. Later George Wallace and Harry C. 
Sanders were appointed second lieutenants, 
the former being assigned to Battery F. 

At Camp Douglas, the battery members re- 
ceived their first uniforms, consisting of a wool 
O. D. blouse, trousers, socks, campaign hat, 
and shoes. Their civilian clothing, with which 
they had marched to the special train which 
took them to Camp Douglas, was shipped home 
by expi'ess, so that they would not be encum- 
bered with bundles when they arrived home. 
The metamorphosis undergone by the battery 
surprised the people of Racine on its arrival 
home after the ten days' encampment. The 
motley crowd, dressed in every style and color 
of civilian raiment, had been changed into a 
uniformly attired unit in O. D., marching with 
springy step and every foot in cadence. 

Then followed nine months of steady and 
monotonous drill. Lakeside Au litorium had 
been leased, and drills were held nre a week 



School for the aspirants for non-commissioned 
officers' positions were held at the Commercial 
Club rooms after drill. Owing to lack of 
equipment, most of the drill consisted of the 
various foot maneuvers, although some pre- 
tence was made to instruct the men in the posi- 
tions and duties to be assumed in firing a gun 
by using chairs to denote the cannons and 

The battery had been promised horses, three 
inch guns and other equipment as soon as an 
armory to house the material had been ar- 
ranged for. Besides their weekly di-ills at the 
Auditorium, the battery members, assisted by 
patriotic residents of the city, began the drive 
for such a building. The original proposition 
was to erect a building which could be used 
both as an armory and a municipal auditorium, 
and which would net revenue to the city year- 
ly. Special committees appeared before the 
common council in its behalf, designating $50,- 
000 as the sum needed for its erection. A 
bond issue for that amount was submitted to 
the voters, and was acted on favorably by a 
big margin. But the preliminaries leading up 
to this bond issue had taken considerable time, 
and owing to the war, the price of building 
material had soared. When everything was in 
readiness to build the armory, it was discov- 
ered that nearly twice as much would be need- 
ed for the building planned. 

It had been practically decided to abandon 
the plan of a combined building, and commit- 
tees were seeking a place which could be pur- 
chased cheaply for housing the horses and guns, 
when the news that America had declared war 
on Germany was received. The armory propo- 
sition was dropped, and everyone turned their 
attention to recruiting the United States forces 
to war strength. The war department decided 
to raise its national guard artillery in Wiscon- 
sin from a battalion to a regiment, which 
meant the recruiting of three new batteries. 
Racine was given a chance to be represented 
by one of these new outfits, and also to recruit 
an ambulance corps. 

No difficulty was experienced in raising the 
ful! number of recruits for the formation of 
Battery F and the ambulance corps. 

On July 2, 1917, Batteries C and F left Ra- 
cine for Camp Douglas on a special St. Paul 
railroad train. The last assembling place was 
Lakeside Auditorium, and the time designated 
was 6 o'clock in the morning. There were 
brief ceremonies after roll had been called, 
the Red Cross presenting each man with a 
comfort kit. 

Battery C was officered at that time by. 
Captain Richard Bryant; 1st Lieut. Ludwig 
Kuehl; 1st Lieut. Harry Herzog; 2nd Lieut. 
Harry Sanders; 2nd Lieut. Harry demons. 
Lieut. Kuehl had an operation shortly before 
the battery left for Camp Douglas, and did 
not arrive there until a few weeks later. 

Every resident in Racine turned out to bid 
farewell to the first complete outfit to leave 
this city for war training. Led by the drum 
corps, the men marched do-wn Main street, 
which was jammed with humanity on both 
sides. There was such a crowd on Second 
street, down which thoroughfare the men 
marched to reach the special train, that it 
was difficult for the two batteries to force 
their way through. State street bridge was 
so crowded that there was grave danger of 
its collapsing. Whistles shrieked from every 
factory all along the route as the train pro- 
ceeded out of the city, and handkerchiefs 
waved a last farewell from every residence 

Arriving at Camp Douglas, the work of get- 
ting in shape was begun in earnest. The two 
batteries were among the first to arrive at 
the state camping grounds, and began woi'k 

At midnight, July 15, the two batteries au- 
tomatically went into federal service with the 
rest of the First Wisconsin Field Artillery 
regiment. On July 24, the federal examina- 
tions were conducted, and the soldiers received 
their first inoculations as a guard against 
typhoid fever. They were also vaccinated to 
ward off smallpox. 

The drill outlined for Camp Douglas seemed 
strenuous to the men fresh from civilian life, 
but compared to after events, it was a lark. 
Much of the time was spent in getting the 
battery in shape, picking those men particu- 
larly adapted for special jobs, appointing 
"non-coms," and in physical training. Ovidng 
to the fact that Batteries A and B were the 
only ones with equipment, much of the time 
had to be spent in the monotonous foot drill. 
The various batteries in the regiment took 
turns at using the equipment, and the few 
head of horses that were at Camp Douglas. 
There was no real progress, except at foot 
drill and in getting the men in shape, and 
under discipline. 

There are three events at Camp Douglas 
which stand out prominently in the memoiy of 
the battery members. The first was the kid- 
napping of "Battering Ram Bill," the goat mas- 
cot. The goat arrived on August 8, and with 
much ceremony, was designated as battery 



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mascot. A few days later it disappeared. The 
mystery was not explained until August 18, 
when Battery F left for Waco, Tex., and "Bill" 
was peering from the baggage coach door as 
the train pulled out. The other two dates the 
men will remember are August 28, when "hot 
cakes" were served for the first time, and 
August 29, when the first long foot hike was 
held. Col. Westfahl led the regiment in the 
hike, and fourteen miles, over sandy roads, 
wei'e covered. 

On Sept. 2, the battery, with the remainder 
of the troops at Camp Douglas, turned out to 
bid farewell to those units of infantry which 
entrained for Camp Mills to join the Rainbow 

The start for Camp McAi'thur, near Waco, 
Tex., which had been designated as the train- 
ing grounds for the Wisconsin and Michigan 
national guard outfits, was made on Sept. 9. 
The regiment was divided into three different 
sections, each of which left at a different time 
during the day. The train containing Batteries 
C and D was composed of fifteen coaches and 
three freight cars, the latter containing the 
baggage of the men. Camp McArthur was 
reached on Sept. 12, but owing to the fact that 
it was late at night, the men slept aboard train 
until morning. 

Equipment was expected when Camp Mc- 
Arthur was reached, but the men found that 
the same drill schedule which had been length- 
ened to more hours, however, awaited them. 
"Squads east and west," under a hot Texas 
sun and occasional sand storms, was relieved 
by lessons in equitation, trench building, wig- 
wag woi'k, drill on the guns and lectures on 
various subjects. The day was divided into 
periods and the men into classes. Each period 
was of forty minutes' duration, and a different 
subject was taught during each. Wednesday 
and Saturday afternoons were devoted to ath- 
letics, and every Saturday morning there was 
a regimental hike. An inspection of personal 
equipment was held every Sunday morning. 

Tents, the same as at Camp Douglas, were 
provided as living quai'ters. Realizing that 
they were to remain at least sixteen weeks at 
this camp, the men began to make themselves 
as comfortable as possible. A collection was 
taken up in each tent, and enough money se- 
cured to put in wooden floors and sidewalls. 
This seemed like real luxury after several 
months with dirt floors and flappy canvas walls. 
The wood side walls provided a background for 
the installation of shelves, and the canvas habi- 
tats began to assume a homelike appearance. 

At Camp McArthur the men became thor- 
oughly efficient in foot diill, the manual of 
arms, guard duty and other details of this 
kind. The officers were given a chance to se- 
lect permanent cannoneers and drivers by ob- 
serving the aptitude shown by each individual 
at gun drill or equitation. The gun drill was 
mostly simulated, with timbers repi'esenting 
the pieces and caissons. Each battery had 
about thirty horses, however, and the drivers 
wei'e given a chance to become proficient in 

It was a period of uncertainty. One day the 
unofficial announcement would be made that 
the regiment was to be motorized, and the 
next that it would be horse drawn. A few 
days later it would be changed to six inch 
artillery, and then would return to three inch. 
In order to be prepared, the men were in- 
structed in drill for both the three inch and 
six inch. 

On Dec. 3 the battery had its first hike with 
the three inch material and horses, covering 
twenty-two miles. The men camped at noon, 
and ate their dinner by the roadside. On Dec. 
7, they wore their gas masks for the first time. 

More than five months after entering into 
service, the men fired the three inch guns for 
the first time, at a week's maneuvers, which 
were held at China Springs, about eighteen 
miles from camp. Each battery was given a 
day on the range. Battery C had its turn on 
Dec. 15. 

Its training period completed, the regiment 
began preparing to move in January, 1918. 
The horses were turned into the remount sta- 
tion on January 3, and on Feb. 5 it boarded 
trains for Camp Merritt. While stopping over 
at Kansas City, Mo., for a few hours. Battery 
C received its first news of the sinking of the 

At 11 o'clock Sunday night, Feb. 11, the 
train section containing Battery C arrived at 
Cresskill, N. Y., the station nearest Camp Mer- 
ritt. It was bitter cold and the hills were 
covered with ice, but trains were badly need- 
ed for the carrying of troops at that time, and 
Battery C disembarked and marched to the 
camp. It was after midnight when they 
crawled under the blankets in the wooden bai-- 
racks, but reveille sounded at the usual early 
hour next morning. 

Three weeks were spent at Camp Merritt, 
waiting for the ship which was to transport 
the artillery regiment and other units across 
the ocean. It was a pleasant three weeks, the 
men being given a chance to see New York 





and the daily routine consisting of a two hour 
hike in the morning and a medical examina- 

The battery was aroused at 4 o'clock on the 
morning of March 2, packed its equipment, and 
was taken by train to Hoboken, N. J., where it 
boarded the converted liner Leviathan, former- 
ly the Vaterland. It was one of the first out- 
fits aboard the ship, and it was assigned quar- 
ters far up forward. On Sunday, March, 3, 
the other troops embarked, and at 9:£0 Mon- 
day morning, March 4, the ti'ansport steamed 
for Liverpool, Eng. The men wei'e required to 
stay below decks until the craft had passed out 
of the harbor, so that spies might not obtain 
information as to the number of troops ab-^a- '. 
The ocean trip was uneventful. Owing to its 
speed, the Leviathan could outdistance subma- 
rines, and it crossed the ocean with no convoy. 
It was not until the last day at sea that a con- 
voy, which was to escort it into Liverpool, was 
picked up. The ship docked at Liverpool on 
Tuesday, March 12. The artillerymen re- 
mained aboard during that day, and started 
for an English rest camp near Winchester on 
March 13. The trip was made in the small 
English coaches, and the men arrived at camp 
at midnight, March 14. 

The stop at the rest camp was brief. On 
March 18 the regiment was again aboard trains 
bound for Southampton, from which port it 
was to cross the channel to LeHavre, France. 
On the "Queen of Douglas," a small sid?- 
wheeler. Battery C started to cross the channe': 
on Monday evening, March 18. It was a clear 
night, and the hazard from submarines was too 
great, so the craft turned back after only go- 
ing a short distance. A successful crossing 
was made next night, however. 

One day was spent at LeHavre, and the 
regiment was again on its way. Camp Coet- 
quidan, near Guer, France, was reached March 
2.5. It was the final training camp for the 
regiment, where equipment was to be issued 
and pi-actice on the range given. Each outfit 
was given a full complement of guns, cais- 
sons, field kitchens, wagons, horses and other 
material, and the work of learning to handle 
them was begun in earnest. Non-commis- 
sioned officers attended school during the day- 
time, and there were also special classes for 
the officers. Each battery was given certain 
days each week to fire the guns, under the di- 
rection of French and American instructors. 
There was considerable fatigue work in get- 
ting the camp in shape, each battery being 
called upon on some days to furnish as many 

as 150 men for guard duty, digging trenches, 
and other working details. 

While at Coetquidan, a requisition came in 
for two batteries, to be used for a twelve week 
term in instructing aspirants for officers' com- 
missions at artillery schools. Battery A of 
Milwaukee was sent to Gondrecourt, and Bat- 
tery C assigned to Veauxhalles. On March 25, 
the Racine battery loaded its guns and horses 
aboard cars, and started for the small French 
village. Genei'al Chamberlain, Col. Westphal 
and others were at the railroad depot to watch 
the loading. 

On April 29, the battery arrived at its des- 
tination. Its members were the first troops to 
be quartered in this small French village, and 
every inhabitant was at hand to watch the 
proceedings. Gaunt from their four days' ride,^ 
the horses vs^ere hitched to the guns and cais- 
sons and the procession to the village, about a 
mile distant, started. The town was so small 
that the battery passed through it, and it was 
not until the circuitous road led it back to the 
depot again, that the mistake was discovered. 
It was six o'clock in the evening before the 
picket line had been built, the guns parked, 
the men billeted and the rolling kitchen set up. 

A few days were devoted to getting things 
in shape, and then the battery started firing 
for the Second Corps Artillery School, which 
was situated at Montigny-sur-Aube. Battery 
P of the 147th Field artillery, an outfit with 
75 millimeter guns, fired mornings and Battery 
C in the afternoon. Reveille was at 6 o'clock 
in the morning, and taps at 10 o'clock, and 
every minute of the time was occupied. In 
the morning, the drivers attended their horses, 
cleaned harness and had lessons in equitation, 
while the cannoneers did detail work, con- 
structed gun pits and drilled with the ma- 

The range was six miles from town, and it 
was not until six o'clock at night that the guns 
were hauled into the park for the evening. 
The men then had supper, after which retreat 
was held. The horses were groomed in the 
evening, from 7 to 8:30 o'clock. Every "non- 
com" was required to attend school for an 
hour and a half in the evening. 

After six weeks, the artillery school was 
moved to the Swiss border, leaving the two 
batteries behind. Word was expected daily 
which would start the battery toward the regi- 
ment, which was rumored to be on the Alsace 
front. Before such word was received, how- 
ever, the two outfits were assigned to an 
aviation school at Chattilon-sur-Seine, where 






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aeroplane observers for artillery were being 
instructed. They retained their billets in the 
little villages, the aviators and observers mak- 
ing the trip from Chattilon in aeroplanes. 

Disappointment among the men was keen, 
as they had been assured that after twelve 
weeks' firing for the artillery school they would 
join the regiment. During the twelve weeks. 
Captain Richard Bryant had been transferred 
to another outfit, and Capt. McQueen S. Wight- 
man of New York had been placed in com- 
mand of the battery. 

Their work was cut when they joined the 
aviation school, each battery being required 
to fire only three days a week. Wireless sta- 
tions were established to receive the sensings 
from the observers in the aeroplanes. Spade 
trails were constructed at the range to facili- 
tate shifting from one target to another. Ev- 
erything possible was done to make the work 
as easy and as interesting as possible. 

The aeroplane observers directed the firing 
of the batteries, flying high above them and 
observing where the shots landed. They would 
then send down corrections, until they had 
finally put the shells on the target. 

The men sought diversion from the monotony 
of firing day after day, at the same target and 
with practically the same deflection and range, 
by joining in the social life of the village. A 
canteen was established, which later developed 
into one of the largest Y. M. C. A.'s in the 
Chattilon section. There were moving picture 
shows once a week, and the men also held im- 
promptu entertainments. The various sections 
competed against each other in a basketball 
tournament. There were baseball games be- 
tween the various outfits in the Chattilon area, 
Battery C capturing the championship after a 
lively battle. The battery also won the foot- 
ball championship and the basketball title. 
There were horse shows and athletic meets. 

Three different times orders were received 
for the battery to join the regiment. But at 
the last moment, after horses and material 
had been gotten into shape, these orders were 
cancelled for some reason or other. 

The battery was close enough to the front 
to hear the booming of the big guns at times, 
where the other units of the regiment were 
making history. Finally five of the men 
packed their belongings, and jumping on a 
troop train, reached the regiment at Mont- 
faucon where it was taking part in the Ar- 
gonne Drive. These five were Arthur Hader, 
Edward Linn, Eward Stilb, Walter Williams 
and Walter Maas. They remained at the front 
fourteen days, and were then sent back with 

twenty-three casuals, who were necessary to 
fill up the battery so that it might function 

For during the time that it was at Veaux- 
halles, the battery membership had rapidly 
dwindled. Some men had been transferred to 
other outfits, some had taken ill and were in 
hospitals, and many were on special work. 
Conditions had become such that there were 
not sufficient men for details, firing the guns 
and caring for the horses, and a requisition for 
more men had been sent to the regiment. 

When it seemed as though the hopes for the 
battery rejoining the regiment were slim, re- 
quests for transfers began piling up on the 
captain. Practically every man in the outfit 
asked for a transfer between April 29 and 
November 11, when the Armistice was signed. 
Armistice Day was appropriately celebrated. 
It was declared a holiday for the battei-y, and 
the soldiers joined in with the French people 
in appropriately observing it. The opportuni- 
ties for celebrating were slim, but the men 
took advantage of every one of them. 

With the war at a close, the men felt confi- 
dent that they would rejoin their regiment. 
But the work of training artillery observers 
was uninterrupted. Instead of being stopped, 
it increased, more firing days being added and 
the sections being divided into battalions so 
that more observers could receive instructions. 
It was not until a few weeks before the bat- 
tery was prepared to start for Gondrecourt, 
near where the regiment was stationed, that 
the firing finally ceased. 

During the nine months at Veauxhalles, the 
battery turned out 388 aeroplane observers, 
and trained 200 aspirant artillery officers, be- 
sides doing the routine work necessary for the 
care of its equipment and keeping itself in 
shape to answer a call to the front at a mo- 
ment's notice. 

On Feb. 14, 1918, the battery took its fare- 
well from Veauxhalles. The entire town turned 
out to wave a last goodbye as the procession 
wound its way through the main street. There 
was not a dry eye, as during the nine months 
there was not an inhabitant but knew every 
man in the outfit. 

After five days on the road. Battery C finally 
pulled into Pershing's Park at Rozieres-on- 
blois on Feb. 19. Owing to the lack of bar- 
racks, it was quartered in barns in the village 
below. Its horses were turned in, and tractors 
and trucks were issued in their stead. Work 
on the erection of barracks started immediate- 
ly, so that the battery might be quartered with 




In the upper row are Chas. Olson. Andrew Fisher, O. A. Johnson, Eugene Grann. In the lower are R. J. LeCIair. Hans 
Kvamme (warrant officer). J. A- Olander (c. p. o.>. Peter Larson and Nels Jacobson. 

the remainder of the regiment at Pershing*s 
park, which occupied the top of a high hill ad- 
jacent to the town. These barracks were com- 
pleted a few weeks before the regiment start- 
ed on the long trek homeward. 

Following is a list of the members of Bat- 
tery C, officers and enlisted men, from the time 

the battery was ordered to Camp Douglas on 
July 2, 1917, until its return in 1919. Men 
who were transferred from the oi'ganization 
before it sailed for France are designated with 
a §; those who came from other cities and 
were assigned to the battery after July 2, 
1917, are designated by a f- 

Lloyd T, Abraliamson 
Benny AeUlof 
Matteo Aelliot 
•Charles H. Albright 
James L, Anderson 
Elmer S. Anderson 
Alfred E. Anderson 
Hans C Anderson 
Joe Antoski§ 
Harry E. Augustine 
■Carlton L. Austinf 
George K. Barnes 
Elmer J. Bartels 
Wesley M. Bassindale 
John C. Bayer 
Washington Bezucha§ 
Alvin A. Bohnsack§ 
Clarence C. Bramow 
James F, Brehm 
Harry C. Breheim 
George Bringedahlf 
Edward Brinkman 
Richard G. Bryant 
George D. Brokawt 
Harold T. Brown 
John Burdettet 
EdwMrd R. Burgert 
Arthur Buse 
Edmund A. Byerly 
Guisejipi Caj^aldit 
■George W. Carey 

Marshall Carlson 
Fred Catley 
Josejjh I, Chour§ 
Arthur J. Christ ianson§ 
Edward G. Christraanf 
Harrison L. Clemons§ 
Glenn F. Clickner 
Bryan Correll 
Benjamin Crandall§ 
Jame& Craig§ 
Earl L. Crouch § 
Harry C. Cunliffef 
Oscar J. Curley 
George Danek 
Fred P. Danzer§ 
David DeBarge§ 
Vincent Delvechio 
Dionisios Demitropolous 
Beauford H. Dirks§ 
John Diflfatte 
Charles H. Doolin 
William J. Dupuis§ 
Emanuel G. Eberhardt 
Harvey W. Ellisonf 
Edward E. Evans 
James L. Evans§ 
Michael Evansgt 
Julius Feiges§ 
Stephen S. Filochowski 
Russel A. Fischer 
Henry G. Fritges, Jr.f 

Ignatz Gabryzewskit 
Alonzo F. Gaidos§ 
William J. Gaiser 
Alvin J, Gascoigne 
William Geb§ 
Otto J. Genich 
Lyle L. George 
William F. Gersoude§ 
John A. Geyer 
Hilmar H. Giortz 
Svend V. Gjellerup 
Barney J. Gramsf 
Lieut. J. Gi'ant§t 
Norman Gross f 
Roscoe P. GuilbertS 
Frank C. J. Haase§ 
Arthur E. Hader 
Carl E. Hanson 
Hans C. Hanson 
Harry E. Hanson 
Ephraim F. Hansong 
Alvin E. Haumersen 
Charles J. Haumersen 
Howard F. Hauptt 
Leonard J. Heimes 
James O. Hayes t 
Emanuel Helfmanf 
Henry J. Hemm 
Lawrence Hendricksont 
George F. Herbst 
Harry J. Herzog 

Robert Hetli 
Clarence C. Hill§ 
Frank J. Hilt 
George Hindlet 
Adolph M. Hoffman 
John F. Hoffman t 
Stanley D. Howr 
John I. Hoytt 
Madison R. Hughcst 
Josef Hwalisz 
John H. Hubert 
Paul W. Intast 
Julius J. Jacksont 
Henry W. Jacobson 
Otto Jandl 
Charles Janechy 
Clarence Jensen 
Walter L. Jensen 
Raleigh L. Jerstad 
George Johnsont 
George Johnson 
Nels M. Johnson 
Holgia Johnsont 
Roy A. Johusong 
Peter W, Johnsont 
Christ R. Johnson§ 
Howard C. Johnson 
Ellsworth O. Jones 
George R. Jonest 
Owen P. Jones 
John Jorgenson 



George E. Juneo§ 
Clarenco Kaestiier 
Joseph F. Kaiser 
William E. Kaiser 
Clarence Kaltenbacli 
Robert A. Kamraien§ 
Anton KaMaryck§ 
Moses Kevorkian t 
Earl L. Kinner 
John Kolodziezvkt 
Albert J. Housek 
Paul Kristopeit 
Aupiist A. Kristopeit 
Arthur J. Krueger 
M. Kubelikg 
Ludwig T. Kuehl§ 
Charles E. Laffertvt 
Peter W. Lahr 
AValter E. Larson 
Alexander H. G. Last 
Lyle W. Lewis§ 
Edward J. Linn 
Josejih Lisuzzot 
Tlieodore D. Lorentzen§ 
Constant Looseveltt 
John W. Luker 
Walter J. Maas 
Charles C. Mackeyt 
Jacob P. Madsen 
Flovd Magnan 
Mitchell J. Malouf 
Fred H. Mandrey 
James S. Marsh t 
Jacob O. Mauer 
Fred T. Maxted 
Franklin X. McCormick§ 
Lieut. C. McGrawSt 
William McNicol 
Paul O. Meyer 
Peter J. Menden 
George H. Miller 

William Miller§t 
Edward C. Milstead 
Demetrius Mischuk§ 
Peter E. Mogensim 
Robert E. Mokracikf 
Edward R. Mross 
Hugh A. Munn 
John J. Murphy 
\V it Iter Mogeuson§ 
Samuel Mnrmino§ t 
.i»*thnr XaleidS 
Clarence Naugherf 
t rank Nelson 
Godfrey M. Nelson 
Leslie H. Nelson 
Sieger A. Nelsout 
Louis N. Nelson 
Victor P. Nelson 
Ward C. Nieldg 
Frank J. Nowakt 
(xeorge H. Nullert 
Peter Oblsikev 
Vitto Oddot 
Arthur F. Olson 
Earl L. Olson 
Sidney H. Olson 
Joseph H. 01iver§ 
Joseph Orzelt 
John B. Ourent 
Valdemar Ove§ 
Willis J. Parks§ 
Walter L. Pawlakf 
Al L. Perkins 
Olaf Petersen? 
Peter E. Peterson 
Vigo Peterson 
Mark M. Piel 
Louis F. Pierce 
Zymund Piotrowski 
Tony Piazza 
Paul C. Poulson 

Edward Pvardt 
Edward Pytlak 
Edward H. Rapps§ 
Arthur Rattle 
Mason C. Roberts 
Alphonse J. Roberts? 
Charley J. Rockief 
William B. Rogahn 
Ti-ipon Roman§ 
Benjamin Rnset 
Joseph Uuffalo§ 
Tomothy J. Ryanf 
Joe Sadoski 
Charles J. Salakg 
George Salak§ 
Harry J. Sanders § 
Ernest H. Sawyert 
Elmer J. Sbertolit 
Paul Sehlosser 
Irving Schlevensky 
Fred W. Schwarzt 
William Schroederf 
George Seater§ 
David R. Semmes 
Harold W. G. Shaw§ 
Ijewis C. Shaw§ 
John Sheehyt 
August W. Skow 
Clarence L. Smith 
Dewev D. Smith 
Lyle F. Smith§ 
Frank L. Snowdonf 
Kostek Sobeilarski 
Paul W. Sommerst 
Christ C. Sondergard 
Peter C. Sorenson 
Oscar Sorensont 
Oscar L, Sorenson 
Martin Sorenson? 
Reuben R. St. Louisf 
George M. Stiglbauert 

Eward W. Stilb 
Rov N. Stream 
Evald P. Strand? 
Ronald Stauss 
M'illiam J. Svoboda 
William T. Taylorf 
Soren Thiesen 
Norman A. Thomas 
Iren C. Thomas 
Charles M. Thomet 
Joseph M. Thome 
Walter B. Tomlinson 
Alviu T. Troestler 
George M. Trotterf 
Gerhard A. Voss 
Ernest E. Voss? 
Harry W. Vosst 
F. Van Wie? 
William R. Wadewitz 
George E. Wagner 
John C. Wartnert 
Andrew N. Wellsf 
Carl A. Wendt? 
Harry E. Wherry 
Verne Whitneyt 
Oscar Wilket 
Walter G. Williams 
William W. Williamsf 
Vernon J. Willetf 
Boleslaw \\'ilczekt 
Elmer Wilson 
William Wilson 
John Wisnieskit 
Edwin J. Wiset 
McQueen S. ^\'ightmant 
David L. Woulfet 
Ernest E. Wrixtong 
Joe Yerkes 
Frank Yilek? 



BATTERY F, 121st F. A. 

TO Battery F, 121st Field Artillery, 32nd 
division, belongs the distinction of be- 
ing the only combat unit recruited exclu- 
sively in Racine to see action in France. It 
was composed entirely of volunteers who en- 
listed after the outbreak of the war with Ger- 
many. As a part of the Thirty-second division 
it participated in the great offensives desig- 
nated as the Aisne-Marne, the Oise-Aisne and 
the Meuse-Argonne, and also spent two months 
in defensive warfare in Alsace. It lost three 
men killed in battle, seven dead from disease 
or accident, and thirty wounded. Ninety men 
were seriously enough ill to require treatment 
at a field or base hospital at one time or an- 
other. In addition to supporting the infantry 
of the Thirty-second division in three offen- 
sives, Battery F also supported at various 
times the Third, Seventy-ninth, Twenty-eighth, 
Eighty-ninth, Ninetieth and Forty-second 
American division infantry units, and the First 
Moroccans of the French army. 

It was in active offensive combat from Aug. 
1 until Nov. 5, with a rest of only ten days 
late in September. Whenever the infantry of 
the Thirty-second division was withdrawn to 
act in support or reserve, the artillery re- 
mained at the front, and assisted other divi- 
sions by sending over showers of high explo- 
sive and gas shells, conducting interdiction 
fire, harassing fire, and destructive fire and 
helping to form creeping or stationai-y bar- 

The early history of Battery F is recounted 
in one of the first chapters of this volume. 
During its service it undei-went many changes 
in personnel. Officers were transferred, pro- 
moted and assigned to other units. Men were 
sent away to officers' training schools, trans- 
ferred to other organizations, and lost by death 
and illness. Usually when a man was sent to 
a base hospital, he had great difficulty in re- 
turning to his old organization. Convalescents 
were sent to replacement camps and foz^ward- 

ed to the divisions which needed men at that 
time. Of the 205 officers and men who left 
Racine for Camp Douglas July 2, 1917, only 
111 men embarked from France for America 
with the Battery. None of the original offi- 
cers were with it. 

In France Battery F was equipped with 155 
millimeter howitzers of French design. There 
were four of these guns and eight caissons 
for each battery, a French fourgon and chariot 
du pare (wagons), an American supply wagon, 
a forge outfit on wheels, a rolling kitchen, a 
water cai't and, usually, a motley collection of 
native carts and carriages picked up in I'uined 
villages en route to carry surplus supplies. 
By the early autumn, however, the number of 
horses had been reduced so by shell fire and 
gas casualties that it was difficult to haul 
the authorized wheeled vehicles. The battery 
was furnished with 220 horses upon arrival 
in France, and had thirty-two left when it 
was taken out of the lines in November for 
lack of animals to pull the material forward. 
These horses were of native heavy stock, all 
mares and stallions, and as they understood 
no English and were inclined to be wild, there 
were some desperate encounters during the 
ti'aining of them. 

The howitzers fired two types of shells, six 
inches in diameter. One was comparatively 
light and sharp nosed, to be used normally for 
ranges of more than 6,000 meters. The other 
was longer and heavier, containing much more 
high explosive powder, and was designed for 
destroying defenses. It was also more ex- 
pensive. The guns could send shells up to 
11,000 meters, and owing to the two weights 
of shell and the fact that the driving charge of 
powder could be varied, the guns were able to 
accomplish many sorts of missions. A heavy 
powder charge and a light shell allowed a 
piece to be fired with a low trajectory like a 
rifle. A smaller powder charge could be used 
for shorter ranges, or to cause the shell to 



take a high trajectory and strike the target at 
a wide angle. This was especially useful in 
firing at objects behind steep hills, and in ob- 
taining deep penetration in the gi'ound. Vari- 
ous sorts of fxises were used to detonate the 
shells on impact, some causing an explosion 
instantaneously and others causing the shell 
to explode in from one-fiftieth to one-fourth of 
a second after striking the ground. In loading 
the gun, a fuse was screwed in the nose of the 
projectile, the projectile was then pushed into 
the breech of the piece, as many small bags 
of powder as were needed were put in behind 
it, and the breech was closed. A primer cart- 
ridge was then inserted in a small hole in the 
breech block. A pull of the firing pin lever 
then caused the firing of the primer, which 
ignited the powder and propelled the shell to 
its destination. When desired, time fuses 
could be used which would cause the shells to 
explode in the air at a certain distance from 
the gun. 

Each ho^vitzer was hauled by four pair of 
horses on the road. Three pair were used on 
each caisson, and one or two pair on the other 
carriages. A driver was mounted on the near 
horse of eath pair. Non-commissioned officers 
and officers were mounted when there were 
enough animals. The gun crews marched be- 
hind their respective pieces, one of them being 
in charge of the brakes. In the zone of the ad- 
vance carriages generally kept fifty yards 
apart for safety, but on crowded roads it often 
was deemed wise to close up to keep other 
organizations from getting between sections 
and splitting the units. 

In action guns were concealed as much as 
possible under nets of camouflage material, or 
beneath branches of trees. The men dug pits 
neai'by for shelter from shell fire, and when 
not at their guns occupied shelters or dug 
caves which would protect them from bullets 
and shell splinters. It was impossible to con- 
struct shelters in a few hours which would 
save them from the effects of a direct hit by a 

Gas shells were used by the enemy in large 
quantities to harass the artillery. Battery F 
men worked their guns many times for hours 
while wearing the cumbersome and oppressive 
anti-gas masks provided for their protection. 

The battery fired 3,468 shells during their 
training period, and 10,876 against the enemy. 

During its entire period of service it had a 
record remarkable for its character. The bat- 
tery was composed of enthusiastic, patriotic 
young fellows who were anxious to do their 
duty in every respect. There were few cases 

of court martial, and these wei-e for offenses 
which would be considei-ed trivial by a civilian. 
It accomplished every mission assigned to it, 
never received an official rebuke and was 
praised several times for its efficient work in 
battle and elsewhere in France. Its morale 
was of the highest and there was practically 
none of the internal dissensions which marked 
many military organizations. 

Battery F left Racine on July 2, 1917, for 
Camp Douglas. It was selected to precede the 
regiment to Waco, Tex., and spent a month 
there as a detached organization, awaiting the 
arrival of the rest of the troops which were to 
constitute the Thirty-second division. It was 
intended for a light field artillery battery, but 
after being variously classified as light, heavy, 
horse-drawn and motorized artillery, it be- 
came heavy horse-drawn field artillery. It had 
some drill with 3-inch guns at Camp Mac- 
Arthur, but most of the time there was spent 
in foot drill and simulated gun drills, using 
logs to represent guns. It was equipped with 
rifles and had some practice on the range. 
There was an anti-aircraft machine gun section 
in each battery. 

With the rest of the division it underwent 
the misery of blistering weather, terrific dust 
storms, practice marches and deferred hopes 
at Camp MacArthur. It was ready for over- 
seas service by Dec. 1, 1917, but lack of trans- 
ports kept most of the army in America. By 
•January, 1918, it was announced that the 
ships were available. 

About the first of the new year the division 
started to entrain for Camp Merritt, N. J., 
to embark for France. Battery F left Waco 
on Feb. .5, arriving at New York three days 
later. After some delay due to quarantine and 
shortage of vessels, the regiment embarked on 
March 3 on the U. S. S. Leviathan, formerly 
the Hamburg-American liner Vaterland, and 
arrived at Liverpool 6 days later without see- 
ing an enemy submarine. From Liverpool the 
regiment was transferred by rail to a camp 
at Winnel Downs near Winchester, England; 
thence to Southampton and across the English 
channel to Havre. After a few days in the 
rest camp at Sanvie, near Havre, the men en- 
trained again and were taken to Camp de Coet- 
quidan, at Guer, France, where for two months 
the artillerymen studied gunnery, fired on the 
range and learned everything which their 
French instructors could teach them about the 
15.5 mm howitzer and the science of trench and 
field warfare. On June 8 Battery F, with the 
rest of the regiment, entrained with guns and 
horses and equipment, for Belfort, from which 
































































































































































































































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city they marched to Ettonfont-le-bas, near 
the Alsatian frontier. On June 11 tlie batter- 
ies were formed in eschelon — guns and cais- 
sons in position to fire, horses and drivers bil- 
leted in nearby towns and the reserve drivers, 
cannoneers, supply wagons, etc., remaining in 
the rear at Ettonfont. 

This method of escheloning was generally 
followed throughout the war to avoid needless 
risk for men not actually engaged in handling 
the pieces, although at times it was not possible 
to withdraw the rear eschelon entirely from 
the danger zone. 

The firing battery was near the village of 
Bretton, across the frontier and well into Al- 
sace. Later on it moved about two miles fur- 
ther east where it was in active support of the 

While the regiment was at Camp de Coetqui- 
dan. Battery C, of Racine and Battery E of 
Green Bay were assigned to duty at officers' 
training camps in France and did not rejoin 
the organization until the conclusion of the 
armistice. The regiment, therefore, had only 
four batteries at the front — A, B, D, and F. 
The Second battalion consisted of D, and F 
batteries and as the battalion was the tactical 
unit at the front they were always together. 
Its battalion commanders were, in turn, Maj. 
George W. Rickeman, Maj. E. V. Cook and 
Maj. Kane. Capt. Haight of Racine was bat- 
talion adjutant and Lieut. Roscoe Guilbei't of 
Racine was battalion telephone officer. Bat- 
talion headquarters was generally between the 
firing batteries in action. Regimental head- 
quarters was usually from half a mile to a 
mile or more to the rear, near the battery 
eschelons and connected with the battalion 
headquarters by field telephone lines. The fir- 
ing batteries were from half a mile to a mile 
and a half back of the front infantry lines, ac- 
cording to the movements of the infantry. 

On June 14 Battery F, fired its first shot at 
the enemy, and from that time on indulged in 
fairly frequent "shoots" at the German trench- 
es. On June 30 a heavy barrage fire was laid 
down by the entire divisional and French sup- 
porting ai'tillery, for on that evening the in- 
fantry made a raid on the opposing trenches. 
All branches received high praise for the man- 
ner in which the maneuver was conducted. Al- 
though the Battery, and especially its advanced 
observing pai-ties, were under fire in this area 
several times, there were no casualties. For 
various reasons this sector was immune from 
serious battles or attempts by either side to 
gain territory. These reasons were partly 
topographical, but mainly political. 

Training under actual field conditions having 
been completed the division was withdi'awn. 
The artillery entraining at Belfort on July 24, 
arrived the next day at Ormoy-Villers. From 
there the command marched to Pont St. Max- 
ence, presumably for a week's rest. 

At this time the German drive toward Paris 
had finally been stopped near Chateau-Thierry 
by American and French troops and a counter- 
offensive begun. It was decided to hurl all 
the available strength of American arms into 
the fray to relieve the war-wearied French 
troops and the two divisions of Americans who 
had forced the Germans across the Marne. 

On twelve hours' notice the Thirty-second 
division started for Chateau-Thierry July 27. 
The artillery brigade marched the 92 miles in 
four night marches, without losing a man or 
horse, a truly remarkable performance. The 
men became terribly fatigued, often walking or 
riding for miles while sound asleep. They car- 
ried full packs and rifles and only the drivers 
were allowed to I'ide, as it was essential that 
the horses be saved as much as possible. The 
men slept in fields and woods when halted, 
seldom taking time to pitch their shelter tents. 

Arriving at Chateau-Thierry the division 
was put in action at once in the effort to drive 
the German invaders out of the territory re- 
cently conquered, and insure the safety of 
Paris, Rheims and numerous railroads and ave- 
nues of communication of the Allied armies. 
A month before the fortune of the Allies had 
been at its lowest ebb, and only the magnifi- 
cent stand of the newly arrived Americans at 
the Marne had lent hope to the sadly harassed 
armies of Foch. 

Battery F moved daily trying to keep in 
touch "with the infantry, which ignored all prec- 
edents by pushing forward constantly, re- 
gardless of the success or failure of units on 
the flank. While the artillery often was left 
behind in these rushes, it gave all the assist- 
ance needed and was able to neutralize and 
out-shoot the foe, most of whose cannon were 
kept on the roads ti-ying to escape capture. 

On July 30 the divisional infantry engaged 
in a bitter hand to hand fight for the wood of 
Grimpettes, and on the following day had 
cleared the foe from its environs. They neared 
Cierges, which lay in a valley. The Germans 
filled the town with mustard gas during a 
severe bombardment. After fierce fighting 
there, the Americans went around the town, 
captured or crushed the machine gun nests on 
the heights to the north, cleared out the woods 
of Joublets and on the 1st of August had ad- 
vanced until thev confronted Reddv Fai'm and 



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Hil! 230, both strong points of resistance. On 
the first assault the 32nd division infantry 
gained both positions, capturing many prison- 
ers. When Battery F moved forward past 
Reddy Fai'm the artillerymen found the ground 
literally covered with human corpses, and car- 
casses of German horses. Grain fields had been 
mowed down by machine gun fire and every- 
where were strewn rifles, grenades, helmets, 
and equipment of the fleeing foe. 

On the afternoon of August 1, Batteries D, 
and F, undei-went their first direct attack from 
the air. Four German aeroplanes swooped 
down on them near the village of Fresnes and 
poured a stream of machine gun bullets along 
the column. Some of the missiles passed be- 
tween carriages but not a man was wounded. 
Not a soldier left his position in column, and 
by the time the first plane reached the head 
of the column the four machine guns mounted 
on the caissons were firing on it, and the can- 
noneers and drivers kept up a hot rifle fire 
against the aerial raiders. It was believed 
that the leader of the squadron was wounded. 
Anyway, he darted away from the vicinity of . 
the road and the other fliers followed him back 
toward the German lines. This was the first 
of many similar attacks. In some instances the 
aviators would drop grenades or bombs on the 

For six days the indomitable infantry 
crawled and ran and shot and bayoneted its 
way northward through Cohan, and Dravigny 
and the hilly ground north of Saint Martin, 
manoevering where necessary, flanking when 
cleverly concealed machine gun nests foiled 
frontal attacks — but always gaining, always 
fighting, never giving their sorely harassed 
foes a chance to reform their lines or establish 
firm positions. The one road into the sector 
was jammed by traffic, covered with mud and 
debris, subjected to fire from guns on the 
gi'ound and aviators overhead. Finally the in- 
fantry got to Fismes and the valley of the 
Vesle and on Aug. 4, with assistance from the 
artillery, they forced their way into the village 
and after house to house and hand to hand 
fighting there for nearly two days drove the 
last of the living invaders across the Vesle 
to their old lines on the heights beyond. 

Battery F had its shai'e in the attacks. It 
had several casualties, William Weiss being 
killed and sixteen wounded, and it lost some 
thirty horses by shell fire. Remaining in 
"Death Valley," a mile south of the Vesle for 
nearly three -weeks it undei^went the discom- 
forts of constant bombardment, poison gases, 
aeroplane attacks and the pi'esence of the sick- 

ening odors of the battlefield. One gun was 
put out of action by shell fire on Aug. 19. 
During- this period the battery eschelon was at 
Cohan and regimental headquarters at Dra- 

Although the infantry crossed the Vesle 
river occasionally on successful raids, it was 
seen that the German positions there were too 
strong for immediate capture, and the high 
command decided upon a flanking movement, 
which proved successful. The battery was 
withdrawn from the sector on August 23, 
moved in long marches around west of Sois- 
sons, and after a brief halt in the woods of 
St. Etienne was sent north across the Aisne 
river, from where an assault was launched 
toward Juvigny In an easterly direction. The 
tactics of a month before were repeated and 
again the Americans, aided by the First Mo- 
roccan division of the French army, drove the 
Germans back in confusion during a week of 
bloody, hand to hand battling. 

During this campaign Battery F's eschelon 
was at Hors, the firing battery moving first 
to Epagny, where it was under fire for a day 
and night in a wooded valley, and then ad- 
vanced to a ravine a mile or so from Juvigny. 
Here it -was under severe fire from aeroplanes, 
enemy machine guns, rifles, and ai'tillery, a 
sudden falling back of the infantry putting 
the battery within a few hundred feet of the 
front line of the infantry. Both F and D bat- 
teries suff^ered many casualties in this posi- 
tion, which was the most exposed of any held 
during the war. Battery F lost Corporal 
Harold Kister killed and two officers and 16 
enlisted men wounded and gassed. At no time, 
however, did it fail to provide the firing called 
for, and it received commendation for its work 
at this dangerous position. 

About Sept. 2 the infanti-y captui'ed Juvigny 
in a terrific attack and within another day had 
advanced to Terny-Sorny, and the German lines 
above the Vesle river were now so endangered 
from the flank and rear that they had to be 

Off to the southwest, part of the First Ameri- 
can army had now begun its attack on the St. 
Mihiel salient. The Thirty-second division had 
concluded its job, and was started off to assist 
at St. Mihiel, but later recalled and given a 
ten days', Battery F being at Wassy. It 
seems that the disheartened Germans had 
fled and the Americans nipped off this salient 
without difficulty. Resolved to continue the 
policy of hammering every^vhere and continu- 
ously, the high command sent all reserve 
American forces, including the 32nd division. 
















































































































































































































































into the Argonne sectoi-, west of the Meuse, 
and under the cover of fog and rain they were 
massed there for attack. By Sept. 2.5 Battery 
F was in position near Esne, after a march of 
about a week. The esehelon was near Dom- 
basle in a woods. 

On Sept. 26 the surprise attack was launched 
after a three hour artillery preparation. The 
121st ai'tillery supported the 79th division, oiu' 
own infantry being in reserve during the first 
five days of the Argonne battle. 

The surprise was complete. The artillery 
drove the Germans into their dugouts deep 
under the ground and before they had realized 
the time for attack had come, the American in- 
fantry went over the top on a ten mile front 
and went across the muddy, shell torn fields, 
throug:h the battered barbed wire and into the 
foe's defenses, capturing or killing all the foes 
there. Without a pause, before the German 
artillery could get into action effectively, the 
"doughboys" followed the American barrage 
forward to the slopes of the towering hill 
of Montfaucon. 

This Meuse-Argonne sector had been consid- 
ered as impregnable. The Germans were con- 
fident of it. The French had long ago given up 
hope of its recapture. The latest feat of the 
Americans aroused the greatest enthusiasm 
throughout France. 

The territory was barren, bleak and desolate. 
No Man's Land was a torn and forbidding 
sti'etch, containing the mud encrusted bones of 
thousands who had died during the attack on 
Verdun in 1916. Barbed wire guarded the en- 
tire front. The German trenches were deep 
and perfectly built and maintained. 

In the rear of the trenches was a long 
stretch of rolling country, filled with treacher- 
ous gullies and spotted with patches of woods 
and underbrush which offered perfect conceal- 
ment for machine guns and artillery. Rail- 
roads brought supplies to the Germans at all 
points along the line. 

When the Americans advanced they had to 
build roads to bring their supplies foi-ward. 
They encountered mines and man traps. There 
was little drinking water obtainable. They 
were harassed at every step by aeroplanes 
and long range artillery. 

Battery F, with the other artillery moved 
forward day by day. The men were undaunted 
by lack of food, water, clothing and supplies. 
Near Montfaucon the Battery's machine guns 
assisted in bringing two aeroplanes to earth. 
The ar-tillery work itself was magnificent. 
Again the men were under fire for days at a 
time and suffered numerous casualties, includ- 
ing Nick Garski killed and five men wounded. 

From Montfaucon the battery moved to 
Eclesfontaine, and on October 25 again went 
forward to Roniagne, where it assisted in the 
general offensive on Nov. 1. On Nov. 5 the 
number of horses having been so reduced by 
shell fire as to make rapid advances impossible, 
and the end of the war being in sight, the regi- 
ment was withdrawn to a position in reserve, 
and three days later started back to Bussy, 
near Bar le Due, to be motorized. It was en 
route there when the armistice was signed. 

Battery F participates in the numerous cita- 
tions in praise of the 32nd division and its 
members can be proud of an unblemished and 
honorable record during the historic days. 

The battery remained at Bussy until Dec. 
22, and entrained at Revigny for Dumont, and 
from that point marched to Rozieres where it 
went into camp and received motor equipment. 
It was assigned to the 88th division temporari- 
ly for maneuvers and drill. With the rest of 
the Fifty-seventh brigade it left April 15, 1919, 
for Brest and sailed April 30 for Boston on the 
U. S. S. Geoi'gia. The battery was mustered 
out at Camp Grant, 111., on May 19, 1919, and 
entrained for Racine in a body, with Battery C 
and the rest of the 121st Field Artillery regi- 

Despite numerous changes in personnel dur- 
ing the war, a fairly complete roster of officers 
and men of Battery F has been preserved 
through the foresight of First Sergeant Max 
J. Zirbes. The names in it include casuals and 
replacements who may have been members for 
only a short time. In the following list on page 
244 the ones who were wounded, gassed or shell- 
shocked are designated by a (*), and fui-ther 
details regarding the Racine men are in their 
individual records in another chapter. Those 
who were killed, died of wounds or died of 
disease are designated by a (d) before their 





























































































































































































































Captains — James W. Gilson, Alvin A. Kuech- 
enmeister, Louis J. Hofnian. 

First Lieutenants — Hugo A. Rickeman, 
^Walter L. Haight, Oscar Frings, Charles E. 
Laft'erty, -Richard T. Bennett, E. O. Blair, 
Joseph S. Nelson. 

Second Lieutenants — Harry C. Stearns^ 
George H. Wallace, Ward R. Griffing, Oscar 
Frings, Fred G. Kendall, Robert E. Graewin, 
John Mulder, Ii-ving K. Fearn, R. B. W^arden» 
Ralph Beaudry, '''Carlton L Austin, Joseph S. 
Nelson, W. E. Howell, W. D. H. Rodiquez, R. 
A. Jacobson. 

Enlisted Personnel 

L. W. M. Amborn 
Otto Anderson 
C. R. Baggeson 
L, J. Bastian 
C. P. Baumstark 
T. R, Beach 
S. M. Bensinger 
Erail Bidstrup 
d Menzo J. Bixljv 
W. F. Boden 
H. E. Brinknian 
W. J. Brunker 

* E. B. Baldwin 
Fred Bauman 
R. J. Baumstark 
Alois Bell 
Einer Bei'tleson 
I. E. Blish 
Ralph Bragor 
Leonard Borchardt 
H. K. Bi-uner 

C. J. Busch 

* Joseph Chadek 

C. P. Christensen 

H. C. Christensen 

Daniel Chubb 

K. J. Collier 

W. C. Curtiss 

Walter Czarnerki 
d Guerino Caselliui 
d Enricho Chiurri 

H. M. Dale 

H. W. Dawson 

F. De ^'icola 

Clvde Dillman 

X.' M. C. Due 

A. R. Christensen 
H. W. Christensen 
V. D. Christofferson 
C. P. Clemmensen 
E. L. Corrie 

B. Czacharowski 
David Cilley 

* C. AV. Colbert 
Boleslaw Danis 
Louis Demant 
W. A. De Young 

^ Stanlev Dorka 
John il. Duffv 
E. F. Eagle 

* A. H. Ellefson 
A. M. Elliuger 
Elmer Erb 
Arthur England 

* P. J. Ebben 
Henry Ellefson 
Wm. Enghind 
Oscar Evans 

d Gilbert O. Evans 
John Fachko 
J. L. Farlev 
J. C. Fladseth 
Edward Frayer 
A. J. Fritch 

C. Filla 

* J. L. Farlev 

H. W. Fish 
Otis Ford 

Oscar Frings 
C. K. F'ullerton 
R. J. Gallagher 
Edward Gierhart 
W. M. Grady 
John Guelnianson 
Stefan Gurska 
Nick Garski 
R. J. Gatskiewicz 
John Gilday 
P. T. Granger 
John Gulbrandson 
Julius Gutawski 
G. Gioniomio 
Christ Hansen 

F. H. M- Hansen 
Xels P. Hansen 
Peter Hanson 
Leo F. Harter 

A. H. Haumerson 

G. J. Hebert 

J. H. Heusdens 
Charles Holmes 
Stanley Hood 
Jack Hubert 
Bartle Humble 
Joe Hwalisz 
Emerv Hanson 
Carl R. Henry 

. . . Holmes 
Hans P. Hansen 
Harold Hanson 
Victor Hanson 
Roy E. Harter 
Wm. H. Hayman 
R. L. Hertfeldt 
J. H. Hoag 
John V. Hood 
ilartin Horner 
Sexton Hultberg 
H. F. Huss 
John Hyduke 
John Hoyt 
Carl E. Hanson 
Joe Janecky 
Anton Jensen 
Christ Jensen 
J. J. Jirush 
Peter Jacobson 
Harry Johnson 
Franic A'. Jones 
Stanley Jembrzycki 
Arthur Jensen 
Marius G. Jensen 
Arthur C. Johnson 
ilelvin Johnson 
Edgar Johnson 
Ray W. Jones 
James Kahn 
C. A. Keeshan 
L. O. Klandrud 
P. X. Knudson 
Harold Kister 
Stephen Kikosiecki 

Wm. R. Krueger 
W, F. Kuehnemann 
W. H. Kannenberg 
A. J. Klandrud 
H. P. Knudson 

* Walter Kobierski 
Arthur Kindschy 

* H. J. Kreyche 
Antoni Krusienski 
Arthur W. Kwapil 
Oliver C. Lange 

C. E. Levers 
Vincent Lewandowski 
Frank Lomasky 

* F. H. Layton 
Geo. Levinson 
H. E. Lorenzen 

D. J. Manwaring 
W. C. Martin 
Viggo ilatson 
Herman JIattice 
Arthur Miles 

F. P. Mohrbacker 

E. J. C. Moritz 

* Otto Musiel 

* J. E. McMillan 

* A. G. Markison 
V. J. Maskiewicz 
Peter Matson 
Jack R. Melvin 
E. J. Mischke 

A. H. Morgan 
Albert F. Murray 
d C. L. Maroney 

* Hugh Nichols 
Einer Nelson 

* Knute M. Nelson 
Ray J. Nichols 
Ed, Nelson 
George A. Nelson 
Charles Nesetril 
J. R. Norgard 
Chester Olson 
Paul R. Olson 
Clarence Olson 
Frank R. Orton 
Peter Palleson 
Charles Pederson 
A. J. Peterson 
Axel Peterson 
George W. Peterson 
Thorwald Peterson 
Einer Peterson 
Nick Pamelas 
Edgar Perkins 
Arthur Peterson 

* Carl A. Peterson 
Richard R. Peterson 
Alf N. Pederson 

C. J. Rasmussen 
W. M. Roberts 
C. R. Rowland 
Ravmond Russell 
Harold Rush 
Edward Roberts 
A. R. Roskilly 

John P. Riietz 

George Rybacek 

Thos. Rakusek 

E. E. Sanville 

Oscar E. Scheel 

E. A. Scholz 

E. F. Schowalter 

Joseph Schweitzer 

H. L. Seguine 

H. O. Silverness 

Harry L. Smith 

Louis E. Sobota 

E. C. Sorenson 

A. G. Spillum 

Stephan Staszewski 

Arthur E. Stindle 

T. G. Sullivan 

Jolin Sakowski 

John Stnigala 

H. P. Saugman 

P. A'. Schoenning 

Alfred Schommer 

Fred A. Schultz 

W. H. Sedlar 

E. R. Septon 

Frank D. Smith 

Stanley J. Smith 

J. C. Sonenson 

W. A. Sorenson 

G. W, Springer 

C. O. Steffenson 

Jos. Striekfaden 

Jul van Szkudlarek 

.... Skzyp 

Andrew Sorenson 

A. O. Tandrup 

Elmer E. Therv 

Cecil S. Thorpe 

H. P. Tommerup 

H. B. Taylor 

Henry A. Thompson 

Joseph Tobako 

Joel Tomter 

Joseph Ulicki 

John L^sik 

George Van])irr Wal 

C. A. Voelker 

.... A''ranich 

Peter Verbeten 

A. Van Sickle 

L. AV. AVawrzynkewicz 

Adolph White 

J. A. AVilson 

William Weiss 

Earl T. AVilson 

Joseph Webber 

A. L. AVilson 

Felix AVysocarski 

A''incent AVasiak 

Milton W. Youngs 

Larry J. Zachar 

Edward Zika 

Max J. Zirbes 

Fi-ank Zielinski 

Alex Zilla 

Edward Zlevor 

In addition to the men noted above as ha\'- 
ing been wounded seriously enough to require 
treatment at a field hospital or base hospital, 
many others suifered slight injuries which 
were treated at the first aid stations without 

requiring absence from duty. About seventy- 
five men also Avere sent to base hospitals be- 
cause of illness. The majority of the cases of 
illness were reported after the armistice. This 
is partly due to the fact that during action, 



Photos by Wright and Maj. Rickeman 


At the top, getting mail at Camp Doug^las. next to top is sh ^wn the battery lined up in its eompany street; nest below, 
the famous "pa jam a parade;" washing up (^ante-cootie days) ; line of "mushroomed" tents — furled for inspection; waitinR 
for "chow" supplies. At top, right (in France) one of the 155 mm. guns of the Racine unit; Captain Hofman and a re- 
connnitering party; ready for the "feed bag;" on the road to the front. At end. chow time at Camp Grant — home again. 



soldiers seldom would ask to be relieved from 
duty as long as they felt able to stand up. 
Living in the open air during a comparatively 
warm season of the year may also have con- 
tributed to the low sick record in the war. 
It is a fact, however, that there were numerous 
cases of dysentery in all combat organizations 
from July 1 to November. The army head- 
quarters physicians ascribed this to the un- 
sanitary conditions of the battlefields, the mil- 
lions of flies and other insects, the poor water 
supply, eating of canned or preserved food al- 
most exclusively and the fact that hardly a 
day passed when the tired, hungry men did not 

get wet through from the autumn rains. Colds 
were infrequent. Presence of poison gas 
caused a considerable proportion of men to 
have husky voices for weeks at a time. Very 
frequently a man would get quite badly burned 
by sitting or lying where a mustard gas shell 
had exploded and left some of the poisonous 
contents on the ground. There was no typhoid 
fever reported. Pneumonia was the most 
serious illness with which the American army 
in France had to contend, and many of the 
cases of pneumonia developed while crossing 
the ocean in crowded, dark and unheated trans- 


/» MBULANCE Company 127, 107th Sani- 
f-\ tary Train, Thirty-second division, was 
completely organized by the end of May, 
1917, at Racine. It entrained for Camp Doug- 
las, Wis., July 29, and remained there with 
the rest of the Wisconsin National Guard, as 
a part of which it was called Ambulance Co. 
No. 2, W. N. G. It entrained for Waco, Tex., 
Sept. 28, and spent four months in intensive 
drill. During this period it became a motor- 
ized organization, and was given its perma- 
nent designation as a member of the division. 

Jan. 17, 1918, the company entrained for 
Camp Merritt, N. J., preparatory to going 
overseas. On Feb. 7 it embarked on the Trans- 
port Martha Washington and on Feb. 26 dis- 
embarked at Brest, France. After travelling 
half way across France by rail, the unit 
reached its first station at Champlitte and the 
men were billeted in barns and houses and 
began the customary procedure of getting ac- 
quainted with French words and inhabitants, 
and cleaning up the village streets and door- 
yards in accordance with the sanitary regula- 

On March 27, thirteen men and one officer 
were detached and assigned to the Second 
division. On April 4, headquarters were 
moved to Prangey. On May 14 the company 
started for Alsace for its first experience in 
a quiet sector of the front, near Belfort. The 
new station was at Anjoutey. The ambulances 
were put into service immediately caiTying 
sick and wounded men from the front to the 
Belfort hospitals, and the remainder of the 
company were divided into sections which took 
turns serving at dressing stations in and near 
the trenches. On July 21, the Ambulance com- 
pany again received orders to move and trav- 
elled overland to Pont St. Maxence. After a 
few days' rest the company was notified that 
it was to accompany the rest of the division 
to the scene of active operations around Cha- 
teau-Thierry, and on July 27 the command 
reached the Marne river. 

The story of the company's experiences 
from here on has been compiled from "The 
Silver Bugle," the official publication of the 
Ambulance unit. The publishers of "The 
Silver Bugle" very generously granted permis- 
sion for the use of their material, and while 
it could not be reproduced in full the extracts 
presented herevidth will disclose a fairly com- 
plete record of the subsequent experiences of 
this veteran organization: 

"We arrived at Azy about midnight, July 27; 
tired, wet, and hungry. It was too late to find 
billets, so each man had to shift for himself. 
Any space, that was large enough for a man to 
stretch out in, was a bed that night. We were 
too tired to be pai'ticular. The follovring morn- 
ing we were up at 5 A. M. We established our- 
selves in a barn and set up the kitchen. After 
breakfast, we spent our time exploring the 

"The people had fled at the approach of the 
Germans and the big bridge, spanning the 
Marne, was blo\vn up. We had the whole town 
to ourselves and, after our inspection of the 
place, we enjoyed a good svrim in the Marne. 
All day long there was an endless column of 
traffic, going to and from the front. Wounded 
were being transported back in ambulances, 
ti'ucks, wagons, or anything that could be 
drafted into service. All this hustle and 
bustle, this tremendous business end of war, 
and the sight of the many wounded, had a be- 
wildering effect on our imagination, for, it 
must be remembered, we were on the eve of 
going into battle for the first time ourselves. 

"We were not given a long time to think 
things over, for our machines were called out 
that evening to evacuate from Chateau-Thier- 
ry. At the same time our combat units went 
into the line. The next day, the 29th, three of 
our officers and thirty men went up to establish 
a dressing station. The rest of the men were 
still working on the machines. This trip was 
one never to be forgotten. We went up in 
trucks over roads filled with traffic, passed 



through Chateau-Thierry, and reached LaChar- 
mel about 11 P. M. We were astounded at the 
sights on the way up; — every town was in 
ruins, roads were filled with shell holes, trees 
were cut or blown down, dead horses were 
everyw^here, along the roads and in the fields. 
Salvage of all description wa? strewn about, 
including guns, blood-stained clothes, gre- 
nades, shells, broken wagons, Boche and Ameri- 
can helmets, and every conceivable art,cle tha_ 
is used in modern warfare. In the valleys the 
stench from dead men and horses was unbear- 
able. In the haste of the great drive no one 
had time to bury these unfortunates. 

"We were in La Charniel about fifteen min- 
utes when our artillery opened a terrific bar- 
rage. The big and little guns wei-e all around 
the town and the roar was simply deafening. 
Natui'ally evei'y one was excited, as the Boche 
returned the fire. We had a number of gas 
alarms to make our first night more uncom- 
fortable. We felt sorry for the men in the 
woods and valleys, who were operating our 
guns, for that was where most of the shells 
were falling. But just then we received or- 
ders that we would have to spend the nigM 
in those woods, and establish a dressing sta- 
tion in the morning. Well, what a feeling! 
This was to be our first time under intensive 
shell fire. We said nothing. There was nu 
time to talk. The Boche shelled all nieht and 
w^e had one gas alarm after another. 

"The next morning the shells began falling 
closer and we were very much relieved when 
we received oi'ders to proceed to La Fosse 
Farm, about 2% kilometers up toward the 
front. We were ordered to march in sets of 
twos, about fifty yards apart, so that we 
wouldn't 'all be killed at once!' How consid- 
erate! When we emerged from the woods, we 
beheld a sight we shall never forget. Sti'etched 
out on the field, on both sides of the road all 
the way to La Fosse Farm, was one line of 
guns after another, all firing at once. Hun- 
dreds of them. The noise and vibi'ation was 
terrific ! 

"We arrived at the Farm without mishap and 
found only one building that was not in ruins. 
So here, July 30, 191S, the anniversary of our 
going to Camp Douglas, we set up the first 
dressing station of the 32nd Division in action. 
This Farm was the center of a mass of artil- 
lery, and many German shells, meant for our 
artillei'y, fell uncomfortably close to our sta- 

"As soon as we were set up, our machines 
came to work with us, and for 48 hours we 
worked without let up or sleep. There was a 

steady line of wounded and each one received 
first aid dressings, good hot drinks, and warm 
blankets and was then taken back to a hos- 
pital in the rear. 

"From here we went to Longeville Farm. It 
was during our stay here that Major Bruins 
and Captain Mitten were captured by the 
Germans and did not return to us until Janu- 
ai'y, 1919, at Sayn. When we slept, we slept 
in a barn; but when it rained, we were out of 
luck; as none of the buildings had a roof. It 
rained a good deal here and the mud was often 
a foot deep. There were many graves about 
the place and we buried a few while we were 
there. From time to time we advanced our 
station, as the lines advanced. Captain John- 
ston was placed in command of the Ambulance 
section in place of Major Bruins, who was 
captured at Fismette. 

"The division reached the Vesle and captured 
Fismes and was relieved on the 7th of August. 
We went back to Fresnes for the night, taking 
a different road back, but we soon found that 
all the roads were in a deplorable condition. 
Many graves dotted the roadside and salvage 
of every description was strewn over the fields. 
Fresnes was on our left flank and pretty well 
back, so that we had a good sleep for one night. 

"The afternoon of the 8th we moved from 
Fresnes to Reddy Farm, near Charmery, a 
place captured by our division and full of in- 

"At Reddy Farm, we received authority to 
wear a gold chevron, signifying six months in 
service overseas. Captain Johnston hei-e took 
Major Bruin's place formally and Lieut. 
Schnetz became our commanding officer. Capt. 
Dew was transferred to the supply train and 
Lieut. Rhynerson went to Ambulance Co. 125. 
Lieut. Shaw and Lieut. McCulla joined our 

"On Aug. 24 we moved out of the sector 
to the big forest outside of St. Etienne. We re- 
mained there resting until the 27th, when we 
moved to Vic-sur-Aisne to do evacuation work. 
On Sept. 2 we moved to a huge cave near Tar- 
tiers, and remained there four days adminis- 
tering to the wounded. The work of the am- 
bulance drivers was very difficult and danger- 
ous. No lights were allowed. The roads were 
badly torn up and subjected to severe shell 
fire during the fierce battle for possession of 
Juvigny and Terny-Sorny. 

"The cave was a large one, but at the time 
of our arrival was somewhat congested with 
Moroccan and German wounded. Every pas- 
sage way was littei-ed with wounded men, wait- 
ing for attention. We all set to work imme- 



■Col. Phillip Westfahl, commanding officer of 121st F. A. from the time of its organization as a National Guard Unit 
until July 20. 1918. After being in charge of railway construction works in France nine months he resumed command 
of the regiment and was in command of it when it returned to the United States in May. 1919. The illustration shows 

his wife at his left and his mother at the right. 



diately, cleaned a space in which to place oui 
dressing station, and were soon alleviating the 
congestion. The Boche wounded seemed to be 
very much pleased and anxious to get back to 
an American base hospital. 

"During the night, six inch rifles were placed 
just outside the cave, and at 4:30 the following- 
morning a rolling barrage was commenced. 
These big guns, combined with many guns of 
the 75 m. m. caliber, kept the cave trembling 
vsdth continuous vibration. An ill-timed shell, 
fired from one of the big guns, exploded a few 
feet fi'om the muzzle of the gun, tearing a big 
hole in the ground and wounding several 
Frenchmen. From this we concluded that the 
woods and territory occupied by the Huns, 
where these big shells wei-e landing, was a mod- 
ern inferno. 

"Not many shells were coming our way, until 
one afternoon, when a Boche aviator came over 
and located our batteries. Shortly aftel•^vard 
we underwent a barrage, but our artillery soon 
put the Huns out of action. Some of the Hun 
gas shells landed near the cave, and at one 
time the sneezing gas was so concenti'ated that 
it became almost necessary for us to don our 
gas masks. The usual round of profanity was 
at once meted out to Kaiser Bill, and needless 
to say, many select words of the vocabulary 
were used. 

"Every now and then a Boche plane would 
introduce itself from up in the clouds; then 
our anti-air craft and machine guns would at 
once open fire with a barrage, and Fritz would 
either take a hard bump on good old Mother 
Earth, or immediately get out of range. Men 
would pick up rifles and start pecking away 
and it sure was hot for any Hun who ever 
ventured in this neighborhood. The Allies had 
complete control of the air in this vicinity and 
it was a common sight to see 50 or 100 planes, 
in battle formation, going over to pay their 
compliments to Fritz. 

On Sept. 10 we were on our way out of the 
Soissons sector and went to Sommancourt for 
an 11-day I'est, interspersed with periods of 
drill and practice hikes. From here the out- 
fit drove to Bar-le-Duc and thence to the 
Meuse-Argonne sector, where the final great 
offensive of the war had begun on Sept. 26. 
On the morning of the 28th, the ambulance 
men started out in the darkness for the vi- 
cinity of Montfaucon, captured from th? Ger- 
mans the day before. It was foggy and rainy, 
but by 6 o'clock in the morning it began to 
get light and we could see that the fields and 
roads over which we were going, were fll^d 
with shell holes. After some difficulty, we 

finally came to a place where we had to leave 
the road and cross a shell-torn field which, 
after a short time, led us to another road. 
Here the traffic was so congested that we could 
hardly move. The M. P.'s along the way were 
unable to take care of the traffic and things 
were in an avsrful mess. Finally, after an all 
day struggle, we came to our destination after 

"We were in Very and it was dark and rain- 
ing. The noise of the guns was deafening and 
shells were breaking all around us. Along the 
road were dead horses and broken wagons. 
We were ordered out of the cars and were told 
to hunt shelter. Some of the men crawled into 
a tunnel, which later was found to be a water 
drain, while the others packed themselves into 
a small room and had to stand up the rest of 
the night. Our cars were immediately put into 
action with the 91st division, which, we later 
found out, we were to aid for the next week. 
And they surely needed help. Wounded men 
were lying all around in the rain and mud, get- 
ting no attention, and the next day one of our 
officers and two of our men helped them in 
their dressing station and cleaned up the con- 
gestion in shoi't order. What a relief when 
daylight came. Everyone was tired and 
hungry and welcomed the meal of beans, hard 
bread, and coff'ee which the cooks had prepared 
for us. After this hearty meal, a place for 
our dressing station was found in some dug- 
outs the Germans had made. 

"On the afternoon of October 3rd, we re- 
ceived oi'ders to close our dressing station at 
Very and to proceed farther foi-ward to estab- 
lish another in the tovra of Ivory. In about 
an hour we were packed and ready to move. 
On account of the congestion of the traffic and 
the shelling of the roads in that direction, only 
two machines were sent out at a time, two 
others following at fifteen-minute intervals. 
The distance was only about five kilos but the 
roads were bad. For some distance we were 
obliged to travel over a rough, one-way, plank 
road. After leaving this, we passed through 
the shattered village of Epionville which was 
under shell fire most of the time, and then 
on to our destination. 

"When the first of the cars to be sent out 
reached Ivory, they were greeted by a 'young 
barrage' from a German battery, and, instead 
of being able to look about for a site for a sta- 
tion, all had to take shelter until the firing had 
ceased. The Hun was showing no pai-tiality 
that night, so from here he shifted his fire over 
to the plank roa 1 where two more machin?s 
were being held up by two balky mules. These- 




Ambulance Company 127 returned at the end of May, 1919, after (22) months in service. When they arrived from Camp 

Grant they were met by the town. 


Automobiles, bands, marching men and thousands of spectators participated in the event that amounted to a climax of all 
wartime incidents when the last of Racine's Units came home. 



cars were evacuated in a hurry, and the men 
ran, looking for a place of safety. Some 
crawled into 'fox holes' in an adjoining field, 
while others felt perfectly safe under an ammu- 
nition cart by the road side. After banging 
away for about fifteen minutes, Fritz stopped; 
and these cars, along with the rest of the 
train, reached their destination without further 

"It was growing dark by the time we landed 
and the work of establishing our station was 
made more difficult. Already in the town — 
which, by the way, like all others in that area, 
was pretty well battered up — was the regimen- 
tal aid station of the 126th infantry. They 
were occupying about the best building in the 
place; it had at least a roof over it. We took 
the next best to it — a large, old stone structure 
which undoubtedly had been a French peasant 
home and barn combined. The roof was about 
gone and in many places the walls were shat- 
tered. But we found three fairly good rooms 
on the ground floor. One we used for the 
dressing room; one, for the office and soup 
kitchen; and the other, for a place in which to 
house the patients. In the old barn we set up 
our company kitchen. There was evidence of 
German occupation everywhere, as Fritz had 
moved out only two days before. Luckily he 
left us a few old stoves, so things were made 
fairly comfortable. 

"All work had to be done by candle or lantern 
light, after all doors and windows were well 
blanketed to prevent observation by aeroplanes. 
In about one-half hour, we wei'e all set and 
ready to receive patients. Things were vei-y 
quiet that night on the line, so the regimental 
station was able to care for all casualties. 01 
course our cars were put to work at once, 
evacuating those patients that did come in. 

"After the night detail was appointed, the 
rest of us started to find a place to sleep. 
Scattered about in the old building were many 
bunks that the Germans had used; these were 
immediately taken. Others preferred the .-o- 
called dug-outs, which were only galvanized 
iron tunnel affairs about 5 feet in circumfer- 
ence. These were vei-y safe unless something 
struck them. 

"Our work here, as in other stations, consist- 
ed of re-dressing the wounds; applying splints: 
administering the anti-tetanic serum; and mak- 
ing the patient comfortable with hot blankets, 
hot drinks, and morphine. From here they 
v.'ere transported back in our cars to the field 

"These were dangerous days for ambulances 
and their drivers, as the roads were being con- 

.■^tantly shelled. Soon they were being driven 
forward beyond our dressing station to an aid 
str.tion just behind the line. More than once 
I, he boys had narrow escapes from being blown 
ofi the map. 

'"("'ay after day we went through the same 
routine. One could not keep from feeling more 
or less tired and blue, for ours was not the 
riost cheerful work. But on the third or fourth 
day, things brightened up a lot. The reason 
•vas, that mail came, and we are safe in sayin;; 
Ihat never before nor since were letters from 
home more welcome than they were at this 
time. They certainly helped a great deal. 
Vv hen the work would run light, we had vari- 
ous means of passing the time away. One 
f.ivorite was for a crowd to gather in the 
.station and to discuss, pro and con, the various 
rumors of peace that were then in circulation. 
Another was to have a 'shirt reading contest,' 
the object being to see who could find the 
largest number of 'cooties,' for at this time 
we were all peppered with the pests. On quiet 
evenings our orchestra would liven things up 
with many of the old favorite tunes. 

"It was while we were here that we had our 
first casualty. Private Keefe was injured by a 
fragment of a shell while acting as a litter 
bearer to the line. 

"One thing caused us little worry now and 
that was enemy planes. We were too far for- 
ward for rear area bombing and, anyway, the 
majority of the nights were cloudy and rainy. 
Mud was ankle deep. But during the day we 
saw plenty of aerial activity and many inter- 
esting air battles. 

"Not a day passed during our stay but what 
shells dropped all about us; but luckily, none 
came near enough to do any damage. 

"On the 19th our division was relieved and 
was moved back into support and two days 
later we also went back to a location on the 
road between Very and Avocourt. 

"October 21 dawmed wet, foggy, grey, and 
dismal. Our division had been relieved and 
our company had received orders to move 
toward the rear. After a fifteen kilometer 
journey over the diiliest, muddiest, roads 
imaginable, we suddenly broke upon the wilds 
of Boise de Chappy and dowm into the bottom 
of what we immediately termed 'Muddy Hol- 
low.' No name was ever more adequately 
chosen. It sure was a hollow and it sure was 
muddy. Gobs and oodles of it. 

"Rumor had it that we were to go away 
back and enjoy a 60 or 90 day rest period. But, 
as oft before, we were doomed to disappoint- 
ment! We were told that our division was a 




As to whether this event was idolized or not may be gathereJ from the expression on the face of the "kid" in the front 

row. The thousands on the walks cheered wildly. 


Along Washington avenue the men paraded into the city, the last march they were to make as 
glorious and hard working months they experienced in Europe. 

a unit, after this long. 



fighting unit, nnd that our rest would come 
only when the war was finished. 

"So there was nothing to do but make the 
best of it. Immediately we started in to make 
ourselves at home. Pup tents were pitched 
and each man tried to make himself as com- 
fortable as possible. As usual, the first night 
found Fritz above us, kicking out his tail gate. 
The visit lasted only a few minutes, during 
which Roy Schnetz and 'Skeeter' Bowman 
were awakened out of a sound sleep, but when 
they jumped into a shell hole filled with water, 
they were soon wide awake. 

"On Thursday morning, November 7th, we 
were up at 5:30, taking down our pup tents, 
rolling our packs, and preparing for another 
move. Breakfast was served at 6:30 and by 
7:30 we were bidding Muddy Hollow our last 
fond fai'ewell. The pages of our memory books 
are full of many happy events that befell us 
during our seventeen day sojourn here, and it 
was therefore with a pang of regret that we 
now left behind us the ease and comfort of 
our temporary 'homes' and moved forward to 

"Our stay at Romagne was a short, but 
memorable one. Rumors were flying 'thick 
and fast.' Everybody had a different story to 
repoi't. The vei'y atmosphere was permeated 
with a dynamic, mysterious uncertainty that 
caught and held us all. We all felt that the 
end was near; but how, and when, and under 
what conditions hostilities would cease, wei'e 
the questions and problems for which various 
and conflicting solutions were suggested, and 
in the discussion of which we were all engaged. 
Momentous events were transpiring in the his- 
tory of the world, and the news of most of 
them reached us only through the most devi- 
ous channels. We didn't know whether to be- 
lieve the rumors or not. Hope, fear, belief, 
and doubt were the emotions that swept us 
from the very pinnacle of joy to the very 
depth of despair. Papers reached us only 
once a week and then they were generally a 
week old. But the news they did bring to us 
was most cheerful and promising. Turkey had 
surrendered to the British; the Bulgarians had 
met disastrous defeat at the hands of the Si- 
berians and French; 500,000 Austrians had 
been captured; and Austria and Hungary had 
been forced to surrender to Italy. One calam- 
ity followed another and a very avalanche of 
disaster was sweeping the allied enemies to 
destruction. A revolution had broken loose in 
Germany, the Kaiser had abdicated, the sol- 
diers refused to fight any longer. The dawn 
<d{ a better day was breaking and the dai'kness 

of fear and despair was quickly giving way 
to the brightness of new hope and courage. 

"We felt all this. It was in the air. It 
somehow fastened itself in one's mind and 
heart and just naturally couldn't and wouldn't 
be shaken ofl^. Somehow, someway, something 
was going to happen and that something was 
going to be 'grand and glorious.' But at that 
we weren't prepared for what took place the 
first evening of our stay in Romagne. It 
came so suddenly, and broke upon the dark- 
ness of the silent night with such unexpected- 
ness and force that it swept us right ofl' our 
feet and carried us on the crest of a dangerous 
pre-peace celebration. It was 6:30 on the eve- 
ning of November 7th when the first inkling 
of what was soon to happen, reached us. Out 
of the north it came. From the front of the 
far flying battle line it reached us faintly, at 
fi.rst like the rush of many waters nearer it 
came till it swept over us like a torrent and 
caught us in the ebb of its irresistible flow. 
We had to join in; we couldn't withstand the 
infection of the moment. Lights were lit, flares 
and rockets were sent up, and huge bonfires 
sprang from the surrounding hill sides as 
though set off by some magic wand. Ambu- 
lances, trucks, motorcycles, and limousines 
passed by -i^ath glaring head lights, full aflame. 
The tooting of horns, the blowing of whistles, 
and firing of rifles all broke upon the silence 
of the night. A very bedlam had broken loose 
and the word 'Peace' was on everybody's lips. 
The celebration lasted only about one hour and 
was as abruptly ended as it had been mysteri- 
ously started. We can thank God that it was 
a wet, foggy night and that flares and lights 
were unable to penetrate through the dense 
atmospheric condition to any great extent, for 
had it been a clear, cloudless night we might 
be writing a diff'erent story now. 

"The following morning we found out that 
the previous night's celebration had not been 
without its cause. A German Peace delegation 
had crossed the French line at Hauchory and 
was in confei'ence -with Marshall Foch. This 
was the beginning of the end. 

"November 11th, the day that was to mean 
so much in our lives, came like any other day. 
We awoke after a sleep, uninterrupted by 
Boche bombers, and set about performing our 
vai'ious duties. This was supposed to be the 
'great day,' the day for which we had risked 
all. Our imaginations were dead, and our 
hopes and inclinations to believe in rumors 
were exhausted. In a great stoi-y or play this 
would have been a dramatic scene with every- 
one realizing the full significance of the ocea- 



Phutos by John Hood 


Mr. Hood's pictures show the crowds that started gathering in the streets when the "news" first was heard. Marchers 

with flags, auto trucks, automobile parties and bands of children are shown pouring down State street toward the center 

of the city to swell the howling mobs in the streets. The lower views (right) show Monument Square as impromptu 

parades were forming. These continued until night, growing every moment as the day progressed. 



sion. But this was not a play; it was real — 
too real. The absence of enthusiasm and cheer- 
ing was uncanny, for we had long expected 
that when the war came to an end the greatest 
celebration would be at the front. But the 
shock was too great. So many things had hap- 
pened in so short a time that we were be- 
wildered. Men scarcely spoke. All went 
about their duties like men dumfounded by 
some supernatural event. By noon we knew 
that it was all over but the same silence hung 
over everyone, for men found their physical 
powers too inadequate to express and mani- 
fest the wonderful emotions which they felt 
in their hearts and souls. Thus was this mem- 
orable day spent, each man living to himself, 
with vivid thoughts of home and the future 
occupying his mind to the exclusion of all else. 

"On the 12th we were shaken from our ap- 
parent stupor by orders to proceed to Liny 
Devant Dun. The machines had come in the 
night before after evacuating the last wound- 
ed to the rear, so we had plenty of transporta- 

"We left Romagne at noon and passed over 
the remainder of the territory which had been 
the scene of that now famous battle, the 
Meuse-Argonne. The first town on our route 
was Bantheville where our division had been 
relieved after 21 days of fighting in October. 
Passing by this town we went through Dulcon, 
Dun sur Meuse, and finally to Liny. 

"Our purpose in coming to Liny was to op- 
erate a large delousing plant which the Ger- 
mans had built. The town was partly de- 
stroyed, being one of the last towns reached 
in our advance before the armistice. However, 
this plant showed very little signs of the bom- 
bardment and we found it in a fairly good con- 
dition. The Germans did not have time to 
destroy it, but they did leave the rooms in a 
filthy condition. The whole company set to 
work and in two hours we had the place look- 
ing like a modern auditorium. 

"As now we had passed from the sphere of 
active warfare to the operation of a plant, we 
believe that this unique experience, our first 
post bellum activity, deserves a brief descrip- 

"The delouser was a frame building about 
150 feet long and about 50 feet wide. In front 
was a large porch, in the center of which was 
the main entrance. On either side of this 
entrance was a large dressing room with bench- 
es for the men to sit on and a large stove to 
make them comfortable. Behind these rooms 
was one large room, the entire width of the 
building. Here were the ovens in which the 

clothes were placed to be steamed. On either 
side of the ovens were counters where towels 
and soap were issued as the men passed to the 
rear where there was another large room con- 
taining showers. 

"In fact, each side of the building was the 
same, complete in itself; and each was sup- 
posed to be worked by a separate crew. First 
the dressing room, then the ovens, then the 
showers, after which the men returned by the 
same way; turned in their soap and wet tow- 
els; got their clothing; and entered the dress- 
ing room. 

"In the basement were four large furnaces, 
one for each oven and two for the hot water 
in the showers. 

"Theoretically this was a fine plant but when 
we came to work it the bubble burst. First 
the coil in one furnace sprang a leak, and, when 
that was repaired, another burst. The flues 
of the ovens did not work well and we had to 
give up the idea of delousing the clothes. We 
centered all our attention on the shower baths 
and from then on, till we left, we bathed on 
the average of four or five hundred men per 
day. We had one regiment of infantry and one 
machine gun brigade to clean up. The rest of 
the division was distributed among five other 
bath houses in the vicinity. 

"The work at Liny was not the only interest- 
ing part of our stay. For many months we 
had lived in anything we could find, which was 
usually an old barn, a dugout, a rock pile, or a 
mud hole. Hei'e we were to live in class, not as 
we should have at home; but, nevei'theless, fine 
as compared to what we had been accustomed. 
Most of the houses near the plant had at least 
survived the bombardment. Of course they 
had suff'ered the neglect of four years of war 
during the German occupation, but each had a 
roof and a stove. There were quite a few iron 
beds in the bathhouse and hospital and there 
were few of us who didn't appropriate one of 
these. If there was a billet without a stove 
already in it, we soon supplied the want; for 
each machine carried a stove along for emer- 
gency. This wouldn't be considered the best 
military form in a 'best seller,' but it was con- 
sidered good soldiering around our neck of the 
woods. For many times we had to sleep in a 
hole and our stoves always came in handy. 
The town was searched for every kind of furni- 
ture, kettles, wash pans, tubs, and pails; and 
after the first night we were living fine. We 
could also have lights now as there would be 
no more danger. Hence we did not have to go 
to bed at sunset but could sit up and read, 
write, and play cards. 




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' n R L D WAR 

"Histoi-y is never complete without a word 
about old Dame Rumor. There were only thvee 
rumors afloat at this time. The most impor- 
tant was that we were to delouse our division 
only and then go back to the states. Next in 
line came the cruel rumor that we had to op- 
erate this delouser for the whole first Army, 
which meant a steady job. Last, but not least, 
we were one of the honored divisions to be 
chosen for the Ai'my of Occupation. Nvi one 
believed this first rumor; we hated to think of 
the second; but somehow all felt thnt thoy 
could tolerate the third. 

"It was while we were hei'e that thi- men 
seemed to realize after all that the war wa.-, 
over. The Fifth Division, with whom we 
fought on the last day, came and camped on 
the hills near us. Each man had an individual 
bonfire; and, as there were thousands of them, 
it looked on those dark nights as if some con- 
stellation had fallen from heaven in all its 
glory. Everyone was shooting up their spare 
flares, star shells, and rockets; and it was moi-e 
beautiful than any 4th of July we have ever 
seen. Now and then a great chaser would go 
up from one hill, only to be answered by men 
on another. Everyone was happy beyond de- 

"While hei'e we received the daily papers, 
the things we always longed for and seldom 
received, and read to our satisfaction of the 
Armistice terms. 

"On November 15th, we were told that oui 
work here was finished and that we should pi-e- 
pare to hike to the Rhine, only about 150 miles. 

"We were willing to make the hike for its 
historical value but, oh, how we hated to leave 
our happy homes here. However, we were still 
in the army and orders were orders; so we 
made the best of it. We received orders to be 
ready to move on the 17th. Before going, we 
received the famous Barred Red Arrow as our 
divisional insignia. 

"We went to bed early on the 16th so as to 
get rested up well before starting on our long 
hike. On the 17th we were up bright and early 
with packs all rolled for hiking, but to our 
pleasant surprise we learned that we were to 
ride in our machines. The morning was spent 
in policing up the grounds as usual and after 
dinner we assembled, ready to go. 

"After a wait from 2:30 P. M. until 4:30, 
we finally started on our way. 

"On Nov. 21 we were in Belgium, but had it 
not been for the maps, the flags, and the peo- 
ple along the way, we should not have known 
the difference. Along the road were German 
guns and trucks that had been turned over to 

the Allies. At every stop we would get out and 
examine the cause of so many months of worry 
for us. As we passed through towns, all the 
people were celebrating and Allied flags flew 
from every house. At dark we found ourselves 
in a town called Strassens, just over the bor- 
der of Luxemburg. Here we were told to stop 
for the night. After a little difficulty, we 
found some barns that were none too clean, for 
our sleeping quarters. An hour later the cooks 
had a meal ready for us, stew and coffee. 
After this hearty repast, we found oui'selves 
with nothing to do but visit a cafe or go to bed. 
"We were up at six, with our packs all 
made and waiting for breakfast. After break- 
fast we piled into our trucks, and, after a short 
ride over a very pretty country, we arrived at 
Walferdange. Much to our surprise, we found 
it to be a good sized town where we were to 
stay a week or so. 

"Thanksgiving day fount! us still in Walfer- 
dange. Thanksgiving dinner consisted of 
steaks, potatoes, gravy, tomatoes, bread and 
butter, and pumpkin pie. Considering the ra- 
tion difficulty, we declared it a regular meal 
and did justice to it. 

"Passes were issued for a visit to the city of 
Luxemburg. German souvenirs were in de- 
mand and the Luxemburg merchants did a 
wonderful business. If one had the necessary 
mai'ks, he could procure a regular meal in the 
Luxemburg hotels and restaurants. Chocolate 
was the scarce article, a small piece selling for 
the sum of 18 Francs. So one had to be pretty 
well 'heeled' if he desii'ed to satisfy his sweet 

"On Dec. 13th we crossed the Rhine and 
reached the tovvri of Urmitz on the west bank 
of the river. 

"At 2 A. M. on December 14, we arrived at 
the town of Weis and were told that this was 
where we were to stay. We parked our cars 
and were shown to our billets which we found 
to be the regular issue of barns and into which 
30 or 40 men were crowded. 

"Of the five days that we spent in this place, 
nothing unusual happened. It was the same 
thing over — setting up exei'cises and hikes. 

"On Thursday, December 19, we were told 
to pack up and be ready to move at 2 P. M. 

"At the appointed hour we were all set and 
piled our packs into the trucks and started on 
our three kilometer hike to Sayn, which was to 
be our destination for some time. 

"We were all settled by the 22nd, when we 
received orders to send a number of men out 
on detached service. The wagoners were sent 
out vifith the machines to operate with the 




At the top is "C" marching to the train on July 2, 1917, below is a demonstration of cleanliness, then the train that took 
"C" to Waco. The next two show the camp at MacArthur (Waco); two "hike" picture are at top. riffht, and below can 
be seen the rookie artillerymen doing a little shoveling near camp. At bottom is a group with heads clipped to represent 
billiard balls. The small views at the top are of Veauxhalles, France (at the left) and a regimental football game at 

Waco, Texas. 



hospitals. Many were sent to various infantry 
outfits in order to transport any sick who had 
to be taken to a hospital. Thirty men wei'e 
sent to Rengensdorf to work with Field Hos- 
pital 127. Later the Y. M. C. A. asked for 
drivers and men to work in the theatre and 
then the Red Cross wanted a few; so by the 
time all the details were out, we hardly had 
enough men left to make a respectable pla- 
toon. Consequently, we had no drill, much to 
the satisfaction of those who were left. How- 
ever, those who remained had a good deal of 
K. P. and guard duty. 

"Next to one of the billets was a bathroom 
with a number of good showers. The Germans 
kept the furnaces hot all the time so we could 
bathe most any time of the day. 

"It seemed that, for once in all our experi- 
ence, we had everything in the town to make us 
happy, or at least comfortable. 

"There was a good theatre, run by the Y. M. 
C. A. Divisional headquarters of the 'Y' lo- 
cated here and in addition a branch of the 
Red Cross. The 'Y' also had a canteen where 
we could buy most anything we wanted. It 
had been a long time since we had been able 
to get chocolate and cookies and we were 
mighty glad to get them. 

"There were plenty of women glad to do our 
washing for a few marks so we were relieved 
of that piece of disagreeable work. 

"Not long after we were there, Divisional 
Headquarters sent out circulars asking that 
each unit furnish some kind of a show to be 
run on a divisional circuit. The various units 
were scattered around in many towns. Thus, 
besides making life easier for the men, the 
show troupes would have a chance to travel 
around and see the different towns. All play- 
ers were taken off details and had nothing else 
to do but practice and show. All together 
there were about 15 different shows traveling 
around and showing at different toviTis once 
or twice each week. 

"The 107th Sanitary Train put out a good 
minstrel show. As our company had a jazz 
band as well as a goodly number of singers 
and dancers, we made up the greater part of 
the show and it took well wherever it went. 
So each day or so after their duties were over, 
the men could look forwai'd to seeing a fairly 
good show and having some good laughs. 
After all the shows of our division had covered 
the circuit, we exchanged with the Second Di- 
vision on our right. Their shows lasted nearly 
up to the time we left Sayn. 

"Saturday, April 19, 1919, was a memorable 
day, for we were told to pack up and start for 

home. It was hard to realize that at last we 
were to return to the United States, and no one 
would really admit believing it until we were 
aboard the battleship Virginia at Brest. 

"The fourteen days spent at Brest seemed 
to us, in contrast to what they might have 
been and should have been, about the most dis- 
agreeable of our army experience. At no other 
place did we see American soldiers given such 
discourteous treatment as at Camp Pantan- 

"Everything possible was done to make our 
enforced stay a hard and strenuous one. When 
we left Sayn it had been reported that no 
longer than four days were to be spent in 
the rest camp at Brest. Well, once more, as 
usual, we established another recoi-d. Again 
we were the 'goats' and fourteen long, weary, 
nerve-racking, laborious days we ground and 
slaved in that camp of physical, mental, and 
spiritual torture. We were on detail all the 
time, day and night. And when it wasn't that 
it was inspection, or bath, or some other such 
bluff that some of these camp 'looies' pulled 
off on us. Oh, they sure had us jumping at a 
lively rate, and we'll never forget the time we 
had there. We did everything fi'om mixing 
cement to building duck-walks, and the last 
day they had us hauling high, heavy sticks of 
cord wood and laying railroad tracks. Oh, yes, 
it was a rest camp all right, but our fingers 
fairly itched to lay hands on the pest who in- 
vented that name. 

"But the grand and glorious day finally 
came; and Wednesday, May 7th, found us once 
more on the move. We were up at 4 a. m., 
rolled our packs, and made ready to leave. 
Had our last bi'eakfast in the old kitchen. No. 
14, at 5:.30. Put finishing touches to our re- 
spective tents, and by 7:20 we lined up per the 
passenger list, and bade our final silent adieu 
to the place that had housed us for the past 
two weeks. 

"The packs were heavy, the way they chose 
was the longest, and befoi'e we I'eached Brest 
we were a tired, worn out bunch. Oh, boy! 
That hike was a terror, and the one thing that 
kept us keyed up was the knowledge that at 
last we were 'homeward bound.' At the pier 
everything worked like clock-work and once 
more the Red Cross was on the job, handing 
out the goods. The .3-3rd Division band played 
us a number of farewell pieces, and the last 
one we heard as we left the harbor in our ship 
was the grand old piece, 'Homewai-d Bound.' 
A 2nd 'Looie' jammed us in that little ship till 
he nearly squeezed the life out of us. But we 
stood for it all without a murmur. We were 




Portable field laundry, nsed by the A. E. F. that was pulled around France by a Case tractor and furnished with power 
for washing by the same Racine machine. This was snapped at Is-sur-Tille by Lt. H. J. Sanders. 


The picture shows American women instructing Asiatics in the operation of a Case tractor which was one of hundreds 

sent to Asia Minor to aid in reconstruction work. 



taking no chances. Naturally we thought a 
lot, but 'mum' was the word and silence 
reigned supreme. In fact the whole trip from 
the Pantanazen Camp to the pier was a silent, 
noiseless, songless one. We were ordered to 
refrain from talking while on the march; and, 
needless to say, we followed instructions. This 
also made our hike seem longer and more 
strenuous, because there's nothing like a song 
to cheer a fellow up on a long, hai'd march. It 
was about 10:45 when we left land and walked 
the first gang-plank into the small vessel that 
was to transport us to the battleship Virginia. 
At 11:30 we walked the plank up the big fight- 
ing sea-dog." 

The ambulance company landed at Newport 
News May 20, and after four pleasant days 
at Camp Morrison, the boys entrained on a 
regular American train with seats and berths 
and windows for Camp Gi'ant, 111., to be mus- 
tered out. This ceremony was completed on 
May 29, and then thirty-five automobiles pro- 
vided by Racine Commercial club members 
brought the boys back to their home towii. It 
was a beautiful day, and the ride was most 
enjoyable. At its conclusion. Ambulance com- 
pany 127 formed ranks for the last time on 
Washington avenue, and under command of 
Major Johnston, marched down to the center 

of town between lines of cheering people and 
were dismissed in the court of honor on Third 
street. It was a happy and fitting conclusion 
of two years of service during the greatest of 
all wars. 

The personnel of the Ambulance company 
underwent numerous changes during its serv- 
ice. A dozen men were transferred from its 
ranks shortly after its arrival at Camp Doug- 
las, owing to an order altering the size of 
various medical units. A large proportion of 
the members, however, remained on its rolls to 
the time of mustering out. Sergeant James 
P. Hawley was lost when the Transport Tus- 
cania was torpedoed off the coast of Ireland 
early in 1918, Private "Jack" Clancy, a lov- 
able lad not yet out of his 'teens, died at a 
hospital near Chaumont, France, Sept. 23, 
191S, of pneumonia, after he had undergone 
two months of service at the front. The com- 
pany lost no men killed in action. Paul Hecht 
and Andy Lang succumbed to illness shortly 
after reaching France. 

Following is the muster roll of the unit just 
before it left Racine for Camp Douglas in July, 

Captain — William W. Johnston. 
1st Lieut. — William J. Hanley. 
1st Lieut. — William F. Salbreiter. 


Stoflfel. Arthur F. J. 
Reis, William 
Barnes. Geo. K. 
Schiilte. Kohert V. 


Hawley, James P. 
Nelson, Eniil 
Zohni. Richard H. 


Reis, FVank 
Mrotek. Gnst F. 
Marck, Joseph A. 


Fuller, Russell A. 
Guilbert, Gordon !M. 
Lange. Carroll E. 
Van Rree. Harold K. 
Williams. Glenn 


Anderson. Frank E. 
Archanibault. Adelbert A, 
Baldwin, Harold C. 
Bax, Lambert 
Behrens. Bernard C. 
Bowman. Herbert J. 
Brown. Herbert E. 
Christensen, Arthur C. 
Christensen. Andrew M. 
Christensen, Herman 
Clancy. John F. P. 
CoUotta. Frank 
Connolly. Robert 
Coutu. H. J. Walter 
Crook, Lester L. 
Daceno, Jack 
Deschler. Howard 
DeVroy. Anthony J. 
DeVroy. Rueben J. 

Doouan. Frank P. 
Durstling, William A. 
Dowding. James A. 
Dyer, William E. 
EUingsen. Adnlph 
Klingsen. Sigw;ill 
Elsen. Albert J. 
Engman, Edward C 
Evers. Henry A.. Jr. 
Evers. John R. 
Falck. Victn- 
FVidle. James C. 
Gavahan, Lawrence 
George. Harry 
Gfroerer. Herbert H. 
Godske, Carlyle E. 
Gnthe. Walter 
Graves, Jay Har ild 
Greene. Guy M. 
Greenman. Sterling: W. 
Hall, Willard C. Jr. 
Hammiller. John 
Hansen. Hans C. 
Hansen, Leo 
Harris. Thomas R. 
Hart, Eugene C. 
Heidenreich, Anthony P. 
Helgeson. Harry C. 
Hill. Ben L. 
Hill. Edward L. 
Hush. William H. 
Hone. Felix, Jr. 
Hecht. Paul 
Jaeobsen. John 
Jaeobsen. Nels E. 
.James, Hiram 
James, John, Jr. 
Jensen. Albert T. 
Jensen, Martin 
Jensen. Thorwald M. 
Jorgensen. John 
Johnson, Finer S. 

•Junkhaui, Oscar J. 
Kaestner. Clarence 
Kasten, Homer 
Kinsler. John W. 
Klippel, Connie B. 
Knoedler, Harold W. 
Kopecky, Paul 
Koprowski, Paul P. 
Kulbacky, Peter 
Kumisco, Konstant 
Kuypers. Geo. Ei 
LaCrosse, Arthur H. 
Lange, Andy M. 
Larsen, Chris. 
Liegler. Fred Dewey 
Lljida. Raimundo 
Lui, Arthur 
Marsch, Peter 
Mav, William 
McElroy, Donald 
McXabb. Walter 
ilcPherson. H. Alexander 
^lencfeldows'ci. Edward A. 
Metten. Louis JI. 
Meyer. Edwin D, 
ilichel, John 
Mitchell, Dean 
Moe. Arthur 
Mullen, Lawrence M. 
Murphy. Edward C. 
Murphy, Jerome E. 
Murphy, Raymond F. 
Mnsil, William 
Xelson, Chester A. 
Xelson, Christ K. 
Nelson, Louis P. 
Xelson. Louis S. 
Xiebler, Edwin M. 
Xovaicky, Gabriel 
Oberg. George 
Olsen. Axel 
Peil, Joseph W. 

Petersen. J. Arthur 
Peterson, Peter 
Piazza, Tony 
Pierce, Louis P. 
Pitsch. Louis J. 
Plummer. William X. 
Po])lowski, Stanley E. 
Prailes. Otto A. 
Quella, Alov B. 
Riee, Joe H. 
Rockei, Charley J. 
Rowley. Burt'in 
Schmidt, Richard F. 
Scholey. Fred A. 
Schnetz. Roy J. 
Sehuit, Nick 
Shevel. Lawrence J. 
Slammon. John J. 
Smollen. Martin T. 
Snyder, Henry D. 
Stagwillo, Ray 
Stankus. Gus. 
Stewart, Lonie C. 
Sugden, Charles B. 
Tarr. Willis W. 
Thelen. Louis H. 
Thompson. Bruno 
Urban, Alvin P. 
Voss, AloT H. 
Waller, William C. 
Weber. Leo M. 
White, Wallace 
Wittey. Albert J. 
Zarzeeki. Joseph 
Zirbes. Allie M. 
Larsen, Neils A. 
Westrich, FVank L. 
Follansbee, Earl D. 
Simpson, Edward G. 
Krelis. Lucas T. 
Weber. Edward E. 
Loehr, Edward G. 


RACINE county men were in almost every 
division of the American army in 
Prance. Some became members of 
tlieir organizations intentionally through en- 
listment; some were in smaller units assigned 
to certain divisions; some were members of 
draft contingents sent to cantonments where 
divisional organizations were being completed, 
and still others were "casuals" or members of 
replacement detachments sent to France to 
replace casualties. 

In addition to these combat divisions, there 
were numerous other military organizations 
necessary to the operations of the army in the 
field. The most important of these was the 
Sei-vice of Supply, which extended from the 
ports of embarkation in America to the end 
of the railroads directly behind the zone of 
the advance, or "the front." In the Service of 
Supply (or "S. 0. S.," as it was universally 
known) were scores of subsidiary organiza- 
tions, such as factories, repair shops, mills, 
railroad systems, warehouses, docks, labor bat- 
talions, motor truck trains, arsenals, clerical 
departments, a bureau to mark and care for 
soldiers' graves, a secret service section, chemi- 
cal research department, salvage plants, tailor 
shops, butchering plants, remount depots, in- 
ternational courier force, army post offices, 
ti-aining centers, replacement camps, civilian 
mechanics, prison camps and dozens of other 
institutions required to supply the army in the 
field quickly and efficiently with everything 
needed, from men to harness, from shoes to 
jam, from aeroplanes to bullets. Inasmuch as 
every organization in the field asks constantly 
for every article which it thinks might make it 
more comfortable and useful, the problems of 
transportation and priority of demand were 
neither small nor easy of solution. 

Every requisition for material of any sort 
had to be foreseen and provision made to meet 
it. As most of it came from America and 
cargo space was very limited, it is not hard 

to see why the successful functioning of the 
S. 0. S. was one of the most remarkable fea- 
tures of the work of the A. E. F. As an ex- 
ample, American made automobiles were sup- 
plied to the army. The S. O. S. had to figure 
out which parts were likely to give out first, 
and have plenty of spare parts on hand. These 
had to come from the United States and it 
would not do to use cargo space for too many 
of them when every cubic foot of room was 
needed for munitions, food, clothing and other 
supplies. At first, many of the guesses were 
pretty wild, but by the end of 1917, the S. O. 
S. appeared to be using an uncanny foresight 
in anticipating wants of all sorts. 

One of the biggest jobs for the S. O. S. was 
the transportation of troops in France. Rail- 
road Transportation officers were stationed at 
all railroad junction points and important cen- 
ters to direct troop trains and arrange for the 
care of men and horses en route. As a freight 
train could only carry one battery of artillery 
or three companies of infantry it can be seen 
that the problem of moving divisions of 28,000 
men around was no small undertaking in it- 

The combat divisions of the army in France 
were forty-two in number. Not all of these 
reached the lines in time to participate in 
actual hostilities. Most of them, however, had 
some experience at least in quiet sectors. 

The offensive operations with which the 
American forces were identified were officially- 
classified as follows: 

Ypres-Lys — From Aug. 19 to Nov. 11, 1918. 
The fighting was done in the vicinity of Ypres, 
Lille and Armentieres. American divisions en- 
gaged were the 27th, 30th, 37th and 91st. 

Champagne-Marne — From July 15 to July 
18, 1918. Near the Rheims-Paris highway west 
of Chateau-Thierry. Divisions engaged were 
the 2nd and ."rd, with the 28th in reserve. 

Aisne-Marne — From July 18 to Aug. 6. 
From the semi-circle through Rheims, Chateau- 



Thierry and Soissons, north to the Vesle river. 
Divisions engaged, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 26th, 
28th, 32nd. 

Somme — From Amiens and Montdidier north- 
east between Laon and Cambrai, from Aug. 8 
to Nov. 11. Divisions engaged, 27th 30th and 
part of 33rd. 

Oise-Aisne — Aug. 18 to Nov. 11. From Sois- 
sons and the line of the Vesle river north-east. 
Divisions engaged, 28th, 32nd, 77th. 

St. Mihiel— From Sept. 12 to Sept. 18. From 
St. Mihiel east, north-east and north. Divi- 
sions engaged, 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 26th, 42nd, 
82nd, 89th, 90th, with the 33rd, 3rd, 35th, 78th, 
80th and 91st in reserve. The objectives were 
reached before it was necessary to call on the 
reserve divisions for relief. 

Meuse-Argonne — From Sept. 26 to Nov. 11. 
From a line eastward from Verdun through the 
Argonne forest, almost straight north to Se- 
dan. At the close of hostilities, the American 
fi'ont line ran from Sedan in a south-easterly 
direction to a point on the Meuse river north 
of Verdun, and then south a few miles, then 
east toward Metz, then south-east to the Swiss 
border, through Alsace-Lorraine. 

In addition to the divisions named, the War 
department records show that some time was 
spent in quiet sectors by the 92nd, 6th, 81st, 
88th and some units of the 41st, 83rd, 85th, 
7th, 8th and 76th. Those listed as not having 
reached any portion of the front but which 
were training for battle in Finance, were the 
40th, 39th, 87th, 86th, 84th, 34th, 38th and 

Statistics relative to the number of days 
spent in battle by each division, and published 
on another page, are intended to refer to di- 
visional organizations as a whole. Some regi- 
ments saw more actual service than others. 
Artillery regiments generally stayed in the 
lines continuously, supporting new divisions 
when their ovm infantry was relieved tempo- 
rarily. No field artillery is known to have re- 
ceived more than a total of ten days' rest from 
the time they first entered the zone of the ad- 
vance until the end of the war, excepting as 
they might have to leave the lines to transfer 
from one sector to another. They could stand 
it, as their living conditions wei'e not as nerve- 
racking as those under which infantry existed 
during an ofi'ensive. 

The army divisions bearing numbers from 1 
to 15 were nominally Regular Army organiza- 
tions. Those numbered from 25 to 50 were 
National Guard divisions. Those numbered 
above 50 were made up of drafted men. In the 
National Guard and National army divisions, 

the infantry regiments were numbered consecu- 
tively in accordance with their divisional af- 
filiations and as there were four infantry regi- 
ments to a division it is possible to tell what 
division a regiment belonged by dividing its 
numerical designation by 4. If the answer 
contains a fraction, take the next largest 
whole number. Thus, to determine what divi- 
sion the 339th Infantry belonged to, divide by 
4, which gives 84%. Taking the next larger 
whole number, you have 85, the number of the 
division to which the regiment belonged. This 
rule does not apply to Regular Army regi- 
ments, as many of them were known by their 
old designations. 

The two overseas divisions which contained 
the largest number of Racine county men were 
the 32nd and the 85th, the first a National 
Guard and the other a National Army unit. 

The Thirty-second division, composed of 
Michigan and Wisconsin men, went overseas 
in January, February and March, 1918. After 
two months of intensive training it took its 
place in the lines in Alsace in June and re- 
mained there until the Aisne-Mai-ne offensive 
began. As its field of activities were across 
the German frontier as established in 1871, it 
was the first American division to fight on 
German soil. I,ate in July it was sent to the 
vicinity of Chateau-Thierry to join in the of- 
fensive operations, and won high praise for 
its work in that bloody affair. 

On the night of July 29-30 the 64th infantry 
brigade relieved the 3d U. S. division on the 
Ourcq in the vicinity of Rencheres. The 3d 
had been fighting continuously since the Ger- 
man offensive started two weeks before and 
it was up to the 32d to overcome strong Ger- 
man resistance in the Bois de Gi'inipettes. 

Just three and a half hours after the sector 
had been taken over troops of the 127th in- 
fantry followed a rolling barrage and went 
over the top into the wood. They pushed 
through until they were stopped by machine 
gun fire from the right flank, but they gained 
the edge of the Cierges wood and established 
themselves there. 

Just before midnight the enemy delivered a 
counter attack, but in a fiei'ce bayonet combat 
the Americans won. Heavy shelling followed, 
but during the night the 63d infantry brigade 
relieved the 28th division on the right, and on 
the morning of July 31 the two brigades of the 
32d, side by side, attacked to capture the vil- 
lage of Cierges and Hill 212. 

After a brief artillery preparation, the ad- 
vance was made under the protection of a bar- 
rage. On the left the 63d infantry brigade 



Photos by Leonard-BilHngs-Pavek 

Top Row — Gustav C. Peters, Chas. Plocek, Earl Ray, Carl James, George Noe, H. W. Lewis. 

Second — Holger Larson, Carl Schulte, Wm. Fred Mau. Michael Welch, Walter Draeger, A. Brown. 

Third — Robt. Jorgenson, Harry P. Newell, George Bridgman, John Nyberg, Harry Heneman, Wm. D. Brown. 

Fourth — John B. Gilday, Herbert E. Brown, Carl Zager, Stephen S. Brown, Wm. T. Droysen. Viggo Helding. 

Bottom — Julius Pavek, Earl Shepston. Byron A. Gere, Philo E. Harpster, Louis Kraft, E. A. Rodiger. 



promptly reached its objective, Hill 212, and 
on the right the 127th infantry took and passed 
beyond the village of Cierges, where it was 
held up by a heavy fire from Bellevue farm, 
a strong center of resistance. 

This position could not be taken by a frontal 
attack, but the right flank of the 64th brigade 
succeeded in filtrating through as far as Hill 
230. This was a fire swept salient in a short 
time, as French troops on the right could not 
advance to straighten the front. A withdrawal 
was effected from the hill and a position was 
taken up on the reverse slope between Cierges 
and Bellevue farm. 

The line of the Ourcq had not been broken, 
but it was badly battered, and Maj. Gen. Haan 
decided to attack along his entire front on the 
morning of Aug. 1. That attack captured both 
the Bois de la Planchette and Hill 230, maneu- 
vered the boche out of Bellevue farm, and gave 
the division the key to the entire enemy line 
north of the Ourcq. 

When Hill 230 fell the Germans were forced 
to retreat, and during that night information 
was obtained showing they pushed their re- 
tirement with great rapidity. Therefore the 
commander of the 6th French ai-my ordered a 
consolidated advance for the following morning 
— Aug. 2. 

Progress was I'apid. Early in the day the 
32d reached its objective on a line south of 
Chamery, but the pursuit was pressed ener- 
getically onward to north of the village of 
Dravegny. This was reached at nightfall after 
an advance of approximately six kilometers. 

The pursuit was resumed the following 
morning, and at the end of the day the Michi- 
gan-Wisconsin men had gone another seven 
kilometers to the hills overlooking the valley 
of the Vesle. Continuous streams of artillery 
and machine gun fire were poured in by the 
Germans from the heights north of the river, 
but at midnight came orders to advance to the 
river and provide means for crossing it. 

The 63d infantry brigade attacked the rail- 
road yards on their front and in spite of the 
heaviest resistance took them in the late after- 
noon, and succeeded in getting a few small 
patrols across the river during the night, but 
were unable to maintain them there and they 
were withdrawn. 

At 3 p. m. the 127th moved out from St. 
Gillies toward Fismes. During the attack it 
was badly cut up and late in the day Col. 
Langdon organized a provisional battalion out 
of what was left of his regiment and sent it 
forward to storm the town. After a desperate 
assault the battalion succeeded, about night- 

fall, in passing through the city and establish- 
ing itself on the south bank of the river. 

In the morning, Aug. 5, these troops mopped 
up the west half of the town and attempted to 
cross the river. That night the 3d battalion 
of the 128th — the only strong battalion left in 
the brigade — came up as reinforcements, and 
on the morning of Aug. 6 relieved the 127th. 
This battalion continued to mop up Fismes. 
In the eastern part of the town German and 
American patrols fought throughout the day, 
but by nightfall the Americans completely oc- 
cupied the town. 

During the night the 28th division took over 
the sector from the 32d and relieved the 128th 
in Fismes the morning of August 7th. The 
32nd division artillery remained at the front 
for two weeks more, however. 

In the seven days of fighting the Michigan- 
Wisconsin troops had gained nineteen kilo- 
meters, had broken through the strong German 
line on the Ourcq, had stormed, taken, and 
held the city of Fismes, and had completely 
occupied the south bank of the Vesle. 

The Thirty-second division next saw heavy 
action on the Oise-Aisne front as a part of the 
Tenth French army under Gen. Mangin. 

On the night of Aug. 27 it relieved the 127th 
French division and at once received orders to 
attack in liaison with the French. 

The 63d infantry brigade in the front line 
promptly gained its objective, the railroad 
tracks west of Juvigny, lying facing the enemy 
on high, open ground on the slope of a hill 
containing little cover except shell holes, 
where the men were subjected to steady artil- 
lery and machine gun fire. 

Shortly after noon the enemy delivei'ed a 
counter attack, but it was stopped by artillery 
and machine gun fire, and orders were issued 
by Gen. Mangin for a general attack at 5:25 
the following morning — Aug. 29. 

The enemy machine gun strength was so 
great that the artillery preparation failed to 
silence them, and the barrage did not keep 
them from operating as the infantry advanced. 
The 125th infantry made a slight advance and 
captured a few prisoners on the left. On the 
right the 126th in isolated groups crossed the 
jumping off line and penetrated deeply into the 
woods, but it was impossible to bring the whole 
line up. No real advance was made, and this 
was true of the entire army. Casualties were 

The front line was thinned out, but the posi- 
tion was not favorable. Arrangements were 
made to improve it by taking the woods south- 
west of .Juvigny, but corps orders directed that 



Photos by Leonard-Billings 

Top Row — C. O. Driver. John Ronsholdt. C. Marquette. L. F. Harter, E. Zlevors, Howard Layton. Walter G. Williams. 
Second — Elmer C. Peterson. Z. Piotrowski, A. J. Krueger, Stephen Gurski. F. A. Schultz. E. G. Simpson, J. V. Hood. 
Third— J. H. Heusdens. S. G. HultberE. Harry Augustine. O. C. Lange, E. O. Jones, H. L. Gebhardt. Frank Sheffield. 
Fourth — James Bie, John Halvorsen. Orrin Layton. Harold Homl. J. A. Carpenter, A. E. Poulson. Alfred Ball. 
Fifth — Wm. Gulbrandsen. E. Larsen. Aage Larsen. A. J. Sarenson. Axel Olsen. M. J. Bohn. Jesse Bowman. 
Bottom — Kenneth Nelson. Louis Rulfalo. Ray W. Jones. E. J. DeMars, Allen Pederson. Julius Strauss, Wm. Frey. 



it be withheld in view of a general attack to be 
made the next morning. But that attack wa& 
not ordered. Instead the Wisconsin-Michigan 
men lay exposed on the hillside until word was 
received that the 59th French division had 
penetrated the German line on the right and 
corps orders directed the 32d to advance in 
liaison ■with that organization. 

This gave the desired opportunity to attack 
at Juvigny, and with the 64th brigade in the 
front line the 32d made its way through a ra- 
vine to a position south of the town, partly 
enveloping it to the east. One battalion of the 
128th infantry moved forward west of Ju- 
vigny and finally reached a position to the 
north of the town. In this way it was practi- 
cally surrounded. 

A heavy counter attack failed to check the 
movement, and troops from the 127th entered 
it from the southwest and mopped up after 
considerable bloody fighting. The town was in 
American hands for some time before enemy 
shells began to fall in it, doubtless because the 
enemy did not know it had been captured. 

On the following morning — Aug. 31 — the 
front line of the 82d was considerably in ad- 
vance of the divisions on its right and left, 
and from this position it led a general attack 
at 4 a. m., following artillery preparation that 
had begun at midnight. Arrangement of a 
triple barrage across the broken front was diffi- 
cult, but it was accomplished successfully and 
progress across the whole front continued un- 
til the division reached the Terney Sorney- 
Bethancourt road. 

On the extreme right of the sector, however, 
in ravines and sheltered places, machine gun 
nests held up the division on the right of the 
32d and some of its own forces. The general 
advance stopped and infiltration was used to 
capture machine gun nests and other strong 
points on the right. But the time was too 
short. Darkness fell and the position held was 
reorganized for further operations the next 

In the morning further attempts were made 
to improve the positions, and a number of ma- 
chine gun nests were cleaned out. An effort 
was made to assist the 59th French division 
to come up on the right, and this task was 
under way when orders came for the relief of 
the 32d by the 1st Moroccan division. 

In this operation the Wisconsin-Michigan 
outfit attacked a strong enemy well supported 
by artillery and intrenched in highly organized 
positions in a country naturally lending itself 
to defense, had again broken through a German 
key position, had penetrated his line to a 

depth of five and one-half kilometers and start- 
ed an enemy withdrawal, thus paving the way 
for a forward movement by the whole 10th 
French army, which ultimately outflanked the 
German positions on the Vesle and the Chemin 
des Dames. 

On Sept. 5 the 32d division received orders 
to join the 1st American army, which then was 
preparing for the big offensive at St. Mihiel 
and in the Argonne. 

Moving to a rest area at Joinville, north of 
Chaumont, it received replacements and began 
training them, but the training had not prog- 
ressed more than eight days 'when orders 
came to move forward as a reserve unit. At 
once it was moved to the Verdun front and as- 
signed as reserve to the 5th army corps. 

On Sept. 26 it was directed to occupy as a 
garrison the original front of this corps, which 
that morning had gone over the top and at- 
tacked the enemy in the Argonne. The two in- 
fantry brigades were placed about four kilo- 
meters south of what for four years had been 
No Man's land, and in that position at 6:30 
p. m. on Sept. 29 were ordered to proceed at 
once to the vicinity of Ivory and relieve as far 
as possible that night the part of the 37th di- 
vision then in the front line. 

One hour after the orders came both bri- 
gades were under way. It was a rainy night, 
and the roads were so bad that nothing but 
the lightest vehicles could be taken across No 
Man's land in the darkness. But the infantry 
marched all night, covering from eleven to 
eighteen kilometers. The relief was completed 
the night of Sept. 30, so that on the morning 
of Oct. 1 the 32d occupied the sector, with a 
front line, extending east and west about four 
kilometers, lying half a kilometer south of the 
village of Cierges. 

The position was a bad one, and it had been 
slightly improved by carrying the front line 
up beyond the village, when the division was 
shifted to the left to relieve the 91st. 

Improvement of this position by an advance 
of one kilometer put the 64th brigade almost in 
front of well placed, well protected enemy ma- 
chine gun nests in the Bois de la Morine. The 
brigade made an attempt to take these woods 
virithout artillery preparation, but, although 
some progress was made, it was found neces- 
sary to wait for a deep artillery barrage. 

Then, with gas and flame troops and a sec- 
tion of tanks, both brigades attacked on the 
morning of Oct. 5. The Bois de la Morine was 
ovemvhelmed and the machine guns wiped out, 
and the attack was shifted toward the north 
and the Bois de Chene Sec. There was hand 



Rephoto by John Hood 

Top Row — Geo. R. McCourt. D. Dorgcs. Louis Borserson. I. Saskowski. Harry DeWUde. G. A. Gatzke Peter Larson 
Second— Alex Safake. Frank Francis. Peter Hanson. G. F. Farduti, Arthur Lemke, Peter Kuldacky, Cerbell Peterson 
Third— Harry Harvey. John James Jr... H. E. Cooper. Wm. Funk, W. G. Zacharias, Joseph Stegner. Mclvin E Hart 
l.?»1u T •T,*';.^i.''^""- ^- ^ Doolin. F. K. Cicero. Alfred H. Sorenson. Louis Williams, Rasmus Sabel, Walter C. Jensen- 
*ifth— A. B. HoR-man. Burton M. Anderson, Art Price, Louis Swenson, W. A. Hart. Ben Sigcln. Clarence Jacobson. 
Hottom— Edw. krupp, Dommick Pozzi. Vested Jensen. Carl C. Jensen, Herman Christensen, Harry O Johnson 



to hand fighting in these woods, but they also 
finally were mopped up and the advance pro- 
ceeded as far as the strong enemy positions on 
Hill 255 and Hill 269. Two days then were 
spent in reducing the strong points in the Ger- 
man line. 

The division was ordered forward November 
5th minus the artillery brigade, which had to be 
withdrawn because of the heavy casualties to 
horses. Tractors were borrowed to get the 
field guns back to a I'eserve area to be re- 
equipped. The armistice found the balance of 
the division still in the lines advancing toward 
Sedan. It later went into Germany as a part 
of the army of occupation. 

The Eighty-fifth division, which contained 
several hundred men from Racine county and 
vicinity, was organized at Camp Custer, Mich. 
All of the first, second and third draft con- 
tingents from the lake shore counties of Wis- 
consin became part of the division, and most 
of the Racine county contingent were in the 
340th infantry. Company D of that regiment 
was made up of soldiers from Racine county 
and Port Washington. 

The division was at full strength late in No- 
vember, 1917, but its training was interfered 
with by the fact that it began to function as a 
replacement division almost immediately. A 
large contingent was sent to the 89th division 
at Camp Pike in November, and many of these 
men were in action in France in the St. Mihiel 
drive in the following September, and later 
in the Meuse-Argonne battle. Forty-five men 
from Company D were sent to the Fourth di- 
vision at Camp Green in December, and these 
were fighting as early as August, 1918. In 
April, 1918, Co. D was filled with recruits from 
■Camp Grant and another contingent of Racine 
men arrived and were assigned to the 337th 
Infantry. Other replacements were sent away, 
and in June more new men arrived and were 
given a strenuous two weeks' drill on the 
field and at the rifle range. On July 15 the 
division began its movement overseas from 
Camp Mills. The 340th infantry embarked 
late in July on the Corinthic, landed at Lon- 
don after a voyage of seventeen days and 
camped at Romsey for three days. Then it 
was transpoi'ted across the channel to Le 
Havre where it was joined by the 335th in- 
fantry. They were sent to a training center 
at Veaugues, near Bourges and again began 
to function as a replacement division for or- 
ganizations in the lines. It was only a skele- 
ton of its former self when ordered to take 
position in the lines in the Toul sector on Nov. 
'7. It arrived there too late to see any fight- 

ing. The division was filled by replacements 
in November, and returned to America in 
April, 1919, a fairly complete organization. 

One regiment, the 339th, was detached from 
the division in England and sent, with the 
310th Engineer battalion, to Archangel for 
service in northern Russia. They were joined 
there by the 337th Ambulance Company and 
337th field hospital unit. The expedition land- 
ed in Russia the fii'st week of September, 1918. 
They found British and French contingents 
there. They were supposed to guard Allied 
stores; prevent any German activities on the 
White sea coast and assist the Russians to 
combat the revolutionists and reorganize an 
army for use on the German front. 

The supplies were all stolen, burned or lost 
before the Allied ti'oops arrived. No sign 
was found of the German White sea expedi- 
tion. The Russian people didn't seem to have 
any desire to light the revolutionists, or Bol- 
shevikis. So the Allies decided they would 
have to do it themselves. 

The Allied lines formed a semi-circle around 
Archangel, the radius being from 120 to 300 
miles. Up to Nov. 11 the lines had been ad- 
vanced from 20 to 75 miles without there being 
any change in the general situation. The Arc- 
tic winter swooped down upon the land. On 
Dec. 31 the allies planned an ofi'ensive but the 
"Bolos," as the enemy was nicknamed, beat 
off the attack and later drove the Americans 
back several miles by a great superiority in 
men and artillery, on the Vaga front. There 
was nothing but guerilla warfare from then 
to May, when the Americans left for home. 
Americans lost in 9 months 104 killed, 337 
wounded, and 80 died of disease and accident. 

There were many hardships connected with 
the expedition which were unique in American 
army history but the soldiers thei'e were repaid 
by the memory of an interesting service well 

Semi-official records of all the divisions in 
the army were prepared before the departure 
of the troops for home, and a summary of 
these records is published here. There is also 
given a description of the shoulder insignia 
worn by the members of the various divisions. 
Many interesting stories are back of the selec- 
tion of these insignia. State traditions, sym- 
bolical emblems, conditions in training camps, 
citations, and numerous other things offered in- 
spiration for them. The insignia were worn 
on the left arm just below the shoulder, and 
were intended to facilitate the rapid rallying 
of troops when scattered on the road, in battle 
or elsewhere. Soldiers in France became very 




Six boys went from the Corbeil family of Burlington. They are the three at the left and three at the rieht of the upper 
portion of the picture. At left (I) Oliver S . (II) G. Arthur. (Ill) Eric T. ; at riffht (IV) George S . (V) Charles D. and 
(VI) Elmer D. The top center consists of Norbert M.. Ralph J. and Raymond M. Zinnen. Below them are Harold. 
Irving, Ben and Louis Shaw. The four larger pictures at bottom are (I) E. A., (II) Atwood. (Ill) Charles and (IV) 
Fred Merrill. Howard O. Manchester is the small picture a! left and Russell H. Manchester the small picture at right. 



proud of the emblems, as is natural when it is 
recalled that most Yanks got the idea that their 
particular division was doing most of the real 
fighting and that if "the division on the left" 
had only done its part the war would have 
been finished in a week. In fact military units 
were so large, that troops seldom knew or 
cared what divisions were on the right or left, 
or what corps or army they belonged to them- 
selves. The division was the largest organi- 
zation with which they had time to become 

The insignia were usually of brilliant colors 
and easily distinguished. Most of them were 
issued ready for sevHng on the uniforms, hav- 
ing previously been mounted upon a patch of 
O. D. cloth about three inches square. Official 
authorization was never given for shoulder in- 
signia in America, but some divisions designed 
theirs before getting sailing orders. 

Following are the records of the divisions. 
Due allowance must be made for the fact 
that, while units were organized of certain 
troops in America, the personnel underwent 
frequent changes due to casualties and trans- 


Regular Army: Division Headquarters ar- 
rived in France June 27, 1917. Activities: 
Sommerville sector, ten kilometers southeast 
of Nancy, October 21 to November 20, 1917; 
Ansauville sector, January 15 to April 3, 1918; 
Cantigny sector, April 25 to July 7 (battle of 
Cantigny, May 28 to 30); Soissons operation, 
Marne counter-offensive, July 18 to 24; Saz- 
erais sector, August 7 to 24; St. Mihiel opera- 
tion, September 12 and 13; Argonne-Meuse of- 
fensive, October 1 to 12; operations against 
Mouzon, November 5 and 6; operation south 
and southwest of Sedan, November 7 and 8; 
march on Coblenz bridgehead, November 17 to 
December 15, 1918. 

Prisoners captured: 165 officers, 6,304 men. 
Total advance against resistance, 51 kilo- 

Division Insignia: Crimson figure "1" on 
khaki background. Chosen because the numer- 
al "'1" represents the number of the division 
and many of its subsidiary organizations. 
Also, as proudly claimed, because it was the 
"First Division in France;" first in sector; first 
to fire a shot at the Germans; first to attack; 
first to conduct a raid; first to be raided; first 
to capture prisoners; first to inflict casualties; 
first to suffer casualties; first to be cited singly 
in General Orders. 


Regular Army: Divisional Headquarters es- 
tablished in France October 26, 1917. Activi- 
ties: Verdun and Toul-Troyon sectors, March 
15 to May 14, 1918; sector northwest of Cha- 
teau-Thierry (almost continuous heavy fight- 
ing). May 31 to July 9; Soissons sector, Marne 
counter-offensive, July 18 to 20; Marbache sec- 
tor, August 9 to 24; St. Mihiel sector and op- 
eration, September 9 to 16; Blanc Mont sector 
and advance in Champagne, September 30 to 
October 9; Argonne-Meuse offensive, October 
30 to November 11, 1918. 

Prisoners captured: 228 officers, 11,738 men. 
Guns captured, 343 pieces of artillery, 1,350 
machine guns. Total advance on front line, 
60 kilometers. 

Insignia: Indian head, with background, 
star and shield, with colors varying accoi'ding 
to unit. Creation of a truck driver who prac- 
ticed on the side of his ti'uck with such suc- 
cess that the design he had drawn evolved 
into the insignia of the division. 

The second division included two regiments 
of marines. 


Regular Army: Division Headquarters ar- 
rived in France April 4, 1918. Activities: 
Chateau-Thierry sector, May 31 to July 30 
(battle operations May 31 to June 4 and July 
15 to 30); St. Mihiel sector (corps reserve), 
September 10 to 14; Argonne-Meuse offensive, 
September 30 to October 27; mai'ch on Rhine, 
November 14. 

Prisoners captured: 31 officers, 2,209 men. 
Guns captured: 51 pieces of artillery, 1,501 
machine guns. Total advance on front line: 
41 kilometers. 

Insignia: Three white stripes diagonally 
superimposed upon a square field of royal 
blue. The three stripes are symbolic of the 
three major operations in which the division 
participated — the Marne, St. Mihiel and the 
Argonne-Meuse. The blue field is a symbol 
for those who have died. 


Regular Army: Division Headquai"ters ar- 
rived in France, May 17, 1918. Activities: 
Marne counter-offensive, July 18 to 21 (bri- 
gaded with 6th French Army), vicinity of 
Noroy and Hautevesnes; Vesle sector (almost 
continuous heavy fighting), August 2 to 12; 
St. Mihiel sector, near Watronville-Treseau- 
vaux (in reserve), September 6 to 13; Ar- 
gonne-Meuse offensive, September 25 to Oc- 
tober 19. 



Top Row— A. S. Petersen, L. B. Niesen, L. Darnstaedt. H. F. Rapp, Oscar LeClair, John Hosp. E E Thery. 

Second — Art Olson. H. J. Van Bree. Victor Buisse. E. Schumacher, Petro Pisa, Hans Heldine, Chas. Jandl. 

Third — Frank Yilek. Paul A. Hanson. Howard L. Ward. Gust Kuhnwold, C. W. Lane. Elmer Sahs. Harry Potter. 

Fourth — Natale Giardina. F. W. Easlon. Holt Byron, Harold Rapp, W. F. Ehrlich, D. Cilletti. A. H. Townsend. 

Fifth — Herman Diem. Edw. F. Rapp. Stanley Rose. August Bicha, F. J. Meyer. Raymond C .Rasmussen. Einer Simonsen. 

Bottom — T. F. Schlender. Laurence Jensen. Louis \V. Clark. R. H. Haasc. Arthur Bicha. Harry Connolly, Dominick Walls. 



Prisoners captured: 72 officers, 2,684 men. 
Guns captured: 44 pieces of artillery, 31 ma- 
chine guns. Total advance on front line, 24% 

Insignia: Four green leaves of ivy superim- 
posed upon a diamond of olive drab. The four 
leaves represent the number of the division. 


Regular Army: Arrived in France May 1, 
1918. Activities: Anould sector, June 15 to 
July 16; St. Di6 sector, July 16 to August 23; 
St. Mihiel operation, September 11 to 17; Ar- 
gonne-Meuse offensive, October 12 to 22; Ar- 
gonne-Meuse offensive (second time in), Oc- 
tober 27 to November 14. 

Prisoners captured: 48 oflTicers, 2,357 men. 
Guns captured: 98 pieces of artillery, 802 ma- 
chine guns. Total advance on front line: 29 

Insignia: Red diamond. 


Regular Army: Arrived in France July 23, 
1918. Activities: Gerardmer sector, Sept. 3 
to Oct. 13; Argonne-Meuse offensive (First 
Army Corps Reserve), Nov. 1. 

Insignia: Six pointed star of red cloth, 
with blue figure "6" superimposed. 


Regular Army: Arrived in France, August 
11, 1918, Activities: Puvenelle sector, Lor- 
raine, October 9 to 29; Puvenelle sector, ex- 
tended, October 29 to November 11, 1918. 

Prisoners captured: One officer, 68 men. 
Guns eaptui'ed: 28 machine guns. Total ad- 
vance on front line, % kilometer. 

Insignia: Two triangles in black on red 
base. Design supposed to have developed out 
of the numeral seven, one numeral up and the 
other down and reversed, making two tri- 


Regulars: Organized at Camp Fremont, 
California, in December, 1917. When the arm- 
istice was signed the ai'tillery, engineers, and 
one regiment of infantry (the Eighth, later on 
duty at Coblenz) had left for France. The 
remainder of the division was at the port ready 
to leave, but, as all troop movements were at 
once suspended, the division complete never 
reached France. Nevertheless, it lost 6 men 
killed and 29 wounded. It received the name 
of the Pathfinder Division, which is repi'esent- 
ed in the insignia by the gold aiTow, pointed 


Regulars: Organized at Camp Funston in 
August, 1918. It never reached France. 


Regulars: Organized at Camp Meade, 
Maryland, in August, 1918, and, like all divi- 
sions numbered from 9 to 20, inclusive (several 
of which chose no insignia), it never left the 
United States. It became known as the Lafay- 
ette Division, the profile of the Revolutionary 
hero being represented in the insignia. 


Organized at Camp Devens in July, 1918, 
and took the name of the Plymouth Division 
because it was recruited mainly from the New 
England States. 


Organized at Camp Lewis, Washington, in 
September, 1918. The device includes the two 
proverbial "bad luck" symbols, the figure 13 
and a black cat, surrounded by the "good 
luck" horseshoe, indicative of the doughboy's 
confidence in his ability to overcome all hoo- 


Organized at Camp Custer, Mich., in July, 
1918, and took the name of the Wolverine Di- 
vision, those animals having been very com- 
mon in Michigan in early days. The head of a 
wolverine appears on the insignia. 


Organized at Camp Travis, Texas, in August, 
1918, and acquired the name of the Cactus Di- 
vision, which appears on the insignia, together 
with the Latin motto meaning: "Touch me 


National Guard of New England: Arrived 
in France December 5, 1917. Activities: Chem- 
in des Dames sector, February 6 to March 
21, 1918; La Reine and Boucq sector, April 3 
to June 28; Pas Fini sector (northwest of 
Chateau-Thierry), July 10 to 25 (battle opera- 
tions July 18 to 25); Rupt and Troyon sector, 
September 8 to October 8 (St. Mihiel opera- 
tion, September 12 to 14); Neptune sector 
(north of Verdun), October 18 to November 
14 (Argonne-Meuse offensive). 

Prisoners captured: 61 officers, 3,087 men. 
Guns captured: 16 pieces of artillery, 132 ma- 
chine guns. Total advance on front line: 37 




In the upper row are Emma Hanson, A. B. Schmidt and Mabel C. Wilton. In the center are Gertrude Davis Smith, 

Miss Hanson and Florence Jelliffe. At the lower left hand are Clara WegRe and Elizabeth Cahoon ; in the center Marjorie 

Morey and at the riffht are Josephine Johnson and Helen Siwyer. 



Insignia: Dark blue "YD" monogram super- 
imposed on diamond of khaki cloth. The ini- 
tials represent the nickname of the division 
which, since its arrival overseas, had been 
known as the "Yankee Division." 


National Guard of New York: Arrived in 
France May 10, 1918. Activities: East Poper- 
inghe line, Belgium (four battalions at a time), 
July 9 to September .3; Dickebush sector, Bel- 
gium, August 24 to September 3 (operation of 
Vierstrast Ridge, August 31 to September 2); 
Hindenburg line, France, September 24 to Oc- 
tober 1 (operation at Canal tunnel, Bellicourt 
and east, September 27 to 30); St. Souplet 
sector, October 12 to 20 (Selle river, October 
17); Jonc de Mer Bridge, October 18; St. 
Maurice River, October 19 to 21. 

Prisoners captured: 65 officers, 2,292 men. 
Total advance on front line, 11 kilometers. 

Insignia: Black circle with red border, with 
monogram N.Y.D. superimposed — New York 
Division — and seven red stars. The stars rep- 
resent the constellation Orion and were chosen 
in honor of Major General O'Ryan, who has 
commanded the division during the last seven 


National Guard of Pennsylvania: Arrived 
in France May 18, 1918. Activities: Sector 
southeast of Chateau-Thierry (corps reserve), 
June 30 to July 31 (battle operations, July 15 
to 18 and July 28 to 30); Vesle sector, August 
7 to September 8 (almost continuous heavy 
fighting) ; Argonne-Meuse offensive, September 
26 to October 9; Thiaucourt sector, October 16 
to November 11. 

Prisoners captured: Ten officers, 911 men. 
Guns captured: 16 pieces of artillery, 63 ma- 
chine guns. Total advance on front line: Ten 

Insignia: Keystone of red cloth. 


National Guai-d of Maryland, New Jersey, 
Delaware, Virginia and District of Columbia: 
Arrived in France June 27, 1918. Activities: 
Center sector, Haute Alsace, July 25 to Sep- 
tember 22; Grand Montagne sector, north of 
Verdun, October 7 to 30. 

Prisoners captured: 2,187 officers and men. 
Guns captured: 21 pieces of artillery and 250 
machine guns. Total advance on front line: 
Seven kilometers. 

Insignia: Blue and gray; design copied 

from the Korean symbol of good luck. Colors 
repi'esent union in arms of North and South. 


National Guard of North and South Carolina 
and Tennessee: Arrived in France May 24, 
1918. Activities: Canal sector, south of 
Ypres, (brigaded with British), July 16 to 
August 17; Canal sector, south of Ypres (under 
own command), August 17 to September 4; 
Gouy-Nauroy sector, September 23 to October 
2 (battle operations); Beaurevoir sector, Oc- 
tober 3 to 12 (battle operations); Le Cateau 
sector, October 16 to 20 (battle operations). 

Prisoners captured: 98 officers, 3,750 men. 
Guns captured: 81 pieces of artillery, 426 ma- 
chine guns. Total advance on front line, 29% 

Insignia: Monogram in blue, the letter "O" 
surrounding the letter "H," with three "X's," 
(Roman numerals for 30) forming the cross 
bar of the letter "H," all on a maroon back- 
ground. The design is a tribute to Andrew 
Jackson, "Old Hickory." 


National Guard of Michigan and Wisconsin: 
.\rrived in France February 20, 1918. Activi- 
ties: Alsace front, May 18 to July 21; Fismes 
front, July 30 to August 7 (advance from the 
Ourcq to the Vesle); Soissons front, August 
28 to September 2 (battle of Juvigny); Ar- 
gonne-Meuse offensive, September 30 to Oc- 
tober 20 (operations against Kriemhilde Stel- 
lung); front east of the Meuse, Dun-sur- 
Meuse, November 8 to 11; Army of Occupa- 
tion from November 17. 

Prisoners captured: 40 officers, 2,113 men. 
Guns captured: 21 pieces of artillery, 190 
machine guns. Total advance on front line: 
36 kilometers. 

The artillery of this division was in action 
81 days. 

Insignia: Barred arrow of red, chosen be- 
cause they "shot through every line the Boche 
put before them." 

National Guard of Georgia, Alabama, and 
Florida. Organized at Camp Wheeler, Georgia. 
It went to France in October, 1918, and never 
entered the line. The insignia stands for the 
initials of the nickname, the Dixie Division, 
and was used for marking the baggage as early 
as November, 1917. 

National Guard of Illinois, West Virginia: 
Arrived in France May 24, 1918. Activities: 



Rephoto by John Hood 

Top Row — Jules DeGraeve. John J. Kropp. Joseph Briet, Fred Seivall, Steven Filochowski, M. Andersen, Joe Kowalskv. 
Second—A. E. Chamberlain. Emil O. Nelson, B. Olson, W. J. Schlictlng. Elmer Hanson, C. S. Sondergaard. Bert Jensen. 
Third— Henry Larsen. Robt. L. Malone. E M. Jacquet. Roland V. Malone, Geo. Jerstad, Peter J. Hedera. Frank Zahorik. 
Fourth — Louis A. Singer, R. J. Buckley, Art J. Christianson, O. Petersen, Ralph Mangold, F. Maciejewski, F. H. Layton. 
Fifth — Martin Nelson, John J. Reed, W. L. Finlayson, Herbert C. Jensen, Clarence Dahlen, Maurice Jensen. Reinholt Ager. 
Bottom — J. E. Draginis, Hiram G. Jones, Victor Rasmussen, Chas. Nestril, W. R. Krueger. A. P. Mochartis, E. W. Seller. 



Amiens sector (with Australians), July 21 to 
August 18; Verdun sector, September 9 to Oc- 
tober 17; St. Mihiel sector, November 7 to 11. 
Prisoners captured: 65 officers, 3,922 men. 
Guns captured: 93 pieces of artillery, 414 ma- 
chine guns. Total advance on front line: 36 
kilometers (made by units of one regiment or 


Insignia: Yellow cross on black circle, a 
combination of the divisional colors, yellow 
chosen because it was the only color paint 
available in Texas when the division was as- 
sembling its equipment. The cross, long used 
to mark Government property, had a terrifying 
effect on the Philippine natives. 


National Guard of Iowa, Minnesota, Ne- 
braska and North Dakota. Insignia: Black 
oval encircling red bovine skull, a convention- 
alization of the Mexican olla or water flask, 
the whole design reminiscent of the Camp Cody 
country in New Mexico where the division 

National Guard of Missouri and Kansas: Ar- 
rived in France May 11, 1918. Activities: 
North sector of Wesserling sector, Vosges (one 
brigade), July 1 to 27; North sector of Wesser- 
ling sector, Vosges, with Garibaldi sub-sec- 
tor (under division command) July 27 to 
August 14; Gerardmer south sub-sector added, 
August 14 to September 2; Argonne-Meuse of- 
fensive (Grange-le-Comte sector), September 
21 to October 1; Somme-Dieue sector, October 
1.5 to November 7. 

Prisoners captured: 13 officers, 768 men. 
Guns captured: 24 pieces of artillery, 85 ma- 
chine guns. Total advance on front line, 12 ¥2 

Insignia: Santa Fe cross within two circles 
of varying colors, the outer one divided into 
four arcs. The design was chosen because the 
old Santa Fe trail started westward from a 
point near the Missouri-Kansas line. 


National Guard of Texas and Oklahoma. Di- 
visional headquarters arrived in France July 
31, 1918. Activities: Blanc Mont sector, 
north of Sonnne-Py, Oct. 6-28 (French Cham- 
pagne offensive). 

Prisoners captured: 18 officers, 531 en- 
listed men. Guns captured: 9 pieces of artil- 
lery, 294 machine guns. Total advance on 
front line, 21 kilometers. 

Insignia: Cobalt blue arrowhead with a 
khaki "T" superimposed upon a khaki disc. 

The arrowhead represents Oklahoma and the 
"T" Texas. 


National Guard of Ohio. Divisional head- 
quarters arrived in France June 23, 1918. Ac- 
tivities: Baccarat sector, Aug. 4-Sept. 16; 
Meuse-Argonne offensive, Sept. 25-Oct. 1; 
Pannes (St. Mihiel sector), Oct. 7-16; Lys and 
Eseaut rivers (Flanders), Oct. 31-Nov. 4; Bel- 
gium, Syngem sector, Nov. 9-11. 

Prisoners captured: 26 officers, 1,469 en- 
listed men. Guns captured: 29 pieces of ar- 
tillery, 263 machine guns. Total advance on 
front line: 30 2/3 kilometers. 

Insignia : Red circle with white border. De- 
sign adapted from the State flag of Ohio. Di- 
vision kno^\^^ as the "Buckeye Division." 


National Guard of Indiana and Kentucky: 
Arrived in France Oct. 19, 1918; became a re- 
placement division and members saw action as 
replacements to other divisions. 

Insignia: Shield, left half blue, right half 
red; superimposed in center of shield is the 
initial "C" with the letter "Y" interlaced with 
lower half of the initial "C," both in white. 

The Thirty-ninth Division was organized 
from the National Guard of Louisiana, Missis- 
sippi and Arkansas, at Camp Beauregard, 
Louisiana. It went to France in August, 1918, 
as a depot division, from which replacements 
were sent to the combat divisions at the front; 
therefore it was never intended to be in the 
line. The insignia shows the Greek letter 
delta, because the personnel came from the vi- 
cinity of the Mississippi delta, but it was never 
approved by the A. E. F. It was stationed at 
St. Florent and sent 10,156 replacements to 
the front. 

National Guard of California, Nevada, Utah, 
Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico: Arrived 
in France Aug. 20, 1918; became a replace- 
ment division and members saw action as re- 
placements to other divisions. 

Insignia : Blue patch of cloth with gold sun 
superimposed in center, a representation of 
the sun at midday in blue sky. The insignia 
and name "Sunshine Division" were selected as 
best exemplifying the climatic conditions of 
the camp in which unit trained. 

National Guard of Washington, Oregon, 
Montana, Idaho and Wyoming: First Depot 



Photos by Leonard 

Top Row — Edward Elting, E. D. Cahoon, Chester Olson, E. A. Strom. Henry Hansen. J. P. Madsen, M. Pavlik. 
Second — J. F. Leuker. C. O. Sidcsky, Harry Mainland. Frank Peterson, Emilius Olson, Allan Thompson, R. Kautz. 
Third — Gus Chinanis. J. M. Compty. R. J. Bowers, Chester Neslon, Edw. Belanger, Rudolph Thompson, John Strugala. 
Fourth — Chas. Nelson, Harry Draves, E. A. Daleski, Frank W. Walker, B. F. Brooder, Hugh Desens, C. B. Pctrulka. 
Fifth — Wayne Addison, John Addison, Peter Sorenson, Wm. Pier, A. G. Wrixton, Oscar Bronson, A. A. Sauer. 
Bottom — John Skaar, Allen Gere, James Greco, R. J. Johnson, T. C. Hemmingsen, Theo. Henningsen, Bernard Dexter. 



Division, arrived in France Jan. 1, 1918; be- 
came a replacement division and members saw 
action as replacements to other divisions. 

Insignia: Setting sun in gold on red back- 
ground over a wavy blue stripe representing 
the waters of the Pacific, in the foreground. 
Design originated by a Red Cross nurse at- 
tached to Camp Hospital No. 26, at St. Aignan- 
Noyers. Organization is known as Sunset Di- 


National Guard of 26 States and District of 
Columbia. Divisional headquarters arrived in 
France Nov. 1, 1917. Activities: Dombasle- 
Luneville-St. Clement-Baccarat sector, Feb. 21- 
March 23, 1918 (under the French 8th Army 
and 7th Army Corps); Baccarat sector, March 
18-June 21; Souain and Esperance sector, July 
5-17 (German offensive east of Reims, July 15- 
16); Trugny and Beauvardes, July 25- Aug. 3 
(front of 4th Army Corps on Ourcq); Ansau- 
ville, Essey and Bois de Pannes (St. Mihiel 
salient), Sept. 12-30; south of St. Georges- 
Landres-et-St. Georges-Cote de Chatillon (Ar- 
gonne-Meuse offensive), Oct. 13-31; Autruche, 
Grandes Armoises and Maisoncello, south of 
Sedan (Argonne-Meuse offensive), Nov. 5-10. 

Prisoners captured: 14 officers, 1,303 en- 
listed men. Guns captured: 25 pieces of artil- 
lery, 495 machine guns. Total advance on 
front line: 55 kilometers. 

Insignia: Parti-colored quadrant, suggest- 
ing the arc of a rainbow, after Rainbow Divi- 


The Seventy-sixth was composed of men 
from the New England States and northern 
New York State and was stationed at Camp 
Devens, Massachusetts. The Seventy-sixth 
Division and those following, to include the 
Ninety-second, where knovm as National Army 
divisions and it was organized from the first 
draft in September, 1918. It went to France 
in July, 1918, and was a depot division, sta- 
tioned at St. Aniand-Montrond and sent 19,971 
replacements to the front. 


National Ai-my of New York City: Arrived 
in France April 13, 1918. Activities: Bacca- 
rat sector, June 20- Aug. 4; Fismes-Bazoches 
sector, Vesle front, Aug. 12-Sept. Ifi; La Har- 
azee-Feur de Paris-la Fille Morte line, Sept. 
26-Oct. 16 (Argonne-Meuse offensive); Cham- 
pigneulles line, Aire-Meuse, Oct. 31-Nov. 12 
(Argonne-Meuse offensive). 

Prisoners captured: 13 officers, 737 enlist- 

ed men. Guns captured: 44 pieces of artil- 
lery, 323 machine guns. 

Insignia: Golden fac-simile of the Statue 
of Liberty on blue background. 


National Army of New Jersey, Delaware and 
New York. Arrived in France June 8, 1918. 
Activities: Limey sector, St. Mihiel front, 
Sept. 16 to Oct. 4; Grand Pr6-St. Juvin sector, 
Oct. 16 to Nov. 5 (Meuse-Argonne offensive). 

Prisoners captured: Six officers, 392 men. 
Guns captured: Four or more pieces of artil- 
lery, 43 or more machine guns. Total advance 
on front line, 21 kilometers. 

Insignia: Crimson semi-cii'cle crossed by a 
white streak of lightning which begins at up- 
per right hand side of insignia and crosses to 
the lower left hand corner. The colors, crimson 
and white, are those of the division; the light- 
ning is symbolic of "Lightning Division," the 
name adopted by division before leaving the 


National Army of District of Columbia, 
Maryland and Pennsylvania; Divisional head- 
quarters arrived in Fi'ance July 15, 1918. Ac- 
tivities: Sector 304, between Argonne and 
Meuse, Sept. 16 to 30 (Meuse-Argonne offen- 
sive, Sept. 26 to 30); Troyon sector, east of 
Meuse, Oct. 8 to 25; Grand Montague sector, 
heights east of Meuse river, Oct. 29 to Novem- 
ber 11 (active operations in progress most of 
time ) . 

Prisoners captured: One officer, 391 enlist- 
ed men. Guns captui'ed: 32 pieces of artil- 
lery, 275 machine guns. Total advance on 
front line, 19^2 kilometers. 

Insignia: Lorraine Cross, adopted in the 
15th century by the House of Aujou, following 
the defeat of Charles the Bold, as a symbol of 


National Army of Virginia, West Virginia 
and Pennsylvania. Divisional headquartei's 
arrived in France May 30, 1918. Activities: 
Aveuly Woods, Arras (Artois front), July 23 
to Aug. 18 (under British); St. Mihiel salient, 
Sept. 12-15 (one regiment of Infantry and one 
Machine Gun Battalion, reserve Second French 
Colonial Corps), Bethincourt sector, Sept. 25- 
29 (Argonne-Meuse offensive); Nantillois sec- 
tor, Oct. 4-12 (Argonne-Meuse offensive); St. 
Juvin, Nov. 1-6 (Argonne-Meuse offensive). 

Prisoners captured: 103 officers, 1,710 en- 
listed men. Guns captured: 88 pieces of ar- 



Rephoto by John Hood 

Top Row— EdBar J. Johnson. Theo. Lau. Paul Kahlerl, Geo. L. Smerchek. Einer Nilson. Wm. A. Beller. H. H. Keeler. 
Second— H. H. Newell. Walter E. Anderson. H. D. Lewis, M. E. Wagner. Emil Molholt. W. F. Bratz, Edmund Horner. 
Third— T. H. Firks. Thos. Allen, L. P. Qualler. M. Gizirian. B. Teshta. Clarence B. Peterson. Walter Sieb. 
Fourth — Harry Duda. F. P. Christien. Harvey Peterson. Tony Holy. E. H. Ross, Curtis Foreman. H. A. Wisnefsky. 
Fifth— Theo. Frey. John G. Hansen. Harold C. Rasmussen. A. E. Stindle, R. S. Kasprovich. R. McCullough, G. W. Harms. 
Bottom— J. A. Munro, J. A. Kortendick. Edwin J. Nelson, Chas. Wahler, A. E. Haglund, Arthur Hansen, R. A. Fuller. 



tillery," 641 machine guns. Total advance on 
front line: 37 kilometers. 

Insignia: Shield of olive drab cloth, upon 
which is superimpo.sed in center three blue 
hills, i-epresenting the Blue Ridge mountains, 
all outlined in white. 


National Army of North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Florida and Porto Rico. Arrived in 
France Aug. 16, 1918. Activities: East of 
St. Di6 and Raon I'Etape sector, Vosges, Sept. 
18 to Oct. 19 (brigaded with 20th French Di- 
vision) ; Sommedieue sector between Haudie- 
men works and Benz6e-en-Woevre, Nov. 7-17. 

Total advance on front line: 5^2 kilometers. 

Insignia: Wild cat of varying color. Select- 
ed in the belief that the division could "emulate 
it in its fighting qualities." 


National Army of Georgia, Alabama and 
Tennessee. Divisional headquarters arrived in 
France about May 17, 1918. Activities: 
Lagny sector, June 25 to Aug. 10 (brigaded 
\vith 1.54th French Division); Marbache sector, 
Aug. 17 to Sept. 11; St. Mihiel operation, Sept. 
12-15; Baulney and Charpentry, Fleville and 
Chehery, Chehery and la Viei'gette sectors, 
Sept. 30 to Oct. 31 (Argonne-Meuse offensive). 

Prisoners captured: 18 officers, 827 enlist- 
ed men. Guns captured: 11 pieces of artil- 
lery, 311 machine guns. Total advance on 
front line: 17 kilometers. 

Insignia: '"A A" in gold braid upon cii'cle 
of solid blue, the whole superimposed on square 
background of red. The "AA" stands for "All- 
American," the name chosen for the division, 
with the further later significance "Ail- 


The Eighty-third Division was formed of 
men from Ohio and West Virginia and was 
stationed at Camp Sherman, Ohio. It went 
to France in June, 1918, and was a depot di- 
vision at Le Mans, sending 193,221 replace- 
ments to the front. One regiment, the Thirty- 
third, served in Italy and was in the battle 
of Vittorio-Veneto. The insignia consists of 
the letters of Ohio in monogram. 


The Eighty-fourth Division was formed of 
men from Indiana, Kentucky, and southern Ill- 

inois, and was stationed at Camp Taylor, Ken- 
tucky. It went to France in September, 1918, 
but never got into the line. 


The Eighty-fifth Division was formed of men 
from Michigan and Wisconsin and was sta- 
tioned at Camp Custer, Michigan. It went to 
France in August, 1918, was a depot division 
stationed at Cosnes, and sent 3,948 replace- 
ments to the front. It was known as the Cus- 
ter Division, in honor of General Custer and 
also the camp at which it was trained, the in- 
signia consisting of the initials C. D. One of 
the infantry regiments, the Three Hundred 
and Thirty-ninth, served in noi'thern Russia. 


National Army from northern Illinois and 
was stationed at Camp Grant, Illinois. It 
went to France in September, 1918, never get- 
ting into the line. It was known as the Black 
Hawk Division, which is represented in the 


National Army of Louisiana, Arkansas, and 
Mississippi, stationed at Camp Pike, Arkansas. 
It went to France in September, 1918, and 
never got into the line. The insignia appears 
to have had no special significance. It was a 
bro-wn acorn on a circular green background. 


National Army troops from North Dakota, 
Minnesota, Iowa, and Western Illinois, sta- 
tioned at Camp Dodge Iowa. It went to France 
in August, 1918, and served in Alsace from 
October 7 to November 5; 28 days in a quiet 
sector, none in active sectors. It captured 
three prisoners and lost 29 killed and 89 

The insignia was evolved by two figures "8" 
at right angles, the result being a four-leaf 
clover, representing the four States from 
which the personnel of the division came. It 
is in blue for the infantry and machine gun 
battalions, in red for the artillery, and in 
black for the remainder of the division. 


National Army troops from Kansas, Mis- 
souri, and Colorado, stationed at Camp Fun- 
ston, Kansas. It went to France in June, 
1918, and went into the line in August, north- 
west of Toul; it was at St. Mihiel, in the sec- 



Rephoto by John Hui 

Top Row — Earl Zeesc. Floyd E. Hall. F. E. Magnan. Wm. Srhultz, F. A. Robers. John Arseneau. Anton Molholt. 
Second — James Verbes, Arthur Losch, P. Wischnewsky, Mike Vineak. L. T. Auterman. Joseph Bartkos. Irving Anderson. 
Third— Tobias C. Jensen, E. H. Baker, Everett Gifford, F. J. Schliesmann, P. P. Becker, Carl E. Andersen, C. W. Zobac. 
Fourth— Herbert Joreenson, A. T. Nielsen, John O. Petersen, E. A. Butzine, B. W. Burroughs, Harry Dibble, C. H. Holm. 
Fifth — Nels C. Hansen, P. E. Bergeron, Claude M. Smith, C. Falasrhi, Ashley M. Cape. L. E. Grossman, Grover Miller. 
Bottom — Fred Hanson, W. A. Hanson. Chas. Stindle. Geo. S^dlon. C. D. Sawyer, Matthew Gitzen. John Lokarcyk. 



tor Bois de Bouchot, and in the Meuse-Ai'- 
gonne oflfensive. It was 55 days in quiet and 
28 in active sectors and advanced 48 kilometers 
against resistance, the second best record in 
this I'espect of the National Army Divisions 
and exceeded by only five of the A. E. F. di- 
visions. It captured 5,061 prisoners, the third 
best record in the A. E. F., being surpassed 
only by the First and Second Divisions. It 
lost 1,433 killed and 5,858 wounded. 

It was known as the Middle West Division 
and the insignia is the letter "W," which when 
inverted becomes an "M." The central open 
space is colored to show the organization as 
follows: One Hundred Seventy-seventh In- 
fantry Brigade, sky blue; One Hundred Seven- 
ty-eighth Infantry Brigade, navy blue; One 
Hundred Sixty-fourth Field Artillery Brigade, 
scarlet; Engineers, scarlet, edged with white; 
Three Hundred Forty-first Machine Gun Bat- 
talion, half sky blue and half scarlet; Three 
Hundred Forty-second Machine Gun Battalion, 
half navy blue and half scai'let; Three Hun- 
dred Forty-thii'd Machine Gun Battalion, half 
orange and half scarlet; Signal Battalion, or- 
ange; Supply Train, purple, edged with white; 
Sanitary Ti'ain, white with red cross, and Di- 
vision Headquarters, no color. 


National Army of Texas and Oklahoma. Di- 
visional headquarters arrived in France June 
23, 1918. Activities: Sazerais-Haye-Puve- 
nelle sector, Aug. 24-Oct. 10; St. Mihiel opera- 
tion, September 12-15; demonstration at be- 
ginning of Argonne-Meuse off'ensive, Sept. 26; 
Argonne Meuse offensive, Oct. 19-Nov. 11. 

Prisoners captured: 32 officers, 1,844 en- 
listed men. Guns captured: 42 pieces of ar- 
tillery, 230 machine guns. Total advance on 
front line: 28 V2 kilometers. 

Insignia: Red monogram "TO," standing 
for Texas-Oklahoma. 


National Army of Alaska, Washington, Ore- 
gon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Montana, Wyo- 
ming and Utah. Divisional headquarters ar- 
rived in France July 12, 1918. Activities: Ar- 
gonne-Meuse sector near Vauquies, Sept. 20- 
Oct 3 (Argonne-Meuse offensive, Sept. 26-Oct. 
3); west of Escaut river, Belgium, Oct. 30-Nov. 
4; east of Escaut river, Belgium, Nov. 10-11. 

Prisoners captured: 12 officers, 2,400 enlist- 
ed men. Guns captured: 33 pieces of artil- 

lery, 471 machine guns. Total advance on 
front line: 34 kilometers. 

Insignia: Green fir tree. The 91st is known 
as the "Wild West Division." Design emblem- 
atic of the far West. 


National Army. Division headquarters ar- 
rived in France June 19, 1918. Activities: St. 
Di6 sector, Vosges, Aug. 29-Sept. 20; Argonne- 
Meuse offensive, Sept. 25-30 (reserve of First 
Army Corps); Marbache sector, Oct. 9-Nov. 15. 

Total advance on front line: 8 kilometers. 

Insignia: American buffalo, colors varying, 
selected "because traditional Indians called 
negro soldiers 'buffaloes.' " 

The first Army was organized for the St. 
Mihiel offensive, under command of Gen. Per- 
shing himself. It then consisted of the First, 
Fourth, and Fifth Corps, with the Thirty- 
third, Thirty-fifth, Eightieth, and Ninety-first 
Divisions in reserve. The object was attained 
without putting any of the reserve divisions in 
the line. 

Later the First Army was commanded by 
Lieut. Gen. Hunter Liggett, and at the com- 
mencement of the Meuse-Argonne drive con- 
sisted of the First, Third, and Fifth Corps, 
with the First, Twenty-ninth, and Eighty-sec- 
ond Divisions in reserve. 

The insignia used by members of First Army 
headquarters organizations was a large red 
and white "A." 

In the lower part of the insignia are de- 
vices to represent different arms of the serv- 
ice: a red and white patch for army artil- 
lery; red castle for the army engineers; red, 
white, and blue cocarde for the air service of 
the army, etc. 

In the reoi'ganization after the armistice the 
First j\rmy consisted of the First, Fifth, and 
Eighth Corps and immediately began prepara- 
tions to leave France for the United States. 

The Third Corps during the St. Mihiel of- 
fensive was on the Meuse, making prepara- 
tions for the forthcoming Meuse-Argonne 
drive, which it opened v^dth the Thirty-third 
being the exti'eme right of the movement along 
the Meuse for the first few days. 

In the reorganization after the armistice 
the Third Corps consisted of the Second, Thirty- 
second, and Forty-second Divisions and was 
stationed in the occupied German territory. 



The air service was outside of any divisional 
or corps organizations, although squadrons 
were attached to such units. 

On declaration of war the United States had 
55 service airplanes, 51 of which were obsolete 
and the other four obsolescent. The personnel 
consisted of approximately 65 officers and 1.100 
enlisted men. 

At the time the armistice was signed the 

United States had 3,538 airplanes in the A. 
E. F. and 4,865 in the United States, a total 
of 8,403. The total personnel consisted of ap- 
proximately 200,000 officers and men. 

The American army made approximately 
over the enemy's line 12,830 pursuit flights, 
6,672 observation flights and 1,174 bombing 
flights, a total of 20,676. They flew for 35,747 
hours over the enemy's line, covering approxi- 
mately 3,574,700 miles. 

■As They Were" Waco, 1917 


THROUGHOUT modern history, as writ- 
en, we read fo men marching forward to 
face peril and death, with the martial 
strains of national anthems upon their lips. 
It seems a characteristic of historians that they 
find it necessary to put noble words in the 
mouths of dying men, and to credit all men 
in uniform with the desire and ability to sing- 
such songs as "The Star Spangled Banner" or 
"God Save the King" when they approach the 
cannon's mouth. 

Laying no claim to the title of historian, the 
author of this modest work feels fj-ee to pen 
a few words upon this subject which will, per- 
haps, strike all former soldiers as having the 
merit of truth even though it detracts from 
the halo of romance which should shimmer 
'round their heads. To sum up briefly, careful 
inquiry among eye-witnesses of certain world- 
famous events, personal observation of the 
conduct of large numbers of men under stress 
of excitement and peril, and attendance at the 
demise of a number of warriors who might 
well be expected to give utterance to classic 
phrases when nearing the end, have all con- 
vinced the writer that practically all of the 
incidents of the sort mentioned are pure fiction. 

Two of the most commonly accepted stories 
relating to the use of proper musical accom- 
paniments for persons about to pass on to a 
brighter and better existence are those which 
credit the band on the liner Titanic with 
playing "Nearer, my God to Thee" for fifteen 
or twenty minutes while the doomed vessel slid 
beneath the waters carrying with it the band 
and many hundred other persons; and allege 
that the soldiers and sailors on the Transport 
Tuscania in 1918 lined up at the rails and 
sang three verses of "The Star Spangled Ban- 
ner" while waiting for the German torpedo's 
full effect to be felt. I have the word of two 
survivors of the Titanic, which sunk on her 
maiden trip in 1912, that the band did not play 
"Nearer, my God to Thee" or anything else. 

but spent all it's time packing up clothing and 
valuables, preparatory to leaving as soon as 
some passing vessel should appear. Unfor- 
tunately, assistance came too late to rescue 
most of them. 

In the case of the Tuscania, I discussed this 
matter with ten members of the Thii'ty-second 
division who had remained aboard until among 
the last, and was assured by all of them that 
singing was about the last thing anybody 
thought of, and nobody actually tried out their 
voices in the night air off the Irish coast that 
night. There were some rather harsh remarks 
passed from the upper decks in regard to the 
conduct of two army officers who left the 
transport in lifeboats while members of their 
commands still remained on the sinking ship, 
but no one burst into song about that or any- 
thing else. Furthermore, as Capt. Hale of 
Kenosha said, it was doubtful if anyone aboard 
knew three verses of "The Star Spangled Ban- 
ner;" certainly no one has ever been discovered 
in America who could progress that far with- 
out looking at the words and music. Capt. 
Hale was taken from the Tuscania by a de- 
stroyer a few moments before the transport 
sank and undoubtedly would have remembered 
such an astonishing event, had a company of 
casual troops started to sing the most diffi- 
cult musical composition ever written for the 

It is true that French soldiers occasionally 
sang "Les Marseilles" while on the road, two 
reasons being that most of them know the 
words, and the music is good for marching. 
On the other hand, I think that most A. E. F. 
veterans will testify that for every time they 
heard the poilus sing "Les Marseilles," they 
heard them shouting the catchy strains of 
"Madalon" fifty times or more. "Madalon" is 
one of those ballads which are easy of rendi- 
tion, tell a story which does not strain any- 
one's intellectual powers, and above all pro- 
vides a perfect cadence for marching feet. It 



found its origin in a comic opera and the words 
refer to the popularity of a barmaid who was 
on good terms with everyone from the general 
down to the M. P.'s. 

Because this is a volume of facts, rather than 
romantic history, an effort will be made to set 
forth something in relation to the music of our 
army in the late war. 

For the first time in American history, the 
recent conflict gave no piece of music to the 
nation which possesses any merit beyond a 
temporary popularity. Soldiers really longed 
for some typical and expressive song such as 
"Marching through Georgia," "Tenting To- 
night" or "Old Black Joe," which echoed along 
the roads and through the camps in Civil War 
days, but they never found it. Early in the 
struggle, the British troops seized on a music 
hall ditty entitled, "Tipperary," and as it was 
a good marching song its silly lines became 
familiar to all English speaking troopers as 
the war continued. The chorus ran: 

It's a long way to Tipperary, 

It's a long way to go. 
It's a long way to Tipperary, 

And the sweetest girl I know. 
Good-bye, Piccadilly; 

Farewell, Liecester Square! 
It's a long, long way to Tipperary, 

But my heai't's right there. 

The popularity of this gem waned after two 
or three years of use, but the bands used it 
occasionally on parades even unto the finish. 

At about the time America entered the con- 
flict, Geoi-ge H. Cohan was staging a light 
opera and, needing a cui'tain raiser, resorted 
to an ancient method of getting one. He 
united a few strains from bugle calls, with 
some bars from "Johnny Get Your Gun," and 
there soon issued from the mouths of chorus 
girls the strident message of "Over There": 

Over there, over there! 

Send the word, send the word, over there, 

That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are 
coming, — 
Drums rum-tumming every^vhere! 
So prepare, say a pi'ayer. 
Send the word, send the word to bewai'e; 

We'll be over, we're coming over. 
And we won't come back till it's over over there. 

This jingle caught the popular fancy. The 
tune had a martial sound and at the same time 
included a sort of "rag time" melody that kept 
it from being too tear-inspiring. The soldiers 
liked the name "Yank;" the sentiment ex- 
pressed by the words was rather inspiring if 
one took the trouble to locate it, and it also 
hit the spot by conveying a threat to the 
Kaiser in good-natured song. For most of the 

year 1917, every military parade and review 
was accomplished to the blaring notes of "Over 
There," and every adventurous doughboy wav- 
ing good-bye to the spires and towers of Man- 
hattan roared out the sad news that "he 
wouldn't be back till it's over over there." 
The words "over there" were universally used 
to describe the fields of endeavor of the newly 
formed A. E. F., thi'oughout the American 
participation in the war. 

In the camps in America, college songs and 
the old favorite plantation melodies main- 
tained their popularity for evening songfests 
in tents and barracks. As a part of the wel- 
fare work in camps, compulsory "sings" were 
held, and for the most part were greatly en- 
joyed. Song-leaders were quite successful in 
getting their youthful audiences to join in 
choral singing of such masterpieces as: 

K-K-K-Katy, beautiful Katy, 

You're the only g-g-g-girl that I adore. 
When the m-m-m-moon shines, over the cow 

I'll be waiting at the k-k-k-kitchen door. 


Good morning, Mister Zip, Zip, Zip, 

With your hair cut just as short as mine. 

Good morning, Mister Zip, Zip, Zip, 
You're certainly looking fine. 

Ashes to ashes, and dust to dust. 

If the Camels don't get you the Fatimas must. 

Good morning. Mister Zip, Zip, Zip, 
With your hair cut just as — 
Your hair cut just as short as — 
Your hair cut just as short as mine. 

The song leaders did not forget to wind up 
with the national airs, but it is with regret 
that we are forced to report that "Mister Zip" 
and "Katy" evoked much more enthusiasm, be- 
cause the American young man is not given 
to voicing his patriotism in harmonious tones, 
even were he possessed of the vocal ability 
necessary to hit the high notes of "The Star 
Spangled Banner," or the peculiar sense of 
humor required to find cause for fun in "Yan- 
kee Doodle." 

Two popular ballads of the day found some 
response in the bosoms of the soldiers and 
sailors even though their minor chords spoke 
of sadness and gloom, and their words foretold 
days and nights of homesickness. Both in 
American cantonments and in billets in France, 
American voices often could be heard crooning 
these two songs: 


Nights are grow^ing very lonely, 

Days are very long; 
I'm growing weary only 

List'ning for your song. 



Old remembrances are thronging 

Thro' my memory. 
'Til it seems the world is full of dreams, 

Just to call you back to me. 

There's a long, long trail awinding 

Into the land of my dreams, 
Where the nightingales are singing 

And a white moon beams: 
There's a long, long night of waiting 

Until my dreams all come true 
'Til the day when I'll be going down 

That long, long trail with you. 

Keep the home fires burning. 
While your hearts are yearning, 
Though your lads are far away, 

They di-eam of home. 
There's a silver lining, 
Through the dark cloud shining 
Turn the dark cloud inside out. 

Till the boys come home. 

On the other hand, many a marching regi- 
ment swung along the roads in Vei'mont and 
Oregon, in Virginia and Texas, to the time of 
this disreputable refrain: 

Drunk last night, drunk the night before, 
Drunker tonight than I ever was before. 
When I'm drunk, I am as happy as can be, 
For I am a member of the Souse family. 

Fortunately for the fate of the nation, the 
words had no basis of fact, in view of the 
strict regulations governing the sale of strong 
and spiritous liquors in the vicinity of camps. 

It is characteristic of all soldiers to kick, 
and the follo%ving song gained some popularity 
because its sentiments were endorsed by all 

O, how I hate to get up in the morning; 
O, how I'd like to remain in bed. 

For the hardest blow of all 

Is to hear the bugler call: 
"You've got to get up! You've got to get up! 
"You've got to get up in the morning!" 

Some day I'm going to murder the bugler. 

Some day they're going to find him dead! 
Then I'll get the other pup — 
The one that wakes the bugler up — 

And spend the rest of my life in bed. 

Song leaders tried to prevail upon their sub- 
jects to adopt parodies upon old melodies, 
whose new words contained sentiments of high 
patriotism and noble ambitions, but as a gen- 
eral thing- the boys prepared their own paro- 
dies, and the words were not of the sort worth 
handing down to posterity. In France, the 
songs invariably expressed some opinion about 
the hardships of army life, and continued the 
good-natured "grousing" which enlivens all 

armies. Men will dare to do the most astound- 
ing acts of bravery, they will undergo all neces- 
sary privations without contemporaneous pro- 
test, and they would rather submit to the most 
humiliating punishment than to be transferred 
from scenes of danger and discomfort to an 
easy berth, but they insist upon the privilege 
of kicking about their fate whenever they find 
time to sit do\vn with their feet before a fire 
and a pipe in their mouth. Then, indeed, they 
insist that they are cowards and babies; that 

they would leave the d d army in the lurch 

if they could only get away, and that they 
would give every franc they had to buy a soft 
job in the training camps back home. So the 
doughboy, preparing to "go in" for a new of- 
fensive, wails in mournful tones: 

I want to go home, 

I want to go home, 

The bullets, they whistle, 

The cannon they roar, 

I don't want to go to the trenches no more. 

Take me over the sea 

Where the Huns can't get after me, 

Oh my, I'm too young to die, 

I want to go home. 

And after the armistice was declared and he 
saw boatload after boatload of non-combatants 
going across the Atlantic while he rolled his 
pup-tent for the march to the Rhine, he ad- 
dressed the following sarcastic parody to his 
girl in the States and, through her, to the 
Commander-in-Chief and all others in author- 

Darling, I am coming back — silver threads 
among the black — 

Now that peace in Europe nears I'll be home in 
seven years. 

I'll drop in on you some night, with my whisk- 
ers long and white. 

Home again with you once moi'e — say by nine- 
teen twenty four. 

Once I thought by now I'd be sailing back 
across the sea. 

Back to where you sit and pine — but I'm head- 
ing for the Rhine. 

You can hear the M. P.'s curse: "War is hell, 
but Peace is worse." 

When the next war comes — oh, well — I'll rush 
in, I will like hell. 

Almost evei-y division and branch of the 
service had some rollicking song which was 
especially popular in its own realms. For in- 
stance, Wisconsin men were inclined to use 
that excellent university football song, "On, 
Wisconsin," both for a marching tune and for 
band exercise. In this connection it is recalled 
that when General Parker, first commander of 



the Thirty-second division, heard the 121st 
regiment band playing the selection, he took 
it for granted that it was an original produc- 
tion of the band leader, David Routt, and turn- 
ing to his adjutant, said: 

"Major, that is a fine sounding piece. Make 
a note that it is my order that that be the of- 
ficial divisional march, to be used at all re- 
views and concerts as such. Have that band 
leader name it 'Thirty-second Division March' 
and file a copy with you." 

Which would indicate that Gen. Parker was 
not very familiar with well known musical se- 
lections of the day. As the division was com- 
posed of part Michigan and part Wisconsin 
men, the order resulted in a protest from some 
Michiganders, and the adjutant tactfully dis- 
regarded his orders. Probably Gen. Parker 
never knew the difference. 

All artillery adopted the "Artillery Song" 
wi'itten for a Michigan regiment some years 
before. It was a catchy air, with appropriate 
words, and many a night hike was enlivened 
by the words, from thousands of throats, of the 

Over hill, over dale, as we hit the dusty 

And the caissons go rolling along. 

Then there were songs WTitten by local com- 
posers which gained fame in certain sections. 
Such a one was: 


First we line up, company front. 
From the tall boy to the i-unt, 
Then we dress up with a grunt. 

Eyes to Right. 
The Corporals with their nods, 
Try to straighten up their squads 
But the Lieutenant says "ye Gods, 

What a Sight!" 
He gives a sharp command, 
And we think we're marching grand. 
Then he says "You'll all get canned, 

Get some pep." 
He orders "Left Oblique" 
In a voice that is not weak. 
"What's the matter, Private Peate ? 

You're out of Step." 
When he orders "Double Quick." 
The fellows all look sick, 
'Cause we know he's going to kick, 

"That was Rotten." 
We are almost moved to tears, 
But we stand his jibes and jeers 
When he savs — "Hey, are your ears 

Filled up with cotton?" 
Hold your heads up in the air, 
Straighten up; or don't you care, 
You'll have to "Over There." 

Says the "Lieut." 

"In France they're much more strict. 
If you don't cai'e to get kicked. 
Watch your step or you'll be picked 

As a galloot." 
As he shouts in accents stern 
The Lieutenant seems to yearn, 
For a company that could learn 

Without abuse. 
So we drill and drill and drill, 
Do every movement on the bill, 
But it seems we're rookies still, 

So what's the use. 

The "fighting units" in France had a ron- 
delay which enlivened many a session in cafe 
and wayside inn. It told ironically of the 
various claims upon fame made by various 
branches of the service, and amateur singers 
had no difficulty in adding to the verses inter- 
minably to attend to good-natured grudges 
against individuals and regiments. The origi- 
nal version started off thus: 


The Cavalry say they won the war, parlez-vous. 
The Cavalry said they did it all. 
Shooting craps in an empty stall, Hinkey- 
Dinkey parlez-vous. 

The Tank Corps say they won the war, parlez- 
The Tank Corps boys, they fought tres bon 
Against M.P.'s ai'ound Dijon. 

The Medics say they won the war, parlez-vous. 
The Medics say they saved the line. 
With C. C. pills and iodine. 

The Signal Corps say they won the war, par- 
And all they did in the Signal Corps, 
Was play blackjack on the office floor. 

The Q. M. say they won the war, parlez-vous. 
It was fini this and beaucoup that, 
And a number ten for a number quatre. 

The M. P.'s say they won the war, parlez-vous. 
The M. P.'s say they won the war, 
Standing guard at a caf6 door. 

T'ne C. 0. says he won the war, parlez-vous. 
The C. 0. wants the Croix de Guerre, 
For sitting around in his Morris chair. 
Hinkey-Dinkey, parlez-vous. 

Still another parody which gained much 
popularity was one giving voice to the disap- 
pointment of those men who had enlisted to 
slay Germans but had wound up in some 
school, office or home camp for permanent 
duty. There were as many different versions 
of this "service flag" song as there were men 
bewailing their fate, following transfers and 
assignments to disagreeable duties. Here are 
two typical examples of the varied sentiments 
expressed to the music of "Mother, take Dovvti 
your Service Flag:" 



Photos by Billiner^-Leonaid Mdlnie 

Top Row— John A. Dreson, H. M. Wallis Jr., F. W. Pei), C. I. Hansen, Victor Holm, Russell Thomas. 
Second — Andrew Feddersen, Mark H. Martin, Jack R. Melvin, Harrison E. Fellows, John Cullen, Clarence Flanagan. 
Third — Donald J. Morey, John D. Roberts, Julius FeiKes, Newell E. French, Dr. C. O. Schaefer. F. D. Gcbhardt. 
Fourth — John C. Bayer. Dale McCutcheon, E. L. Mutchler. Thos. J. Berg, Jacob Adams, C. H. Landerslager. 
Bottom — Albert Milner, Wilfred Haumerson, Nels Feddersen, Alfred Feddersen, E, F. Gotsche, Grover McNitt. 



(Tours Version) 

Mother, take down your service flag, 

Your son's in the S. O. S. 
He's S. O. L., but what the hell, 

He never suffered less. 
He may be thin, but that's from gin 

Or else I miss my guess. 
So mother, take down your service flag. 

Your son's in the S. O. S. 

(Air Service Version) 

Mother, put out your golden star. 

Your son's goin' up in a Sop; 
The wings are weak, the ship's a freak. 

She's got a rickety prop. 
The motor's junk, the pilot's drunk. 

He's sure to take a flop — 
Oh, mother, put out your golden star 

Your son's goin' up in a Sop. 

Another song which helped to enliven a 
march occasionally, was: 

Uncle Sammy, he needs the infantry, 
He needs the cavalry, he needs artillery. 

Then, By , we'll all go to Germany! 

Poor old Kaiser Bill! 

Despite his habit of making light of serious 
matters, the American soldier was not slow to 
I'ecognize real beauty in the fields of music and 
poetry. There was hardly a Yank in France 
who did not have somewhere about his person 
a copy of the beautiful poem, "In Flanders 
Fields," written by Lieut.-Col. John D. McCrae 
of Montreal shortly before his death near 
Ypres : 

In Flanders fields the poppies blow 
Between the crosses, row on row. 
That mark our place; and in the sky 
The larks, still bravely singing, fly, 
Scarce heard amidst the guns below. 
We are the dead. Short days ago 
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, 
Loved and were loved, and now we lie 
In Flanders fields. 

Take up our quarrel with the foe! 
To you from falling hands we throw 
The torch. Be yours to hold it high! 
If ye break faith with us who die 
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow 
In Flanders fields. 

So, too, he appreciated the "Reply of Ameri- 
ca," and in hundreds of straggling pup-tents 
and dugouts, the words were read and recited, 
and their sentiment endorsed with low-spoken 
words of approval: 

Rest ye in peace, ye Flanders dead. 
The fight that ye so bravely led 
We've taken up. And we will keep 
True faith with you who lie asleep 
With each a cross to mark his bed. 
And poppies blowing overhead 
Where once his own life blood ran red. 
So let your rest be sweet and deep 
In Flanders fields. 

Fear not that ye have died for naught. 
The torch ye threw to us we caught. 
Ten million hands will hold it high 
And Freedom's light shall never die. 
We've learned the lesson that ye taught, 
In Flanders fields. 

When the first contingents of American 
troops went to France they were informed 
through the Parisian newspapers that General 
Pershing upon his arrival overseas had been 
escorted to the tomb of Marquis de LaFayette. 
He had brought a wreath vnth him and (so the 
story went) as he laid it at the foot of the 
monument, he rendered a salute and declared, 

"LaFayette, we have come." 

It later developed that Gen. Pershing said 
nothing of the sort, but it is true that two 
years later a homesick Yankee soldier, stand- 
ing in the same place, recalled the alleged ut- 
terance by drawing himself erect, saluting, and 

"LaFayette, we are still over here, damn 
the luck!" 

Another profane but universally endorsed 
bit of repartee along the same lines comes to 
mind. During the war a part of our propa- 
ganda had to do with the alleged debt we owed 
to the French people for the part the old mon- 
archy played in defeating the British in our 
Revolutionary war. Whenever anyone ques- 
tioned the merits of any new bit of charity 
toward the French people, they were always 
sternly reminded of this "debt." Of course no 
mention was made of the difficulties throvvTi 
in the way of the above-mentioned LaFayette 
when he first proposed coming to America to 
help the struggling republic in its fight for 
freedom. The phrase was used so generally 
that it got on the nerves of some of the boys 
over in France, who after the war were finding 
their relations viith the French somewhat 
strained, for various reasons. One of them 
who had been in France for two years, and 
had suff"ered from cooties, wounds, shortage of 
food, and similar discomforts, and then had 
been left there after the armistice to help sell 
the property of the army to the natives at 
very low prices, reared up one day when his 
request for a transfer to a homeward bound 
unit was denied, and asked in loud tones: 

"Say, what in hell else do we owe France, 
anyway ? " 

And the startled lieutenant who heard it 
agreed fervently that the debt seemed to have 




The motor driven ambulances saved thousands of lives by getting men where they could have care within a short time 

after they were injured. Maj. W. W. Johnston tells of the wonderful work of the Racine ofKanization at the battle 

fronts when no other ambulance unit would take a chance in pushing up to the rapidly advancing front and hauling 

the serious cases from agony and exposure to hospital care and attention. 

been cleared, unless some new items had been 
entered on the books recently. 

In spite of their opinion, however, it was 
many months after the close of the war when 
the last of the numerous appeals for a few 
millions of dollars for this or that French 
fund was answered as a part payment on the 
famous debt. 

Investigation has shown that almost every 
famous uttei-ance credited to American officers 
in the recent war were figments of the imag- 
ination, originating in the minds of corre- 
spondents far from the scene. Nevertheless, 
they probably will live in future histories. 

Death-bed sentiments of soldiers were gen- 
erally limited to requests for a drink of water, 
or some other creature comfort. Men occa- 
sionally murmured, in their delirium, the names 
of relatives near and dear to them, or imagined 
themselves in other and happier circumstances, 
but physicians at two large field hospitals, 
and at three base hospitals, were inclined to 
disbelieve utterly the accepted stories of dying 
men discussing affairs of state in oratorical 
phrases, or giving expression to carefully 
worded sentiments suitable for framing in pa- 
triotic households. This does not mean that 
American soldiers did not possess these senti- 

ments, but merely that men dying from wounds 
have other matters to occupy their attention 
if their minds remain clear as the end ap- 
proaches. Nature's sweet mantle of sleep gen- 
erally brings peace and quiet to the dying for 
many hours before death actually occurs, and 
few dying men realize that they are doomed. 

It may be of some comfoj't to those who lost 
relatives in battle to know that deaths on the 
battlefield or the receiving of wounds from bul- 
lets and shells are not painful. The writer 
has seen dozens of men wounded, and was se- 
verely wounded himself, and in all instances 
there was every evidence that the injury came 
as a great surprise. Before the victim realized 
what had happened the shock of the accident 
had passed and there was very little pain felt 
from that time until the hour, often days af- 
terward, when the first dressings were changed 
in a hospital far to the rear of the lines. In 
cases of very serious wounds, this process 
usually was carried out while the patient was 
under an anaesthetic. 

When a soldier is sti'uck by a missile, his 
first involuntary movement is to throw his 
arm up in front of his face as a protection. 
Sometimes he is rendered unconscious befoi'e 
the movement is completed and the inertia 



of the swiftly moving limb carries it up above 
the head. From this arises the commonly ac- 
cepted view that men who are shot throw both 
hands above their head, leap in the air and fall 
backwards. The direction in which they fall 
depends almost entirely upon the direction 
from which the missile came, if it has much 
striking' force. In cases where a bullet makes 
a clean wound through the body without "mush- 
rooming" or striking solid bone, the injured 
person's knees usually weaken instantly and 
the man crumples down as though he were 
fainting — which, in fact, is usually the case. If 
he is struck in one arm, the effect of the impact 
may be such as to turn him pai't way around. 
Whether the blow itself causes him to fall, 
training and instinct cause a man to get down 
on the ground for protection against other fly- 
ing metal. 

The most painful part of a new wound is on 
the surface, where the sensitory nerves are 
numerous and exposed. The cutting of even 
the largest nerves occurs so suddenly that the 
feeling is not unlike a sudden electric shock 
which is all over before the victim realizes 
what happened. 

Almost every wounded man experiences a 
feeling of profound helplessness after his 
injury. His g'reat desire is to get out of the 

vicinity of the accident, even though he knows 
that it may be safer thereafter than some 
other refuge. Dozens of wounded men have 
declared that their most terrible moments 
were the ones which passed between the in- 
stant they were wounded and the time when 
they reached a first aid station. Being disabled, 
thoy could not avoid the feeling that they were 
unable to protect themselves, although even a 
well person can hardly ward off steel bullets 
or iron shell fragments. The ride to the rear 
is an occasion of much comfort to one unable 
to move about by himself, and the sight of a 
field hospital arouses feelings akin to those 
inspired when the desert traveler sees a dis- 
tant oasis. 

The word of a regimental surgeon who dress- 
es many hundreds of wounded doughboys is 
accepted absolutely by the author, when he 
declares : 

"Of all the men who ever were carried into 
the first aid station, I have yet to hear of one 
who took advantage of the occasion to say, 'I 
am sorry that I have but one life to give for 
my country,' or anything like that. The ma- 
jority of them said, 'I don't know just how it 
happened,' or, 'If that Dutchman had waited 
just a minute longer I sure would have got 
him. Darn the luok. anyway.' " 

12/TH Amb Cos Silver Bugle 



NO two men viewed army life in exactly 
the same way. No two saw previsely the 
same things. The opinions, experiences 
and deductions of any soldier may arouse vary- 
ing emotions of agreement, anger, disapproval 
or disbelief when related in the presence of 
another. Nevertheless almost every man in 
the service went through certain adventures 
which were about the same as those experi- 
enced by others. In publishing the following 
story of one Racine man's life in service, the 
author believes that every veteran will find 
many things which will recall to mind amusing 
and interesting incidents which may have been 
forgotten, and that is the only purpose in pub- 
lishing it. It would be manifestly impossible 
to try to present in print all of the letters and 
diaries which have been submitted for publi- 
cation, and which would deserve space were 
this volume larger than it is. 

Some liberties have been taken with the 
original document. At places, extracts from 
other diax'ies have been Inserted. Purely per- 
sonal matters have been omitted. By com- 
bining several documents it has been possible 
to give an idea of army life which no single 
diary would be likely to show. The wi-iter of 
the article which forms the basis for the chap- 
ter is a Racine young man who went overseas 
in September, saw action in the Argonne, and 
was wounded. He offered his private diary 
and a number of letters to the author of this 
work with the proviso that his name be not 

With this explanation, the story is herewith 
presented : 

On the 27th of July, 1918, I reported to my 
local board that I was disqualified for class 
2 (essential industrial occupation) and would 
thenceforth qualify in Class 1. I had been 
employed at a factory in the city, but had 
come to the conclusion that I might be doing- 
more effective work if I got into the army. 
There were quite a number of men who had 

the same idea about the same time, inspired, 
perhaps, by the big draft that left Racine on 
the 26th. On that day 447 men marched to 
the railway stations and amid one of the most 
impi'essive demonstrations ever seen in Ra- 
cine, entrained for their camps. By this time 
the draft contingents were moving with con- 
siderable ease; the confusion that marked the 
first entrainments having disappeared and the 
uncertainties among the selectives was more 
or less dispelled. From the experiences of 
those who went early the men learned what 
they needed to carry for their personal com- 
fort until they were uniformed and outfitted 
at the camp to which they were sent. 

The reply of the board was a notice to ap- 
pear on Aug. 1 for physical examination and 
I reported on that day at the rooms of Local 
board No. 2, out in Washington avenue. Three 
physicians gave me the double "once-over." 
One was an eye specialist, one a general physi- 
cal examiner and a third conferred. I was 
pronounced fit and I was certified as qualified 
to go into the draft. That part over with I 
got ready to answer the call. It came on the 
8th and we were ordered to appear at the board 
rooms on the 9th, ready to move. 

With a dozen others I reported about the 
middle of. the morning and we were lined up, 
tagged and instructed as to the trip and then 
turned loose for the final good-byes. These 
were said over again until evening, when we 
went to the station, boarded a train bound for 
Chicago and said farewell to old Racine — for 
how long none of us knew. We rode to the 
station in automobiles and joined the No. 1 
contingent and all boarded the train. 

When we arrived at Chicago we joined a 
train load of draft men from all parts of the 
northwest for the trip into St. Louis. Our 
captain, selected from one of our number, 
marshalled our pai'ty into the station at Chi- 
cago and with a blanket meal-ticket enter- 
tained the crowd, which had begun to get pret- 
ty hungry. 



The trainload of recruits seemed to enjoy 
the party and there was all kinds of fun on 
the way down, though we rode in day coaches 
and were cramped for sleeping quarters; as 
a matter of fact there was little sleeping. At 
every stop along the i-oute there were crowds 
at the stations and the boys sprang from the 
cars to the platforms to sing a little — there 
being several quartettes — or yell a little — 
regular recruit's yelling having developed early 
in the evening. This kept up until late into 
the night, but finally the boys got tired enough 
to curl up in the seats and get a little nap. 
We had breakfast at St. Louis and some of us 
— myself included — who had worked the board 
for extra meal tickets, had a real feed in the 
morning. From the St. Louis Union station 
we were hauled out to Jefferson Barracks and 
arrived there before noon. 

When we left the train at Jefferson Bar- 
racks most of the men were ready to turn 
around and start home again. The heat was 
insufferable. The water was dirty and warm 
and not much of a treat for northerners just 
from home comforts. The tents of the recruits 
which were pouring in by the thousands 
stretched as far as the eye could see and all 
in all it was not a very tempting outlook. 

As we left the train we were met by a squad 
of "receiving men," who lined us up, niai'ched 
us onto the reservation and alongside a big 
building, where we were told off into squads 
and turned over to sergeants who showed us 
to our quarters, where we waited for our next 
physical examination and equipment. 

With fully a thousand other men I lined up 
in my "birthday clothes" for what proved to 
be a real physical examination. The men all 
bathed and then got their positions for ap- 
pearing before the long line of physicians who 
were giving the men a most thorough examina- 
tion at the rate of 1,000 a day. We were in 
line at 9 o'clock and I waited in the same cos- 
tume as mentioned until 5 o'clock that eve- 
ning, when I was turned out as "fit," plus a 
shot of typhoid vaccine. 

As I walked out past the last surgeon I was 
startled and half bowled over by a parcel 
which struck me in the chest. I found that it 
was a barrack bag. From that point I ac- 
quired a new piece of wearing apparel at ev- 
ery step until I had the whole outfit, and after 
a day of nakedness was glad to climb into 
whatever I had — and did. We were, by this 
time, back to the room where we undressed 
in the morning and we found our clothes, which 
we put into the suit cases. Some of the boys 
shipped them home by express and some sold 

them to the old-clothes buyers who swarmed 
around the room offering small sums for the 
cast off garments. 

The fitting of the uniforms was weii'd. There 
was no time for tailored alterations, and a man 
was lucky if he got the jacket and trousers 
large enough for him. 

One man who had received a pair of trous- 
ers that came up under his shoulders and a 
jacket that hit him about the knees, was amb- 
ling aimlessly around looking himself over 
when an officer passed. The rooky didn't see 
him and the officer turned back and startled 
the poor fellow into consciousness by shouting: 
"Here! Why didn't you salute? Did you 
see this uniform?" 

The boy looked ivith a fishy eye at the offi- 
cer and said: 

"Sure I see it, but look at the one that they 
shoved off on me." 

When the day's examinations were over we 
were taken to eat, and after a day's fast the 
boys certainly did the meal justice. 

From that point the men were taken to 
their quarters and made themselves as much 
at home as possible waiting for the notice that 
they would be shipped out to some training 

Within a week we were shipped to Camp 
MacArthur, Texas, where the weather was a 
few degrees hotter and the water a little less 
appetizing, and we started in for what looked 
like the training spell. At MacArthur we were 
separated into detention companies and kept 
in quarantine for two weeks. Our quai-ters 
were tents -svith floors and open sides. The 
weeds had shot up through the floors and 
grown around the sides, completely shutting 
them in. We lived there two weeks and then 
started in our daily drills and the regular 
course of training. The men were all very 
anxious to get down town to Waco and when 
the time for release came all had made plans 
for the excursion. Hopes wei'e dashed, how- 
ever, when the commanding officer on Saturday 
night detailed all our squad on k.p. for the next 
day and they were kept busy in camp. 

I had the usual experiences of a recruit. 
After being put into a provisional infantry 
company, I spent every morning from 7:30 to 
noon in learning the rudiments of drill and 
discovering that it was not the easiest thing 
in the world to get eight men to execute 
"squads right" according to the manual. 
Eventually we all got so we could do this, and 
"face to the right in marching" without falling 
over our owai feet or stepping on some one 




At the top, left, are Lt. and Mrs. Ed. Millstead ; at the right Lt. and Mrs. Arthur Naleid : at left of second row are Evald, 
Charlotte and Kdmund Strand and at right Arthur Nels and Harry Peter Johnson and their sister. Lower, left, are 
Oscar, Einer and Arnold Fischer and at right A. C. Mickelson, who served in the Home Guard, and his son Roland, who 

was in the National Army. 



There was nothing especially pleasant about 
the training period, excepting its brevity. 
Fortunately I did not have to spend months 
at drill, as most men did. We worked hard 
every minute, and for our pains we seldom 
got any greater reward than silence on the 
part of some officer who watched our efforts. 
When we slipped on some command, then we 
got a bawling out that in civil life would be 
cause for homicide. One of the hardest things 
to learn was to perform instinctively those acts 
classified as "military courtesies," such as 
standing at attention whenever an officer ap- 
peared in the vicinity, saluting, and addressing 
our commissioned superiors in the third per- 
son. It does not come natural to an American 
young man to reel off such a thing as, "Sir, 
does the Captain wish to speak to Private 
Jones?" when you want to ask him, "Say, did 
you want me?" At first I felt ridiculous when 
performing these rites, but in time I accepted 
it like the others did. Many generations have 
maintained that such things are necessary, and 
this was no time or place to try to dispute 
their wisdom. It helped a little to know that 
the captain, in turn, had to do the same thing 
when addressing the colonel, and also that 
where I had to salute some "looey" whom I 
disliked, he had to return the salutes of sev- 
eral hundred men in the same length of time. 

My squad consisted of eight men of five 
nationalities. The corporal was a young lawyer 
who tried hard for advancement. He studied 
the regulations every evening and tried to get 
us to keep our equipment clean and appear as 
neat as possible at all times. We learned that 
it was almost impossible to dodge drills. Go- 
ing to sick call did no good, because we were 
returned to the company unless we had a fever 
of more than 100 degrees. Nothing else count- 
ed. If w^e had ailments on the outside, we 
were painted with iodine. If we complained 
of internal troubles, we got "C.C." pills. Sick 
call was not held during drill hours, so there 
was nothing to gain by going to it without 
fever. We had a dentist to care for our teeth, 
but he either painted the gums with iodine or 
pulled out the ailing tooth so most of us kept 
away from him. I heard of one man who had 
had six molars pulled out to evade the first 
draft, and then had been rejected upon his first 
examination for heart trouble without anyone 
looking at his teeth at all! Most of the boys 
seemed to be willing to serve, however, and the 
complaints were mostly against little things 
such as too much work, food they didn't like, 
refusal of passes, etc. 

At first I used to try to get on K. P. (kitchen 

police) as often as possible to get an occa- 
sional respite from drill. Then they ruled 
that a K. P. should work before and after drill 
in the kitchen and go to the field with the i-est. 
Then it became a real nightmare and was used 
for punishment. If there was no one to pun- 
ish, all took their regular turns. 

In the afternoons we learned the manual of 
arms, and had bayonet practice vdth bundles 
of cornstalks representing our German vic- 
tims. After the second week we spent five af- 
ternoons on the range firing, and learned how 
to hit things 500 yards away with a high power 

Our cooks didn't know very much about fancy 
cooking. Two of them had been merchandise 
clerks in civil life and the third was a painter. 
I remember the first two or three days I used 
to pi'aise their stew, or "slum" as it was called. 
It was a sort of mixture of meat and every- 
thing else at hand and was quite nourishing 
and toothsome. Pretty soon, however, I no- 
ticed that we got it every day at least once, 
and sometimes twice. After a while it got 
pretty tiresome. Rations were issued to the 
comjjany in bulk and prepared in the company 
kitchen for about 250 men of each mess. The 
raw material was first class and there was 
plenty of it. When the cooks did not draw all 
they were entitled to, a credit slip was given 
and this was redeemed for cash at the end of 
the month. T?ie proceeds went into the com- 
pany mess fund. 

The hardest job at camp for me was getting 
up at daybreak when the buglers blew "re- 
veille." The sounding of this rousing tune, 
five minutes after "first call," was always fol- 
lowed by a subdued murmur of curses upon the 
bugler, and railing at the army in general, 
as sleepy men fumbled in the semi-darkness 
with shoes, shirts and laced leggings. 

Our first pay day came after we had been 
instructed to take out war risk insurance, make 
an allotment and buy Liberty bonds. We all 
lined up on the first of the month and signed 
the payroll. It was quite astonishing to find 
the large number of men who did not know how 
to wi'ite or spell their names. Some of these 
were given easier names by the ready-witted 
and "hard-boiled" top-kicker, or first sergeant. 
The "top" usually is the most hated man in 
the outfit. He is the ranking non-com, and 
administers the routine affairs of the company. 
As one of them told me, he gives all the dis- 
agreeable orders, while the captain steps down 
to tell us any pleasant news he may have. A 
week after signing the payroll, we lined up 
again and got our money. I had $6 of my 





month's pay coming. Many others were in the 
same fix, and we strolled around jingling a 
few coins and singing, "All we do is sign the 
pay roll, and we never get a gosh darned 
cent," to the tune of "Glory, Glory, Hallelujah." 
During our stay at Camp MacArthur the 
camp welfare people were lavish in their en- 
tertainments, although the boys were pretty 
well tired out at nights, after the vigorous 
training to which so few were used. But when 
word came that the various companies were 
to move in a few days there was great joy, 
and every unit that was notified held a "fare- 
well banquet" in the company mess hall. There 
were banquets being held every night that 
week. The men generally wanted to get out 
of the southern camps but by far the most 
outstanding sentiment was the hope that they 
would get stai-ted on the journey "over there." 
The men lost a good deal of weight in that 
two weeks. They would come in from the drill 
fields wringing wet and all but exhausted. 
The bath houses were jammed with burning 
humanity. But along after midnight the chill 
winds from the plains came up and the whole 
outfit would nearly freeze, though it was still 
in August. Each man had two single blankets 
for cover. 

On the last of August our company was sent 
to Camp Merritt for embarking overseas as re- 
placements. There was lots of bustling around 
and getting equipment in order. All surplus 
stuff was to be disposed of. Nothing but issue 
equipment was to be taken. 

We travelled east in day coaches, with a 
field range set up in the baggage car to pre- 
pare meals with, and a freight car behind to 
carry baggage. The officers, ten of them, had 
a car to themselves. 

Two young officers on our train stopped to 
talk a little too long with some of the fair 
hostesses at a Red Cross depot lunch room 
and missed the train. They were able to 
charter a taxi cab and catch us at the next 
station, but their commanding officer gave 
them a dressing down and those little stop- 
overs were made rather unpopular from that 
time on. 

Arriving at Camp Merritt late at night we 
were ushered into barracks and the next day 
we began to prepare for sailing. This was the 
last time we were to have the privilege of 
sleeping on cots or beds, excepting on ship- 
board. Here we had our hair cut — all of it. 

Each man turned in his old campaign hat — 
the most practical style of hat on earth, by 
the way — and received a dinky "overseas hat" 
without a forepiece or brim, and apparently 

designed to let all the sunshine possible in 
one's eyes, and all the rain possible in one's 
neck. We rolled our packs prior to entraining 
for Hoboken early one morning and marched 
to the depot at Cresskill before dawn. Each 
man carried with him or wore on his person 
the following: 

1 O. D. woolen uniform. 

1 pair tan shoes; 1 pair field shoes. 

2 flannel shirts. 

3 pair socks. 

1 pair wrap leggings. 

2 suits of underwear. 
1 woolen overcoat. 

1 rainproof slicker. 
1 pair woolen gloves. 
1 web belt for trousers. 
1 ammunition belt. 
1 first aid packet. 

1 rifle. 

100 rounds of ammunition. 

2 woolen blankets. 

1 plate, cover, knife, fork and spoon. 
1 canteen, cloth cover and cup. 

1 pack carrier with shoulder straps. 
V2 shelter tent, pole and pins. 

2 identification tags on tape. 
2 towels. 

6 handkerchiefs. 

1 housewife kit. 

1 shaving outfi.t. 

1 cake of soap. 

1 Emergency ration (can of salmon and 2 
packages of hardtack). 

Certain of the non-commissioned officers 
were also furnished with a wrist watch, com- 
pass and field glasses. Most of us carried a 
couple of candles, some \vriting paper and pen- 
cils, a watch and matches. In addition to this 
equipment, officers were allowed one small 
trunk and a bedding roll which will hold nearly 
as much as a trunk. They were ordered to 
carry at least two uniforms, several styles of 
footwear including rubber boots, a lot of books 
and official documents, a trench coat with inner 
lining, map case and drawing instruments, and 
numerous other things. Everyone of us smug- 
gled aboard as much tobacco, candy and cigar- 
ettes as we could and armed ourselves with 
patent pipe lighters of various kinds. 

Our equipment was now very much as it re- 
mained during the war. In France we re- 
ceived gas masks and steel helmets but I can 
think of no other changes in our apparel. The 
officers overseas wore Sam Brov^Tie leather 
belts which were adopted universally by the 
Allied armies, but these were discarded at 





the front, where officers of our army dressed 
just like enlisted men excepting for then- 
shoulder pins. 

When we reached Hoboken and marched to 
the pier where the transport was waiting, we 
were each of us given a postal card to address 
to our home folks. On the back it said, "I 
have arrived safely overseas." This was 
signed and we were told it would be mailed 
when the cables announced our arrival in 
France. We were also given instruction re- 
garding the censorship. We were told that 
from now on all letters would be read by an 
officer before being mailed and we must say 
nothing about dates, places, names of ships, 
or anything else that might be interesting to 
the folks at home. I have saved one of the 
censorship regulations handed us at the dock. 
It reads as follows: 

enemy and his agents ai'e always on the alert 
to gather information. 

"Details which are apparently unimportant 
may be combined with other details gathered 
by the enemy and become information of great 
importance to him. Do not forget that news 
travels so quickly under modern conditions 
that the bits of information you ^vl■ite home 
may be in the hands of the enemy a short time 

CARD: — DON'T mention towns and localities 
in connection with any military organization. 

"DON'T put too much faith in the discre- 
tion of the people you -^vi-ite to. They may be 
very patriotic, yet quite unable to recognize 
an enemy agent or what information may be 
of value to the enemy. 

"DON'T mention the movements of troops, 
their condition, the effects of hostile fire upon 
them, nor their losses. 

"DON'T mail your letter in a French post- 
office. It is forbidden in areas served by 
American military postal service. 

"DON'T allow your friends at home to pub- 
lish your letters in the newspapers. 

"ABOVE ALL DON'T attempt to formulate 
or use any system of code, cipher, shorthand, 
or any other means of concealing the true 
meaning of your letters. It is the surest road 
to a court martial and severe punishment. 

"REMEMBER that wTiting or receiving of 
letters in war time is a privilege, not a right. 
In many wars of the past soldiers were not 
allowed to viTite letters at all. 

"YOU MAY WRITE:— 1— Letters or post 
cards to friends or relatives in the United 
States or in France, free of charge. 

"2 — To friends or relatives in allied or 
neuti-al countries, by paying the same postage 
you would from the United States. 

"YOU MAY SEND, to the United States 
only, picture post cards, except those showing 
localities or places; personal photographs; or 
small articles, such as gloves, laces or hand- 
kerchiefs, etc., as gifts. A PERSONAL photo- 
graph means one in which a person alone ap- 
pears, without any suggestion of background 
that might indicate where it was taken. 

"You may send parcels not exceeding seven 
pounds in weight by parcel post to the United 
States, by prepaying postage. 

in the countries with which we are at war, 
except: American or allied prisoners of war, 
in which case letters must be sent to the Base 
Censor, unsealed. You may not write, not talk 
to, nor hold any communication whatever with 
enemy prisoners of war. 

MAIL LETTERS:— 1— Hand them unsealed to 
your company officer. Remember that he reads 
many letters in his capacity of company censor 
and your letter is to him an entirely imperson- 
al communication, of which he does not re- 
member the details or the writer once it has 
been read. 

"2 — Place your letters unsealed in a 'blue 
envelope,' seal the envelope, and mail it to the 
Base Censor, A. E. F., Paris. Each blue enve- 
lope may contain several letters, providing all 
are wTitten by the same man and that each is 
enclosed within its properly addressed enve- 
lope, and that the certificate on the 'blue enve- 
lope' is signed by the WTiter. It is forbidden 
to use 'Blue Envelopes' except for strictly fam- 
ily matters. 

"If you know who is going to censor your 
letters, save his time and help your company 
mail service by putting his rank at the bottom 
of the letter and in the lower left-hand corner 
of the envelope, ready for his signature. 

"As soon as he has read the letter, the officer 
will SIGN his name above his rank, and as soon 
as it has been stamped with the censor stamp 
the censor will post your letter. Nothing else 
should appear on the envelope. 






"OiRcers, enlisted men, and militarized civil- 
ians with the American Expeditionary Forces 
in France are forbidden to discuss or mention 
in public places, or to impart to anyone except 
in the official discharge of their duties, any- 
thing of military nature or anything whatever 
concerning information directly or indirectly 
obtained through their connection with the A. 
E. F. 

"Never forget that we are at war and that 
the enemy is always listening. Always look 
with suspicion on strangers, and never tell 
anything of a confidential nature to a woman, 
as women are the most successful of enemy 
spies. Be suspicious of anyone who asks ques- 
tions of a military nature, or who appears 
unduly interested in military information, even 
though he may be or may appear an American 
officer. Don't offer unsolicited information. 
You have no right to tell ANYONE where 
any unit is, or what military information has 
come into your possession, unless it is your 
official duty to do so. Any stranger, man, 
woman, or child, even a man in an American 
or an allied uniform, may be a spy. Do not 
tell him anything you would not be willing for 
the enemy to hear. For similar reasons, never 
enter into correspondence with strangers. It 
is one of the many schemes used by enemy 
agents to gather information. On the street 
or in public places remember that 'the walls 
have ears.' 

"Do not express your opinion on military 
matters nor on the general situation. Be loyal 
to your Government and your superiors. Trust 
them to conduct the war while you attend to 
your ovra particular part in it. 

"Avoid in any way giving the impression of 
pessimism either in your conversation or your 
attitude. In all ways be confident in the suc- 
cess of our armies and of our cause. 

"All members of the American Expeditionary 
Forces are forbidden to take photographs, un- 
less photography is a part of their official 

"DON'T CARRY WITH YOU:— Maps, docu- 
ments or private papers of a military nature 
nor a diary or notebook containing military 
hints of value to the enemy, except when it is 
your official duty to do so. These will be of 
danger to your comrades in case you are cap- 
tured; enemy pickpockets may get them even 
if you are not captured. 

"On the other hand, if any enemy property 
comes into your possession, under any circum- 
stance whatever, turn it over at once to your 
company commander, who will deliver it to an 
Intelligence officer. If the trophy is not of 

value to the Intelligence Section, it will be re- 
turned to you. Such trophies may be of vast 
importance to the General StaflF. 

"IF YOU ARE CAPTURED:— Don't remem- 
ber any more than you can help. Try particu- 
larly to forget organizations and the places in 
which they are stationed. Every bit of mili- 
tary information you give to your captors is a 
danger to you and to the comrades that have 
been left behind to fight your battles. 

"By command of General Pershing: 
"Robert C. Davis, 

"Adjutant General." 

After receiving a lunch from the Red Cross 
workers at the wharf, we were lined up in ac- 
cordance with a muster roll previously pre- 
pared and marched up an inclined gang-plank 
into the ship. Each man was handed a ticket 
containing the number of his bei'th, the letter 
of his section and the designation "foi-ward," 
"aft" or "amidships," and as he proceeded he 
showed this to successive sailor guides who 
steered him to his bunk. We had no state- 
rooms. The entire lower part of the vessel 
had been cleared of everything but waterproof 
bulkheads, and in the open space on each deck 
had been placed bunks of gas pipe and canvas, 
four deep. The lowest one was three inches 
from the deck, the upper one a foot from the 
ceiling. Between these tiers of bunks there 
was passageway eighteen inches wide. The 
holds were dark and smelled overpoweringly of 
disinfectants. There was little ventilation. 
When the transport pulled out, we were kept 
between decks for an hour and then allowed 
above in time to catch a glimpse of New York 
harbor. From that time on we generally were 
allowed on deck for three or four hours a day. 
There was not room for all of us at once, 

We were all scared of submarines. There 
seemed little chance of anyone getting out 
alive if we should be hit, despite the boat 
drills. These drills merely showed us that 
there were not enough boats or rafts to care 
for a quarter of us in time of danger, and also 
served the purpose of teaching us how to get 
out of the sections below decks. I asked our 
captain what we were to do if torpedoed, as 
no boats were assigned to us. He said we were 
to jump overboard and try to find something to 
support us in the water. 

There was little excitement on the voyage. 
One of the ships of the convoy became separ- 
ated one evening, but turned up the next noon. 
She appeared to have lost a portion of her 
stern, and it was talked about that she had 





been rammed during the night and that many 
men had been killed. But of course these stor- 
ies could not be verified, though they served 
to keep the boys busy talking. 

The naval gunners also took a half a dozen 
shots at a school of porpoises which were 
hurdling alongside the ship. The schools were 
considered as excellent telltale marks for sub- 
marine commanders and it was a general ijrae- 
tice for the transport gunners to fire a few 
shots and get them to sheer off from the ship's 

About a day and a half out of Brest a con- 
voy of half a dozen destroyers hove in sight 
and from then until we went into harbor the 
swift little craft circled and twisted in our 
course and cut didoes to the port and star- 
boai'd, nosing out traces of submarines. But 
they encountered none. 

We came to anchor late Friday afternoon. 
As th>i shore line, which is rocky and rugged, 
came into view the shipload gave vent to con- 
tinuous cheering. There were very few who 
didn't feel that land was a welcome place, after 
the uncertainties of the U-boat menace, and a 
large proportion had other reasons for wishing 
to get their two feet under them on solid earth. 

The men were taken off in lighters and 
marched out to the Napoleon (Pontanezon) 
barracks. Our outfit marched right past the 
barracks and into the little hedged-in fields 
where we laid out our camp, pitched our pup- 
tents and turned in to get some rest. It 
rained terrifically that night, but it didn't in- 
terfere with the sleep of the newly landed re- 

The next day, being Sunday, we looked for 
a nice day of rest. At about 7 o'clock a num- 
ber of us were lined up and told off for de- 
tail. We were marched out into the country 
for a few miles. Before starting we were given 
shovels and picks and they helped to make the 
traveling more exciting. 

After a long hike we brought up at a ceme- 
tery and our officer showed us a piece of 
ground and told us to dig. We dug all day. 
It was fearfully hot and few were used to 
using this sort of implement. By evening we 
had excavated sufficiently to provide graves 
for about forty soldiers who had died the day 
before at the base hospital. 

As they brought the bodies out on trucks 
we helped unload them and acted as pallbear- 
ers, carrying the rough coffins to the holes we 
had dug, and then we turned to and filled in the 
graves. We started back to camp, a pretty 
tii'ed lot, about 7:30 o'clock. 

Our first day in France was hardly a cheer- 
ful beginning. 

On the other hand we could not help but 
be impressed by the presence of a large num- 
ber of French women and girls who had come 
out to the cemetery with their arms filled with 
flowers. They rounded up the graves, set the 
markers and sti'ewed their flowers over the 
mounds, so that when we were leaving, the 
portion of the rapidly growing cemetery we 
had helped to make, had every appearance of 
being the subject of loving care from those 
left behind. 

When we got into camp we learned that we 
were to move at 1 o'clock that night. We hung 
around waiting, after we had pulled up our 
tents and got our equipment together, and 
finally were marched to a train of small box- 
cars — the first of that sort to travel we had 
encoimtered. We got aboard and waited till 
6 o'clock in the morning when the train pulled 
out and we started away on our trip to the 
front. There were 36 of us in each car and we 
barely had room to lie down. 

After a day and a half of travel we brought 
up at LeMans, a classification camp where we 
were examined again and given new equipment 
calculated for the field. From there we were 
sent to the infantry training area we were to 
occupy and were issued whatever we appeared 
to be short at the time. 

For ten days we were at Eccomoy engaged in 
target practice and were told that within a 
few weeks we would be up at the front. 

Few of the boys believed what they were 
told and thought it was a dodge on the part 
of the officers to get the men more interested 
in their training. This was our first experi- 
ence with billets. We were distributed around 
town in the barns of the residents and had 
fairly comfortable quarters. Some men rented 
rooms the officers had overlooked. 

It was here that we received our gas masks 
and went through a gas chamber and had gas 
drill and worked a little more on rifle prac- 

On Sunday morning it was announced that 
all who wanted to go to church would be ex- 
cused from drills. The religious fervor that 
developed was universal. Men who didn't know 
what church looked like nor how it was spelled 
became suddenly anxious to attend one. It 
was the first day of rest since arriving at Jef- 
ferson Barracks seven weeks befoi'e. The lit- 
tle village was dark at night, all lights being 
under the ban in this area, to keep from at- 
tracting German aerial observers. 



Photos Loaned by H. J. Sanders 


The top panel shows what camp life was like at Douglas. The view was photographed after a rain and first discomforts 
of soldiering were entering the warriors' lives. In the center are a lot of Racine boys who have just dropped off a French 
troop train for coffee. At the bottom is pictured the interior of a Red Cross hut where "chow" could be acquired by the 

perpetually hungry doughboy. 



On the tenth day of training we were 
marched to another train of box ears and after 
a three-day ride landed in a casual camp at 
Nivieville. This was rather close to the front 
and we heard for the first time the roar of 
the heavy guns at the front and at night the 
flashes from the artillery could be seen. We 
were there two nights, sleeping one night in 
a field and the other in town. The camp was 
the depot for replacement troops for the divi- 
sion, and we were all checked over and assigned 
for replacement service in various units to be 
called. The airmen were above us and no 
lights were allowed at night, as a protective 

Here we saw the first men we had seen from 
the front. They came marching back, dog- 
tired, covered with mud and dirt, but happy and 
many carried souvenirs of various kinds. They 
told stories of the hell going on out toward 
the German lines, and we got a pretty good 
idea of what we were in for when they got 
ready to send us forward. 

At every stopping place in France back of 
the zone of the advance, we saw lots of German 
prisoners working on the roads or in railroad 
yards. They seemed to be fairly contented and 
certainly got good treatment. Whenever we 
had a chance we talked v^rith them and most of 
the boys slipped the "P. G." in green-grey 
some cigarettes when they found an oppor- 

Long after the war when these prisoners 
were returned home, I understand that they 
were agreeably surprised by receiving pay 
from the Americans equal to that given a 
Yankee soldier. They had more money in their 
pockets than they ever saw before and many 
an M. P. guarding them cursed against the 
"non-fraternizing" rule which prevented them 
from getting up a little crap game and reliev- 
ing Heinie of his surplus cash. 

Where we now were we saw many types of 
soldiers — ^French, African, Hindu and others. 
Some wore quaint and gaudy costumes. Lots 
of Chinese coolies were working under direc- 
tion of British or French officers. 

As our troop's forward movements grew 
more frequent, the expressions became more 
vivid on the part of the men. 

"This is a hell of a place," a disgusted 
doughboy would shout the minute he landed at 
a new camp or center. 

"I hope we get out of here," his buddie would 
reply sourly. 

As the replacement men advanced they 
found each stopping place a little worse than 
the last, but they felt that they would be sat- 

isfied if they could hurry and move on to the 
next. From barracks and tents in America to 
rooms in homes in France the quai-ters were 
changed into cowstables, barns and outhouses 
and then to out of doors entirely. 

The rains were almost continuous and the 
men who neared the front left all hopes of 
baths behind. 

The unpopular little cootie put in his ap- 
pearance at about that time and added a little 
more to the growing burden of troubles for 
the doughboys. 

In our little shack a lieutenant entered. He 
was WTiggling and shaking himself and finally 
began looking up one of his sleeves. I asked 
him to show me cooties were like. 

"How long have you been here?" he demand- 

"Two or three days," I replied. 
"Haw-haw," he roared. "You'll see all you 
want of them before you've been here another 
I did. 

The great American game among the sol- 
diers was craps. It was a natural result of 
conditions prevalent in the army. No allow- 
ance was made for transporting any games. 
In spite of numerous attempts to provide en- 
tertainment for the A. E. F., it is a fact that 
very few troops ever saw an entertainment 
before the armistice while in France. Cards 
were fairly easy to carry in a pack, but after 
a few nights spent in the open and in the rain, 
anything that water could destroy was de- 
stroyed. A pack of cai-ds had a short life 
when spent in a pack. On the other hand dice 
were not harmed by water. They could be 
carried easily in any pocket and the game of 
craps needed nothing more than the two 
"bones" and willing hands to roll them. If a 
blanket was handy to serve as a table, so much 
the better, but it was not essential. 

Whenever men on the march or in billets had 
a few moments to spare from duty, the onlook- 
er might have heard at any hour of day or 
night, the mystical commands, "Come seven," 
"Fighter from Decatur," "There's my little 
Joe," "Oh, you Big Dick," and pleading voices 
appealing to "My Lady Luck" and "My natural 
point" and "Phoebe." 

Considering that the great majority of men 
were drawing but $15 or $20 in actual cash 
per month in France, the size of some of the 
craps games was astounding. In many com- 
panies one or two men would possess the whole 
sum of the payi'oll within a day or two after 
pay day — for it must be understood that craps 
is not a game that is played for the fun of it, 



Photos by John Hood 


When the boys left in 1917 they were escorted to their trains by seething crowds which jammed streets, viaducts and every 
place of vantage to spectators. The upper picture shows a departure. In the center an idea of the welcome is pictured. 
The returning unit was squeezed into the middle of the street and the crowds swarmed into the ranks. As can be seen 
in the picture the men shouted responses to grii-_''tinKs from the crowds that marched with them through town. At the 
bottom is shown the head of the parade of the 121st Field Artillery on May 20, 1918. The crowds kept to the curb until 

the band passed by. 



like croquet or jack-straws. Usually a game 
would start off by the participants "shooting 
a quarter" or a franc, but by the time the 
money began to get a little concentrated it 
was not uncommon to hear the possessor of the 
dice offering to "shoot the 500 francs or any 
part of it," while willing hands sent showers 
of bills onto the blanket to match the wagers. 

One lad in my squad cleaned up $500 in an 
hour, starting out with $1.50. On the trans- 
ports crossing the Atlantic, where several 
thousand men were packed in the holds with 
nothing to occupy their time, many enthusi- 
asts collected hundreds of dollars. As no 
one had much to start with, none of the losers 
were out more than $15 or $20 in most cases. 
The general attitude of soldiers toward money 
was that it was made to be spent. If they 
wanted something which could not be purchased 
with the amount in their pockets, the only 
way to get more was to gamble. If there was 
nothing they desired to purchase, they might 
as well gamble as do anything else. One of 
the reasons for the popularity of gambling was 
the fact that in France, at least, there was lit- 
tle at the stores to tempt anyone to make a 
purchase. Food was the main desire of most 
A. E. F. members, but it was only upon occa- 
sions that they could buy eggs, fruit and other 
delicacies which they craved. 

Whenever a marching column of troops 
passed a town, they cleaned out the stock of 
edibles in the little stores in short order. Men 
would rush in the store, slam a five franc note 
on the counter and ask for whatever looked 
edible on the shelves. Sometimes this would 
be a can of preserves of some sort. At other 
times, the chagrined customer would find, upon 
opening a can, that he had obtained paint or 
shoe polish or washing powder. These errors 
were less frequent after the doughboys got so 
they could read French more efficiently. 

The company to which I was assigned was 
resting, early in October in a patch of woods 
not far from Montfaucon, in the Meuse-Ar- 
gonne sector and I was sent foi-ward vnth 
twenty other men to join them there. We 
moved up in trucks as far as Esnes and then 
were marched ten miles over a muddy, crowd- 
ed road which had been built through a shell 
torn section which had been No-Man's land for 
three years. The barbed wire entanglements 
were still in place excepting for gaps opened 
by the infantry in their advance and by high 
explosive shells. The shell holes, varying in 
size from one which would barely hold a bushel 
basket, to one which could conceal an auto 
truck, were half filled with water. The road 

we were on was the only one in sight, but there 
must have been others as this was used for 
north bound traffic only. Artillery, ammuni- 
tion trucks, supply wagons and tanks were 
passing slowly along it, concealed from enemy 
observation by the mist and rain. Usually 
movements were made at night. Aeroplanes 
were passing overhead, but at such a height 
as to be barely visible. We infantrymen had 
no rights on the road and had to turn out on 
the ditch whenever a vehicle needed room. 

A mile north of Montfaucon we passed long, 
six inch guns which were firing at long inter- 
vals. At a distance of two hundred yards, the 
blast of the discharge seemed likely to break 
our eardrums. All the men we saw were 
muddy and plainly unfamiliar with a bath tub, 
but I noticed that most of them were shaved. 

I reported to the first sergeant of my new 
outfit at supper time and sat down in the mud 
to a meal of corned beef, water-soaked bread 
and luke-warm coffee. There was plenty of 
those dainties, but not much else. The men had 
pitched their pup-tents in the underbrush with 
no attempt at regularity, the main thing be- 
ing to get under cover of some bi'anches which 
would serve as camouflage. Inside the tents 
most everyone dug a trench about eighteen 
inches deep and six feet long in which to sleep, 
as the sides of this gave protection against 
possible shell fire or splinters from aerial 
bombs. That night I was under fire for the 
first time, as six large shells hit near the edge 
of our woods. My first idea was to run some- 
where, but as everyone else seemed to remain 
where they were I decided I was as safe there 
as anywhere. Some of the weary men did not 
even wake up. No one was injured by these 
explosions, but one shell blew a baggage wagon 
all to pieces. I could hear the shell coming 
for a second or two before it struck; it made 
a sort of whistling noise, not very shrill, how- 

Later I learned that each sort of shell has a 
different sound, and this sound varies accord- 
ing to the point from which it is heard. For 
instance, as a shell approaches, it makes one 
kind of noise and when it passes over the 
tune changes immediately for its departure 
from the vicinity. Shrapnel bursting in air 
gives off a dull, vibrating "boom." Shells 
bursting on impact make an ear-splitting 
"whang" or "wow," according to size, but if 
the explosion takes place after the shell en- 
tered the ground a few inches the main crash 
of the explosion is preceded by a sort of 
"g-r-r," as if the sound were struggling 
through the ground for an instant before it 




There were scores of Racine men among the returning soldiers who arrived in America in May, 1919. The boys were 
eager to get home and took the discomforts of travel good naturedly: there was plenty to eat and the "makings" of some 

wonderful "crap games" on the transport. 



burst forth. Shells from our owti guns, pass- 
ing overhead, seem to make a sort of sighing 
noise, like wind in a pine woods. Rifle bullets 
hiss or buzz almost like some sort of insect 
when they pass close by. One kind of shell, 
the Austrian .88, explodes before you can hear 
it coming, because its rate of speed is more 
rapid than that of sound. These are called 
"whizz-bangs," the name being an imitation 
of the noise they make if they go over you 
and explode to the real'. 

We stayed in this reserve position one more 
day. I was pretty scared most of the time, 
but the veteran soldiers didn't seem to mind 
the danger. They said they were "fed up" 
on war, however; many had been under fire 
almost continuously for months. They couldn't 
see why the new divisions shouldn't be brought 
up to relieve the old outfits, while they went 
back into billets somewhere to get a bath and 
taste a little "vin rouge" and an omelet. Most 
all of them had cooties, and many were af- 
flicted \\'ith dysentery as well as a form of 
itch. All were confident of their ability to 
lick the Germans at any time or place. The 
army had shown the Allies something about 
methods of warfare, and by keeping on the 
ofi'ensive all the time had gradually reduced 
the opposing German divisions to mere skele- 
tons of their former selves. 

At six o'clock (or eighteen o'clock, as it was 
termed officially) one evening we packed up 
our duds and prepared to move foi'ward. We 
marched for eight hours and the memory of 
the hike is a sort of a nightmai'e to me. Our 
owTi artillery was active and as we passed 
along the muddy trail through the fields near 
Romagne the blasts from the 155 and 75 mm. 
pieces kept me in a state of extreme nervous- 
ness. I thought they were shells exploding, 
and soon some enemy shells did land near us. 
One man was hit by a fragment, which I had 
heard whizzing through the air toward our 
group. Two soldiers bound up his wound, 
which was in the leg, and he was ordei'ed to 
turn back to a dressing station. He did so, 
with a brief "So long, fellows," to the men he 
had served ^v^th for months and was now to 
leave, perhaps permanently. 

In this front zone no lights were allowed — 
not even a match could be struck or a cigarette 
lighted. Up ahead we saw some beautiful 
fireworks. I learned that these were flares 
sent up between the opposing lines to disclose 
prowling parties on raids or patrol. The light 
from them was very bright and as the balls of 
fire were attached to tiny parachutes, they 
floated about in the air for half a minute. On 

a company front, one of these flares would be 
sent up at irregular intervals five or six times 
an hour. 

Along the road I saw the dead bodies of ten 
Germans, and one American, the latter on a 

When we reached the front lines, I found 
that there was no trench system established, 
although our platoon was to be located in what 
had been an old German battery position, and 
there was some protection in front of us. Most 
of the men on this line had dug deep "fox 
holes" for protection, and the idea was to con- 
nect these up into a continuous trench four 
or more feet deep. However, as we always ex- 
pected to advance every day or two, these 
trenches were seldom completed by Americans. 
I had already seen the elaborate, deep German 
and French trenches south of Montfaucon and 
was somewhat surprised to learn that we didn't 
have at least that much shelter. 

The company we relieved disappeared in the 
dark after we had exchanged a few whispers, 
and the lieutenant in charge of us had ob- 
tained what information he could about the 
conditions out in front and the whereabouts 
of outfits on either flank of us. I laid down in 
a fox hole and went to sleep at about 3 a. m., 
but at 5 I was awakened by a terrific cannon- 
ading from our own artillery. There was a 
continuous roar of firing, and up ahead we 
could hear the shells exploding and occasionally 
see clouds of dirt arise. It was still quite dark 
however. A corporal came along and said we 
were going to go over the top at 6:30 o'clock 
and to eat some of the corned beef sandwiches 
we had brought at once. I did so, although 
I was feeling somewhat nervous and my mouth 
was as dry as sandpaper. I won't say just 
how scared I was, but I imagine I felt about 
the same as a prisoner walking out to be 
hung. Machine guns were opening up, straight 
ahead of my shelter, and I could hear the bul- 
lets passing near in bursts occasionally. Evi- 
dently the Germans were nervous, too. 

As the time approached to go over, the lieu- 
tenant and our sergeant began comparing 
watches very frequently and talking in low 
tones. I took a drink from my canteen every 
minute or two and wished I could get a broken 
leg before time to start. However, everyone 
else seemed cool enough so I decided to go 
through with it no matter what happened. It 
was just as safe to go ahead as any other 
way, I figured, and I surely couldn't stay still 
when my outfit advanced. 

Suddenly the sergeant said quietly, "Fix 
bayonets and get all set." W^e did so and a 




When troops went eastward they were kept under a very strict discipline, but when it came to returning they were given 
wide range and plenty of leeway. This picture shows th:m all over the ship — even on the skipper's sacred bridge. 



minute later he whispered, "Come on," and we 
stepped up from our ditch and went forward in 
bunches of six or eight, each squad in single 
file. I don't know what it looked like at first 
as I kept my head down so my helmet would 
catch any stray bullets. I was fourth in the 
squad column. 

Suddenly our artillery stopped firing and the 
silence was oppressive for half a minute. We 
went forward at a trot looking for Germans. 
We probably were 150 yards ahead of the 
jumping off place when our artillery opened 
up again, the shells being visible as they ex- 
ploded quite a ways ahead of us. The barage 
was creeping forward to protect us. I re- 
member hearing a "wh-z-z" and the sergeant 
yelled, "Dowm!" and we all dove just as a shell 
exploded twenty yards away. Another fol- 
lowed nearby, and another. I saw the man 
ahead of me start to arise and then fall again 
limply. He muttered something. I saw his 
face was all bloody, and as he lay on his side 
his left hand was badly mangled. Even as I 
watched him, he turned on his face and after 
a convulsive movement became still. I knew 
that he was dead. Somehow, the shock to me 
was not as great as 1 had anticipated. I had 
prepared myself to expect to see death, and as 
long as I was still alive I did not get much 
excited. Another shell hit forty yards to our 
left. There was a sharp, buzzing sound, and 
my head jerked back. There was a noise as 
though a hammer had struck an iron pipe. I 
gasped in fear, and then realized that a shell 
fragment had hit my helmet without injuring 

"Helmet, you're my friend," I said aloud. 

"All right," yelled the sergeant just then, 
"Let's go." 

We all got up and ran foi'ward. I saw a 
German a few rods ahead of me, getting up. 
He started to run. Four of us fired at him and 

he dropped. "I got him," I remarked, and then 
I became aware that the man next behind me 
was saying the same thing. We reloaded as 
we kept on. 

I saw other Yanks at a distance on either 
side. Suddenly one of the groups to my right 
just melted away and at the same time I heard 
a loud rattling noise at our right front. It 
was a German machine gun. Our sergeant 
dashed for it, all of our squad following. We 
reached it before it could be turned on us, but 
a Gei'man fired his pistol at the sergeant and 
killed him when we were within six feet of 
the hedge behind which the enemy were. Four 
of us leaped the hedge. There were three 
Germans. One fell to the ground when big 
Pete leaped upon him and struck him a terrific 
blow with the butt of his rifle. I saw one 
struggling to get his pistol working and I shot 
from the hip with my rifle. Luckily the bullet 
struck him between the eyes and he rolled 
over. The third one gave a yell and threw 
up his hands, but if he wanted to surrender he 
got no chance for an American bayonet went 
into his abdomen. He gave a sickening moan, 
half sigh and half cough, and keeled over. 

The man who stuck him called to me "Keep 
coming, buddy," and I ran foi-ward in his foot- 
steps. I knew that we were supposed to get to 
an old road up ahead and assemble there at 
7:10 to reform our line. I was feeling better. 
I saw that one could be in battle without get- 
ting killed and I was gaining confidence as I 
went along, seeking shelter behind stumps and 
clumps of grass as I advanced. The firing from 
the concealed German lines was continuous 
and shells were dropping on both sides of us, 
and in front and rear. The Germans had no 
ti-enches along here, only strong points for in- 
fantry and lots of machine gun nests. 

As I was looking for a place to halt a mo- 
ment to regain my breath, I heard a few bul- 


The roster of Co. I, 7th Regt. Wisconsin State Guard, 
shown on the opposite page, follows ; 

Capt. Paul M. Matson, 1st. Lt. W. F. MacGregor. 2nd 
Lt. R. P. Peterson, Q. M. Sgts. J. F. Sugden, and C. B. 

1st Sgt. J. E. Wilson and Sgts. P. F. Peterson. T. .7. 
Pryce, A. W. Johnson. W. J. Kennedy, J. E. Craig. Ed. 
Rasmussen, T. L. Hei-manson and A. W. Clutter. 
Corporals L. J. Breylinger, Evan Catterall, S. E. Craig, 
L. A. Filiatreau, Wm. Meyers. Nels Nielsen, D. C. Wash- 
burn, and A. E. Wilkins. 

Musicians R. E. Schaefer. I. J. Fuller, A. J. Pluhar, John 
Walther and Geo. P. Lee. 

Cooks Jos. Pluhar, C. P. Zierten and W. K. Bass. 
Articifers N. R. Krause. J. W. Zellen and J. H. Birkett. 
Privates Jess Acklam, Chas. O. Beach, Stephen Benisb. 
L. J. Blessinger, David Bolton. Walter P. Borman, C. J. 
Brady, Russell Bronson, Geo. F. Butler, B. W. Chadwick. 
F. J. Charles. H. P. Christensen, Edwin R. Dermody. 

Wm. J. Easson, C. S. Edwards, Ezra L. Evans, John R. 
Evans, Otto Falkenberg, Peter Fenger. L. M. Fowler. 
John M. Frey, Ronald Gales, Rudolph Greer, M. J. Grif- 
fith, A. C. Hanson, Fredrick Hauberg. Wm. H. Hetzel, 
P. C. Holm, John Host. A\. Hutchinson, F. E. Jacobsen, 
E. F. Johnson. J. R. Jones. Jl-., O. E. Kammien. M. P. 
Koke, Wm. H. Lang. C. E. Lange, Clyde H. Layton. 
Howard L. Layton. Orrin P. Layton. Oscar Layton, G. H. 
Leahv, H. J. Leonard, John Lincoln, H. Longstaff. N. F. 
Longstaff. W. P. Lonim. E. MacKendrick. S. J. Manner- 
ing. J. H. Martin. H. W. Matterer, R. H. McCaughey, 
D. C. Metcalf. F. H. Miller, Peter Miluszusky, Donald J. 
Morey. A. C. Munck. P. J. Myers. G. E. H. Nelson. P. N. 
Nelson, A. Nickelsen. T. F. Nielsen, John B. Nobert. Ole 
Olson. M. A. Overson. L. A. Pease, W. H. Peters. Holger 
Petersen. Leiand B. Pfost, A. J. Pinard, Matthew Poul- 
son, A. E. Price, R. W. Rasmussen, J. E. Rocque. Carl 
Ruger. J. H. Rulle, L. A. Scheuss, Peter Scholzen. Silas 
Schwartz. J. E. Simpson. Edw. W. Tigges, I. O. Verket. 
H. C. Voss. J. A. Wellensgard. T. H. Welshman. A. Wil- 
son. E. A. Wurz. 














lets pass near me. I clucked my head and 
started to dive for a shell hole. As I did so I 
felt a blow on my right hip and fell to the 
ground. At the same time there was a crash 
as though I had been hit on the head with a 
club. I sank quietly into sleep. 

When I opened my eyes I realized that I 
had been wounded and in despei-ate haste I 
squirmed around to see what had happened 
to me. I could not move my right leg, but it 
was not shot off. It was bleeding a little about 
eight inches below my waist. My cheek was 
bloody but evidently the bullet had passed 
through my helmet and only torn the flesh 
along my jaw. 

I got out my first aid packet and bandaged 
the hole in my hip as best I could and let the 
other wound alone. I crept painfully a few 
feet and found a shell hole in which I could 
curl up. Soon a shell exploded near me which 
smelled strange and I realized instantly that 
it was mustard gas. I put on my gas mask 
and for an hour wore it, much to my discom- 
fort. At about noon it started to rain, and 
feeling safe from observation I crawled back 
to our old front line. The trip took me nearly 
an hour. There I was found by two stretcher 
bearers, who carried me down the road a bit 
to an old dugout, where there was a surgeon 
and a squad of medical corps men. The doctor 
gave me a shot of anti-tetanus serum and re- 
dressed my wounds. Four men then carried 
me to a little village a mile distant where they 
placed me in an ambulance with three other 
litter cases. We were given a wild and rough 
ride for six mile.s, and at last reached the field 
hospital where I was placed on an operating 
table and had the bullet extracted from my leg. 
When I woke up I was in a cot and an orderly 
was bringing me some soup. It tasted pretty 

good, and when a Y. M. C. A. man came along 
with some cigarettes I was feeling better than 
I had for a week. 

It was two days later when I was carried 
back to Souilly and put on a crowded hospital 
train for shipment to the Bordeaux hospital 
section. There, in a nice bed in a base hos- 
pital, I remained for two months while the 
war ended and the army was starting to move 
again — one part toward home and the other 
to Germany. 

As my wounds did not have any permanent 
bad results, I feel that I had a very interesting 
and, on the whole, enjoyable experience in the 
army. I missed the long period of training, 
and the long dreary siege of trench and field 
warfare that so many of our men underwent, 
and at the same time I saw a little of every- 
thing. I think that, on the whole, the army 
was well handled and cared for. I know the 
food was ample, even though the menu did 
not have much variety. In the field, the sol- 
diers usually were given fresh meat three or 
four times a week, and they had canned corn 
or tomatoes or beans once a day in addition 
to plenty — oh, a great plenty — of corned beef, 
corned beef hash and canned salmon. Bread 
was supplied whenever the wagons could make 
daily trips from the railhead to the field kitch- 
ens, and otherwise there was hard tack which 
was not so terribly hard. When the infantry 
was in the front lines, hot food was brought 
up once each night in containers which retained 
the heat. The kitchens and baggage were al- 
ways left at the rear. Danger was always 
present, but after a few days at the front, 
everyone gets used to this and doesn't worry 
over the possibility of getting hit. The longer 
one remains unscathed, the more confident he 
becomes of his immunity. 

What impressed me as much as anything at 

The roster of Co. K (see opposite page) contained the 
following : Many of the boys who were in K's ranks 
were later in the service of the U. S. army or navy. 

Capt. Richard Drake. Capt. John T. Olson (promoted 
from 1st Lt. on July 5. 19171 ; 1st Lt. John H. Owens, 
2d Lt. Fred C. Haumerson. 

1st Set. John E. Konnak, Q. M. Sgt. Fred M. Brooker, 
Sgts. Carl Hanson. Wm. Rodgrers, R. P. Hammond. Thos. 
Kearney, Jr.. Lee Archer. Elmer Durgin. 

Corp. B. M. Kerr, V. H. Whaley. Elmer Durgin, Arthur 
Ehrlich, Kai H. Studt, W. F. Hogan. A. C. Hermes. C. C. 
Nelson, R. B. Gister, Louis M. Hass. Musicians Wm. 
Peterson, Claude Merrill, Nels Nelson. Articifier Geo. J. 

Privates : Albert E. Anderson, Harold Avard, Frank L. 
Bahr, Johnson E. Baldwin, Thorwald M. Beck, Edwin C. 
Billings, John Beyer, Harold H. Bradley, Harry L. Cal- 
hoon, Frank Cooper, Hugh M. Costello, Robert Davis. 
Arthur Dixon, Roljert Eagen, John H. Foxwell, Roman B. 
Gister, Arthur R. Glassow, Wm. L. Hager, Reuben H. 
Haase, Windlin M. Hasse, Albert C. Hermes, William F. 
Hogan, Richard Hughes, Fred C. Jacobson, Anid Jen- 
sen, Jens Jensen, Fred C. Klingmeyer, Milton J. Knob- 
lock, Henry A. Mayer. Albert C. Mickelson, Emil M. 

Miller, Charles A. Mosher Charles C. Nelson, Nelson B. 
Nelson, Ole P. Nielson, Louis Norup, Jas. T. Orr. Jno. H. 
Paap, Walter C. Peterson, John R. Powers, Leo. J. Red- 
mond. Charles Reynolds, Will H. Shafer. Chas. D. Saw- 
yer, C. A. Schumacker. Art. W. Simonson, Martin Singer, 
Harry C. Steinbuck, Leonard H. Tietz, Sofus TroUe, Xouis 
TroIIe, Claude Terrill. ClitTord Terrill, Leopold Von Schil- 
ling, Peter J. Verheyn, Geo. H. Ward. Clar, P. Wiede- 
bach, Webster A. Anderson, Dwight Bartlett, M. Hamp- 
ton Bartlett, Alonzo D. Carpenter, Harry Chamberlin, 
Phillip T. Clancy, H. A. Fairbanks, F. E. Findley, J. J. 
Foley, Leo J. Funk, David Hanson, Louis M. Hass, Thos. 
Helium, Roy F. Horn. Orvin Huppert, Arthur Janes, Burt 
Johnson, Ed. Kammenberg. Raymond E. Kaye. Matt E. 
Keefe, Dominie Lesento. Carl A. Mall, Martin Matson. 
Theo. Matson. Rowland H. Mears, Richard Mertins, Thos. 
Morgenson. Martin Nelson. Svend Nelson, Tolmar Nel- 
son. Victor C. Nelson, H. A. Olsen, John W. Owen, C. E. 
Peterson, George Peterson, Nels C. Peterson, Wm. Peter- 
son, Wm. L. Peterson. John Plemmons, Mikel P. Pors- 
gaard, Anthony Reis, Robert Reno, Robert Rickett, Robt. 
Rodgers, Thomas Rothwell, ."Arthur J. Schroeder, Elmer 
Blatter, K. H. Studt, Harold Swenson, Geo. Wernicke, 
Frank J. Yetmar. 


















s/ * 



■ -4^ 






the front was the ahiiost universal bravery of 
members of the human race. Knowing that 
they were in constant danger of their lives, 
the American soldier almost without exception 
showed no sign of fear in battle, and I am told 
that the same is true of other nations. Men 
who, at home, would be afraid to climb a lad- 
der for fear of falling, perform the most as- 
tounding feats of bravery and think nothing 
of it. 

There is not a man who served in France 
from Racine who, were he to do the same acts 
here that he did at the front, time and time 
again, would not be hailed as a hero worthy 
of public acclaim. In war, however, individual 
acts of heroism ai'e lost sight of in the mass of 
them. In the brief time that I was in the Ar- 
gonne sector I saw engineers calmly building 
roads while enemy shells were bursting all 
around them. I saw artillerymen driving their 
teams foi-ward over shell torn roads and across 
open fields while German aeroplanes raked 
their column with machine gun fire and hurled 
grenades upon them from the air, and the can- 
noneers of other batteries were serving their 
guns with missiles exploding in their vicinity 
constantly. Infantrymen wooed death in every 
form for days at a time and advanced to the 
mouths of machine guns and rifles, or charged 
against deadly bayonets, as though they wei'e 
advancing in a game of football. Aviators 
flew across the lines to gather information 
knowing that they Would be subjected to shell 

fire as well as to attack from enemy avions, 
and that a comparatively minor injury to pilot 
or plane at thousands of feet above the ground 
would mean cei-tain death. Ambulance drivers 
and crews of ammunition trucks faced death 
almost every hour while carrying on in their 
prosaic occupations. Yet not one man in a 
thousand ever seemed to hesitate in the least 
over the performance of all of his duty, or 
even more, on account of any personal danger. 
The discomforts of war were more detested 
than its perils. Sleeping and marching in mud 
and rain, eating like animals, existing in holes 
by day and venturing forth at night on their 
missions of death; unwashed, unclean, lousy 
and often sick, the American soldier preferred 
the dangers of an attack to the miserable mo- 
notony of trench life and its comparative safe- 
ty. Artillerymen might go for weeks without 
washing their faces, but they kept their guns 
clean as a banquet table. Infantrymen might 
go wdthout socks, but they always tried to 
have plenty of cartridges on hand. Canteens 
might get empty, but horses were watered if 
there was water to be had. "Let's win this 
damned war quick," was the motto, and as 
long as this objective seemed possible of at- 
tainment the American soldier was willing to 
undergo almost anything. They knew they 
were in France until it was over, and they 
asked nothing more than they be allowed to 
finish it. They had the chance, thanks to Per- 
shing's confidence in them, and did the job. 

' /,' 



THE signing of the armistice and the ces- 
sation of hostilities at 11 o'clock in the 
morning of Nov. 11, 1918, found the 
American troops active on all fronts and in 
several places preparing to attack the enemy 
line at 12 o'clock noon. The muddy, weary 
doughboys out in front; the sweating, swearing 
artillerymen at their backs, and the tireless 
engineers and ambulance drivers and teamsters 
along the roads had no heart to cheer the 
news when yelling couriers and low-flying 
aeroplanes finally brought the story of the end 
of the world's greatest war. Although the 
word was expected, it was doubted at first. ' 
Rifles and cannons were kept hot from firing 
right up to 10:59 o'clock in expectation that 
this report would prove a hoax as one had on 
Nov. 7. Many a daring member of a patrol, 
feeling of the enemy lines, lost his life in 
the last half hour of the conflict. 

At 11 o'clock the artillery was suddenly si- 
lenced, and the rattle of rifle and machine gun 
fire ceased permanently. There was a brief 
moment of joyful shouting and repartee, and 
then the vast majority of that great army 
which had accomplished the impossible laid 
down in the mud of France and had a real 
nice sleep. For many, it was the first undis- 
turbed rest in weeks. 

Strict orders were issued against holding 
any communication -wath the enemy, and grin- 
ning Germans who walked toward their late 
foes with miniature flags of truce in their 
hands, were turned back by stern-faced sen- 
tries who showed an utter lack of cordiality. 

On Nov. 12, the Commander-in-Chief, Gen- 
eral Per.shing, issued the following proclama- 
tion to his troops: 

"The enemy has capitulated. It is fitting 
that I address myself in thanks directly to the 
officers and soldiers of the American Expe- 
ditionary Forces who by their heroic efforts 
have made possible this glorious result. 

"Our armies, hurriedly raised and hastily 

trained, met a veteran enemy and by courage, 
discipline and skill always defeated him. 
Without complaint you have endured inces- 
sant toil, privation and danger. You have seen 
many of your comrades make the supreme 
sacrifice that freedom may live. 

"I thank you for the patience and courage 
with which you have endured. I congratulate 
you upon the splendid fruits of victory which 
your heroism and the blood of our gallant dead 
are now presenting to our nation. Your deeds 
will live forever on the most glorious pages 
of America's history. 


For two or three days there was almost 
complete idleness along what had been the 
front. The troops, as soon as they were con- 
vinced that the war was really over, enjoyed 
complete relaxation for the first time since 
they donned a uniform. They played cards, 
"shot craps" and visited neighboring commands 
without fear of inteiTuption. Then discipline 
began to tighten up again, and aside from 
their daily tasks the sole question of interest 
was, "When do we start for home ? " 

Sad to say, it was to be many a long week 
and month before most of them were able to 
wave their hands to the Statue of Liberty. 

For two weeks the army in France presented 
the odd appearance of a huge combat organi- 
zation all fixed for battle but with nobody to 

All along the old battle line from Sedan 
down along the Meuse toward Verdun there 
glowed at night the embers of thousands of 
Yankee campfires. Cigarettes gleamed and 
voices were raised in songs and laughter where 
for four years it would have been folly to 
strike a match and treason to build a fire. 

Reveille and retreat sounded across what had 
been No Man's land, and although the front 
was now termed a "rest area," fighting was 
replaced by such a continual round of drill, 
drill and more drill that the weary doughboy 



wondered if the old armistice was really all 
that it was cracked up to be. With all the 
horrors of war, there never was a soldier who 
would trade his place in the muddiest dugout 
in a shell swept sector for a camp where he 
would have to resume "squad east and west" 
for its "disciplinary value," as G. H. Q. loved 
to describe that jolly exercise, always pre- 
scribed for inmates of rest areas. Soldiers 
took comfort in the front and in battles be- 
cause while there they could dispense with the 
close order drill and strict observance of mili- 
tary courtesies which always reminded them 
that they were merely a cog in a great ma- 

One blessing of this post-armistice fortnight 
was the presence of the field kitchens in the 
midst of their units. Instead of sending cans 
full of food five miles to the hungry doughboys 
up ahead, the cooks brought their chariots 
right up to the advance positions on Nov. 12, 
and thereafter kept a never-ending stream of 
well earned flapjacks, hot slum and salmon pat- 
ties flowing to the proper destinations. 

Nine divisions strong — the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 
4th, 5th, 32nd, 42nd, 89th and 90th— the Third 
American Army began on the morning of 
Sunday, November 17, its march to the Rhine. 

It was at 5:30 that the order "Foi-ward, 
march" sounded along the American line from 
Mouzon to Thiaucourt — Mouzon on the Meuse 
just below Sedan and Thiaucourt down in the 
heart of what was once the St. Mihiel salient. 

An hour or so earlier, the unfriendly notes of 
reveille had disturbed the chill November air 
and tumbled out of a myriad dugouts and pup 
tents a stamping, gi'owling, cursing crew who 
damned the Kaiser and swore at Germany, but 
not one of whom could have been hired for 
love or money to go off on leave this day of 

Indeed, for several days before the march be- 
gan, officers and men who had started forth 
so gaily on their long postponed leaves kept 
hurrying back of their own accord at the first 
inkling that their outfit had been among those 
nominated to keep a watch on the Rhine. Even 
men who, on the strength of the armistice, had 
decided to go AWOL for a day or so, would 
glean the good news at half-way towns like 
Bar-le-Duc or Chalons and come sneaking back 
as fast as their legs or hospitable trucks would 
carrj' them. Every one wanted to be among 
those present at what came in no time to be 
known as "The Party." 

So, when the sun came up on the morning 
of the 17th it found them all marching in 
columns of squads along the highways that 

lead to the frontier — plodding along and sing- 
ing as they went. And the song that they 
sang to Germany was a new version of an 
old favorite which broke ever and again into 
the familiar refrain, "The Yanks are coming, 
the Yanks are coming." 

Ahead of them, as they ambled foi-ward, 
stretched a country-side strewn with the 
things the Germans had been too hurried or 
too indifferent to carry along. In nearly every 
village, the streets were fairly littered with 
German guns, German helmets, German cart- 
ridge belts as though, when the armistice news 
came, they had been dropped then and there, 
never to be picked up again by German hands. 

Whole platoons of American Infantry could 
be seen parading toward the frontier, each 
head adorned with a spiked German helmet. 
The souvenir market was glutted before sun- 
down of the first day, and lugers, which, a 
fortnight before, would have sold for any- 
where from 100 to 300 francs, could be had 
in exchange for one package of cigarettes. 

Then there were big guns and an occasional 
truck abandoned in the haste of the great de- 
parture. One of these trucks was as empty as 
a ruined to■v^^l, but on its tailboard the depart- 
ing enemy had hung this affable sign: "Help 

Then, treasure trove of treasure troves, the 
advancing Americans found in the German 
hospitals some Yankee wounded. In the big 
hospital at Virton, for instance, the Germans 
had been obliged to leave behind some 400 men 
too seriously wounded to be moved — left them 
there with a full staff of surgeons and nurses 
to care for them — and among these were nine 
Americans. They had lain there, lonesome and 
helpless, for many weary days and nights. 
They woke on the morning of the 20th to find 
friendly Americans swarming around their 
beds, showering them with cigarettes and 

And all along the way the men of the Third 
Army, moving foi-ward unmolested as though 
on some easy practice march, were greeted 
and passed by an unending stream of refugees, 
thousands upon thousands of scantily clad, 
hungry, tired, happy refugees, prisoners of 
war, civilian prisoners, fugitive townsfolk, 
men, women and children, of all ages and all 
nationalities, thousands upon thousands of 
them pouring through the towns and villages 
already gay with French and Amei-ican flags. 

By Monday night the troops, having ad- 
vanced some 40 kilometers and reached the 
Luxembourg frontier, settled down for breath. 

On Thursday morning the march was re- 





sumed through Luxembourg, from the general 
line Etalle, Saint-Leger, Longwy, Audun-le- 
Romain, Briey. 

When the Rhine was finally reached, and 
the Army of Occupation settled down for its 
long spell in Germany, all the attraction soon 
fled, for once again the old round of strict 
discipline, interminable drills and reviews, and 
orders forbidding fraternization with the 
enemy and almost any other form of amuse- 
ment were put into effect. While these vet- 
erans were keeping the watch on the Rhine, 
divisions which had come to France long after 
they had, were on their way home. Only the 
occasional furloughs to visit designated leave 
areas served to relieve the monotony. It was 
well along in the spring when the homesick 
lads of the "Ameroc" began to be relieved by 
newly recruited Regular army regiments, and 
turn their faces once more toward St. Nazaire, 
Brest, Bordeaux and home. It was the middle 
of the summer before the bulk of them had 
reached their native land. 

Aside from the Army of Occupation, the 
divisions were moving out of France for 
America with considerable I'apidity after Dec. 
1. But there were many complications con- 
nected with the dissolution of the A. E. F. 
Vast quantities of stores were in France and 
these must be disposed of. As the Service of 
Supply had been built up from the Atlantic 
to the battle line, now it must be maintained 
clear to the Rhine and eventually abandoned 
from that end back to the sea. This meant 
picking up railroads and other government 
property, or arranging for their sale. Also, 
there were not many more ships available for 
the return trip than for the journey to France. 
The Navy could furnish some warships for the 
purpose, but the British government wanted 
its own transports to carry home its men from 
Australia, Canada and other colonies. 

There were two very distinct periods of the 
A. E. F.'s homecoming. Until June, 1919 it 
came home as fast as boats could be gotten to- 
gether to carry it. From that time on it came 
home as fast as its work was done. 

There was December after the armistice, 
month of rumor and indecision everywhere, 
with only a few thousand Yanks getting away. 
January saw budding hopes in every heart and 
nearly 200,000 men off' for the homeland. 
February held January's pace. March began 
the upward sweep with 214,348 light packs 
and light hearts mounting the gang plank. 
April sent 289,112. May's 331,336 included the 
biggest home-coming week of all, the 14th to 
the 21st, when 126,392 put to sea. June, month 

of brides and roses, capped the climax and won 
the record for troop movement, either to or 
from Fi'ance, with total sailings of 358,315. 

Right here it was that our ships proved to 
have worked themselves out or almost out of a 
job. In July the A. E. F., reduced to 350,000 
I'eally began to break up housekeeping. It 
was much easier to get ships than it was to 
pry men loose from the S. O. S. and the Rhine 
to fill them, and sailings slumped to 254,532. 
The last day of the month, however, saw the 
A. E. F. well down toward its last hundred 
thousand and the end of the long journey home 
in view. 

The closing-out period of the A. E. F. really 
dates from the signing of the Peace Treaty by 
the Germans. Until that day and that hour, 
the A. E. F. as a fighting foi-ce, though gi'eat- 
ly reduced in numbers, had been painstakingly 
conserved in all its ability to contribute to the 
Allied art of persuasion had the Germans de- 
clined to sign. There were, to be exact, 190,- 
473 Yanks that day on the Rhine ready to 
plunge foi-ward at a minute's notice, and be- 
hind them from Coblenz to the sea were lines 
of communication and a service of supply prac- 
tically intact. Gie\Tes could have filled any 
requisition in three hours. There was on hand 
about a hundi'ed days' supply of everything 
that would have been sustaining for our invad- 
ing forces and conducive to a German change 
of mind, including American ammunition just 
beginning to arrive in quantity. 

But the Germans signed, and the A. E. F. 
close-out began. It took time to wind up the 
affairs of a partnership like the A. E. F. The 
Yanks who straggled home in July and August 
and who did it will say so. 

By July 1 even the high spots on the old A. 
E. F. map were getting to be little dots. 
Chaumont was reduced to a little guard de- 
tachment of 200 and was prepared — and 
anxious — to move on Paris any day. St. Aig- 
nan — name that once spelled holy terror to 
thousands — had become an innocent and harm- 
less village of 75 officers and 775 enlisted men. 
Le Mans that had known its thousands and 
tens of thousands, killed cooties ten thousand 
times as many, sorted out boat loads — of sol- 
diers, not cooties — and sent them on their way 
exulting, had been pared down to 7,000 on 
June 25, and vnthin the next 20 days dwindled 
away to nothing. Is-sur-Tille, not long since 
the busy foi-warding station of everything from 
tanks to beans, was little more than a pile of 
boxes and crates with a little care-taker de- 
tachment perched around it — except for its 
vast German prison camp, and even there the 



folk of one nation were looking west, of the 
other as hopefully east. Gievres, the greatest 
military supply depot in the world, had re- 
duced its force from 22,000 to 5,000 and was 
beginning to dispose of the 900,000 tons of 
food and clothing and equipment to France 
and the newly liberated countries of Europe. 
Romorantin, Orly and Issoudun, where the A. 
E. F. sprouted its wings, had been turned over 
to the French. Tours, the once proud capital 
of the S. O. S., had reduced its personnel from 
14,000 to 8,000 and was preparing to vamoose 
to Paris (which it never did) sometime during 
the month. Bourges was to be among the last 
to cut its personnel, for it was still busy sort- 
ing cards. The battle of Paris itself about 
won, the evacuation of its 21,348 troops began 
on July 5, immediately after the great cele- 
bration of the Fourth. 

During July both Bordeaux and St. Nazaire 
ceased to operate as American ports. Marseille 
and Le Havre had both been crossed off the A. 
E. F. map in June, so that Brest alone — Brest 

of a million going and coming — was left dur- 
ing the closing out period as the American 
port of embarkation. St. Nazaire sent out her 
last transport July 22. It was the Kroonland, 
carrying 4,000 troops and General S. D. Rock- 
enback, commanding officer of the port, and 
his staff. It was at St. Nazaire that, more than 
two years before, the first of America's troops 
to reach France, units of the First Division, 
had landed. 

Communication by American telegraph and 
telephone between Paris and Coblenz was im- 
possible for the first time since the period of 
occupation on July 23, and at about the same 
time the vast network of telegraph, telephone 
and radio lines which the American Signal 
Corps had built up in France was turned over 
to the French. 

By September, 1918, practically all Ameri- 
can troops had left France excepting a hand- 
ful attached to headquarters of the quarter- 
master department. At last the war was really 
over for the American army. 



HAVING been asked to explain the work- 
ings of the American army medical 
service and hospitals in war time, I find 
it necessary to state at the beginning that con- 
siderable variation existed in methods of 
evacuating battle victims. The methods de- 
pended upon the type of injury, the circum- 
stances under which it occurred, available 
transportation, the number of casualties to be 
dealt with and the important question of 
whether the combat organizations were at that 
time engaged in offensive or defensive opera- 

Obviously, an army in retreat cannot give 
the same sort of attention to wounded men that 
can be offered while an army is advancing and 
leaving its casualties behind it in a zone of 
comparative safety. American wounded men 
received better care, on the average, than the 
wounded of other armies because for the 
greater part of the time our units were ad- 
vancing when they were fighting at all. This 
fact also prevented many of our wounded men 
from being captured, and also enabled the 
Graves Registration service to identify and 
bury decently our own dead. 

Perhaps the easiest way to explain the work- 
ing of the hospital system is to begin with a 
descripition of the organization itself, and then 
describe the "ideal" way of handling wounded; 
that is to say, the way they were handled when 
circumstances permitted. 

As a part of the regular equipment of each 
soldier, there is a first aid pocket which con- 
tains a sterile dressing and bandage besides 
the small vial of tincture of iodine which each 
soldier is instructed to use, either on himself 
or a comrade. In a great majority of cases 
the actual care of the injury takes place very 
shortly after the same has been inflicted. 

Attached to each battalion or company of 
combat troops, (infantry, artillery, etc.,) is a 
unit of medical aids, under the direction of a 
medical officer, and this unit follows right with 
the troops as they advance taking care of those 

who fall on the field of battle. This medical 
detachment is the first organized group to care 
for the wounded and each of these men carry 
a fuller equipment of bandages, a supply of 
tetanus antitoxin (to prevent lock-jaw), and a 
limited set of surgical instruments which are 
to be used to check extensive bleeding, if pos- 
sible. In addition, each man is equipped with 
a tourniquet which is to be used when the 
bleeding is severe, the tourniquet being tigh- 
tened around a limb to check the flow of blood. 

The use of tetanus antitoxin became a most 
important factor and was resorted to very 
early in the war by both the Allies and the 
Germans. Where fields are so abundantly 
fertilized as in France, the danger from lock- 
jaw is very great, and the use of the anti-toxin 
caused an almost unbelievable drop in the num- 
ber of cases. Various figures show a decrease 
from 25% to less than 1/10 of l^'r, and in my 
own experience, of several thousand cases, I 
saw only two cases of tetanus. 

Another important duty of the medical de- 
tachment men was to properly attach a diagno- 
sis tag on every case that came to their at- 
tention. On this tag was noted the type of in- 
jury, time of injury, whether or not antitoxin 
had been given, whether or not the injured had 
had a dose of morphine, and if so at what time 
given, and lastly whether or not the case need- 
ed a litter. The latter was shown by a blue 
margin on the tag, and could be determined at 
a glance by the litter bearers. 

For the purpose of clearness, I will attempt 
to trace through a litter case, for example a 
man shot through the thigh with a resulting 
fracture of the thigh bone. This man having 
received the attention alluded to above, was 
next taken in hand by litter bearers, also a 
part of the medical detachment, who trans- 
ported the man to the nearest dressing station, 
called the battalion aid station, which was lo- 
cated in some reasonably secure place, prefer- 
ably a shell-proof dug-out. Here a medical 
officer again was in charge of the work, and 



here the injuries again received such care as 
was necessary and possible. More time could 
be spent in checking hemorrhage, applying a 
splint or giving the patient morphine if needed. 
The man now being made reasonably com- 
fortable, he is carried by litter further to the 
rear. Often it is possible to provide immedi- 
ate transportation by ambulance to the casu- 
alty clearing station, or evacuation hospital or 
more frequently to a field hospital, which is 
the nearest hospital to the front lines. 

At the field hospital the man has his emer- 
gency operation, adjustment of splints, stimu- 
lation (such as coflfee), additional blankets, etc., 
as the case may require. The more severe 
cases are held until the dangers of shock are 
less, the less severe being immediately pre- 
pared for evacuation further to the rear. 

From the field hospital the injured man is 
transported to the evacuation hospital by am- 
bulance where similar attention is provided 
and where a great number of the injured re- 
ceive their first operative experience. As in 
the field hospital, the patient is again held until 
evacuation can be effected with a minimum of 
danger to the man. The evacuation hospital 
ordinarily was located out of danger at the rail 
head, from which point the hospital trains mov- 
ed, and once aboard such a train, the care of 
the injured was splendid. These trains were 
equipped to the last detail, having even an 
operating room which compared favorably with 
one in a civil hospital at home. On the train 
every possible care was extended the injured. 

Base hospitals were located all through 
Prance and for the purpose of illustration, I 
will confine my story to the American Red 
Cross Military Hospital No. 1 located at Paris, 
and at which hospital I had the pleasure of do- 
ing my work. 

Arriving at Paris, the hospital train was met 
by a convoy of ambulances. Classification as 
to type of injury was done by a medical officer 
at the station, surgical cases going to a speci- 
fied hospital, gas cases to another, mental cases 
to still another, etc. 

Word came in advance of the arrival of a 
train and all was in readiness when the boys 
reached the hospital. Every-one was busy; for 
at a hospital the size of A. R. C. M. H. No. 1, 
where we had 2200 beds, our allotment varied 
from 100 to 500 at a time, and needless to say, 
it kept all of us moving to care for this size of 

Immediately on arrival, the boys were car- 
ried into the receiving ward, where details of 
their cases were noted, a bed assigned, and 
the operating room through which the indivi- 

dual was to pass designated. One and some- 
times two medical officers were assigned to 
make a preliminary examination of all the 
wounded to determine the more serious cases 
so that they might receive the first attention. 
In the receiving ward, each was given all the 
hot coffee and sandwiches he wished, he was 
provided with a Red Cross bag into which he 
could place his personal property and which 
he found at his bed when returning from the 
operating room. 

The delay prior to operation varied v^rith the 
number of wounded received and the serious- 
ness of the injury, though ordinarily much ex- 
pedience was evident. At A. R. C. M. H. No. 
1 there were 16 operating tables and in a rush, 
these were in use continuously night and day. 
In the operating room, every precaution pos- 
sible was taken to give the injured man the 
best possible attention, every wound was 
X-rayed, and the location of the missile indi- 
cated by a pencil mark on the skin, to simplify 
its I'emoval. 

In the wards, the attention given the men 
was splendid. To be sure, during a rush, there 
was much need for additional doctors and 
nurses and nurses' aids; frequently after serv- 
ing eight or ten hours continuously at the 
operating table, the surgeon would go to his 
wards to dress the wounded or attend to other 
details as they might arise. The rush over, 
and the patients on the road to recovery, much 
was done for the pleasure and entertainment of 
the wounded, thanks to the efficient work of 
the nurses and nurses' aid. Many of the lat- 
ter were from the best homes of the country 
and often not accustomed to work. Here they 
served the men in their charge, almost as a 
mother herself would have done. 

The wounds being sufficiently advanced to 
make moving of the patient safe, the next pro- 
cedure was to evacuate the man to some hospi- 
tal further away from the scene of action, and 
often this was direct to some base port, where 
after a brief stay, the soldier would find him- 
self aboard a transport, or hospital ship and 
on his way to the U. S. A. The real thrill of 
"We're going home," cannot be described in 
words and only by the experience can it be 

On board the hospital ship, the wounded were 
in care of the navy surgeons who served splen- 
didly and are deserving of much credit. 

Arriving in this country, assignment was be- 
gun on ship board. The boys were sent to 
various hospitals at the ports, later to be again 



put aboard hospital trains, to be sent to the 
base or general hospital nearest his home. 

The work in the general hospital on this side 
was comprehensive and in the hands of skilled 
men. Here the work was that of reconstruc- 
tion and re-education, and then a final classifi- 
cation and determination of percentage of dis- 

Just prior to discharge, the boys passed 
through a discharge ward where special effort 
was taken to have each case justly passed on 
and to see that the condition of each warranted 
his return to home. 

I wish to apologize to any who might feel 
that this is not entirely the way he was taken 
care of, bearing in mind, that but a few passed 
through the hospitals of Paris. They without 
question were equipped second to none over- 
seas. In all the base hospitals in France, how- 
ever, every effort was made to give wounded 
men the very best care possible and I think 
most of those who were patients appreciate 
this fact. There was never any serious short- 
age of drugs or equipment, and it was only 
immediately after severe battles that the base 
hospitals were crowded. 

* * * 

Every war has had its epidemic of cholera, 
or typhoid, or yellow fever, or any of a half 
dozen other plagues that flourish best where 
men are crowded together under more or less 
unsanitary conditions. Against such scourges 
as these modern armies had pretty well im- 
muned and fortified themselves, the .4merican 
Army particularly; until influenza made its de- 
structive onslaught. 

Unlike former epidemics, it was least fatal 
to men in the field, most damaging to those in 
barracks and camp. And when the great tide 
of American O. D. was at the flood in the fall 
of 1918, the flu broke out with peculiar virul- 
ence on the packed transports which were 
bound for France. 

Probably other ships could furnish as dra- 
matic a story as that which follows. But the 
very hugeness of the ship and the immensity 
of the numbers carried aboard her make the 
picture more striking. 

That the Leviathan in ten trips during the 
war bore 96,804 troops to France, that the 
total death list for nine of these trips was but 
eight, while on the one trip when the flu raged 
the disease claimed 96 fatalities, are facts that 
reveal its swiftness and malignity. 

OflTicial reports are ordinarily the dryest and 
dullest reading, but Dr. H. A. May's report of 
that voyage in September, 1918, is so tense and 
interesting that it is worth quoting almost ver- 

'•U. S. S. Leviathan, 11th Oct., 1918. 

From: Medical Officer. 

To: Commanding Officer. • 

Subject: Epidemic of influenza. 

"I submit for your information the following 
report of an epidemic of influenza, with pneu- 
monia as a complication, which occurred among 
the troops of the U. S. Army embarked on this 
vessel for the last eastbound voyage. 

"There were 260 officers and 8,873 enlisted 
men of all grades reported as present when the 
ship left the dock in Hoboken. 

"During the hours of embarkation, Army 
medical officers removed from the ship ap- 
proximately 100 men and 4 nurses as being in- 
fected with influenza. 

"I have been told by an Army officer (Capt. 
Cheney), attached to the headquarters staff on 
board, that the 302nd Water Tank Train left 
178 men behind at camp because of influenza. 
In this connection, the following copy of a tele- 
gram sent from Headquarters, Port of Em- 
barkation, Hoboken, N. J., to the Commanding 
Officer, Camp Holabird, Md., September 23, 
1918, is submitted: 

" 'T 765. Send Water Tank Train 302 to 
Camp Union as scheduled, regardless preva- 
lence influenza. Please acknowledge receipt. 
Signed, Judson. 11.59a.' 

"By the same officer I was told that a large 
number of the 57th Pioneer Infantry were left 
behind at camp because of illness with influ- 
enza. This statement was confirmed by the 
Chief Army Surgeon on board. 

"Within a few hours after leaving the piers 
at Hoboken, about fifty cases of influenza had 
been admitted to the sick bay. 

"There were but 14 Army Medical Officers 
and 48 Army Hospital Corpsmen available for 
duty. Under normal conditions this personnel 
would not have been sufficient. In the face of 
such an epidemic as this the combined Navy 
and Army medical force has not been enough 
to properly care for the stricken." 

Dr. May relates how the rapid spread of the 
epidemic made necessary the vacation of com- 
partment after compartment to provide space 
for the sick, which necessarily led to over- 
crowding in other sections of the ship. 

He tells how a great part of E deck became 
a hospital ward, and of the difficulties experi- 
enced because the top bunk in the standees 
could not be reached by nurses. 

Doctors and nurses were stricken by the di- 
sease and thus became not only unable to aid 
but also an added burden to the overworked 
medical personnel. Every available medical 
officer, nurse and hospital orderly was utilized 
"to the limit of endurance." 



The report continues: 

"There are no means of knowing the actual 
number of sick at any one time, but it is esti- 
mated that fully 700 cases had developed by 
night of September 30. They were brought to 
the sick bay from all parts of the ship, in a 
continuous stream, only to be turned away be- 
cause all beds were occupied. Most of them 
lay down on the decks, inside and out, and made 
no effort to reach the compartment where they 
belonged. In fact, practically no one had the 
slightest idea where he did belong, and he left 
his blankets, clothing, kit, and all his posses- 
sions to be salvaged at the end of the voyage. 

"Late in the evening of this day the E deck 
ward was opened on the starboard side, and 
was filled before morning. 

"The conditions during this night cannot be 
visualized by anyone who has not actually seen 
them. Pools of blood, from the severe nasal 
hemorrhages of many patients, were scattered 
throughout the compartment, and the attend- 
ants were powerless to escape tracking through 
this mess because of the narrow passages be- 
tween bunks. Everyone called for water and 
lemons or oranges. A plentiful supply enabled 
their desire to be gratified. But within a few 
minutes of the first distribution of fruit, the 
skins and pulp were added to the blood and 
vomitus upon the decks. The decks became 
wet and slippery; the filth clung to the cloth- 
ing of the attendants; groans and cries of the 
terrified sick added to the confusion of the ap- 
plicants clamoring for treatment, and alto- 
gether a true inferno reigned supreme. 

"In the E deck ward, every possible appli- 
ance for the care of the sick was furnished to 
the Army surgeons on duty. The Commissary 
Off'icer placed at our disposal stewards, cooks 
and mess men, and furnished just the kind of 
food required, in the best possible fashion. 
The Medical Department of the ship owes a 
great debt of gratitude to the Commissary De- 
partment, and to Paymaster Farwell and Chief 
Commissary Steward Flowers especially, for 
the success with which they gave comfort and 
aid to the sick, and removed from our shoulders 
the always worrisome burden of feeding men 
unable to eat regular diet. 

"Hospital Corps. — I cannot speak in terms 
of suff'icient commendation of the work of the 
hospital corps of this ship. Every man is call- 
ed upon to exert himself to the limit of endur- 
ance during the entire round trip. No man 
complains, every man is on the job. During 
this last voyage many of them worked twenty- 
four hours at a stretch amid conditions that 
can never be understood by one ashore or on a 

man-of-war. Some of the embalmers worked 
at their gruesome task forty-eight hours at a 
stretch without complaint. 

"Cause of the Epidemic. This was influenc- 
ed materially by these main factors: 

"First, the widespread infection of 
several organizations before they em- 
barked, and their assignment to many 
different parts of the ship. 

"Second, the type of men comprising 
the most heavily infected group. Large 
numbers of them were unable to read or 
write and some did not know their right 
hand from their left. Many of them had 
been in the service not more than three 
or four weeks and knew nothing of dis- 
cipline; and the meaning of personal 
cleanliness and the methods of self pro- 
tection from disease was as a closed 
book to them. 

"Third, the absolute lassitude of those 
becoming ill caused them to lie in their 
bunks without complaint until their in- 
fection had become profound and pneu- 
monia had begun. The severe epistaxis 
(nose bleed) which ushered in the dis- 
ease in a very large proportion of the 
cases caused a lowering of resisting 
powers which was added to by fright, by 
the confined space, and the motion of 
the ship. 

"Where pneumonia set in, not one man 
was in condition to make a fight for life. 

"As noted above, the sick bay was filled a 
few hours after leaving Hoboken. Until the 
fifth day of the voyage few patients could be 
sent to duty because of great weakness follow- 
ing the drop in temperature as they grew bet- 
ter. The E deck ward was more than full all 
the time, and there were many ill men in vari- 
ous spaces in other parts of the ship. 

"Morning of the 2nd October, brought no re- 
lief. Things seemed to grow worse instead of 
better. Cleaning details were demanded of the 
Army, but few men responded. Those who 
came would stay awhile and wander away, 
never to be seen again. No N. C. O.'s were 
sent with them, and there was no organization 
for control. Then nurses made a valiant effort 
to clean up and the Navy hospital corpsmen did 
marvels of work, but always against tremend- 
ous odds. Only by constant parolling between 
the bunks could any impression be made upon 
the litter, and finally our own sailors were put 
on the job. They took hold like veterans and 
the place was kept respectably clean thereaf- 

"The first death from pneumonia occurred on 
this day, and the body was promptly embalmed 
and encased in a Navy standard casket. 

"October 3, 3 deaths; 900 cases. 

"October 4, 7 deaths. The sea was rough 
and the ship rolled heavily. Hundreds were 



miserable from seasickness and others from 
terror of the strange surroundings and the rav- 
ages of the epidemic. 

"Each succeeding day of the voyage was 
like those preceding, a nightmare of weariness 
and anxiety on the part of nurses, doctors and 
hospital corpsmen. No one thought of bed for 
himself, and all hands worked day and night. 
On the 5th there were ten deaths, on the 6th 
there were 24, and on the 7th, the day of ar- 
rival at our destination (Brest), the toll was 
31. The Army ambulance boat was promptly 
alongside, and debarkation of the sick began 
about noon. The sick bay was cleared first, 
and we at once thereafter began to clean up in 
preparation for the wounded to be carried 
westbound. E deck was then evacuated, but 
all the sick could not be handled before night, 
about 300 remaining on board. 

"On the 8th these were taken off by the 
Army, but not before 14 more deaths had oc- 
curred. The nurses remained until the last 
sick man was taken off. 

"It is my opinion that there were fully 2,000 
influenza cases on board during the voyage. 
Pneumonia cases must have numbered at least 
100, but in the unavoidable confusion due to 
the rapid spread of the influenza it is impossi- 
ble to be exact. 

"Cases of pneumonia were found dying in 

various parts of the ship, and many died in 
the E deck ward a few minutes after admis- 
sion. Owing to the public character of that 
ward, men passing would see a vacant bunk 
and lie down in it without applying for a medi- 
cal off^icer at all. Records were impossible, and 
even identification of patients was extremely 
difl'icult because hundreds of men had blank 
tags tied about their necks, many were either 
delirious or too ill to know their own names; 
966 patients were removed by the Army hospi- 
tal authorities in France. 

"Deaths. — Ninety-one deaths occurred 
among the Army personnel, of whom one was 
an officer, as follows: 


October 2nd 
















Crew of Leviathan 


"I have learned that the following named 
men of the Commissary department voluntarily 
remained on duty with the sick on E deck dur- 
ing the entire voyage: George Willis, H. L. 
Ringrose, A. Barbel, R. Steinman. 

"H. A. May." 

There the record closes, a chronicle of horror 
and heroism. 



Photo Loaned by Lt. Carl O. Schaefer 


The men shown were brought from Chateau-Thierry July 20 after the counter attack, the turning point of the war. 
American Red Cross Military Hospital No. 1 received 3,000 such cases in that week. Dr. Carl O. Schaefer of Racine was 
on the operating staff at that institution. The illustration is a remarkable piece of photogrraphy. The faces of the men 
indicate somewhat their condition. The sufferers lie on the litters upon which they were brought in ambulances, taken to 
elevators and brought to the upper floor corridors by bearers. 



IT never is diftieult to recount the outstand- 
ing incidents and events of a great war, 
but it is a harder matter for any author 
to convey to his readers the exact effect sucli 
a conflict has upon the lives and views of the 
individuals involved. The nearest approach to 
such an accomplishment is, perhaps, the repro- 
duction of actual letters and diaries written at 
the time and on the spot by men who suddenly 
found themselves involved in the maelstrom of 
war. While it would be possible to publish 
hundreds of these in full, it has been thought 
advisable for various reasons to select a few 
written at various places and at various times 
by men in different branches of the sei-vice, 
covering experiences fi-om enlistment until the 
end of the wai'. Almost without exception 
these letters were written with no thought of 
their ultimate publication, and are the more 
valuable for that reason. In taking the liberty 
of including them in this work, the publishers 
can excuse themselves only upon two grounds 
— first, their real historical value as showing 
the way in which military and naval service 
appeared to those who were in it; second, only 
such letters were used as had appeared in 
print elsewhere, or else pennission to use 
them had been obtained from the recipients. 

It was deemed advisable to use extracts 
only, instead of the complete documents be- 
cause in most instances they contained refer- 
ences to purely personal and private matters. 
Those paragraphs were selected which seemed 
to show some phase of life in the sen-ice, re- 
gardless of the continuity of the train of 
thought. The letters follow: 

Sgt. Mathew W. Milkie, 31st Inf., Vladivos 
tok, Siberia, August 18, 1918 — You probably 
would like to know how I happened to enlist. 
I was walking the streets of El Paso, Tex., 
Jan. 10, 1915, looking for work. I met two 
men that I thought were soldiers, although I 
was not familiar with army uniforms. I asked 
them if they thought I was old enough to en- 

list. They smiled at one another and then 
looked at me again and I got scared and 
started to leave. They called me back and 
said I looked old enough. I was eighteen, but 
was supposed to be twenty-one to enlist. They 
pointed south and told me to go to the Sixth 
infantry camp, which was in that direction. 
After going through streets, alleys and over 
bridges I found myself in Mexico. I met a 
man and asked him where I was and he told 
me. When I asked for the Sixth infantry 
camp he told me to keep quiet as I might get 
shot. I finally got back to El Paso and found 
the camp where I met a man with three stripes 
and a diamond on his arm. I told him I 
wanted to join the army and he said "All 
right" and put me at work in the kitchen 
cleaning dishes and kettles. After supper 
the man with the three stripes came for me. 
I was scared he was going to refuse my en- 
listment, but he took me to another man with 
three stripes on his sleeve and this party threw 
something at me that put me dowm for the 
count. Later I found it was a Helen Gould 
cot and three blankets. That quartermaster 
sergeant sure was snappy. Then he told me 
to find a tent with some room in it and I did 
so, and turned in to rest. Those old soldiers 
in there certainly had some fun with me. I 
didn't know what half of their slang words 
meant and they talked half the night, mostly 
about John W. Recruit, which I guess meant 
me. The bunk was hard, and I had an awful 
time getting asleep even after those soldiers 
quit talking, because they snored so loud it 
sounded as if they were mai'king time. In 
the morning a bugle blew but I didn't pay any 
attention until the other men threw a lot of 
shoes and things at my head. Then I got out 
of bed in a hurry and was told that the music 
was "first call." I got breakfast and then was 
put at work in the kitchen again with two 
others called K. P. (kitchen police). Then 
somebody told me to go and see the doctor 



Photos Loaned by Lt. C. O. Schaelt r 


Lt. (Dr.) Carl O. Schaefer is shown (third from left) in the operating room. The tables shown are two of twenty em- 
ployed during the rush of July 20, 1918, when Americans came in by the thousands from the counter attack at Chateau- 
Thierry. The interior of the ward gives an idea of the care given convalescent "blesses" after surgical attention in the 

Paris Red Cross hospitals. 



about my medical examination after dinner. 
1 did. He knew what I wanted, but he asked 
me and when I told him I wanted to enlist he 
said, "Get the hell out of here; Sunday is no 
day to enlist." Out I went and felt foolish. 
I walked to another camp, that of the 16th 
infantry. I saw the boys drilling and it 
looked grand and I sure wanted to join that 
army. I asked a sentry where to join the 
army and he directed me to the colonel. I 
got another warm reception. He said I just 
came there to eat and to get out. Then I felt 
awfully anxious to get in, and wandered to a 
company street and asked the first sergeant 
if I couldn't enlist. He said the aiiny was 
full. Then as I was going away he called me 
back and gave me a slip of paper, telling me 
to see the captain because somebody might 
have resigned from the army Saturday night 
and left a vacancy. I went to the captain, ex- 
pecting some more trouble, but he was a nice 
man. He asked me a few questions and told 
me the sunny and shady sides of army life. 
The shady side was the worst. He sent me to 
a doctor. After being examined, I raised my 
right hand while somebody said something and 
then I was in the army. I had the articles of 
war read to me, and then I knew I couldn't 
get out. The next thing was clothes and when 
I got them it looked as if I was thrown into 
them. The blouse and breeches would have 
fit Fatty Arbuckle and the shoes were two 
sizes too large. That didn't bother me, be- 
cause I was very proud of that unifonn; be- 
lieve me, I was a button buster. I was drilled 
for three weeks. The sergeant detailed to 
drill me was a bear and he had another re- 
cniit along with me. When he told us to go 
by the right flank, one would go one way, the 
other another. I can still see that sergeant 
rave, telling us we were not out on the fami 
plowing corn or walking with our girls. We 
were in the army, on the inside looking out. 
No doubt we were. After being made fit to 
drill with the company I was detailed for 
guard and thought it was something grand. 
I worked two days cleaning my equipment. At 
the guard mount, the adjutant came along and 
took my rifle as if I had stolen it from him, 
and gave it back the same way. After in- 
specting all of us he came back and asked me 
my name and told me to report to the com- 
manding oflicer for orderly. ■ I did, and found 
it was the colonel, the last man I wanted to 
see. I was shivering all over. It was worth 
it, though, because I didn't have to walk post 
and all I had to do was take orders from him 
and watch his tent. My experiences as a 
reci-uit were quite interesting. I would be glad 

to go through them all again to get out of the 
anny. Since then I have had many interesting 
experiences in Hawaii, Philippines, Japan and 
Russia, where I am stationed now. I will never 
regret the time I have spent in the army, but 
when I set my feet on American soil I sure 
will keep them there. 

Sgt. M. 0. Lawson, Hqts. No. 2, Gen'l Train- 
ing Dpt., Hancock— When I read of what 
Racine is doing for the Jackies, it makes me 
feel proud to know that the city which I can 
claim as my home is doing so much active 
work pertaining to the war. I haven't seen 
the final report of Liberty bond sales at the 
Case Company, but I understand the Company 
is going to make another splendid record. 
There's very little of the unusual going on at 
Hancock. We're still in quarantine with the 
flu pietty well checked. The climate at present 
is quite agreeable, which has prevented a 
spread of the disease to a great extent. As you 
know this is an exclusive Machine Gun School, 
the only one in the U. S. Almost every state 
is represented in the personnel. A good many 
Hancock boys are in France with their machine 
guns, holding back, or I should say driving 
back the Huns. If the war doesn't end too 
soon, will get one little fling at the game. 
We're all ready. 

Harry J. Norgaard, Co. 713, Unit T., Hamp- 
ton Roads — We have it nice out here in old 
Virginia. Was quite hot down here last week, 
but it has cooled off some here of late. They 
allow us shore leave every Saturday and Sun- 
day from 1 P. M. to 1 o'clock midnight, and 
also one night a week from 6:1.5 P. M. to 
1 o'clock midnight. We spend our shore leave 
at Norfolk or Ocean View. Ocean View is a 
bathing beach here. Great life bathing down 
there in the deep blue sea, but the only trou- 
ble is the salt water. If you want some real 
salt water, just open your mouth and swallow 
some of it. There are many things of inter- 
est here, such as battleships "sub" chasers, tor- 
pedo boat destroyers, observation balloons and 
aeroplanes. We also have moving pictures 
here in the auditorium every Monday and 
Thursday, and every other Friday we have 
boxing bouts. Understand the Batteiy Boys 
are on the front now. There is a good bunch 
of boys there and they certainly will do their 
share for our Land of Freedom. If the Amer- 
ican and French keep at it the way they are 
going now. Kaiser Bill won't last much longer. 

L. T. Baltzer, Camp Perry, U. S. N. Y., 
Puget Sound, Wash., Sept. 24, 1918—1 am in 
the aerial mechanics school now. There are 



about six hydroplanes here, and we all get a 
chance to show what we can do. Big camou- 
flage boats come in here every week and take 
about 150 to 200 sailors out. At present we 
are quarantined on account of the flu, but we 
hope to regain our liberty before long. We 
have quite a camp here now; it is comprised 
of tents. There are a few sleeping buildings 
made of wood. There are about 8,000 men 
here. Six months ago there were about 2,000 
men here, so you can readily see the growth 
of this camp. Well, I must close, or you will 
think I am taking up too much of your valu- 
able time. 

John B. Etteldorf, Great Lakes, 111., Oct. 23, 
1918 — I don't suppose you know who is put- 
ting Chicago on the map in this Liberty Loan 
Campaign. It is the sailors of Gi'eat Lakes. 
We had a big subscription at the station, and 
they have called upon us to do the same in 
Chicago. I spent Monday and Tuesday in sell- 
ing bonds in Chicago. Our regiment made the 
biggest selling showing of the bunch, and our 
company had the record of selling the most 
bonds of our regiment. We sold $17,000 worth 
of bonds yesterday. We had 18 hours' liberty 
yesterday, so I feel rather tired today. 

Charles Lampe, 58th Balloon Co., Aviation 
Branch, Morrison, Va. — I have been trans- 
ferred to the 58th Balloon Co., and sure was 
glad to get out of Texas. We are five miles 
from Newport News and believe me, this is 
some camp now. We have received our new 
overseas clothing and side arms, also helmets 
and they sure are heavy. Wish you could see 
the trains on the Chesapeake & Ohio R. R. 
loaded with troops that passed here yesterday. 
Counted 22 cars all going across. Was to 
Newport News last night and saw the trans- 
ports. Train loads of auto trucks, mules, coal 
and ail-planes all go across from here. There 
are camps all along here, but this one is sure 
a large one. 

Fred A. Sewall, Prd. Detach No. 139, Sept. 
9, 1918 — There is a rumor here that we are to 
leave here very soon. Nobody can tell me 
exactly when, but they all say very soon. 
Part of the division has already moved. We 
are confined to the regiment and have no 
chance to do much visiting, but as I have been 
able to travel on the trucks to and from the 
warehouse, I see something and hear more. 
The general idea is that we are to go to a 
port of embarkment and then, of course, 
across. Evei-ybody is glad to get away from 
this place, as the majority of them have been 
here nearly a year. I know that I will, with 
only three weeks to give my opinion. This 

may not be the worst camp in the U. S., but 
they will have to go some to beat it, accord- 
ing to my belief. 

Pvt. Wm. A. Alcom, ord Co., U. S. A. Tr. 
Dtch, Kansas City, Mo. — We fellows here are 
asked by the Missouri people to be sure to get 
"The Kaiser's Goat." We 2,000 Wisconsin boys 
in the Q. M. C. won't be content with the goat, 
what we are after is "Old Bill" himself and 

Harry E. Cooper, 3d Pro. Rcrt. Rgt., Camp 
Kelly Field No. 1, Line L, Dec. 19, 1917—1 am 
here in the land of lizards, cactus, scrub oak 
and snakes. We eat them all. Can you 
imagine me eating chuck out of an army mess 
kit? Well, I do both and am getting to be an 
expert. In this man's aiTny they show you 
what's who. This is a great relief from Jef- 
ferson Barracks, Mo. No snow or cold, just 
sand and sun. Aeroplanes flitting above over- 
head like birds. There are about 500 here now. 
I just heard first call for mess. Excuse me. 
(Twenty minutes later) : Some feed. Hot 
dogs and kraut, and real honest to goodness 
butter, stewed peaches and tea; second help- 
ing for me. Most of the fellows are on fatigue 
duty today, digging trenches for a water line. 
Who, me? I'm on K. P. (kitchen police) peel- 
ing spuds and onions. They bring tears to 
your eyes. We are to have liver and onions 
for supper. 

Edward H. Johnson, Battery E. 36th H. F. A., 
Camp McClellan — Most of the boys in our 
battery are from all over Wisconsin, and a 
few from New York state. They sure are one 
fine bunch of fellows. One of our old shop 
mates, Tony Moudry, is in our battery. We 
have been here since the 16th of August, and 
yesterday, the 27th, was the first day we 
have had of drilling. All of our officers are 
new graduates, and the non-commissioned of- 
ficers are just attending school, so we have 
had no one to di'ill us. I myself have not done 
any drilling. I have been working in the 
supply tent, but expect I will have to drill 
after we get things straightened out. This 
is a very dreary and lonesome camp, here 
amongst the mountains. We have mountains 
on all sides of us, and there is no town around 
here except a little town called Anniston. It 
is a fair-sized town with a population of about 
18,000 people, seven miles from camp, so not 
very easy to get to. There are automobile 
busses running between town and camp, but 
you can't rely upon them for sei"vice. Well, I 
think I will have to close as it is almost time 
for taps, so will have to loU in. 



Sgt. Geo. Hanson, Co. 5, 2 Bn., 160 D. B., 
Camp Custer, October 9, 1918 — I have been in 
the sei"vice eleven months?, but have, so far, 

done nothing toward knocking h out of 

the Hun, except to help in the drilling of new- 
recruits. Think 1 will be going over with the 
next division as I have been transferred to 
the Chemical Warfare Sei-\'ice. The boys tell 
me I am where I belong because I sure have 
the gas. 

Walter T. Larsen, 8th Div., 1st Sec, Co. 10, 
2nd M. M. Regt., S. C. — You were saying that 
you would like a vacation. Well, you can 
swap places with me for a week or two, and 
I guess we will both be getting a vacation. 
Some fellows think that when they get in 
the navy all they do is eat and sleep, and I 
was no exception, but I have found out dif- 
ferent. There is more work on one of those 
ships than I imagined. If you're not scrubbing 
deck or polishing bright work, you are wash- 
ing clothes, dril'ing, etc., and I sometimes 
wonder how I find time to sleep. I am getting 
pretty well hardened up, though. I could 
string out a rope and put a blanket over me 
and go to sleep now. I am not the least bit 
particular about my sleeping accommodations, 
as long as I get the time to sleep. My pal, 
the fellow who joined with me, is still with me, 
and we manage to keep together, so between 
reading each other's letters and papers we are 
kept well posted on Racine affairs. You should 
see us now. Before we left we were pale look- 
ing pieces of humanity, but now we look 
tanned fi-om head to foot, which shines like 
a nigger's heel. We have also learned to move 
faster. I had thought I was a spsedy fellow 
at home, but now find that I am too slow foi' 
the gold braids here, at least it looks that way 
when one gets to bawling you out, and believe 
me, you move quick then. It seems to fill you 
with life, if you weren't you sure would be 
out of luck. 

Edward Daleski, B. H. No. 133, Camp Sheri- 
dan — That Spanish "flu" is sure fierce down 
here. I have been doing K. P. for two weeks 
now because they are short of help. I start 
at 6 A. M. and work rmti' I get thioi, some- 
times 8 P. M., sometimes later, then hide 
somewhere or they put me on guard for the 
evening, 2 hours on and 4 off'. They are short 
of men here as most of our company is sick. 
They don't care how hard you work in the day- 
time, but call you out at night for special 
hurry-up jobs such as putting up tents, help- 
ing feed the sick and lots more too numerous 
to name. It's work that has to be done and 
done in a hurry for our own good. There are 

five fellows in a tent; four of my tent mates 
were taken sick, one died Friday and was 
sent home today, the other three are still in 
the hospital. I think I am well off and glad 
that I am able to do the work rather than 
be sick. 

Pvt. George H. James, Hq. Co., 341st Inf., 
Camp Grant — I had the pleasure to listen to 
Secretary of War Baker, on the Fourth of 
July. He addressed his remarks to the boys 
of the S6th Division, of which we are a part. 
We are expecting to go overseas in the near 
future. I am in what is called the Pioneer 
Platoon. We ai-e chiefly engaged in building 
dugouts and wire entanglements. Of course, 
we are expecting to get a few of the Huns as 
we'l. On Saturday the 13th we passed in re- 
view before the Governor of Illinois, after- 
ward we had the pleasure of hearing a pa- 
triotic address by one of the French captains, 
and also by Governor Lowden. The food we 
are getting here is Al, thanks to the people 
at home who have, and are still conserving 
for our benefit. We are getting intensive train- 
ing, but we don't mind that if we can only get 
a crack at the Kaiser. 

Pvt. Paul Rossman, Army Attach. Barracks, 
Charleston, Sept. 25, 1918 — I received your 
kind package and thank you for it. I am in 
the city now as military police. I was to leave 
here a few weeks ago and was taken off the 
list just because I was born in Germany, and 
I have my papers 14 years. They have many 
slackers here, most all colored. Lots of them 
failed to register last week, so they are busy 
rounding them up. 

Hari-y Miller, 142 Aero Sq., A. E. F., Eng- 
land, March 23, 1918 — We had a vei-y good 
tiip coming over, but was sick all the way. 
Oh, what a feeling. I never thought the At- 
lantic was as big as it is. I met Skinny 
Meyers before going over. We were on the 
same boat. I am working on aeroplane motors 
over here, boy, and believe me it is something 
very interesting. This sure is some queer 
country. You have to drive on the left side 
of the road, it seems funny. And the money 
over here is the funniest thing you ever saw 
in your life. We have more darned fun. This 
is a very pretty country; evei-j-thing is nice 
and green. There is only one thing I don't 
like about it and this is it gets so foggy at 
night, and it's that just about until noon. 
And it's so damp during the night. We are 
stationed in a very good place. We go to 
work in trucks. It's about nine miles from 
camp to where we work. We are allowed to 
go to town every other night and all day 



ta^TJ;-! C'^^^'^ -^^^^-^^.r. .:>T^ • ' 

-^-iXr -"T.-, ^ ..'./.-' TT*! '_r- ..? ' T 

■- ^ 

U. S. U:i.Ciai i:'uolo.> 


The wrecked German fighting machine was knocked jralley-w -st by a well placed shell, probably from some of the 57th 

Brigade artillery. At the left is a figure illustrating what ♦'>'' ni^tv Yanks looked like when up front. Below is Maj. 

James W. Gilson and a bashful hero, in front of the "preten ious" field headquarters building. 



Wedneiiday. We work Sundays over here and 
have Wednesday oiT. Today is the first real 
day we have had since we landed. The sun 
was shining when we got out this A. M, It's 
just like a day in June. 

Sept. 12, 1918 — We have changed station. 
We are now located a million miles from no- 
where. And it sure is some place, I don't 
think. It rains nearly all the time, and talk 
about wind; why, say, the wind is blowing 
here to beat the band, day and night. Before 
we moved to this place I had some ride, be- 
lieve me. We were up for about 2 hours and 
what that fellow didn't do wasn't worth do- 
ing. If you want something that makes your 
hair stand up you want to get up about ten 
thousand feet and come straight down for 
about 2 or .3 thousand. You think you are 
done for. The funniest feeling I had was 
when we went into a loop and came out of it 
O. K., then did the wing over wing. Another 
one is side slipping. You go along for awhile, 
then stall ycur motor and float sideways, that 
sure is sport. I only wish that I was a pilot. 
We are getting very good food and plenty of 
it, so we haven't any kick coming. 

Pvt. Harold Helding, Co. C, 27 Engrs., A. 
E. F., Oct. 10. 1918 — I have been very slow in 
answering you, but I have been at the front 
in the big drive and didn't have anything to 
write, as the boys say it don't pay to stop 
the war to write letters. I was detached to 
the French army, and we were sleeping in our 
little dog tents up in a big hill in a woods, and 
we didn't get a chance to change our clothes 
for seven weeks. When we got back to our 
company they gave us a week to clean up 
and boil our old clothes, and we were issued 
all new clothing, as we were full of lice and 
all such tame bugs. We sure had some excit- 
ing times as the shells were whistling over our 
heads most all the time, and every night the 
planes would come over and drop bombs dovm 
to us and, of course, the first few nights we 
didn't do much sleeping. But that is all in 
the game, and we wouldn't have missed those 
seven weeks at the front, and I didn't like 
to leave it as there is plenty of excitement 
all the time. 

Pvt. Bernhart P. Larson, Bat. A, 332 F. A., 
A. P. O. 778, A. E. F., Oct. 23. 1918— We 
landed in Eng'and and stayed a few days. We 
rode across England one day on the train and 
marched one day. That was the toughest day 
I ever put in. We crossed the English Channel 
at night. Then we were on the train for two 
days and nights and finally landed up here. We 

are in a camp somewhere near Boi'deaux. I 
have met but one fellow- that I knew on the 
entire trip and that was Tommy Berg. I met 
him on board ship and over in a camp in Eng- 
land. It is warm here yet, but it rains nearly 
every day. We get plenty of Bull Durham and 
some brands of American cigarettes. The 
French tobacco and pills are rotten, and I 
would rather swear off smoking than use them, 
and we don't get as much candy as we did in 
the states. It is almost a luxury here. 

Pvt. J. R. Frank, 29th Co., C. E. F., A. E. F., 
France — Well, Jack, the Gentians certainly 
made an awful mess of this district. Every 
building is leveled to the ground, I'oads are 
blown up, every tree cut down and entire 
country dug up with trenches and dugouts. 
Of course, we helped to tear things to pieces 
with shells and mines in driving them out. I 
transferred to a Foi-estry Corps and we are 
now gathering the fallen timbers and sawing 
them into lumber suitable for roads, dugouts, 
bridges, etc. The limbs and small stuff we 
make into cordwood for camps and stakes for 
wire entanglements. Being very close to the 
lines it can be taken in at night with motor 
trucks and mule teams. A couple of shells 
dropped near us last night. Have had lots of 
shells sent over and a few air raids at night, 
but the mill has not been hit and we have not 
lost any time through it. We lose a great deal 
of time changing saws, as the trees are full 
of shrapnel, very hard on saws. 

Chaplain F. S. Penfold, F. A., Alsace, 
July 1, 1918 — As usual the regiment is scat- 
tered all around, each battery in a different 
village and the firing sections up in front. 

I go round from place to place, like any 
other itinerant person and, of course, when 
anything serious is started, it is my duty to 
try to get to that place. I am the only abso- 
lutely free parson at the front. The Chaplain 
can't be sent into the front line, but neither 
can he be forbidden to go there. So if I am 
not present when the excitement is on, it will 
be an accident. 

You know that we are in billets here and 
some of the arrangements would be comical 
if they were not something else. Most of the 
men have nice clean hay lofts to sleep in and 
are fairly comfortable. But the French are 
very casual and promiscuous in their barnyard 
arrangements. The stable is usually a con- 
tinuation of the house. So that under one roof 
are pigs and chickens and cows and horses and 
human beings. I mention the humans last be- 
cause their convenience is the last consulted. 
Part of the front garden of every French 



farmer is a large pestilent manure heap highly 
prized by the owner. Of course, it means re- 
newed fertility for hardworked soil, but it 
never occurs to them that it might be kept in 
some less prominent situation. One wonders 
why the Lord gave noses to the French. 

I am billeted in a town of some size — 
about 400 I should say. I have a large room 
which is very clean and decent and comfort- 
able. There is a good big bed with a straw 
mattress as hard as Pharaoh's heart, and upon 
it is an enormous feather bed about two feet 
thick with which I am supposed to cover my- 
self. It is evident my landlady's most pre- 
cious possession, being covered with a slip of 
marvellous ornamentations. So, I haven't the 
heart to ask her to give it to the flourishing- 
family of rabbits which occupies the apart- 
ment beneath my own. Instead I carefully 
I'eplace the thing on the bed in the morning, 
nampling it judiciously to simulate usage and 
the kind soul thinks I smother under it nightly. 
It is rather slim pickings hei-e in the matter 
of food and not at all like Brittany, where 
the food was plenty. My landlady is allowed 
one pound of sugar per month and if I do not 
provide her with that and cofi"ee I should 
have to look elsewhere for breakfast. Officers' 
messes are very expensive. I am eating where 
I happen to be with the men, because I am 
rarely at my billet for more than breakfast. 

The country about here is the most beauti- 
ful I have ever seen. Every wind is laden 
with the sweet odor of hay and of rose and 
carnations — the latter are smaller than ours 
and less violent in color, but very fragrant. 
But, in the midst of all this beauty is the grim 
evidence of the deadly struggle that is going 
on. We have to carry our gas masks with us 
all the time and those for the horses strapped 
across their poor fly bitten noses. Really, in 
the midst of life, we are in death. I think 
everyone is actually more serious here. I have 
observed that the closer we have drawn to 
actual conflict, the more thoughtful the men 
have become. But there is a strange elation 
that goes with it which is in everyone's ex- 
perience. By means of it, men can be serious, 
yet blithe — collected, yet gay. It is that, I 
suppose, which makes good soldiers that they 
are. Men have pledged their all to the thing 
and so have discounted in advance whatever 
is terrifying. And that makes them care free. 
As the men say when everything is comfortable 
and meals come regularly, "It's a fine war." 
So it is. The best ever. And a marvellous 
thing for developing character in the younger 
generation of America. 

Corp. William Kuehneman^ Battery F. 121st 
F. A., France, Oct. 1, 1918— July 21 we en- 
trained at Belfort and we knew we were go- 
ing to a place where the real war was, but 
no one knew just where we were bound for. 
At last we were at Chateau-Thierry where the 
big- drive was on. Here we hiked four days 
and nights to catch up with the infantry, as 
they were advancing so fast. Some days we'd 
only get two or three hours' sleep and that 
would be on the ground some place along the 
road. Well, we finally did catch up to them 
and pulled into our first position at night. 
When we woke up in the moining the captain 
said, "Get ready to move." The doughboys 
had taken the place which we had intended to 
shoot up. That afternoon we started and 
while on the road four German airplanes came 
directly over us and only about 50 yards above 
us and opened up with their machine guns. 
But the fellows fired right back at them with 
rifles and pistols and anything they had. They 
finally flew away and nobody was hurt. After 
moving up from one position to the other for 
three or four days, the drive came to a halt — 
that is, we had reached our objective. Here 
we stayed for 21 days and everything went 
well for the first week. On a nice, bright Sun- 
day morning we got a good touch of war. 
The Gei-mans located us and they sure did 
send them over to us for about an hour. Then 
everything was quiet until the afternoon and 
the same thing came again. We were located 
in a ruined village packed with horses and 
men. When everything was over, there wei-e 
about 100 horses dead and 100 wounded and 
a few men killed and wounded. Then about 
every other day we got the same thing for 
the length of our stay there. We sure were 
a happy bunch when we were relieved from 
this front. Our division at this front chased 
the Germans 18 kilometers. The fields were 
covered with dead, but mostly Germans. From 
here we marched to Soissons and this was 
a tougher front than Chateau-Thierry. When 
we pulled into one position we were only a 
few hundred yards behind the infantry. Here 
we got both a shower of machine gun bullets 
and high explosives. Some of the horses were 
killed by direct hits and nothing was left of 
them at all. I sure had some thrilling ex- 
periences here, only they are too numerous to 
mention. But I'll tell you about them some 
day. At Alsace I was a messenger and since 
we left there I've been a telephone operator 
and lineman. Of course, that's nothing in the 
line of pushing a bayonet thi'ough a man or 
shooting him, but if it wasn't for communica- 



tion the war wouldn't be won yet, so I guess 
I've done my part. 

Adjt. Violet Williams, Salvation Army 
Worker, France — They used to take us up at 
night near the front, and drop us down any- 
where. There were four girls in our unit in 
the Toul sector, one of them being a Racine 
girl, too, Gertrude Symmonds. We'd put up 
our tent, or seize whatever kind of shelter 
was most available and get in a little sleep 
so we could start working early the ne.xt 
morning. Of course, our greatest difficulty 
was in getting supplies up, so often we had 
to make out as best we could. Sometimes we'd 
have no grease for frying, so we'd have to 
turn to and make cookies, pies, biscuits, or 
pancakes, using whatever material we had 
at hand, and serve coffee or chocolate. We 
of course were never in the front line trench- 
es, for no woman is ever allowed there, but 
at one time we were under shell fire for a 
week, and finally were obliged to retreat, and 
had to wear gas masks at a four-hour stretch. 
At Ansauville we had a rude hut with no floor 
and the roof had been shot away. Overhead 
we stretched canvas, and when it rained hard 
the dirt floor became a sea of mudholes, and 
we had to bring in more dirt from outside to 
fill them up. Once in the Tou! sector we were 
asked to bake a batch of doughnuts for a 
battalion of the Third Division, who were go- 
ing into the lines. Two girls baked 3,5C0 
doughnuts that day, our record turn-out, and 
we fed those boys doughnuts as they filed out 
on their way to the lines. 

Corp. Arthur Dick, 6th Co., 3rd M. M. S. 
C, France, Aug. 26, 1918— We are located in 
one of the most beautiful parts of France, 
which is going to be one of the largest avia- 
tion fields over here. When our company land- 
ed at this place, it was nothing but mud and 
wheat, and with real American spirit we rap- 
idly converted it into an up-to-date flying 
field. After work comes play, and we have 
all the sports you can have. We have had 
three field meets and our company won two 
beautiful banners in two of the meets. They 
have one of the largest Y, M, C. A.'s at this 
field, which can compete with any in Franco, 
and there is not a dull moment at any time. 
I am manager of the Post Baseball Team 
which has won the championship of Section B. 
Was walking dovni the boulevard some time 
ago and was surprised to meet First Lieuten- 
ant James Costello and Tom Flanagan. Tom 
was employed by the Case people. He spent 
the evening with me. 

Sgt. Russell Fisher, Battery C, 121st F. A., 
Sept. 5, 1918 — We get plenty of eats and have 
a good place to sleep, so what more can we 
expect. We are billeted in a small French 
town and believe me, the people sure do treat 
us right. Driver "Jenny" Jones will be able 
to straddle any Case tractor in tnae wild west 
style when he gets home. He is now practic- 
ing on an old mare whom we have named 
Grandma. However, Grandma has not the 
usual loving disposition that grandmothers 
usually have. No man wished that the outfit 
would be equipped with tractors more than 
Red Jersted, since the order went into effect 
that there was to be no talking while groom- 
ing. John Jorgcnsen is now making rapid 
advances in his studies, he is now ninth assist- 
ant stable sergeant. He spends most of his 
time counting out oats in the feed bags for 
the horses. Bramow is getting fatter every 
day, he is driver of the ration cart. Most of 
his trips start and end in the kitchen. Geo. 
Bames is getting more cussing now than he 
ever did, especially about .5:45 in the morn- 
ing when he blows first call. Jack Hubert 
expects to go on his furlough in the near 
future. We e.xpect that the society columns 
of the popular resort where our boys are sent, 
will experience growth upon the arrival of 
this promising young man. Coi-p. Art Hader 
has adopted several more French infants. 
His family now numbers about eight, ages 
ranging from eight to twenty-eight. 

Peter Lahr, Battery C, 121st F. A., A. E. 
F. — I will tell you about our train ride to 
our present camp. Our coaches were of the 
de luxe type of side door Pullmans with all 
the modern conveniences including plenty of 
nice cold air which blew in on me through all 
the cracks and crevices as I lay asleep at night 
on my downy couch of hardwood floor, causing 
mc to dream of being stranded on an iceberg 
without clothes or any protection from the 
elements. During the day we tried to remedy 
the situation by bringing in an amiful of 
sacks when the train stopped and building a 
fire, but between the smoke and the cold, I 
think I prefer the latter, which at least does 
not cause a man temporary blindness. How- 
ever, though the smoke did get into our eyes, 
there is nothing like having a variety, even 
in discomforts. At that we have had lots of 
fun out of the ride, and in the aiTny one sees 
humor in most anything, besides one might 
also feel honored, these days of high living, 
to be able to ride in the same cars used for 
the transportation of such va'uable things as 
cattle. We were a dirty and worn-out bunch 



when we reached camp, and I for one was 
willing to quit being a tourist for awhile, and 
take a rest. Rather coincidental is the fact 
that this camp was once used as headquarters 
for Napoleon, and even many of the barracks 
built for his troops are still being used to 
house our soldiers. The site is a highly ele- 
vated one, commanding a view for miles in all 
directions. It is impossible for me to give 
you an adequate description of the simple 
grandeur of the suri'ounding landscape which 
is very i-ugged and covered with patchwork 
of tiny farms, each one sepai'ated by a hedge 
of trees or other growth. Easter being the 
season for a universal change in styles 
throughout the world, we were likewise on 
that day issued each a new steel bonnet, but 
not for the purpose of going to church to ex- 
hibit to the many other exhibitors who go 
there on that day solely for the purpose of 
parading down the aisle in their new array of 
the season's latest creations. 

The fellows immediately proceeded to test 
the durability and shock resisting qualities of 
their new headgear by swatting each other 
with clubs and other implements. The helmet 
proved durable enough, but I prefer, after 
this, to conduct such experiments with the tin 
hat on some other place than on my head. 
Two gas masks have been added to our equip- 
ment, and I now seem to have enough para- 
phernalia to start a young army. Discipline 
is getting more rigid daily, and now one is 
liable to courtmartial and fine if found out of 
barracks without a blouse or other part of his 
uniform on. Call to quarters is sounded at 
8:.30 P. M. and taps at 9:30, so everyone is at 
least assured of plenty of sleep which I think 
is about one of the most pleasant pastimes in 
. the army. 

Sgt. W. H. Lyman, 147th F. A., France, Oct. 
21, 12 18 — There is no use trying to describe 
war on paper. When things happen they 
come so fast words can't do justice. To-day, 
for instance, right by us, two aeroplanes we)-e 
dropped, one by our own machine gun-fire in 
the batteries, two Boche balloons were set 
afire, four aerial battles took place over us, 
fifty shells landed near us, a six-horse team 
ran away, a powder dump blew up, and the 
cook spilled the tomato soup, all within five 
minutes, and in plain sight. My neck nas like 
a corkscrew trj-ing to watch it all. 

The other day I stood on a hill and watched 
four miles of our infantry advance. I could 
see the whole panorama, American and Ger- 
man artillery, machine guns, tanks, large and 
small, our engineers building roads which six 

hours before our artillery had blown up be- 
hind the German lines, truck-trains coming 
up, aeroplanes fighting, balloons watching, the 
Germans burning dumps as they saw they had 
to retreat further, phone men manning lines 
across the shellholes which were still smoking, 
prisoners marching back, signal flags waving 
and heliographs flashing, shells bursting, all at 
one and the same time. 

But it can't be reproduced. And it is sel- 
dom a height can be found in all France from 
which it can all be observed even if it happens 
in daylight, which is seldom the case. 

I don't think that many soldiers are fatal- 
ists as is so frequently said. But we do get 
to feeling safe on the same principle that a 
man running a "the-cane-you-ring-is-the-cane- 
you-get" game at a county fair, expects to 
win. There are so few shells hitting in such 
large space that the chances of hitting any 
one particu'ar object are small. And that 
object is ME in each individual case. We have 
the added advantage, in the artillery, that 
the Boche is not even aiming at any one of 
us personally. In other words, so sum up — 

1. We are licking him. 

2. We will finish it shortly. 

3. He can't hurt me. 

Therefore I will close, leaving you in a very 
cheerful frame of mind. 

Lieut. Frank H. Fancher, 121st F. A., 
France, Aug. 6, 1918 — The hike was made 
through a recently evacuated no-man's land 
and of course it is indescribable. Wrecked 
villages, roads full of shell holes, ammunition 
and equipment of all nations literally strew- 
ing the ground; graves, and unburied bodies 
everj-where. It will take months before the 
bodies are all located and buried. Of course 
the stench was and is fierce everywhere. 

One night we had to travel on a road for 
miles that was as heavy with traffic as Michi- 
gan Avenue in Chicago. Of course everything 
was as black as night and the machines going 
by us at a 60 mile an hour clip. Luckily they 
were traveling only one way, probably making 
a loop in their course not to be passing one 

The airplanes harass us all the time, con- 
stantly overhead. Yesterday morning one fol- 
lowed us for hours and we were shelled for a 
while, but am afraid the Boche isn't much of 
an artilleryman. The ambulances passed us 
thick and fast loaded \vith Yanks all bandaged 
up, most of them singing and smoking. They 
were evident'y doughboys for they cheered to 
beat the band when they saw their artilleiy 
coming up the road. The darned kids travel 



faster than we can keep up with them. Just 
heard last night they advanced 16 kilometers 
and had to fall back 5 so the artillery wouldn't 
shell them. 

The Yankee looks at it as a game or sport 
of some kind, and loves to match his wits 
against the Hun. Its too bad the Hun can 
only fight us in large bodies for I know some 
of those kids would love to take on 3 or 4 

German helmets, guns, ammunition and 
bayonets are no longer picked up for souve- 
nirs, as they are literally covering everything. 
Don't know what to believe about the clothes 
proposition, though, one hears back in the 
States about the Boche not having clothes. 
Those strewn about here are of the most 
beautiful broadcloth I have ever seen. 

Last night about 9 Boche sailed around 
overhead about 200 feet in the air. The 
horses gave us away I guess, snorting and 
whinnying. Anyway Lieut. Mueller woke me 
up hollering "gas." It didn't take us long to 
get that mask on. Couple of Boche planes had 
flown over and dropped a few gas bombs in 
our woods. Nothing very serious. We move 
again today though. 

The Racine Ambulance Company is evident- 
ly hard at it. Recognized two machine driv- 
ers as they whizzed by on the road. Have 
seen nothing of Ed. as yet. Don't know 
where he is. Of course when we move we 
never know where we are bound for. Our 
guns are booming away about a block away 
from us and right behind us are two batteries 
of 75s. They kept a barrage going all night 
long and they sure have some bark. The 
Americans fire them so rapidly the story here 
is one of the Boche Colonels that was captured 
this last week requested to see the American 
3 inch machine gun. 

I may be a non-combatant, but last night 
I fired 3 shells just to balance up for some of 
the hospitals and ambulances Mr. Hun has 
fired on. 

Sgt. William H. Ha>Tnan, Battery F., 121st 
F. A., France, Sept. 3, 1918— Have received 
our gold rei-\'ice chevron today, which, of 
course, is given us for six months' service in 
France. We are glad to place these chevrons 
on our left sleeve, but hope that by the end 
of the next six months we will not be given 
a gold chevron, but will be on our way back 
to the good old U. S. A. Of course, we are 
over here in this beautiful country sei-ving 
I'ncle Sam, and mean to stick until it is all 
over, but let it be hoped that it is soon all 

This makes the third sector that Battery 
F has been in. The Alsace-Lorraine front, 
being a nice one and a little exciting, the 
next one, the Chateau-Thierry, made the first 
one look like a novice. It would take too 
much time to tell you of the different things, 
the condition of the country and of the things 
that we experienced on that front. It is very 
likely that you read of it in the newspapers 
at home, and from what we grabbed off the 
newspapers that we have seen there was no 
exaggeration at all. On the 24th of this month, 
at midnight, with all our material hooked up, 
we started for another sector, not knowing 
when we started where we were going or 
when we would reach it. We hiked four days 
through the most dilapidated sections one 
would ever wish to experience, and finally 
landed in one of the most active sectors of the 
war. The work we did on the Chateau-Thier- 
ry front, which at times was something fierce, 
we will never forget, and right now Battery 
F is going through the same thing over again. 
You can rest assured, all of you back in Ra- 
cine, that any time Battery F is sent any 
place in this country as soldiers for the U. S., 
we are there light to the minute. Our divi- 
sion, the 32nd, has certainly torn the boche 
lines in shreds, as was pi-oven by what we did 
on the Mame, and undoubtedly right now you 
are reading all about what this division is do- 
ing today. Our guns went into position im- 
mediately upon arrival here and are hammering 
away all the time. Of course, conditions have 
been such that at times it was pretty tough 
to go ahead, but we stuck to it and are still 
pushing foi-ward. The doughboys ahead of us 
surely appreciate our artillery, which was 
shown in the sector that we just left. Any 
time anyone tells you they can't understand 
what the war is about, send them over for a 
visit in the fighting lines and let them take 
a peek at some of the dirty stunts that the 
Hun is pulling off. 

We are the only American troops on this 
sector, and surely Gen. Foch is not taking any 
chances on who he places in one of the most 
active fronts in France. The lines on this 
front have not moved for two years or more. 
The attempts before have been unsuccessful 
and the 32nd was sent in as a chance, and we 
are surely doing it, as we have certainly got 
them on the lom. The parade of prisoners 
going by every day would make any ordinary 
man think that it was a Labor day parade in 

You have heard of different ones' experien- 
ces coming over here, but when the boche 
starts handing them back to us, the experi- 



Photo Loaned hy Cnl. Win. M. T-ewis 


In the upper panel are real trenches — occupied by French tronps and made as comfortable as possible, the shelter at the 

left being covered with sandbags and could afford a little safety to men seeking sleep. In the lower panel is a 155 mm. 

howitzer in action. The artillerymen are wearing their gas masks as they work. 



ence we have had has taught us that there 
isn't one of us, no matter where we are, that 
can't make a dive for a dugout or shell hole 
that would put Annette Kellei-man to shame. 
You can talk about me being an old boy, but 
I can stick with any of them. It certainly 
would look good for a little fellow like you and 
Tommy to be seen making a dive for one of 
these shell holes, and after everything was 
over come sneaking out all full of mud, with 
your gas mask and helmet on. 

Our old pal. Doc Smith, comes around once 
in a while, and we are always glad to see him. 
He has developed into one of the most wonder- 
ful crap shooters in the division. If he want- 
ed to lose it would be impossible. I know. 

Sgt. Victor Falck, 127 Amb. Co., A. E. F., 
Dec. 23, 1918 — You all know how the Gennans 
were pushed across the Vesle, and how Fismes 
was taken. From there we went to Soissons, 
where we fought with the French Tenth Anny. 
Right here I wish to state that we had a real 
war. Battei-y F will verify this statement. It 
was here I met Andy EUefson, shortly after 
he had been wounded and he told me that 
Chateau-Thierry was child's play compared to 
Soissons. He also said they were firing their 
guns with practically no elevation, so you see 
we had them at close range. We landed in the 
Argonne on a Monday, and then took our trick 
in the lines. We were in the lines for 21 days 
and nights before we were returned, and were 
pushing the Huns back every day. When we 
came out we rested for about two weeks in 
a woods, about fifteen kilos back of the lines. 
We were bombed almost every night, and any- 
one who has been bombed knows it is no joke. 
All you hear is the whir of the machine, and 
then you hear an awful bang, and about that 
time you wish you could crawl in a snake 
hole, and pull the hole in after you. 

Nick Garski, Battery F, 121st F. A., France, 
Sept. 14, 1918 (Garski was later killed in ac- 
tion) — Having a lot of time now I must drop 
you a few lines letting you know I'm in the 
best of health. 

We are now located in a good-sized French 
village back from the front for a rest, and 
we sure enjoy being back here. 

We were billeted in French bams with 
plenty of hay to sleep on, but another fellow 
and I happened to be in luck and rented a bed 
the landlady happened to have. She also keeps 
a dozen eggs for us out of her daily gather- 
ings, which she fixes for us for our supper, and 
they sure are good after not having any for 
half a year. 

How long we are to stay here I don't know. 
I expect long enough to get a good rest. 

I sure had a big supper tonight. Went dovm 
town and bought some steak, a fresh loaf of 
French dark bread, some jam and grapes. 
With that we had that dozen eggs, and maybe 
you think that didn't give us a filling, and oh, 
how that woman can cook! It's just like 
mother used to make. 

Just happened to think that I have a birth- 
day in four days. Will have a chance to cele- 
brate at this place. 

The Grand Rapids boys are stationed at this 
place; have seen some of them. 

Just to let you know how expensive things 
are here, I went down town this moniing to 
buy a suit of undei-wear. After I picked out 
a suit that satisfied me I asked for the price. 
He said 2.5 francs; that amounts to almost $5 
in our money. I couldn't see the joke to pay 
that price, so I walked out, leaving the clerk 
standing there with his costly treasures in 
front of him. 

There's a young girl in this family nearing 
the age of ten. She saw me writing tliis let- 
ter home, so she asked me if I wouldn't send 
the enclosed little note to the family from 

Arthur Spreeburg, 77th F. A., Coblenz, Dec. 
27, 1918 — It is a long time between letters but 
there are a lot of reasons. I was at the front 
for three months, and that's plenty for anyone. 
The first front was Chateau-Thierry. There 
was some hard fighting. We were there for 
two weeks, then we hiked to St. Mihiel. The 
Germans were sure sui-prised when they heard 
our guns bark at 1 A. M. From there we went 
to Argonne Woods. This was one of the 
worst places I've seen. I saw a lot of boys 
get it, and it was an awful sight. I also saw 
the Dead Man's Hill at Verdun, where so many 
French were killed. Our captain and three 
boys were killed during our time at the front. 
I was over the top three times, and never re- 
ceived a scratch. Some luck. I don't know 
when we will be back in the U. S. We are 
now at Coblenz. We hiked 185 miles in 15 

Pvt. Rudolph Amund.^on, Const. Co. No. 1, 
U. S. Air Sei-vice, England — We sailed on one 
of the biggest transports used for that pur- 
pose, and had a grand trip across. Nice weath- 
er every day we were on the water, especially 
after having been out five or six days. I 
also spent one of the most sane fourths I had 
ever spent in my life. Not a thing did I do 
but stand at the rail and watch for subs, but 



Photos Loaned by Col. Witi, L. 


Graves of former soldiers marked every location for camp in the active areas. Above, the kitchen outfit is getting its 
equipment ready for operation. A mound marks a grave in the immediate foreground. Col. Lewis' headquarters were 
located just back of the two denuded trees at the extreme left. In the lower picture the cross marking a grave is seen at the 
left of the supply wagon. The men, however, are more interested in their "chow." The pictures were taken at Montfaucon. 



there wasn't a thing doing in that line. I was 
g'ad wo did not see any, as that water sure 
looked cold and deep. The people here seem 
to think the Yanks are just the thing. There 
are quite a few nice towns around here, where 
we can go to whenever we have the money or 
time to spend. I cannot tell you the nature 
of our work, but I am in a Construction Com- 
pany which is the first job I could not quit 
whenever I wanted. But there are about two 
million more just like me, so I have no license 
to kick. I am in with a very good bunch of 
boys, and have had a gooti deal cf fun. 

William Dupuis, Co. L, 1st Army Hq., A. E. 
F. — I had enlisted with Battery C, and was 
with the same until last January. From there 
I was transferred to the First New Hampshire 
Infantry, (now the First Army Headquarters 
Regiment). This regiment is composed of men 
who speak the French language, and owing to 
my being able to speak the language, hence 
the transfer. French certainly is a good thing 
to know in this country, and I might say that 
I am using my "Parlez-vous" to a great ad- 
vantage. We have been having rain and chilly 
weather for the last three or four days, but 
before that it certainly was warm. Sunny 
France certainly is a good name for this 

Sgt. C. G. Peterson, 47 Aero Sq., A. E. F., 
Nov. 24, 1918 — I am now at Colombay, La 
Belle, a small town not far from Metz. One 
of the largest air force camps in France is 
stationed here and we expect when we have 
it cleared of planes we will be shipped home. 
I surely have been chased around this part of 
Europe and am willing to call it quits now 
that the war is ovei', and get back to the States 
again. I crossed the channel three times; was 
shipped to La Havre in July and then back to 
England again. This last time we landed at 
Cherbourg and then on to the air force front. 
We were real close to the big show when it 
ended, as close as the squadrons get and that 
was close enough. Of course the doughboys 
got into the real fight more than we did. 
When we landed in La Havre in July we were 
bound for Italy but for some reason were 
sent back and a few of us were sent to New 

Sgt. John Michel, 127 Amb., A. P. O. 734. 
Mar. 6, 1919 — It is a surprise to the Dutch 
to see the wonderful body of men Uncle Sam 
has in his army of occupation, that now watch 
on the picturesque River Rhine. I should 
know for I have sailed down the beautiful 
river while on a three dav leave to Neuveid. 

The castles of old upon the hill tops are most 
picturesque sights. Some are diminished 
through past wars of many years ago, others 
that are not luined are occupied by soldiers. 
Vineyards are seen in abundance. 

Geo. Lester Hughes, F. A. Training Camp — 
As to myself, I'm O. K. and working harder 
than the devil. Even at that I feel better 
than I ever have felt and furtheiTnore have 
put on 13 pounds (mostly in front). I am in 
the Field Ai'tillery "non-com" school and start 
work every day at 6:30 A. M. and continue 
until 7 o'clock. When not drilling, I'm kept 
busy washing clothes, so you can readily see 
my time is practically all taken up. By the 
time they get through with this bird, he will 
sure be able to hold his own with the Hun. 
Even though I am working hard, I'm not kick- 
ing, and it makes me laugh when I recall some 
of the boys back home grumbling when asked 
to tu)'n their savings into Liberty Bonds. 

J. L. Ahart, Div. I, A. P. O. 718 Saumur, 
A. E. F. — France is a beautiful countiy. It 
is one beautiful spot after another. It's hell 
to have war in a country like this, but one has 
only to imagine what a people must be like 
who would ravish a country like this, to see 
reasons enough. The French people treat us 
like the princes who lived in these old castles 
must have been treated along about 1000 years 
ago. A beautiful young French lady makes 
mv bed, sweeps the floor, and puts fresh flow- 
eis on my shelf, and when I hand her an empty 
dish to send out for seconds, she thanks me 
for it. Could you beat that for courtesy? I 
am still a Candidate Officer, with the rest of 
the 3rd Camp men and am studying heavy 
motorized artillery at this place. This is a 
wonderful school. It is the greatest Cavalry 
school in the world and has given instruction 
to such immortals as Napoleon. Now it is 
better known as a school of field artillery, 
and that is why I am here. The equipment 
lacks nothing, but it's no summer resort. This 
is Sunday, but until I began this letter I've 
been wrestling with and was obliged to conquer 
some real mathematical problems. You can't 
be an artillery officer and have any loose ends 
to your mathematics. We are well fed and 
Uncle Sam and the large newspapers at home 
take care of our tobacco wants in a very 
liberal way. The people vdll do anything for 
us. The "Y" is unique here. It was fonnerly 
the home of some wealthy Frenchman. He 
turned it over for our use, furniture, hang- 
ings, paintings, traditions, and all. I am 
writing this letter on a wonderfully cai^v