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RACING LIFE 



OP 



LORD GEORGE CAVENDISH BENTINCK 

M.P. 






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RACING LIFE 



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LORD GEORGE CAVENDISH 

BENTINCK, M.P. 



AND OTHER REMINISCENCES 



BY 

JOHN £j:nt 

PRIVATE TRAINER TO THE GOODWOOD STABLE 
EDITED BY THE 

HON. FEANCIS LAWLEY 



SlSitfi Sllustrattons 



WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS 

EDINBURGH AND LONDON 
MDCCCXCII 



All Rights reserved 



Betiicateti bg permission 

TO 

HIS GRACE 
ARTHUR CHARLES JAMES CAVENDISH BENTINCK, 

SIXTH DUKE OF PORTLAND, 

IN HUMBLE ACKNOWLBDOMENT 

OF HIS grace's condescending kindness and 

THOUGHTFUL CONSIDERATION, 

BY HIS MOST OBLIGED, GRATEFUL, 

AND DEVOTED SERVANT, 

JOHX KENT. 



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VIU PREFACE. 

the Turf, forty years ago, down to the present 
moment, it has had but one Dictator worthy of 
that name — I mean, of course. Lord George Ben- 
tinck." 

Mr Weatherby's words revived in my mind a 
desire which had long before been conceived by me, 
to gather together materials for the Racing Life of 
Lord George Bentinck, who, above all other racing 
men within my memory, had left his mark most 
impressively upon the history of the British Turf 
I had often enjoyed opportunities of conversing on 
this subject with Lord George's old and trusted 
trainer, Mr John Kent, who, I was well aware, 
entertained the profoundest respect and regard for 
his memory. Not until within the last two or 
three years, however, has it been found possible 
for Mr Kent to write, or for me to edit, the notes 
on which this volume is based. Those who are 
interested in the subject, and have the patience 
to read this work, will, I hope, not proceed far 
without discerning that its hero, Lord George 
Bentinck, was undoubtedly the most remarkable 
man, and also the strongest character, that the 
British Turf has known or seen during the present 
century. It should therefore, I think, be a matter 
of general satisfaction to the vast army of followers 
and supporters to whom horse-racing is either an 



PREFACE. IX 

amusement or a profession, that Mr John Kent, 
whose health has long been far from strong, 
should not pass away without chronicling what he 
knows about the noble master whom he served so 
faithfully. 

Lord George's active connection with the Turf, 
as a prominent actor thereupon, did not extend over 
more than fifteen or sixteen years. There have, of 
course, been many conspicuous patrons of horse- 
racing who have, in " The Druid's " phrase, " found 
pleasure in listening to the whistle of a racing- 
jacket " for a far longer period than Lord George 
was permitted to do. I believe, however, that 
between 1830 and 1846 Lord George did more to 
improve, and in some senses to revolutionise, the 
Turf, than all the other members of the Jockey 
Club who have lived during the present century. 
The following chapters will explain my meaning to 
those who know no more of Lord George Bentinck 
than that he passed away before their time, and to 
others — many of whom exist — who have not even 
he^rd his name. In preparing Mr Kent's notes for 
publication, I have been surprised to find how com- 
pletely the lapse of forty-four years, which have 
intervened since Lord George's death, have oblit- 
erated all recollection of the most masterful and 
powerftil personality known to racing men since the 



X PREFACE. 

death of Sir Charles Bunbury in 1820. Few can 
be aware, until they study the history of the Turf 
between 1800 and 1840, what its condition w^as 
when Lord George Bentinck moved his entire stud 
from Danebiuy to Goodwood in 1841. Not until 
1843 and 1844 did matters come to a crisis. In 
the former of those years Lord George Bentinck 
began to take measures to purify the Turf of some 
of its worst iniquities. His first step was to expel 
all defaulters from race-courses under the control of 
the Jockey Club, commencing at Goodwood, which, 
being the private property of the Duke of Rich- 
mond, afforded peculiar facilities for banishing and 
excluding black sheep of all kinds. The immediate 
result was that, in revenge, a few of the most un- 
principled frequenters of the race-courses of the 
United Kingdom banded themselves together to 
sue several of the most distinguished patrons of 
the Turf for winning sums of money in excess of 
£10 by betting on horse-races, in contravention of 
an obsolete statute of Queen Anne, which com- 
menced with the words ''Qui tarn.'' I find from a 
return ordered by the House of Commons of the 
number of writs issued by the Court of Exchequer 
between July 1 and December 31, 1843, that thirty- 
four were, in all, taken out in the names of Mr J. 
T. Russell and of Mr C. H. Russell, his brother. 



PREFACE. XI 

Upon Lord George Bentinck and Mr Bowes six 
writs apiece were served ; four upon Mr Crockford ; 
two apiece upon Colonel Peel, Mr Charles Greville, 
and Mr Henry Hill ; while the Earl of Eglinton, 
Sir William H. Gregory, Mr John Gully, Mr Peter 
Cloves, Mr Henry Justice, Mr John Baily, and Mr 
John Greatrex escaped with one apiece. The 
ninth of Queen Anne, cap. xiv., on which these 
actions were based, provided that any amount in 
excess of £10 which was won or lost by betting 
could be sued for and recovered, together with 
treble the amount so won or lost, at the suit of a 
common informer. It was stated in the House of 
Lords by Lord Brougham on February 8, 1844, 
that the penalties sought to be recovered under 
these thirty-four writs amounted to nearly half a 
million of money. Only one of these ** Qui tarn'' 
actions went into court. On August 8, 1844, the 
case of " Russell v. Lord George Bentinck " came 
on for trial at Guildford Assizes. The plaintiff de- 
clared that "on the Derby Day in 1843, John 
Barham Day did, by betting on a horse-race, con- 
trary to the statute of Queen Anne, lose the sum 
of £3000 to Lord George Bentinck, the defendant, 
w^ho was sued to recover from him the said sum of 
£3000, together with treble the value thereof, 
making altogether the sum of £12,000." The 



Xll PREFACE. 

plaintiflF, however, lost his case from failing to prove 
that Lord George made the bet with John Barham 
Day, as Mr Gully, with whom Lord George betted, 
deposed that he took the bet on his own account. 

In the following volimie it will be made apparent 
that the scoundrels who sought, in revenge for 
their banishment from Goodwood and other race- 
courses, to administer a death-blow to the British 
Turf by making it impossible for betting, which 
was then and is still its necessary concomitant 
and adjunct, to take place any longer, found a 
formidable antagonist in Lord George Bentinck. 
At his instance the " Manly Sports Bill," by which 
the obsolete statute of Queen Anne was repealed, 
and its penalties abolished, was read for the first 
time in the House of Lords on February 1, 1844, 
on the motion of the Duke of Richmond. Follow- 
ing upon the Duke of Richmond's bill, it w^as 
resolved that the whole subject of Betting and 
Gaming should be referred to Select Committees 
of both Houses of Parliament, and even at the 
present day their two Reports may be studied 
w^th interest and advantage. I have thought 
it desirable to recapitulate in the fewest possible 
w^ords the circumstances under which Lord George 
Bentinck became, in 1843, the acknowledged Dicta- 
tor of the British Turf. Long before that year, 



PREFACE. XUl 

however, he had shown by repeated examples 
that the racing stables over which he presided 
were looked after with a vigilance, and directed 
with an intelligence, to which no other like estab- 
lishments could exhibit a parallel. That he was 
ably, loyally, and faithfully sustained and seconded 
by his latest trainers, Mr John Kent and his . 
father, will be abundantly proved in the following 
pages. Undoubtedly the most trying episode 
of the younger Mr John Kent's career was that 
connected with Surplice's Derby in 1848, when 
Lord George Bentinck had quitted the Turf in 
order to devote himself with characteristic energy 
to the pursuit of politics. With what anxious 
solicitude Lord Clifden's splendid colt Surplice was 
guarded against the machinations of his enemies 
has never before been stated in print. It should, 
however, be added that, in consequence of the fatal 
mistake as to the comparative merits of Sui'plice 
and Loadstone, for which the Hon. Francis Villiers 
was responsible, Mr John Kent was not only 
unrewarded for his fidelity and vigilance, but 
was actually a loser upon the only Derby winner 
ever sent forth from the Goodwood stable. 

There can be little doubt that Lord George 
Bentinck would have made ample provision for 
the faithful trainer who has devoted this volume 



XIV PREFACE. 

to his much-loved master's memory, had his life 
been spared for a few more years. Cut off, how- 
ever, as he was, in the prime of his manhood, no 
opportunity was afforded him of leaving a sum of 
money to the attached and loyal servant who has 
already outlived him for nearly forty-four years. 

It was destined, however, before the end of Mr 
Kent's life, that a tribute to his merit should be 
offered by one in whose veins runs the generous 
blood of the noble owner of Crucifix and Miss 
Elis. Thus in 1889 it was made known to the 
present Duke of Portland that Lord George Ben- 
tinck's trainer was passing his declining years in 
greatly reduced circumstances, sickness, and ob- 
scurity. Forthwith the present head of the great 
House of Bentinck displayed unprecedented kind- 
ness and liberality towards this old and loyal 
servant of the family. Ever since that day the 
present Duke and Duchess of Portland have lost 
no opportunity of showing attention in a thou- 
sand ways to the inspirer of the following pages. 

Before closing these remarks, I wish to put upon 
record the obligations which I owe in more than 
one quarter for guidance and assistance of the most 
valuable kind. Among others, Mr W. H. Langley, 
well known under the name of "Pavo" as the 
sporting correspondent of ' The Morning Post,' and 



PREFACE. XV 

universally recognised as one of the ablest members 
of his profession, has been good enough to read 
nearly the whole of this work in MS., and to give 
it the benefit of his corrections and emendations. 
Equally great has been the interest displayed in it 
by Mr Wilmshurst of Chichester, whose sugges- 
tions have been of the greatest value to Mr John 
Kent and myself Again, Mr Edmund Tattersall, 
the head of the great firm whose fame has gone 
forth into all lands, has been good enough to 
enlighten me upon many subjects connected with 
Lord George Bentinck's eventful history. Finally, 
the skill, patience, and industry with which Miss 
F. Hays has supplied Mr Kent with information 
by hunting out and verifying references bearing 
upon its composition, is deserving of the highest 
commendation and gratitude from its author and 
myself 

In the hope that Lord George Bentinck's claim 
to be regarded as the most remarkable racing man 
of the nineteenth century will be cheerfully con- 
ceded by intelligent readers of the following pages, 
I now commend them to the public, by whose im- 
partial verdict they will stand or fall. 



FRANCIS LAWLEY. 



London', Sept. 14, 1892. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP. 1>A0K 

I. BIRTH, PARENTAGE, AND EARLY YEARS, . . 1 

II. NEWMARKET AT THE BEGINNING OP THE CENTURY, 25 

III. EARLY RACING DAYS, 53 

IV. HORSE-RACING PREVIOUS TO VANS, ... 76 

V. REMOVAL FROM DANEBURY, .... 97 

VI. LORD George's support of goodwood races, . 123 

VII. the goodwood STABLE IN 1844,. . . .149 

VIIL THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1846, . . . .163 

IX. LORD GEORGE AS A LETTER- WRITER, . . .185 

X. LATTER HALF OP THE RACING SEASON OF 1845, . 213 

XI. LORD George's gains in 1844 and 1845, . . 225 

Xn. THE SALE OF LORD GEORGe's STUD, . .241 

Xin. THE DERBY OP 1848, ...... 272 

XrV. LORD GEORGE AS A TURF REFORMER, . . . 296 

XV. PERSONAL HABITS OF LORD GEORGE BBNTINCK, . 311 

XVI. THE FIFTH DUKE OF RICHMOND, K.G., . . . .332 



XVlll CONTENTS. 

XVII. RACING CAREER OF THE LATE RIGHT HON. SIR 

WILLIAM H. GREGORY, . . . . . 366 

XVIIL RACING CAREER OP THE LATE RIGHT HON. SIR 

WILLIAM H. GREGORY — Continued, . . 400 

XIX. POLITICAL CAREER OP LORD GEORGE BENTINCK, . 426 

XX. DEATH OP LORD GEORGE BENTINCK, . . 447 



INDEX, . 471 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



THE DUKB OF PORTLAND, Frontispiece 

LORD GEORGE BENTINCK, To face p. 2 

MRS SCOTT AND HER ELDEST DAUGHTER (jET, 15), 



WHO AFTERWARDS MARRIED THE FOURTH DUKE 



OF PORTLAND, ..... 
FOURTH DUKE OF PORTLAND, 
WELBECK ABBEY, TERRACES, .... 

JOHN KENT, 

ELI8 AND HIS VAN, 

THE STABLES, GOODWOOD, .... 
GOODWOOD HOUSE, ..... 

FIFTH DUKE OF RICHMOND, K.G., IN HIS ROBES, 
CRUCIFIX (j. B. day), .... 

LORD GEORGE BENTINCK's MISS ELIS, 

CAROLINE RICHMOND, 

FACSIMILE LETTER FROM LORD GSORQB BENTINCK, 
THE KENNELS, GOODWOOD, .... 



{ 



4 

12 

22 

40 

68 

92 

116 

124 

126 

180 

244 

between 
246 and 247 



To face p, 270 



XX 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



SURPLICE, 

8KETCH OF WELBECK ABBEY, BY LADY 



BEXTINCK, . 
FIFTH DUKE OF RICHMOND. . 
8IR WILLIAM H. GREGORY, K.C.M.G. 
LORD GEORGE BENTINCK (bUST), 
WELBECK ABBEY, FRONT VIEW, 
THE BENTINCK MEMORIAL, MANSFIELD, 
THE DUCHESS OF PORTLAND AND DAUGHTER, 
THE DUKE OF PORTLAND, 



To /ace p, 282 



CHARLOTTE 



1 



318 
332 
412 
418 
440 
4G6 

beticeen 468 and 469 



RACING LIFE 



OP 



LOED GEORGE CAVENDISH BENTINCK. 



CHAPTER I. 

birth, parentage, and early years. 

Lord William George Frederick Cavendish 
Bentinck, more generally known as Lord George 
Bentinck, was born on the 27th of February 1802, 
and was the third son of the fourth Duke of Port- 
land, and of his wife Henrietta, the eldest daughter 
and coheiress of General John Scott, of Balcomie, 
in Fife, who had three daughters, distinguished 
from each other as " the rich Miss Scott," ** the 
witty Miss Scott," and " the pretty Miss Scott." 
The " rich Miss Scott " married the Marquis of 
Titchfield, afterwards fourth Duke of Portland ; the 
" witty Miss Scott" married the Right Honourable 
George Canning, M.P. ; and the " pretty Miss 

A 



2 EARLY YEARS. 

Scott " married the Honourable F. Stewart, after- 
wards Earl of Moray. 

The " rich Miss Scott," afterwards Duchess of 
Portland and mother of Lord Greorge Bentinck, 
was an exceedingly kind and charitable lady. 
always ready to supply necessaries and comforts 
to the poor, especially when sick or in distress. 
Her sympathy was as unbounded as her disposi- 
tion was generous. She took the liveliest inter- 
est in everything connected with the manage- 
ment of her husband's household and estates, 
and was an excellent woman of business. As 
her Grace declined in years she became very 
retiring in her habits, shunning the company of 
strangers as much as possible. Indeed during the 
last years of her life, which ended in May 1844, 
she was often unseen by the guests whom the 
Duke, her husband, entertained at Welbeck Abbey 
for many days. 

A few reminiscences of Lord George Bentinck 
may not be uninteresting to those of a later 
generation who have heard of his Lordship's dis- 
tinguished life and strongly marked character ; 
for, with the exception of the Right Hon. B. 
Disraeli's political biography of his Lordship, no 
other memorial work has ever been attempted. 
I am therefore induced, through the repeated 
solicitations of friends, to commit to paper a 
few recollections of my noble master, whom I 
had the opportunity of knowing thoroughly from 



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A LABOUR OF LOVE. 3 

long acquaintance with his character, disposition, 
and habits. It is a duty of which I have long 
desired to acquit myself, but which other avoca- 
tions have led me to defer until, at my compara- 
tively advanced age, I feel hardly competent to do 
justice to the many great qualities and exceptional 
merits which made Lord George Bentinck the most 
remarkable man that I ever knew. To me, how- 
ever, it will be a labour of love to put down what 
I remember of my dear and honoured master, who 
was pleased to repose in my father and myself a 
confidence, and to admit us to an intimacy, which 
were, to say the least, unusual when our relative 
stations in life are borne in mind. Nor, in asso- 
ciation with Lord George Bentinck, ought I to 
omit to mention, in the most respectful, loving, 
and grateful terms, the name of Lord George's 
confederate and valued friend, the fifth Duke of 
Richmond, who was my father's and my own 
master long before Lord George joined the Good- 
wood stable, and long after he left it. His Grace 
was one of those high-minded, large-hearted, and 
happily constituted noblemen whom to know was 
to love ; and I verily believe that never before 
did it fall to the lot of any trainer to serve two 
such masters. In the reports occasionally given 
of them in newspapers and magazines, which have 
from time to time come under my eye, there is so 
much inaccuracy, and in the case of Lord George 
Bentinck often so much injustice, that I feel it 



4 EAKLY YEARS. 

incumbent upon me to tell to the best of my ability 
the story of his racing life as I knew and saw it 
from day to day. Having known the Turf and all 
its prominent patrons more or less intimately for 
nearly sixty years, I can conscientiously aver that 
the century which is now so near its end has pro- 
duced but one Lord Greorge Bentinck. To this 
conviction I hope to gain the assent of those of 
my readers who have the patience to read this 
book from its first page to its last, and to forgive 
its many imperfections and shortcomings. 

At an early age it was thought desirable that 
Lord George, after leaving Eton, should have some 
profession, and he entered the army, by joining the 
9th Lancers, and eventually attained the rank of 
Major in the 2d Life Guards ; but as a military 
career offered him little prospect of profit or pro- 
motion, and as he was far from being insensible to 
the attractions of London society, he retired from 
the army in 1827. 

The celebrated George Canning, who had mar- 
ried the sister of Lord George's mother, found in 
his Lordship one of the best and most energetic 
of private secretaries ; for he had all the qualities, 
such as sagacity, grace of manner, knowledge of 
human nature, method in business, shrewdness in 
negotiation, and skill and indefatigability in con- 
ducting epistolary correspondence, which such an 
office is generally supposed to require. At the 
same time, it presented to his Lordship one of the 



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Mrs. SCOTT ANI> HKR ELDEST DAUGHTER (Aet. iSl. 

I'M") AFTKkWAKDS MARRIED THK FOURTH DUKE OF PORTLAND. 



M.P. FOR LYNN REGIS. 5 

most favourable opportunities that could possibly 
arise for entering upon a public career. 

In 1826 Lord George succeeded his brother, the 
Marquis of Titchfield, as member for Lynn Regis, 
which constituency he continued to represent for 
rather more than twenty years.^ On the acces- 
sion of Lord Grey's Administration in 1830, Lord 
George was a general but independent supporter 
of the Government. In May 1832, when William 
IV. refused to make new peers, and Lord Grey 
tendered his resignation to the King, Lord George 
Bentinck gave a stronger proof than ever of his 
complete independence of the Whig party, by 
refusing to vote for Lord Ebrington s famous 
motion of unabated confidence in Ministers, which, 
being carried by a large majority, put an end to 
the Duke of Wellington's attempt at the formation 
of an Administration, and dictated terms of sub- 
mission to the King and House of Lords. 

On the retirement of Lord Stanley, Sir James 
Graham, the Duke of Richmond, and Lord Ripon, 
from Lord Grey's Government in May 1834, Lord 
George seceded from the Whig ranks. On the 
accession of Sir Robert Peel to office in December 
1834, and upon the opening of Parliament in 1835, 
Lord George was extremely active in forming the 
party which was afterwards nicknamed by Mr 
O'Connell *' the Derby Dilly," and for a period of 

^ Parts of this and the following pages aie taken from the * Annual 
llegister.' 



6 EARLY YEARS. 

eleven years Lord George remained a steady sup- 
porter of Sir Robert Peel. 

As a frequenter of Newmarket, Lord George 
was constantly at work " whipping " up the sport- 
ing members ; and once, on the approach of a close 
division, he showed his zeal by bringing up in his 
private carriage a country gentleman of very 
eccentric habits and manners, who, absurdly 
enough, repaid Lord George's kindness in sub- 
mitting to his tedious companionship during a 
journey of sixty miles, by voting against the party 
to which Lord George belonged. 

During the first four years of Sir Robert Peel's 
Administration Lord George Bentinck was never 
absent from his post. Awake or asleep, there he 
invariably sat, from the meeting of the House 
until its rising, generally occupying the same seat 
on the back benches on the Ministerial side. 

At this time Lord George was very eager in his 
pursuit of the chase, and kept a stud of hunters 
in the neighbourhood of Andover for the purpose 
of hunting with Mr Assheton Smith's celebrated 
pack of fox-hounds. His Lordship was a very- 
hard rider, and his custom was, after a prolonged 
debate in the House, to rise at six next morning, 
to start off from the London terminus of the South- 
western Railway by the seven o'clock train, have 
a long day's hunting, and return by the same 
route to take his seat once more in the House of 
Commons. He was in the habit of wearing a 



"pink" in parliament. 



light - coloured zephyr paletot above his scarlet 
coat, and, fully accoutred in leathers and top-boots, 
he would enter the House, and sit out another 
long debate. Many a joke was indulged in by his 
brother members on seeing the red collar of his 
hunting-coat peeping out from under his surtout ; 
and he was perhaps the only member ever seen 
of late years in the House of Commons in " pink." 
Often on these occasions has Sir Thomas Fremantle, 
then Secretary to the Treasury and Whip to the 
Conservative party, been heard to remark to some 
official members, " How I wish you gentlemen 
would take example from George Bentinck ! Look 
at him ; his attendance is worth all yours put 
together, as he is independent of us. whereas 
you are office-holders." Constantly would his 
Lordship give his official friends a good scold- 
ing when he caught them coming in late for a 
division. 

It is not my business, nor indeed do I pos- 
sess the ability, to comment with discrimination 
upon Lord George's political career from the day 
when he first entered Parliament in 1826, as 
member for King's Lynn, until the sadly memor- 
able 21st of September 1848, when he was found 
dead outside the deer-park at Welbeck Abbey. 
I must, however, claim the privilege of an old and 
attached servant to bear my humble testimony 
to the qualifications possessed by my noble master, 
which, despite the opinion of Mr Greville to the 



10 EARLY TEARS. 

Duke of Richmond, the late Earls of Derby and 
Strafford, General Peel, and Colonel Anson stated 
repeatedly that never yet was there a parliamen- 
tary speaker who improved so much in two years 
as Lord George Bentinck did. I think the fol- 
lowing passage, to which a friend has kindly 
called my attention, is more just to Lord Greorge's 
character, foresight, and ability as a statesman, 
than it was possible for Mr Greville to be. It 
appeared in ' The Life of the Prince Consort/ by 
Sir Theodore Martin, and ran as follows : — 

" On February 4, 1847, Lord George Bentinck, 
who had expressed himself, during the debate on 
the Queen's Speech, as dissatisfied with the Min- 
isterial measures for the relief of Ireland, brought 
forward a very carefully devised and comprehen- 
sive scheme of permanent relief in the shape of 
advances to the extent of sixteen millions, to be 
made by the Government for the construction of 
railways in Ireland. Powers for construction of 
these railways had been already granted, and the 
Government advances were to come in supple- 
ment of eight millions to be provided by the 
companies authorised to construct them, but which 
they were unable to raise in the prostrate condi- 
tion of the country. The scheme was enforced 
with all that minute accuracy of statistical detail 
and careful anticipation of practical difficulties 
which distinguished its author. Much might 



INSTANCE OF HIS FORESIGHT. 11 

have been done had labour been directed to such 
works of permanent utility as railways from the 
futile operations to which it had been applied 
under the Government grants of the previous 
session. A large portion of the public money, 
instead of being absolutely wasted, would have 
created a permanent source of national wealth, 
and developed the resources of the country many 
years in advance of what was otherwise possible." 

My only remark upon this passage is, that Mr 
Balfour, the late Chief Secretary for Ireland, 
and leader of the House of Commons, is, I be- 
lieve, engaged in giving effect to Lord George's 
well-considered proposals delivered nearly half a 
century since. I base my own confident convic- 
tions that Lord George Bentinck, had he been 
spared, would have played a very distinguished 
' part in public life, upon one fact alone — I never 
knew him to fail in anything to which he gave his 
serious attention and which he took in hand in 
earnest. Whether he would have remained in 
Parliament after the final defeat of Protection I 
will not venture to say ; and my reason for enter- 
taining doubts on the subject will be found in the 
account, subsequently given, of my last interview 
with his Lordship. 

I cannot conclude this chapter without adding 
a few particulars about Lord George Bentinck's 
father, the fourth Duke of Portland, who was well 



12 EARLY YEARS. 

known to my father and to my father's contem- 
poraries. His Grace possessed so many admirable 
qualities, both as a landlord and as a patron of the 
Turf, that I deem it my duty to rescue some of 
them from oblivion ; and all the more so because 
the influence of great territorial magnates is pass- 
ing away in this country — not, as I venture humbly 
to believe, for our country's good. It will perhaps 
be remembered by some of my readers that in 
one of his letters to ' The Times,' Admiral Rous 
remarked that during his long experience of the 
Turf he had known but two men — the fourth Duke 
of Portland and the fifth Earl of Glasgow — who 
raced from pure disinterested love of sport, and 
without harbouring a single mercenary thought 
in their breasts. From what I have heard, there 
never yet was a supporter of horse-racing who took 
more pleasure than did the fourth Duke of Port- 
land in breeding, rearing, and racing his own 
thoroughbred stock. For that purpose he kept a 
few well-selected brood mares at Welbeck Abbey, 
where he caused their produce to be broken as 
yearlings, and to be exercised and trained as two- 
year-olds until the Doncaster September meeting 
was over. At the end of September his Grace 
engaged some four or five good jockeys to come to 
Welbeck in order to try his two-year-olds, the best 
and most promising of which he sent to New- 
market to be trained by Richard Prince. His 
Grace deemed it to be a matter of prime import- 





H YKAJUI. 4^^^^^^H 




Bbv father luid to mj &ttl<^^^^^^^| 




HBi» (incti jKNuiowed «o nuu^^^^^^^| 




^ptli iiH a Itiudlnrd and as ft l^^^^^^^l 




Al •Ifwni (lutr to "(Mi^^^^^^^^^l 




^B -<Mivioi]; Bixl all tbe UOA^^^^^^^^I 




^^ tiT great rumtorisl m^m^^^^^^H 




Hb this oountry — not, as X TUI^^^^^^^^H 




m^ for our cou ntry's good. It 1^^^^^^^^| 






TinHMt,' ^'^^^^^^t 


nn 


nii^ his Ititig ^'P*!!^^^^^^^! 


1" 


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0* 


of ^^w^^^^H 


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<lisint«n!St«d We ^^^^^^^^M 


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From wlutt I Imvo li«tf^jy^^^^| 


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11 did tlie fourth Duke OB^^^^ 


kl 


tKiuHiig, and laoing lu^^^^^l 


Ik 


For that purpoae he 4^^^^| 


' *" 


't«j^ itiareH at Welbeck '^I^^^H 


wl 


I'ltKluce to be ^^'^^J^^^^l 


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yeiii 


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'>>i,"t)r"' *>n>R fuiir or five good jodfeys to conM^^| 




Fi ordur to try his two-year-olda, the be«^^ 




promtstng of which he sent to New- i 


a,k. 


T- he tnuned by Uichanl Prince. Hh 




^immmad rt to be a matt«r of prime iinpoi't- 


J[ 


^^k. 



FOURTH DUKE OF PORTLAND. 13 

ance that his young colts and fillies should be 
made very tractable and quiet, and for this purpose 
he insisted that they should be familiarised with, 
and accustomed to, every object and every sound 
that was likely to render them nervous and timid. ^ 
The number of horses kept in training by his 
Grace was always limited, as in the course of some 
years he did not annually start more than three or 
four animals. One good horse, Tiresias by Sooth- 
sayer, he was so fortunate as to breed, and with 
him won the Derby in 1819, beating Mr Crock- 
ford's Sultan and Lord Rous's Euphrates (both 
good horses) and twelve other starters. Tiresias 
was a sound and powerful horse, and won nine 
times as a three-year-old, and five times as a 
four-year-old, over all distances. Next year he 
was put to the stud, where he proved a most 
unsuccessful stallion. So infatuated, however, 
was his princely owner about him, that, in spite 



iln his *Silk and Scarlet' Mr Henry Dixon ("The Druid") 
remarks : " Like all Lord Fitz William's horses when Scaife trained 
them, Mulatto was very badly broken. Clift, the jockey, used to 
say of him, and in fact of every one of them, * Here's a pretty brute! 
I never get on one on *em but I've a good chance of breaking my 
neck ; no mouth, no nothing. I've all to make.' Welbeck, on the 
contrary, was quite as remarkable for the height to which it carried 
its breaking. The fourth Duke of Portland used to say that a horse 
should never go on to a race-course till it could face anything. Hence, 
in order to complete their education they were marched over and over 
again past a drum and fife band, with a flag flying, in the park ; and 
80 many screws of powder were let off in the corn-bin that at last 
they would hardly lift their heads out of the manger for a pistol 
report" 



14 EARLY YEARS. 

of continued disappointments, he insisted upon 
persevering with him, in the confident belief that 
one day he would become the sire of a great horse. 
Although a good honest runner himself, Tiresias 
was the son of Soothsayer, whose progeny were 
for the most part big and good looking, but very 
uncertain customers. In short, Tiresias proved to 
be as great a failure at the stud as Bay Middleton 
was, so long as he remained the property of Lord 
George Bentinck. At last, his Grace resolved to 
have recourse to better sires than the Derby 
winner of 1819, and in 1838 his bay colt Boeotian, 
by Taurus, won eight races, including the Column 
and Newmarket Stakes, and the St James's Palace 
Stakes at Ascot. 

Never yet was there a more enthusiastic lover 
of Newmarket Heath, a large portion of which he 
owned, than Lord George Bentinck's father. His 
Grace was never absent from a Newmarket race 
meeting until old age prevented his attending ; and 
the training-gallops and race-course at " the little 
town in Cambridgeshire " were constantly receiving 
his attention, which involved the outlay of con- 
siderable sums of money. At the beginning of 
this century a large portion of what was called 
" the new ground " on either side of " the Flat " 
was covered with furze-bushes, which his Grace 
caused to be stubbed up and cleared away. The 
land was then ploughed and sown with cole-seed 
or rape, which was fed ofi* with sheep and then 



"A morta' good old chap." 15 

laid down in grass. His Grace next proceeded to 
purchase some land which lay contiguous to the 
above-mentioned " new ground," so as to prevent 
its ever falling into the hands of some purchaser 
who might not be favourably disposed towards the 
Turf. Since that time the land in question has 
been known as *' the Portland farm," and portions 
of it have been added to the Heath. He also 
built the Portland Stand, at the end of the Beacon 
course, where the Criterion and Cambridgeshire 
courses finished. 

I remember a characteristic story which was 
told not long after his Grace made the purchase 
to which I have just alluded. In riding for the 
first time over the ground, he encountered a 
shepherd, from whom he inquired " whether he 
knew where the land lay which the Duke of Port- 
land had just bought ? " The shepherd pointed to 
the spot on which they were standing, exclaiming, 
" This be part of it." As they proceeded over the 
property the shepherd, little knowing to whom 
he was speaking, volunteered the remark, " I be 
moighty glad t' Duke of Portland 'ave bought 
this 'ere farm, because he be a morta' good old 
chap." 

'' And what makes you consider him ' a morta' 
good old chap ' ? " inquired the Duke, smiling. 

" Because he's good to 's poor, and finds work 
for a lot o' we," replied the unconscious guide. 

During the intervals between the various race 



18 EARLY YEARS. 

by the sewage and washings of the town of Mans- 
field, is distributed by minor cuts, tiled drains, 
and sluice-gates along the slopes below it, con- 
verting the previously bairen valley, whose sides 
were a rabbit-warren overgi'own with heath and 
gorse, and its bottom a swamp, producing hassocks 
and inishes, into a most productive tract of meadow 
and pasture land, yielding three crops of grass 
annually. The river is diverted near the vale- 
head, and led along the hillside ; and the bottom 
has been drained. The canal extends to near 
DUerton, and the latter portion of it is applied to 
the lands of Earl Man vers. 

" These famous meadows have been often quoted, 
together with those near Edinburgh, in sanitary 
and agi'icultural discussions. The canal - water, 
after depositing all its more valuable ingredients 
upon the land, runs off through the bottom of the 
valley in a stream as clear as crystal and full of 
trout, though angling is forbidden. The domain 
of Clipstone exhibits a fine specimen of good farm- 
ing, and is well worth a visit from all interested 
in agi'icultural improvements." 

One of his Grace's favourite undertakings was 
to transplant large oak-trees by the aid of very 
powerful machinery ; and so successfully was this 
eifected, that many of these trees are now great 
ornaments of the park at Welbeck. Clad in 
appropriate costume — that is to say, in a rough 



THE duke's kindness. 19 

coat and long waterproof boots reaching up to his 
hips — the Duke personally superintended the 
draining operations of his labourers, and would 
not permit the tiles to be laid until he was satis- 
fied that there was suflScient fall to carry off the 
water. 

Lord George Bentinck, as was natural, took 
great interest in all his father's proceedings at 
Welbeck, and often remarked to me, when en- 
gaged in grubbing up trees on the Goodwood 
estate in order to make gallops for his race-horses, 
that his father, if they had belonged to him, 
would have transplanted them with his powerful 
engines. 

In every relation of life the fourth Duke of 
Portland was one of the kindest and most consid- 
erate of men. When any matter was referred to 
him, he never came to a decision without the full- 
est and most patient inquiry. I remember hear- 
ing that on one occasion the house -steward at 
Welbeck suggested to his Grace the propriety of 
making a reduction in the wages of the household 
servants. *' By all means," replied the Duke, " if 
you deem it advisable ; but in that case it is of 
course to be understood that T begin with you ! " 
I need hardly add that nothing further was heard 
of the house-steward's suggestion, or of another in 
which he represented that it was a piece of un- 
heard-of extravagance and luxury for the servants 
to have fires in their bedrooms. ** You may stop 



20 KAKLY YEABS. 

t}ie practice? if you like," said the Duke, " but not 
uutiJ you ih-Hi set the example yourself." 

it wai) the liuke's invariahle habit to sit down 
t/> diijfier exactly at dMO p.m., and such was his 
punctuality that nothing would induce him to wait 
for any gue«t, however distinguished, who might 
\Mi staying at Welbick. The same rigorous 
jiuijctuality was oliserved hy him in every other 
traiiSJiCtioii, hut I cannot say that it was inherited 
f;y ljt)r<l <ie^>rge I^ntinck, to whose nature it was 
foreign. Such was his (irace's consideration for 
othei'K, that, ujMin hearing that one of his tenants 
lisul given noti^^t to leave his farm, he sent for the 
mail and in<juin^l wijy he had taken this step? 
** Iliicauw^ your <jrac<*," he replied, ** I have not 
enough money to cultivate my farm properly." 
** What do you intend doing?" was the next 
rjuestion. " I thought of taking a small dairy- 
farm, your ( J race." " Would you not prefer 
remaining in your own house, to which you are 
accuHt<jmed," was the kind incpiiry made by the 
Duke, " and carrying on the farm for me, if I paid 
you for rloing so ? " ** I should, indeed, prefer 
that, your Cirace." An arrangement was accord- 
ingly made to that effect, and two or three years 
later the Duke inquired from his agent in what 
condition this particular farm was, and whether it 
yielded a profit? Ileassured on this point, his 
Gratt sent for the tenant, and observed to him, 
" If you are able to make this farm pay when 



THE DITKE's FEDEETEBIAN POWERS. 21 

cultivating it for me, could yon not do the same 
for yourself? " On receiTing an affirmative reply, 
die Duke inquired how much capital the &rmer 
needed for his purpose, and advanced the sum at 
once, with the happiest results. 

I have already said that his Grace was an 
excellent pedestrian, and delighted in walking. 
In one of the letters written by Lord George 
Bentinck to Mr Croker in 1846, his Lordship 
remarks that he " believes his father, then eighty 
years old, was still equal to a ten-mile walk." 
I remember being at Harcourt House, Cavendish 
Square, on one occasion, when his Grace announced 
his intention of walking to some place a long way 
off. To this his two daughters. Lady Charlotte 
Bentinck, afterwards Viscountess Ossington, and 
Lady Lucy, now the Dowager Lady Howard de 
Walden, vehemently objected, and begged their 
father to order his carriage to the door. His Grace 
scornfully repudiated the idea that the distance 
was too long for him to accomplish on foot, and 
offered there and then to run either of the young 
ladies round the garden behind Harcourt House. 
The challenge was accepted by Lady Charlotte, 
and after an exciting race she won, as it were, 
cleverly by a head, to her own great delight. 

There is not one member of this noble &mily to 
whom I do not personally owe a deep debt of 
gratitude. Hearing of mv onlv son's danffi^Fons 
Lady <_>ssington (who bas since 



\ 



22 EARLY YEARS. 

passed away, followed by the blessings and grate- 
ful thanks of all who knew her) provided him with 
all the comforts and necessaries that he required, 
and showed the greatest sympathy with my wife and 
me. On my son's decease in December 1887, at 
the age of twenty-four yeara, her Ladyship caused 
a beautiful gravestone to be erected to his memory, 
bearing the following words at the end of the 
inscription : " This stone was erected by Vis- 
countess Ossington, in consideration of services 
faithfully rendered to her father, his Grace the 
fourth Duke of Portland, and to her brother, 
the Right Honoui^able Lord George Cavendish 
Bentinck, M.R" 

Nor should I omit to mention that the spirit of 
kindness, sympathy, and generosity which has 
always distinguished this noble house, has de- 
scended in full measure to the sixth Duke of 
Portland, who is now the head of this ancient 
and illustrious family. From his Grace, and from 
the Duchess, I have received so many favours and 
such unbounded kindness, not only in my own 
home but also at Welbeck Abbey, that I dare not 
trust myself to attempt to enimierate them here. 
I am persuaded from my own experience that 
their Graces have hearts as kind and warm as that 
which induced the fourth Duke of Portland to make 
provision for the poor tramps who shambled along 
the road in front of one of the lodges on the edge 



- I 



I 



■I 

t 



I I 



I ' 



I 



I I 



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•\ 



, • . M 



il 



'!■■;■ 



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' I .. • |. .4 ' ■(••■. 1 .. 



THE duke's charity. 23 

of the park at Welbeck. At this lodge his Grace 
stationed a porter whose business it was to give 
relief to every indigent applicant for it — a pint of 
beer and half a loaf of bread for a man, and half a 
pint of beer and the same quantity of bread for a 
woman. To children a slice of cake and a little 
wine-and- water were in each case dispensed. At 
Harcourt House, in London, his Grace's charities 
were absolutely boundless. I have often been 
present when Mrs Jones, the housekeeper, received 
letters from Welbeck, written by the fourth Duke 
and by his Duchess, giving instructions for the 
distribution of clothing, food, coals, and money 
among the poor inhabitants of his Grace's London 
property. 

The Duke died at Welbeck on the 27th March 
1854, at the advanced age of eighty-five years. 
His last words, addressed to his regular medical 
attendant, were these : " Dr Ward, in a few 
minutes the poorest labourer who worked on my 
estate, and has gone before me, will be my equal 
in every respect." Throughout his protracted life 
his Grace was in the enjoyment of perfect health, 
the result of abundant exercise and of many hours 
passed every day in the open air without regard 
to the weather. The Duke preferred walking to 
riding ; but when he rode, it was invariably on a 
stout trotting cob, which nothing could ever in- 
duce him to urge into a canter or gallop. In the 



34 



EARLT TEARS. 



belief that Lord George Bentinck doived mai 
of his most valiiahle and chanurteristic attribut 
from his father. I hope that what I have nc 
written about the latter will not be considCTi 
inappropriate bv thoee who take the trouble 
read it. 



25 



CHAPTER 11. 

NEWMARKET AT THE BEGINNING OF THE CENTURY. 

A FEW words explaining how I came to be a trainer 
of race-horses may perhaps be not unacceptable to 
those of my readers in whom a taste for the past 
predominates over (what is far more usual) a taste 
only for the present. It would by many be deemed 
a suflficient reason for me to say that I was born 
at Newmarket, and that my father and grand- 
father had lived there for more than sixty years 
before I came into existence. My grandfather 
was a builder by profession, and constructed a 
considerable number of the principal houses and 
other buildings, including stables, in what has 
long been erroneously called, " The famous little 
town in Cambridgeshire" — erroneously, because 
only half of it is in Cambridgeshire, the other half 
being, as every one knows, in Suffolk. Among 
the buildings for which my grandfather was re- 
sponsible may be included " The Rooms," of which 
a Mr Parrs, who also kept a school, was for a long 



26 NEWMARKET EARLY IX THE CENTURY. 

time lessee and manatrer. In addition to " The 
Rooms," my gi-andfather also built what is now 
called the "Rutland Arms Hotel," on the site 
occupied by which another inn (of far inferior size 
and pretensions, and called " The Ram ") formerly 
stood. I have often been told by my old firiend 
Mr J. F. Clark, the ex-racing judge, that viewed 
as an edifice, the Rutland Arms is well calculated 
to confer credit upon its builder, as the brick- 
work is a very excellent specimen of neatness and 
stability. Mr J. F. Clark's authority on every- 
thing connected with Newmarket has long been 
acknowledged to be quite unexceptionable ; and 
the fact that, in addition to being a racing judge, 
he has for many years followed the profession of 
an architect, lends additional weight to his opinion 
on such a subject. Previous to the erection of 
the Rutland Arms, which was commenced a few 
months after the battle of Waterloo, the Ram 
Inn, its predecessor, took its name from an inci- 
dent connected with the strange, eventful history 
of the eccentric Earl of Orford, about whom so 
many queer tales were told. It is well known that 
on one occasion Lord Orford drove his favourite 
team, consisting of four stags, from Houghton 
Hal], his country seat in Norfolk (after which, by 
the way, the Houghton meeting is called), into 
Newmarket, a distance of about twenty-nine milea 
When he was approaching his destination, the 
Essex Hounds chanced to cross the road along 



THE RAM INN. 27 

which he had passed just before, and catching 
up the burning scent of the four stags, they im- 
mediately gave chase. As they drew near to the 
vehicle, their loud notes, or what fox-hunters call 
" their music," alarmed the stags, which galloped 
at full speed into the little town, and dashed into 
the wide-open portals of the inn which stood on 
the site subsequently occupied by The Ram. The 
doors were immediately closed, and the lives of the 
stags saved from their eager pursuers. This occur- 
rence happened about the middle of last century, 
and was the cause of the name, " Ram Inn," being 
bestowed upon this noted hostelry and posting- 
house. In 1775, it was kept by a Mr Barber, who 
hailed from the Bull Inn at Barton Mills — the last 
stage on approaching Newmarket from the Suffolk 
side, and close to which Sir Charles Bunbury's 
seat. Barton Park, was situated. Many famous 
race - horses were bred there by the Baronet in 
question, who lived to be the senior member of 
the Jockey Club, and Father of the British Turf 
Sir Charles Bunbury, who was an excellent sports- 
man, died in 1820, and owned in his time some 
famous horses, such as Bellario, Eleanor (winner of 
the Derby and Oaks), and Smolensko, the winner 
of the Two Thousand, the Newmarket stakes, and 
Derby. I have often heard Admiral Rous recount 
that the first race for the Two Thousand ever seen 
by him was that won by Smolensko, in 1 8 1 3. It 
is a thrice -told tale that, after the Derby, Sir 



28 NEWMARKET EARLY IN THE CENTUKY. 

Charles gave Goodisson three ten-pound notes for 
winning the three races; remarking to him that 
he could not afford more because Brograve, a 
celebrated bookmaker of that day, had committed 
suicide, from inability to meet his Derby losses, 
including a large sum due to Sir Charles. 

Mr Barber was succeeded, in 1778, by Mr Daniel 
Potter, who reigned for many years, and did not 
die until 1813, after which date his widow con- 
tinued the hotel until 1828, when Mr Ratcliffe 
took it. It was in the hands of Mr Daniel Potter 
and his widow for thirty-five years. Mr Potter 
was an extremely stout man, and in his day 
there resided at Newmarket a man of the name of 
liobert Bones, who was very tall, and as thin as 
a rail. These two notabilities were talking to- 
gether at the entrance to the Rutland Arms, 
immediately opposite to the shop of Mr Rogers, 
the stationer and printer, who was also a clever 
sketcher. With a few skilful touches of his pencil, 
Mr Rogers took the portraits of these two eccentric 
individuals, and a few hours afterwards placed 
the sketch in his shop -window, with the words 
" Flesh and Bones " inscribed beneath. I re- 
member hearing my father say that for a short 
time this caricature afforded intense amusement 
to passers-by. 

My gi'andfather resided in a house, which he 
built for himself, on Mill Hill, Newmarket. Close 
to his house stood the residence and stables of 



NEWMARKET WORTHIES. 29 

" old Mr Prince." After my grandfather's death, 
his house was occupied for many years by James 
Robinson, and then by Frank Butler, two of the 
very finest jockeys that I ever saw. The work- 
shops and business premises occupied by my grand- 
father were, on his decease, taken by Mr John 
Clark, the father of the present much-respected 
ex-judge. They remained in the hands of the 
elder Mr Clark and his sons for many years. It 
is not generally known that, despite my lifelong 
connection with Newmarket and Goodwood, my 
great-grandfather was a native of Wantage, in 
Berkshire, where some of the best training-grounds 
for race -horses that England contains may not 
improbably have given him a taste for racing. 
Anyhow, it is certain that his son, my grandfather, 
took up his abode at Newmarket, and was greatly 
interested in racing for many years. I find that 
"Mr Kent of Newmarket, Cambridgeshire," was 
a subscriber to the * Racing Calendar' in 1775, 
and has continued, with slight intermission, since. 
It will thus be seen that the surname by which I 
am known was borne by people associated more 
or less with horse-racing for a hundred and seven- 
teen years. In my father's lifetime, no less than 
in my own, a vast number of changes have occurred 
in the noble sport, which is now more popular than 
ever among Englishmen, and, I must add, among 
Englishwomen ; nor can I be blind to the fact 
that to the influence of the latter such "drawing- 



30 NEWMARKET EARLY IX THE CENTURY. 

room meetings" as Kempton Park and Sandown 
Park are undoubtedly due. Some of these changes 
are, of course, unpalatable to an old man like 
myself, especially those identified with the short 
courees, which are now all the vogue. Upon this 
oft-debated subject 1 have no intention of entering 
with wearisome iteration at the present moment. 

As I have previously stated, my grandfather 
lived in a house built by himself on Mill HilL 
This house was within a few feet of that occupied 
by the grandfather of Mr Richaixi Prince. The 
latter trained for the fourth Duke of Portland, and 
for many other distinguished noblemen, and was 
one of the most upright men of his class that New- 
market ever contained. " Old Mr Prince " and 
his wife took a gi^eat liking to my father when he 
was a little child, and insisted upon having him 
over to their house as often as possible. In fact, 
he was adopted at a very early age by her and her 
husband, despite their own large family. Mr Prince 
himself was of Irish extraction, and was buried by 
torchlight, which at the time made a great sensa- 
tion at Newmarket. My father was carried when 
a child to see this funeral by S. Wright, my grand- 
father's foreman, who, to distinguish him from 
another man of the same name, was called " slab 
Wright," being a bricklayer by trade. Mr Prince 
was succeeded by his son, whose mother kept house 
for him until his own death. All this time my 
father continued to reside under her kindly roof, 



RICHARD PRINCE. 31 

and upon her death she confided him to her son, 
and gave him a beautiful cane as a " souvenir " of 
herself The cane in question has a fine ivory 
knob, and was preserved by my father with the 
greatest care, and on his death was bequeathed 
by him to me. It is now in my possession ; and 
whenever I look upon it, my thoughts fly back to 
many precious memories of the past, which would 
otherwise escape my attention. I have ventured 
to reproduce some of them here. 

The younger Prince, to whom my father was 
intrusted by Mrs Prince, his mother, had the kind 
heart of an Irishman, and was exceedingly good to 
the boy under his charge, sending him to school, 
and treating him in every respect as well as his 
own sons. As my father was a light-weight, and 
a good natural horseman, he was selected by Mr 
Prince to ride in many of the stable trials, and 
soon gained some reputation for his skill in manag- 
ing dangerous and difficult horses. On one occa- 
sion a horse trained by Mr Prince, and looked after 
by my father, who invariably rode him at exercise, 
was sent to Black Hambleton, in Yorkshire, to be 
trained for some North Country engagement. Mr 
Prince could not spare my father, and consequently 
the horse, on arriving at his destination, soon be- 
came so riotous and violent that none of the York- 
shire boys could master or control him. Accord- 
ingly, my father was despatched to Black Hamble- 
ton to ride the horse back to Newmarket, which he 



32 NEWMARKET EARLY IX THE CEyTURY. 

effected, after encountering all sorts of difficulties 
and dangers, as the roads were veiy bad, and 
skirted by open ditches, into some of which the 
refractory animal would leap, seriously jeopardising 
his own limbs and life, and also those of my &ther. 
During the fii^st four or five days he had, as may 
1x3 imagined, a very uncomfortable time of it ; but 
after that the horse acknowledged his own defeat, 
on finding that he had a hoi'seman on his back 
whom he could neither frighten nor unship. 

At school my father was a gi^eat friend of Frank 
Baker, a fellow-pupil and contemporary, whe sub- 
sequently trained for George, Prince of Wales, 
afterwards George IV., and was an intelligent and 
well-informed man, devoting many hours daily to 
study, by which means he amassed a great stock 
of general information apart from horse -racing. 
Baker was a verv steady and economical trainer, 
and also a great favourite with the boys and em- 
ployees in his stable. For the Prince he was very 
successful, and by care, hard work, and thrift 
acquired a small competency. His house and 
premises adjoined thovse of James Edwards, who 
trained for Lord Jersey, Sir John Shelley, and 
many other notable patrons of the Turf. Baker 
owned the house in which he lived, and in it he 
passed his declining years, altogether secluded 
fix)m company. At school the friendship between 
my father and Baker was very great, and it con- 
tinued until my father left Newmarket in 1823, to 



MR prince's stable. 33 

accept the position of private trainer to the fifth 
Duke of Richmond, at Groodwood. 

Mr Prince soon adopted the habit of intrusting 
the entire management of his stable and paddocks 
to my father, who took the greatest interest in his 
work, and was always a very conscientious and faith- 
ful servant to his employers. He was constantly 
sent away from Newmarket in charge of horses 
which had to run for provincial engagements far 
away from headquarters. Among the distin- 
guished patrons of the Turf for whom Mr Prince 
then trained were included Lord Foley, the Right 
Honble. Charles James Fox, Sir Frank Standish, 
Sir Sitwell Sitwell, and many lesser luminaries. 
Lord Foley and Mr Fox were racing confederates, 
and their success during the early years of their 
connection with Mr Prince's stable was pheno- 
menally great. It was a very heavy betting 
stable about that time, and in the opinion of many 
observant judges the ^rst impulse towards reck- 
less speculation was administered to the Turf by 
Lord Foley, who in the end was so hard hit by 
gambling that his noble estate, Witley Court in 
Worcestershire, had to be sold for nearly a million 
sterling to the grandfather of the present Lord 
Dudley. While the success of these two confed- 
erates was at its height, their horses were always 
great favourites, a fact which led, in one instance, 
to that well-known and most disgraceful transac- 
tion with which Dan Dawson (an ill-omened name) 

c 



34 NEWMARKET EABLY IN THE CENTCEY. 

became notoriouely identified. My father used 
to relate that in the Newmarket Spring Meetings 
of 1811 some horses in Mr Prince's stable were 
very heavily engaged, some of them in races 
upon which the betting was pretty sure to be 
heavy, A design was therefore formed by some 
unprincipled scoundrels, who hired Dawson and 
another tout to administer poison to those of Mr 
Prince's horses which were daily out at exei-cise 
and doing strong work. With this flagitious 
purpose in view, arrangements were made by 
Dawson and his accomplice to put arsenic into 
the drinking-troughs close to what is still called 
" Well Gap," half-way down " The Ditch," These 
troughs were Mr Prince's private property, and 
were covered over with wooden coverings, which 
were carefully locked up at both ends. It was 
at that time the custom for trainers to water 
their horses aftei' doing a strong gallop, especially 
if the morning was hot. Every trainer, therefore, 
had his own troughs, which were scattered about 
at various places to suit their owners' convenience. 
As arsenic, unless chemically prepared, will not 
mix with water, Dan Dawson took into his con- 
fidence an old chemist named Cecil Bishop, and con- 
sulted him as to the best way of rendering arsenic 
soluble in water. Although Dawson was one of 
those " ne'er-do-weels " who pass their lives in the 
useless and disreputable occupation of watching 
horses, he had received a good education, and 



POISONING RACE-HORSES. 35 

might have turned his hand to better things. 
Apparently his object was not to kill the horses 
which drank at the poisoned trough, but to in- 
capacitate them from winning a race for several 
days after. In some mysterious way a warning 
was conveyed to Mr Prince, cautioning him against 
watering his horses at a particular trough. For 
a time he acted upon this advice, and Dan Dawson, 
who for obvious reasons carefully abstained from 
being seen near the trough, came to the conclusion 
that Cecil Bishop had made a mistake, and that 
enough arsenic had not been mixed with the water, 
seeing that Mr Prince's horses continued to go in 
their usual form. He proceeded, therefore, in the 
middle of the night to inject a stronger dose of 
arsenic through a tube which he inserted under 
the lid. This tube was stuck into the neck of a 
bottle full of a strong solution of arsenic. It was 
subsequently discovered that one quart of the 
water thus impregnated by this unprincipled 
scoundrel was more than sufficient to kill the 
strongest horse. 

One morning Mr Prince's horses were out as 
usual for exercise, and when they had finished 
their gallops the weather suddenly became very 
hot and sultry. Mr Prince remarked to my father, 
who was riding by his side, " This rumour about 
the troughs being poisoned seems to me * gammon,' 
as I have heard nothing about it for a long time." 
My father replied, "Nevertheless, were I you, I 



36 NEWMARKET EARLY IN THE CENTURY. 

should pull out the plugs at the bottom of the 
troughs, and let the water run off; after which 
I should fill the troughs again with fresh water 
brought from the well." "Oh," exclaimed Mr 
Prince, "that will take too long; there is no 
danger ; so let the horses drink their fill, and I 
will be responsible for all risks." When the 
horses were brought to the troughs, their natural 
powers of scent led them at once to suspect that 
all was not right. Some of them began to snort, 
and refused to touch the water at any price ; but 
others drank a little, and were hardly able to get 
home, in consequence of the violent griping which 
immediately overtook them. On the return of 
these latter to the stable, my father, who was 
a capital "vet," although all his knowledge had 
been acquired by rule of thumb, administered a 
strong dose of castor-oil to Coelebs and Reveller, 
two horses belonging to Sir Sitwell Sitwell. 
Spaniard, Pirouette, and The Dandy, which be- 
longed to Sir Frank Standish, were usually at- 
tended, like all his other horses, by a Dr Bowles, 
of Cambridge, who was a certified physician for 
human beings, and also very clever in treating 
quadrupeds. At that time the veterinary art 
was at a very low ebb, as any one may see if 
he cares to exhume such books as * Taplin's 
Stable Directory ' and ' Lawrence On the Horse.' 
In this instance the delay which necessai'ily 
elapsed before Dr Bowles arrived from Cam- 



BACE-HOBSES POISONED. 37 

bridge proved fatal. The three above-named 
horses belonging to Sir Frank Standish died in 
great agony ; indeed I have often heard my 
father say that he had never seen a poor animal 
endure anything like the sufferings sustained by 
Spaniard, before death brought him merciful re- 
lief. He and his two stable companions were 
buried in the gravel-pit near "The Severals," 
opposite to the house in which John Robinson 
lived during his declining years. Thanks to the 
dose of castor -oil administered by my father to 
Coelebs and Reveller, both recovered, and ran in 
many races, the latter winning nine times during 
the following year. Their recovery was attri- 
buted by the ignorant to the effects of some 
vinegar administered to them by a man calling 
himself a veterinary surgeon ; but, in reality, 
they were saved by my father's prompt action 
in drenching them without a moment's delay with 
castor-oil. 

It was upon Wednesday, May 1, 1811, that 
the horses drank poison at the troughs, and next 
day a notice in very big letters was posted all 
over the town. It ran as follows : — 

"Newmarket, May 2, 1811. 

" TJITHEEEAS several race-horses, under the care of Mr 
** Eichard Prince, training groom, that drank out of 
a trough on the Heath near the ' Well Gap ' on Wednesday 
morning, were soon after taken ill, one o| which is since 
dead, and many remain in a dangerous state ; 



38 XEWKARKET EARLY IN THE CENTUEY. 

" And it having been found, on investigation, that a pre- 
paration of arsenic had been infused in the water of two 
other trouglis on the Heath, where the racers usually drink : 

" This is to give notice that Whoever will discover the 
person, or persons, who put the arsenic or other poison into 
any of the aforesaid troughs, so that he, she, or they may 
l>e brought to Justice, shall, upon conviction, receive 

A REWARD OF 
FIVE HUNDRED GUINEAS. 

" And furthermore, whoever shall discover any person, or 
\)^rHfmH, who instigated or abetted the above offenders, or 
shall reveal any circumstances which may lead to the ap- 
prehension and conviction of any of the parties concerned 
in this nefarious transaction, shall be liberally rewarded by 

applying to 

MR WEATHERBY 

AT NEWMARKET." 

A few days later the other three horses died, 
and the excitement became intense. Suspicion 
ultimately settled upon Dan Dawson, who for 
some weeks previously had lodged at the "Five 
Bells," kept by Mrs Tilbrook, on the opposite 
side of the Mill Hill to that on which Mr Prince's 
house stood. Dawson had often been seen by 
my father walking across the Mill Hill towards 
Mr Prince's house, with his head down and a 
muffler round the lower part of his face, as though 
he desired to escape observation or recognition. 
On many occasions my father remarked to Mr 
Prince, as he pointed out Dan Dawson to him, 
" I cannot imagine who that fellow is ; he comes 



CAPTURE OF DAN DAWSON. 39 

across the hill almost every morning, and passes 
our house about the time when the horses go out 
to exercise, at a very early hour. He carries his 
head as though he were ashamed to have his face 
seen." 

As soon as the horses were taken ill, Dan 
Dawson left the '' Five Bells." The First Spring 
Meeting of 1811 was then near its close, and 
several months were yet to elapse before the sus- 
pected culprit was arrested at Cambridge, on 
August 12, 1812. Into the details of his trial 
and death sentence I shall not enter, beyond 
saying that it seems incredible in these days that 
a man should be hanged for such an offence. One 
justification of the sentence being carried out in 
its full severity was said to be, that although 
horses were the only sufferers, it was obvious that 
human beings might with equal facility have been 
poisoned, because in the summer months the lads 
on the backs of the horses frequently drank at 
the same troughs. Mrs Tilbrook of the " Five 
Bells," being, like most of her sex, of an inquisitive 
disposition, had examined Dan Dawson's luggage, 
which he kept under his bed at her house. She 
soon discovered a bottfc marked " poison " in one 
of his trunks ; and in the neck of this bottle there 
was a flaw which made it easy of identification. 
The bottle was afterwards found in Dan Dawson's 
possession, and was shown to Mrs Tilbrook, who 
stated, " If it be the same bottle I found under his 



40 NEWMARKET EARLY IN THE CfENTURY. 

bed, there is a * delve ' in it into which I can put my 
thumb." This evidence led to Dawson's conviction 
and public execution at Cambridge, in presence of 
from twelve to fifteen thousand persons. 

If I am censured by some impatient readers for 
entering at this length into a transaction with 
which many are familiar, I can but plead that the 
details given are generally inaccurate, and that 
my father was intimately connected with the dis- 
covery of this dastardly crime, and was never 
tired, in my youth, of talking about it. I remem- 
ber that it was his habit to impress upon me most 
forcibly, what I afterwards learned from my own 
experience, that it was impossible to exercise too 
much vigilance as to the water supplied to horses 
away from home. This caution was not forgotten 
by me when I had Surplice at Epsom, just before 
theDerby of 1848. 

I remarked at the beginning of this chapter 
that it would have been enough for me to state 
that I was the son of a trainer, and born at New- 
market, in explanation of the fact that I myself 
followed my father s profession. This, however, 
was not my father's desire. He would infinitely 
have preferred that I should have studied cheril- 
istry at the laboratory of a relative of his and 
mine, at Stratford, in Essex. The firm in ques- 
tion was that of Messrs Howard, Gibson, & Kent. 
I was placed under their care for a short time; 
but soon after, my father became a widower, and 



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FRANK BAKER, 41 

was constantly absent fi'om home at the race 
meetings where his horses had engagements. He 
found it necessary, therefore, to call in my assist- 
ance to do what I could towards managing the 
vast stud under his care ; and most assiduous he 
was in teaching me the art of training race-horses. 
He carefuUy explained to me the various systems 
of training adopted by diflferent professors of that 
art. As regards Mr Prince, my father regarded 
him as too severe with horses of delicate constitu- 
tions; whereas Mr Boyce, though a most carefiil 
and honest man, seemed to my father to be occa- 
sionally too indulgent in dealing with some of his 
horses. When my father left Mr Prince's stable, 
and transferred himself as head-lad to that of Mr 
R. D. Boyce, he remained with the latter for 
many years. At last, in 1823, he was recom- 
mended to the fifth Duke of Richmond, by the 
Earl of Stradbroke, as fit to take command of the 
large Goodwood stable. He remained at Good- 
wood until his death in 1869, when he was 
eighty -six years old. The Duke of Richmond 
kindly permitted him to occupy until his death 
the house and garden at Goodwood, in both of 
which he took the greatest delight. 

Mr Baker, who, as I have said, trained for the 
Prince Regent, continued to be very intimate with 
my father from their school-days downwards until 
my father left Newmarket for good. Their tastes 
and habits were singularly harmonious, and nothing 



42 NEWMARKET EARLY IX THE CENTURY. 

pleased them more than to dabble in ^uo^i-scientific 
studies. During their youth this country was 
continuaDy at war with France, and a semaphore, 
or signal -post, was erected on the top of the Bury 
Hill, the highest elevation in the neighbourhood of 
Newmarket. They were never tired of watching 
the signals conveyed fix)m Yarmouth by this sema- 
phore to the Admiralty in London, and back thence 
to the sea -coast. With a curiosity which was 
natural under the circimtistances, they endeavoured, 
by constant observation, to read the messages 
which passed backwards and forwards, and thus 
to acquaint themselves with the tidings received 
from the seat of war on the Continent. In those 
primitive days newspapers were not received in 
country places for many days after the arrival of 
a report which told of the loss or gain of a great 
battle. Everything connected with the war per- 
colated through the Admiralty, to which the com- 
manders of the different vessels engaged as carriers 
of news naturally sent their reports, by semaphore 
or by road. After many weeks of close watching, 
my father and Mr Baker got to imderstand the 
working of the semaphore sufficiently to write 
some of the messages down on paper. Unfortun- 
ately one day they dropped a paper on which they 
had written one of these messages. It was picked 
up on the Bury Hill, and carried by its finder 
to Mr Hylet, who was the official in charge of 
the semaphore, and was therefore deemed likely 



READING THE SEMAPHORE. 43 

to take interest in a paper which was supposed 
to be his property. Naturally Mr Hylet was 
greatly siu^rised at the accuracy with which the 
message had been spelt out, and at the intelligent 
Comprehension of the principle on which the sema- . 
phore was worked displayed by the document. 
It was therefore forwarded to the Head Office in 
London, and a complete change in signalling was 
immediately adopted. The two students were at 
first very much puzzled by the new signals, but 
were not long in discovering their meaning. The 
first message which they were able to read cor- 
rectly after this occuiTence, conveyed the following 
words : "A complete revolution in Holland " ! 
Their persistency in observing and deciphering the 
signals was another instance of the truth of Lord 
Greorge Bentinck s remark, to which I have so 
often heard him give utterance, that "you can 
accomplish anything if you will only try hard 
enough " ! I doubt whether in those ignorant days 
there was any other watcher of the signals ex- 
changed from semaphore to semaphore, all over 
these islands, who succeeded in accomplishing a 
similar feat. The two allies began by mastering 
the shutter system of signalling, and thereby forced 
the Grovemment to substitute for it the workable 
arms which are still employed on board H.M.'s 
ships of war for the same purpose. 

Let me turn to another field of observation 
widely different from that to which I have just 



44 NEWMARKET EARLY IN THE CENTURY. 

alluded. I have often heard my father relate 
some of the practical jokes indulged in at New- 
market in his youth, and which were much more 
frequent than in this prosaic age. I call it 
prosaic ; for the undoubted effect of all oui* 
modem inventions and discoveries — like the 
railway, the telegraph wire, ' the telephone, and 
the electric light — is to extinguish the indivi- 
duality and quench the imagination of men, 
women, and children. It was far otherwise in 
the England of my youth. There was then re- 
siding at Newmarket a Mr Thomas Bryant, who 
was greatly addicted to jokes of this kind. When, 
for instance, William Amull, the well - known 
jockey, was sent for on one occasion to the north 
to ride some trials for the Hon. Edward Petre, 
who was a very liberal gentleman, he returned 
verv much richer than he was when he started. 
Among the presents which, in addition to money, 
Mr Petre promised to send to " old Bill Amull," 
was included a big hamper of wine. On his return 
home. Bill could not help boasting to some of his 
friends about the hamper that was coming. Mr 
Bryant, hearing the news, thought it an excellent 
opportunity to play off an amusing joke at Bill 
ArnuU's expense. Accordingly he made overtures 
to a dwarf, called " Little Peter," who was then 
well known at Newmarket, requesting that he 
would allow himself to be packed into a hamper, 
which was to be despatched to Bill ArnuU's house. 



BILL ARNULL. 45 

The latter's engagements and occupations in riding 
trials on the Heath were carefully ascertained be- 
forehand by this inveterate practical joker, and the 
hamper containing " Little Peter " was conveyed 
in a luggage van to the jockey's residence. Mrs 
Amull, who expected to receive, as per promise, 
a hamper of wine, directed that the new arrival 
should be put into the cellar. When ArnuU got 
home his wife told him the gleeful tidings that 
Mr Petre s hamper had arrived, and was in the 
cellar. " I will go and see it directly," quoth the 
exultant jockey ; and down he went, followed by a 
little pet dog, who was his constant companion. 
Scarcely had the faithfiil quadruped got into the 
cellar before he became greatly excited, and barked 
furiously, running backwards and forwards round 
the hamper. Thereupon old Bill exclaimed, " Drat 
it, there must be a mouse inside ! " As he spoke 
he thrust his whip into the hamper, upon which 
the dog barked more furiously than ever. " Beggar 
my Umbs if it ain't a rat ! " ejaculated the jockey ; 
" get me a knife to cut the string, so that I may 
let it out." Suiting the action to the word, he 
uplifted the lid, and out jumped " Little Peter." 
" You young rascal ! " exclaimed the astonished 
jockey, " what brings you here ? Get out of my 
house immediately, or I will lay this whip about 
your shoulders." The dwarf, thus admonished, 
proceeded to make tracks with all expedition to 
the Horse Shoe Inn over the way, at which Mr 



46 NEWMARKET EARLY IN THE CENTURY. 

Bryant and a knot of expectant friends were 
eagerly awaiting his arrival. 

William Arnull, who was one of the greatest 
favourites ever known in the jockey-world at 
Newmarket, or elsewhere, was much afflicted with 
gout, which caused him to be of a very irritable 
temper, especially when he was wasting hard. 
One day, shortly after he had been appointed 
overseer of the poor, he was riding off the Heath 
in the company of some gentlemen who were his 
employers. His temper was in a more than or- 
dinarily crusty condition, and some of the practi- 
cal jokers, who were his habitual tormentors, saw 
that he was in a fit state to be experimented 
upon. Accordingly they assembled opposite " The 
Rooms," and told a tramp, who had been soliciting 
alms, to wait there until ''that gentleman" (at 
whom they pointed) "came by, as he was very 
kind-hearted, and, being overseer, in a position to 
give jobs to needy men." Thus encouraged, the 
poor man hobbled up to Arnull's horse's side and 
pleaded very earnestly for relief, stating that he 
had had nothing to eat for a long time. " Noth- 
ing to eat ! " exclaimed Bill ; " why, I'll bet a 
crown you have had something to eat since I 
have, or you wouldn't look as well as you do." 

Despite the practical jokes to which he was 
continually exposed, no man in Newmarket was 
more respected than Bill AmuU. With perfect 
truth it might have been said of him, as it was 



BILL ARNULL. 47 

about the same time of Frank Buckle, that "it 
would have been easier to turn the sun from his 
course than either of these famous jockeys fi'om 
the path of duty." Consequently, his services in 
the saddle were in much request by many dis- 
tinguished noblemen and gentlemen, whose colours 
he habitually wore. Whenever he heard of a 
good horse or became cognisant of the merits of 
some good performer, he would exclaim, " I wish 
he were mine ! Wouldn't I turn him into * Button 
Park ' ! " Nevertheless he did not succeed in fill- 
ing his pockets very full, although, for many years, 
no man had more riding. In addition to winning 
countless races, he was continually wanted to ride 
trials, as he was a capital judge of the noble 
animal, and always secured a good pace when 
questions were asked. In 1822, shortly before 
the Craven Meeting, Lord George Cavendish tried 
Godolphin to be a good horse. At that time 
Godolphin had no engagements, and his Lordship 
was undecided in what race to run him. The 
Craven Stakes, then a very important event, gener- 
ally gave rise to some spirited betting. Mr Boyce, 
who trained for Lord George Cavendish, advised 
his Lordship to run Godolphin in the Craven 
Stakes. With his usual caution Lord George 
interposed with the remark, "Send for AmuU, 
and let us hear what he says." Upon the great 
jockey's arrival he was asked whether he thought 
Godolphin could win the Craven? "Win, my 



48 NEWMARBLET EARLY IN THE CENTURY. 

Lord ? " exclaimed Amull ; "of course he will win, 
and easily enough too, unless a crow flies down 
his throat as he comes across the flat." Lord 
George followed his jockey's advice, and Grodol- 
phin was duly entered. His weight was eight 
stone, and, ridden by Bill Amull, he won in a 
canter, as had been prophesied by his pilot. Lord 
George won a good stake ; and to show the dif- 
ference between then and now, Mr Boyce and 
Amull stood a fiver apiece on the horae, which 
in these days fashionable jockeys would doubt- 
less magnify one-hundredfold. Vast as were the 
number of races in which " Old Bill" rode, no one 
ever dreamed of accusing him of riding dishonestly. 
Such, however, was not always the case at 
the period of which I am speaking, and the very 
mention of the word " Escape " recalls an episode 
as to which I will only add that Colonel Leigh, 
who had the management of the Prince Regent's 
stud, accused Sam Chifney of foul riding. Sam 
Chifney's son William was then a boy, but old 
enough to feel great indignation at Colonel Leigh's 
unjust aspersions. Walking up to the Colonel, 
the high-spirited boy told him to his face that 
when a little older he would have his revenge. 
Straightway he set to work to practise boxing, 
and took every opportunity of learning the pugi- 
listic art. When he had grown into a lanky 
stripling of eighteen, he waited for Colonel Leigh 
in the street at Newmarket, as he was going to 



BILL CHIFNEY. 49 

the Booms, and exclaimed on approaching him, 
"I told you I would one day have my revenge 
for your ill-treatment of my father ; and now the 
time has come." With that he struck the Colonel 
a violent blow in the face with his fist, knocking 
him down, and striking him as he lay in the road. 
But for the intervention of the bystanders it was 
thought that he would have killed the Colonel, 
who was then a stout and pursy man. The latter 
had him up for assault before the magistrates next 
day. They sent William Chifney to prison for 
six months, with hard labour ; and when he came 
out at the end of his term he ofltered " to make 
door mats for a pony " against any other inhabi- 
tant of Newmarket. Six months of hard labour 
had indeed made him an expert at picking oakum. 
Bill Chifney was at the climax of his fortunes 
when he won the Derby in 1830 with Priam, 
whom he bought as a yearling for a thousand 
guineas from Sir John Shelley. In that year the 
two brothers, Sam and Bill Chifney, lived in ad- 
joining houses at Newmarket, one of which (that 
occupied by Sam) was gi'eatly improved and 
enlarged by the eccentric Duke of Cleveland, who 
was one of Sam's employers. This circumstance 
caused great jealousy between the two Mrs Chif- 
neys, and William's wife persuaded her husband 
to build a new house so as to cut out their sister- 
in-law. She vowed that not a single old brick 
should enter into the composition of the new 

D 



50 NEWMARKET EARLY IN THE CENTURY. 

building. Pride, however, comes before a fall, and 
scarcely was the house finished before its owner 
found it unavoidably necessary to sell it at a ruin- 
ous sacrifice to Mr J. F. Clark, who afterwards 
resold it to Count Batthyany. It is now the 
residence of Mr John Dawson. 

It is not generally known that H.II.H. the 
Prince Regent was not driven away from New- 
market by the "Escape" affair, but by another 
race in which his horse Sultan was supposed to 
have been ridden foully. H.II.H. then resolved 
to sell all his horses and to retire from the Turf. 
Bill Chifoey's house became, as I have just said, 
the property of Count Batthyany, and his stables 
and paddocks at Headley (near Epsom) passed 
into the hands of " Lawyer" Ford, who afterwards 
disposed of them to my noble master Lord George 
Bentinck ; and there Gaper, Refraction, Surplice, 
Loadstone, and many other horses from the Good- 
wood stable, were located before they met their 
Epsom engagements. The inconveniences then 
experienced in getting horses from Newmarket to 
Epsom have often led me to admire the foresight 
and sagacity of Lord George Bentinck, who pre- 
dicted that railways would entirely revolutionise 
horse-racing. The youngest boy at Newmarket 
can now appreciate the accuracy of Lord George's 
prophecy. 

With one final tale, which about that time 
caused no slight amusement, let me close a chapter 



ANECDOTE OF GOODY LEVY. 51 

which is abready, I fear, too long. Three gay 
youths, belonging to a class or type which to-day 
is far more numerously represented than it was in 
my youth, chanced one rough morning to enter a 
little wayside inn near Six Mile Bottom, to get a 
drop of "something hot" to keep out the cold. 
At the fireside a harmless-looking old Jew was 
quietly seated, whose pronounced Hebrew features 
tempted the three mischievous young sprigs to 
make him their butt. " Good morning, Father 
Abraham ! " exclaimed the first. ** I hope I see 
you well?" 

" How are you, Father Isaac ? " continued the 
second, with well-counterfeited civility. 

" All hail, Father Jacob ! " reiterated the third. 
" I wonder what brings you out so far from home 
on this raw day ? " 

Rising humbly from his seat, the old Jew lifted 
his hat with much mock dignity, and replied in 
quiet tones, " Gentlemen, you do me too much 
honour by your courteous inquiries and by the 
names you have been pleased to bestow upon me. 
My real name is Saul, the son of Kish ; and I 
have been sent forth in search of my father's 
asses which he has lost. I was about to return 
despairing of finding them, when, lo and behold ! 
the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob has 
brought them into this very room; and here 
will I leave them while I go to report to my 
father." 



52 NEWMABKET EARLY IN THE CENTURY. 

With these words, and doubtless with many a 
secret chuckle, the old man tottered feebly along 
the passage and left the house. 

There is a tradition — whether resting on a 
stable foundation or on none at all, who shall say ? 
— that the hero of this story was none other 
than the celebrated " Groody Levy " of *' Running 
Rein" notoriety. He had gone down to New- 
market on a touting expedition, and had disguised 
himself as an old and infirm Jew to prevent his 
being recognised, as "The Heath,'' off which he 
had been warned, was to him forbidden ground. 



53 



CHAPTER III. 



EARLY RACING DAYS. 



Lord George Bentinck evidently took an interest 
in racing at an early age, as in 1824, when twenty- 
two years old, he rode Mr Poyntz's chestnut mare, 
Olive, for the Cocked -Hat Stakes at Goodwood, 
beating Lord George Lennox's bay gelding, 
Swindon, and three others, after running two 
dead heats with Swindon. In the third heat 
his Lordship rode without spurs, and to his great 
delight won, beating Captain Berkeley, an ex- 
cellent rider, who piloted Swindon. At that time 
Lord George Bentinck was staying with Mr Poyntz 
at Cowdray, and some ladies who were also guests 
in the house kindly undertook the task of mak- 
ing a jacket for him to ride in. How far this 
gratifying success tended to promote his par- 
tiality for Goodwood I cannot say, but after its 
occurrence he attended Goodwood races without 
intermission; was a subscriber in 1827 to the 
Cup, Stakes, and Drawing - Room Stakes ; and 
was Steward in 1837. 



54 EARLY RA.CING DAYS. 

As his father, the fourth Duke of Portland, 
took, as I have akeady said, the greatest in- 
terest and delight in breeding and racing his 
own horses. Lord George was familiarised from 
his youth upwards with the noble sport to 
which he subsequently became so attached. Al- 
though his Grace was a great supporter of 
Newmarket, and seldom engaged his horses else- 
where. Lord George, aided by his first cousin, 
Mr Charles Greville, obtained the Duke s support 
as a subscriber, in 1827, to the Stakes, Cup, 
and Drawing-Room Stakes at Groodwood, where 
H.R.H. the Duke of York was Steward the pre- 
vious year. At the same time Lord George had 
an interest in some of the horses running in Mr 
Greville's name, and was a very heavy speculator. 
Thus it is well known that he backed Mr Richard 
Watt's Belzoni and Lord Fitzwilliam's Mulatto 
for the Doncaster St Leger of 1826 for a con- 
siderable amount. The race, however, was run 
when the ground was very deep, and was won by 
Lord Scarbrough's Tarrare, so that Lord George 
lost heavily — it was reported £27,000 ; but from 
his Lordship subsequently admitting to me that 
it was "the most disastrous event of his racing 
career," I feel sure that his loss must have greatly 
exceeded that sum ; and his mother, and sister, 
Lady Charlotte Bentinck, afterwards Viscountess 
Ossington, most kindly and generously assisted 
him to meet it. It may naturally be supposed 



BEGINNING OF THE STUD. 55 

that this untoward incident could not be unknown 
to his father, who was much troubled and grieved 
about it, and expostulated most earnestly with 
his son, pointing out the consequences of such 
reckless speculation. To wean Lord George from 
such a dangerous pursuit, the Duke purchased an 
estate in Scotland for his Lordship,^ urging him 
with affectionate importunity to forswear racing 
and betting. For a few years Lord George re- 
spected his father's wishes ; but the natural in- 
stinct could not be suppressed, stimulated as it 
was by his father's stud, and by that of his cousin, 
Mr Greville (who was his senior by seven years), 
and by his own great attachment to Goodwood, and 
to his valued friend, the fifth Duke of Richmond. 
The latter took the greatest interest in the noble 
sport of horse-racing, and permitted Lord George 
to share a few horses with him. This induced 
Lord George to make several other purchases, 
running his horses in the name of the Duke of 
Richmond. These purchases were, in 1832, Kislar 
Aga and a black yearling colt by Reveller ; and 
in 1833, a chestnut filly. Chanterelle. In 1835 
his Lordship bought Pussy, Tiber, and three year- 
lings — viz., a colt by Sultan out of Gold Pin, a 
colt by Sir Benjamin Backbite, and Wimple, a 



^ The estate in question was at Muirkirk, in Ayrshire. On the 
death of Lord George Bentinck, his brother, Lord Henry, succeeded 
to it, and sold it some years later to Mr James Baird of Cambusdoon, 
whose nephew, Mr John Baird, now holds it. 



56 EARLY RACING DAYS. 

filly by The Colonel. In 1836 and 1837 there 
were added Zipporah, Frontignac, Ch&teau La- 
fitte, Hooghly, and Guava. In 1838 the stud 
was augmented by The Currier, Tamburini, and 
others, all running in the name of the Duke of 
Richmond. Lord George also had horses running 
in the names of Lord Orford, Mr Greville, and 
Lord Lichfield — Ascot and Bodice, for instance, 
running in Lord Orford's name ; Preserve, Dacre, 
and Elis in Mr Greville's; and Elis, Arbaces, 
Ascot, El Pastor, with others, in Lord Lichfield's. 
It was not to be expected that so many differ- 
ent interests could be reconciled for any gi'eat 
length of time without some conflict of opinion 
arising, and accordingly the two keenest specu- 
lators. Lord George and Mr Greville, soon came 
into collision. Their differences became so great 
that all efforts on the part of their most intimate 
friends to compose them were of no avail — the 
result being that the horses in Mr Greville's name 
were removed to other stables, whilst Elis, with 
others, was intrusted to John Doe, Lord Lich- 
field's trainer. Preserve joined Lord George's 
stud at Doncaster, where his brood mares were 
under the charge of Mr Bowe, who kept the Turf 
Tavern, and in whose name his Lordship subse- 
quently ran most of his horses. 

This Mr John Bowe was at that time ostensibly 
landlord of the Turf Tavern at Doncaster, but the 
real lessee was Mr Samuel King, whose daughter 



BENTIXCK STUD AT DAyEBUKY. 57 

Mr Bowe had married. Lord Greorge Bentinck ran 
some of his horses in the name of Mr King, but 
the latter was a trainer who, among other horses, 
prepared Tarrare — ^the property of the Earl of 
Scarbrough — for the Doncaster St Leger of 1826, 
which Tarrare won. Mr King therefore thought 
it would expose him to invidious comments if he 
appeared as nominator of mysterious hoi*ses of 
which he was not the trainer, and with which he 
had no intelligible connection. Under these cii'- 
cumstances he begged Lord Greorge to find some 
other nominator for his entries, and in this way 
the services of Mr John Bowe were secured for 
that purpose. In reality, Lord George would have 
preferred to use Mr King s name, as he was very 
energetic and skilful in managing Lord George's 
paddocks and brood mares at Doncaster, and Lord 
Greorge knew him well and trusted him thoroughly. 
The Duke of Richmond did not approve of hav- 
ing any more of his Lordship's horses at Goodwood 
to run in his Grace's name, although it was his 
Lordship's wish to have all his stud there. In 
consequence, therefore, of this objection on the part 
of his Grace, Lord George established a stud at 
Danebury, where he expended a large sum in 
building stables, forming paddocks, making roads 
and plantations, and double-turfing the gallops ; 
in fact, it was rumoured that his Lordship expended 
£1500 for bone-dust alone. At that time John 
Barham Day, familiarly known as " Honest John," 



58 EARLY RACING DAYS. 

was at the head of the Danebuiy stables, and he 
had long been the Duke of Portland's favourite 
jockey. 

As previously stated, his Lordship entertained a 
great predilection for Goodwood from its privacy, 
excellent downs, elastic turf, and glorious expanse 
of ground, affording superb gallops at all seasons 
of the year and under all vicissitudes of weather, 
and it was greatly against his will that it became 
necessary for him to go elsewhere. 

Being favourably impressed with my father's 
training and stable-management, more especially 
when Mr Kent's (in reality the Earl of Uxbridge's) 
Rubini won the Groodwood Cup in 1833, beating 
Mr Greville's (Lord George's) Whale, and again 
when the Duke of Richmond's Elizondo won the 
Port Stakes at Newmarket, beating Sylvan and 
Bodice, Lord George told my father that these 
horses had won solely by reason of the condition 
in which he brought them to the post. His Lord- 
ship lost heavily upon each race, but he did not 
omit to tell his friends, including the Duke of 
Richmond, that it was ** all owing to Kent's train- 
mg. 

In 1834 his Lordship bought Venison as a year- 
ling, and as he hoped soon to have all his horses ' 
at Goodwood, Venison was entered for the Derby 
in the Duke of Richmond's name. Owing, how- 
ever, to his Grace's subsequent objection. Venison 
was sent to John Day's at Danebury to be trained. 



VAEIED FORTUNES. 59 

When two years old he ran for the Lavant Stakes 
at Goodwood in John Day's name, and was beaten. 
Grondolier, who had been at Goodwood a year or 
two previously in the Duke of Richmond's name, 
was sent, after having been in Prince's stable as 
Mr Greville's property, to John Day's, in whose 
name he ran in 1835. These two horses were all 
that ran in John Day's name that year ; El Pastor, 
Preserve, Dacre, Marmalade, and Elis ran in Mr 
Greville's till that unfortunate difference occurred, 
when Elis and El Pastor joined Gab, Arbaces, 
Ethiopian, and Ascot at John Doe's, nominally 
as Lord Lichfield's property, in whose name they 
ran for their engagements. Although Lord George 
lost heavily upon Preserve for the Oaks, he had 
already been successful with her in winning the 
One Thousand at Newmarket, to which were sub- 
sequently added the Drawing-Room Stakes and 
the Verulam Stakes at Goodwood. With Elis 
his Lordship won the Chesterfield, Clearwell, 
Criterion, and a sweepstakes at Newmarket, and 
the Molecomb Stakes at Goodwood. Although 
at that time his Lordship betted heavily and 
lost considerably upon Preserve when Queen of 
Trumps beat her for the Oaks, and when Glaucus 
beat her for the Goodwood Stakes, he won a big 
stake upon Queen of Trumps when she won the 
St Leger, owing to the great ease with which 
she defeated Preserve in the Oaks ; prior to which 
Mr Greville, in giving Nat his orders, told him to 



60 EAKLY RACING DAYS. 

*'come away at Tattenham Comer, but not to 
spread-eagle them too far ! " John Blenkhom, 
trainer of the Queen, happened to hear this, and 
instructed Tommy Lye to " spread-eagle the others 
as far as he could," with the result that such a 
taiUng race has seldom been seen since ! 

In 1836 his Lordship entered more fully than 
ever into the spirit of racing, and increased the 
number of his horses. Elis was beaten for the 
Two Thousand Guineas by Bay Middleton, much 
to his Lordship's disappointment, as he backed him 
for a considerable amount, after trying him with 
the Duke of Richmond's Pussy (winner of the 
Oaks in 1834) and with others, whom he beat so 
easily that we all thought his defeat impossible. 
Bay Middleton, however, defeated him in such 
style that Lord George never ceased to back Lord 
Jersey's splendid colt for the Derby of 1836 ; and 
after seeing him saddled and cantered, his Lord- 
ship rode up to the ring, which was then formed 
on the hill near the mile-post, and took £2000 to 
£1000 three times about Bay Middleton, thereby 
landing a good stake, although he had Venison 
running, whom he had also backed. 

Encouraged by his success in backing Bay 
Middleton for the Derby and in owning Elis, of 
whom, although he admitted his inferiority to Bay 
Middleton, he entertained a very high opinion, 
and remembering that Venison had evinced good 
form by winning the Gloucestershire Stakes and 



FIRST IDEA OF VANS. 61 

Cup at Cheltenham, his Lordship exercised his 
active and ingenious mind in giving effect to an 
idea that race-horses might be conveyed in a sort 
of van which would preserve them from the risk 
and fatigue, to say nothing of the delays, in- 
separable from travelling on foot from place to 
place. This idea he expounded to my father, 
who thought there would not be much difficulty 
in accomplishing it, as he remembered a horse 
called Sovereign, belonging to Mr Terrett, having 
been conveyed in a buUock-van from Worcester- 
shire to Newmarket. As there was a similar van 
upon the Goodwood estate, his Lordship inspected 
it with my father, who was so convinced that the 
principle could be adopted for the conveyance of 
race-horses, that he at once used every means in 
his power to give effect to his master s wishes. 
My father judged that if a valuable horse could 
be moved from the south to the north of Eng- 
land so as to run well in the St Leger, the method 
would at once be established and adopted. Hav- 
ing Elis engaged in the St Leger, Lord George 
thought it a good opportunity to make trial of 
this plan. Accordingly he employed Mr Herring, 
a coachbuilder in Long Acre, to construct a van 
capable of holding two horses. Mr Herring was 
kept in the dark as to the object with which the 
van was being built, and few were allowed to 
know of its construction. As it progressed, its 
successful adaptation to the purpose for which 



62 EARLY RACING DAYS. 

it was built was confidently anticipated, although 
it was a heavy cumbrous vehicle, with the wheels 
running under it, an arrangement which elevated 
the body so high that it was not easy to get the 
horses inside. This difficulty was surmounted by 
raising or banking up the surface of the ground 
into a sloping approach. In order to ensure 
success, Lord George sent Elis to Goodwood to 
be prepared upon its splendid gallops, and to run 
in the interim for his Goodwood engagements, 
and for another at Lewes. The horse was under 
the care of John Doe, who was also in charge 
of Ascot, Arbaces, and Toss Up. Elis won the 
Drawing-ExDom Stakes at Goodwood, and in re- 
ward for his victory Lord George presented my 
father with £25 for the following reason. The 
day previous to the race Elis had a severe attack 
of gripes, and Lord George thought all chance of 
his being able to run was at an end. Even afber 
the horse's recovery, thanks to remedies suggested 
by my father. Lord George feared that the effects 
of the medicine would weaken Elis and prevent 
his winning ; but my father assured his Lordship 
to the contrary. After Elis had won the Drawing- 
Room Stakes, his Lordship's hopes that he would 
also win the Goodwood Cup began to revive. He 
had backed the horse heavily for the Cup, which 
was run two days after the Drawing-ExDom Stakes ; 
but it was hardly to be expected that a three- 
year-old should beat such a four - year - old as 



ELIS. 63 

Hornsea at 15 lb. over a distance of two miles 
and a half. Nevertheless, Elis ran a great horse, 
and for a time appeared likely to win ; but at 
last the distance and the disadvantage in weight 
told upon him, and he finished a good second to 
Hornsea. Notwithstanding this race, Elis was 
pulled out for a second time on the same day — 
to run for the Racing Stakes — which he won easily, 
beating the Drummer and Taglioni, with odds of 
10 to 1 laid on him. 

A fortnight later Elis won the Lewes Stakes at 
Lewes over a mile and a half, giving 2 1 lb. to Lord 
Egremont's Hock, and beating seven others, in- 
cluding Rockingham. This was a great perfor- 
mance, and Lord George's hopes of winning the 
Doncaster St Leger with him were raised higher 
than ever. As the horse continued to take his 
gallops at Goodwood with The Drummer to lead 
him, assisted by Pussy and Tiber, it was the 
general impression that after four races (three at 
Goodwood and one at Lewes) Elis would never 
see Doncaster. Fortunately he possessed a strong 
constitution, like his grandsire Selim. Both were 
ravenous feeders, but Elis differed in one respect 
from Selim, whom, from his restive and violent 
behaviour in the box, it was difficult, and even 
dangerous, to approach with a feed of corn. Elis, 
on the contrary, was very quiet both in and out 
of the stable. Some time after the race at Lewes, 
Venison was sent to Goodwood to try Elis, who 



64 EARLY RACING DAYS. 

gave him 7 lb. and 21 lb. to The Drummer, beat- 
ing both over the St Leger distance. This was 
most encouraging to Lord George, who was greatly 
excited, and more than ever anxious to have his 
wonderful new van completed. As John Doe was 
obliged to return home to Newmarket for a short 
time, my father took temporary charge of the 
horse, and had many communications made to 
him by Lord Greorge on the subject of the van. 
My father's interest in it was naturally as great 
as that of his Lordship, and he assisted John Doe 
in every possible way to prepare Elis for the race, 
and to make him handy for entering the van. At 
last the day arrived for the machine to reach 
Groodwood, and preparations were made for pack- 
ing Elis and The Drummer into it side by side, 
and despatching them to Doncaster. Lord Greorge, 
who had been a frequent visitor to Groodwood 
while Elis was there, and who posted down from 
London or from Andover to see his favourite, was 
on the spot when the van arrived. He inspected 
it inside and out with the greatest care, and was 
vastly pleased with the result of the examination. 
Next he proceeded to inquire with characteristic 
thoroughness what the two horses would require 
on the road, and gave orders that until the St 
Leger was over Elis should eat no corn or hay 
except what was drawn from my father's granary 
at Goodwood. Even the sieve out of which the 
horse was fed was to be taken from Groodwood. 



J.: 



FIRST TRIAL OP THE VAN. 65 

As I have already stated, the body of the van 
was lifted high above the ground, on account of 
the construction of the wheels — being built, in fact, 
on the same lines as the old gipsy -vans. It there- 
fore became necessary to back it against a bank 
which formed a boundary of old Goodwood Park, 
and stood opposite the kennels. In this way 
entrance into the van was made easy for the two 
horses ; and the platform or gangway being covered 
with straw litter, the horses entered without hesi- 
tation, especially Elis, who was a very docile and 
tractable animal. All being prepared, the six 
post-horses were attached to the vehicle, and Mr 
John Doe mounted the box. After this fashion 
was the great tentative experiment initiated, and 
the start effected, greatly to the delight and 
astonishment of all who had witnessed the prepara- 
tions by which the first specially constructed race- 
horse van on record was brought into active 
requisition. 

Nor were the curiosity and wonder less as it 
proceeded on its way, the greatest surprise and 
interest being excited by it in every village and 
town through which it passed. Some of the spec- 
tators asserted that a wild beast of extraordinary 
ferocity was locked up inside ; others that a 
notorious criminal was being sent from jaU to be 
tried at the assizes. Pedestrians stopped and eyed 
it with amazement. The coachmen and passengers 
of the various coaches were astounded at seeing 

£ 



66 EABLY RACING DAYS. 

six post-horses attached to such an uncommon and 
strange-looking machine. At some of the towns 
through which it passed three pairs of horses could 
not be obtained ; at others it was thought advisable 
to have but two pairs. The distance from Good- 
wood to Doncaster (about 250 miles) was divided 
into three sections of about eighty miles per diem. 
At the end of the second day, which was a Satur- 
day, Elis and The Drummer were taken out of the 
van, and galloped on the following morning on Lich- 
field race-course ; and on Monday morning they 
proceeded on their way to Doncaster, where they 
arrived in the evening (two days before the St 
Leger), to the undisguised amazement of thousands 
of beholders. 

As it required some time to complete the neces- 
sary preparations for unvanning the two horses, a 
multitude assembled at the Turf Tavern to witness 
the disembarkation of the mysterious favourite, 
Elis, who a few days previously was supposed to 
be still at Goodwood, and not likely to put in an 
appearance at Doncaster. When Elis was landed 
upon terra firma he shook himself vigorously, and 
walked unconcernedly into his stable. At the 
betting-rooms in the evening all sorts of conjectures 
were rife, and the odds fluctuated a good deal. 
In the morning Elis was taken out upon the race- 
course accompanied by The Drummer, and the two 
went a good gallop. The rapid strides and healthy 
appearance of the Goodwood favourite so satisfied 



*ji 



OTHER VANS. 67 

all who saw him that it was generally remarked, 
" Although he came into Doncaster in the rear of 
six horses, he will leave twice that number to 
inspect his tail in the great race/' 

The van, although cumbrous and heavy, was a 
commodious vehicle, and completely fitted inter- 
nally with padded sides. Moreover, the horses 
stood upon a hard-stufied mattress, so that their 
knees might not be broken if they fell down. 
There was also a manger for each, and every other 
convenience ; so much so, indeed, that the machine 
resembled a movable stable. 

As this enterprise proved beyond expectation 
successful, Mr Herring was instructed by Lord 
George to build another van upon an improved 
principle — in short, a less cumbersome and pon- 
derous conveyance. A hind platform was attached, 
which could be let down, so that the ascent might 
be made less steep. A door was also added in 
fix)nt, to obviate the necessity of turning the 
horses round or backing them when getting them 
out. This second van was used by me for many 
years. Mr Hunnybun, a coachbuilder at New- 
market, subsequently built others upon greatly 
improved principles, with peculiar axles which 
brought the body of the van much nearer the 
ground, so that the difficulty often experienced 
of getting the horses into their travelling carriage 
was overcome. Mr Hunnybun's vans were beauti- 
ftdly finished and admirably constiiicted, costing 



68 EARLY RACING DAYS. 

from £150 to £160 for a double, and £120 for a 
single one. At Groodwood we soon had three of 
the former pattern and two of the latter, in addi- 
tion to the first constructed by Herring. They 
were frequently used, his Lordship being so much 
in favour of their employment that he insisted' 
upon having even the most inferior animals c 
veyed to their destination in them — some of v 
indeed, were of less value than the horses er 
in drawing them. As the average cost 
of post-horses was 2s. per mile, the expens 
naturally very heavy ; but his Lordship thou 
it might be the means of avoiding the introduc 
tion of disease into the stable, which was often 
contracted through horses being put into un- 
healthy quarters at the various inns at which, 
when travelling on foot, they were compelled to 
stop. The journey of Elis from Goodwood to 
Doncaster could not have cost less than from £80 
to £100. It was said at the time that the old- 
fashioned trainers complained in no measm'ed terms 
of this new mode of conveyance for race- horses, and 
insisted that it was unnatural, and certain to be 
injurious to the delicate constitution and organisa- 
tion of the trained thoroughbred. This they very 
soon discovered to be an error, as it enabled horses 
which were heavily engaged to run at many meet- 
ings which they never could have reached on foot. 
To no racing centre was it of greater advantage 
than Newmarket, as horses trained there could be 



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ADVANTAGES OF THE VAN. 69 

despatched with comparatively little fatigue, and 
no wear and tear, to run at meetings to which it 
would have been impossible for them to proceed 
by road. At that time there were not more than 
250 horses in training at the metropolis of the Turf, 
while far larger numbers were prepared for their 
engagements at various provincial places. In this 
manner the van was of immense advantage to race- 
horses, and also to their owners and trainers, and, 
like many other reforms initiated by Lord George 
Bentinck, it was of untold benefit to all who took 
an interest in horse-racing. Indeed the introduction 
and universal employment of vans inaugurated a 
revolution in the management and engagement of 
race -horses. When it is remembered that Mr 
John Scott's Cyprian walked from Malton to 
Epsom and won the Oaks on May 20, 1836, and 
was immediately despatched on foot to Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, where on June 22 she won the Northum- 
berland Plate, having taken nearly a month to 
walk 300 miles from Epsom to Newcastle, it is 
easy to understand that, previous to the employ- 
ment of vans, young horses were often temporarily 
worn out, and sometimes lamed for life, by long 
journeys on the hard road. 

Some two or three weeks before the St Leger 
of 1836 it became evident that Elis was being 
backed for large sums, and that the market was 
being worked actively by some persons who, as 
Lord George had reason to suspect, were betray- 



70 EARLY RACING DAYS. 

ing him, and getting on a big sum of money. To 
test his suspicions, his Lordship made it publicly 
known that he would not run the horse unless he 
could obtain the odds at 12 to 1 to £1000, knowing 
well that no one, unless he had previously backed 
Elis heavily, would be in a position to lay such 
a bet. The result was that £12,000 to £1000 
against Elis was laid to his Lordship's commissioner. 
Nothing could have been more to his Lordship's 
gratification, as it proved beyond doubt that he was 
right in his conjectiires. Although Mr W. Scott's 
Scroggins was a great favoimte, having been 
heavily backed at 6 to 4, Elis won rather cleverly, 
and Lord Greorge was rewarded by landing a good 
stake. In my opinion he never would have suc- 
ceeded in getting the odds against Elis at 12 to 1 
to that large amount had it not been that the layers 
believed it impossible for the horse to reach Don- 
caster in time to run for the St Leger. They 
were well aware that Elis was still at Goodwood 
in the middle of the week preceding the Doncaster 
meeting, and that it took fifteen or sixteen days 
for a horse to walk from Goodwood to Doncaster. 
Under these circumstances, the Danebury party, 
who had backed him heavily, became uneasy, and 
were not long in making up their minds to " un- 
load." They were perfectly cognisant of the fact 
that Venison, who came from Danebury to Good- 
wood to be tried with Elis, had been beaten by 
the latter when in receipt of 7 lb., and accordingly 



PUBCHASE OF BAY MIDDLETON. 7l 

they made haste to " get on," never caring whom 
they forestalled. They soon found, however, that 
Lord George was a dangerous customer to take 
liberties with ; and I am perfectly confident that 
his Lordship would not have allowed Elis to start 
for the St Leger unless the bet of £12,000 to 
£1000 had been forthcoming. 

Li the First October Meeting at Newmarket, 
Elis again met Bay Middleton for the Grand Duke 
Michael Stakes; but Lord George, satisfied that 
although Elis had won the St Leger, Bay Mid- 
dleton was the better animal, invested merely a 
trifle on his own horse. In the race Bay Middle- 
ton, beautifully ridden by Jem Robinson, beat 
Elis, ridden by J. B. Day, rather easily, and 
proved to be what Lord George considered him. 
Determined to acquire possession of this grand 
horse, Lord George offered Lord Jersey 4000 
guineas (the largest sum ever paid for a horse 
down to that time) for Bay Middleton, which 
Lord Jersey accepted. Lord George then pro- 
posed to make use of Elis's van in order to con- 
vey Bay Middleton to Danebury in it. Upon 
this " Tiny " Edwards, Lord Jersey's trainer, 
exclaimed, "You may send the van, my Lord, if 
you like, but all Newmarket will not get Bay 
Middleton into it ! " As usual, his Lordship was 
not to be turned from his purpose. The van 
was sent, and Bay Middleton was easily induced 
to 'enter it, and was thus conveyed to Danebury, 



72 EARLY RACING DAYS. 

greatly to the surprise of all who were acquainted 
with the horse's impetuous temper. An attempt 
was made to train him, but it failed, as his fore- 
leg had gone before Lord Jersey sold him. He 
was then sent to join Lord George's stud at the 
Turf Tavern Paddocks at Doncaster, where Ascot, 
who ran second to Mundig for the Derby, and 
from thirty to forty brood mares, were already 
ibstalled. In addition, his Lordship had a lot 
more brood mares at Danebury, and others at 
Bonehill, near Tam worth, making in all about 
sixty-five. Next year he had about thirty foals 
by Bay Middleton, some of which were out of 
valuable mares; and as his fee was only thirty 
guineas, Bay Middleton had some very high-bred 
mares sent to him in addition to those belonging 
to his owner. Although a most superior race- 
horse. Bay Middleton was for a long time very 
unsuccessful at the stud, so many of his stock 
being unsound and very diflScult to train, which 
was not only a great loss to his Lordship but 
also a great disappointment. A very remark- 
able fact was that daughters of Velocipede — 
of all mares the most unlikely to throw sound 
stock, as their sire was notoriously infirm in his 
knees — nicked best with Bay Middleton. On 
the other hand, the progeny thrown to Bay Mid- 
dleton by Emilius mares and Whalebone mares 
were generaUy unsound, and sometimes cripples. 
Still Lord George believed that some day Bay 



BAY MIDDLETON's PROGENY. 73 

Middleton would get a good race-horse, and it 
was only in consequence of continual failures that 
he was at last induced to send Crucifix, Latitude, 
and one or two others to Touchstone, with the 
result that Surplice and Loadstone were foaled in 

1845, and sold by Lord George as yearlings in 

1846, with the rest of his stud. His Lordship 
did not live to see the full realisation of his antici- 
pation that one day Bay Middleton would become 
the sire of a great horse. This happened in 1846, 
when The Flying Dutchman was born, and in 
1851, when Andover, another winner of the Derby, 
first saw the light. Again, in 1848, Sir Joseph 
Hawley's Venus gave birth to Aphrodite, and in 
1853 to Kalipyge, both being daughters of Bay 
Middleton, — the last-named being, in Sir Joseph 
Hawley's opinion, the best mare that he ever 
owned. She broke down in 1856, after winning 
the Craven Stakes at Epsom. 

The site selected by the present Duke of Port- 
land for his breeding establishment at Welbeck 
Abbey, upon which he has erected extensive 
buildings and formed very complete and well- 
arranged paddocks, is the very spot which it was 
Lord George's ambition to employ for the same 
purpose, if he could have prevailed upon his father 
to entertain the idea. The extraordinary success 
attending the valuable stud installed at this 
moment upon the site in question is another proof 
of Lord George's foresight; but it is doubtfiil 



74 EARLY RACING DAYS. 

whether a stud owned by Lord George would 
have attained that excellence, or afforded him as 
much pleasure as it has to the present Duke, more 
especially if Bay Middleton had been stationed 
there. It was Lord George's hope, when he bought 
Bay Middleton, that the horse might be able to 
win the Ascot Cup as a four-year-old in 1837; 
but one of his fore - legs, which had been very 
suspicious - looking when he ran his last race, 
failed in training, and though entered for the 
Cup, to which there were forty subscribers, he 
could not start. He was then sent, as I have 
akeady said, to join his Lordship's stud at Don- 
caster. Nothing could exceed Lord George's dis- 
appointment when Bay Middleton failed as a 
stallion. The enormous amount of forfeits paid 
in produce stakes for his stock Would have dis- 
coiu'aged any one else, while to some it would 
have been absolutely fatal. But Lord George 
was too firm of purpose to be daunted or tiu'ned 
aside by any disappointment. The only effect it 
had was to make him patronise more successful 
stallions at any cost. However clever and prac- 
tical a breeder or owner of thoroughbreds may be, 
the uncertainty attending speculation in racing 
stock is always likely to upset his calculations. 
Although Lord George possessed two game and 
fairly good horses in Elis and Venison, he could 
not be satisfied without investing 4000 guineas in 
buying Bay Middleton. Simultaneously he sold 



CASUALTY STOCK. 75 

the other two, which it would, perhaps, have been 
wiser in him to have kept, and not to have bought 
Bay Middleton at all. It cannot be denied that 
the late Sir Tatton Sykes spoke truly and fix)m 
long experience when he called thoroughbred 
stallions, brood mares, and their progeny " casualty 
stock." 



76 



CHAPTER IV. 

HORSE-RACING PREVIOUS TO VANS. 

The success attending the conveyance of Elis to 
Doncaster by this novel and expeditious method 
was a great achievement, as upon few, if upon 
any, previous occasions was the attempt to win 
the St Leger with a horse sent from the south 
of England successful. From Newmarket it oc- 
cupied nine days to travel to Doncaster on foot, 
and from Goodwood fifteen or sixteen days, which, 
with all the vicissitudes of weather, undesirable 
accommodation, and inferior provender, entailed 
great risk, expense, and frequent disappointment. 
To set off with four or five horses in order to 
make a long journey on foot, with little or no 
change of clothes for the horses or lads, each 
horse having his muzzle, containing brush and 
comb, rubber, sponge, and perhaps a set of extra 
bandages — the whole secured by one of the stir- 
rup-leathers and laid over the withers — was indeed 
a serious business. I generally accompanied the 
horses on my own hack, and sometimes driving 



HOBSES ON THE ROAD. 77 

in my buggy. If the weather proved wet, our 
difficulties were greatly increased, as it took an 
infinity of trouble to dry all the clothes at the 
inns where the horses stopped for the night. 
Colds and coughs, attended with distemper or 
strangles, were of frequent occurrence, and it was 
with a knowledge of all this that Lord George 
exercised his resourcefiil ingenuity to devise some 
plan of carrying his horses on wheels to the scene 
of action. Previously, the endeavour to win the 
St Leger with what were termed in those days 
South Country horses had signally failed, al- 
though such superior animals had been sent to 
Doncaster as Sultan, Plenipotentiary, Shillelagh, 
Ascot, Revenge, Byzantium, Rubini, Marcus, 
Priam, Frederick, Exquisite, Mameluke, Transla- 
tion, Spondee, Redgauntlet, and Preserve. With 
the exception of Mameluke, who ran second to 
Matilda, and of Priam, who was placed second 
to Mr Beardsworth s Birmingham, not one of the 
above-named starters got a place, although some 
of them were backed heavily.^ Those were indeed 
primitive times, and Lord George seemed to possess 
a special faculty for revolutionising and galvan- 
ising them. Previous to the construction of vans, 

^ For the following statement I am indebted to Mr W. H. Lang- 
ley : '' ThiB was not surprising in Plenipo's case, as he came to the 
post as fat as a bullock, from having done little or no work during 
the time he was located at Brocklesbj Park during the previous 
month. Such information was volunteered to me by a resident at 
Limber, who saw the horse daily." — Ed. 



78 HORSE-RACING PREVIOUS TO VANS. 

it waB a matter of no slight difficulty and risk to 
get horses even from Newmarket to Epsom to 
run for the Derby and Oaks. Many a favoiu:ite 
on arriving at Epsom was unable to start, from 
being amiss on the day. It was usual for New- 
market horses to reach Epsom or the neighbour- 
hood three weeks or a month prior to the races. 
Some were located at Epsom, some at Ashstead, 
Leatherhead, Mickleham, and Headley, the last 
place, when Mr Ladbroke resided there, being 
headquarters, as, in addition to being an opulent 
banker, he was an enthusiastic sportsman and a 
confederate for many years of the late Earl of 
Egremont. It was his great delight to entertain 
as many of the most distinguished patrons of the 
Turf as possible, and also to accommodate their 
horses. The Duke of Grafton, the Duke of 
Cleveland, and the Duke of Rutland were always 
included among Mr Ladbroke's guests, and their 
horses were provided with excellent stable accom- 
modation. Mr Ladbroke also took lodgings near 
his own house for their trainers — Robert Robson, 
R. D. Boyce, and William Chifney. The Cock Inn 
hard by was well patronised by other trainers and 
jockeys, so that Headley, as long as Mr Ladbroke 
lived, was an important racing centre whenever 
the Epsom Summer Meeting came round. In 
addition to entertaining as many distinguished 
guests as he could find room for, Mr Ladbroke 
took the greatest pleasure in inviting all the 



ASH8TEAD STABLES. 79 

jockeys and trainers who stopped at Headley to 
a sumptuous repast, over which he presided in 
person, towards the end of the Epsom week. 
Needless to say, the Epsom meeting was greatly 
enjoyed by Robson, Neale, William Chifney, R. 
D. Boyce, and my father. After the death of 
Mr Ladbroke, Headley ceased to be so attrac- 
tive to frequenters of Epsom, and deeply indeed 
was his loss felt and lamented by the inhabi- 
tants. Leatherhead and Ashstead were also fa- 
vourite resorts during the Derby and Oaks week 
— the former place being frequented by John 
Scott and James Edwards, and the latter by John 
Forth and, after Mr Ladbroke's death, by Neale 
and R. D. Boyce. It was at the " Leg of Mut- 
ton and Cauliflower" at Ashstead that Cadland, 
Frederick, Little Wonder, Merry Monarch, and 
the notorious Leander were stabled, and also 
Gulnare, winner of the Oaks, whom the Duke 
of Richmond came there to see. With his usual 
kind and considerate thoughtfulness, his Grace 
said, " Well, Kent, how is the mare ? I hope she 
is well, and you too? You ought to live well, 
as you have a ' Haunch of Venison ' at one end 
of the village and a * Leg of Mutton and Cauli- 
flower ' at the other ! " 

After Mr Ladbroke's death the Chifneys pur- 
chased a meadow and paddock at Headley, not 
far from the Cock Inn, upon which they built 
some good stables. Before long the Chifiieys 



80 HORSE-RACING PREVIOUS TO VANS. 

experienced a reverse of fortune, and the land 
and stables at Headley passed into the hands of 
" Lawyer " Ford, from whom Lord Greorge Ben- 
tinck purchased them. It was here that Crucifix 
and Grey Momus stood, together with other 
horses, including Gaper and Chatham, all of which 
belonged to Lord George. In 1845, I passed the 
Epsom week there with the Duke of Richmond's 
Refraction (who won the Oaks), and other horses 
under my charge, and in 1848, full of anxiety 
about the safety of the favourite, I took Lord 
Clifden's Surplice and Loadstone to the same 
spot to run for the Derby, which the former won. 

So great was the importance attached by Lord 
George to having all his horses vanned to Epsom 
and to other race meetings that, although he had 
animals nmning at Epsom on the first day of the 
races, and again in the Derby on Wednesday, he 
would insist upon having his mares which were 
to run in the Oaks conveyed in vans to Headley 
on the Derby Day. The inevitable result was 
that he had to pay enormous charges for post- 
horses — at the rate of fifteen guineas a-pair — to 
take the vans from Kingston railway station to 
Headley. This was the price paid in 1842 for 
Firebrand's van, as his Lordship had backed the 
mare for the Oaks in consequence of her having 
won the One Thousand Guineas at Newmarket ; 
but in the Oaks she only finished third to Mr G. 
Dawson's Our Nell, who was first, and to Mr 



LORD GEORGE CAVENDISH. 81 

Shackers Meal (both of them daughters of Bran), 
who was second. Firebrand was a Ught-buat 
filly of very delicate constitution, and her noble 
owner grudged no expense in order to give her 
every chance. I have known him do the same, 
however, with animals not worth more than the 
hire of each pair of post-horses attached to their 
vans on the Derby Day. 

Had Lord George's convenient system of vanning 
race-horses been available in Lord George Caven- 
dish's time, it is probable that " Royal George," 
as he was invariably called, would have landed a 
great stake on the Derby of 1815, which was won 
by the Duke of Grafton's Whisker. In Boyce's 
stable at Newmarket, where Lord George Caven- 
dish's horses were trained, there was in 1815 a 
first-class three-year-old, Sir Joshua, the property 
of the Hon. Richard Neville, who was afterwards 
Lord Braybrooke. Sir Joshua had won the 
Riddlesworth at Newmarket, and some other 
races, and Lord George Cavendish, one of the 
heaviest speculators that I can remember, backed 
him for the Derby for an enormous sum. Unfor- 
tunately, the horse caught cold while journeying 
to Epsom on foot, and was unable to start. At 
the Houghton Meeting of that same year, Sir 
Joshua was matched to give Whisker, the Derby 
winner, 5 lb. across the Flat. The betting was 
very heavy, and when Sir Joshua won cleverly, 
Lord George Cavendish got back most of his 

F 



82 HORSE-RACmG PREVIOUS TO VANS. 

Epsom losses. Like Lord CJeorge Bentinck, the 
nobleman of whom I am now speaking — who, by 
the way, was great-grandfather to the present 
Duke of Devonshire — could not be daunted or 
turned from his purpose. I have often heard my 
father describe the celebrated match between 
Filho da Puta and Sir Joshua in 1816, when both 
were four years old. Filho da Puta had won the 
St Leger easily in 1815, and was undoubtedly a 
great horse. He was matched to give Sir Joshua 
7 lb. over the Rowley mile in the Craven meeting 
of 1816. The winter of 1815-16 was extraor- 
dinarily severe in the north of England, and Filho 
was sent by Croft, his trainer, from Middleham 
to Newmarket many weeks before the great 
match. The horse stood at William Chifney's 
stable at Newmarket, and was under the charge 
of John Scott, afterwards the famous Whitewall 
trainer, who was then head-lad to Croft. Not 
long before the match Sir Joshua was tried with 
Lord George Cavendish's Bourbon, and won his 
trial. On the first day of the Craven meeting, 
Bourbon won the Craven Stakes very handsomely, 
beating a good field of sixteen horses, which gave 
Lord George Cavendish and other patrons of 
Boyce s stable great confidence in Sir Joshua. 

During the race meetings at Newmarket Lord 
George Cavendish always lodged at Mr Boyce's 
house. When he arrived there shortly before the 
Craven meeting of 1816, he was met by the Hon. 



"ROYAL GEORGE AT NEWMARKET. 83 

Greorge Watson (one of his most intimate friends), 
and by Mr Boyce and my father, who was then 
head-lad to Mr Boyce. They told Lord George 
Cavendish that the Yorkshire gentlemen had mus- 
tered in great force at Newmarket to back Filho, 
whom they thought invincible. "I am glad to 
hear it," rejoined " Royal George," "as I have 
brought my strong-box with me." When his 
Lordship entered the betting-rooms on the night 
before the match, he was received with three times 
three by the north-country sportsmen. Not much 
time was wasted in useless preliminaries. His 
Lordship was assailed on all sides by offers to 
bet 500 to 400 on Filho, and, taking out his 
betting-book with the utmost composure, he wrote 
down all the bets offered on those terms. Then 
there was a momentary lull, to which Lord George 
put an end by offering to bet 500 even that Sir 
Joshua won. Again he was accommodated to a 
very large extent, and again he tired out all the 
backers of Filho at even money. Finally, looking 
round the room, the indomitable backer of Sir 
Joshua exclaimed, "As no one will go on backing 
Filho at evens, I shall be happy, before going, to 
bet 500 to 400 on the little horse as often as any 
one will take it." The last voice heard that night 
was Lord George Cavendish's, as he shouted out, 
" Five hundred to four on Sir Joshua ! " without 
finding a taker. 

How much money Lord George Cavendish staked 



84 HORSE-RACING PREVIOUS TO VANS. 

that night will never be known ; but it was the 
opinion of my father, and also that of the late Earl 
of Stradbroke, whose horses were trained at that 
time by Mr Boyce, and who managed the trial of 
Sir Joshua, that it could not have been much less 
than £50,000. Next day the match came off, and 
Sir Joshua just won. When the start was effected, 
Filho, who was very impetuous, reared high in the 
air, losing two or three lengths, which he could 
never quite regain. Perhaps " Royal Gleorge " 
was fortunate in getting safely through this 
desperate encounter between two good horses ; 
but although invited to do so, neither he nor Mr 
Neville would consent to make the match over 
again, although the backers of Filho offered to put 
down £3000 against Mr Neville's £2000. 

It is a little remarkable that my father should 
have served two noble patrons of the Turf who 
were so much alike in the magnitude of their 
betting ventures as Lord George Cavendish and 
Lord George Bentinck. When Bourbon won the 
Craven Stakes some foreigners wanted Mr Boyce 
to ask Lord George Cavendish whether he would 
sell him, and if so, what price he would take. 
Mr Boyce replied, " I might as well ask him to sell 
Burlington House ; you had better ask him your- 
self." And when the question was put to Lord 
George, the answer he gave was, " When I want 
to sell him I will let you know." At this time 
Lord George Cavendish was considered the most 



"the ROTHSCHILD OF TATTERSALL's." 85 

influential patron of Newmarket ; and Lord Greorge 
Bentinck in his day was regarded by many as 
" The Eothschild of TattersaU's." 

It was always Lord Greorge's opinion that the 
most satisfactory races are those over a distance 
of ground, and of his preference evident proof was 
aflforded by his gift of the Waterloo Shield, the 
largest and most valuable prize ever given to a 
race by one person, which was run for at the 
Goodwood meeting of 1837. It may appear to 
some that the three prizes of £1000 each, so 
generously given in 1890 by Mr C. D. Rose, were 
each of them equal to the Waterloo Shield ; but 
the advertised cost of the latter was greatly ex- 
ceeded by additional embellishments suggested by 
his Lordship after it was supposed to be completed. 
This magnificent piece of plate was, in confonnity 
with Lord George's predilections, run for over the 
King's Plate Course of about three miles and three 
quarters. There were forty subscribers of £25 
each, fifteen forfeit, and eighteen runners, and 
the shield was won by Colonel Peels Slane, who 
claimed a 7 lb. allowance for having been beaten 
in the Cup. Since 1834 it had been the custom 
for one of the Stewards of Goodwood races to give 
a Cup of £100 value. In 1837 the Earl of Albe- 
marle was Steward with Lord George Bentinck, 
and being the senior of the two, he did not feel 
disposed to relinquish his right to give the annual 
£100 Cup ; so that, in order to enhance the popu- 



86 HOBSE-RACING PREVIOUS TO VANS. 

larity of his favourite meeting, Lord George 
promptly gave the Waterloo Shield. 

Lord George's father, the Duke of Portland, was 
also disposed to encourage long-distance races, and 
he established the Portland Handicap at New- 
market, to be run for over the last three miles of 
the B.C., to which racb his Grace added £300. 
The Duke seldom or never ran a two-year-old ; 
and at that time it was considered unwise to 
encourage three-year-olds to race too much, as is 
shown by the following extract, which appeared 
in the * Sporting Magazine' of 1836: "The ten- 
dency of the great three - year - old races is to 
deteriorate the breed of the English race-horse. 
Nothing can be done to correct it till the close 
of the present season. For a true patriotic at- 
tempt in this direction we are indebted to the 
Duke of Portland, who has founded and endowed 
the Portland Handicap ; and there can be little 
doubt that we shall find other stakes upon the 
same plan instituted at all the great race meet- 
ings." There is no question that races exceeding 
a mile in distance afford more opportunity of ex- 
hibiting fine horsemanship than the short-course 
races of the present day. The riding of such 
artists as Samuel Chifney, Frank Buckle, and 
James Robinson over some of the long courses 
at Newmarket was quite an attraction, and far 
more interesting to good judges than the com- 
petition of the horses. 



FRANK BUCKLE. 87 

My father used to say that Frank Buckle had 
the finest character of any jockey that he ever 
knew. His power of riding long distances was 
unequalled in an age when all jockeys per- 
formed their journeys on horseback. In point of 
fact, Robert Robson, who was called " the Em- 
peror of Trainers," would have nothing to do 
with any jockey imless he rode long distances 
almost every day on horseback. For many 
years of his long life Frank Buckle resided at 
Peterborough, where he was bom, and where he 
now lies buried. Although Peterborough is about 
ninety miles distant from Newmarket, Buckle 
thought nothing of riding from his own home 
to the Heath and back on the same day. In 
finishing a race, he had recourse to a circular mo- 
tion of his arms, which caused him to be often 
called the "Peterborough screw." His integrity 
was so well known that, in a corrupt era, no 
one ever thought of approaching " Old Frank " 
with dishonest proposals or suggestions, as in one 
instance he was said to have drawn his whip 
smartly across the face of a gentleman who, al- 
though a member of the Jockey Club, had the 
audacity to ask Buckle to pull a horse in a match. 
During the whole of Buckle's career the rivalry 
between North and South was infinitely greater 
than it has been during the last twenty or 
thirty years. Owners and trainers of race-horses, 
and the jockeys who bestrode them, were greatly 



88 HORSE-RACING PREVIOUS TO VANS. 

under the influence of this predominant feeling, 
which was perhaps at its climax in 1827, when 
the Honourable Edward Petre's Matilda beat the 
Derby winner, Mr Gully's Mameluke, for the great 
St Leger Stakes at Doncaster. At the begin- 
ning of this century Frank Buckle was the crack 
jockey at Newmarket, which was always regarded 
as being in the south of England, and simultane- 
ously John Shepherd held a similar position among 
his northern congeners. Buckle and Shepherd 
were fi^quently in the habit of meeting in races 
and matches, and no slight jealousy existed be- 
tween them, although Buckle was naturally too 
kind-hearted and easy-going to harbour an un- 
kind thought about anybody. He was sometimes 
forced, however, to ride with suspicion, because 
Shepherd was by no means scrupulous, and would 
take every unfair advantage that came in his 
way, which indeed was at that time a character- 
istic of most of the north-country jockeys. Fre- 
quently there was a great deal of money betted 
upon matches in which Buckle and Shepherd* met, 
and in those days it was generally impossible to 
draw a line, or form an estimate as to the com- 
parative merits of the two opposing horses. As 
a rule, it was Shepherd's policy to make run- 
ning, while Buckle waited, following immediately 
in his antagonist's track. It once occurred that, 
in a match over the four -mile course at York, 
Buckle had his enemy dead-beat about a hun- 



^f 



BUCKLE AND SHEPHERD. 89 

dred yards from home, and came up between 
Shepherd and the rails. Even then the north- 
country jockey would not allow himself to be 
beaten ; as he drove Buckle, who would otherwise 
have won in a canter, upon the rails, and kept 
his own knee in advance of Buckle's knee, so 
that the latter found it impossible to extricate 
himself from the position in which his old anta- 
gonist held him as in a vice. In those days there 
was no such thing as disqualification for foul rid- 
ing, and Buckle knew full well that no complaint 
made by him would be listened to for a moment on 
a Yorkshire course. He contented himself, there- 
fore, by saying to Shepherd : ** It will not be 
long, I reckon, before you and I meet again at 
Newmarket, where you cannot drive me on the 
rails ; and then I warn you that I will have 
my revenge." 

The words were prophetic, as within a few weeks 
the two jockeys met in an important match over 
the Beacon Course at Newmarket for a thousand 
guineas a side. Shepherd was universally regarded 
as a wonderful judge of pace, and resorted as usual 
to his favom'ite game of making play. Buckle, on 
the other hand, was one of the finest finishers of a 
race that ever galloped across the Flat, and his skill 
and^n€^^e in getting the last ounce out of a tired 
horse at the end of four mUes have never been 
surpassed from that day to this. In the match 
of which I am now speaking Shepherd made the 



90 HORSE-RACING PREVIOUS TO VANS. 

pace so good, that, glancing repeatedly over his 
shoulder, he soon satisfied himself that, long before 
the winning-post was reached, he would succeed in 
galloping his adversary to a standstill. As the 
two horses drew near to the judge's chair Buckle 
kept close to the heels of the other horse, so that 
Shepherd could not see him without turning right 
round in the saddle to look. At this critical 
moment the north-countryman became aware that 
he had not yet done with his pertinacious op- 
ponent, who gave every indication of intending to 
come up on Shepherd's whip-hand. When they 
were about a hundred yards from the chair, Shep- 
herd's eye was anxiously fixed upon the winning- 
post. Observing Shepherd's preoccupation. Buckle 
pulled his horse to the near side, and before Shep- 
herd had withdrawn his eyes from the judge's box, 
Buckle had stolen a march upon his enemy, and 
was leading a couple of lengths on the near side. 
Loud cries of " Look at Buckle ! look at Buckle ! " 
arose from the onlookers, who were waiting on 
horseback at the cords. When it was too late 
Shepherd perceived his danger, but Buckle had got 
the first run, and although there was a good effort 
left in Shepherd's horse, who had been most judi- 
ciously ridden, the race was over, and Buckle had 
won by half a length. Such shouting and cheer- 
ing as arose upon the Heath had, according to my 
father, never been heard before that day. As the 
two rivals rode back to scale. Buckle curtly re- 



BUCKLE AS A BIDER. 91 

marked, " I told you when you came to Newmarket 
that I would pay you off, as I have done to-day." 

Never was jockey more respected than Frank 
Buckle during the last thirty years of his honour- 
able and spotless career. He was a most agree- 
able man, and always glad to give hints about 
riding to his younger rivals. When it came to a 
fine point between two horses after a long gallop, 
it was 6 to 4 on " Old Frank " against any other 
"knight of the pigskin." No man had a more 
powerful seat upon a horse, and in the longest 
race he was never known to tire. Occasionally he 
had to ride horses which, without his knowledge, 
had been nobbled or in some way made safe before 
leaving their stables. My father often told me 
that in 1811, at the Second Spring Meeting, he 
saw Mr Christopher Wilson's chestnut horse Wiz- 
ard beat Lord George Cavendish's Middlethorpe 
(also a chestnut horse) over the Beacon Course in 
a 500-guinea match. Wizard was ridden by 
Buckle, and Middlethorpe by Arnull. In the race, 
Milddlethorpe, who was the son of Shuttle, and, 
like all of Shuttle's breed, a bad-tempered horse, 
stopped so short that Arnull was pitched off, and 
Buckle galloped home alone. Much to his aston- 
ishment. Buckle experienced the greatest difficulty 
in keeping Wizard upon his legs till the winning- 
post was passed. The horse reeled and staggered 
like a drunken man, and seemed to be wholly be- 
reft of sight. "I don't know what you have done 



92 HORSE-RACING PREVIOUS TO VANS. 

to this horse," exclaimed Buckle to the trainer, " but 
he is as blind as a bat." No reply was made by 
the trainer, who, as subsequently became known, 
lost a heavy stake by backing Middlethorpe for 
the match, which, in Wizard's condition, it would 
have been impossible for Middlethorpe to lose had 
not his jockey fallen off. 

In order to get back his losses. Wizard's trainer 
persuaded Mr Wilson to make another match be- 
tween Wizard and Middlethorpe, conceding 2 lb. 
to the latter. It came off over the Two Middle 
Miles in the First October Meeting 1811, and again 
the dishonest trainer had to put up with a costly 
defeat. He backed Wizard for enough money to 
get back all his previous losses. Unfortunately 
the horse, on whom odds of 7 to 4 were betted at 
the start, fell lame in the race, and Middlethorpe 
won by more than a hundred yards. 

In 1836, when James Robinson won the Two 
Thousand Guineas upon Bay Middleton, and the 
Portland Handicap upon Sheet-Anchor, the follow- 
ing remarks were made by a sporting writer at 
the time : "A very remarkable display of jockey - 
ship occurred on the part of Jem Robinson at the 
First Spring Meeting at Newmarket over the 
last three miles of the B.C. upon Mr Cooke's 
Sheet-Anchor, when he beat Lord Chesterfield's 
Hornsea, ridden by WiUiam Scott, and Mr Mos- 
tyn's Birdlime, ridden by T. Lye, in addition to 
Revenge, Rioter, Pelops, Tiber, and other starters. 



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REMARKABLE DISPLAY OF JOCKEYSHIP. 93 

Lye upon Birdlime made rumiing to the distance, 
when Bill Scott, who had been nursing Hornsea, 
brought him up resolutely, challenged Lye, and 
raced with him. The pace was good, and the 
punishment severe, and to all appearances Scott 
had the race in hand, when, on the lower ground, 
for the first time his eyes caught sight of Kobinson 
on Sheet- Anchor. A glance was enough, as Kobin- 
son was sitting quite still in the saddle, with the 
race evidently in hand, and close upon home out 
he came with a rush that sent your heart into 
your mouth, and won by a length, while half 
the lookers-on believed Hornsea had caught the 
judge's eye. When shall we again see two such 
races as this and the Two Thousand between Bay 
Middleton and Elis ? " Being an eyewitness of 
this consummate display of jockeyship, it reminded 
me of the same two opponents when they met in 
the Derby of 1828, and Cadland, ridden by Robin- 
son, ran a dead-heat with The Colonel, ridden by 
William Scott. In the deciding heat, Robinson, 
after making running to the distance, gammoned 
Scott that Cadland was tiring, which induced Scott 
to take the lead, and, as he expected, to go up and 
win. But Jem had a good effort left in Cadland, 
for which Scott was quite unprepared, and to 
his great astonishment Jem beat him on the post 
by about a neck. To witness Robinson's riding 
was indeed a treat, for as a specimen of skill 
and knowledge of the animal it could not be sur- 



94 HOBSE-RACING PREVIOUS TO VANS. 

passed. I could mention a number of instances 
of this famous jockey's matchless prowess in the 
saddle, equal, perhaps, to those above enumerated. 
The great secret in his art was, that it was impos- 
sible for any one, not even the old jockeys who so 
frequently rode against him, to know whether his 
horse was extended or not, or whether he was on 
the back of a free or a sluggish animal. He sat 
without any apparent motion ; and when it suited 
his purpose he would appear to be riding as if his 
horse were tiring, whether he was so or not, a 
latent effort being nearly always left in him suffi- 
cient to win the race. He had a great aversion 
to short -course races, and as much as possible 
avoided riding in them, stating that often some 
stable-boy upon an animal hardly able to carry a 
saddle got off in front, and was past the winning- 
post before any riding on the part of real jockeys 
could be called into requisition. 

With the view of promoting long races at Good- 
wood, Lord George Bentinck, at a great expense, 
constructed the Maidstone Course, four miles long ; 
and the King s Plate Course (another of his crea- 
tions) which was three furlongs short of four miles. 
The desired length could have been obtained by 
going twice round the hill, as used to be done for 
sweating horses in those days; but of this his 
Lordship did not approve, and preferred to make 
a course outside the old circle round the hill and 
the various clumps of trees. This course was 



MATCHES. 95 

used for a few years ; but as the taste for short 
races increased, the number of courses made by- 
Lord George was found to be confusing, so dolls 
were put across those which were not used, with 
a view to guiding and directing the jockeys as to 
the right track for them to follow. Even with 
these precautions, mistakes sometimes occurred, as 
in the case of Ithuriel and Red Deer. 

Being always ready to make matches and pro- 
mote sport. Lord George pitted his Captain 
Cook against Lord Maidstone's Larry M'Hale 
over two miles and a half at Goodwood, nominally 
for £100 but in reality for £1000 ; as it was cus- 
tomary with Lord George to advertise the amount 
staked in some of his matches as one-tenth of the 
actual sum. Hence the match between his 
Bramble and Lord Maidstone's The Caster the 
same year in the Craven Meeting at Newmarket, 
over the B.C., was for 1200 sovereigns, 800 forfeit, 
although advertised at sixty sovereigns each and 
forty forfeit. Also at Goodwood the same year, 
in a match between Olive-Oil and Rose of Cash- 
mere for 500 sovereigns each, the sum was adver- 
tised at £50. Although gratifying his partiality 
for long races. Lord George did not profit by the 
result of his match against Lord Maidstone's 
Larry M'Hale, nor by the example of the magnifi- 
cent riding of Jem Robinson, whose style he so 
much admired, as there was much more agitation 
in his Lordship's long arms and legs than would 



96 HOBSE-RACING PREVIOUS TO VANS. 

have been visible in Robinson's when his oppo- 
nent closed with him for the final struggle. 
Whether the course was too long for Captain 
Cook, who was a bad roarer, trained by the late 
Isaac Day, I cannot say ; but it evidently was for 
his pilot, who was not so fit for the contest as 
Lord Maidstone. The latter, being in fine condi- 
tion, rode four winners during the week, beating, 
upon Lord George's Na worth his own horse. Me- 
chanic, after the two had run a dead-heat over 
the Maidstone course, Captain Percy Williams 
riding Mechanic. If Lord Maidstone was able to 
beat such a jockey as Captain Percy Williams, 
after running a dead-heat with him, it was not 
much discredit to Lord George to be beaten only 
by a neck by such an excellent rider over a course 
of two miles and a half, when, moreover. Lord 
George was altogether out of condition and his 
noble opponent as fit as a fiddle. 



97 



CHAPTER V. 

REMOVAL FBOM DANEBURY. 

In the autumn of 1841 Lord George Bentinck 
resolved to remove all his horses from Danebury 
to Groodwood, and to sacrifice the enormous outlay 
he had incurred at the former place. He stated 
his intention to me as he rode off the course at 
Newmarket on the Friday of the Houghton Meet- 
ing of 1841, desiring me to send at once and take 
charge of those horses he had at Newmarket — viz. , 
Tripoli, Topsail, Halfcaste, and Crusade — as "he 
had made up his mind not to continue at Dane- 
bury." I was also instructed to arrange for the 
removal of the remainder of his stud from Dane- 
bury to Goodwood, with everything belonging to 
him ; which I must confess greatly surprised me, 
and caused me to feel in a somewhat unpleasant 
position. I was well aware that for a long 
time his Lordship had been dissatisfied with cer- 
tain proceedings at Danebury, upon which he 
enlarged during the Houghton week at New- 

G 



98 REMOVAL FBOM DANEBURY. 

market, and especially upon the circumstances 
connected with Mr Etwall's Melody colt, who 
was heavily backed for the Cambridgeshire Stakes 
and ran second, having been trained by John 
Day, who also trained Lord Palmerston's Ilione, 
the winner of the Cesarewitch during the Second 
October Meeting. Rather than submit to what 
he deemed an injustice, Lord George thought no 
sum of money too great to sacrifice, and showed 
his indomitable spirit by leaving Danebury, where, 
as was often stated at the time, he was " literally 
walking on gold laid out by himself" 

When I went to Danebury I found five or six 
horses in training, a large number turned out, and 
several yearlings. It was his Lordship's wish that 
all of them should be conveyed in vans to Good- 
wood ; and as the yearlings were unbroken, the 
carrying out of this plan was attended with 
no little anxiety, trouble, and risk. From the 
unusual circumstance of the yearlings not having 
been broken, I fully believe that Lord George 
contemplated this great change some months 
previous to effecting it, as it was his custom 
to have his yearlings broken early in the year, 
and to try them before the closing of the 
Stakes after the Houghton Meeting. He told 
me he did not desire to have them broken 
at Danebury, in order to avoid any estimate of 
their merits being formed there. Four of these 
yearlings — Farintosh, Gaper, Bramble, and Fore- 



TRANSPORT TO GOODWOOD. 99 

sail — he considered very promising, and wished 
them to be conveyed in vans to prevent their 
incurring any risk in travelling on foot. This 
arrangement necessitated the employment of four 
vans (two double and two single ones) for four days, 
on the journey from Goodwood to Danebury and 
back, a distance by road of about 106 miles per day. 
I left home between four and five each morning, 
and returned at night about ten o'clock. My 
daily freight consisted of horses in training and 
of yearlings, as I did not think it advisable to 
convey all the yearlings by themselves. Under 
the most favourable circumstances my responsi- 
bility was far too great to be pleasant. Before 
leaving Danebury in the morning, I was occupied 
for two or three hours in making aiTangements 
for the journey, some of the youngsters being most 
difficult to get into the vans, and refractory when 
there, not to mention that during the journey 
they were sometimes almost unmanageable. What 
with the fatigue of the four consecutive days' 
journey and the anxiety attending it, I was glad 
enough when my task was completed ; especially 
as I was under the impression that the removal 
could have been effected with considerably less 
expense, less risk, and inconvenience, had all the 
horses left Danebury on the same day, and pro- 
ceeded on foot to Goodwood. So positive and 
peremptory, however, were his Lordship's instruc- 
tions, that I came to the conclusion he had more 



100 REMOVAL FROM DANEBURY. 

reasons for such arrangements than he cared to 
express. As we were starting from Danebm'y on 
the last day, John Day's lads jeered at my lads, 
and told them that all Lord George's horses com- 
bined were not worth as much as their journey to 
Groodwood would cost. Before the end of the 
following year they had to change their tone, 
especially when Firebrand won the One Thousand 
Guineas, Flytrap the Column, and Tedworth a 
One Hundred Sovereign Stake, all at Newmarket ; 
Misdeal the St James's Palace Stakes, at Ascot, 
value £650 ; the Racing Stakes, at Goodwood, 
value £1300; the Grand Duke Michael Stakes, 
at Newmarket, value £1100. That same year, 
also, Tripoli won the Somersetshire Stakes, and 
Topsail the Cup, at Bath ; Mustapha a stake at 
Goodwood of the value of £1950 ; and finally, 
Gaper the Criterion, at Newmarket. 

Lord George's instructions to me were to take 
my own lads and servants in the Duke of Rich- 
mond's vans, which his Grace lent him. My next 
instructions were to arrange for the transport of 
the cart-horses, carts, rollers, &c., from Danebury 
to Goodwood, and to provide temporary shelter for 
them near the stables at the latter place, as, natu- 
rally, such an addition to the Goodwood establish- 
ment made it necessary to provide greater accom- 
modation, which his Lordship, with the consent of 
the Duke of Richmond, lost no time in doing. He 
superintended the work at Goodwood personally, 



DIETING RACE-HOUSES, 101 

and soon forgot the great sacrifices he must have 
made by leaving Danebury. This did not appear 
to trouble him in the least, but rather to incite 
him to find means to replace what he had left be- 
hind, and, if possible, to improve upon it. During 
the winter months much of his time was spent at 
Goodwood with the Duke of Richmond ; and he 
took the greatest interest in the work as it pro- 
ceeded, spending many hours each day with the 
labourers employed. Often he was accompanied 
by the Duke, who was also greatly occupied in 
watching the various works, some of which might 
have been thought likely to intrude upon the 
privacy of his Grace's splendid estate. On ac- 
count, however, of the long personal friendship 
existing between himself and Lord George, the 
Duke made concessions to him which he would 
never have granted to another. 

Some of the horses from Danebury being very 
light in condition, and others infirm, his Lordship 
was most anxious that every effort should be made 
to recover them. He therefore suggested to my 
father that they should be liberally fed upon split 
beans and white peas. Of this my father did not 
quite approve, alleging that he had frequently 
known horses select the beans and peas, and refuse 
to eat the oats with which they were mixed. He 
much preferred giving them a certain quantity of 
flour in their water, as from experience he found 
great nourishment was afforded by it to such 



102 REMOVAL FROM DANEBURY. 

animals as were subjected to severe races and 
strong exercise entailing fatigue, and even dis- 
tress ; and it did not discourage them from eating 
their corn. This seemed to impress his Lordship 
very favourably, and he desired that its effects 
might be fully tested upon all those horses whose 
constitutions were not as robust as could be wished. 
As time advanced the horses so treated improved 
greatly in appearance. Firebrand and Flytrap, 
being the most delicate, and most heavily engaged, 
his Lordship thought their strength and powers 
might be still further increased by giving them 
new milk mixed with flour to drink, and a dozen 
new-laid eggs in each feed of corn. Accordingly, 
cows were purchased to provide the required 
milk, and the eggs ordered from the farmers 
were marked with their initials, to ensure their 
being fresh, as his Lordship would not buy from 
a dealer or shopman, for fear of the eggs being 
musty, so as to give the animals a distaste for 
their corn. At first there was some difficulty in 
inducing the horses to partake of this unnatural 
diet and beverage, but after a time they ate and 
drank it with avidity, and stood a good pre- 
paration. Firebrand winning the One Thousand 
Guineas and Flytrap the Column. 

After these successes Lord George, being so much 
impressed with the beneficial effects of milk and 
eggs, wished all the light-fleshed and delicate ani- 
mals to be fed in the same way. Some were most 



DIETING RACE-HORSES. 103 

wretched specimens, especially those got by Bay 
Middleton, which were not worth keeping m the 
stable, and still less worth pampering in this 
manner. One cripple. Crusade, by Ascot, out of 
Crucifix's dam, was fed for some time on this diet. 
When a yearUng he injured his back by falling in 
the paddock, and if a rehabilitation could be 
effected, his Lordship thought it would not be 
diflSicult to recover the expense of "a little milk 
and a few eggs." When at Danebury, Crusade had 
rim for small selling races, but without success. 
His back was so bad that he had entirely lost 
the natural action of his hind-legs. The case was 
perfectly hopeless, yet Lord George insisted upon 
persevering in this treatment till time at length 
convinced him that it was useless. This milk-and- 
egg system involved great expense and additional 
labour with no compensating result, as was ob- 
served by the Duke of Richmond, who one day 
remarked to his noble friend, when looking over the 
stables with him, " You will soon want my farm 
and poultry-yard, George, to supply your horses 
with milk and eggs, in addition to filling all my 
stables. I think you had better let Kent feed the 
horses in his own way ; he has hitherto been 
successful for me, and my horses have done very 
well." After a few months the milk and eggs 
were discontinued ; but the flour, in which my 
father and I were firm believers, was given to 
many of the horses — to some to accustom them 



104 REMOVAL FROM DANEBURY. 

to it in case they should ever run down, and need 
it ; and it was invariably given after a severe race 
or after running heats — especially after a dead 
heat — in which we were seldom beaten when it 
was run off. Whether the result was due to the 
support afforded by the flour or not, I cannot say ; 
but it was a matter of common remark that de- 
ciding heats were almost invariably won by the 
Goodwood stable. Some of the old horses enjoyed 
the flour so much that it was with difficulty the pails 
containing it could be removed from them until the 
contents were entirely extracted by aid of the 
tongue, which often amused Lord George greatly. 

In 1842 (the first year in which all his Lord- 
ship's horses were trained at Goodwood) he ran 
twenty-one, and was more successful than he ex- 
pected, many of them being very infirm either in 
their limbs or wind,— a great failing in the Bay 
Middletons, by whom many of them were sired. 
John Day, indeed, had such an objection to them, 
that he said, when Lord George's stud left Dane- 
bury, he would never train another Bay Middleton. 
Certainly they were not very desirable animals to 
have in your stables. The two finest yearlings 
brought from Danebury — viz., Farintosh by Bay 
Middleton, out of Camarine's dam, and Gaper by 
Bay Middleton, out of Flycatcher — were so infirm 
that it was a great anxiety to a trainer to have to 
do with them. Farintosh, one of the finest horses 
ever bred or seen, was a very bad roarer indeed ; 



THE HALNAKER GALLOP. 105 

and Gaper had such doubtfiil legs that it appeared 
ahnost hopeless to endeavour to tram him. John 
Day, in fact, said he never could be trained ; but 
by the aid of " Kent's charges " — as Lord George 
subsequently called the application — and the ex- 
cellent training-grounds at Goodwood, he was kept 
upon his legs and won the Criteron Stakes at New- 
market in 1842, greatly to his Lordship's delight, 
as he had a yearling bet of £10,000 to £100 about 
him for the Derby. His legs being so bad through 
standing over at the knees like a cab-horse, liberal 
odds were laid against him for the Derby, after the 
Criterion, which were taken by and for his Lord- 
ship, till he stood to win a very large stake upon 
him. This unexpected success, enhanced by 
Gaper's future prospects, stimulated Lord George 
still further to persist in his endeavours to com- 
mand success. He determined to extend and 
improve the exercise - ground, and to form a 
gallop upon the ascent for a mile and a half upon 
the most elastic turf that I have ever seen. To 
attain this object, he devised the famous Hal- 
naker Park gallop, which, with other works 
upon the Molecomb Hill, he was most anxious 
to complete. After explaining his views and 
projects to my father and myself, he inquired of 
me what the cost of such works would amount 
to, as a large number of immense timber -trees 
would have to be felled and their roots grubbed 
up, banks levelled, and turf and mould brought 



106 REMOVAL FROM DANEBURY. 

from some distance. . I said that it was a most ex- 
pensive undertaking, and could not be carried out 
for much less than £3500 ; to which he replied, "If 
it enables me to win one race it will pay all that." 
With his usual ardour, after obtaining permission 
from the Duke of Richmond, he at once commenced 
the job, employing over one hundred labourers and 
twenty-eight cart-horses, the superintendence of 
the work affording him the greatest pleasure. One 
day, after riding upon the race-course and the Mole- 
comb Downs, he pulled up on the summit of the 
new Halnaker gallop then in progress, and coming 
suddenly upon the splendid and extensive pano- 
ramic view spread before him on emerging from the 
wood, he remarked, " There's a beautiful sight ! " 
Of course I thought he alluded to the landscape so 
suddenly brought before his eyes. "I did not 
mean that," he explained, "but the sight of so 
many men at work, and the means it affords them 
to provide food for their families during this in- 
clement season." The potato-disease, w^hich pre- 
vailed greatly that year, engaged his Lordship's 
attention. He said the gardener at Welbeck had 
found that a sprinkling of lime over each layer 
of potatoes, when storing them, was the best 
preservative he had tried ; and he added that 
if any of the Goodwood labourers wished to try 
the experiment, they were to be supplied with 
lime for the purpose at his expense. During 
the progress of these works a labourer met 



gaper's career. 107 

with an accident by falling from a tree while 
adjusting a rope to assist in felling it. He 
sustained a fracture of one of his legs, and was 
taken to the infinnary at Chichester. When Lord 
George heard of it he inquired whether the man 
was maiTied, and on being informed that he had 
a wife and family, his Lordship directed that the 
wife should be paid her husband's wages until he 
was able to resume work. 

After the season for laying turf, tan was put 
upon the various gallops and upon the race-course. 
The cart-horses were employed upon this work 
for months, bringing the tan from Chichester, a 
distance of five or six miles. This was, of course, 
a heavy expense, but his Lordship believed it to 
have been of great benefit to the grass at Dane- 
bury, where he had caused hundreds of tons to be 
spread, and he thought it would be of equal service 
at Goodwood, and repay the cost. 

As previously stated, Lord George had backed 
Gaper heavily for the Derby. During the winter 
and as the spring advanced he was encouraged in 
his speculation by the improved prospect of the 
horse standing a preparation which would enable 
him to run up to his fomi. In the Craven meeting 
at Newmarket Gaper ran on the Tuesday, and 
won a sweepstakes of 100 sovereigns each, R.M., 
by eight lengths, beating the Duke of Grafton's 
Esop, ridden by J. Day, who, although greatly 
surprised at the easy manner Gaper won, still 



108 REMOVAL FROM DANEBURY. 

thought with his bandaged legs he could not be 
trained to win a Derby. On the following Thurs- 
day Gaper ran and won again, beating New Brigh- 
ton and Jerry Sneak for a sweepstakes of 200 
sovereigns each, D.M. John Day, having laid 
£20,000 to £250 against him, examined him very 
anxiously, and still thought he could have no 
chance of winning the Derby with such doubtful 
legs. Cotherstone, whom Gaper had beaten for 
the Criterion, won the Two Thousand Guineas 
easily, which increased Lord George's confidence 
in Gaper, and he continued to back him till he 
stood to win about £135,000 upon the horse. On 
account of his legs Gaper was not tried previously 
to running for his engagements at Newmarket ; 
but about a fortnight after the Two Thousand he 
was stripped and had a rough gallop of a mile and 
a quarter, when he won with ridiculous ease. On 
the 20th of May, about a week before the Derby, 
he was again tried a mile and a half with Discord 
(the Melody colt before alluded to) and others, 
when he won very easily indeed. This raised his 
Lordship's hopes and expectations greatly, more 
especially as Gaper appeared to be perfectly sound, 
and none the worse for his races and trials. Every 
precaution was taken to get him safely to Epsom 
and to the Derby post ; and in order to test the 
form of Discord, he was started for the Craven 
Stakes on the first day, which he won, to the 
great surprise of Lord George, beating Knight of 



GAPER AT THE DERBY. 109 

the Whistle, Alice Hawthorne, and six others. 
After the race I said to his Lordship, "Where 
would Gaper have been had he run ? " His reply 
was, " He would have been in Epsom town before 
the others reached the winning-post ! " Robert 
Hesseltine, who trained Alice Hawthorne, re- 
marked, "If Gaper can beat Discord at 16 lb., 
as stated, the Derby will be won by the Sussex 
nag by little short of a hundi*ed yards." As I 
understood that John Day had laid £20,000 to 
£250 against Gaper, I took an opportunity of ad- 
vising him in a friendly way not to risk such a 
sum, and at the eleventh hour he got Mr Gully 
to take £20,000 to £3000 for him about the 
horse from Lord George, losing on the balance 
£2750. The tremendous play made by Gaper 
cut down more than half the field at once ; the 
hill settled the chance of many more ; and as 
the leading horses neared the turn five only were 
left in the race. Gaper came gallantly round 
Tattenham Corner with a lead of a couple of 
lengths, and had such a winning look about him 
that shouts of " Gaper wins ! " rent the air. " Gaper 
was fit to run for a man's life, but we apprehend 
that the course was a trifle too sticky for his 
action." Such was one report of the race. Another 
said : " Lord George's horse rattled round the corner 
at such awful speed, and looked so well, that * Gaper 
wins ! ' ' Gaper wins ! ' was shouted from hundreds 
of throats ; but he ended by being fourth in the 



112 REMOVAL FROM DANEBURY. 

half, as much for many things as I have paid for 
the same at Daneburj. With all your travelling 
you must sustain considerable loss by the destruc- 
tion of your clothes ; therefore fbi- the future charge 
me £200 a-year for their wear and tear ! " That 
year I travelled 6155 miles, a large portion of it 
by raad. The distances were greatly increased in 
some years, and for travelling expenses alone I 
disbureed £3600 in one year. His Lordship would 
never reduce his expenses by selling a horse. 
" They will do for the gentlemen to ride," he would 
say, when advised to dispose of some ; and on 
being told that they were too infirm to carry 
gentlemen, he would get over the difficulty by 
saying, " Then they will do to teach the little 
boys how to ride." 

Although he had built a large number of new 
stables, and converted into stables all available 
buildings, still the accommodation was insuffi- 
cient, and Loi-d George asked the Duke of Rich- 
mond to permit him to erect more. " If you had 
Chichester barracks," replied the Duke, laughing, 
" you would fill all the stalls. You had better 
get rid of some of your horses, as Kent recom- 
mends." " How am I to get rid of them ? " 
asked his Lordship. " Sell them, my Lord, if 
you can," was my reply ; " if not, give them 
away or shoot them," which his Grace thought 
good sound advice. After much persuasion, Loi-d 
George consented that fifteen should go to Tatter- 



THE GOODWOOD YEARLINGS. 113 

sail's, and made a promise not to attend the sale, 
but to let them go for what they would fetch. 
All were sold but one, which, naturally, no one 
would purchase when offered with its engage- 
ments. The highest prices realised were £25 and 
£30. Some of them were yearlings, and had 
been tried. Three of the latter became the prop- 
erty of Mr Francis Villiers, who, like his father 
the Earl of Jersey, had no faith in yearling trials. 
In the spring Lord George said to me, "You 
have got me into a pretty mess by your advice 
to sell those yearlings, as Mr Villiers tells me 
they can run." I told his Lordship that I was 
pleased to hear it. "You are pleased when I 
have sold good horses, are you?" he rejoined, 
sharply. I answered that I was glad to hear 
they could run, for I knew that his Lordship had 
better in his stables, which I hoped would win 
some of their engagements. Still he continued 
to regret having sold them, and in order to try 
and reassure him, I selected some of our horses 
which had been tried, and which I thought were 
better than those sold, although not the best of 
his lot. I therefore advised his Lordship to make 
some matches with them against those Mr Vil- 
liers had bought. Three or four matches were 
accordingly made. Lord Greorge won the first 
very easily, and received forfeit for the others. 
After this he was satisfied, and no longer re- 
gretted the sale of his yearlings. 

H 



114 REMOVAL FROM DANEBURY. 

Counting those belonging to the Duke of Rich- 
mond and Lord George, forty or fifty yearlings 
were broken each year. I found it veiy advan- 
tageous to ascertain their merits as soon as I could, 
and to select a few of the best for heavy engage- 
ments, as was proved by results ; for often, when 
taken from the paddocks, the most promising were 
put into stakes which closed very early. If possi- 
ble, all were tried before the end of the Houghton 
Meeting. In some years many were tried before 
Doncaster Races, as was the case in 1844, when 
Ennui (dam of Saunterer, Loiterer, &c.) distin- 
guished herself by winning two trials. At Don- 
caster John Scott had what was thought a very 
fine yearling to sell, called Tom Tulloch — by Het- 
man Platofi*, out of Cyprian — which Lord George 
was anxious to purchase, and desired me to look 
him over. I did not quite like the colt, as he was 
heavy-shouldered, and one of his fore-feet rather 
clubby. Still, his Lordship had a fancy to buy 
him. I recommended him not to do so, but to 
let some one else have him, and to match the little 
filly, Ennui, against him. At the sale Lord George 
bid 1200 guineas for Tom Tulloch, when I en- 
treated him not to bid more. Eventually the colt 
became the property of Lord Maidstone for 1500 
guineas. The next day Lord Maidstone, the Earl 
of Glasgow, and others went round Lord George's 
stud at Doncaster. " So I hear you bought that 
yearling from John Scott yesterday," said Lord 



THE GOODWOOD YEARLINGS. 115 

George to Lord Maidstone. " I will run you for 
£500 at Goodwood next year with a little filly 
I have got." To which Lord Maidstone replied, 
" John Scott will not take a two-year-old to Grood- 
wood, but I will run you here." Lord Glasgow 
wished it to be a sweepstakes, that he might put 
one in, which was agreed to. "I will bet each of 
you a thousand I beat you," said Lord George. 
The bets were taken. When the race came ofi*, 6 
to 4 was laid on Tom Tulloch, but Ennui won easily 
by four lengths. This success encouraged his Lord- 
ship to try his yearlings as early as possible, and 
ultimately some were tried before York Races, 
with good results. This was one of the many 
endeavours of Lord George to accomplish what 
to others appeared impossible. "Nothing is im- 
possible," he would say, "if you will only try." 
Whenever I told him that I did not think some 
wish of his could be carried out, he would say 
immediately, "Will you try?" and if successful, 
he would greet me with, " I told you it could be 
done." If unsuccessful, he would say, "As you 
could not succeed, I suppose it is not possible. 
I am much obliged to you for trying all the same." 
A great and just characteristic of his Lordship's 
was, that he always acknowledged a service ren- 
dered, and appreciated the efibrt made. There 
was no limit to his sanguine self-confidence, or 
to the resources he suggested and called into 
play for the purpose of accomplishing some object. 



116 REMOVAL FROM DANEBURY. 

To cite expense as a reason for not attempting it 
was sure to offend him ; and he would invariably 
sign a blank cheque when he deputed me to make 
any purchase for him, and handed it to me, saying, 
" There, fill that up for whatever you think it, or 
they, are worth." 

In 1844 Lord George Bentinck ran thirty -eight 
horses in 175 races, and won fifty-three. He had 
increased his stud considerably, having about 
seventy brood mares and two or three stallions, 
in addition to the large number in training, the 
forfeits for which alone amounted to £9170. This 
was rather a successful year. The stable, including 
his Lordship's and the Duke of Richmond's horses, 
won sixty-three races, value £19,840, including the 
Port Stakes at Newmarket, the Somersetshire 
Stakes at Bath, the Chester Cup, Ham, Drawing- 
Room, and Nassau at Groodwood, Municipal and 
Two-year-old Stakes at Doncaster, the Clearwell, 
a great match with Miss Elis against Oakley 
and another between Clumsy and Vibration, both 
at Newmarket. At the First October Meeting 
the stable won six races, ten at the Second October 
and ten at the Houghton Meeting, making twenty- 
six races in the three weeks. Upon some Lord 
George won largely, especially on the two matches 
of Miss Elis and Clumsy. The latter was only a 
two-year-old, and ran a match over the Two Middle 
Miles against Vibration, a five-year-old mare be- 
longing to Sir Joseph Hawley. Clumsy carried a 



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SUCCESSES m 1844. 117 

" feather " and Vibration 8 st. 9 lb. The betting 
was very heavy, as it was considered absurd to' 
run a two-year-old over such a long course against 
a good five-year-old mare ; but to win such a race 
was the height of his Lordship's ambition. 

The stable's successes in 1844 commenced with 
the victory of the Duke of Richmond's Red Deer 
for the Chester Cup. The betting was heavy, and 
the race had never been won before by a three- 
year-old ; in fact, three-year-olds were not entered 
for it until two years previously, when his Lordship 
put some in. During the winter Lord George was 
able to get on a large stake in small sums by back- 
ing the three-year-olds, Kent's lot, and Red Deer 
outright, without directing attention to the horse. 
As Red Deer was handicapped at 4 st., it ap- 
peared to Lord George so great a certainty that 
he made a book for him, laying against others. 
In a letter to me dated January 13, 1844, he says : 
" I am glad to see Red Deer in at 4 st. (as well 
as Strathspey) for the Chester Cup ; for if Kitch- 
ener can get Red Deer out, and if he is the horse 
over a distance of ground that you tried him 
to be, I don't see how he can be beaten." With 
his Lordship's love for heavy speculations it may 
be easily imagined to what extent he would bet 
upon a race of this description, when entertaining 
the opinion he expresses in the above letter. In 
another letter, written from Harcourt House, Feb- 
ruary 24, 1844, he says: "At present all I have 



118 REMOVAL FROM DANEBQRY. 

done is to get 700 to 100 about the lot for the 
Chester Cup. I wish I had had the luck to get 
the odds about the three-year-olds. I have desu'ed 
my commissioners to be on the look-out for any 
repetition of such offers. I do sincerely hope I 
may get through in my match with The Caster." 

On March 19 his Lordship wrote me: "I am 
delighted to hear so good a report of Bramble. 
If he can win his match, it vnll pay all my for- 
feits at the Spring Meetings, which is as much 
as I can expect to do. I am very glad to hear 
Kitchener seems to manage Red Deer so well. 
I have now got on the odds to £285 about the 
lot at 7 i to 1, and the odds to £75 outright about 
Red Deer, which averages, I believe, about 24 to 
1. It has been very hard work to get on ; all in 
£10 bets. Your father and you shall stand at 
25 to 1. Your father wishes to stand £20 — 
viz., 500 to 20 ; let me know what you would 
like to stand. I am bound to confess that I 
think Chester the worst course in England for a 
' feather ' ; if it were at Newmarket, Goodwood, 
or even Bath, I should not be much afraid. If 
Bramble wins his match against The Caster, he 
will be first favourite for the Chester Cup ; and 
from what you write me I cannot help being 
very sanguine." Bramble's match against The 
Caster was for 1200 guineas (Beacon Course). 
Although John Scott's party were very confident 
of winning with The Caster, Bramble made strong 



BEMOVAL FROM DANBBUBY. 119 

running and won easily by twelve lengths. As 
Lord George predicted, Bramble became first 
favourite for the Chester Cup, being in at 7 st. 
9 lb. and 4 years old, Scott's party backing him 
stoutly. " Those who like may back Red Deer," 
said they, "but Bramble will win." John Day's 
party also backed the latter, remembering how 
easily he beat Ben-y-ghlo and Vitula at Bath the 
year before. As Red Deer could beat Bramble 
at one half the weight he had to give him — ^viz., 
3 st. 9 lb. — his Lordship stood a heavy stake 
against Bramble, and felt much alarmed when 
he saw him gallop at Chester; but I assured 
him he had no earthly ehanee of giving the weight 
to Red Deer, unless the latter fell down. Few 
if any other owners would, however, have started 
Bramble under the circumstances, and allowed the 
public to have a run for their money, when it 
would have been so easy to put the pen through 
the horse's name. As Red Deer belonged to the 
Duke of Richmond, and Bramble to Lord George, 
it was impossible to declare to win with the 
former. 

Rumours being rife that some foul play might 
be attempted, as such reports were frequently 
circulated in connection with races upon which 
there had been much heavy speculation, I deemed 
it advisable to lead Red Deer to the post myself, 
not feeling disposed to intrust so important and 
responsible a task to any one else. The field 



120 REMOVAL FROM DANEBURY. 

being so large and the circular course so narrow, 
the horses were started in two Unes. Having 
Bramble and Best Bower in the race as well as 
B/ed Deer, I placed the two former horses im- 
mediately in front of Red Deer, and instructed 
their jockeys to let Red Deer pass between them 
as soon as the flag fell. It was with no little 
difficulty that I was able to retain hold of the 
horse, and avoid being run over or kicked, as 
Red Deer was of a free and rather nervous tem- 
perament. If he had once broken away with 
such a tiny jockey upon his back, I thought it 
most improbable that he would ever get to the 
starting-post again. At last a start was effected, 
when Red Deer, after making two or three vigor- 
ous plunges, passed between Bramble and Best 
Bower, and took up the running at such a terrific 
pace that he was soon many lengths in advance 
of everything in the race, and ultimately won by 
a dozen lengths, running on to the Dee side be- 
fore Kitchener could pull him up. So dense was 
the crowd round him, and so great the enthu- 
siasm, that it was feared an attempt might be 
made to displace the tiny jockey. With all pos- 
sible haste, therefore, I made my way to him, 
and succeeded in getting hold of the bridle and 
in leading the winner back to the weighing-place, 
but not till long after all the other jockeys had 
weighed and the horses had left the course. It 
will readily be imagined that the announcement 



ENTHUSIASM AT GOODWOOD, 121 

"All right!" was an inexpressible relief to me. 
The prevailing opinion that the Chester course 
was the most unfavourable one in England for 
such a horse and jockey, in which opinion Lord 
George Bentinck fully concurred, proved quite 
the reverse of the truth, as it was really equiva- 
lent to turning the horse loose in a cbcus from 
which there was no escape. Instead of a race, 
it bore more resemblance to a " Red Deer chase," 
and every arrangement connected with this re- 
markable event appeared to have been thought 
out and brought off to perfection. 

Upon the return home of Red Deer in his van 
he was met at the Fareham station by a large 
number of people amid great rejoicings. At the 
next stage, Havant, the landlord (Mr Lock), who 
enjoyed the lucrative privilege of supplying post- 
horses for all the vans and chaises from Goodwood 
to Fareham and back, was desirous of adding em- 
phasis to the general jubilations by decorating his 
horses and the post-boys with a profusion of the 
victorious colours. At Chichester the van was 
met by many of the citizens, with flags and 
baimers bearing the well-known yellow and scar- 
let coloiuTS. The enthusiasm and cheering were 
as great as when the news of the glorious 
victory of Waterloo was received in 1815. At 
Goodwood Lodge gates the Chester party foimd 
a well - constructed set of rope - harness, with 
poles, &c., in readiness, and fifty or sixty stable- 



122 REMOVAL FROM DANEBURY. 

men and lads waiting to take the place of the 
post-horses, which were soon detached. The two- 
legged substitutes made their way with perfect 
ease to the Goodwood stables, delighted at the 
good fortune of the Duke of Richmond, the uni- 
versally popular owner of the horse. If, indeed, 
I were to say " beloved," I should not exaggerate 
the prevailing sentiment entertained towards that 
estimable nobleman. 

Lord George Bentinck started the horses at 
Chester, consisting of a field of twenty -six ; and 
with a view to helping the tiny jockey. Kitchener, 
who weighed only 3 st. 4 lb.. Red Deer made strong 
running, and won very easily, much to the gratifi- 
cation of his Lordship, who immediately despatched 
a messenger to Goodwood to communicate the re- 
sult to their Graces. The news, however, had been 
received there many hours earlier, by means of 
carrier-pigeons sent by me from the course, un- 
known to any one except my father, so as to avoid 
disappointment should the pigeons fail to reach 
home. Upon the race Lord George won a large 
stake, and stated to me in a letter that he got 
every farthing due to him, much to his own sur- 
prise, as on no previous occasion had he escaped 
loss from defaulters when betting on the same scale. 



123 



CHAPTER VI. 



LORD George's support of goodwood races. 



Previous to 1841, when Lord George Bentinck 
transferred his race-horses from Danebury to Good- 
wood, he had taken great interest in the Gtx)d- 
wood race-course, and, in conjunction with the Duke 
of Richmond, had in many ways improved it and 
its stands. In order to relieve the congestion of 
traflfic flowing through Goodwood Park during the 
race week, he increased the approaches to the 
grand stand by making two new roads, one on 
each side of the park. Subsequently he discovered 
that the last half- mile of the course was not so 
elastic as he wished, especially in dry seasons. It 
was newly made ground, and the soil under the 
turf had been laid on loose chalk, through which 
the mould percolated and was carried down after 
heavy rain, so that the turf subsided in many, 
places. Under these circumstances the Duke of 
Richmond and Lord Greorge caused four inches of 
fine mould to be laid upon the old turf, right across 



124 GOODWOOD RACES. 

the last half-mile of the course. Upon this mould 
another layer of turf was superimposed, the grassy- 
side being turned downwards, and over it another 
three -inch layer of friable soil was spread, the 
whole being crowned by sods, which, together with 
the mould, were bought from a tenant farmer 
who lived two or three miles away. Like all Lord 
George's undertakings, this improvement of the 
last half-mile of the course was conducted in no 
half-hearted or perfunctory way. Nothing could 
be more satisfactory than the results eflfected by 
this heavy and well-directed outlay when the 
season was dry. The mould was held in its place 
by the double tiu^ng, to which Lord George 
previously had recourse at Danebury. On the 
other hand, it was found that in wet weather this 
portion of the course was very heavy going, as is 
always the case with newly made ground. In 
1848, for instance. Surplice could not raise a gal- 
lop when opposed by Distafl&na in the Gratwicke 
Stakes, although Lord Chesterfield was well aware, 
through his old mare. Lady Wildair, with whom 
Surplice had been tried, that upon racing-ground 
the Derby winner could give Distaflfina two stone 
and a good beating. In 1855, again, John Scott, 
who never was partial to Goodwood, attributed the 
^efeat in the Ham Stakes of Mr Bowes's Fly-by- 
Night, who was known to be very smart, to the 
deep ground, through which Mary Copp, the win- 



LORD GEORGE AND GOODWOOD. 



125 



ner, galloped without sinking, as her feet were very 
large. The upset of public form which, from the 
same causes, took place in 1888, will be fresh in the 
memory of many of my readers. 

It is difl&cult to imagine to what pitch of perfec- 
tion Lord George would have raised the Goodwood 
meeting had he been spared to return to the Turf, 
which, as I shall shortly state, he contemplated at 
the time of his death. In order to demonstrate 
what his Lordship actually eflTected, I have com- 
piled the following comparative tables, showing, 
on the one hand, what Goodwood races were dur- 
ing the ten years prior to the removal of Lord 
George's stud from Danebury in 1841, and, on the 
other, what they were between 1842 and 1851, 
inclusive : — 

TABLE I. 



1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 



o 
«?3 



?' IS 






a 



64 

89 

90 

68 

85 

133 

116 

111 

171 

1092 



^ o 



16 
17 
18 
15 
17 
20 
21 
19 
28 
31 

202 






a 

QQ 



CG 



69 

81 

112 

117 

94 

107 
118 
128 
127 
151 

1104 



I 



28 
26 
41 
29 
41 
39 
40 
45 
64 
49 

402 



S 



OQ 



13 
14 
16 
14 
18 
17 
10 
16 
15 
18 

151 



OQ-S 



33 
37 
40 
47 
40 
44 
40 
46 
44 
51 



I 

OQ 



6 
9 

10 

10 

10 

10 

8 

9 

9 

9 



422 I 90 



^3 

£ 

4,275 

4,937 

5,415 

5,590 

4,260 

9,495 

8,645 

10,295 

10,620 

18,270 

81,802 



126 



GCK)DWOOD RACES. 



TABLE n. 



1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 



The ten previ 
oas yean 

Increase 



} 




S I 

a 
S 

3 I 



CO 



II 

CO** 



50 
48 
52 
58 
60 
63 
47 
41 
43 
41 



1340 I 503 



202 1104 402 



101 



20 


50 


15 


47 


18 


52 


i 23 


48 


21 


53 


14 


38 


16 


32 


21 


30 


17 


23 


13 


30 


178 


403 


1 151 


• • • 


27 


• • • 



I 

5 

OQ 



'9 

13 
9 

12 
9 
9 
9 
8 
8 

10 



o c ^ 



£ 
18,417 
17,666 
23,849 
18,547 ; 
24,910 , 
23,475 
20,455 I 
19,020 
19,002 
13,215 



1- 



96 198,556 
... 1 81,802 



116,754 



Although Lord George ceased to run any horses 
after August 1846, he had others entered at Good- 
wood (some of them very heavily engaged) in 1847, 
1848, and 1849, which, of course, augmented the 
value of the stakes. I will venture again to call 
attention to the extraordinary support given by 
his Lordship to his favourite meeting ; and as 
specimen years, let me take 1844 and 1845. In 
1844 he ran forty-nine horses there — viz., eleven 
on the first day, nine on the second, fourteen on 
the third, and fifteen on the fourth. For the week 
his stakes and forfeits amounted to £6155 — a sum 
wholly unparalleled, either before or since, for a 
single owner of race-horses to put down at one 
meeting. In 1845 Lord George ran forty-eight 



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LORD George's expenses. 127 

horses at Goodwood — viz., ten on the first day, 
nine on the second, thirteen on the third, and six- 
teen on the fourth. This year his stakes and for- 
feits amounted to £4580. 

It was not to be expected that the enormous ex- 
penses incurred by Lord George in connection with 
his stud, including the training of about sixty 
horses, the maintenance of three stud-farms, the 
cost of travelling, of stakes and forfeits, and a hun- 
dred other charges, could be defrayed, or half de- 
frayed, by the races he won in days when owners 
ran almost exclusively for each other's money. It 
was necessary for him to bet, and it must be added 
that he took the greatest delight in it, so long as 
he could devote all his energies to watching the 
running of his own and of other horses, to compar- 
ing their respective forms, and to gaining informa- 
tion on all sorts of subjects germane to the Turf, 
in which respect I never knew his equal. I can 
well imagine what an effort it must have cost, and 
what a wrench it must have been to him, to dis- 
pose of his stud, and to tear himself away from the 
Turf, to which his attachment was so unmistak- 
ably genuine ; for success in connection with which 
he was exceptionally adapted ; and which, in addi- 
tion to affording him great pleasure, contributed 
materially to the preservation o{ the robust health 
which, until he took to politics in earnest, he al- 
ways enjoyed. It was, indeed, impossible to wit- 
ness the zest and appetite with which he invariably 



128 GOODWOOD RACES. 

partook of breakfast and luncheon at my father's 
house after walking about the downs, and breath- 
ing their elastic and invigorating air, without feel- 
ing conscious that his mind and body were at their 
very best. He repeatedly avowed that he never 
enjoyed food so much as the simple viands put 
before him on my father's table, and expressed a 
wish to know where they were obtained, so that 
he might procure some of the same sort and send 
them to Welbeck Abbey. Even the common firuits 
and vegetables at Goodwood he thought superior 
to those he tasted elsewhere. He was hardly aware 
for how much health and enjoyment he was in- 
debted to the fine air he was breathing, to the 
simple life he was leading, and the entire absorp- 
tion of his faculties in a pursuit to which he was 
passionately devoted. 

Had it not been that the fifth Duke of Rich- 
mond and every member of his family appreciated 
the enjoyment taken by Lord George in Good- 
wood and in his race-horses, he would hardly have 
been permitted by the Duke to keep such an 
enormous number of horses in training, necessitat- 
ing the constant employment of a corresponding 
nmnber of boys and stablemen. It must not be 
forgotten that the racing stables are close to 
Goodwood House, and that any lack of order or 
discipline among the stable-boys might, and pro- 
bably would, have been extremely disagreeable 
to the members of the family. My father fre- 



EMIUTTS'S PROGENY. 129 

quently inquired whether the noise inseparable 
from such a large establishment, but which he 
always endeavoured to keep within boimds, was 
the cause of any inconvenience, and was repeatedly 
assured that the Duke and Duchess and their 
family took pleasure in watching the amusements 
of the boys, and especially the games of cricket 
in which they took part. When I mention that, 
in 1844, Lord George ran thirty-eight different 
horses in 182 races at places scattered all over 
England, and in 1845, thirty-six horses in 190 
races, I do not think that a similar record can be 
quoted about any other patron of the Turf The 
nearest approach to it that I can find was that 
made by the Prince of Wales in 1789 and 1790, 
in each of which years his Royal Highness started 
thirty -five horses, almost all of which he had 
purchased, while those belonging to Lord George 
Bentinck were almost without exception bred by 
himself 

Lord George was most favourably impressed 
with the soundness and stoutness of the progeny 
of Emilius, finding that when to the above-named 
qualities Emilius's sons and daughters added speed, 
in which they were generally deficient, they never 
failed to make their mark. When Priam, Emilius's 
best son, won the Goodwood Cup, beating Fleur de 
Lis, his Lordship took the greatest liking to that 
noble horse, who, in my opinion (and I am never 
tired of repeating it), was the best and most 

I 



130 GOODWOOD RACES. 

f 

perfectly shaped race-horse I ever saw. It was 
because Crucifix was a daughter of Priam that 
Lord George purchased her and her dam at 
Tattersall's, when the latter was twenty-two years 
old, and Crucifix one of the scraggiest and most 
unpromising foals ever seen. There can be little 
doubt that Crucifix, when tried as a yearling in 
1838, kept Lord George on the Turf at a moment 
when he thought of leaving it for ever ; and, again, 
the victory of Crucifix's son. Surplice, for the 
Derby and St Leger of 1848, confirmed him in his 
determination to return to the Turf, which he 
would most assuredly have done — probably on a 
greater scale than ever-had his Ufe been spared. 

Some time after the death of Mr ThornhiU in 
1844, Lord George piu*chased Emilius privately, 
although the horse was then twenty-four yeara 
old, and very weak. Such was the care taken of 
him by Lord George, that the old horse regained 
his strength and was as fresh as a four-year-old 
when leased, in 1846, to Mr R M. Jaques, of Easby 
Abbey, near Richmond-on-Swale, on the sale of 
Lord George's stud. Emilius died in 1847 at the 
age of twenty-seven. " He was perfectly well," 
writes " The Druid," in ' Silk and Scarlet,' " until 
just before his death, which was caused by some 
one giving him a feed of whole oats, which he was 
not able to masticate. They buried him near 
some loose-boxes in a paddock which the Abbot 
of the White Canons of Easby surveyed of yore 



DEATH OF EMILIUS. 131 

from his Study window. A stone that had once 
been the crosiered tomb of a Cardinal, but had 
gradually mingled with the ruins, and then served 
as threshold to the box where Weatherbit now 
stands, is built into the wall to mark the spot; 
and thus to a certain extent Frank Buckle's last 
Derby winner is canonised." 

In Mr Langley's ' Reminiscences of Easby,' fiill 
justice is done to Emilius's extraordinary career 
at the Stud ; and it is recorded that " Mr Jaques 
hired him for £100 for the season of 1847, and, 
owing to his great age, insured his life — the first 
policy of the kind ever issued by the office — for 
that amount, which, curiously enough, fell in, 
owing to the horse dying in the August of that 
year, aged twenty -seven." 

His Lordship's partiality for stayers was not 
gratified when he purchased Bay Middleton. 
Nevertheless he managed to win some races 
over two or three miles of ground with two- 
year-olds got by that famous son of Sultan. It 
was one of their characteristics that they stood 
less in need of severe training than the young sons 
and daughters of other sires. When Lord George's 
horses went from Danebury to Goodwood, he 
imagined that they would stay better if trained 
more severely. After experimenting with some of 
them in this way, I found that long and strong 
gallops, often repeated, had the effect of making 
them worse and worse, until at last they lost even 



132 GOODWOOD RACES. 

such form as they possessed, through tiring from 
weakness. His Lordship soon came to the same 
opinion as that inculcated after long experience 
by my father, and now repeated by me after sixty 
years of familiarity with the Turf in all its depart- 
ments. If there be any art in training race-horses, 
it consists in knowing when they are perfectly fit 
to run the distance for which they are destined 
by Nature. Such knowledge can only be gained 
by close observation and practical experience. I 
could enumerate a vast number of horses which, 
within my knowledge, have been sacrificed from 
lack of judgment and skill in ascertaining what 
was their best distance and what their constitu- 
tions required. One instance I will mention which 
will perhaps be remembered by some who read 
these remarks, as it happened in 1865. 

In that year Mr Padwick had a three-year-old 
called Kangaroo, who stood at Drewitt's stable at 
Lewes, but was under mj'' supervision. With 
Kangaroo I won for Mr Padwick the Abbot Stakes 
at Chelmsford on March 28, 1865; the Craven 
Handicap at Lewes on March 30 ; and the New- 
market Biennial on April 18. In the last-named 
race Kangaroo beat a field of nineteen starters, 
scattering them in such a manner after making 
strong running that the Marquis of Hastings gave 
Mr Padwick 12,000 guineas and contingencies for 
the horse, upon the strength of his having easily 
defeated the Duke of Beaufort's Koenig, whom 



KANQABOO. 133 

Lord Hastings and other patrons of the Danebury 
stable backed very heavily, taking 7 to 4 to thou- 
sands of pounds. 

Kangaroo was a very powerful muscular horse, 
and appeared to those who eyed him superficially 
to be not half-trained when he won at New- 
market. When I delivered the horse to John 
Day, he told me that he should give him a couple 
of good sweats, and try him before he ran for the 
Two Thousand, distant a fortnight from that day. 
John Day added that by so doing he expected to 
improve Kangaroo a stone in a fortnight. My 
reply was that I doubted whether he or any one 
else could make the horse an ounce better than 
he was that day. In addition to severe daily 
gallops, such as Danebury has always been famous 
for. Kangaroo had two long and distressing sweats, 
and when tried was a worse horse by two stone 
than when he beat Koenig and a large field so 
easily. In point of fact. Kangaroo never won 
another race, although he ran at last in very 
inferior company. He was practically ruined by 
an injudicious attempt to make him better. 

Precisely the same thing happened in 1855 with 
Oulston, a fine upstanding colt, son of Melboiune 
and Alice Hawthorne. Oulston did not start for 
the Derby which Wild Dayrell won, and for which, 
in point of fact, Oulston was not trained. He was 
brought out by Mr Padwick, his owner, to run 
for the Queen's Vase at Ascot in the expectation 



134 GOODWOOD RACES. 

that, having done very little work at Findon, 
where he was trained by old John B. Day, he 
would not get half-way. To the astonishment of 
both owner and trainer, Oulston won the Vase in 
a canter, and before night Mr Padwick sold him 
to IVIr Elwes for 6500 guineas, who sent him to 
Danebury. At York August Eaces Oulston was 
brought out to oppose Wild Dayrell for the Ebor 
St Leger, the latter carrying 6 lb. extra for win- 
ning the Derby. It was notorious that Wild 
Dayrell pulled up lame after the Derby, and 
having a bad leg he had done little or no work 
before meeting Oulston at York. Infirm and im- 
trained, however, as he was, the extra 6 lb. did 
not prevent his giving Oulston a stone beating, 
as in two months the latter had become a con- 
firmed roarer, and almost worthless. 

I have no hesitation, as the result of my long 
experience, in saying that more horses are ruined 
by over-training than in any other way. To assist 
Nature is all that a trainer can effect ; but to im- 
pose a greater strain on a horse than Nature can 
bear, is to defeat the purpose for which the animal 
is put into training. When I add that every horse 
requires to be trained in a different way — the dif- 
ference being sometimes grave and sometimes m- 
finitesimal — it will be seen what observation, at- 
tention, and vigilance a trainer must exercise who 
has one hundred horses under his care. Another 
fatal mistake often perpetrated is to get a horse 



REVOLUTION IN TRAINING. 135 

fit to run, as the phrase has it, " for a man's life," 
two or three weeks before the day when his race 
is due. To keep a horse at concert -pitch for 
twenty, or even for fourteen days, will try the 
skill of the very ablest trainer. I may add, at the 
end of a long life, that I could never have gone 
through what I did at Goodwood, between 1841 
and 1848, but for the constant support and en- 
couragement so generously accorded to me by my 
two noble masters, the fifth Duke of Richmond 
and Lord George Bentinck. 

The construction and wide extension of railways, 
the facility, rapidity, and safety with which horses 
are conveyed in boxes to the scene of action and 
back to their training stables, and lastly, the elec- 
tric wire, have revolutionised the whole system of 
racing and of training, early maturity and quick 
returns being at present the order of the day. 
Nowadays a vast majority of horses terminate 
their racing careers at an age at which they com- 
menced it in my youth, the result being that mod- 
em trainers are subjected to much less work and 
much less anxiety than their predecessors under- 
went. Such, moreover, is the richness of the prizes 
now within reach of a good horse during the first 
two years of his racing career, that enormously in- 
creased prices are given for thoroughbreds of all 
ages, although in my opinion these prices cannot 
and will not be sustained. Lord George Bentinck 
was one of the first to pay long prices for horses. 



136 GOODWOOD RACES. 

He gave, for instance, 1500 guineas at the sale of 
Sir Mark Wood's stud, in 1837, for the famous 
brood-mare Camarine, and 1010 guineas for her 
yearling colt, Glenlivat, by Rowton or Cetus. As 
a rule, modern purchasers of thoroughbred year- 
lings have not the same opportunities of looking 
over the youngsters which they think of buying 
as were afforded to their predecessors fifty or sixty 
years since. At that time yearlings were almost 
invariably purchased by private contract, and 
auction sales were almost unknown. Formerly 
Lord George and other purchasers would pay more 
than one visit to the best-known stud-farms, such 
as Riddlesworth, the seat of Mr Thomhill ; Euston 
Park, the seat of the Duke of Grafton ; Underley 
Park, near Barrow-in-Furness, the seat of Mr 
Nowell ; Bishop Burton HaU, near Beverley, the 
seat of Mr Richard Watt ; Sledmere Park, near 
Malton, the seat of Sir Tatton Sykes ; Rock- 
ingham House, Malton, the home of Mr Allen, 
who bred Rockingham and Canezou. Before 
buying a yearling (whom he had probably seen 
as a foal). Lord George would run round the 
paddock after him, rattling a stick inside his 
hat, and closely observing the youngster s action 
and style of going. In those days, moreover, 
yearlings were not fattened up like prize oxen 
before they were sold, and their condition was 
such that their trainer had not to strip them of 
fat before they were fit to gallop. I remember 



LORD GLASGOW. 15*7 

to have heard Tom Dawson say that Mr Copper- 
thwaite, an Irish gentleman, sent him a yearling 
to train who was as fat as a pig. Six months after- 
wards Mr Copperthwaite went to Middleham to 
inspect his colt, whom he found to be not half as 
heavy as when he last saw him. ** Grood heavens ! " 
he exclaimed to Tom Dawson, " half the horse is 
gone already, and if I leave him here any longer, 
the other half will soon follow ! " To prevent such 
a catastrophe, the colt was taken away next day. 

Vast as is the change which racing has under- 
gone since Lord George Bentinck's day, I have no 
manner of doubt that he would have reaped a 
rich harvest by following his old system of early 
training and early trying if he had been living 
now. It was his uniform practice to find out the 
form of his yearlings before he engaged them ; and 
I do not think that many of the fatted youngsters 
which are now knocked down at prices varying 
between one thousand and six thousand guineas 
would have had much chance with Lord George's 
picked colts and fillies, bred by himself regardless 
of expense, and brought up with every care so as 
to fit them to be running machines of the highest 
quality. 

I never remember any wealthy patron of the 
Turf who was so obstinate or so blind to his own 
interests as the late Earl of Glasgow. It was his 
Lordship's custom to make a lot of matches every 
year with Lord George Bentinck, seldom winning 



138 GOODWOOD RACES. 

one of them. In 1843, for instance, these two old 
antagonists ran a lot of matches against each 
other, all of which resulted in Lord George's 
favour, with the exception of one which ended in 
a dead heat. This match, run at Goodwood, was 
between Lord George's brown filly Alva by Bay 
Middleton, and Lord Glasgow's brown filly by 
Retainer — Purity. Immediately afterwards Lord 
Glasgow characteristically changed his trainer, 
and in order to test the capacity of the trainer 
whom he had left, he insisted upon making pre- 
cisely the same lot of matches over again to be 
run in the following year. To this Lord George 
greatly objected, as some of his animals were so 
bad that he had no desire to keep them in training 
for another twelvemonth. Lord Glasgow, how- 
ever, insisted, and to oblige him Lord Greorge gave 
waj\ Curious to relate, the result of all the 
matches in 1844 was the same as in 1843, including 
that between Alva and the Purity filly, which 
again ended in a dead heat. The only difference 
was that Flatman rode the Purity filly in 1843, 
and Job Marson in 1844, Sam Rogers being on 
the back of Lord George's filly on each occasion. 

There was certainly a fatality attending Lord 
Glasgow's numerous matches, for however bad the 
animal of his opponent might be. Lord Glasgow's 
was sure to be worse. Again, when Lord Glasgow 
got hold of one that could run a little, his 
opponent's almost invariably proved to be a little 



LORD Glasgow's unfortunate matches. 139 

better. In 1843 Lord Glasgow was beaten in 
nineteen matches, received forfeit in three, and 
ran one dead heat. In 1844 he was defeated in 
twenty matches, won one, received forfeit in two, 
and ran one dead heat. Notwithstanding his lack 
of success as a match - maker. Lord Glasgow's 
constant aim and ambition was to pit his horses 
against those of Lord George Bentinck, and to 
make heavy additional bets when the matches 
were made. Under these circumstances, no sports- 
man that ever lived, with the exception of Lord 
Glasgow, would have insisted upon running off the 
match when it had been made patent that his 
animal was worthless, and the animal he was 
about to oppose had shown some form. By paying 
forfeit. Lord Glasgow would have annulled the 
unprofitable bets he had made. He was not 
" built that way," however, as nothing could ever 
induce him to pay forfeit unless his horse was 
dead or a hopeless cripple. 

Mr Langley adds : " One of the most extra- 
ordinary matches ever conceived, for particulars of 
which I am indebted to a literary friend of long 
acquaintance, originated as follows. After a heavy 
and late debate in the House of Commons, Lord 
George feU sound asleep next day in the drawing- 
room at White's Club, so that all attempts to rouse 
him proved unavailing until the usual afternoon 
visit of Lord Glasgow, who was at once informed 
of these fruitless eflPorts. ' Oh, I'll soon wake him ! ' 



140 GOODWOOD RACES. 

remarked Lord Glasgow, and walking up to the 
chair in which the sleeper was ensconced, called out, 
* Bentinck, I want to make a bet with you ! ' The 
effect was so magical that Lord George instantly- 
opened his eyes, and replied, ' With pleasure, 
Glasgow ; what is it ? ' * I want to back the pro- 
duce of Miss Whip against that of any mare you 
name for the Derby of 1848/ 'Done; I name 
Crucifix — for how much ? ' ' Five thousand ! ' The 
bet was made. Crucifix being at that moment in 
foal with Surplice, and Miss Whip with a brute 
called Whipstick." 

The history of Lord George Bentinck's Farintosh 
will further show how atrociously bad Lord Glas- 
gow's luck was. Farintosh, by Bay Middleton out 
of Camarine's dam, was a magnificent yearling, 
and, contrary to his usual practice, Lord George 
engaged him very heavily before he was broken. 
Among his engagements was a match for 200 
sovereigns, half-forfeit, in which Farintosh under- 
took to give Colonel Peel's Murat 5 lb. at the July 
meeting of 1842. Long before that date Farin- 
tosh had turned roarer ; indeed I never knew a 
worse one of his age. Nevertheless, I had instruc- 
tions to take him to Newmarket, where I arrived 
the day before his match with Murat, which was 
also the day upon which the July Stakes was to 
be run, in which both horses were engaged. When 
Farintosh was brought out for the match, his 
appearance was so formidable that at the last 



FAIUNTCWSH. 141 

moment Colonel Peel paid forfeit. I then implored 
Lord George not to run Farintosh for the July 
Stakes, as no one was aware that the horse was a 
bad roarer, and I felt persuaded that if the secret 
was well kept, Farintosh would receive forfeit in 
some of his other matches, and might even be 
allowed to walk over for some of his smaller 
engagements. Lord George, however, was firm, 
and Farintosh accordingly started for the July 
Stakes, in which he met Murat at even weights. 
The race was won by Mr ThornhiU's brown filly 
Extempore, Lord Exeter s Jeny filly being second, 
and Colonel Peel's Murat third, beating Farintosh 
(who was last) by twenty lengths. 

Unfortunately Farintosh had several engage- 
ments and matches for the following year. One 
of the last (for 300 sovereigns, half- forfeit) was 
against Lord Glasgow's Sister to Pathfinder 
(A.F.) I was instructed to keep Farintosh in 
training for this match, which it would have been 
impossible for him to win, as he could not have 
galloped " across the flat " to save his life. Even 
under these circumstances Lord Glasgow's luck 
would not permit him to win such a match, as 
shortly before the appointed day his filly died. 

Lord George never forgot the lesson taught 
him by Farintosh, whom he entered for thirty- 
three engagements before he left the paddock. 
The forfeits for these engagements amounted to 
nearly £3000, which sei^ved at any rate to awaken 



142 GOODWOOD RACES. 

his Lordship to a sense of the impolicy of engaging 
yearlings before they had been broken and tried. 
As early as 1833 the Hon. E. M. Lloyd Mostyn 
was alive to the advantage of trying his yearlings. 
In that year he discovered that his superlatively 
good yearling filly Queen of Trumps was a " flyer," 
although, like all the Velocipedes, she was heavily 
fleshed and very robust of constitution, with bad 
knees. 

In those days there were few two -year -old 
stakes, and it was dangerous for a colt or fiUy of 
that tender age to travel long distances on foot. 
Mr Mostyn, therefore, engaged Queen of Trumps 
in but one two-year-old race — the Champagne at 
HolyweU Hunt Races, which took place close to 
her training quarters. This race she won without 
an effort, and her next appearance in public was 
for the Oaks at Epsom. Here she met and de- 
feated Mr Greville's Preserve, on whom 2 to 1 
was betted, as previously recorded. So favourably 
was Lord George impressed with that performance, 
that he gave Mr Mostyn very valuable advice, 
which resulted in the Queen being moved from the 
sandy gallops at Holywell to the fine downs at 
Hednesford, to be trained for the St Leger. 

The mention of Queen of Trumps reminds me 
that a more honest, industrious, capable, and trust- 
worthy man than John Blenkhorn, her trainer, 
never entered a stable. He enjoyed Mr Mostyn's 
confidence to the full, and it was a pleasure to see 



NAT FLATMAN. 143 

employer and trainer agreeing and understanding 
each other so thoroughly. Sometimes it happens 
that all the integrity of an owner, all the skill 
and devotion of a trainer, are baffled by the dis- 
honesty of a jockey. Many such cases have I 
known in my time ; but I cannot resist going out 
of my way to put on record what I know of El- 
nathan Flatman, one of the most honourable 
and meritorious men of his class that I ever en- 
countered. 

Flatman, better known by the abbreviated 
sobHquet of **Nat," was born in 1810 at the 
village of Holton, or Holton St Mary, in Suffolk. 
His father (a small yeoman farmer) gave him a 
good education at a school kept by a clergyman 
near to the house in which Nat was born ; but in 
a few years the father failed, and the boy, a pigmy, 
less than 4 stone in weight, gravitated to New- 
market, where in a fortunate moment for himself 
he obtained employment in the stable of William 
Cooper, one of the most upright trainers and best 
men that ever lived. I have often heard Colonel 
Peel say that when Nat knocked, as a boy, at 
William Cooper's back-door, he can'ied all his 
worldly goods in a bundle slung to a stick, thrown 
over his right shoulder. In 1825 there were plenty 
of stables at Newmarket and elsewhere in which 
the atmosphere was far less pure than that of the 
establishment into which Nat was inducted, and of 
which Colonel Peel was for many years the pre- 



144 GOODWOOD RACES. 

siding genius. The boy's rise in his profession was 
rapid and unintermitted. His first mount was on 
Lord Exeter's Gold Pin in 1829; his last, curi- 
ously enough, upon the Duke of Bedford's Golden 
Pippin in 1859. Being able to ride 7 st. 5 lb. and 
to keep down to that weight, he soon got more 
mounts than any other jockey, and for seven years 
(from 1846 to 1852, both inclusive) he headed the list 
of winning jockeys. When he died in 1860, having 
been riding for just thirty years, he left behind 
him the modest sum of £8000, and, in addition, he 
gave his sons and daughters — two of whom were 
drowned when the Princess Alice came into col- 
lision with, and was sunk by, the Bywell Castle 
on the Thames in September 1878 — an excellent 
education. 

Never was there a more faithful or honest 
servant than Flatman proved himself to all his 
employers. The masters for whom he rode at the 
commencement of his career may be set down in 
the following order : First, William Cooper and 
his stable, including Colonel Peel, General Yates, 
Captain George Byng (afterwards Earl of Straf- 
ford), and Captain Gardnor; second, Mr Payne 
and IVIr Greville ; third. Lord Chesterfield ; fourth, 
the Goodwood stable ; and fifth. Lord Glasgow. 

From William Cooper no retaining fee was ever 
accepted by Nat ; and from Colonel Peel he would 
never take more than £20 per annum, and £50 
from Mr Payne. His last list of masters, accord- 



NAT FLATMAN. 145 

ing to * Beirs Life/ included Mr Cooper, General 
Peel, Lord Straflford, Mr Payne, Mr Greville, Lord 
Chesterfield, Lord Wilton, Lord Ailesbury, and 
Lord Stradbroke. In addition, he was frequently 
employed by Lord Zetland, General Anson, Lord 
Derby, Sir Charles Monck, Sir Joseph Hawley, Mr 
Bowes, Mr A. Nicol, and John Scott. 

Nat's chief characteristics were that, more than 
any other jockey of my acquaintance, he rode 
scrupulously to orders ; and, secondly, that it was 
at all times difficult to induce him to stand £5 or 
£10 on his mount, or on a "good thing" from any 
of the stables for which he rode. One instance I 
remember of a race which he lost from not under- 
standing the sluggishness of the horse upon which 
he was mounted. In 1847 he rode Mr Mostyn's 
Crozier, by Lanercost out of Crucifix, in a Produce 
Stake at Ascot, over the Old Mile, against Mr 
Harvey Combe's Trouncer. The betting was 5 to 
4 on Crozier, and Flatman's orders were to make 
strong running, as Crozier was an extremely lazy 
horse and a good stayer. To my great surprise 
and disappointment, Trouncer waited upon Crozier, 
and beat him easily by a couple of lengths. Two 
days later Crozier and Trouncer were in another 
sweepstakes at the same weights, and among 
others they were opposed by a smartish horse 
called Epirote, who belonged to Colonel Anson. 
Mr Cynric Lloyd, who acted for Mr Mostyn, 
thought it quite useless to start Crozier again; 

K 



146 GK)ODWOOD RACES. 

but I persuaded him to do so, as I was not 
satisfied about the former race, and was prepared 
to give W. Abdale the mount upon Crozier, and 
to let Nat ride Epirote for Colonel Anson. When 
Nat saw that Crozier was being led about the 
course, he came up to me exclaiming, " Surely you 
are not going to run Crozier again, are you ? " I 
replied that such was my intention, but that T 
would not interfere with his mount on Epirote, as 
Abdale would ride Crozier, ** and," I added laugh- 
ing, "would win upon him." The little man was 
obviously stung by my remark, and said to me in 
a low voice, and with a very serious manner, " Do 
you mean to imply that I did not try my best to 
win upon Crozier the day before yesterday ? " "I 
imply nothing of the kind," I replied ; ** but I 
think the horse deceived you, and that you did 
not make as strong running as you might have 
done." " Then I insist upon riding him again," he 
rejoined. " Certainly," I answerd, ** and T will 
tell you how T want him ridden. When the flag 
is down take him by the head, touch him with 
the spurs, and make the pace as strong as you 
possibly can every inch of the way." Nat looked 
very serious, but obeyed his instructions to the 
letter. The betting was 5 to 4 against Trouncer, 
6 to 4 against Epirote, 5 to 1 against Buckston ; 
Crozier not mentioned. The latter was never 
headed, and won cleverly by half a length — Epirote 
second, Trouncer third, the rest beaten off. 



CROZIER. 147 

After the race I said to Flatman, " Well, what 
do you think of Crozier now ? " "I think him 
the hardest horse to ride that I ever sat on. In 
fact, he requires two men to get him out, and 
make him show his true form. Henceforward I 
will ride more strictly than ever to your orders, as 
I am now quite conscious that I lost the race on 
Tuesday." I have often heard him say that there 
was no stable for which he rode with greater 
pleasure and confidence than the Goodwood stable, 
as he always found our horses to be just what they 
were represented to him before the race. One 
further trait I must mention, which was, in my 
opinion, greatly to his credit. No jockey ever 
rode in more trials than Flatman did, but not a 
word as to the results ever escaped his lips. He 
would stop, for instance, at Bretby, on his way 
back from Malton, where he had been riding trials 
for Colonel Anson and John Scott. Although 
Colonel Anson and Lord Chesterfield were brothers- 
in-law, Nat would never consent to say one syl- 
lable to Lord Chesterfield, of whom he was very 
fond, and for whom he had ridden for years, as to 
the trials in which he had taken part. It is 
greatly to be regretted that the fidelity, silence, 
obedience to orders, and general integrity of Flat- 
man are not more closely copied by his modem 
successors, some of whom amass in ten years ten 
times as large a fortune as by steady industry 
and conscientious honesty he acquired in thirty. 



148 GOODWOOD RACES. 

If ever it were deemed desirable to erect a monu- 
ment to a jockey, Nat deserves to have a tablet 
set up in All Saints' Church, Newmarket (under 
the tower of which he now sleeps), and dedicated 
to his memory, as he was beyond all doubt one of 
the most respectable and honourable " knights of 
the pig-skin " that ever performed upon an English 
race-course. 



149 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1844. 

With the year 1844 we enter upon a period when 
Lord George Bentinck became more than ever en- 
grossed in his stud, which now began to realise his 
expectations, and to compensate him for his previ- 
ous heavy expenditure. It was most satisfactory 
to witness his Lordship's delight and the enjoyment 
that racing, upon which his whole thoughts were 
centred, afforded him. Much of his time was 
spent at Goodwood. He stayed with the family 
when there ; and when the Duke and Duchess of 
Richmond were absent he slept at the Swan Hotel 
in Chichester, breakfasting and lunching at my 
father s house. When the Duke was at Goodwood, 
nothing gave Lord George more pleasure than to 
take the house party over the stables, and to show 
them the horses. He was ever ready to encour- 
age and induce others to take interest in the sport 
he enjoyed so much ; and it afforded him no slight 
amusement to elicit from the ladies who accom- 



150 THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1844. 

panied him an expression of their opinion as to the 
merits of the horses which they inspected. If, as 
sometimes, but not often, happened, their guesses 
were correct, he never failed to reward them by 
putting the successful guessers on some small sum 
" to nothing," in case the horse of their choice 
should win an engagement. So extensive, how- 
ever, was the Goodwood establishment, between 
1841 and 1846, that it would have puzzled not 
only ladies, but also some of the keenest male 
judges of racing in England, to make a selection 
among the horses in the stable, or to read his 
Lordship's intentions aright. One of his most 
marked characteristics was, that he was always 
ready to make matches. At and about that time 
it was most unusual for a large party of noblemen 
and gentlemen who owned race-horses, to sit down 
to dinner without matches of all kinds being pro- 
posed before the party broke up. It was his Lord- 
ship's custom to note down the weights at which 
the horses of his friends were pitted against each 
other; and when a match was proposed to him, 
he rarely agreed to it until he had sent for me, 
and consulted me upon it. If I thought that his 
horse would win, he would go back and make the 
match ; and his first question when I met him next 
morning would invariably be, " How much of the 
match money will you stand, John ? " It was hijs 
express wish that I should have a money interest 
in every match made by him under these circum- 



LORD George's matches. 151 

stances ; but I seldom stood more than £10, and 
very rarely indeed £25. It was always a disap- 
pointment to his Lordship if I refused to stand 
anything, or reduced my venture to £5 or £10. 
On these occasions he would inquire of me, " Why 
will you not stand more on this match which you 
advised me to make ? Surely, if it is not worth 
your money it cannot be worth mine?" To say 
the truth, I was never fond of betting on my own 
account, and was always glad to discourage his 
Lordship, who was apt on all occasions to bet too 
much rather than too little. No accountant could 
be more accurate and methodical than he was in 
recording every bet made by or through him. If 
I was a winner, a cheque was invariably sent to 
me on the following Monday. In all other mat- 
ters his Lordship's attention to detail was equally 
minute. Nothing escaped his observation. I once 
had occasion to foment a horse for many days 
which had met with an accident, and it struck 
Lord George that the sponges used were not large 
enough. Upon returning to London, he instructed 
Gardner, his valet, to buy some big sponges, and 
have them sent to Harcourt House, Cavendish 
Square. When they aiTived, they did not satisfy 
his ideas of magnitude. " Go again," he said, " and 
search London until you can bring me six sponges 
half as big again as these." Gardner again sallied 
forth and returned with six enormous sponges, for 
which he had paid £15 or £16. "There!" ex- 



152 THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1844. 

claimed his Lordship, " I told you you could suc- 
ceed if you would only try." The sponges were 
sent down to Goodwood, where they were kept as 
ciu-iosities, being useless for the purpose contem- 
plated by his Lordship, as their size and the weight 
of water which they held made it almost impossible 
to handle them. The story is indicative of his 
Lordship's determination to get the best of every- 
thing — or what he thought the best — if his horses 
required it. 

Never was there a man in any class of life less 
liable to be daunted or intimidated by difficulties 
than Lord George Bentinck. The word " impossi- 
ble " mentioned in his hearing served but to inten- 
sify his determination not to be beaten ; and I have 
often thought that, had his lot been cast in stormy 
times, he would have gained the greatest distinc- 
tion as the commander of a large army. Nothing 
could frighten him ; nothing could tire him, or 
exhaust his resources. He delighted in details, 
and it was hard indeed for anybody to outwit him 
or take him in. Mr Greville never made a truer 
remark than when he observed in his * Diary,' 
" Lord George did nothing by halves, and was 
afraid of no man." But for Lord George's in- 
domitable energy and indefatigable perseverance, 
the notorious Running Rein case would never 
have been thoroughly investigated, and the fraud 
exposed. When Running Rein ran, nominally as 
a two-year-old, at Newmarket, in 1843, for a two- 



THE BUNNING REIN CASE. 153 

year-old plate which he won, beating the Duke of 
Rutland's Crinoline and ten others, the Duke 
objected to him on the ground that he was three 
instead of two years old. The case was inves- 
tigated by the Stewards, who dismissed it with 
the remark that the Duke of Rutland had not 
proved Running Rein to be three years old. 
When, however, the same horse started subse- 
quently for the Clear well Stakes, in which, al- 
though backed heavily by the public, he was 
beaten. Lord George's keen and vigilant suspicions 
were aroused by something that reached his ears. 
During the winter, therefore, he quietly obtained 
information which greatly strengthened his doubts 
as to Running Rein s real age. Scarcely had the 
horse been placed first for the Derby of 1844 before 
Lord George mentioned the facts which he had 
accumulated to Colonel Peel, the owner of Orlando, 
who finished second to Running Rein, and advised 
him strongly to make an objection, which he did 
at once, and claimed the Derby Stakes. The 
Stewards of Epsom Races directed Messrs Wea- 
therby to pay the stakes into the Court of Ex- 
chequer, and to leave the law to settle who was 
their rightful owner. Under these circumstances 
an action was brought by Mr A. Wood, the nomi- 
nator of Running Rein, against Colonel Peel in the 
Court of Exchequer, to decide who was entitled 
to receive the Derby Stakes. It was tried on the 
1st and 2d of July 1844, and resulted in a verdict 



154 THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1844. 

for Colonel Peel. I am one of the few survivors 
to whom every detail of the Running Rein Derby 
is well known, and I affirm, without hesitation, 
that but for L(jrd George Bentinck, Colonel Peel 
would never have objected to Running Rein, and 
that but for Lord George, Mr Wood would have 
won the case. The result of this celebrated trial 
was to make Lord George what Mr Disi-aeli, in 
his political V»iography of that nobleman, calls him, 
" Lord Pai-amount of the British Turf," 

Such was the sense univei-sally entertained of 
the value of the services rendered by Loixl George 
Bentinck in this case, that a public subscription 
was immediately set on foot with a view to pre- 
senting his Loiniship with a testimonial, expressing 
the gratitude and admiration of the subscribers. 
In an incredibly short space of time the sum of 
.£2100 was collected; but the Hercules of the 
Turf, having cleansed the Augean stable, refused 
to accept anything, either in the form of plate or 
money. It was therefore determined by a com- 
mittee of the Jockey Club, consisting of the Dukes 
of Bedford, Beaufort, and Rutland, the Earl of 
Chesterfield, and Viscount Enfield (afterwards Earl 
of Strafford), " that the amount subscribed should 
be applied to some public institution, with a view 
to forming the nucleus of a fund for securing in 
perpetuity to a certain number of the children 
of deserving trainers and jockeys enough to sup- 
port and educate them from infancy until of an 



BENTINCK BENEVOLENT FUND. 155 

age to earn their own Uving." Lord George 
Bentinck ultimately expressed a wish that the 
money thus subscribed " should be appropriated 
for the advantage of trainers and riders of good 
character." His Lordship's wish was respected, 
and out of it sprang the " Bentinck Benevolent 
Fund, for the benefit of the widows and children 
of deserving trainers and jockeys." Furthermore, 
it was resolved at a general meeting of the Jockey 
Club, held on Saturday, July 6, 1844, "That the 
thanks of the Jockey Club are eminently due, and 
are heartily ofiered, to Lord George Bentinck, for 
the energy, perseverance, and ability which he 
displayed in detecting, exposing, and defeating 
the atrocious frauds which have been brought to 
light during the recent trial respecting the Derby 
stakes in 1844." ^ 

That same year his Lordship distinguished him- 
self by the courage with which he confronted what 
seemed likely to prove — and was in fact — a fraud 
of a not less flagitious kind than the attempt on 
the part of Mr A. Wood and Goodman Levy to 
win the Derby with a four-year-old. 

In 1843 Mr Crockford had a two-year-old called 

^ Mr W. H. Langley, who witnessed the Derby of 1844 and its six 
predecessors, adds : " Before taking leave of the memorable Derby in 
question, I cannot resist recording the remarkable coincidence of 
Leander, a Qerman-bred five-year-old, belonging to Herr Lichtwald, 
and trained by Forth at Michel Grove, being galloped into by the 
other ' old 'on ' in descending the hill, whereby Leander's off hind 
fetlock was so badly smashed that he ran home on the exposed bony 
stump I 



156 THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1844. 

Batan, trained by Joe Rogers at Newmarket. 
Batan won the New Stakes at Ascot by three 
lengths, beating a bay filly, Assay, belonging to 
Alderman Copeland, who, from her previous per- 
formances, was backed at evens against the field. 
Lord George was a heavy backer of Assay, and 
lost his money. Ratan was an upstanding, good- 
looking horse, but rather short. Lord George 
immediately took the odds about him for the 
Derby. In the Houghton Meeting at Newmarket 
Ratan won the Criterion Stakes easily by four 
lengths, and was ridden, as at Ascot, by Sam 
Rogers. This encouraged Lord George during 
the winter to increase his investments upon Ratan 
for the Derby. In the Craven Meeting at New- 
market, 1844, Ratan again won a race easily by 
two lengths, beating a field of seven. This again 
encouraged Lord George to continue backing him 
for the Derby. At the First Spring Meeting, Mr 
John Day's The Ugly Buck won the Two Thou- 
sand Guineas, beating Lord George Bentinck's 
Devil-to-Pay by a neck, after a good race ; which 
form Lord George did not consider nearly equal 
to that displayed by Ratan, and he therefore con- 
tinued to back the latter heavily for the Derby. 
Still there was such an unmistakable disposition 
to lay against Ratan in certain dangerous quar- 
ters that Lord George began to suspect some- 
thing was amiss ; but as the horse was doing 
regular work he could not understand the mar- 



RAT AN AND THE UGLY BUCK. 157 

ket, and was dete»mined to find out what was the 
matter. By some unaccountable means, which 
he disclosed to no one, he discovered that Sam 
Rogers had bets with Mr Gully and others, in 
which he had backed The Ugly Buck upon 
such favourable terms that his Lordship's mis- 
givings were aroused. He lost no time, there- 
fore, in communicating his information to Sam 
Rogers, who was much confused upon finding 
that Lord George had acquired so much know- 
ledge of the matter. Next day Sam Rogers 
brought his Lordship a book which contained, or 
purported to contain, all his bets. There were 
some very suspicious names and bets entered there, 
which partly confirmed his Lordship's suspicions, 
and in conformity with the usual custom Lord 
George then proceeded to call over and compare 
Sam Rogers's bets, selecting the Spread Eagle Inn 
at Epsom (" Lumley's" it was commonly called in 
those days) for that purpose. Lord George, 
ascending the steps in front of the inn, said : 
" Gentlemen, I am going to call over my jockey 
Samuel Rogers's book, and will thank you to 
answer to your names and bets ! " He began by 
calling out Mr Gully's name. "Here," replied 
Mr Gully, quietly removing the cigar from his 
lips. "You have betted Samuel Rogers 350 to 
25 against Ratan, I perceive," said Lord George, 
in an interrogating voice. Mr Gully gave a nod 
of assent. " I see," continued his Lordship, 



158 THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1844. 

" that Rogers stands £50 with you on The Ugly 
Buck, no terms or price being named." Again a 
nod from Mr Gully. " Are these all the bets you 
have with Eogers, Mr Gully ? " inquired his Lord- 
ship. " If you have any more in my name, my Lord, 
and will specify them, I shall be better able to 
answer you," rephed Mr Gully, cautiously. Lord 
George then read out the whole of the book, 
dwelling particularly on some of the bets he 
was anxious to emphasise, such as those with 
Messrs Tom Crommelin, "DoUar" Scott, and a 
number of other heavy betters. He then closed 
the book and withdrew into the inn, leaving the 
crowd of listeners by whom he was surrounded 
no wiser as to his secret thoughts and future 
intentions.^ 

The betting at starting for the Derby was 5 to 
2 V. The Ugly Buck ; 3 to 1 v. Ratan ; 10 to 1 v. 
Running Rein; 14 to 1 v. Leander; 20 to 1 t\ 
Orlando. The Ugly Buck, ridden by J. Day, 
jun., and Ratan, ridden by Rogers, were beaten 
some distance from home, the running of the 
former confirming Lord George's estimate of him 
after he had won the Two Thousand ; but Ratan's 
form was altogether inexplicable. An inquiry was 

^ For the following valuable note I am again indebted to Mr 
W. H. Langley : " The particular transaction he was so anxious to 
have acknowledged was a bet of 10,000 to 1000 against Eatan, 
which Bogers had laid, and which appeared at the top of a 
page, as my informant, an eyewitness of the proceedings, can 
testify." 



SAM ROGERS PUNISHED. 159 

immediately demanded, but for some inscrutable 
reason it was not gone into by the Stewards of the 
Jockey Club until the October meetings at New- 
market came round. The result was that Samuel 
Rogers and John Braham were warned off the 
course and exercising-grounds at Newmarket ; and 
Samuel Rogers was declared unfit to ride or train 
for any member of the Jockey Club either at New- 
market or any other place where their rules and 
regulations were in force. Knowing Sam Rogers's 
associates and something of his betting proclivities, 
I had fi'equently remonstrated with him upon the 
danger to which he was exposing himself, and the 
unpleasant consequences which would ensue if he 
were detected. After his disgrace he wrote me 
some very penitent letters, expressing the deepest 
regret that he had not followed my advice, and 
thus avoided the sad difficulties which he had 
brought upon himself. Few people were more 
free from jealousy or suspicion than Lord George ; 
but facts sometimes occuri'ed to which it was im- 
possible for him or any one else to be blind. I 
have no doubt he received some deprecatory 
cautions from Mr Harry Hill, his chief commis- 
sioner, respecting his heavy and oft - repeated 
instructions to back Ratan for the Derby — as Mr 
Hill was a personal friend of Mr Gully, and shared 
many horses with him at Danebury. Whatever 
reports might be circulated, I never remember Lord 
George expressing a desire to guard against any 



160 THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1844. 

fraudulent design or practice beforehand. All he 
wished was, that every endeavour might be used 
to get the horses to the post well, and fit to 
run through their races successfully. Naturally 
there existed a rivalry between the Goodwood and 
Danebiury establishments, which the Ratan affair 
tended to increase. After that my doubts were 
strengthened with regard to the running of Gaper 
for the Derby, and for a Produce Stake at Abing- 
don, where Gaper was beaten by Mr Isaac Day's 
Somerset, when the odds were "breast-high" on 
Gaper. In the * Racing Calendar's ' official report 
of the race, the following sentence occiured : 
" Somerset fell within the distance, but recovered 
himself and won by half a neck." This was a 
remarkable occurrence, as the following week at 
Warwick they met again. The distance (1 mile) 
and weights were the same, and Gaper won easily. 
Even this did not excite Lord George's suspicion 
of any foul play, although at Warwick the betting 
was even on Gaper, when, after the running of 
Somerset at Abingdon, it ought to have been 2 to 
1 on Somerset. When Sam Rogers rode the Duke 
of Richmond's Red Deer at Liverpool for the 
Liverpool St Leger, and the Gratwicke Stakes at 
Goodwood the following year (1844), there were 
unpleasant rumours about him then. At Liver- 
pool it was remarked that " he rode Red Deer 
with the greatest severity, — in fact, that he rode 
his head off*." Red Deer was beaten two lengths 



SAM ROGEBS PABDONED. 161 

by Ithuriel, Flatman up, the betting being 6 to 5 
on Red Deer. The week afterwards the two horses 
met again at Goodwood, when Sam Rogers went 
the wrong course, though he had so frequently 
ridden over it, and was cautioned by Nat that he 
was " going wrong." Even then Lord George con- 
tinued to support him through that week, and 
through the following one at Brighton. 

The punishment inflicted on Sam Rogers was 
prolonged for three years, on the expiration of 
which Lord George, being then senior Steward of 
the Jockey Club, invited the favourable considera- 
tion of his brother members to a measure which he 
brought forward in the July meeting of 1847, by 
proposing that the sentence passed on Sam Rogers 
and other jockeys should forthwith be remitted. 
His Lordship added that Rogers had been repre- 
sented to him as having conducted himself well 
and discreetly since the infliction upon him of the 
severe punishment which he had incurred in 1844. 
It was resolved, therefore, nemine contradicente, 
that, " upon the recommendation of the Stewards, 
the sentences passed in 1844 and 1845 upon Sam- 
uel Rogers and others, excepting John Braham, 
shall now be remitted, and that they be allowed 
to come on the course, and to ride and train 
at Newmarket as formerly." In addition, the 
Stewards expressed their sincere hope " that the 
punishment these delinquents have received may 
be a warning to them which they will never forget, 

L 



162 THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1844. 

and that their conduct hereafter may justify the 
leniency now extended to them." 

When, ridden by Sam Rogers and trained by 
his father, Mr Stirling Crawfiu'd's The Cur won 
the Cesarewitch of 1848, beating Colonel Peel's 
Dacia, who ought to have won, and affording Sam 
Rogers an opportunity for displaying a fine bit of 
jockeyship, all recollection of Ratan's year, and 
of other transgressions, was obliterated from the 
public mind. 



163 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1845. 

The winter of 1844-45 was very severe and pro- 
tracted, commencing on the 4th of December 1844 
with sharp frosts, which continued with little 
intermission till the 23d of March 1845 — two days 
before the Northampton meeting. So severe and 
wintry was the weather a week before the races 
that it was thought they would have to be post- 
poned, there being 19° of frost from the 14th to 
the 17th of March, and 11° on the 21st. In 
order to utilise to the fullest extent the great 
advantages aflforded by the exercise - grounds at 
Goodwood, which are completely sheltered by 
plantations and trees. Lord George caused straw- 
beds of immense magnitude to be laid down, the 
outer ring being nearly half a mile in circum- 
ference, within which two lesser rings were formed. 
As these straw-beds were some distance from the 
stables, it was necessary to make an approach to 
them by covering a track or path with litter, 



166 THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1845. 

Discord with great spirit for the Northamptonshire 
Stakes, having akeady made a book for him, as 
in those days the betting on this race conmienced 
many weeks before it came off. At that time, 
indeed, the Northamptonshire Stakes was one of 
the heaviest betting races in the ' Calendar/ 

In order to discourage others from backing Dis- 
cord, Lord George started Clumsy, aged three 
years, for the Trial Stakes, and backed him for 
£100. The horse was slightly amiss, and ran 
second to Mr Osbaldeston's Sorella, who won by 
three lengths. Everybody supposed that Clumsy 
was Discord's trial horse, and therefore Discord 
receded in the betting, much to his Lordship's 
satisfaction when Clumsy was beaten. I need 
not add that the two horses had never been to- 
gether, as Clumsy had not been in condition to be 
tried for some weeks before Northampton. The 
race was won by Discord by three lengths, and his 
Lordship added considerably to his winnings upon 
Cherokee. 

After this second victory. Lord George thought 
he had a choice rod in pickle for his old antagon- 
ist Mr Osbaldeston, with whom he had fought a 
memorable duel two or three years before, to which 
reference will be made hereafter. Mr Osbaldeston 
had his famous mare Sorella engaged in the 
Queen's Plate at Northampton on the second day, 
for which Lord George's John o' Gaunt, one of 
the stoutest horses in training, was also entered. 



JOHN O' GAUNT. 167 

John o' Gaunt had finished second to Discord in 
the trial at Goodwood, and the approaching con- 
test between him and Sorella appeared to excite 
his Lordship more than either of the preceding 
races upon which he won so largely. For the 
Queen's Plate there were five runners, including 
Coranna (a good old horse), and the betting opened 
at 4 to 1 but closed at 2 to 1 on Sorella, and 5 to 
1 against John o' Gaunt. Lord George freely con- 
fessed to me that there was no man whose money 
he should more like to win than that of Mr Osbal- 
deston, unless it were that of Mr Charles Greville, 
for whom his antipathy was still more pronounced. 
The Queen's Plate distance was two miles, and 
the orders given to Flatman, who rode John o' 
Gaunt, were to make the strongest running pos- 
sible. Flatman obeyed his orders to perfection, 
making the pace so desperate that all the starters 
except Sorella pulled up a long way from home, 
and did not run the course at all. In the end 
John o' Gaunt won in a canter by three or four 
lengths. In general, winning or losing produced 
no visible effect upon Lord George Bentinck ; but 
on this occasion he did not attempt to conceal his 
delight. As I led John o' Gaunt back to the 
weighing - room his Lordship remarked to me, 
" This is indeed a victory ! The old squire will 
now have to pay me in coin instead of in lead." 
His Lordship's winnings upon the three races must 
have been very considerable, and his outlay in 



168 THE GOODWOOD STABLE IX 1845. 

causing the three concentric straw-beds to be made 
was repaid a hundredfold. Undoubtedly he was 
most fortunate in getting two broken-down horses, 
like Discord and John o' Gaunt — for such they 
were considered at the end of the previous year — 
through a couple of big races of this description 
by their superior condition. In 1844 Discord 
had failed in both fore-legs, his back sinews being 
fearfully bowed. By the aid, however, of the 
" Gaper charges," Discord was restored during the 
winter to such an extent that his Lordship re- 
solved to run and to back him at the Epsom 
Spring Meeting for a selling race — winner to be 
sold for £250. When the weights for the North- 
amptonshire Stakes came out in February, I ad- 
vised him to accept with Discord, who was handi- 
capped at 8 stone. The horse's legs were so im- 
proved by the charges that I was able to give him 
a good deal of work on the straw-beds, and to get 
him very forward in condition. On February 25, 
1845, his Lordship wrote to me as follows : — 

" By your advice I will accept with Discord at 
Northampton, but with such legs I cannot think 
he has any earthly chance of getting two miles in 
a strong-run race, unless you have given him a 
new pair of fore-legs. However, it will only cost 
£10, and will not prevent my running him in the 
selling race at Epsom." 

It was certainly a wonderful restoration, as 



JOHN O' GAUNT. 169 

Discord won not only the Northamptonshire 
Stakes, but also, during the following week, the 
Granby Handicap at Croxton Park, carrying 11 
stone 10 lb., and the Cup next day, carrying 
12 stone. Later in the year he ran in many 
other races, and was repeatedly tried at home, 
leaving off at last perfectly sound. 

After these two experiences of Discord and John 
o' Gaunt, his Lordship would never believe that 
any horse was absolutely incurable, however badly 
broken down he appeared to be. When he bought 
John o' Gaunt the year before from the Duke of 
Bedford, Mr William Edwards, then his Grace's 
trainer, remarked to Lord George : " I suppose, my 
Lord, you have bought John o' Gaunt for a stallion, 
as it is useless to attempt to train him again. We 
have had him fired and otherwise treated, but to 
no purpose." When the horse arrived at Good- 
wood, his Lordship said to me : " I wish you would 
try the effect of your charges on John o' Gaunt's 
legs, as I could win some money on him if he could 
be brought sound and well to the post, since he 
stays so well." Not only did John o' Gaunt win 
the Queen's Plate at Northampton, but another at 
Newmarket, and also the Cup at Stockbridge and 
the Cup at Egham. His Lordship then obtained 
a good price for him as a stallion. He afterwards 
became the sire of Bolingbroke — a good horse if he 
had not been " messed about " ; in fact, he was 
only half trained when a distance from home he 



170 THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1845. 

looked like winning the Doncaster St Leger, for 
which Voltigeiu* and Russborough ran a dead heat. 
The " Gaper charges " certainly effected some mar- 
vellous cures, especially upon the progeny of Bay 
Middleton. But I was also greatly assisted by the 
excellent gallops at Goodwood, which were kept 
in perfect order at Lord George's expense. I do 
not believe that it would have been possible to 
bring Discord or John o' Gaunt sound to the post 
in 1845 had they been prepared on any other 
training - ground. Every day the gallops were 
bush-harrowed and carefully rolled, and a band 
of women were employed to repair the tracks, 
remove stones, and fill in the footprints with forks 
specially made for the purpose. His Lordship 
walked over the tracks after the women had left, 
and the slightest imperfection in their work was 
sure to catch his eye, when he would desire me to 
point it out to them. Although the kindest and 
most generous of masters, he would never suffer 
a servant or employee to scamp his work or shirk 
his duty. 

It must be confessed that the Goodwood stable 
had a phenomenal year in 1845. Commencing, as 
I have just stated, at Northampton and Croxton 
Park, horses belonging to the Duke of Richmond 
and to Lord George Bentinck won the One Thousand 
Guineas at Newmarket ; the Oaks at Epsom ; the 
Ascot Stakes ; the Liverpool Cup ; the Goodwood 
Stakes and Cup ; the Champagne and Great York- 



A PHENOMENAL TEAR. 171 

shire Stakes at Doncaster (all of them heavy bet- 
ting races, and therefore very acceptable to his 
Lordship), in addition to many less important 
stakes, such as the Port at Newmarket; the 
Mostyn Stakes at Chester ; the Surrey Cup at 
Epsom ; the Great Produce Stakes and the Fern 
Hill at Ascot ; the Bretby, Prendergast, and 
Glasgow Stakes at Newmarket ; and, finally, a 
great match between Miss Elis and Oakley, which 
the mare, ridden by William Abdale, won by a 
head, although the betting — enormously heavy — 
was six to five on Oakley, ridden by Robinson. 
In fact, the G<x)dwood stable won eighty -two 
races in 1845, the collective value of which was 
£31,502 — an unparalleled sum for any stable to 
win in those days when " added money " was an 
almost " unknown quantity." Lord George as 
a thorough, uncompromising, unblemished sports- 
man was always ready to promote sport. At the 
same time, he steadily kept in view his main 
design and chief amusement, which was auxiliary 
betting; and, to this end, it was his custom 
whenever possible to try, just before the race in 
which he was engaged, any horse that he in- 
tended to back. In those days most of the races 
for three-year-olds and upwards were over long 
distances, and it sometimes happened that horses 
with delicate constitutions were unfavourably af- 
fected and thrown off their feed by a long and 
severe trial. I therefore begged his Lordship on 



172 THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1845. 

many occasions to desist fix)m this practice on 
the eve of a big race, particularly in the case of 
Miss Elis, who was always a difficult and deli- 
cate mare to train, and who had disappointed 
us more than once by not running up to her 
trial As the Groodwood Stakes drew near in 
1845, for which Miss Elis was handicapped at 
5 stone 7 lb., Lord George, having already backed 
her for several hundred poimds, was anxious to 
have her tried with Discord, John o' Gaimt, 
Naworth, and others, — all of them capable of 
getting the distance, and of telling his Lordship 
to a certainty whether Miss Elis was good enough 
to win the Stakes. For this purpose his Lordship 
came to Goodwood, and I lost not a moment in 
entreating him not to upset her by a trial when I 
was able to assure him with confidence that she 
would win in a canter if she came to the post as 
well as she was then. It was a vast responsibility 
for me to assume, and great was the difficulty I 
had in persuading his Lordship to abstain from 
trying her. At last, however, he consented ; and 
my words, " The Goodwood Stakes will only be an 
exercise gallop which will not prevent her from 
winning the Cup next day," were fulfilled to the 
letter. Never before had I ventured to remonstrate 
so earnestly with his Lordship ; and although I had 
little fear of her being beaten for the first race, it 
was a great relief to me when, as I anticipated, she 
*' made hacks " of all her opponents. 



MISS BUS. 173 

After deciding not to try Miss Elis for the 
Goodwood Stakes, his Lordship was anxious to 
see her gallop at half speed with John o' Gaunt, 
Discord, and other old horses. I again ventured 
to remonstrate, explaining that down to that time 
Miss Elis had done all her work by herself entirely 
to my satisfaction, and that, contrary to her wont, 
after being galloped in company with other horses 
or tried, she had fed remarkably well, and would 
go to the post in better condition than ever before. 
After she had taken her usual gallop by herself, 
Lord George wished to see the rest perform, and 
was so much impressed by the style in which John 
o' Gaunt did his work, and the determined way in 
which he galloped, that he became quite excited, 
remarking, " I have laid heavily against this horse, 
and shall be half ruined if he wins." I replied that 
if he were not mulcted in pocket until John o' 
Gaunt gave Miss Elis 2 stone 10 lb. over two miles 
and a half, no harm would happen to him for a 
long time to come, as I knew that over that or 
any other distance he would not give her 7 lb. and 
a beating. **But," he rejoined, "that was some 
time ago ; are you sure that they are in that form 
now, as I never saw John o' Gaunt go in such style 
before?" I lost no time in reassuring his Lord- 
ship, and begged him to make strong running with 
John o' Gaunt (who was nicely handicapped for an 
old horse at 8 stone 3 lb.), in order to let the mare 
settle down to her work, when I promised him 



174 THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1845. 

that he would never have another uneasy moment. 
John o' Gaunt's last appearance in public had been 
at Stockbridge, where he won the Cup very easily 
indeed, and was immediately made favourite for 
the Goodwood Stakes. Not long after Stockbridge 
Races the Duke of Richmond's Lothario won the 
Liverpool Cup, and passed John o' Gaunt in the 
betting for the Goodwood Stakes. The starters 
for the latter race — I quote from the 'Racing 
Calendar' — were as follows: — 

"Lord George Bentinck's eh. f. Miss Elis, by Stockport 

3 yrs., 5 st. 7 lb. (Kitchener), 1. 
Mr F. Ongley's oh. g. Roderick, 6 yrs., 6 st. 12 lb. 

(Crouch), 2. 
Duke of Richmond's b. h. Lothario, 5 yrs., 8 st. 11 lb. 

(Flatman), 3. 
Lord George Bentinck's ch. h. John o* Gaunt, aged, 8 st 

31b. 
Lord Eglinton's b. g. Aristides, 5 yrs., 8 st. 2 lb. 
Mr H. Robinson's br. c. Morpeth, 4 yrs., 7 st. 11 lb. 
Sir J. Hawley's b. m. Venus, 5 yrs., 7 st. 9 lb. 
Lord George Bentinck's b. g. Naworth, aged, 7 st. 9 lb. 
Mr Clifton's ch. g. Nottingham, 5 yrs., 7 st. 7 lb. 
Mr Ramsbottom's br. h. Pineapple, 5 yrs., 7 st. 3 lb. 
Mr S. Herbert's ch. h. Ajax, aged, 7 st. 2 lb. 
Mr A. W. Hill's br. c. The Libel, 3 yrs., 7 st. 2 lb. 
Mr Mostyn's b. c. A-la-mode, 4 yrs., 7 st. 
Mr Collin's br. h. Rochester, 6 yrs., 6 st 10 lb. 
Lord Exeter's br. m. Wee Pet, 5 yrs., 6 st. 9 lb. 
Lord Stradbroke's b. f. Boarding-school Miss, 4 yrs., 6 st. 

31b. 
Mr Parr^s b. m. Europa, 5 yrs., 6 st. 
Lord George Bentinck's bl. f. Coal-black Rose, 4 yrs., 5 st. 

131b. 



THE GOODWOOD STAKES. 175 

Duke of Kichmond's b. c. Laird o' Cockpen, 3 yrs., 5 st. 
12 1b. 

Mr W. H. Johnstone's ch. f. Pythia, 3 yrs., 5 st. 13 lb. 

Mr Etwall's ch. f. ^gis, 3 yrs., 4 st. 10 lb. 

Sir J. B. Mill's br. f. Giantess, 3 yrs., 4 st 10 lb. 

Mr H. J. Thompson's b. f. by Stumps, dam by Comus 
3 yrs., 4 st. 

" Betting — 7 to 1 agst. Pythia, 8 to 1 agst. Lothario, 10 
to 1 agst. Pineapple, 11 to 1 agst. Wee Pet, 12 to 1 agst. 
Bochester, 13 to 1 agst Boarding-school Miss, 14 to 1 each 
agst The Libel, ^gis, and Miss Elis, 20 to 1 each agst. 
Europa, Aristides, and Morpeth, 25 to 1 each agst Laird o' 
Cockpen, Ajax, and Venus, 30 to 1 agst. Koderick, and 50 
to 1 agst. Nottingham. 

" Aristides led for a short distance, but at the first turn 
^gis and Miss Elis went in front In coming round the 
last turn ^gis, being then second, just behind Miss Elis, 
ran against a post, which broke between her legs, and fell 
just before Nottingham and Lothario. At this part of the 
race Miss Elis increased her lead, and won very easily by six 
lengths. Lothario was beaten by a length for second place, 
Pythia and Ajax being close together, just behind Lothario." 

It wa43 Lord George's intention that John o' 
Gaunt should jump off with the lead and make 
strong running, and orders to that effect were 
given to his rider. When the flag fell, however. 
Lord Eglinton's Aristides, a five-year-old gelding 
by Bay Middleton, outpaced John o' Gaunt and 
cut out the work at a tremendous pace, until Miss 
Elis got into her stride and passed Aristides, soon 
having everything behind her safe. When she 
went first past the winning-post by six lengths 
(which she could easily have made ten or twelve), 



176 THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1845. 

she ran nearly to the top of Trundle Hill before 
Kitchener could stop her. It will be observed that 
in this race six of the twenty-three starters were 
supplied by the Goodwood stable — viz., Lothario, 
John o' Gaunt, Naworth, Coal-black Eose, Laird 
o' Cockpen, and Miss Elis, whom Kitchener rode 
in a 7.1b. saddle. But it is also worthy of remark, 
in these days when there are no six -year-old and 
aged horses in training, and when five-year-olds 
and even four-year-olds are rare, what was the 
composition of the field that Miss Elis beat so 
easily. Among the starters there were three aged 
horses — John o' Gaunt, Naworth, and Ajax ; two 
six -year -olds — Roderick and Rochester; seven 
five -year -olds — Lothario, Aristides, Venus, Not 
tingham, Pineapple, Wee Pet, and Europa ; four 
four - year - olds — Morpeth, A-la-mode, Boarding- 
school Miss, and Coal-black Rose ; and seven 
three -year -olds — Miss Elis, The Libel, Laird o' 
Cockpen, Pythia, iEgis, Giantess, and bay filly 
by Stumps. In estimating the merits of modem 
three-year-olds like Robert the Devil, St Gatien, 
Foxhall, and Plaisant^rie, which are able to win 
the Cesarewitch and Cambridgeshire with 9 stone, 
or nearly 9 stone, on their back, I, for one, should 
feel more certain that they were better than 
Faugh-a-ballagh, The Baron, and Alarm, if, like 
these last-named horses, they were capable of 
beating large fields of old horses, such as Miss 
Elis defeated for the Goodwood Stakes in 1845. 



THE GOODWOOD CUP. 177 

After Miss Elis's victory in the Goodwood Stakes 
Lord George wajs naturally much gratified, though 
not in the least elated. Deeming nothing done 
while aught remained to accomplish, his thoughts 
flew forward to the next day, and he remarked to 
me that he hoped he should be able to win the 
Cup with her, although well aware that in Weath- 
erbit he had a formidable opponent. That same 
night his Lordship sent for me, after dinner, at 
Goodwood House, and inquired how Miss Elis was, 
and whether she had fed well. I replied that she 
did not appear to be in any way the worse for her 
race, which I regarded as only an exercise-gallop 
preparatory to her weight-for-age race on the mor- 
row. " In that case," he remarked, " I shall back 
her to-night, as there is sure to be some betting on 
the Cup, for which Weather bit has many friends." 

Next day the Goodwood Cup brought twelve 
starters to the post, and the residt was reported as 
follows in the ' Racing Calendar ' : — 

"Lord George Bentinck's ch. f. Miss Elis, 3 yrs., 7 st. 
(Abdale), 1. 

Mr Gully's br. c. Weatherbit, 3 yrs., 7 st. 4 lb. (White- 
house), 2. 

Sir C. Monck's b. g. My Old Hack, aged, 7 st. 5 lb. (Lye), 
3. 

Lord George Bentinck's b. h. Discord, aged, 9 st. 12 lb. 
(W. Hewlett). 

Mr Gully's br. h. St. Lawrence, aged, 9 st 7 lb. (J. Day). 

Mr Surflen's b. h. Gorhambury, 5 yrs., 8 st. 13 lb. (J. 
Hewlett). 

M 



178 THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1845. 

Mr A. Johnstone's ch. f. Rowena, 4 yrs., 8 st. 6 lb. 

(Marson). 
Sir G. Heathcote's ch. c. Akbar, 4 yrs., 8 st. 5 lb. 

(Chappie). 
Mr Vane's ch. c. Valerian, 4 yrs., 8 st. 1 lb. (F. Butler). 
Colonel Anson's b. g. Arundo, 5 yrs., 7 st. 12 lb. (Flat- 
man). 
Baron N. de Rothschild's Drummer, 5 yrs., 7 st 5 lb. 

(K Flatman). 
Duke of Richmond's br. c. The Laird o' Cockpen, 3 yrs., 

6 St. 13 lb. (Esling). 
" 2 to 1 each agst Miss Elis and Weatherbit, and 6 to 1 
agst. Valerian. Discord made play at a great pace, Miss 
Elis next ; she passed him at the turn round the hill and 
was never headed, and won by two lengths. Weatherbit 
came up to Miss Elis about the commencement of the rails 
and ran with her for a short time, but she increased her 
lead, and was never approached afterwards. My Old Hack 
was a bad third." 

I have frequently been present upon race-courses 
when the betting was heavy, but never have I 
seen money staked so lavishly as it was by Lord 
George on the one hand, and by the Danebury- 
party on the other, just before this event. Weath- 
erbit had been a great favourite for the Derby 
of that year, which was won by Mr Gratwicke's 
Merry Monarch in a field of thirty -one starters ; 
but in coming round Tattenham Corner, Lord 
Chesterfield's Pam fell just in front of Mr 
John Gully's Old England and Weatherbit, both 
of whom jiunped over him. Old England 
finished third, but Weatherbit was the best, 
as was proved at Ascot, where Weatherbit 



GOODWOOD AND DANEBUBY RIVALRY. 179 

beat Old England, and also the Duke of Eich- 
mond's Refraction, who, however, carried 6 lb. 
extra for winning the Oaks. Weatherbit's next 
race was for the Goodwood Cup, and his owner, 
trainer, and all the patrons of the Danebury 
stable, thought he was the best three-year-old in 
England. Lord George, however, had won so 
much money on the Stakes, that in backing Miss 
Elis for the Cup the firm front maintained by his 
opponents exercised no effect upon him, and was 
incapable of stalling him off. In 1845 the Good- 
wood stable and the Danebury stable were nat- 
ural rivals, and Lord George was not the man 
to forget when he had good reason for resenting 
supposed wrong and injustice inflicted upon him. 
The money, therefore, was piled upon Miss Elis 
and Weatherbit with a recklessness which I never 
saw equalled, and their respective supporters were 
both equally determined to have a good pace. 
For this purpose Lord George started Discord, and 
Mr Gully started St Lawrence, but when the flag 
fell Discord jumped off with the lead, and St 
Lawrence was not speedy enough to take any 
part in the race. So good was Miss Elis's condi- 
tion that at the end of the first mile she passed 
Discord, and was never again headed. After her 
victory. Lord George, although showing no exter- 
nal signs of elation, gave me to understand how 
much he was gratified, exclaiming, sotto voce, " I 
think I have at last got the better of Danebury." 



180 THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1845. 

In both races Miss Elis was ridden without 
spurs. The large sum — about £30,000 — won by 
Lord George on the Stakes and Cup woidd have 
been much reduced had the mare been tried before 
the former race. 

To commemorate the double triiunph more fully, 
Lord George presented my father with a picture of 
Miss Elis, concerning which he wrote the following 
characteristic letter : — 

" Harcourt House, Attg, 6, 1845. 

" Kent, — As a token of my sense of the ability 
and skill with which you and John trained Miss 
Elis for the Goodwood Stakes and Goodwood Cup, 
and as a memorial of the fidelity with which on 
this occasion in particular my secrets were kept, 
by which I was enabled to win, and without which 
I could not have won, the large stake I did win, it 
is my intention to make you a present of a picture, 
in which I propose that yoiu: portrait and John's 
as well as hers should be comprehended. 

" In presenting you with this memorial of your 
joint triumph with your son, I must add the wish 
that the picture I give you shall descend as an 
heirloom in your family. The way I propose to 
group the picture is that Abdale should be mounted 
upon her, John leading her in his left hand — 
dressed in his Gordon tartan waistcoat — whilst 
you must be on the old grey mare, in your Cluny 
Macpherson waistcoat. The scene should be in 
the front of the Goodwood stand; a pictinre of 



mm < uj* wnji 




I..- -r-.le '.111- ful] 



.1 John u-:&uieJ Mm J 




.-<' «4tki? 1 did 1 
- |>raB«»i of « f 
I .atr portrait i 





'• I am It. Ttkc «*? 1 ] 
•sth»tAbckkdMUti 
H tMdwc Imt ■■ Iw ] 

Hm MMoe AosU l« in 
aiTDod fUnJ: k pKtore of 



PRESENTATION PICTURE. 181 

the Groodwood Cup should be introduced, and, if 
it can be managed, Kitchener walking away in 
the distance, loaded with a leathern purse, with 
' Goodwood Stakes ' inscribed upon it. 

"I mean to employ Mr Abraham Cooper to 
paint this picture for me. He has promised to go 
down on Saturday next. I am anxious to have 
the picture speedily taken, for many reasons. 
First, I wish it to be taken whilst she continues 
in her present blooming condition, fearing, if I put 
off the day, I may never have her in the same 
condition, which happened to me when Elis was 
painted, who in consequence appears with * a pot 
belly,' which if he had had it when he ran for the 
St Leger, he never would have won it. Secondly, 
I am anxious to have her painted during the bright 
summer weather, which makes such a difference in 
the colour and bloom of a horse's coat. Thirdly, 
whilst this weather continues warm, there will be 
little fear of the mare catching cold whilst she is 
stripped. Fourthly, the printsellers are anxious to 
have the picture done as quickly as possible, in order 
that the engravings may be made whilst her victories 
at Goodwood are still fresh in the public mind. 

" Under the circumstances, if there is no objec- 
tion, I will engage Mr Cooper to go to Goodwood 
on Saturday next. — I am, your obedient servant 

" To Mr Kekt. Tn.iner." " ^' BeNTINCK. 

When the picture was completed, and Lord 
George saw it at my father's house, he was so 



182 THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1845. 

delighted with it that he desired Mr Cooper to 
paint him a facsimile, which now adorns the walls 
of Welbeck Abbey, together with the cap and 
jacket the mare carried, enclosed in a glass case 
suspended above the picture. The Goodwood Cup 
of 1845 is also at Welbeck, together with others 
which the present Duke of Portland has won ; and 
although his Grace has not acquired so much 
money by betting as fell to Lord George's portion 
at Goodwood in 1845, it is within my knowledge 
that he views his equine treasures — St Simon, 
Ayrshire, Donovan, and others — with as keen 
appreciation as that with which his illustrious 
ancestor regarded Crucifix and Miss Elis. 

Still further to recognise the services done him, 
Lord George made handsome presents to every 
one employed in the Goodwood stable. For all 
his labourers employed upon the gallops and race- 
course (there were about eighty of them in all), 
together with others employed on the Good- 
wood estate, he desired a dinner to be pre- 
pared ; but inasmuch as it was harvest-time, this 
part of the rejoicing was delayed until the corn 
was carried ; and then all upon the estate were 
regaled with a most sumptuous banquet in the 
tennis-court, to which about two hundred guests 
sat down. 

After dinner there was a general expression of 
hope that another Miss Elis might be found next 
year, and the only division of opinion was as to 
the colours which the said successor should carry. 



MISS EUS AND WEATHERBIT, 183 

Some hoped it might be " yellow, scarlet cap, and 
gold tassel " ; others inclined to " blue and white 
cap." At last it was carried unanimously that it 
was expedient that the two colours be amalga- 
mated, as upon the present occasion. 

What was left of the feast was given to the 
wives and families of the labourers who served 
the owner of Miss Elis. 

Although Miss Elis had won the Stakes and 
Cup, both races being over a long and severe 
course. Lord George resolved, much to my regret, 
to pull her out for the Chesterfield Cup on the last 
day of the meeting. Her race for the Cup had 
been a very trying ordeal, as the pace was tre- 
mendous, and Weatherbit, whom she beat, was 
undoubtedly a good horse. Despite the 7 lb. 
extra which she carried in the Chesterfield Cup, 
making her weight 6 stone 13 lb., Miss Elis 
started favourite at 3 to 1 in a field of nineteen. 
She was beaten a long way, and finished almost 
last, the Cup being won by Mr Etwall's ^gis, 
who was seriously disappointed in the Stakes by 
coming into collision with a post before referred to. 
From the eflfects of the two last races Miss Elis 
never really recovered, and Weatherbit, after his 
defeat for the Cup, was never the same animal again. 
In the Doncaster St Leger, won by The Baron, he 
was beaten a long way, and next day, with odds 
of 3 to 1 on him, was defeated for the Three- Year- 
Old Stakes of 200 sovereigns each by Sir R. W. 
Bulkeley's Chertsey — a very moderate horse. 



184 THE GOODWOOD STABLE IN 1845. 

Before concluding this chapter I wish to put on 
record a few words about the way in which Miss 
Elis came into his Lordship's possession. She was 
bred by Mr S. Reed of York, who sent her to 
Doncaster to be sold by auction as a yearling. 
Although very light in flesh and rough in her 
coat, she struck me as being a sound racing-like 
filly, who would improve upon good keep. I 
therefore offered Mr Eeed forty guineas for her, 
and a thousand more if she won the Oaks, for 
which he had entered her. He was anxious that 
she should get into a good stable, and let me have 
her at that moderate price. I told Lord George 
what I had done, and when he saw her he was 
only too glad to take her on the same terms. Be- 
fore the end of the Houghton Meeting I tried her 
with seven other yearlings, and, although beaten, 
she showed more form than I expected from her, 
six weeks after I had bought her, a mere bag of 
bones. Her trial told me, however, that she was 
game and looked like staying, so that Lord George 
engaged her in ten races, most of them over long 
distances of ground. Stockport, her sire, was own 
brother to Elis and Epirus, both of them good 
horses ; and her dam, Varia, was by Lottery out 
of a Blacklock mare. She stood rather more than 
sixteen hands, and although of a very nervous dis- 
position, was as game as a pebble, and liked to 
make her own running. 



185 



CHAPTER IX. 

LORD GEORGE AS A LETTER-WRITER. 

In 1864 Lord Beaconsfield remarked to an old 
friend, who is still living, and has repeated the 
story to me, that Lord George Bentinck's failure 
as a Cabinet Minister, or in other words, as a 
statesman of the first class, would have been in- 
evitable, for the following reasons. "Owing to 
his incapacity for condensing or compressing what 
he had to say," added Lord Beaconsfield, " he 
could not write a letter on any subject without 
pouring forth at great length all that was in his 
mind, with the result that — to quote some well- 
known lines, the author of which I have forgotten, 
but which still linger in my memory — 

' Blenheim's field became in his reciting 
As long in telling as it took in fighting.' " 

It has been stated to me by other friends of Lord 
George Bentinck that he assisted to break down 
his own health by the extraordinary length and 
prolixity of his letters. I remember that old John 
Day, the rider and trainer of Crucifix, once ob- 



186 LORD GEOBOE AS A LETTER- WMTER. 

served to me " that he had not time to read Lord 
George's endless yams about his race-horses at 
Danebury." It must be remembered, however, 
that old John Day was not much of a scholar, and 
that his own letters were of the briefest. I will 
not deny that my father and I sometimes found 
it difficult to answer Lord George's letters in full, 
as they frequently covered six, seven, or eight 
sheets of note-paper; but, as evidences of his 
Lordship's astonishing industry, and of the intense 
interest which he took in the minutest details of 
a pursuit to which his whole heart and mind were 
given up, I propose to print a few letters from his 
pen which were received on various occasions by 
my father and myself, as I am quite sure that no 
other owner of race-horses ever wrote to his trainer 
almost every day of his life, and at such length 
as Lord George frequently found necessary, in order 
to express his meaning fully. 

I have selected for my purpose a few specimens 
which will derive interest from the fact that most 
of them have for their subject what I verily believe 
to have been one of the three best race-horses ever 
owned by Lord George — to wit, Gaper. If this 
horse had been by a sounder stallion than Bay 
Middleton — say, for instance. Gladiator or Touch- 
stone — I am fully persuaded that he would have 
won the Derby as easily as in the Criterion Stakes 
at Newmarket he beat Cotherstone when both 
were two-year-olds. As matters stood, however. 



GAPER. 187 

Gaper could never take a strong gallop or win a 
race without pulling up more or less lame, and, 
in addition, he was very nervous and excitable, 
and Sam Rogers's heavy hand and rough-and-ready 
style of riding made him more irritable. The 
first of the following letters was written from 
Newmarket on the evening of the day when Gaper 
as a three-year-old had the greatest difficulty in 
beating a very bad horse called New Brighton, 
after having won a sweepstakes of 100 sovereigns 
each, R.M., by three lengths on the previous 
Tuesday, beating a very moderate horse of the 
Duke of Grafton's, called Esop, who was ridden 
by John Day. It will be seen that Lord George 
was greatly disappointed at this poor performance 
of a horse whom he had heavily backed for the 
Derby, and on whom he founded the most sanguine 
hopes. I should premise that "Philip," to whom 
Lord George frequently alludes, was Philip New- 
man, stud groom at the Danebury paddocks, 
adjoining John Day's stables. To these paddocks 
considerable additions were made by Lord George 
when he first went to Danebury ; and on removing 
his horses from Danebury to Goodwood he re- 
tained his paddocks at the former place, thereby 
turning to account his heavy investments in loose- 
boxes, hovels, paddocks, tanks, ponds, and fences, 
together with plantations or belts of trees erected 
to shelter the thoroughbred stock from the cold 
winds sweeping over those exposed downs. 



188 LORD GEORGE AS A LETTER- WRITER. 

"Newmarket Craven Meeting, 1843. 

Thursday^ April 20. 

Sweepstakes of 200 sovereigns each, half-forfeit, for 
three-year-olds. D.M. Nine subscribers. 

Lord George Bentinck's b.c. Gaper, 8 st 4 lb. (S. Rogers), 1. 
Lord Chesterfield's b.c. New Brighton, 8 st. 7 lb. (Flatman), 2. 
Duke of Bedford's br.c. Jerry Sneak, 8 st. 7 lb. (K Edwards), 3. 
"Betting — 9 to 1 on Gaper. Won by a short neck. 
Three lengths between second and third." 

*' Newmarkbt, Thursday^ April 20, 1843. 

"Kent, — I am sorry to say all our hopes are 
gone. Gaper, though by the grace of the 3 lb. 
aUowed him he got in first, ran a very moderate, 
not to say a very bad, horse to-day. Nat and 
Sam Rogers being both ordered to make play, 
they came away as hard as they could, head-to- 
head together. Gaper with the whip-hand, but 
never able to get away from New Brighton. He 
ran, however, very game at last, and, thanks to 
the 3 lb., just crawled in a head first at last. 
Before starting, and during the race, 11 to 1 and 
12 to 1 was taken freely about him for the Derby, 
but after the race 1000 to 10 went a-begging 
against him ! I ! Scott turned New Brighton over 
to Taylor to train, after trying him last year to be 
good for nothing ; whilst Taylor this year, having 
tried him with Gamecock, thought him good for 
nothing also. I am quite beat, and do not pretend 
to understand it. By the running with Eooksnest 
it would seem as though St Jean d'Acre were 



NEWMARKET CRAVEN MEETING. 189 

nearly as good, certainly within 3 lb. or 4 lb. as 
good, as Pompey ; and allowing Cotherstone to be 
able to give 10 lb. to Pompey, if, as we imagined. 
Gaper could give a stone to St Jean d'Acre, he 
would have been a dead heat with Cotherstone. 
Cotherstone can give a stone to St Jean d'Acre, 
but I should say not 21 lb., and that is just what 
we thought to be Gaper's form. Reckoning also 
the Fidelity filly at 16 lb. worse than Conquest, 
St Jean d'Acre can give Conquest 7 lb., and 
Maccabseus being said to be able to give 7 lb. 
also, St Jean d'Acre could have given 7 lb. to 
Conquest, and ought to be as good as Maccabseus at 
even weights. I presume Peeping Tom is 5 lb. 
or 7 lb. better than Conquest : this would bring 
Bramble to a par with Peeping Tom, and make 
him 7 lb. better than Conquest. 

" Colonel Peel tells me Murat can give 17 or 19 
lb. to Rooksnest. 

" I am very glad Jerry Sneak started, and thus 
won your £20 for you, but I am terribly chapfallen 
at this lamentable exposure of Gaper. — I am, yr. 
obed. sert., G. Bentinck." 

Two days later his Lordship's hopes began to 
revive : — 

" Newmarket, ScUurday Morning^ 8 a.m. 

"Kent, — I am quite satisfied now why Gaper 
ran so badly on Thursday : the fact is, his legs 
and joints failed. I thought at the time he 



190 LORD GEORGE AS A LETTER- WRITER. 

walked home dead lame ; and though John says 
he was three times as lame after running for the 
Criterion, and that he has frequently seen him 
quite as lame after sweating, I should have said 
of him that he was as lame as a tree yesterday 
morning, and but for John's confidence of bringing 
him round, I should have looked upon him as reg- 
ularly done up, and given it up as a bad job. We 
had him out again in the paddock in the afternoon, 
and he was better, but still trotted very lame. 
John's confidence rests upon the horse's joints and 
legs being nowhere sore when handled, and to 
there being no unusual swelling or inflammation 
about them. I take it the real truth is that, his 
legs not being able to carry him, he is anything in 
the world a better horse with 5 stone 5 lb. upon 
him than with 8 stone 4 lb. ; and above all, I take 
him to be a stone a better horse against a moun- 
tain-side like the hill above Swan s pond than he 
is upon a flat ; and doivn a hill I daresay he 
would never gallop — certainly not if the ground 
was hard. I have not seen John or the horse this 
morning, but last night John was confident that 
he should be able to bring Gaper round for Bath : 
a fine gentle rain which has come this morning 
will be of great service to him. I have kept him 
on here to the last moment, on account of the 
ground being in such good order here and so bad 
at Bath : besides, the accommodation here is so 
much better than at Bath. 



A HANDICAP. 



191 



" I still think that if the ground were soft, and 
at light weights, 5 stone 7 lb. each, tried a mile at 
Goodwood up that steep hill, Gaper would be an 
awkward customer for all the horses engaged in 
the Derby, unless it is * A British Yeoman/ 

"I enclose a handicap I have made, which, if 
Gaper were in his Goodwood form, and the ground 
were soft, and he could do with 8 stone 7 lb. on 
his back what he can with 5 stone 5 lb., would not, 
I think, come off against him. — I am, yr. obed. 
servt. G. Bentinck. 



" One Mile 


• 








Years. 


at. 


lb. 


St Lawrence 


6 


9 


11 


Discord . . . . 


6 


9 


7 


Cotherstone 


3 


8 


7 


Gaper . . . . 


3 


8 


7 


Aristides 


3 


8 


2 


Pompey 


3 


7 


11 


Murat . . . . 


3 


7 


10 


Queen of the Gipsies 


3 


7 


9 


Bramble 


3 


7 


7 


St Jean d'Acre 


4 


7 


7 


Maccabfeus 


3 


7 


6 


Testy . . . , 


3 


7 


4 


Oanton . . . . 


3 


7 


4 


Sirikol . . . . 


3 


7 


4 


Oonquest 


3 


6 


13 


Portumnus 


3 


6 


9 


The Brewer 


3 


6 


9 


Booksnest 


3 


6 


9 


Monimia c. . 


3 


6 


6 


Elysium 


3 


6 


5 


Cowslip 


3 


6 


3 



192 LORD GEORGE AS A LETTER- WRITER. 

Years. st. lb. 

Extempore . . . 3 6 3 

FideUtyf. . . . 3 5 11 

Fiddlestring . . . 3 5 11 

Fragrance^ . . . 3 5 6 

"In handicapping the above, I have put the 
D.M. Handicap running out of sight as alto- 
gether wrong, my belief being that St Jean d'Acre 
ought to have been last instead of second. There 
is no doubt Canton in private is full 10 lb. better 
than Rooksnest ! " 

Gaper's next engagement was at Bath, whence 
Lord George Bentinck wrote the two following 
letters to my father. I should observe that when 
" Kent " is spoken of or addressed by his Lordship, 
it means my father ; and that when " John " is 
named, it means myself. These two letters from 
Bath reveal the industry with which, in days when 
newspaper reports of races were very flimsy, and 
almost confined to ' Bell's Life in London ' and the 
* Simday Times ' (both of which were published on 
Saturday), Lord George communicated by letter 
with my father, rarely missing a day, and giving a 
most exhaustive account of what had taken place 
on the race-course. 

" Bath, April 26, 1843. 

" Kent, — I had barely time to send you a list 

^ According to her running in the Chesterfield Stake with Extem- 
pore ; but according to our trials with Elysium last October, Fra- 
grance's weight ought to be 6 stone 5 lb., and I incline to think that 
would be nearer the mark. Extempore will have a better day. 



BRAMBLE. 193 

yesterday. Bramble's running was very satis- 
factory yesterday, as he not only showed speed 
but appeared to run on too : the ground was 
rather heavy also. Young John Day, caiTying 9 st. 
1 lb. on a three-year-old, made strong play — such 
strong play that he began whipping his horse before 
he had gone half a mile ! ! ! Sam Rogers and 
young John Day both thought Bramble would have 
beat Kate Kearney colt, at even weights ; but 
8 lb. and such riding as that of young John Day's 
would make a mighty difference. However, assum- 
ing this to be the fact, and that the Queen of 
the Gipsies and Pompey are w^here they were 
last October — viz., a dead heat at even weights — 
Bramble would give them a stone, and, if we have 
made no mistake. Gaper would give them two 
stone apiece, which would make him beat Cother- 
stone just as easy as he beat him last year. Would 
to goodness I could hope that you could again 
bring him sound and right to the post ! I am 
quite satisfied now that Gaper w^as lamed in the 
false starts, and that he ran that race with New 
Brighton on three legs. Discord being such a 
hard - pulling horse, and William Howlett upon 
him, it is impossible there can have been any 
mistake about that gallop between him and Gaper ; 
and having only 7 st. 5 lb. on his back, there can 
be no excuse for him against the hill. 

" If I could believe you could get his leg right 
for the Derby, I should fear no horse in it except 

N 



194 LORD GEORGE AS A LETTER- WRITER, 

*A British Yeoman'; but I cannot flatter myself 
that you will be able to do so. 

" I find that, besides the colt by Slane out of 
Zoe, belonging to Isaac Day, which John Day has 
in training, and of which they were fond, there is a 
colt by Elis out of Rosalie, trained by Montgomery 
Dilly, which they have tried to be smart, and Mr 
Greville was backing last Monday for the Derby. 
I hope, however, that Bramble may prove good 
enough to pull me through. 

" The ground was very heavy, which may account 
for the trial of the two two-year-olds coming off 
so very wrong. They both got off well — viz., they 
were the two first ; whilst Charming Kate lost two 
lengths' start, and appeared to run slow in the 
early part, but won very easy at last. Pastoral ran 
faster than anything for 300 yards, and then stood 
still. She is a mean, little, short, runtish-looking 
animal, with short quarters, but strong back, good 
shoulders, good legs, and good feet ; looks like a 
strong hack. To look at the lot, it was 4 to 1 on 
Pastoral. Mr Wreford's is said to be the worst of 
all John Day's lot, but Roe was fond of Midnight 
Star. I should think Abraham never can have got 
Best Bower out in your trial : I think he ran fast 
and tired in his race yesterday. 

" I have quite decided not to run Gaper to-day. 

" I fear Brother to Harold must beat Discord 
to-day. I suspect he is much about the form of 
Peeping Tom. Mr Collins, who is rather thick 



HINTS TO KENT. 195 

with John Day, tells me that, having a dead line of 
the Queen of the Gipsies, and being quite certain 
to beat her in a canter, which he did, and never 
dreaming of my beating him with Bramble, he 
made sure of winning the L&nsdowne with Peep- 
ing Tom, whilst he kept the 4 lb. off Brother to 
Harold in the Cup. 

" I understand that old John Smith, who had 
all these horses in training, and recommended 
John Day to buy the three he bought, says that 
Brother to Perseus was a long way the best. 
Brother to Harold second, Kate Kearney third, 
and Pompey the worst of the lot. I suspect, how- 
ever, that speed is the best of the Brother to 
Harold, and in that case it is just possible he may 
not stay the distance, but I have no notion that 
Discord can get the distance either : a mile has 
always been held to be his best course, and that 
he gets worse and worse every step he goes beyond 
a mile. 

" I hope when you try you will keep the weights 
down as much as possible, and I presume you 
will try up to Gapers form — viz., a stone under 
Discord and a stone above St Jean d'Acre. I 
suppose, too, you will put Sam Rogers on the old 
one to take care it is no humbug pace. However, I 
don't wish to interfere. I merely throw out these 
as hints, leaving it to Lord March to try the horses 
as he likes, and make what use of any of my horses 
he thinks proper, except Gaper, who is lame, and 



196 LORD GEORGE AS A LETTER- WRITER. 

Bramble, to whom, considering Gaper's leg, I must 
now look to carry me through all those engage- 
ments in which the two horses are engaged 
together : besides, having run two races here on 
two following days, he would be in no plight to 
try Cornopean on Saturday. — I am, yr. obed. 
servt., G. Bentinck." 

In the next letter, as well as in one of its 
predecessors, it will be noticed that " 8 A.M., 
Tuesday morning," is prefixed to both. My father 
and I received scores of letters from his Lordship 
written at the same early hour, which always 
found him at work during the whole of his racing 
career. 

" Bath, Trie^day Morning^ 8 A.M., 
April 27, 1843. 

" Kent, — The horses are all here perfectly well, 
and the course yesterday was in capital order — 
quite soft — to add to which it began to rain about 
half an hour since, and has all the appearance of 
a wet day. Gaper cantered yesterday, and went 
quite sound, and John thinks his leg a great deal 
better. I don't think, however, that I shall ven- 
ture to run him. John is not much alarmed about 
his leg for the future, if I save him here ; but I 
confess I have no great hopes of it. The ailment 
is about two inches and a half above the fetlock- 
joint, on the middle tendon of the near fore-leg on 
the outside ; there is a knot upon the tendon, and 



TWO-YEAR-OLDS. 197 

I fear this must be considered a bad place. With 
regard to our two -year -olds, I fear we are alto- 
gether in a hole with them. We have no reason 
to think we have a two -year -old at all who 
can give 10 lb. to Pastoral, and I cannot make 
him much above the form of Rooksnest and the 
Brewer, weight for age. Gaper would give these 
two-year-olds the best part of four stone!!! Colonel 
Peel says a real good two -year -old should run 
with Garry owen at 21 lb. I can't have this; but 
John Day says a good two-year-old can just beat 
St Lawrence at three stone, which is more conson- 
ant with my notions of a two-year-old at this time 
of year. If the Wadastra colt and the Ugly 
Buck can do so, they have 21 lb. in hand of the 
best two-year-old we can turn out. I hear from 
Philip that St Lawrence was John Day's trial 
horse last year for his yearlings, and the two-year- 
olds have been following him in their exercise this 
year. John Day asked Colonel Peel how he 
should try a good two-year-old with St Lawrence. 
The Colonel replied, * An out-and-out good two-year- 
old should beat him at 21 lb.' Upon this John 
Day exclaimed, '21 lb.. Colonel !!! A two-year-old 
beat St Lawrence at 2 1 lb. ! ! ! Why, I will run any 
three-year-old at Newmarket. I will run Cother- 
stone to-morrow a mile with St Lawrence, and 
give him 21 lb. No, Colonel ; I say I am quite 
satisfied to see a two-year-old beat St Lawrence 
clever at three stone.^ 



198 



LORD GEORGE AS A LETTER- WRITER. 



** From this I take it that is about the mark of 
the Wadastra colt and the Ugly Buck. 

**I fear St Lawrence could give four stone or 
four stone and a half to the best two-year-old we 
can produce. I enclose a handicap. I have 
assumed that T.Y C, instead of half a mile, York- 
shire Lady would give the two - year - olds more 
weight, viz., 28 lb. — I am, yr. obed. servt., 

"G. Bentinck. 

" I consider 21 lb. about the weight a three- 
year-old should give a two-year-old, half a mile. 

"T.Y.C. 





Years. 


8t 


lb. 


St Lawrence 


6 


9 


11 


Garryowen 


6 


9 


11 


Discord . 


6 


9 


7 


Jeremy Diddler . 


4 


9 


4 


Gaper 


3 


8 




Cotherstone 


3 


8 


7 


St Jean d'Acre . 


4 


i 




Yorkshire Lady 


4 


7 





Farintosh 


3 


6 


10 


Rooksnest 


3 


6 


7 


The Brewer 


3 


6 


7 


The Devil-to-Pay 


2 


f) 


10 


Prince of Wales 


2 


5 


6 


Pastoral . . . . 





5 





Best Bower 


2 


5 






The description of Gaper's Derby was given in 
an earlier chapter. For myself, I must avow that 
I have never been able to reconcile myself to his 
defeat on that day by Cotherstone. Without 



CORNOPEAN AND GAPEB. 199 

entering further, however, into details and de- 
vising excuses, which is as useless as " crying 
over spilt milk," I come next to a letter which 
was written more than a month after Gaper's 
defeat for the Derby. It runs as follows, and 
is very characteristic of his Lordship's painstak- 
ing thoroughness, and his practical good sense 
in always seeing things in their true light : — 

" Harcourt House, J%dy 1, 1843. 

" Kent, — John will have told you, though he 
won a head after a desperate race, how wretchedly 
bad Cornopean ran yesterday. Whatever we may 
have thought before the race yesterday, it is quite 
clear now that Cornopean can have no chance at 
Winchester ; and the Duke of Richmond and I, 
after talking the matter over, think the best plan 
now will be to send Bramble to Winchester to see 
what he can do a mile, folloming Decisive and 
Chotornian, and so keep Gaper and Cornopean 
fresh for Liverpool. I then thought of leaving 
Gaper to fight out the stakes about the country, 
and giving up Bramble for the Grand Junction 
Stake at Liverpool. I think Gaper keeps gradually 
getting worse and wor^e, as Flytrap did ; whilst I 
cannot help thinking that Bramble has not yet got 
over his Ascot cough. You hardly ever heard a 
horse blow and appear so distressed as he did after 
his race for the Stockbridge Produce. 

** I have left Mus, Naworth, and Lothario in the 



200 LORD GEORGE AS A LETTER- WRITER. 

Liverpool Trade Cup, and struck all the others 
out, and have made up my mind not to send 
Discord to Liverpool at all ; else had he been well, 
I know of nothing in the North to beat him for 
the Croxteth Stake, whilst I fear St Lawrence is 
cock-sure to beat him both for the Craven Stake 
and Welter Stake at Groodwood. 

" I have left Lothario in the Trade Cup to take 
the double chance of his being well by that time, 
or else of starting him to get the 5 lb. allowance 
in the Cup at Goodwood, by which time I imagine, 
if he goes on well, he will be quite up to the mark 
again. 

" There will be a great acceptance for the Trade 
Cup. I reckon about fifty horses, many of them 
of a good class. Pompey is first favourite, and 
they take 6 to 1 about him : his running at Bath 
must be all wrong ; that never can have been the 
same form as that in which he ran at Newcastle. 

" I think it more than probable I may go down 
to Goodwood by the mail-train to-morrow night, 
and so spend Monday at Goodwood. 

" I have a dreadful prospect before me : my 
stakes and forfeits at Goodwood amount to £4900, 
I think, and at Liverpool to £670, and I doubt 
£2000 will scarcely cover those I shall incur at 
Doncaster, Liverpool, and Newmarket, besides 
those all over the country, and I really scarcely 
see where I have a reasonable chance of getting 
through a stake. 



UGLY BUCK. 201 

" Tripoli had better go over to Winchester. I 
daresay I shall be able to get my stake back to 
run. He can walk to Fareham the day before the 
race, and thence go on by the train. — I am, yr. 
obed. servt., G. Bentinck. 

" Lord Chesterfield says the Ugly Buck is the 
finest horse he ever saw. Colonel Anson says he 
is a very clever horse, and one that must run, but 
thinks him rather small in the middle-piece. Lord 
Maidstone thinks him a clever horse, but not of 
suflScient scale to please him. Isaac Day says, to 
his mind he is just the size he would choose for a 
race-horse — in fact. Venison on a larger scale. 

"G. B." 

Before quitting the year 1843 I should add a 
few words about the year which preceded it, as 
on many occasions horses trained at Goodwood 
in 1842 beat great pots from Danebury, which 
John Day, father and son, and their party backed 
heavily, because Lord George's horses which op- 
posed them had been trained in 1841 at Dane- 
bury, and their form was therefore supposed to 
be well known to the owners and masters of that 
great racing establishment. Perhaps the most 
notable instance of this occurred at the Bath 
Meeting, of which I give the subjoined account, 
so far as concerns two races in which Lord 
George defeated the Danebury stable. The fol- 



202 LORD GEORGE AS A LETTER- WRITER. 

lowing description is from * The Racing Calen- 
dar ' : — 

" Bath and Bristol Eaces, 1842. 

Tuesday t April 19. 

The Somersetshire Stakes Handicap. 

Lord George Bentinck's Tripoli, 3 yrs., a feather (Sharp), 1. 
Mr Maley's ch.m. Bellissima, aged, 7 st. 13 lb., 2. 

*' Seven others started. Betting — 6 to 4 against Tripoli, 
7 to 2 against Bellissima. 

" Thursday t April 21. 

"The City Cup, of 100 sovereigns, added to a Sweep- 
stakes of 20 sovereigns each; half-f orfeit ; 18 subscribers; 
2^ miles. 

Lord George Bentinck's b. f. Topsail, 3 yrs., 6 st. 5 lb. (W. 

Hewlett), 1. 
Mr Bigg's ch. c. Eleus, 3 yrs., 6 st. 6 lb., 2. 
Mr Wade's gr. c. Greenham Boy, 4 yrs., 7 st. 12 lb., 3. 

" Betting— 3 to 1 on Eleus. Won easily by two lengths." 

I should mention that Lord George sent Top- 
sail to Bath solely for the purpose of meeting 
Eleus, and that he wrote to me the day before 
the race, giving me orders not to allow Topsail 
to run unless Eleus started. His Lordship gave 
a heavy commission to back Topsail, and was 
rewarded by winning a very good stake, about 
which he cared nothing in comparison with tri- 
umphing over the Danebury stable. 

I now come to a letter written in 1844 from 
Bonehill, where his Lordship had paddocks, as 



IMPROVEMENTS AT BONEHILL. 203 

well as at Doncaster, and addressed to myself. 
It will serve to show what a fine judge he was 
of a foal's shape and make, and with what 
minuteness he entered into a detailed descrip- 
tion of what he saw. The first sentences of 
the following letter refer to the improvements 
which he was then engaged in making in the 
race-course at Goodwood : — 

"BoNBHiLL, Nov, 21, 1844. 

"John Kent, — Upon reconsideration, I think 
three inches of mould is too little to place under 
the turf Having decided to take the field mould, 
which is to be had at so little expense, and of 
which there is no limit in amount, I am clearly 
of opinion we should not be stingy of one depth 
of mould, and instead of three inches, as was 
settled, desire Charles Shepherd to put double 
that quantity, viz., six inches, — not, hotvever, un- 
doing or disturbing any ivorh that is already done, 

" I have also bethought myself, as I am going 
eventually to pick up that old road across the top 
of Molecomb Hill, and to returf it, if the old 
materials were to be picked up now they would 
serve admirably, being so close and handy to 
mend the road with at the top of Charlton Park 
between my field and the race-course. With this 
fine dry weather I hope in the course of next week 
you will be able to ascertain the real merits of all 
the rough lot of yearlings. 



204 LORD QEOBGE AS A LETTER- WRITER. 

" I think I have upon the whole rather a good 
lot of foals here. I annex an account of them on 
another sheet. — I am, your obdt. servant, 

"G. Bentinck. 

"1. Bay colt by Bay Middleton — Olive. 
A slashing fine colt ; great size, great length, 
enormous arms and legs, stands straight and well 
on his fore-legs, and with his hind-legs well under 
him. I cannot span his leg below the knee. 
Shoulders come right into the middle of his back, 
and his quarters come well into his back likewise ; 
good loins and good quarters, and pretty good 
thighs with great hocks ; a little flat-sided, and 
might be a little deeper in the girth, but not much 
fault to be found ; plenty of body ; sour, thick, 
and rather lop - eared but small head ; rather a 
small, bad eye, but apparently an idle, easy- 
tempered animal ; in the paddock a slashing, 
striding, true galloper, and I have set him down 
to win the Derby and Leger in 1847. 

" 2. B. c. by Lanercost — Crucifix. A pretty 
good colt ; immense loins, good quarters and hocks, 
and deep in the girth ; very thin through the 
shoulders ; rather flat-sided though deep in the 
body ; ewe-necked ; refined head ; good knees, 
but very light below them ; very small in the 
fetlock-joints and pasterns, and small feet ; but 
his bone and sinew flat, clean, and sound-looking ; 
a good goer in the paddock, with quicker action, 



FOALS AT BONEHILL. 205 

but nothing like the easy stride of the Bay 
Middleton colt. Mr Edmund Peel has backed 
him with me to beat the other in the Derby. 

" 3. Ch. c. by Plenipotentiary — Glentilt. A 
sturdy, sound, muscular, hard-constitutioned-look- 
ing colt. Looks like plating or winning the 300 
sovereigns stake at Goodwood, but a little slack in 
the loin, and rather short in the body ; a good 
true galloper. 

" 4. Ch. c. by Plenipotentiary — Latitude. A 
long-legged, thin, narrow caricature of Longitude 
and Binnacle, having all the bad points of both ; 
won*t feed, and looks in the last stage of a con- 
sumption ; apparently weak and hardly able to 
walk. Upon taking him into the paddock, how- 
ever, with the Glentilt colt and with a filly by 
Plenipotentiary out of My Dear, he proved able 
to gallop past either of them, and appears to 
be the quickest galloper of all the lot. We 
galloped the three till the filly and Glentilt colt 
were in a lather all over, but, strange to say, 
we could not get the consumptive horse to sweat, 
neither did he blow half so much as either of 
the others ; but they say they can neither get 
him to eat or drink ! ! ! 

" 5. B. c. by Plenipotentiary — Vacuna. A fair- 
sized lengthy colt, but long and weak below the 
hocks and knees, and not a very good head, but a 
moderate goer. 

*' 6. B. c. by Plenipotentiary — Lady Emmeline. 



206 LORD GEORGE AS A LETTER- WRITER. 

A sturdy colt, very like Plenipotentiary in shape, 
but very sh(yi*t ai^ms^ and short bad action ; no 
stride, putting down his feet pretty nearly where 
he takes them up. 

" 7. Sister to Pug. Very like Pug, but a finer 
Gohanna head, with enormous nostrils, and in all 
respects mending upon Pug ; a very fine galloper, 
and a very likely mare to win the Oaks. 

"8. Ch. f. by Plenipotentiary — Let-us-stop-a- 
while-says-Slow. The favourite here of all the 
FILLIES. No favourite of mine. A good galloper 
certainly, and a fine head, but short in the body, 
and drooping short Camel quarters ; good shoulders, 
and muscular-looking. 

"9. B. f. by Plenipotentiary — My Dear. A 
small, smart, racing-looking filly; beautifiil head, 
neck, shoulders, body, loins, and quarters, with 
fine length, but no legs below the knee ; no bone 
and no sinew ; small fetlocks, and straight ; well 
put on, but nasty fleshy - looking legs — one of 
the old specimens of Bay Middleton legs ; looks 
like flying half a mile, but no further ; a good- 
actioned filly, but seemed to have no chance with 
the consumptive one. 

"10. B. f by Bay Middleton — Chapeau 
d'Espagne. Very like, but on a still less scale 
than, the two-year-old out of her ; her hock has 
got right, but she has a ringbone on the other 
hind-leg ; very pretty hack action, but no stride. 
I have ordered it to be sold for £5 if no more can 



LORD chesterfield's ESTABLISHMENT. 207 

be got for it. I have eighteen mares here — six of 
which are certainly in foal to Touchstone, ten 
certainly in foal to Colwick, Camarine's dam barren 
to Colwick, and Armida supposed to be barren, but 
I think in foal G. B." 

The next letter gives an interesting peep into 
Lord Chesterfield's racing establishment at Bretby 
Park in Derbyshire, where during the last twenty 
years of his Lordship's Turf career his horses were 
trained by old Tom Taylor, the father of the still 
living Alec Taylor. Colonel Anson was married to 
a sister of the Countess of Chesterfield and of 
Colonel Henry Forester, and many of his mares 
and yearlings were accommodated at Bretby by 
Lord Chesterfield, his brother-in-law, as will be 
seen from the following letter : — 

" Wblbeck, Nov, 30, 1844. 

" John Kent, — I am afraid we have nothing 
very clipping. As you say, they are always be- 
hind the old ones, and to be really good they 
ought to beat such things as Moonshine and the 
Estelle filly at even weights, T. Y.C. I reckon that 
the Real filly. Ennui, and Vacuna would about beat 
the Estelle filly at 16 lb., for I think we may as- 
sume that they can give the Torch filly 16 lb. If 
I am right in this, I think they will pay their way, 
but not do any great things, unless we find one 
amongst them to be superior over a distance of 



208 



LORD GEORGE AS A LETTER- WRITER. 



ground. We have four much too near together for 
there to be a real good one in the lot. 
" This is my handicap : — 



''T,Y,C 







Age. 


8t 


lb. 


African 


• • 


5 


9 


7 


Cowl 


* • 1 


2 


7 


7 


llose of Cashmere 


2 


7 


3 


Moonshine 




2 


6 


2 


Estelle f . 




2 


6 





Real f . 




1 


4 


12 


Ennui 




1 


4 


12 


Vacuna f. 




1 


4 


12 


Torch f. 




1 


3 


10 



" If I am right in this, it will bring them up to 
be as good weight for age next year as Cowl 
and Rose of Cashmere, — ^which may not win the 
Oaks, but will win a good many things. 

" I forgot exactly what was our best trial last 
year, but I think we were always trying the old 
horses with their heads from home, and that last 
year we only tried half a mile instead of three- 
quarters. I think you say, too, that the Torch 
filly would have won half a mile ; if so. Real filly 
and Ennui would have been about winning, carry- 
ing 5 St. 7 lb. half a mile — i.e., just 4 st. under 
African. The question, therefore, is. How have our 
yearlings been with African last year and the year 
before half a mile ? 

" They have taken no taste yet of their year- 
lings at Bretby, but mean to do so about Christ- 



THE BEETBY PARK YEARLINGS. 209 

mas. Some of their best — viz., Birkenhead, Mar- 
text, the mare by Touchstone — Hornsea's dam (a 
splendid animal), and the sister to Euclid — are 
still in the paddocks. Spanish Jack (Don John 
over again, but out of a mare that never bred 
anything to run), Ginger (brother to Mango), the 
colt by Camel — Gladiator's dam, the colt by Don 
John — Scandal, Stitch, by Hornsea out of Industry, 
a colt (a very clever one) by Jereed out of Dirce, 
(Sir Harry's dam), Turpin (I think, next to Birken- 
head, Taylor's favourite), by Hetman Platoff out 
of Black Bess, and five others, amongst them a 
great favourite of mine, Shelford, by Colwick out 
of Marchesina, are all up in the stable, and have 
had two sweats apiece, but are nothing like so for- 
ward or fit as ours. Most of them have been singed 
all over like my cart-horses, but none of them have 
been tried in any way. Spanish Jack is the most 
perfect horse to look at, but the dam has never 
bred anything that could gallop. 

" I think all Col. Anson's were going oflT the end 
of this week to Scott's. Lord Chesterfield is going 
to train almost entirely with Taylor at home, and 
means to make some great improvements in his 
training-ground, which at present hardly deserves 
the name of a training-ground. 

Take them altogether, I never saw such a lot of 
yearlings together, especially when I consider how 
much good looks and running blood are combined 

o 



210 LORD GEOBOE AS A LETTER-WRTTEB. 

in them ; and they are all such sound - looking 
horses, besides plenty of size without lumber. I 
am glad to say all the mares I sent to Touchstone 
are heavy in foal, Moss Rose included, and I have 
ten out of twelve in foal to Colwick. — I am, yr. 
obedt. servant, G. Bentinck. 

" I am very partial to the Colwicks, and wish 
I had hired him this year. 

" I am sorry to say I have only got three sub- 
scriptions to Sir Hercules : I wanted six, but he is 
fulL" 

From the above letters it can easily be imag- 
ined that such an establishment as ours, and 
such a correspondent as Lord Greorge, involved 
an immense amount of letter - writing on my 
father s and my part. In addition to answering 
his Lordship's letters, three of which sometimes 
came by the same post, we had to attend to 
nominations, entries, and declarations of forfeit, 
and also to making arrangements for travelling 
to the countless race meetings where horses were 
engaged. All this could not be accomplished 
without economising time to the utmost. With 
this end in view, I found it necessary to write 
a vast number of letters while travelling by 
railway, and I often had occasion to rejoice that, 
thanks to his Lordship's kind consideration, I 



HIS EXHAUSTIVENESS. 211 

was always instructed to travel in a first-class 
carriage, wherein I was frequently the only 
passenger. 

I .will now bring to a conclusion a chapter which 
might be indefinitely extended were I to include 
in it further specimens of the numerous letters 
which Lord Greorge Bentinck wrote to my father 
and myself. It was his custom thoroughly and 
fundamentally to exhaust every subject and every 
detail upon which he touched ; and as a further 
evidence of his untiring industry, I have now be- 
fore me ever so many letters which he wrote upon 
a new system of ventilation which he desired to 
apply to some stables he was building at Good- 
wood. The perusal of these and other letters 
from his active pen recalls to my mind a few 
words spoken to me not long ago at Newmarket 
by my old friend the ex-racing Judge, Mr J. F. 
Clark, who was well acquainted with the Good- 
wood stable when in its prime. " I do not think," 
exclaimed Mr Clark, " that any of the present lot 
of trainers in England would have long kept the 
situation of trainer to Lord George Bentinck, which 
would have worn any of them out in less than a 
year." To prepare a hundred horses for their 
engagements is under any circumstances a labori- 
ous undertaking, but to do so fifty years ago was 
almost more than one man could long sustain. I 
am quite sure that I should not be here now to 



212 LORD GEORGE AS A LETTER- WRITER. 

write these words if I had been called upon to 
look after such a stable of horses as I had under 
my charge at Goodwood ; and to do so continu- 
ously for such an indefatigable and exacting master 
as Lord Greorge Bentinck over a period of twenty 
years, instead of being in harness only from the 
end of 1841 to the August of 1848 inclusive. 



213 



CHAPTER X. 

LATTER HALF OF THE RACING SEASON OF 1846. 

Three weeks after her severe exertions at 
Goodwood, Miss Elis ran at York for the Great 
Yorkshire Stakes, when Lord George Bentinck 
backed her again. She was beaten easily by Miss 
Sarah, a fine slashing filly, who had run third to 
the Duke of Richmond's Refraction for the Epsom 
Oaks, and was a daughter of Gladiator (at that 
time one of the best stallions in England), and of 
Major Yarburgh's famous mare Easter, by Brutan- 
dorf. The ground at York was excessively deep, a 
large portion of the course being under water. I 
well remember that Mr Ramsay's Malcolm, a very 
powerful chestnut two-year-old colt, who won the 
Prince of Wales's Stakes on the first day, sank 
down into the mud as he was being saddled, and 
was quite unable to extricate himself until four or 
five strong men, whose assistance was invoked by 
Tom Dawson, his trainer, applied their shoulders 
to his ribs on both sides of his body, and fairly 



214 LATTER HALF OF RACING SEASON OF 1845. 

lifted him out of the morass into which he was 
subsiding. Next morning, when I took my horses 
out to exercise, I encountered an old acquaintance 
on the farther side of the course under the wood, 
who thrust his walking-stick into the spongy soil 
up to its handle, remarking that " there was no 
bottom to be found." A shrewd, hard-headed 
Yorkshire labourer who was engaged in filling in 
the holes made by the horses' hoofs on the previous 
day, overheard my friend's remark and ejaculated, 
" You be mistaaken, zur ; there be a parlous good 
bottom, nobut goe deep enouf doun to foind it." 

Lord George was at all times very sceptical as to 
the soundness of excuses made for any of his horses 
which failed to win a particular race. He would 
not listen, therefore, to the assurances forced upon 
him by some of his friends, that Miss Elis had been 
beaten through the deepness of the ground. In 
addition to Miss Elis, Major Yarburgh's mare had 
also beaten Mr Bennett's Hope, who was second to 
Refraction for the Oaks. With his usual practical 
good sense. Lord George soon convinced himself 
that Miss Sarah would win the Doncaster St Leger, 
and immediately commenced to back her heavily 
for that race. Before long his Lordship's money 
made Miss Sarah first favourite for the St Leger, 
and when the flag fell she started with odds of 
5 to 2 against her. In the race, for which she 
was trained by the late Charles Peck, she was 
beaten rather cleverly by Mr Watts's chestnut 



THE BABON. 215 

colt, The Baron, who was bred in Ireland, and 
never came to this country until he put in an 
appearance at the Liverpool July Meeting, to run 
for the Liverpool St Leger. It was won by Mr 
St Paul's Mentor (a bad-tempered brute, who 
was said to have nearly killed Mat Dawson in his 
brother Tom's stables at Middleham), with Sir R. 
Bulkeley's Pantasa second and Lord Eglinton's 
Vaudeville third — four others not placed. As 
The Baron was being led off the course, John 
Scott, after inspecting him long and keenly, said 
to Ml' Watts, his owner, " If you will send that 
horse to Whitewall without delay, he shall win 
the Doncaster Leger for you." Mr Watts took 
the great Yorkshire trainer at his word, the re- 
sult being known to all. The Liverpool St Leger 
was run on July 18, and the Doncaster St Leger 
on September 17, so that John Scott had less than 
nine weeks in which to effect a transformation in 
the Irish horse. He certainly worked wonders by 
his skilful preparation of The Baron for the Don- 
caster St Leger and Cesarewitch ; and it is note- 
worthy that after the latter race. The Baron, 
for whom Mr E. R. Clark, familiarly known as 
" D'Orsay Clark," immediately gave £4000, never 
won again in the hands of another trainer. 

When Lord George came, as usual, to the Turf 
Tavern to look at his horses in the evening after 
the St Leger, he remarked to me in a low voice, 
** I have had rather a bad day, as I backed Miss 



216 LATTER HALF OF RACING SEASON OF 1845. 

Sarah for £3500. I hope you will get it back for 
me to-morrow with My Mary ? " At that time the 
Great Yorkshire Handicap was run on the third 
day of the Doncaster September Meeting. With- 
out hesitation I replied that I had no doubt My 
Mary would win, as she was so " well in," having 
only 5 stone to carry, which was equivalent to 
putting in Miss Elis at 5 st. 7 lb. and Miss Sarah 
at 6 St. 2 lb. When My Mary was tried with Miss 
Elis for the Goodwood Stakes, the latter won with 
the greatest difl&culty, giving My Mary 7 lb. I 
remarked, however, that at the end of a mile and 
three-quarters (the exact distance of the Great 
Yorkshire Handicap) My Mary would have won, 
and this made me feel great confidence that she 
would get back Lord George's St Leger losses, and 
probably a little more, on the following day. 

It may not be out of place or uninteresting 
to my readers if I recite here the circumstances 
under which My Mary came into Lord George's 
hands. She was bred by Alderman Copeland 
(a very good and popular sportsman) in 1842, 
her sire being Bran by Humphrey Clinker, and 
her dam by Oiseau, a grandson of Hamble- 
tonian. Bran ran second to Touchstone for the 
Doncaster St Leger of 1834, and was the sire of 
several good horses, among them being Our Nell 
and Meal, who ran first and second for the Oaks 
in 1842, as previously recorded. My Mary was 
own sister to Our Nell, and had run nine times as 



MY UABY. 217 

a two-year-old, winning thrice, her last victory 
being for the Prendergast Stakes at Newmarket. 
After that she was pulled out by Alderman Cope- 
land to run for a Selling Plate in the Houghton 
Meeting, winner to be sold for £350. She was 
beaten by Brother to Chummy, and no one claimed 
her. I then advised Lord George to buy her from 
Alderman Copeland, adding that I did not think 
the Alderman would want much for her. When 
she started for the Selling Plate in the Houghton 
Meeting I observed that she was ridden in a 
tremendously severe curb bridle, and was led to the 
post by one strong man and followed by another 
with a cart whip in his hand. She was more like 
a wild animal than a race-horse in training, and I 
attributed her fractiousness to a misconception in 
bitting her, and to want of patience and gentleness 
in handling her. She was a sound pretty little 
filly, and I thought that she might be got through 
a good stake if trained and managed with judg- 
ment. Lord George got her with little difl&culty 
for £250, her former owner and trainer being 
equally glad to get rid of her. 

When we got her home to Goodwood, I began 
at first to fear that I had induced his Lordship to 
make a bad purchase. She could not be persuaded 
to accompany the other horses, but would bolt with 
her rider, running under the trees, or anywhere 
to get out of the way. Her boy had no power or 
control over her, and when in the stable she would 



218 LATTER HALF OF RACING SEASON OF 1845. 

tremble and quiver like an aspen leaf. I could not 
get her to touch food ; and when she went out, I 
was fiill of apprehension that she would run against 
a tree and kill herself or her rider. In despair I 
resolved at last to put a very steady quiet lad upon 
her, who weighed nine stone, and had very light 
hands. I told him to keep her out all day, some- 
times riding and sometimes leading her, first with 
one set of horses and then with another. In the 
afternoon she accompanied the yearlings ; and at 
last I discovered, to my infinite satisfaction, that 
she was becoming less fractious, and regaining her 
confidence. Soon she began to feed better, and I 
added a liberal supply of flour to the water which 
she drank. I then put her into the yearling trials, 
telling her lad to stop her when she had galloped 
a couple of furlongs, and to canter in gently after 
the others. 

At last I got her perfectly quiet, so that a friend 
of mine who had known her at Newmarket ex- 
claimed, " Why, that is not the same animal that 
I saw win the Prendergast ! You have made her 
as round as an apple and as sleek as a mole." 
Time, patience, and gentle treatment had worked 
wonders with her, as they will with all horses 
which have been maltreated and misunderstood — 
a very common occurrence in these days of sprint- 
races, in which no starter has any chance unless 
" quick out of the slips," and, as the phrase runs, 
" always on his tiptoes." As My Mary was a 



MY MABY. 219 

small filly, and known to possess speed, I got her 
ready to run early in the spring, and tried her 
half a mile twice before Northampton Races. On 
each occasion she won, and it did not upset her in 
the least. I then tried her three-quarters of a 
mile, and she won again. Presently I asked her 
to go a mile, and she proved herself equal to the 
task by winning easily. It struck me that, being 
by Bran, she might, if trained for it, " get a 
distance," and in that case I felt persuaded that 
she would win a good race. Accordingly I gave 
her a stronger preparation, which she stood well, 
feeding capitally all the time, and when ridden in 
a snaffle going as quietly as a pony. When the 
Groodwood Stakes trial came off, I put her in it, 
with the result recorded above. She was struck 
out of the Goodwood Stakes, which she would 
easily have won with Miss Elis out of the way. 
Lord George then made up his mind to put her 
into the Great Yorkshire Handicap, as it was just 
the right distance for her, and in those days a 
very heavy betting race. Six or seven other horses 
from the Goodwood stable were entered along 
with My Mary, and when she was handicapped at 
5 stone Lord George rubbed his hands, exclaiming, 
** What a good thing ! " On the day when the £5 
forfeit was to be declared, nominations had also to 
be made for some other stakes, and I came up to 
London to submit a list of entries to his Lordship, 
whom I accompanied to Messrs Weatherby's office. 



220 LATTER HALF OF RACING SEASON OF 1845. 

We did not get back to Harcourt House until 
11 P.M. As none of our horses had been struck 
out of the Great Yorkshire Handicap, Mr Charles 
Weatherby kindly sent a messenger to Har- 
court House with a letter asking me to remind 
his Lordship that he had several horses engaged 
in that race, all of which would accept unless he 
declared forfeit for some of them before midnight. 
I wrote back hurriedly to Mr Weatherby, thanking 
him in Lord George's name for his considerate 
attention ; and adding that, as we had not had 
time to look over the handicap, all his Lordship's 
horses had better remain in. 

When I was saddling My Mary I found that his 
Lordship was unusually anxious. He said to me, 
" I suppose we had better wait with the mare, as 
last year she always showed more speed than 
stoutness." I assured his Lordship that he would 
find her a very different animal to-day from what 
she was last year, when, from what I saw of her 
condition and excitability, it was impossible to 
train her. " She will never be fitter," I added, 
" than she is to-day ; and as she has stood a good 
preparation, and could not be better in, she ought 
to be allowed to make the pace good if nothing 
else doea" His Lordship consented, although he 
did so silently, and without much approving the 
policy I suggested. I felt confident, however, 
that, if the pace was good and true. My Mary 
would win before they got to the Red House, 



MY MARY. 221 

and my words were literally verified. There were 
eleven starters, and My Mary made most of the 
nmning at a smart pace. As the field approached 
the Red House, she had them all in difl&culties, 
and won very easily by a length, which Kitchener 
might have made twenty or thirty had he cared 
to do so. He rode her very steadily in a snaffle 
bridle, and without spurs. Before the race, some 
good judges who had often seen My Mary when 
she was trained as a two-year-old at Hednesford 
laughed at the idea that she would get the St 
Leger course, and lost their money accordingly. 

As we walked away from the course following 
the filly, his Lordship, after pausing for a minute 
to hear " All right " pronounced when Kitchener 
got into the scales, thanked me very warmly for 
winning this race with a mare whom no one else, 
as he kindly remarked, had ever been able to get 
to stay a mile. " You have got all my money back 
for me," he added, " and a little more on the top of 
it, as I have won rather more than £15,000." 

A few days later I received from his Lordship 
the following kind and considerate letter : — 

** Welbbck, Worksop, Notts, 
Sept 22, 1846. 

" John Kent, — Our Commissioner made poor 
work of it for us on the Great Yorkshire Handicap, 
averaging only 2 to 1. However, as I consider it 
a great triumph of training getting My Mary, 



222 LATTER HALF OF RACING SEASON OF 1845. 

who was not in other hands able to get T. Y. C. to 
run If mile, as well as curing her bad temper, I 
shall make up the odds you and your father stood 
with me to £25 to £200, which I send you in my 
cheque. 

" I am obliged to be in London on Thursday for 
a meeting on Friday. If any trial of interest were 
to take place on Saturday or Monday, I could be 
at Groodwood for it. We ought not to try till we 
can trust Miss Elis to have got over her two races, 
as she must be considered now the key to all the 
Cesarewitch horses. 

" I cannot estimate her nearer than 9 lb. under 
Miss Sarah, and I suppose, as The Baron actually 
gave Miss Sarah 5 lb., lost start, and beat her a 
length, we must estimate him at least 8 lb. better 
than Miss Sarah. This makes 17 lb. We must 
therefore find something, which I fear we shall 
not do, that can beat Miss Elis, assuming her to be 
in the Cesarewitch at 6 stone 8 lb., and in the 
Cambridgeshire at 6 stone 4 lb. Discord and 
Refraction are the only chances we have in the 
Cesarewitch of finding one to do it. 

" Lothario and Croton Oil are our only chances in 
the Cambridgeshire, but I cannot help suspecting 
that Kitchener never got My Mary out the first 
day we tried her with Croton Oil. We ought to 
try My Mary, Clumsy, Croton Oil, Miss Elis, 
Refraction, and Lothario together before the 
Cambridgeshire Stakes : if the last two are not 



BACKING THE BABON. 223 

prepared, I think Clumsy, Croton Oil, Miss Elis, 
and My Mary should be tried over again, to 
enable me to decide whether or not I should let 
those foreigners have Croton Oil. — I am, your 
obedient servant, G. Bentinck." 

Before I left Doncaster to return to Goodwood, 
Lord George remarked to me with characteristic 
foresight, " I think The Baron cannot lose the 
Cesarewitch, although I am told that Colonel 
Anson and John Scott think he has no chance at 
the weight he has to carry — 7 stone 9 lb. Never- 
theless, I shall back him and take my chance, as 
he is as well in as Miss Elis would be at 6 stone 
6 lb. or My Mary at 5 stone 12 lb. Surely my 
two fillies would be bad to beat at those weights ? " 
With his usual courage, and in total disregard of 
what he knew to be the conviction of John Scott's 
powerful stable, his Lordship threw a lot of money 
on the market to back The Baron, which he in- 
creased as the day approached, upon learning that 
in my Cesarewitch trial Miss Elis and My Mary 
finished first and second, beating the old horses at 
very little diflference of weight. His Lordship's 
money soon made The Baron first favoiu-ite, and 
he told Colonel Anson what he had done, offering 
to give up some of his bets to the stable if they 
liked to share with him. He then added that he 
had retained Flatman to ride for him in the Ces- 
arewitch, but that having no horse he fancied, he 



224 LATTER HALF OF RACING SEASON OF 1845. 

would surrender Flatman to ride The Baron. 
Both offers were gladly accepted, and when the 
flag fell The Baron was a great favourite at 9 to 2 
— odds which could hardly be obtained. The pace 
was moderate, and at the Bushes Flatman took 
the lead, winning at last cleverly by a length. 
About that time Flatman was riding with great 
nerve and skill, and, above all other jockeys that 
I ever had to do with, he invariably obeyed the 
instructions he received to the very letter. In 
addition to winning the Cesarewitch upon The 
Baron, he also won the Cambridgeshire upon Mr 
Greville's Alarm — the best three -year -old of his 
year, with perhaps the exception of Sweetmeat. 
In the Cambridgeshire, Alarm, carrying 7 stone 
9 lb., beat The Baron carrying 7 stone 8 lb. by 
several lengths, owing to the latter having been 
" messed about " in his work : yet, ridden by 
Bumby, he started at 4 to 1, and Alarm at 9 to 1. 
The pace in the Cambridgeshire was as good as it 
had been bad in the Cesarewitch. 



225 



CHAPTER XL 

LORD George's gains in 1844 and 1845. 

Mr Charles Greville, in his remarks upon the 
character of Lord George Bentinck and his un- 
timely death, which extend over nearly thirteen 
closely printed pages of his * Diary/ employs the 
following words : — 

" I have always thought that his [Lord George's] 
conduct in selling his stud all at one swoop, and at 
once giving up the Turf, to which he had just 
before seemed so devoted, was never sufl&ciently 
appreciated and praised. It was a great sacrifice 
both of pleasure and profit, and it was made to 
what he had persuaded himself was a great public 
duty. It is true that he had taken up his new 
vocation with an ardour and a zeal which absorbed 
his old one ; but still it was a very fine act, and 
very creditable to him. He never did anything by 
halves, and having accepted the responsible post 
of leader of his party, he resolved to devote him- 

p 



226 GAINS IN 1844 AND 1845. 

self to their service, and did so without stint or 
reserve." 

That Lord George's determination to sell his 
stud at one swoop was, as Mr Greville says, **a 
very fine act," will be denied by none who know 
what were his Lordship's gains upon the Turf in 
1845, and also that in Surplice and Loadstone he 
possessed, and knew that he possessed, in 1846, 
the two most promising yearlings that ever called 
him master. From the details recorded in the last 
two chapters my readers will not be surprised to 
learn that, to the best of my belief, Lord George's 
winnings by betting during the year 1845 must 
have amounted to close upon £100,000. It was 
seldom his Lordship's habit to speak of money mat- 
ters, about which, as about all his business trans- 
actions, he was one of the most reticent of men. 
His avowal, for instance, after the Great Yorkshire 
Handicap, that he won more than £15,000 on that 
race, was almost the only statement of the kind 
that he ever vouchsafed to my father or myself. 
Nevertheless, the amount of his outlay on a race 
was in every instance approximately disclosed by 
the statement of the quoted odds when the flag 
fell ; and on such subjects popular rumour, eman- 
ating from well-informed racing and betting men, 
is seldom far from the mark. In this manner I 
could not help being made aware what were the 
races upon which his Lordship had staked most 



COUP UPON LOTHARIO. 227 

money ; and in addition to the Groodwood Stakes 
and Cup won by Miss Elis, and to the Great 
Yorkshire Handicap won by My Mary, it came 
to my knowledge that his two best races in 
1845 were the Liverpool Cup, won by the Duke 
of Richmond's Lothario, and the Cesarewitch, 
won by Mr Watts's The Baron. Upon these 
five races his Lordship must have landed in bets 
not less than from £60,000 to £70,000, and this 
large sum was augmented when the Duke of 
Richmond's Red Deer won the Port Stakes at 
Newmarket, Picnic won the One Thousand Guineas, 
and Refraction the Oaks. In the last-named race 
Lord George had three mares of his own — Miss 
Elis, Rose of Cashmere, and Longitude — engaged, 
all of which started, as they had shown some form. 
None of them had been tried with the Duke of 
Richmond's Refraction, and therefore his Lordship 
confined himself to backing ** Kent's lot " for a 
large sum, whereby he showed more judgment than 
by taking 8 to 1 about Miss Elis, while Refraction's 
starting price was 25 to 1. 

But, as I have already said, one of his biggest 
coups in connection with that fortunate year was 
upon the five-year-old Lothario, when he won the 
Liverpool Cup, for which he started first favourite 
in a strong field at 4 to 1, to which price he was 
brought by Lord George's money. Among the 
eighteen starters were reckoned some fairly good 
old horses, such as Corinna (who subsequently won 



228 GAINS IN 1844 AND 1845. 

the Chester Cup), Winesour, and Rowena, and one 
good three-year-old, the Ironmaster, who belonged 
to the almost invincible Mr A. W. Hill, the owner 
of Sweetmeat, the Libel, Salopian, Alonzo, and 
Burlesque. The previous career of Lothario shows 
(if that were necessary) what the uncertainty of 
horse - racing is. At Epsom Summer Meeting 
Lothario ran for the Surrey Cup, which Lord 
Greorge's Croton Oil won, although Lothario, 
who ran very badly, and was beaten a long 
way, was much better than Croton Oil at the 
weights. A day or two after Lothario appeared 
very dull, and was off his feed — the result 
of a chiU which he caught at Epsom. I was 
therefore obliged to ease him in his work, and 
between Epsom and Ascot he was limited to an 
occasional canter. In this condition he ran for 
the Ascot Stakes — a race of which the Duke of 
Richmond was very fond — although I had not the 
slightest expectation that, over the severest course 
in England, Lothario would win it, and he was 
not backed for a shilling by the stable. To my 
intense astonishment, however, Lothario fairly 
wore down Mr Meiklam's five - year - old mare. 
Inheritress, who started first favourite at 3 to 1, 
and was 'backed for a heap of money. For this 
race Lothario's only backer was, so far as I know, 
the Marquis of Exeter, who trusted him with a 
'*pony," as he had vowed, after Lothario beat 



LOTHABIO. 229 

his own horse Phlegon for the Port Stakes in 
1844, that Lothario should never run again with- 
out carrying some of his Lordship's money. 

When the weights appeared for the Liverpool 
July Cup, Lothario was handicapped according to 
his Ascot Stakes form, which Thomas Dawson, the 
trainer of Inheritress, made sure that he could 
beat with Mr A. Johnstone's Rowena, 4 years, 
7 st. 2 lb. All this Lord Greorge, who knew 
everything that was going on, repeated to me 
when he came to Goodwood, adding that Mr 
Meiklam made light of Lothario's chance. I 
replied that if between the 10th of June and the 
17th of July I could not improve Lothario from 7 
to 10 lb., there was no use in exercise, vigilance, 
and training. The Duke of Richmond was never 
fond of trying his horses when he believed them 
to be well and fit, and therefore Lothario was not 
"put through the mill" before the Liverpool Cup, 
which he undoubtedly would have been if Lord 
George's property. The horse gave me entire 
satisfaction, however, and went through a good 
preparation, becoming, so far as I could judge 
without taking off his clothes, as fit as possible. 
Lord George trusted him with a very big stake, as 
was proved by his starting first favourite in the 
teeth of the heavy sums laid out by the northern 
division on Tom Dawson's lot, as well as on Mr 
Bell's Winesour and Mr Mostyn's Milton. The 



230 GAINS IN 1844 AND 1845. 

race was run at a capital pace, and Flatman on 
Lothario won cleverly by a length, with Tommy 
Lye on Rowena second. 

His Lordship also won a good deal of money by 
backing three of his own two-year-olds, Cherokee, 
Princess Alice, and Ennui. The first won the 
Althorp Park at Northampton, the Woodcote at 
Epsom, the Fern Hill at Ascot, and walked over 
for the Theatre Stakes at Wolverhampton. The 
second (Princess Alice) won the Weston Stakes at 
Bath, the Two- Year-Old Sweepstakes at Chester 
(beating a large field), the 200 Sovereigns Sweep- 
stakes for fillies at Goodwood, the Champagne at 
Doncaster, and the Prendergast at Newmarket. 
The third (Ennui) came out for the first time at 
Doncaster to run against Lord Maidstone's Tom 
TuUoch in a match, nominally for 500 sovereigns, 
but really for 1500 sovereigns each. Upon this 
match I shall have something further to say 
presently, when I have related that, after Princess 
Alice's victory in the Champagne Stakes, I men- 
tioned that it was customary for the winner to 
give six dozen of that wine to the guests who 
dined at the Turf Tavern after the races. His 
Lordship therefore instructed me to give the 
necessary orders, adding that he hoped in this 
way to confer some slight benefit upon the hostess, 
Mrs Bowe, who was the widow of Mr John Bowe, 
in whose name some of his Lordship's horses had 
previously run and won, most notably Grey Momus, 



DRINKING THE CHAMPAGNE STAKES. 231 

when he won the Two Thousand in 1838. "Let 
the supply of champagne be ample, so that all may 
enjoy themselves," were his Lordship's concluding 
words to me, as he left the course to return to 
Welbeck. 

The Turf Tavern was the abode during the Don- 
caster race week of a jovial crew, including Mr 
Dawson (himself the most hospitable and generous 
of men), and his employers, Mr William Hope 
Johnstone, Mr Meiklam, and Mr O'Brien. In 
addition, I invited John and Bill Scott to dinner, 
and any friends whom they might like to bring 
with them from The Salutation, where John Scott's 
horses always stood. In point of fact, the Turf 
Tavern that night was open to all who liked to 
enter its doors, and champagne flowed like water 
for many hours. At the dinner -table the mirth 
was fast and furious, as can easily be imagined 
when such guests as Mr Orde of Nunnykirk, owner 
of the famous Beeswing, Mr Pedley, Mr Wyndham 
Smith, better known as " The Assassin," and many 
other choice spirits, were also present. 

When Lord George drove over next morning 
from Welbeck to Doncaster — there was no Great 
Northern Railway in those days — his first question 
to me was, "How did the dinner at the Turf 
Tavern go off?" I replied that everybody had 
enjoyed himself more than I could describe, but 
that I feared the expense would exceed his Lord- 
ship's anticipations, as the bill for wine, almost 



232 GAINS IN 1844 AND 1845. 

entirely champagne, amounted to about £75, show- 
ing that the traditional six dozen had been greatly 
exceeded. " I am very glad to hear it," rejoined his 
Lordship. " We do not win the Champagne Stakes 
every day, and I hope it will do Mrs Bowe a little 
good. I shall be only too glad to pay the same bill 
for wine over again under similar circumstances." 
This very liberal expenditure on his Lordship's 
part was not solely due to Princess Alice's victory 
in the Champagne Stakes, but was also prompted 
by Ennui's match. I have already mentioned that 
his Lordship was much struck by Tom TuUoch's 
good looks when John Scott brought him as a 
yearling to Doncaster to be put up at auction. It 
was with the greatest difficulty that I dissuaded 
his Lordship from bidding more for Tom Tulloch 
than 1200 guineas, seeing that he was a colt with 
heavy shoulders, roguish eyes, and a clubby foot. 
Tom Tulloch was knocked down to Lord Maidstone 
at 1500 guineas, and the match previously alluded 
to was ratified. John Scott thought so highly of 
Tom Tulloch that he encouraged Lord Maidstone 
to back him for the Two Thousand and Derby of 
1846 before his form was exposed at Doncaster, 
where he was expected to show his heels without 
difficulty to Ennui. Tom Tulloch had been tried 
greatly superior to Colonel Anson's lago, who ran 
second to Princess Alice for the Champagne, and 
it never occurred to John Scott and Frank Butler 
that a little scratching fiUy like Ennui could beat 



TOM TULLOCH. 233 

that form. As I was saddling Ennui, and giving 
Flatman orders to come right through with her, he 
said to me, " Give what orders you may, you are 
sure to be beaten, as I am told you are going 
to meet a great horse." Lord George, however, 
was not in a mood to be daunted, as he knew 
there was not much between Ennui and Prin- 
cess Alice, by the latter of whom he had won 
largely. So freely did his Lordship back his filly, 
that, despite the great reputation of John Scott on 
a Yorkshire race-course, and the confidence gene- 
rally reposed in his judgment, the odds were never 
more than 6 to 5 on Tom Tulloch. When the 
signal was given, Flatman made running as hard 
as his filly could lay legs to ground, and, to the 
dismay of John Scott and his powerful stable, 
Tom Tulloch showed the white feather before the 
distance was reached, and Ennui won in a canter 
by four lengths. I then ventured to remind his 
Lordship that making a match against Tom 
Tulloch was more profitable than buying him, 
with which he heartily concurred. Another race 
which brought grist to his Lordship's mill earlier 
in that same year was the Great Ascot Produce 
Stakes of 100 sovereigns each, with 200 sovereigns 
added, for three -year -olds, which was won by 
Cowl, who beat Mr Wreford's Winchelsea, a great 
Danebury **pot." The betting was very heavy, 
but in the end weight of money told, and the 
odds on Cowl were 3 to 1, which he landed in 



234 GAINS IN 1844 AND 1845. 

a canter by two lengths. Upon a number of smaU 
races secured by the Goodwood stable in 1845 
his Lordship won considerable sums, and, as a 
rule, he had the market all to himself. I re- 
member a curious race at Goodwood in which 
Lord George, always fond of novelty, had recourse 
to an experiment which turned out entirely to his 
satisfaction, when Farthing Candle, a two-year-old 
belonging to him, won the Innkeepers' Plate in 
heats. The conditions of the race were as follows : 
" The Innkeepers' Plate of 50 sovereigns added to 
a sweepstakes of 5 sovereigns each, for two-year- 
olds, a feather ; three, 7 stone 4 lb. ; four, 8 stone ; 
five, 8 stone 7 lb. ; six and aged, 8 stone 10 lb., 
the winner to be sold for £50; heats, T. Y. C." 
There were seven starters, and the betting was 6 to 
4 against Farthing Candle, 7 to 2 against the Mus 
Colt, and 4 to 1 against Sister to Pompey. The 
first heat, in which Farthing Candle cantered 
almost at the tail of the field without trying for 
it, was won by Auricula, who immediately became 
favourite for the second heat, and gave Lord 
George an opportunity of investing more money at 
a good price upon Farthing Candle, who won the 
second and third heats easily, and was then claimed 
by Mr Shelley. It must be confessed that in this 
and many other races the light weight, fine judg- 
ment, and good horsemanship of Kitchener were 
of great service to his Lordship, who appreciated 
the lad's good qualities greatly — ^without spoiling 



LORD George's expenses. 235 

him, however, as is now the fashion, by extrava- 
gant presents and undue familiarity. 

It was not without heavy expenditure and 
strict attention to business that Lord George was 
able in 1845 to win 58 races, amounting collectively 
in value to between £17,000 and £18,000. That 
year his Lordship had sixty horses in training, 
thirty-six of which started in 195 races. The ac- 
counts sent in by my father for the first half of 
the year were £4358, 13s. lljd., and £5586, 5s. 6d. 
for the second half, making together an aggregate 
of £9944, 19s. 5id. To this must be added 
jockey's fees, about £800 ; stakes, £5970 ; forfeits, 
£4420. Nor must I omit to include his Lordship's 
breeding-studs at Doncaster, Bonehill, and Dane- 
biu:y, among which three stallions, sixty brood- 
mares, and from forty to fifty yearlings, together 
with about the same number of foals, were dis- 
tributed. Taken altogether, his Lordship's ex- 
penses could not have been less than £40,000 in 
1845 — a large sum to recover before anything 
could be put to the profit side. His Lordship 
was well aware — it was, indeed, an accepted axiom 
in those days — that without heavy and successful 
betting no man could make a large stud pay ; and 
also, that without the closest attention to details, 
trials, and the public running of his own and of 
other horses, it was impossible for any man to 
win by betting. There can be no question that 
the increasing demands of his Lordship's parlia- 



236 GAINS IN 1844 AND 1845. 

mentary duties towards the close of 1845 and at 
the beginning of 1846 made it difficult for him to 
give as much attention to his stud as he had be- 
stowed upon it diu:ing many previous years. Mr 
Greville truly said of Lord George that " he did 
nothing by halves," and the necessity of main- 
taining the position which he had taken up in 
the House of Commons and in the country weighed 
heavily upon his mind. Among the few books 
written by friends and contemporaries of Lord 
G^rge Bentinck, there is none, within my limited 
knowledge, which affords a clearer insight into 
his Lordship's character than the * Correspondence 
and Diaries of the Right Honourable John Wilson 
Croker,' which appeared in 1884. From it I 
venture to quote the following letter : — 

''Lord George Bentirick to Mr Croker. 

*' Welbeck, ^lear Worksop, Notts, 
October 6, 1847. 

** My dear Mr Croker, — My services, such as 
they are, shall always be at the command of any 
one like yourself who can put the facts which I 
am able to collect with more force and in a more 
striking light before the world. 

" Virtually an uneducated man, never intended 
or attracted by taste for political life, in the House 
of Commons only by a pure accident, indeed by an 
inevitable and undesired chance, I am well aware 



LETTER TO MR CROKBR. 237 

of my own incapacity properly to fill the station 
into which I have been thrust. My sole ambition 
was to rally the broken and dispirited forces of a 
betrayed and insulted party, and to avenge the 
country gentlemen and landed aristocracy of Eng- 
land upon the Minister who, presuming upon their 
weakness, falsely flattered himself that they could 
be trampled upon with impunity. 

" I did deceive myself, I own, with false hopes 
that the old English spirit would have been 
roused, and that it was only necessary to keep the 
dismantled ship floating and fighting under jury- 
masts till she went through the repairs of a new 
election, and then that scores of better men than 
myself would have come to her rescue. 

" I own I am bitterly disappointed and broken- 
hearted that England has proved so degenerate 
that, in face of an emergency, she has produced, as 
far as I can see, no new leader to take my place. 

" When their rents are not paid, and their mort- 
gages are called in, the country gentlemen will 
exert themselves, and so wiU the farmers when 
wheat falls under 45 s. per quarter, but not before. 

" Nothing but pinching adversity will bring such 
men to a proper sense of their duty. 

" As regards the gentlemen, the entire fund sub- 
scribed for the general election did not, I believe, 
exceed £8000, and of this King Hudson subscribed 
£6000. 

" Till the landed interest and the colonial and 



238 GAINS IN 1844 AND 1845. 

shipping interests all together feel intolerable dis- 
tress, we shall do no good ; but in my conscience 
I believe if the Navigation Laws are repealed, 
which I scarcely doubt, this will happen within 
two years. — Always yours most sincerely, 

" G. Bentinck." 

It will not seem surprising to those who read 
this and other letters, addressed about the same 
time by Lord George to Mr Croker, that his Lord- 
ship should have found it impossible to conduct 
such a correspondence, to work for fifteen or six- 
teen hours a-day, and simultaneously to manage 
a stud comprising altogether more than two hun- 
dred head of thoroughbred horses. Long before 
the sale " of everything, from little Kitchener to 
old Bay Middleton," I saw plainly what was about 
to happen. For the present, it only remains for 
me to conclude this chapter by stating that, stim- 
ulated by his great success in 1845, his Lordship 
engaged his brood-mares in Produce Stakes, and 
his yearlings and foals at the end of that year, 
to an extent which has, I believe, never been 
equalled in the history of the Turf by a single 
individual. He began by entering eighteen colts 
in the Derby and eight fillies in the Oaks. Five 
yearlings or foals he entered in Two Hundred 
Sovereigns and Three Hundred Sovereigns Stakes 
p. p. ; seventeen brood-mares in Produce Stakes 
of one hundred sovereigns each. When I ap- 



ZENITH OF LORD GEORGE's CAREER. 239 

preached his Lordship with a list of suggested 
engagements for stakes which closed on the 1st 
of January 1846, he glanced at it and exclaimed, 
" Surely I have more animals which ought to be 
put into these important stakes," meaning the 
Two Hundred Sovereigns and Three Hundred 
Sovereigns races at Goodwood, to which there was 
no forfeit. In the end, his Lordship's stakes for 
1846 amounted to £35,115, and his forfeits to 
£22,110, the total number of engagements being 
479. 

The point in his Lordship's racing career at 
which I have now arrived was its zenith. Had 
he not been called away by the imperious claims 
upon him made by what he considered a para- 
mount duty to his country, it is impossible to 
say to what magnitude his stud and his engage- 
ments might have ascended. Upon two of his 
Derby horses since he came to Goodwood in 1841, 
Gaper and Chatham, I had known him stand in 
each case to win between £100,000 and £150,000. 
Who can doubt that if he had kept Surplice 
and Loadstone in his own hands, he would have 
won such sums upon the Two Thousand, Derby, 
and St Leger of 1848 as have never been landed 
before or since ? I have known other rich men 
who could not stand to win even a small sum 
on a horse without betraying the most painful 
excitement. Lord George, on the contrary, was 
perfectly calm ; his pulse *' made healthfiil music " 



240 GAINS IN ia44 AND 1845. 

when he stood to win more than £100,000 upon a 
horse like Gaper, whose chance he thought as good 
if not better than that of Cotherstone, the first 
favourite and winner. Under every test to which 
nerve and courage could be put, whether at two 
o'clock P.M. or two o'clock A.M., Lord G^rge Ben- 
tinck, who, as Mr Greville said of him, " was afi^id 
of no man," never quailed, and was never found 
wanting. 



241 



CHAPTER XII. 



THE SALE OF LORD GEORGE's STUD. 



In the early part of 1846 Lord George Bentinck 
often expressed to me his deep regret that, by 
reason of the severe pressure of his parliamentary 
duties, he found himself unable to devote as much 
time as he could wish to managing, engaging, 
and watching the running of his race-horses in 
training. The inevitable consequence of this pre- 
occupation was, that the great pleasure which his 
extraordinary devotion to the Turf had afforded 
him was now at an end. It so happened that on 
the evening of the third day's racing at Good- 
wood in 1846, after the Cup had been won by Mr 
O'Brien's Grimston, some of the guests assembled 
round the Duke of Richmond's table fell to discuss- 
ing the magnitude of Lord George's racing estab- 
lishments, and the large number of horses that he 
had in training. Suddenly his Lordship, who ap- 
peared to be more than half asleep, struck into 
the conversation with the question, " Will any of 

Q 



242 SALE OF LORD GEORGE's STUD. 

you give me £10,000 for all my lot, beginning 
with old Bay Middleton and ending with little 
Kitchener, and take them with all their engage- 
ments and responsibilities off my hands?" Mr 
George Payne immediately replied, " If you will 
give me till to-morrow at noon, Bentinck, to con- 
sider the matter, I will either accept your offer 
or will pay you down £300 if I decline it." 
" Agreed," said Lord George, quietly ; and upon 
that Mr Payne sat down by his Lordship's side, 
and they entered into a long sotto voce conversa- 
tion with each other. Mr Payne remarked that 
his own trainer, Montgomery Dilly, was not equal 
to the task of training so many horses, and presid- 
ing over such a monster establishment, and there- 
fore he asked Lord George to advise him what to 
do in case a bargain was concluded between them. 
His Lordship was pleased to advise Mr Pajnie to 
engage me to train the horses and to manage the 
stud ; adding that, from my long experience in 
connection with the Goodwood stable, I knew the 
horses and their dispositions thoroughly, and was 
better qualified than any other man to undertake 
the business. Thereupon Mr Payne sent for me 
immediately, and from him I learned for the first 
time that Lord George had resolved to quit the 
Turf. Knowing his Lordship's inflexibility and 
the iron firmness of his character, I was well 
aware that it was useless for me, or for any one 
else, to attempt to turn him from his purpose. 



MR GEORGE PAYNE's OFFER. 243 

The announcement was, however, a great blow to 
me, although his Lordship's repeated intimations 
that he could no longer carry on his racing and 
his political careers simultaneously should have 
prepared me for his decision. Even at that early 
date I had come to the conclusion that his Lord- 
ship had, in Surplice and Loadstone, the two 
best yearlings that he ever owned ; and none of 
the friends with whom I was intimate could have 
failed to understand what inexpressible pleasure it 
would have given me to win the Derby for my 
beloved and honoured master, with a horse bred 
by himself — a son of his old favourite, the peerless 
Crucifix. 

Scarely had I found myself alone with Mr 
Payne before he announced his intention of leasing 
Michel Grove, near Worthing (which was then to 
be let), if I would consent to take charge of all 
the horses. Mr Payne added that if I would 
become his private trainer, he would give me £500 
a-year beyond what I was in receipt of from the 
Duke of Richmond and Lord George. Although 
much distressed at the prospect of losing such a 
master as Lord George, I thanked Mr Payne as 
best I could for his flattering and generous offer, 
and for the confidence which he was pleased to 
repose in me. I added, however, that it was 
impossible for me to close with him until I had 
ascertained the Duke of Richmond's wishes upon 
the subject, as his Grace was also my master, and 



244 SALE OF LORD GEORGE's STUD. 

had been so long before Lord George joined the 
Goodwood Stable. At this moment a note was 
brought in and handed to me, with a verbal request 
that I would read it at once. Having obtained 
Mr Payne's permission, I opened it, and found that 
it contained a request from the Duchess of 
Richmond that I would go and see her Grace 
before I returned to my own house. 

Immediately upon leaving Mr Payne, to whom I 
respectfully refused to bind myself, one way or the 
other, until the evening of the next day, I was 
ushered into the Duchess's boudoir, where I found 
her Grace, accompanied by two or three younger 
members of her family. I shall never forget the 
scene. Her Grace's kindness and sympathetic 
nature were well known to all her friends and 
dependants, and of these inestimable qualities I 
had already received from her a thousand proofs. 
When, therefore, she inquired with unrepressed 
emotion, " John, is it true that you are about to 
leave us and to train for Mr Payne ? " I felt as if 
I was going to break down completely, and it was 
with no little difficulty that I could find voice to 
reply, " Your Grace, it appears that Lord George 
has offered Mr Payne his stud at a ridiculously 
low figure, and has recommended me to Mr Payne 
as better able to train and manage them than any 
one else. I have already told Mr Payne, however, 
that I can enter into no arrangement with him 
until I have ascertained the pleasure of his Grace." 



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MR PAYNE PAYS FORFEIT. 245 

*' John/' rejoined her Grace, " if you leave Good- 
wood, there will be an end to the delight and 
pride which we have all taken in the horses. As 
long as his Grace lives he will always keep horses, 
and so long there will be a comfortable home for 
you." Without a moment's hesitation I answered, 
"If it be his Grace's wish and your own that I 
should continue at Goodwood, I will not leave 
it until you wish me to do so." 

I did not see Mr Payne again that night, but 
what I had said to her Grace was quickly com- 
municated to him. Next morning at breakfast he 
pulled out his pocket-book, and without a word 
handed £300 to Lord George, who, I have no 
doubt, was sorry under the circumstances to 
receive the forfeit. Upon reaching the race- 
course, I found that every one knew what had 
transpired on the previous evening, and that 
morning at Goodwood House, and that the desire 
to purchase Lord George's magnificent stud for 
what one gentleman described as "a crust of 
bread" was almost universal. Among others, a 
group consisting partly of gentlemen and partly of 
bookmakers, with Mr Henry Padwick of Horsham 
— commonly called "The Sussex Lawyer" — at 
their head, were conspicuously busy in making pre- 
parations, until their further negotiations were 
summarily arrested by Lord George's declaration 
to me that " nothing would induce him to sell to 
a set of bookmakers." He added that unless some 



246 SALE OF LOBD GEORGE's STUD. 

m 

nobleman, or gentleman of position, or two or 
three of them in combination, should arrange to 
purchase the stud, and to accept the grave 
responsibilities involved in forfeits amounting to 
about £18,000, he would not sell at all. 

It so happened that the Hon. Edward Mostyn 
Lloyd Mostyn, who was then forty years of age, 
and who became second Baron Mostyn on the 
death of his father in 1854, was at that time 
on intimate terms with Lord George Bentinck, 
who had taken great interest in his splendid 
Velocipede mare. Queen of Tnunps, after she 
defeated Preserve in the Oaks. Lord George's 
judicious advice had powerfully contributed to 
Queen of Trumps winning the St Leger, upon 
which, as before explained. Lord George was 
a large winner. After conferring with his 
cousin, Mr Cynric Lloyd, who was an ardent 
devotee of the Turf, Mr Mostyn resolved to 
approach Lord George and to make him an offer 
for the whole stud, on the understanding that the 
horses then in training at Goodwood might remain 
there so long as he and Mr Lloyd should desire. 
The bargain was soon concluded, and in this 
manner 208 thoroughbreds — viz., 3 stallions, 50 
horses in training, 70 brood-mares, 40 yearlings, 
and 45 foals — passed into Mr Mostyn 's hands. 
The following letter from Lord George apprised 
me of the unwelcome intelligence that I should 
probably never see his colours — light-blue jacket 






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BOUGHT BY THE HON. MR MOSTYN. 247 

with white cap — on a race-course again, although 
it was destined that Slander should carry them to 
victory at York for the last time, albeit the Prince 
of Wales's Stakes, which Slander won in the old 
jacket, went to Mr Mostjm's credit. Lord 
Greorge's letter, which Mr Cynric Lloyd brought 
to me at the York August Meeting in question, 
was in these words : — 

"Harcourt House, 

Auguit 18, 1846, 7 p.m. 

"John Kent, — Mr Mostyn has purchased my 
stud. Mr C. Lloyd, his cousin, is the bearer to 
you of this letter, and from this time Mr Mostyn 
stands in my shoes. Carts, cart-horses, saddling, 
and horse-clothes are all included in the sale. 

" You will therefore, as regards my horses, from 
this time receive your instructions from Mr Mostyn 
or Mr Lloyd, as may be settled between them. — I 
am, your obedient servant, G. Bentinck. 

" To Mr John Kent, Junr/ 

Mr Lloyd handed me Lord George's letter just 
before the races commenced on the first day of the 
York Meeting. I had prepared his Lordship's two- 
year-old filly Slander, by Pantaloon out of Pasqui- 
nade, to run for the Prince of Wales's Stakes. She 
was own sister to Mr A. W. Hill's celebrated horse 
The Libel, and, like him, was bred by the Marquis 
of Westminster, who was at that time the owner 
of Touchstone and Pantaloon, probably the two 



248 SALE OF LORD GEORGE's STUD. 

best stallions in the world. Previous to her York 
engagement, Slander had already won the New 
Stakes at Ascot. 

There was no time to substitute Mr Mostyn's 
colours, yellow jacket and black cap, for Lord 
George's, and with a heavy heart I saddled the 
last animal that I thought would ever inin in that 
familiar jacket, which in the last three years I had 
so often seen carried to victory. I have ever since 
taken a pride in reflecting that on the very last 
appearance of Lord George's colours they occupied 
their accustomed place in the van. There were 
twenty-one starters for the Prince of Wales's Stakes 
— a larger field than is commonly seen at the post 
in these days. Mr Mostyn had another filly en- 
gaged, called Twysoges, by Picaroon out of Her 
Highness, who could run a little ; and in addition, 
there was Mr Payne's Clementina, by Venison out 
of Bay Middleton's dam, who was very smart, and 
started first favourite. The race ended thus : — 

Mr Mostyn*s b. f. Slander (Abdale), 1. 

Mr Payne's b. f. Clementina (Flatman), 2. 

Mr Mostyn's b. f. Twysoges (Bumby), 3. 

Mr Mostyn's c. Vice-Consul (H. Bell), 4. 

Seventeen others unplaced. Won cleverly by a length. 

The fourth horse, Vice-Consul, was Lord George's 
second string, whom I brought to York in case 
Slander should go amiss or get disappointed in the 
race. Thus it will be seen that in the very first race 
in which Lord George's horses ran as Mr Mostyn's 



MR mostyn's arrangements. 249 

property, the latter gentleman was first, third, and 
fourth, the winner being one of Lord George's lot. 
Scarcely was the race over before Mr Payne 
remarked to me, with his usual bonhomie y " So you 
have beaten me the first time you ran against me 
after refusing to become my trainer ! " Mr Lloyd 
was much elated at winning such a race the first 
time of asking, and all the more so because, by my 
advice, he backed Slander. Upon the Monday 
following York Kaces Mr Mostyn and Mr Lloyd 
came to Goodwood to inspect the stud they had 
purchased, and to make the necessary arrange- 
ments for the future. Naturally their first and 
gi'eatest desire was to reduce the number of 
animals feeding at Mr Mostyn's expense, and to 
limit the outgoings as soon as possible. Their first 
design, and that which seemed to be the most 
prudent plan under the circumstances, was to offer 
the whole of Lord George Bentinck's stud for sale 
by auction, and to buy in what they wished to 
keep ; but this did not appear to me at all the best 
course. In the first place, I entertained strong 
doubts whether it would be agreeable to the Duke 
of Richmond to have a monster sale of this kind at 
Goodwood. If his Grace objected — and I felt 
pretty sure that he would — to such a proceeding, 
I considered that it would be a great risk to send 
heavily engaged horses by railway to London, to 
thread their way in large niunbers through 
crowded thoroughfares to Tattersall's. It will 



250 SALE OF LORD GEORGE's STUD. 

be remembered that in 1846 railways were in 
their infancy, and that the skill and safety with 
which race-horses are now boxed and despatched 
on a long jonmey were then unknown. Besides, 
it was certain that bidders would fight shy as soon 
as they found that the sale was not "without 
reserve." It therefore seemed to me that by far 
the best plan would be for Mr Mostyn and Mr 
Lloyd to select the animals which they wished to 
retain, and to send the rest by instalments to 
Tattersall's. The public, I argued, were natiu^lly 
prepared to learn that Mr Mostyn intended to 
largely reduce the enormous expenses attaching to 
such a stud, and were expecting a bond fde sale 
of a considerable portion of it. 

To these views Mr Mostyn assented, and on 
September 7, 1846, a huge draft was sold at 
Hyde Park Corner, and, as might have been 
expected, drew a large attendance. Thirty lots 
were put up — viz., nineteen brood-mares (by no 
means the cream of the stud), three yearlings, and 
eight horses in training. All sold well. Princess 
Alice fetching the top price. This day's sale 
realised 3195 guineas. On Tuesday the two-year- 
olds, seventeen in number (Tattered-and-Tom 
having been presented to one of the Duke of 
Richmond's daughters and thrown up), which had 
been inspected at Goodwood by breeders from all 
quarters, were put up, but to very little purpose, 
only two being sold — viz.. Blackcock (engaged in 



SALE AT TATTERS all's. 251 

the Champagne at Doncaster, in the Criterion and 
Clearwell at Newmarket, and the Drawing-room 
Stakes at Goodwood) for 250 guineas, and Growl 
(in the Oaks, Gratwicke, and a 50-Guinea Stake 
at Newmarket) for 70 guineas, with their engage- 
ments. Master Butler (engaged in the Drawing- 
room and St Leger, 1847, and the 300 Sovereigns 
Stakes at Goodwood, 1848) was privately sold, 
with his engagements, for £30. Particulars of 
the first day's sale are subjoined : — 

Brood-Mares. 

Guineas. 

The Maid of Orleans, ch. m., 4 yrs., by Jereed out of 

Anchorite's dam, &c. ; covered by Slane . . 200 
Charlotte, b. m., 5 yrs., by Liverpool out of Brocade ; 

covered by Slane 100 

Charming Kate, sister to Coronation, 5 yrs. ; covered 

by Slane 90 

Mora, 4 yrs., by Bay Middleton out of Malvina ; 

covered by Slane 70 

Souvenance, b. m., 7 yrs., by Bay Middleton out of 

Souvenir ; covered by Emilius .... 62 
Eatifia, b. m., 4 yrs., by Bay Middleton out of Cama- 

rine's dam ; covered by Emilius .... 60 
I*apilio, b. m., 5 yrs., by Bay Middleton out of Bob 

Peel's dam ; covered by Emilius .... 56 
Yawn, sister to Gaper, 5 yrs. ; covered by Emilius . 54 
My Dear, b. m., 5 yrs., by Bay Middleton out of Miss 

Letty ; covered by Emilius 54 

Supine, b. m., 4 yrs., by Bay Middleton out of Mar- 
rowfat ; covered by Slane 52 

AU-round-my-Hat, br. m., 5 yrs., by Bay Middleton 

out of Chapeau d'Espagne 50 



252 SALE OF LORD GEORGE's STUD. 

Guineas. 

Nightcap, 4 yrs., by Bay Middleton out of Chapeau 

d'Espagne ; covered by Slane .... 49 
Pulce, b. m., 4 yrs., by Bay Middleton out of Puce ; 

covered by Emilius 41 

Kitten, 4 yrs., by Bay Middleton out of Pussy ; 

covered by Emilius 40 

Skill, br. m., 5 yrs., by Bay Middleton out of Skilful ; 

covered by Emilius 39 

The Dutch Girl, b. m., 3 yrs., by Bay Middleton out 

of Flamande ; covered by Emilius ... 30 
Clink, b. m., 5 yrs., by Glaucus out of Jingle ; covered 

by Emilius 30 

Alva, 5 yrs., sister to Mora ; covered by Emilius 26 

Phantasima, by Phantom ; covered by Emilius . 15 

Horses in Training. 

Princess Alice, 3 yrs., by Bay Middleton out of Her 

Majesty 600 

Blackbird, 3 yrs., by Plenipo out of Volage . 320 
Comrade, 4 yrs., by Bentley ; dam by Picton . . 300 
Marquis of Conyngham, 3 yrs., by Slane out of Volup- 
tuary 260 

Discord, aged, by Mulatto out of Melody . . .165 

Clumsy, 4 yrs., by Bay Middleton out of Skilful . 150 

Pug, 4 yrs., by Bay Middleton out of Barbiche . 110 

A bay yearling colt, by Elis out of Miss Petworth . 300 

A bay yearling colt, by Colwick out of Skilful . 100 
Sombrero, 3 yrs., by Bay Middleton out of Chapeau 

d'Espagne 55 

A chestnut yearling colt, by Bran out of Katherine . 17 

On Tuesday, Dean Swift, The Merry Monarch, 
and Playful were put up, and the latter sold for 
30 guineas. The Merry Monarch was bought in 
for 88 guineas. Total produce of the two days' 



SALE OF SURPLUS STOCK. 253 

sale, £3720, 1 5s. What a contrast to the prices 
realised by blood-stock since ! Princess Alice was 
bought by Mr B. Green, and went into H. Steb- 
bing's stable at Hambleton. 

Soon after this sale Mr Mostyn was oflfered 
£5000 for the two-year-olds Planet and Slander, 
which he refused. Simultaneously £7000 were 
offered for Crucifix, and for the two yearlings Sur- 
plice and Loadstone, which offer was also refused. 
It will thus be seen what a phenomenal bargain 
Mr Mostyn had made in buying 208 thoroughbreds 
—to say nothing of cart-horses, clothing, bridles, 
saddles, buckets, brushes, rubbers, and all other 
paraphernalia of a racing-stable in full blast — for 
£10,000, when he was able in a couple of months 
to refuse £12,000 for four animals amongst this 
splendid lot. As it turned out, neither Planet nor 
Slander were very fortunate as race-horses. At 
Goodwood, Planet in 1846 won the Molecomb 
Stakes, value £650. At Doncaster, he ran second 
to Van Tromp for the Champagne Stakes; but 
later in the year he won the Glasgow Stakes at 
Newmarket, value £800. Next year he won as 
a three-year-old a Sweepstakes, value £800, at 
the Craven Meeting; ran second for the Two 
Thousand to Sir Eobert Pigot s Conyngham, who 
was ridden by Jem Robinson ; won the Racing 
Stakes at Goodwood, value 1150 sovereigns, 
ridden by F. Butler; was beaten for the Derby, 
won by Mr Pedley's ch. c. Cossack, by Hetman 



256 SALE OF LORD GEORGE's STUD. 

yearlings. He was very anxious that they should 
not leave Goodwood, for which beautiful domain 
his affection was undiminished to the last hour of 
his life. On Christmas Day 1846 he wrote a 
letter from Welbeck Abbey, which showed that 
politics had not quenched his ardent spirit. It 
was couched in the following terms : — 

" Welbeck, near Worksop, Notts, 
Dec. 25, 1846. 

" John Kent, — I am very glad to hear Mr 
Mostyn has a good promise in the yearlings, and 
trust that between this and next Goodwood Races 
everything will be made pleasant and right, so 
that the horses may permanently continue at 
Goodwood. I hope your father will lose no op- 
portunity of getting the Duke's permission to this 
effect. 

" Let the Duke once take an interest in any of 
Mr Mostyn's horses as a Derby horse, and he will 
be as anxious about him as if he were his own, 
and as unwilling as I should be to see him leave 
Goodwood. 

" I, who stood to win above £100,000 on Gaper, 
was scarcely more interested in him than the Duke 
was before the Derby of 1843. I believe Mr 
Mostyn never bets a shilling. — I am, your obedient 
servt., G. Bentinck." 

No one was more gratified than his Lordship 
when he heard that Surplice s merit as a yearling 



SURPLICE AS A YEABUNG. 257 

had been ascertained to my entire satisfaction. 
A commission was given by his Lordship, with 
Mr Mostyn's consent and approval, to back Sur- 
plice for the Derby, and in it the late Duke of 
Richmond and every member of the Goodwood 
family participated, obtaining liberal odds. When 
Surplice made his d^but for the Ham Stakes, at 
Goodwood, in 1847, he was ridden by Flatman, 
who received orders to make a good pace, and to 
keep him going, as he was a very idle horse. I 
impressed upon Flatman also the necessity of not 
easing or checking his mount if he found himself 
(as I expected he would) to be winning easily. 
He told me after the race that he had won before 
half the distance was run, but that he let him 
stride along at three-parts speed, winning in a 
common canter. The betting was 7 to 4 on Sur- 
plice, " who," according to the * Racing Calendar,' 
" took the lead, kept it, and won very easily by 
two lengths." 

It was natural that such a fine, upstanding, 
good-looking colt, the son of Touchstone and 
Crucifix, should attract very general attention 
and admiration, with the result that, after his easy 
victory in the Ham, Surplice was freely backed 
for the Derby at comparatively short odds. The 
Ham was run for as usual on the first day ; and 
upon the last day of the meeting Surplice and 
Loadstone were engaged in a 200 Sovereign 
Two-year-old Stakes, with eight subscribers. I 

R 



258 SALE OF LORD GEORGE's STUD. 

advised Mr Mostyn to run them both, and to 
declare to win with Surplice, whose idleness, I 
thought, would make him appear to win with some 
difficulty. Loadstone, on the other hand, was 
such a free runner that spectators might easily 
imagine that he could have beaten Surplice but 
for the declaration to win with the latter. I 
little anticipated, however, that the rider of Load- 
stone would be deceived as to the comparative 
merits of the two. Flatman, who rode Surplice, 
had orders to make running, and to win after 
making the best semblance that he could of a race. 
Loadstone was ridden by Frank Butler, whom I 
told to wait upon Mr Dixon's Hope (a Danebury 
filly upon whom her party were rather sweet), and 
to beat her if he could in the event of her having 
the foot of Surplice. As the race came off. Surplice 
made the pace so good that Hope was soon beaten, 
and the former won in a canter by three lengths. 
Lnmediately after the race I asked Frank Butler 
how Loadstone had earned him. " Very well 
indeed," he replied, with a broad gi'in ; " I could 
have won far enough had I been wanted ! " 

When he left me Frank Butler joined his first 
master and great friend, Colonel Anson, and told 
him that Loadstone would have won easily " had 
his head been loose." This intimation, coinciding 
with what the public observed as to the running of 
the lazy horse and that of his free stable com- 
panion, soon had the effect of making Surplice 



SURPLICE AS A TWO-YEAR-OLD. 259 

recede in the Derby betting. Lord Enfield (after- 
wards Earl of Strafford) had executed the stable 
commission about Surplice for the Derby before 
he won the Ham, and he was requested by the 
Goodwood party to continue backing him, if the 
odds increased. The opportunity was not long in 
coming. That night, after dinner at Goodwood 
House, Colonel Anson offered £15,000 to £2000 
against Surplice for the Derby, which was accepted 
by Lord Enfield. It subsequently transpired 
that the Hon. Francis ViUiers, youngest son of the 
fifth Earl of Jersey (the owner of Middleton, 
Cobweb, Bay Middleton, Glencoe, and many other 
great race-horses), stood half of the bet laid by 
Colonel Anson. 

As a two-year-old Surplice ran only once after 
his two races at Goodwood, in the Municipal 
Stakes at Doncaster, 200 sovereigns each, where he 
met Sir Richard Bulkeley's Miss Orbell, whom he 
beat " hands dowTi," with odds of 10 to 1 laid freely 
on him. I remember that Admiral (then Captain) 
Rous laid Mr William Whitfield (who is still 
living) £100 to £10 on Surplice. The Admiral 
was fond of laying long odds on a "certainty," 
and in this case he had no occasion for anxiety. 
Finally, Surplice walked over at Newmarket for 
the Buckenham Stakes, 300 sovereigns, half-forfeit, 
and then went into winter quarters with an un- 
beaten record. 

Simultaneously Loadstone, upon whom Colonel 



260 SALE OP LORD GEOBGE's STUD. 

Anson and Mr Francis VilKers built the highest 
expectations, ran several times. He was beaten 
by a neck at Doncaster by Mr B. Green's Assault 
(another Touchstone colt, out of Ghuznee, winner 
of the Oaks), after meeting with a great disap- 
pointment in the race, the general opinion being 
that Loadstone ought to have won. Next day 
he won the Produce Stakes in a canter, beating 
Colonel Anson's Contessa. At Newmarket he ran 
for the Prendergast, which he won easily by two 
lengths, beating Lord Albemarle's Kangaroo, Lord 
Exeter's Tisiphone, Sir J. B. Mill's Deerstalker, 
and Field-Marshal Grosvenor's Sir Oliver. At the 
Houghton Meeting he won the Criterion Stakes, 
cleverly carrying 6 lb. extra and beating Lord 
Exeter's Tisiphone, Mr B. Green's State Anchor, 
Mr Pedley's Lady Mary, Duke of Rutland's 
Palamine, and Mr Hargreaves's Sunnyside. Later 
in the same week he won the Glasgow Stakes, in a 
canter, by four lengths. 

Into the running of these two fine colts I have 
entered more fully than I should otherwise have 
done, because of the extraordinary occurrences in 
connection with them which the coming winter 
and spring were destined to bring to pass, affecting 
Lord George Bentinck, Mr Francis Villiers, Colonel 
Anson, and the noble family at Goodwood, and in 
a humbler degree myself, most materially. Here I 
may add that, disregarding Admiral Rous's opinion 
expressed before the House of Commons' Select 



MB FRANCIS VILLIEB8. 261 

Committee on Gaming in 1844, Mr Francis 
Villiers was accustomed to put many questions 
to the jockeys in whom he reposed confidence, 
and especially to Jem Robinson and Frank Butler, 
and to pay the greatest attention to what they 
told him. Admiral Rous's avowed opinion was, 
that any one who followed the advice of his jockey 
would be ruined; and in this case his warning 
words were prophetically correct. I have already 
stated what Frank Butler reported about the 
comparative merits of Surplice and Loadstone, 
after riding the latter at Goodwood. A few 
months later Mr Villiers brought Robinson down 
to Goodwood to ride Surplice and Loadstone in 
their gallops, and, as will be seen presently, his 
verdict was the same as that of Frank Butler. Yet 
it would be impossible to conceive two finer jockeys 
than Robinson and Butler ; and the latter was, as a 
rule, a very excellent judge of racing, and especially 
so, as he himself expressed it, of " a horse which 
he had once had between his thighs." In what 
scrapes Mr Villiers, and, in a lesser degree. Colonel 
Anson (who was more adroit than his obstinate 
and self-opinionated colleague), were entangled by 
following the advice of Robinson and Butler will 
be shown directly. 

Colonel Anson and Mr Villiers had (again by 
Frank Butler's advice) given 3000 guineas — ^then 
considered to be a very big figure — ^for Blaze, a 
beautiful dark chestnut L:ish colt, by Launcelot 



262 SALE OP LORD GEOROE's STUD. 

(brother to Touchstone). With Blaze they won 
the Hopeful Stakes at Newmarket, but with 3 to 
1 betted upon him he was beaten for the Clearwell 
by Mr Payne's Glendower. During the winter Mr 
Villiers, who found no difficulty in discovering 
plenty of excuses for Blaze's defeat in the Clear- 
well, backed him very heavily for the Two Thou- 
sand. Blaze was trained at Whitewall by John 
Scott, and was thought to be the best colt in his 
powerful lot. Simultaneously the two confederates 
backed Loadstone very heavily for the Derby ; and 
in order, to control the latter horse, Mr Villiers pre- 
vailed upon the late Lord Clifden to purchase a 
moiety of Mr Mostjm's stud. When this sale was 
concluded, on March 28, 1 848, 1 had got Loadstone 
forward in condition to run for the Two Thousand, 
and had induced Mr Mostyn to keep Surplice for 
the Derby. The Two Thousand was to be run on 
April 25, so that there was only an interval of four 
weeks before the race took place. When Sm'plice 
and Loadstone became the property of Lord Clif- 
den, my plans and arrangements for the future 
were all upset. It was determined not to pull out 
either horse for the Two Thousand, but to keep 
them out of Blaze's way. Never was a young 
nobleman more glaringly deprived of a good stake, 
which should have been his legitimate property, 
than Lord Clifden, when he was induced to strike 
Loadstone and Surplice out of the Two Thousand, 
which either of them would have won in a canter. 



MB VILLIERS'S TACTICS. 263 

Unfortunately all this manoeuvring and wire- 
pulling ended in a terrible fiasco. Blaze was beaten 
easily for the Two Thousand, finishing a bad third 
to Flatcatcher and Glendower. This was a sad 
disappointment and heavy blow to Mr Villiers ; 
and in the ensuing week he came down to Good- 
wood, not in a very amiable temper, bringing Jem 
Robinson with him, to try Surplice and Loadstone. 
As the former was not fit to be tried, and as Mr 
Mostyn and the Goodwood family had certain 
contingent interests in the horses, I objected 
strenuously to trying Surplice, who, in addition 
to being a very big horse, went with rather a 
straight knee, and was by no means a light goer. 
Mr Villiers was greatly irritated by my opposi- 
tion to his wishes, but in it I had made up my 
mind to persist. He then expressed a desire that 
Robinson might be allowed to ride Surplice a 
gallop in his clothes, to which I gladly consented. 
Led by an old horse. Surplice and Loadstone 
galloped side by side, three - quarters speed, for 
a mile and a quarter. When they pulled up 
Robinson shook his head, and curiously eyed 
Loadstone, who had galloped freely and well by 
Surplice's side. 

In view of coming events "which cast their 
shadows before," I took the opportunity of point- 
ing out to Mr Villiers and to Robinson what, 
from sure experience, I knew to be the fact — ^viz., 
that they must not take any notice of the way 



264 SALE OF LORD GEORGE's STUD. 

SurpUce went in his clothes, as he was one of the 
laziest and most deceptive goers that in a long 
experience I had ever seen. I added that, when 
stripped and roused, Surplice could give Loadstone 
a lump of weight and beat him over any distance. 
Upon this Mr Villiers indulged in a sneering laugh, 
and ejaculated, " Nonsense ! I know much more 
about these two horses than you do. Loadstone 
is the best of the two, and so I always thought." 
I immediately replied, " If that be your opinion, 
Mr Villiers, of me and of my judgment, and if these 
horses were yours, I would not train them for 
another day. There are others, however, who have 
an interest in them, whom it is my duty to serve 
to the best of my ability." " Do you mean to tell 
me," he rejoined, " that a jockey like Robinson 
does not know how a horse carries him?" "He 
most certainly does not, sir," I answered, " if he 
believes Loadstone to be better than Surplice." 
Mr Villiers turned his back upon me with an ex- 
pression of contempt on his face which I shall 
never forget. 

The Duke and Duchess of Richmond, and other 
members of the family, were then at Goodwood 
House, and Mr Villiers lunched with them. He 
did not fail to relate, in his own way, what had 
happened that morning, and endeavoured to pre- 
judice my dear old master the Duke, and the rest 
of the family, against me. He stated that had the 
horses been under the charge of some trainer more 



MR FRANCIS VILLIERS. 265 

skilful than myself, the Duke and his family would 
not have been in the unfortunate position into 
which I had plunged them by advising them to 
back Surplice for the Derby. Next morning the 
Duchess of Richmond sent for me, and told me, 
with her usual frankness and kind consideration, 
all that Mr Villiers had said at luncheon on the 
previous day. Her Grace then added, " Do not 
heed what Mr Villiers may have said, John, as it 
will take some one with much more influence than 
he possesses to prejudice us against you." Her 
Grace's kind and trusting assurances of her un- 
shaken confidence and support brought balm and 
healing to my wounded self-respect. Before long 
the Duke of Richmond came to the stables and 
remarked to me, " Mr Villiers is still quite a young 
man, and perhaps does not know quite as much as 
he thinks he does." 

Upon Mr Villiers's return to London, he con- 
tinued, with his habitual confidence in his own 
judgment, to back Loadstone for the Derby, and 
soon made him first favourite, which caused Lord 
George Bentinck and Lord Henry Gordon Lennox 
to feel very uneasy. Lord Greorge wrote to me 
saying that he had received a remarkable letter 
from Mr Villiers which he could not understand, 
and he wanted to know what it meant. His 
Lordship inquired, further, whether I was still of 
the same opinion as to the merits of the two 
horses as when he last saw me. My reply was 



266 SALE OF LORD GEORGE's STUD. 

that both horses were going on as well as possible, 
and that I was more than ever confident as to the 
correctness of my opinion that Surplice was far 
and away the better of the two. His Lordship 
was good enough to write me a most encomraging 
letter, in which he stated that he was perfectly 
satisfied with what I had told him, as he had 
never known me to be mistaken in an opinion 
which I had formed after deep consideration. Lord 
Henry Lennox could not support the strain, but 
brought me his betting-book, which he left in my 
hands, with the avowal that he was going abroad 
until the Derby was over, as he was too nervous 
and agitated to remain in England any longer. 
He told me to do the best for him that I could, 
and as I had induced him to back Surplice, to get 
him out of the difficulty by hedging the money, if 
it could possibly be done. 

Naturally, my position was far fi'om being an 
enviable one. I knew that if I attempted to save 
the money Lord Henry had invested on Surplice, 
those who had laid him the odds would not hedge, 
in face of the false market established by Mr 
Villiers, except upon terms very disadvantageous 
to Lord Henry. At that moment Surplice was 
very much out of favour, and no wonder, when it 
is remembered that, not satisfied with backing 
Loadstone for very large sums, Mr Villiers had 
several commissioners at work laying against 
Surplice. In my dilemma I sought the advice of 



DIFFICULTY WITH MB VILLIEBS. 267 

the Duke of Richmond, and unbosomed myself to 
him. His Grace received me with his usual kind- 
ness, and asked me what I myself considered the 
best course to pursue. " Wait, your Grace, until 
the two horses have been fairly and regularly 
tried over the distance, and, my word for it, there 
will not be much difficulty about deciding what to 
do then." The Duke assured me that he was en- 
tirely satisfied ; and although my anxiety and sense 
of responsibility were, of course, very great, I con- 
tinued to train both horses to the best of my 
ability, and to await the issue. 

About a fortnight before the Derby, Mr Villiers 
and Colonel Anson prevailed upon the Earl of 
Chesterfield, with whom they were very intimate, 
to lend them his five-year- old mare. Lady Wildair, 
in order to try Loadstone and Surplice with her. 
Lady Wildair was known to be a very true run- 
ner, and not long before she had won the North- 
amptonshire Stakes (2 miles), carrying 8 st. 5 lb., 
giving Mr B. Green's Sylvan (3 years) 2 st. 11 lb. 
Mr Villiers had ascertained through Mr Harry Hill 
the relative merits of Sylvan and his stable com- 
panion, Flatcatcher, who had won the Two Thou- 
sand. He therefore regarded Lady Wildair as a 
very valuable trial horse, and through her he felt 
sure that he should be able to ascertain whether 
Surplice or Loadstone, or either of the two, could 
have won the Two Thousand. In addition, I put 
Mr Most3m's Sagacity, 4 years, in the trial, making 



268 SALE OF LORD GEOBGE's STUD. 

Surplice give her a year and 12 lb., and Loadstone 
a year and 10 lb. Not long before Sagacity 
had won a handicap (distance 1^ mile) at North- 
ampton. It was my intention that Sagacity, 
availing herself of her light weight, should make 
running, but this Surplice never allowed her to do. 
My first proposal was that Surplice should give 
Loadstone 10 lb., but at this Mr Villiers jeered, 
saying that Loadstone would win in a canter, 
and then it would be impossible to form an idea of 
the true form of the two horses. Very reluctantly, 
therefore, I consented to putting Loadstone into 
the trial at 2 lb. less than Surplice, knowing full 
well what the result would be. 

The trial came off over a mile-and-a-half course, 
on May 13, 1848, and ended as follows : — 

Surplice, 3 yrs., 8 st. 8 lb. (Eobinson), 1. 
Sagacity, 4 yrs., 7 st. 10 lb. (Green), 2. 
Lady Wildair, 5 yrs., 9 st. 4 lb. (Flatman), 3. 
Loadstone, 3 yrs., 8 st. 6 lb. (Kitchener), 4 

Surplice won with consummate ease by four 
lengths ; Sagacity beat Lady Wildair by half a 
length ; and Loadstone was at least ten lengths 
behind Lady Wildair. 

Then followed a scene which, "while memory 
holds her seat," I shall never forget. Mr Villiers 
had witnessed the trial on foot, standing about 
half a distance from the winning-post. When I 
rode up to him he threw both his arms into the air, 
and exclaimed in a frantic state of excitement, 



THE TRIAL RACK 269 

and with ghastly pallor upon his countenance, " I 
am a ruined man ! I am a ruined man ! What on 
earth am I to do ? " " Whose fault, sir, is it ? " I 
could not help replying. *'Whom have you to 
blame but yourself?" Wringing his hands, and 
in accents of despair which moved me to pity even 
in the midst of my natural resentment, he kept on 
talking to himself more than to me : ** If I back 
Surplice for large sums for the Derby, it will be 
odds on him before I am half-way out of my 
difficulties." After waiting a little until he had 
partially recovered from his ovei'powering agita- 
tion, I ventured to say to him, *' Mr Villiers, the 
Derby and St Leger have been won only once by 
the same horse : if you back Surplice to win them 
both, the bookmakers will lay you long odds, and 
before four months have elapsed you can win as 
much money as you like." 

This advice I have good reason to know that he 
subsequently followed, and thus avoided the total 
ruin which otherwise must have befallen him, 
although he never had the generosity to acknow- 
ledge it to me. When Robinson dismounted, he 
remarked to me that it seemed to him almost 
impossible to believe that Surplice was the same 
horse that he had ridden three weeks before. This 
memorable trial made me aware how much more 
sensible and practical Lord George was in man- 
aging a stud than his friend Mr Francis Villiers. 
The latter indulged in fancies based upon his own 



270 SALE OF LOBD GEOBGE's STUD. 

estimate of the way in which horses galloped in 
their clothes ; the former was never carried away 
by predilections or prepossessions, and nothing 
could induce him to back a horse until after one 
or more genuine trials. 

It was upon the Saturday before Bath Eaces that 
Surplice and Loadstone were tried, and when the 
betting . ring was formed in front of the Grand 
Stand on Lansdown, the anxiety to back Surplice 
was so great that business was altogether im- 
possible, until Davies, " the Leviathan," laid £1000 
to £700 against him several times. Most of these 
bets were taken by Mr Justice, acting for Hairy 
Hill, who was acting for Mr Villiers. As was 
usually the case about forty or fifty years ago 
when a horse became a great favourite for the 
Derby, there were plenty of rumours in circula- 
tion that Surplice would be " made safe " : that, in 
the* teeth of the immense sums laid against him, 
" he would win no Derby " — and much more of the 
same sort. Mr Cynric Lloyd, in particular, who 
had backed Surplice steadily ever since he won 
the Ham Stakes at two years old, was seriously 
alarmed, and came to me in great agitation about 
what he had heard. Of course my anxiety was 
great, and all the more so because the family at 
Goodwood House had backed Surplice, and never 
allowed themselves to be shaken by anything that 
Mr Villiers said. Under these circumstances I 
pursued my usual plan when in perplexity, and 



PRECAUTIONS ABOUT SURPLICE. 271 

consulted my kind and trusted master, the Duke 
of Richmond. His Grace observed to me, ** You 
cannot always be watching the horse and his boy, 
as he stands in the top stable along with seven 
other horses." I suggested to his Grace that the 
safest plan would be to move Surplice and Load- 
stone from the Goodwood racing-stable into that 
at the Kennels, where two good loose-boxes stood 
side by side, and a stall by the side of each loose- 
box, in which my father's and my hacks were 
accommodated. This stable was close to our 
house, and into it Surplice and Loadstone were 
moved, much to Mr Cynric Lloyd's relief I 
assured him that unless I myself were laid by the 
heels. Surplice should not be got at, for I would 
never let him go out of my sight except when he 
was under lock and key, with the key in my 
pocket. I added that every feed of corn, and 
every bucket of water, should be given to him by 
my own hands. 



272 



CHAPTER XIII. 



THE DERBY OP 1848. 



Notwithstanding the ceaseless vigilance exercised 
by all to whom the care of watching and guarding 
Surplice was intrusted after he had been tried, 
rumours that attempts would be made by fair 
means or foul to ensure his defeat for the Derby 
were freely circulated on all sides. Such rumours 
were naturally to be expected in view of the enor- 
mous sums of money laid against him during the 
winter of 1847-48. Under these circumstances his 
transportation from Goodwood to Epsom became 
to me a cause of the deepest anxiety, and endless 
were the suggestions made as to the best method 
of effecting it in safety. One of these suggestions 
was, that I should allow the horse to travel to 
Epsom under the charge of two of my most trusted 
men, supervised by a policeman, who was to be 
specially called in for that purpose. This proposi- 
tion T met with a decided negative. Having 
undertaken the responsibility of guarding the horse 



surplice's departure from goodwood. 273 

myself, of feeding and giving him his water with 
my own hands, of taking care that neither his 
food nor his drink should be doctored in any way, 
and, finally, of never allowing him to be out of my 
sight except when he was locked up and the key 
was in my pocket, I did not feel inclined to permit 
a stranger, even though he were a policeman, to 
take my place. Knowing that many who placed 
confidence in me had backed Surplice heavily from 
what I thought of him long before his trial, I felt, 
as the Derby Day drew nearer and nearer, and the 
rumours of intended foul practices grew louder and 
more sustained, that my responsibility was almost 
more than I could bear. 

At last the anxious day — Monday the 22d of 
May 1848 — arrived, upon which Surplice was to 
take his departure from Goodwood. I placed him, 
accompanied by his provender, in a single van, 
which I had carefully prepared for his reception. 
Locking the door of this van, and putting the key 
in my pocket, I proceeded next to ensconce Load- 
stone and Sagacity safely in a double van. In 
addition to the vans, three or four horses made 
their way on foot to the Drayton railway station. 
The cavalcade was headed by my father, by Lead- 
better (the detective officer from Bow Street), 
and by some of the Goodwood stablemen. The 
vans and horses came to the end of their railway 
journey at the Reigate and Red Hill station, 
whence the vans were drawn by post-horses to 

s 



274 THE DERBY OP 1848. 

Headley, distant about seven miles fix)m Red Hill. 
The other race-horses followed on foot, and, about 
four in the afternoon, I had the satisfaction of 
seeing Surplice, Loadstone, Sagacity, and their 
companions safely lodged in Lord George Ben- 
tinck's stables at Headley, which his Lordship re- 
tained for the use of the Groodwood stable when 
he sold his stud, and which were never more use- 
ftd than on this momentous occasion. 

As my father was in charge of the travelling 
party, I gave myself a little rest in the van with 
Surplice ; but on arriving at Headley, my labours 
recommenced. I led Siu^lice out of the van into 
his loose-box, and gave him a feed of corn which I 
had brought from Goodwood. Then I locked the 
stable-door and went with Surplice's lad and our 
own blacksmith to procure some water at the 
spring upon ** Oyster Hill," from which many a 
good race-horse has been watered before and since 
that day. Close to the spring there are some cot- 
tages, from one of which I obtamed hot water to 
take off the chill of the cold spring. When I 
returned to the stable, Leadbetter was a little put 
out, exclaiming, *' Surely you could have trusted 
me for a few minutes with the horse, especially as 
he would probably be a bit restless in a new box ! " 
** A bit restless, indeed ! " I rejoined, laughing ; " he 
is too docile and quiet to be alarmed at anything." 
On unlocking the door and entering the box, I 
found that he had emptied his manger, which was 



RUMOURS ABOUT SURPLICE. 275 

a great satisfaction to me, although I fully ex- 
pected it, as there never was a better " doer " than 
Surplice. 

As the Derby approached, everybody, and espe- 
cially the " sharps," had it that my horse was " a 
safe un." Out at exercise on Tuesday morning, 
every acquaintance that I met kept on asking 
me, " What's the matter with Surplice ? He's up 
and down in the market in a very queer way." To 
add to my anxiety, Mr Payne refused to give up 
Flatman, believing that he had a very good chance 
of winning with Glendower. It was then arranged 
that James Robinson should ride Surplice, as there 
seemed no probability that any of his masters would 
need his services. At the last moment, however, 
the Duke of Rutland claimed Robinson to ride 
The Fiddler, and the difficulty of getting a good 
jockey for Surplice seemed almost insurmountable. 
At this critical moment, Mr Harry Hill, whose 
interest in the horse, for Lord George's sake, re- 
mained unabated, and who had backed him heavily, 
recommended, for private reasons, which he stated 
to Mr Mostyn and Mr Lloyd, that Sim Templeman 
should be put on Surplice's back. 

It was, of course, a great relief to me when this 
was settled, although I did not think Templeman 
the best jockey to do justice to a big lazy horse 
like Surplice, who would make a race with a 
donkey, and deceived everybody who rode him for 
the first time. Sim Templeman formed the same 



276 THE DERBY OF 1848. 

unfavourable opinion of his mount, after riding 
Surplice over the course the day before the Derby, 
that Jem Robinson had conceived when he rode 
him in a gallop at Goodwood. What increased 
Templeman's dislike to Surplice was, that the horse 
refiised to cross the tan road when ridden at a 
foot's-pace down the course, on his way to the 
starting-post. All these difficulties and gloomy 
prognostications tended, of course, to increase my 
anxiety, and made it difficult for me to fulfil my 
engagement never to let Surplice out of my 
sight, unless he was locked up in his loose-box. 
My favourite old pony, with whom Surplice was 
well acquainted, enabled me, however, to keep close 
to him when walking at exercise. The curiosity 
and excitement of the crowd were so great, that it 
was extremely difficult for Surplice to make his 
way through them, so closely was he mobbed. I 
found Leadbetter and the Goodwood stable lads of 
great assistance in this emergency ; but it was for- 
tunate that Surplice was naturally unexcitable and 
quiet, as he was followed to his stable-door by a 
large host of gentlemen on horseback, who would 
have driven a nervous horse of Bay Middleton's 
type wild with irritability. In those days there 
was on the Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday preced- 
ing the Derby, a vast concourse of people assembled 
at Epsom to see the Derby horses gallop. Never, 
however, did I witness such a sensational scene, or 
such intense curiosity as was manifested to catch a 



surplice's unpopularity. 277 

glimpse of Surplice. In the midst of the crowds 
by which he was always surrounded he bore him- 
self with an unruffled calmness and tranquillity 
which, despite my intimate acquaintance with his 
disposition and temperament, fairly surprised and 
delighted me. I endeavoured to form Leadbetter 
and a small brigade of boys under his charge into 
a ring around my horse. These human guards 
quickly lost their tempers, and became violently 
agitated, but the horse never turned a hair. The 
same difficulty and disappointment arose when I 
placed Surplice in the midst of a group of horses, 
including Loadstone, 'Sagacity, and other stable 
companions. Hemmed in by a mob of horsemen, 
these outposts were always on their hind-legs and 
dancing about, while Surplice walked sleepily along, 
as quiet as an old cow. On the night before the 
Derby a number of roughs surrounded the paddock 
in the middle of which Lord George's stable stood, 
and kept watch until midnight — not from any desire 
to do mischief, I verily believe, but from simple 
curiosity. In the morning a fresh lot of touts and 
runners emerged from the Cock Inn and kept 
watch until Surplice left his stable and walked on 
to the course, to start for the Derby. 

A great favourite is generally unpopular, but 
never was there one more so than Surplice. All 
through the winter he had been regarded as a 
" dead un," thanks to Mr Francis Villiers's in- 
fatuation, and to his reputation for possessing ex- 



278 THE DERBY OF 1848. 

traordinary talents. Everybody was aware that 
Mr Villiers had given a never-ceasing commission 
to lay against Surplice, and, with few exceptions, 
little backers had staked their money on Loadstone. 
In an instant Surplice's great trial shattered all 
their hopes, and he became such a favourite that it 
was almost impossible to back him. All this tended 
to make Surplice more disliked than great favour- 
ites usually are. This was shown by the hootings 
and hisses with which I was more than once as- 
sailed as I walked or rode by the horse's side, or 
when, accompanied by boys to carry the bucket, I 
proceeded to the spring on " Oyster Hill " to bring 
Surplice his water. I invariably repaired to some 
cottage for a little hot water to take off the chill, 
always going to a different cottage. The fee which 
I gave for any small ser\4ce rendered to me was 
more than the poor cottager's expected, and I was 
pressingly urged by them to come again for any- 
thing that I wanted. Although betting men great 
and small would have rejoiced almost without ex- 
ception to hear that Surplice had broken his leg, I 
feel assured that the humble residents in the neigh- 
bourhood of Headley sincerely wished him well. 

I have entered into all these minute details at 
the risk of being wearisome, because Surplice's 
Derby happened at a time when it was more com- 
mon to poison or lame horses than is now the case, 
and because the circumstances preceding his attain- 
ment of the position of first favourite were of a 



SUSPICIONS. 279 

most peculiar and exceptional kind. Forty or fifty 
years ago the sums of money betted upon the 
Derby were so large, and the excitement so great, 
that it is difficult for a younger generation of race- 
goers to understand or realise the anxiety and 
sense of responsibility of a trainer who was in 
charge of such a favourite as Surplice was in 1848. 
I was not unaware that tempting overtures had 
been made surreptitiously to more than one em- 
ployee in the Goodwood stable to lame Surplice ; 
and if he had run badly in the race, suspicion 
would doubtless have attached to many innocent 
persons who were as eager to see him win as my 
father and I were. It will easily be imagined, 
therefore, with what feelings I saw the dawn of 
the Derby Day break. 

My father and I rode by the horse's side from 
Headley to the course. I then dismounted and 
led Surplice, while his regular lad rode him, and 
two police officers walked immediately in his rear. 
On nearing the stand, my father went off to see 
Templeman weighed, and returned to inform me 
that even at the eleventh hour Mr Francis Villiers 
had not given up all hope that Loadstone would 
prove himself the better horse, and, in order to give 
Loadstone every chance, had made some consid- 
erable pecuniary sacrifice in order to secure Job 
Marson (one of Mr Villiers's favourite jockeys) to 
ride him. It was not long before Mr Villiers was 
undeceived. The following seventeen horses came 



280 THE DERBY OF 1848. 

to the post, with the result given below, which I 
have taken from the * Racing Calendar ' : — 

Epsom. 

Wednesday, May 24, 1848. 

The Derby Stakes of 50 sovs. each, h. ft., for three-year- 
old colts, 8 8t 7 lb.; fillies, 8 st. 2 lb. Tlie new Derby 
course; a mile and a half. 

Lord Clifden's b. c. Surplice, by Touchstone — Crucifix, by 

Priam (Templeman), 1. 
Mr Bowes's b. c. Springy Jack, by Hetman PlatoflF— Oblivion, 

by Jerry (F. Butler), 2. 
Mr B. Green's bl. c. Shylock, by Simoom — The Queen, by 

Sir Hercules (S. Mann), 3. 
Mr Payne's b. c. Glendower, by Slane — Sister to Glencoe, 

by Sultan (Flatman), 4. 
Mr J. B. Day's b. c. Nil Desperandum, by Venison — Grace 

Darling, by Defence (A. Day). 
Mr Nunn's b. c. The Fowler, by Irish Birdcatcher— Zillah, 

by Blacklock (J. Holmes). 
Mr Lillie's br. c. Great Western, by Hetman Platoff — Miss 

Frill, by Actieou (Hewlett). 
Lord Clifden*8 b. c. Loadstone, by Touchstone — Latitude, 

by Langar (J. Marson). 
Mr Baker's br. c. Oscar, by Charles XII. — Morsel, by Mu- 
latto (Bumby). 
Duke of Ptutland's b. c. The Fiddler, by Charles XII.— 

Liberty, by Langar (Kobinson). 
Mr E. R. Clark's b. c. Weathercock, by Emilius — Variation, 

by Buzzard (Tant). 
Mr T. Parr's b. c. Sponge, by Ascot — Languid, by Cain 

(Owner). 
Sir J. B. Mill's b. c. Deerstalker, by Venison — Virginia, by 

Figaro (Donaldson). 



THE RACE. 281 

Mr Eolls's b. c. Comet, by Aucklcmd — Miniature, by 

Teniers (Pettit). 
Lord Eglinton's b. c. Eaglels Plume, by Lanercost — Blue 

Bonnet, by Touchstone (Marlow). 
Major Pitt's b. c. Fern, by Venison — Puce, by Rowton (K 

Edwards). 
Mr Osbaldeston's ch. c. Fugleman, by the Saddler — Camp 

Follower, by The Colonel (S. Rogers). 

Betting — Even on Surplice, 4 to 1 each v. Glendower 
and Nil Desperandum, 14 to 1 i?. Shylock, 15 to 1 -y. 
Springy Jack, 20 to 1 v. Loadstone, 40 to 1 v. Great 
Western, The Fiddler, and Fugleman; 50 to 1 v. The 
Fowler ; 1000 to 15 each v. Fern and Eagle's Plume ; 1000 
to 10 V. Deerstalker. 

Won by a neck ; length between second and third. 

The following description of the race appeared in 

* Beirs Life.' 

" Precisely at the time named on the card the liorses were 
at the starting-post, and we must do the starter, Mr Hibberd, 
the justice to say that a finer start was never seen on this or 
any other course. The Fowler jumped ofif with the lead ; 
but either from not being ambitious, or from inability to 
keep it, he fell back in half-a-dozen strides, and Great 
Western went on with the running, followed by Loadstone 
and Fugleman, Nil Desperandum being fourth on the inside. 
Behind him came Surplice, Fern, and The Fowler, with The 
Fiddler and Springy Jack in their wake. The Fowler kept 
his place till near the Craven post, where he fell astern of 
The Fiddler. About the same time Nil Desperandum 
sprained his off knee, and in the next hundred yards from 
being fourth became the last horse in the race. Great 
AVestem maintained his position until close to the top of 
the hill, when he was passed by Loadstone, and immediately 
afterwards gave way altogether, leaving Fugleman second 
to Loadstone, Surplice following Fugleman, with Fern, 



282 THE DERBY OF 1848. 

Glendower, Springy Jack, and Shrlock mnning in a gronp 
cloee behind. Half-way between the road and the distance- 
post Loadstone declined, and t'em also had had enough 
it A new formation ensued, Sorplice taking a decided * 
foUowed by Fugleman with Shylock third and Sprir 
by his side. Just inside the distance Foglenian ' 
and dropped behind Shylock and Springy Ja<^' 
at this moment was veiy interesting. To 
the 'ciack' was going very oncomf ortabh . 
looked so well that ' The fiiToorite's beat ! ' esc*, 
thousand lips. Nor was it until they were half-wa,. 
distance that 'the Jew' was fairly disposed of. Spi. 
Jack now b^an to look dangerous, as he got to tii^ 
favourite's quarters, and came with a tremendous rush in 
the last three or four strides, and almost got up. But it 
was only 'almost,' as Surplice was never quite reached, 
and won by a neck." 

Sim Templenmn assured me after the race that 
had I not cautioned him so strongly about Sur- 
plice's laziness, he might have been beaten, as his 
horse began to stop directly he steadied him, and 
would have pulled up altogether had he not kept 
him going. I had warned him emphatically that 
directly he ceased to ride him Siu7)lice would cease 
to run. Had Mr yilliere consented to order Mar- 
son to jump off with Loadstone, and to make 
strong running for half or three-quarters of a mile 
(which Loadstone was well qualified to do), there 
would have been no danger of Surplice being beaten, 
or hard run, as he was as fit as he could be made. 
So obstinate, however, was Mr Villiers in his own 
opinion, that he would not hear of Loadstone being 



■ s 



•■'.;!' I . ■ i 






1 III 



■ t 



: ■',■•■ 



{ 




subplice's victory. 283 

sacrificed for Surplice. The result was that, when 
Loadstone declined, Surplice had to take his own 
part, and Templeman said that it was all over as 
soon as Surplice took up the running. 

When Loadstone showed a bold front, until the 
distance -post was almost reached, Mr Villiers, I 
heard subsequently, was in ecstasies ; but when 
Surplice took up the running Mr Villiers's face 
darkened and fell. The pace must have been 
very moderate for Loadstone to have lasted so 
long, and if Surplice had not possessed good speed 
as well as stoutness, the Derby might have been 
thrown away from want of a strong -run race. 
Many a good horse, in perfect condition, have I 
seen beaten under similar circumstances, after the 
administration of severe punishment during the 
last half-mile, which he would have altogether 
escaped by winning easily had the race been run 
from end to end. It is a fatal mistake not to 
win your race as early as you can, if you have 
got a good horse fit to run. I can remember 
sixty-five races for the Epsom Derby, and I have 
seen it lost in some instances, and very nearly so 
in others, from failing to make use of a good 
horse. Three superior horses I can mention — Sur- 
plice, The Flying Dutchman, and Cremome — all of 
whom narrowly escaped defeat for want of a strong- 
run race. 

One other extract I am tempted to make from 
'Beirs Life' of Saturday, May 27, 1848. 



284 THE DERBY OF 1848. 

" The Derby nags assembled in the paddock in charge of 
their respective trainers and grooms, Loadstone and Surplice 
being foremost in the throng, attended by the elder Kent, 
Leadbetter, and Thackwejl — the former having been in 
charge of the horse for some nights before the race, with a 
view of defeating any of those sinister intentions which 
former experience led to a suspicion might again be put 
into practice : in fact, every possible care had been taken 
to protect Surplice from being got at, much to the morti- 
fication, it was said, of many who would have been far from 
displeased to hear that he had had a 'bad night/ Both 
horses looked remarkably well, especially Surplice, of whom 
it was said by a competent judge of looks that he was sure 
to win, as an animal in more splendid condition was never 
witnessed. In the early part of the day as much as 6 to 5 
was laid on Surplice, but a perceptible change took place. 
Nil Desperandum advanced in favour, and was backed at 
5 to 1, and by some parties at 3 to 1, while Surplice went 
back to 5 and even 6 to 4 — the latter odds being in some 
instances laid by those who were well on him, and whose 
confidence was somewhat shaken at the last moment. This 
change, we have reason to believe, was effected by a fnisc 
got up among a party who were opposed to him, and who, 
by apparently laying odds against him, induced apprehen- 
sion in the public mind of which they themselves took 
advantage, thereby getting on at a better price, and saving 
some £4000 or £5000. The crush to get a position whence 
a view of the course could be obtained was terrific. 

" We have given a description of the race in its usual 
place, from which it will be seen that it was keenly con- 
tested by Surplice, Springy Jack, and Shylock. Surplice 
was spurred, although the whip was not used ; and it was 
remarked that had the pace been good he would have won 
more cleverly, being such a sluggish horse and requiring 
a good deal of riding — evidence of which was afforded in 
his trial, for when he was nearing the winning-post and 



CONGRATULATIONS. 285 

experienced the efifect of the ' persuaders/ he shot out like 
a dart, and won with consummate ease. These are, how- 
ever, matters of speculation with which we must leave the 
cognoscenti to deal. The winners had their turn of joyous 
cheering, and the congratulations offered to the Duke of 
Eichmond and to his family, who, we are glad to hear, 
are large gainers by the result, were loud and vociferous 
beyond description, — congratulations which were given 
with equal goodwill to Lord Clifden and to Mr Lloyd, co- 
proprietors of the winner; both of whom, we also learn, 
have realised a good profit independent of the stakes, which 
are worth £5500. 

Thus terminated this ever-memorable Derby — 
memorable not only to me, but also to others who 
are still living, and w^ere vitally interested in it. I 
perfectly w^ell remember, when I was leading Sur- 
plice back to the weighing-place after the race, 
that a gentleman congratulated me, and added, 
" You have now given them the lie direct ! " At 
the time I could not understand what he meant ; 
but from what transpired subsequently, I have no 
doubt that he congratulated me upon defeating the 
vile efforts to prevent Surplice from winning the 
Derby, which were deemed likely to be successfully 
accomplished by some of the knaves who were 
heavy losers by him. 

Lord Enfield, afterwards Earl of Strafford, being 
a brother-in-law to the Duke of Richmond, exe- 
cuted some of the stable commission about Sur- 
plice, and, having backed him very early, obtained 
good odds, which he was enabled to hedge after 



286 THE DERBY OF 1848. 

the trial at great advantage, so that he and all the 
members of the Goodwood family, together with 
Mr Lloyd, had the satisfaction of winning good 
stakes after hedging their money. Lord George 
Bentinck himself won about £11,000. Had his 
Lordship not disposed of his stud, it is im- 
possible to conjecture what he might have won 
upon such a horse. His mind and heart seemed, 
however, to be entirely concentrated upon politics 
after he had parted with his race-horses. Racing, 
to which he was formerly so devoted, passed en- 
tirely out of his head, and his betting soon became 
extremely limited. 

I cannot remember a single instance of his en- 
deavouring to obtain information from Mr Lloyd 
or from myself about any of the animals which he 
had sold to Mr Mostyn. Having occasion to write 
to Lord George about Christmas time, in 1846, I 
mentioned, with Mr Mostyn's permission, what I 
thought of Surplice, from the form he displayed in 
his trials as a yearling, knowing how interested he 
would be, as Surplice had been thought likely to 
go wrong in his wind — an infirmity which he might 
have inherited from Camel, his grandsire, who was 
a bad roarer. Every opportunity was therefore 
aiforded to enable him to be trained for the Derby. 
His great size and physical conformation required 
that he should not be hurried, and fortunately he 
inherited some of the stoutness of Priam, and the 
good constitution of Emilius. It was averred by 



DEPARTURE OF THE STUD FROM GOODWOOD. 287 

some influential noblemen and gentlemen, that had 
not the Duke of Richmond, at the intercession of 
Lord George, stipulated with Mr Mostyn that the 
horses in training should remain at Goodwood till 
after the Derby, Surplice, after Lord Clifden had 
purchased an interest in the stud, might not have 
been allowed to run for that race, any more than 
for the Two Thousand, but have been withdrawn 
in favour of Loadstone. Such would certainly have 
been the case had Mr Villiers's baneful influence 
prevailed with Lord Clifden and Mr Mostyn. 

After the Derby the Duke of Richmond gave 
his consent to the horses remaining under my 
charge until the Goodwood Races were over. Lord 
Clifden immediately purchased the remainder of 
Mr Mostyn's interest in the stud, and everything 
went well with the horses until the deep ground 
at Goodwood interfered with Surplice's long stride, 
and made him quite helpless in the mud. I can 
scarcely doubt that my old and honoured master 
the Duke of Richmond was not sorry when the 
time came for this large stud of horses to leave 
Goodwood. Although his Grace was on friendly 
terms with Mr Mostyn and Mr Lloyd, and also 
with Lord Clifden and Mr Villiers, he was not so 
much at his ease with any of them as he had been 
with Lord George Bentinck between 1841 and 
1846. The Duke enjoyed beyond measure his 
almost daily visit to the Goodwood stable, when 
it was filled with his own and with Lord George's 



288 THE DERBY OF 1848. 

horses. It was disagreeable to him, however, to 

go round the stables when the remotest suspicion 

might arise that he was trying to pry into the 

secrets of others. 

It may be interesting to my readers if I succinctly 

recount the performances of Surplice after he won 

the Derby of 1848. First come his two Groodwood 

defeats. On July 25th he ran for the Gratwicke 

Stakes of 100 sovereigns each, half- forfeit, one mile 

and a half, 50 subscribers. The race came off as 

follows : — 

Lord Chesterfield's b. f. DistaflBna (Flatman), 1. 
Lord Clifden's b. c. Surplice (Robinson), 2. 
Duke of Richmond's br. f. Hornpipe (Templeman), 8. 
Mr Bowes's ch. f. Wiasma (J. Holmes), 4. 
The betting was 5 to 2 on Surplice, 3 to 1 agst. Wiasma. 
Won easily by a length ; a neck between second and third. 

This was a most extraordinary race, and to this 
day I am quite unable to explain it. Surplice 
(who was perfectly well) could always give Horn- 
pipe two stone and a beating, and in this race she 
ran him to a neck at even weights. Lord Chester- 
field told me that his mare, Distaffina, was at least 
two stone worse than Surplice, and yet she beat 
him at even weights I 

Two days later Surplice ran again for the Racing 

Stakes of 50 so vs. each, New Mile, 17 subscribers. 

The race ended as follows : — 

Mr Payne's b. c. Glendower (Flatman), 1. 
Colonel Anson's b. c. Corsican (F. Butler), 2. 
Lord Clifden's b. c. Surplice (Eobinson), 3. 



surplice's after career. 289 

Betting — 13 to 8 on Surplice, 5 to 2 agst. Glendower, 
7 to 2 agst. Corsican. Won by a length. From the very 
commencement Surplice ran a beaten horse, and took no 
part in the race. 

On August 14, 1848 (a fortnight after Groodwood 
Races), all Lord Clifden's horses left the stable 
where they had so long been trained, and were 
transferred to his Lordship's private racing es- 
tablishment at Newmarket, over which Robert 
Stephenson presided. The lot included Planet, 
Projectile, Fallow Deer, King of Morven, Crozier, 
Tiresome, Czarina, Mustard filly, Slander, Tama- 
rind, Sagacity, Archness, Surplice, Loadstone, 
Honeycomb, Cucullus, and the Flycatcher filly. 
It was arranged that Surplice should be kept for 
the Doncaster St Leger, and should receive a 
special preparation for that event. The St Leger 
was fixed for the 13th of September, and in the 
four and a half weeks which intervened between 
Surplice's departure from Goodwood and the St 
Leger day he fluctuated strangely in the betting. 

At last the St Leger day arrived, and the 
following horses started for the race : — 

Lord Clifden's b. c. Surplice (Flatman), 1. 

Lord Stanley's br. £. Canezou (F. Butler), 2. 

Mr B. Green's b. c. Flatcatcher (Eobinson), 3. 

Duke of Bedford's b. c. Justice to Ireland (Templeman). 

Mr B. Green's b. c. Assault (Winteringham). 

Mr T. Parr's b. c. Sponge (Whitehouse). 

Mr Humphries's b. c. Escape (J. Holmes). 

Mr Pedley's br. c. Bessborough (J. Marson). 

T 



290 THE DERBY OP 1848. 

Lord Stanley's gr. c. Cannibal, (Marlow), also started and 

were not placed. 

Betting — 7 to 4 v. Canezou, 2 to 1 v. Surplice, 7 to 2 
V, Flatcatcher, 9 to 2 r. Justice to Ireland. Won by a neck : 
Flatcatcher beaten three lengths. 

The * Racing Calendar ' adds : — 

" There was one false start, and all the riders were fined 
5 sovs. each for starting without orders, except Marson, 
who pulled up his horse immediately, and was fined 3 sovs. 
only. The fines were subsequently mitigated to 3 sovs. 
and 1 sov. with an intimation to the jockeys that if they 
offended again in the same manner, the highest penalty 
would be enforced." 

"This mishap," says 'Bell's Life,' "was all the more 
unlucky because the horses got off capitally on the first 
occasion — better, indeed, than on the second. When the 
flag fell, they dashed off at full speed, and Flatcatcher, 
followed by Assault, at once rushed to the front, the for- 
mer leading by a few strides, and then giving way to 
Assault who made running at the top of his speed. Surplice 
and Justice to Ireland following just behind Flatcatcher, 
Canezou lying up with them. Sponge next, and Cannibal 
and Escape in the rear. Assault led the van to the rise 
of the hill, and then resigned i7i toto, his stable companion 
Flatcatcher taking up the running. At the Red House 
Surplice took second place, with Canezou at his quarters, 
Flatcatcher still leading. Just before the distance -post 
Flatcatcher was passed by Surplice and Canezou. The 
mare then took the lead by half a length, and up to the 
stand appeared to have the best of it. At this point, 
however, Surplice got to her head, and after one of the 
most exciting races ever witnessed, won in the last two 
or three strides by a neck, steel and whipcord having been 
vigorously plied to land him. Flatcatcher was three lengths 
behind the pair, and the rest beaten a very long way off. 



SURPLICE AT THE ST LEGER. 291 

" It was one of the most desperate struggles ever seen — 
Surplice proving himself as game and honest a horse as 
ever breathed, to the great discomfiture of those who did 
not hesitate to proclaim after the Derby that he was a 
cur. Lord George Bentinck was not a little gratified at 
witnessing the success of the produce of his favourite 
mare. 

"There was a great deal of private gossip about the 
substitution of Nat for Robinson on Surplice's back, and 
it was remotely hinted that suspicions had been excited, 
first from Eobinson having been seen in conversation with 
Messrs Green and Stebbings on the race-course on Tuesday 
morning, and next from his having hedged the bet which 
Lord Clifden had laid him — £1000 to £50 against Surplice. 
We are quite satisfied, however, that such circumstances 
would have no weight with Lord Clifden and his friends, 
as the first was a mere commonplace occurrence, and the 
second was a course which any prudent man would adopt, 
according to the well-known racing principle, ' No bet is a 
good bet until hedged.' " 

Whatever naay have been the naotive which 
caused Nat to be substituted for Robinson, I am 
in a position to state that it was done solely by 
the advice, and at the instance, of Mr Harry Hill. 
It is a satisfaction, how^ever, to me to reflect that 
such an occurrence never took place in the Good- 
wood establishment during the thirty years of my 
connection with it. 

The chicanery practised over this St Leger with 
regard to Surplice was strongly conamented upon 
by numerous supporters of the Turf; and had he 
not been the superior horse he was, possessing 
great speed with stoutness, he would in all prob- 



292 THE DERBY OF 1848. 

ability have been beaten. Had Eobinson, after 
making such a desperate pace with Flatcatcher, 
in strict accordance with his orders, been able to 
steady him when Canezou and Surplice headed 
him, and to keep an effort left in his horse, the 
race might have ended as did the second heat for 
the Derby of 1828, in which Cadland just beat the 
Colonel. Evidently it was Eobinson's hope that 
he might win by riding. Otherwise he would not 
have made so much use of Flatcatcher, when he 
knew the merits of Surplice as well as he did. 

It was a fortunate victory for Mr Villiers, as I 
know from the most unquestionable authority that 
he won largely, chiefly by some double event bets, 
one of which, £10,000 to £100, came to my know- 
ledge, as well as others which were reported to 
me, but not by Mr Villiers. Nor was my advice 
to him after the Derby trial acknowledged in any 
way. I received, however, a far greater reward 
than any Mr Villiers could bestow upon me ; to 
wit, from my old master, Lord Greorge Bentinck, 
who expressed his desire that I should serve him 
again. Any acknowledgments which Mr Villiers 
might have been pleased to make to me could not 
have produced so much gratification as I felt when 
I found that the confidence placed in me by Lord 
Greorge Bentinck was unchanged. 

Two days after the St Leger, Surplice walked 
over for the North of England Produce Stakes. 
At Newmarket First October Meeting he met his 



SURPLICE AT NEWMABKET. 293 

old antagonist, Ratcatcher, in the Grand Duke 
Michael Stakes, A.F., with the following result : — 

Lord Clifden's Surplice (Robinson), 1. 
Mr B. Green's Flatcatcher (Flatman), 2. 
11 to 4 on Surplice. Won by half a length. 

In the Second October Meeting, Newmarket, 
Surplice started for the Cesarewitch Stakes. The 
race came off as follows : — 

Mr W. S. Crawford's ch. g. The Cur, 6 years, 8.3 

(S. Eogers), 1. 
Colonel Peel's ch. f. Dacia, 3 years, 413, (Collins) 2. 
Captain Harcourt's br. f. Ellerdale, 4 years, 8.5 (J. 

Marson), 3. 
Colonel Peel's b. f. Palma, 4 years, carried 5.3 (G. 

Browne), 4. 
Mr Meiklam's Inheritress, aged, 8.8 (Templeman) ; Lord 

Clifden's Surplice, 3 years, 8.5, including 12 lb. extra 

(Robinson) ; and 26 others ran. 
Betting — 3 to 1 u Surplice, 5 to 1 v. The Cur, 12 to 1 
V, Dacia, 12 to 1 v. Inheritress. Won by a length. Surplice 
was beaten a long way. 

Next year, in 1849, in the First Spring Meeting 
at Newmarket, Lord Exeter's b. m. Tophana, 6 
years, received forfeit from Lord Clifden's Surplice, 
4 years, T. M. M., 500 sovs. h. ft. 

At Goodwood Surplice ran for the Chesterfield 
Cup (mile and a quarter), which was won by — 

Mr F. NicoU's ch. c. Woolwich, 3 years, 6 st. (Hiett), 1. 
Mr Payne's Crucible, 3 years, 5.7 (Charlton), 2. 
Lord Exeter's Medea, 3 years, 4.10 (Barker), 3. 



294 THE DERBY OF 1848. 

Mr Eolt's CoUingwood, 6 years, 9.8 (F. Butler) ; Lord 

Clifden's Surplice, 4 years, 9 st. (Robinson) ; and seven 

others were not placed. 

Betting — 6 to 4 on Surplice, 5 to 1 v. Collingwood, 8 to 

1 V, Crucible. Won by a length; half a length between 

second and third. 

Surplice was beaten a long way, not displaying much 
improvement upon his S-year old form when tried with 
Lady Wildair and Sagacity. 

At Newmarket Second October Meeting Surplice, 
8 St. 5 lb., walked over for a Sweepstakes of 1000 
sovs., each, 400 ft., A.F. (3 subscribers). In the 
Houghton Meeting, Collingwood, 9 st. 2 lb., was 
matched against Surplice, 8 st., A.F., 200 h. ft. 
Collingwood walked over. 

In 1850 Surplice ran but once — viz., in the First 
Spring Meeting at Newmarket in the following 
match : — 

Duke of Bedford's b. f. St Rosalia, 7 st. 5 lb. (Pettit), 
beat Lord Clifden's Surplice, 8 st. 10 lb. (Pearl), T. Y. C, 
300, 50 ft. 

Betting — 6 to 4 on Surplice, who was beaten easily by- 
two lengths. 

Thus terminated the racing career of one of the 
most sensational horses of the century. After 
having accomplished the great feat of winning the 
Derby and St Leger, beating some really good 
horses, Surplice failed to win any other race of im- 
portance, losing his speed and form altogether. It 
was rather a remarkable coincidence that he should 
have won the Derby and St Leger each by the 



END OF SURPLIGE's CAREER. 295 

same distance — a neck, and that F. Butler should 
have ridden the runner-up on each occasion. To 
show how naturally sluggish Surplice was, I may 
mention that Springy Jack, who was second to him 
for the Derby, was believed by John Scott and F. 
Butler to be a stone worse than Canezou, who was 
second for the St Leger. Yet he beat each of 
them by a neck, although most assuredly as good 
a horse on the Derby Day as he was on that of the 
St Leger. 



296 



CHAPTEK XIV. 

LORD GEORGE AS A TURF REFORMER. 

Lord George Bentinck's name will endure while 
horse-racing forms the favourite pastime of the 
British nation, as that of the greatest Turf reformer 
ever known. By his stringent code of laws, pro- 
mulgated in 1844, he purged the race-courses of 
defaulters, established punctuality in starting for 
each race by fining the clerk of the course 10s. 
for every minute behind time, and insisted that 
each horse should be numbered on the card, a cor- 
responding number being exhibited on the tele- 
graph frame. He required also that the names 
of the jockeys should be recorded on the board 
and card, and that the jockey should be properly 
dressed in a silk, velvet, or satin jacket, and in 
boots and breeches, as it was by no means unusual 
to see jockeys riding in trousers or gaiters, with 
jackets and caps of the roughest and most grotesque 
description. The saddling of the horses at a given 
place, and their walking and cantering before the 



TURF REFORMS. 297 

stand, were likewise enforced by him, together with 
their starting by the aid of flags. More necessary 
improvements than the latter two there could not 
possibly be, as it had long been difficult for jockeys 
to find the horses they were about to ride when 
saddling-time arrived, and the consequent delay in 
starting was most vexatious and annoying. At no 
place were these improvements hailed with greater 
satisfaction than at Epsom, as the Derby candi- 
dates were so surrounded by gentlemen and others 
on horseback that jockeys could not find their 
mounts. When Lord George suggested these rules 
and conditions for Epsom, the late Mr Dorling, the 
clerk of the course (to whom Lord George lent 
the sum of £5000, thus proving the stepping-stone 
to that official's successful career), stated that he 
thought they could not be enforced. Lord George, 
who was Steward, replied, " If the conditions are 
that the horses must be saddled in Epsom town, 
never fear but I will enforce them." His first 
attempt to start the horses by the flag system was 
with one flag upon a very long pole, with which 
he marshalled the horses to the post, walking a 
little in front of them, and soundly rating any 
jockey who attempted to advance beyond the line 
prescribed by the starter. The objection to the 
one-flag system was soon shown, as the jockeys 
watched its gradual lowering and attempted to 
jump off* before it had actually fallen. His Lord- 
ship then instituted the advance-flag ; and was 



298 LOBD GEORGE AS A TURF REFORMER. 

also very strict about the weighing of the jockeys, 
as it was notoriously impossible to weigh some of 
them accurately, so expert and quick were they 
with their toes and heels, which enabled certain 
jockeys to ride some pounds over their proper 
weight. There was one jockey in particular whom 
Lord George suspected of this imposition. He 
related his suspicions to me, and desired me to 
arrange a trial a few hours before a race in which 
this jockey had to ride 8 stone, though not on one 
of our horses. I did so, and with a light saddle 
he scaled nearly seven pounds over that weight. 
After the race it was discovered that several 
pounds of lead had been nailed upon the imder 
part of the scale. 

In the report given of Doncaster Races in 1843, 
it was stated that " the Corporation had been 
brought to a just sense of their duties by the 
indefatigable Lord George Bentinck, who may 
with the utmost propriety be styled the greatest 
reformer of all abuses connected with the Turf. 
The same admirable rule respecting defaulters, 
which worked so well at Goodwood, is to be put 
into force here." In connection with the Second 
October Meeting of 1843, the following remarks 
were written : " Honest men have to thank Lord 
George Bentinck for this valuable reform of the 
Turf ; for if that nobleman had not persevered to 
the utmost, even his powerful influence would 
have been blighted, and a host of rotten sheep left 



STUDIES THE PUBLIC CONVENIENCE. 299 

to infect the constitution of the remaining flock. 
We are left without sufficient words of praise to 
the noble Lord for his indefatigable exertions." 

Not only for the general interest of the Tm'f 
did his Lordship employ his active mind, but also 
for the safety and pleasure of the public — alleging 
that if comfort, convenience, and accommodation 
were provided for them, to enable them to enjoy 
more fully the pleasures they sought, they would 
not object to pay for them. Hence his Lordship's 
proposition to form an enclosure round the Stand 
at Goodwood, Liverpool, and Epsom, to which the 
outside public at first raised great objections ; but 
his Lordship's observation and forethought soon 
enabled him rightly to estimate the advantage of 
such a step, and before long he greatly extended 
the enclosure at Groodwood till it encompassed the 
beautiftil trees, which now afibrd the greatest enjoy- 
ment to those who partake of luxiirious luncheons 
under their shade. Like other reforms and im- 
provements originally established at Goodwood, 
these enclosures have been adopted at all the 
fashionable race meetings of the United Kingdom 
and throughout the world. Goodwood race-course 
being private property, and owned by a nobleman 
who delighted in the noble sport, it was always 
the Duke of Richmond's desire to make the 
meeting as perfect as possible, which, with Lord 
George's energetic and judicious assistance, his 
Grace succeeded in accomplishing. A sporting 



300 LORD GEORGE AS A TURF REFORMER. 

writer on " Glorious Goodwood " in 1844 remarked : 
"His Grace the Duke of Richmond and Lord 
George Bentinck are unwearied in their efforts to 
do away with the few faults and imperfections 
which still remain." The comfort and convenience 
of the public were always well considered by these 
generous and considerate noblemen. It was Lord 
George who discovered that the public would 
readily pay for value received ; and that in these 
receipts there existed a large supplementary and 
potential soiu^ce of income which should be applied, 
and revert to, the public convenience and enjoy- 
ment. At that time the added money to the 
various races at Goodwood was almost nominal, 
amounting to no more than £1050 ; while the 
collective value of all the stakes run for was 
£32,589, for which 242 horses started. In the four 
days there were forty-three races — viz., thirteen 
the first day, nine the second, eleven the third, 
and ten the fourth, of which the Goodwood stable 
sent seventy-five to the post. As may be imagined, 
his Lordship and all connected with the stable 
were thoroughly tired out ; yet after dinner his 
Lordship was always eager to add interest to the 
next day's racing, and was never too weary to 
make matches and bets. Four glasses of wine were 
all he allowed himself, and the fatigue of the day 
often caused him to fall asleep after dinner ; 
nevertheless, he would rouse up when any remark 
was made which interested him, particularly when 



REFORMS IN JUDGING. 301 

any one offered to make matches or bets. He 
never smoked, and appeared to doze when others 
were smoking. But, asleep or awake, he was 
always perfectly self-possessed ; and sleeping or 
waking, no one ever heard from him an indiscretion 
or an unmasking disclosure. " All the world and 
his wife know full well how quiet Lord George 
Bentinck is when he has a good thing." Such 
was the remark of a writer who had watched him 
closely and knew him well. 

The primitive arrangements for conducting most 
of the provincial race meetings, previous to the 
time when Lord George's attention was drawn to 
them, undoubtedly demanded reform, as among 
other anomalies it was customary for a private 
gentleman to officiate in the capacity of judge, 
and also in that of starter. The consequence was 
that gross errors occurred in the awards of many 
races ; while the disappointments and unsatis- 
factory scenes witnessed at the starting-post were 
disgracefiil in the extreme. Two very flagrant 
errors in the decision of races affecting the Good- 
wood Stable came under my observation, — one in 
1824, when the Duke of Richmond's mare Dandi- 
zette ran for the Goodwood Stakes, and passed 
the winning-post first ; but the race was given by 
Mr Greville, who acted as judge, to Lord Veru- 
lam's Vitellina. At that time the judge's box was 
perched aloft, considerably above the level of the 
race-track. Dandizette finished close to the rails, 



302 LORD GEORGE AS A TURF REFORMER. 

and passed right under the judge's chair without 
attracting Mr Greville's observation, which was 
concentrated on Vitellina and The Ghost on the 
opposite side of the course — the latter hanging so 
much upon the former that she was in great 
danger of being forced against the rails. The 
jostling race between these two animals absorbed 
Mr Greville's field of vision, and he saw nothing of 
Dandizette ; but the oversight was so apparent 
that Lord Verulam ofiered the stakes to the Duke 
of Richmond, stating he was quite convinced that 
Dandizette had won easily enough. His Grace 
thanked Lord Verulam for his honourable proposal, 
but declined to receive the stakes, stating that, 
whatever his own private opinion and that of 
others might be, the judge's decision was irrevo- 
cable, and must be obeyed. The Earl of Burling- 
ton was also present on this occasion, it being the 
only race meeting at Goodwood that his Lordship 
was ever known to attend. He said to the Duke, 
" So you have won the race ; but it has been 
given against you by a judge who is above all 
things a Newmarket man ! " Again, in the year 
1837, the Duke of Richmond's Skillygolee, three 
years old, ran for the Gold Cup at Southampton, 
which he won easily enough the first time ; but 
the judge gave it a dead heat between him and 
Mr Sidney Herbert's Bulbridge, three years old. 
It was so glaring an error that I felt compelled to 
remonstrate with the judge, whose reply was, " I 



IMPKOVEMENTS IN STARTING. 303 

hope you are not offended, but we wanted to 
make all the sport we could " 1 The next heat I 
told Reeves (the jockey who rode Skillygolee) not 
to have another dead heat, and he won by four 
or five lengths. As I rode past the winning-post 
I asked the judge how far the horse won this time. 
He replied, " By a length." " No bad length, 
either," I rejoined. 

Occurrences of this sort were by no means un- 
common in those days. The starting of the horses 
was generally performed by the clerk of the 
course, or some other official quite unused to the 
work, and the jockeys took every advantage of 
him. Jockeys then, as now, would use every 
device in their power to obtain an advantageous 
start, and to this end some would deliberately 
cause false starts until they attained their object. 
Sometimes a favourite would be kept at the start- 
ing-post for an hour in a state of frenzy until he 
was more than half exhausted before the flag fell. 
As the horses were started by word of command — 
the single word " Go " being their nunc dimittis — 
the jockeys were often unable to understand what 
the starter meant, and sometimes ran the race 
right through when it was no start. The person 
deputed to start the horses at Goodwood in 1830 
had an impediment in his speech, and when he 
became excited it was with great difficulty that 
he could articulate a word. For the Duke of 
Richmond's Plate that year there were a number 



304 LORD GEORGE AS A TURF REFORMER. 

of false starts, which delayed the actual start for 
a very long time. After the race, William AmuU, 
the oldest jockey who took part in it, and one 
upon whose word full reliance could be placed, 
was summoned by the stewards to explain the 
cause of the long delay. He replied, " Some of 
the horses were no doubt restive, but in my 
opinion the fault lay chiefly with the starter. 
He is just like an old firelock which fizzles ever 
so long in the pan before it goes off, and when he 
did get the word out, there was no knowing 
whether he said ' Go ' or ' No ' ! " 

One of the most flagrant attempts on the part 
of jockeys, and of others behind the scenes who 
bribed them, to defeat a great favourite, was 
practised at Doncaster in 1827, when Mameluke, 
who won the Derby, was brought out to run for 
the St Leger. There were twenty-six starters, 
some of them having been sent to the post for 
the express purpose of impeding and delaying the 
start, and upsetting Mameluke's temper. Re- 
peated false starts followed each other, in some 
of which three or four horses ran a considerable 
distance before they could be stopped and brought 
back. All these delays and checks had the natural 
effect of irritating Mameluke greatly, so that he 
fretted, kicked, and plunged with such violence 
that Sam Chifney the younger, who was upon 
his back, had the greatest trouble to induce him 
to approach the starter at all. After a monstrous 



jockey's tricks. 305 

loss of time a start was at last eflPected, but in 
most irregular fashion, as Matilda and Translation 
got off several lengths ahead of the rest of the 
field. When the flag fell Mameluke's head was 
turned the other way, which caused him to lose at 
least one hundred yards. Although Jem Robinson, 
on Matilda, made every use that he could of his 
advantageous start by forcing the pace, Mameluke 
gradually made up his lost ground, and got on 
terms with Mr Petre's filly ; but in the end Robin- 
son's splendid riding was not to be denied, as he 
niu^sed his mare for a final effort, and won the race 
by a short half-length. There are many living, 
besides myself, who remember the race, and the 
rumours about it, which were on every tongue. 
Some blamed the starter, who, I believe, was 
shortly afterwards dismissed from his situation. 
At that time the jealousies between the north- 
country and south -country jockeys were in full 
blast, and deep were the ill-feeling and malice 
existing between them. Nor were these evil 
practices confined to the jockeys. There were 
speculators on the Turf who were always ready 
to purchase horses engaged in a great race, with 
a view of sending them to the post solely to 
create difficulties at the start, and thus facilitate 
the victory of an outsider. For instance, when 
Priam, who was a great favourite, won the Derby 
in 1830, there were fourteen false starts, all of 
which took place in a heavy downpour of rain. 

u 



306 LORD GEORGE AS A TURF REFORMER. 

Fortunately Priam was a most docile and trac- 
table colt, and nothing could exasperate him or 
ruffle his perfect temper. In the end he won 
easily, beating twenty -two opponents, some of 
which were sent to the post without the remotest 
possibility of being able to run into a place. I 
have seen all the best horses that have flourished 
and had their day for more than sixtyyears past, 
and I now repeat my well-considered opinion that 
Priam was the most perfect race-horse I ever saw. 
His constitution was magnificently sound ; his 
temperament and nervous system beautifully at- 
tuned ; his shape, make, and action were fault- 
less. No weight known to the ' Racing Calendar ' 
could crush his spirit. All coTu:ses came alike to 
him. I well remember how frequently I rode him 
at exercise when, in 1831, he came to our stables 
to run for the Goodwood Cup of that year, which 
as a four-year-old he won in a canter, carrying 9 
st. 5 lb. two miles and a half. That was sixty-one 
years ago, and I question whether there is any 
other man still living who ever crossed the back 
of that " bright particular star " among horses, the 
beautiful and incomparable Priam — the peer of 
Flying Childers and Eclipse — the " horse of the 
nineteenth century ! " 

Lord George Bentinck's connection with Priam 
is somewhat remarkable, as it was through his 
Lordship's instrumentality that in 1831 he was 
sent to Goodwood, after the Ascot Meeting, to be 



PRIAM. 307 

trained for the Goodwood Cup. He was then the 
property of the Earl of Chesterfield, whose horses 
were trained by Richard Prince at Newmarket. 
Prince also trained for the Duke of Portland and 
Mr Charles Greville, with each of whom, as son to 
the first and cousin to the second. Lord George 
was intimately connected. Being so favourably 
impressed with the advantages of Goodwood as a 
training-ground. Lord George persuaded Lord Ches- 
terfield (then a young man of twenty-six) to send 
Priam there from Ascot, instead of allowing him to 
travel on foot to Newmarket, and thence to walk to 
Goodwood. It was Lord George's admiration for 
Priam which induced him to purchase at Tatter- 
salls, as a foal, the most extraordinary animal 
that he ever possessed. I well remember that when 
Octaviana and her filly foal by Priam were put up 
for sale in 1837, the foal was as weak, narrow, 
and puny a thing as could well be seen. But 
in her veins there coursed the blood of Priam, 
Emilius, and Orville on the father's side, and of 
Octavian, Shuttle, Delpini, and King Fergus on 
the mother's. Always a firm believer in good 
blood, Lord George purchased Octaviana when she 
was twenty-two years old, because by her side there 
ran a filly foal got by Priam. The price he paid 
for the pair was 65 guineas. It was in this man- 
ner that he became the owner of the celebrated 
Crucifix. 
• Let me conclude with two other instances of Lord 



308 LORD GEORGE AS A TURF REFORMER. 

George's zeal, energy, and acumen as a Turf refor- 
mer, to follow which vocation he was additionally- 
impelled by the fact that he was often the victim 
of abuses which then existed. In the year 1834, 
when Preserve won the Clearwell at Newmarket, 
the horses were at the post an hour before the start 
took place, although there were but nine runners. 
Preserve was a great favourite at 6 to 4, and there 
was evidently a concerted endeavour to defeat her 
by irritating and wearying her as much as possible. 
This foul design was repeated when Preserve won 
the Criterion at the Houghton Meeting, the betting 
being 13 to 8 on her. Although there were four- 
teen false starts, the Emilius blood, as in the case 
of her half-brother Priam, was too stout to be 
exhausted and defeated by manoeuvres of this 
rascally kind. 

Again, when his Lordship brought out his extra- 
ordinary filly, Crucifix, he became the target at 
which the shafts of envy, hatred, and malice were 
relentlessly aimed. An attempt was made to defeat 
her for the Chesterfeld Stakes at Newmarket, 
through the usual agency of countless false starts. 
In one of these all the horses engaged ran the 
course through, and Lord Albemarle's chestnut filly 
Iris came in first, defeating Crucifix by half a 
length. Crucifix was carrying 9 lb. extra for 
winning the July Stakes, and lost fifty lengths at 
the starting-post. It transpired, however, that 



ATTEMPT TO DEFEAT CRUCIFIX. 309 

the signal had never been given, and it was de- 
clared " no start." To run another heat with 9 lb. 
extra was undoubtedly a severe tax upon an over- 
grown, light -framed, leggy, and half-furnished filly 
of a most irritable and impetuous temperament — 
a defect which she inherited from her dam ; but 
such was her superiority that she was equal to the 
task, and won the actual race in a canter by two 
lengths, Iris second. It was 7 to 4 on her before 
the first heat and 2 to 1 against her for the second. 
When she ran for the Criterion in the Houghton 
Meeting, it was 3 to 1 on her, although she again 
had 9 lb. extra to carry. The usual false starts 
were resorted to, maddening Crucifix so much that 
she ran a dead heat with General Yates's Gibraltar. 
The stakes were then divided, which was to the 
advantage of both ; as Crucifix, although pretty 
certain to have won the second heat, might have 
been overtasked, to her own permanent injury. 
In the following year (1840), when Crucifix, after 
winning the Two Thousand and One Thousand 
Guineas, ran for the Oaks, the betting was 3 to 1 
on her. There were fifteen runners, and more 
than an hour was cut to waste before the horses 
got ofi*. Although Crucifix won by half a length, 
it was her ruin, as she had become so fretful that 
in one of the innumerable false starts she hit her 
leg and never ran again. She was beyond all 
question a victim to the rascally policy pursued 



310 LOBD GEORGE AS A TURF REFORMER. 

by her envious and unscrupulous opponents, after 
making the utmost possible allowance for her im- 
petuous temper. 

Having witnessed and suflTered fix)m these unjust 
and iniquitous eflTorts to defeat favourites, Lord 
George resolved that he would introduce reforms 
to frustrate as far as possible the machinations of 
the promoters of all this mischief. 



311 



CHAPTEK XV. 

PERSONAL HABITS OF LORD GEORGE BENTINCK. 

Lord George Bentinck was the beau idial of an 
English nobleman. He stood over six feet in 
height ; his figure was, beyond that of any other 
man of my acquaintance, stately and elegant ; his 
features were extremely handsome and refined, his 
hands and feet small and beautifully shaped, and 
his whole appearance most commanding. He was 
invariably dressed in a long black frock-coat, a 
black or very dark blue, double-breasted, velvet 
waistcoat, and dark trousers, having (in the fashion 
of that day) straps attached, which passed under 
his boots. Over his waistcoat he wore a fine, long, 
gold chain, which went round his neck, and was 
clasped together on his breast by a gold loop, in 
which was set a large and very conspicuous tur- 
quoise, which I always regarded as symbolising 
his sky-blue racing jacket. Round his neck he 
wore a costly cream-coloured satin scarf of great 
length, knotted under his chin, and with a gold 



312 HABITS OF LORD GEORGE BENTINCK. 

pin stuck in it. This gold pin (he had two or 
more of them) contained either a big ruby or a 
pearl. On his head he invariably wore a tall, new, 
beaver hat. In this costume, including frock-coat 
and tall hat, Lord George was always dressed when 
he went round the stables at Goodwood, or pro- 
ceeded to the exercise-grounds on foot to see his 
horses gallop. On the race-course he usually w^ore 
a green cutaway coat, buckskin breeches, and top- 
boots. I must revert for a moment to his scarfs, 
in order to say that, although they cost nearly a 
pound apiece, nothing would induce him to wear 
them more than once. They were then put away, 
and many drawers were full of them when he died. 
After his death I purchased from Gardner, his 
valet, the scarf which he had on when his body 
was found, and half-a-dozen others, which I still 
keep as mementoes of my honoured master. 

Lord George was never known to suffer any of 
those whom he employed as commissioners to take 
the slightest liberty with him. In speaking with 
them he never laughed, and his look, when serious, 
was somewhat stern. He never sat down, or per- 
mitted them to sit down, in his presence, but would 
stand before the fireplace while talking to them, 
with the palms of his hands planted just behind 
his hips. I have heard two of his most trusted 
commissioners say that, without asking questions 
or pumping them in any way, Lord George always 
elicited from them all the racing information that 



CORONATION. 313 

they knew. In Coronation's year Lord George 
had a large round book on the Derby, and was at 
all times prepared to lay £10,000 to £200 against 
any outsiders, not in John Scott's or John Day's 
stables, whose name he heard for the first time. 
One day, at Tattersall's, Isaac Day asked his Lord- 
ship to lay him £10,000 to £200 against a Sir Her- 
cules colt, born in 1838, the year of her Majesty's 
Coronation, from which event he took his name. 
This colt was trained in a small private stable. 
Before Lord George could lay the bet he was 
touched on the elbow by Mr Joseph Bond, whom 
he often employed to do commissions for him. Mr 
Bond shook his head, and the bet was not laid. 
Having thus escaped being caught for the long 
odds. Lord George never laid against Coronation at 
all, and won his whole book. The only explana- 
tion that he subsequently vouchsafed to his friends 
was, " I followed Mr Bond," to the great gratifi- 
cation of the latter. 

To me his Lordship was always very unreserved 
and communicative, as he knew from experience 
that I should never abuse his confidence. My 
positive instructions were never to come to London 
without seeing him, let the hoiu* be what it might. 
Frequently I arrived at Harcourt House very early 
in the morning by the mail train, and the hall- 
porter would immediately call his Lordship's valet 
to announce my advent. Lord George would sum- 
mon me without a moment's delay to his bedside. 



314 HABITS OF LORD GEORGE BENTINCKU 

and after I had talked to him for one or two hours, 
would order breakfast to be prepared for me before 
I left. At that early hour it often took so much 
time to provide this meal that I was scarcely able 
to do justice to it, although I felt bound to eat as 
much as I could, as his Lordship would invariably 
inquire of me before we parted whether I had 
enjoyed my breakfast. I often begged him to 
allow me to get what little I wanted at some 
refreshment - room, but to this he would never 
consent. 

When I arrived in London late in the evening. 
Lord George was often at the House of Conmaons, 
or at White's Club at dinner. Wherever he might 
be, it was my duty to find him with the least 
possible delay ; and if not at White's Club, I 
sometimes remained there, hearing that he was 
expected at eleven o'clock, as he had ordered 
dinner then. He would keep me talking till long 
after midnight ; and upon one occasion desired me 
to meet him next week at the Winchester station, 
upon the arrival of the first train from London, 
about 11 A.M., which necessitated my leaving home 
about 5 A.M. to post to Fareham (a distance of 
twenty - two miles) to catch the train for Win- 
chester. Thence we posted to Danebury paddocks, 
to inspect the stud previous to the closing of the 
stakes on that day (the 1st of January). After 
mmutely inspecting the stud, Lord George found 
that it had not occupied as much time as he 



PERSONAL KINDNESS. 315 

expected, and said he thought we had better go 
straight back to London, instead of proceeding to 
Winchester to dine, as he had arranged, having 
ordered dinner at the George Hotel. Arriving in 
London at Nine Elms station about 7.30 p.m., his 
Lordship, being unable to find his luggage as 
quickly as he wished, said, "I will drive on to 
Harcourt House to order you some dinner, if you 
will get another cab and bring my luggage with 
you." When I got to Harcourt House about 9 
P.M., Mrs Jones, the housekeeper, came to inquire 
what I would like for dinner, as his Lordship had 
desired her to provide the best she was able, and 
to get fish, game — in fact, whatever I could enjoy. 
My reply was, " A mutton - chop with some tea, 
if you please," as I had had nothing since five 
o'clock that morning. " I must provide more than 
that, or I feel sure his Lordship will not be satis- 
fied," exclaimed Mrs Jones. Feeling faint and 
tired, I was not in a mood to wait long, and was 
therefore allowed to have what I asked for without 
delay. As I was eating, Gardner, his Lordship's 
valet, came to me and desired me, when I had 
dined, to go to White's Club, where I found Lord 
George at dinner about eleven o'clock. "I hope 
you enjoyed your meal ? What did Mrs Jones get 
for you?" were his first questions. I told him 
that I had had a mutton-chop and some tea. " Is 
that all she provided for you ! " he answered. I 
stated that I preferred it to anything else, as it 



316 HABITS OF LORX> GEORGE BENTINCK. 

was 80 late, and so many hours had elapsed since I 
had breakfasted. " So long as you have had what 
you wished, I am satisfied," he rejoined. 

As a vast number of stakes closed that day at 
midnight, the forfeits for which would amount to 
thousands of pounds, I reminded his Lordship of 
the time, as he did not appear to consider it. A 
cab was at once ordered, and we arrived at 
Weatherby's office about 11.40 p.m. Mr Wea- 
therby was afraid that something serious had 
occurred to prevent his Lordship naming for the 
various stakes to which he was a subscriber. " I 
am in plenty of time ; Kent has all the nomina- 
tions made out," observed his Lordship, looking 
over the various stakes to see how they had filled, 
until two o'clock, when he drove to Harcourt 
House, and there kept me talking over various 
matters till nearly five. Then he rang for his 
servant to order some breakfast at six o'clock for 
me, as he wished me to see some yearlings Mr 
Tattersall had for sale at Willesden before I re- 
turned home by the coach from Piccadilly at 
8.45 A.M. His Lordship never made any allowance 
for fatigue, either in himself or in others. The 
exertion and labour he underwent were prodigious, 
and the strain imposed upon his mind must, in- 
deed, have been great, as it was incessantly at 
work both night and day. After being upon a 
race-course all day, he would invariably return to 
London by a late train, and often desired me to 



ENDUBANCE OF FATIGUE. 317 

return with him. Giving the guard 10s. or a 
sovereign, according to the distance, he would 
desire him to keep a couple locked, and he insisted 
that I should travel with him, when every detail 
connected with his enormous racing establishment 
was discussed. After that, he would talk upon 
various subjects, many of a private and family 
nature, upon which I could hardly have expected 
him to speak to me. He would relate anecdotes 
about his father and brothers, their pursuits, 
habits, and peculiarities. Of his mother and 
sisters he always spoke in the most affectionate 
terms ; and when any question of expense arose he 
would often remark, " Never mind the money ; 
my mother will let me have any amount." 

His prediction as to the great revolution the 
construction of railways would effect in racing and 
other interests has been fully realised, and he 
encouraged railways in every way. He was a 
considerable shareholder in the London and Bir- 
mingham line, as he informed me once when 
travelling upon it ; at the same time expatiating 
upon the immense advantages that railways had 
conferred on mankind, and upon the addition to 
the lives of individuals made by them, in conse- 
quence of their having shortened the hours of 
travel. 

When the Chichester Old Bank stopped pay- 
ment in 1842, my father was a creditor for the 
amount of £3600, which was not only a very 



318 HABITS OF LORD GEORGE BENTINCK. 

serious loss to him but also a great inconvenience, 
as it crippled him in the conduct of his business. 
A few days after the occurrence Lord Greorge came 
to Goodwood, and was apprised of it. He sym- 
pathised warmly with my father, and immediately 
placed £2000 to his account at another bank. 
The consumption of oats in the Goodwood stable 
was about 1500 quarters per annum, and they 
were obtained twice a-year in consignments of 
700 or 800 quarters at a time. They came 
generally from Scotland or from Wisbech. A few 
months after the stoppage of the bank, the usual 
half-yearly supply of oats had to be ordered, and, 
with his usual considerate kindness. Lord Greorge 
said to my father, " Kent, I am sure that you 
must need a further advance to enable you to 
meet all your requirements ; here is another cheque 
for £2500." Neither of these sums would Lord 
George allow my father to deduct from his account 
until July 1845, so that he had the use of £4500 
for three years without paying a shilling of interest 
upon it. The July (1845) account amounted to 
£4704, 16s. Id., which sum appears in my fathers 
ledger with " Deduction of £4500 received on 
account," written under it. This will be admitted 
by all to have been a generous and considerate act 
on Lord George's part. 

At Harcourt House Lord George kept about 
half-a-dozen harness - horses, and a couple of 
travelling carriages, one of which he made use of 



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HIS HUNTEKS. 319 

when journeying down to Danebury, or Groodwood, 
or Welbeck. As railways began to extend over 
all the kingdom, these travelling carriages were 
less and less used every year, until discontinued 
altogether. At Welbeck his Lordship kept some 
first-class hunters in order to go out with the 
Ruffbrd hounds ; but when in the south he greatly 
preferred to hunt with Mr Assheton Smith, whose 
pack brought him more nearly into contact with 
Danebury and Goodwood. It was one of his 
favourite fancies to have all his horses (including 
racers, hunters, and cart-horses) singed, and he 
always insisted that the hunters and cart-horses 
should have their manes cut off. Indeed in some 
cases it was Lord George's wish that a heavy- 
coated horse should be shaved, although it was 
by no means easy to get a barber to undertake 
the job. So much impressed was he with the 
advantages to condition resulting from depriving 
all horses of their long coats when employed in 
any description of hard work, that he gave orders 
to have all the cart-horses singed, with the ex- 
ception of a black mare, who had an unusually 
thick coat, and was a very free worker. Con- 
sequently she was always in a sweat, and very 
irritable. The carter who attended her thought 
that, if singed, she would be more irritable than 
ever, which might bring on some dangerous disease. 
When Lord George heard the man's objection, he 
replied, " K she dies, she will die my property, and 



320 HABITS OF LORD GEOBGE BENTINCK. 

not yours. I insist, therefore, that you have her 
singed without delay." Lord Greorge was quite 
right in his anticipation ; for instead of becoming 
more nervous and irritable after losing her coat, 
she became perfectly quiet in her work, and soon 
put on a lot of flesh, of which she stood greatly 
in need. 

Although very severe upon his race-horses in 
training, and resolved to try them constantly, and 
to run them in as many races as possible, some- 
times twice in the same day, he greatly disliked 
to see them punished and abused by jockeys. In 
the stable he would go up to them in their stalls, 
and fondle and caress them as if they were his 
own children. To show how much he hated to 
see a horse (however sorry a nag it might be) 
cruelly treated, I remember being with him very 
early one morning upon Epsom race-course during 
the Derby week. In the furze-bushes at the top 
of the hill a gipsy was ill-using and beating his 
horse unmercifully, and Lord George called out to 
him to desist. The gipsy paid no attention to the 
remonstrance, and Lord George jumped off his 
horse and threw the rein to me, bidding me to 
remain there until he had given " that brute *' a 
sound hiding. I implored him not to do so, 
reminding him that there were a lot of other 
gipsies and roughs close by, who would be sure to 
interfere on behalf of their friend and comrade, 
and might do him some injury. Observing my 



HIS HATRED OF DISHONESTY. 321 

earnestness, and acknowledging: the justice of 
.y rem^ks, hU Lordahip ILud L ho«e, 
adding, " You have disappointed me in giving that 
scoundrel a good thrashing ; but perhaps you are 
right." 

All those in Lord George's service who did their 
duty with zeal and fidelity were sure to be hand- 
somely rewarded. Although not prone to suspicion, 
he was indefatigable in his exertions to unmask 
dishonesty, and to bring those guilty of it to well- 
merited punishment. In 1844, for instance, when 
Red Deer and other horses were being prepared 
for the Chester Cup, my letters to Lord George, 
addressed to Harcourt House, were opened by 
some miscreant connected with the Post Office 
in London. By a clever device the paper was 
cut just outside of the seal — there were no envel- 
opes in those days — and after the contents had 
been read, it was again closed by a hot iron ap- 
plied to the edge of the sealing-wax, which was 
made to extend over the cut. Occasionally a little 
additional wax was employed. Upon one occasion 
the letter had not been effectually reclosed, and 
Lord George discovered the fraud. He then ex- 
amined other letters which he had received fix)m 
me, and had no difficulty in detecting the treachery 
of which he had been made the object. His first 
step was to warn me to seal my letters with a 
wafer, and then to cover the wafer with wax. He 
remarked that moisture would not act upon the 

X 



S22 HABITB OF LOBD COBOBflB BEHTDffCK. 

wax or heat upcm the wafer, and that between the 
two no one would be able to tamper with my 
lettera. He then communicated with the Post 
Office authorities, who soon discovered that the 
delinquents were two sorters named Saunders and 
Tapson, who were dismissed the service. It was 
the opinion of the law officers of the Crown that 
these men, having opened but not having stol^i 
the letters, could not be further punished. If 
such an outrage were to be perpetrated now, the 
offenders would probably find themselves much 
more severely dealt with than their predeoeBSorB 
were in 1844. 

About the same time a well-known pugilist who 
kept a tavern not &r from the fi[aymarket was 
found to be implicated in the conspiracy with 
these rascally Post Office employees. When Bed 
Deer won the Chester Cup the pugilist in question 
landed a large stake, and gave a sumptuous dinner 
to his friends, at the close of which he produced 
some wonderfiilly fine old port and brandy, ivhich 
turned out (as he anticipated) to be a capital ad- 
vertisement, for the same brand of port and of 
cognac proved to be as inexhaustible as the widow's 
cruse of oil in Scripture. To prevent treachery 
among the numerous lads and servants employed 
in such an immense stable, many of whom were, of 
course, exposed to all sorts of temptations when 
attending race meetings, was foimd to be ahnost 
impossible. In one instance I succeeded, however. 



A CASE OF TREACHERY. 323 

in detecting a culprit. Towards the close of the 
racing season of 1845 I had reason to believe that 
the results of our trials were communicated to a 
party in London. I set to work, therefore, in earn- 
est to discover the traitor, who, I was convinced, 
must be one of the lads riding in the trials. I 
therefore arranged some trials with a view to 
gaining the information that I desired, and at last 
I succeeded in getting possession of a letter which 
fully revealed to me who the traitor was. This 
letter, which gave full particulars of several trials 
and of other stable secrets, was in the handwriting 
of a boy who acted as amanuensis to another boy 
who could not read or write, but who rode in every 
trial. He therefore employed a quick, intelligent 
lad to write for him, and to read to him such let- 
ters as arrived at Goodwood. Before long I got 
the amanuensis entirely into my confidence, and 
by him I was placed in possession of all the ras- 
calities which were going on, and of the names 
of the parties in London who were implicated in 
the plot. 

Knowing that I had behind me such a master as 
Lord George Bentinck, who would grudge no ex- 
pense so long as he was able to find out the villain 
who was betraying us both, I had at my command 
all the resoiuxjes necessary for getting to the bot- 
tom of the conspiracy. Upon reporting progress 
to Lord George, I received from him the following 
encouraging letter : — 



824 HABITS OF LOBD GEOBGS BENTINGK. 

** Habooubt Hoxroi, Jaamoury 31, 1846L 

"John Kent, — ^You deserve and I give you 
the very greatest credit for the zeal, skill, and 
ability with which you have detected the traitor 
in our stable. 

"Now we have found him, we shall be fools 
indeed if we cannot ruin him and all his gang. 

" Of course we must continue to sham the ut- 
most confidence in him, and then we must take 
good care to put him wrong in everything of any 
importance. 

" It is too late to put him on the wrong scent as 
regards Best Bower in connection with the Chester 
Gup, unless we can manage it by making Miss 
EUs win the trials a long way. It will be too late, 
also, to attempt setting him wrong as to Blackbird 
and the Voluptuary colt ; but I think with Nereus 
and Rose of Cashmere we might have fine game 
with B. and E. They must both have a ride or 
two on Nereus when half trained, so that he may 
be beaten a long way in all his trials. Neither 
will it be too late to deceive him about Planet. 
However, I must leave all this to you, as I see you 
are now quite master of the situation. — I am, your 
obedient servt., G. Bentinck." 

To this letter I replied by suggesting some 
slight alterations in the programme, and begged 
his Lordship to let me know what was the amount 
of the reward which he proposed to give to the lad 



DEFEATING TREACHERY. 325 

who had been useful and faithful to me as an 
informant and confidant. I received from his 
Lordship the accompanying reply by return of 
post : — 

" Harcourt House, Feb, 6, 1846. 

" John Kent, — Nothing can be more able, 
clever, and skilful than the manner in which 

you have discovered the misdoings of ; but 

it is absolutely necessary we should keep him on 
without allowing him to suspect that we have 
found him out, and then we will make him the 
most efficient tool that could be for our own pur- 
poses. is the very man of whom I spoke to 

you some time ago as having always got the cream 

of the betting out of our stable. must not 

on any account be discharged, but the boy who 
tells you must be wdl rewarded. I therefore 
authoinse you to pay him anything you think 

right. must be kept right in all matters 

of SMALL importance ; but where we mean to do 
great things, such as with Nereus, Ex)se of Cash- 
mere, and Planet, he and B must be put quite 

in the hole. I shall have no scruple in dismissing 
at any moment, when I find it will best 



answer my purpose to do so. Do you think 

stands quite clear about the watch ? It seems an 
odd thing to do — to send a watch to York to be 
repaired ! Is it quite certain the watch was not a 
present and a bribe from some betting man at York ? 
— I am, your obedient servant, G. Bentinck. 



326 HABITS OF LOBB OBOBGE BENnNGK. 

" P.S.— The way Colonel Anson and John Soott 
saved first Attila and then Cotherstone firom being 
poisoned was by sending the head lad in the one 
case and the boy in the other, who were to do 
the job, suddenly away to fetch a horse firom 
Malton, so that no suspicion that the conspiracy 
had been discovered was excited. The conse- 
quence was that in both cases the whole gang of 
conspirators were entirely ruined. In like manner 

we must make excuses for getting out of 

the way when occasion requires it. Sometimes we 
can do so by ordering him to ride some weight 
we know he cannot ride, and then taking him off 
at the last moment. 6. 6.'' 

Liberally as his Lordship paid all his servants, 
and great as was the trust he reposed in them, it 
must have been a source of great annoyance to 
him to find he had been betrayed by one who had 
in every way been encouraged to do his duty. Li 
addition to his wages the culprit was earning £20 
to £25 per annum by riding trials, and frequently 
was in receipt of presents when a horse won with 
which he had been in any way connected. It was 
one of his Lordship's best traits that he dealt with 
and treated everything and everybody strictly 
upon their merits. The fidelity and loyalty of my 
confidant in the above matter were above all 
praise, as the traitor had not the slightest sus- 
picion that he was mistrusted, but continued to 



STABLE PKECAUTIONS, 327 

ride trials with the utmost confidence, as I knew 
by the letters which he persisted in dictating, 
some of which were not very correct as to the 
merits of the animals upon which he gave an 
opinion. For instance, he made great mistakes as 
to the weights carried by horses in many of the 
trials. 

I soon found that some change of tactics in 
weighing the lads was essential. I also had to 
employ various descriptions of saddles and saddle- 
cloths to attain my object. The traitor considered 
himself so very clever that in one of his letters he 
stated, " My master may think he is deep enough 
to deceive us in the weights, but he cannot 
deceive me with his loaded saddle-cloths. Such 
and such a horse must have had a lot of weight to 
carry, and then won easily." It so happened that 
he was not within 2^ stones of the right estimate, 
as the lead in the saddle-cloths had been replaced 
by pieces of pine- wood of the same shape. All 
this was very gratifying to Lord George, as it 
afforded him an opportunity of making a distinc- 
tion between a faithful servant and a scoundrel 
It is needless to add that the traitor, after he had 
been turned into a dupe and had served his pur- 
pose, was summarily dismissed, while those who 
had bribed him suifered great losses. The faithful 
servant was liberaUy rewarded, and eventually had 
a good situation obtained for him. 

Lord George was so frequently at (roodwood, 



328 HABITS OF LOBD GKOBGB BENTDTCK. 

and spent so much of his time there, inspeotiiig his 
horses and entering into the minutest details, that 
it was hardly possible for my father or myself to 
pay him as much attention aa we could have 
wished. We had many other pressing duties to 
discharge, and were constantly compelled to apolo- 
gise to him for our frequent absences. He always 
replied, ^^ Do not mind me ; I can amuse and occupy 
myself in a dozen ways.'' Sometimes he would 
remain a great length of time in the box with some 
fiivourite horse, watchini? every movement, and 

endii* by patth« «riZ»b« him or !>«. If he 
happened to be present at feeding-time, he would 
take the greatest interest in their various appetites, 
and loved to see them enjoying their food. Nothing 
could exceed the pleasure taken by Lord George in 
his extensive racing establishment ; and although 
he frequently passed hours in and about the stable 
unattended by my father or myself, it never came 
to our knowledge that he applied to a servant or a 
lad for information on any subject. I cannot say 
as much for some other professed gentlemen whom 
I knew too well. 

It is impossible that any one could ever have 
cared less for money than Lord George did. At 
the same time, he was far too clear-sighted and 
too practical to allow any one to wrong him long. 
In these matters Lord Greorge realised the desorip- 
tion given of him by Mr Disraeli, when he says : 
" Lord George valued the acquisition of money on 



HIS DISREGABD OF MONEY. 329 

the Turf because there it was the test of success. 
He counted his thousands after a great race as 
a victorious general oo«nte his oaSon aud his 
prisoners." Mr Disraeli adds in another passage 
of his ' Political Biography of Lord George Ben- 
tinck/ that if certain letters written by the lat- 
ter, which Mr Disraeli had seen, were to meet 
the public eye, they would cause their author to 
be regarded as a far more amiable and tender 
character than those who knew him but slightly 
gave him credit for being. " Not," says Mr Dis- 
raeli, " that it must for one moment be supposed 
that Lord George was blind to what was occur- 
ring on all sides. He was the most sensitive 
as well as the proudest of men." 

When Mr Disraeli called at Harcourt House just 
before the Christmas holidays in 1846, his Lord- 
ship remarked to him with great emotion, " In this 
cause I have greatly shaken my health, shattered 
my constitution, and shortened my days, but in it 
I will succeed or die." The words were prophetic, 
and to me it will ever be a painful thought that 
my dear and honoured master wore himself out 
while still in the very prime of life for politicians 
who were too selfish to bear any portion of the 
immense burden which he voluntarily took upon 
his own shoulders. That he was aware of this 
would, I feel sure, have been made apparent if his 
political correspondence had been preserved. But 
in a note appended to Mr Louis J. Jennings's 



330 HABFTB OF LOBB OBOBOE BENTINCK. 

^ Correspondence and Diaries of the Right Hon- 
ourable John Wilson Croker/ I find the following 
words : '' The editor has made diligent inquiry for 
Lord George Bentinck's political correspondence, 
and has been informed by Viscomitess Ossington, 
his Lordship's sister, that the whole of it was 
probably destroyed by the fourth Duke of Port- 
land, his father." 

But although all the letters addressed to Lord 
Greorge by Mr Disraeli, Mr Croker, Lord Stanley 
(afterwards Earl of Derby), and others, have 
perished, some of those written by Lord Greorge 
himself are still extant. Knowing him as well as 
I did, I can well conceive the feelings with which 
he must have penned the following passage to Mr 
Croker from Welbeck on October 8, 1847: — 

" When I accepted the lead of what was left of 
the old Conservative party, I did deceive myself 
with false hopes that the old English spirit would 
have been roused, and that it was only necessary 
to keep the dismantled ship floating, or fighting 
under jury-masts, till she went through the 
thorough repair of a new election. I own that I 
am bitterly disappointed and broken-hearted that 
England has proved to be so degenerate that, in 
face of a tremendous emergency, she has produced 
no new leader to take my place. Nothing but 
pinching adversity will bring such men to a proper 
sense of their duty. As regards the gentlemen, 



HIS CONFIDENCE. 331 

the entire fiind subscribed for the election did not 
exceed £8000, and of this King Hudson subscribed 
£6000." 

When it is remembered that Lord Gteorge's 
own expenditure upon political and parliamentary 
objects was as unstinted as it had formerly been 
upon horse-racing, I can well understand his dis- 
appointment upon finding that others were not so 
ready as he was to pay in purse and person. Mr 
Disraeli, who speaks of Lord Greorge Bentinck as 
" the most generous of men," was well aware how 
much money he spent upon politics, although he 
never permitted Mr Disraeli nor anybody else to 
allude to it. This trait it was, I imagine, which 
made Mr Disraeli term him *' the proudest of men." 
So far as I was myself concerned, Lord George 
never showed any pride or hauteur in dealing with 
my father or me. Where he gave his confidence, 
he was not only condescending but confiding ; and 
I was often astonished at the unreserved freedom 
with which he used to speak to me about matters 
with which I had no concern. Lord George 
was a Mason, and in one essential qualification, 
reticence, was well fitted to belong to a secret 
society. I never heard, however, that he took 
any step to make himself a distinguished member 
of the craft. 



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CHAPTER XVI. 

THE FIFTH DUKE OF RICHMOND, K.G. 

Fifteen chapters of this work have thus far b 
mainly devoted to the racing career of Lord Greo; 
Bentinck, and to its bearings upon his social, po 
ical, and sporting character. It will now be : 
duty to offer to readers who have had the patiei 
to follow me thus far, a few reminiscences of L< 
George's racing confederate, the fifth Duke 
Richmond. 

My father and I had the honour to serve 
Grace — and never was there a better or a kin< 
master — before Lord George ever entered 1 
Goodwood stable as an owner of race-horses trair 
therein, and long after he had left it. I have 
hesitation in asserting that some of the Dui 
most valuable qualities were not without th 
influence upon Lord George, who never sho\i 
himself greater than in 1848, when Surpli 
whom he had bred, won the Derby for Lc 
Clifden. From many things that I have se 



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THE DUKE OF RICHMOND. 333 

and heard, I feel persuaded that the Duke of 
Richmond was not only Lord George's safest 
guide and most judicious friend, but also that 
insensibly he was to no slight degree a pattern for 
his Lordship between 1841 and 1848. 

Li one of his numerous letters to the * Times/ 
Admiral Rous states that during the whole of his 
long experience of the Tmf, he had come across 
only two owners of horses — the fourth Duke of 
Portland, and the fifth Earl of Glasgow — who 
raced solely for honour, without one mercenary 
thought in their minds. I cannot understand 
why Admiral llous excluded the fifth Duke of 
Richmond from the above-named category. How- 
ever honourably and unselfishly the Duke of 
Portland and Lord Glasgow may have conducted 
their racing operations, it is impossible that in 
this respect they should have surpassed my old 
master, the Duke of Richmond. It is because I 
believe such noblemen as the three just men- 
tioned ought to be held up to the admiration 
and the possible imitation of their successors in 
all future ages, that I now take delight in supply- 
ing the following details respecting his Grace's 
racing career and high-souled disposition. 

He was born on the 3d August 1791, and suc- 
ceeded to the title and estates of his ancestors 
upon the death, in Canada, of his father, the 
fourth Duke, in August 1819. At an early age 
his Grace was sent to Mr Howe's school at Chis- 



334 THE FIFTH DUKE OF BICOSMOND, K.O. 

wick, where he remained until, a few months 
later, he was moved to Westminster SohooL I 
have it on the authority of some of his contem- 
poraries at Westminster, especially the late Lord 
Stradbroke, that he was most attentive to his 
studies. In addition, he had all the inherent 
courage of his race, and it cannot be doubted 
that had he been sent to either of the Univer- 
sities, he would have become a fairly good scholar. 
Quick of perception, and gifted with a retentive 
memory, he was one of the most assiduous and 
persevering of men. 

Even in boyhood the love of discipline, for 
which he was celebrated in the Peninsula, was 
very marked. But his most noticeable and lov- 
able quality was his hatred of oppression, which 
led him to interpose on behalf of the weak when- 
ever threatened or attacked by a bully or tyrant. 
At school, for instance, it signified nothing that 
the aggressor was several inches taller and a stone 
heavier than himself; for in more than one of the 
fights in which his Grace, then Mr Lennox, was 
engaged, he held his own successfully against 
older and bigger boys than himself. It was a 
fighting era, as may be seen from Sir Denis Le 
Marchant's 'Life of Viscount Althorp,' and Mrs 
Henry Baring's * Autobiography of the. Right 
Honourable William Windham.' In fact every 
record of our great public schools between 1780 
and 1840 shows that fights between boys were 



HIS SERVICES IN THE PENINSULA. 335 

much more frequent and determined than they 
have been since the latter date. Few men through- 
out life had more disputes referred to them for 
arbitration than his Grace, and the spirit of fair- 
ness which he brought to his task was so well 
known that his decisions were never appealed 
against even by those who were losers thereby. 
The Duke, or rather Mr Lennox, entered the 
army at a very early age, and was at once gazetted 
to the 13th Light Dragoons, then in the Penin- 
sula. In the summer of 1810, being then in his 
nineteenth year, he embarked from Portsmouth for 
Lisbon, where he met upon his arrival with a most 
cordial reception from Vice- Admiral Berkeley, whose 
wife was his aunt, and who invited him to share 
his quarters until his guest had recovered from 
the fatigues of his voyage. Neither the Admiral's 
pressing invitation, however, to regard his house 
as a home, nor the gaieties of Lisbon, could induce 
Mr Lennox, who had now become Lord March, 
to absent himself from his regimental duties for 
a single day. Without losing a moment he made 
his way on horseback to the headquarters of the 
army, and reported himself to Sir Arthur Welles- 
ley, Commander - in - Chief, who immediately ap- 
pointed him to his personal staff, which consisted 
of the first Lord Kaglan, then Lord Fitzroy 
Somerset ; of the latter's nephew, the seventh Duke 
of Beaufort, then Marquis of Worcester ; of Lord 
George Lennox, Lord William Bussell, Lord 



336 THE FIFTH DUKE OF BIGHMOND, K.O. 

Charles Manners, and Lord Clinton ; of the 
Honourable Fitzroy Stanhope, the Honourable 
Henry Percy, Major the Honourable Sir Alex- 
ander Gordon; Captain Colin Campbell, Major 
Canning, " Jack " Fremantle, and the Prince of 
Orange. We learn fix>m *A Memoir of Charles 
Gordon Lennox, fifth Duke of Richmond,' pub- 
lished anonymously in 1862, that *'the hunting- 
field in England had made many of the above- 
named officers competent for an important brandi 
of their duty — that of conveying orders to distant 
posts — a duty which, in a savage, mountainous 
country, with an ever -vigilant enemy in firont, 
required no slight energy, courage, and quickness 
of eye." 

Scarcely had Lord March attained this proud 
position before his regiment, the 13th Light 
Dragoons, was detailed to reconnoitre the enemy's 
movements. Lord March heard of this order with 
unfeigned regret, as his position on the head- 
quarters staff forbade his going to the fi:ont with 
his regiment. He soon recovered firom his disap- 
pointment on learning that a general engagement 
was imminent, — an anticipation which was speedily 
verified. On the morning of July 27, 1810, the 
French, under Massena, made two desperate attacks 
on the English position (a very strong one) at 
Busaco. The action lasted the whole day before 
the enemy was finally repulsed, leaving nearly 
3000 killed and wounded on the field Lord 



IN THE PENINSULA. 337 

March had taken out with him to the Peninsula 
three clever chargers; one of them — a chestnut 
thoroughbred — which carried him at Busaco, was 
named after the battle. When Lord March retired 
from active service at the close of the war, he 
brought Busaco home with him. I have often 
seen the horse, and he bore about him the marks 
of many gunshot wounds. In addition, his head 
and neck were scarred by heavy sabre-cuts, which 
the noble animal probably diverted from his rider 
by accidentally raising his head. Upon his return 
to England Busaco was turned out for life in Hal- 
naker Park, where he lived some years, until, be- 
coming very old, he was killed, and buried in 
the home park close to the ice-house, and a tree 
was planted over his remains, which has now 
grown into a noble specimen. Between the battles 
of Busaco and Orthez, at the latter of which he 
was severely wounded. Lord March suffered greatly 
from ill health, being unable to stand the excessive 
exertion and exposure to bad weather which his 
stajff duties necessitated. It is not generally 
known that all through the Peninsular War the 
English troops, including officers as well as pri- 
vates, served without tents, sleeping out by night 
in the open air. The French had, as usual, their 
tentes d'abri. 

Under these circumstances Lord March was sent 
down by Wellington, in October 1811, to Lisbon, 
where he fell in with his first cousin, Charles James 

Y 



338 THE FIFTH DUKE OF BICOSMOND, K.O. 

Napier, through whose jaw a bullet had paffi 
After inquiring into the circumstanoee of L 
March's ill health, Captain Charles Napier wi 
to his mother, Lady Sarah Napier (with wh^ 
when Lady Sarah Lennox, George III. i 
notoriously in love), in the following terms : — 

L18BOK, JTov. 1, 181 

Lord March has jost been here, and telld me that ; 
have had your eyes done, and can see a little. Oh! 
beloved mother, is this blessed news true ? Heaven gi 
that it may be ! March has been very ill, and will reqi 
at least two months' rest and care before he can hope 
resume his headquarter duties. Chablbs Napiei 

Soon rejoining the Commander-in-Chief, Ia 
March was present at the siege of Ciudad Rodri 
" He entered the breach," writes his biograpfa 
"with the storming-party of the 52d, his cc 
panions being the Prince of Orange and Lk 
Fitzroy Somerset. The Commander-in-Chief 
buked them for exposing their lives in a serv 
which, as officers of the staflF, they were not cal 
upon to undertake." In this connection Coloj 
Giu'wood tells a good story of Lord March. Wh 
the former was about to return the sword of i 
French governor of Ciudad Rodrigo, Lord Mai 
plucked his superior officer by the sleeve, whisp< 
ing in his ear, "Don't be such a fool as to ^ 
him back his weapon " ! In the attack on tl 
fortress Captain George Napier (brother to Char] 
Napier) was severely wounded, upon which occ 



RETURN FROM SPAIN. 339 

sion Lord March addressed the following letter to 
Lady Sarah, the mother of these two young heroes : 

Galleoos, Jan, 21, 1812. 

I am sorry to tell you that George has had his arm am- 
putated, in consequence of a musket-shot he received at the 
top of the breach. It has been cut off just above the elbow 
of the right arm. He suffers very little pain, and is in 
high spirits. He volunteered to lead 300 as fine fellows 
as ever marched, from the Light Division, and with them 
stormed the small breach. Everybody in the army admires 
his gallantry, and they cannot refuse, I trust, to make him 
a Lieut.-Colonel. I will let you know how he is by the next 
mail, and I am convinced it will be a favourable account. 
He wanted to write to you, but I told him I would. He is 
coming to my quarters, and I will take every care of him. 
— Believe me, dear Lady Sarah, ever yours affectionately, 

Maech. 

After the battle of Salamanca, Lord March was 
sent to England with despatches, and started for 
Corunna, where he embarked for Portsmouth. He 
had been present at three battles and two sieges, at 
skirmishes and brushes innumerable ; but in those 
days special war - correspondents were unknown, 
and few details, except those conveyed in head- 
quarter despatches and in private letters, were 
sent home. 

Lord March returned to Spain just before the 
Christmas of 1812. At that time his father was 
Viceroy of Ireland, and Wellington wrote to him 
that Lord March and his brother George, both of 
them A.D.C/S on the headquarter staff, were in 



340 THE FIFTH DUKE OF MCHMOND, K.Q. 

excellent health. Both were present at all the 
engagements of 1813, including Vittoria. Lord 
March had been anxious to witness the conduct 
in battle of the 5 2d Light Infantry, and to obtain 
a practical knowledge of regimental duty in the 
field. He sought permission, therefore, to leave 
the headquarter staff for a while, and to join the 
1st battalion of that gallant regiment as Captain 
in the 5 2d. Lord March led his company to 
attack the enemy's right at the battle of Orthez. 
On the crest of the hill he was struck in the chest 
by a musket-ball, which was never extracted, and 
which, forty -eight years later, he carried with 
him to the grave. The wound was at first pro- 
nounced to be mortal ; but Surgeon Hair of the 
5 2d attended him with such fidelity and skill, 
that Lord Wellington, on coming to see him, 
found him sleeping tranquilly. In his surgeon s 
opinion he had already surmounted the dangerous 
crisis. Youth and a good constitution soon 
enabled him to recover and to rejoin the Duke 
of Wellington at the battle of Toulouse. Speak- 
ing of Orthez, Sir William Napier, in his * History 
of the Peninsular War,' remarks that *' the loss of 
the allied army was 2300 ; among the wounded 
being the Duke of Wellington, slightly, and the 
Duke of Richmond (then Lord March), very 
severely. The latter had served on Wellington's 
personal staff throughout the war without a hurt ; 
but being made a captain in the 5 2d, he joined 



ACCIDENT IN THE HUNTING-FIELD. 341 

his regiment like a good soldier before the battle. 
He was shot through the lungs during the battle ; 
thus learning by experience the difference between 
the dangers to which staff and regimental officers 
are exposed, which are generally in an inverse 
ratio to their promotion." 

I have entered into the details of his Grace's 
military life at a length which to some may seem 
inconsistent with what I must necessarily say 
about his racing career, because it was from his 
Peninsular experiences that he acquired his great 
love for horses, and especially for thorough- 
breds, which, as he had practically ascertained, 
make the bravest and most enduring chargers in 
the world. Upon the restoration of peace Lord 
March returned to Goodwood House, and devoted 
himself with great ardour to hunting. It is prob- 
able indeed that he would have re-established 
the far-famed " Goodwood Hunt " but for an acci- 
dent which befell him when out with the Earl of 
Egremont's hounds. As he was galloping down 
one of the steep hills near Goodwood, his horse 
fell and trod upon his chest, injuring him severely. 
For some days his life was in imminent danger, 
and the surgeon in charge believed that the bullet 
which Lord March had received at Orthez was 
displaced by the fall. Be this as it may, he was 
advised to give up himting, and most reluctantly 
but with sound judgment he accepted the fiat of the 
doctors. 



'. I 
I 



342 THE FIFTH DUKE OF RICHMOND, K.G. 

It is possible that, but for his banishme 
from the hunting-field, Lord March would ne\ 
have taken to horse-racing. In 1817, however, ^ 
find him running two horses at Goodwood — to w 
Hermes, aged four years, and Princess, aged thr 
years, by Gohanna, the Earl of Egremont's eel 
brated stallion. With the former Lord March w< 
his first race — a match for fifty sovereigns a sid 
half a mile, against Lord Apsley's nameless b 
gelding (catch weights). In 1818, Lord Mar 
ran two horses at Goodwood, Roncesvalles and G^ 
winning with the former a sweepstakes of t 
guineas each. In 1819, Roncesvalles won a mat 
for fifty guineas at Brighton against Mr Bal 
Lustre. Again, on August 17, 1819, Roncesvall 
won a sweepstakes at Brighton, which was the la 
race won by Lord March in that name. Elev 
days later his Lordship succeeded to the title 
fifth Duke of Richmond, and shortly afterwar 
his racing career — that is to say, the portion of 
conducted on a large scale — may be said to ha 
commenced. 

In 1823 his Grace resolved gi^eatly to extend 1 
stud, and engaged my father to assume the duti 
of his private trainer. My father was recommend 
to his Grace by the then Lord Dunwich, who su 
sequently became second Earl of Stradbroke, ai 
was, more or less, a racing confederate of the Dul 
Lord Dunwich, like his brother Henry, who aftc 
wards became Admiral Rous, was an excelle: 



THE GOODWOOD STABLE, 343 

judge of racing, and advised his Grace to purchase 
Hampden from the Duke of Grafton, and Dandi- 
zette from Mr Walker. Hampden proved to be a 
bad-tempered horse, and had evidently lost his 
form prior to the Duke of Grafton's selling him. 
He turned out a very bad purchase, and Lord 
Dunwich was greatly annoyed, as he imagined that 
some misrepresentations had been made to him 
about the horse, who was five years old when he 
purchased him for the Duke of Richmond. Hamp- 
den was taken out of training, and being a son of 
Rubens, was put to the stud, where, again, he was 
very unsuccessful, as he generally imparted his own 
vicious temper to his progeny. With Dandizette, 
on the other hand, the Duke was very successful. 

In 1825 his Grace purchased a yearling filly, by 
Smolensko out of Medora, whom he named Gul- 
nare, and with whom he won the Oaks at Epsom in 
1827, together with some other good races. In 
fact, she won eight times as a three-year-old with- 
out ever sustaining defeat. His Grace was greatly 
encouraged by Gulnare's success, and thencefor- 
ward he entered more fully into racing engage- 
ments. The Goodwood stable was also reinforced, 
after 1828, by horses belonging to the Earl of 
Stradbroke, the Earl of Uxbridge, Colonel Peel, 
Captain Byng (afterwards Lord Enfield, and finally 
second Earl of Strafford), Sir James Graham, and 
others. Among the new supporters of the stable 
were included Mr Charles GreviUe, Mr Houlds- 



344 THE FIFTH DUKE OF BIGECMOND, SLO. 

worthy and Lord George Bentinck. My &ther 
has often told me that he never knew a lot of 
noblemen and gentlemen, all of them owners of 
horses, who acted together more harmoniouslj 
for a considerable time than the above-named 
group. Their concord and good-fellowship were 
not a little promoted by the delightfiil surround- 
ings which they found at Goodwood. Msny of 
them spent a large portion of their time at Good- 
wood House, and found in his Grace the most 
cordial and hospitable of hosts. After break&st 
the whole party, oft;en accompanied by the ladies, 
came en masse to the stables, round which they 
were escorted by my fisither. His Grace had spent 
a good deal of money in making new paddocks, 
supplied with excellent hovels, and with every- 
thing necessary for a select breeding stud. Among 
the horses inspected was Moses, winner of the 
Derby in 1822, whom the Duke of Richmond pur- 
chased on the dispersal of the Duke of York's stud, 
after the death of his Royal Highness in 1827. In 
the previous year, the Duke of Richmond also piu*- 
chased three very valuable mares from Mr Lambton 
— viz., Leopoldine, Loo, and the Duchess, the latter 
having won the Doncaster St Leger for Sir Belling- 
ham Graham in 1816. 

Upon the return of each successive race meeting 
at Goodwood, the noble owner of that enchanting 
domain greeted the advent of "The Races" with 
the greatest zest and delight. Nothing afforded 



THE GOODWOOD MEETING. 345 

a 

him greater pleasure than to invite the most dis- 
tinguished patrons of the Turf to his beautiful home, 
where they were entertained for many days in 
princely fashion. The carriages pulling up at the 
front door for three or four days previous to the 
races generally numbered forty or more. Many 
had four horses attached to them, and the amount 
of luggage that they carried was simply enormous. 
The landlords of the two great hotels at Godalming 
and Kingston were brothers named Moon. The 
landlord of " The King's Arms," Godalming, who 
was a very keen sportsman, was called " Full 
Moon," to distinguish him from his brother at 
Kingston, who was called " Half Moon." Each 
of these posting-houses habitually kept from ninety 
to one hundred pair of post-horses for the use of 
their customers. Despite the vastness of these 
numbers, the demand for post-horses before the 
Goodwood Meeting often exceeded the supply. 
During the meeting the big stable-yard at Good- 
wood, which was of immense size, was completely 
blocked up with carriages. To every detail con- 
nected with the accommodation of his guests, theii* 
servants, and their carriages, the Duke himself 
paid the minutest attention when the recurrence 
of each meeting drew near. 

In those comparatively primitive times there 
was, in my opinion, much more genuine enjc 
ment of pleasures and amusements than exists 
these more luxurious and civilised days. I f 



346 THE FIFTH DUKE OF RICHMOND, K.G. 

certain that his Grace would not have enjoj 
the Goodwood Meeting of to-day half so much 
he did those which came to pass between 1£ 
and 1860. I have already stated that, throu 
the joint exertions of the Duke of Richmond a 
Lord George Bentinck, Goodwood soon rose to 
the best and most fashionable meeting in i 
world. The training-groimds on which the ra< 
horses of the two noble confederates were p 
pared for their engagements were as perfect 
money and ingenuity could make them. I : 
member the time when Goodwood Park, in frc 
of the house, and in other parts, was studded w: 
innumerable ant-hills, which were pared down a 
burnt, producing many hundreds of cart-loads 
ashes. The Duke soon became so enthusiastica 
attached to the Turf that he determined to | 
hold of a domicile at Newmarket. With this < 
ject in view, he purchased, in 1828, a house a 
stables on " The Terrace " at Newmarket, which h 
been the property of the Hon. Charles Wyndha 
whose death took place in that year. This hoi 
his Grace put under the charge of his old a 
faithful servant, Peter Soar,^ who had been coa< 
man, while his wife had been cook, to the foui 
Duke, who was father to the subject of the pr 
ent memoir. It was the fourth Duke who v 
residing at Brussels when the battle of Water 

^ Peter Soar drove his master, the fourth Duke of Hichmond, ( 
the field of Waterloo the morning after the battle. 






HIS LETTERS. 347 

took place, and his name, together with that of 
his wife, will live for ever in connection with the 
famous ball given by them on the night preced- 
ing the battle of Quatre Bras — an event which 
ajfforded Lord Byron a theme for one of his most 
magnificent passages in verse, and which was also 
selected by Thackeray as a key to his interesting 
novel, ' Vanity Fair.' No one had more anecdotes 
to tell about that "king-making victory" than 
the fourth Duke and his accomplished wife, the 
daughter of Alexander, fourth Duke of Gordon. 
The fourth Duchess of Richmond brought that 
noble Scottish property, Gordon Castle, together 
with the deer-forest of Glenfiddich, and many 
miles of the Spey, a magnificent salmon river, 
into the possession of the Lennox family. Gor- 
don Castle has for many years been the autumn 
retreat of the late and the present Dukes of 
Richmond, who resorted to it every year with 
increasing dehght. It was not until the death 
in 1836 of his maternal uncle, George, fifth Duke 
of Gordon, that the fifth Duke of Richmond as- 
sumed the additional name of Gordon. From the 
same uncle he also succeeded to the hereditary 
constableship of Inverness Castle. 

As a racing man, the Duke of Richmond dif- 
ered in many respects from Lord George Ben- 
tinck. The former was as concise as the latter 
was voluminous in his private letters. His Grace 
regarded five or six lines as a long letter for him 



348 THE FIFTH DUKE OF RICHMOND, K,G. 

to write : I have often received 843 many closely 
written sheets of note-paper from Lord Greorge. 
My father once showed me a letter from the Duke 
containing the single word **Yes." This letter 
became the subject of a bet between my father 
and Mr Rusbridger, the land-agent at Groodwood. 
The latter received a communication from his 
Grace which contained two words. On the strength 
of this he betted my father that he could produce 
the shortest letter in existence from him. His 
chagrin may be imagined when, on investigation, 
he was beaten as it were by a head. 

Although the Duke never possessed a very 
superior animal, — probably Ghillie Galium was his 
best in point of merit, and Red Hart in point of 
success, — yet his Grace won the Oaks twice — viz., 
with Gulnare and Refraction. The One Thousand 
Guineas Stakes at Newmarket he won with Picnic ; 
the Goodwood Cup twice — viz., with Linkboy and 
Miss Craven ; the Goodwood Stakes thrice ; the 
Chester Cup once ; the Ascot Stakes thrice ; and 
some valuable stakes with the following, — viz., 
Red Hart, Officious, Cuckoo, Red Hind, Harbinger, 
Pharos, Homebrewed, Dagobert, and others. Dur- 
ing the time his Grace kept race-horses he won in 
stakes about £112,000. 

It is not generally known that William IV. 
had little taste for the Turf, in connection with 
which his brother, George IV., had sustained 
great pecuniary losses. Such, however, was the 



KING WILLIAM IV. AND THE DUKE. 349 

attachment felt by the " Sailor -King " for the 
fifth Duke of Richmond, that his Majesty was 
induced to bestow his patronage upon horse-rac- 
ing, and to retain the Royal stud at Hampton 
Court, which is now one of the most successful 
and best conducted establishments of its kind in 
the world. King William IV. was often heard 
to declare that his friend, to whose meritorious 
career this chapter is dedicated, was, as a noble- 
man, sails })eur et sans rejyroche; that is to say, 
with no other object in view than the good of his 
country, the maintenance of his own fair fame, 
and the education of his family, so that they 
might grow up good men and good women. It 
was at the instance of the fifth Duke that William 
IV. gave a grand dinner to the Jockey Club on 
May 28, 1833, of which a full account will be found 
in Mr Greville's ' Diaries.' 

Ill a book entitled ' Horse-Racing : its Histoiy ; 
with Early Records of Principal and other Race 
Meetings,' published anonymously by Messrs 
Saunders & Otley, of Brook Street, London, in 
1863, I find the following passage: "There were 
but two noteworthy events connected with the 
Turf in the year 1836. The first was the speech 
of King William IV. at Egham races, to which 
further allusion will presently be made ; the 
second has reference to a dinner given by the 
same monarch to the Jockey Club at St James's 
Palace on June 9. It would appear that at this 



350 THE FIFTH DUKE OF BICHMOND, K.O. 

dinner a good deal of sport was embarked upon in 
connection with the ensuing Ascot Meeting, and 
that in the course of conversation the Marquis of 
Westminster was boasting of his celebrated horse 
Touchstone, and offering to back him for a large 
sum against anything that could be named in the 
Ascot Cup field. The King immediately caught 
at the offer, and exclaimed, 'I accept the chal- 
lenge, and will name one to beat him by a nedc' 
The wager was at once concluded, and his 
Majesty, amidst a roar of laughter, named ' The 
GiraffeM" 

The speech adverted to above, which William 
lY. delivered at Egham races in August 1836, was 
in response to an address of thanks presented to 
him for giving " A Royal Purse of One hundred 
guineas" — or, in other words, a King's Plate — to 
be run there annually in future. His Majesty 
observed in reply, " That he most deeply felt the 
dutiful attention which led to this acknowledg- 
ment of an act, prompted on his part by desire 
to show that he was sensible of the munificence 
of a people which had not only enabled him to 
reside in the ancient and splendid castle at Wind- 
sor, — the pride of Englishmen and the envy of 
foreigners, — but also to follow the dictates of his 
heart in furthering the happiness of every clciss 
of his subjects. He considered horse-racing to be 
a national sport, becoming to a free and noble 
people. It was with no slight pride that he found 



HIS MARRIAGE. 351 

himself in a position to encourage sports and pas- 
times of a nature to suit the habits and feelings 
of a free country/' 

But for the encouragement to patronise horse- 
racing instilled into his Majesty by my honoured 
master, the fifth Duke of Richmond, this very 
seemly speech, which was received with storms 
of applause, would never have been uttered. 

It remains for me to add that, on the signature 
of the general peace which followed Waterloo, 
Lord March contracted a marriage, in April 1816, 
with Lady Caroline Paget, eldest daughter of the 
famous Marquis of Anglesey. The ' Memoir of 
the Fifth Duke of Richmond,' from which I have 
already quoted, comments upon this marriage in 
the following words : "In every respect the 
union was a most fortunate one, for the Countess 
of March possessed every quality that could grace 
the female character, added to a beauty that 
could find no compeer. As a tender and devoted 
mother, as an affectionate wife, and as a kind- 
hearted and generous friend, her Grace ever shone 
forth pre-eminently great. It was said by one 
who enjoyed the privilege of her acquaintance 
after the death of her husband, that ' the vanities 
of woHdly pleasures nestled not in her heart, as 
the remembrance of her departed husband, and 
the care of her home, her children, and her grand- 
children, engrossed her whole attention.' " 

During his father's lifetime. Lord and Lady 



352 THE FIFTH DUKE OF RICHMOND, K.G. 

March occupied Molecomb — a very beautiful 
situated at the head of a delightful vallej, and 
within a few minutes' walk of Goodwood House. 
Backed by the Southdowns, with a gentle acclivity 
sloping down on either side, and the woods above 
it richly clothed with luxuriant evergreens and 
stately oaks, Molecomb and its pretty garden, 
from which a distant view of the glistening sea 
can be obtained, is one of the most attractive 
spots in the beautiful county of Sussex. Their 
Serene Highnesses Prince and Princess Edward of 
Saxe- Weimar, — the latter being well remembered 
by me, and by many others who now offer her 
through me the respectful tribute of their grati- 
tude and love for the countless kindnesses they 
have received at her hands, — ^were the occupants 
of Molecomb for many years. It is now the abode 
of the present Lord March, who is Master of the 
Goodwood Hunt, and also one of the most popular 
and respected members of the Jockey Club. 

I have said that Ghillie Callimi was probably the 
best horse ever owned by the fifth Duke of Rich- 
mond, and he was one of the speediest animals 
that I ever tried. Being, moreover, a son of that 
stout sire. Gladiator, I have no doubt that he 
would greatly have troubled Voltigeiu: — indeed I 
think he would have beaten him — in the Derby of 
1850, if he had come to the post in as good con- 
dition as the winner. What makes me think so 
highly of Ghillie Galium is, that he was of the same 



GHILLIE CALLUM. 353 

age as OflBcious, a flying filly belonging to his 
Grace, who won eight times as a two-year-old 
without sustaining defeat. In more than one trial 
in 1849 Ghillie Galium gave OflBcious 10 lb. and an 
easy beating. He ran twice as a two-year-old, — 
once at Goodwood, and once for the Rutland Stakes 
at Newmarket, — and won each time without being 
extended. Next year, when they were both three- 
year-olds, and when OflBcious had won twice at 
Newmarket, I tried them again, making the horse 
give the mare 12 lb., and again he won in a canter. 
A commission was then given to back him for the 
Derby, but unfortunately his near fore-leg gave 
way about three weeks before the race. I was 
compelled to restrict him to walking and cantering 
exercise. Even in this condition he ran very well 
in the Derby, and the place occupied in that race 
by Mr Gratwicke's Nigger, to whom Ghillie could 
give a lot of weight, makes me think that Voltigeur 
would have had his work cut out for him had he 
met the Duke's horse when at his best. Certainly 
the Nigger got closer to Voltigeur than he ever 
could get to Ghillie Galium when the last two were 
fit. It was a gi'eat disappointment to us all, but 
as usual the Duke bore it with the greatest equan- 
imity, and did his utmost to console those who had 
done their best to bring his representative well to 
the post. In fact, whenever a horse belonging to 
his Grace was expected to win and got beaten, he 
would invariably say — without attempting to make 

z 



354 THE FIFTH DUKE OF BICHMOND, K.O. 

out, as SO many do, that the race had been lost 
by the jockey, or by wrong orders, or because of 
something wrong in the state of the ground — " I 
suppose we met a better horse," 

Bed Hart, who was his Grace's most suocessfxd 
race-horse, was a big overgrown yearling, and 
evidently needed time to develop him, which, by 
turning him out and letting him run about as a 
two-year-old until the month of October, his noble 
owner took care that he should not want. The 
result was that, in 1847, he won eight races as a 
three-year-old, including the Welcome Stakes at 
* Ascot, in which he beat Sir Joseph Hawley's 
Miami, who had won the Oaks; the Gratwic^e 
Stakes at Goodwood; the Grand Duke Michael 
Stakes at Newmarket, in which he beat Sir 
Robert Pigot's Conyngham, who had won the Two 
Thousand ; and the Royal Stakes at Newmarket. 
Altogether Red Hart won £6405 in stakes in 1847. 
The Duke greatly preferred to breed his own race- 
horses, having a great objection to pm^chasing (as 
happened to him more than once) "an orange 
which," as he phrased it, "some one else had 
already squeezed." Among the animals that he 
bred, and took the greatest delight in, were Refrac- 
tion, Picnic, Red Hart, Red Deer, Oflficious, Cuckoo, 
Red Hind, Ghillie Galium, Harbinger, Pharos, and 
Homebrewed. Most of the above-named horses 
won races at Goodwood, which meeting his Grace 
always moved heaven and earth to make more 



HIS HEART IN GOODWOOD. 355 

attractive. From other race-meetings he was often 
absent, and it was never much of a disappointment 
to him if he was prevented from going to Epsom, 
Newmarket, or Ascot. But his whole heart was 
enlisted in the support and enjoyment of Goodwood, 
and I never saw any one more delighted than he 
was when his favourite old horse, Mus, won the 
Orleans Cup at Goodwood in 1841, giving 13 lb. 
and a beating to Mr Licht'wald's Hyllus, 5 years 
old, who on the previous day had run second for 
the Goodwood Cup to Mr A. Johnstone's Charles 
XII. Before the Orleans Cup they laid 3 to 1 on 
Hyllus, and his Grace's exultation (which he was 
too guileless and transparent a character to attempt 
to conceal) was proportionately great. 

When I think on the great and palmy days of 
the Goodwood Cup, and what it was when such 
superb animals as Fleur-de-Lis, Priam, Glencoe, 
Hornsea, Harkaway, Charles XII., Alice Haw- 
thorne, The Hero, Van Tromp, and Canezou car- 
ried it off, I cannot resist the impression that there 
are no such champion thoroughbreds now to be 
found on the British Turf, or conceal my appre- 
liension that the modem system of ceaseless short 
races, most of them for two-year-olds, will inevit- 
ably produce the most pernicious results before 
many years have passed away. When, in 1838, 
Mr Ferguson's magnificent chestnut colt, Hark- 
away, won the Goodwood Cup, there were forty 
subscribers and eight starters for it. Scarcely had 



356 THE FIFTH DUKE OF RICHMOND, K.G. 

that grand representative of Erin's Isle passed 
winning-post before his gallant owner, with 
warmth and generosity of heart for which 
compatriots are x-enowned, approached the I 
of Richmond, and hegged his Grace to permit 
to lay the valuable trophy which Harkaway 
just won as an oblation at the feet of the Duel 
The latter was much gratified at Mr Fergti 
princely offer, but, after consultation with 
Duke, came to the wise conclusion that it behi 
her to decline it, from fear of establishing a 
cedent which might be found productive of in 
venient consequences. 

If, however, the Duke of Richmond was, i 
thousand acts well known to me proved, 
kindliest and most considerate of men, there \ 
occasions when the manliness and independenc 
his character stood out In bold relief. It wil 
remembered by many that for a long time 
Gratwicke — who was a Sussex neighbour of 
Duke's family — had his horses trained by j 
mission in the Goodwood stable. Mr Gratwi 
was rather apt to be suspicious, and too readi 
imagine that his horses were managed in the 
terest of other parties in the stable — than wt 
nothing could be further from the truth. His c< 
plaints, made, not to the Duke of Richmond, 
privately to friends of bis own, reached his Gra 
ears, and drew from him the remark, spoken in 
hearing of many independent listeners, " If 



MR GRATWICKE. 357 

Gratwicke is dissatisfied with the management of 
the Goodwood stable, and thinks his horses can be 
better trained and better managed elsewhere, by 
all means let him make the experiment at once, 
and take them away. We can do very well 
without them." It was once remarked to me by 
a great friend of his Grace, " The Duke of Rich- 
mond is always the Duke and never the Duke." 
The slightest intentional liberty or indignity ofiered 
to him was resented at once ; but, on the other 
hand, it was his natural impulse to wound no one, 
and to abound in considerate and thoughtful kind- 
ness to all, and especially to the hiunblest. 

The result of what I have just stated was that 
Mr Gratwicke soon removed his stud from Good- 
wood to Newmarket, leasing his horses to the 
Duke of Bedford, upon terms suggested by Admu^al 
Rous, who managed the Duke of Bedford's stable, 
and exercised gi-eat influence upon Mr Gratwicke's 
rather weak nature. Next year the Duke of 
Richmond's Pharos and Mr Gratwicke's Sitting- 
bourne met as two-year-olds at Goodwood in the 
Bentinck Memorial Stakes. Admiral Rous backed 
Sittingbourne for £100 — the largest sum that he 
ever staked upon a horse — and to his great amaze- 
ment, and also to that of William Butler the 
trainer, and of his brother Frank Butler, the famous 
jockey. Pharos won very cleverly. A few weeks 
later Sittingbourne won the Convivial Stakes at 
York, beating fourteen others, and wound up at 



I' 



358 THE FIFTH DUKE OF RICHMOND, K.G. 

the end of the year by carrying off the Prenderj 
Stakes at Newmarket. Next year Sittingboi 
ran second in the Two Thousand, and secouc 
the Derby, both to West Australian, and was 
of the best three-year-olds in England. In. fac 
he had not met such a paragon as West Austral 
he would have been inscribed on the roll of f 
as winner of the Two Thousand, Derby, and 
Leger. What happened to him in the latter 
formed the subject of one of the late Mr 
Swindell's most amusing stories ; but I cai 
venture to describe what that famous racon> 
used to unfold, or his admirable mimicry of 
Gratwicke's look, gestures, and ejaculations w 
the race ended without Sittingbourne gettin 
place. It often happens that a couple of t 
year-olds meet on a T.Y.C course, and that 
smaller is the better of the two. Twelve ax 
tional months reverse their relations of form, ; 
the big colt, having had time to grow and furn 
becomes the superior when both are three yt 
old. This was what happened in the case 
Pharos and Sittingbourue. 

I have often made mention in this volume i 
elsewheie of the wisdom, nay the necessity, 
making use of a good horse when he is weU and 
to run. Never was this truth more forcibly ex* 
plified than when Mr Gratwicke had Landgri 
engaged in 1850 in the Four -year-old Triem 
(First October Meeting at Newmarket), the Cesa 



LANDGRAVE. 359 

witch, and Cambridgeshire. This fine horse, a 
gelding got by Sir Hercules out of the Landgravine, 
was handicapped for the Cesarewitch at 6 st. 13 
lb., and was rather freely backed by the stable, in 
whose interest £15,000 to £100 was taken that he 
won the three events — despite the fact that in the 
fii-st he had to meet two good horses. Lord Eglin- 
ton's Elthiron and Sir Joseph Hawley's Vatican. 
When I saddled Landgrave for the Triennial, run 
from the Ditchin, Flatman asked how he should 
ride him. I said, "Take hold of his head, and 
come tiiily through till you reach the Turn of the 
Lands. Then steady him against the hill, and, take 
my word for it, your two opponents will have had 
enough of it before you get to the Duke's stand." 
My words were literally fulfilled, for Landgi-ave's 
tremendous stride (he stood 16 hands 1^ inch 
high) told so effectually that in the end he won 
hands down, and became instantly a great favourite 
for the Cesarewitch, for which Fobert, the trainer 
of Elthiron, asserted that he was as well in as the 
Flying Dutchman would be at 7 st. 7 lb. 

The next difficulty was to find a trustworthy 
jockey able to ride him at 6 st. 13 lb. At last Lord 
Enfield secured old Sam Mann, who, by reducing 
himself to the utmost, promised to get down to the 
weight. Unfortunately in the process he made 
himself so weak that before half the distance was 
run he could hardly keep his seat, and Landgrave, 
who required holding together, was sprawling all 



360 THE FIFTH DUKE OF RICHMOND, K«0. 

over the course. In the end he was beaten half a 
length by Chappie upon Mr Payne's Glauca, a mare 
to whom he could havfe given a stone, and who gave 
him five pounds and a beating. Everybody saw 
that it was Sam Mann, not Landgrave, who lost the 
race, and the latter was installed first favourite for 
the Cambridgeshire at 6 st. 11 lb. Jemmy Chappie 
was engaged to ride him, and was told to come 
through ; but instead of obeying orders he never 
got near the fix)nt until the last few yards, when 
he came and won by a head. My firm conviction 
is that if Flatman had ridden Landgrave in the 
Cesarewitch and Cambridgeshire at 7 st. 8 lb. (his 
lowest weight), he would have won both as easily 
as he did the Four-year-old TrienniaL It was 
perhaps the best thing that, in my long experience, 
I ever sent forth fix)m the Goodwood stables, and 
the result proved how often horse and trainer are 
undeservedly baffled by the weakness or incom- 
petency of a jockey. 

I cannot conclude this brief memoir without 
mentioning that the fifth Duke of Richmond was, 
throughout life, a devoted and enthusiastic patron 
of agriculture, and took the greatest interest in 
his farms, cattle, and sheep. Never within my 
memory has there been a moment at which Good- 
wood Park and Downs were without a superb 
flock of Southdown sheep which called the reign- 
ing Duke their master. No expense or trouble 
have been spared in obtaining the best sheep that 



HIS CHARACTER, 361 

money could buy, and countless were the gold and 
silver medals at the Smithfield Cattle Shows 
gained by Goodwood sheep. In the midst of a 
host of sheep - breeders, including the late Mr 
EUman of Glynde, Mr Grantham, and Mr Jonas 
Webbe, his Grace was always prominent, and his 
flock was in request, not only among English, but 
also among French, Prussian, Austrian, Russian, 
and American connoisseurs. 

With a quotation from the same source which 
has already furnished me with more than one 
passage, I draw near to the close of this humble 
tribute of grateful and respectful duty and affec- 
tion, laid on the tomb of my beloved master : 
** The Duke of Richmond in domestic life realised 
truly the character of a Christian parent. He 
possessed a singleness of purpose which made his 
home the perfection of happiness; his children 
looked upon their father as their most sincere and 
loving friend. Their childish sports were never 
interrupted, and if they paused in their innocent 
games when their father entered the room, it was 
to welcome him with that outpouring of the heart 
which loving children can alone ofier." 

The only additional remark which I have to 
offer is, that his Grace's political career was on 
a par with his social life at Goodwood and at 
Gordon Castle, and with the courage, loyalty, and 
fidelity with which he discharged a soldier's duties 
in the Peninsular war. It is notorious that the 



362 THE FIFTH DUKE OF RICHMOND, K«0. 

great Duke of Wellington entertained the great- 
est objection to military medals and decorations, 
wUoh. in oo-anon withlany other great captain 
of the past, he regarded as likely to induce 
ambitious young ofBcers to indulge in ostentatious 
exhibitions of daring, which were of little or no 
benefit to the cause for which they fought, but, as 
the Iron Duke believed, were often undertaken in 
order to attract special notice to their perpetrators. 
Under these circumstances the medals for the Pen- 
insula and Waterloo were not presented to the 
gallant soldiers who had so richly merited them, 
for more than thirty years after Waterloo was 
fought. At last the Duke of Richmond deter- 
mined to strike in on behalf of those of his 
humble comrades whom in 1847 time had still 
spared. Rising in his place in the House of 
Lords in May 1847, the Duke indignantly re- 
plied to a sneering remark made by the Marquis 
of Londonderry, who deprecated " the prostitu- 
tion of rewards which had recently been squeezed 
out of the Government." Nothing could have 
been more dignified and characteristic than the 
Duke of Richmond's reply. "After the attack," 
he commenced, " which has been made by the 
noble and gallant Marquis, who has the audacity 
to speak of these medals and rewards as being 
prostituted, I claim your Lordships' kind indul- 
gence while I attempt to reply to those insulting 
words. He says that these rewards are prosti- 



THE DUKE AND THE PENINSULAR MEDALS. 363 

• 

tuted when given to soldiers who fought and won 
those numerous battles in the Peninsula which 
are the pride of our country ; the men who took 
part in the forlorn-hopes of Badajoz, Ciudad Rod- 
rigo, and San Sebastian, and who gained for the 
noble Marquis the Peninsula medals with which he 
is now decorated." 

Continuing in the same vein, the noble Duke 
produced such an eflfect upon both Houses of Par- 
liament, and upon the country at large, that the 
tardy act of justice to some of the noblest soldiers 
that ever faced wounds and death with indomitable 
fortitude could no longer be withheld. At last the 
Peninsula warriors were crowned with their well- 
earned laurels, and every soldier in the British 
army knew that but for the Duke of Richmond 
this debt of gratitude would never have been paid. 
The much-coveted trophies were served out to the 
survivors in 1849, and after the Duke's victory 
in the House of Lords came his own well-merited 
reward. It was proposed " that his Grace the 
Duke of Richmond, K.G., be presented with a 
testimonial for his exertions on behalf of the 
Peninsular heroes." A committee was instantly 
formed, w^ith the gallant Lord Saltoun for chair- 
man. It was composed of officers of every grade, 
and in each of the English, Scotch, and Irish 
counties, sub-committees were appointed to carry 
out the desired object. Subscriptions were con- 
fined to those who had received the medals, 



364 THE FIFTH DUKE OF BICBMOSI}^ K.a. 

ranging fix)m 5s. to £1 for officers, while Id. was 
all the privates were called on to pay. The testi- 
monial was presented to the Duke of Kichmond 
at a banquet in Willis's Rooms, with Lord Saltoun 
in the chair. It was of the following description : 
'' On the summit of a quadrangular pedestal stood 
an allegorical group, representing the Duke of 
Bichmond directing the attention of Britannia to 
the merits of her military and naval forces. In 
the centre stands his Grace, robed in the costume 
of a Peer, holding in his left hand a memorial to 
her Majesty, while with his right he points to the 
figures of Mars and Neptune. In the hand of 
Britannia is the war medal she is about to distri- 
bute.'' A panel at the base contained the follow- 
ing inscription : " Presented on the thirty-eighth 
anniversary of the battle of Vittoria, to his Grace 
the Duke of Richmond, K.G., by the recipients 
of the war medal, in grateful remembrance of his 
long and unwearied exertions on their behalf." 

With this crowning and complimentary tribute 
to a gallant and most estimable nobleman, I now 
bring this chapter to a close, briefly adding that, 
for many years before his death, his Grace was 
subject to frequent attacks of gout and other 
maladies, which in time undermined a not very 
robust constitution, somewhat impaired by priva- 
tions and hardships endured in the Peninsula, in 
France, and in Belgium, and most of all by reason 
of the severe wound received at Orthez. At the 



HIS DEATH. 365 

Goodwood Meeting in 1860 he was far from well, 
and unable to attend the races or to welcome his 
numerous guests with his customary hospitality. 
On the afternoon of the Cup day he was wheeled 
in his garden-chair to the lawn in front of the 
conservatory, and received his friends on their 
return from the course. 

From Goodwood he proceeded to Gordon Castle 
by easy stages, where for a short time the High- 
land air produced such a favourable effect upon 
his debilitated frame that the anxiety of his 
devoted wife was greatly diminished. Soon, how- 
ever, a change for the worse ensued, and Sir 
James . Clarke advised an immediate return to 
London. In a state of deplorable weakness his 
Grace, attended by Dr Hair, arrived at his town 
house in Portland Place, where, at a quarter 
before two p.m. on Sunday, 21st October 1860, 
he breathed his last, in his seventieth year. 

" Only the actions of the just 
Smell sweet, and blossom in the dust/' 



366 



CHAPTER XVn. 

RACING OAREEB OF THE LATE RIGHT HON. 
SIR WILLIAM H. GREGORY. 

By the Editor. 

This work was about to assume its final ''form 
and pressure," previous to publication, when the 
death of Sir William H. Gregory, K.C.M.G., on 
Sunday, March 6, 1892, led me to address mjrself 
forthwith to the task — in this instance it is a 
labour of love — of writing down what I know of 
my old friend's racing career. Sir William was 
bom at Coole Park, County Galway, in 1817, 
and in 1839 was present at the Epsom Derby for 
the first time. Although no more than twenty- 
two years old when he saw his first Derby and 
bought his first race-horse, he was at once ad- 
mitted to the best society in the United King- 
dom, and soon became a prominent pillar of the 
EngUsh Turf. From about the year 1840 until 
the autumn of 1846, when Lord George Ben- 
tinck sold the whole of his racing stud to Mr 



SIR W. H. GREGORY. 367 

Mostyn, Sir William Gregory was on the most 
intimate terms of friendship with the noble owner 
of Crucifix, Miss Elis, and Gaper. It seems, there- 
fore, in the highest degree desirable and opportune 
that I should avail myself of the permission which 
on many occasions he accorded to me, authorising 
me, if I outlived him, to make what use I liked 
(when he had passed away) of the numerous letters 
which I had received from him, and of our still 
more numerous conversations on racing and polit- 
ical subjects. Diu'ing his lifetime Sir William 
was averse from printed allusion to the Turf career 
which he had pursued with so much zeal and 
energy in his stirring youth. He had followed 
racing — and to a man who carries it on as he did, 
it seldom fails to become an all-absorbing and 
engi-ossing profession — with more courage than dis- 
cretion. About that time Irish property had begun 
to decline so rapidly in value, that Sir William 
Gregory s Galway estates brought him in next to 
nothing. Nevertheless he remained on the Turf, 
always sticking to the same trainer — William 
Treen of Beckhampton, in Wiltshire — in the hope 
that another Clermont or another Loupgarou 
might arise to retrieve his shattered fortunes. 
It was not destined, however, that such a horse 
should again be vouchsafed to him, and his subse- 
quent career, first as a member of Parliament from 
1857 to 1872, and secondly, as Governor of Ceylon 
from 1872 to 1877, proved beyond all doubt 



368 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. OKBQOBT. 

that when, hi 1855, he broke down financially, 
and quitted the Turf for ever, it was the most 
fortunate circumstance that ever happened to him 
in a long and distinguished life. 

A few words are all that I need devote to Sir 
William's parentage and station in life. Those 
who desire to read his early political experiences, 
as revealed by his own hand, have but to turn to the 
April, 1889, number of ' The Nineteenth Century,' 
where they will find an article fix)m his pen, 
headed, " A Few more Words on Daniel O'ConnelL" 
In the autumn of the previous year there had ap- 
peared a work in two volimies entitled * The Cor- 
respondence of Daniel O'Connell, the Liherator: 
edited, with Notices of his Life and Times, by W. J. 
Fitzpatrick, F.S.A/ There can be little doubt that 
the two volumes in question constitute the most 
remarkable work on Irish politics and history that 
has seen the light since the publication in 1859 of 
' The Correspondence of Charles, First Marquis 
Cornwallis/ edited by Mr Charles Ross. These 
two books seem to have had a greater effect than 
any others upon the sensitive mind of Mr Glad- 
stone, in inducing him to attempt to bestow Home 
Rule upon Ireland. What Mr Gladstone thought 
of 'The Correspondence of Daniel O'Connell * may 
be gathered from his striking article in the January, 
1889, number of 'The Nineteenth Century.' One 
passage from it I will permit myself to quote : 
"There cannot but be many," writes Mr Glad- 



i 



HIS GRANDFATHER. 369 

stone, " in whose eyes O'Connell seems the greatest 
Irishman that ever lived. Neither Swift nor 
Grattan can be placed in the scale against him. 
If there were competition among the dead heroes 
of Irish history, I suppose Burke and the Duke 
of Wellington would be the two most formidable 
competitors. But the great Duke is, in mathemati- 
cal phrase, incommensurable with O'ConneU. There 
are no known terms which will enable us to pit 
the military faculty against the genius of civil 
affairs. If we take that genius alone into view, it 
can hardly be doubted that O'Connell is the greater 
man. With respect to Burke, it seems safe to say 
that, if far greater than O'Connell in the world 
of thought, he was far inferior to him in the world 
of action.'* 

It is time, however, that I should turn to the 
article in the same magazine from Sir WiUiam 
Gregory's pen, which appeared three months later 
than that of Mr Gladstone from which I have just 
quoted. Sir William begins by telling us that he 
was brought up from a child in the society of 
Dublin Castle, in which his grandfather, also 
named Sir William Gregory, was one of the most 
prominent and quite the most durable of officials. 
" He was Under Secretary for Ireland," writes his 
grandson, "from 1813 to 1831, when he retired 
with a pension and with the distinction of Privy 
Councillor." During that long period he enjoyed 
the confidence of all the Chief Secretaries and Lord 

2 a 



370 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. OREGOBT. 

lieutenants who ruled Ireland in suooession ; and 
his great experience of the country gave him 
unusual influence. " It was said of him, and with 
truth, that * Gregory was the dry-nurse of young 
English statesmen.' Although I was but a small 
boy at the time to which I now refer, I well re- 
member many of the guests who frequented my 
grandfather's dinner - table, for his house was 
hospitable and his Sneyd's claret of the best. I 
have the liveliest recollection of the style of con- 
versation, of the profound distrust and hatred of 
the Roman Catholic religion, and of the chorus of 
invective against O'Connell, whom I wbb taught 
to regard as an incarnation of the principle of 
evil." 

In 1842 Mr West, the Conservative member for 
Dublin, died suddenly, and young Mr William 
Gregory, whose father, Mr Robert Gregory, was 
then dead, was invited to stand in opposition to 
Lord Morpeth, who was vigorously supported by 
O'Connell. It would have been diflScult for a 
young man not yet twenty-five to encounter a 
more formidable opponent. Lord Morpeth had 
recently been Chief Secretary for Ireland, and a 
more amiable, blameless, and respected statesman 
it would have been impossible to name. He was 
travelling in America when Mr West died, and 
had lost his seat for the West Hiding not long 
before. His absence from the House of Conunons 
was universally regarded as a national loss. More- 



HIS CONTEST FOR DUBLIN. 371 

over, the seat for Dublin was of no slight im- 
portance, and the Whigs were extremely eager to 
wrest it from the Tories. 

The description of the contest is given in Sir 
William Gregory's best manner. "At last," he 
writes, " came the nomination day — one of deep ap- 
prehension to me ; for I had to meet the greatest 
orator of his time. O'Connell was then Lord 
Mayor of Dublin, and by him Lord Morpeth was 
seconded. The Liberator's speech, though severe 
on me as a Protestant, was by no means abusive." 
Sir William replied in what he calls "the best 
speech of his life." He indignantly denied that 
his voice had ever mingled in the cry, "To hell 
with the Pope ! " or that he had any sympathy 
with that sentiment. When he sat down, O'Con- 
nell was so pleased with the plucky way in which 
his youthful antagonist had stood up to him that 
he exclaimed, " Young man, may I shake you by 
the hand ? Your speech has so gratified me that 
if you will but whisper ' Repeal ' — only whisper it, 
mind you — Daniel O'Connell will be the first man 
at the polling booth to vote for you to-morrow." 
The mystic word was not whispered or uttered, but 
from that time forward O'Connell and Sir William 
were always the best of friends, though divided in 
age by forty-two years, as O'Comiell was bom in 
1775 and Sir William in 1817. Sir William was 
returned by a triumphant majority, and after the 
close of the first day's poll he received the follow- 



372 BAdNG CAREER OF SIR W. H. OBBGOBT. 

ing letter, addressed to him at Dublin, from Lord 
George Bentinck, who, even at that c^arly stage, 
did not hesitate to add ^^M.P/' to his friend's 
name : — 

^To W. H. Grboobt, Esq., M.P. 

'* WxLBscK, nr* Worksop, Nom^ 
Jan. 29, 1842. 

" My bear Sir, — ^The news of your majority on 
the first day's poll gave every English Conserva- 
tive, and me especially, the greatest pleasure. I 
sincerely congratulate you upon it, but still more 
upon the distinguished fight you made upon the 
hustings against the great O'ConnelL !Even the 
Whigs here have had to acknowledge their ad- 
miration of your speech. 

'' I need not say that I anticipate no reverse on 
the poll. I doubt not that you will maintain, 
and even improve, the strong lead you have taken ; 
but should it be otherwise, I cannot but con- 
gratulate you on the compleat [sic] triumph of 
tallents [sic] evinced in your first day's battle on 
the hustings. Verily if the horse Auckland can 
do as much with the old ones in private as *the 
tipsy boy from the Curragh' has done with the 
great Agitator in publick, he will win the Derby 
in a canter. 

" With sincerest wishes for your continued suc- 
cess, believe me, always yours very truly, 

" G. Bentinck:." 



FRIENDSHIP WITH LORD GEORGE BENTINCK. 373 

Commenting upon this letter, which Sir Wil- 
liam sent to me on January 12, 1892, he writes 
thus : — 

"3 St George's Place, 

Htde Park Corner, S.W. 

" I was looking over some stray papers here 
lately, and found the enclosed from Lord George 
Bentinck. It is one of the earliest of his letters 
to me, and refers to the Dublin election of 1842. 
Before long we became intimate and attached 
friends. In those days I was constantly at Har- 
court House, and, I may say, enjoyed Lord 
George's entire confidence, which was of course 
broken up by the repeal of the Corn Laws, when 
I followed Sir Robert Peel. Mark the old-fash- 
ioned spelling of Lord George's letter — just like 
that of Dr Johnson and Mr Pitt — e,g., *publick,' 
' compleat,' ' tallents,' &c. He used always to 
speak of 'a dish of tea,' and pronounced Rome 
* Room,' wonder ' woonder,' and golden *goulden.' 

"The allusion to 'the tipsy boy from the 
Curragh' was quoted from a Dublin paper, and 
referred to a great dinner at which I and my 
supporters had as much on board as we could 
carry, but did nothing untoward. At that time 
I had never seen the Ciuragh in my life." 

It will readily be understood that the political 
harmony between Lord George and Sir William 
Gregory was cemented and intensified by their 



374 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. GBEOORY. 

common passion for the Turf. Lord Greorge was 
fifteen years older than his Irish finend, and both 
had commenced then' racing careers at the earliest 
possible moment. Sir William was not yet twenty- 
two, as I have already said, when, accompanied 
by the late Earl of Winchilsea and other under- 
graduates, he rode, in 1839, on a series of hacks, 
strewn along the road, from Christ Chiirch to 
Epsom and back, to see the Derby won by Mr 
William Ridsdale's Bloomsbury, an outsider who 
started at 30 to I. Sir William's own fancy for 
the race was in favour of Mr Fidwer Craven's 
Deception, by Defence — a beautiful mare, who 
started at 12 to I, and was brought to the post 
in first-rate condition by William Treen, vrho rode 
and trained her. The '^ tip " to back Deception 
was given to Sir William by his old friend, the 
late Mr Jeremiah Robert Ives, whom all who 
were well acquainted with him agreed in regarding 
as the cleverest judge of racing and of its human 
supporters that they had known in their time. 
For many years Mr Ives wrote the sporting letters 
which appeared above the name of " Judex " in 
' The Morning Post ' ; and the late Earl of Straf- 
ford, who knew him intimately, used to aver that, 
had Mr Ives entered Parliament as a young man, 
he would inevitably have been selected to fill the 
post of Chancellor of the Exchequer before he was 
fifty years old. 

The result of Sir William's hurried visit to 



HIS FIRST PURCHASES. 375 

Epsom in 1839 was that he forthwith gave in- 
structions to Treen to purchase for him some 
yearlings, one of which — Barricade, by Defence — 
started a good favourite for the Oaks, and ran 
third. It may not be an inappropriate moment 
to quote the following letter, which I received 
from Sir William on the death of his old trainer, 
WiUiam Treen, which took place in January 
1879 :— 

" CooLE Park, Gort, 
Co. Galway, Jan, 13, 1879. 

*' I shall be in London on Thursday next, and 
will then tell you more about old Treen. He 
hailed from Devonshire, and was brought up at 
Danebury. At first he trained a few horses for 
local races in Devonshire, and then took the Beck- 
hampton Inn on the road between Marlborough 
and Devizes, where he trained Fulwer Craven's 
celebrated mare Deception, who soon brought him 
into notice. Lord George Bentinck thought that 
Treen's bad riding on Deception lost her the Derby ; 
but good as she was, public opinion at the time 
favoured the belief that Bloomsbury had a year 
in hand. 

" This was the first race I ever saw, having 
ridden from Oxford by relays of hacks to see it, 
and I was back long before the closing of * Tom 
Gate ' at Christ Church. So pleased was I with 
Treen that I bought the following horses and sent 
them to him to train — viz., FitzRoy and Fitz- 



376 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. OREGORY. 

ambo ; Barricade, the best two - year - old that I 
ever saw tried, and about the worst three-year- 
old ; Vitellius, a first - class horse, w^ho -won the 
Northamptonshire Stakes in a canter, and beat 
St Lawrence next day for the Queen's Plate with 
equal ease. Soon after came Rhesus, a most un- 
fortunate horse, who resembled General Chass^, 
seeing that neither of them could be ridden or 
done justice to by a boy. Rhesus, however, was 
the best three-year-old ever trained by Treen, and 
twelve pounds better than Loupgarou. Clermont 
was pretty good, and, as you know, a lucky horse 
to me. In 1855 I sold all my horses, and Treen's 
luck left him. At a later date he won the Cesare- 
witch with Hartington, and, I think, the Chester 
Cup for Fred Swindell with that very good horse 
Leamington, who has done so much good to the 
American Turf. Being owed a great deal of money 
by some of his recent masters, poor Treen was 
ruined, and went out to Bangalore on my recom- 
mendation to take charge of the stud of thorough- 
breds belonging to Mr Downall, a Devonshire 
gentleman, who had made a large fortune as a 
coffee-planter in Ceylon. 

** It was a fortunate connection for Treen, al- 
though his health suffered not a little from the 
climate of India, whence he returned to England 
before his new master, who, however, did not 
forget him. Upon arriving in England, Ti'een 
again took to training, but accomplished nothing 



TREEN THE TRAINER, 377 

worthy of special notice. When Mr Downall 
came back from Ceylon, and made his home per- 
manently in England, he kindly provided a 
harbour of refiige for Treen, where the old man, 
whose experience had been longer and more 
diversified than that of most of his training 
brethren, settled down quietly with sufficient 
employment to amuse him in looking after Mr 
DownalFs hunting stud. To the last, not un- 
mindful of Vitellius, Clermont, Loupgarou, and 
Windischgratz, he did not despair of bringing off 
another coup. Fate, however, decreed otherwise, 
as he died last week after a few hours' illness. 
He was a remarkably well - conducted and civil 
man, who never got drunk, never swore, and 
never took liberties with his employers. Few of 
his craft have gone before him to the silent land 
with a more satisfactory record." 

I have often regretted that Sir William Gregory, 
who knew the Turf and all its intricacies as well 
as Sir Walter Scott's "William of Deloraine" 
knew the passes and fords of the Scottish Border, 
could never be prevailed upon to write a history 
of the " Sport of Kings," to which he was as 
attached in theory during his declining years as 
he had been in practice during his vigorous youth. 
He was the only man of my acquaintance possessed 
of the literary ability, and also of the keen insight 
into character, requisite to enable him to draw cor- 



378 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. GREGORY. 

rect pen-portraits of heroes of the Turf who to the 
present generation are mere nominis umhrcB. Such 
patrons of horse-racing as Lord Greorge Bentinck, 
John Bowes, Fulwer Craven, Squire Osbaldeston, 
Sir William Massey-Stanley, the fourth Duke of 
Grafton, the old Duke of Rutland, Mr Sloane 
Stanley, and others, who were prominent at New- 
market shortly after her Majesty's accession to the 
throne, would now be alive and " palpitating with 
actuality " if Sir William Gregory could have been 
induced to trace their histories. During the last 
thirty years of his life, however, politics, literature, 
and art, engaged his attention to such a degree 
that, beyond writing a private autobiography for 
the amusement and instruction of his own family, 
he had no time or inclination for composing a work 
de longue haleine on the pursuits of his youth. 
Sir William had also remarked that wTiters who 
undertake to recall the past are often accused, 
and nearly always falsely, of a secret desire to 
blacken contemporaries and friends who have 
passed away. Be this, however, as it may, he 
died and left no sign. All that remains, there- 
fore, is to *' put together a thing of shreds and 
patches " from the letters which he has left behind, 
and from memories of conversations to which he 
contributed the larofer share. Few men ever lived 
whose experience was more diversified. Like 
his Irish compatriots, he was a man of quick 
and ready sympathies, to whom qidcqidd agxint 



HIS REMINISCENCES. 379 

homilies was full of interest. He had known 
everybody, both male and female, who was any- 
body for the last fifty -five or sixty years ; for even 
as a Harrow boy he was intimate with illustrious 
Harrovians like Sir Robert Peel, Lord Palmerston, 
Lord Aberdeen, and Sir James Graham. In the 
belief that a few extracts from his letters, and 
from notes of his conversations made at the time 
of their occurrence, will place him before his 
contemporaries in a truer position than, from his 
tendency to shrink modestly into private life, he 
now occupies, I am tempted, with Sir William's 
own concurrence, to add these two chapters to a 
work of which Lord George Bentinck is the hero 
— a work of which Sir William was cognisant, 
and upon which, so far as he was acquainted 
with it, he was so good as to bestow his approval. 
Let me begin by quoting the following descrip- 
tion from his pen of the universally popular Earl 
of Eglinton (the owner of Van Tromp and the 
Flying Dutchman), whom Sir William and his 
still living friend and contemporary, Chief-Justice 
Morris, regarded as the best Irish Viceroy that 
they had ever known. 



THE THIRTEENTH EARL OF EGLINTON. 

** When first I visited Eglinton Castle, not long 
after the celebrated tournament, which was com- 
pletely marred by incessant torrents of rain, the 



380 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. GREGORY. 

parties assembled there were more renowned for 
freedom of manners than for feast of reason and 
flow of soul. Lord Eglinton never drank any wine 
except champagne, which he consumed in abund- 
ance ab ovo usque ad mala — that is to say, from 
the beginning of the first coiu^e at dinner until 
the end of dessert. I remember to have been 
present at dinner one evening at the Jockey Club 
Booms at Newmarket, and to have heard Lord 
Eglinton declare that he could drink more cham- 
pagne without inconvenience than any other man 
in the United Kingdom. Greneral Peel, always 
full of fun and ready for every kind of frolic, 
avowed that he knew a novice whom he would 
produce next day at dinner, and would back for a 
pony to drink more champagne than the Scotch 
Earl, if the latter would accept the challenge. 
Nothing loath, Lord Eglinton took up the glove, 
and next day at 7.30 p.m. in walked General Peel, 
accompanied by a tall, thin, wiry, long-legged 
customer, who looked for all the world like a 
pair of elongated tongs. ' Let me introduce you 
to my brother-in-law, Sir David Baird,' exclaimed 
the General. Most of the guests, who were about 
to dine, did not know Sir David by sight ; others 
had heard of his feats across country, and some 
two or three were aware of his prowess at the 
dinner-table. Few, however, anticipated that the 
owner of the invincible Dutchman would have to 
lower his colours that night to his brother Scot. 



BOTTLE FOR BOTTLE. 381 

The match was to be bottle against bottle — that 
is to say, when one man's bottle was empty, the 
other was required to finish his, and then each 
had to begin a new one. Lord Eglinton took the 
lead at a tremendous pace, hoping to choke his 
antagonist before the first three bottles were con- 
sumed. Simultaneously he kept on chatting mer- 
rily, and laughing, as was his wont, while the 
novice held his peace, but stuck steadfastly to his 
task. Soon the ominous silence preserved by the 
latter, and the perfect ease with which he held his 
own, ' without turning a hair,' began to tell upon 
his more loquacious antagonist, who was evidently 
going in diflSculty. 

" At last Lord Eglinton turned as pale as death, 
and rose slowly from his chair, exclaiming, * I can 
do no more.' The struggle was at an end, and the 
defeated champion retired to bed, while the novice 
played billiards with Osbaldeston, winning two 
games out of three against that accomplished 
player. Next morning I had occasion to be out 
early on horseback in order to see one of my two- 
year-olds gallop. The first sight that met my 
eyes on the Heath was Sir David Baird, with a 
short black pipe full of cavendish between his 
lips, cantering about the course on a hard-pull- 
ing hack, with his face as stolid as usual, and 
with obviously unclouded brow. Meantime, the 
unhappy Eglinton was walking about in fix)nt 
of The Rooms without his hat, which he con- 



382 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. GREGORY. 

fessed was too heavy for his poor head. JLet 
no one suppose, however, that Lord Eglinton 
was merely a guzzler of champagne, and an idle 
man of pleasure. In general, he was a man 
who gave way to no excesses. Not endowed 
with brilliant talents, he was gifted with strong 
natural good sense and good-humour, and was a 
first-rate man of business ; as true as steel to his 
friends and dependants, and of unimpeachable 
honour. When he became Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland, endless were the sneers of his political 
opponents that the business of the Emerald Isle 
would be conducted mainly on the Curragh of 
Kildare, and that his privy councillors would be 
horse-trainers. Never was there a greater mistake. 
Lord Eglinton came to Ireland with heavy odds 
against him. To begin with, he was a Scotsman ; 
secondly, he was a Tory, and supposed to entertain 
the most hostile and uncongenial views about the 
Roman Catholic religion. In an incredibly short 
time these erroneous impressions were dispelled. 
Turning his eyes away from abstract politics, he 
devoted his attention earnestly to the material 
improvement of Ireland. Moreover, it soon became 
known that he was animated by the most generous 
and kindly feelings towards the distressful country 
which he had been sent to govern, and towards 
its warm-hearted inhabitants ; and that he would 
never rest until he could make his views prevail 
with the masters of the English Treasury. He 



RECOLLECTIONS OF NEWMARKET. 383 

took up the postal contract between Galway and 
America, and used all his influence to make that 
ill-omened undertaking a success. Unfortunately, 
it never had a chance, having always been under 
the control of needy adventurers. Still, Lord 
Eglinton's action in this and in other matters was 
never forgotten in Ireland, and he undoubtedly 
left that country the most popular Lord Lieu- 
tenant that any Irishman could remember, while 
in Galway he was simply worshipped. Had he 
lived, he would, in my opinion, have risen to no 
ordinary eminence in the Conservative party." 

My next extract is from a letter dated " Athe- 
naeum Club, Pall Mall," bearing the date June 7th 
1885. I had asked Sir William for some details 
of Newmarket in his early days, and he replied in 
the following terms : — 

** If ever you have occasion to deal with Nat, 
or Captain Tommy Gardnor, pray remember that 
they, General Peel, and I formed a band of devoted 
rat-hunters, who betook themselves, after the races, 
to their favourite pastime on a fine evening during 
the July or First October meetings. Our champ 
de hataille was generally some oat-stacks scattered 
here and there just outside the little town, on the 
Cheveley estate, which belonged to the Duke of 
Rutland. As evening began to fall, Nat, the 
famous jockey, would ride up to Peel, and touch- 



384 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. OREQORV. 

ing his cap, would remark, ' We shall have a e 
find to-night, Colonel, if convenient to you 
come.' Not much diflficulty was generally ex 
rienced about getting ' the Colonel ' and all of 
to acquiesce. Accompanied by a professional i 
catcher, plentifully supplied with ferrets, and w 
several terriers at his heels, Nat led the w 
Scarcely were the ferrets turned into the ri 
before the rats came tumbling out, and men i 
dogs were soon engaged in hot pursuit. C 
afternoon Tommy Gardnor was standing und 
neath the rick with his mouth wide open, wl 
a huge rat jumped down, and fell upon the gap: 
orifice. ' Bless my soul, Captain,' exclaimed N 
' I thought it was old Squire Thomhill jumpi 
down your throat ! ' After dinner we used 
recount our exploits to the old Duke of Rutlai 
whom Colonel Peel treated with a mock grav: 
which it was impossible to witness without 
painful effort to repress one's own laughter. I 
Grace took much interest in our sport, exclaimii 
' I am deeply indebted to you, gentlemen, and 
Flatman, your fugleman, for extirpating the ra 
which were destroying my ricks.' He would U' 
pi'obably, have been so grateful had he been aws 
that one day I asked Nat how he found out t 
stacks which were most infested with verm 
' Between you and me, sir,' he replied, ' there 
not much difficulty about it. After the Seco: 
Spring Meeting I 'turn down a few rats to sto 



LORD HOWTH's horses. 385 

a rick with, and by the First October, if not by 
the July Meeting, they are quite ready to be 
drawn.' " 

When Sir WiUiam Gregory was in his prime, 
one of the most successful racing men of the day, 
and certainly one of the finest judges of the noble 
animal, was his compatriot the late Earl of Howth. 
The latter trained with the Days at Danebury, 
and was always on the look-out for Irish horses, 
which he bought for, or shared with, his trusted 
advisers in racing matters, Messrs Gully and 
Harry Hill. In this way Danebury became pos- 
sessed of St Lawrence, Peep -o'- Day Boy, and 
Mincepie, who won the Oaks. Speaking of Lord 
Howth's race-horses. Sir William remarks : — 

" I cannot remember anything of much import- 
ance except the stupor and surprise of Danebury 
when my horse, Vitellius bought by me as a three- 
year-old for £250, ran away as a four-year-old from 
St Lawrence, then one of the best horses in Eng- 
land, for the Queen's Plate at Northampton. The 
betting opened at 4 to 1 on St Lawrence, and 
ended by my taking 2 to I to all the money that I 
could get on. This was the great performance of 
' Treen's ugly customer/ as Vitellius was called, 
because of his fiddle-head, lop ears, and ewe-neck. 
Well do I remember the caricature of old Drinkald 
riding St Lawrence for the CBester Cup against 

2 B 



386 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. GREGORY. 

Gully on the back of Mendicant. The latter ex- 
claims, with his arms and legs hard at work — * It's 
all over, mend I can't!' As he speaks, Drinky's 
horse forges ahead, and keeps sturdily in front. 
In connection with Howth, and his beautiful home, 
Howth Castle, I shall never forget the delightfiil 
dinners there, at which I met the pleasantest men 
in Ireland : Sir Philip Crampton, Chief-Justice 
Doherty, Corry ConneUan, Lord Clanricarde, and 
his son. Lord Dunkellin. The dining-room was 
quite unique, and I do not hesitate to say, the most 
charming in the world. It was lined with polished 
oak, quite black with age, while the vast fireplace 
yawned like VirgQ's gateway of Erebus ; and the 
brazen dogs, across which logs of Irish bog-wood 
were stretched, would have wrung tears of joy 
from Sir Walter Scott. The claret, for which, ever 
since the days of Mary Queen of Scots, Ireland and 
her sister realm of Scotland have been famous, was 
unparalleled in smoothness and flavour. You have 
doubtless heard the legend which connects the 
celebrated Grana Uile, or Grannwail, better knoAvn 
as 'Grace O'Malley,' with Howth Castle. This 
Irish queen lived at a castle near Renvyle, in 
Co. Gal way, the ruins of which are still tolerably 
well preserved. She invited her sister queen, 
Elizabeth of England, to pay her a visit at 
her Irish home. The proud daughter of Henry 
VIII. and Anne Boleyn was, however, an ex- 
tremely bad sailor, and had the greatest dread 



TURF ROBBERIES. 387 

of physical pain. She declined to cross the ocean, 
and Grana Uile was constrained to visit England, 
and repair to Windsor. On her return to Ireland, 
she landed at the base of Howth Castle, and pro- 
ceeded to the gates thereof, which she found closed, 
as was the family custom at dinner-time. In- 
dignant at the want of hospitality, she seized the 
young heir of the St Lawrence family, who was 
j)laying outside the castle gates, and embarking on 
board her ship, carried him prisoner to her castle 
in Galway. He was not released until after long 
negotiation, and only on condition that, for all 
future time, the castle gates at Howth should 
be kept open when the family went to dinner, and 
that a cover should be laid for any stranger who 
might chance to arrive. The custom was still 
observed when I was last at Howth." 

Sir William Gregory's early recollections of the 
Turf ran back to the days when most of the heavy 
betting races were settled beforehand, as it was 
called, ** by arrangement." Never, except per- 
haps in the case of General Peel, was there an 
o\Mier of horses who could recount more stories 
of Turf robberies, by some of which he had him- 
self suffered, than Sir William Gregory. One of 
the most famous he had received from Mr George 
Payne. It is well known that, at the instance of 
Mr John Gully, Mr Payne laid heavily against 
Mr Gascoigne's Jerry, who won the Doncaster St 



388 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. GREGORY. 

Leger in 1824. The horse was trained at Middle- 
ham by Croft, the most famous trainer of that 
day, from whom John and BiU Scott learnt the 
rudiments of what they knew (and no men knew 
more) about the management of thoroughbreds. 
Jerry had been tried so highly that Croft thought 
it impossible for him to be defeated for the St 
Leger. Nevertheless, the market showed clearly 
that there was a screw loose somewhere. Despite 
the thousands upon thousands of pounds for which 
he was backed, he kept continually receding in 
the betting. In those days the St Leger fa- 
vourites arrived at Doncaster three or four weeks 
before the greatest of Yorkshire races came off; 
and Croft was distracted with anxiety to account 
for the hostility to his horse which prevailed 
universally. As the race drew near his anxiety 
increased, and one night he found himself unable 
to sleep, and walked out shortly before midnight 
along the Great North Road in the direction of 
York. As he approached the turnpike-gate which 
lies a short distance to the north of Doncaster, a 
post-chaise drawn by four horses drew near from 
the other side. Ensconcing himself within the 
shadow of a stable doorway. Croft awaited the 
chaise, taking stock eagerly of its occupants. Two 
men were seated inside, the first being Bob Rids- 
dale, then the confederate of John Gully, and 
the second Harry Edwards, the jockey who was 
engaged to ride Jerry. **I have it now," ejacu- 



jerry's ST LEGER, 389 

lated Croft with intense satisfection, as he re- 
turned home, and slept the sleep of the just. In 
the morning he communicated his discovery to Mr 
Gascoigne, bidding him keep the secret to himself. 
The result is well known. At the last moment a 
fresh jockey, Ben Smith, was substituted for Harry 
Edwards, and in his new pilot's hands Jerry won 
in a canter. 

The second heat of the above story must now be 
told in Sir William Gregory's own words : — 

" After Jerry had won the St Leger, Gully took 
George Payne behind the stand next day, and 
said, *I am very sorry, Mr Payne, for what has 
occurred ; but we were entirely deceived. I heard 
from what I thought the best authority that Jerry 
was infirm, and doing no work whatever.' * But,' 
rejoined Mr Payne, * Jerry's owner, and his owner's 
friends, never ceased backing him, and his trainer 
gave them the most encouraging reports.' *That 
is true,' replied Gully; *but I had the ftillest 
reason to believe that Croft was having a race 
for himself. It was a trap laid for me, into which 
I fell, and unfortunately led you to follow me. 
But now mark my words ; if you will be guided by 
my advice, you will get all your money back this 
time next year. You saw Mr Watt's Menmon win 
The Champagne the day before yesterday. He is 
quite certain to win the next St Leger, if well 
on the day.' 'That was nice consolation,' added 



390 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. GREGORY. 

Payne, * for a young fellow who had to pay ^24,000 
next day ; but I took his advice all the same, and 
got back £12,000 when Memnon won the St Leger 
in 1825/ * But how did you get the money for the 
settling day after Jerry's easy victory ? ' * Oh ! 
that was all right,' he exclaimed. * In those days 
I always posted down to Doncaster with a money- 
lending fellow of the name of Hitchcock. Until 
the St Leger was over nothing was good enough 
for him. * Hitchcock, let me give you some more 
venison - fat ; ' * Waiter, bring a bottle of that 
champagne which Mr Hitchcock liked last year ; ' 
* Hitchcock, I have kept a fine fat partridge 
specially for you ; let me give you the breast ! ' 
It was lovely to watch him writing cheques, like 
a lamb, when things went wrong. But if the 
St Leger came off all right, and no money was 
wanted, the devil a bit of venison-fat did he get, 
or anything else, except the partridge drum- 
sticks.' 

*' I could tell you dozens of stories of which 
Payne was the hero. Nothing was more droll 
than his management of Charles Greville, his 
life -long confederate. Do you remember our 
old friend Di*umlanrig executing a heavy com- 
mission for Greville on Adine for the Goodwood 
Stakes, which she won very easily? Next day 
Greville had a gi-eat pot, in Muscovite, for the 
Goodwood Cup, and thought, after Adine's victory 
on Wednesday, that Muscovite could not be beaten 



LORD DRUMLANRIG AND CHARLES GREVILLE. 391 

on Thursday. The Muscovite commission, how- 
ever, he kept secret from Drumlanrig, denying to 
him, when questioned, that he himself was backing 
that horse. Upon discovering the truth, Drum- 
lanrig went up to Greville in great dudgeon, and 
told him his mind. He ended by throwing down 
the list of bets which he had taken for Greville 
about Adine, and told him to collect them for 
himself. Greville was in great perturbation about 
the affair, partly from consciousness that he had 
acted shabbily, and partly because he knew Drum- 
lanrig to be one of the most courageous and im- 
petuous of men. Several messengers were sent by 
Greville to Dinimlanrig, but nothing would soften 
him ; and so Payne took him in hand.^ Approach- 
ing him with a bonhomie peculiarly his own, he 
said, * Well, Drum, I hear that old Charles Greville 
has been doing by you what he sometimes does 
even by me, who am his confederate. At times I 
feel inclined to kick him round the course ; espe- 
cially so at this moment, when I have a bone to 
pick with him about a matter with which I need 
not trouble you.' Having thus spoken, away he 
went, and returned to the charge after a couple 

^ Sir W. Gregory was not aware that Lord Drumlanrig's resolve 
to horsewhip Mr Greville was abandoned, not in consequence of 
anything done or said by Mr George Payne, but at the earnest 
entreaty of two of Lord Drumlanrig's younger friends, who repre- 
sented to him that it would be regarded as a cowardly act on his 
part were he, an accomplished "bruiser,*' to strike a man of Mr 
Greville*s age, crippled by gout, and not of a very masculine type. 



392 RACmO CAREER OF SIR W. H. GREGORY. 

of races had been run, exclaiming, * Well, after all, 
Greville is very contrite for his misconduct to us 
both, and I have consented to forgive him. It all 
comes of illness : he has a terrible fit of gout 
coming on, which makes him miserable. Indeed 
I think it is through grizzling about you that the 
gout is sent to punish him. There he stands, dying 
to speak to you, but afraid to do so, knowing what 
kind of man you are. After all, there is not a 
warmer-hearted fellow in existence, but when his 
gout is coming on, he is not accountable for what 
he does.' At this explanation Drumlanrig was 
mollified; and Greville, having been beckoned to 
by Payne, hobbled up, shook hands, and was duly 
forgiven. How it would have ended had Mus- 
covite won the Cup, instead of being almost last 
for it, I will not undertake to say." 

The letter upon which my eye happens next to 
fall bears the date of "Milan, October 15, 1885," 
and has reference to one of the most successful 
and least generally known patrons of the Turf that 
has existed in my time. I allude to Mr John 
Bowes, of Streatlam Castle, near Barnard Castle, 
in Durham, who won the Derby four times, and 
owned, in West Australian — the last of his four 
Derby winners — perhaps the best three-year-old 
ever known upon the English Turf. Such, at 
least, was the opinion of John Scott who trained, 
and of Frank Butler who rode, that wonderful son 



JOHN BOWES. 393 

of Melbourne and Mowerina, who was herself the 
daughter of Emma, the dam of Cotherstone. Sir 
William's letter was couched in the following 
terms : — 

" I have just seen in the English and French 
papers an account of the death of my old friend 
John Bowes, with whom I was very intimate forty 
years ago. He was tall, slight, dark-haired, very 
refined, but very, shy and very reserved. Most of 
his life was spent in Paris, where he devoted him- 
self to a second-rate actress whom he married, 
and for whom he hired the Vari^t^s Theatre, 
whereby he lost a lot of money. When Mundig 
won the Derby in 1835, Bowes, who won nearly 
£20,000 on the race, returned from Epsom quite 
unmoved. A friend of mine, long ago dead, 
happened to dine that same evening at Crock- 
ford's, and asked the waiter who that dark 
pale young man might be who was dining very 
quietly by himself in a corner of Crockford's su- 
perb salle'drmanger. * Oh, sir,' replied the waiter, 
' that is Mr Bowes who won the Derby this 
afternoon.' The same imperturbability was dis- 
played by him at Doncaster, where, from the top 
of the Jockey Club Stand, he saw his fine colt, 
Epirus, driven on to the top of the bank on the 
other side of the course, where he fell, extinguish- 
ing his chance of winning a race which, with 
his fine speed and in very moderate company. 



394 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. GBEOOBT. 

it would have been impossible for him to lose. 
Bowes had a long telescope through which he 
watched the race, and was surrounded by people 
eager to know all that was going on. When the 
catastrophe occurred he shut up his telescope, 
merely remarking, ' My horse has fallen, and I 
think Bill Scott is killed.' As matters fell out, the 
famous Whitewall jockey got off with a broken 
collar-bone. I well remember Bowes calling* to ask 
me to do a big commission for him about Cother- 
stone, another of his Derby winners. One morning, 
when I was still in my bedroom, my servant came 
in, announcing that Mr Bowes was below, and 
wanted to see me. The occurrence was so unusual 
that I made all haste to join him. As I entered 
the room, he apologised for troubling me at that 
unreasonably early hour, adding that he had come 
upon business, and that his colt, Cotherstone, had 
been highly tried, and would win the Derby, for 
which he was then at long odds — to wit, 40 to 1. 
He asked me to back the horse for £1000, and to 
put on something for myself. I made one stipula- 
tion — that there should be no other commission 
in the market — to which he promised faithfully to 
adhere. I returned him next day the odds of 
£23,000 to £1000. Some of the money was shaky 
in consequence of the liberties taken with the 
horse by a gang of nobblers, who thought they 
had the means of making him safe. When they 
failed in their nefarious efforts, through the pre- 



cotherstone's derby. 395 

cautions taken by John and Bill Scott under 
Colonel Anson's advice, there was a rush to hedge, 
and I obtained permission from Bowes to lay them 
back liberal odds ; and, by taking good money in- 
stead at a lower price, I was enabled to hand 
Bowes £21,600 on the evening of the day of 
settlement. I shall not readily forget the tremen- 
dous excitement I experienced when Tom Dawson 
brought Lord Eglinton's fine colt, Pompey, to run 
for the Riddlesworth Stakes at Newmarket, full 
of confidence that he would beat Cotherstone. 
Many Yorkshiremen, and all the racing Scots- 
men, piled their money upon Pompey. The race, 
however, never was in doubt, as Cotherstone pulled 
his way to the front, and won as he pleased. From 
that moment forward the Derby was a foregone 
conclusion, unless ill-health, accident, or foul play, 
got rid of Cotherstone. Nevertheless, there were 
many who could not get over his round hunting 
action, and vowed that unless the Derby were run 
up a staircase he would have no chance. George 
Bentinck was thoroughly convinced that Gaper, 
who had beaten Cotherstone for the Criterion 
Stakes at Newmarket when both were two-year- 
olds, would show his heels to the north-country 
crack in the Derby. Maidstone was also of the 
same opinion, and paid dearly for his mistake. 
I never saw a finer sight than Cotherstone pre- 
sented as he mounted the hill, which exactly 
suited his high round action. Upon reaching 



396 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. 6REGOBT. 

Tattenham Corner, round which Gaper led, Cother- 
stone seemed equally able to come down hill, and 
ended by winning without an effort." 

Upon February 1, 1884, Sir William set forth 
in happy phrase his views as to Mr Charles 
Greville's capabilities to fill the rdle of a leadmg 
statesman, to which he always aspired. The 
opinion given below by Sir William Gregory was 
shared in a still higher degree by the late Sir 
Francis Doyle, who was in the habit of meeting 
Mr Greville annually for many years at Nun- 
applet on, the seat of Sir WiUiam Milner, from 
which they aU repaired to York August Haces. 
Here are Sir William's words : — 

"Charles Greville could never have taken a 
prominent part as a political warrior. He had 
good sense, and sound views upon many subjects — 
witness his book on Ireland, which is very remark- 
able, considering how far advanced his opinions 
were beyond those in fashion at the time. I do 
not think he would ever have been a good speaker; 
certainly never a leader of men, even if he had 
enjoyed many years of parliamentary training. 
He was the worst adjuster of quarrels and what 
the Americans call "difficulties" that I ever came 
in contact with. In fact, paradoxical as it may 
seem, I never could regard him as what he most 
desired to be thought — a man of the world. This 



FRED SWINDELL. 397 

was also George Anson's opinion. The messes and 
mistakes in which he got himself entangled when 
trying his own horses were too comical, and used 
to elicit roars of laughter from Nat, his favourite 
jockey. I do not know which was the worse 
judge of racing — he or his confederate, George 
Payne." 

The next two letters have reference to personal 
matters in which " The Pope," as he was univer- 
sally called by his friends and contemporaries, took 
deep interest. Writing from Coole Park, Gort, 
on May 30, 1885, Sir William says: — 

" The first that I heard as to the death of my 
old friend Fred Swindell, was from your article. 
A young lady whose father lives close to this place, 
and takes in the , told me there was some- 
thing in that paper about myself and a very rich 
betting-man who had just died. Fred Swindell 
was the most remarkable man of his class that 
I ever met. He was, of course, remarkable for 
abUity, but still more so for kindness of heart. 
Speaking from much experience, I can say un- 
hesitatingly that he was as true as steel to those 
who trusted him in their racing transactions. As 
for his drollery, wit, and power of graphic descrip- 
tion, they rendered an evening passed in his com- 
pany something never to be forgotten. His stories 
of Palmer the poisoner were droll to a degree, but 
occasionally terrifying ; nor shall I forget his look 



398 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. OREGOBY. 

when he asked me at Egham Races whether that 
was not the place where the field heat King* John. 
You dwell rightly upon one remarkable trait in 
his character — ^to wit, that all his sympathies were 
with the gentlemen. Nothing pleased him more 
than when they had a good race. His reflections 
on the use of the Turf to British society, as a 
safety-valve for the lower orders, were excellent, 
and full of wisdom." 

The second letter to which I have alluded above 
has reference to the authorship of * The Chaunt 
of Achilles,' which was published anonymously in 
'The Sporting Magazine' in 1838, shortly after 
her Majesty's Coronation. 

" I have in my possession," writes Sir William, 
" a copy of * The Chaunt of Achilles,' with the 
inscription, * By Bernal Osborne, Jun.,' written 
on its back. Below are the words, * Got fifteen 
guineas from Editor for this.' I am convinced from 
internal evidence that no one but a member of 
West-End society could have written it. It is 
impossible that Surtees, a north-country attorney, 
could have known all the gossip to which it refei-s. 
The style, moreover, in which it is wiitten aflfords 
another proof of its authorship, for the versifica- 
tion is exactly similar to that of * The Voice fi'om 
Palace Yard,' which is admittedly Bernal Osborne's 
composition." 



GENERAL PEEL. 399 

With one final extract from a letter bearing the 
date of "3 St George's Place, Hyde Park Corner, 
S.W., November 25, 1889," I will conclude a 
chapter which is, I fear, already too long. Speak- 
ing of General PeeFs boundless store of amusing 
anecdotes. Sir William remarks : — 

" Well do I remember the dear old General's 
stories ; and I ought to remember them, for I 
heard them often, and they were as good the 
twentieth time of hearing as the first, because of 
the undisguised enjoyment with which he brought 
them out. I shall never forget driving down with 
him and Lord Eglinton to Gorhambury Races, and 
to what extent the Colonel's programme (he was 
then Colonel Peel) was flavoured by Eglinton's 
facetuB, and by the irrepressible peals of laughter 
with which we made the lanes of Hertfordshire 
echo again and again." 



f 

4 
I' 

I 









1' 



ll ' 



f 



'T--'' 






400 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

RACING CAREER OF THE LATE RIGHT HON. 

SIR w. H. GREGORY — continued. 



I NOW approach that portion of my task wl 
brings Sir William Gregory into closer comini 
cation than ever with Lord George Bentii 
i : The two famous passages of Lord George's hist 

i : which it becomes my duty to treat are, in 

first place, his duel with Squire Osbaldeston ; i 
secondly, his hurried journey to the Curragh 
Kildare to ascertain from Mr Thomas Fergus 
the owner of the celebrated horse Harkaway, sc 
details about the animal purchased in Ireland 
Goodman Levy, and substituted for Running Re 
Other letters of Lord George to Sir William > 
find a place in this chapter, some of which go 
to confirm Mr John Kent's view of his no 
masters character. The light thus shed u] 
Lord George's life will be welcomed by all v 
recognise in him the strongest and most c 
spicuous Patron of the Turf that these islands hj 
produced during the present century. 



LORD GEORGE BENTINCK AND COLONEL ANSON. 401 

I shall begin with Sir William Gregory's narra- 
tive, partly taken down from his own lips, and 
partly confirmed by letters now in my possession 
touching the famous duel between Lord George 
and Squire Osbaldeston in 1836. It should be 
premised that the account usually given of the 
encounter in question differs in many particulars 
from the more veracious record supplied by Sir 
William Gregory. It was weU known to their 
contemporaries and friends that the greatest 
possible intimacy subsisted between Lord George 
Bentinck and Colonel Anson. Their friendship 
was doubtless increased by the fact that, in Lord 
George's opinion, Colonel Anson had saved his life 
when subjected to the fire of one of the finest pistol- 
shots in the world. Some years later, Colonel Anson 
did his utmost to heal the differences which had 
long existed between those two masterful first 
cousins, Lord George and Mr Charles Greville, who, 
after being racing confederates in youth, became 
bitterly estranged when they quarrelled about 
Preserve, whose running has been described in a 
previous chapter. Colonel Anson obtained from 
Lord George Bentinck a promise that he would 
meet and shake hands with Mr Greville after a 
certain race at Goodwood in 1843. Mr Greville 
had long been eager for a reconciliation, and when 
the race in question was over, he lost not a moment 
in repairing to the tryst named by Colonel Anson, 
who had addressed himself to the far more difficult 

2 c 



402 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. GREOORIT* 

task of bringing Lord Greorge to the same spot. 
Unfortunately, all his well-meant efforts proved to 
be futile. Accompanied by Colonel Anson, Lord 
George drew near, when, catching sight of Mr 
Greville, his old antipathy to his cousin burst out 
with renewed vigour. He declined to advancje an- 
other step, exclaiming to his companion, "After all, 
I would rather have nothing to do with the fellow ! " 
Against this decision all Colonel Anson's entreaties 
and arguments were powerless to prevail. 

The remarkable duel between Lord George and 
" the Squire " created the greatest sensation at 
the time of its occurrence. The popular account 
is that Lord George fired first and missed. Upon 
that he is represented to have called out to Mr 
Osbaldeston in a loud voice, " Now, Squire, the 
odds are ten to one upon you.*' No one acquainted 
with Lord George*s aristocratic pride, of which he 
speaks in a letter to Sir W. Gregory,^ will be 
likely to believe it possible that under such 
circumstances he would use language of this kind 
to an adversary whom he profoundly despised. 
I am indebted to Sir William for the version 
which now follows, and its authenticity is con- 
firmed in other quarters. It agi^ees substantially 
with an account of the duel which I contributed 
seven years ago to * The Sporting Times,' and 
which was read by Sir William Gregory with 
much satisfaction. 

1 See p. 412. 



HISTORY OF A FAMOUS DUEL. 403 

The Heaton Park Meeting of September 1835, 
took place, as usual, immediately after the Doncas- 
ter St Leger. The riders were mostly gentlemen 
jockeys, who, however, were divided into two classes, 
of which the first and most aristocratic were Lord 
Wilton's guests, and the second found quarters at 
Manchester, within four miles of Lord Wilton's seat. 
To the latter section Mr Osbaldeston belonged. In 
common with many others, he had long harboured 
a shrewd suspicion that the handicaps were gener- 
ally framed upon terms exceptionally favourable 
to Lord Wilton and his friends. Resolved to be 
revenged, and to strike a blow at the aristocratic 
monopolists, the Squire looked about for a horse 
likely to suit his purpose. He found one in a four- 
year-old Irish colt named Rush, by Humphrey 
Clinker, whom he purchased at Doncaster from his 
breeder, Mr Watts, for 400 guineas. The Squire 
tried his new purchase with a mare belonging to 
old Job Marson over the St Leger course at Don- 
caster, riding Rush himself As they rounded the 
Red House Turn the Squire found that he could do 
what he liked with his antagonist, and promptly 
checking Rush, allowed the mare to gallop in first 
by many lengths. The result of the trial got 
noised abroad, and, in consequence of his sup- 
posed defeat. Rush was very favourably handi- 
capped for the Trial Stakes and Cup at Heaton 
Park. In the first of these two races he started, 
ridden by his owner, and finished nowhere. Next 



n 



97 



404 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. GREGORY. 

day he was again pulled out for the Cup, and a 
heavy commission to back him was issued by Mi- 
Osbaldeston. All the money betted against Rush 
at Lord Wilton's dinner-table upon the previous 
evening was secured by an agent of the Squire, 
and when the horses came to the post for the Cup, 
Kush, who had been backed for large sums, from 
10 down to 2 to 1, started at the latter price. As 
Mr Osbaldeston, seated upon his horse's back, 
walked by the stand to go down to the starting- 
post. Lord George Bentinck cried out in a loud 
voice, * * Two hundred to one against Rush. " * ' Done, 
exclaimed Mr Osbaldeston ; ** put it down to me. 
Waiting upon Lord Wilton, who rode Bill Scott's 
mare. Lady le Gros (also a great pot), the Squire 
overhauled her at the distance, and coming away, 
won in a canter. Great was the hubbub that 
ensued, and Rushes sudden change of form was 
commented upon in very outspoken language, 
which was not a little increased and aggravated by 
his winning again upon the following day. Im- 
mediately after the latter race the Squire set off 
to go cub-hunting, and had no opportunity of asking 
Lord George for two hundred pounds until they 
both met at the Craven Meeting next year. The 
fact that his Lordship, who was usually the most 
punctual of settlers, had not discharged his debt 
for many months, gave some presage of the scene 
which was to follow. 

Lord George was standing in front of the Jockey 



HISTORY OF A FAMOUS DUEL. 405 

Club rooms (arrayed in the green cutaway coat, 
doeskin breeches, and top-boots which he habitually 
wore at Newmarket), when Mr Osbaldeston saw 
and approached him. " My Lord/' he exclaimed, 
somewhat curtly, " you have had plenty of time to 
digest your loss. May I ask you for the £200 
which I won from you at Heaton Park ? " Draw- 
ing himself up to his full height, and towering over 
his puny interpellator, Lord George retorted " that 
he was astonished to be asked for the money, as 
the whole affair was a robbery, and so the Jockey 
Club considered it." Nothing daunted, Mr Osbal- 
deston answered firmly, " I won the money fairly, 
and I insist upon its payment." " Can you count V 
sneeringly asked Lord George, as he dived into the 
inside pocket of his coat, and pulled out a long 
black-leather case, which he always canied stuffed 
with bank-notes. " I could at Eton," sharply re- 
plied the Squire ; and the specified sum was slowly 
told out into his hand in small notes. " The matter 
will not end here, my Lord," exclaimed the Squire, 
as he marched off with his bristles set. Within 
a few minutes Mr Humphrey approached Lord 
George, and, lifting his hat, demanded, on the 
Squire's behalf, an ample apology, or that Lord 
George should at once give satisfaction to the 
man whom he had so grossly insulted. Lord 
George loftily declined to meet Mr Osbaldeston 
in the field ; and upon receiving this disdainful 
answer, the latter said, " Tell Lord George that 



406 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. GREGORY. 

I will pull his nose the first time we meet." 
Acting on the advice of Colonel Anson, who offi- 
ciated as his second, the haughty patrician then 
resolved to swallow his pride, and to go out 
with his aggrieved foe. Wormwood Scrubbs was 
named as the tryst ; and at six o'clock, upon a 
lovely spring morning, the two combatants were 
drawn up, pistol in hand, at twelve pax^es from 
each other. It was a serious moment. LiOid 
Greorge had never had a pistol in his hand before, 
while his small and wiry antagonist had often 
killed birds on the wing with a pistol-ball. When 
shooting with Sir Richard Sutton, the Squire, 
moreover, had, not long before, killecj ninety- 
eight pheasants out of one hundred shots, and 
at pigeons he had few superiora Lord Greorge 
was arrayed from top to toe in black, and not a 
speck of white was visible about him for his 
formidable enemy to aim at. The Squire had 
openly declared that he would kill hini ; and but 
for Colonel Anson's adroit management of the 
duel, it is but too probable that Lord George's 
mortal career would have ended that day upon 
Wormwood Scrubbs. 

Approaching the two belligerents, Colonel 
Anson addressed them in a few emphatic words. 
" He told them that if the aftair drifted into a law- 
court, the verdict of the jury would turn chiefly 
upon his evidence, and that if either combatant 
disobeyed insti-uctions, and chanced to kill his ad- 



HISTORY OF A FAMOUS DUEL. 407 

versary, the law would regard him as a murderer." 
The Colonel added, that he should give the word 
to fire by exclaiming, " One, two, three ! " that 
each man was to fire directly " Three ! " was pro- 
nounced ; that until then they were to keep theii* 
eyes fixed upon him. If either man failed to fire 
instantly when " Three ! " was said, the Colonel 
warned him solemnly to beware of the conse- 
quences. 

Withdrawing for a few paces. Colonel Anson 
called out in a loud voice, " Gentlemen, are you 
ready ? " A couple of nods of the head indicated 
assent, and the word " One ! " rang out with 
startling clearness. A long pause followed, and 
then, almost in the same breath, the Colonel 
vociferated, " Two, three ! " At the sound of the 
last word Lord George fired in the air, and Mr 
Osbaldeston was so hurried in his aim that his 
bullet went through his noble adversary's hat 
within a couple of inches of its wearer's hair. 
" I did not think you were so bad a shot, Squire," 
laughingly remarked the Colonel, overjoyed at 
the bloodless conclusion of an affair which had 
augured so ill for his principal. " It might have 
come off* differently next time," growled out the 
Squire, who was well aware that Colonel Anson 
had saved his friend's life. For some years Lord 
George and Mr Osbaldeston never spoke. Then 
there came a time when Lord George, whose 
horses were trained at Danebury, wished to be- 



408 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. GREGORY. 

come a member of the Bibury Club, and old John 
Day tried his diplomacy upon the Squire to ascer- 
tain whether he would interfere with his former 
antagonist's election. All animosity, ho\rever, had 
long died away in the Squire's breast ; and aft^r 
Lord George's admission to the club, he invited 
the Squire to come and see the Danebury horses, 
and treated him with marked politeness. 

The next episode in Loid George's career has 
reference to the most sensational trial ever yet 
embarked upon in connection with an English 
race. There has never been any dearth of floating 
rumours among old habitues of the Turf as regards 
the frequent occurrence of three-year-old races 
which have been fraudulently won without detec- 
tion, though certainly not without suspicion, by 
four - year - olds and upwards. It is more than 
probable that in two or three instances, besides 
that of Running Rein, there is truth in these allega- 
tions or surmises. Into them, however, I have no 
intention to enter, as there is nothing to be gained 
by chronicling suspicions which cannot be sub- 
stantiated. The "memorable Derby of 1844" 
possesses this rare peculiarity — that two horses 
started for it, each trained in a different stable, 
which were admittedlv four-vear-olds, and that 
one of them broke the others leg in rounding 
Tattenham Corner, and ended by catching 
the Judge's eye as seeming winner of the race. 



THE DERBY OF 1844. 409 

Scarcely had he done so before Lord George 
Bentinck advised Colonel Peel, the owner of 
Orlando, the second horse, to make an objection 
against the winner. In order to gain the evidence 
necessary to prove the fraud, of which Lord 
George felt sure that Mr A. Wood and his 
accomplice were guilty, he set out from London 
to interview Mr Thomas Ferguson at Rossmore 
Lodge, Curragh of Kildare. The following letter, 
written by a friend of Mr Ferguson, will speak for 
itself: — 

" At the time when the Derby of 1844 was run, 
I was on terms of the warmest friendship with 
' Tom Ferguson,* of Rossmore Lodge, Curragh, 
who had no secrets from me. This fact was well 
known to one of Lord George Bentinck s most 
trusted commissioners, who upon the evening of 
the day on which Running Rein ran first for the 
Derby, came post-haste from Epsom to my house 
in London, and induced me to write to Ferguson, 
so as to obtain from him information with which 
he was acquainted as to the substitution for the 
Maccabeus colt of an Irish horse who, under the 
name of Running Rein, won the Derby in 1844. 
The commissioner in question stood to win a very 
large stake on Colonel Peel's Orlando, and pro- 
mised me faithfully that he would put me on a 
large sum to nothing if I assisted in unveiling the 
fraud. In addition, he pledged me his most solemn 



410 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. GREGORY. 

word that Tom Ferguson's reply to my letter 
should be kept secret, and shown to no one. 

" When Ferguson's letter reached me three or 
four days later, Lord George's commissioner w-as at 
my house expecting it. I, little knowing what sort 
of a man I was dealing with, was persuaded by 
him to let him have the letter, which he solemnly 
pledged himself to return to me the same evening. 
From that day forward I never again was in the 
same room with him, and never spoke to him a^in. 
His promises proved to be as faithless as he w^as 
himself, and whenever we were near each other on 
a race-course after the occurrence I am now recit- 
ing, he took very good care to get out of my way. 
Immediately upon leaving my house, the individual 
of whom I am now writing carried Ferguson's 
letter to Lord George Bentinck, who saw that the 
information contained in it would inevitably give 
the Derby stakes to Orlando. With characteristic 
energy Lord George started off without a moment s 
delay to Ireland, and on arriving at the Curragh 
found Tom Ferguson ill in bed with the gout. At 
first he refused to see his Lordship, but the latter 
sent up word that he had in his possession a letter 
written by Ferguson to myself. Seeing what a 
fix he was in, Ferguson determined to receive Lord 
George in his bedroom, and gave him all the infor- 
mation of which he was himself possessed." 

The following letter from Lord George Bentinck 



TEARAWAY. 411 

to Sir William Gregory shows that his Lordship 
had made other visits to Ireland previous to that 
of 1844. The letter is dated " Waterloo Hotel, 
Liverpool, August 6, 1841," and runs as fol- 
lows : — 

" In my vain and fiitile hurry last night to save 
a packet, whose inert captain had not vigour or 
energy enough to save the London train, which 
we lost by five minutes, I had not time to 
thank you sufficiently for the trouble you took 
for me, or the kindness you showed me. Nor had 
I time to give you more than half a report of what 
I saw and did at Rossmore Lodge. I found in 
Tearaway a fine, lengthy, racing-like animal, about 
fifteen three high — fine shoulders, fine length of 
body, good loins, good girth, and as fine hind-legs 
and hocks as could be put upon a horse ; but also 
a regular Blacklock head, Roman nose, and a small 
and soft rather than cowardly eye. His fore-legs 
are badly put on, with small and somewhat twisted 
fetlock-joints, and small narrow feet. I should 
add that he is wanting in bone and power as 
regards his legs, knees, and arms. Altogether I 
was disappointed with the horse ; but Ferguson 
assures me that he can give the year and seven 
pounds to Johnny, which, if true, makes him a 
race-horse, in spite of his fore-legs. I went to the 
Curragh prepared to offer Ferguson a handsome 
moneyed rent for the horse, in addition to the 



412 BACINO CAKEEE OF SIR W. H. GKBQOBT. 

whole stake if he won the St Leger ; but I w 
BO far disappointed in the animal that I restrict 
myself to a single oSer to take and train hii 
paying his stakes and forfeits, and giving Fergusi 
the St Leger if he won it, and twenty per cent 
any other stakes he won. 

" I left my terms in writing, and my impressu 
is they will be accepted ; but I could clearly s 
that Messrs Ferguson and Lea's object in -wisfau 
me to have the horse is to get him up to an eig. 
to one favourite, so that they might make a go< 
thing of their fifty to one bets ; which made r 
less keen to have him. 

" With regard to the two-year-olds, both a 
fine animals — Fireaway bearing no resemblance ■ 
his half-brother Tearaway, but, on the contrar^ 
with a beautiful head and fore-hand, and capit 
fore-legs. Goneaway is bigger than Fireaway, bi 
looks heavy and slow, 

" Harkaway is in training, and appears 8oun( 
but has the most frightful leg to look at you eve 
saw. After seeing the horses, Mr Ferguson showe 
me into his dining-room, where I beheld one < 
the finest Liffey salmon ever seen smoking on th 
table, besides various other good things, composin. 
a dinner for three. But my aristocratick [sic] prid 
prevailed over the cravings of my belly, and I weu 
hungry away, and sought refuge in the humble 
and meaner fare at Harrington's of Naas. — Alway 
very sincerely yours, G. Bentikck." 



^«:*k»- ■»' ' \\t»! ih^' St [jeger : but 1 ^v:.^ 

'■i .ii.- .' II i'i i lit- iiiiinuil that I iestri«*ieil 

. •■..!' . ; ,lv oH't'i* I.* lake ami train bin:. 

■* ^ Cj f* 

: >• >' I' ' \v .1. ;r., r lid twenty pt?r cent « • 

IMS' ■'-.:.•: -w fii* \Vi !i. 

" I ..'ti 1 iiiis i:. unii:iL?:, smd my impreSftiMU 

is ;!•■ -^ !m- ;u*i« ,t«Ml : )»ut I coiild clearlv se«^ 
1 1:. 1 M. • • h\'i'«:-»i'-' . ;»inl iiCa's object in AVishiu;: 
ijK. tn • .'^ i •. ;..». -c i^ tt) t^'i't him up to an el^lji 
tn <; i.-"i!sit' -. ■ tliat thtjv liiiijht make a cfv>«>i| 
il- . : ilirij- ■ ■. ti) OJK.' bi»ts ; wliich made me 

t- . • I. ■*»■»> * ' 'j : ni. 

^\"'^-. i ;iif» two-vear-olds. l>ot}i a^v 

.v\,i\', but, on the contiiu'v. 

• ■■ 

• .>: \iV.<[ n»re-htiml, and capital 

j,; . ..,>i^» than F'rea\v;i.A . hi;- 

ri ' ' ' 
' )f "I .t . I 1 ii I ■ ■ i .f 

' '■ • ..■■' '',■.'•';■; i i.i-.'LMj'-'iMij'., <.j* Xaas. — A!w;us 



"A MANLY SPORTS BILL." 413 

The above letter, of which I have quoted less 
than two-thirds, is so characteristic of Lord George 
that it will be read with interest by the few sur- 
vivors who knew him in the flesh. Unfortunately 
the letter to Sir William about Running Rein's 
Derby, which the latter has often described to me 
as the most humorous that he ever received from 
Lord George, cannot be found. It recorded, how- 
ever, that after some little difficulty Lord George 
obtained from Mr Ferguson all the information 
that he needed to disqualify Running Rein for 
the Derby. The other details of the famous trial 
and of its result are too well known for repetition 
here. 

Lord George's correspondence with Sir William 
throws a flood of light on the '* Qui tam " actions 
of 1843, and upon the extraordinary vigour with 
which the former combated the "common in- 
formers" by whom writs were served upon the 
Earl of Eglinton, Lord George Bentinck, John 
Bowes, George Anson, Jonathan Peel, Charles 
Greville, W. H. Gregory, John Gully, and others, 
under an old statute of Queen Anne, which was 
construed into a legal prohibition of betting. 
These writs were met by " A Manly Sports Bill,'' 
introduced into the House of Lords on February 
1, 1844, by the Duke of Richmond, and passed 
that session by both Houses. At a numerous 
meeting of the Jockey Club, held at Newmarket, 
on Tuesday, in the Second October Meeting 1845, 



414 BAdNG CAREER OF SIR W. H. ORJSQOBT. 

it was resolved — " That the unanimous thanks 
of the Jockey Club be rendered to his Grace the 
Duke of Richmond, K.G., for his Grace's inde- 
fatigable exertions and eminent services in the 
House of Lords, whereby many obsolete statutes 
which threatened destruction to the best interests 
of the Turf have been repealed, and the remaining 
laws in regard to horse-racing put upon a safe and 
satisfactory footing." Of this salutary Bill Lord 
George was the principal instigator, and his let- 
ters to Sir William Gregory, fix)m which I shall 
make two extracts, are full of interesting* in- 
formation. They show in the clearest lig'ht 
Lord George's masculine and fearless character, 
and also his profound sympathy with the spoi*ts 
of the people. 

The first ran as follows : — 

"Harcourt House, 
Cavendish Square, Sov. 17, 1843. 

" Though I have no apprehension that these 
rascally informers will succeed in their suits, I 
cannot consider them otherwise than as serious. 
Construed as the Judges have heretofore construed 
the 9th of Queen Anne, there is no doubt but 
that betting on horse-races comes within the 
meaning of the Act. It is vain, therefore, to dis- 
guise from ourselves that these vagabonds have 
pHmd facie the law on their side. On omtb we 
have the difficulty of proof, and the indisposition 



TRIALS FOR BETTING. 415 

of juries to give them a verdict. Even if the ver- 
dict went against us, such a decision would, I feel 
sure, be reversed on appeal to the House of Lords ; 
for I defy any man, whose judgment has not been 
mystified by studying musty law, to rise from a 
perusal of the 9th of Queen Anne without being 
satisfied that betting on horse-races was not con- 
templated by the framers of that Act. . . . For 
all practical purposes you are as safe in coming 
over from Ireland now as you would be if you 
postponed their serving you with a writ until 
Parliament meets. The suit for the money you 
won on Cotherstone must be tried in Surrey, and 
cannot, therefore, come on till the end of March. 
The only thing I recommend you to do is to give 
Sir William FoUett a general retainer, so as to 
keep him out of their hands. Thesiger, being 
leading counsel on the SuiTey Circuit, should 
have a general retainer too. I have given re- 
tainers to the leading counsel on all the Circuits 
where the trials may come on. Eglinton, Bowes, 
and Jonathan Peel have done the same. From 
the heavy commission you executed for Bowes you 
stand in greater hazard than anybody, unless it 
be Eglinton, for his winnings on Blue Bonnet. 

"Peel and Charles Greville are in no slight 
jeopardy from their notable trial about Canadian 
at Guildford, where Peel proved half the informer's 
case against himself and Charles Greville. — ^Yours 
very sincerely, G. Bentinck." 



416 BACING CABSSR OF SIR W. H. GKBGOBY. 

The second extract is fix)m a letter dated — 

" Harcourt Houbb, Jan, 8, 1844 

" Our Bill is to be bold, manly, and straightfor- 
ward, staying proceedings under the Queen Anne 
statute without costs, and legalising betting on 
horse-races, foot-races, sailing matches, cricket 
matches, coursing, and all other manly and whole- 
some sports. I cannot, therefore, see the neces- 
sity of you and Bowes skulking, you in Ireland 
and Bowes in Paria - You would both be of much 
more use here canvassing for support to our Bill, 
which, thus far, but for me, would have been left 
to its fate. As yet no satisfactory arrangement 
has been made as to the great expense already 
incurred, and as to how it is to be met. — Yours 
very sincerely, G. Bentinck." 

In these letters Lord George confirms the re- 
peated views of his ardent and Intense character 
given by Mr John Kent in the earlier chapters of 
this work. It remains for me to add a few further 
words about Sir William Gregory himself, and I 
will begin with the following brief account of the 
way in which he got possession of Clermont, per- 
haps his luckiest purchase. His version is as 
follows : — 

"On the day following the Cesarewitch of 1845 
I chanced to walk from my lodgings at Newmai'ket 



CLERMONT. 417 

to the Jockey Club Rooms, to breakfast there, 
as was my invariable habit. It was a wretched 
morning, and as I approached the Rooms I ob- 
served that old Richard Tattersall looked unusually 
* downcast and damp,' as he stood in a sort of open 
box in the High Street, Newmarket, endeavour- 
ing to sell some blood stock. My eye caught 
sight of a scraggy-looking chestnut yearling, by 
Euclid, a horse of whom I was always fond. 
Turning to Tattersall as I passed, I exclaimed, 
pointing at the Euclid colt, * If that lot goes 
cheap, buy him for me.' When I came out from 
breakfast I found that he had bought me the 
colt in question for the moderate sum of fifteen 
guineas. You know the rest of Clermont's his- 
tory. He was a slow, moderate two -year -old, 
and the only man that ever tried to buy him at 
that age was your friend John Kent, who would 
have given a smart sum for him at Goodwood in 
1846, had Treen, my trainer, been willing to accept 
his terms. In the winter I tried the horse to be 
a good fair stayer, and if the spring had been 
dry I fully believe that Clermont, as I sub- 
sequently called him, would have won four out 
of the five great handicaps in which I entered 
him. But he was a ten -pound worse horse in 
dirt than on the top of the ground, his weak 
twisted ankles disqualifying him from getting 
through mud. Fred Swindell won me a good 
stake on the Newmarket Handicap, and still more 

2 D 



418 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. GBEGOBT. 

on the Great Metropolitan; but I knocked donni 
some of my winnings on the Somersetshire Stakes, 
at Bath, where the mud beat me. Moreover, 
Frank Butler's fine riding on Wolf Do^ for the 
Northamptonshire Stakes was more than my little 
boy Treen could tackle, although with a little 
more experience he got the best of the great 
jockey at Epsom." 

Fortunately for himself, as it has often been to 
many another ruined gambler, Sir William Greg- 
ory's active connection with the Turf as an owner 
of race-horses ceased for ever in the spring of 1855. 
His first step was to take a long cruise in the Medi- 
terranean, with Sir Sandford Graham for his com- 
panion. At that time it appeared little probable 
that the most useful and blameless part of his 
life lay still before him. Financial disaster had, 
however, overtaken him when he was still young 
and full of energy. Under all cii'cumstances and 
all conditions he never ceased to be an indus- 
trious worker ; and his catholic taste for the 
classics, for literature of all kinds, and for art in 
particular, was well known to his many friends. 
None of them anticipated, however, that in the 
face of recent disasters his rehabilitation was so 
near at hand. The disruption of the Conserva- 
tive party, consequent upon Sir Robert Peers 
introduction of free trade in 1846, had emanci- 
pated Sir William Gregory from the ties of party; 



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APPOINTED GOVERNOR OF CEYLON. 419 

but the dissolution of 1857, when Lord Palmerston 
went to the country about the Chinese lorcha, The 
Ari'ow, gave him an opportunity of returning to 
Parliament as Liberal member for his native county 
of Galway. His parliamentary career (or, at least, 
its second heat) continued until 1872, when, chiefly 
at the instance of Frances, Countess Waldegrave, 
then the wife of the still living Lord Carlingford, 
he was appointed Governor of the Crown Colony of 
Ceylon. Before dismissing his House of Commons 
"record," I should mention that during the Civil 
War between the Northern and Southern States 
of the American Union, Sir William Gregory, who 
had travelled in the winter of 1859-60 through 
the slave States, and had passed some weeks at 
Washington on his return from " Dixie," became 
a strong and able supporter of the Southern cause 
in Parliament. 

Upon domestic subjects, especially upon those 
connected with Ireland, with the British Museum, 
the National Gallery, and matters of art and taste, 
he was a frequent speaker, and with such success 
that he was appointed a Trustee of the National 
Gallery by Mr Disraeli, and sworn as a member of 
the Privy Council for Ireland in 1871 under Mr 
Gladstone s First Administration. The culminating 
point of his career was, however, attained when, in 
1872, Lord Kimberley, then Secretary of State for 
the Colonies, appointed him Governor of Ceylon. 
At last " the hour and the man had both come." 



420 RACING CABEKR OF BIB W. H. OREOOBT. 

It has often been remarked that the best Colonial 
Governors come from the Emerald Isle ; and of 
those who have served her Majesty within my 
recollection, none was ever more successful than Sir 
William Gregory. A Crown Colony like Ceylon 
gives many chances to its Governor, if he has tact, 
capacity, and originality enough to seize and work 
them aright. It would be easy to write a volume 
on Sir William's five years in Ceylon. At this 
moment I have before me printed materials from 
which pages upon pages in approbation of his 
energy, foresight, breadth of view, and sagacity 
as an imperial administrator might be compiled. 
Upon one point I wish for a moment to dwelL 
No one who studies Sir William's policy in Ceylon 
can doubt that his nice discrimination of character, 
displayed both in England and in the East, was 
due to his long, critical, and painful experience 
upon the British Turf. Perhaps the most instruc- 
tive book on Sir William's administration between 
1872 and 1877, is Mr John Ferguson's 'Ceylon in 
the Jubilee Year,' published in 1887. From it I 
extract the following passages : — 

" To Sir William Gregoiy belongs the distinction 
of having spent more revenue on reproductive pub- 
lic works than any other Governor of Ceylon. The 
roads in the north and east of the island, which 
were chiefly sand-tracks, were completed by him 
in a permanent form, and nearly every river was 



HIS JUDICIOUS ADMINISTRATION. 421 

bridged. The North - Central Province, a purely 
Sinhalese rice-growing division, was called into 
existence, and large amounts were invested in 
tanks and roads. About fifty miles were added to 
the railway system, and arrangements made for a 
further extension. When Governor Gregory left 
in 1877, a large extent of previously unoccupied 
country had been opened up, and an impetus given 
to natives and European colonists in the cultiva- 
tion of new products, which alone saved the island 
from a serious collapse in the years of commercial 
depression and of coffee blight which followed. 
Measures were adopted for the conservation of 
forests, and for preventing the extinction of elk, 
deer, and elephants ; the registration of titles was 
provided for ; Colombo, Kandy, and Galle were 
much improved ; arrangements were made for a 
good water-supply to each town. 

"Very early in his administration, Su' William 
Gregory, to his special credit be it said, saw the 
necessity for new products, and he used all his 
personal and oflficial influence to secure their de- 
velopment, introducing a new feature into the 
Governor's annual speech to the Legislative Council 
in special notices of the progress of tea, cinchona, 
cacao, Liberian coffee, and rubber cultivation." 

With one more passage from Mr Ferguson's book 
I will conclude these remarks. 

" Ceylon wants a Governor like Sir H. Ward or 



422 RACING CAREER OF SIR W. H. GBEGOBT. 

Sir William Gregory, who hajs his whole heart in 
his work ; is ready to sympathise with all classes 
and races, to see provinces, districts, and puhlic 
works for himself — ^by journeys on horseback, if 
necessary; is open to receive counsel as to pro- 
posed legislation from the most diverse quarters, 
while deciding for himself after giving due con- 
sideration to such advice/' 

The result of all these beneficent operations was, 
that when the Prince of Wales visited Ceylon, Sir 
William Gregory received the honour of knight- 
hood from his Boyal Highness's hands ; and finally, 
a statue of the right honourable gentleman, from 
which the photograph opposite this page has been 
taken, testifies, as it stands in the market-place of 
Colombo, to the high regard and esteena of the 
population which he governed so well. Upon the 
pedestal the following inscription is carved ; — 

The Right Honble. 

SIR WILLIAM GREGORY, K.C.M.G., 

Governor of C'eylox. 

Erected by the inhabitants of this Island to commemorate the 
benefits conferred by him upon the Colony during his administration 
of the Government from 1872 to 1877. 

After his return to England, Sir William married 
in 1880 Miss Augusta Persse, a young and much- 
esteemed lady who lived in the neighbourhood of 
Coole Park, Sir William's ancestral seat in Gal- 
way. Never was there a happier marriage. Lady 



HIS DECLINING YEARS. 423 

Gregory, who waa Sir William's second wife, be- 
came at once a great favourite in London society, 
and her little salon at 3 St George's Place, Hyde 
Park Corner, soon became one of the most agreeable 
in London. During the concluding years of his 
life, offers from diverse constituencies, both Eng- 
lish and Irish, poured in upon Sir William, but in 
vain. He was equally deaf to overtures made to 
him by Secretaries for the Colonies that he would 
accept another Governorship. Fond of society, an 
admirable diner-out, and blessed with an Irish- 
man's high spirits. Sir William's declining years 
were undoubtedly the happiest that he ever passed. 
In 1884 he revisited Ceylon, accompanied by Lady 
Gregory, and the crowning honour of his life was 
the erection of the statue, from Sir Edgar Boehm's 
hand, to which I have above alluded. " Life to 
the last enjoyed," with memory, hearing, and eye- 
sight unimpaired, full of years and honours, Sir 
William went to his well - earned rest without 
leaving an enemy behind him. During his last 
two winters, the cold of London tried him se- 
verely, and it was his intention to escape to a 
warmer climate, when death overtook him. The 
last letter that I ever received from him was 
couched in the following pathetic terms : — 

" 3 St George's Place, 
Hyde Park Corner, S.W., 14M Feb, 1892. 

" I have to thank you for your review of Lord 
Rosebery's * Pitt,' which is a fine biography, and 



424 RACINQ CABEEB OF SIB W. H. OKBQOBT. 

the style admirable. There are phrases and touches 
in it which are quite sui generis^ and i^hich send 
you on yoijr way rejoicing. Among others, there 
is one which you notice and which struck me 
much : ' The instinct of self- preservation guides 
the European Powers with the same certainty as 
weather moves sheep on the hill/ Another re- 
markable expression is, ' Buckingham i^as his 
brother Grenville's hair-shirt' 

'^On the whole, despite the delightful style, 
it is one of the saddest books I ever read. It is 
the struggle of the most noble-minded patriotic 
Englishman that ever lived to establish a wise 
fiscal policy, to abandon the old insane foreign 
entanglements, to pacify Ireland by wise and 
feasible measures, which would have rendered 
her a glory to England and no longer a shame to 
humanity. In all these aims he was arrested, 
thwarted, and beaten back by the powers of evil. 
You should not have concluded your critique 
without quoting Rosebery's noble final sentence : 
* From the dead eighteenth century Pitt's figure 
still faces us with a majesty of loneliness and 
coiu'age. There may have been men abler and 
greater than he — though it is not easy to cite 
them. But in all history there is no more patriotic 
spirit, none more intrepid, none more pure.' 

*' I am as ill as a man can well be. I went to 
Bournemouth for ten days, but came back much 
as I went. The doctors are quite 'au bout de 



HIS DEATH. 425 

leur latin ' ; but one of them says there is a chance 
of heat bringing me round. We start, therefore, 
on Thursday next at 3 p.m., and arrive at Marseilles 
next day at 2.30. Is not that wonderful? I 
remember travelling five days and nights from 
Marseilles to Paris, to be present at Coronation's 
Derby. — Yours ever sincerely, 

" W. H. Gregory." 

That journey to Marseilles he was not permitted 
to make. At the close of February and during 
the opening days of March the cold became daily 
more intense, and told with fatal severity upon his 
enfeebled frame. For many days before his death 
he lay unconscious of the tender solicitude lavished 
upon him by his devoted wife, who never left his 
bedside by night or day. Upon Sunday, March 6, 
1892, the end came. No man ever retrieved more 
honourably the errors of his youth ; and to him 
more than to any other man of my acquaintance 
might be applied the well-known French proverb, 
" On ne revient pas de si loin pour peu de chose." 



426 



CHAPTER XIX. 

POLITICAL CAREER OF LORD GEORGE BENTINCK. 

Although it was my original intention to confine 
myself in these pages solely to the " Bacing' Life 
of Lord George Bentinck," I cannot, with justice to 
him or to myself, omit to point out that his politi- 
cal career was very closely associated with, and in 
some sense sprang out of, his love for the Turf. 
There can be little doubt that he was warmly 
encouraged by his intimate friend, the Right 
Honourable Benjamin Disraeli, to take a more 
active part in politics than he had ever attempted 
between 1826, when he first entered the House of 
Commons, and 1846, when Sir Robert Peel, then 
the acknowledged head of the Conservative party, 
rent it in twain by abolishing the import duty upon 
foreit^n corn. It is evident, from Lord Geortife's 
letter to Mr Croker, from which I have alreadv 
quoted, that he would never have given himself up 
body and soul to politics if it had not been his rooted 
and conscientious conviction that the Consei'vative 



LORD GEORGE AND MR DISRAELI. 427 

party, of which he had long been a silent member, 
was being misguided and wrecked by the " man at 
the helm," — the great statesman who had until 
then been its most trusted pilot. To this conviction 
he was mainly brought by the influence and argu- 
ments of Mr Disraeli, who well knew Lord Greorge's 
character, and appraised his abilities more accurately 
than any other member of Parliament did. I shall 
always think that Mr Disraeli allowed himself, as 
early as the year 1842, to appear to be drawn 
by Lord George into the vortex of racing, with 
a view to drawing Lord George, when the right 
moment came, into the vortex of politics. 

In 1842 Lord George owned a very highly bred 
filly called Kitten, who was the daughter of Bay 
Middleton, winner of the Derby, and of Pussy, 
winner of the Oaks. Lord George insisted that in 
this filly Mr Disraeli should take an interest, by 
accepting a half share in her, of which I have no 
doubt that his Lordship made him a present. 
Kitten was engaged in several two-year-old and 
three-year-old stakes, but unfortunately she was, 
like many of the Bay Middletons, very light in the 
fore-legs, and was therefore unable to stand training 
even to the extent of being prepared for a two- 
year-old stake over a half-mile course. Worthless 
as she was, she afforded Mr Disraeli an opportunity 
to call more frequently upon Lord George, although 
I do not believe that the former ever took any 
genuine interest in horses or in racing. About 



428 POLITICAL CAREER. 

that time, however, no one wa43 so constantly found 
by me in Lord George's room at Harcoxirt House 
as Ml* Disraeli, and he listened with the greatest 
semblance of attention to all I had to say about 
Lord George's horses, and would often accompany 
Lord George to the stables behind Harcourt House 
in order to inspect them. In other respects Mr 
Disraeli seemed to me at this epoch to be greatly 
inferior to Lord George Bentinck in tact, ability, 
and address. The subjects of conversation between 
us were, of course, perfectly familiar to Lord George, 
and quite the reverse to Mr Disraeli ; but I cannot 
help adding that to me the contrast between them 
was very striking. In fact, from what I saiv of 
Mr Disraeli between 1842 and 1848, 1 should never 
have thought it possible that he was possessed of 
the remarkable sagacity and ability which he sub- 
sequently displayed, and with which he was from 
the first credited by Lord Greorge, as the foUo^viIlg 
letter shows : — 

•* Harcourt House, 2d Marc/i 1848. 

" My dear Mr Croker, — I have been so busy, 
sitting long days and six days a week on two 
committees, that I forgot to write to you. 

" You ask me of Disraeli's manner of speaking 
and effectiveness in debate. I will answer you by 
giving my brother Henry's observation on the 
various speakers in the House. Henry is rather 
a cynical critic. He expressed himself as greatly 



HIS OPINION OF MR DISRAEU's ABILITIES. 429 

disappointed with Sir Robert Peel and Lord John 
Russell, and concluded by saying that Disraeli is 
the only man he had heard who at all came up to 
his ideas of an orator. 

" Disraeli's speeches this session have been first- 
rate. His last speech, altogether burked in the 

* Times,' but pretty well given in the * Post,' was 
admirable. He cuts Cobden to ribbons ; and Cob- 
den writhes and quails under him just as Peel did 
in 1846. And mark my words — spite of Lord 
Stanley, Major Beresford, Mr Phillips, and the 

* Herald,' it will end before two sessions are out in 
Disraeli being the chosen leader of the party, but 
not, I think, under Lord Stanley's banner, whether 
the latter turns his coat on the Jew Bill or not. — 
Always most sincerely yours, G. Bentinck." 

This was the last letter, so far as I know, that 
Lord George ever wrote to Mr Croker, and to the 
latter it must have been gall and wormwood, as 
Ml' Croker's detestation of Mr Disraeli, who had 
ridiculed him in conversation and caricatured him 
in his novel of 'Coningsby' under the name of 
"Mr Rigby," was well known. Referring to this 
letter, the editor of Mr Croker's * Con^espondence 
and Diaries' remarks that it was written in the 
midst of a great pressure of business, as, in addition 
to his usual parliamentary duties, Lord George 
Bentinck was serving on two important committees 
— first, on that to inquire into the state of the 



430 POLITICAL CAREER. 

sugar and coffee interests ; and secondly, on that 
which was seeking to ascertain the causes of the 
prevailing commercial distress. We learn fix)m 
the same source that the energy, application, and 
zeal which he brought to his new avocations were 
never exceeded by any man in Parliament. " This 
was the period of his life," says Mr Disraeli, 
" wh^n he was frequently in the habit of working 
eighteen hours in the day, and when he made 
great progress towards acquiring the habit of liv- 
ing without food, for he breakfasted on dry toast, 
and took no sustenance all day or all night, until 
Parliament was up, when he dined at White's 
Club at half-past two o'clock in the morning." 

I have read all the books within my reach which 
deal with my dear and honoured master's political 
career ; but neither Mr Disraeli's * Political Bio- 
gi^aphy ' nor Mr Greville's * Diaries,' nor any of 
the many Lives of the Fourteenth Earl of 
Derby, give such insight into Lord George Ben- 
tinck's character as the last volume of ' The Croker 
Papers,' published in 1884. The letters from Lord 
George to Mr Croker are seventeen in number, the 
first being dated on June 30, 1847, and the last on 
March 2, 1848, so that they cover a space of little 
more than eight months. Within them, however, 
may be found the germs of what Lord George was, 
and I venture to think that they explain the ex- 
traordinary ascendancy gained in less than two 
years by a statesman — for as such I shall always 



CHARACTER-SKETCH OF LORD GEORGE. 431 

regard him — of the purest and most disinterested 
character, of dauntless courage, and with an entire 
absence of personal vanity and conceit. Before 
quoting from two or three of these letters, I must 
permit myself the pleasure of citing the following 
passage from the pen of the editor of the * Croker 
Papers ' : — 

** Lord George Bentinck is a unique figure in our 
history. No one before or since has ever entered 
political life under circumstances so remarkable, or 
made such rapid strides towards distinction in an 
equal period of time. All his parliamentary repu- 
tation was achieved in about two years. It is true 
that he had been a long time in the House, but 
most people supposed that he cared for nothing 
in the world except horses ; and for some years 
undoubtedly he did not. That a power of master- 
ing facts and accumulating information was among 
his natural gifts, his letters amply testify. But 
the Turf engrossed his whole being, and he pur- 
sued it, in Mr Disraeli's words, ' on a scale that 
has never been equalled.' When he went to the 
House he seldom remained long, and appeared to 
take very little interest in the debates. He spoke 
unwillingly and with diflSculty. Such was the 
man to whom the Protectionists looked for guid- 
ance when they found themselves cast off by Sir 
Robert Peel. 

" In 1847 Lord George Bentinck was prevailed 



483 POLITICAL CABEEB. 

upon to take his seat on the &ont Opposition ben 
It required some management to get him into tt 
position. Repeatedly he had told his fbllowera tl 
they must not look to him as their head — ^that 
would do what he could for a time, but it woi 
only he for a time. Apparently, however, ] 
Disraeli persuaded him to take the tiauaJ pit 
assigned to the Opposition leader. Througbo 
that sesfflon he worked on with great steadfastn* 
and coiutige. As an orator he might never ha 
made a brilliant reputation ; but if no dazEli 
flights of eloquence marked his brief career, 
greatly stirred curiosity, delivered many efiecti 
speeches, and sometimes roused his supporters 
genuine enthusiasm." 

Perhaps the most remarkable letters of tho 
written by Lord George Bentinck to Mr Crok 
are, first, the one bearing the date of " Welbec 
27th September 1847," on the export and impo: 
trade of this country ; secondly, that written tw 
days later, on the question of Jewish disabilitie 
for the removal of which Lord George had alwaj 
voted ; thirdly, that from Welbeck on October i 
1847, in which he dilated upon his own disqual 
fications for the post of leader of the Oppoa 
tion ; and, fourthly, that from Harcourt Housf 
London, November 3, 1847, on the Bank Charte 
Act of 1844. 

These four letters, showing, I venture to think 



LORD GEORGE AND THE FARMING INTEREST. 433 

the modesty and also the indomitable perseverance 
of my noble master, justify me in believing that if 
his invaluable life had been spared, and he had 
continued to give his strenuous attention to politics, 
he would have played a very prominent and dis- 
tinguished part in public life. Such was, however, 
his inflexibility, that I question whether he would 
have remained in Parliament after the complete 
triumph of Free Trade. The one individual who 
gained most by Lord George's death was undoubt- 
edly Mr Disraeli, in whom there was a pliancy and a 
disposition to make the best of the inevitable which 
were wholly absent from Lord George's composition. 
The latter would never have given up his advocacy 
of Protection ; and, moreover, he never would have 
forgiven Mr Disraeli and others who had stood by 
his side as Protectionists for abandoning the con- 
test and making terms with the enemy. 

It was Lord George's conviction, often expressed 
by him in my hearing, that 45s. a quarter for Eng- 
lish wheat spelt ruin to the farmer. His predic- 
tions as to the decay of the agricultural interest 
in these islands, consequent upon the repeal of the 
Corn Laws in 1846, were truly prophetic, and have 
been verified to the letter. Whether it is to the 
advantage of the British race that the great urban 
populations should get a so-called cheap loaf at the 
cost of ruining the landlords, farmers, and farm 
labourers, it is for the future, and for wiser heads 
than mine, to determine. 

2 E 






434 POLITICAL CAAEER. 

In the July of 1847 came the long-expected 
solution, Parliament having all but lived out 
full period. When the contest was over, it 
found that the relative strength of both pai 
remained pretty much what it had been bel 
Among the members elected to the new Parlian 
was included Baron Lionel Rothschild, 'who 
returned for the City of London. This circumsti 
revived the question of the removal of Je'wish 
abilities, which had been long and frequently 
cuased. From 1830 to 1840 a Jew was a sor 
pai-iah in the body politic. He was not allow© 
vote if he refused to take the elector's oath ; 
could not practise at the bar, or be an attomej 
keep a school, or be employed as an usher or ti 
in public. Gradually concessions were made ui 
in 1847, the only civic privilege from which a . 
was excluded was the right to sit in Parliann 
When Baron Rothschild was returned in that v 
Lonl John Russell, tlien Prime Minister, brou, 
in a Bill to enable the Baron to take his seat. 
was opjjosed by the Conservative party genera 
but, as on previous occasions, Lord George B 
tinck voted for it, giving gi'eat dissatisfaction 
many of his followers. They conveyed to 1 
" their keen sense of disapprobation," and 
haughty spirit immediately took Hre at the 
buke. Towards the close of the year he resigi 
the leadership of the Opposition — a post wh 
he had never sought, and was beginning to f 



LETTER TO MR GROKER. 435 

very distasteful. At the opening of the session 
of 1848 he walked up to the head of the second 
bench below the gangway on the Opposition side, 
and thus significantly announced that he was no 
longer the head of the Protectionist party. His 
place was taken with apparent reluctance by Mr 
Disraeli, who from that moment forward, until 
he went to the Upper House, never ceased to 
be the leader of the Conservative party in the 
Commons. 

It was under these circumstances that Lord 
George wrote from Welbeck, on October 5, 1847, 
the following letter : — 

*' My DEAR Mr Croker, — My services, such as 
they are, shall always be at the command of any 
one who, like yourself, can put the facts which I 
am able to collect with more force and in a more 
striking light before the world. 

" Virtually an uneducated man, never intended 
or attracted by taste for a political life, in the 
House of Commons only by a pure accident — in- 
deed by an undesired and inevitable chance — I am 
well aware of my own incapacity properly to fill 
the station I have been thrust into. My sole ambi- 
tion was to rally the broken and dispirited forces of 
a betrayed and insulted party, and to avenge the 
country gentlemen and landed aristocracy of Eng- 
land upon the minister who, presuming upon their 
weakness, falsely flattered himself that they could 



436 POLITICAL CAREER. 

be trampled upon with impunity. — Always yours 
most sincerely, G. Bentinck." 

In this letter the spirit and character of my 
noble master are conspicuously portrayed. I have 
reason to know that he felt his fall fix)m the 
prominent place of leader of the Protectionist 
party, in which he had achieved such wonders, 
more keenly than he allowed outsidera to perceive. 
One eflfect of the slight suspension of the pressure 
of his parliamentary duties resulting from his 
resignation of the leadership of the Opposition 
was that he occasionally attended a race meeting, 
and was present at Newmarket in 1848 to see the 
Two Thousand Guineas run for, which race was 
won by Mr B. Green's Flatcatcher, in the absence, 
as I have stated in a previous chapter, of Lord 
Clifden's Surplice and Loadstone, both of them 
bred by Lord George Bentinck, and both engaged 
in the Two Thousand, which either could have won. 
Upon the day of the race Lord George was, as 
usual, upon horseback, and in the afternoon he 
rode up to the carriage in which those two beautiful 
sisters, the Countess of Chesterfield and the Hon- 
ourable Mrs Anson (the latter being the wife of 
Lord George's intimate friend. Colonel Anson) were 
seated. Mrs Anson looked at Lord George long 
and wistfully, and rising in her seat, and throwing 
her whole heart into her voice, exclaimed, " George, 
come back to us, and leave those dreadful politics 



SIGNS OF ILL HEALTH. 437 

alone, or, take my word for it, they will kill you 
before another year has passed away."^ 

Her words were, indeed, prophetic, and they 
have often reminded me of the last interview I 
ever had with his Lordship at Harcourt House, 
on which occasion Mr Disraeli was present. I 
had been much distressed on perceiving the de- 
teriorating eflfect upon Lord George's health pro- 
duced by his long-sustained and close application, 
by his confinement to his own room, hour after 
hour, without getting a breath of fresh air, and 
by his neglecting to take necessary nourishment. 
His countenance was no longer animated, cheerful, 
and suffused with the glow of health, as when he 
spent long hours in exercise on the invigorating 
Goodwood Downs. Furthermore, his piercing, in- 
terrogating eye, which looked you through and 
through, had lost its lustre. On the occasion 
above referred to I entered the room at Harcourt 
House, and found his Lordship seated on one side 
of the fireplace and Mr Disraeli on the other. 
The floor was literally covered with papers, letters, 
and documents, and a kind of rampart built up 
with blue books ran between me and his Lordship. 
As I hesitated to approach for fear of displacing 
some of these barriers, he said to me in a re- 
assuring tone, " Come up nearer, John ; don't be 
afi:-aid of stepping over the piles of books or 

1 For information as to this incident I owe my best thanks to 
Mr Edmund Tattersall, who witnessed it, and re))eated it to me. 



438 POLITICAL CAREER. 

treading on the papers, although I have forbidden 
Mrs Jones, the housekeeper, ever to touch them, 
for in putting them to rights, as she sometimes 
presumes to do, I find that she puts them very 
much to wrongs." 

Presently Lord George left the room, and Mr 
Disraeli took the opportunity of accosting* me: 
'* What do you think, Kent," he asked, " of all 
these papers ? " My reply was, " I should much 
prefer, sir, to see * Racing Calendars ' substituted 
for them ; and this I say, not for my own interest, 
but for the sake of his Lordship's health, which is 
being undermined by long confinement in London, 
and by the total stoppage of that open-air exercise 
to which he has been all his life accustomed." 
*' You are quite right," rejoined Mr Disraeli, ** but 
you know his Lordship as well as I do. When he 
takes anything up in earnest, it is useless to at- 
tempt to dissuade him from persisting in it." I 
could but shake my head mournfully ; and when 
I took my departure that day, a sad presentiment 
flashed across my mind that never again should 
I meet and converse with Lord Geortre Bentiiick 
in Harcourt House. 

I well remember the surprise and astonishment 
with which Lord George's unsurpassed power of 
mastering details and laying his conclusions before 
the House was received by many of his friends, 
who had known him for years, as well as by the 
general public. His fundamental policy was to 



HIS SYMPATHETIC DISPOSITION. 439 

encourage domestic trade, and stimulate home la- 
bour. One of his favourite illustrations was that 
a £5 note spent at home was turned over a dozen 
times or more in a year, whereas if sent abroad 
it did not return in twelve months, if at all. 
That British labour should find constant, well- 
paid employment from British capital, was the 
main aspiration of Lord George's life. An earnest 
desire to amend the unsatisfactory condition of the 
labourers in 1846 had much to do with inducing 
him to take an active part in politics. The mis- 
ery to which Ireland was reduced by the failure 
of the potato crop was felt also in England and 
Scotland ; and, if Lord George could have had 
his way, he would have sent all the available 
ships of her Majesty's navy to New York, to 
bring back bread-stuffs for the starving masses 
at home. His idea of Protection was as generous 
as his own disposition. He had no desire rigidly 
to exclude foreign com by building up a Chinese 
wall forbidding its introduction until British wheat 
was fetching prohibitive prices — say, 100s. a quar- 
ter, at which it had often been quoted at the 
beginning of the present century. Be it recorded 
to his credit that, in view of famine in Ireland, 
he offered no obstruction to the free importation 
of corn ; on the contrary, what he did object to 
was that, in September, October, and November 
1846, seventeen of her Majesty's war-ships were 
lying in the Tagus " taking care," as he expressed 



U'-v 



POIjncU. CAllEER. 

\t.. ( ...l ... ■■ ...*rl..- I 1 



tt: . uf the CiwwruujHtii. 

I. (lie 

II .L ..Ml 

oi Mt Pitt ntitl Ml' I'ttauttig', to pruvHh* tflipeiMb 
fur tilt* Runiaii Ciitliutt« c)hi;|Q' in livltuid ; and, us 
1 liAvr Alrt>iuJj 8tatt<d. ho ptitpMnl lo aVhiuiiw 
£16.000.000 t» bu L<x'pe<>iJi*<i i^ In-Luit) tiu i7iilvvu)'a 
i.iMlotlu-1 :. " ■ • •'• 

III l^ I ■ vion openerl wHJl 

n motion ' . i ->nl G«org», Kirfut^[ 

tor n Stflooi CunniJttvr to inqiiini iitto tbi? )>r«(ienk 



for tbrir tvltcf." The Oxninitte*- wa« j^nuit'-^i. and 
witiicvw* of every clwai ff^uittvtnl with tht? «uhJMt 
— moiThitnts. filontvrv. dtstilUrs. I)n>k0iv, membm 
^.^f r '■ -'niljirle* ol'SUU-, Mm! East Indm 

il' ' ^id^rticv brft**; it, with thf tvsull 

It _- who wa* Cbunn*u, CMm^d hk 

r- -Iv t^ntiUMvd bia pwfmtatktc «s • 

H-- liiii su," writes the MtixnBtoua »uthot ..f 



440 FOUTIGAL CABEEB. 

it in a letter to Mr Croker, ** of the Queen's oouon,'' 
which, if sent at once to New York, might have 
brought back 100,000 quarters of grain, and saved 
a large proportion of a million Irish lives, sacrificed 
through the laches of the Government. 

Undoubtedly Lord George, if he had ever held 
high office, would have been a &vourite with the 
Irish. It was his earnest desire, following the lead 
of Mr Pitt and Mr Canning, to provide stipends 
for the Boman Catholic clergy in Ireland ; and, as 
I have already stated, he proposed to advance 
£16,000,000 to be expended in Ireland on railwajrs 
and other public works. 

In 1848 the parliamentary session opened ^th 
a motion, brought forward by Lord George, asking 
for a Select Committee to " inquire into the present 
condition and prospects of the interests connected 
with and dependent on sugar and coffee planting 
in her Majesty's East and West Indian possessions, 
and in Mauritius ; and to consider whether any, 
and what, measures can be adopted by Parliament 
for their relief." The Committee was granted, and 
witnesses of every class connected with the subject 
— merchants, planters, distillers, brokers, members 
of Parliament, Secretaries of State, and East India 
directors — gave evidence before it, with the result 
that Lord George, who was Chairman, carried his 
report, and greatly enhanced his reputation as a 
laborious and able leader. 

" He did so," writes the anonymous author of 



442 POLITICAL CABEER. 

Kingdom is poorer by four hundred millions of 
pounds than it was twenty years ago, and that 
thousands upon thousands of acres upon tfa^ 
wheat-growing farms in these islands cannot be 
tilled so long as wheat remains at 30s. a quarter, 
I cannot but reflect what my two honoured 
masters, the fifth Duke of Richmond and Lord 
George Bentinck, foretold, and what they would 
have thought of the present condition of affiurs. 
These illustrious and enlightened men advocated 
protection, not for British agriculturists alone, 
but also for British manufactiu^ers. I am as- 
sured by those better informed than myself that 
if ever fre0 trade is overthrown in this country, 
the change will be effected, not by the agricul- 
tiuists, but by the commercial classes. 

It was dining this memorable session, and less 
than a month before his death, that Lord Greorge 
addressed the foUowinor letter to Mr Disi'aeli : — 

"Harcourt House, 
Wednesday, Aiig. 30, 1848, 4.30 A.M. 

" I have just come home fi'om the House of 
Commons, after a sitting of fifteen hours and a 
half — the longest but one, I believe, on record. 
Late as it is, I send you the report of the self- 
constituted Committee on Savings Banks in Ire- 
land. The Bill was only printed yesterday, and 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer forces us into 
a consideration of it at eleven o'clock at night. 



A VOLUMINOUS CORRESPONDENT. 443 

after Lord John Russell has gone to bed, and we 
are kept at it after all the reporters have gone to 
bed too. I think it a most scandalous proceeding 
on the part of Government." 

It will be observed that at the head of nearly 
all the letters from Lord George to Mr Croker 
which are included in the ' Croker Papers/ the 
word "Extract" is printed. This leads me to 
observe that a more voluminous correspondent 
than Lord George was probably never known. 
As I have already mentioned, I have frequently 
received letters from him on racing subjects which 
covered seven or eight sheets of note-paper, and 
some of those sent to Mr Croker must have been 
still longer. Not less remarkable is the wide 
range of subjects treated in his letters to the 
latter, and the fulness and accuracy of the in- 
formation which he contrived to accumulate. I 
had long been aware that his Lordship's financial 
ability was of a very high order, but I was not 
prepared for the research and knowledge dis- 
played in his letters and speeches on such sub- 
jects as the Bank Charter Act. 

I have heard it stated by some of those who 
were among Lord George's audience that his 
speeches, though enhanced by no rhetorical arts, 
commanded as much attention as those of any of 
the great orators of the day. Even Mr Charles 
Greville admits that, although Lord George's Irish 



444 POLITICAL OARRKR, 

speech was 'Wery tiresome/' and lasted neaily 
three hours, '' it was listened to with profound and 
respectfiil interest from first to last." The 'Annual 
Register ' for 1847 devotes ten columns to summar- 
ising it, and its report concludes as follows : — 

" The noble Lord then returned to his panegjnric 
on the character of the Irish people, eulogising 
their patience under the most direfrd sufiferings, 
and saying that if by his measure he could fill 
them with good beef and mutton, and their cottages 
with fine wheat-flour and sound beer, ajid their 
pockets with English gold to purchase the blankets 
of Wiltshire, the fustians of Bradford, and the 
cotton prints of Manchester, he, though a Saxon, 
would answer with his head for their loyalty, and 
would lead them, through their warm hearts and 
sympathies, not to sever but to cement the union 
of Ireland with England. The noble Lord con- 
cluded a speech which had lasted more than two 
and a half hours amid cheers from all sides of the 
House." ' 

It must also be remembered that all the questions 
with which Lord George dealt were of colossal mag- 
nitude, and that he handled them with the grasp 

^ The speech ref eri'ed to in this extract from the * Annual Begis- 
ter ' was heard from the gallery of the House of Commons by that 
universal favourite, Dr William H. Bussell, who was then a parlia- 
mentary reporter. After listening to it with rapt attention, Dr 
Bussell repaired to the * Times' office, and told Mr Delane, Ms 
editor, that if ever Lord George Bentinck became Prime Minister, 
the woes of Ireland (Dr BusselFs native country) would soon be 
redressed. — Ed. 



LABORIOUS LIFE WHILE IN PARLIAMENT. 445 

of a master, and on the same scale as his operations 
on the Turf. 

I do not believe that any member of Parliament 
ever went for so long a period through such la- 
borious days and nights as Lord George Bentinck 
did. At whatever hour he went to bed — and it 
was usually 4 a.m. before he laid his head upon the 
pillow — his breakfast, consisting of one boiled egg 
and a couple of slices of dry toast, was on the table 
at 8 A.M. precisely. After reading his enormous 
correspondence, he began to receive visitors at 9.30 
A.M. They called to give him information on all 
kinds of subjects, and his purse was always open 
to them. When they left, he plunged into the 
elaborate correspondence which each day brought, 
conducting it entirely with his own hand, in a 
writing so clear and legible as to put to shame 
the scrawl which nowadays is affected by so many 
public men. At twelve o'clock (noon) he went 
down to sit on some Committee, and he only left the 
Committee-room to take his seat, without touch- 
ing food, in the House of Commons, which he 
never quitted until it was adjourned. In the 
House he never missed an opportunity of enforc- 
ing or vindicating his own opinions, and of watch- 
ing with lynx-like vigilance the conduct by Gov- 
ernment of public business. Nothing daunted 
him — nothing exhausted his resources ; once con- 
vinced that he was in the right, no show of 
authority, no parade of official experience, no 



POLITICAL CAnEElt. 

aj of superior ability, knowledge, or eloquence 
possessed by an opponent, could make him airaid 
In common with some old friends who think with 
me and are of the same opinion — to one of whom I 
am indebted for much valuable iufomiatioii in vrrh- 
ing this chapter — I have formed my estimate of 
the nobility and magnanimity of Lord George's 
character in consonance with what I have here 
stated. Personal ambition, conceit, and vanity 
he had none ; but, as he often showed in the 
racing world, his self-reliance and fearle-ssness 
were unljounded, and he would never trust any 
other man to do what he could do himself. He 
bi'ought the same self- sacrificing spirit to bear 
upon politics, and his life was the forfeit. In 
his opinions he may, or may not, have been mis- 
taken ; but that he held them with perfect disin- 
terestedness, and without a thought of self, will be 
denied by none who knew him as I was privil^ed 
to do. 



447 



CHAPTER XX. 

DEATH OF LORD GEORGE BENTIXCK. 

It is with a lively sense of pain and grief, which 
the lapse of more than forty years has not yet 
extinguished, that I approach the closing scene 
of a life so prematurely ended at a moment when 
it was fullest of promise. Mr Disraeli remarks that 
the labours of Lord Greorge Bentinck had been 
so superhuman from the day when, in 1845, he 
had been trying to find a lawyer to compose a 
speech for him to deliver in Parliament, until 
the end of the session of 1848, that every one 
ought to have prognosticated at the latter period 
that it was impossible for them to be continued 
much longer upon such an exhausting scale. *' No 
fiiend," adds the future Prime Minister, "could, 
however, control his eager spirit. He obeyed the 
law of his fiery and vehement nature, being one 
of those men who, in whatever they undertake, 
know no medium, but will succeed or die, come 
what may." The two friends parted for the last 
time on the steps of Harcourt House — the last of 



448 DEATH OF LORD GBOBGB BENTIKCK. 

the great hotels of an age of stately Dianners, with 
its wings, courtyard, carriage-portal, and huge out- 
ward walls. ''Lord George/' adds Mr Disraeli, 
''put forth his hand to bid me farewell, and lus 
last words were characteristic of the man, of his 
warm feelings and ruling passion : ' God bless you ! 
we must work, and the country will come round to 
us yet.'" 

It is evident that some foreboding of the coming 
tragedy must have crossed Mr Disraeli's mind at 
that final interview, for he immediately proceeds 
to say : " But why talk or think of death ? He goes 
to his native county and his father's proud domain 
to breathe the air of his boyhood, and move amid 
the parks and scenes of his youth. Every breeze 
will bear health on its wings, and the sight of 
every hallowed haunt will stimulate his pulse. 
He is scarcely older than Julius Caesar when he 
commenced his public career ; he looks as high and 
as brave, and he springs from a long-lived race." 
Yet if any gloomy presentiment suggested itself on 
this occasion to Mr Disraeli's thoughts, it can be 
shown beyond doubt by many irrefutable evidences 
that Lord George went down to Welbeck fiill of 
energy and hope. On arriving at the home of 
his childhood, he was thought by some of his 
attached relatives — and never was son or brother 
more beloved — to be looking worn and pale. Noth- 
ing, however, appears to have been said to him on 
the subject in a family always noted for reticence and 



DONCASTER RACES. 449 

undemonstrativeness. Lord George seemed to all 
who came in contact with him, between his arrival 
at Welbeck on Monday, the 11th of September 
1848, and the day of his death, September 21, to 
regard himself as in the best of health. It is cer- 
tain that he was in excellent spirits, and also that 
he greatly enjoyed the change of scene and the 
freshness of the country air after his long incar- 
ceration in London. 

On Tuesday, September 12, 1848, the first day 
of Doncaster Races came round. Lord George at- 
tended the meeting as usual from Welbeck Abbey, 
which is twenty-five miles distant from Doncaster, 
and was greatly interested in the success of Lord 
Eglinton's magnificent colt, the Flying Dutchman, 
for the Champagne Stakes, which he won in a 
canter against four competitors. Lord George 
watched the Flying Dutchman's grand action with 
the closest attention, because he was the son of 
his old stallion Bay Middleton (then the property 
of Lord Clifden), and the best animal that ever 
sprang from Bay Middleton's loins. In the 
Municipal Stakes, of 300 sovereigns each, he wit- 
nessed the triumph of another son of Bay Middle- 
ton, Tiresome by name, whom he had himself bred 
and sold as a foal to Mr Mostyn in 1846. The 
Doncaster meeting was, indeed, fiill of attractive- 
ness to Lord George, who had not gone down to 
Epsom on the Derby day to see Surplice, the son 
of his old favourite Crucifix, win the " blue ribbon 

2 F 



450 DEATH OF LOKD GE0B6E BENTINGK. 

of the Turf." It had always been Liord George's 
ctistom to back any good horse that called him 
master for a very large sum^ and it is difficult to 
say what he would not have won in 1848 upon 
Surplice, who in his hands would have carried off 
the Two Thousand, the Derby, and the St Leger. 
In those days it was easy to back horses for treble 
events, and the odds laid against SurpUce winning 
the three great classic races would doubtless have 
been enormous. The feat of winning* the Two 
Thousand, Derby, and St Leger had, in 1848, 
never been accomplished by the same horse. The 
only winner of the Derby and St Leger down to 
that year was Mr Christopher Wilson's Champion, 
who, in 1800, won the Derby in a field of thirteen 
starters, and the St Leger in a field of ten. But, 
in 1800, the Two Thousand Guineas did not exist, 
as the race was not established until 1809, and 
was won, oddly enough, by Mr Wilson's Wizard. 

That, in 1848, it was deemed to be in the highest 
degree improbable that the same horse would win 
the Derby and St Leger, is shown by the facility 
with which Mr Francis Villiers and his friends 
succeeded in getting large bets at 100 to 1 against 
Surplice landing the double event, after he had 
been tried to be a great horse a few days before 
the Derby. I remember that the present Earl of 
Bradford, who was not in the habit either then or 
now of making heavy bets, was tempted to lay the 
late Earl of Winchilsea (then Lord Maidstone) 



SURPLICE WINS THE ST LEGER. 451 

£10,000 to £100 against Surplice winning the 
Derby and St Leger. It is impossible to conceive 
what extreme odds Lord George Bentinck would 
have obtained against Surplice winning what is 
now called " the triple crown," had the colt been 
his property in 1848. Lord George was often 
reported to be extremely anxious to accomplish a 
feat in which no one has ever been successful — the 
feat of "breaking the ring." Never would he 
have had a better chance than if Surplice had 
been in his hands and trained at Goodwood, over 
the finest and most private downs in the world, at 
the time when that great horse was put through 
the mill in 1848. 

It will readily be understood, therefore, that 
Lord George's interest in the St Leger of 1848 
was extremely great. He had backed Surplice 
for it before the Derby, and although the stake 
which he landed at Doncaster — £11,000 — was 
small in comparison with what he would doubtless 
have netted before he sold his stud, it was enough 
to make him watch the race with keen attention. 
The political relations between the fourteenth Earl 
of Derby (then Lord Stanley) and Lord George 
were at that time somewhat strained, and although 
Lord George made no remark on the subject, I 
think it was a gratification to him to see Sur- 
plice beat Lord Stanley's fine mare Canezou, upon 
whom, although beaten, Frank Butler rode a 
magnificent race. 



452 DEATH OF LORD GEOBGB BENT 



I remember that, when the St Leger was over, 
Lord George's eye and countenance ^were radiant 
with some of the old fire which I had seen re- 
flected by them on many previous occasions. 
That he must have inwardly regretted to have 
allowed such a horse as Surplice to pass out of 
his hands it is impossible to doubt. I have lately 
seen a letter addressed to a firiend of his by the late 
Sir William Gregory, who, as my readers are al- 
ready aware, was intimately acquainted with, and a 
great admirer of, Lord George Bentinck. I should 
premise that, in 1838, Lord Chesterfield's Don John 
won the St Leger in a canter against a small but 
good field. As Lord George was walking off the 
course he fell in with Sir William Gregory, and 
addressed him as follows : — 

" I am now on my way home to discharge the 
weary task of making out my betting- book, in 
which I have not one winning bet. But I de- 
clare I would rather be in this position than in 
that occupied by my Lord Chesterfield, who has 
won a paltry £1500 on such a horse! If Don 
John had been mine I would not have left a card- 
seller in Doncaster with a shii't to his back." 

It is probable that some such thoughts as these 
must have passed through Lord George's mind 
when he saw Surplice wear Lord Stanley's Canezou 
down in the Doncaster St Leger of 1848, and win 
by indomitable pluck and stoutness. There can 



POLITICS MORE EXPENSIVE THAN RACING. 453 

be no doubt that about that time Lord George 
was beginning to tire of politics, which thus far 
had brought him nothing but disappointment, 
while imposing heavy demands upon his pocket. 
In this impression I am confirmed by the letter 
which he wrote to me from Welbeck on the day 
following the St Leger of 1848, bidding me meet 
him on the following Saturday at the Turf Tavern, 
Doncaster, behind which his Lordship's old pad- 
docks were situated, which, on his withdrawal 
from the Turf, passed into the Earl of Glasgow's 
hands. When I met Lord George on the ap- 
pointed day, he immediately remarked to me : 
" I found racing expensive when I was mixed 
up with it, but nothing like so expensive as poli- 
tics, for I never saw such a hungry lot of fellows 
as these politicians ; they are never satisfied ! I 
want you, therefore, to pick out eight or ten horses 
for me, and I will have another try at the Turf. 
You and I got on very well together before, and I 
have no doubt that we shall do so again." 

Of course I was overjoyed to hear that my dear 
old master had resolved to return to the arena in 
which he had once been so conspicuous, and I can 
truly say that my satisfaction was greater on his 
account than on my own. I then ventured to ask 
him what kind of horses he wished me to purchase 
for him, and of what age. He replied at once, and 
with unusual cordiality, " I leave it entirely to 



464 DEATH OF LORD GBOBOE BBNTINCK. 

you. You may buy anything that you oonader 
likely to do us all good." These were almost the 
last words I ever heard issue from XiOrd George 
Bentinck's lips, and the emotion with which I 
now write them down wiU be fiiUy appreciated and 
understood by those (they are now few in number) 
who remember the pride and affection with which 
I endeavoured to do my duty towards a beloved 
and honoured employer, whose equal, I am per- 
suaded, has not been seen among patrons of the 
Turf in my time. 

On Saturday afternoon the 16th of September 
1848, Lord Greorge retiuned, on the conclusion of 
the Doncaster meeting, to Welbeck Abbey, where 
the usual family party were assembled. Lord 
George's mother had died on April 28, 1844, and 
after her much-lamented decease there was little 
company entertained at the Abbey. It might 
have been imagined that at Welbeck Lord George 
would have eaten more food than it was his custom 
to partake of in London, where he had to attend 
the House of Commons, and possibly to make a 
speech, or at any rate to be prepared to make one. 
Much as he needed rest, he continued to work as 
hard in the country as in town, and it was his 
fixed belief that he could never do himself justice 
unless he had eaten next to nothing. It was the 
opinion of many of his friends, as it certainly was 
my own, that if he had taken as much nourishment 
as most brain-workers are in the habit of doing, 



HIS LAST LETTERS. 455 

he would with his splendid constitution, and with 
physical powers upon which, until 1846, no severe 
draught had been made, have sustained for many 
years the stupendous labour which he imposed 
upon himself in 1847 and 1848, until the "golden 
bowl " yielded to the strain and was prematurely 
broken. When I remember that Lord Winmar- 
leigh, who has only just died, was born in the 
same year as Lord George, it reopens the old 
wounds inflicted upon me long ago by the latter's 
premature death. 

On Thursday, the 21st of September 1848, Lord 
George came down to breakfast at Welbeck Abbey 
at the usual time. Never did he appear to be in 
better health or spirits than on that day. He oc- 
cupied himself during the greater part of the morn- 
ing in writing three letters in his dressing-room, 
and studying several printed papers. Of these 
three letters, the first was addressed to the Duke 
of Richmond, intimating that it was its writer's 
intention to return to the Turf; the second to 
Mr Disraeli ; and the third to the then Lord 
Enfield, who subsequently became the second 
Earl of Strafford. To the last named of the 
three it was a matter of no ordinary satis- 
faction, and so remained until his death, that 
"the ultimate words traced by his old fiiend 
George Bentinck's hand were addressed to him." 
Of these letters each was of very considerable 
length, and Mr Disraeli mentions that the one 



456 DEATH OF LOBD GEORGE BENTINCK. 

received by him ^'consisted of seven sheets of 
note-paper, full of interesting details of men and 
things, and written not only in a cheerfiil, but 
even in a merry mood." When these lettera were 
concluded and sealed, it is morally certain that 
not a thought of the impending calamity had 
entered their writer's mind. He had so much to 
think of, so much to do, that no time remained 
for him to consider his health, or to take heed of 
the many warnings which others under similar 
circumstances could not have failed to recognise. 
" He that saveth his life shall lose it," was often 
on his Lordship's Hps, when any one in his employ 
seemed over -anxious about his own health, and 
disposed to shirk work. One member of the family 
who sat down to breakfast that memorable morn- 
ing at Welbeck told a friend of mine subsequently 
that he noticed the unusual pallor of Lord George's 
countenance when he entered the breakfast-room. 
There can be no doubt, however, as I have alreadv 
said, that his Lordship's spirits were more than or- 
dinarily bright and gay. I come now to details 
which, even after a long lapse of years, are too sad 
for me to attempt to clothe in language. The 
best and simplest account is that given in the 
* Annual Register,' from which I quote the follow- 
ing words : — 

**The announcement of the sudden death of 
Lord George Bentinck on September 21, under 



THE INQUEST. 457 

the melancholy circumstances detailed in the evi- 
dence given at the inquest, caused universal 
astonishment and sorrow ; but was nowhere re- 
ceived with such sorrow as at Goodwood, except, 
of course, in the neighbourhood of Welbeck Abbey. 
The inquest was held at Welbeck Abbey on the 
day following his Lordship's death, by Mr Falkner, 
Coroner of Newark, and a jury of gentlemen far- 
mers. The jury inspected the corpse. 'Death,' 
says the report, * had left no painful trace on the 
features of the departed nobleman ; a cheerful smile 
was diffiised over the face.' 

" William Parks, a footman who waited at the 
breakfast - table on Thursday morning, deposed 
that Lord George never seemed in better health 
or spirits than at breakfast. He took no luncheon, 
and for the greater part of the morning was occu- 
pied in his dressing-room. He remained at home 
till twenty minutes past four p.m., and then set 
out for Thoresby Park, where he was going to 
spend a couple of days with Lord Manvers. Two 
* witnesses, Lenthall a stableman, and Evans a 
woodman, then deposed to having seen Lord 
George on his walk towards Thoresby. Bichard 
Evans said : ' On Thursday afternoon I was re- 
turning home with my father, and with John Mee, 
a fellow - labourer, when we saw a gentleman, 
whom I did not know, standing against the gate 
on the road to the water-meadows. We thought 
at the time that it was the Marquis of Titchfield. 



458 DEATH OF LOED GBORQE BENTINCK. 

My father and Mee continued along the road, and 
I stood for a minute or two looking at the gentle* 
man. While I was standing he turned round and 
looked towards the kennels. I thought he was 
reading, as, before he turned round, he held his 
head down. He was still standing at the gate when 
I walked on. I was about two hundred yards fixHn 
the gate ; it was about half-past four o'clock.' 

''Lenthall the stable-helper, who drove Gard- 
ner, Lord George Bentinck's valet, to Thoresby, 
related the finding of the body. 'I was called 
out of bed at night and asked if I had seen Lord 
Greorge on my way home, as he had not reached 
Thoresby. I got up, and along with Grardner 
the valet, and George Wilson, went to search for 
his Lordship. We took lanterns and followed on 
the foot-road I had seen him taking. We found 
the body of his Lordship lying close to the gate 
which separates the kennel water-meadow. He 
was quite dead, and lying on his face. His hat 
was a yard or two before him, having evidently 
been thrown off* in falling. He was lying flat on- 
his face, and one of his arms was under him. I 
left the men with the body, and immediately 
started off* for Mr Hase, the Worksop sinrgeon. 
A few minutes before we found the body Mr 
Hase had passed on horseback, and asked what 
we were searching for. We declined telling him, 
as we had no idea that any harm had come to his 
Lordship, and did not wish to set rumour floating.' 



THE INQUEST. 459 

"George Wilson, a groom, who accompanied 
Lenthall, deposed : * A little after ten on Thursday 
night, I, along with Richard Evans and William 
Gardner, followed the path leading to the comer of 
the deer park. We found his Lordship lying near 
a gate through which he had passed. He was 
lying on his belly and face. His hat was about 
a yard and a half before him. His hands were 
under his body, and in one of them he grasped 
a walking-stick.^ The stick was partly underneath 
him. I felt his leg, and it was quite stiff and cold. 
A brake was sent for from Welbeck, and in that 
he was removed to the Abbey. I had not seen 
him that morning. There was a little blood upon 
his face. It appeared to have flowed from his Lord- 
ship's nose. Besides that on his face, there was some 
on the grass. The body was not moved until Dr 
Hase came. Gardner and I carried lights with us.' 

"Gardner, the valet, being absent in London on 
the day of the inquest, the Coroner decided that 
his presence was not necessary. 

" Mr Ward, Lord George's regular medical 
attendant, gave evidence as to the post mortem 
examination. He said : * I have this day opened 

^ This walking-stick was presented to Lord G^rge by myself one 
day when he came to Goodwood without his favourite companion, 
which went with him everywhere. After his death, I bought from 
Gardner, his Lordship's valet, the same stick which I had given him, 
and which he grasped in his hand. It was the stick alluded to in 
George Wilson's evidence. It is now at Welbeck Abbey, and is much 
valued by the Duke and Duchess of Portland. — J. K. 



460 DEATH OF LORD GEORGE BENTINCK. 

the body, and am of opinion that he died of spasm 
of the heart. There was very little food in his 
stomach, but there was no morbid appearance 
beyond congestion, which prevailed over the whole 
system. There was emphysema of the lungs, and 
old adhesions from former diseases. The heart was 
large and muscular, and covered with fat. It con- 
tained no blood, and bore the appearance of irreg- 
ular contraction.' 

" A juror inquired as to the state of the brain. 

« Jfr Ward. ' It was perfectly healthy, with the 
exception of a little venous congestion in about the 
same ratio as the other organs.' 

" Another juror asked if Mr Ward supposed the 
blood found on his Lordship's face and on the 
grass to have been produced by the rupture of a 
blood-vessel in the head. Mr Ward said * No ; ' 
his opinion being that blood flowed from the 
nose in consequence of the deceased falling on 
his face. 

" The jury immediately returned a verdict of, 
* Died by the visitation of God — to wit, by a spasm 
of the heart.' " 

Such is the cold and simple record of the oflicial 
chronicler. Mr Disraeli adds that the attack, sup- 
posed to be spasm of the heart, was not instan- 
taneous in its effects, and with proper remedies 
might have been baffled. He says, " Terrible to 
think of him in his death-struggle, and so near a 



WIDESPREAD GRIEF AT HIS DEATH. 



devoted hearth ! '' To me, however, it appears 
more probable that Lord George died, as he had 
prefeiTed to live, a lonely and inaccessible man. 
It would have been easy for him, by lifting his 
hand, to have summoned to his aid the woodman 
Evans, and the latter's companion. He could 
hardly have been unconscious of the near ap- 
proach of death while leaning against the gate, 
close to which his body was found. From my 
intimate acquaintance with his Lordship's char- 
acter and iron courage, I am convinced that he 
preferred to die alone. 

It is seldom that the death of a statesman pro- 
vokes such general consternation, snch widespread 
grief. On the morrow of the announcement of 
Lord George's death, all the British ships in the 
docks and the river, from London Bridge to 
Gravesend, hoisted their flags half-mast high. 
Every neighbouring port on the Continent, such 
as Antwerp, Havi-o, Cherbourg, Bordeaux, and 
Rotterdam, followed the example set on tbe 
Thames. Most of all, however, was his Lord- 
ship's death bewailed with their customary warm- 
heartedness and sympathy by Irishmen all over 
the world. His lofty independence of party ties, 
exemplified by bis support of Catholic emancipa- 
■ tioD, of justice to Ireland, of a reformed Parlia- 
rnent, and of the removal of Jewish disabilities, 
Ijpive him a higher place in the public estimation 
Ijtiian that won by any of his contempoi-aries. 





462 DEATH OF LORD OEORQE BENTINCK. 

Cold, proud, and reserved as he often appeared, 
never was there a warmer and more sympathetic 
heart than beat in his breast. 

The body was moved from Welbeck to Haroourt 
House, Cavendish Square, and, a week after Lord 
Greorge's death, was laid in the family vault of the 
Bentincks, under the communion table of what is 
now a Chapel of Ease to the Parish Church of St 
Marylebone. The building in question, which looks 
like an old brick bam, is situated in High Street, 
Marylebone, just behind the house in which Charles 
Dickens and his wife parted company for ever. 
Scores of pedestrians since that day have passed to 
and fro imder the east window of that dingy little 
chapel in utter unconsciousness that imder their feet 
there lies all that was mortal of the greatest racing 
man that ever lived. For many years no monument 
was raised to the memory of Lord Greorge. Seven 
years ago, however, his sister, the late Viscountess 
Ossington, caused two slabs of marble to be fixed 
inside the east wall of the chapel in which the 
remains of her ancestors mingle with those of her 
favourite brother in one common repose. On a 
dark and drizzling day Lord Greorge's two brothera, 
the Marquis of Titchfield and Lord Henry Caven- 
dish Bentinck, followed their brother's honoured 
body to the tomb. Theii' father, the venerable 
Duke of Portland, then in his eighty-first year, 
was too feeble to attend the sad ceremony. One, 
however, was present who has himself long since 



LINES BY "the DRUID. 463 

passed away — the late Mr Henry Dixon, better 
known as " The Druid," who in a few simple but 
deeply pathetic Unes has left his record of a, by 
him, never-to-be-forgotten scene. The following 
lines will be found at the end of his ' Post and 
Paddock ' (first edition). They are from the 
opening stanzas of his "Lay of Doncaster Town 
Moor " : — 



1. 



it 



The bells of ancient Marylebone within their towers 



swing, 



But 'tis not to hail a victory, or greet an infant king ; 
They usher in no festival, they honour not a bride, 
But deep death -notes from their iron throats along the 
breezes ride. 



2. 

" Within yon ducal portals, so shadowy and grim, 
A gallant heart lies pulseless, a gallant eye is dim ; 
Lo ! through those portals issuing, in inky-black array. 
Bearing its shrouded passenger, a hearse moves forth to- 
day. 

3. 

"E'en hard men's eyes were glistening as the vault that 

coffin hid, 
And the dark earth rattled dismally on its gilded velvet 

lid: 
Methinks the world's cold sophistry some hearts not wholly 

sears, 
When I viewed the bitter Disraeli in an agony of tears. 



464 DEATH OF LORD GEORGE BENTINCK. 

4. 

** Those tears are worthy of thee ; thou wast with him in 

the van, 
As his cause became more hopeless and his cheek became 

more wan: 
When Cobden overcame him, No tbuge was still liis call. 
And like another Pericles he denied he'd had a fall. 

5. 

" Throw wide his chamber window, let the noontide light 

rush in ; 
Twill wake not one who erst has slept his wakeful sleep 

within : 
That chair and desk will recognise their toil-worn lord no 

more, 
As in winter night or grey twilight he worked till the dock 

told four. 

" Stern in the path of duty, in his heyday of renown, 
'Mid all his proud imaginings the loyal George goes down ; 
As England's tars with Kempenfeldt died 'neath their 

native surf, 
So the death-sweat gathered o'er him as he trod the springy 

turf. 

7. 

"No more shall he at Doncaster each foal and yearling 

pat, 
Nor ride up Goodwood's leafy slopes to the trial-ground 

with Nat; 
No more with Kent and Marson shall he scan each pet in 

form, 
Nor view their place as in the race they sweep past like the 

storm. 



LINES BY LORD WINCHILSEA. 465 

8. 

"Welbeck's fair park is desolate; the rippling waters 

moan, 
For the grave's dark mystery has claimed their scion for its 

own; 
No more within St Stephen's shall he ground his flag on 

truth ; 
No jovial sound of horn and hound shall conjure up his 

youth." 

Finally, I have to add that the following lines 
were written by the late Earl of Winchilsea and 
Nottingham not long after his illustrious friend, 
Lord George, had passed away. I promised Lord 
Winchilsea, if ever I wrote a book on my dear 
and honoured master's racing career, that I would 
not forget to reproduce the following tribute to 
the latter's memory, as Lord Winchilsea, who has 
inserted it in the preface to his longest poem, 
** Abd el Kader," expressed a strong desire that I 
should do so : — 

''5n iffllemoriam* 

GEORGE BENTINCK 

His form how glorious, his eye how clear, 

How cowered a rogue beneath his withering sneer ! 

Before his stern rebuke bronzed lawyers quailed, 

And thieves detected trembled as they railed. 

Within, the guileless spirit of a child, 

Mailed in the proof of honour undefiled ; 

Slow to believe malicious slander's breath. 

But to a culprit pitiless as death ; 

2 G 






6 DEATH OF LORD GBOBGE BEHTIN'CK. 

A friend's misfortune ever prompt to feel, 

Ke passed not unconcerned, but stopped to heal : 

A good Samaritan too oft repaid 

With injuries and wrong for timely aid. 

Others might boast more qnestionable arts 
In twisting facts, more sleight in juggling hearts. 
Bough truths he published, in frieze jerkins dight 
His was no gift of ticklii^ ears polite. 
An honest man, with noblest zeal inspired. 
No threats appalled him, and no labours tired. 
Bent to repress the licence of the times. 
He tore their silken draperies from crimes. 
Straight to the point he went, abrupt and dry ; 
Tricks he called knavery, and a lie a lie. 

Within the portals of that gloomy gate 

'niiere Harcourt House maintains Batavian state. 

On the right hand the modest chamber liea ; 

No scarlet boxes greeting curious eyes. 

Yet there he toiled with more results to show 

Than well-paid ^linister in .SCnte bureau. 

Health failing, food neglected, rest foregone. 

But like the mettled steed, still stru^ling on, 

Oltli^'ious of the paltry bounds assigned 

To strongest frame and most capacious mind. 

Alaa, my friend ! had all been such as thou. 
Honest and true, I liad not nioumed tliee now I 
Tlie spring)' turf of Goodwood's wide domain, 
Tlie stirring contests of Newmarket's plain, 
Tliou Iiadst not left, for scenes where parties rave, 
A worn-out spirit and an early grave. 

Grey morning saw tliee full of kindly cheer ; 
Dark evening brooded pall-wise o'er thy bier ; 




[■: IJE.N'riN-CK MKMOIilAL. MAN.SFIKLU. 



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MEMOBIAL AT MANSFIELD. 467 

A voice of mourning chilled the autumn blast, 
Along mute wires the electric tidings passed ; 
Palace and castle, hall and peasant's cot, 
In grief agreeing, all but grief forgot. 
Friends wept, foes pitied, Envy ceased to chide ; 
All felt the loss of merit undenied. 
Others may dedicate to soothe their grief 
Historic brass in honour of their chief. 
I have it not to give, but what is mine 
Verse and a tear shall mingle at thy shrine ! 
Accept the best a sorrowing heart can give, 
And with thy virtues may our friendship live ! " 

Three years after Lord George Bentinck's 
untimely death, a Memorial was erected in his 
honour at Mansfield, of which an engraving is 
given. The money necessary for its construction 
was contributed anonymously by public subscrip- 
tion. Upon its base the following words were 
inscribed : — 

" Zo tfjt iHnnorg of 
LORD GEORGE FREDERICK CAVENDISH BENTINCK, 

SECOND SURVIVING SON OF 

WILLIAM HENRY CAVENDISH SCOTT, 
FOURTH DUKE OF PORTLAND. 

HE DIED THE 2l8T DAY OF SEPTEMBER AN. DOM. MDCCCXLVIII., 
IN THE FORTY-SEVENTH YEAR OF HIS AOE. 

His ardent patriotism and uncompromising honesty were only 
equalled by the persevering zeal and extraordinary talents which 
called forth the grateful homage of those who, in erecting this 
Memorial, pay a heartfelt tribute to exertions which prematurely 
brought to the grave one who might long have lived the pride of 
this, his native country." 



468 DEATH OF LOBD GEOBGE BENTINCK. 

When the present Duke of Portland succeeded 
to Welbeck Abbey, he found that the Memorial to 
Lord Greorge Bentinck, standing in the market- 
place at Mansfield, Notts, had been damaged by 
time and damp, and not a little de£EU^ by icono- 
clastic hands. His Grace immediately gave orders 
that the monument, in which he naturally took 
great pride, should be thoroughly restored, and 
surroimded by a neat iron railing, to protect it 
from future injury. 

I cannot conclude this work (the writing of 
which has, as I remarked at its conmiencement, 
been to me a veritable labour of love) without 
adding a few valedictory words in grateful ac- 
knowledgment of the great and unwearied kind- 
ness and encouragement extended to me during 
its composition by their Graces the present Duke 
and Duchess of Portland. His Grace began by 
giving instructions to have several pictiu'es at 
Welbeck Abbey photographed of which I stood 
in need for the illustration of this volume ; and 
when, at the last moment, I solicited permission 
to include the Duchesss portrait in this attempted 
tribute to the memory of one of the most illus- 
trious members of the Bentinck family, her Grace 
was pleased to send me a photograph of herself, 
executed by Miss Alice Hughes, of Gower Street, 
W.C., which has been faithfiill^ reproduced in the 
accompanying engraving. Not satisfied, however. 



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COXCLUSIOX. 469 

with this considerate act of kindness, her Grace 
was likewise good enough to provide me with a 
second portrait of the Duke, which is also given 
here. 

It is often my habit to read at night during the 
long hours of sleeplessness which it is occasion- 
ally my lot to endure. Among the books which 
have lately passed through my hands was in- 
cluded Northcote's ' Life of Sir Joshua Re\Tiolds,' 
in which it is stated that the last lecture to the 
students of the Royal Academy ever delivered 
by that great painter ended with the words 
"Michael Angelo," the name of the most con- 
summate artist that, in Sir Joshua's opinion, the 
world had ever seen. In my poor judgment, the 
noble hero of this imperfect biography was the 
greatest and most epoch-making patron of the 
Turf that I have known in my time. Following 
at an infinite distance the loving and appreciative 
example set by Sir Joshua Reynolds, I will now 
conclude by gratefully associating the honoured 
name of Lord Georcre Cavendish Bentinck with 
those of his equally generous and large-hearted 
relatives, the sixth Duke and Duchess of Port- 
land. 



I 



INDEX. 



Abbot Stakes, Kangaroo winner of 
the, in I860, 132. 

"Abd el Kader," Lord Winchil- 
sea's, lines from, on Lord George 
Bentinck, 465. 

Abdalc, jockeyship of, 146, 171, 
180. 

/Egis, Chesterfield Cup won by, 183. 

Alarm, winner of the Cambridge- 
shire, 224. 

Al thorp Park Stakes, Cherokee 
winner of the, in 1845, 165. 

Andover, progeny of Bay Middle- 
ton, 73. 

'Annual Register,' the, quoted, on 
Lord Oeorge Bcntinck's Irish 
speech, 444 and n. — on his death, 
456. 

Anson, Colonel, 207, 258, 401, 406 
f:t jKiAnim. 

Anson, the Honourable Mrs, 436. 

Aphrodit('s daughter of Bay Mid- 
dleton, 73. 

Arnull, William, practical jokes on, 
44 ff Mt(f. — services of, as a 
jockey, 47 — notices of, 91, 304 
ft pannim. 

Ashstead stables, the, 70. 

Baird, Sir David, anecdote of, 380 

tt. rtft/. 
Baker, Frank, trainer, 32, 41, 42 

it jHUiMim. 
Barber, Mr, landlord of the Kam 

Inn, 27. 
Bath Meeting, the, of 1842, account 

of, 202. 



Batthyany, Count, 50. 

Bay Middleton, purchase of, by 
Lord Ceorge Bentinck, 71 — pro- 
geny of, 72, 103, 104, 140, 188, 
204, 206 ct passim — failure of, as 
a stallion, 74 — successes of pro- 
geny of, 131 — notices of, 60, 73, 
92 et -poHsim, 

Beaconsfield, Lord. ^V'.. Disraeli, 
Right Hon. B. 

* Bell's Life,' descriptions of Derby 
of 1848 quoted from, 280, 284— 
of St Leger of 1848, 290. 

Bentinck Benevolent Fund, forma- 
tion of the, 154. 

Bentinck, L^dy C-harlotte. See 
Ossington, Viscountess. 

Bentinck, Lord "William (reorge 
Frederick Cavendish, birth and 
parentage of, 1 — military career 
of, 4 — political career of, 5 H 
A«7., 426 tt atq. — his character as 
a statesman, 8, 1 85, 422 tt jnisMm 
— early racing days of, 53 tt seq. 
— beginning of his stud, 55 — 
gains and losses on the Turf by, 
59 — leaves the Turf, 127 -as 
a letter- writer, 185 tt se/j. — speci- 
mens of his letters, 188, 189, 192, 
196 et Mftj, — his gains on the Turf 
in 1844 and 1845, 225 ct seq.— 
sale of his stud, 241 tt seq. — as 
a Turf reformer, 296 et seq. — 
personal habits of, 311 et seq. 
— last days and death of, 447 
tt Met/. 

Blaze, career of, 262. 



472 



INDEX. 



Blenkhoni, Johiiy trainer to Mr 

Moityn, 142. 
Bloomsbnry, Derby winner, 374. 
BoBOtian, snoceMes of, 14. 
Bolingbroke, notice of, 169. 
Bonehill, Lord Geor^ Bentinok*s 

■tad at, 72 — improyements at, 

203. 
Bourbon, Craven Stakei won by, 82. 
Bowe, John, landlord of Tnrf 

Tavern, 66, 57, 230 e< pasaim — 

widow of, 230, 232. 
Bowei, John, lai^ gains of, on the 

Derby, 110, 802— biographical 

sketch of, 393 et 9eq. 
Boyce, R. D., notices of, 41, 47, 78, 

82 et pasrim, 
Braham, John, punishment of, in 

the affidr of Ratan and the Ugly 

Buck, 159 — sentence of, con- 
firmed, 161. 
Bramble, running of, for the Chester 

Cup, 119. 
Braybrooke, Lord, owner of Sir 

Joshua, 81. 
Bretby Park, Lord Chesterfield's 

racing estabUshment at, 209. 
Bryant, Thomas, anecdote of, 44 

et aeq. 
Buckle, Frank, 86, 87— rivalry be- 
tween, and John Shepherd, 88 

— character of, 91. 
Bunbury, Sir Charles, 27 — some 

famous horses owned by, ib. 
Busaco, war-horse of Lord March 

(iiftl) Duke of Richmond), notice 

of, 337. 
Butler, Frank, rider of Loadstone 

for the 300 Sov. Produce Stakes, 

258 — as a judge of racing, 261 

— rider of Canezou in the St 

Leger, 290, 295, 451. 

Cadland, Derby winner, 93 — Jem 
Robinson^s jockeyship of, ib. 

** Cambridgeshire, the famous little 
town in," 14, 25. See also New- 
market. 

Cambridgeshire, the, of 1845, won 
by Alarm, 224. 

Canezou, Lord Stanley's, notices of, 
290, 295, 451 et jxissivi. 

Canning, Right Hon. George, 1, 4. 



Captain Cook, Lord Qearge Ben- 
tinok's running of, 95, 90. 

Cavendish, Lord Georgp^ betting of, 
81 €$aeq, 

Cesarewitch, the, of 1845, won fay 
the Banm, 224 — Lord Oeoige 
Bentinck*s gaina on, 227. 

Ceylon, Sir W. H. Qregocy ap- 
pointed Governor of, 419 el mq, 
— Mr John FergoMm'a book on, 
quoted, 420, 421— Sir W. H. 
Qreg<Mry's seoond visit to, 488. 

Chapeau d'Espagne iUly, de amip t i on 
of, 200. 

Chappie, Jemmy, 360. 

Chatham, Lord Geoi^ Bentind^'s, 
80~his lordship's gains by, 239. 

**Chaunt of Achillea," the^ 398-- 
authorship of, ib. 

Cherokee, 166 — successes of, in 
1845, 230. 

Chester Cup, gaining of the, by Red 
Deer, 117. 

Chesterfield, Lord, racing estab- 
lishment of, at Bretby Fark, 
209 — Priam owned by, 307 — 
Don John owned by, 452. 

Chichester Old Bank, stoppage of, 
317 — John Kent, sen., a creditor 
in, ib, 

Chifney, Sam, jun., jockey of 
Mameluke, 304. 

Chifney, Sam, sen., 48, 49, 79 et 
passim. 

Chifney, William, assault of Colonel 
Leigh by, 48 — jockeyship of 
Priam in the Derby of 1830 by, 
49 — new house built by, i6. 

Clark, E. R., purchase of The 
Baron by, 215. 

Clark, J. F., 26,211. 

Clermont Euclid colt, 376 — pur- 
chase of, by Sir W. H. Gregory, 
417 — character of, ib. 

Clifden, Lord, purchase of the 
(ioodwood stud by, 287 — trans- 
ference of the Goodwood stud to 
Newmarket by, 289. 

Clipstone, the Duke of Portland's 
improvements at, 1 7. 

Clumsy, two-year-old, match won 
hy, against a five-year-old mare, 
116. 



INDEX. 473 

Cocked Hat Stakes at Goodwood, Day, John Barham, 57, 98, 104, 

Lord George Bentinck winning 108, I So et passim. 

jockey of the, in 1824, 53. Day, John, jun., 193, 201. 

Coelebs, attempted poisoning of, 36. " Derby Dilly," the, 5. 

Colombo, statne to Sir W. H. ** Derby of 1844, the memorable," 

Gregory at, 422. 152 et seq., 408 et seq. 

Conservative party, Lord George Derby of 1848, backing of Surplice 

Bentinck assumes leadership of for the, 270 — account of the, 272 

the, 225, 432 — resigns leadership et seq. — gains of Lord George 

of the, 236, 330, 434. Bentinck on the, 286. 

Cooper, Abraham, pictures of Miss Dietingof race- horses, the, 101 e< ^(7. 
£lis painted by, 180 e^ seq. Discord, winner of Northampton- 
Cornopean, running of, 1 99. shire Stakes, 166 — of Granby 

Coronation, notice of, 313. Handicap and Cup, 169. 

Cotherstone, winner of the Two Disraeli, Right Hon. B., Political 

Thousand, 108 — of the Derby, Biography of Lord George Ben- 

110, 198, 394. tinck by, 2, 9, 154, 329, 430— 

Cowl, winner at Ascot, 233. estimate of Lord George Bentinck 

Craven Meeting, Newmarket Bien- as a statesman by, 185, 329 — 

nial Stakes, Kangaroo winner of, visits of, to Harcourt House, 329, 

in 1865, 132. 428, 437, 447— as a patron of the 

Crockford, Mr, owner of Ratan, Turf, 427 — influence of, on Lord 

155. George Bentinck, ib. — Lord 

*Croker Papers,' the, 430 — quoted, George Bentinck 's estimate of, 

431 et s*q. as a politician, 428 et seq. — be- 

Croker, Right Hon. John Wilson, comes leader of Conservative 
letters from Lord George Ben- party, 435 — Lord George Ben- 
tinck to, 236, 330, 428, 430 tt tinck's last letter to, 455. 
pcLSsim. Dixon, Henry ('*The Druid"), ex- 

Crozier, Flatman's jockeyship of, at tract from * Silk and Scarlet ' by, 

Ascot, 145. 13 n. — on death of Emilius, 130 

Crucifix, purchase of, by Lord — lines on Lord George Bentinck 's 

George Bentinck, 130 — descrip- funeral by, 463. 

tion of, 204 — offer for, 253 — foul Doe, John, trainer to Lord Lich- 

designs to defeat, 308 — ruin of, field, 56, 58 — notices of, 62, 64 

in a false start, 309. ft passim — first trial of vans for 

Cyprian, racing feats of, 69. race-horses by, 65. 

Doncaster, Lord George Bentinck's 

Dandizette, running of, for Good- stud at, 56, 72 — race-horses con- 
wood Stakes, in 1824, 301 — veyed to, in vans, 61 et seq. — 
notice of, 343. accident to Epirus at, 393. 

Danebury, formation of Lord George Doncaster St Leger, the, of 1848, 

Bentinck's stud at, 57 et seq. — 289 et seq. 

removal of Lord George Ben- Dorling, Mr, clerk of Epsom race- 

tinck's horses from, to Good- course, 297. 

wood, 97 e^ seq. Drawing-Room Stakes, the, won by 

Danebury paddocks, the, 187, 314. Elis, 62. 

Danebury stables, varied fortunes Drumlanrig, Lord, 390, 391 and n. 

of the, 59. Dublin, political contest for, be- 

Dawson, Dan, race-horses poisoned tween Sir W. H. Gregory and 

by, 34 et seq. — trial and execu- Lord Morpeth, 370 et seq. 

tion of, 39. Dunwich, Lord. See Stradbroke, 

Day, Isaac, 96, 201, 313 tt jmsshn. Earl of. 



474 



INDEX. 



Edwards, James, trainer, 32, 71, 
79. 

Eglinton, the thirteenth Earl of, 
notice of, 379 — as Lord Lieuten- 
ant of Lreland, 382. 

Elis, racing engagements of, 59, 60, 
62, 63, 69 €i poMim— first trial of 
vans for race-horses in convey- 
ance of, to Doncaster, 61 et 9eq, 
— sale of, 74. 

Emilias, progeny of, 129 — ^purchase 
of, 130- -death of, t6. 

Enclosures, formation of, at race- 
courses, 299. 

Enfield, Lord, backing of Surplice 
for the Derby by, 285 — ^last letter 
written by Lord Oeorge Bentinck 
addressed to, 455. 

Ennui, successes of, in 1845, 230. 

Epirote, Ck>L Anson's, at Ascot, 
145. 

Epirus, accident to, at Doncaster, 
393. 

Epsom, vanning of Lord George 
Bentinck's horses to, 80 — recep- 
tion of Surplice at, on winning of 
Derby of 1848, 277— Lord George 
Bentbiok's racing rules at, 297 — 
enclosure round Stand at, 299 — 
incident at, of cruelty to a horse, 
320. 

Euphrates, Lord Rous's, 13. 

Farintosh, constitutional defects of, 
104 — success of, at Newmarket, 
105 — history of, 140. 

Farthing Candle, Innkeeper s Plate 
won by, 234. 

Ferguson, Thomas, owner of Hark- 
away, 355-400 — connection of, 
with the Running Rein case, 409 
ei seq. pastfim. 

Filho da Puta, match between, and 
Sir Joshua, 82 et seq. 

Firebrand, 80 — winner at New- 
market, 100, 102. 

Fitzpatrick, \V. J., *The Corres- 
pondence of Daniel O'Connell ' by, 
noticed, 368 — its eflfects on Mr 
Gladstone as regards Home Rule 
for Ireland, ib. 

Flag system, starting of race-horses 
by the, 297. 



Flatcatoher, notices of» S90, 292, 
293,436. 

Flatman, Elnathan, biogc^iluaJ 
sketch of, 143 et seg. — forfenne 
left by, 144 — his various masters, 
•6. — his characteristics as a 
jockey, 145 ei mq, — his jockey- 
ship of John o' Gaunt for the 
Queen's Plate, 167 — winmng 
jockey in the Cesarewitch, 223 — 
in the Cambridgeshire, t6. — Sur- 
plice ridden by, in Ham Stakes, 
257 — for the Derby, ih, — notices 
of, 359, 383 etpoMtm. 

Foley, Lord, 33. 

Fox, fiight Hon. Charles James, 33L 

Free Trade, Lord George Bentinck's 
ideas of, 433 ei mq, /xMstm. 

Fremantle, Sir Thomas, 7. 

Chains on the Turf, Lord George 
Bentinck's, in 1844 and 1845, 225 
ei eeq, 

Gkbper, success of, at Newmarket, 
100, 104, 107, 108— at EpKmi, 
108 ei eeq. — character of, 105, 
110, 186— notices of, 160, 193, 
199 et pasnm — letters of Lord 
Geoige Bentinck to his trainer 
regadling, 188, 192, 196 ei mq, 
— Lord George Bentinck's gains 
by, 239, 

(ieorge, Prince of Wales (afterwards 
George IV.), Frank Baker trainer 
to, 32 — retirement of, from the 
Turf, 50 — at Newmarket, 83 — 
horses started by, in 1789 and 
1790, 129. 

Ghillie Galium, the fifth Duke of 
Richmond's, 348, 352. 

Gladstone, Mr, Irish Home Rule 
ideas of, 368 — article by, in * The 
Nineteenth Century,' quoted, ib, 

Glasgow, Earl of, as a patron of the 
Turf, 12, 115, 137 — matches 
made by, with Lord George Ben- 
tinck, ib. et seq. — an extraordi- 
nary match made by, 139 — be- 
comes owner of Doncaster pad- 
docks, 453. 

Glentilt, description of, 205. 

Godolphin, winner of the Craven 
Stakes, 47. 



INDEX. 



475 



Goodwood Cup, the, 85 — of 1845, 
starters for, 177 — winner of, 178 
—of 1838, 355, 400— palmy days 
of, 355. 

Goodwood exercise -grounds, con- 
struction of straw-beds at, 163 — 
excellence of, 170. 

Goodwood House, festivities at, 
344. 

Goodwood, Lord George Bentinck's 
removal of his race- horses to, 
from Danebury, 97 et seq. — 
improvements effected on race- 
course at, 123, 203 — final depart- 
ure of Lord George Bentinck's 
stud from, 287. 

Goodwood races. Lord George Ben- 
tinck's successes at, 53 tt seq. — 
his support of, 123 et nerj. — com- 
parative tables of, 125, 126 — 
enclosure round Stand at, 299 — 
value of stakes at, 300 — cases of 
error in decisions at, 301 — the 
fifth Duke of Richmond's delight 
in, 344 et sc/. 

Goodwood stable, the, formation of, 
97 et 8f<i. — expenses of maintain- 
ing, 111, 127 et sefj., 235 — suc- 
cesses of, in 1844, l\6 et seq. — 
account of, in 1844, 149 et seq. — 
account of, in 1845, 163 et seq. — 
successes of, in 1845, 170 — in 
1842, 202 — rivalry between, and 
Danebury stables, 178 H seq. — 
labour connected with manage- 
ment of, 210 — sale of, by Lord 
George Bentinck, 241 et seq. — 
reinforcement of, 343. 

Goodwood Stakes of 1845, starters 
for the, 174 — Miss Elis winner 
of the, 175. 

Goodwood stud, beginning of the, 55. 

Goodwood yearlings, sale of the, 
113. 

Gordon Castle, acquisition of, by 
Lennox family, 347 — last visit of 
fifth Duke of Richmond to, 365. 

Gratwicke, Mr, notice of, 356. 

Great Yorkshire Handicap of 1845, 
running of My Mary for the, 219 
— winner of the, 221 — Lord 
George Bentinck's gains on the, 
226. 



Gregory, Right Hon. Sir W. H., 
racing career of, 366 tt seq. — 
early years of, 369 — political 
contest of, for Dublin, 370 — first 
race of, 374 — reminiscences of, 
319 et seq. 

Greville, Charles, notices of, 54, 
56, 390, 396— »Diary ' of, quoted, 
9, 152, 225. 

Gully, John, and the Ratan affair, 
187— notices of, 385, 387, 388 et 
passim. 

Gulnare, successes of, 343. 

Halnaker Park gallop, formation of 
the, 105 — advantages of the, 
164, 170. 

Ham Stakes, Surplice winner of 
the, 257. 

Hampden, description of the Duke 
of Grafton's, 343. 

Hampton Court, royal stud at, 349. 

Harcourt House, Lord George Ben- 
tinck's life at, 313, 315 et seq. — 
horses kept at, 3 1 8 — letters sent 
to, fraudulently opened, 321 — 
Mr Disraeli at, 329, 428, 437, 
447. 

Harkaway, winner of Goodwood 
Cup in 1838, 355, 400. 

Hastings, Marquis of, purchase of 
Kangaroo by, 132. 

** Haunch of Venison" inn, the, 
79. 

Headley, racing headquarters at, 
78 — the Chifneys' stables at, 79. 

Hermes, notice of, 342. 

Herring, Mr, of Long Acre, vans for 
race-horses first constructed by, 
61, 67. 

Holywell Hunt Races, Queen of 
Trumps winner at, 142. 

Horses, number of, trained by Lord 
George Bentinck, 129 — longprices 
given for, 135 — singeing of, 319 
— shaving of, ib. — Lord George 
Bentinck's kindness to, 320, 328. 
tSee also Race-horses. 

Houghton October Meeting, suc- 
cesses of Goodwood stable at, in 
1844, 116. 

Howth Castle, notice of, 386. 

Howth, Lord, race-horses of, 385. 



476 INDEX. 

Hunnybun, Mr, of Newmarket, im- Kent, John, sen. , early yeazB of, 30 

provements on Mr Herring's van et 8eq, — takes command of Good- 

by, 67. wood stables, 41 — painting of 

Miss Elis presented to, 180 — 

nione, Lord Palinerston's, 98. private trainer to fifth Dnke of 

Innkeepers' Plate, winning of, by Richmond, 342 — letters of Lord 

Farthing Candle, 234. George Bentinck to, 117, 180, 

Inverness Castle, the constableship 188, 192 et 9tq, passim. 

of, 347. ** Kent's charges," 105. 

Ireland, Lord George Bentinck's King, Samuel, 56 et aeq. passim. 

proposals for the improvement King's Lynn, Lord George Bentinck 

of, 10, 439, 444 — influences member for, 7. 

brought to bear on Mr Gladstone King's Plate Coarse, constmction 

in his scheme of Home Rule for, of, 94. 

368 — Lord Eglinton. as Lord King's Plate, the, given by Ring 

Lieutenant of, 382. William IV., 350. 

Ives, Jeremiah Robert, notice of, Kitten, Lord George Bentinck's, 427 

374. — Mr Disraeli's partnership in, t&. 

Jerry, winner of St Leger in 1824, Ladbroke, Mr, as a patron of the 

388. Turf, 78 ft seq. 

Jewish Disabilities Bill, the, 434 — Lady Emmeline, description of, 205. 

Lord George Bentinck's active Lady Wildair, notice of, 267. 

interest in, 461. Landgrave, running of, at New- 
Jockey Club, the, and the Bentinck market, in 1850, 359. 

Benevolent Fund, 154 — verdict Langley, W. H., career of Emilias 

of, in the Ratan afifair, 159, 161 given in * Reminiscences of Eas- 

— Kiinner given to, by King by 'by, 131 — quoted, 77 n., 139, 

William IV., 349. 155 n., 158 n. 

Jockeys, asking advice of, 261 — Larry M*Hale, Lord Maidstone's, 

weighing of, 297 — false starts 95 — match between, and Lord 

practised by, 297, 304, 305, 308 (ieorge Bentinck's Captain Cook, 

— jealouBies between north-coun- if/. 

try and south-country, 305. Latitude colt, description of, 205. 

John o' Gaunt, Queen's Plate won Lawley, Hon. Francis, sketch of the 

l)y, 107 — subsequent career of, racing career of the Right Hon. 

169, 173 c/ serj. 8ir W. H. Gregory by, 336 tt :fo/. 

'* Lay of Doncastcr Town Moor,'' 

Kalipyge, notice of, 73. lines from Mr Henry Dixon's, on 

Kangaroo, successes of, 132— pur- Lord (ieorge Bentinck, 4<)3. 

chase of, by Marquis of Hastings, Leander, racing feat of, l.").") n. 

ib. — character and subsequent Leatherliead stables, the, 7H, 7^- 

career of, 133. *' Leg of Mutton and CauHHower " 

Kent, John, jun. , trainer to Lord inn, the, 79. 

(ieorge lientinck, autobiographi- Leigh, Colonel, assault of, by Bill 

cal notice of, 25 H /*' 7. — Mr Chifney, 48. 

Payne's olfer to, as his private Lennox, Lord Henry Gordon, fears 

trainer, 243 — becomes trainer to of, regarding his bets on Surplice, 

Mr Mostyn — letters of Lord 2(55 tt sf(/. 

(ieorge Bentinck to, 168, 203, Lennox, Mr. See Richmond, tifth 

207, 221, 247, 324, 325— visits Duke of. 

to Lord (George Bentinck in Lon- Letters to Lord (ieorge Bentinck, 

don by, 313 rf seq, fraudulent oi>ening of, 321. 



INDEX. 



477 



Letter-writer, Lord George Ben- 
tinck as a, 185 et aeq,, 347 — fifth 
Duke of Richmond as a, 347. 

Let-UB-stop-a-while- says-Slow, de- 
scription of, 206. 

Levy, Goodman, anecdote of, 51 — 
fraudulent attempt by, to win 
the Derby, 155, 400. 

Lewes Stakes, the, won by Elis, 63. 

"Little Peter," 44. 

Liverpool Cup, Lord George Ben- 
tinck's gains on winning the, of 
1845, 227. 

Liverpool race - course, enclosure 
round Stand at, 299. 

Liverpool St Leger, St Paul's Men- 
tor winner of the, 215. 

Lloyd, Cynric, and the (ioodwood 
stud, 246 — backing of Surplice 
by, 270. 

Loadstone, offer for, 253 — subse- 
quent career of, 255, 260 — trials 
of, for the Derby of 1848, 263— 
failure of, 280, 283. 

Long-course races, Lord George 
Bentinck's promotion of, 85, 94, 
95 — the Duke of Portland's en- 
couragement of, 86. 

Maidstone Course, construction of 

the, 94. 
Maidstone, Lord, jockey ship of, 95, 

96— purchase of Tom Tulloch by, 

114. 
Malcolm, Mr Ramsay's, incident of, 

213. 
Mameluke, flagrant attempts to 

defeat, for the St Leger of 1827, 

304 — race won by, 305. 
Manly Sports Bill, the, 413, 416. 
Mann, Sam, 359. 
Mansfield, memorial to Lord George 

Bentinok at, 467 — restoration of 

memorial at, by the present Duke 

of Portland, 468. 
March, Countess of (fifth Duchess 

of Richmond), 351. 
March, Lord. See Richmond, fifth 

Duke of. 
March, the present Lord, notice of, 

352. 
Martin's, Sir Theodore, 'Life of 

the Prince Consort' quoted, 10. 



Matilda, running of, for St Leger 
of 1827, 305. 

Melody colt, Mr Etwall's, 98. 

Mentor, Mr St Paul's, 215. 

Milk and eggs, dieting of horses 
with, 102. 

Misdeal, winner at Ascot, 100 — at 
Goodwood,!^. — at Newmarket,t6. 

Miss Elis, trials of, 1 72 — Goodwood 
Stakes won by, 175 — Goodwood 
Cup won by, 177 — large sums 
won on, by Lord George Ben- 
tinck, 180 — pictures of, painted 
by Mr Abraham Cooper, ib. et seq. 
— rejoicings at Goodwood on vic- 
tories of, 182 — history and pedi- 
gree of, 184 — appearance of, ib, 
— running of, at York, 213. 

Miss Sarah, winner of (ireat York- 
shire Stakes in 1845, 213 — run- 
ning of, for Doncaster St Leger, 
214. 

Molecomb, residence of Lord March 
(fifth Duke of Richmond), 352— 
description of, ib. — a)x)de of pres- 
ent Lord March, t6. 

Moon, the brothers, 345. 

Mostyn, Hon. Edward Mostyn 
Lloyd, purchase of Lord George 
Bentinck's stud by, 246 — portion 
of stud sold by, 250. 

*' Mr Rigby," Mr Disraeli's carica- 
ture of Mr Croker in * Coningsby ' 
as, 429. 

Muirkirk, estate of, purchased for 
Lord George Bentinck, 55 n. 

Mulatto, notices of, 13 n., 54. 

Mundig, winner of Derby in 1835, 
393^rohn Bowes's gains on, t6. 

Murray's, John, * Handbook to Not- 
tinghamshire ' quoted on Duke 
of Portland's improvements at 
Welbeck, 17. 

Mus, winner of Orleans Cup in 
1841, 355. 

Mustapha, winner at Croodwood, 
100. 

My Dear, description of, 206. 

My Mary, trials of, at Goodwood, 
165 — pedigree of, 216 — successes 
of, 217 — training of, at Good- 
wood, ib. — winner of Great York- 
shire Handicap, 221. 



478 



INDEX. 



Napier, Lady Sarah, letters to, 338, 
339. 

Newman, Philip, stud -groom at 
Danebury paddocks, 187 e^ seq, 
ptMsim. 

Newmarket Biennial, Kangaroo 
winner at, in 1865, 132. 

Newmarket, improvements made 
on race-course at, by the fourth 
Duke of Portland, 14 — early his- 
tory of, 25 et seq. — successes of 
(roodwood stable at, in 1 844, 1 1 6 
— transference of Lord Clifden's 
horses to, 289— Sir W. H. Gre- 
gory's recollections of 382 et 
neq. 

' Nineteenth Century,' the, article 
in, on Daniel O'Connell, noticed, 
368. 

Northamptonshire Stakes of 1845, 
the, won by Discord, 166. 

Oaks, the, Refraction winner of, in 
1845, 227. 

O'Connell, Daniel, attitude of, to- 
wards Sir \V. H. Gregory in 
political contest for Dublin, 371. 

* O'Connell, Daniel, The Correspon- 
dence of,' noticed, 368 — Mr Glad- 
stone's article on, in ' The Nine- 
teenth Century,' (juoted, ih. 

Octaviunii, purchase of, by Lord 
George Beiitinck, 307 — pedigree 
of, ih. 

October Meeting, First, successes 
of Goodwood stable at, in 1844, 
11(3 — successes of Goodwood 
sta])le at Second, ih. 

Olive, progeny of Ikiy Middleton, 
description of, '204. 

Olive, Mr Poyntz's, Lord George 
Bentinck's jockeyship of, 5.S. 

One Thousan<l (Juineas, Picnic 
winner of the, in 1845, 227. 

Orford, Earl of, incident regarding 
the, 2(). 

Orlando, Colonel Peel's, and the 
Running Rein case, 153. 

Osbaldeston, S(|uire, Lord George 
Bentinck's duel with, 401 e< ^(v/. 

Ossington, Viscountess, notices of, 
21, 22, 54 — monument erected to 
Lord George Bentinck by, 462. 



Oulston, successes of, 133 — ruin of, 

by over-training, ih. 
Our Nell, winner of the Oaks, 80. 

Paget, Lady Caroline, marriage of 
fifth Duke of Richmond to, 351. 

Pajme, George, ofier for Lord 
George Bentinck's stud by, 242 
— request for John Kent's ser- 
vices as trainer by, 243 — notices 
of, 389 tt pasifim. 

Peel, General, notices of, 143, 144, 
153, 380, 383 et pansim — as a 
raconteur, 399. 

Peel, Sir Robert, Lord George Ben- 
tinck as a supporter of, 6. 

Peninsular medals, account of the, 
362 et wq. 

Peninsular war, fifth Duke of Rich- 
mond's share in the, 335 et «eq. 

Persse, Miss Augusta, marriage of, 
to Sir W. H. Gregory, 422. 

Petre, Hon. Edward, anecdote re- 
garding, 44. 

Picnic, winner of the One Thoosand 
Guineas, 227. 

*' Pink " in the House of Commons, 
7. 

Pirouette, poisoning of, 36. 

*Pitt,' Lord Rosebery's, notice of, 
423. 

Planet, large offer for, 25.3 — subse- 
quent career of, ih. 

Plenipotentiary, colts by, descrip- 
tion of, 20.3. 

* Political Biography of Lord George 
I^ntinck,' Mr Disraeli's, referred 
to, 2. 9, 329, 4.S0. 

Politics, money spent on, by Lord 
(reorge Bentinck, 331. 

Pompey, Lord Eglintou's, 395. 

Port Stakes, the, of 1845, at New- 
market, Lord George Ik'iitinck's 
gains on winning, 227. 

Portland, Duchess of (mother of 
Lord (ieorge Bentinck), 2. 

** Portland farm,' the, 14 et scfj. 

Portland, fourth Duke of (father of 
Lord George Bentinck), 1 — as a 
patron of the Turf, 11 et At'q. — 
improvements on his estate by, 
17- -character of, 19 — pedestrian 
powers of, 21 — charities of, 22 — 



IXDEX. 



479 



death of, 23 — establishment of 
Portland Handicap at New- 
market by, 80. 

Portland Handicap, establishment 
of the, 86. 

Portland, sixth Duchess of, interest 
taken in present work by, 468. 

Portland, sixth Duke of, 22 — stud 
of, at Welbeck Abbey, 73 — racing 
trophies of, at Welbeck Abbey, 
182 — restoration of memorial at 
Mansfield to Lord George Ben- 
tinck by, 468 — interest taken in 
present work by, ih. 

* Post and Paddock,' lines from Mr 
Henry Dixon's, on Lord George 
Bentinck, 463. 

Potter, Mr, landlord of the Ram 
Inn, 28. 

Poyntz, Mr, notice of, 53. 

Preserve, foul designs to defeat, at 
Newmarket, 308. 

Priam, winner of Derby in 1830, 
49 — Goodwood Cup won by, 129 
— progeny of, 130 — attempts to 
defeat, in Derby of 1830, 30o— 
splendid character of, ib. — Lord 
George Bentinck 's connection 
with, ih. 

Prince of Wales, Sir W. H. Gregory 
knighted by, at Ceylon, 422. 

Prince, Richard, 12, 30, 307 et 
poiwim — stable of, 33. 

Princess Alice, successes of, in 1 845, 
230. 

Princess, the Karl of Egremont's, 
342. 

Prizes, list of, won by the (iood- 
wood stable in 1 845, 1 70. 

Protection, Lord (ieorge Bentinck's 
ideas of, 433 et aeq. pasmm. 

Provincial race meetings, former 
primitive arrangements at, 301 . 
H Hffj. — starting of horses at, 
303. 

Queen of Trumps, winner at Holy- 
well Hunt Races, 142 — winner 
at Epsom and Doncaster, ih. 

Queen's Plate, the, of 1 845, running 
for, 166 f-t seq. 

"Qui tam" lawsuits, the, of 1843, 
413 ef seq. 



Race-horses, conveyance of, in vtina, 
61 et seq. — dieting of, 101 et 8*q. 
— art of training, 13 n., 132 et 
»f:q. — revolution in training of, 
135 — long prices paid for, Ih. 
St'e aUo Horses. 

Race-meetings, provincial, former 
primitive arrangements at, 301 
et seq, — starting of horses at, 303. 

'Racing Calendar,' the, quoted, 
160, 174, 177, 280, 290. 

Racing engagements, Lord George 
Bentinck 's, in 1845, 238. 

Racing establishments, Lord George 
Bentinck 's, sale of, 241 et neq. 

Racing events, list of, won by the 
fifth Duke of Richmond's race- 
horses, 348. 

Railways, revolution in training of 
race- horses caused by extension 
of, 135 — effect of, on racing 
events, 317. 

Ram Inn, the, incident regarding 
name of, 26 — the landlord of, 27. 

Ratan and the Ugly Buck, the aflair 
of, 155 et tteq. 

Red Deer, gaining of Chester Cup 
by, 117 et seq. — enthusiasm 
caused by victory of, 121 — Sam 
Rogers's jockeyship of, 160. 

Red Hart, the fifth Duke of Rich- 
mond's, 348, 354. 

Refraction, winner of the Oaks, 227. 

* Reminiscences of Easby,' notice 
in, of Emilius's career, 131. 

Reveller, attempted poisoningof , 37. 

Richmond, fourth Duke and Duch- 
ess of, famous ball given by, at 
Brussels, 347. 

Richmond, fifth Duchess of, inter- 
view of John Kent with, as to 
leaving (4oodwoo<l, 244. 

Richmond, fifth Duke of, character 
of, 3, 332 et seq. — his interest 
in Lord Cveorge Bentinck 's stud, 
101, 128, 287— his early years, 
333 — enters the army, 335 — on 
staff of Lord Wellington in the 
Peninsular war, ib. et seq. — be- 
comes a patron of the Turf, 341 
— his character as a racing man, 

347 — his gains on the Turf, 

348 — his marriage, 351 — some 



480 INDEX. 

race-horses owned by, 352 — as Sir Joshua, notice of, 81 — ^the match 

an agricultarist, ib. — his politi- between, and Filho da Pnta, S2 

cal career, 361 — presented with et set/. 

a testimonial for exertions on be- Sister to Pag, description of, 20d. 

half of Peninsular heroes, 363 — Sittingboume, record of, 3o7. 

his death, 365 — 'Memoirs* of, Skillygolee, running of, for Crold 

quoted, 33G, 351, 361, 441. Cup, in 1837, 302. 

Robinson, Jem, notices of, 261,263, Slander, winner of Prince of 

275, 291, 305 et passim, Wales's Stakes, 247 — Urge offer 

Robson, Robert, '*the Emperor of for, 253 — subsequent cajneer of. 

Trainers," 87. 254. 

Rogers, Sam, jockey of Gaper for Soar, Peter, notice of, 346 and n. 

Uie Derby, 110, 160, 187 — Sorella, running of, at Xorthamp- 

jockey of Red Deer at Liverpool ton, 167. 

and Goodwood, 160, 161 — pun- South -country horses, failure to 

ishment of, in the affair of Riatan win St Leger with, 77. 

and the Ugly Buck, 159 — pardon Spaniard, poisoning of, 36, 37. 

of, 161 — jockeyship of the Cur Sponges, a hunt for big, 151. 

by, 162. 'Sporting Magazine,' the, on mn- 

Roncesvalles, successes of, 342. uing of three-year-olds, quoted, 

Rose, C. D., racing prizes given by, 86. 

85. Springy Jack, running of, in Derby 

Ross, Charles, ' The Correspondence of 1848, 281, 284. 

of Charles, First Marquis Com- Stable secrets, case of treachery 

wallis,* by, noticed, 368. regarding, 323 et stq, 

Rothschild, Baron Lionel, return of, St Paul's Mentor, winner of the 

to Parliament, 434. Liverpool St Leger, 215. 

Running Rein case, the, lo2 et sefj., Stradbroke, Earl of, notice of, 342 

408 ct i!t('tj. — testimonial to Lord et seq. 

George Bentinck for services ren- Strafford, second Earl of. Sit 

dered in, 154. Enfield, Lord. 

Rutland Arms Inn, the, 26. Stud -farms, list of some of the 

principal, 1.S6. 

Scott, .lohn, notices of, 114, 110, Surplice, victory of, in l)erl)y and 

124, .SSH. St Leger of 1848, 80, 130, 450— 

Scott, the Misses, designations of, intiuence of success of, on Lord 

1 — marriages of, ih. (ieorge lieutinck, 130 — offer for, 

Scott, William, jockeyship of, 92, *J.").S — subse(iuent career of, 255, 

93, 394. 2.")7 (t str/.— trial of, for Two 

Semaphore, amateur reading of the, Thousand, 203 — winner of Two 

42. Thousand, 268 — backing of, for 

Sheet-Anciior, winning of Portland the Derby, 269 — transportation 

Handicap 1)y, 92. of, from (ioodwood to Epsom, 

Shepherd, John, notice of , 88 e.t neq. 272 #7 tf/. — reception of, at Kp- 

Short-couree races, present day, .30, som, 277 — nefarious attempts to 

SO, 94. ' injure, 279, 285, 291 — 'Bell's 

Shylock, running of, in Derby of Life ' quoted on running of, 281, 

1848, 282, 284. 284, 290 — Sim Templeman's 

* Silk and Scarlet.' Ste Dixon, jockeyship of, 282 — gains on, 

Henry. 286 — constitutional defects of. 

Singeing of horses, the. Lord <V>. — subsequent career of, 288 tt 

(4eorge Bentinck's fancy regard- «''7. — the St Leger won by, 290 

ing, 319. (t seq. — termination of racing 



INDEX. 



481 



career of, 294 — Lord George 
Bcntinck*8 interest in, 449 et seq, 

Swindell, Fred, sketch of, 397. 

Swindon, notice of, 53. 

Tarrare, winner of Doncaster St 
Legcr of 1826, 64, 67— heavy 
losses of Lord George Bentinck 
on, 64. 

Tattersall's, sale of part of Good- 
wood stud at, 113, 260 et seq, 

Tedworth, winner at Newmarket, 
100. 

Templeman, Sim, rider of Surplice 
in Derby of 1848, 275, 282. 

The Baron, winner of Doncaster St 
Leger, 216 — record of, t6. — 
backing of, for the Cesarewitch, 
223 — winner of the Cesarewitch, 
224 — Lord George Bentinck 's 
gains on winning the Cesarewitch 
by. 227. 

The Cur, winner of the Cesarewitch, 
162. 

The Dandy, poisoning of, 36. 

The Drummer, notices of, 63, 64, 
66. 

The Flying Dutchman, notices of, 
73, 283 et paasim. 

Three-year-olds, racing of, 86. 

Tilbrook, Mrs, and the horse-poison- 
ing case, 38. 

Tiresias, winner of Derby in 1819, 
13. 

Titchfield, Marquis of. See Port- 
land, fourth Duke of. 

Tom Tulloch, purchase of, by Lord 
Maidstone, 114, 232— defeat of, 
by Ennui, 230, 233. 

Topsail, winner of the City Cup at 
Bath, 100, 202. 

Training of race-horses, art of, 132 
— revolution in, 135. 

Treen, William, notice of, 374 et seq. 

Trees, transplanting of, by the 
fourth Duke of Portland, 18. 

Tripoli, winner of Somersetshire 
Stakes at Bath, 100, 202. 

Turf, reforms of the, by Lord 
George Bentinck, 296 et se/y. — 
tactics of speculators on the, 305 
— stories of robberies on the, 387 
et seq. 

2 



Turf Tavern, a dinner at the, 230 

€t seq. 
Two-year-old stakes, former paucity 

of, 142. 
Ugly Buck, affair of Ratan and the, 

166 et neq. — opinions regarding 

the Ugly Buck, 201. 

Vacuna colt, description of, 206. 

Vans, construction of, for convey- 
ance of race-horses, 61 et seq. — . 
first trial of, 65 — improvements 
on first idea of, 67 — advantages 
of, 69 — horse-racing previous to, 
76 et seq. — transport of horses 
from Danebury to Goodwood in, 
99 et seq. 

Velocipede, progeny of, 72. 

Venison, purchase of, by Lord 
George Bentinck, 58 — notices of, 
60, 63, 70— sale of, 74. 

Venus, progeny of, 73. 

Villiers, Hon. Francis, Goodwood 
yearlings purchased by, 113 — 
betting of, on Surplice, 269 — 
purchase of Blaze by, 261 — back- 
ing of Blaze by, for the Two 
Thousand, 262 et seq. — despair 
of, at result of Surplice's Derby 
trial, 268 — gains of, on the St 
Leger, 292. 

Vitellina, running of, for the Good- 
wood Stakes in 1824, 302. 

Voltigeur, notices of, 362, 363. 

Waterloo Shield, the, 85 — running 
for, ib. 

Weatherbit, successes of, 178 — do- 
feats of, 183. 

Weatherby, Mr, midnight visits to, 
220, 316. 

Welbcck, fourth Duke of Portland's 
stud at, 12 — his improvements 
at, 17 — sixth Duke of Portland's 
breeding establishment at, 73 — 
painting of Elis at, 180 — racing 
trophies at, ib. — hunters kept at, 
319 — last days of Lord George 
Bentinck at, 448 et setj. — inquest 
on Lord George Bentinck's death 
held at, 467. 

West Australian, notices of, 358, 
392. 

H 



Whnlebono, progeny ot, 72, 
White'a Clnb, Lurd (Itiorgo Ben- 

tiiick'B late dinnerB at, 8, 31 1. 
Wild DayrcU, winner of Derby, 

133. 
WilliuD IV., as a patron of the 

Turt, 3*8 H «eq. — diuner given 

to Joiikcy Club by, 349— Bpcocb 

mode by, at Eghaiu races, 330. 
^V'illiamB, ('nptain Percy, jockcy- 

Bbip of, 96. 
Winuhilneo, the Earl of, lines to 

tlia memory of Lord Goorgo Beii- 

tinok by, quoted, 4fi3. 



Wizard, attempt to dsFeat r 



YoarlingB, sale of a balvh dI the 
(loodwooA, 1 13 — breaking ot 
Lord Qeorgc Bentinok'i, 114 — 
■uecessee in runniltg of, 115^ — 
former moilo of buying and train- 
ing of, 136~lmportanue of try- 
ing. U2. 

York race-con 



iiig of MiB) 



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