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i and Appfoved by RADIO AGE * 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

Tune In on a Real Job 

and Get the Pay of a Specialist 

ffow to "Earn $ 1500 to WOOQ " 
karly as a %idio Expert » 

THE man who would be a success in 
business today must be a specialist. 
The market is already crowded with 
clerks, stenographers, accountants and 
detail men of every description. And as 
the number of applicants increases, the 
pay and opportunities diminish. Not 
that these men are unnecessary, for their 
work is important and essential. But 
the competition has always been keen 
in general work of this kind and it is 
bound to increase in proportion to the 
number of good men available. 

Radio Needs Trained Men 

There is perhaps no other field today 
where specialists are needed more than 
in Radio. Trained men are required in 
every branch of this fascinating, profit- 
able profession. And the opportunities 
are great — almost without limit! Radio 
has swept across the face of the whole 
earth with a speed as surprising as it 
was sudden. Almost overnight it 
jumped into the front rank of the 
world's leading industries. Yet it is 
here to stay — and grow. For that 

reason Radio needs good men. It is 
ready to treat them right and pay them 
well. And for the men who "get in" 
NOW, the best is none too good. 


Pay Increases 
Over $100 a Month 

I am averaging anywhere from 
S75 to S150 a month more than I 
was making before enrolling with 
you. I would not consider 510,000 
9 too much for the course. 
1L (Signed) A. N. Lone, 

■/ 120 N. Main Street, 

" Greensburg, Pa. 

Doubles Salary 

I can very easily make double 
the amount of money now than be- 
fore I enrolled with you. Your 
course has benefited me approxi- 
mately S3000 over and above what 
I would have earned had I not 

T. "Winder, 

731 Bedford Ave., 

Grand Junction, Colo. 

From $15.00 to $80.00 aWeek 

Before I enrolled with you I 
was making SI 5 a week on a farm. 
Now I earu from S2080 to S4420 
a year, and the work is a hundred 

times easier than 

before. Since 

graduating a little 

over a year ago, 

I have earned aim 

ost S4000 and I 

believe the cours* 

will be worth 

at least SI 00,000 

to me. 

(Signed) Ge 

■>. A. Adams. 

Route 1, Box 10,, Pa. 

Get Into This 
Big Paying 

Consider for a mo- 
ment the possibilities 
of Radio. The shores 
of every continent 
are dotted with trans- 
mitting and receiving 
stations. Practically 
every vessel is now 
equipped for commu- 
nication with land 
and other ships. Hotels, railroad ter- 
minals, public buildings and Govern- 
ment stations are flashing their business 
messages 'cross cities, rivers, mountains 
and seas. At night, millions of men, 
women and children are "listening in" 
to music, speeches, news, important 
events and business reports, broadcast 
for their amusement and education. 
Factories, stores, banks, laboratories, 
business houses and newspaper offices 
are employing Radio experts in every 
branch of the profession. Yet the 
demand for good men is far greater 
than the supply. If YOU are sick of 
plugging along in the daily grind of 
monotonous office routine — held down 
by the thousands of men who are doing 
the same work as you — get out of the 
rut into this big paying profession. 

You Can Qualify at Home 
Easily and Quickly 

On land and sea, the news of the 
world's progress is flowing under the 
skilled fingers of Certified "Radio- 
tricians" — men who are well-paid, hon- 
ored and respected for their specialized 
knowledge and important work. A short 
course of training at home for the enjoy- 
able work of Radio, will quickly enable 
you to be independent, to travel and see 
the world if you wish, or establish 
yourself in a permanent position in 
your own town. Radio will take you 
out of the rut of a bare existence, into 
the enviable standing of a specialist — - 
with unlimited opportunities for honor, 
power, wealth and satisfaction. It will 
make you a doer of real things, a vital 
force in the world and an important 
factor in your own community. Start to 
train NOW for a Radio position, while 
the profession is growing. You can start 
TODAY — in your spare hours at home. 

The National Radio Institute is train- 

ing men, in their spare hours at home, 
for every important branch of the big 
Radio industry. To any man who is 
eager to better his condition and make 
a place for himself in this fascinating 
and profitable profession, we will gladly 
send a copy of this timely, helpful, 
book — absolutely free. It is called 
"Rich Rewards in Radio" and it will 
open up a chain of opportunities that 
you will do well to carefully consider. 

You assume no obligation whatever in 
sending for this interesting, helpful 
book. It is yours for the asking — 
FREE. For that reason you can hardly 
afford to miss it. Ask for a copy today 
and learn the tremendous opportunities 
that are open in Radio, how we are 
preparing men at home to take ad- 
vantage of these opportunities, and 
how we aid them in securing the kind 
of positions that lead to independence 
and success, "Tune in" on a real job — 
mail the coupon for this Free Book 
today — and then "stand by" until it 
arrives by return mail. It will PAY 
you! National Radio Institute, Dept. 
53CB, Washington, D. C. 

This WillBring It_ 

Dept. 53CB, Washington, D. C. 

{Without any obligation on my part, please 
send me a FREE copy of your book, "Rich 
I Rewards in Radio." Also tell me how your 

Free Employment Service will help me secure 
a position, and send me details of your special 
I short-time offer. 

1 Name. 



v_iiy ™ .- ouiie 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE ¥ 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

The Magazine of the Hour 

Established March, 1922 


Volume 4 

January, 1925 

Number 1 


Radiotorials 4 

First Super Stations Licensed 7 

By Robeit D. Heinl 

Attaining Results with Radio Frequency 9 

By Armstrong Perry 

A Reflexed Four-Tube Neutrodyne 11 

By H. Frank Hopkins 

Headsets — Their Care and Operation 14 

By Roscoe Bundy 

A Six-Tube Super-Heterodyne 15 

By Paul Green 

Getting Started in Radio — Beginners' Section 18 

By Edmund H. Eitel 

Tuning in with the French Radio Fan 20 

By C. R. Bluzat 

An Efficient Portable Set 21 

By Brainard Foote 

How to Make a Station Finder 23 

By Felix Anderson 

Adding Two Stages to the Modified Reinartz ....26 

By Frank D. Pearne 
"What the Broadcasters' are Doing" — Studio-Land 
Features for the Listener 28-40 


I. The Tuned Impedance Reflex with Two 
Stages 41 

II. A Tuned Plate Regenerative Set 43 

By John B. Rathbun 

Pickups and Hookups by Our Readers 49 

Corrected List of Broadcasting Stations... 74 

Radio Age is published monthly by RADIO AGE, Inc. 
Member: Audit Bureau of Circulations. 

Executive, Editorial and Advertising Offices 
500 Ts r . Dearbarn Street, Chicago, 111. 
Publication Office, Mount Morris, 111. 

Frederick A. Smith, Editor 
Russell H. Hopkins, Associate Editor 
Frank D. Pearne, Technical Editor 
Louis L. Levy, Circulation Manager 
M. B. Smith, Business Manager 

Advertising Director 

Eastern Representative 
DAVIDSON & HEVEY, 17 West 42nd St., New York City 

Pacific Coast Representative 
BENJAMIN LEVEN, 582 Market St., San Francisco. 

Final Advertising forms close on the 20th of the 2nd month 

preceding date of issue 

Issued monthly. Vol. 4, No. 1. Subscription price. $2.50 a year. 

Application madefor transfer of second class entry from the post office at Chicago, 

Illinois, to the post office at Mount Morris, Illinois 

Covuriqht. 1925. by RADIO AGE, Ivo. 

A Chat With 
the Editor 

the Radio Corporation of 
America, diverts us with 
a letter in which he expresses the 
suspicion (baseless) that adver- 
tisers have been led to believe 
they were advertising in WIRE- 
LESS AGE, when, as a matter of 
fact, they were dealing with 
RADIO AGE. Mr. Davis even 
threatens to call out the agile 
R. C. A. legal department and cut 
our heads off. 

AGE are two separate and dis- 
tinct publications, the former pub- 
lished in Chicago and the latter 
in New York. We do not make this 
statement because we think an 
announcement necessary to avert 
confusion of names so different as 
these. We make this extremely 
obvious distinction because we do 
not want Mr. Davis to think that 
there is anything in the adver- 
tising or editorial departments of 
AGE wants, much less would 
employ sharp practice to obtain. 

Radio Corporation of America 
controls WIRELESS AGE. It 
is published by Wireless Press, 
Inc., of New York. RADIO 
AGE is owned by RADIO AGE, 
Inc., of which the undersigned is 
President. RADIO AGE is not 
interested directly or indirectly 
in the manufacture or sale of any 
radio product and is serving as 
officiai organ for nobody. 

The writer has been a newspaper 
editor for a quarter of a century. 
He was war correspondent at the 
French front for the Chicago 
Tribune. He was special corres- 
pondent in Russia, China and 
Japan for the same newspaper for 
two years after the war. He is 
now editor of a newspaper radio 
section, which on one day of each 
week, has the largest radio circu- 
lation in the world. Also he is 
editor and chief stockholder of 

Most earnestly he hopes that 
the radio public will not make 
the error of thinking this magazine 
has any association with the peri- 
odical controlled by our friend 
with the agile legal department. 

Editor of RADIO AGE. 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

U^IIUjf^ ^f^X^^TjT^ ^^tJl ^ ^W L^'iP^ 1 

■I t» Ji zZ *&& t jrJ)*i 


No. 766 
22y 2 -volt 







t& t 


* Cut your 
operating cost 

Thirty years' experience in the manufacture 
of dry batteries has enabled us within the 
past two years to steadily and greatly improve 
dry "B" Battery quality. Eveready "B" 
Batteries are now from two to three times 
better than ever before. 

Eveready "B" Batteries will long outlast 
any others, and are the most economical and 
dependable source of plate current. These 
are strong statements, but they have been 
proved by tests in our own and in independent 
laboratories. Check them for yourself on 
your own radio set. Get Eveready "B" 

There is an Eveready Radio Battery for 
every radio use. 

Manufactured and guaranteed by 


Headquarters for Radio Battery Information 
New York San Francisco 

Canadian National Carbon Co., Limited, Toronto, Ontario 


Radio Batteries 

— they last longer 


* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE V 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

Right Here's Where We Call the Bluff of a $33,000,000 Radio Crowd 

RADIO Corporation of America has gone into the 
United States Patent Office and filed formal 
objection to registration of the title, RADIO 
AGE, which title has been used and owned by the 
publishers of this magazine since the spring of 1922. 
The Radio Corporation, with fine insight into delicate 
legal and business discriminations, alleges that the 
title, RADIO AGE, is an infringement on the title of 
"WIRELESS AGE," a publication which Radio 
Corporation controls. 

This initial step toward trying to grab the name of 
RADIO AGE and give the name to its own organ was 
preceded by threats made to the publishers of this 
magazine. We were warned that if we did not sur- 
render the name of our magazine, a name in which we 
have generously invested labor and money, Radio 
Corporation would turn loose its legal department on 
us. That means a threat of bringing us into federal 
court. On the side of Radio Corporation would be 
almost unlimited millions, tremendous influence in 
quarters where "pull" is most useful, and an abso- 
lutely false presumption of law and facts. 

Radio Corporation knows, and its legal department 
knows, that it has no shadow of a right to act on such 
a violent hypothesis that RADIO AGE as a name 
infringes on "Wireless Age." Lawyers know it; the 
publishers of RADIO AGE know it, and before we have 
finished the radio public is going to know it. 

If we were in the position before the American people 
that Radio Corporation occupies, we would not have 
taken this action in the Patent Office. If we had been 
the Radio Corporation, we would not have sent our 
agents to Washington to try to wrest away a magazine 
title from its rightful owners, but we would have 
sent them to Washington to meet the charges that 
have been filed there by the Federal Trade Com- 
mission, a bureau of the United States government. 
We would have been devoting all of our effort and our 
appropriation for legal talent to the effort of disproving 
the charge that we were a trust and that we were re- 
straining competition, thus working a hardship upon 
twenty millions of radio fans. 

We do not know whether or not a radio trust exists, 
but if there is such a lawless combination in restraint 
of radio commerce, the fans who are spending $350,000,- 
000 for radio merchandise this year should, and prob- 
ably will, find a way to express their opinion of it. 

Or, if we had been Radio Corporation, instead of 
reaching out into the Middle West to strong-arm a 
magazine that has been persistent and vigorous in up- 
building interest in radio, we would have sent our 
agents to Richmond Hill, N. Y. We would have 
looked up Al Grebe out there at his big new broadcast- 
ing station and we would have told Al that we were 
heartily ashamed that the Radio Corporation had 
brought a suit against him; a suit so devoid of legal 
justification that it was thrown out of court before 
proceedings were fairly started. 

Or if we had been in Radio Corporation's place, we 
would have called together sixty independent radio 
manufacturers of the United States and would have 
given those independent manufacturers an explana- 

tion of Radio Corporation's great good fortune in 
having through one of its subsidiary companies, been 
privileged to manufacture receiving sets under license 
granted by the government while the sixty independent 
manufacturers could not obtain a similar privilege. 
We would have explained to the sixty independent 
manufacturers and to the American public how it 
happened that it required eighteen months for the 
independent manufacturers to obtain a ruling that 
they were entitled to the same advantages from the 
confiscated German patents as was Radio Corporation. 

We would have sent our agents down to Elgin, 
Illinois, and told Charlie Erbstein that he could have 
the broadcasting equipment he publicly declares the 
"Four Horsemen" refuse to sell him because he is 
against radio monopoly, either in manufacturing, 
selling or broadcasting. 

RADIO AGE is against monopoly also. With 
deepest respect for the law and with profound faith in 
the fairness of the people's verdict in any issue where 
the public is fully informed of the facts, we are going 
to do our best to maintain what the constitution 
guaranteed us — a free press. 

It is a worthy saying that truth in promotion implies 
honesty in manufacture. It is obvious that a corpora- 
tion that is hopeful of building up good will for itself 
and its product by threatening continuously to turn 
loose its high-priced lawyers on manufacturer, dealer, 
editor and publisher, is afflicted with aggravated 

It is possible that Radio Corporation may be suc- 
cessful in making off with the name of this magazine. 
Even so, it would not be a vital blow. A rose by any 
other name would smell as sweet. It is possible that 
almost a quarter of a million readers would still read 
this magazine if it were called RADIO — Something 
else. And we are not so sure that manufacturers of 
radio equipment would not still favor us with their 
advertising. We even harbor the thought that we 
might have more readers and more advertising after 
the facts become known. Readers and advertisers are 
like that sometimes. 

The Owner-Editor of RADIO AGE was a newspaper 
correspondent at the front with the American Army 
in France. He was the first American to reach Berlin 
after the Armistice was signed. He was in the midst 
of the Chinese rebellion in 1920. He later described the 
anti-American outbreak on the Yangtse and he was in 
Siberia watching Kolchak make the last stand against 
the Bolsheviks. He assisted two other Americans in 
the rescue of Dr. A. L. Shelton, Christian Missionary, 
kidnapped for ransom by Yunnan bandits and held 
captive for two months near the Tibet border. He has 
been a newspaper editor and foreign correspondent 
for a quarter of a century. He thrives on action. 

He knows newspaper editors all the way from the 
Maine border, where they smuggle rum, to the Cali- 
fornia border, where they smuggle Orientals. He is 
going to organize a proof press and let every newspaper 
in the United States know what transpires in this 
Radio Corporation matter. And maybe we can induce 
Charlie Erbstein to broadcast it. Let's go! 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 5 

Install genuine All- American Audio Transformers. 
Two of these instruments, fitted into any set not al- 
ready equipped with them, will give the receiver greater 
loud-speaker volume with remarkable purity of tone. 
ALL'AMERicANTransformers are so designed that they 
amplify fundamentals and harmonics equally, through' 
out practically the entire audible range. Hence, voice 
and tones are reproduced faithfully. 

The standards of precision to which All-Americans 
are made, have led to their adoption as standard 
equipment on all the better sets. 

Insist upon All- Americans : the Audio Transform- 
ers which, through sheer merit, have become the largest 
selling transformers in the world. 3 to 1 Ratio, 
$4.50; 5 to 1 Ratio, $4.75; 10 to 1 Ratio, $4.75. 

Use All-American Super-Fine Parts, and you can 
have an intermediate-frequency receiver embodying 
all the most advanced features known in Radio. 

Super-Fine Parts are easily installed. No critical 
adjustments are necessary. Operation is smooth and 
flawless. And every part is All- American — if you 
are a Radio Fan you know what that means! Sets 
built with Super-Fine Parts are unsurpassed for selec- 
tivity, range, volume, and tone quality. Practically 
any station in the country can be brought in on the 
loud-speaker. Interference from local stations is com- 
pletely eliminated. Reliability is assured through 
All-American precision in manufacturing. Super- 
Fine Parts represent in a very real sense the ultimate 
in radio broadcast reception. Price, $26.00 



An AU-American One-Tube Reflex 

This is the ideal set for the youthful 
beginner in Radio. It comes completely 
mounted on panel and baseboard, and 
can be easily wired in one delightful 
evening with the aid of clear photo- 
graphs and a 43-page instruction book. 
Easy to tune — as selective as a multi- 
tube set — has"crystal" tone quality — 
volume enough for speaker operation. 
It brings in far-distant stations, and 
tunes out the locals. 

Price, complete (semi- finished) $22.00 

The Radio Key Book 

Will help anyone to hear far- 
ther and better. Contains prac- 
tical hints for the set builder — ■ 
tested hookups — diagrams of 
All-Amax and other circuits. 
Sent for 10 cents, coin or stamps 


2680 Coyne St., Chicago 
Pioneers in the Industry 


An All-American Three-Tube Reflex 

A complete receiver of the highest 
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SELF-TUNED Radio Frequency 
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Price, complete (semi-finished) $42.00 


1^** TRADE MARK *^l 

Largest Selling Transformers in the~World 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

I have trained 2274 men * 

to make big money in Radio 

I can do the same for you 

WHO were these men? They came from all 
walks of life. I have just looked up the 
record of ten of them. One school 
teacher, one railroad man, one drug clerk, one 
die-maker, one electrician, one insurance man, 
one farmer's son, one travelling salesman. 
How much are they making? $50 to $500 a week. 
The $50 men are mostly those who give me 
their spare time. A great many of my repre- 
sentatives start that way. 
How much did they know about radio at the 
start? Very little, in many cases nothing. Lack 
of radio knowledge is not a handicap. In fact, 
I rather prefer the man who hasn't delved too 
deeply into radio theory. We have our own 
methods — they are successful — and the man 
with nothing to unlearn makes the biggest 
success of our plan. 

Many of the men who have made the biggest 
money selling Ozarka instruments never sold 
anything before in their lives. Sales experience 
naturally would be of some value, but it is not abso- 
lutely necessary. Unlike other articles, a. radio instru- 

ment does its own talking. Your demonstrations are 
given during the evenings, which is possibly your spare 
time. In the hands of the man who knows the instru- 
ment it will deliver its best, and you can safely put it in 
competition with any instrument on the market today, 
regardless of its price. 

The man I want is known in his community as upright 
and reliable — a man whose word is as good as his bond 
— a man who has lived in his community long enough so 
that his fellow men know him and know the 
real type that he is. He may not have any,, 
considerable amount of money, but he has, 
a little; in fact, in many cases the man t 
is particularly interested in my plan is t 
one who is having rather a hard timej 
making ends meet. He is, however, t 
type of man who would not handle any- 
thing unless he was thoroughly con- , 
vinced of its merit. If you are this , 
kind of a man and are really sincere 
in wanting to improve your finan- 
cial conditions, I will be very glad 
to tell you of the Ozarka Plan. I 
can train you to make consider- 
able more money than you are 
now imk ing. I have done this 
with 2274 men in the past two 
years, and I will do it for 
you if you wiii do your part. 

This Button identifies Ozarka Rep* 
resentative in your city— your assur* 
ance of complete radio satisfaction 

his large 
Book tells 

how to make 
$100 per week 

under Ozarka Plan 

four tube 
radio for 

tion with 

as low as 


The Ozarka Plan is fully 
described in a large illustrated book. 
I will send a copy to men who are 
willing to tell me fully about themselves. 
The Ozarka book is a true story of life, of 
men, of why they fail, and how they succeed. It 
tells how men are carving out futures for them- 
selves in this fascinating business of radio. 

In territory not now covered, I want the right 
man. If you feel qualified and are willing to put 
forth the necessary effort to obtain a splendid, 
profitable business of your own, write me and 
say "Send your Ozarka Plan Book No. 100." 
It may be the turning point in your life. Don't 
fail to mention the name of your county. 

Ozarka, Inc. 

871 Washington Blvd., Chicago 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 











USq Magazine of the Hour 

M. B. Smith 

Business Manager 

A Monthly Publication 

Devoted to Practical 


Frederick A. Smith 










3 FIE 


Hr,s£ Super-Stations Licensed — 

NEW Wavelengths a PROBLEM 

WASHINGTON, D. C— What to 
do about the reallocation of wave- 
lengths to broadcasting stations 
as recommended by the Third National 
Radio Conference at Washington? What 
to do is right, for although the Con- 
ference adjourned over two months ago, 
the conferees blissfully going respective 
ways feeling their recommendations had 
solved the situation, little as yet has 
been accomplished. 

In fact, they have left at Secretary 
Hoover's doorstep a problem as com- 
pared to which the solution of a Chinese 
cross-word puzzle would be easy. Two 
months' time is not ordinarily con- 
sidered a long period when it is remem- 
bered that Rome was not built in a day, 
but the way in which things are popping 
in radio, sixty days' delay is the equiva- 
lent of years in other fields of endeavor. 
Far from being able to afford relief to 
existing broadcasting stations in this 
period of drifting, the situation is becom- 
ing more complicated by the fact new 
broadcasting stations are springing up 
like mushrooms. 

How It Started 

THE pressure upon the officials at the 
Department of Commerce is terrific. 
W. D. Terrell, Chief Supervisor of Radio, 
to whom the immediate solution is en- 
trusted, attacking the Class "B" station 
situation as a starting point, lost no 
time putting the Radio Conference 
recommendations up to the government 
district radio inspectors throughout the 
country with instructions for them to 
get into touch with owners of stations. 

And then the trouble began! 

So discouraging have been the 
reports received from certain of these 
inspectors — key men, in fact — that the 
plan of the Conference now appears to 
be as far from being carried out as the 
day the reccomendations were agreed 

In fact, unless miracles are performed 
in the congested broadcasting areas, I 
do not believe the present plan can ever 
be carried out, and I base this prediction 
upon a talk I had with a high govern- 
ment official who summed up the situa- 
tion as follows: 

The third radio conference recom- 


New Broadcasters 
"Stump" Conferees 

mended an extension of the Class B band 
of wavelengths from 288 down to 280 
meters and the removal of Class C sta- 
tions from the wavelength of 360 meters, 
giving to Class B stations the entire 
band from-280 to 545 meters. 

Transfers Planned 

Steps have already been taken to 
transfer the Class C stations to either A 
or B and to shift the Class A stations 

(Photo by 
& Ewirjg) 

W. D. Terrell, the Governments chief 
radio supervisor, on whose shoulders rests 
the burden of reallocating the maze of tan- 
gled wavelengths. He also is assisting 
Secretary Hoover in apportioning the first 
assignment for increased power. 

between 280 and 286 meters to the band 
below 280 meters. 

The continuing committee proposed 
by the conference to reallocate the broad- 
casting wave lengths prepared a plan 
covering the Class B stations as they 
existed or were contemplated on October 
22nd. It was necessarily tentative, it 
not being definitely known at that time 
how many stations would have to be 
provided for or how difficult it might be 
for the owners to comply with the plan. 
This plan was referred to the super- 
visors of each district to be submitted 
by them to the owners of the stations 
involved to ascertain what difficulties 
might arise as to particular stations, and 
to prevent as far as possible any hitch 
in its adoption. 

New Troubles Arise 

T^HREE or four of the districts have 
-*- already reported that the plan is 
acceptable. The other districts, however, 
are experiencing considerable difficulty 
because of the additional new Class B 
stations not contemplated and conse- 
quently not taken into consideration 
when the plan was prepared. 

There are forty-seven Class B wave- 
lengths available for the entire United 
States, even if two stations are put on 
each wavelength, which means undesir- 
able division of time. There are only 
ninety-four operating channels. 

At the present time, there are sixty- 
four Class B stations in operation. 

The Bureau has been advised that 
seven Class C stations and fourteen 
Class A stations are preparing to enter 
Class B. In addition to this, there are 
nineteen stations under construction or 
proposed, which are planning to enter 
Class B, giving us a total of 104 Class B 
stations to be provided for on ninety-four 
duplicated channels. 

Many of these had not been heard of 
at the time of the conference. Thirteen 
of these Class B stations are west of the 
Rocky Mountains, and if the power of 
these stations is not increased consider- 
ably, they can probably use the wave- 
lengths now being used on the Atlantic 
Coast, as they have been doing for the 
past eighteen months. If this can be 
continued it will leave ninety-one Class B 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

stations to be placed on the ninety-four 
channels, assuming that none of them 
obtains a separate wavelength and that 
all must divide time at least two ways. 

Because of the increase in new 
Class B stations mentioned above, 
it is necessary to give new con- 
sideration to the plan now in 
the hands of the supervisors 
and complete remodeling may 
be necessary. The fundamental 
difficulty is that stations are 
increasing so rapidly that no 
general plan can have anything 
like permanence. 

Department Swamped 

WASHINGTON, D. C, [Special] The 
Department of Commerce is so 
busy these days trying to fit half enough 
wavelengths to twice too many stations, 
that complaints of interference do not 
elicit very hearty or quick responses. This 
is unavoidable, officials say, 
so fans must content them- 
selves with the fact that the 
Department radio chiefs are 
snowed under with requests 
for Class B wavelengths. 

With only fifty-three 
available wavelengths 
designated by the confer- 
ence for about sixty sta- 
tions, the government is 
now asked to allocate them 
to 110 B stations. There 
are sixty-four B Stations 
already operating, and forty- 
six either under construc- 
tion or contemplated, mak- 
ing the application of the 
original allocation plan prac- 
tically impossible. Despite 
difficulties in numbers, there are local 
situations to be met, and although four 
of the supervisory districts are apparently 
fixed up, other supervisors are having 
difficulties similar to the trouble at head- 
quarters in Washington; too many Class 
B stations for a division of time on the 
available wavelengths. Either an en- 
tirely new plan will have to be developed, 
with less space between the channels 
used, or more wavelengths will have to 
be secured from other services. An 
alternative would be to have stations 
divide time three ways, which it is hoped 
may be avoided. 

Imagine if you can the howl at head- 
quarters when the writer asked when the 
new list of wavelength allocations would 
be available. He is not permitted to 
quote the replies, but they varied all the 
way from six months to a year, with 
requests for a method of redistributing 

The Department is working on a new 
plan of allocating wavelengths, and 
expects to try the method out by tests 
fairly soon to see if the scheme is prac- 
tical. It is hoped that by the first of the 
year that a satisfactory distribution will 
be in operation, but nothing definite 
can be said at this writing. 

With the coming of the Winter months, 
with better radio reception and more 
listening-in, Department of Commerce 
>fficials point out that super-sensitive 
sets which are not super-selective must 
be cured, if interference is to be avoided 

and trouble in reception minimized. 
The fans themselves can better reception, 
it is believed, by improving their sets 
and learning to operate them properly. 
Due to this fact, the Departmental super- 
visors and inspectors may be expected to 
refuse to consider complaints unless sets 
are described. There is nothing doing if 
poor receivers are used. If a receiver is 
like a sponge, absorbing everything, the 
Department could do nothing to relieve 
interference unless it caused all except 
one station to close. 

There are thousands of non-selective 
crystal sets on the market and in use, 
which are impractical for anything but 
local reception where one station only 
is on the air at a given time. If a set is not 
a two or more circuit set, it will probably 
pick up everything. Practically all crystal 
sets are of the single circuit variety. In 
this way many small sets pick up a lot of 
preventable interference, such as the so- 


TC*OUR more Class "B" broadcasting stations which applied for 
■*- increased power up to 1,500 watts were licensed temporarily 
last month under the regulations providing that no additional 
interference shall be caused. 

Increased power has been authorized for KYW, the Westing- 
house radiophone at Chicago; WBZ, owned by Westinghouse at 
Springfield, Mass. ; KFI, owned by Earl C. Anthony at Los Angeles, 
Calif. ; and WEAF, of the American Telephone and Telegraph 
Company, at New York City. The first station so licensed was 
WTAM, at Cleveland, Ohio. 

This puts five of the Class "B" stations in a position to broad- 
cast at an increased range. Many radio experts believe that this 
arrangement will result in better broadcasting, "if" it does not 
blanket neighboring stations. 

again a possibility of enactment of much 
needed radio legislation in the passage 
of the so-called White bill, named after 
Congressman Wallace H. White, Jr., of 
Maine. The bill, which was originally 
introduced by Mr. White in the first 
session last February, now includes the 
features of a Senate bill of slightly more 
limited scope. The bill has been favor- 
ably reported to the House by the Com- 
mittee on Merchant Marine and Fish- 
eries. During the last session, Congress- 
man Greene of Massachusetts, chairman 
of that committee, requested from the 
House Rules committee a special rule 
which would make it in order for the 
House to consider the radio bill out of 
regular order and under limited debate, 
which would expedite action. 

In view of the urgency of the legisla- 
tion, it is expected Mr. Greene will renew 
the request at this session and if so it is 
anticipated that the Rules committee 
may grant it. If this rule 
can be secured, proponents 
of the bill are confident it 
would pass by a comfort- 
able majority. The mea- 
sure would then go to con- 
ference for Senate action 
on the additions made by 
the House. 

M 1 

called man-made interference from legiti- 
mately operated and electrically driven 
machinery and apparatus. 

Many manufacturers using electric 
power and apparatus emitting electrical 
interference are trying to eliminate their 
radiations, so as to decrease the broad- 
cast listener's troubles. But it often 
costs considerable money and is frequent- 
ly unsuccessful. 

By the use of simple wave traps, con- 
siderable local interference from other 
stations and electrical devices may be 
eliminated, it is pointed out. So it is up 
to the fan to aid his brother fans and 
the Government by improving his own 
set. Some fans will find that by using 
a two-circuit set or a tuner that they 
can select either of two local stations 
operating simultaneously, with a reason- 
aisle separation between their wave- 
lengths, as is used in the present wave- 
length assignment. Otherwise they will 
find it impossible to listen in when two 
or more stations are operating at once. 
Unless fans learn to tune their sets, they 
will get even the amateur stations on the 
short waves below 200 meters. 

Before you complain the next time, 
be sure your set is a reliable one and that 
it is operating properly, and that you 
have taken the usual precuations to pre- 
vent the necessity of writing to govern- 
ment inspectors. 

Radio Legislation 

With Congress in session, there is 

First "Supers" On Air 

IDDLE Western fans 
are now getting their 
first taste of "super-power" 
with the advent of WTAM, 
the Willard Battery Sta- 
tion at Cleveland, O., into 
the ranks of high-power 

WTAM came on the air 
about the first of December with in- 
creased wattage, presumably 1,500 watts. 
Fans living in the vicinity of Cleveland 
report that very close tuning was expe- 
rienced with WTAM's new power, but 
others with weaker sets said they were 
unable to tune the station out. 

In many cases a wave trap helped to 
eliminate WTAM, depending on the 
position of the receiving aerial. 

In New York State and in the Chicago 
district, WTAM came in with loud 
speaker volume on three tubes in every 
instance, and most fans who were ques- 
tioned reported that WTAM could be 
"heard all over the house," so strong 
was the apparatus. However, fans three 
hundred or more miles from WTAM 
reported it could be tuned out by turning 
the. dial three or four points, so no inter- 
ference was caused in that respect. 

In Chicago it was found that WTAM 
could barely be heard when WEBH, 
on 370 meters, or WGN, on 360 meters, 
were broadcasting. WTAM has a 390 

From preliminary reports, then, it 
appears that small sets located near the 
super-power stations will be the ones to 
suffer most, and unless they adjust their 
sets or equip them with a wave trap, 
it is unlikely they will be able to tune 
out the strong broadcasters. 

The Government is watching initial 
experiments closely, in accordance with 
its promise that super-power will be 
abolished if interference is excessive. 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Mahazine of the Hour 

Results with Radio Frequency 

R. F. Amplification 
Best for Distance, 
But Fan Must 
Get the Right 


EXPERTS agree that for DX work 
in radio a good radio-frequency 
amplifier is needed. They have 
to agree, because it can be and has been 
proven, mathematically, experimentally 
and in practice among radio users, that 
radio-frequency amplification increases 
the weak signals to a greater degree than 
the stronger ones. Naturally, the signals 
from distant stations are the weakest, 
other things being equal, therefore they 
are to be helped most by radio-frequency 

A necessary part of an efficient radio- 
frequency amplifier for use with wave- 
lengths within the broadcasting band 
is a transformer, through which the 
amplifier tubes are coupled together or 
the last amplifier tube coupled to the 
detector. For longer wavelengths, re- 
sistance coupling may be used with good 
results, but resistance-coupled ampli- 
fiers are not usually satisfactory for 
wave lengths below 1,000 meters. 

If amplification of power were the 
only thing to be accomplished, the con- 
struction of a radio-frequency amplify- 
ing transformer would be comparatively 
simple. Six stages of amplification will 
make a loud speaker roar like a factory 

Sounds Must Be Intelligible 

IT will vibrate a loud speaker's dia- 
phragm so powerfully that it will 
throw a stream of air strong enough to 
blow out a match. But all amplification 
when applied to currents carrying the 
characteristics of voice or music, causes 
some distortion, and the radio- frequency 
amplifying transformer will make sounds 
unintelligible unless it is constructed 
and operated with the greatest nicety. 
It distorts less than the audio-frequency 
amplifier but either is a difficult piece 
of apparatus to design and build. 

Perhaps the greatest problem that 
confronted the builder or user of radio- 
frequency amplifying transformers for 
short wavelengths was the difficulty of 
obtaining a transformer that would 
amplify equally over a wide range of 
wavelengths within the broadcasting 
band. It was not very difficult to pro- 
duce one that had a very good peak 
somewhere. If the user, fishing for a DX 
station, happened to catch one whose 
wave corresponded to the frequency at 

Above is an artist's picturization showing how Radio Frequency reaches out 
and helps the "DX" listener to amplify weak signals which he could not gel 
otherwise. If the set-builder or buyer gets the right R. F. transformers, they 
will bring him all signals within the range for which they were constructed. 

which the transformer was most efficient, 
he had something to tell the neighbors. 
But he might fish in vain for a much 
nearer and more powerful station without 
ever getting it. This made radio-fre- 
quency amplification unpopular at the 
start, except with experimenters who 
appreciated what a great future it had 
if properly developed. 

Long before radio broadcasting began, 
P. D. Lowell, of the Radio Laboratory 
of the United States Bureau of Standards, 
started experiments on the amplification 
of short waves. Brent Daniel of the 
Bureau took up the work after Mr. 
Lowell had established the. fact that a 
<-adio-frequency transformer could be 
built that would cover a fairly wide wave 
band. He developed the transformer 
just at the beginning of the broadcasting 
era. Imitators immediately began that 
old game of making "something just as 
good." The transformers that some of 
them built were developed hurriedly 
because the radio trade was growing 
rapidly and the loss of a day in getting 
into the patent office might mean the 
loss of a good many dollars. The radio 
education and experience of some manu- 
facturers effectively prevented their mak- 
ing a successful imitation or substitute. 
The closest study of a piece of appara- 
tus so apparently simple but really so 
intricate, by even an experienced radio 
man, cannot reveal at once all the knowl- 
edge of the device that was acquired by 
the man in whose brain it was born. 

Capacity Effects Hinder 

AS stated in "The Principles Under- 
lying Radio Communication," a 
book prepared by the Bureau of Stand- 
ards for the Signal Corps, " . . 
for short wavelengths, particularly for 
wavelengths of less *han 300 meters, 
radio-frequency amplification is attended 
with much difficulty caused by capacity 
effects between different parts of the 

circuit." The number of coils and turns 
of wire in a transformer make just so 
many component parts for condensers, 
unwanted, unwelcome, but impossible 
to be rid of. The experimenters at the 
Bureau met this difficulty in clever 

Making use of the well-known fact 
that the combined capacities of condens- 
ers connected in series is less than the 
capacity of any one of them when oper- 
ating alone, they wound both the pri- 
many and secondary coils in a number of 
groups. These were so spaced from each 
other and from the core that they formed 
a series of condensers with but a very 
small combined capacitv. Even the 
wires that connected coil with coil were 
kept well separated, to minimize the 
capacity between them. This increased 
both the amplification and the range of 
wavelengths over which the transformer 
would operate. 

The coupling between primary and 
secondary was found to be very critical. 
A change of a sixteenth of an inch 
altered the characteristics of the trans- 
former. The spacing between the sepa- 
rate coils of the primary and secondary 
was even more critical. A difference of a 
thousandth of an inch between any two 
coils made a decided difference in the 
characteristics. To insure accuracy 
and permanency, each coil was placed 
in a slot machine and micrometered in a 
square tube of insulating material. 

The size of the wire in the coils was 
found to be important, because the finer 
the wire, the closer together the turns 
will lie and the smaller the capacity 
between them will be. No. 38 wire was 
found to be the best. Beside this some 
human hair looks large. 

The ratio of the turns of wire in the 
primary to those in the secondary was 
still another problem that had to be 
worked out with painstaking exactness. 
The radio novice is often intrigued by 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 





complete transformers and put all their band. 
best features together to 

produce the one he was Tne Heart of the Set 

after. When he finished The point of the story is this: No 

it, he found he could bring matter how many stages of amplification 

in Kansas City on a two- you have, no matter how good a detector, 

the allurements of a high ratio. "Ten these details, but the government expert and then falls very slowly to 560, which 
to one! Gee, ten times as much signal who worked them out had to build 127 is the upper edge of the broadcasting 
strength! Me for it!" Theoretically, it - 
can be worked out some- 
thing like that. In prac- 
tice, the distortion and 
the difficulty of control 
nullify the theoretical ad- 
vantage. The Bureau 
found that a 1 to 1 ratio 
between the windings gave 
very satisfactory amplifi- 
cation. (As the French- 
man said: "No doubt 
they are right, but God 
knows eet ees impossi- 

A ratio of 1 to 1 1-3 is 
the maximum. This is 
obtained not by addi- 
tional slots and coils, but 
by additional turns of wire 
in the slots at the secon- 
dary end of the tube. 

Using Iron and Steel 

'"THE core was another 

problem. It had been known for a 
long time that iron-cored transformers 
would give better results for some pur- 
poses than air-core transformers. The 
core broadens the waveband over which 
the transformer is efficient. It also 
reduces the turns of wire necessary in 
the coils and the capacity that is so un- 
desirable. But the use of iron or steel 
cores in radio-frequency amplifying trans- 
formers had not been considered as prac- 
tical until the Bureau of Standards 
demonstrated that it was. Transformer 
action depends upon the building up and 
collapse of lines of magnetic force about 
the wires in the windings. 

In order to get the desired increase 
of voltage which the iron core is capable 
of assisting, the core must reach the 
magnetic saturation point on every 
oscillation. In radio-frequency trans- 
formers, this means that the lines of 
magnetic force must penetrate and 
saturate the iron core a million times per 
second if 300-meter waves are being 
received. This is impossible unless the 
core is made up of 
exceedingly thin 
sheets. A thick- 
ness — or thinness! 
■ — of three and one- 
half thousandths of 
an inch was un- 

It had to be re- 
duced to two thou- 
sandths before 
success was 
achieved. Seventy- 
five of these ex- 
tremely delicate 
sheets of metal, or 
one sheet folded 
seventy-five times, 
makes up a core 
about the size of a 
square lead pencil. 
The core was well 
insulated to reduce 

It is a simple 
matter to describe 

Slots are cut into each end 
of the tube, the windings 
being laid into these slots. 
The tube is closely packed 
with the iron laminations 
which form the core. Wind- 
ings are of fine wire, and 
are connected from one to 
the other as above indicated. 

foot loop, and K. C. is a 
long way from Washing- 
ton. Dr. Rogers, inventor 
of submarine and under- 
ground radio devices, 
brought in broadcasts from 
England by using these 
transformers, long before 
the recent furore about 
hearing from the other 
side of the Atlantic. 

Part of the job has been 
to compare the transfor- 
mer developed by the 
Bureau with those pro- 
duced by others. The 
curves tell the story. 
Three of them gave no 
sound at all in the phones 
on waves 

below 300 meters. Now 
that the broadcasting band 
is going downward, some 
folks are out of luck. One 
transformer had two good 
humps, like a camel, one 
at about 250 meters and 
the other at 350 meters. 
Unfortunately, the recent 
conference called by Mr. 
Hoover did not assign 
wavelengths to fit the 
humps of radio-frequency 
transformers. Another 
type of transformer gave a 
fairly high and broad peak 
from 320 to 360 meters. 

Outside of that, nothing 
doing. Two others rose 
sharply out of the silence 
between 300 and 350 
meters, then faded away. 
The one developed by the 
Bureau and used in this 
test begins going strong at 200 meters, 
is better at 300, reaches its peak at 360 

The turns of No. 38 wire 
are wound in slots in a 
series of continuous but 
divided coils. The windings 
slots are at opposite ends of 
the tubing as shown above. 


tuner, or audio-frequency amplifier your 
set contains, the first tube and the first 
transformer control the oscillations of 
the entire set. If the transformer retuses 
to function at the wavelength of the 
station you are fishing for, you will not 
hear it — that's all! There are many 
radio-frequency amplifiers on the market 
and the manufacturers and dealers are 
mostly honest folks. They are not in 
the habit of emphasizing the weak points 
of their sets because there are too many 
strong points to talk about. It is up to 
the customer to say what band of wave 
lengths he wants to cover and make sure 
that the set he is considering will do the 
work he wants done. It is perfectly fair 
to ask for a demonstration before pur- 
chasing, or to purchase on approval. 

One big advantage of 
the type of radio-fre- 
quency amplifier that had 
its beginning in the 
Bureau of Standards is 
that it is a plug-in propo- 
sition. The waveband of 
a receiver can be changed 
by taking out one trans- 
former and plugging in 
another, as easily as the 
electric reading lamp on 
the library table can be 
plugged into the socket 
on the baseboard. By 
using the proper trans- 
formers, four or five stages 
of radio-frequency can be 
used, with easy control 
and the minimum of dis- 
tortion. One stage multi- 
plies by 10,000 the energy 
received through the aerial 
and two stages multiply 
it by 1,000,000. 
Small, portable coil aerials can be used, 
with the advantage of their directional 
effects. Audio- 
frequency amplifi- 
ers will bring the 
sound up to the 
desired volume. 

A comparison between different RF transformers now in use. The heavy line 
indicates the best curve since it covers the broadcast band with a very satisfactory 
value of amplification. Two stages of amplification with UV 199s were used 
and all transformer curves were obtained under the same operating conditions. 

Mr. Perry will 
have another in- 
teresting article in 
the February 

Incidentally, the 
Editor would like 
to know what our 
readers' experien- 
ces have been with 
Radio Frequency 
What type of 
transformers gives 
best results and 
widest rangeon the 
broadcast band ? 
Write us about it 
and we'll print the 
best letters. 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


FIG. 1 


Simplifying Reception With 

A REFLEXED Neutrodyne 

WITH the ever in- 
creasing demand 
for a receiver 
that will not only reach 
out to far distant points, 
but which will bring in 
the distant stations with 
sufficient volume to op- 
erate a loud speaker, 
popularity has shifted 
around from the single circuit regenera- 
tive receiver of a few years ago to the 
super-regenerative set and then to the 
multitube radio fiequency circuits, and 
so on down the line to the more recently 
improved circuits. 

After reflexing most of last Winter, the 
neutrodyne circuit gradually took its 
place in the public favor and it is perhaps 
the most popular receiver today among 
broadcast fans. But as time goes on, we 
find that each has its limits. While 
the super-heterodyne 
great possibilities for 
vanced fan, it becomes 
too expensive with its 
maze of tubes and other 
equipment and is beyond 
the reach of the average 
fan, so he naturally looks 
to less expensive equip- 
ment that will produce 
exploring qualities and 
volume sufficient to 
boast about with the 
best of them. 

The set described in 
this article may be just 
what the fan has been 
looking for, as it was 
constructed with the 
desire to get the best 

A Four-Tube Receiver That 
Gives Regular Six-Tube Volume; 
Can Be Built at Small Cost 

receiver shows 
the more ad- 


A. E. E. 

results possible without great complica- 
tion and for the least possible invest- 
ment, combining the popular neutrodyne 
circuit with the reflex amplifying 

Simple Problem 

In describing the how and why of the 
set, let us take the two features separate- 
ly, so as to better understand why each 
circuit was designed and how it will 
function as a single unit. Then it will be 
a simple problem to put the two circuits 
together and understand the principle 


1 — Fixed Mica condenser. .0015 mf. — F 
1 — Fixed Mica condenser. .002 mf. — H 

1 — Grid leak condenser .00025 mf. \ ff 

1 — Grid leak resistance 1 megohm / ** 
4 — Vacuum tube sockets. — M1.M2.M3, 

2 — Neutralizing condensers. Variable — 

•N, Nl 
3 — Radio frequency transformers^*Rl, 

R2, R3 
2 — Audio frequency amplifying trans- 
formers. Ratio 5 or 6 to 1 — T, Tl. 
1 — Cutoff jack (If required). — X 
1 — Phone jack. — Y 

7 — Binding posts. — A, Al, A2, B, Bl, 
B2, G 

1 — Composition Panel. 

1 — Composition Shelf. 

1 — Cabinet. (If required). 

Brass screws, nuts, wire, solder, 
terminals and miscellaneous raw 
materials used in the construction 
of the parts described in this article. 

1 — Loop' aerial. (If required). 

3 — Variable condensers. — .0005 mf. CI, 
C2, C3 

3 — Composition dials for condensers. — 
CD1, CD2, CD3 

1 — Tube control rheostat. — 9 to 16 
Ohms.— D 

1 — Composition dial for rheostat. — DD 

1 — Fixed Mica condenser. — .001 mf. E 

•Construction of articles marked with asterisk is detailed in this 
account. They can be purchased from any reliable dealer if desired. 

of the set described. 
We will start with the 
neutrodyne circuit, 
which is of the tuned 
radio frequency type. A 
radio frequency circuit 
amplifies the incoming 
signal before it reaches 
the detector tube, much 
the same as a regenera- 
tive type of circuit amplifies the signal 
after it has been passed through the 
detector tube. This is accomplished by 
inserting one or more electron tubes 
between the tuning element and the de- 
tector tube, which amplifies the weak 
signal currents received on the antenna 
and passed through the tuning element, 
before it reaches the detector tube, the 
same as a regenerative circuit amplifies 
them by regeneration. The only excep- 
tion is that the circuit is free from the 
objectionable oscillation or regeneration 
which is the cause of howls and squeals 
in the set when regen- 
eration is pushed beyond 
its critical stage. 

By connecting the 
output side of each radio 
frequency tube to a 
tuned circuit, great 
selectivity is obtained 
and interference is elimi- 

The neutralizing or 
balancing of the regen- 
erative effect makes 
possible a simplified 
means of tuning, elim- 
inates oscillation noises 
and reproduces better. 
(Turn the page) 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 



/rjeOA/T W£M/. 


stz>e of 


Ft 4. 2 

<?E-rt£/?ftL /9fir?ANff£A?ENT or INSTRUMENTS. 


Harmony and simplicity are the characteristic features of this Neutro-Reflex receiver. In appear- 
ance it looks like a neutrodyne — in results it is its easy equal, with a smaller number of tubes. 

The reflex circuit is simply an ampli- 
fying feature whereby each amplifying 
tube is used as a radio frequency ampli- 
fier and an audio frequency amplifier 

The circuit operates much the same as 
a straight radio frequency circuit up to 
the detector tube, but instead of the out- 
put side or plate of the detector tube 
being connected to the phones or to 
audio frequency amplifying tubes, it is 
returned to the input side or the grid 
of the radio frequency tube. The audio 
frequency current is thus amplified by 
the tube that is simultaneously amplify- 
ing the radio frequency current of the 
signal before it has reached the detector 

If receivers are connected to a radio 
frequency circuit before the 
tube, no signal will be heard 
do not respond to a radio frequency 
current until it has been passed through 
the detector tube and changed to audio 
frequency, but they will respond to the 
audio frequency currents returned, or 
reflexed on these tubes from a detector 
tube, producing the same result as a 
straight additional audio frequency am- 
plifier without the use of additional 

T^THEN the instruments have all been 
" * secured, they should be placed into 
the positions that they will occupy when 
mounted into the completed set. A 
cabinet of the right proportions can 
then be secured and a panel and shelf 
to fit the particular cabinet can then be 
determined. This procedure may save 
quite a bit of laborous re-arrangement 
later on. 

Construction Simplified 

The parts used in building the set are 
clearly marked with a designating letter 
or number throughout this article and on 
the circuit diagram and construction 

This method has been found to better 
enable the prospective builder to more 
easily distinguish each part and to con- 
nect them properly into the electrical 
circuit, although he may be entirely un- 
familiar with electrical circuits and con- 

The first step in building the receiver 
should be to secure all of the instruments 
and material listed at the bottom of 
page 11. 

Placing the Apparatus 

The first step in assembling the set 
will be to cut the shelf and panel to fit 
the cabinet. The shelf should be cut so 
as to clear the cabinet on all sides by at 
least a half of an inch when mounted on 
the panel. It is not absolutely necessary 
to have a composition shelf. A lami- 
detector- nated wood shelf will do as well mechani- 
as they cally, but if possible a composition shelf 
is recommended, as it is easier to work 
and will not warp as wood Will. Con- 
siderable loss is caused by the wood 
absorbing moisture during wet weather. 

The next step will be to lay out and 
drill the shelf and panel for mounting 
the instruments. Figure 2 shows a 
general arrangement of equipment and 
can be followed with good results, but 
it is not essential, as any good layout 
will suffice if you bear in mind to keep 
the transformers placed so that they will 
not be inductively coupled. This is 
accomplished by mounting the radio 
frequency transformers (Rl, R2, R3) on 
an angle of about 45 degrees or on 
opposite planes. They should be spaced 
at least four inches apart. 

The audio frequency transformers 
(T Tl) should be placed at right angles 
to one another and as far apart and as far 
away from the radio frequency trans- 
formers as is practical. If this is not 
done, an inductive coupling effect will be 
produced. The little induced currents 
thus formed will cause many annoying 
howls and squeals in the receiver. 

When the in- 
struments are all 
placed in their 
permanent posi- 
tions, the mount- 
ing holes should be 
centered in the 
panel and snelf 
with a sharp in- 
strument. A nail 
that has been filed 
to a good point or 
an awl will do this 
very nicely. 

Drilling the 

THE instru- 
-*- ments will then 
be removed and 
the shelf and panel 
drilled. Be care- 
ful not to press too 
hard on the drill as 
this will cause the 
edges of the holes 
to chip. 

It is a good 
practice to drill 
the holes for the condenser and rheostat 
shafts with plenty of clearance. A hole 
one-half inch in diameter is a good size, as 
it will be a safeguard against the bind- 
ing of these movable shafts on the panel 
which would cause the dials to turn 
hard and make it impossible to tune the 
set critically. 

When the panel is drilled, the front or 
control side should be rubbed with fine steel 
wool (size 000) until all of the scratches 
are removed, following this by finishing 
off with a fine piece of sand paper and 
machine oil until a dull velvet finish is 
obtained. The edges of the panel should 
be rounded off with a fine file and 
finished with fine sand paper to prevent 

After the shelf and panel are prepared, 
the instruments should be mounted to 
each and the shelf fastened to the panel 
by the brass brackets shown in figure 5 
as detail 3. Brass machine screws and 
nuts should be used throughout, as iron 
screws will produce little magnetic 
fields when near any inductance. These 
little induced currents also help to make 
the set noisy. 

When the instruments have all been 
mounted to the panel and shelf and the 
shelf mounted to the panel, the set will 
be ready to be wired or connected up, 
but don't just wire it or connect it up; 
use as much care in doing this as you have 
in drilling the panel or building the 
transformers, remembering that a radio set 
is only as efficient as its most inefficient 
part. If the wiring is not carefully 
done, disappointing results will be ob- 
tained even though the instruments are 
the best. 

Many people, in wiring a receiving set, 
make a fine looking job of it by arrang- 
ing the wiring in nice straight runs and 
square corners, taking the longest way 
around like the bus work on the switch- 
board in a power station; but this is a 
very inefficient way to do it. It must be 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 



jleft said gjjWTW* 


remembered that 
the frequency o f 
the current pass- 
ing through the 
wiring of a radio 
set is measured in 
the thousands of 
cycles, while the 
current on the bus 
work of a power 
switchboard i s 
seldom over sixty 

The nice, long 
parallel runs will 
act as little con- 
densers cutting 
down the efficien- 
cy of the set by 
increasing its in- 
ternal capacity. It 
is also necessary 
that the power or 
low tension leads, 
battery supply 
leads, and high 
tension leads, grid, 

plate and antenna leads, be separated. 
Do not run a low tension lead parallel 
to a high tension lead for any distance. 
Keep the leads from the input side of 
the tube (the grid leads), as short as 
possible and away from the other leads. 
If this interferes with another lead, make 
the other lead longer. 

Bare copper wire either No. 12 or No. 
14 is heavy enough to care for the cur- 
rents passing through a radio receiver 
and will be stiff enough to support them- 
selves when bent into the required 
shapes. Solder all wire connections and 
turn the binding post and terminal nuts 
down as tight as possible, as a loose lead 
causes a high resistance contact and is 
sometimes very noisy, especially if the 
set is subjected to much vibration. 

If it is not desired to use a loop antenna 
or to make the set for the use of both 
the outside antenna and loop, the cutoff 
jack (X) and the wiring marked "X" 
will be omitted and the first radio 
frequency transformer (Rl) connected 
to the condenser 
(CI) as shown by 
the dotted wiring. 

If it is desired to 
use the loop an- 
tenna only, and 
not arrange the 
set for use with an 
outside antenna, 
the first radio fre- 
quency transform- 
er (Rl) and the 
cutoff jack (X) 
can be omitted 
and the two leads 
from the conden- 
ser (CI) shown 
dotted, run to the 
binding posts "A" 
and "G" instead 
of to the trans- 
former as shown. 

The R. F. Trans- 

TO build the 
radio f r e- 
quency transform- 

T f 

on \Mre. rust 







Z>£T#IL 2 


RADIO r#£Qt/£NCY Tft/»NSFO#f*E#S. 



The dimensions and specifications for the radio frequency transformers 
are given in the above illustration. The primary fits immediately inside 
of the wall of the secondary winding tube, and is held in place with screws. 

ers, Rl, R2, R3, six pieces of composition 
tubing will be required, three pieces of 
three inches outside diameter, three 
inches long, and three pieces, two and 
three quarters inches outside diameter, 
one and one half inches long; eight No. 
4 brass machine screws five-eighths of an 
inch long; thirty brass nuts for No. 4 
machine screws and about one-half 
pound of No. 26 double silk covered 
magnet wire. 

The three-inch tubes will hart five 
holes drilled in each, to pass a No. 4 
brass machine screw. These holes will 
be one quarter of an inch in from the 
end of the tube, as shown in figure 4. 
Two of these holes will be drilled on each 
end of the tube on opposite sides from 
one another and one midway between 
the two on the right end. We will call 
these holes No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, No. 4 
and No. 5, as shown in figure 3. 

The two and three-quarter inch tubes 
will have two holes of the same size 
drilled on the left end of each to pass a 


BfrtZS mtniNMI. 

^/jx/; BRRSS PL/IT£S 

r ecopptnt *//«£ 







A Neutrodon or Neutralizing condenser that can be constructed at a 
small cost, and which has few equals for efficiency. This type of 
balancing condenser can be used to advantage on most any type of 
neutrodyne receiver which requires the use of a balancing element. 

No. 4 brass 
machine screw, 
these holes to be 
one quarter of an 
inch in from the 
end of the tube 
and on opposite 
sides of the tube. 
We will call these 
holes No. 1 and 
No. 2, as shown in 
figure 3. They 
should line u p 
with holes No. 1 
and No. 2 on the 
three-inch tube 
when this tube is 
placed inside of 
the three-inch 

The tubes are 
now ready to be 
wound. We will 
start with the sec- 
ondary coil which 
is to be wound on 
jthe three-inch 
tube. Two small ho es will be drilled 
one-half of an inch in from the left end 
of the tube and directly in line with hole 
No. 1 as shown in figure No. 4, to pass 
and fasten the No. 26 wire. The end of 
the wire will be passed down through 
one hole and up through the other hole, 
leaving about two inches of free end for 
connection. Care should be used to see 
that this wire will lay close to the inside 
of the tube between the two holes and 
that it is not pulled too tight, which 
would damage the insulation or break 
the wire itself. 

Fifty-five turns of the No. 26 wire 
will now be wound in an even layer on 
the tube. This should be wound on in a 
clockwise direction when looking at the 
right end of the tube. If the tube is 
held in the left hand and the wire wound 
so that it goes away from the body over 
the top of the tube and toward the body 
on the lower side of the tube, this will be 
accomplished. Two more holes will then 
be drilled directly in line with the last 
turn of the coil 
and opposite hole 
No. 3 similar to 
figure No. 4 and 
the end made fast 
as was done at the 
start, leaving 
about two inches 
of free end for con- 

The Winding 

WHEN the 
three second- 
ary coils have been 
wound, they will 
be laid aside and 
the two and three- 
quarter-inch tubes 
will have the pri- 
mary coils wound 
on them ; two small 
holes will be drilled 
in the right end of 
the tube opposite 
hole No. 2 and 
(Turn to page 70) 



DBTfilL 3 



t4 RADIO AGE /or January, 1925 

Take Good Care of Your 


The Magazine of the Hour 

AFTER three years of trouble shoot- 
j\ ing on amateur-built receiving 
-L \. sets I have come to the conclusion 
that "Gyp" headsets or phones are as 
much to blame for failures as any other 
part of the circuit. It seems to be a 
common failing for the builder to spend 
money foolishly on all sorts of psuedo- 
refinements in the set proper and then 
to economize or skimp on the phones — 
the heart of the radio receiver. 

After investing a hundred dollars or so 
on nickel-plated ornaments and foolish 
coils, he will go and buy his phones from 
the five and ten cent counter and wonder 
why he is not getting the expected results 
from his set. 

The importance of the headset is 
greatly underestimated by the average 
fan. He does not seem to realize that 
the entire output of his set is delivered 
to the phones and that whatever benefit 
he gets from the set depends u n what the 
phones are capable of delivering to him. 
If the efficiency of the phones is only 50 
per cent, then he will get only 50 per cent 
of the output in the form of sound waves 
where he should be getting a great deal 
more. It can be said without exaggera- 
tion that the difference between a good 
set of phones and the bargain counter 
type is equal to two stages of audio 
amplification. That is, the good phones 
will deliver as much volume from the 
detector tube alone as the poor phones 
will deliver from the same tube with two 
stages of audio amplification added. 
In fact, there are several makes of phones 
which will give as much volume on a 
crystal set as a poor pair will give on a 
regenerative detector circuit, and the 
range varies accordingly. 

If the radio novice paid as much atten- 
tion to the selection of his headset as to 
the selection of a hookup and the tuning 
units, we would have more consistent 
DX reception. When the phones have 
diaphragms with the flexibility of cast 
iron stove lids, and the magnets are 
wound with hay wire, it is impossible to 
make any hookup perform according to 
Hoyle. When such poor magnet steels 
are used for the magnets of the phones 

only a 
faint trace 
of magnetic 
flux remains, we 
cannot expect 
to get either 
volume or sensitivity. In addition to 
these factors we have the problem of 
workmanship and adjustment after 
assembly, which are items in the expense 
of manufacture and which are therefore 
often ignored even in headsets retailing 
at a stiff price. Headsets are essentially 
a quantity production proposition and 
can only be made by concerns having 
the proper equipment, and proper equip- 
ment means a heavy investment of capi- 
tal. Good headsets cannot be turned 
out of basement shops by ex-barbers 
or old clothes dealers. You may rest 
assured that when phones are turned out 
by hand in quantities of ten to 100 pair 
at a time, that a good set would cost in 
the neighborhood of from $25 to $50 per 

Wise Buying Advised 

BY CHEAP phones I do not neces- 
sarily mean phones that retail at 
a reasonable price. Please do not mis- 
understand me. There are firms that 
turn out effective receivers at lists rang- 
ing from about $3.00 to $4.00 that are 
comparable to cheaply constructed 
phones that retail at twice the price. 
It is easily possible by virtue of improved 
tooling and minimizing of overhead 
expenses to turn out a headset that will 
retail at about $3.00, but only a few 
manufacturers have such facilities avail- 
able. Fortunately, such concerns also 
have the money to conduct national 
advertising campaigns so that the pur- 
chaser can feel fairly safe in buying a 
low priced outfit when such sets are 

extensively advertised. 
However, beware of the 
unknown and unheralded cheap 
phone unless you have means for con- 
ducting comparative tests. 

Next to sensitivity comes the item of 
tone quality and uniform response to 
widely varying audio frequencies. Some 
phones, while sensitive, are harsh sound- 
ing and give unnatural reproduction, due 
principally to the construction of the 
diaphragms and the arrangement of the 
pole pieces. Further, in a double head- 
set - both phones should be perfectly 
matched, so that they give perfectly 
uniform volume and tone. Headsets, 
while apparently the most simple device 
in the receiving outfit, are the most 
difficult to construct. A good pair of 
phones will give a smooth, soft reproduc- 
tion with almost perfectly uniform accent 
on high and low pitched notes. They 
are as responsive to the low shuddering 
notes of the pipe organ as to the high 
upper notes of the soprano. Poorly 
constructed phones are generally insen- 
sitive to the lower pitched notes and 
unduly sensitive to high pitches, thus 
giving an unbalanced reception. 

With improper diaphragms and mag- 
nets, it is possible to lose half of the 
orchestra because of the selectivity of 
the diaphragms. Very sensitive phones 
with exceedingly thin diaphragms gen- 
erally have a lower natural period than 
insensitive phones, and while they record 
low notes with accuracy, they will buzz 
and rattle on high notes. By combina- 
tion of thin diaphragms with proper 
"damping" we gain a better distribution 
of sound. 

Elements of the Phones 

EVERY headset consists of the follow- 
ing elements in some form or other: 
1) The thin diaphragm which is 
made of either sheet steel or mica, and 
which vibrates at voice frequency 
under the influence of the audio fre- 
quency currents. (Turn to page 57) 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 15 



A Wonder Circuit That Can Be Built for 
Approximately $55! — Compares Favorably 
With Larger Supers; Uses Simple Control 

MANY a fan has been waiting for a 
super-heterodyne that could be 
built for little, if any, additional 
cost over what a neutrodyne or other 
similar set would cost. Here is one that 
can be built for approximately $55.00 and 
that will give you results that will stack 
up well with larger editions of the same 

In fact, this circuit is practically the 
same circuit as heretofore described by 
the writer in RADIO AGE, but with 
one stage of audio and one stage of inter- 
mediate omitted. 

In building this set, the purpose that 
the writer had in mind was to provide 
something that would be inexpensive 
and yet woud produce results such as 
the average fan .desires. All the parts 
used are standard, so there will be no 
difficulty in securing them. 

One unique feature of this circuit lies 
in the fact that it uses only one filament 

Great pains have been taken in laying 
out the circuit so as to utilize the base- 
board and panel space to very best ad- 
vantage. There is not one inch of sur- 
plus space, so it will be necessary to 
follow instructions very carefully in 
building yours. It will be further noted 
that this arrangement provides for 
exceptionally short grid and plate leads. 
An examination of the underside of the 

Pictures by the Author 

baseboard will show how the balance of 
the wiring is disposed of. 

"Balancing Out the Loop" 

UNKNOWN probably to most radio 
enthusiasts, regeneraton plays an 
exceedingly important part in securing 
selectivity as well as volume and dis- 
tance. If regeneration is pushed too far, 
the circuit is said to slop over or become 
mushy. Resistance is one of the factors 
which stands in the way of selectivity and 
volume. Regeneration, if properly used, 
tends to break down this resistance and 
thereby gives us the selectivity desired. 
The use of regeneration in this circuit is 
unique, and must be fully appreciated to 
get best results. 

An examination of the diagram will 
show that a midget condenser is so con- 
nected that its rotor plates are next to 
the plate post of the first intermediate 
transformer and the first detector tube. 
The stator plates are connected to the 
one side of the loop in common with the 
rotor plate of the loop condenser. By 
adjusting this condenser to the proper 
value, regeneration of exactly the right 
degree can be obtained. Too much 
regeneration, as above stated, will -ruin 
reception. Too little regeneration will 
prevent the set bringing in its full quota 

of distant stations. Too much cannot be 
said regarding this portion of the circuit. 
You will find many fans will tell you 
that this small condenser can be dis- 
pensed with. Pay no attention to them. 
The condenser for this purpose should 
contain nine plates and should be of a 
panel mounting variety. If upon test- 
ing your set, you find that you can- 
not place the plates far enough apart to 
prevent over-regeneration, remove one 
plate at a time until the proper capacity 
has been reached. 

The Variable Condenser 

T^HESE two condensers have been 
-*- found by experiment to be well adapt- 
ed to this circuit; however, there are 
plenty of other good low loss types on the 
market. The only point to be borne in 
mind, if you desire to use other low loss 
condensers, is that it is preferable that 
they be not only low loss but straight 
line condensers as well. The importance 
of this suggestion will be realized when 
you make your first set of loggings. 
There will be plenty of separation 
between the upper and the lower oscilla- 
tor dial settings on stations around 500 
meters, but when you get down to sta- 
tions of about 250 meters, you will find 
that the settings come much closer 

With straight-line condensers the set- 
tings are farther apart around 250 meters 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

A top view of the Baby Grand super-heterodyne receiver described by Mr. Green in the ac- 
companying article. This layout must be religiously adhered to if results are to be expected. 

Oscillator Coupling 

The oscillator is the 
device which shows on 
the extreme right hand 
end of the baseboard as 
you look at the illustra- 
tion. Too tight coup- 
ling of these coils will 
usually result in less 
selectivity and less vol- 
ume. , For distance re- 
ception, avoid too tight 
a coupling at all times. 
There are several types 
of oscillator coupler on 
the market. The writer 
would be glad to give 
anyone interested full 
constructional details for 
the making of a very 
efficient home-m a d e 
coupler at little expense 
if you will address him 
care of RADIO AGE. 

While speaking o f 
home-made apparatus, 
it might be well to 
mention the output coil. 
The one shown is wound 
on a bobbin two inches 
in diameter with a one 
inch core. The winding 
space is 1-2 inch wide. 
The primary consists of 
200 turns of No. 28 
single cotton or silk 
covered wire, over which 
the secondary is wound 
with no other separation 
than the natural insula- 
tion of the wire. The 
secondary consists of 
1,500 turns of No. 36 
silk or cotton covered 
wire. The bobbin for 
this output transformer 
can be turned out of 
kiln-dried wood or per- 
haps more conveniently 

than is the case with the ordinary type 
of condenser. Not only that, but with 
straight-line condensers, it is much 
easier for you to lay out your graph and 
to predict with almost uncanny certainty 
the dial settings of any station for which 
you have the wavelength. With the dials 
properly adjusted, they should tune 
almost exactly alike, especially on sta- 
tions around 300 meters. This, of 
course, refers to the upper oscillator dial 
setting and the normal loop setting. It 
will be found that there are two settings 
for each station on the oscillator dial. 
This is as it should be, so don't be 

It might be added that the two settings 
are a decided advantage because of the 
fact that this allows you to utilize the 
setting which is farthest from the source 
of interference. You will hear many 
persons dispute this, but don't let that 
bother you. The rheostat will usually be 
found to have one setting at which the 
circuit functions best. Referring again 
to the small condenser used for controll- 
ing loop feed-back, it should be men- 
tioned that very little coupling is neces- 
sary; usually, not more than 1-10 or 1-15 
of the way in. 

1 8 

Bottom V/'ew- Jb&sehoQrd 

(.Pkasilcrrx) >i, Scale , 
K '7' 

This gives you an idea of what is meant by good design 
and engineering. The bottom view of the Baby Grand. 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


made up of two 
pieces of bakelite 
2 "x2 " x 3-16" for 
the sides and a 
1-2 " section of 1 
inch diameter 
bakelite or wood 
rod for the core. A 
brass screw of any 
convenient dimen- 
sion and approxi- 
mately two inches 
in length should 
be passed through 
the center of this 
bobbin. This screw 
will serve as a con- 
venient means of 
holding the bob- 
bin core, while at 
the same time en- 
abling you to 
chuck the coil in a 
lathe or hand drill for winding. 

If you use your hand drill for winding, 
merely turn the handle of the drill as 
many times for the primary and second- 
ary respectively as the ratio of your drill 
is contained into the number of turns 
required. Thus, if the ratio of your drill 
is 5 to 1, you will only need to turn the 
handle of your drill 40 times when put- 
ting on the primary and 300 times 
when putting on the secondary. 

If any of the readers of this article 
would like to have more detailed descrip- 
tion of the construction of this simple 
output tuner, these details will be sup- 
plied in the same manner as those of the 
oscillator coil. 


TT GOES without saying that inasmuch 
-*- as a large part of the wiring is done 
beneath the baseboard, the baseboard 
should be of bake- 
lite or hard rub- 
ber. It can be 
fastened to the 
front panel by 
means of brass 
brackets or angle 
pieces not shown 
in the illustration. 
If the set is to be 
handled much be- 
fore it is put into 
a cabinet, it will 
be well to put long, 
diagonal brackets 
from the top of 
the front panel to 
the back of the 
baseboard. B y 
doing most of the 
wiring beneath the 
baseboard, it is 
possible to make 
the grid and plate 
leads exceptional- 
ly short, which, as 
you know, is a 
very important 
feature. The long- 
est leads for the 
set are "a" battery 
leads and these 
are comparatively 
short, For con- 

Two controls that require only two hands to tune with. The filament rheostat may be 
set and left there, and while the regeneration requires an occasional touch when tuning on 
widely separated wavelengths, it is not troublesome. The filament switch on the right 
permits one to turn off the set while lashing the phones or loud speaker to the table when 
strong signals are to be received. 

venience in placing this set in a cabinet 
the writer extended the binding post 
back of the baseboard an inch and a 
quarter. This permits of reaching the 
binding posts from the outside of the 
cabinet, without raising the lid. It will 
merely be necessary to cut a slot in the 
back of the cabinet long enough and high 
enough to allow the binding post bracket 

expense of the set 
is thus kept down 
to a point very 
little, if any, in 
excess of that of 
any ordinary set. 

All of the parts 
chosen in this cir- 
cuit were deliber- 
ately chosen be- 
cause of their 
known ability to 
perform properly. 
While undoubted- 
ly there are other 
pieces of apparatus 
that might be sub- 
stituted, yet it is 
suggested that 
when you build 
your set you ad- 
here to the sugges- 
tions as to the 
parts to be used. Otherwise, it will be 
next to impossible to analyze your 
troubles or to correct them. 

This little "Baby Grand" superhetro- 
dyne is the outcome of a great deal of 
experimentation and as it performs just as 
a super-heterodyne should perform, you 
will gain nothing by trying to substitute 
parts. This point can be very well 

to slip through, after which the binding understood when it is explained that the 
posts and their screws can be placed in intermediate transformers used are in- 
tended to peak at a given frequency. 
The output coil is tuned to peak at the 
same frequency. Any changes that 



The two transformers shown 

on the 

center portion of the baseboard are so- 
called long wave transformers. Only one 
step of audio is used in this circuit, so that 
from the standpoint of expense very 
little money is spent for transformers. 
This point alone makes this circuit ideal 
for the average radio fan. The total 

The business end of the powerful little superheterodyne receiver described by Mr. 
Green. It gives one an idea of what a compact efficient super-het should look like. 

might be made in apparatus are almost 
certain to cause trouble because of the 
inability of substituted apparatus to 
function best at the frequency for which 
this set was designed. 

HPHERE is nothing to fear in the wiring 
*■ of this circuit. Follow the two base- 
board layouts 

closely and place 

your apparatus as 
shown. The dis- 
tance between the 
oscillator conden- 
ser and the loop 
condenser has been 
carefully de- 
termined after 
quite a bit of ex- 
perimentation. If 
you change the 
spacing, it is quite 
likely that the set 
will not function 
as it should and 
you will find it 
necessary to make 
minor adj ustments 
to compensate. 
This will involve 
which it is the pur- 
pose of this article 
to eliminate. 

As stated, prac- 
tically all of the 
wiring is done be- 
neath the base- 
board. There are 
a number of ad- 
vantages to this 
(Turn to page 66) 



RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

An Unusual Account 
of The Development 
of A Simple Tube Set 

The Magazine of the Hour 

IF YOU are interested in the crystal 
detector, previously described, and 
want to experiment further with 
crystals, you will prefer the circuit shown 
in Hook-up No. 2. This is No. 2, the 
Long-distance Hook-up. 

While we do not recommend it as 
giving the general satisfaction of Hook- 
up No. 1, it has often been reported 
giving phenomenal distance. Try it 
as you would a grab-bag — you may 
get a prize! 


\l/ CG'/SrAL 


The feature of this circuit, of course, 
must be efficiency. A sturdy low-loss 
variometer (with two stagger-wound 
coils giving a perfect ratio of inductance) 
is recommended to insure conserving 
all the precious signal energy. 

Vacuum Tube as a Detector 

WHILE the crystal yields a wonder- 
fully true tone and while your 
knowledge of it will prove valuable in 
some interesting combination hook-ups 
later, you must depend upon the vacuum 
tube to secure distances of over twenty 
to fifty miles. 

The vacuum tube is simply an elec- 
trical "valve." It enables a minute 
quantity of electricity caught by the 
antenna to turn on and off a powerful 
current (the B-battery current). This 
B-current operates the phones. The 
action of the tube is like that of a child 
turning a faucet on and off and con- 
trolling a great current of water. Or it 
is like the delicate fingers of the musician 
manipulating the key-controls of an 
organ, releasing the power which produces 
great sounds. 

The accompanying drawing shows the 
three elements of the vacuum tube. 

The filament when heated to incan- 
descence by an "A-battery" (usually of 

about 6 volts) throws 
off small electrical 
particles or electrons. 

The powerful cur- 
rent (from the B- 
battery) which op- 
erates the phones 
travels from the fila- 
ment "on the back" 
of these electrons to 
the plate. 

The grid, however, 
is between the fil- 
ament and plate. It 
acquires an elec- 
trical charge caught 
by the an tenna. 
These charges on the 
grid either repel or 
attract the electrons from the filament 
and thus weaken or strengthen the value 
of the B-current. 

Also the tube, like the crystal detector, 
is a rectifier, permitting current to flow 
in one direction only. This gives 
pulsating direct current, a necessity for 
the operation of the 'phones. 

First Tube Hook-up 
"V^OU are now prepared to follow in the 
-*- footsteps of the masters of radio with 
one of the first and most famous of 


And How 


circuits, the "Ultra- Audion." This cir- 
cuit is extremely easy to build and 
operate, and is capable of excellent long 
distance reception. The parts here listed 
will not cost much. 

1. Ultra-Audion coil. You must use 
an efficient coil with four taps for this 

2. Switch lever and four switch points. 

3. Grid leak and grid condenser. See 
Vacuum Tube Chart to be published in 
our February Beginners' Section. We 
recommend U. V-199 or C.-299 tubes and 
dry cells for this circuit. It is important to 
buy a good accurate grid leak. The two de- 
vices may be obtained combined and 
certified as to accuracy and must be 
chosen wisely. 

4. Socket to fit tube selected. 

5. One variable condenser (with dial) 
capacity .0005 microfarads, vernier and 
low-loss type preferred. 

If a condenser with bakelite end-plates 

is used, a shield of aluminum or zinc must 
be placed between it and the panel. 

6. One rheostat to match tube se- 

7. Head-set of good quality. 

8. One vacuum tube; U. V. 199 or 
C. 299 recommended. 

9. "A" battery selected according to 
type of tube you want to use. 

10. One "B" battery of 22 1-2 volts 
of well known brand. A tapped type 
should be used with U. V. 200 or C. 300 

11. Necessary connecting wire, an- 
tenna wire, and insulators. 

12. No recommendations as to panel 
or cabinet size, as you may wish to add a 
two-step amplifier to the set after you 
see how the set works. The illustration 
shows a panel 6 by 7 inches. You must 
secure a drill for drilling iron, and will not 
find it difficult then to bore holes in the 
rubber or bakelite panel. 





?OQ FiLA - 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 



The Operation of the 
VacuwnTube asDetector 
Explained for Beginners 

Lamp of RADIO 

to Use It 


HPO learn the Ultra-Audion circuit, 
-*- experiment with it. On these pages 
is given the "Improved Ultra-Audion;" 
Hook-up, No. 4. Its chief advantage lies 
in better control of the feed-back of cur- 
rent from the plate circuit. 

You must observe that one reason for 
the effectiveness of this circuit is that the 
signal is amplified in passing through the 
tube and is returned to the antenna circuit 
and thus strengthens the original and 
controlling signal. 

By using a variometer instead of a 
fixed coil, you can control this feed-back 
and so secure better efficiency or farther 
distance reception. The only change in 
your apparatus needed is the addition 
of the variometer. We advise that a good 
low-loss type be used. 

Gibbon's Ultra-Audion 

The experimenter may now add a 
variable grid leak between the grid and 







AuCvo F&n - RACvQ 

ue-ncv s\mp- ^ReoueAJcy 

RDQM£~f3 T&AA/SFO&V&* 

-f- -*<r- 


2aocuiT / c&curr 8 or. PiA7£~ 



the filament as 
shown, and have the 
Gibbon's Hook-up. 
This is the last 
word in the Ultra- 
Audion. Its success 
depends upon a su- 
premely fine variable 
grid leak which is 
not difficult to find. 
We recommend that 
Hook-ups No. 3 and 
No. 4 be made first, 

In operating any 
of the circuits illus- 
trated, it is always 
wise t o remember 
that the filament con- 
trol is one of the important knobs on the 
set, and the best results are only obtained 
with the proper filament current value. 
Since this feature of the circuit is rather 
critical, it is advisable, of course, to pro- 
vide for delicate changes in filament con- 
trol, and a vernier rheostat of either the 
carbon pile or metal-dust-carbon should 
be used. 


37Z>A.fv-frr UCT7?A-AuDiOA/ V5WG- 
*Gt2/AL ^n *AJ?lO*nE-T&R - &AD/A7ES 


Have Tubes Tested 

When you make a purchase of a tube, 
remember that the safest way is to cater 
to a dealer who has a testing device that 
will give the characteristics for the tube 
you intend to purchase. Nearly every 
large dealer in tubes has at his disposal a 
"testometer" for this purpose, and can 
give his patrons absolute satisfaction in 
giving them the proper type of tube for 
their use. 

When buying tubes, the general test 
is to see if the filament lights; if it does, it 
is assumed that the tube is satisfactory 
for all purposes. This, unfortunately, is 
not the case, since there are tubes that 
are defective internally or their charac- 
teristics may make them better amplifiers 
than detectors, or they may be "duds." 
The common term for a tube that re- 
fuses to oscillate is "dud." So when buy- 
ing, specify what your tube is going to be 
used for, and have your dealer pick one 
out of stock that which is suited to your 

TT might be well to mention that ex- 
*- treme care should be exercised in 
tuning the receivers illustrated herewith, 
as they are especially violent squealers 
when mishandled. This circuit is bas- 
ically the Colpitts transmitting circuit, 
and if hard tubes are used with plenty of 
B battery voltage, you may do terrible 
things to your next door neighbor's re- 

tiOQKUP HO f*/V£ 


ceiving if you are not careful. By all 
means, do not let the set squeal. 

Tuning Simple 

The tuning is very simple. For any of 
the circuits shown, about the same pro- 
cedure is followed. The filament is 
turned on till the tube reaches the critical 
point, which is just immediately below 
the thump, indicating oscillation and 
squeals which are heard as the filament is 

With the filament set at this point, the 
taps or variometer is varied together with 
the variable condenser knob until a signal 
is heard. Adjustments are then made 
until the signal is clearest and loudest. 

In an accompanying illustration, we 
are printing for the benefit of those un- 
initiated, the common symbols used in 
connection with vacuum tube diagrams. 
Simple comparisons between the dia- 
grams shown elsewhere on the page and 
with the chart is in itself a little lesson in 
reading diagrams. Once the reader 
memorizes the symbols, it becomes quite 
an easy matter for him to read them and 
compare circuits. 

In reading circuits, always remember 
that the positions of the symbols on the 
chart have no bearing mechanically on 
the layout or assembly of the receiver as 
a whole. The purpose of the diagram is 
to furnish a set of electrical connections 
for the various units of the receiver 

We do find mechanical specifications 
inferred on diagrams when small, light 
pointed arrows are drawn across induc- 
tances, resistance or capacities to indicate 
that they are variable, in which case they 
are usually controlled from the front of 
the panel. 

For the purpose of giving more infor- 
mation on this subject, we would refer 
you to the RADIO AGE ANNUAL for 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doiri'> 

Tuning In with the French Fan 

C.How French Equipment 

Differs from U. S. 

Sets and 


PARIS: — Radio reception is now very 
popular in France; there is not one 
small village which cannot boost 
itself as having a score of radio listeners. 
The programs are very up-to-date 
and the ears of the countrymen are 
astonished by the ragtimes and jazz 
music imported from across the pond. 
Great was my surprise when I first 
listened to a radio concert, in hearing 
"Gallagher and Shean" and "Dream 

I thought my friend had succeeded in 
getting an American station and I was 
going to congratulate him, when the}' 
announced in true Parisian French, 
"Vous allez maintenant entendre. 
(You will now listen to . . .)" 

How Sets Differ 

r T , HE purpose of this article being to 
show the main differences between 
the American and French radio equip- 
ment, we will start by describing the 
aerial and ground, the set itself, the 
radio parts and novelties. 

The first thing to consider is what 
stations may be heard, what kind of 
program and entertainment they have, 
and especially what their wavelength is. 
The aim of the radio fan is to hear as 
many stations as possible, enabling him- 
self to pick out the best programs and 
be entertained at any hour of the day. 

Unfortunately, the number of Euro- 
pean broadcasting stations is far from 
being as considerable as it is in America; 
a dozen or so in England, five or six in 
France, a few in Ger- 
many, Italy and Spain. 

To make matters 
worse, these stations are 
far from working in a 
small range of wave- 
lengths; the English are 
between 300 and 500 
meters;so aresomeofthe 
French stations; but the 
Eiffel tower FL works on 
2600, Radio-Paris SFR 
on 1780, Madrid EGC on 
2 2 00, Koenigswuster- 
hausen on 6000. There is, 
of course, no danger of 
interference but the re- 
ceiving set has to be de- 
signed to cover all the 

The Aerials 

By C. R. Bluzat 


1 ^jyjySa 

|p|»ftiii^v flv 

Above is a loud speaker of artistic 
design recently introduced in France. 
The diaphragm transmits its vibra- 
tion to a pleated parchment disc, 
giving pure, unadulterated tone. 

sists usually of two units of six turns on 
a four to six foot square frame, provision 
being made to use them in series (long 
waves) or in parallel (short waves). 

A new type, just put on the market, 
consists of a flat copper strip 12 meters 
long (app. 36 feet). This ribbon is . 
usually strung around a room, so that 
its wider surface is parallel to the earth. 
It is claimed that the ribbon acts like a 
plate of a condenser, the other plate 
being the earth itself. Far better results 
have been obtained than with a loop 
of same length, due to this capacity effect. 

^Frenchman's Set Has to 

Be Designed to 

Cover Varied 


three square feet laid on or imbedded 
in the earth at one foot depth. 

Receiving set. — Due to the broad 
range of wavelengths, the maximum 
inductances of the primary and secondary 
circuits have to be rather large; they 
consist of a certain number of units 
which may be cut in or out through 
appropriate switches. Condensers of 
.0005 or .001 microfarad may be put 
in series or in parallel with the antenna 
inductances. Use is also made of honey- 
comb or spiderweb coils, a set being used 
for short wave, another for long wave 

A great number of listeners are still 
using crystal sets, some built with slid- 
ing contact coils of pre-war fame; but 
the tube set is superseding the crystal, 
especially since the appearance on the 
market of the so-called "micro" lamp 
which is of low current consumption 
like the American UV-201A or UV 199. 
Radio frequency amplification as well 
as audio frequency amplification are a 
feature of any good set. For the first 
type of amplification, the manufacturer 
of transformers had to meet very strict 
requirements. In America, where the 
wavelength range is only from 250 to 
600 meters, we know it has been a real 
job to realize a transformer which would 
keep its amplification factor about the 
same all over the broadcasting wave- 

The French manufacturer had to de- 
sign a transformer which would amplify 
satisfactorily from 300 to 4000 meters. 
Success has been 
achieved, and some trans- 
formers cover now from 
150 to 12000 meters with- 
out any tap! Regenera- 
tive sets are predominant 
now; Reinartz finds great 
favor for the short wave 
reception. Super-regen- 
eration is tried by a few 
"dyed-in-the-wool" fans, 
Flewelling having be-, 
come a favorite lately. 
Super-heterodyne sets 
are the favorites for 
transoceanic reception. 

Their Parts 

A typical French receiving set, with its "micro" lamps, 
or tubes, on the outside. So objectionable has this type become, 
with its brilliant glare and unsightly appearance, that theFrench 
are slowly adopting the American design of radio set cabinet. 

The antenna constants 
must be larger than in America. The aerial 
may consist of only one wire of 90 to 150 
feet; preference is, however, given to a 
high capacity type such as a three or four 
wire antenna or a cage antenna strung as 
high as possible. The inside aerial is 
being used more and more; the loop con- 

The Ground 

TN THE towns the ground connection 
-*• is made to the water system; in the 
country, special galvanized iron rods 
three feet long are forced into the earth, 
in a wet place if possible. They also 
use copper plates or* netting of two to 

Parts differ from the 
American standard by 
mechanical construction. 
The variable condensers 
come in .00025, .0005, 
.001 and .002 microfarad. The vernier 
attachment consists of a brass rod with a 
long detachable knob, the back end being 
shaped like a small grooved pulley. A 
large bakelite disc fastened to the moving 
plates shaft engages in this groove and is 
(Turn to page 61) 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


"Juggling" Your Circuit for 

An Efficient PORTABLE SET 


portable in the strictest sense of the word 

and which contains every last item j\J Q Q U tslde WireS 

necessary to its functioning. 

T GOES almost without saying that By BRAIN ARD FOOTE s ° '° n g as the R. F. transformers weren't 

the ambition of every radio fan and •' ' closer than an inch or so. The audio 

experimenter is to possess a com- " transformers were likewise changed about 

plete receiving set which will work in J—f p f p o rt f? p r p j 71 p f and interchanged with those of different 

any location, at any time, without the makes and varying ratios and the only 

slightest wire connection to aerial, bat- 'in fit W/ I 1 1 F*1 J fl ft \ Vlfl perceptible difference in operation was 

teries or anything else outside of the i 'IWl W IH i U/tHH/fl that transformers of higher ratio (larger 

outfit. In other words, it's a set that is A i p 71 p f\j J r\r fit j nn • secondary windings) required larger by- 

■_ y Z_Z.. ' pass condensers. 

The Hook-up 

T^HE circuit diagram reveals a straight 
•*- reflex amplifier circuit, reception 
being accomplished with a loop and one 
variable condenser. The three tubes 
1, 2 and 3 amplify successively at radio 
frequencies whatever signal is tuned in 
and passed to the first tube. Next comes 
the detector, from whose plate circuit 
the detected and audio frequency im- 
pulses are led back to the first tube 
through an audio frequency transformer, 
"a." Its secondary is inserted in the 
grid return lead from the loop tuning 
circuit to the movable arm of a potenti- 
ometer. Tube No. 1 thus amplifies at 
audio frequency and the amplified audio 
impulses pass without opposition through 
the primary winding of the first R. F. 
transformer to the second audio trans- 
former, "b." Here they are transferred 
with amplification to the next tube, 
No. 2, which again amplifies at audio 
frequencies and passes the energy along 
to tube No. 3. In the plate circuit of 
this tube we find the loud speaker "L.S." 
whereby the impulses are rendered 

Now, it is well known that the extent 
to which a radio frequency amplifying 
tube will strengthen 
the weak R. F. 
impulses is depend- 
ent upon the close- 
ness' of its approach 
to the point of os- 
cillation. In other 
words, there must 
be a certain degree 
of tuning in plate 
and grid circuits 
of each R. F. ampli- 
fier tube and a 
sufficient negative 
bias (not too much) 
to bring about a 
condition of regen- 
eration, but not of 
oscillation. Thus, 
most R. F. iron- 
core transformers 
are designed to do 
and are intended 
to have the grid 
return leads go di- 
rect the negative 
of the filament bat- 
tery. But in the 
case of the first, 
tube, the grid cir- 
cuit does not have 
the high resistance 

Now, it isn't intended that such a 
receiver shall weigh so much that it's 
only portable when tackled by a corps 
of furniture movers or a traveling crane. 
It must be light enough to be lifted easily 
and carried about just like a small suit- 
case. And above all, it must include a 
loud speaker, for who cares to use head- 
phones for group entertainment? 

These rigid requirements instantly 
call to mind what type of receiver the 
portable set must be. It must operate 
on a small loop antenna, must use dry 
cell tubes, must have at least three steps 
of radio frequency amplification, must 
have at least two steps of audio, prefer- 
ably three steps of it, and must be selec- 
tive and sensitive besides. Is there any 
such thing? 

Triple Reflexing 

TO embody three radio and three audio, 
besides a tube detector, seven tubes 
would ordinarily be necessary, unless 
we resort to reflexing. This, then, is 
a most valuable method of reception not 
only for its economy of expensive tubes, 
but quite as much on account of its space 
saving possibilities and the reduction in 
battery consump- 
tion. You may 
say offhand that 
to reflex sufficiently 
would use each of 
three tubes as both 
radio and audio am- 
plifiers and a fourth 
as the detector. 
This arrangement, 
you may suppose, 
will howl and squeal 
so unmercifully that 
it would be next to 
impossible to get 
it functioning. 

Not so, however, 
for experiments with 
all sorts of R. F. 
and A. F. trans- 
former combina- 
tions have con- 
vinced me that in 
every case the stunt 
will work and work 
well, though not 
without consider- 
able reversals of 
audio transformer 
connections and the 
judicious use of var- 
ious sizes of by-pass 

condensers as individually demanded. 
Moreover, the size of the loop with which 
such a circuit will perform local and DX 
reception is indeed astonishing! Take 
the set-up illustrated, for instance. The 
loop is wound on a cigar box of the 
ordinary proportions, using common 
No. 20 enamelled magnet wire for the 
winding, and enough turns to cover the 
broadcast wavelength band with the 
13 plate tuning condenser shown. 

Four UV 199 tubes are employed in 
the outfit, together with three tuned iron 
core R. F. transformers. The trans- 
former at the extreme right is an audio 
transformer, not an R. F., its appearance 
being similar since the same sort of con- 
tainer is used by the manufacturers as 
for their R. F. transformers. The other 
two audio transformers may be observed, 
one at the left, just behind the tuning 
condenser and the other behind the 

The layout was tried in several different 
ways, to discover what effect criss-cross- 
ing of wires and juxtaposition of R. F. 
coils would have upon the results. The 
set functioned as well one way as another, 

Here's an experimental outfit that functions on a cigar-box loop antenna and 
gets DX in addition to local stations on the speaker. It uses three radio, three 
audio and tube detector, reflexed in such a way as to require only four tubes. If 
you'd like to build a really complete portable set in a suit-case, try this with these 
temporary connections and surprise your friends. 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

and iron core which prevents oscillation 
in the case of the other tubes, but instead 
has a low resistance loop and a sharply 
tuned circuit. 

Oscillation is therefore present in the 
first tube unless means be arranged to 
vary the negative bias, and the potenti- 
ometer is therefore installed to effect 
this sensitivity control. The secondary 
of the audio transformer must be shunted 
by a by-pass condenser of sufficient size 
to pass the R. F. impulses past the high 
impedance winding. Were the con- 
denser omitted, the tuning would be 
too broad and oscillation impossible to 
secure. But condenser C-l must not 
be large, for it then exerts a deleterious 
effect upon the audio frequency side of 
the amplifier. 

Audio Amplification 

HAVE you ever shunted a .002 mfds. 
fixed condenser across the secondary 
of your audio transformer and observed 
the alteration in quality of tone? Music 
becomes more mellow, though at a con- 
siderable loss in volume. If the con- 
denser be small enough, the mellowing 
of tone is obtained to a sufficiently pleas- 
ing extent without any great lessening 
of signal volume and consequently a 
condenser of about .00025 mfds. is often 
employed for such a purpose. 

The self-same effect is felt here. Too 
large a capacity at C-l will greatly cut 
the volume, but too small a capacity 
will spoil the sensitivity. The trans- 
former ratio exercises the controlling 
power over the exact size of fixed con- 
denser needed and therefore the ex- 
perimenter should have a supply of fixed 
condensers of .00025 mfds., .0005 mfds. 
and .001 mfds. on hand; say, about 
three of each. These three sizes will 
satisfactorily fill the bill and by a proper 
distribution of these condensers to the 
various audio amplifying transformers, 

a happy condition of sensitiveness and 
good volume will be arrived at. 

Without by-pass condensers across 
the audio transformer secondaries of 
tubes No. 2 and No. 3 or across the loud 
speaker, local stations can be heard 
loudly and clearly, but the sensitiveness 
to DX signals is rather poor. Con- 
denser C-l, however, is a real essential, 
before any signals will be heard with 
any sort of strength. Once the set is 
working on locals, however, it becomes 
a simple matter to test with the different 
sizes of condenser at the points recom- 
mended. It is not necessary to use by- 
pass condensers in the 'primary circuits, 
however. Condenser C-5 is of utmost 
importance, it being a .002 mfds. by-pass 
condenser for the plate circuit of the 
detector tube. 

It is by the use of these by-pass con- 
densers that we obtain a condition of 
regeneration in each R. F. amplifier, 
but we must avoid too high a capacity 
in any of the points where good signals 
are obtained without the condenser for 
the sake of maintaining volume and 
clear tone. Condenser C-2 is usually a 
.00025 mfds. size, C-3 a .0005 mfds. and 
C-4, if found necessary, a .001 or .0005. 
Remember, tone and volume are better 
without the condensers unless the sensi- 
tivity is too low without them, so use 
only what condensers show themselves 
to be needed and no others. 

Now as to the battery voltages. Two 
standard dry cells, three volts, can supply 
the filament current direct without a 
rheostat. The rheostat illustrated was 
employed experimentally to determine 
how much filament current is necessary 
and the set operates well on slightly 
under 3 volts. Hence two dry cells 
furnish sufficient current, as proved also 
by later trials. For the "B" battery, 
better results were secured with 673^ 
volts than with 90, which is fortunate 

because of the space saving feature. 
Thus, two dry cells and three small size 
22H volt "B" batteries were found to 
supply the necessary filament and plate 

Transformer Reversals 

\ NYONE who has experimented with 
-^*- a three stage audio amplifier has 
found a strong tendency to "howl" or 
oscillate at audio frequency. This is 
just like a radio frequency oscillation 
in its nature, except that inasmuch as 
the tuning which causes such howling 
is accomplished by very large windings 
on iron cores, the oscillation is reduced 
in frequency to a point where it is heard. 
This howling is not affected by adjust- 
ments of the tuning condenser, though 
it may be changed in pitch or stopped 
by moving the potentiometer arm. 

The audio transformers shouldn't be 
too close to each other, of course, but 
with good transformers it isn't necessary 
to place them at right angles unless they 
are so close as to nearly touch each other. 
The heavy iron core prevents the mag- 
netic fields from straying and in that 
way causing howling by interstage audio 
coupling. The trouble is due only to 
oscillation caused by circuits tuned to 
an audio frequency, and with connec- 
tions arranged so that the direction of 
current flow aids the oscillation tendency. 

Hence the howling can always be 
eliminated by reversing the transformer 
connections in the grid circuit of the tube 
which causes the trouble. Since you 
cannot discover except by trial just 
where the howling commences, it is a 
question of reversing one or two of the 
primary binding post connections till 
the noise stops. This howling, unless 
caused by the first tube (No. 1) is not 
stopped when the detector tube is taken 
out of the socket and the others allowed 
(Turn to page 62) 


C-l '^i 


S C-3 



The circuit is quite conventional, though quite a few of the myriad fixed condensers common to the complicated reflex sets are omitted. 
There's only one tuning control and one sensitivity control; a condenser and a potentiometer. Two dry cells light the tubes and three small 
"B" batteries can supply the plate voltage. 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 


To Construct A 
Station Finder 

The Magazine of the Hour 23 


C.A Novel Unit 
That will Cut 
out Guesswork 
in Tuning and 
Help Reduce 
The Annoying 
Set "Squeals" 

THIS radio pastime is at last getting 
to a point where enthusiasts no 
longer are satisfied with the old 
haphazard methods of tuning, and the 
out-of-date system of radio "fishing" is 
resorted to only as a means of entertain- 
ment nowadays. The up-to-date listener 
seeks to go after the long distance sta- 
tions in a more accurate and sure-fire 
way; he endeavors to get the results he 
wants by employing the right methods 
of tuning. 

The recent transatlantic broadcasting 
tests prove conclusively that there is a 
pressing need for a unit which will 
eliminate the guesswork variety of tuning, 
insure more certain results, and at the 
same time reduce the nuisance of radia- 
tion which broke up more than one 
reception of the foreign stations. You 
will no doubt recall the pandemonium 
of squeals and howls which prevailed in 
the air during that memorable week. 
And no doubt you more than once 
"cussed" some neighbor softly when you 
found that you had been trying to tune 
in his radiation. There were times when 
we gave up in disgust, loudly voicing our 
disrespect for those bugs who couldn't 
keep their hands off the controls, and 
who constantly interfered with the in- 
coming long distance signals with their 
malicious squeals. 

The underlying reason for all the 
trouble and the real cause for the cease- 
less search for the carrier waves or 
signals of the European stations, can be 
directly attributed to one main and 
grand reason. Listeners in general are 
not so fortunate as to have sets that are 
calibrated; that is, they do not possess 

a receiver that tells them where to set 
the dials for definite wavelengths. So 
the logical way to get the much sought 
receptions was to guess — fish, in other 
words, until you struck something that 
sounded promising, and then listen until 
the announcement was made; or until 
some other bug spoiled it all by squealing 
you out. 

The Right Way to Do It. 

TT WOULD be impossible to set down 
-*- specified rules for the calibration of 
every receiver now in use. It is a fact 
that there are some sets which cannot 
be calibrated because of their circuit 
peculiarities. What we can do, for- 
tunately, is make a separate unit and 
calibrate that instrument, and then tune 
our receivers to it instead of fishing. 
The result is that we make only one 
operation of the job, and then we know 
that we are accurate and that we are 
listening on the right wave. Therefore, 
the purpose of this article is to describe 
a unit of this type. 

For purposes of reference, we will call 
the unit about to be described and dis- 
cussed a "Station Finder." Its technical 
name is wavemeter, or probably more 
correctly a driver — but that matters only 
little. What we are after is a unit that 
is going to tell us where to set our dials 

In the circle is a three-quarters view 
of Air. Anderson's station-finder, giving an 
unusual angle of the buzzer and the switch. 
At the left is a top view, showing the dial 
with its valuable hair-line indicator. 

when we want to listen for a certain 
station, the wave of which we are in- 

The preceding paragraph probably 
sounds a little imposing, and no doubt 
you have visions of a mighty piece of 
apparatus with all the embellishments 
that usually go with a measuring device; 
but that is not the case. The station 
finder is a simple affair, and not in the 
least bit expensive. 

The Bill of Materials 

TF YOU have the parts listed below — 
-I all well and good; if not, a visit to the 
local radio store will be necessary. 

1 Cabinet 7 inches long, 6 inches 
wide and 6 inches deep. Get a neat 
one, and make the job a good looking 

1 Composition panel 7x6x>6 inches, 
Bakelite, Celeron, Formica, Spaulding 
or other. 

1 low Loss Straightline condenser. 
Eleven plate 250 MMF. (0.00025 
Mfd). The straightline plates are 
advised for the purpose of making 
calibration easier. See text of article. 

1 Cardboard tube 3}4 inches long 
and i^i inches in diameter. 

2 pieces of brass 2% inches long and 
}4 inches wide. Any fairly heavy 
gauge will do. 

j| pound No. 22 Double Green Silk 
Covered wire. 

2 Binding posts. 

1 Dial reading to 100°. A metal 

dial with well etched divisions that 

. are easy to read is suggested, since 

the readings on it are hair line in 


1 High frequency buzzer. One 
that will operate on flashlight or C 
batteries, and give a steady clear note. 

1 Switch lever. 

(Turn the page) 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

Figure 2. 
// your condenser is one that does not have straight-line plates, 
your calibration chart will look something like the above. In 
this case numerous readings make the curve especially accurate. 

2 Switchtaps. 

2 Three volt C batteries or four 1 Yi 
volt flashlight batteries. Busbar and 
stiff rubber covered wire, preferably 
No. 18 RC, mounting screws, solder, 

The above list includes everything you 
will need. As a word of caution, don't 
let them sell you anything "just as good" 
in the condenser line — make it a point 
to try obtaining one of the straight-line 

Building the Station Finder 

THE construction is very simple. 
About the only thing we have to 
avoid is getting the inductance or coil 
too close to the rest of the unit, or to 
get it too close to the hands or dial; 
bringing any foreign object within the 
field of the coil changes its wavelength, 
and as a consequence, the readings of 
the dial are inaccurate. 

Begin by preparing the cardboard 
tubing which is to be the winding form. 
Apply a light coating of shellac, spar 
varnish or better yet a very thin coating 
of a solution of celluloid dissolved in 
acetone. If the tube is not dry, it should 
be thoroughly warmed in an oven before 
the moisture impregnating compound is 

When this has been done, and the 
coil is still slightly sticky (not wet), two 
holes should be punched about i/i of 
an inch from the edge. Thread the No. 
22 DGSC wire into these holes, and 
begin winding the coil in a clockwise 
direction, (face a clock and wind the 
wire in the direction of the hour hand 
with the edge of the tube having the 
holes in it away from you). 

If you use a condenser of the type 
specified and a coil of exactly the same 
size as is mentioned, wind 59 turns of 
the wire on the tube. Wind them tightly 
and neatly. If the varnish or dope you 
have applied is sticky enough, you should 

have little or no trouble with slipping 
turns. When the winding has been 
finished punch two additional holes 
(opposite the beginning ones) and fasten 
the wire once more. It is understood 
of course that you leave sufficient ends 
at both start and finish to allow soldering 
to terminals. 

Now drill two holes in the brass strips, 
large enough to accommodate an 8-32 
bolt. The exact location of the holes 
is not a matter of great importance; one 
half inch from either end to their center 
is satisfactory. The one end of the strip 
is then bent to form a foot, which is 
screwed tightly against the cardboard 
tubing. The ends of the coil are then 

The Magazine of the Hour 

soldered to these connection legs. The 
purpose of these extended legs i's to 
suspend the coil in midair and also to 
permit its being coupled to the main 
tuning inductance of the receiver. 

Mount the condenser as illustrated 
in the photograph. A hairline should 
be deeply scratched in the panel, and 
filled with either jeweler's wax or some 
other white compound to make it plain. 
This line should be drawn carefully and 
accurately, and should be very thin 
indeed. (As a matter of information, we 
filled the line with Bon-Ami, which 
hardens and makes an excellent filler.) 

The binding post for the coil should 
then be screwed into place. 

On the side of the box which is to be 
opposite the one occupied by the binding 
posts and the coil, mount the buzzer 
and switch with the taps. Figure 4 
shows the mounting used on the test 
Station Finder. Holes should be drilled 
to allow for wiring. 


YOU are next ready to wire the Station 
Finder, and again we find simplicity 
the keynote. Connect the one binding 
post (it makes no difference which one) 
to the stationary plate connection of 
the condenser, and the other binding 
post to the rotary terminal. Next 
connect the one terminal of the buzzer 
to the left hand switchpoint, and connect 
the switch lever to the cells of the battery. 
Polarity is not important. The other 
open terminal of the battery is connected 
to the remaining terminal of the buzzer. 
Use busbar in wiring the condenser cir- 
cuit, and the rubber covered wire for 
the buzzer circuit. 

On the buzzer you will find an adjust- 
ment for varying the pitch and some place 
on the metal support holding the adjust- 
ing screw or on some piece of metal 
connected to this screw, solder another 
piece of the rubber covered wire. Then 
solder the other end of that same wire 

D / 

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Figure 3. 
The graph obtained with the test station-finder is shown above. Straight- 
line plates were used in this finder, as the curve will show graphically. 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


to the rotary plate terminal on the 
condenser. You will then have two 
wires at that terminal, one for the coil 
and binding post, and the other to the 
buzzer or exciter circuit. 

The last two mentioned operations 
are important, especially the matter of 
getting the right connection to the 
buzzer. We find in the tests, that any 
other connection works poorly indeed. 
Make sure that the one end of that wire 
goes to the adjustment part of the buzzer, 
or some metal connected or in direct 
contact with it. The object is to get the 
little spark across the buzzer contacts 
to charge the coil and condenser, and 
in that way act as a miniature trans- 

After making sure that the buzzer 
circuit is properly connected, screw the 
panel down on the cabinet, and fasten 
the coil. It might be well to explain 
the reason for the use of the two switch- 
points — the object is to provide an 
open circuit for the buzzer when not 
in use. 

Next put the brass legs of the coil on 
the binding posts, and tighten them down. 
Your next job (and probably the most 
interesting radio experiment you can do 
as a beginner) is to calibrate the Station 


CALIBRATING in our case means 
that we must find out what wave- 
length the oscillatory circuit composed 
by the condenser and coil responds to 
with various settings of the condenser 
dial, and further it means that we are 
enabled to read the condenser in terms of 
wavelengths instead of degrees. 

The first step in this procedure is to 
rule out a sheet of paper as illustrated in 
Figure 3. This is what is called a 
calibration graph, and will give us a 
wavelength curve for the coil and con- 
denser combination we are using. 

Make a rectangle 10 inches long and 
divide it into one-half inch lengths. 
The other dimension is 7 inches, also 
divided into half 

inch divisions. 

Then proceed to 
rule up the chart 
as illustrated. 
When you have 
finished, you will 
have a rectangle 
having 20 half- 
inch squares for 
its base and 14 
for its attitude. 
Number the lines 
along the base by 
fives, starting with 
zero. These num- 
bers correspond 
with the dial set- 
tings of the con- 
denser. The ver- 
tical left hand side 
is numbered off 
in twenty-fives, 
starting at 200, 
and going up to 

550. This corresponds to the wavelength 
range which we are seeking to cover. 

Now the calibrating method differs 
with regenerative and nonregenerative 

sets, so we had best take up the methods 
separately. With a non-regenerative 
set, it is merely necessary to bring the 
Station Finder coil within about two or 
three inches of the main tuning induct- 
ance, neutrocoupler, variocoupler, tuning 
coil or other coil used to tune with. It 

A back view of the station finder is shown 
above. The -oil is in the background, while 
the switch, at the "off" position, is shown 
at the nght. The instrument at the left 
is a buzzer with its accurate adjustment 

will even work on a crystal set, and in 
the tests, we got readings with four inch 
coupling. When you have the coil fairly 
close to the tuning inductance of the set, 
(which should be tuned to resonance 
with some stations' wavelength) turn 
the Station Finder dial until the signal 
is trapped out. Then move the coil 
further and further away, wiggling the 
dial very slightly until the sharpest 
reading is obtained. At a certain point 
you will find a setting of the Station 
Finder dial which will almost entirely 
if not entirely trap out the signal to 
which vour receiver is tuned. After 

SZQT/QN FJNDFP W/R/A/G- £>//)6-/Q/)A1 




you have found that point with the 
Station Finder, be careful not to disturb 
the reading, and make note of the dial 
setting (that is, take note of the number 

of degrees at which the dial is set). Then 
take your broadcast list and look up the 
wave of the station. Jot that down too. 
Now then, take your pencil, and put a 
dot at the point where the wavelength 
and dial reading lines intersect. (For 
instance suppose WEBH is tuned in, 
and it is found that it can be sharply 
trapped out with the Station Finder set 
at 44. The wavelength is 360. Then by 
drawing a light line vertically from the 
44 division on the chart, and another at 
the 360 division horizontally we will 
determine a place where the two lines 
meet. That's where the dot is made). 

Go up and down the scale of your 
receiver, getting readings on as many 
stations as you can possibly get. Make 
your readings carefully and accurately, 
and check them once or twice. After 
you have made about six or eight of these 
readings well placed over the scale, you 
can draw a curve or line smoothly con- 
necting these points. If a straightline 
condenser is used, the condenser graph 
will read almost in a straight line from 
the bottom of the scale to the top. If 
your condenser is not of the straightline 
plate type, your curve will look like the 
one shown in Figure 2. 

Regenerative Sets 

X^OR regenerative sets, we have as an 
-*- additional indicator, the regenerative 
feature of the receiver. In this case, as 
in the case of non-regenerative sets, we 
bring the Station Finder coil near the 
tuning inductance of the receiver. The 
regeneration is then advanced to the 
point where it just spills over (this is of 
course with the secondary or tuning 
circuit tuned to some station or signal 
the wavelength of which is known). The 
Station Finder dial is then juggled until 
the set stops oscillating, and the signal 
is trapped out. Usually with regenera- 
tive sets it is more pronounced with 
regard to this reading than with non- 
regenerative receivers. The station is 
then looked up, the wavelength and 
dial setting (of the Station Finder) 
noted, and the dot 
is made on the 
chart in the same 
manner as was 
described for non- 
regenerative sets. 

How It Gets Its 

OW you have 
probably won- 
dered why we need 
a buzzer on the 
thing. Simple — . 
Now suppose we 
had calibrated the 
Station Finder dial 
to the curve shown 
in Figure 3. Again 
suppose we were 
going to listen for 
Europe with a non- 
regenerative set, 
with which we were 
not acquainted 
as far as wavelength settings are 
concerned. It is our wish to listen to a 
500 meter station which we know is 
(Turn to page 54) 

N ( 

26 RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

The Latest Edition of One of America's 

Adding TWO STAGES of Audio 

TO the readers of RADIO AGE 'way 
back in the early days, the mention 
of the name of John L. Reinartz 
brings back many pleasant recollections. 
At that time very little was known about 
receiving sets, and Reinartz gave to the 
fans one of the best circuits ever pub- 
lished and one which to this day is hold- 
ing its own against the hundreds of later 

John L. was about two years ahead of 
the times, and judging from his rapid 
fire development of new circuits, he is 
still keeping up this reputation. 

When the Reinartz circuit first ap- 
peared, practically only one good re- 
ceiving circuit was then used, this being 
the Armstrong three circuit tuner, which 
was hard to make in those days for the 
reason that it was necessary for one to 
build his own variometers and couplers, 
as radio stores were unheard of and the 
wooden stator blocks and rotors had to 
be turned out in a lathe. The inductance 
units used in the Reinartz tuner were 
simple spider-web coils wound upon a 
slotted fiber disc, which anyone could 
make and wind without the use of a lathe 
or any other machinery. 

Thus it attracted the beginner, be- 
cause it made possible the construction 
of a three circuit tuner in the ordinary 
kitchen work shop, and those who were 
interested enough to build the set as des- 
cribed by Mr. Reinartz were well repaid 
for their trouble, as it proved to be a good 
long distance receiver. 

A Popular Circuit 

TN fact, it became so popular with our 
-*■ readers that it was necessary for 
RADIO AGE to publish a special Rein- 

artz book to supply the information and 
take care of the correspondence oc- 
casioned by the publication of the article. 
Since that time several modifications of 
the circuit have been developed, every 
one of which has been just as popular, or 
more so, than the original. The one 
shown in this issue is considered the best 
and by popular request it is shown with two 
stages of audio frequency amplification. 
It will be noted that the spider web 
winding has been replaced by a simple 
coil winding and a variometer. The coil 
is much easier to wind than the spider 
web arrangement and variometers are 
now very easy to procure. The original 
circuit, being of the regenerative type, 
naturally caused some radiation. This 
is now taken care of by using a potentio- 
meter in the aerial circuit, although in 
this case it is used as an ordinary variable 
resistance instead of a stabilizer. One of 
the switches used in the original circuit 
has also been eliminated, thus making the 
tuning of the set a simple matter. 

Before going into details regarding the 
construction of this receiver, it might be 
well to say something about the audio 
frequency amplification. Three spring 
jacks are used, making it possible to listen 
in on the detector only, detector and one 
stage, or with the detector and both 
stages. For use with an ordinary phone, 
the first jack will give ample volume on 
either local or long distance reception, 
but when the loud speaker is used, full 
amplification is obtained by plugging 
into the last jack. The selection of the 
transformers will have much to do with 
the quality of the reception obtained. It 
is a well known fact that with trans- 
formers of high winding ratios, more 


volume may be obtained, but such trans- 
formers will also cause considerable dis- 
tortion in the phones or loud speaker, 
and as ample volume may be had with 
low ratio transformers, the builder is 
advised to be careful in the selection and 
to choose transformers which do not 
have a high ratio. If one has a higher 
ratio then the other, it is suggested that 
the ordinary practice be reversed and the 
higher ratio used in the last stage, thus 
cutting down the distortion in the first 
stage, which will prevent any amplifi- 
cation of distortion in the second. In 
either case the ratio should not be more 
than five to one. 

If You Want Volume 

OF course, if one wishes great volume 
and does not care about distortion, 
a transformer having a ratio of ten to 
one may be used in the first stage, and 
one of five, or six-to-one in the second. 
The only special apparatus necessary is 
the inductance, which may be easily 
wound and constructed in the home 
workshop. This inductance is wound on 
a bakelite or cardboard tube 4 inches in 
diameter and 3 inches long. The winding 
instructions should be followed to the 
letter as the only cases of failure so far 
recorded were caused by variations in 
the number of turns used and taps being 
taken off at the wrong place. 

The tube is wound with No. 24 cotton 
or silk insulated wire and in order that 
no short circuits may occur at the points 
where the taps are taken off, it is sug- 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


Pioneer Receivers: The Popular Reinartz 

The electrical wiring diagram of the Improved 
Reinartz Circuit is shown above. At the left the re- 
ceiver is shown in isometric form, which makes the 
tracing of the connections a simple operation. Inas- 
much as both diagrams are drawn to read from left 
to right, you should have little or no trouble in following 
out the connections. 


+ A 

Mi i 


Frequency to Modified Reinartz 


gested that the wire used should have a 
double silk insulation. The winding is 
started after two small holes (about the 
size of the wire) are drilled in the tube 
about 1-2 inch from the end. These 
holes should be about 1-4 of an inch apart 
and in line with the winding. Put the 
end of the wire down through one of 
these holes and up through the other, 
leaving an end about 8 inches long to use 
in connecting it up after the winding is 
completed. Wind two turns and take 
out a tap by making a loop of the wire 
and twisting it back tight against the 
tube. Bring out another tap at the next 
two turns, the next one being taken off 
at the next turn and two more taps taken 
off from the next two turns. 

The winding is now continued for 35 
more turns before another tap is taken 
off. After this tap, wind seven more 
turns and bring out the next, then seven 
more, which will be the end of the wind- 
ing. Now check up and make sure that 
this coil is correctly tapped. We have 
the starting end, two turns and a tap, 
two more and a tap, one and tap, one and 
tap, one more and tap, then 35 and tap, 
seven and tap, then seven more, which is 
the final end. This will make 56 turns in 
all, consisting of two ends and seven taps. 
The final end of the winding is anchored 
to the tube in the same way as the start- 
ing end by drilling two small holes. All 
of these taps, as well as the ends, should 
be left long enough to allow for connecting 
up to the switch contacts on the panel. 
If they are eight inches in length, they 
will be sure to reach without splicing. 

TVTOW the balance of the material and 
-L ' parts required may be purchased at 
any radio store. This will consist of one 
200 ohm potentiometer, two switch 
levers, eight switch contacts, four switch 
stops, one 23 plate vernier variable con- 
denser, one fixed mica grid condenser 
having a capacity of .00025 M.F., one 2 
megohm grid leak, one ordinary standard 
variometer, three standard sockets, one 
6 to 8 ohm rheostat, two 25 ohm rheo- 
stats, two double circuit spring jacks, one 
single circuit spring jack, two standard 
audio frequency transformers having a 
four, or five to one ratio, two 3-inch 
dials, seven binding posts, one, bakelite 
panel 18x7x3-16 inches, one baseboard 
17 1-2x6x1-2 inches, a cabinet to fit an 
18x7 inch panel and about 20 feet of No. 
14 tinned copper bus bar wire. This 
material is only that required for the 
construction of the set proper. 

Aside from this the accessories will be 
as follows: 

Materials and Parts 

One detector tube (UV-200, or C-300), 
two amplifier tubes, (UV-201-A, or C- 
301-A), two 45 volt plate batteries, one 
6 volt storage battery, one pair of phones, 
one loud speaker and two plugs. With 
these parts on hand, you are ready to 
start on the wiring. First the panel is 
laid out and drilled, after which it is 
fastened to one edge of the baseboard by 
wood screws, the holes being countersunk 
so that flat headed screws may be used. 
All the parts are mounted on the base 
and panel as shown in the drawing. The 
aerial binding post on the panel is con- 
nected to the movable arm of the poten- 
tiometer and one of the ends of the resis- 

tance coil of the potentiometer is con- 
nected to the switch lever on the five 
contact switch. The bottom or starting 
end of the winding of the special induc- 
tance coil is connected to the bottom con- 
tact on this switch and the next four taps 
from the coil are connected to the re- 
maining contacts on this switch. This 
leaves one tap in the bottom group which 
is connected to the ground binding post 
to the revolving plates of the 23 plate 
variable condenser, to one filament bind- 
ing post on each of the three sockets, to 
the positive "A" and negative "B" bind- 
ing posts on the panel. 

The two taps and the final end of the 
winding of the special inductance are 
connected to the three switch contacts on 
the other switch, the lever of which is 
connected to the stationary plates on the 
condenser and to one terminal of the grid 
leak and condenser. 

Watch These Connections 

HPHE other terminal of the grid leak and 
-!■ condenser is connected to the grid 
binding post on the first socket, which 
is the detector. The post marked "P" 
on this socket is connected to one of the 
variometer terminals and the other vario- 
meter terminal is connected to the top 
spring of the detector jack. The second 
spring on this jack is connected to the 
post marked "P" on the first transformer 
and the third spring from the top is con- 
nected to the post marked "B positive" 
on the same transformer. The last or 
bottom spring on this jack is connected 
to the 22 1-2 volt positive "B" binding 
post on the panel. The post "G" on this 
first transformer is connected to the post 
(Turn to page 56) 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doin^ 

Let the "Happiness Boyf Help You! 

They Wont 
be Happy Till 
They Make 
You Happy 

Millions of 

Fans Cheer 

Peppy Trio 

at Station 


Above are the "Happiness Boys" of WEAF, New York, who cause the radio waves to ripple with joy 
every Friday evening at 8:30. From left to right: Ernest Hare, Larry Briers, and Billy Jones. 

DOWN EAST in little old New 
I York, people have to work pretty 
hard or they soon find New York 
is too big to hold them. Of course, that 
doesn't include the millionaires, brick- 
layers and movie producers, but the 
untold millions who count their pennies 
every Saturday are the ones who 
haven't much time to be happy. 

Three young Lochinvars who came out 
of the West a few years ago were as- 
tounded at the lack of good cheer in New 
York City. They saw the bright lights 
and beautiful buildings and wondered 
how anyone couldn't help being happy. 
But investigation showed that the aver- 
age citizen in New York is so busy keep- 
ing alive that he just can't afford to 
chase pleasure to its lair and enjoy it. 

On a Happy Mission 

AFTER this bit of introspection, the 
-£*- three musketeers mentioned above as 
Lochinvars went to the owners of WEAF, 
one of New York's pioneer broadcasting 
stations — and volunteered to bring hap- 
piness to millions of American homes — 
chiefly in New York. 

Radio was struggling for popularity in 
those days, so the directors of WEAF 
told the boys to "go to it." 

The "boys," Ernest Hare, Larry 
Briers and Billy Jones, "went to it" 
with a vim and labeled themselves the 
"Happiness Boys." With that monicker 
they proceeded to win the hearts of bored 
and weary New York. 

To find out whether they have been 
successful, the reader should tune in 
WEAF some Friday evening at 8:30. 

The Happiness Boys are on the air at 
other times during the week, but they 
can best be "caught" at their regular 
hour on Fridays. Their programs con- 
sist of everything from good natured 
banter to beautifully sung popular and 
semi-classical songs. They don't care 
what they sing — and neither do their 
listeners — just as long as it's full of 
happiness. And, as one old lady said 
after listening to "the boys" for the nth 
time, "Why, those fellows just ooze 

To accomplish such a feat over the 
radio is indeed something to be proud of. 
A National Reputation 

AND although the Happiness Boys 
started out to bring cheer to the 
lives of New Yorkers in particular, their 
cheery songs have reached to the ends 
of the continent. Instead of merely a 
local reputation, their fame has spread 
far and wide. They are known as "The 
Happiness Team," and so great has their 
correspondence become that WEAF has 
had to instal a special office for them. 

Letters from spinsters and bethrothed 
flappers; from Middle Aged business 
men and youthful swains; and scrawls 
from children asking for undreamed of 
favors — such is a sample of the day's 
mail addressed to "The Happiness Boys." 

Do you blame them for liking their 
job? Listen to them at WEAF and be 
happy, too! 

Happiness Is Costly 

HAPPINESS, although very plentiful 
at WEAF, is a rather expensive 

It is now broadcast regularly by the 
"Happiness Boys" at the rate of ten 
dollars per minute. A half hour pro- 
gram by them costs just three hundred 
dollars. It's worth it — surely. But the 
radio fan who gets the happiness does 
not have to pay for it. Instead, the 
company which hires the boys finds it 
worth while to spend the sum. 

WEAF, probably one of the best known 
stations in the world, has prospered by 
its unique and original "pay-as-you- 
broadcast" system. It sells "microphone 
time" and not one fan has said nay. In 
fact, they like it. 

Another expensive entertainment is 
given by "Roxy" Rothafel, conductor of 
the Capitol Theatre orchestra. This 
theatre pays about $600 a night for the 
privilege of sending its beautiful music 
through the air. 

Although they pay for their time, the 
"Happiness Boys" trio have become ex- 
ceedingly popular. Their "Silver Threads 
Among the Gold" can get tears in the 
same volume as "I Wonder Who's Kissing 
Her Now" can get smiles. Every time 
that they leave the microphone it is a 
signal for radio fans to sit down and write 
into the station with their applause cards. 
The number of these cards and letters 
that they get has rarely been exceeded 
by any other entertainers of the air. 

On top of all of WEAF'S individual 
stars, however, stands the famous 
Graham McNamee, convention announc- 
er, who broadcast the "play by play" 
story of the Democratic and Republican 
conventions. His resonant voice has 
(Turn to page 46) 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine (bf the Hoi 


The Hidden Voice 

How Some Radio Ingenuity Rescued a 
Stolen Baby and Sweet- 
ened an Infant Temper 

Soured by Sore Gums, kffi^&fr* 

Seated tensely 
before the micro- 
phone, Jimmie 
sent out the call 
from the broad- 
casting station — 
all programs were 
stopped and the 
air was clear for 
the cry for help. 
Within a few min- 
utes the whole 
city was aware of 
the bold kidnap- 

Chapter I. 


SISTER Ella's baby had been crying 
for more than an hour, and every- 
body in the house was getting 
nervous. "Everybody," collectively 
speaking, included Ella, Ella's mother, 
and her brother, Jimmie Kinney. They 
were at their wits' end to know what to do. 

These three and the baby constituted 
a family of stay-at-homes from neces- 
sity. Jimmie's mother had just had 
all her teeth pulled out, and she wouldn't 
be seen- out of the house until her new 
set was finished; Ella was visiting her 
parents' home, and her lusty-voiced, 
nine-month-old Edward Jerome Stans- 
bury, Jr., was so cross from teething 
that it was folly to allow him to do any 
broadcasting in the open air. As for 
Jimmie, he was laid up at home with a 
sprained ankle, bundled in bandages, 
and the only way he could move about 
with any degree of comfort was with 
the aid of a crutch 

Jimmie was almost a man. Patron- 
izing friends of mature years addressed 
him as "young man" when desiring a 
pleasant look in return. But everybody 
petted him with the diminutive of James, 
and no doubt his sweetheart, whenever 
he should select one, would perpetuate 
the habit. Still Jimmie did not feel 
diminutive. He usually went at things 
in a "big way"; that's how he got his 
sprained ankle. He tackled a half 
back, half again his weight, on the high 
school gridiron, and something had to 

If there's anything that will try the 
patience of a young fellow like Jimmie, 
it is to be cooped up at home with a 
crying baby. And such a fellow will 
either fume and fret over undeserved 
punishment of this sort, or he will exer- 
cise his wits for relief. 

Some Radio 

TIMMIE did both. After fuming and 
"** fretting for an hour and making his 
mother and married sister miserable, 
he got busy with his ingenuity, gave the 
baby a "dose of radio paregoric," stopped 
his crying, and nearly caused a tragedy. 

However, Jimmie's treatment was in 
no respect ill-advised. It was really 
ingenious and highly commendable. He 
merely unearthed his diminutive super- 
regenerative receiving outfit from a 
mass of what a layman would call "junk" 
in his radio work-shop, tuned it to re- 
ceive a musical matinee being broadcast 
for the special benefit of afternoon meet- 
ings of women's clubs, sewing circles, 
and ladies' aids, and deposited it in a 
sliding drawer under the body of the 
carriage in which the baby lay. 

For some reason, explicable only by 
a teething pathologist, the ruse was 
successful. Muffled under the bundle 
of pillows and quilts, the music proved to 
be gently soothing. Baby Edward 
became suddenly very still, then actually 
laughed, "goo-ed" eagerly, and began 
to bite his fistful of zwieback with in- 
dustrious contentment. 

Up to this time Jimmie could not 
induce a member of the family to listen 
to a radio lecture by him, but now he 
had no difficulty in interesting his sister 
in a technical description of his miniature 
receiving set, which he had constructed 
himself. It had afforded a very edifying 
substitute for some of the "rough neck" 
pranks of high school boys soon after 


its completion. It had stimulated some 
real imagination among some of the 
usually "slap-stick" fun makers of his 
acquaintance, and he and a quartet of 
his friends often indulged their mis- 
chievous tendencies by conducting radio 
serenades under the windows of girl 
friends in the moonlight. 

Once they even entertained half a 
hundred fellow passengers on a street 
car with a musical concert and announce- 
ment of "the score." 

The outfit was a "mite of a thing," 
contained in a cabinet box about the 
size of a portable typewriter case. A 
small loud-speaker, operated by the 
tremendous amplifying properties of a 
super-regenerative circuit carefully de- 
signed and assembled, held the secret 
of the marvelous volume of signals which 
it produced. The circuit, which is so 
often dubbed a failure, had bowed sub- 
missively to Jimmie — for he had mastered 
it after many painstaking experiments 
in which he endeavored to remove the 
squeals customary to this type of circuit. 
His labors bore fruit, for upon their 
completion he had a circuit that afforded 
volume obtained from a circuit that 
amplified millionfold with but a single 
tube. Few indeed are the successful 
sets of this type — so critical are they. 

At last the baby went to sleep, and 

Ella wheeled the carriage out on the 

front lawn, with the muffled radio music 

still playing softly. Over the open por- 

(Turn the page) 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

Neighbors gathered rapidly at the 
Kinney home, and in a short time half 
a dozen boys and two men were hurrying 
away in different directions in search 
of the missing babe. The policeman 
came, made note of a few details, and 

JIMMIE returned to his radio work hastened away more rapidly than he 
shop in the basement, proud of his had come. Meanwhile, Jimmie, realizing 
brilliant idea. Both mother and sister that he could take no active part in the 
complimented him effusively and went search, sat down to rest his aching ankle 
about their housework much more cheer- and racked his brain for 

tion she spread a mosquito net to protect 
the infant from flies and left him in a 
shaded spot to the tender mercies of 
gentle zephyrs of a mild Summer day. 

His Fame Assured 

fully. Once Ella called down to him 
this blithesome announcement: 

"I'm going to write to all the radio 
editors whose addresses I can find and 
tell them what you did. It'll make you 

"Yes," Jimmie agreed; "they'll run 
big headlines, reading 'Radio Latest 
Remedy for Teething Babies. Does 
the Work where Zwieback Won't.' " 

Jimmie had been idling his time away 
up to the moment when this bright idea 
came to him. Now, however, he felt 
much more industrious. With his lame 
foot resting as comfortably as possible 
on an empty box, he sat at his work- 
bench and began to wind a set of coils 
for a new' low-loss receiver. 

But he had not 
been thus occupied 
long when a scream 
such as he had never 
heard before caused 
him to drop his work 
and hobble upstairs 
as fast as he could go 
with safety. As he 
reached the living 
room, Ella rushed in, 
weeping and wringing 
her hands and crying 
out that her baby 
had been stolen. Her 
mother followed, al- 
most as desperate in 
words and manner. 

"I had him in the 
carriage out i'n the 
front yard, and some- 
body came along and 
wheeled him away," 
wailed Mrs. Stans- 
bury. "Oh, what will 
I do? Jimmie, can't 
you do something?" 

"You must be mis- 
taken," her brother 
replied. "Probably 
some neighbor's ohild 
wheeled him down 
the street." 

"No, no," returned 
the distracted mother. 
"None of the children 
around here would do 
My Edward has been stolen, I know it 
oh, I know it." 

"We'll call the police, then," said 
Jimmie going to the telephone and 
lifting the receiver. 

He got the nearest station without 
difficulty and delivered his message. 

"We'll have a man right over there," 
promised the desk sergeant. "But all 
of our motorcycle men are out on special 
calls and most of the other men are at a 
big fire that broke out twenty minutes 
ago. We'll take care of you just as 
speedily as we can get the men." 

an idea that might res- 
cue him from the dis- 
grace of utter uselessness. 
"I did one smart 
thing today, they tell 
me," he mused. "Now, 
why can't I think of 
something else to meet 
this crisis? By Jim- 
miny!" he exclaimed sud- 
denly, as the longed-for 
"bright idea" actually 
came. "I do believe it's 
worth trying. That 

receiver's still in that 
carriage, no doubt, and 
as long as the baby is 

Suddenly there came a sound, that of a human voice, from the carriage. 
Julia was nonplused. The cries for help continued at frequent intervals, and 
finally she broke into a run, while passers-by gaped in amazement. 

thing like that. 

being wheeled away in it, I may be able 
to make that set help to arouse suspicion. 
I'm going to try it." 

A Thought in Time 

JIMMIE remembered that the radio 
*-* set in the carriage had been tuned 
to the city's only broadcasting station, 
which was giving its afternoon concert 
at that hour on a 360 meter wavelength. 
Jimmie happened to be well in favor 
with the station, having done several 
bits of mechanical work for their operat- 
ing staff in times of need. 

His imagination afire with the pos- 

sibilities of his plan, Jim hobbled down- 
stairs, hailed a taxi and sped toward 
the business center of the town, where the 
studio was located. The antenna towers 
were situated some ten miles from the 
town, in keeping with the latest ideas 
of Frederick Newgard, owner of the 
station, who believed that radio towers 
should be free from the interference- 
causing influences of a city. Arrived at 
the studio build- 
ing, Jim dashed 
upstairs only to 
be greeted with a 
muffled "shhh!" as 
he neared the 
studio waiting 

"No noise!" an 
important indi- 
vidual warned 
him. "There's a 
concert going on 
now. Don't you 
know any better 
than to come rush- 
ing in here like 

Jim told the self- 
stylejd guard who 
he was, with a 
few added imagin- 
ative explanations 
for good measure. 
His words were 
"open sesame." 
He was ushered 
into the studio 
waiting room and 
there word was 
sent to Larry 
Hornaday, youth- 
ful announcer and 
director of the sta- 
tion, that a young 
friend was await- 
ing him in-unusual 
haste. After fin- 
ishing the an- 
nouncement of the 
first number on 
the afternoon's 
program, Larry 
sauntered out, 
carefully closing 
the studio door, 
and greeted Jim. 
"What's on your 
mind, kid?" he 
queried. "You 
look upset. Blow 
out eight tubes or 

"Nope. I want 
you to let me have your station for 
awhile." Jim was almost too nonchalant 
to be true, considering the importance of 
his statement. 

Larry was rightfully surprised. He 
chuckled and asked Jim jokingly if there 
was anything else he wanted. 

Then Jim got down to business. He 
outlined his plan; how the baby had 
been kidnapped while in a carriage 
equipped with a portable radio set which 
was tuned to the local broadcasting 

"Can't you see?" Jimmie demanded, 
(Turn to page 63) 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 3 1 

A Pleasing VOICE Isrit Enough ! 

Says Owen E. McGillicuddy, Who Studies Announcers 

CAtwell Photo) 

George Hay, "Solemn Old 
Judge" of Station WLS 

A FAIR young daughter of Eve, while 
listening recently to the conti- 
nental broadcast, was heard to 
remark, "There are all kinds of an- 
nouncers but, in my opinion, it is not so 
much the voice that counts as what goes 
with it." 

The young lady was right. Of the 
many announcers heard nightly, there 
are not more than a dozen whose enunci- 
ation and method show a conscientious 
desire to tell the public all it wants to 
hear in a clear, concise and understand- 
able manner. 

If an earnest desire to please his public, 
blended with a pleasant voice and a 
polite manner, were the sole requirements 
of a successful announcer, Ernest W. 
Jackson, director of CXRT, the Can- 
adian National Railways station at 
Toronto, would be in the front rank. 
But Jackson possesses more than a good 
voice and a pleasant manner. He has 
a keen sense of his responsibility as the 
vocal representative of Canada's great 
railway system, and Sir Henry Thorn- 
ton, the able president of the C. N. R., 
could not generate more enthusiasm or 
show more regard for the public than is 
exhibited when "Jacksy" is giving an 
oral demonstration. 

An Early Broadcaster 
/~\UR friend Jackson first saw the light 
" of day at Simcoe, Ontario, in Oc- 
tober, 1890, where, without the aid of 
either a transmitting or receiving equip- 
ment, his broadcasting was heard at 
frequent intervals by the neighbors. 
After enjoying farm life near Courtland, 
Ontario, for three . years the family 
moved to TiJisonburg in 1901, where he 

(Knight Photo, N. Y.) 

Thomas A. Cowan, Jovial 
Announcer from WJY-WJZ. 

attended public and high school, and 
matriculated to Toronto University. 

For five years he served the Traders' 
Bank of Canada and the Royal Bank of 
Canada in various capacities. In 1916 
he took a trip to the Orient, and on his 
return in 1917 enlisted in the Royal 
Flying Corps, in which he served in a 
staff position at Long Branch, Deseronto, 
Leaside, and Fort Worth, Texas. He 
was married in 1917, and, in 1919, on 
being discharged from the Air Force, 
joined the Treasurer's Branch of the 
Canadian National Railway. 

When the Canadian National Rail- 
ways decided last Winter to establish 
broadcasting stations in each province 
of the Dominion and place receiving sets 
on their transcontinental trains, Jackson 
was transferred to the radio department 
and placed in charge of Station CNRT 
at Toronto. 

The locomotive whistle which always 
heralds CNRT's coming on the air and 
the locomotive bells which follow the 
signing off, are now as well known as 
Mr. Jackson's voice in Canada and 
the United States. There are many 
radio engineers and directors throughout 

CPhoto by Lyonde, Toronto) 

And Here's E. W. Jackson 
himself, of CNRT, Toronto 

the continent who hold 
that Jackson knows 
how to interpret an 
announcer's relations 
with the public to 
a greater degree than 
any other man depending upon his 
vocal intelligence. 

In a recent conversation the popular 
director of CNRT gave me his opinion 
concerning an announcer's responsibility 
to the public and his relations with radio 
artists and the company he represents. 
"An announcer should be intimate 
without being personal," he declared. 
"He should be cultured without being 
too formal, and tactful without being 
timid. Humor has its place, but there 
is a type of humor heard sometimes 
which is violently offensive to all good 
taste. While an announcer must be 
honest at all times, there is never any 
necessity for being brutally blunt. Bru- 
tally blunt people never accomplish any 
good in the world and are always ob- 

"An announcer should take extreme 
care regarding the correct pronunciation 
of foreign names of places," he con- 

"While he uses his imagination, he 
should be neither artificial nor super- 
ficial in either the tone, inflection, or 
phrasing of his announcement. There 
should always be congenial relations 
between the public and himself, and 
though he is heard often there is no 
reason why he should be seen. In other 
words, he should become and remain an 
invisible friend to every home in which 
his voice enters. 

(Turn to page 58) 

32 RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 

None Other Than Bert Davis 

'The Clown Jgt^Km^ of the Air" 

Leads in v Contest 


The Votes 


of the Final 

Contest to Get 

Grand Trophy 

THE CLOWN of the air" comes to the fore to 
prove that all radio fan's don't prefer serious music. 
By receiving more votes in November than any others 
entrant in the RADIO AGE Radio Favorite Popularity 
Contest, the Clown of the Air, more commonly known as 
Bert Davis, achieves his rightful position as King of Jazz. 

Bert has been singing over Middle Western radio stations 
steadily during the past few months. He has traveled from 
state to state and "knocked 'em dead" wherever he went, 
simply because, as one admirer put it, "He can sing more crazy- 
things than you ever heard before." 

He ranks easily with such entertainers as Wendell Hall, 
Banks Kennedy, Axel Christensen, Art Linick, and others who 
are acknowledged leaders in their respective lines. 

A Vod-Vil Star, Too 

BERT is a vaudeville trouper by profession, having started 
his stage career in Chicago for various vaudeville circuits. 
(They weren't short ones, either.) When the radio craze hit 
the country, Bert was among the first to recognize in radio a 
vital means of getting before song lovers. So he originated 
his own repertoire and style and started to "do his stuff." 
He succeeded, and today his name is a byword for the liveliest 
in jazz. He has appeared at every Chicago radio station, 
being most consistent at WTAS, WGN, and KYW. 

He is to appear regularly on RADIO AGE'S broadcast pro- 
grams, after he completes a recently inaugurated vaudeville tour. 

For Bert, like any other true son of the road, gets the "urge" 
to appear before visible audiences once in a while. But he 


Harry Aldyne, Contest Editor, 

RADIO AGE, 500 N. Dearborn St., Chicago. 

I wish to cast ray vote for: 

Name of favorite _ _ 

Classification _ „ 

Station Date Heard 

Name (optional) „ _ 

Address [optionall 


always comes back to the radio studios with greater 
"wim and wigor" than ever. 
Bert has been one of the leaders in RADIO AGE'S 
contest for the past few months, and it was because of 
his recent programs from Chicago stations that his popularity 
rose and votesfoegan to trickle in for him with increasing regu- 
larity. As a result, Bert swept aside all opposition during the 
month of November, that contest having closed on October 15. 
Bert has a lot of stunts in common with Gene Green, old 
time vaudeville star. This pair "stunted" together for a few 
years, and as a result dyed-in-the-wool vaudeville fans of bygone 
days can hardly tell the two apart — over radio, of course. 

QO GET busy, folks, and help your favorite win the contest. 
^ In the February issue of RADIO AGE, we will announce 
the prize to be awarded the winner of the Grand Contest. 
So every vote counts NOW! Clip the coupon on this page and 
send it in. Urge your friends to do likewise before it's too late. 

Bert Davis Entertainer WTAS Elgin 


July _ Duncan Sisters 

August. _ Bill Hay 

September „ Karl Bonawitz 

October H. W. Arlin 

Name Classification 

Karl Bonawitz Organist WIP 

H. W. Arlin__ _ Announcer KDKA 

Bill Hay ..Announcer KFKX 

Bert Davis _ Entertainer.- WGN 

Duncan Sisters. . Entertainers KYW 

Lambdin Kay Announcer. WSB 

J. Remington Welsch Organist: _ KYW 

John S. Dagget ™. Announcer KHJ 

E. L. Tyson _Announcer_-. WWJ 

Jack Nelson Announcer W J JD 

Ford & Glenn. Entertainers WLS 

Harry M. Snodgras3- Entertainer-. WOS 

Fred Smith — Announcer WLW 

Jerry Sullivan Announcer EntertainerWQJ 

Hired Hand Announcer _ WBAP 

Edw. H. Smith Director-Player WGY 

Nick B. Harris.- Entertainer KFI 

Wendell Hall Entertainer.- WDAF 

Where Heard 
Los Angeles 
Jefferson City 
Fort Worth 
Los Angeles 
Kansas City 

The contest is by no means won. Karl Bonawitz leads 
Wendell Hall by only 52 votes. The scattering of votes over 
so large a field may ultimately elect a dark horse from among 
the many strong candidates whose names are not even listed 
on this page. 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 


Wkat tke 


are Doing 

KYW Will Have New 
Station in Chicago 

Chicago is not to move, but will 
build a new station to be located on the 
roof of the Congress Hotel, on the shores 
of Lake Michigan, it has been announced. 

This will be a new KYW. The antenna 
and tower will embrace science's latest 
instructions. Likewise, the studio, which 
will be in the Florentine Annex, Room 
1180 on the Parlor Floor of the Con- 
gress Hotel, a large and spacious room, 
will also be constructed in the most 
modern fashion, with accoustics best 
adapted for radio uses. 

The equipment to be used is of the 
latest type devised by the Westinghouse 
Electric and Manufacturing Company, 
employing water-sealed tubes. 

Rectified alternating current will be 
used, which will change the 60 cycle 
power service to high voltage direct 

With the new mechanical equipment 
to be used at KYW, a vast improvement 
will be manifest over its present station, 
which already is one of the best in the 

Will Use Special Wire 

Programs from the various studios will 
be broadcast by special wire to the 
station on the roof of the Congress Hotel. 

First comes the Balloon Room of the 
Congress from which come classical 
programs, renditions by the most famous 
artists in the world. It is from here that 
radio fans hear the famous Coon-Sanders' 
Night Hawks and Joska Debabary's 

From the Florentine Room will be 
broadcast programs of a popular nature, 
the Midnight Carnivals each Saturday 
night — always a deluxe program. 
RADIO AGE broadcasts on these mid- 
night shows the first Saturday in every 

From the Hearst Studio: KYW will be 
broadcast the usual afternoon frolics on 
Tuesday and Wednesday, the "At Home 
Show," the Revue, and World Crier 
service. This last goes on the ether 
every hour and half hour throughout 
the day and night. 

The KYW studio in the Garrick 
Theatre Building will be used for special 
programs. Central Church goes on the 
air each Sunday morning at 11 o'clock, 
while the Chapel Service goes out at 
2:30 p. m., Sunday afternoon. The Sun- 
day Evening Club broadcasts its pro- 
grams over KYW from the Orchestra 

Old Time Stage Star at 

John Drury is one of the most popular 
artists appearing from Station WSAI, 
of the United States Playing Card Com- 
pany, at Cincinnati. 

Mr. Drury is a former well known stage 
star, and perhaps several of our elderly 
readers will remember him for his dram- 
atic interpretations in days gone by. In 
a recent popularity contest in Cincinnati, 
Mr. Drury came out first. 

At present he is a reader of well known 
pieces from WSAI, and his services are 
also in demand at other stations and from 
dramatic societies in the Middle West. 

Mr. Drury's photograph is reproduced 
in the inset above. 

Mr. Drury will be glad tocommmnicate 
with listeners who enjoy his programs, 
he says. 

Have you ever fretted at the "One Moment, 
Please" from broadcasting studios while the artists 
were preparing for the next number? The newly- 
developed microphone stands in the WLW studios 
at Cincinnati do away with waits between numbers. 
Two signs, labelled "Prepare" and "Broadcast" 
are illuminated as required and there is no loss of 
time between selections, as one microphone in the 
studio is open to "Broadcast" while another in an 
adjacent studio says "Prepare." Fred Smith, WLW 
director, is shown before one of the new "Mikes." 

'Ghost" Broadcasts from 

/~\NE of the most unusual broadcasts 
^J ever transmitted in this country was 
sent out from WEEI, the Edison Light 
Station, at 10 o'clock Hallowe'en night, 
October 31, when a real live ghost was 

This unheard of feature was arranged 
by the officials of WEEI especially for 
radio fans who planned to put on 
Hallowe'en parties. Nothing like this 
broadcast had ever been attempted 
before, and great preparations were made 
to give radio listeners something brand 
new in radio broadcasts. 

A real haunted house, located several 
miles out of the city was selected for the 
stunt. Special remote control telephone 
lines were established between the radio 
station and this house so that when the 
ghost walked the entire scene could be 
described to the radio audience. 

The broadcast officials refused to di- 
vulge the location of this haunted house 
because they believed that if they did this, 
hundreds of sightseerswouldvisitthe place 
and thereby interfere with the broadcast. 

At exactly 10 o'clock the telephone line 
from the studio was transferred to the 
haunted house and from that time until 
the ghost appeared and disappeared the 
microphone was in charge of "Whit," 
well known radio character. In the 
spacious dining room of this haunted 
house a man is said to have murdered 
his wife and two children. 

All fans who heard the broadcast re- 
ported they were actually "scared" by the 
strange, spooky sounds over the radio. 

"Santa Claus Hour" at WLW 

Santa Claus has just finished overhaul- 
ing his airplane and will be ready to read 
the letters sent to him from all over the 
country when he arrives at the Crosley 
WLW broadcasting Studio, this month. 
Santa Claus hour will begin at 6 
o'clock and this jolly patron saint of 
childhood will be in the studio Monday, 
Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday 
evenings. Who will be the first little boy 
or girl to write to Santa in care of The 
Crosley Radio Corporation, Cincinnati? 

Do you remember the big party at 
Music Hall last year, with the funny 
clowns, fine music and then Santa Claus 
with his candy and fruit? Well, Powel 
Crosley, Jr., has engaged the large audi- 
torium again this year and all the 
children who can possibly attend are ■ 
invited to the big Christmas Festival to 
be held Monday night, December 22. 

To the little folks who cannot attend, 
there will be the broadcasting of the entire 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 

A Station that Caters to Friends 

By Lera McGinty 

Inspired by "Hired 
Hand" WBAP is 
making life cheery 
in the sunny south 

FORT WORTH:— Upon entering 
Radio station WBAP, at Fort 
Worth, Texas, one gets the unusual 
impression of hard work and content- 
ment as he encounters the announcers 
on the job. It was my good fortune to 
find them all present. 

W. E. Branch, program director and 
announcer, simply radiates satisfaction 
with himself, the studio and the whole 
world in general, as he tips his swivel 
chair back to a dangerous angle and 
begins telling about the virtues of WBAP. 
When asked if there was any class of 
people it wished particularly to please, 
he said, "Station WBAP caters to its 
friends — and has no enemies." 

This remark incidentally caused C. B. 
Locke, radio editor, to cease his seemingly 
never-ending task long enough to slap 
him on the back and utter a hearty, 
"Spoken like a man, Bill." 

A Real Old-Timer 

TF THIS duet smacks a trifle of egotism, 
*- it is to be pardoned, considering that 
Mr. Branch is the only one left now of 
the original trio, composed of G. C. 
Arnoux, E. L. Olds and himself. 

He built the first set used by WBAP, 
and when it was later equipped with a 
Western Electric, he stayed on as radio 
engineer. Recently he has been made 
program director and announcer. He 
not only serves in this capacity, but 
furnishes entertainment for thousands 
of enthusiastic fans with his popular 
noon-day piano concerts. He just natur- 
ally feels as proud of the studio as an 
adoring parent does of a successful son. 

Mr. Locke joined forces with WBAP 
as editor in November and seems to have 
been promptly submerged under a blan- 
ket of requests for WBAP acknowledg- 
ment stamps. Various attempts have 
been made by others to get an interview 
with him to no avail, and so far the most 
I have heard him say is: "No money 

"The Station with no enemies" is the favorite among the southland's radio 
fans. In the oval is a view of the studio of WBAP, which has the highest 
power rating of any station in the Southwest. The right portrait above is 
W. E. Branch, veteran announcer at WBAP — and with his back unceremoni- 
ously facing us, Mr. Reader, is the inimitable and mysterious " Hired Hand." 

Not knowing whether or not he was 
talking to me and meant, "No money 
involved," I deliberately reached across 
his desk and picked up the paper he had 
flung aside and found it to be a request 
for a WBAP stamp, and the writer had 
forgotten to enclose the dime. 

That was indeed a happy occasion for 
me, because I feared that he expected 
to be paid for an interview. 

However, his fellow workers say he is 
talkative when he isn't so busy, and he 
is certainly an addition for any studio 
to be proud of. 

(Whisper, he is good looking and per- 
sonally I believe he is trying the "work 
cure" on a broken heart and that would 
be an interesting story if it is so. I am 
going back again when the rush is over, 
and if I find out I will let you know). 

"PVERYBODY likes surprises, that 
-L-' is why I have saved the best for 
the last. 

It is the "Hired Hand," comedian and 
substitute announcer. Of course, it is 
needless to say that he is the outstanding 
feature offered by WBAP. To hear him 
announcing, one would naturally draw 
the conclusion that he has nothing else 
to do but think up funny jokes and get 

himself into tight corners, but when it 
comes to having nothing to do, it just 
doesn't fit that individual at all. 

He will have to be given credit for 
being an extraordinarily clever person 
when it is considered that he toils daily 
in the boiler room from early until late, 
trudges to and from his boarding house, 
cleverly dodging his landlady when 
he deems it necessary — -and that is one 
place his good judgment never fails him, 
he says — and besides attending to his 
regular studio duties of sweeping, dusting, 
errand boy and sub-announcer, I think 
it will be agreed that he is just naturally 

He is never heard to complain and it is 
only by close discernment that one is 
ever able to catch a gleam of wistfulness 
in his eyes for less work and more pay. 

These sacrifices are not always without 
their recompense, however. Almost 
daily he is rewarded with one or more 
boxes of cigars or candy, pecans, fruit, 
ducks, and he has been known to even 
receive packages of fried chicken and at 
one time, three live possums and a porcu- 
pine, (saying nothing of the mash notes). 

So you see he manages a rather 
well balanced diet in spite of the usual 
boarding house hash. 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doinz 35 


— As Told by a SAD but HOPEFUL Musical 


Musical Director, Station WGN. 

TAKING a receiving set apart to find 
out what makes it tick has nothing 
whatever on taking an "artist" 
apart to find out what's wrong with the 
picture. Note the quotation marks 
inclosing the word artist. It's always 
the sort of musician we describe with 
"quotes" that makes musical directors 
tear out the few wisps of hair remaining 
on the old bean and laugh hysterically. 

Real, honest-to-goodness artists are 
seldom difficult to get along with as long 
as you remember that they actually are 
famous or deserve to be. Used as they 
are to the exigiencies of concertizing, 
they appreciate the efforts made in their 
behalf and know of the vexatious "little 
things" that may almost wreck a recital 
at the last moment. 
But the "artists"! 

Why a Musical Director? 

Everybody knows what an announcer 
does — everybody hears him doing it. 
A pianist's place in the scheme of a 
radiocast is pretty well defined. The 
title of "publicity director" is self- 
explanatory. But what on earth is a 
musical director and why? 

Well, he arranges the programs and 
provides the "talent." Simple, is it not? 
It is not, even if we do say it. 

Boiled down (!) the musical director's 
job is to provide some 300-odd programs 
a year, each requiring the services, co- 
operation and good will of from four to 
twenty musicians; to see that everybody 
arrives in time to "appear" on the dot; 
to placate the wrath of the small-timers; 
to use diplomacy in the case of perform- 
ers of fame; to accept the mean cracks 
of those who have no idea of the machin- 
ery of radio programs; to get up in- 
stanter the soft answers promulgated to 
turn away the anger of simple, unofficial 
critics; to give hearings to those who 
would like to sing or play for the public; 
to announce all kinds of "numbers" in 
all kinds of languages; to perform himself 
when somebody doesn't arrive for the 
show; to play accompaniments for those 
who failed to provide their own pianists. 
. . . The rest of the time he has to 

His Crown of Thorns 

T^OR ways that are hard and tricks 
-^ that are vain — to jumble a metaphor 
or two — the impresario of musicians 
wins the mothproof medal. The average 
"manager" of talent finds his path 

bestrewn with tempera- 
ments of great variety 
and curious design. 

The late F. Wight 
Neumann and the 
present Louis Eckstein 
of Ravinia fame con- 
firmed that rumor to us 
in person. But whereas 
men of their profession 
are concerned with but 
what amounts to a 
handful of concerts 
or opera performances 
yearly, the radio direc- 
tor must scare up hun- 
dreds of musicians and 
arrange hundreds of 
programs. Not only 
that, but his audience 
is multitudinous and 
supercritical, whereas 
the concert manager's 
patrons are fewer and 
not so apt to be rabidly 
critical, since only those 
who understand and 
enjoy this type of 
program pay him for 
seats. They wouldn't go if they didn't 
like the kind of music the recital or con- 
cert assured. 

The radio audience, on the other hand, 
is a cross section of the population of the 
United States. Some like jazz; some 
despise it; some dislike sopranos, some 
revile contraltoes; some root for piano 
solos, other say "bah," not to say "blah"; 
some w-ant old time favorites, younger 
hearers cry for popular songs of today. 
And so it goes. Yet all these "critics" 
of each other's tastes are listening to the 
musical director's daily programs at the 
same time and each type thinks the pro- 
gram is terrible if it does not consist of 
just what it likes best. 

Starting out in the early morn intent 
on catching the early artist and "booking" 
him, the pale young man with the high 
forehead and fallen arches finds two 
classes of musicians awaiting him — the 
kind that begs to be put on a program 
and the kind he has to ask to do their 
stuff for this radio age. The former keep 
the telephone wires sizzling throughout 
the day and wear out the anteroom car- 
pet during "tryout" hours. Here begins 
woe. Most of them know they are good. 

Charles H. Gabriel Jr., of WGN 

(Drake Photo) 

But the others. Knowing they are 
good, nine times out of ten they are in- 
sulted when the inevitable request to 
hear them is made. 

"Why," said a young near-soprano to 
us the other day, "Mme. Screech says I 
am really too good for the radio. She 
says, everybody says, I have a wonderful 
voice. I only want to sing because so 
many of my friends who live out of town 
are anxious to hear me. When can I 
come? I prefer your Master Artist re- 
citals on Sunday and could do a whole 
hour for you." 

What to do? What to do? What to 

When she finally consents to sing a 
little test song, the voice, what there is 
of it, is very good — only for talking, not 
singing. To plainly say so would not 
be quite what they are doing this year 
in the best circles. To book her for an 
appearance would be a pitiful thing to 
do, not only for the reputation of the 
station but as an unnecessary torture 
to the future hearers. What would you 
say? What we say is a secret of musical 

Too recently a gentlewoman was 
Honestly, most of them are good and booked by error of confusing her with 
dating them up is merely a question of another of the same name, and immedi- 
"how soon can you come?" (Turn to page 67) 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

Above is Harry Snodgrass, during one of his "at home" programs from the 
Missouri State Penitentiary, where he has been confined for three years. His 
piano renditions are broadcast regularly through Station WOS, at Jefferson City. 

' Stone Walls do not 
a Prison Make' 


"Stone walls do not a prison make, nor 
iron bars a cage." 

— Old Saying. 
"Love laughs at locksmiths." 

— A nother Saying. 

NO ONE knows the truth of the 
foregoing sayings better than 
Harry Snodgrass, who is known 
throughout the United States and Canada 
as the inimitable "King of the Ivories" 
from Radio Station WOS, at Jefferson 
City, Mo. 

Three years ago this January, Snod- 
grass was an Unknown — a mere cog in 
the world's everyday life. And he wasn't 
very successful at that. 

Harry was somewhat shiftless back 

in 1921. He couldn't hold a job for 
more than a month. He had a wonderful 
gift of piano playing, but he had no one 
to inspire him. So he drifted along — 
not even a pebble on Life's beach. 

The Turning Point 
TTE GOT into bad company. One 
*-*- night the police made a raid and 
Harry was "among those present" when 
charges of robbery were made. Harry 
was tried and convicted on a charge of 
attempted burglary. He was sentenced 
to serve three years in the Missouri 
State Penitentiary. 

Most people regard a prison as the 
last place to achieve fame, but Snod- 
grass looks upon his jail sentence with 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 

The Real 

Story of Harry 

Snodgrass, Who 

Won Radio 
Fame in Prison 

a feeling of gratitude. For were it not 
for that chance arrest back in 1921, 
he might still be an unknown wanderer. 

Not long after his advent into the 
prison, radio began to win popularity. 
Broadcasting stations sprung up, and 
among them was WOS, at Jefferson City, 
Missouri. While visiting the peni- 
tentiary one day, a representative from 
WOS happened to hear Snodgrass play- 
ing the piano casually and disinterestedly 
for a group of prisoners. 

The radio man was astounded. He 
marveled at Snodgrass' natural ability 
as a pianist, his easy skill and expert 
technique. The radio man brought 
visiting pianists of note and several 
musical instructors to hear Snodgrass 
play. All were of the same opinion; 
Snodgrass was a "genius of the ivories," 
wasting his talents behind the bleak 
walls of a penitentiary. 

J. M. Witten, chief announcer and a 
director at WOS, arranged to have Snod- 
grass broadcast regularly from the 
Jefferson City broadcasting station. Wit- 
ten dubbed him "King of the Ivories" 
and advertised him on WOS programs, 
neglecting, however, to mention that 
Snodgrass' studio was a trusty's parlor 
in the state penitentiary. 

During the year or so Snodgrass has 
been performing over radio, his whole 
attitude of life has changed. As he faces 
the microphone in his gray "studio," 
he visions the untold millions who are 
listening to his varied concerts — jazz, 
classical music, and old time favorites. 
He sees the men, women and little chil- 
dren who sit open-mouthed on hearing 
his lightning-like speed and his tender, 
impassioned handling of the Old Masters. 

A Purpose in Life 

CNODGRASS admits that now he 
^ has a purpose in life. The piano is 
his life, and now he knows it will guide 
him to greater fame once he leaves the 
confines of the prison walls. 

"Love laughs at locksmiths," he told 
his warden. "I love my work. When I 
play I am not in prison. I am surrounded 
by millions of admirers instead of four 
gloomy walls. If I get so much pleasure 
from playing now, can you imagine what 
will happen when I get out of here?" 

If Snodgrass contemplates fame now, 
he does not realize he has already gained 
it. Few persons know he is a convict, 
but those who know who he is admire 
him all the more for the change radio 
broadcasting has wrought over him; the 
spiritual transformation that radio has 
caused over this once indifferent "floater." 
(Turn to page 69) 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

Be Sent 


possible to transmit 
part of your physical 
being as well as your voice 
by radio? 

Byrdetta Evans, nation- 
ally known radio singer and 
a prominent society beauty 
as well, was the person who 
asked that question at the 
opening of an informal inter- 
view over the teacups the 
other afternoon. 

The question proved to be the first 
and the last to be asked in said inter- 
view. In fact, it was enough for a 
whole interview. 

Assuming a very thoughtful air, the writer 
started to quote several well known radio 
engineers to disprove her point, but Miss 
Evans assured him that she was interested 
in the psychological and not the technical side 
of radio. 

"Why?" we asked, coming to life. 

"As you probably know," Miss Evans began, 
"I have sung from a large number of broad- 
casting stations recently, including such well 
known ones as VVGN, WLS, WJAZ and WEBH. Of course, 
I have received my share of letters, phone calls and telegrams, 
commenting on and praising my voice, as well as requesting 
favorite numbers. 

Those Forward Fans! 

T>UT the reason I asked you that question is because nearly 
f-f all the messages from masculine fans not only praise my 
vocal ability, but request my telephone number or home ad- 
dress and express a desire to meet me. 

"I have heard from many sources that many movie stars 
receive proposals from persons who have never seen anything 
but their image and who have no idea of their personality or 
speech. But here it is the reverse, for the radio fans who write 
me have only heard my voice and have no idea how I look. 

"Naturally, I am considerably intrigued by these incidents, 
and I wonder if by any chance my listeners could have received 
an impression of my physical self along with my voice." 

In other words, Miss Evans wants to know if the average 
radio listener can tell, by paying rapt attention to a girl's voice 

Miss Byrdetta Evans 

(Drake Studio Photo) 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 37 

Snaps ' 

Who, After an 

Interview with 

Miss Byrdetta 

Evans, Feels 

Convinced that 

Radio Listeners 

Can Determine 

Whether Beautiful 

Singers Are 

Beautiful ! 

over the radio, whether she 
is as sweet and pretty as 
her voice would have you 

Look at Byrdetta! 

TV/TAYBE there is some- 

-'-'-*■ thing in her theory. 

The reader will be able to 

solve this riddle by glancing 

at the portrait of Miss 

Evans accompanying this 


In a moment of confidence Miss 

Evans showed us a typical letter she received 

after singing an unusually sentimental song; 

one which undoubtedly stirred several listeners to 

romantic ravings — -particularly the writer of this billet 


"Dearest Radio Songbird: 

"I must express my deep appreciation of your won- 
derful voice which came to me so marvelously from 
WGN last night. You do not know the solace and 
comfort your song inspired in me. Why, I can scarcely 
wait until your voice comes again stealing out of the 
night, bringing comfort for a lonely heart. I feel that 
such a lovely voice could only have its origin in an equally 
lovely body. 

"Please answer this message so I may have the privilege of 
personally thanking you for your artistry. 

"George " 

Before taking up her song career, Miss Evans was the town 
belle of Fargo, N. D., where she won the annual beauty contest 
for several seasons. While attending the University of Min- 
nesota she was asked to enter a bathing girl contest, and 
although her nearest approach to bathing exhibitions during 
past years had been in a railroad water tank near Fargo, she 
entered the contest and was selected winner. 

"I love radio for its romance," Miss Evans assured us. "No 
one ever knows where her voice is going or to whom she is 
singing. Wouldn't it be marvelous to have the Prince of Wales 
listening!" she sighed, just like any other American girl 
would at such a supposition. 

But the question still remains unsolved — Can beauty be 
transmitted by radio? Try it and see. 

(Copyright: 1924: by Radio Abo.) 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 

How a Touch of 

Radio Finesse 


Makes Broadcasting a 
Pleasure at WEBH 


(Chicago Aerial Survey Fboto.) 
A bird's-eye 
view of the Edgewater 
Beach Hotel, home of WEBH. 

FINESSE! Art! Color! 
Those are three things that the 
Radio broadcasting field is destined 
to possess some day, but which it lacks 
to a noticeable degree at present. 

Eight out of ten of our broadcasting 
stations are the most uninteresting things 
in the world. Artists "dated" to appear 
for the first time before the microphone 
go to the studios with hearts aflame, 
dreaming wild dreams of the romance 
and thrill they will get from their first 

Instead of the romance they had 
supposed was behind the microphone 
and the broadcast studio, they usually 
find a dull and overheated room; a few 
disinterested persons in charge; and a 
mechanical way about doing things that 
breeds "stage fright" and many times 
causes a promising artist to fail com- 

Mind you, not all stations are like that. 
But the majority of them are. They 
feel that because a broadcast studio can- 
not be seen, it need not cater to the 
artistic, the colorful and the romance 
that is in radio as a science. In other 
words, the finesse — the finishing touch — ■ 
is lacking. 

A Step Forward 
'"PHE Edgewater Beach Hotel, one of 
Chicago's most pretentious show- 
places, purchased Radio Station WEBH 
with the avowed intention of forming a 
studio that would inspire radio artists 
instead of terrify them; that would make 
them feel at home and arouse all that 
was artistic in them. The Hotel manage- 
ment wanted class to pervade throughout 
every inch of its studio. 

The Hotel already 
had something to 
build from. It had a 
crystal radio studio 
situated in a cozy cor- 
ner of the hotel building; 
a st udioenclosed entirely in 
glass and built along the lat- 
est lines of studio development. 
The mechanical side of the 
station was acknowledged one of 
the best in the country; the operating 
staff was the most efficient that could 
be found. The original apparatus had 
communicated daily with Capt. McMil- 
lan during his explorations in Arctic 
regions. These experiments were carried 
on when the station was under another 

Everything was ready, then, for the 
final step; the introduction of the elusive 
bit of finesse. 

Robert D. Boniel, a veteran at the 
gentle art of studio management, was 
chosen to take charge of the newly 
created Station WEBH. That was four 
months ago. And today WEBH is the 
last word in "artistry" in radio broad- 
casting. Just as the Hotel itself strives 

The famous Langdon Brothers, Hawaiian 
guitar artists who appear exclusively on 
WEBH programs. They are known from 
Coast to Coast for their unique presenta- 

to cater to the best tastes of Chicago's 
elite, so has "Bob" Boniel injected a 
colorful atmosphere in the studio he 

Unique Crystal Studio 

'T'HE studio consists of two glass com- 
partments. One, a very small room, 
houses the announcer — Mr. Boniel — and 
his operator. The other room, also glass 
enclosed and adjacent to the operating 
and announcing room, houses the artists 
in charge of Dean Remick, musical 
director. To avoid timidity on the part 
of the entertainers who view the micro- 
phone for the first time, the microphone 
is concealed in a piano lamp, and singers 
and other performers sing "at" the lamp, 
thus making it unnecessary for them to 
concoct any weird illusions about the 
powers of the more or less harmless 

Velvet drapes further enhance the 
beauty of "the crystal studio" and add 
to its sound values. The broadcasting 
antennae are located nearly a block away 
from the studio itself, free from interfer- 
ence of steel girders. The Hotel is situa- 
ted in Chicago's fashionable North Side. 

One of the most renowned features of 
WEBH and a typical example of its 
finesse is the Sunday afternoon twilight 
musicale. Operatic selections by Dan 
Russo and Ted Fiorito's Oriole Orchestra 
attract a gathering of socially-elect every 
Sunday at 5 p. in.; and a famed singer, 
sometimes a soprano, and at others a 
tenor or baritone, also appear on these 
musicales, as an added feature. The 
best in opera music and classical selec- 
tions is broadcast on this special program. 

But that is not all. Mr. Boniel's forte 
is variety; and he can arrange jazz pro- 
grams with the same success that greets 
his handling of classical arrangements. 
But Mr. Boniel has the gift of making 
jazz presentations seem ethereal; he is 
like Paul Whiteman in that respect. 

RADIO AGE broadcasts from the 
crystal studio once a month, the next 
program being scheduled for Tuesday, 
December 23, between 9 and 10 p. m. 
Tune in! Wavelength, 370 meters. 

WEBH is continually hanging up dis- 
tance records. It is one of the two strong- 
est stations in the Chicago territory, but 
in spite of the force behind its broadcasts, 
the modulation is practically perfect. This 
is accomplished only by close observation 
by an expert corps of operators. 

RADIO AGE- for January, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Dot 


"Eddie" Borroff, 
popular announcer 
of KYW's Congress 
Hotel studio, from 
which RADIO AGE 
b roadcasts j azz 
carnivals the first 
Saturday in every 

Radio Age to Try for 
Distance from KYW 

All-Star Program to Be on the Air at 
Midnight, January 3, 1925 

strains of "How planning a long distance test of its pro- 
do you do?" at 2:30 gram from KYW on Saturday, January 
a. m., there was something 3, from midnight to 2 a. m. Prizes to 
doing every minute. be announced over the radio will be 
Encouraged by this success, RADIO awarded the first ten listeners who report 

RADIO AGE'S midnight 
show. What she doesn't 
know about syncopation 
n't worth knowing. 

(CoUbrito Photo-, 

FROM coast to 
coast! From 
Gulf to Canad 
ian Frontier! That was 
the record set by Station 
KYW Saturday evening, 
November 8, when RADIO 
AGE broadcast its first Congress 
Hotel Jazz Carnival from KYW, between 
the witching hours of midnight and 2:30 
a. m. 

Although the hour was late, it was sur- 
prising how many fans managed to stay 
up throughout the land. The program 
was as varied as it was excellent, and a 
corps of telephone and telegraph oper- 
ators was kept busy for two hours during 
the program and for three days later 
checking up on the requests and inquiries 
at RADIO AGE'S initial effort at jazz 

They're Off! 

Managed by the able hand of Edwin 
Borroff, announcer of the Congress Hotel 
Studio of KYW, the program started 
at midnight on the dot, with Coon San- 
ders' Original Night-Hawks' orchestra 
from Kansas City. Then Banks Kennedy, 
RADIO AGE's original song man, started 
to tickle the keys, and from then on 
there was no surcease from jazz. From 
the first strains of Kennedy's latest com- 
position, "Harold Teen," to the dying 

AGE presented another of its month- 
ly popular programs from KYW on 
Saturday, December 6, 
rom the same studio. 
This time the star per- 
formers were Banks 
Kennedy, with an 
entirely new re- 
pertoire; Art 
Linick, the 
famous "Mrs. 

Here's "Mrs. Schlag- 
enhauer," without the 
skirts. Art Linick is 
of radio's most 
popular characters. /. 
His interpretations 
are known from 
Coast to Coast. 

(Celebrity Photo) 

(by telegram, telephone or letter) the 
greatest distance reception. 

This will be the first time KYW has 
attempted long-distance tests for some 
time, and because of the fact that an 
unusual effort will be made to cross two 
oceans, the program will be unusually 

Of course, there will be Art Linick, 
with his inimitable renditions of quaint 
songs; Axel Christensen will pound the 
keys in his airy style; and Banks Kennedy 
and Wanda Goll will introduce the latest 
in popular melodies. 

In addition there will be other head- 
liners. Tune in on Saturday, January 
3, at midnight, and hear what Announcer 
Borroff has to say! 

And if you live at a distance from 
KYW, send in your report of the program 
for confirmation and win one of the 

By the way, if you really like RADIO 
AGE'S broadcast entertainers, drop us a 
ine telling your appreciation. And if you 
have any suggestions, we'll be glad to 
comply with them. 

The demure young lady below 
is Claiborne Foster, winsome 
heroine of "Applesauce." She will 
soon appear on a RADIO AGE radio 
playlet from KYW with Alan 
Dinehart, her leading man. 

(Wide World Photo) 

Christensen, president of the Christensen 
School of Popular Music and the "Czar 
of Rag-time"; Wanda Goll, the popular 
vaudeville artist and radio jazz enter- 
tainer; and Rose Marie Meyers, who can 
sing classical and popular selections with 
equal dexterity and allure. 

Distance Test Planned 
Armed with this group of infallible 
radio artists, RADIO AGE is now 

40 RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 




s^Junior $IO 


Oldest and Largest Distributors of 




* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 41 


Improving a Popular Circuit 

"99" Reflex with Two Stages 


ACCORDING to the reports sent 

Zjk in by many of our readers, the 
J- •*- "99" Tuned Impedance Reflex 
has proved to be one of the most stable of 
the reflex circuits 

It seems to be less critical in regard to 
the varying inductance values of the 
different makes of audio transformers and 
therefore there is correspondingly less 
trouble in adjusting the bypass con- 
densers than with other reflex types. 
We have had a great many complimen- 
tary letters on the single tube "99" 
Tuned Impedance Reflex described in 
our April issue, and for this reason the 
writer resolved to expand this set into a 
three tube affair having a still better 
range and much greater volume. 

At first, the idea was to reflex all three 
tubes, thus attaining three stages of radio 
frequency amplification and two audio 
amplification stages, but on actual 
trial the circuit became so complicated 
that I became rather doubtful about 
suggesting such a hook-up for beginners. 
With all three tubes reflexed, we attain 
wonderful volume and range but at the 
expense of several rather critical adjust- 
ments which would probably keep the 
technical department of RADIO AGE 
in hot water for several months to come. 

As a result of many trial hook-ups, 
it was finally decided to place one stage 
of tuned radio frequency ahead of the 
single tube "99" circuit for distance, and 
then to add one stage of audio for in- 
r.reasedjvolume. This combination works 
out very nicely and is only slightly in- 
ferior to the circuit in which all three 
tubes are reflexed. It is equivalent to 
two stages of radio and two stages of 
audio amplification and compares very 
favorably with a five tube neutrodyne, 
when properly built. 

One more desirable feature in addition 
to the greater range and volume is the 
selectivity. We can get through almost 

Copyright: 1924 

How 3 Tubes Will 

II. L11V< 1I1UJL .^lill'JV. 1H . — .. — _ | — » a VU1U L1IV. llll'l IM'l^V ,"■ IllllVll^llt 111 lilt 

yet published by \J IV € Lj€ttCr l\Cin2€ three element tube detector, I have shown 

*-* the two element tube in this role, which 

tors. However, to avoid the several 
drawbacks for which the crystal detector 
is responsible and at the same time to 
avoid the tube noises inherent in the 

any local jam and bring in distance by 
virtue of the three controls, and in this 
respect it is one of the sharpest tuning 
sets I have yet worked with. In addition 
to the original two controls we have the 
tuned radio frequency unit which sharp- 
ens up the set to a point where we bring 
them in and out on a feather edge. Ver- 
nier condensers must be used for this 
reason on all of the stages. 

As with all ordinary reflex circuits, 
a crystal can be used successfully as a 
detector and its use brings that clear, 
clean tone that is an impossibility with 
sets using oscillating type tube detec- 


The RADIO AGE blueprints 
are the latest in radio develop- 
ment. They describe graphic- 
ally and clearly every step to be 
taken in the construction of the 
season's most popular circuits. 
The careful radio fan cannot 
afford to be without them. 

for 1925 contains a 32-page 
blueprint section that will be 
treasured by every home radio 
builder. Sixteen pages of this 
unusual section will consist of 
real blueprints — the kind that 
have made the RADIO AGE 
blueprint section the talk of the 
radio world. 

Order your RADIO AGE AN- 
NUAL for 1925 NOW to insure 
your getting one of the first 
copies. $1 a copy. 

is non-oscillating and which gives the 
same pure tone as the crystal. These 
"Fleming Diode and the Tu Valves" 
eliminate the necessity of frequent 
crystal adjustment and at the same time 
give slightly increased volume. These 
tubes are simple and cost hardly more 
than a good crystal detector. Three 
element tubes should not be used for the 
detector unless range is to be attained 
at the expense of tone. 

Circuit in Detail 
T^IGS. 1-2 show the circuit of the 
■*- three tube "99" Reflex, Fig 1 being 
a picture diagram while Fig. 2 is a con- 
ventional diagram with the various 
parts denoted by symbols, the latter 
being of use to the more experienced 
builder who wishes to trace out the func- 
tioning of the circuit. Fig 3 is an iso- 
metric view showing the appearance 
from the back of the panel and the general 
arrangement of the apparatus, but should 
not be used exclusively for hooking up 
the set as several of the wires are con- 
cealed behind the various units. 

On examining Fig. 1 or Fig. 2 we see 
that two common air core radio trans- 
formers or "neutroformers" (RFT-1) 
and (RFT-2) are used for coupling the 
R. F. stages. They are preferably tuned 
by the 17 plate (0.00035 mf) condensers 
(CI) and (C2) of the vernier type. 

Right here I see a deluge of mail 
coming in with the question "Can I 
use 23 plate condensers?" You can use 
the larger condensers but you will find 
that the range of wavelengths is covered 
over a shorter arc of the dials, and hence 
the tuning is made more difficult and 
critical. This is the only objection to the 

(Turn to page 48) 
Blueprints of The Tuned Impedance Reflex with Two Stages on Pages 42 and 47. 



J*J N -^ a kj » 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


No Frills, But Real Service With 

A Tuned Plate Regenerative Set 


PROBABLY one of the most effective 
types of straight regenerative cir- 
cuits and the simplest to build is 
the "tuned plate" type in which the 
plate circuit is tuned to resonance with 
the grid circuit by means of a variable 
inductance such as a variometer. 

While I do not present this well known 
circuit as anything new in its entirety, 
yet by the use of an aperiodic coupler 
I am sure it is far more selective than the 
older arrangement with a variocoupler 
and that it is far easier to tune. With a 
single stage of audio amplification as 
shown in the following blueprints, it is 
an exceedingly good DX set and gives 
good volume on distant stations. The 
same tuner coil and the same variometer 
can be used as was specified with the 
Baby Heterodyne II. 
I Fig. 1 is a "picture diagram" of the 
circuit arranged for the use of the begin- 
ner. In Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram 
by which the action of the circuit can 
be more easily traced out by those exper- 
ienced in handling symbolic diagrams. 
In the following description we will 
refer, therefore, particularly to Fig. 2, 
although all three views bear the same 
reference numbers and figures. By this 
system of lettering, the novice can trace 
back and forth between the two diagrams 
and thus become acquainted with the 
conventional symbols which mean so 
much to the experienced radio man. 

How to Increase Range 

TO BEGIN with, in every type of 
straight regenerative circuit, some of 
the amplified plate energy is fed back 
into grid or input circuit of the tubes, 
thus increasing the potential acting on 
the grid of the tube and increasing the 
range and signal strength of the circuit. 
For example, the feeble little impulse 
induced by a distant station in the aerial 
enters the antenna binding post (ANX), 
passes through the primary coil (LI) and 
thence to ground through the ground post 
(GND) and the dotted ground wire. 
That is, the antenna current of the station 
to which the set is tuned passes to earth 
in this manner, the remaining waves 
from other stations being "choked back" 
by the self-inductance of the system 

While passing through the primary 
coil (LI) ,the current sets up a slight 
magnetic field which threads its way 
through the turns of the adjacent sec- 
ondary coil (L2) of the tuner and "in- 
duces" or creates a current in (L2). The 
induced current, known as the "secondary 
•current" acts on the grid of the tube 
through the grid condenser (CG) and 
leak (GL), thus causing the relatively 
powerful local battery current to flow in 
step with the pulsations in the aerial. 
In effect, the tube is now simply a form 
of current relay or valve by which a 
feeble pulsating current controls a rela- 

Attaining Selectivity 
With An Aperiodic 
Coupler Added To a 
Well Known Circuit 

tively much more powerful battery cur- 
rent in the same way that a slight move- 
ment of the hand on the throttle regulates 
a powerful steam engine or heavy stream 
of water. 

Inductance is Varied 

By means of the variable condenser 
(CI) the inductance of the coil (L2) is 
varied so that the circuit can be tuned or 
brought into step with the frequency of 
the desired station. Coil (L2) by acting 
inductively on (LI) allows only the 
current of the desired frequency to pass 
to earth. The number of turns of wire 
on (L2) and the capacity of the con- 
denser (CI) determine the frequency of 
the circuit or the wavelength to which 
it may respond. Increasing the number 
of turns on (L2) or increasing the capacity 
of (CI) increases the wavelength of the 
circuit. In the same way, cutting down 
the number of turns or the capacity of 
condenser (CI) lowers the wavelength 
of the system. As it is far easier to vary 
the capacity of (Cl) than to alter the 
number of effective turns, the number of 
turns on (L2) is fixed at some value so 
that the operation of (Cl) will cover the 
complete band of broadcasting wave- 
lengths. The number of turns on (LI) 
is not of so much importance in this 
respect, but in any case the turns on 
(LI) are only a small fraction of those on 

Tubes or Crystal? 

TF WE were to depend completely upon 
■*- the signals produced in this way, the 
vacuum tube would not be so very much 
more effective than a crystal detector 
for the reason that the potentials acting 
on the grid of the tube are very feeble 
and the amount of battery current con- 
trolled would be correspondingly small. 
The "amplification" or "multiplication" 
of the tube would not be sufficient to 
give us the tremendous distance and 
signal strength attained by the tube 
when used in a "regenerative" circuit. 
As matters stand at this point, the 
relayed battery current from the "B' 
battery (B) passes through the plate 
circuit (12-13) from the positive side 
of the battery ( + ), through the phones 
(PH) and back to the tube plate at (P). 
Inside the tube this current flows through 
the vacuous space between the plate 
(P) and the filament (F) and returns to 
the negative side (— ) of the battery 

through the wires (9-15). Each change 
in the rate of flow in this circuit moves 
the diaphragms of the phones (PH) and 
thus produces a sound. 

As the grid (G) of the tube is between 
the plate (P) and filament (F), it acts 
like a valve on the current flow. When 
the aerial current induces a negative 
charge on (G), the current flow is in- 
stantly checked. When the incoming 
signal imparts a positive charge to (G) 
then the rate of flow is increased. Each 
one of these changes in the n*te of flow 
causes movements of the head-set dia- 
phragms in proportion to the intensity 
of the incoming waves. During this 
process of amplification, the incoming 
waves are "rectified" or checked so that 
only waves of like polarity pass through 
the tube. This rectification makes it 
possible to develop the "modulation" 
or voice frequency waves upon the 
phones, as the frequency of the radio 
frequency waves is far too high to cause 
diaphragm movement. 

Thus the tube acts in two roles. In 
the first place it amplifies the incoming 
signal waves, and (2) the tube rectifies 
these waves so that the voice frequency 
impulses are developed in the phones. 
We are not directly concerned with the 
rectification factor at present in describ- 
ing the regenerative circuit; hence we 
will let this matter drop and consider 
only the means of amplification. 

Named according to the tube elements 
with which they are connected, we have 
the grid circuit at (6-4-L2-7-8) and the 
plate circuit at (11-VA-12-13-14-9-15-F). 
The grid circuit is the "input" of the tube 
while the plate circuit is the amplified 
"output." As the current in the plate 
circuit is very much heavier than that 
in the grid circuit, it is evident that the 
output could be further increased if we 
could feed some of the plate current 
back into the grid circuit for re-amplifica- 
tion in the tubes. 

Thus, the plate current could be am- 
plified a second time with corresponding 
increase in the output, and this is ex- 
actly what is done with the "feedback" 
type of regenerative circuit. In one type, 
the conductively coupled regenerative, 
the plate (P) is directly connected to the 
grid circuit as at (4) or to the aerial cir- 
cuit wire, (2). In another type, the 
plate current is led through a "tickler" 
coil which acts inductively on the sec- 
ondary coil (L2). 

In the present "tuned plate" regenera- 
tive, the feedback is "capacitative"; 
that is, the plate current is fed into the 
grid circuit through the internal capacity 
of the tube, control being had by means 
of the variable inductance or variometer 
(VA.) It will be seen from Fig. 2 that 
the grid (G) and the plate (P) are like 
the plates of a condenser in regard to 
(Turn to Page 46) 

Blueprints of the Tuned Plate Regenerative on Pages 44 and 45. 

__ Q- to 


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>: ^S«^ h-fcJt^ K^W 5 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

A New Twist to the Tuned 
Plate Regenerator 

( Continued from page 43) 
each other, and therefore grid current 
can be fed into the plate circuit or plate 
current can be fed into the grid circuit 
through the capacity of this condenser, 
providing that the two circuits are 
brought nearly into step or "resonance" 
with each other. 

The inductance of the variometer 
(VA) is varied until the grid and plate 
circuits are nearly in resonance, and when 
this is attained, plate current feeds 
across (P) and (G) into the grid circuit, 
producing "regeneration." This causes 
a tremendous increase in the output of 
the circuit with corresponding increases 
in range. Without regeneration the 
ordinary range of the tube would prob- 
ably be between 50 and 100 miles. Adopt- 
ing the regenerative principle makes 
1,000 miles an ordinary range on voice 
transmission and even 2,000 miles is not 
unheard of. 

Units and Dimensions 

TVFOW we will get down to the practical 
- 1 - ' description and give specific instruc- 
tions for the building of this receiver. 
We can now include the picture diagram, 
Fig. 1, and the isometric view of Fig. 3, 
which shows the general arrangement of 
the apparatus behind the panel. With 
the exception of the aperiodic coupler 
(L1-L2) all of the apparatus is standard. 
There is nothing at all critical about the 
set and even the inexperienced need not 
hesitate. For those experimenters who 
have built the Baby Heterodyne II, I 
will say that the same tuner, variometer 
and condenser can be used for building 
this circuit, and several of our readers 
have already done this successfully. 
The aperiodic coupler has been described 
many times in these columns, but for 
the benefit of the newcomers, I will 
repeat these specifications. 

Both the primary (LI) and the sec- 
ondary coil (L2) are wound on the same 
cardboard or bakelite tube. This tube 
is about three inches in diameter and 
four inches long. Coil (LI) consists of 
15 turns of No. 26 double silk covered 
wire, wound 1-2 inch from one end of the 
tube. The secondary coil (L2) contains 
about 60 turns of the same size wire 
and is started about 1-2 inch from the 
end of coil (L2). In other words, there 
is 1-2 inch space between (LI) and (L2). 
Lnder certain conditions, particularly 
with long aerials, it may be necessary to 
reduce slightly the number of turns on 
(L2), say by five to eight turns, in order 
to bring in stations on short wavelengths 
around the 200-meter mark. This is 
best determined experimentally at the 
time the set is built, owing to the great 
variation in the constants of commercial 
condensers and variometers. 

To avoid long wires, it is generally 
best to support the coil on the back of 
the condenser by means of short brass 
brackets which also serve as the con- 
nections (4-7) between the coil (L2) and 
condenser (CI). The jumper wire con- 
nection (3) may or may not be necessary, 
depending upon local conditions, but as 

a rule this is desirable, as it greatly 
reduces body capacity. The extreme 
outer turn (c) of coil (L2), the end far- 
thest away from the primary (LI) should 
be connected to the grid line (4-5), and 
it should be particularly noted that the 
"stator" or stationary plates of (CI) 
should be connected to (c), and also 
(4-5). If this is not done, then there is 
likely to be trouble with body capacity. 

Any standard variometer will work 
well in this circuit, but if possible, obtain 
a "plate variometer" especially designed 
to work in the plate circuit. This vario- 
meter has fewer turns of heavier wire 
than the "grid" type variometer. How- 
ever, both will give results if it is impossi- 
ble to obtain these distinctive windings. 
It wiil be well to keep the variometer 
well away from the tuning coil (L1-L2) 
so that there will be no coupling between 
the two units, and for the best results 
it is better to incline the coupler at a 
considerable angle so that the axis of the 
coupler does not coincide with the axis 
of the variometer stator. 

Condenser (CI) should be of the ver- 
nier type, capacity 0.0005 m. f. (23 
plates). This form of coupler is very 
sharp and a vernier arrangement of some 
kind is therefore highly desirable. For 
the tubes ordinarily used, the grid con- 
denser (CG) should be of the mica type 
with a capacity of 0.00025 mf. While a 
variable grid leak is the best, a 1.0 
megohm fixed leak will generally be very 
satisfactory. The bypass condenser 
(Kl) has a capacity of 0.002 mf. and is 
effective in reducing the impedance of 
the plate circuit, for the phones (PH) 
and the "B" battery both introduce a 
high resistance to the radio frequency 
currents in this circuit. The "B" battery 
voltage may range from 16 to 45 volts, 
but with the average tube it is likely that 
22.5 volts will be perfectly satisfactory. 

Picking the Tubes 

\ NY type of standard tube will give 
-^*- satisfactory results, ranging from 
the WD-12 to the UV-201A or the UV- 
200. The latter is somewhat more sen- 
sitive as a detector and will give good 
results on voltages not much exceeding 
22.5 volts. This tube is sharper and 
more critical than the hard tubes. The 
battery "A" depends upon the tube 
used. For the WD-12, a single 1.5 volt 
cell of dry battery is used. For the UV- 
199 we use three dry cells in series, giving 
a total of 4.5 volts, while for the UV-200 
and UV-201-A a six volt storage battery 
is best. 

It is best to leave the aerial and ground 
wires (1) and (2) connected temporarily 
until the set is completed and can be 
tuned in. Now connect the aerial (AN) 
and the ground connection (GND) to 
(a) and (b) alternately, until the best 
results are obtained. When this is deter- 
mined, the connection of the primary 
(LI) can be soldered in permanently. 
There is one connection that is best 
and experiments alone can determine 

As with all regenerative circuits, this 
circuit will re-radiate from the aerial if 
not carefully handled, but owing to the 
small ratio between the turns on coils 

The Magazine of the Hour 

(Ll) and (L2) this effect is not as bad as 
with the majority of circuits of this 
nature. It is nowhere near as bad as a 
single circuit tuner and is better than 
the majority of vario-coupler types 
having a greater number of turns on the 
primary. The looser the coupling be- 
tween (Ll) and (L2) the less trouble 
there will be from local "razzing" and 

Do not let your tube whistle or howl 
in tuning, and when you tune into a wave, 
tune in sharply. Don't get in on the 
fuzzy edge of a wave. Don't keep your 
tubes heated up to bright incandescence. 
If you obey these instructions, you will 
not cause much disturbance in the neigh- 

From those of our readers who have 
tried out this circuit from sketches mailed 
to them before this article was written, 
we have had remarkable reports on its 
selectivity and range. It is a simple, 
stable circuit without any gew-gaws, 
and should appeal to the beginner in 

Making Everybody Happy 
from WEAF 

( Continued from page 28) 

become familiar to millions of radio 
listeners in all parts of the country. It 
has covered the country quite thoroughly, 
for no less than eighteen stations were 
linked together with WEAF when he 
announced the conventions' proceedings. 
McNamee's abilities are not limited to 
handling political events. He is a baritone 
of no little distinction, having won the 
encomium of such renowned critics as 
Richard Aldrich, W. J. Henderson, Hen- 
ry T. Fink and others. In spite of the 
demands of WEAF's microphone, Mc- 
Namee still appears as soloist in some of 
New York's famous churches. 

Expanding Old New York 
/^iLD Broadway and Fifth Avenue have 
^— ' been much spoiled by celebrities, for 
Father Knickerbocker breeds 'em big. 
Before the advent of radio, New York 
had sole claim to these favorite sons and 
daughters, and Main Street and the 
rolling prairies and mountains beyond 
caught a glimpse of their greatness only 
through the Sunday newspapers or when 
they made a rare tour into the wilderness 
of the Great West. 

However, to WEAF is due the credit 
of pioneering in the field of radio and 
giving, in tones of sound, the privileges 
of becoming acquainted with the great. 
Thus, the Bowery of New York and the 
stockyards of Chicago were put on an 
equal plane. The greatest individuals 
of all time, including stars of the stage 
and lights of the political world, have 
been in the studio of WEAF 

The privilege of announcing these 
celebrities has fallen in a large degree to 
A. V. Llufrio, accompanist and an- 
nouncer. As announcer his voice has 
become familiar to millions, and as 
accompanist he has broken records, for 
he has accompanied more entertainers 
than any other individual in the country. 

Copyright. 1925. by Radio Age Inc. 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

The "99" Reflex Receiver 
with Two Stages 

( Continued from page 41) 

23 plate (0.0005 mf) size. It is far the 
best to buy the transformers (RFT-1) 
and (RFT-2) as the home made coils are 
seldom entirely satisfactory, and in the 
end they often prove even more expensive 
than the home wound units. 

For those who are determined to wind 
their own coils, however, I will say that 
they are wound on two tubes, an outer 
tube 3 " diameter and an inner tube 
2.5" diameter, either of cardboard or 
bakelite. The secondary coil consists of 
60 turns of No. 26 D. S. C. wound over 
the outer tube while the primary con- 
tains 12 turns of the same size wire wound 
at one end of the inner tube. The 
primary coil is so located that it lies just 
beyond the end of the secondary and so 
that there can be no capacity coupling 
between the two. For convenience, the 
transformers are attached to the backs 
of the variable condensers by brass 
brackets and are tilted up so that they 
are not magnetically coupled, say at an 
angle of about 60 degrees with the hori- 
zontal. Please note that the outer turn 
of the secondary coil on the end farthest 
from the primary goes to the grid of the 
tubes. Also note that the rotor (movable 
part of the condensers) go to the ( — A) 
line while the stators (stationary blades) 
are connected to the grid (G) circuits. 
At (L3) we have the tuned plate induc- 
tance which consists of a 50 turn honey- 
comb or 50 turn stagger wound coil, this 
being tuned by the 0.00035 mf vernier 
condenser (C3) which is of the same 
capacity as the other variable condensers. 
This comprises the tuning controls. 
All of the amplifying tubes (T1-T2-T3) 
are either of the 199 or 201A type operat- 
ing on a "B" battery voltage of 6 7 .5 to 
90 volts. The two element detector 
tube (DT) is shown in place of the crystal 
detector as it is more difficult to show this 
than the crystal. 

The negative ( — D) is connected to one 
side of the circuit while the plate is con- 
nected at (PP). The positive ( + D) 
goes straight to the detector battery 
(DB) without further connection to the 
circuit or rheostat. 

As the diode tubes are 1.5 volt tubes, 
it is best to use a single separate dry 
cell for this tube as shown at (DB). As 
this tube is not critical no rheostat need 
ordinarily be used although it is some- 
times desirable to cut down the flow of 
current with a fresh battery. When a 
crystal detector is used, connect it be- 
tween ( + D) and( — D), of course omitting 
the battery (DB). Either one or the 
other detector may be used with perfect 

The Audio Circuits 
TpUBE (T3) is the audio amplifying 
-*- tube connected to the first part of 
the circuit by the audio transformers 
(AT — 2). This forms a simple single 
stage of audio amplification, and to insure 
maximum volume, clarity, and mini- 
mum "B" battery current a 4.5 volt 
"C" battery marked (C2) is used. The 
( — ) pole of the battery goes to the grid 
post (G) of the tube socket. The first audio 

frequency transformer (AT — 1) is the reflex 
transformer used in the single tube "99" 
circuit and is connected in just as before. 
It will be well to examine the four 
markings shown at the ends of the pri- 
mary and secondary coils of these audio 
transformers so that no mistake will be 
made in connecting them up. The "C" 
battery (CI) is also a 4.5 volt battery 
used for biasing the radio frequency 
stages. A potentiometer (PO) of 200 
ohms is connected like a rheostat in the 
grid return to suppress oscillations. 

As all of the bypass fixed condensers 
(Kl, K2, K3, etc.) are marked with their 
capacity on the blueprints, it seems 
hardly necessary to describe them fur- 
ther, except to state that they should all 
be of the mica dielectric type. Various 
makes of transformers have different 
inductive values, but in general these 
fixed bypass condensers will work well 
with almost any type or make of audio 
transformer. The ratio of the audio 
transformers is not critical but two 5/1 
ratio transformers are probably the 
best. At least do not use a ratio higher 
than 6/1 for transformer (AT — 1). A 
higher ratio can be used at (AT — 2) 
with some increase in distortion. 

So sharp is the tuning of this circuit 
that some practice will be required before 
distant stations can be brought in. If 
the dials are not moved very slowly, 
point by point, you will surely skip over 
a "hot spot." Dial whirling will bring 
you nothing and in this respect the tun- 
ing greatly resembles that of a neutro- 
dyne. First, set all of the variable con- 
denser dials at (O), where the plates are 
fully out of engagement, and then move 
(CI) by one dial division. Next move 
(C2) by one division and then (C3). Now 
start at (CI) again and move this one 
more division, following by corresponding 
movements of (C2) and (C3). Keep 
this up until you strike a wave. After the 
stations are found they should be logged 
in a memorandum book with their wave- 
length and the dial settings that brought 
them in. With such a record it is then a 
simple matter to find any station in the 
list at any time. 

Crystal detectors should be carefully 
inspected and tested before installing 
them to be assured of their sensitivity. 
Carefully observe the polarity of the 
various connections. Polarity is of the 
greatest importance. 

Do not use WD-12 tubes for they are 
poor R. F. amplifiers. Keep the "B" 
battery voltage above 45 volts. The 
ordinary 22.5 volts used with regenera- 
tive outfits will not work. 

Tubes (Tl) and (T2) both being radio 
frequency amplifiers can be controlled 
by the single rheostat (Rl) as shown. 
In tnis respect it should be noted that this 
rheostat should only have half the resis- 
tance required for a single tube of the 
same type. Thus, if 199 tubes are used, 
which require a 40 ohm rheostat for a 
single tube, the resistance for two tubes 
should be 15 to 20 ohms. Two 201A's 
can be handled on a 7.5 ohm rheostat. 
The single rheostat (R2) controls only 
the audio stage tube (T3), hence this 
should be of nigher resistance than (R2). 
Probably 40 ohms for a 199 and 15 ohms 
for a 201A would be proper for (R2). 

Midget Reflex Notes 

\ GREAT number of letters have 
-^*- been received by RADIO AGE from 
those who have built or attempted to 
build the Midget Reflex published in 
the blueprint section of the November 
issue. For the benefit of those who have 
experienced difficulties I will give a 
little additional information which I 
trust will set them right. With a little 
care and attention to minor details, the 
Midget will perform very well, and in 
fact is now in production by a Chicago 
radio set manufacturer as one of the 
leaders in his line. It has been thor- 
oughly tested out in every particular, 
and for so simple a rig it has given very 
good all around results. 

Like all reflex circuits, the perform- 
ance of the Midget is largely dependent 
upon the characteristics of the audio 
transformer and particularly on the 
impedance values of the windings. 
(See Figs. 1-2 of October issue.) The 
variations among the different makes 
of transformers call for different values 
of the bypass condenser (K2), and in 
some cases the distributed capacity of 
the primary winding is so great that the 
condenser must be completely removed 
from its present position across the 
primary winding and then connected 
across the phones and "B" battery. 
The adjustment must be made for each 
different make and ratio of audio trans- 
former. This adjustment does not apply 
only to the Midget transformer — it 
applies to all reflex sets. Again, some 
good makes of audio transformers give 
excellent results on straight audio ampli- 
fication but are entirely unsuited for 

Out of a number of local Midget sets 
which I have serviced directly, I have 
found many errors in the connections; 
in fact this seems to be the major trouble. 
There is a decided tendency toward 
short circuiting the transformer primary 
by making connections to the wrong side 
of the fixed condenser (K2), the current 
in this case going straight through the 
crystal to the ground without affecting 
the audio transformer at all. This mis- 
take occurred in five cases examined ; 
hence I am of the opinion that it has 
happened in many sets that I have not 
been able to inspect. In shooting trouble 
for the local fans I have found five 
instances where the crystal detector 
(CD) was connected to post (PI) instead 
of to post (Bl) as it should have been, 
and with this error the transformer is of 
course perfectly useless. If your set 
functions best when the catwhisker is 
removed from the crystal, this may be 
one of the reasons. One side of the 
crystal detector must be connected to 
post (Bl) and not to post (PI). Look 
at your set and see that this connection 
is made properly. 

Two cases of error were corrected for 
readers who misunderstood the purpose 
of showing a part of the circuit in dotted 
lines (Fig. 2), they assuming that the 
dotted lines indicated that these wires 
could be used or omitted at pleasure. 
All lines whether solid or dotted must 
be used in the circuit. I showed certain 
(Turn to page 60) 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 




< ~^t>tf ottr leaders 

'pHE material appearing under the title 'Pickups and Hookups by Our Readers" in RADIO AGE, is 
■*• contributed by our readers. It is a department wherein our readers exchange views on various circuits 
and the construction and operation thereof. Many times our readers disagree on technical points, and 
it should be understood that RADIO AGE is not responsible for the views presented herein by con- 
tributors, but publishes the letters and drawings merely as a means of permitting the fans to know what 
the other fellow is doing and thinking. 

WE have noticed in the past few 
weeks a growing number of letters 
requesting information as to how 
one may become a Dial Twister, and 
what the requirements are in submitting 
contributions to the Pickups and Hook- 
ups pages. So insofar as this is the 
January number, and the proper time to 
make resolutions, we are going to set 
down a few rules for those uninitiated, 
with regard to membership and contribu- 
tions to these pages. 

First of all, anyone can be a member — 
makes no difference if you're twelve or 
forty, you are just as welcome to write 
in. When you write to this department, 
please make your communications as neat 
as possible (they really stand a much 
ibetter chance of being published), write 
,them in ink or on the typewriter, and do 
'it neatly on a piece of honest-to-goodness 
.correspondence paper. In the past year 
-we've had contributions that were written 
.on the back of shoe boxes, billheads, 
.calling cards and what not — with the 
result that they went into the bloody 
rettysnitch under our desk because they 
were not even worthy of consideration 
ibecause they were not neat. Reading the 
mail of the Pickups Section is no little 
job, and if it is made harder by poor 
.contributions, it is easy to see that your 
contribution won't stand half a chance 
against another that is more neatly pre- 
pared. So much for that. 

Now then what you write about. 
Whatever you do, make your subject an 
interesting one. A good humorous letter 
telling of a funny radio incident is always 
welcome, and quite a rarity. We are 
always partial to a good description of a 
circuit that has been giving especially 
good results. In describing circuits, make 
the description short, interesting and. 
meaty — don't waste a single sentence. 
Diagrams and specifications should ac- 
company. If they are neatly drawn in 
black ink, we'll publish them as you 
draw them. — if not, we redraw them as 
best we see fit. 

Good lists of stations heard are of 
course always welcome. We experience 
no little satisfaction when one of our 
number has done a creditable piece of 
DX (the set you use does not count). 
What we seek to compare is results — and 
we doubt if you can find a better place 
than the Pickups Section to do it. Sta- 
tion lists should be typewritten if possible, 
or else neatly and carefully printed. 
Hereafter, do not list stations under five 
hundred miles distant. Of course if you 
use a crystal set, and hear 300 or 400 
jriiles, by all means tell us about it — but 

Sharon Hill. Pa. 


Chicago, 111. 


Blueprint Editor 

Name Address City 

Richard Baldwin . . 122 East Rich St Columbus. Ohio 

Edgar A. Bare 1S19 N. 3rd 6t Harrisburg, Pa. 

Harold R. Bigelow 118 East 26th St Chicago. 111. 

H. T. Lovett 49 ^Wellington St Halifax. N. S., Can. 

Jas. S. Geyser 1005 Swiss vale Ave Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

Roger J. Kiekeuapp 532 W. Second St. Faribault. Minn. 

Joseph A. Sumner 18 Morton Ct New Bedford. Mass. 

C. N. Olson Saunders Alberta. Cau. 

R. H. Wakelee 870 E. 146 St Cleveland, Ohio 

Charles W. Switzer Box 646.. . Gananoque, Ont., Can. 

John Tomlin, Jr 303 Madison Ave Atlantic City. N. J. 

Ray Elzey 2582 Sullivant Ave Columbus. Ohio 

George S. Richardson 145 S. Julien St London, Ont., Can. 

Banton Cantozinn 1419 Sherman Ave : Evanston, 111. 

Warren F. Bowles SOS Buckingham I'l Chicago. 111. 

E. J. Skepper % Florsheim Shoo Co.. Adam.. Clinton < ( . : Je. e-son Sts. .Chicago, 111. 

William Rowe 35"K Florence Ave Highland Park. Mich. 

J. T. Marshall 286 Indiana Ave Providence, R. I. 

R. B. Jack 227 Bank St Ottawa. Ont.. Can. 

Paul M. Hannium 1424 Wesley Ave Columbus, Ohio 

. R. Rutten 420 N. Broadway Leavenworth, Kans. 

Felix Fredrickson R. 2 Delmar, la. 

Frank McDonald 530 Gaines St Davenport. la. 

E. A. Irelan Sharon Hill, Pa. 

O. S. Wallace 205 Lewis Bldg Montreal, Que., Can. 

Henry C. Reeee Apt. 17, 1419 Clifton N. W Washington, D. C. 

R. R. Carpenter R. D. 2 Wheeling. W. Va. 

Wm. Richardson 31 Ann St Pittston. Pa. 

Gilbert A. Slater 88 Linwood Ave Pawtucket, R. I. 

R. H. Craig 221 Brown St SaultSte. Marie, Out.. Can. 

Oscar Orneas. ... 3314 Montrose Ave Chicago. 111. 

I-eonard Woloz 6151 Madison Ave Scran ton. Pa. 

J. Tedola 1342 19th St Granite City, 111. 

Clifford Smith Barons, Alta., Can. 

John B. Aikens Grimsby, E. Ont., Can 

Harold Jones 7438 Dorchester Ave Chicago, 111. 

William Sibley Law Saxon Mill Spartanburg, S. C. 

James W. Dodd 3522 Wabash Ave.. Evanston Cincinnati, Ohio 

Joseph J. Weuniger 221 Mountain Ave Pen Argyle, Pa. 

Wilbur Reihard 30 N. Fulton St Columbus. Onio 

Henry Zimmerman 621 West St Kenosha, Wise. 

R. A. Roberts Patricia, Alberta, Can. 

Lawrence A. Brown 4625 Friendship Ave Pittsburgh, Pa. 

E. S. Parks. 4602 N. Western Ave Chicago, 111. 

Myron D. Keefe 30 Deaxing St Jamestown, N. Y. 

W. A, Northington Box 206 Pratt City, Ala. 

Ray Griffith 325 S. Grand Ave Lansing, Mich. 

Wil Latraverse 166 Davidson Montreal, P. Q-. Can. 

Irvin Age 514 E. G St Louisville, Ky. 

H. J. Donohue 2909 McCullo. k Ave Wheeling, W. Va. 

F. A. Webb Armdale, P. O Halifax, N. S-. Can. 

Henry F. Brunken 9663 Burnette Ave Detroit. Mich. 

Marvin Kriter 341 Bedford St Cumberland. Md. 

W. Worwood, Jr 1 Montcalm St., Bienville - Liese. P. Q.. Can. 

A. J. Kralorec 411 Somerville Ave Menominee, Mich. 

Robert S. Hull 136 E. Queen St Chambersburg, Pa. 

Case S. Vreeland 67 Union St Montclair, N. J. 

L. B. Wilker 616 Walker St MUwaukee, Wise, 

J. P. Lucier 6 Fulton St Menthuen, Mass. 

J. B. Leslie Forest Ave., Attleboro Sedona. Mass. 

Howard J. Wells 75 Avenue St Oshawa, Ont.. Can. 

Fulford Little Boi 174 Algonac, Mich. 

Leland J. Foster 535 Upham St Petaluma. Calif. 

Charles J. Kirk 3441 Island Ave Toledo. Ohio 

F. C. Butler 1275 Ethel Ave Lakewood, Ohio 

Charles Justice 433 S. 17th St Columbus. Ohio 

Edward Yerker Ochre and Clover Sts - Mt. Penn. Reading, Pa. 

Mauno Laine 546 40th St Brooklyn. N. Y. 

H. Madrich 63 Gordon Ave Verdun. P. Q.. Can. 

Alien Hannon Freemansburg. Pa. 

Leslie Craig 1721 Coy Ave Saskatoon. Sask., Can. 

F. B. Holt 17550 Riopele St Detroit, Mich. 

Howard F. Grabke 414S N. -Ashland Ave Chicago. HI. 

Preston Parson 442 Lindenwood Ave Akron. Ohio 

G. W. Martin 27 Archer Ave Buffalo, N. Y. 

Levier Kunkle.. 744 S. Webb Ave Alliance, Ohio 

Richard T. McCarthy 615 Graijd Ave Ames, la. 

Jo.^e ph Rettig 815 Linden Ave Logansport, Ind. 

George R. Milges 6200 Dorchester Ave a Chicago, III. 

Earl S. Dietsch 19 Verdun Ave Buffalo. N. Y. 

A. J. Berger 3927 Greenmount Ave Baltimore, Md. 

William M. Hiesler Hawthorne Reading. Pa. 

F. T. Tiener 3673 Lafayette Ave St. Louis. Mo. 

Kenneth Perry 410 Summit Ave South Orange, N. J. 

J. W. Metzger 1247 K St., S. E Washington, D. C. 

H. G. Brown 1106 North St Peoria, 111. 

James Kennedy 45 Alpine St., Rox Boston, Masa. 

Chester Dominy Route 1 Serena, 111. 

E. R. Hopkins 79 Sherwood Ave Toronto, Ont., Can. 

Irving Bradford Box 10, R.F.D. 1 Newport, N. J. 

Harry G. Owen 3201 Argyle St Chicago, 111. 

T. J. Kent % P. M. R, R. Co.. 13th and Timber Sts Chicago, 111. 

H. E. Wright 143 E. North Ave Baltimore, Md. 

H. E. Potter 1 Hayden St Binghamton, N. Y. 

Maurice Barrat R.R. 10 Logansport, Ind. 

Bille Broeker 509 Lecta Ave Fort Smith. Ark. 

Robert L. White 4663 Maplewood Ave Los Angeles. Calif. 

S. Stansfield 8035 Wilson Ave Detroit, Mich. 

Thoa. L. Kent E.X. 6 U.S.. 721 North Ave Waukegan, 111. 

Nolan F. Holt 390 E. 36th St Portland. Ore. 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

tube sets are not working right if they 
don't do at least 500 mile work with the 
present sending powers used — if you can't 
do any better, theTechnical Information 
service is the proper place for you to 
write. And remember in listing stations, 
it's quality that counts — not especially 

There has been a terrible lack of good 
photographs for these pages — and we are 
herewith dropping the hint that they are 
always viewed with special favor. Let's 
have a few. Gloss prints are necessary- — 
any photographer will make them, and 
good clear photos are almost a necessity. 
Of course we can retouch them, but if 
you save us the trouble in the first place 
so much the more chance of your con- 
tribution being available. 

Now then, if your contribution is 
really worth while, we'll print it. You'll 
have to leave that up to our judgment, 
since our experience in this line tells us 
just what one fan will like, and what 
another will rave about. However, if 
your contrib. does not make the "line" 
don't feel bad about It — it's appreciated 
just the same, and your name will be 
listed for reference when another fan 
wants to be QSO (in communication) 
with another fan who has had something 
to say on a certain subject. 

So as evidence of the fact that a fellow 
has done something along the lines men- 
tioned that was especially meritorious, 
and of constructive nature to the radio 
game, we have been giving out a little 
button. It signifies that the fellow wear- 
ing it is a real radio man — that he knows 
the game from a human angle — that he 
has experienced the taste in his mouth 
like unto a blacksmith's apron or the 
inside of a motorman's glove after listen- 
ing or experimenting for hours, or that 
he has had some experience with the game 
that was worth while mentioning. And 
believe us, we've seen fellows wearing 
that little button on their chests as one 
fan put it "With my chest sticking out 
two feet, I was so proud." 

The only real requirement that exists, 
is that you have to be a reader of RADIO 
AGE (not necessarily a subscriber), so 
now that we've got that off our hook, 
let's hear from you all — 

Don't be a Dead Spot! 


We've got a peach of a starter this 
month for you. A fellow by the name of 
Mr. A. E. Irelan, living at Sharon Hill, 
Pa., has turned out a circuit that he has 
found gives wonderful results. What 
makes us to call it wonderful is that he 
encloses a notation that on December 19 
(Tuesday); 1923, he tuned on on SPE 
Rio de Janerio, Brazil. The notation 
further says that while the programme 
was entirely foreign to him the call letters 
were very plain, and there was no doubt 
about their identity. 

Since that time, Mr. Irelan has tuned 
in two stations in England, one in Brazil, 
and several in Canada, Cuba, Hawaii, 
California, and Washington. We are 
printing his circuit in Figure 1, with the 
hope that it may be of interest to some 
of the other fans. In his letter to this 
department he says: 


Regarding Technical 
Information Service 

1FTER January 1, 1925, the Technical 
A Office of RADIO AGE will operate 
_/. A_ under the following rules: 

(1) Before writing, search your files of 
RADIO AGE, and you will without ques- 
tion find answers to your inquiries there. 

(2) Do not ask us to compare advertised 
products. Information of this nature should 
be obtained from the Buyers' Service De- 
partment of RADIO AGE. 

(3) Don't expect the Technical Office to 
devote its entire efforts to your questions 
by asking a great number of them — stick 
to the subject you are puzzled about, and 
don't put down everything you think of. 
Do not request information that requires a 
large amount of work; give the other fellow 
a chance. 

(4) Put questions in the following form: 
A — A standard business size stamped, 

self addressed envelope must be enclosed. 

B — Write with typewriter or ink, and 
on one side of the paper only. Number 
questions so we can refer you to them. 

C — Make diagrams on separate sheets, 
and fasten all correspondence together. 
Label your diagrams carefully. Failure to 
fasten your correspondence usually results 
in losing some part of your letter when the 
mail is sorted. Put your name and address 
on each sheet. 

D — Write orders for back numbers, sub- 
scriptions and the ANNUAL on separate 
sheets. You'll get an answer sooner if you 
take the time to write your questions on 
sheets separate from the orders. 

E — Keep a copy of your letter and 
diagrams so that we can refer you to them. 

F — Address all requests for information 
to RADIO AGE, Inc., Technical Office, 500 
North Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. 


As I am a great reader of your maga- 
zine, and take great interest in the new 
circuits you publish from time to time, 
I couldn't but help noticing that hookup 
of Mr. Chapman's in the November issue. 
I have a criticism to make of his circuit 
since he failed to indicate the use of .002 
condensers in the grid circuits of the 
audio tubes. I use only three tubes, and 
have wonderful results. 

Last week I had the pleasure to hear 
KDPT, KPO, and KGO on the loud 
speaker with good volume. At present 
I'm listening to KFPM as I am writing 
to you. 

I am at present working on the design 
of a new coil of the low loss type, and I 
have hopes that it will be still better than 
the first one. 

I hope that the enclosed matter will be 
of some value to readers of your unusual 
magazine, for which I wish the greatest 

Yours truly, 

Sharon Hill, Pa. 


Mr. Irelan's contrib is one of the 
reasons why we started this Dial Twister 
business. We can't but admire a fellow 
who is generous enough to pass out 
information of the type he does. Only 
too many of the fellows in this game are 
"dead spots" when it comes to helping 
out the other fellow. We hope that if 
any of the readers of the Pickups con- 
struct Mr. Irelan's set, they will let him 
hear from them. And the funny part of 
it is that Mr. Irelan isn't satisfied. Here 

he has to go and wind another coil — he 
thinks he can make it better. Judging 
from his list of stations heard, and the 
results he jots down, that is ' entirely 
unnecessary. Fine business, DT. 


Mr. Rathbun/ one of the members of 
our technical staff, probably better known 
as the "blueprint editor" asks me to 
correct an omission for him with regard 
to his super heterodyne receiver in the 
December number. Hence the following: 
Heterodyne Oscillator Coil 

By some error we omitted the detail 
sketch of the oscillator coil, Fig. 4, in our 
December blueprint series and for the 
information of many of our readers who 
have written to us on this subject we 
attach the following sketch. As will be 
seen from the cut, this oscillator is very 
small and compact and requires no ad- 
justment after installation. 

The windings are placed on two tubes 
which are held in a concentric position by 
means of small machine screws and 
washers. The outer tube carrying the 
plate and grid coils is 2.5 inches in 
diameter while the inner tube is 1.5 
inches diameter and carries the pickup 
coil by which the oscillations are im- 
pressed upon the grid circuit. All coils 
are wound with No. 26 D. S. C. wire. 

At the bottom on the outer tube is the 
plate coil which consists of 28 turns of 
wire. This coil is separated by 1-4 inch , 
from the grid coil above it, the grid coil 
containing 35 turns of the same size wire. 
Inside this tube is the pickup coil which 
is wound at a level with the space between 
the outer coils or midway between them. 
The pickup coil has only four turns. For 
those who wish to avoid the trouble of 
making this coil, it can be purchased 
ready made at many radio stores. 

We are printing a sketch of the coil in 
question in Figure 2, and hope to clear 
up some of the difficulty attached to its 
omission from the last issue of RADIO 


And now to get back to the Windy City 
again— Mr. H. F. Graebke of 4148 N. 
Ashland Ave., Chicago, Illinois, submits 
the circuit shown in Figure 3. His results 
are very unusual as his letter tells: 

First of all, let me put in a good word 
for your blueprint section; with instruc- 
tions like the ones you are printing, any 
dumbbell could make a radio set and not 
go wrong. 

I have tried the Baby Het (shown in 
the September issue), and have had 
very good results. However, I did 'not 
use the C (bias) battery, substituting -a 
grid leak and grid condenser in its place. 
After I made these changes, I got excel- 
lent results. 

I am submitting my list of DX stations 
heard (through the summer up to the 
present time) on a single circuit set with 
the addition of a variometer in the plate 
circuit. I find that a variometer con- 
nected in this way makes tuning much 
sharper, and gives a much better control 
of regeneration. I advise this circuit be 
used with a rather short antenna, and 
if my advice is followed, I am sure - 
listeners who build the circuit will find 
interference at a minimum as compared 
to the average single circuit set. 

By using a bedspring as an antenna, I 
have been able to get stations in the 1000 
mile range on a loudspeaker pretty fair, 
many of them while local stations were 
doing their darndest. Have heard KGO 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


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RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


This is the hook-up used in the long distance radio receiver constructed by A. E. Irelan, of Sharon 
Hill. It makes use of a unique tuning coil, which consists of a primary, secondary and tickler. The 
primary is "untuned," but its position in relation with the secondary can be varied by sliding it along 
the tube on which the secondary is wound. This feature, the designer states, adds greatly to the selectivity 
of the receiver. Attention is drawn to the unusual arrangement of the parts in the two stages of ampli- 
fication. Fixed condensers are used in the grid circuits of each of the amplifying tubes, while the primary 
and secondary coils of the transformers are connected in parallel. The use of high resistance leaks on 
each tube also should be of interest. 

Oakland, California, on horn 4 times out 
of 6 during the month of September. 
(Editor's Note: Mr. Graebke sent in a 
list of DX stations heard which certainly 
entitles him to a DT pin, but due to the 
length of the list we are not printing it. 
Excuse, please.) 

Maybe my list isn't as long as a lot of 
others you have printed, but local inter- 
ference in Chicago is one thing, and re- 
ceiving DX through it is another. And 
considering that most of these stations 
were heard while locals were going, I 
don't think it's half bad. 

Very truly yours, 
4148 N. Ashland Ave., 
Chicago, Illinois. 


Inasmuch as we are well acquainted 
(probably only too well) with Chicago 
interference we are in a position to admire 
Mr. Graebke's heavy hitting. We'll bet 
he's got his arm in a sling from twisting 


With this issue we are going to start 
a little "Strays" department. If the 
fellows like it we will keep it up each 
month. What we want to try to do is 
give every fellow who at least deserves 
acknowledgment a little comment pub- 
licly: SO 



Mr. Henry E. Wendleborn of 521 S. 
Gunnison St., Burlington, la., submits 


a very interesting list of stations heard. 
It's so long and has so many stations 
listed on it that we'll bet he's got radio 
rash on the ears, calloused fingers, and a 
stare on him (from lack of sleep) like a 
china doll. He knows a lot about single 
circuits. Some of you fellows drop him 
a line. 


Mr. W. J. Potter, 15 Auriol Rd., W 14, 
London, England, sends in an interesting 
contribution with regard to a comparison 
of our and English broadcasting systems. 
We regret we don't have space enough to 
print it — but hope that we may find an 
opening for it later. Thank you, Mr. 
Potter. It was very interesting. 


John T. Marshall, Jr. of 286 Indiana 
Ave., Providence, R. I., submits a circuit 
(very much like the One Control Go- 
Getter) which he says he will be glad to 
give to anyone writing him. We are 
sorry we can't print it — but would advise 
any of the bugs looking for improvements 
on the Go-Getter to write him. Come 
again, Johnny. 


Gilbert A. Slater of 88 Lin wood Ave., 
Pawtucket, R. I., says he did some inter- 
esting work with the 1 Tube Reflex and 
1 Tube Loop circuits printed in recent 
blueprints in the RADIO AGE, and is 
willing to pass the dope on if you'll write 
him. Wot say? 


Felix Fredrickson or Route 2, Delmar, 
la., has a circuit for those long wave 
British stations, and says he'll hand it 
out for the writing. 


George S. Richardson of 145 St. Julien 
St., London, Ontario, Can., and C. N. 
Olson of Saunders, Alta., Canada, are 
two Canadian bugs who sent in lists that 
would make you green with envy. 


John Tomlin of 303 Madison Ave., 
Atlantic City, N. J., a sixteen year old 
boy, sends in a list of stations which is 
certainly one of the best we have as yet 
ever seen. On November 28th, 1924, he 
tuned in fifty three stations in one 
stretch at the set. The list he submits 
comprises receptions all the way from 
KFI at California to 6FL, Sheffield, 
England, and then back to California 
with KHJ. In addition, he has heard 
(at other times) eleven stations on the 
Pacific coast, 6FL England, 2BD Scot- 
land, PTT Madird, Spain, VOX HAUS, 
Berlin, Germany, and Lyons, France. 
He uses a manufactured set. 


Warren F. Bowles of 808 Bucking- 
ham Place, Chi — KAgo, Banton Can- 
tozian of 1419 Sherman Ave., Evanston, 
111., Ray Elzey 2582 Sullivant Ave., 
Columbus, Ohio, and Henry C. Reece of 
Apt. 17, 1419 Clifton N. W, Washington, 
D. C. all send in exceptionally long DX 
lists. Our printer gets the heeby-jeebys 
when we give him long lists like that to 
set up, so we'll let him off easy this time. 


Mr. R. H. Craig of 221 Brown Street, 
Sault Ste. Marie, Ont., Canada, wants us 
to tell him what we think about his list 
of 102 stations heard in 19 days. The 
verdict is that we're only too glad to make 
you a DT, and what's more, not only 
admire your list of stations but the care- 
ful way in which you kept check on your 
listening time. 


If Julian Lopez will send in his address, 
we'll send him a button. His list makes 
him a Dial Twister, and there's a button 
waiting here for him. 


Harold R. Bigelow of 118 East 26th 
St., Chicago, 111., got an English station 
three times at different times with a three 
tube neutrodyne built after plans (of Mr. 
Rathbun) in a recent issue of RADIO 


Joseph A. Sumner of 18 Morton Ct., 
New Bedford, Mass., says the circuit of 
the November issue (the Low Loss Re- 
generator) is a peach. He sends in a list 
of DX stations to substantiate his claim" 


Jas S. Heyser of 1005 Swissvale Ave., 
Wilkinsburg, Pa., George R. Milges of 
6200 Dorchester Ave., Chi— KAgo, 111., 
Billie Broker, 509 Lecka Ave., Ft. Smith, 
Ark., A. J. Kralovec of, 411 Somerville 
Ave., Menominee, Mich., W. Worwood, 
Jr., 1 Montcalm Street, Bienville, Levis, 
P. Q., Canada, and Robert S. Shull, 136 
East Queen St., Chambersburg, Pa., all 
get DT buttons for long lists sent in. 


Mr. H. G. Brown, 1106 North St., 
Peoria, 111., challenges all one tube 
operators with a list of stations that in- 
cludes England, Porto Rico, Cuba, 
Canada, and 38 states, with a topnotcher 
of 58 stations heard in one night. Verifi- 
cations on all receptions. Sicc'em, Mr. 


Oscar Orneas of 3314 Montrose Ave., 
Chicago, 111., bemoans a tube gone west, 
and wants to caution us against letting 
the high voltage B battery lead slip 
against the A battery circuit wires. S'tu 
Bad. We know that four dollar feeling 


F. F. Feiner, of 3673 Lafayette Ave., 

St. Louis, Mo., says that you can use a 

stick of Dennison's Black Sealing Wax to 

fill holes in panels that are battle scarred. 

(Continued on page 54) 



fWtrtS "I 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour S3 

O?lbdulation plus ^generation 



- V 



— I Tonh on Loud Speaker 

Modulation Pi- -CModTl 
is the keynote of the "« 
L-2 Ultradyne R«L e ™ er tll ; s *ew 
era ,ion as app hed « Jh 
r*°Vea.« "ectSion than 
duces greater . J e tect on— 

a vital step "' ;» „ r „,l n ces Ire 
This combination P~^ ^ 

m endous ^-n,,, Allows the 
ceiving^weak signals. AU 

Ultradyne to "«£*" signa , s 

small amount «*«2& ot Smes 

^orlhefr-aetected and 

m t. ^Thomas, 509 Coppm 

^ rarest 


1Q24 1 tuned in on my 
dyne, the following stations. 
"wBZ Springfield. Mass. 
Newark, N- ■>• 
Schenectady- ■N- 1 - 
New York, N. y. 
Washington. U.^- 
New York, N. X. 
Philadelphia, ra. 
Pittsburgh, "a. 
Providence, R- »• 
Buffalo. N. I. 
-.-, Elgin, HI- 
WAAM Newark, N. J- 
WABM Saginaw, Mich* 
WIS AC Boston, Mass 

' Providence. K. i» 
Cincinnati. 0. 
St. Louis. Mo. 
Detroit. Mich. 
Des Moines, las 
Cleveland 0. 

Troy, N. Y- 
Jefferson City. Mo. 






w r n--» 





























Atlanta, Ga. 
Memphis. Tenn 
Davenport, la. 
Ft. Worth, Tex. 
WPlIi- New Jork, N- Y, 
-WO^W Omaha, Nebr. 
WFAA Dallas, Tex 

Cincinnati. t>. 
Hastings Nebr. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Charlotte, N. C. 
Milford, Kan- 
Shreveporl, If. 
Oakland, Calif. 
Grand Forks, N. D. 
Los Angeles, Calif. 
. Kansas City, Mo. 

remarkable as i « omp Hshed 

sidering it was ■» , j, but 

heretofore expenenced" uj ^ 

meters, and h. '^ him on the 
ful that 1 can ree " ve slage of 
loud speaker, with one g^ ^ 
audio, loud enough o h ^ 

block away; w"™> » ^ hen 

tenna. g™ un< * ° ,ir 1 can tunc 
WLW is on the an-, ^.^ 

him out « m P' e ,'; WHB and 
^B on 42 me p r ; ^H pwx 

^^.W on 400 meters, but 
S soJeUa, above that 

, jve - r .,„ other receiver 

»I know of no otner 

volume and distance. 


This application of regeneration 
is the most recent development 
of R. E. Lacault, E. E., A. M. I. 
R. E. since his perfection of the 
'•Modulation System" used ex- 
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This Model L-2 Ultradyne, with- 
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To protect the public, Mr. Lacault's 
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placed on all genuine Ultraformers. 
Ultraformers are guaranteed so long as 
this seal remains unbroken. 


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L-2 Ultradyne Receiver. 

V- &' 



3-9 Bcekman Street, New York City 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

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from Crystal to Radio Frequency circuits. 
Sent on receipt of ten cents. 

Bremer-Tully Mfg. Co. 

531 S. Canal St., Chicago 

Pickups and 

(Continued from page 52.) 
Try it. Shave the excess wax off with a 
razor blade. 


One of our California Twisters gives an 
interesting account of some super- 
heterodyne experiences. He also tells 
us about that "grand and glorious feel- 
ing" upon getting his DT button: 

Box 363, National City, Calif. 
Dear Editor: 

You can imagine my surprise when the 
mail man handed me a letter from 
'Radio Age." I was more surprised 
when upon opening the letter a Dial 
Twisters pin dropped out. This little 
pin has caused much comment among 
the fellows and I thank you very much 
for it. 

Another reason for writing this letter 
is to report upon the Super-Heterodyne 
receiver which I became the owner of 
last spring. I find that the best results 
are those obtained by the use of a wire 
twenty to thirty feet long. By the use 
of this small indoor aerial, I can tune 
in stations that are at right angles to the 
small internal loop. I have also tried 
the use of a larger loop and of a ground, 
separately; these increase the volume 
above that obtained when using the 
small loop, but they are not as good as 
the small indoor aerial for the set has 
to be turned in tuning when they are 

Besides being inexpensive in upkeep, 
this receiver is one of the easiest sets to 
tune as there are only two main controls, 
besides easy to control the set tunes very 
sharp as I have received the following 
stations one after another with absolutely 
no interference: KLZ, Denver, 283 M., 
KFRC, San Francisco, 280 M., and 
KFSG, Los Angeles, 278 M. 

I will close in saying that of all of the 
radio magazines on the market today I 
will take RADIO AGE every time. 
Respectfully yours, 

Lloyd Stove. 


We think that gives us some kind of an 
idea as to what a super-heterodyne can 
do under adverse conditions, and believe 
us, a lot of credit goes to Mr. Stove for 
breaking the ice. Honestly, we thought 
that owners of super-het were all "dead 
spots" when it came togivinginformation. 


We would like to suggest the following 
as the official greeting song of all Dial 
Twisters, giving of course all credit due 
Harry Giess of WQJ, Chi — KAgo. The 
tune is quite familiar to all those of you 
who have heard the Howdedo song 
Heh Heh. 

How Do you Do, Dial Twister 

How Do you Do? 

How Do You Do, Dial Twister 

How are you? 

Every morn' you're nearly dead, 

With the receivers on your head, 

Why don't you go to bed? 

How Do you Do? 


And thats all — there is no more. Wish- 
ing you a very Merry Radio New Year 
we'll sign off until February when you'll 
find us back of the blueprint pages jus' 
like ever before. Goo bye! 
* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

The Magazine of the Hour 

How to Make a Station 

( Continued from page 25) 
operating, but we are at a loss where 
to set the dials. Bring the Station 
Finder over, set it on top of the cab- 
inet of the set, and start the buzzer 
going. Referring to our chart we find 
that 500 meters would be at 77 on the 
Station Finder dial, and so we set the 
dial to that reading. Then we tune the 
receiver to the tune of the buzzer, until 
we hear it loudest. When that has been 
done, the buzzer may be turned off, and ' 
the final details of vernier touches can ' 
be put on the signal which should be 
there if there is any to be heard. And it 
will if your Station Finder is accurate and 
you have made your readings correctly. 

The same goes for regenerative sets — 
tune the set to the wavelength of the 
Station Finder which is set at the dial 
reading corresponding to the wavelength 
shown by the chart, and then turn your 
regeneration up slowly and carefully until 
it is just under the spillover point — and 
not over it. 

Other interesting experiments can be 
performed with the Station Finder — it 
can be used as a tuning circuit for a crystal 
receiver, it may be used as a wave trap, 
it may be used as a filter, to balance 
neutrodynes, as a check on coils to tell 
whether they are wound large enough or 
whether they are too small. In fact it is 
probably one of the most useful and 
desirable things you can have around the 

But probably best of all, it is almost a 
sure fire preventer of regenerative squeals, 
because it teaches you how to tune cor- 
rectly and do some real accurate and 
practical radio experimental work. 


Clip the coupon and send it 
with 50 cents, and the RADIO 
AGE ANNUAL FOR 1924 will 
be sent you by return mail. 


00 N. Dearborn St., Chicago. 

I N. 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 55 

Write today for your free copy of 

Ward's New Radio 



ARD'S Radio Catalogue is a big 68- 
page book — a real reference volume on 
quality Radio Equipment. In addition 
to descriptions of sets, parts and hook- 
ups, much matter of general interest to 
every radio fan is included. The book 
will prove fascinating to the confirmed 
radio enthusiast as well as to the be- 

Tested and guaranteed 
Radio equipment sold with- 
out the usual Radio profits 

WARD'S Radio, Department is head- 
ed by experts who know and test 
everything new. Who know by experience 
what is best — what gives the best service. 
Our catalogue is prepared under their 
supervision. It shows all the best hook- 
ups, everything in parts and complete sets 
— so simple that you yourself can install 
them in a short time. 

Headquarters for Radio 

Today Ward's is serving thousands upon 
thousands of Radio fans who have written 
for our catalogue, who have been surprised 
to see how low in price the standard Radio 
equipment can be sold without the usual 
"Radio Profits." 

You, too, can profit by writing for a free 
copy of Ward's Radio Catalogue. If in- 
terested at all in Radio, you should write 
for this book. See for yourself the savings. 

Our 53'Year'Old Policy 

For 53 years we have sold quality merchan- 
dise. We never sacrifice quality to make a 
low price. In buying Radio Equipment at 
Ward's, you are buying from a house of 
proven dependability. Address our house 
nearest you: Dept. 18-R. 

MontgomeigrWard &Ca 

The Oldest Mail Order House is Today the Most Progressive 

Chicago Kansas City St. Paul Portland, Ore. Oakland, Calif. Ft. Worth 


¥ Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

A constant factor 

in radio development 




are the registered 
Trade Marks for the 
Phenol Resin Products 
manufactured under 
patents owned by 



Radio design progresses rapidly — but radio's 
standard insulation continues to be Bakelite. 

For the further refinement of radio sets and parts, 
radio engineers rely upon Bakelite. Typical of 
many new Bakelite applications are the Musette 
Loud Speaker, the Paramount Loop and the Amsco 
Tube Mounting Panel. 

Of all insulating materials Bakelite alone com- 
bines the many characteristics vital to efficient 
radio reception. 
Write for Booklet "H." 

Send for our Radio Map 
The Bakelite Radio Map lists the call 
letters, wave length and location of every 
broadcasting station in the world. Enclose 
10 cents to cover the cost and we will send 
you this map. Address Map Department. 


247 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
Chicago Office: 636 West 2 2d Street 



Parts, Sets and Supplit 

We have a new plan which 
enables you to get Nationally^ 
Advertised Radio products di- 
rect by mail saving time, money 
and trouble. Big Opportunity for 
any Radio Fan to get what you want 
at an affordable price. 
Al I CpCC With the complete details of our plan 
nLL rl\fcfc we send you big Radio Catalog and 
five interesting and instructive books on Radio including 
Lor Book, hook-ups, etc. This is not a trial offer but 
the nooks are yours to keep without any charge whatever. 

Send No Money— Just Your Name 

and address plainly written, and everything will be sent 

postpaid. Writ« today before books are all gone. Dept.Pl 

ATWOOD KING, Inc., 163 W.Wasfetogton St.,CKicago 

Guaranteed Hadio Products 


Storage B 

' are renewed 
overnight at a 
cost of about 5c, instead of all new 
dry batteries. They save their cost 
in a short time. The Charge Indi- 
cators tell you at a glance the condition of 
the battery, without a hydrometer. They 
give full voltage without hum or buzz, and 
for clear reception are essential. Shipped 
dry, so the life starts only when electrolyte 
is added. Write for circular. Dealers: Our 
proposition is free from most impossible 
measures, it's easy to buy from us. For 
quick action wire or write. 

7016 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, O. 

The Magazine of the Hour 

The Modified Reinartz with 
Two Stages 

(Continued from page 27) 
"G" on the second socket and the post 
marked "F" on the transformer is con- 
nected to the negative side of the fila- 
ment battery circuit. Binding post "P" 
on the second or first stage socket is con- 
nected to the top spring on the second 
jack. The second spring from the top on 
this jack is connected to the post "P" on 
the second transformer, and the third 
spring from the top on this second jack 
is connected to the post marked "B posi- 
tive" on this second transformer, and the 
bottom spring as well as the bottom 
spring on the third jack is connected to 
the 90 volt positive plate battery binding 
post on the panel. 

Post "G" on this second transformer 
is connected to post "G" on the third 
socket and the post marked" — F" on this 
transformer is connected, like that of the 
first, to the negative side of the filament 
battery. The top spring on the third 
jack is connected to the post marked "P" 
on the third socket. The filament circuit 
is wired in the usual way, from the nega- 
tive filament battery post on the panel, 
to one side of each of the rheostats, the 
other rheostat terminals being connected 
to the filament binding posts on their 
respective sockets. The other filament 
binding posts on the sockets, according 
to the directions, have already been con- 
nected to the ground and to the positive 
binding post of the filament battery. 

There are several things to which the 
builder's attention should be called. One 
of these' is to make sure that the gridleak 
and condenser are mounted as close to 
the "G" binding post on the first socket 
as possible, as this shortens the grid leak 
and gives less chance for interference, 
such as howls and squeals. 

Some Final Cautions 

The next thing to be carefully watched 
is to be absolutely sure that the binding 
posts marked " — F" on both of the trans- 
formers are actually connected to the 
negative side of the filament battery. 
If by any chance they are connected to 
the positive side, then the amplifier will 
refuse to work and louder signals will be 
obtained in the detector jack than in 
either of the amplifier jacks. Care should 
also be used in replacing the storage bat- 
tery after charging to make sure that the 
wires are not reversed, as this will throw 
the negative on the wrong side and will 
give the grids of the amplifier tubes the 
wrong polarity. 

RADIO AGE will be on the air 
again with a brand new Jazz Carni- 
val from KYW's Congress Hotel 
Studio, at Midnight Saturday, Jan- 
uary 3. An all-star program! 


adds a musical quality to any setfar 
beyond anything you ever beard 

Amplifies low, middle and high 
tones — all to the same big Volume, 
thus elimaiHrrmK distortion. Brings 
out the visa!' harmonica and over- 
tones of mUHti. Price S7.00. Writ« 
Karas Electric Co., Dept. 58-99 4042 N.RocbwdJSl. Chicag« 

■¥ Tested and Approved bji RADIO AGE # 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hoi 


Take Good Care of Your Head- 

(Continued from page 14) 

2) The electromagnets and coils 
which are energized by the audio fre- 
quency currents and which actuate 
the diaphragm. 

3) The permanent magnet of con- 
stant polarity which exerts a pull on 
the diaphragm at all times and which 
places it under a constant stress or 

Current from the radio set is con- 
nected directly to the coils of the electro- 
magnets (2), and in passing through these 
magnets, the current causes a varying 
pull on the diaphragm which sets it into 
a state of vibration exactly proportional 
to the momentary strengths of the vary- 
ing current. As the current is exceed- 
ingly small, it is necessary to wind these 
coils with hundreds of turns of very fine 
wire so that the "ampereturns" will be 
sufficient to produce the desired degree 
of magnetization of the poles pieces. 
Owing to the great length of the wire 
and its small diameter, the resistance is 
quite high when compared with the 
resistance of the phones used with the 
ordinary wired telephone. A pair of 
phones in a double headset will have a 
resistance ranging from 2,000 to 6,000 
ohms, but it should be remembered that 
resistance alone is no index of the sen- 
sitivity. It is the number of turns that 
counts, not the resistance in ohms, 
although in exactly similar phones the 
resistance indicates the number of turns 
to some extent. 

The magnet coils are wound on iron 
cores which also form the poles of a power- 
ful permanent magnet (3). The stronger 
the permanent magnet, the more sen- 
sitive will be the phones, but the "gyp" 
phone makers gracefully shy off when 
questioned on this point, as effective 
permanent magnets are difficult and 
expensive to make. The permanent 
magnets exert a heavy continuous pull 
on the diaphragm, and in a manner of 
speaking, take out the "slack" and con- 
trol the vibration of the diaphragm. 
Current impulses which act in the same 
direction as the permanent magnets 
add to the deflection of the diaphragm, 
while impulses acting in the opposite 
direction partly neutralize the effect of 
the permanent magnet and cause the 
diaphragm to relax in proportion to the 
flow of current. 

At this point I wish to call attention 
to the necessity of the magnet holding 
its charge indefinitely without weakening, 
even when the phones are subjected to 
severe blows and falls which would quickly 
demagnetize a permanent magnet of 
poor construction. The steel used must 
be glass hard to properly retain the charge, 
must be of the proper grade of alloj 
steel or equivalent, and above all must 
be properly heat treated and hardened. 


ou can make 
it come in 

(y^HEFJTS a lot of satis- 
^-^ faction and enjoyment 
in perfect reception. Yet it does not come merely 
with having a good loud speaker. 

It's the work of Jefferson Transformers to pro- 
vide full, smooth amplification — furnish the loud 
speaker with the proper energy so as to assure 
the greatest volume consistent with purity of tone. 

Proper design prevents howling and distortion. 
You want more than noise from your loud 
speaker; that's why Jeffersons are made to a ratio 
which assures clarity. 

Even amplification over the entire musical 
range, perfect reproduction of the voice or instru- 
ment — these are some of the reasons why radio 
authorities and music lovers the world over are 
recognizing the superiority of Jefferson Trans- 

Designed by a concern with over 20 years ex- 
perience in the manufacture of high grade trans- 
formers of all descriptions. Jefferson Transform- 
ers meet matched construction specifications. 

Ask for our latest ]efferson circuits including 
full details for building the Jefferson Baby 
Qrand Superheterodyne (6 tubes). Write today 


438 South Green Street, Chicago 

^Manufacturers of 

Bell Ringing Transformers 
Sign LightingTransformers 
Automobile Ignition Coils 
Testing Instruments 
Jump Spark and Slake and 
I'.reak Ignition Coils 

Gas, Furnace and Oil 
Burner Transformers 
and Ignition Equipment 

Toy Transformers 

Low Voltage Auto 




Teste! and Approved hy RADIO AGE f- 


RADIO AGE for January, 1*925 

StationsYouNeverHeard Before 

thrti scientifk tube tuning 

The most important (and most neglected) tuning unit on your set is the tube. It is the one thing 1 
you can adjust to bring weak stations to audibility — to eliminate distortion on local programs. Coils 
and condensers are easily tuned to incoming waves, but wave-length isn't everything. The antenna 
gets distant broadcasters but their signals never reach the phones unless you tune the tube to the 
different characteristics of the weak, distant stations. Here are two instruments distinctly de- 
signed to improve reception through their ability to control tube action— FIL-KO-LEAK to tune the 
grid by securing correct grid bias — FIt-KO-STAT to tune the plate-filament circuit by its control of 
electronic flow. Together they assure you maximum audibility, clearer signals and freedom from 
oscillations and other tube noises. They bring in station! you never heard J>e fore. 

, Individually Calibrated^ $z!S 


/with Battery Switch °$2.9o° 

You will get stations you never heard before with 
Fil-KO-Leak. Clear up distortion and increase volume, 
^'ou can "log" your Fil-KO-Leak as you do your other 
tuning units. Each Fil-KO-Leak is individually hand 
calibrated over the operating range of all tubes J4 to 5 
fnegohms. Set it for specified resistance and adjust 
it for best results. Resistance read in megohms through 
.panel peep-hole. (Base-board mounting furnished.) 
Resistance element constant, accurate, not affected by 
atmospheric conditions, wear or jarring. Assures 
smooth, gradual control of resistance and corr ect grid 
.lias. Uncondition ally gu aranteed. 

Tune your tube filament with Fil-KO-Stat and receive 
stations you never heard before, get greater distance, 
louder signals, sharper tuning, freedom from tube 
noises. Fil-KO-Stat is the only rheostat that permits 
adjustment over the entire operating range of all tubes 
and enables you to get maximum audibility in phones 
or loud speaker. And now the improved model is fitted 
with battery switch that attaches to the regular mount- 
ing screws. l Distinctly signals "on" and "off" and 
enables you to'.lreak circuit without changing Fil-KO- 
Stat adjustment. Fil-KO-Stat fits any type tube in any 
hook up. Unconditionally guaranteed. 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 

A Pleasing Voice Isn't 

(Continued from page 31.) 
C^HPHE announcer, more than any other 

■*- entertainer of the p tiblic, must have 
an innate character, a very positive 
intelligence, and a friendly, understand- 
ing voice, which informs his large audi- 
ence as easily and frankly as one close 
personal friend would inform another. 
There was a time when a good speaking 
voice was considered the only requisite 
for announcement purposes, but in my 
opinion, that time is passing, and passing 
very rapidly. The executives of the big 
broadcasting companies today realize 
that imagination, character, and mental 
equipment are just as essential, if not 
more so, than good vocal equipment." 

Apart from radio, "Jacksy" has many 
hobbies, which include chemistry, physics, 
electricity, music, photography, philos- 
ophy, psychology, and theosophy. In 
April, 1924, he was asked to prepare his 
first program for the Canadian National 
Railways and at the last moment dis- 
covered there was no announcer. He 
took charge himself and made good. 

"How do you know you made good?" 
I asked him. 

"Because no one recognized my voice,' 
he replied, with a sly smile. 

Jackson's success can be attributed to 
the same thing that brought fame to 
George Hay, the "Solemn Old Judge" 
of WLS, and formerly with WMC, 
Memphis; to the same intangible some- 
thing to be found in the ethereal person- 
ality of Thomas A. Cowan, studio man- 
ager of Radio Broadcast Central, WJZ- 
WJY, New York City, and countless 
others whose voices are eagerly awaited 

All Mailto Depl. RAV25. Harrisburg 


New Improved jVKALU ALL 

^ Radio Masts/ 


J|\ \ Kedmont Mfg. Co. / JL\ \ 1251 Cornelia Ave, Chicago » 8 fl M.its 

*<%.,. \ At all Radio Stores * „ . SfS 

W Pan %■■■■■■■■■■■■■■»•■•, r»r ** 

1\4,:| Ol-rlai-c D r ° m Pfy fiUed ° n receipt of 
Mail tJraerS payment if your dealer cannot 
furnish. All masts shipped f. o. b. Chicago. 

Dealers and Jobbers — Write for Proposition 


We are exclusive Radio Jobbers and 

Complete line of Receiving Sets and 

Write jor Catalog'. 


6 N. Franklin St., Dept. 101 Chicago 

"Best Ever" is Verdict 
of KYW Fans 

Radio fans who heard RADIO AGE's 
jazz carnival from Station KYW Chicago, 
on Saturday, December 6, reported it was 
one of the "best programs ever heard 
from that station." 

Axel Christensen, Banks Kennedy, Art 
("Goofy") Linick, Elizabeth Berry, Wan- 
da Goll, George Jatho and the Banjo 
Boys, Meyers and Sokol, comprised the 
"all star" cast which started things at 
midnight and kept it up till nearly five 
o'clock Sunday morning. California's 
receiving the program unusually clear 
caused Announcer Borroff to extend the 
broadcasting hours considerably. 

Another program by the same popular 
artists will be on the air again Saturday, 
January 3. So don't go 'way! If you 
want something special, write your re- 
quest to RADIO AGE. 
Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 



st no iv! 
full of informa< 
tion and offers 

of all kinds of completi 


Parts and Accessories 

Only $21.95 for 1-tabi 

Kooo" milae. Only $53.78 
for 2-tubo outfit, receiver as- 
eemblud; often receivers over 
1.000 jnugaoil loud epeakci 

land. Thes 
thine Deed 

10° /„ off. 26 . 

subject to t 

; has received E 

aerial, etc. --every- 

d phones. Also. Crosley 

popular aeta away down. 

___ with US, for thia la "Tb« 

1 Friendly Service." All goods offered 

,> ,. _.„j and approval. No money in advance. 

Quick shipment. We pay transportation anywhere In U. B. 
G„,; a fnrrir\n. nr monen l-nfk Your ouestiona answered free. 
CM rYhS ' wSnd.™uT?«t"log - jounced it - write today I 
(Sad will yon be so kind aa to add tho oamsa of Beveral 
friends you. belleva will soon want radio Kooda ? Thank yoo I) 

ibertv Mai| ° rder House 

Dept. A-705 106 Liberty St., N. Y. C. 


Wholesale radio only. 

One of the first and still in the lead. 
Write for discounts.: 

IZ3 W. Madison St. Chicago 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


[ AGNATRON Radio Vacuum Tubes have been improved 
to that degree of excellence where you can no longer 
afford to be without them. It will take but one trial to 
prove to you that MAGNATRONS can put real "pep" in 
your set. 

Recent improvements in manufacture have made the 
MAGNATRON a superior radio frequency amplifier, a 
clearer detector, and a louder audio frequency amplifier. 
Ask your dealer today! He will recommend MAGNATRONS. 

Any Type 


Any Type 

309 ^fifth Avenue 
"•w York. Citt, 


Howard Standard Parts 

For Clear Reception 

Howard Rheostat With Dial Control 

Carrying capacity 1-5 amperes; beautiful ly&'m. dial with 100 
point markings covering full sweep of contact arm. *» ■* ] (\ 
Made in resistances of byi, 25, 40 and 60 ohms. Each «p A • AU 

Write for log sheet and further information on our full line 
of parts, including Rheostats of all kinds, Potentiometers, 
Positive Contact sockets, Grid and Bridging Condensers, Bind- 
ing Posts, Multi-Terminal Plugs, and Neutrodyne Receivers 

If your dealer cannot supply you with Howard Parts send remittance direct to us. 


451-469 East Ohio St. 

PANY, Inc. 

Chicago, 111. 

-¥ Tested and Approved by KADIO AGE ¥ 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

A5TubeTuned Radio Frequency Receiver 

made of the finest low loss materials and in a beautiful genuine solid mahog- 
any cabinet, that is attractive enough for the most pretentious room, and at 
sixty dollars, economical enough for the most modest. Users claim it is 

mm The Greatest Value Ever Offered 

*** in a Radio Receiving Set 

Combines all points essential to the perfect receiver. Real distance 
reception without that squealing and howling. So selective that once a 
station is picked up — it can be brought in again on the same points on 
the dials, whenever you want it. And what's more, 

All genuine Freshman Maslerpteee 
Sets have a serial number and trade* 
marb riveted on the sub-panel. The 
Receiver is not guaranteed if number 
has been removed or tampered with. 

It is Mighty Easy to Operate 

has-Freshman(p. Inc.,, 

m&Condense^Smduas IS 
106 SeventhAve.NcwYojk.USA 

Ask your dealer to in- 
stall one in your home 

Beware of Imitations and 


Try the Spider- Wound 


Paramount Loop rV.k.iSTK'.m. 

List Price 


(Patent Pending) 
Develops Greater 
Volume, Clarity, 
Directional Effect 
and Receivabilrty 
( Dealers and Jobber e 
Write To-day) 

A master product that, by virtue of its 
unique, scientific construction gathers and 
sends to the receiver, without customary 
absorption, every electron of current. 

"A Loop Eventually, Why Not the Best?" 

Send order to 


23 Central Ave. Newark, N. J. 


Correct spacing of first grade sili- 
con Bteel leaves in core carries 
away hieh flux _densities which 1 


efficient in all stages. Windingi 
absolutely accurate. 

The FLINT A. F. T. 
Better looking than any A. F. T. made and 
the finest built A. F. T. in the world. Only 
$3.00 each. If your dealer can't supply you, 
order direct. Mont;// back, guarantee, 
Dealers, write for particulars 

1824 Wilson Av., Chicago, Ml. 


Sells only Guaranteed 
Radio Apparatus. 

V Send for discounts. 

1 23 W. Mad i son St. Chicago 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

The Magazine of the Hour 

Some Notes on the Midget 

(Continued from page 48) 
of the wires dotted for the assistance 
of those who wished to simplify matters 
by grounding part of the circuit to a 
metal panel. It seems almost impossible 
that such mistakes could occur, but 
they have — and repeatedly. 

Now we come to the subject of free 
tube oscillations, the inherent difficulty 
with reflex circuits. With the tube in 
free oscillation, radio frequency ampli- 
fication is impossible. In this set, cor- 
rections can be made by adding a few 
turns to the primary coil (LI) thus re- 
ducing the radio frequency transforma- 
tion ratio and the oscillations at the 
same time. This ratio varies somewhat 
with different makes and ratios of the 
audio transformer (AT) and individual 
adjustment must be made in each case 
by adding turns to (LI). In extreme 
cases I have been forced to use as high 
as 25 turns on (LI) when highly in- 
ductive transformers were used. 

It must be understood that the nega- 
tive pole ( — ) of the "C" battery must be 
connected to the grid connection (G) 
of the tube socket. If the polarity is 
reversed the set will not operate at all. 
This is known as giving a "negative bias 
to the grid." Two cases of reversed 
polarity were discovered, two defective 
crystals, and a short circuited condenser 
(Kl) which was damaged by heat while 
the condenser was being soldered into 
circuit. When soldering, be very care- 
ful not to overheat the condensers. 

Of course we had our old soldering 
difficulties in evidence. In one set 
examined by the writer, there were only 
three wires actually soldered, the re- 
mainder simply being stuck together 
with the rosin soldering flux. The con- 
ductivity of such joints is zero. Use a 
hot soldering copper which has a clean 
and shining point well "tinned" with 
solder. A cool soldering iron will melt 
out the rosin flux but will not melt the 
metal solder, thus giving an impression 
that the joint is soldered when it is not. 
After soldering a joint shake it roughly 
by hand. If it is stuck only by the flux 
it will break off. If properly soldered 
it will withstand considerable abuse. 

When the set is in proper working 
order it will howl and shriek violently 
whenever the catwhisker is lifted from 
the crystal. As a rule, continued howl- 
ing is due to ,an imperfect crystal or to 
improper adjustment of the catwhisker. 
If the reception improves when the cat- 
whisker is lifted from the crystal then 
the detector is probably connected to 
the wrong side of (K2) as already de- 
scribed, the condenser (K2) may be short 
circuited by soldering, or the detector 
may be defective. Free oscillations in 
the tube will also cause similar effects. 


If you are interested in a, 
radio cabinet in which is 
combined both beauty and 
practicability, just write 


Dept. R 

73 West Van Buren St. 


Telephone, Harrison 3840 

The 'Magazine of the Hour 


RADIO AGE for January, 192S 

Keeping up With the French 
Radio Fan 

(Conlinurd from page 20) 
made to turn slowly when the knob is 
rotated. The purpose of the spring is to 
maintain a constant pressure of the 
grooved pulley on the bakelite disc. 

The vacuum tubes are of the three- 
electrode type. The prongs are slotted 
and are engaged into female parts. No 
error is possible in placing them as prongs 
and other parts are disposed in a special 
manner. This type of prongs is superior, 
electrically, to the American type. The 
contact is made on a large surface and 
practically no trouble is experienced from 
this mode of connection. 

A combined variable grid leak and 
variable condenser has just been intro- 
duced on the market. Such a combina- 
tion is valuable in getting the best out 
of any given tube. Special mention must 
also be made of a very good loud speaker 
of an artistic design. The diaphragm 
of the loud-speaking unit tramsits its 
vibration to a pleated parchment disc, 
giving very pure reproduction free from 
any metallic noise. 

The first radio sets were equipped 
with the lamps on top of the set; they 
were thus unprotected, resulting in 
breakage; and the glare was objection- 
able. The new models are of the "piano" 
type, a hinged cover protecting the 
lamps. The latest invention is a set 
which may be switched on 110 volts 
D. C. or A. C, eliminating storage 
battery or dry cells. 

ttiwKiiii»m»im)iuiimHiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiitiiiiiitiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiir>i!iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitini))t :[t!niiiiiHiiiiiiiiiitiifi»iwii!iiiiHfiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiittivnniiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiminit[Niiiiiiiiii:iiinnjnitiiiHtrimiiii 

The Fire 

Code requires that — 

Each lead-in wire shall be 
provided with an approved pro- 
tected device properly connected 
and located (inside or outside 
the building) as near as practic- 
able to the point where the wire 
enters the building. The pro- 
tector shall not be placed in the 
immediate vicinity of easily ignit- 
able stuff, or where exposed to 
inflammable gases or dust or 
Byings of combustible materials. 
The protective device shall be 
an approved lightning arrester 
which will operate at a potential 
of five hundred (500) volts or 

5 Buy a Jewell Arrester. 
(In brown porcelain case.) 
It has been passed or ap- 
proved by Underwriters. 

5 Send for Jewell Radio 
Instrument Catalog No. 

Order from Dealer «t£ 

Jewell Electrical Instrument Co* 

1650 Walnut St. - Chicago 

'25 Years Making Qood Instruments" 

MUSIC EVERYWHERE — Tra-la-la-la 

To bring happiness into the lives of millions is to have accom- 
plished a worthy purpose in this progressive era of Radio achievement. 

TOWER'S Scientifics are used by MILLIONS, being approved by 
all newspapers, magazines and technical laboratories wherever submitted. 

If year iohr cam** supply yon, order Unci h pan carl— ret will ship Immediately, Parol Past. C. O. D., plus postage. 

THE TOWER MFG. CORP., 98 Brookline Ave., Dept. T Boston, Mass 

l ll l l l lll l lliiiiii i i i i ii iiiiiM ii i i iiii i M. i ii i i i i i iiiiiii i ii ii i i i i i ii iii i niuu ii ii n i miM i j i i i ) i ii i ii i ui il i i i i ilM i l l l l Mlui ll lMMMni i n i lM II UIl l lM II NI I »MM» I K»hlMI I MKIIM I II I I I I[IIII I III I III II I I I I IMII I imilll l lllUimilimil l lllllll»' 

TOWER'S Scientific headsets are 
guaranteed to be made of the best 
materials money can buy, highest- 
test enamel, insulated magnet wire, 
best grade five-foot tinsel cord, un- 
breakable caps, polished aluminum 
cases, using the famous scientific 
headband constructed for 
maximum comfort 



¥ Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 





The, Magazine of Hie Hour 

Telmaco Acme Receiver 

The Ideal Receiver for all Seasons 

The Telmaco Acme 
Receiver is truly port- 
able. May be instantly 
removed from hand- 
some carrying case and 
inserted into beautiful 
two-tone mahogany 
case. No outside loop, 
no aerial, no ground 

Size of Case 8" x 10" 

x 18". Weighs only 

27 pounds complete. 

Easily Carried. 

Quality Radio 

Established 1918 

Acme 4'Tube Reflex Circuit Used 

securing selectivity, distance and volume 
with minimum battery consumption. 

Complete in itself. Easily carried from room to room in 
your home or to office, neighbors, etc. Take it along and 
have music, entertainment, speeches, news, market reports 
wherever you happen to be. 

Instantly ready for use as it is. You can use external antenna 
and ground, loop and loud speaker if desired. 4 tubes (fully 
protected by shock absorber sockets) — equal to 7 tubes, due 
to reflexing and use of crystal detector. 

12t?rtCf\Yirtl\l>\i T^vinori Write for Free illustrated circular fully 
RCaSOnaOiy 1 riCea d escri bi n g Telmaco Acme Receiver. 

Complete Telmaco 64 page catalog containing 20 circuits in blue and 
describing the best in radio sent postpaid for 10c. 

ist furnished to all bona fide dealers 
ing request on their business stationery. 

Radio Division 

J~°)f?sllf?Ye f Caralog and Price Li 
JLJ LUK. l 3 . making request on th 


20 South Wells Street 

Dept. C 

Chicago, Illinois 

Charger If 

Quality Radio Exclusivelu 

The Best and Lowest Priced 
on the Market 

This battery charger operates on 110 
volt, 60 cycle, A. C. circuit, charging a 6 
volt battery at a 2 ampere rate. Standard 
2 ampere charging tube is used. The T- 
100 is the lowest priced first-class charger 
on the market . Large numbers now in use 
have proved entirely satisfactory. No vi- 
brating parts to get out of order. Abso- 
lutely noiseless in operation. Furnished 
with plug and cord for lamp socket. 
Battery leads marked. Fuse protects 
charger from accidental short circuit of 
110 volt leads. Fully guaranteed. - 

Price complete, with 2 ampere 
tube, $12.00 
Radio Division 


20 So. Wells St. Dept. C Chicaeo. III. 


Because it's more than a transformer. 


A Laboratory Instrument at a Commercial Price 


Don't Accept a Substitute — 

Distributed by HUDSON-ROSS CO., and j£m 

Type 28SA Price $5 S. B. HARRIS CO., CHICAGO * 

Precise Manufacturing Corporation 


Order Your RADIO AGE ANNUAL for 1925 Now! 
$1.00 a Copy. 

¥ Tested and Approved by RADIO "AGE * 

A Really Efficient Portable 
Receiving Set 

( Continued from page 22) 
to remain. Then it's a case of reversing 
the primary connections of transformer 
"B" or "C". As a rule, the best way is 
to wire up the audio transformers ac- 
cording to the manufacturers' markings. 
This usually places the outside end of 
the secondary on the grid, its inside or 
"beginning" on the negative filament; 
the outside or "end" of the primary 
winding to the plate and its inside or 
"beginning" to the"B" battery positive. 
Ordinary bell or annunciator wire is 
most conveniently used to make the 
connections and it is then very easy to 
"swap" the primary connections. The 
difference in operation is due to the 
opposition of the primary coils when 
they are properly reversed and audio 
oscillation is thereby stopped. There 
is also a difference in the radio frequency 
results, which should not be treated tWl 
the audio howling has been eliminated. 
The change in R. F. amplification is due 
to a difference in capacity between the 
primary or secondary winding of the 
R. F. transformer and the filament side 
of the audio transformers, this difference 
being caused by the reversal of the 
primary connections. If a certain prim- 
ary reversal stops the howling but de- 
creases signal volume, especially on a 
DX station, it is merely necessary to 
use a larger size by-pass condenser at 
C-2 or C-3. 

R. F. Transformers 

The radio frequency transformers are 
to be connected exactly as their makers 
recommend, except, of course, that in- 
stead of a connection directly to the 
positive "B" battery, this is made 
through the audio transformer's primary 
and similarly the negative filament 
connection is through the secondary of 
the audio transformer. 

Inverse duplexing was tried also, but 
inasmuch as more difficulty was met in 
quieting the howling at audio frequencies, 
the straight reflex was finally selected. 

If the speaker is placed in front or 
turned aside, such trouble usually ceases 
and it is not encountered at all when 
the portable set is made up with the horn 
exposed and tubes concealed or shielded 
from air vibration by the panel. The 
lay-out illustrated operates very well 
on the cigar box loop, distant stations 
in Canada, Chicago, and other points 
being heard with good volume on the 
loud speaker in the writer's New Jersey 
location. The builder of the portable 
set would doubtless employ a larger loop 
than this and results with a larger loop 
are very much better. The sharp direc- 
tional effect of the cigar box loop is sur- 
prising in its effective elimination of a 
loud local station and the interception 
of some faint DX fellow when their 
directions are at right angles to each 

The final installation of the portable 
is in a suit-case measuring about 10 by 
16 inches, including speaker, batteries, 
set and a spiral loop wound on hard rubber 
rods and mounted in the cover of the 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 



for Low Loss 

\yiUCH is being said about the necessity 
*■**■ of good parts, especially of condensers. 
Inductances are likewise of extreme import- 
ance for efficiency . 
Pfanstiehl Pure-In- 
ductances are good 

^ 1 . Air-cored means 
no absorption of sig- 
nal strength; 

2. Stagger wound 
means no appreciable 
distributed capacity. 

3. Vernier control 
of adjustment means 
distance getting. 

Variometer, P-301 

"THE Pfanstiehl Variometer with two 50 
1 tjurn untapped coils as a variometer with 
$4.75 at your dealer's. 

"THE Pfanstiehl Variocoupler P-300 is an- 
1 other efficient unit. Using this unit in our 
"efficiency hookup" 
furnished with unit 
a Wisconsin radio fan 
picked up Hawaii! 
Let us suggest that 
you improve your 
favorite circuit with 
this variocoupler. 
$ vOO at your dealer's. 
THE new Pfanstiehl 
1 "Three-Circuit" 
Tuning Unit. P-302, 
solvesthe problems of 
radiation and selec- 
tivity in the regener- 
Pfanstiehl Vario- ative circuit. $5.00 
couoler, P-300 at your dealer's. 

Other Pfanstiehl Pure Inductances are: 



P-201 25 

P-202 35 

P-203 50 .65 

P-204 75 .74 

P-205 100 .90 

P-206 150 1.10 

Pfanstiehl Ultra Audion $0.95 

Pfanstiehl Reinartz $1.75 

470 1980 


""HE P-600 Pfan- 
L stiehl Oscillator 
for super-heterodynes 
oscillates sharply and 
steadily and improves 
the hookup. For any 
intermediate trans- 
formers (2,000—10,- 
000 meters.) $6.00 
3t your dealer's. 

Oscillator, P-600 



Highland Park - Illinois 

Chicago Office 

1001 W. Washington Boulevard 

Tel. Haymarket 8010 

' ' The Hidden Voice : ' ' An 
Unusual Radio Story 

( Continued from page 30) 
impatiently. "The concert is probably 
corning out of the carriage now. If I 
can get on the'air right away, before the 
kidnapper gets wind of the radio set in 
the baby carriage, we can scare the man 
or woman who's adbucted the kid and 
maybe upset his plans. Is that clear?" 

A Dramatic Moment 

TTORNADAY had a sense of humor 
-*--*- and he appreciated the possibilities 
of Jim's plan. He wanted to know if 
Jim was sure the set was tuned to Station 

W ; and he was in turn reassured 

that the tubes were turned on full volume 
for W and nobody else. 

Larry ran into the operating room. 

" Stop everything ! " he whispered 
hoarsely. The operator, amazed but 
sensible enough to obey orders, cut off 
the switch as a local prima donna was 
about to begin the first verse of her 
latest "masterpiece." 

Then Larry ran into the studio, ex- 
plained matters hurriedly, and motioned 
to Jimmie to seat himself before the 
microphone and "do his stuff. " The 
surprised artists reluctantly took seats 
in the corners of the studio, wondering 
what was about to happen. 

"Go to it, Jim," Larry finally said. 
"If this will help, it'll be a tremendous 
boost to the station. Ready? All right. 

Tense, and, only slightly nervous, Jim 
faced the "vieled lady." Gathering 
his wits and assembling his practiced 
speech coherently, he began speaking in 
a steady though imperative tone: 

"Help, help, help! I'm being kid- 
napped. The person who is pushing this 
carriage kidnapped me. Help! The 
police are looking for me. Help! ! Take 
me back to my mamma! I want my 

Chapter II 

"The Baby's 'Stomach' " 

J3EOPLE did wonder very much at the 
■*- sounds they heard coming from baby 
Edward's carriage as they passed it on 
the street. They gazed with astonish- 
ment, first at the sweet face of the infant, 
then at the plainly dressed, hard-featured 
woman behind. 

The latter, Julia Murray, was not a 
professional baby snatcher. She had a 
record of shop-lifting and other forms 
of petty theft, which had not proved as 
lucrative as her growing greed demanded, 
and this crime was a new venture on her 
part. She had a friend who would help 
her, and together they might make a 
considerable "haul." So on she walked, 
shaping her plans as she went, when 
suddenly there came a sound, that of a 
human voice, from the carriage that 
sent violent chills through her frame. 

"Help, help, help! I'm being kid- 
napped. The person who is pushing this 
carriage kidnapped me. Help! The 
police are looking for me. Help! Take 
me back to my mamma! I want my 
mamma ! " 

(Continued on page 65) 
¥ Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

Biggest dollars 
worth in 


Compiled by HARRY F. DART, E.E. 

Formerly with the Western Electric Co., x*> 

U. S. Army Instructor of Radio 

Technically edited by F. II. D0ANE 

514 PAGES 

THE most complete book of its kind 
ever published. Written, compiled 
and edited by practical radio experts 
of national reputation. Packed with 
concise, sound information useful to 
every radio fan — from beginner to 
veteran hard-boiled owl. Hundreds 
of illustrations and diagrams to make 
every point clear. Note this partial 
list of contents: 

Electrical terms and circuits, an- 
tennas, batteries, generators and 
motors, electron (vacuum) tubes, 
every receiving hook-up, radio and 
audio frequency amplification, 
broadcast and commercial trans- 
mitters and receivers, wave meters, 
super-regeneration, codes, license 
rules. Many other features. 

Send $1 today and get this 514-page I.C.S. 
Radio Handbook before you spend another 
cent on parts. Money back if not satisfied. 

Mail the coupon Today 


Bos S782-C, Scranton, Penna. 
I enclose One Dollar. Please send me — post-paid 
— the 514-page I. CVS. Radio Handbook. It is 
understood that if I am not entirely satisfied I may 
return this book within Ave days and you will refund 
my money. 

Address i"*li" 

Chech here Q and enclose $1.50 if you wish the 

de luxe edition, bound in Leatheroid. 



by using our super-sensitive 

Oatani- Directional Aerial 

Collapsible, Ornamental, 

Mechanically Perfect 

Can be used either as a loop 
orantennae insideor outside. 

A wonderful value featured at a 
price within the range of all. 
Ask. your dealer or send order direct 

ThePortable Globe AerialCo. 
1602 Locust Dept.23 St. Louis 


RADIO AGE for January, 1025 

The Magazine of the Hour 

To Each 

World Battery 

A24- Volt **B" Storage Batterypositively given 
FREE with each purchase of a WORLD "A" 
Storage Battery. The WORLD Battery is fa- 
mous for its guaranteed quality and service. Backed 
by years of Successful Manufacture and Thousands of 
Satisfied Users. You save 60%. 

Prices That Save and Satisfy 
Auto Batteries Radio Batteries 

€»Volt, 1 1 Plate $12.25 

A.i/nif nni n(fl •/■ ?e 6-Volt, lOOAmps. 12.50 

©-Volt, 13 Plate 14.25 6-Voit! 120Amps. 14.50 

32-Volt, 7 Plate 17.00 6-Volt, 140 Amps. 16.00 

Shipment Express C. O, D. subject to examination. 

6 per cent discount for cash in full with order. 

2-Yr. Guarantee Bond in Writing 
With Each World Storage Battery 

proves satisfactory World performance. Mall this ad with 
your name and address — we will ship battery day order Is re- 
ceived; and ffive you your choice ot" 'B" Storage Battery or a 
handsome nlckle finish Auto Spotllte, FREE. Write TODAY. 

1219 So. Wabash Ave. Oept. 36. CHICAGO, ILL. 
This FREE "B" Storage Battery takes the place of dry cell 
"B" batteries. Can be recharged and will last iDdefinltelv. 
To be sold retail f or $6.00. It h the only battery of its bind 
equipped with solid rubber case — and Insurance against acid 
and leakage. Take advantage of this remarbahlo Introductory 
offer NOW. (To those who prefer It, we will send FREE a 
banda-irae nickel finish Auto P^otlite. instead of the B' Bat- 
tery. Be sure to specify which i3 wanted.) 



To introduce 

thla new ad 
' : World 

Here s the Newest! 

95% AIR 




|\^The Henninger 




I Postpaid 

Here is the greatest, most important 
advancement in Tuner and tuned R. F. 
Transformer construction ever made, 
Think of it! A rigid self-supporting 
Tuner and tuned R. F. Transformer hav- 
ing93% air dielectric, and with no dope 
ob the windinjrs. The Aero-Coil actually uses and amplifies 
hundreds of times, the energy lost by "doped" coils or coils 
wound on tubing. 

Replace your old coils with Aero-Coils. Yon will get enormous 
volume on distant stations; reception will be crystal clear— your 
set will tune "needle" sharp. You will be amazed at the differ- 
ence. Primary 6 1-4 turns: secondary 60 turns; beautifully made. 
Go to your dealer now ana get a Bet of Aero-Coils. If be hasn't 
them yet t send ub the purchase price with your, dealer's name 
and we will send the coils and brackets postpaid at once. 33.60 
each or 510.50 set of three. Also write for bulletin H-8 "Radio 
Freauency Losses and their Prevention"— It's FREE I 


1772 Wilson Ave., Dept 13. Chicago 


Attractive Proposition. 


buy from 


123 W. Madison St. Chicago 

Send for dealers discount. 



r c >"'"tH 




signed by R. E. Lacault, E. E., A. M. I. 
R. E., inventor of the famous Ultradyne 
Receiver. It is manufactured by the 
Hammarlung Mfg. Co. and produced only 
for the Phenix Radio Corporation, who 
will furnish any information concerning 
it, upon request. 

Timmons Talker Wins Fans 

If you haven't heard the Timmons 
Talker, made by the Timmons Radio 
Products Corporation, Philadelphia, you 
you don't know how pure radio reception 
can be. 

The Timmons Talkers are made in two 

Stewart C. Whitman Has New 

Radio fans everywhere will be inter- 
ested in the latest creation of the Para- 
mount Radio Corporation, 23 Central 
Ave., Newark, N. J. — the Paramount 
loop — a radically new type of antenna 
that gives promise of gaining great pop- 
ularity among radio enthusiasts gener- 

The Paramount loop is spider-web 
wound with silk over phospher-bronze 
wire and mounted on a bakelite frame, 
extremely low in dielectric losses. And, 
standing but fifteen inches in height, 
this unique loop' affords exceptional 
directional effect, a qualification with no 
mean advantages. 

By virtue of its scientific construction, 
a greater volume, receivability and 
clarity of tone is assured for this new in- 
door antenna by its manufacturers. 

Mr. Whitman, inventor of the Para- 
mount loop, is both President and Engi- 
neer of the Paramount Radio Corpora- 
tion. This is by no means his first crea- 
tion in the electrical field, as he is also the 
originator of a "B" Battery Eliminator 
soon to be placed on the market, and 
of other radio and high frequency 

No Fishing with Ultra-Vernier 
A notable stride forward in the simpli- 
fication of tuning in, which will be wel- 
comed by fans who prefer a concert to 
fishing for stations, is announced in the 
Ultra-Vernier, a vernier tuning control 
with hair-splitting adjustment, which 
practically allows you to forget there is 
such a thing as wavelength. Once you 
have located a station with the Ultra- 
Vernier, you can forever after get it in- 

The Ultra- Vernier, w-hich fits all stan- 
dard condenser shafts and may easily be 
made to replace old dials, has a beauti- 
fully silvered disk. On this you pencil- 
record a station you have found and like. 
Thereafter, whenever you wish to hear 
it again, you simply turn the station 
finder, with its gauge for your pencil 
markings, to that particular pencil-mark. 
Without having had to fumble, you in- 
stantly hear the station you want, and 
you may be sure it is that station without 
waiting for the announcer to tell you so. 
This ingenious tuning control was de- 
* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE ¥ 

types; the Type "A" adjustable loud- 
speaker, for $35, and the Type "N" Non- 
adjustable speaker, for $18.- The reflect- 
ing horn on the Timmons Talkers em- 
bodies the latest theory of accoustics, 
and the adjusting knob has threads finer 
than those on watch-cases, permitting 
unusually delicate adjustment. The dia- 
phragm is 3 1-8 inches in diameter and will 
handle the volume of any set. The back 
is removable for the placing of A or B 
batteries around the reflecting horn. 

The Timmons Corporation is also 
marketing a B-Battery Eliminator, which 
gives accurate control of the plate vol- 
tages of all tubes. They are constantly 
gaining favor with the country's radio 
fans, as are other Timmons products. 

New "Perfect Contact" Socket 

Announcement is made by The Cutler- 
Hammer Mfg. Company of Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin, that they have recently put 
on the market a new and distinctly de- 

signed socket which provides a perfect 
contact for radio reception. It is the 
result of many months of experiment and 
research and contains features not found 
in any other type. 

The tube is simply pushed down — not 
twisted — into the socket, thereby pre- 
venting any chance of severing the bond 
between glass and base of tube. 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

(Continued from page 63) 

''Help, help, help!" called the voice 
"I'm being kidnapped. The person who 
is pushing this carriage kidnapped me. 
Help! Take me back to mamma. I 
want my mamma." 

It was awesome enough to make many 
women unstrung. But Julia was not of 
that nature. Nevertheless, she was non- 
plused. She stopped and looked at 
the baby, who ceased to bite at his 
zwieback long enough to utter a string 
of self-satified "coos." 

What could it mean? Had her ears 
deceived her? With nervous hope that 
she was the victim of an illusion, or 
that the cry, whatever it was, would 
not be repeated, she stepped back to 
the push-handle again. 

But her hope was vain. Half a minute 
later the cry for help came once more 
from the pillows and quilts, this time 
more vigorously. 

"Help, help, murder! I'm being kid- 
napped. My kidnapper is going to kill 
me. Rescue me. Take me back to mam- 

What Can It Mean ? 

This time a well dressed, middle aged 
woman approached near enough to hear 
most, if not all, of "the infant's" plea. 
She looked as if she was going to faint 
or scream as she passed, but she did 

The cries for help continued at fre- 
quent intervals from the carriage, and 
the woman pushed along as rapidly as 
she could without breaking into a run. 
If she had dared, she would have aban- 
doned the child on the street and thus 
escaped the ever increasing embarrass- 
ment and danger, but there were too 
many persons passing for her to resort 
to such move. She turned several cor- 
ners in the hope of finding less frequented 
avenues, but with poor success. 

"Help!" "Murder!" "Police!" "Kid- 
nappers." "Thieves," were some of the 
cries and words that seemed to pour 
almost continuously from the infant's 
lungs, while passers-by stared and shied 
at her and the babe as if in doubt whether 
to flee as from a ghost or put in a call for 
psychopathic ambulance. Finally Julia 
broke into a run and virtually flew down 
the sidewalk, pushing the carriage. 
(To be concluded in Februarv 

The Magazine of the Hour 


Arthur B. McCullah, who created 
a sensation at the Chicago radio 
show, and who has been a keen 
student of the latest in super-heter- 
odynes, will present a new article 
giving all the latest developments 
of the popular "super" in the Feb- 
ruary RADIO AGE. Watch the 
next issue for this up-to-the-minute 

Marshall Ra *Recei?erf cy 

Embodying a marvelous New 

Non-Oscillating Principle 

Sold Direct on Free Trial and Ea»y Terms 

Write for catalog and Special Offer 

Marshall Radio Products, Inc. 

Dept. 58-91 Marshall Blvd.&19thSt., Chicago 




In justice to yourself you should examine the American 
Brand Condenser with the 100 to 1 Worm Drive Vernier 
before you finally decide which condenser you will put 
into your set. 

You will be agreeably surprised by its sturdy build — by its 
wonderful fine tuning possibilities — by its remarkable elec- 
trical qualities. Here is a real low loss condenser that we 
guarantee to improve any set. Let your dealer show it 
to you. 

Note to Dealers: Your jobber is now able to 
furnish you with American Brand Condensers. 

American Brand Corporation 

8 West Park St., Newark, N. J. 

same layout, fewer parts. Our $5.00 Kit includes 
the one different part, 22 feet real gold sheathed wire, 
lithographed print of Kladag Coast to Coast Circuit, 
^nd Complete, simple instructions. Nothing else 
to buy. Gives selectivity with deep, resonant vol- 
ume. Not obta-nable elsewhere. We originated this 
and can Dame scores of buyers it has delighted. 
Sat : sfaction guaranteed. Details, 10c. Kit prepaid 
anywhere, $5.00. New 48-page catalog, thousands 
of items, many exclusive, for stamp. We accept 
postage stamps same as cash. KLADAG RADIO 


-]]\avk^you ~-^ 

~_. £«/* c.«- . 

• YOUR OWN Name and Address 
I Printed Free on Thank You Cards 
JHear what YOU like. Stations are 
flglad to put on numbers at your 

, Ret ATTENTION. All the RAGE. 

;i"ar.-!3 (Printing FREE) 100 — only 
t9§l-35; 200—51.85; 300— 52.35. plua 
Ijtfew cents postage. OrderTODAY. 


Quality cards. Hi^heradeiirintinfi. 
money— just vav pastxaan whin you get cards. OrderNOWl 

RADIO PRINTERS. 2021 Main St., Mendota. HI. 

Have you seen RADIO AGE'S hol- 
iday subscription offer on page 80, 
this issue? 

• Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 




Satisfaction Guaranteed 

$5.00 Transformers - $1.50 
More than $5.00 - - $2.50 

Send No Money 


1404 Vz Spy Run Ave. 


Famous for Quality and Service 

lAmplitron Tubes §A 

'Bonded to Give Service, List Price^f 

Send in your old and burnt out Tabes— We will 

send you new AMPLITRON-any model at S2.50. 

Dealers and Jobbers— Write for Discounts 

Pennant Radio Laboratories 

Dept. RA. 23 Central Ave., Newark, N. J. 


RADIO AGE for January, V)*. 

The Magazine of the Hour 

ykriMe Condenser 


(Practically no Loss) A FACT 

N:w distances — new thrills are yours with 
D. X. L. Straight-line Low Loss Condensers. 
For Low Loss is a definite fact. 
Your set will give its absolute maximum. 
D. X. L. Condensers are manufactured with 
infinite precision upon the exclusive D. X. 
L. design. 

With the D. X. L. Condenser, radio recep- 
tion approaches perfection. Designed for 
all supersensitive sets. Fully guaranteed. 
Buy from your dealer or from factory direct. 
List Prices 

11 Plato S4-00 

17 Plate *- 2 = 

23 Plate 4 - 5 ° 

43 Plate • : • • .-?0° 

Set Manufacturers Distributors 

Our special inanufactur- Sales agencies wanted to 
, v .„ . , develop distribution in 

ers proposition willinter- ,ertain territories D. X. 
est you. D. X. L. Con- L _ offers an unusual 
densers will increase the merchandising proposi- 
merit of your product. tion. Write or wire. 

Interesting description sent on request. 

5765 Stanton Ave. Detroit, Michigan 

H lb. No. 24 D.C.O. Marnier Wire 60 

3— Precise Audio Transformers, eacli S5.00. 15.00 
2 — Duplex Variable Vernier Condensers 

.0005. each S6.50 13.00 

1 — 50 Turn Honeycomb Coil, unmounted. . .60 

3 — Batteries No. 771-C. each 60c 1.80 

3 — Benjamin Cle-ra-tone Sockets, each SI . . 3.00 

1 — R.U.F. Crystal (semifixed) 1.35 

2— N. Y. Mica Fixed Condenser .00025. 

each 35c . 70 

3 — 30 ohm Amsco Rheostats, each SI. 25. . 3.75 

10 — lengths Bus Bar. each 2c .20 


Brandes Superior Matched Headphones S 5.00 

Western Electric Phonograph Attachments. 10.80 

Manhattan Phonograph Attachments 5.00 

Manhattan Jt. Loud Sneaker 10.00 

Amettran Transformers 5.75 

Genuine Precision Cockaday Coils 5.50 

Weston Phone Plugs 60 

Approved Lightning Arrostors 50 

tccuratuue Dials 2.95 

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mail order will be parts you haye been 

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New York City 

A 6-Tube Baby Grand "Super 

(Continued from page 17) 

method of wiring other than merely the 
appearance of the set. At first glance it 
may seem to introduce complications for 
the average fan. This is not the case, 
however, for after you have run the first 

You now have a very convenient 
method of attaching your filament leads 
directly to the binding posts without the 
necessity of drilling separate holes. The 
sockets used bv the writer are the Ben- 

two or three base wires, you will have jamin type, having spring bases. Other 
little or no difficulty. It should be re- leads not going to sockets will, of course, 
membered that contrary to most wiring require separate holes through the base- 
plans, you have no grid or plate leads to board. Great pains have been taken in 
contend with, besides those appearing laying out the two baseboard drawings 
above the baseboard; and in no case will shown with this article, so if you follow 
it be possible to run grid and plate leads them carefully, very little comment need 

Will be on sale early in January! Bigger 
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postpaid, or at your dealer's. Send in 
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parallel to each other or to any other 
leads in the set. The oft repeated in- 
junction of keeping grid and plate leads 
as far separated as possible and not 
parallel can thus be forgotten when 
wiring underneath the baseboard. 

All that you have to contend with are 
the filament leads and "b" battery leads. 
The arrangement of the baseboard pre- 
cludes the possibility of interaction be- 
tween any of these leads. By studying 
the baseboard photograph, it will be seen 
that the filament leads are carried directly 
through the baseboard in every case and 
that the plate and grid leads remain above 
the baseboard and go directly to the 
transformers, or, as the case may be, to 
the oscillator coil. 

As soon as you have placed the 
apparatus on a baseboard, using brass 
machine screws and nuts for the purpose, 
drill your holes for the filament leads as 
close to the binding posts as possible. 
This also applies to all other leads which 
go from transformers to other portions of 
the circuit. Be sure to stagger the 
apparatus as shown. The baseboard 
arrangement has in mind condensing to a 
minimum amount of space and at the 
same time insuring the shortest possible 
grid and plate leads. The intermediate 
frequency transformers used are shielded 
and are of the iron core type and can be 
worked very close together without inter- 
stage coupling. However, the baseboard 
arrangement has, among other advan- 
tages, that of keeping any possible inter- 
stage reaction to the smallest possible 

While this set as originally built was 
planned so that holes were to be drilled 
through the baseboard for the various 
leads, yet in practice it will be found 
that a rather simpler method can be 
used; at least in the case of the filament 
leads going to the sockets. Remove the 
two filament binding posts from each of 
the sockets, and after placing the sockets 
in their respective positions on the base- 
board, mark the baseboard with small 
center punch for holes through the base- 
board, directly underneath the filament 
post holes. As most binding post screws 
extend considerably above the binding 
post, you will probably find that the 
binding post screws will be plenty long 
enough to pass through the baseboard, 
as well as the tube socket, and still leave 
enough threads extending above the 
socket for the binding post. Of course, 
the screw holes on the under side of the 
panel should be counter-sunk so that the 
heads of these screws will not extend 
beyond the bottom face of the baseboard. 
* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

be made along this line except to repeat 
that only those wires that appear above 
and below the baseboard are shown in the 
respective drawings for each of these 

Securing Leads 
r I ''HERE are two or three leads which 
*- are rather too long to support them- 
selves; these should be held in place by 
a loop of copper wire passed through holes 
on either side of the lead. Make sure 
that these loops do not occur underneath 
any of the transformers or other 
apparatus, so as to cause short circuits 
or other complications. Usually you 
will find that the long leads can be run 
underneath the shorter leads by bending 
"U" shaped loop in the short lead directly 
over the intersection of the two leads 
and place a short piece of "spaghetti" 
on the longer lead so as to insulate the 
leads from each other. The "spaghetti" 
can be anchored in place by using a little 

By consulting the photographic and 
baseboard views of this set, it will be 
seen that the upper loop binding post is 
connected directly to the stator plates of 
the right hand (loop condenser). This 
lead lays flat against the panel and is 
connected at its mid-point to the rotor 
plates of the small 9 plate Chelten con- 
denser. The other lead from this con- 
denser goes direct to the plate of the 
second tube (detector) and the plate 
terminal of the first intermediate trans- 
former, which, as you will note, are in 
common. The rotor plates of the loop 
condenser are connected to the bottom 
binding post on the left end of the panel 
as well as to the input side of the oscillator 
coil. The 4 J. 2 volt bias battery shown 
between the two variable condensers is 
by-passed by means of a .0025 fixed 
condenser and has its negative side con- 
nected to the middle binding post on 
the left hand end of the panel. The 
positive side of this bias battery is con- 
nected to the negative side of the filament 
circuit. The oscillator condenser shown 
at the extreme end of the panel bridges 
the plate and grid of the first (oscillator) 
tube as well as the oscillator coil. 
"B" Voltage Is 90 
The battery shown in the photograph 
of the set between the loop condenser and 
the audio transformer places a negative 
bias on the (last) audio tube. The volt- 
age is correct for 90 volts of "B" battery; 
the other bias battery shown on the back 
of the baseboard lying on its side furnishes 
negative bias to the first four tubes. A 
grid leak and grid condenser are used on 
(Turn to page 75) 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


Why a Musical Director 

(Continued from page 35.) 
ately planned a lengthy recital, due no- 
tice of which was forwarded to us. She 
appeared per schedule and sang one song. 

It looked like something was due to 
happen to an otherwise good program. 

With regret, she failed to appear 
again that evening. As we signed off 
for that particular hour, a veritable aval- 
anche of Wailing smote the ear. We were 
no gentlemen, we were the "short and 
uglies," we failed in believing that any 
one who sang with teeth tightly clenched 
in a wee, squealing manner was going to 
stand for such treatment, and much more. 

Then the Artist Type 

HAVING up to this time said nothing, 
made no comment on the singing, 
offered no excuse save that the program 
was so full we hadn't had time for more 
than one number from the incipient 
Galli-Curci, we bowed the head to the 
blast and tried to appear meek and 
lamblike. The tirade continued for more 
than an hour. In fact, it continued until 
one of the engineers, annoyed by the 
threat of the lady's brother to do bodily 
injury to him, picked up a broom and 
industriously began to raise a cloud of 
dust from the concrete floor. 

A typical example, that, of the "artist" 
type. Had the soprano in question 
really been good the episode would not 
have happened. If the program had been 
filled the real artist would have under- 
stood — as they often do — and would 
have been booked for a later, more 
propitious occasion. 

Woe No. 3, as we see it, is the con- 
tinual worry for fear those of the real 
artists booked may not appear in time 
for the opening of the concert or decide 
at the last moment not to appear at all. 
(Turn to next page) 



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Dept. A-25 . City State 

jf — = 2 f ..> _ ..y .- r* ♦ ♦ ., .-« .••.. .-.. .■■■•. .•-. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

We are glad to confirm your report of recep- 
tion of our program. 

John S. Daggett, 
"Uncle John," 
Mgr., Times Radio Staff. 


General Electric 

Pacific Coast 
Broadcasting Station 

5555 E. 14th St. 
Oakland, Cal. 
Sept. 11, 1924. 
Mr. T. J. Kennedy, 
1360 University Ave., New York, N. Y. 

We are glad to confirm your reception of 
KGO on the evening of Sept. 6 as we were 
broadcasting the opera "Carmen." 

We always appreciate hearing from our 
radio listeners and hope that you will be 
able to pick up KGO regularly. 
Yours very truly, 

Jennings Pierce, 
Radio Broadcasting Pub. Dept. 

DX Fans! Confirmations Stop All 
"Doubting Thomases" 

Confirmations of Stations Received from 
New York, N. Y. t with 


DX Fans! If you want real results, get a 

Only one dial to get stations and the other to increase or 
decrease volume. Kennedy Tuner is used in place of vario- 
coupler, variometer and honeycomb coils, saving the cost of 
over $9.00 worth of unnecessary junk that is in most receiv- 
ing sets, and no dead end losses. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

Thanks for your letter received. Yes, 
"The Minuet," by Louis Parker, was broadcast 
from the Anthony station during the late 

Yours, Radio KFI. 


Including Globe 
Trotter Diagram 


If not satisfied 
after 30 days, we 
will cheerfully 
return your 

General Electric 


Pacific Coast 5555 E. 14th St. 

Broadcasting Station Oakland, Cal. 

KGO Sept. 4, 1924. 

Mr. Vincent T. Kenney, 
124 W. 96th St., New York, N. Y. 

We are glad to confirm your reception of 
our late program from the Hotel St. Fran- 
cis on the morning of August 27th. 

We are always glad to answer any ques- 
tions of our radio friends and hope you write 
in often with your comments. 
Yours very truly, 

Jennings Pierce, 
Radio Broadcasting Pub. Dept. 

KLZ Denver, Colo. 

We are pleased to acknowledge receipt of 
your report of reception of our phone station. 
We have placed a tack in our map for you. 

Reynolds Radio, Inc. 

Send for Free Diagram 



1360 University Ave., New York, N. Y. 

2-LO, London, Eng. 

We beg to acknowledge your reception of our 

Yours faithfully for the 
British Broadcasting Co., Ltd., 
Jr. Director, London Station, C. C. H. King 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 


Beside its appearance and sturdy 
construction, three factors place the 
Babydyne above the average one 
tube set, i.e., compactness, a scien- 
tifically well-balanced hook-up, and 
greater ability to perform. 

List Price 

(Without the tube 


Tested and approved by 
the Department of Radio 
Engineering, RADIO AGE 


Write today for descriptive 
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Territories open to distributors outiide of 
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Manufactured by 

Lefax Radio Handbook 




The Lefax Radio Handbook with flexible black binder $2.00 

RADIOFAX, the monthly service that makes the hand- 
book perpetual, per year $3.00 


Ninth and Samson Sts., Philadelphia, Penna. 

The Magazine of the Hour 

(Continued from preceding page) 
The concert is announced, the program 
is arranged to the musical director's 
satisfaction, the time is set for five min- 
utes from now — and no talent! Worra, 

"Ah, here they are. Three minutes to 
go. Please hurry. What're you going 
to do first? What's that first name 
again? There goes the 'on the air' 
signal. The red light'll be on in a minute. 
What's your next number? What's 
the name of your accompanist? Here 
we go. ..." 

Some time since a certain manager- 
clerk in a school of music kindly promised 
us seven persons for a program. Five 
hours before they were to arrive — it was 
on a holiday — we learned we must be 
"off the air" for a matter of two hours 
just at the time the manager-clerk's 
seven were to appear. The concert had 
started and the seven were supposed to 
"go on the air" a half hour later. 

A Terrible Outrage 

They arrived seven minutes late, save 
for one soprano who ought to make a 
name for herself because she had so 
much common sense. 

When we broke the news the manager- 
clerk, feeling important before his charges, 
no doubt, burst into a tempest of rage. 
He snarled. He growled. He sneered. 
He ended up by saying that his seven 
could wait the two hours if they 
wished, but he, for one, strongly urged 
them to leave the musical director flat on 
his back, gasping for success. He over- 
looked the fact that it had been impossible 
for us to notify his seven charges, since 
we had not known their address or phone 
numbers and, it being a holiday, he had 
not been in his office, where we might 
have reached him. 

Meanwhile the musical director has 
one eye on the clock, thinking of the 
waiting thousands who will not wait 
long, another on the dilatory performer. 
Between trying to straighten out his 
crossed eyes, hurry the proceedings with- 
out recording strong language in the 
"mike," and calm himself, he is lucky 
if he doesn't begin saying "da da" and 
ask for a rattle. 

Happy [Sometimes] 

But if the woes of a musical director 
are many and sore — we have mentioned 
but a few — his joys far offset them. 
Most artists are fine people, willing to 
help amuse, instruct and charm the 
millions of the radio theater and concert 
hall, happy to do their bit toward making 
broadcasting the eighth wonder of the 
world, quite conscious of the personal 
element and of the need for whole hearted 
co-operation between the station man- 
agement and themselves and altogether 
a mighty good set of folk with which to 
be connected. (Turn to next page.) 

Your Crystal Set 

vclll work 400 to 1000 mlle3 If made by my plana. 
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funded. Satisfied customers everywhere. Particulars 

642 Kaufman Bldg. Wichita, Kansas 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


You listeners-in perhaps do not realize 
the effort those who sing and play for 
you are forced to make. It is not com- 
parable to ordinary "visual" concertizing. 
Then, the artist may rest between 
"numbers" or groups. In the radio studio 
he cannot do so, but must play or sing 
continuously without either the en- 
couragement of applause he can hear or 
the stimulus of an audience he can see. 

Such co-operation as this makes the 
musical director of any station glad he is 
permitted to take part in the program. 

Remember this the next time you 
hear something you particularly like and 
then set down a few lines of appreciation 
for the artist, send it to the station which 
gave you the pleasant experience, re- 
calling the old saying that "a word of 
praise never hurt nobody, nohow, and 
it might do a pile of good." 

The "old saying" is probably quoted 
wrong but you get the idea. 

Signing off until — we see about that 
program- — great grief, he's sick and 
can't 'come!!! — [Copyright, 1924, by the 
Chicago Tribune ] 

"Stone Walls Do Not a 
Prison Make" 

(Continued from page 36.) 

Harry is but 29 years old. On January 
16, 1925, he will be a free man, able to 
pursue his talent to its rightful place. 
Every day WOS receives hundreds of 
letters addressed to Snodgrass, requesting 
favorite numbers and thanking him for 
his wonderful playing. These letters 
come from other lands and from people 
in all walks^ of life in America. 

Snodgrass cannot see these letters, 
but he is told about them. He is told 
about the scores of offers from broad- 
casting stations, vaudeville theaters and 
concert halls that come in every mail. 
He knows that going to prison was the 
best thing that ever happened in his life 
and that he can pick any one of countless 
lucrative offers the minute he leaves the 

Stone walls , do not a prison make. 
Rather, they spelled a Castle of the 
Future for Harry Snodgrass, "King of 
the Ivories," of Station WOS. 

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You'll Find the Romance of the Radio World in RA- 
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* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 


RADIO AGE for January, 1924 

The Magazine of the Hour 


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"If He Can Arrange It" 

The True Story of 


in February RADIO AGE 

That Gets Results 


(Continued from page 13) 

three quarters of an inch in from the end 
as was done on the large tubes (see Figure 
No. 4). The end of the No. 26 wire will 
then be made fast by passing it down 
through one hole, up through the other 
and back down through the first hole, 
leaving about two inches of free end on 
the inside of the tube for connection. 

Fifteen turns of the wire will then be 
wound on the tubes in an even layer in 
the same direction as the secondary coils 
and two more small holes will be drilled 
directly in line with the last turn, and 
in line with the first two holes on the 
other end of the tube and the wire 
fastened as was done at the start, leav- 
ing two inches of free end on the inside 
of the tube for connection. 

The coils are now ready to be assembled 
into the completed radio frequency 
transformers. The primary coil will be 
inserted into the secondary coil so that 
holes No. 1 and No. 2 will line up. One 
of the No. 4 brass machine screws will 
be passed through hole No. 1, a brass 
nut having been placed between the 
coils as shown in the "left end elevation," 
figure No. 3. The free end of the second- 
ary coil opposite hole No. 1 will then 
have the insulation removed and will be 
made fast under the second nut and a 
third nut placed on the screw, forming 
the terminal No. 1 of the secondary coil. 

The same procedure should be followed 
with the screw and nuts for hole No. 3 
except that the free end of the primary 
coil will be made fast under the head of 
the screw on the inside of the tubes, 
forming primary lead No. 2. 

The free end of the secondary coil on 
the right end should then be made fast 
under a nut on the screw passed through 
hole No. 3 making the secondary termi- 
nal No. 3. The free end of the primary 
coil will be made fast under the head 
of the screw passed through hole No. 4, 
which will form primary terminal No. 4. 

The mounting brackets for the coils 
will be made from a strip of brass about 
three-eighths of an inch wide and about 
two and one-half inches long; two of the 
brackets will be bent in the form of an 
"L" as shown in detail No. 2, figure No. 4, 
and one to form a step as shown in 
detail No. 1, figure No. 4. The upright 
leg of detail No. 2 will be one and one- 
half inches long and have a hole drilled 
to pass a No. 4 brass machine screw, one 
quarter inch down from the top. The 
foot of the "L" will have a hole drilled 
for the mounting screw. 

The foot of detail No. 1 will be one- 
half inch long and have the hole for 
the mounting screw drilled. The rise 
will be one inch and the top projection 
will be three-quarters of an inch long. 
The hole for the mounting screw will then 
be drilled one-quarter of an inch in from 
the end and the brackets will be finished. 

The next step will be to mount the 
brackets to the coils. The bracket known 
as detail No. 1 will be made fast to the 
transformer "R2" by a No. 4 brass 
machine screw through hole No. 5 on the 
* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

right end of the tube; one detail No. 2 
will be fastened to each of the transform- 
ers "Rl" and "R3" in a like manner and 
the transformers will then be ready to 
mount into the set. 

' I "'HE neutralizing condensers or neu- 
-*■ trodons, as they are usually called, are 
small variable condensers having a 
capacity, when properly adjusted, equal 
to that of the tube which it is to neutral- 
ize or balance. 

The one described herein can be made 
at a cost of about fifteen cents. Four 
pieces of thin sheet brass or aluminum 
about fourteen thousandths of an inch 
in thickness and one and one half inches 
square; four pieces of number ten bare 
copper wire; four brass binding posts 
and two pieces of composition one and 
one-half inches wide and four inches 
long will be required, as well as four small 
terminals, as shown in Figure No. 5. 

The construction of this instrument 
is so simple that little need be said out- 
side of what is shown in Figure No. 5. 
Connecting the Set 

The antenna lead will be made fast to 
the binding post "A"; the ground will be 
connected to the binding post "G". If a 
loop antenna is used, the leads from the 
loop will be made fast to the binding 
posts "A" and "G" in place of the leads 
mentioned. If the set is arranged as 
shown in the diagram and both aerials 
arranged for, the connections will be made 
to the outside antenna and to the ground 
as covered above. The loop terminals 
are made fast to a phone plug. This 
phone plug will be inserted into the cutoff 
jack "X" when it is desired to use the 
loop. The other connections can remain 
in place as the cutoff jack automatically 
cuts off the radio frequency transformer 
Rl and connects the loop to the set. 

The terminals of the "A" or filament 
battery will be connected to the binding 
post "Al" and "A2", the positive lead 
or lead " + " will go to the post marked 
"A2" and the negative lead or lead 
marked " — " to the post marked "Al." 

The "B" or plate battery will be con- 
nected to the binding posts marked "B" 
"Bl" and "B2". The negative side of 
the battery will be connected to the post 
marked "B2", a tap will be taken at 
22 1-2 volts and will be connected to 
post marked "B"; the positive terminal 
of the battery will then be connected 
to the post marked "Bl". The conect 
"B" or plate battery for this set will be 
from 90 to 120 volts. 

When the batteries have all been con- 
nected, test the two springs in the tube 
sockets to see that the "A" battery is 
not shorted with the "B" battery. This 
will be done by temporarily removing 
one of the leads to terminals "Al" or 
"A2" and shorting the springs in the 
tube socket marked "F — " and "F + ", 
(these designations will appear on the 
sockets). If no spark is made, the 
battery lead will be then made fast 
again, the tube control rheostat "D" 

RADIO AGE for January, 192; 

turned to its "off" position, and the 
tubes placed in their sockets. The phones 
or loud speaker will then be connect :d 
to a phone plug and the plug inserted 
into the phone jack "Y". The rheostat 
"D" can then be turned on until the 
filaments of the tubes are caused to glow 

Tuning the Set 

The dials of the condensers will then 
be turned to about thirty-five and all 
three of them, "CD1", "CD2", and 
"CD3" rotated back and forth until a 
station is heard. This signal should be 
brought up to its best volume. Then 
remove the tube in socket "Ml", place 
a piece of paper over the filament spring 
from contact "F — " and place the tube 
back into its socket. The filament of 
this tube will not glow now as the "A" 
or filament battery has been disconnected 
from the contact on the tube. The 
neutralizing condenser will then be 
adjusted until no signal is heard in the 
phones or the loud speaker. When this is 
accomplished, the thumb screw on the 
neutralizing condenser "N" will be 
tightened and the paper removed from 
the socket. The tube will be replaced 
and condenser "N" is properly neutral- 
ized. The same procedure is taken with 
the socket "M2" and the tube in this 
stage and the neutralizing condenser 
"Nl", when no signal is heard the con- 
denser will be set and the tube put into 
action, as was done to the first tube. 
The set will then be properly neutralized 
and will not oscillate. 

To tune in a station, the dials should 
all be turned to the same number and 
moved around in this location until a 
signal is heard, strengthening the signal 
by adjusting the filament control rheostat 
"D" and moving the dials "CD1", 
"CD2" and "CD3" until the desired 
volume is obtained. 

The Magazine of the Hour 




Patent Pending 

insure high efficiency and the 
Build-Up feature enables 
the operator to obtain any- 
definite capacity from .0005 
to .006 by simply adding 
extra plates of copper and 
mica to the Build-Up base. 

Each alternate copper and mica plate has a 
capacity of approximately .0002 Mfd. 

Build-Up Mica Condensers of the following 
capacities, each assembled complete in carton, 
at the following prices: 

.00025 Mfd List price 50c 

.0005 " •• » 50c 

.001 " " " 55c 

.002 " « " 60c 

.0025 " " " 65c 

.005 V .. « » 70c 

.006 " .... " » 75c 

Extra envelope containing 20 copper and 
mica plates, or sufficient to build up a con- 
denser from .00025 to .006, list price 25c. 

Table showing required number of plates 
needed for any capacity is furnished with 
each condenser. 

Ask your dealer — or order direct 


1404 W. Delaware Ave., Toledo, Ohio 

That # 

Silver Super 

in Delhi, N.Y., 

is rolling up some record 


LAST MONTH Mr. George C. Cannon wrote. ... 

Silver Super adjusted fine test run all 

reasonable stations received on loud speaker.... 

Brought in KGO with Loud Speaker Volume on an 
18" Loop four consecutive nights 


This Book! 

"The Portable 

By McMurdo Silver 
Assoc. I. R. E. 

It is a complete record 
of Mr. Silver's experience 
with hundreds of Super- 
heterodynes. You will 

Dope that was never be- 
fore available. Its detail 
drawings and photo- 
graphs enable you to 
build either the Portable 
or Laboratory Model 
S u per- heterodyne, on 
your kitchen table with 
a pair of Pliers, a Screw 
Driver and a Soldering 
Iron. Priee per copy 

"K T/^\"\"\ 7" Mr. Cannon reports 

r\ 1 1 W have received KGO (Oakland) 
X ^ ^^ T7 on Silver Super in Delhi, N. Y., 
every night they have transmitted for the 

past two weeks Wonderful reception 

loud speaker volume on 18" Loop -. 


all over the country are rolling up similar 

records in routine performance records 

not matched by any other receiver. Silver 
Supers do out-perform the best of them — 

regardless of make and price they are 

7-Tube Wonders, and you can build them your- 
self with a pliers, screw driver and a soldering 


Portable Model '. $57.65 

Laboratory Model 63.60 

Mail your order today 
Shipments prepaid East of the Rockies 


Bring Your Old Super Up-To-Date 

No. 101— Oscillctor Coupler, 150-600 meters. . .$ 2.50 

No. 201 — 30 KC Tuned Output Transformer. . . 3.50 

No. 301— .0005 Low Loss Condenser 4.50 

No. 401—50 KC RF Transformer Unit 14.00 

No. 501— 5-Gang 199 Socket 3.00 

No. 601 — Collapsible Center-tapped Loop 6.50 

Circulars Upon Request 


Dealers — Write for our attractive merchandising plan. 

Twentieth Century Radio Corp., 102 Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyu, N. Y. 


105 S. Wabash Ave., 

Dept. C, 



Radio Age, Inc., 

500 North Dearborn Street, 

Gentlemen: Please enter my subscription for RADIO AGE, ths Magazine ol the Hour, for od« year, beginning 
with your next issue, for which I enclose $2.00. 

Name ~ 

Street Address.. 



□ If RADIO AGE for one year and RADIO AGE ANNUAL for 1924 are desired at special price of S2.50. 
mtirkc ross here. 

Bend cs°h, money order or oheak. 
t holiday rat" not effective after January 20. 1925 

# Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE # 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Mavazine of the Hour 




IARN s 3OO0fc*9OO0aYear 

Enter fast growing radio field, thousands of big pay 
jobs waiting for you, U. S. Gov't., Steamships, R. 
R's., Corporations eagerly seek R?dio trained men. 
Advancement rapid, earn from $3000 to $9000 yearly. 

Prepare for Big 
Pay in Spare Time 

My reputation as Radio Engineer 
and instructor insures you com- 
plete, speedy success, at home in 
spare time; earn while you learn. 
I make you expert in radio design- 
ing, building.repairing and operat- 
ing and teach you only practical 
a. g. mohaupt "inside" dope. You quickly com- 
plete my course and step out into Big Pay. No ex- 
perience required. 

E7D EC radio 

rncCi outfit 


For ashorttimel wilt give tube radio 
eet in handsome cabinet to men who 
enroll now, absolutely FREE. Send 
pt once for my FREE wonder-book of 
inside Radio "dope." 

A. G. MOHAUPT, Radio Engineer, 

4513 Ravenswood Avenue, Dept 21 CHICAGO 
Dear Sir: Send me j-our FREE Radio Book and your limited 
plan without cost or obligation. 

Addres3 City.... 

No. 205 

A Speaker of Distinction 

14 inch Pvralin Bell. Aluminum Sound Column 

No. 205B-Blaek Pvralin Bell _ S22.50 

No. 205D-Shell Pyralin BelL _ §25.00 

Designed and built by experts, for 30 years makers 
of telephones. 

^mertca/i (§/ec/rzc 


State & 64th Sts., Chicago, U. S. A. 

Y * 

They Don't 


Their Heads 






Regeneration Plus Modulation 

By Hogart S. Sweet 

REGENERATION plus modulation 
is the keystone of a new model 
- ultradyne receiver designed by 
Robert E. Lacault, formerly Radio 
Research Engineer with the French Signal 
Corps. This combination is going to 
prove as valuable to the level minded 
radio fan as four wheel brakes and balloon 
tires have to the level minded autoist. 

around with one or a couple of rheostats 
every time you shift. If you are using 
both stages of audio and wish to shift 
to the detector, out comes the plug with 
your own hands and out go the two 
audio frequency amplifier tubes. Like- 
wise, on one or hoth go when the plug 
is inserted in one or the other jack. 
All binding posts have been moved to 

A horizontal rear view of the new Ultradyne L-2 as designed by Mr. Lecault. Note the neat arrange- 
ment of apparatus. 

There is a strong comparison here; for 
both the autoist and radio fan seek the 
same things, namely: smooth operation 
and reliable and instant control. 

Regeneration plus modulation! You 
can theorize until you are blue in the 
face, you can draw conclusions on such a 
combination from experience with regen- 
eration in conjunction with the usual 
form of super-heterodyne, but until you 
experience the performance of the new 
ultradyne, you don't know the half of it! 

But think it over from the theoretical 
standpoint anyway; we know the advan- 
tages of the super-heterodyne; maximum 
amplification for each radio frequency 
stage for one thing and ease of control 
for another. Add to this the modulation 
system and we make the first detector 
or frequency changer perform a real serv- 
ice by modulating the oscillations pro- 
duced by the oscillator tube and thus 
enormously boost the amplitude of the 

the rear, where they rightfully belong,, 
for there should be no wires in front or' 
on the side of the receiver, but behind,- 
where they are out of sight and out of 
the way. The two variable condensers,, 
of the low loss type, are both of the same' 
capacity, whereas before one was twice 
the capacity of the other. Making them 
both of a capacity of .0005 M. F. provides 
a more even adjustment than was possible 
with the original type of ultradyne. 

Naturally, the old type single layer 
cylindrical coils have been replaced by 
coils of the low loss type. These are the 
basket weave form and are more compact 
than the single layer type. 

It will be noted from the photo that 
there is a radical change in the position 
of the controls. Both the tuning dials, 
are situated in the center of the panel , 
really the most convenient positions for 
them — -right where your hands normally 
rest. The regeneration control a;ftd the 

A view of the ultradyne receiver showing the layout of the parts, 
builders of this hookup. 

Unusual results are reported by 

incoming signal before it ever reaches the 
long wave radio frequency amplifiers. 
Now, suppose we add the most sensitive 
and efficient system of amplification 
known to the radio art; regeneration. 
To be more exact, suppose we include 
regeneration in the modulator tube cir- 
cuit. What is the result? 

The Specifications 

BUT listen to the specifications of Mr. 
Lacault's Model L-2 Ultradyne, be- 
fore we cover the constructional details: 
There are no rheostats! The filaments 
of all the vacuum tubes are controlled 
by automatic filament regulating devices. 
Filament control jacks are employed for 
the two stages of audio frequency amplifi- 
cation so that it is not necessary to play 
* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE ¥ 

potentiometer control are out to either 
side, being the less important adjusting 
mediums. i 

The panel layout is shown in the photo. 
The loop aerial jack is at the extreme left 
followed by the regeneration control 
knob, the tuner dial, the oscillator dial 
and the potentiometer control. The; 
three phone jacks and the "A" battery 
switch are lined up on the extreme right 
of the panel. 

A view of the layout from the rear of 
the panel is also shown. From left to 
right are: the phone jacks and "A" 
battery switch, the potentiometer, the 23 
plate oscillator condenser, the 23 plate 
tuning condenser, the regeneration coup- 
ler and its copper shield, and the loop 
aerial jack. (Turn to next page) 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


Another photo shows a view of the 
instruments mounted on the baseboard. 
The devices similar in appearance to grid 
leaks are the automatic filament regula- 
tors. The oscillator coupler is seen just 
to the right of the second rear tube 
socket. The tuning coil is situated to the 
extreme right of the baseboard. The 
ultraformers are seen lined along the 
front portion of the baseboard, in the 
photo, though this is actually the rear. 
The "A," "B" and "C" battery binding 
posts are all mounted on a single strip 
of bakelite which is supported by two 
brass columns, and are at the extreme 
left of the baseboard, in the photo. The 
aerial and ground binding posts are 
mounted in the same manner and are seen 
to the extreme right. 

The Parts Required 

I — 7 x 30 cabinet with baseboard. 

1 — 7* 2 30" Dane). 

2— .0005 M. F. low loss variable condensers. 

2 — -vecnier knobs and dials. 

1 — row loss tuning coil. 

1 — low loss oscillator coil. 

I — ultraformer — type A. 

3 — ultraformers — type B. 

1— low loss 180° coupler with shield. 

1 — dial for coupler. 

8 — vacuum tube sockets. 

1 — 300 to 400 ohm potentiometer. 

8 — amperites — type A. 

2 — double circuit jacks. 

1 — double circuit filament control iack. 

1 — sinKle circuit filament control Jack. 

1 — "A" battery switch. 

2 — audio frequency transformers. 

1 — variable grid leak. 

7 — binding posts. 

2 — bakelite binding post mounting strips. 

1 — .0005 M. F. condenser with grid leak mounting. 

4 — .00025 M. F. filed condensers. 

2— .001 M. F. filed condensers. 

1— .005 M. F. filed condenser. 

No. 14 tinned copper bus bar wire. 

Assortment of screws and outs. 

The first job to be done is the panel 
drilling and the mounting of the phone 
jacks, "A" battery switch, the two 23- 
plate variable condensers, the potentio- 
meter and the coupler and shield. Lay out 
the baseboard next, placing each instru- 
ment in its proper position as shown in 
the photo. Wire the instruments 
mounted on the panel first, then the 
instruments on the baseboard. Be sure 
to solder all connections and take your 
time about it to insure a good job. Be 
sparing with the soldering flux and use a 
hot iron. After both the panel and base- 
board instruments have been wired, 
attach the baseboard to the panel and 
complete the wiring between the instru- 
ments on each. 

Be sure to check all the connections 
when you have completed the wiring, and 
as a final check up, test each soldered 
joint with a battery and headphones to 
insure perfect electrical contact. 

After all instruments and connections 
have been tested, insert the tubes in the 
sockets, connect up the "A," "B" and 
"C" batteries to the proper binding posts, 
plug in the loop aerial or attach the 
aerial and ground, and with the phones 
or loud speaker plugged in, pull the fila- 
ment switch. 

Tuning the Set 

T^HE following is the correct procedure 
- 1 - for tuning the set: turn the oscillator 
dial one degree at a time and for each 
setting of this dial turn the tuning dial 
slowly through its whole range. If 
nothing is heard at any setting, move 
the oscillator dial one more degree and 
repeat the process with the tuning dial. 
At some point, one should hear a station, 
and it will be noticed that a slight hissing 

noise is heard when the station is trans- 
mitting, but no one speaking or singing 
into the microphone. -This slight hissing 
noise indicates the presence of a carrier 
wave and will help materially in tuning 
in the various broadcast stations. 

AH this tuning should be done with the 
potentiometer adjusted to a point where 
no whistles are heard. If whistling 
noises are present, the potentiometer 
should be turned towards the positive 
side until the whistling stops, at which 
point the amplifier operates at its maxi- 
mum sensitiveness. When tuning in 
distant stations, it may be necessary to 
readjust the potentiometer slightly. This 
should be done only after the station is 
heard faintly, but clearly enough to 
increase the amplification. 

When tuning in very weak signals, the 
feed-back or regenerative coupler should 
be turned slowly until a point is reached 
where a whistle is heard, then moved 
back just below this point. A slight 
readjustment of the two condensers will 
then bring the signal to maximum audi- 
bility. When tuning in another station, 
turn the feed-back coupler to zero (coils 
at right angle) and tune first with the 
two condensers, as explained above, then 
adjust the coupler when the station is 
tuned in. \ 

It should be pointed out that the 
regeneration feature incorporated in the 
new ultradyne is a form of radio fre- 
quency amplification and consequently 
plays its most important part when you 
are receiving a long distance station. Its 
use does not increase the volume of the 
signals received from local stations to any 
appreciable extent, this not being the 
object. Greater volume can always be 
obtained by the addition of audio fre- 
quency amplification ; but it does increase 
the volume of stations at a distance for 
the reason that the weak signals are 
boosted in amplitude before they pass 
through the long wave radio frequency 
amplifier. Since the object of the regen- 
eration feature is to make the Ultradyne 
more sensitive to weak signals, it should 
be evident that it will not only increase 
the volume of signals from distant sta- 
tions and insure consistent reception, but 
will also pick up the signals from stations 
that could not be heard on an Ultradyne 
withoat regeneration. 

With the addition of regeneration, it 
will be found that the second stage of 
audio frequency amplification is of real 
use only when receiving from very distant 
stations. All the volume -desired is had 
with one stage of audio frequency ampli- 
fication when receiving local or semi-local 
stations. The second stage of audio 
frequency amplification, however, is 
quite desirable for long distance work 
and may be likened to a high powered 
car in which, under normal conditions, the 
surplus power is not used, but is there for 
use in case of emergency. 

Dependability is another word 
for Reputation. 

Have you noticed how many 
prominent writers and engi- 
neers specify 


Sold everywhere 

Read the 

A thirty-two page handbook 
on Resistance Coupled Am- 
plification with interesting data 
and hook-ups. 

At your dealers. Price.. ..25c 


"Resistor Specialists" 


New Jersey. 

Don't forget to listen in on RADIO 
AGE'S broadcast programs from 

WEBH^370 meters — Tuesday, De- 
cember 23, 9 to 10 p. m. 

K YW — 536 meters — Saturday, January 
3, Midnight to 3 a. m. 
Twc all-star programs! 
Y- Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 



For a limited time only, and to introduce this 
new and superior Storage "B" Radio Battery to 
the Public, we are selling it for $3.50. Regular 
Retail Price is$S. 50. Yousave $2.00 by ordering 
NOW. A finer battery cannot be built than the 

World Storage "B" Battery 

(12 CELLS-24 VOLTS) 
To ten million homea with Radio Sets— and to countless mil- 
lions of prospective buyers-lhis WORLD Storage "B" Bat- 
tery brines a new concuytion of batttry economy and perform- 
Dnre. Here is a battery that pays for itself in a few weeks- 
will last fur years and can be recharged at a negligible cost. 
And you save S^.OO by ordering now. 

ASufjerior Battery |„ q ,! d ^u p bb <, erTa , S e 

Ha3 heavy duty 21-8 in. x 1 in. x 1-4 In. plates and plenty of 

acid circulation. Extra hi-avy glass jar3 allow ready observa- 
tion of charge and prevent leakage and seepage of current. 
It holds its cha r cc, while tdli-, at constant voltage. 
You will find thii battery a boon to long distance reception, 
it does away wilh a great many noises so often blamed on 
"static." Mail your order today. 


Jngt Btate number of batteries wanted and we will ship da? 
order is re^u-'ed. EXTRA OFFER: A batteries in scries (95 
volts). $13 00. Pay Expressman after examining batteries, ft 
per cent oisoount for cash in full with order. Send you? order 
NOW and save S2. 00. 


^U Matters of tho famaua World Radio " A" Storage Battery 

*^ 1219 S. Wabash Ave., Dept. 81 Chicago, IIL 



Ultradyne— Haynes Griffin— Rentier 

Dealers: Send {or Discounts 


123 W. Madison St Chicago 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

Corrected List of Broadcasting Stations 











































































































































Westinghou-e Electric & Mfg. Co East Pittsburgh 326 

Westinghot se Electric & Mfg. Co Cleveland, Ohio 270 

Southern Electrical Co San Diego. Calif. 244 

Newhouse Hotel Salt Lake City. Utah 360 

Savoy Theatre San Diego, Calif. 280 

Oregon Institute of Technology Portland, Oreg. 360 

Frank E. Siefert Bakersfield. Calif. 240 

Rhodes Department Store Seattle. Wash. 270 

Electric Supply Co Wenatchee. Wash. 360 

Bellinghara Publishing Co Bellingham, Wash. 261 

McArthur Bros. Mercantile Co Phoenix. Ariz. 360 

State College of Washington Pullman, Wash. 330 

Western Radio Corporation Denver. Colo. 278 

University of Colorado Boulder, Colo. 360 

Studio Lighting Service Co. (O. K. Olsen) Hollywood. Calif. 280 

Boise High School Boise, Idaho 270 

The Radio Den (W. B. Ashford) Santa Ana. Calif. 280 

Virgin's Radio Ser.dce Medford, Ore. 283 

F. A. Buttrey & Co Havre, Mont. 360 

W. K. Azbill San Diego. Calif. 278 

Reuben H. Horn San Luis Obispo, Calif. 242 

First Presbyterian Church Tacoma, Wash. 360 

Kimball-Upson Co Sacramento, Calif. 283 

Leese Bros Everett, Wash. 224 

Trinidad Gas & Electric Supply Co. and the Chronicle News Trinidad, Colo. 280 

The Cathedral Laramie. Wyo. 283 

Nielson Radio Supply Co Phoenix, Ariz. 238 

Frank A. Moore Walla Walla. Wash. 360 

Leslie E. Rice Los Angeles. Cal. 236 

Ralph W. Flygare Ogden. Utah 360 

Fred Mahaffey, Jr Houston, Texas 360 

Omaha Central High School Omaha, Nebr. 258 

St. Michaels Cathedral Boise, Idaho 252 

University of Arizona Tuscon, Ariz. 368 

Oregon Agricultural College Corvallis, Oreg. 360 

First Baptist Church Shreveport. La. 360 

South Dakota State College Brookings, 8. Dak. 360 

Harry O. Iverson Minneapolis. Minn. 231 

Meier & Frank Co Portland, Oreg. 248 

Augsbury Seminary Minneapolis, Minn. 261 

Winner Radio Corp Denver, Colo. 254 

J. L. Scroggin Oak, Nebr. 268 

Auto Electric Service Co Fort Dodge. Iowa 231 

Bunker Hill A Sullivan Mining and Concentrating Co Kellogg. Idaho 360 

Jenkins Furniture Co Boise, Idaho 240 

E. H.Smith Hillsboro, Oreg. 229 

First Baptist Church Moberly, Mo. 266 

Nevada State Journal (Jim Kirk) Sparks, Nev. 226 

Graceland College Lamoni, Iowa 280 

Pinrus & Mnrphey Music House Alexandria. La. 275 

Heidbreder Radio Supply Co Utica. Neb. 224 

Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, La. 254 

Chickaslia Radio & Electric Co Chickasha. Okla. 248 

Leland Stanford University Stanford University. Calif. 273 

Suell & Irby Arlington, Oreg. 234 

Crary Hardware Co Boone. Iowa 226 

First Presbyterian Church Orange, Tex. 250 

Emmanuel Missionary College Berrien Springs. Mich. 286 

Western State College of Colorado Gunnison. Colo. 252 

Ambrose A. McCue Neah Bay. Wash. 261 

Fallon & Co Santa Barbara. Calif. 360 

Star Electric & Radio Co Seattle. Wash. 283 

E. C. Anthony. Inc Los Angeles, Calif. 469 

Benson Polytechnic Institute Portland. Oregon 360 

North Central High School Spokane. Wash. 252 

First Methodist Church Yakima. Wash. 242 

Alaska Electric Light A Power Co Juneau. Alaska 226 

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Independence, Mo. 240 

Daily Commonwealth and Oscar A. Huelsman Fon Du Lac, Wis. 273 

Marshall Electrical Co Marshalltown, Iowa 248 

Seattle Post Intelligencer Seattle, Wash. 270 

National Radio Manufacturing Co - Oklahoma City, Okla. 252 

Liberty Theatre (E. E. Marsh) Astoria, Ores. 252 

Delano Radio and Electric Co Bristow, Okla. 233 

Hardsacg Manufacturing Co Otturawa, Iowa 242 

University of North Dakota Grand Forks, N. Dak. 280 

Valley Radio. Div. of Elec. Constr. Co Grand Forks. N. D. 280 

Ashley C. Dixon & Son Stevensville. Mont, (near) 258 

Iowa State Teacher's College '. Cedar Falls, Iowa 280 

Tunwall Radio Co i Fort Dodge, Iowa 246 

Texas National Guard. One hundred and twelfth Cavalry. Fort Worth Texas 254 

Colorado State Teachers College Greeley, Colo. 273 

Brinkley-Jones Hospital Association Milford, Kans. 286 

F. F. Gray Butte, Mont. 283 

Conway Radio Laboratories (Ben II. Woodruff) Conway. Ark. 250 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co Hastings. Nebr. 341 

Nassour Bros. Radio Co Colorado Springs, Colo. 234 

Abner R. Willson Butte. Mont. 283 

Signal Electric Manufacturing Co Menominee. Mich. 248 

Paul E. Greenlaw Franklinton. La. 234 

National Educational Service Denver, Colo. 268 

Bizzell Radio Shop Little Hock. Ark. 261 

University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico 254 

Rio Grande Radio Supply House San Benito, Texas 236 

Rev. A. T. Frykman Rockford. III. 229 

Missoula Electric Supply Co Missoula, Mont. 234 

George Roy Clough Galveston. Tex. 240 

Atlantic Automobile Co Atlantic. la. 273 

Christian Churches Little Rock, Ark. 254 

University of Arkansas Fayetteville, Ark. 263 

Morningside College Sioux City. Iowa 261 

Dr. George W. Young Minneapolis, Minn. 231 

M. G. Sateren Houghton. Mich. 266 

Csrleton College Xorthfield. Minn. 283 

Henry Field Seed Co Shenandoah. Iowa 266 

Wooten's Radio Shop Coldwater, Miss. 254 

Radio Broadcast Ass'n Paso Rol.les. Calif. 240 

L. A. Drake Battery and Radio Supply Shop Santa Rosa. Calif. 234 

Montana Phon. .graph Co Helena. Montana 261 

Royal Radio Company Burlingair.e. Calif. 231 

Rhodes Department Store Seattle .Wash. 455 

First Christian Church Whittier. Calif. 236 

Radio Shop Wallace . Idaho 224 

Moberly High School Radio Club Moberly. Missouri 246 

Leslie M. Schafbush Marengo, Iowa 234 

Echophone Radio Shop Long Beach. Calif. 234 

Latter Day Saints University. .- Salt Lake City. Utah 261 

Rohrer Elec. Co Marahneld Ore. 240 

David City Tire & Electric Co David City. Nebraska 226 

College Hill Radio Club Wichita. Kansas 231 

Homme! Mfg. Co Richmond. Calif. 254 

Board of Education, Technical High School Omaha. Nebraska 248 

Beacon Radio Service St. Paol. Minn. 226 

Leon Hudson Real Estate Co Fort Smith, Ark. 233 

Edwin J. Brown Seattle, Wash. 224 

Garretson and Dennis Los Angeles. Calif. 238 

Harold Chas. Mailander Salt Lake City. Utah 242 

C. C. Baxter Dublin, Texas 242 

The New Furniture Co Greenville, Texas 242 

Missouri National Guard Jefferson City. Mo. 242 

Colorado National Guard Denver, Colo. 231 

G. & G. Radio & Electric Shop Olympia, Washington 236 

Los Angeles Co. F'orestry Dept Los Angeles, Calif. 231 

Cape & Johnson Salt Lake City, Utah 268 

Heintz & Kohlmoos, Inc San FranciBco. Calif. 236 

St. Johns M. E. Church Cnrterville, Mo. 268 

First Presbyterian Church Pine Bluff, Ark. 242 

Symons Investment Co Spokane. Wash. 283 






























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The Principia St. LouiB, Mo. 261 

The Searchlight Publishing Co Fort Worth, Tex. 254 

Kidd Brothers Radio Shop Taft. Calif. 227 

Chovin Supply Co Anchorage, Alaska 280 

Dickenson-Henry Radio Laboratories Colorado Springs, Colo. 224 

D. A. Boult Minneapolis, Minn. 224 

Southern Calif. Radio Ass'n Los Angeles. Calif. 226 

Radio Service Co Burlingame, Calif. 231 

The Thos. H. Ince Corp Culver City, Calif. 234 

Harbour-Longmire Company Oklahoma City. Okla. 2*6 

Democrat Leader. Fayette, Mo. 236 

Oklahoma Free State Fair Assn Muskogee. Okla. 252 

Texas Highway Bulletin Austin, Tex. 268 

Third Baptist Church Pnrtland. Ore. 283 

Meier Radio Shop Russell, Kans. 261 

G. S. Carson. Jr Iowa City. la. 224 

Walter LaFayette Ellis Oklahoma City, Okla. 250 

Texas National Guard Denison. Texas 252 

W. Riker Holy City, Calif. 234 

Omaha Grain Exchange (Portable) Omaha, Nebr. 231 

C. F. Knierim North Bend. Wash. 248 

Alfred M. Hubbard Seattle. Wash. 233 

Farmers State Bank Belden. Neb. 273 

Taft Radio Co : Hollywood, Calif. 240 

The Reynolds Radio Co. Inc. Portable Station Denver, Col. 224 

Guy Simmons, Jr.. Conway. Ark. 250 

United Churched of Olympia Olympia. Wash. 220 

Angelus Temple Los Angeles, Calif. 278 

The Van Blaricon Co Helena. Mont. 261 

Tacoma Daily Ledger Tacoma, Wash. 252 

Hallock & Watson Rjuiio Service Portland, Oreg. 360 

General Electric Co ~ Oakland, Calif. 312 

Marion A. Mulrony Honolulu. Hawaii. Waikiki Beach 360 

Portland Morning Oregonian Portland, Oreg. 492 

St. Martins College (Reb. Sebastian Ruth) Lacy, Wash. 258 

Times-Mirror Co Los Angeles. Calif. 39S 

Louis Wasmer Seattle, Wash. 360 

C. O. Gould Stockton, Calif. 273 

Northwest Radio Service Co Seattle. Wash. 283 

Bible Institute of Los Angeles Los Angeles, Calif. 360 

Warner Brothers Radio Supplies Co Oakland, Calif. 360 

Tribune Publishing Co Oakland, Calif. 509 

Reynolds Radio Co Denver, Colo. 283 

San Joaquin Light & Power Corp Fresno, Calif. 248 

Love Electric Co Tacoma, Wash. 360 

Walter Hemrich Kukah Bay, Alaska 263 

Los Angeles Evening Express Los Angeles, Calif. 337 

New Mexico College of Agriculture & Mechanic Arts. .State College. N. Mex. 360 

Detroit Police Department Detroit, Mich. 286 

Hale Bros San Francisco. Calif. 423 

Apple City Radio Club Hood River, Oreg. 360 

Doubleday-Hill Electric Co Pittsburgh . Pa. 270 

Charles D. Herrold San Jose, Calif. 360 

V C Battery & Electric Co Berkeley. Calif. 275 

Post Dispatch (Pulitzer Pub. Co.) St. Louis, Mo. S46 

First Presbyterian Church Seattle, Wash. 360 

Examiner Printing Co San Francisco, Calif. 360 

Portable Wireless Telephone Co Stockton, Calif. 360 

Los Angeles Examiner Los Angeles, Calif. 360 

Electric Shop Honolulu, Hawaii 270 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co Chicago. 111. 536 

Preston D. Allen Oakland, Calif. 360 

Valdemar Jensen New Orleans, La. 268 

Tulane University New Orleans, La. 360 

Ohio Mechanics Institute Cincinnati. Ohio 360 

Chicago Daily Drovers Journal Chicago, III. 286 

I. R. Nelson Co Newark, N. J. 263 

University of Missouri Columbia, Mo. 254 

Omaha Grain Exchange Omaha, Nebr. 286 

Harrisburg Sporting Goods Co Harrisburg, Pa. 266 

Parker High School Dayton, Ohio 283 

Lake Shore Tire Co Sandusky, Ohio 240 

Bangor Railway &. Electric Co Bangor, Me. 240 

Connecticut Agricultural College Storrs. Conn. 283 

F. A. Doherty Automotive and Radio Equipment Co Saginaw, Mich. 254 

Ott Radio. Inc LaCrosse, Wis. 244 

Lake Avenue Baptist Church Rochester, N. Y. 283 

Robert F. Weinig Dover, Ohio 266 

Haverford College. Radio Club Haverford, Pa. 261 

Scott High School, N. W. B. Foley Toledo, Ohio 270 

Victor Talking Machine Co Camden, N. J. 226 

College of Wooster Wooster, Ohio 234 

Henry B. Joy Mt. Clemens. Mich. 270 

John Magaldi. Jr Philadelphia. Pa. 242 

Coliseum Place Baptist Church New Orleans, La. 263 

A. H. Grebe & Co Richmond Hill, N. Y. 316 

Purdue University W. Lafayette, Ind. 283 

The Dayton Co Minneapolis, Minn. 417 

Wireless Phone Corp Paterson, N. J. 244 

James Millikin University Decatur, 111. 360 

Wortham-Cirter Publishing Co. (Star Telegram) Fort Worth, Tex, 476 

Erner & Hopkins Co Columbus, Ohio 423 

John H. Stenger, Jr Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 254 

Western Electric Co New York, N. Y. 492 

Barbey Battery Service Reading, Pa. 234 

Irving Vermilya Mattapoisett, Mass. 248 

J. Irving Bell Port Huron, Mich. 246 

Grace Covenant Presbyterian Church Richmond, Va. 283 

H. Leslie Atlass Chicago, 111. 226 

Blake. A. B Wilmington, N. C. 275 

Petoskey High School Petoskey, Mich. 246 

Peoples Pulpit Asso Rossville. N. Y. 273 

First Baptist Church New Orleans, La. 252 

Lloyd Brothers Philadelphia, Pa. 234 

Jenks Motor Sales Co Monmouth, 111. 224 

Johnstown Radio Co Johnstown, Pa. 245 

Ruffner Junior High School Norfolk, Va. 222 

Washington Light Infantry Co. "B" llstn lnf Charleston. S. C. 268 

Noble B. Watsoo Indianapolis, I nd. 227 

Southtowu Economist Church Chicago, 111. 266 

T & H Radio Co Anthony, Kans. 254 

Pennsylvania State Police Butler. Pa. 286 

D. W. May, Inc Newark, N. J. 260 

Southern Radio Corp Charlotte, N. C. 360 

Westinghouse E. & M. Co Springfield, Mass. 337 

St. Lawrence University Canton, N. Y. 280 

Kaufmann & Baer Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 462 

Clyde R. Randall New Orleans. La. 268 

Entrekin Electric Co Columbus. Ohio 286 

Nebraska Wesleyan University University Place. Nebr. 283 

Alfred P. Daniel Houston, Texas 263 

St. Olaf College Northtield, Minn. 360 

Sanders & Stayman Co Baltimore. Md. 275 

Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Co Washington. D. C. 469 

Alamo Radio Eleotric Co San Antonio. Tex. 360 

W. H. Dunwoody Industrial Institute Minneapolis, Minn. 280 

State CoUege ol Mines Rapid City. S. Dak. 240 

Durham rt Co Philadelphia. Pa. 286 

J. C. Dice Electric Co Little Rock, Ark. 3w> 

University of Vermont Burlington, Vt. 360 

Carthage College Carthage, 111. 246 

Charles W. Heimbach Allentowu. Pa. 280 

University of Michigan Ann Arbor. Mich. 280 

Wilbur G. Voliva Zion. 111. 345 

Uhalt Radio Co New- Orleans. La. 263 

Paul J. Miller Pittsburgh. Pa. 236 

Howard S. Williams (Portable) Pascagoula. Miss. 268 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


A 6-Tube Baby Grand 
Super Het 

(Continued from pa^e 66) 
the fifth (detector) tube. 

It will be necessary to try several 
capacities of fixed condensers across the 
primary of the audio transformer. The 
value to use may run as high as .0075 
or as low as .0025. The .0275 condenser 
across the primary of the output trans- 
former is rather critical, as is also the 
one across the primary of the audio 
transformer. The condensers C-4 and 
C-2 are rather critical, and unless they 
are nearly the right capacity, the oscilla- 
tor circuit will have a tendency to be 
erratic in its operation or possibly slop 
over into the adjacent circuit causing 
peculiar symptoms. The same thing that 
has been said a number of times before 
should be repeated; namely: that fixed 
condensers, while given rated capacity 
markings, vary as a usual thing from the 
rated capacity by as much as 15 to 20 
per cent. The writer has frequently run 
across fixed condensers which had such high 
conductance as to be useless as condensers. 

A 1 MF condenser of 1 MF capacity 
is placed between the negative "B" and 
plus "B" 45 volt posts. This condenser 
is shown at the extreme left end of the 
baseboard at the back. No capacity less 
than 1 MF should be used, and usually 
it could be increased to 2 MF without 
actually causing any ill effects. 
Tuning The Set 

By using good straight line condensers, 
it will be possible to lay out a chart 
whereby you can predict, with almost 
startling certainty, the dial setting for 
any station that you may wish to reach. 

It is to be understood, of course, that 
the oscillator dial has two settings for 
every station. Usually it will be found 
that one of these settings gives results 
superior to the other. It may be neces- 
sary to make a slight adjustment of the 
loop condenser when changing the oscilla- 
tor settings so as to secure the greatest 
efficiency in tuning. 

Low Loss Products 

Master Tuning Coil 
Perfectly Balanced 

Head Phone 
Low Loss Condenser 

High grade, standard radio products that 
will increase the efficiency of an> set and 
add to the satisfaction of the user. Am- 
bassador Low Loss Products have long been 
the choice of particular fans. See there- — 

them, and you will choose them too. 
At All Good Dealers 


108 Greenwich St., New Yo-k 
326 W.Madison St.. Chicago 


Radio Set Complete, with R. C A. tube. Bat- 
teries, and Antenna Equipment, ready to 

tune in JI&.SS 

Journal Low- Loss Coils, set 3.95 

Engraved Binding Posts. Complete set 1*00 

Guaranteed Crystals 59 

Famous Chapin Transformers, o-l or 3-1 3.85 

All mail orders filled momptly C. O. D. Parcel Post. 
FREE— Write to-.Big Bargain Sheet 

rad:o-electric mfg. co. 

Dept. 5. 442 Clinton Ave.. Newark, N. J. 


Don't overlook the value of 
RADIO AGE'S classified adver- 
tisements. Many such messages 
have paved the way to independent 

The classified advertising rates 
are but ten cents per word for a 
single insertion. Liberal discounts 
are allowed on three, six and 

twelve -time insertions, of five, 
fifteen and thirty per cent, res- 
pectively. Unless placed through 
an accredited advertising agency, 
cash should accompany all orders. 
Name and address must be in- 
cluded at foregoing rates and no 
advertisement of less han ten 
words will be accepted. 

RADIO SALESMEN WANTED— Make $50.00 weekly 
■elling standard, well advertised radio sets and part*. 
No investment required. Write for free outfit. Desk 
27. WAVELAND RADIO COMPANY, 1027 N. State St., 

FOR SALE— 3 Pfanstiehl tuning units. 3 Cardwell Con- 
densers, 1 Qradleyometer, 2 Bradleystats. All goods 
New. Earl Price, Lodi, Wis. 

90c an 


to advertise 

and distribute 


to con- 



quick for territory a 



:an Products Co. 

2130 American 


ns, Cin- 






for th 

s territory to 




WANTED— To complete my set RADIO AGE need 
August, September, October, November, 1923, issues, 
bound or unbound. Advise price. Lloyd C. Henning, 
Holbrook, Arizona. 

's, women's. Children's shoes direct, sav- 
mer over 40' c- Experience unnecessary - 
upplied. Big weekly permanent income. 
r Tanners Mfg. Co, , 1 334 C. St. , Boston, Mass . 



DEALERS — Write for on 
Radio Merchandise. 
Dept. D, 1830 Wilson Av 

illustrated catalog of reliable 
>ssiter-Manning Corporation, 
, Chicago, III. 

The Reinartz Radio Booklet, by Frank D. Pearne, fully 
illustrated, and RADIO AGE, for $2.50. Price of book- 
let alone is 50c. Send check, currency or money,order 
to RADIO AGE, 500 N. Dearborn Street, Chicago. 



158 Genuine Foreign Stamps. Mexico War Issues. 
Venezuela, Salvador and India Service. Guatemala, 
China, etc., only 5c. Finest approval sheets, 50 to 
60 percent. Agents Wanted. Big 72-p. Lists Free. 
We Buy Stamps. Established 20 Years. Hussman 
Stamp Co., Dept. 152, St. Louis, Mo. 


Standard soderlet 

I'nunii- circuit. une aonar oui. to 
i Seward, Jr.. New Paltz, New York. N. Y 

■ ■luing post attach- 
dollar bill. Postpaid. 

M V I- M XT 

Make Big Money. Safe and Lock Expert. Wayne 
Strong, 3800 Lan Franco, St. Los Angeles, Calif. 

Classified ad copy for the February issue mus 

BLUEPRINTS— Make your own set from proven 
original and up-to-the minute blueprints. The follow- 
ing are merely three of a choice of almost one hundred 
different types: 

HT-1-3— Five tube neutrodyne— 50c. 

FB-6 — Three-honeycomb regenerative — 35c. 

D10-4— Diode single circuit— 25c. 

All three of above, for $1.00. 

These tested blueprints are all made up in easily 
read circuit drawings. MIDLAND PRODUCTS COM- 
PANY, 1413 Hood Ave., Chicago, III. Ask for our com- 

plete iist. No. Rll. 

down. Parts and plans— complete, 112 SO. Lane Mfg., 
.2937 W. Lake, Chicago, 
reach RADIO AGE not later than December 25. 

Above is Axel Christensen, president 
of the Christensen School of Popular 
Music and a popular artist on RADIO 
AGE's Jazz Carnivals from KYW, 
beginning at Midnight the first Satur- 
day in every month. The next program 
is on January 3, 1925. 

For Consumers 

Gat it now—before^, 
parts to build > 


/ «5F 





100 Pas#S 

Just sebd 

your n.ime. 

all kind* of complete Sets. Parts and Accsssorusa 
• it in you dp so kind as to add the name of one or mord 
friends you botiero will eooa want radio (foods ? Thank you!, 1 

liberty M.O.House.Depi. A-693 106LjbertySt.,N.Y, 

Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE 

Improved Type Rheostats 
and Potentiometers 

All Sizes 



United Scientific Laboratories, Inc. 

92-94 E. 10th St. 


Tune in on WEBH, 370 meters, 
Tuesday, December 23, from 9 to 10 
p. m., and hear one of RADIO AGE's 
popular and semi-classical programs. 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

WCBH University of Miss Olford. 

WCBI Niooll, Duncan & Hush Bemii 

WCBJ J. G. Mius Jenniugs, Louisiana 

WCBK E. Richard Hall St. Petersbure. Fla. 

WCBL Northern Radio Mfg. Co Houlton, Me. 

WCBM Charles Sw irz Baltimore, Md. 

WCBN James P. Bolind .Ft. Benj. Harrison. Ind. 

WCBO The Radio Shop. Ino Memphis. Tenn. 

WCBQ First Biptist Church Nashville. Tenn. 

WCBR C. H. Mejster Providence, R. I. 

WCBT Clark University. Collegiate Dept Worcester, Mass. 

WCBU Arnold Wireless Supply Co Arnold. Pa. 

WCBV Tullahoma Radio Club Tullahoma, Tenn. 

WCBW George P. Rankin. Jr., and Maitland Solomon Macon. Ga. 

WCBX Radio Shop of Newark (Herman Lubinsky) Newark. N. J. 

WCBY The Forks Electrical Shop Buck Hill Falls, Pa. 

WCBZ Coppotelli Bros. Music House Chicago Heights. 111. 

WCCO Washburn-Crosbv Co Twin Cities. Minn. 

WCK Fuller D. G. Co St. Louis. Mo. 

WCX Free Press Detroit, Mich. 

WDAE Tampa Dady Times Tampa. Fla. 

WDAF Kansas City Star Kansas City. Mo. 

WDAG J. Laurence Martin Amarillo. Tei. 

WDAH Trinity Methodist Church (South) El Paso. Tel. 

WDAR Lit Brothers Philadelphia. Pa. 

WDAS Samuel A. Waits Worcester, Mass. 

WDAU Slocurn Kilburn New Bedford. Mass. 

WDAY Radio Equipment Corp Fargo. N. Dak. 

WDBA Fred Ray Columbus, Ga. 

WDBB A. H. Waite & Co., Ino Taunton, Mass. 

WDBC Kirk. Johnson & Co Lancaster. Pa. 

WDBD Herman Edivin Burns Martinsburir, W. Va. 

WDBF Robert G. Phillips Youngstown. Ohio 

WDBH C. T. Scherer Co Worcester. Mass. 

WDBI Radio Specialty Co St. Petersburg, Fla. 

WDBJ Richardson W lyltnd Electric Corp Roanoke, Va. 

WDBL Wise. Dept. of Markets '." Stevens Point. Wis. 

WDBN Electric Light & Power Co Bangor. Me. 

WDBO Rollins College Inc Winter Park. Fla. 

WDBP Superior State Normal School Superior, Wis. 

WDBQ Morton Radio Supply Co Salem, N. J. 

WDBR Tremont Temple Baptist Church : Boston, Mass. 

WDBS S. M. K. Radio Corp Dayton, Ohio 

WDBT Taylor's Book Store Hattiesburg, Miss. 

WOBV The Strand Theatre Fort Wayne. Ind. 

WDBW Tne Radio Den Columbia, Tenn. 

WDBX Otto Baur : New York, N. Y. 

WDBY North Shore Congregational Church Chicago, 111. 

WDBZ Boy Scouts. City Hall Kingstown. N. Y. 

WDM Church of the Covenant Washington, D. C. 

WDZ] J. L. Bush ^ Tuscola. III. 

WEAA F. D. Fallain Flint, Mich. 

WEAF American Telephone & Telegraph Co : New York, N. Y. 

WEAH Wichita Board of Trade Wichita, Kans. 

WEAI Cornell University Ithaca, N. Y. 

WEAJ University of South Dakota Vermilion. S. Dak. 

WEAM Borough of North Plainfield (W. Gibson Butttield) . . .North Plainneld, N. J 

WEAN Shepard Co Providence, R. I. 

WEAO Ohio State University Columbus. Ohio 

WEAP Mobile Radio Co Mobile. Ala. 

WEAU Davidson Bros. Co - Sioui City, Iowa 

WEAY Iris Theatre (Will HorowiB, Jr.) Houston. Texas 

WEB BenwooJ Co St. Louis, Mo. 

WEBA Electric Shop Highland Park. N.J. 

WEBC Walter Cecil Bridges Superior, Wis. 

WEBD Electrical Equipment and Service Co ." Anderson, Ind. 

WEBE Roy W. Walker Cambridge, Ohio 

WEBH Edgewater Beach Broadcasting Station Chicago. 111. 

WEBI Walter H. Gibbons Salisbury, Md. 

WEBJ Third Avenue Railway Co New York, N. Y. 

WEBP E. B. Pedicord New Orleans, La. 

WEBT The Day tan Coop. Indus) ri il Hi-li School Dayton, Ohio 

WEBU DeLand Piano & Music Co. . 131) Boulevard St DeLand. Fla. 

WEBW Beloit College Beloit, Wise. 

WEBX John E. Cain. Jr Nashville, Tenn. 

WEB Y Hobart Radio Co Roslindale, Mass. 

WEEI The Edison Electric Illuminating Co Boston. Mass. 

WEV Hulbert-Still Eleo. Co Houston, Tex. 

WEW St. Louis University St. Louis, Mo. 

WFAA Dallas News & Dallas Journal Dallas. Texas 

WFAM Times Publishing Co St. Cloud, Minn. 

WFAN Hutchinson Electric Service Co Hutchinson, Minn. 

WFAV University of Nebraska, Department of Electrical Engineering. .Lincoln, Nebr. 

WFBB Eureka College :..... Eureka. 111. 

WFBG The Wm. F. Cable Co Altoona. Pa. 

WFBH Concourse Radio Corporation New York, N. Y. 

WFBJ St. John's University Collegeville, Minn. 

WFBW Ainsworth-Gates Radio Co Cincinnati, Ohio 

WFI Strawbridge and Clothier Philadelphia, Pa. 

WGAL Lancaster Electric Supply <fe Construction Co Lancaster, Pa. 

WGAN Cecil E. Lloyd Pensacola, Fla. 

WGAQ Youree Hotel Shreveport, La. 

WGAZ South Bend Tribune South Bend, Ind. 

WGBC First Baptist Church Memphis, Tenn. 

WGBS Gimbel Brothers — New York. N. Y. 

WGI American R. & R. Co Medford Hillside, Mass. 

WGL Thos. F. J. Howlett. . Philadelphia. Pa. 

WGN The Tribune Co Chicago. IU. 

WGR Federal T. and T. Co Buffalo, N. Y. 

WGY General Elec. Co .-;■ .„ Schenectady. N. Y. 

WHA University of Wisconsin Madison. Wis. 

WHAA State University of Iowa Iowa City. Iowa 

WHAD Marquette University Milwaukee. Wis. 

WHAG University of Cincinnati Cincinnati. Ohio 

WHAH Hater Supply Co Joplin, Mo. 

WHAM University of Rochester (Eastman School of Music) Rochester. N. Y. 

WHAR SeosideHouse Atlantic City, N.J. 

WHAS Courier-Journal & Louisville Times Louisville. Ky. 

WHAV Wilmington Kloctrical Specialty Co Wilmington. Del. 

WHAZ Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, N. Y. 

WHB Sweeney School Co Kansas City. Mo. 

WHK Radiovox Company Cleveland. Ohio 

WHN George Schubel New York. N. Y. 

WHO Bankers Life Co Dos Moines, la. 

WIAB Joslyn Automobile Co Rockford, 111. 

WIAC Galveston Tribune Galveston. Texas 

WIAD Howard R. Miller Philadelphia, Pa. 

WIAK Journal-Stockman Co Omaha, Nebr. 

WIAQ Chronicle Publishing Co Marion, Ind. 

WIAS Home Electric Co Burlington. Iowa 

WIK K. & L. Co McKeesport, Pa. 

WIL Continental Electric Supply Co Washington, D. C. 

WIP Gimbel Bros Philadelphia, Pa. 

WJ AB American Electric Co Lincoln. Neb. 

WJAD Jackson's Radio Engineering Laboratories Waco. Texas 

WJAG Norfolk Daily News Norfolk. Nebr. 

WJAK Clifford L. White Greentown. la. 

WJAM D. M. Perham Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

WJAN Peoria Star Peoria, 111. 

WJAR The Out. Co. (J. Samuels & Bro.) Providence. R. I. 

WJAS Pittsburgh Radio Supply House Pittsburgh, Pa 

WJAX Union Trust Co Cleveland, Ohio 

WJAZ Chicago Radio Laboratory Chicago, 111. 

WJD Donison University Grantville, Ohio 

WJJD Supreme Lodge. Loyal Order of Moose Mooseheart, 111. 

WJY Radio Corp. of Ami New York, N. Y. 

WJZ Radio Corp. of ami New York, N. Y. 

WK AA H. F. Paar Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

WKAD Cbas. Looff (Crescent Park) East Providence, R. I. 

WKAF W. S. Radio Supply Co Wichita Falls. Texas 

WKAN United Battery Service Co Montgomery, Ala. 



























































































































































































































































































Dutee W. Flint Cranston, R. I. 360 

Radio Corp. of Porto Rico San Juan, P. R. 360 

Michigan Agriculture College East Lansing Mich. 280 

Laconia Radio Club Laconia. N. H. 254 

Dutee Wilcox Flint Cransten, Rhode Island 286 

Wky Radio shop OkU City, Okla. 360 

Cutting & Washington Radio Corp Minneapolis, Minn. 417 

Naylor Electrical Co Tulsa, Okla. 360 

Wm. V. Jordan Louisville, Ky. 286 

Arthur E. Shilling Kalamazoo, Mich. 283 

Police Dept., City of New York ; New York.N. Y. 360 

Putnam Electric Co Greencastle, Ind. 231 

University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minn. 278 

Wisconsin State Dept. of Markets Stevenspoint, Wis. 278 

Sears Roebuck & Co Chicago, 111. 345 

Crosley Mfg. Co Cincinnati. Ohio 423 

J. Edw. Page (Olive B. Meredith) . . .- Cazenovia, N. Y. 261 

Round Hills Radio Corp Dartmouth, Mass. 360 

General Supply Co Lincoln, Nebr. 254 

Norton Laboratories Lockport, N. Y. 273 

Trenton Hardware Co Trgnton, N. J. 256 

First Baptist Church .Columbus, Ohio 286 

Chicago Daily News Chicago, 111. 448 

Alabama Polytechnic Institute Auburn, Ala. 250 

Kingshighway Presbyterian Church St. Louis, Mo. 280 

Mercer University Macon, Ga. 261 

Commercial Appeal Menphis, Tenn. BOO 

Doubledal-Hill Elec. Co Washington, D. C. 261 

Shepard Stores Boston, Mass. 278 

University of Oklahoma Norman, Okla. 254 

Omaha Central High School Omaha, Nebr. 258 

Wittenberg College Springfield, Ohio 275 

First Christian Church Butler, Mo. 231 

Lennig Brothers Co- (Frederick Lennig) \ Philadelphia, Pa. 250 

Peninsular Radio Club (Henry Kunzmann) Fort Monroe, Va. 240 

Dakota Radio Apparatus Co ; Yankton. S. Dak. 244 

Dept. of Plant and Structures New York, N. Y. 526 

Page Organ Co Lima, Ohio 266 

Midland College Fremont, Nebr. 280 

Tyler Commercial College Tyler, Texas 360 

Apollo Theater (Belvidere Amusement Co.) Belvidere, 111. 273 

Southern Equipment Co San Antonio, Texas 385 

Vaughn Conservatory of Music (James D. Vaughn) .... Lawrenceburg, Tenn. 360 

Lyradion Mfg. Co Mlshawaka, Ind. 360 

Lundskow, Henry P Kenosha, Wis. 229 

Boyd M. Hamp Wilmington, Del. 360 

Pennsylvania Guard. 2d Battalion, 112th Infantry Erie. Pa. 242 

Woodmen of the World Omaha, Nebr. 526 

Franklyn J. Wolff Trenton, N. J. 240 

Palmer School of Chiropractic Davenport, la. 484 

Iowa State College Ames, la. 360 

John Wanamaker Philadelphia, Pa. 509 

Western Radio Co Kansas City, Mo. 360 

L. Bamberger and Co. Newark, N. J. 405 

State Marketing Bureau Jefferson City, Mo. 441 

Pennsylvania Sure (Allege State College, Pa. 283 

Donaldson Radio Co .Okmulgee, Okla. 360 

Doolittle Radio Corp New Haven, Conn. 268 

North Dakota Agricultural College Agricultural College. N. D. 283 

Superior Radio & Telephone Equipment Co Columbus, Ohio 286 

Ward Battery and RadioCo Beloit, Kans. 236 

Concordia College Moorhead, Minn. 286 

John R. Koch (Dr.) Charleston, W. Va. 273 

Horace A. Beale, Jr Parkersburg, Pa. 270 

E. B. Gish Amarillo, Texas 234 

Moore Radio News Station (Edmund B. Moore) Springfield^ Vt. 275 

Sandusky Register Sandusky, Ohio 240 

Electrical Equipment Co Miami, Fla. 283 

Scranton Times Scranton, Pa. 280 

Calvary Baptist Church New York, N. Y. 360 

Abilene Daily Reporter (West Texas Radio Co.) Abilene, Texas 360 

Prince- Walter Co Lowell, Mass. 266 

Radio Equipment Company Peoria, 111. 248 

Calumet Rainbo Broadcasting Co Chicago, 111. 448 

The Radio Club (Inc.) Laporte, Ind. 224 

Northern States Power Co St. Croix Falls, Wis. 248 

Lombard College Galesburg, III. 244 

Black Hawk Electric il Co . Waterloo, Iowa 236 

St. Louis RidioServijeCo 3t. Louis, Mo. 263 

Antioch College Yellow Springs, Ohio 242 

Avenue Radio Shop (Horace D. Good) Reading, Pa. 238 

Flaxon's Garage Gloucester City, N. J. 268 

Imanuel Lutheran Church Valparaiso, Ind. 278 

Ridio Corp. of Ami Washington, D. C. 469 

Reo Motor Cir Ca. L msin?, Mich. 288 

Doron Bros Himtlton, Ohio 360 

Union College '■ : Schenectady, N. Y. 270 

University of Illinois Urbana. HI. 273 

Police and Fire Signal Department Dallas. Tex. 360 

Tarrytown Radio Re-.. Labs Tarrytown, N. Y. 273 

Southeast Mi^ou-i State Teachers College Cape Girardeau, Mo. 360 

Clemson Agricultural College Clemson College, S. C. 360 

J. A. Foster Co Providence, R. I. 26l 

United States PI -.ying Cards Co Cincinnati, Ohio 309 

Grove City College ; Grove City, Pa. 258 

Seventh Day Adventist Church • New York, N. Y. 263 

Doughty & WeMi Electrical Co Fall River, Mass. 254 

Camo Marienfeli.. Chesham. N. H. 229 

C. W. Vick Ra lio Construction Co Houston, Tex. 360 

Irving Austin (Port Chester Chamber of Commerce) . .Port Chester, N. Y. 233 

Chas. Electric Shop Pomeroy, Ohio 258 

Atlanta Journal .V Atlanta, Gai 423 

J. and M. Elec. Co XTtica, N. Y. 273 

School of Engineering .l. .. .Milwaukee. Wis. 246 

Alabama Power Co Birmingham, Ala. 360 

Fall River Daily Herald Publishing Co Fall River, Mass. 248 

Penn Traffic Co .Johnstown, Pa. 360 

Louis J. Gallo New Orleans, La. 242 

Toledo Radio & Electric Co ; , Toledo, Ohio 252 

Willard Storage Battery Co : Cleveland, Ohio 390 

Cambridge Radio & Electric Co 7. Cambridge, 111. 242 

S. H. Van'GbfdbnjA Son Osseo, Wis. 22'0 

Reliance Eectric Co Norfolk. Va. 280 

Charles E. Erbstein Elgin. 111. 286 

Edison Electric Illuminating Co -. Boston, Mass. (portable) 244 

Ruegg Battery & Electric Co " Tecuraseh, Nebr. 242 

Agricultural & Mechanic ,! College of Texas College Station, "Tex 280 

Williams Hardware Co Streator. IU. 231 

Oak Leaves Broadcasting Station Oak Park. 111. 283 

Thomas J. McGuire Lambertville. N. J. 283 

Kansas State Agricultural College Manhattan, Kan3. 273 

H. G. Saal Co Chicago. 111. 268 

Wright & Wright (Ino.) Philadelphia. Pa. 360 

The Alamo Ball Room Joliet. IU. 242 

Ford Motor Co Dearborn. Mich. 273 

Detroit News (Evening News Assn.) Detroit, Mich. 517 

Loyola University New Orleans, La. 2 60 

Michigan Oollege of Mines Houghton, Mich. 244 

Charles E. Erbstein. Villa Olivia near Elgin, III. 536 

First Baptist Church Knoxv lie, Tenn. 250 

Fifth Inf. Md. Nafl Guard, 5th Res. Armory, Baltimore, Md. 254 

Gloucester Co. Civic League. , Pitman, N. J. 231 

Jones Elec. & Radio Mfg. Co . Baltimore, Md. 254 

Penn College Oskaloosa, Iowa 240 

Central Mo. State Teachers Cullege , Warrensburg, Mo. 234 

J. Gordon Klemgard ■ Pullman. Wash. 217 

James F. Boland . Fort Sill, Okla. 263 

M. Laurence Short Hanford. Calif. 224 

Curtis Printing Co Ft. Worth, Tex. 246 

Wynne Radio Co Raleigh, N. C. 252 

Southeast Mo. State Teacher* College Cape Girardeau, Mo. 275 

RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Mat 

of the Hour 


"Lo Loss" 


90 Cents 
All Types 

Strengthen Your 
Speaker Volume 

Conserve the current at full strength and strengthen 
your speaker volume with this radically different socket. 
Has the lowest insulation leakage to radio frequency 
current. Bakeltte between terminals is purposely thin 
and all metallic parts are placed so as to reduce capacity 
between them and the terminals to the very minimum. 
Contact springs in the "LO LOSS" are in one piece 
from binding post to tip of tube. The skeleton tube 
barrel permits inspection of contact at prong tips while 
tube is in the socket. The contact springs automatically 
clean the tube prongs as the tube is inserted, insuring 
good contact always. The new tube lock with the cam 
action makes the proper insertion of the lube easy. A 
twist of the wrist does it. The terminals are curved and 
irill stand unusual deflection without setting. 

Write for Free Bulletin No. 94 showing complete 
line of Premier Quality Radio Parts. Ask your 
dealer if he has Premier free hook-ups. If not, send 
his name and receive a set free. 

3803 Ravenswood Ave., Chicago 


Quality Radio Tarts 

What to Expect from Your Set 

By Kenneth C. Smith 

\ MAN in the Middle West once heard 
•^A- 2LO, London, England, on an 
ordinary 3-tube set. It was an accident 
— one of those unusual, inexplicable 
accidents that happen so often in Radio. 
He never got out of the U. S. A. again, 
but for ever after he bragged that his 
set would bring in London, England. 

I don't know why it is, but there is 
something about radio that seems to 
encourage extravagant statements, not 
only by set owners but by manufacturers 
and dealers. Wonderful as radio is, 
there are many things that no receiver 
can be guaranteed to accomplish. 

From my home in Chicago, I may tune 
in KGO, San Francisco, with loud 
speaker volume, every night during a 
certain week. But I cannot guarantee to 
do the same thing the next week. Neither 
can I guarantee that you will do the same 
thing with the same kind of a set, even 
though your home may be nearer San 
Francisco than Chicago is. This will not 
be because of any difference between 
your set and mine; rather, there are 
several factors responsible for variation 
in performance. Here are three of the 
principal ones: 

Practice Helps 

First: There is the difference between 
you and me. I am not bragging about 
my skill as a tuner, but I am familiar 
with my own set, having used it for some 
time. You will become just as skilful 

in tuning your set after you have used it 
a while. 

Second: There is the difference in 
atmospheric conditions — sometimes a 
very great difference between two suc- 
cessive nights. No one can ever be 
certain of getting a particular distant 
station at any definite time, even though 
that station is known to be broadcasting. 

Third: There is the difference of 
locations. Much study is being given 
to this perplexing problem. "Dead 
Spots" are known to exist — and between 
"dead spots" and the ideal location is 
found every degree of conditions. During 
experiments made in Chicago, a set 
brought in a certain distant station when 
tuned on one side of the street, but when 
moved to the other side of the street, 
that station could not be heard at all. 

When one considers these facts, it is 
plain that no set manufacturer can 
possibly guarantee the distance a pur- 
chaser can expect from the set he buys. 

I don't want you to get the idea that 
there is any probability that you live 
in a "dead spot" where the pleasure of 
a radio set is denied you. The chances 
are a million to one that you are not. 
Although receiving conditions may not 
be perfect in your location, you can still 
get as much with a good set as the 
average radio fan is getting. Plainly, 
the matter of atmospheric conditions 
and the adaptability of your location to 
radio reception is entirely beyond your 
(Turn to page 79) 


-displaying this seal 
have been tested 
and approved by 

The appara tusillus- 
tr a" ted and des- 
cribed . below have 
successfully passed 
our tests for Jan- 
uary, 1925. 

Radio Age Institute 

Manufacturers' Testing Service 

AyfEMBERS of the staff of RADIO AGE will be pleased to test devices 
-*■*■* and materials for radio manufacturers with the object of deter- 
mining their efficiency and worth. All apparatus which meets with 
the approval of various tests imposed by members of the technical 
staff of RADIO AGE will be awarded our endorsement, and the seal 
shown to the left will be furnished free of charge. Materials for 
testing should be sent to 


504 N. Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. 

Test No. 26. MIDGET LOUD- 
SPEAKER, known as the "Reflec- 
tone." Made by Rice and Hochster, 
of 130 Washington Place. N. Y. C. 
It is claimed that this speaker is 
the smallest loudspeaker on the 
market today. Notwithstanding 
its small size, the little unit gives 
tremendous signals with surprising 
faithfulness as to reproduction. 
Arrived in good condition, and 
satisfactorily passed the tests and 
requirements of the RADIO AGE 

and LAMP COMBINED. Better 
known as the Radialamp. Manu- 
factured bv the Radialamp Co.. 
Dept. 810, 334 Fifth Ave.. N. Y. C. 
The lamp is a beautiful piece of 
decorative furniture as well as it is 
exceptionally fine loudspeaker for 
radio use. The horn, concealed in 
the stem of the lamp, throws out 
its mellow sound to be reflected by 
the new sound mirror, a new idea 
in accoustics. The lamp was received 
in good condition. Tested and 
approved by RADIO AGE Institute. 

Test No. 28. STORAGE FILA- 
MENT BATTERY. Made by the 
Philadelphia Battery Company, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. These batteries are 
well known to motorists and other 
electrical people as "Philco" Diamond 
Grid batteries. The battery has 
a high ampere hour rating, good, 
sturdy and wear-resisting plates 
and separators. The battery makes 
use of the famous principle of using 
the Diamond grid formation which 
it is claimed is superior to other 
types. Arrived in excellent con- 
dition, shipped dry, with the elec- 
trolyte in a separate container. 
Tested and approved by the RADIO 
AGE Institute. 

Test No. 29. SEMI-F I X E D 
CONDENSER. Better known as 
the Build-Up condenser, made by 
Chas. Schindler of 1404 W. Dela- 
ware Ave.. Toledo, Ohio. A. useful 
instrument in dtermining proper9 
capacities for fixed condensers. 
The unit is so designed that plates 
may be added or removed to give 
any capacity from .00025 to .006 
mfds This steping of capacities 
is accomplished with .0002 mfd. 
capacities added to the total every 
time a plate is added. The mica 
is high grade, and the case is fairly 
low in losses. Tested and approved 
bv the RADIO AGE Institute. 

While every piece of apparatus ad- 
vertised in RADIO AGE must be 
tested and approved by the RADIO 
AGE Institute before being accepted, 
both advertised and non-advertised 
apparatus are described in theRADIO 
AGE Institute department on this 
page. Any manufacturer or designer 
of radio sets or apparatus, whether 
advertising in RADIO AGE or not. 
may sendhis products to the Insti- 
tute to be tested. 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 


RADIO AGE for January, 1924 

The Magazine of the Hour 

End your RadioTroubles for 30c in Stamps 

We have laid aside a limited number of back issues of RADIO AGE for your use. Below are listed hookups to be found in 
these issues. Select the ones you want and enclose 30c in stamps for each desired. The supply is getting low, so enrich your 
store of radio knowledge by laying in an ample stock of copies NOW! 

May. 1922 

— How to make a simple Crystal Set for $6. 

September, 1922 

— How to make a Regenerative Set at a low cost 

October, 1922 

— How to make a Tube Unit for S23 to S37. 
—How to make an Audio Freauency Amplifying Trans- 

November, 1922 

— Design of a portable short-wave radio wavemeter. 

May, 1923 

— How to make a portable Reinartz set for 3iimmer use. 

June, 1923 

— How to build the new Kaufman receiver. 
— What about your antenna? 

December, 1923 

— Building the Haynes Receiver. 

— Combined Amplifier and Loud Speaker 

— A selective Crystal Receiver. 

January, 1924 

— Tuning Out Interference — Wave Traps — Eliminators 


— A Junior Super-Heterodyne. 

— Push-Pull Amplifier. 

— Rosenbloom Circuit. 


— An Eight-Tube Super-Heterodyne. 
— A simple, low loss tuner. 
— A Tuned Radio Frequency Amplifier. 
— Simple Reflex Set. 

April, 1924 

— An Efficient Super-Heterodyne (fully illustrated). 
—A Ten-Dollar Receiver. 
— Anti-Body Capacity Hookups. 
— Reflexing the Three-Circuit Tuner. 
— Index and first two installments of Radio Age Data 

May, 1924 

— Construction of a Simple Portable Set. 

— Radio Panels. 

— Third Installment of Radio Age Data Sheets. 

June, 1924 

— Important Factors in Constructing a Super-Hetero- 
— A Universal Amplifier. 
— A Sure Fire Reflex Set. 

— Adding Radio and Audio to Baby Heterodyne. 
— Radio Age Data Sheets. 

— A Portable Tuned Impedance Reflex. 
— Operating Detector Tube by Grid Bias. 
—A Three-Tube Wizard Circuit. 
— Data Sheets. 

August, 1924 

— Breaking Into Radio Without a Diagram 

— The English 4-Element Tube. 

— Filtered Heterodyne Audio Stages. 

— An Audio Amplifier Without an "A" Battery. 

— Data Sheets. 

September, 1924 

— How Careful Mounting Will Improve Reception. 
— One Tuning Control for Hair's Breadth Selectivity. 
— Four Pages of Real Blueprints of a New Baby Hat* 

erodyne and an Aperiodic Variometer Set. 
— Datasheets. 

October, 1924 

— An Easily Made Super-Het. 
— Two Radio and Two Audio for Clear Tone. 
— A Simple Regenerative Set. 
—The Ultradyne for Real DX. 

— Real Blueprints of a 3-Tube Neutrodyne and a Mid- 
get Reflex Set. 

November, 1924 

Single Tube Loop Set 

— Blueprii 

Feedback Re- 
— A 3-Tube Low Los«< Regenerator. 
—Mastering the 3-Circuit Tuner. 

December, 1924 

— Blueprints of a New 8-Tube Super-Heterodyne. 
— How to Make a Receiver that Minimizes Static. 
—A Trans-Ailantic DX Receiver. 

— How to Make a Home Made Battery Cbarger and s 
Loud Speaker at a Small Cost. 

500 N. Dearborn St., Chicago 



What do you want 
Enter the number of the 

1 "A" Batteries 

2 Aerial protectors 

3 Aerial insulators 

4 Aerials 

5 Aerials, loop 

6 Amplifiers 

7 Amplifying units 

8 Ammeters 

9 "B" batteries 

10 Batteries (state \ 

11 Batteries, dry cell 

12 Batteries, storage 

13 Battery chargers 

14 Battery clips 

15 Battery plates 

16 Battery substitutes 

17 Bezels 

18 Binding posts 

19 Binding posts, insulated 

20 Books 

21 Boxe*, battery 

22 Boxes, grounding 

23 Bridges, wheatstone 

24 Broadcasting equipment 

25 Bushings 

26 Buzzers 

27 Cabinets 

28 Cabinets, battery 

29 Cabinets, loud speaker 

30 Carbons, battery 

31 Cat whiskers 

32 Code practisers 

33 Coils 

34 Coils, choke 

35 Coils, coupling 
3S Coils, filter 

37 Coils, grid 

38 Coils, honeycomb 

39 Coils, inductance 

40 Coils, Reinartz 

41 Coils, 

42 Coils, 

43 Cond 

44 Cond 

45 Cond. 

to purchase in the radio line? 
article you would like to know 

57 Couplers, loose 

58 Couplers, molded 

59 Couplers, vario 

60 Crystal alloy 

61 Crystal holders 

62 Crystals, rough 

63 Crystals, mineral 

64 Crystals, synthetic 

65 Crystals, unmounted 

66 Crystals, mounted 

67 Desks, radio 

68 Detector units 

69 Detectors, crystal 

70 Detectors, fixed crystal 

71 Dial, adjusters 

72 Dials, composition 
hard rubber 

Let the staff of RADIO AGE save you 
more about in the spaces provided in the 

time and money by sending in the coupon below, 



-is. sold 

high v 




*ith kn. 

iser parts 
lsers, antenn 


46 C 

47 Conden 

48 Conden 

49 Cond 

50 Condensers, varii 

51 Condensers, varii 

52 Condensers, vern 

53 Contact points 

54 Contacts, switch 

55 Cord tips 

56 Cords, for head s 




fixed (paper, 

73 Die 

74 Dials, 

75 Dials, 

76 Dials. 

77 Dials 

78 Dies 

79 Drills 

80 Dry cells 

81 Earth grounds 

82 Electrolyte 

83 Enamels, battery 

84 Enamels, metal 

85 End stops 

86 Eyelets 

87 Experimental work 

88 Fibre sheet, vulcanized 

89 Filter reactors 

90 Fixtures 

91 Fuse cut outs 

92 Fuses, tube 

93 Generators, high frequ 

94 Grid choppers, rotary 

95 Grid leak holders 

96 Grid, transmitting leal 

97 Grid leaks, tube 

98 Grid leaks, variable 

99 Grinders, electric 

100 Ground clamps 

101 Ground rods 

102 Handles, switch 

103 Head bands 

104 Head phones 

105 Head sets 

106 Honeycomb < 

107 Hook ups 

108 Hon 

>il adapte 

109 Hor 

110 Horn 

111 Horn 

112 Horn 

113 Hydr. 

, fibr. 

114 Indicators, polarity 

115 Inductances, C. W. 

116 Insula ' 

117 Insula 

118 Insula 

119 In 

120 In 

121 In 

122 In 

123 In 

124 In 

125 In 

126 lr. 

127 Jacks 

128 Filament control 

129 Jars, battery 

130 Keys, transmitting 

131 Knobs 

132 Knock-down panel units 

133 Laboratories, testing 

134 Lever, switch 

135 Lightning arresters 

136 Loosecouplers 

137 Loud speakers 

138 Loud speaker units 

139 Lugs, battery 

140 Lugs, terminal 

141 Measuring instruments 

142 Megohmeters 

143 Meters, A. C. 

144 Meters, D. C. 

145 Mica 

146 Mica sheets 

147 Milliammeters 

148 Minerals 

149 Molded insulation 

150 Molybdenum 

151 Mountings, coil 

152 Mountings, condenser 

153 Mountings, end 

154 Mountings, grid leak 

155 Mountings, honeycomb 

156 Mountings, inductance 

157 Name plates 

158 Neutrodyne set parts 

159 Nuts 

160 Ohmeters 

161 Oscillators 

162 Panel cutting and drilHn 

163 Panels, drilled and ur 

164 Panels, fibre 

165 Panels, hard rubber 

166 Parts 

167 Paste, soldering 

Patent attorneys 
Phone connectors, 
Phonograph adapl 





173 Plugs, telepho 

174 r 
176 : 

178 ; 

179 1 

180 I 



Resistance leaks 

Rheostat bases 
Rheostats, powe 
Rheostats, ve 
Rods, ground 

Scrapers, wire- 
Screw drivers 

Sets, receiving- 
trod yne 

Sets, receiving — 
Sets, receiving — 

Sets, receiving- 
Sets, receiving— 

Sets, receiving— 
Sets, receiving — - 
Sets, receiving—: 
Sets, receiving- 
Sets, transmittir 

Socket adapters 

Soldering irons. 
Soldering paste 
Solder flux 

221 Solder salts 

222 Solder solution 

223 Spaghetti tubing 

224 Spark coils 

225 Spark gaps 

226 Stampings 

227 Stators 

228 Stop point* 

229 Switch arms 

230 Switch levers 

231 Switch points 

232 Switch stops 

233 Switches, aerial 

234 Switches, battery 

235 Switches, filament 

236 Switches, ground 

237 Switches, inductance 

238 Switches, panel 

239 Switches, single and dou- 
ble throw 

240 Tone wheels 

241 Towers, aerial 

242 Transformers, audio fre- 

243 Transformers, filament 

244 Transformers, modulation 

245 Transformers, power 

246 Transformers, push-pull 

247 Transformers, radio fre- 

248 Transformers, variable 

249 Transmitters 

250 Tubes, vaccuum — peanut 

251 Tubes, vacuum — two ele— 

252 Tubes, vacuum — three ele- 

253 Tuners 

254 Variocou piers, hard rubber 

255 Vario couplers, molded 


256 Vi 

257 Va 

258 Va 

259 Va 

260 V. 

261 Voltmeters 

262 Washers 

263 Wave meters 

264 Wave traps 

piers, woode: 
meters, hard rubber 
meters, molded 
meters, wooden 
ih, insulating 

, braided and strand- 
. insulated 
, Li tz 
, magnet 

267 Wir 

268 Wir 

269 Wir 

270 Wir 

271 Wir. 

272 Wire, tungsten 

RADIO AGE BUYERS' SERVICE, 500 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 

Please see that I am supplied with buying specifications and prices on the a 

rticles numbered herewith: 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

1 1 1 1 


I am a— Q Dealer Q Jobber [H Mfers.' Kep. 

□ Manufacturer 



RADIO AGE for Jqnuary, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


(Continued from page 77) 
control. But there is the first point 
mentioned above — individual skill in 
tuning, that you can control. 

How Much Skill? 

The question is "How much does skill 
in tuning have to do with the results 
you will get from your set?" Let me 
relate a few of my experiences: 

I have had several people come to my 
house, some of whom have never operated 
a radio set, and others who have used 
regenerative sets of various types. I 
explained to them briefly how to tune 
my set, and watched them work. Of 
course, they had no trouble in tuning 
local stations. Even Pittsburgh, Sche- 
nectady and Springfield came in pretty 
strong, and they got them without much 
trouble. Then I asked them to fish 
around for other distant stations and 
watched them very closely. Invariably 
they would pass by several stations with- 
out bringing them in at all. I then tuned 
in four or five of these stations which 
they had missed. I showed them how 
the difference of one-half a division on 
the dials would often make the difference 
in bringing in the station on the loud 
speaker or missing it altogether. 

I have visited a number of people in 
my neighborhood who have been using 
sets like mine — some for several weeks 
and others for only a few days. One 
very intelligent man, who had discarded 
a well-known regenerative receiver three 
weeks before, told me that it took him 
two weeks to realize how sharp his new 
set tuned. He said, "I can now get 
most anything I want, but I couldn't get 
much more than local stations the first 
week." The thing that fooled him at 
first was the absolute quietness of the 
new set, unless all three dials were tuned 
exactly to the same wavelength. 

Here is another thought I want to 
leave with you. In tuning for distant 
stations, except the very powerful ones, 
I generally use the head set. Because 
of the extreme selectivity of some sets, 
even the most skilled tuner will often 
pass by a distant station if tuning with 
a loud speaker. This naturally brings 
up another question: "When I have 
tuned in a distant station on a head set, 
can I always put it on the loud speaker 
with satisfactory volume?" 

Not by any means. Often the signal 
is so weak, due to causes entirely outside 
of the receiver, that head-phone volume 
is all I can get. Particularly, this is 
true during the day time and in seasons 
except cold, snappy Winter weather. 

Some day these things may be over- 
come, but I prophesy that the change 
will come through improvement in broad- 
casting stations rather than receiving sets. 
Until that time comes, I am going to 
continue getting a lot of fun out of what 
I can do and not fret about what I can't 


Erla — Acme — Harkness 

Dealers: Send for Discounts 


123 W. Madison St. Chicago 

do. Here is the way I size up the matter: 
What to Look For 

There are four qualifications to look 
for in a radio set: 

1. Quality of Reception. 

2. Selectivity. 

3. Volume. 

4. Distance. 

The first is absolutely essential. 11 
your set fails to give clear, undistorted 
music, then it doesn't make any differ- 
ence how selective it may be or what 
volume and distance it will give you; 
without good music it is worthless. 

Greater progress has been made this 
year in improving quality of reception 
than in the four or five years previous. 
Radio can now give a quality of music 
superior to anything that the phonograph 
has ever done. 

The matter of selectivity is of greater 
or less importance, depending entirely 
upon where you live. If you are located 
in or near a big city where there are 
several powerful local broadcast stations, 
you must have a selective set if you 
expect to get through local stations and 
bring in distant ones. 

It is no great feat to separate two 
stations 5 to 10 meters apart in wave- 
length, when both stations are several 
hundred miles distant. But it does take 
a very selective receiver to bring in a 
distant station if it is within 10 to 20 
meters of a local station. 

Volume is important only to the degree 
that it enables you to put the stations 
you want to hear on the loud speaker. 
By loud speaker volume, I have in mind 
music that will fill the room and prove 
enjoyable to the listeners. Sometimes 
when conditions are just right, I can 
bring in a station 1500 miles away so 
strong it can be heard all over the house. 
But I don't do it. Music so loud as that 
is anything but agreeable to persons in 
the same room with the loud speaker. 

Distance I consider the least important 
of all. 

I know that my set will get distance 
enough to bring in the powerful stations 
from one coast to another. I hear men 
brag of getting little one-horse stations 
in Canada or California, but that doesn't 
mean anything to me. I look upon 
radio as a source of music and pleasure 
in my home. I don't consider it a game 
of seeing how many stations you can log. 

I know that the best programs come 
from the powerful stations. It doesn't 
worry me at all if I don't get little sta- 
tions I never even heard of, because I 
know they are not putting out programs 
I would care to hear. 

There is no doubt in my mind that some 
day radio is going to be improved far 
beyond the comparative perfection of 
today, but I have very little patience 
with a man who says, "I am going to 
wait to buy my radio set until radio is 
perfected." It is perfected right now. 


The Benson Wave Filter eliminates an- 
noying interferences. It is of the induc- 
tive coupled type. 

Mounted in a beautiful leather covered 

cabinet with an engraved bakelite panel. 

PRICE $8.75 


1225 No. Halsted St. CHICAGO, ILL. 




At all good radio 
stores or write 


25 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 

Low Loss Tuners 

That Give Results 

Save 25% to 50% 

On Everything in Radio 

Standard Seta, all types. $5.00 to $79.00. Knocked 
down, sealed kits. All accessories. 150.000 customers. 
Money back guarantee. Immediate delivery, nius. cata- 
log on request. Special prop, to community agents to 
get Into radio business. Radio DepL 115. IMPERIAL 
LABORATORIES. Coca Cola Bldg.. Kansas City, Mo. 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

Made in amateur, and broadcast 
types. Price $7.00. A post card 
will bring it to you. We pay post- 
age and insurance. Descriptive 
literature and hookup sent free on 


Davenport, - Iowa 


RADIO AGE for January, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


Days More ! 

You can multiply your holiday gift 
by twelve in a very simple and inexpensive manner. 

You probably know of one or more friends to whom you wish to 
make a present. We want to make it easy for you to select the gift, 
and we want to take care of all the work connected with delivering 
it safely, twelve times. 

Of course, your friend, relation or whoever is to be remembered 
is a radio lover. RADIO AGE is a quality publication for the entire 
family ; for experimenters and broadcast listeners. 

Its blueprint section in each issue is a delight to the home con- 
structor of radio sets and its illustrated features on what is going 
on in the broadcast studios have a large following. A perfect gift, 
particularly for men and boys. 

For a special thirty day rate of $2.00, (regular rate is $2.50) 
we will have the mail carrier deliver a copy of RADIO AGE each 
month for twelve months. Fill in the coupon on this page with the 
name and address to which you wish the magazine mailed; we will 
do the rest. 

If you wish to order subscriptions for more than one person, you 
may do so by writing the additional names 
and addresses on a slip of paper attached 
to the coupon. Start it with any issue you 
desire, but send the coupon now! 

A Year-Round 

A radio magazine 
brimful of hook-ups and 
good construction arti- 

/j 1 1 An eight-page section 

in each issue containing actual blue- 
prints showing how to make the best 
and latest circuits at home. 

Many r pages of pictures and inter- 
esting stories about the world's 
favorite broadcast entertainers and 
about the stations and studios. 

A department for radio beginners. 

A department for readers who 
want to tell other radio fans about 
the sets they have made, how they're 
made and what results they have 
had with them. 

All the best news of the radio 
world and its magic progress. 

A magazine your friend would 
treasure as a gift. 

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Radio Age, 


500 N. Dearborn St., 

RADIO AGE, Inc., 500 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 
Please send RADIO AGE, the Magazine of the Hour, to the following for one year, 
at your special holiday rate, beginning with the issue. 



I enclose S2.00 (in currency, check or money order). With the first magazine delivered I 
send one of your notices informing the recipient that RADIO AGE is sent to him by J 
the undersigned with Christmas greetings and Best Wishes for the New Year. 

1{ 1-25 

Sender's Name . 


City . . 

This Offer Not Good After January 20, 1925 

So Easy toTune 

Comes in like Velvet 

— the Pfanstiehl Model 7 Receiver 

cA5-tube Receiver using the new system of tuned radio frequency 

RADIO is no longer a scientific toy, something to play 
- with. Like the telephone, the piano, and the phono- 
graph, it has become a modern home convenience. The 
chief use of radio today is that of an instrument of com- 
munication and entertainment. Hence.whatpeoplewant 
in a receiver is trouble-proof service. That means a sim- 
ple instrument — a receiver a child can tune. And, they 
want distance plus a tone that is clear, sweet, pure and 

A Non-Oscillating System 

What Pfanstiehl has done has been to design the sim- 
plest and least complicated receiver known in radio. He 
has developed a non-oscillating system that gets rid of 
all stray oscillations, that keeps them out. There is no 

need of choking or neutralizing devices. The absence of 
all such devices greatly improves tone purity and tone- 
sweetness. Speech and music are naturally received, 
naturally reproduced. Distance makes no difference. 
There is no distortion however great the amplification. 
And tuning is so sharp that wave lengths can be received 
distinctly and separately less than 8 meters apart. 

See and hear this new system that is revolutionizing 
radio — the Pfanstiehl Model 7 — at your dealers. Or let 
us send you free descriptive booklet. 

Dealers: Write for the special Pfanstiehl proposition. 

Highland Park 22 S. Second Street Illinois 


* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

Crosley One Tube 
Model 50, $14.50 

With tube and Crosley Phone. $22 

Better -Costs Less 

OH, boy! There's the West Coast! Last night I had the East Coast, 
and the night before that, Havana. I bet I get London soon. 
This Crosley sure does bring 'em in. I can tune out local stations any 
old time and get what I want. There's nothing like a Crosley!" 

That's what thousands of men, women and boys are finding out 
every evening in all parts of the United States. So enthusiastic 
are they that hundreds of voluntary letters tell us daily of the really 
remarkable performances of Crosley Radios and the complete satis- 
faction that they give. Here is what a few of them say: 

Parkersburg, W. Va. September 30, 1924. 

"Wish to congratulate you on the one-tube Crosley 50. Have 
listened to Havana, Cuba, and as far west as Oakland, Los Angeles 
and San Francisco. This is what I call a wonderful set." 

Rockville, Maryland. October 1, 1924. 

"I thought it would interest you to know that on September 15th, 
I received Oakland, California, on my two-tube Crosley 51. That 
station is 2,434 miles from here. I had a hard time making my 
friends believe it until I wrote to California and had them verify 
what I heard. As soon as I can afford it, I expect to get aTrirdyn." 

Olney, Illinois. October 15, 1924. 

"I'm getting stations from New York to Seattle, Wash., on my 
Trirdyn. Monday night, October 13th, I received clearly and plainly 
the announcer and music from Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, 7,000 
miles away. My machine is not for sale." 
( Names upon request) 



For Sale By Good Dealers Everywhere 

Crosley Regenerative Receivers are Licensed under Armstrong U. S. Patent 1,113,149 
Prices West of the Rockies add 10% 

Write for Complete Catalog 


Powel Crosley, Jr., President 
163 Alfred Street Cincinnati, Ohio 

Crosley Owns and Operates Broadcasting Station WLW 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE 


Head Phones 

Better — Cost Less 


Crosley Two Tube Model 51, $18.50 

With tubes and Crosley $30.25 

Crosley Three Tube Model 52, $30.00 
With tubes and Crosley Pbones $45.75 




At Once 

The Crosley 
Radio Corpn. 
163 Alfred St. 
Cincinnati, O. 
Mail me, free of 
charge, your catalog 
of Crosley receivers 
d parts. 

Crosley Trirdyn Special, $75.00 

With tubes and Crosley Pbones $90.75 


In This Issue: 

Is There a Radio 



Super- Zenith VII — 

the ideal radio set 

for the fine home 

They Cost More 

But They Do More 

Zenith X 

Fulfills your utmost desire, 
in beauty and performance 

The new Super-Zenith is beautiful to look at — lends an atmos- 
phere of dignity and worth to library or drawing room. 
Naturally you expect unusual performance from so beautiful a 
radio set. And — unusual performance is exactly what you get. 
Tuning, for example, is controlled by two dials only — so per- 
fectly adjusted that each station comes in always at the same 
dial settings. It never varies. Powerful locals may be on full 
blast, yet you can tune them out completely and bring in distant 
stations. Tone reproduction is always clear and true; the volume 
always adequate. 

Before you make your choice, be sure to see and try the new Super- 
Zenith. A fifteen-minute test will give you a new standard of radio 
values, as applied to beauty of construction— and— performance. 

Dealers and Jobbers: Write or wire for our exclusive territorial franchise 


332 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago 

ZENITH— the exclusive choice of MacMillan for his North Pole Expedition 

Holder of the Berengaria Record 


ft /"T>HE complete Zenith line ln- 
r X eludes seven models, ranging 
in price from $95 to $550. 

With either Zenith 3R or Zenith 
4R, satisfactory reception over 
distances of 2,000 to 3,000 miles 
is readily accomplished, using 
any ordinary loud speaker. 
Models 3R and 4R licensed under 
ArmstrongU.S.Pat.No.l, 113,149. 

The new Super-Zenith is a six- 
tube set with a new, unique, 
and really different patented 
circuit, controlled exclusively by 
the Zenith Radio Corporation. 
It is NOT regenerative. 

:nent. V" 

SUPER-ZENITH VII— Six tubes — 2 stages tuned 
frequency amplification— detector and 3 stages audio 
frequency amplification. Installed in a beautifully 
finished cabinet of solid mahogany — 44>s inches 
long, 16% inches wide, 10 H inches high. Compart- 
ments at either end for dry batteries. Price (h'7'^/^ 
(exclusive of tubes and batteries) .... ^Jv 

SUPER-ZENITH VIII— Same as VII except— console 
type. Price (exclusive of tubes and bat- <£.--) r-r\ 
teries) i$Zj\J 

SUPER-ZENITH IX, -Console model with addi- 
tional compartments containing built-in Zenith loud 
speaker and generous storagebattery space. (b'J £r\ 
Price (exclusive of tubes and batteries) . . <P-'- J ^ f 

impossible with single-unit speakers. 2nd 
Battery Eliminator, distinctly a Zenith achievemen 
Requires no A or B batteries a--* 

Price (exclusive of tubes) Ip330 

Price (without battery eliminator) .... $450 
All Prices F. O. B. Factory. 

Zenith Radio Corporation 


332 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, III. 

Gentlemen: Please send me illustrated literature 
giving full details of the Super-Zenith. 

SUPER-ZENITH X— Contains two new features 
superseding all receivers. 1st— Built in, patented, 
Super-Zenith Duo-Loud Speakers (harmonically 
synchronized twin speakers and horns) . designed to 
reproduce both high and low pitch tones otherwise 



* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

RADIO AGE>r February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

I Can Qualify You 

as a Radio ExpertmSm- 
in a Few Months! 


'Earn $2500 to $10,000 a Year 

Merle Wetzel, one of my students, re- 
ports that he is now making three times 
what he did before becoming a radio ex- 
pert. Emmett Welch writes that after 
finishing my training he made $300 a month 
and all expenses. George Jones says, "To 
your course I credit my present position 
as manager of this Radio Department." 
Another gratuate is now an operator of a 
broadcasting station, PWX of Havana, 
Cuba, and earns $250 a month. Still an- 
other graduate, only 16 years old. is aver- 

aging $70 a week in a radio 
store. Hundreds of other for- 
mer students enthusiastically 
tell of their successes as radio 
experts! The field of Rad o 
today is a real treasure house 
of wonderful opportunities. 
It offers rewards beyond your fondest 
dreams! Mail coupon today for my Free 
Book just out — which explains in detail the 
amazing opportunities in this World's 
Fastest Growing Industry. 


Director, National 
Radio Institute 

Hundreds of Big faymg Positions Waiting- 

Do you want to earn far more money than you 
ever dreamed possible? Do you want to be your 
own boss? — to have a profitable business of your 
own? Do you want to travel the whole world over 
— and make big money while doing so? 

Radio offers you all of these opportunities — and 
more! Radio, the new infant industry; Radio, 
growing with leaps and bounds; Radio, the field of 
endeavor with the most promising future of all! 

Hardly a week goes by without our receiving calls 

for our graduates. "We need the services of a com- 
petent Radio Engineer" — "We want men with exec- 
utive ability in addition to radio knowledge to 
become our local managers" — "We require the 
services of several resident demonstrators" — these 
are just a few small indications of the great variety of 
opportunities open to our graduates. 

Our course is an absolutely complete one which 
qualifies for a government first class commercial 
license. It gets you the bigger paying jobs inRadio. 

Pay Increases 
Over $100 a Month 

I am averaging anywhere from 
$75 to S150 a month more than 
I was m aki ng before enrolling 
with you. I would not consider 
S10.000 too much for the course. 
(Signed) A. N. I^ong, 

Greensburg, Pa, 

Doubles Salary 

I can very easily make double 
the amount of money now than 
before I enrolled with you. Your 
course has benefited me approx- 
imately 53,000 over and above 
what I would have earned had 
I not taken it. 

T. Winder. 
Grand Juntion. Colo. 

From $15 to $80 a Week 

Before I enrolled with you I 
was making S15 a week on a 
farm. Now, I earn from $2,080 
to 84,420 a year, and the work 
is a hundred times easier than 
before. Since graduating a little 
over a year ago, I have earned 
almost S4.000 and I believe 
the coursB will be worth at least 
$100,000 to me. 

(Signed) Geo. A. Adams,, Pa. 

This Wonderful FREE BOOK 
Has Shown Thousands The 
Way To Bigger Money 

This Free Book has opened the eyes of thousands to 
the glorious opportunities in Radio. Never in all his- 
tory has an industry jumped into prominence so rapidly. 
Millions of dollars now spent yearly on Radio. Hun- 
dreds of big money positions have been created al- 
most overnight. Thousands of men trained in Radio J 
are needed. If you are ambitious — if you are looking ;j 
for a field which offers big money, fascinating 
work, advancement and a real future, send for 
this Free Book. It costs you nothing. You ob- 
ligate yourself in no way. Yet this book can 
easily mean all the difference between the 
work you are doing now and wonderful suc- 

For a short time we are offering a reduced 
rate to those who enroll now. Act promptly 
and save money. 

Before you forget — mail the coupon NOW! 


Dept, 53DB Washington, D. C. 


Dept. 53DB, Washington, D. C. 

Without obligation on my part, please 
send me the free book "Rich Rewards in 
Radio." with full details as to how I can 
quickly train for a high-salaried position 
in my spare hours at home. Also tell 
me about your free Employment Service, 
and about your special short time offer. 
Please write plainly. 

Name Age, 

Street. _ 



— J 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hoi 

The Magazine of the Hour 

Established March, 1922 


Volume 4 

February, 1925 

Number 2 


Radio Editorials — Is there A Radio Trust? 4 

A Sure Shot Super-Heterodyne 9 

By Arthur B. McCullah 

A Three-Circuit Regenerator.. 13 

By Brainard Foote 

A Radio Cross-Word Puzzle 16 

By John B. Rathbun 

A Unit for Measuring Capacity. _ 17 

By H. Frank Hopkins 

How About Your Antenna? 20 

By Armstrong Perry 

The How and Why of Vacuum Tubes 21 

By Frank D. Pearne 

A Low Loss Set that Spells "DX" 23 

By Ray G. Piety 

Up the Ladder with the Radio Beginner 26 

By Edmund H. Eitel 

Reflexing a Single Circuit Set 28 

By C. H. Dillon 

"The Hidden Voice:" Final Instalment 29 

By Frank Honeywell 

"What the Broadcasters are Doing" — RADIO 

: AGE Studio-Land Feature Section 30 


A Three Tube Reflex Set... 39 

By John B. Rathbun 

Pickups and Hookups by Our Readers 49 

Radio Age Is published monthly by RADIO ACE, Inc. 
Member: Audit Bureau of Circulations. 

Executive, Editorial and Advertising Offices 
500 N. Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. 
Publication Office, Mount Morris, 111. 

Frederick A. Smith, Editor 
Russell H, Hopkins, Associate Editor 
Frank D. Pearne, Technical Editor 
C. H. Dillon, Technical Assistant 
Louis L. Levy, Circulation Manager 
M. B. Smith, Business Manager 

Advertising Director 

Eastern Representative 
DAVIDSON & HEVEY, 17 West 42nd St., New York City 

Pacific Coast Representative 
BENJAMIN LEVEN, 582 Market St., San Francisco. 

Final Advertising forms close on the 20th of the 2nd month 
preceding date of issue 
Issued monthly. Vol. 4, No. 2. Subscription price, $2.50 a year. 

Entered as second-class matter October 2, 1924, at post office at Mount Morris, 
Illinois, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

Copyright. n>25. bu RADIO AGE. /no. 

A Chat With 
the Editor 

READERS have been quick to 
understand the insidious sig- 
nificance of the effort of Radio 
Corporation of America to prevent 
the registration of the title of this 
magazine in the Patent Office in 

Radio Corporation confesses it 
controls "Wireless Age" and objects 
to our use of the name RADIO AGE 
on the ground that "Wireless Age" 
is likely to be injured thereby. 

Radio Corporation did not make the 
claim until RADIO AGE had been 
flourishing for more than forty-one 
months, building up its name and 
good will throughout the United 
States, Canada and England. 

Many readers have written us 
letters wishing us well in this strange 
contest between our independent 
magazine, capitalized at $5,000, and 
a Corporation capitalized at $33 - 

These letters not only have brought 
encouragement, but they have laid 
bare facts about Radio Corporation 
that were new to us; and we thought 
we were well informed. We invite 
more letters on the subject. 

Counsel has been engaged and 
RADIO AGE will take its case to 
the Patent Office and fight it out. 
Our formal reply to Radio Corpora- 
tion is being presented in Washington 
as we go to press. 

We do not believe that Radio Cor- 
poration always can have what it 
wants when it wants it. If you are 
interested, you may watch our maga- 
zine for news of developments from 
month to month. Money talks. So 
do printing presses. 

Editor of RADIO AGE. 

It may interest our readers to know 
that Arthur B. McCullah, whose arti- 
cle on a "sure shot" Super-het appears 
in this issue, will contribute regularly 
to RADIO AGE beginning next 
month. Watch for one of his best 
articles in the March RADIO AGE, 
fully illustrated. Also, a lineup of 
other technical experts will be on hand 
with their latest offerings. 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 


TJie Magazine of the Hour 3 

No. 770. 45-jnj« 
extra large ver- 
tical. For heavy 
duty only. The 
ideal "B" Bat- 
tery for use on 
multi-tube sets. 
Price $4.75. 

Scientists constantly improve battery quality 

Eveready "B" Batteries today contain more 
electricity, more service, more satisfaction than 
ever before. 

Processes evolved by the scientists of the Union 
Carbide and Carbon Research Laboratories, Inc., 
when put in effect in the Eveready factories, are 
responsible for this great accomplishment. 

At the same time the factories have effected 
a still higher standard of workmanship. A system 
of inspection that is a marvel of efficiency was 
inaugurated. The results, gratifying beyond 
measure, were accomplished with a speed and 
completeness that have few parallels in industry. 

The final tests showed more electricity, more bat- 
tery service, greater Eveready satisfaction with- 
out increasing battery sizes and with a substantial 
reduction in price. "JB" Battery operating costs, 
using the new Evereadys, in most cases show a 
reduction of at least one-half. 

There is an Eveready Radio Battery for every 
radio use. 

Insist on Eveready "B" Batteries. 

Manufactured and guaranteed by 


Headquarters for Radio Battery Information 

New York San Francisco 

Canadian National Carbon Co., Limited, Toronto, Ontario 


(Eastern Standard Time) 

Broadcast through a chain of prominent 

interconnected radio stations. 

they last longer 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE ¥ 

RADIO AGE for February, 192< 

The Magazine of the Hour 

Is There A Radio Trust? 

INASMUCH as we have an anti-trust law in the 
United States, and inasmuch as the radio industry 
has reached huge proportions, it is interesting and 
important to consider the question as to whether there 
is a radio trust. If there is such a combine, it is quite 
natural that law-abiding Americans generally and 
radio manufacturers, dealers and buyers of radio 
goods amounting to $350,000,000 annually in par- 
ticular should desire to smash it. 

It is the business of the Federal Trade commission, 
created by Act of Congress, Sept. 26, 1914, to seek out 
trusts. The Commission issued a complaint against 
eight great companies on January 26, 1924, charging 
that they "have been and are using unfair methods 
of competition in commerce." 

All the companies named in the complaint are con- 
cerned in either the radio or the wireless business and 
they are called upon to appear and "show why an 
order should not be entered by said commission re- 
quiring you to Cease and Desist from the violation of 
the law charged in this complaint." 
The companies named are: 

General Electric Company 

American Telephone and Telegraph Company 

Western Electric Company, Inc. 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 

The International Radio Telegraph Company 

United Fruit Company 

Wireless Specialty Company 

Radio Corporation of America. 
The complaint occupies fourteen closely typewritten 
pages of radio history that should be intensely inter- 
esting to every set-builder or vacuum tube buyer. That 
means to 20,000,000 citizens. All the companies 
accused have made replies to the complaint, denying 
portions of it, admitting other 'portions, expressing 
ignorance about others, asking for more facts on others 
and offering an ensemble of legal verbiage that would 
give a Philadelphia lawyer a long pause. 

Radio Corporation is organized under the laws of 
the State of Delaware and was incorporated in October, 
1919, with its principal place of business in New York 
City. Its capitalization is 5,000,000 shares preferred 
stock, par value $5.00 and 5,000,000 shares of common 
stock no par value. 

Radio Corporation is engaged in conducting com- 
munication service by wireless between points in differ- 
ent states in this Country and between ships and shore 
and with foreign countries. It is also engaged in the 
business of buying and selling apparatus and devices 
for use in radio broadcasting and receiving and in radio 
communication, and shipping such apparatus in inter- 
state commerce and to foreign countries. 

In the month following its incorporation, Radio 
Corporation purchased the patents, physical assets 
and stock owned or controlled by the Marconi Wireless 
Telegraph Company. At the same time the General 
Electric Company purchased the British holdings of 
the Marconi stock in America. The Marconi Wireless 
Telegraph Company of America was then dissolved. 
For its services the General Electric Company was 
given 135,174 shares of preferred and 2,000,000 of the 

common stock of Radio Corporation. The General 
Electric Company then granted to Radio Corporation 
license to use apparatus for radio purposes under all 
patents present or future, owned by the General Elec- 
tric Company, the exclusive right to make and sell 
radio devices through Radio Corporation only. Radio 
Corporation agreed to generally restrict its business 
to radio supplies and not to enter into competition 
with the General Electric Company with any patented 
device, process or system, or encourage others to do so. 
All the foregoing is alleged by the Federal Trade Com- 
mission with the additional information that "The 
General Electric Company is the largest manufacturer 
of Electrical apparatus, including devices used in radio 
communication, in the United States." 

In June, 1920, the Westinghouse Electric and Manu- 
facturing Company received from the International 
Radio Telegraph Company assignment of the Inter- 
national Company's patents, with agreement as to 
mutual exclusive right to make, use and sell apparatus 
controlled by these patents. So says the Federal 
Trade Commission and further alleges that the West- 
inghouse Company was to sell all its products under 
these patents to the International Company and the 
International Company agreed not to enter under any 
patent rights into the field of the Westinghouse Com- 
pany. On Dec. 31, 1922, the Westinghouse Company 
owned 1,000,000 shares of the common and 1,000,000 
of the preferred stock of Radio Corporation. 

In July, 1920, says the Federal Trade Commission, 
an agreement as to patents was made among the 
General Electric Company, The American Telephone 
and Telegraph Company, Radio Corporation of Amer- 
ica and The Western Electric Company. 

In March, 1921, Radio Corporation made an agree- 
ment with the United Fruit Company affecting patents 
and wireless communications. This agreement in- 
volved also the products of the Wireless Specialty 
Apparatus Company. On December 31, 1922, the 
United Fruit Company owned 160,000 shares of the 
common and 200,000 shares of the preferred stock of 
the Radio Corporation of America. It is alleged by 
the Federal Trade Commission that Radio Corporation 
made an agreement with the Wireless Specialty to 
permit that Company to make certain apparatus 
under patent license of Radio Corporation, but the 
Wireless Specialty Apparatus Company was specifi- 
cally not permitted to make vacuum tubes. 

Other agreements as to exclusive rights were made 
by the Radio Corporation with various companies 
interested in wireless communications. 

The Federal Trade Commission outlines the new 
famous "Patent license" policy of Radio Corporation 
to offer "just one more obstacle that non-licensees will 
have to overcome." It is alleged by the Federal Trade 
commission that the details of the transactions sketched 
briefly in the foregoing show that "the respondents 
have combined and conspired for the purpose and 
with the effect of restraining competition and creating 
a monopoly in the manufacture and purchase and sale in 
inter-state commerce of radio devices and apparatus." 
(Turn to page 62) 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 5 

in i mini ii n nun minium n in in mil hum iiiiiiiniiiiiiiii iiin .im i m ii urn iii i n i i i: 

The Largest Selling Thmsfbrrrww inffie^rld [;\ 

T^uiim in ii ii i mi i ii n i ii in iiiiii in ii i ii I ii ii in in i m ii imii mmimiiiiir 


Radio Products 

Power Amplifying 


Input TvpeR-30 $6.00 
'Output Type R-31 6.00 


A laboratory grade audio 
transformer for music! 
lovers. R-500 $9.00" 

Universal Coupler 

Antenna coupler or 
tuned r. f. transfor- 
mer. R-140 $4.00 

Reliable / 

All' American Standard Audio Frequency Transformers in any 
radio receiving set mean but one thing- — assured efficiency in ampli' 

fication. Since 1919 AxL'AMERiCANAudios 


R. F. Transformer t. gi ft 

Wound to suit the tube. " — —&^s 
R-199 $ 5.00 R-201 A $5.00 

Long Wave 
Transformer (Inter- 
mediate Frequency) 
4,000 to 20.000 meters. 
(1 5-75 kc.)R -110 $6.00 

10,000 Meter 
* (30 Kc) 

Tuned type (filter or 
input). R-120...$6.00 

Radio Frequency 

7^ ^(Oscillator)Coupler 

" /Range 150to650meters. 
R-130 $5.00 

Super-Fine Parts 

Consisting of three R-110's, one 
R-120 and one R-130 

have answered the demand for an instni' 
ment that couldbere/iedupon for maximum 
amplification and faithful tone reproduc- 
tion. Set builders who know radio do not 
experiment — they specif yAix- Americans, 
with full assurance that they will consist 
tently perform with highest efficiency. 


All- American reliability is a natural result of All- 
American precision manufacture. Each partis scien- 
tifically designed and accurately built to exact stand- 
ards. Special machinery and testing equipment assist 
in achieving perfection. 

When you are buying a new set, look under the lid 
for All- American Audios.OrinstallAiL- Americans 
in your present set if it is not already equipped with 
them. You'll appreciate the difference in amplifica- 
tion. 3 to i Ratio, $4.50. 5 to 1 Ratio, $4.77. 10 
to 1 Ratio, $4.75. 

The Radio Key Book 

The most valuable book of radio 
facts ever published, contains prac- 
tical helps and tested hook-ups. 
Sent for 10 cents, coin or stamps. 

Reflex Receivers 

Complete receiving sets, with all instruments mounted on 
panel and baseboard ready to be wired. Clear photographs, 
blueprints and a 48-page instruction book makev iring so easy 
as to be the work of om/one delightful evening. 
All-Amax Junior is a one-tube set with remarkable selectiv- 
ity and volume. It tunes out the locals and gets real distance, 
or it brings in the local stations on the loud speaker. 
All-Amax Senior is a three-tube set with three stages of r. f. 
amplification, crystal detector and two stages of audio. It is 
highly sele ctive and brings in the far-distant stations on the 
loud speaker. 

All-Amax Junior (semi-finished) $22.00 

All-Amax Senior (s^mi-finished) ....... 42.00 


Pioneers in the Industry 

2680 Coyne St., Chicago 



* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE *' 

6 RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 












J 1 1 










Made in two types for Broadcast 
or Short Wave. Ranges covered 
with 250 M.M.F. L-l I Condenser. 
Type B 200 to 565 $5.00 

TypeSW 50 to 150 5.00 


(With 3 in. dial) 
Type Capacity Price 

V-ll 250 M.M.F. $4.50 

V-23 500 M.M.F. 5.00 

V-43 1000 M.M.F. 6.00 

In no other five-tube set can you 
get such hair-line selectivity, dis- 
tance, volume and tone purity 
at a price so pleasant to the 
pocket book. 

This year during the Interna- 
tional Tests hundreds of Name- 
less owners reported, and had 
verified, their successful recep- 
tion of English, French, German, 
Spanish, Dutch and Mexican 

Under ordinary conditions, when 
the usual barrage of nearby high 
power stations are on the air, 
the Nameless displays unusual 
ability in bringing in distant 
stations. The inherent select- 
ivity of the circuit is further im- 
proved by the adjustable pri- 
mary in the antenna circuit 
transformer which permits you 
to meet your local requirements. 

The advanced low loss design of the B-T 
Lifetime Condensers and Low Loss 3- 
Circuit Transformers, plus the electrical 
correctness of the circuit on which the 
Nameless is based, have as a natural re- 
sult, great range, volume, distance and 
distortionless reproduction. 

If you are going to build a receiving set 
you will be well repaid in improved results 
and money saved if you make a point of 
S22ing the B-T Kits at your dealers be- 
fore you go ahead. A postcard will bring 
you our folder RF-32 which give more 
details of the Nameless — the radio set 
without a regret. 




532 S. Canal St. Chicago, 111. 


Kit No. 3 contains three 250 M.M.F. 
Lifetime Condensers, three Low Loss 3- 
Circuit Transformers, one 40 M.M.F. 
Control Condenser with 1" Dial and 
complete blue prints, instructions and a 

list of other necessary parts $26.50 

Kit No. 1 contains three Low Loss Trans- 
formers only (Nameless blue prints sell 
separately for $1.00) $10.50 


Type AC- 3 as illustrated has adjustable 
untuned primary. Type AC- 1 has fixed 

Type AC-3 $3 . 50 

Type AC-1 2.50 

* Teztpd n.nd Avpwprl hy RADIO AOR # 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 
riiiiiiagmiiiiiiaiiii lll»i ILIflflll 

The Magazine of the Hour 



No. ' 





Pres ,.5^™™ d 

,:,„,„ f 






C-300 and UV-200 
arelnterchange 1 - 

C-301A, DV-2 and 

UV-201A are In- 


Copyright. 1925 

The Tresf O-Lite 

Co., Inc. 




69 WHR 


67 WHR 





67 WHR 




1 UV-200 
1 UV-201A 


611 WHR 


69 WHR 





69 WHR 


67 WHR 


1 UV-200 

2 UV-201A 


611 RHR 







69 WHR 


67 WHR 



I UV-200 
3 UV-201A 


613 RHR 


611 RHR 





611 WHR 



1 UV-200 
4 UV-20IA 


613 RHR 


611 RHR 





611 RHR 


611 V IIR 





613 RHR 


611 RHR 


For i 

ets using cur- 
it a rate higher 


69 KRL 


69 KPR 


2l/ 2 

69 KRL 

|>9 KPR 


What size batteries 

will work best in your set? 

Selecting storage batteries of the 
right size and capacity is necessary, 
not only for the best reception, but 
also to arrange the time between 
chargings to suit your convenience. 

The Prest-O'Lite Chart now 
Aakes this easy. Illustrated above 
is a section of the master chart 
showing Prest-O'Lite "A" Bat- 
teries for 5-volt tube sets. If your 
set has these tubes, you will find, in 
the fourth column, the Prest-O-Lite 
"A" Battery that fits it exactly. 
Use either of the two sizes recom- 
mended, depending on the number 
of days' service you want between 
chargings (based on an average use 
of your set of three hours a day). 

Thousands of radio dealers have 
the complete chart, showing you 
also how to select "B" Batteries, as 

well as "A" Batteries for peanut 
tube sets. You'll prefer Prest-O' 
Lite Storage Batteries because of their 
special features designed for better 
radio reception. Improved separa- 
tors and plates insure steady, un- 
varying current and years of life. 
The novel solid-seal top prevents 
external current leakage and possible 
short circuits. They're easy to re- 
charge and priced remarkably low 
— from $4.50 to $38.25. 

Let the Prest-O-Lite Chart guar- 
antee you batteries scientifically 
correct for your set. It is endorsed 
by the world's largest electro- 
chemical research laboratories. See 
it at your dealer's — or write for our 
interesting booklet, "How to fit a 
storage battery to your set — arid 
how to charge it." 


Hew Tor\ Office: 30 East 42nd Street. Pacific Coast Factory: 599 Eighth 
Street, San Francisco. Canadian Factory: Prest-O'Lite Company of 
Canada, Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 

Write today for 
this free booklet 

Whether you have a 
one-tube set or most 
advanced multi-tube 
outfit, you'll find a fund 
of interesting informa- 
tion in our booklet, 
"How to fit a storage 
battery to your set — 
and how to charge it." 

This booklet gives 
you the complete Prest- 
O-Lite Radio Chart — 
technically accurate rec- 
ommendations cover- 
ing both "A" and "B" 
Storage Batteries for 
every type of set. 

In addition there is 
much vitally important 
data on the care and up- 
keep of storage batteries 
— information that any 
radio fan will find cf 
real value in keeping 
his set at its maximum 
efficiency. Write for 
your copy right now. 


■ a • B n a ■) 


Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

Write today for your FREE copy of — 

Ward's New Radio 


THIS advertisement is published 
to tell you three things everyone 
interested in Radio should know. 

That we believe Ward's is today 
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— a genuine reference book on Radio 
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Our Radio Experts 

This Catalogue is a book gotten up 
by experts. It shows all the best hook- 
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And it shows only tested and ap- 
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and tested thoroughly by our Experts 
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Write forWard's free 68-page Radio 
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RADIO AGE for February, 1925 






77?e Magazine of the Hour 

aai IBl i w i i nn 

«52fe Marine of the Hour 

Af. B. 5m ft h 

Business Manager 

A Monthly Publication 

Devoted to Practical 


Frederick A. Smith 



A Set for the Experimenter- 

A "SURE SHOT" Super-Het 

THE design of this super-heterodyne 
was made with the idea in mind 
to design a set that could be con- 
constructed by the average experimenter 
and to work like a laboratory product. 

This is made possible by the design 
of the tuned long wave amplifier which 
automatically eliminates the slightest 
possibility of doubt as to whether or not 
the long wave amplifying transformers 
are working at the same wavelength. 
Also, the method of wiring which is used 
in this set reduces the coupling between 
the successive stages of radio frequency 
amplification to the point where the out- 
fit is most stable. 

Further, the method of wiring and coil 
mounting removes the necessity of inner 
stage shielding, which usually introduces 
serious eddy-current losses and at the 
same time complicates the construction. 

Plate Current Small 

THE "A" battery supply may be deriv- 
ed from either three dry cells or a four 
volt storage battery. The plate current 
is very small (8 Milliamperes). This is 
because 199 tubes are used and the grids 
are all kept at a high negative potential. 
A 201-A tube can replace the 199 tube 
in the second stage of audio frequency 
amplification. Obviously the six 199 
tubes must be put on one 
rheostat and the 201-A on 

At all times the fila- 
ments of the tubes (the 
199 tubes in particular) 
must be kept down as 
much as possible, as a 
slight over-load greatly 
decreases their life. 

When a super-hetero- 
dyne does what a three 
tube set should do, the 
trouble usually lies in the 
long wave amplifier. 
Failure of this very im- 
portant part of the set to 
give a great gain is 
usually due to the follow- 
ing: Above 

Transformers not work- McCullah's 

ing at the same wave- turns. The 


A Tuned Long Wave 
Amplifier Big Aid 

length as the transformers are peaked 
at. This latter failure predominates 
when working at the longer wavelengths; 
that is, in the neighborhood of 6,000 
to 10,000 meters; i. e., Mr. Trans- 
former Manufacturer will specify that a 
.0003 fixed condenser must be placed 
across his filter transformer to tune it to 
the wavelength » the transformers are 

Now, Mr. Condenser Manufacturer 
says our fixed condensers will vary within 
20 per cent of their rated capacity. This 
means that you are running a small 
chance in getting your filter tuned to the 
same wavelength as your transformers are 
designed for. 

This condition does exist and many 
three stages of long wave amplification 
are giving less amplification than one 
stage that is working properly. 

Watching the Transformers 

WHEN working at the shorter waves, 
1,000 to 3,000 meters, both of the 

said difficulties are encountered, making 
the long wave amplifier a hopeless mess 
unless the transformers are accurately 
matched (also with the filter) and to do 
this is above the ability of the average 

There has been much discussion in cur- 
rent issues of different radio journals as to 
the proper wavelength at which to ampli- 
fy, in a super-heterodyne. Some writers 
will make their choice with purely theo- 
retical efficiency in mind. Another author 
in making his choice has considered both 
the theoretical efficiency plus the prac- 
ticability of such a design. This is the 
probable reason for such a vast difference 
in opinions. 

The tuned long wave amplifier is an 
expedient, but is a bit more difficult to 
build. Once finished, you can be sure 
that you have all that can be had in an 

On account of the high efficiency ob- 
tained with the tuned long wave ampli- 
fiers, only two stages are needed. That 
is, with two stages of long wave amplifi- 
cation, this super will get down to the 
"noise level" under average conditions. 
What is more, the fewer the stages, the 
more stable our set will be, because there 
is less chance for inter-stage reactions; 
also, if the same out-put can be had with 
less stages, our set will 
be more efficient. 

The reduction of the 
number of tubes reduces 
the size, initial cost and 

List, of Parts 

is shown the method of wiring the oscillator coil for Mr, 
super-heterodyne. LI — 20 turns; L2 — 30 turns; Li — 30 
bakelite tube is 2 1-2 inches in diameter and 3 inches long. 

1 Front panel 8"x30" 

2 Bakelite strips 1-2 "x 
18"xl-4" (coil mountings) 

1 Bakelite strips 1 1-2" 
x24 "x 1-4 " (To mount soc- 

1 Bakelite strips 3 1-2" 
xl8"xl-4" (Condensers 

2 Pieces brass rod 3-8" 
square 3 3-4" long 

2 [^Pieces brass rod 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 



0. K 
--4 <-> 


The wiring diagram of Mr. McCullah's "sure shot" super-heterodyne. This sel 
is designed especially for the experimenter, and yet results show that it is rarely exceeded 
as far as DX work, selectivity and clarity of tone are concerned. All wires below the 
dotted portion of the diagram are included in the cable. 

3-8" square 2 1-2" long 

2 .0005 mfd. variable condensers 

3 .0005 mfd. variable condensers 
1 4 spring jack 

1 2 spring jack 
1 On-off switch 
1 Ten to fifteen ohm rheostat 

1 200 to 400 ohm potentiometer 

2 Four inch dials 

6 400 turn coils (Of good make) 

3 Pieces Bakelite tubing 2" diam. 
3 1-2" long 

7 199 tube sockets 

3 .5 mfd. by-pass condensers 
1 .002 fixed condenser 
1 Bakelite tubing 2 1-2" diam. x3 " 

The Magazine of the Hour 

1 Bakelite tubing 1 1-2" diam. xl" 

2 Audio transformers (Of Good Make) 
1 Midget condenser .000045 


1 .00025 grid condenser 
1 Three meg. grid leak 
1 Loop with center tap 

3 Three inch dials 

60 Feet rubber covered wire 

Miscellaneous nuts, bolts and screws. 

The best of parts must be procured 
for this set as the best are none too good. 

After procuring all of the parts listed 
from a reliable dealer, the builder should 
proceed to grain and drill the panels. 

The graining of the panels can be done 
nicely with Number One steel wool, 
rubbed lengthwise. After this a few drops 
of oil are put on the panel and rubbed 
with a piece of clean waste. 

Mounting the Sockets 

MOUNT the four sockets and three 
variable condensers on their re- 
spective pieces of bakelite. Drill and tap 
the ends of the four brass rod for a 6-32" 
machine screw. 

After the front panel has been finished, 
mount the two variable condensers, 
rheostat, potentiometer, two jacks and 
an on-off switch. Now screw front panel 
to base board. Mount the apparatus 
on the base board, leaving planty of room 
for the cable that will run the length of 
the set. 

The oscillator coil is wound on a 2 1-2 " 
tube, 3" long. The pick-up coil is wound 
on a 1 1-2 " tube 1 " long. This coil is 
made to rotate within the larger coil so as 
to vary the coupling. The larger tube has 
two windings of 30 turns, each wound in 
the same direction. The smaller coil 
has one winding of twenty turns split in 
the center so as to let the shaft go 
through. Number 24 green silk wire is 

The wiring' is the only difficult part of 
the set. The wiring diagram shows what 
wires are to run in the cable (in brief all 
wires but the grid and plate wires are 
run in the cable). 

Small finishing nails are driven into the 
base board in a line down the length of 
the set and opposite the points where 
wires come out from some piece of appa- 
ratus to join the cable. Several nails 
can be seen in the pictures. 

After the set is wired, tie the cable 
with some waxed string, (any telephone 
repair man will show you how to tie the 

Now you are ready to try the set out. 
Set the three variable condensers that 
tune the long wave amplifier at about 
three-fourths of the way in. Connect 
up the batteries with the usual precau- 
tions; put tubes in the sockets and pro- 
ceed to tune in. If the set is connected 
right, it will pick up some local stations 
immediately. After you pick up a local 
station, readjust the three variable 
condensers in the long wave amplifier 
until you get maximum signal strength. 
Now try to pick up some distant 
stations and make some adjustments on 
the regenerative condensers and the pick 
up coil. 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


The use of the cable method of wiring 
may seem quite a radical departure from 
the usual method. However, it has 
proven its efficiency and is used in any 
number of high grade commercial sets 
today. The builder must, however, 
bear in mind the fact that all wires that 
connect the plate and grid circuits must 
be left out of the cable and not run 
parallel to one another for any great 
distance. When a section of cable is 
completed and ready to be bound to- 
gether, it should be done in the following 
manner: Take a long piece of waxed 
string and fasten it securely to one end 
of the bundle of wires, and by looping 
a series of half hitches, at intervals of 
about one inch, the entire length of the 
wire to be bound, you will find upon 
completion that the cable is quite sturdy 
and will not easily be jarred out of place. 

Long Wave Transformers 

TO MAKE the long wave transform- 
ers, proceed as follows: Take the 
six 400-turn honey-comb coils and mount 
them on the three pieces of bakelite 
tubing that have been procured for*this 
purpose. If you cannot get bakelite 
or other tubing whose outside diameter 
does not correspond with the inside 
diameter of the honey-comb coils, get 
the size tubing just under the inside 
diameter of the honey-comb coils and 
split it (the tubing) the entire length 
of one side. This will permit the tubing 
to expand enough to insure a snug fit 
inside the coils. 

The three long wave radio frequency 
transformers are then mounted on their 
base, which is the two bakelite strips 
one-half inch wide and eighteen inches 
long by one-quarter inch thick. These 
strips are laid one on top of the other 
and holes drilled at intervals, to be 
determined by the experimenter after 
he has purchased the honey-comb coils. 
The three long wave transformers should 
be separated equal distances one from 
the other. You can use long brass bolts 
for fastening the transformers to the 
bakelite strips. It is well to mount the 
transformers so that there will be a little 
clearance between the bottom of the 
coils and the baseboard. Mounting 
them on the bakelite strip is to permit of 
changing the angle between them and 
thus reduce the inductive coupling be- 
tween them to a minimum. 

As before mentioned, the oscillator 
coil is wound on a tube three inches 
long and two and one-half inches in 
diameter. Our sketch shows the con- 
nections leading to four binding posts 
mounted on the tube. Soldering lugs 
can be substituted for the binding posts 
if the experimenter wishes. The pick-up 
coil is wound on a tube one inch long 
and one and one-half inches in diameter. 
Twenty turns of Number 24 double silk 
covered wire are wound on this piece 
of tubing, ten turns on each side of the 
shaft. Both sides of the coil must be 
wound in the same direction. The draw- 
ing shows both ends of the inner sides 
of the coil connected together, while 
the start and finish of the coil are con- 
nected to the shaft. The builder can 
bring the start and finish wires through 
a hollow shaft. If he decides to do this. 

A side view of the super-heterodyne, showing the method of installing the 201 A 
tubes in the push-pull audio amplifier. 

he must remember to use flexible wire 
in making this connection. Number 
24 double silk covered wire is used on 
both the oscillator and pick-up coil. 

The design of the front panel is left 
to the builder's taste. The only thing 
that is necessary to have on the main 
operating panel is the secondary and 
oscillator condensers and a filament 
control switch, which enables the oper- 
ator to turn the filament current off at 

will without having to remove one of 
the battery leads from the battery, the 
rheostat and the potentiometer. 

Watch Wiring Diagram 

[" TSE great care in following the wiring 
^— ' diagram of the oscillator circuit and 

no trouble will be experienced in making 

the heterodyne unit oscillate. 

The secondary of the three air core 

long wave radio frequency transformers 

The experimental model of the McCullah super-het, showing the possibilities of 
condensing the outfit by mounting the audio amplifier under long wave amplifiers: 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

is tuned with three .0005 mfd., variable 
condensers that are to be mounted on a 
sub-panel three and one-half inches wide, 
eighteen inches long and one-quarter 
of an inch thick. This is done so that 
once the condensers are adjusted, they 
will be out of reach and you will not be 
tempted to turn them and throw the 
entire long wave amplifier out of tune. 
After the condensers are mounted on 
the sub-panel, the panel and condensers 
are mounted on the end of the baseboard 
farthest away from you, using the two 
pieces of brass rod two and one-half 
inches long and three-eighths inch square. 
The photograph on page 11 will show 
this quite clearly. 

there is today, he may at times wonder 
how he is to know just what is the best. 
It is very easy to determine just what is 
best if you will but pay a little attention 
to the manufacturer of the kind of 
apparatus you want. Do not purchase 
any equipment from a manufacturer 
who will not guarantee his products, 
or from people who are known to be 

The variable condensers used in tuning 
the long wave amplifier do not have to 
be verniers, neither do they have to be of 
the more expensive low loss type. If 
condensers of the type that permit 
high losses are used, the efficiency of the 
set is nil. The oscillator condenser and 

tubes, build for that purpose. If not, 
the smaller sockets should by all means 
be used. 

The set can be made in a real portable 
manner if the lower picture on page 11 
is followed. To do this, the sub-panel 
on which the three variable condensers 
are mounted is omitted and they are 
mounted at right angles to the bakelite 
base on which the tubes are mounted. 
Of course, it will be necessary to procure 
a longer piece of bakelite for this purpose 
than the one originally specified. It 
would be best for the builder to deter- 
mine the length of this, as he will know 
just how wide he will want the set to 
be. The audio frequency amplifiers 
can be mounted under the detector tube 
as shown at the extreme right hand side 
of the picture. 

In the upper photograph on page 11 
is shown the circuit with push pull 
amplification. This is added in the 
usual manner, but it has been found best 
to use the larger type tubes for this 
purpose. This will necessitate the in- 
stallation of another rheostat, to control 
the push pull amplifier and a modifica- 
tion in the "A" battery current supply 
to compensate for the increased amount 
of current consumed by these tubes. 
It is best to install push pull amplifica- 
tion after one stage of straight audio 
has first been added. 

In purchasing the audio frequency 

The incomplete experimental model, 
showing how the nails are used in laying 
the cables. 

After you have mounted the four 
vacuum tube sockets on the piece of 
bakelite, one and one-half inches wide, 
twenty-four inches long and one-quarter 
inch thick, connect the filament leads 
together by means of a long piece of 
bus bar wire. While it is not necessary 
to use bus bar wire for this purpose, 
due to the fact that this is such a long 
connection, it is best to use a wire that 
is quite firm. 

It will not be necessary to drill holes 
for mounting either the midget variable 
condenser or the grid leak and fixed 
condenser, as these two pieces of appara- 
tus are so light that they will practically 
support themselves when soldered to 
their respective places. 

It might be well to state that the grid 
leak should have a resistance of about 
three megohms and the condenser (grid) 
capacity should be .00025. 

The builder may use any type of loop 
that he may choose, just so it will tune 
low and high enough to cover the broad- 
cast range. One about two feet square 
and tuned with a variable condenser 
having a capacity of .0005 mfd has been 
found to give excellent results. However, 
a loop of this size is not absolutely 
necessary as some of the smaller ones on 
the market are every bit as efficient. 

Watch Your Apparatus, Too 

IN CHOOSING apparatus for a circuit 
of this type, the builder must remem- 
ber (as before cautioned) to use only 
the best obtainable. With such a 
variety of equipment on the market as 

A rear view of the Sure-Shot super, 
mountings, etc., are made. 

the condenser across the loop should 
be of the low loss type, having a straight 
line wavelength curve, as with con- 
densers of this type the settings for 
given wavelengths will be divided 
evenly over the entire dial. 

While these condensers do not have to 
be of the vernier type, it will be found 
convenient at times to have some means 
of adjusting them very finely. For this 
purpose a dial or a device that will 
enable you to move them a mere fraction 
of an inch at a time will be found quite 

Be careful in selecting the vacuum 
tube sockets and do not get those that 
are commonly spoken of as "moulded 
mud" products. Be sure that the con- 
tact prongs are springy enough to touch 
the prongs on the tube and here let me 
advise you against using adapters. If 
you wish to use the set with the larger 

Note hoiv the cable connections, condenser 

transformers it might be well to suggest 
that transformers of a low ratio be used, 
as those of a high ratio will only distort 
the speech and music. Two transformers 
having a ratio of four to one are con- 
sidered the ideal type to be used in an 
audio amplifier by most experimenters. 
As the output of signal strength is so 
great in a set of this this type the resis- 
tance coupled style of amplifier can be 
used quite nicely and very good success 
has been reported using two stages of 
resistance coi:pled amplification and a 
straight stage of audio. The output from 
three stages of resistance coupled ampli- 
fication is about as great as the output 
from a two stage audio amplifier, but the 
clarity of tone and the freedom from dis- 
tortion more than make up for this short- 

Be careful in making your connections 
to solder all joints that you possibly can. 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


An All-Round Receiver— 

The 3-Circuit REGENERATOR 


<e Sure Fire" Tuning 

THREE tubes is practically the 
minimum number that is suited for 
really satisfactory year-round loud 
speaker receiving. Of course, you can 

employ two tubes, with reflexing and _ 1 \ jr """ 

have fairly good loud speaker operation, i^OntWL MaXimUm fo11 ™* 

but in sure-fire tuning control, utmost . . . 7—1 1 uv 20 ° or C 300 detector tube 

sensitivity and in quiet, undistorted OCnSHivitV ±1, Q.SV 2UV 201 A or C 301A am P Iiner tubes 

amplification, the straight regenerative 

1 .002 mfds. fixed condenser 
7 binding posts 

10 lengths bus wire for connections 
Screws to mount panel to cabinet 
The accessory equipment is listed as 

detector and two stage amplifier form an 
unbeatable combination. 

With so many reasonably priced three 
circuit couplers available, it is actually 
a waste of time and a very slight saving 
to construct your own. With one of 
these instruments and a good variable 
condenser, the receiving circuit is simple 
to connect, simple to tune and unequalled 
in the regenerative field for its selective 
ability, DX reception and accuracy of 
its dial settings. 

Moreover, the outfit can be assembled 
in a very good looking style, if a bit of 
care be expended in the arrangement of 
the panel and its "fit" in the cabinet. 
A special cabinet was built for the 
receiving set illustrated, using mahogany 
with a piano finish in dark walnut. A 
cabinet-maker did the job for fourteen 
dollars. It has a 60 degree slope in 
front, proportioned to take a 7 by 18 
inch mahoganite panel and having a 2 
inch vertical frontal portion for added 

Cabinet Construction 

r I^O obviate joints between sides and 
-*- top, the opening for tubes and wiring 
is in the form of a rectangular door about 
12 by 7 inches, located in the rear. 
Beneath it is a slot one half inch in width 
and three inches long, through which the 
flexible connectors for batteries, aerial 
and ground are passed. The dials for 
condenser, coupler and rheostats are in 
mahoganite likewise, so that the panel 
and woodwork of the cabinet present an 
appearance of elegance and refinement. 

An added fea- 
ture is the self- 
contained loud 
speaker — an idea 
which may not ap- 
peal to some of you, 
but which, on the 
whole, seems quite 
pleasing both in 
appearance and in 
results. The horn 
is a small molded 
product and a high 
quality phone unit 
is fitted to it by 
a special cap in- 
cluded with the 
horn. Leads from 
the phone unit are 
in the form of a 
single phone cord, 
with a plug at the 
end. The phone is 

with this Circuit 

not permanently connected in the circuit, 
but joined to the plug just as though 
it were an external speaker. The cord 
comes out the rear of the cabinet along 
with the other wiring. 

Two jacks are provided, one giving 
access to the detector for headphone 
use, and the other to the second step 
of the audio amplifier for the loud 
speaker. One rheostat controls the 
detector tube, which is of the "soft" 
(200 or 300) type, while the other 
rheostat regulates the filament current 
of both of the amplifier tubes. 

The apparatus required for the set 
itself is as follows: 

1 7x18 inch cabinet 

1 7x18 inch panel 

1 7x12 inch panel (as sub- panel inside) 

1 Loud Speaker horn (if desired) 

1 Phone Unit (if desired) 

1 Three Circuit Coupler; _^ 

1 Variable Condenser to suit the 

1 6 ohm rheostat 

1 10 ohm rheostat 

4 dials for above instruments 

1 single circuit jack 

1 double circuit jack 

1 phone plug and cord (for loud 

3 tube sockets 

2 audio frequency amplifying trans- 

1 .00025 mfds. grid condenser and 2 
megohm grid leak 

The parts mounted to the panel are few and their arrangement is neat. The loud 
speaker horn is a novel feature, being included in the cabinet. Any high quality type 
of three circuit coupler will answer the purpose. 

1 6 volt storage battery 

2 45 volt " B " batteries with 2 2 K volt tap 
Aerial and Ground equipment 
Lamp Cord for set connections to 


Loud Speaker unless included in set 
Headphones if desired (for DX work 

on detector tube) 

Using a Vernier Control 

HPHE three circuit coupler is usually 
-*- accompanied by specific directions 
for its installation and use. The size 
of variable condenser needed with it is 
ordinarily mentioned, too. This con- 
denser should preferably be equipped 
with a vernier control of some sort, 
or else a vernier type of dial may be 
purchased for it. The vernier should 
not be in the form of an extra plate or 
the type that changes the distance 
between the plates, as these prevent 
accurate "logging" of the dial adjust- 
ments for different stations. 

The incorporation of "low-loss" ap- 
paratus will go far toward increasing the 
receiving radius and at the same time 
the selectivity of the outfit. This applies 
in particular to the coupler and the 
variable condenser. The panel is laid 
out first and the parts are situated with 
an eye toward effective balance and 
symmetry. The rear view of the panel 
shows just what parts are mounted on 
it and where they ought to go. In case 
you decide to use an external loud 
speaker, the two jacks and the two 
rheostats may be raised nearer to the 
center line, or one jack might be placed 
beneath each rheostat to preserve the 

good looks of the 


The Wiring 

Wherever pos- 
sible, use connec- 
tions to binding 
post in place of 
soldered lugs or 
soldered joints of 
any sort. Not only 
does soldering make 
for a weak joint 
mechanically, but it 
means more places 
for corrosion to take 
place. Good con- 
nections may be 
made with one of 
the new radio tools 
now on the market, 
built something like 
a pair of pliers but 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

having a rounded nose on which a neat 
loop may be formed for fastening beneath 
the binding post screws. 

The 7x12 inch sub-panel is useful for 
assembling the three sockets, the audio 
transformers and the binding posts. 
These last-named may be suspended 
on a separate "bind- 
ing post panel" as 
illustrated if this 
stunt appeals to 
you. In fact, such 
panels may be ob- 
tained all ready for 
use, drilled for seven 
or eight posts. Wir- 
ing on the main 
panel and sub-panel 
should be done in- 
dividually, locating 
all the wires that do 
not interconnect be- 
t ween the two 
panels. Then, the 
panels are placed 
in the same physical 
relation to each 
other that they will 
have in the finished 
receiver, whether 
the' cabinet chosen 
be sloping or up- 

Bus wiring be- 
tween the two 
panels will serve to 
hold them together 

until they are placed in the cabinet, 
where both may be screwed firmly into 
position. With the connections complete, 
you are ready for the installation of the 
set with its accessories. The aerial and 
ground system are standard so far as 
dimensions and erection go. 

The antenna should preferably be all 
one wire from its outer end right to the 
antenna binding post, to eliminate 
soldered joints. It passes through a 
porcelain tubing either through the wall 
or the window frame. The ground lead 
may be another length of the same type 
of wire, running without joints from the 
ground binding post right to the water 
or steam pipe, where a connection is 
made with a ground clamp. The pipe 
must, of course, be scraped clean down 
to the bright metal before the clamp is 
put on. 

The "soft" type of detector tube makes 
for extreme sensitivity, once its filament 
be correctly adjusted. It is important 
to get its "grid return" lead on the 
negative side of the filament. If, however, 
you decide to employ a hard tube for 
the detector, this lead should go to the 
positive side of the filament instead. In 
the case of the soft tube, the filament 
rheostat should be turned up to a point 
just below that brightness at which a 
"hissing" noise begins. 


T^HERE is only one knob that is 
•*- called upon for extensive operation — ■ 
that of the tuning condenser. With 
such a setting of the tickler dial that no 
whistles or squeals are heard, it is 
possible to tune from low wavelengths 
to high wavelengths by a progressive 

movement of the- condenser dial. All 
local stations will then be heard clearly. 
For distance work, it becomes necessary 
to advance the position of the tickler 
dial to secure regeneration — but you 
should be very careful not to advance it 
enough to cause whistles and squeals. 



Jtt ..■■•■:■•' • ■' ■ t 



// you like a sloping model of cabinet, here's one that is particularly handsome. 
The three circuit tuner is used for reception, with a two stage amplifier, and the outfit 
has a self-contained loud speaker. Make yourself one! 

When you do this, you interfere with 
other listeners round about you and it 
is not necessary to actually arrive at the 
point of "oscillation" where such noises 
commence in order to make your receiver 
sensitive to distant signals. 

Keep a Log, Too 

^^OU also ought to keep a 
*- list of all the stations you 


together with their advertised wave- 
lengths and the dial readings of the 
condenser dial at which these stations 
are heard. Not only will this help you 
locate them again, but at the same time 
it will enable you to know pretty closely 
the setting of your dial for any wave- 
length. And if you are trying your best 
to "log" some DX stations, you will 
then know, for instance, that KDKA 
comes in at 26 and you won't waste time 
trying to get the call letters of a station 
coming in at that setting, for it must be 

The three circuit tuner is particularly 
easy to control for another reason. 
The coupling between the antenna and 
the set is constant and therefore the 
tickler dial is practically constant for 
good regeneration no matter where the 
tuning condenser is set. 

This means that the tickler dial need 
scarcely be touched and means that as a 
critical control, the tickler is no annoy- 

All in all, there's no set so easy to 
operate and so extremely satisfying in its 
results in comparison to the expense 
entailed and the trouble of tuning it. 
It's really the standard three tube 
receiving set and it is deservedly the 

MANY of our readers get considerable 
enjoyment out of constructing 
their own apparatus, and for their benefit 
the following instructions will enable 
them to build the three circuit tuner as 
described in this article. 

First, procure an old vario-coupler and 
strip it of all wind- 
ing. The tube on 
which the tapped 
primary was wound 
will be from 3 to 
3 1-2 inches in dia- 
meter. Beginning at 
the lower end of the 
tube, approximate- 
ly 3-4 of inch from 
the bottom, wind 
15 turns of No. 22 
double silk insu- 
lated wire. Anchor 
the ends of this coil 
by drilling small 
holes in the tube in 
the proper position 
to take the end 
down through one 
hole and up through 
the other. 

These holes 
should be about 1-4 
inch apart and in 
line with the wind- 
ing. At a distance 
of 1-8 of an inch 
from this coil, start 
the secondary wind- 
ing, which consists of 40 turns of the 
same kind of wire used in making the 
first coil. Both the starting and finishing 
ends of this coil are anchored in the same 
way. Next, the rotor is to be wound 
with 42 turns of No. 26 double silk in- 
sulated wire and the ends fastened to the 
same terminals to which the unwound 
coil was fastened. This completes the 

Wind in Same Direction 

It might be well to state that the two 
coils wound upon the tube must be 
wound in the same direction. When 
mounted in the set, the top end of the 15 
turn coil is connected to the aerial bind-, 
ing post and the lower end to the giound 
binding post. This forms the primary 
winding. The top end of the 40 turn coil 
is connected to the grid leak and conden- 
ser and to the rotary plates of the varia- 
ble condenser, and the other end to the 
stationary plates of the variable con- 
denser and the negative side of the "A" 
battery, as shown on the wiring diagram. 

One of the rotor terminals is connected 
to the top spring of the detector jack and 
the other terminal to the plate connection 
of the vacuum tube socket. 

Audio Transformers 

13 EGARDING the audio transformer, 
-*- *■ if the builder desires to obtain ex- 
treme amplification in preference to good 
tone quality without distortion, then one 
having a ratio of 10 to 1 should be used 
in the first stage and that of the second 
stage should be of a lower ratio, such as 
3 1-2 to 1 or 4 to 1. Two low ratio trans- 
formers of about 4 to 1 will, however, 
give much better musical quality to the 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the How 


reception, although perhaps with a little 
less volume. 

In some cases better reception is ob- 
tained if a fixed mica condenser having 
a capacity of .002 M. F. is connected 
across the posts, the posts marked "P" 
and "B" positive side of the first trans- 
former, but whether 
or not this will be 
of any use will de- 
pend upon the par- 
ticular transformer 

It is sometimes 
advisable to substi- 
tute a variable grid 
leak for one of the 
fixed type. This 
should be mounted 
as close to the de- 
tector tube socket 
as possible. This 
is important, as a 
difference of one 
inch in the length 
of the grid leak, 
after passing 
through the con- 
denser, may cause 
the set to howl. No 
mistake will be 
made if it is soldered 
directly to the bind- 
ing post. 

The jack used to 
cut in on the detector tube should 
be of as good a quality as it is possible 
for the builder to obtain. This is usually 
considered by most builders as a most 
unimportant piece of equipment. How- 
ever, this should not be so, as if the jack 
is of poor electrical construction, it is 
possible to burn out all the tubes. 

How many times have you heard a 
fan complain that his audio frequency 
amplifier did not seem to work right? 
Cases of this kind can usually be traced 

to the failure of the two inner prongs to 
make contact when the plug is withdrawn. 
By substituting a double circuit jack for 
the single circuit jack, employed in the 
last stage, it is possible to connect the 
loud speaker permanently to the circuit. 
To do this, the two outside prongs are 

Sockets and transformers are placed on a separate sub-panel inside the set. Binding 
posts are mounted in a row on a separate strip of insulating material. Connections 
are made with bus bar wire and as little soldering as possible. 

connected in the usua. manner, while 
the two inner ones are connected to the loud 
speaker. The loud speaker is thus auto- 
matically put in the circuit when the tele- 
phone plug is removed from the last stage. 
Regarding the tuning condenser, the 
builder is advised to use only the best 
obtainable, as this is one of the most 
important controls in the circuit. There 
are at present many good condensers on 
the market of the low loss type that will 
fit in this set very well. 

As the capacity change in a straight 
line condenser is so gradual, practically 
none of the low loss condensers is offered 
for sale with the usual vernier plates. 
This in itself is quite desirable, as it is 
almost impossible to satisfactorily log a 
set that employs condensers using vernier 
plates. It becomes 
necessary at times to 
use a device where- 
by the condenser 
can be adjusted 

For this purpose 
a vernier type dial 
is usually needed. 
One can be pur- 
chased from almost 
any first class radio 
shop. Be sure to 
obtain one that is 
free from play or 
back lash. 

Probably less at- 
tention has been 
given to the aerials 
of receiving sets 
than any other part 
of the entire radio 
system, and a few 
suggestions to the 
reader concerning 
the type and general 
construction will 
not be amiss. 
[Due to the fact that many of the BCL'S 
were smitten with the radio bug in the 
Winter, and with the usual haste of a 
new fan threw up an aerial without any 
definite thought as to efficiency, appear- 
ance or practibility, just as long as it was 
elevated as high as possible and as long. 
Of course, it is not very nice to be climb- 
ing over gables with the thermometer 
around zero. But nevertheless, your set 
will prove more efficient if you but take 
a little care in hanging the aerial. 

The standardized three circuit arrangement is employed. One jack is provided for headphones and another for loud speaker. The 
grid return from the detector goes to the "A" minus unless a "hard" type of detector tube is chosen. 

16 RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

Keeping Timely with a 

Radio CROSS-WORD Puzzle 


















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■ 24 















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1 46 



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YOU fellows who have annexed Dial 
Twister's buttons will now have 
a further opportunity for dis- 
tinguishing yourselves. Just sharpen 
up the old lead pencil and demonstrate 
your acquaintance with radio words by 
working our radio cross-word puzzle. 
You have all brought in DX; now let 
us see if you can tune in a word of three 
letters meaning "electronic disturbance," 


and make it fit into the little square 
checkerboard. At the same time we 
would like to know how long it took 
you to accomplish this feat, whether 
thirteen minutes or thirteen hours, so 
that we can be governed in laying out 
the cross-word puzzles of the future. 

Not all of the words in the puzzle are 
strictly radio words. We have intro- 
duced enough everyday expressions to 

make it easy for beginners, and further, 
there are no long or unusual words, 
Just plain, everyday words that have 
appeared dozens of times in issues of 
RADIO AGE. Roughly, we should 
say, about fifty per cent of the words are 
radio terms with the remaining fifty 
per cent as used in common conversa- 
tion. Such words as "dinosaurus" or 
(Turn to page 71) 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 



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Efficiency with MATCHED Parts 



IT OFTENTIMES becomes quite a" 
problem for the fan who delights 
in building his own receiving set to 
match his radio frequency transformers 
properly or to build transformers or 
condensers of the proper impedance or 
capacity, because of the difficulty in 
having them measured or matched. 

Radio frequency transformers, as we 
all know, should be as near equal to 
one another as is possible, to obtain the 
most efficient results when placed into 
a set. This applies to the intermediate 
frequency transformers of the super- 
heterodyne type of circuit in particular 
and to a lesser extent to the neutrodyne 
and tuned radio frequency type of cir- 
cuits. These transformers may be con- 
structed exactly alike, to the turn of 
wire, and to the length of wire and 
spacing of turns, yet they may be one or 
two hundred meters apart, due to the vari- 
ation of the wire or its insulation, density 
of winding or capacity between windings. 

Take the condenser, a piece of equip- 
ment most important, yet usually very 
small, where capacity must be as near 
exact as possible to produce the best 
results. All one can do is either take 
the manufacturer's stamp as final, or 
he can figure it out with a long mathe- 
matical problem; but as the great ma- 
jority of broadcast listeners and set 
builders are not radio or electrical engi- 
neers, this becomes too deep and com- 

Not So Complicated 

The measuring and balancing of 
coils and condensers is not a hard or 


Assoc. A. E. E. 

complicated operation; in fact, it be- 
comes almost as simple as tuning his 
receiver when a circuit commonly known 
as a "slide wire bridge" is set up. This 
circuit is simple within itself, and can 
be built in the form of a portable instru- 
ment at small cost, as described in this 


The success or failure of 
most radio receiving sets de- 
pends on whether or not the 
apparatus used is properly 

If your radio frequency trans- 
formers are not as equal as 
possible, your results will not 
be up to standard. 

Here is a unit that enables 
you to determine the necessary 
capacity of your condensers, 
transformers, inductances, etc., 
and thus assure yourself that 
your set is properly laid out. 

If you are in doubt about 
the procedure outlined in this 
article, do not hesitate to call 
upon the authpr for personal 

Material Required in Building the 

One maple disk 7" in diameter (De- 
tail 1). 

One Induction Coil. 

One High frequency buzzer (900 to 
1000 Cycles). 

One piece No. 34 Bare German silver 
resistance Wire 24" Long. 

Eight brass binding posts. 

One composition panel 8"x8"x3'16" 
(Detail 3). 

One 3-16" Ball bearing. 

One Composition knob and pointer. 

One piece spring brass 4"xl-2"x014". 

One brass rod, 1-4" Round 3" long. 

One piece thin bristol board (for scale). 

Miscellaneous screws, nuts, wire, solder 
and washers. 

Slide Wire Parts 

One disk, seven inches in diameter, 
one-half inch thick, will be required, 
(Detail 1). This will be turned from a 
piece of white maple, or other close 
grained hard wood. A groove, or track 
for a 3-16" ball, will be cut around the 
edge as shown in detail 1. This groove 
will be one-sixteenth of an inch deep. 

One hole, five-sixteenths of an inch 
in diameter will be drilled in the exact 
center to pass the 1-4" shaft, and four 
holes will be drilled to pass a No. 6 
brass machine screw, and counter-bored 
to receive a No. 6 brass hexagon nut. 
These four holes will line up with the 
four holes to be drilled later, in the panel 
(Detail 3) and will be used for mounting 
the disk to the panel. 

One brass rod, one quarter of an inch 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


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in diameter and about three inches long, 
will be threaded to receive a one-quarter 
inch brass hexagon nut, over its entire 
length. Two brass washers and six, 
one-quarter inch brass hexagon nuts 
will be secured, to fit this rod. 

One composition knob will be drilled 
and counterbored to receive the 1-4" 
shaft, and shall have a pointer, three or 
three and one-half inches long, fastened 
to the bottom, (see figures 2 and 3). 
A pointer can be made from spring 
brass .014 inch in thickness if required. 

When all of the above parts have 
been made or secured, the next step will 
be to prepare the panel. 

Drilling the Panel 

A COMPOSITION panel 8"x8"x3-16", 
thick will be prepared, and the 
drillings centered as shown in detail 3. 
One hole 5-16" in diameter 
will be drilled in the exact 
center, to pass the 1-4" 
shaft. Four holes will be 
drilled and tapped to receive 
No. 4 Round head brass 
machine screws to mount 
the scale, and eight holes to 
pass No. 8 Machine screws 
will be drilled, two in each 
corner, to mount the binding 
posts XI, X2, Yl, Y2, Rl, 
R2, Positive and Negative. 
Suitable mounting holes will 
then be drilled to fit the cab- 
inet used, and the panel will 
be laid aside. 

An induction coil or open 
core transformer may be pur- 
chased from any reliable elec- 
trical supply house, for about 
one dollar, or it may be made 
at an even smaller expense. 

One bundle of soft iron 
wire having a total diameter 
of about three-eighths of an 
inch and a length of four 
inches will be securely tied, 
and wrapped with about ten 
turns of good wax paper. 
Two pieces of wood, one- Fig. 2 A 

quarter inch thick and one and one- 
half inches square, will have a three- 
eighths-inch hole drilled in the centers, 
and the core ends made secure in these 
holes, making an iron core spool. 

Shellac or glue may be used to fasten 
all parts, and it would be well to tie 
the windings with shellac or glue when 
each coil is completed. 

The primary coil will be wound in 
even layers, directly over the core, on 
the wax paper wrappings. Two hundred 
turns of No. 20 double cotton covered 
magnet wire will be required and both 
ends of this winding will be brought out 
through holes in one of the end pieces 
of the spool, and the entire coil covered 
with about six turns of wax paper, thus 
completing the primary coil. 

The secondary coil will be wound 
directly over the primary coil and on 

top of the wax paper. 
Be careful to wind the 
wire in the same di- 
rection as was done 
on the primary coil. 
Six hundred turns of 
No. 30 double cotton 
covered wire will be 
necessary, bringing 
each end of the coil 
out through holes in 
the end piece opposite 
to the primary leads. 
It would be well to 
splice a piece of 
heavier wire to the 
secondary coil ends, 
taking two or three 
turns and bringing 
out through the end 
piece, as No. 30 wire 
is rather delicate and 
hard to handle. 

Ten turns of wax 
paper will then be 
wound around the 
coil and made fast, 
completing the induction coil. 

A high frequency buzzer (900 to 1,000 
cycles) can be secured from any reliable 
dealer. It should be enclosed under a 
metal cover. A buzzer of this type is 
required to set up a current whose fre- 
quency is somewhere near the frequency 
of voice currents, to better balance and 
measure equipment subject to voice 
frequency currents. 

Assembly of the Parts 

r I ''HE first step in assembling the parts 
-*- of the slide wire should be to fasten 
the No. 34 German silver resistance 
wire in place on the disk (Detail 1), 


but it would be well to assemble the 
parts to try them out for fit and per- 
formance first, and then remove such 
pieces as necessary to put the resistance 
wire in place, as it is very delicate and 
can be damaged easily. 

The 1-4" shaft will be made 
fast through the center hole 
in the disk, (Detail 1) using 
two washers and two hexa- 
gon brass nuts, (Figure 2). 
When it has been adjusted 
so as to revolve freely, lock 
the nuts onto the shaft with 
a small center punch, so that 
they will not turn loose or 
tighten with the shaft when 
it is revolved. Then mount 
the disk, (Detail 1) to the 
panel, with No. 6 flat head 
brass machine screws and 
nuts, as shown in Figure 2, 
using washers to space the 
disk so that the nut on top 
of the disk will clear the panel 
by at least one-sixteenth of 
an inch. 

When the disk is mounted 
to the panel, the contact arm 
(Detail 2) will be made fast 
to the shaft under a 1-4" 
brass hexagon nut, (see Fig- 
ure 2) and the flange bent so 
as to exert a tension on the 
3-16" ball, but not enough 
— Showing the drillings in the 8"x8"x3-16" panel. to impair the travel of this 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


ball in the groove or track on the edge 
of the disk. 

The panel and slide wire will now be 
laid aside and the induction coil and 
buzzer mounted into the cabinet as 
shown in Figure 3. When this has been 
done, the instrument is ready to be 
■ wired and will be set aside until the 
scale is made and mounted to the panel. 
The Scale 

The piece of bristol board for the 
scale will be cut into a disk seven inches 
in diameter, and will have a one-half 
inch hole directly in the centre to fit 
over the 1-4" shaft, when mounted on 
the panel. Four holes will be cut to 
pass the No. 4 brass machine screws 
for mounting, and the scale laid out. 

Black India ink is the best to use on 
account of its being water-proof, and 
will stand wear better than other inks. 
Also, it will not blur once it is dry, and 
it will stand out clearly. 

The scale will have one hundred sec- 
tions on each side of "O" (See Figure 2). 
To lay this out, first measure the sections 
one inch long around the circumference 
of the disk each way, from a point to 
represent "O," then divide each of these 
sections into ten equal parts, and number 
from to 100, to the left of "O" and 
from to 100 to the right of "O." 

A partial scale is shown in Figure 4, 
to exact size, and may be used as a 
guide in spacing all of the sections if 

When the scale has been completed 
it will be mounted to the panel by four 
No. 4 round head brass machine screws 
in the position shown in Figure 3. 
Wiring the Instrument 

TWO No. 4 round head wood screws 
will be put on the disk, one directly 
under the 100+ and one directly under 
100— points on the scale. Placed so 
that when the knob is turned, as far 
as it will go in each direction, the ball 
will be directly under the end of the 
scale and the pointer will be at 100 + 
or 100 -. 

Three terminals will be put under 
each screw and the screw tightened to 
make a good contact. Now take the 
No. 34 German silver wire, and place 
it around the groove, laying tight on the 
bottom and make fast to one of the 
terminals on each 

A pig-tail connec- 
tion will be made 
as shown in Figure 2 
and connected to 
binding post Rl. 

One lead from the 
primary of the in- 
duction coil will be 
made fast to one ter- 
minal of the buzzer, 
and the remaining 
primary lead con- 
nected to post — , 
using stranded wire. 
Now connect the re- 
maining terminal of 

The secondary 
leads of the indue- 


tion coil will then be connected, one to 
each stop screw on the disk (Detail 1) 
using one of the terminals. 

Binding post X2 will be connected 
to stop screw under 100— on the scale 
and post Y2 to the stop screw under 
100+ on the scale, using the remaining 
terminal on each. 

Binding post Yl and XI will be con- 
nected to post R2 and the panel fastened 
to the cabinet, completing the instru- 


Connect a receiver to terminals Rl 
and R2 (Figure 1) and the positive side 
of a six volt battery to post+ and the 
negative side to post—. Connect the 
transformers or condensers to be meas- 
ured or balanced to posts XI and X2 
and to posts Yl and Y2, as follows: 


r/G. 3. 


Balancing R. F. Transformers 

Connect the inside terminal of one 
primary coil to post XI and the ouiside 
terminal to post X2. Connect the inside 
terminal of the other primary coil to 
post Yl and the outside terminal to 
post Y2. 

Move the slide wire pointer until no 
hum is heard in the head phones. If 
the silent period is at "O," the coils 
are balanced; if the pointer is at 10 — 
it will indicate that coil X has more 
impedance than coil Y, and it will be 
necessary to add turns to coil Y until 
the pointer shows "O" as the silent 

If the pointer shows 10+ as the 
silent spot, then coil Y has more im- 
pedance than coil X and to balance 
remove turns until the pointer shows 
"O" as the silent period. 

Repeat the operation for the secondary 
coils of the transformer, connecting 
them in the same manner to posts XI, 
X2 and Yl and Y2. 

When three or more transformers 
are to be balanced, use the transformer 
connected to XI and X2 terminals as 
the master and balance coils con- 
nected to Yl and Y2 to equal. If the 
three transformers are thus balanced 
or matched, they will all fall within a 
few meters of one another and should 
work well together. 

To Measure Impedance or 

WHEN it is desired to measure the 
impedance of a coil, it will be neces- 
sary to secure a master coil or impedance 
whose impedance is known; say 1 henry 
for example. This master impedance coil 
will be connected to postsXl and X2. 

The coil to be measured will then 
be connected to posts Yl and Y2 and 
the slide wire revolved to the silent 
point. If this should fall on 25— then 
the impedance of coil Y will be .25 less 
than 1 henry or .75 henry, or if it should 
stop at 50— coil Y will be .50 less than 
coil X or '.5 henry, or wherever it stops 
on the — side of the scale, the reading 
will be direct. Thus, if it should stop 
at 86, the coil Y will be .86 less than 
coil X or 14 per cent of coil X. 

When the reading comes on the + 
side of the scale, coil Y will be greater 
than coil X. Thus, 
if the pointer shows 
25+, then the im- 
pedance of coil Y 
will be 1.25 of coil 
X or 1.25 henry, or 
if it should stop on 
86, the coil Y would 
be 1.86 henry. 

Resistance will be 
found in the same 
manner. Attaching 
a coil whose resist- 
ance is known to 
terminals XI and 
X2, and the un- 
known to terminals 
Yl and Y2, then the 
resistance in ohms 
will be proportional 
to coil or resistance 
(Turn to page 73) 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

^Exploding a Few Antiquated Theories 

Don't Worry 



WISHING to know the up-to-date 
truth about antennas, and their 
relation to the new receiving 
sets and results, I asked Dr. Dellinger, 
Chief of the Radio Laboratory of the 
United States Bureau of Standards, for 
information. The experts at the Bureau 
of Standards are not in the business of 
making or selling apparatus. They 
have exceptional opportunities for test- 
ing theories, parts, sets and appliances. 
When they speak, they speak with 
authority and without such prejudice 
as a man with a dollar at stake may be 
inclined to yield to. 

Dr. Dellinger promptly smashed sev- 
eral pet theories and erroneous notions 
about antennas that have been widely 

believed. He spoke of the number of 
persons who wanted radio sets but who 
refrained from installing them because 
they believed that the antenna was 
dangerous, troublesome, and compli- 
cated. In fact, he said the antenna is 
none of these things. 

The advertising of "antennaless" radio 
sets has caught the fancy of many cus- 
tomers. Dr. Dellinger says there "ain't 
no such animal," though not in exactly 
those words. He himself predicted long 
ago that there would be and, in one 
sense, they arrived, but every radio 
receiver must have an antenna of some 
sort, 'even though it may be but a few 
turns of wire concealed in the cover of 
its cabinet. To get power from the radio 
waves without an antenna is as impos- 
sible as getting lemonade from a lemon 
without some kind of a squeezer. Just 
as a cow may be milked by a milk maid, 
farm hand, vacuum suction outfit or a 
calf, so radiated electrical energy may 
be drawn from the ether by various 
means, but whatever the extractor is, 
it is an antenna. 

Antennas are Liberal 

A/rOST anything will work," said 
-L'J- Dr. Dellinger of antennas. "You 
can't go wrong. You can take directions, 
giving in minute detail the height, size, 
mode of fastening and insulating the 
antenna, and work a week following 
these directions, and then walk into the 
home of a friend and find him getting 
perfectly good results with a wire tacked 
up to the picture moulding. None the 
less, a fairly long and high antenna, out- 
of-doors, is the cheapest way to get loud 
signals with the simplest radio sets. 

Have you worried about length, num- 
ber of wires, insulated or bare wire? 
His suggestion, like that of the physician 
to the patient who had read the patent 
medicine ad and begun to feel the symp- 
toms is: "Don't worry!" The neigh- 
bor's multiple-wire, flat-top or cage 
antenna probably has a transmitting 
amateur at the end nearest hell. A 
receiving antenna should simply be a 
wire running from the receiving set to 
as high a point as possible at the far end. 
A single, continuous wire is better than 
an out-door and an indoor portion joined 
together. It does not need to be hori- 




zontal. Just let it take any angle that 
happens as a result of the height of the 
farther point of support. 

Some have believed that "directional 
effects" in an antenna affect results, in 
spite of the fact that ships at sea do not 
turn broadside on or stern to the shore 
station when sending and receiving 
messages. Dr. Dellinger says, comfort- 
ingly, that the fears that our antennas 
will not receive signals from one direc- 
tion or another are entirely groundless. 
Perceptible differences due to direction 
are obtainable only with special an- 
tennas much longer than those used 
for broadcast reception. 

In discussing insulation, he confirmed 
some popular impressions and brought 
up other matters that are often over- 
looked. Porcelain or glass insulators 
should be used to support the antenna, 
he said, and it should be kept as far as 
possible from all other objects, such as 
buildings or trees. Its length should 
extend over clear, unobstructed ground. 
Except where it enters the building 
through a porcelain tube, and goes direct 
to the receiving set without touching 
walls or anything, it should be kept 
more than five feet from any object. 

Stranded antenna wire has been ad- 
vised many times because of its greater 
surface as compared with its size. Dr. 
Dellinger says it is not quite as good as 
solid copper wire, No. 14 or larger, be- 
cause its resistance is higher. The ob- 
ject of all the effort to keep the antenna 
away from everything is to lower the 
resistance. The stranded wire, however, 
is stronger mechanically. Insulated 
antenna wire helps us to spend more 
money but not to secure more energy 
from the radio waves. 

Regulating the Length 

\ S TO length, this expert says any- 

-^*- where from 50 to 150 feet gives 

good results. Lengthen the wire and 

(Turn to page 69) 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


The WHY of Vacuum TUBES 

Frank Pearne 
Takes You Into 

About Tubes 

Will Help Set- 
Builder Get 

JUST what part the vacuum tube 
plays in the working of a receiving 
set is well known to all radio enthu- 
siasts; at least, they know that if it is 
to be used as a detector tube, it must 
be placed in one part of the circuit and 
if it is to be used as an amplifier tube, 
it is used in a different part of the circuit. 

They also understand in a way that 
when used as a detector, its rectifying 
qualities are pushed to the limit and 
when they are used in the amplifying 
circuit, they must be so arranged that 
their amplifying qualities are brought 
to maximum. 

Many fans have gone far deeper into 
the subject, but there are a great many 
who care only for the music and pleasure 
which the set affords and do not attempt 
to find the reason that a tube is necessary 
in the set, but where we find one of this 
type, we find a thousand of the other, 
who are eager to learn more about the 
mysteries of radio, thirsting for more 
knowledge and getting the keenest 
delight out of building their own appar- 
atus and knowing just why it produces 
the results obtained. 

It is for these hard workers and con- 
tributors to the radio science that this 
article is written, in the hope that it 
may be of some service to them. It 
will in a measure also serve to answer 
the many thousands 
of questions per- 
taining to the value 
of the many new 
types of vacuum 
tubes which have 
lately been put on 
the market. 

A Tube is Peculiar 

r |' , HE workings of 
•*- a tube are pecu- 
liar to say the least, 
as its action depends 
upon what is known 
as the evaporation 
of metal. Many 
will wonder at this 
statement, as the 
evaporation of fluids 
may be well under- 
stood, but it is hard 
torealizethat metals 
may do the same 
thing although not 
in a molten condi- 
tion. It is true that 
they evaporate very 

slowly within the ordinary range of 
temperatures, but when heat is applied, 
this rate of evaporation increases rapidly. 

Air, however, has an oxidizing effect 
upon this action, and when surrounded 
by air, it will usually oxidize before any 
great amount of evaporation can be 
noticed. If, then, the metal can be 
placed in a vacuum and heat applied 
in some manner, it will slowly evaporate 
until it disappears. 

When an ordinary tungsten lamp 
begins to show signs of age and the 






The three element tube used as a detector 

Mysteries of 

New Types of 


light becomes poor, a close examination 
will show that the inside of the glass 
bulb is coated with a dark material 
which is nothing more or less than the 
tungsten which has evaporated from the 
filament. In explaining the cause for 
this, it will be necessary to know some- 
thing about the electron, which is the 
smallest known particle of matter. All 
matter is composed of atoms which are 
made up of electrons whirling in different 
orbits around a central nucleus of posi- 
tively charged protons and negatively 
charged electrons, which cling together. 
The electron is always negatively 
charged, and in fact is spoken of as the 
smallest possible quantity of negative 
electricity. The normal atom does 
not exhibit any electrical charge, the 
reason being that it has acquired enough 
electrons to neutralize the positive 
charge, which it has by nature of its 
structure; but if it loses one electron, 
then the positive charge asserts itself 
and if it gains one electron, it becomes 
a negative atom. In other words, the 
addition or subtraction of one electron 
changes it from a normal atom having 
no apparent charge to one having either 
a positive or negative charge. If the 
atom becomes positive because of the 
loss of one electron, it will again become 
neutral if it regains another electron. 
Different kinds of 
matter are made up 
of atoms which have 
different numbers 
of protons and elec- 
trons for a nucleus 
and more or less 
floating electrons. 

The Hydrogen 

FOR example, the 
hydrogen atom, 
which is the most 
simple of -all, is com- 
posed of one single 
electron revolving 
around a proton, 
while the tungsten 
atom is much more 
complex as it con- 
sists of seventy-four 
electrons, whirling 
around a nucleus of 
about 200 positive 
protons tightly 
clingingtoabout 100 
electrons. Now, un- 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


der ordinary con- 
ditions the elec- 
trons which go to 
make up one atom 
of a certain matter 
stay within their 
own orbits and do 
not fly off to join 
■another atom, but 
it has been found 
that in those ma- 
terials which are 
conductors of elec- 
tricity, one elec- 
tron in each atom 
is more or less free 
and will stray 
around among the 
other atoms, some- 
times clinging to 
one and then to 
another, while in 
those materials 
which are known 
as good insulators, 

they stay within their own orbits and do 
not wander about. 

If an electrical conductor is connected 
between some two points having a differ- 
ence of potential, such as a battery or 
a dynamo, those electrons 
which are free, being really 
negative charges of elec- 
tricity, will naturally be 
attracted toward the point 
which is positive (the car- 
bon terminal of the battery, 
or the positive terminal of 
the dynamo) and will grad- 
ually work themselves along 
between the atoms from 
one end to the other, thus 
producing what is known as 
a flow of electric current. 
But it should here be noted 
that the slow movement of the electrons 
is in the opposite direction to that of 
which we consider the direction of the 

Now, just what takes place in the 
vacuum tube? Some years ago it was 
discovered that if a piece of metal was 
heated in a gas flame and another piece 
of metal was placed near it and given 
a positive charge, some of these free 
electrons in the heated metal would be 
attracted from the hot metal to the cold 
positively charged metal through the 
intervening space, passing from this 
cold metal through an electrical con- 
ductor back to the heated metal. The 
emission of electrons from the heated 
metal, however, was not very great, 
because the metal became oxidized, 







Hydrogen atom, showing the 
electron whirling around the 

Electrons attracted to cold plate, when it is 
given a positive charge. 

The two element vacuum tube used as a detector. 

forming a coating over the hot metal, 
which served as a barrier to the flow of 
electrons and only a few of them could 
force their way through. When an elec- 
trically heated filament was used and 
was enclosed with the cold 
plate in a vacuum, the flow 
was greatly increased. 

Surface Freed of Coating 

DY REMOVING all the 
-*-' air from the interior 
of the glass bulb, which 
contains the filament and 
the cold piece of metal 
(called the plate) the fila- 
ment does not oxidize, thus 
leaving the surface free of 
any hard coating which 
might be difficult for the 
electrons to break through. 
It also removes most all of 
the gasses, which is another 
important factor, as the 
mass of the electron is so 
small that should it collide 
with an atom of gas as it 
moves outward from the 
filament, it would immedi- 
ately bounce back to it and 
would never reach the plate. 
Then, too, the hot filament 
has a tendency to absorb 
gas, and too much of this 
absorption may stop the 
electron flow entirely.' 

One peculiar fact, however, has been 
proven. That is that although certain 
impurities in the outside surface of the 
filament have a tendency to prevent 
the escape of the electrons, certain oxides, 
when spread over the surface of the 
filament, will cause a great increase in 
the number of electrons emitted from it. 
Ordinarily a tungsten filament would 
have to be heated to nearly a white 
heat to throw off the maximum number 
of electrons, but with the proper coating 
of certain oxides, the same thing may 
be accomplished at a very low temper- 
ture. In fact, the temperature required 
is so low that it will sometimes hardly 
make the filament glow. However, 
great care must be used in the use of 
coated filaments, as too much heat will 

An atom composed of severed 
protons and Electrons clinging 

ruin the oxide coating and hence reduce 
the efficiency of the tube. 

It must also be remembered that 
although many electrons may start on 
the journey from the filament to the 
plate, the number which finally reach 
it is few compared to the number which 
start. Those which do not cover the 
entire distance fall back into the hot 
filament for reasons which will be ex- 
plained later. The coated filament, 
then, has proven to be a great improve- 
ment in the vacuum tube, and as this 
is a secret process, it is a question as to 
whether or not some of the new tubes 
which have appeared on the market 
since the expiration of certain patents 
are using it; but there can be no doubt 
about the results which some of them 
produce, as many of them make excellent 
detectors and amplifiers. But the ques- 
tion of their useful life is the most vital 
point to be considered and only time 
will tell. 

"The Edison Effect" 

NOW we have seen how the emission 
of the electrons from the filament 
flow to the positively charged plate, but 
nothing has been said as to why such 
an arrangement can be used as a rectifier 
of high frequency currents as used in 
the radio receiver, and also the low fre- 
quency currents which are used in charg- 
ing batteries from the ordinary 60 cycle 
alternating elecfric lighting circuit. This 
is what is known as the "Edison effect" 
because Edison was the first to discover 
that if the positive terminal of a battery 
was connected to the cold plate and the 
negative to the filament, the electrons 
which came in contact with the plate 
would continue their travels through the 
plate, over the connecting wire and back 
to the filament, to be passed on again to 
the plate. 

A galvanometer placed in 
this circuit showed that a 
current was flowing in the 
opposite direction to the 
movement of the electrons, 
but that if the terminals 
of the battery were reversed, 
no current would flow. Ed- 
ison probably never realized 
the value of this discovery, 
as it remained for Dr. Flem- 
ing to make the first prac 
tical use of it some years 
later. The reason the cur- 
rent will only pass in one 
direction through the circuit is now 
quite plain, as the positive terminal 
of the battery connected to the plate 
(Turn to page 67) 








PLATE t 3hT 


Electron emission from heated filament to 
cold positively charged plate. 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 




A Four Tube 




A Novel 
Hookup that 
Will Tune DX 
Right Through 
Local Stations: 
Addition of R.F. 
Stage Gives More 
Range, Selectivity 

WITH the steady increase in power 
of the broadcasting stations, the 
demand for an economical and 
sensitive receiver has become more and 
more urgent. At first the stations were 
of limited power and few and far between. 
Today our large cities - usually have 
several stations operating at the same 

The degree of selectivity, even though 
the .apparatus is of the best design 
possible, is limited when operating under 
these conditions^ -If a station. is using 
suffieieH-t-^power, it can -spread itself 
over the dials of any set using only one 
or two tuned circuits. If the coupling 
is made weak enough to make the nearby 
stations sharper, the ..volume . oa . the 
weaker. and more distant stations falls 

off to such an extent that reception is 
difficult and unsatisfactory. 

The "trick" circuit has passed on and 
the three-circuit tickler feedback arrange- 
ment using low-loss apparatus is probably 
the most popular set today. It justly 
holds this position, for it has a high de- 
gree of sensitivity with good volume and 
selectivity. The popularity of low-loss 
three-circuit tuners satisfies the greatest 
numbers as possessing most of the 
qualities necessary to a good receiver. 
Unless the owner of such a receiver is 
particularly fortunate in his location, 
even the best apparatus will not enable 
him to cut out nearby stations. For 
him who cannot change his location, 
about the only thing that can be done 
is to. change his circuit. 

A MONG the better grade of low-loss 
-<- *- tuners on the market the degree of 
selectivity is not very different. The fun- 
damental regenerative may be used with 
the majority of such tuners; circuit 
shown on page 25. This circuit has a great 
many desirable characteristics and is 
as good as any, all things considered, 
for a one, two or three tube set. 

Only Two Controls 

There are only two controls, one for 
regeneration and one for wavelength. 
The primary is untuned and may be 
adjustable, permitting a reasonable bal- 
ance between volume and selectivity. 
Now, if we take an efficient detector 
and add to it a stage of radio in such a 
manner that its original characteristics 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

are retained, we should materially in- fixed condenser across the phones, 
crease the most desirable properties of However, this very often will cause the 

the set, without adding complicating 
and undesirable features. In adding 
this stage of radio frequency amplifica- 
tion, we will at one and the same time 
make the set more selective, more 
sensitive, and decrease the amount of 
objectionable radiation to a negligible 

The circuit shown below is adapted 
to practically any 
type of tuner us- 
ing the regular 
three circuit hook- 
up. It is shown 
on a panel 
7"x24", although 
any reasonable 
layout may be 
used. It is best, 
however, to line 
up your set some- 
what as illustrated, 
making sure that 
the air-core trans- 
f or mer T- 1 is 
placed at right 
angles to the 
tuner T-2. 

In wiring the 
were run direct, 

detector to oscillate too readily and 
thereby make tuning more difficult. 
The first stage of audio may also be used 
for loud speaker reception on local signals 
in cases where extreme volume is not 

Exact Settings Necessary 

THE regular type of low-loss con- 
denser was not used, as the writer 

A panel view of the three-circuit regenerator. There are three tuning controls, and 
three rheostats. Tuning is very selective, KGO, at 312 meters, being brought in while 
WSAI, at 309 meters, was going full blast. And thsre was no interference. 

set, all the wires 
making consider- 
able shorter leads than would be 
obtained if it were constructed in the 
conventional manner. Direct leads are 
always more desirable, although not so 
neat in appearance. The undesirable 
capacity feedback between leads is cut 
down by shortening them in this manner. 
No jack was used by the writer in 
the detector circuit, as this is not gen- 
erally of value to anyone of reasonable 
experience, as on very weak signals it 
is best to listen in on the first stage of 
audio. This eliminates the difficulty 
often experienced in a regenerative set 
of tuning in on the detector and have 
the signal disappear when placed on 
the loud speaker. The change in feed- 
back in the detector circuit caused by 
changing from phones to loud speaker 
is generally eliminated by using a large 

could not find any with the positive 
vernier action absolutely necessary in 
this circuit. It is doubtful whether the 
difference between good average conden- 
sers and the most efficient condensers 
possible would compensate for the loss 
of a good vernier action. Geared 
arrangements having back-lash are worse 
than none at all. The tuning is so sharp 
that exact dial settings are an absolute 
necessity to good reception. The induc- 
tance coils used require a 250 M. M. F. 
condenser at CI and C2: — if any other 
type of apparatus than that shown is 
used, condensers of the proper size to 
cover the broadcast wave-band should 
be substituted. 

The 2,000 ohm resistance in series 
with the B-battery lead on the radio 
frequency amplifier is used to hold this 
tube below the point of oscillation. If 
this is omitted, it becomes necessary to 
turn the R. F. rheostat down on the 

lower wavelengths. This is less efficient 
than inserting resistance in the plate 
circuit. The writer used a 2,000 ohm 
potentiometer, connecting one lead to 
the center and the other to one of the 
outside terminals; either terminal gives 
the same result. 

After the set is wired, the results 
obtained will depend a great deal on 
the adjustment of the constants of the 
circuit. The use of an air-core trans- 
former, with a 
variable primary, 
permits the set to 
be adjusted for 
varying receiving 
conditions, length 
of antenna, 
and proximity to 
the broadcasting 
stations. As the 
primary is raised 
the set becomes 
more and more 
selective, and at 
the same time the 
volume slowly 
drops off. By 
properly setting 
this primary, the best balance between 
selectivity and volume may be ob- 
tained. The primary on the tuner will 
generally work best when used with fairly 
loose coupling to the secondary. This 
reduces the tendency of the radio fre- 
quency amplifier to oscillate and prevents 
the detector circuit from causing it to 
go into oscillation when the tickler coil 
brings the detector up to the point of 
maximum regeneration. 

The 100 M. M. F. fixed condenser 
across the audio frequency transformer 
may be omitted in a great many cases, 
as the distributed capacity in the primary 
is often sufficient to permit the detector 
to oscillate. By trying various values 
from 1000 M. M. F- to 100 M. M. F., 
an adjustment may be obtained such that 
the tickler will cause the detector to 
oscillate when it is set at about fifty on 
the dial. This is about the right setting 
for easy control. 

A regenerative receiver witfrone stage of R. F. amplification. One of the advantages is that the primary tuning can be adjusted to 
the signal strength received. The addition of a stage of R. F. amplification makes this set more selective, more sensitive and decreases 
annoying radiation to an unnoticeable degree. 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 



If a U. V.-200 is used as a detector, 
a six ohm rheostat should be used at R2 
and a 250 M. M. F. grid condenser with 
a two-megohm grid leak. If a U. V.-201- 
A is used a twenty-ohm rheostat should 
be used the same as at Ri and R3, with 
a three or four megohm grid leak. 

The constructor should have abso- 
lutely no difficulty in building this set, 
as it is in no way critical. For maximum 
results only the best type of low-loss 
transformer and tuner may be used. 
The minor details have been left to the 
judgment of the constructor, as he can 
hardly go wrong if he employs neat and 
careful workmanship in the building of 
his set. 

Separating KGO and WSAI 

TN tests a set of 
•*• this type has 
brought in distant 
stations with good 
volume and excell- 
ent tone quality. 
The selectivity is 
such that Stations 
KGO at 312 meters 
could be perfectly 
separated from 
WSAI at 309 me- 
ters with absolute- 
ly no interference 
between them. By 
raising the adjust- 
able primary on T- 1, 
the set can be made 
so sharp that tuning 
is almost impossible 
on weak signals. 

The stations are 
always very easy 
to locate, as the 
detector may be 
made to oscillate 
and the stations 
found by the beat 
note or whistle, with 
which you are all 
familiar. A selec- 
tive receiver often 
gives the novice 
difficulty in tuning, 
as the stations cover 
such a small por- 
tion of the dial that locating them 
is to him somewhat like trying to find 
the combination of a safe by turning 
the lock. When the stations are easy 
to find he complains that the set is too 
broad. When it is sharp he cannot tune 
them in. So there you are! 

In the illustration of the set herewith, 
the adjustable primaries are set down 
close to the secondaries. This gives the 
- broadest possible tuning and is the best 
position for tuning the set until the 
-constructor is familiar with it. After 
learning to tune it this way, he should 
raise the primaries until the desired 
degree of selectivity is obtained. An- 
other good characteristic of this set is 
that the stations may be found with the 
detector tube oscillating without causing 
any interference to your neighbors, as 
the first tube reduces the amount of 
radiation to a negligible quantity. 

Stations will always come in at the 
same dial setting, providing' the batteries 

and filament rheostat of the detector 
remain the same. In tuning, the detector 
rheostat should be set at the best point 
and not disturbed by further adjust- 

For anyone wishing to increase the 
sensitivity and selectivity of his three 
tube set, or to construct a medium sized 
receiver, it is the opinion of the writer 
that he cannot go wrong if he follows a 
circuit of this type. 


Y-l Air core transformer (low-loss) 
T-2 Tuner (low-loss) 
C-l and C-2 Vernier Condensers 
T-s and T-4 Low Ratio Audio trans- 
formers (2-1 or 3-1) 
R-l and R-3 20 Ohm Rheostats 


'/TB/trr. ~B~ B/tTT 


Above is the fundamental regenerative receiver circuit of the hookup described 
in this article by Mr. Piety. On the opposite page is shown the same circuit with 
one stage of radio frequency amplification added to the original hookup. 

R-2 6 Ohm Rheostat (20 Ohm if a 
U. V. 201-A is used as a detector) 

R-4 2,000 Ohm Potentiometer 

R-5 1-2 Megohm Grid leak (3 or 4 if a 
201-A is used as a detector) 

C-3 .0001 Fixed Condenser 

C-4 .006 Fixed Condenser 

C-S .00025 Fixed Condenser 

J-l 4 Prong Jack 

J-2 2 Prong Jack with Filament Control 

7 Marked binding posts 

1 4J^ Volt C Battery 

1 Panel size 7 "x24" 

1 Baseboard size 7"x23° 

SW Filament Switch 

Screws, wire, solder, dials and other 

small accessories. 

IF THE builder so desires, he may 
install a jack that will permit him to 
listen on the detector tube only, by pur- 
chasing another two circuit jack and 
hooking it into the circuit just before 
the first audio frequency transformer. 

To do this the top prong is soldered on 
to the connection that comes from the 
rotor of the "low loss tuner," the second 
prong is connected to the plate side of 
the audio frequency transformer, the 
third prong to "B" positive side of the 
audio frequency transformer, and the 
bottom prong to the "B" battery, positive 
22 and one-half volts. 

The fixed condenser across the pri- 
mary of the first audio frequency trans- 
former is connected across the top and 
bottom prongs of the jack. 

It sometimes is advisable in a circuit 
of this type to substitute a variable grid 
leak for one of the fixed type. The 
selection of this article will be left to 
the desire of the builder, but he is cau- 
tioned against mounting it in such a posi- 
tion that the lead to 
the tube socket will 
be exceptionally 
long. There are at 
the present time 
several variable grid 
leaks on the market 
with long bakelite 
(or other insulating 
material) shaftsthat 
permit the resist- 
ance itself to be 
mounted directly to 
the tube socket, but 
by means of a small 
knob the adjust- 
ment is controlled 
from the panel. If 
you have one that 
is not of the type 
mentioned, it would 
be best to sacrific 
the convenience of 
adjustment and 
mount it inside the 
cabinet, right on 
the socket itself. 

The builder is re- 
minded that it is not 
advisable to omit 
the potentiometer 
when building the 
set. Many fans 
argue that the in- 
serting of a poten- 
tiometer is adding 
another control that is very seldom used 
and does not increase selectivity to any 
great extent. This might be so in some 
circuits, but it is of very great import- 
ance in this particular one, and to get 
maximum results it should be included. 
In closing I might suggest that the 
builder remember that this is a very selec- 
tive receiver. And as such he might have 
a little bit of trouble regarding the re- 
ception of really distant stations, until 
he has properly learned to handle the 

If he will but remember to set the 
primary coil close to the secondary until 
he has become quite proficient in hand- 
ling the circuit, then he will be sure to get 
the results for which we all so eagerly try. 
With the coil in this position, the tun- 
ing will be quite broad, of course, but 
then as he becomes more and more ex- 
perienced he can gradually increase the 
separation between the primary and the 

26 RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

the Pro and Con 
of Regeneration 

for The Fan 


TH REE radio systems — regenera- 
tion, radio frequency and the super- 
hetrodyne — are now competing for 

In this article, the concluding one of 
the "Beginners' Series" which began in 
the October RADIO AGE, we will discuss 
regeneration pro and con, and will give an 
example of regeneration at its best so the 
beginner who has reached the multi-tube 
stage may decide whether he shall choose 
that type of reception. 

If you have followed this series, from 
the crystal hookup to the one-tube set, 
you are now ready for the next step — 
three tubes or more. For those who are 
still uninitiated into the first principles 
of radio, the writer refers them to the 
comprehensive, explanatory articles 
which began in October and progressed 
by easy stages to the present status. 


BRIEFLY, the "pro" of regeneration 
is this. Why use five to eight tubes 
to do the work of three? The answer 
is — to get greater selectivity; to avoid 
radiation and to secure greater amplifica- 

A single circuit regenerative set, like 
the ultra-audion, 
becomes a broad- 
casting device 
whenever the feed- 
back is increased 
until the set whis- 
tles. That whistle 
has been picked up 
by receivers within 
ten miles. 

Regenerative sets 
were "convicted" of 
being a nuisance 
and aroused intense 
public indignation 
when they seriously 
impaired results 
during Internation- 
nal Radio Week, 
late in 1924. The 
squeals and howls 
they sent forth 
made it impossible 
for many to hear 
Europe at all. 
Many who tuned in 
the foreign stations 
were unable to dis- 
tinguish the mes- 
sages because o f 
radiating sets. 

Many inventors, 
including CarlPfan- 
stiehl, have conduc- 
ted laboratory ex- 
periments in radia- 

A view of the panel of Mr. Eitel's "DX regenerator." 

Up The Ladder with 


tion. A low loss, three-circuit tuner for re- 
generative sets has been designed that 
practically eliminates howling. This is 
accomplished by the use of an aperiodic 
primary or . untuned antenna circuit 
leading to the ground. This circuit 
"accumulates" all signals on the air. 
A secondary coil for the grid circuit is 
tuned for the wavelength desired and 
inductively selects the signal wanted. 

The plate circuit makes use of a tickler 
coil — for inductive feed-back or regenera- 
tion. Therefore, you have in this three 
circuit device a non-radiating, selective 
tuner. How about more amplification? 
If you are content to use your outdoor 
aerial, you can have coast-to-coast recep- 
tion with this tuner. 


Here's the hooku 
Chicago stations to 
stations, laud's. 

p. There's not a lot to it, but the builder tuned through powerful 
get California and other distant stations. And on some faraway 
volume was secured on one tube! Try it and be convinced. 

J" OW loss is a feature of the accompany- 
-^ ing set described in this article. It is a 
well known fact that of all types of induct- 
ance, the stagger wound coil is efficient. 
The two coils shown in this set are 
lumped inductances. They can be 
coupled to within a thousandth of an 
inch and the coupling can be varied at 
will by means of a nut. 

Strictly Low Loss 

Another feature of this hookup is that 
the magnetic fields are flat and compact, 
thereby preventing inter-circuit inter- 
ference, which would produce howls and 
distortion. An added advantage lies in 
the mechanism for varying the relation 
for secondary and primary coils. This 
is a vernier arrange- 
ment that passes 
the coil back and 
forth behind the 
secondary with 
gearing that per- 
mits the finest ad- 

These low loss re- 
ceivers have been 
tested all over the 
country, including 
special experiments 
in Canada last Sum- 
mer. This receiver 
is an all-around dis- 
tance getter and in 
this it differs from 
some sets, which, 
because they are 
not thoroughly low 
loss receivers, sus- 
tain a special handi- 
cap during Summer 
due to static condi- 

Not only will this 
set get the distance, 
but it will tune 
through locals with 
ease. In Chicago, 
while the powerful 
stations are pound- 
ing the air.ithascut 
through to distant 
stations at will. 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

A rear panel view of the set, showing simple layout. 

the Radio Beginner 


KGO, at Oakland, Calif., was heard on 
three consecutive nights on one tube with 
the head-set. Hastings, Nebr., Kansas 
City, Elgin and Zion were heard on silent 
night on a loud speaker with one tube, 
with sufficient volume to be heard plainly 
over a single room.. 

This set also logs all stations within a 
fraction of a degree. It is the ideal 
regenerative receiver for the beginner. 

Some Real Results 

HERE is a list of stations, in the order 
given, that were received in Chicago 
while strong locals were booming: 
(With the dial readings.) 

St. Louis, 21; 

Elgin, 111., 26; 

Los Angeles, 60; 

Chicago, 41; 

Springfield, 37; 

Chicago, 57 J^; 

Chicago, 75; 

Kansas City, 49 V 2 ; 

Portland, Ore., 65. 
In addition to 
these stations, in 
between WDAF 
and KGW, 1 o w 
power stations at 
Tallahoo, Texas, 
New Orleans, Fort 
Smith, Ark., Mon- 
roe, La., Madison, 
Kans., Bedford, 
Ind., Peoria, 111., 
and Tulsa, Okla., 
were also brought 
in on the loud 

On one occasion 
this receiver was 
supposed to be 
operating on a 
long, outside 

aerial. This antenna system consisted of a 
special, four-cage, seven-stranded enam- 
eled wire aerial, 100 feet long, with a sim- 
ilar cage lead-in of thirty-five feet. The 
aerial naturally was a broad-tuning one. 
This meant that the receiver, to give good 
results, must naturally be a sharp-tun- 
ing set. 

With a combination of this type — long 
aerial and sharp tuning — greater distance 
and greater volume without sacrifice of 
selectivity can be obtained. 

Now, the queer thing about this 
occasion was that while the operator 
thought he was using this long outside 
aerial, as a matter of fact he had con- 












1 Milli- 

Voltage J - "meres 


































Six Volt Storage 
Six Volt Storage 
Storage or Dry 
Three Dry CeU 
One Dry Cell 
Three Dry Cell 
Storage or Dry 
Storige or Dry 
Six Volt Storage 
Six Volt Storage 
Six Volt Storage 
Two Dry Cells . . 
Six Volt Storage 
Six Volt Storage 
Storage or Dry 
Three Dry Cell 
One Dry CeU 
One Dry CeU 
One Dry CeU 
Six Volt Storage 

15-24 .25 1.00 








1.00 5.00 




















0.50-2 00 


10000 20000 




Western Electric . 
Western Electric. 
Western Electric. 
Western Electric. 
Western Electric. 



6 5 
6.5 . 
6 5 






















Very Good 

Very Good 
Excellent . 

.00025-. 0005 











.00025-. 0005 






.00025-. 0005 
.00025-. 0005 




Very Good 
Fair ' 

Very Good 

VeT Good 
Good . 


Very Good 

















WD 12 

















Western Electric 

Western Electric 

Western Electric 






The Magazine of the Hour 27 

Why Use 

a Five or Eight 

Tube Set When 

3 Will Do? 

nected the set to a second aerial which 
was an inside one and only fifty feet in 
length. It was fully half an hour before 
the discovery was made that the short, 
inside aerial was in use. Already he had 
brought in the St. Louis, Los Angeles 
and Springfield stations on the loud- 

The set will be easy to construct 
through referring to the diagram and 
pictures accompanying this article. 
Following are the parts needed: 

1. One three-circuit, low loss tuner. 

2. One single hole mounting rheostat. 
If you use UV 200 or C300 detector tube, 
make this a vernier rheostat. 

3. One .00035 variable condenser, 
low loss type. 

4. One fixed condenser, .00025 mfd., 
combined with grid leak of a resistance 
in accord with tube used (See table for 
tubes with this article). For simplicity, 
UV201A or C301A tubes are recom- 
mended throughout; variable grid leak, 
to 5 megohms, may be used. 

5. One shock-proof socket. 

6. Audio transformers. 

7. UV201A or 
C301A tubes with 
socket for same. 

8. One panel, 
(6"xl8", or 8" by 

9 Jacks, bind- 
ing posts, etc. 

10. Single Cir- 
cuit Jack. 

To construct 
the set, mount the 
parts on the pane! 
in the arrange- 
ment as shown in 
the accompanying 
photographs, and 
hook up with flex- 
ible copper wire, 
making connec- 
tions direct from 
terminal to termi- 
nal, which is the 
only true low-loss 
method. Be sure, 
of course, to solder 
all connections 

Adding amplifi- 
cation is a com- 
paratively simple 
matter. The most 
essential feature is 
to use low ratio 
transformers if you 
wish good music. 
The pictorial and 
(Turn 'to page 77) 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

Converting the SINGLE Circuit 


How the 

Single Circuit 

May be Changed 

to An Efficient 

Reflex Set 

single circuit set. Considering these 
devices from an economic standpoint, 
they have proven to be very undesirable. 

In the search for something that would 
give really good results, it was found that 
by making use of the reflex principle, 
the single circuit receiver could be modi- 
fied to quite an advantage. Indeed, I 
think I can be safe in saying that in 
making this change you will find it to be 
a geniune improvement. 

To secure the satisfactory results 
obtained from a reflex circuit, it is not 
necessary to throw away your present 
single circuit set. By simply changing a 
few connections on the receiver and in- 
stalling a few new pieces of apparatus, 
your once despised "single" becomes an 
ultra-modern set that will prove a revela- 
tion as far as signal quality and strength 
are concerned. Figures 1 and 2 will en- 
able you to get a detailed photographic 
view of the apparatus required, and you 
will see upon closer inspection that the 
wiring is not at all difficult. I might state 

here that this unit can be used on any -,— ,,-*,„ ,, , c i • »l' _^- i 

. , ,, , ., L'UR the sake ot making this article as 

single circuit receiver regardless of the p , ... T " ... , ., 

° , . . -*- clear as possible, I will choose the 

Fig. 1. A front view of the "converter." 
The dial is used for varying the capacity of 
the condenser , permitting the reception oftlie 
lower and higher wavelengths. 

DURING the past year much has 
I been said condemning the single 
circuit regenerative receiver. In 
fact, it seems as though everyone has 
deserted this old time favorite, which in 
a short space of time has fallen into 
almost complete disuse. 

Such is the way of the world. Looked 
upon at one time as one of the greatest 
wonders of modern science, the single 
circuit regenerator is today cast into 
the scrap heap of the despised and detest- 
ed things of this earth. Regardless of the 
faults of the single circuit tuner, and the 
sincere desire to remedy them, the propa- 
ganda against them has been more of a 
destructive nature. Very few persons 
have attempted to devise methods of 
curbing its one fault, that of radiation. 
But there are many of us who invested 
our entire radio pocket-book in single 
circuit receivers and who must necessarily 
pause and consider before scrapping the 
old "stand-by" and purchasing the new- 
er types. 

To Eliminate 

FROM time to 
time various 
schemes have been 
forwarded that 
would permit the 
operation of these 
sets and at the 
same time eliminate 
the undesirable ra- 
diation. These 
schemes have been 
mostly in the form 
of radio frequency 
amplifier units, to 
be added before the 
detector tube of the 

Fig. Z. A side-view of the single-circuit 
converter, showing the R. F. transformer, 
the condenser, the A. F. transformer and 
the crystal detector. 

One variable condenser cap., 

. 0025 3.00 

One piece cardboard tubing. .20 

1-6 pound No. 22 DCC wire .30 

One panel, about 6"x6"_ _ .40 

Dial .60 

Incidentals : .50 

Total $10.00 

Is Your Set Like These? 

slight mechanical changes the circuit 
may employ. The parts necessary to 
reflex a single circuit tuner can usually 
be found in the experimenter's laboratory 
or can be purchased from any first class 
radio shop for a nominal sum. 

Below is a bill of the materials re- 

The Bill of Materials. 

One crystal detector, fixed SI. 00 

One audio transformer _ 4.00 

Figures 3 and 4. Fig. 3 is the single circuit receiver as most generally known, 
while Fig- 4 shows the same circuit converted into a single-tube reflex. 

type of single circuit tuner in most 
common use today. If you will compare 
your present set with figure 3, you will 
find that Al and A2 are primary and 
secondary windings of your vario-coupler. 
In some sets that have been sold, you will 
find that a variometer has been substi- 
tuted for the coupler. In that case, 
Al is the stator and A2 the rotor. The 
condenser in the ground circuit is 
usually one having a capacity of .0005 
M F (23 plate). 
Figure 4 is the com- 
pleted wiring dia- 
gram of the rewired 
single circuit- receiv- 
er, showing the 
added apparatus to 
the right, indicated 
by the dotted lines. 
You will notice that 
the only wires that 
have not been 
changed are the lead 
from the antenna 
and the filament. 

Whether to mount 

the apparatus on a 

small panel or install 

it right in the set 

{Turn to page 64) 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


SIT The Hidden Voice 


Final Installment of The 
Adventures of a Kidnapped 
Baby Who Was 
|j^ Rescued by a Bit 
of Radio 


Chapter II 
"The Baby's Stomach.' 

(Continued from January Radio Age) 

"Drat the kid," muttered the woman. 
"Who ever heard of such a thing? How 
did he ever learn to talk like that? Talks 
like a man. I must get rid of him mighty 
quick, or I'll drop. Ah, there's the park. 
I'll get rid of him there." 

A block further she pushed the carriage 
into one of the city's big parks, plenti- 
fully supplied with trees, bushes, duck 
ponds, golf links, and baseball diamond. 
Into some bushes near the ball grounds 
she pushed the carriage and there aban- 
doned it with a great sigh of relief. 

What's Wrong Here? 

A FEW moments later a ball struck 
by one of a group of boys hit the 
ground a few yards away and rolled into 
the bushes near the carriage. A fielder, 
chasing the ball, heard a cry of "Help, 
help, murder!" and raced back in affright. 

"Oh, kids," he yelled, with the pallor 
of fear on his face; "somebody's being 
killed in those bushes." 

In a few moments all the other ball 
players were gathered around him, 
listening to his story. Some of them 
scoffed at it; others were disposed to 
take it seriously. At length they agreed 
to approach the bushes in a body and 
make an investigation. 

They were almost at the edge of the 
thicket before they could distinguish a 
sound. Then a faint, "Help, help!" 
reached the ears of all. 

"There's sure somethin' going on in 
there," one of the older boys vouched. 
"Now the question is, who's going to 
go in and rescue him?" 

"Not I," declared one. 

"Nor I," chimed another. 

"Let's holler to the guy 'at's killin' 
him and tell him we'll come in and beat 
him up with clubs if he don't stop," 
proposed another ball-player scarce above 
a whisper. He held his club dangerously. 

"I see something in there," announced 
a youth who had not spoken thus far. 
"It looks like a big basket. I can almost 
reach it with my hand. No, it's a baby 


it Qgr< 

buggy. Here, Ted, take hold of my 
hand and give me a jerk back if I get 
in trouble. I'm goin' to see if I can't 
drag it out." 

Ted seized his hand, and he reached 
into the bushes with the other, and 
presently, sure enough, out came a very 
respectable looking baby •arriage, with 
a real live infant less than a year old 
in it, screaming in a half-choked voice, 
it seemed: 

"Help! help! murder! I'm kidnapped. 
Police, police, arrest my kidnapper." 

"Jimminy crickets!" 

"Gosh all fishhooks!" 


That's about all the flabbergasted boys 
could say as they gawked at the infant, 
who bit viciously at his zwieback and 
yelled in sepulchral tones: 

"Help, help! Rescue me. Don't let 
them murder me." 

"What's the matter, boys?" 

It was Mr. Benson, pastor of a church 
nearby. He was taking a walk through 
the park and seeing the strangely-acting 
group of young ball players, he advanced 
to investigate. 

"Matter!" exclaimed one of the young- 
sters. "Just listen here. Did you ever 
hear anything like that?" 

"A baby not more 'n a year old, talkin' 
like a grown-up," put in another of the 
flabbergasted group. 

"Let me see," proposed the minister, 
stepping beside the carriage. "What's 
the matter, baby?" he asked in a tone of 
sympathy that expects no answer. 
"Whose little child are you?" 

"Murder!" came a responsive screech 
from the pillows and quilts. "Help, 
help! Take me back to mamma. Mur- 

"Astonishing!" exclaimed the minister, 
throwing up his hands. "Sounds like 
ventriloquism, as if the voice comes from, 
its stomach. Remarkable, very remark- 

"Who's little child are 
you?" the minister 
asked the baby. "Mur- 
der!" was the response. 
"Help! Take me back 
to my mammal Mur- 

able. This must be investigated. I'm 
going to wheel this carriage home and 
call up the police." 

Followed by a score of ball players, 
who by this time had lost all interest in 
their game, the Rev. Mr. Benson pushed 
the carriage across the neatly mowed 
lawn toward his home. As he was 
crossing a driveway, a motorcycle police- 
man raced up and blocked further ad- 

"Whose baby is that?" demanded the 
"cop," who did not know the minister. 

"I don't know," the latter replied. 

"Help, help!' came a cry from the 
carriage. "I'm being kidnapped. Help, 
help! Police!" 

Stumping the Law 

THE policeman nearly lost his grip 
on the motorcycle. 

"What in blazes does this mean?" he 

"Blessed if I know," answered Mr. 
Benson. "These boys just found this 
baby in the bushes over there, and I'm 
taking it home with me to see if I can't 
find out whom it belongs to." 

"I think I know whose baby it is," 
said the officer. "We had a call that a 
baby was stolen from Mrs. Stansbury 
on Marcey Avenue. Come along with 
me, and we'll find out if it isn't hers." 

The cries for help continued at short 
intervals all the way to the Kinney 
home. The policeman drove his motor- 
cycle slowly, Mr. Benson pushed the 
carriage swiftly, and the youthful ball 
players trailed along behind, eager for a 
solution of the mystery. As they ap- 
proached the house, out flew the hysteri- 
cally joyful mother, who seized little 
Edward in her arms just in time to re- 
ceive a string of "Help, help, murders" 
in her ears. (Turn to page 70) 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 

What the ps 


KOA on 

\ NOTHER national radio voice, KOA, 
^*- the Rocky Mountain broadcasting 
station of the General Electric company 
at Denver, Colo., is now on the air. 
The wavelength for the present will be 
323 meters and the power rating 1,500 

Opening of KOA marked the com- 
pletion of the General Electric chain 
of three broadcasting stations across the 
United States, WGY at Schenectady, 
N. Y., and KGO at Oakland, Calif. 

KOA, it was pointed out, is the half 
way point between the Mississippi and 
the Pacific and Canada and Mexico, 
and will be heard by millions from one 
end of the American continent to the 
other. Already hundreds of letters, 
telegrams and long distance telephone 
calls have been received at the station 
in response to initial programs. _ 

A public reception at the station took 
place December 18, and was attended 
by a number of prominent state and city 
officials. Invitations were extended to 
numerous radio officials in the East and 
on the Pacific coast. 

"From foundation to roof, this station 
has been designed and built for the sole 
purpose of radio broadcasting," declared 
Martin P. Rice, director of radio broad- 
casting of the General Electric organiza- 
tion, who supervised arrange ments for 
the opening. 

"It embodies all the technical and 
mechanical improvement suggested by 
the experience of our other broadcasting 

"While KOA will be operated at 1,500 
watts, the equipment has additional 
capacity available for testing. As a re- 
sult, tubes and rectifiers will not be sub- 
ject to over-loads and transmission will 
be marked by greater reliability and ex- 
cellence of quality. Additional power is 
afforded also, for experimental purposes. 

"Use of broadcasting pick-up circuits 
will permit public events, addresses, 
concerts and the services of many 
churches to be placed on the air. The 
station is surrounded by a rich field of 
talent from which to select music, enter- 
tainment and educational features in 
addition to the KOA staff artists." 

Cost of construction approximated 
$175,000 and it was estimated the annual 
cost of maintenance will reach $ 100,000. 
The KOA staff, when completely organ- 
ized, will number twenty members, 
including a resident engineer in charge 
of technical operations, program mana- 
ger, operators and announcers and mem- 

Above is F. A. Hill, one of the experts on the 
engineering staff of KYW, Chicago, whose article 
on "The Outside Man," to be found at the column 
to the right, will prove interesting to the fans 
who often wonder what goes on behind the scenes 
when an event of importance is broadcast. Mr. 
Hill tells all about it. 

bers of the news bureau and the office 

KOA's antenna system, 120 feet long, 
is 150 feet above the ground and is 
supported by two triangular steel towers, 
260 feet apart. Directly beneath is 
the two-story studio building in which is 
housed a large reception room, waiting 
room for artists, general offices and a 
concert studio and auxiliary or speakers' 
studio. In the rear and adjoining is a one- 
story power-house and generator room. 

For the present, programs are broad- 
cast three nights a week, the dates to 
be announced later, in addition to Sunday- 
features. Harry D. Randall, Rocky 
Mountain district manager of the General 
Electric company, has local supervision 
of the station. 

"Brunswick Hour" New 
Radio Feature 

HPHE third National Relay program — 
-*- the "Brunswick Hour of Music" — 
went on the ether on Tuesday, Decem- 
ber 23rd, at 9:00 p. m. Central Standard 

This program is broadcast by WJZ, 
New York, picked up and re-broadcast 
by KYW, Chicago, KDKA, WGY, 
WRC, KFKX and KGO. The artists 
appearing on these programs are of 
world-wide fame and the purpose of the 
National Relay program is to give the 
radio public of the country an opportunity 
to listen in on a rare one hour's enter- 

The first program, on Tuesday, Dec. 
9th, included selections by the Cleveland 
Symphony Orchestra, under the direc- 
tion of Nikolai Sokoloff, a musician of 
international reputation. Mme. Elly 
Ney, Miss Florence Easton, Mario 
Chamlee and others, w~ho are leaders in 
the musical world, also appeared on the 
initial program. 

On Tuesday evening, Dec. 16th, at 
9 o'clock, the second national relay 
program was given. Among those who 
appeared on the program were Miss 
Margaret Young, Miss Marion Harris 
and Ray Miller and his orchestra. 

The program for Tuesday, December 
23rd, brought with it such celebrities 
as Miss Claire Dux, John Charles 
Thomas, Leopold Godosky, pianist, and 
the Elshuco Trio. 

"The Brunswick Hour of Music" is 
a new departure in radio activity, in 
that several stations co-operate in its 
broadcasting. With the rapidly growing 
improvements in the re-broadcasting 
art, this promises to become a popular 
feature, the intention being to promote a 
greater appreciation of good music. 

Gladys Frazin, of the "White Cargo" company 
in Chicago, established a radio reputation as an 
actress when the play, in which she is the star, 
was broadcast from KYW. Microphones were 
placed at advantageous points in the Cort Theater, 
Chicago, and the audience was told that the play 
was to be sent over the ether to untold thousands 
of listeners. Then the play began, and hundreds 
of listeners, after hearing the melodramatic mom- 
ents, went to see "White Cargo" afterward. 
Experts reported the play was unusually suited to 
radio broadcasting. 

"The Outside Man" 

By F. A. Hill, (Engineering Staff, 
Westinghouse KYW) 

PARADOXICAL as the above caption 
may sound, the outside man is on the 
inside of everything, at least as far as 
Westinghouse and radio broadcasting 
are concerned in Chicago. For the out- 
side man is the one that does the physical 
and electrical work to make a success 
of the many pickup jobs which KYW 
has taken on its shoulders since its 

These outside jobs are first spotted 
by the publicity department and then 
turned over to operations for fulfillment. 
And that is where the work is crowned 
either with grief or success. It is one 
(Turn to page 60) 

RADIO AGE for February', 1925 

Wlmt the Broadcasters are Doing 31 

Radio's Effect on the 
Popular Song 


Ted Fiorito and Dan Russo, 
co-conductors of the Oriole Or- 
chestra from Station WEBH. At 
the right is the entire orchestra, 
which has gained fame through 
broadcasting for the radio. 

J 'ED FIORITO, the author of this 
article, is one of the best known and 
most accomplished pianists in America. 
He is one of the co-conductors of the 
famous Oriole Orchestra, which appears 
regidarly over Radio Station WEB II, 
Chicago. He is the author of such famous 
songs as " No, No, Nora," "Charley, My 
Boy," "When Lights are Low," "Dreamer 
of Dreams," "Eliza," and many others. 
Herewith he tells how radio, in his estima- 
tion, has affected the status of music in 
A merica. 

I HAVE been asked whether I believe 
radio is a good vehicle for the promo- 
tion of popular songs, and being both 
a composer and a constant radio per- 
former, I am placed in a rather peculiar 

I have always considered the radio a 
happy invention that makes for more 
happiness in the home, and accordingly 
I have been most enthusiastic with regard 
to broadcasting songs through the air. 
Naturally, I also considered it a good 
medium for the popularization and ad- 
vertising of songs, and so I felt that 
every time the Oriole Orchestra broad- 
cast a number, it was to a certain ex- 
tent helping the publisher of that number 
to achieve widespread publicity for his 

And everyone else, coming to the same 
conclusion, started a great campaign 
to popularize his own numbers. 

And Radio Fans "Took" It 

WHAT was the result of this? The 
public was treated to an army of 
songs, some of which were good, some 
indifferent and some pretty poor — and 
you can easily see how the good selec- 
tions could be lost in the shuffle, and 
that the radio loving public were given 
rather a hard dose to swallow. 

Now suppose a number had come quite 

in favor and was in great demand. 
Stations all over the country broadcast 
it continually in answer to the requests of 
the people, and radio "fans" heard it so 
often that the tune and words were soon 
learned, and there was no necessity to 
buy the sheet music or records. The 
result of this was that the publishers 
and writers who had gone to great pains 
and expense lost out and were not given 
the fruits of their labor. In fact, some 
songs that would have naturally achieved 
a million copy sale made just a little 
money for the interested parties because 
they were "broadcast to death." 

These arguments might tend to make 
you believe that I am a firm opponent 
of radio, especially with regard to its 
influence on the popular song; but still 
a consideration of other points that I 
will bring to your attention heips combat 
the foregoing arguments. 

There are a number of people who 
never appreciated popular songs and 
would never have enjoyed this particular 
kind of pleasure were it not for the radio. 
Constant listening in has trained them to 
the value of ballad, fox trot, and waltz 
pieces as an important part of our life 
today, for they certainly are factors that 
help to dispel gloom and bring happiness 
by creating a train of thought that has 
no room for trouble. 

Radio Helps Many 

TAKING the financial view of the 
matter, there are numbers which are 
really excellent ones and which would 
never enjoy success were it not for the 
impetus given them by the radio. 

My conclusion, therefore, is a sort of 
fifty-fifty proposition. 

Radio is a good medium for acquaint- 
ing the public with popular songs, pro- 
vided the station directors specialize on 
the good ones as a general rule. 

But radio, on the whole, has a bad 

financial effect on the publishers and 
writers who do not receive all that is 
coming to them. Legislation will prob- 
ably soon remedy this evil, however, 
and give these individuals their just 

Some Xmas Greetings 

A NOVEL plan that other leaders of 
orchestras broadcasting melodies 
through the air can do well to emulate 
was inaugurated by the Oriole Orchestra 
over WEBH Christmas Eve. Realizing 
that thousands of "listeners-in" who 
heard their tunes nightly have often 
had a desire to become acquainted with 
the personnel of the station and the 
orchestra, they did their bit by personally 
broadcasting Christmas greetings for 
the orchestra, and by giving the people 
a brief talk regarding the work they do 
and what they have accomplished. 

Radio "fans" all over the country 
were informed of this event and "tuned 
in" at the stipulated time when Russo 
and Fiorito gave their talk. As a prelude, 
a series of popular numbers written by 
members of the orchestra was given, and 
this included "Toot, Toot, Tootsie," 
by Russo, "Dreamy Melody," by Naset, 
and "No, No, Nora," "Charley My 
Boy," and "Dreamer of Dreams," by 
Fiorito. The composers themselves 
"soloed" the songs, so those fortunate 
enough to be listening in were given a 
treat indeed. 

Not only do these famous syncopaters 
broadcast popular songs in a manner 
most inspiring to dance lovers, but they 
are proficient in concert numbers as well, 
and constantly regale the public with 
classical treats. 

No other orchestra has done so much 
to raise the standard of musicianship in 
dance aggregations as has this group. 

WEBH is located on the Edgewater 
Beach Hotel. 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 

Still Laughing In His Dreams 

CJack Nelson, a Pioneer 

Radio Star, Spurts 

Ahead in Our 


TO Jack Nelson, Director of Station 
WJJD, goes the credit for having 
received the greatest number of 
Popularity Ballots during the period 
from November 16 to December 15. 

Jack Nelson is a real Chicago product, 
having been born, raised and educated 
there. At the age of seven his mother 
was able to keep him at the piano for 
part of an hour each day in spite of the, 
" Yoo Hoo, Skinnay's, "which penetrated 
the quiet of the parlor. The lure of the 
baseball, bicycle and the skates was much 
greater than that of the ivories, but in 
some way or other he managed to con- 
tinue his study of classical music. 

His father died when he was ten years 
old and later, when in high school, 
Jack began to forsake the realms of 
classical music, as the playing of dance 
music began to be of assistance financially. 

While a junior at Lane Tech High 
School, he composed the words and music 
for "Go, Lane, Go" which is the official 
song of that High School and is still sung 
with great enthusiasm by the 3,500 boys 
there. He was awarded a scholarship at 
Northwestern University for excellence 
in studies at Lane and surprised the Cam- 
pus when, as a freshman, most of the 
songs for the annual Musical Comedy 
were written by him. 

Before he left the University, Jack had 
written or collaborated upon four annual 
musical shows given by the Men's 
Dramatic Organization, Hermit and 
Crow, one of which was so popular it is 
being reproduced this year. In his Senior 
year at Northwestern University, he was 
awarded a diamond and platinum Sigma 
Nu badge for writing the official national 
song of that fraternity, "The White 
Star of Sigma Nu." In his Senior year, 
also, he was Director of the Glee Club 
which was sent by the United States 
Government to entertain the residents of 
the Canal Zone, being royally entertained 
by officials of the Haitian Government, 
the Panama Government and the Ameri- 
cans in Panama. 

On The Upward Climb 

A FTER he left College, Jack was a 
-^-salesman for a jewelry house and later 

By Harry Aldyne 


Harry Aldyne, Contest Editor, 

RADIO AGE, 500 N. Dearborn St., Chicago. 

I wish to cast my vote for: 

Name of favorite.. 



Name [optional] — 

..Date Heard.. 

Address [optional].. 

(Photo by Drake Studio) 

Jack Nelson has been photographed 
just as much, if not more than any other 
star in the radio business. He likes the 
picture above best. Of course, he doesn't 
try to appear so serious when he's sing- 
ing a new ditty at Mooseheart, 111., 
where WJJD is located. 

for the Bissell Weisert Piano Company of 
which J. Elliott Jenkins was a member. 
Upon hearing Jack play, Jenkins, who 
was one of the owners of WDAP on the 
Drake Hotel, invited him up to play and 
sing and the requests that flowed in follow- 
ing that first appearance predicted great 
things for him in a radio way. 

At that time Ralph Shugart, better 
known as "The Sheik of the Drake," was 
the operator and announcer and a very 
popular one at that. The Radio fans 
wondered at that time about the sudden 
disappearance of the "Sheik" and Jack 
tells us that this is the first time any 
explanation has 
appeared in print. 
We do this know- 
ing that it is now 
become a great 
joke between the 
team of Nelson 
and Shugart, and 
there is many a 
laugh over it. It 
seems that Thorne 
Donnelly, the 
other owner of the 
station, was very 

CUnique Shield is To Be 
Awarded the Final 
Winner Very- 

anxious for some word to come that the 
station had been heard over-seas. As a 
joke, Ralph fixed up a cablegram, stating 
that WDAP had been heard at such and 
such a time by the operator at Burndept, 
London. Immediately upon receipt of it 
Donnelly communicated with all the 
newspapers and a good story was started 
before Ralph had a chance to tell him it 
was a joke. Donnelly could not see the 
joke, however, and Jack Nelson was put 
on the pay-roll as Announcer. It was not 
long, however, before Ralph was back in 
the fold, later becoming Chief Operator 
and Engineer of WGN, which position he 
resigned to become engineer of WJJD, to 
retain the fanciful double-play combi- 
nation, Nelson to Shugart to the World. 

While at the Drake, Jack Nelson be- 
came more and more popular for his an- 
nouncing, his playing and his singing and 
several popular songs added to his fame. 
"Foolish Child," "I've Got A Song For 
Sale," "After The Storm," "You're Too 
Sweet For A Dream," and "May You 
Laugh In Your Dreams," are the better 
known of his compositions. 

Jack Nelson's own story of Mooseheart 
appeared in a recent issue of RADIO 
AGE and he assures us that by the time 
this story is in print he will be presenting 
programs from the Garod Studio in the 
Palmer House, Chicago, every night, 
beginning at 10:00 o'clock, so that radio 
fans will again hear him as he signs off 
every night, singing in his own way, his 
own song, "May You Laugh In Your 


Jack Nelson Announcer --..WJJD, Mooseheart 


July... _ ...Duncan Sisters 

August , Bill Hay 

September Karl Bonawitz 

October H. W. Arlin 

November ..Bert Davis 

Name Classification Where Heard 

Karl Bonawitz ...Organist WIP, Philadelphia 

H. W. Arlin Announcer ....KDKA, Pittsburgh 

Bill Hay —Announcer ....KFKX, Hastings 

Bert Davis.._ Entertainer.... WQJ. Chicago 

Jack Nelson Announcer ....WJJD, Mooseheart 

Duncan Sisters ..Entertainers. .KYW, Chicago 

Lambdin Kay Announcer ....WSB, Atlanta 

J. Remington 

Welsch Organist KYW, Chicago 

John S. Dagget ..Announcer -...KHJ, Los Angeles 

E. L. Tyson Announcer ....WWJ, Detroit 

Ford & Glenn Entertainers..WLS, Chicago 

Harry M. Snod- 

grass Entertainer....WOS, Jefferson City 

Fred Smiths Announcer ....WLW, Cincinnati 

Jerry Sullivan ....Announcer- 

Entertainer..WQJ, Chicago 
Nick B. Harris... .Entertainer.... KFI, Los Angeles 

Art Linick Entertainer..._KYW, Chicago 

Hired Hand -Announcer WBAP, Fort Worth 

Edw. H. Smith Director- 
Player WGY, Schenectady 

Wendell Hall Entertainer._.WDAF, Kansas City 

Others Gaining Too 

IT will be noted from the above that in 
addition to Jack Nelson, substantial 
gains were made by Nick B. Harris and 
Art Linick. Remember, it is not neces- 
(Tum to page 73) 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 


MEET our 


From Coast to Coast, America s 
Housewives — andHubbies too, Look 
to This Amiable Home Expert for 
the Latest in the Culinary Art 

GOOD morning, girls and boys." 
■ A half a million listeners look 
forward to that cheery phrase 
at 11:35 a. m., every day from KYW, 
Chicago. It comes from Anna J. Peter- 
son, broadcasting menus and recipes for 
the day from the Home Service Depart- 
ment of The Peoples Gas Light & Coke 

Seated in her private office before the 
microphone, Mrs. Peterson is within 
sight and sound of her Home Service 
efficiency kitchen where every recipe 
she gives is tested and tasted. As she 
talks about the fragrant odor of the cook- 
ing food it seems as if you could almost 
smell it. When she says "delicious" in 
that effective way of hers, your mouth 
fairly waters. Thousands of her radio 
pals have told her so. 

"Why say 'good morning, boys'? I 
know thousands of girls are listening 
but I doubt the boys," a listener-in said. 
But Mrs. Peterson knows from the 
hundreds of letters received from older 
men who no longer go to business, from 
crippled men who have turned house- 
keepers while their wives have become 

wage earners — from young fellows con- 
valescing, that she has many "boys" 
jotting down the menus and recipes for 
family use. In her big-hearted, motherly 
way, she feels they are a very important 
part of her radio family. 

Many a young man brings his bride-to- 
be to meet Mrs. Peterson. 

"How did you happen to come?" she 
asks them after she has taken them 
around her wonderful department and 
shown them her spacious auditorium 
where daily cooking classes are held. 

"I have noticed the improvement in 
Mother's cooking since she has been 
listening every day over the radio," is 
the invariable reply. 

"Ma said she would live to be a hun- 
dred if she had had this service when she 
was young," one young fellow said, and so 
I brought Mary in to get started right." 

All the Way from Maine 

\ PASTOR from Portland, Maine, 
-i*- while passing through Chicago, made 
a point of coming in to meet Mrs. Peter- 
son. "I would know your voice any- 
where," he said after the first greeting, 

The "radio 

mother" herself, 

Anna J. Peterson 

"for I have heard you almost every morn- 
ing for a year. My wife and I feel so 
grateful for the good things you have 
brought to our table and for the money 
you have saved us, that I promised before 
I left home that I would come in and tell 
you so." 

So generally had this feeling been ex- 
pressed that Mrs. Peterson decided to 
give a radio tea. She broadcast her 
invitation and was overwhelmed with 
pleasure at the response which she re- 
ceived. Six thousand men, women and 
children filled the large auditorium ad- 
joining rooms of the Gas Company, so 
that late-comers had to be turned away 
(Turn to page 56) 

Miss Grace Haight, 
one of Mrs. Peter- 
son's radio assis- 
tants, preparing 
for a demonstra- 
tion of "Canning 
of Fruits and Veg- 
etables." Every- 
thing is tested be- 
fore being broad- 


34 RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 

"Listening In 


Coast to Coast 

A new photo of Rosemary Hughes, winsome soprano who keeps 
the telegrams flowing regularly into Station WGN, Chicago. 


Take a 


of the 

Dials and 

What's on 
the Air 
at Your 

going full blast from KDKA, 
East Pittsburgh. This orches- 
tra is a pleasure at dinner hour. 
The only trouble is, we have to 
wait too long between announce- 
ments of numbers. We must 
pass on, even at the expense of 
hearing KDKA's superb music. 

Remember a while back we 
said WBZ was probably broad- 
casting good Eastern symphony 
from Boston? We weren't far 
wrong. This station is coming 
in strong, with a fine male 
quartette singing old-time love 
melodies. By the way requests 
are coming in, the Easterners 
like the old favorities. Can't 
other stations take the hint? 


ET'S SEE. It's Tuesday night. A good night for Radio. 
Ready for a spin over the dials? All right, folks; let's 
see who's on the air. 

We must hurry. Here's WGN, 
with its unparalleled dinner 
music by the Drake Hotel Con- 
cert Ensemble and the Black- 
stone Hotel String Quintet, Chi- 
cago. Perhaps the best string 
music on the air. And then Rosemary Hughes varies the early 
evening program with a soprano solo. A dependable radio 
star — is Rosemary. 

Here's the Boston Symphony Orchestra 
from WEAN, broadcasting from Boston through 
Providence. Fine, uplifting programs may 
always be heard from this station. The cream 
of the Eastern music world filters from Boston 
through WEAN. But wait, WBZ, at Spring- 
field, is probably getting in on Boston's orches- 
trations. Remember them farther up your dial. 

What's that? 
Talk about jazz! 
close second 

WMAK— Lockport, N. Y. 
This station is running a 

WTAS — at 286 meters, only a couple of 
points up from WMAK. A jazz orchestra — a 
jazz singer — any time of the evening. Can't 
you see the syncopation fairly dripping from 
WTAS' aerial? But that gets tiresome. Let's 
go up the scale, fans. 

What's this? All over the house and the 
volume only half on? Not Chicago. The an- 
nouncement tells us it's the Willard Battery 
Station, WTAM, at Cleveland. 

Oh, yes, that's the first super-power station. 
But it's easy to tune out — five hundred miles 
away. See? A twist of the dial and it's gone. 
But get WTAM back. Realizing that increased 
power means more listeners, voluntary or other- 
wise, WTAM is giving us some wonderful pro- 
grams. Some fine orchestra music — some 
really trained voices. Not on the air too much, 
either. Here's more power to super-power if 
they're all like WTAM! 

Here is Maj. J. Andrew White, 
"most popular announcer" from 
WJY—WJZ. New York. 

Here's 309 meters — and a fine station. It's WSAI 
U. S. Playing Card Co., at Cincinnati. That 
announcer, E. S. Mittendorf, is distinctive. 
We can hear every word he says. And if 
he isn't announcing the Duncan Sisters! They 
seem to behavingarollicking time in the studio. 
Lots of fun, but we must pass on . . . 

Here we are at 319. The Hotel Statler 
Orchestra from WGR, Buffalo, announced in 
clear, crisp tones. Followed by an educational 
talk. Good stuff — that mixing the music and 
the serious. Interesting data on the growth 
of New York State — we digest a few morsels 
and turn the dials. 

It's time to close, so we'll hurry up the scale 
to WOS, Jefferson City, Mo. Yes — there's 
Harry Snodgrass, with his beloved piano, 

singing from his "guest cell" in the Missouri state penitentiary. 

Well, he'll be a free man January 16. And the gifts he's get- 
of the ting! Hundreds of dollars in cash — thousands of personal 
mementos. Hundreds of offers of employment. 
We wish they'd let us know where Harry'll be 
after he leaves confinement. For he certainly 
must stay on the air. 

And fans, did you know Harry is still one of 
the leaders in the RADIO AGE Radio Favorite 
Popularity Contest? The votes are still com- 
ing in, so the announcement Harry was a con- 
vict didn't harm his popularity. Rather, it 
augmented it. More power to him. And here's 
hoping he's among the winners in the final 
RADIO AGE contest. 

The Westinghouse Little Symphony Orches- 
tra, one of the best to be heard from radio, is 

Miss Edith Bennett, acknowledged 
the woman with the "perfect feminine 
radio voice.'' Ever hear her? 

If you haven't voted in the contest yet, there's 
a coupon in this issue. 

Signing off — we'll continue our journey la 
an early issue. 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 


Who's the RED-HEADED Girl? 

An Attempt to Identify WFAA's "Mystery Woman" 

THE "Red-Headed Girl" who enter- 
tains you over Radio Station 
WFAA, Dallas, Texas, steadfastly 
maintains that she has no other name. 

This is not true, however. She has such 
a pretty name I am tempted to tell you 
what it is; but she threatens never to ap- 
pear on the radio again if I do. 

Therefore, I am not going to tell and 

deprive you of the pleasure she has so 

generously given her audience heretofore. 

"Why do you refuse to give your 

name?" I asked her. 

She Loathes Publicity. 

"I do not like publicity. Of course, as 
long as I can hide my real identity, I do 
not mind it so much," she answered. 

Miss Red-Head was surely born under 
a lucky star, as nice things seem to hap- 


pen to her daily. Don't you think it is 
lucky to have beautiful red hair and not 
the remotest sign of a freckle? 

Her complexion has not been accom- 
plished by lemon lotions or by sitting in 
the shade, for she plays golf every minute 
that she can spare. That also accounts 
for the sparkle in her deep brown eyes. 

Contrary to the general opinion formed 
of red-headed people, this young lady has 
a charming disposition. True, I was not 
with her long, but she had a cold — a bad 
cold — yet she was as jolly as a fat man. 
(Don't get the impression that she is fat. 
She isn't; and she is little but not too 

VXTHEN she was asked how her radio 
1 * popularity came about, it brought 
forth this story of three years ago. 

"A friend of mine was society editor on 
a large Texas daily, and she had to be 
away for a few weeks. She asked me to 
work for her, but I did not dream of 
really doing it. I knew nothing about 
newspaper offices and I had never used a 
typewriter, but she insisted that I could 
do it. With a rented typewriter and her 
help I was able to impress the editor at 
the end of three weeks that I was just 
the person he needed." 

Her Past— Shh! 
That was three years ago, and in that 
length of time the "Red-Headed Girl" 
has made a place for herself in news- 

(Turn to page 58) 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

What Che Broadcasters are Doing 

At the right is Detroit's newest 
pride, the Book -Cadillac Hotel, 
the world's tallest hotel and home 
of WCX's new studio. In the circle 
is the ever-popular Kdgar A. 
Guest, whose verses helped in- 
augurate the new studio last 

Detroit Pauses 

d. Impressive Ceremonies 


PERCHED thirty-two stories up in 
the air, Radiophone WCX of the 
Detroit Free Press broadcast to the 
world the opening of the world's tallest 
hotel on December 8. It was the Book- 
Cadillac Hotel, Detroit's latest pride. 

The whole city had been waiting for 
the Free Press station to open again, for 
it had shut down for the week while the 
apparatus was being moved from the 
Press building to the magnificent hotel. 
But the opening was worth it, as all the 
celebrities of the city were present, and 
John Smith, mayor of Detroit, and 
Edgar Guest, the famous poet, stood 
before the microphone and let the city 
hear their voices. 

Tust at this time it would not be amiss 

to tell a bit of my experiences in getting 
at this station to report it for the readers 
of RADIO AGE. Don't think it was a 

Everybody Aglow 

YOU see, the whole city had been 
waiting for months and months to 
see the famous hotel in its completion, 
and hear the station. The Book family 
and the Cadillacs are very well known 
citizens and consequently there was a 
great deal of interest attached to their 
venture. (As a matter of note, it may 
be mentioned that this project broke 
the pocket-books of neither the Brooks 
nor the Cadillacs. After being in the 
city for a day, I discovered that these 

capitalists own half the town and have 
enough money to snap their fingers at 
Henry Ford's bank account.) 

This opening night was not for the 
public. It was to be a private reception 
and only the top ladder of society folk 
were invited. They came by invitation 
and partook of a ten-dollar-per-plate 

I got an invitation, but the ten dollar 
feed meant nothing to me. I had filled 
up in a one-arm joint across the way. 

All went well, the writer rejoicing 
that he had got past the big footman 
while the common folk without passes 
were kicked out. But I discovered that 
I was the only male person there without 
a full-dress suit. I felt pretty bad until 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 


The jovial boys at the left 
form the Hudson Male Quartette, 
which is now a regular feature 
from the Book-Cadillac Studio 
of WCX, Detroit. Top row, 
left to right: Harry A. Leiter, 
and Harry E. Parker; bottom 
row: Joseph Kendrick and Har- 
rison Burch. Below is Miss 
Carmen Morlock, of the Hudson 
Female Quartette, who is out to 
prove that men aren't going to 
monopolize the new WCX. 

for Station WCX 

at Book-Cadillac Studio 


I discovered another culprit wearing a 
business suit. I thought it was another 
low person like myself until I discovered 
that it was none other than Edgar 
Guest, the second "James Whitcomb 
Riley." There's a real fellow. Miss 
Lucille O'Connell, program director of 
WCX, introduced me to him, and 
to his little boy, a lad of about ten years, 
who is being brought up to be the same 
inspiring, democratic man his father is. 

Eddie Thrills 'Em 

(~^ UEST read a number of his well-known 


poems over the microphone and 

when I looked out of the thirty-second 
story window I thought I saw the vast 
city underneath vibrating with applause. 

His stuff is great and he 
reads it wonderfully, and 
some of the evening dress 
boys in the outer room 
smiled and moved their 
heads as though to say: 
"He's got the stuff, all 

Preceding Guest, the 
mayor spoke and he said how proud he 
was to be at the head of a city which 
possessed such a great hostelry. Then 
the Hudson Double Quartet, a famous 
organization in Detroit, sang a group of 
musical selections. Each one of them is 
a soloist, and the organization is a com- 
bination of the Hudson Male Quartet 
and Female Quartet. They were accom- 

panied by Harrison Burch, concert 

Music from Jean Goldkett's orchestras, 
playing in the dining room of the hotel 
downstairs, interspersed the numbers. 
Goldkett's orchestras are probably des- 
tined to become about the best known in 
the air, now that WCX is going full 
(Turn to page 59) 

38 RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

How One Song 
Brought Radio 
Fame ! Jt 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 

And It Happened 
^^ On a Sleepy 
^ik Street-Car 

The Radio Life of Banks Kennedy 

"If I Can Arrange It" 


"I'm an arranger, 
A first class arranger 
The best in the land, can't you see? 
There's hardly a thing in this wide, wide 

That hasn't been arranged by me." 

ON A slow-moving Cottage Grove 
av. street-car, one day last fall, 
a young and promising lad named 
Banks Kennedy scribbled off the fore- 
going paragraph. Not that he didn't 
have anything else to do; in fact, he was 
organist at one of Chicago's biggest movie 
palaces, a leading instructor in the art 
of piano playing, and a leader in the 
University of Chicago's "social elect." 

But he felt in a composing mood and 
lie decided to write something to ease 
the agony of the aforementioned slow- 
moving street car. 

That was about three months ago. 
Then one day a Sigma Alpha Epsilon 
fraternity brother of Kennedy's, Harry 
Aldyne by name — and incidentally the 
contest editor of RADIO AGE — asked 
him if he would like to entertain over 
Radio Station KYW the coming Wed- 
nesday. Banks, eager for a new thrill, 

His Radio Debut 

ONE Wednesday night at 8 o'clock, 
Banks Kennedy made his radio 

debut. He was displeased that the 
program was strictly classical, but the 
RADIO AGE program directors saw 
under Kennedy's unwillingly serious 
exterior a gift for jazz and light enter- 
tainment that would lead him to untold 
heights in the radio world. 

With that thought in mind, and heed- 
ful of Kennedy's success even at the more 
serious side of radio endeavor, Harry 
Aldyne asked the young pianist to make 
his "jazz debut" at Station KYW's 
jazz carnival, beginning at midnight one 
Saturday in November. 

Banks' eyes sparkled. Here's where 
he'd show 'em! Here's where he'd bring 
out his limitless repertoire of toe-ticklers 
and fancy-capturers! 

"I'll be there — if I can arrange it," 
Banks told Aldyne. And therein was 
born the germ of an idea — an idea that 
first began to take shape in Kennedy's 
nimble brain on a slow-moving Cottage 
Grove av. street car. 

Banks "arranged it." He introduced 
his "If I Can Arrange It" song — at 
least the first three hundred verses — 
and by the next morning hundreds of 
radio fans were writing to KYW and 
asking for more! That assured the 
song's success, so Banks assured his 
radio audience at least 50,000 more 

verses would be forthcoming within a 
short time. 

Later, at Station WEBH, under the 
auspices of RADIO AGE, Banks intro- 
duced several more verses, three times 
a week for several weeks. The song is 
now known as "Chicago's radio song," 
for its phenomenal success can be attrib- 
uted directly to Banks' appearance before 
the microphone. Within a short time, he 
promises, it will be in sheet music form, 
with as many verses as can be squeezed 
in the smallest type made. That's a 

So you see, Banks owes a lot to radio. 
And RADIO AGE takes a lot of the 
credit for putting him on the air and 
showing him where his real forte lies. 

To go into history, Banks is a South- 
erner by birth. Right now, in fact, he 
is spending the first weeks of the new 
year with his mother in Tuskalusa, 
Alabama. Of course, Banks can't resist 
the call of Radio, so while he's getting 
re-acquainted with the old homestead, 
he's singing from WSB, Atlanta; WBAP, 
Fort Worth, Tex.; and WFAA, Dallas, 
Tex. And it's a safe bet by this time 
that all the lads and lassies in the Sunny 
South know at least one thousand verses 
of "If I Can Arrange It". 

We trust Banks arranged that in due 
time. (Turn to page 61) 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 39 

"Compact Efficiency" with 

A 3-Tube Reflex Circuit 


Copyright: 1925 

REFLEX circuits have always had 
a peculiar fascination for me be- 
cause of the opportunity that they 
offer for making one part serve the pur- 
pose of two or more parts, and last but 
not least, their compactness and porta- 
bility. Further, the circuit enables us to 
use a non-oscillating detector of some 
description, such as a crystal or a two 
element tube, and this gives the reflex 
first rank as a receiver giving clear, dis- 
tortionless reception with almost crystal- 
like tone. All the advantages of radio 
frequency and audio frequency ampli- 
fication are had with one set of tubes, and 
hence with fewer tubes than with a 
straight radio frequency set. 

For those of our readers who have not 
yet studied the reflex circuit, I will give 
a few words of explanation regarding its 
workings and general principles. To 
begin with, the radio frequency current 
received from the aerial is amplified at 
this high frequency by the tubes, and is 
then passed through some sort of de- 
tector which rectifies the waves and de- 
velops the audio frequency phase, just 

A Circuit that Gives 
More Amplification 
Output than Usual 
5-Tube R. F. Outfits 

as in the first stages of a radio frequency 
receiver. However, at this point a 
radical change is made in the circuit for 
the current rectified by the dectector is 
now returned where it receives a second 
amplification at audio frequency in the 
same tubes, increasing the volume of 
sound. Thus, the same tubes act both 
as audio and radio frequency amplifiers 
and we make a corresponding saving in 
the number of tubes. 

Equivalent to 5 Tubes 
TN this way, two tubes with a crystal 
*- detector will give two stages of radio 
and two stages of audio amplification, 
approximately the equivalent of five 
tubes. I say "approximately" for the 

reason that the tubes do not develop their 
full efficiency under these conditions 
when amplifying at two frequencies, but 
at any rate they develop far more than 
the same number of tubes under any other 
conditons. Working in this way the 
tubes probably develop 80 per cent of 
their full capacity as radio frequency 
amplifiers and 90 per cent of their ca- 
pacity as audio amplifiers. The total 
actual delivery can be taken at about 75 
per cent of the full tube capacity. A 
single tube reflex should give the equiva- 
lent of one stage of radio and one stage of 
audio, but as we know, this is not at- 
tained. Both the volume and range are 
somewhat better than a single tube 
regenerative, both in regard to range and 
volume, but are not equal to the full three 
tubes used in amplifying the regenerative. 
Our present three tube reflex circuit 
has three amplifying tubes and a crystal 
detector. With the circuit arranged as 
shown, this is the theoretical equivalent 
of three stages of radio frequency ampli- 
fication and two stages of audio ampli- 
fication, or better than the output of the 

Blueprints of the 3-Tube Reflex on Pages 40, 41, 44, 45 

A Thirty-Two Page Blueprint Section in 


A Technical Radio Section, illustrated with real blueprints that have made RADIO AGE the radio technician's guide, 

is the predominating feature of the RADIO AGE ANNUAL. Never equalled before in any magazine. The sixteen 

full page blueprints reproduced in the ANNUAL are worth many times the price of the book. 

Also, scores of technical diagrams, pictures and especially picked constructional articles. Departments for beginner, 

experimenter and expert. 

You cannot afford to be without the RADIO AGE ANNUAL FOR 1925. 


Address, Radio Age Annual, 500 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, III. 




J.1M s-y 


<t < CD £D 
I ■■- + I + 




K 1 



RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

( Continued from page 39) 
usual five tube tuned radio frequency out- 
fit. Actually, this gives just about the 
same performance as a five tube set with 
two radio stages, detector and two audio 
stages. The full output of the three 
theoretical radio stages is not quite 
realized. The use of a crystal detector 
in place of a three element tube detector 
eliminates one tube and greatly improves 
the tone, but at the same time the volume 
issomewhat diminished. However, the loss 
of volume is not so very great and would 
hardly justify the addition of another tube. 

If the crystal is not desired, a two 
element tube such as the diode can be 
substituted, but a standard three element 
tube is not desirable for the reason that 
it introduces tube noises, regeneration 
and other factors which interfere with 
the clarity of reception. There are many 
good crystals on the market which give 
little trouble in a reflex circuit, but I 
must caution you against the use of a 
galena crystal or any other soft crystal 
of similar nature. Galena will not stand 
up under the high plate currents of a 
three tube reflex but will burn out con- 
tinuously. It is all right on a crystal set. 
but not with from 5 to IS milliamperes 
current driving through it. 

As more than two stages of audio 
amplification are not advised on a reflex 
circuit, this set is reflexed in such a way 
that only two stages are employed, the 
two last tubes acting as both audio and 
radio amplifiers while the first tube is 
purely a radio frequency tube. This ar- 
rangement increases the radio frequency 
amplification efficiency somewhat and 
with but little loss in audio. 

Description of Circuit 

BOTH Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 show the same 
circuit but in different ways. Fig, 
1 is the so-called conventional circuit 
with standard symbols for the more 
experienced builder, while Fig. 2 is a 
picture diagram for the novice. Fig. 
3 is a panel layout showing arrangement 
of controls and approximate spacing of 
the panel mounted apparatus while Fig. 4 
is an isometric view made for the purpose 
of showing how the apparatus actually 
looks back of the panel. For making the 
actual wiring connections, however, I 
strongly advise the wiring in either Fig. 
1 or Fig. 2 be used, as many of the wires 
are concealed in the isometric view. 

Now, looking at either Fig. 1 or Fig. 2, 
we see the three amplifying tubes T-l, 
T-2 and T-3. These may be either UV- 
201A or UV-199 tubes, but the WD-12 
and WD- 11 are not effective for this pur- 
pose. Two rheostats are used for the 
three tubes, one for the first radio stage 
(T-l) at (R-l) and rheostat (R-2) for the 
control of the two rear reflexed tubes 
(T-l — T-2). A plate voltage of 90 volts 
is supplied by the "B" battery to all of 
the tubes alike. 

All of the radio frequency stages are 
coupled by the three radio frequency 
transformers (Air core type) marked 
RT-1, RT-2 and RT-3. For maximum 
results these should be of the tuned radio 
frequency type tuned by the 17 plate 
(0.00305 mf) variable condensers C2, C3 
and C4 as in the neutrodyne, or other 

radio frequency type receivers. These 
condensers, together with the 0.0005 mf 
loop tuning condenser (CI) give extreme 
selectivity and a maximum peak of ampli- 
fication, but at the same time they make 
tuning correspondingly difficult because 
of the many controls to be handled. 
Thus, we have four tuning dials which 
make tuning rather difficult for the novice. 

Just An Idea of What You 
Will Find in 


FOR 1925 

How to Read Hookups. 
Something the beginner 
cannot do without. 

How to understand Ra- 
dio Phenomena. For the 
fan who would like to 
know something about 
the secrets of Radio. 

Building your first Sim- 
ple Set. Getting started 
in Radio. 

Your First Tube Set. A 
popular reflex circuit de- 
veloped to its simplest 

The First Baby Hetero- 
dyne. Every fan will want 

Thirty -two Page Radio 
Age Annual Blueprint 
Section, with sixteen pages 
of real blueprints in color. 
Blueprints of : Single tube 
sets, Neutrodynes, Reflex 
receivers, New Baby Het, 
and a Wonder Super-Het- 

"How to Make" articles 
on Loud Speakers, Ampli- 
fiers, Tube Troubles, etc. 

How to Make a Real 

And many other articles, 
fully illustrated. 

Order Yours Now- 
One Dollar a Copy 

To avoid the use of so many condenser 
controls, the last transformer (RT-3) 
can be of the untuned type (Fig. 1) and 
by this method the variable condenser 
(C4) can be omitted as suggested by the 
dotted lines. This occasions a slight drop 
in the effectiveness of the circuit, but is 
usually advisable with sets operated by 
beginners. An untuned radio frequency 
transformer is shown at (RT-3) in Figs. 
2, 3, 4. All the other stages are con- 
trolled or tuned across the secondary, 
which gives us three tuning controls in- 
cluding the loop tuner (CI). A standard 
loop aerial is connected across (Al) and 
(A2) in the usual manner. 

Any standard air core radio tuned 

The Magazine of the Hour 

frequency transformer or neutrodyne 
transformer can be used at RT-1, RT-2 
or RT-3. The primary winding (Y) con- 
sists of about 12 turns of No. 26 D.S.C. 
wire while the secondary has about 64 
turns of the same size wire. However, I 
recommend that these transformers be 
purchased ready-made, for home made 
transformers are seldom reliable. Fig. 
4A shows the general dimensions of the 
transformers in case the home builder 
desires to "roll his own." Transformer 
RT-3, if of the untuned type, must be 
purchased, as this type is altogether out 
of the amateur builder's class. 

200 or 400 Ohm Potentiometer 

AT (PO) we have a 200 or 400 ohm 
-*■*■ potentiometer used for varying the 
grid potential on the first radio frequency 
tube, and the radio frequency resistance 
is reduced by the bypass condenser (Kl) 
which has a capacity of not less than 
0.006 mf. 

At the extreme right in Fig. 1 is the 
crystal detector (CD) in series with the 
secondary coil (X) of the radio frequency 
transformer (RF-3). There is little re- 
quiring further explanation at this point 
than to say that the crystal circuit con- 
nects to the primary coil (P-B) of the 
first audio frequency transformer (AT-1). 
The leads running from (a) and (b) to the 
terminals (P) and (B) of the audio trans- 
former (AT-1) should be temporary 
wires at first so that the connections (a) 
and (b) can be reversed in case of the 
transformer coils bucking. First, try 
them in the position shown and then 
reverse (a) and (b) to determine the best 
working position. 

At (AT-1) and (AT-2) are the two 
audio frequency transformers acting as 
the first and second stages respectively 
of the audio amplification phase. Trans- 
former (AT-1) is reflexed into the second 
tube (T2) while the transformer (AT-2) 
is reflexed into the third tube (T3). 
Both transformers are of the usual iron 
core audio type with a ratio of from 5-1 
to 6-1. Higher ratios are not generally 
advised while lower ratios reduce ampli- 
fication, but give clearer reception. One 
of the most valuable features of the 
reflex circuit is its clear tone and there- 
fore we should not impair this feature by 
using poor or high ratio transformers. 

Both secondary and primary windings 
of both transformers are by-passed by 
the fixed condensers (K2-K3-K4-K5) 
which are of 0.002 mf capacity for the 
majority of audio transformers. How- 
ever, some transformers have so much 
distributed capacity that these con- 
densers will not be necessary for by- 
passing the radio frequency current, and 
in fact, some transformers work better 
without any bypass condensers at all. 
This is a point that you must work out 
experimentally by yourself for your par- 
ticular conditions, but I advise you to 
try the effect of the condensers at any 
rate. Another fixed condenser (K6) of 
0.5 mf capacity connected between the 
output post (p) and the ( + A) is useful in 
reducing the "B" battery resistance and 
the speaker impedance offered to the 
radio frequency current. 

(Turn to next page) 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


A Compact Three-Tube 
Reflex Set 

(Continued from preceding page) 

Here it will be noted that the ouput 
terminals (p-p 1 ) are in series with the "B" 
battery and plate of the third tube (T3), 
where the point of full amplification is 
had. As this part of the circuit conveys 
radio frequency current as well as audio 
it will be well to use binding posts at (p) 
and (p 1 ) instead of jacks, for the capacity 
of the jack blades often seriously affects 
the performance. The blades of the 
jack are close together and act as a fixed 
condenser of no small capacity. When 
the plugs are changed, this often disturbs 
the balance of the circuit. The switch 
(SI) is in the negative "A" battery lead 
and should be used for cutting out the 
filament current, thus avoiding the neces- 
sity of turning down the rheostats and 
disturbing the adjustment every time 
that the set is put out of service. 

Diode as a Detector 

TN Fig. 2 A is a small corner of the circuit 
-*- drawn out to show how a two element 
diode tube may be used instead of the 
crystal detector. The relation of this 
sketch to the main diagram can be easily 
traced out by the location of the tube 
amplifier (T3), the radio frequency trans- 
fromer (RT-3j, and the optional variable 
condenser (C4). The two element tube 
is at (D) with the plate (M) and the 
filament (F). The negative filament of 
the tube and the plate (M) are connected 
into the circuit just as with the crystal. 
A separate single 1.5 volt dry cell (DB) 
supplies current to the filament of the 
diode tube and is provided with a second 
cutout switch (S2). The terminals (a-b) 
are connected to the primary coil of the 
audio transformer (AT-1) as before. 

This diode tube introduces no dis- 
tortion into the circuit and "avoids the 
necessity of adjusting a crystal. Its use 
is optional, but is shown as a means of 
obtaining tone value without a crystal. 
As the diode is not critical to filament 
voltage or current, it is not usual to use 
a rheostat, but one can be used if a 
higher voltage than 1.5 volts is employed. 

Almost any standard loop aerial can be 
used with excellent results, which is 
within the wavelength range. It is tuned 
by the condenser (CI), which for safety's 
sake can be a 23 plate 0.0005 mf size 
instead of 0.00035 mf used across the 
transformer secondaries. The loop used 
in my experiments was a two foot loop 
of the solenoid type having 15 turns of 
lamp cord. This, however, is simply a 
suggestion as to size. Where there is 
much interference, the loop will be found 
quite useful in tuning out local stations 
because of its directional qualities. 
Three stages of radio frequency will in- 
sure good reception over long distances 
with the loop. 

Size of Panels, Etc. 

My first set was mounted on a special 
"xl3 " panel without crowding or trouble 
feedbacks. Further constructions showed 
that everything worked out well on a 
7"xl4"x3-16" panel, and I believe that 

this size is best, everything considered. 
If the panel is so short that the parts are 
crowded together, then there will be 
feedback between stages or between the 
radio transformers (RT-1) and (RT-2). 
If a very long cabinet is used, then the 
wiring will be so long that the losses will 
be materially increased. All wires should 
be as short as possible, particularly the 
wires running to the grid posts (G) on the 
sockets, and the wiring should be rather 
open so that the wires do not come 
together close at points where they are 
parallel. Don't crowd the wiring to- 
gether for the sake of appearances. 
Performance is of more importance than 
appearance on back of panel. 

In connecting up the set, be sure that 
the stator or stationary blades of the 
variable condensers marked (S) are con- 
nected to the grid side of the circuit as 
shown. Again, keep the audio frequency 
transformers as far out of the field of the 
radio frequency transformers as possible; 
that is, do not place the audios directly 
in line with the center of the radio fre- 
quency transformers. 

The location of the crystal detector is 
a matter of personal taste and judgment. 
Mounted on the front of the panel, it is 
easy to adjust, but it is also more likely 
to be knocked out of adjustment by the 
hand when reaching for the tuning dials, 
and the wires to the detector are also 
much longer. On the other hand, if the 
detector is mounted on the bottom board 
in the rear, it is difficult to adjust and is 
inconvenient. There is no marked advan- 
tage either way except for those people 
who like to see a great variety of appara- 
tus displayed on the front of the panel. 

Use Vernier Control 
/"^WIXG to the sharp tuning of the 
^-' condensers, it is advisable to use a 
vernier type for all three controls, and 
the true low loss type is of course pre- 
ferable. Low loss type air core trans- 
formers are of great assistance in getting 
the distant stations and add volume on 
the locals. To decrease the losses further, 
use good sockets having a high insulating 
value and install them in the set so that 
the bottom of the sockets is at least 1-4 
inch above the bottom board if a wood 
bottom board is used. A bakelite or hard 
rubber panel is to be preferred to a wood 
bottom board in every case, as there is as 
much opportunity for high frequency 
leakage at this point as on the vertical 
panel itself. 

Spaghetti is not always the best thing 
to use for covering the wiring. It adds to 
the capacity effect of the conductors, and 
in a way offsets the care that has been 
taken against leakage and inductive 
losses at other points in the circuit. It 
has always been amusing to me to see 
how carefully the low loss coils are stripped 
of dielectric and insulation to avoid loss, 
and then how a spaghetti dielectric is 
deliberately placed on a much longer 
length of wire in the same circuit, thus 
completely eliminating the advantages of 
the low loss coils. 

To make matters worse, the spaghetti 
is varnished which further increases its 
capacity over the dry wound wire of the 
coils. With two wires run parallel to 

each other for any distance, the use of 
spaghetti has a marked effect on the 
capacity of the circuit. 

All Tubes Amplifiers 

ALL tubes are amplifying tubes, 
hence a plate or "B" battery voltage 
of from 67.5 to 90 volts is used on the 
plates for maximum amplification. Lower 
voltages than these will give very poor 
results. In case the diode tube is used 
as a detector, please note that no "B" 
battery is applied to the plate of this 
tube for the reason that we wish to avoid 
oscillation in the detector branch of the 

The "A" or filament current voltage 
depends upon the type of tube used. 
For the UV-199 tube the applied voltage 
is 4.5 volts or equal to the voltage of 
three dry cells connected in parallel. 
For the UV-201A tube we use a six volt 
storage battery. While the UV-199 
tubes do not give quite the results that 
are obtained with the storage battery 
tubes, yet they are often very desirable 
where a storage battery is impracticable. 
A single set of three cells in series will 
give two months service or over, but 
for the most economical service I suggest 
that six batteries be employed — two 
groups of three cells in series. 

In making these connections, have two 
rows of three batteries each and connect 
up each of these groups independently 
in series, that is, zinc to carbon, zinc to 
carbon, etc. Next, connect the two 
carbons of the two groups together, and 
then the two zincs, these connections 
being made at the end cells. The 
result is that we have decreased the 
demand on each cell by one half and in 
so doing have increased the life about 
three times. Doubling the number of 
cells in parallel does not only double 
the life. It does much more than that; 
it triples the life at a cost which is only 
double that of a single set of three cells. 

Rheostat (Rl) controls the current 
to tube (Tl) only; therefore a high 
resistance rheostat should be used, sav 
15 to 20 ohms for the UV-201A tube 
and 30 ohms for the UV-199 tube. 
Rheostat (R2) carries the current for 
both (T2) and (T3); hence its resistance 
should be less than for the single tube. 
From seven to 15 ohms will be correct 
for this group. 

The resistance controls are not critical 
as with detector tubes, and therefore 
automatic filament control devices can 
be employed which do away with 
rheostats altogether. This has certain 
advantages and disadvantages, but they 
can be used if desired for all tubes, using 
one automatic control for each tube 
placed in the negative lead. A battery 
switch must be used with this arrange- 
ment, as there is no other way of turning 
off the filament current except by dis- 
connecting the "A" battery. With 
rheostats the switch may be omitted as 
the rheostat also acts as a switch, but 
in general it is ad\dsable to use a battery 
switch under all conditions, particularly 
for the Diode tube. 

Have You Seen the 


Cross- Word Puzzle 

in this Issue? 

Blueprint Figures 3 and 4 on pages 44 and 45. 

W^O/M ~7^Mt>i=/ 



46 RADIO AGE for February, 1925 






Nate Coldwell, the "Joy 
Digger," Was told by a 
Doctor to Get Out in the 
Air; Instead He Got 
"On the Air" and To- 
day He Travels from 
Radio Station to Radio 
Station Making Others 
Happy; Covers 5000 
Miles in Six Months! 

NATE COLDWELL, who calls 
himself "The Joy Digger," and 
hails from Chicago, has made a 
big hit with New England radio fans. 
Coldwell is a real 20th century edition 
of the wandering minstrel and is one of 
the most interesting artists on the air 
at WEEI, Edison Light Co., of Boston, 
Mass. While Mr. Coldwell has been 
traveling in the East, he has been making 
his headquarters at WEEI and has made 
thousands of friends with his songs and 

During the past six months Coldwell 
has covered over 5,000 miles in his 
travels around the country. His story 
of these wanderings sounds like a 
Horatio Alger book. He came East 
from Chicago about three years ago to 
attend Dartmouth College at Hanover, 
N. H. Here his health failed and he was 
ordered by physicians to quit school 
and stay out in the air. Coldwell not 
only went out in the air; he went the 
doctors one better and got out on the air! 

He Croons 'Em 

While his voice is not heavy, it is of 
fine quality and by getting close to the 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 

Here's the "Joy Digger" in a typical pose with his trusty "Uke," crooning an 
original melody to "Bob" Emery, announcer at Station WEEI, Boston, who is hold- 
ing the microphone. 

"mike" and crooning his songs he is 
able to put them over wonderfully. All 
of Nate's numbers are original. New 
Englanders have fairly gone crazy over 
Coldwell. His song "You Can't Fool 
Fate" has been sung over and over again 
from Station WEEI, and every time he 
comes back, scores of telephone calls and 
telegrams flow into the studio request- 
ing him to do his entire repertoire. 

Just where Coldwell is at the present 
time is not known to officials of WEEI. 
He drops down to that station about as 
often as the rain visits this changeable 
New England climate. His last appear- 
ance at WEEI was the night of the 
Harvard- Dartmouth football game. 
Nate had seen the game on a pass. He 
had seen his college mates trounce 
Harvard and he was in rare form. 

About a week ago, however, officials at 
the Edison Light station picked up Cold- 
well's program from WGY, General 
Electric Company, Schenectady. At that 
time the announcer told the listeners — in 
that Coldwell was on his way to the 
Pacific Coast. Wherever he is, his 
friends at WEEI know that he is headed 
for the nearest broadcast station and 

also are sure that radio listeners within 
500 miles will be royally entertained. 

Back Home Again 

Just a few weeks ago some RADIO 
AGE experimenters heard Coldwell from 
WTAS, Elgin, 111., which shows he's 
gradually drifting back to his old 
haunts near Chicago. 

"The Wandering Minstrel" is known 
better away from Chicago than in it, so 
middle westerners may get a chance to 
hear him "do his stuff" after all. 

In his extremely youthful days, Cold- 
well had very little inclination toward 
music or the composition thereof. In 
fact, his proud parents had long ago given 
up any hope that he might become a 
second Chopin or even an embryo 
Irving Berlin. 

So what did Nate do but do a little 
composing after he started broadcasting! 
Of course, he lays claim to no fame for 
his compositions, but it has to be ad- 
mitted that they are all exceedingly 
original and snappy. 

What they lack in beauty of tone and 
arrangement, they make up for in pep 
and originality. 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 


At the right is a facsimile 
reproduction of a letter sent 
to RADIO AGE by Herbert 
Hoover, Secretary of Com- 
merce, in acknowledgement 
of an editorial published in 
the October issue, praising the 
Secretary's stand in demand- 
ing stabilization of radio 
conditions. Above is a re- 
cent photograph of Mr. 


December 5, 1924 

'.air. Frederick a. Smith 
Radio jige 

500 li. Dearborn St. 
Chicago, 111. 

Dear fcr. Strath: 

This is just by aay or expression" 

oi Etppreei&tioa for yoyr editorial in the October 

iaaut.' or "Radio -j^e" which .las co.-:e to (cy attention 

on Dj return froa the ye^t. Our p;jrt in tne 

raoio industry ie becoititi^ irore difficult every 

ironth and ae certainly co n=ed n:or<J support. 

Yours faithfully 



48 RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 




Junior $IO 


Oldest and Largest Distributors of 






* Ttsted and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

% Hook^\3Lp^ 

*TpHE material appearing under the title "Pickups and Hookups by Our Readers" in RADIO AGE, is 
■*■ contributed by our readers. It is a department wherein our readers exchange views on various circuits 
and the construction and operation thereof. Many times our readers disagree on technical points, and 
it should be understood that RADIO AGE is not responsible for the views presented herein by con- 
tributors, but publishes the letters and drawings merely as a means of permitting the fans to know what 
the other fellow is doing and thinking. 

The Magazine vf the Hour 49 


TV TOW that we are over the holiday 

I ^ season, I suppose we can all set- 
-*r ' tie down and start twisting the 
dials with a vengeance once more. How- 
ever, I don't want our readers to think 
that we imagine any one has laid down 
on the job during the past month, but 
during this" time of the year we are so 
occupied with other duties that some- 
times the DX fans are too tired to bother 
with sending in their lists of calls re- 

Last month we requested that our con- 
tributors exercise a little more care and 
neatness in submitting material for this 
department. It really is gratifying to 
notice the change that has already taken 
place. No more do we receive questions 
in the technical department written on 
the rough side of a shingle or the margin 
of a newspaper. Instead they are sub- 
mitted in a nice, orderly manner, and it 
really is a pleasure for the editor to open 
his mail in the morning and know that 
he will not need to strain his eyes in an 
attempt to decipher a cryptic message. 

Likewise several photographs have 
been received and the only thing that 
prevents our printing them is the lack of 
space. Good photographs of sets or sta- 
tions are alwa3'S welcome, and we want 
to receive more of them. It goes without 
saying that we are also desirous of ob- 
taining stories, entertaining or otherwise, 
for this page, and I know that most of the 
amateurs and professional operators have 
a flock of them at their command, that 
I am sure will come pouring in once the 
word is passed around that the Pick-ups 
editor would like to have them. 

We have by way of an innovation this 
month a contribution from a lady fan 
whom we think must be a regular ex- 
perimenter, as her letter seems to point 
to the fact that she has built several sets. 

We certainly welcome her contribution 
and hope that we shall have the pleasure 
of hearing from her from time to time. 

Any number of good DX lists have 
been contributed by fans who are desirous 
of obtaining the well-known DT buttons. 
It really was quite hard this month to 
choose the best lists, and if an>- of you feel 
disappointed because you have been left 
out, do not be discouraged, but try again, 
as the above list contains only the cream 
of the largest number of letters ever 
handled through the Pick-ups and Hook- 
ups Department. 

If you will look through our Strays 
column, you will notice the kind of re- 
ception that was necessary to get into 
the DT column this month. 

Truly, the lads who have been honored 

f. Mcdonald 

Chicago, Ills, 

Chas. C 


Roland Lure... 



Pawtucket, R. L St. Louis, Mo. Jamestown, N. Y. 


Address City 

943 Gladstone Ave* Detroit, Mich. 

jl. _ — Newport, N. J. 

.184 Spring St 

— .....Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Delmar, Iowa. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

.Waynesville, Ills. 

Marion S. Corly 

Wm. B. Simpson 445 Autumn Ave.. 

Felix Frederiksen Route 2 

Berney Philippson.. ....631 55th St^ 

E. E. Richmonds 

Roy M. Canfield 45 North Park St ....East Orange, N. J. 

Einar A. Hultman 97 Baker St ....Jamestown, N. Y. 

James Grindle. 1143 Garfield St Hammond, Ind. 

Ted Gerell 5327 Pershing Ave St. Louis, Mo. 

Charles H. Dawson... ....14 Cavell Ave. Toronto, Ont., Can. 

Henry W. Schwab 201 Buell St Muscatine, Iowa. 

Wayne Mac Quiddy Drawer "S"___ Pittsburg, Calif. 

Otis C. Wyatt 57 Gladstone St... .....Providence, R. I. 

Ralph E. Riley. _1711 Fifth St Oakland, Calif. 

Miles Conrad 1224 Louisiana Ave New Orleans, La. 

William L. Poser Box 708-B Route A__ Fresno, Calif. 

Paul Hayes 918 Bell St Pasadena, Calif. 

Eugene Borsaltue 1518 Wash. St ..Gary, Ind. 

Sibley Law Saxon Mills Spartanburg, S. C. 

Archie H. Klingbeil 258 Prospect St Ashtabula, Ohio. 

S. J. Todd 1832 E. 82nd St... Cleveland, Ohio. 

Thomas Burke. 3016 Warren Ave Chicago, 111. 

J. W. Vine — Swallows, Colo. 

William Barker 571 Linwood Ave Columbus, Ohio. 

Hugh Jones, Jr 503 Horatio St Tampa, Fla. 

Harry E. Lake 1529 Stone St .....Flint, Mich. 

R. J. Dolan. .Nelson, N. B., Can. 

Maxwell Krasno 1219 26th St..... Milwaukee, Wis. 

Arthur Rabe. 21 Archer Ave Buffalo, N. Y. 

M. Watson 1925 Bigelow St..... ....Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Albert M. Turney, Jr 3944 Massachusetts St.. ..Long Beach, Calif. 

Wm. Wreeland, Jr. 67 Union St ...Montclair, N. J. 

Hudson Marhoff. 919 Lakeside Place ...Chicago, 111. 

Jas. Geyse- 1005 Swissvale Ave Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

G. Titmarsh _. 120 Benson Ave Toronto, Ont., Can. 

C. H. Wendt 601 So. 50th Ave Omaha, Neb. 

Jack Dobson, Jr. Pineflat Sonoma, Calif. 

H. E. Potter. 1 Hayden St Binghamton, N. Y. 

William Corcoran 26 Arlington Ave__ Auburn, N. Y. 

with DT buttons this month can well be 

It seems that more and more of the 
radio fans are turning to the loop aerial 
as the only means of satisfactory re- 
ception. We guess that we are right in 
that presumption, as the "Strays" 
column seems to bear us out. 

Keep up the good work boys; keep it 



Enclosed please find a sketch of the 
radio frequency and regenerative outfit 
that I am using at present, and from 
which I am getting very good results. 
With a small thirty-foot aerial I am able 
to pick up anything east of the Rocky 
Mountains. I use about twenty-five 
feet for real DX work, as I find that this 
reduces interference to a minimum. 
Using the small aerial, I am able to tune 
from 200 to 560 meters, and while the 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

Above is the circuit contributed by Mr. McDonald, showing the method of adding radio 
frequency to a regenerative set. 

volume is not quite as good as it would be 
with the larger aerial, the selectivity 
more than makes up for that loss. 
• For the radio frequency transformer I 
use a low loss coil of the type that is com- 
monly used in neutrodyne sets, with a 
.00035 Variable condenser across the 
secondary. A three circuit tuner is used 
before the detector tube, and the secon- 
dary is tuned with a .0005 variable con- 
denser. As there are any number of 
three circuit tuners on the market, I 
will not go into detail here as to their 

Using this circuit, I have logged on 
week nights (not Monday) coast to coast 
and border to border stations in less than 
two hours, time. 

Very truly yours, 
Chicago, 111. F. McDONALD. 

Mr. McDonald has done considerable 
experimenting with radio sets and if he 
says this circuit is good, he really should 
know. Ifany of the fans want informa- 
tion as to the winding of the three circuit 
tuner, it can be obtained from an article 
in another section of RADIO AGE. Any 
of you fellows who have three-circuit 

turns of number 26 wire wound on a tube 
three inches in diameter. The rotor is 
wound on a tube slightly smaller in 
diameter and has six turns on both sides 
of the shaft. Use the same size wire when 
winding the rotor. 

At present I am experimenting in the 
hopes to improve the tuner, but I am 
afraid that I can not do much in this 
regard, as the circuit seems to be about 
as near perfect as is possible. Last week 
I listened to PWX, Havana, Cuba, for 
half an hour, using only the GROUND 
CONNECTION. To me that seems like 
pretty good DX work. 

Trusting that you will see fit to publish 
this letter, and wishing you a Happy and 
Prosperous New Year, I will close. 
Yours very truly, 

88 Linwood Ave., Pawtucket, R. I. 

We are very glad to hear from you 
again, Gilbert, and it gives us real plea- 
sure to publish your circuitinourcolumns. 
We like to hear from fans who use the old 
head once in a while. Most of the radio 
tuners and desire to add a stage of radio f an3 today take too much for granted and 
frequency can easily do so by employing don't experiment like the "old timers" (?) 

this hook-up. 


I am sending you this letter to let you 
know that I received my DT button all 
right and that I am mighty proud of it. 
I feel real chesty as I walk down the 
street with that little thing stuck in my 

When I got home the other night, there 
was a letter waiting for me from a fan in 
Chicago, who had seen mv name in the 
Strays column of RADIO AGE and 
wanted information regarding the circuit 
I described. I will answer it immediately 
and give him all the necessary informa- 
tion so that he will be able to build a set 
that will work just as well as mine. 

I am enclosing a wiring diagram and a 
description of the set, and if you have 
room in your valuable columns, you can 
print it if you see fit. 

The circuit is a variation of Mr. Rath- 
bun's (the blueprint Editor) with an 
aerial adapter. It sure is a DX-erand does 
not radiate to any great extent. I am not 
a bit backward in giving Mr. Rathbun 
credit for the circuit, as all I did was add 
the coupler, which consists of fifty-five 


Your set must be very good as the re- 
sults you get with it are just fine; in fact 



The Magazine of the Hour 

they seem so good that maybe ye editor 
will make himself one of 'em. 

As Gilbert is good enough to offer his 
services to any fan who writes him, you 
fans should see that he gets a few letters. 

We have a very interesting account of 
a receiver built by Ted Gerill, of 5327 
Pershing Ave., St. Louis, Mo., on which 
he gets excellent results. We are going 
to pass it along to the fans who feel that 
they would like to experiment with a 
receiver of this type. Below is Ted's, let- 


As per your request in the January 
issue of RADIO AGE, I am enclosing 
hook-up of the set with which I am get- 
ting excellent results. I use two 199- 
type tubes (detector and one step of 
audio). The circuit as you no doubt can 
see is the well known single circuit. The 
condenser and coupler are shielded with 
tin foil to eliminate body capacity. 

The aerial is about sixty feet long, 
strung between two poles or masts about 
thirty feet high. And on clear, cold 
nights I get very good results. My set 
with the exception of the head-phones, 
tube and the audio transformer, was 
made entirely by myself. 

Any of the fans who would care to cor- 
respond with me regarding this type of 
set are cordially invited to do so. 
Yours radio respectfully, 

5327 Pershing Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

/With the above description and wiring 
diagram, Ted has given us a list of the 
stations that can be logged by himself at 
almost any time. For the sake of per- 
mitting some of our readers to make 
comparisons we will jot down a few: 
WEAF, WGY, WCD, and last but by 
no means least, 2LO of London, England. 
Ted evidently 'is the type of fan that we 
spoke of in a preceding paragraph; a real 
experimenter who makes most of his own 
equipment. For his efforts we are going 
to take the liberty of admitting him to 
the great order of the Dial Twisters. 

Einar _ A. Hultman of Jamestown, 
N. Y., gives something in the radio fre- 
quency line, at which he is quite profi- 
cient. We are reproducing his letter and 












This hookup was contributed by Gilbert Slater. It shows how to add an antenna 
RAdTo^ACF Rathbun ' ! > ?in $ le ^ be lo6 l? set ' r ?<?ently published in blueprint form in 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

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RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

One stage of radio frequency and detector is shown in this wiring diagram, the work 
of Ted Gerill, who gets wonderful results. Write him about it and he'll furnish further 

wiring diagram and trust that any of the 
fans who are having trouble with a circuit 
of this type will find his contribution a 



Enclosed is a list of the stations I have 
received on my set, which I constructed 
myself. It employs one stage of radio 
frequency amplification and I am getting 
wcnderful results with it. 

The R. F. Transformers are of the air 
core type, such as are used in the neutro- 
dyne circuit, and the secondary is tuned 
with a small condenser. The circuit is 
not critical and the condenser settings 
will always be the same. Any one desir- 
ing further information on the subject 
can address me at my home if he so desires. 
Very truly yours, 
97 Baker St., Jamestown, N. Y. 

CKAC and plenty of others. Any of you 
fellows who want information on circuits 
of this type are requested to get in touch 
with him. With a list like that, is he 
entitled to a DT button, fellows? I'll 
say so. S^ here goes. 


Jack Dc_son, Jr., of Pineflat, Calif., 
reports that he is able to receive over 500 
miles on his crystal set, with more or less 
regularity. He has, besides the crystal 
set, a two circuit tuner with one stage of 
amplification, on which he has received 
quite a few of the east coast stations and 
Havana, Cuba, PWX. Most of his suc- 
cess he attributes to location, but then 
we know that quite a little of it goes to 

Some of the stations received by Mr. 
Hultman speak well for the sensitiveness 
of the set: WCAL, WTAS, WOS, 

It must be an ideal place for reception, 
up around Toronto, Canada, judging by 
the way the DX lists read from that part 
of the country. We just have another 
darb from G. Titmarsh, who has logged 
two stations in California (KGO and 

KHJ) in one evening, and held them for 
over two hours each. That is quite a 
nice record for some other DT to shoot 

We have a communication from Paul 
Hayes, 918 Bell St., Pasadena, Calif., 
who is very anxious to become a DT. 
The list he submits surely will allow us 
ta admit him to the order. He is one of 
those fans who are commonly known as 
"hams" or "brass pounders," and the 
number of 6's that he has worked, in 
Hawaii, is a caution. And this reminds 
us — what has become' of the relay boys 
who sit up till the milk~man comes around 
and the commercial operators both aship 
and ashore who have plenty of inter2sting 
things to report in these columns? 
Let's hear from some of you once in a 

William Vreeland, Jr., reports that he 
received 2EH Edinburgh, Scotland, dur- 
ing the International Test Week, and 
that he has an official confirmation from 
that station. He uses a neutrodyne 

A letter from Hugh Jones of Tampa, 
Fla., tells us about the interference the 
fans in his part of the country have with 
the ships on the Gulf of Mexico. Despite 
this fact, he has a very good list of DX 
stations and we certainly are going to 
award him a DT button for his per- 
severance in "standing by" and getting 

Here is a record for some of the one 
tube fans to shoot at. William Barker of 
571 Linwood Ave., Columbia, Ohio, has 
received KHJ, WDAF, WHB, WOS, 
"flock" of others. Yes sir, he gets his 
DT Button. 

If Marion S. Corly will send us her ad- 
dress we will send her a DT button, as 
the list of stations she submitted entitles 
her to one, but since she failed to give 
her address we are unable to mail it out. 
Many of these "lady bugs" could give us 

End yourRadioTroubles for 30c in Stamps 

We have laid aside a limited number of back i ;ues of RADIO AGE for your use 
these issues. Select the ones you want and enclose '0c in stamps for each desired, 
store of radio knowledge by laying in an ample stock of copies NOW! 

May, 1922 

— How to make a simple Cryatai Set for S6. 

September, 1922 

— How to make a Regenerative Set at a low cost. 

October, 1922 

— How to make a Tube Unit for S23 to S37. 

— How to make an Audio Frequency Amplifying Trans- 


November, 1922 

— Design of a portable short-wave radio wavemeter. 

May, 1923 

— How to make a portable Reinartz set for summer use. 

June, 1923 

— How to build the new Kaufman receiver. 

1 — What about your antenna? 

December, 1923 

—Bu0ding the Haynes Receiver. 

— Combined Amplifier and Loud Speaker. 

— A selective Crystal Receiver. 

January, 1924 

— -Tuning Out Interference — Wave Traps — Eliminator! 

— Filters. 

— A Junior Super-Heterodyne. 

— Push-Pull Amplifier. 

— Rosenbloom Circuit. 

March, 1924 

— An Eight-Tube Super-Heterodyne. 

—A simple, low loss tuner. 

— A Tuned Radio Frequency Amplifier. 

— Simple Reflex Set. 


April, 1924 

— An Efficient Super-Heterodyne (fully illustrated). 
—A Ten-Dollar Receiver. 
— Anti-Body Capacity Hookups. 
— Reflexing the Three-Circuit Tuner. 
— Index and first two installments of Radio Age Data 

May, 1924 

— Construction of a Simple Portable Set. 

— Radio Panels. 

— Third Installment of Radio Age Data Sheets. 

June, 1924 

—Important Factora in Constructing a Super-Hetero- 
— A Universal Amplifier. 
— A Sure Fire Reflex Set. 

— Adding Radio and Audio to Baby Heterodyne, 
—Radio Age Data Sheets. 

July, 1924 

— A Portable Tuned Impedance Reflex. 
— Operating Detector Tube by Grid Bias. 
— A Three-Tube Wizard Circuit. 
—Data Sheets. 

August, 1924 

— Breaking Into Radio Without a Diagram- 

— The English 4-Element Tube. 

■ — Filtered Heterodyne Audio Stages, 

— An Audio Amplifier Without an "A" Battery. 

— Data Sheets. 

Below are listed hookups to be found in 
The supply is getting low, so enrich your 

September, 1924 

— How Cireful Mounting Will Improve Reception. 
— One Tuning Control for Hair'B Breadth Selectivity. 
— Four Pages of Real Blueprints of a New Baby Het- 
erodyne and an Aperiodic Variometer Set. 
—Data Sheets. 

October, 1924 

— -An Easily Made Super-Het. 
— Two Radio and Two Audio for Clear Tone. 
— A Simple Regenerative Set. 
— The Ultradyne for Real DX. 

— Real Blueprints of a 3-Tube Neutrodyne and a Mid- 
get Reflex Set. 

November, 1924 

December, 1924 

— Blueprints of a New 8-Tube Super- Heterodyne. 
— How to Make a Receiver that Min im izes Static. 
—A Trans- Atlantic DX Receiver. 

— How to Make a Home Made Battery Charger and z 
Loud Speaker at a Small Cost. 

January, 1925 

— A Reflesed Neutrodyne 
—A Sis Tube Super-Het 
— An Efficient Portable Set 
— A Tuned Plate Regenerator 
— Making a Station- Finder 

500 N. Dearborn St., Chicago 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

some dandy DX lists if they would but 
take a few minutes and drop us a line. 
This month we are lucky; we have two 
with us. 

I have built many sets and tried many 
hookups, having success with them all. 
The only hook-up I had not tried was the 
reflex. Being a constant reader of your 
magazine, I ran across your single control 
Midget receiver. I built this set and of 
course it had to be like this; it would not 

After experimenting night after night 
I began to get discouraged, leaving it rest 
for a few days. I tried again, but to no 
avail. Finally I began to get discouraged 
with RADIO AGE. Knowing I must 
have made a mistake, I looked for 
that issue, only to find that I had lost it. 
Finally, deciding to give it up as a bad 
job, I dismantled the set, only to find 

Here we have a single circuit type of 
receiver as used by Mr. Hultman in his 
wonderful B X work. 

that the cause of the failure was due to 
my own carelessness. 

In soldering the condenser terminals a 
small amount of the rosin (I used rosin 
core solder) had flowed between the 
binding post on the condenser, and al- 
though the joint was soldered perfectly, 
the rosin acted as an insulator and as a 
result there was no electrical connection. 

I want to beg vour pardon for feeling 
as I did toward RADIO AGE, and at the 
same time ask you to please forward to 
me the hook-up of the Midget reflex, 
which I am sure will this time prove a 
complete success. 

Very truly 3'ours, 
3831 Wilton Ave., Chicago, 111. 

That's an interesting letter from a lady 
fan, who builds her own. Isn't that the 
way it usually turns out? Some little 
thing that just cannot be located, puts 
the whole set on the hummer. Yes, Airs. 
Herzog, we'll forgive you, we know just 
how you feel. You are to be compli- 
mented on your willingness to admit your 
mistake. The desired hook-up will be for- 
warded immediately. Hope you have 
better luck this time. 

We have received another letter from 
H. F. Lovett, who was made a DT last 
month. He writes a very humorous let- 
ter, very much so, and lives in Halifax, 
N. S. Amongst other things he reports 
that he has listened to complete programs 
from KFKX three nights in succession. 
That's pretty good DX. Same to you, 
Mr. Lovett. (Turn the page) 

The Magazine of the Hcrar 
— . 



The new Grimes 3XP In- 
verse Duplex circuit has 
established a new standard 
for reflex circuits and inci- 
dentally for radio reception. 
In developing this unusual 
receiver David Grimes 
tested each piece of appara- 
tus as to its ability to func- 
tion properly. It is signifi- 
cant that he chose 



It's just one more instance of 
Jefferson superiority demonstra- 
ted by comparison. Jeffersons 
are everything that the radio 
transformer should be to make 
your loud speaker a true musi- 
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David Grimes is only one of 
many radio authorities the world 
over who realize that better 
results are reached through 
Jefferson performance. 

Built by a concern with over 20 
year's experience in the manu- 
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ers meet matched construction 

Sold through leading dealers 
and distributors. 

Jefferson Electric 
Mfg. Co. 

438 S. Green St Chicago, IB. 

Manufacturers of 

Radio Transformers 
Bell Ringing Trans- 
Sign Lighting 

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Jump Spark — Make 

and Break Coils 

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Testing I 


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Included among the 
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working drawings are 
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tube Superheterodyne 
and the Jefferson eight 
tube Superheterodyne. 
Any of these will be 
sent upon receipt of 
five cents in stamps 
to cover postage. 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE ^ 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

Tonal Beauty Lies Deeper 
than the Ornish 

^T^EEPER even than the circuit diagram— chiefly, indeed, in 
•*S the audio transformer. 

All-American engineers, builders for years of the largest selling 
transformers in the world, have achieved another triumph, in the 
world's finest transformer at any price. Rauland-Lyric amplification, 
with an ordinary tuner and loudspeaker, has received the plaudits 
of musical authorities hitherto skeptical of all radio reproduction. 
Perfect amplification makes of radio a joy unending. Who shall 
say that such a benefit is not worth the slight additional cost? 

There is romance in the story of Rauland- 
Lyric. A request will bring it to you 
complete — from the laboratory studies 
to the auditions with world-famous 
music critics. Rauland Manufacturing 
Company, 2680 Coyne Street, Chicago. 


The price is nine dollars 




The Choice of Tooted Music Critics 

gv Y-mTmyczEff ; 

The Magazine of the Hour 

H. r R. Pruitt of Fillmore, Ind., has sub- 
mitted a very interesting account of a 
circuit that is proving quite popular in 
his part of the country. It seems to be a 
variation of the well known Autoplex. 
Sorry that we haven't room to print it, 
but he says he will answer all communi- 
cations that are addressed to him. 

R. J. Dolan, of Nelson, N. B., Canada, 
submits a list of stations that he received 
on his single tube loop set, as described 
by our Mr. Rathbun a few months back, 
that would make most fans turn green 
with envy. Amongst others is a verified 
report from KGO, over 3,000 miles from 
his city. That IS real DX work. Stick 
to it Mr. Dolan; stick to it. 

Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE 

It seems that this past month was quite 
a good one for the single tube fan. Harry 
E. Lake of 1529 Stone St., Flint, Mich., 
reports receiving Aberdeen, Scotland, 
Madrid, Spain, Havana, Cuba and a flock 
of distant stations on a single circuit out- 
fit, during the International Test Week. 

Archie H. Klingbeil, 258 Prospect 
Street, Ashtabula, Ohio, hands in a re- 
port of stations received on his five tube 
neutrodyne. His log is very complete. 
Very few professional operators keep a 
better one. You have the right idea, 
Archie; that's the way they should be 

M. Watson, who listens in from 1925 
Bigelow St., Cincinnati, Ohio, has a 
world of interesting dope for the crystal 
fans if they will but write him. As there 
has been more or less interference in that 
city until recently, when the transmitting 
bands were adjusted, he knows of -what he 
speaks. Sorry, but our space is not large 
enough this month to permit us to pinit 
your contribution. 

Ralph Riley of Oakland, Calif., writes 
to let us know what good results he is 
getting from his first set, which he con- 
structed from one of our isometric draw- 
ings. As he is a new fan, and this was 
his first set, he seems to be considerably 
surprised that it operates correctly. 
That just proves that our slogan, "Let 
our Hook-ups be your guide," is correct. 

James Grindle of Hammond, Ind., cer- 
tainly gets a DT button for the list of 
stations he submits. He has an "ultra- 
dyne" built from RADIO AGE instruc- 
tions and he certainly is getting wonderful 
results with it. All his stations are re- 
ceived on a 36 inch loop, and he has 
logged practically every station in North 
America together with plenty of Euro- 
pean ones. His set must be very selec- 
tive, as he has heard amateurs in prac- 
tically every district. He picked up six 
foreign stations during the International 
Test Week, and has certificates of veri- 
fication from all of them to prove re- 

Any of our readers who want some real 
information regarding the Haynes DX 
circuit can get worth-while information 
from Roy M. Canfield of 45 No. Park 
Ave., East Orange, N. J. He submitted 
a very interesting article regarding this 
set's construction and operation. Per- 
haps we can publish it in a future issue 

E. E. Richmonds of Waynesville, 111., 
wants to hear from some of the "Rein- 
artz" fans, whom he thinks are going 
back on the old circuit. If he only could 
see our mail, I know he would think dif- 
ferent. He is a real follower of John L., 
and his letter proves that he has done con- 
siderable experimenting with this circuit. 1 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 



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Only Government Licensed Radio Operators are allowed to 
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Howard Standard Parts 

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Howard Rheostat With Dial Control 

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If your dealer cannot supply you with Howard Parts send remittance direct to us. 


451-469 E. Ohio St., Chicago, 111. 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

Takes the 

out of RADIO! 

Just one book answers every ques- 
tion about this, modern miracle 

100,000 SOLD 
514 PAGES 

Leatheroid Edition 

Compiled by 

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Technically Edited by F. H. Doano 

BE A RADIO expert — it's easy for the 
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TELLS ALL ABOUT: Electrical terms 
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Nothing else like it. Make this ex- 
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Everything in one index, under one cover, 
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Send $1.50 today and get this 514-page I.C.S. 
Radio Handbook — the biggest value in radio 
today. Money back if not satisfied. 


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I am enclosing $1.50. Please send me — post- 
paid — the 514-page I. C. S. Radio Handbook. 
bound in Leathernid. It is understood that if I am 
not entirely satisfied I may return this book 
within five days and you will refund my money. 

| Name.. 

J Address 

Chech Tier e D and enclose ?1 if you wish the 
cloth-bound edition. 

Meet Our First Radio Mother 

( Continued from page 33) 

Stars from the KYVV studio gave the 
program and met their many friends in 
the radio audience. 

So popular was the first tea and so 
crowded for the children that Mrs. 
Peterson promised her "radio kiddies" 
that she would have a special Christmas 
party for them, with a Christmas tree 
and gifts for all. Again every available 
place was filled with radio families. 
Children were perched on top of the ice 
box, on the stove and on the platform. 
When Mrs. Peterson turned Santa 
Claus and gave them a gingerbread 
woman cookie which she had made 
especially for them, in addition to a box 
of candy, their joy was unbounded. 

The Children All Know Her 

RECENTLY the phone rang just 
■ before Mrs. Peterson was to broad- 
cast. "This is Dr. Blank talking. I 
have a little patient who has been very 
ill. She told me this morning when I 
called that if you would only speak to 
her over the radio it would make her 
well faster than any of my medicine. 
Could you just say, 'Good morning, 

And that morning over the air Mrs. 
Peterson's cheering voice said, "Good 
morning, Peggy. You are better. Call 
me on the phone when you are able to 
sit up." 

A Real Cooking Class Over the Air 

A course in general cooking in a series 
of twelve lessons, covering everything 
from soup to desserts, has been given 
twice. Registrations were made by mail, 
with the understanding that to each 
woman reporting that she had tried the 
recipes from nine out of the twelve les- 
sons, a certificate would be issued. If 
any difficulties arose in making the 
recipe, if any part was not clear, a ques- 
tion by mail brought a prompt answer, 
which pointed out the mistake and made 
success assured. 

Several thousand women registered 
for these courses and came into the Home 
Service Department for the graduating 
exercises at the end of the course. 

Now hundreds of women are asking for 
an advanced cooking class by radio, and 
it has been arranged to give a series of 
twelve lessons in January. These lessons 
are based on Mrs. Peterson's new radio 
cook book, "Simplified Cooking." 

To make it easy to jot down the 
recipes and keep them in a permanent 
book, Mr. Paul D. Warren, Superin- 
tendent of Home Service, has prepared 
a radio recipe note book, complete with 
space for index, in addition to forty-eight 
blank pages, sent free to all radio listeners 
in Chicago, and available to all others 
for three two cent stamps to cover cost 
and postage. 

"No wonder the men like this service," 
says Mrs. Peterson; "it is headed by a 
man. I want every radio pal of mine to 
know that the real inspiration of this 
service is Mr. Warren, who makes 
possible the carrying out of all our most 
delightful plans." (Turn to page 57) 
¥ Tested v-nd, Approved by RADIO AGE H- 

The Magazine of the Hour 

-proving the need 


Here's a typical "grid log" 
which shows the need of a 
variable grid leak. A Fil-Ko- 
Leak was substituted for a 1 
meg. fixed leak. It was adjusted 
for each station until Volume 
was greatest and distortion 

Note: Only four of thirty- 
one stations came in with 
the Fil-Ko-Leak set at 1 
megohm, the value of the 
leak it replaced. 


WFAA Dallas, Texas 5 

WMH Cincinnati. Ohio. ..2H 

WSB Atlanta, Ga 5 

WSH Chicago, 111 ....2 

WGN Chicago, 111 2 

*WSAI Cincinnati, Ohio.. .1 
WHB Kansas City, Mo...lJ^ 
WLW Cincinnati, Ohio... 4 

KSD St. Louis, Mo 4H 

WCBD Zion City, II! 4 H 

WTAS Elgin, III. 3H 

WOC Davenport, Iowa . . 5 

KGO Oakland, Cal 5 

KFI Los Angeles, Cal. . . 2 K 
WDAR Philadelphia. Pa... 134 
VVMAT Dartmouth, Mass.. 4 H 

*WBZ Springfield, Mass. . 1 

WEAF New York 3 

WOO Philadelphia, Pa . . .4 

$/%AA WOR Newark, N.J 3M 
•lUU WW J Detroit, Mich 4 
» w w *WTAM Cleveland, Ohio ... 1 
f WOS Jefferson City, Mo.2 

^J WTAY Oak Park, 111 H 

,~T , KDKA Pittsburgh, Pa K 

In Canada KYW Chicago, III 3H 

$2.90 WDBH Worcester, Mass. . . 4 H 

KFNF Shenandoah, Iowa. 5 

WQJ Chicago, III 3H 

WDAF Kansas City, Mo... 1 
WHK Cleveland, Ohio . . . 1 Y 2 


pr is Hand 
gS^ Calibrated'aard Jgjf 111 MeffohjTlS 

Condensers^* ,^^_^___ 

— for improved 

YOU can "log" your Fil-KO- 
Leak just as you do your 
other tuning units. You will 
get stations you never heard 
before. You will clear up dis- 
tortion on nearby broadcasters 
and increase volume of weak, 
distant stations and get them 
with crystal clarity. You read 
Fil-KO-Leak resistance in exac* 
terms of the megohm through 
a peep-hole in the panel. (It's 
also equ ipped for baseboard 
mounting). Resistance element 
is constant and accurate, and 
is not affected by atmospheric 
conditions, wear or jarring. 
Every Fil-KO-Leak is guaran- 
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and mechanically, and to be " 
accurately calibrated over the 
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(^ to 5 megohms). This cali- 
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Literature on improved recep- 
MmffVnFVnition sent on receipt of 2c post- 
NS^MIf/>WZJse to Dept RA 225. 

^?rVPkadio^> MADE AN ° 

smarts! gu ™ ed 

% C/J ^instrU mentcq) 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 57 

To offer all of this wonderful service, 
Mrs. Peterson has to have about her a 
staff of women trained in Home Econom- 
ics. Each member of her staff is a 
specialist and she has been anxious to 
have her radio family know her Home 
Service family. For over a year Miss 
Vivette Gorman, the party specialist, 
has been giving Sunday night suppers, 
lunch box suggestions and novelties for 
entertaining over the radio. Her talks 
at 9:00 o'clock, Wednesday evenjng from 
Station K.Y.W. have solved the pro- 
blem for many a hostess in distinctive 

In accordance with the interest shown 
by the radio pals in knowing the other 
members of the staff, Mrs. Peterson has 
introduced Miss Grace Wright and 
Miss Ruth Yoe for a series of weekly 
food talks. 

"What is our recompense for this 
wonderful service?" says Mrs. Peterson. 
"It lies in knowing that all over this 
country women are finding cooking a 
joy, not a job, and that they tune in at 
11:35 each morning to find a friend who 
goes into the kitchen with them. The 
kitchen is the heart of the home. 
Through it we truly serve." 

Mandolinist Deluxe 

Above is an "action" photo of Zyg- 
munt Nowicki, mandolinist who has 
appeared recently on RADIO AGE 
programs from the Congress Hotel studio 
of KYW, Chicago. Mr. Nowicki is 
connected with the Polish consulate at 
Chicago and is widely known for his 
prowess with the mandolin. He ap- 
peared for RADIO AGE'S last program 
on January 3, beginning at midnight, and 
is scheduled to be on the air for this 
magazine again on Saturday, February 
7, from the same station at the same 





Trade Marks for the 
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manufactured under 
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Manufacturers know from experience 
that radio parts must be constructed 
with the best materials, if satisfactory- 
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the Remler Radio Mfg. Co., of San 
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variometers and many other parts. 

As an insulation, Bakelite is in a class 
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Insist on genuine Bakelite radio parts, 
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RADIO AGE ANNUAL for 1925, Now Ready! 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 


2fi The Greatest Value Ever Offered • 
In A Radio Receiving Set/ 

A 5-tube tuned Radio Frequency Set 

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Combines all points essential to the perfect receiver. 

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Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE 4 

The Magazine of the Hour 

Who's the Red-Headed Girl 
from WFAA? 

{Continued from page 35) 
"I have played the piano since I was 
large enough," she continued. "All of my 
playing is by ear and I have always picked 
Up any unusual little songs that struck 
me as unique from people and phono- 
graph records. I don't care much for the 
usual popular music. I do sing and play 
some of it, but I like the others best. 

"My pianologues have always made 
a hit at parties, and I have always enjoyed 
doing them. Adam Calhoun, announcer 
for WFAA, heard me once and thereafter 
continually begged me to give a radio 
program, which I positively refused to do. 
"Not that I didn't want to, but I had 
no idea that people would like anything 
that I could do. One day Mr. Calhoun 
came up and asked me to come to the 
studio and play some for him while he 
made a few tests in the operating room. 
Of course, I didn't mind doing that, and 
I don't remember anything that I played 
and sang, but without my knowledge or 
consent, that was my debut into radio- 

Dear reader, have you ever written the 
"Red-Headed Girl" a card or letter of 
appreciation? Yes? Then it might have 
been you who first informed her that her 
voice had been heard outside of the 

Don't fail to give Mr. Calhoun his 
share of the credit for these popular con- 
certs, for it was a clever ruse that he 
worked to get her before Mr. Mike. 

"Was I angry? No, I was flattered 
indeed to receive mail in such quantities," 
she confided. "I enjoy giving my pro- 
grams as much as my audience does hear- 
ng them. 

She's Modest, Too 
"T DON'T sing; I don't even attempt 
•*• to sing, and about the hardest blow I 
have ever received was in a recent letter 
asking who my accompanist was. My 
playing is my one redeeming feature and 
my singing is accidental. Three numbers 
that never fail to bring applause are 
"Baby Vampire," "Please Keep Out of 
My Dreams" and "Broadway Taxicab." 
These unique programs have brought 
her invitations from many towns to ap- 
pear in person but only one has been ac- 
cepted, that being in her old home town, 

"I read and play golf but I have more 
fun reading my radio mail than anything 
else. I get letters from everywhere and 
some of the cleverest poems imaginable." 
Unlike some popular artists, the "Red- 
Headed Girl" does not carelessly file her 
mail in the waste basket without reading 
it. She reads it all and thoroughly en- 
joys it. 

Radio Age's Schedule on the Air 

From WEBH (370) Tuesday evening, 
January 27, 9 to 10 p. m. 

From KYW, Saturday, February 7, 
midnight to 2 a. m., 536 meters. Jazz 

From WTAY (283) Oak Park, 111., 
technical talks every Wednesday evening 
at 9:45. 

RADIO AGE for February. 1925 

Detroit Attends Opening 

(Continued from page 37) 
force, so a word about them will not be 
inappropirate. There are two orchestras, 
and a symphony trio. The orchestras 
are dance and concert, and are the 
only Victor Recording orchestras in 
Detroit. C. W. Kirby, director of WWJ, 
the Detroit News station, was up in the 
studio and he told me about Jean's 
music makers. He is quite proud of 
them, for he started them on the road 
to fame by having them broadcast 
through his station. Kirby was on 
hand to congratulate his competitors on 
their fine station. Most readers will 
remember that Kirby is one of the 
country's hardest fighters against women 
announcers, but I am sure that everybody 
would be as thrilled as I was by his little 
wife's graceful Highland twists of speech. 

The job of getting the station in 
broadcasting order is a tribute to the 
hard-working Mr. Tony, who is director. 
I had come up there in the morning to 
get the invitation and I saw a bare room. 

"You're not going to broadcast from 
here, are you?" I asked in amazement, 
for completion seemed a month off, 
instead of a bare ten hours. 

"Sure," replied Tony; and sure enough, 
it was all ready and in good shape that 

T^HE station broadcasts on 500 watts, 
-*- and carries much farther now from 
its high position than it did from the old 
Detroit Free Press building. Since the 
opening night, reports of reception at 
distances unapproachable in the old 
days have been reported. Which seems 
to be an argument for tall towers and 
great heights for all stations which hope 
to reach out. 

WCX was opened on May 4, 1922, 
and acquired a great reputation for its 
"Red Apple Club" and church services 
sent from the Central Methodist Epis- 
copal church in Detroit. These were so 
impressive that a man once sent in a 
check for $500 in appreciation of the 

The Magazine of the Hour 59 

Chas. Freshman Co. Moves 

Demand for the Freshman Master- 
piece 5 tube tuned radio frequency re- 
ceiver, which within a period of less than 
six months has assumed world wide 
proportions, has compelled the Chas. 
Freshman Co., Inc., to move into the 
brand new twelve story fire-proof build- 
ing at 240-8 W. 40th St., New York, 
known as the Freshman Building. 

The vastly increased space and every 
known manufacturing convenience will 
enable the Freshman Company to more 
than double the productions of the Mas- 
terpiece and their line of small radio 

It may interest those persons who are 
interested in the growth of radio to know 
that this company started in business 
with a single item — the "Antenella" — 
a light socket plug that eliminates the 
use of an aerial and other outside wiring, 
only two and one-half years ago. Grow- 
ing to a point where the monthly business 
is over J:he million dollar mark within 
this period speaks highly for the public 
interest in radio. 

in use / 

The new Tungar charges 
both radio A and B bat- 
teries, and auto batteries, 
too. Two ampere size (East 
of the Rockies) . . $18 

The Tungar is also avail- 
able in five ampere size 
(East of the Rockies) $28 

3 cycles— 110 volts 

The «e*r Tungar does all the old Tun- 
gar did — and more. It will charge both 
radio A and B batteries, with no change 
except slipping the wire from one ter- 
minal to another. It charges 2, 4 or 6 
volt A batteries— 24 to 96 volt B bat- 
teries — and auto batteries, too. 

It is simpler than ever to use. Just two 
clips and a plug. No need to disconnect 
your battery from your set, or make 
any change in the wiring. The Tungar 
charges overnight while you sleep. And 
it makes no disturbing noise. 

It is more compact than ever. It has a 
new bulb, unchanged in principle, but 
more convenient in size and use. G-E re- 
isearch has made a good product better! 

Keep your batteries charged with a 
Tungar — and get the most out of radio. 

Tu nga r 

REG. U.S. ^■^fckPAT. OFF. 


Tungar — a registered trademark— is found only 
on the genuine. Look for it on the nameplate. 

Merchandise Department 

General Electric Company? 

Bridgeport, Conn. 



Radio Age, Inc., 

500 North Dearborn Street, 

Street Address. 


Sand cash, money order or ch«ik 

# Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

J fifty 


First for Reception 

Tremendously increased range and power are yours from the mo- 
ment you install a Jiffy Ribbon Antenna. Far distant stations — 
programs — hitherto beyond your range, are quickly, surely reached 
with this exceptionally efficient aerial. 

Jiffy Ribbon Antenna is winning enthusiastic public favor every- 
where. It is not a copper aerial — thus, it is immune to oxidization 
and is guaranteed absolutely non-corrosive. It has great tensile 
strength — will not kink or curl and remains bright and clean month 
after month. 

Enjoy full reception and absolute efficiency from your set by equip- 
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Comes in 100 foot lengths complete with insulators ready for 
installation — 



Most good dealers carry 

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If yours cannot supply 

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Send me 

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Davenport, ... Iowa 

The Radio Age 

For 1925 

Is Now Ready I 

With its 32 page blueprint 
section and countless other 
technical features, the 
ANNUAL for 1925 comprises 
the biggest dollar's worth 
ever offered to the radio 



One Dollar a copy 


The Magazine of the Hour 

Pity the Poor Radio 
"Outside Man" 

{Continued from page 30) 
thing to say a certain job will be broad- 
cast, and it is entirely a different proposi- 
tion to do it. For that reason Westing- 
house has to depend upon the initiative, 
ingenuity and resourcefulness of its 
outside man. The seeming impossibili- 
ties and the heartbreaks sometimes 
released to lessen the pressure on an 
overworked and overwrought outside 
man, are all unknown to the radio public. 
What has transpired leading up to the 
event is never known except in the inner 
circle of operations where the boys can 
unburden themselves of all the details. 

At the present time KYW happens to 
have as its outside man, John J. Michaels, 
an ex-seagoing operator, about as tall 
as a minute but imbued with plenty of 
grit and radio acumen. How he came 
to give up the sea life is a mystery even 
to Michaels himself, for he is of the 
type that will always have the tang of 
sea air no matter in what walk of life 
he may be strolling. 

KYW will have booked a job at the 
stockyards in which it is planned to 
pick up the speech of some notable at a 
meeting. The first thing Mike hears of 
it is a little written slip on which is 
given the location, the time, the date 
and where the microphone is to be 
located. So far, so good. Mike goes 
ahead, assembling a coil or two and 
three wires, the first for telephonic 
communication, and the second for a 
microphone line. Then he resurrects 
a line amplifier from the stock room, 
adds to this an eight volt storage battery 
for the filaments, and four blocks of 45 
volt B batteries for the plates of the 
amplifier tubes. Next, he corrals a couple 
of microphones and a stand or two. 
Some of the plunder he loads into an 
army case and the rest of it is strapped on 
the outside. Oh, yes, he has almost for- 
gotten the test set and his own tool kit. 

When all of these items have been 
run to earth, Mike lugs them to the 
elevator and down to the street where 
he charters a taxi. Arrived at his 
destination, he finds the job is two flights 
up and no elevator. 

On arrival he leaves his first load and 
goes down for the second, mopping his 
brow and wondering how the weather is 
off Hatteras. Finally, after a struggle, 
he gets all of his stuff on the top floor. 
Then he sets out to search for the master 
of ceremonies to find where the micro- 
phone can be placed to best advantage, 
also where the announcer is to sit so a 
microphone with a switching arrange- 
ment can be installed for this worthy. 
He finds the thirty-second under- 
secretary of the chairman who tells him 
all the places where he may NOT put 
the microphone. Appeals to reason 
are of no avail, so Mike goes looking for 
the main steer who can say yes or no. 
Sometimes he finds him; sometimes not. 
Always the man higher up is easier to 
approach and do business with than 
the many small caliber minions to be 
encountered. So Mike strings his lines, 
finds a place in which to operate the am- 
plifier, rings into the station on the 
Edison building for a test, and all is well 
until the moment of broadcasting. 

Just about two minutes before the 
program is to go on, it is found that some 
enterprising waiter has kicked down the 
microphone line, or someone has cut it 
because it does not harmonize with the 
color scheme for the evening. Mike, 
cussing inwardly, but outwardly calm, 

¥ Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


restores it to its original form, and the 
stunt begins. 

After the event is over Mike loads all 
his "junk" and rushes back into a taxi 
and returns to the station to dispose of 
them and seek solace in sleep, having 
nightmares of the job booked on the 

KYW has always been especially 
active in broadcasting outside jobs that 
woulji appeal to its radio public, and the 
outside man has more than his share of 
the work. One job in a theater nearly 
caused Mike to lose his mind, for the 
management absolutely refused to allow 
the microphones to be seen by the 
audience. Hence they were hidden 
down by the footlights under a tin 
enclosure wherethe stamp of feet, the tinny 
reverberation of the footlights and bak- 
ing from powerful lights almost ruined 
the microphones and the broadcasting. 

You can never tell where you are 
likely to find the outside man. One day 
he will be at a football game; the next 
finds him crouched in the organ loft 
of a church picking up music and dust. 
The next day he might be under the river 
in the tunnel picking up whatevermight 
be going on. If tomorrow Mike is told 
that KYW is to broadcast the blubber 
of the Eskimos, he will merely smile, 
pack up his plunder and consult a time 
table for the next dog train from Spits- 
bergen or Sitka. 


Young Banks Kennedy 
"Arranged It" 

(Continued from page 38) 

BANKS' musical endeavor is by no 
means confined to "arranging" one 
song. He is the proud author of such 
songs as "Dream Ships that Pass In the 
Night," "Crying for the Moon," "Harold 
Teen," and several other beautiful as 
well as eccentric pieces that have won 
favor both with the radio listeners and 
theater patrons in the Middle West. 

Banks has a personality in the radio 
studio that makes him well-liked at once. 
And, strange to say, this personality 
emanates from the radio studio and 
reaches the hearths where theloud speaker 
sends his joyful ditties into thousands 
of homes. As Eddie Borroff of KYW 
would say, "Banks arranges it somehow." 
There can be no better way to close 
this article than to recite one of the 
thousands of "Arrange it" verses. We 
repeat the following because it pertains 
to radio. You'll have to listen in to get 
the others. We hope, anyway, that no 
matter how famous Banks gets, that 
he'll never be too proud to write a few 
hundred more "If I Can Arrange It" 
verses. Here we go: 
"I'm going to buy me a radio set, 
If I can Arrange it; 

It's going to be the best made, you bet, 
If I can A rrange it; 

It must get London and Paris, of course — 
I want to hear the Prince fall off of his 

horse — 
If I can Arrange it — 

Arrange it, somehow. 
"For I'm an arranger, 
A first class arranger, 
The best in the land, can't you see? 
There's hardly a thing in this wide, 

wide world, 
That hasn't been arranged by me!" 

You will be 
satisfied with a 
"Pacentized" set 

THE man who uses Pacent Radio Essentials in 
building his set has the assurance that he is using 
the finest parts that engineering skill and trained hands 
can build. 

That this confidence is not misplaced is shown by the 

fact that over 40 of the leading 

radio set manufacturers use one 

or more Pacent Radio Essentials 

for standard equipment. This 

shows the leadership that Pacent 

has attained in the radio parts 


Select the parts for the new set 
you contemplate building from 
the list given opposite. Get them 
from your favorite dealer — he 
carries them or can get them 
for you. 



91 Seventh Ave., New York City 

Washington Minneapolis Boston San Francisco 

Chicago Birmingham Philadelphia St. Louis 

Buffalo Jacksonville Detroit 

* Pacent 


Radio Essential's 

Improved Audioformer 
Coil Plug 

Coil Plug Receptacle 
Condensers, Low Loss 
Detector Stand 

Duo-Lateral Coils 
Headsets, Everytorie 
Jack Set 
Loop Plug 
Loop Jack 


Resistors, Laboratory 
Twinadapter, etc., etc. 




Yoa can depend upon them to 
remain accurate at all times 
Made of high resistance material impreg- 
nated throughout (not coated paper). Un- 
affected by climatic conditions. Will not 
deteriorate. Clamped between solid knurled 
ferrules assuring rigid construction and 
firm contact at ail times. 
At your dealer' a, otherwise send purchase 
price and you will be supplied postpaid. 
Cba». Freshman Co., Inc. 240-248 W. 40th SL, 
Freshman Bldg., N. Y. 


Clip the coupon and send it 
with 50 cents, and the RADIO 
AGE ANNUAL FOR 1924 will 
be sent you by return mail. 


500 N. Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Enclosed is 50 cents, for which [send me the 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 




Long Wave Transformers 


For Those Who Build 
The Best 

Type TWO-TEN and TWO- 
ELEVEN Long Wave Transformers 
are the same as those used in 
Unit, except that each instrument 
is now housed in a separate alum- 
inum case with bakelite top. 

All curves are charted under the 
personal supervision of McMurdo 
Silver, Asso. I. R. E., and all 
measurements made with a vac- 
uum-tube volt-meter and laboratory 
amplification measurement equip- 
ment of the most advanced type. 

These transformers are suitable 
for use with any tube in from one 
to four stages, and are supplied in 
sets of two or three TWO-TENS, 
and one TWO-ELEVEN, each with 
identical peaks. 

TWO-TEN — iron-core intermedi- 
ate transformer. Passes 11 kilo- 
cycle band without distortion. 
Peaked at 5,000 meters approxi- 
mately. Provides 1 l A to 2 J-2 times 
the amplification obtainable with 
any other transformer. 

TWO-ELEVEN — sharply tuned 
input or output transformer. Peaked 
at approximately 5,000 meters. 
Price, for either transformer, $8.00. 

An Individual Curve Sheet Goes 
With Each Instrument 

Ask any radio engineer what HE thinks of a long wave 
transformer and he will say, "Show me its curve. ' 
If no measurements are available he will chart its 
curve and judge accordingly — because the CURVE 
TELLS THE STORY. That is why the curve of 
each Type TWO-TEN and TWO-ELEVEN Long 
Wave Transformer is plotted in the SILVER-MAR- 
SHALL laboratory. The characteristic curve is re- 
corded directly upon the tag that accompanies each 
instrument. It shows the peak, the side-band passed, 
the amplification to be expected in any circuit. With 
this definite data you can build your intermediate 
amplifier with complete assurance of success. With- 
out it, you build by guesswork. Insist upon getting 
the curve-sheet. 

The Curve Tells the Story 



Parts for the Silver Super 

Circulars and prices on parts for the -Silver Super will be "sent upon request. Mr. 
Silver's own book, "The Portable Super-Heterodyne," should be owned by every- 
one who means to buiicl this "Seveo-tube Wonder Set." Price 50c 


105 So. Wabash Ave., Dept. A 

Eastern Distributors 



102 Flatbush Ave., 

Brooklyn, New York 


Sells only Guaranteed 
Radio Apparatus. 

Send for discounts. - 

123 W.Madison St. Chicago 


If you are interested in a 
radio cabinet in which is 
combined both beauty and 
practicability, just write 


Dept. R 

73 West Van Buren St. 


Telephone, Harrison 3840 

Paul Green, the super -het expert, will have another 
enlightening and instructive article in March RADIO AGE. 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

The Magazine of the Hour 
Is There a Radio Trust? 

(Continued from page 4.) 
The proceedings against Radio Corpora-"" 
tion and the seven other respondents are 
still pending. On April 9, 1924, Radio 
Corporation filed its answer. Radio Cor- 
poration denied the jurisdiction of the 
Federal Trade Commission to issue the 
order quoted or to conduct the proceedings* 

A rare bit of radio information is -pre 1 '-', 
sented in the closing paragraph of Radio 
Corporation's answer. It appears that 
Radio Corporation was created;- for 
"Patriotic Service" and furthermore, 
that if it had not been for Radio Cor- 
poration, the modern art of radio com- 
munication would not exist. 

The full paragraph is printed as follows: 
XXXIII. Respondent alleges that 
it was created in order to carry out 
the expressed desires and wishes and 
at the instigation of officials, officers 
and servants of the United States; 
that the respondent was created pri- 
marily with a motive of carrying on and 
it has since carried on a patt iotic service 
of making a world-wide communica- 
tion system of radio in which the most 
important influence rests in the United 
States of America and with American 
citizens; that certain of the arts and 
arrangements (and those the most 
important) in the complaint, complained 
of were taken under the supervision 
of officials, officers and servants of the 
United States; that the acts and 
arrangements which are in the com- 
plaint complained of have been in the 
public interest and to the public 
benefit and have been entirely reason- 
able and have greatly contributed to 
the rapid growth of the art of radio. 
Through them and because of this 
respondent, the modern art of radio 
communication now exists." 
How this "Patriotic Service" of Radio 
Corporation has worked out in actual 
practice and in contact with other 
American individuals and groups of 
individuals, not so fortunately aided 
by "officials, officers and servants of 
the United States" will be shown in 
later articles. Court decisions on recent 
attempts of Radio Corporation to enforce 
patent restrictions have apparently not 
taken into account the patriotic import- 
ance of Radio Corporation. 

"Precision' ' Features D. X. L. : : - 

One of the newer condensers brought 
forth this season is the D. X. L. line of 
Straight Line Low Loss Variable Con- 
densers, manufactured by the D. X." L: 
Radio Corporation, 5769 Stanton Avenue, - 
Detroit, Michigan. While there are 
several unusual features of design, the 
most outstanding point is the precision 
of construction. 

D. X. L. engineers have designed this 
type of condenser so that power losses 
are actually too low to measure. Realiz- 
ing that absolute precision in construction 
is essential to the maintenance of this 
standard, the highest quality of materials 
has been specified and a rigidly inspected 
production maintained. In the construc- 
tion solid brass and aluminum of the best 
quality are used together with a minimum 
amount of hard rubber for insulation. 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 




LOW LOSS (Practically No Loss) 
Straight Line Condenser 

New Stations - Increased Volume 
Sharper Tuning 

Your set — no matter how sensitive — 
will improve with D. X. L. Condensers. 
There is practically no power loss. Mad- 
rid—London — reach out for them. D. X. 
L. Condensers, precision built, get the 
utmost from all sets. 

D. X. L. is one of this season's achieve- 
ments — one step forward toward perfec- 
tion. D. X. L. Condensers range from 
$4.00 to $5.00 list. 

Ask for literature — you'll be interested 
in the D. X. L. design. 

Set Manufacturers 

Add to thft quality of your set. D. X. L. Con- 
densers will increase your sal(*s enormously. 
And you can depend on the satisfaction of the 
owners. 'Wire for prices and deliveries. 

Purchase from your dealer or send money 
order to factory. 

5765 Stanton Ave. Detroit, Michigan 

Ask Any 

And he will tell you 
that the "Jewell Trio" 
of instruments for 
transmitting sets are 
accurate and depend- 
able — yes, the best 
made. (Our Nos. 54, 
64 and 74.) 

5 Send for our Radio 
Instrument Catalog 
No. 15-A. 

5 Buy from your 

Offices in Principal Cities 

Jewell Electrical Instrument Co* 

1650 Walnut St. - Chicago 

"25 Years Making Qood Instruments" 

How the "Girl with the Summer Resort Name" Bowled Over the Sophisticated 

New York Radio World— Read about Her in the Feature 

Section of the March RADIO AGE. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

We are glad to confirm your report of recep 
tion of our program. 

John S. Daggett, 
"Uncle John," 
Mgr., Times Radio Staff. 

General Electric 

Pacific Coast 5555 E. 14th St. 

Broadcasting Station Oakland, Cal. 

KGO Sept. 11, 1924. 

Mr. T. J. Kennedy, 
1360 University Ave., New York, N. Y. 

We are glad to confirm your reception of 
KGO on the evening of Sept. 6 as we were 
broadcasting the opera "Carmen." 

We always appreciate hearing from our 
radio listeners and hope that you will be 
able to pick up KGO regularly. 
Yours very truly, 

Jennings Pierce, 
Radio Broadcasting Pub. Dept. 

DX Fans! Confirmations Stop All 
"Doubting Thomases" 

Confirmations of Stations Received from 
New York, N. Y., with 


DX Fans! If you want real results, get a 

Only one dial to get stations and the other to increase or 
decrease volume. Kennedy Tuner is used in place of vario- 
coupler, variometer and honey comb coils, saving the cost of 
over $9.00 worth of unnecessary junk that is in most receiv- 
ing sets, and no dead end losses. 


Including Globe 
Trotter Diagram 


If not satisfied 
after 30 days, we 
will cheerfully 
return your 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

Thanks for your letter received. YeB, 
"The Minuet," by Louis Parker, was broadcast 
from the Anthony station during the late 

Yours, Radio KFI. 

General Electric 


Pacific Coast 5555 E. 14th St. 

Broadcasting Station Oakland, Cal. 

KGO Sept. 4, 1924. 

Mr. Vincent T. Kenney, 
124 W. 96th St., New York, N. Y. 

We are glad to confirm your reception of 
our late program from the Hotel St. Fran- 
cis on the morning of August 27th. 

We are always glad to answer any ques- 
tions of our radio friends and hope you write 
in often with your comments. 
Yours very truly, 

Jennings Pierce, 
Radio Broadcasting Pub. Dept. 

KLZ Denver, Colo. 

We are pleased to acknowledge receipt of 
your report of reception of our phone station. 
We have placed a tack in our map for you. 

Reynolds Radio, Inc. 

Send for Free Diagram 



2-LO, London, Eng. 


1360 University Ave., New York, N. Y. 

We beg to acknowledge your reception of our 

Yours faithfully for the 
British Broadcasting Co., Ltd., 
Jr. Director, London Station, C. C. H. King 

f Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


Designed by R. 
B. Lacault. B. B. 
A. M. I. R. E., in- 
ventor of the fam- 
ous Ultradyne cir- 
cuit. This mono- 
gram seal (R. B. 

Stop fishing for your favorite station. Select the 
program you want — get it lightning-quick. Re- 
place your old dials with ULTRA-VERNIER 
Tuning Controls. Then, when you have tuned 
in a delightful station, pencil-record it on the 
dial. Never again need you guess or fumble 
for that station, or bother with wave-lengths. 
Simply turn the finder to your pencilmark, and 
you hear it! 

Should you move — or a station discontinue or 
wave-lengths change — erase the marks, leaving 
the dial beautifully clean and new. Thus, you 
may now have all the joy of radio, with none of 
f Lacault the discouragements. Moreover, the ULTRA- 
VERNIER is a single vernier tuning control. 
At your dealer; otherwise send purchase 
price and you will be supplied postpaid. 





At your dealers 

Ma d e by the 
Co.. your assur- 
ance of quality 
and dependability 
— produced solely 
for the Phenix 
Radio Corpora- 






Best for 

and Crystal Sets 


J>ouble Adjustable 
Crystal Detector 

No more searching for the sensitive spot. 
— Merelv turn the knob as you would a dial. 
For base or panel -mount-' 
ing, complete w-tk Fresh- 
man Super - Crystal 
At your dealer 1 -, ollmrwue send parch" »e price 
sod you will !»*• supplied puatpaid. 


Freshman Bldg., 240-248 W. 40th St. 

New York 




Aerial Mast 

All Steel Construction 

Painted black complete with galvanized 
steel guy wires and masthead pulley. 20 
ft. mast $10. 40 ft. mast $25, 60 ft mast 
$45. We pay freight. Ideal for receiving 
or transmitting. Greater range. More 
satisfactory results. Write for literature 
and large 


S. W. HULL & CO.. Dept. R3 
2048 E. 79th St. Cleveland, Ohio 

Now Ready— The RADIO 
AGE ANNUAL for 1925— One 
dollar a copy. Get yours Now. 

Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

Converting the Single Circuit 

(Continued from page 28) 

is left entirely to the desire of the reader. 
If the present cabinet is large enough to 
accommodate the additional apparatus, 
so much the better. By all means use 
it, as this will preserve the symmetry of 
the design. If, however, this is impossi- 
ble, it can be installed on a small auxil- 
iary panel and mounted close to the re- 
ceiving set. The writer found it is quite 
satisfactory to mount the unit on a small 
panel and fasten it by means of a long 
wood screw directly to the top of the 
cabinet, which houses the receiver proper. 

If an auxiliary panel is used, it will be 
well for the builder to remember to keep 
the four connecting wires (indicated by 
the dotted lines in Figure 4) from the 
unit to the receiver as far apart as possi- 

When mounting on top of the receiver 
cabinet, I used flexible wire in making the 
connections from the unit to the receiver, 
to permit the lifting of the cover. If 
your set is of the kind described and has 
two stages of audio amplification, it can 
be refiexed with the same ease and at less 
expense. It is not advisable to attempt to 
add more than one stage of amplification 
to the one tube reflex. A second stage is 
seldom used, nor is it desirable. 

The single tube will operate a loud 
speaker on local stations satisfactorily, 
while one stage of audio amplification 
will give tremendous volume. Audio 
amplification is added in the usual way, 
the phone leads being connected to the 
primary of the transformer, either direct 
or through a jack. 

Construction Details 

'T'O build the unit, proceed as follows: 
-*- Secure a piece of cardboard tubing 
3" in diameter and wind the secondary 
of the transformer which consists of 51 
turns of the No. 22 DCC wire. The 
primary is wound on top of this and con- 
sists of 31 turns of the same size wire, 
separated from the secondary by a layer 
of paper or "empire" cloth. The trans- 
former.can be mounted either on the back 
of the condenser or on the baseboard of 
the auxiliary panel. Any of our readers 
who do not care to wind the transformer 
themselves can substitute one of the 
dependable manufactured coils which 
are designed for the neutrodyne circuit 
but will work equally well in this unit. 

Any good audio frequency transformer 
can be used, but the builder is cautioned 
in selecting this piece of apparatus, as 
by actual tests the audio transformer 
has been found to be at fault in 75 per 
cent of the reflex sets that fail to func- 

The crystal detector should be of the 
fixed type, although one with an adjust- 
able cat-whisker can be used, but the 
first mentioned is by far the most satis- 
factory. It is a more sensitive detector 
and the close, fixed adjustment does not 
permit of high resistance between its 
terminals and excludes the possibility of 
oscillations and squeals. Crystal detec- 
tors composed of two minerals are also 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

very efficient, those using "zincite" and 
"bornite" giving the best results. The 
rather heavy pressure on the minerals 
prevents the adjustment from being 
disturbed easily. The crystal detector is 
a very necessary part of the reflex, and 
as such too much can not be said regard- 
ing the selection and operation of this 
piece of equipment. 

As a reflex circuit is largely a radio 
frequency one, a few words regarding the 
kind of tube to be used might not be 
amiss. Soft tubes such as the UV 200, 
or C -300 cannot be used; neither can 
one get results with the WD 11 or 
WD 12 tubes. A hard tube such as the 
UV201-A, C 301-A, UV 199 or C 299 
will give excellent results. 

The Magazine of the Hoi 


Eight Million Hear John 

New York. — The golden tenor of John 
McCormack and the lyric soprano of 
Lucrezia Bori, borne through the air to 
an audience of at least 8,000,000 persons, 
on New Year's Night ushered in a new 
era of radio broadcasting and raised the 
question whether there will have to be a 
realignment of the economic forces which 
compete in entertaining the public. 

Radio has never before been able to 
draw upon the talent of the world's 
greatest singers and musicians. Mc- 
Cormack was one of many who repeatedly 
declined to sing for it. 

However, he and Bori stepped over the 
barrier and from a little room at WEAF, 
began the experiment which may result 
in amusement and entertainment changes 
measured by millions of dollars. 

Linked with Many Stations 

WEAF was linked up for this program 


Ultradyne— Haynu Griffin— Rentier 
Dealers: Send for Discounts 


123 W. Madison St. Chicago 

Interior stew of a 
typical set you can 
build with the new 
Telos KIT. 

You can' t buy it 

but if you are the least bit 
handy with tools, you can build 
this amazing Telos set your- 
self in a single afternoon-. 

The basic goodness of 
Telos design is the same 
as it has been for three 
years. But now, Telos ex- 
cellence has been extended 
to include three stages of 
tuned R. F. and super- 
imposed (reflex) resistance 
coupled A. F. as well. 

The new Telos KIT opens 
up a world of fascinating 
possibilities in radio. As 
in the photo above, you 
can build a 5, 6 or 7 tube 
set, and run it all on dry 
cells. It will cost you less 
to run than any other set 
of like power! 

You can introduce a crys- 
tal detector if desired! 
you can use transformer 

A. F. if you prefer. But 
no matter what combina- 
tion you select, you will 
find clear, unmistakable 
instructions in the book 
that comes with every 
Telos KIT, and you will 
accomplish results you 
never thought possible be- 
fore 1 

Fill out the coupon now. 
Get your copy of the new, 
generously illustrated 
booklet, "The KIT of a 
Thousand Possibilities." 
It's free, but the edition 
is limited to those who are 
genuinely interested in 
superlative radio reception! 


Dept. C. 25 Waverly Place 



Dansiger- Jones, Inc., 

Dept. C, 25 Waverly Place, 

New York, N. Y. 

Send me at once your booklet "The 

KIT of a Thousand Possibilities." 


Address . 


* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

Amazing Results 



RADIO FANS! ? u L you y ou wan nev r e e r 
B dreamed were possible — do you want selec- 
tivity to the Nth degree — do you want ideal, 
distortionless reception, clear as a bell, no matter 
what atmospheric conditions prevail? Then you 
— the newest sensation in radio. 

This semi-loop antenna 
insures wonderful selec- 
tivity, positively cor- 
rects distortion, yet is 
absolutely non — direc- 
tional. It is the only 
scientifically correct an- 
tenna on the market. 
Hundreds of tests by 
leading experts pro- 
nounce it unbeatable. 


Study the small cut 
within the loop. Note 
that the MUSSEL- 
TENNA is wound with 
a special double con- 
ductor. First, a copper 
core; then 1-32 inch 
rubber insulation; over 
this an outer braiding 
of tinned copper wire. 
The latter acts as an 
ideal wavecollector, the 
inner core as a metallic 
ground. Millions of 
feet of this MUSSEL- 
have been sold. Coiled 
loop is mounted in 
handsome hardwood 
frame, fitted with bind- 
ing posts, 
We manufacture all kinds of insulated radio wire, 
including colored rubber-covered hook-up wire, 
lead-in wire, etc. Let us know your requirements, 
and we will send samples, prices. Tell us your 
antenna troubles — we can help you. 

Use the coupon to order the new $20.00 MUSSEL- 
MAN INDOOR ANTENNA at our special intro- 
duction price — only one to a customer. Send no 
money — just pay the postman $10.00, plus postage 
Try this Antenna at our risk — return for r*fund if 
not more than pleased with it. If you wish 75 ft. 
pay postman only $5.00, plus postage. Act today. 
End your antenna troubles NOW. 


549 W. Washington Blvd., CHICAGO 

Cycle Mfg. & Supply Co., Dept. A 
549 W. Wsihington Blvd., Chicago. 

Gentlemen : 


your special price of S10.00. 

(75 ft.) S5.00. 
I will pay postman correct amount, plus mailing charges 



City State 




v tn* VERNIER 

~ PLATE $E<K> 
only { 

Zor Sale 

h ' ■ : * 



with WCAP Washington, WJAR Provi- 
dence, WNAC Boston, WDBY Wor- 
cester, WGR Buffalo, WFI Philadelphia, 
and WCAE Pittsburgh. Thus McCor- 
mack and Bori reached an audience a 
thousand times larger than either had 
ever entertained at one time before. 

What will happen next is already 
worrying many of those who are in the 
business of selling entertainment of one 
kind or another. 

When the public, sitting comfortably 
at home, can have entertainment of the 
highest caliber without direct ex- 
pense, will it go miles away and attend 
the theatre at a cost of $2.75 and upward 
for each seat? 

Will it buy more phonograph records 
or fewer records? 

Will the thousands of persons who have 
hitherto managed to resist the lure of the 
radio capitulate now and overwhelm 
manufacturers and dealers with orders 
for receiving sets? 

These questions are going to be an- 
swered very quickly for the Victor 
Talking Machine company in co-opera- 
tion with the American Telephone and 
Telegraph company, will broadcast two 
programs of similar high class character 
each week. The company declares the 
continuance of the programs "will depend 
upon the response we receive from radio 

See Menace to Theatre 

Theatrical men declared tonight that 
the patronage of nearly every theater in 
New York City was affected by the ap- 
pearance of McCormack and Miss Bori 
as radio broadcasters. Although the 
theaters invariably suffer a falling off on 
the evenings following holidays, the extent 
of tonight's decrease was that it could 
not possibly be explained by that rule 
and theatrical men were unanimous in 
their conviction that radio was largely 

"Radio constitutes the greatest menace 
that the theater has ever faced," William 
A. Brady said. "Why in the world should 
people go to the theater and pay money? 
Why should any one be foolish enough to 
go to the theater in these circumstances?" 

New Fada Chicago Office 

Announcement is made of the opening 
of a Fada office at 326 West Madison 
Street, Chicago, Illinois. This Chicago 
Fada office will be in direct charge of 
L. J. Chatten, who has for the past year 
and a half been a district sales executive 
of the Fada organization. 

Mr. Chatten's sales work in the past 
has made him well acquainted with radio 
sales conditions throughout the country 
and in particular with those trade con- 
ditions existing in the Mississippi Valley 
and it is felt that his qualifications are 
admirably adapted for the position of 
manager of our Chicago office. 

Mr. Chatten will, of course, make his 
headquarters at the Chicago office and 
will in addition keep in direct contact 
with Fada jobbers and dealers through- 
out all the Central Western states. 

Only a few left. You may have 
one by sending 50 cents to Radio 
Age, Inc., 500 N. Dearborn St. Chi- 

• Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

1 ' Frequency 

Set of 



Users report them su- 
perior to any coils they 
have ever used in a tuned 
radio frequency circuit 

Tone Quality 






1. Low Loss. 

2. Stagger Wound. 

3. Sealed against Moisture. 

4. Extremely Smooth Tickler 

5. Single Panel Mounting. 

The simplest, most rugged unit yet designed. 
Improve your set and your results with it. 

w The 


Highland Park - Illinois 

Chicago Office 

1001 W. Washington Boulevard 

Tel. Monroe 2703 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


The How and Why of 
Vacuum Tubes 

(Continued from page 22) 
caused the plate to attract the neg- 
ative electrons, thereby establishing a 
path of conductivity between the plate 
and the filament, but when the negative 
terminal of the battery was connected 
to the plate, the electrons were repelled 
from it and no conductive path was 
established between the two. For this 
reason, current will flow only in one 
direction through the tube, and when an 
alternating current is applied to the 
circuit, those impulses which flow toward 
the plate only will pass through, while 
those in the opposite direction cannot 
pass. Thus only one-half of any cycle 
will flow and the resultant action is a 
pulsating current in one direction, al- 
though the applied current was alter- 

This rectifying quality of the tube made 
it possible to use it as a detector, in much 
the same way as a crystal was used, only 
in the case of the tube it was necessary 
to use a battery to give the plate a 
positive charge to attract the electrons. 

How Current Varies 

TF A pair of phones is introduced into 
■ -*• the plate circuit, a continuous current 
will flow through them all the time that 
-the filament is heated, but the changes 
.caused by an incoming wave will vary 
this battery current, adding to it when 
it is in the right direction and weakening 
it when it is in the opposite direction, 
: and it is these changes and not the con- 
tinual steady flow of the battery current 
through the phones which cause the 
(diaphragm to vibrate and give off a 

In the crystal detector, however, no 
current flows, except that of the signal 
■itself. Thus it is seen that the rectifying 
^action of the plate and filament com- 
Ibination will make a fair detector of 
:radio signals. The introduction of the 
third element into the tube (the grid) 
made it possible to obtain a relay or 
amplifying property which was not 
apparent in the two element tube. This 
grid, which consisted of a wire mesh 
placed between the filament and the 
plate, really ■ made the vacuum tube 
popular. With this three element tube, 
the circuit is so arranged that the in- 
coming signal is impressed upon the 
grid. The battery, plate and phones are 
connected in series and as long as the 
grid is not electrically charged, a con- 
tinuous current flows through the plate 
circuit when the filament is heated. The 
electrons frooi tne filament thread their 
way theougrKthe wire mesh of the grid 
and reach the plate as before, but if a 
weak charge is given to the grid, the flow 
of current in the plate circuit will be 
greatly affected by it. 

In the up-to-date circuit of today, the 
return of the grid circuit of the detector 
tube is connected to the positive side of 
the filament battery, and a grid leak 
and condenser are inserted in the grid 
circuit. This keeps a slight positive 
charge on the grid, which tends to help 
the plate draw the electrons out of the 
filament. Because of this positive charge, 


*"Z)6> veIopect /by- EavlE insiqvt 

The Ensign is a real sliding, square plate condenser with a 
straight line wavelength graph, using the entire dial. Sturdy 
construction. One hole mounting. 


Maximum capacity 000521 

Minimum capacity 0000087 

The loss was so low the labor- 
atory standard could not measure 

Including 360 deg. dial 

.00025 $4.50 

.00035 _ 4.75 

.0005 5.00 

Below U a cut of bottom of condenser. Note the intersecting ai 
a square. The size of this square changes in exact geometrical ratic 
slides in and out thus spacing the wavelength graduations evenly < 

i between plates is always 
s the movable set of plates 
■r the entire dial. 

Send for descriptive literature. Orders filled by mail until dealers are established. 

WptnxfacturecX by CARLiETON SANDERS WshatvafajM. 

Look at these writers! 
They all have surprises for 
you in the March RADIO 
AGE, on the stands Feb- 
ruary 15: 

Arthur B. McCullah 
Paul Green 
Brainard Foote 
Frank D. Pearne 
Edmund H. Eitel 
Zeh Bouck 
John B. Rathbun 
H. Frank Hopkins 

And an up-to-the-minute 
section about your radio favor- 
ites. Get the 




TE receive many remittances 
from fans who want us to 
furnish them with blueprints 
or panel layouts. As it would 
be practically impossible for us 
to stock complete blueprints, 
panel layouts, etc., of all cir- 
cuits, we cannot comply with 
these requests. 

However, we do sell BACK 
COPIES of RADIO AGE, and if 
you want complete, concise in- 
formation regarding construc- 
tion or wiring of any particular 
circuit, we should suggest that 
you consult the list of back 
issues, which you will find pub- 
lished in RADIO AGE every 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


A tuned radio frequency receiver 
built around a set of Henninger 
Aero-Coils — the new Low-Loss In- 
ductance System — will out-tune any- 
thing that has ever come within your 

These coils give you "needle-sharp" 
selectivity as nothing else will. 
You'll like this feature. It enables 
you to actually choose your own 


You'll Get More Volume Tool 

Dopeless, self-supporting windings 
(95% air dielectric) give full induc- 
tive power. No losses. Distant 
stations come in loud and crystal 


Go to your favorite dealer today and get a set. 
Remember — a set of Aero-Coils make a much 
appreciated Gift for a radio fan friend. $3.50 
each or $10.50 the complete set, with all fittings. 

1772 Wilson Ave., Dept. 22, Chicago 



Ihe CompleteLowLosshiductance System 

Federal Tubes — They Satisfy 

Just the Tube to give the 
_ Radio Set Owner the 

*%£ Joy of Perfect Reception 

Every Federal Tube a Talker 
Every User a Booster 

Clear Tone and Better Reception Assured 
Excellent for bringing in Distant Stations 

Federal Tubes are made by men who are 
expert in tube construction. Try them and 
end your tube troubles. 

Made in the following Types 
Type F201A ... 5 Volt .25 ampere Amplifier 
Type F199 .... 3 Volt Dry Cell 

Price S4.00 each 

The Service Lamp Co. 

112-14 Trinity Place 
New York City, N. Y. 


This coupon when presented to your dealer, will entitle you to a 
50 cent Reduction on every FEDERAL TUBE purchase within the 
next 30 days. 

If your dealer cannot supply FEDERAL TUBES, send your order 
direct to us. The Service Lamp Co. 

{Continued from preceding page) 
some of the electrons will attach them- 
selves to the grid as they swarm through 
it, but the actual result is a greater 
.flow of electrons to the plate. 

Now, if a signal is received on the grid, 
the potential of the grid rapidly alter- 
nates, because the current is alternating 
in nature. As it gets a positive charge, 
some of the electrons are attracted to 
it from the great mass which is passing 
through to the plate. 

At the next half of the cycle, the grid 
becomes negative, but the electrons are 
not so easily thrown off from a cold metal 
and most of them remain attached to it. 
The next half cycle is positive again and 
more electrons are captured by the grid. 
The grid becomes more and more negative 
the longer the signal lasts until it reaches 
the point of saturation. At least, this is 
what would happen were it not for the 
high resistance grid leak which allows 
them to leak off back to the positive 
side of the filament battery. They can- 
not be thrown off from the cold grid as 
they are from the filament; consequently 
they must be supplied with some other 
means of escape when they accumulate to 
such a degree that they would clog the 
action of the tube. 

By carefully adjusting the resistance of 
this leak, the grid can hold only a certain 
number of electrons, and it is this adjust- 
ment of resistance which is so vital to the 
efficient operation of the tube. 

The more negative the grid becomes, 
the greater will be the reduction in the 
current flowing in the plate circuit, and 
therefore the greater the changes in the 
current flowing through the phones, which 
will cause a louder signal, for it is the 
change in this current which affects 
the phones and not the continuous cur- 
rent which flows through them. 

This shows, then, how the tube may be 
used as a detector and an amplifier at the 
same time, the detecting component being 
caused by the rectifying qualities and 
the amplifying being caused by the weak 
impulses on the grid, causing enormous 
changes in the plate current. 

This action of the grid is sometimes 
called the trigger action, as a variation of 
one volt on the grid will sometimes produce 
a hundred times as much change in the 
plate current, as would a change of the 
same value in the plate voltage. When 
these tubes are used as amplifiers, the 
grid is kept at a negative potential at all 

Silver Contacts in New Socket 

One of the unusual features of the No 
Loss Isolantite Socket is the extra large 
5-16 in. in diameter sterling silver con- 
tacts arranged so as to be self wiping. 
The contacts are fixed to heavy phosphor 
bronze springs insuring a firm, low- 
resistance connection at all times. The 
spring members are each made of two 
leaves and they are placed in the base 
in a way to minimize internal capacity. 
Permanent soldered connections are made 
to main phosphor bronze spring, at the 
same time serving as a lug; or temporary 
connections may be made to nuts pro- 
vided for this purpose. 

The base of the socket is produced 
from Isolantite, which has been found 
to have very desirable properties for 
radio use. 

¥ Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


Don't Worry About that 
Antenna, Fans 

{Continued from page 20.) 

you get louder results, more distant 
stations, more atmospheric disturbance 
and more interference from stations. 
Interference, he says, is the real limit 
on receiving distance. Except for inter- 
ference, there is no limit. So those 
fellows who listen for Mars are not so 
crazy after all! If you want to astonish 
your friends, says the doctor, use a whale 
of a long antenna, or use a very sensitive, 
many-tube receiving set, or both, and 
pile up your records. But that is all 
you will accomplish, he adds. You will 
get only truly satisfactory reception 
during the exceptional occasions when 
interference is small. Antenna length 
is a compromise between loudness of 
signals and freedom from interference, 
a compromise between quantity and 
that perfection of quality that would 
be ideal. The hysteria over distance 
records is diminishing. 

Indoor antennas, said Dr. Dellinger, 
violate all the things he said about out- 
door antennas. They are not high or 
long and they are close to parts of build- 
ings. The best form is 50 or more feet 
of copper wire suspended on insulators 
just under the roof and extending through 
an insulating tube down into the room 
where the receiving set is used. It will 
work almost as well without the in- 
sulators. You can just hang the wire 
around the moulding of your room. In 
fact, you can connect your receiving 
set to the bed spring or to the wires in 
your piano, but the results will be less 
satisfactory. With a special plug you 
can connect with the electric wiring of 
the house and use it for an antenna, if 
the wiring is of the open type. Electron 
tube sets work very well with indoor 
antennas because they are readily ad- 
justed to make up for the lack of strength 
of the smaller antennas. A crystal set 
does not give satisfactory results on a 
short or indoor antenna except for rela- 
tively near or exceptionally powerful 
broadcasting stations. 

The users of crystal sets no doubt 
will welcome the increased power to be 
used by several broadcasting stations. 
Indoor antennas work better in the 
upper than in the lower floors of a build- 
ing. The smaller and lower they are, 
the more sensitive must be the receiving 
set to make up for their weakness, but 
the more free they will be from inter- 

The coil antenna, or loop, will operate 
only on sets particularly designed for it, 
says Dr. Dellinger. Its big advantage 
is that with it you can cut out a station 
you don't want to hear by turning the 
coil around a vertical axis. In this case, 
the directional effect is very marked. 
With such an antenna built into the 
cabinet of your receiving set, your an- 
tenna troubles have disappeared, but 
with such a small antenna you must 
use many tubes. 

After reading the rules and regulations 
( Turn to page 70) 

If it isn't a FERBEND, it isn't a WAVE TRAP 


^TEe ^Traffic Cop 

of theJlir — -o 

He arranges in orderly fashion the mass and 
jumble of broadcasting stations that are seek- 
ing entrance to your set, and brings 'em in, 
one at a time, so you can enjoy them! Never 
reduces, but nearly always increases volume. 
Add a Ferbend Wave Trap to your set and 
"police" your reception. Regulate the traffic! 

Make every night silent night! Trap out the 
interference. Why pay $50.00 to $200.00 
extra for increased selectivity, when for $8:50 
you can get a genuine Ferbend Wave Trap 
which will absolutely cut out any interfering 
station, no matter how loud, how close by or 
how troublesome. 


guaranteed [ 

•Vyi. - " """ 

guaranteed £ ~~i.TK f"'^3 

i and manufactured cora- 

i of careful experiment* 

> be confused wirh imitations, 
tu>tilv assembled from ordinary para. The 
price ii S8.10 Shipment is made parcel poU 
CO. D., plus a few cent* nonage. If vou pre- 
fer, you can srnd cash in full with order, and 
we will ship po*lasc prepaid. Clip and mail 
the COUPON today I 

16 E. So. Water St., Dept 5. Chicago 

.Atwayi took for thU Trade Mart, 
Ii is your protection against mi*, 
leading imitations and (hose vjho 
Infringe on the registered name 
"WflW Trap" and Us ripuiaiicik 

Valuable Booklet on Interference and how to elimi- 
nate it. tVe will gladly send it FREE. JtutfiUtn, 1 
clip and matt coupon below. 


16 E So. Wutt St, Dept. 5 
Chicago, 111. 
Oentlctnen. — PleaM tend me 

Send P< . 

) for S8.S0. 

I - ] WAVE TRAP.SendC.O.D. I will par Poattnu 

tSAo.pluo ItwceniipoitoK. w/hen It arrive*. 
Q FREB BOOKLET on Interference. 


Your Crystal Set 

will work 400 to 1000 miles if made by my plana. 
No tubes or batteries. Copyrighted plans $1.00; or 
furnished FREE with complete parts for building set, 
including special coil and panel correctly drilled for 
only $5. 00. Satisfaction guaranteed or money re- 
funded. Satisfied customers everywhere. Particulars 

264 Kaufman Bldg. Wichita, Kansas 


With plenty of jazz and semi- 
classical offerings, at KYW Satur- 
day, Feb. 7, at midnight, and WE- 
BH, Tuesday, January, 27, from 9 
to 10 p. m. Tune in! 
* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 


Largest exclusive Radio 

Jobbers in middle West. 

Write (or discounts. 

123 W. Madison St. Chicago 



Correct spacing of first grade «#>-(!»_, -_ it 

steel leaves in core carriesjOflil ow 

high flux densities which" 
;s other transformers to distort 
ition. Ratio 4.25 to L Equally 

ent in all stages. Windings 

absolutely accurate. 

The FLINT A. F. T. 

Better looking than any A. F. T. made aBd 

the finest built A. F. T. in the world. Onh> | 

$3.00 each. If your dealer can't supply yon, 

order direct. Money back guarantee, j 

Dealers, write for partieulai 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


by the Popular Science 

Laboratories, bywlell Im 

known setmaniifactui— Ji_ 

evs and by every fan g ^ ~2^ ]£ ) 



MAGNATRONS have long since 
established themselves in 
the field of vacuum tubes. Their 
remarkably uniform high qual- 
ity has received the endorsement 
of leading manufacturers, lab- 
oratories and engineers. Their 
excellent performance has won 
for MAGNATRONS the approval 
of a constantly increasing army 
of radio fans. 

The men entrusted with the re- 
search responsible for MAGNA- 
TRON excellence have devoted 
the last decade to vacuum tube 
work. They know good tubes. 
The entire organization knows 
how to build good tubes — and 
does. MAGNATRONS in your 
set will convince you of this by 
the improved reception. 

Speaking of Your Antenna! 

(Continued from preceding page) 

of the National Board of Fire Under 
writers, and those of the city building 
and electrical departments concerning 
antennas, the average radio user would 
be too old to enjoy his hobby. It is 
necessary, in order to collect the insur- 
ance after your house burns, to find out 
what the Company wants in the way 
of protection and install it, but the 
radio doctor's words on this subject are 

"Are antennas dangerous?" he asked. 
Then he answered: "The lightning 
hazard is practically nil. Only for out- 
side antennas need lightning protection 
be considered at all, and it is very simple." 

The article needed is, like men who 
listen to the neighbor's loud speaker 
instead of buying a radio outfit, small 
and cheap. It is called a "lightning 
arrester." It should be connected be- 
tween the antenna and the ground wire. 
A transmitting antenna needs more 

protection, but Dr. Dellinger was dis- 
cussing only those used by average folks 
exclusively for receiving. Whatever 
slight chance there may be of an an- 
tenna's coaxing lightning into the house 
will operate just as surely in the case 
of the telephone or light wires. An an- 
tenna will, of course, draw current from 
an electric light wire if it touches it, 
and will deliver the juice into the body 
of the radio fan if said body is in contact 
with said antenna. 

All this, from an expert who is an 
expert, is very satisfying to those who 
hesitate on the threshold of radio recrea- 
tion, held back by the antenna problem 
as a western horse is restrained by a 
rope corral that he could step over easily. 
All that needs to be added is that even 
the best antenna will not prevent inter- 
ference from the law of gravitation if, 
in climbing a tree to attach the antenna 
the radio bug fails to watch his step. 
* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE 

"The Hidden Voice," A Radio 

(Continued from page 29) 

Mrs. Stansbury started back in amaze- 
ment, almost dropping the infant. 

"I don't know what it means, Mrs. 
Stansbury," volunteered the minister, 
who knew the family very well. "It 
seems to come from his stomach." 

"Oh, call a doctor, quick," pleaded 
the mother. 

"Help, help! Murder!" came from 
the abandoned carriage. 

"Ha, we'll get at the mystery now," 
said the policeman, as he began to fumble 
about among the pillows and around 
the body of the carriage. Presently 
he pulled out the drawer below and 
produced Jimmie's miniature receiving 

"Help! I'm being kidnapped," came 
through the scrolled front of the cabinet. 

"Radio!" cried the minister. 

"Yes, that's the baby's stomach," 
remarked the policeman, with a grin. 
"Let's investigate further." They went 
into the house. 

"Why, that's Jimmie's radio," said 
Mrs. Kinnie, much to the wonder and 
relief of her daughter, who sat hugging 
her rescued infant. 

"Is that so? Where is he?" inquired 
the policeman. 

The Mystery Solved 

The crowd dashed into the house and 
ran up to Jimmie's room. Without 
ceremony they opened the door and ran 
in, only to find that young man convulsed 
in mirth — as much mirth as could be 
permitted when a pair of headphones are 
strapped around one's head. 

For, with an improvised crystal set, 
Jimmie had been listening with increas- 
ing enthusiasm and satisfaction to his 
friend's relentless call for help from the 
broadcasting station. It was more than 
Jimmie had expected along the line of 
co-operation. But now that it was forth- 
coming, he was gleeful over the phenome- 
nal success of his "idea." 

On seeing the gathering, his smile 
quickly disappeared, but he soon came 
"back to earth" and rendered a satis- 
factory explanation of the hidden voice 
in the baby carriage. Needless to say, 
praise for his radio ingenuity was whole- 

For an hour or more an eager discus- 
sion of the affair took place, in the house 
and on the lawn, for the crowd that 
gathered could not possibly be accom- 
modated indoors. Meanwhile the police- 
man called up his station and received 
this message from the desk sergeant: 

"We picked up a woman who acted 
as if she was going crazy. She admitted 
she stole the child and abandoned him 
because he talked like a grown-up and 
kept calling for help." 

Meanwhile also, Mrs. Stansbury made 
an important discovery and communi- 
cated it to Jimmie. 

"Edward must have chewed his zwie- 
back all the time," she said; "for he has 
cut two front teeth that were awful hard 
coming through." 

"Zwieback can't have all the credit," 
Jimmie retorted. "This really is a case 
of radio teething!" 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


And Now We Have Radio 
Cross -Words! 

(Continued from page 16) 

"eclecticism" are positively not ex- 
hibited under this tent. 

Let's Go! 

NOW for the start. You will see that 
the squares form horizontal and 
vertical lines and that a number of black 
squares appear. The white squares each 
contain a letter and the black squares are 
used as periods with a full word between 
adjacent squares. This is the case either 
in a horizontal or vertical direction. The 
words run from left to right, or from top 
to bottom, starting at the left hand edge 
of the figure or from the top. The space 
between the black squares must contain 
a full word and each of the white squares 
must be filled. All squares are numbered 
horizontally and vertically. 

Just as an example, I have worked out 
eight of the words in the upper right 
hand corner, and by the way, this con- 
tains the only unusual two words in the 
lot submitted to you. On examination, 
you will see that complete words are 
formed in both horizontal and vertical 
rows. Thus, the word "Loop" is hori- 
zontal word (10), the word "Earth" is 
horizontal (17), etc. Vertically, we have 
"Lab" as vertical (10), "Oral" as verti- 
cal (11), and so on. The horizontal and 
vertical words have letters in common 
so that the letter (R) forms a part of 
both "Earth" and "Oral." The letter 
(O) is a part of "Loop" and also of 
"Other." I have worked out the German 
trade name "Baha" and the slang word 
"Phan," thus clearing the puzzle of any 
strange words. 

Herewith you will discover the defini- 
tions of the words that you are to 
use in working out the puzzle, and these 
definitions are arranged in two groups for 
the horizontal and vertical lines. When 
you have thought of a word that means 
the same as the definition, and contains 
just the number of letters as the 
numbered square, then mark the letters 
on the chart as shown in the example. 
Horizontal word (1) contains four letters 
and the same is true of vertical word (1). 
Horizontal word (5) contains five letters 
and vertical word (6) has only two 

In the list of horizontal words, horizon- 
tal (10) reads, "A form of aerial." This 
works out as "Loop." Vertical (10) is 
defined in the list as "Experimenter's 
workroom Abr." The full word is labora- 
tory, and the abbreviation is "Lab," 
the latter occupying the three vertical 
white squares under (10). Remember. 
The words extend from black square to 
black square, or from the outer edge to 
the following black square. Hop to it. 

Send in your solutions, and if they 
reach RADIO AGE by January 25, they 
will be published with the solution in the 
March issue. Other correct solutions will 
be published with new radio puzzles in 
future issues of RADIO AGE. 
( Turn to next page) 

%OfvLjth<iVLTmDXnB Gets Distance 
on the Joud Speaker/ 

Ultradyne Kit 

Consists of one low loss 
Tuning Coil, one low 
loss Oscillator Coil, one 
special low loss Couplet, 
one type "A" Ultra- 
former, three type "B" 




ched Grid Condei 

The Ultraformers 
new improved long 
e frequency trans- 
especially de- 
signed by R. E. Lacault, 
Consulting E ngineer o f 
this Company and in- 
ventor of the Ultradyne. 
To protect the public, 
Mr. Lacault 's personal 
monogram seal (R. E. 
L.) is placed on all 
genuin e Ul tra f or m ers . 
Ultraformers are guar- 
anteed so long as this 
seal remains unbroken. 


Unlike other Super-radio receivers, the Ultra- 
dyne, with its exclusive use of the "Modula- 
tion System" and special application of 
regeneration, is capable of detecting and 
regenerating the faintest signal, making it 
audible on the loud speaker. 
The regenerative effect in the Ultradyne in- 
creases as the strength of the signal decreases, 
until the signal becomes so weak that no 
amount of amplification will make it audible. 
A radical advance in radio engineering and the 
latest development of R. E. Lacault, E. E., 
A. M. I. R. E., Chief Engineer of this Com- 
pany and formerly Radio Research Engineer 
with the French Signal Corps Research Labor- 

You will marvel at the unusual selectivity, 
sensitivity and range of this new Model L-2 


Write for descriptive circular. 


How To Build 

and Operate 

The Ultrodyne 

Model L-2 

Send for the 32 
page illustrated 
book gi v i ng 
latest authentic 
information on 
drilling, wiring, 
assembling and 
tuning the Model 
L-2 Ultradyne 




3-9 Beekman Street New York City > 


..•-•_ .. buy from 


123 W. Madison St. Chicago 

Send tor dealers discount.' 

Results of RADIO AGE'S long 
distance test from KYW on Jan- 
uary 3 are now being compiled and 
will be announced with the winners' 
names in the March issue of RADIO 

Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE ; 

Low Loss Products 

Master Tuning Coil 

Tone Head Phones 

Low Loss Condenser 

High grade, standard radio prod- 
that will increase the efficiency of any 
md add to the satisfaction of the user, 
-ow Loss Products have long 
been the choice of particular fans. See them 
— compare them. Rod you will choose them 
too. At AH Good Dealera. 

FREE! Setutu 

^JiffJ?- Ask your dealer g. 
108 Greenwich St.. New York 
326 W Madison St.. Chicago 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 




Audel's Handy Book of Electricity, Price $4. 

Aquick simplified ready reference, Rivingcom- 
pleteinstruction and insideinformation. Handy 
to use. Easy to understand. For Engineers, 
Professional Electricians, Students and all in- 
terested in Electricity. A reliable authority and 
a handy helper for every electrical worker. 


The 1040 pases and 2600 diagrams give ac- 
curate, up-to-date and complete information 
on— Rules and Laws, RADIO, Storage Batter- 
ies, WIRING DIAGRAMS, Power and House 
Wiring, Automatic 'Phones, Auto Ignition, 
Motor Troubles. ARMATURE WINDING, 
Cable Splicing, Elevators and Cranes. Sign 
Flashers, Transformers, Prncticnl Manage- 
ment, Modern Applications-REA DY REFER- 
ENCE on every electrical subject. Pocket Size, 
handsomely bound in flexible Red LEATHER. 
Easy Terms. Shipped for Free Examination, 
No obligation to buy unless satisfied. 

The. Audel Co, 65 W. 23 St, Now York 

PleaBe send me Audel's Handy Book of 
Practical Electricity for free examina- 
tion. If satisfactory, I will send rou 
SI in 7 days, then SI monthly until $4 is 

Dept. 2T302 


True Micrometer Type 

There is no condenser made, nor is there any 
vernier attachment, knob, dial or other con- 
trivance for a variable condenser which gives 
one-twentieth the adjustment possible with the 
BARRETT & PADEN Micrometer Con- 

Stations which are jammed so close to each 
other on the dial of the usual condenser that 
it is impossible to separate them, are pulled 
apart twenty times the distance on your 
dial when you use a BARRETT & PADEN 
Micrometer Condenser. Use them. You'll 
see the difference! 

Max. Min. 

.0005 .000008 

.00035 .0000078 

.00025 .000007 

If your dealer cannot supply you, order direct. 

$6.00 «J5 


1314 Sedwich St., 

Chicago, III 

Dealers! Write for our proposition. 


on RADIO AGE'S progam 

From KYW, Feb. 7, 

Beginning at midnight 

(Continued from preceding page) 


Magnitude of surface. 

A conductor made by twisting a num! 

r of small wires 


A form of aerial. 

Carried by a ship. 

An intermediate connection to a coil. 

To ground. 

Doing nothing. 

German trade mark for a make of radio apparatus. 

Abbreviation of diameter. 

Age or period. 

First name (abbreviated) of the Governor of Illinois 

Small negative particles. 


Technical man (Abr.). 


Not out. 

Potential (Abr.). 

Speaking apparatus (Abr.). 

Indefinite article. 

45. To c 

47. Organ of hearing. 

48. Women's husbands. 

49. Self. 

60. Oscillation constant (Abr.). 

51. One of the connections on a receiver (Abr.). 

53. Conjunction. 

55. Editor (Abr.). 

56. Patent (Abr.). 

57. Cover. 

59. Atmosphere. 

61. Above (Prefix). 
64. Alternator (Abr.). 

66. Chart. 

67. Move fast. 

08. Pressing collection. 

70. Temper of mind (Manner). 


74. Energy. 

75. British Thermal unit (Abr.). 

77. The subject of this magazine. 

78. Abbreviation for single pole, single throw switch, 

79. A metal alloy. 

80. Earth's sutelito. 


1. Contained in a storage battery. 

2. Communication by Hertzian waves. 

3. A well known reflex circuit. 

4. Old. 

6. By. 

7. Battery (Abr.). 

8. Low potential (Abr.). 

10. Experimenter's work room (Abr.). 

11. Pertaining to the mouth. 

12. Different. 

13. A name often used for a radio "Nut." 
19. Part of the verb "to be." 

21. Amperes, Volts, Ohms (Abr.). 

24. A substance which cannot be decomposed by any 
nown method. 

25. Victorious Army Aviator. 

26. Unit of work. 

27. A wire for collecting radio waves. 

30. Female sheep. 

31. A hign explosive. 

32. Prefix meaning salt. Used in dry battery electrolytes. 

33. Space occupied by magnetic forces. 
38. Positive electrode. 

Naval Radio Station Call number. 
A hobby. 

To grow old. 

Space between two parts. 

Moisture found in plants (Juice). 




54. Irr 

57. Drinking vessel. 

58. By. 

60. Annoying noise made by tube set which affects 
neighboring aerials (slang phrase). 

61. To droop. 

62. To polish or shine. 

63. The name of the stage which amplifies at voice fre- 

Amperes (Abr.). 

Pulls along. 

An extinct bird. 

A gaseous element used in testing spark plugs. 

Defector (Abr.). 

Greek letter corresponding to "E". 

A mechanical part used for giving a reciprocating 

to another part. 

Brass (Abr.). 

Objective pronoun. 

"Polyplugs" on Market 

The well-designed and popular priced 
"Polyplug," the product of the Polymet 
Manufacturing Corporation, 70-74 La- 
fayette Street, New York City, has in- 
duced many manufacturers of Loud 
Speakers to furnish Phone Plugs with 
their units. As the Phone Plug is such 
an essential part of the Loud Speaker, 
it is only a matter of a short period when 
every Loud Speaker manufacturer will 
include a Plug with his product. 

The Polymet Manufacturing Corpora- 
tion has also brought out two additional 
Radio Units, which have been enthu- 
siastically welcomed by manufacturers of 
Radio Sets. * This is a Rheostat called 
the "E-Z" Stat, and a Potentiometer 
called the "E-Z" Ometer. 

The popularity of these two units is 
due to the construction which helps the 
manufacturer of sets speed up his as- 
sembly production. These items remove 
all the fuss of adjustments because the 
adjustment is permanently fixed. 

V Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

To Each 

of a 

World Battery 

A 24-Volt "B" Storage Batterypositivelygiven 
FREE with each purchase of a WORLD "A" 
Storage Battery. The WORLD Battery is fa- 
mous for its guaranteed quality and service. Backed 
by yearB of Successful Manufacture and Thousanda of 
Satisfied Users. You save 60%. j 

Prices That Save and Satisfy 
Auto Batteries Radio Batteries 

6-VoIt, 11 Plate $12.25 

6- Vol! iiPbtA laic 6- Volt, 1 DO Amps. 12. SO 
U-Volt, 13 Plate 14.25 e-Volt, 120 Amps. 14.SO 
12-Volt, 7 Plate 17.00 6-Volt, 140 Amps. 16.00 

Shipment Express C. O. D. subject to eraminati&n. 
6 per cent discount for cash in full wilk order. 

2-Yr. Guarantee Bond En Writing 
With Each World Storage Battery 

proves satisfactory World performance. Mall this ad with 
yoarnameand address — we will ship battery day order Is re- 
ceived; and give yon your chol-o of r, B" Sf .rape Battery or a 
handsome nlckle finish Auto Spotllte, FREE. Write TODAY. 

1219 So. Wabash Ave. Dept. 36. CHICAGO, ILL. 
This FREE "B" Storage Battery takes the place of dry cell 
"B" batteries Can be roclmrirod and will last indefinitely. 
To be sold retail for $0.00. It 1 \ the cnly battery of Its kind 
equipped with =nl!d rubber etwo— and insurance against acid 
and leakiiro. T-ike advantngo of this remarkable Introductory 
offer NOW. (To thoso who prefer It, wo will pend FREE a 
hands me rl-kel finish Atit^Spotlite. instead of the "B" Bat- 
tery. Bo sure to specify which Is wanted.) 



To introduce 
this new ard 
superior World 
"B" Storage 
Battery to the 




For those who build their own* 
and insist on quality amplifica- 
tion, there's nothing to equal 
Resistance Coupling 1 . The 


comes with full instructions fo? 
assembly. Easy to build — effi- 
cient in operation. (Without 
sockets and condensers^ . 

Supplied in either 3 or 4 
stages. Sold Everywhere. 

Aslc vour dealer for the "RE- 
SISTOR MANUAL." It's full 
of information on Resistance 
Coupling. Price 25c. 

"Resistor Specialists" 

Newark, New Jersey 

.REFLEX -.' 

Erla— Acme — Harkness 

, Dealers: Send tor Discounts 


123 W. Madison St. Chicago 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

,'hether you plan to build or 
to buy a receiving set, it will pay 
f you to know something about the 
]y insides" of radio. This booklet 
gives you the "inside dope" on some 
of the recent inventions embodying 
the latest ideas of radio engineers. 
In this bulletin is full information 
about the 



Ratios 1 to 3, 1 to 4, 

and 1 to 5, $3.50 

Ratio 1 to 10, $4.50 

This light weight aud 
place in the very front rank for 
volume, and pure, natural tone, 
shielded against foreign noises. 
Ita small size is a surprise to everyone. It cuts the 
space requirements for audio transformers in two. 
This is a big advantage in portables and makes it 
ideal for neat and compact wiring. 
Free Hook Up Diagrams also sent on re- 
quest; all popular types. Address, 

$rtm\tr favlrlf £0. 

3803 Ravenswood Ave., Chicago 


Quality Radio Tarts 

transformer has earned a 
100% self 


-its the \ 




No more guessing and uncertainty as to 
your tube filament voltage. AMPER1TE 
Inside your set, one for each tube, automati- 
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the most out of every tube. Simplifies wir- 
ing and operation. Increases set compact- 
ness. Lengthens tube life. Tested, proved 
and adopted by more than 50 set manufac- 
turers. The set you buy or build will not be 
up-to-the-minute in effectivenesswithout it. 

V. $1.10 Everywhere 


Dept.FU.-350 Franklin Street, New York 
"Write for 



REG. U. S. 


means right amperes 


adds a musical quality to any set far 
beyond anything you ever heard 

Amplifies low, middle and high 
tones — allto the same big volume, 
thus eliminating distortion. Brings 
out the vira harmonics and over 
tones of music. Price $7.00. Write 
Karas Electric Co., Depl. 57-99 4042 N.Rockwell Sl„ Chicago 

A Unit for Measuring 

(Continued from page 19) 

X, as was shown in the foregoing ex- 
ample of impedance, or as follows: 

Coil X = 100 Ohms. 

Dial reading 42 — 

Coil Y = .58x100 or 58 Ohms, or 

Coil X = 50 Ohms. 

Dial Reading 42 + 

Coil Y = 1.42x,50 or 71 Ohms. 

To Measure Capacity 

Connect a known capacity to terminals 
XI and X2. Say .001 microfarad, then 
connect the unknown capacity to ter- 
minals Yl and Y2, moving the pointer 
until the silent period is found. If this 
should fall on 50 — , then the capacity 
of Y will be 

Condenser X = .001 M F 

Dial reading 50 — 

Capacity Y = .50x.001 M F or .0005 
M For 

Condenser X = .001 M F 

Dial reading 80 + 

Capacity Y = 1.8x.001 M F or .0018 
M F. 

Many other forms of measurement 
can be made on this instrument when a 
known quantity is connected across 
terminals XI and X2 using the formulae, 
"Y" = Dial reading X "X" 

Remembering that readings from the 
"— " side of the scale will always be in 
the form of a decimal or hundredth 
part of "X" and that "Y" is always less 
than "X," thus "Y" = Dial reading 
X "X" while the readings from the 
"+" side of the scale will always be 
1 + Dial reading or one and a decimal 
or hundredth times "X." Thus "Y" 
= "X" + dial reading X "X" and "Y" 
will always be greater than X. 


Nelson Will Get a 
Laugh Here 

(Continued from page 32) 

sary that you confine your votes to con- 
testants whose names appear in this list. 
Possibly your favorite is awaiting your 
votes to boost him to a position in the 
first division. Such apparently was the 
case with Art Linick, whose name did 
not appear on this page of our preceding 

RADIO AGE has definitely decided on 
a unique shield as an award for the final 
victor of this contest. Who are you going 
to help win this token of popular favor? 

While some of the contestants seem 
to hold their positions through a "steady 
stream of votes each month, still a careful 
count of the ballots shows that each 
month indicates a wave of popular favor 
for some individual who gathers more 
votes than any other through that period. 

By way of creating greater interest in 
this contest, a year's free subscription to 
RADIO AGE will be given to the first 
three readers whose ballots name the 
candidate receiving the greatest number 
of votes during the period from January 
16 to February 15. So get busy and send 
in your ballots. 
* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 


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for 1925 

With 120 pages of hookups, 
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tion, and sixteen full pages of 
blueprint hookups in color. 



RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

Corrected List of Broadcasting Stations 










































































































































Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co East Pittsburgh 326 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co Cleveland, Ohio 270 

Southern Electrical Co 9an Diego, Calif. 244 

Newhouse Hotel Salt Lake City, Utah 360 

Savoy Theatre San Diego, Calif. 280 

Oregon Institute of Technology Portland, Oreg. 360 

Frank E. Siefert Bakersfield, Calif. 240 

Rhodes Department Store Seattle, Wash. 270 

Electric Supply Co Wenatchee, Wash. 360 

Bellingham Publishing Co Bellingham. Wash. 261 

McArthur Bros. Mercantile Co Phoenix, Ariz. 360 

State College of Washington P u ll ma n, Wash. 330 

Western Radio Corporation Denver, Colo. 278 

University of Colorado Boulder, Colo. 360 

Studio Lighting Service Co. (O. K. Olsen) Hollywood, Calif. 280 

Boise High School Boise. Idaho 270 

The Radio Den <W. B. Ashford) Santa. Ana. Calif. 280 

Virgin's Radio Service Medford, Ore. 283 

F. A. Buttrey & Co Havre, Mont. 360 

W. K. Azbill San Diego, Calif. 278 

Reuben H. Horn San Luis Obispo, Calif . 242 

First Presbyterian Church Tacoma, Wash. 360 

Kimball-Upson Co Sacramento. Calif. 283 

Leese Bros Everett, Wash. 224 

Trinidad Gas & Electric Supply Co. and Chronicle News Trinidad, Colo. 280 

The Cathedral Laramie, Wyo. 283 

Nielson Radio Supply Co Phoenix, Ariz. 238 

The First Congregational Church Helena. Mont. 248 

Frank A. Moore Walla Walla, Wash. 256 

Leslie E. Rice Los Angeles, Cal. 236 

Ralph W. Flygare Ogden, Utah 360 

Fred Mahaffey, Jr Houston. Texas 360 

Omaha Central High School Omaha, Nebr. 258 

St. Michaels Cathedral Boise, Idaho 252 

University of Arizona Tuscon, Ariz. 368 

Oregon Agricultural College Corvallis, Oreg. 360 

Magnolia Petroleum Co Beaumont, Tex. 306 

First Baptist Church Shreveport, La. 360 

South Dakota State College Brookings, S. Dak. 360 

Harry O. Iverson Minneapolis. Minn. 231 

Meier & Frank Co Portland. Oreg. 248 

Augsbury Seminary Minneapolis. Minn. 261 

Winner Radio Corp Denver, Colo. 254 

J. L. Scroggin Oak. Nebr. 268 

Auto Electric Service Co Fort Dodge, Iowa 231 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining and Concentrating Co Kellogg, Idaho 360 

First Baptist Church Moberly, Mo. 266 

Nevada State Journal (Jim Kirk) Sparks. Nev. 226 

Graceland College Lamoni, Iowa 280 

Pincus & Murpbey Music House Alexandria. La. 275 

Heidbreder Radio Supply Co Utica. Neb. 224 

Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, La. 254 

Cbickasha Radio & Electric Co Chickasba, Okla. 248 

Leland Stanford University Stanford University, Calif. 273 

Crary Hardware Co Boone, Iowa 226 

First Presbyterian Church Orange, Tex. 250 

Emmanuel Missionary College Berrien Springs, Mich. 286 

Western State College of Colorado Gunnison. Colo. 252 

Ambrose A. McCue Neah Bay. Wash. 261 

Fallon & Co Santa Barbara. Calif. 360 

Penn College Oskaloosa, Iowa 240 

Star Electric & Radio Co Seattle. Wash. 283 

E. C. Anthony, Inc Los Angeles, Calif. 469 

Benson Polytechnic Institute Portland, Oregon 248 

North Central High School Spokane, Wash. 252 

First Methodist Church Yakima. Wash. 242 

Alaska Electric Light & Power Co Juneau, Alaska 226 

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Independence. Mo. 240 

Daily Commonwealth and Oscar A. Huelsman Fon Du Lac. Wis. 273 

Marshall Electrical Co Marahalltown, Iowa 248 

National Radio Manufacturing Co Oklahoma City, Okla. 252 

Liberty Theatre CE. E. Marsh) Astoria, Oreg. 252 

Delano Radio and Electric Co Bristow, Okla. 233 

Hardsacg Manufacturing Co Ottumwa, Iowa 242 

University of North Dakota Grand Forks, N. Dak. 280 

Ashley C. Dixon & Son Stevensville. Mont, (near) 258 

Iowa State Teacher's College Cedar Falls. Iowa 280 

Tunwall Radio Co Fort Dodge, Iowa 246 

Texas National Guard, One hundred and twelfth Cavalry. Fort Worth Texas 254 

Colorado State Teachers College Greeley, Colo. 273 

Brinkley- Jones Hospital Association Milford, Kans. 286 

Conway Radio Laboratories (Ben H. Woodruff) Conway. Ark. 250 

The University of Kansas • Lawrence, Kans. 275 

F. F. Gray Butte. Mont. 283 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co Hastings, Nebr. 341 

Nassour Bros. Radio Co Colorado Springs, Colo. 234 

Abner R. Willson Butte, Moot. 283 

Signal Electric Manufacturing Co Menominee. Mich. 248 

Paul E. Greenlaw Franklinton, La. 234 

National Educational Service Denver, Colo. 268 

Bizzell Radio Shop Little Rock, Ark. 261 

University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico 254 

Rio Grande Radio Supply House San Benito, Texas 236 

Rev. A. T. Frykman Rockford. 111. 229 

George Roy Clough Galveston, Tex. 240 

Atlantic Automobile Co Atlantic, la. 273 

Christian Churches ■ Little Rock, Ark. 254 

University of Arkansas Fayette ville. Ark. 263 

Morningside College Sioux City, Iowa 261 

Dr. George W. Young Minneapolis, Minn. 231 

M. G. Sateren Houghton, Mich. 266 

Carleton College Northfield. Minn. 283 

Henry Field Seed Co Shenandoah, Iowa 266 

Wooten's Radio Shop Coldwater, Miss. 254 

Central Mo. State Teachers College Warrensburg. Mo. 234 

Radio Broadcast Ass'n Paso Robles, Calif. 240 

L. A. Drake Battery »nd Radio Supply Shop Santa Rosa. Calif. 234 

Montana Phonograph Co Helena. Montana 261 

Royal Radio Company Burlingame. Calif. 231 

Rhodes Department Store Seattle.Wash. 455 

First Christian Church Whittier, Calif. 236 

Radio Shop Wallace, Idaho 224 

Moberly High School Radio Club Moberly, Missouri 246 

Leslie M. Schafbush Marengo, Iowa 234 

Echophone Radio Shop Long Beach, Calif. 234 

Latter Day Saints University Salt Lake City, Utah 261 

Rohrer Elec. Co Marshfield Ore. 240 

David City Tire & Electric Co David City, Nebraska 226 

College Hill Radio Club Wichita. Kansas 231 

Hommel Mfg. Co Richmond, Calif. 254 

Board of Education, Technical High School Omaha, Nebraska 248 

Beacon Radio Service St. Paul. Minn. 226 

Leon Hudson Real Estate Co Fort Smith, Ark. 233 

Edwin J. Brown Seattle, Wash. 224 

Garretson and Dennis Los Angeles, Calif. 238 

Harold Chas. Mailander Salt Lake City. Utah 242 

C. C. Baxter Dublin. Texas 242 

The New Furniture Co Greenville, Texas 242 

Missouri National Guard Jefferson City, Mo. 242 

Colorado National Guard -. .Denver. Colo. 231 

G. &. G. Radio & Electrio Shop Olympia, Washington 236 

Los Angeles Co. Forestry Dept Los Angeles, Calif. 231 

Cape & Johnson Salt Lake City. Utah 268 

Heintz & Kohlmoos, Inc San Francisco. Calif. 236 

St. Johns M. E. Church Carterville, Mo. 268 

First Presbyterian Church Pine Bluff, Ark. 242 

Symons Investment Co Spo k ane, Wash. 283 

KFQA The Principia St. Louia, Mo. 264 

KFQB The Searchlight Publishing Co Fort Worth, Tex. 221 

KFQC Kidd Brothers Radio Shop Taft, Calif. 258 

KFQD Chovin Supply Co Anchorage. Alaska 20T 

KFQE Dickenson-Henry Radio Laboratories Colorado SpringB, Colo. 224 

KFQG Southern Calif. Radio Ass'n Loa Angelas, Calif. 226 

KFQH Radio Service Co Burlingame , Calif . 231 

KFQK. Democrat Leader Fayette. Mo. 236 

KFQL Oklahoma Free State Fair Assn Muskogee. Okla. 2S2 

KFQM Texas Highway Bulletin Austin, Tex. 268 

KFQN Third Baptist Church Portland, Ore. 283 

KFQO Meier Radio Shop Russell, Kans. 261 

KFQP G. S. Carson, Jr Iowa City. la. 224 

KFQR Walter LaFayette Ellis Oklahoma City, Okla. 250 

KFQT Texas National Guard Denison, Texas 252 

KFQU W. Riker Holy City, Calif. 234 

KFQV Omaha Grain Exchange (Portable) Omaha. Nebr. 231 

KFQW C. F. Knierim North Bend. Wash. 248 

KFQX Alfred M. Hubbard Seattle, Wash. 233 

KFQY Farmers State Bank Belden.Neb. 273 

KFQZ Taft Radio Co Hollywood. Calif. 240 

KFRI The Reynolds Radio Co. Inc. Portable Station Denver. Col. 224 

KFRJ Guy Simmons, Jr Conway, Ark. 250 

KFRM James F. Boland Fort Sill, Okla. 263 

KFRN M. Laurence Short Han ford, Calif . 224 

KFRO Curtis Printing Co Ft. Worth, Tex. 246 

KFRX J- Gordon Klemgard Pullman. Wash. 217 

KFRY The Mexico College of Agriculture State College. N. M. 266 

KFRZ The Electric Snop Hartington, Neb. 222 ( 

KFUL Thomas Goggan <fe Bros Galveston, Tex. 258 

KFUM W. D. Corley Colorado Springs. Colo. 242 

KFUO Concordia Seminary St. Louis. Mo. 54S 

KFRW United Churched of Olympia Olympia, Wash. 220 

KFSG Angelus Temple Los Angeles, Calif. 278 

KFS Y The Van Blaricon Co Helena, Mont. 261 

KGB Tacoma Daily Ledger Tacoma. Wash. 252 

KGG Hallock & Watson Radio Service Portland, Oreg. 360 

KGO General Electric Co Oakland, Calif. 312 

KGU Marion A. Mulrony Honolulu, Hawaii, Waikiki Beach 360 

KGW Portland Morning Oregonian Portland, Oreg. 492 

KG Y St. Martins College (Reb. Sebastian Ruth) Lacy, Wash. 258 

KHJ Times-Mirror Co Los Angeles, Calif. 395 

KHQ Louis Wasmer Seattle, Wash. 360 

KJQ C O. Gould Stockton, Calif. 273 

KJR Northwest Radio Service Co Seattle, Wash. 283 

KLS Warner Brothers Radio Supplies Co Oakland, Calif. 360 

KLX Tribune Publishing Co Oakland, Calif. 509 

KLZ Reynolds Radio Co Denver, Colo. 283 

KM J San Joaquin Light & Power Corp Fresno, Calif. 248 

KMO Love Electric Co Tacoma. Wash. 360 

KNT Walter Hemrich Kukah Bay. Alaska 263 

KNX Los Angeles Evening Express Los Angeles, Calif. 337 

KOB New Mexico College of Agriculture & Mechanic Arts. .State College, N.Mex. 360 

KOP Detroit Police Department Detroit. Mich. 286 

KPO Hale Bros San Francisco. Calif. 423 

KQP Apple City Radio Club Hood River. Oreg. 360 

KQV Doubleday-Hill Electric Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 270 

KQW Charles D. Herrold San Jose, Calif. 240 

KRE V C Battery & Electric Co Berkeley. Calif. 275 

KSAC Kansas State Aericultnral College Manhattan, Kans. 341 

KSD Post Dispatch (Pulitzer Pub. Co.) St. Louis, Mo. 546 

KTW First Presbyterian Church Seattle. Wash. 360 

KUO Examiner Printing Co San Francisco. Calif. 360 

KWG Portable Wireless Telephone Co Stockton, Calif. 360 

KWH Los Angeles Examiner Los Angeles, Calif. 360 

KYQ Electric Shop Honolulu, Hawaii 270 

K YW Westinghouse Electrio & Mfg. Co Chicago. 111. 536 

KZM Preston D. Allen Oakland. Calif. 360 

WAAB Valdernar Jensen New Orleans, La. 268 

WAAC Tulane University New Orleans. La. 360 

WAAD Ohio Mechanics Institute Cincinnati, Ohio 360 

WAAF Chicago Daily Drovers Journal Chicago, III. 286 

WAAM I. R. Nelson Co Newark, N. J. 263 

WAAN University of Missouri Columbia. Mo. 254 

WAAW Omaha Grain Exchange Omaha, Nebr. 286 

WABB Harrisburg Sporting Goods Co Harrisburg, Pa. 266 

WABD Parker High School Dayton, Ohio 283 

WABH Lake Shore Tire Co Sandusky. Ohio 240 

WABI Bangor Railway & Electric Co Bangor. Me. 240 

WABL Connecticut Agricultural College Storrs. Conn. 283 

WABM F. A. Doherty Automotive and Radio Equipment Co Saginaw, Mich. 254 

WABN Ott Radio, Inc LaCrosse, Wis. 244 

WABO Lake Avenue Baptist Church Rochester. N. Y. 283 

WABP Robert F. Weinig Dover, Ohio 266 

WABQ Haverford College. Radio Club Haverford, Pa. 261 

WABR Scott High School, N. W. B. Foley Toledo, Ohio 270 

W ABU Victor Talking Machine Co Camden. N. J. 226 

WABW College of Wooster Wooster. Ohio 234 

WABX Henry B. Joy Mt. Clemens, Mich. 270 

WABY John Magaldi, Jr Philadelphia, Pa, 242 

WABZ Coliseum Place Baptist Church New Orleans, La. 263 

WAHG A. H. Grebe & Co Richmond Hill, N. Y. 316 

WBAA Purdue University W. Lafayette. Ind. 283 

WBAH The Dayton Co Minneapolis. Minn. 417 

WB AN Wireless Phone Corp Paterson, N. J. 244 

WBAO James Millikin University Decatur, 111. 360 

WBAP Wortham-Carter Publishing Co. (Star Telegram) Fort Worth, Tex. 476 

WBAV Erner& Hopkins Co Columbus, Ohio 423 

WBAX John H. Stenger, Jr Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 254 

WBAY Western Electric Co New York, N. Y. 492 

WBBD Barbey Battery Service Reading, Pa. 234 

WBBG Irving Vermilya Mattapoisett, Mass. 248 

WBBH J. Irving Bell Port Huron. Mich. 246 

WBBL Grace Covenant Presbyterian Church Richmond. Va. 283 

WBBM H. Leslie Atlass Chicago. HI. 226 

WBBN Blake. A. B. Wilmington, N. C. 275 

WBBP Petoskey High School Petoskey , Mich. 246 

WBBR Peoples Pulpit Asso Rossville, N. Y. 273 

WBBS First Baptist Church New Orleans, La. 252 

WBBU Jenkfl Motor Sales Co Monmouth, 111. 224 

WBBV Johnstown Radio Co Johnstown. Pa. 245 

WBBX Ruffner Junior High School Norfolk, Va. 222 

WBBY Washington Light Infantry Co. 'B" 118th Inf Charleston. S. C. 268 

WBBZ Noble B. Watson Indianapolis. Ind. 227 

WBGA Jones Elec. & Radio Mfg. Co Baltimore, Md. 254 

WBCN Foster & McDonald Chicago, HI. 266 

WBL T & H Radio Co. . Anthony, Kans. 254 

WBR Pennsylvania State Police Butler. Pa. 286 

WBS D. W. May. Inc Newark, N. J. 260 

WBT Southern Radio Corp Charlotte. N. C. 360 

WBZ Westinghouse E. & M. Co Springfield, Mass. 337 

WCAD St. Lawrence University Canton, N. Y. 280 

WCAE Kaufmann A Baer Co Pittsburgh, Pa. 462 

WCAG Clyde R. Randall New Orleans, La. 268 

WCAH Entrekin Electric Co Columbus. Ohio 266 

WCAJ Nebraska Wesleyan University University Place, Nebr. 283 

WCAK Alfred P. Daniel Houston, Texas 263 

WC AL St. Olaf College Northfield, Minn. 360 

WC AO Sanders «fc Stayman Co Baltimore, Md. 275 

WCAP Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Co Washington, D. C. 469 

WCAR Alamo Radio Electric Co San Antonio. Tex. 263 

WCAS W. H. Dunwoody Industrial Institute. Minneapolis, Minn. 280 

WCAT State College of Mines Rapid City, S Dak. 240 

WCAU Durham & Co Philadelphia, Pa. 286 

WCAV J. C. Dice Electrio Co Little Rock, Ark. 263 

WCAX University of Vermont Burlington , Vt. 360 

WCAZ Carthage College Carthage. Til. 246 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 



Don't overlook the value of 
RADIO AGE'S classified adver- 
tisements. Many such messages 
have paved the way to independent 

The classified advertising rates 
are but ten cents per word for a 
single insertion. Liberal discounts 
are allowed on three, six and 

twelve -time insertions, of five, 
fifteen and thirty per cent, res- 
pectively. Unless placed through 
an accredited advertising agency, 
cash should accompany all orders. 
Name and address must be in- 
cluded at foregoing rates and no 
advertisement of less han ten 
words will be accepted. 


15 to 25 per cent discount on nationally advertised sets 
and parts. Every item guaranteed. Tell us your needs. 

RADIO SETS. Our prices save you money. Lists 
free. The Radio Shoppe, Box 645, East Liverpool, Ohio. 

JOIN THE RADIO Parts Exchange Club. Your parts 
inspected (Fee i5c), and exchanged for the parts you 
need. What have you; what parts do you require? 
Write us for details. 

The Radio Parts Exchange Club, 112 So. Homan Ave, 
C hicago. 


The Reinartz Radio Booklet, by Frank D. Pearne, fully 
Illustrated, and RADIO AGE, for 52.50. Price of book- 
let alone is 50c. Send check, currency or money order 
ts RADIO ACE, 500 N. Dearborn Street, Chicago. 


158 Genuine Foreign Stamps. Mexico War Issues. 
Venezuela, Salvador and India Service. Guatemala, 
China, etc., only 5c. Finest approval sheets, 50 to 
60 percent. Agents Wanted. Big 72-p. Lists Free. 
We Buy Stamps. Established 20 Years. Hussman 
Stamp Co., Dept. 152, St. Louis, Mo. 

you and you need us. If you are reliable and well 
known in your community, we will appoint you our 
representative and furnish you with standard well 
advertised sets and parts at prices that will enable you 
to sell at a handsome profit. Write at once for cata- 
log and sales plan. Waveland Radio Co., Div. 49, 1027 
N. State St.. Chicago, 111. 

90c an hour to advertise and distribute samples to con- 
sumer. Write quick for territory and particulars. 
American Products Co. , 2130 American Building, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. 

nples supplied. 
ite today Tanne 

■ this territory to sell wonderful 
en's. Children's shoes direct, sav- 
er 40%. Experience unnecessary. 
Big weekly permanent income, 
s Mfg. Co., 1334C. St., Boston, Mass. 


DEALERS— Write for our illustrated catalog of reliable 
Radio Merchandise. Rossiter-Manning Corporation, 
Dept. D, 1830 Wilson Ave., Chicago, 111. 

RADIO— Join 

leB organization and make big 
every county to sell well 

advertised sets and parts 
facturers. Widener of 

weekly. You can do as „c „. «...«■■ ... — . 

for catalog, and discounts. Name your county. Wave 
land Radio Company, Div. 50, 1027 No. State St., Chi 
cago, III. 

.de by the leadi.. b 

City makes $150.00 
better. Write today 

NEW WRITERS WANTED— Articles, stories, poems, 
scenarios, etc. $13,500 just paid to unknown writer. 
Entirely new field. (No bunk). NOT A CORRES- 
PONDENCE COURSE. Moving picture industry and 
publishers crying for new original material. YOU 
CAN DO IT. We buy manuscripts for books and mag- 
azines. Send self addressed envelope for list of 100 
subjects. CALIFORNIA STUDIOS, P. O. Box 697, Los 
Angeles, Calif. 

down. Parts and plans— complete, $12.50. Lane Mfg. 
2937 W. Lake, Chicago. 

Postpaid, less phones and tube. Complete with 
phones, tube and battery, $18.00. J. B. RATHBUN, 
1067 Winona St., Chicago, 111. 

Classified ad copy for March Radio Age must reach us by January 27. 



Canadian Broadcasting Stations 

Calgary Herald. Calgary, Alberta 430 

Star Pub. & Prig. Co.. Toronto. Ontario 400 

Marconi Wireless Tel. Co. of Canada, Montreal, 

Quebec 440 

Abitibi Power & Paper Co., Iroquois Fails, Ont. 400 

La Cie de L'Evenenient, Quebec. Quebec 410 

Radio Supply Co., Edmonton, Alberta 410 

W. W. Grant Radio (Ltd.), Calgary, Alberta... 440 

Radio Specialties (Ltd.), Vancouver, B. C 450 

Laurentide Air Service, Sudbury, Ont 410 

Victoria City Temple. Victoria, British. Col.. 410 
The Jack Elliott Radio Limited. Hamilton, Ont. 410 

The Radio Shop, London, Ont 420 

Sparks Co., Nariaimo, B. C 430 

Henry Birks & Sons, Calgary. Alta 440 

Chas. Guy Hunter. 551 Adelaide St., London. 

Ont 410 





















The Electric Shop (Ltd.), Saskatoon, Saskatch- 
ewan 400 

Queens University, Kingston, Ontario 4S0 

University of Montreal, Montreal. Quebec 400 

Westminster Trust Co., New Westminster. B. 

C 440 

Victor Wentworth Odium, Vancouver, B. C 400 

Radio.Engineers. Halifax, Nova Scotia 400 

Albertan Publishing Co.. Calgary, Alberta 410 

Marconi Company, Toronto, Ont 410 

Canadian Wireless & Elec. Co., Quebec, Quebec 410 
Western Canada Radio Sup. (Ltd.). Victoria. 

B. C 400 

Vancouver Merchants Exchange.Vancouver, 

B. C 440 

Riley <fc McCormack, Calgary, Alberta 415 

The Hamilton Spectator, Hamilton, Ont 420 

Toronto Radio Research, Toronto, Ont 350 

J. R. Booth, Ottawa. Ont 435 

Northern Electric Co., Montreal, Quebec 410 

Jan-is Baptist Church, Toronto, Ont 312 

Edmonton Journal, Edmonton, Alberta 455 

London Free Press Prtg. Co.. London, Ont. 430 

T. Eaton Co.. Toronto, Ont 410 

Sprott-Shaw Radio Co.. Vancouver, B. C 420 

The News Record. Kitchener. Ont 295 

Maritime Radio Corp., St. John, New Bruns- 

wicE 400 

Radio Corp. of Calgary. Calgary, Alta 316 

J. L. PhiUipe, Monti Joli, Quebec 430 

Simons Agnew & Co., Toronto. Ont 410 

Evening Telegram. Toronto, Ont 430 

La Presse, Pub. Co., Montreal, Quebec 430 

Vancouver Daily Province, Vancouver, B. C. . 410 
Canadian Independ. Telephone Co., Toronto, 

Ont 450 

Leader Pub. Co., Reeina. Saskatchewan 420 

Ottawa Radio Association, Ottawa, Ont 440 

P- Burns & Co.. Calgary, AJberta 440 

Wilkinson Electric Company, Calgary, Algerta 400 
Wentworth Radio Supply Co., Hamilton, Ont. 410 
Manitoba Telephone System, Winnipeg, Man. 450 
Canadian National Railways, Calgary, Canada 440 
Canadian National Railways, Edmonton, Alta. 450 
Canadian National Railways, Montreal. P. Q. 341 
Canadian National Railways, Ottawa, Ont.. . 435 
Canadian National Railways, Regina, Sask. . . 420 
Canadian National Railways, Saksatoon, Sask. 400 
Canadian National Railways. Toronto, Ont.. 400 
Canadian National Railways, Winnipeg. Man. . 450 

New Straight-line Condensers 
The Ensign variable straight-line wave- 
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as yet been placed on the market. By 
means of the peculiar type construction 
of both the stationary and movable plates, 
it is possible to secure a straight-line wave- 
length curve over the entire range from 
minimum to maximum. 



It's as easy as P* otl a 

\,*r pencil P oin 5^. t his 
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tutuog. 1 ? 

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They make log=H ttinga 
pie ^^IsWvelTle ratio 
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is 12 to 1 : u (St $2-00 — 
Brass f^tv/fi^ $2.50 
SatuaSilver^J d(24k ) 



No. 205 

A Speaker of Distinction 

14 inch Pvralin Bell. Aluminum Sound Column 

No. 205B-Black Pyralin Belt S22.50 

No. 205D-Shell Pyralin Bell 825.00 

Designed and built by experts, for 30 years makers 
of telephones. 

American (§factric 


State & 64th Sts., Chicago, U. S. A. 

Get Your 1925 ANNUAL Now! 

¥ Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

76 RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

WCBA- Charles W. Heimbach . . Allentown, Pa. 280 WJAN 

WCEC University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Mich. 280 WJAR 

WCBD Wilbur G. Voliva Zion, 111. 345 WJAS 

WCBE Uhalt Radio Co New Orleans. La. 263 WJAX 

WCBF Paul J. Miller Pittsburgh, Pa. 236 WJAZ 

WCBG Howard S. Williams (Portable) Pascagoula, Miss. 268 WJD 

WCBH University of Miss Oxford, Miss. 242 WJJD 

WCBI Nicoll, Duncan & Rush Bemis, Tennessee 240 WJY 

WCBJ J. C. Maus Jennings, Louisiana 244 WJZ 

WCBK E. Richard Hall St. Petersburg, Fla. 266 WKAA 

WCBL Northern Radio Mfg. Co Houlton, Me. 280 WKAD 

WCBM Charles Swarz Baltimore. Md. 229 WKAF 

WCBN James P. Boland Ft. Benj. Harrison, Ind. 266 WKAN 

WCBO The Radio Shop, Inc Memphis, Tenn. 250 WK.AP 

WCBQ First Baptist Church Nashville, Tenn. 236 WKAQ 

WCBR C. H. Mes.ter Providence. R. I. 246 WKAR 

WCBT Clark University, Collegia!* Dept Worcester, Mass. 238 WKAV 

WCBU Arnold Wireless Supply Co Arnold, Pa. 254 WKBF 

WCBV Tullahoma Radio Ctub Tullahoma, Tenn. 252 WKY \ 

WCBW George P. Rankin, Jr.. and Maitland Solomon Macon, Ga. 226 WLAG 

WCBX Radio Shop of Newark (Herman Lubiusky) Newark, N. J. 233 WLAL 

WCBY The Forks Electrical Shop Buck Hill Falls, Pa. 268 WLAP 

WCBZ Coppotelli Bros. Music House Chicago Heights, 111. 248 WLAQ 

WCCO Washburn-Crosbv Co Twin Cities. Minn. 417 WLAW 

WCEE Charles E. Erbstein, Villa Olivia near Elgin, III. 536 WLAX 

WCK Stix-Baer-Fuller D. G. Co St. Louis, Mo. 275 WLB 

WCX Free Press Detroit, Mich. 517 WLBL 

WDAE Tampa Daily Times Tampa, Fla. 360 WLS 

WDAF Kansas City Star Kansas City, Mo. 411 WLW 

WDAG J. Laurence Martin Amarillo. Tex. 263 WMAC 

WDAH Trinity Methodist Church (South) El Paso, Tex. 268 WMAF 

WDAR Lit Brothers Philadelphia, Pa. 395 WMAH 

WDAS Samuel A. Waite Worcester, Mass. 360 WMAK 

WDA Y Radio Equipment Corp Fargo, N. Dak. 244 WMAL 

WDBA Fred Ray Columbus, Ga. 236 WMAN 

WDBB A. H. Waite & Co., Ino Taunton, Mass. 229 WMAQ 

WDBC Kirk, Johnson & Co Lancaster, Pa. 258 WMAV 

WDBD Herman Edwin Burns Martinsburg. W. Va. 268 WMAY 

WDBF Robert G. Phillips Youngstown, Ohio 246 WMAZ 

WDBH C. T. Scherer Co Worcester, Mass. 268 WMC 

WDBI Radio Specialty Co St. Petersburg, Fla. 226 WMU 

WDBJ Richardson Wayland Electrio Corp Roanoke, Va. 229 WNAC 

WDBL Wise. Dept. of Markets Stevens Point, Wis. 278 WNAD 

WDBN Electric Lipht & Power Co Bangor, Me. 252 WNAL 

WDBO Rollins College Inc Winter Park. Fla. 240 WNAP 

WDBP Superior State Normal School Superior, Wis. 261 WNAR 

WDBQ Morton Radio Supply Co Salem, N. J. 234 WNAT 

WDBR Tremont Temple Baptist Church Boston, Mass. 256 WNAX 

WDBS S. M. K. Radio Corp Dayton. Ohio 283 WN YC 

WDBT Taylor's Book Store Hattiesburg, Miss. 236 WOAC 

WDBV The Strand Theatre Fort Wayne, Ind. 258 WOAE 

WDBW The Radio Den Columbia. Tenn. 268 WOAF 

WDBX Otto Baur New York. N. Y. 233 WOAG 

WDBY North Shore Congregational Church Chicago. Ilf. 258 WOAI 

WDBZ Boy Scouts, City Hall Kingstown, N. Y. 233 WOAN 

WDM Church of the Covenant Washington. D. C. 234 WOAO 

WDZI J. L. Bush Tuscola. 111. 278 WOAR 

WEAA F. D. F.illain Flint. Mich. 250 WOAT 

WEAF American Telephone & Telegraph Co New York, N. Y. 492 WOAV 

WEAH Wichita Board of Trade Wichita, Kans. 280 WOAW 

WEAI Cornell University Ithaca, N. Y. 286 WOAX 

WEAJ University of South Dakota Vermilion. S. Dak. 283 WOC 

WEAM Borough of North Plainiiekl (W. Gibson Buttfield) . . .North Plainfield, N. J 286 WOI 

WEAN Shepard Co Providence, R. I. 273 , WOO 

WEAO Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 360 WOR 

WEAP Mobile Radio Co Mobile, Ala. 263 WOS 

WEAU Davidson Bros. Co Sioux City, Iowa 275 WPAB 

WEAY Iris Theatre (Will Horowitz, Jr.) Houston. Texas 360 WPAC 

WEB Benwool Co St. Louis, Mo. 273 WPAJ 

WEBA Electric Shop Highland Park, N. J. 233 WPAK 

WEBC Walter Cecil Bridges Superior, Wis. 242 WPAL 

WEBD Electrical Equipment and Service Co Anderson, Ind. 246 WPAR 

WEBE Roy W. Walker Cambridge, Ohio 248 WPAU 

WEBH Edgewater Beach Broadcasting Station Chicago, 111. 370 WPAZ 

WEB1 Walter H. Gibbons Salisbury, Md. 242 WPG 

WEB J Third Avenue Railway Co New York, N. Y. 273 WQAA 

WEBP "E. B. Pedicord New Orleans, La. 280 WQAC 

WEBT 'The Dayton Coop. Industrial High School Dayton, Ohio 270 WQAE 

WEBU DeLand Piano & Music Co., 139 Boulevard St DeLand. Fla. 258 WQAF 

WEBW Beloit College Beloit, Wise. 283 WQAM 

WEBX John E. Cain. Jr Nashville, Tenn. 263 WQAN 

WEBY Hobart Radio Co Roalindale, Mass. 226 WQAO 

WEEI The Edison Electric Illuminating Co Boston. Mass. 303 WQAQ 

WEV Hulbert-Still Elec. Co Houston, Tex. 263 WQAS 

WEW St. Louis University St. Louis. Mo. 280 WQAX 

WFAA Dallas News & Dallas Journal Dallas. Texas 476 WQJ 

WFAM Times Publishing Co St. Cloud, Minn. 273 WRAA 

WFAN Hutchinson Electric Service Co Hutchinson, Minn. 286 WRAF 

WFAV University of Nebraska. Department of Electrical Engineering . . Lincoln, Nebr. 275 WR AL 

WFBB Eureka College Eureka, 111. 240 WRAM 

WFBC First Church Knoxville, Tenn. 250 WRAN 

WFBD Gethsemane Baptist Church Philadelphia, Pa. 234 WRAO 

WFBE John Van De Walle Seymour, Ind. 226 WRAV 

WFBG The Wm. F. Cable Co Altoona, Pa. 261 WRAW 

WFBH Concourse Radio Corporation New York. N. Y. 273 WRAX 

WFBJ St. John's University Collegeville. Minn. 236 WRBC 

WFBQ Wynne Radio Co Raleigh, N. C. 255 WRC 

WFBR Fifth Inf. Md. Nat'l Guard, 5th Reg. Armory Baltimore.^Md. 452 WREO 

WFBT Gloucester Co. Civic League Pitman, N. J. 231 WRHF 

WFBW Ainsworth-Gates Radio Co Cincinnati, Ohio 309 WRK 

WFBY Signal Officer Ft. Ben Harrison, Ind. 258 WRL 

WFBZ Knox College Galesburg, 111. 254 WRM 

WFI Strawbridge and Clothier ...Philadelphia, Pa. 395 WRR 

WGAL Lancaster Electrio Supply & Construction Co Lancaster, Pa. 248 WRW 

WGAQ Youree Hotel Shreveport, La. 252 WSAB 

WGAZ South Bend Tribune \ South Bend. Ind. 360 WSAC 

WGBB Harry H. Carman,, 217 Bedell St Freeport, N. Y. 244 WSAD 

WGBC First Baptist Church Memphis, Tenn. 266 WSAI 

WGBS Gimbel Brothers New York, N. Y. 316 WSAJ 

WGBT Furman University Greenville, S. C. 236 WSAN 

WGI American R. & R. Co Medford Hillside, Mass. 360 WSAP 

WGL Thos. F. J. Howlett Philadelphia, Pa. 360 WSAR 

WGN The Tribune Co Chicago, 111. 370 WSAU 

WGR Federal T. and T. Co Buffalo, N. Y. 319 WSAV 

WGY General Elec. Co Schenectady, N. Y. 380 WSAY 

WHA University of Wisconsin Madison, Wis. 275 WSAZ 

WHAA State University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa 484 WSB ~~ 

WHAD Marquette University Milwaukee, Wis. 280 WSL 

WHAG University of Cincinnati Cincinnati. Ohio 222 WSOE 

WHAH Hafer Supply Co Joplin. Mo. 283 WTAB 

WHAM University of Rochester (Eastman School of Musio) Rochester. N. Y. 283 WTAC 

WHAR Seasidellouse Atlantic City. N. J. 275 WTAF 

WHAS Courier-Journal & Louisville Times Louisville. Ky. 400 WTAL 

WHAV Wilmington Electrical Specialty Co Wilmington. Del. 360 WTAM 

WHAZ Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy. N. Y. 380 WTAP 

WHB Sweeney School Co Kansas City, Mo. 411 WTAQ 

WHK Radiovox Company Cleveland, Ohio 283 WTAR 

WHN George Sehubel New York, N. Y. 360 WTAS 

WHO Bankers Life Co Des Moines, la. 526 WTAT 

WIAB Joslyn Automobile Co Rockford, 111. 252 WTAU 

WIAC Galveston Tribune Galveston, Texas 360 WTAW 

W1AD Howard R. Miller Philadelphia, Pa. 254 WTAX 

WIAK Journal-Stockman Co Omaha, Nebr. 278 WTA Y 

WtAQ Chronicle Publishing Co Marion, Ind. 226 WTAZ 

WI AS Home Electric Co Burlington. Iowa 283 WTG1 

WIK. K. & L. Co McKeesport, Pa. 234 WTX 

WIL Continental Electrio Supply Co Washington. D. C. 3S0 WWAD 

WIP Gimbel Bros Philadelphia, Pa. 509 WWAE 

WJAB American Electric Co Lincoln. Neb. 229 wwi 

WJAD Jackson's Radio Engineering Laboratories Waco, Texas 353 .,,„,, 

WJAG Norfolk Daily News Norfolk. Nebr. 283 WWJ 

WJAK Clifford L. White Greentown, la. 254 WWL 

WJAM D. M. Perham Cedar Rapids, Iowa 268 WWOA 

The Magazine of the Hour 

Peoria Star Peoria, 111. 280 

The Outi i Co. (J. Samuels <fe Bro.) Providence, R. I. 360 

Pittsburgh Radio Supply House Pittsburgh. Pa. 286 

Union Trust Co Cleveland, Ohio 390 

Chicago Radio Laboratory Chicago, III, 268 

Denison University Grantvilie, Ohio 229 

Supreme Lodge, Loyal Order of Moose Mooseheart, HI. 278 

Radio Corp. of Ama New York, N. Y. 405 

Radio Corp. of Ama New York, N. Y. 455 

H. F. Paar , Cedar Rapids, Ibwa 278 

Cbas. Looff (Crescent Park) East Providence, R. I. 240 

W. S. Radio Supply Co Wichita Falla, Texas 360 

United Battery Service Co Montgomery, Ala. 226 

Dutee W. Flint Cranston, R. I. 360 

Radio Corp. of Porto Rico San Juan, P. R. 360 

Michigan Agriculture College East Lansing, Mich. 280 

Laconia Radio Club Laconia, N. H. 254 

Dutee Wilcox Flint .Cransten, Rhode Island 286 

Wky Radio shop Okla City, Okla. 360 

Cutting & Washington Radio Corp Minneapolis, Minn. 417 

Naylor Electrical Co Tulsa, Okla. 360 

Wm. V. Jordan Louisville, Ky. 286 

Arthur E, Shilling Kalamazoo, Mich. 283 

Police Dept., City of New York New York, N. Y. 360 

Putnam Electric Co Greencastle, Ind. 231 

University of Minnesota Minneapols, Minn. 278 

Wisconsin State Dept. of Markets Stevenspoint, Wis. 278 

Sears Roebuck & Co Chicago, 111. 345 

Crosley Mfg. Co Cincinnati, Ohio 423 

J. Edw. Page (Olive B. Meredith) Cazenovia, N. Y. 261 

Round Hills Radio Corp Dartmouth, Mass. 360 

General Supply Co Lincoln, Nebr. 254 

Norton Laboratories Loekport, N. Y. 273 

Trenton Hardware Co Trenton, N. J. 256 

First Baptist Church Columbus, Ohio 286 

Chicago Daily News Chicago. 111. 448 

Alabama Polytechnic Institute Auburn, Ala. 250 

Kingshighway Presbyterian Church St. Louis, Mo. 280 

Mercer University Macon, Ga. 261 

Commercial Appeal Memphis, Tenn. 500 

Doubledal-Hill Elec. Co Washington, D. C. 261 

Shepard Stores Boston, Mass. 278 

University of Oklahoma Norman, Okla. 254 

Omaha Central High School Omaha. Nebr. 258 

Wittenberg College Springfield, Ohio 275 

First Christian Church Butler, Mo. 231 

Lennig Brothers Co. (Frederick Lennig) Philadelphia, Pa. 250 

Dakota Radio Apparatus Co Yankton, S. Dak. 244 

Dept. of Plant and Structures New York, N. Y. 520 

Page Organ Co lama, Ohio 266 

Midland College Fremont, Nebr. 280 

Tyler Commercial College Tyler, Texas 360 

Apollo Theater (Belvidere Amusement Co.) Belvidere, 111. 273 

Southern Equipment Co San Antonio, Texas 385 

Vaughn Conservatory of Musio (James D. Vaughn) . . . .Lawrenceburg, Tenn. 360 

Lyradion Mfg. Co Mishawaka, Ind. 360 

Lundskow, Henry P Kenosha, Wis. 229 

Boyd M. Hamp Wilmington, Del. 360 

Pennsylvania National Guard. 2d Battalion, 112th Infantry Erie, Pa. 242 

Woodmen of the World Omaha, Nebr. 526 

Franklyn J. Wolff Trenton, N. J. 240 

Palmer School of Chiropractio Davenport, la. 484 

Iowa State College Ames, la. 360 

John Wanamaker Philadelphia, Pa. 509 

L. Bamberger and Co Newark, N. J. 405 

State Marketing Bureau Jefferson City, Mo. 441 

Pennsylvania State College State College. Pa. 283 

Donaldson Radio Co Okmulgee, Okla. 360 

Doolittle Radio Corp New Haven, Conn. 268 

North Dakota Agricultural College Agricultural College, N. D. 283 

Superior Radio & Telephone Equipment Co Columbus, Ohio 286 

Ward Battery and RadioCo Beloit, Kans. 236 

Concordia College Moorhead, Minn. 286 

John R. Koch (Dr.) Charleston, W. Va. 273 

The Municipality of Atlantic City Atlantic City, N. J. 296 

Horace A. Beale, Jr Parkersburg, Pa. 270 

E. B. Gish Amarillo, Texas 234 

Moore Radio News Station (Edmund B. Moore) Springfield, Vt. 275 

Sandusky Register Sandusky, Ohio 240 

Electrical Equipment Co Miami, Fla. 283 

Scranton Times Scranton. Pa. 280 

Calvary Baptist Church New York, N. Y. 360 

Abilene Daily Reporter (West Texas Radio Co.) Abilene, Texas 360 

Prince-Walter Co Lowell, Mass. 266 

Radio Equipment Company Peoria, 111. 248 

Calumet Rainbo Broadcasting Co Chicago, 111. 448 

The Rice Institute Houston, Tex. 256 

The Radio Club (Inc.) Laporte, Ind. 224 

Northern States Power Co St. Croix Falls. Wis. 248 

Lombard College Galesburg, 111. 244 

Black Hawk Electrical Co Waterloo, Iowa 236 

St. Louis Radio Service Co St. Louis, Mo. 263 

Antioch College Yellow Springs, Ohio 242 

Avenue Radio Shop (Horace D. Good) Reading, Pa. 238 

Flaxon'a Garage Gloucester City, N. J. 268 

Imanuel Lutheran Church Valparaiso, Ind. 278 

Radio Corp. of Ama Washington, D. C. 469 

Reo Motor Car Co. .' Lansing, Mich. 288 

Washington Radio Hospital Washington. D. C. 256 

Doron Bros Hamilton, Ohio 360 

Union College Schenectady, N. Y. 270 

University of Illinois Urbana, 111. 273 

Police and Fire Signal Department Dallas, Tex. 261 

Tarrytown Radio Res. Labs Tarrytown, N. Y. 273 

Southeast Missouri State Teachers College Cape Girardeau, Mo. 275 

Clemson Agricultural College Clemson College, S. C. 360 

J. A. Foster Co Providence, R. I. 261 

United States Playing Cards Co Cincinnati. Ohio 309 

Grove City College Grove City, Pa. 258 

Allentown Call Publishing Co Allentown, Pa. 229 

Seventh Day Adventist Church New York, N. Y. 263 

Doughty & Welch Electrical Co Fall River, Mass. 254 

Camp Marienfeld Chesham, N. H. 229 

C. W. Vick Radio Construction Co Houston, Tex. 360 

Irving Austin (Port Chester Chamber of Commerce). .Port Chester, N. Y. 233 

Chas. Electric Shop Pomeroy , Ohio 258 

Atlanta Journal Atlanta , Ga. 429 

J. and M. Elec. Co.. Utica, N. Y. 273 

School of Engineering, Milwaukee, Wis. 246 

Fall River Daily Herald Publishing Co Fall River, Mass. 248 

Penn Traffic Co Johnstown, Pa. 360 

Louis J. Gallo New Orleans, La. 242 

Toledo Radio & Electrio Co Toledo, Ohio 252 

Willard Storage Battery Co Cleveland, Ohio 390 

Cambridge Radio & Electric Co Cambridge. 111. 242 

S. H. Van Gordon & Son Osseo, Wis. 220 

Reliance Eectrio Co Norfolk, Va. 280 

Charles E. Erbstein Elgin, 111. 286 

Edison Electrio Illuminating Co Boston, Mass. (portable) 244 

Ruegg Battery & Electric Co Tecumseh, Nebr. 242 

Agricultural & Mechanical College of Texas College Station, Tex 280 

Williams Hardware Co Streator, 'Til. 231 

Oak Leaves Broadcasting Station Oak Park, 111. 283 

Thomas J. McGuire Lambertville. N. J. 283 

Kansas State AgriculturalCollege Manhattan, Kans. 273 

H. G. Saal Co Chicago, 111. 268 

Wright & Wright (Inc.) Philadelphia. Pa. 360 

The Alamo Ball Room Joliet, 111. 242 

Ford Motor Co Dearborn, Mich. 273 

Detroit News (Evening News Assn.) Detroit, Mich. 517 

Loyola University New Orleans , La. 260 

Michigan College of Mines Houghton, Mich. 244 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


>— IN RADIO— < 

We Need Men-Can You Qualify? 

Ozarka representatives make real money be- 
cause they give real values and deliver a real 
service. For instance, there is a 4-tube Ozarka 
Instrument for loud speaker operation, giving 
wide range of reception at $39.50. Our men 
demonstrate Ozarka Instruments and Install. 
The Instrument makes the sale easy by its perfor- 
mance. We train yon to know radio and our methods, 
make you worthy to wear the Ozarka button as our 
accredited representative. Previous experience is not 
neceBBary. In fact we prefer to do our own educating. 
If you have a clean record, are industrious, and have 
saved up a little caBh, here's a real opportunity, if 
you can qualify for an exclusive territory. We already 
have 2247 representatives . Territory going taat. 


Illustrated BOOK 

WRITE Today for illustrated 
book No. 101 that gives the entire 
Ozarka Plan. Don't fail to give 
the name of your county. 


SeOWashington Blvd. 

A Tube Sets 

As Low ( 

February 7, at Midnight 


From KYW 

"Up the Ladder" With 
The Beginner 

(Continued from page 27) 
circuit diagrams show the proper hookup. 
Note that there is no connection from the 
primary to the secondary. 
i~ UDIO amplification consists of ampli- 
■^*- fying the low frequency currents. 
The method employed consists essentially 
of a series of audion amplifiers arranged 
electrically so that the amplified output 
of each tube is passed on successively to 
the next, to be amplified again. Each 
tube with its passing-on coupling is 
referred to as a stage, or "step" in the 

As magnification of tube and battery 
noises and other disturbances of this 
nature are proportional to the magnifica- 
tion of the signal received, the number 
of audio frequency stages which are 
advisable is two, possibly three. 

Several methods of linking tubes -are 
possible; for instance, resistance, induc- 
tance or transformer coupling. The 
latter method is by far the most popular, 
although the resistance coupled amplifier 
is rapidly gaining great favor, where 
volume is a second consideration. 


If you are interested in buying a Radio Set, 
Radio Equipment or Radio Supplies of any 
kind at greatly reduced prices, send for our 

We can save you money no matter how large or 
small a set you intend to buy. 

G.-P. Co., Box T, Colfax, Iowa. 

Prices Smashed! 

Quality Not Sacrificed 

Here is real battery 
quality, guaranteed to you, at 
prices that will astound the en- 
tire battery-buying public. Order 
direct from factory. Put the Dealer's 
Profit in your own pocket. You actually save 
much more than half, and so that you can be 
convinced of true quality and performance, we 

give a Written Two-Year Guarantee 

Ourbatteryis right— and the price is the lowest 
evermade. Convince yourself. Read the prices! 
Special 2-Volt Radio Storage Battery, £3.75 
Special 4-Volt Radio Storage Battery, 6.00 
6-Volt, GO Amp. Radio Storage Battery. 7.00 
6-Volt, 80 Amp. Radio Storage Battery, 8.00 
6-Volt, 100 Amp. Radio Storage Battery, 9. SO 
6-Volt, 120 Amp. Radio Storage Battery, 1 l.SO 
6-Volt, 140 Amp. Radio Storage Battery, 13. OO 

We ask for no deposit. Simply send name 
and address and style wanted. Battery will 
be shipped the day we receive your order 
Express C. O. D., subject to your 
examination on arrival. Our ^^^U, 
guarantee accompanies 
each battery. We allow 5% 
discount for cash in full 
with order. You cannot 
lose! Act quick. Send your 
order today— NOW. 

Arrow Battery Co. 

1215 South Wabash Ave. 
DepL 1 Chicago, III. 


=aYour OWN Name and Address 
ID Printed Free'ion Thank You Cards 

what YOU lite. Stations glad- 
. , _j on numbers at your request. 
Thank your favorite stations. Spe- 
k-liU cards that set ATTENTION. 
All the RAGE. 100— S1.00; 200— 
\ i\ 1. 1»: :;n'i .vj. oil; r.mi -?.:;. uo: looo— 
H5.00. Postpaid if pay with order. 

(MONEY REFUNDED If Not Delighted 

^Quality cards. High grade printing. 
Send no money— just jtav jMstmanwfwnyau get eards.Order JVO Wt 

I RADIO PRINTERS, 2022 M«inSt,Mendota,Ul. 


displaying this seal 
have been tested 
and approved by 

The apparatus illus- 
t r a t e d and des- 
cribed below have 
successfully passed 
our tests for Feb- 
ruary, 1925. 

Radio Age Institute 

Manufacturers' Testing Service 

KjEMBERS of the staff of RADIO AGE will be pleased to test devices 
■";*■ and materials for radio manufacturers with the object of deter- 
mining their efficiency and worth. All apparatus which meets with 
the approval of various tests imposed by members of the technical 
staff of RADIO AGE will be awarded our endorsement, and the seal 
shown to the left will be furnished free of charge. Materials for 
testing should be sent to 


504 N/Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. 

Test No. 30. 
F E D E R A L 
TYPE 201-A 
TUBE. This tube 
was submitted 
for test by the 
Service Lamp 
Co., 112-114 
Trinity Place, 
New York City, 
N.Y. Due to the 
efficient manner 
in which the tube 
is packed, it ar- 
rived in good con- 
dition. Although 
no tests were 
made to deter- 
mine the life of 
the tube, it gave 
very good re- 
sults. It is well manufactured 
according to all the latest practices 
and gave excellent results as a 
detector amplifier and oscillator. 
The filament consumption at five 
volts was one quarter ampere and 
ninety to one hundred and twenty 
volts can safely be used on the 
plate. Tested and approved by 
RADIO AGE Institute. 

Test No. 31. THE DAVEN 
Radio Corporation of Newark, 
N. J., submits one of their 
super-amplifiers for testing pur- 
poses. We have found by actual 
experience that the tone quality 
of this amplifier far surpasses any 
other method of amplification that 
is now practiced. Tube noises 
were eliminated to a very great 
extent; in fact they were negligible. 
Its consumption of "B" battery 
current was less than half of the 
amount consumed by ampli- 
fiers of the ordinary type. The 
amplifier is delivered all wired and 
ready to install in the set. Arrived 
in excellent condition, and passed 
the tests and requirements of 
RADIO AGE Institute. 

Test No. 32. THE MUSSEL- 
Submitted by the Cycle Mfg. 
& Supply Co., Chicago, 111. 
This type of antenna wire is 
a radical departure from the usual 
type of wire used in antenna con- 
struction. It is constructed with a 
center core made of solid copper 
of 4200 circular mills capacity; 
over this a 1-32 inch rubber insula- 
tion of high quality; over the whole 
is an outer cover of braided copper 
wire, tinned to prevent corrosion, 
with a capacity of 4800 circular 
mills. When this wire is used as a 
straight aerial and not as a loop, 
the outside copper tinned braid, 
because of its surface, acts as an 
ideal wave collector. Arrived in 
good condition, and satisfactorily 
passed the tests and requirements 
of RADIO AGE Institute. 

Test No. 33. BREMER TULLY 
to us for test by the Bremer Tully 
Mfg. Co., 531 So. Canal St., 
Chicago, 111. After many tests we 
have found this condenser to be 
truly of the low loss type. When 
tested on laboratory instruments, 
it was practically impossible to 
measure any losses. The style of 
construction is rugged and depend- 
able. The manner in which the 
rotor plates are assembled pro- 
hibits of high resistance leaks. 
Satisfactorily passed the require- 
ments of RADIO AGE Institute. 

# Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

4 Tubes Do the Work of 7 in the 

Telmaco P-l Receiver 

Coast to coast reception. Aerial, loud 
speaker and batteries self-contained. 
Carry from room to room — take it any- 
where. Ask your dealer or write us. Free 
descriptive folder. 

Radio Division 


20 S. Wells Street, Dept. C, Chicago, 111. 

Quality Radio Exclusively Since 1918 


Mints and Chewing Gum. Be my agent. Every- 
body will buy from you. Write today. Free Samples. 
MILTON GORDON, 576 Jackson St., Cincinnati, Ohio 



Patent Pending 
insure high efficiency and the 
Build-Up feature enables 
the operator to obtain any 
definite capacity from .0005 
to .006 by simply adding 
extra plates of copper and 
mica to the Build-Up base. 

Each alternate copper and mica plate has a 
capacity of approximately .0002 Mfd. 

Build-Up Mica Condensers of the following 
capacities, each assembled complete in carton, 
at the following prices: 

.00025 Mfd.„ .List price 50c 

.0005 " 

.001 " 

.002 " 

.0025 " 

.005 " 

.006 " 


Extra envelope containing 20 copper and 
mica plates, or sufficient to build up a con- 
denser from .00025 to .006, list price 25c. 

Table showing required number of plates 
needed for any capacity is furnished with 
each condenser. 

Ask your dealer — or order direct 


1404 W. Delaware Ave., 

Toledo, Ohio 



For a limited time only, and to introduce this 
new and superior Storage "B" Radio Battery to 
the Public, we are selling it for $3.30. Regular 
Retail Price is$5.50. Yousave $2.00 by ordering 
NOW. A finer battery cannot be built than the 

World Storage "B" Battery 

(12 CELLS-24 VOLTS) 
To ten million homes with Radio Rets -and I to countless mil- 
lions of 'prospective buyera-this WORLD Stores* ■'B'*. Bat- 
tery brings a new conception of battel y economy 'and Perform- 
ance Here is a battery that pays for itself m a few weeks- 
will last for years and can bo recharged at a negligible coal. 
And you save $2.00 bv ordering now. 
a n • t» *.*. Equipped With 

A Superior Battery solid Rubber case 

Has heavy duty 2 1-8 in. x 1 in. x 1-4 In. plates and plenty of 
Bcid circulation. Extra heavy glass jars allow ready observa- 
tion of charge and prevent k-akage and seepage or 
It holds its chance, while idk-, at constant voltage. 
You will find this battery a boon t" '- 
It does away with a great many r. 
"'static." Mail your order today. 


Jast state number of batteries wanted and we will shlo daj 
order .3 received. EXTRA OFFER: 4 batteries In series OS 
volt<ii til 00 Pay Expressman alter examining batteries. I» 
per rent Jisc'onnt for cash In full with order. Send your or** 
WOW and save S2.00. 


■I Makers of the famous World Radio "A'* Storage Batterg 

"« 1219 S. Wabash Ave., Dept. 81 Chicago, 111. 



What do you want to purchase in the radio line? Let the staff of RADIO AGE save 
Enter the number of the article you would like to know more about in the spaces provided in 

1 "A" 

2 Aeri 

3 Aeri 

4 Aeri 

5 Ae 

6 An 

7 An 

8 An 

si protectors 
al insulators 


■s, lo 



nplifying units 
9 "B" batteries 

10 Batteries (state 1 

11 Batteries, dry cell 

12 Batteries, storage 

13 Battery chargers 

14 Battery clips 

15 Battery plateB 

16 Battery substitutes 

17 Bezels 

18 Binding posts 

19 Binding posts, insulated 

20 Books 

21 Boxes, battery 

22 Boxes, grounding 

23 Bridges, wheatstone 

24 Broadcasting equipment 

25 Bushings 

26 Buzzers 

27 Cabinets 

28 Cabinets, battery 

29 Cabinets, loud speaker 

30 Carbons, battery 

31 Cat whiskers 

32 Code practisers 

33 Coils 

34 Coils, choke 

35 Coils, coupling 

36 Coils, Biter 

37 Coils, grid 

38 Coils, honeycomb 

39 Coils, inductance, 

40 Coils, Reinartz 

41 Coils, stabilizer 

42 Coils, tuning 

43 Condenser parts 

44 Condenser plates 

45 Condensers, antenna COU{ 

46 Co i 

47 Co. 

48 Conn. 

49 Cond 
„ grid,, 

50 Cond, 

51 Condensers, va 

52 Condensers, vei 

53 Contact points 

54 Contacts, switch 

55 Cord tips 

56 Cords, for head sets 

sers, fixed (paper, 


sers, variable grid 

sers, variable mica 

57 Coupler! 

58 Coupler; 

59 Coupler: 

60 Crystal alloy 

61 Crystal holders 

62 Crystals, rough 

63 Crystals, mineral 

64 Crystals, synthetic 

65 Crystals, unmounted 

66 Crystals, mounted 

67 Desks, radio 

68 Detector units 

69 Detectors, crystal 

70 Detectors, fixed crystal 

71 Dial, adjusters 

72 Dials, composition 

73 Dials, hard rubber 

74 Dials, rheostat 

75 Dials, metal 

76 Dials, vernier 

77 Dials with knobs 

78 Dies 

79 Drills, electric 

80 Dry cells 

81 Earth grounds 

82 Electrolyte 

83 Enamels, battery 

84 Enamels, metal 

85 End stops 

86 Eyelets 

87 Experimental work 

88 Fibre sheet, vulcanized 

89 Filter reactors 

90 Fixtures 

91 Fuse cut outs 

92 Fuses, tube 

93 Generators, high freque 



id choppers, r 




id leak holder 



id. transmitt 

ng leaks 



id leaks, tube 


<; r 

id leaks, varia 




inders, electr 



ound clamp. 



ound rods 



ndles, switch 

10 1 


ad bands 



ad phones 





neycomb coil 





Horns, composition 



rns. fibre 



rns, mache 



rns, metal 

11 ;> 




:ators, polarity 
luctances, C. W. 
illation, molded 
ulation material 
ulators, aerial 
ulators, composition 
ulators, fibre 
ulators, high voltage 
ulators, cloth 
ulators, glass 
ulators, hard rubber 
ulators, porcelain 
ns, soldering 



114 '.1,1 

115 Indi 

116 Inst 

117 Inst 
US Ins 

119 In. 

120 In. 

121 In. 

122 Ins 

123 In. 

124 In. 

125 In. 

126 Iro 

127 Jae 

128 Fit 

129 Jars, battery 

130 Keys, transmitting 

131 Knobs 

132 Knock-down panel u 

133 Laboratories, testing 

134 Lever, switch 

135 Lightning arresters 

136 Loosecouplers 

137 Loud speakers 

138 Loud speaker units 

139 Lugs, battery 

140 Lugs, terminal 

141 Measuring instruments 

142 Megohmeters 

143 Meters, A. C. 

144 Meters, D. C. 

145 Mica 

146 Mica sheets 

147 Milliammeters 

148 Minerals 

149 Molded insulation 

150 Molybdenum 

151 Mountings, coil 

152 Mountings, condenser 

153 Mountings, end 

154 Mountings, grid leak 

155 Mountings, honeycomb 

156 Mountings, inductance 

157 Name plates 

158 Neutrodyne set parts 

159 Nuts 

160 Ohmeters 

161 Oscillators 

162 Panel cutting and drill.. 

163 Panels, drilled and u 

164 Panels, fibre 

165 Panels, hard rubber 

166 Parts 

167 Paste, soldering 

you time and money by sending in the coupon below, 
the coupon. 

168 Patent attorneys 

169 Phone connectors, multi- 

170 Phonograph adapters 

171 Plates, condenser 

172 Plugs, coil 

173 Plugs, telephone 

174 Pointers, dial and knob 

175 Poles, aerial 

176 Potentiometers 

177 Punching machines 

178 Reinartz set parts 

179 Regenerative set parts 

180 Receiver caps 

181 Rectifiers, battery 

182 Resistance leaks 

183 Resistance units 

184 Rheostat bases 

185 Rheostat strips 

186 Rheostats, automatic 

187 Rheostats, battery 

188 Rheostats, dial 

189 Rheostats, filament 

190 Rheostats, potentiometer 

191 Rheostats, power 

192 Rheostats, vernier 

193 Rods, ground 

194 Rotors 

195 Scrapers, wire 

196 Screw drivers 

197 Screws 

198 Schools, radio 

199 Sets, receiving — cabinet 

200 Sets, receiving — crystal 

201 Sets, receiving — knock- 

202 Sets, receiving 

203 Sets, receiving — 

204 Sets, re 

205 Sets, r 

206 Sets, re 

207 Sets, re 

208 Sets, re 

209 Sets, re- 

210 Sets, r 


ving — reflex 
fing — regenera- 

221 Solder salts 

222 Solder solution 

223 Spaghetti tubing 

224 Spark coils 

225 Spark gaps 

226 Stampings 

227 Stators 

228 Stop points 

229 Switch arms 

230 Switch levers 

231 Switch points 

232 Switch stops 

233 Switches, aerial 

234 Switches, battery 

235 Switches, filament 

236 Switches, ground 

237 Switches, inductance 

238 Switches, panel 

239 Switches, single and dou- 
ble throw 

240 Tone wheels 

241 Towers, aerial 

242 Transformers, audio fre- 

243 Transformers, filament 

244 Transformers, modulation 

245 Transformers, power 

246 Transformers, push-pull 

247 Transformers, radio fre- 

248 Transformers, variable 

249 Transmitters 

250 Tubes, 

251 Tubes, 

252 Tubes, 

253 Tune 

254 Vario 

255 Vario 

256 Va. 

257 Va: 

258 V; 


ng — Reinartz 
ng — sectional 
ig — short wave 
ing — super-re- 

211 Sets, transmitting 

212 Slate 

213 Shellac 

214 Sliders 

215 Socket adapters 

216 Sockets. 

217 Solder 

218 Soldering irons, electric 

219 Soldering paste 

220 Solder flux 

259 Variometers, woodei 

260 Varnish, insulating 

261 Voltmeters 

262 Washers 

263 Wave meters 

264 Wave traps 

265 Win 

266 Wir 

267 Wir 

268 Wir 

269 Wir 

270 Wir 

271 Wir 

272 Wir 

, „jrial 

:, braided and strand- 

., Litz 
:, magnet 
;, platinum 
), tungsten 

piers, hard rubber 
piers, molded 
piers, wooden 
meters, hard rubber 
eters, molded 

RADIO AGE BUYERS' SERVICE, 500 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, III. 

Please see that I am supplied with buying specifications and prices on the articles numbered herewith: 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

_ 1 1 1 1 1 1 


I am a — Q Dealer [] Jobber ~J Mfgrs.' Rep. □ Manufacturer 

City _- _ 

-., State . — . 

* Tested and Approved b" RADIO AGE * 

RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


With the Manufacturers 

American Bosch Enters Radio Field 

The long expected entrance into the 
radio field on the part of the American 
Bosch Magneto Corporation will become 
an actual fact in January, when that well 
known automotive accessory concern an- 
nounces to the Radio trade, the Bosch 

The new unit, as the name implies is 
a device for the supply of current to radio 
sets without recourse to batteries. 

Although the new unit is eventually 
to be supplied in four or five types to 
take care of the various characteristics 
and requirements, the first available type 
will be for the supplying of so-called B 
current — it will secure its original elec- 
trical energy from the house lighting 
circuit which, in the majority of cities 
and towns, is of the alternating type. 

It is the purpose of Bosch to also in- 
troduce a complete NoBattry line, but, 
among the first to be announced, follow- 
ing the present effort, will be a combina- 
tion unit for the purpose of supplying 
both so-called A and B energy and there- 
by eliminating from radio one of the most 
outstanding causes of annoyance, trouble 
and mystifying reasons for loss of effi- 
ciency and unsatisfactory reception. 

The Bosch NoBattry, which it is ex- 
pected will be available in January, is to 
be known as the BAN type, and will sup- 
ply B current from 110-115 volt alternat- 
ing lines, at 50-60 cycles. 

It uses less current than an ordinary 
25-watt bulb and delivers a steady, even 
flow of current, at a constant voltage, the 
detector plate voltage being variable. 








i c e 

We are exclusive sales representa- 
tives for manufacturers of cabi- 
nets, tubes and storage bat- 

The RECO 4 tube tuned radio 
frequency set is built for and 
sold by us exclusively. This set 
is equal to any five or ■ six tube 
set on the market. Long distance 
stations brought in with volume 
and clarity. 

The"RECO"Low Loss, Straight 
Line variable condenser will 
soon be ready for distribution. The 
prices will be reasonable. 
Watch for our ad in this paper 
eveiy month. 

Distributors or Sales Representa- 
tives desired in various territories. 
Please write promptly to 


329 So. La Salle St. Chicago, Illinois 

New Crystal Acts as Battery- 
Conspicuous among new ideas being 
introduced into radio is the Miller Bat- 
tery Crystal, an invention of A. H. Miller, 
originator of B-Metal and president of 
the A. H. Miller Radio Co., of Detroit. 

Much is claimed for this new crystal, 
which acts in the capacity of a battery 
when charged with what Mr. Miller has 
named "Pep Powder." 

Crystals rectify radio signals in pro- 
portion to their different resistance in 
opposite directions. The greater the dif- 
ference, the greater their rectifying prop- 
erties. These properties have been 
amplified in the Battery Crystals by 
charging or electrifying the crystal and 
keeping it electrified to a certain poten- 

In local work, with a one tube reflex set, 
about four times the volume received by 
the use of ordinary crystals is obtained 
from the Battery Crystal. In fact, there 
is enough volume to operate a loud 
speaker with ease. On long distance 
work, stations one thousand miles away 
are reached on one tube reflex sets using 
Miller Battery Crystals. Furthermore, 
reception is as distinct and loud as re- 
ceived in local work with ordinary cry- 

Such claims for crystals seem startling 
but the Battery Crystal seems to have 
brought forth a new era in crystal work. 
This little crystal has power enough to 
deliver 25 to 50 millivolts right into the 
most sensitive part of the circuit, which 
is in turn amplified. 

With each Battery Crystal, there is a 
generous supply of Pep Powder included. 
Enough can be purchased for 50 cents to 
last the user 10,000 hours. 

New U. S. L. Condenser. 

In order to meet the demand for a 
finer product, David Wald, president of 
the United Scientific Laboratories, Inc., 
92 East 10th St., New York City, 
producers of the famous U. S. L. line of 
Radio apparatus, has again set to task 
and designed a line of low loss con- 
densers, which spell the last word in 
mechanical refinement and construction 
for such an article. The years of exper- 
ience, designing and b*uilding electrical 
motors, apparatus and radio parts has 
fitted Mr. Wald to design apparatus with 
the utmost precision and skill. The new 
low loss condenser is the result of these 
years of manufacturing experience and 
has the unique and sound principles of 
construction, as may be found in the 
highest grade apparatus. 

Rigid frame construction without de- 
pending upon insulation as part thereof, 
thereby eliminating all possible chances 
of misalignment, is one of the features of 
the new condenser. Straight-line capa- 
city is obtained by scientific construction 
cf rotor and stator plates, which are made 
of a special grade of brass. Pigtail con- 
nection on rotor insures absolute elec- 
trical contact with rotor. 



^3,000^10,000 a year 

Want to make big, easymoney? Learn 
how to install, opera, construe t 
and sell Radios. Write now for facts 
about the amazing opportunities for 
Radio experts, and our special offer of a 
FREE 1000-mile receiving set, and how 
you can quickly train at home by mail. 

Be a Radio Expert 

No previous experience necessary. Anyone 
with ordinary education can now learn Radio 
quickly under our simplified home-study plan. 
We need men right now to represent oar 
Association. Be the Radio expert in your 
neighborhood. Get your share of the big' 
profits. Hundreds about you want Radios and 
advice how to operate. You can earn enough 
money right from the start to pay for course. 

Nothing difficult about it. 

Low cost and easy terms. 



Receiving Set 

Don't miss this big special offer to supply 
FREE all parts necessary to construct a 
high-grade 1000-mile receiving set. You can 
sell this set atone for practically the entire 
cost of the course. Send for the facts now. 
Find out all about this big-pay field. Address 

Radio Association of America 
4513 Ravenswood Ave., Oept. 22 Chicago, III 


The Benson Wave Filter eliminates an- 
| noying interferences. It is of the induc- 
tive coupled type. 

Mounted in a beautiful leather covered 
cabinet with an engraved bakelite panel. 

PRICE $8.75 


The Universal all-wave 
inductance. Back and 
front panel mountings. 
Send 25c for Super 
Het., R. F. and Honey- 
comb Coil Circuits and 
Complete Catalog, fc. 
Cbas. A. Braaslon, lot. 
•Dept. 13, 
815 Main St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 


1225 No. Halstead St. 


*\New Improved K.KALU / 



Jfi\ .% Kedmont 

6 n. Masts * *3*1 Cornelia *.»., -...«..» . 

SC„. V At all Radio Stores * „ . *£ 

3 Pan ^aaEBlEaanaaaaaaaaaJ Pair V* 

ft/Tail Ofrlerc Promptly filled on receipt of 
i.AOl* \*M uci a payment if your lealer oannot 
furnish. All masts shipped f . o. b. Chicago. 

Dealers and Jobbers— Write for Proposition 


Masts A 


Mfg. Co. / JL 


RADIO AGE for February, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


for 1925 

Now Ready! 

With a Thirty-Two Page Blueprint Section 
of Record- Breaking Hookups! 

■'*■ is ready! After months of preparation, a bigger, 
better and more attractive book than ever is ready 
for RADIO AGE'S great army of set builders. 

THE ANNUAL for 1925 is the result of three years 
of constant research work and experiments by the 
staff members and writers of RADIO AGE. It is 
the cream of the radio hookups that have made their 
appearance since the birth of radio and have won 
lasting favor with America's millions of radio en- 

One hundred and twenty pages of new hookups, 
construction articles, and kindred subjects in the radio 
field compose the unusual contents of the RADIO 
AGE ANNUAL for 1925. No other book has ever 
been printed approaching its excellence. No other 
book can be found that will give you such a variety 
of hookups and "How to build" articles. 

THE predominating feature of the RADIO AGE 
ANNUAL for 1925 is the big, thirty-two page blue- 
print section, consisting of sixteen full pages of blue- 
prints of favorite hookups, from single tube outfits to 
efficient neutrodynes, reflexes and super-heterodynes. 
The kind of blueprints that made the RADIO AGE 
monthly section the talk of the radio world. Use them 
as actual working drawings. Every one of the hookups 
in the blueprint section and in the rest of the Annual 
has been thoroughly tested by experts in our radio 

Complete instructions for building every kind of 
hookup — from crystal to super-het, are found in the 
ANNUAL. The biggest dollar's worth ever offered 
for home experimenters as well as experts. The blue- 
print section alone is worth many times the cost of 
the book. 

THOUSANDS of Annuals sold last year on a money- 
back guarantee. AND NOT ONE CAME BACK! 

Our first press run is but 25,000 copies. First names 
on the list will get first delivery. Pin a dollar bill to 
the coupon below if you want your ANNUAL NOW! 


Copy FOR 1925 

Some of the Features You 11 Find 
In This Wonder Hookup Book 

$1.00 a 

How to read and understand hookups. 
How to understand radio phenomena. 
Building your first simple set. 
How to select the right receiver. 

Substituting a tube for a crystal — building the first tube set. 
How to amplify any kind of set. 
Making a reflex set. 
Building your first Reinartz set. 
The renowned Baby Heterodyne No. 1. 
Adding audio and radio stages to the Baby Het. 
How to make a battery charger. 
How to make a loud speaker. 

popular hookups as the aperiodic variometer, loop sets, feed- 

back receivers, neutrodynes, reflex hookups, Baby Het No. 2, a 
Wonder Super-Het, and others. 

How to get rid of interference. 

How to make an amplifying unit. 

How to recognize and deal with every kind of tube trouble. 

Another super-heterodyne for the super experimenters. 

Hints on tracing troubles in super-heterodyne circuits. 

A three-tube long distance regenerator. 

A 3-tube set that easily receives KGO on the loud speaker 
from Ohio. 

Improving the ever popular Reinartz. 





500 North Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 

Gentlemen: I want to be one of the first to get the RADIO AGE ANNUAL FOR 1925. Enclosed find $1.00. If 
I am not satisfied with the ANNUAL I will return it within five days and you will refund my dollar. 

Address _ — 

City - State.. — 


The Real Secret of Clear 

Tone and Quiet Operation 

told in simple, every -day terms which everyone can understand 

SOMETHING has recently happened to radio 
• which makes it a much simpler, more depend- 
able and sweeter toned instrument. That something 
is the complete elimination of internal noises by the 
radio inventor, Carl Pfanstiehl. 

The technical means which he employed is a 
scientifu 5tory of great interest to radio engineers. 
The average radio user does not care about that. But, 
briefly, in popular language, this is what he did: 

For years he had observed what complicated de- 
vices were being used to neutralize stray oscillations 
in the set, the oscillations of radio energy which 
cause chatter and squeaks and squeals, and often dis- 
tort speech or music. Potentiometers were employed 
and extra condensers. These are a makeshift. They 
only partially succeed; and they need adjustment. 

He made up his mind that some way could be 
found to go to the root of the trouble and elimi- 
nate it entirely, instead of merely trying to offset it. 

By tracing back the oscillations to their separate 
sources he discovered their true nature and how to 
keep them out. Nobody had ever known this before. 

The remedy is as simple as it is effective. All 
complicated devices are dispensed with. He so de- 
signed the structural relationship between coils 
and condensers that the stream of radio energy is 
perfectly controlled; there is no feedback causing 
stray oscillations. All the radio energy is utilized 
in developing the true signal. The set is internally 
noiseless. Speech and music come in without in- 
terference. You get a liquid clear enunciation of 
every syllable and a supremely pure tone. 

See and hear this new system that is revolutionizing 
radio — the Pfanstiehl Model 7 — at your dealer's. Or let us 
send you free descriptive booklet. 

Dealers : Write for the special Pfanstiehl proposition. 


Highland Park 2 2 Second Street Illinois 

A 5-tube Receiver using the new system of tuned radio frequency 

¥ Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 



Trirdyn Special, $60.00 

tubes ind Crosier Pbooet $75.75 

Jit the _, 

Crosley One Tube 

Model 50, $14.50 

WHli tob« lid Crosier Fhooo IO.ZS 

SINCE the inception of radio, the results obtained with 
Armstrong Regenerative Receivers have been the goal of 
comparison for all others. Trick circuits have been de- 
signed to get around the Armstrong Patent hoping to obtain 
results "just as good." This has resulted in the use of more 
tubes, necessary without, but unnecessary with regeneration. 
This is one reason why Crosley Radios, licensed under Arm- 
strong U. S. Patent No. 1,113,149 have performed everywhere 
so remarkably on so few tubes. 

The Crosley Trirdyn, employing Armstrong Regeneration 
combined with tuned non-oscillating radio frequency ampli- 
fication and reflexed audiofrequency amplification and using 
only three tubes, consistently gives greater selectivity, more 
volume and wider range than can be obtained where five or six 
tubes are employed without regeneration. With no regenera- 
tion, two stages of radio frequency amplification, requiring at 
least two additional tubes, must be employed in front of the 
detector tube to get the same results as furnished by one tube 
where regeneration is used. 

Every additional tube means additional expense; an added dial 
to tune, greater difficulty in operation, more distortion and 
more tube noises. The three tube Crosley Trirdyn has only 
two dials. These operate but two circuits, making tuning 
and logging very easy. 

You can't beat the results obtained from an Armstrong Re- 
generative Crosley Radio. A trial will convince you. 


For Sale By Good Dealers Everywhere 

CrOlley Regeneratite Receivers are Licensed under Armstrong U. S. Patent 1 113,149 
Prices West of the Rockies add 10% 

Write for Complete Catalog 


Powcl Crosley. Jr., President 

263 Sassafras St. Cincinnati, Ohio 

Crotlty Owns and Optratts Broadcasting Station WLW 

Better -Costs Less 



Head Phones 

Better — Cost Less 


Crosley Two Tube 
Model 51. $18.50 

tfki talu ud Croile; Phoou J3<t25 

Croaley Tbree Tube 

Model 52, $30.00 

ffitk taWi id! Croilsy Pbow. J45.7S 

Croiley Trirdyn Newport, $85, 

Wilk tale! »d J PhoK. $100.75 

* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

me of the Hour 

^ Th&Driginal 

"MysterfMan ' ' of Radii 

Blueprint Section Ever} 

J' Month 

ARCH 192 



mil Si® 

They Cost More 

But They Do More 

Super-Zenith VIII— 
the ideal radio set 
for the fine home 

To choose at will * 

one glorious voice- 
one majestic symphony 

A few blocks from your home a powerful station may 
be on the air. Other locals — six, eight or ten of them — 
may be broadcasting at the same time. 

Imagine, now, the satisfaction of tuning them all out and 
bringing in distant cities. The air a chaos of sounds, 
yet out of that chaos, from across the continent, one 
glorious voice, one majestic symphony — the very pro- 
gram that you wanted most to hear — and as clear and 
appealing as though it were in the next room. 

The ability to take your choice — that is what you 
want above all else in radio reception. And it is that 
very property, built into the Zenith, which makes it 
supreme among fine radio sets. The joy of possessing 
such an instrument is all the greater from the fact that 
its beauty of design and excellence of construction speak 
quietly of its distinction. 

Before you choose the receiving set to occupy the place 
of honor in your home, be sure to see and try the 
Zenith. Its beauty you will recognize at a glance. Its 
extraordinary capabilities any Zenith dealer will be glad 
to demonstrate. 

Dealers and Jobbers: 
Write or wire for our exclusive territorial franchise. 


332 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago 
ZENITH — the exclusive choice of MacMillan for his North Pole Expedition 

The complete Zenith line ranges in 
price from $95 to $550. 
With either Zenith 3R or Zenith 4R, sat- 
isfactory reception over distances of 
2,000 to 3,000_ miles is readily accom- 
plished, using any ordinary loud 
speaker. Models 3R and 4R licensed un- 
der Armstrong U. S. Pat. No. 1,113,149. 

Zenith 4R - - $95 
Zenith 3R - -$160 

The new Super-Zenith is a six-tube set 
with a new, unique, and really different 
patented circuit, controlled exclusively 
by the Zenith Radio Corporation. It is 
NOT regenerative. 

SUPER-ZENITH VII — Six tubes-2 
stages tuned frequency amplification — 
detector and 3 stages audio frequency 
amplification. Installed in a beautifully 
finished cabinet of solid mahogany — 
44% inches long, 16% inches wide, 10% 
inches high. Compartments at either 
end for dry batteries. Price (ex- fesy *2.f\ 
elusive of tubes and batteries) <p£ J\J 
cept — console type. Price (ex- fh^j c.r\ 
elusive of tubes and batteries) *p£5\J 
SUPER-ZENITH IX — Console model 
with additional compartments contain- 
ing built-in Zenith loud speaker and gen- 
erous storage battery space. Price (ex- 
clusive of tubes and bat- ao cr\ 

teries) Jpj JV 

SUPER-ZENITH X— Contains two new 
features superseding all receivers. 1st— 
Built-in, patented, Super-Zenith Duo- 
Loud Speakers (harmonically synchro- 
nized twin speakers and horns), designed 
to reproduce both high and low pitch 
tones otherwise impossihie with single- 
unit speakers. 2nd- Zenith Battery 
Eliminator, distinctly a Zenith achieve- 
ment. Requires no A or B bat- <h££/> 
teries. Price (exclusive oftubes) Ipj D\) 
Price (without battery eliminator) $450 
All Prices P. O. B. Factory. 

332 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Gentlemen: Please send me illustrated literature giving 
full details of the Super-Zenith. 


# Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE # 

RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

The Magazine jf the Hour 

Earns College 

1 entered the mari- 
time service of the Radio 
Corporation of America 
and served several 
months on board ship. 
I not only had the ad- 
vantages of visiting for- 
eign countries at no cost 
to me but I was also 
able to save enough 
money to pay for my 
tuition to college. 

G. E. Rogers, 
Troy, N. Y. 

§405 in One Month 
I cleaned up S405 in 
one month recently. Not 
so bad — is it — -for a 
fellow who just com- 
pleted your course a 
short time ago? 

Emmet Welch, 
Peculiar, Mo, 

Train at Home For Big Money 

m RADIO / 

Thousands earning $50 to $200 a 

week in easy, interesting work. 

You can do it! 

Radio just teems with money making opportunities. Every 
Radio set which is sold means profit in somebody's p ket. Every 
broadcasting station erected means big pay for Raaio Engineers, 
Radio Mechanics, Operators, etc. Thousands are "cleaning up," 
fortunes are being made almost overnight in this fascinating busi- 
ness. Big salaries, interesting, easy work, short hours, and a won- 
derful future are offered to ambitious men who get into Radio now! 

One of our recent graduates is making over $400 a month in his 
own business. Another has increased his pay $1,300 a year. Still 
another writes: "I made $3,500 in one year working for myself." 

Easy to Learn Radio at Home in Spare Time 

Right now Radio is the fastest growing industry in the world. 
Thousands of Certified Radio-tricians are wanted to design Radio 
sets; to make new Radio improvements; to manufacture Radio 
equipment and install it; to maintain and operate great broadcast- 
ing stations and home Radio sets; to repair and sell Radio appar- 
atus; to operate aboard ships and at land stations. Employers 
write and telegraph us continually, seeking to employ our grad- 
uates at splendid salaries. 

You, too, can easily and quickly qualify in your spare time at 
home through the help of the National Radio Institute — America's 
first and biggest correspondence radio school. No matter how 
little you know about electricity or Radio, we will guarantee to 
prepare you thoroughly for one of the big jobs in a few months. 
One of our recent graduates, Bert Roodzant, writes: "I now have 
a license and a good job, altho' I did not know the difference 
between a volt and an ampere before enrolling." 

You Learn by Doing 

All materials required for practical instruction are furnished 
you free of charge. This is an absolutely complete course now 
being offered which prepares you for a Government First Class 
Commercial License and the really "big-pay" jobs in Radio. 

Send for Free Book and Special Offer 

No other field today offers such great opportunities as Radio. Take your 
choice of the wonderful openings everywhere. Prepare now to step into the 
most fascinating and best paid profession today. Read about the oppor- 
tunities open now — the different kinds 
of work — the salaries paid. Write to- ^ — — — — — — — — — = — — ■. — — - 

day for 32-page book, "Rich Rewards 
in Radio," that tells how prominent 
Radio experts can teach you to become 
a Certified Radio-trician in your spare 

Important — those who act immedi- 
ately will also receive the details of our 
Special Reduced Rate. Mail the coupon 
or write a letter Now! 

Triples Salary 

I am earning three 
times as much as before 

Arthur Herke, 
Vancouver, B. C. 

Earns $50 to $83 
a Week 

I enjoyed every one of 
your lessons and had no 
trouble whatever. learn 
$50 to $83 a week besides 
a commission on sales. 
Michael DeMarco, 

Boston, Mass. 


Doubles Salary 

I can very easily make 

double the amount of 

money now than before 

I enrolled with you. 

T. Winder, 

Grand Jet., Colo. 

From $15 to $80 a 
Before I enrolled I 
was making $15 a week. 
Now I earn from $2,080 
to 84,420 a year. I be- 
lieve the course will be 
worth at least $100,000 
to me. 

George A. Adams, 
Tamaqua Pa. 

Pay Increases Over 
$100 a Month 
I am averaging any- 
where from $75 to $150 
amonth more than I was 
making before enrolling 
with you. I would not 
consider SI 0,0 00 too 
much for the course. 
A. N. Long, 
Greensburg, Pa. 

Washington, D. C. 

Without obligation send me your book, "Rich Rewards 
in Radio," which tells all about the opportunities in 
Radio, how spare time study at home will qualify me 
quickly as a Certified Radio-trician so I can get one of 
these splendid positions, and how your Employment 
Service helps me to secure a big pay job. 

National Radio Institute 

Dept. 53EB Washington, D. C. 


Street — Occupation- 
City State 

RADIO i March, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

agazine of the Hour 

stablished March, 1922 

with abncH s combined radio topics 

Volume 4 March, 1925 Number 3 


--, s 

Radio F rials.. - 4 ' 

How Super-P ~" T ^-king Out 9 

A "Permanf ....13 

Don't Blair -.16 

A 5-Tube Radio Frequ^. —17 

By H. Frank rio t 

Saving Current with a Double Grid 'Iul.^.. 19 

By C. R. Bluzat 

How to Wind Low Loss Coils. 20 

What the Eclipse Meant to Radio— 21 

The New Baby C -and Super-Het — 23 

By Paul Green 

A Short Wave Receiver 25 

By C. Harold Dillon 

What Radio is Leading to... 27 

By Edmund H. Eitel 

The Sleuths of Honeymoon Camp 29 

A Story — By Frank Honeywell 

"What the Broadcasters are Doing" — RADIO 
AGE Studio-Land Feature Section 31 

I. A Two-Tube Ultra Audion._ 39 

II. A Regenerative Reflex Circuit 43 

By John B. Rathbun 

Pickups and Hookups by Our Readers 49 

Radio Age is published monthly by RADIO AGE, Inc. 
Member: Audit Bureau of Circulations. 

Address all communications to RADIO AGE, INC. 
Executive, Editorial and Advertising Offices 
500 N. Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. 
Publication Office, Mount Morris, 111. 

Frederick A. Smith, Editor 
Russell H. Hopkins, Associate Editor 
Frank D. Pearne, Technical Editor 
C. H. Dillon, Technical Assistant 
M. B. Smith, Business Manager 

Advertising Director 

Eastern Representative 
DAVIDSON & HEVEY, 17 West 42nd St., New York City 

Final Advertising forms close on the 20th of the 2nd month 

preceding date of issue 

Issued monthly. Vol. 4, No. 3 Subscription price $2.50 a year. 

Entered as second-class matter at post office at Mount Morris, Illinois, under the 

Act of March 3, 1879. 

Copurioht, 1SSS, by RADIO AGE, Ine. 

A Chat With 
the Editor 

THE month of March, 1925, will 
develop a situation of vital 
radio importance. It will not 
involve any new or radical change in 
the construction of receiving sets. It 
will not have any relation to radio 
engineering triumphs. It will go 
vastly farther than either of those 
possibilities. Unless Radio Corpora- 
tion asks and gets more delay, the 
month of March will do much to 
settle the question as to whether 
there is a radio trust. 

The Federal Trade Commission 
doesn't seem to care a hoot about 
who's who. The Commission exhibits, 
however, a lively interest in what's 
what. The Commission will hear 
what eight big corporations have to 
say in reply to the charge that they 
have entered into a conspiracy to 
restrain trade— meaning the radio 
trade. The eight big corporations 
say it's all bosh. Radio Corporation 
not only says "bosh," but it is highly 
indignant that the United States 
Government should presume to ask 
questions of a corporation that ad- 
mits it was organized with purely 
patriotic motives. 

But what we started to say was 
that RADIO AGE will be represented 
at that Federal Trade Commission 
hearing in Washington. RADIO 
AGE is going to tell the whole truth 
about the testimony. It may be that 
our thousands of technically Minded 
readers will not care to have a few of 
their diagrams and formulas displaced 
by the story of a trust battle in Wash- 

But we insist that our editorial 
judgment will be vindicated in the 
long run. The scotching of an illegal 
radio combine is a job worth while. 
It eventually would mean much to the 
buyer of tubes and the seeker of 
patents and to the manufacturer who 
is weary of leaping into shell holes 
when the heavy trust artillery begins 
to lob 'em over. 

What we want especially to see is 
a picture of Sarnoff and Boucheron, 
the R. C. A. twins, in action at Wash- 
ington. With the whole country 
watching, it ought to be good. Read 
our reports on this proceeding. 

Editor of RADIO AGE. 

RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

The Mag zine of the Hour 

There's more life 
Eveready Batteries 

Buy Eveready "B" Batteries and you get elec- 
tricity in its surest, safest and most compact form. 
They reduce your operating expense. New de- 
velopments in the Union Carbide and Carb n Re- 
search Laboratories, Inc., have been converted 
into new manufacturing processes in the Ever- 
eady factories. Good as they always have been, 
Eveready "B" Batteries are much better today. 

The Eveready achievement of giving \ ou more 
hours of "B" Battery service for less money has 
cut the cost of running receivers '" half, and in 
some cases the new Evere? i{ s make "B" Battery 
expense only a third of ; hat it used to be. 

There is an Eveready Radio Battery for every 
radio use. 

Manufactured and guaranteed by 


Headquarters for Radio Battery Information 

New York San Francisco 

Canadian National Carbon Co., Limited, Toronto, Ontario 


Radio Batteries 

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* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE ¥ 

4 RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

THE railroad; s kve teken a kick at radio. They 
have increas . freigl . rates on radio merchandise 
fifty per ce (ri the Eastern and Western terri- 
tory and one hi ; r: per cent in the South. There 
does not seem tc be the slightest justification for such 
an arbitrary action. It appears that the railroads 
believe the new radio industry is not yet sufficiently 
organized to make \ good defense. Cold blooded, 
isn't it? 

The Radio Ma rs' Association has filed a 

protest against ie i I for its sus- 

pension until t ite ; ' ferce Commission 

shall have had a ilea, ing un tne manutacturers objec- 
tions. It is expected, nie express companies will 
follow the example of the railroads. 

A special transportation committee of the RMA is 
composed of: J. M. Stone, Operadio Corporation, 
Chairman; E. N. Rauland, Ail-American Radio Cor- 
poration; Frank Reichmann, The Reichmann Com- 
pany; Arthur Freed, Freed-Eisemann Radio Cor- 
poration; Powel Crosley, Jr., Crosley Radio Corpora- 
tion; A. U. Howard, Dubilier Condenser & Radio 
Corporation; George A. Scoville, Stromberg-Carlson 
Tel. Mfg. Company; Walter L. Eckhardt, Music 
Master Corporation. This.committee is being strongly 
backed by special committees in different parts of the 
United States, the chief object being the raising of 
funds to defend the radio industry against the railroads. 

Every manufacturer, jobber, wholesaler and retailer 
in the United States is asked to contribute to the fund 
now being raised. Checks can be sent either directly 
to the Radio Manufacturers' Association office or to 
Mr. Arthur Freed, treasurer of the special committee, 
care Freed-Eisemann Radio Corporation, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. The address of the Radio Manufacturers' 
Association is 123 W. Madison St., Chicago. 

The reason we call attention to this situation is that 
if costs are added to the manufacture and distribution 
of radio merchandise, the manufacturers will be forced 
to charge the public more for their goods. That means 
the radio fan will pay the bill, or part of it. Therefore 
it is to the interest of every fan to support the opposi- 
tion to the railroad and express companies. 

ANOTHER device for increasing the cost of radio 
is the proposal in some quarters that a tax be 
voluntarily assumed by radio manufacturers, the 
revenue from which may be devoted to the payment 
of radio entertainers. This would result in an indirect 
tax on the radio fans. It would work out just as the 
added freight tax would. The question as to who shall 
pay radio estertainers has been discussed at length 
and it seems far from settlement. One important 

broadcaster tells us he doesnt think it necessary to 
pay entertainers because most of them are able to 
get more than full value from the publicity they get 
from studio announcers and press notices. Many 
professional musicians and singers demand pay and 
many are pleased to sing or play without direct 
remuneration. The American Society of Composers 
Authors and Publishers has carried on a hard battle 
against the free use of copyrighted music in broad- 
casting. The Actors' Equity Society is now demand- 
ing that its members obtain pay for their contri- 
butions to the nation's entertainment. Some stations 
in the East are paying their entertainers. It is a 
problem that the broadcasters themselves will have to 
settle. It may be found advisable to put a tax on 
manufacturing and thus indirectly tax the buyers of 
sets. But some aspects of the demands of entertainers 
appear to be somewhat extortionate. There is no hurry 
about a settlement, as the present entertainment is 
pretty fair. 

WHEN will the sale of radio sets reach the satura- 
tion point? A long, long time from now. There 
are said to be 14,000,000 talking machines in use. It 
is not improbable that the ultimate number of receiving 
sets will equal that number. In view of the fact that 
the radio receiver is a more fascinating musical instru- 
ment it is likely that the figure, 14,000,000, is con- 
siderably too low. There are 17,000,000 automobiles 
in use. It does not seem improbable that as many 
radio receivers eventually will be installed. Some 
observers predict that 20,000,000 will be the ultimate 
figure. Anyhow it is quite apparent that we are far 
short of the saturation point. This is more interesting 
to the manufacturer than it is to the buyers of sets. 
But it is vastly important to the public. It means 
this cultural, educational humanizing radio influence is 
to be extended beyond its present boundaries. 

THE CHICAGO Civic Opera Association has closed 
its season in Chicago with a deficit of $25,000 more 
than last year. The managers of the opera are wonder- 
ing why the music-loving public has failed to respond 
to grand opera as in former years. Many reasons have 
been set forth, such as the choice of lesser-known operas, 
the singing of the operas in foreign tongues, etc. But 
if we were asked to state our opinion frankly, we'd 
venture the statement that grand opera in Chicago 
wasn't a success last season because it wasn't broadcast 
over the radio. After the 1923 season the Association 
discontinued its policy of broadcasting three per- 
formances a week because it felt radio was "keeping 
people home instead of sending them to the opera. This 
year's experience proves their excuse hardly holds water. 

RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 5 


Reliable Radio 
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Two pleasant hours spent with the RADIO KEY BOOK will acquaint 
you with the essentia! facts of modern reception, and how to enjoy 
it at its best. Ten cents — coin or stamps — brings the KEY BOOK. 



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Antenna coupler or tuned r. f . 
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Long Wave Transformer 

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RADIO AG to. vlai:i, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 











125 M. M.F.- 
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725 M. M. F. 









Made in two types for 
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Rangescovered with an L-ll 
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Type B 200 to 565 $5.00 
TypeSW 50 to 150 5.00 


A 40-page book, containing hook- 
ups (B-T No. 1 and No. 2 are in- 
cluded) construction, tuning and 
general information on crystal to 
multi-tube sets. Has helped thou- 
sands of set builders and operators. 
See your dealer' or send 10c for a 
postpaid copy. 


B Vs reputation for never having 
put out a part that was not a con- 
tinued success means a great deal to 
you. It means that you can build any 
tried and proved circuit, using the 
proper B-T parts, and be assured of 
good results . Buy proved parts — not 
experiments. Use B-T apparatus. 


Tito Schipa, the world's greatest tenor, 
praises the "Nameless" set installed in 
his apartment at the Congress Hotel, 
Chicago, a few blocks from several power- 
ful broadcasting stations. Part of his 
statement follows: 

"After using several other well-known 
radio receiving sets and discarding same, 
to say that I am well pleased with your 
set is speaking very mildly. The volume, 
selectivity, quality of tone and ease with 
which distant stations are tuned in 
whilst other Chicago stations were radio- 
casting, was simply marvelous and al- 
most beyond understanding. I suppose 
that you will hardly believe me when I 
tell you I tuned in 42 stations my first 
night, Monday, December 8, 1924, in- 
cluding one Pacific coast station, KHJ." 

Roanoke, Va., Dec. 26, 1924. 
I have completed your No. 1, using your 
tuner and condenser. It is the clearest 
and most powerful regenerative set that 
I have ever heard. C. F. K. 

Denver, Pa., Dec. 23, 1924. 
Have just received my certificate showing 
that I have received European stations. 
I used your tuner and condenser. 

E. F. B. 

Kirkwood, Ga., Dec. 24, 1924. 
I enclose a list of 54 stations received on 
the B-T No. 2. I find it better than any 
set I have ever listened to. V. H. S. Jr. 

B-T KIT No. 3 

Contains three 3-Circuit 
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one Control Condenser with 
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B-T KIT No. 1 

Contains three 3-CircuiC 
Transformers only... $10.50 


Sold Separately for....$1.00 


Ranges covered with an 
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Type AC-3 (200 to 565— 
adjustable primary)._.$3.50 

Type AC- 1 (200 to 565— 
fixed primary). $2.50 



"Pioneers of Better Tuning" 


* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 








Prest-O-Llte "A" Batteries 





C-300 and UV-200 
are Interchange- 
C-30IA, DV-2 and 
UV-201A are in- 




69 WHR 


67 WHR 





67 WHR 





1 UV-200 
1 UV-201A 


611 WHR 


69 WHR 





69 WHR 


67 W HR 




1 UV-200 

2 UV-201A 


611 RHR 


69 WHR 




UV-201A L 


69 WHR 


67 Vi HR 



1 UV-200 
3 UV-20IA 


613 RHR 


611 WHR 





611 WHR 



69 WHR 




1 UV-200 

4 UV-201A 


613 RHR 


611 WHR 






611 RHR 


69 WHR 





69 KPR 


67 KPR 



For & 

ets using cur- 
t a rate higher ^ 

a 2 amperes^' 


69 KRL 


67 KPR 


;,■•'■:'■ ■" 


69 KRL 


69 KPR 


What size batteries 

will work best in your set? 

Selecting storage batteries of the 
right size and capacity is necessary, 
not only for the best reception, but 
also to arrange the time between 
chargings to suit your convenience. 

The Prest-O-Lite Chart now 
makes this easy. Illustrated above 
is a section of the master chart 
showing Prest'O-Lite "A" Bat' 
teries for 5-volt tube sets. If your 
set has these tubes, you will find, in 
the fifth column, the Prest-O-Lite 
"A" Battery that fits it exactly. 
Two sizes are recommended, but the 
larger capacity battery will be found 
more desirable unless facilities for 
frequent and easy charging are pre 
vided. (The days between charg' 
ings are based on an average use of 
your set of three hours a day.) 

Thousands of radio dealers have 
the complete chart, showing you 
also how to select Prest-O-Lite "B" 

Batteries, as well as Prest'O-Lite 
"A" Batteries for peanut tube sets. 

You'll prefer Prest-O-Lite Storage 
Batteries because of their special 
features designed for better radio 
reception. Improved separators and 
plates insure steady, unvarying cur- 
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Prest-O-Lite Batteries offer you truly 
remarkable savings. Though stand' 
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as low as $4.75 and up. 

Let the Prest-O-Lite Chart guar' 
antee you batteries scientifically 
correct for your set. It is" endorsed 
by the world's largest electro- 
chemical research laboratories. See 
it at your dealer's — or write for our 
interesting booklet, "How to fit a 
storage battery to your set — and 
how to charge it." 

New York San Francisco 

Id Canada: Preit-O-Lite Company of Canada, Ltd., Toronto 

Write today for 
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Whether you have a 
one-tube set or most 
advanced multi-tube 
outfit, you'll find a fund 
of interesting informa' 
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"How to fit a storage 
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and how to charge it." 

This booklet gives 
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In addition, there is 
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upkeep — information 
that any radio fan will 
find of real value in 
keeping his set at its 
maximum efficiency. 
Write for your copy 
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* Tested and Approved by RADIO AGE * 

8 RADIO AGE for Man n, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

Radio Headquarters 

Why not buy your set or parts at Radio Head- 
quarters? Only tested and approved radio equip- 
ment is sold. Every set sold by us is guaranteed 
to give satisfactory results. 

W#d'S %tdio Catalogue 

The best Radio Experts made 
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are up to the minute with every- 
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simple that you yourself can 
easily install them — so reliable 
that we guarantee them to give 

Write for your copy of this 
Catalogue. See for yourself the 

low orices. Buy your radio at 
Radio Headquarters. 

Our 53 Year Old Guarantee 

Ward's has dealt with the Amer- 
ican people for 53 years under a 
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Chicago Kansas City St. Paul Portland, Ore. Oakland, Calif. Ft. Worth 

RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

The Maga^ qJ ^ Houf 

JSq Magazine (fthe Hour 

M. B. Smith 

Business Manager 

A Monthly Publication 

Devoted to Practical 


Fre 'Jerick A. Smith 



An Up-to-Date Radio Survey — 

HowSUPER-POWERw Working 

AMERICAN broadcasters have not 
undertaken what is technically 
known as "super-power" broad- 
casting yet, but nine Class B stations 
have been authorized by the Department 
of Commerce to increase their power over 
1,000 watts, and so far results are satis- 
factory. Before many months there will 
be about thirty of these high-powered 
broadcasting stations on the air, carry- 
ing their programs to ever hamlet and 
farm where fairly good radio sets are in use. 

Although some of these stations have 
been operating for three months, com- 
plaints received by the radio bureau of 
the Department of Commerce are few 
and are considered as inconsequential. 

"The development of increased power 
in broadcasting to date has been suc- 
cessful, and the Department stands ready 
to grant further licenses to applicant B 
stations which are qualified," W. E. 
Downey, recently appointed Technical 
Radio Expert, declared to the writer. 

"Two more stations have been authoriz- 
ed to make a second step in power," he 
continued. "WEAF of New York, and 
KGO, at Oakland, Calif., were success- 
fully operated on 1500 watts without 
causing undue interference, and recently 
were increased to 2000 watts without 
complaint from local or distant fans," 
he pointed out, explaining the Depart- 
ment's regulations for the use of in- 
creased power. Authority is granted 
only in an experimental way to class B 
stations, to increase their power to 1500 
watts, which may be increased from time 
to time in steps of 500 watts up to 5000 
watts or 5KW, which is also the limit in 
power of most broadcasting transmitters. 
But regulations provide — and this is 
the main point, that the field supervisors 
of radio are satisfied that no undue inter- 
ference has been caused with other 
stations or with receiving set results. 
Applicants agree to reduce their power if 
the Department or its representatives 
deem it necessary in the interest of the 
public, but not one has been ordered to 
do so. 

Must Be a Limit 

TODAY the Department feeis confi- 
dent that the experiment is a success 
But at the same time realizes that there is 


Very Few Complaints 
Received by Officials 

a limit. If all the B stations increased 
their power, complications might arise — 
there would be little doubt of this if all 
seventy-nine stations of this class went to 
5KW and stayed there. Such a situa- 
tion is not anticipated for some time 
at least, however. 

Such reports as have come in indicate 
that increased power is causing some 
interference, although it is not considered 
as serious. Right here Mr. Downey 
pointed out that the Department is soon 
advised when a serious condition arises. 
It is flooded with telegrams and letters, 
just as was the case when the fight 
against increased power was staged at 
the time of the last radio conference. 
Thousands of fans, many of whom have 
since changed their minds, protested 
against so called "super power," fearing 

[Harris & Ewing Photo] 

W. E. Downey, recently appointedradio tech- 
nical expert of the Department of Commerce 

that a monopoly of the air was planned 
and that local stations would be blanket- 
ed. Some even went so far as to worry 
about the safety of their own receiving 
sets, which they feared might be damaged 
by this "super" bugaboo. Nothing to 
compare with this flare-up has occurred 
since the first high-power experimental 
license was granted to WTAM at 
Cleveland in November. 

An observer on the Pacific coast reports 
that he doesn't notice any more inter- 
ference there now than there was on 500 
watts, and he has two stations — KGO, 
Oakland, and KFI, Los Angeles, to test 
on. Two Florida fans complain of 
difficulty in separating KFI from stations 
WCAP and WRC at Washington, all 
of which are on the same wavelength. 
This situation is also reported locally 
in Washington. From New Mexico two 
other listeners complain that since the 
increase in power, a Los Angeles and a 
Dallas station interfere, although they 
are ten kilocycles apart. These letters 
are typical, although one other kick is 
interesting. Some fans in Cleveland and 
its environs complained of increase 
in power by WTAM before the increase 
was authorized and before this station 
boosted its wattage. This type of com- 
plaint is classified along with the "buga- 
boo chasers," which do not worry radio 

Generally, Mr. Downey says that some 
difficulty is reported in the form of a 
clashing of side bands, although there is 
no heterodyne whistle. This effect pro- 
duces something like the result when two 
people try to talk over a party telephone 
line at the same time, or similar to 
"cross-talk" of some telephone systems. 
It can be overcome when good sets are 
well operated, he feels certain. 
10 Kilocycles Apart 
TJTERE the official paused, and gave 
■*-■*■ the writer an earful! "All these B 
stations which have been granted in- 
creased power are on wave bands sepa- 
rated by at least ten kilocycles," he said, 
"and most of them are 500 miles apart. 
If we authorize increased power to two 
stations in the same city, they should 
operate on remote channels, at least 
100 kilocycles apart. With this system 


RADIO AGE uch ' 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

n the fans rumors have it that the contemplated fort to reduce interference and to create 

i the selecti- super-broadcaster of a large corpora- more channels for the growing broad- 

tion in the neighborhood of New York, is casting service. At that time there were 

to become a reality before many months. 519 broadcasting stations of three classes. 

Outside the United States the urge They included fifty-seven class B, or 

for more power is also felt. higher- powered stations; seventy-eight 

The operation of a set with between 5 class A, and 382 class C stations, the 

and 10 KW power in Canada is said to last stations on the original broadcast 

be successful. A new British broadcaster wave of 360 meters. Many more stations 

rated at 25 KW, but capable of 100 KW, were contemplating transferring to a 

is being erected at Daventry to operate class B status, but wavelengths were 

fere"at~all when'usi ; > ma y on 1600 meters - lt is heralded with an y _ getting ver y scarce in that group, where 

nterf ere and they dc instances thing but fear of interference, even in that each station desired and expected an 

in operation, the reaction i 
will be in exact proportion tea 
vity of their sets. Tt , se » c complain 
will probably be op. ',,, Poorly de- 
signed sets which an- '* ;ve > or 
they will be listener's r. *™.° - an /une 
their sets. It is usual! ' '?'= ^P* of fan 
who complains most bit f/'v ° r) ? ' ^ ex " 
cuse. We must face this fa % he went on. 
"Two stations on ic' 'ticarwav: engths 
on opposite coasts, > ' :I lnter " 


when they use 1 ' 


This also may ap 

to two stations only 50( 
mires ttl _. - 

Downey exp 

difficulty with inert; 


"On the other hai. 
he pointed or 
extend the scope oi 
stations tremendoi 
it overcomes static 
siderably; it will 
doubtedly improve S 
mer-time and prob 
daylight transmis 
and will decrease fa< 
This means a lot to Uiris- 
all over the country, 
will be able to pick up 
more stations, and even 
more to the small __u 
owners who previously 
got only a very few 
neighboring stations," he 

The nine B stations now authorized to small territory, compared with the 
operate at over 1000 watts, with their pow- great expanses of the United States. It 

The map showing the first distribution of super-power broadcast- 
ing stations throughout the country. Note that no two are close enough 
to seriously interfere with each other. KCO and KFI may prove ex- 
ceptions, for they are not very far apart, but Government officials assure 
radio fans the air will not be congested by the strong stations. 

er and wavelengths are listed as follows: 

Power- length 
Station Owner Location watts meters 

WEAF A. T. &T. Co.... New York, N. Y 2000 492 

KFI Anthony, E. C. . .Los Angeles, Calif 1500 469 

KYW Westinghouse Co. Chicago. Ill 1500 535 

WBZ Westinghouse Co. Springfield, Mass 1500 333 

KGO General Electric Oakland, Calif 2000 300 

WGY General Electric Schenectady, N. Y. 1500 380 
KFKX Westinghouse Hastings, Neb. 1500 288 

WOC Palmer School Davenport, Iowa 1500 484 

WTAM Willard Bat. Co. Cleveland, Ohio 1500 390 

It is understood that there are eight 
more stations contemplating an increase 
of power to 1500 watts. Two of them 
ordered 5KW sets from the Western 
Electric Co. They are: the Zion Insti- 
tute station in Illinois, WCBD, and the 
Crosley Co., at Cincinnati, WLW. 
Others reported as planning to install 
higher- power sets are: WSAI, the U. S. 
Playing Card Co., at Cincinnati; WCCO, 
Washburn- Crosby Co., at Minneapolis; 
KOA, the General Electric Station at 
Denver; KPO, Hale Brothers, at San 
Francisco; WEAY, the Iris Theatre, at 
Houston, Texas; WLS, Sears Roebuck, 
Chicago, and WTAS, Chas. Erbstein, 

is hoped that the British super-station 
will carry programs to crystal-set owners 
within a radius of 100 miles, which is 
something for this type of fan to look 
forward to indeed. France has a 20 
KW station in operation. 

Here in the U. S. A., officials and most 
fans are pleased with the development of 
higher powered broadcasting and look 
for better transmission and reception 
throughout practically every state of the 

Broadcasting will not become all 
high-powered, however; some stations, 
like WHAZ at Troy, are satisfied with 
500 watts. WHAZ claims the long-dis- 
tance record of 10,000 miles and reports 
regular reception in thirty-two states — 
the British Isles and Europe. There 
will continue a need for medium sized 
and even purely local broadcasters, and 
certainly there is room for all types. 

What's Going on 

"V^7"HAT Secretary Hoover 

and his 
radio force is trying to do with 

individual and exclusive 
air route. 

Developments in the 
past year had shown 
that many stations were 
reaching a position in 
type of programs, terri- 
tory covered and relia- 
bility of equipment, 
which made it desirable 
to grant them exclusive 
wavelengths and more 
power in the interests 
of high-class programs 
and public service. This 
was done gradually and 
fifty-seven B stations 
were on the air when the 
conference met, besides 
which about twenty 
more had applied or 
were preparing to ask 
for a class B status. 
After considerable delib- 
eration, the conference 
laid out a plan for alloca- 
tion which would pro- 
vide forty-seven separate channels for dis- 
tribution among the class B stations, some 
few of which would have to use the same 
wavelength. Distance and time, it was 
believed, would make this practical. 

But the class B applications began to 
increase, and when the field representa- 
tives of the Department tried to argue 
with the owners of high-powered stations 
to split time and shift their channels, 
difficulties increased materially. The 
original conference plan had to be aban- 

During the past three months, the 
radio experts of the Department of Com- 
merce have tried out several other plans 
for increasing the number of channels 
in the band alloted to the B stations, 
but to date they have arrived at no 
practical scheme which insures a satis- 
factory arrangement between the broad- 
casters and the fans. 

"C" Stations Gone 

HPHF.Y have eliminated the old Class 
-*- C stations which have carried on 
on the 360 meter wave. The others have 

Elgin, 111. 

In case these stations apply for licenses the wavelengths in the broadcast field either transferred to Classes A or B, or 

and are O. K.'d by the Department, there seems to be a mystery to many fans, dropped out. No more Class C stations 

will soon be seventeen high-powered despite considerable comment in the are being licensed. This leaves only 

broadcasters on the air. About eight P ress each da y- Briefly, he is trying to two classes of broadcasters, except for 

more stations are said to have planned improve conditions in the broadcasting two stations carrying on experiments 

additional power, but their names are traffic, and has put every available under what is termed Class D, or de- 

not available. channel in use. velopment licenses. 

v, Pnwpr „* ->c ft ft TVottv When the Third Nationa. Radio Con- The real problem before the Depart- 

Nrso rower at tow watts ference met in Washington last Octo- ment of Commerce concerns redistribut- 

O station has yet applied for 2500 ber, a plan |for the reallocation of wave- ing the Class B wavelengths without 

watts, and no actual super-power lengths in the whole field of radio trans- making the interference worse than it is 

broadcasting license is on file, although mission was proposed, chiefly in an ef- today. ' 

RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 1 1 

Penetrating Through the "Locals 

From the rear. Two ordinary low loss three circuit couplers and two low loss condensers form the tuning elements of this five 
tube receiver. Wide spacing for reduced- losses is a noteworthy feature and explains the large size of the set. There aren't many parts 
and it's easy to see where they are placed. 

RADIO reception 
may easily be di- 
vided into two 
main sections — local and 
distant. Conditions con- 
ducive to both are not 
necessarily the same, 
and each branch of reception finds condi- 
tions not met in the other. Generally 
speaking, local reception predominates 
and as far as city dwellers are concerned, 
ordinarily prevents much DX listening 
until the nearby stations sign off. . 

A receiver capable of penetration 
through local opposition is more or less 
of a rarity, just because such a receiver 
is rather difficult to tune and is so very 
sharp in its dial settings that it is not a 
simple matter to set the dials just right 
even for locals. Therefore, it seemed to 
me that some sort of change-over switch 
"which would very greatly sharpen the 
tuning when DX reception through 
locals is desired would meet the problem 
most effectively. 

And to permit of good distant recep- 
tion, it goes without saying that two 
stages of radio frequency are requisite. 
To permit handy tuning, the two-dial 
method seems superior to the three, 
inasmuch as nature saw fit to endow us 
with but two hands and we are not yet 
sufficiently dexterous with other ap- 
pendages to call upon them to twist a 
third control. Therefore, the penetrator 
includes a stage of tuned radio frequency, 
a stage of transformer-coupler radio 

A Double Duty Set— Twice 
Tuned andTw ice Regenerative 


frequency, a detector and two stages of 
audio — five tubes in all. To yield the 
very best of sensitiveness, a regenerative 
control is embodied in both the radio 
frequency tuned circuit and in the de- 

nPO SUIT these specifications, two 
J- standard three circuit tuners or 
couplers are employed; one to tune the 
R. F. amplifier and another for the 
detector. In each case it is necessary 
to reduce the number of turns on the 
tickler coils to about 15 turns, although 
otherwise the instruments are used as 
manufacturerd. It is not essential that 
any particular style of coupler be selected, 
so long as the low loss type of construc- 
tion is adhered to. The primary should 
have approximately six turns of fairly 
heavy wire and the secondary about 45 
to 50, depending somewhat upon the 
size of variable condenser called for. 

The views of the outfit reveal an un- 
usually large size of panel and cabinet — 
possibly a drawback on account of the 
increased cost of these parts. The choice 
of so large a layout was made following 
tests of spacing between instruments 

made throughout the 
recent transatlantic 
broadcast tests. With 
couplers close to the 
condensers and fairly 
near each other, although 
at right angles, volume 
from the stations across the water was 
fair, but with much wider separation 
the losses of various sorts were so re- 
duced that very pleasing results were 
obtained from English, French and 
Spanish stations. KHJ's transmission 
was followed in the same manner (in a 
location near New York) and improved 
results always followed when the in- 
struments were spread far apart. 

The front panel shows quite well just 
how the various instruments are situ- 
ated. Along the bottom are four rheostat 
controls, the first for the two R. F. tubes, 
the second for the detector and the other 
two for the two stages of audio. Between 
them are three jacks, for headphones; 
one stage for local loud speaker work 
and two stages for DX loud speaker 
work. The rheostats are all included 
to give 100 per cent flexibility of control. 

Main Tuning 

TUST above these and at the center is 
" a battery switch, whereby all tubes 
may be turned off without necessitating 
changes in the rheostat dials, these al- 
ways being left at the best operating 
points. The two large dials control the 
two variable condensers by which tuning 

12 RADIO AGE for M arch, 1925 

is accom- 
plished. These 
ought to be of 
the vernier 
type unless 
there are vern- 
ier attachments 
on the con- 
densers. Above 
each tuning 
dial is the tick- 
ler dial for the 
coupler tuned 
by the con- 
denser under- 
neath. And be- 
tween the tick- 
ler knobs is 
found the most 
important feat- 
ure of the set 
in one respect: 
the penetrator 
switch. This 
is a double pole 
double throw- 
jack or anti- 
capacity switch 
and it is con- 
nected so as to 
reduce the num- 
ber of turns 
not only in the 
antenna coup- 
ler but in the detector coupler primary 
winding as well. Ordinarily, low loss 
three circuit couplers are constructed 
with a six turn primary winding. With 
the switch, these primary coils are tapped 
at the second turn so as to change to a two 
turn primary in each case and in that way 
gain a remarkable degree of selectivity. 

By having the two coupling settings, 
we are enabled to use the 6-6 setting for 
local reception, the 2-2 setting for DX 
reception through locals, and the 6-6 
setting for DX reception when the locals 
sign off the air. Of course, greater vol- 

The Magazine of the Hour 

Front panel of the Penetrator. The four rheostat dials aren't touched once; they 
are set, since the battery switch turns tubes on and off. Two large dials accomplish the 
tuning, and smaller ones above them control sensitiveness when DX is wanted. A 
switch alters the coupling in two places to bring great selectivity for DX reception through 
local stations. 

ume is to be had with the 6-6 position 
of the penetrator switch, but on the 2-2 
setting it is possible to hear dozens of 
distant stations through the locals that 
would never be gotten at all with any 
receiver of average coupling. And when 
the locals have finished for the evening, 
it is a simple matter to "flop" the switch 
over the other way and receive the DX 
fellows with much more volume and with 
greater ease of dial adjustment. 

The alteration in coupling has no 
effect whatsoever on the dial setting of 
the condenser tuning the detector cir- 

and again. 

cuit, so that 
the settings of 
this dial should 
be "logged" for 
reference. The 
dial readings of 
the other con- 
denser change a 
half degree or 
so when the 
switch is moved 
across, but they 
agree so very 
closely anyway 
that the set- 
tings of one 
dial are suffici- 
ent for tuning. 
In the case of 
the detector 
dial, the set- 
tings can be 
read to half a 
degree or even 
less if one wish- 
es and the elim- 
ination of a 
third tuning 
dial or a 2 stage 
R. F. outfit 
greatly simpli- 
fies the matter 
of dial listing 
and tuning for 
a station time 

In the Country 

"D EADERS of RADIO AGE who are 
-*- *• not included in urban populations 
where the DX local problem isn't so acute 
may be interested in the value of the 
penetrator switch to them. In a location 
150 miles south of Washington, D. C, in 
Virginia, the penetrator was installed with 
a 6 by 2 foot wire screen ground and a 100 
foot antenna about 25 feet high. In a few 
evenings, over seventy stations were listed 
(Turn to page 65 ) 

Note how the penetrator switch changes coupling from 6 turns to 2 turns in both coupler primary coils and how the tickler feed-back 
is accomplished in both radio frequency amplifier and detector. Hard tubes are employed all the way through. 

RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 13 

€[A Receiver That Will Serve for Years 

Figure 1. A rear view of the seven-tube super- 
heterodyne is shown below. The simplicity of the 
wiring and layout is evident. An approximate layout 
is all that the builder need adhere to. 

Embodying the Latest in Radio in 

A 7'tube Superheterodyne 

DURING the past year and a half 
the super-heterodyne receiver has 
come in for an ever-increasing 
amount of justly deserved popularity, for 
there is no question but what this re- 
ceiver is the most satisfactory system 
ever developed for broadcast reception. 

Since the presentation of the first 
constructional articles on broadcast super- 
heterodynes, many developments have 
taken place and the latest type of super- 
heterodyne bears very little resemblance 
to its predecessors of a year or two ago. 
The reasons for this are only the reasons 
for the gradual improvement which 
takes place in any type of engineering 
equipment during a period of years. In 
this case, developments have taken place 
very rapidly, for a few years ago little or 
nothing was known about practical super- 
heterodyne designs and the method of 
building each section of the receiver in 
the most efficient possible manner. 

Re-radiation and consequent inter- 
ference with neighboring receivers has 
been one of the points upon which the 
super-heterodyne receiver has been con- 
demned by a great number of enthusiasts, 
many of them possibly having had no prac- 
tical experience with this receiver. In a 
number of tests conducted to determine 
to what extent this radiation was detri- 
mental to neighbors' reception, several 
conditions were noticed. 

In one of the tests, two super-hetero- 
dyne receivers were set up operating 


approximately fifty feet away, each on a 
loop and each tuned to the same station. 
No trouble was experienced due to radia- 
tion from either receiver when the sets 
were in a condition where the signal was 
heard. If, however, the oscillator of one 
receiver was set directly upon the wave- 
length of the transmitting station (a 
condition in which a signal could not 
be heard on this particular set), a slight 
amount of interference was noticed on 
the other receiver. As soon as the 
neighboring oscillator was moved off 
the signal wavelength and back into the 
adjustment where it produced the neces- 
sary beat, no interference was noticed. 

In another test, a super was connected 
to a seventy-five foot antenna and a 
6 tube receiver of a rather sensitive type 
was set up in conjunction with its loop 
twenty-five feet away. About the same 
conditions were noticed; when the oscilla- 
tor was in resonance with the antenna cir- 
cuit, radiation was evident, but when it 
was set at a position to produce the de- 
sired beat with the station heard, no 
radiation was noticed. 

Then the antenna coupling of the super 
was loosened up to a point where only 
one turn was used between the antenna 
and ground. The signals retained prac- 
tically their original intensity, but the radi- 
ating effect of the super was cut to a very 
great extent; in fact, down to a point 
where it could barely be noticed, using 
head phones on the output of the r.f. set. 

From these and other tests the writer 
feels it safe to conclude that the radiat- 
ing proclivities of the super-heterodyne 
are very much over-rated, and at best 
they are only disturbing when the oscil- 
lator and loop circuits are in resonance. 

The average experimenter, when un- 
dertaking the construction of a super- 
heterodyne receiver, wishes to feel that 
he is building a receiver which embodies 
not only the very latest advances in the 
art, but which will continue to give 
results in excess of other receiving sys- 
tems over a period of several years, 
since it is safe to expect no radical 
developments in radio for some time to 
come — despite the propaganda to the 

The Last Word 

HPHE receiver to be described may 
■*- safely be said to be the latest word in 
super-heterodyne designs and embodies 
to perfection the five prime receiver 
requisites of sensitivity, selectivity, ease 
of control, quality of reproduction and 
simplicity of assembly. 

Every worth-while designed feature 
found in equipment such as is supplied 
to the Signal Corps, Navy Department, 
has been recognized and utilized to best 

The receiver itself embodies seven 
tubes — a regenerative first detector and 
oscillator, two intermediate frequency 
amplifiers and second detector and two 

14 RADIO AG v 

Figure 2. Wiring diagram for the 
Mr. Silver in the accompanying article, 
the tubes. 

new type of super-heterodyne as described by 
Note that only one rheostat is used to control 

The Magazine of the Hour 

audio frequency amplifiers, and will 
cover a wavelength range of from 200 
to 600 meters with a distance range 
depending upon individual conditions of 
from 500 to 5,000 miles for loud speaker 

The seven tubes used in the outfit 
may be either dry cell or storage battery 
tubes of any standard type on the market 
and are employed in such a manner as to 
give maximum efficiency in each circuit. 
For various reasons the use of the 
second harmonic principle or other 
systems of combining the functioning of 
the first detector and oscillator in one 
tube will generally result in a decrease in 
results about equivalent to the elimina- 
tion of the one tube that is saved by such 
a system. 

The first detector circuit, being regen- 
erative, permits of maximum sensitivity 
and selectivity. The sensitivity of this 
set as a whole might be compared to 
other super-heterodyne systems employ- 
ing a non-regenerative first detector 
circuit, as one would compare a non- 
regenerative tuner to a regenerative 
tuner. The intermediate frequency am- 
plifier represents a real step ahead in 
super-heterodyne designing, since but 
two stages are employed. 

The transformers function at a fre- 
quency of approximately 60 kilocycles or 
5,000 meters, but this will vary somewhat 
with the tubes. They are of the iron 
core type with a sharply tuned air-core 
output transformer, and give a voltage 
amplification of from 1}^ to 3 3^ times 
that of any other transformer now avail- 
able. Two stages of amplification with 
these transformers are entirely sufficient 
to get down to the noise level under 
extremely favorable conditions, and the 
use of a third stage would not be war- 
ranted, especially as it would give practi- 
cally no increase in amplification. The 
second detector and radio frequency 
amplification employ combination cir- 
cuits and will be found to give extremely 
satisfactory results from the standpoint 
of amplification and quality of reproduc- 

It is suggested that if the builder de- 
sires to make the set with the absolute 
assurance that he cannot do better, 
it wo'uld be advisable to employ instead 
of the transformer unit, a combination of 
two 60 k. c. intermediate transformers 
and one 60 k. c. filter transformer. These, 
however, should only be of a type sup- 
plied with laboratory amplification curves, 
the filter being tuned to the peaks of the 
other two transformers and supplied 
with the exact condensers for tuning it 
which have been used to get the peak 
shown on its curves. The use of these 
transformers with their individual am- 
plification curves insures a uniformity 
which cannot be approached by un- 
charted transformers and reduces the 
variation in their operating characteris- 
tics to the extremely low value of 1 % 
compared to a variation of from 5% to 
15% with uncharted transformers. 

What About Results? 
' 1 1 rIE average fan is interested, when all 
-"■ is said and done, in the results that he 
may expect from the set, and reports on 
this design have been more than favor- 

RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

able. One builder in 
New York state re- 
ceived KGO (Oak- 
land, California), at a 
distance of 2,800 
miles with loud 
speaker volume on an 
18 inch loop, every 
night that KGO was 
in operation for two 
consecutive weeks. 
The set he used em- 
ployed seven 199 dry 
cell tubes. These re- 
sults are exceptional, 
and speak volumes 
for the set, although 
it must be realized 
that they were de- 
pendent to a great 
extent upon location. However, sets of 
this type throughout the country have 
given extremely satisfactory results in 
practically all cases, bringing in oppo- 
site coasts, especially in Chicago. 

One set used by Captain Irwin 
brought in stations on both coasts and 
Canada with loud speaker volume on a 
small loop, while being located in Las 
Vegas, New Mexico. So much for results. 

The set itself may be used with either 
storage batteries or dry cell tubes with- 
out a change of any values at all in the 
circuit or assembly, except that different 
sockets will have to be used for different 
types of tubes. The results will be 
substantially the same with either storage 
batteries or dry cell tubes, although dry 
cell tubes U. 9s and DV3s) are 

recommended, as resu its will be the same as 
with 201A tubes, and the set ; 

very much more satisfactory to ha j. 

The Materials 

THE material required to bujld the 
set is as follows, and will cost approxi- 
mately $64, less cabinet and accessories: 
2. .0005 Low Loss condensers. 

moulded dials, tapered knobs. 
!. •■: ~ Oh; • rheostat. 
1 ISO or 400 Ohm potentiometer. 
/ ated top binding posts. 

1 Two . ~ jack. 

1 One spring . 

1 R. F. Transformer Unit, or 2 60 
K. C. charted transformers and 1 6G'K. 
C. charted filter 

1 Oscillator coupler. 

Audio transformers. 
On-Off switch. 
.5 Condensers. 
.00025 Mica condensers with leak 

The Magazine of the Hon? 15 



Figure 3. The above diagram shows the method of : iring th 
of wiring the voltmeter to permit of reading the voltage on both the " 


also the method 






2 .002 Mica condensers. 

1 .0075 Mica condenser. 

1 .000045 Balancing 

1 5 megohm Grid Leak. 

1 1 megohm Grid Leak. 

1 7x24x3-16" Bakelite 

1 7x23j^" Oak Base 
Board, Bus-Bar, spaghetti, 
screws, nuts, solder, lugs. 

The tools required to 
assemble this set will be a 
pair of pinchers, screw 
driver, soldering iron, one 

drill with drills, and countersink, 
drilled and engraved panel is pu; 
this will be 

A front view of th oiiown in 

Figure 4, with a rf : assembly view in 
Figure 1. The voltmeter shown may 
be used or it may be omitted as desired. 
Its only advantage is that it permits 
resetting the tubes at the same operating 
point each time the set is used and acts 
as a check on the condition of the bat- 
teries. The meter shown is for both A and 
B batteries. A small key switch is shown 
below it and the spool attached to this 
switch is the voltmeter multiplier which 
is used when reading B-battery voltage. 

Laying the Panel 

T^HE panel should be laid out in ac- 
-*- cordance with the drawing and all 
holes drilled and countersunk. If the 
builder desires, it may then be grained by 
rubbing in one direction only with fine 
sand paper and oil until all traces of the 
polished finish have been removed. The 
condenser, rheostat, potentiometer, bind- 
ing posts, jacks, etc., should be attached 
to the panel as shown in one of the 
figures. All parts should be screwed on 
the baseboard as shown, using 1-2" or 
3-4" wood screws, the holes being first 
started with a No. 45 drill to facilitate 
proper location of the parts. 

Each individual piece of equipment 
should be checked over carefully to make 
sure that all nuts, screws, etc., are tight 
and that all springs on sockets are bent 
up and are making contact. If this is 
done, it will save trouble later on after 
the set has been completely wired. Lugs 
should be attached to all binding posts or 
terminals, to which the wiring should be 
soldered. The wiring may be done with 

Figure 4. The complete laboratory model of Mr. 
Silvers' super-heterodyne. 

i Dus-bar or with magnet 
wire, say No. 20 or 22, with the insula- 
tion scraped off, run in spaghetti. The 
bus-bar wiring makes a neater job, but 
is a little more difficult. Spaghetti is rec- 
ommended throughout if magnet wire is 
used, but need only be employed in bus- 
bar wiring where there is danger of wires 
coming in contact and short-circuiting. 

If a well-tinned iron is used and each 
wire and lug tinned separately before 
endeavoring to make a joint, little or no 
trouble will be experienced. A very 
small amount of non-corrosrve soldering 
paste will help materially, and will tend 
to make very much smoother joints than 
if only rosin core solder were used. In 
wiring the set, the panel with its instru- 
ments should be wired first and then all 
wires put in place on the baseboard 
before the panel is actually screwed to 
it. This will leave only a few wires to be 
run between the panel and the base- 
board and will simplify this job very much. 
If the builder wishes to make the 
oscillator coupler, it may be constructed 
by winding the grid and plate coils on 
a 2 1-4" Bakelite tube 2" long, each 
section being wound with about thirty 
turns of No. 30 D. S. C. wire. 

The rotor consists of a 1J^" tube, 1" 
long, wound with 18 turns of the same 
wire, and should be located in the center 
of the stator tube and arranged so that 
it may rotate. If it is desired to use 
other transformer instead of the trans- 
former unit, a good type of charted 
long wave iron core transformer with a 
filter may be employed. 

If this is done the left hand trans- 
former in the diagram will have its 
terminals corresponding to the numbers 
shown as follows: Number 2 will be 
"P"; Number 1 will be 
"B-plus"; Number 3 will 
be "G"; Number 6 will be 
"A-Minus." The middle 
transformer will have four 
equal to "P" five equal to 
"G," six equal to "A- 
Minus" and 8 equal to 
"B-plus." The right hand 
or filter transformer will 
have ten equal to "G," 7 
equal to "P," nine equal 
to "A-minus," and eight 
equal to B-plus. The .0075 
condenser shown across 
( Turn to page 58) 


RADIO AGE fo M fch, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 



No set will work 
if the tubes aren't 
right. Some tubes 
are better as R. F. 
amplifiers, some 
as detectors and 
others as ampli- 
fiers. Change 
them around till 
you find where 
they work best 

In Most Cases the Fault Lies in the Lack 
of Proper Workmanship or in Poor Materials; 
Bad Soldering Leads in Causing "Flukes" 

THERE is always a tendency toward 
charging up all troubles to the 
hookup, but in 99 cases out of a 
hundred the fault will be found due to 
errors in construction or to defective 
materials. Since 1922 the writer has 
serviced some 500 home built sets and 
in practically all cases workmanship, 
or rather lack of workmanship, lay at 
the bottom of the difficulty. 

For those interested in statistics it 
will be thrilling to note that there is 
only one man out of one hundred who 
understands soldering, and as soldering 
is the basis of a successful receiver, this 
deficiency stands at the head of the 
trouble list. Some of the amateur- 
soldered joints that I have seen would 
give a telephone man acute hysterics. . 
Joints partly soldered with a cold iron, 
joints stuck together only by the flux, 
soldering attempted without any flux at 
all, joints soldered with acid flux, etc., 
etc., etc. 

In the first place, we must supply 
sufficient heat by means of the soldering 
iron to melt the solder to the point where 
the metal is completely fluid and flows 
as readily as water. Heating the solder 
with a cool iron to a stiff paste will not 
produce an electrically perfect joint. 

Secondly, the parts to be joined must be 
heated up before solder is applied by 
simply resting the soldering iron on the 
parts. If the lugs or wires are cold, 
they will chill the solder and thus prevent 
adherence. Large screws and nuts 
require considerable heating before they 
are hot enough to amalgamate with the 
solder. A cool iron is only capable of 
melting the flux and not the solder 
proper; thus with a cool iron we tend to 
stick the parts together with flux. 

Next in importance comes cleanliness. 
Solder will not adhere to dirty, rusty, 
greasy surfaces. The surfaces of the 
metal must be scraped bright with a 
scraper or file and must not thereafter 
be touched with the fingers until the 
soldering is completed. Finger marks 
leave greasy spots which will not take 
solder. In addition to a clean surface 
and the proper heat we will require some 
fluid that will chemically remove all 
dirt not removed by the scraping and 
which will reduce all exides that may 
form after the scraping. Such materials 
are known as "Fluxes" and are represented 
by rosin, sal ammoniac, and similar 
compounds which readily dissolve many 
of the metallic oxides. The best flux 
for soldering brass and copper parts is 

plain pure rosin. Acids should be 
carefully avoided as they draw moisture 
into the connection and are responsible 
for many partial short circuits as well as 
producing a noisy circuit. 

Don't Waste Flux 

ONLY enough flux should be supplied 
to cover the surface completely 
and no more. An excess of flux makes 
a dirty-looking job and may flow into 
the joint, causing an open circuit. 
Rosin is an excellent insulator, hence 
if it gets into the joint, it will prevent 
electrical contact. So much flux is used 
by many beginners that the wires are 
simply stuck together by rosin without 
the solder coming into contact at all. 
Such joints are mechanically weak and 
may be detected by giving the wire a 
good shaking after the solder is applied. 
If the wire breaks loose, you may be 
sure that it has simply been stuck on 
by the flux. Don't be afraid to shake 
the wires well, with a firm grip. Treat 
'em rough. 

Next on the soldering subject comes 

the connections made to fixed condensers. 

Don't make any solder connections 

directly to fixed condensers in such a 

(Turn to page 68) 

RADIO AGE for March, 1925 The Magazine of the Hour 17 

For Coast-to-Coast Reception — 


Back panel view of the "non-osciilaiing" set described in this article, 
mounted at the angle shewn to prevent of interstage coupling. 

The coils should be 


LMOST daily the author of this D 7_r C'D A ATI/" I—fOPIS' I AT C from the customary whistle or sound 

article has been approached by ./ * *• •* J^'il vix. 1 l\Jx iN.1 iVO produced when tuning the set to receive 

fans in quest of information on a program. It is absolutely quiet and 

how to construct a good coast to coast j_r • r-v t/ - O . £ lree from sending out on the air the 

receiving set, which is not too complicated llCrC S CI D J\ C^€t Of troublesome noise produced by sets of 

for the general run of set-builders, not i cr^ i r\ r-i <-p , the regenerative type. 

too expensive for the average pocket- tllC 1 VLYXCCi I\. 1 . 1 ^06 Construction of the set described in 

book and not as big and bulky as the 
average five-tube receiving set. 

this article is reasonably simple. The 
placing of the parts proved the most 

This was by no means an easy problem frequency, or the frequency at which difficult task and a word on this point 

to solve. However, after much shopping reproducers (head phones or loud speak- 
and not a little engineering, accompanied ers) will respond. This feature makes 

by the usual disappointing results, the 
five-tube "de-luxe" receiver to be de- 
scribed in this article was produced, 
giving the desired range and volume and 
mounted on a panel as small as seven 
inches by eighteen inches at a total 
cost of only §16.45, including a fairly 
good cabinet. Accessories, of course, 
are not included. 

possible the reproduction of signals 
otherwise too weak to operate a detector 
tube when applied directly to that tube, 
thus increasing the range of the set in 
proportion to the radio frequency am- 
plification applied, which in this set is 
two stages. 

The non-oscillating feature is the 

will not be amiss at this time. It must 
be borne in mind that the inductive 
field produced by radio frequency cur- 
rents, when applied to coils or trans- 
formers, is very sensitive to interference, 
and any force or body entering upon this 
field will induce counter currents or 
variations foreign to the proper func- 
tioning of these coils, producing very 
distressing results such as noise, loss of 
volume, distortion or even the failure 

elimination of squeals and disturbing 

The circuit is of the tuned radio fre- noises caused by the tubes oscillating of the set to reproduce signals at all. 

quency type and is non-oscillating. A when too much current is applied to To overcome the danger of such inter- 

"DX getter" of the first order, with the filament. This circuit is also free ference, the parts should be placed so 

lots of volume and 
producing features 
similar to the neu- 
trodyne type of cir- 
cuit without the 
troublesome task of 
neutralizing or bal- 
ancing the set. 

Weak Signals 

T>Y TUNED radio 
-*-* frequency, we 
mean a type of cir- 
cuit which amplifies 
the incoming signal 
at radio frequency, 
before it is applied 
to the detector tube 
and changed to audio 

Here's a front view of the panel of Mr. Hobkins' non-oscillating radio frequency 
receiver. Note the lack of complicated controls. The tuning is accomplished by the three 
dials and the remaining control regulates volume. It's as simple as it looks, too. 

that the magnetic 
or inductive field of 
one piece will not 
overlap that pro- 
duced by another 
piece. This is at- 
tained in the small 
space available in 
this set by mount- 
ing the radio fre- 
quency transformers 
on four inch centers 
and each on an angle 
of about sixty de- 
grees, and by plac> 
ing one audio fre* 
quency transformer 
on the under side of 
the shelf and the 
other at right angles 


RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 


COILS K/,7?-2,7?-3. 

*/is" Voh/ELL- 





/fO(/*ST£ D CO/ L. 




Figure 2. Showing method of fastening coils to sub-panel. In the upper part of the 
drawing is shown the winding of the wire on the wooden form. 

to the first, and on the top side of the 
shelf, the latter transformer will then 
be at or nearly at an angle of sixty degrees 
from the radio frequency transformer 
(R-3) thus keeping outside of the field 
of this coil. 

Parts to Build the Set 

\ LL of the parts used in this set are 
-^*- clearly marked with a designating 
letter or number throughout, and on the 
drawings, in order to better enable the 
builder to distinguish properly and. place 
each part in the circuit and to more 
clearly describe them in the following 

1 Composition panel 7"xl8 w (A) 

3 Thirteen plate variable condensers (C-l, C-2. C-3) 
3 Three inch composition dials for the variable condensers 
3 Radio frequency transformers CR-1. R-2, R-3) 
(The construction of these transformers is described in this 

5 201 type tube sockets (M-l to M-5) 
1 25-ohm rheostat (R) 

2 Unmounted, audio frequency transformers (T-l, T-2) 

(The ratio of these transformers can be either 3, 4 or 5 to 1.) 

1 Two circuit jack (P) 

1 Open circuit jack (S) 

1 Mica grid condenser and grid leak mounting ) 
capacity .00025 mf. . } (GL) 

1 Tubular grid resistance 2 1-2 megohms 

6 Binding posts (A. — , G, A4-. BD. B4-) 

1 Wood shelf 6 l-2"sl7 "(B) 

Terminals, wood and machine screws, wire solder and mis- 
cellaneous raw material. 

It would be well to secure all of the 
parts necessary to build the set before 
starting. Any standard piece of equip- 
ment will suffice, providing it is not too 
bulky. However, care should be exer- 
cised in buying, as a cheap piece of equip- 
ment sometimes will turn out to be rather 
expensive in the end. 

When the parts are all at hand, they 
should be placed on the shelf (B) in 
the relative locations shown in the pic- 
tures of the set. Be careful to get the 
coils (R-l, R-2, R-3) and transformers 
(T-l, T-2) spaced and placed on angles 

so that they will not fight one another 
as just described. Next, mark the holes 
for mounting the parts and drill the shelf. 
The same procedure will take place with 
the panel (A) and the necessary holes 
drilled. It would be well to drill the 
holes for the shafts of the three con- 
densers (C-l, C-2, C-3) about three- 
eighths of an inch in diameter or even one- 
half inch to prevent these shafts from 
binding against the panel when the 
condensers are mounted. If these shafts 
should bind, it would cause the conden- 
sers to turn hard, making it difficult to 
tune critically. 

The shelf can then be mounted to the 
panel by passing three number four 
round head wood screws through into 
the edge of the shelf. These screws 
will be about three-quarters of an inch 
long. We will now set the shelf and 
panel aside until the radio frequency 
transformers (R-l, R-2, R-3) are con- 

Construction of R. F. Transformers 

' I ''HE radio frequency transformers to 
-*- be used are of the spider-web type. 
The ones shown mounted in this set 
have had the forms or frames removed 
and are mounted by a three-sixteenth 
inch wood dowell pin passed through the 
lower part of the coil and made fast with 
cotton thread. This makes a truly 
low loss coil. 

If desired, the coils may remain on 
the frames and be mounted in a like 
manner, except one of the spokes of the 
frame is used in place of the dowell pin 
as shown in Figure 2. This will not 
make a low loss coil, but the difference 
will be rather slight and may not be 
noticed if the balance of the set is prop- 
erly assembled. 

One seventeen-spoke spider frame will 
be required for each coil if the coils 
are to remain upon the frame. If the 
'Turn to page 61) 

Wiring diagram of the "De luxe" receiver described in this article. Note the location of the ground wire, and the position of the 
filament rheostat. The usual potentiometer has been left out of this circuit, as it was found by experiment that this control was not 

RADIO AGE/of March, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 19 


THE interest of 
the radio fan 
has been given 
mostly to more effi- 
cient hook-ups, and 
many experts have 
invented circuits 
which were merely 
modifications of well 
known hook-ups. In 
most cases they had 
only the disadvan- 
tage of being more 
complicated than the 
original ones. More 
recently the interest 
has been centered on 
the reflex circuit 
which affords a bet- 
ter utilization of the 
tubes, their efficiency 
being increased prac- 
tically 100 per cent. 

The advent of the 
double grid tube must 
be considered as im- 
portant an achieve- 
ment as the reflex 
idea. The new tube 
affords a means of 
improving greatly the 
efficiency of the re- 
ceiving set and of re- 
ducing the expense by enabling one to 
use very low plate voltage. 

The internal resistance of the three- 
electrode tube which limits the value of 
the plate current and obliges us to use 
a high positive potential on the plate, is 
due to the presence of a cloud of electrons 
around the filament, which repell the 
newly emitted electrons which have not 
enough velocity to reach the plate. 

It will be understood readily that the 
addition of a grid close to the filament and 
impressed with a positive potential will 
neutralize the negative charge of the 
cloud of electrons and thus reduce ma- 
terially the internal resistance of 
the tube. This modification is the 
only difference of the double grid 
tube with an ordinary "audion." 

"The Inner Grid" 

IN the following explanation, 
the grid closer to the filament 
will be called the "inner grid" 
and the other grid the "control 
grid." The voltages impressed 
on the inner grid and the plate 
were only 12 volts, the voltage 
and current on the filament being 
respectively 3.9 volts and .35A. 
Curves of Fig. 1 were obtained 
under these conditions. As soon 
as the filament is lighted, it emits 
electrons. These carry a negative 
charge of electricity. When the 
voltage of the control grid is 
between 50 and 35 volts negative, 
a certain number of electrons is 
attracted to the grid, which is 12 





- 40 -zo 


The above chart demonstrates very clearly the current curves of the double grid tube. 
These curves were obtained by using only 3.9 volts to heat the filament with only 12 volts im- 
pressed on the plate and inner grid. The current consumption of this tube is very small, only .35 
amperes per ampere hour. 

by the negative field 
of G is less important, 
since the negative 
field has decreased in 
intensity; more elec- 
trons go to the inner 
grid and its current 
increases slightly. 

The control grid 
repells all electrons 
in the space from the 
inner grid to the plate 
so that we have no 
other current than 
the increased inner 
grid current. 

How Current In- 

Using Low Voltage 

With a Double-Grid Tube 

Use of Inner Grid Only Helps Cut Resistance 

volts positive. We know that opposite 
charges of electricity attract each other, 
while like charges repell each other. 

The high negative field has the effect 
of weakening the positive field of the 
inner grid and of repelling all electrons 
going to the" plate. 

We have a high current inner grid- 
filament and no other current, (part d of 
Fig. I). The potential of the grid being 
between 35 and 20 negative, the neutrali- 
zation of the positive field of Grid GI 

Showing the method of using the double grid tube in the 
regenerative circuit. Note especially the method of plac- 
ing the low voltage "B" battery in the circuit. 

WHEN the nega- 
tive potential 
on the grid G is be- 
tween 20 and 10, 
more electrons go to 
the inner grid and its 
current increases for 
the same reason as 
above. A few elec- 
trons reach the plate 
and a small plate 
current is obtained 
(Fig I, f.) With a 
positive potential ap- 
plied to the grid, the control grid current 
appears, less electrons reach the inner 
grid as more and more are attracted by 
the control grid and the plate. Conse- 
quently, the inner grid current will drop 
more and more and the control grid and 
the plate currents will increase, the latter 
as fast as the inner grid current decreases. 
The above theory having been grasped, 
the reader will understand readily the 
following hook-up. If the plate circuit 
is used alone, the hook-up is very alike to 
a three-electrode tube. 

For detection, the hook-up of Fig. 2 
is to be recommended. Detection is ob- 
tained with the grid condenser 
and grid leak. Regeneration is 
obtained as with an ordinary tube 
and any regenerative hook-up 
may be equipped with a double 
grid tube with very little work. 
The control grid must be at a 
potential of about two volts 
positive, as regards the negative 
end of the filament; for this 
reason a 400-ohm potentiometer 
is to be used as shown, the 
movable arm being connected to 
the grid. A high resistance rheo- 
stat is recommended for the 
tube filament circuit (a 30-onm 
one will do nicely) as accurate 
control of the filament tempera- 
ture will help in getting the best 
results. Detection may also be 
obtained without any grid con- 
denser and grid leak by using the 
great curvature of the plate cur- 
( Turn to page 60) 


RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

How to Wind a LOW LOSS Coil 

that Gets DX 

Good Low Loss 

Coil Easy to Make 

And Yet Itsa Vital 

Factor in a Well 

Built Set 

Contrary to the belief of many radio fans, 
a low loss coil is very easy to make. A 
paper template, a drill, some dowell pins, 
or long steel bolts, and an ordinary piece 
of board or bakelite (if the steel bolts are 
decided upon), are the only paraphernalia 
required, aside from the wire itself. 

The photo at the left shows the manner 
of laying out the paper template on the 
base. The lines between the black dots, 
that represent the dowell pins, illustrate 
the method of winding the wire. 

After the base has been drilled, insert 
the dowell pins in the manner shown at the 
right. Be sure that they are perfectly 
straight and start to wind the coil as shown 
in the first photograph. The shape of the 
coil will be determined by the manner in 
which the wire is ivound in and out of the 
dowell pins, or steel bolts. The pins should 
be well fastened to the base, so as to prevent 
their bending in at the top and thus not 
giving the coil a uniform appearance. 

However, the "over two, under two" style 
of winding is generally used. This means 
that the wire goes over two of the dowell 
pins, and under the two dowell pins im- 
mediately following the first two. A fin- 
ished coil using this style of winding is 
shown at the lower right. The coil pictured 
contains both a primary and secondary 


c\ "*- •' 


The photograph above shows the winding 
of the coils, using No. 20 DCC wire. The 
winder is using the "over two, under two" 
style of winding. 

After the coil is completely wound, remove it carefully, by the simple method of 
loosening the dowell pins or steel bolls. A small amount of collodian or glue can be 
used to hold the ends together, while you weave a string or thread between the sides 
to hold it together. Be careful in applying the collodian, and use it very sparingly. 

RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 21 

Event Proves that Daytime Reception Has Many 
Advantages, But They Are Offset by Distance 
Possible at Night; Darkness Stabilizes Long Waves 

EVER since the discovery of radio 
communication, many inexplic- 
able sounds and noises have 
been found to cause considerable inter- 
ference to the clear reception of distant 
signals, and especially was this noticed 
during the hot Summer months. Dur- 
ing the colder months, when the nights 
were clear and the air was crisp and 
snappy, communication was established 
between stations several thousands of 
miles apart and the interfering noises, 
while still apparent to some degree, 
Were so decidedly reduced as to be 
practically of no consequence. 

Just why the hot weather reduced 
the signal strength as compared to the 
cold, or why the signals would gradually 
fade away at almost clock-like regularity 
and return again to normal strength, 
has been somewhat of a mystery. Vari- 
ous theories have been advanced for 
these peculiarities, but none of them 
has ever been actually proven, although 
experiments have shown that the sun 
has much to do with the case. 

Variation in Signal Strength 

ONE thing, however, has been con- 
clusively proven; that is, that 
night reception is practically ten times 
as good as daylight reception. Distant 
reception of the broadcast wave is not 
expected during the daylight hours, 
for experience has shown that the short 
waves used for this work do not cover 
any great distance during the day- 
light hours, but after the sun has dropped 
below the horizon, conditions are entirely 

Just why these conditions apply 
has been explained in the following 
way. First, it is believed that electro- 
magnetic waves travel through a layer 
of atmosphere next to the earth's surface. 


This layer extends from the earth to 
a mere matter of thirty or forty miles 
in height, and above this the atmosphere 
is of very low density and is called the 
heaviside layer, which is supposed to 
be a film of highly ionized air. This 
ionized layer of air has a tendency to 
reflect the radio wJave in about the 

(Kadel and Herbert) 

How the recorder makes a record of 
radio fading. Few fans know that even 
local stations fade. The record on the 
strip of paper shows how uneven some 
distant stations are received in New York. 
If the reception was consistent, a perjectly 
straight line would show. 

same way in which a light is reflected 
from a mirror. This, in combination 
with the rays of the sun, increases the 
conductivity and the radio wave re- 
bounds in such a way that a receiving 
station located at a distance of 100 
or more miles from the transmitting 
station will not only receive the direct 
wave, but also the wave which is re- 
flected back from the heaviside layer. 
This wave is alternating in its nature, 
being first positive and then negative, 
these reversals taking place a million 
or more times in one second. If the 
receiving aerial is cut by both the 
original and the reflected wave at the 
same instant, and they are both at the 
same polarity at the same instant, 
then the signal will be quite strong; 
but if one wave happens to be at maxi- 
mum and of a positive polarity, when 
the other is at maximum at a negative 
polarity, then the result of the two 
waves will be zero and no signal will 
be heard. The farther the two waves 
vary from the same phase, the weaker 
the signal will be, and the nearer they 
are . to the same phase, the stronger 
it will be. Here then, we find that we 
have not only the absorption of the 
wave energy to consider when it travels 
a great distance, but also the effect of 
the reflected wave. This theory ex- 
plains to some extent why a distant 
station several hundreds of miles away 
from the transmitting station may 
hear a signal which is not heard by a 
receiver which is not so far away. It is 
easily seen that the height of the heavi- 
side layer will determine the phase 
difference between the two waves and 
consequently the signal strength. Now, 
because the height of this layer varies 
considerably during the night and is 
practically stationary during the day, 

22 RADIO AGE for March, 1925 
we find one great advantage in day- 

Eclipse Offers Opportunity 

The Magazine of the Hour 
side of this zone would probably not 

light reception, although it may not npnE coming of the eclipse on Janu- receive as well, 

be so good in other ways. A ary 24th presented the opportunity Nature had been kind enough to 

of a life-time to prove or disprove these give the opportunity and man was not 

Cause of fading theories. In certain parts of the United slow in taking advantage of it. All 

IT means that the varying of the States a total eclipse was to occur, prominent universities prepared for it. 

height of this heaviside layer will vary Here, then, we should have the ideal Scientists traveled hundreds of miles 

the phase relation of the two waves, condition to determine whether or not to be able to be at the most advantageous 

so that at one time the signal may be the blotting out of the sun's rays for a locations to record the results, but 

strong and in a minute or two may short time would affect the daylight alas, Dame Nature was not so kind to 

fade away, coming back to full strength reception. If it were found that messages some of them, for in. some of the best 

again when the layer again reaches the could be transmitted and received dur- locations for making observations great 

proper height to set them in phase ing the time when the moon cut off banks of clouds prevented many of the 

again. This causes the effect of fading the rays, equally as well as when the most interesting features of the eclipse 

signals, which is seldom noticed in sun was on the other side of the earth, from being seen by those who had 
the daytime but is quite 

common at night. On 
the other hand, the effect 
of the sun on daylight 
reception is supposed to 
be such that air is ionized 
to some extent, thus in- 
creasing its conductivity, 
■which would naturally 
reduce the efficiency of 
the transmitted wave. 

When the sun is on 
the other side of the 
earth, its ionizing effects 
are not present and the 
efficiency of radio trans- 
mission is greatly in- 
creased. The line of sun- 
rise or sunset when it 
comes between two dis- 
tant stations will almost 
entirely prevent recep- 
tion. Another advantage 
of daylight reception is 
that during the morning 
hours very little static 
or atmospheric disturb- 
ance is noticed. This is 
attributed to the fact 
that thunderstorms sel- 
dom occur in the morn- 
ing, or at least do not 
occur as often as they 
do in the afternoon, and 
then too, the daylight 
transmission of these 

iKadel & Herbert) 

Here is a view of the recording apparatus used to test the effect of the 
eclipse on radio reception. Two radio receiving sets were used; one 
to receive waves below 100 meters and the other for the longer waves. 
Instruments capable of showing minute fluctuations of fading, etc., were 
coupled to the sets. The tests practically proved that short waves lose 
strength at night and reach maximum efficiency during the day. 

traveled far in the hope 
that something of great 
importance might be 
accomplished. However, 
this did not happen every- 
where and some interesting 
facts were recorded. 

Some of the Results 

TY/I" EMBERS of the 
-L» J- American Radio Re- 
lay League, who were 
scattered around in the 
band of totality, were not 
able to get much definite 
information. Engineers 
making tests in New York 
and along the Atlantic 
seaboard obtained some 
facts which were worth 
while. Their experiments 
proved that a short wave- 
length follows the sun 
and also that static inter- 
ference is not caused 
entirely by any local con- 
dition, for the reason 
that it was affected by 
general conditions. Long 
waves which were very 
irregular before the eclipse 
were noticeably regular 
during the time that the 
sun was totally obscured. 
It will be remembered 
that the eclipse started 

atmospheric disturbances meets with the then something worth while would be just at sunrise. Short waves of seventy- 
same difficulty experienced by the radio accomplished. five meters that could not be heard 
wave and therefore has less effect than Radio engineers and scientists from before sunrise began to come in 
it would have at night. all over the world looked f orward to faintly and as the sun appeared 
Experience then shows us the differ- that day as one which would go down S rew stronger and stronger. While 
ence between daylight and night recep- in radio history. Great preparations the short waves were '"creased the 
tion to sum up in the following manner: were made in all parts of the country, statIC was also increased. When the 
First, that signals travel much farther some selecting that position where a sun became entirely obscured, the short 
at night than in the daytime and the total eclipse would occur and others waves were entirely blotted out, show- 
fading of signals, when one is fortunate taking up positions of less advantage. ln S exactly the same conditions as 
enough to pick up the distant signals Many of the large broadcasting stations before the sun rose. As the moon 
in the daytime, is almost unknown, made arrangements to come on the slowly passed from in front of the sun. 
This gives one factor in favor of each. a 'r before and during the period of th e short waves and the static re- 
c , c , it , . totality so that any change in signal a PPeared and gained in strength as the 
Second, we find that atmospheric st th mi ht be noted Broad * ast sun appeared.' Longer waves of 380 
disturbances at night are far more pro- listeners everywhere were asked to "meters which were irregular before the 
nounced than during the day, which is 
another factor in favor of each. 

nounced than during the day, which is co . operate and report immediately any eclipse became regular as the sun dis- 

changes wnich they might note. In appeared behind the moon and when 

any event, the great increase in the f ac t, the stage was set so that at some the sun began to appear again the 

distance covered by night transmission mt at , east someth; mi h ^ wave began to be irregular and the 

more than offsets the advantages of learned which wouW do ^ uch 8 tQward static ret urned. In other words, the 

that of daylight transmission. If the c i earing up the myst ery of radio recep- long waves were stabilized by darkness, 

theories which have been advanced by +;„„ „ _ ., ' . . , , ■ , \. 

., . c ., , non. D r Goldsmith, who conducted the 

the greatest engineers ot the day are rr j.u *i_ j -^ • i ^ j -l j It. _■-,.• 

., f . . ' It the theories were sound, it might tests, described the conditions as gen- 

really correct then it is very apparent be eX pected that two stations which erally favorable, being about half way 

that the sun has a great deal to do with we re located within the zone of totality between those of the best day and 

the matter, but as before stated, this could transmit and receive with night- those of the worst night. In these tests 

has never been actually proven. time efficiency, while those located out- a "fading recorder" was used. 

RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 23 

Perfecting the 


%\ As Developed 

Tests by 
Radio Age 
Readers Improve 
This Latest Super 

7N A recent article on the "Baby 
Grand" Super-heterodyne, Paul 
Green described the circuitinits sev- 
eral modifications. Radio, like 
everything else, is a product of evo- 
lution. All of the best circuits have 
undergone numerous changes before 
reaching their final stage of near per- 
fection. Yes, we said near perfec- 
tion; anyone would be foolish to call 
a radio set perfect. The "Baby 
Grand" appeals to all who have seen 
and heard it as one of tlie most per- 
fect things they have encountered in 
radio up to the present time. 

Front view of the "Baby Grand" Super-heterodyne, 
with the loop antenna, mounted on the top of the cabinet. 
This shows the result of careful design, in laying out 
various parts. 

IT IS two months now, since the first 
of this series of articles appeared 
describing the Baby Grand. The 
readers of RADIO AGE have been of 
considerable assistance in helping to 
develop this circuit. It has now reached 
a stage of perfection which is little short 
of astonishing. 

There was a time, and not so very 
long ago either, when eight tubes were 
the least that could be used on a super- 
heterodyne and still bring in so-called 
super-heterodyne results. At that, the 
eighth tube was usually ineffective. By 
eliminating the losses that have occurred 
in previous circuits, particularly as 
regards the input and output coils, it is 

now possible to condense the circuit to 
six tubes, and yet secure approximate 
eight tube volume and distance. 

We can all recall the time when air 
core transformers were thought to be 
absolutely the only transformers that 
could be used in the super-heterodyne 
circuit. We were taught that iron core 
transformers were broad, and that a 
greater degree of amplification could 
be secured by using air-core trans- 
formers. That these' theories have all 
been proven merely theories goes without 
saying. To build an entire Super- 
heterodyne using iron core transformers 
throughout would have sounded like 
the height of idiocy to our super-hetero- 


Volume and 
Distance Easy 
With This Six- 
Tube Wonder Set 

dyne forefathers; however, that is 
exactly what we do in the Baby 
Grand in its present form. In 
the previous installment, we were 
still using the air core filter. Ex- 
periments revealed that we were 
encountering a loss in this air core 
transformer which was keeping 
the volume down. Substituting 
an iron core input coil of the same 
make as the intermediates has 
solved the problem, and not only 
that, but it is not necessary to tune 
this transformer. A graph of the 
three transformers working to- 
gether reveals the fact that the 
peak is very high and as sharp as it rea- 
sonably can be expected to be and still 
include the effective band of frequencies. 

Condenser Layout 

THE panel dimensions for previous 
layouts were 7x18'. The present 
design calls for a panel of 8xl5>£". 
It will be noted that a sub-base is em- 
ployed and that it rests on top of two 
end brackets. This permits of placing 
the transformers on the under side of 
the sub-base with the tubes and sockets 
on the upper side. All of the leads be- 
tween tubes and transformers are ex- 
tremely short. The base panel is 4x15 


RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

77ie above photograph shows the upper 
to how the tube sockets should be mounted., 
variable condensers. 

and provides ample space for all apparatus. 

The loop is mounted directly on top 
of the set, so that the loop leads are only 
a few inches in length. The loop is of 
the bank wound type and is 19x19 
inches. As the overall depth of the set, 
exclusive of binding posts is 8 1-2, it can 
readily be seen what a wonderful layout 
this is from the standpoint of port- 

As in the previous circuit, the first 
detector tube bias battery is omitted 
and in its place a grid leak is used. It 
is found that this has a tendency to 
keep the circuit very quiet, while at the 
same time eliminating the "C" battery. 
It will be noted that very good judgment 
has been exercised in the selection of 
variable condensers, dials, rheostats, 
loop, transformers and, in fact every- 
thing which in any way can affect the 
operation of the set. 

The base of the loop is provided with 
a 5-16" brass pin of 1 inch in length. 
The top of the box or cabinet has a hole 
of slightly larger dimensions to receive 
this pin. The loop terminals engage in 
imp jacks which should be mounted 
in a piece of hard rubber or bakelite 
on the top of the cabinet and kept from 
touching the wood of the cabinet. The 
leads of these jacks run directly to their 
respective connections in the circuit. 

Under-Side of Sub-Base 

THE intermediate transformers^ being 
of the iron core type and shielded, 
can be placed very close together without 
any symptoms of inter-stage reaction. 
If it were not for this fact, it is doubtful 
whether it would be possible to build 
a practical 6-tube super-heterodyne. 
The audio transformer is of the same 
make as the intermediates and occupies 
very little space. The two by-pass 
condensers included within the oscillator 
circuit are found just back of the input 
transformer and are connected in com- 

part of the "Super." This will give one an idea as 
so as not to interfere with the oscillation coupler or 

mon to the negative "A" return, through 
the filament rheostat. 

The other side of each of these con- 
densers is connected to the positive 
"A" battery return and the plus "B" 
battery return respectively. Not using 
a bias battery permits of placing the 
rotor of the oscillator in the circuit so 
that the circuit leads from positive "A" 
return through the rotor to the middle 
tap of loop, through loop to stator side 

of the loop condenser, to grid 
leak, through grid leak to grid 
of first detector tube. 

Heretofore, when using bias 
"C" battery, it was placed 
with its positive side con- 
nected to the negative "A" 
return in common with one 
side of each of the by-pass con- 
densers. The rotor of the os- 
cillator was then placed in the 
position now occupied by the 
grid leak and grid condenser. 
Further examination will re- 
veal that the cases of the two 
intermediates are grounded in 
common, on the plus "A" bat- 
tery lead. The by-pass con- 
denser across the positive "B" 
and detector "B" is fastened 
to the side of the supporting 
bracket. The transformers 
are mounted on top of a nar- 
row piece of one-quarter of 
an inch bakelite, so that the 
transformer as a whole stands 
one-quarter of an inch away 
from the underside of the 

This leaves plenty of room 
for running the longitudinal wiring 
and keeps it well out of the way. The by- 
pass condenser across the primary of 
the audio transformer is usually found 
to work best if it is about .004 capacity, 
although this capacity can only be de- 
termined by experimenting, as char- 
acteristics of individual sets will vary 
somewhat. However, it is extremely 
important that this capacity be right, 
otherwise, the best (Turn to page 66) 

A view of the "Baby Grand" Super-heterodyne from the rear. Note especially the 
method of mounting of the long wave transformers directly under the radio frequency 
tubes. This method provides for exceptionally short connections. 

RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 25 

Experimenting with 
Short Waves 


THE average radio fan of today 
"builds his own." Truly, he ap- 
parently is never satisfied and 
always has an idea that the manufactured 
set is better than his own product. And 
what is a fine circuit this week is, ap- 
parently, cast into oblivion the next. 

This is as it should be. For, not only 
is he satisfying himself regarding the 
value of the various circuits, but he is 
doing considerable experimenting for 
the radio industry in general. It is in 
this manner that new circuits are de- 
veloped and perfected. 

How many times have you noticed 
that a circuit will be heralded as the 
best and most desirable, only to find 
that after a short period, improvements 
will be announced? Check up on these 
improvements and what are they? A 
fixed condenser added here, a reversed 
connection there, and the perfected 
circuit will be many times better than 
the original. These things are not found 
by formula, but rather by experiment. 
Hence we look on the radio set-builder 
as an experimenter. 

Take, for example, one of the lunda- 
mental circuits of radio reception, the 
"old reliable" three-circuit receiver. 

New Tuner Tested 

I" TNTIL a few short months ago, what 
^ was looked upon as ideal equipment 
consisted of a vario-coupler and a pair 
of variometers. These are in them- 
selves admirable pieces of apparatus. 
But how much more efficient are the 
small skeleton-wound three-circuit tun- 

At the left is a 

back view of Mr. 
Dillion s shortwave 
receiver. The sim- 
plicity of the wir- 
ing and the efficient 
spacing of the ap- 
paratus is evident. 

ers, all mounted on one j 
small bakelite frame! Not 
only are they more efficient I 
electrically, but they are 
much more convenient me- 

No formula was directly jj 
responsible for their devel- VKmmmfi. 
opment. It was accom- 
plished by experiment. So we must con- 
sider the man who builds his own, not 
as a "dabbler" but as an experimenter 
who very frequently contributes some- 
thing to the science for our own common 
good. So much for the experimenter. 

Almost all of us have by this time 
advanced through the maze of crystal, 
regenerative, neutrodyne and reflex 
stages, and are looking around for new 
and more fertile fields in which to try 
our hand. Such being the case, it is 
time we considered the most recent addi- 
tion to our already broad field — short 
wave reception. 

Before we go any farther into the sub- 
ject, it might be well to explain that by 
short waves we mean those waves whose 
bands are below those covered by 
the amateurs and broadcasters. 

For the past two and one-half years 
much has been said and written con- 
cerning short waves, and most of these 
explanations have called for a good deal 
of special apparatus. Most of us, after 
reading a few such reports, surrendered 
the subject to the scientist, and went 
back to problems nearer home. 

Many of the larger stations of this 
country such as WGY, KFKX, KDKA, 

The Latest Thing 
in Radio 

The men who know what's what 
in the world of radio are predict- 
ing that the broadcasting of the 
future will be done by means of 
short waves, which are now being 
used by only a few broadcasters 
suchas KDKA, WGY.and KFKX. 
In the accompanying article 
RADIO AGE presents to its read- 
ers for the first time a construc- 
tion article for those fans who wish 
to build a simple short wave re- 
ceiver. All the parts are standard 
and there are no "tricks." It will 
be great sport indeed to hear broad- 
cast programs on 84 meters or 
thereabouts. We shall be pleased 
to hear from readers regarding 
clarity of reception, and other re- 
sults obtained with this receiver. 

etc., are using short waves with regular- 
ity, and it only remains for the fan to 
construct a set capable of tuning low 
enough that will enable him to receive 
these short wave signals and put him in 
the front rank of radio experimentation. 
The set to be described will consist of 
a detector and two stage audio frequency 
amplifier. It is very easy to construct, 
and the wiring has been simplified by 
using soft wire in place of the usual stiff 
bus bar style of connection. The tuner 
is particularly efficient, being quite small 
and carrying no dead end losses. It 
covers the wave band on which it is to 
be used, fifty to one hundred and ten 
meters, very nicely. The primary is 
adjustable and untuned, thus permitting 
it tb be adjusted to meet your own par- 
ticular requirements. Selectivity can 
be secured by increasing the coupling 
between primary and secondary, a small 
bracket being supplied for that purpose. 
The tickler or feed-back coil has a 180- 
degree variation and is wound with the 
lowest essential number of turns to se- 
cure perfect action of this control. It is 
wound in such a manner as to insure low 
capacity effect against the secondary. 
The secondary coil itself is low loss, 

26 RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

Front panel view of the completed short wave receiver. The dial to the left is the wave- 
length control, while the one on the right controls the tickler or regeneration coil. 

space wound. This means that the turns 
of wire do not touch one another, but 
are separated by a slight "air gap" 
about as wide as the wire itself. 

Now Used for DX 
Tj^OR some time it has been known 
-*- - that short waves could be used for 
transmitting purposes. However, until 
quite recently they were not considered 
satisfactory for long distance work. 

Heinrich Hertz, the German physicist, 
used them in his experiments. By their 
use he was able, with the aid of apparatus 
he had perfected, to be the first to 
measure a radio wave. While he was 
experimenting with short wave trans- 
mission, he devised what is known as 
the "Hertzian oscillator" which is used 
today in connection with short wave 

After Hertz's experiments, short waves 
were forgotten, as they were thought 
to be of no practical use. During the 
war they were used to a small extent, 
and quite recently Marconi did phenom- 
enal work in transmitting signals from 
England to Australia, on a 100 meter 
wavelength, with remarkably low power. 

What are the advantages of short wave 
transmission? The one big advantage 
is the high radiation efficiency gained. 
For the same input power, stronger waves 
will be sent out from the antenna, the 
shorter the wavelength used. Another 
advantage is the elimination of static 
to a large extent. This latter advantage 
can be accounted for in a great measure 
by the comparatively small antenna 
used at the receiving end. 

So much for explanations; now for the 
construction details. To build the set 
you will need the following parts: 

1 Short wave tuner, 

1 Condenser, variable, to match 

1 Panel T'xW'x'X", 

1 Sub-panel 12"x3}i"xJ4"j 

1 Set of brackets for mounting 
sub panel, 

2 Audio frequency transformers, 
1 Grid leak, 1 to 2 megohms, 

1 Grid condenser .00025 MFD, 
1 Single circuit jack, 
1 Double circuit jack, 
1 Filament switch,'' 

The Magazine of the Hour 

3 Vacuum tube sockets, 

1 Rheostat, resistance to be de- 
termined by the tube used as a de- 

2 Fixed resistance cartridges, for 
controlling filament heat on the 
amplifier tubes. 

7 Binding posts, 

2 Dials, 

— Wire, screws, etc. 

For receiving short wave, high power 
transmission, as this set is designed to 
pick up, you should employ an antenna 
whose length should not exceed eighty 
feet of wire from the farthest point to 
the point connected to the set. This is 
in accordance with the principle that 
short antennas give greater selectivity 
and less interference from static. Keep 
the antenna as far as possible from metal 
roofs, gutters, down spouts or wire lines. 

A high capacity antenna may result 
in raising the wavelength of the antenna 
circuit to a value within the broadcast 
range, thus causing interference from 
local or nearby stations of low wave- 
length, regardless of the position of the 
adjustable primary. This may be easily 
remedied by placing a fixed condenser 
in series with the antenna. The con- 
denser should have a capacity of between 
100 and 500 MMF. 

You should be sure of a good ground 
connection. The usual water pipe in- 
stallation has proven very satisfactory. 

As the circuit itself is a tried and 
proven one, I will not go into construction 
details regarding it. A few hints concer- 
ing the wiring will suffice. Avoid all 
angular bends, using a wire about the 
same size as standard bus, but more flex- 

Upon completion of the set, the ad- 
vanced experimenter may plunge himself 
into this, the newest field of radio re- 
search. And let him remember, that the 
engineers of the industry are all predicting 
that the next few years will find all broad- 
casting done on short waves. 

tzz'A So/rs. 


Wiring diagram of the three-circuit short wave receiver, described in the accompanying article. The dotted lines at the left hand side 
of the diagram show how the grid return is placed if a hard tube is used as a detector. 

RADIO AGE for March, 1925 


is Radio 




YW/ILL Radio Change 
W Our Ideas of Life 
and our Very Philos- 
ophy? Possibilities and 
Fundamentals of "Rad- 
iant Energy" Explained 
for The Beginner About 
to Study Ethereal Secrets; 
Easy Hookup Shown. 

The Magazine of the Hour 27 

WHAT is radio going to do to us? 
I do not mean, How will it change 
our lives by introducing new plea- 
sures and new conveniences; it will do 
much more than that. 

A tremendous question to consider is, 
will it not in the long run change our 
very thinking — will it reform our way of 
looking at life; in other words, our philo- 

Before radio is done with us, it may 
cause a revolution in thought as radical 
perhaps as that which occurred when 
Darwin presented his theory of evolution. 

Knowledge is "Evolutionary" 
"T\ARWIN stated all life evolves from 
-■- , simpler forms through a process of 
the "survival of the fittest." After his 
pronouncements, we soon had a new way 
of thinking — a new way of looking at life. 
Systematic knowledge has been rear- 
ranged since Darwin according to the 
point of view of evolution. Biology and 
zoology, for example, have been reclas- 
sified according to evolutionary progres- 
sion. We study history as evolution. 
We have the evolution of art. We even 
have evolutionary classifications of such 
diversified things as chemistry, philo- 
sophy and religion. 

Is it possible that radio may bring such 
a profoundly new and revolutionary con- 
ception of life? Will radio, and what it 
essentially signifies, revise our thinking? 

It is not at all improbable that radio 
may bring about that very thing. We 
may be on the threshold of new ideas of 
life. To begin with, radio is making 
millions, young and old, think in a new 
way. It is a tremendous educational 
force for science. As it dawns on these 
inquiring minds what radio, or radiant 

Whither are we going? What mysteries will the 
radio of the 'future unfold? Oniy the figurative 
*'Lady Quanta" picturized above can tell. 

energy, really is, and what it means, the 
world will look different to some people. 

Exactly what radio is alone is a signifi- 
cant question. Have you not often put 
that problem to yourself as a beginner? 
When you get that question adequately 
answered, you will have a different set of 
values of life than you ever had before. 

What, then, is radio? What is this 
force which flies over thousands of miles 
at a speed of 186,000 miles per second and 
passes through your body and mine all 
unknown to us; even through brick and 
stone, unimpeded? The scientists tell us 
that it is akin to the gamma rays of 
radium, to X-rays, to the actinic rays of 
the sun; to light and to heat; and they 
call it "radiant energy." 

Radio A Ray 

"CURST of all, Einstein, Planck, Bohr, 
*- Milliken, Michelson and other pains- 
taking scientists have in unlocking the 
deepest secrets of nature proved "that 
radio is not a wave as popularly sup- 
posed. It is a ray consisting of well-nigh 
infinitesimal particles. 

To make you comprehend how amaz- 
ingly small these particles are, I must tell 
you about these mslecules, atoms and 
electrons. You know that when matter 
is divided and subdivided further and 
further that you finally reach a particle 
which can no longer be divided without 
changing its nature. This is the mole- 

For example, divide a molecule of 
water and you split it into an atom of 
oxygen and two atoms of hydrogen, 
these atoms being gases. 

Atoms are most incomprehensibly 
small. They have been measured, and 
the atom of helium, for example, is one- 

The unim- 
posing micro- 
phone will 
play an im- 
portant role 
in the politi- 
cal and edu- 
cational life 
of the future, 
this author 

fifty-millionth of a centimeter in dia- 
meter. This means that if a centimeter 
were stretched out until it became as 
long as the diameter of the earth itself 
and used to measure the helium atom, 
the diameter of the latter would be but 
9}4. inches. 

But a centimeter is a centimeter, which 
means it is approximately two-fifths of 
an inch. So the atom is small indeed. 
And yet, small as it is, the atom is a vast 
system in itself, resembling the solar 
system more than anything else. For 
the atom has a nucleus, or "sun" as its 
center and around this from one to about 
ninety "planetary" electrons revolve. 

Professor Milliken says that Professor 
Wilson has with a series of ingenious 
photographs indicative of electronic 
paths, given us "the most convincing 
evidence that the atom is a sort of minia- 
ture stellar system with constituents 
which are unquestionably just as minute. 
with respect to the total volume occupied 
by the atom as are the sun and planets and 
other constituents of the solar system 
with respect to the whole volume en- 
closed within the confines of the sys- 

But minute as the atom is, and in- 
finitely more minute its constituent elec- 
trons, there is something still "minuter." 
That is radio or "radiant energy." 
Electrons have the ability to migrate 

28 RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 

along an electrical conductor — a wire for 
example — and such a current of electrons 
is what constitutes the current of elec- 

Let us alternate this current in a trans- 
mitting antenna. This means we will 
send the electrons surging first in one 
direction along the wire and then in the 
reverse direction. Each time we reverse 
the current of rapidly surging electrons, 
particles still smaller than the electron or 
"electron dust" are jerked loose and sent 
flying in all directions in straight lines. 
This "dust" consists of minute "bags of 
energy" designated by Professor Max 
Planck as "quanta." 

"Quanta" Does It 
TT is this infinitesimal "quanta" which 
-^-carries the radio message at the speed of 
186,000 miles per second from the trans- 
mitting antenna to the receiving antenna, 
which may be a thousand miles away. 

This brings us tp the significance of 
radio or "radiant" energy." It is that 
which we know as "matter" or the 
material world, that is pot so solid as we 
had supposed. "Solid" matter is ex- 
tremely thin and nebulous. In fact, it 
is no denser than the solar system with 
its far-flung planets. Matter is only 
made apparently dense through the 
motion of its constituent particles. A 
scientist has shown this with a striking 
example. He has calculated that all the 
battleships in the world, if the motion of 
their electrons were stopped and every 
particle were crowded tightly together, 
would occupy but one cubic inch. 

What, then, is the human being? If 
even steel is so thin, that if iron is, after 
all, nebulous or like air, what a poor thin 
substance is man! We are like ghosts 
indeed, having virtually no real substance 
at all — only apparent substance. We 
may indeed be spirtual manifestations; 
and although this term would not mean 
anything to the scientist, we may specu- 
latively press him with it and ask him to 
explain what the "quanta" consists of and 
whether this and mind may not be the same 
or composed of at least one fundamental 
substance underlying everything. 

Neither can the scientist answer yet 
what consciousness is, or what thought 
consists of, or whether 
thought may not be trans- 
ferred like radio. Sir Oliver 
Lodge believes it can be. 

Furthermore, all that we 
see and experience is but a 
small fraction of reality. 
Our eyes are "tuned" to. re- 
ceive light rays only. Now 
radio rays are the same thing, 
except they are slower in 
"frequency." If our eyes 
were properly tuned, we 
might see radio rays and the 
world would appear vastly 
different. Or, if our eyes 
were tuned differently still, 
we might plainly see heat 
rays, or the ultra-violet rays 
of the sun, or X-rays. Or 
about a radio coil we might 
see the magnetic rays or 
"fields of force," whirling and 
boiling. All this is just as 
real as anything we do see. 

How differently is the man of the 
future going to conceive of the reality of 
the world, of life? Hasn't the imma- 
terial and the invisible grown in great 
significance because of radio? Have we 
not become dimly conscious of the vast- 

Showing how an electron composed of 
several atoms throws off the "quanta," 
which carries the radio message at a speed 
of 186,000 miles a second from the trans- 
mitting aerial to your receiving set. 

ness of the unknown world .toward which 
scientists are headed like new Colum- 

Not only is the solidity of this material 
world facing to the new sight of science, 
but mind is ascending by aid of radio to 
new peaks of power and dignity. A man, 
the President of the United States, for 
example, may speak today and his mes- 
sage can be conveyed to the ears of every- 
one of the 110 million souls in America, 
if sufficient receiving sets were provided. 
Similarly it would be possible as soon as 
sufficient sets were on hand, for one man 
to address every being on the planet. 
Some great man of the future; some 
Clemenceau, Wilson or Lloyd George — 
some modern St. Francis or Luther, some 
new Caruso or Beethoven, some future 
Einstein or Pasteur, on some great oc- 
casion might address virtually all man- 
kind from pole to equator, from metro- 
polis to jungle. 






.oooS k — .«■/■ 

A ~B + 

The simplest form of a radio receiving set is shown above. It is 
of the type that is commonly known as a single circuit receiver 
and is excellent for a beginner's experiments. 

While such a thing would be spec- 
tacular, it would have a deep significance, 
too. It would signify that just as dis- 
tance has been annihilated, so matter has 
been virtually conquered also by mind. 
One hundred ton engines and heavy 
trains are no longer needed to complete 
communication. The spirit of men has 
become the master of all this. That 
spirit has come into dominance and it 
follows that mind and spirit will take on 
a new importance, a higher valuation in 
our regard for life. 

And this will be all the more true when 
radio makes its next and imminent con- 
tribution, which will be vision at a dis- 

For the benefit of the "green" beginner 
in radio, we are publishing herewith an 
unusually simple hookup that will ex- 
plain itself as it is put together and 
operated. It is the construction of such 
simple sets as this one that will lift the 
veil surrounding radio for the average 

The circuit I am about to describe to 
you is the simplest of all radio cir- 
cuits. It consists of a simple coil of 
wire, fifty or seventy turns, wound on a 
cardboard or bakelite tube, three inches 
in diameter. 

A honey-comb coil can be used in 
place of the homemade coil. 

Procure from your radio dealer a vari- 
able condenser, having a capacity of .0005 
mfd. (microfarads), a grid leak having a 
resistance of about two megohms, a grid 
condenser with a capacity of .00025 mfd., 
a rheostat having a resistance for the 
kind of tube you will use as your detec- 
tor, a vacuum tube socket to fit the tube 
you have on hand or prepared to pur- 
chase, and a small fixed condenser for 
the head-phones, having .001 mfd. as 
its capacity. 

Supposing that you have already in- 
stalled your antenna, which should be a 
single wire about 125 feet long from the 
farthest end to the end that is connected 
to the set proper. 

The next thing to do will be to connect 

one end of the coil to one terminal of the 

grid leak. The other terminal of the 

grid leak is connected directly to the 

grid connection on the 

vacuum tube socket. 

The other terminal of the 
coil is connected to the sta- 
tionary plates of the variable 
condenser, while the movable 
plates are connected to the 
ground circuit. By consult- 
ing the wiring diagram, you 
can readily determine just 
how the balance of the set 
is wired. 

The positive side of the 
battery used to heat the 
filament is connected to the 
negative side of the battery 
that supplies the plate cur- 
rent, or "B ' battery. A 
wire from the negative side 
of the "A" battery is con- 
nected to the rheostat, while 
the positive side goes 
directly to one of the fila- 
ment prongs of the tube 

RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

The Magazine of the Hour 29 

The Sleuths of Honeymoon Camp 

How Three Couples 
of Newlyweds Set a 
"Radio Trap" for a 
Couple of Burglars 




IT LAST! The tandem trio of 
L\ honey-moon couples were in 
■J- ■*- "honeymoon camp." Their 
planning for this event had not 
been so long, but it had seemed 
long. They had planned intensively, 
and when folks do things with this big 
word, time is measured with instru- 
ments of magnitude. That is where 
we get the expression "big time." 
All these three couples had been 
married in tandem succession in one 
month, and weeks before the first of 
their weddings they began to plan their 
honeymoon together. Several confer- 
ences were held, and the whole gamut of 
mid-year recreation was discussed. In 
imagination they pictured themselves 
going all the way from the Adirondacks 
to the Pacific coast and from Niagara 
Falls to the woods and lakes of northern 
Wisconsin. Finally they decided to 
economize money, time,, and distance 
and go camping fifty-four miles from 

They went in Billy Rumford's seven- 
passenger touring car and Jerry Ander- 
son's sedan, leaving behind them a 
much peeved community. The young 
husbands were so much in love with 
their brides, and the brides were so 
proud of their husbands, that they just 
simply didn't seem to have any use for 
anybody else. It was the "talk of the 
town;" that is, the society end of things. 
Everybody was "good and sore." Sev- 
eral of their outraged friends, among 
them Charley Patterson, Burt Morris 
and Steve Mayfair, organized them- 
selves into a "Punishment Club," boldly 
announcing the vengeful purpose of 
their constitution and by-laws before 
the departure of the "tandem trio." 

Billy and Helen 

"DILLY RUMFORD and his bride, 
-*-* Helen, a girl of plain appearance, 
but compelling wit and spirit, sat in the 
front seat of the Touring car. Behind 

,i Pictures by 


"What's this? Listen ..." exclaimed Billy. 

"Finest silverware you ever saw,'' one of the voices in the loud speaker was saying. 
"Wonder if there's not some diamonds here too." 

"Ray's broadcasting burglar alarm is working!" Alice cried. "There are burglars 
in the house!" 

folding cots, folding chairs, poles, ropes, 
kitchen utensils, canned and cured 
foods, vegetables, and, by no means 
least of all, Billy's locally famous radio- 
phone outfit of 50-watts power, for the 
removal of which he had a special permit. 
In the sedan rode Jerry Anderson with 
his pretty bride, Alice, and Carl Frisbee 
with his timid but naively brilliant wife, 

All went well until about five miles 
from their camping destination, when 
the engine of the sedan began to balk. 
The three young husbands worked on 
it for an hour, but were unable to locate 
the trouble. At last Billy said: 

"Let's give it up and tow her the rest 
of the way. It's getting late, only three 
hours till sundown, and we've got the 
tents to pitch, supper to get, and the 
radio to hook up." 

This was agreed upon, and a tow was 
arranged with the skid-chains of the 
two machines. In this manner they 
reached their camping place on the 
shore of a small lake in a wilderness of 
woods, with the nearest house half a 
mile away. 

Then began the real "speed job" of 
the day. Two of the recent bridegrooms 
pitched the tents on an open, grassy 
plot near the lake and extended a single- 
wire antenna between two trees on 

them and on the running boards was opposite sides of the ISO-foot clearing, 
packed an amplitude of tent canvas, with insulators beyond the reach of 

the branches. The other husband, 
Carl Frisbee, built two fireplaces with 
stones, placing over one a metal broiling 
grate and suspending over the other 
a kettle from a stick-in-a-crotch crane 
for boiling water. Meanwhile, one of 
the young wives aided in unloading the 
touring car, setting up the cots in the 
tents, and in the distributing the camp 
furniture, while the other two prepared 

Half an hour after sundown the camp 
was "in shape" for the night, and a 
steaming supper was on the folding 
table, constructed for six "in a pinch." 
In the illumination of the automobile 
headlights, they ate the repast, while 
a smudge near-by served well to keep 
the mosquitos away. 

A Home-made Outfit 

AFTER supper Billy completed the 
hook-up of his radiophone. Then 
he jacked up the rear end of the touring 
car, took off the rim and tire of one of 
the wheels, and substituted a rim without 
a tire. A few feet from this improvised 
sheave wheel, he anchored his voltage 
generator and connected them with a 
power transmission cable. Then he 
started the automobile engine and soon 
was generating a voltage sufficient to 
broadcast a hundred miles or more. 

These preparations complete, Billy 
began to tune for some preliminary 


RADIO AGE/or March, 1925 

musical entertainment. The first he got 
was a bit of vaudeville, broadcast from 
a Chicago station. A song of mock- 
sadness was sung, and then a comedian 
began to broadcast some "wise cracks," 
which were answered naively by a 
character introduced by the joker as 
Mr. E. Z. Mark. 

"When is an automobile not a frog, 
Mr. Mark?" asked the fun maker. 

"I don't know, Mr. Smart," replied the 
other. "When is an automobile not a frog?" 

"When it is towed," replied Mr. Smart, 
whereupon there was a roar of 
stage laughter from a group 
evidently stationed before the 
microphone to produce the ap- 
plause of an "appreciative audi- 

"Oh, don't give us any more 
of that," protested Jerry, owner 
of the towed automobile. "See 
if you can't find some opera 
music that will harmonize with 
the voice of nature around us. 
I resent that slur on my sedan. 
Listen how beautifully the frogs 
are singing by the lake, and the 
crickets and the katydids — " 

"Yes, and the tree toads," in- 
terrupted Jerry. "Hear that one 
off there?" 

"Off where?" demanded Marie, 
tipping her head first to the right 
and then to the left in listening 

"You can't tell directions of 
the 'voices of the night'," said 
Helen sharply. "Didn't you ever 
try to locate a cricket by its voice?' 

"Yes, I have," Marie admitted; ' 
it's just about as hard to locate as a 

"Or a frog, or a tree oad or a whip-poor- 
will, or any sound broadcast out in the 
open country, particularly in or near the 
woods," said Carl. "All these noisy 
animals and insects are broadcasters, 
don't you know?" 

"Yes, and you need a radio compass 
to find them," suggested Helen. 

"Two or three in widely different posi- 
tions to determine their latitude and 
longitude," suggested Billy with the 
expertness of an experimenter. 

"They make me think of — of — burg- 
lars," said Marie with characteristic 
timidness. "Do find us some real nice 
music, Billy; something that will drown 
out all these ghostly noises." 

"Well, we don't want any burglarous 
shivers and shudders round here," Billy 
decreed. "I'll see what I can find," he 
continued as he began to twist the dials. 

"First, see if you can pick up any of 
our friends at home," suggested Alice. 

"Are you homesick already, Mrs. 
Anderson?" demanded Helen. 

"Not at all, Mrs. Rumford," flashed 
back the challenged bride, smartly; "but 
maybe some of the folks in town are 
talking about us." 

"Oh-ho, Miss Vanity — Mrs. Vanity, I 
mean! You know the old saying about 
people who listen secretly to what people 
say about them." 

"Hold on," interposed Jerry with mock 
challenge in his voice. "When you call 
my wife Mrs. Vanity, you call me Mr. 

The Magazine of the Hour 

There's no other way to explain that 
sort of talk." 

"Then Ray's broadcasting burglar 
alarm is working," Alice screamed. 
"There's burglars in the house. Oh, 
my, oh, my! What will we do?" 

Chapter II 

The Microphone Bullet Eater 

(^ HOST-LIKE silence hovered over 
^ the camp for several moments after 

"Gee, this is some find!" a 
heavy voice from the loud speaker 
said. " It' s father' s home! Alice 
cried with a picture of two rough 
characters in her mind. 

"Shame on you, Jerry," put in Helen. 
'You're an ideal husband, you are. 
That's what I call real vanity. Why 
don't you forget yourself and defend her?" 

"Here we are — stop your quarreling," 
announced Billy. "I don't know what 
I've got, but I've got something. I 
tuned to get your brother at your folks' 
home, Alice, but there are strange voices 

"Why, my folks are away," Alice 
replied. "You can't get anybody there. 
They've gone to Lake Geneva. I thought 
I told you that." 

"Is that so? Well, listen here. My 
goodness. What's this? Listen." 

A Voice in the Dark 

Even before he finished his excited 
utterances, the voices in the loud speaker 
were becoming more and more distinct, 
with awesome foreboding. 

"Yes, these are real stuff, solid silver," 
one of the voices was saying. "Finest 
lot of silverware you ever saw. And look 
at this pitcher — solid stuff, Bimbo, and 
these trays. What a silver mine! Won- 
der if there's not some diamonds here. 
Ought to be. We'll take a trip to Europe 
or the Sandwich Islands on this haul, 

"What does it mean, Jerry?" Alice 
gasped, seizing her husband's arm. 
"Billy, that isn't father's home, is it? 
It can't be, it surely can't be." 

"I'm afraid it is," Billy replied. 

Alice's panicky declaration. Helen was 
the first to break it. 

"Oh, you must be mistaken," she said, 
addressing both Billy and Alice. "They 
wouldn't be so foolish as to broadcast a 
confession of their guilt to the whole 

"They're' not doing it purposely," 
Billy replied. "But maybe you don't 
fully understand Ray's invention." 

"Oh, yes, I do," Alice insisted. "He's 
described it to me several times, and I 
can recite it off like a book. He's in 
Washington now perfecting his patent 
and consulting with government radio 
officials on his automatic shift for sending 
and receiving, which makes it possible 
to call a station when the operator is 
not listening in. He has this in opera- 
tion at home in conjunction with a burglar 
alarm, which is heard by every listening 
amateur in range of his transmitter if 
burlgars break into the place." 

"Yes, and he's had the device in 
operation only a short time and hasn't 
explained it to any other amateurs, 
except me, so far as I know, for fear his 
patent be stolen before it is perfected," 
said Billy. "So we're the only ones of 
all those now listening in that will under- 
stand that alarm or the burglars' con- 

"The device is simple, but ingenious. 
An electro-magentic wave of given length 
and impulse serves to kill a magnet 
(Turn to page 70) 

RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 31 

Wkat tke 
roadc asters 
are Doing 

Graduation Held Over Radio 
at WCCO 

air — that is t 

exercises over the 
air — that is the latest feature from 
the Gold Medal Station, Minneapolis- 
Saint Paul, WCCO. Wednesday, Jan- 
uary 21st, at 2:00 p. m. the graduates 
of the first Gold Medal Radio Cooking 
School received their diplomas, listened 
to the Baccalaureate address by Betty 
Crocker, who directed the school, and 
heard the valedictorian and salutatorian. 

The first Gold Medal Radio Cooking 
School opened on November 4th. Classes 
were held every Tuesday morning over 
the air, when Betty Crocker, Home 
Economics Specialist of the Station, 
instructed. Approximately 2,000 women 
from fourteen states registered for the 
course, which was completed December 

In order to graduate and receive a 
diploma, it was necessary that certain 
recipes which had been given in the 
classes be worked out and reports made 
on them. Although the school ended 
at a busy time just before the holidays, 
250 women from five Northwest states 
qualified for graduation. 

It was impossible for all of them to 
come to Minneapolis to receive their 
diplomas during the graduation exercises 
at the Gold Medal Station, so an effort 
was made, Miss Betty Crocker stated, 
to have at least one representative from 
each state there. 

The graduation exercises were similar 
to those conducted by the average schools, 
with special music arranged by WCCO 
artists. That these exercises aroused a 
large amount of interest among the women 
who participated in the course is evi- 
denced by the letters received, it was 

One Wisconsin woman wrote in that 
she and several of her neighbors had 
taken the course and met in her home on 
January 21 to listen in on the graduation 
exercises, and said she had a new dress 
made for the occasion. 

The oldest student in the class was an 
82-year old Minneapolis woman. She 
wrote to Betty Crocker that she was 
particularly interested in completing the 
work and graduating, as she had never 
before graduated from anything in her 
life. She completed all of the work 
assigned and received her diploma. 

Two blind women were also among 
the students. They stated that the 
course had been of particular value to 
them because they could not read maga- 
zines and get the suggestions of which 
other women make use. 

Movie Star Meets Doom 
Before "Mike" 

known motion picture star, has 
faced thousands of movie cameras without 
flinching, but he admittedly met his 
Waterloo lately when he faced the mic- 
rophone of Station WGN, located on 
the Drake Hotel, Chicago. 

Mr. Kerrigan was schedulea ..o appear 
on one of WGN's afternoon programs 
and to tell of his experiences while engaged 
in filming "The Covered Wagcn," of 
which he is the star. 

Before he was able lO get launched 
into the topic of his talk, he moved his 
arm and unintentionally shut off the 
microphone. He talked for fully five 
minutes before it was discovered that his 
words were not travelling farther than the 
confines of the velvet-lined studio. 

Mr. Kerrigan was told to start all over 
again — which he did. "But," he ex- 
plains, "from then on I was all upset 
I stuttered, gasped and said things 
never meant to be said. Finally I told 
Quin Ryan to shut off the juice. The 
microphone had licked me." 

(The photo of Mr. Kerrigan above is 
copyright by the Drake Studio.) 

Kiutus Tecumseh, a full-biooded Indian, 
prides himself as the "radio representa- 
tive of the Red Men," and in their cause 
he is travelling among the big radio sta- 
tions, singing famous Indian melodies and 
telling i their romantic history. He is 
now appearing from WEAF, New York. 

During 1924 

\ REVIEW of the year's operation 
-^*- of WGY, the Eastern station of 
the General Electric Company at Schen- 
ectady, N. Y., shows that the station 
was on the air 1,630 hours during 1924, 
an average of about four and one half 
hours per day. 

WGY is not on the air Wednesday 
evenings except on very rare occasions, 
under special permit from the radio 
supervisor, and Monday evenings the 
station leaves the air promptly at 9 
o'clock, at which time WHAZ of Troy, 
N. Y., is licensed to hold forth. In 1923 
the total of operating hours was 1,106. 

The increase of operating hours for 
WGY from 1923 to 1924 is due to the 
expanding activities of the station and 
also to the broadcasting of the national 
conventions of the Republican and 
Democratic parties, as well as several 
campaign speeches by the presidential 

Efficiency is High 

-ne efficiency of the station, during 
the period it was on the air, was 99.99. 
This record speaks well for the watch- 
fulness and expertness of the radio 
engineers who are responsible for the 
operation of the station. These men who 
are never heard by the radio audience 
are responsible for the quality of the 
transmitter signals and on their alertness 
depends the continuity of the program. 

During 1924 there were seven sus- 
pensions of broadcast service from WGY 
due to apparatus trouble and five of 
these breaks in program came during 
daylight transmission. The total time 
lost was thirty-six minutes. On one 
occasion, lightning struck the antenna 
and induction burned out meters and 
condensers. Service was suspended fifteen 
seconds, the time required to bring spare 
parts into commission. 

Tiny Station Shows 'Em 

Dreams of the undergraduate members 
of a little class in radio at Knox College 
at Galesburg, Illinois, of establishing a 
Class "A" broadcasting station were 
fulfilled during February as a result of 
their own efforts when WFBZ, the 
Siwash station, took the air for the first 
time and broadcast a Knox-Monmouth 
basket ball game to nearby States with 
an outfit costing but $175, which made a 
good showing within a radius where 
there were many stations costing from 
S10.000 to 860,000 sending forth their 


RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 

Down the Corridors of Time 

H A Breath of Old-World 
Romance from SBR, Belgium 

YOU do not need to get your thrill 
of Old World romance out of 
pictures, tales or travels nowadays. 
Just tune in on 265 meters one of these 
unstatic evenings and listen to a, musical 
instrument that was built centuries be- 
fore you or I or our granddads were born. 
Tune sharply and listen carefully and 
you will hear M. Marcel van Loust de 
Borkenfeldt announce that it is Station 
SBR, Brussels, Belgium. 

Lucky are you if you cuance to tune 
in on one of those evenings that M. 
Borkenfeldt tells you that the next num- 
ber will be a carillon solo by M. Josef 
Denyn. For that will be the piece de 
resistance of old country radio 
broadcasting. M. Denyn is 
the master of the bells in the 
ages-old tower of the cathed- 
ral at Malines. Malines is the 
historic town, north of Brus- 
sels, where Cardinal Mercier 
served his God and his coun- 
try and delivered his memor- 
able Phillipic against the war- 
riors who executed Edith 
Cavell. Malines made its 
voice heard throughout the 
world eight years ago because 
it chanced that the German 
gray-blue hordes passed that 
way into France and, in pas- 
sing, left a scar 

Like Days of Old 

DUT the war is over now 
-"-* and Belgium is the old 
Belgium of the days when the 
cafes were athrob with music, 
when the Grand Place at 
Brussels was a rendezvous for 
the volatile good folk and the 
gardens were merry with wine 
women and song. 

But the carillon. In the belfry at 
Malines are stationary bells which are 
"played" by M. Denyn, in much the 
same manner as one would play an organ 
or a piano, except that the musical con- 
trivance is on such a gigantic scale that 
no ordinary finger-board is sufficient to 
exploit it. The carillonneur must use a 
keyboard, called a clavier, and instead of 
running his fingers lightly over the keys, 
he must pound them lustily with his fists. 
An old authority has laid down the rule 
that a "carillonneur must have good 
hands and feet and be free from the gout." 

The carillon at Malines was famous 
before the advent of radio broadcasting. 
But it is much more famous since radio 
carried the rich, deep music of the enorm- 
ous bells across international boundaries 
and virtually across the seven seas. M. 
Borkenfeldt was too much of a radio 
artist to overlook the value of the Malines 
carillon, and when I visited him in his 
broadcasting station in Brussels last 
Summer, the one thing about which he 

ft* n t\ ,■ *»• *» 

Here is an excellent view of the Malines Cathedral, at 
Malines, Belgium. The chimes broadcast through SBR from 
the tower of this ancient structure have literally crossed the 
seven seas. (Drawing of cathedral by Briant Poulter by COW' 
tesy of "The Architect," London.) 


was most enthusiastic was his plan to 
broadcast the bells of Malines. He told 
me he would do it — and how astonishing 
has been his success! 

Crossing the Atlantic 

TN the recent international tests the 
■*- bells of Malines were heard as far 
west as Salt Lake City, Utah. They 
have been heard on the fringe of the 
burning sands of Algeria and in the 
winter of Helsingfors. M. Denyn has 
good hands and no gout. There is but 
one broadcasting station in Belgium. 
M. Borkenfeldt is very proud of it. It 
is owned by the Radio Belgiqu'e Stock 
Company. When I was in Brussels, 
the directors told me that the radio 
listeners who paid their government li- 
censes to listen in numbered 8,000 to 
9,000, while those who stealthily tuned 
in on unlicensed receiving sets num- 

M. Borkenjetdt, director and 
announcer of SBR, Belgium's 
onty radio station. 

bered 30,000 to 40,000 more. Belgium, 
it seems, has the Old World policy 
of making the fan pay for his enter- 

In days now almost prehistoric, the 
carillon was limited to three 
or four bells, but the num- 
ber of bells has increased 
until a good carillonneur must 
have reached the highest 
point of efficiency. M. Denyn, 
for example, is known as 
"The Liszt of the Bells." 
He has a repertoire that in- 
cludes not only Flemish music, 
but old English folk songs, 
Scotch airs, the national an- 
thems of several countries 
and many selections from 

M. Denyn is a good deal of 
a "Roxy" or a Jerry Sullivan 
or a Harry ,Snodgrass, if you 
will. He is invited to go to 
one country and another to 
play the local bells, and every 
season he is as regular in his 
appearance at Dorset as are 
American tourists in the so- 
called Sign of the Cheshire 
Cheese in dear old Lunnon. 

So keep an ear perked up 
for M. Borkenfeldt. You 
may hear him announcing 
from "Bruxelles" that M. 
Denyn is about to stir the 
echoes in the ancient belfry 
and send you a romantic mo- 
ment all the way down the corridors 
of time. 

Doing Fine, Thank You! 

T^HE question has often been raised 


concerning Belgium's confining it- 

self to only one radio station. M. Bork- 
enfeldt explains this by asserting that 
his countrymen are so enthused about 
Station SBR that they haven't the time 
or the inclination to grow dissatisfied. 

His innate ability to prepare varied 
programs that appeal to not only Bel- 
gians, but listeners in all the surround- 
ing European countries, is one of M. 
Borkenfeldt's outstanding accomplish- 
ments. Not only is he an expert pro- 
gram director, but a keen student of 
technical Radio as well. 

Truly, he is one of the few predomi- 
nating radio figures that have sprung up 
in Europe since the advent of broad- 
casting on the Continent. 

(Copyright: 1925: by Radio Ago. Inc.) 

RADIO AGE for March, 1925 





on the 




the Girl 



Play it! 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 33 

How "The Girl 
With the Sum- 
mer-Resort Name" 
Bowled Over 
the Radio Fans 
i in New York! 

And here's Vee, the girl 
who opened a radio station 
all by herself — and in New 
York, too! 

Gotham's "Radio Queen" 


NEW YORK:— The baby-queen of 
Roxy's Gang, the regular Sunday 
night spectacle of rythm and 
artistry broadcast from WEAF, New- 
York City, has no greater admirer — and 
a secret one too — than Joe, the night 
elevator man of the Capitol Theater Bldg., 
where the studio is located. 

Of course, Joe has his ups and downs, 
but he'll tell the world that Vee Lawn- 
hurst, "The Girl With The Summer- 
Resort Name," knows jazz from J to Z. 

It would be a shame to say that Vee 
played the piano! She's got a natural 
born gift of sitting down behind the keys 
and making every little do, re, mi, trill 
out a Jolsonian "Mammy" that would 
make Al turn crimson under his make-up. 
Zez Confrey wrote "Kitten on the Keys" 
— but little Vee plays it! Indeed, Irving 
would go back to Berlin if he wrote a staff 
of syncopation that Vee couldn't execute 
to the delight of every charter member of 
the Iwantadance Club. 

Ask the average radio or theatrical star 
her age and you get in return either a 

scowl or a misinterpretation of the truth 
— but again — it's different with Vee. 
"I'm nineteen" she'll smilingly reply. 
"And never been kissed?" you're just 
aching to ask her — but don't dare! 

Her First Attempt 

"(~)H, THAT first time before the mike," 
^-' Vee will tell you, "was the best 
and the worst. It was 2 o'clock in the 
morning, and they had just finished 
Station WGBS here in New York. It was 
the first testing program, and never a 
word had been ushered through that 
microphone before. I was announcer, 
singer, pianist — guess I was the whole 
show that early morning! 

"But I was just as scared as could be! 
I could just picture millions and millions 
of people all over the world as well as my 
own circle of friends located near the 
station making fun of my tongue-tied 

"That sure was some exciting morning! 
'This is err .... Station W . . . . WG 
. . . . WGBS err .... a test 

program' were the first words that I 
stuttered and faltered through. But one 
sudden and happy thought saved the day. 
I announced myself as 'Laura Lawn- 
hurst' — even said that she would favor us 
with a piano solo. Then I hustled off to 
the piano and played — -miserably! Next 
I announced some other tricky name and 
said she would sing. Well, she didn't — 
though honestly she tried awfully hard. 
And so went the little monologue on and 
on, for ages it seemed! 

"It was a test program — and some test 
too! Such a test it has never had since, 
I'm sure." 

But Vee is inclined to be a six letter 
word meaning reserved, as the Cross-word 
Puzzler would say. Modesty is a prized 
virtue, but especially so when Father 
Time has only nineteen short years 
chalked up against she who is modest. 

Yet, two years ago, when Vee was only 

seventeen, she was the star jazz pianola 

roll maker for Ampico and other leading 

companies. That's nothing! She's 

(Turn to page 73) 

34 RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 


he Boys Who Rose to Vaudeville 
Fame Are Now Real Radio Headline rs 


Tell How They Do It 

Ernie Loos, who can sing three octaves 
without flinching. 

IT WAS New Year's Eve— that night 
of nights when radio stations vie 
to put on the biggest "show" of 
the year; and on this occasion the place 
was the crystal radio studio of Station 
WEBH, located on the Edgewater Beach 
Hotel, Chicago. 

A tour of stations throughout the city 
and vicinity revealed that nearly every- 
one was going full blast at midnight, 
with a galaxy of stars that rivaled those 
to be found on the most pretentious 
legitimate stage. Every station had its 
"exclusive" artists, doing their best to 
keep that station on the air till the wee, 
small hours of the New Year. 

The Edgewater Beach Station had a 
group of sober yet peppy artists there, 
under the direction of Studio Director 
Dean Remick and Station Director 
Robert Boniel. The guests at the hotel 
viewed the radio artists through the 
glass studio with the eyes of persons 
who were used to such things and thought 
them perfectly commonplace. 

The Awakening 

BUT shortly after midnight people 
began to talk. Did you see those 
two immaculately evening-dressed men 
— not youngsters, but youngish looking 
men, who just entered the studio? Later 

Unbroken Partnership with Real Understanding, 
Responsible for Success, "Ernie and Billy" Say 

they sang together for the orchestra, 
and then they hied back to the studio, 
and, seated cozily in front of the studio 
piano, they reeled off crooning jazz 
ditties such as have never been heard 
before. Noses were pressed against the 
glass wall to get a better view of these 
veteran entertainers "in action" before 
the microphone. 

Questions revealed the information 
that the two distinguished-looking gen- 
tlemen were brothers — Ernie and Billy 
Loos. Ernie is the big fellow, who rolls 
his eyes when he sings those southern 
jazz melodies. Billy is the little one who 
tickles the ivories and harmonizes with 
a deep baritone with his brother's bass, 
or tenor — for Ernie's equally adept 
at either. 

Ernie and Billy appear at WEBH 
regularly. They have appeared on 
RADIO AGE programs from that station 
with great success. Their advent into 
radio entertainment is only recent, but 
for that reason radio fans should not 
get the idea that the Loos Brothers are 
new to American music lovers. 

On the contrary, they are one of the 
best known "brother" pairs on the Amer- 
ican vaudeville stage. Strange as it 
may seem, the Loos Brothers are really 
brothers. Their respective physiog- 
nomies, which may be compared to 
advantage, prove that. And again, 
strange to say, these brothers have 
remained together for nearly two dec- 
ades without a rift in the ranks. That 
is indeed an accomplishment. 

Ernie and Billy Loos began their 
careers singing illustrated songs for their 
father, one of Chicago's first motion 
picture exhibitors. However, they soon 
outgrew their father's direction, and 
branched off for themselves. They 
landed long-time contracts with the old 
Sullivan and Considine vaudeville circuit 
and later became a permanent institu- 
tion with Keith's circuit. 

Going the Rounds 

' | ''HEY have appeared during the last 
-*- ten years at nearly all of New York's 
big cafes and theatres, and until recently 
they were "fixtures" at the Marigold 
Gardens, Rainbo Gardens and with 
Isham Jones' orchestra in Chicago. Now 
they are devoting most of their time 

to entertaining by radio for big song 
publishers. Sooner or later they expect 
to be back in vaudeville, for as Ernie 
says, "It's in the blood.", 

Ernie Loos sings three octaves in 
tenor and bass, and some persons believe 
there are more than two singing when 
this pair start their vocal contortions. 
Billy plays the piano and sings a rich, 
full baritone that has won him wide 
commendation. Of course, they show 
to the best advantage on the stage, but 
even the curtain of the ether fails to 
shut out their dominating personality 
when they start such melodies as "Too 
Tired," "Broadcasting Mamma," (one 
of their own ditties) and "Oh, Mabel!" 

So popular have they become that 
persons visiting the Edgewater Beach 
Hotel insist that the Loos boys come out 
of the studio and sing to the gatherings 
in the Marine Dining Room. And of 
course "the bovs" do it. 

Billy Loos, who can sing a baritone and 
play the piano, too. 

RADIO AGE for March, 1925 

What the Broadcasters are Doing 35 

Hazel and Her Tantalizing Fiddle 

THOUSANDS of people 
throughout the broadcasting 
area of radio station WBAP 
at Fort Worth, Tex., adjust their 
headphones and tune in their loud speak- 
ers each Sunday night for the midnight 
concert, knowing that unusually good 
entertainment awaits them. 

Are they disappointed? If you have 
ever heard Miss Hazel Boyer and her 
"tantalizing fiddle" at this period, you 
can easily answer that question for your- 

To play effectively to a countless num- 
ber of people time after time, never failing 
to bring wires and long distance telephone 
messages from almost every state in the 
Union, to say nothing of the great quan- 
tity of mail received each week, is 
an achievement that few can boast 
of. Judging by the applause re- 
ceived by Miss Boyer, she is with- 
out doubt the most popular radio 
entertainer in the Southwest. 

At an Early Age 

AT THE age of five Hazel began 
- 1 *- her career as a violinist under 
the able teaching of her mother. 
Unlike most little girls of that 
tender age, she did not take her 
dollies to bed with her, but instead 
she religiously carried her violin up 
to her room each night and went 
to sleep with it hugged tightly in 
her arms. Her m