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Full text of "Radio Age (May 1922-Dec 1923)"

Rnnk . R 



Scanned from the collections of 
The Library of Congress 



AUDIO-VISUAL CONSERVATION 
at The LIBRARY of CONGRESS 




Packard Campus 

for Audio Visual Conservation 

www.loc.gov/avconservation 

Motion Picture and Television Reading Room 
www.loc.gov/rr/mopic 

Recorded Sound Reference Center 
www.loc.gov/rr/record 



^■«i ">* 'w 'w "^r "w 




Magazine of tKe Hour 




VOL. 1. 



MAY, 1922. 



NUMBER 1 



. . IN THIS NUMBER . . 



How to Make a Home Radio Set for $6. 

An Official U, S. Government Article For Boys. 

Chicago Boy's Simple Directions for 
Making Radiophone at Home. 

Fully and Clearly Illustrated. 

Questions and Answers. 

They Simplify Your Own Radio Problems. 

How to Get a Good Radio Set—- Free. 



A MAGAZINE FOR A MILLION FANS 



For Beginners, Experts, Dealers, Jobbers, Manufacturers 



$2.50 a Year 



25c a Coiay 



Radio Age 



f 



\\ 




PROSPECTUS 

UR special field : The Middle West and the West. This includes the 
"Chicago Territory" Avhich is unquestionably the richest agricultural, com- 
mercial, financial and industrial region in the world. Radiophones accord- 
ing to late figures published through the Associated Press, are being used in 
four States as follows : Iowa, 23,000 ; Missouri, 25,000; Nebraska, 22,000; Kansas, 
20,000; Wisconsin, 1,500 stations, increasing at the rate of 5 a day. Cleveland alone 
has 15,000 amateur and professional radio enthusiasts; St. Louis, 2,200; Dallas, 
263; Cincinnati, 500; Indianapolis, 1,000; ]Milwaukee, 1,000. Schools and colleges 
in all states are teaching radio, farmers all over the INIiddle West are installing radio 
sets; clubs are being organized everywhere. 

Chicago — Radio operatives are growing in number so rapidly that their number 
could only be approximateh^ estimated. Thousands of boys are studying practical 
radio science in the public schools. Dealers and manufacturers are unable to supply 
tlie demand for equipment. 

Our special circulation: Boy begimiers particularly, and amateurs generally. 
Radio Age will write Radio so that boys can understand it. There will be technical 
ai'ticles for the advanced students of Radio but the departments for beginners will 
not be written OVER THE READERS' HEADS. Numerous illustrations will 
aid amateurs in constructing HOME RADIO SETS. Getting a printed message 
across is simply one form of SALESMANSHIP and, it is a highly specialized 
line. Radio Age knows its market and knows how to supply it. 

Our sj^ecial departments: In addition to illustrated articles showing begin- 
ners how to launch out into the ether waves there will be original articles written by 
boj^s telling what they have done in Radio and how. There will be a Questions 
And Answers department, carefully handled; Radio Clubs will have attention with 
liberal use of names of individuals and photographs ; there will be a department for 
Trade News, a Radio Readers' Exchange, for letters of interest from our readers. 
These features will be supplemented by articles presenting facts about the growth 
of radio in popularity, about the constantly increasing list of practical uses for 
radio, about the importance of radio in its relation to society generally. Radio Age 
will have no narrowed view of its subject. 

It is the hour of Radio. We offer — 



"The Magazine of the Hour" 



Radio Ace, The Magazine of the Hour, piililihhed on April 8; a montlily maRrazine. Vol. I, No. 1. 
Publication ofHee, Garrick Building, 64 \V. Kandolpl) St., Chicago, 111. Soibscription price $2.50' 
a year. Published bv the M. B. Smith Publishing Co. Kntry as second class matter applied 
for at the postofflce at Chicago, niinois, under the ACT of March 3, 1879. 




(1.) 8ergt. Lawrence W. Bock no longer has "the lonesom.est job in the army." He is the operator of the 
army radio station at Fort McPherson, Ga. The picture shows him enjoying songs by Galli Curd broadcast from 
Atlanta, Ga. (2.) Edward Herron, Chicago boy, showing one he made himself. Edward is proud of it and has a 
right to be. (3.) Chicago Boys' Club No. 2, 1725 Orchard St., has a radio class. Left to right, George Hensel, 
Charles Coleman, Jr.. Erwin Alanap and William Pour. (4.) Elizabeth A. Bergner, radio instructor at Lane Techni- 



cal Hioh School pTrtlni 



in hpr rln 



Mm 



EADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Who's Who In Radio 




"Paddy" O'Neill 



/F WE were to fol- 
low a time-hon- 
ored custom we 
zvould devote this 
page to men who are 
great and famous. 
Edison, Fleming, 
Marconi and De For- 
est, to he sure. All 
honor to these celeb- 
rities. 

But the age of radio 
is essentially a '<ncw 
era for boys and the 
boys of today may be 
Steinmctzes tomor- 
row. 

So our first Who's 
Who presents "Pad- 
dy" O'Neill and Eddie 
Neils en. See Eddie's 
own story beginning 
on Page 5 and read 
about Paddy on this 
page. Send in your 
favorite boy radio 
"experts" for our 
Who's Who page. 




^^^-^ 



Edzuin Nielsen 




/~\NE of the most enthusiastic boy 
^-^ radio fans in the Middle "West is 
"Paddy" O'Neill, 11-year-old son of 
Detective Patrick J. O'Neill, who was 
killed by Tommy O'Connor, the Chi- 
cago gunman. 

Little Pat, now the "man of the fami- 
ly," owns a cheap receiving set, which 
he has rigged himself, driving a pipe 
into the ground in his back yard to 
ground the wires. Driving in the pipe 
took a whole day of the boy's time. 

As soon as his set was rigged and in 
operation, Pat called in all the neigh- 



bors to hear the Chicago Opera Com- 
pany, hearing the same music as though 
he and his friends were in the front 
row at the Auditoi'ium Theater — at $6 
a seat. 

The concerts are now a nightly fea- 
ture in the O'Neill home. Detective 
O'Neill was killed when he and six 
other detectives went to the home of 
William Foley, O'Connor's brother-in 
law, to arrest him for the forfeiture of 
bonds in a charge of robbery. O'Con- 
nor dashed from the house, firing as he 



ran. O'Neill fell, dying on the way to 
the hospital. 

Little Pat immediately took command 
of the family — his mother and three 
small brothers and sisters — acting for 
the grief-stricken woman in helping 
comrades of the slain policeman ar- 
range a fitting funeral. 

Through the generosity of Chicago 
citizens more than $10,000 was raised 
fo;* the bereaved family. 

Pat also wired their little home, and 
once tapped the service wires of the — 
— but that's a secret. 



I I 1 1 111 Ml II 1 1 1 II I II I ! I M II 1 1 H I I M 1 1 [ 1 1 1 1 1 \ 1 1 1 1 1 II I \M 1 1 1 1 \ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 \ 1 1 1 I I I u 1 1 n I I I I u 1 1 '■ 1 1 1 [ 1 1 1 1 1 nil 1 1 1 1 1 n II I Mil I m \ xn: 







S^ 



FMD/O MGE 




4- Tfte Ma^a^ine oe Ifte Hour ^ ^^^^^.>™^ ^.„^* 

M,B. SMITH ^ €f y ' -^ FREBERIiliirilllll: 

PUBLISHED -M.ONTH1.Y GARRiCK. BL.DG CtiGO. 



PUBLISHE^Rj 




EDlpepiiiiiiiiiiillii 



Hill Mil l I I in I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I M I I I I I I [ II u I I I I I 1 I n u I 1 I I I 1 I I 11 I u 1 I II I III II I I I I I II n I II I I M I I I I M I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I M I I I 1 I I I I 1 1 I I I ii r 



Great Radio Shows To Come 



THE Radio show at the Hotel Penn- 
sylvania in New York set that city 
radio wild and greatly increased 
the interest in other shows to be given 
in the larger cities. Pittsburgh and Bos- 
ton come first and then Chicago is to 
have two expositions, one in the Leiter 
Building, from June 26 to July 1, in- 
clusive, and the other in the Coliseum 
during the week of October 15 to 21. 

How you can send your morning kiss 
by radio to your wife while speeding 
over the rails on fast trains, how you 
can enjoy the great concerts of the 
country, listen in on vaudeville per- 
formances and hear the world news 
while seated comfortably in your home 
will be visualized by the displays at 
the National Radio Exposition to be 
held in the Leiter Building, Chicago, 
June 26th to July 1st, inclusive. Radio 
fans will be enabled to see every type 
of apparatus in operation at this show, 
Avhere accessories by the gross will be 
exhibited and where numerous 
"stunts" will be put on to be broad- 
cast throughout the middle west. This 
announcement was made by Milo E. 
Westbrooke, well known exposition 
manager, who recently staged the 
National Shoe Exposition in Chicago 
and who has put on some of the big- 
gest trade shows in New York and 
Chicago. Mr. Westbrooke declared 
the Chicago Radio Exposition would be 
bigger and better than the one recently 
held in New York, Avhere thousands 
upon thousands were turned away 
every night. 

"This probably will be the most 
comprehensive Radio exposition ever 
conducted by, for and in the interest of 
radio fans," said Mr. Westbrooke. 
"There will be exhibits of every sort 
of radio apparatus manufactured, in- 
cluding the very latest devices and in- 
ventions. All the parts that are used 
in the construction of sending and re- 
ceiving instruments will be on display. 

"The working of the radiophone will 
be demonstrated and the people who 
have listened to concerts given hun- 
dreds of miles away and heard the 
world news transmitted to them while 
seated comfortably in their homes, will 
have an opportunity to see the instru- 
ments in operation and view the vari- 
ous parts utilized in their construction. 

lir> !~>]io\^r in .Tnre will bp orip nf 



the greatest educational expositions 

ever held in Chicago or any other city. 

"The sudden popularity of radio tele- 




The Sweet devot( >■ of Radio carries 
a net in her hand bag. 

phony has resulted in the establishment 
of more than 600,000 receiving sets in 
the country, and of these 150,000 are 
located in the middle west. Through- 
out the United States 20,000 amateurs 
are qualified as transmitters, capable 
of sending and receiving a minimum 
of fifty characters a minute by trans- 
continental Morse code. For each 
Radiophone there is an average audi- 
ence of five persons, thus making a 
total of 2,500,000 who are associated 
with the wonders of wireless." 

The October Show 

U. J. Herrmann, of the Cort Theater, 
announces that the "Annual Chicago 
Radio Show" will be given each year 
in October because deferring the exhi- 
bition to that season will give the manu- 
facturers a chance to catch up with de- 
liveries and will also permit them to 
complete and perfect many improve- 
ments in construction and design. 

Mr. Herrmann says: 

"Because of the enormous demand 
most manufacturers of radio equipment 



October conditions should be greatl; 
improved. The radio shows which havu 
been held in other cities during the las^ 
year have been pronounced successes 
In New York the public was turner 
away by the thousands every day dur 
ing the show in the Pennsylvania hote 
and the crowds were so great arounc 
the exhibits as to cause actual discom 
fort. 

"The nation-Avide, ever-growing in 
terest in radio has amply demonstratec 
that only the largest exhibition build 
ings are adequate to properly handh 
the enormous crowds whose enthusiasn 
has placed radio shows on the plam 
with the big national automobile ex 
hibits. ' ' 

The Pittsburgh Show 
Rare harmony from Chicago, musica 
comedy from Cleveland, trade condi 
tions information from St. Louis, new 
flashes from New York, government re 
ports from the National Capitol, thesi 
are only a few of the many feature 
given via radio at the first Pittsburgl 
radio exhibition in the William Peni 
hotel, April 11, 12 and 13. A larg^ 
receiving set erected by the Westing 
house interests receives and transmit 
these messages from the air for th 
benefit of the Pittsburgh fans and th 
numerous visiting delegations from th 
neighboring districts and states. 

Practically every one of the larges 
manufacturers of radio equipment ani 
supplies made reservation for the sho'w 
but as space it limited at the Williai 
Penn a few could not be accommodatec 
Leading local dealers and distributor 
have extensive displays and thei 
booths are both beautiful and educ? 
tional. There are on exhibition set 
of every one of the leading radio mam 
facturers as well as a large percentag 
of the battery and accessory people. 

The educational talks and iUustrf 
ted lectures are held throughout th 
afternoon and evening of each day c 
the show, except the opening date whe 
the doors are open at 7 o'clock. Thes 
lectures are conducted by men prom 
nent in the industry and are intende 
to both instruct the fans as to tl: 
proper means of assembling their equi] 
ment and to educate the uninitiated it 
to the mysteries of the wireless. 



KADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Tune Up and Listen In 



roadcasting from these Stations is on 
360 meters zvhere not otherwise 
specified 

Midwest Broadcasts 

Eiglitli District 

,J)KA — Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., 
Pittsburgh, Pa. Daily, except Sunday, 
music 10:00-10:15 a. m. and 12:30-1:00, 
2:00-2:20 and 4:00-4:20 p. m., with special 
Saturday concert 3:00-4:00 p. m.; bedtime 
stories, 7:30 p. m.; press, 7:45; special 
features and vaudeville acts, 8:00 p. m.; 
music and news, 8:30-9:30; Sunday, 
church service, 10:45 a. m., 3:00 p. m. and 
7:30 p. m. 

|VBL— The Detroit News, 615 Lafayette 
Bldg., Detroit, Mich. Daily, except Sun- 
day, 11:30-11:55 a. m., and 3:30-4:00 p. m., 
phonograph music; 7:00-8:30 p. m., spec- 
ial musical programs by selected artists. 

iQV— Doubleday-Hill Electric Co., 719 Lib- 
erty Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. Daily except 
Saturday and Sunday, music, 4:30-5:00 p. 
m.; Sunday, 1:00-1:30 p. m. and 4:00 to 5 
p. m. ; Monday, Wednesday and Friday, 
9:30 to 10:30 p. ra. 



I VDZ— Marshall Gerken 
Ave., Toledo, Ohio. 



Co., 27 Ontario 



I VPB — Pittsburgh Gazette-Times, Gazette 
Square, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

•VMH — Precision Equipment Co., Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. Monday, Wednesday and Sat- 
urday, 8:15-10:00 p. m., music, speeches 
and news; dally 485 meters; 11:00 a. m. 
and 4:00 p. m., weather reports. 

Ninth District 

hVOV— R. B. Howell, 1802 Farnum St.. 
Omaha, Neb. 

|tVHA — University of Wisconsin, Madison, 
Wis. Daily except Sunday, weather re- 
ports at 12:35 p. m., Friday at 8:15 p. m.; 
special music and other dates as an- 
nounced. Midnight to 1:00 a. m., univer- 
sity news on 410 meters. 

I rtLB — University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 
Minn. 485 meters; daily 12 noon, weather 
and stock reports; 7:30 p. m., wheat and 
potato market; 7:45 p. m. Wednesday 
only, music, 360 meters. 

I iVLK— Hamilton Mfg. Co., 2011 North Ala- 
bama St., Indianapolis, Ind., Sunday, 
8:00-8:55, religious, vocal and instru- 
mental music; Tuesday, 8:00-8:55 p. m., 
jazz, vocal and instrumental music; 9:00- 
10:00 p. m., local theatre numbers and 
news items; Thursday, 8:00-8:55, special 
numbers from local singers and orches- 
tras, stories, news and speeches. 

|aYW — Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., 
Ill W. Washington St., Chicago, 111. Daily, 
except Sunday, 9:30, 10:00, 10:30, 11:30, 
and 12:00 a. m. and 2:45 p. m., stock 
and market reports; 2:15, 4:15 and 6:00 p. 
m., news and market reports; 7:00 p. m., 
summary of financial report; 7:30 p. m., 
children's bedtime story; 8:00-9:00 p. m., 
musical program; 9:00 p. m., news and 
sports; Sunday, 3:30 p. m.. Radio Chapel. 

|tXAB — Western Radio Co., Kansas City, 
Mo. Market reports and weather fore- 
cast, 11:30 a. m. and 2:30 p. m.; concerts 
in the evening. 

|>ZAF — Reynolds Radio Co., Denver, Colo. 
Xews twice daily and concert Sunday 




List of stations broadcasting niarlict or weather reports (485 meters) and music, concerts, 

lectures, etc. {360 meters), {March 10, 1922). 

T, ^ Owner of station. Location of Station 

Allen. Preston D Oakland, Calif 

American Radio & Research Corp Medford Hillside, Mass. 

Atlantic-Pacific Radio Supplies Co Oakland, Calif 

Bamberger, L.., & Co. . Newark, N. J 

Bible Institute of Los Angeles, Inc Los Angeles, Calif. ... 

Church of the Covenant Washington, D. C 

City of Chicago Chicago, 111 

Cox, Warren R Cleveland, Ohio 

Crosley Mfg. Co Cincinnati, Ohio 

DePorest Radio Telep. & Teleg. Co New York NY... 

Detroit News, The Detroit, Mich 

Doubleday-Hill Electric Co Pittsburgh, Pa. . . . 

Doron Brothers Electric Co Hamilton, Ohio '. 

Duck Co., Wm. B Toledo, Ohio 

Dunn & Co., J. J Pasadena, Calif 

Electric Lighting & Supply Co Hollywood, Calif 

Examiner Printing Co., The San Francisco. Calif. . . 

General Electric Co Schenectady. N. Y 

Gilbert Co., A. C New Haven. Conn 

Gould, C. O Stockton, Calif 

Hamilton Mfg. Co Indianapolis, Ind 

Hatfield Electric Co •. Indianapolis, Ind 

Herrold, Chas. D San Jose, Calif 

Hobrecht, J. C Sacramento, Calif 

Howlett, Thos. F. J Philadelphia, Pa'. 

Karlowa Radio Co Rock Island, 111 

Kennedy, Colin B. Co Los Altos, Calif 

Kluge. Arno A Los Angeles, Calif. . . . 

Kraft, Vincent I Seattle, Wash 

Lorden. Edwin L San Francisco, Calif. . . 

Marshall-Gerken Co Toledo, Ohio 

Metropolitan Utilities District Omaha, Nebr 

Meyberg Co., Leo J San Francisco, Calif. . . 

Meyberg Co.. Leo J Los Angeles, Calif. . . . 

Missouri State Marketing Bureau .lefferson City, Mo 

Montgomery Light & Water Power Co Montgomery, Ala 

New.spaper Printing Co Pittsburgh, Pa 

Northern Radio & Electric Co Seattle, Wash 

Palladium Printing Co Richmond, Ind 

Pine Bluff Co., The Pine Bluff, Ark 

Pomona Fixture & Wiring Co Pomona, Calif 

Portable Wireless Telephone Co Stockton. Calif 

Precision Equipment Co Cincinnati, Ohio 

Precision Shop, The Gridley, Calif 

Radio Construction & Electric Co Washington, D. C 

Radio Corporation of America Roselle Park, N. J. ... 

Radio Shop, The Sunnyvale, Calif 

Radio Telephone Shop, The San Francisco, Calif. . . . 

Reynolds Radio Co Denver, Colo 

Rike Kumler Co., The Dayton, Ohio 

Rochester Times Union Rochester. N. Y 

Seeley, Stuart W East Lansing, Mich. . . . 

.Service Radio Equipment Co Toledo, Ohio 

Ship Owners Radio Service New York, N. Y ! 

Union College Schenectady. N. Y 

University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minn 

University of Wisconsin Madison. Wis 

W^arner Bros OaTtland. Calif 

Wasmer, Louis .Seattle Wash 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co Snringfield. Mass 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co Chicago, 111 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co Newark, N. J 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co East Pittsburgh. Pa. . . 

Western Radio Electric Co T,os Angeles, Calif. ... 

Western Radio Co Kansas City, Mo 

White & Boyer Washington, D. C 



Wave 


Call 


lengths. 


Signal 


360 


KZM. 


360 


WGL 


360 


KZY. 


360 


WCR. 


360 


KJS. 


360 


WDM. 


360 


WBU. 


360 


WHK. 


360 


WLW. 


360 


WJX. 


360, 4S.5 


WWJ. 


360 


KQV. 


360 


WRK. 


360 


WHU. 


360 


KLB. 


360 


KGC. 


360 


KUO. 


360 


WGY. 


360 


WCJ. 


360 


KJQ. 


360 


WLK. 


360 


WOH. 


360 


KQW. 


360 


KVQ. 


360 


WGL. 


360, 485 


woe. 


360 


KLP. 


360 


KQL. 


360 


KJR. 


360 


KGB. 


360, 4S.'; 


WSZ. 


360, 4S5 


wou. 


360 


KDN. 


360 


KYJ. 


485 


WOS. 


360, 4S5 


WGH. 


360 


WPB. 


360 


KFC. 


360, 4S5 


WOZ. 


360 


WOK. 


360 


KGF. 


360 


KWG. 


360, 485 


WMH. 


360 


KFU. 


360 


WDW. 


360 


WDY. 


360 


K.I.T. 


360 


KYY. 


360, 4S5 


KIZ. 


360, 485 


WFO. 


360, 485 


WHO. 


485 


WHW. 


360 


W.IK. 


360 


WDT. 


360 


WRL. 


360, 485 


WLB. 


360, 485 


WHA. 


360 


KLS. 


360 


KHQ. 


360 


WBZ. 


360 


KYW. 


360 


W.IZ. 


360 


KDKA. ■ 


360 


KOG. 


360, 485 


WOQ. 


360 


W.IH. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Boy Tells How To Make 'Em 

By EDWIN NIELSEN 



(16 years of age) 



'PDWIN NIELSEN is a Chicago hoy 
-*-' zvho works for a big nezuspaper at 
night and makes receiving sets and ex- 
periments zvith them -when he gets a 
chance. His article is brief but if there 
are points needing more detailed explan- 
ation inquiries may be addressed to him 
in care of the Radio Age. Send self 
addressed and stamped envelope to Ed- 
zvin Nielsen, Care Radio Age, 1311 Gar- 
rick Building. 

The Editor. 

THERE are now about 80 radio sta- 
tions in the United States, that are 
sending out news reports, market re- 
ports, opera and musical concerts, 
EVERY DAY. All of this broad cast- 
ing may be received by ANYONE who 
wishes to listen to it. It can be received 
on outfits that are almost entirely home- 
made, and are so simple that they can 
be made by even the unskilled worker, 
though with a set of the kind I have in 
mind, the beginner must not expect to 
receive from any very great distances, 
as it will not receive messages from 
over 50 miles. 

With receiving outfits at such a low 
price, there ought to be a set in every 
home, even if it be the simplest set 
that was ever devised. 

A radio outfit is usually composed of 
an aerial system to catch the waves that 
are sent out by the sending station, a 
ground system to catch the waves that 
come from the ground through which 
they travel as well as through the air, 
a tuning system to allow the operator 
to listen to any single sending station 
so that he does not hear merely a 
jumble of sounds, a detector system 
which changes the radio waves to elec- 
tro-magnetic waves or waves which 
will act upon the magnets in the tele- 
phones and produce sounds, and in the 
new sets a condenser system to make 
the sounds clearer and louder. 

A receiver that would work well es- 
pecially for the Radiophone concerts 
would be composed of: 1st, a tuning 
coil ; 2nd, a condenser, preferably of 
the Variable type ; 3rd, a crystal detec- 
tor ; 4th, a small fixed condenser ; and 
5th, and last, a pair of receiving tele- 
phones. 

The tuning coil is what is known as 
a two slide tuning coil and is made of 
a cardboard tube, wound with about 
250 turns of No. 22 wire. The tube is 
then fastened to two square pieces ofr 
wood, which has two copper or brass 
rods, about one-fourth inch square, fast- 
ened to it. Two sliders are then made 
of brass bent to fit around the square 
rod and soldered at the place indicated 
in Figure 1. 




TO GROUND 



FIG. 4 

TO AERIAL T HOW TO 

, J CONNECT 

THE INSTRUMENTS 



VARIABLE CONDENSER^ 




TUNING 
COIL 



DETECTOR. 

CRYSTAL 



TELEPH0NE5 



FIG. 2 

Figure 1 on follozving page 




the rods, keeping contact with the wire, 
and enable the operator to tune in dif- 
ferent stations till the desired station is 
clearly heard. 

In figure 1, "A," is the cardboard 
tube. "B" shows the round wooden 
discs which fit inside the tube and al- 
low the tube to be firmly fastened to 
the square blocks, "C" which holds the 
whole coil in an upright position so 
that it can be operated readily. "D" 
shows the method of making the slid- 
ers. In figure 2, the complete coil may 
be seen with both sliders shown, and 
all instruments in place. 

The variable condenser can be made 
of a semi-circular piece of wood cut 
according to the directions in figure 3. 
There are good variable condensers 



where from 3 to 65 plates. They wi 
improve any set, as about 60% of tl 
tuning is done by a variable condense 
A fixed condenser can be made of thrc 
sheets of tinfoil separated by mic 
sheets. The middle sheet of tinfoil mu 
protrude at one end of the mica ar 
must not come in contact with the oth( 
sheets of tinfoil. The whole condensi 
is held together with rubber bands ar 
wires are fastened to the protrudir 
edges of the tinfoil. 

The detector can be made with tv 
binding posts, a piece of stiff wire, hai 
pin, or pin, and a piece of Galena cry 
tal. The binding posts are fastened 
a wood base about an inch and a ha 
apart, the crystal fastened to one 
them, the wire fastened to the otl 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



Boy Tells How To 
Make a Home Set 

Continue d form page, fi v e 

nd the point of the wii'e resting on the 
rystal. The instruments are then con- 

I eeted as indicated in Fig. 2. 
The aerial can be of any one of the 

I lany types! illustrated but a single 
ue of 14 gauge wire from 75 to 100 
'et in length well insulated will work 

|s good if not better than the others. 
;y good insulation I mean that the 

I 'ire must not touch anything except 
orcelain, glass, rubber or other sub- 
tance that will NOT conduct elec- 
ricity. Fig 4 shows a single wire 

I erial with the insulators in place. The 
,round wire must be fastened to a 

I ^ater pipe or gas pipe, or any other 
ipe that goes beneath the surface of 

I le ground. 

The most important instruments now 
ieeded are the telephones, and as they 

lannot be made, they must be bought 
nd as the best instruments are of little 

I r no use unless the telephones are good, 

would suggest that they be a good 

air that you will not have to discard 

I ven when you get an expensive outfit. 

To operate the set after you have 

verything connected you have to move 

I lie sliders of the tuning coil till you 
et the station you Avish to hear, as 
)ud as you can get it, then the mov- 

I ble part of the condenser is tui-ned 
ack and forth until the signals come 

I learest. 

If you do not get results, the crystal 
'etector is the probable cause, and the 
'ire must be made to touch the crys- 

I'al in different places, in search of a 
^nsitive spot where the signals can be 
eard. If this does not work the crys- 
il must be discarded and one that is 
lore sensitive purchased. 

I 

VARIABLE CONDENSER 




CUT ON 

DOTTED 

LINES 



FASTEN 
TINFOIL 
AND COVER 
WITH MICA 




Y/IRE FASTENED TO 
STATIONARY PART 

_KNOB AND ROD 
FASTENED TO MOVABLE 
PART 

BASE 

WIRE FASTENED TO 
M0VA3LE PART 



SMALL FIXED CONDENSER 



WIRES 




TINFOIL 

WIRES 



BINDING 
POST 



RODS 




^BINDING 
POST 



SMALL SREW5 
FIXING TUBES 
TO DISCS B 



LARGE SCREW 
FIXING DISCS 
TO BLOCKS -C 

BINDING POST 

END WIRE TO 
BINDING POST 



WIRING 




BEND STRIP 
ON DOTTED LINES 

CUT ^RASS 
STRIP THIS 
SHAPE 



THE HNISHED SLIDER. 



SOLDER. 
UNDER EDGE 




FIG.l 



Radio on the Farm 



MICA 



Neither the telephone nor the auto- 
mobile made so great an advancement 
in the farmer's contact with the vil- 
lage and the city as the radiophone 
is doing. Farmer boys, quick to seize 
upon the radio receiving set as a scien- 
tific mystery that must be mastered, 
have brought the rural districts into 
close association Avith one another and 
with the life of the big cities. The re- 
sult is not onlj' entertaining but it is 
decidedly useful. 

An eastern inventor says he will 
make a plow which can be directed by 
radio. Many of these dreams may come 
true but there are other developments 
in radio that engage the practical 
farmer in the practical present. For 
example, there is the plan of the Chi- 
cago Board of Trade to establish a 
radio system of crop and produce re- 
j>orts and market quotations which will 
be heard throiighout a radius of 500 
miles from Chicago. 

W. A. Wheeler, of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, says there 
is no single use of radio, except for ma- 
rine and aerial purposes, that should 
take precedence over its utilization for 
the benefit of agriculture. 

"There are more than 32,000,000 
farmers," said Mr. Wheeler, "nearly 
one-third of the population of the 
United States. Radio is the only means 
of getting to them quickly and at small 
cost. The time element in dispatching 
weather predictions to the farmer is a 
big factor. In cutting hay or harvest- 
ing grain an hour's delay in receiving 
a weather report may mean a loss of 



solve the problem." 

As in the city it is the boy who is 
leading the march toward the perfected 
radio age in the country. In Ocean 
Grove, N. J., a group of boys who were 
interested in radio, pooled their knowl- 
edge of the science and co-operated in 
a financial way to establish a radio 
receiving station, from which they send 
out telephone calls and messengers with 
the latest reports on weather, the mar- 
kets and the crop situation. This club, 
known as the Ocean County Radio Club, 
has become so popular that boys in 
other counties and other states are fol- 
lowing the Jersey example. This has 
attracted the active interest of many 
agricultural colleges. 

The St. Louis University is broadcast- 
ing national and local agricultural re- 
ports. The United States Department 
of Agriculture broadcasts this service 
from stations at Cincinnati, Omaha, 
Washington, North Platte, Neb., Rock 
Springs, Wyo., Elko and Reno, Nevada. 
These are received by thousands of 
state bureaus, agricultural associations, 
banks and other interests which relay 
them to individual farmers. 

The official weather prophet in Eng- 
land sends out warning of approaching 
thunderstorms by radio and a charge 
is made of six cents per message. 

The Farm Bureau Federation of Chi- 
cago announces plans to complete its 
service of sending out by radio market 
figures, reports and activities of the 
American Farm Bureau, The United 
States Grain Growers, the Illinois Ag- 
ricultural Association and the National 



EADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



How To Make A Radio Set For $6 

A WIRELESS LESSON BY UNCLE SAM HIMSELF 



HI 



iifj OW can I make a radiophone re- 
J-J- ceiving outfit for a small price 
and listen in on the concerts, speeches; 
news reports, zveathcr forecasts, etc., 
that are broadcast each night from the 
sending stations nearest my home? I 
know very little about electricity but 
thousands of novices are making their 
own radio sets and I zvant to make one, 
too. I do not understand the long zvords 
used in most explanations. I zvant some- 
body to tell me in simple language, witJi 
clear diagrams, just hozv it can be done." 
One of the main objects in starting 
Radio Age is to answer in this first is- 
sue, and in all succeeding issues, the 
foregoing question — a question asked by 
hundreds of thousands of boys and their 
daddies. 

Proof that the government is impressed 
zvith the necessity for helping radio begin- 
ners is supplied in the following article. 
So many boys and girls in radio clubs 
wanted the information that the States 
Relations Service of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture asked the U. S. Bu- 
reau of Standards to prepare the article 
for beginners. If all points are not made 
clear send stamped envelope zvith request 
for explanation and Radio Age will give 
you the desired information. 

The Editor. 



THIS article tells how to construct 
the entire receiving station, includ- 
ing antenna as well as a crystal-de- 
tector receiving set. This station will 
enable one to hear the messages sent 
from medium-power transmitting sta- 
tions within an area about the size of a 
large city, and to hear high-power sta- 
tions within 50 miles, provided the 
waves used by those stations have wave 
frequencies between 500 and 1500 kilo- 
cycles per second (i. e., wave lengths 
between 600 and 200 meters). Much 
greater distances are often covered, es- 
pecially at night. If a person constructs 
the coil and other parts as indicated, the 
total cost of this set can be kept down 
to about $6.00. If, however, a specially 
efficient outfit is desired, the cost may 
be about $15.00. 

Essential Parts 

There are five essential parts : the an- 
tenna, lightning switch, ground con- 
nections, receiving set, and phone. The 
received signals come into the receiv- 
ing set through the antenna and ground 
connection. In the receiving set they 
are converted into an electric current 
which produces the sound in the 
"phone." The phone is either one or a 
pair of telephone receivers worn on the 
head of the listener. 

The purpose of the lightning switch 
is to protect the receiving set from dam- 
age by lightning. It is used to connect 
the antenna directly to ground when 



When the antenna and the connection to 
the ground are properly made and the 
lightning switch is closed, an antenna 
acts as a lightning rod and is a protec- 
tion rather than a source of danger to 
the building. 

The principal part of the station is 
the "receiving set." In the set de- 
scribed herein it is subdivided into 
two parts, the "tuner" and the "de- 
tector," and in more complicated sets 
still other elements are added. 
Antenna 

The antenna is simply a wire sus- 
pended between two elevated points. 
Wherever there are two buildings, or a 



tenna should not be less than 30 feet 
above the ground and its length should 
be about 75 ft. (See Fig. 1.) While 
this figure indicates a horizontal anten- 
na, it is not important that it be 
strictly horizontal. It is in fact desir- 
able to have the far end as high as 
possible. The "lead-in" wire or drop- 
wire from the antenna itself should 
run as directly as possible to the light- 
ning switch. If the position of the 
adjoining buildings or trees is such thai 
the distance between them is greatei 
than about 85 ft., the antenna can still 
be held to a 75 ft. distance between 
the insulators by increasing the length 




house and a tree, or two trees with one 
of them very close to the house, it re- 
lieves one of the need of erecting one 
or both antenna supports. The an- 




of the piece of rope (D) to which th€ 
far end of the antenna is attached 
The rope (H) tieing the antenna in- 
sulator to the house should not be 
lengthened to overcome this difficulty 
because by so doing the antenna "lead- 
in" or drop-wire (J) would be length- 
ened. 

Details of Parts. — The parts will bt 
mentioned here by reference to the 
letters appearing in Figs. 1 and 2. 

A and I are screw eyes .sufficiently 
strong to anchor the antenna at the 
ends. 

B and H are pieces of rope % or i/i 
inch in diameter, just long enough tc 
allow the antenna to swing clear of the 
two supports. 

D is a piece of % or % iiich I'ope suf 
ficiently long to make the distance be 
tween E and G about 75 ft. 

C is a single-block pulley which maj 
be used if readily available. 
Insulators 

E and G are two insulators whicl 
may be constructed of any dry hare 
wood of sufficient strength to withstane 
the strain of the antenna ; blocks abou 
11/2x2x10 in. will serve. The hole: 
should be drilled as shown in Fig. 1 suf 
Omilinii.e.d on vane 8, column 1 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



How to Make a Radio 
Set for $6 

Continued from 2i(fff'' seven 
fieiently far from the ends to give 
proper strength. If wood is used the 
insulators should be boiled in paraffin 
for about 1 hour. If porcelain wiring 
cleats are available they may be substi- 
tuted instead of the Avood insulators. If 
any unglazed porcelain is used as in- 

I'sulators, it should be boiled in para- 
;fSn the same as the wood. Regular an- 
'tenna insulators are advertised on the 
market, but the two improvised types 

I oust mentioned will be satisfactory for 
an amateur receiving antenna. 

P is the antenna about 75 ft. between 
'the insulators E and G. The wire may 
'be No. 14 or 16 copper wire either bare 
or insulated. The end of the antenna 
farthest from the receiving set may be 
secured to the insulator (E) by any 
satisfactory method, being careful not 
'to kink the wire. Draw the other end 

I 'of the antenna wire through the other 
insulator (G) to a point where the two 
'insulators are separated by about 75 
ft, twist the insulator (G) so as to 
form an anchor as shoAvn in Fig. 1. 
The remainder of the antenna wire (J) 
which now constitutes the "lead-in" or 
idrop-wire should be just long enough 
'to reach the lightning sAvitch. 

Lightning Switch 

K is the lightning switch. For the 
purpose of a small antenna this SAvitch 
|may be the ordinary porcelain-base, 30 
ampere, single-pole double-throAV bat- 

I'tery SAvitch. These switches as ordi- 
narily available, have a porcelain base 

|iabout 1 by 4 in. The "lead-in" Avire 
(J) is attached to this SAvitch at the 
middle point. The SAvitch blade should 
alAvays be thrown to the loAver clip 
Avhen the receiving set is not actually 

..being used and to the upper clip Avhen 
it is desired to receive signals. 

L is the ground wire for the light- 
ning SAvitch; it may be a piece of the 
same size wire as used in the antenna, 
Bof sufficient length to reach from the 
loAver clip of the lightning SAvitch (K) 
to the clamp on the ground rod (M). 
M is a piece of iron pipe or rod 

I driven 3 to 6 ft. into the ground, pre- 
ferably Avhere the ground is moist, and 

['extending a suificient distance above 
the ground in order that the ground 

Lclamp may be fastened to it. Scrape 

'I the rust or paint from the pipe before 
alriving in the ground. 

N is a wire leading from the upper 
|Clip of the lightning sAvitch through the 

[.porcelain tube (0) to the receiving set 
binding post marked "antenna." 

is a porcelain tube of sufficient 
length to reach through the Avindow 

['casing or wall. This tube should be 

mounted in the casing or AA^all so that 

it slopes doAvn toAvard the outside of 

,the building. This is done to keep the 

■ain from folloAAdng the tube through 




1 


M ,1 jl 


3 f 



^ 



I GROUND 



® 
TUNflR 




'i-turnto:achtap* 



9 8 7 6 



4 3 Z I 



t 5 6 



lb-tURN5' I 
TO EACH TAP 




6^.996 



SWITCH 
C0NTACT5 




ANTENNA 




GROUND 



FIG. 5. 




telephone: REJlElVtHS 



Ground Wire 

Fig. 2 shows the radio receiving set 
installed in some part of the house. 

P is the receiving set Avhich is de- 
scribed in detail below. 

N is the wire leading from the "an- 
tenna" binding post of the receiving 
set through the porcelain tube to the 
upper clip of the lightning SAvitch. This 
Avire, as Avell as the Avire shoAvn by Q, 
should be insulated and preferably 
flexible. A piece of ordinary lamp cord 
might be unbraided and serve for these 
tAvo leads. 

Q is a piece of flexible Avire leading 
from the receiA'ing set binding post 
marked "ground" to a Avater pipe, 



conductor to ground, except M, Fig. 1. 
If there are no Avater pipes nor radiators 
in the room in AA'hieh the receiving set 
is located, the Avire should be run out 
of doors and connected to a special 
"ground" below the Avindow, which 
shall not be the same as the "ground" 
for the lightning SAvitch. It is essential 
that for the best operation of the re- 
ceiving set this "ground" be of the very 
best type. If the soil near the house 
is dry it is necessary to drive one or 
more pipes or rods sufficiently deep to 
encounter moist earth and connect the 
ground Avire to the pipes or rods. This 
distance Avill ordinarily not exceed 6 ft. 
Where clay soil is encountered this 
distance may be reduced to 3 ft., Avhile 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



New Radio Trade Features 



IT is expressing it conservatively to 
say that every day there is some 
new and interesting development in 
radio operation, i-adio utility or in 
radio invention. Some of the novel- 
ties are more interesting than impor- 
tant. 

But others are beacon lights shoAving 
the way to perfection in radio uses that 
were unhoped for a comparatively short 
time ago. We present two radio de- 
vices which should interest not only the 
radio trade generally but the many 
thousands of individuals who are fol- 
lowing with amazement the progress 
of the sound-wave in its silent attack 
on a lot of our old ideas and customs. 

With the ordinary receiving set you 
have several instruments scattered 
about a table with wires connecting the 
different parts. The designer of the 
Simplex Radiola, J. H. Newman, en- 
closes all these parts in a fine cabinet 
similar to a phonograph cabinet, a real 
piece of furniture. The set is com- 
plete for receiving any telephone or 
telegraph messages within a radius of 
1000 miles of the sending station. 

The features of this machine are : an 
auxiliary panel with switches for the 
batteries and horn, rheostat for reduc- 
ing the volume of sound and also in- 
creasing it, etc. Two drawers are pro- 
vided for writing materials, extra head- 
phones, books and any other materials 
used. 

This machine has been operated in 
hotel lobbies and before audiences in 
theatres with tremendous success. 




Secrecy in wireless communication 
may be obtained by the adoption of 
printing telegraph machines similar to 
those used on press and commercial 
telegraph circuits in many parts of the 
country. Experiments have been under 
way by the Morkrum Company for 
months with automatic wireless print- 
ers and the system has proved success- 
ful. 

The printing machines use a tape in 
which a punching machanism, oper- 
ated by the keys of a typewriter key- 
board, perforates holes in various com- 
binations of five positions. This tape 
by means of an automatic transmitter 
and rotary switch, controls the grid 
circuit of a e. w. transmitting set and 
sends interrupted c. w. signals. At the 
receiving station, the Radio signals are 



received in a sensitive receiving s 
and in place of the telephones, a sp 
cially designed relay is connected in 
the circuit. This relay in turn co \ 
trals a g:otary switch, which operat 
five magnets in the receiving paj 
printer and sets up the combinati( 
which corresponds to the one tran 
mitted from the perforated taj^e at tl 
transmitting station. 

Secrecy is attained because code eoi 
binations can be varied at will and tl 
rotary switches at transmitting and r 
ceiving stations must also be synchro 
ized and the speed of these two switch 
can be varied. 

Further information about the Rac 
ola and the Radiotype will be furnisht 
by Radio Age on request. 




^0 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Questions and Answers 

Under this heading Radio Age zmll publish questions and anszvers each month. The anszvers zvill be zvritten by efHcient 
chnicians. Readers sliould litnit themselves to five questions in each letter. It is preferable that they shoidd zorite on one 
ide of the page only and use special care to make their name an d address readable. 

W. B. encloses copy of hookup and 
asks (a) What is the approxunate wave 
length of my set? (b) Could you sug- 
gest any improvement which might 
improve this set? (c) Are values of 
grid leak and condenser coi-rect or 
would you suggest a change? 



F. E. C. Elmwood — Kindly let me 
now what I would need and the con- 
ruction of a loud speaker (magnavox 
yle), suitable for a set equipped Avith 
loose coupler, A. P. detector and two 
age radiotron amplifier. 
Answer — It is not practical to make 
home-made magnavox receiver. A 
lud speaker may be made by coupling 
j' single sensitive receiver, such as the 
"aldwin or Browne, to a horn or to 
our phonograph. You can purchase 
' coupling device that is made for the 
arpose. 

E. K. encloses a standai'd hetrodyne 
ook-up that is coupled to the second- 
ry of an audion receiver and asks : 
' 1. The size of each coil (five alto- 
gether) to receive P. 0. Z. 

2. Is there any advantage in using 

10 volts on the oscillator through a 
Iter? 

3. Is an A. P. amplifier suitable for 
le oscillator and a W. E.-V. T. 1 as 
le detector? 

Answer — 1. Use two 1,000-turn coils 
,)r primary and secondary, with some 
nail coil of such as 25 turns to couple 
he hetrodyne. The hetrodyne may 
ave two 750-turn coils. You probably 
i^ould get better results using an 
Armstrong hook-up with the other bulb 
is a step of amplification. 

2. There is no advantage. It might 
li'ork, however. The Navy tried this 

tunt some time ago, but has discard- 
d it. 

3. The tubes you mention are ex- 
sllent for the purpose. Use 45 volts 
V more for the plate. 

' J. B. says: I am using one of the 
nail crystal sets that are so populax, 
nd I would like to know if there is 
ny simple way of increasing my over- 

«11 efiiciency. 

' Answer — The aerial and ground are 

•lie logical place to start. See that 

our antenna is kept far away from 

i;in roofs, trees, chimneys or any ob- 

^cts that may steal energy. Solder 

I'll connections, increase your antenna 

11 d lead-in insulation. Connect your 
L round lead to gas and water pipes, 
radiators and any other grounded ob- 

5 sets about the station. Try out sev- 
eral different crystals. When you find 
, really sensitive detector you will 
!ave improved matters immensely. 
T. H. — I just moved from the country 
•here I had a 100-foot aerial which I 
sed in conjunction with a receiving 
Pistrumeut having two steps of ampli- 
cation. The owner of the house I now 
!ve in has refused me permission to 
rect any aerial. I tried a loop, but 
.'ith very little success. What can I 
ike the loop rccoT 



Answer — ^A larger loop may help 
you. Failing, we suggest that you add 
another step to your detector and an- 
other to your amplifier. This will give 
you the desired results. 

Q. X. — My aerial is 55 feet long and 
30 feet high. Can this be improved 
upon ? 

Answer — Yes. Run your aerial out 
to as near 100 feet as you can. The 
height is all right providing there is 
no immediate object which towers over 
or flanks it. 

M. B. says : A friend of mine wants 
to hook in his set on my aerial. He 
lives in another house. Do you think 
that two sets operating from the same 
aerial will give good results to both of 
us? If not, can we run another aerial 
parallel to the one I am using without 
causing interference to each other? 

Answer — Two sets cannot be oper- 
ated from the same aerial at the same 
time. If you refer to receiving set there 
will be no interferenc from either of 
the two parallel aerials. On the other 
hand, however, if you have transmit- 
ting set there is a merry time in store 
for. both of you, with all the interfer- 
ence on earth for both of you while try- 
ing to operate' at the same time es- 
pecially Hf one of you is trying to 
receive. 

C. E. R. says: I have a loose coup- 
ler and audion detector, singing does 
not come in plain, however the an- 
nouncer's voice comes in plain. Is 
there any way in which I can make 
singing come in plain? (b) Can I make 
this outfit louder without using any ad- 
ditional apparatus? (c) My aerial is 
75 feet long, 30 feet high at one end 
and 20 feet high at the other, would it 
improve conditions if I were to make 
it 100 feet long? (d) Does it Aveaken 
the B battery to have it connected? 
(c) Does it dim the signals Avhen there 
is a splice in the lead-in about two 
feet from instruments? 

Answer (a) The only way we can 
answer this is to tell you that the an- 
nouncer is an exceptionally good, clear, 
distinct and forceful speaker at Station 
KYW. (b) The only way we could 
determine how you could do this is to 
examine your hookup, mail us a copy 
of your hookup, and we may be able 
to give you some help, (c) Yes, this 
would be an improvement, however, 
we would suggest that you raise your 
aerial a few more feet, (d) We would 
have to see your hookup before answer- 
ing this question, (e) If you have the 
connection soldered it Avill be perfectly 



Answer (a) Your approximate wave 
length is 800 meters, (b) The only 
change we could suggest is, make your 
B battery variable, we think that you 
might possibly get better results using 
less voltage on your detector, (c) We 
think you are using the correct cap- 
acity for grid condenser, however, you 
should employ a variable grid leak, as 
different tubes and conditions require 
different values of leakage across the 
condenser, a variable condenser at this 
point would also be very desirable. 
However, you can determine the value 
required at this point, and then make 
a fixed condenser of the correct value, 
Vv'hich will be satisfactory. 

B. J. : A receiving set could be 
made to fit in a cigar box. Wind the 
tuning coil on a block of wood instead 
of a cylinder. The other pieces do not 
take up much room. 

P. S. : Lester Hart of Rockville 
Centre, L. I., is using a home-made vari- 
ometer regenerative receiver, and has 
copied practically all of the distant 
phones. The secret seems to be. that he 
is using one of the old audiotron tubes 
that are remai'kably sensitive. His B 
battery is made up of flashlight cells, 
which he claims work better than the 
usual block battery. One peculiarity 
in his circuit is that he uses no grid- 
leak. This works fine Avith some tubes. 
It must be remembered that grid-leaks 
Avere unknoAvn in the early days of the 
vacuum tube. 

A. B. C. : Many people going into 
the radio game start Avith a small tun- 
ing coil and crystal detector, then even- 
tually someone Avill talk to them about 
building a big set. This immediately 
creates the impression that if they con- 
struct a tuning coil about five times as 
large that they will hear better. In 
this they are mistaken. The only thing 
this does is increase the Avave length of 
the instrument, and does not increase 
the loudness or efficiency of the set. 
Get just as much wire on the coil as 
is necessary and then stop. 



R. L. asks: Could I receive KYW 
Avith a crystal detector and phones? 

AnsAver — ^Yes, you could receive this 

station with a crystal detector and 

afisfactorv and will not decrease sig- phones; however, you should employ a 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OP THE HOUR" 



11 



ROLAND ROGERS has ordered a 
radiophone for his enterprising store 
in Wapakoneta, 0. Butcher & Stein- 
metz have put in a receiving outfit in 
their store at Waynesfield, 0. 

DR. REMSBERG, of Princeton, 111., 
entertained friends with a radiophone 
report of the Greb-Gibbons fight. Many 
Princeton residents have receiving sets. 

THE BELL TELEPHONE Company 
is planning a radiophone* system with a 
station in each large city. 

MUSIC PUBLISHERS are demand- 
ing a tax from all sending stations that 
broadcast their copyrighted music. 
What would the song-writers say if 
some of their songs were denied the 
ether waves? Impure air some day 
may have a double meaning. 

AMATEURS, even the very groon 



Pickups 

readers who are interested may write 
Radio Age for further information. 

CLEVER INVENTORS are trying to 
find a way to send and receive mes- 
sages that cannot be understood by 
others. This effort applies to telephony, 
not to wireless telegraphy. The plan 
is to distort the speech so that it will 
be unintelligible except at the receiv- 
ing end, which has a set adjusted to 
straighten out the distortions. 

MINING OFFICIALS are consider- 
ing the radiophone as a means of avert- 
ing loss of life in mine accidents. They 
would equip the miner's cap with a 
miniature transmitter which could send 
alarm to a powerful receiving station 
at the mouth of the mine. The receiv- 
er would not only catch the signal but 
locate the i)()iiit of danger. 



hear William Jennings Bryan, who was 
talking in Pittsburgh. 

JOHN EDWARD SNYDER is install- 
ing a radio receiver in his ice-cream 
parlor in Peoria, 111. 

CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL in Rayi 



<*Llsf'^l'' 




Herbert Parish, a sixteen year old youth of Milwaukee, fitted up a Radiophone set in an hour that can receive 
messages the same as a regular outfit except at extremely far distances. Herbert hopes some day to join the Sig- 
nal Corps and believes that he could make good use of his speed in the army. — International Photo. 



;. ones will find the little book "Radio 
ij';!., Hook-ups" of great value and interest 
':lll. in their making of receiving sets and 
in operating them. Another good book 
for amateurs is "Design Data for 



THE CANADIAN GOVERNMENT 
i?. considering the permitting of ama- 
teurs to use ' continuous wave trans- 
mission up to 250 meters wave length. 

JOE ATHERTON, at Macomb, 111., 



County, Illinois, is ten miles from a 
railroad or postoffice but has installed 
a radio set and is now right in the 
middle of the throbbing world. The 
students will receive and dissemir ' ' 



112 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



How to Make a Radio 
Set for $6 

Continued from pacje S 
in sandy soil it may be increased to 10 
ft. If some other metallic conductor, 
such as the casing of a drilled well, is 
not far away from the windoAv, it will 
be a satisfactory "ground." 

Tuner, Detector and Phone 

The detector and phone will have to 
be purchased. The tuner and certain 
accessories can be made at home. 

Tuner (R, Fig. 3)— This is a piece of 
pardboard or other non-metallic tub- 
ing with turns of copper wire wound 
around it. The cardboard tubing may 
Jbe an oatmeal box. Its construction is 
described in detail below. 

Crystal Detector (S, Fig. 3)— The 
construction of a crystal detector may 
^e of very simple design and quite satis- 
iEactory. The crystal, as it is ordinarily 
purchased, may be unmounted or 
mounted in a little block of metal. For 
mechanical reasons the mounted type 
may be more satisfactory, but that is of 
no great consequence. It is very im- 
portant, however, that a very good 
tested crystal be used. It is probable 
also that a galena crystal will be more 
satisfactory to the beginner. 

The crystal detector may be made 
up of a tested crystal, three wood 
|Screws, short piece of copper wire, a 
nail, set-screw type of binding post, 
and a wood knob or cork. The tested 
crystal is held in position on the wood 
base by three brass wood-screws as 
shown at 1, Fig. 3. A bare copper wire 
may be wrapped tightly around the 
'ithree brass screws for contact. The 
assembling of the rest of the crystal 
detector is qitite clearly shown in 
Fig. 3. 

Phone (T, Fig. 3) — It is desirable to 
luse a pair of telephone receivers con- 
nected by a head band, usually called 
a double telephone headset. The tele- 
phone receivers may be any of the 
standard commercial makes having a 
'resistance of between 2000 and 3000 
jOhms. The double telephone receiv- 
ers will cost more than all the other 
■ parts of the station combined, but it is 
Idesirable to get them, especially if one 
(plans to improve his receiving set later. 
If one does not care to invest in a set 
of double telephone receivers, a single 
(telephone receiver with a head band 
I'may be used ; it gives results somewhat 
less satisfactory. 

Accessories — Under the heading of 
! accessory equipment may be listed bind- 
iing posts, switch arms, switch contacts, 
test buzzer, dry battery, and boards 
on which to mount the complete appa- 
■iratus. The binding posts, switch arms 
and switch contacts may all be pur- 
chased from dealers who handle such 
'goods or they may be quite readily im- 
Iprovised at home. There is nothing pe- 
culiar about the pieces of wood on 



Cost of Parts 

The following list shows the approxi- 
mate cost of the parts used in the con- 
struction of this radio receiving station. 
The total cost will depend largely on 
the kind of apparatus purchased and on 
the number of parts constructed at 
home. 

Antenna — 

Wire — Copper, bare or insu- 
lated, No. 14, 100 to 150 ft., 

about $ .75 

Rope — % or v., inch. 2c per 
foot. 

2 insulators, porcelain 20 

1 pulley 15 

Lightning switch — 30 ampere 

battery switch 30 

1 porcelain tube lo 

Ground connections — 

Wire (same kind as antenna 
wire.) 

1 clamp 15 

1 iron pipe or rod 25 

Receiving set — 

1/2 pound No. 24 copper wire 
double cotton covered 75 

1 cardboard box. 

2 switch knobs and blades 
complete 1.00 

18 switch contacts and nuts.. .75 

3 binding posts — set screw 
type 45 

2 binding posts — any type... .30 
1 crystal — tested 25 

3 wood screws, brass, % in. 
long 03 

Wood for panels (from pack- 
ing box.) 

2 pounds paraffin 30 

Lamp cord, 2 to 3c per ft. 

Test buzzer 50 

Dry battery 30 

Telephone receivers 4.00 to $8.00* 

Total $11.00 $15.00 

If nothing but the antenna wire, 
lightning switch, porcelain tube, crys- 
tal, telephone receiver, bolts and buz- 
zer are purchased this total can be re- 
duced to about $6.00. 

♦still more efficient and expensive telephone 
receivers are available at prices ranging to 
about $20.00. 



may be obtained from a dry packing- 
box and covered with paraffin to keep 
out moisture. 

Details of Construction 

The following is a detailed descrip- 
tion of the method of winding the coil, 
construction of the wood panels, and 
mounting and wiring the apparatus : 

Tuner — See R, Fig. 3. Having sup- 
plied oneself with a piece of cardboard 
tubing 4 in. in diameter and about % 
pound of No. 24 (or No. 26) double 
cotton covered copper wire, one is ready 
to start the winding of the tuner. Puncii 
two holes in the tube about 1/2 in. from 
one end as shown at 2 on Fig. 3. Weave 
the wire through these holes in such a 
way that the end of the wire Avill be 
quite firmly anchored, leaving about 12 
inches of the wire free for connections. 
Start with the remainder of the wire to 
wrap the several turns in a single layer 
about the tube, tightly and closely to- 
gether. After 10 complete turns have 
been wound on the tube hold those turns 
snugly Avhile a tap is being taken off. 
This tap is made by making a 6 in. loop 
of the Avire and twisting it together at 
such a place that it will be slightly stag- 
gered from the first tap. This method 
of taking off taps is shown quite clearly 
at U, Fig. 3. Proceed in this manner 
until 7 twisted taps have been taken off 



turns have been wound on the tube then 
take off a 6 in. twisted tap for every 
succeeding single turn until 10 addition- 
al turns have been wound on the tube. 
After winding the last turn of wire 
anchor the end by weaving it through 
two holes punched in the tube much as 
was done at the start, leaving about 12 
in. of wire free for connecting. It is 
to be understood that each of the 18 
taps is slightly staggered from the one 
just above, so that the several taps will 
not be bunched along one line on the 
cardboard tube. See Fig. 3. It would 
be advisable, after Avinding the tuner as 
just described, to dip the tuner in hot 
paraffin. This Avill help to exclude 
moisture. 

Panel and Base 

Having completed the tuner to this 
point, set it aside and construct the up- 
right panel shown in Fig. 4. This panel 
may be a piece of wood approximately 
1/2 in- thick. The position of the sever- 
al holes for the binding posts, switch 
arms and switch contacts may first be 
laid out and drilled. The "antenna" 
and "ground" binding posts may be or- 
dinary % in. brass bolts of sufficient 
length and supplied with three nuts and 
two washers. The first nut binds the 
bolt to the panel, the second nut holds 
one of the short pieces of stiff wire, 
while the third nut holds the antenna 
or ground wire as the case may be. The 
switch arm with knob shown at V, Fig. 
3, may be purchased in the assembled 
form or it may be constructed from a 
thin slice cut from a broom handle and 
a bolt of sufficient length equipped with 
four nuts and two washers together 
with a narrow strip of thin brass some- 
what as shown. The switch 'contacts 



$50 Prizes for Boys 

Radio Age will pay prizes as follows for the 
best original articles (with drawings) from 
boys of 18 years and under, on 

How toriVlake Home Radio Receiving Sets; 

First Prize - $20.00 

Second Prize 15.00 

Third Prize - 10.00 

Fourth Prize 5.00 

Articles must be clearly illustrated and must 
be not longer than 2000 words, or shorter 
than 1000. 

Another special prize of $10 will be award- 
ed to the boy of 18 or under who writes 
and illustrates (with rough sketches) the best 
original article of about 500 words on how 
to make the best variable and the best fixed 
condenser at home. 

Winners will be announced in 

Radio Age— July Number. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



13 



(W, Fig. 3) may be of the regular type 
furnished for this purpose or they may 
be brass bolts equipped with one nut 
and one washer each or they may even 
be nails driven through the panel with 
an individual tap fastened under the 
head or soldered to the projection of 
the nail through the panel. The switch 
contacts should be just close enough 
that the switch arm will not drop be- 
tween the contacts, but also far enough 
apart that the switch arm can be set so 
as to touch only one contact at a time. 
The telephone binding post should 
preferably be of the set screw type as 
shown at X, Fig. 3. 

Instructions for Wiwng' 

Having constructed the several parts 
just mentioned and mounted them on 
the wood base, one is ready to connect 
the several taps to the sAvitch contacts 
and attach the other necessary wires. 
Scrape the cotton insulation from the 
loop ends of the sixteen twisted taps 
as well as from the ends of the two 
single taps coming from the first and 
last turns. Fasten the bare ends of 
these wires to the proper switch con- 
tacts as shown by the corresponding 
numbers in Fig. 3. One should be care- 
ful not to cut or break any of the looped 
taps. It would be preferable to fasten 
the connecting wires to the SAvitch con- 
tacts by binding them back of the bind- 
ing post marked "ground" (Fig. 3) to 
the back of the left-hand switch-arm 
bolt (Y), thence to underneath the left- 
hand binding post marked "phones." 
A wire is then run from underneath the 
right-hand binding post marked 
"phones" to underneath the binding 
post (4, Fig. 8), which forms a part of 
the crystal detector. A piece of No. 24 
bare copper wire about 2i/2 iii- long) 
one end of which is twisted tightly 
around the nail (the nail passing 
through binding post 4), the other end 
of which rests gently by its own weight 
on the crystal (1). The bare copper 
wire which was wrapped tightly around 
the three brass wood-screws holding 
the crystal in place is lead to and fas- 
tened at the rear of the right-hand 
switch arm bolt fv), thence to the up- 
per left-hand binding post marked "an- 
tenna." As much as possible of this 
wiring is shown in Fig. 3. 

Directions for Operating 

After all the parts of this crystal-de- 
tector radio receiving set have been con- 
structed and assembled the first essen- 
tial operation is to adjust the little piece 
of wire, which rests lightly on the crys- 
tal, to a sensitive point. This may be 
accomplished in several different ways; 
the use of a miniature buzzer trans- 
mitter is very satisfactory. Assuming 
that the most sensitive point on the 
crystal has been found by method de- 
scribed in paragraph below, "the Test 
Buzzer," the rest of the operation is to 
get the radio receiving set in resonance 
)r in tune with the station from which 




one wishes to hear messages. The tun- 
ing of the receiving set is attained by 
adjusting the inductance of the tuner. 
That is, one or both of the switch arms 
are rotated until the proper number of 
turns of wire of the tuner are made a 
part of the metallic circuit between the 
antenna and ground, so that together 
Avith the capacity of the antenna the re- 
ceiving circuit is in resonance Avith the 
particular transmitting station. It will 
be remembered that there are 10 turns 
of wire between each of the first 8 
switch contacts and only one turn of 
wire betAveen each 2 of the other con- 
tacts. The tuning of the receiving set 
is best accomplished by setting the 
I'ight-hand switch arm on contact (1) 
and rotating the left-hand SAvitch arm 
over all its contacts. If the desired 
signals are not heard, move the right- 
hand switch arm to contact (2) and 
again rotate the left-hand switch arm 
throughout its range. Proceed in this 
manner until the desired signals are 
heard. 

It Avill be advantageous for the one 
using this radio receiving equipment to 
find out the wave frequencies (Avave 
length) used by the several radio trans- 
mitting stations in his immediate vi- 
cinity. 

The Test Buzzer (Z, Fig. 3)— As 
mentioned previously, it is easy to find 
the more sensitive spots on the crystal 
by using a test buzzer. The test buzzer 
is used as a miniature local transmitting 
set. "When connected to the receiving 
set as shoAvn at Z, Fig. 3, the current 
produced by the buzzer Avill be eon- 
verted into sound by the telephone re- 
ceivers and the crystal, the loudness of 
the sound depending on Avhat part of 
the crystal is in contact Avith the fine 
Avire. To find the most sensitive spot 
connect the test buzzer to the receiving 
set as directed, close the sAvitch (5, Fig. 
3) (and if necessary adjust the buzzer 
armature so that a clear note is emitted 
m7.7.e.r). set the right-hand 



switch arm on contact point No. 8, fas- 
ten the telephone receivers to the bind 
ing posts marked "phones," loosen the 
set screw of the binding post slightl;y 
and change the position of the fine wire 
(6, Fig. 3) to several positions of con 
tact with the crystal unit until tlu 
loudest sound is heard in the phones 
then tighten the binding post set screA\ 
(4) slightly. 



WILLIAM TERRELL, a Peoria man 
Avas suspected of stealing a radio out- 
fit. A wireless telephone message 
broadcast from the Bi^adley station des 
cribed the instrument. An amateui 
operator in Peoria promptly reported 
Ihat Terrell had tried to sell him sucl 
an instrument. Terrell faces the grand 
jury now. Pretty slick thief who car 
hide from those wireless waves ! 



Great Radio Shows 

Continiied from jxtye ilirec 
Delegations from many of the neigh 
boring states have made reserva 
tions. A party of at least 30 dealer; 
went from Detroit alone. The smallei 
cities and rural districts Avithin easj 
receiving distance of the local broad 
casting stations are among the mos 
enthusiastic centers. All roads in the 
radio field lead toward Pittsburgh dur 
ing the week. 

The American Radio Exhibitors' as 
soeiation conducting the shoAv has com- 
piled information concerning the in- 
dustry AAdiieh is available to all the 
dealers, distributors and manufactur 
ers. Special shipments of complete sets 
and supplies have been made by sev- 
eral of the manufacturers. This nui 
terial is available for the public at the 
exhibition, says the Pittsburgh Press. 
Competent engineers are on hand at 
the information booth to ansAver nn; 
questions concerning radio Avhich li 



14 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



B 



H 



I 



J 



O 



R 



V 



W 



X 



Learn the Code 

Before one starts receiving, he should 

master the language of the air. This 

lis not the sound that is broadcast — 

but the dot and dash signals of the 

International Morse Code. 

Don't throw up your hands in de- 
spair. It is not hard to learn. Once 
mastered, you Avill be able to get the 
full pleasure of "listening in" — you 
Avill get the secrets that are flying 
about all the time. 

A little prac- 
tice each day 
and you will be 
fascinated by 
decoding these 
mysterious dots 
and dashes. 

Cut out this 
chart. Mount it 
on cardboard 
for ready ref- 
erence. 

The code may 

be learned by 

visualiza t i o n . 

But it is much 

easier to learn 

it by sound. A 

tapping of a 

.pencil will do. 

The best way, 

however, is to 

,rig up a little 

' buzzer and hear 

the real thing. ^ 

Get a high ' ■■i«"»«« i 

pitched buzzer, 

an ordinary telegraph key and a com- 
mon dry battery. They can be pur- 
chased in any supply store at a small 
cost. 

Mount tlie key on a table or desk, 
allowing plenty of room for the fore- 
arm. Connect the battery and buzzer 
according to the diagram. 

When your hand is set have your 
wrist clear and your thumb resting 
lightly against the knob of the key. The 
index and third fingers should be on 
top and the other two fingers should be 
curved back into the hand. 

The wrist should do the sending — 
the thumb and fingers acting merely as 
a guide for the wrist. 

The spring in the key should be 
screwed down just enough to force the 
key up after each wrist action. 

Dubuque (la.) Times. 



WIRELESS CODE 



Boy Scouts 

Boy Scouts are sure to become an 
important factor in radio. It was a 
boy scout at the recent radio confer- 
ence in Washington who arose and 
made an eloquent appeal for a closer 
union between the various government 
departments and broadcasting stations 
so that the boys in all communities 
might learn more of Avhat is going on 
in the United States. He even suggest- 
ed that the boys be permitted to listen 
in on the de- 
in Con- 



THE MORSE 
ALPHABET 



bates 
gress. 



D 



K 



6 



NUMERALS 

3 

■ ■■■IB 

8 



4 
• ■mi 



& 



5 



PUNCTUATION MARKS, ETC, 

Interrogation 

9 



Period 



Unless that 
scout has heard 
G some of our 

' "■■■ long- winded 
statesmen wind- 
M N jamming in the 
■^ *■ Senate or the 
House, he has 
U little idea of 

■ ■B Avhat he is let- 

ting himself 
and other boys 
i n for. But 
each new rev- 
elation might 
help him to cast 
an intelligent 
vote later on. 

Boy Scouts 
are organizing 
their radio 
members so 
'I'^i .■■■■™^ that they will 

be of assistance 
to the government in emergency. A 
better, more promiseful spirit could not 
be manifested by the little fellows who 
are to be the future masters of the 
magic science. 

INABILITY TO GET PHONES for 
radiophone receivers is delaying the in- 
stallation of many amateur plants in 
Peoria, 111. 



Comma 



Soldering 



Any person installing a radio set 
should know how to solder and do it 
right. A book might be written on the 
subject but only a few points will be 
given here. 

1. Be sure the wires of the parts to 
be soldered are absolutely clean. File, 
scrape or sandpaper them^ until they 
are bright. 

2. Use a good soldering flux. Get 
a can of good soldering paste and 
learn how to apply it. Use as little 
as possible and when the joint is com- 
pleted carefully wipe off all surplus 
paste which acts as a conductor and 
may short circuit the wires. Never, 
under any circumstances, use muriatic 
or hydrochloric acid cut with zinc. 
Electrolysis takes place and produces a 
corroded joint. 

3. Always remember that the parts 
must be as hot as the melted solder be- 
fore a good joint can be produced. 
Never let the soldering iron get red 
hot. A green flame around the iron 
indicates that the copper is burning and 
should be removed from the fire. 

4. To "tin" the "iron" heat on a 
gas stove until the green flames just 
begin to show, take otf the "iron" and 
file until the copper shows brightly. 
Dip the tip in a little paste and imme- 
diately rub on a bar of solder. This 
Avill leave the tip of the "ii'on" cov- 
ered with solder and bits of solder may 
be picked up and deposited wherever 
desired. If the ' ' iron ' ' is not ' ' tinned ' ' 
solder will not stick and it is next to 
impossible to solder joints. 

— Orval Whishman in Rockford Star. 

Become a Wireless Operator 

A splendid opportunity to study wiih Chicago Schoo 
Teachers on Saturday afternoons. A practical man who 
had charge of a station in France, now with Western 
Electric, will assist in the work. 

ILLINOIS RADIO SCHOOL, 

Room 925, 64 W. Randolph St.. 
Phone Dearborn 5465 JOHN T. NUTTALL, Principal 



1^ B. F. ELBERT, manager of a Des 
piMoines, la., theater, will have music by 
wireless as a substitute for an orches- 
tra. 



ALBERT E. PROFFITT, of Provi- 
dence, R. I., has discovered a means 
of listening in on telephone conversa- 
tions with his radio outfit. He declines 
to tell how he does it. The secret lies 
ing of his amplifier . 



iuii 



ampi 



MAIL THIS COUPON TO US TODAY, 



RADIO AGE, 1311 Garrick Building, Chicago, 111. 

Enter my subscription to Radio Age for six months, for 
which I enclose $1.25. (If for one year mark X here LJ and 
enclose $2 50.) 

Currency and stamps or personal checks 
will be satisfactory. 



Name 

Address. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



Radio in School 

Thousands of boys are studying prac- 
tical radio in the public schools. The 
number of boys devoting their major 
time to this work is particularly large 
in the Chicago Technical High Schools. 
In many schools, in addition to the 
regular courses in electrical study the 
boys have radio clubs. Lane, Tilden 
and Crane, the three larger "tech" 
schools have Qlubs and interest in them 
and in radio is increasing daily. 

The president of the Peoria School 
Board has said that radio will be placed 
on the list of studies "as soon as it be- 
comes practical" and any number of 
boys in Peoria reply that it is practical 
already. They Avant radio classes now. 
The radio club of Waukegan High 
School has seventeen members and some 
of them have sets with which they can 
hear music broadcast from Chicago. 

Athletic events in which rival high 
schools are engaged are so closely fol- 
lowed by stay-at-home students that the 
radio has been brought into action to 
carry play by play the progress of the 
struggles. This plan recently was 
adopted with success by Rockford, 111., 
high school during a contest with Ur- 
bana, at Urbana. 

Radio interest is by no means limited 
to the technical and other high schools. 
'Varsity men are just the same sort of 
fans as their younger brothers. As a 
matter of fact all men are boys when 
it comes to playing with ether waves 
and listening to the invisible choir. 
Michigan University announces a Radio 
night for April 29. Fielding H. Yost, 
athletic director at Ann Arbor, plans 
to make it a wireless reunion of alum- 
ni. Faculty members, glee club singers 
and athletic stars will participate in 
the program and it will be broadcast. 

News will be broadcast once a week 
from the University of Wisconsin sta- 
tion at Madison. The wave length is 
360 meters. The news digest will be 
sent each Friday night at the close of 
the weekly radiophone concert. 

"Wisconsin students carry on a news 
exchange between the newspapers of 
other colleges in Wisconsin and in other 
states from 10 to 12, midnight, every 
Monday. 

Bradley Station, Peoria, 111., is im- 
proving the apparatus of the Bradley 
Institute. The present sending wave 
length is 200 meters but it will be in- 
creased to a possible 450 meters with 
the new equipment. 

Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., 
has resumed its broadcast service. The 
station will broadcast under its newly 
assigned call letters WRL but the club 
retains its old license 2XQ for pur- 
poses other than broadcasting. 

It is reported in the press that New 
York University will permit students 
to stay at home and get their lectures 
via the radiophone. Maybe so, maybe 
so, but let us not get too close to the 



Get This Radio Receiver 

= FREE — 

THIS OUTFIT, capable of helping you hear music, sermons, 
news reports, speeches from 15 to 50 miles from sending 
stations will be given away to any Radio Age reader who sends in 
six new subscribers, accompanying the written subscriptions with 
Currency or Money Order for the total amount of subscriptions. 




m- 










*4il 







' ' '^-j!:* ' 





Men, studying the magic science of Radio, will be interested in 
our new and different Radio magazine as are the boys. Speed 
up your subscription campaign before this ofTer closes on May 15. 

RADIO AGE 

The Magazine of The Hour 



1311 Garrick Building 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



liAinO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



lanaiii 



ANNOUNCING 



THE ANNUAL 



JNational ivaclio Exposition 

TO BE HELD IN THE 

LEITER BUILDING 

IN THE HEART OF THE LOOP SHOPPING DISTRICT 

CHICAGO, JUNE 26th to JULY 1st 

INCLUSIVE 



THE MOST COMPREHENSIVE 

EXHIBIT of every type of Wireless 
Apparatus ever shown 

SUCH RAPID STRIDES HAVE BEEN MADE IN 
THE PERFECTION of WIRELESS DEVICES THAT 
EVERY EXHIBIT IN THE BIG EXPOSITION 
BUILDING WILL DISPLAY SOMETHING NEW 
AND INTERESTING TO THE RADIO FANS. 



For Further Particulars Address ^ 

National Radio Exposition | 

I 4 1 7 South Dearborn Street : : : CHICAGO, ILLINOIS | 

'■■■ ■"" ' ' I" 



WIZARD 

The Compact Radiophone 



ST-SS 



7 



Sent 
Parcel Post 

Prepaid 
Anywhere. 




$^.95 



7 



Smallest 

and Least Expensive 

on the 

Market. 



Measures 5" x 4" x 6" 

Concerts - Sermons - Lectures - News 

TO YOUR HOME 

So Compact and Simple is the Wizard no Mechanical Knowledge is Required to Operate. 

FULL INSTRUCTIONS WITH EVERY SET. 

Every Set is Tested and Guaranteed. Will be Sent Prepaid Parcel Post on Receipt of Money 
Order for $7.95. Fill Out Coupon and Delivery will be Made Within 7 Days. 



OBEY 
THAT IMPULSE- 


WIZARD RADIO CO.. 
64 West Randolph Street, 
Chicago, 111. 

Please send to me at once. Parcel Post Prepaid, one 
Wizard Radiophone. Enclosed find $7.95. 

Name 


DO IT NOW ! 


Address 

City State 



We are Specialists in Crystal Receiving Sets. We do not sell parts. Phones, wire and other 

parts are readily procurable in your neighborhood. 
The Wizard Radiophone is strongly constructed of Hard Wood with genuine Bakelite panel. 

All Metal Parts are Nickel Plated. 

If you are within 15 miles of a broadcasting station you should have a Wizard. 
Guaranteed to be mechanically perfect and fully tested. Money Back if not as fully represented. 



Radio in The Home 




PRICES ARE 
THE LOWEST 




OPEN SATURDAYS 
ALL DAY 



Enjoyed With Our Quality Apparatus 



Westinghouse Radio Receiver 

Aeriola Sr. complete with tube and phones $65.00 

G. E. 753 Crystals Receiver with phones 18.00 

G. E. 1300 Receiver 175-170 meter 50.00 

G. E. 1400 Detector (2) step amplifier 75.00 

281 Kennedy Receiver 80.00 

521 (2) step Amplifier 55.00 

CR5 Grebe Receiver 80.00 

RORK (2) step Amplifier 55.00 

RA Westinghouse Receiver 68.00 

DA Westinghouse Detector amplifier 70.00 

Bowman Aeriophone with phones 25.00 

Radio Apparatus 

No. 1 Kellogg socket $0.75 

Howard Rheostat 1.10 

Howard Socket 1.10 

Bradley Carbon pile 1.85 

Rheostat 

2111 Bradley Stat for primary of filament 

transformer 6.50 

No. 15 phone plug 1.75 

2620 Amplifying transformer 6.00 

A. A. R. 3 transformer mtd 4.50 

A. A. R. 2 transformer mtd 4.25 

2607 Variometer Amrod 6.10 

2614 Vario Coupler Amrod 6.90 

1423 Tacks 1.00 

1435 Jacks 1.20 

1438 Jacks 1.50 



Radio Phones 

Stanley and Patterson 2000 ohms $ 8.59 

Kellogg 2400 ohms 10.25 

W. E. No. 1002 to 2200 ohms 15.00 

F. R. 051 No. 162 2000 ohms 5.00 

Brandes superior 2000 ohms 8.00 

Brandes navy 3200 ohms 14.00 

"Weston Meters 

Filament Volt Meter 

0- 8 D C Volt 8.00 

0-10 D C Volt 8.00 

Filament Ammeter 

0-1.5 D C Ampere 8.00 

0-3 D C Ampere 8.00 

0-5 D C Ampere 8.00 

0-10 D C Ampere 8.00 

Plate Volt Meter 

0- 50 D C Volt 8.00 

0-100 D C Volt 13.00 

Other Meters on Application 





Westinghouse Type RC 



We fill mail orders promptly and accurately. 

Stanley and Patterson Loud Speakers 

No. 833 Standard Silvertone loud speaker $35.00 

No. 834 Junior De Veau Silvertone 25.00 

No. 835 Midget De Veau loud speaker 15.00 

No. 835 Station type loud speaker 25.00 

If you are in any doubt about anything regarding wireless, drop in and 
consult our experts. They are always willing to give you as much informa- 
tion as possible. 

Even though you haven't any requests, come in and see our great 
display and ask all the questions you wish regarding this wonderful and 
economic means of enjoyment. 



E COMMONWEALTH EDISON O 
LECTRIC SHOPiJ 

72 WEST ADAMS STREET, CHICAGO 



v^v^vgvl;vfVj^^vr^.r^JV^>^5^vSVS^JVjv^>^^^J^^f^J^^vJ^^J^ 




JUNE, 1922 



25c A COPY 



IN THIS NUMBER 

Read Pearne's Articles on the 
Simplified Home Radio 

Professor Frank D. Pearne tells beginners each month about 
construction and operation. Prof. Pearne is chief instructor 
in electricity at Lane Technical High School, Chicago. 
Exclusive in Radio Age. 

Government Radio Control 

New Rules for All Radio Fans 

First complete publication of final official conference report 
on sending and receiving. This radio article vitally important. 
It's your working handbook. 

Questions and Answers 
Illustrated by an Expert 

Here is a magazine whose technical editor, Frank D. Pearne, 
knows how to get radio instruction over in simplest terms. 

GOOD MAGAZINE FOR EVERYBODY BETTER ON EACH APPEARANCE 

BEST ALWAYS FOR BEGINNERS 

Don't Say Radio Magazine— Say RADIO AGE 

It Is the Magazine of the Hour 



M 



Acknowledgment 



To— 

Newsdealers, who are re- 
porting phenomenal sales 
of Radio Age; 

Subscribers, whose names 
already are in our card 
files — hundreds of names 
with more in each mail; 

Advertisers, who have let 
us broadcast their busi- 
ness messages to many 
thousands who were 
waiting for those messages. 

From — 

The Pubhsher, who has 
faith in the Rotarian 
slogan: "He Profits Most 
Who Serves Best." 



RADIO AGE 

The Magazine of the Hour 



Volume I 



Number 2 



CONTENTS FOR JUNE, 1922 

PAGE 

Frontispiece — Portrait of Dr. S. W. Stratton 2 

How the Government Will Control Radio 3 

By Frederick Smith 

Shows Introducing Radio to American Throngs 5-6 

How to Make a Receiving Transformer 7 

By Frank D. Pearne 

Navy's Radio Shatters Distance 9 

High School Wins Radio Fame 11 

By Edward L. Taylor 

"Aerials" Under Ground and Under Water 13 

Electric Light Wire as Auxiliaries to Radio 13 

New Stuff by Our Boy Readers 14 

In Radio Shops and Factories 15 

Thought Waves from the Editorial Tower 17-18 

The Radio Club of Illinois 19 

By Barratt O'Hara 

Questions and Answers 20 

Conducted and Illustrated by Frank D. Pearne 
Radio News from Coast to Coast 23-24 



Radio Age is published monthly by 
The M. B. Smith Publishing Co., 
Garrick Building, Chicago, III. 

Frederick Smith, Editor 

Frank D. Pearne, Technical Editor 

M. B. Smith, Publisher and Business Manager 

Advertising Managers: 
YOUNG & WARD 

308 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Eastern Representative: 

GEO. W. STEARNS 

Flatiron Building, New York City, N. Y. 



Advertising Forms Close on 5th of the Month 
Preceding Date of Issue. 

Issued monthly. Vol. I, No. 2. Publication Office: Garrick Building, 64 West 
Randolph Street, Chicago. Subscription price $2.50 a year. Entry as second- 
class matter applied for at the postoffice at Chicago, 111., under the Act of 
March 3, 1879. 



Registration of Title Applied for in U. S. Patent Office. 
Copyright, 1922, Republication of Original Matter Prohibited 



What is in Store for 
Radio Age Readers 

The acquisition of Frank D. 
Pearne as Technical Editor on the 
staff of RADIO AGE insures ati- 
thoritative interesting material for 
our magazine. Mr. Pearne is chief 
instructor in electricity at Lane 
Technical High School and knows 
how to discuss radio technique with 
beginners. 

Mr. Pearne will not only write and 
illustrate a helpful article each month 
but he will conduct the questions 
and answers, always a popular fea- 
ture in publications dealing with 
wireless. 

There are to be three big radio 
shows in Chicago and several others 
in the "Chicago Territory" before 
August and some of these will be at- 
tended by important conferences at 
which radio history will be made. 

It is the privilege of the editor to 
be associated in an advisory capacity 
with three of these approaching ex- 
positions and our readers may be 
sure of getting complete informa- 
tion of them. 

Thfs number contains the com- 
plete report in the recent Depart- 
ment of Commerce conference on 
radio regulation. The report is vo- 
luminous but we are so sure of the 
interest in this subject, among big 
manufacturers as well as among 
dealers, expert operators and ama- 
teurs, that we have arranged for 
other comprehensive articles of a 
similar nature. 

In the July number we are to have 
a most interesting story by a man 
who made his own receiving set for 
$3.85 and went on from there until 
he — but read his own story. 

Nothing would please the editor 
more than to receive letters from our 
readers. Criticism in invited. News 
forwarded to us will be used where 
practicable and unused manuscripts 
will be returned if stamped and ad- 
dressed envelopes are supplied. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Who's Who m Radio 




Dr. Samuel W. Stratton, Chief of the Government Bureau of Standards, was chairman of the Department of Commerce conference 
called by Secretary Hoover to recommend laws governing radio communication. Dr. Stratton formerly was professor of physics at 
the University of Chicago and has been director of the Bureau of Standards for more than twenty years. He is an Illinois man. 



i m i II i i iM i I [ u [ I L I I I I III I m fi I I I I I II I I I I I I II I II I \ 111 I I I I I \ I II I I I I I I H n I I I II II I II I I I I I I [ I I I I I [ I I I II I I mi l l llll ll'i i m nii 





iiiiiliilili^iiiiijli 



RADIO JIGE 

Tfie Ma^a^ine of Ifte Hour 

PUBLISHED MONTiiLY GARRICK. BLX)'q CHQO. 



FREDERICK :-;^m 

EDITOR 



III mil II II I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1 I I I mi u I II I I II I II I I I I I I 1 II I 1 1 1 1 II I I II 1 1 I I I I 1 1 1 II I II I II 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 M M I I I I 1 I I I I 1 I 1 1 1 I I I I I M I iir 



How the Government Will Control Radio 



AT LAST the radio wise men of 
the United States have agreed 
L.upon a definite comprehensive 
plan whereby users of radio tele- 
phones and the radio telegraph may 
know how, where and when they may 
use the magic electro magnetic waves 
as a means of communication. 

Just before going to press we are 
in receipt of the complete official text 
of the report made by the Department 
ofCommerceconferenceon radio tele- 
phony, which adjourned its second 
session on April 19. The report is 
published in full in this number be- 
cause it is the most important docu- 
ment of the day, interesting alike 
the small boy with his home-made 
receiving outfit and the million dollar 
corporation with its powerful trans- 
mitting station. 

A mere glance at the report will 
convince the public that the confer- 
ence had a giant task to perform. 
Since the installation of broadcasting 
stations started several years ago the 
number of stations has increased to 
such an extent that chaotic confusion 
has resulted. Government broad- 
casting, public broadcasting, private 
broadcasting and toll broadcasting 
have overlapped and clashed until it 
seemed that it was impossible to 
straighten out the tangle. 

Marine radio service was sadly 
hindered by operators outside the 
government service along the coasts. 
Public and private broadcasts de- 
stroyed the value on one another un- 
til the radio telephone listener was 
frantic over repeated disappointment. 
Probably most important of all was 
the status of the amateur who was 
trying to advance his knowledge of 
the science by practicing it and thus 
make himself a valuable unit in the 
vast system of radio telephony which 
is soon to be one of our most import- 
ant national assets. His broadcast- 
ing very often jammed up the music, 
speeches, baseball scores, weather 



By FREDERICK SMITH 

predictions and market information 
that thousands of persons were try- 
ing to pick up with their receivers. 
But the amateur had to be taken care 
of, nevertheless. Under the new reg- 




Radio has caught the boys in England, 
too. The boys at an elementary school 
at Haslemere, England, have trans- 
formed this old windmill into an aerial 
tower. Kadel & Herbert Photo 



ulations he will have his place in the 
ether. 

The recommendations made by the 
Washington conference will be made 
3 



the basis for congressional legisla- 
tion. The bill being drafted by Rep- 
resentative Wallace H. White, Jr., of 
Maine, will put the recommendations 
into the form of a law and this will 
be the first adequate legislation on 
the subject in the last decade. 

Radio laws will be so amended as 
to give the Secretary of Commerce 
(Mr. Hoover) authority to control 
the establishment of all radio trans- 
mitting stations except amateur, ex- 
perimental and government stations. 
He also will be authorized to control 
the OPERATION of non-govern- 
mental radio transmitting stations. 
How this federal control is to be es- 
tablished is explained in part in the 
following conference recommenda- 
tion, one of the most interesting in 
the report: 

It is recommended that for the 
purposes of self-policing among 
the amateurs. Amateur Deputy 
Radio Inspectors be created, 
elected from their number of the 
amateurs of each locality ; that 
upon receipt of notice of such 
election the Radio Inspector in 
charge of the district in which 
such amateurs are located shall 
appoint the person chosen a 
Deputy Radio Inspector, serv- 
ing without compensation or for 
the sum of one dollar per year if 
compensation is legally requir- 
ed; that the duty of such Ama- 
teur Deputy Inspector shall be 
to endeavor to the best of his 
ability to accomplish, under the 
direction of the District Radio 
Inspector, observance of the 
Radio Communication Laws and 
the Regulations of the United 
States and the observance of 
such local co-operative measures 
as are agreed to in each commun- 
ity for the minimization of inter- 
ference between the various 
groups of the public interested in 
radio ; that such amateur Deputy 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Radio Inspectors be clothed with 
whatever authority may be nec- 
essary in the opinion of the Dis- 
trict Radio Inspector. 

That means the young trafific cop 
of the air will be listening in for those 
reckless and inconsiderate despoil- 
ers of the air and will report them to 
headquarters. The transmitting sta- 
tion will be extremely careful not to 
commit any evils which may lead to 
the revocation of its precious sending 
license. 

Direct advertising is explicitly pro- 
hibited in the recommendations of 
the conference. Radio is termed a 
public utility in which the mass of 
the people is most vitally interested 
and it is the aim of the proposed leg- 
islation to gain the most good for the 
greatest number. 

For this reason the conference re- 
solved "that the types of radio ap- 
paratus most effective in reducing in- 
terference should be made freely 
available to the public without re- 
striction." 

The conference adjourned its first 
session on March 2 to give the radio 
public opportunity to discuss and 
criticise the plans for regulation. The 
report as finally adopted and here 
published in full is therefore the con- 
sensus of that tremendous army of 
radio enthusiasts which is gaining 
recruits to the number of many thou- 
sands each month. 

The complete conference report 
follows : 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
Washington 

This conference was called by Secre- 
tary Hoover to consider general questions 
concerning the regulation of radio com- 
munication. 

The following were invited to serve 
as members of the Conference, the repre- 
sentatives of the Government departments 
being selected by their several depart- 
ments: 

Dr. S. W. Stratton, Chairman (Director 
of Bureau of Standards). 

Mr. Edwin H. Armstrong, Columbia 
University, New York, N. Y. 

Capt. Samuel W. Bryant, U. S. N., Navy 
Department. 

Mr. D. B. Carson, Commissioner of 
Navigation, Department of Commerce. 

Mr. J. C. Edgerton, Supt., Radio Service, 
Post Office Department. 

Dr. Alfred N. Goldsmith, Secretary, In- 
stitute of Radio Engineers, New York, 
N. Y. 

Mr. R. B. Howell, Metropolitan Utili- 
ties District, Omaha, Nebr. 

Prof. C. M. Jansky, Jr., University of 
Minnesota. 

Senator Frank B. Kellogg of Minne- 
sota. 

Mr. Hiram Percy Maxim, President, 
American Radio Relay League, Hartford, 
Conn. 

Major General George O. Squier, War 
Department. 

Representative Wallace H. White, Jr., 
of Maine. 

Mr. W. A. Wheeler, Bureau of Markets 



Final Allocation of Wave Lengths 



We 



(1) 

(2) 

O) 

(4) 
(5) 
(6) 
(7) 
(8) 
(9) 
(10) 

(M) 
(12) 
(13) 
(14) 
(15) 
(16) 
(17) 
(18) 
(19) 
(20) 

(21) 
(22) 



Wave Length 

Use Meters 

Transoceanic radio telephone experiments, 6,000 

non-exclusive. (See Note 3) 5,000 

Fixed service radio telephony, non-exclu- 3,300 

sive. (See Note 4) 2,850 

Mobile service radio telephony, non-exclu- 2,650 

sive 2,500 

Government broadcasting, non-exclusive. 2,050 

(See Note 1) 1,850 

Fixed station radio telephony, non-exclu- 1,650 

sive. (See Note 5) 1,550 

Aircraft radio telephony and telegraphy, 1,550 

exclusive 1,500 

Government and public broadcasting, non- 1,500 

exclusive 1,050 

Radio beacons, exclusive. (See Note 6). . 1,050 

950 

Aircraft radio telephony and telegraphy, 950 

exclusive 850 

Radio compass service, exclusive. (See 850 

Note 7) 750 

Government and public broadcasting, 200 750 

miles or more from the seacoast, exclusive 700 

Government and public broadcasting, 400 700 

miles or more from the seacoast, exclusive 650 

Marine radio telephony, non-exclusive. 750 

(See Note 8) 650 

Aircraft radio telephony and telegraphy, 525 

exclusive. (See Note 8) 500 

Government and public broadcasting, ex- 495 

elusive 485 

Private and toll broadcasting. (See Note 485 

9) 285 

Restricted special amateur radio tele- 
graphy, non-exclusive. (See Note 10) . . . 310 
City and state public safety broadcasting, 285 

exclusive. (See Note 11) 275 

Technical and training schools (shared 275 

with amateur). (See Note 12) 200 

Amateur telegraphy and telephony (ex- 
clusive, 150 to 200 meters). (Shared with 

technical and training schools, 200 to 275 275 

meters). (See Note 13) 150 

Private and toll broadcasting, exclusive. . . 150 

100 
Reserved below 1 00 abo\ 



ve Frequency 
Kilocycles 
per sec. 

50. 

60. 

90.9 
105.2 
1 13.2 
120. 
146. 
162. 
181.8 
193.5 
193.5 
200. 
200. 
285.7 
285.7 
316. 
316. 
353. 
353. 
400. 
400. 
428. 
428. 
462. 
400. 
462. 
572. 
600. 
606. 
618. 
618. 
1,052. 

968. 
1,052. 
1,091. 
1,091. 
1,500. 



1.091. 
2,000. 
2,000. 
3,-000. 
3,000 



L 



and Crop Estimates, Department of Agri- 
culture. 

The conference was in session from 
February 27 to March 2, at the end of 
which time a Tentative Report was pre- 
pared. This report was sent to all persons 
who requested it, and to representatives 
of various interests, which in the judg- 
ment of the Department of Commerce 
were interested. A large number of sug- 
gestions and comments were received. 
The Conference had subsequent sessions 
on April 17, 18 and 19. All comments 
were considered, the general effect of the 
comments being to approve the substance 
of the preliminary report with a very few 
exceptions. The report as finally amended 
and adopted is given herewith. 

In addition to preparing a report on 
technical matters, the Conference made 
recommendations as to essential points re- 
quired in legislation to give the Secretary 
power to make and enforce regulations. 
General Resolutions 

Resolved that the Conference on Radio 
Telephony recommend that the radio laws 
be amended so as to give the Secretary 
of Commerce adequate legal authority for 
the effective control of: 

(1) the establishment of all radio trans- 
mitting stations except amateur, experi- 
mental and Government stations. 



(2) the operation of non-Governmental 
radio transmitting stations.* 

Resolved that it is the sense of the Con- 
ference that radio communication is a 
public utility and as such should be regu- 
lated and controlled by the Federal Gov- 
ernment in the public interest. 

Resolved that the types of radio ap- 
paratus most effective in reducing inter- 
ference should be made freely available to 
the public without restriction. 

I. Allocation of Wave Bands 

A. It is recommended that waves for 
radio telephony be assigned in bands, ac- 
cording to the class of service, as given 
in the accompanying table. 

Throughout this report, both wave 
lengths and wave frequency are given. 
Wave length in meters is 300,000,000 di- 
vided by wave frequency in kilocycles per 
second. 

Wave bands marked exclusive can be 
used for no other type of service; those 
marked non-exclusive are available for 
other types of radio communication, sub- 
ject to regulation. 

*It was the desire of the Conference that the 
present authority of the Secretary of Commerce 
over the operation of radio transmitting stations 
be extended and that the Secretary of Commerce 
be granted authority to control the erection or 
establishment of certain classes of radio stations. 

(Continued on page 25) 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Shows Introducing Radio to Throngs 

Middle West Fans Await Milwaukee, Toledo and Chicago Expositions 



RADIO showmen appear to have 
no difficulty in convincing 
manufacturers and dealers 
that the radio show is the thing to 
get the business. This is not sur- 
prising when we look over the thou- 
sands of enthusiasts who have been 
crowdingthese 
e X h i b i tions. 
Each demon- 
stration of a 
radio outfithas 
an unmistaka- 
ble kick of 
thrilling inter- 
est in it. The 
shows have 
become a 
means of giv- 
ing manythou- 
sands of per- 
sons their first 
dip into the 
ether waves. 
Also the ex- 
hibits have in- 
tensely inter- 
ested those 
fans who are 
beyond the 
first stage of 
radio learning 
and want to 
see the newest 
and most im- 
proved equip- 
ment. 

Shows are 
supplying ad- 
ditional proof 
of the momen- 
tum the indus- 
try has accu- 
mulated. One 
year ago a ra- 
dio show on a 
big scale failed 
t o deliver a 
profit. This 
year the fans 
have been 
mobbing the 
entrances. 

New York 
had one big 
show in the 
P e nnsylvania 
Hotel and will 
have several 
others before 
next winter, the 
announced for 



exhibitions. Toledo's first show is 
being held during the week of May 
29. 

Milwaukee Leads the Way 

The Wisconsin Section of the 
American Radio Relay League will 




This bear cub, only 

but she more likely 

Her name is Mari 



a month old, may be listening to somebody's broadcasting station, 
is just hearing the old call of the wild. Science seems to bore her. 
on and she lives in Seattle, Wash. International News Reel Photo 



first of which was 
the Seventy-First 
Regiment Armory, May 22 to 29, in- 
clusive. Boston, Newark and Brook- 
lyn have dropped into line with big 



meet in its first state convention in 
Milwaukee on dates concurrent with 
the Wisconsin Radio and Electrical 
Show, to be held in the Auditorium, 
Milwaukee, June 21 to 25, inc. The 



convention will meet in the same 
building in which the show is held. 
Popular and technical talks by na- 
tionally known speakers are being 
arranged for the convention pro- 
gram. 

Spearman Lewis, managing direc- 
tor of the Al- 
lied Bazaar, 
the most suc- 
cessful show 
ever staged in 
the Coliseum, 
Chicago (net 
cash profits, 
$535,000), is 
managing di- 
rector of the 
Wisconsin 
Radio Show. 
His headquar- 
ters are at the 
Plankington 
Hotel, Mil- 
waukee. Sell- 
ing exhibitors' 
space has been 
largely a ques- 
tion of install- 
ing enough 
telephones at 
show head- 
quarters to get 
the incoming 
calls and in- 
quiries. 

Milwaukee 
claims the 
finest exposi- 
tion building 
in America — 
the A u d i t o - 
r i u m — and 
every indica- 
tion points to 
tremendous at- 
tendance and 
unusually in- 
teresting ex- 
hibits. The 
famous "K Y 
W" of Chicago 
will be repre- 
sented as a 
compliment to 
Mr. Lewis, 
who arranged 
the first Mary 
Garden- Edith 
Mason grand 
over "KYW" 



opera demonstration 
last November. 

The First Chicago Show 
For the purpose of discovering the 
young Edisons of wireless and to 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



help make Chicago the radio center 
of the world the committee in charge 
of the prizes to be awarded in the 
various contests at the National Ra- 
dio Exposition to be held in Chicago 
June 26th to July 1st, in the Leiter 
building, have announced the prizes 
that will be awarded. The com- 
mittee includes J. C. Hail, in charge 
of radio station WBU, City Hall, 
chairman; Prof. R. R. Hughes, 
Evanston High School, and F. D. 
Pearne, of the Department of Elec- 
tricity, Lane Technical High School. 

The prize awards are classed as 
follows : 

Grade Schools — For making the 
best Crystal Detector set— 170 to 600 
meters : 1st prize, $25 ; 2nd, $15 ; 3rd, 
$10. 

High Schools and Manual Train- 
ingSchools — For making the best re- 
generative Detector, two-stage am- 
plifier set — 175 to 600 meters: 1st 
prize, $50; 2nd, $30; 3rd, $20; boys 
under high school age are eligible, 
but they must be in school. 

Contest Open to Anyone under 21 
years old — For making the smallest 
set for receiving code and of practical 
use : 1st prize, $50; 2nd, $30; 3rd, $20. 

Contest Open to Anyone — For 
making Loud Speaker of own de- 
sign throughout ; one grand prize of 
$100. 

Contest Open to Anyone — For 
making the greatest radio novelty: 
one grand prize of $100. 

All the devices entered in the vari- 
ous contests must be the headquar- 
ters of the National Radio Exposi- 
tion, 417 S. Dearborn Street, Room 
401, by 8 o'clock Friday evening, 
June 23rd. The contestant must ap- 
pear in person before that time, when 
he will be given a ticket of admission 
to the show and will be told the day 
on which the awards will be made in 
his particular contest. 

Not a Dull Hour Here 

An advisory committee of experts 
is arranging the general details of 
the exposition. This committee con- 
sists of J. Elliott Jenkins, chairman ; 
J. C. Hail, W. S. Hedges, radio edi- 
tor, Chicago Daily News; Prof. R. 
E. Hughes; G. H. Jaspert; F. D. 
Pearne. E. C. Rayner, Editor Radio 
Digest; L. R. Schmidt; Frederick 
Smith, editor. Radio Age; Alfred 
Thomas, Jr., district manager of the 
Radio Corporation of America ; Nor- 
man E. Wunderlich, Radio Topics. 
At the first meeting of this com- 
mittee it was decided to provide an 
educational program that will give 
the visitor to the exposition a liberal 
education in radio. This program, 
held in a conference room, will be in 



the nature of open forum discussions, 
with a prominent speaker at each 
meeting, one at 10 o'clock in the 
morning and the other at 2 o'clock 
in the afternoon daily. Days will be 
set aside for dealers and manufac- 
turers, doctors and hospital people, 
ministers, golfers. 

In addition to the exhibits of man- 
ufacturers and dealers there will be 
many features and demonstrations. 
A broadcasting outfit will be in- 
stalled by the Westinghouse station, 
in charge of G. H. Jaspert, where 
everything that is in the air will be 
received and can be heard by the 
visitors to the exposition. The tech- 
nical schools of Chicago will have 
exhibits of their handicraft. The 
students not only will display what 
radio parts and outfits they have 
made in their schools, but they 
will actually manufacture them at 
the exposition. Some of the in- 
structors and students at these 
schools not only have invented im- 
provements in radio devices, for 
which they have obtained patents, 
but they have made outfits that rival 
the commercial outfits. 

The advisory committee decided 
to turn over space to the Army, 
Navy, Department of Commerce, 
Weather Bureau, Boy Scouts, Girl 
Scouts, Sea Scouts and Campfire 
Girls for radio displays. 

Pageant of Progress Show 

One of the great radio shows of 
the year in the United States will be 
a feature — almost surely the fore- 
most feature of the second annual 
International Pageant of Progress 
Exposition which opens on July 29th 
and closes August 14th, 1922. It is 
predicted that a million and a half 
persons will see this exhibition of 
wireless products. 

A preliminary meeting of the radio 
directors of the Pageant of Progress 
was held in the Gray Room of the 
Hotel Sherman, on the evening of 
May 2. Mayor William Hale Thomp- 
son was present and delivered a 
speech which positively identified 
His Honor as one of us. The Mayor 
spoke eloquently of the future of 
radio. 

Dr. John Dill Robertson, president 
of the exposition, introduced George 
B. Foster, of the Commonwealth 
Edison Company, as the chairman of 
the meeting. Mr. Foster called on 
several speakers, including for- 
mer Lieutenant Governor Barratt 
O'Hara, District Inspector L. R. 
Schmitt, Secretary Tansey of the 
Radio Club of Illinois, Spearman 
Lewis, Milo E. Westbrooke, U. J. 
Herrmann and George E. Carlson, 



Chicago Commissioner of Electricity. 
The speakers all expressed confi- 
dence in the belief that Chicago had 
the opportunity to become the center 
of radio in this country. Mr. Foster, 
in his interesting and instructive ad- 
dress, said he was informed there 
would be five Chicago shows this 
year. 

The interest displayed at this 
dinner indicates that those who fail 
to attend the Pageant of Progress 
radio show or neglect the opportu- 
nity to exhibit radio wares there will 
overlook a choice opportunity. 

Offices of the Pageant of Progress 
are at 7 West Madison street. 

The October Show 

The Chicago Radio Show to be 
held at the Coliseum, October 14th 
to 22nd, is rapidly assuming not only 
definite proportions, but promises to 
be of unusual interest to the Radio 
trade in general. The Coliseum be- 
ing recognized internationally as the 
center of trade expositions, gives any 
exposition lield there, prominence 
throughout the country. 

U. J. Herrmann, the managing 
director, has opened permanent 
offices in Suite 549 McCormick Bldg., 
and has appointed James F. Kerr, 
Manager of the Exposition. Many 
novel features in the arrangement of 
floor space are being worked out, to 
make the Exposition of equal interest 
to manufacturers and the public in 
general. Applications are coming in 
from all corners and the first foreign 
application was received 'from Paris, 
France, this week. 

Manufacturers have a most opti- 
mistic view of market conditions bet- 
tering themselves during the sum- 
mer months, as much of the patent 
litigation will be exhausted, thus 
leaving the manufacturing field in a 
more settled and stable condition. 



Reassuring the Dailies 

J. C. McQuiston, former president 
of the Association of National Ad- 
vertisers and now manager of West- 
inghouse publicity, addressed the ad- 
vertising association in Chicago re- 
cently. 

"Radio cannot replace the news- 
paper," he said. "Radio will be a 
supplemental agency and will devel- 
op more reading of the newspapers 
for news, as radio broadcasting of 
bulletins will create the desire for 
further details and for confirmation. 
After all, the printed word is neces- 
sary to give the final touch of au- 
thority." 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



How to Make a Receiving Transformer 

By FRANK D. PEARNE 

Chief Instructor in Electricity at Lane Technical High School, Chicago 



5aMRE BRASS ROD 



B 



THE American boy is always 
anxious to make things with his 
own hands, and it can truthfully 
be said that more real pleasure can 
be obtained from something which 
he makes himself, than from some- 
thing which he buys. 

For the benefit of those so inclined 
I am going to 
describe an 
easily made 
receiving 
transformer 
which when 
completed and 
wiredasshown 
in the diagram 
Figure 4 of 
this issue, will 
give excellent 
results. F i g- 
ure 1 shows 
the complete 
coil and if the 
maker will fol- 
1 o w the in- 
structions 

closely, he will have a transformer 
that will look as well as any which he 
might purchase. 

The first thing to do is to get 
some hard wood to use in the con- 
struction of the base and the ends for 
the coils. Mahogany is the best, as 
it can be given a fine finish, but this 
is usually hard for the average boy 
to obtain. If this cannot be secured, 
oak will do, and if this is outside of 
his reach, he may go to the grocery 
store and get a hard wood packing 
case and use the good parts of it for 
this work. 

The base is made of a good clear 
piece of wood 16 by 10 inches and % 
of an inch thick. After this has been 
made, go over it well with sandpaper, 
give it a good coat of varnish, and 
put it away to dry. Figure 2 shows 
the details of the ends for the primary 
coil. The primary end "A" is 51/4 
inches high, 4^ inches wide, and y% 
inches thick. A hole 4^4 inches in 
diameter is cut from this piece, tak- 
ing as the center, a point 2^ inches 
from the bottom and 2^ inches from 
the side. This should be carefully 
done with a jig saw. A slot is then 
cut from the front to the back. This 
should be i/4 inch deep and % inch 
wide. Sandpaper this, varnish, and 
Care in Measurement 

The primary end "B" is made the 
same size as "A" but do not cut hole 



through this end. Instead of cutting 
this one out, cut out a circular piece 
of wood 4 inches in diameter and yi 
inch thick and glue it on .to the end 
"B" as shown in the drawing. Care 
must be taken to see that the center 
of this round piece comes at exactly 
2^ inches from the bottom, and the 



5L(DER 



^ 



PRIN\kRY 



^ B/NPING- FPSTS W\ 



SECONDARY 




E 

ROD 

SUPPORT 



B/ASE: 



riG-URE 1 



same distance from the sides. Drill 
two 1/4 inch holes ^ inch deep at the 
points indicated in the side view of 
primary end "B" Figure 2. Cut a j4 
inch slot across the top similar to 
the one made in the end "A" as 
shown, sandpaper, varnish and set it 
aside to dry. 

The next thing in order is to make 
the secondary end "C". If possible 
this should be turned out in one 
piece on a lathe, as it makes a very 
neat job when completed, but as the 
average boy does not have a lathe 
at his disposal he can make it of two 
pieces cut out with the jig saw. The 

T T SUALLY the first radio receiv- 
l_y ing set with zuhich the amateur 
comes in contact is one zvhich uses the 
double slide timing coil for making 
the adjustments to receive waves of 
different lengths. These serve their 
purpose during the elementary period 
of the beginner's experience, and then 
he looks about him for something a 
little better, which will give sharper 
tuning and zvhich zvill also enable him 
to pick up stations which he could not 
get before. This he finds in the loose 
coupler, or receiving transfortner, by 
zvhich the receiving set is inductively 
coupled to the aerial and ground. With 
this idea in view, we publish in this 
issue, the complete instructions for the 
making of a receiving transformer. 



first piece is 4^ inches in diameter 
and 1/4 of an inch in thickness. 
Another round piece is cut 3j^ inches 
in diameter and ^4 of an inch thick, 
and glued fast to the first piece as 
shown in the side view of the second- 
ary end "C" Figure 2. If this is made 
with the saw, the large piece will 
have to be 
very carefully 
sand - papered 
to make it look 
like a real job. 
A 3^8 inch hole 
is drilled 
through the 
center for 
mounting the 
switch lever 
later. Fifteen 
holes are then 
drilled around 
in a circle with 
a ]4. irich drill 
for mounting 
the switch 
two binding posts in the location 
shown in the back view of the sec- 
ondary end "C" Figure 2. When 
this is finished it should be varnished 
and put away to dry. 

The Rod Support 
Now saw out the secondary end 
"D" Figure 3. This can be made of 
any kind of wood and should be Z]4, 
inches in diameter and Yi inch thick. 
Drill two % inch holes 1 inch from 
each of the center lines as shown, to 
be used for the supporting rods. This 
should also be varnished to pre- 
vent warping. Next cut out an ob- 
long piece of hard wood for the rod 
support "E" as shown on Figure 3. 
This is to be 3 inches long and 2 
inches wide, and ^4 of an inch in 
thickness. Two holes are to be drilled 
J4 inch deep in one side in the loca- 
tion shown on the drawing. These 
holes should be 1^4 inch in diameter, 
and great care should be used so that 
the drill does not go all the way 
through, as this would spoil the ap- 
pearance of the coil, when finished. 
This like the other pieces, should 
be carefully sandpapered and var- 
nished. 

This completes the wood work, 

and the next thing to take up will 

be the winding of the coils. 

Winding the Coils 

Procure a pasteboard tube 6 inches 

long 4^4 inches in diameter on the 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



outside and 4 inches in diameter on 
the inside. If this is hard to get 
use an oatmeal box and cut it off the 
proper length. The tube on the 
model coil from which these specifica- 
tions are taken was made from an 
oatmeal box. Cut the ends of this 
tube nice and square all around, and 
punch two holes through it with a 
small awl, ^ of an inch from the end. 
Now punch 2 more holes ^s inch 
from the other end, exactly opposite 
from the first two. These holes are 
to accommodate the ends of the 
wires and should be about 5^ inch 
apart. As the wires are to come out 
on the same side of the tube it is 
necessary that the holes be on the 
same side. Use No. ?^. enamel insu- 
lated wire for this coil. 

PR//V\ARY END % 



Put about 12 inches of this wire 
down through one of the holes, and 
bring it up again through the hole 
next to it and begin the winding. 
This winding will begin % inch 
from the end of the tube and continue 
to within ^ inch of the other end, 
which should bring it directly up to 
the holes punched in that end. An- 
chor the final end of the winding 
by threading it through the two holes' 
as you did on the starting end. When 
this is done, give the coil a coat of 
shellac varnish and let it dry. Now 
there will be a % of an inch of the 
tube on one end which is not covered 
with wire. This should be set into 
the hole in the primary end "A" Fig- 
ure 2 and glued fast. There will then 
be % of an inch of the bare tube 



showing between this end and the 
winding. Glue the other end of the 
tube over the projection on the pri- 
mary end "B" as shown in the side 
view Figure 1. Before gluing the 
tube fast, be sure to see that the 
terminals of the coil are set so that 
they will come out at the bottom, 
so that they may easily be threaded 
through holes in the base. 

Now get another tube, Sy% inches 
long, 3^ inches outside diameter, 
and 35^ inches inside diameter. 
Punch one hole in the end of this 
tube, as you did in the other. This 
should be Y^ of an inch from the 
end. Use No. 24 single cotton in- 
sulated wire for this coil. Put about 
12 inches of the wire down through 
{Continued on page 22) 



I 



2^' 



5^*-- 



dX 



5^_if 




PRIMARY END B' 
^sudtJ4 'w/deJ^'deep 



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FRONT VIEW 



4- 



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CIRCULAR V^OOD/^ 

I 



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5/DB V/EW 



SECONDARY END C 




FRONT V/BW 



SIPE V/EW BACK VIEW 

r/OURE 2 . 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Navy's Radio Shatters Distance 

United States Stations Circle the Earth and Make It Seem Small 



H 



'OW far is Paris — London — 
Berlin? 

"The man in the street 
and the geography class answer in 
miles today," says a bulletin issued 
from the 
Wash ington, 
D. C, h e a d- 
quarters of the 
National Geo- 
graphic Soci- 
ety, "but in a 
year, or even a 
few months, 
the answers 
may come in 
quarter- 
turns of a little 
black knob. 

"For radio is 
affecting geog- 
raphy as it is 
affecting many 
other fields. If 
you can hear 
voices and 
music, and per- 
haps even the 
hum of traffic 
in the streets 
ofadistant 
city, that city 
must straight- 
way lose much 
of its remote- 
n e s s . ' ' The 
bulletin c o n - 
tinues : 

"Eventoday, 
when radio 
telephony is in 
its infancy and 
radio teleg- 
raphy is mere- 
1 y a slightly 
older brother, 
our own coun- 
try s e e m s to 
b e shrinking 
rapidly, and 
nations seem 
to be gravitat- 
ing closer to- 
gether. It is 
as though 
Europe and 

America, and presently the other 
continents, were being towed toward 
one another by tightening hawsers 
of ether waves. The capstan points 
for these ethereal cables — the great 
radio telegraph stations — take on a 
new geographic interest. 

Cavite in the Philippines has been 
placed on the map by its radio station. 



Wave lengths are not an infallible 
index to the power of a radio station 
nor to its sending range, but they in- 
dicate comparative strength at least 
roughly. The station which of all 




All amateurs know the naval radio station at Arlington, 

of the powerful station 



those in the world now regularly 
uses the longest waves — 23,000 
metres, or approximately 14 miles — 
is near Bordeaux, France. It is the 
Lafayette Station, built by the 
United States Navy to facilitate 
America's part in the World War, 
and since sold to France. This sta- 
tion, which until recently was un- 



challenged as the world's most pow- 
erful station, sends its telegraphic 
messages with ease — and practically 
instantaneously, of course — over the 
4,000 miles of water and land that 
separate Bor- 
deaux from 
Washington ; 
and it has been 
heard occa- 
s i o n a 1 1 y in 
French Indo- 
China, 6,000 
miles to the 
east. 

Lafayette's 
title to first 
place is now 
challenged by 
a commercial 
station recent- 
1}^ opened on 
Long Island, 
which, if it is 
not yet more 
powerful, will 
be when addi- 
tional units 
are added. 
This station 
sends on the 
second longest 
wave in use, 
19,000 metres, 
or nearly 
twelve miles, 
and is e m- 
ployed for 
transmitting 
messages to 
Germany, 
about 4,000 
miles away. 

Although 
t h e U n i t e d 
States Navy's 
station at Ann- 
apolis, Md., is 
assigned a 
wave of 17,145 
metres (rough- 
ly I0y2 miles), 
the third long- 
est in use, it is 
easily one of 
the world's 
most powerful stations. For that 
matter, so is the navy station at 
Cavite, Philippine Islands, operating 
on 13,900 metres. 

The navy depends on the An- 
napolis station — which is operated, 
incidentally, by remote control by 
means of keys in the Navy Building 
in Washing-ton — to transmit mes- 



Here's a view of the interior 



10 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 




The navy can flash a radio message to any part of the world at a moment's notice. 

Capt. S. W. Bryant, left, explaining the working of the chart globe to Commander 

D. C. Bingham, who has succeeded Capt. Bryant as director of naval communications. 

International News Reel Photo 



sages day in and day out over a 
radius of about 5,500 miles. This 
range includes the extreme end of 
the Mediterranean Sea, and the same 
territory can also be reached from 
the opposite direction by the Philip- 
pine station. 

The United States Navy has the 
most complete system of high power 
land stations for radio telegraphy of 
all naval establishments. Southward 
of the great Annapolis station it has 
among its larger units the sending 
plant at Cayey, Porto Rico, using a 
10,510 metre wave, and another at 
Balboa, Canal Zone, sending on 10,- 
110 metres. The eastern portion of 
the Pacific is covered from the con- 
tinent by a station at San Diego, Cal., 
and another on Puget Sound. The 
former uses waves of 9,800 metres 
and the latter of 7,100. In the 
Hawaiian Islands the navy has two 
sending stations, one using 11,500 
metres and the other 8,875. 

On Guam is a naval station which 
sends on 9,145 metres ; and finally, in 
the Philippines is the 13,900-metre 
station which completes the navy's 
band of radio stations around the 
world. In practically no place where 
its ships are likely to cruise will they 
be out of range of dots and dashes 



from one or more of the navy's send- 
ing stations. 

The British Navy does not main- 
tain a system of land stations of its 
own but uses those of the British 
Post Office. These postal stations 
practically encircle the earth, but 
they do so in much smaller "jumps" 
than those of the United States 
Navy, and therefore use less power- 
ful stations. 

Other Long Senders 

Of the twelve longest wave sta- 
tions which follow Annapolis, seven 
are in the United States or its terri- 
tories. They are commercial stations 
at Barnegat, N. J., 16,800 metres ; St. 
James, L. I., 16,465 ; Kohoku, Ha- 
waiian Islands, 16,300, and Tucker- 
ton, N. J., 15,900; the navy station 
at Cavite, P. I., and commercial sta- 
tions at New Brunswick, N. J., 13,- 
600 metres, and Bolinas, Cal., 13,310 
metres. The five foreign stations in 
this group are British stations at 
Leafield, near Oxford, England, 15,- 
600 metres, and Carnarvon, Wales, 
14,400 metres; a Dutch station in 
Java, 15,000 metres; a Japanese sta- 
tion at Iwaki, 15,000 metres, and a 
French station at Nantes, France, 
18,800 metres. 

There are only seven other impor- 



tant long distance stations using 
waves of 11,000 metres or more. 
They are Abu Zabul, near Cairo, 
Egypt, 13,300 metres ; Nauen, Ger- 
many, 12,600; Lyons, Fran'ce, 12,500; 
Stavenger, Norway, 12,000; Marion, 
Mass., 28,600; a station on the West 
Coast of India, 11,200, and Rome, 
11,000. 

The United States Army has nu- 
merous sending stations at its forts 
and posts scattered over the United 
States, which operate on wave 
lengths from a few hundred to 10,000 
metres. The Post Office Depart- 
ment at its several stations sends 
oan waves for the most part between 
1,000 and 4,000 metres long. 



Service for Seamen 

The Hydrographic Office and the 
Naval Communication Service col- 
lect and distribute hydrographic in- 
formation by naval radio. The co- 
operation of owners, operators, radio 
companies controlling installations 
on board vessels, and masters is nec- 
essary to make this new undertaking 
a success. In return greater protec- 
tion is afforded mariners than ever 
before. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



11 



High School Wms Radio Fame 

By EDWARD I. TAYOR 
One of the Boys in Chicago's Lane "Tech." 



NOT far from the crowded loop 
district, yet situated ideally in 
the midst of Chicago's manu- 
facturing center is the Lane Tech- 
nical High 
School. Situ- 
ated ideally, 
is the term 
used, for a 
school of this 
type where 
everything 
from aircraft 
drafting t o 
the radio de- 
partment as- 
sumes busi- 
ness-like pro- 
portions, be- 
comes prop- 
erly a part of 
the modern 
factories and 
business 
houses which 
surround it. 

We will 
deal today 
with the radio 
department 
and electrical 
shops as 
space is limit- 
ed and the 
story of this 
school would 
cover a thick 
volume. I n 
thefirstplace. 
Lane has been 
gifted with 
extraordin- 
arytalent 
both in its 
facultyand in 
its students. 
This in a way 
has helped to 
accomplish 
the results 
which are ap- 
parent on 
every hand, 
butsome- 
thing far 
more import- 
ant is that of 
the feeling of 
school spirit 

which pervades the air and is quite 
contagious. 

There is no issuing of sharp com- 
mands and orders by the teachers. 
Everything is well ordered and the 



students work with a zest which can 
only emanate from the interest each 
has in the work. It is the chief aim 
of every pupil to build a complete vq- 




Lane Technical High School held its annual military review the other day and con- 
ducted all the maneuvers through its student radio service. Major E. S. Pearsall gave 
orders in his office at the school by means of a sending set direct to the field of battle 
and the orders were relayed to the field officers by megaphone 



ceiver for himself and learn the code 
in the radio class. It is not hard to 
imagine what a boy is apt to do under 
these circumstances. 

If you have been fortunate enough 



to have gone through this school, 
you will remember your surprise in 
your first sight of the radio appara- 
tus. There it stood on a table, re- 
s p 1 e n d e nt 
i n beautiful 
nickel plate, 
polished eb- 
ony, and rub- 
bed mahog- 
any. Perhaps 
you were one 
of the many 
who asked 
your guide 
what was the 
make of ap- 
p a r a t u s . 
When he told 
you that it 
was made, 
every bit, at 
Lane, you of 
course were 
surprised. 
And to prove 
his assertions 
your guide 
undoubtedly 
ledyou to the 
shops where 
construction 
of other re- 
ceivers was 
under way. 
There you 
saw the boys 
winding the 
vario -meters 
and vario- 
couplers, 
drilling pan- 
e 1 s , making 
the cabinets, 
wiring the 
sets, and put- 
ting the fin- 
ishing licks 
to outfits that 
could stand 
up alongside 
the best man- 
ufactured set 
on the mar- 
ket today. 

The regen- 
erative re- 
ceiver made 
at Lane is a 
piece of apparatus which is modern 
and efficient in every respect. Bev- 
eled dials control the two vari- 
ometers and the vario-coupler. A 
{Continued on page 27) 



12 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 




Postmaster General Work is shown in his office listening to radio reports, 
on having a receiving outfit in his own office. 



He insists 



"Aerials" Under Ground and Under Water 

Wartime inventor knocks out some theories about towers and static 

THE latest advance in ra- 
dio receiving was accom- 
plished in April in the 
presence of four witnesses, 
when, with a coil antenna com- 
pletely buried beneath the sur- 
face of the ground, vocal and in- 
strumental music was clearly 
heard on a transmitted wave 
length of 360 meters over a dis- 
tance of 220 miles. This suc- 
cessful experiment was accom- 
plished in the field laboratory of 
Dr. J. Harris Rogers in Hyatts- 
ville, Md. The instruments 
used were a three-stage radio 
frequency amplifier and a loop 
antenna. 

The far-reaching effect of this 
experiment will be the elimina- 
tion of huge aerial towers for 
the reception of radio telephone 
or telegraph messages. As a 
climax to successful experi- 
ments which have assured the 
reception of long radio tele- 
graph waves on underground 
antenna, the test just performed 
demonstrates the possibility of regu- 
lar radiophone communication with- 
out areial wires above or on the sur- 
face of the ground. This removes the 
present limit of underground radio 
receiving systems, namely, the recep- 
tion of short wave lengths which to- 
day represent the bulk of commercial 
short distance radio traffic. 
Eliminates Static 

Not only the message from KDKA 
and WJZ were clear and distinct in 
themselves, but in the presence of 
severe static, street car and train 
lines less than 200 yards distant, none 
of these disturbances interfered with 
the perfect reception of the trans- 
mitted messages. This means that 
in mines, dense forests, in arid 
wastes and under severe static condi- 
tions present in extreme north or 
south latitudes, a hole in the ground 
will suffice to contain the antenna 
necessary to receive messages trans- 
mitted thousands of miles away and 
at wave lengths heretofore not ap- 
proached. 

J. Harris Rogers, Civil War vet- 
eran, inventor of the printing tele- 
graphs, synchronous motors and 
other devices, is the discoverer of 
the underground aerial receiving 
system. 

In 1916, during the war period Sec- 
retary of the Navy Daniels immedi- 
ately facilitated the securing of pat- 
ents which protected the discovery of 



Dr. Rogers and established stations 
at Great Lakes, New Orleans and 
Belmar, N. J., for experimenting with 
and developing the Rogers system. 
Meanwhile in Hyattsville, Md., Dr. 
Rogers and Government officials 
listened in from the little hut named 
Mount Hooper in honor of Admiral 
Hooper, U. S. N., situated three 
miles in the woods beyond Dr. 
Rogers' home. 

Messages from France 

Trenches were dug and wires 
buried in all directions and at varying 
depths, the effect being similar to 
the spokes of a wheel offset from the 
center. 

A wire 4,000 feet long encased in a 
tile pipe three feet below the surface 
of the earth was stretched in a west- 
erly direction. Communications be- 
tween German army units on the 
European battle front were clearly 
heard. The apparatus consisted of 
a large tuning coil, a variable con- 
denser, one step audion amplifier, 
and two pairs of Baldwin head 
'phones. 

With this equipment and under- 
ground aerial the officials heard regu- 
larly Nauen, Germany ; Eiffel Tower, 
Paris, and all United States stations 
on long waves. Not only were these 
stations copied regularly but simul- 
taneously stations employing the 
Rogers system at Belmar, N. J., and 
Great Lakes maintained continuous 
trans-Atlantic receiving service. 



"Aerials" Under Water 

The Belmar, N. J., station was in 
operation twenty-four hours a day ; 
not a single word was lost during the 
transmission of thousands of mes- 
sages. A submarine submerged 
eight feet off the Atlantic coast heard 
Nauen, Germany ; twenty-one feet 
submerged it heard distant stations 
on 12,000 ineters wave length. A 
transmitting station operating with 
forty-eight amperes antenna current 
600 feet away from a receiving sta- 
tion, using the Rogers underground 
aerial system, did not interfere with 
Nauen being picked up on 12,600 
meters and New Orleans on 5,000 
meters. No interference and no 
static. Aerials far under water were 
used to receive Cavite, Philippine 
Islands, 8,100 miles distant, on its 
regular 11a. m. and 5 p; m. sched- 
ules. 

Transmitting experiments with the 
Rogers system have been successful 
over a distance of seven miles ; longer 
transmission is as yet not fully devel- 
oped because it is found that insula- 
tion material now used will not stand 
the excessive currents used in trans- 
mission, says the Washington Her- 
ald. But today radio telegraph and 
radio telephone messages may be re- 
ceived over long distances and over 
very low or very long wave length 
ranges with antenna buried beneath 
the ground or submerged beneath the 
seas. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



13 



Electric Light Wires as Auxiliary to Radio 



THE B battery heretofore so 
essential to every radiophone- 
receiving set for maintaining 
the plate potential will no longer be 
needed when an arrangement made 
by the Bureau of Standards becomes 
generally practicable. The new de- 
velopment makes direct connection 
to the electric 
light socket 
possible. B y 
special modes 
of connection, 
the lighting 
wire may also 
be used as an 
antenna. 

The warning 
given some 
weeks ago 
when this 
method of re- 
ception was 
suggested i n 
connect ion 
with the work 
of Maj. Gen. 
Squier is re- 
peated : Nov- 
ices should not 
attempt any 
meddling with 
lighting c i r - 
cuits, hoping 
to avoid the 
erection of an 
antenna or 
eliminating the 
storage b a t - 
tery. The new 
development is 
p r a c t i c able 
only with the 
proper plug 
equipment and 
some knowl- 
edge of the 
principles in- 
volved. 

The receiv- 
ing set con- 
s i s t s essen- 
tially of an 
amplifier with 
minor auxil- 
iary parts. 
This is de- 
scribed in a 
paper which 
has been pre- 
pared by the 
Bureau of 
Standards. A 
few details of 
the amplifier, 
which utilizes 
60-cycle c u r - 



rent supply for both filaments and 
plates of the electron tubes, are as 
follows : This amplifier has three 
radio-frequency stages and two au- 
dio-frequency stages, and uses a crys- 
tal detector. The 60-cycle current 
when used in an ordinary amplifier 
circuit introduces a strong 60-cycle 




During the war experiments proved that it is possible to use trees 

antennae jar wireless receiving outfits. These two Atlantic coast 

trees a chance to speak. Press Illustrating Service 



note which offers serious interference. 
This has been practically eliminated 
by balancing resistances, grid con- 
densers and special grid leaks of com- 
paratively low resistance, telephone 
transformer in the output circuit and 
crystal detector, instead of electron 
tube detector. 

In the final 
form of the 
amplifier there 
is only a slight 
residual hum 
which is not 
objectionable. 
The amplifica- 
tion obtained 
with a. c. sup- 
ply was as 
good as that 
obtained with 
the same am- 
plifier used 
with d. c. sup- 
ply. The com- 
plete unit is 
light, compact 
and portable. 
For the recep- 
tion of damped 
waves, the am- 
plifier as con- 
structed oper- 
ated most sat- 
isfactorily for 
wave lengths 
from 200 to 
750 meters. 
This range 
was deter- 
mined by the 
working range 
of the radio- 
f r e q u e n ncy 
t r a nsformers 
used. By us- 
i n g suitable 
radio -frequen- 
cy transform- 
ers it is ex- 
pected that the 
amplifier will 
be efifective for 
the reception 
of damped 
waves and un- 
damped waves 
as long as 10,- 
000 meters. 
For the recep- 
t i o n of un- 
damped waves 
a separate 
h e t e r o dyne 
should be em- 
ployed, the pa- 
per says. 



instead of the usual 
boys are giving the 
Photo 



14 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



New Stuff by Boy Readers 



By Edwin Nielsen 

DO YOU have trouble in .srettinp- 
loud signals on your crystal 
detector set? Why not use a 
crystal amplifier in one or two stages 
simply by connecting one or two 
crystal detectors in series with your 
original crystal detector, using an 
amplifying transformer and a 22-volt 
B battery as shown in the illustra- 
tion. This will enable you to get 
loud signals where only weak ones 
were formerly heard, will greatly in- 
crease your receiving range and will 
enable you to use a loud speaker horn 
instead of your phones, thus allowing 
the whole family to listen in, where 
before only one could listen at a 
time. 

This idea had its origin in the brain 
of a South American amateur, who 
has organized the first if not the only 
Radio club in that part of the world. 
And I have tried this type of ampli- 
fier and had the signals far exceed 
my hopes in loudness and clearness 
of tone. 

To get good results it will be nec- 
essary to get very sensitive crystals 
and place the catwhisker wire on the 
most sensitive place that can be 
found, the crystals can be tested by 
connecting a buzzer, battery, a key 
and a coil of about 10 turns together, 
as shown in the illustration ; this coil 
is placed as close as possible to the 
tuning coil of the receiving coil and 
the key is pressed. This sets up 
miniature radio waves which are 
caught by the receiving coil and car- 
ried over to the detector where the 
crystal to be tested is mounted. 
The catwhisker is moved around un- 
til the best spot is found. The other 
crystals can be tested in the same 
way. If no buzzing is heard in the 
receivers while the crystal is being 
tested another crystal must be used. 



Beginners Need This 

A number of requests have come 
to the editor asking how the reader 
could secure the plans of a home- 
made receiving set published by the 
Bureau of Standards in Washington. 
The editor is in receipt of a letter 
from that department saying that, 
owing to the great demand, the de- 
partment is unable to furnish any 
more free copies of the lessons, but 
will publish them as Bureau of Stan- 
dards Circular No. 120, which may 
be secured by writing the Superin- 
tendent of Documents, Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D. C, 
and giving the number of the docu- 




iiiiiiinHii iiiiiiiiiifnii 




By Joseph Stelzer, East St. Louis, 111. 

THE rotary tuning coil shown in 
the one-column sketch gives the 
complete wiring diagram. The 
circle is cut from ^-inch stock, 1 
inch wide, and well covered with in- 
sulation. It is then wound with No. 
24 single cotton-covered wire so that 
the coils will lie flat. 

All of the arms are ^-inch square 
and are of brass. The supports 
are smaller in section. Slides are 
mounted on the ends of the long 
arms and are kept in place by set 
screws. The insulation on the wires 
is removed with a small piece of 
sandpaper pasted on a block of wood. 
This should be temporarily fast- 
ened to the revolving lever at the 
point where the contact is wanted; 
then the lever is turned until the in- 
sulation is removed. The wiring dia- 
gram shows the location of the tun- 
ing coil in the line. 



F.C 

ment as above. This article with il- 
lustrations was a feature of the May 
issue of Radio Age. Copies of that 
issue will be mailed on receipt of 25c 
in stamps by Radio Age. 



Red Gross Radio 

The American Red Cross is consid- 
ering the use of radio as an aid in its 
emergency work. At the radio ex- 
hibition in Boston a radio set with a 
receiving radius of 2,000 miles was in 
operation for the reception of first 
aid calls, which were answered by 
nurses in attendance at the Red Cross 
booth in the exposition hall. 



Trying the Voice 

In an address before the Chicago 
Rotary Club, Morgan L. Eastman, 
with the aid of pictures and radio ap- 
paratus, showed how the voices of 
singers are tested before they are 
used for broadcasting purposes. Mr. 
Eastman devised a microphone, 
which was worked out by Westing- 
house engineers, so arranged that a 
listener may determine .whether a 
singer in an adjoining room has a 
voice of the proper carrying quality. 
Mr. Eastman is in charge of the 
Westinghouse broadcasting station 
KYW on the Commonwealth Edison 
building, Chicago. 



BATTERY ^ e.oZ-'Z-'^^ 

(Tli'l'i-^- 



ffi- 




COIL 



KEY 







,^^^^ 



yiK<i> 



-> 



DETE 



CTOR 



o^ ^<r.-^Kc^-?:^^s A^Vu^'-" 




TWO SLIDE TUNING 
COIL 



AMPLIFYIINQ 

TRANSFORMER 

CONNECT FONES HERE 
IF NO AMPLIFYING IS 
DESIRED 



CONNECT 
HERE IF 2 STAGE. 
AMPLIFICATION IS 
DESIRED 

CONNECT PONES 

HERE IF I STAGE 

AMPLIFIER 

IS USED. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



15 



In Radio Shops and Factories 



ASSOCIATIONS of manufac- 
turers and merchants in the 
radio trade are becoming the 
order of the day. The solid element 
in the business recognizes that it is 
necessary to mobilize against the 
wildcat promoters who are in radio 
purely for stock-rigging purposes or 
who are in it to shove off a lot of rot- 
ten equipment while demand is fever- 
ish and prices are tempting. 

While the sheep are being sepa- 
rated from the goats it is advisable 
for the public to step warily, dealing 
with established firms who have suf- 
ficient business standing to insure 
their handling good merchandise. 
At present the demand 
far exceeds the supply 
and the fellow who is 
in the business for a 
"flyer" is occasionally 
doing about as well as the 
fellow who is in business 
because he means busi- 
ness. 

It was stated by one of 
the speakers at a recent 
important Chicago radio 
conference in Hotel 
Sherman that the supply 
situation was being 
straightened out rapidly 
and that within sixty 
days the "sold out" signs 
would have to be taken 
down. When that time 
comes the merchant and 
manufacturer who have 
been selling honest goods 
and exploiting their name 
and their wares and 
building a future will 
still be there making 
money. The other man 
will have nothing but ap ast. 

Among the new organizations is 
the National Radio Chamber of Com- 
merce, with headquarters in New 
York City and district office in Chi- 
cago. Alexander Eisemann of the 
Freed-Eisemann Radio Corporation 
is president. Mr. Eisemann says : 

"The object of the association is 
to remedy certain conditions which 
have arisen in the radio 'industry as 
a result of its tremendous growth 
within the last few months ; and to 
group together manufacturers whose 
radio products are of such dependa- 
ble character as to maintain favor- 
able public opinion toward the radio 
industry. 

"All radio manufacturers, whether 
large or small, will be eligible for 
membership. Our original group 
consisted of about fifteen manufac- 



tvtrers. To those have been added, 
by invitation, about twenty addition- 
al concerns whose business standing 
and whose products are known to be 
of high order. New concerns will be 
eligible only after their apparatus has 
been passed upon by a board of five 
members. 

"It is planned to exclude from 
membership various concerns which 
have been organized purely for stock 
jobbing purposes, and to exclude also 
manufacturers who are now turning 
out radio apparatus which has been 
found to be untrustworthy and which 
will eventually bring radio into dis- 
favor on the part of purchasers of 




F. W. Dunmorc, of the radio laboratory of the U. S. Bureau of Stand- 
ards, brought a "singing valise" to the Drake Hotel in Chicago on 
April 20. He had a radio receiving set in the grip, with a folding 
loud speaker. As he walked about the lobby, music and news reports 
came from the valise. His ground and aerial wires were cleverly 
concealed and gave him a limited radius of travel with his magic grip. 



such undependable apparatus. 

"A credit bureau will also be or- 
ganized shortly for the interchange 
of credit information." 

Other officers of the organization 
are Charles Keator of the De Forest 
Radio Telephone and Telegraph 
Company, William Dubilier of the 
Dubilier Condenser Company and 
Frank Hinners of the Home Radio 
Company. 

* * * 

The investigating committee of the 
Radio Conference of the National Re- 
tail Drygoods Association, in session 
in New York, considered the quality 
and efficiency of radio apparatus and 
the possibility of service in the dis- 
tribution of such merchandise. 

As its first recommendation the In- 
vestigating Committee adopted a res- 
olution, "That all responsible manu- 



facturers be requested to standardize 
the efficiency of their various receiv- 
ing sets and plainly mark on each in- 
strument the receiving radius under 

average atmospheric conditions." 

* * * 

The manufacture of radio appara- 
tus in Washington, D. C, has grown 
to extraordinary proportions. The 
Radio Instrument Company and the 
Washington Radio Corporation have 
completed arrangements for building 
factories immediately. 

* * * 

Officials of two leading electrical 

companies in Chicago estimate that 

from 2,000 to 3,000 dealers have gone 

into the radio business in 

Chicago during the last 

two months. 

* * * 

Charles T. Powner, 
bookseller, has a radio 
department in his shop at 
177 West Madison street. 



Among other big Chi- 
cago concerns that may 
soon be on the list of 
makers or sellers of radio 
devices are Lyon & 
Healy, Sears - Roebuck 
and Brunswick - Balke. , 
Hundreds of drug stores, 
furniture shops and de- 
partment stores are lay- 
ing in radio stocks. 
H^ ^ ^ 

The Scientific Ameri- 
can says there is'a wide- 
spread opinion that the 
radio business will out- 
strip the phonograph 
business, which has been 
in excess of 400,000,000 



per year. 



It is estimated that the monthly 
production of vacuum tubes is about 
100,000. 



All through the Mississippi Valley 
an interesting phenomenon is being 
observed. Otherwise modest and 
humble citizens appear on the street 
with their chin in the air and a proud 
glint in their eye. There is nothing 
wrong with these fellows. They 
merely have succeeded in getting 
Schenectady for the first time. How 
can they be expected to remain in the 
same social stratum with the plodder 
who has picked up stuff from no 
greater distance than Detroit or In- 
dianapolis? 



16 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Suminer Static and How to Meet It 



SAY "static" to a radio enthusiast 
and listen to what he says, or 
else cover your ears. His opin- 
ion of the greatest nuisance which be- 
sets radio telegraphy and telephony 
will no doubt be fervent if he is an 
experienced operator. If he is an 
amateur, it will be despairing. 

When a radio fan talks of "static" 
he means the small charges of positive 
electricity which infest the atmosphere, 
forever seeking an outlet to the nega- 
tive earth. They are in effect minia- 
ture bolts of lightning which have not 
the force to strike under their own 
power. Hence they seek assistance, 
which is unwittingly extended to them 
by the aerial of the radio apparatus. 
By means of this they find a ready 
passage to the ground, where they 
cease to be troublesome. 

But woe to the amateur whose aerial 
is not well "grounded." Balked of 
their goal, static charges have been 
known to start fires. Even greater is 
the danger during a thunderstorm, un- 
less a good grovind wire is provided. 
Any ground installation which com- 
plies with the underwriters' require- 
ments will furnish adequate protec- 
tion, however, against this. It is al- 
ways advisable to stay away from 
wireless apparatus during a storm. 

Commencing with the next few 
weeks, radio operators and amateurs 
will encounter static with increasing 
frequency due to the approach of 
warm weather. Static is more abund- 
ant in summer than at any other time 
of the year, making it extremely diffi- 
cult for the average radio enthusiast 
to operate his set. 

The cause of this trouble is some- 
times in the use of an aerial that is 
too lengthy. No aerial for receiving 
broadcasts should be more than 150 
feet in length. Where a two-wire 
type is u.sed, the length, including the 
lead-in wire should not exceed sixty- 
five feet. 

Where a station is located near a 
broadcasting center, indoor aerials will 
be found superior in summer. These 
may be made in the form of a grid or 
coil, either mounted on an insulated 
stand, or attached to porcelain insula- 
tors fixed in the beams of the attic of 
the house. This device is only for use 
in houses where metal roofing is not 
employed. All wires must be kept 
as far as possible from the lighting 
system wires of the house. Vacuum 
tubes are imperative in using this type 
of aerial, but their expense is offset 
by the resultant freedom from static. 



THE WIRELESS CODE 

1. A dash is equal to three dots. 

2. The space between parts of the 
same letter is equal to one dot. 3. The 
space between two letters is equal to 
three dots. 4. The space between two 

words is equal to five dots 



A* Mi 

^ ■■ • • • 

Dm** 
E* 

F • • Hi * 

H**** 
I** 

L • 1^ • • 



N ^* 

P * Mi ■■ * 

R* iM* 

S * * * 

U**H 

V* • AM 

X ■■ • • HI 
z ■■ ^ * • 



Period...; - •• • 

Semicolon ^m • ■ 

Comma • ^m • 

Colon i^ ^ 

Interrogation • • ik 

Exclamation point ^ h* 

Apostrophe • hh ■ 

Hjphen ^ • • 

Bar indicating fraction ■■ • • 

Parenthesis i^ • ■ 

Inverted commas • ^ • 

Underline 

Double dash 

Distress CalJ 



• • ^ I 

• • • ■■ 



Attention call to precede every transmission -' 

General inquiry call 

From (de) 

Invitatitn to transmit (go ahead ] 



- A (German) 

1 • ^ ^ ^ ^ « ^ « wm 

^ *" A or A (SpBoish-SraodioaviaD) 

4 • * * • « CH (German-Spanish) 

6 ^ • • • * ^ (French) 

• • ■■ * * 

^ ^ ^ • • • N (Spanish) 

9 ^ HH wa BH • O (German) 
t) (German) 



Warning— high power 

Question (please repeat after ) — inter- 
rupting loag messages 



Wait , 

Break (Bb.) (double dash) 

Understand 

Error 



Received (O. K.l . 



Position report (to precede all position mes. 
sages) 

End of each message (cross) 



Transmission fiDishcd (end of work) (conclu- 
siOB of correspondence] 



The curious fact that so-called "air- 
pockets," impenetrable to wireless tele- 
graph or telephone waves, exist in the 
atmosphere was commented on re- 
cently by F. B. Chambers, a Phila- 
delphia authority on radio matters. 

"There are three well-known 'pock- 
ets' here in the east," said Mr. Cham- 
bers. "One is near Pittsburgh, an- 
other somewhat north of New York 
city, and the third in the gulf of 
Mexico. 

"The Pittsburgh one covers an area 
about a mile and a half square. The 
New York one is the largest, being 
fifty miles in extent. Many theories 
are offered to account for these 
strange phenomena. The most plausi- 
ble one is that there are certain strata 
of minerals underlying them which de- 
flect the wireless waves off at a large 
angle. The question of their origin, 
though, has never been satisfactorily 
solved." — Philadelphia No. American. 



Learning the Code 

A practical method devised for 
mastering the code at home is to be 
found in the set of six Victor-Mar- 
coni records which reproduce on the 
phonograph the international Morse 
Code characters exactly as they are 
heard by wireless. There are twelve 
lessons, which carry one from the 
novice to the expert stage. 



National observers say that new 
radio factories have helped take the 
edge off the unemployment situation. 



River Affects Waves 

Fletcher H. Hiles of Cincinnati, a 
steward on the Big Four limited, run- 
ning between Cincinnati and Cleve- 
land, is perfecting a system of inter- 
communication between trains by 
means of radio telephony. He has 
been picking up concerts, also, while 
the trains are at top speed. At points 
where the track parallels a river the 
receiving is fine, but goes dead when 
the tracks are at right angles with the 
river. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



17 




THOUGHT WAVES m 



STRANGE, indeed, that people 
should still be asking the ques- 
tion "Is radio merely a passing 
fancy?" Only the other day the In- 
ternational News Reel Corporation 
dug up from musty records in Eng- 
land papers showing how a receiving 
set had been made in 1879 with de- 
tector, condenser and all the funda- 
mentals of the "newly discovered 
devices" now engaging the fasci- 
nated attention of at least one and 
one-half millions of persons in Amer- 
ica alone. Not only that, but the 
receiving plant itself was found with 
the papers and the interesting dis- 
play has been placed on exhibition 
in a British museum. 

Marconi was doing his wireless 
stunts before the boy radio enthu- 
siasts of today were born. DeForest 
and Fleming and Edison were mak- 
ing the Hertzian waves perform prac- 
tical service for the world a decade 
or longer ago. 

Well, then, why the sudden tower- 
ing wave of interest in radio? Sim- 
ply this, that broadcasting stations 
have been established which send 
forth to the uttermost corners of the 
earth not only messages in the wire- 
less telegraph code, but music, 
speeches, market reports, weather 
predictions, baseball scores and 
news of the present hour. 

It is the broadcasting station and 
the development of the vacuum tube 
for detecting wave lengths and clari- 
fying the vibrations in the phone 
diaphrams that have made the radio- 
phone an implement of universal 
entertainment and utility. 

Men, women and children who 
took onlv a fleeting interest in a 
device which enabled them to hear 
unintelligible Morse code signals are 
aroused to intense and permanent en- 
thusiasm over an inexpensive and 
simple device that brings the great 
outside world to their dining room 
tables and to the cosy corners of 
their living rooms. 

That is why radio has become so 
suddenly "popular," and that is why 
the present interest is surely the fore- 
runner of continued developments in 
radio. These developments will 




bring radio to every-day uses which 
eventually will elifect a peaceful reor- 
ganization of our social and business 
life. Radio is rapidly moving for- 
ward to new uses which even the 
alert imagination of Edward Bellamy 
could not reach in his famous story, 
"Looking Backward." 

Dissemination of news by radio is 
going to be systematized to such an 
extent that it will make a great dif- 
ference in the status of the daily 
press. It is perhaps true that some 
of our great daily journals look with 
apprehension at the advancement of 
this science and its adaptability to 
broadcasting news facts to the mil- 
lions. That may explain why some 
of them are giving the radiophone 
the most indifferent attention. 

One great newspaper, so substan- 
tial that one might almost be tempted 
to describe it as "solid," said the 
other day that a layman might wind 
a tuning coil, but that the operation 
would require extreme patience and 
that he would find it to be a "man's 
job." Rather amusing when you and 
I know scores of neighborhood boys 
who can wind a tuner in fifteen 
minutes ! 

They have harnessed Niagara, but 
they are never going to stop the head- 
long rush of radio into universal 
popularity and utility. And it is go- 
ing to be a giant task to make it a 
privatelv controlled public uti''ty. 
Millions upon millions of dollars 
have already been invested in thi'^ 



WTORIAL TOWER 



new industry and no man can keep 
account of the new manufacturing 
and merchandising organizations 
that are springing up each day. 

In a few days we shall have the 
golf player getting his market and 
sporting news between games, sit- 
ting comfortably in his country club 
chair. Hotel lobbies, flats, apart- 
ments, automobiles, trains, aero- 
planes, farm houses, garages, school- 
rooms, lighthouses, ships, newspaper 
offices, police stations, police call 
boxes, prisons, hospitals, churches, 
theaters, restaurants, department 
stores, factories, fishing camps, 
hunting lodges — they are coming 
into line more rapidly than you or I 
realize. 

It is the hour of radio. If it is a 
passing hour it is a passing hour that 
is advancing to yet another hour 
which shall be more electric with 
surprises, more fruitful of progress 
for the human race, more annihilat- 
ing to geographical distances, and 
more effective in weaving all peoples 
into a closer association. That prom- 
ises the ultimate in civilization. 

Radio is neither a fad nor a craze. 
It is a stupendous social revolution. 



EVERY breeze that blows brings 
some new tale of extravagant 
success or impending disaster 
in the radio industry. After sifting 
the product of the rumor mills we 
have come to the conclusion that the 
radio business is merely stabilizing 
itself, as every new industry must do. 

Undoubtedly there are unscrupu- 
lous manufacturers and dealers in 
the game. They are trying to get a 
quick dollar and make a quick with- 
drawal before their sins of misstate- 
ment and of inferior merchandise 
overtake them. But there are many, 
many more manufacturers and deal- 
ers who are sincerely trying to estab- 
lish a permanent, solid radio business 
on merit. 

Undoubtedly there are large inter- 
ests which would eagerly assume 
control of radio production and sales. 
Undoubtedly there are some inter- 
ests which would gladly adopt the 



18 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



threadbare method of restricting sup- 
ply in order to maintain exorbitant 
prices. But there are too many en- 
thusiastic, wideawake American men 
and boys watching the situation to 
make it discreet for even a giant to 
get in the way of the steam roller. 

It would be best for radio fans and 
best for the radio "big four" to insist 
upon and get an early threshing out 
of that charge by Representative 
Brittain of Illinois to the effect that 
the combine is restricting by some 
mysterious influence the placing of 
millions of dollars worth of tubes on 
the open market. Mr. Brittain insists 
these supplies should be sold to the 
public inasmuch as the government 
holds a sufficient supply to last the 
army and navy "several hundred 
years." 

Whatever are the facts, they will 
become public in due time. Mean- 
while there is no need to leap at con- 
clusions. 

Another tale that comes into the 
editorial sanctum relates to a plan 
by which a large manufacturer will 
establish broadcasting which shall 
be so "scrambled" that it will be im- 
possible for any person not owning 
a receiving set sold by that manu- 
facturer to get the stuff and unscram- 
ble it. That is, the receiving appara- 
tus will be so adjusted that it will 
form a complement to the sending 
apparatus. 

The story seems absurd on its face, 
but intelligent radioites are seriously 
discussing it. The majority of them 
seem to believe that any such attempt 
at monopoly of a public utility would 
be defeated promptly by an honest 
government. 

We also hear of a large concern 
that is sending out letters to pros- 
pective buyers of expensive equip- 
ment advising them to hold ofif a few 
months, as there is something new 
coming into the market that will 
make all present receiving equipment 
out of date and useless. More power 
to invention ! Let the wave wave 
on ! 

And then our friends drop in and 
tell us with long faces that summer 
weather is not conducive to good 
radio transmission. Therefore look 
out for that slump! Good old slump, 
the bogey man of the radio trade ! 
It might be well to stop and consider 
that hot weather does not, as a mat- 
ter of simple fact, seriously interfere 
with reception of radio waves at or- 
dinary distances. The boys who are 
getting messages and concerts from 
broadcasting stations in their vicin- 
ity today will be getting the same 
results on August 1. Of course, for 
those who want to hear messages 
from Germany or Hawaii, warm 



weather will cause disappointment, 
but the mass of radio enthusiasts will 
scarcely detect any difTerence in their 
ordinary radio pursuits. 

Merchants who have been stock- 
ing up with large consignments are 
supposed to be frightened by these 
hot weather stories, just as are the 
sea bathers by the annual yarns 
about sea serpents and sharks. 

Finally, let us be optimists. Those 
radio merchants and manufacturers 
and those radio publications which 
are trying their best to get solid busi- 
ness on solid business principles are 
going to achieve their just reward. 
Anybody who is afraid of shadows 
has no business in the field. Roose- 
velt's advice is as good now as it was 
when he uttered it : "Speak softly 
and carry a big stick." 

* * * 

Since going to press on our pre- 
vious edition we have been solemnly 
assured by the newspaper scientists 
that they have discovered that cock- 
roaches flash radio messages to one 
another. We also learn that the 
lightning bug's lightning and the 
glowworm's glow and the ant's an- 
tennae are all a part of the radio 
game. We should not be surprised 
if these scientists had proved by the 
time of our next issue that the mos- 
quito, in thrusting its rapier into our 
skin is merely looking for a ground. 
Also that the office boys who whistle 
into our ears as we pass along the 
busy streets are involuntary and un- 
conscious broadcasters ; that the por- 
cupine is a perfect detector and the 
house cat makes a loud speaker when 
hooked into the receiving system. 
When the Milwaukee broadcasting 
stations are particularly active, it is 
said that near-beer is transformed 
into the five-per cent stuff, due to the 
extreme sensitiveness of malt liquor 
to anything that has waves in it. We 
agree also that girls who still have 
hair enough to harbor hairpins may 
just as well as not use a hairpin for 
an aerial and false teeth for a receiv- 
ing Ain't science wonderful? 

* * * 

We know a youth who made a re- 
ceiving set from the directions print- 
ed in the May number of Radio Age. 
He paid $3.85 for materials and dug 
tip an old telephone head-set and 
from the first day was able to get the 
baseball and market reports and the 
concerts. Within ten days he had 
expended $105 for additional parts to 
make his outfit a regular humdinger. 
That's the way this radio gets 'em. 
After listening to the home broad- 
casting station a few days they want 
to listen to coolie conversations from 
Wuhu, China. 



Railroad Radio 

OFFICIALS of the New York 
Central Railroad and of the re- 
search department of the American 
Telephone and Telegraph Company 
are studying conditions with a view 
to using radio in the handling of 
trains and of the railroad tugs and 
other craft that ply about the New 
York harbor. 

According to the Central's pro- 
gram the wireless telephone service 
would be used in train service not 
only for communication between the 
head and rear ends of 50 to 100 car 
freight trains, but also between mov- 
ing trains and dispatchers' offices or 
other fixed stations. 

"Such use would be valuable in the 
operation of the railroads," says the 
current issue of the company's maga- 
zine in announcing the plan, "espe- 
cially for communication between the 
front and rear of freight trains, some 
of which are now a mile long. In the 
event of anything getting out of or- 
der on such a train while it is run- 
ning, the ability of the conductor to 
communicate almost instantly with 
the engineer would be a most valua- 
ble adjunct to the present methods. 
In handling the New York Central 
fleet of tugs and other boats — this 
carrier's fleet numbers 306 units — the 
use of the radio telephone would be 
particularly worth while in time of 
heavy fog or other emergencies." 

In course of time, officials believe, 
a passenger will be able to go to the 
observation or club car oh the Twen- 
tieth Century Limited and put in a 
call, while riding over the lines, for 
his office at New York to issue orders 
regarding business transactions ; or 
for his residence, perhaps, to tell his 
wife that he forgot some of his ward- 
robe and have it forwarded on the 
next train. 

* * * 

The Fere Marquette railroad has 
under consideration the equipment of 
fifty miles of its road with a new sys- 
tem of wireless train control, which 
has been invented by a Detroit man. 

* * * 

The Lackawanna operated a spe- 
cial train from Ithaca, N. Y., to New 
York City, on April 5, the train hav- 
ing been equipped with both sending 
and receiving apparatus. The pas- 
sengers were Corsell students. Dur- 
ing the entire run communication 
was maintained with several amateur 
stations and special programs were 
received from two broadcasting sta- 
tions. 

* * * 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul road has installed receiving sets 
on the Pioneer Limited. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



19 



The Radio Club of Illinois 

By BARRATT O'HARA 

One of the Directors of the Club and Former Lieutenant Governor of Illinois. 



CHICAGO is out to lead the 
world in radio. From early 
summer until late autumn the 
metropolis on the lake is to be turned 
over to the pioneers in what Mayor 
William Hale Thompson declares is 
an industry that will surpass in mag- 
nitude anything the world has ever 
known. The mayor, the city council 
and the leading business and profes- 
sional men of the city have united in 
putting Chicago in the race to be- 
come the world's radio capital. 

"No one can even dream how rap- 
idly the radio industry will grow," 
said Mayor Thompson. "Chicago is 
now the third largest city in the 
world. If we can center the radio 
interests here, within five years Chi- 
cago will be the largest city in the 
world. So far from believing that 
radio is a temporary fad, we in Chi- 
cago are so convinced of its per- 
manency and importance that we are 
willing to let our dreams of leading 
the cities of the universe in popula- 
tion rise or fall with the radio indus- 
try." 

The first step in Chicago's cam- 
paign was the organization of the 
Radio Club of IlHnois. Starting with 
a $125,000 club house at 4220 Sheri- 
dan Road, in the finest section of 
the city, the Radio Club of Illinois 
almost overnight took its place 
among the best of many magnificent 
social club organizations of Chicago. 
Mr. Schmitt Is President 

It was fortunate in its selection of 
a president, Lawrence B. Schmitt, 
the government inspector for radio 
in the thirteen middle western states, 
being unanimously elected to head 
the club during the first year of its 
existence. Mr. Schmitt is a young- 
man of thirty, full of pep and enthusi- 
asm and one of the best authorities 
on the wireless in the country. He is 
extremely popular among radioists 
throughout the extensive district 
that he serves. Col. John P. Tansey 
was made secretary of the club. 
Among the directors elected was Al- 
fred Thomas, Chicago manager for 
the Radio Corporation of America. 
All persons interested in the wireless 
are eligible in membership, the aim 
of the club being to furnish the tech- 
nical, professional, commercial and 
amateur radioists a common meeting 
l-'lace, with extensive privileges and 
conveniences usual with first-class 
clubs. The club is the center of the 
radio activities of Chicago, and Hs 



influence in the crystalization of sen- 
timent back of needed radio legisla- 
tion is probably destined to be second 
to no organization or group. 

The club is in charge of an inter- 
national radio congress to be held in 



"^""^ 




Inspector L. R. Schmitt 

Chicago during the first week in 
August in connection with the 
Pageant of Progress. Delegates 
from every state in the union and 
many foreign countries will partici- 
pate in the Congress, at which sub- 
jects of vital interest in the industry 
will be discussed by such authorities 
as Steinmetz, Armstrong and Secre- 
tary of Commerce Hoover. 

Mexican President Coming? 

As indicating the widespread in- 
terest in the congress outside of 
Chicago it may be mentioned that 
President Obregon, of Mexico, who 
is a great radio fan, has intimated his 
intention of attending as the head of 



the Mexican delegation. Invitations 
have been sent to the governors of 
all the states to attend as the chair- 
men of their respective state delega- 
tions, and it is not unlikely that most 
of them will accept. 

An interesting feature of the con- 
gress will be sessions devoted to the 
boy radioists. This will be presided 
liver by one of their own number, 
possibly the young son of Secretary 
< if Commerce Hoover. It is reported 
irom Washington, on authority that 
^eems to be reliable, that Mr. Secre- 
tary Hoover's final arbiter on all deli- 
cate radio questions is his son. The 
boy knows radio from start to finish. 
He is called into every conference on 
radio held in the official offices at 
Washington. He will attend the 
congress with his distinguished 
father, and it is more than likely that 
the boy radioists will call upon him 
to preside over them. 

Mayor William Hale Thompson 
and Dr. John Dill Robertson, presi- 
dent of the Pageant of Progress, are 
naturally taking a keen interest in 
the success of the congress. They 
are ex-officio members of the execu- 
tive committee of the congress, con- 
sisting of City Electrician George E. 
Carlson, chairman ; Col. John P. Tan- 
sey, secretary; George B. Foster, 
vice-president of the Commonwealth 
Edison Company; Lawrence B. 
Schmitt, U. J. Herrmann, Dr. W. A. 
Evans and Barratt O'Hara. This 
committee will meet weekly on Mon- 
day evenings at the offices of the 
Pageant of Progress, 7 West Madi- 
son Street. 

Personnel of Committees 

Radioists with suggestions to 
make for the success of the congress 
will be welcome at any of the meet- 
ings of the committee. Barratt 
O'Hara was made chairman of the 
publicity committee, the other mem- 
bers of which are Frederick Smith, 
editor of Radio Age ; W. G. Wunder- 
lich, editor of Radio Topics; G. H. 
Jaspert, in charge of radio in the Chi- 
cago office of the Westinghouse com- 
pany ; W. S. Hedges, radio editor of 
the Chicago Daily News ; Charles 
Sloan, radio editor of the Chicago 
Daily Tribune, and William J. Clark, 
radio editor of the Chicago Amer- 
ican. 

Interesting programs have already 
been outlined for radio meetings that 
will mold radio history. 



20 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Questions and Answers 



Conducted by FRANK D. PEARNE 



C. H. N., Belleville, 111. 

Question : x^m making a radio set 
according to the lesson prepared by 
the U. S. Bureau of Standards, and 
am puzzled in platting up the an- 
tenna. The only way I can run a 75- 
foot wire is by erecting a support, 
which I do not wish to do if there is 
another way. Can I run the wire 
around the four corners of the roof 
or can I run several wires parallel to 
each other, and how far apart should 
the wires be? Do you think a loop 
will work satisfactory, and how is it 
made? 

Answer : It is not so much a ques- 
tion of whether the aerial will work 
or not, but how well it will work. Al- 
most any kind of an aerial will work, 
and you must remember that you are 
trying to work with a crystal detec- 
tor set, which, at the best, is not very 
strong, so the only way you can 
make up for this weakness is to use 
the best possible aerial. A single 
wire 150 feet long would be the best. 
You can run several wires in parallel 
as you suggest, but make them as 
long as possible and space them two 
or three feet apart. You can also run 
the wire around the roof if you wish, 
but such aerials are not considered 
very good on account of the water 
spouts, etc., which run down to the 
ground, causing a leakage. 
J. L. G., St. Louis Mo. 

Question : I am now constructing 
a crystal detector set as described in 
your May number, and would like a 
little information. Would a fixed 
condenser, or a variable condenser, 
or both, increase the efficiency of this 
set? If so, how would I wire the 
condensers to the set? I am just a 
beginner at this game, and would ap- 
preciate any information you can 
give me as to how to make these con- 
densers and wire them to my set. In 
Figure 4 of your April number, page 
13, in drawing of completed set, it 
shows two short pieces of wire be- 
tween your ground and antenna. 
Should these short pieces be touch- 
ing, or a gap in between ? What pur- 
pose does this accomplish? 

Answer: Yes. Connect the fixed 
condenser across the two binding 
posts, to which the head phones are 
connected, and connect the variable 
condenser across the aerial and 
ground binding posts. It would not 
pay to make these condensers, as the 
fixed condenser can be purchased for 
about 50 cents, and the variable re- 
quires too much skill, and too many 
special tools. The two short pieces of 



wire which you mention should not 
touch, but should be spaced about 
jj- of an inch apart. They act as a 
safety discharge gap for charges 
which may accumulate on the aerial 
during an electrical storm. 
W. R. N., Maywood, 111. 

Question : Can my set be im- 
proved by using a variable con- 
denser, and how much farther will I 
be able to receive radio messages if I 
use one in my set? I am enclosing a 
diagram showing how I have it con- 
nected up. Will you kindly make a 
sketch telling me how to connect it 
in my set? Is an antenna 75 feet 
long with 4 wires all right for this 
outfit? One end is fastened to a tree. 
Will this make any difference? 

Answer : No doubt the addition of 
a variable condenser will help your 
set, but it would be hard to say how 
much it would increase the range. 
You will find that on certain nights 
you can hear much farther than on 
others. This is due to atmospheric 
conditions, and you should not blame 
it on to your receiver. Your aerial is 
good if it is high enough. It should 
be at least 35 feet in height. The 
tree will not interfere with it. Dia- 
gram showing the connection for the 
variable condenser follows : 




TWO SLIDE 
TUTSriN& COIL 



DETECTOR 

-[> 

FKED 
CONDEESEE 



# 



CONDENSEK 




■^ GROUOT) 



R. D. M., St. Louis, Mo. 

Question : I am contemplating 
building a radio set described on 
page 7 of your May issue, but wish 
to build the tuning coil on a cylinder 
2}i inches in diameter instead of 4 
inches. Can I use the same number 
of turns and taps as on the 4-inch 
coil? If not, what do you advise? 

Answer: Yes, you may use the 
same number of taps and turns. The 
only difiference will be a slight reduc- 
tion in the wave length on account of 
the decreased inductive efifect. 
V. B., Evanston, 111. 

Question : Please tell me how to 
hook up a vacuum tube with the ter- 
minals marked +, ^, G and W. Will 
a sal ammoniac or battery work on 



a vacuum tube? If they will, how 
many will it take ? 

Answer : I do not understand 
your first question. The terminals 
on a vacuum tube should be marked 
F, F, G and P, in which F means 
filament, G means grid, and P means 
plate. If you are speaking of the 
marking on the panel, it would be 
necessary for you to send in a draw- 
ing of the circuit of your set. The 
batteries which you mention will not 
do, as the sal ammoniac cells would 
polarize in a few minutes, and the 
current from the gravity battery is 
not strong enough. 
N. E. C, Chicago, 111. 

Question : Where can I buy the 
parts for making a radio set which 
will receive messages from all the 
stations east of here? What kind of a 
radiophone will be required, and how 
much will it cost? 

Answer : There are numerous ra- 
dio supply houses in Chicago, and 
most of them advertise in the maga- 
zines and papers. You will need an 
audion detector set and a two-stage 
amplifier for this work, and if you 
are going to construct it yourself, I 
should judge that it would cost you 
fifty or sixty dollars. With this out- 
fit you should be able to receive mes- 
sages from a distance of 1,000 miles 
or more. 
C. B., Chicago, 111. 

Question : What causes the crack- 
ling noise in my phones? Some 
nights I can hear Detroit and Pitts- 
burgh' just fine, and then on another 
night I don't get them at all. I have 
looked over all the connections and 
they seem to be all right. Do you 
think it could be in my batteries? I 
have changed them once and it did 
not seem to make any difiference. 
The nearest trolley line is three 
blocks away ; could this make the 
noice and if so, why don't I hear it 
all the time, as the cars run day and 
night? 

Answer : Your trouble is no doubt 
due to static. This is a condition 
which occurs quite often, and espe- 
cially so in the summer time. There 
is no remedy for it that I know of, 
and if you are sure that all your con- 
nections are good and your batteries 
are all right you can not do anything 
more. 
B. J. E., Janesville, Wis. 

Question : The boys of our club 
are building a radiophone sending 
station and we would like to know 
whether or not we will have to get a 
license for sending before we can use 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



21 



Questions and Answers 



Conducted by FRANK D. PEARNE 



it. We only expect to use one 5-watt 
tube, but might possibly get another 
one if necessary. 

Answer: You must procure a li- 
cense from the Government inspec- 
tor in charge of your district, or you 
will be in trouble as soon as you be- 
gin to use it. This will cost you 
nothing, but you will have to show 
that you understand what you are 
doing before a license will be 
granted. You will also have to be 
able to send and receive the required 
number of words per minute, and 
keep your wave length down to 200 
meters. 
W. B. R, Lincoln, 111. 

Question : I have a radio outfit 
which is made up of a two-slide tun- 
ing coil, crystal detector, condenser, 
and a pair of 2,000 ohm receivers. I 
have tried to connect them every 
possible way, but the best I can get 
out of it is a humming noise. Will 
you please tell me what is the matter, 
and draw a picture showing just how 
it should be hooked up so that I can 
hear something besides a hum? 

Answer : The two diagrams which 
you enclosed are wrong. Connect 
the set as shown in the following 
diagram : 




CSOUND 



The humming noise which you 
hear sounds as though you were 
pretty close to some electric power 
line. If this is true, change your 
aerial so that it will be at right angles 
to this line. 
R. J. Z., Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Question : If it will not be impos- 
ing too much upon your good nature 
I should like to have you answer a 
few questions for me, as I am in great 
trouble. Will an aerial which is 6 
feet above the roof attract lightning? 
My landlord says that it will and in- 
sists that I take down my antenna or 
move out. I understand that it is 
really a protection, rather than a 



hazard, but he says the insurance 
company will raise his insurance un- 
less it is removed. 

Answer: Your landlord is mis- 
taken. If you protect your aerial 
with the proper kind of a lightning 
arrester and switch, the building is 
safer than it would be if the aerial 
were not there. I think the question 
of insurance is a bluff, because the in- 
surance companies as a rule know 
that a properly protected aerial is 
really a safeguard against lightning. 
C. C. C South Bend, Ind. 

Question : Does it make any dif- 
ference which way the battery is 
hooked up to my audion set. I was 
told that it made no difference which 
way it was wired. It seems to work 
much better when the red wire is 
connected to the receivers, but when I 
connect it this way the bulb gets blue 
inside after I use it a few minutes. 

Answer : By all means connect 
the positive to the plate, otherwise 
no current will fiow through the tube 
and the receivers. This is probably 
the red wire which you speak of, as 
you say it works best this way. The 
blue appearance of the bulb is caused 
by too high a voltage on the plate. 
Try cutting it down and see if this 
don't stop it. 
E. L., Muscatine, Iowa. 

Question : My crystal detector set 
is an Amrad. How far should I be 
able to hear music with this set? I 
have never been able to hear KYW 
at Chicago, although I can hear Dav- 
enport quite well at times. Please 
let me know as soon as possible, as 
I understand the Chicago music is 
good, 
detector set is about 50 miles. 

Answer : The range of a crystal 
detector set is about 50 miles. 



Inside Aerials Safer? 

Ben F. Clark, chief electrical in- 
spector for the city of Detroit, is tell- 
ing radio fans of safeguards against 
the hazards of lightning and high fre- 
quency surges from electrical power 
lines. 

"Outside aerials can not be made 
absolutely safe," Mr. Clark says. 
"The utmost precautions known to 
electrical engineers can only mini- 
mize the danger from lightning and 
high frequency surges. 

"The inside loop or aerial can be 
made absolutely safe, and inside in- 
stallation is just as effective as out- 
side installation for receiving from 



all ranges, and with all kinds of 
equipment. 

"The city bureau of electrical in- 
spection urgently recommends inside 
aerials without exception. Fire in- 
surance companies are joining us in 
this recommendation. All radio en- 
thusiasts who insist on using outside 
aerials should arrange for the bureau 
of electrical inspection to supervise 
the installation. The city electrical 
engineers will be glad to do this in 
every case." 



Newspapers and Radio 

ONE after another the newspapers 
of the country are adding a ra- 
dio department to their news sec- 
tions. Many of them are producing 
really comprehensive, instructive ma- 
terial on construction and operation. 
Almost all of them in the neighbor- 
hood of the larger broadcasting sta- 
tions are publishing the daily pro- 
grams. 

The Chicago Herald and Exam- 
iner, which has one of the best radio 
departments in the country, edited 
by "Tom" Coates, publishes pro- 
grams of eight stations in as many 
widely distant cities. The Herald 
and Examiner wisely gives the Chi- 
cago time of the commencement of 
these programs, relieving the reader 
of much trouble in trying to adjust 
geographical differences and in sort- 
ing out those cities that differ in 
their daylight saving ideas. 

The Chicago American also has a 
useful radio section. The American 
is a pioneer in this field. The Chi- 
cago Daily News not only has a daily 
radio department, but issues a spe- 
cial radio section on Saturdays. The 
Daily News has established a radio 
service to be broadcast through the 
Fair radio station. Meanwhile it is 
using the KYW station. 

The Detroit Daily News has at- 
tracted country-wide attention with 
its powerful transmitting station and 
its alert radio news department. The 
News has a booklet on the press 
which it will mail free to all who 
send their names and addresses and 
ask for a copy. 

A radio broadcasting station has 
been opened in the building of the 
San Francisco Examiner. 

The Kansas City Star has installed 
a 500- Watt, Western Electric broad- 
casting station similar to the Detroit 
News equipment. The new station 
already has stimulated radio interest 
in Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska. 



22 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Making a Transformer 

(Continued from page 8) 

the hole and begin winding. After 
12 turns have been wound punch an- 
other hole in the tube and twist the 
wire into a long loop about 12 inches 
long, which is threaded down into 
the tube through the hole and then 
continue with the winding until an- 
other 12 turns are wound, when an- 
other hole is punched, and another 
loop is made and put down into the 
tube. 

This process is continued until 15 
coils of 12 turns each have been 
wound, and the final end of the wind- 
ing is brought down through the last 
hole. There should now be 14 loops 
and 2 single ends of the wire which 
have been put down into the tube, 
and the winding on the outside 
should be perfectly smooth. As these 
ends and loops begin to bother while 
winding, they can be temporarily 
folded back inside of the tube to keep 
them out of the way. This coil should 
now be varnished with shellac and 
allowed to dry. 

Making the Switch 

The switch should now be con- 
structed. The best way to make this 
is to purchase the contact points and 
the switch lever with a hard rubber 
handle already mounted on it, from 
some electrical supply dealer. Any 
store that deals in radio apparatus 
can supply this, but if it is not con- 
venient to do this make the switch 
contacts out of 6-32 brass machine 
screws. These are put through the 
holes shown in the frpnt view of 
secondary end "C" Figure 2 and fast- 
ened on the other side with a brass 
nut. The switch lever "L" as shown 
in Figure 3 is made of spring brass 
g'a of an inch thick and turnover 
about -^ inch on the end, so that it 
will make a good contact on the con- 
tacts. An 8-32 brass machine screw 
holds this in place on the secondary 
end "C" Figure 2. A brass washer 
is first placed on the screw, then the 
switch lever, another washer, and 
the screw is then put down through 
the hole in the center of "C" and 
clamped fast with a nut on the other 
side. Before this is fastened how- 
ever, some kind of a knob should be 
pinned fast to the switch lever as 
shown in Figure 1. Fasten 2 bind- 
ing posts with screws through the 2 
bottom holes shown on "C" and you 
are now ready to wire the switch. 

All the loops and ends are all 
brought out of one end of the tube. 
As the end of the tube from which 
the wires now project is to be forced 
over the projection on "C" and glued 
fast, the connections will have to be 



SECONDARY END "D" 




ROD SUPPORT E' 



FRONT VIEW 



SHEtT BRASS F 

T 



END VtEW 




Switch LsvEJi "L ' 

— ^-■t' 
iV 

1/8 



I 



\J 



^ I" ^ 

SQUARE BRASS ROD J 



EZ 



It-/"--)! 



Z2i:p:>V 



FRONT VIEW END VIEW 



SPRING BRASS "H " 






I 



It --2"- - ^ /(,4TMICH 



ROUND BRASS Rod "K ' 



D 



_ _7" 4 %V 



T.r:Sr'/^ 



-H'A- 



FIGURE 3. 



made with plenty of slack in the 
wires, so that they can be pushed 
back into the tube after they are 
soldered to the switch contacts. Be- 
gin by soldering the wire from the 
distant end of the coil, to the last 
contact and the loop next to it, to the 
next contact etc., until they are all 
connected, except the last single wire 
which is connected to one of the bind- 
ing posts. The screw which holds 
the switch arm, is then connected to 
the other binding post. Now push 
the tube over the projection on "C" 
and glue it fast. 

Assembling the Coil 

The secondary end "D" Figure 3 
is now glued into the other end of 
the tube, being careful to see that 
the y^ inch holes for the supporting 
rods line up right. Next, the 2 brass 
supporting rods "K" Figure 3 are 
put through the holes in both sec- 
ondary ends, and the coil is as- 
sembled and mounted on the base, 
as shown in Figure 1. One end of 
the brass supporting rods is held in 
place by the holes in the primary end 
"B", and the other by means of the 
holes in rod support "E" Figure 3. 
When all the parts are mounted as 
shown in Figure 1, the secondary 
should slide in and out of the primary 
without touching it at any point. 
Now procure a piece of square brass 
rod J4 inch square and 7 inches long 
and drill a Y^ inch hole at a distance 
of -i^ of an inch from each end, as 
shown as "J" Figure 3. 

A piece of soft brass 1 inch square 
and -^ inch thick, "F" Figure 3 is 
bent so that it will fit around the 
brass rod, as shown at "G" in Figure 
3. A piece of thin spring brass "H" 



is soldered fast to the bottom of "G" 
as shown at "1" and is bent into the 
proper shape to press on the wires 
of the primary, when placed on the 
rod and mounted as shown in Figure 
1. A hard rubber or wooden knob 
can be fastened to the slider. 

The square brass rod is placed in 
the slots in the top of the primary 
ends and fastened with brass wood 
screws. 

Carefully clean ofif the insulation 
from the wire on the primary in a 
straight line under the slider, so that 
the slider spring will make a good 
electrical contact with the wires, as it 
slides back and forth. Connect a wire 
from the slider rod to one of the bind- 
ing posts on the base, and connect 
one end of the primary coil to the 
other binding post, leaving the other 
end of the primary coil dead, and not 
connected to anvthing. 



WIRING DIAGRAM 
'aerial 




DETECTOR 

— [H 



SECONDARY 



8 



PHONES) 



^^ G-RQUND 

FIGURE 4. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



23 



Radio News from Coast to Coast 

Readers who have reason to be proud of achievements in Radio in their own localities have a place in this depart- 
ment of Radio Age to tell the rest of the country about it. Contributions will be welcomed. 



Arkansas 

RADIO fans cannot be classed 
as nuisances, according to a 
court decision in Little Rock. 
It was objected that operators of 
wireless equipment were making 
"buzzing noises" between the hours 
of 9 p. m. and 7 a. m. The court 
held that wireless inconveniences 
must be tolerated just as we have to 
tolerate the blowing of whistles and 
the rattle of street cars. 

Citizens of Pine Bluff are buying 
a fine receiving outfit for the State's 
Industrial School for Boys. 



California 

San Francisco police say they 
have nipped a system of tapping 
news of stock market operations. 
The wireless tappers are said to 
wear a hidden belt supplied with 
power sufficient to transmit mes- 
sages. Even if true, the police fail 
to explain how any law is violated. 

Amateurs' interference prevented 
the clear receipt of a telephone mes- 
sage sent from the Westinghouse 
station in Newark, N. J., to the 
Rockridge station at Oakland. An- 
other test will be made. Newark 
stations report having heard conver- 
sation from San Francisco, but not 
during official tests. 

Church of the Open Door at Los 
Angeles claims to be the first church 
to install a transmitting station. It 
will operate Sunday mornings and 
evenings and Wednesday evenings. 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Adair of 
Los Angeles started on an automo- 
bile trip to New York April 21. 
Their car is equipped with a radio 
phone. 

Colorado 

The Northeastern Colorado Radio 
Club has been organized at Ster- 
ling. H. T. Van Valkenburgh is 
president. 

Indiana 

Radio phone has been purchased 
by Paul O. Moyer Post, American 
Legion, at Hartford City. Public 
concerts and market reports for 
farmers will be featured. 

Mrs. Harriet Steele, 68 years old, 
listened to songs by her daughter, 
Miss Floss Steele, transmitted from 
Chicago to LaPorte while a 5S-mile 
storm was raging. 

Iowa 

Davenport's transmitting station is lo- 
cated in the Palmer School. It sends out 
educational talks between 3:30 and 4 p. m. 
Concerts are broadcast between 7 and 8 
evenings. 

The radio phone at the Auto Supply Co. 
at Estherville has become the most popu- 
lar thing in that part of Iowa. 

The Times-Record Co. of Aledo has in- 
stalled a radio outfit. 




',J>^ 



Alan N. Cormack's motor launch "Spoonbill," of San Francisco, is completely 

equipped with radio apparatus. When tired of navigating, he listens to concerts and 

news reports. International News Reel Photo. 



Charles G. Pelton of Waterloo, 21 years 
old, has been a radio student for seven 
years. He formerly was in charge of 
wireless work for the Government in 
Samoa and at Honolulu. He was the only 
white resident on one little Pacific island 
for 17 months. 

Davenport Y. M. C. A. will not only 
install radio equipment but will start a 
radio school. 

Iowa Radio Convention was held in 
Boone April 28 and 29 under direction of 



Iowa State College, and attracted visitors 
from all over the state. 

Dyersville has a station that picks up 
Newark on the east and Denver on the 

west. 

Frank Allen, 117 Marshall street, Boone, 
sent a message that was heard in Chris- 
tobal, Panama, 2,500 miles distant. 

Kansas 

Hutchinson and Wichita are installing 
radio equipment for police communication 



24 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



concerning pursuit of escaped criminals 
and automobile tiiieves. 

It is reported that the American Tele- 
graph and Telephone Co. is contemplating 
installing a broadcasting station at Hutch- 
inson. The announcement was made by 
H. J. Bamford, radio specialist, connected 
with the Hutchinson Grain Radio Club, 
Inc 

Louisiana 

M. M. Mandot, superintendent of the 
Columbia Light and Power plant at Co- 
lumbia, is back of a plan to install a trans- 
mitting station at Columbia. 

Mr. Edward T. Jones, formerly radio 
supervisor Gulf Division, U. S. Shipping 
Board, and at one time associate editor 
Radio News of New York, radio editor, 
experimental science of Washington, 
D. C, has resigned from the board to ac- 
cept a position in the capacity of manager 
radio department of the Electric Supply 
Co., 324 Camp street, New Orleans. The 
Electric Supply Co. has been appointed a 
RCOA distributor. 

The Louisiana Fire Prevention Bureau 
warns radio users not to ignore fire laws 
and insurance regulations in installing out- 
fits. It offers to inspect outfits on request. 

Massachusetts 

Boston experts are interested in devices 
designed to not only automatically regis- 
ter S O S calls from ships but have such 
calls accompanied by an alarm device tl.at 
will attract the attention of any person in 
or near the station. 

It is announced in Boston that the In- 
ternational Radio Corporation will have 
a string of 100 retail stores in the principal 
cities of the country. 

Hundreds of New England amateurs 
heard the remarkable tests carried on 1,600 
miles between the steamship America and 
several land stations. The America was 
equipped with two distinct aerials, one for 
transmission and one for receiving. 

A radio constructor and adviser sued for 
his pay and when he tried to explain tech- 
nical radio to a jury in Everett the venire- 
men asked that he repeat it all. Then they 
took a recess to rest their brains. 

Carl E. Berg, 8 Douglas street, East 
Lynn, a radio specialist, induced the an- 
nouncer at the Medford Hillside one night 
recently and asked that a message be 
broadcast saying that he was tied up on 
an installation job and could not be home 
for dinner. Mrs. Berg was listening in at 
the psychological moment and got the 
message. Thirty thousand other homes 
got Berg's message, but Berg said he 
didn't care if the whole world listened in. 
He didn't want his wife to worry. And 
there you are. 

The Massachusetts State Police Patrol 
has instituted a radio phone service. A 
transmitting station will be installed at 
Framingham as the first unit in the sys- 
tem. 

Michigan 

Detroit reports that radio youths have 
stolen large numbers of telephone sets 
from apartment and office buildings. 

The "Schoolhouse on Beech Road" at 
Moore put on a district school radio show. 
The entertainment was followed by a 
chicken dinner. That beats the old lime 
spelling bee. 

Henry Ford is to jazz things up in his 
plants by introducing radio stuff. He is 
licensed to install transmitting equipment. 

Congressman Vincent M. Brennan of 



Michigan introduced a bill providing for 
the installation of a transmitting station 
on the floor of the house. Thereby hoping 
to scoop the congressional record, per- 
haps. 

The Marinette Electrical corporation 
has begun to manufacture radio equip- 
ment. Fifty persons will be employed. 

So many residents of Alpena attended 
the Detroit Radio Show that the Alpena 
Radio club called off its weekly meeting. 

Battle Creek has a growing radio club. 

Governor Grosbeck spoke from the De- 
troit News transmitting station calling at- 
tention of radio phone listeners all over 
the state to the advantages of living and 
working in Michigan. 

Nebraska 

T. J. Bolger, of Chadron, has been lis- 
tening in on Denver and Toledo. Valen- 
tine, Alliance, Rushville, Harrison and 
Hot Springs are receiving messages from 
all over the country. 

A Norfolk operator heard a Western 
Union radio message recently and tele- 
phoned it to the person for whom it was 
intended. He beat the Western Union 
delivery. 

New Jersey 

An Elizabeth boy, with an umbrella as 
an aerial and a screwdriver thrust into the 
ground as a ground connection, hears 
messages with an outfit about the size of 
a loaf of sugar. He has been studying 
radio 10 years. 

Thus far the New York Signal Corps 
station has been unable to pick up the 
United States Army Signal Corps' new 

Mrs. William Randolph Hurst ad- 
dressed many thousands in the interest of 
the Free Milk Fund for Babies. Her talk 
was transmitted by WJZ station at New- 
ark. 

New York 

The American Telephone and Tele- 
graph Co. will build a broadcasting sta- 
tion on the roof of its 24-story building in 
New York City. Steel towers, supporting 
the antennae will be 100 feet high. 

New York's east side has seized upon 
radio as a diversion and as many of the 
instruments have amplifiers the result in 
that congested district is something like 
Bedlam at times. 

The fourth annual aviators' ball featured 
dancing by radio. It was held at the Astor 
Hotel. 

station at the Presidio Reservation, San 
Francisco. The Pacific coast station is 
one of the most powerful in the service. 

Ohio 

Disabled former service men are to be 
entertained by radio at Cincinnati's Alta- 
mont hospital. Women of a ladies' aux- 
iliary are raising the funds to install equip- 
ment. 

East Liverpool has imposed a fee of $2 
to be paid by all owners of radio outfits 
in that city. It is an annual tax. The 
revenue is to be expended for inspection 
by the fire bureau. 

Sandusky believes that a mineral de- 
posit is preventing that city from hearing 
Chicago. Broadcasters in Chicago have 
been trying to solve the mystery. 

Pennsylvania 

The Pennsylvania Federation of Music 
Clubs in session at the Wanamaker Store 
in Philadelphia declared radio represents 
one of the best means of disseminating 
good music. 



South Dakota 

When Elk Point was cut off from tele- 
graphic and telephone communication with 
the outside world by a storm recently 
radio was resorted to. Sioux Falls estab- 
lished radio communication with Elk 
Point and directed the work of repairing 
wrecked buildings, tangled wires and 
broken poles. Supplies were ordered from 
Sioux Falls by wireless. 

Tennessee 

The Knoxville Radio Co. of Knoxville is 
the first Tennessee concern to receive a 
charter exclusively for the manufacture 
of radio apparatus. It is incorporated at 
$50,000. 

Texas 

Mrs. O. R. Garrett is the first woman 
in Texas to hold a first grade amateur 
radio license. She is also a first-class land 
line operator. Her husband is president 
of the Fort Worth Radio Club. 

A radio auditorium that will seat several 
hundred persons is announced for the 
White House, an El Paso establishment. 

Clarence Wortham, an outdoor show- 
man, is taking radio phones with him on 
this season's itinerary. He starts from 
Dallas. 

Texas farmers in the vicinity of Lan- 
caster are to receive weather bulletins 
through a new receiving station to be es- 
tablished for the purpose. Several farm- 
ers have their own sets in their homes. 

A radio shop has been opened at Ama- 
rillo by Raymond A. Pittman. 

Denison has organized a radio club. 
There will be facilities for public enter- 
tainment. 

Five candidates for commercial radio 
licenses were recently examined in Dallas. 

Two radio receiving sets for concert 
purposes have been installed by the 
Adolphus hotel at Dallas. 

West Virginia 

The Wheeling Baptist Temple held a 
special radio survice, receiving the com- 
plete Sunday program of a Pittsburgh 
station. 

Wisconsin 

All Wisconsin is awaiting the Milwau- 
kee Radio Show, June 21 to 25, inclusive. 

The Milwaukee Real Estate Board ex- 
pects to get radio reports of the national 
convention of realtors in San Francisco 
in June. Milwaukee considers it possible 
that radio may supplant conventions al- 
together in the future. 

Instructive ten-minute features are in- 
cluded in programs outlined for the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin broadcasting stations. 

Fire stations everywhere take to radio. 
Oshkosh firemen have their own receiving 
apparatus. It beats rhummy and old jokes 
on dull days. 

Fond du Lac boys are buying all obtain- 
able radio supplies. Their interest has 
been stimulated by the broadcasting serv- 
ice at Madison. 

Wyoming 

Radio outfits will be installed in out of 
the way spots in Wyoming for the dis- 
semination of religious appeals. Bishop 
Nathaniel S. Thomas, Episcopal mission- 
ary bishop of Wyoming, is promoting the 
plan. He says mission stations are few 
and far between in his state and the church 
finds it impossible to reach some of the 
people oftener than once a month. Hence 
the radio plan. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



25 



How the Government Will Control Radio 



(Continued from page 4) 

"BROADCASTING" signifies transmis- 
sion intended for an unlimited number of 
receiving stations without charge at the 
receiving end. It includes: 

(1) Government broadcasting sig- 
nifying broadcasting by departments 
of the Federal Government; 

(2) Public broadcasting signifying 
broadcasting by public institutions, in- 
cluding state governments, political 
subdivisions thereof, and universities 
and such others as may be licensed for 
the purpose of disseminating informa- 
tional and educational service; 

(3) Private broadcasting signify- 
ing broadcasting without charge, by 
the owner of a station, as a communi- 
cation company, a store, a newspaper, 
or such other private news, enter- 
tainment and other service; and 

(4) Toll broadcasting signifying 
broadcasting where a charge is made 
for the use of the transmitting station. 
Note 2. A station carrying on two or 

more of the broadcasting services speci- 
fied in classes 2, 3, and 4 must be licensed 
for each class of service. 

Note 3. When transoceanic radio tele- 
phone experiments are to be conducted 
the Department of Commerce should en- 
deavor to arrange with other countries for 
the use of the wave band 5,000 to 6,000 
meters assigned for this purpose. 

Note 4. The wave band from 2,850 to 
3,300 meters may be used for fixed service 
radio telephony only provided it does not 
interfere with service using continuous 
wave telegraphy. 

Note 5. The wave band from 1,550 to 
1,650 meters is for use of radio telephone 
communication over natural barriers, but 
is not exclusive of other services. 

The Marine Service 

Note 6. Radio beacons are radio trans- 
mitting stations which transmit signals 
from which a mobile direction finding 
station may determine its bearing or posi- 
tion. 

Note 7. Radio compass service is here 
used to signify a direction finding service 
in which a mobile station transmits to 
one or more fixed stations which in turn 
transmit back the bearing or position of 
the mobile station. 

Note 8. The wave band from 525 to 
650 meters is reserved for marine radio 
telegraphy, exclusive. 

Note 9. Assignment of waves in band 
16 will, in general, involve keeping the 
zones from 285 to 315 and from 425 to 
475 meters open in coastal regions. 
Furthermore, in border regions, account 
should be taken of the wave lengths used 
in neighboring countries, and these should 
be suitably protected by a locally unused 
band of adjacent wave lengths. 

Note 10. The restricted special ama- 
teur wave of 310 meters is for use by a 
limited number of inland stations and 
only where it is necessary to bridge large, 
sparsely populated areas or to overcome 
natural barriers. 

Note 11. City and state public safety 
broadcasting should in small cities be con- 
ducted by interrupting the broadcast serv- 
ice of classes 2, 3, or 4 in case of emerg- 
ency. In large cities this service will ordi- 
narily have its own stations and will use 
the wave band, 275 to 285 meters, as- 
signed to such service. Private detective 
agencies desiring to operate radio tele- 
phone broadcasting service should be re- 
quired to co-operate with municipal or 



state services in the use of the wave band 
275 to 285 meters, assigned to the latter 
service. 

Note 12. By "technical and training 
school" in this report, is meant a school 
which in the judgment of the Secretary of 
Commerce is carrying on sufficient in- 
struction of the proper character for train- 
ing men for the radio profession to war- 
rant the granting of a station license for 
that purpose. 

Note 13. An amateur is one who oper- 
ates a radio station, transmitting, receiv- 
ing, or both, without pay or commercial 
gain, merely for personal interest or in 
connection with an organization of like 
interest. 

Note 14. The Conference is of the opin- 
ion that broadcast transmitting stations 
should not in coastal regions be permitted 
on wave lengths closely adjacent to those 




Harry Levison, Cincinnati, mad 
receiving set in a watch 



e a 



assigned in the marine traffic and believe 
that its recommendations provide for ade- 
quate protection of such marine traffic. 
The Conference recommends the assign- 
ment of wave lengths adjacent to those 
used in the marine traffic to inland stations 
under such conditions as to avoid inter- 
ference with the marine traffic. 

B. It is recommended that the Secre- 
tary of Commerce assign a specific wave 
length to each radio telephone broadcast- 
ing station (except Government and ama- 
teur stations), this of course being within 
the band pertaining to the particular serv- 
ice of that station. 

C. It is recommended that the wave 
band assigned to amateurs, ISO to 275 
meters, be divided into bands according 
to the method of transmission, damped 
wave stations being assigned the band of 
lowest wave lengths, interrupted or modu- 
lated continuous wave radio telegraph sta- 
tions the next band, radio telephone sta- 
tions the next band, and finally unmodu- 
lated continuous wave radio telegraph sta- 
tions the band of highest wave lengths. 
It is recommended that amateurs be per- 
mitted to carry on broadcasting within 



the wave length band assigned by the Sec- 
retary of Commerce to amateur radio tele- 
phony. 

Some Definitions 

A damped wave is one composed of suc- 
cessive trains in which the amplitude of 
the oscillation after having reached its 
maximum decreases gradually. This re- 
fers to waves from spark transmitters or 
other types of transmitters having charac- 
teristic decrement similar to spark trans- 
mitters. Transmitters employing contin- 
uous wave oscillators in which the varia- 
tion in frequency or amplitude is abrupt, 
(as with the use of a chopper), are classed 
as damped wave transmitters. 

An interrupted or modulated continuous 
wave is one in which the amplitude or 
the frequency is varied according to a 
simple periodic law of audible frequency. 
(This is commonly referred to as the in- 
terrupted continuous waves, or I. C. W.) 
A continuous wave transmitter employing 
a rectified plate voltage which is not a 
substantially constant direct voltage is 
classed as an interrupted or modulated 
continuous wave transmitter. Note: This 
included transmitters in which the vari- 
ation in amplitude or frequency is effected 
in a gradual way only. (For abrupt varia- 
tion see damped wave.) 

An unmodulated continuous wave is one 
in which the permanent state is periodic 
and has substantially constant amplitude 
and frequency. (This includes waves in 
which the amplitude variation is effected 
simply by the manipulation of a key. This 
is commonly referred to as a continuous 
wave, or C. W.) 

D. It is recommended that the present 
regulations governing experimental sta- 
tion remain in effect. An experimental 
station is one operated exclusively for 
technical or scientific investigations. 

E. 1. The Conference experienced the 
greatest difficulty in providing even partly 
for the generally demanded services. The 
Conference therefore disapproved of the 
elimination of essential services by the 
introduction of direct advertising which 
might be expected to require extensive 
assignment of wave bands if permitted at 
all. 

2. Many services for which radio tele- 
phony might otherwise be desirable can 
not practically be conducted by this means 
on account of the interference which such 
use would cause with other services of a 
more essential nature or for which there 
is great public demand. 

3. In view of the demand for broadcast 
service by the general public, it is not 
desirable to disseminate information over 
wide areas for purposes of point-to-point 
communication except where that com- 
munication cannot be effectively main- 
tained by other means. 

The "Multiple Telegram" 

4. A radio service in which a message 
is addressed or intended for a prescribed 
number of particular stations is not a 
broadcast service and is to be classed as 
a "multiple telegram" or "multiple tele- 
phone service." It was not thought ad- 
visable to use the much demanded short 
wave bands for communications of this 
nature as they would serve a relatively 
small number. The available wave lengths 
for such multiple service messages are 
bands 2 and 5. 

5. The Conference is of the opinion 
that the use of radio communication for 
"point-to-point" communication over land 
in most cases constitutes an uneconomic 



26 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



use of the available wave bands and it is 
recommended that at the present state 
of the art such communication should be 
carried on by other means, in so far as 
possible. 

6. The Conference very carefully con- 
sidered the proximity of wave bands as- 
signed to amateurs and broadcast services 
but deemed it essential to utilize all of 
the available wave bands. 

7. It was felt that waves longer than 
275 meters should not be assigned to 
technical and training school stations be- 
cause of the needs of broadcast services 
greatly desired by a large portion of the 
public in that zone, and because the ex- 
tension of amateur wave lengths and the 
organization of their use will enable their 
effective employment by the technical and 
training school stations. 

vschooek b 

II. Power Distribution and Hours 

A. It is recommended that the Secre- 
tary of Commerce assign to each radio 
telephone broadcasting station a permissi- 
ble power based on the normal range of 
the station, such normal ranges for the 
different classes of service to have the fol- 
lowing average values, larger or smaller 
values being discretionary where condi- 
tions warrant. 

Government broadcasting stations, 600 
(land) miles. 

Public broadcasting stations, 250 miles. 

Private and toll broadcasting stations, 
50 miles. 

Normal range is the average reliable 
daytime ranges over which satisfactory 
communication can be obtained with good 
available receiving apparatus. 

Rule Is Elastic 

The Conference recommends that 
broadcasting stations should not be al- 
lowed to use unlimited power because of 
the fact that this will limit the number of 
services which can be rendered within a 
given area to an undesirable extent. 

(NOTE: The Bureau of Standards of 
the Department of Commerce should 
make a study of the relation between the 
normal reliable range of a station and the 
antenna power on the basis of the use of 
good available receiving apparatus. It is 
recognized that this relation may change 
with the development of the radio art.) 

B. It is recommended that the same 
wave (or overlapping wave bands) not be 
assigned to stations within the following 
distances from one another, except that 
these distances may be lowered if the nor- 
mal ranges of the stations are correspond- 
ingly lowered. 

For Government broadcasting stations, 
1,500 miles. 

For public broadcasting stations, 750 
miles. 

For private and toll broadcasting sta- 
tions, 150 miles. 

(NOTE: The Bureau of Standards 
should make a study of the width of wave 
band (expressed in cycles per second) re- 
quired for satisfactory radio telephony. 
It is recognized that this width depends 
on the methods of transmission and recep- 
tion employed.) 

C. It is recommended that the Secre- 
tary of Commerce cause an immediate 
study to be made of the best geographical 
distribution of broadcasting stations with 
the view of attaining the best service with 
a minimum of interference. 

D. It is recommended that in cases 
where congestion of radio telephone 
broadcasting traffic exists, or threatens to 
exist, the Secretary of Commerce assign 
suitable hours of operation to existing or 



proposed radio telephone broadcasting 
stations. 

III. Granting Licenses 

A. It is recommended that in the case 
of conflict between radio communication 
services first consideration be given to the 
public not reached, or not so readily 
reached, by other communication services. 

B. It is recommended that subject to 
public interest and to the reasonable re- 
quirements of each type of service the 
order of priority of the services be Gov- 
ernment, Public, Private, Toll. 

C. It is recommended that the degree 
of public interest attaching to a private or 
toll broadcasting service be considered in 
determining its priority in the granting of 
licenses, in the assignment of wave fre- 
quencies, and in the assignment of per- 
missible power and operating time, within 
the general regulations for these classes 
of service. 

D. It is recommended that toll broad- 
casting service be permitted to develop 
naturally under close observation, with the 
understanding that its character, quality 
and value to the public will be considered 
in determining its privileges under future 
regulations. 

E. It is recommended that direct adver- 
tising in radio broadcasting service be 
absolutely prohibited and that indirect ad- 
vertising be limited to a statement of the 
call letters of the station and of the name 
of the concern responsible for the matter 
broadcasted, subject to such regula- 
tions as the Secretary of Commerce may 
impose.. 

F. It is recommended that when all 
available wave frequencies in any geo- 
graphical region are already assigned, no 
further licenses for broadcasting be 
granted in that region until cause arises 
for the revocation of existing licenses. 

G. It is recommended that private or 
toll broadcasting stations transmitting 
time signals shall transmit only official 
time signals and with authorization from 
and under conditions approved by the Sec- 
retary of Commerce. 

H. It is recommended that the trans- 
mission of signals of such character or 
wave length as to deliberately interfere 
with the reception of official time signals 
constitutes grounds for the revocation or 
suspension of the transmitting station or 
operator's license. 

I. It is recommended that license re- 
quirements for the operator of a radio 
telephone transmitting station include a 
knowledge of radio transmitting and re- 
ceiving apparatus and of the International 
Morse Code, sufficient to receive at a rate 
of not less than 10 words per minute. 

J. It is recommended that the estab- 
lishment at any later date of any commer- 
cial transmitting stations having more 
than 1 k.w. input to the antenna may, at 
the discretion of the Secretary of Com- 
merce, be prohibited within 25 land miles 
of a Government or commercial station or 
in regions where congestion of radio traf- 
fic shall warrant such prohibition. 

K. It is recommended that the sharp- 
ness of the emitted wave of the transmit- 
ting station afifect the privileges extended 
to such station. 

IV. The Amateur 

A. It is recommended that the status 
of the amateur be established by law and 
that the limits of the wave band allotted 
to the amateur as given above in section I 
be specified in the law. 

B. It is recommended that the amateur 
continue to be under the jurisdiction of 
the Department of Commerce. 

C. It is recommended that for the pur- 



poses of self-policing among the amateurs, 
amateur Deputy Radio Inspectors be cre- 
ated, elected from their number of the 
amateurs of each locality; that upon re- 
ceipt of notice of such election the Radio 
Inspector in charge of the district in which 
such amateurs are located shall appoint 
the person chosen a Deputy Radio In- 
spector, serving without compensation or 
for the sum of one dollar per year if com- 
pensation is legally required; that the duty 
of such amateur Deputy Inspector shall 
be to endeavor to the best of his ability to 
accomplish, under the direction of the Dis- 
trict Radio Inspector, observance of the 
Radio Communication Laws and the Reg- 
ulations of the United States and the ob- 
servance of such local cooperative m-eas- 
ures as are agreed to in each community 
for the minimization of interference be- 
tween the various groups of the public 
interested in radio; that such Amateur 
Deputy Inspectors be clothed with what- 
ever authority may be necessary in the 
opinion of the District Radio Inspector. 

V. Reduction of Interference 

A. It is recommended that the Secre- 
tary of Commerce at his discretion pro- 
hibit at any time the use of existing radio 
transmitting apparatus and methods which 
result in unnecessary interference, pro- 
vided that such action should not be taken 
unless more satisfactory apparatus and 
methods are commercially available at rea- 
sonable prices and until an adequate time 
interval is allowed for the substitution of 
the more satisfactory apparatus. 

B. It is recommended that the Secre- 
tary of Commerce at his discretion pro- 
hibit at any time the use of existing radio 
receiving apparatus which cause the radio- 
tion of energy, provided that such action 
should not be taken unless more satisfac- 
tory apparatus and methods are commer- 
cially available at reasonable prices and 
until an adequate time arrival is allowed 
for the substitution of the more satis- 
factory apparatus. 

Note: "Certain forms of oscillating re- 
ceivers cause the feeble radiation of con- 
tinuous waves and may therefore be a 
source of local interference." 

C. It is recommended that the Bureau 
of Standards make a study of the technical 
methods for the reduction of interference, 
with a view to publishing their findings, 
giving special attention to the following: 

(1) The reduction of the rate of build- 
ing up (increment) of oscillations in ra- 
diating systems. (This rapid building up 
of oscillations occurs in damped wave and 
interrupted continuous-wave transmitters, 
and may, of course, be eliminated by the 
substitution of other types of transmitters. 
It may, however, be reduced in these types 
by proper circuit arrangements.) 

(2) The reduction of harmonies in con- 
tinuous wave transmitters and of irregu- 
larities of oscillation. ("Mush" in arc 
transmitters and "swinging" of the fre- 
quency in some continuous wave trans- 
mitters not employing a master oscillator.) 
"Mush" signifies small sudden irregulari- 
ties occurring in the antenna current of arc 
transmitters. Swinging signifies relatively 
slow changes in the frequency of a trans- 
mitted wave. 

A harmonic of a wave is a wave whose 
frequency is a multiple of that of the given 
wave. (The wave length of a harmonic 
is thus a sub-multiple of the wave length 
of the given wave.) It is often convenient 
to include as harmonics frequencies which 
are dependent on the frequency of the 
transmitter but which are not exact mul- 
tiples. 

(3) The comparison of the variable am- 
plitude method with the variable fre- 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



27 



quency method of continuous wave teleg- 
raphy. 

(4) The preferable methods of tele- 
phone modulation to avoid changes in the 
frequency of oscillation. 

(5) The proper circuit arrangements of 
regenerative (including oscillating) re- 
ceivers to avoid radiation of energy (as 
by the use of a radio-frequency amplifier 
with an untuned antenna or with a coil 
aerial). 

(6) The use of highly selective receiv- 
ing apparatus, including a list of approved 
forms. Note: A selective receiver is one 
which enables the user to hear a desired 
signal and to exclude the undesired sig- 
nals. The more perfectly this is accom- 
plished, the more highly selective is the 
receiver. 

(7) The use of receiving coil aerials 
instead of antennae, with special reference 
to high selectivity. 

(8) The reduction of interference with 
radio communication of other electrical 
processes, such as the operation of x-ray 
apparatus and electrical precipitation. 

(9) The study and standardization of 
wavemeters. Note: A wavemeter is an 
instrument for measuring wave frequency 
or wave length. 

At a subsequent meeting of the full con- 
ference called by Secretary Hoover on 
April 17, 18, and 19, 1922, it was agreed to 
add to Section 1 C the provision that the 
operation of Government stations be con- 
ducted in such a manner as not to inter- 
fere with the commercial traffic and broad- 
casting, and that whenever Government- 
owned stations are used for the transmis- 
sion of commercial traffic and broadcast- 
ing, they shall conform to the regulations 
established by the Secretary of Commerce. 

It was agreed to add a provision for the 
appointment by the President of an Ad- 
visory Committee to the Secretary of 
Commerce to consist of not more than 
twelve members, half of whom shall be 
from the Government and half from out- 
side the Government. 




itx<ioM8a z»W8B» »aoowo »W Ji»«i^^ 



Students and instructors at work in the radio department of Lane Technical High 
School, These students have built many instruments which will be exhibited at the 

Pageant of Progress in July 



Exhibition Features 

In an auditorium opening off the 
west end of the exposition hall at the 
Detroit Show, the Detroit News, by 
moving pictures, stereopticon slides 
and lectures, revealed, in fascinating 
detail, the operation of the broadcast- 
ing station WWJ, one of the most 
powerful in America and the pioneer 
of all newspaper broadcasting sta- 
tions. 

A feature of the Detroit Show en- 
tertainment was the operation, by 
the Lyradion Sales & Engineering 
Co., of a receiving set seven feet high 
and four feet wide, designed for con- 
cert work in large halls. 



Polishing Panels 

If you desire to dress the surface of 
bakelite or formica to prevent finger 
marks from showing and to give your 
job a better appearance, sandpaper the 
surface, using first a medium paper 
and then a fine grade. Make all 
strokes the full length of the panel. 
Finish by polishing with a cloth moist- 
ened with linseed oil. 



High School Radio 

{Continued from page 11) 
convenient switch, which runs over 
taps taken from the vario-coupler, 
increases or decreases the wave 
length of the set. The amplifier unit 
is enclosed in another cabinet and 
can be placed on top or alongside the 
regenerator. It consists of two stages 
of audio-frequency amplification 
which when operated in conjunction 
with the detector in the regenerator 
gives the set a receiving range of 
over 1,2(X) miles. Not so bad for the 
boys, eh? 

Possibly you will ask the question, 
"of what educational value is this to 
the young man of today?" The an- 
swer could not be simpler. When a 
boy builds his own outfit he must 
know something about it. The re- 
sult is that he studies the subject and 
in this way gets the theory while at 
school he has also the practical expe- 
rience. When he gets out into the 
world he will find that what he has 
learned at school will provide a life 
vocation for him if he is so minded 
to follow it up. 

There is another branch of the 
radio department worthy of mention. 
The code class is a group of young 
men who meet at certain periods each 
day to practice the code and also the 
theory of the radio. All of these 
students are practicing the code and 
about half of them have obtained 
operator licenses from the govern- 
ment. The other half are struggling 
hard and will have their licenses be- 
fore the end of the season or know 
the reason why. 

The two men responsible for the 
radio department at Lane are Mr. 



A. G. Bauersfeld, Supervisor of Tech- 
nical Education in the Chicago high 
schools, and Mr. William J. Bogan, 
Principal of the Lane Technical High 
School. Both of these men are ar- 
dent radio enthusiasts and have given 
the necessary impetus to carry Lane 
to the front in this field. 



Universal Amplifier 

Secretary Denby announces that 
the Bureau of Engineering of the 
Navy Department has finally arrived 
at a successful design of a universal 
amplifier for radio communication. 

The multiplying qualities of the 
three electrode vacuum tubes have 
been known for a considerable time, 
but the amplification was only possible 
over a limited band of wave lengths. 
For use in the navy, apparatus must 
be serviceable over a wide range and 
equally efficient over several variations 
of wave lengths. 

As a result of the research work of 
Dr. J.'M. Miller of the Navy's Radio 
Research Laboratory in Washington, 
a six stage amplifier has been con- 
structed. The range of this amplifier 
is from a few hundred to 2,000 meters. 



In a Lighter Current 

Little Joe had completed his crys- 
tal receiving set and had made it 
"work." His astonished and proud 
mother said to him, "Wasn't it very 
hard to do all this?" 

"Naw," said Joe ; "most of it was 
easy as anything." 

"What was the hardest part of it?" 
she asked. 

"Gettin' eight plunks out of pa," 
said Joe. 



28 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



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Wireless Weather 

Weather forecasts are broadcast 
twice daily i,ooo miles in every direc- 
tion by the Great Lakes Naval Radio 
station, co-operating with the local 
United States weather bureau office, 
under the direction of H. J. Cox, 
meteorologist. 

E. B. Calvert, chief of the forecast- 
ing division of the United States 
weather bureau, is aiding in perfect- 
ing arrangements for broadcasting 
weather reports for aviation and ma- 
rine interests. In addition to fore- 
casting for the states west of Illinois 
and Wisconsin to Wyoming and Mon- 
tana, and south including Kansas and 
Missouri, the Chicago office will fore- 
cast the weather and issue storm 
warnings for all the Great Lakes and 
Michigan and Indiana. 

This enlarging of activities of the 
local office will be cared for with the 
present staff, Mr. Cox and his assist- 
ant forecaster, E. H. Haines, taking 
turns alternate months in forecasting. 

Arrangements are also being made 
to send out forecasts for the neighbor- 
ing states and Lake Michigan by the 
radiophone operated by the Westing- 
hottse company in the Edison building. 

"We hope to install a powerful 
radio sending station in the Federal 
building," said Mr. Cox, "but for the 
present we will send our reports to 
the Great Lakes Naval Radio station 
via the Municipal pier radio, where 
they will be broadcast at ii o'clock in 
the morning and lo :30 o'clock each 
night, to aviation forecast zones num- 
ber four (including the Great Lakes, 
Michigan and Wisconsin), eight (in- 
cluding Iowa, Indiana, Illinois, Mis- 
souri, Kansas and Nebraska), seven 
(including Minnesota, North and 
South Dakota), and ten (including 
Wyoming and Montana). 

"For the special benefit of aviators 
and shipmasters, bulletins based on 
the reports from twenty-eight regular 
weather bureau stations in this coun- 
try and Canada, and reports from 
seven aerological stations, together 
with a general weather synopsis and 
wind and weather forecasts, will be 
broadcast twice daily." 



ARTISTIC 

VARIOMETER 

PARTS 

Manufacturers of Variometer Parts in 

GENUINE MAHOGANY 

We are selllnir the.se parts in complete sets 
— each set consisting of 4 Stators, 2 Rotors 
and 1 Variocoupler. Prices on the above 
in 100 sets or more, also on separate parts, 
will be sent upon request. 

Artistic Wood Turning Works 

517 No. Halsted St., Chicago, Illinois 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



29 



"Fading" Explained 

Radio fans are advised to spend 
the coming summer at the seashore 
if they would obtain the best re- 
sults. And even there the radio wave 
sometimes will refuse to work, just 
like a prima donna. "Fading" is to 
blame. 

Down by the sea this phenomenon 
is not as disturbing as it is inland. 
But, any place, "fading" is most ap- 
parent at night. The Bureau of 
Standards recently completed an in- 
vestigation of "fading," and describes 
it as "the rapid variation of intensity 
of the signals received from a given 
transmitting station." 

Every radio fan has experienced 
the nuisance. At first he thought his 
set as simple to operate as a pho- 
nograph, until he tried to listen-in on 
his favorite pastor, and failed. Then 
he realized that the radiophone is as 
finicky as a limousine. But the set 
was all right. The fan simply did 
not known that "fading" may be vio- 
lently apparent to some receiving 
stations and not so apparent to oth- 
ers at the same time, all depending 
upon the distance over which the 
radio signal must travel, the time of 
day and a few other highly scientific 
things. 

Three kinds of "fading" are com- 
mon, according to Bellinger and 
Whittemore, the bureau experts who 
conducted the investigation : 1. Fad- 
ing, or swinging, lasting one second 
or less. 2. One minute ; and 3, in 
spells of one hour. 

The cause of "fading" is hardly 
known. Experts do know that the 
troubles lies between the earth's sur- 
face and the "heaviside surface" — the 
roof of the earth's atmosphere about 
six miles in the air. But the trouble 
is caused by something that exists 
either below the ground or above the 
earth's atmosphere. 

During the day, radio waves have 
a habit of traveling close to the 
ground. During the night, especially 
at great distances, they travel along 
the "heaviside surface" — six miles in 
the air. But these two extremes do 
not remove the nuisance of "fading." 
Day waves are absorbed by the earth 
and therefore fade in spells of a sec- 
ond, a minute or an hour. Night 
waves are absorbed by varying con- 
ditions in the uppermost level of the 
atmosphere, and this is even worse. 

Commercial radio stations are not 
bothered with fading to the same 
degree as the amateur. Most ama- 
teurs do their receiving at night, 
when fading is at its worst. But, it 
is pointed out, the commercial radio 
man now finds himself obliged to in- 
vestigate this disturbance because it 



is interfering with the success of his 
broadcasting. And broadcasting is 
the attractive feature of radio, the 
feature largely responsible for the 
sets in 1,000,000 American homes. 



Nations Discuss Radio 

RADIO has reached the stage of in- 
ternational conferences. Repre- 
sentatives of the United States have 
been meeting with delegates of Eng- 
land, France and Germany in an at- 
tempt to standardize world-wide 
traffic in wireless communication. 
The conference has temporarily ad- 
journed, but the conferees, who rep- 
resent the Radio Corporation of 
America, the British Marconi Com- 
pany, Telefunken Company of Ger- 
many and Radio-France of France, 
will meet in another session in Lon- 
don about the 24th of this month. 

The sessions of the last meeting, 
which lasted for five days, and was 
held in Paris, were secret. It is un- 
derstood, however, that the discus- 
sion turned chiefly about the matter 
of regulating the wave lengths to be 
used by different countries in inter- 
national communication, in order to 
avoid interference. Other matters 
discussed were the advisability of 
licensing American as well as Euro- 
pean radio operators, methods of 
lowering the cost of radio apparatus 
sufficiently to make it possible to 
bring it within the reach of every 
home. 

Another conference of experts will 
meet in Berlin in June, it is said, to 
present complete findings of a group 
of engineers who have been studying 
conditions in South America with a 
mind to the standardization of tech- 
nical apparatus, the conservation of 
wave channels, and point control of 
stations by the four principal coun- 
tries of the world. A preliminary re- 
port of the findings of these experts 
was made at the Paris conference, 
and it is expected that the final ver- 
sion will be ready for presentation 
by June. 

Edward J. Nally, president of the 
Radio Corporation of America, de- 
clined to disclose the results of the 
conference, but admitted that Ger- 
many, France and England were 
sending experts to the United States 
to study distribution methods here. 



For the Beginner 

The most practical and clearest ar- 
ticle on how to make a simple receiv- 
ing set is the one issued by the Bu- 
reau of Standards and published in 
Radio Age last month. Back copies 
available for those who missed it. 
Send 25 cents in stamps to Radio 
Age, Garrick Building, Chicago. 



Variable 
Condensers 




43 PLATE 



The Choice of Experts 

UNITED 

RADIO PARTS 

AND 

APPARATUS 

To Jobbers and 
Manufacturers Only 

UNITED MFG. & DISTRIBUTING CO. 

FACTORY: 536 Lake Shore Drive, CHICAGO 
PHONE: SUPERIOR 8433 



30 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



Radio Life Saving 

Commander W. E. Reynolds, chief 
of the Coast Guard Service, says 
perfection of the radio in life saving 
and in preventing ship disasters at 
sea is one of the wonders of the age. 



Let Us Pay You for Your 
Spare Hours — 

There are thousands of subscriptions 
for Radio publications taken every day. 

RADIO AGE 

"The Magazine of the Hour," is plac- 
ing representatives in every commu- 
nity throughout the country. Why not 
turn your spare hours into dollars. 
Experience Is not necessary. We show 
you how. Clip this ad and mail it 
today. 

RADIO AGE 

64 Ai'EST KANDOLPH STREET, CHICAGO 



How to Make a Home Radio Set 

To cost from $6.00 to $20.00. Contains complete Instruc- 
tions for the construction of a practical home receiving 
station at small cost. 



The book every boy wants. 
THE UNIVERSAL PRESS 

AGENTS WANTED 



Price 50c post paid. 
McCIurg Building, Chkaga 



For reliable and up-to-date information on 
radio read 

RADIO AGE 

For prompt and efficient service place your 
order with representatives of the Periodical 
Sales Co., whose authority and responsibility 
is assured by credentials in their possession 
bearing the registered trade-mark of the 
Periodical Sales Co., facsimile of which is 
reproduced hereon. 

PERIODICAL SALES CO., Inc. 

538 South Dearborn Street. Chicago, Illinois 



Branch Offices 
PHILADELPHIA 
MINNEAPOLIS 
INDIANAPOLIS 
DENVER 
NEW YORK 
BUFFALO 
LOS ANGELES 




Branch Officos 

MILWAUKEE 

DETROIT 

CLEVELA.»a) 

BOSTON 

NEW OKIJEANS 

TORONTO 

CANADA 



Fire Escape Aerial 

A reader of the New York Globe 
has found a way to fool the landlord. 
He writes : 

One point I would like to bring out 
here — for the benefit of your many 
readers — a point that will interest 
most every radio enthusiast who re- 
sides in an apartment house and has 
been unable to erect an aerial for re- 
ceiving purposes, and that is that the 
average fire escape makes an excellent 
aerial for receiving purposes when a 
regenerative set is used. Dandy re- 
sults were obtained with a crystal. 

I have tried out my set on two dif- 
ferent fire escapes here in the upper 
part of the Bronx and received the 
broadcasting splendidly in each case. 

Just clean a portion of one of the 
bars on the fire escape and attach the 
aerial wire — make the ground on the 
radiator or cold-water pipe. 

I read a few days ago where a fel- 
low wanted to sell, at a loss, a good 
regenerative set because his landlord 
would not permit him to erect an 
aerial. 

Why worry about the landlord, fel- 
lows? Get busy with the fire escape, 
and when you are through using it 
at night just unhook the aerial wire 
and take it into the house. 



Why Laws Are Needed 

Interference with unscheduled ra- 
dio transmission while the regular 
broadcasting programs are being 
sent out, seriously interferes — not 
with the broadcasting station — but 
with the radio public, the receivers. 
Here is a typical complaint, received 



by Municipal station WBU from S. 
Anderson, 2329 Kimball avenue : "I 
appreciate very much the broadcast- 
ing of lectures by station WBU, but 
1 must tell you that some nights I 
cannot understand one word of the 
lecture due to interference by other 
stations. While I am writing this 
card I am trying to get what the 
doctor is saying, but right now I hear 
two stations. Since I am unable to 
read the code I cannot report who 
they are, but the only remedy I have 
to suggest is to change your wave 
length. It is now ten minutes after 
9 and the only part of your broad- 
casting I have heard was the station 
announcement." 



Government Publications 

The Superintendent of Documents, 
Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington, D. C., issues three pamphlets 
of especial interest to the new station 
owner — (a) "Amateur Radio Sta- 
tions of the United States," complete 
listings of all licensed amateur sta- 
tions, giving owners' names, ad- 
dresses and call letters, (b) "Com- 
mercial and Government Radio Sta- 
tions of the United States," complete 
listing of American ship, shore and 
land stations, (c) "Radio Communi- 
cation Laws of the United States," 
explains how radio stations may be 
licensed, and gives other information. 
Pamphlets are 15c each (remit cur- 
rency, not stamps), and are mailed 
postpaid. For those interested in the 
technical side of radio, the Govern- 
ment issues "The Principles Under- 
lying Radio Communications," 55c 
currency. 



you can't build a watch with a monkey wrench 

To build a good radio set you need the right tools 




A radiophone, like a watch, is 
a delicate instrument, which 
might easily be ruined with 
clumsy, unadaptable tools. 

The Radio Tool Kit is a selec- 
tion of necessary instruments, 
chosen by a well-known radio 
authority as essential in the con- 
struction of any radio equipment. 
Every tool in the kit is guaran- 
teed to be of the finest workman- 
ship and of carefully selected 
materials. 

It is composed of a pair of long 
nose plyers, for delicate construc- 
tion work; a pair of blunt nosed 
plyers and wire cutters, for wir- 
ing purposes; a radio wrench of 
highest quality, yet small enough 



for use in practically any place 
it might be required; one large 
screw driver, heavy enough for 
any work required, and one small 
screw driver for brass screws. 

The set will be mailed for $3.50 
to any place in the United States. 
Either send a post office money 
order with your order, or fill out 
the following coupon and it will 
be mailed, C. O. D., parcel post. 



Radio Tool Kit Co. 

41 1 South Sangamon St., Chicago, III. 

Please send me, C O. D., the Radio 
Tool Kit. as represented in this advertise- 
ment, for which I agree to pay $.3.50 on 
delivery. 

Name 



Address. 



(RA) 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 31 



cANNOUNCING 

The Annual 

National Radio Exposition 



To Be Held in the 



LEITER BUILDING 

In the Heart of the Loop Shopping District 

Chicago, June 26th to July Ist 



INCLUSIVE 



The Most Comprehensive Exhibit 



OF 



Every Type of Wireless 
Apparatus Ever Shown 

Such Rapid Strides Have Been Made in the 
Perfection of Wireless Devices That Every 
Exhibit in the Big Exposition Building Will 
Display Something New and Interesting to the 
Radio Fans. 

For Further Particulars Address 

NATIONAL RADIO EXPOSITION 

417 South Dearborn Street, Chieag^o, Illinois 



32 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Lighthouse Concerts 

RADIOPHONE concerts for the 
lighthouse keeper — holder of 
the world's solitary confinement 
record — are seen by government offi- 
cials as the latest possibility of the new 
art in conjunction with radio fog sig- 
nal stations now in course of construc- 
tion. 

Already several lightships have 
turned their wireless telegraph out- 
fits to good use through the long eve- 
nings, and enthusiastic reports have 
reached Lighthouse Commissioner 
Putnam from lightship captains who 
listen-in regularly on concerts from 
Pittsburgh from their anchorage off 
the Middle Atlantic Coast. 

As yet, probably not more than a 
score of the 16,000 lighthouse keep- 
ers have installed radio receiving sets, 
but the opening of the San Francisco 
light vessel fog-signal service May i 
is expected to mark the beginning of 
the "radioizing" of Pacific Coast light- 
houses and ships, just as the three 
signal stations in the vicinity of New 
York, now in operation a year, marked 
the "radioizing" of the Atlantic coast 
beacons. 

Scheme Entirely Possible 

Wherever there are radio telegraph 
outfits, radiophones are possible, and, 
according to Commissioner Putnam, 
"the Lighthouse Service purposes, as 
means are available and needs are de- 
veloped, to install similar groups or 
single radio fog-signal stations in the 
vicinity of important entrances on the 
Atlantic and Pacific coasts and on the 
Great Lakes, as well as on some of the 
principal intermediate capes and light 
vessels." 

Lighthouse officials say they can 
readily see the introduction of radio- 
phone receiving sets in many an iso- 
lated station, but the concerts made 



available to the keepers must be of 
the highest character, because "light- 
house keepers are usually old men of 
the sea, delighted with the security of 
their present station.5, given to think- 
ing serious thoughts, and very often 
highly educated through the slow pro- 
cess of years. 

"The keeper of Tillamook Rock sta- 
tion, fifteen miles ofif the Oregon coast, 
on rocks so steep and in a sea so heavy 
that he must come and go by means of 
a basket swung far out from the ledge ; 
and the keeper of Minot's Ledge, 
standing alone in the heavy sea, off 
the Massachusetts coast — on duty 
eight months of the year and off four 
months ; and those keepers up in Alas- 
ka on duty three years running out 
of every four, would certainly enjoy 
sermons or concerts by radio. 

Will Warn Vessels 
"The proposed radio fog-signal 
service would operate in connection 
with the radio compass on ships at 
sea. By this means ships in heavy fog 
are accurately warned of the approach 
of other vessels. Fixed stations along 
the coast send certain fixed radio sig- 
nals, such as a series of double dashes 
for 30 seconds and silent 30 seconds, 
as in the case of the San Francisco 
service about to be opened. By means 
of a chart, the captain of a fog-bound 
vessel is able to locate the source of 
these signals and thereby get his bear- 
ings. 

As this service develops, all radio 
stations used therein will be built by 
the government and will be conse- 
quently powerful — using the long dis- 
tance 1,000-meter wave length. Such 
stations would be able to receive con- 
certs from a great distance. But the 
isolated lighthouse keeper, for the 
present at least, will have to rig up 
his own set out of his own pocket. 



GET IN on This Special Short Term Subscription Oiler 

RADIO AGE 

Five Months For A Dollar 

Brimful of everything the Radio fan should know. Each issue a liberal 
• education. Surely you will want the coming five numbers of RADIO 
AGE. _ It's 25 cents on the newsstands — $2.50 a year by subscription. 
Just pin a dollar (currency, check or money order) to this blank — mail 
today and we'll enter you for a five months' subscription — really ONE 
NUMBER FREE. Come on in. 



RADIO AGE, Circulation Department, 64 West Randolph Street, CHICAGO 



NAME STREET. 

CITY STATE. . . 



Steinmetz's Views 

Two startling announcements — 
for those who could understand him 
— were contained in a lecture by Dr. 
Charles P. Steinmetz, electric sci- 
entist, delivered from a broadcast- 
ing station in New York recently. 

They were : First, that radio 
waves and light are the same thing; 
second, that the theory of "ether" 
must be abandoned as unsound and 
unreasonable. 

The only difference between radio 
and light, Dr. Steinmetz declared, is 
in the wave length. The wave over 
which he spoke to wireless fans, he 
explained, had a length of 360 me- 
ters. The wave length of a beam of 
light is only one twenty-thousandth 
of a centimeter. The wave length of 
the X-ray is 100 times shorter and, 
on the other hand, the electro- 
magnetic wave of long-distance 
transmission lines has a length of 
5,500,000 meters. 

"A radio wave passes through a 
brick wall," he said, "because the 
thickness of the wall is only a small 
fraction of the wave length, while 
a light wave is stopped by a thin 
sheet of metal because the thickness 
of even the thinnest sheet of metal is 
many times the wave length of a 
light wave." 

Passing on to the question of ether, 
Dr. Steinmetz declared that "the be- 
lief in ether must be abandoned as 
being contradicted by Einstein's 
Theory of Relativity, which is now 
receiving general acceptance." 

"For a long time we have be- 
lieved," he said, "that light is a wave 
motion of some hypothetical thing, 
called the ether. This theory never 
was satisfactory, because it required 
that the ether must be so extremely 
thin that the earth and all bodies 
move through it with terrific speed — • 
100,000 feet a second — without any 
trace of friction. And at the same 
time the ether must be a solid body 
of high rigidity. This is unreason- 
able." 

Dr. Steinmetz explained the pro- 
duction of electro-magnetic waves 
which, "if they alternate about a 
million times a second are radio 
waves, and which, if they alternate 
nearly a hundred million of million 
times a second, form a beam of light. 

"There is no such thing as the 
ether," he concluded, "and if in an at- 
tempt to be progressive we talk about 
ether waves and ether telegraphy, we 
are just the opposite — behind time." 



==iFi i i m i nr i n n i nf= i nr ==i fnr=nn i i m r: i Pi f= i m r i n r^==i n i i m r^ 

A Showmen*s Show in an Exposition Palace! 

First Big Show in the Chicago-Northwest Field! 

Will Operate Its Own Broadcasting Station for Exhibitors! 

wisconsin 
Radio Show 

AND ELECTRICAL EXPOSITION 

Auditorium, Milwaukee, Wis. 

June 21st to 25th, Inc. 

In Same Building on Same Dates ^1 

State Convention American Radio Relay League 

Exhibitors Attention! 

Milwaukee has just opened its first broadcasting station. 
Marquette University (Milwaukee) is set to go, and new^spaper 
publishers are galloping about the East trying to buy broadcast- 
ing equipment. 

In Wisconsin, one of the most prosperous states in the U. S., 
there are but 2,000 receiving sets! Michigan, 80 miles across 
the Lake, has 60,000! 

By Shov/ dates (June 21 to 25) Wisconsin w^ill be at Radio 
Fever Heat. The local trade has been ultra-conservative, w^ith 
the public clamoring for more sets and more radio information. 

Who is to get the cream of the 
radio business in this great state? 

The answ^er is w^ritten in the list of exhibitors w^ho have 
signed for the Wisconsin Radio Show^. If you are not in, w^ire 
for space and prices. 

Our ow^n broadcasting station in continuous operation 
assures every exhibitor opportunity for continuous demonstra- 
tions right in his booth. No magnavox annoyance. They must 
operate on schedule and for limited periods. Oceans of pub- 
licity, and guest tickets for your buyers. 

WISCONSIN RADIO SHOW 

Executive Headquarters, Plankington Hotel, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

SPEARMAN LEWIS A. L. BARBOUR A. R. SHAFFER 

Managingr Director Secretary Treasurer t 

=iFi r===i n i n n i i n i i n r i n r i iTip:=in i r n i i Fi r i n i= i n i i n r^=^=i Fi i = 



Good Morning, Postman! 

Mail from Montreal and mail from Amarillo, Texas. 
Letters from boys asking about crystal detectors, and 
delicately scented and tinted missives from matrons ask- 
ing where they may buy radio receiving sets placed in 
good-looking cabinets for their comfy living rooms. 

Letters from manufacturers asking where they can get 
bakelite. Letters from dealers asking for names of job- 
bers. Letters from amateur radio operators asking about 
new broadcasting stations and their call signals. 

Letters from everybody about anything. All because 
Radio Age has been judiciously distributed over a care- 
fully selected radio field. And because Radio Age is a 
quality magazine, costing 25 cents on the news stands. 
People do not buy a radio magazine at 25 cents unless 
they mean business. 

Circulation is doubled on this June number. If so many 
hundreds of radio students and radio wise folk have taken 
what appears to be a permanent interest in Radio Age 
why shouldn't you give it a little serious attention, 
whether it is an instructive radio publication or simply 
an advertising medium you are after? 

Just tell our postman. 

RADIO AGE 

The Magazine of the Hour 
Garrick Building, Chicago 



^ i vi vs vi M vj^.fvjvjVsffvjsjrsrsr^rT^;?^^ 




JULY- AUGUST, 1922 



25c A COPY 




Radio Students at Culver Academy 




i 



Introducing Mr. Pearne: 

The portrait herewith is 
that of Frank D. Pearne, 
chief instructor in elec- 
tricity at Lane Technical 
High School, Chicago. 

Mr. Pearne is technical 
editor of Radio Age, and in 
that capacity he writes our 
leading technical article 
each month. 

Also he answers all the 
questions the radio fans can 
ask, as a feature of the serv- 
ice department of Radio 
Age. 



^^n 



RADIO AGE 




If You Like Good News 


The Magazine of the Hour 




Read This Column 

PUBLICATION was retarded this 
JL month for the dual purpose of 
carrying through the absorption of 






Volume I Number ? 










the entire subscription list of the Na- 


CONTENTS 




tional Radio Magazine, which has 




PAGE 


suspended publication, and rearrang- 


Frontispiece — Talks to 27,000 by Radio 


2 


ing the publication schedule. Here- 


How Radio Sent Photograph Across the Atlantic in Forty 




after advertising forms will close on 


Minutes 


. . . 3 


the 19th of the month preceding date 
of publication. 


By Arthur Benington 
Super-regenerative Secret Revealed 


•■• 5 


The City of Chicago in Radio 


.. 7 


July and August numbers are 


Celebrities to Be at Pageant of Progress 

Woman's Part in Radio 

By Elizabeth Bergner 


. . 10 


combined in this issue but neither 
subscribers n,^r advertisers will suf- 
fer thereby as contracts have been 


Application of the Vacuum Tube in Radio Circuits and Apparatus 11 
By Frank D. Pearne 


advanced one mci'.lh to provide an 
additional number to subscribers, 


Radio Equipment at KDKA , 

Radio Progress Throughout the World 


... 13 

... 16 ^ ' ''- 


and a corresponding adjustment for 
advertisers. 


Thought Waves from the feditorial Tower 


... 17 


.i&. Readers will observe that in this 
Issue we announce the inauguration 
of RADIO INSTITUTE. Electrical 


Questions and Answers 


. .i8-ig 


The Development of Radio Broadcasting 


_ 21 


Marconi Describes Radio Searchlight 23 

How Uncle Sam Broadcasts Market, Crop and Weather Reports 25 
Radio from Coast to Coast 27 


experts will test Radio goods sub-r 
mitted to this institute, thereby sup- 
plying a valuable free service bureau 
to manufacturers and assuring- read- 


Featured in the Radio Shops 


. . 20 


ers that Radio products advertised 
in this publication are merit prod- 










ucts. 

If readers are not taking advantage 
of our free information service they 


Radio Age is published monthly by 
RADIO AGE, INC. 




Garrick Building, Chicago, 111. 




are missing the facilities supplied by 


Frederick Smith, Editor 




an office staff and by thorough radio 


Frank D. Pearne, Technical Editor 




experts. RADIO AGE welcomes 


M. B. Smith, Business Manager 




inquiries from manufacturers, dealers 


Advertising Managers : 
YOUNG & WARD 




and readers on any subject relating 
to Radio construction, operation or 


308 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, III. 




Radio trade. 


Eastern Representative: 
GEO. W. STEARNS 

Flatiron Building, New York City, N. Y. 




Lack of space prevents publica- 
tion of the promised article by the 
man who made his own receiving set 


Advertising Forms Close on 19th of the Month 




but the story of his adventures will 


Preceding Date of Issue. 

Issued monthly. Vol.1, No. 3. Publication Office: Garrick Building, f 
Randolph Street, Chicago. Subscription price $2.50 a year. Entered as 
class matter April 8, 1922, at the postoffice at Chicago, 111., under the 
March 3, 1879. 


)4 West 
second- 
Act of 


appear later. 

If RADIO AGE covers the news 
field this month tell your friends, if 
not, please tell our editor. 


Registration of Title Applied for in U. S. Patent Office. 




Copyright, 1922, by RADIO AGE. Inc. 







RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Who Said Radio's a Fad? 




E\'EN the advanced students of radio, the "hard- 
( boiled," who can understand super-regeneration 
and all that bally high-brow stuff, got a real kick out 
of the demonstration several weeks ago in the court- 
yard of the Western Electric Company, at Haw- 
thorne, Chicago. Charles G. Du Bois, president of 
the company, made an address to 27,000 employes 
who were assembled in the court yard of the Chicago 



plant. Mr. Du Bois was talking in New York, 1,000 
miles distant, but his words were heard with perfect 
distinctness by the entire throng and by others who 
took up positions hundreds of feet away from the 
loud-speakers, that were set up especially for the 
occasion. 

It was one of the most impressive demonstrations 
of radio possibilities. Read the details on another 
page. 



uui II Mil l 1 1 1 M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 III i i-i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M I I M I n 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II ij 1 1 1 1 1| t '« ' '''''''■■'''''''''''''''' II 1 1 1 i iii I nin 111 I iM III i : 




M.B.^MITH 



RADIO JIGE 

Tfie Ma^a^ine of lft€ Hour 



PUBLISHED -MONTHLY GAFlRiCK BL.D G CHfiO. x^^ '"^-^ E^U H OR, 




=dJl 



I I I M I IJ I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I H 1 I I I I I I I I I I U I I I I I I I I I I M I I 1 I I I I I I I I M I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I 1 I I I I I 1 I i 1 t I I 1 1 I I I I I U . J 1 I If r^ L-lTi, I iH' I 



How Radio Photograph Crossed the 
Atlantic in 40 Minutes 

Arthur Korn's Achievement Is One of the Recent Amazing Developments of Wireless 

By ARTHUR BENINGTON 



THE World offers evidence of 
an extraordinary feat of mod- 
ern science — the transmission 
by wireless telegraphy of a photo- 
graph from Rome, Italy, to Bar Har- 
bor, Me., and its reproduction in New 
York. 

The process by which this 
"miracle" was performed is the in- 
vention of Dr. Arthur Korn, pro- 
fessor of electro-physics at the Berlin 
High School of Technology. 

When this photograph was "filed"' 
at Rome no one in America had ever 
seen it. Forty minutes later it had 
been picked out of the ether on the 
Maine coast by Chief Radioman Ed- 
mund H. Hansen, U. S. N. From 
Bar Harbor to New York it had to 
be transmitted by mail, but from 
Rome to New York less than twenty- 
four hours elapsed. 

The result of the experiment is far 
from perfect, but it points the way to 
an achievement that seems now to be 
in the near future. Over shorter dis- 
tances and under more favorable 
conditions pictures have been trans- 
mitted and reproduced with surpris- 
ing clarity of detail. The picture 
published herewith is evidence that 
the basic method is sound. The code 
message for the picture was sent 
from Rome to Nauven, Germany, 
and thence to Bar Harbor. 

At Work Since 1900 

Prof. Korn began working on his 
process in 1900. 

Now Dr. Korn has developed for 
commercial use three distinct meth- 
ods for the transmission of photo- 
graphs. Two of these are for use 
over ordinary telegraph lines and one 
for use with Radio. 

The first public demonstration of 
the Korn method of transmitting 



The New York World permits 
Radio Age to republish its de scrip' 
tion of the method by which a 
photograph was transmitted from 
Rome, Italy, to Bar Harbor, Maine. 
A reproduction of the photograph 
as received by radio in Bar Harbor 
is reprinted on this page. 




|^^^&2k; : •■•!!ljj:.;: 







:»:::;»E^::; 



Reproduction of photograph sent from 

Rome, Italy, to Bar Harbor, Maine, by 

Radio 



photographs through the air took 
place a few months ago in Rome, 
where in the presence of the King 
and Queen of Italy, a photograph 
was radioed to Berlin, where it was 
reproduced in a newspaper and ac- 
tually on sale in the streets just one 
hour after the picture had been 
handed to the operator in Rome. 

The sending apparatus, as it exists 
now, is an exceedingly complex and 
bulky machine, built in Dr. Korn's 
3 



laboratory for experimental pur- 
poses. The receiving machine is 
simple and portable, however. With- 
out entering into a minute technical 
description of the process, the prin- 
ciples of it will easily be understood 
from the following: 

How the Machine Works 

If you look through a strong mag- 
nifying glass at a halftone picture 
in a newspaper or magazine you will 
observe it to be made up of a multi- 
plicity of tiny dots, the very light 
parts being of small dots widely 
spaced, the very dark spots of larger 
dots close together. Prof. Korn, on 
analyzing photographs and half- 
tones, realized that for practical pur- 
poses all the values of light and 
shade could be reproduced with from 
15 to 20 sizes of dots. 

Suppose, for example, we take sev- 
enteen different sizes of dots and 
give to each a letter, say A for the 
Smallest and P for the largest, the 
intermediate letters being for the in- 
termediate shades. Now, if we can 
construct an apparatus which will 
automatically translate these seven- 
teen values into seventeen corre- 
sponding letters and print these let- 
ters on a tape, we have a code which 
can be sent by wire or wireless to 
any place in the world, and if we 
have a typewriter that prints, instead 
of the letters indicated on the keys, 
the large or small dots which corre- 
spond to those letters, we can decode 
or translate that telegraphic or radio- 
graphic message into a half-tone pic- 
ture. 

This is just what Prof. Korn did. 

As has been said, the machine 
which does the coding is quite com- 
plex. In making a halftone picture 
direct from a photograph, a wire 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



screen with larger or smaller mesh, 
according to the fineness of the half- 
tone desired, is placed over the face 
of the picture and a negative photo- 
graph is taken through the screen, 
thus producing the dots. 

Light Turns the Trick 

The Korn apparatus uses no screen, 
but a point of brilliant light traveling 
over the photograph, being cut on and 
oflE rhythmically by a commutator in such 
a Vfay that it strikes the picture at accu- 
rately spaced points, working very much 
like the light of a moving picture ma- 
chine. An ordinary cabinet size photo- 
graph receives the light at about 1,000 
points. 

The light passing through the nega- 
tive falls upon a selenium cell, the quan- 
tity passing through depending on the 
darkness or lightness of the spot through 
which it passes. Selenium is a mineral 
crystal endowed with the peculiar property 
of passing an electric current only when 
exposed to light and of changing its elec- 
tric resistance according to the degree of 
light that reaches it. 

Prof. Korn makes use of selenium by 
placing a cell of it in the transparent cylin- 
der on which the negative is coiled, and 
as the latter slowly revolves the light that 
passes through the negative falls on the 
selenium, a current of electricity from a 
battery passes through the selenium, and 
its resistance is varied by the values of 
the light. 

Each variation of resistance — of which 
in this case there would be seventeen — 
controls a key which drops to print a 
letter on a tape the instant it is actuated 
by the electric current. The mechanism 
by which the present Korn machine does 
this is too complex to describe here; suffice 
to say that it prints the letter which cor- 
responds to the particular shade of the 
photograph. 

"Words" Transmit Pictures 

In "coding" a picture we get about 1,000 
letters. These are grouped by spacing 
into about 300 "words" which are sent by 
Radio (or by telegraph) to any place. 
They are received by an ordinary tele- 
graph or Radio operator or by an auto- 
matic telegraphic receiving apparatus. 

To decode or turn this word message 
back into a picture a Korn decoding in- 
strument is necessary. This is a form of 
typewriter into which a sheet of paper 
about twelve by fifteen inches in size is 
placed. With the printed message before 
him the operator copies it on the keys; 
these, however, do not print letters, but 
dots of the sizes and shapes corresponding 
to the letters. As the code allows for 
the blank spaces between the dots the re- 
sult is a very much enlarged half-tone of 
the original photograph, and this needs 
only to be photographed down to the size 
wanted by the paper; the smaller it is the 
finer the half-tone. This decoding instru- 
ment may be attached to an automatic 
telegraph receiving machine in _ such a 
way that the code letters are entirely cut 
out and the telegraph machine prints the 
dots directly. 

There are at present only two sets of 
Dr. Korn's apparatus in existence; one of 
these . is in Germany, the sending ma- 
chine, and the other is at Dr. Korn's lab- 
oratory at Centocelle, near Rome, and the 
receiving or decoding instrument is in 
America. 

Governments Aided in Test 

Through the courtesy of the Italian 
Ministry of Marine and the American 
Navy Department The World was able 




Pittsburgh's "Radio Day" 

By C. E. URBAN 
Radio Editor, Pittsburgh Gazette 



R 



Station WBU is of a temporary 
construction, and was constructed 
for experimental work to determine 
features and characteristics required 
for a permanent installation. It is 
located on the roof of the City Hall, 
which is 200 feet above street level. 
The steel tower supporting the anten- 
nae is 70 feet high, making a total 
height of 270 feet above street level. 
Two six wire antennae are used, re- 
spectively 75 feet and 160 feet long, 
each consisting of six wires com- 
posed of phosphor bronze 7-strand 
No. 18 B. & S. gauge wire. The 
transmitter is a modified De Forest 
OT-201 transmitter rated at 1 K.W., 
having special grid modulation sys- 
tem. 



to obtain this unique picture. As related 
in The World in May, Commendatore 
Pascale sent a photograph of the king of 
Italy from Rome as one of the tests made 
by the navy, but the navy gave no pub- 
licity to this, and had it not been for the 
vigilance of Beatrice Baskerville, The 
World's staff correspondent at Rome, the 
American press might never have known 
of it. 

The World thereupon asked the Navy 
Department to permit the use of the Korn 
receiving machine at Bar Harbor for the 
reception of a picture by Radio from 
Rome. The department replied that as 
the instrument was the property of the 
Italian Ministry of Marine, the consent 
of this latter must first be obtained. After 
a few days of cabling back and forth, the 
Naval Attache of the American Embassy 
in Rome cabled the Navy Department 
that the Italian Ministry consented. 



given by the Radio Engineer- 
ing Society of Pittsburgh to a day 
set aside each year for an outing 
of the radio fans of Pittsburgh and 
vicinity. The idea originated with 
the above society when it held the 
first "Radio Day" in Pittsburgh on 
August 17th, 1919, attended by a 
small group of radio enthusiasts. , 
The annual radio outing of the So- ] 
ciety has since been a regular event 
each year and has met with wide- 
spread popular approval. 

From a small group of "Old 
Timers" in the amateur radio frater- 
nity of this locality who attended the 
first modest gathering, the attend- 
ance at these annual outings of the 
Radio Engineering Society each suc- 
ceeding year has grown to such pro- 
portions that it was deemed neces- 
sary by the Society to arrange for 
the exclusive use of a large amuse- ■ 
ment park this season to accommo- m 
date the crowds it is confidently ex- 
pected will turn out for the occasion. 

The committee in charge of the 
affair is composed of the following 
officers and members of the Radio 
Engineering Society: W. K. 
Thomas, Chairman ; C. E. Urban, 
Secretary; M. Kitsch, Treasurer; 
Dr. Omar T. Cruikshank, Guy Davis, 
W. E. Menges, John B. Coleman, C. 
C. Young, John Schaming and 
Thomas McLean. 

Exhibition by Dealers 

Pittsburgh's "Radio Day" will be 
held August 24th, 1922, at Westview 
Park, which is ideally situated and 
adapted for the purpose. A program 
of events is being planned that is 
literally "Chock-full" of Novelty, 
Pep, and Entertainment. Many new 
and interesting radio contests are 
being scheduled with prices for the 
winners that will cause a scramble 
of applicants to participate. 

The prizes will be donated by the 
various local radio dealers and manu- 
facturers who will stage an exhibi- 
tion of the latest developments in 
radio appliances covering three hun- J 
dred square feet of space in two » 
large Exhibition Halls on the 
grounds. Some of the dealers have 
started a movement to have all radio 
stores in the Pittsburgh district close 
on the day of the outing, and will 
insert placards in their windows 
bearing the inscription: 
"This Store Will Close August 24th, 
'RADIO DAY' 
Meet us in Westview Park" 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Super-Regeneration Secret Revealed 

Major Armstrong Explains How Amazing Amplification of 1,000,000 Times Is Achieved 



A "Super-regenerative" receiver 
so sensitive that no aerial nor 
. even a loop is necessary if the 
set is within twenty miles of a broad- 
casting station is the amazing 
achievement of Major Edward H. 
Armstrong long known to the wire- 
less world as a genius. But the most 
astoundnig feature of Major Arm- 
strong's arrangement is that his de- 
vice will amplify sound one million 
times or more with the use of only 
two vacuum tubes. 

This revolutionary circuit is a 
simple line-up of apparatus that ac- 
complishes the same results hereto- 
fore achieved only by eight vacuum 
tubes hooked up in a bewildering 



for the construction and operation of 
the super-regenerative receiver are 
contained in the following par- 
agraphs. 

It was by the extremely clever 
application of the further effects of 
regeneration that Major Armstrong 
was able to obtain amplification of 
signals from 100,000 to 1,000,000 
times in practice, and in theory be- 
yond that. In describing the under- 
lying principle, Major Armstrong re- 
cently said : 

"I will describe a method of re- 
generation based fundamentally on 
regeneration, but which involves the 
application of a principle and the at- 
tainment of a result which is be- 



the fundamental theory on which 
Armstrong worked. This next step 
he explained as follows : 

"The expedient by which oscilla- 
tions are stopped is known as 'super- 
regeneration.' The trick is to bal- 
ance the feedback against the damp- 
ing of the circuit. When the regene- 
ration overcomes the damping the 
oscillations stop, but the amplifica- 
tion continues. It is then possible 
to continue amplifying by the phe- 
nomenon of regeneration, and there 
is no theoretical limit to the amplifi- 
cation obtainable." 

Three Methods Possible 

In practice there are three ways 
in which this "balancing" feat may 



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7Ick/er''' 






B,-^ 




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dimi ^ f f * 



L ^'^ 




^oop 



Diagram of the super-regenerative circuit designed by Major Armstrong especially for broadcast reception, showmg units and connections: i.L-i-- 
Primary of 150 to 700 meter vario-coupler ; L-3— Tickler coil. Ball of secondary of vario-coupler rewound twice the number of turns: L3— Duolateral 
coil 1,250; L-4— 5 Millihenry choke; L-5— Duolateral coil 1,500; C-i— .001 variable condenser ; C-2— .0025 fixed (or variable) condenser; C-3— .001 variable 
condenser; C-4— .005 phone condenser: C-5— .005 variable condenser; R-i and R-2— 12,000 ohms Lavite iron core resistances; B-i— Biasing battery i to 5 
volts; B-2— Filament battery, 6 volts; B-3— Plate battery, 80 to ioo,volts; B-4— 20 volt block battery; B-5— 100 to 200 volts; H— .1 henry choke with iroa 
core; T — Audio frequency amplifying transformer; Loop — 12 turns of wire on three-foot frame. 



series of inductances, capacities and 
resistances. 

And yet, in spite of this great sen- 
sitivity, it is not too critical in ad- 
justment, and the circuit can be un- 
derstood by the average radio ama- 
teur, says Lloyd Jacquet in the New 
York Evening Mail Radio Review. 
The apparatus needed can be easily 
procured and can be connected in 
the very simple way which Major 
Armstrong shows in his circuit dia- 
grams. 

Armstrong Reveals Secret 

The mystery of the whole circuit 
rests in the correct values for the 
various pieces of apparatus. It is 
very necessary that the right size 
coils, the correct capacities, and the 
proper kind of batteries be used. All 
of this information has now been re- 
leased by Major Armstrong for the 
first time, and the necessary data 



lieved to be new. This new result is 
obtained by the extension of regene- 
ration into a field which lies beyond 
that hitherto considered. The pro- 
cess of amplification is therefore 
termed 'super-regeneration.' " 
To make this clear to the layman : 
Every amateur who has a regene- 
rative receiver knows what happens 
when the knob of the tickler is 
turned too far. There is a distinct 
"squeal" or "howl," which can be 
eliminated after careful tuning. 
While tuning in a signal it is found 
that there is a gradual increase in 
signal strength until a point is 
reached where the strength becomes 
very great. This is the point just be- 
fore the noise begins. If it were 
possible to remove this noise, there 
is no reason to believe that implifica- 
tion could not continue on indefi- 
nitely. This in plain language was 



be accomplished. First, by varying 
the feedback with respect to the 
damping; second, by varying the 
damping with respect to the feed- 
back, and lastly, by varying both to- 
gether with respect to each other. 
The new principle, then, is as fol- 
lows : A very critical regenerative 
circuit is so adjusted that it is re- 
sponsive to infinitely small electrical 
impulses or changes. It will then 
be extremely sensitive to changes 
from a very small negative resistance 
to a very small positive resistance, 
and vice versa. This change is con- 
trolled by the oscillator tube, at 
audio, sub-audio or super-audio fre- 
quencies. The super-regenerative 
receiver passes cyclically from one 
to the other, and while this change 
takes place the regenerative tube 
gives out a series of strong oscilla- 
tions at any desired frequency. 



RADIO AGE— THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



In the first experimental circuits 
set up by Major Armstrong it was 
necessary to use one tube as the re- 
generator, another as an oscillator 
excited by E. M. F. of suitable fre- 
quency. Later experiments permit- 
ted the combination of the two ac- 
tions, with only one tube used to de- 
tect, regenerate and produce the 
necessary oscillations. 

This is not the simplest kind of 
a super-regenerative receiver to be- 
gin with, however, for the adjust- 
ments and controls are rather deli- 
cate and critical. For the radio fan 
who wants to try out the new type 
of receiver Major Armstrong has for 
the first time made public the cor- 
rect values and data for the installa- 
tion of a super-regenerative set suit- 
able for broadcast listening in. 

It will tune up to 700 meters with- 
out any additional loading coils. 

The loop used by Major Arm- 
strong in the demonstration was a 
3-foot loop, wound with twelve turns 
of stranded single-wire lampcord, in 
a flat plane. From seven to twelve 
turns may be used, and bell wire is 
suitable for winding. The loop is 
connected in parallel to the primary 
of an ordinary vario-coupler. A con- 
denser of .001 microfarad is used to 
tune up the loop circuit and is ab- 
solutely necessary. The tickler is 
made from the secondary of the loose 
coupler. The secondary ball is re- 
wound to twice its capacity ; that is, 
tAvice as much wire is placed on 
it. 

Parallel Connection Beat 

This loop may be connected in 
series with the primary of the vario- 
coupler, but it seems to work better 
when in a parallel connection. The 
two coils L-3 and L-5 need not be 
placed in an inductive relation to 
each other. In fact, they can be 
placed anywhere without affecting 
the proper working of the set. The 
two small resistances which form 
part of the filter system are of 12,- 
000 ohms resistance each and made 
of Lavite with iron cores. None of 
these values are critical. The rest 
of the filter system comprises the 
0.1 henry choke and the variable con- 
denser C-5. This choke may have 
a value between 14 and 11/2 henries, 
and its efifect may be controlled by 
the variable condenser C-5. 

The first tube in the circuit is 
made to act as the regenerator, with 
the second tube as the oscillator. 
The third tube is an audio frequency 
amplifier and is connected in the reg- 
ular way. The last tube may be left 
out if desired, but in that case it 
will be difficult for experimenters to 
tune the set, which will be very crit- 
ical in adjustment. (This course is 



not recommended, but if the audio 
frequency amplifier circuit is omitted 
the phones should be connected 
across the .005 fixed condenser at 
C-4.) In constructing the three-tube 
set, hard tubes — that is, amplifier 
tubes — should be used throughout 
the circuit. In actual demonstra- 
tions Western Electric "L" type 
tubes were used by Major Arm- 
strong. Radiotrons U. V. 201 are 
very serviceable for the set, as well 
as any other tube with a high 
vacuum, which will withstand high 
voltages without ionizing. 

Recommends "A" Battery 

One filament battery may be used 
by merely connecting the filaments 
and rheostats in parallel, such as in 
any ordinary amplifier circuit. The 
use of individual A batteries is re- 
commended, however. 

If it is desired to use only one B 
battery, this may be done by con- 
necting the phone lead from the plate 
circuit of the last tube to the 100 
volts on the first tube. Instead of 
using the biasing negative C battery 
in the grid circuit of the first tube, 
the potential from the B battery in 
that circuit may be used by tapping 
it ofif at the convenient point. 

Major Armstrong also gave point- 
ers on the tuning of his super-re- 
generative receiver. First, of course, 
the loop should be pointed in the 
direction from which the signals are 
emanating. Then the loop and pri- 
mary circuits should be tuned to the 
frequency of the incoming wave 
with condenser C-1. This condenser 
is generally set for a value of .004 
microfarad. This part of the circuit 
is the ordinary regenerative receiver, 
and the first tube,, therefore, acts as 
a detector and regenerator. The con- 
denser across the second tube is set 
to the correct value, and once ad- 
justed need never be changed again. 
This value depends upon the kind 
and type of vacuum tube used, so 
that no actual capacity can be given. 
This can only be determined by ex- 
perimenting. The condenser C-5 is 
next adjusted, and its setting need 
not be changed either. These are the 
preliminary adjustments. Once these 
have been made there remain but 
two elements to tune, the loop cir- 
cuit and the feedback. 

The loop circuit is tuned by means 
of the variable condenser C-1, and 
the variation in feedback is obtained 
by moA'ing the coil L-2 nearer to or 
further away from coil L-1. These 
are practically the only remaining 
adjustments to make. 

Not for Novices 

Some difficulty may be experi- 
enced at first in getting the set tuned 
tor a particular station. ."Xfter pa- 



tient adjustment of the controls, this 
will be possible. It must be remem- 
bered that this is not a set for abso- 
lute novices and that some knowl- 
edge of the vacuum tube and its cir- 
cuits is necessary for obtaining any 
sort of results. 

While the possibilities of the 
super-regenerative receiver are un- 
limited, there are certain phases in 
radio receiving which must be con- 
sidered. There is no doubt that the 
new type of receiver has amplifying 
capabilities far beyond that of any 
method employing but two or three 
vacuum tubes. For those who want 
signal strength in preference to dis- 
tance, the super-regenerative re- 
ceiver will serve them best. For 
those who like to cover as much 
distance as possible with their equip- 
ment, the Armstrong super-hetero- 
dyne is still the standard for per- 
formance. 

Amateurs should bear this in mind 
before expending inuch time and 
energy and money on a wild goose 
chase. 

Visit the Radio Club 

The Radio Club of Illinois, of 
which Radio Age had an interesting 
description last month, is now lo- 
cated in a new and attractive home 
at 16 East Ontario street. Chicago. 
The culb is only five minutes' walk 
from the loop district and keeps its 
doors open twenty four hours a day. 
The restaurant is open from 12 
o'clock noon, to 2 o'clock a. m. 

Initiation fees, including a year's 
dues, a lapel button and a year's 
membership are all supplied for $10 
and all the privileges of the club are 
available to all members. 

It is pointed out by Mr. John Tan- 
sey, secretary of the club, that the 
radio rendezvous is a good place for 
visitors to the coming Pageant of 
Progress to meet their f.ellow radio 
fans. Non-resident members to a lim- 
ited number can be accommodated 
with sleeping apartments at $1.50 a 
day. The non-resident membership 
list is limited to 100 and the officers 
of the club suggest that it would be 
well for prospective applications for 
membership to be in as soon as pos- 
sible. 

Peoria Firm Aggressive 

The United States Electrical Sup- 
ply Co. (Incorporated) of Peoria, 111., 
has sent out 100,000 radio sheets 
to individuals and companies in 
fifteen states. The electrical and 
telephone supplies, including a large 
number of radio specialties are illus- 
trated and (lescri]>ed on a large 
folded sheet which is ef|ui\'alent to 
a catalogue containing 250 pages. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



The City of Chicago in Radio 



THE City of Chicago has for its 
motto "I WILL," and it is this 
spirit that prevails in the pio- 
neer work that the City of Chicago 
is doing to apply radio to its various 
municipal activities. The radio activ- 
ities are under the jurisdiction of Mr. 
George E. Carlson, Commissioner of 
Gas and Electricity, who is an ardent 
radio "fan." Mr. Carlson believes 
that one of the great future uses 
of radio communication will be in 
coordinating the police work of cities 
and other municipalities. Inciden- 
tally, it can be used to coordinate 
other governmental functions, broad- 
cast public addresses, governmental 
information and provide entertain- 
ment. Mr. Carlson says "Chicago 
was a pioneer in electric street light- 
ing and electric fire alarm and police 
signal systems, and it will try to 
maintain its past record in being one 
of the first in radio." 

What is believed to be the first 
municipal radio station in the United 
States was established on the roof 
of the City Hall in Chicago as early 
as June 1921, and operated as an 
e.xperimental station with the call 
letters 9 XAM. A second station 
was installed in the Englewood Fire 
.\larm Office at 64th street and 
W'entworth avenue, with the call let- 
ters 9 XAN, and about eight miles 
distant from the City Hall. Radio- 
telephony communication was car- 
ried on between these two stations 
mainly for the purpose of demon- 
strating to municipal officials and 
heads of city departments interested 
in special applications of radio. De- 
\elopment work was begun to pro- 
vide transmitting and receiving ap- 
paratus for police automobiles, so 
called "bandit cars," and this efifort 
was carried forward to successful 
demonstration. 

Civic Education 

In March of this year, broadcast- 
ing in Chicago had reached a climax, 
and many requests were made by 
citizens and organizations that the 
City of Chicago use its radio station 
to broadcast addresses and talks by 
municipal officials and leading citi- 
zens on subjects of municipal and 
community interest. Accordingly 
on Sunday, March 12th, at 6:30 p. m., 
Commissioner George E. Carlson 
gave the first address from the City 
Hall Radio Station (which now had 
the call letters WBU) on the sub- 
ject "Municipal Radio." At 7:15 p. 
m.. the same evening. Dr. John ?I. 
Williamson. Commissioner of Law 



Enforcement of the City of Chicago, 
on "Crime and the City Council," 
followed. Since this auspicious 
opening, many leading public offi- 
cials and citizens have presented sub- 
jects to the people of Chicago and 
surroundings from station WBU. 
Representative ?peake s and sub- 
jects have been as follows: 

Dr. William J. Hickson, Psycho- 
pathic Laboratory of the City of 
Chicago. " The Cause of Crime." 




George E. Carlson, Engineer of Gas and 
Electricity, Cl.icago. Ardent Radio Fan 

Dr. John Dill Robertson, Presi- 
dent Pageant of Progress Exposition. 
"Invitation to America to attend the 
Pageant of Progress." 

Chief John C. McDonnell, Chicago 
Fire Department. "Fire Preven- 
tion." 

Dr. Herman N. Bundeson, Com- 
missioner of Health, City of Chi- 
cago. "Community Health a Com- 
munity Asset." 

Mr. X^ictor H. Tousley, Chief In- 
spector, Department of Gas and 
Electricity, City of Chicago. "Elec- 
trical Inspection." 

Col. Frank L. Smith, Chairman, 
Illinois Commerce Commission 
"( iood Citizenship." 



Postmaster, Arthur C. Lueder. 
"How You Can Help the Chicago 
Post Office." 

The first woman to give an ad- 
dress from station WBU was Miss 
Elizabeth Cleveland, R. N., Depart- 
ment of Health, City of Chicago. 
"Public Health Nursing." 

Sports have also formed some of 
the features and have included : 

Mr. Frank McNichols. "Semi- 
Professional Baseball." 

Mr. Dan B. Starkey. Editor of 
"Outers Recreation." "Why you 
should make your boy a Fisherman." 

Mr. Frank Pasdeloup, President 
Chicago Bowling Association. 
"Something about Bowling." 

Mr. J. C. Hail, electrical engineer 
in the Department of Gas and Elec- 
tricity, has been placed in charge 
of radio development and operation, 
and the broadcasting programs are 
under his direction. Mr. Edwin K. 
Oxner is associated in the capacity 
of Radio Engineer. 

Other Practical Uses 

Station WBU broadcasts police 
and health bulletins at 10:15 a.m., 
12:45 p.m. and 4:45 p.m., daily ex- 
cept Sundays and holidays. Police 
bulletins include missing persons, 
stolen automobile numbers, and 
other items of police information. 
The health bulletins include con- 
ditions of water supply, milk supply, 
health conditions throughout the 
city, and any other seasonable health 
information or "helps" that may 
benefit the community. Feature 
speakers are broadcasted tri-week- 
ly on Monday, Wednesday and Fri- 
dav of each week, at 3 :30 p.m. and 
;iI?;o at 7:30 ]).m. Wave length is 
360 meters. 

Station 9XB is the experimental 
police automobile "bandit car," and 
on the basis of the results attained to 
date. Commissioner George E. Carl- 
son has requested an appropriation 
of $68,000.00 to provide a continuous 
operating jiolice dispatching station 
suitable for 24-hour service, and 
transmitting and receiving equip- 
ment for eight police automobile 
"liandit cars." The Finance Com- 
mittee of the City Council of the City 
of Chicago has the matter scheduled 
for early consideration. 

The Chicago police radio experi- 
ments have attracted atteniim all 
over the world and many other cities 
ha\e made plans to use wireless as a 
pol'ce aid if the Chicago test rrcves 
it jracticable. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



Addresses 27,000 Across 1,000 Miles 

of Ether 

President of Western Electric Company Telephones to Chicago Employes 



FOR the first time in history the 
president of a great corpora- 
tion has been able, talking from 
his office, to address in person sev- 
eral thousand of his fellow employ- 
ees, 1,000 miles away, at the same 
time and in such a fashion that all 
of them heard distinctly every word 
he uttered. Charles G. DuBois, 
President of the Western Electric 
Company has set the unique example 
that is attracting widespread atten- 
tion among other industrial leaders 
who now see the way cleared for 
more intimate contact with their fel- 
low employees. The day when they 
required several weeks to tour the 
country meeting the scattered per- 
sonnel of their organizations has 
passed. 

In upsetting tradition Mr. DuBois 
spoke from his offices at 195 Broad- 
way, New York City to 27,000 
workers gathered in the courtyard 
of the Western Electric plant in Chi- 
cago. Transmitted into an ordinary 
telephone his greetings were carried 
by long distance telephone over New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, and Indiana to Chicago and 
delivered through amplifiers and a 
loud speaking apparatus erected on 
a platform in the factory precincts 
so that every one within a quarter 
of a mile from the receiving equip- 
ment, listened in without the slight- 
est difficulty. 

The audience was also addressed 
by H. B. Thayer, President of the 
American Telephone and Telegraph 
Company, and F. B. Jewett, Vice 
President of the Western Electric 
Company, talking from New York ; 
and J. C. Nowell, Vice President 
of the Pacific Telephone and Tele- 
graph Company, speaking directly 
from San Francisco, more than 2,000 
miles away. 

Visitors gathered at Chicago for 
the experiment were amazed by the 
clearness of tone and the volume of 
sound obtained in the amplification 
of the addresses. To impress upon 
the audience the power of the loud 
speakers, H. F. Albright, Vice Presi- 
dent of the company introduced one 
of the officials at the factory who 
talked with and without the aid of 
the loud speakers. 

When he addressed the gathering 
without the aid of the equipment he 



I'M t?si>^^^|^^^^^^^^^^^^^H^^^^^^^^H 


HE 


1 




IHh^^b^ ^^h 


kmv' 





Edwin K. Oxner, Radio Engineer, Chi' 
cago Municipal Broadcasting Station 

was heard scarcely twenty feet from 
the stand. Then, as the amplifier 
was switched on, his voice was car- 
ried out over the crowd until it 
reached the most distant corner of 
the plant. 

A remarkable degree of amplifica- 
tion was possible with the apparatus 
installed for the demonstration. As 
a matter of fact the energy delivered 
to the loud-speaking receivers in the 
horns was 18,750,000,000 (1834 bil- 
lion) times that received over the 
long-distance wires, but it was neces- 
sary to use somewhat less than three- 
fourths of this capacity. 

Officers of the Chicago Telephone 
Company who were present at the 
Western Electric demonstration 
were so impressed by its effect upon 
the factory employees that they are 
arranging for a similarly addressed 
meeting of their own personnel at 
Chicago. Description of this 
will be published in a later issue of 
Radio Age. It seems likely that tele- 
phoning in job lots will become a 
popular business feature. 



Mr. Harding's Loud 
Speaker 

ONCE again science has been 
called upon to help President 
Harding put over a message to the 
people. To insure perfect speaking 
conditions for their favorite son dur- 
ing the many festivities of Marion 
Homecoming Week, July 4 to 10, 
when Mr. Harding's neighbors 
turned out in full force to render 
him homage, the business leaders of 
his home town ordered the installa- 
tion of a public address system. The 
equipment was capable of throwing 
the chief executive's voice out over 
an area of 100,000 square feet, or a 
space large enough to accommodate 
about 45,000 listeners. 

When the Marion programme was 
originally planned it was estimated 
that the President would address 
about 25,000 people. Led to recon- 
sider their estimates as a result of 
the enthusiasm manifested by Mr. 
Harding's friends in all the counties 
surrounding Marion, the promoters 
of the homecoming week were 
forced to augment their original 
plans. They instructed the engin- 
eers of the Western Electric Com- 
pany who handled the installation 
of the amplifying apparatus to ar- 
range their equipment in a fashion 
that would permit the extension of 
the system, if necessary, to accom- 
modate a crowd of even larger pro- 
portions. Bell System engineers de- 
monstrated their ability to throw the 
voice over great distances recently 
when a voice, amplified by their me- 
thods, was heard without the aid of 
any receiving apparatus — radio or 
otherwise — at a spot five miles away. 

President Harding, who was the 
first prominent public official in the 
world's history to take advantage of 
the opportunity the loud speaker pre- 
sents to address vast assemblages, 
promises to go down into future age 
as the Stentor of the White House. 
Where the famous old Greek was 
said to be possessed of a voice as 
loud as that of fifty men, Mr. Har- 
ding's vocal efforts have been magni- 
fied billions and billions of times. In 
his inaugural address he was aided 
by the Bell Loud Speaker in reach- 
ing the ears of practically everybody 
in one of the greatest gatherings 
ever seen in Washington. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Radio Celebrities at Pageant Show 

Chicago Convention to Attract Nationally Known Electrical Wizards 



THE fastest radio operators in 
America, if not in the world, 
together with the world's 
greatest experts in the radio devel- 
opment and construction field, are to 
attend the International Radio Con- 
gress, August 6, 7 and 8, held in con- 
nection with Chicago's second an- 
nual international Pageant of Prog- 
ress Exposition on the Municipal 
Pier. 

Maj. J. O. Mauborgne, signal 
offi'cer of the Sixth Army Corps 
Area, located at Chicago, and asso- 
ciated with Maj. -Gen. George O. 
Squier, chief signal officer of the 
United States Army, is president of 
the congress and will preside at the 
main sessions, of which there will be 
five. The details of arrangements 
are in the hands of a committee of 
Chicago radio men, headed by Com- 
missioner George E. Carlson, of the 
department of electricity of the city 
of Chicago, and head of the Chicago 
Municipal Radio station, as chair- 
man. 

Among the noted radio developers 
expected to take part in the con- 
gress are Maj. Gen. Squier, Charles 
P. Steinmets, Senator Guglielmo 
Marconi, Edwin H. Armstrong, in- 
ventor of the regenerative circuit. 
Dr. Louis Coen, F. W. Dunmore, 
and Dr. J. H. Dillinter of the United 
States Bureau of standards, and 
others. 

Race for Operators 

One of the exciting features of 
the congress will be a radio Mara- 
thon for a diamond medal to be held 
Sunday morning, Aug. 6 and partici- 
pated in by the fastest receiving 
operators that can be assembled. The 
rules of the contest as outlined by 
the officials of the congress and by 
Lawrence R. Schmitt, U. S. Radio 
Inspector for the Ninth Radio Dis- 
trict, who will supervise the event, 
include the following: 

The .contest is for reception only 
in the Continental code and the copy 
received will be. straight commercial 
press which will be transcribed on 
regulation Western Union type- 
writers. 

The diamond medal, valued at sev- 
eral hundred dollars, is donated by 
Commissioner Carlson. Applications 
for entry should be addressed to him 
at Room 614, City Hall, Chicago. 
Applicants must give their name, ad- 
dress, business connection, age and 



previous records. The contest will 
be an elimination affair. 

Some records are expected to be 
broken as the set up will be calcu- 
lated to permit the greatest speed. 
Some of the best previous records 
made in the Continental code in- 
clude: 

Fifty-six and one-half '"words a 
minute. Made by L. R. McElroy of 
Boston, at the 71st Regiment Ar- 




/. C. Hail, Electrical Engineer in charge 
of Radio Development and Operation of 
Chicago Municipal Broadcasting Pro- 
grams 

mory Radio show in New York in 
May. This is the fastest work re- 
corded. 

Forty-nine and one-half words a 
minute. Made by Jose Seron of New 
York. 

Forty-eight and three-fifths words 
a minute. Made by B. G. Seutter of 
New York. 

Entry in the contest is open to all 
expert receivers of the Continental 
code and every arrangement is being 
made by Inspector Schmitt for the 
convenience and comfort of the en- 
trants. 

There will be sessions of the Inter- 
national Radio Congress Monday 



morning and afternoon, August 7, 
and also on Tuesday. 

Thirty Nations Represented 

Thirty nations of the world will 
take part in the second annual Chi- 
cago pageant from July 29 to August 
14. There will be three and one-half 
miles of commercial and industrial 
exhibits, making what was conceived 
originally as a distinctly local show 
an international fair that promises 
to rival and possibly surpass the 
great fairs at Prague, Leipsig, and 
Lyons. 

Last year no effort was made to 
give the exposition more than a mid- 
dle west interest but exhibitors 
booked orders from such far points 
as South Africa and Alaska, China 
and Norway, and a dozen other coun- 
tries. This revealed to Mayor Wil- 
liam Hale Thompson, originator of 
the pageant, and Dr. John Dill Rob- 
ertson, president, its possibilities. 
This year they expect the foreign 
trade opened up to merchants and 
manufacturers of America to run 
into the millions of dollars. 

Exhibitors in the first show sub- 
scribed for space in a great measure 
as a civic duty, many doubting that 
the financial returns would justify 
the expenditure of time and money 
necessary to make the displays their 
pride demanded but determined to 
do their utmost to insure success for 
any enterprise undertaken by Chi- 
cago. To the gratification of all they 
found they had erred. Orders poured 
in. Factories which were running on 
part time, plants on the verge of 
closing down completely signed con- 
tracts for their products that assured 
operation for months at capacity. 

This year there was a rush of ex- 
hibitors for space. Ninety per cent 
of those with displays last year re- 
newed their contracts. The remain- 
ing ten per cent of space went in a 
hurry and weeks in advance of the 
opening date not a foot was left. 

Girl Wins Scholarship 

Miss Emily Doser, a shop worker 
at the plant of the Western Electric 
Company at Chicago has been award- 
ed a scholarship at the newly opened 
school at Bryn Mawr College. Miss 
Doser is one of the six Chicago girls 
selected for the ten weeks course. 
She has been an employee of the 
Western Electric Company for about 
a year and a half. 



10 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Woman's Part in Radio 

Address by Miss Elizabeth A. Bergner, Lane Technical High School Instructor, Before 

Exhibitors at Leiter Building Exposition 



I THINK you have all heard of the 
woman in radio who thinks a de- 
tector is some kind of a detective, 
and that an umbrella aerial is the 
kind they use in countries where it 
rains a great deal. Usually you think 
of her as being the woman radio fan 
or operator, but I think you will find 
her mostly in the funny column. T 
think if you have ever talked to a 
woman operator or any woman who 
is at all interested in radio, that you 
have found she is extremely serious 
about the possibilities of radio. She 
is just about as serious, at least, as 
her small brother, and the chances 
are about ten to one she is a great 
deal more serious about radio and its 
possibilities than her grown up 
brothers or friends. She thinks in 
radio terms, she believes in radio, 
she feels the need of radio, and I 
believe that radio also needs her. 

Probably any woman who becomes 
at all interested in radio follows the 
path of the small boy in listening to 
somebody else's sets, perhaps a set 
one of her friends has. You and I 
can understand she is very greatly 
interested, for instance, in the con- 
certs that come over the aerial. The 
chances are her interest is so great 
she very speedily acquires a set of 
her own, probably sooner than the 
boy who is interested in that. From 
that point the interest grows so 
great, her desires to get all she can 
out of it is so great, that I suppose 
she goes on by leaps and bounds, if 
she is to become what we call a radio 
fan. 

Pr()l)al)ly the first idea that a 
woman lias of the possibilities of 
rruh'o. is its use in her home. She is 
interested in bringing her friends in 
to hear the concerts. It appeals to 
her as a source of social communi- 
cation, if you will. She is interested 
in it for herself. She likes the 
programs that come over, she feels 
she can get a great deal out of them. 
Broadcasting stations are sending 
out a great many programs during 
the day for women, anfl for women 
alone. 

I think the selfish element, how- 
ever, of the woman entertaining her- 
self or entertaining her friends, if 
you call that selfish, is not the one 
that appeals the most to a woman. 
And here I think the women can 
understand best when I ask the 
question, "How many ever consider 
the possibility of keeping the boy 



Advance Schedule of 
Radio Shows 

Electrical Exhibit at Pageant of Prog- 
ress, Municipal Pier, Chicago, July 
29-Aug. 14. 

State Fair, Marshall, Mich., Sept. 1-10. 

Toronto Radio Convention — Late in 
summer. 

Cincinnati Radio-Electrical Exposi- 
tion, Oct. 2-7. 

Chicago Radio Show, Coliseum, Oct. 
14-22. 

Chicago-National . Radio Exposition, 
week of Januar\' 15. 



home at nights by giving him even 
the simplest of radio sets to play 
with and work with ?" Yoti have 
probably tried it. If you haven't 
tried it, I advise you to do it. If you 
are up against the problem of keep- 
ing boys in at nights, keeping them 
ofif the streets, just get a radio set or 
one for your home; it is inexpensive, 
and certainly the expense is ab- 
solutely negligible if taken into ac- 
count at all in comparison with the 
good it does to your boy. They tell 
me the same thing- works with hus 
bands, but I cannot speak from 
experience there. 

Gradually, — well, I should say very 
suddenly, you get the desire to find 
out what the dots and dashes are. 
You know very few people like to 
listen to the other fellow talking all 
the time, and that is, of course, what 
you are doing m radio receiving; 
you are listening to what the station 
sends you, and you have to take 
what they send you. 

Of course, you can turn ofif your 
tubes, but then you are worse ofl' 
than you were before. But you want 
to get to the point where you can 
talk with the other fellow, where 
3'ou can create something, and th-it. 
after all, is the great pleasure in 
being able to send, to use a key and 
talk to the other fellow. Just how 
much you create is. of course, another 
matter. But that desire is there. 
.\nd so a woman is attracted by these 
dots and dashes and the possibilit\' 
of being able to talk, and then, of 
course, from that point on. she will 
work toAvards this end. That is, it 
she makes up her mind that she 
wants to do this, the probabilities 
are that she will keep at it until she 
does learn it. 

From this point, of course, she 
gains more or less rapidly the tech- 



nique necessary, and finally she be- 
comes a full-fledged operator, either 
amateur or commercial. 

Now, of course, the two fields are 
extremely different. In the amateur 
field there is no compensation other 
than the pleasure that you derive 
from it. There is no money com- 
pensation. However, in amateur 
work, as well as in commercial work, 
woman is taking a leading place, 1 
think. We hear of an Assistant 
Traffic Manager in the West. I can 
quote an instance in Washington, 
Aliss Winnie Dow. If you don't 
know what a traffic manager is. it 
is simply a question of assisting, in 
part, the radio inspector, I believe, to 
keep order in the air and also to help 
in handling messages from one part 
of the country to the other. That, of 
course, is merely amateur work, 
though it is an executive position and 
one which it is hard to find a person 
to fill. 

We have Mrs. Candell, Assistant 
Superintendant of Ohio, who also 
has such an executive position. 

However, in the commercial field 
the opportunities are even greater, 
and here, of course, the greatest in- 
terest is aroused in a woman. Time 
after time letters come to me ask- 
ing me just the posibilities for 
women in the commercial field. In 
New York we have a woman who 
examines the ship stations for sail- 
ings. We have an assistant examiner 
in that capacity in Boston. In Bos- 
ton we have a society woman who 
is interested in forming a large radio 
com])an\' for radio supplies. 



Trained "Men 



JioiasweepiriBthecountry like wild fire. 

Thousands of dollara are being spent for 

txpcnaive outfits. RADIO EXPERTS are needal 

everywhere to keep this equipment in order and to 

sell and install new outfits. 

Be a Radio Expert 

I will train you m]i<-kly and easily in your spare 
time, to become a RADIO EXPERT so ymi can ia- 
atall. construct, repair and suU Radio equipment. I 
am a Graduate Electrical Engineer an<] from 
actual oxpt'rionre I will give you exactly what yoii 
must know to make the really big money in radio. 
«^«m V9V9 My Consultation Service to you is 
■• lmlL£« FREE. This outside help which I 
^^i*«i* gladly Rive you is. in itself^ worth 
more than the small cost of the Complete Course. 

START NOW 

Don't let others beat you to the big money. Start 
now and within a ft-'W weeks' time I will train you_ 
at home, at an amazingly low cost, to become a 
RADIO EXPERT. Writcfor "Radio Facts'' 
sent free without obligation. 



A. G. MOHAUPT, Electrical Engineer 
American Electrical Association 

4$1I N. Winchester Ave., Chicago 



WRITE 
TODAY 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



11 



AppKcation of the Vacuum Tube to Radio 

Circuits and Apparatus 

By FRANK D. PEARNE 
Chief Instructor in Electricity at Lane Technical High School, Chicago 



IT is only within the last few 
years that the great value of the 
vacuum tube in the radio field 
has been known. Dr. J. A. Fleming, 
of London, was the first to discover 
the rectifying nature of this form of 
detector when he made his "glow 
lamp oscillation detector," which 
name he adopted because he discov- 
ered that this lamp would conduct 
electric currents in one direction, 
better than another, through a 
vacuum. 

From that time on inventors in al- 
most every country in the world 
worked on the development of this 
greatest of all additions to the art 
of oscillation detection, until today 
we have it perfected to such a point 
that it is used in many different ca- 
pacities in radio work, among which 
are detectors, amplifiers, rectifiers, 
oscillation generators and modula- 
tors. 

In order that the reader may fully 
understand these different applica- 
tions of the vacuum tube, it is neces- 
sary that he know something of the 
electron theory which makes possi- 
ble the conduction of the electric 
current from the plate to the fila- 
ment. 

The Electron Theory 

The smallest known element of 
electricity is the electron. An atom 
of any particular element consists of 

FLEtAlNQ l/ALVF 




-=rB 



-i|l|if-J 
A. BATTERY 



FIGURE 1. 



many thousands of electrons, which 
are always of negative polarity. The 
exact number and arrangement of 
these electrons are definite for any 
particular element. Now we must 
consider any atom as being made up 
of a definite number of electrons, and 
if any of these electrons become de- 
tached, or attached to an atom (that 
is giving it more or less than its 
definite number) the atom then dis- 
plays the same properties as an elec- 
trically charged body. When the 
electrons become detached, the atom 
becomes what is known as a "posi- 
tive ion," and it will then act the 
same as a positively charged body, 
but if more electrons become at- 
tached to the atoms, it then acts as 
a negatively charged body, and the 
atom becomes what is known as a 
"negative ion." 

From this it will be seen that when 
an atom becomes charged with elec- 
tricity, it becomes either a positive 
or negative ion, depending upon 
whether electrons have become at- 
tached or detached from it, and if a 
stream of these electrons can be car- 
ried from one point to another it con- 
stitutes an electric current flowing 
between the two points. It makes 
no difiference whether or not these 
electrons are carried in the form of 
actual electrons, positive ions, or 
negative ions, except as regards the 
direction of the current. 

Dr. Fleming's Valves 

If a piece of metal is placed in a 
vacuum and heated to incandescence 
the electrons of which the particles 
of metal are formed become loosened 
and become, to some extent, free to 
move about. If a metal filament and 
a metal plate are placed in a vacuum 
with some source of electricity ap- 
plied to heat the filament, and an 
electrical pressure is exerted be- 
tween the plate and the filament in 
such a way that the plate is posi- 
tively charged, quite a number of the 
electrons which are loosened from 
the filament will be attracted to the 
plate. By this action of the elec- 
trons, the space between the plate 
?ind the filament becomes a con- 
ductor, but only in one direction. 
This is because the electrons which 
are liberated from the hot filament 



are negatively charged, and negative 
electricity only can pass from the 
filament to the plate, which is the 
same thing as positive electricity 
flowing from the plate. 

Figure 1 is a diagram of such an 
arrangement. When the filament is 
rendered incandescent, current flows 
from the positive terminal of the bat- 
tery "B" to the plate "P," through 
the stream of electrons to the fila- 
ment and back to the negative ter- 
minal of the battery "B." If the cur- 
rent from the battery is reversed in 
direction, no current will pass be- 
tween the plate and the filament, for 
the reason that the plate will then 
be charged with negative electricity, 
which will tend to repel the nega- 
tively charged electrons instead of 
attracting them, hence it will be seen 
that should an alternating current 
be applied to the plate and filament, 
current could only pass between 
them at such a time as the positive 
impulse was impressed upon the 
plate, the negative part of the cycle 
would not pass. 

Thus the vacuum tube becomes a 
rectifier of the alternating current : 
that is, regardless of the fact that 
alternating current is being applied 
to the tube, a direct current consist- 
ing of many impulses per second will 
pass through the circuit. 

A diagram of the alternating cui-- 
rent wave is shown at "A," Figure 
2, while "B" in the same figure 
shows the rectified half of the wave, 
and the dotted lines show the half 

"A" 

ALTERNATING CURRENT WAVE 

+ 




RECTIFIED WAVE 



FIGURE 2. 



12 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



of the wave which does not pass. 
Arrangements of this kind have been 
put upon the market for charging 
storage batteries from alternating 
current lighting mains, and are 
called rectifiers. 

Now, while it is true that this 
Fleming valve will only conduct 
electricity in one direction, it is also 
a fact that only a limited amount of 
current can flow through the valve, 
for the reason that the number of 
electrons liberated from the filament 
per second is limited, and conse-. 
quently no matter how high the ap- 
plied alternating current voltage 
may be, only a certain amount of 
current can flow. As the number 
of electrons liberated per second will 
depend upon the size of the filament 
and the temperature to which it is 
heated, these valves are constructed 
in several different sizes, according 
to the amount of current which they 
are to pass. 

The Amplifying, or Magnifying 
Valve 

One of the main characteristics of 
the Fleming, or two-element valve, 
is the fact that it does not obey 
"Ohm's law," which states that the 
amount of current flowing in a cir- 
cuit is directly proportional to the 
applied pressure and the resistance 
of the circuit. In the case of the 
Fleming valve, the plate current is 
not proportional to the plate voltage 
except within a very limited range 
of values of the latter. 

This is true also of the "triode," 
or three-element valve, which is 
used for many dififerent purposes. 
This triode valve is the same thing 
as a two-element tube, with an ad- 
ditional element interposed between 
the filament and the plate. This new 
element is called the "grid," which is 
composed of either a perforated 
plate, or more often, a simple screen 
of nickel wire. It is not connected 
to anything inside the tube, but is 
connected to a terminal in the base 
by means of a single wire. This ad- 
dition of the grid to the Fleming 
valve was the one thihg which revo- 
lutionized the art of radio telegraphy 
and telephony, and practically made 
a new science. By making the plate 
more or less positive (within certain 
limits) the plate current can be in- 
creased or decreased, and the same 
effect can be obtained by keeping the 
plate voltage constant and merely 
supplying a more or less positive or 
negative charge to the grid. 

The reason for this is easily under- 
stood ; the grid is directly in the path 
of the electrons which are traveling 
to the plate, on account of its posi- 



tive charge ; the electrons, or at least 
a great number of them, pass 
through the openings in the grid. 

Now if the grid was given a slight 
positive charge, it also would attract 
electrons from the filament, which 
would increase the total number of 
electrons in the stream, which would 
also increase the amount of current 
flowing from the plate to the fila- 
ment, but if on the other hand a 
slight negative charge was applied 
to the grid, some of the electrons 
would be repelled and the total 
number in the stream would be made 
less, then the amount of current 
flowing from the plate would be de- 
creased. A saturation point is 
reached, just the same as in a two- 
element tube. The attainment of 
this value is assisted by the absorp- 
tion of some of the electrons by the 
grid itself, when it is positively 
charged. The more positive the grid 
is charged the more electrons it will 
absorb, and consequently the current 
flowing from the plate will be just 
that much less, but as the current in 
the grid circuit due to absorption 
of electrons is so extremely small, it 
means very little in the ordinary 
triode tube, and need be only con- 
sidered where large-sized tubes are 
employed. 

Grid's Balancing Point 

When the tube is to be used for 
detection and amplification, the cir- 
cuit is so arranged that the grid 
charge is produced by the incoming 
signals, which, when they strike the 
grid as oscillations, will increase of 
decrease the flow of electrons to the 
plate and cause a consequent in- 
crease or decrease in the current 
flowing from the plate. 

Now it has been discovered by ex- 
periment that each and every tube 




i|,|,^ PHONES 

A- BPJTeRY ^^ 



^ POTENTIOMtTER 
WRIABLE CONDENSER 



GROUND 

FIGURE 3 



has a critical point, at which a very 
slight change in the charge on the 
grid will make enormous changes in 
the flow of electrons, and conse- 
quently the current flowing in the 
plate circuit may be made to vary to 
a great extent by extremely weak 
changes in the charge received upon 
the grid. In order that this effect 
may be utilized to the fullest extent, 
the grid is. usually charged artificial- 
ly to just the balancing point, so that 
any incoming signals of a very weak 
form will upset this balance and 
make very large changes in the plate 
current. Now it is easy to under- 
stand how, if a pair of head phones 
are connected in the plate circuit, 
very weak incoming signals will be 
greatly magnified in the receivers, 
making it possible to receive them 
quite loud in the receivers when it 
would be impossible to detect them 
with a crystal detector. 

The variation in the artificial 
charge placed on the grid to obtain 
the balance is accomplished by 
means of a potentiometer connected 
across another battery, as shown in 
the circuit Figure 3. 

By means of this potentiometer 
the pressure between the grid and 
the filament can be varied from a 
negative value of say 10 volts when 
the slider is on one end of the poten- 
tiometer, to a positive value of 10 
volts when the slider is on the other 
end, thereby allowing the grid poten- 
tial to be varied to any desired value 
between these two limits. While 
this method is very good for adjust- 
ments where it is desired to increase 
the sensitiveness of the set to a very 
fine point, still many of the more 
modern sets do not use this extra 
battery for loading the grid. 

Figure 4 is a chart showing the 
curve of a typical valve of compara- 
tively small dimensions, such as 
would be used for receiving sets hav- 
ing a battery of 100 volts applied be- 
tween the plate and the filament. 
The horizontal line represents the 
artificial charge on the grid, which is 
supplied by the potentiometer, and 
the vertical line shows the change 
which takes place in the current in 
the plate circuit by the variation in 
the charge applied to the grid. For 
example, it will be seen that with a 
negative grid charge of between 6 
and 8 volts shown at "A," the knee 
of the curve is found, and any slight 
change tending to cut down the 
negative charge will cause a consid- 
erable rise in the plate current, and 
if the incoming signals which strike 
the grid can be made to reduce the 
negative charge from "A" to "0" and ^ 
(Continued on page 24) ^ 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



13 



Radio Equipment at KDKA 

By D. G. LITTLE 

Radio Engineer, Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 



WITH the increasing popu- 
larity of radio broadcasting 
a description of station KD 
KA at East Pittsburgh, Pa., will be 
of interest to the general public, a 
large number of whom are already 
acquainted with the station through 
their receiving sets. KDKA opened 
November 5, 1920, with the broad- 
casting of the presidential election 
returns that day. 

The power of KDKA was at first 
relatively small, on the order of 100 
watts being delivered to the an- 
tenna. In August, 1921, the range 
of the station was increased by im- 
proving the height of the antenna 
and raising the power output first 
to 500 watts and subsequently to 
1,000 watts. 

In keeping with the growth of the 
station, a special studio was ar- 
ranged for the artists and announcer, 
particular attention being given to 
the acoustic properties, so that 
echos, reverberation and other dis- 
turbances have been largely elimi- 
nated. The quality of transmission 
from this station has been improved 
at every opportunity by means of 
the studio, and by improvement in 
the apparatus. The usual carbon 
microphone has been replaced by a 
condenser type transmitter for pick- 
ing up the sound waves. Resistance 
coupled amplifiers are employed for 
increasing the relatively weak out- 
put of the pick-up transmitter to a 
power sufficient to control the radio 
set. 

The natural oscillating frequency 
of all the units in the pick-up and 
amplifier system has been placed, so 
far as possible, outside of the audio 



frequency range, so that the radio 
signal is practically a perfect repro- 
duction of the original sound. Spe- 
cial filter circuits are arranged to 
eliminate generator hum in the 
power supply to the radio transmit- 
ter. As broadcasting becomes less 
a novelty and more a practical form 
of entertainment, the high quality of 
KDKA's programs is being greatly 
appreciated. After over a year of 
operation this audience is very exact- 
ing as to the quality of reproduction 
and arrangement of the programs. 

How Current Is Changed 

The path of the speaker's voice 
from the studio to the receiving sta- 
tion is shown in diagrammatical 
form in Fig. 2. The sound wave 
picked-up by the transmitter in the 
studio, theatre or church is amplified 
before it is transmitted by means of 
a telephone line to the radio station, 
where it is further amplified and 
used to control the output of the 
radio transmitter. The radio trans- 
mitting set is supplied with power 
directly from the work's power plant 
through a step down transformer for 





Fig. 3 — General View of Equipment in the 
Operating Room 



Fig. 5 — Oscillogram of Rectified An- 
tenna Current for Modulation of 
Vowel A 



the vacuum tube filaments and 
through special motor generator 
sets, which change the 220 volts, 
direct-current to 2,- 
000 volts direct cur- 
rent for the tube 
plates. 

The radio trans- 
mitter changes this 
power from 2,000 
volts direct - current 
to alternating - cur- 
rent power at a fre- 
quency of 833,000 
cycles per second 
(360 meters wave 
length) which is sup- 
plied to the radiating 
system, consisting of 
an antenna and coun- 
terpoise. This high 




Fig. I — Percy Henius, Baritone, and Gladys 
Craven, Pianiste 

frequency power in the antenna sys- 
tem sets up waves, in the ether, 
which travel outward in all direc- 
tions and, intercepting the receiving 
antenna, set up voltages and cur- 
rents which operate the receiving 
sets. 

A general view of the radio trans- 
mitter now in use at KDKA is shown 
in Fig. 3. This set furnishes about 
one kilowatt high frequency power 
to the antenna. Fig. 4 shows the cir- 
cuit diagram. For convenience in 
studying the circuits represented by 
Fig. 4, which carry a wide variety 
of frequency, this diagram has been 
divided into four sections by means 
of the dotted lines at the right. The 
lower section, which may be con- 
sidered as the power supply, carries 
only direct current at 2,000 volts and 
low-voltage alternating current at 
25 cycles. This 25 cycle current is 
used only for heating the filaments. 
To prevent any of the 25 cycle cur- 
rent being superimposed on the grid- 
filament and plate filament circuit, 
the return of the grid circuits and 
the 2,000 volt circuit is connected to 
the mid point of a resist r, which is 
shunted across the filament, each 
half of the resistor being shunted by 
a condenser for by-passing the radio 
and audio frequency circuits. 

In the next section of Fig. 3, in 



14 



RADIO AGE— -THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



addition to the power circuits de- 
scribed, audio frequency voltage is 
impressed upon the girds of the mod- 
ulator tubes, varying the potential 
of these grids with respect to their 
filaments according to the voice 
waves, through the medium of the 
pick-up transformer and amplifiers. 

The four 250 watt power tubes 
in the upper part of the set are the 
oscillators, which, in conjunction 
with the condensers and oscillation 
transformer, change the 2,000 volt 
direct-current powers into alternat- 
ing-current power at 833,000 cycles, 
thus generating the carrier wave, 
which is impressed on the antenna 
through a remote controlled double 
throw switch, which allows the same 
antenna to be used for receiving 
when the station is not broadcasting. 
The amplitude of the radio frequency 
wave thus generated is constant as 
long as the plate voltage remains 
constant, and fluctuates with the 
plate voltage when the latter is 
varied. 

Thus the upper section of Fig. 4 
carries only modulated radio fre- 
quency waves, while the third sec- 
tion carries both radio frequency and 
audio frequencies, in addition to the 
2,000 volt direct-current and the 25 
cycle alternating'-current power cir- 
cuits. 

Power Modulation 

The function of the five modulator 
tubes, also rated at 250 watts each, 
is to vary the voltage on the plates 
of the oscillator tubes according to 
the voice frequency impressed upon 
their grids by the speech amplifiers. 
This system is known as power mod- 
ulation, the modulation being ac- 
complished by means of the con- 



Suppl, 
220 

25 
Cycles 




A C Supply Ground 

fig. i — Hook-Up 



of Broadcasting Transmitter 



stant choke oil in series 
with the positive lead to 
the modulator and oscilla- 
tor tube plates. The modu- 
lator tube grids are held at 
a static potential of 80 
volts negative with re- 
spect to their filaments by 
means of a battery. (See 
Figure 6.) 

The audio frequency 
from the speech ampli- 
fier then adds to or sub- 
tracts from this 80 volt 
grid potential. At an in- 
stant when the modulator 
tube grids have impressed 
upon them by the ampli- 
fiers a low negative, or 
zero potential with respect 
to their filaments, the 
tube impedances from the 
plate to the filament are 
low and a large plate cur- 
rent flows in the 2,000 volt 
direct-current circuit to 
the modulator tube plates. 

Because of the very large induct- 
ance (50 henries) of the audio fre- 
quency choke coils in series with 
the plate supply, the total generator 
current can change very little in a 
brief interval of time. Hence, part 
of the generator voltage occurs 
across the choke coils, thus lower- 
ing the voltage impressed on the 
oscillator tube plates and hence the 
radio frequency output of the set. 
The next instant when the modula- 
tor tube grids have a high potential 
with respect to their filaments, the 
plate impedances are high and little 
or no current flows through the mod- 
ulator tubes. 

The choke coils, tending always to 
keep the total generator current con- 
stant, create a voltage 
which adds to the genera- 
tor voltage and thus 
forces most of the current 
into the oscillator tubes, 
which increases the radio 
frequency or antenna 
output accordingly. In 
I u this way the audio fre- 

« % quencv choke coils cause 

I " the voltage applied to the 

5_ oscillator tube plates to 

% I fluctuate in proportion to 

the speech voltage im- 
pressed on the grids of 
the modulator tubes by 
the speech amplifier. As 
tlie amplitude of current 
in the antenna varies di- 
rectly with the plate volt- 
age on the oscillator 
tubes and as this voltage 
varies from nearly zero 
to 4,000 volts, the an- 




KiSLr— 




^#^ 



2000 Volt Gen. 



ISO V DC Supply. 

Fig. 7 — Circuit Diagram of Power Equipment 



tenna current varies accordingly." 
Fig. 5 shows an oscillogram of rec- 
tified antenna current taken when 
the announcer is speaking loudly 
into the pick-up transmitter. It is 
seen that the antenna current varies 
from nearly zero to nearly twice its 
no talk value. This variation in an- 
tenna current at voice frequency 
is known as modulation. 

The radio frequency choke coils in 
series with the oscillator tube plates 
serve to stop any radio frequency 
from entering the modulator and 
power supply circuits. These choke 
coils are of air core construction and 
are about five millihenries induct- 
ance each. They thus offer a high 
impedance to the radio frequency, 
but negligible impedance to the 
audio frequency. 

In order to indicate the amount 
of modulation, a so-called modula- 
tion meter has been developed. This 
consists of a current transformer, 
the primary of which is connected in 
series with the direct-current sup- 
l)ly to the oscillator tube plates and 
the secondary of which is connected 
to a thermo-ammeter. 

Meters in Abundance 

I'he transformer ratio is such that 
an audio frequency variation in the 
direct-current from zero to twice 
its normal value gives full scale de- 
flection. An air-gap is provided in 
the transformer core to prevent sat- 
uration due to the direct-current 
component of the plate current. The 
meter has a current scale marked 
from to 100 percent modulation. 
When the announcer is speaking" 
into the transmitter, the modulation 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



15 



•meter averages about 40 percent 
with maximum between 70 and 80 
percent. Piano solos average about 
30 percent, violin solos 20 to 30 per- 
cent and vocal numbers 40 to 50 
percent with maximum of 100 per- 
cent. 

Of course the modulation meter 
indicates only the average volume of 
sound. While the meter may read 
only 30 percent in case of piano 
music, the individual notes at the 
instant of striking may reach 80 
to 90 percent. 

Allowing for the kind of sound 
being transmitted, that is, piano, 
speaking voice, solo, etc., the modu- 
lation meter provides a convenient 
means of finding the correct distance 
to place the artist from the pick-up 
transmitter and accounts to a large 
extent for the uniform volume of 
sound received from KDKA. The 
instruments at the top of the trans- 
mitter panel, Fig. 3 are from left 
to right, filament volt meter, ground 
current meter, plate ammeter modu- 
lation meter and plate volt meter. 
The antenna current meter is mount- 
ed on the wall with a series con- 
denser and discharge resistance and 
is not shown' in the photograph. 

The antenna at KDKA consists 
of 6 wires, 190 feet in length on 20 
feet spreaders. This antenna is sup- 
ported 210 feet above the ground by 
a brick smoke stack at one end and 
by a 100 foot pipe mast on a nine 
story building at the other end. The 
operating room and studio are lo- 
cated on the ninth floor of this build- 
ing. Fig. 6 shows the mast end of 
the antenna with the operating room 
directly below. A counterpoise 
which is a duplicate of the an- 
tenna in construction is placed 
110 feet beneath the antenna. 
This brings the counterpoise 
about 15 feet below the trans- 
mitting set. 

The down lead from the an- 
tenna and the counterpoise lead 
are made up of eight strands of 
No. 14 copper wire equally 
spaced around 1.5 in. diameter 
wooden spacers. The natural 
period of this aerial system is 
approximately 412 meters. A 
series condenser of 0.0005 mf. 
capacity is used in series with 
the antenna and sufficient load- 
ing inductance added to obtain 
the desired wave length of 360 
meters. The series condenser is 
shunted by a radio frequency 
choke coil of 10 millihenries in- 
ductance in series with a one 
megohm resistance, to drain oft' 
any static charge that might ac- 
cumulate on the antenna when 




Fig. 6 — Antenna at KDKA 

insulated from ground by the series 
condenser. The high frequency re- 
sistance of the antenna system at 360 
meters wave length is approximately 
12 ohms, a large percentage of which 
is radiation resistance. The antenna 
current at 500 watts is 6.5 amperes ; 
at one kilowatt it is 9 amperes. 

Three Motor Generators 

The power equipment consists of 
two 2 kw. motor generator sets with 
250 volt direct-current motors. The 
current employing two armature 
windings and two commutators per- 
manentlv connected in series. Nor- 




Power Input 



,, . _ / Amp-\ Theater, Church. 

YouM Control J liner I or Down Town 

'"P"' ^\r_X Studio 






M<crophon« 

Fig. 2 — Schematic Diagram of Radio Broadcast- 
ing Station 



nially the motor generator sets are 
used with the generators paralleled. 

Either set may be used alone with 
the radio set at reduced power. 
There is also a third motor genera- 
tor set with a 220 volt 25 cycle moto*- 
which can be connected to the radio 
set in case of failure of the direct- 
current supply. This set is provided 
with an exciter to supply the field 
of the high voltage generator. A 
filter consisting of a 50 henry induct- 
ance and 32 microfarad condenser 
reduces the generator hum to a neg- 
ligible amount. 

The panel beneath the speech am- 
plifier on the right in Fig. 2 controls 
the power equipment. Here are 
mounted generator field switches and 
rheostats, generator paralleling 
switches, generator voltmeter and 
ammeters, voltmeter switch, antenna 
switch control and studio signal 
light button to show the announcer 
in the studio when the transmitting 
set is in operation. 

The engineer in charge of the sta- 
tion tests all filament and plate bat- 
teries before each program. He next 
starts the transmitting set and checks 
the wave length by means of a wave 
meter. He then lights the signal 
light in the studio, notifying the an- . 
nouncer that the transmitter is in 
operation. The announcer turns on 
the studio amplifier which lights a 
signal light in the operating room, 
notifying the engineer that the audio 
circuits are in operation. The en- 
gineer then watches the modulation 
meter and adjusts the amplification 
of the speech amplifier to give the 
desired amount of modulation. 
A loud speaking receiver in the 
operating room serves as a check 
on the quality of the transmis- 
sion. When programs from local 
churches or from the downtown 
studio are to be transmitted, the 
telephone line is tested before 
the program. Orders and any 
special arrangements are made 
over a suppleinentary order wire 
or phone line between the radio 
station and place of the perform- 
ance. 

In the concert room the music 
or speech to be transmitted is 
recorded on the microphone 
transmitters by vibration of the 
diaphragm, one transmitter being 
used for each instrument, vocal- 
ist or speaker. 

The recently inaugurated mar- 
ket quotations service is de- 
signed for the especial benefit of 
the farmers, merchants, brokers, 
co-operative growing and mar- 
keting associations, etc. 



16 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Radio Progress Around the World 



IN view of the often repeated and 
perfectly true assertion that the 
United States leads the world in 
radio advancement and number of 
radio students it is interesting to 
note what some foreign countries 
are doing with wireless. 

The United States government 
maintains radio stations at Porto 
Rico, the Canal Zone, Guantanamo, 
Cordova, Alaska ; St. Paul, Pribilof 
Islands ; Honolulu, Guam, Samoa, 
Tutila, Cavite, Philippine Islands ; 
Vladivostok and Peking, and through 
foreign stations of the international 
chain has communication with every 
part of the world. A special station 
of high power is maintained at Cob- 
lenz for the use of the American 
troops there. 

Norway 

A new radio station is being built 
in Norway on the summit of Runde- 
mandon, a 2,500-foot mountain near 
Gergen, with the hope that radio 
communication between the United 
States and Norway may be estab- 
lished. The station is designed to 
have a 3,000 kilometer telegraph ra- 
dius and an 800 kilometer phone 
radius. With the phone verbal com- 
munication will be held with Eng- 
land. The station will be ready in 
August, according to expectations. 

China 

Negotiations between the Chinese 
government and an American com- 
pany have been completed whereby 
China will have within the next two 
years a complete system of radio 
cornmunication facilities, which will 
include one station as large as any 
at present in existence. 

The contract covers the erection 
of five radio stations, the first to be 
bujlt at Shanghai. This station will 
cbnsist of six towers, each 1,006 feet 
in height. The equipment will in- 
clude two 1,000 watt arc sets, and 
will operate on" a single-wave sys- 
tem. 

In other parts of the world, too, 
the construction of wireless stations 
is. progressing at a great rate. The 
z6ne of radio telegraph stations is 
constantly being enlarged, each week 
bringing reports of new and remote 
lands reached. 

South Atlantic 

The British island of Tristan da 
Cunha, in the middle of the South 
Atlantic, with its 120 odd souls, 
mostly descendants of Napoleon's 
St. Helena guards, who hardly hear 
from civilization more than once in 
two years, is at last to have a mis- 



sionary and radio communication. 

Tristan da Cunha is a mountain, 
4,000 feet high, rising out of the 
ocean wastes like an inverted pud- 
ding bowl, and, as we saw it, was 
wreathed in swirling mists. The 
little colony lives in stone huts on 
a green strip of pasture land at the 
foot of the mountain. 

Having no commerce and no 
money, these people certainly cannot 
worship Mammon, but it is doubtful 
if they worship God. The two 
plucky missionaries who have exiled 
themselves among them for at least 
two years will try ty teach them. 
They brought large quantities 'of 
supplies and civilized comforts and 
a radio set, so that henceforth Tris- 
tan da Cunha will not be cut ofif en- 
tirely from the outside world. 

Australia 

The preliminary work of establish- 
ing the huge Australian radio sta- 
tion for direct communication with 
Great Britain has been begun at Mel- 
bourne. 

The sub-stations for overseas 
traffic will be about three times as 
powerful as any European station 
today. It will take two years before 
the central and feeder stations are 
completed. As a normal perform- 
ance the chief station will be able to 
speak direct over 12,000 miles for the 
greater part of any working day. 

Receiving and sending stations to 
correspond will be built in Canada 
during the same period. The plant 
for the main station will be imported 
from England, but the plant for the 
feeder stations will be manufactured 
in Australia, one for each of the 
states. 

The combined cost of all these sta- 
tions will be about $5,000,000. The 
main station will consist of a trans- 
mitter and receiver terminal thirty 
miles apart, the latter including 
twenty-four towers each 800 feet 
high, spread over a square mile. The 
wireless rates will be one-third less 
than the present cable rates to 
Europe. 

Canada 

The Canadian law, in effect on 
June 1, reads : 

"Every person operating a receiv- 
ing equipment must have a license; 
the fee is $1 per annum and is used 
to assist in paying the expenses 
necessary to maintain the inspection 
stafif for the patrolling of the ether 
so that the reception of broadcasted 
radio concerts and programs may not 
be interfered with by irregularly 
operated transmitting stations. 



"Efifective June 1, 1922, the naval 
department announces that all na- 
tionality restrictions in connection 
with radio receiving licenses are can- 
celed and that henceforth any per- 
son, irrespective of nationality, may 
obtain a 'receiving license.' The re- 
striction limiting the issue of trans- 
mitting licenses to British subjects 
remains in force." 

Brazil 

Brazil is installing the most com- 
plete cable and radio system in South 
America, Charge d' Affaires Crosby 
at Rio de Janeiro reported to the 
commerce department. 

"It is believed," he said, "that dur- 
ing the present year the development 
of cable and radio facilities in Brazil 
by American, British, French, Ger- 
man and Italian companies will give 
that country the most complete sys- 
tem of international communication 
in South America." 

Belgium 

Radio telephony is still an un- 
known science in Belgium. Only re- 
cently King Albert listened to his 
first aerial conversation — a message 
from the Eififel tower in Paris. 

The Belgians have not yet fallen 
victims to the craze that has spread 
thru the United States during the 
last few months. There is not a 
single radio telephone broadcasting 
station in Belgium, the few morr 
scientific persons who have built re- 
ceiving equipment depending entire- 
ly upon Paris and Scheveiningen in 
Holland for their entertainment. 
Such is the unique picture of aerial 
communication conditions in the 
little kingdom as pictured by L. Van 
Dyck, chief of the production branch 
of the Bell Telephone Manufactur- 
ing company at Antwerp, who has 
come to the United States to study 
methods at the company's factory at 
Chicago. 

Expects Much from United States 

"Belgium," M^. Van Dyck de- 
clares, "has acquired the habit of 
looking to the United States for all 
suggestions in electrical matters. 
Once the radio telephone has proved 
its feasibility as a commercial enter- 
prise here, Belgium undoubtedly will 
take steps to adopt it." 



Clapp-Eastham Company, 139 
Main Street, Cambridge, Mass., have 
issued an attractive, informative and 
comprehensive catalogue of Radio, 
Electrical and Laboratory Apparatus 
under the title of Bulletin FZ-1922, 
Fourth Edition. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



17 




THOUGHT WAVES IK'^ITORIAL TOWER 



WE commend to all readers 
the article published in this 
number of Radio Age on 
"The Development of Radiophone 
Broadcasting." In our June number 
we published an article on the Wash- 
ington conference which decided for 
certain wave allotments and other 
limitations respecting broadcasting 
service. We published this informa- 
tion probably more extensively than 
any other radio periodical for the 
reason that we regarded the subject 
as of paramount importance in all 
lines of radio. At least it appealed 
to us more than did some material 
which came to hand regarding the 
attachment of a radio receiving set 
to milady's garter. 

The article published in this num- 
ber was written by Mr. L. R. 
Krumm, who was a radio man with 
the Signal Corps for eighteen months 
in France. Mr. Krumm knows what 
he is talking about. He is with the 
VVestinghouse Company. It is not 
surprising that, because of his affil- 
iation with that great corporation, 
he should have some definite ideas 
on broadcasting privileges, public 
and private. He sets forth frankly 
the attitude of himself and presum- 
ably of the Westinghouse organiza- 
tion and that makes interesting read- 
ing, whether we all agree with him 
or not. 

If any reader has another side of 
the question to present we shall be 
glad to publish it and we have no 
doubt Mr. Krumm will be among 
thousands to read it with interest. 



Surface thinkers have been saying, 
these hot days, that radio is done 
for. No interest in radio, they pro- 
claim. Just a passing fad, as they 
thought all along. Here is a word 
to you fellows who let the summer 
doldrums make you think that the 
world is all awry. If you will step 
into the office of Radio Age we will 
show you files of correspondence 
that prove there is, at this peak of 
the torrid season, a very lively and 
substantial interest in radio all over 




our blessed old United States. The 
croakers who talk about summer stat- 
ic making radio transmission a fliv- 
ver in the summer and the tragic 
glooms who spin terrible yarns about 
the danger of lightning in connection 
with radiophony have the wrong 
ticket and they are not even in the 
right laundry. Hundreds of thou- 
sands of men and boys, and an amaz- 
ing number of women and girls, are 
building and using their radio out- 
fits. Vacation journeys and motor 
rides, baseball thrills, fishing expedi- 
tions and picnics take Americans 
away from their homes during the 
hotter weeks of the year and when 
the folks are away from their homes 
they are away from radio, as a rule. 
However, they are going to troop 
back to their bakelite panels and 
their tubes and crystal detectors 
within a few weeks. Antennae are 
going to cobweb the city roofs and 
the country dooryards this fall. 
Programs broadcast from the rapidly 
growing number of stations are 
going to be improved until they 
will enlist the interest and -enthusi- 
asm of a big share of our urban and 
rural population. Some of the smart- 
est capitalists in the country are 
throwing millions into radio activ- 
ities. Radio manufacturers are a 
tremendous industry, not prospective 
but actually existing. Meet us at 
the fall and winter radio shows and 
give us a chance to say "We told 
you so." 



If you read the official government 
article in this number which sets 
forth how radio transmission is 
beina: used to disseminate market 
quotations, weather news and crop 
reports, you probably will not be 
surprised that the United State 
Government is a confirmed radio 
optimist. The article predicts that 
the radiophone is to become as com- 
mon as the telephone. There are 
many farmer boys on our subscrip- 
tion list and if they do not read that 
government article they will miss 
something every country boy should 
know. And for that matter the facts 
therein will help the city boys, too. 
Likewise city grown-ups. 



In its issue of May 12 the London 
Daily Express tells under first page 
headlines its enterprise and the new 
era of news dissemination inaugu- 
rated by it in broadcasting the Car- 
pentier-Lewis fight. 

The Daily Express evidently has 
not heard of the strides American 
newspapers have made in the use 
of radio. Read what the London 
Journalist wrote on May 12, 1922 : 

"A wonderful and romantic new 
era was inaugurated by the Daily 
Express last night, when, for the 
first time in the history of the world, 
a newspaper broadcasted news of 
universal interest by wireless tele- 
phone. The event marks an epoch 
in the progress of human communi- 
cations. 

"Dempsey, the champion, de- 
scribed the fight between Carpentier 
and Lewis not only for our readers, 
but to the multitude of wireless tele- 
phone users in Great Britain and the 
continent. 

"His story of the sensational fight 
was converted by the ordinary tele- 
phone from Olympia, where the 
fight took place, to the Daily Ex- 
press broadcasting station at Slough, 
the headquarters of the Radio Com- 
munication Company, and thence 
sent through the ether to an eager, 
waiting world." 



18 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Questions and Answers 

This Department Conducted by FRANK D. PEARNE, Technical Editor 
of RADIO AGE and Chief Instructor in Electricity at Lane Technical High 

School, Chicago 



A. L. W. Jr. St. Louis, Mo. 

Question : In your June issue the 
enclosed circuit was printed and I 
am of the mind to try it, but am 
uncertain as to the accuracy of the 
diagram. 

Referring to the first page of am- 
plification you will note that one side 
of the amplifying transformer goes 
to terminal "A," other side "B" to a 
bus terminal leading to a battery 
and primary of No. 2 transformer ; 
terminal "C" from detector to a bus 
terminal leading to No. 2 transform- 
er primary and phone terminal, the 
phone terminal being one side of 
the battery. Now what I wish to 
know is, if using only one stage is 
the battery to flow through the 
phones without any controlling de- 
vice and what size is the battery, that 
is, how many cells? If using 2 
stages must the phone terminals 
which I just spoke of be connected 
together? If you can make this clear 
I will be greatly obliged to you. Am 
having good success with crystal de- 
tectors and like the clearness in pref- 
erence to the screech of most audion 
sets. 

Answer : Not being familiar with 
this circuit, I have compared it with 
that shown in the June issue and 
find that your sketch is correct. In 
answer to your first question it 
seems to me that the battery should 
be used as you suggest, although 
I must admit that I cannot see just 
what action takes place unless the 
second crystal not only acts as a 
rectifier but also varies the battery 
current through the phones, in which 
case it would seem that a carborun- 
dum crystal would work best at this 
point. In case two stages are used 
the phone terminals would have to 
be closed in order that the battery 
current could act. This would give 
an unbalancing effect when signals 
are received, in addition to the recti- 
fying of the oscillations, but there 
is no apparent need for rectifying 
at this point if two stages are used. 
The article states that a standard 
221/2 volt battery is to be used. This 
battery is known as a standard "B" 
battery and is composed of 15 small 
dry cells put up in one package. 
M. C. I., Chicago, 111. 

Question : Will you kindly ex- 
plain in words and diagram how to 
construct an inside aerial. 



Answer : There are many forms 
of inside aerials and the construction 
of same will depend upon the avail- 
able space. A very serviceable aerial 
can be made simply running one 
strand of ordinary bell wire around 
the room, placing it behind the 
moulding used for hanging pictures. 
(3f course this should only be used 
where the room is above the first 
floor, as it will not be very efificient 
if it is not fairly high from the 
ground. 
M. R. E. Co., Bedford, Ohio. 

Question : In your first issue of 
Radio Age Magazine, on page 9, you 
say at the end of the article "Further 
information about Radiola will be 
furnished upon request.'' I wrote to 
you signing under the firm name 
asking for information about this, as 
I want to know if there are any pat- 
ents on using, or making receiving 
sets in phonograph cabinets, also if 
you can advise me as to what is the 
best and loudest receiving hook-up 
on the market? If you can gi\e me 
this information, it will be appre- 
ciated, as your magazine offers this 
upon request. I am a subscriber to 
your magazine under my personal 
name. 

Answer : There are no patents 
covering the putting of radio appara- 
tus in a phonograph cabinet, al- 
though most of the circuits used are 
patented. The particular circuit 
used in the Radiola is the regenera- 
tive type and uses the new Western 
Electric loud speaker. The ideal ar- 
rangement for an instrument of this 
kind is to use a circuit having three 
steps of radio frequency, detector, 
and two steps of audio amplification, 
for by using this system a small loop 
aerial may be placed inside the case, 
which will bring in stations located 
a thousand miles away. This circuit 
however, is also patented and can 
not be made and sold without first 
obtaining a license. 

H. S. F., Chicago, 111. 

Question : I am constructing a 
crystal detector amplifier as de- 
scribed in the June number by Ed- 
win Nielson. Could you kindly tell 
me how to make the amplifying 
transformer for same? 

Answer : It is quite an undertak- 
ing to build an amplifying trans- 
former unless full instructions are 
given. This would require too much 



space in this column, but in the near 
future this magazine will describe an 
amplifying transformer with all 
working drawings for same. 

W. W. O., Chicago, 111. 

Question : 1 am a boy 12 years 
old and would like to know how to 
connect 3 audion bulbs together with 
the sockets for my radio apparatus 
and how to connect a test buzzer to 
a crystal set. Why can't you use 
iron contact points for a switch in 
radio? Can you use the 110 volt al- 
ternating current system for an 
aerial? Is there any way to make a 
crystal set stronger by adding some 
current? If so, explain how. 1 am 
greatly pleased with your Radio Age 
magazine, although I am not a sub- 
scriber, but expect to be very soon. 

Answer: The circuit which you 
-ask for is too large for this column, 
so I am sending it to you by mail. 
The test buzzer can be used by sim- 
ply connecting it up just like an elec- 
tric bell circuit ; that is, so that when 
you press a button it will buzz, and 
the only connection necessary to the 
detector set is a wire connected from 
the moving armature of the buzzer 
to the ground wire of the detector 
set. Iron switch contacts are not 
practical for the reason that signals 
coming in to a receiving :-et are of a 
very high frequency and any iron 
material near any of the apparatus 
is very likely to have a choking 
efifect upon these high frequency 
oscillations, which would tend to re- 
tard them and distort the signals. 
This is due to the magnetic proper- 
ties of iron, and all metals used in 
radio apparatus should be non-mag- 
netic for this reason. The 110 volt 
electric light system can be used for 
an aerial, but I do not advise it as 
it has not yet been passed upon by 
the Board of Fire Underwriters, and 
is quite dangerous unless the user 
is an experienced electrician. A 
crystal detector set can be amplified 
by using the standard two step am- 
plifier, but this requires the use of 
amplifying bulbs, storage, and "B" 
batteries. An artcile in the June is- 
sue of this magazine gave a descrip- 
tion of how a South American boy 
increased his signals by using addi- 
tional crystal detectors, transformers 
and batteries, but as to how it will 
work out, I do not know, as I have 
not made a personal test of it. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



19 



Questions and Answers 

This Department Conducted by FRANK D. PEARNE, Technical Editor 
of RADIO AGE and Chief Instructor in Electricity at Lane Technical 

High School, Chicago. 



"R. H. F., Chicago, III. 

Question : In regard to the radio 
ifet in the Radio Age. I have made 
a set the same as the one you have 
in the paper and hooked it up the 
same as the copy, but I fail to get re- 
sults. Can you give me any infor- 
mation in regard to the reason it 
does not work? I have a two-wire 
aerial nearly forty feet high and I 
can only get a buzzing sound. I 
bought a variable condenser, have 
changed crystals twice, still no re- 
i^ults. I will be thankful for any in- 
formation. 

Answer : As a rule these sets give 
Avonderful results, and I am inclined 
to think that in your case it is a mat- 
ter of adjustment. Your aerial is 
high enough to give results, and if it 
is carefully insulated we can elimi- 
nate that. Go over all the connec- 
tions and see that they are all sol- 
dered, making sure that where the 
loops are soldered to the switch con- 
tacts no wires are broken, and espe- 
cially see that the loops are not 
broken, as this would leave part of 
the circuit open. If all the connec- 
tions prove to be all right, and the 
set is made exactly as described, then 
it is nothing more than a pooradjust- 
ment of the crystal. If you have had 
no experience with crystals you will 
hud that it requires a great deal of 
patience until you get familiar with 
the sound of a correctly adjusted de- 
tector. Look over the ground con- 
nection and try hooking your con- 
denser across the aerial and ground. 
V. C. D., Fort Dodge, la. 

Question : Is there any way that 
I can use my loose coupler with an 
audion bulb detector? I am using a 
crystal detector with it now, and I 
have a Cunningham bulb and socket, 
hut no variometers, and I want to 
know if I can use these without buy- 
ing two variometers. Will I have to 
have a storage battery, or can I use 
<lry cells on my bulb ? 

Answer : You can make up a fair- 
ly good set with a loose coupler and 
detector bulb if you will get a varia- 
ble condenser to go with it. A 23- 
plate condenser should be large 
enough if there are not too many 
turns on the secondary of your coup- 
ler. You do not state the range in 
meters of your coupler. You will 
also have to have a rheostat for con- 
trolling the filament current on your 
bulb. A storage battery will be 



much more economical than the dry 
cells, as it will last much longer, and 
when it becomes discharged it can be 
charged up, while the dry cells will 
run for a very short time, when they 
will have to be disconnected and al- 
lowed to recuperate, and each time 
they are used they will run down 
faster, until they will have to be re- 
placed by new cells. At best, they 
will give only a few hours' actual 



are radio frequency sets, but still he 
doesn't seem to be able to tell me 
what it is. Does it use a crystal or an 
audion detector? Please explain it 
to me, and any information you will 
give me will be appreciated very 
much. I get your paper every month 
and you can answer with the en- 
closed envelope, or through your 
paper. 

Answer : Radio frequency is the 



r^.-^ft-<^t,<^.^ 



LOOSE 
COUPLER 



COMDENSER 




6 VOLTS 



service and then you will have to buy 
four or five new cells. The storage 
battery will cost more, but the ex- 
pense of recharging it once in a while 
is nothing compared to the cost of 
new dry cells every few days. The 
above hook-up will answer your pur- 
pose. 




DETECTOR 

— £h- 



It 



CaNDEWSER 



PHDNES 



^ GRouiro 



G. H. B., Kankakee, 111. 

Question : I want to find out what 
is meant by "radio frequency." I 
have a friend who says the best sets 



term applied to those frequencies 
which are too high to be detected by 
the human ear, and those frequencies 
which are low enough to be heard 
are called "audio frequency." Usual- 
ly currents which oscillate at less 
than 10,000 times per second are 
called audio frequency, and those 
which oscillate at a higher rate are 
called radio frequency. In order that 
radio frequencies may be heard they 
must first be changed to audio fre- 
quency. This is done by the de- 
tector, no matter whether it is a 
crystal or an audion. Radio signals 
are transmitted at radio frequency 
and changed to audio frequency by 
means of the detector. 
R. E. B. Milwaukee, Wis. 

Question : Is the enclosed cir- 
cuit correct? If not will you please 
set me right and give me a hook-up 
that will work. 

Answer: No. The variable con- 
denser as you show it, is not con- 
nected to the right part of the cir- 
cuit. Correct hook-up at left. 



20 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Radio at Culver 

Students at Culver Military Acad- 
emy have an unusual opportunity not 
only to learn the technical side of 
wireless, but to engage personally 
in the work of sending messages and 
what is more valuable from an edu- 
cational standpoint, in making appa- 
ratus. The following description of 
the wireless station of Culver was 
prepared by a cadet operator, Homer 
M. Barnes, of Chicago, Illinois, a 
young student, fifteen years of age. 

New aerials have been erected dur- 
ing the past year. The old type 
aerial, an inverted L, was done away 
with and a six wire fan erected in 
its place. This fan aerial gave us 
more radiation and extended our re- 
ceiving range. The supporting cable 
of the fan is 95 feet above the ground, 
and supported by two masts which 
are made of angle iron. These towers 
are grounded to the iron frame of 
the building. The six wires, which 
constitute the aerial proper, are each 
70 feet in length. The fundamental 
wave length of this aerial is 255 
meters. 

The receiving equipment consists 
of two distinct sets. One, a short 
wave regenerative for 175-600 
meters, and the other a long wave 
set with a range of 325-18,000 
meters with a heterdyne oscillatory 
circuit for receiving undamped 
traffic. One type S. C. R. 72 two 
stage amplifier is used alone in con- 
nection with a type AC 3 model C 
magnavox power amplifier and a R 
2 18 inch horn. There are several 
S. C. R. 54 portable field sets, which 
are used in the field. 

Radio concerts are heard here reg- 
ularly, and with enough volume and 
clearness to permit the use of twen- 
ty pairs of phones. Some of the 
broadcasting stations heard here are 
WGY, WJZ, KYW, KDKA, WWJ, 
WCX, WOH, and others. The radio 
room is filled with cadets wanting to 
hear the latest popular pieces played 
by the famous jazz orchestras. 

The main transmitting set is a 2 
K. W. 240 cycle Marconi Marine set 
with a synchronous rotary gap with 
a fully equipped switchboard as 
shown in the illustration. The motor 
generator delivers 500 V. A. C. The 
maximum transformer input is 2 K. 
W. which is always varied according 
to the distance over which we are 
communicating. The maximum an- 
tenna current is 9i^ amperes or 375 
meters. The high tension condenser 
bank is made up of 12 Leyden jars 
connected in series parallel, having 
a total capacity of .009 mfds, in order 
not to put too much strain on the 
jars. 



Radio Roster at Chicago Show 

The many exhibitors at the National Radio Exposition, held in the 
Leiter Building, Chicago, from June 26 to July 1st were a live bunch 
of enthusiastic, hard-working, level-headed radio men. Any doubt- 
ing Thomas who needed evidence to convince him that radio is here 
to stay had only to visit this show and absorb some of the forward' 
moving spirit of it. Herewith we publish a list of firms occupying 
booths and names of their representatives. 



Jefferson Electric Mfg. Co., 426 So. 
Green St., Chicago. R. Benson in charge. 

Electric Service Products Co., 10-12 So. 
Wells St. 

Great Lakes Naval Radio School. F. A. 
Mueller, chief Electrician's Mate U. S. 
Navy. 

Indiana Electrical Specialty Co., Mar- 
tinsville, Ind. 

Aerex Radiophone Corp., 342 Madison 
Ave., N. Y. 

Taylor Saver Sales, 3500 Greenview 
Ave., City. 

W. G. Shinn Mfg. Co., L. H. Green- 
wood, N. W. Caldwell, G. L. McCall. 

Lyon & Healy, Chas P. Hindringer. 

North Shore Radio Co., 810 Davis St., 
T. B. Wangeman. 

Continental Radiophone Co., 45th and 
So. Wells St., Otto Henderer, Wm. Sa- 
batay. 

Schreuder-Lockwood Press Syndicate, 
64 W. Randolph St., A. N. Schreuder, W. 
C. Lockwood, F. L. Bollinger, C. W. Hani- 
ka, W. J. Carroll. 

The Barkelew Elect. Mfg. Co. C. W. 
Denny. 

The Heinemann Elect. Co. B. S. Ber- 
lin, S. R. Fralick & Co., 15 So. Clinton, 
Mr. S. R. Fralick, Mr. D. J. Dillon. 

The Davistone Co. Harold L Orwig, 
Miles S. Whitney,, Mr. McCrillus, Harry 
B. Davis. 

Post Electric Co. Richard Allen. 

Maring Wire Co., Muskegon, Mich., F. 
L. Meeske, pres. H. Simpson, Chicago 
rep., 27 So. Desplaines St. 

The A. & R. Co. Mr. Shirk, Mr. Stol- 
ler. 

Ayan Jay Sales Co. ^ N. Afton, C. F. 
Mayer. H. H. Jonesi, Miss Thyra Strand- 
berg, J. F. Mayer. 

Cruver Mfg. Co. William Proudfoot. 

L. S. Branch Mfg. Co., Newark. 

American Electric, 6431 State St. P. 
L. Rose. 

United Mfg. & Distributing Co. A. E. 
Dreier. 

The Benson Co., 2429 So. Michigan 
Blvd. 

Commonwealth- Edison Co. A. W. Ing- 
lis, Dave Miller, R. E. Davis, H. Randol, 
J. Marshall, Geo. B. Foster. 

Hercules Radio Corp. E. B. Miller, 
Chas. C. Gordon, H. J. Birmingham, Ben. 
E. Freund. 

States Radio Corp. Anatol Gallos, Nor- 
man Gallos, J. E. Marshall, J. M. Hays, 
J. W. Tuff. S. Owens, F. L. Damarin. 

W. b. Duntley & Co., A. Fasking, S. 
Fasking, H. J. Theil, W. O. Duntley, C. 
A. Duntley. 

Dodge's Radio Institute, Valparaiso, 
Ind. 

Chicago Radio Dealers, Inc. 

Western Electric Instrument Co., New- 
ark N. J. H. C. Sildorff. 

The Bristol Co., Waterbury, Conn. H. 
G. Hall, M. J. Maquire, R. C. Wilcox. 

Wireless Corp. of America, E. S. Show- 
ers, L. Mandel. H. Mandel. 

M. & M. Mfg. Co., 7447 So. Chicago 
Ave. A. C. McMillen. 

Hipwell Mfg. Co., Pittsburgh. F. M. 
Weaver, in charge. 



The Beckley-Ralston Co., 1801 So. 
Michigan Ave. W. A. Bockius. 

Norbert Radio Co., New York. Wm. 
G. Moyer. 

Drisco Mfg. Co. Harold M. Schwab, 
Inc. 

Philadelphia Storage Battery Co. J. N. 
North, G. M. Netling, E. W. Shepherd, 

E. H. Stupp, H. W. Stoltz. 
Ray-Di-Co. Organization, Inc., 1547 N. 

Wells St., 1215 Leland Ave., Chicago. R. 
O. Ragan in charge. 

Raymond Radio Cor. H. Schwartz in 
charge. 

Radio Club of Illinois. John Tansey, 
Secy. 

Westphal Mfg. Laboratorj% (Railway 
Exchange Bldg., Chicago. 

Radio Digest, Illustrated. E. C. Rayner. 

Electric Research Laboratories (Erea 
Products). . 

Marshall P. Fox, 2515 Michigan Ave. 

Washburn School. M. Georges. 

Coliseum Battery Co., 1841 So. Wabash 
Ave. R. E. Harte. 

Raymond Condensers, 914 Wrigley 
Bldg. 

Herald & Examiner, Victor Crystal 
Receivers, demonstarted by Prof. Ed- 
ward L. Taylor and Prof. C. O. Nelson 
of the Examiner. 

The Nash— Odell Co. I. J. Odell, C. A. 
Nash, R. J. Weston, K. A. Everett, H. J. 
Pomy, Mr. Strohbart, C. W. Jones, U. S. 
Radio Inspector, 172 N. Franklin St., 
Chicago. 

Chicago Radio Co., 123 Madison St. J. 

F. Palmer, Bert Barsook. 

United Radio Laboratories, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Paul P. Ewing, E. W. Wessel- 
man. 

Radio Sales & Service Corp., 1311 First 
Nat'l Bank Bldg, City. M. Ferry, N. J. 
Dowdell, Hoppock. 

Darche Mfg. Co., 643 Washington Blvd., 
City. E. J. Heilman, C. H. Holden. 

Ampli-Radio Co., 1438 Washingtort 
Blvd. Earl L. Smith. 

The General Phonograph Mfg. Co., 
Elyria, O. Homer Stevens, Dan F. Lane, 
R. G. Sidnell. 

Morscan Radio Co. Eugene Scanlon, 
P. D. Jackson. 

Crosley Mfg. Co., Cincinnati, O. 

Jcwett Mfg. Co., Newark, N. J. C. C- 
Goheen. 

Widdicomb Furniture Co. (Radio Cab- 
inets) 327 So. La Salle St. W. E. Ernst. 

Atlas Radio Co., 405 Woods Theatre 
Bldg. M. M. Jess. 

LTniversal Battery Co. C. R. Story, L. 
L. Cochran. 

American Enameled Magnet Wire Co., 
Muskegon, Mich. Thomas F. Kelly. 

American Radio Journal. A. Foster 
George. 

Electric Machine Corp., Indianapolis, 
Ind. B. F. Royse. 

Radio Units, Inc., 843 Webster Bldg., 
City. E. F. Andrews, Frank W. Johnson, 
R. E. Acre. 

Coyne Trade & Engineering School, 39- 
51 E. Illinois St., City. E. L. Richards. 

The Ekko Company, 911 Harris Trust 
Co. H. E. Freund (Phonograph Adap- 
ters). 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



21 



Development of Radiophone Broadcasting 



LR. KRUMM, Superintendent of 
• Radio Operations of the West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company, is one of the best informed 
men on wireless of the present day. 
Mr. Krumm served as Lieutenant 
Colonel, Signal Corps of the A. E. 
F. ; was 18 months in France on the 
stafif of the Chief Signal Officer, Gen. 
Edgar Russell ; and had charge of all 
radio operations of the A. E. F. For 
his service during the War he was 
awarded the Distinguished Service 
Medal by the United States, and the 
Legion D'Honneur by France. Mr. 
Krumm came to the Westinghouse 
Company from the army. Previous 
to his army service he was Chief 
Radio Inspector of the Bureau of 
Navigation, Department of Com- 
merce. 



ON FEBRUARY 27 of this year 
there was held in Washington 
an open hearing before a committee 
of radio engineers, military officers 
and government representatives, ap- 
pointed by the Secretary of Com- 
merce to formulate proposed laws 
and regulations to meet the new 
radio conditions which have devel- 
oped since the termination of the 
war. Nearly two hundred represen- 
tatives of various commercial, ama- 
teur and governmental radio inter- 
ests attended this conference. The 
large number of reporters, photog- 
raphers and moving picture oper- 
ators in attendance also indicated 
the great public interest in this meet- 
ing. 

What caused this sudden interest 
in new radio legislation ? There 
have been no radical changes in the 
radio art as applied to international 
communication between the high 
powered stations in this country and 
those in foreign lands. Neither have 
there been any particular changes in 
radio communication between ships 
and between ships and shore sta- 
tions. There have been some devel- 
opments in radio telephone cohi- 
munication between ships and air- 
plane and ground stations and in re- 
gard to locating ships at sea by 
means of radio and even some ad- 
vance in communicating with sub- 
marines while submerged, but these 
were not the answer to our ques- 
tion. 

$75,000,000 Invested in Radio 

The main purpose of this confer- 
ence was to devise means to meet 
the problems which had arisen 



through the establishment of t he 
radio telephone broadcasting sta- 
tions which are sending out news, 
live stock and grain reports, weather 
forecasts, sermons, speeches and en- 
tertainment and which have caused 
the installation during the last year 




//. P. Davis 

and a half of anywhere from 700,000 
to 1,000,000 radio receiving stations, 
representing a probable expenditure 
of approximately $75,000,000. 

Previous to the establishment of 
broadcasting stations working on ab- 
solutely dependable schedules, the 
public's interest in radio had been 
limited to the technically inclined 
amateur operators with some knowl- 
edge of the electrical principles in- 
volved in radio telegraph communi- 
cation. These men were dyed in the 
wool faddists on radio. They wanted 
to know what "made the wheels go 
round" and how to make them go. 
They wanted to establish radio tele- 
graph transmitting stations. For 
this, it was necessary to study the 
Continental Morse code and secure 
operators' licenses from the govern- 
ment. All this they did in addition 
to investing considerable money and 
time in the purchase and installation 
of the equipment. 

It was estimated before the World 
War that there were some 6,000 
licensed amateur transmitting sta- 
tions and probably 50,000 receiving 
stations which required no license. 
All these were closed during the war. 
The amateur receiving stations were 
allowed to reopen April 15, 1919. On 
October 1, 1919, amateur transmit- 
ting stations were allowed to oper- 



ate again. The amateur radio activ- 
ities had languished during the war 
period and probably there were 
fewer amateur stations after than be- 
fore the war. 

Mr. Conrad's Great Service 

During the war, Mr. Frank Con- 
rad, Assistant Electrical Engineer 
for the Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company, had be- 
come interested in radio work be- 
cause he had given his best efforts 
to assist the government in produc- 
ing the very highest type of radio 
equipment for the army and navy. 
Practically the only type of equip- 
ment which was produced in quan- 
tity and delivered in France in time 
to be of any service to the American 
troops and which met the require- 
ments of warfare was an airplane 
transmitter known as SCR-73 set, 
developed and produced by this com- 
pany and its subsidiaries. Mr. Con- 
rad's activities covered, however, 
more than this equipment, as he was 
also interested in the development 
of various types of radio telephone 
sets. To aid him in his experiments 
he was given a special license to 
operate during the war a radio tele- 
phone at his home at Pittsburgh, Pa. 

After the armistice he retained his 
interests in his work and, operating 
under this special license was able 
to continue development of his radio 
telephone station to a degree of suc- 
cess exceeding anything heretofore 
attained. The Westinghouse Com- 
pany, which, previous to the war, 
had no radio interests, also decided 
that a company of its magnitude 
could no longer exclude radio from 
its activities and had entered this 
branch of the electrical business. It 
was intensely interested in Mr. Con- 
rad's researches and he continued his 
work with its encouragement and as- 
sistance. 

In the winter of 1919 Mr. Conrad 
established at his residence in Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., a radio telephone broad- 
■ casting station and began the regu- 
lar broadcasting of music and enter- 
tainment. This station was then 
known as 8XK, the call letters as- 
signed in the new license he carried 
from the Department of Commerce. 
At first his efforts were confined to 
the broadcasting of phonograph 
music every Wednesday and Friday 
night. Soon his supply of records 
was exhausted and one night, in re- 
sponse to many letters requesting 
the latest popular music, he an- 



22 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



nounced that he had exliaut-ted his 
records and was financially embar- 
rassed trying to keep up with the 
demand for newer music and sug- 
gested that possibly his hearers 
would like to help him out in this 
dilemma. He was the recipient of 
nearly 500 records. The magnitude 
of the response to this appeal indi- 
cated the appreciation of his audi- 
ence and the demand for its continu- 
ance. 

Music Transmitted Direct 

He broadened his activities by 
providing a studio in which artists, 
instrumental and vocal, could render 
selections for transmission from his 
radio station, a short distance away. 

Mr. H. P. Davis, Vice President 
of the Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company, who was 
largely responsible for his company 
entering the radio field, had been 
watching not only the technical de- 
velopment of the equipment but also 
the attitude of the public towards 
broadcasting, realized the necessity 
of providing this service in a system- 
atic and properly organized man- 
ner as a part of his company's busi- 
ness operations, and, therefore, in 
the fall of 1920, began the construc- 
tion of a broadcasting station at the 
East Pittsburgh plant. 

Experiments were carried on for 
several weeks previous to election 
night in November, 1920, when it 
was intended to inaugurate this ser- 
vice by broadcasting the election re- 
turns. A special license was obtained 
from the government radio inspector 
in Detroit, Mich., and the call letters 
8ZZ were assigned to the station in 
the beginning. 

The election results were start- 
lingly satisfactory and the letters of 
appreciation received by the com- 
pany dispersed any doubts as to the 
advisability of continuing broadcast- 
ing. Plans for the improvement and 
enlargement of the station were im- 
mediately inaugurated and regular 
nightly programs were announced 
with specially selected artists as en- 
tertainers. A wave length of 330 
meters was originally assigned to 
this station. 

It was immediately evident that 
suitable programs must be provided 
for Sundays, as the ordinary enter- 
tainment did not seem appropriate. 
This naturally resulted in the desire 
to broadcast church services, but this 
required additional technical devel- 
opment, as it was desired to transmit 
the complete service from the chimes 
to the postlude. It was therefore 
necessary to devise equipment which 
could be installed in the church, pick 
up the choir and congregational sing- 



ing, the sermon and oral parts of the 
service and amplify them sufficiently 
so that they could be transmitted 
over the telpehone line without dis- 
tortion. Remember, this required 
transmission over thirteen miles of 
telephone line and cable. The acous- 
tics of most' churches leave much to 
be desired and this line transmitting 
was no simple problem. 

Radio in the War 

Much was printed during the war 
regarding" the radio telephone devel- 
opments for our fighting forces. 
While many interesting develop- 
ments resulted and some funda- 
mental principles founded there was 
very little practical application of 
radio telephony during the war, and 
practically none by the fighting 
forces. In the development work 
Mr. Conrad had been an active par- 
ticipant and he began his broadcast- 
ing work with this war experience 
as a basis and used the personnel 
and manufacturing facilities of the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufac- 
turing Company. 

W'hen the company took up broad- 
casting actively they immediately 
provided the necessary funds to 
develop it to the utmost. It is not 
exaggeration to state that their sta- 
tion at East Pittsburgh, now known 
as KDKA, the matured successor of 
8ZZ, has never been more than one 
week old in the sense that better and 
improved forms of equipment are 
continuously being provided. KDKA 
may, therefore, be called the father 
of the broadcasting activities in this 
country today. 

It is true that radio telephone 
broadcasting had been attempted 
spasmodically even previous to the 
war. Various experimenters had sent 
out music from their stations in the 
course of their efforts to develop 
radio telephony. These experiments 
had been with varying results as to 
quality and were never maintained 
with any regularity or dependability 
so that the war found this coimtry 
without any commercial or reliable 
radio telephony. Wartime develop- 
ments indicated the possibilities 
which the coming of peace made 
realities. During the war all com- 
mercial radio activities were sus- 
pended by government decree. The 
development of KDKA since that 
time has just been followed. 

After KDKA had been operated 
for nearl-y a year and its practica- 
bility demonstrated the Westing- 
house Company proceeded to estab- 
lish additional stations at their 
branch factories at Newark, N. J., 
and East Springfield. Mass. These 
were opened in the fall of 1921. With 



the establishment of the additional' 
stations the Department of Com- 
merce had assigned a wave length 
of 360 meters to all the Westing- 
house Stations. 

On November 11, 1921, Armistice 
Day, an anniversary of the war, 
which in a way was the father of 
broadcasting, the Westinghouse 
Company opened its broadcasting 
station located on the Common- 
wealth Edison Building at Chicago, 
Illinois. This station was opened by 
arrangement with the Chicago Edi- 
son Company, who desired to open 
it with the broadcasting of complete 
grand opera from the Auditorium 
Theatre, Chicago, which started its 
season the following Monday, Xo- 
vember 14, 1921. 

This, as far as the writer knows, 
was the first case in which complete 
grand opera from the overture at the 
beginning to the final chorus was 
sent out by radio telephone. 

Each of the Westinghouse stations 
cover a different section of the coun- 
try, but each has been successful in 
arousing great interest and causing 
the installation of innumerable re- 
ceiving stations. 

Confusion in Broadcasting 

Other business interests estab- 
lished broadcasting stations each of 
which was assigned to the 360 meter 
wave length. 

The operation of all these stations 
on the wave length originally as- 
signed the Westinghouse stations 
had brought up a chaotic condition 
in the ether which brought about the 
conference referred to in the begin- 
ning of this article. 

It was evident that provision must 
be made to assign different wave 
lengths to the various stations which 
must be classified as to range and 
purpose and that limitations must 
be imposed as to schedule, power 
and area of activity. The enormous 
publicity given the Westinghouse 
Company because of its pioneer ac- 
tivities attracted the attention of 
many firms who desired to do like- 
wise, without a realization of the 
time and money expended or that 
the greatest expense of the proper 
operation of such a station is the 
facilities necessary for the improve- 
ment and development of the equip- 
ment, such as are usually only avail- 
able to a company interested in the 
manufacture of radio equipment. 
Secretary Hoover of the Department 
of Commerce recognized that unre- 
stricted establishment of broadcast- 
ing stations would result in bedlam 
and therefore inaugurated the move- 
ment which resulted in the commit- 
(Contimicd on page 32) 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



23 



Marconi Describes Radio Searchlight 




S — /, e Marconi is in this country for a visit, having sailed from Italy on his yacht "Electra," 

which is the most elaborately equipped floating radio laboratory in the world. Read what 

Senatore Marconi has to say about amazing "radio searchlight" 



THE radio searchlight, a method 
by which radio waves trans- 
mitted from a broadcasting 
station can be reflected in any de- 
sired direction, just as light rays are 
directed from a searchlight, was an- 
nounced by Senatore Guglielmo 
Marconi in his address before a joint 
meeting of the Institute of Radio 
Engineers and the American Insti- 
tute of Electrical Engineers in New 
"^'ork, Tuesday night, June 20. 

At present radio wa\es, upon leav- 
ing the antenna, scatter in all direc- 
tions. His appaiatus, which in no 
way resembles a searchlight but is 
a series of wires arranged in a special 
way on towers or masts, sends the 
message through the ether in one 
direction only, Marconi said. He am- 
plified his words by a demonstration 
in the hall. Messages transmitted 
were picked up clearly on one side 
of the room but could scarcely be 
heard with similar receiving appara- 
tus on the other, and vice versa. 

With his system of reflectors, Mar- 
coni stated that he had successfully 
conducted radio telephone conver- 
sations between London and Bir- 
mingham, a distance of 100 miles. 
This is a record in long distance 
radio transmission and reception 
with very short waves. In all these 



experiments the wavelength varied 
from one to twenty meters. 

The reflectors make it possible for 
the receiving station to reproduce a 
telephone song or speech about two 
hundred times louder than is now 
]>ossible and without distortion. The 
transmitting aerial can be used both 
for transmitting and receiving at 
the same time. 

"In these days of broadcasting, it 
may still prove to be very useful to 
have a practically new system which 
would be to a very large degree 
secret when compared to the usual 
kind of radio," said Marconi. 

The Radio Beacon 

Marconi described a revolving 
transmitter and reflector which acts 
as a kind of wireless lighthouse or 
beacon. "By means of the revolving- 
beam," he stated, "it is possible for 
ships to ascertain in thick weather 
the bearing and position of the light- 
house." 

In wireless, electric energy is 
flashed into space in waves. The 
distance from one wave crest to an- 
other is called "the wave-length" 
and is usually expressed in meters. 
In these days, when radio is the 
hobby of millions, the wave-length. 



may be anything from 200 to 20,000 
meters. In other words, the ether 
of space is shaken into terrific bil- 
lows compared with which the 
mightiest upheavals of the ocean are 
mere ripples. 

"As far back as 1895 and 1896, 
I had obtained some promising re- 
sults with waves not more than a 
few inches long," said Marconi. He 
then proceeded to describe how he 
had returned to his original idea of 
using short waves. 

Marconi stated that when very 
short waves are used, disturbances 
caused by static can be said to be 
almost non-existent and the only in- 
terference comes from the ignition 
apparatus of automobiles and motor- 
boats. He predicted that, " the day 
may come when we will have to 
screen our ignition systems or carry 
a government license for transmit- 
ting." 

Radio Around the Earth 

"The question as to whether it 
would be possible to transmit radio 
signals right around the world is 
one which has always fascinated 
me," Marconi assured his hearers. 
He discovered that "there is some- 
thing in the idea of the wireless 
waves traveling around the earth in 



24 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



various ways and reuniting at the 
Antipodes." Sometimes these radio 
waves traveling around the earth in 
different ways reenforce each other 
at the receiver and sometimes they 
interfere with each other. Tuning, 
however, overcomes the interference. 
The enormous station built by the 
Radio Corporation of America at 
Port Jefferson, Long Island, Marconi 
found, sent waves which "preferred 
to travel three-quarters of the way 
around the earth rather than come 
the shortest way round." 

Static, a subject to which the re- 
search engineers of the Radio Cor- 
poration of America have devoted 
much study in this country, was also 
discussed by Marconi. He told his 
hearers that there are particularly 
violent types of static over Africa 
and South America, but that static 
did not interfere very seriously in 
transoceanic commmunication in 
temperate zones. 

Senatore Marconi is visiting this 
country for the first time in a decade 
as guest of the Radio Corporation 
of America. 



For Radio Amateurs 

Among the books received for re- 
view during the past month is 
"Radio for the Amateur" published 
by The Goodheart-Willcox Com- 
pany, 2009 South Michigan avenue, 
Chicago. It is a book of 208 pages 
by A. H. Packer and R. R. Haugh 
($1.50 postpaid). 

It's a good book because it is 
original, and because every word in 
it can be easily understood. It does 
not reproduce formerly published 
material. It is written with clear- 
sighted originality and with a hu- 
man appreciation of the fact that 
there are some things that the ama- 
teur does not want to know about, 
and does not need to be puzzled 
over, but that there are certain basic 
principles that he must understand 
if he is to understand what he is 
doing when he is playing with 
"radio." 



Russell Productions, Inc., already 
famous for their "little picture" de- 
monstrating the "how" of making a 
radio receiving set for 60 cents, will 
come back with an immense produc- 
tion called "Saved By Radio" — the 
biggest and most timely feature of 
the year starring George Larkin in 
whose support will appear such well 
known stars as Jacqueline Logan, 
Harry Northrup and Andrew Ar- 
bucl.'ie. 



(Continued from Page 12) 
reverse the potential to 2 volts posi- 
tive, then the current in the plate cir- 
cuit will have changed from 2 micro 
amperes to 40 micro amperes, which 
would be the practical limit of 
change in that particular tube. From 
this chart it will be seen how, with 



f 



4^ 
36 












/ 





3,9 












/ 




P8 










/ 






2.4 










/ 






PC) 








1 








lb 
IZ 
8 








/ 












1 


/ 














/ 














y 


/ 












' 


y 


/ 












-1 


-i 


3 


-i 






> O +2. -f4 
0/V GRID 



FIGURE 4. 

extremely small changes in the grid 
circuit, very large changes will take 
place in the plate circuit and the sig- 
nals are amplified many times in the 
head phones. 

Vacuum Tube as an Oscillator 

If a proper coupling is made be- 
tween the plate and grid circuits, 
continuous oscillations may be pro- 
duced with the valve. 

Figure 5 shows a circuit of this 
kind, in which the inductance "L" 
in the grid circuit and the inductance 
"LI" of the plate circuit are coupled 
together in such a way that any 
change in the current in "LI" will 




FIC^UKE 5. 



produce a voltage in "L." Now as- 
sume that the filament is heated and 
a steady current of a certain value is 
flowing in the plate circuit, through 
the inductance "LI." Now any 
change in the current flowing 
through the inductance "LI" will in- 
duce a voltage in the coil "L." If the 
coil "L" is connected so that increas- 
ing the current in "LI" induces a 
voltage in "L" of such a value as to 
charge the grid positive with respect 
to the filament, a greater increase 
will take place in the current in the 
coil "LI." This will increase the 
positive charge on the grid still 
more, by induction and ."-c on. This 
action continues until it reaches a 
point where an increase in voltage on 
the grid ceases to cause an increase 
in the current in the coil "LI." This 
point depends upon the characteris- 
tic curve of the particular bulb used 
and the resistance of the circuit. 
When the current in the coil "LI" 
ceases to increase the charge on the 
grid drops to zero and the current in 
"LI" begins to decrease. Now if an 
increase in the current in "LI" gives 
the grid a positive charge by in- 
ductive action, then a decrease in it 
will make it negative in respect to 
the filament, which will cause the 
current in "LI" to decrease to a 
point where a decrease in the grid 
potential causes no further decrease 
in the current in the coil "LI," when 
the conditions will be reversed and 
the current in "LI" will begin to rise 
again, repeating the cycle just de- 
scribed. By this means the plate 
current is made to rise and fall with 
a definite frequency. This frequency 
will depend upon the inductance "L" 
and the condenser "C." It is possi- 
ble, by properly choosing the induct- 
ance and capacity, to produce oscilla- 
tions in such a circuit ranging from 
..5 to 100,000,000 cycles per second. 
This is a description of only one of 
the many oscillating circuits. 



KDKA, the radiophone broadcast- 
ing station of the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, 
East Pittsburgh, Pa., first station in 
the world to broadcast concerts on 
a schedule basis is the first of the 
American radiophone stations to be 
heard south of the Equator, having 
been picked up by a ship operator 
while in the port of Iquique, Chile. 

Solder Your Connections 

for best results. Get the "Wonder" a Ssif Heating 

Iron. Use it anywhere withoat stove. No workshop 
complete without it. Cheap to operate. Generatea 
. own vapor in two minutes. Absolutely safe — a child 
J '-an operate. Nothing to get out of order. Use it as a 
I blow torch also. Boxed complete with Bolder, sala- 
I moniac and full soldering directions. Send No 
I Money — just your name and address on a post card. 
' When the postman delivers, pay him $2.50. 

Dralrre—a bio eelUr . writp. for provoeition. 

North Shore Radio Works, Dept. B-604 
810 Davis Street, Evanston, III. 



I 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



25 



Market and Crop News by Uncle Sam's Radio 

Official Information Supplied by the Government Bureau 



THE radio market news service 
of the Federal Bureau of Mar- 
kets and Crop Estimates is an 
effort on the part of the Bureau to 
make its market news more imme- 
diately available and more effective 
than it can be made in any other 
way. Ever since the inauguration of 
the first market news service on 
fruits and vegetables in May, 1915, 
the specialists of the Bureau have 
given continuous study to the prob- 
lem of supplying market news on 
agricultural commodities to those 
cooperates with all agencies pos- 
who may have use for such informa- 
tion as quickly as possible after it 
can be obtained. 

The market news service of the 
Bureau cover live stock and meats ; 
dairy and poultry products ; fruits 
and vegetables ; hay, feed and seeds, 
and some other commodities asso- 
ciated with these four general 
groups. The information is supplied 
to and is utilized by producers, ship- 
pers, dealers, brokers and commis- 
sion men, manufacturers, warehouse- 
men, demonstration and extension 
workers, banks, transportation agen- 
cies, chambers of commerce, buying 
and selling organizations, and other 
commercial, extension and educa- 
tion agencies. 

It is the function of the Bureau 
to gather or assemble market infor- 
mation from reliable sources and dis- 
tribute it in such a way as to make 
it available to the greatest possible 
number who wish to use it. In per- 
forming this function it utilizes and 
cooperates with all agencies pos- 
sible. It affiliates with State agen- 
cies which may or may not have 
similar functions with respect to the 
State as the Federal Bureau of Mar- 
kets and Crop Estimates has to the 
Federal Government. It utilizes the 
railroads for information relative to 
shipments and movements. In one 
way or another, it assembles infor- 
mation from every available source 
where such information can be ob- 
tained. 

Broadcasting by Radio 

In utilizing radio communication 
as a means of disseminating crop 
and market information, the Bureait 
of Markets and Crop Estimates is 
taking advantage of one of the agen- 
cies which has certain possibilities 
possessed by none that has been 
used in the past. This new method 



/^OMPL YING with a special re- 
\^ quest from the Editor of Radio 
Age, Mr. W. R. Wheeler, of the 
U. S. Bureau of Markets and Crop 
Estimates, has supplied the follow- 
ing information which will be of 
universal interest and of particular 
interest to all lines of business asso- 
ciated with agriculture, grain and 
produce exchanges, transportation 
agencies, warehousemen and banks. 



makes it possible for all who wish 
this information to help themselves 
to it, if they will but equip them- 
selves to receive it in the form in 
which it is sent. The advantages of 
broadcasting information by radio 
are (1) that the information can be 
intercepted or copied by means of 
suitable equipment at any point with- 
in certain approximate limits 
whether or not such point is con- 
nected by railroad, telegraph or any 
other of the ordinary means of com- 
munication and (2) that the trans- 
mission of the news is instantaneous. 
These two factors in radio com- 
munication make it possible for any- 
one, whether he is located in a con- 
gested city or in the country, one 
hundred miles from the railroad or 
telegraph wire to receive information 
with equal dispatch. Radio trans- 
mission can be effected either by 
the international telegraph code, 
using dots and dashes, or by radio 
telephone. The radio telephone has 
the greatest possible range of use- 
fulness and will probably become al- 
most as widely used as the ordinary 
telephone or the phonograph. 

Reception of Reports 

Crop and market reports sent out 
broadcast by radio can be received 
by any agency having suitable equip- 
ment. With the development of 
broadcasting by radiophone there 
has developed a demand for receiv- 
ing equipment from many sources. 
Not much greater technical knowl- 
edge is required to receive the re- 
port by radiophone than to use an 
ordinary telephone. 

The broadcast reports are being 
utilized by various marketing agen- 
cies and agricultural organizations 
in giving to farmers national crop 
and market reports which are often 
combined with local market infor- 
mation. These agencies and asso- 
ciations act as centers for informa- 



tion for the country or locality and 
include farm bureaus, banks, ship- 
ping associations, commercial ex- 
changes, chambers of commerce and 
newspapers. In addition to these 
agencies the reports are being re- 
ceived direct by farmers, country ele- 
vators, dealers, shippers and many 
others who use the information in 
the conduct of their business. In 
some instances it may be to the ad- 
vantage of the community or to 
individuals or an organization to en- 
list the aid of a local radio amateur 
to get the news and the weather, 
crop and market reports. 

How Service Developed 

Since the radio market news serv- 
ice was begun experimentally by the 
Federal Bureau of Markets, on Dec. 
15, 1920 it has developed very rapid- 
ly so that, at the present time the 
national market news is not only 
being distributed by the Bureau but 
other agencies are extending the dis- 
tribution of the national crop and 
market reports as well as local re- 
ports. The reports originally were 
sent out at 5 p. m. each day from 
the station of the Bureavi of Stand- 
ards, through the co-operation of the 
U. S. Department' of Commerce. 

This was continued for four 
months to determine the practic- 
ability of the method. 

When it became apparent that 
this method would not only be prac- 
ticable but also more economical and 
efficient for certain kinds of distri- 
bution than any other agencies, the 
Bureau of Markets accepted the offer 
of the Post Office Department to 
utilize the radio stations of the air 
mail radio service in the dissemina- 
tion of crop and market i^eports. 

At the present time the air mail 
radio service is broadcasting the 
crop and market reports from six of 
its stations. Of these six stations, 
two of them, Washington, D. C, 
and Omaha, Neb., procure their in- 
formation directly from the Bureau 
of Markets and Crop Estimates 
offices. The others, extending at 
about 350 miles intervals west from 
Omaha to the Pacific Coast, act as 
relay stations for the Omaha report. 

Many of the universities and agri- 
cultural colleges giving instruction 
in radio communication in connec- 
tion with their departments of phy- 
sics or electrical engineering, have 
set up programs of broadcasting 



26 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



either alone or in coopeiation with 
the State marketing agencies. This 
work began with the dissemination 
of weather reports from the Kansas 
State Agricultural College in 1916. 
Crop and market reports are now 
being broadcast from several univer- 
sities and colleges. The number of 
stations broadcasting the weather, 
crop and market reports is increasing 
almost daily. The additions to this 
list can be secured by addressing the 
Radio News Service of the Bureau 
of Markets and Crop Estimates, 
Washington, D. C. 

Leased Wires Inadequate 

The leased wire service of the 
Bureau of Markets and Crop Esti- 
mates was established in 1916 and 
during the past six years as many 
as 17,600 miles of leased wire and 
61 branch of?ces have been in opera- 
tion. The leased wire has been used 
to carry reports from the markets, 
shipment information and reports 
from shipping points as to supply, 
demand, and f.o.b. prices. Even in 
its most extended form, the leased 
wire with the largest number of 
branch offices was never able to 
reach more than a small percentage 
of the people interested. 

The function of the leased wire 
will not be changed or curtailed by 
the establishment of the radio me- 
thod but will be the nucleus of an 
effective system employing wired 
telegraph and telephone as well as 
radio telegraph and telephone, and 
may be extended. 

The Air Mail Radio Service of the 
Post Office Department was estab- 
lished primarily to give communi- 
cation between the Hying fields, in 
connection with the transportation 
of mail by airplanes. These stations 
have to be available for service a 
large part of the day but have con- 
siderable time which is not neces- 
sarily occupied in the business of 
the air mail service. The tnarket re- 
ports are sent out on schedules which 
are adapted to the unoccupied time 
at the stations. 

Forms of Reports 

Certain types of market informa- 
tion can be put into a form for rapid 
transmission by use of standard 
forms and code letters. This does 
not involve the ordinary use of code 
words and the necessity of coding 
and decoding the messages received 
but it does make necessary the send- 
ing and receiving of messages on a 
special form. Inasmuch as the send- 
er and receiver use identical forms 
it is possible by the use of the code 
letters preceding each blank space in 



which information is to be copied to 
transmit lapidly a large amount of 
information prepared in standard- 
ized form. By use of such special 
forms and regular transmitting 
schedules a very effective service can 
be developed. This field has only 
been- touched upon and great im- 
provements undoubtedly will be de- 
veloped in the handling of informa- 
tion in this way by both radio tele- 
phone and radio telegraph. 

Cooperation with States 
In a number of States, the State 
bureaus of markets and State exten- 
sion departments, are cooperating 
with the Federal Bureau of IMarkets 
and Crop Estimates in organizing 
the agricultural communities to re- 
ceive and utilize radio crop and mar- 
ket reports. In some cases they have 
established information centers 
which serve as distribution points 
for sending out the information 
through ^•arious channels. In some 
cases progressi\e agricultural coun- 
ties have installed receiving equip- 
ment in connection with farmers' 
organizations so that the informa- 
tion will be available to the county 
agent for further extension either 
through the daily newspapers, tele- 
phone exchanges, or other agencies. 
It is probable that an important ap- 
plication of the radio service will be 
•through organizations or institutions 
which will install equipment with 
competent operators to recei\e the 
reports and distribute them or make 
them available to individuals or 
groups or organizations of producers. 
Since the radiophone is coming into 
more general use, many of those en- 
gaged in prodticing or marketing 
farm products are installing equip- 
ment to receive the reports directly 
as no special trained operator is 
necessary to operate the equipment. 



Tile State marketing agencies that 
ha\ e either made installations of 
equipment or arranged for broad- 
casting are : 

New Jersey liureau of Markets, 
Trenton, N. J. 

The Alabama Markets Division, 
.Montgomery, Ala. 

Iowa Agricultural Extension Serv- 
ice, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa. 

Minnesota Division of Markets, 
St. Paul, Minn. 

Missouri State Marketing Bureau 
Jefferson City, Mo. 

Nebraska Bureau of Markets & 
Marketing, Lincoln, Neb. 

New York State Division Foods 
& Markets, Albany, N. Y. 

Ohio Division of Markets, Colum- 
bus, Ohio. 

Pennsylvania Bureau of Markets, 
Harrisburg, Pa. 

Texas Division of Markets and 
Warehouse Dept., Austin, Tex. 

Texas Bureau of Markets, Dept. of 
Agric, Austin, Texas. 

Wisconsin Department of Mar- 
kets, Madison, Wis. 

Massachusetts Division of Mar- 
kets, Boston. Mass. 

Colorado Division of Marketing 
and College of Agriculture Cooper- 
ating, Ft. Collins, Colo. 

Arrangements in other States are 
under consideration. 



How to Make a Home Radio Set 

To cost from $6 00 to $20.00. 
Contains complete instructions 
for the construction of a prac- 
tical home receiving station at 
small cost. 

The Book Every Boy Wants 

Price 25c post paid 

THE UNIVERSAL PRESS Mc Clurg Building, Chicago 

ACENTS WANTED 



GET IN on This Special Short Term Subscription Offer 

RADIO AGE 

Six Months For A Dollar 

Brimful of everything the Radio fan should know. Each issue a liberal 
education. Sur'elv you will want the coming six numbers of RADIO 
AGE. It's 25 ce'nts on the newsstands— $2.50 a year by subscription. 
Just pin a dollar (currency, check or money order) to this blank — mail 
today and we'll enter you for a six months' subscription— really TWO 
M'NIBER.S FREE 

RADIO AGE, Circulation Department, 64 West Randolph Street, CHICAGO 

XAME STREET 

CITV STATE 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



27 



Radio News from Coast to Coast 



ALABAMA 

Farmers of Alabama and adjoin- 
ing states, are getting daily market, 
crop and weather reports from the 
broadcasting station of the Alabama 
Power Co., of Birmingham. 

ARKANSAS 

Invitations to the Police Chiefs 
-onvention in San Francisco were 
sent broadcast by radio and a keen 
rivalry resulted in Fort Smith, as 
elsewhere, among amateurs seeking 
to first receive and deliver the mes- 
sages to their local chiefs. 

CALIFORNIA 

Bus passengers in Oakland are 
entertainment on their way to and 
from work by radio programs. 

Walter Brinkop, Republican can- 
didate for state treasurer, used radio 
transmission to broadcast his 
speeches. 

COLORADO 

A radiophone address was made 
from an airplane by Secretary of 
State Carl S. Milliken. 

ILLINOIS 

Among the many radio tourists 
who have passed through Chicago 
is Wallace Blood, of Detroit, bound 
for San Francisco with full radio- 
phone equipment in his sedan car. 

Foreign exchange and Chicago 
stock market quotations are broad- 
cast daily. 

Thieves stole the radio set from 
the Friendship Center church. It 
was valued at $250. 

One hundred and fifty men were 
enlisted in the radio branch of the 
Illinois National Guard which went 
into camp at Camp Grant on July 
17th. The outfit is known as the 
33rd Signal Co. 

The Rev. George Craig Stewart, 
St. Luke's Episcopal Church, Evans- 
ton, said radio might assist in reli- 
gious work but it would not interfere 
Avith church work nor supplant it. 

W. K. Mclver, of Elgin, has a 
receiving set with which he can pick 
up Schenectady, Indianapolis, De- 
troit, Chicago, Kansas City and Mad- 
ison. He has even heard San Fran- 
cisco. He says he has definitely iden- 
tified more than sixty broadcasting 
stations and he attributes his success 
to his own "Elgin Spider" tuning 
coil. 

Lawrence B. Schmitt, for more 
than a year and a half inspector of 
the Ninth radio district, with head- 
quarters in Chicago, has resigned to 
open a Chicago office for the Ship 
Owners' Radio Service, Inc., of New 
York. E. A. Beane, formerlv in- 



spector with headquarters in New 
York, succeeded Mr. Schmitt. 

Belleville, with upwards of 80 re- 
ceiving sets, has organized a radio 
club. 

Naval radio compass stations have 
been opened at Whitefish Point, De- 
tour Point and Grand Marais, Mich. 
The U. S. naval communication serv- 
ice will furnish lake vessels with 
their bearings. The stations were 
built and are operated under the 
supervision of Capt. Waldo Evans, 
Ninth naval district. 

IOWA 

The Ames Times warns its readers 
against permitting aerials to come in 
contact with electric light wires. 
Do you remember the old story of 
the old maid who sat by a river 
and wept distressingly. When they 
asked her why she wept, she said, 
"I was thinking what if I should get 
married and have two children and 
they should both fall in this river 
and drown." 

INDIANA 

An electrical baking apparatus was 
manipulated by radio at Muncie's an- 
nual pure food show. And it was 
good bread. 

The Rochester Radio Co. is re- 
ceiving and distributing market re- 
ports from Chicago, Indianapolis, 
Peru and Rochester, in co-operation 
with the Rochester Sun. 

KENTUCKY 

Walter Shackleton of the Kraus- 
gill Piano Co., Louisville, attached 
his aerial lead wire to the bars of 
the cashier's cage. Result : radio 
music and everything. Anybody 
who can get anything out of a cash- 
ier's cage these days is going some. 

LOUISIANA 

The lighting mains of the city of 
New Orleans have been successfully 
used as a radio telephone receiving 
antenna by G. Kerley, chief electri- 
cian of the Uneedme Service Com- 
pany on Camp street. 

MICHIGAN 

The state department of public 
safety contemplates using radio for 
automobiles and motorcycles of the 
state police. If experiments are suc- 
cessful six large stations will be 
erected. 

William J. O'Brien was the first 
to equip his canoe at Belle Isle with 
radio. 

Joseph Gerou, admiral of the Elks' 
cruise had the craft equipped with 
radio by which the cruisers received 
daily programs from the Detroit 
News station. 



Passengers on a moving street car 
heard an entertainment broadcast 
by the Detroit News station. 

Modart Corset Co. at Saginaw has 
installed radio for entertaniment ot 
employees during rest hour. 

Practically all of Detroit's high 
schools will have radio courses this 
fall. 

WCX, Detroit reached Saranac 
Lake, N. Y., with music to cheer 
victims of tuberculosis in camp 
there. 

Marquette reports that installa- 
tion of radio on lake boats has proved 
useful and entertaining. 

NEBRASKA 

Omaha is testing the use of radio 
on its police automobiles. 

The Omaha World Herald broad- 
casts programs by arrangement with 
the Omaha Grain Exchange station. 

The Omaha Bee broadcasts pro- 
grams through the Omaha Grain Ex 
change station WAAW. 

OHIO 

Fred King, aviator, flying fri m 
Chicago to Cleveland, heard an or- 
chestra concert from KYW, Chicago, 
while he was speeding along 2..^00 
feet in the air. 

John H. Chase, head of the play- 
ground association, says Youngs- 
town's 1,000 radio fans should 
federate for mutual benefit and as- 
surance that addresses and concerts 
which they wish to hear will be 
broadcast. Mr. Chase was disap- 
pointed at failure to broadcast a 
speech by Secretary Herbert Floover, 
delivered in Youngstown. 

NEW YORK 

John H. Morecroft, associate pro- 
fessor of Electrical Engineering at 
Columbia University predicts 5,000,- 
000 receiving sets will be in operation 
in the United States within fi\c 
years. 

Dr. R. B. Henline, ship's surgeon 
on the SS "America" was puzzled by 
the symptoms of a patient when the 
vessel was 500 miles out at sea. He 
communicated by radio with a New 
York specialist and the patient was 
restored to health. 

The station atop the Walker Lis- 
])enard building in New York City is 
said to be the highest. Towers 100 
feet tall support aerials abo\e the 
roof of the 24-story structure. 

NEW JERSEY 

Mrs. Avery Lord Elizabeth, re- 
ports that she picked up Chicago 
\\ith a crystal set. Experts say it 
could only be done with the aid of 
freak currents. 



28 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Radio Aids Davenport Ammeters and Voltmeter 



Radio, to catch criminals, is a new- 
law enforcing weapon put into the 
hands of the Davenport poHce de- 
partment today by Dr. B. J. Palmer, 
who has donated to the city the use 
of his powerful wireless station at 
any time the police may call for this 
help. 

An automobile is stolen. 

The thief speeds toward Des 
Moines. 

The theft is reported to the po- 
lice. 

The police call the P. S. C. radio 
station. 

Broadcast, to 20,000 stations with- 
in a radius of 300 miles of Daven- 
port, goes the notice of the theft, 
the make, model, description and li- 
cense number of the stolen machine. 
Farmers who receive weather and 
crop reports by radio daily, get the 
description of the missing car and 
are put on the lookout for it. Police 
in the towns around are notified by 
the amateur wireless operators and 
inside of a few minutes a network 
of invisible wireless waves is tangle- 
foot for the feet of the thief. 

This broadcasting of crime no- 
tices will be used for all classes of 
misdeeds in which the police be- 
lieve the criminal may have left for 
other cities. No matter what busi- 
ness it is transacting, the Palmer 
School of Chiropractic radio will 
stop and broadcast the crime warn- 
ing whenever the Davenport police 
chief calls for this service. The chief 
believes it will be a big help and Dr. 
Palmer is enthusiastic over its pos- 
sibilities. — Davenport (la.) Demo- 
crat and Leader. 



The American Art Mache' Com- 
pany, Chicago, some time ago de- 
veloped a process of die-casting wood 
fiber into any desired form. Their 
earlier products included a wide 
range of wood castings to replace 
hand-carved wood, as for instance m 
interior trim for fine homes for sta- 
tuary, etc. 

But their discovery that "Madera- 
ware" had remarkable acoustic prop- 
erties for horns for radio has led 
them to abandon practically every 
other line of manufacture and to con- 
centrate their large producing facili- 
ties upon the manufacture of radio 
horns. 



The Radio Corporation of Ameri- 
ca has issued a new publication 
"Radio Enters The Home," which 
comprises descriptive matter on the 
highest quality radio apparatus avail- 
able for public use. 



A direct current ammeter connect- 
ed in circuit with the filament of a 
tube will show whether or not the 
filament is receiving the proper cir- 
cuit for best operation, and whether 
the current is steady or variable. A 
variable current means poor contact 
or that the "A" battery needs charg- 
ing. For a single tube, an instru- 
ment of 1.5 or 2 amperes capacity 
is sufficient for most of the tubes 
commonly used. For one or more 
stages of amplification, an ammeter 
should be connected in each filament 
circuit separately. 

Some sets are operated satisfac- 
torily using a voltmetre across the 
filaments of all tubes and adjusting 
according to voltage. 

Both the ammeter and the volt- 
meter will show loose connections 
and will provide a visible means of 
adjusting so that "previous settings" 
which have proved satisfactory may 
be duplicated immediately. A direct 
current voltmeter of a range 0-8 or 
0-10 volts should be used to test 
the "A'' battery to ascertain if it is 
properly charged. 

It is always essential to good oper- 
ation to have plenty of "B" battery 
voltage. These batteries do not de- 
liver much current and are made up 
of a number of small cells connected 
together and sealed up in wax. The 
voltage of a "B" unit is about 22 
volts, so that a voltmeter of 25 volts 
range would apply for each unit. 
Since the number of "B" battery 
units may be varied, a voltmeter for 
each unit is more satisfactory. In 
case of trouble, each unit should 
be tested separately to find out if 
the voltage is low. 

Without instruments, in case of 
trouble excessive current may be ap- 
plied to the filament, lessening the 
life of the tube. 

The ammeters and voltmeters 
manufactured by the Westinghouse 
Company are similar to the large 
instruments used by that company at 
its radio broadcasting stations. Both 
types of instruments are made with 
a variety of scale ranges and in sev- 
eral styles, some in portable cases 
and others for mounting permanent- 
ly on panels. Type BX ammeter 
and PX-2 voltmeter are favored by 
most radio enthusiasts due to their 
greater accuracy. 



Send $1.00 to Radio Age, 64 Randolph 
street, Chicago, and receive this middle- 
west radio periodical for six months. Reg- 
ular subscript'on price is $2.50 a year. 
Thus you will be getting two months free. 



"/ have used Combat batteries in my work 
and at school for the past lo years and con- 
sider them the highest type of battery con- 
structed. I am now using the Combat Radio 
in my Radio work" — says Frank D. Pearne, 
noted Radio authority and teacher. 

For Radio Only 

CHic c c c a Go — messages like that are the 
great bane of Radio. They are caused Dy 
voltage variation — and the Combat "A" uni- 
form voltage Radio battery corrects voltage 
variation. The extra-heavy, hand-pasted plates 
in the Combat Radio deliver a discharge 
that is slow and uniform, thereby eliminat- 
ing distorted messages. Made exclusively 
for Radio work — if you own a vacuum tube 
set you need it. The Combat Radio is built 
into a handsome acid-proof steel case which 

houses 
the one- 
piece 
hard rub- 
b e r jar. 
Special 
composi- 
tion be- 
tween 
protects 
against 
breakage 
or leak- 
age. Pat- 
e n t vent 
plug al- 
lows es- 
c a p e of 
gases but 
no acids. 
Well in 
jar in- 
sures 
against 
while fill- 
charging. 

Patented non-corroding terminals keep your 
connections clean at all times — no short cir- 
cuiting. Fully guaranteed for 18 months by 
the manufacturers who enjoy reputation of 
14 years' high-grade battery making. 




SPECIAL OFFER: 5,000 will be sold direct to | 
users at factory prices in order to introduce, i 
This is an opportunity to save money on the best 
Radio battery ever produced. Some Combats have 
given as high as 8 years* continuous service. Great [ 
length of life more than makes up for cny differ- 
ence in price. Take advantage of this offer NOW. | 
Art Quick to Buy at These Prices. 



Full capacity 6 v., 60 amp $15.25 

Full capacity 6 v., 80 amp 16.85 

F. 0. B. Chicago 

Send only $1.00 a.s recti faith and we will ship C.O.D. 

subject to examination. 

Territory still open for lice dealers. 

Commercial Battery Company 

759 BOSTON AVE., Dept. A, CHICAGO 



For reliable and up-to-date information on 
radio read 

RADIO AGE 

For prompt and efllclent service place your 
order with representatives of the Periodical 
Sales Co., whose authority and responsibility 
is assured by credentials in their possession 
bearing the registered trade-mark of the 
Periodical Sales Co., facsimile of which is 
reproduced hereon. 

PERIODICAL SALES CO., Inc. 

538 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, Illinois 



Branch Offices 
PHlLAUELPniA 
MINNEAPOUS 
INDIANAPOLIS 
DENVER 
NEW YORK 
BUFFALO 
LOS ANGELES 




Branch Offices 

MILWAUKEE 

DETROIT 

CLEVELAND 

BOSTON 

NEW 0BLEAN3 

TORONTO 

CANADA 



Let Us Pay You for Your 
Spare Hours — 

There are thousands of subscriptions 
for Radio publications taken every day. 

RADIO AGE 

"The Magazine of the Hour," is plac- 
ing representatives in every commu- 
nity throughout the country. Why not 
turn your spare hours into dollars. 
Experience is not necessary. We show 
you how. Clip this ad and mail it 
today. 

RADIO AGE 

64 WEST KANDOL,PH STBEET, CHICAGO 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



29 



Featured in the Radio Shops 



Experts of the Future Big Research Studio 



It is predicted by the large manu- 
facturers that the radio business dur- 
ing the coming season will far ex- 
ceed that which we have just gone 
through. They tell us that over 
$100,000,000 worth of apparatus and 
outfits will be sold. 

And will all this radio equipment 
install and take care of itself? How 
many busy men are there who want 
a receiving set in their homes but 
do not have the time to install it and 
maintain it? How many are there 
who are not sufficiently acquainted 
with the art to be able to do the 
work efficiently by themselves? 

This creates a demand for a new 
type of man — the Radio Service 
Man, the Radio Expert — who is thor- 
oughly acquainted with all the finer 
points of radio practice. The suc- 
cessful Radio salesman will be the 
one who understands the subject 
from A to Z. The manufacturers 
will need radio-trained men to in- 
stall newly purchased equipment in 
the customers' homes. They will also 
need similar men for "trouble shoot- 
ing," for the radio public will soon 
demand service in much the same 
way that the automobile owners or 
the telephone subscribers demand 
that their equipment be maintained 
in proper operating condition. 

It is with these important facts 
in mind that A. G. Mohaupt, who 
is at the head of the American Elec- 
trical Association at Chicago, has 
prepared a specialized home study 
course on the Practice and Theory 
of Modern Radio. The lessons are 
for the practical man, full of practi- 
cal operating information. They are 
written in clear, concise form, in 
simple every-day language, so that 
they can be grasped by anyone who 
is capable of reading the., English 
language. They cover every import- 
ant point that the man must know 
who wishes to construct, install, re- 
pair, operate, maintain and sell 
Radio equipment. / 



One of the interesting exhibits at 
the Leiter Building show in Chicago 
was that of the Jewell Electrical In- 
strument Co., 1640 Walnut street, 
Chicago. The Jewell company dis- 
played a complete diagram of a con- 
tinuous wave set with the various 
instruments in place in the diagram. 



The Ra-Di-Co Organization, Inc. 
has established a new studio with 
over 3,600 square feet of space de- 
voted to demonstration and experi- 
mental research work at 1215 Leland 
Avenue, Chicago. Every evening in 
this auditorium as many as 300 peo- 
ple can congregate and be enter- 
tained free of charge with the best 
of concerts, operas, bedtime stories, 
etc., from the local broadcasting sta- 
tion. In connection with this demon- 
stration room is a special studio, size 
15 X 16 ft. with special soundproof 
walls. This studio is equipped with 
a pick-up microphone. A particular 
feature in the Ra-Di-Co demonstra- 
tion rooms are the special booths 
built around the room where radio 
apparatus can be tested out before 
being purchased by a radio enthu- 
siast. 

The directors are : Ralph S. 
Drummond, member of American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
Royal A. Stemm, Phillip Henderson 
and C. W. Hawthorne. 



One of the centers of attraction 
at the show which just closed in 
Chicago, was a Knock-Down Set 
exhibited by the NASH-ODELL Co. 
of 172 N. Franklin St., Chicago, 111., 
who are thereby supplying the de- 
mand created by the man who de- 
sires to assemble his own equipment 
without the need of shopping around 
for parts and experiencing the grief 
of panel drilling, etc. 

This apparatus includes stand- 
ard tested parts, a %" solid hand 
finished cabinet, a panel 12" x 21", 
shielded, drilled and engraved, wire, 
spaghetti, solder, screws, nuts, etc., 
making an equipment at a price less 
than one-half of usual figures. 



Artistic Variometer Parts 




Variocouplers, 

Rotors, Winding Forms, Stators, 

in Genuine Mahogany. 

Quick Dellcerles. Write for prices. 

^ttiitit Mooti tIDurning iHorfetf 

617 No. Halsted Street, Chicago, niinols 



The Rheostat's Big Job 

The necessity for a rheostat that 
would give finer adjustment than 
any on the market was soon realized 
after radio got well under way. The 
advent of Radio Erequency empha- 
sized this still further. 

J. E. Jenkins, of Chicago, an in- 
ventor and radio engineer, worked 
out the first Vernier rheostat and the 
immediate improvement that this in- 
vention gave to the selectivity of 
receiving sets, set up such a demand 
for this rheostat that Mr. Jenkins 
placed orders for large quantities 
and is now selling them under their 
firm name, J. E. Jenkins (Not Inc.). 
The principle of the rheostat is a 
wire wound around a solid horn fibre 
drum in which a screw thread has 
been cut. The wire lies in the bot- 
tom of the cut. Contact is made by 
a pointer attached to the shaft of the 
rheostat ; and, by turning to right 
or left, the resistance can be lessened 
or increased as desired, with infi- 
nitely small resistance variations. 

One of the most attractive features 
of the rheostat is the fact that in- 
stant contact can be made by means 
of a switch connection which is part 
of the rheostat. By simply pushing 
the knob the circuit can be broken, 
and when the filament current is 
again required, a pull on the knob 
connects the circuit and the filament 
is heated at the same resistance as 
when the circuit was disconnected. 
This is a big advantage and saves 
considerable trouble by not having 
to continually readjust the rheostat 
every time you get ready to use the 
set. 



Organize for Protection 

The National Co-Operative Radio 
Society, with headquarters at 214 
Saratoga street, New Orleans, calls 
on all owners or prospective owners 
of radio receiving sets to join that 
society for the purpose of prevent- 
ing the larger interests from mo- 
nopolizing the allotments of wave 
lengths and periods of sending. The 
society proposes to collect yearly 
dues of $12, one of the results prom- 
ised being the establishment of a 
nation-wide chain of broadcast" r.g 
stations which shall send out what 
the radio fans want rather than, wh^t 
they are forced to take. 



30 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



National Radio Club 

Pittsburgh, Pa., is the scene of the 
organization of a club that seems 
destined to play a big part in the 
future of radio. The work of enroll- 
ing members is already well under 
way and articles of incorporation 
have been filed along with applica- 
tion for a charter. 

While one of this club's fundamen- 
tal purpose is to promote and fi- 
nance the installation of radio equip- 
ment in hospitals, it will also use its 
influence to keep the broadcasting 
art on its present high plane ; enlarge 
musical and educational radio pro- 
grams ; keep all members informed 
regarding developments, improve- 
ments and news of interest regard- 
ing radio ; answer, without charge, 
all technical questions asked by 
members ; receive and file articles 
written by members for reference, 
lend the moral support and influence 
of the club to those agencies en- 
deavoring to eliminate the contusion 
of signals ; promote fraternity and 
good fellowship among members 
with the aid of a distinctive official 
button and card of membership. 

The organization committee in- 
cludes Harold B. Coe of New York 
City, Charles W. Payne of Philadel- 
phia, F. R. McCray of Los Angeles, 
Otto J. Palm of Cincinnati, R. Gor- 
don Craig, Ray Mansman, and Fran- 
cis G. Albertson of Pittsburgh, all 
radio enthusiasts who are sparing no 
effort ,to promote the interest of 
radio transmission. 

A nominal membership fee of two 
dollars will be paid by applicants 
who will have issued to them a mem- 
bership card and club button. Among 
the possibilities envisioned for the 
future by the club directors are 
courses of instruction designed to 
enable members to pass examina- 
tions for operators' license. 

Interested persons can get in 
touch with the club by writing to 
Francis G. Albertson, Secretary, 419 
Fulton Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 




Sectional UNIVERSAL 
Radio Outfits 



The Set Consists of 
Three Units: 

Toner and Detector Unit., ..$ 50.00 
Two-Step Amplifier Unit.... .36.00 
UnitforholdinK"A" Battery 9.60 
Top and Bottom, which when 
added to the three other 
units, make a complete sec- 
tion aJl in one. Each, $6; both__10^ 

Complete Set. Total $104.60 

Ask yoor dealer; if he cannot sapply 
yoa, write QB, Dept. 803. 



Patent Rights 

The Editor of Radio Age is in re- 
ceipt of the following letter from 
Independent Radio Manufacturers, 
Inc., 165 Broadway, N. Y., of date 
June 30, 1922. As the warnings of 
patent infringements have attracted 
some attention we publish the com- 
munication as a matter of legitimate 
discussion of interest to the radio 
trade generally. 

A number of our members have called 
to the attention of our Board of Directors 
that certain warning advertisements have 
been appearing in recent trade publica- 
tions at the instance of the Wireless 
Specialty Apparatus Company of Boston 
and New York. 

We commend to your attention the fol- 
lowing facts: 

1 — That the validity and scope of the 
patents listed in the warning advertise- 
ments, some twenty-one in number have 
not been determined by adjudication in the 
courts and are, therefore, open to question 
and, matters of defense, together with the 
question of infringement in each particu- 
lar case. 

2 — That because of this fact, it is im- 
proper to create a false impression in the 
trade to the detriment of crystal manu- 
facturers by representing to the jobbers 
and dealers, as is done in this form of ad- 
vertising, that the common type of crystal, 
crystal detector and crystal radiophone 
receiving sets are infringements upon in- 
contestable rights of the advertiser 
founded upon one or more of twenty-one 
patents listed, whereas in addition to the 
fact that not one of these patents has 
been before the courts for adjudication, 
the majority of the listed patents, if con- 
ceded to be valid are not infringed. 

3 — That in justice to your advertisers 
of crystal sets, who question the validity 
of these patents and deny infringement 
upon the advice of their counsel and there- 
fore do not recognize the validity of the 
claims made by the Wireless Specialty 
Apparatus Company, such advertising 
should not be accepted by you. 

4 — That certain magazines have already' 
seen fit to refuse this advertising. 

5 — That it is our duty to our constitu- 
ency to notify the manufacturers of crys- 
tals, detectors and crystal sets that their 
advertising is of questionable value in 
those publications which carry the afore- 
mentioned warning. 



Distribution of foreign trade news 
and dispatches by radio as a means 
of informing American business men 
of developments in the fields of in- 
dustry and commerce abroad is being 
given a trial by the commerce depart- 
ment at Washington. On July 11 
and 12 the latest cabled news of for- 
eign markets and trade opportunities 
received from abroad was sent by 
radiophone to the meetings of the 
New England shoe and leather asso- 
ciation. 



Dr. Jewett's Own Story 

TTORATIO ALGER and some of the 
-»- -I other better known boys' authors have 
the satisfaction of knowing that they 
started at least one well known executive 
along the road to fame. Among a series 
of human interest stories appearing in 
the Western Electric News, the employ- 
ees' magazine of the Western Electric 
Company, is an amusing anecdote by 
Dr. F. B. Jewett, vice president of the 
company and president-elect of the 
American Institute of Electrical Engi- 
neers, entitled "How I Earned My First 
Dollar." 

Dr. Jewett who is recognized interna- 
tionally as one of the world's best in- 
formed communication engineers partic- 
ularly as a result of his developments in 
the fields of radio and long distance 
telephony, attributes his first research 
work to a desire to be freed from any- 
thing that might distract from the usual 
boyish literary desires. In describing 
the capture of his initial greenback he 
says, "My first pay envelope as a boy — 
was for running an engine and boiler for 
a fertilizer works. Quite far removed 
from telephone engineering, was it not? 
In addition to earning me my first money 
I think that the job gave me the oppor- 
tunity of doing my first real research 
work. We had one of the first oil burners 
developed for using California crude oi). 
and I exercised my ingenuity in endeavor- 
ing to adjust the burner, the water pump 
and the engine so that I would have a 
minimum of interruptions in my reading 
exciting boys' books, where my real in- 
terest lay at the time." 

Just how much that first research effort 
contributed to the awakening of Dr. 
Jewett's inventive genius is unknown. 
Suffice to say that it was the first step 
in a career that among other things found 
the Bell System executive one of Uncle 
Sam's most important lieutenants during- 
the war. Dr. Jewett served as a colonel 
in the Signal Corps and was also an ad- 
visory member of the Special Submarine 
Board of the Navy where he participated 
in the perfection of super-sensitive devices 
for detecting hostile submarines. 



Send $1.00 to Radio Age, 64 Randolph 
street, Chicago, and receive this middle- 
west radio periodical for six months. Reg- 
ular subscription price is $2.50 a year. 
Thus you will be getting two months free. 



3000 OHM SETS, $4.50 

2000 OHM SETS, $4.00 1000 OHM SETS, $350 

Plus 20c for Postage Euid Insurance. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed or Money Back 




We mail phones the day your order arrives. 
Every pair tested, matched, and guaranteed 
as sensitive as $8 to $10 phones. We have no 
agents or dealers. By ordering direct you save 
dealer's profits — circular free. 

TOWER MFG. CO., Brookline, Mast. 

22 Station St. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



31 



The "Oxaphone" 

An Inquiry by Geo. E. Carlson, Com- 
missioner of Gas and Electricity, 
City of Chicago. 

Editorial Note — The Editor does 
not vouch for the authenticity of 
this article, but it is published on 
the assumption that "A little humor 
now and then is relished by the best 
of men" 

MR. GEO. E. CARLSON, Com- 
missioner of Gas and Electri- 
city of the City of Chicago, has many 
strenuous duties in his capacity as 
head of the Department of Gas and 
Electricity of the City of Chicago. 
But when time will permit a mo- 
ment's diversion from the task of 
running the street lights, electrical 
inspection, fire alarm and police tele- 
graph systems, and other activities, 
Mr. Carlson will be found investigat- 
ing some new "stunt" in the radio 
field. A device known as the "Oxa- 
phone" was recently called to his 
attention by some of his friends. In- 
quiry was immediately made by Mr. 
Carlson, who assigned the investiga- 
tion to J. C. Hail, Electrical Engi- 
neer in Charge in the department, 
who among his other duties is in 
charge of the City Hall Radio Sta- 
tion WBU. The following is the 
memoranda of orders and reports 
pertaining to this new device : 

May 26, 1922. 
Hail :— 

A device known as the "Oxa- 
phone" has been called to my atten- 
tion. What is it? 

Carlson 

Commissioner. 
May 26, 1922. 
Mr. Carlson : — 

The "Oxaphone" is a device for 
"cutting out the bull" from tele- 
phone conversations. It can be at- 
tached to any radio microphone or 
ordinary telephone. 

Hail 
May 27, 1922. 
Hail:— 

We have great need for the "Oxa- 
phone." Please make complete re- 
port. 

Carlson 

Commissioner. 
May 31, 1922. 
Mr. Carlson : — 

With further reference to the 
"Oxaphone," and the manner in 
which the device is able to eliminate 
the "bull" from radio telephone or 
ordinary telephone conversations, a 
further examination was made in ac- 
cordance with your instructions. 

The word "bull" is a slang ex- 



pression to indicate a particular 
quality now prevalent in most radio- 
phone broadcasting addresses and 
ordinary telephone conversations. 
This quality consists of a certain 
variance from the truth and other 
slang words to express the same 
thing are "bunk," "salve," "jolly" 
and the like. 

The mechanical construction of 
the "Oxaphone" is very well adapted 
for the purpose intended. The de- 
vice consists of two parallel plates 
in which the "bull" is held. The 
plates further act as barriers over 
which the "bull" cannot pass. Fast- 
ened to the end of each plate is a 
spiral spring which is so constructed 
that it will prevent the formation of 
a lasso with which to "throw the 
bull." The handle and attachments 
are so designed that they cannot be 
gripped by a "cow-puncher" who 
might "throw the bull." 

Time has not permitted any tests 
to be made to determine the effi- 
ciency of the device. Further it was 
considered inadvisable to attach the 
device to any of the departmental 
telephones, because of a possible de- 
crease in the satisfactory operation 
of the telephone under test from a 
business standpoint. If you desire 
tests made, shall we attach the de- 
vice to the telephone on your desk? 

Hail 

June 1, 1922. 
Hail:— 

Not to my telephone. Attach to your 
telephone, which is more suitable for 
the purpose. 

Carlson, ' 

Commissioner. 



Birmingham's WSY 

"W S Y" operated by the Alabama 
Power Co., is of 200 watts capacity, 
and consists of a 2-foot diameter 
cage type aerial, mounted on 60- 
foot towers, with counterpoise ; a 
tuning helix ; two 50-watt vacuum 
tubes acting as oscillators and two 
as modulators for producing the so- 
called carrier wave ; and other tubes 
and auxiliary apparatus for varying 
the amplitude of the carrier wave in 
accordance with the vibrations pro- 
duced with music, voice or whatever 
is broadcast. 

This equipment is mounted on a 
panel board, together with the neces- 
sary electrical measuring instru- 
ments for observing the operation of 
the set. The motor generator set is 
required to produce a high direct 
voltage in connection with the oper- 
ation of the tubes, and the storage 
battery is used to light the filament 
of the tubes. 



Variable 
Condensers 




Variable condensers to be 
efficient must be well made. 
Loose joints or faulty con- 
struction soon allow the 
plates to get out of align- 
ment and decrease their 
efficiency. 

A seasoned organization 
backed by a half million 
dollar equipment has 
placed the United Con- 
densers in the front rank 
with radio engineers, the 
country over. 

PRICES 

43 plate $4.50 

23 plate 4.30 

11 plate 4.00 

without dial or knob. 

Liberal discounts to Jobbers and 
dealers. 

We invite correspondence with 
Radio Manufacturers who are 
interested in using our facili- 
ties and services for manufac- 
turing Radio Equipment. 



United Mfg. and 
Distributing Co. 

536 Lake Shore Drive 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



32 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



VARIOMETER 




$5.00 

Rotor and stator in moulded hard rubber, 
highly finished, best insulation known. 
Beautiful design binding posts, eliminating 
any necessity of soldering. Finished prod- 
uct. Wound with green covered wire; 
nickel plated hardware. Put up in attrac- 
tive boxes. 

COUPLER 




$4.50 

Tube of hard fibre, rotor in moulded hard 
rubber. Wound with green covered wire. 
Nickel plated hardware. Special binding 
posts. No soldering of connections. 




The set herewith Illustrated is a four tube 
Radio-frequency set built into a light- 
weight, portable case with nickel-plated 
hardware, making a handsome, simple and 
salable set. Prices on sets range from 
$65.00 to $190.00, including tubes, B Bat- 
teries and head phone. These sets can be 
taken wherever you go, being light and 
convenient to carry. 

VARIARLE 

CONDENSERS 

Aluminum plates, fibre and brass end 
pieces. Sturdily and well constructed. 

II plates $3.00 

23 plates 3.50 

43 plates 4.50 

3" Dials and composition sockets of at- 
tractive design at 75c each. Rheostats 
with pointer, $1.10; with dial $1.50 

POSITIVE IMMEDIATE 
DELIVERY FROM STOCK 

We have an interesting proposition 
for dealers and jobbers 

The Reliance Rubber Co. 

Dept. D 1806 S. MIcIUgan Ave. 

PHONE CALUMET 0947 

CHICAGO 



(Continued from page 22) 
tee meeting referred to in the open- 
ing of this article. 

Future Uses 

No prediction as to the future uses 
and applications of broadcasting can 
be too broad. There will be no 
greater unifying factor in our na- 
tional life. The immense advantage 
of a universal national language such 
as we have is not fully appreciated 
in this country because it has never 
occurred to us that any nation would 
use more than one language in its 
intercourse. Those of us who have 
a clear conception of the national 
conditions in some of the European 
countries where several languages 
are spoken realize what a common 
language means to the nation. 

Now that in broadcasting we have 
a means of transmitting this com- 
mon language to practically all the 
nation at one time, the effect in knit- 
ting us together as a nation cannot 
be overestimated. It may play a 
great part in our national legislative 
activity and the day may come when 
the speeches of senators and con- 
gressmen may be sent out from a 
broadcasting station covering the en- 
tire nation. The President may is- 
sue his national proclamations by 
radio telephone. National political 
campaigns will no doubt be waged 
by means of speeches broadcasted by 
the candidates. Selective system of 
broadcasting may develop by which 
subscribers can obtain the particular 
character of information or amuse- 
ment they desire without the possi- 
bility of being interfered with by 
other stations. 

Broadcasting has already supple- 
mented the newspapers to a wonder- 
ful extent and may greatly increase 
their activities. Its value to farmers 
or others living at remote points 
where newspaper information is not 
easily accessible is beyond calcula- 
tion. Already the live stock and 
grain reports information sent out 
by the Department of Agriculture 
regarding farm projects and business 
has met a response indicating that 
this is one of the most important 
fields of service in radio broadcast- 
ing. Here is the means that brings 
the information to the radio listener 
even quicker than it would an audi- 
tor in audiences of ordinary size. In 
many parts of the middle west the 
farmer is guided almost entirely by 
the information he obtains from the 
Westinghouse station at Chicago, 
which broadcasts quotations every 
half hour of the Board of Trade oper- 
ations. Local brokers handle the 
farmer's orders which his country 
line telephone enables him to place 



upon the receipt of the guiding radio 
information. 

President Roosevelt during his ad- 
ministration appointed a commission 
to endeavor to devise means to keep 
the farmer, in the words of the old 
song, "down on the farm." Broad- 
casting will accomplish more in this 
direction than any means yet de- 
vised. Moving pictures and the 
broadcasting brings cosmopolitan 
life into the most remote farming 
regions. Public health instruction is 
sent out from one government sta- 
tion and the function will no doubt 
be greatly increased. 

Selectivity in Broadcasting 

However, in closing this article, 
the most important impression that 
we desire to leave is that unlimited 
broadcasting activities, instead of at- 
taining all the objects outlined here- 
tofore, will, rather, prevent success- 
ful attainment. Free speech does not 
mean that we can all talk at once, 
and only those with a real message 
can get attention. Many of us labor 
under the delusion that we are called 
and have such a message, but if we 
speak only in behalf of ourselves or 
repeat platitudes we add to the din 
but not to progress. 

Unfortunately, the elements con- 
trolling radio limit the number of 
stations that can operate success- 
fully within limited wave bands or 
geographical areas. The public must 
decide whether it shall endeavor to 
pick out the worthwhile message in 
a bedlam of broadcasting that may 
come with the establishment of a 
large number of stations or whether 
they prefer to limit and classify the 
broadcasting stations, granting them 
a license which will carry some of 
the exclusive features and advan- 
tages of a franchise and with its con- 
tinuity dependent upon the mainte- 
nance of a certain standard of ex- 
cellence and revocable when it is evi- 
dent that the station no longer ful- 
fills the public demands. 

Radio broadcasting stations are 
now fulfilling a public service with- 
out any direct recompense and it is 
an old adage that things obtained 
gratis are not always appreciated. 
It behooves the radio public to con- 
sider carefully the effect of unlimited 
broadcasting and to take an active 
interest in the radio laws and regu- 
lations which may be formulated to 
control it. 



RADIO MANUAL, everything the be- 
ginner should know. How to build and 
operate an inexpensive receiving set. 
Sixty-four pages, thirty illustrations. 
Twenty cents. Postpaid. RAYDIO 
PUBLISHING COMPANY, CAXTON 
BUILDING, CLEVELAND, OHIO. 



FREE— With Head Phones 

Compact, High-Class Receiving Set 

Looks Well and Performs Well 



THIS instrument is assem- 
bled in a walnut cabinet 
with a highly polished Bakelite 
front, all metal parts highly 
nickeled. 

The Crystal De- 
tector is of the very 
latest pattern, with 
ball and socket 
arrangement, so . 
same can be moved * 
up and down, side- 
wise and forward 
and back so that 
the most sensitive 
point on the Galena 
can be located. 

The Galena re- 
tainer is of stand- 
ard size so that all 
mounted Galenas will fit it. 

The size of the set is as fol- 
lows: Height, 10 inches; width, 
8 inches; depth, 6^ inches. 




There are two tuning levers 
on the front. After locating 
the most sensitive point of the 
Galena the two levers are moved 
back and forth un- 
til the best result 
is obtained. 

This receiving 
set WILL NOT 
receive messages 
from great dis- 
tances but it works 
perfectly under 
favorable condi- 
tions from 15 to 25 
miles away from 
the broadcasting 
station. 

Each receiving 
set is guaranteed to be in per- 
fect condition, being thoroughly 
tested before accepted from 
the factory. 



You Can Get This Wonderful Radio Receiving Set 

FREE 



I RADIO AGE, Circulation Department 
, 64 West Randolph Street, Chicago 



if you are willing to devote 
a little effort in telling your 
friends about RADIO AGE. 
It's as simple as A. B. C. 
Just write your name and 
address on the coupon below 
and we'll send you full par- 
ticulars by first mail out. 



Date. 



I am interested in securing one of your Radio receiving sets which you offer 
FREE. Please send me full particulars by return mail. 



Name 



Street 



City. 



State. 



:i_ 



I 



Radio Age 
institute 

To insure 100% value to readers of advertise- 
ments, as w^ell as 100% value to the advertisers 
themselves, radio equipment is now being tested 
and indorsed by the 

RADIO AGE INSTITUTE 

64 WEST RANDOLPH STREET 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

No charge is made for testing and approval, 
and all merchandise Vi/ill be returned as soon as 
possible, transportation expenses to be paid by 
the manufacturer. Lists of makers of approved 
radio goods will be published from time to time. 

SERVICE DEPARTMENT 
FOR READERS 

Please remember that Radio Age has one of the 
best radio instructors in the United States, who 
is ready to answer any technical question. This 
costs you nothing. 



RADIO MCE 



The Mo^ztne of fhe Hour 

September, 1922 



Price 25 cents 




PAINTED BY JAMES HART, AFTER KEYSTONE PHOTO 



How To Make a Cheap Reinartz Set — In This Number 



i 



Radio Age 
institute 

To insure 100% value to readers of advertise- 
ments, as well as 100% value to the advertisers 
themselves, radio equipment is now being tested 
and indorsed by the 

RADIO AGE INSTITUTE 

64 WEST RANDOLPH STREET 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

No charge is made for testing and approval, 
and all merchandise will be returned as soon as 
possible, transportation expenses to be paid by 
the manufacturer. Lists of makers of approved 
radio goods will be published from time to time. 

SERVICE DEPARTMENT 
FOR READERS 

Please remember that Radio Age has one of the 
best radio instructors in the United States, who 
is ready to answer any technical question. This 
costs you nothing. 



RADIO AGE 

The Magazine of the Hour 



Volume 1 



Number h 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Novice Gets Good Results with Armstrong Super- 
Regenerative Circuit - 3 

By Frank D. Pearne 
Bank Uses Radio to Serve Public . 4 

How to Construct a Cheap, Efficient, High Grade 

Regenerative Set 5-6-7 

By Frank D. Pearne 

First National Radio Congress .. 8 

Problem of Power Transmission 9 

Charles P. Steinmet? 

Marconi Discusses Short Waves 11 

GuGLiEMO Marconi 

News of Anti-Static War .11-12 

Who Saw Broadcasting Vision? ..._ 13 

Introducing K F A F 15 

Thought waves from the Editorial Tower 17 

By Frederick Smith 

Questions and Answers.. 22-23 

Frank D. Pearne 

List of New Broadcasting Stations 24 

List of Stations Broadcasting Market reports. ..25-26-2 7 
Federal Act Regulating Radio .29-30-31 



R.\Dio Age is published monthly by 
RADIO AGE, INC. 



Publication office Mount Morris, III. 
Chicago Office, Garrick Building, 64 W. Randolph St. 



Frederick Smith, Editor 
Frank D. Pearne, Technical Editor 
M. B. Smith, Business Manager 
Advertising Managers: 
YOUNG & WARD 
308 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, III. 

Eastern Representative: 
GEO. W. STEARNS 
Flatiron Building, New York City, N. Y. 



Advertising Forms Close on 19th of the Month 
Preceding Date of Issue. 

Issued monthly. Vol. I, No. 4. Subscription price $2.50 a year, .^{jplication 
made for transfer of entry as second class matter from the pcit office a\ Chicago, 
Illinois, to the post office at Mount Morris, Illinois 



Do It Better ! 



Copyrigkl, 1922. by RADIO AGE, Inc. 



Any radio magazine that keeps paca 
with radio must be a magazine that 
improves materially with each issue. 
Radio is going forward by leaps and 
the boy who is operating a small re- 
ceiving set today is the broadcaster 
of tomorrow. 

With pleasure, therefore, we offer 
our readers this month a magazine 
in a brand new dress, for appearance 
sake, and contents that cannot fail 
to grip the interest of fans every- 
where. 

Everybody is talking about the 
Reinartz tuner. Professor Pearne 
in this issue tells how to make a 
Reinartz outfit at small expense, 
which will enable the maker to hear 
stations up to 1,500 miles distant. 

Also everybody is talking about 
the Armstrong Regenerative Cir- 
cuit. Mr. Pearne tells how a novice 
built one for his car that worked 
perfectly. Diagram accompanies 

article. 

Everybody wants to know where 
and what the new broadcasting sta- 
tions are. A list is published in this 
number. 

Everybody wants to know which 
stations send out market, crop, 
weather, and other useful news re- 
ports. The list of hundreds of sta- 
tions in this number covers the 
entire United States. 

Next month we will publish the 
Bureau of Standards illustrated 
article for amateurs on how to make 
a tube detector set at small cost to 
replace the crystal set which has 
been outgrown. This is an official 
government article. Don't miss it. 

Read RADIO AGE for informa- 
tion carried in no other daily, weekly, 
or monthly radio publications. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



This Auto-Man Solved the Circuit 




[JARIOMETER 



PHONES 



VAR/0- COUPLE/? 



iforo/? 



j-rooT 

LOOP 
IZ-TURN$ 



PRIMAdY 



HVOLlC-BfiiTTERy 

— lill 



VARIfitBLE 
CONOeNSER'- 





CONOENSER 
.001 

+ 



RHEOSTAT 




3 VOLT- C-ef(TTERY 




.=. A-BATTERY 



POTEN TIOME TBR 
Z00-40O-OHM5 



mNEY-COMB' 
CO/LS 



ARMSTRONG 5UPeR-REGfNeRAT/v/E CfRCUlT. 



Above is a photograph oj Paul B. Coals, in his car, in which he has installed his own Armstrojig super-regenerative set, with 
loop aerial set into the radiator cap. Mr. Coats is sitting at the wheel. Below is a diagram of the circuit which Mr. Coats used in this 
remarkable outfit, and with which he has received messages from stations as far away as Newark. See descriptive story of Mr. Coats' 
set on opposite page. 



mil mil L I I II I I I I I I im I !! ■< I I I iii i n i i i i n 1 1 i 1 1 1 ini i i i i i ii 1 1 i i m n ; ^ " ^ ' ' " " ' " ' ' ' i i 1 1 i 1 1 i i n i l u n | 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 M I I III tttE 










wmmmm 
liiiiiiliiiiiiiiliiijiiilii 



RADIO MGE 

Tfie Ma^a^ine of Ifie Hour 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY GARRiCK BIX»G CHGO, 




EDITOR ' 



M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I II I I 1 I 1 I I I I I 1 I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I 1 1 u I I 1 1 I 1 u 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 r I 1 1 I n 1 1 I u I 11 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I II [ I I I 11 I 1 I 1 1 J 1 M I 1 M I I I m - 



Novice Gets Good Results With Armstrong 
Super-Regenerative Circuit 



By F. D. PEARNE 



WHILE many radio experts 
are wrestling with the new 
Armstrong super-regenera- 
tive circuits, trying to find the best 
one and to solve the problem of 
getting them to work, along comes 
Paul B. Coats, an amateur of about 
sixty days' experience in radio work, 
with a real Armstrong circuit set 
up and working splendidly in his 
automobile. Mr. Coats . is Vice 
President of the Milburn Puncture 
Proof Tube Co., located at 336 W. 
47th Street, Chicago, 111., and be- 
came inoculated with the radio bug 
just two months ago. 

Unlike most beginners, who are 
satisfied to start out with the crystal 
detector and tuning coil, he aimed 
higher and, after building three 
circuits of the Armstrong super- 
regenerative type, was rewarded 
with the successful outfit which he 
is now using. The circuit uses only 
two tubes (both amplifiers) and is 
conspicuous in the absence of any 
compHcated apparatus. With a 
three-foot loop of twelve turns 
mounted on the radiator of his car 
he can listen in and get Kansas 
City, Denver, Detroit, Indianapolis, 
Pittsburgh a^nd Newark. 

Now, I know what you are going 
to think: "Another newspaper story,' 
and this is the reason that I am 
giving Mr. Coat's address, so that 
the skeptical readers may get in 
touch with him and receive first- 
hand information. The most inter- 
esting feature of this outfit is the 
fact that location does not seem 
to afifect it. For example, with the 
car parked at the waters' edge in 
Milwaukee, Wis., KDKA at Pitts- 
burgh was picked up, and upon 
moving the car to the top of one of 
Milwaukee's famous hills, no dififer- 




PA VL G. WOOD, Hilliard, O., who is a 
radio camper. 

ence in the reception could be 
noticed. Another noticeable feature 
is the lack of interference from local 
disturbances. Mr. Coats very gen- 
erously offered to draw up his cir- 
cuit for the benefit of those who are 
interested in these different Arm- 
strong circuits. The diagram is a 
reproduction of this circuit. 

The loop consists of twelve turns 
of wire on a frame three feet square. 
A variable condenser "C" of .OOOvS 
M. F. (23 plate) is connected across 
the terminals of the loop. The 
vario-coupler used is of the ordinary 
type, but I would suggest the use 
of one in which the roter could be 
continuously revolved, for the rea- 



son that no connections will have 
to be changed in testing, as this 
allows reversing the direction of 
the winding by simply turning the 
dial 180 degrees. 

The variometer should also be 
arranged so that the roter can turn 
all the way aroimd. This is not 
necessary, however, but it makes it 
unnecessary to reverse the connec- 
tions, if when testing it is found that 
connections should be reversed. The 
phones are shunted by a .001 con- 
denser (a 43-plate variable will do). 
Two honey-comb coils of 1,500 and 
1,250 value respectively are placed 
in inductive relation as shown. 
These should be placed on the reg- 
ular mounting so that the distance 
between them may be varied for 
adjustment. Two condensers, one 
a fixed condenser of .001 M. F. 
and one a variable of .001 M. F., 
are placed in parallel across the 
terminals of the 1,500 honey-comb- 
coil. 

A "C" battery of three volts is 
connected in each of the grid cir- 
cuits as shown. These can be two 
small dry cells, such as are used in 
flashlight work. The negative side 
should be connected to the grid. 
The "B", or plate battery, is ninety- 
volts. The lower end of the loop 
connects to the arm of a potentio- 
meter, which is connected across 
the "A" battery. A switch should 
be connected in the "A" battery 
circuit, so that the current can be 
cut off from the potentiometer when 
not in use, to prevent waste of 
current. This potentiometer can 
have any resistance from 200 to 
400 ohms. It will be noticed that 
the upper terminal of the loop con- 
nects, not only to the condenser, 
but also to the end of the primary 
winding of the coupler, and to the 
switch lever. The tubes are both 
amplifying tubes. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



Bank Uses Radio to Serve Public 

Timely Service of Cleveland's Largest Bank Fills a Real Need in 

500-Mile Radius 



THE Union Trust Company ot 
Cleveland announces, through 
Mr. A. H. Scoville, Vice Pres- 
ident in charge of the Bond Depart- 
ment, the installation of a radio 
broadcasting station, in operation 
August 15. 

The new station will be a 500- 
watt outfit of the very latest design 
which, under favorable conditions, 
has an effective radius of 500 miles. 

From 9:00 until 9:45 and from 
10:00 to 10:45 in the morning, and 
from 2:00 to 2:45 and from 3:00 
until 3:45 in the afternoon the new 
Union Trust Radio Broadcasting 
Station will send out full and author- 
itative information on the major 
movements in the stock and bond 
market, together with latest prices 
on farm and dairy products. Inter- 
vals between quotations will be 
filled with the important financial 
news accurriulating over the private 
wires of the Union Trust Company. 

The new station will bring not 
only to the city dweller who owns 
a receiving set, but to the farmer as 
well, up-to-the-minute information 
on the major movements of the 
financial world, together with the 
vital news of all the markets. It 
will enable the farmer, who does 
not himself own a receiving outfit, 
to call up his local bank, who will 
have a receiving set, and obtain the 
very latest quotations on his farm 
and dairy products, insuring proper 
buying and selling upon the farm- 
er's part. It will enable the city 
dweller, within a radius of 500 
miles from Cleveland, to obtain the 
very latest news from the financial 
world. 

In efifect, the Union Trust radio 
broadcasting station will supply 
practically the entire Fourth Fed- 
eral Reserve District with an up- 
to - the - minute four - times - a -day 
newspaper of the events of impor- 
tance in the commercial and finan- 
cial world. 

Once a week, in the evening, from 
7:00 to 8:00, the very best enter- 
tainment program available in 
Cleveland will be broadcasted. 

This timely innovation by the 
Union Trust Company again marks 
Cleveland as the leading financial 
center of the Middle West, for the 
new station will render a financial 
service literally broadcast over a 
radius of hundreds of miles and will 



give the banker in the smaller towns, 
his customers and all others using 
radio receiving sets, the very con- 
crete advantages incident to the 
private wires and other unusual 
machinery peculiar to a large bank 
like the Union Trust. 

Lobby and window bulletins will 
be supplied banks with receiving 
sets throughout the Fourth Federal 



tiplying the service of The Union 
Trust Company many hundred 
times over, while at the same time 
attracting the ears of the Central 
West toward Cleveland, and the 
progressive spirit of service for which 
Cleveland has always stood. 




Radio Room in Cleveland Bank. 

Reserve. These bulletins will be 
changed twice daily and will con- 
tain quotations on the more active 
stocks and bonds, with the latest 
movements in the money market, 
in addition to such financial and 
commercial news as may be of 
interest to the general public. 

It will enable the bank customer in 
the hundreds of cities surrounding 
Cleveland to be in four-times-a-day 
contact with the elaborate wire and 
information ser\'ice at the command 
of The Union Trust Company and 
it will make Cleveland the pivot 
for the latest thing in banking service . 

No effort is being spared by The 
Union Trust Company to make 
their sending station one of the most 
complete in the country. It is the 
equal of any commercial sending 
station at the present time and Mr. 
Scoville promises that every en- 
deavor will be made to keep it up 
to date in the minutest particular, 
for, as Mr. Scoville well points out, 
the ser\ace which a bank can render 
its patrons is used comparatively 
little, but through the radio The 
Union Trust will render this service 
to thousands upon thousands of 
people throughout the entire Fourth 
Federal Reserve District, thus mul- 



Wireless Starts Train 

In the presence of an assemblage 
of business leaders of the Pittsburgh 
district, the International Trade 
Special, carrying thirty-three cars 
of equipment for the electrification 
of the Chilean State Railways, was 
started recently by wireless from 
the East Pittsburgh works of the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Company. 

This is the first time in history 
that such a wireless feat has been 
accomplished and it portends the 
tremendous possibilities for the use 
of wireless in railroad work. 

The International Trade Special 
was started on its long journey when 
E. M. Herr, President of the West- 
inghouse Company, closed a switch 
on a pole near the railroad track on 
which the train was standing. The 
closing of this switch closed the 
wireless electrical circuits laid out 
by radio experts and engineers, and 
this reacted on the circuits in the 
locomotive, releasing the controller. 

The release of the controller by 
wireless then started the Inter- 
national Trade Special and marked 
an event unparalleled in history and 
in wireless engineering. After the 
train was put in motion by the wire- 
less arrangement, a locomotive en- 
gineer, who was sitting in the cab, 
in accordance with the requirements 
of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, took charge of the train. 

The assembled guests, although 
expecting to witness an unprece- 
dented event, were amazed by the 
facility with which the locomotive 
was started by wireless, and, for a 
moment, stood silently in wonder- 
ment at the feat. Then they started 
cheering and continued cheering 
until the long train had left the 
electric plant. 

The shipment, which was the 
largest single consignment of elec- 
trical apparatus for railroad elec- 
trification ever made in the world, 
was the second complete train of 
railway electrification equipment to 
be sent to Chile. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Ho^w^ to Construct a Cheap, Efficient, High 

Grade Regenerative Set 

By F. D. PEARNE 

Chief Instructor in Electricity at Lane Technical High School 



FOR the amateur who wants to 
build a real receiving set and 
does not feel that he can aflford 
to spend the money, I submit the 
following specifications of the Rein- 
artz tuner, which, according to my 
many correspondents, is giving far 
greater satisfaction than the well- 
known vario-coupler and vario- 
meter set. This set is claimed by 
many users, to bring in signals which 
cannot be heard with the other 
well-known types, and the small 
investment required to build it is 
one of the features which recommend 
it to the experimenter. All of the 
inductances are wound upon the 
same form, which are of the well- 
known "spider webb" type. 

Construction. 

The mounting is made by cutting 
out a disc of fiber one-sixteenth of an 
inch thick and six and one-half 
inches in diameter. If fiber cannot 
be obtained, good heavy cardboard 
can be used, but it must be very 
carefully varnished with shellac 
before the winding is put on. Cut 
out the disc as described and divide 
the outside edge into eleven parts. 
Draw a circle two and one-half 
inches in diameter upon the disc 
to locate the bottom of the slots, 
then at each of the divisions cut a 
slot one-eighth of an inch wide 
from the outside edge to the inner 
circle so marked. 

After all the slots have been cut, 
a coat of shellac varnish, or celluloid 
cement, is put on and, when dry, 
the form is ready for winding. It 
is a good idea to study the circuit 
as shown in Figure 3 before starting 
to wind. Note where the taps are 
taken off, as a great deal depends 
upon just the right number of turns 
being used. Leave all taps at least 
twelve inches long, so that no splic- 
ing will have to be done when the 
inductance is connected to the 
switches. The best wire to use for 
the winding is No. 26 cottenamel 
or silk enamel insulation, although 
plain cotton insulation will do if the 
maker is careful in his work. Begin 
winding at the bottom of any one 
of the slots, leaving an end at least 
twelve inches in length for connec- 
tions. Wind in and out of the slots 
as shown in Figure 2 until fifteen 
turns have been put on. In counting 




FieURd I. 

these turns after they have been 
put on remember that only one-half 
of the turns will be visible on one 
side of the disc, so that when seven 
turns show on one side and eight 
on the other, it means fifteen com- 
plete turns. 

When fifteen turns are in place, 
make a twelve-inch loop, twisting 
it together, so that this twist will 
come up tight to the slot, then the 
tap will not lose its identification 
among the numerous other taps to 
come. Continue the winding in this 
way, taking ofif a tap at every fifteen 
turns until sixty turns are in place. 
At the last turn cut the wire off, 
leaving the twelve inches for con- 
nection. If these instructions have 
been followed faithfully there will 
now be three taps and two ends 
projecting from the disc. It is a 
good plan to bring out these taps 
in different slots; that is, the first 
tap comes out in the next slot to the 
one in which the coil was started 
and the next tap in the next slot, 
etc., as this makes the identifica- 
tion of the wires much easier. This 




FIGURE 2 . 



coil is shown at the bottom of the 
diagram in Figure 3, and is marked 
"inside coil." 

Now start the next coil in the 
next vacant slot, leaving the cus- 
tomary twelve-inch end; wind one 
turn only and bring out a loop. 
Continue in this way, taking a tap 
off at every turn until you have 
ten turns. Instead of cutting the 
wire at the end of the tenth turn, 
bring out another tap and wind 
fifteen more turns before you bring 
out the next tap. After the tap 
on this fifteenth turn, wind twenty- 
eight more turns, tapping them at 
every seventh turn, except the 
last one which will be a single end, 
as it is the finish of the winding. 
Now check up the number of turns 
with the diagram Figure 3 and see 
that the correct number of turns 
have been put on. There should 
be sixty turns on the inside coil 
and fifty-three on the outside coil. 
Now after the winding is completed, 
paint the coil all over with some 
insulating varnish, such as shellac 
or celluloid cement. Both of these 
windings together will just about 
fill the form. The best way_ to 
mount the coil is to cut off a piece 
of curtain-pole (wood) about one 
inch long, place it against the center 
part of the disc and fasten it to the 
panel with two brass screws. (Do 
not use iron screws, as they will 
tend to dampen the oscillations.) 

If the set is to be mounted in a 
cabinet, it will be better to mount 
the coil with the piece of curtain- 
rod on a separate piece of wood, 
in an upright position, as this -will 
give better access to the wires when 
it comes time to make the connec- 
tions. The switches and contact 
points can be purchased at any 
radio supply store. Two variable 
condensers are necessary, one shown 
at "C" in Figure 3 should have a 
capacity of .001 M. F. and the one 
shown at "D" in the same figure 
should have a capacity of .0005 
M. F. The rest of the apparatus 
required is the same as that used 
in any other regenerative set, viz.- 
One grid leak and condenser, one 
detector tube and socket, one stor- 
age "A" battery (6 volts), one plate, 
or "B" battery (twenty-two two 
and one-half volts), and one pair 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR 



of two or three thousand ohm re- 
ceivers. 

Figure 3 shows how all the con- 
nections are to be made, and the 
builder can mount the outfit as he 
pleases, either in a box with a panel 
front, or on a table or base-board. 
The method of winding the coil 
is shown at "B" in Figure 2. If 
this set is carefully constructed, 
the results obtained will surprise 
the most skeptical reader and with 
one step of amplification it will 
produce results equal to two steps 
of amplification on the vario-coupler 
and variometer set. The amplifier, 
however, should be of a specially 
designed circuit, which will be 
explained for those wishing to add 
it to their sets. 

Amplification for Reinartz 
Tuner. <'. 

Figure 4 shows the method of 
adding one step of amplification 
to the Reinartz tuner. In this 
circuit a variable condenser is shown 
in place of the grid-leak and con- 
denser. The use of either of these 
is optional with the builder. The 
variable condenser will give better 
tuning efifects, but the set will work 
very well if the grid-leak and fixed 
condenser is used; in fact, the set 
from which these specifications were 
taken used the fixed condenser and 
grid-leak. The method of connect- 
ing the amplifier to the circuit is 
similar to that of the ordinary 
circuit. The head phones are re- 
moved from the circuit shown in 
Figure 3 and replaced with the 
primary winding of a ten to one 
ratio audio amplifying transformer. 
In the set from which these specifica- 
tions were taken, this primary 
winding of the transformer fur- 
nished enough reactance to make the 
tube oscillate properly, but this is 
not always the case. If it is found 
that the filament has to be burned 
at a dangerous degree of brilliancy 
to produce the oscillations, then an 
extra inductance should be inserted 
in the circuit at the point marked 
"X" in Figure 4. If however, the 
tube is found to oscillate without 
crowding the filament, then this 
extra inductance "X" should not 
be inserted. 

If it is found that the inductance 
is necessary it can be made by 
making a small form similar to the 
one on which the two coils are 
wound, but much smaller, and 
winding six turns of wire of the same 
size as that used on the large coil. 
This has been found by experiment 
to be the correct number of turns 
and should not be changed. The 
secondarv of the trasnformer is 



'AERIAL 




GRID LEAK 
fi)ND CONOEAJSER 



VARIABLE = 
.ooos m.F. 



m 




RMeOiTAT 



6 voir 

A-BfiTTtKy 




2Z'/i VOLT 
B-BfiTTBRy 



I NUDE 
COIL 



> 



_ 'GHOUND 

FIGURE 3 



connected to the grid and filament 
circuit as shown in Figure 4. 

The circuit shows only one set 
of "B" batteries used for both the 
detector and amplifier tube plates, 
but stronger signals may be obtained 
by adding another twenty-two and 
one-half volt "B" battery between 
the head phones and the battery 
shown on the drawing. This is 
shown in Figure 6. It is absolutely 
necessary to see that the positive 
side of the "B" battery is con- 
nected to the part of the circuit, 
which eventually gets to the plate, 



AERIAL 




and the negative side must always 
be connected to the filament. An- 
other important thing is to see that 
the rotating part of the condenser 
"C" is connected to the aerial, and 
that the rotating part of condenser 
"D" is connected to the earth. 
The set will not give good results 
unless this is done. 

The connections to the aerial, 
ground, and batteries are taken out 
through the back of the case, to avoid 
using binding posts on the front 
of the panel, as this always makes 
an unsightly wiring job. Ifjdesired, 



X TRANSFORMER 




ffHSOSTAT pHONCi]] 



7.V/Z, VOLT 

PATTERV 



FIQfURE. A-. 



however, binding posts can be put 
on the ends of the case and all con- 
nections taken from there, but if 
holes are drilled in the back of the 
box and hard rubber, or porcelain 
bushings are inserted for the wires 
to pass through, it will make a very 
neat looking job. The panel for 
the controls is best of bakelite, 
or hard rubber one-eighth of an 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



inch thick, eighteen inches long and 
eight inches high. The sockets and 
tubes are mounted directly behind 
the controlling rheostats and the 
holes in the panel shown above the 
rheostats are for the purpose of 
watching the brilliancy of the tube 
filaments. 

The two dials shown are used 
for the purpose of adjusting the 
variable condensers and if a variable 
condenser is used in place of the 
fixed condenser and grid-leak, then 
another dial must be used for this 
purpose and the arrangement of the 
panel will have to be altei-ed to 
suit the case. The spider-webb 
coil is mounted as far back in the 
box as possible and is placed directly 
behind the switches to facilitate 
the connections. The addition of 
this amplifier will make a wonderful 
addition to the set, but if it is desired 
to carry the ampHfication farther, 
another step of audio frequency 
amplification may be added. 

Addition of the Second Step of 
Amplification. 

Figure 6 shows the method of 
adding two steps of audio frequency 
amplification to the Reinartz tuner. 
While this addition is very seldom 
necessary, still there are some fans 
who can not get signals too loud 
to suit them and this circuit is 
shown for the benefit of those who 
want to go the limit. When I say 
limit, I think I have found a good 
word, for this is about as far as the 
amplification can go with this set 
without injury to the receivers, 
or loud speakers. 

The diagram shown in this figure 
will be clearly understood without 
going into details, if the reader has 
carefully followed through the pre- 
ceding circuits. The only changes 
shown are in the addition of the 
second step, and the addition of 
two more "B" batteries of twenty- 
two and one-half volts each. These 
batteries must be connected in such 
a way that the positive of one of 
them connects to the negative of 
the next, etc. This is clearly shown 
in the diagram. If a loud speaker 
is to be used in any of the circuits, 
it is placed where the receiver is 
shown in the different diagrams. 
The transformers used may be of 
the ordinary audio frequency type, 
the one used in the first step to be 
a ten to one ratio, while that used 
in the second step is a three or 
three and one-half to one ratio. 
Any one of these circuits will give 
great satisfaction to the user and 
with a Httle patience and care in 
adjusting he should have no trouble 
in receiving signals from 1,500 
miles in the winter time. 



CRIO LEAK 

AND CONOeNSEd 






TRAMSfORMEB 

2«? STSP 




Making Switchboards 

There are few trades that demand 
as many painstaking operations as 
telephone switchboard installing, the 
intricacies of which are well illus- 
trated in an analysis of the work 
just completed on the Lexington 
Exchange, the newest of New York's 
central offices. Before the switch- 
board was declared ready for service, 
the Western Electric installers on 
the job were forced to make 619,082 
soldered connections. In the task 
of making the wiring connections 
in the installation, they used 236,616 
feet of telephone cable, which con- 
tained 8,858,450 feet of copper wire. 



Toledo Is Optimistic 

Interest in radio, which had fallen 
off during the summer months is reviv- 
ing, local dealers report. A. J. Gogel, 
president of the Toledo Radio Club and 
manager of the radio department of the 
Athletic Supply Co., says the change in 
weather conditions as fall approaches 
and the fact that different stations are 
increasing their power of sending are two 
causes for the reviving interest. 

"In the last two weeks," he says, 
"unusual distances have been reached. 
One Toledo doctor who sits up nearly 
every evening until 12 and 1 o'clock 
listening in on the different stations 
reports that in one night he heard 
Memphis, Atlanta, Kansas City, St. 
Louis, Chicago, Toledo, Detroit and 
Dubuque, la. 



Send $1.00 to Radio Age, 64 Ran- 
dolph Street, Chicago, and receive 
this middle-west radio periodical 
for six months. Regular subscrip- 
tion price is $2.50 a year. Thus yon 
will be getting two months free. 



Radio in the Camp 

By A. K. Chenoweth, Our Ohio 
Correspondent. 

No more lonely fishing trips for 
Paul G. Wood, grain elevator pro- 
prietor, master mechanic and sports- 
man, of Hilliard, Franklin County, 
Ohio. 

For many years, Mr. Wood has 
spent his week ends and vacation 
times in a shack some twenty miles 
from his home, on the banks of a 
stream running through several 
Central Ohio counties. 

When the radio first reached this 
section, Mr. Wood installed one of 
the largest and most elaborate sets 
at his grain plant. He secures the 
market reports each day and in 
addition tunes in on all of the 
available stations for concerts, pro- 
grams, etc. His plant is by far the 
most popular place in the village 
and his business in side-lines, in- 
cluding seeds, feeds, coal, etc., has 
been doubled. 

Each week end, when he goes to 
his camp, he loads the radio re- 
ceiving outfit into his auto and in 
place of a talking machine, or 
bothersome companions, he goes it 
alone, with his radio. 

Reaching camp and setting his 
lines for the night, he connects the 
machine with the aerials already in 
place and while waiting for the fish 
to bite, he enjoys concerts, speeches, 
solos, etc. When he is ready for 
sleep, he tunes in on one of the 
bed-time stories — and passes on to 
slumberland. 

Sunday morning, after running 
his lines and eating breakfast, Mr. 
Wood tunes in on one of the wonder- 
ful sermons, and while courting 
Mother Nature, keeps his spiritual 
being in tune with the day. 

In the afternoon, the instrument 
is tuned to receive a sacred concert 
and in the evening he again listens 
in on one of the main broadcasting 
stations. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



First International Radio Congress 



Celebrities of Electrical World Assemble at Pageant of Progress 

in Chicago 



T 



r'|"lHE International Radio Con- 
gress, which assembled in 
Chicago on August 6, 7 and 
8, as a feature of the Pageant of 
Progress, produced sessions that 
were as interesting and as im- 
portant as any radio conferences 
held since wireless began to sweep 
the country. Leaders in electrical 
invention assembled from all parts 
of the country and exchanged view 
in public meetings on the Munici- 
pal Pier. 

So successful was the congress 
that resolutions were passed at the 
closing session favoring an annual 
congress. At a banquet at the 
Electric Club of Chicago on the 
evening of August 8 promises were 
made by the national leaders in the 
radio world that they would give 
their personal presence and support 
to such an annual conference. 

In other columns of this issue of 
Radio Age are published the fullest 
extracts from addresses made by 
Charles P. Steinmetz and Gugliemo 
Marconi. The latter 's brief paper 
was read by Mr. Clark of the Radio 
Corporation, as the distinguished 
inventor could not attend the ses- 
sions in person. 

Guests at the banquet were: 
Dr. Charles P. Steinmetz, chief 
consulting engineer of the General 
Electric Company; Maj.-Gen. Geo. 
O. Squier and Maj. J. O. Mau- 
borgne of the United States Signal 
Corps; Lieut. -Col. Louis R.Krumm 
and Samuel Kintner of the Westing- 
house Electric and Manufacturing 
Company; Dr. H. W. Nichols, John 
Mills and R. E. Heising of the 
Western Electric Company; Dr. 
Louis Cohen, Dr. J. H. Dellinger 
and Francis W. Dunmore of the 
United States Bureau of Standards; 
George H. Clark of the Radio Cor- 
poration of America; Benjamin 
Miessner, former expert of the 
United States Navy, and H. H. G. 
Mathews of the American Radio 
Relay League. 

The contribution of Chicago men 
to the progress of radio was illus- 
trated by the personnel of a group 
of experts, which the Western Elec- 
tric Company sent to deliver im- 
portant messages at the congress. 

Two of these men particularly are 
Chicago products. 

Perhaps the best known is John 



International 
Radio Congress 



August 7. 

Opening remarks by the president of 
the Radio Congress. Maj. J. O. Mau- 
borgne, signal officer of the 6th Army 
Corps Area. 

Benj. Miessner on "A Secrecy System 
in Radio Communication." 

Samuel M. Kitner, general radio en- 
gineer, research dept. of the Westing- 
bouse Electric and Mfg. Company on 
"The Technique of Broadcasting." 

John Mills, research engineer of the 
Western Electric Company, on "The 
Human Voice and Its Electrical Trans- 
mission," illustrated by motion pictures. 

Louis Cohen, consulting engineer Sig- 
nal Corps. U. S. Army, Washington, D. 
C, on "Wired Wireless and Its Applica- 
tion to Broadcasting on Power Lines." 

R. E. Heising, research engineer of the 
Western Electric Company, on "How 
Speech Is Carried." 

Dr. J. H. Dellinger, physicist in charge 
of radio laboratory of the bureau of 
standards, Washington, D. C, on "The 
Interference Problem in Radio Tel- 
ephony." 

Senator Guglielmo Marconi on "Radio 
Telephony," illustrated by lantern slides. 
Because of urgent business matters. Sen- 
ator Marconi sailed for home on July 8, 
but authorized George Clark of the 
Radio Corporation of America to deliver 
his paper. 

Discussion 

August 8. 

R. H. G. Matthews, central division 
manager of the American Radio Relay 
league, on "Amateur Radio." 

Lieut. -Col. Louis R. Krumm, super- 
intendent of radio operations of the 
Westinghouse Electric and Manufactur- 
ing Company, on "Broadcasting Opera- 
tions, present, and Future." 

Dr. H. W. Nichols, Research engineer 
of the Western Electric Company, on 
"Radio Communication." 

Francis W. Dunmore, radio laboratory 
bureau of standards, Washington, D. C, 
on "A Relay Recorder for Remote Con- 
trol by Radio." 

Maj.-Gen. George O. Squier, chief sig- 
nal officer U. S. army, Washington, D. 
C, will speak on a subject concerning 
"Line Radio" provided official duties do 
not accidentally prevent attendance. 

Dr. Charles P. Steinmetz, chief con- 
sulting engineer of the General Electric 
Company, on "The Problem of Radio 
Power Transmission." Discussion. Re- 
port of Radio Committee, Pageant of 
Progress. George E. Carlson, chairman. 



Mills, one of America's leading 
electrical engineers and author of 
several technical books dealing with 
the development of the present 
system of radio and telephonic 
communication. He spoke on "The 
Human Voice and Its Electrical 
Transmission." 

Mr. Mills was born and educated 
in Chicago, graduating in 1901 from 
the University of Chicago. He 
studied as a graduate of Chicago 
at the University of Nebraska, and 
later at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology. He was an in- 
structor in physics and electrical 
engineering for some years at the 
Western Reserve University of 
Cleveland and at Colorado College. 

Early last spring the world awak- 
ened one morning to learn that the 
captain of the steamship America, 
400 miles at sea, had conversed with 
the President of the American Tele- 
phone and Telegraph Company at 
his home in New Canaan, Conn., 
by radio telephone. This demon- 
stration was largely the outcome of 
work carried on by the Western 
Electric Company engineering stafif 
under the supervision of H. W. 
Nichols, a 56-year-old research 
physicist. 

Nichols received his bachelor of 
science degree from Armour insti- 
tute in 1908. A year later he re- 
ceived a degree as master of science 
from the University of Chicago. 
He returned to Armour and after 
two years earned his degree as an 
electrical engineer. Later he was 
awarded the degree of doctor of 
philosophy by the University of 
Chicago. To continue his work he 
then accepted an assistant pro- 
fessorship in electrical engineering 
at Armour institute. 

"Radio telephony is obviously the 
only way of transmitting speech to 
and from ships at sea, aeroplanes in 
flight and isolated points such as 
rock-bound lighthouses or isolated 
ranches where wire communication 
involves a prohibitive expense," 
said Dr. Nichols. "It is also pe- 
culiarly fitted for the broadcasting of 
news, entertainment and instruction. 

"In California the radio telephone 

has been connected successfully to 

the wire telephone circuits and the 

Bell system has in operation a com- 

(Continued on page 10.) 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Problem of Radio PoAver Transmission 



By CHARLES P. STEINMETZ 

Chief Consulting Engineer, General Electric Company 



(Address delivered at International Radio Congress, Ciiicago) 



THE successful development of 
radio communication by tele- 
graph and telephone raises the 
question of the possibility, or im- 
possibiHty, of radio power trans- 
mission. 

In some respects, radio power 
transmission exists today, for the 
message which you receive by radio 
has been carried by the power of 
the electro-magnetic wave from the 
sending to the receiving station. 
However, while the sending station 
sends out electro-magnetic waves of 
a power of several kilowatts, or even 
hundreds of kilowatts, this power 
scatters in all directions, and it 
may be only a fraction of a milli- 
watt, which we receive, that is, 
less than a millionth of the power 
sent out. But this small power is 
sufficient, when amplified, to give 
us the message. 

The problem of power transmis- 
sion essentially differs from that of 
the transmission for communica- 
tion, that in power transmission 
most, or at least a large part of the 
power, sent out by the generating 
station, must arrive at the receiv- 
ing station, to make it economical 
to transmit the power. 

Hence, the problem of radio power 
transmission is that of directing the 
radio waves so closely that a large 
part of their power remains together 
so as to be picked up by the receiv- 
ing station. Much successful work 
has been done in directing radio 
waves, and for instance our Trans- 
atlantic stations send out most of 
their power Eastwards. But still 
even as directed the power scatters 
over the coasts of Europe from 
Norway to Spain, so that it is im- 
possible to pick up an appreciable 
part of it. 

The limits of impossibility of con- 
centrating a beam of radio waves 
may be illustrated by comparison 
with a beam of light. Light is an 
electro-magnetic wave, differing from 
the radio wave merely by having a 
wave length many million times 
shorter. While usually the light 
scatters in all directions, like the 
wireless wave, we can direct it in a 
concentrated beam by the search- 
light. But there is inevitably a 
scattering of the Hght in the search- 
light beam, and when the beam 
starts perhaps with a square-yard 
section at the searchlight mirror, 



.iiiiiii{i,iii.iiii.iiii,iiiiiiii.i,i.,iiiiii'iii.„, |..,|, 



ii"iii'iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiii!^ 




DR. CHARLES P. STEINMETZ 

Jll!illl:>lllllllllllllll|i|llil 



at 10 miles distance it has at the 
very best scattered to a diameter 
of 2,000 feet, and at 100 miles dis- 
tance the beams cover a section of 
16 square miles. If it were a beam 
of radio power, it would thus re- 
quire at 100 miles distance a re- 
ceiving station covering 16 square 
miles — about four miles wide and, 
what is still more difficult, four 
miles high, to pick up a large part 
of the power. 

The cause of this scattering is 
two-fold. First, the inevitable im- 
perfections of any apparatus. No 



matter how perfect a reflector, there 
are sHght imperfections, and at 
100 miles distance, they seriously 
count. Furthermore, even with an 
absolutely perfect reflector the beam 
of light would stay together only 
if the light came from a mathe- 
matical point. As it must, how- 
ever, come from a small area, this 
causes an inevitable scattering, 
which at best gives an angle of 
scattering of about two degrees. 
This is about 100 times as much as 
would be permissible to economi- 
cally transmit power a hundred 



10 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



miles by a direct radio beam. 

Thus the probability of power 
transmission by directed radio is 
very small, except perhaps in very 
special cases, where the distances 
are moderate and the efficiency of 
transmission of secondary import- 
ance. 

The second possibility of radio 
power transmission — at least theo- 
retically — is by resonant \dbrations 
or standing waves. Suppose we had 
a very large sending station sending 
out electro-magnetic waves not of 
hundreds, but of hundred thousands 
or millions of kilowatts, and suppose 
we could find a wave length, where 
the absorption in the passage of the 
wave through space is sufficiently 
small so as to be negligible com- 
pared with the amount of power. 

Assuming first there were no 
receiving stations. Then the waves 
issuing from the sending station 
would circle the globe and return 
to the sending station, and if the 
wave length is adjusted so that the 
return wave coincides with the out- 
going wave, it would return its 
power, and little power would be 
required from the sending station 
to maintain such a system of high 
power standing waves — only enough 
to supply the losses — just as little 
power is required in an electric wire 
transmission system, to maintain 
the voltage wave, as long as no 
current is taken off. 

Suppose now we erect a second 
station, tuned for the same wave 
length as the sending station. It 
would resonate with the standing 
electro-magnetic wave issuing from 
the sending station, thereby stop 
its passage by absorbing its energy. 
It would, as we may say, punch a 
hole in the standing wave sheet 
coming from the sending station. 
Power would then flow into this 
hole; the sending station would 
begin to send out additional power 
to maintain the wave sheet, and 
this power would be received by 
the receiving station. This would 
give a real radio power trans- 
mission. 

Any receiving station of suitable 
design would then be able to pick 
up power from the universal power 
supply carried by the standing wave 
sheet covering the earth. Also, 
several sending stations may send 
out power. These may either have 
different wave lengths, then would 
not interfere, and the recei\nng 
station could be tuned to receive 
power from any of the generating 
stations. Or — what would be pre- 
ferable — all the generating stations 
would be tuned to the same wave 
length, that is, the same frequency. 



Then they would have to be syn- 
chronized and operate in synchro- 
nism, just as different electric gener- 
ating stations on the same trans- 
mission line are operated in syn- 
chronism. 

Theoretically, this is an interest- 
ing speculation, but whether it could 
ever become a possibility, would 
depend on the question, whether a 
radio wave of such length could be 
found, as to make the losses of 
power by absorption, etc., econom- 
ically permissible, and whether sta- 
tions for such wave length and power 
would be economically feasible. 
Furthermore, it would have to be 
an international development. 
Therefore, even if such radio trans- 
mission by a stationary electro- 
magnetic wave sheet were possible, 
its realization at best is rather 
distant, so that the present outlook 
for radio power transmission is very 
remote. I thought it of interest, 
however, to bring this before you 
as an interesting speculation of 
future possibilities. 



(Continued from page 8.) 

bined wire and radio system at 
Catalina Island. Ship-to-shore radio 
telephone has been worked out quite 
thoroughly and it is now possible 
to call up on the telephone and talk 
to a properly equipped ship from 
almost any point in the United 
States. 

"In a congested district such as 
our large cities, however, an analy- 
sis of the number of simultaneous 
telephone conversations that can be 
carried on in a restricted area shows 
that the radio cannot compete with 
the wire telephone. 

"In justice to the requirements of 
special services which can be per- 
formed only by the radio, such as 
broadcasting in the cities and special 
transmission of various classes in 
the more remote regions, it is 
probable that future practice and 
possibly future legislation will tend 
to restrict radio telephony to those 
fields which cannot be served by 
the wire system." 

Major J. O. Mauborgne was 
elected president for another year 
on motion of Commissioner George 
E. Carlson of the department of 
gas and electricity, and empowered 
to appoint a Ways and Means 
Committee, and minor committees 
to prepare for next year's congress. 

The Radio Club of Illinois gave 
a luncheon and reception in honor 
of Maj. Gen.' George O. Squier'and 
Charles P. Steinmetz at their club- 
rooms at 16 West* Ontario .Street. 



New Rectigon for Charging 
Batteries 

A new type of rectigon known as the 
"Radio-Type" rectigon, designed pri- 
marily to charge 11- or 12-cell plate bat- 
teries, such as are used for radio receiving 
sets, but also suitable for charging 3-cell 
filament batteries or 3- and 6-cell auto- 
mobile starting and lighting batteries, is 
being manufactured by the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacuring Company,'. 

This type of rectigon is similar to the 
private^ garage type, being portable, 
well finished, automatic in operation, and 
free from oil and grease. Although pri- 
marily designed to charge 11- or 12-cell 
batteries at 0.2 amperes, it is supplied 
with a tap in the transformer winding 
which makes it possible to charge 3-cell 
batteries at 2 amperes and 6-cell batteries 
at 1-1/2 amperes. 

At the top of the transformer is a fuse 
block which is so arranged that, when the 
fuse is in the extreme left position, the 
rectigon will charge an 11- or 12-cell bat- 
tery and, when the fuse is at the right, will 
charge a 3- or 6-cell battery. Since onlv 
one fuse can be inserted at one time, there 
is no possibility of an incorrect connec- 
tion. 

After the fuse is in the proper position, 
the rectigon can be started by clasping 
the battery clips over the terminals on 
the battery and turning on the current at 
the lamp socket. To stop charging, the 
current is turned off and the battery is 
disconnected. 

The cost of operation of this rectigon 
is very low, being about 1/2 cent a kilo- 
watt-hour. The bulbs have a long life 
and need to be changed only at very in- 
frequent intervals. 



Iowa University Busy 

Extensive equipment is to be added 
to the broadcasting station of the State 
University of Iowa at Iowa City. Pro- 
fessor A. H. Ford, of the College of 
Applied Science, will give a three-hour 
course in the subject of radio science 
during the coming year. 

The university will continue the oper- 
ation of its wireless telegraph station 
which has functioned in the past as a 
means of relaying results of football 
games, other sports, weather reports and 
so forth. 

The call letters of the university's 
radio-telephone station will be WHA.'\. 
The wireless telegraph call will be 9YA 
as it has been in the past. 



Send $1.00 to Radio Age, 64 Ran- 
dolph Street, Chicago, and receive 
this middle-west radio periodical 
for six months. Regular subscrip- 
tion price is $2.50 a year. Thus you 
will be getting two months free. 



Vaugh MacCaughey, head of Hawaiian 
public schools, is arranging to install 
standard receiving sets in all rural schools. 
Extension courses, especially in agri- 
culture, will be broadcasted from the 
Universitv of Hawaii. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



11 



Marconi Discusses "Short Waves'' 

Italian Genius Writes Paper for Chicago Radio Congress 



URGENT business compelled 
Senator Gugliemo Marconi to 
return to Italy before the 
International Radio Congress, in 
connection with the Pageant of 
Progress, Chicago, August 7 and 8, 
He prepared the following paper, 
however, and it was read by George 
H. Clark, of the Radio Corporation 
of America: 

"Since the beginning of radio 
activities, the wave lengths have 
been getting longer and longer- and 
in every case non-directive, or 
"broadcast" transmission has been 
used; that is, the radio signals have 
been radiated in all directions into 
space, that one particular receiving 
station out of the millions of possible 
receivers may gather in the signal. 
Only in the last year, when broad- 
casting of general information has 
become popular, has the 'radial' 
feature of modern radio communi- 
cation really been utilized at all. 

"One of the reasons that short 
waves have been neglected so long 
is that there is far greater 'fading' 
experienced with their use. That 
is, signals might be extremely strong 
at one moment and the next mo- 
ment might die to inaudibiHty, a 
characteristic which is by no means 
so marked when the wave length is 
made greater. 

"It has long been appreciated 
that, apart from fading, short waves 
were much more efficient than long, 
as, for instance, the recent achieve-. 



ment of American amateurs in 
reaching England with only a few 
hundred watts on a short wave 
length, whereas commercial stations 
on wave lengths hundreds of times 
longer must use powers of several 
hundred kilowatts. 

"The point to be noted here, 
however, is that the amateurs hap- 
pened to 'get through' once, out of 
thousands of times of failure, and 
succeeded that once because 'ab- 
sorption' or 'fading' happened to be 
noticeably absent for a brief period, 
whereas the commercial stations get 
through practically all the time. 

Power Is Concentrated. 

"Now, directional transmission 
offers a further possibility for get- 
ting messages through with low 
power because all the power that 
is available is concentrated over a 
few degrees of arc rather than sent, 
uselessly, in every direction in order 
to be utilized in one only. Direc- 
tional transmission.moreover, means 
reflection of the created energy by 
local reflectors so as to catch and 
send back energy that otherwise 
would go in the wrong direction, and 
since reflectors must have com- 
parable dimensions to their reflected 
waves, it is not today practicable 
to reflect wave lengths of thousands 
of meters in length. But with waves 
of fifty meters it is another question. 
Directional transmission, therefore, 
is possible on short wave lengths. 



"Direction reception, or picking 
up a message that is coming from 
one given direction and not picking 
up others from sources of different 
location, has been with us for some 
time, so that we can directly make 
use of this for the new development 
of radio. 

"We have, therefore, the long- 
known fact that short waves, per 
se, are ideal from the standpoint of 
energy; we have the possibility of 
directing these waves in one direc- 
tion; we can also sharpen the eyes 
of our receiver so it is blind in all 
but one direction and especially keen 
in that one. There still remains the 
problem of the intermediate ab- 
sorption. 

"Distances of fifty miles have 
been reached already on this short 
wave directive work, using radio- 
telephony, and experiments on far 
greater powers are now in progress. 

"A further application of this 
directive transmission is in the 
establishment of 'radio lighthouses.' 
A radio transmitter is rotated con- 
stantly, sending out therefore a 
beam of radio waves just as a light- 
house sends out a beam of Hght. 
A different Morse character is sent 
out automatically for every major 
position of the beam around a 
circle, and by this means a ship can 
tell exactly her position with respect 
to the lighthouse. This is being 
tried out in England now under 
practical conditions." 



News of the Anti-Static War 



THE battle against static goes 
merrily on and it appears that 
those who aim to thwart the 
atmospheric disturbances hope to 
do so in widely different ways. One 
experimenter tries the underground 
aerials, another pins his faith to 
outside perpendiculars loops, and 
still another use, the horizontal 
outside antennae with startling 
methods as to length. 

An antenna designed to eliminate 
static interference, nine miles in 
length, has been installed at the 
chief receiving station of the Radio 
Corporation of America at River- 
head, L. I. The aerial is supported 
on poles, thirty feet above the 



ground. One end is grounded 
through a non-inductive resistance 
and the other through a variable 
inductance. With the antenna the 
station is receiving European sta- 
tions operating on 15,000 meters, 
or in other words, electro-magnetic 
waves, each approximately nine 
miles in length. 

In explanation of the principles 
employed in the use of the large 
aerial, P. H. Boucheron of the Radio 
corporation furnished the following 
analogy: 

"If we look upon the new antenna 
as a large lake and the wind as the 
static, we can get an idea how it 
works. Now, suppose the wind is 
blowing across the lake from east 



to west. At the eastern end there 
will be few or no ripples, but as we 
get to the western end the ripples 
will gradually increase in size to 
full waves. If the shore at the 
western end is a gentle slope of 
sandy gravel, the waves will be 
dissipated. 

"If, on the other hand, the shore 
is precipitous the waves will be 
reflected and will disturb the eastern 
end of the lake. Now this antenna, 
having a non-inductive resistance 
at its non-receiving end, corre- 
sponds to a sandy shore, because 
it absorbs the static and inter- 
fering waves and does not reflect 
them. 

"Carrying the analogy further. 



12 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



if we place a stationary paddle wheel 
at the western end of the lake, which 
is revohdng uniformly and pro- 
ducing waves of a uniform char- 
acter, these waves will travel steadi- 
ly forward toward the eastern end 
and will not be interrupted by or 
stopped by the wind. This paddle 
wheel corresponds with the trans- 
mitting station and the waves it 
sends out are equivalent to the 
waves from the European station. 

"The tests which have been con- 
ducted at Riverhead completely 
confirm this theory. When the 
recei\'ing apparatus is placed at 
the end, which is graduated through 
the non-inductive resistance, it is 
impossible to hear anything but a 
terrific roar due to continuous static 
discharge. Using the wire properly 
as 'wave' antenna, trans-Atlantic 
wireless communication can be car- 
ried on Avithout any difficulty, 
despite the static." 

This antenna system can not be 
carried out by the amateurs because 
of lack of space, but the system 
suggests many promising methods 
which radio engineers are busy on 
and hope to solve this problem of 
remedying, if not eliminating, static 
in the radiophone broadcast enter- 
tainment. 

As the result of experiments con- 
ducted by the radio section of the 
postoffice department, announce- 
ment is made that the day of the 
aerial is over. The elimination of 
the aerial antenna is incidental 
to experiments conducted by the 
department in an attempt to limit 
or eliminate static interference. 

The following description of the 
tests conducted has been made by 
James C. Edgerton, superintendent 
of the radio section : 

"The air mail radio section has 
eliminated the use of regular trans- 
mitting antenna for receiving pur- 
poses altogether, as it has been 
found that the static conditions 
prevalent especially in the Middle 
West made receiving impossible. 
Results have been obtained, how- 
ever, through the use of three differ- 
ent methods of receiving, which are 
selected to conform to local condi- 
tions. There are large vertical 
outside multiple turn loops, secondly 
underground horizontal loops and 
lastly underground antenna. 

"The best results are obtained 
with the underground antenna when 
it can be laid in damp soil with a 
straight away of 1,000 feet. The 
horizontal buried loop is more or 
less of a new departure and has 
been very successful when well 
insulated and buried in water or 
very damp earth. 



"In actual use well-constructed 
underground antenna such as are 
used in the majority of the fifteen 
stations in the air mail circuit, the 
results are rather unusual. Com- 
munication has been carried on in 
the Middle West between air mail 
stations when lightning was actualh' 
striking nearby. As a matter of 
fact it has been possible to carry 
on communication when the cur- 
rents induced in the antenna from 
nearby lightning discharges blew 
out the arc. Receiving on an ordi- 
nary antenna would have, of course, 
been impossible long before the 
storm reached the vicinity." 



Gas an Ally of Radio 

Gas is an important factor in the 
manufacture of telephone apparatus. 
The heat required in the production 
of the delicate apparatus used in 
the communication systems of the 
world and in radio broadcasting 
equipment makes necessary two of 
the largest privately operated gas 
tanks in the country. They are 
owned by the Western Electric 
Company, which in its manufactur- 
ing plant at Chicago, uses daily 
enough gas to supply a city of from 
80,000 to 100,000 inhabitants. This 
immense amount of gas is consumed 
entirely in productive operations 
requiring exceptionally high tem- 
peratures, none whatever being used 
for generating power or for heating 
buildings. 

The applications of gas in tele- 
phone and radio telephone manu- 
facturing are many and diversified. 
It heats the large ovens in the 
foundries, it softens the glass used 
to make switchboard lamps and 
vacuum tubes, it heats the lead 
presses which put the heavy lead 
coating around miles and miles of 
telephone cable every day, it softens 
iron in the annealing ovens and 
hardens it in the tempering ovens, 
it heats beakers and crucibles in the 
chemical laboratory and it performs 
a thousand and one other tasks in 
the big works. 

The Chicago gas plant is operated 
twenty-four hours a day in three 
eight-hour shifts ,and is equipped 
to send out 135,000 cubic feet of 
gas an hour under peak-load con- 
ditions. The usual maximum is 
about 105,000 cubic feet an hour, 
and at times the output reaches one 
and a half million cubic feet per day. 



Chicago District Leads 

Growth in code interest among 
amateurs is best measured, accord- 
ing to officials, by the increased 
number of licensed amateurs within 
the last year, and by indications of 
a consistent increase for some time 
to come. 

Every receiving set represents a 
potential transmitting set, officials 
believe, especially where the owner 
is a boy with a scientific mind, and 
every encouragement is being given 
to that boy in the way of helping 
him to get an operator's license. 
Incidentally, when the new radio law 
is enacted, most licenses to amateurs 
will be granted for code transmis- 
sion only, it is understood. 

The following detailed tabulation 
of the number of licenses by each 
Federal radio inspection district will 
give some idea of the trend of radio, 
especially of the growth of interest 
in code transmission. The figures 
are for the year ended June 30, 
1921, and for the year ended June 
30, 1922: 

1921 1922 
1st Dist., Boston, Mass. 2083 2490 
2d Dist., New York City 2063 2336 
3d Dist., Baltimore, Md. 991 1863 
4th Dist., Savannah, Ga. 206 342 
5th Dist., New Orleans, 

La... _ 425 740 

6th Dist., San Francisco, 

Cal _ 1255 1685 

7th Dist., Seattle, Wash. 513 752 

8th Dist., Detroit, Mich. 1463 2635 

9th Dist., Chicago, III 1761 3030 

Totals. 10759 15873 

The difference between the two 
totals reveals that 5,114 new licenses 
have been granted during the year 
just ended. 



Send $1.00 to Radio Age, 64 Ran- 
dolph Street, Chicago, and receive 
this middle-west radio periodical 
for six months. Regular subscrip- 
tion price is $2.50 a year. Thus you 
will be getting two months free. 



Atlanta Journal's Record 

Only six left now. 

Dixie's greatest radio station, WSB, 
has been heard in forty-two states of the 
Union, leaving exactly a half dozen 
Rocky Mountain and Pacific Coast 
States as the only parts of the country 
where "The Voice of the South" has not 
carried southern music and southern mes- 
sages. 

H. S. Wiggers, of the Pacific Elec- 
tric Company, Sheridan, Wyoming, 
writes The Journal radio department that 
he not only heard one of WSB's 10:45 
concerts, but that he heard it so clearly 
and enjoyably that he put it through a 
oud speaker for the benefit of a group of 
friends. 

Colorado reported hearing WSB's call 
for the second time in the same mail that 
bought the Wyoming letter. J. F. 
Schwartz, lumber dealer, of Estes Park, 
Colo., in the mountains north of Denver, 
was the listener. — [Atlanta Journal. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



13 




Anything involving mechanics interests the Japanese. They are imitators, rather than initiators, along mechanical and scien- 
tific lines. Japan, being a warlike country, protects carefully its various means of domestic and foreign communication. For 
this reason alone, the Japanese are not permitted to play with radio, as Americans are privileged to do. But there is a big 
plant in Tokyo called the Nippon Electric Co. which is a subsidiary of the Western Electric Co. The picture shows the employes 
of this concern, dressed in grotesque costumes and playing a Japanese game. 



Who SaAV the Broadcasting Vision? 

Harry Phillips Davis, Was the First Man to Foresee 
the Popular Appeal of Radio 



FRANK, I'm going to close 
your station." 
Paradoxical as the state- 
ment may seem, this was the actual 
start of radio broadcasting as we 
now know it. The concerts on 
regular schedules, advance programs, 
entertainment in the air, all came 
from closing "Frank's station" and 
opening KDKA, the first radio- 
phone station in the world. 

For "Frank" was Frank Conrad, 
assistant chief engineer of the West- 
inghouse Company, and the man 
who made the statement was Harry 
Phillips Davis, Vice President of 
the Westinghouse Company. 

Mr. Davis had come into his 
office that morning in September, 
1920, with an idea. The idea had 
come to him while reading the 
advertisement in his evening paper. 
In a corner of a full page ad, he 



came across the words, "Mr. Conrad 
will send out phonograph records 
this evening." This advertisement 
was in the interest of the store's 
amateur radio department and was 
explaining to local radio amateurs 
that Mr. Frank Conrad, who had 
operated his station intermittently 
since the war, would send out by 
radio, phonograph records on a 
certain evening. The Conrad sta- 
tion was very well-known to ama- 
teurs all over the country, for it was 
one of the new amateur stations 
licensed to operate during the war. 
This special operating was in the 
interests of government research 
work, which the Westinghouse 
Company was doing, and also to 
test some apparatus. 

Mr. Davis could not forget his 
idea. He was struck with the fact 
that the radiophone fundamentally 



did not lend itself only to private 
communication but that it had a 
universal field of usefulness and that 
through it, one could communicate 
to hundreds, thousands or millions; 
all could listen who had the suitable 
"ear," for if a certain class of people 
were interested enough to listen to 
music from a few records there was 
a possibility of increasing this small 
audience of radio listeners to an 
enormous number by sending out 
entertainments, current events, etc., 
in a regular and interesting manner. 
Why confine one's audience to a 
small portion of the country? Why 
not build a big station and let every- 
one, who wanted to, hear? Why 
not make radio broadcasting a 
public service? 

Mr. Davis was so struck with his 
idea of a public broadcasting service 
that the first thing he said to his 



14 



RADIO AGE— "THE iMAGAZIXE OF THE HOUR" 



Secretary on entering his office next 
morning was "ask Frank to come 
m. 

"Frank," as has been previously 
explained, was Mr. Conrad, who 
ha\nng been taken so abruptly with 
his chief's statement, could only 
listen to what followed. 

"Frank, my idea is that you stop 
sending from your station and we 
will start a regular service from our 
experimental station here at East 
Pittsburgh. We can arrange for a 
suitable wave length, and I believe 
if we do this, it will be the beginning 
of a radio broadcasting public ser- 
vice which seems to me to have 
wonderful possibilities." 

The conference with Mr. Conrad 
lasted a short time and Mr. Davis 
called other conferences before ac- 
tual work on the broadcasting 
started. It was not until Novem- 
ber 11, 1920, that KDKA was 
formally opened with the broad- 
casting of election returns. 

The remainder of the history of 
KDKA is now common property. 
Everyone, almost, now knows that 
there are more than 200 broadcast- 
ing stations in the United States 
and that the radio audience numbers 
into the millions each night. 

Not everyone knows, that it was 
a single Hne in a newspaper which 
suggested to the Vice President of 
one of the largest electrical manu- 
facturing companies in the world, 
the big thing of turning a scientific 
novelty into a new kind of public 
service by unfolding a new field of 
communication. 

Mr. Davis was one of the best 
equipped men in the electrical in- 
dustry to take up the difficult prob- 
lems of broadcasting. He has been 
a leader in the electrical industry 
since his college days, and has been 
issued nearly 100 patents covering 
electrical apparatus. He is an en- 
gineering genius and is known, not 
only as a designing engineer of high 
rank, but also as a man who gets 
things done. His ability to ac- 
complish results rapidly has al- 
ready been proved in the history 
of his company's broadcasting 
achievements. This ability \yas 
also admirably illustrated during 
the war. He was, at that time, in 
charge of production at the East 
Pittsburgh Works and the duty of 
fulfilling the government contracts 
for munitions was his. Probably 
no more colossal manufacturing task 
was ever given anyone. The quan- 
tities involved were enormous; the 
time limits short; the specifications 
most rigid; new and undreamed of 
problems arose at every step; the 
government's plan changed with 
bewildering frequency: material. 



competent help, and transportation 
facilities became almost unobtain- 
able; and innumerable other diffi- 
culties were encountered. Yet, in 
spite of everything, the work was 
done and it was done properly and 
on time. Not a single promise made 
to the government was broken. 

This is all by way of illustrating 
the character of the man who first 
saw that radio broadcasting was 
something that held greater possi- 
bilities than just being the play- 
thing of the amateur. 

Mr. Davis was born at Somers- 
worth, New Hampshire. He was 
graduated from the Worchester 
Polytechnic Institute with the de- 
gree of B. S. in Electrical Engineer- 
ing in 1890, and after a trip to 
Europe and a few months spent with 
the Thompson-Houston Company, 
entered the Detail Engineering De- 
partment of the Westinghouse 
Company in 1891. In 1896 he was 
placed in charge of this depart- 
ment; in 1908 he was made manager 
of the Engineering Department. 
This position he held until 1911, 
when he was elected Vice President. 



Mr. Heising's Genius 

When the three-electrode audion 
or vacuum tube, the invention that 
made radio telephony possible, came 
into being along in 1912, it set to 
working the mental machinery of 
Reginald A. Heising, a young physi- 
cist, working for a degree as Master 
of Science in the University of 
Wisconsin. 

"If I could put into a vacuum 
tube the amount of energy pro- 
duced by the voice and get it out 
many times amplified in the form 
of high frequency power in aii 
antenna, what an advance it would 
be," thought this young scientist. 

Armed with his degree he went 
to work on this problem in the re- 
search laboratories of the Bell Sys- 
tem operated by the Western Elec- 
tric Company. Six weeks after he 
started, his first patent, establishing 
the basic principle of the Heising 
modulation system, was applied for. 
Since that time he has been engaged 
in perfecting the discovery. How 
well he has solved the problem was 
proved by the award in 1921 to him 
of the Morris Liebmann memorial 
prize by the Institute of Radio 
Engineers. This is the highest 
tribute which the radio fraternit>' 
can bestow upon a fellow scientist. 

In the commimication field today 
the Heising system of modulation 
is a fundamental law and the young 
inventor whose work in research 
brought it about holds an enviable 
position in the world of scientific 
achievement. 



Farm Wives Made Happy 

By A. K. Chenoweth, Our Ohio 
Correspondent. 

The radio threatens seriously one 
of the greatest sources of enjov- 
ment for years of the country women 
of Central Ohio, following the in- 
stallation recently of several radio 
receiving sets in one neighborhood. 

There was a time when the old- 
fashioned telephone party-line held 
fast the hearts of the country- 
women — but it's not so today! 

Radio has arrived. And the men 
seeking to transact business over 
their telephones are having the 
time of their lives, and getting 
their business deals across over the 
telephone with much less expen- 
diture of labor and violations of the 
anti-swearing law. 

The women have dropped their 
daily conversations over the phone 
with the neighbors and have taken 
to listening in on the news, which 
comes from everywhere and no- 
where, as it seems. They have 
given up for good, they say, the 
habit of spending half of the morn- 
ing and perhaps half of the after- 
noon, talking over the party-line 
and are now enjoying direct com- 
munication with women from all 
parts of the country. 

Their field has been widened and 
although they do not get to hear 
the news from the cross-roads' 
store quite so often, or so soon, the\- 
say that the gossip from the air is 
much more interesting and, why. 
they are actually getting acquainted 
with many of the greatest artists 
in the nation. 

And they do not intend to neglect 
their other work, it appears. The 
other day we saw a woman bus\ 
in her kitchen, engaged in ironing 
the family washing and having the 
time of her life with a radio receiver 
clamped over her ears — listening to 
a concert in Detroit. Later in the , 
day, she tuned in with another 
broadcasting station and when her 
husband came in from the field, 
she had the latest daily market 
report ready for his inspection. 

When our country lady goes to 
town for the weekly or semi-weekly 
visit and some of her city friends 
starts to "lord it over her" by telling 
of the wonderful new radio set she 
has at home, Mrs. Farmer turns 
her nose to the sun, and opens a 
regular conversation on the best 
from the "voices of the air." And, 
my, how she enjoys the chagrin 
of her city sister, who for so many 
years had ridden rough-shod, as 
it were, over her country relation! 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



15 



Introducing K F A F 



Denver's latest broadcasting sta- 
tion is an important one. It is 
K F A F, operated by the Western 
Radio Corporation and the Denver 
Post. The establishment of this 
station means additional programs 
of news and musical entertainment 
for fans throughout the west; 

George S. Walker, owner of the 
Western Typewriter Sales Com- 
pany, and president of the Western 
Radio Corporation, some time ago 
determined to build the best radio 
transmitting station between Chi- 
cago and the Pacific Coast. 

He engaged Elden F. Horn, a 
radio veteran in Chicago research 
work and development, to engineer 
construction. George Walker, Jr., 
is vice president and manager of the 
company and Fred D. James is 
Secretary. Mr. Horn supervises the 
manufacture of radio equipment for 
the corporation. 

The Charles E. Wells Music com- 
pany has furnished the artists' studio 
at the big .broadcasting station with 
a Haddorfif piano and a Victrola, 
with an elaborate assortment of up- 
to-date records. The Wells Music 
Company will also furnish regularly 
a program of local song birds and 
musicians and occasionally players 
and artists of national reputation. 

The aerial is a fliat-top "T" type of 
six wires, supported on twenty-four- 
foot spreaders. The lead-in is of the 
cage type. The entire aerial is sup- 
ported by the two towers which rear 
their heads 120 feet above the street. 

The original construction provid- 
ed for towers 140 feet high, but it 
was found necessary to reduce the 
height of the steel masts twenty 
feet, since it was impossible to guy 
the big steel superstructure to ad- 
jacent property. Heavy winds 
played havoc with the superstruc- 
ture, and it was necessary to make 
repairs three times. Now the tow- 
ers are self-suppotting and securely 
guyed as well. 

The station's power plant con- 
sists of a three-phase motor directly 
coupled to a 2, 000- volt generator 
and an excitor furnishing current 
for the fields of the large machine. 
The broadcasting plant is equipped 
with one of the best wave meters 
available. 

The studio is commodiously and 
elegantly furnished, and the walls 
are draped with heavy fabric to ab- 
sorb confusing echoes, so that the 
voices of artists will be transmitted 
true to life. 

Mr. Horn constructed and oper- 
ated a spark station in Chicago be- 




Aerial and Towers of New Denver Station 

fore the days of the radio craze. 
His Chicago station, 9AJA, was ac- 
corded much publicity a few years 
ago in radio publications because of 
its wonderful efficiency and the great 
distance covered on the small power. 
His little station was frequently 
heard at points from Toronto, Can- 
ada, to Orlando, Fla., on voice trans- 
mission. 

In the fall of 1921 Mr. Horn in- 
stalled a 100-watt CW station, 
which was heard in Alaska, the canal 
zone, Yokohoma, Japan, Honolulu, 
and by ships at sea 1,700 miles east 
of New York, says the Denver Post. 
Nightly conversations with am- 
ateurs in practically every state in 
the union were carried on, and Mr. 
Horn was complimented and hon- 
ored by government and other radio 
experts. 

During the past few years Mr. 
Horn has also been occupied writ- 
ing technical works on radio and 
has delivered lectures at colleges and 
radio conventions. 



Detroit School Plans 

Radio classes and classes for foreign 
women are two of the most interesting 
features of the Detroit evening school 
department, under the Board of Edu- 
cation. 

The catalog of Detroit Junior College 
evening classes, which open September 
18, announces a course in radio, at Cen- 
tral High School. This course consists 
of daily code practice, combined with 
frequent lectures on the theory and 
handling of equipment. A set which has 
a range of 1,000 miles and a receiving 
record of Germany and Japan, will be 
used in the studv. 



Big French Station 

The big wireless station of the 
Centre Radioelectrique de Paris at 
Sainte Assise, France, said to be the 
most powerful radio in Europe, is 
in operation, having been ofiticially 
opened on August 6. This puts 
New York and Paris in direct touch 
with each other for the first time 
and marks a new era in international 
communication. 

Pressing a key at the French 
company's central control station 
at No. 79 Boulevard Haussmann, 
Paris, an operator flung a dot and 
dash message 3,000 miles and more 
through the air to No. 64 Broad 
Street, the central control of the 
Radio Corporation of America, as 
easily and quickly as one might 
telephone from Manhattan to 
Brooklyn. And the answer was 
shot back almost instantaneously. 

As described by radio experts 
here, the service means a tremendous 
impetus to commerce by wireless 
across the Atlantic Ocean. With 
inauguration of the new company, 
the French government has ceased 
to control the radio in France and 
private initiative is to take the 
place of governmental administra- 
tion. 

The official opening of the station 
was the occasion of a number of 
radiograms dispatched between 
France and America. Chief among 
these were messages of congratula- 
tions and good will exchanged be- 
tween President Millerand and Pres- 
ident Harding. 



Philadelphia Show 

Following the exceptional successes 
which we met last spring in staging the 
radio shows at Pittsburgh and Detroit, 
the American Radio Exhibitors' Associa- 
tion are outlining a campaign for this 
fall and winter. Invitations have been 
received from cities in all sections of the 
country and the first to be accepted and 
staged will be that at Philadelphia, Sep- 
tember 27 to 30 inclusive. This will be 
followed by others to be announced later. 

A careful check-up on the total sales 
by jobbers and manufacturers alone at 
the Detroit show brings out the startling 
fact that more than two million dollars 
of business was transacted on the floor. 
This, of course, does not include the im- 
petus given to the industry in general by 
the educational work which we carried on, 



Send $1.00 to Radio Age, 64 Ran- 
dolph Street, Chicago, and receive 
this middle-west radio periodical 
for six months. Regular subscrip- 
tion price is $2.50 a year. Thus you 
will be getting two months free. 



16 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Radio Broadcasting in Great Britain 

Interview with A. P. M. FLEMING, British Electrical Expert 



GREAT Britain will soh-e the 
interference problem in ra- 
diophone broadcasting by govern- 
ment control and regulation," ac- 
cording to A. P. M. Fleming, C.B.E., 
manager of the research and educa- 
tional department of the Metro- 
politan- Vickers Electrical Company, 
Manchester, England. Mr. Flem- 
ing represented England at the 
international convention of the In- 
stitute of Electrical Engineers and 
the International Electro-Technical 
Commission at Niagara Falls, just 
ended. 

"We have learned many valuable 
lessons from the broadcasting ex- 
perience of the United States," said 
Mr. Fleming after his visit to 
KDKA, pioneer broadcasting sta- 
tion of America, situated in the 
East Pittsburgh works of the West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company. One of the things we 
have learned is to avoid the estab- 
lishment of innumerable radio sta- 
tions, with no plan of cooperation 
between them. Eight 1 1-2 kw. 
stations are contemplated and some 
of these will probably be built this 
year. These stations will be located 
in the principal cities throughout 
the British Isles and will be 
operated so as to eliminate the 
chaos usually found where no rules 
are in force. 

"We have no such thing as broad- 
casting in Britain at present in 
the sense in which the term is used 
in America," he said. "Govern- 
ment restrictions have prevented it, 
on account of the possible inter- 
ference with the requirements of 
the navy, mercantile, marine, war 
services and aeroplane trafific. But 
the largest manufacturers of radio 
apparatus have cooperated with the 
British Government officials in 
working out plans for the proper 
control of broadcasting. 

"The broadcasting stations will 
be operated on strictly regulated 
wave lengths and other set rules, 
which will be published for the 
guidance of radio receiver owners. 
Every radio set owner will be re- 
quired to pay an annual tax, also, 
and there will doubtless be special 
restrictions applying in times of 
national emergency. 

"One thing that British manu- 
facturers have had to do that was 
not necessary in America is to study 
out closely the cost of receiving 
sets. The average Britisher can 
afford to spend very much less than 




A. P. M. FLEMING, 
English Radio Engineering Expert 



the American in purchasing appara- 
tus of the nature of a luxury. But 
even with that drawback British 
manufacturers see a great field 
ahead for radio." 

Mr. Fleming, in addition to repre- 
senting the Institute of Electrical 
Engineers of England at the Niagara 
Falls convention, is making a survey 
of radio developments in America. 
His survey may have considerable 
bearing on the regulations drawn 
up for government control of broad- 
casting in England. 

His technical career is interesting. 
After receiving his training at the 
Finsbury Technical College, he spent 
the following year at the London 
Electric Supply Corporation at 
Deptford, and after a short period 
with Messrs. Elliott Brothers, In- 
strument Makers, he crossed the 
Atlantic and joined the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing 
Company at East Pittsburgh. Two 
years later he went to TrafTord 
Park, so that he nov/ completes a 
period of 20 years' service with the 
Metropolitan- Vickers Company. 

For some years he was the com- 
pany's insulation specialist, dealing 
with all investigations relating to 
insulation, the testing of new ma- 
terials and the investigation of 
electrical failures. Afterwards he 
was appointed superintendent of 
the transformer department and 



was responsible for the design and 
manufacture of all the transformers 
turned out by the firm, totalling 
some millions of kilowatts. During 
this period he supervised the de- 
partment's manufacture of insulat- 
ing materials and electrical windings 
of all kinds. Almost from the 
commencement he was responsible 
for the training of the apprentices 
at Trafford Park and in 1912 he 
established the works' school. The 
capacity of this school has grown 
from the original number of 100 
trade apprentices to 650 at the 
present day, and in addition to this 
there are about 80 public or second- 
ary school boys and 100 university 
men undergoing special courses of 
training. 

Since 1916 he has been head of 
the Research Organization of the 
company, and also of the education- 
al and training work. The design 
and equipment of the extensive 
Research Laboratories recently built 
are his work. 

In the midst of all these duties, 
Mr. Fleming has found time to 
produce a number of books as author 
or collaborator on the subjects which 
he has made his life work. He has 
also read a number of papers before 
the Institution of Electrical Engi- 
neers and other kindred bodies, and 
on matters relating to welfare work 
before the Welfare Workers' Insti- 
tute Conference. 



Radio at Legion Games 

Radio will play a large part in the 
American Legion's athletic games to 
be held in Syracuse, Friday, September 
22, according to an announcement just 
made by Bernard F. Ryan, chairman of 
the American Legion's New York State 
Athletic Committee. 

"The crowds who attend these games 
held for the benefit of the Veterans' 
Mountain camp at Tupper Lake will 
be provided with continuous musical 
radio entertainments," Mr. Ryan said. 
"Furthermore, the results of the races 
and games will be announced over the 
loud speaking amplifying devices which 
will be placed at convenient points in 
the immense Syracuse University stadi- 
um. H. A. Peiser, of the Syracuse Radio 
Telephone Co., is negotiating with sev- 
eral other sources in New York to in- 
stall a microphonic arrangement in the 
stadium that will enable the notables 
present, among them President Harding, 
Governor Miller, General Pershing, Judge 
K. M. Landis and acting Secretary of 
the Navy Theodore Roosevelt, to ad- 
dress the crowds in the stadium from 
their respective boxes. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



17 




THOUGHT WAVES ifl 



EARLY last spring this publica- 
tion called attention of its 
readers to the fact that great 
progress in radio might be looked 
for in the Middle West. That was 
one reason why it appeared prob- 
able that the Middle West could 
and would support a magazine pub- 
lished in the Mississippi Valley and 
devoted extensively to radio inter- 
ests 1,000 miles west of New York. 
In the light of that prediction 
and that expressed hope it is inter- 
esting now to glance over the 
figures showing the growth of radio 
in various government inspection 
districts in the United States. This 
survey of official reports shows that 
the growth of interest in code trans- 
mission has been much greater in 
the Middle West and West than 
it was in the eastern districts. 

For example, the first inspection 
district, with headquarters in Bos- 
ton, issued 2,083 licenses to ama- 
teurs in the year ending June 30, 
1921. At that time the first dis- 
trict had a larger number of licensed 
operators than any other district. 
Now the Boston district is fourth 
in the Hst. Chicago is first, with 
3,030 and the Detroit district is 
second, with 2,635. New York 
shows up third, as headquarters of 
the second district, with 2,336. 

Interest in radio has been en- 
couraged and stimulated by the 
energetic and intelligent leadership 
of the Detroit News in the eighth 
district. In Chicago the excellent 
broadcasting programs of the West- 
inghouse station K Y W literally 
swept tens of thousands of fans into 
the radio game. Now there are 
numerous stations in Chicago and 
in cities throughout the rich states 
which comprise the ninth district. 
Detailed information on the license 
records is published elsewhere in 
this number. 

Madison Street in Chicago has 
so many radio shops that it has come 
to be known as "Radio Row." 
But the title might almost as well 
be applied to Wells Street, north 
and south of Madison, as every few 



WTORIAL TOWER 



m 



^^ 



T 



weeks sees additional electrical and 
radio stores opened in that thorough- 
fare. 

St. Louis and Kansas City have 
brought Missouri into the forefront 
in radio activity and an impressive 
portion of the mail that arrives in 
the office of Radio Age comes from 
Missouri readers. After six months 
of very satisfactory progress this 
magazine is pleased that it has had 
the opportunity to be a part of 
radio progress in the Middle West 
and that it was privileged to grow 
with the growth of the Middle West 
interest in radio. 



laafact urers in this country who 
advertise their products and take 
pride in establishing their firm name 
and their trade mark at the same 
time they are establishing a market 
for their goods are very sure not to 
be foisting inferior stufT on the 
trade and on the public. It follows 
logically that a publisher who ex- 
ploits advertisements of inferior 
goods is party to deception and is 
building nothing but lack of con- 
fidence in his publication. Frank 
D. Pearne, technical editor of Radio 
Age and director of Radio Age 
Institute, is prepared to answer 
questions as to the merits of radio 
apparatus offered for sale in the 
Chicago territory. He requests 
only that the necessary time be 
given for investigation of those sets 
and appliances with which he is not 
already familiar. Read Radio Age 
advertisements and send your in- 
quiries to Radio Age Institute and 
you will not be bootlegged. 



C^ABLES from London indicate 
yk that England is enjoying a 
wave of radio enthusiasm which ap- 
pears to have prospects of perman- 
ence. It is also reported that some 
injury is being done to radio interest 
among amateurs by the flooding of 
the market there with inferior ap- 
paratus, chiefly from France and 
the United States. Not wishing 
England any bad luck, we are 
pleased to note that the boot- 
legging radio equipment manufac- 
turers are seeking a foreign outlet 
for their wares. It will not be long 
before English novices will learn, 
just as American novices have 
learned, that there are various 
grades of radio merchandise on the 
shop counters and that a little care 
and investigation will^fully protect 
the average buyer. Substantial 



LOUD speakers were installed on 
the Municipal Pier during the 
Chicago Pageant of Progress. The 
pier is so large that many of the 
horns were used. One afternoon a 
child was separated from its parents 
on the great pier. The fact was 
communicated to the broadcasting 
station and within a few seconds 
the thousands then wandering about 
the pageant exhibits were listening 
to a description of the child and to 
information as to where the parents 
could be located when the child was 
found. Within another few min- 
utes there was a happy reunion of 
parents and kiddie. The incident 
was interesting as a suggestion of 
what radio may do in city-wide 
searches for lost persons, and even 
for criminals, when the develop- 
ment of radio shall have made street 
corner loud speakers a common 
feature of big town life. 



Radio instruction will be offered to 
the manual training classes in the Peru- 
LaSalle (111.) Township High School 
this year. 



18 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Radio and Motoring 

It may not be commonly known that 
as early as August, 1919. wireless tele- 
phone sets were in use on a few auto- 
mobiles. Necessarily these instruments 
were more or less crude, and for the 
purpose of experimentation, but they 
served as a nucleus for a quite general 
movement today to equip automobiles 
and trucks with radio as a matter of 
course. 

This, of course, opens up a fascinating 
line of thought. Imagine, for example, 
how extraordinarily useful such equip- 
ment would prove to the trucking busi- 
ness. The dispatcher or owner could 
keep in continuous conversational touch, 
for the purpose of giving instructions, 
with all his drivers. The driver, instead 
of leaving his seat and telephoning to 
the office, if he is in town, could simply 
"switch on" the instrument and without 
delay get in touch with headquarters. 
If he were in trouble out on the road he 
in the same way could quickly communi- 
cate this fact. This and many other 
instances are referred to by a recent 
Firestone Ship-by-Truck bulletin. 

The latter case is where wireless would 
prove extremely useful to the motorist, 
and while the efficient radio could not 
transport him any gasoline, it would 
soon get some on the way via service 
car. Imagine, too, the advantage of the 
salesman being able to keep in touch 
through this means with the home office 
or the touring party being able to trans- 
mit to those at home the wonders of the 
scenic effects they were witnessing. 

The banker or other business man 
could keep in touch with the trend of 
the market, important telegrams that 
have arrived and how affairs at the office 
are progressing. 

The imagination staggers under the 
possibilities that the radio presents and 
it may not be long before the car and 
truck owner may be able to experience 
this utility. — [Wallie Birmingham, in 
Chicago Evening Post. 



Crosley's Great W L W Will Greet 
U. S. Fans This Month 



County Fair Concerts 

A radio concert feature will be given 
at the Franklin (Ohio) county fair to be 
held at Hilliard, north of London, on 
September 13, 14 and 15. 

Secretary LeRoy Dobyns has an- 
nounced that a receiving set is being 
installed at the fair grounds and that 
arrangements are being made with 
Columbus broadcasting stations to put 
on special programs during the afternoon 
and evenings of the fair. 



Nauen to Be Enlarged 

That famous long-distance radio sta- 
tion, Nauen, in Germany, is to be altered 
so as to increase its range and to meet 
the increasing traffic in the United States 
and Argentine Republic. Twenty-five 
million marks additional capital is being 
raised by the Trans-Radio Company, and 
a beginning has already been made with 
the constructive work. The plans include 
the erection of seven new masts, each 689 
feet high, and the dismanteling of four of 
the existing masts. 



Final touches are being applied to 
the new and powerful radio broad- 
casting station being constructed by 
the Crosley Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Cincinnati, Ohio, and within 
a very few weeks the call W L W, 
now so well known to thousands of 
wireless enthusiasts, will be flashed 
out with power enough behind it to 
make it audible in every nook and 
corner of the United States. 

The plant is being constructed by 
the corps of engineers employed by 
the Crosley Company, each member 
of which has had wide experience in 
the radio field, and the work is being 
done under the supervision of 
Charles E. Kilgour and Dorman 
Israel, regarded as among the most 
efficient wireless telephony engineers 
in the middle west. Powel Crosley, 
Jr., president and owner of the Cros- 
ley Company, has issued orders that 
the new station be as efficient and 
elaborate as any in the country, and 
is spending thousands of dollars that 
his instructions may be followed. 

The old station is located in the 
former plant of the Crosley Com- 
pany, but the new one is being con- 
structed in the new and large factory 
recently taken over. This is at the 
corner of Colerain and Alfred streets, 
one of the most centrally located 
sections of the city of Cincinnati. 
The entire third floor of the plant 
has been turned into the radio sta- 
tion, and the studio and reception 
rooms will accommodate more than 
100. 

Some idea of the power behind the 
new plant may be obtained from the 
following : 

Four 250 Watt radiotron tubes 
will be used, two as oscillators and 
two as modulators, with the Heising 
system of modulation used in con- 
nection with speech amplifier. This 
speech amplifier will be composed 
of three Western Electric No. 216 A, 
amplifying tubes, arranged with one 
connected to the microphone cir- 
cuit, with its output impressed upon 
the other two, which will be ar- 
ranged as a pushpuU ampHfier. 

Their output is impressed on two 
50 Watt Radiotrons, operated back 
to back, or as the push pull system, 
while the output of the entire am- 
plifier is impressed upon the grids 
of the modulator tubes. Normal 
radiation will be nine amperes, 
using the Hartley oscillating circuit. 

This set also can be operated as 
a master oscillator-modulating out- 
fit, using one 50 watt tube as a 
master oscillator, modulated by 



another 50 watt tube. The high 
frequency output of this unit will 
be amplified by one 250 watt tube, 
and its output, in turn, amplified 
by three 250 watt radiotrones. Suf- 
ficient tests have not yet been made 
to determine which will be the better 
method of transmission. 

The antenna is 140 feet long, 
with an average height of 125 feet. 
This is composed of twelve wires on 
23 foot spreaders. The four out- 
side wires are doubled and the lead- 
in is a cage one inch in diameter 
and made up of 768 strands of No. 
30 wire. The counterpoise is 60 
feet below the antenna at the lead- 
in end and 90 feet at the other end. 
This contains 15 wires on 34 foot 
spreaders, the four outside wires 
being doubled as in the case of the 
antenna proper. 

The high voltage supply is ob- 
tamed from a Glow Electric motor 
generator composed of two 1000 
volt, 1 1-2 K W generators coupled 
to a five-horsepower three phase 
220 volt squirrel cage motor. One 
3-4 K W exciter is belted to the set 
and supplies 220 volts for the field 
excitation. 

Although it may be impossible 
to open this new station before the 
middle of September, elaborate 
preparations already are being made 
for the opening night. 

This concert will be started at 
8 p.m. and will continue until mid- 
night, stopping only at the neces- 
sary "stand by" periods and when 
the Arlington station is broadcast- 
ing time signals. On the program 
will be opera singers, jazz orches- 
tras, instrumental soloists, and all 
others whose work of art are certain 
to please those thousands of persons 
who will be listening in. In addi- 
tion there will be the usual story 
for little children, an address by 
Mr. Crosley in which he will greet 
his thousands of unseen friends, and 
addresses probably by Harry L. 
Davis, governor of Ohio and by 
Mayor Carrel, of Cincinnati. 

And every operating night there- 
after there will be programs of great 
interest, one man devoting all his 
time to the preparation of them. 
During the day there also will be 
elaborate programs, intermingled 
with government weather reports and 
the very valuable market quotations 
supplied by the Fifty-third National 
Bank, of Cincinnati, and the reports 
of the New York Stock Exchange, 
supplied by the Westheimer Com- 
pany, brokers, also of Cincinnati. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



19 



Featured in Radio Shops 



The Hatfield Company 

A radio set purchased today from a 
dealer out of business tomorrow means 
absence of service to the purchaser. It 
is well, therefore, to regard the past 
performance of your radio dealer before 
investing too much of your money in his 
enthusiasm. 

The Hatfield Electric Company of 
Indianapolis came into existence in the 
year 1887 under the name of the Indian- 
apolis District Telegraph Company, the 
owner at that time being Charles C. 
Hatfield. This company was formed to 
install night watch signal boxes for the 
protection of factories and office build- 
ings and the operation of a package and 
message delivery system. 

In the spring of 1888, Mr. Hatfield 
entered into the electrical contracting 
business as a side line to the Indianapolis 
District Telegraph Company. Although 
very few contracts were had during the 
first year the reputation established by 
the Indianapolis District Telegraph Com- 
pany began to show results and during 
the four years following 1887 the business 
rapidly grew into large proportions. 

In 1892, Mr. Charles C. Hatfield took 
into partnership with him, his son, T. 
Barlow Hatfield, the present head of the 
Hatfield Electric Company. 

The years between 1892 and 1900 
showed continued and successful growth 
to the company. In 1901, the business 
was expanding by adding electrical ap- 
pliances and supplies of a varied charac- 
ter and from that time until 1906, the 
business continued to show really re- 
markable strides, necessitating a change 
to larger quarters. 

In 1906, the Indianapolis District 
Telegraph Company sold its assets and 
good will, in respect to their telegraph, 
messenger and delivery business, to the 
American District Telegraph Company 
and gave all of the attention of the 
organization to the electrical contracting 
and dealer business. The name was then 
changed to Hatfield Electric Company. 

From 1905 to 1915, the business was 
conducted at 36 South Meridian Street. 
In 1915, the business was again moved, 
occupying its present location, 102 South 
Meridian Street. 

In that same year occurred the death 
of Charles C. Hatfield. The Hatfield 
Electric Company was then incorporated, 
taking over the partnership formerly 
conducted by C. C. Hatfield and T. B. 
Hatfield. 

From that date on the business con- 
tinued to grow into large proportions. 
At no time in the history of the Hatfield 

In the fall of 1921 the company en- 
tered into the radio field. In March, 
1922, they erected their Broadcasting 
Station (WOH) one of the most powerful 
and efficient Broadcasting Stations in 
the Middle West. 

The Hatfield Electric Company began 
the manufacture and distribution of 
complete radio receiving sets only after 
a very thorough investigation. Ex- 



haustive tests were made by experts and 
not until Mr. Hatfield was personally 
assured of the practicability of the Hat- 
field sets would he permit of their general 
distribution. The policy of the company 
until recently has more or less restricted 
that distribution to points adjacent to 
the state of Indiana. The company did 
not want Hatfield sets sold promiscuously 
throughout the country until every phase 
of radio manufacture and merchandising 
had been thoroughly tested. 

It is, therefore, with confidence that 
the Hatfield organization today faces 
radio as an industry. They believe they 
have designed one of the most efficient 
receiving sets on the market and they 
believe their record as a successful cor- 
poration in other electrical fields is such 
as to inspire confidence on the part of 
their customers. 

(Editor's Note: The foregoing was 
culled from "The Broadcaster," a month- 
ly periodical of the Hatfield Electric Co. 
of Indianapolis. Mr. Harrison Durant 
is the editor.) 



Broadcasting Opera 

The Chicago Radiophone Broadcast- 
ing Station of the Westinghouse Electric 
& Manufacturing Company holds one 
world's record of which it is very proud. 
KYW, as it is registered with the govern- 
ment, was the first station in history to 
broadcast grand opera. This occurred 
during the celebrated regime of Mary 
Garden as director of the Chicago Grand 
Opera Company and was the particular 
event of the radio world during the time 
opera was broadcast. KYW was, also, 
the only broadcasting station ever to 
broadcast an entire operatic season as 
it did in Chicago during the season just 
ended. 

Since it was first started KYW has 
been faithfully operating every night as 
well as during the day. In addition to 
broadcasting grand opera, it put into 
effect a number of innovations in radio, 
among which were the broadcasting of 
daily stock reports from the Chicago 
Board of Trade rooms. Another new 
thing which Chicago first tried was the 
installation of a pipe organ in the broad- 
casting studio in order to send out this 
beautiful music when selections were 
played that required an organ for best 
rendition. 

The station at KYW, which is on top 
of the Commonwealth Edison Building, 
has recently been made more powerful 
and has had its antenna raised. With 
these changes, a far greater range can 
be expected from this station next winter 
than it previously had. 



Atlanta, Ga., newspapers have aroused 
a lot of interest in their radio rivalry. 
The Constilution and the Journal report 
messages from distant points telling 
how their broadcasting has been picked 
up in St. Louis, and westward, and the 
Journal reports it reached Merida, 
Yucatan State, in Mexico. 



Free Radio Concerts 

Following is a list of Chicago radio 
shops where the public is welcomed to 
hear radio concerts: 

Macauley & Nevers, 155 West Madison 
Street. 

National Radio company, 6 North 
Wells Street. 

Newark Electric company, 230 West 
Madison Street. 

Illinois Electric company, 314 West 
Madison Strreet. 

Electric Service Products company, 12 
South Wells Street. 

Telephone Maintenance company, 20 
South Wells Street. 

Manhattan Electric Supply companv, 
114 South Wells Street. 

Triangle Electric company, 160 West 
Lake Street. 

Chicago Radio Dealers, 122 North 
Dearborn Street. 

Dearborn Radio store, 110 North Dear- 
born Street. 

Lyon & Healy, 243 South Wabash 
Avenue. 

Revell & Co., 141 South Wabash 
Avenue. 

The Music Shop, 214 South Wabash 
Avenue. 

Stebbins Hardware company, 15 West 
Van Buren Street. 

Central Electric company, 316 South 
Wells Street. 

Kraut & Dohnal, 325 South Clark 
Street. 

Commonwealth Edison company, 72 
West Adams Street. 

The Fair, 137 South Dearborn Street. 

Chicago Radio Apparatus company, 
415 South Dearborn Street. 

Steiner Electric company, 115 North 
Wells Street. 

Electric & Radio Supply company, 165 
North Wells Street. 

Chicago Electric Supply company, 360 
West Madison Street. 

Leiter Stores, State and Van Buren 
Streets. 

Chicago Salvage Stock store, 509 South 
State Street. 

Ray-Di-Co organization, 1215 Leland 
Avenue. 

Northern Radio Supply corporation, 
544 West Washington Street. 

Benson company, 2429 South Michigan 
Avenue. 

Kramer Radio company, 4713 Sheridan 
Road. 

Grayland Electric company, 4063 Mil- 
waukee Avenue. 

Frankel Bros., Diversey Parkway and 
Lincoln Avenue. 

Marks Electric and Radio shop, Leland 
and Sheridan Road. 

Apex Radio company, inc., 1103 West' 
69th Street. 

General Radio Supply company, 5052 
Broadway. 

Hillinger Electric shop, 7024 Norlli 
Clark Street. 

United Radio & Electric company, 236 
South Halsted Street. 



20 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Spreading the Gospel 

(From Atlanta (Ga.) Journal.) 

The Wesley Memorial church, pioneer 
in the movement to spread the Gospel 
throughout the land through the aid 
of radio, reports tremendous interest 
in this project by churches within the 
receiving radius of WSB since the Journal 
installed special apparatus at the church 
and began broadcasting the evening 
services. 

According to H. K. Chapman, lay 
leader at Wesley Memorial, requests 
for prices and information concerning 
receiving sets for installation in remote 
districts where the word of God is seldom 
heard are being received from Methodist 
Churches wishing to fall in line with the 
Wesley Memorial's plan. 

Another splendid feature inaugurated 
by the Wesley Memorial Church of 
Atlanta, is the installation of a radio 
receiving set with a loud speaker in the 
main auditorium of the church. An 
invitation is extended to all by the church 
to drop in and listen to the programs 
broadcast during the day from WSB. 

The Journal's radio department has 
received many letters acknowledging 
the clear reception of the services from 
the church, broadcast every Sunday 
evening by WSB and the following is 
but one among many received by the 
pastor. Dr. B. F. Eraser. 

H; L. Phillips, Seneca, S. C: "Your 
sermon tonight (August 6) was enjoyed 
by several listening on my radio at my 
home here. You could be heard plainly 
and distinctly all over the room. 

W. M. Brier, Tigerville, S. C: "Away 
up in the Blue Ridge mountains of South 
Carolina you had an audience of some 
fifteen or twenty people last night (Aug- 
ust 6), who sat on the porch of the lodge 
and listened to you preach to your con- 
gregation in Atlanta. We heard the 
singing of the people and that last song, 
'Perfect Day' was fine. We heard you 
say 'I invite your attention to this text 
for the evening' and after a pause, 
'possibly there is no more familiar passage 
in the Scripture than the one I have 
chosen for a text.' Your closing an- 
nouncements were very clear. If you 
have never experienced sitting and 
listening to a minister hundreds of miles 
away, you cannot fully appreciate the 
solemnity of the occasion; everybody 
sits with rapt attention, even leaning 
forward in their seats in order not to 
miss a word. To my mind it places the 
greatest responsibility on the preacher 
he has ever had. The novelty may wear 
off but before that time comes there will 
be many who will listen to the solemn 
words of the ministers and be drawn 
closer together by the sweet singing of 
the people. Not until I sat listening to 
you last night had I seen God's hand 
in the working of the miracle radio. I 
could not go forward last night and 
shake your hand but I can write a letter 
and tell you how much I appreciated 
your words." 



Magnavox in School 

A most interesting installation has 
recently been completed for the Pied- 
mont High School, Piedmont, California, 
involving a distinct improvement over 
present methods of inter-classroom com- 
munication. 

Developed by The Magnavox Com- 
pany, pioneers in the field of devices for 
sound amplification, the installation 
consists of a central or master station 
and 25 receiving stations, each equipped 
with a No. LS-2 Magnavox Telemega- 
phone, the motor generator and battery 
being installed in a steel cabinet in the 
basement. 

The master station is operated like 
an ordinary telephone (as illustrated). 
Talking into the Magnavox in ordinary 
tones, the speech is amplified in any or 
all of the 25 classrooms as desired, in 
sufficient volume to be distinctly audible 
to all the students. 

While similar Magnavox installations 
have already been developed for hotel, 
railroad terminal and similar commercial 
uses, this is its first application to school 
service. A distinctly novel feature of 
this particular installation also is the 
fact that, by means of a special switch, 
broadcasted radio lectures and concerts 
may be connected so as to be reproduced 
in any or all the classrooms by the same 
Magnavox Telemegaphones. 

One month for drawing the plans and 
another month for installing the equip- 
ment were required by the Magnavox 
engineers in charge. 

This new development of radio re- 
ception and amplification suggests most 
interesting possibilities in other fields. 



Send .SI. 00 to Radio Age, 64 Ran- 
dolph Street, Chicago, and receive 
this middle-west radio periodical 
for six months. 



Philadelphia Show 

The American Radio Association which 
staged the successful Radio Shows in 
Pittsburgh and Detroit last spring an- 
nounce that the first Philadelphia show 
which was postponed from June until 
this fall will be held in the Industrial 
Exposition building in the Quaker City, 
September 27 to 30 inclusive. 

Philadelphia, the third largest market 
in America, did not develop interest in 
the industry as quickly as some other 
cities but, with the impetus which has 
been given during the past summer and 
spring, the dealers, jobbers and manu- 
facturers are now looking to this rich 
field as their next campaign grounds. 
Surrounded by large populous cities, 
Philadelphia, in addition to its almost 
two million people, is the trading center 
for three million more. 

A general invitation to dealers within 
this trading area is being sent out by 
the managers of the show who plan to 
make this a mart for buying fall and 
winter supplies. Special days will be 
reserved for these visitors and facilities 
for the transacting of this business will 
be afforded. 

Mr. L. T. Davies will be in direct 
charge of the affair, and will be assisted 
by the members of his experienced staff 
as well as by the Philadelphia dealers 
and jobbers. The usual educational 
features which the American Radio 
Exhibitors' Association afford at their 
shows will be on the program at this show. 



The Radio Horn- 
charger 

Beauty has been combined with utility 
in the new RADIO HOMCHARGER 
DE LUXE, a battery charging rectifier 
developed by the Automatic Electrical 
Devices Company, 146 West Third 
Street, Cincinnati, Ohio, especially for 
the HOMCHARGING of Radio A and 
B batteries. 

Finished in a dull mahogany and 
beautiful old gold, it harmonizes with 
the finest room furnishings, and permits 
the radio enthusiast to recharge his 
battery after an evening's entertainment, 
without even disconnecting it from his 
set. 

The RADIO HOMCHARGER DE 
LUXE is constructed upon the same 
perfect operating principle used in the 
Type A HOMCHARGER, which has 
heretofore been the most popular battery 
charging rectifier in the radio field. Its 
working parts are entirely enclosed, 
eliminating all danger of shock and fire. 
It is constructed of the highest grade 
materials throughout — moulded Bake- 
lite Base — Jewel Ammeter — Oversized 
Silicon Steel Transformer. There are 
no frail castings to break, as all parts 
are made from highest quality stampings. 

It will fully charge any A or B storage 
battery overnight at a cost of only a few 
cents. Conforms to the latest Under- 
writers' requirements and requires no 
watching. 

It is being sold by all the leading radio, 
electrical and accessory dealers at the 
uniform price of $18.50. The above 
company has issued a very handsome 
booklet, illustrating the Radio HOM- 
CHARGER DE LUXE in actual colors, 
which is free for the asking. 



WIRELESS 

New License Quiz Book 

FOR 

APPLICANT 

TO 

United States Government 

New Rating of 

Radio Operator's License Examinations 

This is the first edition printed 
with the new rules, regulations and 
gradings laid down by the govern- 
ment. It gives a full description 
of various hook-ups, new devices, 
practical equations, international 
law and regulations, official grad- 
ings, diagrams, definitions and other 
important information. 

No amateur or wireless professional 
can afford to be without this book. 



107 pp. 80 Illus. Price $1.00 



RADIO AGE 

64 W. Randolph St. Chicago 



A 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



21 



Fake Radio Stock Promotion 



PREDICTION that the radio industry 
-*- would attract flocks of fake pro- 
moters and financial parasites have come 
true, according to the findings of the 
Better Business Bureau of New York 
City. This organization had been in 
operation for only a few days when it 
began receiving complaints against al- 
leged wild-cat radio companies that were 
hawking their securities throughout the 
city. 

The Bureau has just made public a 
report of the investigation of what it 
terms one of the most reprehensible of 
these blue-sky, mushroom companies, 
organized a few months ago with an 
authorized capital of $4,000,000, the par 
value of the stock being $1. The sales 
organization of the company has been 
active in hawking stock and has already 
taken in many thousands of dollars. 

According to H. J. Kenner, Manager 
of the Better Business Bureau, radio 
get-rich-quick schemers are running true 
to form. They organize their corpor- 
ations on a shoe-string and induce the 
public to finance their ventures and pay 
for manufacturing or distributing ex- 
periments. Having launched their stock 
sales campaigns, the wild-cats take care 
of themselves first, by fat salaries for 
services, which consist principally in 
selling to the public more stock through 
wild promises. The cost of promotion is 
prohibitive, forty to ninety per cent of 
the money paid for stock going to the 
sales organization. 

"Their cupidity stirred by the popu- 
larity of radio, professional promoters 
— and others — are attempting to broad- 
cast among wage earners and other un- 
informed investors millions of shares of 
stock in enterprises alleged to be formed 
for the purpose of manufacturing and 
distributing radio apparatus for amateur 
uses," says the special report of the 
Better Business Bureau, in discussing 
the first get-rich-quick radio scheme it 
has investigated. Right at the begin- 
ning of its investigation the Bureau 
recognized in the leading spirit of this 
particular outfit a professional promoter 
whose methods in promoting a motor 
stock last year called for action by the 
National Vigilance Committee of the 
Associated Advertising Clubs of the 
World. 

"In line with the usual practice of 
venders of blue-sky securities, this radio 
stock was recently advanced in price 
from $1 (par value) to $1.50," says the 
bulletin, which quotes an official of the 
company as saying that this boost was 
justified as the company had been mak- 
ing big profits all the time, 300 per cent 
being the average made on most of the 
products turned out. 

But the trouble with the 300 per cent 
profit, the Bureau found, was that it 
existed mostly on paper. The company 
was producing so little that its profits 
from merchandise sales were almost 
negligible. Nevertheless, an executive 
of the company stated that because of 
enormous profits, shares would be selling 
for $4 each, before the snow flies. 



But, according to the Better Business 
Bulletin, the leading promoter of the 
company admitted, under cross-exami- 
nation, that his concern would be in- 
solvent if he did not feed it money 
constantly from stock sales. Another 
official of the company admitted early 
this month that his company was in- 
solvent; that it had not operated at a 
profit and that the unfilled orders, which 
stock salesmen said were piled up in the 
offices of the company, amounted to 
only a few thousand dollars. 

During the past few months, the 
bulletin states, the radio company in 
question has been flooding the United 
States mails with stock-selling literature 
of the wild-cat variety. Thus, the officers 
members of the board of directors and 
others connected with the company were 
described in glowing terms as world 
leaders in their line who had forged their 
way to the top in this new industry. 

One of the directors is described as 
the former financial advisor of one of the 
most famous banking houses of the world, 
who had been the associate of J. P. 
Morgan, Cornelius M. Bliss, Jr., Gover- 
nor Benjamin Strong, Jr., J. D. Rocke- 
feller, Jr., the late Henry P. Davison, 
Herbert Hoover and others. 

The bulletin states that the director 
in question promptly denied that he had 
ever achieved these financial honors and 
then severed his connection with the 
racllo company. It states also that the 
promoters claimed a vice president of 
one of the best known and most reliable 
banking houses of New York City has 
joined their Board of Directors, but that 
this also proved false. 

"In order to impress prospective stock- 
holders with the flourishing condition of 
the corporation," the bulletin continues, 
"Salesmen said that enormous profits 
were being made, that 40 to 50 men 
were at work in the factory leased by the 
company in New Jersey, and that its 
products had been bought by the De 
Forest Company and by Butler Brothers, 
the mail order house. 

"Investigation showed these state- 
ments to be false. According to an 
official of the company, not more than 
12 people, mechanical and clerical, were 
employed in the company's so-called 
plant at Newark, at the time these state- 
ments were being made to credulous 
prospects. Officers of the prominent 
companies named as customers deny 
that they have purchased goods of this 
radio products company." 

Another advertising claim stated that 
the output of four factories had been 
taken over by this flourishing radio 
concern, but according to the Better 
Business Bureau Bulletin, "This repre- 
sentation narrows down to the fact that 
contracts have been made with two small 
factories to take their products at prices 
which a consulting engineer of the radio 
company has admitted to be 'high'." 

"Not the least deceptive of the bun- 
combe employed in the selling of the 
stock has been the radio-equipped motor 
car which has been driven about the 



streets of New Yor,," the bulletin con- 
tinues. And it points out that the car, 
which was used to create interest in 
radio in general and the company's 
securities in particular, was actually not 
equipped with apparatus of the cor- 
poration's own manufacture. 

The Better Business Bureau found 
further that an invention exploited elo- 
quently by the radio company as one 
that would revolutionize the industry 
had not been patented, so claimed by 
the company, but that applications for 
patents were merely pending, and that 
the control of the patent was the subject 
of a court dispute between the radio 
company and the inventor. In closing, 
the Better Business Bureau bulletin states: 
"Authoritative information available 
in the radio industry does not bear out 
the claim that, 

"Manufacturers of every kind of radio 
telephone accessories, parts and equip- 
ment are today taxing hundreds of 
factories to their limit. 

"While the future demand for radio 
supplies is expected to be considerable, 
following the summer season dullness, 
there is no indication that the demand 
will be abnormal. Dealers and jobbers 
have, in general, adequate stocks on 
hand and manufactuters already es- 
tablished have caught up with the 
demand. On dependable trade author- 
ity, it can be said that, today, where is 
no shortage of radio apparatus for ama- 
teur use, and none is anticipated, because 
factories already in production will be 
able to fill orders promptly. 

"Literally, thousands of new companies 
have been incorporated, within the 
present year, to manufacture radio ap- 
paratus. No one can predict with any 
great degree of certainty the extent to 
which radio enthusiasm on the part of 
amateurs or its users in commerce will 
stimulate and sustain demand for ap- 
paratus and parts. It is anticipated that 
progress will take place along broad lines 
in the distribution of educational and 
market information, development de- 
pending largely on improvements in 
broadcasting and, to some extent, in 
receiving, apparatus. It appears that 
commercial use of radio will be limited, 
and of a kind which may supplement and 
extend, rather than compete with, the 
present public service of telegraph and 
telephone systems. 

"The developnaent of radio at present 
is in the hands of substantial business 
men who are interested in its sane pro- 
gress. These men have their feet on the 
ground and are neglecting no oppor- 
tunity to advance this new art and in- 
dustry. Improvements are being made 
scientifically by trained technical men 
specializing in research work. It is 
possible that unattached inventors and 
professional promoters, may, by chance, 
present opportunities of merit to 
investors, but, in such event, the public 
should know that these new enterprises 
are subject to much more than normal 
business hazards and risks." 



22 



RADIO AGE— "THE iMAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Ouestions and Ans\vers 

"Trouble" Department of Radio Age, Con- 
ducted by Frank D. Pearne, Technical Editor 



L.L., NEWARK, ILL- 

Question: I have a vacuum tube de- 
tector outfit, but am unable to get any 
reception. Please send me a hook-up 
for the outfit. I have an aerial about 
ninety feet long and about thirty feet 
high, a rheostat, six-volt battery, a vac- 
uum tube and socket, a grid leak and con- 
denser, an inductance coil, a potentio- 
meter, a plate battery and a pair of 2,000 
ohm receivers. Am sending sketch show- 
ing the way it was connected when I 
purchased it, but I am unable to hear 
anything. Please let me know what to do 
as I am anxious to get it to working. 

Answer: If your set was purchased 
with the connections which you show in 
your sketch, it never did work and never 
will until the circuit is changed. If you 
will send me a description of the induct- 
ance used in the set I will send you a 
hook-up by return mail, but as you show 
it, it is impossible to tell just what you 
are using. 

J. W. R., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Question: I have constructed the re- 
ceiving set given on page seven of your 
June issue of Radio Age. I hear very well 
using head phones, but would like to 
hook up a loud speaker. How would you 
suggest that I arrange the amplifying set 
so as to just add it to my present set? 
On page fourteen of the June issue, is an 
article by Edwin Nielson, showing a set- 
up using three crystals and two am- 
plifying transformers. Is this a good 
method? Is the arrangement shown 
right for a loud speaker, or should the 
"B" battery be moved up into the second 
amplifying circuit? I am enclosing a 
sketch of my circuit. 

Answer: I have had no personal experi- 
ence with Mr. Nielson's circuit, so cannot 
say as to its value, but he claims to have 
tried it with great success. Your present 
set should work very well in connection 
with it, but I would not change the posi- 
tion of the battery if I were you. Also, 
the phones which you show in the circuit, 
should be disconnected when the primary 
of the transformer is connected as shown. 
It would be advisable to use a switch in 
the "B" battery circuit, so that the 
current can be cut off when not in use. 
Any ordinary audio-frequency transform- 
er should do this w-ork, but it should have 
a ten to one ratio. 

F. G. M., Marengo, III. 

Question: Do you think that my set, 
shown on the enclosed paper, could be 
improved by adding two or three steps 
of radio frequency? Will radio frequericy 
amplification give louder results than 
audio frequency? Will I have to change 
my aerial, that is, must it be larger for 
radio frequency, or will the one described 
work all right? Can you give me a good 
circuit which I can use for this purpose? 

Answer: Yes, I think the radio fre- 
quency would help a great deal. Do not 



POTCNTIOHCTCR. 



LOOP 
AERIAL 



""r* 



•I' 

i VOLTS 



KHCSSTAT 




get the impression, however, that this is 
going to increase the volume of sound 
to any marked degree. Radio frequency, 
if connected in the circuit ahead of the 
detector, will bring in signals from sta- 
tions much farther away than those which 
are received without it, but they do not 
produce much amplification. As a gen- 
eral thing two or three steps of radio fre- 
quency are used first to bring in the dis- 
tance, then the detector cuts it down 
to audio frequency and it is then ampli- 
fied in volume by two steps of audio fre- 
quency amplification. All the aerial 
you will require for such a set will be a 
loop four feet in diameter, with six turns 
of wire on it, about a half an inch apart. 
This is used in the room with the set. 
The accompanying hook-up will explain 
how it is done. 

L. M. McD., Jr., Michigan City, Ind. 

Question: I am enclosing a drawing of 
my circuit which I believe is the same as 
that used in the Paragon. I had no 
trouble with it until about a week ago 
when it seemed to work all right for a little 
while and then the music began to get 
weaker. Any adjustment I used would 
not make it any louder and it continues 
to act the same way now. The connec- 
tions are all right and my batteries are in 
good condition, but what gets me is that 
it will work for a little while every time 
I listen in, and in a few minutes it is 
gone. Can you tell me what is the mat- 
ter? 

Answer: Yes. Your filament battery 
is weak. You do not say what kind of 
a battery you are using, but I suppose it 
is a storage battery. Don't let your eye- 



sight fool you. The filaments may seem 
to burn brightly, but still there is not 
quite power enough to give results. 
When you first start to listen in, your 
battery has had a rest, and has recovered 
slightly, but after a few minutes' use the 
pressure begins to drop, although the 
filaments apparently are as bright as 
they should be. Give your battery a 
charge if it is of the storage type and if 
you are using dry cells, throw them away 
and get new ones. 

B. H. R., Anamosa, Iowa. 

I Question: My antenna is 100 feet long 

gand about 40 feet high, using two No. 14 

^ wires. Is this good enough to get the 

5 broadcasting stations from Chicago? 

^What is the wave length of it and what 

^would be its wave length if I used four 

wires instead of two? Should it run east 

and west, or north and south? If this 

antenna is not good will you please tell 

me how to improve it? 

Answer: Your aerial is very good and 
you should not have any trouble in get- 
ting stations much farther away than 
Chicago if you have a set which is sensi- 
tive enough to pick them up. It is not 
possible to accurately calculate the wave 
length of an aerial having more than one 
wire and the only way to get this cor- 
rectly is to make a test with a wave 
meter. In regard to the direction in 
which it should run, this is a matter for 
you to judge. If you are close to heavy 
power lines you will have no choice, but 
will have to run at right angles to these 
lines. If you are free from any troubles 
of this kind, then you should point your 
aerial towards the station from which 
you desire to get signals. 

M. v., Chicago, 111. 

Question: I am getting interested in 
radio and want to get a good set. What 
make of instrument would you recom- 
mend which will give good service for a 
distance of 500 miles? Could I buy the 
parts and make it myself? I am very ig- 
norant when it comes to anything elec- 
trical, but am quite handy with tools. 

Answer: I regret that it is against the 
policy of this publication to recommend 
any particular make of instrument, but if 
you will look through the advertisements 
in this issue, you may rest assured that 
any of the sets advertised are good, as 
this magazine will not publish advertising 
matter from any concern which is not 
right with their customers. I would not 
advise you to build the set yourself un- 
less you have had some experience in this 
kind of work. 
P. A. B., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Question: Can you advise me so that 
I can tell the members of our radio club 
how to construct a three-stage radio 
frequency, detector, and two stages 
of audio frequency set, using duolateral or 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



23 



Questions and Ans^vers 

"Trouble" Department of Radio 'Age, Con- 
ducted by Frank D. Pearne, Technical Editor 



honey-comb coils and loop antenna for 
long distance receiving? 

Answer: This circuit would require a 
great deal of space in this column so 1 
I am going to suggest that you add the 
three stages of radio frequency just ahead 
of the detector, if you now have the de- 
scribed set. If you have not already con- 
structed such a set, I strongly advise you 
to give it up and use the circuit shown in 
this column and addressed to "F. G. M., 
Marengo, 111.," as this does not require 
nearly as much apparatus and my ex- 
perience has been that this set using the 
radio frequency amplification is far su- 
perior to the honey-comb circuit which 
you mention. Better yet, if you want to 
get wonderful results at a very small ex- 
pense, I would suggest the two tube 
Armstrong super-regenerative circuit ex- 
plained in this issue. I refer to the one 
used by Mr. Paul B. Coats on his auto- 
mobile. 
F. Z., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Question: I am a subscriber to your 
magazine and live in Milwaukee, Wis. I 
would like to know if I could make a set 
for about $30, and if I can, please let me 
know? Please send me the whole plan 
and let me know what the cost will be. 

Answer: I doubt very much if you can 
make a set that will hear the eastern sta- 
tions, for the reason that the three bulbs 
necessary will cost about $18, and the 
batteries will cost at least $13, which 
will alone cover your estimated expense, 
without any of the other materials. I 
believe the cheapest and most powerful 
set for this purpose is the Armstrong 
super-regenerative set shown installed 
on an automobile in this issue. This set 
uses only two tubes and is more powerful 
than any three-tube set which I have 
seen. It should cost complete about $40. 
M. H., Ft. Branch, Ind. 

Question: Will you please send me a 
hook-up using two variometers, one vario- 
coupler, and two stages of radio and two 
stages of audio frequency amplification? 
How far should I hear with this outfit? 
Could I use a loop aerial and get good re- 
sults? How far could I hear with a loop? 
Myself and two other fellows are think- 
ing of installing a broadcasting station 
here. Would you advise it? If there are 
any charges for this hook-up and ques- 
tions, please enclose your bill and I will 
forward a check for same. 

Answer: I am sending this hook-up 
by mail. You should be able to hear 
1,500 miles or more with this. If you 
will use the circuit shown in this column 
in answer to the question by F. G. M. 
you can hear just as much and it is less 
expensive. You can use a loop aerial and 
get better results than with the other 
type. In my opinion radio frequency sets 
operate better with a loop. You can 
hear just as far, or farther with the loop, 
but you must turn the end of the loop 
towards the station you desire to hear, 



Shorthand and Radio 




Miss Ruth Baker, of Pittsburgh, who in- 
creases her speed in shorthand by taking 
down speeches and programs from her 
radio receiving set. 

A novel aid in the study of 
shorthand, the taking of dictation 
from wireless speeches and pro- 
grams, is the latest means of utiliz- 
ing radio receiving sets in Pitts- 
burgh. 

Ruth Baker, who lives at 118 
East Ohio Street, Pittsburgh, Pa., 
listens in and transcribes the text 
of speeches into shorthand notes, 
while enjoying the radio program, 
broadcasted from KDKA, the West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company's radio broadcasting sta- 
tion at East Pittsburgh, Pa., and 
thus finds unlimited opportunity 
for practice. 

"It's really fun," Ruth declares. 
"I like to hear the wireless program 
and I just take down shorthand 
notes while I am listening to the 
speakers. Then, instead of having 
to study my shorthand after the 
entertainment, all I have to do is 
to transcribe my notes for practice. 
It makes study a pleasure." 

The method is recommended as 
an excellent one by Prof. O. B. 
Hughes, head of Park Institute, 
Pittsburgh, where Ruth attends. 
Many other .schools are advising 
their pupils to employ the radio in 
similar fashion. 



Cincinnati Exposition 

Arrangements have just been com- 
pleted for the Cincinnati Electrical and 
Radio Exposition which will take place 
October 2 to October 7, inclusive, at 
Music Hall. 

The exposition will embrace exhibits,, 
contests and entertainments more di- 
versified and extensive than ever previ- 
ously undertaken in this city. 

Everything electrical will be shown, 
including devices for communication, 
notification and safety warnings, but par- 
ticularly specializing in appliances for 
household use and radio equipment. 

The exhibits will occupy the south wing 
of Music Hall, while the auditorium will 
be used every afternoon and evening for 
radio concerts, lectures on radio topics by 
authorities of national reputation who 
will be brought here by the exposition 
management for the purpose. 

In addition to the radio entertain- 
ments and discussions there will also be 
given demonstrations and informative 
talks upon the use of electrical house- 
hold labor-saving applicances by domestic 
experts. 

The radio section of the exposition will 
embrace exhibits of the many improve- 
ments and developments perfected in 
recent months and taking place at a 
season of the year just after radio com- 
munication has suffered somewhat by 
the impediment of "summer static," the 
inventions and discoveries that have 
minimized that handicap will receive par- 
ticular attention and attract special in- 
terest. 

The management has arranged to at 
tract and encourage the radio amateurs 
of this section by offering valuable prizes 
for the best home-made radio receiving 
sets made by pupils of the graded and 
high schools of the city and vicinity. 

A noteworthy series of demonstrations 
will be given in both radio sending and 
receiving. The management has ar- 
ranged to broadcast concerts from one 
of the annexes, receiving and amplifying 
them in the auditorium so that auditors 
and spectators may visit both the sending 
and the receiving stations and visualize 
and hear radio communication from both 
ends. 

Except for entertainment purposes, 
however, the radio exhibits will form but 
one section of the exposition, and the ex- 
hibits and demonstrations of the useful- 
ness of electrical devices and household 
appliances will be given equal promi- 
nence. 



as no results will be obtained if the flat 
side faces the transmitting station. 
Broadcasting stations are expensive toys, 
if you want to reach out very far. You 
must take a Government examination 



and get a license before you can use it. 
There is no charge for information given 
in these columns, as this is part of the 
service furnished by the Radio Age to 
its subscribers. 



24 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



McElroy Is Champion 

The Radio Marathon, held Sunday 
morning, August 6, at 10 a. m., in Con- 
gress Hall of the Pageant of Progress 
Exposition on the Chicago Municipal 
Pier, was a highly' interesting and un- 
usual event, and the first of its kind ever 
held in the Middle West. 

The Radio Marathon was a speed con- 
test for radio operators in receiving 
straight commercial press in the Conti- 
nental Code, and simultaneously tran- 
scribing the message on regulation West 
ern Union typewriters. 

Contestants included T. R. McElroy 
of the Western Union Telegraph Com- 
pany, from Boston, holder of the present 
world's record of 56 H words per minute; 
B. G. Seutter, of the New York Times 
Radio Department, from New York; 
Benedict D. Brankey, of the Western 
Union Telegraph Company, from Chi- 
cago; and M. Swartz, assistant radio in- 
spector, 9th district. 

The test was conducted by Lawrence 
R. Schmitt, formerly United States 
Radio Inspector, 9th District. The 
judges were Captain Alfred Thomas of 
the Radio Corporation of America, E. 
A. Beane, U. S. Radio Inspector, 9th Dis- 
trict, and Mr. Schmitt. 

At 10:00 a. m., the contestants were 
seated at the test table on the stage of 
Congress Hall, wearing the telephone 
head sets and at attention with their 
typewriters, ready for the signal to start. 
The automatic sending machine clicked 
off the dots and dashes from a tape de- 
livered under seal for this contest. The 
starting speed was 40 words a minute. 
Succeeding tests were run for two-min- 
ute intervals, increasing the speed 2 
words per minute at each test. 

Brankey was eliminated at 46 words 
a minute, Swartz at 48. The contest 
was now on between Seutter and Mc- 
Elroy. Seutter was eliminated at 52 
words a minute. McElroy was presented 
with the diamond medal by Geo. E. 
Carlson, Commissioner of Gas and 
Electricity of the City of Chicago, when 
he copied 52 1/5 words per minute, per- 
fect copy. 

McElroy attempted to beat his world's 
record of 56 H words a minute with three 
errors. He succeeded in copying 55 1-10 
words per minute perfect copy, and in an- 
other test copied 58 words per minute 
with five errors. This is considered by all 
operators to be little short of marvelous. 
In commercial work, manual speed is 
usually limited to not more than 45 
words per minute. A machine is used for 
copying greater speeds and the message 
as copied on a tape is repeated at a slower 
speed to permit its transcription. Mc- 
Elroy's skill places him in a class as a 
human machine. To add interest for the 
spectators, the dots and dashes were 
sent through a loud speaker. Many of 
the audience expressed surprise that any 
one could be able to decipher the code. 
McElroy's record message at the rate of 
55 1/10 words per minute was as follows: 

"STATES ARMY CORPS WILL BE 
RECEIVED BY THINKING FOLK 



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NEW STATIONS 



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List of stations broadcasting viarket or weather reports {485 meters) and music, concerts, 
lectures, etc. (360 meters), alphabetically by call letters. 



Call 

signal. 



KDZW 

KDZX 

KDZZ 

KFAB 

KFAC 

KFAD 

KFAE 

KFAF 

KFAJ 

WEAN 

WEAO 

WEAP 

WEAQ 

WEAR 

WEAS 

WEAT 

WEAU 

WEAV 

WEAX 

WEAY 

WEAZ 

WEH 

WFAA 

WFAB 

WFAC 

WFAD 

WFAF 

WFAG 

WFAH 

WFAJ 

WFAK 

WFAL 

WFAM 

WFAN 

WFAP 

WFAQ 

WEAR 
WEAS 
WFAT 
WFAU 
WEAV 

WFAW 

WFAX 

WFAY 

WFAZ 

WGAB 

WGAC 

WGAD 

WGAE 

WGAH 

WGAJ 

WGAK 

WGAL 

WGAM 

WGAN 

WGAQ 

WGAR 

WGAS 

WGAT 

WGAU 

WGAV 

WGAW 

WGAY 

WGAZ 

WHAA 

WHAB 

WHAC 
WHAD 
WHAE 
WHAF 



Claude W. Gerdes 

Glad Tidings Tabernacle 

Kinney Bros. & SipprelL 

Pacific Radiofone Co 

Glendale Daily Press 

McArthur Bros. Mercantile Co 

State College of Washington 

Western Radio Corp 

University of Colorado 

Shepard Co ; 

Ohio State University.. 

Mobile Radio Co 

Young Men's Christian Association. _ 

Baltimore American & News Publishing Co. 

Hecht Co 

John J. Fogarty. 

Davidson Bros. Co 

Sheridan Electric Service Co 

T. J. M. Daly 

Will Horwitz, jr. 

Donald Redmond 

Midland Refining Co 



Station operated and controlled by — 



Location of station. 



A. H. Belo & Co 

Carl F. Woese 

Superior Radio Co 

Watson Weldon Motor Suppy Co 

H. C. Spratley Co 

Radio Engineering Laboratory 

Electric Supply Co 

Hi-Grade Wireless Instrument Co 

Domestic Electric Co 

Houston Chronicle Publishing Co 

Times Publishing Co 

Hutchinson Electric Service Co.._ 

Brown's Business College 

Missouri Wesleyan College and Cameron 
Radio Co. 

Hall&Stubbs 1 

United Radio Corp 

Daily Argus-Leader...„ 

Edwin C. Lewis _ 

University of Nebraska, department of elec- 
trical engineering. 

Miami Daily Metropolis 

Arthur L. Kent 

Daniels Radio Supply Co 

South Carolina Radio Shop 

Q R V Radio Co..__ 

Orpheum Radio Stores Co 

SpanishAmerican School of Radio telegraphy 

Goller Radio Service. 

New Haven Electric Co 

W. H. Gass 

Macon Electric Co 

Lancaster Electric Supply & Construction Co 

Orangeburg Radio Equipment Co.._ 

Cecil E. Lloyd 

W. G. Patterson (Glenwood Radio Corp.).... 

Southwest American 

Ray-Di-Co Organization 

American Legion, Department of Nebraska... 

Marcus G. Limb 

B-H Radio Co — 

Ernest C. Albright 

North Western Radio Co 

South Bend Tribune 

State University of Iowa 

Clark W. Thompson (Fellman's Dry Goods 
Co.). 

Cole Bros. Electric Co.._ 

Marquette University.- 

Automotive Electric Service Co — 

Radio Electric Co — 



San Francisco, Calif., 2198 O'Farrel St 

San Francisco. Calif., 1536 Ellis St. 

Everett, Wash., 1705 Hewitt Ave.._ 

Portland, Ore.. 108 N. Broadway.__ 

Glendale. Calif.. 222 S. Brand Boulevard... 

Phoenix, Ariz., 134 S. Central St 

Pullman, Wash 

Denver, Colo.. 737 Lincoln St 

Boulder. Colo 

Providence, R. I 

Columbus, Ohio.__ 

Mobile, Ala., O'Gwinn Building.. 

Berlin, N. H 

Baltimore. Md.. Munsey Building 

Washington. D. C, Seventh and F Sts. NW 

Tampa. Fla., 707 Azeele St 

Sioux City, Iowa. 

Rushville. Nebr 

Little Rock, Ark.. P. O. Box 614. 

Houston, Tex., 612 Travis St 

Waterloo, Iowa, 1120 Bertch Ave.._ 

Tulsa, Okla. C300 S. Main St.. Eldorado, 

Kans.). 
Dallas 'Tex 
Syracuse. N."y".'."802 McBride St...."~!!!"!" 

Superior, Wis.. 2326 John Ave 

Salina. Kans., 217 N. Santa Fe St 

Poughkeepsie. N. Y.. 357 Main St 

Waterford, N. Y., Sixth and Broad Sts 

Port Arthur, Tex., 637 Proctor -St 

Asheville, N. C. 47 Zillicoa St..__ 

Brentwood, Mo., 908 Pine St 

Houston. Tex 

St. Cloud. Minn.._ 

Hutchinson, Minn.._ 

Peoria, 111 

Cameron. Mo 

Sanford, Me.. 1 Bennett St 

Fort Wayne, Ind., 107 E. Main St 

Sioux Falls, S. Dak., 109 N. Main Ave 

Boston, Mass.. 121 Federal St.._ 

Lincoln. Nebr 

Miami, Fla 

Binghamton, N. Y., 199 Court St.._ 

Independence, Kans 

Charleston, S. C.._ 

Houston, Tex., 1213 Prairie Ave... 

Brooklyn, N. Y., 637 Fulton St _ 

Ensenada, P. R 

Tulsa, Okla.. 20 E. Eleventh St 

New Haven, Conn., 296 Elm St 

Shenandoah, Iowa. 413 Seventh Ave 

Macon, Ga 

Lancaster, Pa., 23 E. Orange St 

Orangeburg, S. C 

Pensacola. Fla.. 216 W. Romana St 

Shreveport, La 

Fort Smith, Ark., 507 Rogers Ave _ 

Chicago. 111.. 1547 N. Wells St 

Lincoln. Nebr., 314 Richards Block, 

Wooster, Ohio, 235 E. Liberty St 

Savannah, Ga., 204 W. Broughton St 

Altoona, Pa., 1918 W. Chestnut St 

Madison, Wis., 250 State St.... 

South Bend, Ind. 

Iowa City, Iowa 

Galveston. Tex 

Waterloo, Iowa 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Pittsburgh, Pa _ 



Wave 
lengths. 



360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 

360, 485 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 

360. 485 
360 
360 

360. 485 

360. 485 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 

360, 485 
360 

360, 485 
360 
360 

360 
360 
360 
360 
360, 485 

360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360. 485 

360 
360 
360 
360 



EVERYWHERE. AMERICAN LE- 
GION OFFICIALS RECENTLY 
STARTED ON GENERAL SAWYER'S 
TRAIL. THEY ACCUSED HIM OF 
HASTENING AND HOLDING UP 
THE PROGRAM OF FEDERAL 
HOSPITALIZATION. GENERAL 

SAWYER IS CHIEF COORDINATOR 
OF THE HOSPITALIZATION 
BOARD. THEY HAD BETTER IN- 
VOKE PUBLIC SENTIMENT BACK 
OF GENERAL SAWYER INSTEAD 
OF HOBBLING HIM, ASSERTED 
MR. DAWES. THEN HE SAID 
THERE WAS ALTOGETHER TOO 
MUCH RUNNING TO COVER BY 
GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS EVERY 



TIME THE AMERICAN LEGION 
GROWLED AT THEM, FEARING 
THAT THE SEEDLESS PUBLIC 
WOULD ALL TOO QUICKLY AS- 
SUME THAT THE LEGION WAS 
RIGHT WHATEVER THE FACTS 
MIGHT BE. MR. DAWES ASSER- 
TION OF HIS." 

The time was started with the word, 
"will." Five letters were taken as the 
average word. The word "seedless" was 
checked by the judges and found to be 
correct with the punchings on the send- 
ing tape. 

After Mr. McElroy had won the con- 
test by copying 52 1/5 words per minute 



^ 



I 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



25 



perfect copy, Commissioner Carlson of- 
fered a prize of $50.00 additional in case 
the World's record was beaten. As stated 
above, Mr. McElroy established a 
World's record of 55 1/10 words per 
minute perfect copy. Before awarding 
the prize, and to remove all doubt as to 
whether ornot 55 1/10 words perfect copy 
was superior to 563^ words per minute 
with four errors, which was the previous 
record, Commissioner Carlson obtained 
an opinion from a commission of five ex- 
perts relative to this record. The com- 
mission consisted of Mr. E. J. Nally, 
President of the Radio Corporation of 
America, Mr. E. R. Shute, Operating 
Engineer of the Western Union Tele- 
graph Company, Captain Alfred Thomas, 
District Manager of the Radio Corpora- 
tion of America, Mr. E. A. Beane, U. S. 
Radio Inspector, 9th District, and Mr. 
L. R. Schmitt. The entire commission 
are uniformly agreed that perfect copy is 
the standard for consideration, and are, 
therefore agreed that 55 1/10 words per 
minute perfect copy is a new world's 
record. 



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Chicago's Winter 
Show 

January has been selected as the 
month when the second annual National 
Radio Exposition will be held in Chicago. 
This was chosen for several reasons. By 
that time the radio industrial atmosphere 
will have sufficiently cleared to enable 
the manufacturer, jobber and dealer to 
know where he stands, the annual in- 
ventories will have been taken, and an 
adjustment will have been reached in 
this rapidly growing industry which will 
have stabilized it to a large degree. 

There was another factor in causing the 
Advisory Commitee of the second Na- 
tional Radio Exposition to select this 
particular time for the second National 
show. Consultation with exhibitors in 
the First National Exposition, held in the 
Leiter building, Chicago, June 26 to 
July 1, revealed the fact that the big men 
in the industry were convinced that with 
the opening of the new year will come 
many changes in the radio situation. 
Long distance reception will have been so 
much improved as to enable Chicago to 
hear music and world news direct from 
England, Scotland and Panama, as well 
as the most distant points in the United 
States. 

The First Regiment Armory, 16th 
Street and Michigan Avenue, has been 
selected as the place for holding the sec- 
ond annual National Radio Exposition, 
and the dates are to be January 13 to 20, 
inclusive, according to Milo E. West- 
brooke, who is the pioneer in staging radio 
exposition truly national in character. 

One of the features of the second Na" 
tional exposition, as it was in the firsti 
will be the participation of the schools. 
The high school boy is not only looked 
upon as the radio manufacturer of the 
future, but he is the surest vehicle to 
carry radio into the home. 

The school exhibit at the second Na- 
tional Radio Exposition will be on a more 
extensive scale than at the first show. 



GET YOUR MARKET REPORTS 
FROM ONE OF THESE STATIONS 



^L^lA^^^^^^l,^^T,^^^v,|,^|,!J,^^^]/,r,^l.^l.^J,u.^J,^^,^l.!,l.^l.,!J,!J,^lJJ.^|,^[,^l,^l,^l,TJ,^l,|JJJ,^^'.l,'J,^l■^lA^ 



THE following is a broadcasting schedule of market reports by radio. These re- 
ports are sent as press items, except where it is indicated that they are sent in 
code form. Forms are necessary for copying the reports sent by code, sample copies 
of which may be obtained from this bureau for Federal and air mail stations and for 
all others by writing to the broadcasting station direct. While this schedule is not 
complete, it is the most accurate that can be prepared from the information available 
and will be revised as rapidly as data are received. With the exception of Federal 
stations, practically all market, crop, and weather reports are sent out on 485 meters, 
while entertainment, news, etc., are broadcast on 360 meters. 

Federal, State and private market reports. 

[Submitted by Bureau of Agricultural Economics.] 



Name and call 
.etters of station. 



Arlington, Va. 
(Washington, D. 
C), Navy Radio 
Station, NAA. 



Ames, Iowa: Iowa 
State College, 
WOI. 

Atlanta, Ga.: At- 
lanta Constitu- 
tion, WGM. 

Atlanta, Ga.: At 
1 a n t a Journal, 
WSB. 



Austin, Tex.: Uni 
versity of Texas, 
WGM. 



Boston, Mass. 
(Worcester) : 
Clark University, 
WCN. 

Bridgeport, Pa. : 
Diamond State 
FiberCcWBAG 

Buffalo, N.Y.: Fed- 
eral Telegraph & 
Telephone Co. 
WGR. 

Charlotte, N. C. 
Southern Radio 
Corporation, 
WBT. 

Chicago, 111.: West 
inghouse Electric 
& Manufacturing 
Co., KYW. 



Cincinnati, Ohio: 
Cino Radio 
Manufacturing 
Co., WIZ. 

Crosley Manu- 
facturing Co 
WLW. 

P r e c i s 1 o 

Equipment, 

WMH. 

'Not broadcasted 

Dayton, Ohio 

Rike-K u m 1 e r 

Co.. WFO. 



Weather forecast 

Hog market flash, Chicago and St. Louis.. 

Fruit and vegetable shipments and shipping 
point information. 

Fruit and vegetable markets 

Crop reports and special market news 

Closing live stock markets 

Hay and feed markets, Monday, Wednes- 
day, and Friday. 

Weather forecast 

Daily marketgram._ 

Weather forecast 

Information not available 



Nature of reports. 



Live stock receipts five or more principal 
markets (code). 



Information not available.. 



Weather reports. 

Market report, close on cotton, grain, and 
spot quotations. 

Entertainment 

Ball score, news, etc 

Entertainment 

Opening cotton and grain markets. 

Noon call on cotton 

Live stock report 

Close on cotton and grain 

Laredo onion report and general shipping 

point news. 
Report on markets of Dallas, Fort Worth, 

Houston, and San Antonio, and genera! 

crop information. 



Weather reports.- 

Massachusetts State market reports.. 
Weather reports 



Market and crop reports.. 
(Music Thursday) 



New York State market reports 

Weather reports.. 

New York State market reports. 

Education talks and entertainment.. 

Weath r reports.- 

Ball scores, etc 

Market reports.— 

Entertainment 



Fruit, vegetable, live stock, and grain (code) 
Fruit, vegetable, live stock, grain and 

dairy products (code). 

Fruit, vegetable, live stock, and feeds 

Fruit, vegetable, live stock, grain, and 

dairy products (code). 



Wholesale fruit and vegetable report 

Live stock reports, Chicago and St. Louis... 



Financial and market report.. 

Entertainment, etc 

Talks, news items, music 



Wholesale fruit and vegetable report.- 

Live stock report, Chicago and St. Louis. 

on Saturdays from June 15 to Sept. 15. 



Weather report 

Entertainment and news , 

do 

Market report and weather 

News and entertainment, Monday, Wednes- 
day, Thursday. 
do 



Source. 



Time of trans- 
mission. 



Federal-. 



..do.. 
..do.. 
..do.. 



...do.. 
...do.. 
....do... 
...do.. 

....do.. 
....do.. 
...do.. 



Federal.. 



Local.... 

do.. 

do.. 



Local.. - 
...do.. 
...do.. 
...do.. 

...do.. 



Federal.. 

State 

Federal.. 



do.. 

Local.... 



State 

Federal.. 

State 

Local 

Federal.. 

Local 

Federal.. 
Local 



Federal.. 
do... 



..do.. 
..do.. 



..do.. 
..do.. 



do.. 

Local.... 
do.. 



Federal.. 
do... 



Federal.. 

Local 

do... 

Federal.. 
Local 



..do.. 



Eastern stand- 
ard time. 
8.45 a. m 



10.00 a. m.. 
11.15 a. m.... 
11.20 a. m.... 



1.40 p. m.i 

2.25 p. m.i. 

3.45 p. m.i. 

4.00 p. m.i.— . 

5.00 p. m.i. 

5.30 p. m.i.—. 

9.45 p. m 

Central time .. 



..do.. 



Telegraph595:l 
meters con- 
tinuous wave 
transmission 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Phone. 



Do. 



Central lime. 

12.00 noon 

2.30 p. m 



4.00 p. m... 
S.OO p. m... 
7.00 p. m.- 
9.30 a. m..- 
12.30 p. m.. 
2.45 p. m... 
3.15 p. m... 
4.00 p. ra... 



8.00 p. m.. 



Eastern lime. 
11.15 a. m 



5.15 p. m.. 



11.45 a. m.„ 
7.30 p. m.- 



12.00 noon 

5.30 p. ra 

5.30 p. m 

7.30 p. m 

11.00 a. m 

6.00 p. ra 

8.00 p. m 

8.30 p. m 

Central lime. 

2.15 p. m 

4.15 p. m 



6.00 p. m.. 
7.30 p. m.. 



12.00 noon.. 
3.00 p. m.. 



Eastern time. 

1.00 p. m 

3.00 p. ra 

3.00 p. ra 

Central time. 

11.00 a. m 

4.00 p. m 



Central time. 
11.30 a. ra 

9.00 a. m 

11.00 a. m 



4.00 p. m.. 
7.00 p. m.. 



Type of trans- 
mission 



Phone. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Phone. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



Phone. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 



(Continued on next page.) 



26 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Lightning Arresters 

Many of our readers are still worrying 
about the lightning scare pertaining to 
outside aerials. Nearly every day I re- 
ceive requests for information on this 
subject and to those interested I wish to 
say that recent investigation shows that 
there is actually less danger from this 
source with an aerial than without; but 
when the reader reads something like 
the following, it is no wonder that he 
becomes anxious. 

"Watch out for lightning — beware 
of fire — injury — or death, as a result 
of using your radio set with a roof aerial. 
Thunder-storms with attendant light- 
ning may kill you while you sleep. Pro- 
tect your family, and your friends. Safe- 
guard your life with a Hoosis lightning 
protector." 

Wow — w — but that does get one 
scared, but is it a warning from the fire 
department, or does the municipal or 
federal government issue such warnings? 
No, not at all; this is merely an adver- 
tisement in the newspapers attempting 
to sell lightning arresters by the "scare- 
'em-stiff" method. I do not wish to dis- 
courage the use of lightning arresters, 
because occasionally they do protect 
delicate radio receiving instruments, 
and because in some localities they are 
required by law, but I do wish to dis- 
courage hysterical fears, unfounded in 
most cases, and greatly exaggerated in 
others. The reason why you need not 
worry about lightning will be explained in 
this column tomorrow. — [F. D. P. in- 
Chicago Herald and Examiner. 



Federal, State, and private market reports — (Continued.) 



Wireless Patent Suit 

New York. — Action to restrain the 
Wireless Specialty Apparatus Company 
from continuing to publish a series of 
"patent warning" advertisements has 
been brought in the Supreme Court of 
New York. 

"The suit is being watched with con- 
siderable interest by wireless interests, 
including hundreds of radio apparatus 
manufacturers and radio dealers through- 
out the country, who will be guided by 
court decision as to their rights in regard 
to the alleged patent infringements con- 
tained in the "warning" advertisements. 

"The suit is being prosecuted by the 
Freed Eisemann Radio Corporation, 
255 4th Avenue, supported by a group of 
radio apparatus manufacturers known 
as the "Independent Radio Manufac- 
turers, Inc." 



^Operators Suspended 

First-class, second-grade license. No. 
1359, issued at Baltimore, Md., August 
29, 1921, has been suspended for a period 
of three months for violation of section 5, 
act of August 13, 1912, in that he will- 
fully interfered with the transmission of 
another station. 

First-class, second-grade license. No. 
3895, issued at New York, N. Y., June 27, 
1922, has been suspended for a period of 
three months for violation of article 6 of 
the International Convention service 
regulations, in that he carried on an un- 
official conversation with the operator of 
another vessel. 



Name and call 
letters of station. 


Nature of reports. 


Source. 


Tirae of trans- 
raission. 


Type of trans- 
mission. 


Detroit, Mich.: The 




do 


9.30 a. m 

10.15 a. m 

11.55 a. m 

12.05 p. m 

3.30 p. m 

4.05 p. m 

5.00 p. m 

7.00 p. ra 

10.30 a. ra 

1.30 p. m 

3.30 p. ra 


Do. 


Detroit News, 


Weather report 


Federal.. 


Do. 


W\VJ. 


United States time signals... . 


do. 


Do. 




Entertainment 


Local 


Do. 




Market quotations. . 


do 


Do. 




Weather report. 


Federal.... 


Do. 




Sport and world news 


Local 


Do. 




Entertainment 


do 


Do. 


Eldorado, Kans. : 


Weather and market report 


Federal.. 


Do. 


Midland Refin- 


Market report 


do..... 


Do. 


ing. Co., WAH. 


Weather report 


do.„ 


Do. 




Entertainraent.. 


Local . . 


Do. 




Market report (Saturday)..., 


Federal... 


1.00 p. ra 

Pacific time. 
8.30 a. m 

12.00 noon 

4.00 p. ra 

Central time. 
11.30 a. ra 

2.30 p. m 

4.00 p. ra 

6.00 p. ra 

7.30 p. ra 

10.00 p. ra 

8.45 a. ra 

11.00 a. ra 

2.00 p. m 

3.30 p. ra 

8.00 a. ra 

8.50 a. ra 

9.00 a. m 

10.00 a. ra 

10.10 a. m 

10.40 a. ra 

11.45 a. ra 

11.25 a. m 

11.40 a. ra 

12.00 noon» 

12.20 p. m.« 

12.40 p. m." 

1.45 p. m.i 

2.30 p. m.' 

3.45 p. m.i 

5.00 p. m.i 

6.00 p. m.i 

9.30 p. ra 

1.00 p. m 

9.30 a. ra 

11.30 a. m.._ 

2.00 p. ra 

5.00 p. ra.i 

Central time. 
9.30 a. m. to 
12.30 p. m 


Do. 


Elko, Nev.: Air 


Live-stock receipts (code) 


do 


3000 arc un- 


mail radio sta- 
tion, KDEJ. 


Live stock Chicago (code)... 


do .. 


damped. 
Do. 




do. 


do 


Do. 


Fort Worth, Tex.: 
Fort Worth 


Weather report.. 


.. do . 


Phone. 


Record, WPA. 


do 


do..... 


Do. 




Market report 


do. 


Do. 




Ball scores and news . 


Local . . 


Do. 




Entertainraent 


do . 


Do. 




News and weather reports 


do. .... 


Do. 


The Star- Tele- 


Produce, grain, and cotton opening.... 


Federal 


Do. 


gram, WBAP. 


Weather report (code) 


do 


Do. 




Cotton, grain, sugar, and cattle report 

(code). 
Fort Worth cash grain 


Local 


Do. 




do. 


Do. 


Great Lakes, 111. 


Live-stock receipts (code) 


Federal 


Telegraph4900 


(Chicago, 111.): 
Navy radio sta- 
Uon. NAJ. 


Hog raarket flash, Chicago _ 


.... do... 


meters con- 
tinuous-wave 
transmission 
Do. 




Weather forecast 


do. 


Do. 




Hog flash five or raore markets 


do. 


Do. 




Fruit and vegetable shipraents, and ship- 
ping point information. 

Dairy products market report, New York 
and Chicago. 

Live-stock raarket: 

Chicago 


do. 

do 


Do. 
Do. 




do 


Do. 




Kansas City 


do 


Do. 




St. Louis.. 


... do.„. 


Do. 




St. Paul 


do. 


Do. 




Oraaha.. 


do. 


Do. 




Chicago close code, advance estiraated.. 
Reports: 


do. 

do. 


Do. 
Do. 




Fruit and vegetable market report 

Hay and feed market report 


do. 

do .. 


Do. 
Do. 




Dairy and poultry market report 


do. 


Do. 




Daily marketgram... 


do. 


Do. 




Weather forecast 


do. 


Do. 


Hutchinson, Minn.: 


Weather and market reports as trans- 
raitted by University of Minnesota. 

Market reports, estimated receipts Kansas 
City, St. Louis, and Chicago hog open- 
ing, and Kansas City grain (code). 

Kansas City and St. Louis live stock and 

Kansas City grain. 
Chicago butter and eggs, St. Louis potatoes, 

and Kansas City grain (code). 
Marketgram, general market information 

(daily except Tuesdays and holidays). 

Grain market reports for the Kansas City 
Board of Trade (half-hour schedule). 

Hog report 


....State... 


Phone 


Hutchinson Elec- 
tric Service Co., 
WFAN. 
Jefferson City, Mo. 
Missouri State 
marketing bu- 
reau, WOS. 

Kansas City, Mo.: 
Sweeney Radio 


Federal and 
State. 

do 

do. 

do. 

Local.... 


Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


Federal 


....Phone. 


WHB. 
Western Radio 


9.45 a. m 

11.30 a. ra 

11.40 a. ra 

2.00 p. m 

2.10 p. ra 

2.20 p. m 

2.30 p. m 

7.30 p. m... 

10.10 a. ra 

Pacific time. 

9.00 a. ra 

2.30 p. m 

4.00 p. m 

4.00 p. m 

Central time. 
12.00 noon 

12.20 p. ra 

12.25 p. m 

12.59 p. ra 

9.55 a. ra 

11.45 a. m 

2.30 p. ra 

6.00 p. m 

8.15 p. ra 

11.00 a. ra 


Do. 


Co. WOQ. 


Live Stock Kansas City (code) 


do. 


Do. 






do. 


Do. 






do. 


Do. 




Live stock Kansas City (code) 


... do. 


Do. 






do._ 


Do. 




Fruit and vegetable, Kansas City, Chicago, 

and St. Louis. 
Repeat the 2 and 2.30 p. m. reports 


do. 


Do. 






Do. 




Omaha hogs and sheep, and grain report 
for Chicago, Omaha, and Kansas City. 


Federal. 




University of Ne- 
braska WFAV. 


do 


Do. 


Los Angeles, Calif. : 
Leo J. Meyberg 
Co., KYJ. 


Weather forecast 


do. 


Do. 


Lectures University of Southern California .. 


Local ... 


Do. 


do.„ 


Do. 






do. 


Do. 




Chicago, potatoes, hogs, cattle, sheep, eggs, 
butter, cheese, poultry, and hay (code). 


Federal 


Telegraph. 


University of 
Wisconsin, WHA 


do 


Do. 




Weather same as at 12.20 p. m 

United States time signaL 


do 

do 


Phone. 
Do. 






do. 


Do. 


Kansas State Ag- 
ricultural Col- 
lege. WTG. 
Memphis, Tenn.: 
Reichraan-Cros- 
by Co.. WKN. 




do 


Do. 


Close on cotton, live stock, and produce. 

Baseball news . . ■. 


do 

Local 


Do. 
Do. 






do 


Do. 






do._ 


Do. 











\ 



iNot broadcasted on Saturdays from June IS to Sept. IS. 



(Continued on next page. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



27 



Federal, State, and private market reports — Continued. 



Name and call 
letters of station. 


Nature of reports. 


Source. 


Time of trans- 
mission. 


Type of trans- 
mission. 


Milwaukee, Wis.: 
Gimbel Brothers 
Department 
Store, WAAK. 


Market quotations of Milwaukee Chamber 
of Commerce. 

Weather forecast (Wisconsin) 


do 


Daylight saving, 

central time. 

10.00, 11.00, 

12.10 and 

1.25. 

11.00 a. m 

Central time. 
12.00 noon 

12.00 noon 

7.30 p. m 

Easteryt time. 
12.00 noon 

6.00 p. m 

Central time. 

9.30 a. m 

12.00 noon 

5.00 p. m 

8.00 p. m 

8.30 p. m 

9.00 a. m 

11.00 a. m 

12.00 noon 

1.00 p. m 

2.00 p. m 

4.30 p. m 

7.00 p. m 

7.30 p. m 

Eastern time. 
7.45 p. m 

7.45 p. m 

Pacific time. 

9.00 a. m 

1.00 p. m 

Central time. 

12.00 noon 

4.00 p. m 

4.00 p. m 

6.30 p. m 

Eastern lime. 
7.45 p. m 

Mountain time. 

9.00 a. m 

12.00 noon 

4.30 p. m 

8.00 p. m 

8.30 p. m 

Eastern time. 
7.00 p. m 

Central time. 
10.15 a. m 

10.15 a. m 

2.15 p. m 

1.00 p. m 

8.40 a. m 

9.40 a. m 

10.40 a. m 


Do. 
Do. 


Minneapolis, Minn: 


Weather report, Minnesota, Wisconsin, 
North Dakota, South Dakota, and Mon- 
tana. 

St. Paul live stock summary of morning's 
market. 

Minneapolis wheat closing cash and futures, 
Minneapolis and St. Paul potatoes, sum- 
mary. 

Market reports. New York City wholesale 
fruit and vegetable. 

New York City wholesale fruit and vege- 
tables, eggs, hay, butter, etc. 

Live stock receipts (code) 






University of 
Minnesota, WLB 

Newark, N. J.: 


State and 
Federal. 

Local and 
Federal. 

State 


followed by 
phone. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 


VVestinghouse 
Electric & Manu- 


do 


Do. 


facturing Co., 
WJZ. 
North Platte, Nebr.: 




Telegraph. 


Air mail radio 


Live stock Chicago (code) 


do 


4000meters,arc 


station, KDHM. 


do . . 


do 


undamped. 
Do. 




Live stock, Kansas City 


do 


Do. 




Live stock, Omaha, Nebr. 


do 


Do. 


Omaha, Nebr.: Air 


Live stock receipts (code) 


do 


Telegraph. 


mail radio sta- 




do 




tion, KDEF. 


Live stock, Omaha (code) 


do 


undamped. 
Do. 




Live stock, Kansas City (code) 


do 


Do. 






do 


Do. 




Live stock, Chicago 


do 


Do. 






do 


Do. 




Live stock, Omaha . . 


do 


Do. 


Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Fruit and vegetable (Pittsburgh), live 

stock (Chicago), grain. 
Chicago, hay and feed 


Federal 


Phone. 


(East Pittsburgh) 
Westinghouse, 


Ix)cal 


Do. 


Electric Manu- 
facturing Co., 
KDKA. 

Reno, Nev. : Air 








mail radio sta- 


Live stock, Chicago (code) 


do 


3200 met., arc 


tion, KDEK. 
Richmond, Ind.: 




undamped. 
Phone. 


Palladium Print- 


Weather forecast.. 


Federal . 


Do. 


ing Co., WOZ. 






Do. 




Weather, local news, music 


Federal and 
local. 

State 


Do. 


Rochester, N. Y.: 




Do. 


Rochester Times 
Union, WHQ. 

Rock Springs 






Telegraph. 


Wyo. : Air mail 


Live stock, Chicago (code) 


do 


3000 met., arc 


radio station, 
KDHN. 


Live stock, Chicago 


do 


undamped. 
Do. 






do 


Do. 




Live stock, Omaha 


do 


Do. 


Schenectady, N. 


tables, butter, eggs, poultry, hay, and 
country dressed meat. 

Market report, live stock receipts St. Louis 

and Chicago hog opening (code). 
St. Louis and Kansas City opening, trend 

of market, Liverpool cables. 
Fruit and vegetable, Chicago potatoes, 

live stock, St. Louis close, closing grain 

market. 


State 


Phone. 


Y.: General Elec- 
tric Co., WGY. 
St. Louis, Mo.: 
St. Louis Uni- 


Federal 


Do. 


versity, WEW. 


do. 

do 

do 


Do. 
Do. 

Do. 


Stix-Baer & 


Merchants Exchange reports, opening 

future market. 
Future market receipts and shipments 


Local 


Do. 


Fuller Co., 
WCK. 


. do 


Do. 




Future market 


do 


Do. 




do 


do ... 


11.40 a. m 

12.40 p. m 

Eastern time. 


Do. 




Closing future market cash grain prices. 


do 


Do. 


Springfield, Mass.: 






Do. 


Westinghouse 


Massachusetts State market reports 


State 




Do. 


Electric & Manu- 
facturing Co.. 
WBZ. 

State College, N. 




Mountain time. 

11.55 a. m 

12.00 noon 

12.05 p. m 

8.00 p. m 

Eastern time. 


Do. 


Mex.: New Mex- 


Weather forecast . . 


do . 


Do. 


ico College of 




do 


Do. 


Agriculture and 


Music and entertainment _ 


Local.. 


Do. 


Mechanical Arts, 
KOB. 

Tampa, Fla.: Tam- 


Information not available 




Do. 


pa Dally Times, 
WDAE. 

Toledo, Ohio: The 




State 


Eastern time. 
9.40-12.30 
and 1.40 

12.30 p. m 

5.00 p. m 

9.00 p. m 


Do. 


William B. Duck 
Co., WHU. 




do 


Do. 




Baseball and news.. _ 


do 


Do. 




Musical entertainment Tuesday and Thurs- 
day. 


Local 


Do. 









{Continued on next page.) 



Federal Radio Body 

At the request of the Secretary of Com- 
merce each of the ten Government de- 
partments have appointed representa- 
tives on an Interdepartment Advisory 
Committee on Governmental Radio 
Broadcasting. There are, in addition, 
representatives of the office of the chief 
coordinator, Bureau of the Budget, and 
the United States Shipping Board. The 
membership of the committee is as fol- 
lows: Agriculture, W. A. Wheeler, Radio 
Development Section; Commerce, Dr. 
S. VV. Stratton, director. Bureau of 
Standards; Interior, O. P. Hood, chief 
mechanical engineer. Bureau of Mines; 
Justice, S. Ely, chief clerk; Labor, A. E. 
Cook, office of the Secretary; Navy, 
Commander D. C. Bingham, Naval 
Communication Service; Post Office, J. 
C. Edgerton, air mail division; State, 
W. S. Rogers, International Communica- 
tions Conference; Treasury, L. J. Heath, 
Public Health Service; War, Maj. Gen. 
G. O. Squier, chief signal officer; Chief 
Coordinator, Capt. H. P. Perrill, assist- 
ant coordinator. Bureau of the Budget; 
United States Shipping Board Emergency 
Fleet Corporation, F. P. Guthrie, head 
of radio division, operating department. 

The chairman of the committee is Dr. 
S. W. Stratton and the secretary is Dr. 
J. H. Dellinger, chief of the radio lab- 
oratory. Bureau of Standards, Depart- 
ment of Commerce. In accordance with 
recommendations of the committee an 
experimental system of Government 
broadcasting by "primary" broadcast 
stations has been established, utilizing 
only previously existing Government 
stations and equipment. The "primary" 
stations are stations which broadcast of- 
ficial Government news by continuous 
wave (code) telegraphy for the purpose 
of furnishing this information to local 
broadcast stations for rebroadcasting by 
radiophone. The eight stations thus far 
included send out daily bulletins of Gov- 
ernment news, mostly agricultural market 
data. They are: Arlington, Va. (Navy, 
5950 meters), Great Lakes, 111. (Navy, 
4900 meters), Washington, D. C. (Post 
Office, 1980 meters), Omaha, Nebr. 
(Post Office, 2500 meters). North Platte, 
Nebr. (Post Office, 4000 meters). Rock 
Springs, Wyo. (Post Office, 3000 meters), 
Elko, Nev. (Post Office, 3000 meters), 
Reno, Nev. (Post Office, 3200 meters). 

The committee has recognized the prin- 
ciple that radio must be used, primarily, 
for types of service that can not be as 
satisfactorily given by other means of 
communication, and that therefore radio 
broadcasting should not be used in general 
where wire telegraphy or telephony or 
printed publication would be as satisfac- 
tory. It is possible that the scope of the 
committee's activities may be extended 
beyond the subject of broadcasting, and 
that the committee will act in an advisory 
capacity to the Secretary of Commerce 
in matters of Government radio regula- 
tion and will consider all radio questions 
of interdepartmental interest. — Submitted 
by Bureau of Standards. 



28 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



Announcing 



The Second 

NATIONAL 

RADIO 

EXPOSITION 

1st Regiment Armory 

CHICAGO 
JAN. 13 to 20 

1923 (incl.) 

to be conducted along the 
same successful lines as was 
the National Show held in 
Chicago last June. 

January is the ideal month 
for perfect radio re- 
ception, also the time when 
inventories have been made 
thereby enabUng dealers to 
buy with intelUgence and 
safety. 



WRITE TODAY 
for Diagram 



Second 
National 
Radio 
Exposition 

417 S. DEARBORN ST. 

CHICAGO 



Federal, State, and private market reports — Continued. 



Name and call 
letters of station. 


Nature of reports. 


Source. 


Time of trans- 
mission. 


Type of trans- 
mission. 


Tulsa, Okla.: Mid- 


Live stock reports.,.. 


Federal 


Central time. 
10.30 a. m.and 

1.30 p. m. 
10.30 a. m. and 

3.30 p. m. 

7.45 p. m 

Central time. 
8.50 a. m 

4.00p.m.daily 
12.15 p. m. 
Saturday. 

9.30 p. m 

Eastern time. 
10.30 a. m 

12.30 p. m 

2.15 p. m 

3.00 p. m 

3.30 p. m 

S.OO p. ra 

5.30 p. m 

7.30 p. m 

8.00 p. m 


Do 


land Refining Co. , 
WAH. 


Weather forecast 


do 


Do 




Concerts (not regular) 


Local 


Do 


University Place, 


Weather forecast and news 


Federal and 

local. 
Federal 




Nebr.: Nebraska 
Wesleyan Uni- 


Omaha live stock, Chicago grain (code and 
press). 

Concerts, lectures, etc., Tuesdav and 
Thursday. 

uit and vegetable (Washington, D. C.) 

Live stock receipts and St. Louis and Chi- 
cago hog opening (code). 

Live stock, Chicago and St. Louis close 
(code).i 

Crop reports and special market news.i._ 

General fruits and vegetables^ 


Do. 


versity, WCAJ. 


Local 


Do. 


Washington, D.C.Fr 


Federal 


Plionc, 1160 


Post Office De- 
partment airm ail 
radio station. 
WWX. 


do 

do 

do 


meters. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 




do 


Do 




Dairy products, New York and Chicago 

(code'.) 
Grain' 


do 


Do. 




do 


Do 




Live stock and grain (code)' 


do 


Do 






. . ..do .. 


Do. 


Wichita, K a n s. : 


Board of trade reports; information not 
available. 




Phone. 


The Cosradio 
Co., WEY. 









'Not broadcasted on Saturdayf rem June 15 to Sept. 15. 

Note. — When no form number is indicated straight copy is used. 



g^ .^vrvlvrvl^^lVlvl^^l^^Ivlv^l^^l ^ l rlVIYrl^ l VIVJa : ^'^l■l^l^ l V l ^l1V l ^' I V^lMVl^lMV l V I V i ^l^ l VIYl^^l^■l^'l^^lVl^ ^^:^ V l V l V l ^ ^ v l V l V l ^MV l^ ^ T 



SPECIAL LAND STATIONS 



< . t . l .^ l . l . l . T . l .^ l . T . l . l . l .^ l .^ l . T . l . l . l . l . l . l . I .^ l .^ l .^ [ . l . l . l . l . l . l .^ l ■^ l .^ I . l ■ l . T . I . T . I .^ | . l .L T . l .^ I . T . | . T . I . T . l .^ l .^ l . l . I . l . l ■^ T ■^ l .l.^.l.l.T.l.l.l.l.l.t ■ l . l . l . l . l . l . l . l . l . l . l . l . l . l . l . ? . t . > . l . l . l . t . ^ 



Special land stations, alphabetically by names of stations. 

[Additions to the List of Radio Stations of the United States, edition of June 30, 1921.] 



Station. 


Call, 
signal. 


Wave lengths. 


Station controlled by — 




5ZAX 

4X1 

2X.AO 

5ZAY 
3XP 
SZAZ 
2XAN 

9XL 
5XAE 

2XAM 

5XAF 
SXAD 
3XAG 

8XW 

8XX 

6XAU 

4XJ 

3XO 

IXT 

IXQ 

IXS 


200.375 


Eugene W. Wood, 340 Butternut Street. 

Technological High School 

Radio Corporation of America, 233 Broadway 

York, N. Y. 
A. H. Belo & Co. 
Henry M. Neely. 

Lawrence W. Stinson, 354 North West Street. 
Harry Alexander, 20 West Thirty-fourth Street 

York, N. Y. 
North Western Radio Co., 250 State Street. 
Mobile Radio Co., O'Gwinn Building. 
Radio Corporation of America, 233 Broadwa\ 

York, N. Y. 
Roswell B. Downing. 
Gray & Gray. 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., 2 1 1 

Twenty-second Street. 
Radio Electric Co., 1427 Liberty Avenue. 
Duquesne University. 
Wilson McQuire Co., 1004 Treat Avenue. 
Thompson Electric Co., 102 West Lafayette Stre 
Central High School. 
Bristol Co. 

Lloyd C. Greene, 88 Somerset Avenue. 
Otis C. White, 17 Herman Street. 




Atlanta, Ga. 


200.215 




Belmar, N. J. 






Dallas, Tex 


200,375 




Delanco, N. J. 


250 






200,315 




Great Neck, N. Y. 


Variable 


, New 




360 






200,375 




New Brunswick, N. J.. 


Variable 


New 


Oklahoma City, Okla. 


200,375 




Orange, Tex. 


Variable 

200,250 




Philadelphia, Pa 


North 


Pittsburgh, Pa. 






Pittsburgh, Pa. 


200,375 




San Francisco, Calif 

Tampa, Fla. 


Variable..... 

285,325 


et. 




200,375 






360 




Winthrop, Mass. 


Variable 




Worcester, Mass 


do 







Special land stations, groupe 


/ by districts. 


Call 






Call 




signal. 


Di.strict and Station. 




signal. 


District and station. 




First district: 






Fifth district: 


IXQ 


Winthrop, Mass. 




SXAD 


Orange, Tex. 


IXS 


Worcester, Mass. 




5XAE 


Mobile, Ala. 


IXT 


Waterbury, Conn. 




SXAF 


Oklahoma Citv, Okla. 




.Second district: 




5ZAX 


Abilene, Tex. 


2XAM 


New Brunswick, N. J. 




5ZAY 


Dallas, Tex. 


2XAN 


Great Neck, N. V. 




SZAZ 


Fayetteville, Ark. 


2XAO 


Belmar, N. J. 
Third district: 




6XAU 


Sixth district: San Franci-sco, Calit.- 
Eighth district: 


3XAG 


Philadelphia, Pa. 




8XX 


Pittsburgh, Pa 


3XO 


Washington, D. C. 




8XVV 


Do. 


.?XP 


Delanco, N. J. 
Fourth district: 




9XL 


Ninth District: Madison, \Vi>. 


4X1 


Atlanta, Ga. 








4XJ 


Tampa, Fla. 









Phase Mention "Radio Aqe" When Replying to Advertisers 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINEzOF THE HOUR' 



29 



Federal Act Regulating Radio 

Measure Now Pending in United States Senate Committee on Inter- 
state Commerce 



Mr. Kellogg introduced the following 
hill; which was read twice and referred to 
the Committee on Interstate Commerce. 



A BILL 

To amend an Act to regulate radio com- 
munication, approved August 13, 1912, 
and for other purposes. •''-^—~—^— 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House 
of Representatives of the United States of 
America in Congress assembled. That the 
Act of Congress entitled "An Act to reg- 
ulate radio communication," approved 
August 13, 1912, is amended by striking- 
out sections 1, 2 and 3 thereof and by in- 
serting in lieu thereof the sections 1, 2 
following: 

"Section 1. A. That no person, com- 
pany or corporation within the jurisdic- 
tion of the United States shall use or 
operate any apparatus for radio com- 
munication by telegraphy or telephony 
as a means of intercourse among the sev- 
eral States or with foreign nations, or 
upon any vessel of the United States 
engaged in interstate or foreign com- 
merce, or for the transmission of radio- 
grams or signals by telegraphy or tel- 
ephony the effects of which extend be- 
yond the jurisdiction of the State or Ter- 
ritory in which the same are made, or 
where interference would be caused there- 
by with the transmission or reception of 
messages or signals from beyond the jur- 
isdiction of said State or Territory, ex- 
cept under and in accordance with a 
license in that behalf granted by the Sec- 
retary of Commerce and except as here- 
inafter authorized. 

"B. That the Secretary of Commerce 
from time to time shall (a) classify li- 
censed radio stations and the operators 
required therein; (b) prescribe the nature 
of the service to be rendered by each class 
of licensed station and assign bands of 
wave lengths thereto; (c) make, alter, and 
revoke regulations applicable to all li- 
censed stations not inconsistent with this 
Act or any other Act of Congress or with 
the terms of any radio communication 
convention to which the United States is a 
party concerning the service to be ren- 
dered by each class of stations so estab- 
lished; the location of any station; the 
wave lengths to be used by any station; 
the kinds of instruments or apparatus in 
any station with respect to the external 
effect produced thereby; the power and 
the purity and sharpness of the waves 
of each station or the apparatus therein; 
the area to be served by any station and 
the times and methods of operating any 
station or the apparatus therein; (d) 
make such other regulations not incon- 
sistent with law as he may deem neces- 
sary to prevent interference between all 
stations affected by this Act. 

"C. That radio stations belonging to 
and operated by the United States and 



used exclusively for communications of 
official business, shall not be subject to the 
provisions of paragraphs A and B of this 
section. Every other station owned and 
operated by the United States shall be 
subject to the provisions of said par- 
agraphs A and B of this section. All sta- 
tions owned and operated by the United 
States and all other licensed stations on 
land and sea shall have special call let- 
ters designated by the Secretary of Com- 
merce, and such stations and the desig- 
nated call letters shall be included in the 
list of radio stations of the United States 
as published by the Department of Com- 
merce. Radio stations owned and op- 
erated by the United States and used ex- 
clusively for the communication of of- 
ficial business shall use such wave lengths 
as shall be assigned to each by the Pres- 
ident, and shall observe such regulations 
as the Secretary of Commerce may make 
to prevent undue interference with other 
radio stations and rights of others, ex- 
cept that upon proclamation by the Pres- 
ident that there exists war or a threat of 
war or a state of public peril or disaster 
or other emergency, the President may 
suspend for such time as he may see fit 
all such regulations of the Secretary of 
Commerce applicable to such stations 
owned and operated by the United States. 

"D. That every such license shall pro- 
vide that the President of the United 
States in time of war or public peril or 
disaster, may cause the closing of any sta- 
tion for radio communication and the re- 
moval therefrom of all radio apparatus 
or may authorize the use or control of 
any such station or apparatus by any 
department of the Government upon 
just compensation to the owners. 

"Sec. 2. A. That paragraph A of Sec- 
tion 1 of this Act shall not apply to per- 
sons sending radio messages or signals 
through a radio station belonging to and 
operated by the United States for the 
transmission exclusively of official busi- 
ness nor to persons sending such messages 
on a foreign ship while the same is within 
the jurisdiction of the United States. 

"B. That the station license required 
hereby shall not be granted to, or after 
the granting thereof such license shall not 
in any manner, either voluntarily or in- 
voluntarily, be transferred to (a) any 
alien or the representative of any alien; 
(b) nor to any foreign government or the 
representative thereof; (c) nor to any 
company, corporation, or association or- 
ganized under the laws of any foreign 
government; (d) nor to any company, 
corporation, or association of which any 
officer or director is an alien or of which 
more than one-fifth of the capital stock 
shaving voting power is owned or con 
trolled by aliens or their representatives 
or by a foreign government of representa- 
tive thereof, or by any company, corpora- 



tion, or association organized under the 
laws of a foreign country. 

"Such station license, the wave length 
or length authorized to be used by the 
licensee, and the rights therein granted 
shall not be transferred, assigned, or in 
any manner, either voluntarily or in- 
voluntarily, disposed of to any other per- 
son, company, or corporation without 
the consent in writing of the Secretary of 
Commerce. 

"C. That the Secretary of Commerce, 
subject to the limitations of this Act, in 
his discretion, may grant to any appli- 
cant therefor a station license provided 
for in Sections 1 and 2 hereof, except that 
he may grant such license only to a sta- 
tion which is in the interest of the gen- 
eral public service. 

"No license granted by the Secretary 
shall be for a longer term than 10 years, 
and any license granted may be revoked 
as hereinafter provided. Upon the ex- 
piration of any license the Secretary, 
in his discretion upon application there- 
for, may grant a renewal of such license 
for the same or for a lesser period of time. 

"The Secretary of Commerce is hereby 
authorized to refuse a license to any per- 
son, company, or corporation, or any sub- 
sidiary thereof which, in the judgment of 
the Secretary, is monopolizing or seeking 
to monopolize radio communication, di- 
rectly or indirectly, through the control 
of the manufacture or sale of radio ap- 
paratus or by any other means. The 
granting of a license shall not estop the 
United States from prosecuting such per- 
son, company, or corporation, for a viola- 
tion of the law against monopolies or re- 
straint of trade. 

"D. That the Secretary of Commerce 
may grant licenses only upon written ap- 
plication therefor addressed to him, which 
application shall set forth such facts as he 
by regulation may prescribe as to the 
citizenship, character, and financial, 
technical, and other ability of the ap- 
plicant to operate the station; the owner- 
ship and location of the proposed station 
and of the stations with which it is pro- 
posed to communicate; the wave lengths 
and the power desired to be used; the 
hours of the day or other periods of time 
during which it is proposed to operate 
the station; the purposes for which 
the station is to be used, and such other 
information as he may require. Such 
application shall be signed by the ap- 
plicant under oath or affirmation. 

"E. That such station license as the 
Secretary of Commerce may grant shall 
be in general form as he may prescribe, 
but each license shall contain in addition 
to other provisions a statement of the 
lolowing conditions to which such license 
shall be subject: (a) The ownership or 
management of the station or apparatus 



30 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



HOMCHARGE 

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THE AUTOMATIC 
ELECTRICAL DEVICES CO. 




Trained "Men 



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sent free without obligation. 

A. G. MOHAUPT. Electrical Engineer 
American Electrical Association 
4S1S N. Winchester Ave.. Chicago 



WHITE 
TODAY 



Let Us Pay You for Your 
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There are thousands of subscriptions 
for Radio publications taken every day. 

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64 WEST RANDOLPH STREET, CHICAGO 



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therein shall not be transferred in viola- 
tion of this Act. There shall be no vested 
property right in the license issued for 
such station or in the bands of wave 
length authorized to be used therein, and 
neither the license nor any right granted 
thereunder shall be assigned or otherwise 
transferred in violation of the Act; 
(b) such licenses shall contain such other 
conditions not inconsistent with this Act, 
as the Secretary of Commerce may pre- 
scribe. 

"F. That any station license granted 
by the Secretary of Commerce shall be 
revocable by him for failure to operate 
service substantially as proposed in the 
application and as set forth in the license, 
for violation of or failure to observe any 
of the restrictions and conditions of this 
Act or of any regulation of the Secretary 
of Commerce authorized by this Act or 
by the provisions of any international 
radio convention ratified or adhered to 
bj' the United States or any regulations 
thereunder, or whenever the Secretary 
of Commerce shall deem such revocation 
to be in the public interest; Provided, 
That no order of revocation shall take ef- 
fect until thirty days' notice in writing 
thereof to the parties known by the Sec- 
retary to be interested in such license. 
Any person in interest, aggrieved by said 
order, may make written application to 
the Secretary at any time within said 
thirty days for a hearing upon such or- 
der and upon the filing of such written 
application said order of revocation 
shall stand suspended until the conclu- 
sion of the hearing herein directed. No- 
tice in writing of said hearing shall be 
given by the Secretary to all the parties 
known to him to be interested in such li- 
cense twenty days, prior to the time of 
said hearing. Said hearing shall be 
conducted under such rules and in such 
manner as the Secretary may prescribe. 
Upon the conclusion thereof the Secre- 
tary may affirm, modify, or revoke said 
orders of revocation. 

"Sec. 3. A. That the actual operation 
of apparatus in any radio station for 
which a station license is required by 
this Act shall be carried on only by a 
person holding an operator's license is- 
sued thereunder. No person shall op- 
erate any apparatus in such station ex- 
cept under and in accordance with an op- 
erator's license issued to him by the Sec- 
retary of Commerce. 

"B. That the Secretary of Commerce, 
in his discretion, may grant special tem 



formation as may be required by the 
Secretary of Commerce. Every applica- 
tion shall be signed by the applicant un- 
der oath or affirmation. 

"D. That an operator's license shall be 
issued only to a person who, in the judg- 
ment of the Secretary of Commerce, is 
proficient in the use and operation of 
radio apparatus and in the transmission 
and reception of radiograms by teleg- 
raphy and telephony. Except in an 
emergency found by the Secretary of 
Commerce to exist, an operator's license 
shall not be granted to any alien, nor 
shall such a license be granted to a repre- 
sentative of a foreign government. 

"E. That an operator's license shall 
be in such form as the Secretary of Com- 
merce shall prescribe, and may be sus- 
pended by him for a period not exceeding 
two years upon proof sufficient to satisfy 
him that the licensee: (a) has violated 
any provision of any act or treaty which 
the Secretary of Commerce is authorized 
by this Act to administer, or of any 
regulation made by the Secretary under 
any such Act or treaty; or (b) has failed 
to compel compliance therewith by any 
unlicensed person under his supervision; 
or (c) has failed to carry out the lawful 
orders of the master of the vessel on 
which he is employed; or (d) has wilfully 
damaged or permitted apparatus to be 
damaged; or (e) has transmitted super- 
fluous signals, or signals containing pro- 
fane or obscene words or language. 

"F. That a license may be revoked 
by the Secretary of Commerce upon 
proof sufificient to satisfy him that the 
licensee was at the date his license was 
granted to him, or is at the time of 
revocation, ineligible for a license. 

"Sec. 4. A. That after the approval 
of this Act the construction of a station 
for which a license is required by this 
Act shall not be begun, nor shall the con- 
struction of a station already begun be 
continued, until after a permit for its 
construction has been granted by the 
Secretary of Commerce upon written 
application therefor. This application 
shall set forth such facts as the Secretary 
of Commerce by regulation may prescribe 
as to the citizenship, character, and the 
financial, technical, and other ability 
of the applicant to construct and operate 
the station, the ownership and location 
of the proposed station and of the station 
or stations with which it is proposed to 
communicate, the wave or wave lengths 
desired to be used, the hours of the day 
porary operators' licenses to operators of or other periods of time during which 
radio apparatus under such regulations, it is proposed to operate the station, the 
in such form, and upon such conditions purpose for which the station is to be 
as he may prescribe whenever an emer- used, the type of transmitting apparatus 
gency arises requiring prompt employ- to be used, the power to be used, the 
ment of such an operator. date upon which the station is expected 

"C. That an operator's license shall be to be completed and in operation and 
issued by the Secretary of Commerce in such other information as the Secretary 



response to a written application there- 
for, addressed to him, which shall set 
forth (a) the name, age, and address 
of the applicant; (b) the date and place 
of birth; (c) the country of which he is a 
citizen; and if a naturalized citizen of 
the United States, the date and place of 
naturalization; (d) the previous experi- 
ence of the applicant in operating radio 
apparatus; and (e) such other facts or in- 



of Commerce may require. Such applica- 
tion shall be signed by the applicant 
under oath or affirmation. 

"B. That such permit for construc- 
tion shall show specifically the earliest and 
latest dates between which the actual 
operation of such station is expected to 
begin and shall provide that said permit 
will be automatically forfeited if the 
station is not ready for operation within 



Please MerUion "Radio Age" When Replying to Advertisers 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



31' 



3000 OHM SETS, $4.50 

2000 OHMJSETS, $400 B IWO OHMJSETS, $3.50 
Plus 20c for Postage and Insurance. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed or Money Back. 




We mail phones the day your order arrives. 
Every pair tested, matched, and guaran- 
teed as sensitive as $8 to $10 phones. We 
have no agents or dealers. By ordering 
direct you save dealer's profits — circular 
free. 

TOWER MFG. CO., BrooUine, Mass. 

22 Station St. 



For reliable and up-to-date information on radio 
read 

RADIO AGE 

For prompt and efficient service place your order 
with representatives of the Periodical Sales Co., 
whose authority and responsibility Is assured by 
credentials In their possession bearing the registered 
trade-mark of the Periodical Sales Co., facsimile of 
(vhich Is reproduced hereon. 

HPERIODICAL SALES CO., Inc. 

53S South Dearborn Streat, Chicago, Illinois 



Branch Offices 
PHILADELPHIA 
MINNEAPOLIS 
INDIANAPOLIS 
DENVER 
NEW TOBK 
BUFFALO 
LOS ANGELES 




Branch Offices 

MILWAUKEE 

DETROIT 

CLEVELAND 

BOSTON 

NEW ORLEANS 

TORONTO 

CANADA 




Sectional UNIVERSAL 
Radio Outfits 



The Set Consists of 
Three Units: 

Tuner and Detector Unit.. ..$ 60.00 
Two-Step Amplifier Unit.... 36.00 
Unit for holding "A" Battery 9.60 
Top and Bottom, which when 
added to the three other 
units, make a complete sec- 
tion all inone. Each, $5; bot h 10.00 

Complete Set, Total $104.50 

Ask your dealer; if he cannot supply 
you, write us, Dept. 803. 

-■ — ^ Oavenport. Iowa. U.S.A. 



Artistic Variometer Parts 




Variocouplers, 

Rotors, Winding Forms, Stators, 

in Genuine Mahogany. 

Quick Deliveries. Write for prices. 

517 No. Halsted Street, Chicago, Illinois 



the time specified. Tbie rights granted 
under any such permit shall not be 
assigned or otherwise transferred to any- 
other person, persons, company, or cor- 
poration, without the approval of the 
Secretary of Commerce: Provided, That 
a permit for construction shall not be 
required for Government stations to be 
used exclusively for communication of 
official business or for private stations 
as provided for in Section 4, fifteenth 
regulation, of the Act of August 13, 
1912. The granting of this permit to con- 
struct a station as herein required shall 
not be construed to impose any duty 
or obligation upon the Secretary to issue 
a license for the operation of such station . 
"Sec. 5. That an advisory committee 
is hereby established to whom the Secre- 
tary of Commerce shall refer for examina- 
tion and report such matters as he may 
deem proper relating to: (a) the ad- 
ministration or changes in the laws, regu- 
lations, and treaties of the United States 
relating to radio communication; (b) the 
study of the scientific problems involved 
in radio communication with the view 
of furthering its development; (c) the 
scientific progress in radio communica- 
tion and use of radio communication. 

"The advisory committee shall consist 
of twelve members, of whom one shall be 
designated by the Secretary of State, one 
by the Secretary of War, one by the 
Secretary of the Navy, one by the Sec- 
retary of Agriculture, one by the Post- 
master General, and one by the Secretary 
of Commerce, to represent these depart- 
ments, respectively, and six members 
of recognized attainment in radio com- 
munication not otherwise employed in 
the Government service to be designated 
by the Secretary of Commerce. 

"The necessary expenses of the mem- 
bers of the committee in going to, re- 
turning from, and while attending meet- 
ings of the committee, including clerical 
expenses and supplies, together with a 
per diem of $25 to each of the six mem- 
bers not otherwise employed in the Gov- 
ernment service for attendance at the 
meetings, shall be paid from the appro- 
priation made to the Department of 
Commerce for this purpose. 

"Sec. 6. That radio telephone sta- 
tions, the signals of which can interfere 
with ship communication, are required 
to keep a licensed radio operator, of a class 
to be determined by the Secretary of 
Commerce, listening in on the wave 
length designated for distress signals 
during the entire period the transmitter 
of such station is in operation. 

"Sec. 7. That regulation first of Sec- 
tion 4 of said Act of Congress approved 
August 13, 1912, is amended by striking 
out the words 'this wave length shall not 
exceed six hundred meters.' 

"Regulations third and fourth of Sec- 
tion 4 Act of Congress approved August 
13, 1912, is amended by striking out the 
words 'provided that they do not exceed 
six hundred meters or that they do 
exceed one thousand six hundred meters.' 
"Regulations third and fourth of Sec- 
tion 4 of said Act of Congress approved 
August 13, 1912, are amended by striking 
out the words 'exceeding two hundred 
meters' and substituting in lieu thereof 



Variable 
Condensers 




Variable condensers to be 
efficient must be well made. 
Loose joints or faulty con- 
struction soon allow the plates 
to get out of alignment and 
decrease their efficiency. 

A seasoned organization back- 
ed by a half million dollar 
equipment has placed the 
United Condensers in the front 
rank with radio engineers, the 
country over. 

PRICES 

43 plate $4.50 

23 plate 4.30 

11 plate 4.00 

without dial or knob. 

Liberal discounts to jobbers and 
dealers. 

We invite correspondence with 
Radio Manufacturers who are 
interested in using our facilities 
and services for manufacturing 
Radio Equipment. 



United Mfg. and 
Distributing Co. 

536 Lake Shore Drive 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



Please Mention "Radio Age" When Replying to Advertisers 



32 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



"1 have used Combat batteries in 
my work and at school for the past 
10 years and consider them the 
highest type of battery constructed. 
I am now using the Combat Radio 
in my Radio work"- — says Frank 
D. Pearne, noted Radio authority 
and teacher. 



A Battery 
Built for 
Radio Only 

CHic c c c a Go — messages like 
that are the great bane of Radio. 
They are caused by voltage varia- 
tion — -and the Combat "A" uni- 
form voltage Radio battery cor- 
rects voltage variation. The 
extra-heavy, hand-pasted plates 
in the Combat Radio deliver a 
discharge that is slow and uniform, 
thereby eliminating distorted mes- 
sages. Made exclusively for Radio 
work — ^if you own a vacuum tube 
set vou need it. The Combat 




Radio is built into a handsome 
acid-proof steel case which houses 
the one-piece hard rubber jar. 
Special composition between pro- 
tects against breakage or leakage. 
Patent vent plug allows escape of 
gases but no acids. Well in jar 
insures against spilling while filling 
or charging. Patented non-corrod- 
ing terminals keep your connec- 
tions clean at all times — no short 
circuiting. P^ully guaranteed for 
18 months by the manufacturers 
who enjoy reputation of 14 years' 
high-grade battery making. 



SPECIAL OFFER: 5,000 will be sold 
direct to users at factory prices in order 
to introduce. This is an opportunity to 
save money on the best Radio battery 
ever produced. Some Combats have 
given as high as 8 years, continuous 
service. Great length of life more than 
makes up for any difference in price. 
Take advantage of this offer NOW. Act 
Quick to Buy at These Prices. 



Full capacity 6 v., 60 amp $15.25 

Full capacity 6 v., 80 amp 16.85 

F. O. B. Chicago 

Send only $1 .00 as good faith and we will ship 
C. O. D. subject to examination 

Territory still open for live dealers. 

Commercial Battery Co. 

759 BOSTON AVE. Dept. A, CHICAGO 



the words of not less than one hundred 
and fifty meters nor more than two 
hundred and seventy-five meters,' 

"Sec, 8, That any person, company, or 
corporation who shall erect, use, or oper- 
ate any apparatus for radio communica- 
tion in violation of this Act, or knowlingly 
aid or abet another person, company, or 
corporation, in so doing, or knowingly 
make false oath or affirmation for the 
purpose of securing a permit or a license, 
shall incur a penalty not to exceed $1,000, 
which may be mitigated or remitted by 
the Secretary of Commerce, and the per- 
mit or license of any person, company, 
or corporation, who shall violate any of 
the provisions of this Act, or of any of 
the regulations of the Secretary of Com- 
merce issued hereunder, or knowingly 
make any false oath or affirmation for 
the purpose of securing a permit or li- 
cense, may be suspended or revoked b\' 
the Secretary of Commerce. 

"Sec. 9. That the Secretary of Com- 
merce is hereby authorized and directed 
to charge, and through the imposition 
of stamp taxes on applications, licenses, 
or other documents, or in other appropri- 
ate manner, to collect, the fees specified 
in the schedule following. The Secretary 
shall collect said fees through the col- 
lectors of customs or other officers desig- 
nated by him, and he may make such 
regulations as may be necessary to carry 
out the provisions of this section." 

"For trans-oceanic radio station license 
$300 per annum; for commercial land sta- 
tion license, other than trans-oceanic, 
one kilowatt transmitter input or less, 
$50 per annum; and for each additional 
kilowatt or fraction thereof, $5 per an- 
num; for ship station license, $25 per an- 
per annum; for experiment station li- 
cense, $25 per annum; for technical and 
training school station license, $15 per 
annum; for special amateur station li- 
cense, $10 per annum; for general and re- 
stricted amateur station license, $2.50 
per annum; for commercial extra first- 
class operator's license, $2.50 per an- 
num; for commercial first-class operator's 
license, $1.50 per annum; for commercial 
second-class operator's license, $1 per 
annum; for commercial cargo grade op- 
erator's license, 50 cents per annum; for 
experiment and instruction grade op- 
erator's license $1 per annum; for ama- 
teur first-grade operator's license, 50 
cents per annum; for amateur second- 
grade operator's license, 50 cents per an- 
num; for commercial extra first-class 
radio operator's examination for license, 
$2.50 for each examination; for commer- 
cial first-class radio operator's examina- 
tion for license, $2 for each examination; 
for commercial second-class radio op- 
erator's examination for license, $1.50 
for each examination; for commercial 
cargo grade radio operator's examination 
for license, $1 for each examination; for 
experiment and instruction grade radio 
operator's examination for license, $1 
for each examination; for amateur first- 
grade radio operator's examination for 
license, $1 for each examination; for 
amateur second-grade operator's exam- 
ination for license, 50 cents for each ex- 
amination. 



VARIOMETER 




.15.00 

Rotor and stator in moulded hard rubber, highly 
finished, best insulation known. BeauUtul de- 
sign binding posts, eliminating any necessity of 
soldering. Finished product. Wound with green 
covered wire : nickel plated hardware. Put up 
in attractive boxes. 



COUPLER 




$4.59 



rube of hard fibre, rotor In moulded hard rub- 
ber. Wound with green covered wire. Nickel 
plated hardware. Special binding i>03ts. No 
snlderinK of connections. 



<f '""^ 




The set herewith Illustrated is a four tube Radlo- 
Trequency set built into a light- weight, port- 
able case with nickel-plated hardware, making 
a handsome, simple and salable set. Prices on 
sets range from $65.00 to $190.00. Including 
tubes, B Batteries and head phone. These sets 
can be taken wherever you go, being light and 
convenient to carry. 

VARIABLE 

CONDENSERS 

Aluminum plates, fibre and brass end pieces. 
Sturdily and well constructed. 

1 1 plates $3.00 

23 plates 3.50 

43 plates 4.50 

3-in. Dials and composition sockets of attractive 
design at 75c each. Hheostats with pointer, 
$1.10; with dial _.$l.50 

POSITIVE IMMEDIATE 
DELIVERY FROM STOCK 

We have an interesting proposi- 
tion for dealers and jobbers 

The Reliance Rubber Co. 

Dept D 1806 S. Michigan Ave. 

PHONE CALUMET 0947 

CHICAGO 



Please Mention "Radio Age" When RepJi/i/n/ to Adreriisers 



FREE— With Head Phones 

Compact, High-Class Receiving Set 

Looks Well and Performs Well 



THIS instrument is assem- 
bled in a walnut cabinet 
with a highly polished Bakelite 
front, all metal parts highly 
nickeled. 

The Crystal De- 
tector is of the very 
latest pattern, with 
ball and socket 
arrangement, so 
same can be moved 
up and down, side- 
wise and forward 
and back so that 
the most sensitive 
point on the Galena 
can be located. 

The Galena re- 
tainer is of stand- 
ard size so that all 
mounted Galenas will fit it. 

The size of the set is as fol- 
lows: Height, 10 inches; width, 
8 inches; depth, 6K inches. 




There are two tuning levers 
on the front. After locating 
the most sensitive point of the 
Galena the two levers are 
moved back and 
forth until the best 
result is obtained. 
This receiving 
set WILL NOT 
receive messages 
from great dis- 
tances but it works 
perfectly under 
favorable condi- 
tions from 1 5 to 25 
miles away from 
the broadcasting 
station. 

Each receiving 
set is guaranteed to be in per- 
fect condition, being thoroughly 
tested before accepted from 
the factorv. 



You Can Get This Wonderful Radio Receiving Set 

FREE 



i 

I 

I RADIO AGE, Circulation Department 
I 64 West Randolph Street, Chicago 



If you are willing to devote a 
little effort in telling your friend.s 
about RADIO AGE. It's as 
simple as A. B. C. Just write 
your name and address on the 
coupon below and we'll send you 
full particulars by first mail out. 



Date.. 



I I am interested in securing one of your Radio receiving sets which you offer FREE. Please 

' send me full particulars by return mail. 



Name.. 
Street.. 
City 



State.. 



RADIO BATTERY 

PRICE READY TO SHIP 

$13.00 




REAL RADIO BATTERY BUILT FOR SERVICE 

MADE OF BEST MATERIALS OBTAINABLE 
Box made of Jl- 1 Hard Oak.. Jars of Highest Qualilv 

Rubber. Top covers moulded of high grade Rubber. 
Port Orford white cedar separators thoroughly treated. 
Plates are composed oj high grade Oxides and built for 

Service. A II lead parts of 7 per cent Antimony Lead 

CAPACITY: 6 VOLT. 50 AMPERES 

We GUARANTEE the REAL RADIO BA TTERY 

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Everything in the Radio Line 



FACTORY: ST. LOUIS 

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St. LOUIS, MO. 



DISTRIBUTORS WANTED 



HflDIO ACE 

The Ma^zine of fhe Hour 

October, 1922 Price 25 cents 




■tF<i^©f\iC?^^^j 



How To Make a Tube Unit for $23— In This Number 



Radio Age 
institute 

To insure 100% value to readers of advertise- 
ments, as well as 100% value to the advertisers 
themselves, radio equipment is now being tested 
and indorsed by the 

RADIO AGE INSTITUTE 

64 WEST RANDOLPH STREET 
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

No charge is made for testing and approval, 
and all merchandise will be returned as soon as 
possible, transportation expenses to be paid bj' 
the manufacturer. Lists of makers of approved 
radio goods will be published from time to time. 

SERVICE DEPARTMENT 
FOR,. READERS 

Please remember that Radio Age has one of the 
best radio instructors in, the United States, who 
is ready to answer any technical question. This 
costs you nothing. 



RADIO AGE 

The Magazine of the Hour 



Volume 1 



Numher^6 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Frontispiece 2 

I J I Photograph by William McClintock 

How to Make a Tube Set for $23 with a Radius of 75 

Miles _ 3 

U. S. Bureau of Standard Experts 

World's Greatest Electrical Station Has Its Own 
Radio School 9 

How to Make an Audio Frequency Amplifying 
Transformer 11 

By Frank D. Pearne 

Biggest Radio Tube in the World and How It is 

made - 13 

P. J. Carr Campaigns by Radio 14 

WDAP Becomes a Station DeLuxe , 15 

By Edward L. Taylor 

Thought Waves from the Editorial Tower 17 

By Frederick Smith 

Expert Explains Radio Frequency Amplification.... 19 
By Charles Kilgour 

Chicago's International Radio Show...: 20 

Questions and Answers 21 

Armstrong Regenerative Circuit — ^With Illustrations 22 
Did You Ever Hear of Lightning Striking Radio 

Antennae? 24 

New Broadcasting Stations \ 28 



Radio Age is published monthly by 
RADIO AGE, Inc. 



Publication office, Mount Morris, 111. 
Chicago Office, Garrick Building, 64 W. Randolph St. 



Frederick Smith, Editor 
Frank D. Pearne, Technical Editor 
M. B. Smith, Business Manager 
Advertising Managers: 
YOUNG & WARD 
308 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, III. 
Eastern Representative: 
GEO. W. STEARNS 
Flatiron Building, New York City, N. Y. 



Advertising Forms Close on 19th of the Month 
Preceding Date of Issue. 

Issued monthly. Vol. I, No. S. Subscription price $2.50 a year. 

Entered as second-class matter September 15, 1922, at the post office at Mount 

Morris, Illinois, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



Copyright, 1922. by RADIO AGE, Inc. 



[Pardon Our Loud 
[Speaker 

One day we visited a Radio Show in 
the Central West. Several exhibitors had 
loud speakers installed in their booths and 
each one, apparently fearing the other 
fellow would get the most attention, turned 
on' the noise to the limit. Friends, it was 
awful. The bedlam gave us such an unfor- 
tunate impression of Radio entertain- 
ment?? that we put our own loud speaker 
away in the kitchen cabinet when we 
arrived back home. 

We are bringing it out again because 
we have something which calls for a bit 
of noise and we want to broadcast it. 

Radio magazines are not newspapers. 
However, some Radio magazines publish 
articles about the progress of wireless 
developments that are real news stories. 
With becoming modesty we call attention 
to the fact that RADIO AGE has been 
printing Radio News first. And Radio 
News which is not printed first is not news 
at all. 

In our August issue we published articles 
on "Radio Equipment at KDKA", and 
on "Development of Radiophone Broad- 
casting" both by eminent experts. We are 
not betraying any confidences when we 
tell our readers that we observed the same 
articles in the September issue of other 
magazines. Also in the August number we 
published an article on "How Radio 
Photographs Crossed the Atlantic in 40 
Minutes". This article was accompanied 
by an illustration on our first page. Im- 
agine our satisfaction in having our selec- 
tivity endorsed by no less a periodical than 
the Litry Digest in the following Septem- 
ber. The Digest folks not only used a 
story about the same Radio achievement 
but they printed the same illustration. 

In the September number of RADIO 
AGE we printed an article on "The Problem 
of Radio Power Transmission". We find 
the same article in the October number 
of another Radio monthly. 

In this number of RADIO AGE we are 
publishing in full a Bureau of Standards 
Official article on How to Build a Tube 
Unit accompanied by seven illustrations. 
We note that at least two other Radio 
periodicals are advertising that they 
will publish this same Bureau of Standards 
article next month. 

Before turning off the Loud Speaker 
let us broadcast the News that some of the 
best judges of Radio writing in the United 
states have been telling us by letter, unso- 
licited, that Mr. Pearne's September 
article on the Reinartz Unit was the bulli- 
est thing in type anywhere on this subject. 

Read RADIO AGE if you want Radio 
News. 



«:35::3«s:35=55:35:5«3=33=33=5333=35=55=^^ 




Tuning In For Grandma 



William McCliniock, 108 West Madison street, Chicago, not only built this receiving outfit with which lie 
hears broadcasting stations within a radius of more than 1,000 miles, but he is the father of the little radio 
fan in the big chair. And Mr. McClintock took the photograph. Seems like Bill has lots of reasons to be 
proud of himself. 



, , I , I n I n 1 1 1 n II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1I I I III 4 I m 1 1 1 1 u I 1 1 1 n 1 1 1 n 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I i i i i M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 III 1 M 1 1 1 I iTe nxxni J I M III m M n n 1 1 " cm 




RADIO JIGE 



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Tfie Ma^a^ine of Ifie Hour -^^'^^ 



FREDEP.? 



XVA 



PUBL1SH.ED MONTHLY GAKRiCK BL.DG CHQO ,^, 



I I ] J M I I I I I I I II I I I II I I I I I L I I I I I I I I I n n I I I I I I I I I U I I I I I 1 11 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 L 1 t I » I I I I I III I I I I M I 11 1 M I I I M M I I I I I I I I I J J 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 1 



How to Make a Tube Unit for $23 to $37, 
with Radius of 75 Miles 



Beginners Told by Uncle Sam's 
Experts How to Take the Next 
Step Beyond the Crystal Set 

USE of an electron tube detector 
will increase the receiving 
radius of the receiving set so 
that it will be possible to hear high 
power transmitting stations at a 
distance of about seventy- five miles. 
Under good atmospheric conditions 
signals from greater distances may 
be heard, especially at night. 

The electron tube detector may 
be substituted for the crystal de- 
tector, that is, its function is the 
same as the crystal detector, which 
is to make the signals from the 
transmitting station audible in the 
telephone receivers when the radio 
receiving set is tuned to the proper 
wave frequency (wave length). 

This article brings the amateur 
one .step forward in understanding 
the more complex and sensitive 
apparatus. If the reader has a 
crystal set the article will enable 
him to use this more efficient de- 
tector. A later article will describe 
how to use amplifiers. It should be 
remembered that the electron tube 
detector will not make "continuous 
wave" signals audible. 

The following description of the 
electron tube detector, with the 
illustrations, were supplied to Radio 
Age by the Bureau of Standards, 
United States Department of Com- 
merce and is published with per- 
mission of the Government. Read- 
ers, therefore, will be assured that 
they are following instructions given 
by foremost experts in radio. 

If any reader meets difficulty in 
making this unit, he may send self- 
addressed and stamped envelope to 
Frank D. Pearne, Technical Editor 
of Radio Age, 64 West Randolph 
Street, Chicago, and a prompt reply 
^A^11 be sent back. This is only a 




FIG. 2. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



part of the service department which 
this magazine has estabUshed for 
the assistance and convenience of its 
readers. 

The cost of an electron tube 
detector unit, complete with the 
necessary batteries will be between 
$23.00 and $37.00. Additional elec- 
tron tube amplifiers described in 
subsequent articles, which will great- 
ly increase the sensitivity and hence 
the receiving radius of the receiv- 
ing set, will not require additional 
storage batteries. This will make 
the added cost of the amplifiers 
small. 

This article describes simple ap- 
paratus of satisfactory performance 
without reference to the possible 
existence of any patents which 
might cover parts of the apparatus. 
Apparatus in general similar to 
that described can be purchased 
from responsible manufacturers. 

Essential Parts 

The complete radio receiving 
equipment may be divided as follows : 
Antenna, lightning switch, ground 
connections and telephone receivers. 
These are completely described in 
Bureau of Standards Circular, No. 
120, published in the May issue of 
Radio Age. 

The Tuning Device.— This may 
be the tuning coil described in 
Circular No. 120 or it may be a 
two-circuit coupler and variable 
condenser. While the two-circuit 
tuner will be somewhat more selec- 
tive than the single-circuit tuner, 
its use is not absolutely essential. 
The two-circuit tuner is also more 
difficult to operate than the single- 
circuit tuner. 

Electron Tube Detector Unit. (Figs. 
1, 2, and 7). — The electron tube 
detector unit is composed of a 
baseboard B and an upright panel 
A. On the baseboard B is mounted 
an electron tube E, (shown only 
in Fig. 7), an electron tube socket 
S, a resistor (grid leak) R, a grid 
condenser C, a by-pass condenser 
C, and eight binding posts. On the 
upright panel A is mounted a 
filament rheostat R', (the adjusting 
knob J is shown in Fig. 7), and two 
telephone receiver binding posts 
L and M. The parts S, R, C and 
C are also shown in Fig. 3. This 
circular tells how the various parts 
are assembled on the baseboard 
and the panel. No description is 
given of how the parts E, S and R' 
are made because these are all 
commercial articles. It is, of course, 
possible for one to make parts such 
as the electron tube socket S and 
the filament rheostat R'. 

Accessories. — Under the heading 
of accessories may be listed a six- 




FIG. 1. 



volt battery, used for lighting the 
filament, often called the "A" bat- 
tery, having an ampere-hour ca- 
pacity of about 60, a 22 1-2 to 45- 
volt dry battery ("B" Battery) 
binding posts, stiff copper wire, 
wood boards for the baseboard and 
upright panel, and two brass angle 
braces for supporting the panel. 
The "A" and "B" batteries are 
shown in Fig. 7. The "A" battery 
will usually be placed on the floor 
beneath the table upon which the 
other parts of the equipment are 
mounted. Its comparative size is 
much reduced in the drawing. An 
insulating material panel may be 
substituted for the wood if desired. 
The electron tube detector may 
also be entirely enclosed in a wood 
cabinet with a hinged cover, if 
desired. 



Details of Construction 

Baseboard. (B Figs. 1 and 3). — 
The base B is any kind of dry wood 
about 6 1/4 inches by 8 1/4 inches 
by 3/4 inch thick. Eight holes 
are drilled through the base in which 
the binding posts are fastened. 
Spacing of these holes is shown in 
Fig. 3. By the addition of two 
more binding posts properly con- 
nected, this detector may be used 
in a "regenerative" circuit when 
the binding posts are externally 
connected to a "tickler" coil coupled 
to the tuner. These binding posts 
are added to the detector base- 
board B in Hne with the "input" 
binding posts Nos. 1 and 2 (see 
Fig. 1). They are 7/32 of an inch 
from the edge of the baseboard, 
and the four binding posts are 
arranged in such a manner that 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



they are equally spaced, 11/2 
inches between centers. Referring 
to Fig. 1, the wire which leads from 
the terminal P of the electron tube 
socket is cut at some convenient 
place Q and the two ends thus 
formed connected to the extra 
binding posts. The method fol- 
lowed in making these connections 
does, of course, correspond with 
the. style of wiring used in the com- 
plete electron tube detector unit. 
The connection X, from one ter- 
minal of the condenser C, is also 
removed and a longer wire con- 
nected from this terminal to the 
other side of the point Q where 
the wire was cut. The base is 
arranged so that the three remain- 
ing sides and a hinged cover may 
be added without changing the 
relative positions of the binding 
posts. Under each of the four 
corners of the base B, rubber or 
wood feet (risers) are fastened in 
order that the binding post heads 
and wiring will be protected on the 
under side of the base. 

Upright Panel, (A Figs. 1 and 4). 
— The panel A is any kind of wood 
about 4 1/2 inches by 5 inches by 
3/8 inch thick. In Fig. 4 a back 



view of the panel is shown which 
brings the two holes for the tele- 
phone receiver binding posts in the 
lower left-hand corner. If the panel 
is viewed from the front these two 
holes will be at the lower right- 
hand corner. It seems quite desir- 
able that this board present a good 
appearance, it being the front panel. 
Four holes are drilled in the panel 
A, one for the bolt which fastens 
the panel to the brace, (See L, 
Fig. 1) two for the telephone re- 
ceiver binding posts L and M 
(Figs. 1 and 7) and one for the 
shaft of the filament rheostat R' 
(See Fig. 1.) 

The exact location of the hole for 
the rheostat shaft is determined 
from the rheostat itself. It is drilled 
so that the rheostat will occupy as 
low a position as possible, allowing 
room enough to do the necessary 
wiring. 

Electron Tube (E, Fig. 7). — The 
electron detector tube is a com- 
mercially available type. The sev- 
eral parts of an electron tube (some- 
times called a vacuum tube) are 
sufificicntly described in "The Prin- 
ciples Underlying Radio Communi- 
cation." 






l^ 



r 



4-hole:5 for wood 
3crew5 pa55ing 
through undelr side. 
0fba5l and into 
''idels of oovlr 






HARD iVOOD /z'THICK 



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HOLLS FOa ■»-.- ,' , . 



_ Z-H0LE.5 FOR 
SCRtWS PA55IN0 
INTO LDGLS OF 

covta 



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RHE.05TAT. 



HARD WOOD WTHICK 

RtAR V1E.W 



-iy- 






-^-H 



FIG. 3. 

B-BA5ELBOARD. 



r\c.A: 

A-UPRIGHTPANLL 

2-B0ARD5 F0R5IDE.5 l'M5^'/z 
l-BOARD FOR BACK S'-Syf/i 
l-OOARO FOR. TOP l^Ar-b'/i^'/i 
2-HINCLS,BL/TT V 

Electron Tube Socket. (S, Figs. 
1, 2 and 7). — The electron tube 
socket is of commercial design. No 
suggestions are offered as to the 
particular kind of socket to use. 
There are many types available and 
the majority of them will be found 
satisfactory for this purpose. 

Grid Leak and Grid Condenser 
(R and C, Figs. 1, 2 and 7).— The 
grid leak and grid condenser may 
be purchased together or separately 
or they may be constructed. If 
one expects to use a detector type 
of electron tube (sometimes called 
"soft" or "gas" tube) it is recom- 
mended that these two parts be 
purchased with the tube, care being 
taken to select the proper values 
of resistance and capacity for the 
grid leak and the grid condenser, 
as specified by the manufacturer 
of the tube purchased. The resist- 
ance of the grid leak will usually 
be between 1 and 5 megohms 
(1,000,000 and 5,000,000 ohms) and 
the capacity of the grid condenser 
will be about 0.0003 of a microfarad 
(300 micromicrofarads). If an am- 
plifier type of electron tube (some- 
times called a "hard" tube) is used, 
the resistance of the grid leak may 
generally be anywhere within the 
resistance limits specified above 
and the same size of grid condenser 
used as mentioned above. Experi- 
mental grid leaks may be made for 
such electron tube detectors. This 
is only suggested for its educational 
feature. If the two-stage audio- 
frequency amplifier is used also, 
it will be quite difficult to make a 
grid leak that will work satisfac- 
torily. Such an experimental grid 
leak may be made from a piece of 
fiber about 3/8 inch wide, 11/2 
inches long and from 1/32 to 1/8 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 




FIG. 5 



inch thick. Two 1/8-inch holes 
are drilled along the center line of 
the piece, about 1 inch apart. A 
line is drawn between the two holes, 
using india or drawing ink. Con- 
tack with the ink line may be made 
by the use of two brass (6-32 or 
8-32) machine screws about 1/2 
inch long and each equipped with 
one nut and two washers. The 
machine screws are put through 
the holes in the ends of the fiber 
strip with one washer on each side 
of the fiber strip. A small piece 
of tinfoil may be rolled up and 
wound around each machine screw 
between the fiber and the washer 
so that the tin-foil pad will make 
contact with the ink line. When 
the nuts are tightened down, the 
tin-foil pads will flatten out and 
form a contact between the brass 
washers and the ends of the ink 
line. Since the ink line makes a 
partial electrical conductor of high 
resistance, the thickness and width 
of the ink line will determine the 
resistance of the grid leak to a great 
extent. The value of resistance 
may be decreased by inking the 
line over several times, until the 
electron tube detector works best. 
A suitable condenser may be made 
from tin-foil and paraffined paper 
after the manner described in Bur- 
eau of Standards Letter Circular 
No. 46, the shape of the condenser 
being modified to suit the present 
space requirements, and the total 
area of each of the tin-foil sheets 
reduced to six square inches. 

By-Pass Condenser (C Figs. 1, 
2 and 7). — This is any small-sized 
fixed condenser having a capacity 
of from 0.0003 to 0.0015 of a micro- 
farad (300 to 1500 micromicro- 
farads) which may be purchased 
orfmade accordlng^'to'^the^' descrip- 



tion given in Bureau of Standards 
Letter Circular No. 46. While this 
condenser is not absolutely neces- 
sary, its use is advisable. 

Binding Posts (Figs. 1 and 2). 
— The binding posts used on the 
base may be 6-32 or 8-32 brass 
machine screws each equipped with 
two nuts and two washers, if regular 
binding posts are not available. 
The telephone receiver binding posts 
L and M, (Figs. 1 and 7) should 
be of the set-screw type to admit 
the tips of the telephone receiver 
cords. 

Filament Rheostat (R' Fig. 1). — 
As has been previously stated, the 
filament rheostat may be con- 
structed but no details are furnished. 
If the rheostat is purchased, it is 
desirable to select one designed for 
panel mounting as well as one hav- 
ing a neat appearing knob and 
pointer. The rheostat should have 
a resistance of about seven ohms 
and a current-carrying capacity 
of^about 11/2 amperes. 



Accessories. — The accessory bat- 
teries are commercial articles. The 
purchaser of a storage battery for 
lighting the filaments should get 
full instructions from the dealer 
for testing and re-charging the 
battery. The dry battery ("B" 
battery) usually used for the plate 
circuit can not be re-charged. The 
normal life of a battery of reliable 
manufacture is about six months. 
Storage batteries for use as "B" 
batteries are available. Their first 
cost is greater than that of dr>' 
batteries but they may be re- 
charged. 

Assembling and Wiring 

Wood Finish. — It is essential in 
electron tube sets that the wood be 
protected from moisture. While the 
wood base and panel may be treated 
with paraffin as suggested in Cir- 
cular No. 120, it was found more 
satisfactory to first dry the wood and 
then stain and varnish it, using a 
good varnish, preferably insulating 
varnish. Shellac is not recom- 
mended. It is rather difiicult to 
give definite suggestions concerning 
drying and staining of wood. Wood 
may be put in a warm oven for an 
hour or so to insure more or less 
complete drying. A lamp-black 
or carbon pigment stain is not used 
ordinarily on such radio parts and 
it would be well to avoid the use 
of such. The stain and varnish 
are thoroughly dried before the 
apparatus is mounted on the wood 
baseboard and panel. 

Baseboard (B, Figs. 1 and 7). — 
The eight brass machine screws or 
binding posts are put in the holes 
already drilled in the baseboard. 
If machine screws were to be used 
the heads ]would be put on the under 
side of the baseboard with a brass 
washer between the head and the 
baseboard. A brass washer and 
two nuts are then fastened to*'each 
screw, on the upper side of [the 
baseboard, with the washer next 
to the baseboard. The tube socket 
S, the grid condenser C, the grid 
leak R and the by-pass condenser 
C are next screwed to the base- 
board. (Certain types of condensers 
will be held in position by thewiring 
only.) 




FIG. 6. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



The exact location of these parts 
can not be stated because the sev- 
eral types of parts commercially 
available will vary somewhat in 
dimensions. One can get a very 
good idea of the relative positions 
of the several parts from Figs. 
1,-2 and 7. The tube socket S 
is[^mounted so that the two terminals 
marked G and P (Fig. 1) are nearest 
the upright panel. Blocks Y and 
Y' are put under the socket S so 
that the four terminals of the 
socket do not touch the wood base- 
board. This is done by cutting 



solidly and pulling on the other 
end just hard enough to stretch 
the wire slightly. It is also a good 
plan in wiring such sets to have all 
wires run as directly as possible, 
neatly, and all bends made at 
right angles. When a wire is at- 
tached to a binding post, a loop or 
eye is formed on the end of the wire 
and the wire at the eye flattened 
with a hammer. This gives more 
contact surface. Special lugs may 
also be soldered to the ends of the 
wire before the connection is made. 
A small hole is drilled through the 



board are shown by dotted lines. 
A short piece of wire is soldered 
to the wire leading from the right- 
hand socket terminal marked F, 
just above the baseboard and led 
to the "input" binding post No. 1, 
and fastened between the washer 
and the first nut. 

This wire is shown as a solid line 
which means it is on the upper side 
of the baseboard. The wires do 
not touch the wood boards except 
at the terminals and where the 
wires pass through holes in the 
baseboard. The wires may be 




oft' two round wood blocks just long 
enough to raise the socket terminals 
clear of the base, and mounting 
them so that the screws which hold 
the socket to the baseboard will 
pass through holes in the centers 
of the blocks. After the socket, 
S, grid condenser C, grid leak R 
and by-pass condenser C are mount- 
ed the parts are wired up. 

Number 14 bare tinned copper 
wire is used in wiring. This makes 
the connections stiff and self-sup- 
porting. This wire is ordinarily 
furnished in rolls. The wire should 
be straightened before it is used. 
It can be straightened by clamping 
or otherwise fastening one end 



baseboard just back of each of the 
tube socket terminals marked F 
(See Fig. 1). A short piece of wire 
is fastened to the right-hand socket 
terminal marked F and is then led 
through the small hole in the base- 
board to the under side of the 
baseboard. 

The same wire is led to the bind- 
ing post F and fastened between 
the machine screw head and washer 
underneath the baseboard. The 
same wire is further led to the 
binding post marked B... and fas- 
tened between the machine screw 
head and washer underneath the 
baseboard. All wires which are 
run on the under-side of the base- 



raised more or less to accomplish 
this. The two terminals of the grid 
condenser C are connected to the 
two terminals of the grid leak R 
as shown in Fig. 1. A wire is sol- 
dered at V and led to the input 
binding post No. 2. This wire is 
kept quite close to the baseboard. 
Another wire is soldered at V and 
led to the tube socket terminal 
marked G. The remainder of the 
wiring is left until the upright panel 
is assembled and fastened to the 
baseboard. Notes on soldering are 
given later. 

Upright Panel (A Figs 1, 2 and 
7). — The filament rheostat R' is 
mounted on the upright panel A 



RADIO AGE— 'THt. MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



so that the two terminals will be 
in a convenient position for wiring. 
Two binding posts of set-screw 
type, L and M, (Figs. 1 and 7). 
are inserted in their proper holes, 
and the upright panel mounted in 
position by bolting it to the two 
brass angle pieces (Z and Z') shown 
in Figs. 1, 2 and 3. One of the 
telephone receiver binding posts 
L serves as a bolt. Two small holes 
are drilled through the baseboard 
near the two terminals of the fila- 
ment rheostat R'. A wire is run 
from the "output" binding post 
marked 4 (Fig. 1) along the upper 
side of the baseboard to the back 
of the telephone receiver binding 
post marked L. A wire is fastened 
to the tube socket binding post 
marked P and from thence led to the 
back of the telephone receiver 
binding post marked L, or else 
soldered to a convenient place on 
the wire leading from binding post 
L. These wires are shown in Fig. 1. 
A wire is run from the binding post 
marked 3 to the back of the tele- 
phone receiver binding post marked 
M and also a wire from B X to 
binding post No. 3, underneath 
the baseboard. One of the ter- 
minals of the by-pass condenser 
C is connected at the point X and 
the other terminal of the condenser 
is connected at the point X'. The 
method of making these connec- 
tions depends to some extent on the 
particular type of fixed condenser 
which is used. If the condenser 
be provided with flexible leads one 
of them is soldered at the point X 
and the other is likewise connected 
at the point X'. If the condenser 
is provided with lugs, connections 
are made by bending the wires into 
the proper shape and soldering 
thereto. A wire is run from the 
filament rheostat binding post 
marked T through the hole in the 
baseboard and thence along the 
under-side of the baseboard to the 
binding post marked F- . This 
wire is shown in Fig. 1 by a dotted 
line. Likewise a wire is run from 
the rheostat binding post W under- 
neath the baseboard and up through 
the left-hand hole in the baseboard 
at the rear of the electron tube 
socket S and connected to the left- 
hand binding post marked F. This 
completes the assembling and wiring 
of the electron tube detector unit. 

Directions for Operating 

Connections. — It has already been 
stated that better results are ob- 
tained if the two-circuit tuner de- 
scribed in Bureau of Standards 
Circular No. 121 is used with the 
electron tube detector. However, 
the single-circuit tuner described 



in Circular No. 120 may be used 
or the electron tube detector may 
be connected to any tuner not 
already supplied with an electron 
tube detector. 

If the single-circuit tuner is used 
with this electron tube detector the 
several parts are arranged somewhat 
as shown in Fig. 7. The single- 
circuit tuner (shown at extreme 
left) is fully described in Circular 
No. 120. Two more binding posts 
are added in the back right-hand 
corner and wired as shown in Fig. 
5. The greater portion of the wiring 
is beneath the baseboard. The 

wires shown as are those 

already described in Circular No. 

120. The wires shown as 

are the new wires added. Such 
wiring will not disturb the set for 
use as a crystal detector receiving 
set. The second unit to the right 
is the electron tube detector de- 
scribed in this circular. Accessory 
parts such as telephone receivers, 
"B" battery and "A" storage bat- 
tery are also shown in Fig. 7. As 
previously mentioned, the "A" bat- 
tery is shown here reduced in size, 
and it is usually placed under the 
table upon which the rest of the 
apparatus is mounted. 

If the two-circuit tuner is used 
with this electron tube detector 
the arrangement of the parts is 
similar to that shown in Fig. 7, 
except that the two units consisting 
of the coupler, and the variable 
condenser with crystal detector, 
replace the single-circuit receiving 
set shown at the left. Connections 
between the secondary of the coupler 
and the terminals of the variable 
condenser are the same as de- 
scribed in Circular No. 121. Two 
more binding posts are added at 
the rear edge of the baseboard 
supporting the variable condenser 
and crystal detector (see Fig. 6.) 
The dotted lines clearly indicate 
the new wiring connections as de- 
scribed for the single-circuit re- 
ceiving set. 

The antenna and ground wires 
are connected as described in Cir- 
cular No. 120 and as shown in Fig. 
7. Binding post No. 5 (Fig. 7) 
is connected to binding post No. 1 
and binding post No. 6, is con- 
nected to binding post No. 2. The 
telephone receivers are connected 
to the binding posts L and M as 
shown in Fig. 7. The red (posi- 
tive,-}-) wire of the "B" battery 
is .attached to the electron tube 
detector binding post marked B-j- 
and the black (negative, — ) wire 
to the binding post marked B — . 
An insulated flexible copper wire 
is run from the red (positive, +) 
terminal of the 6-volt "A" storage 



battery toT binding post marked 
F+ (Fig. 7) and a similar wire from 
the black (negative, — ) terminal 
of the "A" battery to the binding 
post marked F — . 

Operation. — The filament rheostat 
knob J (Fig. 7) is turned to the 
extreme left and the electron tube 
E inserted in the electron tube 
socket S. The filament rheostat 
knob is then turned to the right 
until the electron tube filament 
becomes lighted, the brilliancy de- 
pending upon the type of electron 
tube used. When one of the tele- 
phone receiver terminals is removed 
from its binding post and again 
touched to the post, a sharp "click" 
in the telephone receivers will be 
an approximate indication that the 
circuit is in working condition. If 
the test buzzer as described in 
Circular No. 120 is available, it 
may be attached (as described) 
to the tuner binding post marked 
ground" and then the rheostat 
adjusted until the sound in the 
telephone receivers is the loudest. 
The reader should bear in mind 
that the electron tube detector 
unit is merely substituted for the 
crystal detector and the tuning 
of the receiving circuit is the same 
as described in Circulars Nos. 120 
or 121. When signals from a de- 
sired transmitting station are heard 
as loud as possible by tuning, the 
intensity may sometimes be im- 
proved by adjusting the knob on 
the filament rheostat so as to in- 
crease or decrease the filament 
current (current from the "A" 
battery). The knob is kept in the 
position of minimum filament cur- 
rent without reducing the strength 
of the incoming signals. 

If a detector type of electron tube 
be used, the voltage of the "B" 
battery is changed until the greatest 
signal intensity is obtained. This 
necessitates the use of a tapped "B" 
battery. 

The operator must not expect too 
much of the apparatus at the first 
trial, and even assuming that he has 
had experience with crystal detec- 
tors, some difficulty may be exper- 
ienced in getting the electron tube 
to operate. In this case he should 
first ascertain if the various parts 
of the complete receiving equip- 
ment are properly connected; or 
again, it may be found that some of 
the connections to the electron 
tube detector unit are improperly 
made. Special care should be taken 
to see that the "A" and "B" bat- 
teries are connected to the proper 
terminals of the electron tube detec- 
tor unit. After a little experience 
the operator will find the electron 
(Continued on page 18.) 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



World's Greatest Electrical Station Has Its 

Own Radio School 

It Revolutionized Broadcasting Programs and Was the Pioneer in 

Wired Wireless 

THE Commonwealth Edison 
company, as befitting the larg- 
est central station electric com- 
pany in the world, conducting the 
world's largest electrical appliance 
store, has been a potent factor in 
the progress and expansion of ths 
latest marvel of electrical develop- 
ment — radio. 

The recent pioneer experiments, 
made by E. W. Grover, and E. H. 
Gager, Edison engineers, under the 
direction of Ernest F. Smith, Super- 
intendent of Sub-Stations, in so- 
called "wired wireless" (an account 
of which is given in later paragraphs) 
have attracted wide editorial at- 
tention and provoked much com- 
ment among radio experts through- 
out the country 

But aside from the purely com- 
mercial aspects, the Edison com- 
pany has been particularly con- 
cerned with the broad, constructive 
side of radio expansion and de- 
velopment; in promoting the edu- 
cational and entertainment features, 
which have come to be used for the 
benefit of the general public. 

One of the outstanding results 
of the Edison company's policy 
in this respect, is the broadcasting 
of grand opera during the winter 
months from station KYW, one 
of the finest radiophone broad- 
casting outfits in the country, which 
is operated by the Westinghouse 
Electric and Manufacturing Com- 
pany, from the roof of the Edison 
building, 72 West Adams street, 
Chicago. This was the first radio- 
phone station in history to broad- 
cast grand opera, and the only 
radiophone station to ever broad- 
cast the complete programs of an 
entire operatic season, as it did 
here, last year 

Because all radio fans appreciate 
good music, and the radio receiving 
set, as the most up-to-date and 
novel means of having it in the 
home, the inside story of how opera 
broadcasting was launched by the 
Commonwealth Edison Company 
will be of interest here. 

A little more than a year ago, 
George B. Foster, Assistant to 
Vice-President John F. Gilchrist, 
of the Edison company, an early 
radio enthusiast, installed a receiv- 
ing set in his home, and, as he 

(Continued on page 10.) 




M. R. Brennan, Superintendent of New York City Police Telegraph, operating the 
new radio broadcasting station of the New York Police Department, known as W L 
AW. It will not be long bef ore the radio transmitter will enjoy the position of being 

the criminal's greatest peril. 

Sad Ne\vs for the Crooks 



THE first radio broadcasting 
telephone station to be ex- 
clusively for police purposes 
is installed at the New York head- 
quarters. After a test, Joseph A. 
Faurot, deputy commissioner, esti- 
mated that an area of at least 30,000 
square miles could be covered with 
it. 

"This should prove a great aid," 
said Faurot, "in finding stolen auto- 
mobiles and missing persons, in 
spreading alarms and in other work 



where secrecy is not essential. Every 
amateur receiving station within a 
radius of 100 miles will become a 
sort of police outpost, enabling us 
to spread emergency information 
quickly. 

"Later, as our men gain experi- 
ence, we may even use the ether to 
spread confidential reports by spe- 
cial code." 

Secretary of Commerce Hoover 
has given permission to Commis- 
(Continued on page 18.) 



10 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR 



(Continued from page 9.) 
afterwards put it, "was engrossed 
for a while but soon became bored 
with hearing some one yell in sten- 
torian tones, 'one, two, three, four — 
I am testing — one, two, three, etc' 
This was followed by a bevy of 
amateur wireless telegraph oper- 
ators dashing out the Morse, ABC, 
and other 'uncharted' codes, of 
their own invention, with palsied 
hands. One night, however, Mr. 
Foster was thrilled at picking up 
the music of a phonograph. He 
quickly summoned his wife, who 
listened a few moments without 
much enthusiasm. 

"We've got the same record for 
our own phonograph," said Mrs, 
Foster, "which is closer at hand." 

"Well, my dear," answered Mr. 
Foster, "I expect I'll have to get 
grand opera for you." He spoke 
jokingly, but the crux of the idea 
was there; the vision of sending 
the voices of the world's greatest 
singers from the stage of the Audi- 
torium Theater in Chicago to the 
radio fans within a radius of 1,000 
miles or more, by means of a hugi 
broadcasting station. This was 
the beginning of the idea, which 
proved the outstanding event in 
the radio world during the period 
of last year. 

Imbued with the possibilities for 
educational work, and the enter- 
tainment features which could be 
obtained from a huge radiophone 
transmitting station, Mr. Foster 
and other officials of the Edison 
company set about to erect the 
basic foundation of their vision and 
accordingly negotiated with the 
old Chicago Opera Association 
(which has since become the Chi- 
cago Civic Opera Company, with 
Samuel Insull, as president) for 
the broadcasting of opera nightly 
during the 1921-22 season. 

The next step necessary in the 
fulfillment of the plans of the 
Edison Company, was a powerful 
transmitting station. Negotiations 
were opened with several prominent 
radio apparatus manufacturers, 
which eventually resulted in the 
plan of the Westinghouse Electric 
and Manufacturing Company to 
operate Chicago's famous radio- 
phone station. (Incidentally, the 
Westinghouse organization stands 
out as one of the real pioneers in 
radio development as Harry Phillips 
Davis, Vice President of the com- 
pany, is known as the "father of 
broadcasting," and is credited with 
being the first to see the popular 
appeal of radio.) 

Thus, it came about that th> 
Edison company erected the towers, 
which now rise 125 feet from the 



Do Your Employes 

Really Know 

Radio? 

HERE is an up-and- 
coming article about 
what the world's largest 
electrical appliance store 
has done and is doing for 
the promotion of its own 
business and for the ex- 
tension of radio service 
generally. 

This great store has its 
own electrical institute 
with a twenty-lesson 
course for the company's 
rank and file! 

This company first in- 
troduced grand opera as 
a broadcasting feature, 
there-by setting the coun- 
try afire with interest in 
home radio. 

This article tells about 
the men who first sent 
spoken messages over 
underground electric light 
service cables, astonishing 
the electrical world with 
the first "wired wireless!" 

Read the story and get 
an inspiration out of it, 
just as we did. — The Ed- 
itor. 



roof of its general office building 
(and 400 feet from the street level) 
and set aside space in its general 
office building for the radio studio 
and station, which the Westing- 
house company had arranged to 
install and operate. 

From start to finish, the whole 
scheme of opera broadcasting was 
one of splendid cooperation from 
all concerned — the opera company 
and its artists and musicians, the 
Westinghouse company, and its 
officials and engineers, the Illinois 
Bell Telephone Company, and the 
Chicago newspapers. 

The final steps for the comple- 
tion of the plan came early in No- 
vember of last year, when the 
Westinghouse organization' installed 
the microphones in the footlights 
of the Auditorium stage, and the 
Illinois Bell Telephone company 
ran wires from the theater to the 
radiophone station, where the voices 



of the singers were amplified and 
broadcasted and received by sur- 
prised radio fans in thousands and 
thousands of homes in the Middle 
West. 

The formal announcement of the 
history-making event and the first 
grand opera sent over the radio- 
phone took place on Armistice 
Day, November 11, of last year. 
Miss Mary Garden, then director 
of the old Chicago Opera Associa- 
tion, made the dedication address, 
announcing the innovation to the 
radio world. Miss Edith Mason, 
prima donna, sang the aria from 
"Madame Butterfly," and the in- 
strumental numbers were given by 
the Chicago Opera orchestra, under 
the direction of Giorgio Palacco, 
now First Conductor and Musical 
Director of the Chicago Civic Opera 
Company. The same day, tele- 
phone calls flooded the offices of 
the Chicago newspapers, and for 
the next few days letters and tele- 
grams from such distant points as 
Georgia, Florida, Texas, and Maine 
were received by the opera company 
officials and the Edison company 
teUIng of the surprising clearness 
of the singer's voice and the notes 
of the musicians. 

On the technical and commercial 
sides, the Commonwealth Edison 
Company has enjoyed a unique 
position, in the realm of radio. 
The Edison company, it is believed, 
was the first central station electric 
company to successfully demonstrate 
the feasibility of speech transmission 
over underground electric cables, 
without interfering with their nor- 
mal function (of supplying cus- 
tomers with light and power.) The 
pioneer tests made by Edison en- 
gineers, under the direction of 
Superintendent of Sub-Stations 
Smith — without going into a highly 
technical explanation — have shown 
that it is possible to talk from one 
central station to another, or from 
one sub-station to another, by 
means of the "wired-wireless," using 
the underground cable systems for 
carrying high frequency currents. 

Using a radio telephone set, de- 
signed by Mr. Gager, the output 
of which was coupled to the high 
tension bus, instead of to an an- 
tenna, speech was transmitted a 
distance of several miles over an 
underground cable carrying 12,000 
volts. In the Edison company's 
system, which was "alive" and 
carrying "load" at the time, and 
which was connected to approxi- 
mately 375 miles of similar cable. 
The low voltage (110-220 volt) 
direct current system of the Edison 
company consists of about 230 
(Continued on page 12.) 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



11 



How to Make an Audio Frequency 
Amplifying Transformer 

By F. D. PEARNE 

Chief Instructor in Electricity at Lane Technical High School and Technical Editor of Radio Age 



MANY amateurs are not aware 
of the fact that an amplify- 
ing transformer is a com- 
paratively easy thing to make, if one 
ist mechanically or electrically in- 
clined. The following instructions, 
if carefully adhered to, will produce 
a transformer designed to do all 
and more than some of the arnpli- 
fying transformers now on the mar- 
ket. It may not be so handsome as 
some, but it will be found to produce 
good results. 

The core is constructed of silicon 
sheet steel, .018 of an inch in thick- 
ness, or, if this cannot be procured, 
electrical sheet-iron of the same 
thickness may be used. Enough 
pieces or the shape and size shown 
in Figure 1 to make a stack one- 
half inch high, when pressed tightly 
together, should first be cut from the 
sheet. Four extra pieces of the same 
size and shape should also be cut 
out, to be used in finishing out the 
-core when it is assembled. These 
can be partly cut out with a pair of 
tinners' shears and the balance cut 
out with a sharp cold-chisel. 

When these are finished cut out 
enough of the pieces shown in Fig- 
ure 2 to stack up one-fourth inch 
high and the same number of pieces 
shown in Figure 3 should also be 
made. Next, cut out the pieces 
shown in Figure 4. Enough of these 



3,a" 









1 






iV '^a' 




^ -«r 






3/8" 










1 



FIGURE I 



FIGURE 2 



FIGURES 



FIGURE 4 



FIGURES 



n: 




FIGURE 9 



HOLES >8 



Qt:__o__r_o:v0_ 



11 ■, I r ) I 



FIGURE 12 



--^2!/;-----^ 

FIGURE II 



V I 1," 

FIGURE 6 




1X2"^ ~-i 

FIGURE 7 



^'jk 



^ llg- - -)l 

FIGURES 



to make a stack one-half inch high 
will be required. This completes the 
cutting of the steel or iron. 

A paper tube is next constructed 
as shown in Figure 6. This consists 
of a strip of good, heavy paper one 
and three-fourths inches wide and 
about seven inches long, covered on 
one side with shellac varnish. Be- 
fore the varnish becomes dry, wind 
it up into the form of a tube, on a 
piece of square metal rod one-half 
inch square, or on a square block 




FIGURE 10 



I/" ^°^ 



FIGURE 13 




FIGURE 14 



of wood of the same size. Be sure 
that none of the shellac gets onto 
the rod, as this would cause the tube 
to stick to it, making it impossible 
to remove the form after the shellac 
becomes hard. When the paper is 
all wound on, it should make a 
tube one-sixteenth of an inch thick. 
The outside should be five-eighths 
of an inch square. 

Now procure a piece of sheet-fiber 
one-sixteenth of an inch thick and 
cut out the two coil ends as shown 
in Figure 7. Four holes are drilled 
in one of the coil ends as shown. 
Hole Number 1 is drilled as close 
to one corner of the square as pos- 
sible without breaking through. 
Hole Number 2 is drilled one-fourth 
of the distance out from the next 
corner. Number 3 is also one- 
fourth of the distance out from the 
next corner as shown, and hole Num- 
ber 4 is drilled as close to the out- 
side edge as possible, without break- 
ing through. These holes are drilled 
in one end only, as all the terminals 
of the coils are to come out one end. 

After the ends are completed, 
they are forced on the ends of the 
tube "to the position shown in Fig- 
ure 8. Be sure that these ends are 
put on nice and straight and that 
the distance between them is one 
and one-half inches as shown on the 
drawing. When this is done, the 
spool is ready for winding. Be- 
cause of the small winding space 
and the fact that it is impossible to 
do layer winding with wire of the 



] 2 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



size used, it is necessary to use No. 
39 enamel insulated copper wire. 
The winding can be done better in a 
lathe, if no winding machine is 
available, but some means for count- 
ing the number of turns put on must 
be supplied. The spool can be 
slipped onto the original block or rod 
upon which the tube was made and 
the end held in the chuck of the 
lathe, with the end of the spool in 
which the holes were drilled to the 
left. Put about six inches of the 
wire through hole Number 1, to be 
used for connecting, and begin to 
wind. The wire should be kept nice 
and even and should be wound as 
nearly as possible in layers. 

Wind 4,000 turns and then break 
the wire, putting the end through 
hole Number 2, which will complete 
the primary winding. Fit one or two 
layers of paper over this coil and 
start to wind the secondary. Lead 
an end out through hole Num- 
ber 3 for terminal connection, and 
wind 16,000 turns in the same di- 
rection as the other coil. This 
shoujd just fill the spool and the 
final end is brought out through hole 
Number 4. Now cover the outside 
of the coil with two or three layers 
of paper, for protection, and then 
fit a piece of black binders' cloth 
neatly between the ends to make the 
final covering. 

The core is now assembled. Fig- 
ure 5 shows how the pieces of iron 
are alternated and placed inside the 
tube. First insert one of the pieces, 
Figure 2, and then one of Figure 3, 
etc., until as many pieces as can 
possibly be squeezed in are in place. 
The two outside pieces should be 
those shown in Figure 2. 

The outside core is assembled 
next. First, take one of the pieces 
shown in Figure 4, and slip the two 
ends between the bottom piece of 
the core and the next one to it. 
Then put another piece. Figure 4, in 
place on the other side of the coil, 
slipping the ends between the two 
pieces of the core, which are next 
in order for those used for the 
piece on the other side. Now, put 
in one of the pieces shown in Fig- 
ure 1. This will not go between the 
pieces of the core, but will come up 
squarely against the core iron. 
Put another piece of Figure 1 on the 
other side in the same way, and fol- 
low this with another long one on the 
other side in the same way, and fol- 
low this wnth another long one on 
the other side, which will go be- 
tween the next two pieces of the 
core. Continue in this way until the 
entire outside shell is completed. It 
will be necessary to fill out the side 
irons with extra pieces of Figure 1, 
(Continued on page 30.) 



Send in Calls Heard 

Now that cooler weather 
is luring the radio fans 
back to their receiving 
outfits the old rivalry as to 
who hears signals from the 
most distant transmitting sta- 
tions has flamed up again. We 
have some letters telling of 
some remarkably long distance 
signals received. 

Why not find out what your 
neighbor is doing in the way 
of long distance receiving? 

Beginning with the next 
issue RADIO AGE will 
publish a department called 
"Pick-Up Records". Under 
that title we will publish each 
month the lists of calls heard 
by readers. This is not only a 
valuable feature for radio fans 
on the receiving end but it 
tells transmitters how suc- 
cessfully they have been 
operating. 

Send in your lists, giving 
call numbers of stations heard 
and location and distance. 



Biggest Radio Store Has Its 
Own School 

(Continued from page 10.) 
miles of underground cable, with 
the heaviest network, of course, 
in the "Loop" district. Using the 
same set, speech was transmitted 
through the heaviest part of the net 
work, reception (of the voice) being 
accomplished with only a detector 
tube connected with a lamp socket, 
no amplification being used. 

Of course this method is still 
in an experimental stage, and there 
are many engineering problems still 
to be solved, but the tests indicate 
that the underground cables of the 
Edison company and other central 
station companies can, perhaps, 
some day be utilized in broadcast- 
ing news and musical programs. 

General George O. Squier, Chief 
Signal Officer of the United States 
Army, was quoted recently, in com- 
menting on the Chicago tests, as 
stating that the public has become 
accustomed to look to the electric 
socket for every domestic con- 
venience and may some day come 
to look there for news and enter- 
tainment as well. 

At present, reception of space 
broadcasting — by radiophone — has 
the objection that antennae in 
some form is required, engineers 
say. Difficulties in erecting aerials 
have already been experienced in 



some localities and they may be 
expected to be increased as radio 
recei\dng sets are installed pro- 
miscuously. With carrier-current 
broadcasting through the lamp sock- 
et, the need for the aerial is elim- 
inated, as only a small condenser 
properly inserted between the socket 
and an ordinary receiving set is 
effective. 

The radio section of the Edison 
electric shops was among the first 
estabHshed, by a central station 
company, in this part of the coun- 
try. Although a success financially, 
it is interesting to recall that this 
department was launched primarily 
as a means of stimulating interest 
and aiding in the development of 
radio. This department handles 
every imaginable radio device and 
like others in the Electric Shop 
contains a stock that is as complete 
as any to be found in the country. 

Collectively and individually 
many of the department heads and 
employes of the Edison company 
have gone in for the serious study 
of radio. The Central Station 
Institute of the company, as early 
as last December opened a 20- 
lesson course for the radio enthus- 
iasts in the company's ranks. 

This course includes elementary 
electricity, with special attention 
to alternating currents; theory of 
radio, covering oscillating currents, 
transmitters, receivers, antennae and 
vacuum tubes practice of radio, 
covering construction and opera- 
tion of apparatus used. Lectures 
were given by the company's en- 
gineers and radio experts, several 
of whom were formerly radio in- 
structors in the United States Army. 

The Edison Symphony Orchestra, 
of which Morgan L. Eastman, is 
conductor, has been a frequent 
feature of the KYW musical pro- 
gram. Mr. Eastman, also acts as 
musical director of the Westing- 
house Radiophone station. 



Radio Airmen 

Illinois now has two training schools 
for aircraft radiomen, one at the Chanute 
aviation field at Rantoiil and the other at 
the Great Lakes Training Station. The 
U. S. naval bureau of aeronautics 
maintains a flying school and airdome at 
Pensacola, Florida, and Great Lakes stu- 
dents go there to complete their course. 
Sixty men were graduated to the new 
rating during last year at Pensacola. 
The Rantoul school was moved there 
from Post Field, Fort Sill, Oklahoma, 
where the largest observors' and radio- 
men's school was being maintained in 
conjunction with airplane and balloon 
pilots' schools. The course for radio- 
men aviators covers a period of six 
months. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



13 



Biggest Radio Vacuum Tube in the World 

and How It Was Made 



Western Electric Engineers De- 
velop Tube to Handle 100,000 
Watts of High Frequency 
Power. 

WHEN engineers of the Bell Tele- 
phone System accomplished the 
first transmissions of speech 
across the Atlantic in 1915, they used 300 
vacuum tubes, not much larger than the 
ones in your radio set, to generate the 
necessary high frequency power. Since 
that time developments have gone on in 
the Bell System Laboratories of the 
Western Electric Comoany in New York, 
resulting in the manufacture of tubes of 
the same general type which will supply 
250 watts and more. Two of these 250- 
watt tubes generate the power for the 
larger broadcasting stations, such as 
WBAY, WEAF and others. Now the 
telephone laboratoiies have developed a 
tube capable of supplying 100,000 watts, 
or 200 times the power required for the 
usual broadcasting station of 100-mile 
range. 

The essential feature of the new tube 
is that the "plate" is a copper cylinder 
forming the outer wall of the tube. In 
the customary tubes used in radio sets, 
the "plate" is an actual plate or small 
cylinder of thin metal enclosed in a glass 
tube. If even a small fraction of an 
ampere is passed through the plate cir- 
cuit of one of the small tubes, the plate 
will become very hot. In the larger 
"power" tubes this heat becomes so great 
that some means other than radiation 
must be provided to carry it off, or the 
tube will collapse. This is easily done 
when the plate is the outer wall of the 
tube, for it can be put into a tank of 
water which circulates through a radia- 
tor. The tube is then water-cooled just 
like and automobile engine. 

This sounds easy enough. The real 
difficulty was to make the whole tube 
air-tight and to get the wires for the fila- 
ment and grid into the tube while keeping 
them insulated against about 20,000 
volts. After much study, the problem 
was narrowed down to finding a way to 
make an air-tight joint between the heavy 
copper tube which forms the "plate" and 
the glass of the upper part of the tube, 
and to bring the heavy wires through 
this glass. Credit for the answer is to due 
to W. G. Housekeeper, a Western elec- 
tric engineer, who discovered a way to 
seal copper to glass which would make 
an air-tight joint that would not crack 
at any ordinary working temperature. 

One of these big tubes stands three 
feet high and is 3 1-2 inches in diameter 
at the bottom. To heat the filament for 
which in radio receiving tubes a single 
dry-cell or a small storage battery is 
enough, this tube used 6,000 watts. For 
the plate circuit, instead of the familiar 
"B" battery, a high voltage direct-cur- 
rent generator is used, or an alternating 
current rectifier. 




W. G. Houskeeper, the Western Electric engitieer whose epoch making invention led 
to the production of the world's largest vacuum tube, and the tube itself. Insert shows 
in graphic fashion just how the new monster tube compares with the little "peanut" 
tube used in the average radio receiving set and the 10,000 watt tube which only recently 
was considered the last step in this department of science. 



The significance of these big tubes is 
that only a very few would be necessary 
to operate even the largest radio stations 
now in service. The combination of vac- 
uum tube and its current supply, it is 
expected, will be less costly, more rugged 
and more easily adapted to various wave- 
lengths than any other source of radio 
power now in use. 



Coats Wins Fame 

Paul B. Coats, the Chicago novice who 
made an efficient super-regenerative re- 
ceiving set of the Armstrong pattern and 
installed the remarkably successful unit 
in his touring car, has won considerable 
fame from the account of his achieve- 
ment published in the September issue 
of Radio Age. The Radio Club of 
Illinois held its first meeting of the 
season the other day and Mr. Coats gave 
a demonstration of the circuit. 



Wisconsin U Resumes 

The University of Wisconsin station, 
W H A, at Madison resumed operations 
on October 2, after six weeks of silence. 
Improvements have been made in the 
plant. The regular noonday broadcasts 
are resumed. They comprise weather 
forecasts and educational lectures. Edu- 
cational and musical programs will be 
broadcast on Tuesday and Friday eve- 
nings. 



Minneapolis in Line 

The city of Minneapolis is to have a 
high-powered radio telephone trans- 
mitting station capable of reaching into 
the farthest stretches of the Northwest. 
The cost of this station for the first year 
will be borne by business men of Minne- 
apolis who feel that in the new science 
of radio telephony they have a weapon, 
which, if properly used, can be a power- 
ful influence for Minneapolis' welfare. 



14 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



P. J. Carr Campaigns by Radio 

First in Chicago to use the Radio broadcaster as a means of 
reaching the people is P. J. Carr, Treasurer of Cook County, 
who is a candidate on the democratic ticket to succeed himself. 

The other evening Mr. Carr spoke through the instrument 
at station W D A P in the Drake Hotel. 

This is what he said: 



STATION W D A P— P. J. Carr, Treas- 
urer OF Cook County, Illinois, 
Speaking: 

Folks, perhaps you would like to hear a 
word or two about the organization which 
collects Cook County's taxes. 

The County Treasurer has nothing at all 
to do with establishing the amount of taxes 
nor has he anything to do with'spending 
them. His task merely is to collect the 
money and later to apportion it to the or- 
ganizations entitled to it. However, be- 
tween the time he makes collections and 
the time he makes disbursements he has 
large sums in his custody. It is the County 
Treasurer's business so to administer these 
funds that the people shall derive the great- 
est possible benefit and I am glad to say 
that from April, 1921, when I was appoint- 
ed County Treasurer, until the present I 
have obtained from these funds an interest 
total of $654,419.90 or $100,000 more 
than that produced by anyone of my prede- 
cessors in the history of Cook County. . 

In this way, during an era of unparalleled 
public extravagance, I have tried to lighten 
the tax payer's heavy burden. 

Tax paying is not the most agreeable 
job in the world but I am endeavoring to 
make it easier for the citizens of Cook 
County. I have established 100 sub- 
stations throughout the county and I now 
contemplate a system by which every tax 
payer may pay his taxes at a convenient 
sub-station, located in banks, drug stores 
and other suitable places, so that he may 
have the same facilities that are now ac- 
corded those who pay gas and electric light 
bills. However, for this service there will 
be no extra charge of any kind. This sys- 



tem, which I believe is feasible, will do 
away wich every possible inconvenience oc- 
casioned by present methods. 

There are a number of other things we 
are trying to do for the public. We have a 
corps of experts who, without any charge 
whatsoever give advice to those in trouble 
with tax sharks. There is a foreign lan- 
guage bureau where tax payers who have 
difficulty with American speech may trans- 
act their business in the mother tongue. 

I have also caused to be established a 
department in charge of a competent real 
estate expert where all requests for tax 
bills may be presented and receive im- 
mediate attention. 

This department has earned the approval 
of thousands of taxpayers and has been 
commended especially by all real estate 
agents, bankers and brokers as they are as- 
sured of receiving their tax bills in ample 
time to avoid penalties. 

To better the efficiency of my office, I 
have devoted my time and energy to its 
duties and I have demanded from all of my 
employes thatbusiness-like, efficient and de- 
corous treatment be accorded to everyone 
who has occasion to come in contact with 
us. From the many commendations, both 
verbal and by letter, which I have received, 
I believe that I have been fairly successful. 

In conclusion, I take advantage of this 
opportunity to invite you who are resi- 
dents of Cook County to send to my office 
any suggestions in reference to the tax 
matters which I have tried to discuss in 
this limited time. Indeed I shall be glad 
to have any of you call upon me to discuss 
these tax problems so important to all the 
tax payers of Cook County. 

I thank you. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF- THE HOUR' 



15 



WDAP Becomes a Station De Luxe 

By EDWARD L. TAYLOR 



RADIO broadcasting has taken 
a great step forward in Chi- 
cago through the establishment of 
the super-station located in the 
Drake Hotel. Fans everywhere will 
be interested in the Midwest Radio 
Central, for its equipment is power- 
ful enough to keep it in communica- 
tion with both the Pacific and the 
Atlantic coasts. Its call number 
will be WDAP, which was the 
number assigned to the station when 
it was in the Wrigley Building 
tower. However, it is a far more 
powerful plant than when it was 
perched above the Chicago River 
at Michigan boulevard. 

Radio fans everywhere will be 
interested doubly in the prospective 
opening of this great station when 
they learn that one of the prime 
features of the service to be rend- 
ered from WDAP will be the ex- 
cellence of its programs. The own- 
ers announce that they will transmit 
vocal and instrumental gems sung 
or played into the microphones by 



the highest class artists available 
in the country. 

Those who have listened to 
WDAP for the last few months 
have been impressed with the qual- 
ity of the entertainment provided. 
Many of them know that the two 
men back of the interesting service 
rendered from the Wrigley tower 
and now the promoters of the de 
luxe station on the Drake roof, are 
Thorne Donnelley and J. Elliott 
Jenkins, Chicago pioneers in radio. 

The studio of Midwest Radio 
Central is located on the eleventh 
floor of the Drake. Two features 
distinguish this studio: Its luxuri- 
ous appointments and its elaborate 
arrangement for improvement of its 
acoustics. Heavy wall drapes and 
rich carpets deaden all sounds 
originating there and one's voice 
sounds small and thin as compared 
with its carrying power outside the 
chamber. There is also a total 
absence of echoes. 

Something like this will take 



place when the station is in opera- 
tion: The studio director gives a 
brief talk before each concert in 
which he will stress two points; all 
talking must cease during the sing- 
ing, speaking or playing of each 
number and each number must be 
rendered distinctly. Next the di- 
rector steps over to the telephone 
and tells the station operator to 
start the transmitter. When he re- 
ceives word that the station has 
signed on, he signals the artist or 
artists to start the first number and 
they group themselves about the 
microphone. 

The director tests the modulation 
and the audio frequency by listening 
in on a headset which is connected 
in series with the line and is there- 
fore able to correct errors in trans- 
mission conditions from the start. 

In order to make the feeble micro- 
phone currents from the studio 
capable of moulding or modulating 
the tremendous radio frequency 
currents radiated from the great 




The June number of Radio ^ Age carried an illustrated article 
on how a photograph was sent by radio from Rome, Italy, to 
Bar Harbor, Maine, in forty minutes. Transmitting photographs 
by radio code has since engaged the interest of thousands. Here 
is Miss Nellie D. Stevens decoding a "radio-photo" of Miss 
Virginia Valli, Universal Film Star, which was sent from London 
lo New York by wireless. On the artist's drawing hoard are two 



portraits of Miss Virginia "Valli. The picture on the left of the 
hoard is a copy of the portrait transmitted through the air. On the 
right is the result of Miss Stevens' decoding. She is now engaged 
in perfecting a method of transmitting finger-prints by radio 
in the United Stales. To the left is facsimile of coded portrait as 
received by Carl Laemmle, President of the Universal Film Manu- 
facturing Company. 



16 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



aerial, devices known as line amply- 
fiers are used. 

Although the distance between 
the studio and the station is only 
a few yards special care must be 
taken to guard against line losses. 
For this reason the wires are en- 
cased in conduits, which, in turn, 
is grounded, rendering it incapable 
of affecting the delicate frequency 
currents which traverse its core. 

From the plate glass panel on the 
transmitter to the beautiful, draped 
studio, the Drake Radiophone sta- 
tion is symbolical of the latest de- 
velopments in the science of radio 
broadcasting. The very latest is 
the equipment incorporated in this 
mammoth transmitter which will 
hurl the voice and music far out 
over the land and sea, thousands of 
miles in every direction. A brief 
description of the set is all that 
space permits. 

The input to the transmitter is 
approximately one kilowatt, which 
will afford ample power to charge 
the antenna at the tremendous fre- 
quency at which the radio waves 
are propagated. Inasmuch as over 
ninety per cent of this energy is 
modulated it can be readily seen 
that the efficiency of the set is very 
high. Modulation is accomplished 
through the use of the huge pliotron 
tubes which impress the modulated 
energy upon the grid of the oscil- 
lators in such a way that the effi- 
ciency is very high. The oscillators 
in turn charge the aerial with the 
radio frequency currents which 
travel through the air to the antenna 
of the amateur's receiving set. 

The aerial at the Drake is of the 
common "T" type in which the 
waves are undirectional. The fea- 
ture of the antenna is the fact that 
the lead-in is also part of the an- 
tenna. This is done by making the 
lead-in of a small cage type aerial 
in which the internal resistance is 
reduced to a minimum. Another 
feature of the aerial is that of the 
insulators which are made of heavy 
plate glass of over an inch in thick- 
ness and approximately two feet in 
length thus insuring against losses 
and leakages in the antenna system. 

Running down the side of the 
building in the shape of a huge fan 
we find the counterpoise. This 
counterpoise is spread out directly 
beneath the aerial so that the 
radiation is greatly increased. The 
added factor of the ability of this 
counterpoise to keep the grids of 
the tubes from being drained is 
another feature worth mentioning. 
Coupled with a good ground con- 
nection a better antenna and ground 
system could not be desired. But 



we must turn our attention to the 
device which supplies the station 
with the high voltage power neces- 
sary to operate the tube set. 

Above the main operating room 
the powerful motor generators are 
installed. These are of the ball 
bearing type in which friction is re- 
duced to a minimum. As Mr. 
Sughart, the chief operator, laugh- 
ingly put it, they would have to be 
shut off half an hour before the sta- 
tion was ready to sign off in order 
to come to a stop when the pro- 
gram was finished. Of course the 
generators are operated by remote 
control from the room below as is 
every other phase in the operation 
of this station. The voltage from 
the plate generator, the one which 
handles the plate current to the 
tubes, is controlled by field rheo- 
stats while the control of the fila- 
ment generator, the one which 
furnishes the filament current, is 
handled automatically by the gene- 
rator itself. 

A big feature of the Drake radio- 
phone station is the fact that micro- 
phone lines are to be run to all 
parts of the hotel to pick up music 
and conventions held in the hotel. 
These will be relayed to the station 
where they will be broadcast. Thus 
the station can at any time call 
upon any number of novelties to 
assist it in the furtherance of the 
programs. 

WDAP is owned and operated 
by Mr. Thorne Donnelley and Mr. 
J. Elliott Jenkins of Chicago. These 
two men have done much to aid 
the progress of radio in Chicago, and 
it was due to efforts on their part 
that Chicago was served with a 
program on Sunday evenings, the 
time when a radio concert is most 
enjoyed. This service will be con- 
tinued every Sunday and will also 
be gradually extended until it em- 
braces every night in the week. 
The station is in charge of Mr. 
Sughart, whose efforts to serve the 
public as the public wishes to be 
served have met with such a great 
success. So as Mr. Sughart says, 
"Station WDAP signing off for 
the evening. Good night." 



Let Us Pay You for Your 
Spare Hours — 

There are thousands of Biibprriptions 
for Radio publications taken every day. 

RADIO AGE 

"The Magazine of the Hour," is placing 
representatives in every community 
throughout the country. Why not turn 
your spare hours into dollars. Experi- 
ence is not necessary. We show you 
how. Clip this ad and mail it today. 

RAOTO ACE 
64 WEST RANDOLPH STRKET, CHICAGO 



Syndicated Music 

The day may yet come when the 
whole country will be able to sway 
to the music of a single orchestra. 
The Hotel Commodore in New York 
City has just completed the instal- 
lation of a radio receiving set and 
a loud speaking telephone outfit that 
is attracting considerable attention, 
particularly among the dancing 
masters of the East and others who 
see in it the possibilities of buying 
their music from one central source 
just as they obtain their Hght and 
heat and power. 

The amplifying and loud-speaking 
apparatus, which has been installed 
by the Western Electric Company 
as part of the permanent equipment 
of the hotel, is similar on a smaller 
scale to that used at Madison Square 
Garden on Armistice Day, when 
38,000 people in and about the 
building were able to take part in 
the service. Projectors have been 
placed at various points in the ball 
room and connected through vac- 
uum-tube amplifiers to the radio 
set. The antenna on the roof of the 
hotel picks up music sent out by 
the broadcasting stations and passes 
the waves through an ordinary type 
of receiving set in which they are 
amplified. The power amplifiers 
then increase the strength of these 
signals. 

"I have been much interested in 
this demonstration of dance music 
by radio." says Joseph O'Brien, 
President of the Dancing Masters 
Association, in discussing the Com- 
modore equipment. "First class 
music for dancing is essential if we 
are to please our patrons and this 
kind of music costs us real money. 
It is an obvious waste for a hundred 
academies to employ a hundred 
orchestras if they can connect by 
radio with a central station which 
transmits dance music. If such a 
station were established, it could 
readily afford the best orchestra in 
the world — one made up entirely of 
top-notchers. Yet the cost to each 
subscribing academy would be less 
than its present payroll. Of course, 
this would not eliminate local mu- 
sicians because there always will be 
need for them to furnish music for 
instruction and special dancing." 



1,000 Radio Patents 

More than 1,000 patents have already 
been issued by the United States patent 
office covering new designs on materials 
connected with radio. Between 2,000 
and 3,000 patents are pending. With 
this work ahead of the officials for in- 
vestigation and approval the patent office 
is one of the busiest places in Washing- 
ton. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



17 




THOUGHT WAVES Ifr^ITORIAL TOWER 



FIGURES supplied by the Radio 
Chamber of Commerce estim- 
ate that the present number of 
1,500,000 receiving sets now in use 
will he increased to 5,000,000 in 
the next few years. It is likely 
that a great percentage of this in- 
crease will be derived from the 
farmer. And that opens an in- 
teresting line of discussion. 

It cannot be denied that there 
are hundreds of thousands of farm- 
ers who are not yet "sold" on radio. 
They have heard about it from 
newspapers, magazines and from 
visitors from the cities where radio 
has long been a business convenience 
and a social diversion. There are 
several reasons why the farmer, 
for whom radio one day will open 
avenues of interest hitherto un- 
dreamed of, has not "put in his 
set." 

One reason is that distributors 
have been so biisily engaged in 
looking after the demand for ap- 
paratus in the more densely popu- 
lated districts that they have not 
organized the drive on the rural 
communities. It is sure to come. 
Another reason is that the crystal 
set is not effective in getting signals 
for more than 15 to 25 miles and 
hosts of farmers live further than 
that from the nearest broadcasting 
station. 

This raises the problem of the 
storage battery which is an essential 
of the set which will give the farmer 
an adequate radius. Farmers whose 
houses are not wired for electric 
lighting are put to some difficulty 
to recharge their _ batteries. If 
their homes were wired they could 
use easily the standard home-charg- 
ing device for the purpose. But 
the farmer who must carry his 
heavy battery to town to get it 
charged may ofttimes be rnost 
eager to listen in just at the time 
when his battery is in the doldrums. 

We learn of one farmer who used 
the battery from his automobile 
for radio at night and for motor 
purposes during the day. Any- 
body who has tried to extract one 
of those heavy batteries from the 




^■■«.^^..j«.^»-»^'>r'^^v^-j.^.^^^.„j»_»»„i^^^^>-.tj ^.^KJ^^^.JK 3 S 



should be especially interested in 
the special government article pub- 
lished in this number, explaining 
how to construct a tube set for $23. 



almost inaccessible spot in which 
motor manufacturers are fond of 
bolting them into the car structure 
will appreciate that this farmer 
must, needs be a super-fan to go 
to this trouble. He ran the engine 
of the car for four hours a week 
during the snow-bound season thus 
charging his battery for another 
seven days of markets, music and 
news by wireless. 

Those knights of the open road 
who have gone hither and thither 
among the farmers selling them 
cheap crystal sets on the misrepre- 
sentation that the outfits will re- 
ceive messages from impossible dis- 
tances art about through with 
their confidence games. The farmer 
is getting radio wise in his day and 
generation and from now on he 
will have to be shown. 

The way to produce the sales 
of that other 3,500,000 receiving 
sets is to offer the farmer sets that 
will perform with a minimum of 
trouble and expense. Manufac- 
turers who deliver such outfits 
will find the farmer a willing, yes, 
almost a profligate spender. 

It is a matter of pride with Radio 
Age that many of our subscribers 
are of the R. F. D. sort. We should 
like to hear from farmers and manu- 
facturers, both, as to ways and 
means of making radio most easily 
accessible to the rural citizen. He 
is possibly not the backbone of the 
radio future but he at least is the 
ribs of it. Incidentally farmers 



DON'T bomb the broadcaster! 
He is not only doing the best 
he can but he is doing very well. 
Also, in a majority of instances, 
he is doing his best without cost to 
the receiver. 

Broadcasting stations have made 
mistakes but they are improving 
their service as experience teaches 
better methods. The broadcasting 
station usually is operated by a 
business organization that is en- 
gaged in manufacturing and selling 
radio equipment. Broadcasting is 
a direct and most important meth- 
of of interesting the millions in 
radio, because it offers them news 
and entertainment, not to mention a 
service which has become indis- 
pensable to business. Therefore, it 
need not be feared that the pro- 
prietors of broadcasting stations 
will carelessly permit their product 
to decline in merit. They want to 
improve it. , : 

But broadcasters need,h,^lp. They 
need intelligent criticism from op- 
erators of receiving sets. They need 
protection from foolish radio deal- 
ers, who turn on th^ii; loud speakers 
to the limit and do thieir best to con- 
vince the public that the studio in 
the broadcasting station is a cage 
of roaring, yelping, yipping lions., 

"Well, if that's radio, I ddii;t 
want any of it in my house." 

You have heard men and women 
make that emphatic announcement 
at radio shows and in radio shops. 
That exclamation means radio busi- 
ness deferred, if not definitely lost. 
It is business that might have been 
saved had the operators of the re- 
ceiving station toned down their 
instruments so that human speech, 
and sweet music would come forth, 
instead of shrieks of a lost soul. 

Broadcasting stations should or- 
ganize. They should exchange in- 
formation and ideas as to the best 
and most popular programs to give 
the radio millions. They should 



18 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR 



combine to oppose the attempted 
extortions that continually are be- 
ing practiced. They should know 
what their rights are in relation to 
broadcasting copyrighted music. 
They should stand together to de- 
mand that every advantage of the 
law be taken in putting out of busi- 
ness the ill-mannered fan who 
breaks up the best of broadcasting 
programs by sending outside his le- 
gal wave-length. 

The day of broadcasting talking 
machine records is past. The public 
has had just enough of the excellent 
entertainment by high class artists 
to be satisfied with nothing less. 
Such entertainment is available in 
every big community. 

The public wants a mixture of 
superior music and jazz stufT. It 
wants a little bit of heavy discus- 
sion of civic or social conditions, and 
a great deal of humor that IS humor. 
It wants a song from the operatic 
star, but it also wants the old-time 
ballad, or the modern song hit. 

Many broadcasting stations know 
the foregoing assertions are true and 
might be excused, if they called such 
comments trite. But many others 
have seemingly failed to get the con- 
viction that broadcasting is the life- 
blood of radio. Radio isn't going to 
gain any new friends through broad- 
casting of views by an eminent cit- 
izen on the moral responsibility of 
the protoplasm to the scientific as- 
pects of unadulterated blah. 

Ben Franklin said, in the perilous 
revolutionary days: "We must all 
hang together, or- we shall hang sep- 
arately." 



Sad News for the Crooks 

(Continued from page 9.) 
sioner Enright and M. R. Brennan, 
superintendent of the police tele- 
graph division, to send on a 400 
meter wave length. Later, if the 
Department of Commerce has to 
allow a wider scope to present users 
of the 360 meter wave, the New 
York police will be permitted to wid- 
en their range to 500 meters. 

"We have already made arrange- 
ments," Mr. Brennan said yester- 
day, "to equip our police boats and 
inspection district ofhces with radio 
telephonic receiving sets. As we 
progress with the idea, receiving 
stations will be installed in all pre- 
cinct headquarters and special op- 
erators will be detailed to attend 
them twenty-four hours a day. 
When the other larger cities take to 
radio telephony for administrative 
purposes, we expect to be able to es- 
tablish a network of broadcasting 
and receiving stations that will make 
itpossible to give a national alarm al- 
most instantaneously." 



How to Kill Radio 

BROADCASTING is the heart 
of the radio game, public, 
private commercial, educational. 

If transmission is poor radio 
listeners are going to be dis- 
couraged. 

If programmes are inferior and 
poorly balanced casual dabblers in 
radio are not going to be influenced 
thereby to buy apparatus and get 
into the game in earnest. 

Broadcasting of grand opera in 
Chicago last year started a demand 
fcr receiving sets that amounted to 
a "craze." 

Broadcasting has made the radio 
business and broadcasting can kill 
it. 



i 



How [to^ Construct a Tube 
Set 

[(Continued from'page 8.)] 

tube to be much more positive in 
adjustments than the crystal de- 
tec tor. 

^^ Notes on Soldering 

|» It has been stated above that 
certain connections were soldered. 
In fact, one could well advise that 
all connections about a radio circuit 
be soldered, but soldered correctly. 
There are some general hints that 
may be given but judgment and 
experience are essential. (1) The 
soldering copper must be clean and 
the tip well coated with solder. 
If the tip of the soldering copper 
is not bright, it should be filed clean. 
It is then heated, care being taken 
that the tip is not directly in the 
flame. After the copper is hot 
— not red hot — it is dipped in the 
soldering flux or paste and the copper 
tip coated with solder. (2) The 
wires are cleaned where the solder- 
ing is to be done, using fine sand- 
paper, then a small amount of 
soldering flux or paste is applied 
at the joint, and the wires to be 
soldered are tinned or coated with 
solder before the wires are joined. 
After the wires are tinned they are 
soldered together, using just enough 
solder to make the joint solid. The 
joint should not be jarred while the 
solder is still soft; to do so weakens 
the joint and gives the solder a 
dull appearance. A good soldered 
joint will be smooth and bright. 
(3) All excess soldering flux or 
paste should be cleaned off. Gaso- 
lene or alcohol will assist in cleaning 
oH the paste. This last point is 
sometimes overlooked and the ex- 



cess of flux often causes the copper 
wires to corrode. 

Cost of Parts 

The following list includes the 
cost of parts of the electron tube 
detector unit and the "A" and 
"B" batteries. It does not include 
the cost of the telephone receivers 
or of any of the other equipment 
used to make up the complete 
receiving outfit given in the pre- 
vious description of the simple 
crystal receiving set. 

Electron Tube Detector Unit. 

Electron tube $5.00 to $6.50- 

Electron tube socket 0.75 to 2.00 
Filament rheostat .. 1.00 to 2.50 
Grid leak and grid 

condenser 0.50 to 1.50 

By-pass condenser 

about.- 0.35 

Ten (10) feed No. 14 
bare tinned copper 

wire about 0.10 

Miscellaneous bind- 
ing posts and screws, 
about- 0.75 

Batteries: 

"A" storage bat- 
tery, 6-volt, 60 
amper-hour capa- 
city $15.00 to $20.00 

"B" battery, 22 

1/2 to 45 volts 1.00 to 3.00 

Total $23.25 to $36.70 



Signal Electric Co. 
Expands 

The Signal Electric Manufacturing 
Company of Menominee, Michigan, has 
acquired the Hulbert patents and taken 
over the assets and liabilities of the 
Hulbert Electric Manufacturing Com- 
pany, of Chicago, Illinois. 

Under this arrangement production 
of the Hulbert Battery charger will be 
increased and others of the Hulbert 
patents will be developed and put into 
production. 

Mr. C. H. Hulbert will hereafter be 
identified with The Signal Electric 
Manufacturing Company, in the capacity 
of research and development engineer. 



400 Meters for KYW 

Chicago's KYW, the Westinghouse 
broadcasting station on the roof of the 
Commonwealth Edison building, has 
been raised to the B class and its wave 
length has been made 400 meters, 
instead of 360 as formerly. The change 
was made with the authority of the 
government radio inspector because of 
the increased importance of the station 
following its erection of new aerial towers 
and other additions and improvements. 
The new wave length was used for the 
first time on Sunday, September 17. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



19 



Expert Explains Radio 

Frequency Amplification 

Interesting Facts About Phenomenon of Wire- 
less Telephony 

By CHARLES KILGOUR 

Radio Engineer for Crosley Manufacturing Co. 

In an Interview 



ALTHOUGH radio frequency 
amplification is no mystery to 
the average wireless telephony 
amateur, there are many, especially 
those who have but recently become 
radio fans, who will be interested 
in a brief explanation of this phe- 
nomenon. Mr. Charles Kilgour, 
radio engineer, who is in charge of 
the corps of engineers employed by 
the Crosley Manufacturing Com- 
pany, operators of the radio station 
WLW, in Cincinnati, Ohio, has 
made a close study of radio fre- 
quency amplification, and, in a dis- 
cussion of it, said: 

"Everyone knows the purpose of 
the ordinary two stage amplifier is 
to make louder the sound as orig- 
inally received through the detector 
tube or crystal. This amplifier 
makes any audible signal louder; 
therefore, it is called an audio 
frequency amplifier. 

"The extremely weak electrical 
alternating currents induced in the 
antenna circuit of the receiving set 
have a frequency far too high to 
produce an audible effect on the 
head phones. Broadcasting stations 
usually use the 360 meter wave 
length, which means that the cur- 
rent picked up has a frequency of 
more than 800,000 cycles per second. 
The lowest note of the piano or 
organ has about 16 beats, or cycles, 
per second, while the highest beats 
approximately 8,000 times per sec- 
ond. 

"The high frequency current 
picked up from the broadcasting 
station is called a radio frequency 
current, because it is at this high 
frequency that the message is ra-- 
diated through space. Combined 
with the radio frequency pulsation 
there is a low frequency variation 
which is the part we wish to hear. 
The detector so alters the current 
that the high frequency part has no 
effect on the head phones while the 
low frequency part acts upon them, 
causing them to give out an audible 
note. This is called rectification. 

"Understanding this, it is appar- 
ent the name indicates that a radio 
frequency amplifier does its work 



before the detector has acted. It is 
inserted in the set between the 
tuner and detector. As in the case 
of the audio frequency amplifier, 
a vacuum tube with its proper 
circuits is used to strengthen the 
electrical current. In this case, 
however, this is accomplished before 
the current has been rectified by the 
detector. One stage of radio fre- 
quency amplification will not have 
as great an effect on the output as a 
single stage audio frequency am- 
plifier of proper design, but it has 
several advantages. 

"If a great volume of output is 
desired, why do we not use more 
stages of audio frequency ampli- 
fication? We cannot ordinarily 
use four or six stages because audion 
amplification becomes very noisy 
when cascaded in this manner and 
sounds generated in the tubes them- 
selves have a tendency to drown out 
the signal. On the other hand, a 
radio frequency amplifier does not 
have this bad quality in anything 
like the same degree. 

"There is another important ad- 
vantage derived from the use of the 
radio amplifier. Detector tubes fail 
to rectify very weak signals so there 
is nothing for the audio frequency 
amplifiers to work with, no matter 
how efficient they may be. A 
properly designed radio frequency 
amplifier, however, will strengthen 
these weak signals to such an extent 
that the detector will do its work 
properly and the audio frequency 
amplifier will make the sounds boom 
out in the head /phones or loud 
speaker. Properly designed radio 
frequency amplifiers are very suc- 
cessful and open a new field of 
enjoyment for those who 'listen in.' " 




Charles E. Kilgour, writer of the article on 
this page in which radio and audio fre- 
quency is explained, is the man who super- 
vised construction of the Crossley Manu- 
facturing Company's new broadcasting 
plant at Cincinnati, Ohio.' Mr. Kilgour 
is a radio engineer and a good one. Also, 
as will be observed by those who read his 
interview, he knows how to tell what he knows. 

Radio Combine in 
England? 

English officials are at logger-heads 
over a proposal of Postmaster General 
Kellaway to grant the exclusive right 
of broadcasting and the monopoly of 
the sale of receiving instruments. This 
plan contemplates barring American and 
other foreign-made radio equipment 
from the English market and would 
place the sale of equipment in the hands 
of a combine of instrument makers. 

Opposing this proposal Capt. Wedge- 
wood Benn, member of parliament, 
argued that radio is supplementary to the 
daily press. He denied the right to limit 
its transmitting facilities to a combine. 
He said radio was the most important 
social development since the discovery 
of printing. 

It is predicted that $30,000,000 will be 
spent in England in two years by this 
combine in buying receiving apparatus 
and building broadcasting stations and 
that 80 per cent of this sum would be 
paid to labor. Mr. Kellaway said there 
would be no monopoly and then went on 
to explain that all of the English manu- 
facturers could become members of the 
company. He said the English should 
"keep this new form of communication in 
the hands of our own people." 



That Reinartz Article 

The illustrated article on the Reinartz 
unit, how to make it and what it will 
do, and why, seems to have aroused 
interest from Boston to San Francisco. 
If you missed the September number 
you may obtain one by sending twenty- 
five cents in stamps to Radio Age, 64 West 
Randolph Street, Chicago. (^Better write 
today. Supply is limited. 



Localizers for Airmen 

A device to use electro-magnetic waves 
in assisting an aviator in determining 
when he is above a landing field has 
been produced by the United States air 
mail service after experiments covering 
three years. The apparatus is called a 
"localizer." Briefly, it transmits radio 
signals in practically a perpendicular 
direction and these, penetrating fog or 
clouds, reach the aviator and inform 
him of his location. The device will 
greatly assist aviators in night flying, 
it is anticipated. j^ 



20 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Chicago's International Radio Show 

Exhibits by Manufacturers Will Predominate and There Will be 

Abundance of Features for Crowds 



Arrangements are complete for 
the Chicago radio show which will 
be open to the public on October 14 
to October 21 at the Coliseum. 
The exposition promises to be one 
of the most important trade dis- 
plays ever assembled in the country. 
Directors of the show announce 
that practically every large manu- 
facturer of radio apparatus in the 
country will be represented. The 
presence of manufacturers in large 
number will make the show dis- 
tinctive in that it will not be a 
bazaar, but an exposition of the 
progress radio science has made. 

It is announced that this is the 
first radio show to receive indorse- 
ment by the National Radio Cham- 
ber of Commerce and by the Radio 
Division of the national electrical 
manufacturers. The preponderance 
of manufacturing exhibits is ex- 
pected to bring large numbers of 
jobbers and dealers to Chicago for 
the purpose of getting a line on 
the latest improved radio mer- 
chandise. 

It will be the first time that the 
manufacturer has taken the oppor- 
tunity to meet the jobber, dealer 
and the public all at the same time. 
Aside from the show it will be a 
sort of a great get-together con- 
vention for all those interested in 
radio. Meetings of some of the 
most important committees of the 
National Radio Chamber of Com- 
merce will be held at the same time. 

An elaborate entertainment pro- 
gram is rapidly being arranged. 
Ed Wynn, the famous comedian, 
and his company will put on their 
show the opening night of the ex- 
position and it will be broadcast. 
There will be a society night, a 
radio ball, a children's afternoon 
and other features during the week. 
While the entire Coliseum will be 
given over to the exhibits, the Coli- 
seum Annex will be given over to 
meetings, entertainment, the radio 
ball and other features. 

The remainder of the exhibition 
space is being rapidly sold, the 
amount already taken insuring the 
success of the exposition from the 
standpoint of both the exhibitor 
and the spectator. There will be 
plenty of room for the crowds, as 
sixty per cent of the entire floor 
of the Coliseum will be used for 
aisles, preventing overcrowding and 
giving the exhibitor a chance to 



talk to his prospective customers. 

The public will be well enter- 
tained. The exhibits will include 
the latest radio apparatus, many 
exhibits being of improvements 
made during the summer and shown 
for the first time. There will be 
novelty exhibits and a score of 
aerials on the roof of the Coliseum 
will catch and disseminate all that 
is being sent out from the broad- 
casting stations all over the country. 

In the large space In the center 
of the building will be a display of 
radio controlled automobiles, tor- 
pedoes, a pump that pours out 
real water and other mechanical 
devices operated from a small send- 
ing station. 

U. J. Herrman, managing di- 
rector of the Chicago Radio Show, 
and Manager James F. Kerr visited 
more than a dozen radio shows in 
different parts of the United States 
before making their final plans for 
Chicago's show and thus have been 
able to avoid the mistakes made 
by the other shows. The Chicago 
Radio Show will be an annual 
affair and holds an exclusive lease 
on the Coliseum for this kind of a 
show and for a long term of years. 



Two Cincinnati Shows 

/Cincinnati claims to be the great- 
^^ est radio center in the United States, 
in proportion to its population. It 
cannot be denied that the Ohio city had 
taken hold of the wireless game with an 
enthusiasm to be marvelled at. Any 
visitor to Cincinnati will be struck by the 
number of radio aerials he sees strung up 
on the roofs of buildings, especially in the 
business districts. One of the reasons for 
this abundance of aerials is that the 
Crosley Manufacturing Company, opera- 
tors of station VVLW is almost contin- 
uously "on the air" with interesting news, 
entertainment and market features. 

Cincinnati is to have two radio shows 
this month, the first of which will be 
known as the Radio and Electrical Ex- 
position, while the' second will be con- 
ducted by the Tri-State Tobacco Grow- 
ers' Association. The Radio and Elec- 
trical Exposition will be conducted in 
Music Hall, October 2-7, while the Tri- 
State Tobacco Growers will conduct 
their exposition in Covington, just 
across the Ohio River from Cincinnati, 
October 21-28. The latter exposition 
will be one of the largest of its kind ever 
conducted in the Middle West, President 
Harding and the Governors of Ohio, 
Kentucky and Indiana having promised 
to be present. 



Porcelain Sockets 

Many radio manufacturers and thou- 
sands of amateur operators have adopted 
the Crosley Vacuum Tube Socket be- 
cause of its many advantages over 
more complicated and less efficient ones. 
This socket is made of one piece of por- 
celain, the same material that is used in 
the base of a vacuum tube to insulate 
the four prongs. The contacts are of 
special, strong phosphor bronze, nickel 
plated, which eliminates to a great de- 
gree corrosion at the contacts. The nuts 
and screws are brass, nickel plated. 

As the socket is made of porcelain, 
wires can be soldered to the contact 
posts without fear of melting the ma- 
terial of which the socket is made, 
and it will be found that it will not 
be affected by overheating of the tubes. 
The bayonet slot, imbedded in the 
wall of porcelain, is completely backed 
up and reinforced to prevent the possi- 
bility of breakage, and as the barrel 
that surrounds the tube is made of 
porcelain, there is no possibility of 
ground hum, so often noticed in sockets 
having a metal wall. 

This socket was designed to prevent 
short circuiting of high voltage "B" 
battery current across the filament 
contacts, thus eliminating the danger 
of burning out the filament through 
careless insertion of the tube. This 
feature appeals especially to the dealers 
who are called upon to replace tubes 
that have been burned out as a result 
of use in ordinary sockets. 

The Crosley Sockets have another 
unique feature in that they can be 
mounted either on a base or panel. 



Injunction Granted 

An important step in clearing up the 
somewhat tangled situation regarding 
radio patents was taken by Justice 
O'Malley of the Supreme Court in grant- 
ing the injunction asked by the Freed 
Eisemann Radio Corporation of New 
York against the Wireless Specialty 
Apparatus Company. 

It is stated that the Wireless Specialty 
Apparatus Company recently published 
a series of statements which indicated 
that crystal radio receiving sets are con- 
trolled by patents owned by them. 

The contention of the Freed Eisemann 
Radio Corporation, now sustained in the 
courts, was that these statements con- 
stituted unfair business competition and 
an injunction was granted restraining 
the Wireless Specialty Apparatus Com- 
pany. The injunction was part of the 
suit. The balance, in which $150,000 
damages was asked is still pending. 

The outcome of the suit, it is said, 
will have an important bearing upon the 
entire crystal radio patent situation. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



21 



Ouestions and Ans\vers 



F. L. G. Chicago, 111. 

Question: Will you kindly inform me 
if good results can be obtained by using 
honey-comb coils as loading inductances? 
If this can be done, will you please mark 
the enclosed diagram, showing where 
they should be inserted, so that con- 
densers will be in shunt around them. 
If there is any charge for this service, I 
will gladly remit upon being notified of 
the amount of same. 

Answer: Yes they will work very well, 
but in this particular case you must have 
a coil consisting of 70 turns, tapped at a 
point 20 turns from one end as shown in 
the diagram returned by mail. This can 
be done very well by winding 70 turns of 
No. 26 wire on a plain tube 2 3-4 inches 
in diameter and tapping at the twentieth 
turn. This will bring your set up to 
something more than 600 meters. If 
you want a greater wave length use more 
turns and tap of the intermediate contact 
in the same proportion. Thanks for 
your offer to pay the charges, but this 
service is already paid for when you buy 
the magazine. It is furnished free to the 
readers of Radio Age. 

T. J. S., Boston, Mass. 

Question: In your September number 
of Radio Age I saw your Reinartz tuner. 
I have started to make same and would 
like to make one step of amplification to 
start with. Can you send me any more 
information as to the construction of 
same? I have the enclosed list of appara- 
tus, so I have a good start. I started to 
make a radio receiving set with two 
steps of amplification described in an- 
other magazine and got as far as the first 
stage of amplification and it did not 
sound good. As I have made three sets 
of the crystal type and had good luck, 
I want to hear from you before going 
ahead. 

Answer: I do not know of anything 
which I might add to the instructions 
given in the September number. All I 
can say is, go ahead and if you find any- 
thing which you do not understand, just 
write to me and I will be very glad to 
help you. I think that after you get 
started you will find the set quite easy 
to construct. 

B. L. H., Danville, 111. 

Question: I am starting to set up a 
transmitting station and come to you 
for some information. Do I have to pass 
an examination before I can do this and 
if so who will give it to me, and where? 
Can you tell me anything about what 
this examination would be? That is, do 
I have to be able to send at any certain 
speed and what is the nature of the 
questions that will be asked? Do you 
recommend any special type of antenna 
for a transmitting station? If so, will 
you please send me a description of it, 
as I want my station to be a good one. 

Answer: Yes; you will have to pass 
an examination before you will be allow- 
ed to send messages. You can find out 
all about this by writing to the United 
States Radio Inspector, 9th District, 
Federal Building, Chicago, 111. The 



This is the "trouble department" of Radio 
Age. No trouble to us, but representing 
difficulties of our readers. Many letters 
are received asking what charge is made for 
answering questions as to hook-ups, etc. 
This is a free service department and all 
questions will be answered without charge, 
either in the magazine or, if self-addressed 
and stamped envelope is sent, we will send 
the answer promptly by mail. This depart- 
ment is conducted by Frank D. Pearne, 
Technical Editor of RA DIO AGE. 



ability to send is not so important as 
how much you can receive. For an 
amateur license you will be required to 
receive 10 words per minute and you will 
have to be able to tell the function of all 
parts of your set and answer the other 
questions asked by the inspector. Use a 
"T" aerial for sending. The following 
diagram will show you how to con- 
struct it. 



T-rvPE ANTENNA 
— SPREADEB C*"«»)"\ 
SCREW EYES \ 





L. SCREW CYE5 



*TO INSTRUHEMT 



Fiqure 1 

B. B., Levering, Mich. 

Question: I have been very much 
interested in the questions and answers 
in your magazine and want to ask several 
questions myself. I am within a few 
miles of the Straits of Mackinaw, and 
want to be able to hear as far as Atlanta. 
With ready made parts, I have hooked 
up a receiver as shown in the enclosed 
diagram. With this set I have heard 
Pittsburgh, Louisville, Davenport and 
faintly from Atlanta. Is there any sug- 
gestion you could make to improve it? 
Do you think a variable condenser in 
the aerial would improve it? Will you 
please send me a hook-up for one stage 
of radio and two of audio frequency to 
go with this set? 

Answer: If you get these results, 
don't change your set. Variable con- 
denser in your aerial circuit will help, 
providing your aerial is not too small. 
I am mailing you the desired circuit. 




C. C. T., Garner, Iowa. 

I noticed the "super" hook-up in the 
Radio Age this month and am wondering 
if it is strong enough to use a loud speaker 
in place of the phones for stations 500 
or 750 miles distant? Will it be advan- 
tageous for me to use an' aerial instead 
of a loop? 

Answer: Yes, a loud speaker can be 
used with this circuit. Do not try to 
use an aerial on this set, but stick close 
to the directions. The values and con- 
stants have been carefully figured out 
and any change may upset the entire 
plan. I have experimented personally 
and found the loop gives better results. 

W. Y., Jr., Muskegon, Mich. 

Will you kindly send me a pamphlet 
or details of how to make a vario-coupler? 
Also please send me a wiring diagram to 
use a vario-coupler with an audion 
detector and one variable condenser. 
Give all the details possible in the con- 
struction of the vario-coupler. 

The description of the vario-coupler 
will require too much space to print here, 
so I am sending it by mail. Connect 
it to the circuit as shown on this page. 



BUZZER TEST 



rl 



BUTTON 



O- 



BATTERS 



GROUND BrMDIN& 
2} POST ON SET. 



E. B. F., Lansing, Mich. 

I have a crystal set which I made 
myself. When I can find the adjustment 
on the crystal I get very good results, 
but this does not happen very often. 
As you can see I have a buzzer test 
hook-up connected to the set but cannot 
hear the buzzer in the phones, so it 
doesn't do any good. Is it connected 
right? I have tried it several different 
ways and can hear it outside of the set, 
but it won't come through the phones. 
If you can show me how to connect it 
to my aerial I will appreciate it very 
much. 

Answer: The hook-up which you 
(Continued on page 22.) 



22 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Armstrong Super-Regenerative Circuit 



3-Tube Arrangement 

AQA\STI20f^6 SUPEQ.-UE6ENEQATIVE C/QCU/T. 



LOOP 
AEQIAL 

fO TUnN'5 



uSX 



~ lej Vu 




fMWl 



:^6 
^3 




^B2 



^l'Nlil|•Klp-^ 



OUITE a number of Armstrong 
super-regenerative circuits have 
been published in the different 
papers and magazines, some of 
which, when tested out, will give 
results and some will not. This 
makes the question of amateur con- 
struction rather vague and un- 
certain and many who want to 
construct a set of this kind have de- 
cided to wait and let the other 
fellow work them out and find the 
best circuit, before spending any 
time and money on it. The circuit 
here shown has been used with some 
success by amateurs and seems to 
work better than any of the others. 
At times very good results have 
been obtained and frequently the 
■results are not so good, which seems 
to show that the circuit is all right, 
but that the trouble must be in the 



proper adjustment of the many 
controls. This being the fact then, 
it would seem that the whole matter 
resolves itself into the question of 
the user becoming well enough 
acquainted with the set to know 
just what is the cause of this varia- 
tion in efficiency. For the benefit 
of those who wish to construct this 
circuit, the following list of ap- 
paratus used and their values are 
given. 

M-1- Fixed condenser .0005 M. F. 
M-2- Fixed condenser .0025 M. F. 
M-3- Fixed condenser .0005 M. F. 
M-4- Fixed condenser .005 M. F. 
M-5- Fixed condenser .002 M. F. 
M-6- Fixed condenser .002 M. F. 
M-7- Fixed condenser .0005 M. F. 
M-8- Fixed condenser .002 M. F. 
M-9- Fixed condenser .002 M. F. 
L-1- Is the stator of an ordinary 



vario-coupler. L-2- Vario-coupler 
rotor. L-3- is a 1250 turn honey- 
comb coil. L-4- 5 Milhenries in- 
ductance coil. L-5- is a 1500 turn 
honey-comb coil. L-6- .1 Henry 
inductance coil. L-7- .1 Henry in- 
ductance coil. L-8- .1 Henry in- 
ductance coil. T- Audio frequency 
transformer. V.C.-l- .0005 Varia- 
ble condenser. V.C.-2- .0005 Varia- 
ble condenser. V.C.-3- .001 Varia- 
ble condenser. B-1- 2- to 6-volt dry 
battery. B-2- 6-volt storage bat- 
tery. B-3- 90-volt battery. B-4- 
2 2 >^- volt battery. B-5- 200- volt 
battery. The loop aerial should 
consist of a few turns of No. 18 
wire wound on a 4-foot frame. 
The exact number of turns for any 
particular set will have to be found 
by experiment. It usually requires 
from 6 to 12 turns. 



Questions and Answers — Continued 



show is wrong, but I don't see how you 
can help hearing it in the set. The ac- 
companying arrangement will give you a 
buzz in the phones if you will connect 
it as shown. 

N. E. L., Sault Ste. Marie, Ont., 
Canada. 

I have read your article on the Rein- 
artz tuner in the September issue of the 
Radio Age with a great deal of interest 
and intend to construct a set just as 
soon as I can gather together the neces- 
sary material. If not inconveniencing 
you too much I should certainly appre- 
ciate it if you give me some information 
as to how to tune it. If you have any 
other information you can give me along 
these lines, it will be most gratefully 
received. 

Answer: I am glad to know that 
you intend to build this set, as I have 



had nothing but good reports from the 
many fans who are using them. I have 
not heard of one failure. The adjust- 
ment for tuning is quite simple. There 
are three switches and two or three con- 
densers (according to which one you 
decide to construct). The switches should 
be set in one position and the dials on 
the condensers moved back and forth. 
If no sound is heard, move the switches 
to different positions and try again with 
the condensers. Continue in this way 
until a station is heard and then change 
the adjustments until the signals come 
ill clear and plain. The filaments of the 
tubes should be turned up until they 
burn brightly, but not bright enough 
to destroy them. You will soon learn 
just where to set all the controls to get 
the best results, as it is only a matter 
of practice. 



J. H. C, Chicago, HI. 

I like your questions and answers 
very much and read them all with great 
interest. I want to ask you one question 
which is not clear in my mind. Why is 
it that on most all radio frequency cir- 
cuits they always say to use a loop an- 
tenna? Can I use my outside aerial 
which is 90 feet long with two wires and 
about 35 feet high, instead of the loop? 
If not, will you please tell me why? 

Answer: The reason you are advised 
to use a loop aerial is because radio 
frequency, while it will bring in the dis- 
tant stations very well, will also greatly 
magnify static and interference. The 
loop aerial is particularly adapted for 
this work because it eliminates much of 
this trouble, which will bother you con- 
siderably if you use the outside aerial. 
Stick to the loop for good, clear music. 



RADIO AGE— THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



23 



IWTERMATIOAIAL 



ANNU^*- 



CUOMtO RADIO SnOIV 

Coliseum, Oct. 14-21 

The first Manufacturers' Exposition ever held in the United States for the 

JOBBER -DEALER — PUBLIC 



The most Complete Exposition 

The Largest List of Exhibits 

The Best Entertainment Program 
any 



Radio Show ever Offered 



Eight Afternoons 
Eight Evenings 



Admission 50c 



Business Office: 549 McCORMICK BUILDING 



Phone: WABASH 1844 



Radio Guides Ships 

A loop aerial receives loudest signals 
only when its edge is pointed in the 
exact direction from which the signals 
are being sent. In this way, it is possible 
to tell the exact point of the compass 
from which a station is operating. 

The United States government has 
developed this radio compass principle 
into a complete chain of stations for 
the purpose of giving the captain of a 
ship his exact position whenever he asks 
for it. 

This chain is made up of a series of 
units, each comprising a central station 
and two compass stations. 

Let us suppose that the ship's call 
letters are WIY and that the call letters 
of the control station are NUT. 

The ship desiring to learn her position 
calls NUT and, when NUT answers, 
makes the signal "QTE?" which means 
"What is my position?" 

The station NUT then instructs the 
ship's operator, to make the letter V 
repeatedly for one minute, interpersing 
the letters with its call letters and, at 
the same time, NUT sends instructions 
over the private land wires to the two 
compass stations to listen for these V's 
and take their bearings. 

It is a matter of only a few seconds 
for the compass stations to do this. We 
will assume that the compass station 
to the East finds that WIY's signals 
are coming from 240 degrees and the 
station to the West finds that they are 
coming from 130 degrees. The compass 
stations immediately telegraph over the 



land wires these two bearings, the offi- 
cer in charge of NUT "projects" the 
two bearings on the large chart on his 
table and the point where they cross is 
inevitably the position of the ship. 

Almost before the minute is up this 
ofificer has figured the ship's exact 
latitude and longitude and, as soon as 
WIY has finished his V's, NUT sends 
him by radio his exact position. 

These radio compasses have been de- 
veloped to such an extent that they are 
accurate within one degree and this is 
sufficient for any ship to steer a true 
course down the coast. 

This means that the navigator of to- 
day on the coasts of the United States 
!s independent of fogs or darkness or 
any of the elements which so frequently 
combine to force a skipper to resort to 
the uncertain methods of "dead reckon- 
ing" for days at a time. 



Present Stock O. K. 

E. E. Bucher, general manager of the 
Radio Corporation of America, says no 
discoveries have been made recently 
that revolutionize present radio equip- 
ment. He made the assertion in an 
address to the convention of electrical 
jobbers recently held in Chicago. Many 
jobbers had expressed a fear that their 
stocks might be rendered obsolete on 
account of progress in efficient equip- 
ment. Mr. Bucher told them that 
electrical experts were working ceaselessly 
on new developments but that none 
thus far need lead dealers to junk their 
stock or give it away at a low figure. 



TrainedT^en 



lio is sweeping the country like wild fire. 

Thousands of dollars a^-e being spent for 

expensive outfits. RADIO EXPERTS are needed 

everywhere to keep this equipment in order and to 

sell and install new outfits. 

Be a Radio Expert 

t will train you quickly and easily in your spare 
time, to become a RADIO EXPERT so you can in- 
stall, construct, repair and sell Radio equipment. I 
am a Graduate Electrical Engineer and from 
actual experience I will give you exactly what you 
must know to make the really big money in radio. 
'W9V> V9V9 My Consultation Service to you ia 
Mf MmMBsMSs free. This outside help which 1 
^^ gladly give you is, in itself, worth 
more than the small cost of the Complete Course. 

START NOW 

Don't let others beat you to the big money. Start 
now and within a few weeks' time I will train you 
at home, at anamazinplylowcost, tobecome: 
RADIO EXPERT. Wriic'for "Radio Facts'' 
sent free without obligation. 

A. G. MOHAUPT, Electrical Engineer 
American Electrical Association 

jjeoi til 4!>u iMvenswoOJ Ave. Cnlcago. 



WRITE 
TODAY 




to Radio 
Rins 



Illustrated photo-diagrams and 
prints, with complete working 
drawings and instructions for assembling 
your own radio receiving set from standard parts. MAKE 
YOUK OWN RADIO SET in a few hours' time. So 

simple that ANY 1 2-YEAR-OLD BOY CAN DO IT. 
Write today. You will also receive our literature FREE, 
describing our standard radio parts which we sell you 
direct from the factory at BARGAIN PRICES. 

Metro Electric Co. ^T cll'^l'^t'fiu. 



24 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



Did You Ever Hear of Lightning Striking 

Radio Antennae? 



IT is generally agreed that tele- 
phone wires, electric service 
wires and metal bathtubs con- 
stitute a greater menace from light- 
ning than do outside radio receiving 
aerials. It is best, however, for the 
radio operator to follow the advice 
of the insurance underwriters and 
install a lightning arrester in his 
lead-in. 

Elimination of the outside aerial 
will do away with the possibility 
of danger from lightning. The 
rules laid down by the national 
board of fire underwriters concedes 
this, as they do not regard a receiv- 
ing set with an indoor antenna as a 
hazard. Tentative rules of the 
board are as follows: 

Rule 86 — National Electric Code 
— Radio Equipment. 

(For receiving stations only.) 

Antenna — (a) Antennae outside 
of buildings shall not cross over or 
under electric light or power wires 
of any circuit of more than six 
hundred (600) volts or railway, 
trolley or feeder wires; nor shall it 
be so located that a failure of either 
antenna or the above-mentioned 
electric light or power wires can 
result in a contact between the 
antenna and such electric light or 
power wires. 

Antennae shall be constructed 
and installed in a strong and durable 
manner and shall be so located as to 
prevent accidental contact with 
light and power wires by sagging or 
swinging. 

Splices and joints in the antenna 
span, unless made with approved 
clamps or splicing devices, shall be 
soldered. 

Antennae installed inside of build- 
ings are not covered by the above 
specifications. 

Lead - In Wires — (b) Lead-in 
wires shall be of copper, approved 
copper-clad steel or other approved 
metal which will not corrode ex- 
cessively and in no case shall they 
be smaller than No. 14 B. & S. 
gauge, except that approved copper- 
clad steel not less than No. 17 B. 
& S. gauge may be used. 

Lead-in wires on the outside of 
buildings shall not come nearer than 
four (4) inches to electric light and 
power wires unless separated there- 
from by a continuous and firrnly 
fixed nonconductor that will main- 
tain permanent separation. The 
nonconductor shall be in addition 
to any insulation on the wire. 

Lead-in wires shall enter building 



What Steinmetz Says 

About Radio and 

Lightning: 

T^R. STEINMETZ, who is an 
authority on high power elec- 
trical phenomena, was asked the 
following question during his visit 
to the Radio Congress: 

Question: Dr. Steinmetz, many 
of us have amateur radio receiving 
sets in our homes. We have heard 
rumors that the Underwriters con- 
sider that there is a fire hazard 
because of the antenna and the 
ground connections and that cer- 
tain restrictions may be placed on 
amateur installations. 

Answer: There is no hazard 
in the amateur radio receiving 
station. It involves no fire risk 
nor risk to life. It is merely a 
harmless toy, but is a great deal 
more than a toy. It is one of the 
most valuable developments of 
the last years, by its instructive 
and educational value and the 
recreation and pleasure which it 
supplies. It would, therefore, be 
very regrettable if by a misguided 
public opinion obstructions were 
placed in the way of the fullest and 
freest developments of the amateur 
radio station. With regard to the 
possible lightning risk from the 
grounded antenna, first — the light- 
ning risk in a city is very remote 
in any case and, second — the 
grounded antenna rather acts like a 
lightning rod and exercises a 
protective action against lightning. 
Any danger from the radio power 
received by the amateur station 
obviously is ridiculous when con- 
sidering that the energy of a single 
pound of coal would be more than 
enough to operate the radio re- 
ceiving station continuously for 
over a thousand years. 

From a Statement Issued by 

THE RADIO CORPORATION 
OF AMERICA 



through a noncombustible, nonab- 
sorptive, insulating bushing. 

Protective Device — (c) Each 
lead-in wire shall be provided with 



an approved protective device prop- 
erly connected and located (inside 
or outside the building) as near as 
practicable to the point where the 
wire enters the building. The pro- 
tector shall not be placed in the 
immediate vicinity of easily ignit- 
able stuff, or where exposed to in- 
flammable gases or dust or flyings 
of combustible materials. 

The protective device shall be an 
approved lightning arrester which 
will operate at a potential of five 
hundred (500) volts or less. 

Protective Ground Wire — (d) 
The ground wire may be bare or 
insulated and shall be of copper or 
approved copper-clad steel. If of 
copper the ground wire shall be not 
smaller than No. 14 B. & S. gauge, 
and if of approved copper clad §teel 
shall be not smaller than No. 17 
B. & S. gauge. The ground wire 
shall be run in as straight a line as 
possible to a good, permanent 
ground. Preference shall be given 
to water piping. Gas piping shall 
not be used for grounding protec- 
tive devices. Other permissible 
grounds are grounded steel frames 
of buildings or other grounded 
metallic work in the building and 
artificial grounds such as driven 
pipes, plates, cones, etc. 

The ground wire shall be protect- 
ed against mechanical injury. 

Wires Inside Buildings — (e) 
Wires inside buildings shall be 
securely fastened in a workmanlike 
manner and shall not come nearer 
than two (2) inches to any electric 
light or power wire unless separated 
therefrom by some continuous and 
firmly fixed nonconductor, making 
a permanent separation. This non- 
conductor shall be in addition to 
any regular insulation on the wire. 

Receiving Equipment Ground 
Wire — (f) The ground conductor 
may be bare or insulated and shall 
be of copper, approved copper-clad 
steel or other approved metal which 
shall not corrode excessively under 
existing conditions, and in no case 
shall the ground wire be less than 
No. 14 B. & S. gauge, except that 
approved copper-clad steel not less 
than No. 17 B. & S. gauge may be 
used. 

The ground wire may be run in- 
side or outside of building. When 
receiving equipment ground wire is 
run in full compliance with rules for 
protective ground wire in section 
(d), it may be used as the ground 
conductor for the protective device. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



25 



Get Your 

RADIOAGE 

Free! 

Let us send you for 
one year a radio mag- 
azine that prints ra- 
dio news when it is 
news. 

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yourself, a monthly 
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with best diagram- 
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and the mails bring a 
prompt reply. 

Get all this free for 
one whole year! 

HOW? 

Get two of your friends to 
subscribe to RADIO AGE 
and send their names with 
$4.00 to RADIO AGE and 
we will give you a. yearns 
subscription free. 

Address 

64 West Randolph St. 

Chicago, 111. 



Radio Transmits 
Power 

DISCUSSION by Charles P. 
Steinmetz of radio power 
transmission, as published in the 
September number of Radio Age 
has acquired new interest because 
of recent experiments on the Pa- 
cific Coast in which power was 
transmitted over a distance of eight 
miles. It was the contention of 
Dr. Steinmetz that the probability 
of power transmission by directed 
radio was very small, except in 
special cases where the distances 
were moderate and the efficiency 
of transmission of secondary im- 
portance. 

Wallace E. Vail, President of 
the United States Radio Corpora- 
tion, announces in San Francisco 
that engineers in the service of that 
company have demonstrated the 
feasibility of power transmission 
and that they are now devoting 
their energy toward perfecting the 
apparatus so that results can be 
obtained at great distances. 

Mr. Vail is quoted as saying that 
it was demonstrated that power 
could be directed over electro- 
magnetic waves sufficiently strong 
to be of use for industrial purposes 
and that the experiments proved 
that directed radio could be made 
of tremendous importance in war- 
fare. 

A large ship's bell placed nearly 
a quarter of a mile from the send- 
ing apparatus was rung at will 
during the demonstration. En- 
gineers were unanimous in declaring 
that a powerful weapon will be 
available for the United States 
government when the machine is 
perfected. 

Capable of passing through metal 
and concrete, the power waves 
could be used to explode the am- 
munition magazines of the largest 
battleships, far beyond gunshot of 
the American coast, Mr. Vail de- 
clared. 

Today, in its imperfect state, the 
contrivance has lighted an electric 
light from a distance of eight miles, 
has rung a bell over the same dis- 
tance, and this in spite of the fact 
that no effort has been made to 
focus the radio energy as the in- 
ventor Marconi has recently done. 

Engineers declared that if the 
invention of Marconi could be in- 
corporated in that of the radio con- 
cern, possibly unheard of results 
might be accomplished. 

Mr. Vail today declared that 
applications have been made to 

(Continued on next page.) 



The Combat Radio 
Battery Is The 
Choice Of Experts 



"I have used Combat batteries in 
my work and at school for the past 
10 years and consider them the 
highest type of battery constructed. 
I am now using the Combat Radio 
in my Radio work" — says Frank 
D. Pearne, noted Radio authority 
and teacher. 



CHic c c c a Go — messages like 
that are the great bane of Radio, 
They are caused by voltage varia- 
tion — and the Combat "A" uni- 
form voltage Radio battery cor- 
rects voltage variation. The 
extra-heavy, hand-pasted plates 
in the Combat Radio deliver a 
discharge that is slow and uniform, 
thereby eliminating distorted mes- 
sages. Made exclusively for Radio 
work — if you own a vacuum tube 
set you need it. The Combat 




Radio is built into a handsome 
acid-proof steel case which houses 
the one-piece hard rubber jar. 
Special composition between pro- 
tects against breakage or leakage. 
Patent vent plug allows escape of 
gases but no acids. Well in jar 
insures against spilling while filling 
or charging. Patented non-corrod- 
ing terminals keep your connec- 
tions clean at all times — no short 
circuiting. Fully guaranteed for 
2 years by the manufacturers 
who enjoy reputation of 14 years' 
high-grade battery making. 



SPECIAL OFFER: 5,000 will be sold 
direct to users at factory prices in order 
to introduce. This is an opportunity to 
save money on the best Radio battery 
ever produced. Some Combats have 
given as high as 8 years, continuous 
service. Great length of life more than 
makes up for any difference in price. 
Take advantage of this offer NOW. Act 
Quick to Buy at These Prices. 



Full capacity 6 v., 60 amp $15.25 

Full capacity 6 v., 80 amp 16.85 

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C. O. D. subject to examination 

Territory »till open tor live dealers. 

Commercial Battery Co. 

75759-61 BOSTON AVE. Depl A. CHICAGO 



26 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Biggest College Broadcasting Station 




Coincident with the opening of the college year, a new and u?iique radio broadcasting station, officially listed in the Governmeni 
call book as W H A Z, was opened under the direction of the Electrical Engineering Department of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Insti- 
tute at Troy, New York, and radio receivers from coast to coast may listen-in during the coming season on interesting and entertaining 
programs of a different sort, while the youthful researcher in the field of scientific development, especially along the lines of his favorite 
hobby, may gather much valuable information. This new broadcasting station is the most powerful in an educational institution in this 
country and has a range as great as any continental equipment so far established. In fact, there are only about half a dozen stations 
of such size and power in operation. 

The Troy Polytechnic broadcasting station was made possible through a large gift from Washington A. Roebling, the late Charles 
G. Roebling and John A. Roebling of the John A. Roebling Sons' Company, of Trenton, N. J., all graduates of the Institute who are 
famous as the builders of the Brooklyn Bridge. 



(Continued from page 25.) 

the patent office at Washington 
to protect the transmitter. 

Dr. Steinmetz said last month: 
"Theoretically, this is an interest- 
ing speculation, but whether it 
could ever become a possibility 
would depend on the question, 
whether a radio wave of such length 
could be found as to make the losses 
of power by absorption, etc., econ- 
omically permissible, and whether 
stations for such wave length and 
power would be economically feas- 
ible. Furthermore, it would have 
to be an international development. 
Therefore, even if such radio trans- 
mission by a stationary electro- 
magnetic wave sheet were possible, 
its realization at best is rather 
distant, so that the present outlook 



for radio power transmission is very 
remote." 

Further details of the San Fran- 
cisco experiments will be published 
in the November number of Radio 
Age. 



Entertainment for Campers 

Motorboating has always been 
popular at camps along water fronts, 
but this year the summer colony 
at Oakmont, Pa., where all Pitts- 
burghers find relief from the hot 
offices and streets, had an added 
feature — radio. Here the Allegheny 
River affords an opportunity for this 
rare treat. KDKA, at the West- 
inghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa., 
less than ten miles away, furnishes 
the entertainment. 



One camp, fortunate enough to 
possess a motor boat, has it equipped 
with a loop antenna, and almost any 
time during the afternoon and ere- 
ning baseball scores, latest news, 
market reports, and good music 
is heard while motoring up and down 
the river. 

Another antenna is erected at the 
camp so that the Aeriola, Sr., is 
sometimes taken down to the beach, 
where, during the lazy afternoons 
and evenings, the girls listen in 
on the Fashion Talks and other 
features of particular interest to 
them. 

Send $1.00 to Radio Age, 64 Ran- 
dolph Street, Chicago, and receive 
this middle-west radio periodical 
for six months. Regular subscrip- 
tion price is §2.50 a year. Thus you 
will be getting two months free. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



72 



Wires Join Wireless 

Announcement has been made by 
Edward J. Nally, President of the Radio 
Corporation of America, that an agree- 
ment had been signed between his com- 
pany and the Postal Telegraph- Cable 
Company whereby every office of the 
Postal Company in the United States 
becomes an agency of the Radio Corpora- 
tion for the acceptance of radiograms for 
transmission across the Atlantic Ocean 
and for the delivery of radiograms re- 
ceived from overseas for points in the 
United States. 

This important linking up of radio and 
wire line services reflects the rapid 
growth of the Radio Corporation's 
overseas telegraph traffic since the 
return of its high power stations by 
the Government after the close of the 
World War. 

These stations transmit and receive 
radiograms directly to and from England, 
France, Norway and Germany, and 
through connecting stations abroad, to 
and from all countries in Europe, Asia 
and Africa. 

The Radio Corporation now main- 
tains the only direct line of telegraph 
communication with Germany and Scan- 
dinavia; and additional direct service 
is planned for the near future with Bel- 
gium, Holland, Italy, Poland and Swe- 
den, giving to those peoples the oppor- 
tunity to communicate directly with 
their scattered brethren and nationals in 
all sections of the country. 

Prior to the arrangement made by the 
Radio Corporation of America whereby 
it is enabled to use the extensive land 
line service of the Postal Telegraph Com- 
pany, practically all of the radiograms 
transmitted to transatlantic countries 
originated in New York City and Wash- 
ington, D. C. The contract just signed 
gives to the inland commercial centers 
and the thousands of small points reach- 
ed by the postal system equal facilities 
with those now enjoyed by the eastern 
cities mentioned, the Postal Telegraph 
Company performing the same service for 
radiograms of the Radio Corporation of 
America as it does for cablegrams to be 
transmitted by submarine cable. 

Mr. Nally pointed out that although 
heretofore radiograms received from 
Europe, destined to points inland in the 
United States, had been forwarded over 
telegraph land lines, the complimentary 
service established by the agreement 
with the Postal Company insures prompt 
organized collection as well as distribu- 
tion of radiograms at all points in the 
United States and gives to every sec- 
tion of the country the benefits of the 
phenomenal advances made in recent 
years in the radio art. 

With the coming development of high 
speed wireless telegraphy the new 
arrangement will permit the Radio Cor- 
poration of America to carry out its 
plans for the inauguration of a low rate 
plain language radio letter service to and 
from all points in the United States 
and Europe, thus contributing largely 
to the establishment of closer and 
more friendly relations between the 
peoples of both lands. 

The Radio Corporation's present offices 



in New York, Washington and San 
Francisco for the reception and delivery 
of radiograms will be continued, and its 
plans for the opening of additional offices 
of its own in the more important centers 
from time to time will go forward as the 
growth of business warrants. 

It will be remembered that the Radio 
Corporation of America is the outgrowth 
of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Com- 
pany of America, and was formed after 
the close of the war in response to the 
appeal of Government representatives 
and to the national desire for an American 
owned, controlled and operated radio 
Communication company on a scale equal 
to the task of developing the new art and 
making it of the greatest possible service 
to the American people and the American 
government. 

Radiograms coming over the land 
wires of the Postal Telegraph system from 
all sections of the country will be received 
at the Central Radio office at 64 Broad 
Street, where all the Eastern radio sta- 
tions of the corporation are controlled. 
So far has automatism been carried in 
this new art that a bit of perforated 
paper tape in Broad Street sends a 
message to Europe without the aid of 
human hands, and, at the other end, 
another bit of tape likewise without 
prompting by human operators takes 
the message out of the air and visualizes 
it for the operator with a wavering line 
of blue ink. 



Radio as a Profession 

Much has been read and written in 
regard to the question: What does 
Radio offer as profession to the ambitious 
young man of today? 

Although this is a relatively broad 
subject, still the question can be answered 
in a few words. The only factors that 
limit the heights to which a man can 
climb in Radio, are his pep or enthusiasm, 
and his knowledge of the subject. 

If we recall the early days of the tele- 
phone nnd automobile industries, we 
will remcmlier that similar questions 
were asked at that time. But is there 
any more need now of asking what oppor- 
tunities these, industries offer? Large 
and small fortunes have been reaped by 
the men who had the foresight to get 
started early and grow up as the indus- 
tries developed. 

Radio, however, is moving faster and 
outstripping them all. It is' difficult 
to predict exactly what the future of 
Radio will be, but that we can prepare 
ourselves for some remarkable achieve- 
ments is the warning given by the large 
number of enthusiasts who are now busily 
engaged in furthering its progress. 

It was said that knowledge of the sub- 
ject is one of the two prerequisites a 
man must have in order to attain big 
success in Radio. But where is the man 
to obtain this valuable knowledge? It 
is true that Radio is now being taught 
in many of the schools of the country; 
but these schools are generally located 
in the larger cities, and hence are accessi- 
ble to only a very small percentage of the 
large number of men and boys who are 
(Continued on page 28.) 



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Products 




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The beauty of the outside of this 
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United" Variable Condensers 




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23 plate.. 4.00 

11 plate 3.50 

5 plate 2.75 

3 plate 2.25 

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That"United" Condensers have beoomethe 
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construction and effectiveness. 

Ask your dealer to show you this condenser 
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been accepted as the standard . 




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Any advertised claim of having an 
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United Mfg. & Distributing Co. 

536 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. 



28 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



(Continued from page 27.) 
anxious to learn more about this most 
fascinating subject. How, then, can this 
larger number be served? 

Here is where the Radio correspondence 
school plays its role. With the corre- 
spondence school the mailman brings 
the school to the home instead of the 
man having to go to the school. Having 
his lessons with him all of the time, the 
ambitious learner can devote all spare 
moments of the day toward acquiring 
the desired knowledge. With the im- 
proved methods of instruction, the mod- 
ern correspondence school is now con- 
sidered as efficient as the resident school. 

As an effective correspondence school 
in modern and commercial Radio, we 
can cite the American Electrical Associa- 
tion, located at 4513 Ravenswood Ave., 
Chicago, Illinois. Mr. Arthur G. Mo- 
haupt, who is director of the school, is a 
college trained engineer with a broad 
experience in the engineering and teach- 
ing professions. He gives all his stu- 
dents his personal attention, and in this 
way succeeds in making the home in- 
struction practically as effective as 
actual class room instruction. Mr. 
Mohaupt will gladly answer any ques- 
tions that our readers may have in regard 
to the course or his methods. 



^.fly^y^.,■ , Y|.i■l..■l..M■flvlvlvl^M^■l'/^l^■ l vlv l vl^MV l v l Vlvlv l v l vl'.■l■■■l■.■l^■l^■l^J^lVT■n^^l^^Vl'■M^■lN^lVl^JCTCT»^T^^TCTOlvl■fl^■^ 



NEW BROADCASTING STATIONS 



Club Notes 

On Thursday, September 21, the 
the Radio Club of Illinois enter- 
tained the radio fans of Chicago. 
Many enthusiastic amateurs took 
advantage of the invitation extended 
by the Secretary, John P. Tansey, 
and from noon until midnight, the 
crowds kept coming. They were 
entertained by talks given by Opie 
Read, the well-known journalist and 
lecturer; Alderman Anton J. Cer- 
mak. Chairman of the Committee 
on Compensation; Alderman George 
Maypole; Lucius J. L. Malmin, 



J■>■l■T.l■l.l.l.T■Ll■^■^l■^l■l■l■l.l.^l■^l.^l■l■l.l.l.l■lJ■l■!■l.l■lJ■l.l.l.^l.l■l.l.l.l.lJ■l.l.l.^l.l.lJ■l.^l■l■l.l.l.l.l.^l■l■l.^.l.I.l.l.l.^!.l.l.^lT^l.l^ 

ABBREVIATIONS 

The necessary corrections to the List of Radio Stations of the United States 
and to the International List of Radiotelegraph Stations, appearing in this Bulletin 
under the heading "Alterations and corrections," are published after the stations 
affected in the following order: 

Name = Name of station. 

Loc. = Geographical location: O = west longitude, N = north latitude, 

S = south latitude. 

(Continued on next page.) 

ANNOUNCEMENT 

Subscribers to THE NATIONAL RADIO MAGAZINE are notified 
that with this issue RADIO AGE discontinues distribution to such sub- 
scribers. Although under no obligation to do so, having no connection 
whatever with THE NATIONAL RADIO MAGAZINE, we volunteered 
to send our magazine to National subscribers up to and including October. 

If you like RADIO AGE you will want to continue receiving it. We 
make you this special offer. Sign and return the blank below and receive 
RADIO AGE for six months for only $1 or send $1.50 and receive this 
leading mid-west radio periodical for TWELVE MONTHS. Cut out the 
coupon and send TODAY. 



Die Cast Wood Horn 

(From the American Art Mache Com- 
pany.) 

Our Madera Horn is manufactured by 
breaking down selected wood to its 
original fibre, then compressed with 12 
tons of pressure and 800 degrees of heat 
which produces a wood that is much more 
compact than the original state in which 
it grows. 

Our horns and cabinets have been 
tested by the engineers of all of the lead- 
ing radio concerns in the U. S. Through 
these tests we have gained positive con- 
clusions that the principle of our horn is 
correct and that horns made of metal 
are not logical for clear tones. They 
come fitted with attachments for half 
head sets or single receivers. We can 
furnish the horns without base fitted 
with attachment for any loud speaker 
if you will give us the name; cabinet 
cannot be used for this purpose. 

We have spent considerable time and 
money to perfect this item and judging 
by the replies received from users, 
dealers, jobbers and manufacturers, we 
know that our effort has met with success 



This Coupon and $1 

Cut this out and send to Radio Age, 64 West Randolph Street, Chicago, 
111., and receive this magazine for six months. The regular subscription 
price is $2.50 per year. 



RADIO AGE, 

64 West Randolph Street, Chicago. 

Enclosed find $1 for which please send me Radio Age for six months. 

Name 

Street No 

City '...... 

State _ - - - 



United States Judge of the Virgin 
Isles; U. J. Herrmann; and A. H. 
Kopprasch. 

Paul B. Coats gave a demon- 
stration of the Armstrong super- 
regenerative receiving set. The 
Radio Club of Illinois is located at 
16 East Ontario Street, where many 
entertainments of this kind take 
place and where visitors are wel- 
come. 

Lane Radio Club 

The first meeting of the Lane 
Radio Club was held on Monday, 
September 11, at which new of- 
ficers were elected for the coming 
year, and future plans discussed. 
The membership is comprised of 
students and instructors in Lane 
Technical High School. 



With Pleasure 

We are glad to publish the following 
letter and would like to hear from any 
others who have something to say about 
their radio activities: 

To The Editor: 

In your September issue of Radio 
Age we noticed a list of companies 
featuring free radio concerts at their 
place of business. It is our desire to 
inform you and the public that we also 
offer that service at our store at 6845 
Stony Island Avenue. Accommoda- 
tions have been provided so that 
people interested in radio may be 
comfortably seated at any time of day 
to listen to, inspect or inquire about 
radio. 

MIDLAND RADIO CO., Chicago, 
(R. O. Ogden.) 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



29 



(Continued from page 28.) 

Call = Call letters assigned. 

System = Radio system used and sparks per second. 

Range = Normal range in nautical miles, 

W. 1. = Wave lengths assigned: Normal wave lengths in italics. 

Service = Nature of service maintained: 

PG = General public. 
PR = Limited public. 
RC = Radio compass station. 
P = Private. 

O = Government business exclusively. 
Hours = Hours of operation. 

N = Continuous service. 
X = No regular hours, 
m = a. m. (12m = midday), 
s = p. m. (12s = midnight). 
Rates = Ship or coast charges in cents: c = cents. (The rates in the inter- 

national list are given in francs and centimes.) 
I. W. T. Co. = Independent Wireless Telegraph Co. 
R. C. A. = Radio Corporation of America. 

S. O. R. S. = Ship Owners' Radio Service. 
C. w. = Continuous wave. 

I. c. w. = Interrupted continuous wave. 

V. t. = Vacuum tube. 

FX. = Fixed station. 

Alphabetically by names of cities. 
[.Additions to the List of Radio Stations of the United States, Radio Service Bulletin, edition June 30, 1922.] 



City. 


Call 
signal. 


Allentown, Pa. 


WIAN 

WHAR 

WIAV 

WIAG 

WHAJ 

KFAU 

WIAS 

KFAP 

KFBF 

WJAM 

WKAA 

WHAG 

WHAK 

KDPM 

WHAU 

WHAI 

WJAJ 

WHAP 

KFAT 

WIAC 

KFBD 

KFBB 

KFAR 

WHAX 

WHAY 

WHAH 

WJAC 

WHAL 

WIAU 

KFBA 

WIAX 

WJAB 

WKAC 

WHAS 

WIAQ 

WIAO 

KFAN 

WJAF 


Atlantic City, N. J.._ 

Binghamton, N. Y. 


Birmingham, Ala 


Bluefield, W. Va 


Boise, Idaho.... 


Burlington, Iowa 


Butte, Mont 


Butte, Mont . 


Cedar Rapids, Iowa._ 


Cedar Rapids, Iowa, . 


Cincinnati, Ohio 


Clarksburg, W. Va. 


Cleveland, Ohio.. 


Corinth, Miss. 


Davenport, Iowa 


Dayton, Ohio 


Decatur, III 


Eugene, Oreg 


Galveston, Tex 


Hanford, Calif 


Havre, Mont. . . 


Hollywood, Calif. . 


Holyoke, Mass: 


Huntington, Ind. 


Joplin, Mo 


Joplin, Mo. 


Lansing, Mich. . 


Le Mars, Iowa 


Lewiston, Idaho. 


Lincoln, Nebr. 


Lincoln, Nebr.. 


Lincoln, Nebr. 


Louisville, Ky. 


Marion, Ind.._ 

Milwaukee, Wis. 


Moscow, Idaho 


Muncie, Ind 





City. 


Call 

signal. 


Neenah, Wis... 


WIAJ 


Norfolk, Nebr 


WJAG 


New Orleans, La. 


WIAF 


Newton, Iowa 

Norwood, Ohio 


WIAH 
WIAL 


Ocean City. N. J.. 


WIAD 


Omaha, Nebr 


WIAK 


Paducah, Ky... 


WIAR 


Portland, Me __ 


WJAL 


Reno, Nev. 


KFAS 


Rockford, III... 

Rockford, 111... 

Rochester, N. Y.._ 

Saginaw, Mich. 


WIAB 
WJAH 
WHAM 
WIAW 


San Antonio, Tex. 


WJAE 


San Diego, Calif... 

San Jose, Calif. 


KFBC 
KFAQ 


San Luis Obispo, Calif. 


KFBE 


Santa Ana, Calif. 


KFAW 


Savannah, Ga.._ 

Seattle, Wash. .. — - 


WHAO 
KDZT 


Springfield, Mass. 


WIAP 


Springfield, Mo... 

Stockdale, Ohio 


WIAI 
WJAK 




KFBG 


Tampa, Fla... 


WHAW 
WIAT 


Troy N. Y. 


WHAZ 


Venice, Calif. 


KFAV 




WIAE 


Waco Tex. 


WJAD 


Washington, D. C. 


WHAQ 


Washington, D. C 


WlAY 




WIAA 


Wichita, Kans 


WHAN 


Wichita Falls, Tex 


WKAF 


Wilmington, Del. 


WHAV 


Yale, Okla... 


WHAT 



List of stations broadcasting market or weather reports (485 meters) and music, concerts, 

lectures, etc. (360 meters), alphabetically by call letters. 
[Additions to the List of Radio Stations of the United States, Radio Service Bulletin, edition June 30, 1922.] 



Call 
signal. 


Station operated and controlled by — 


Location of station. 


Wave 
lengths. 


KDPM 
KDZT 


Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co 

Seattle Radio Association. 


Cleveland, Ohio __ , 

Seattle, Wash... 


360 
360 


KFAN 


The Ele«tric Shop.. . 


Moscow, Idaho ... 


360 


KFAP 


Standard Publishing Co 

City of San Jose 


Butte, Mont 


360 


KFAQ 


San Jose, Calif... . 


360 


KFAR 
KFAS 
KFAT 


Studio Lighting Service Co. (O. K. Olesen)... 

Reno Motor Supply Co... 

S. T. Donohue 


Hollywood, Calif., 1645 Hudson Avenue... 

Reno, Nev... 

Eugene, Ore., 681 Willamette Street 

Boise, Idaho . . 


360 
360 
360 


KFAU 


Boise High School, independent school dis- 
trict of Boise City. 
Cooke & Chapman 


360, 485 


KFAV 


Venice, Calif. 


360 


KFAW 
KFBA 


The Radio Den 

Ramey & Bryant Radio Co 

F. A. Buttrey & Co 


Santa Ana, Calif 

Lewiston, Idaho,. 


360 
360 


KFBB 




360 


KFBC 


W. K. Azbill. 


San Diego, Calif., 5038 Cliff Place 


360 


KFBD 


Clarence V. Welch . 


Hanford, Calif., 315 North Douty^Street 
San Luis Obispo, Calif 


360 


KFBE 


Reuben H. Horn 


360 


KFBF 
KFBG 


Butte School of Telegraph (F. H. Smith) 

First Presbyterian Church. 


Butte, Mont „ 

Tacoma, Wash. 


360 
360 


WH.-^G 


University of Cincinnati 


Cincinnati, Ohio 


360 



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RADIO MAILING LISTS 

D270 Retail Radio Dealers price per M. $ 7.50 

1104 Radio Manufacturers price per List (0.00 

1330 Radio Supply ,Iobber3....prlce per List 12.50 
267 Assemblers & Mfgrs. of complete 

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260 Radio Stations price per List 4.00 

14000 Radio Amateurs & Managers of Radio 

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30 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



How to Make an Audio Fre- 
quency Amplifying 
Transformer 

(Continued from page 12.) 
so that the brass clamps which are 
to hold the core together will come 
up flush. If this has been correctly 
finished, it will look like the draw- 
ing, Figure 9. 

Care should be taken, when the 
core iron is being placed inside the 
tube, to see that the wires of the 
coil come out on the proper sides. 
The two wires of the inside coil 
should come out on one side (the 
flat side) of the core, and the ends 
of the other coil should come out 
on the other side as shown in Figure 
14. Next make the brass clamps, 
which hold the transformer together. 
To do this, cut out two pieces of 
brass one-sixteenth of an inch thick, 
in the shape and size shown in Fig- 
ure 10. These are to be placed on 
each side of the finished core, to hold 
it together. Cut out the large square 
hole in the center by drilling holes 
close together around the edge and 
then cutting the whole piece out 
with a cold-chisel, and finally dress- 
ing it to size with a file. The holes, 
through which the screws are to be 
placed, are drilled with a Number 18 
drill. The flanges should be turned 
over at the bottom to make the feet 
on which the transformer is to stand. 
As these flanges are to serve as a 
mounting on a panel or base, they 
should also be drilled to allow screws 
to pass through and fasten them 
down. 

Two pieces of hard rubber, or 
fiber, one-eighth inches thick, are 
next to be cut out as shown in Figure 
11. These are used for the purpose 
of mounting the binding posts, to 
which the terminals of the coil are 
connected, when the transformer is 
completed. The location and size of 
these holes are plainly shown in the 
drawing. Next, four brass bush- 
ings of the size shown in Figure 12 
are made. This can be done by 
cutting off four pieces of brass tub- 
ing one-fourth of an inch in length, 
and having a hole through the cen- 
ter, large enough to accommodate 
the 8-32 screws which are to be used 
for holding the transformer together. 

These brass bushings are placed 
under the hard rubber strips to set 
them out one-fourth of an inch, to 
prevent the screws of the binding 
posts coming in contact with the 
metal parts of the transformer. 
Now, from a piece of thin brass, cut 
out four small connectors as shown 
in Figure 13. These need not be 
more than one-thirty-second pf an 
inch thick, and are to be placed un- 
der the screws of the binding posts to 
allow for soldering the terminals of 
the coil as shown in Figure 14. 
(Continued on page 31.) 



WHAH 

WHAI 

WHAJ 

WHAK 

WHAL 

WHAM 

WHAN 

WHAO 

WHAP 

WHAQ 

WHAR 

WHAS 

WHAT 

WHAU 

WHAV 

WHAW 

WHAX 

WHAY 

WHAZ 

WIAA 

WIAB 

WIAC 

WIAD 

WIAE 

WIAF 

WIAG 

WIAH 

WIAI 

WIAJ 

WIAK 

WIAL 

WIAN 

WIAO 

WIAP 

WIAQ 

WIAR 

WIAS 

WIAT 

WIAU 

WIAV 

WIAW 

WIAX 

WIAY 

WJAB 

WJAC 

WJAD 

WJAE 

WJAF 

WJAG 

WJAH 

WJAJ 

WJAK 

WJAL 

WJAM 

WKAA 

WKAC 

WKAF 



John T. Griffin.. _ 

Radio Equipment & Mfg. Co J 

Bluefield Daily Telesrapii and E. K. Kitts 

Roberts Hardware Co 

Piiillips Jeffery & Derby._ 

University*of Rochester 

Southwestern Radio Co 

Frederic A. Hill 

Dewey L. Otta._ „ 

Semmes Motor Co 

Paramount Radio & Electric Co 

Courier- Journal and Louisville Times 

Yale Democrat-Yale Telephone Co 

Corinth Radio Supply Co 

Wilrainpton Electrical Specialty Co 

Pierce Electrical Co 

Holyoke Street Ry. Co 

Huntington Press _ 

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. . 

Waupaca Civic and Commerce Association 

Joslyn Automobile Co._ 

Galveston Tribune _ „ 

Ocean City Yacht Club 

Mrs. Robert E. Zimmerman 

Gustav A. De Cortin „ 

Matthews Electrical Supply Co 

Continental Radio & Mfg. Co 

Heer Stores Co 

Fox River Valley Radio Supply Co 

Joumal-Stockman Co 

Standard Service Co 

Chronicle & News Publishing Co 

School of Engineering of Milwaukee and Wis- 
consin News. 

Radio Development Corp 

Chronicle Publishing Co 

J. A. Rudy & Sons „. 

Burlington Hawkeye & Home Electric Co 

Leon T. Noel „ 

American Trust and Savings Bank. 

New York Radio Laboratories 

Saginaw Radio & Electric Co _ 

Capitol Radio Co. (Paul C. Rohwer) 

Woodward & Lothrop 

American Radio Co _ 

RedellCo... „ _ 

Jackson's Radio Engineering Laboratories-.. 

Texas Radio Syndicate 

Munsey Press.. 

Norfolk Daily News (Huse Publishing Co.).. 

Central Park Amusement Co 

Y. M. C. A 

White Radio Laboratory 

Victor Radio Corp 

D. M. Perham 

Republican Times and H. F. Paar 

Star Publishing Co „. 

W. S. Radio Supply Co.._ „. 



Joplin. Mo., 112 West Sixth Street 

Davenport, Iowa,. „ 

Bluefield. W. Va „ _ 

Clarksburg, W. Va 

Lansing, Mich 

Rochester, N. Y 

Wichita, Kans 

Savannah, Ga _ _. 

Decatur, 111.. 659 West Eldorado Street... 

Washington. D. C „ „ 

Atlantic City, N. J 

Louisville, Kv.._ _ 

Yale, Okla „ 

Corinth, Miss _. 

Wilmington, Del 

Tampa, Fla 

Holyoke, Mass -. 

Huntington, Ind,.- 

Troy, N. Y „... 

Waupaca, Wis 

Rockford, 111 

Galveston, Texas 

Ocean City, N. J 

Vinton, Iowa.. 



New Orleans, La., 139 North Alexander 
Street. 

Birmingham, Ala 

Newton, Iowa 

Springfield, Mo... 

Neenah, Wis 

Omaha, Nebr 

Nor«'Ood, Ohio 

AUentown, Pa 

Milwaukee, Wis 



Springfield, Mass.. 

Marion, Ind 

Paducah, Ky... 



Burlington, Iowa 

Tarkio, Mo 

Le Mars, Iowa._ 

Binghamton, N. Y 

Saginaw, Mich 

Lincoln, Nebr _ _ 

Washington, D. C 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Joplin, Mo 

Waco, Texas _ 

San Antonio, Texas 

Munsey, Ind .. 

Norfolk, Nebr _ 

Rockford, 111 

Dayton, Ohio 

Stockdale, Ohio! 

Portland, Me 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Wichita Falls, Texas 



360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 

360, 485 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 

360. 485 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 

360 
360 
360 
360 
360, 485 
360 
360 
360 

360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 
360 



Commercial land, stahons. 

[Additions to the List of Radio Stations of the United States, edition of June 30, 1922, and to the Interna- 
tional List of Radiotelegraph Stations published by the Berne bureau.l 



Station. 


Call 
signal. 


Wave lengths. 


Ser\'ice. 


Hours. 


Station controlled by — 

1 


Chicago, Ill.>._ 

Kanatak, Alaska'.. 

Pittsburgh, Pa.' 


WQX 
KGC 
KQV 
KRP 


140 _ 

300, 525, 600, 1625 

200, 425 

300, <500._ 


PR(FX) 

PR(FX) 

PR(FX 

PG 


X 
X 
X 


Walter A. Kuehl. 
Associated Oil Co. 
Doubleday-Hill Electric Co. 


Port Townsend, Wash.' 


Port Townsend Radio Co. 









Loc. (approximately) 0.87° 37' 00", N. 41° 53' 00"; range, 50; rates, none. 

2 Loc. (approximately) 0.157° 39' 30", N. 57 42' 00"; range. 300; system, KJlbourne & Clark, 1000; rates, 
none. 

» Loc. (approximately) 0.80° 20' 00", N. 40° 20' 00"; range, 200; system, composite, v. t., telephone, and 
telegraph; rates, none. 

* Loc.0.122°46'02",N."48°07'01"; range, 300; system, composite, 250; hours,12 noon to 11 p. m.; rates, 
ship service, 6 c. per word. 



Alphabetically by call signals, 
[h = ship station;"c = land station.] 



Call 
signal. 



KGC 
KQV 



Name. 



Kanatak, Alaska c 

Pittsburgh, Pa.. -. c 



Call 
signal. 



KRP 

WQX 



Name. 



Port Townsend, Wash c 

Chicago, 111 c 



Government land stations, alphabetically by names of stations. 

'.Additions to the List of Radio Stations of the United States, edition of June 30, 1922, and to the Interna- 
tional List of Radiotelegraph Stations published by the Berne bureau.] 



Station. 


Call 

signal. 


Wave lengths. 


Serv- 
ice. 


Hours 


Station controlled 
by— 


Bethel Alaska 


WVI 
NAQ 
WYAO 








U. S. Army. 


Jupiter, Fla. (RC)'.... 

Selfridge Field, Mich. 

(Mount Clemens). 


800 


RC 


X 


U. S. Navy. 




U. S. Army. 











' Loc. 0.80° 04' 57", N. 26° 56' 59"; range, ISO; system, U. S. Navy. 

(Continued on page 32.) 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



31 



Radio Corporation Election CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 



Edward J. Nally, president of the 
Radio Corporation of America, an- 
nounces that at a meeting of the Board 
of Directors of the Radio Corporation of 
America, held September 8, Mr. SarnoflF 
was elected Vice President and General 
Manager of this corporation. 

Mr. Sarnoff is probably one of 
America's youngest executives, being 
only thirty-two years old. He has been 
associated with radio for more than six- 
teen years, and with the Radio Corpora- 
tion of America since its organization. 
An early exponent of the modern radio 
broadcasting idea, Mr. SarnofT is today 
considered one of the foremost workers 
of the radio industry. His activities 
have been marked by ever increasing 
achievements as an executive of unusual 
ability. 

At this same meeting, Mr. William 
Brown was elected to the office of Vice 
President and General Attorney. Mr. 
Brown has been connected with the 
Radio Corporation of America for a 
number of years, during which time he 
has handled many of the important legal 
matters that have been incidental to rapid 
growth of this organization. 

Mr. Nally, who sailed for Europe on 
September 9, on the Homeric, while 
abroad will visit England, France, Ger- 
many, Holland, Norway, Poland and 
Sweden. 

Mr. Nally states that his company 
recently concluded contracts with the 
governments of Poland and Sweden for 
the building of high-power radio stations 
to be used for direct duplex radio tele- 
graph service between these countries 
and the United States, thus adding two 
additional radio circuits to the five 
already in successful operation between 
the United States and foreign countries. 

The transocean telegraph traffic of the 
Radio Corporation, Mr. Nally states, is 
growing at a very gratifying rate. The 
world-wide recognition being accorded 
noteworthy scientific and commercial 
radio developments in the United States 
is giving to America a larger sphere in the 
affairs of international communication. 



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Announcement 

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Discounts very attractive to job- 
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How to Make an Audio Fre- 
quency Amplifying 
Transformer 

(Continued from page 30.) 

These binding posts may consist of 
plain brass machine screws and a 
nut. The connectors are mounted 
on the hard rubber pieces before 
the transformer is assembled. 

To assemble the transformer, the 
top screws are first put through the 
holes in the hard rubber piece on one 
side, then a bushing placed on each 
of the screws, then the screws are 
put through the holes in the frame 
on one side and then through the 
frame on the other side. The other 
two bushings are next slipped over 
the screws and the other hard rubber 
terminal strip is placed in position 
and the whole is fastened together. 
The screws should not be drawn up 
too tight, as this might bend the 
frame out of shape, but it should be 
held together fairly tight. The fin- 
ished transformer is shown in Fig- 
ure 14. 



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32 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



Announcing 



The Second 

NATIONAL 

RADIO 

EXPOSITION 

1st Regiment Armory 

CHICAGO 
JAN. 13 to 20 

1923 (inch) 

to be conducted along the 
same successful lines as was 
the National Show held in 
Chicago last June. 

January is the ideal month 
for perfect radio re- 
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WRITE TODAY 
for Diagram 



Second 
National 
Radio 
Exposition 

417 S. DEARBORN ST. 

CHICAGO 



(Continued from page 30.) 

Special land stations, alphabetically by names of stations. 
[Additions to theXist of Radio Stations of the United States, edition of June 30, 1922.] 



Station. 


Call 
signal. 


Wave lengths. 


Station controlled by — 


Birmingham, Ala. 


SXAG 

7YP .... 

7YJ 

5ZAH 

5ZY 

9XW 

8XY 

7XL 

4YC 

3XAH 

7YO 

2XAP 


200, 375 


Matthews Klectrical Supply Co. 


Butte, Mont 


200, 375 


Butte College of Telegraphy (F. H. Smith). 


Corvallis, Oreg 


200. 375 


Oregon Agricultural College, department of physics. 
Fort Worth Record. 


Fort Worth, Texas 


200, 375._ 


Do 


200. 375 


Fort Worth Star Telegram. 


Galesburg, 111. _ 


200. 250, 375 _. 

Variable.^ . 


Lombard College. 


Pittsburgh, Pa. 


West Penn Power Co. 


Portland, Oreg 


250-1650 

200, 375 


Northwestern Electric Co. 


Raleigh, N. C. 


North Carolina State College (electrical engineering 


Reading, Pa 


200 


department). 
Donald B. Heilman, 54 South Sixth Street. 


Tacoma, Wash. . 


200. 375 


Tacoma City College. 


Troy, N. Y.. 


Variable 


Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 









Special land stations, grouped by districts. 



Call 




Call 




signal. 


District and station. 


signal. 


District and station. 


2XAP 


Second district Troy, N. Y. 




Seventh district: 


3XAH 


Third district: Reading, Pa. 


7XL 


Portland, Oreg. 


4YC 


Fourth di-^trict: Raleigh, N. C. 


7YJ 


Corvallis, Oreg. 




Fifth district: 


7YO 


Tacoma, Wash. 


5XAG 


Birmingham, Ala. 


7YP 


Butte, Mont. 


SZAH 


Fort Worth, Tex. 


8XY 


Eighth district: Pittsburgh, Pa. 


5ZY 


Do 


9XW 


Ninth district: Galesburg, 111. 



Alterations and Corrections 

Broadcasting stations, by call signals. 
[Alterations and corrections to be made to the List of Radio Stations of the United 

States, edition of June 30, 1922.] 
KDN (San Francisco, Calif.). — Address Fairmont Hotel. 
KQP (Hood River, Oreg.).— W. 1., 360 only. 
WAAW (Omaha, Nebr.).— W. 1., 360, 485. 
WBAJ (Toledo, Ohio).— W. 1., 360, 485. 
WBAV (Columbus, Ohio).— W. 1., 360, 485. 

WCAD (Canton, N. Y.). — Erroneously given in June Bulletin as Canton, Ohio. 
WGV (New Orleans, La.).— W. 1., 360. 485. 
WSY (Birmingham, Ala.). — Hours, 2:30 p. m. except Sunday and 8 p. m. every day. 

Special land stations, by names of stations. 

I Alterations and corrections to be made to the List of Radio Stations of the United 
States, edition of June 30, 1922.] 

Ashland, Ohio (8ZN). — Address 208 Claremont Avenue. 

Boulder, Colo. (9XAQ). — Station operated and controlled by University of Colo- 
rado (department of electrical engineering). 

Cambridge, Mass. (1X0). — Address 11 Windsor Street. 

Chicago, III. (9XG).— W. 1., 200, 375; address, 4601 North Central Park Avenue. 

Denver, Colo. (9ZAG). — Address 1124 South University Street. 

Hamilton, Ohio (8XAG).— W. 1., 200, 275, 375; address 325 North B Street. 

Kansas City, Mo. (9XAB). — W. 1., 200, 500; station operated and controlled by 
Western Radio Co., 6 West Fourteenth Street. 

Kansas City, Mo. (9XK). — Address 3525 Walnut Street. 

La Crosse, Wis. (9ZY). — Address 241 South Seventeenth Street. 

Lansing, Mich. (8XM). — Call signal erroneously given as 8ZF in June Bulletin. 

Little Rock, Ark. (5ZL). — -Address 1301 Welch Street. 

Los Angeles, Calif. (6XAQ). — Address 140 South O.xford Street. 

Madison, Wis. (9XM). — W. 1., 375, variable; station operated and controlled by 
University of Wisconsin (department of physics). 

Minneapolis, Minn. (9X1).— W. 1., 200, 375, 1100, 2000. 

Napa, Calif. i6ZAD).— Read Sunnyvale, Calif., P. O. Box 391. ' 

New Orleans, La. (5XH). — Address of owner 131 State Street, Boston, Mass. 

Oakland, Calif. (6XAJ). — -Address Hotel Oakland. 

Parkesburg, Pa. (3XW).— W. 1., 375, 2500, variable. 

Philadelphia, Pa. (3XC).— W. 1., 400, 425; address, 2046 Arch Street. 

Philadelphia, Pa. (3XV).— W. 1., 200, 250, variable; address, 5847 Ellsworth Street. 

Port Arthur, Tex. (5XV). — W. 1., 200, 225, 250, variable; station operated and 
controlled by Louis W. Hatry, 2048 Fifth Street. 

Portland, Oreg. (7ZB). — Address 555 East Forty-fourth Street North. 

Portland, Oreg. (7ZT). — Address 967 Vernon Avenue. 

San Francisco, Calif. (6XX). — Address 433 California Street. 

South Pasadena, Calif. (6XAS).— W. 1., 200, 260, variable. 

Urbana, III. (9XJ).— W. 1., 375, variable. 

Washington, D. C. (3XZ).— W. !., 175, 200. 260, 330; address, 542 Irving Street. 



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Radio Age 
institute 

To insure 100% value to readers of advertise- 
ments, as well as 100% value to the advertisers 
themselves, radio equipment is now being tested 
and indorsed by the 

RADIO AGE INSTITUTE 

64 WEST RANDOLPH STREET 
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No charge is made for testing and approval, 
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RADIO AGE 

The Magazine of the Hour 



Volume 1 



Number 6 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Broadcasters Form National League — 3 

How to Add One Step of Radio and One Step of 

Audio Frequency to the Reinartz Tuner 5 

By Frank D. Pearne 

Photo-Electric Detector Tubes 7 

I By H. a. Brown and Dr. C. T. Knipp 

Design of a Portable Short-Wave Radio Wave- 
meter 9 

By Bureau of Standards Experts 

Radio Frequency Amplification 10 

By Charles Kilgour 

How to Construct a Good Reinartz Set 11 

Public Education in Radio Urged..... 15 

By George R. Holmes 

Tube Set Operates Across Atlantic 16 

Thought Waves From the Editorial Tower 17 

By Frederick Smith 

News of the Broadcasters 19 

With the Radio Trade :.... 21 

Pick-UpjRecords by Our Readers 22 

Questions and Answers 23 

New Broadcasting Stations ...29-32 



Radio Age is published monthly by 
RADIO AGE, Inc. 



Publication office, Mount Morris, 111. 

Editorial and Advertising Offices, Garrick Building, 64 W. 

Randolph St., Chicago. 



Frederick Smith, Editor 

Frank D. Pearne, Technical Editor 

M. B. Smith, Business Manager 

Mid- West Advertising Representatives: 
YOUNG & WARD 
308 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, II 

Eastern Representative: 

GEO. W. STEARNS 

Flatiron Building, New York City, N. Y. 



Advertising Forms Close on 19th of the Month 
Preceding Date of Issue. 

Issued monthly. Vol. 1, No. 6 Subscription price $2. SO a year. 

Entered as second-class matter September IS, 1922, at the post office at Mount 

Morris, Illinois, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



The Time Has Come to 

Stop Kidding 

Ourselves 

T^T^E ask broadcasters, owners of 
receiving sets, and manufactur- 
ers of radio equipment to give their 
earnest attention to the contents of 
this number of RADIO AGE. More 
than 500 broadcasting stations in the 
United States are beginning to won- 
der where and when they will get a 
return on their heavy investment. 
All these stations are confronted with 
the additional problem of interference 
in the air, in many localities this 
interference being persistent enough 
to practically nullify all efforts at 
transmission. Manufacturers of radio 
equipment are beginning to wonder 
where they will find a market for 
their goods if broadcasting becomes 
so disorganized that the fan will have 
no incentive to continue listening in. 

This brings up the question as to 
the attitude and the rights of the 
hundreds of thousands of radio en- 
thusiasts who have invested millions 
of dollars in radiophone receiving 
outfits. They bought their receiving 
sets on the presumption that satis- 
factory broadcasting was to be main- 
tained. 

Radio is on trial before the Amer- 
ican public. Broadcasters have 
formed a National League and are 
preparing to meet the situation. 
Meanwhile needed legislation is tabled 
in Washington. Owners of stations 
are forced to consider the possibility 
that a monopoly will strive to take 
broadcasting service off their hands. 
Radio business has not come back 
as it was expected to do. 

We are printing pages of news and 
views on this situation in this number 
of RADIO AGE. Every person, ser- 
iously interested in the advancement 
of Radio Art and of Radio Business 
should read every line of it.— The 
EDITOR. 



Copyright. 1922, by RADIO AGE, Inc. 




Loud-Speaking horn, used by city of Chicago in mag- 
nifying speeches and concerts at Pageant of Progress. 
Picture shows horn's size as compared with a man. 
(By courtesy of Greater Chicago Magazine) 



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RADIO JIGE 



_ ^ ' Tfie Ma^a^ine of tfte Hour 



■-/ 



PUBLISHED MONTilLY GAI^RICK BLDG CHGO. 



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I I M I I I 1 ! I I I I I M M I I I M M I I I I I M M I M L M M M I I I I I M I I I \ I M M I I M 1 I 1 I I I I U n M I 1 M I n M M 1 I U I M M I I I 1 I M I I I I I II I 1 I, I M M I M I I I IT- 



Broadcasters Form National League 



ORGANIZATION of the radio 
broadcasting interests of the 
country jor and by themselves 
was accomplished in Chicago on 
October 16, when owners represent- 
ing many of the more important 
stations assembled and launched the 
National Broadcasters' League. It 
is expected that the league eventu- 
ally will include on its membership 
rolls practically all of the broadcast- 
ing station owners in the United 
States and Canada. 

The purpose in organizing, as 
explained by speakers at the Chicago 
meeting, lies primarily in effecting 
a means of interchange of views and 
news between broadcasters. The 
general plan of the league might be 
condensed into the following outline: 

1. To protect heavy investments 
owners of stations already have 
made and to find ways and means 
of obtaining some tangible return 
on that investment. 

2. To establish a clearing house 
for information of value to all 
broadcasting station owners, so that 
they may be informed promptly of 
developments as to radio legisla- 
tion ; that they may work as a body 
for the elimination of interference 
in the broadcasting of programs; Xsx 
improve programs; to present a 
united front against those persons 
and combinations of persons who 
are attempting to prey upon broad- 
casters; to convince the public and 
the government generally of the 
important position and strength of 
the broadcasting interests. 

George S. Walker, President of 
the Western Radio Corporation, 
Denver, Colo., and owner of station 
KFAF, was elected president of the 
League. Arthur H. Ford, Professor 
of Electrical Engineering at the 
State University of Iowa, Iowa 
City, was made first vice-president. 
W. J. Baldwin, of the Alabama 
Power Company, Birmingham, Ala., 
was elected second vice-president. 



and Frederick A. Smith, of Radio 
Age, Inc., was chosen for secretary. 
Directors will include: Frank W. 
Elliott, woe, Davenport, Iowa; 
T. B. Hatfield, Hatfield Electric 
Co., Station WOH; T. W. Findley, 
Minneapolis, Minn., Station WLAG, 
and owners of stations on the 
Atlantic and Pacific coasts and in 
the South. 

It was decided to make the mem- 
bership fee $10 a year, this nominal 
sum to be disbursed for postage, 
stationery and printing and distri- 
bution to all broadcasters of the 
periodical bulletins of importance 
to station owners. A complete 
view of the activities of the League 
will be published monthly in this 
magazine, which will give space for 
discussion of new problems by all 
or any members of the League who 
wish to thus communicate with 
their associates. 

Executive offices of the League 
are located in the Garrick Building, 
Chicago, 111., where communica- 
tions from members or any others 
interested should be addressed. 

From the outset the Chicago 
meeting made it apparent that 
broadcasters desired an association 
which should not be identified with 
any other radio organization. Co- 
operation, where cooperation was 
decided to be desirable, was gen- 
erally agreed to be the purpose of 
the broadcasters. But the speak- 
ers were definite in their expressed 
opinion that the League should 
admit none but a broadcaster to 
membership and that it should not 
affiliate with any other radio group, 
whether manufacturers, tradesmen, 
or whatnot. 

The meeting was called to order 
by Mr. Smith, who briefly explained 
that he had been asked by important 
broadcasting interests to bring about 
such a meeting. He said there were 
many problems confronting broad- 
casters at this time and that the 



interest in forming a union of 
station owners was evidenced by 
the large number of letters from 
station owners who could not be 
present but who wrote enthusiastic 
commendation of the plan and 
volunteered their services in making 
the organization a power for mutual 
progress and protection. News- 
papers all over the country, having 
broadcasting stations in connection 
with their plants, were particularly 
quick to respond to the suggestion 
that a League was necessary. 

Frank W. Elliott, member of the 
Iowa legislature, and vice president 
of the Palmer School of Chiro- 
practic, at Davenport, Iowa, was 
made temporary chairman of the 
meeting. Mr. Elliott expressed the 
opinion that one of the most im- 
portant subjects for discussion was 
that of interference. 

T. B. Hatfield, of WOH, said: 

"We are WOH of Indianapolis, 
Hatfield Electric Co. We have been 
broadcasting since March of this 
year. Our two problems are: First, 
Interference, on which something 
certainly must be done through an 
organization of this kind. I am here 
without any definite idea as to how 
the interference problem may be 
solved, but am eager to listen to 
whatever information we may get. 

"Second: We are a commercial 
organization and it is costing us a 
pretty penny per month to run ou*- 
broadcasting station, on which we 
get very little returns, unless adver- 
tising may count as such. But if 
we count advertising it is still cost- 
ing us a great deal for that adver- 
tising. I am in favor of seeking 
some way of getting some return 
for our outlay. But primarily the 
thing to do is to find out how we 
can help each other to clean out the 
interference." 

T. W. Findley, Station WLAG, 
Minneapolis, said: 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



"I bring to you a message from 
Prof. Jansky, of the University of 
Minnesota, who was one of the 
members of the Hoover committee 
which drafted the Kellogg-White 
bill. Here is Professor Jansky's 
letter, in part: 

" 'Radio traffic is being regulated 
by the Department of Commerce, 
under the law of 1912. The Depart- 
ment is to a certain extent, handi- 
capped by a lack of funds and 
personnel. To my mind the situa- 
tion may best be remedied by early 
consideration of the Kellogg-White 
bill, which was prepared by the 
radio conference to give the Depart- 
ment of Commerce necessary author- 
ity to handle the present situation. 

" 'The Department, under the 
present law, must proceed very 
slowly. The assignment of a wave 
band for broadcasting service in 
place of two single wave lengths 
will do much to prevent interference 
between stations. You can readily 
see that the allocation of wave 
lengths will be a very difficult one.' " 

Mr. Findley went on to say that 
various men selected by Secretary 
Hoover to draft this bill spent a 
great deal of time on it. There has 
been opposition to the bills but Mr. 
Findley said Professor Jansky was 
convinced it was a step in the right 
direction. 

It was suggested by the speaker 
that station owners broadcast a 
summary of the bill to their audi- 
ences and ask for expressions of 
opinion on the bill from the listen- 
ers. He urged that the users of 
receiving sets be enlisted in a move 
to induce congressmen to have 
the bill brought before the house 
without further delay. He said that 
some persons believed nothing could 
be accomplished until the senators 
got back to Washington but he dis- 
puted this, saying that the time to 
show the national legislators what 
was needed and what was wanted, 
was right now, so that when they 
returned to Washington they would 
be ready to act. 

The bill referred to is the Kellogg- 
White radio bill, Senate Bill No. 
3694. It was introduced April 20 
and referred to a Senate committee 
on interstate commerce and to the 
House committee. 

"This will slumber on the tables 
of the committee," said Mr. Find- 
ley, "unless the broadcasters get 
busy and bring about some action 
on it." 

Ralph C. Watrous, former Gover- 
nor of Rhode Island, representing 

(Note — The Kellogg-White bill was 
published in full in the September 
issue of Radio Age.) 



the National Radio Chamber of 
Commerce, spoke next. Mr. Wat- 
rous explained that the Chamber 
was interested only in the common 
interest of all elements in the radio 
art. He said that only persons who 
would quarrel with the Chamber 
was one who had some selfish inter- 
est to promote. Mr. Watrous ad- 
vised those present to get together 
for discussion and solution of the 
interference problem and other diffi- 
culties. He suggested a national 
conference. It was apparent that 
Mr. Watrous believed it would be 
best for the broadcasters to affiliate 
with the Chamber of Commerce, 
but when outspoken opposition to 
such a plan was expressed, he said 
that he hoped the League about to 
be formed would cooperate with the 
Chamber and that the Chamber 
would be glad to serve the broad- 
casters. 

Radio Inspector E. A. Beane, of 
the Ninth District, next addressed 
the meeting on the subject of inter- 
ference. As he is the air policeman 
for a territory covering an immense 
territory, his version of the inter- 
ference situation was awaited with 
interest. 

"It seems to me," he said, "that 
the only solution to local interfer- 
ence is the making of a definite 
program for each station and this 
can be done through organization. 
The plan I favor is to arrange a 
program of six days a week for each 
broadcasting locality. The seventh 
day would be called a "silent day" 
or "silent night" and on that night 
all broadcasting and local com- 
munications would cease, giving the 
listeners with the better class of 
equipment a chance to receive pro- 
grams from a longer distance. 

"The next night you would be 
in the air when some other location 
is silent and your broadcasting gets 
across. You can go to the amateur 
and say you are arranging a silent 
night to permit those with receiving 
outfits to listen in to outside con- 
certs. If the amateurs will agree 
to stand by every night during your 
general broadcasting program from 
7 to 10:30 o'clock you will stand by 
and give them a chance to send and 
receive long distance work. 

"In Louisville we put such an 
arrangement through in a few hours' 
time. A committee was asked to 
take care of all complaints. I be- 
lieve your organization should in- 
corporate such a plan in your work. 
The public should be educated in 
the proper use of apparatus." 

Thorne Donnelley, Station WD 
APF, Chicago, expressed the opin- 
ion that one national organization 
should assume the work outlined by 



the extra speakers. George Lewis, 
Secretary of the National Radio 
Chamber of Commerce, brought up 
the question of what rights, if any, 
owners of copyrights on music and 
songs had in the way of taxing 
broadcasters of such musicand songs. 
C. B. Cooper, secretary of the 
Broadcasters Society of America, 
told how that body of a few eastern 
broadcasters had found difficulty 
in eliminating interference in New 
York. 

George S. Walker said : 
"We are broadcasting out in 
Denver at a great expense. I am 
wondering where we are at. I have 
made a big investment and would 
hate to lose it. I went into it at 
the request of my boy who is 18 
years old. I believe there should 
be an organization of broadcasters 
to protect our investment if nothing 
else. We do not know at what 
moment we will be wiped out, with 
our investment. 

"We are told that we can broad- 
cast expensive programs but where 
do we get our compensation? I 
have a radio store in Denver, but 
when we broadcast music for the 
entertainment of radio fans at 
great expense we expect to be re- 
paid by the sale of radio goods. 
Yet the next morning we find that 
the soft drink parlor has put in a 
receiving set to permit patrons to 
listen to our programs and the soft 
drink parlor is selling radio sets. 

"We should form an organization 
that would not be the tail of any 
kite. I am in the radio business to 
make money, but it strikes me that 
the Radio Corporation of America 
are making the money out of radio." 
Arthur H. Ford, State University 
of Iowa, said no matter what com- 
mercial Stations might do, the uni- 
versities would go on supplying 
broadcasting service. He was in 
favor of an organization that would 
include in its scope newspaper sta- 
tions, university and school stations 
and stations operated by individ- 
uals or firms engaged in the radio 
business. 

On motion of John P. Tansey, 
secretary of the Radio Club of 
Illinois, the chair appointed a com- 
mittee comprised of Messrs. Don- 
nelley, Walker, Ford, and the secre- 
tary to draw up an organization 
plan, which resulted in the selection 
of the officers already named. 
Present at the meeting were: 
B. L. Moore, Vice President of 
the Federal Telephone and Tele- 
graph Company, Buffalo, N. Y. 
(WGR) 

Frank W. Elliott, Vice President, 
Palmer School of Chiropractic, Dav- 
(Continued on page 30) 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



How to Add One Step of Radio and One 
Step of Audio Frequency to the 



i^ I i 



By F. D. PEARNE 



WHILE wonderful results have 
been reported by the makers 
of the Reinartz set described 
in the September issue of this mag- 
azine and republished in this num- 
ber, some of which showed recep- 
tion from distances of 2,500 miles, 
still there are some of our readers 
who are anxious to see what this 
instrument will do with one or two 
stages of radio frequency added 
to]^it. Many amateurs seem to 
have an idea that radio frequency 
will add to the volume of the signals 
received, but this is an error, as I 



will show by a brief explanation. 

Most all of our readers know 
that "radio frequency" is that in 
which the oscillations are too rapid 
to be heard by the human ear 
(usually calculated at 10,000 per 
second or more), while those fre- 
quencies which are audible (below 
10,000 per second) are spoken of 
as audio frequencies. 

The function of the detector tube 
is to rectify the radio frequency 
oscillations and bring them down 
to audio frequency. As the vacuum 
tube is also capable of magnifying 



the signals to some considerable 
extent, the detector may be termed 
both a rectifier and a relay. 

Now let us consider a case in 
which one step of radio frequency 
amplification has been prefixed to 
the detector tube. An amplifier, 
or "hard" tube is used for this pur- 
pose. As all signals which are 
received upon the aerial come in 
at radio frequency and as they first 
enter the amplifying tube (the 
nature of which is to amplify, rather 
than to rectify) the signals are 
greatly amplified, or increased at 



SERIAL 



f ST STEP RADIO FREQUENC Y "^UDIO FREQUENC Y 

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FREQUENCK | ^ _^,^ j 




Ronmz 5r5TEM. 

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DETECTOR AND OHEmGL 

AUDIO FEEQUEHCY. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



radio frequency. They are then 
carried to the detector tube, where 
they are rectified and brought down 
to audio frequency. From this it 
will be seen that radio frequency 
amplification will really magnify 
oscillations received upon the aerial 
and pass them to the detector tube 
for rectification. 

This makes it possible to hear 
signals which otherwise would be 
too weak for detection in the de- 
tector tube. In other words, the 
radio frequency amplification will 
bring in weak signals from a great 
distance and strengthen them to 
such an extent that they can be 
heard after passing through the 
detector tube. Consequently it 
has been said that for long distance 
reception, use radio frequency am- 
plification. After the signals have 
been rectified and brought down 
to audio frequency, they may then 
be amplified at this lower frequency 
to the desired volume, by means 
of audio frequency amplification. 
Here again the "hard," or amplify- 
ing tube is used, as the function 
of this part of the apparatus is to 
amplify only and as this amplifica- 
tion takes place at audio frequency, 
it is possible to listen in on one or 
two steps as desired. It would do 
no good, however, to listen in on 
the different steps of radio fre- 
quency, as at these points the os- 
cillations have not yet been recti- 
fied and nothing would be heard. 
If properly designed and construct- 
ed, radio frequency amplification 
circuits will bring in signals from 
great distances. 

The construction of the induc- 
tance, switches, etc., used in the 
Reinartz tuner is described in de- 
tail in this number, so only a brief 
description of that part of it will 
be given here and more detail will 
be used in describing the addition 
of the radio frequency ampHfica- 
tion. The Reinartz tuner is due 
to the work of Mr. John L. Rein- 
artz, of South Manchester, Conn., 
and consists of a spider-web wind- 
ing, wound upon a slotted fiber, 
or bakelite disc, 1-16 of an inch 
thick and 6 1-2 inches in diameter. 
Eleven slots 1-8 of an inch wide 
and two inches deep are cut into 
it to accommodate the wires. The 
coils are best wound with No. 26 
single silk insulated wire. The 
winding consists of two coils. The 
first, or inside coil has sixty turns, 
with taps taken off every 12 or 15 
turns as desired. This coil is con- 
nected to the aerial through a 23- 
plate variable condenser, as shown 
in the drawing. The second coil 
contain^ fifty-three turns tapped 
and connected as .=hown. The 



inner coil of sixty turns is first 
wound in and out of the slots and 
the second coil is wound on the 
outside of it. These two coils are 
the only inductances used, thereby 
doing away with the expensive 
variometers and vario-coupler used 
in other types of regenerative sets. 
The adjusting is done by means 
of switches, the points of which 
are connected to the various taps 
shown. 

The previous description of this 
set showed the tuner alone, with 
one step, and with two steps of 
audio frequency amplification, and 
to those readers who are familiar 
with the set, the arrangement of 
one step of radio frequency ampli- 
fication will be seen at a glance. 
The additional apparatus used in 
this circuit consists of a poten- 
tiometer having a resistance of 400 
ohms, a socket and amplifier tube, 
one additional "B" battery, a radio 
frequency transformer having a 
wave band limit of from 200 to 500 
meters, and a rheostat. 

These parts are the only addi- 
tional material necessary to give a 
great increase in the receiving range. 
The revolving part of the eleven 
plate condenser must be connected 
to the ground, and the revolving 
part of the twenty-three plate con- 
denser must be connected to the 
aerial. If particular care is not 
taken to see that these connections 
are made in this way, no results 
will be obtained. It has also beert 
found that in case it is necessary 
to burn the filament of the detector 
tube at a very high temperature 
in order to get results when audio 
frequency amplification has been 
added, that an extra inductance 
consisting of a few turns of No. 26 
wire connected in the circuit at 
the point marked "X" on the draw- 
ing, between the plate of the de- 
tector tube and the primary of 
the audio frequency transformer 
will make it possible to burn the 
filament at a much lower tempera- 
ture. 

This is not always necessary, 
but when it is needed, the builder 
should experiment and find out 
just how many turns are necessary 
for his particular set. In some 
cases, six turns will suffice and in 
others, more turns are needed. 
This inductance is usually wound 
on a miniature form similar to that 
used for the large coils. One "B" 
battery supplies the radio fre- 
quency and the detector tubes and 
the other takes care of the audio 
frequency tubes. The second set 
of "B" batteries can be omitted 



if desired, but it will be found that 
the set works better with a high 
voltage on the plate circuit of the 
audio frequency amplifier tube. In 
fact it is a good idea to use forty- 
five volts on the radio frequency 
tube, but if this is done it should 
be a separate battery with the nega- 
tive terminal connected to the 
positive terminal of the "A" bat- 
tery and the positive terminal con- 
nected to the plate side of the radio 
frequency transformer, which is 
shown in the drawing connected 
to the positive terminal of the first 
"B" battery. 

The positive terminal of the 
first "B" battery is left connected 
as shown. A loud speaker may be 
substituted for the head phones to 
give greater amplification to the 
signals if so desired. The adjusting 
is done on the three switches and 
the two variable condensers as 
shown in the drawing. Any stand- 
ard make of audio frequency trans- 
former may be used, but in making 
the selection be sure that the trans- 
forming ratio is 10 to 1 for the first 
step and if another step is added, 
use a 3 to 1 ratio. Also in purchas- 
ing a radio frequency transformer, 
be sure that it is wound for the 
wave band which will cover the 
limit which you want to receive. 
The large inductance is usually 
mounted some distance away from 
the panel on which the switches 
and condensers are mounted, as 
this arrangement will give ample 
room for making the connections 
to the switch contacts and will also 
prevent interference caused by body 
capacity while adjusting the set. 
Another way to mount the coil is 
to use a sliding base to which the 
panel is attached, which will move 
in and out of the box when the 
panel is drawn out. The coil is 
then mounted horizontally on the 
base and the wires brought up to 
the switches for connection. It 
will take some little time and ex- 
periment for the operator to be- 
come acquainted with the adjust- 
ment of this set, as a difference of 
one point on either of the small 
switches will cut a station in or 
out, but after a little practice ex- 
cellent results will be obtained. 



Assistant Inspector 

Lawrence E. Dutton, 1340 North 
Homan Avenue, Chicago, has been ap- 
pointed an assistant to Radio Inspector 
E. A. Beane, of the Ninth radio inspec- 
tion district. Mr. Dutton has com- 
menced his work in the Federal build- 
ing- 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Photo-Electric Detector Tubes 

By H. A. BROWN and C. T. KNIPP, University of Illinois 



A YEAR ago the writers com- 
pleted an investigation of the 
effect of various residual gases 
and various degrees of vacua upon 
the characteristics, constants and 
efficiency of detector tubes. The 
investigation showed that in the 
case of a low vacuum the optimum 
plate voltage for detector action 
decrease with the ionizing potential 
of the gas in the tube. The vapors 
of certain alkali metals have ionizing 
potentials of 4 volts and less, and 
some of these were experimented 
with. It was found that the vapor 
of potassium-sodium alloy, having 
an ionizing potential of 4 volts, 
when present in the ordinary three- 
element vacuum tube or Audion 
caused it to function as a very 
sensitive detector of high frequency 
oscillations at a plate potential 
of 5 to 10 volts. Tests in this 
laboratory have shown that this 
tube is from 3 to 5 times more 
sensitive on weak signals, with 
8 or 10 volts plate potential, than 
is the same type of tube containing 
any of the commonly used gases, 
such as argon and helium, and 
which require 18 to 25 volts. This 
latter is the widely used "gas 
content" or "soft" detector tube. 
In spite of the extremely low 
plate voltages needed for this 
alkali vapor filled tube it is not 
"critical" in adjustment of plate 
voltage as is the conventional "soft" 
detector. 

Fig. 1 shows this clearly, curves 
A representing three different tubes 
each primed with alkali vapor, 
and curve B for the conventional 
"soft" detector tube. Users will 
appreciate this advantage. 



/{Iko// \/oPor Deiec/'ars >Q 

■is 




Professor Charles T. Knipp, Univer- 
sity of Illinois 





FJ\ 



y 



i/re 



I. 



H. H. Brown, Associate in Depart- 
ment of Electrical Engineering, 
University of Illinois 

The most astonishing discovery 
about this tube is the fact I hat it 
operates efficiently at zero plate 
voltage. 

Fig. 2 shows the characteristic 
curves for one of these tubes, the 
lower curve being taken at zero 
plate voltage. To do this the plate 
circuit return was connected to 
the negative filament terminals. 
The plate current flows through 
the vacuum from the plate to the 
filament in spite of the opposing 
effect of the filament drop. This 
curve shows the plate current to 



be about 1 milliampere at zero 
grid voltage. As is well known, 
the potassium-sodium alloy is used 
as the sensitive coating in the 
photo-electric cell, a device which 
furnishes a source of feeble electric 
current when light shines upon it. 
In all probability the source of 
plate current in these tubes at 
zero plate voltage is the photo- 
electric effect of the alkali vapor, 
the luminous and non-luminous 
radiation from the filament being 
the source of energy. 

These photo-electric detector 
tubes function very well as detectors 
of damped and undamped waves 
and of radiophone modulated waves. 
As a test several of the tubes were 
tried out. Using one tube as a 
detector together with a "vario- 
meter" type of regenerative tuner, 
and an antenna 45 ft. high, the 
broadcasting stations at Schenec- 
tady, N. Y., Detroit, Pittsburgh, 
and Chicago were heard in this 
locality without an amplifier and 
with a directly measured audibility 
of about 30. When a plate volt- 
age of 6 to 10 volts was applied 
the audibility increased to 150, 
this corresponded with the results 
of the carefully made laboratory 
tests shown in Fig. 1. At zero 
plate voltage the tube was used 
to receive the 17,000 meter station 
at AnnapoHs by the beat method, 
the tube oscillating very easily 
and steadily. It is equally efficient 
on short wave amateur C. W. 
reception. 

The foregoing features in addition 

(Continued on page 24) 



A/Aa// \/apor 







/~/aivre 2- 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 




FIG I . ONE. ARRANGLMLNT OF WAVtMLTtR 
BOX AND A55E.MBLEJ) UNITS . 



X 



-O O-i 

CO I l_ 
DtTtCTOR. . 



AMMLTtS OR 
CURRCNT-ii<5U«RE. 
MLTLR. -, 



&ROOND ANO 
SMltUO 




\ 



MOVABLL PLATC.5 



30 

Z 

o 

In 



05 
■05 



O n 6 



BUIZE.R. BAT. 

-o o 



nimiiiiiiiiii.i 



SWITCH . 



!r 



FIG.Z.WAVLMEJLFl CIRCUIT.. 




nG.3. DLTAIL5 Of WAVLMLTUl COIL 



^^JlrZZZ^l? 




DECREMETER SCALE 
FIG. 4-. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Design of a Portable Short -Wave Radio 

Wavemeter 



By U. S. Bureau of Standards 



A WAVEMETER is a device 
for measuring the frequency 

or the length of radio waves. 
Radio waves always travel with 
the same velocity, and if the 
frequency is known, the wave length 
is also known. 

Resonance is a most fundamental 
phenomenon of radio. When the 
inductance and capacity of a circuit 
on which an alternating electro- 
motive force is impressed are ad- 
justed so that the impedance of 
the circuit is a minimum and the 
current flowing in the circuit is 
a maximum, the circuit is said to 
be in resonance. For information 
regarding resonance and the measure- 
ment of wave length, reference may 
be made to "The Principles Under- 
lying Radio Communication," Signal 
Corps Radio Communication Pam- 
phlet No. 40, and to Bureau of 
Standards Circular No. 74. These 
publications may be purchased from 
the Superintendent of Documents, 
Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington, D. C. The price of the 
former is $1.00, and the price of 
the latter is 60 cents. 

Amateur radio stations in the 
United States are at present re- 
quired by law when transmitting 
to use wave lengths not exceeding 
200 meters, and it is therefore 
important that amateur operators 
should have a wavemeter available 
so that they may adjust their 
transmitting sets to comply with 
the law, and it is necessary that 
this wavemeter should be adapted 
to measure short wave lengths 
such as 200 meters. Other com- 
paratively short wave lengths such as 
360 and 485 meters, are now used 
for radio telephone broadcasting, 
and it is important to have a 
wavemeter which can measure these 
wave lengths. The Radio Telephony 
Conference which met in Wash- 
ington in February, 1923, recom- 
mended narrow bands of waves 
for particular services, some bands 
being only 10 meters wide. Stations 
which must work within such narrow 
bands must be provided with well- 
designed wavemeters if they are 
to comply with the requirements 
of the law. The design of a port- 
able short-wave wavemeter is there- 
fore a matter of importance. It is 
the purpose of this circular to 
point out the most important con- 
siderations in the design of such 
a wavemeter, and to describe the 

(Continued on page 25) 




Operating radio receiving set inside steel car on speeding Pennsylvania train. 

Receives in Speeding 
All-Steel Car 



PIERCING the all-steel con- 
struction of a railway passen- 
ger car on the Broadway 
Limited, the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road's crack flyer, radio signals 
were successfully received on Octo- 
ber 13 by a set entirely within 
the car, without outside antennae, 
while the train was speeding be- 
tween New York and Chicago. 

A few strands of wire around 
an eighteen-inch frame attached 
to the set served as the receiving 
apparatus by which music and 
speech were caught from half a 
dozen stations en route. The tests, 
the first to be made on a moving 
train without an outside aerial, 
were conducted by Arno Zillger, 
chief engineer for the E-D Manu- 
facturing Company, of Philadelphia, 
enroute to the Radio Show in 
Chicago. 

Mr. Zillger used an ordinary 
receiving set without any extra 
attachments or special parts, setting 
up the apparatus in 17 minutes 
as the train was about to leave 
Philadelphia and immediately tun- 
ing in to catch broadcasting from 
John Wanamaker's in Philadelphia. 
Even the 11,000 volt electric wires 
over the railroad tracks, where 
the Pennsylvania is electrified to 
Philadelphia suburbs, did not 



interfere with the receiving. 

Continuing the test through the 
evening, Mr. Zillger listened to 
messages and concerts from New- 
ark, Schenectady, an ore boat on 
Lake Erie, Pittsburgh and numerous 
other points. 

J. D. Jones, superinterdent of 
Telegraph and Signals for the East- 
ern Region of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, was one of the most 
interested observers of the experi- 
ments. The possibility of the use 
of radio in giving and receiving 
train orders is at present a subject 
of investigations on several roads 
and the results of Mr. Zillger's 
tests threw considerable light on 
the problem. Since the initial 
tests, Mr. Zillger has designed a 
new set especially for use on moving 
trains. This set will be given a 
try-out soon. 

The practicability of radio for 
use in communicating between the 
engine and the caboose of long 
freight trains, and between trains 
and stations along the line, is one 
of the angles which Pennsylvania 
railroad officials are watching closely. 
The results of last week's experi- 
ments, Mr. Zillger said, show that 
the idea is workable and that his 
set, with a few modifications, would 
prove successful in such work. 



10 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 




Arrangement of loud-speakers in Congress Hall, Pageant of 
Progress, Chicago. (By courtesy of Greater Chicago Magazine) 

Expert Explains Radio Frequency 

Amplification 

By CHARLES KILGOUR, Engineer, Crosby Mfg. Co. 



RADIO Frequency Amplification is 
regarded at present as the most 
interesting subject connected with 
wireless telephony, and Charles Kilgour, 
who is in charge of the engineering de- 
partment of the Crosley Manufacturing 
Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, operators 
of the radio broadcasting station WLW, 
has prepared the following interesting 
explanation of it. Mr. Kilgour has 
dealt in terms of the layman and made 
his explanation so simple that a beginner 
may understand every word of it. Mr. 
Kilgour said in part: 

"A radio enthusiast is not satisfied 
with a mere definition of radio frequency 
amplification. He wants a plan of con- 
struction, for a great part of radios 
fascination is due to the ease with which 
it is possible to try out various schemes 
for making audible the infinitesimal 
waves of the ether which constantly are 
lapping upon our aerials. 

"The first essential of a radio frequency 
amplifier is a proper vacuum tube. Any 
standard amplifier tube will serve. Upon 
the grid of this tube is impressed incom- 
ing alternating current. This is accom- 
plished by connecting one side of the 
secondary coil to the grid and the other 
to the filament circuit. No grid con- 



denser is used because the tube acts as an 
amplifier and not as a rectifier or detector. 

"To cause a vacuum tube to amplify 
properly the voltage impressed upon its 
grid, it is necessary to place an imped- 
ance, or resistance, in the plate circuit, 
which is the connection between the plate 
and the filament. It is also necessary 
to hold the plate at a positive potential 
of about 45 volts with respect to the 
filament. This is accomplished by the 
familiar 'B' battery. 

"The high impedance required in the 
plate circuit may be obtained in several 
ways. A high ohmic resistance may be 
used, but as this has a high resistance to 
direct current it opposes the action of the 
'B' battery, thus introducing difficulties. 

"An inductance or coil may be used to 
set up the necessary impedance. An 
inductance may have very low ohmic 
resistance and so not interfere with the 
proper action of the 'B' battery and at 
the same time, due to its reactance offer 
high impedance to an alternating current 
such as we wish to amplify. At the high 
frequency handled a condenser or capac- 
ity effect is always present in a coil. 
This is equivalent to connecting a con- 
denser across the terminals of the coil. 
This capacity, together with the induct- 



ance of the coil, forms a closed circuit 
which has a natural period of oscillation 
or is resonant at a certain frequency. It 
is a peculiar quality of such a circuit 
that it' offers a very high resistance to 
an alternating current of the natural 
frequency of the circuit. 

"In other words such a coil introduced 
in the plate circuit of a vacuum tube will 
have a high impedance to one frequency 
and will cause currents of that frequency 
to be greatly amplified. It is essential, 
however, that the amplifier works prop- 
erly on various wave lengths. For this 
reason the ohmic resistance of the coil 
may be increased, broadening the range 
of the amplifier but reducing its efficiency. 

"By far the best solution of the problem 
is the use of a rather small inductance 
with a variable condenser connected 
across its terminals. The same sort of 
a circuit is formed as in the last case, but 
the variable condenser makes it possible 
to change the natural period of the 
circuit and so amplify a signal of any 
desired frequency within the range of the 
condenser and coil. The ohmic resist- 
ance of such a condenser and coil may be 
very low and paradoxically the imped- 
ence at resonance as a consequence will 
be extremely high. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



11 



How to Construct a Good Reinartz Set 

(Republished in response to scores of requests) 

By F. D. PEARNE 

Chief instructor in Electricity at Lane Technical High School 



FOR the amateur who wants to 
build a real receiving set and 
does not feel that he can afford 
to spend the mdney, I submit the 
following specifications of the Rein- 
artz tuner, which, according to my 
many correspondents, is giving far 
greater satisfaction than the well- 
known vario-coupler artd vario- 
meter set. This set is claimed by 
many users, to bring in signals which 
cannot be heard with the other 
well-known types, and the small 
investment required to build it is 
one of the features which recom- 
mend it to the experimenter. All of 
the inductances are wound upon 
the same form, which are of the 
well-known "spider web" type. 

Construction. 

The mounting is made by cutting 
out a disc of fibre one-sixteenth of 
an inch thick and six and one-half 
inches in diameter. If fibre cannot 
be obtained, good heavy cardboard 
can be used, but it must be very 
carefully varnished with shellac 
before the winding is put on. Cut 
out the disc as described and divide 
the outside edge into eleven parts. 
Draw a circle two and one-half 
inches in diameter upon the disc 
to locate the bottom of the slots, 
then at each of the divisions cut a 
slot one-eighth of an inch wide 
from the outside edge to the inner 
circle so marked. 

After all the slots have been cut, 
a coat of shellac varnish, or cellu- 
loid cement, is put on and, when 
dry, the form is ready for winding. 
It is a good idea to study the cir- 
cuit as shown in Figure 3 before 
starting to wind. Note where the 
taps are taken off, as a great deal 
depends upon just the right number 
of turns being used. Leave all taps 
at least twelve inches long, so that 
no splicing will have to be done 
when the inductance is connected 
to the switches. The best wire to 
use for the winding is No. 26 
cottenamel or silk enamel insula- 
tion, although plain cotton insula- 
tion will do if the maker is careful 
in his work. Begin winding at the 
bottom of any one of the slots, 
leaving an end at least twelve 
inches in length for connections. 
Wind in and out of the slots as 
shown in Figure 2 until fifteen 
turns have been put on. In count- 




2^ 

I 



FIGUR£ / 



ing these turns after they have been 
put on remember that only one-half 
of the turns will be visible on one 
side of the disc, so that when seven 
turns show on one side and eight 
on the other, it means fifteen com- 
plete turns. 

When fifteen turns are in place, 
make a twelve-inch loop, twisting 
it together, so that this twist will 
come up tight to the slot, then the 
tap will not lose its identification 
among the numerous other taps to 
come. Continue the winding in this 
way, taking off a tap at every fifteen 
turns until sixty turns are in place. 
At the last turn cut the wire off, 
leaving the twelve inches for con- 
nection. If these instructions have 
been followed faithfully there will 
now be three taps and two ends 
projecting from the disc. It is a 
good plan to bring out these taps 
in diflerent slots; that is, the first 
tap comes out in the next slot to the 
one in which the coil was started 
and the next tap in the next slot, 
etc., as this makes the identifica- 
tion of the wires much easier. This 




FIGURE 2 . 



coil is shown at the bottom of the 
diagram in Figure 3, and is marked 
"inside coil." 

Now start the next coil in the 
next vacant slot, leaving the cus- 
tomary twelve-inch end; wind one 
turn only and bring out a loop. 
Continue in this way, taking a tap 
off at every turn until you have 
ten turns. Instead of cutting the 
wire at the end of the tenth turn, 
bring out another tap and wind 
fifteen more turns before you bring 
out the next tap. After the tap 
on this fifteenth turn, wind twenty- 
eight more turns, tapping them at 
every seventh turn, except the 
last one which will be a single end, 
as it is the finish of the winding. 
Now check up the number of turns 
with the diagram Figure 3 and see 
that the correct number of turns 
have been put on. There should 
be sixty turns on the inside coil 
and fifty-three on the outside coil. 
Now after the winding is completed, 
paint the coil all over with some 
insulating varnish, such as shellac 
or celluloid cement. Both of these 
windings together will just about 
fill the form. The best way to 
mount the coil is to cut off a piece 
of curtain-pole (wood) about one 
inch long, place it against the center 
part of the disc and fasten it to the 
panel with two brass screws. (Do 
not use iron screws, as they will 
tend to dampen the oscillations.) 

If the set is to be mounted in a 
cabinet, it will be better to mount 
the coil with a piece of curtain- 
rod on a separate piece of wood, 
in an upright position, as this will 
give better access to the wires when 
it comes time to make the connec- 
tions. The switches and contact 
points can be purchased at any 
radio supply store. Two variable 
condensers are necessary, one shown 
at "C" in Figure 3 should have a 
capacity of .001 M. F. and the one 
shown at "D" in the same figure 
should have a capacity of .0005 
M. F. The rest of the apparatus 
required is the same as that used 
in any other regenerative set, viz.: 
One grid leak and condenser, one 
detector tube and socket, one stor- 
age "A" battery (6 volts), one plate, 
or "B" battery (twenty-two 
and one-half volts), and one pair 



12 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



of two or three thousand ohm re- 
ceivers. 

Figure 3 shows how all the con- 
nections are to be made, and the 
builder can mount the outfit as he 
pleases, either in a box with a panel 
front, or on a table or base-board. 
The method of winding the coil 
is shown at "B" in Figure 2. If 
this set is carefully constructed, 
the results obtained will surprise 
the most skeptical reader and with 
one step of amplification it will 
produce results equal to two steps 
of amplification on the vario-coupler 
and variometer set. The amplifier, 
however, should be of a specially 
designed circuit, which will be 
explained for those wishing to add 
it to their sets. 

Amplification for Reinartz 
Tuner. 

Figure 4 shows the method of 
adding one step of amplification 
to the Reinartz tuner. In this 
circuit a variable condenser is shown 
in place of the grid-leak and con- 
denser. The use of either of these 
is optional with the builder. The 
variable condenser will give better 
tuning eflfects, but the set will work 
very well if the grid-leak and fixed 
condenser is used; in fact, the set 
from which these specifications were 
taken used the fixed condenser and 
grid-leak. The method of connect- 
ing the amplifier to the circuit is 
similar to that of the ordinary 
The head phones are re- 
from the circuit shown in 
3 and replaced with the 
winding of ten to one 



GR/D LEAK 
fiiND CONDENSER 



Circuit, 
moved 
Figure 
primary 



ratio audio amplifying transformer. 
In the set from which these specifica- 
tions were taken, this primary 
winding of the transformer fur- 
nished enough reactance to make the 
tube oscillate properly, but this is 
not always the case. If it is found 
that the filament has to be burned 
at a dangerous degree of brilliancy 
to produce the oscillations, then an 
extra inductance should be inserted 
in the circuit at the point marked 
"X" in Figure 4. If however, the 
tube is found to oscillate without 
crowding the filament, then this 
extra inductance "X" should not 
be inserted. 

If it is found that the inductance 
is necessary it can be made by 
making a small form similar to the 
one on which the two coils are 
wound, but much smaller, and 
winding six turns of wire of the same 
size as that used on the large coil. 
This has been found by experiment 
to be the correct number of turns 
and should not be changed. The 
secondarv of the transformer is- 



RHEOiTAT 




VftHIABLE 

CoeiOENSEfi 

■001 M.f. 



6 VOLT 
A-BATTeny 

-li|i|i|»|i|i|iK 

2 2 '4 VOLT 
B-Bt^TTBRy 




_ CiHOUNO 

FIQORE 3 



connected to the grid and filament 
circuit as shown in Figure 4. 

The circuit shows only one set 
of "B" batteries used for both the 
detector and amplifier tube plates, 
but stronger signals may be obtained 
by adding another twenty-two and 
one-half volt "B" battery between 
the head phones and the battery 
shown on the drawing. This is 
shown in Figure 6. It is absolutely 
necessary to see that the positive 
side of the "B" battery is con- 
nected to the part of the circuit, 
which eventually gets to the plate. 



AER/AL 




and the negative side must always 
be connected to the filament. An- 
other important thing is to see that 
the rotating part of the condenser 
"C" is connected to the aerial, and 
that the rotating part of condenser 
"D" is connected to the earth. 
The set will not give good results 
unless this is done. 

The connections to the aerial, 
ground, and batteries are taken out 
through the back of the case, to 
avoid using binding posts on the 
front of the panel, as this always 
makes an unsightly wiring job. Tf 



X TRMSFORMER 




f-L^ 



RifeosTOT pHoNes)] 



X2J4VOLT riGURE 4-. 



desired, however, binding posts can 
be put on the ends of the case and 
all connections taken from there, but 
if holes are drilled in the back of the 
box and hard rubber, or porcelain 
bushings are inserted for the wires 
to pass through, it will make a very 
neat looking job. The^paneH for 
the controls is best of bakehtc, 
hard rubber one-eighth of an. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



13 



inch thick, eighteen! inches long and 
eight inches high.' 'The sockets and 
tubes are mounted directly behind 
the controlling rheostats and the 
holes in the panel shown above the 
rheostats are for the purpose of 
watching the brilliancy of the tube 
filaments. 

The two dials shown are used 
for the purpose of adjusting the 
variable condensers and if a variable 
condenser is used in place of the 
fixed condenser and grid-leak, then 
another dial must be used for this 
purpose and the arrangement of the 
panel will have to be altered to 
suit the case. The spider-web 
coil is mounted as far back in the 
box as possible and is placed directly 
behind the switches to facilitate 
the connections. The addition of 
this amplifier will make a wonderful 
addition to the set, but if it is desired 
to carry the amplification farther, 
another step of audio frequency 
amplification may be added. 
Addition of the Second Step of 
Amplification. 

Figure 6 shows the method of 
adding two steps of audio frequency 
amplifications to the Reinartz tuner. 
While this addition is very seldom 
necessary, still there are some fans 
who can not get signals too loud 
to suit them and this circuit is 
shown for the benefit of those who 
want to go the limit. When I say 
limit, I think I have found a good 
word, for this is about as far as the 
amplification can go with this set 
without injury to the receivers, 
or loud speakers. 

The diagram shown in this figure 
will be clearly understood without 
going into details, if the reader has 
carefully followed through the pre- 
ceding circuits. The only changes 
shown are in the addition of the 
second step, and the addition of 
two more "B" batteries of twenty- 
two and one-half volts each. These 
batteries must be connected in such 
a way that the positive of one of 
them connects to the negative of 
the next, etc. This is clearly shown 
in the diagram. If a loud speaker 
is to be used in any of the circuits, 
it is placed where the receiver is 
shown in the different diagrams. 
The transformers used may be of 
the ordinary audio frequency type, 
the one used in the first step to be 
a ten to one ratio, while that used 
in the second step is a three or 
three and one-half to one ratio. 
Atiy one of these circuits will give 
great satisfaction to the user and 
with a little patience and care in 
adjusting he should have no trouble 
in receiving signals from 1,500 
miles in the winter time. 



GRID LEAK 
AND CONDeNSER 



DETECTOR ""'"^"'"'^ /ST STtP 2'iS' STeP 




Radio Extends 
Weather Forecasts 

With the perfection of radio 
communication great progress has 
been made in another science, which 
is perhaps of equal value to the 
world at large, particularly the 
seafaring and agricultural nations; 
meteorology has advanced with 
leaps and bounds within the past 
few years, due chiefly to the use of 
radio the outposts of meteorological 
knowledge have been pushed far 
afield into distant and unpopulated 
wilds where previously lack of com- 
munication has withheld local weath- 
er conditions from the world. 

Last winter, an American engi- 
neer, Hagbard D. I. Ekerold, spent 
many months on a barren rock 
400 miles north of Iceland, in the 
Arctic Ocean, as the leader of a 
meteorological expedition backed 
by the Bergen Geophysical Insti- 
tute. His observations were be- 
lieved so important to the rest of 
the world that an observatory was 
established by the Norwegian gov- 
ernment at Jan Mayn — this lonely 
spot of rock in the Arctic sea. 
Needless to state, this new northern 
observatory has a wireless station, 
so that weather observations can 
be broadcasted as fast as noted. 
Scientists hold that this, the station 
farthest north, is the beginning of a 
new epoch in the history of science, 
admitting that credit is due to 
radio in a large measure. 

Meteorology is fast becoming an 
international study, for the storms 



and weather of one country soon 
affect the situation in another, and 
today the immense area covering 
the whole of Europe, Northern 
Africa, and the Near East, as welt 
as the United States and Canadaj 
is combed with great care by weath- 
er observers and their reports are 
received at central points, abstract- 
ed and broadcasted by radio daily 
from Washington, Paris, and a few 
sub-stations. Thus it has become 
possible for meteorologists to obtain 
within twelve hours of the taking- 
of the observations, a representa- 
tive meteorological situation over 
the greater part of the Northern 
Hemisphere, extending from the 
Pacific Coast of America in the West 
to Russia and Egypt in the East. 

Professor Bjerknes of Norway^ 
who has done much to advance our 
knowledge of cyclones, forming in 
the temperate zones, holds that 
weather conditions there depend 
chiefly upon the conflict between 
two streams of air — a cold current 
flowing southward from the north 
Polar regions and a warm current 
drifting northward from equatoriat 
sources already well-known. These 
air streams, he believes, meet along- 
a wavering front in the Temperate 
Zone, and in their intermingling- 
give birth to those mysterious 
swirls in the atmosphere which 
are called cyclones. 

To study these possibilities, he 
desires to estabHsh a chain of radiO' 
equipped observation stations a- 
round the Pole, from the records of 
which the tracks followed by the 
Polar current southward and the 
centers of conflict with the warm 
currents may be definitely deter- 
mined. Such a series of circum- 
polar meteorological posts will have 
more than theoretical importance 
when regular forecasts for the North 
Atlantic are required in connection 
with daily air flights between Eu- 
rope and America, he says. 



14 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 




Radio and La^v Enforcement 



JAMES M. DAILEY, Democratic 
nominee for sheriff of Cook 
county at the November 7 election, 
is the first aspirant to the office of 
chief law enforcer for a great metro- 
politan district, such as surrounds 
Chicago, to recognize the radio as 
a real and effective aid to protecting 
the public and capturing criminals. 
He tested out the wonders of radio 
broadcasting through a terse talk 
~cnt out from Station WDAP, the 



de luxe plant of the Midwest Radio 
Corporation atop the Drake Hotel 
on October 14. 

Speaking on "Highway Safety" 
Mr. Dailey carried his campaign 
to thousands of radio users in Chi- 
cago and Cook county and con- 
cluded by saying: 

"I am not in favor of fancy stunts 
in law enforcement and believe gen- 
erally in the single policy of Com- 
mon Honesty and Common Sense 



— but radio is not a stunt nor a new 
toy. It is a real working force in 
the modern world and I can foresee 
it can be used to communicate 
quickly with the entire citizenry of 
a city or county to carry messages 
of great public importance. In 
emergency cases it will be invaluable 
as an aid to law enforcement and as 
Sheriff of Cook county I intend to use 
every means to make this the cleanest 
community in the country." 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



IS 



Public Education in Radio Urged 

Dr. Alfred N. Goldsmith and Paul F. Godley Tell How to Popularize 

Art of Wireless Communication 

By GEORGE R. HOLMES, I. R. E., A. J. E. E. 

Special to Radio Age 



NEW YORK, October 4.— "One 
of the greatest problems we 
have to face today in radio 
is that of educating the public 
at large in the intelligent use of 
radio apparatus, if we are going 
to keep alive interest and stop 
people from becoming disgusted 
with their sets," declared Dr. Alfred 
N. Goldsmith, secretary of the 
Institute of Radio Engineers before 
a large gathering of radio engineers 
and enthusiasts, at the Engineering 
Societies Building this evening. 

"The time is past when anyone 
can take a cardboard tube, wind 
it with wire, use a piece of crystal 
and any old head phone and expect 
to get real satisfaction from radio," 
he said. "It will work sometimes, 
any old time, but it won't work 
all the time and especially when 
the user knows little or nothing 
of tuning and uses an antenna 
that is entirely out of proportion 
to the needs of the set. 

"The same holds true of vacuum 
tube sets, where the average user 
has a sad lack of knowledge of 
plate and filament currents and 
voltages, and aerials that are en- 
tirely to big, long and of freak 
construction. The result is poor 
selectivity, improper regeneration 
and general dissatisfaction with 
the set. 

"At the present time there is 
much talk that the change in having 
two broadcasting wave lengths does 
not solve the probkm of interfer- 
ence. The truth of the matter is 
a lack of education on the tuning 
of the set. 

"If the average user cannot tune 
out between stations using the 
two wave lengths, what will he 
do when we are using broadcasting 
wave lengths within a few meters 
of each other? That time is soon 
coming and with separation in 
broadcasting wave lengths about 
12 per cent, it will be possible 
to hear any station individually 
without interference if the person 
really knows how to tune a set. 
By this we will have not only one 
or two programs to listen to but 
possibly a dozen with greater di- 
versity and the listener can choose 
from a wide range his evening's 
entertainment. 

"With the rapid strides being 



Here's the First 
Central Exchange 
for Radio Calls 



^^^HAT is said to be the first 
' ' radiophone exchange in 
the world was recently opened 
at Croydon, England, the point 
from which the air lines to the 
European Continent take their 
departure, according to Consul 
Linnell. 

The chief use made of this 
exchange is to connect the 
serial traffic controller, who 
has his headquarters in a con- 
trol tower at Charing Cross, 
London, with the pilots of the 
air expresses flying between 
Croydon and the Continent. 

This wireless exchange can 
also connect the phones of the 
airships and airplanes, while in 
flight, with any office at the 
aerodron at Croydon, making 
direct telephone conversation 
possible. 

The pilot of each aerial trans- 
port is no'w required to report 
his position to the traffic con- 
troller every fifteen minutes, 
so that the progress and posi- 
tion of each plane is known 
throughout its journey. The 
controller is of particular value 
in directing the course of the 
aircraft in cases of fog, and in 
giving them special directions 
for landing. 



made in broadcasting the subject 
of paramount importance is educa- 
tion in the proper tuning of sets. 
When this is accomplished we will 
have made a great step forward 
and an important step." 

Expressing his views on the sub- 
ject Paul Godley, famous for his 
trans- Atlantic work said, "In trying 
to popularize radio we went back 
to the simplest forms of equipment 
and now that we are progressing 
we have fallen into hot water, 
through the fact that there is a 
lack of education on how to intel- 
ligently operate radio receivers. It 
is high time that intensive education 
be employed to help users of radio 
sets get over the small difficulty 
of tuning on 360 and 400 meters 
without interference. 



"The same condition exists today 
in radio as existed in the auto 
industry when they changed from 
the car of simple adjustments to 
the present day complicated mechan- 
isms. The public must under- 
stand that they cannot do with 
a $5 receiver the things that can 
be accomplished with a $200 re- 
ceiver and there is a need of educa- 
tion to let them know what they 
should expect for the money they 
give out. The public at large 
should learn that it can't expect 
results and selectivity unless they 
do a little tuning. If they would 
take a third of the time used to 
learn how to run their new car, 
to learn about the operation of 
a radio set there would be less 
trouble but — they won't make the 
effort to learn. 

"In selling radio sets the thing 
to do is not to push anything 
on the public but what is the best 
from an engineering standpoint. 
I seriously think that the radio 
publications of the country should 
be willing to promote and cooperate 
in organizing an educational cam- 
paign, as thousands have been 
disgusted through the junk they 
bought, fully believing that it would 
operate the same as the most expen- 
sive sets. What the people want 
is quality and real service from 
their radio sets just the same as 
they look for it in their phono- 
graphs. 

A Boost from Boston 

Among the letters received commend- 
ing the article on the Reinartz tuner, 
written by Mr. Pearne for the September 
issue, we take space for reprinting only 
one. It is addressed to Mr. PeaVne and 
reads as follows: 

I. was very much interested in read- 
ing your article relative to the Rein- 
artz receiver which appeared in the 
September issue of Radio Age. 

Please allow me to compliment 
you upon the excellent manner in 
which you have handled the descrip- 
tion and method of construction. 
This is the first article on the Rein- 
artz circuit and its practical application 
that is concise enough to be of any 
practical value — at least the first 
which I, myself, have noted. 
Sincerely yours, 
EVERETT P. GORDON, 
Advertising Manager, Atlantic Radio 
Company. 



-16 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Tube Set Operates Across Atlantic 



ACCORDING to announcement 
made by officials of the Radio 
Corporation of America an- 
other scientific accomplishment look- 
ing toward trans-oceanic telephony 
and the use of vacuum tubes for 
trans-oceanic telegraphy was made 
yesterday, when an experimental, 
high-powered tube set at Radio 
Central, Rocky Point, L. I., was 
operated continuously sixteen hours, 
handling commercial trans-Atlantic 
traffic with Great Britain and Ger- 
many, on a wavelength of 19,000 
-metres. 

The statement reads that plans 
for the development of the new 

• electron tube experimental set were 
completed in December, 1921, by 

-representatives of the Research and 
Engineering Departments of the 

■ General Electric Company and the 
Radio Corporation, and the manu- 
facturing of this highly deHcate 

. and specialized set was immediately 

-started in Schenectady, N. Y. So 

fast did the work progress that in 

May of this year the temporary 

-installation of the set was started at 

Radio Central, and when Senator 

Marconi visited the station in July, 

-preliminary tests were in progress 

1 under the direction of W. R. G. 

Baker, of the General Electric 

■Company, and C. W. Hansell of 

the Radio Corporation. 

The set itself is for tlie time being 

• composed of three 50 kilowatt, 
15,000 volt, water cooled, metal 

-vacuum tubes, known in the engi- 

-.neering world as kenetrons, used as 
rectifiers, and six 15,000 volt, 20 
kilowatt, water cooled, metal plia- 
trons, used as high-frequency con- 

'verters. For the experiment with 
the tube set cone ^of the new mile 

. and a half long antennae suspended 
from six towers, 426 feet high, of 
the Rocky Point Station, was used, 

.and the tube set succeeded in de- 
veloping and sustaining in the 

.antennae a current strength of 350 

. amperes. 

So successful was the set in opera- 
tion that the operators actually con- 
troUing the automatic sending keys 

. at 64 Broad Street in "New York 
City did not know that they were 

■ controlling a tiibe transmitter rather 
than an alternator until after the 
test was completed. An official 

. of the corporation said : 

"The operators. on the English 

. and the German circuits, -if they 
noticed a thange in the quality or 
the strength' of the received signal, 

/ did not comment on it, so we assume 
the signal was favorably comparable 

I to the alternator signals. ( Of course, 



this is the first time in the history 
of wireless telegraphy that a high- 
powered tube transmitting set has 
operated for so long a period over as 
great a distance as that between 
New York and Germany." 

The British Marconi Company 
have in their station at Carnavan, 
Wales, a tube set made up by 
paralleling 60 air cooled, fragile, 
glass vacuum tubes, of approxi- 
mately two kilowatt input capacity 
each, but as explained, the Ameri- 
cans have reduced the number of 
tubes necessary for a set from sixty 
to six, by increasing their capacity 
from two kilowatts each to twenty 
kilowatts each. The American met- 
al water-cooled tube is of great 
advantage because it makes it 
possible to develop tubes of larger 
capacity than is possible where it is 
necessary to rely upon air as the 
only means of cooHng. The building 
of these partially metal tubes was 
only accomplished as the result of 
American research and inventive 
genius which showed the way to a 
successful method of welding glass 
and copper together. 

It was said that while the set in 
its present stage was far from being 
a reliable commercial transmitter, 
the tests just concluded show that 
an alternative type of equipment 
to the Alexanderson alternator is 
on the way to aid America in build- 
ing up its world-wide wireless corn- 
munication system. It also further 
substantiates Marconi's prediction 
that once reliable international tele- 
graphy is established by using 
tubes telephony must follow in its 
wake. 

When Dr. E. F. W. Alexanderson, 
Chief Engineer of the Radio Cor- 
poration of America and inventor 
of the Alexanderson alternator, was 
informed of the success of the ex- 
periment, he made the following 
comments over the telephone: 

"Trans-Atlantic telegraphy has 
become a routine business, but the 
importance of this demonstration 
is the bridging of the ocean by a 
few powerful vacuum tube units. 
In this case only six tubes were used 
and we can safely predict that the 
same feat will some day be per- 
formed by a single tube. But 
what is the next? We have here 
seen a new physical principle re- 
duced to practice on a large scale. 
Shall it fulfill the dreams that 
Edison's dynamo has not yet ful- 
filled to carry Niagara's power to 
New York? Ten years ago I be- 
came acquainted with the little 
device known as the Audion. Then 



it was a detector of signals and an 
amplifier, and then arose the ques- 
tion why not amplify some more 
and then some more and use it 
for transmitting signals as well as 
for receiving? Dr. Langmuir of 
the Research Laboratory of the 
General Electric Company gave the 
complete answer to this question, 
although it has taken ten years 
to get to the point where we have 
today a trans-Atlantic tube trans- 
mitter. In these ten years the 
energy of the vacuum tube has been 
increased more than a million times. 
A few more years of the same 
rate of improvement would bring 
us beyond our wildest dreams, but 
all we need to say is that science 
and engineering have received a 
new tool. It marks a turning-point 
like the steam engine and the 
dynamo. It will certainly give 
us trans-Atlantic telephone but it 
will undoubtedly give us much 
more." 

Dr. Langmuir, when reached at 
his summer home at Bolton's Land- 
ing on Lake George, said, "I am 
greatly pleased but not surprised 
at the success of the tubes. It is a 
stepping-stone in the progress of 
many years' development. We will 
make larger tubes when larger 
tubes are needed and we will make 
them of greater efficiency for the 
principle on which this development 
has gone forward is a sound one." 

Atwater Kent Tuner 

The Atwater Kent Manufacturing 
Company of Philadelphia, have developed 
this tuner with the idea of simplifying 
operation and still retain maximum per- 
formance. It takes the place of a 
variometer and variocoupler in a coupled 
circuit receiver, accomplishing the results 
with but one adjustment. 

Tuning of antenna circuit is unneces- 
sary. Three binding posts are provided 
on the back for adjusting the instrument 
to the particular type of antenna being 
used. Once this adjustment is de- 
termined, no further adjustment is 
necessary for broadcast reception. 

It is absolutely unaffected by body 
capacity at the dial knob. 

All insulating parts are sturdily made of 
moulded condensite and the workman- 
ship throughout is of the highest quality. 

The manufacturers state that at their 
summer laboratory in Kennebunkport, 
Maine, using this tuner, in conjunction 
with a standard circuit and two stages of 
audio frequency amplification, broadcast 
concerts have been clearly received from 
Porto Rico; Davenport, Iowa, Chicago, 
111., and many other distant points. 

The instrument can be used with a 
crystal detector and the crystal detector 
later discarded when a more pretentioui: 
set is desired. 



RADIO AGE— "tMfi MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



17 



J 




THOUGHT WAVES IWr^ITORlAL TOWER 



1 How shall the broadcaster 
recover on his investment? 

2 What is going to be done 
about interference that is 
ruining broadcast programs? 

3 What is the public going to 
do about interference that 
threatens to make receiving 
sets useless? 

4 What is going to be done 
about inducing musical ar- 
tists to continue their broad- 
casting work? 

ANSWER the foregoing questions 
and you have solved a mighty 
difficult and important problem. 
It is a vital problem. Radio be- 
came a craze in this country a year 
ago and the interest was expected 
to revive with the passing of the 
summer slump. It has revived 
only partially. At a recent national 
radio exposition, manufacturers held 
a meeting and told each other some- 
thing had to be done. 

The current issue of "Editor and 
Publisher" tells of a convention of 
newspaper circulation managers at 
Fresno, Calif., and the following 
paragraph appeared in the article: 
Use of radio as a feature of 
interest to the amusement-lov- 
ing public was scouted as being 
a thing of the past by several 
of the delegates. It was de- . 
clared that radio's sole value 
now is as a utility, and not as 
an amusement. 

Newspapers have been cutting 
down their radio departments. In 
many instances this has been a 
blessing to the radio art. But it 
shows the trend of things. Radio 
can thrive without extravagant pub- 
licity. But it is going to the bow- 
wows, so far as the independent 
broadcaster and the average re- 
ceiving set owner are concerned 
unless there is immediate and in- 
telligent cooperation. 

There is interference between 
amateur senders of code messages, 
interference between amateurs and 
broadcasting stations, and inter- 
ference between the broadcasting 
stations themselves. This is not a 
time to spare anybody's feelings. 
The truth about the whole matter 




could derive from it, are not so 
keen about continuing these gra- 
tuitous concerts. There is a notice 
posted in the leading Chicago Musi- 
cal College: "Do not broadcast, 
free. Make them pay you." Who's 
going to pay? If the broadcasters 
pay, it will only be adding to their 
already stiff investments. Members 
of the broadcasting audience might 
be willing to pay a trifling sum for 
the pleasure they get from these 
concerts, but whom could they pay 
and under what conditions? Would 

I .a broadcaster be permitted under 

_}|the law to accept contributions? 



is that amateurs and broadcasters 
have at times been too eager to use 
the air. Federal inspectors have 
failed to clear up the situation. 

The question as to how the broad- 
caster can recover on his invest- 
ment is an individual problem, 
affected by local conditions. The 
problem of interference is one, 
however, that can be solved with 
a little intelligent cooperation. The 
question was fully discussed at the 
initial meeting of the National 
Broadcasters' League in Chicago 
on October 16. One plan suggested 
was the arrangement of a "silent 
night" for broadcasters in each 
locality. The amateur has his dis- 
tinct position and his distinct rights 
in radio as well as the broadcasters. 
He may be depended upon, of 
course, to make concessions to the 
program senders and receivers as 
well as to ask concessions for the 
code senders and receivers. 



On the other hand if the musical 
artist is not paid, quality of pro- 
grams will be deteriorated. 

Expenses of broadcasting should 
be paid by those who are deriving 
benefit from it. Manufacturers 
favor broadcasting because it ex- 
tends the demand for their goods. 
Many broadcasting stations are 
established in the definite and 
generally vain, hope that the serv- 
ice rendered will result in orders 
for radio merchandise from the 
owner of the broadcasting station. 
Of course, this does not apply to 
the university stations, supported 
by state tax funds. 

Rumors of plans by the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing 
Company to monopolize broadcast- 
ing in the United States seem to 
have some confirmation, although 
a statement of the committee which 
framed the Kellogg-White Radio 
Bill explicitly assured the country 
that no monopoly would be per- 
mitted. In this connection the 
following statement by H. P. Davis, 



Progress of the radio business 
generally depends almost entirely 

upon the attitude of the owners of Vice President of the Westmghouse 
the receiving sets. Manufacturers Electric & Manufacturing ^ 



are not going to build a market for 
their goods in neighborhoods where 
disgusted owners of sets have grown 
weary of trying to pick something 
amusing or entertaining out of an 
aerial bedlam. 

We learn that a great many 
musical artists, having given their 
services free to broadcasting pur- 
poses for whatever publicity they 



Com- 
pany, may be interesting: 

"I have always maintained that, 
like the telephone and the tele- 
graph, the service is inherently 
monopolistic in character, and to 
get the best results, the best pro- 
grams, the greatest development, 
the activity should be confined to 
two or three companies of estab- 
lished reputation, having the neces- 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



sary facilities and incentive to 
develop it; that they should be 
under Federal control and be al- 
lowed this privilege as long as they 
have acceptable service." 

The above statement was made 
in an interview sent out from the 
Westinghouse offices for publica- 
tion. Mr. Davis went on to say 
that he believed five or six large, 
well-located and powerful stations 
would be sufficient to cover this 
continent ; that these stations should 
be licensed that would in any way 
be capable of interfering with the 
transmission from these large sta- 
tions. For local purposes there 
should be a network of low powered 
local stations on non-interfering 
wave bands. These stations should 
be capable of relaying the big sta- 
tions' service for their immediate 
vicinity, and should be able to 
furnish for their locality matters 
of local interest." 

The owner of a broadcasting sta- 
tion in Omaha which was put out of 
business on the ground that it 
exceeded its wave length has sued 
the Radio Corporation of America, 
charging that the big fellows are 
in a conspiracy and, in collusion 
with minor government officials, 
have been trying to eliminate 
troublesome competition. 

All these facts prove a necessity 
for cooperation and the broadcasters 
are to be congratulated upon^having 
formed a League through which 
they can act in concert. Radio is 
on trial before the American public. 
It needs all the cooperation its 
friends can summon in its behalf. 



Wireless for Health 



Setting-up exercises by radio, begin- 
ning at 7 o'clock each morning, is the lat- 
est use to which the radio has been put. 
On September 5, a series of weight-re- 
ducing and weight-gaining exercises for 
various members of the family was in- 
augurated and broadcasted from the Am- 
rad Station W G I at Medford Hillside, 
Mass., as a regular feature of its program. 

The object of this course is tb place at 
the disposal of all radio users the most ap- 
proved methods of securing physical ef- 
ficiency. Three exercise classes lasting 15 
minutes each are held every morning. 

While this latest use for radio is en- 
tirely an experiment, being the first time 
such a course has ever been attempted by 
radio — in fact, the first time a radio 
broadcast has been given at this hour of 
the day — reports indicate that the ex- 
ercises are being tried by people all over 
the New England District. 

The Three sets of exercises are graded 
as follows: The first for the normal busi- 
ness man or woman who wishes merely a 
set of toning-up exercises; the second for 
those who are overweight, and wish to re- 
duce; and the third for those who are 
underweight and wish to build up. 



New Broadcasters 
Licensed 

Twelve licenses were issued by the 
Department of Commerce to 360 
meter broadcasters and seven to 
Class B stations operating on 400 
meters between October 14 and 21. 
Supplemental List of Limited 
Commercial or Broadcasting 
Stations for 360 Meters, Li- 
censed Between October 14 
and 21, 1922. 
Call Station 

WMAY — Kingshighway, Presby- 
terian Church, St. Louis, Mo. 

WNAT— Lennig Bros. Co., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

WNAH— Manhattan Radio Sup- 
ply Co., Manhattan, Kansas. 

WOAV — Pennsylvania National 
Guard, Erie, Pa. 

WMAW— Wahpeton Electric Co., 
Wahpeton, N. D. 

WTAW— Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College of Texas, College 
Station, Texas. 

WPAA— Anderson & Webster 
Elect. Co., Waco, Nebraska. 

WNAJ— Benson Co., Chicago, 111. 

WMAN— Broad Street Baptist 
Church, Columbus, Ohio. 

KFBV— Clarence O. Ford, Colo- 
rado Springs, Colo. 

WMAX— K. & K. Radio Supply 
Co., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

WSAV--Clifford W. Vick, Radio 
Construction Co., Houston, Texas. 
The Following Class B Station 

Licenses Were Issued to Oper- 
ate on Wave Lengths of 400 

Meters, Between October 14 

and 21, 1922. 

Call Station 

WDAF — Kansas City Star, Kan- 
sas City, Mo. 

woe — Palmer School of Chiro- 
practic, Davenport, Iowa. 

WHB — Sweeney School Co., Kan- 
sas City, Mo. 

KDKA — Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Co., East Pittsburgh 
Pa. 

WSB — Atlanta Journal Co., At- 
lanta, Ga. 

WFI — Strawbridge & Clothier, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

WBAP— Wortham-Carter Pub. 
Co., The Star Telegram, Fort Worth 
Texas. 

Three broadcasting stations were 
licensed during the week ending October 
15: A cathedral in Boise, a college in 
Springfield, Ohio, and a city in Cali- 
fornia: 

KFDD, St. Michaels Cathedral, Boise, 
Idaho. 

WNAP, Wittenberg College, Spring- 
field, Ohio. 

KFEB, the City of Taft, California. 



Better Field Radio 

Signal Corps radio engineers are 
perfecting a better field radio set 
for Army infantry units. The pres- 
ent spark set, SCR 105, developed 
during the war has become prac- 
tically obsolete and continuous- 
wave sets are desired. 

A board of Signal Corps officers, 
which met at Camp Vail recently, 
has recommended that surplus sets 
such as SCR 79-A, 127 or 130 
be issued to infantry regiments for 
training purposes until continuous- 
wave sets can be developed and dis- 
tributed to replace the old 105s. 
Recently the continuous-wave sets 
were adopted for all Army radio 
communication. 

The old 105 sets are quenched- 
spark sets used for transmitting 
and receiving between headquarters, 
usually not more than five miles 
apart, but, if an amplifier was em- 
ployed by receiving stations, it was 
useful up to about thirteen miles. 

The SCR-79-A, one of the sets 
recommended by the Board as a 
temporary substitute, is a vacuum- 
tube set designed for transmitting 
undamped waves and for receiving 
either damped or undamped signals. 
The transmitter delivers about ten 
watts to the antenna, and the 
messages will carry about twenty 
miles on waves between 500 to 
1 ,100 meters. This set was designed 
for use at command posts or at 
headquarters where transportation 
is available. 

Details of the new sets are not 
completed, but it is understood 
that they have a range of about 
ten miles, and may be used between 
regiments and brigade headquarters. 



Bank Radio a Success 

The Union Trust Company, the 
largest bank in Cleveland, Ohio, has 
inaugurated its system of broadcast- 
ing market, stock and financial re- 
ports to other banks in the Fourth 
Federal Reserve District. A de- 
scription of the Cleveland bank's 
transmitting station and of its plan 
for broadcasting general, financial 
and commercial news was published 
in September number of Radio Age. 

One of the first Ohio banks to 
report satisfactory operation of the 
service was the Citizens' Banking 
Co. of Sandusky. The Sandusky 
bank has a Grebe outfit installed 
by Harold Caswell. 

Foreign exchange quotations are 
also sent daily in addition to news 
of the day. The local bank is 
equipped with printed blanks cov- 
ering the various stocks and markets 
and the operator has only to fill in 
the spaces. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



19 



The Monthly Service Bulletin of the 

National Broadcasters' League 



George S. Walker 

Western Radio Corporation 

President 



Solely by, of and for Radio Broadcasting Station Owners 

Arthur E. Ford, E. E. 

State University of Iowa 

First Vice President 

Founded to promote the best interest of Radio Broad- 
casting stations in the United States and Canada. 

Executive Offices, Garrick Building, Chicago, 111. 



Frederick A. Smith 

Radio Age Inc. 

Secretary 



Ne\v Federal Rules 

Regulation 57, page 55 (Radio Com- 
munication Laws of the United States), 
amended August 8, 1922, to read: 

Class 2. — Limited commercial stations 
are not open to public service and are 
licensed for a specific commercial service 
or services defined in the license. Sta- 
tions of this class must not transmit to or 
accept public messages from other sta- 
tions. No rates are authorized. Licenses 
of this class are required for all trans- 
mitting radio stations used for broad- 
casting news, concerts, lectures, and such 
matter. A wave length of 360 meters is 
authorized for such service, and a wave 
length of 485 meters is authorized for 
broadcasting crop reports and weather 
forecasts, provided the use of such wave 
lengths does not interfere with ship to 
shore or ship to ship service. 

Class B, Radiotelephone Broad- 
casting Stations 

A new class of radiotelephone broad- 
casting station license is hereby estab- 
lished to be known as class B. 

A license will not be issued for a station 
in this class which does not comply in 
every respect with the specifications 
hereunder. 

Specifications covering the require- 
ments governing the construction licens- 
ing, operating and service of class B 
radiotelephone broadcasting stations: 
Station 

Wave Length. — The wave length of 
400 meters only will be assigned for the 
use of stations of this class which must 
be reasonably free from harmonics. 

Power. — The power supply must be 
dependable and nonfluctuating. The 
minimum required will be 500 watts in 
the antenna and the maximum shall not 
exceed 1,000 watts in the antenna. 

Modulation. — The system must be 
so arranged as to cause the generated 
radio frequency current to vary accur- 
ately according to the sound impressed 
upon the microphone system. 

Spare Parts. — Sufficient tubes and 
other material must be readily available 
to insure continuity and reliability of the 
announced schedule of service. 

Antenna. — The antenna must be so 
constructed as to prevent swinging. 

Signaling System. — Some dependable 
system must be provided for communica- 
tion between the operating room and the 
studio. 



Studio.- — ^The radio equipment in the 
studio must be limited to that essential 
for use in the room. The room shall be 
so arranged as to avoid sound reverbera- 
tion and to exclude external and un- 
necessary noises. 

Service 

Programs. — The programs must be 
carefully supervised and maintained to 
insure satisfactory service to the public. 

Music. — Mechanically operated musi- 
cal instruments may be used only in an 
emergency and during intermission per- 
iods in regular program. 

Division of Time. — Where two or more 
stations of class B are licensed in the same 
city or locality a division of time will be 
required if necessary. 

Forfeiture 

Licenses issued for the use of the 400 
meters wave length shall specifically 
provide that any failure to maintain the 
standards prescribed for such stations 
may result in the cancelation of the license 
and requiring the station to use the 360 
meters wave length. 



Charges Conspiracy 
Closed IStation 

"DROADCASTERS throughout the 
-*-' country are showing keen interest 
in a suit filed against The Radio Cor- 
poration of America, the General Electric 
Company, and others, by John 0. 
Yeiser, Jr., of Omaha, who complains 
that his station was closed as the result 
of a conspiracy. 

The substance of the suit is contained 
in the following Associated Press dis- 
patch, published in newspapers of the 
country on October 19: 

Omaha, Neb., Oct. 18. — A charge 
that the Radio Corporation of America, 
the General Electric company and others 
have entered a conspiracy to obtain a 
monopoly of wireless service and prevent 
individual use of the radio, is made in a 
suit filed in United States District court 
today by John O. Yeiser, Jr., of Omaha, 
who asks an injunction to enjoin the 
defendents from interfering with his 
right to broadcast. 

Yeiser alleges that "there are 25,000 
wave lengths that may be used in trans- 
mitting distinct non-interfering radio 
service and yet the said defendants, by 
conspiring with unknown underlings in 
the department of the government, 
assume to exercise authority over the 



radio service, have crowded all broad- 
casting stations sending music, lectures 
and educational matters to waves of 
360 meters." 

The Radio Corporation, General Elec- 
tric company, the American Telephone 
and Telegraph company, the North- 
western Bell Telephone company, and 
the Westinghouse Electric Manufactur- 
ing company and other persons and 
corporations unknown to Yeiser, he avers 
"intend to erect distinct sending stations 
and commercialize the same by charges 
for broadcasting." 

He alleges his own radio station was 
closed recently because he was operating 
slightly above 360 meters wave length, 
and that the first amendment to the 
constitution which says "congress shall 
make no law abridging the freedom of 
speech or of the press," is being violated. 
A jury to determine damages, which he 
alleges to be $25,000, is requested, with 
treble damages under the Sherman 
antitrust law, and an attorney's fee of 
$25,000. 

Yeiser's action cites that "interference 
was undertaken with a powerful and 
clear station in Atlanta, Ga., which has 
been giving wonderful concerts nightly, 
enjoyed by people in every state in the 
union, and to avoid conflict, was a shade 
above 360 meters, and in pursuance of 
said conspiracy a radio inspector con- 
nected with the Western Electric com- 
pany, compelled said station to get back 
exactly to 360 meters where its efficiency 
is but a small part of what it would be 
if given an honest freedom of the air 
under rules that would be in no way 
interference to others." 



Plan "Radio Week" 

A National Week, to be observed from 
November 26 to December 2, is being 
urged upon manufacturers, retailers, 
broadcasters and the great radio public, 
by a group of eastern enthusiasts, who see 
in such a week the possibilities of mutual 
benefit. 

The plans proposed include a variety 
of suggestions to make the ether of the 
nation throb with broadcast treats, so 
that radio parties may be held in the 
homes of the fans every night of the 
week. The retailers will be asked to 
devote more space to window displays 
and to other demonstrations and each of 
the interested groups will make it a 
"Boost Radio Week." 



20 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



Limitations of Radio 
Bill 

(By Washington Radio News 
Service.) 

CONGRESSMAN White, of 
Maine, father of the Radio 
Bill, calculated to improve 
radio in this country commercially, 
in broadcasting, and for amateurs, 
has returned to the Capital and 
believes that the bill will be taken 
up by his committee early in 
December. 

The enactment of this long- 
looked-for legislation will benefit 
all branches of radio, but officials 
of the Department of Commerce, 
say that it will not entirely elimi- 
nate interference in broadcasting. 
There are some features in con- 
nection with radio which cannot 
be corrected by legislation, it is 
pointed out by experts of the 
Government, such as the mastering 
of one's own set. 

Even if there were enough waves 
to give each station an exclusive 
band, and there are not nearly 
enough, interference would still be 
encountered or at least reported 
by fans endeavoring to receive 
the news and entertainment offered 
by 522 stations, many of them in 
one community. This would be 
£0 because many receiving sets 
are not capable of fine adjustment 
and cannot be properly tuned to 
a specified wave length. 

In spite of possessing excellent 
sets, many enthusiasts are not 
able to tune properly; they do 
not know how to manipulate their 
sets and eliminate interference with- 
in a prescribed band. Already 
reports have been received by the 
Department that broadcasting on 
the new 400 meter wave is inter- 
fering with that on the 360 wave, 
which should not be the case with 
40 meters between. 

If transmission is good, first- 
class receiving sets should be cap- 
able of tuning within a variation 
of from 5 to 10 meters, inspectors 
say; unless one station broadcasting 
was in the immediate vicinity of 
the receiver. 

Although Secretary Hoover will 
probably receive authority in the 
Radio Bill to limit the number of 
transmitting stations, it A\'ill be 
difficult to accomplish this in con- 
gested areas where several broad- 
casting stations are already located. 
Municipal authorities and organ- 
izations of listeners-in may have 
to aid the Secretary when the time 
comes by indicating which stations 
are the best and what services 
are most desired. The listeners-in 
are organized in Washington and 



such a body might become a censor 
of the air, so to speak, endorsing 
the good stations and reporting 
those which are unsatisfactory, thus 
aiding in establishing better service. 
In any event, it is hoped that both 
wave lengths and time schedules 
will aid the broadcasting in con- 
gested districts. 

Distributors of radio equipment 
capable of fine adjustment should 
instruct purchasers carefully and 
when possible assist them in setting 
up their sets and tuning in. It is 
evident that a large percentage 
of those interested in radio will 
have to be educated in the use 
of their sets, and this may devolve 
upon the broadcasters themselves, 
who are interested in having their 
programs clearly heard, or on radio 
associations. The Bureau of Stand- 
ards has been giving information 
along this line for some time. 

It is expected by Department 
of Commerce experts that the loop 
receiver, possessing directional qual- 
ities, will aid in the selection of 
broadcasts and help in eliminating 
the other stations' programs, when 
used in conjunction with tube 
receiving sets. The cost is not 
excessive in comparison to an aerial 
and as the indoor coil can be in- 
stalled in a corner of a room, the 
disfiguring overhead aerial may 
eventually disappear from house- 
tops. It is part of the question 
of experimentation and education 
in radio. 



Appeals to Hoover 

AMONG other interesting develop- 
ments of the month relating to 
broadcasting and to the growing impres- 
sion that the very life of radio is menaced 
by interference in the air and by lack of 
cooperation between the government 
and the radio broadcasters and listeners- 
in, was a letter addressed to Herbert 
Hoover, Secretary of Commerce by 
William B. Duck. 

The letter follows: 

September 29, 1922. 
Mr. Herbert Hoover, 

Secretary of Commerce, 
Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir: 

Can you not, Mr. Hoover, at once 
assume the initiative and end the intoler- 
able existing situation on radio by reason 
of the existing order that all broadcasting 
be done on 360 meters? The business of 
every radio house has suffered incalculably 
and at a time when they could ill afford 
to stand the strain, because of this 
unnecessary situation. We have been 
patient, hoping and hoping that the law 
would quickly be changed. Had the 
contemplated law been passed a few 
months ago the radio business would have 
been wonderful and none of us would 
have had to endure the financial strain 
that we have endured this summer. To 



me it is utterly inexcusable that an 
intelligent body of men would allow such 
a condition to exist for such an unreason- 
able length of time. I know all the alibis 
and, to be frank, they mean nothing. 
It would not take five minutes to put 
this law through. 

Why, then, should we be compelled to 
wait month after month until the endless 
debates on tariff, bonus and other 
matters have had their run? You have 
stated under your signature that every- 
one is in favor of the law because no one 
is interested in disturbances. The 
Government was quick to take measures 
to stop the stress of the coal and railroad 
strikes and yet it deliberately punishes 
all radio manufacturers and causes 
unnecessary disturbances to a million 
people by allotting a pin point in the 
Heavens for the broadcasting of radio 
entertainments. 

I am a lawyer by profession and in 
the course of my studies I have fam- 
iliarized myself with much that has 
taken place in Congress for a long number 
of years but there is nothing in the entire 
history of the proceedings of Congress 
remotely approaching the indifference 
that has been manifested on a matter so 
urgent and vital and yet so simple to 
remedy. I do not believe that there 
would be a single objection when a 
proper explanation is made for immediate 
action on the bill now pending. 

If there is some good reason for not 
passing the bill in its entirety, it would 
be no trouble at all to pass a bill covering 
that feature only which would permit 
broadcasting on different wave lengths. 
In fact, I do not believe that any law is 
necessary to change the existing con- 
ditions. I do not believe that any bill 
was passed giving the Department of 
Commerce authority to assign wave 
lengths of 360 meters for broadcasting, 
although I may be mistaken in this. 1 
am certain that no bill was passed for the 
recent ruling assigning wave lengths of 
400 meters for the more powerful sta- 
tions. I cannot help but remark that 
this latest ruling has, -not benefited the 
situation a whole lot. There are wonder- 
ful concerts going on in every part of 
the country every evening and also 
many instructive talks. The grand opera 
season will soon open in Chicago. Here 
in Toledo we can hear no station but 
Detroit between seven and ten o'clock 
except when using an extremely selective 
set and then not clearly. 

We criticize the existing conditions in 
Russia and yet we have a parallel case 
in the ether in this country and those in 
authority are responsible for it. 

It has always been my understanding 
that you are one of the few men in this 
blessed country of ours that does things 
and without a whole lot of red tape. You 
can make yourself the eternal benefactor 
of a million fans and the radio manufac- 
turers and dealers by taking the initia- 
tive in this matter. Will you not do it? 
There is no excuse for the existing con- 
ditions to continue for another week. 

I sincerely trust that you will use the 
power and authority vested in you to 
remedy this situation without delay 
THE WILLIAM 13. DUCK CO. 
Per William B. Duck. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINK OF THE HOUR" 



21 



With the Radio Trade 



Business Situation New Klosner Devices 



Conditions forecast revival of public 
interest in radio and a consequent boom 
in the industry was the consensus of 
radio broadcasters of the country, who 
met at the Hotel Sherman, Chicago, 
October 16, to organize the National 
Broadcasters' League for the protection 
of their interests. 

The gathering of radio men was some- 
what startled by the straight-from-the- 
shoulder announcement of George S. 
Walker, President of the Western Radio 
Corporation, of Denver, who also oper- 
ates broadcasting station WFAF, that 
5,000 radio dealers are on the verge of 
bankruptcy and that something must be 
done to readjust conditions in the in- 
dustry to save this small army of busi- 
ness men from the loss of their investment. 

This statement aroused the conferees 
to a realization of the situation in the 
industry and brought out an expression 
of belief that the first of the year would 
see a renewed interest in radio by the 
public and the movement of radio sup- 
plies from the dealers' shelves. Mr. 
Walker made it clear that he did not wish 
to be mistaken for a pessimist. He is 
convinced that the radio industry is des- 
tined to become one of the greatest com- 
mercial enterprises in the world, but he 
insisted that the proper type of men 
should steer the radio ship, and the 
industry as a whole should be foremost 
in their minds and not permit the selfish 
interests of a few to guide an infant 
industry, with the risk of running the 
bark on commercial shoals that might 
spell its destruction when it has such a 
bright future. 

The majority of the delegates to the 
meeting were optimistic of the future of 
radio and expressed themselves as confi- 
dent that in January there would be a 
fresh spurt in all lines of the industry. 
One of those who emphasized this point 
was Thomas Findley, of Minneapolis, of 
the Findley Electric Company, who 
operates Broadcasting station WLAG. 

This feeling of optimism confirmed the 
decision of Milo E. Westbrooke, who 
attended the conference, made after the 
First National Radio Exposition last 
June, that January was the proper time 
to hold the Second National Radio show, 
which will be in the First Regiment 
Armory, Chicago, January 13 to 20. 
By that time the school boys will have 
got well into their radio work in the 
school shops, the radio fans will be spend- 
ing more time home at nights, the 
reception will be at its best and the 
dealers will have completed their inven- 
tories and know where they stand and 
what they want to buy. 



Flans are complete for the First 
Annual South Eastern Radio Exposition 
to be held in Atlanta, December 4 to 9, 
inclusive. 

This exposition is sponsored by lead- 
ing radio jobbers and dealers of Atlanta 
and the southeast, and undoubtedly will 
create a marked increase in radio activity. 



The Klosner Improved Apparatus 
Company has recently announced to the 
radio world the introduction of its two 
new pieces of apparatus, Klosner Vernier 
Rheostat Model 200 and the Klosner 
Amplitrol. 

The new rheostat is- claimed to be 
far ahead of all other instruments for 
controlling detector tubes. It has a 
vernier micrometer adjustment, which 
makes it several times more sensitive than 
any ordinary rheostat. It permits get- 
ting exactly on the correct spot for 
loudest reception of speech and code. 




It is made of genuine condensite, with 
phosphor bronze contacts. It is equipped 
with a dial on which graduations are 
shown in white. Both course and fine 
adjustments are operated by one single 
knob. 

The Klosner Amplitrol fills that long- 
felt radio want — of controlling the 
vacuum tube circuit without the use of 
jacks, plugs or additional switches. 
With the amplitrol in use, it is no longer 
necessary to plug in from one stage to 
the next. The phones or loudspeaker 
are simply attached to binding posts and 
any stage is turned on at will. 




The amplitrol not only adjusts the 
filament to its maximum efficiency, but 
it also automatically switches on and off 
the plate circuit. Unlike automatic 
filament control, the amplitrol does not 
put a sudden strain on the filament. It. 
provides a gradual current increase for 
the filament, prolonging the life of the 
vacuum tube at least one-third. 

It is made of moulded condensite witb 
phosphor bronze contacts. Its exposed! 
metal parts are highly nickel plated. 
It has a new style knob and dial witb 
graduations in white lettering. 



New York Show 
Dec, 21 

Announcement has just been made that 
with the backing of the more important 
interests in the radio industry, the 
American Radio Exposition will be held 
in Grand Central Palace, December 21 
to 30, next. It is planned to make this 
the first really comprehensive radio 
exposition ever staged and all manner of 
inventions, equipment and accessories 
connected with wireless transmission will 
be exhibited. The exposition has been 
officially indorsed by the Associated 
Manufacturers of Electrical Supplies, 
and the National Radio Chamber of Com- 
merce, both organizations promising 
their utmost cooperation in order to 
insure the event being a credit to the 
industry. 

It is the intention of the sponsors of 
the exposition, the American Radio 
Exposition Company, to make the event 
a display that will cover the entire radio 
field. The reason the exposition com- 
pany chose the holiday season for holding 
the show is that the schools and colleges 
will be closed, thus offering an excellent 
opportunity for students, parents and 
teachers to learn the real value of and 
the progress made in wireless during the 
past few years. 



Another New York 
Show 

All the latest wonders of the Radio 
industry will be shown, when radio manu- 
facturers from all over the world will as- 
semble during the week of November 20 
to 25, at Madison Square Garden, New 
York, to stage the greatest exhibition of 
radio ever held. The scope of the show 
will be international as exhibitors will 
bring products of both foreign and Ameri- 
can ingenuity before the public, showing 
the tremendous strides that have been 
made in the art since broadcasting 
became popular. 

Some of the stellar features announced 
for the show include the transmission of 
photographs by radio, the drilling of an 
entire army by the same method, whisper- 
ed conversations to be carried on between 
the Madison Square Tower and Eiffel 
Tower in Paris, moving pictures showing 
how radio can be used in place of an 
anaesthetic during an operation and 
radio talking pictures. 



22 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



Pick-Up Records By Our Readers 



REMARKABLE success with a 
Reinartz circuit as described in 
Radio Age is reported by George 
J. Besnah, 620 Elk St., Stevens Point, 
Wis. Mr. Besnah, who is associated 
with the St. Paul Railroad, made a 
Reinartz set with two steps of amplifica- 
tion with which he has been able to hear 
such distant stations as KUO, San Fran- 
cisco; CJNC, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Can- 
ada; KZN, Salt Lake Cit>, Utah; WBZ, 
Medford Hillside, Mass.; the station at 
Galveston, Texas, and WSB at Atlanta. 

Mr. Besnah writes to Mr. Pearne, 
technical editor of Radio Age, as follows: 

"Last June I constructed a Reinartz 
set as per your diagram and have had 
excellent results with it. I don't think 
you will find many records that will beat 
mine. I have two stages of amplifica- 
tion, but seldom use more than one. I 
heard WAAJ, Boston, Mass., very clearly 
on the night of July 26. This was in 
extremely hot weather and static very 
bad, but I got them in very well on one 
stage. 

"I note your article in September 
issue of Radio Age, saying this set 
should have a radius of 1,500 miles in 
winter. In September I heard KUO, 
San Francisco, Calif., fine, using one 
stage. This is about 1,900 miles. I 
live in the geographical center of Wis- 
consin. Have reached Boston on the 
East Coast, San Francisco on the West; 
Galveston on the Gulf and Winnipeg, 
Manitoba, on the North. Please advise 
where else you want me to go and I 
think I can make it. I have an aerial 
150 feet long; two wires about 45 feet 
high. This set was hurriedly constructed 
to try out this circuit. It is mounted 
on a wood panel; inside wiring No. 18 
bell wire. Not a soldered connection in 
the outfit. Am sending you a list of 
some of the places heard, of which I have 
kept a record. I want to thank you for 
your ■ very instructive articles and in- 
formation sent me and your advice to 
the amateur to build a Reinartz set is a 
tip they will not regret they followed. 
Knowing what my outfit will do and has 
done I wouldn't trade the old pine box 
for the finest set the radio shops exhibit. 

Again thanking you, I am 
Very truly yours, 

GEO. J. BESNAH. 

620 Elk St., Stevens Point, Wis. 

Following is a list of stations heard by 
Mr. Besnah: 

KDKA, Pittsburgh, Pa.; KSD, St. 
Louis, Mo.; KUO, San Francisco, Calif.; 
KYW, Chicago, 111.; WDAP, Chicago, 
111.; WGAS, Chicago, 111.; KZN. Salt 
Lake City, Utah; WAAJ, Boston, Mass.; 
WAAK, Milwaukee, Wis.; WCAY, Mil- 
waukee, Wis.; WAAL, Minneapolis, 
Minn.; WBAD, Minneapolis, Minn.; 
WLB, Minneapolis, Minn.; WAAP, 
Wichita, Kans.; WWJ, Detroit, Mich.; 
WCX, Detroit, Mich.; WDAF, Kansas 
City, Mo.; WOQ, Kansas City, Mo.; 
WHB, Kansas City, Mo.; WFAA, Dallas, 



Texas; WFAS, Fort Wayne, Ind. 
WGAB, Houston, Texas; WGAQ,Shreve- 
port, La.; WGAY, Madison, Wis.; WHA 
Madison, Wis.; WGF, Des Moines, Iowa 
WGR, Buffalo, N. Y.; WGY, Schenec 
tady, N. Y.; WHAA, Iowa City, Iowa 
WHAB, Galveston, Texas; WHAJ, Blue 
field, W. Va.; WHAS, Louisville, Ky. 
WLW, Cincinnati, Ohio; WOC, Daven 
port, Iowa; WOH, Indianapolis, Ind. 
WOI, Ames, Iowa, WOS, Jefferson, Mo. 
WPA, Fort Worth, Texas; WSB, At. 
lanta, Ga.; WLAD, Hastings, Nebr. 
DN4, Denver, Colo.; DOS, Denver 
Colo.; KFAF, Denver, Colo.; CJNC 
Winnipeg, Man.; WBL, Anthony, Kans. 
WMAK, Lockport, N. Y.; WLAM, 
Springfield, Ohio. 



6,000 Miles With 
Crystal Set 

"Fort Stockton, Texas, 

October 5, 1922. 
"Western Radio Corporation, 

"Denver, Colorado. 
"Gentlemen: 

"Last evening, (Oct. 4,)about 10 o'clock 
p. m. (Central time), using a small, 
home made loos coupler, with ordinary 
crystal hook-up, no accessories whatever, 
in the way of amplification, I very plainly 
and distinctly heard you giving the list 
of persons that heard you broadcasting, 
and your invitation for all to write, in 
order that you might judge how it was 
going out. 

"Now, as I have contended for some 
time, this dope you see in some radio 
journals, that the range of an ordinary 
crystal receiving set is not over 100 
miles or so, is all bunk. 

"If a person has a properly designed 
set, and has a first class ground, with all 
soldered connections, a good head set, 
and last but by no means least, a first 
class crystal, and knows how to tune 
them in, there is no telling what the 
range is. 

"I have often heard Honolulu at this 
place air line distance 3,300 miles, in 
fact used to hear him every night in the 
winter of 1920, when he was using 9,000 
meter spark, with an ordinary crystal 
hook-up, but of course using a larger 
tuner. 

"Last night I not only heard you 
plainly, but also heard San Antonio, 
Texas, Fort Worth, Texas, and the St. 
Louis Post Dispatch, and all came in 
very distinctly and plain. 

"If you give this out in your broadcast, 
be sure to state that the reception was 
with an ordinary crystal hook-up, and 
that the crystal used was the M. P. M. 
(Million Point Mineral), which, by the 
way, is away ahead of any crystal I 
have ever tried. 

"Yours truly, 
"GEO. C. HASELTINE. 

"Address: Geo. C. Haseltine, Fort 
Stockton, Texas. 



Crystal Scores Again 

St. Louis, October 2, 1922. 
Radio Age, 

Garrick Building, Chicago, 111. 
Gentlemen: 

In May I received a thirteen contact 
point crystal set from you as a subscrip- 
tion premium. My set is doing such 
good work that I have decided to send 
you the records I have received. 

On Friday, September 29, I tuned in 
with WGY and the Kansas City Star; 
on September 30, Rochester, N. Y., and 
on October, WOC, Davenport, Iowa. 

I have just used the crystal set alone 
without batteries or 2-stage amplifier. 
My aerial is about 100 feet long and 
lead-in is about twenty-five feet. 

I receive Stations KSD and WCK so 
distinctly that I can hear it in all parts 
of the room, in which I have my set 
installed. Yours truly, 

EDW. J. REBRICK, 

1406 N. 12th St. 



Back Home Concert 

Down in Johnson City, Tenn., arrange- 
ments were made last week for a radio 
concert. This was to be "staged" in 
the store of the Bishop Electric Company, 
radio dealers, of that city. It was sug- 
gested that it would be interesting to 
have "home town" girls take part in 
the concert to be received, and in order 
to satisfy the desires of the many per- 
sons who had been invited to attend the 
concert, the Crosley Manufacturing 
Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, broadcast 
a special concert in which Miss Edith 
Miller, violinist. Miss Marjory Hunt, 
pianist, and Miss Lowell Jones, all of 
Johnson City, took part. The three 
young ladies are studying music at the 
Cincinnati Conservatory of Music, and 
by special permission of the faculty of 
that institution came to the broadcast- 
ing station, the call letters of which are 
WLW, and played for the folks "back 
home." And when this special concert 
was being broadcast the following tele- 
gram was received from the Bishop 
Electric Company: "Big crowd in store 
enjoying work of Johnson City girls." 



Long Distance Record 

Summer static didn't bother the 
radio operator on the tug Oneonta, which 
was anchored at Columbia river harbor, 
Astoria, Ore., when he heard Atlanta re- 
cently. This is a distance of about 2,400 
miles. It is considered a record in radio 
telephony and is the more interesting in 
that it was made during warm weather. 



Forty-six States in Line 

There are at present only two states 
in the union, Delaware and Wyoming, 
which do not have broadcasting stations. 
Kentucky and Mississippi went on the 
broadcasting map of the department of 
commerce last week, when stations in 
Louisville and Corinth were licensed. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



23 



Questions and Ans^vers 



p. S., Brookline, Mass. 

Question: I read your article on the 
Reinartz tuner and then saw in another 
magazine, another type of coil. This 
was wound on a 5-inch tube, with the 
same number of turns and the taps were 
taken off at the same places. Could you 
tell me the difference in inductance? 
In the October issue of Radio Age, you 
recommended a "T" type antenna for 
transmitting. I am using a cage type 
at present. Is there any difference in 
efficiency? 

Answer: The tube winding is quite 
often used, although Mr. Reinartz only 
recommends it for 600 meters and over. 
In the spider-web type a closer coupling 
is obtained and the distributed capaci- 
tance is reduced to a minimum. If your 
lead-in is taken off from the center of 
your antenna, you will probably get 
better results with the cage type. 
M. I., Stoughton, Wis. 

Question: How could I arrange an 
amplifier or loud speaker so that instead 
of putting my phones to the ear, it could 
be put under an amplifier and speak 
loudly out into the room, so that all 
present could hear what goes through 
the connecting phone? Please give me 
the name and address of a good radio 
book, from which to read up on radio. 

Answer: I do not exactly understand 
what you mean. If you want a horn to 
which your phones can be attached, 
you can procure this at any radio supply 
house. There are many types on the 
market. The Wireless Experimenter's 
Manual, by Elmer E. Bucher, is a good 
book for you and any book store can 
get it. It is published by the Wireless 
Press Inc., 326 Broadway, N. Y. 
G. B., Indianapolis, Ind. 

Question: I am interested in the 
Reinartz receiving set. Can such a 
tuner be used on a crystal set? What 
is the wave length of the set described? 
Could this wave length be increased by 
using honey-comb coils? When you 
speak of "signals" do you mean music 
or just C. W. telegraph. 

Answer: No. it would not work. 
Wave length is 130 to 370 meters. Honey- 
comb coils added to this will increase 
the wave length. The term signals as used 
in this case means music, voice or C. W. 



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COWDMSEE 



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CONDENSES 



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W (y^OVM£> 



L. R. S., Toledo, Ohio. 

Question: Will you please give me 
a good circuit using a vario-coupler, 
two variometers, detector tube and 
batteries. I have tried several circuits, 
but have had poor success, so please 
send me a good one, or print it in your 
question and answer column. 

Answer: Circuit below. 
H. T. W., Middletown, Ohio. 

Question: Will you kindly send me 
details showing how to hook-up vacuum 
tube to the crystal set circuit enclosed? 
I would like to have the crystal taken 
off if possible. 

Answer: I am sending this circuit 
by mail. 
E. A. T., South Haven, Mich. 

Question: I am a subscriber to Radio 
Age and would like to receive the follow- 
ing information. Will you please send 
me a drawing for a good radiophone 
hook-up, using four C.302 tubes, with 
voice amplifier? I will use motor gener- 
ator for plate supply. If possible would 
like to have all choke coils, etc., de- 
scribed, giving length, number of turns 
with size of wire used. 

Answer: I am enclosing circuit in 
the mail, but as I have never had any 
personal experience with this circuit, 
I cannot give an intelligent description 
of the coils, but you can soon determine 
this by experiment. 
G. E. McG., Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Question: Please inform me as to 



V 



GRIT 
VARIOMETER 



PLATE 
\5tRI0MErEE 




A7ARI0 - 
COUPLER 




CrK)UND 



Hi 



■A..BATTEKY^" 



-^ BATTERV 



PHONES 



the best method of connecting up a 
crystal receiving set using a vario- 
coupler and a variable condenser. I 
have a good aerial, I think. It is 15C 
feet long, consists of 3 wires well in- 
sulated, and is 40 feet high. Would this 
be considered a good aerial? 

Answer: Hook-up above. Your aerial 
ought to get splendid results. 
W. A. R., Chicago, 111. 

Question: Although an amateur, I 
read with great interest in the September 
issue of the Radio Age, your article on, 
and hook-up of the Reinartz tuner. I 
mean to get busy immediately on one 
of these and surely would appreciate 
it if you would please send me a diagram 
showing how instruments, switches, con- 
trol, etc., are placed in box and on panel 
8" by 18'. Also the kind of bulb used. 
Will you also please give me a circuit 
for a sharp, long distance crystal set? 

Answer: I am sending you a rough 
sketch by mail, showing how the panel 
is arranged, etc. Also I am sending the 
crystal circuit. Use either Cunning- 
ham, Radiotron, or Western Electric 
tubes. Be sure that you get a detector 
tube for the detector and amplifying 
tubes for amplifiers. 
E. K., Chicago, 111. 

Question: I have read with interest 
your article on how to make an audio 
frequency transformer and would like 
to know if it is possible to make this 
transformer and have it work, without 
a great amount of leakage. Is it possible 
to calculate the .transformer, or is it 
just experiment? I expect to construct 
one of them. If silicon steel can not be 
purchased, what other electrical sheet 
iron can be used, and where can I pur- 
chase that, or silicon steel? 

Answer: If the transformer is well 
made, there will be no leakage to speak 
of. All joints where the iron comes 
together should be nice and square, 
so that they will make good contact. 
Yes, all transformers are calculated. 
This particular one has been made and 
tried out and is not an experiment. You 
can purchase the iron or steel from Jos. 
T. Ryerson and Sons, Chicago, Steel 
Sales Co., Chicago, or Chas. G. Stevens, 
Chicago. Use either silicon steel, or 
electrical sheet iron. 



24 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



L U. S. Sells by Radio 

Tipping off American business men by' 
radio as to foreign sales openings in order 
to get the jump on America's competitors 
for the world markets is the commerce 
department's latest trade-promoting 
stunt. 

Inquiries for American goods coming 
into the bureau of foreign and domestic 
commerce from consuls, commercial 
attaches and other government repre- 
sentatives in foreign countries are now- 
distributed to New England manufac- 
turers and merchants through the air by 
the bureau's Boston office in collabora- 
tion with the VVGI broadcasting station 
at Medford. 

The service was tried out one night 
last week for the first time as an experi- 
ment. By first mail the next morning 
several letters were received from nearby 
firms. One of the leading New England 
manufacturers of artificial leather who 
happened to be "listening in" that night 
learned of two openings for his goods; 
one in Mexico and the other in Colombia. 
He was much pleased, commending the 
department of commerce for taking ad- 
vantage of "this most valuable time- 
saving device." In the opinion of an- 
other New England merchant, the new 
"sell-it-by-air service" should appeal 
particularly to the out-of-town manu- 
facturers and merchants who are not in 
daily contact with the offices maintained 
by the commerce department in Boston, 
New York, San Francisco, Chicago, New 
Orleans and other leading cities. "For 
example," says this executive, "there are 
many manufacturers interested in radio 
who wish to sell abroad but who are 
prevented from keeping in constant 
touch by frequent visits and telephone 
calls with the trade openings reported to 
the government agents. As the radio 
stations reach many outlying cities it 
would seem that this service would be 
of especial value to more distantly sit- 
uated business men within a wide 
radius." 

Selling American goods in foreign 
markets through the help of ether waves 
can be readily extended to other parts of 
the United States, in the opinion of Dr. 
Julius Klein, director of the bureau of 
foreign and domestic commerce. Di- 
rector Klein pointed out that his bureau 
maintains thirty-four district and co- 
operative offices' in this country in 
addition to the Eastern branch. The 
sending out of the information in each 
case is a problem for the local manager 
to arrange with some nearby broadcast- 
ing station, as all of them have been 
authorized to undertake the work, he 
said. 



Radio to Near East 

By CARL H. BUTMAN 

Special to Radio Age: 
Washington, D. C. — Back of the com- 
mercial systems of world communication, 
known and used by both the Govern- 
ment and private interests, lie existing 
lines of communication little known to 
the public, although not strictly "secret." 
Only recently, when the "Terrible Turks" 
threatened the Dardanelles and south- 



eastern Europe, the State Department 
asked the Navy if aid could be given in 
the transmission of dispatches to the 
Near East in the event that communica- 
tion service to that quarter of the globe 
was broken. To this question, which 
caused the State Department some con- 
cern, the Naval Communications Service 
made reply as follows: "Our lines of 
communication to the Embassy at Con- 
stantinople and all our naval craft in 
Turkish waters are established and in 
official use today. We can communicate 
with Admiral Bristol within a few 
minutes." 

It has justly been stated that naval 
communication circles the world. So it 
does, with the exception of very few 
corners, and three-fourths of the com- 
munication is handled by radio. 

How the Service Operates 

Today, when a dispatch for Admiral 
Bristol is filed in the Navy Department, 
it goes out at once via the Annapolis 
radio station to a French radio station, 
thence by land line to the office of the 
American Communication Service oper- 
ated by naval personnel in Paris, where 
it is checked and forwarded by wire to 
Coblenz. The message is relayed elec- 
trically at Coblenz from the office of the 
chief signal officer of the American Forces 
in Germany, where Army operators 
handle the wires to Vienna. The Vienna 
station is in the Austrian Telegraph 
building, but the station is operated by 
the United States Navy. From Vienna 
the message goes forward by Naval 
radio service from the station at Laare- 
burg direct to the receiving station at 
the American Embassy at Constanti- 
nople, where naval personnel again 
handle the dispatch and forward it to 
the naval ship on station there, which 
relays it to its destination. 

Admiral Bristol is in charge of all 
American naval vessels in Turkish waters, 
and the presence of his destroyers makes 
a sort of fan to all points of which mes- 
sages can be relayed by radio and de- 
livered from the vessels to other points. 
In the event of a break in the wires from 
Paris to Vienna, messages for Constan- 
tinople would be radioed by French 
stations to Vienna and to United States 
naval vessels in the Mediterranean. 

The Return Route 

The route of messages from points in 
the Black Sea to the United States is 
similar, except that the outlying ship 
transmits by radio to Constantinople, 
either to the station ship or the Em- 
bassy, but only the ship can send mes- 
sages. From the station ship the message 
goes by radio to Vienna, thence to Cob- 
lenz by wire and through to Paris, where 
dispatches are turned over to French 
Radio Service for transmission, either 
from Lyons or Lafayette to Bar Harbor 
and delivered by land wire to the Navy 
Building in Washington. 

This system, though seemingly some- 
what round-about, is nearly direct and 
is good except that it is subject to delay 
on account of schedules, as the Allies 
all use the same route in and out of 
Constantinople and keep it busy twenty- 
four hours of the day. 



Radio Cheers Convict 

When George Rollins, convicted of 
murder, was "listening-in" on his little 
radio set several weeks ago, he heard 
information which may bring about his 
pardon. Rollins in his cell was listening 
to the regular late news broadcast from 
the Amrad Station WGI at Medford 
Hillside. Announcement was made that 
Governor Sproul of Pennsylvania was to 
release Frank Smith, alias Jesse Murphy, 
who confessed some months ago to one 
of the two murders of which Rollins was 
convicted. The two killings occurred in 
February, 1917, for which no one has 
yet paid the penalty. Rollins and his 
brother, Charles, were both implicated 
and convicted. While George was await- 
ing sentence. Murphy, down in Pennsyl- 
vania, confessed to one of the murders. 
While he did not confess to the killing 
with which George Rollins is convicted, 
he has positively stated that Rollins did 
not do it, and that he, Murphy, knows 
who did. 

Naturally, George Rollins secured a 
new lease on life when he heard the news 
by radio that Murphy was about to be 
released from the Philadelphia Peniten- 
tiary and would be brought to justice in 
Boston. Boston officials have gone to 
Philadelphia to apprehend Murphy and 
bring him to Massachusetts. 

This is probably the first instance of 
Its kind on record when a convicted life 
prisoner heard information by radio that 
will probably bring his freedom. 



New Crystal Holder 

Michael Maltz, of the Radiall Electric 
Co., Passaic, N. J., has developed a 
new method of mounting crystals. The 
crystal is fastened into the cup with a 
conducting cement. The cement has the 
virtue of being less expensive and the 
crystal is not subject to heat. 



Photo-Electric Detector 
Tubes 

(Continued from page 7) 

to the fact that these photo- 
electric or alkali vapor tubes operate 
best at a lower filament temperature 
than do the gas content tubes 
should make them more economical 
and easier to operate for the average 
user. The writers were also sur- 
prised to find that these tubes 
function admirably as amplifiers 
with 10 volts on the plate giving 
distortionless amplification of speech 
and having very high amplification 
factors. 

The writers feel sure that the 
cost of manufacturing will not be 
materially greater than for the 
vacuum tubes now in use. The 
alkali is distilled over into the 
tube during the evacuation process 
until a thin silver deposit appears 
on the tube walls. Space does not 
permit an explanation of the manner 
in which this is accompHshed. 



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Design of Portable 
Wavemeter 

(Continued from page 9) 

construction of a wavemeter suit- 
able for the measurement of fre- 
quencies from about 3,000 kilocycles 
per second to 530 kilocycles per 
second (Wave length from 100 to 
570 meters). 

The parts of a wavemeter are 
usually: a variable condenser, a 
fixed inductance coil, and a device 
to indicate current flow. The con- 
denser will first be considered. 

It will be well at the start to 
eliminate certain large classes of 
condensers whose construction make 
them unfit for use in wavemeter 
circuits. Variable condensers em- 
ploying other dielectrics than air, 
and condensers whose capacities 
are varied by a screw to change 
the distance between plates, how- 
ever serviceable they may be for 
furnishing a variable capacity, will 
not in general retain their calibra- 
tion and are therefore untrust- 
worthy for use in a wavemeter. 
This elimination leaves only air 
condensers whose capacity is varied 
by changing the overlapping area 
of parallel plates, the usual type 
of variable condenser. All con- 
densers of this type can by no 
means be used in wavemeters. 

A condenser to be used in a 
wavemeter should have fairly heavy 
plates rigidly held together with 
ample tie rods and nuts, spacing 
washers of large diameter and 
sufficient thickness, adequate coni- 
cal bearings, and, preferably, un- 
impeded rotation through 360 de- 
grees of arc. Particulars in which 
variable condensers commonly fail 
to meet these and other require- 
ments are: Too thin plates, spring- 
supported bearings, extremely close 
spacing of plates, vertical or lateral 
play of the shaft in its bearings, 
contacts made by brushes wiping 
on movable parts, stops which 
in arresting the rotating plates 
shift them out of line, shifting 
scales or indices, and faulty work- 
manship which allows short-circuit- 
ing of the condenser at some 
settings. In general, anything that 
allows a capacity change without 
a change in scale reading or a 
change in reading without a capacity 
change destroys the usefulness of 
a condenser for wavemeter purposes. 
Some method of shielding is desir- 
able to eliminate any change of 
condenser capacity owing to move- 
ments of surrounding bodies. The 
shield usually is a grounded metal 

(Continued on next page) 



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26 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



case placed around the condenser. 

The inductance coils will next 
be discussed. The requirements 
of a wavemeter coil are: (1) That 
its inductance be such that with 
the condenser used the desired 
range of wave frequency can be 
covered; (2) that its effective re- 
sistance and effective capacity be 
low; (3) that its inductance, resist- 
ance, and capacity all be constant. 

The first requirement, which has 
to do with the range of wave frequencies, 
will first be considered. It is well to 
restrict the part of the condenser scale 
used for frequency measurements to 
the sector between 15° and 170° on 
a scale graduated in degrees, or between 
the eighth division and ninety-fifth 
division on a scale graduated in hun- 
dredths. Since the capacity at 170° 
or 95 hundredths will almost always 
be more than six times the capacity 
at 15° or 8 hundredths, the frequency 
obtained with any one coil at the lower 
end of this region will be not less than 
about two and one-half times the fre- 
quency obtained with the same coil 
at the upper end. This will make it 
possible with one coil to cover the 
range from 3,000 to 1,200 kilocycles 
per second (100 to 250 meters) and 
with a second coil to cover the range 
from 1,330 to 530 kilocycles per second 
(from 225 to 570 meters). 

The following table gives the number 
of turns required for two single-layer 
inductance coils which will cover approx- 
imately the stated ranges with each 
of the maximum capacities indicated 
in the table. It will be noted that 
the size of the wire and the spacing 
between turns are not specified. The 
inductance is nearly independent of 
the size of wire used, and the spacing 
is controlled by the number of turns 
and the length of the inductance coil, 
both of which are given. The length 
of the coil, as indicated, is the length 
of the actual winding, not the length 
of the supporting core. 

Single-Layer Inductance Coils for 
Short-Wave Portable Wavemeter. 

Coil 1, Range 3000-1200 kilocycles per 
second (100-250 meters) Diameter, 
10 cm. (4 inches); length of winding, 
2.5 cm. (1 inch). 

Maximum capacity of Number of 

condenser turns 

0.0005 microfarad 16 

0.0007 microfarad 13 

0.0010 microfarad 11 

Coil 2, Range 1330-530 kilocycles per 
second (225-570 meters) Diameter, 
10 cm. (4 inches); length of winding, 
5 cm. (2 inches). 

Maximum capacity of Number of 

condenser turns 

0.0005 microfarad 42 

0.0007 microfarad 35 

0.0010 microfarad 30 

The second requirement stated for 
the coil was that the effective resistance 
and the effective capacity be low. Low 
resistance is desirable in order to secure 
sharper indication of resonance. There 
are several reasons for keeping the 



efTective capacity low. This capacity 
serves to increase the total capacity 
of the circuit. This increase will be 
only a small part of the total capacity 
at the high-capacity end of the con- 
denser scale and hence will not appre- 
ciably help in extending the frequency 
range downward, but it may be a con- 
siderable part of the capacity at the 
low-capacity end of the condenser scale 
and may seriously limit the upward 
extension of the frequency range. Another 
and more serious objection to a large 
effective capacity is that this capacity 
is always to a greater or less extent 
subject to variation as a result of change 
in the surroundings of the coil. Since 
this capacity can not be controlled, it 
should be, as far as possible, reduced. 

The practice of surrounding an induc- 
tance coil with quantities of miscellaneous 
insulating material is undesirable in 
any radio circuit and is especially 
to be avoided in the case of wavemeter 
coils. Imperfect insulating materials 
so used increase not only the effective 
capacity but also the effective resistance 
of the coil. This does not mean that 
all types of manufactured insulating 
materials are unsuitable for use in frames 
for wavemeter coils. Probably, how- 
ever, the best form on which to wind 
the coil of a wavemeter like that here 
described is a hollow spool of thoroughly 
dry wood lightly varnished with an extra 
grade of insulating varnish. The use 
of shellac is not considered advisable 
under any circumstances. The use of 
wood having even a comparatively 
small moisture content may seriously 
affect the accuracy of the wavemeter. 
Properly selected wood is chosen in 
preference to manufactured insulating 
materials, glass, or paste-board. Many 
available manufactured insulating ma- 
terials largely increase both the resistance 
and the capacity of the coil. While 
the electrical properties of glass make 
it well suited for a form, it presents 
too great mechanical difficulties. Paste- 
board is not rigid enough and should 
not be used under any circumstances. 

The wire used may be solid copper 
double cotton covered, No. 24 B & S 
or larger. The wire should be lightly 
varnished with a single coat of an 
extra grade of insulating varnish. Fur- 
ther insulation merely increases the 
effective resistance and capacity of 
the coil without compensating advan- 
tages. The resistance can often be 
considerably reduced by the use of 
braided high-frequency cable. Care 
must be taken, however, in using the 
high-frequency conductor to see that 
all the strands are continuous and well 
insulated from each other and that 
every strand is joined at the terminals 
of the coil. If imperfect insulation 
exists between adjacent strands, these 
high-resistance contacts may cause a 
considerable increase in the power losses. 
Broken strands seriously increase both 
the effective capacity and the resistance 
of the coil. The strands may be tested 
for continuity by dipping one end of 
the cable in mercury and joining the 
separate strands at the other end suc- 
cessively to a buzzer or voltmeter joined 



to a battery, the circuit being closed 
through the mercury contact. The 
enamel may be removed from the ends 
of the separate strands by carefully 
heating the end of the wire cable to 
a red heat and dipping it in alcohol. 
This procedure makes the strands more 
fragile and consequently particular care 
must be exercised to avoid breaking 
them. 

A single-layer coil has generally a 
lower effective capacity than a multi- 
layer coil of the same inductance and 
radius. This, together with the greater 
precision with which specifications can 
be furnished for winding single-layer 
coils, was the reason for choosing this 
type of coil in the table already given. 
Since appreciable effective capacities 
exist when there are parts of the circuit 
near each other which have comparatively 
large areas and which are at different 
potentials, it follows that the leads 
from the coil to the condenser should 
not be long or close together. An 
additional reason for having the leads 
short is found in the third requirement 
previously stated for a wavemeter coil, 
namely, that the inductance, capacity, 
and resistance of the coil, including 
its leads, be kept constant. Long leads 
are apt to be flexible; and flexible 
leads, long or short, introduce possi- 
bilities of change in inductance, capacity 
and resistance which can not be com- 
pensated for by any slight advantage 
they may give in convenience of handling. 
The best leads are rigid metal terminals 
soldered to the ends of the wire and 
screwed to the wooden core. The 
position of the coil should be such that 
the plane of the turns of the coil is 
perpendicular to the condenser plates 
if the condenser is unshielded. This is 
to prevent the induced current in the 
coil from itself inducing eddy currents 
in the condenser plates. Since it is 
almost always desired for convenience 
in coupling to have the plane of the 
coil vertical and the condenser plates 
horizontal, this matter will usually 
take care of itself. A very important 
precaution in giving the coil permanent 
characteristics is to draw all the turns 
tight and so fasten them that with 
ordinary care in handling they will not 
shift. 

The coils may be attached to binding 
posts on the wavemeter, so that they 
may be conveniently connected or 
removed. Various other methods of 
attaching may also be used. 

The third part of the wavemeter is 
the device which shows current flow 
and thus indicates resonance. If a 
crystal detector and telephone receivers 
are used, only the one-point (unilateral) 
connection should be employed; that is, 
the detector and telephone receivers 
are joined in a closed circuit, and one 
point of this circuit is joined to one 
terminal of the coil. This arrangement 
is sufficiently sensitive and makes the 
calibration of the wavemeter fairly 
independent of the position of the 
telephone leads, at least so long as they 
are not closely drawn across some part 
of the wavemeter or wrapped around it. 
A more precise indicating device is a 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



27 



thermogalvanonieter or a radio-frequency 
milliammeter. Available types of thermo 
couple instruments are usually found 
more satisfactory than the ordinary 
expansion type of hot-wire instrument, 
because they respond more quickly 
to changes of current. The instrument 
should give full scale deflection with 
a current of about 0.1 ampere. It should 
be able to stand a considerable over- 
load. -It is generally inserted directly 
in the wavemeter circuit, sometimes 
with a shunt to keep low the resistance 
of the circuit. It is important to note 
that the presence of the instrument 
will probably modify the capacity, 
inductance and resistance of the circuit, 
so that the wavemeter should be cali- 
brated with the same instrument in 
the circuit as will be used in measuring 
frequencies. An inexpensive indicating 
device and one which is satisfactory 
when the power output of the generating 
circuit is large enough, is a miniature 
lamp, such as a flashlight lamp, inserted 
directly in the wavemeter circuit. To 
avoid any possibility of changing the 
calibration of the wavemeter, the lamp 
should not be changed if it can be avoided. 
If it must be changed it should be re- 
placed by one of identically the same 
kind. The sensitiveness of this device 
can be greatly increased by having 
a dry cell and a rheostat in parallel 
with the lamp in the wavemeter circuit. 
By adjusting the rheostat until the 
temperature of the lamp filament is 
raised almost to the point of illumination, 
it is possible to have the lamp lighted 
by induced currents much smaller than 
would otherwise be required. However, 
changes in the battery and rheostat 
will be likely to change the character- 
istics of the circuit and hence the calibra- 
tion of the wavemeter. This device 
should therefore be used with caution. 
The wavemeter may be excited by 
impact, that is by a source of highly 
damped waves having only a very few 
waves in a train. (See "The Principles 
Underlying Radio Communication," Sig- 
nal Corps Radio Communication Pam- 
phlet No. 40, p. 278, and Bureau of 
Standards Circular No. 74.) The wave- 
meter can then be used as a source of 
damped waves to determine the fre- 
quency to which a receiving set is tuned. 
The buzzer, in series with the battery, 
is connected across the condenser ter- 
minals, completing its circuit, when 
the contact is closed, through the induct- 
ance coil of the wavemeter. Not more 
than four volts should be used to operate 
the buzzer. The buzzer will add to 
the capacity of the circuit, thereby 
decreasing its frequency. This decrease 
will be especially noticeable at the 
lower part of the condenser scale, where 
it may amount to several per cent of 
the frequency. It can be reduced by 
having short, widely spaced leads to 
battery and buzzer. If the wavemeter 
is equipped with both a buzzer and 
an ammeter or current-square meter, 
the ammeter must be so connected 
in the circuit that the current from 
the buzzer battery can not pass through 
the ammeter. If this is not done, the 
ammeter or current-square meter may 
be burned out by the current caused 



to pass through it by the buzzer battery. 

The assembling of the parts of the 
wavemeter must be such that each 
part is rigidly joined to the rest of 
the circuit. Mounting in a box is as 
good a means to this end as any from 
the standpoint of rigidity and is superior 
to any in portability and in the pro- 
tection afforded to the parts. A con- 
venient box mounting is shown in Fig. 1. 

The overall dimensions are left to 
the constructor since the size of the 
component parts will vary. The box 
should be substantially constructed so 
that it will stand considerable handling 
The component parts are all mounted 
on a panel of rigid electrical insulating 
material which will not absorb moisture. 
This panel is, in turn, secured to the 
supporting box. It is possible to use a 
panel of thoroughly dried and seasoned 
hard wood thoroughly varnished with 
an extra grade of insulating varnish. 
Fig. 1 shows one possible distribution 
of the component parts. Attention 
should be given to the convenience of 
operation and advantageous wiring of 
the circuit to keep distributed capacities 
at a low value. The most advantageous 
arrangement of the instruments on 
the panel will depend in part on the 
particular instruments used, and the 
constructor should work out the best 
arrangement in each case. 

Fig. 2 gives a circuit diagram showing 
the connections as they should appear 
underneath the panel. These connections 
should be made of No. 12 solid copper 
wire soldered into lugs. Where bending 
is necessary, sharp right angle bends 
are used. If it is desired to make a short- 
wave portable receiving set, terminals 
for antenna and ground connections 
can be supplied without decreasing the 
value as a wavemeter in any way, 
provided suitable care is used in handling 
the instrument. A wavemeter should 
be handled much more carefully than 
an ordinary receiving set. If it is 
desired to shield the wavemeter, a copper 
or brass sheet can be permanently fixed 
on the under side of the panel and 
spaces cut in it to allow for the terminals 
and supports of the various units. 
There should be at least one-eighth 
of an inch clearance for the terminals. 
Fig. 3 gives the dimensions and con- 
struction of the inductance coils. 

The forms are turned in a lathe 
from thoroughly seasoned wood. Several 
coats of extra grade insulating varnish 
applied to this form will be desirable 
in keeping low the absorption of moisture. 
The proper number of turns of the 
correct size of wire is wound in a single 
layer in the recess provided for this 
purpose. A light coat of extra grade 
insulating varnish is applied to the 
wire to keep it in place and to prevent 
moisture from changing the distributed 
capacity of the coil. The terminals 
of the inductance coil are brought out 
through the wood form and soldered 
to the supporting brass terminals. The 
wood screws holding the coil form to 
the brass supports should be of brass 
rather than a magnetic material. 

It is desirable that the box be provided 
with a protecting cover and a carrying 
handle. 



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28 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



After the wavemeter has been con- 
structed, it must be calibrated. This 
service has been done in the past by 
the Bureau of Standards. It has lately 
been necessary, however, on account 
of the limited personnel available for 
this work, to limit the tests of radio 
materials made by this Bureau to tests 
of precision instruments which will 
in turn be used as standards for testing 
considerable numbers of other instru- 
ments, tests for Government institutions 
and state universities, and a few other 
tests for which there is a special reason 
why they should be undertaken by this 
Bureau. Standardization of instruments 
of the kind described in this Circular 
can be obtained from various com- 
mercial firms and some college and 
university laboratories. 

Consideration has been given to the 
transmission of standard wave length 
signals from laboratories equipped with 
precision measuring apparatus. This 
would make it possible to determine 
accurately several points on the calibra- 
tion curve of a wavemeter without 
sending it to a standardizing laboratory. 
The carrier waves of some radio tele- 
phone broadcasting stations may be 
adjusted to some particular wave, such 
as 360 meters, and one point on a wave 
length calibration can thus be determined. 
A wavemeter transported for standard- 
ization should be packed in a wooden 
box large enough to give room for three 
inches of excelsior on every side, other- 
wise the wavemeter may easily receive 
internal damage which will not appear 
except in its subsequent behavior. The 
package should be marked "Scientific 
Instrument. Handle with Care." 

Two cautions are offered as to the 
use of the finished and standardized 
wavemeter. The first is, not to subject 
the instrument to any treatment apt 
to change its calibration. The second 
is not to couple it too closely to the 
source of the radio-frequency current 
which is being measured. The latter 
error can be avoided by never having 
the \yavemeter so close to this source 
that it can not be brought closer with- 
out changing the setting for resonance. 

It is possible to make a decremeter 
out of a wavemeter by placing a suitable 
scale on the variable condenser. For a 
wavemeter having a condenser with 
semicircular plates or any condenser 
such that the graph of its capacity 
agamst its setting is a straight line, 
the capacity being very small at zero 
setting, it can be shown that the decre- 
ment scale to be used is one in which 
the graduations vary as the logarithm 
of the angle of rotation.* Such a scale, 
designed for a semicircular plate con- 
denser, is shown in Fig. 2. This scale 
may be copied or cut from this circular 
and trimmed to fit the dimensions of 
the condenser dial with which it is to 
be used. It may be made stationary 
with a moving pointer traveling over it, 
or It may be mounted on a dial rotating 
under a fixed pointer. At the setting 

*J. H, rellinger. Measurements of radio-frequen- 
cy resistance, phase difference and decrement, Proc. 

VC D ^°'- ^' PP- 27-61, Feb., 1919. Circular 74 
Of the Bureau of Standards, Radio Ins'truments and 
Measurements, p. 197. 



corresponding to maximum capacity 
the scale reading should be zero. Since 
the scales of most condensers read 
counter-clockwise, this arrangement 
usually places the decrement scale in 
the unused space opposite the capacity 
scale. A measurement of decrement 
is made by first observing the current 
squared at resonance, then reading the 
decrement scale at the settings on 
either side of resonance where the 
current squared has one-half its value 
at resonance. The scale is so con- 
structed that the difference between 
these two readings is equal to 5' +5, 
that is, the decrement of the trans- 
mitting circuit plus the decrement of 
the wavemeter itself. It is then necessary 
to subtract the wavemeter decrement 
from the total just obtained. The 
decrement of the wavemeter is deter- 
mined as follows: The wavemeter is 
coupled and tuned to a source of 
unmodulated continuous waves. The 
sum, ^'+^is measured as just described. 
Since the waves are continuous, 8, the 
decrement of the waves, is zero and 
the result obtained is 8', the decrement 
of the wavemeter alone. From deter- 
minations of the decrement of the 
wavemeter made at different points 
on the scale, the calibration curve of 
decrement plotted against condenser 
setting is obtained. The conditions 
necessary to permit the use of this 
scale in the manner described are as 
follows: 

(1) The condenser must have semi- 
circular plates. Condensers with plates 
of a different pattern will have different 
decrement scales just as they have 
different capacity calibrations. 

(2) It must be remembered that 
only when resonance is indicated by 
a current-square meter is the deflection 
to be reduced to one-half its maximum 
value in detuning to either side of 
resonance. If a milliammeter is used, 
the reading must be reduced not to 
one-half its maximum value but to the 
maximum value divided by the square 
root of 2 or to 0.71 of the maximum 
value. 

(3) The generator must hav'e an 



output sufficiently large that the coupling 
employed may be loose enough to prevent 
any considerable reaction of the wave- 
meter on the generator. 

(4) Neither the generator nor its 
coupling with the wavemeter must 
be changed during the measurement 
of decrement. 

The following precaution is to be 
observed in measuring the decrement 
of a transmitting station : The decre- 
meter must be coupled only to the 
antenna circuit to be measured, not 
to the primary circuit; consequently 
it should be kept not less than two 
meters away from the oscillation trans- 
former, and coupling to the antenna 
circuit should be obtained by placing 
the decremeter near the antenna or 
ground lead, preferably the latter. If 
the antenna current is small, it will 
be necessary to make a single turn of 
small diameter in the lead to which 
the decremeter is coupled. 



Radio Night School 

To meet an ever-growing demand for 
instruction in radio telegraphy and 
telephony the night school of the Junior 
College will offer a course covering these 
subjects. The work of the class is divided 
equally between lectures and code prac- 
tice. Illustrated lectures cover such sub- 
jects as electrical units, storage batteries, 
generators, motors, transformers, induc- 
tance, electrical resonance, and other 
essential phases of the work. Because 
this course has been given in the day 
school of Junior College, an adequate 
equipment for the laboratory has been 
collected. 

Head sets and keys are furnished 
for code practice. Further receiv- 
ing practice is found in the use of up-to- 
date receiving sets. The transmitting 
sets available consist of both spark and 
continuous wave apparatus. 

Other courses to be given include 
those in sociology, rhetoric, French, 
Spanish, psychology, history, economics, 
drama, general inorganic chemistry, and 
public speaking. 



STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT, CIRCULATION, ETC., REQUIRED BY THE 
ACT OF CONGRESS OF AUGUST 24, 1912. 

of RADIO AGE published monthly at Mount Morris, 111., for October 1, 1922. 
State of Illinois, 1 
County of Cook j ss. 

Before me. a Notary Public, in and for the state and county aforesaid, personally appeared Frederick 
Smith, who having been duly sworn according to law, deposes and says that he is the Editor of the Radio 
Age magazine, and that the following is. to the best of his knowledge and belief, a true statement of the 
ownership, management (and if a daily paper, the circulation), etc., of the aforesaid publication for the date 
shown in the above caption, required by the Act of August 24, 1912, embodied in section 443, Postal Laws 
and Regulations, printed on the reverse of this form, to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, editor, managing editor, and business managers are: 
Publisher, Radio Age, Inc., 64 W, Randolph St.. Chicago; Editor, Frederick Smith, 64 VV. Randolph St., 
Chicago; Managing Editor, Frederick Smith, 64 W. Randolph St., Chicago; Business Manager, M. B. Smith, 
64 W. Randolph St.. Chicago. 

2. That the owners are: (Give names and addresses of individual owners, or, if a corporation, give 
its name and the names and addresses of stockholders owning or holding 1 per cent or more of the total amount 
of stock.) 

Radio Age, Inc., Frederick Smith, 64 W. Randolph St., Chicago; John H. Lohbeck. St. Louis, Mo.; M. B. 
Smith, 64 W. Randolph St., Chicago. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders owning or holding 1 per cent or 
more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities are: (If there are none, so state.) NONE. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving the names of the owners, stockholders, and security 
holders, if any, contain not only the list of stockholders and security holders as they appear upon the books 
of the company but also, in cases where the stockholder or security holder appears upon the books of the com- 
pany as trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, the name of the person or corporation for whom such trustee 
is acting, is given; also that the said two paragraphs contain statements embracing affiant's full knowledge 
and belief as to the circumstances and conditions under which stockholders and security holders who do not 
appear upon the books of the company as trustees, hold stock and securities in a capacity other than that 
of a bona fide owner; and this affiant has no reason to believe that any other person, association, or corpora- 
tion has any interest direct or indirect in the said stock, bonds, or other securities than as so stated by him. 

Frederick Smith, 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 28th day of September, 1922. Editor. 

[SEAL] HARRIET DILLON. 

(My commission expires June 5, 1923.) 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 



29 



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■,Mviviviviv r..|.i.ivp..|vi ...|...|vivi...|vi...|','ivi-,'ivi- ,'i','r.'ivM,'i-i'riTiT 



NEW BROADCASTING STATIONS 



j1.r.l.l.l.^l.l■l.l■l.T■l.lJJ.lJJ.^.l.^l.^lJJJJJ.l. ^l.^l.T.lJJ.lJ.lJJJJJ.r■^J■l■lJ.l■lJJAl.^lATJJAr.T■l■^l.^l■^l.lJ■lJ/JAIAlJ■l■^lAl.^!.l.lJ■lJ■^ 

ABBREVIATIONS 

The necessary corrections to the List of Radio Stations of the United States 
and to the International List of Radiotelegraph Stations, appearing in this Bulletin 
under the heading "Alterations and corrections," are published after the stations 
affected in the following order: 



O = west longitude, N = north latitude, 



Name = Name of station. 

Loc. = Geographical location: 

S = south latitude. 

= Call letters assigned. 

= Radio system used and sparks per second. 
= Normal range in nautical miles. 

= Wave lengths assigned; Normal wave lengths in italics. 
= Nature of service maintained: 
PG. = General public. 
PR = Limited public. 
RC = Radio compass station. 
P = Private. 

O = Government business exclusively. 
= Hours of operation. 

N = Continuous service. 
X = No regular hours, 
m = a. m. (12m = midday), 
s = p. m. (12s = midnight). 
= Ship or coast charges in cents: c = cents. (The rates in the interr 
national list are given in francs and centimes.) 
Independent Wireless Telegraph Co. 
= Radio Corporation of America. 
= Ship Owners' Radio Service. 
= Continuous wave. 
= Interrupted continuous wave. 
= Vacuum tube. 
= Fixed station. 

Alphabetically by names of cities. 
[Additions to the List of Radio Stations of the United States, Radio Service 
Bulletin, edition June 30, 1922.] 

Commercial land stations, alphabetically by names of stations. 
[Additions to the List of Radio Stations of the United States, edition of June 30, 1922, and to the Inter- 
national List of Radiotelegraph Stations published by the Berne bureau.) 



Call 
System 
Range 
W. 1. 
Service 



Hours 



Rates 

I. W. T. Co. 
R. C. A. 
S. O. R. S. 
C. w. 
I. c. w. 
V. t. 
FX. 



Station. 


Call 
signal. 


Wave Itngths. 


Service. 


Hours. 


Station controlled by — 


Ceiba, P. R.'.. 


WKK 

WBU 

WGO 

WKAP 

KFR 

KFU 

WJAV 
WLAC 
KUO 

WGW 


300,600, 1610 


PG& PR 

P 
PG 

P 
• P 

P 

P 

P 

P 

PG& PR 




Bureau of Insular Telegraph. 


Chicago, 111.2 


420 


X 




Cleveland, Ohio' 


300, 450, 600 


RCA. 




300, 475, 600 . . 


X 
X 
X 

X 
X 
X 


Dutep W. Flint. 


Los Angeles, Calif.'.... 


300, 525, 600 


Airline Transportation Co. 


Pearl Creek Dome, 


1700 


Standard Oil Co. of Calif. 


Cold Bay oil dis- 
trict, Alaska'. 


1625 




Raleigh, N. C 


500 


North Carolina State College. 


San Francisco, Calif.' 


300, 525, 600 




Vieques, P. R.' 


300, 600, 1610 


Bureau of Insular Telegraph. 









' Loc. (approximately) 0.65° 39' 00", N. 18° 16' 00"; range, 150 system, De Forest v. t. telephone and tele- 
graph; hours, 8 a ni.-12 noon, 1-6 and 7-8 p. m.; rates, ship service, 6 c. per word, Ceiba to Vieques 5 c. per 
word, minimum 40c, for 10 words. 

2. Loc. 0.87° 37' 20", N. 41° 52' 26"; range, 200; system, De Forest v. t. telegraph and telephone; rates, none. 

' Range, 100; system, RCA (c. w., i. c. w., and v. t. telephone); hours, 23 hours during every 24; rates, 
ship service, 3 c. per word. 

* Range, 100; system, composite v. t. telephone; rates, none. 

5 Loc. (approximately) 156° 04' 00", N. 57° 42' 00"; range, 300; system, RCA, 1,000; rates, none. 

8 Loc. (approximately) 0.87° 29' 00", N. 38° 17' 00"; range, 200; system, De F'orest v. t. telegraph and 
telephone; rates, none. 

' Loc. 0.78° 39' 45", N. 35° 47' 35", range, 300; system, composite v. t. telegraph and telephone; rates, 
none. 

' Range, 150; system, composite v. t. telephone; rates, none. 

' Loc. (approximately) 65° 26' 33", N. 18° 09' 00"; range, 150; system, De Forest v. t. telegraph and tele- 
phone; hours, 8 a. m.-12 noon, 1-6 and 7-8 p. m.; rates, ship service, 6 c. per word; Vieques to Ceiba, 5 c. 
per word, minimum, 40c. for 10 words. 

Commercial land and ship stations, alphabetically by call signals. 

[b = ship station; c = land station.] 



Call 

signal 


Name. 


Call 

signal. 


Name. 


KFAX 

KFBO 

KFBP 

KFBT 

KFR 

KFU 

"D 

KUO 


Chillicothe 

Ara 

Moldegaard..._ 

Commercial Scout 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Pearl Creek Dome, Cold 

trict, Alaska 

San Francisco, Calif 


b 

b 

b 

b 

c 

Bay oil dis- 

c 

c 


Wbu 

WGO 

WGW 

WJAV 

WKAP 

WKK 

WLAC 


Chicago, 111 _ 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Vieques, P. R 

Princeton, Ind._ _ 

Cranston, R. I 

Ceiba, P. R 

Raleigh, N. C 



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RADIO AGE 

For prompt and efficient aerrice place your order 
with representatives of tlie Periodical Sales Co., 
whose authority and responsibility Is assured by 
credentials In their possession tiearlng the registered 
trade-mark of the Periodical Sales Co.. facsimile of 
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will be getting two months free. 



30 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Broadcasters Form Na- 
tional League 

(Continued from page 4) 

enport Iowa. (WOC). 

William J. Clark, Radio Editor, 
Chicago Evening American. 

J. C. Hail, City Hall Station, 
Chicago (WBU). 

T. B. Hatfield, Indianapolis, Ind. 
(WOH). 

T. W. Findley, Minneapolis, 
Minn. (WLAG). 

Arthur H. Ford, State University 
of Iowa (WHAA). 

Milo E. Westbrooke, National 
Radio Exposition, Chicago. 

George Lewis, National Radio 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Harold Power, Medford Hillside, 
Mass. (WGI). 

Ralph C. Watrous, National 
Radio Chamber of Commerce. 

Kenneth P. Gregg, National 
Radio Chamber of Commerce. 

John P. Tansey, Radio Club of 
Illinois. 

W. C. Evans, Westinghouse Elec- 
tric and Mfg. Co., Chicago (KVW). 

E. A. Beane, U. S. Radio In- 
spector, Ninth District. 

W. J. Wecherbee, Westinghouse 
Electric and Mfg. Co., Chicago 
(KYW). 

C. B. Cooper, Ship Owners' Radio 
Society, Inc., N. Y. City (WCAP). 



Broadcasting stations, alphabetically by names of cities. 
(Additions to the List of Radio Stations of the United States, edition June 30, 1922.] 



Four Minutes From 
Cavite 

The transmission of a routine radio 
message from the Naval Station at 
Cavite, Philippine Islands to Washing- 
ton, D. C, was accomplished recently 
by the Naval Communications Service 
within four minutes. The total distance 
was 11,500 miles. 

Ordinarily, with the delay on account 
of schedules, a message from Cavite to 
the Navy Department would not be 
delivered in less than several hours, and 
sometimes a whole day is required in the 
transmission, due to relaying, static, etc. 

Of course the message was relayed at 
San Francisco where it was received from 
Cavite, but as the radio circuit to Wash- 
ington was "set up" the message was 
relayed immediately. Within four min- 
utes after the sixteen-words dispatch 
left Cavite, it was received on the 
aerials on top of the Navy Building in 
Washington and read in the receiving 
room below. Radio communication is 
said to be instantaneous, and a signal 
is instantaneous, but a message is slower 
due to the fact that time is required to 
transmit record, retransmit and rerecord. 

Westward, trans-Pacific Radio mes- 
sages are relayed to Guam and Cavite 
through Honolulu. Recently through the 
operation of the Fanning electrical relay 
at Honolulu 184 words were auto- 
matically relayed to Guam from San 
Francisco, without being transcribed 
or retransmitted. 



City. 


Call 
signal. 


City. 


Call 
signal. 


Astoria, Oreg., 


KFBM 

WMAM 

WKAW 

KFBJ 

WKAX 

KFBN 

WLAB 

KFAY 

WJA2 

WJAX 

WKAP 

WJAP 

WKAR 

WKAD 

KFBL 

WKAJ 

WKAT 

WKAY 

WKAW 

WLAD 

WICAV 

WLAF 

WMAH 


Louisville, Ky.. 


WKAG 


Beaumont, Tex. 




WJAT 
KFBH 


Beloit, Wis 


Marshfield, Oreg 


Boise, Idaho 


Miami, Fla 


WIAZ 


Bridgeport, Conn. 


Montgomery, Ala. 


WKAN 


California (portable) 


Okemah, Okla. 


WKAK 


Carrollton, Mo 


Omaha, Nebr.. „. 


WNAL 


Central Point, Oreg 




WKAL 


Chicago, 111 


Peoria, Ill.._ 


WJAN 


Cleveland, Ohio 


Pittsburgh, Pa.... 


WJAS 


Cranston, R. I.... 


Providence, R. I. 


WJAR 


Duluth, Minn 


Raleigh, N. C 


WLAC 


East Lansing, Mich _ 

East Providence, R. I 


Rock Port, Mo _ _. 

Sacramento, Calif.._ 

San Francisco, Calif.._ 


WMAD 
KFBK 


Everett, Wash 


KFDB 


Fargo, N. Dak... 




WKAQ 


Frankfort, Ind. 


Springfield, Mo... 


WKAS 




Syracuse, N. Y 


WLAH 


Hastings, Nebr 


Topeka, Kans. 


WJAQ 


Hastings, Nebr. 


Waco, Tex. 


WLAJ 


Laconia, N. H. 


West Palm Beach, Fla. . 


WKAH 


Lincoln, Nebr. 


Wilkes- Barre, Pa. .. 


WKAZ 


Lincoln, Nebr 


Yankton, S. Dak „ 


WJAU 



Lists of stations broadcasting market or weather reports (485 meters) and music, con- 
certs, lectures, etc. (360 meters), alphabetically by call letters. 
[Additions to the List of Radio Stations of the United States, edition June 30, 1922.1 



Call 

signal. 


Station operated and controlled by — 


Location of station. 


Wave 
lengths. 


KFAY 


W. J. Virgin Milling Co 


Central Point, Oreg 


360 


KFBH 


Thomas Musical Co.. „ 


Marshfield, Oreg 


360 


KFBJ 


Idaho Radio Supply Co. 


Boise, Idaho 


360 


KFBK 


Kimball-Upson Co. 


Sacramento, Calif. ._ 

Everett, Wash.. _ . .. 


360 


KFBL 


Leese Bros. 


360 


KFBM 


Cook & Foster . 


Astoria, Oreg.._ 

CaHfornia (portable) 


360 


KFBN 




360 


KFDB 


John D. McKee 


San Francisco, Calif., 464 California Street .. 


360 


WIAZ 


Electric Supply Sales Co.._ 


Miami, Fla. 


360 


WJAN 


Peoria, Ill.._. 


360 


WJAP 


Kelley-Duluth Co 


Duluth, Minn 


360 


WJAQ 




Topeka, Kans 


360 


WJAR 


The Outlet Co. (J. Samuels & Bro.) 


Providence, R. I. 


360 


WJAS 


Pittsburgh, Pa.._ 


360 


WJAT 


Kellv-Vawter Jewelry Co 


Marshall, Mo , 


360 


WJAU 


Yankton College 


Yankton, S. Dak 


360 


WJAX 


Union Trust Co. . 




360 


WJAZ 




Chicago, 111 


360 


WKAD 


Charles Looff (Crescent Park) 

Edwin T. Bruce, M. D. 


East Providence, R. I 


360 


WKAG 


Louisville, Ky., 1300 South Third Street 

West Palm Beach, Fla 


360 


WKAH 


Planet Radio Co 


360 


WKAJ 


Fargo, N. Dak 


360 


WKAK 




Okemah, Okla 


360 


WKAL 


Gray & Gray 


Orange, Tex. 


360 


WKAM 


Hastings Daily Tribune 


Hastings, Nebr 


360 


WKAN 


Alabama Radio Mfg. Co.._ 

Dutee W. Flint 




360 


WKAP 


Cranston, R. I., Aliens Avenue 


360 


WKAQ 




San Juan, P. R 


360 


WKAR 


Michigan Agriculture College 


East Lansing, Mich. 


360 


WKAS 


L. E. Lines Music Co. 


Springfield, Mo... 


360 


WKAT 


Frankfort Morning Times 


Frankfort, Ind 

Laconia, N. H.._ 

Beliot, Wis 


360,485 


WKAV 


Laconia Radio Club 


360 


WKAW 


Turner Cycle Co ... 


360 


WKAX 


William A. MacFarlane 

Brenau College. 


Bridgeport, Conn. 


360 


WKAY 


Gainesville, Ga 


360 


WKAZ 




Wilkes-Barre, Pa 


360 


WLAB 


George F. Grossman 


Carrollton, Mo 


360 


WLAC 


North Carolina State College 


Raleigh, N. C. . 


360 


WLAD 






360 


WLAF 


Johnson Radio Co. 


Lincoln, Nebr 


360 


WLAH 


Samuel Woodworth, . ! 


Syracuse, N. Y., 425 Brownel Street 


360 


WLAJ 


Waco Electrical Supply Co. 


Waco, Tex. 


360 


WMAD 


Atchinson Countv Mail 


Rock Port. Mo. . . 


360 


WMAH 


General Supply Co.,_ 




360 


WMAM 


Beaumont, Tex 


360 


WNAL 


R. J. Rockwell 


Omaha, Nebr., 5019 Capitol Avenue 


360 



Special land stations, alphabetically by names of stations. 

[Additions to the List of Radio Stations of the United States, edition of June 30, 1922. i 


Station. 


Call 

signal. 


Wave lengths. 


Station controlled by — 


Altadena, Calif 


6XR 

5ZAI 
9XN 

8XC 
8XF 
6XJ 
2XU 
6XA 
3XAI 

5XAH 

9XF 

6XB 


150,275,375 

200,375 


Altadena Radio Laboratory. 


Beeville, Tex. 


Rialto Theater. 


Chicago, 111. 


variable 


Leroy M. E. Clausing, 4545 North Whipple 


Columbus, Ohio 


200,375 


Street. 
Erner & Hopkins Co. 




200,375 


Kalamazoo College (physics department) 




200-550 


Dean Farran. 1410 South Van Ness Avenue. 


New York, N. Y... . 


420 


American Radio News Corp., 21 Spruce St. 


Oakland, Calif. 


variable 


Radio Specialty Shop. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


250,275 


Roberts Bros. Elec. Co., 426 South Fifty- 


Plainview, Tex _ 

Rockford, 111. 


200,375 

variable 


second Street. 
James G. Mclnnish 
A. V. Tronske. 


San Francisco, Calif 


variable 


John D. McKee, 464 California Street. 





Special land stations. 


grouped by districts. 


Call 






Call 




signal. 


District and station. 




signal. 


District and station. 


2XU 


Second district: New York, N. Y. 






Eighth district: 


3XAI 


Third district: Philadelphia, Pa. « 




8XC 


Columbus, Ohio. 




Fifth district: 




8XF 


Kalamazoo, Mich. 


5XAH 


Plainview, Tex. 






Ninth district: 


SZAI 


Beeville, Tex. 




9XF 


Rockford, 111. 




Sixth district: 




9XN 


Chicago, 111. 


6XA 


Oakland. Calif. 








6XB 


San Francisco, Calif. 








6XJ 


Los Angeles, Calif. 








6XR 


Altadena. Calif. 









RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



31 



Alterations and Corrections 

Broadcasting stations, by call signals. 

KDYS (Great Falls, Mont.).— W. 1., 360, 485. 

KDZH (Fresno, Calif.).- W. 1., 360, 485. 

KLN (Del Monte, Calif.). — Station operated and controlled by Monterey Electric 

Shop. 

KNR (Los Angeles, Calif.). — Strike out all particulars. 

KSD (St. Louis, Mo.).— W. 1., 360, 485. 

KSV (Wenatchee, Wash.).— W. 1., 360, 485. 

KVQ (Sacramento, Calif.). — Station^operated and controlled by James McClatchy 

KYI (Bakersfield, Calif.). — Station operated and controlled by Bakersfield Cali- 

fornian (Alfred Harrel). 

KZI (Los Angeles, Calif.). — Strike out all particulars. 

WCAP (Decatur, 111.).— W. 1., 360, 485. 

WCAU (Philadelphia, Pa.).— W. 1., 360, 485. 

WDAF (Kansas City, Mo.).— W. 1., 360, 485. 

WDAH (El Paso, Tex.).— W. 1., 360, 485. 

WDAJ (College Park, Ga.).— W. 1., 360, 485. 

WEAC (Terre Haute, Ind.).- W. 1., 360, 485. 

WEAP (Mobile, Ala.).— W. 1., 360, 485. 

WHU (Toledo, Ohio).— W. 1., 360, 485. 

WJAM (Cedar Rapids, Iowa). — Address 302 3rd Ave. West. 

WOO (Philadelibhia, Pa.).— W. 1., 360, 485. 

WSY (Birmingham, Ala.).— W. 1., 360, 485. 



Call 
signal 



9CVA 

9CVB 

9CVC 

9CVD 

9CVE 

9CVF 

9CVG 

9CVH 

9CVI 

9CVJ 

9CVK 

9CVL 

9CVM 

9CVN 

9CVO 

9CVP 

9CVQ 

9CVR 

9CVS 

9CVT 

9CVU 

9CW 

9CVW 

9CVX 

9CVY 

9CVZ 

9CWA 

9CWB 

9CWC 

9CWD 

9CWE 

9CWF 

9CWG 

9CWH 

9CWI 

9CWJ 

9CWK 

9CWL 

9CWM 

9CWN 

9CWO 

9CWP 

9CWQ 

9C\VR 

9CWS 

9CWT 

9CWU 

9CWV 

9CWW 

9CWX 

9CWY 

9CWZ 

9CXA 

9CXB 

9CXC 

9CXD 

9CXF 

9CXF 

9CXG 

9CXH 

9CXI 

9CXJ 

9CXK 

9CXL 

9CXM 

9CXN 



New Stations in 9th District 

Licenses issued during month ending September 30, 1922 



Station operated and controlled by — 



Boyd L. Thorp 

Philip A. Wachtell 

Herbert Wall 

Joseph J. Bremken 

Dale M. Ashby 

Leonard M. Schwabe 

Fred C. Heinze 

Willis E. Ranney 

Edward T. Howell 

Paul M. A. Milker 

Edwin J. DeCosta.. 

Carl P. Budke 

William R. Coyne 

John F. Palmquxst.. 

Harold W. Siebens 

James P. Burke 

Noel Bader 

Albert B. Marshall 

Frederick Mumm 

Bernhard W. Alden 

Norbert W. Knoernschild 

Richard D. Leffholm.. 

Edward Goodberlet 

Richard H. Fitch 

Edward D. Lindsay 

L. M. Turner 

Orene G. Cathcart 

George Furtney 

Lincoln J. Simms , 

John R. Greene 

Leo Conner._ 

John N. Burnside.- _ 

Thomas J. Clinton 

Norman J. Atwell 

Everett Stone._ 

Fred. A. Lankton 

Vance E. Olson 

Edwin S. Van Buskirk 

Herbert T. Hintgen. 

Harry Samuels 

C. W. Otis 

Thomas E. Lenigan._ 

David C. Maloney 

Edwin L. Benton.. 

Robert F. Edgar 

John H. Smith 

Henry S. Duttweiler 

Verner Hicks 

Robert H. Freeman.. 

Clarence A. Brockert 

Frank Bubacek 

Paul Wichman 

Ben Herr._ 

Garvin H. Dyer 

Albert W. Brown._ 

Robert Van Derwarn 

Carroll J. Burnside 

Clemens E. Spellman 

Robert F. Bartl 

Leo. L. Drolet 

A. G. Schwerling 

William L. Cobb 

William Barrett 

Theresa E. Finnell.. 

Chester Roney 

George E. Marshall... 



Location of station. 



Second and Edith Sts., Murphysboro, 111. 

123 W. Adams St., Munice, Ind. 

1440 Cook St., Denver, Colo. 

217 N. 26th St., Omaha, Nebr. 

415 N. Church St., Gibson City, 111. 

508 N. William St., Columbia, Mo. 

Wilson, Kansas 

1646 Beachwood Ave., Louisville Ky. 

641 Van Buren St., Milwaukee, Wise. 

912 N. 8th St., Fargo, N. Dak. 

Box 153, Lake Villa, 111. 

Gore and Glendale Rd., Webster Groves, Mo. 

131 Sheridan Ave.. North, Minneapolis, Minn. 

2908 S. 42d Ave., Minneapolis, Minn. 

5772 DeGiverville St., St. Louis, Mo. 

3011 Union Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

4433 Clarence Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

950 S. 5th St., Louisville, Ky. 

7219 Jackson Blvd., Forest Park, 111. 

723 N. 9th St., Kansas City, Kans. 

644 — 28th St., Milwaukee, Wise. 

2616 — 4th Ave., S., Minneapolis, Minn. 

3712 Finney Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

1408 Capitol St., Yankton, S. Dak. 

1017 Admiral Blvd., Kansas City, Mo. 

412 State St., Beloit, Wise. 

1404 E. Third St., Winfield. Kans. 

1302 Wilson Ave., Columbia, Mo. 

850 Faulkner Ave., Wichita, Kans. 

Gore and Glendale Rd., Webster Groves, Mo. 

Broadway, Greenwood, Ind. 

112 Boone St., Boone, Iowa. 

1206 S. 15th St., Springfield, 111. 

Dexter, Minn. 

90 Pewabic St., Houghton, Mich. 

148 W. Dakota St., Denver, Colo. 

847 E. 57th St., Chicago, 111. 

829— 14th St., Denver, Colo. 

224 Dakota Ave., Wahpeton, N. Dak. 

411 N. 7th St., St. Louis, Mo. 

17 E. Washington St., Greencastle, Ind. 

1247— 6th St., Beloit, Wise. 

1824 Pine St., Murphysboro, 111. 

222 Main St., LaCrosse, Wise. 

3821 S. 4th Ave., Minneapolis, Minn. 

936 E. Maple St., Jeffersonville, Ind. 

R. F. D. No. 1, Lockridge, Iowa. 

901 S. Mechanic St., Marion, 111. 

Chicago Ranch, Briggsdale, Colo. 

911 W. Main St., Plattsville, Wise. 

R. F. D. No. 1, Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Belmont, Wise. 

R. F. D. No. 3, Lebanon, Ind. 

1321 Concord St.. Springfield, Mo. 

370— 45th St., Milwaukee, Wise. 

1305 Park Ave., Racine, Wise. 

322 Quincy St., Rapid City, S. Dak. 

810 Ella St., Beatrice, Nebr. 

1515 State St., LaCrosse, Wise, 

265 Main St., Bourbonaise, 111. 

733 Linden Ave., Newport, Ky. 

2908 Arsenal St., St. Louis, Mo. 

3200 Gilham Road, Kansas City, Mo. 

621 E. Water St., Pontiac, 111. 

110 N. Ball St.. Webb City, Mo. 

2045 S. Lawrence St., \Vichita, Kans. 



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FOR 



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New Rating of 

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practical equations, international 
law and regulations, official grad- 
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important information. 

No amateur or wireless professional 
can afford to be without this book. 



107 pp. 80 Illus. 



Price $1.00 



RADIO AGE 

64 W. Randolph St. Chicago 



Don't Wear 
a Truss 

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CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS 



Six cents per word per insertion, in advance. Name 
and address must be counted. Each initial counts 
as one word. Copy must be received by the 19th of 
month for succeeding month's issue. 



HELP WANTED. 

Men— WOMEN OVER 17. GET U. S. GOVERNMENT 
POSITIONS. $90— $195 month. Steady. No strikes. 
No Layoffs. Pleasant work. Short hours. Paid vaca- 
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Write immediately. Franklin Institute, Dept. K117, 
Rochester, N. Y. 



PUBLICATIONS. 

RADIO MANUAL, everything the beginner should 
know. How .to build and operate an inexpensive receiv- 
ing set. Sixty-four pages, thirty illustrations. Twenty 
cents. Postpaid. Raydio Publishing Company, Caxton 
Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

FOR SALE 
I have nine Federal Jr. crystal sets. List $25. Will sell 
lot for $100. J.M. G. Care RADIO AGE. , 

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for six months. Regular subscrip- 
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will be getting two months free. 



32 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Set Clocks by Radio! 

By Carl H. Butman 

Washington, D. C, Oct. 23.— Through 
naval radio broadcasts, it is now possible 
to set your clocks and watches to 
standard time twice daily, provided you 
have a radio receiving set. At noon and 
at 10 every night the naval radio stations 
at Arlington, Annapolis and Key West 
transmit signals, indicating the exact 
time for the 75th Meridian, or standard 
Eastern time. 

The actual time is kept at and sent 
from the Naval Observatory in Washing- 
ton, the source of standard time for the 
territory east of the Rocky Mountains, 
the Chronometer and Time Office at the 
Naval station at Mare Island, California, 
serving the Western territory and ships 
ofT the Pacific Coast. 

The Clocks Are Wrong, But — 

In a deep, even-temperature vault at 
the Naval Observatory three Riefler 
clocks keep sidereal, or star time, and 
although they are not quite correct, it 
doesn't matter. They are checked by 
the observation of certain stars as they 
cross the meridian, and their exact 
error and rates of error calculated. Having 
obtained the exact Washington sidereal 
time, a correction for the difference in 
longitude of Washington and the 75th 
meridian, which is eight minutes and 
about fifteen seconds, is made to secure 
Eastern standard time. This is kept on 
two transmitting clocks, one of which 
sends out the time signal to the three 
radio transmitting stations by means of a 
relay. 

Previously to sending the time signals, 
the sending clock is checked with one of 
the standard Riefler clocks, by compar- 
ing their ticks, which are recorded on a 
chronograph, wavy pen lines indicating 
the separate ticks. These are measured 
by a finely divided scale and compared. 
Determining the error, the sending 
clock is speeded up or slowed electrically 
until its ticks correspond exactly with 
the standard clock. 
How to Get the Right Time by Radio 

The ticks of the transmitting clock are 
sent to the three transmitting stations 
by closing a switch at the observatory, 
but they are broadcasted by radio from 
the three stations. 

Five minutes is required to send a com- 
plete time signal, starting at 11:55 and 
running to noon, and from 9:55 to 10 
p. m. The time signals consist of 
telegraphic dashes every second except 
the 29th of each minute; the 55th to 59th 
seconds of the first four minutes, and the 
50th to 59th seconds inclusive of the last 
minute before the hour. Each of these 
blanks is caused by a missing tooth on 
an otherwise incomplete gear-wheel. 
Following the 59th second of the last 
minute, there is a long dash commencing 
at the beginning of the new hour. Listen 
in for N. A. A. on 2650 meters and set 
your clocks then. 

By means of a radio receiving set at the 
Observatony the message of ticks may be 
caught and recorded on a chronograph 
for comparison with the sending clock's 
record to determine the loss in trans- 
mission. It averages about .09 of a 



9CXO 

9CXP 

9CXQ 

9CXR 

9CXS 

9CXT 

9CXU 

9CXV 

9CXW 

9CXX 

9CXY 

9CXZ 

9CYA 

9CYB 



9AS 

9GT 

9QB 

9UH 

9API 

9AYY 

9BSH 

9CCB 

9DIS 

9DJL 



9DJL 
9XS 
9YR 
9ZH 

9AYY 

9BSH 

9DIS 

9ZD 

9UH 

9ZZ 

WAAP 

WFAK 

WBAE 

WQX 

WAAE 

9YAI 

WCAZ 

WKH 



9BCV 

9PP 

9APK 

9AKR 

9ATT 

9KM 

9DH 

9AZR 

9DXO 

9AM I 

9DSH 

9LN 

9AJY 

9.\JH 

9ANF 

9DPL 

9DGN 

9BGD 

WDAP 

9CSK. 

9BAX 

9BBF 

9BAZ 

9BBL 

9BBR 

9AIL 

9DSL 

9EP 

9ALX 

9DPB 

9QG 



WAAP 
WLAG 
WLAP 
WLAR 
WLAS 
WLAT 
WLAX 

WMAG 
WMAJ 
WNAB 
WOAE 



9XO 
9XP 



9ZI 



9YG 
9YAQ 



Taylor H. Paisley 

Eugene S. Strout. Jr 

Harry R. Heuer._ 

Elmer C. Madson 

Cloice Wagner 

Richard M. Purinton... 

Roy E. Gorzney 

William W. Eymer 

David E. Sparks 

William L. Perdue._ 

Fred L. Reed 

Hilton Hushower. 

Clark Radio Shop 

Raymond L. Herchert.. 



Fred L. Demarin 

Randall Wright 

Sam Burdett. ._ 

Vernon R. Lucas 

Raymond Gomersall 

McKinley High School 

Albert B. Jordan 

General Radio Laboratories, Inc. 

John B. Bayard, Jr 

Leslie M. DeVoe 



3706 Washington St., Kansas City, Mo. 

303 W. 4th St.. Waterloo, Iowa 

5666 Cabanne Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 

Wayne Block, Yankton, S. Dak. 

Main St.. West McHenry. 111. 

154 — 9th St.. Lincoln, 111. 

512 Morris St., W., Morrison, 111. 

811 Douglas Ave.. Yankton. S. Dak. 

3638 Rokeby St., Chicago. 111. 

104 Brown St., Hopkinsville, Ky. 

2906 1-2 Arsenal St.. St. Louis. Mo. 

722 Pennsylvania Ave., South Bend, Ind. 

128—38 S. Second St., DeKalb, 111. 

1619 Union Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 



CALLS REISSUED 

3219 W. Fifth Ave.. Chicago, 111. 

2114 Morse Ave.. Chicago. 111. 

6464 Dorchester Ave., Chicago, 111. 

820 N. 4th St., Fargo, N. Dak. 

2626 — 4th Ave., S., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Missouri and Russell Sts., St. Louis. Mo. 

1014 Good Hope St.. Cape Girardeau. Mo. 

1730 Tribune Bldg., Chicago, III. 

505 N. 6th St.. Vincennes, Ind. 

Zionsville, Ind. 



CALLS 

Harold R. DeTuncq 

Manhattan Electrical Supply Co., Inc. 

Munice Senior High School .-.. 

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ 

of the Latter Day Saints 

Leon L. Drolet 

Clarence Stallman 

Robert Bartl 

Edward C. Stockmann 

Bert S. Brown 

Walter M. Aronson and Albert R. 

Perkins 

Otto W. Taylor, c-o United Electric Co. 

Domestic Electric Company 

Bradley Polytechnic Institute 

Walter A. Kuehl.; 

St. Louis Chamber of Commerce 

Transylvania University 

Robert E. Compton and Quincy 

Whig-Journal 

The Midland Refining Company 

CHANGES 

Joyce E. Prather 

Harry F. Wilson 

Harry B. Smith 

Albert C. Mertz 

Stanley E. Fey._ 

Lawton Biddle 

James Schulz 

Harold C. Armagost _. 

Vivian F. Munson._ 

J. Emerson Decker 

Earl SuUaway 

Waldo C. Grover 

Walter J. Hammond.. 

John G. Beckley and N. H. Reeve. 

Harry C. Harvey._ 

Charles J. Bowers 

Russell Pelle 

Irving H. Cohen 

Midwest Radio Central, Inc 

Harry G. Crofts.. 

Burton F. Miller 

Ernest T. Sperling... 

John B. Wathan 

Ralph Schwartz 

Joseph A. Brence.. 

Rudolph W. Martin 

James H. Best 

John W. Coleman 

Stanley Tollman 

Floyd K. Johnston 

Robert E. Hughes 



CANCELLED 

1696 Ashland Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 
1106 Pine St., St. Louis, Mo 
Munice, Ind. 

202 Bowen St., Independence. Mo. 
265 Main St., Bourbonnais, 111. 
312 B. East St., Hutchinson, Kaps. 
1515 State St., LaCrosse, Wise. 
140 W. Third Ave., Denver. Colo. 
26 Alexandria Pike, Clifton. Ky. 

3952 Bellview St., Kansas City, Mo. 

441 N. Roosevelt St., Wichita. Kans. 
7908 Eulalie St., Brentwood, Mo. 
Institute Place, Peoria, 111. 

Riverview Park. Western and Belmont, Chicago." 111. 
511 Locust St., St. Louis, Mo. 
Third and Broadway, Lexington, Ky. 

Quincy, 111. 

Norfolk Ave., and 4th St., Norfolk, Nebr. 

IN ADDRESS. 

100 Oak St.. Mounds, 111. 

1105 Franklin Ave., Normal, 111. 

114 Ridge Ave., Evanston, 111. 

Byron, III. 

402 Armory St., Champaign, 111. 

442 Bosart Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 
9th and Cedar Sts., St. Paul, Minn. 

327 W. 4th St., Florence, Kans. 

328 Williard St., Kewanee, 111. 
119 Second St., S. E., Mason City. Iowa 
212 N. Clinton St., Collinsville, 111. 
3214 S. Colfax St., Minneapolis, Minn. 
616 E. 23rd St., Pittsburg, Kans. 
304 Chestnut St., Western Springs, 111. 
135 N. 13th St., Lincoln, Nebr. 
1131 Virginia Ave., Kansas City, Kans. 
2704 Jefferson St., Louisville. Ky. 
241 E. 60th St., Chicago, lU. 
Drake Hotel. Chicago, III. 
Carrier Mills, 111. 
Box No. 165, Coloma. Wise. 
21 S. Jefferson St., New Ulm, Minn. 

R. R. No. 1, Box 97, Mocking Bird Valley, Louisville, Ky. 
616 Montgomery St., Shelbyville, Ind. 
920 Adams St., Waukegan, Ill._ 
Rochester St., Mukwanago, Wise. 
Cincinnati, Iowa 

211 N. Broadway, Lexington. Ky. 
3927 Beachwood Ave.. Pine Lawn, Mo. 
3319 Larimore Ave., Omaha. Nebr. 
519 Asbury Ave., Evanston, 111. 



BROADCASTING. 



United Electric Co 

Cutting & Washington Radio Corp...... 

W. V. Jordan 

Mickel Music Co.,... 

Hutchinson Grain Radio Co., 

Bosch Company, Charles G., 

Greencastle Community Broadcasting 

Station 

Tucker Electric Co.. - 

Drovers Telegram Co.,.. 

Park City Daily News 

Midland College 

EXPERIMENTAL 

IMorkrum Company lUlO Wrightwood Ave, Chicago, 111. 

ICarrington, G. L |300 S. Main St., El Dorado, Kans. 

SPECIAL 

|235 Main St.. Lexington, Ky. 



441 Roosevelt St., Wichita. Kans. 
230 Oak Grove, Minneapolis, Minn. 
306 W. Breckenridge, Louisville, Ky. 
128 Main St., Marshalltown, Iowa 
Hutchinson, Kans. 
317 Main St., Burlington, Iowa. 

17 Washington St., E. Greencastle. Ind. 
217 N. Washington St., Liberal. Kans. 
1505 Genesee St., Kansas City, Mo. 
413 Tenth St., Bowling Green, Ky. 
Irving St., Fremont, Nebr. 



lAnderson, Roy E... 

TECHNICAL AND TRAINED SCHOOL 

I North Dakota .■Agricultural College I Fargo, N. Dak. 

ISoutheast Mo. State Teachers' College iNormal Ave.. Cape Girardeau, Mo. 



(MISS) M. GUNNISON, Chief Clerk, 
U. S. Radio Inspector, 629 Federal Bldg., 

Chicago, 111. 



second. The time signals sent from been heard coming around the world 

Annapolis on a wave length of 16,900 both ways. With a receiving set it 

meters have been heard in Australia, is now no excuse to say "myclock wasj 

while in the Antipodes time signals have wrong." 




FIRST REGIMENT ARMORY 



EIGHT 
DAYS 



CHICAGO 



JANUARY 

INCLUSIVE 

13th to 20th 



v^i ^{jTd?n'g^!^s best for perfect radio reception 



14 Sound-Proof Rooms for Loud Speakers 

The Holiday Season will enable Dealers to dispose of Stock. 

Inventories will be taken January 1, enabling 
Dealers to buy with intelligence and safety 



The exposition will be conducted along the 
same general lines that made a success of the 
FIRST NATIONAL RADIO EXPOSITION 
held in Chicago last June. We recognize that 
the boys are the active vehicle by which radio 
is carried into the home. As with the First 
National, the same with the Second National, 
we will have the various schools exhibiting and 
the students making radio apparatus for which 
many prizes will be given 

Interest the Boy and he will sell Dad 

WRITE TODAY FOR DIAGRAM 

SECOND NATIONAL RADIO EXPOSITION 

417 S. Dearborn St., Chicago, Illinois 



Burgess, the Radio Battery 

—construction fully patented 



When you buy a Burgess "B" 
Battery you get more than long 
life, noiselessness, high capacity 
and moderate price. You get 
also Burgess special radio con- 
struction, perfected by wireless 
specialists and fully patented! 
This exclusive radio construc- 
tion is found in no other battery 
on the market to-day. 

What does this mean to users 
of radio batteries? It means 
clear receiving. It means low- 



est cost per hour of service. It 
means long shelf life and high- 
est current capacity. It means 
that Burgess "B" Batteries are 
the best radio batteries it is 
possible to produce. Don't take 
our word for it — ask any radio 
engineer. 

Leading manufacturers of radio 
equipment specify "Burgess." Burgess 
"B" Batteries are handled by all pro- 
gressive jobbers and dealers. "Look 
for the Black and White Stripes." 
And if your dealer doesn't handle 
Burgess "B," just address: 



BURGESS BATTERY COMPANY 

Engineers ^ Dry Batteries ^ Manufacturers 

-,„„.„„ ... OflSces and Warehouses at: 

CHICAGO. ILL., Ill W. Monroe St. NEW YORK. N Y 50 Chnrrh <;» RrtHTnN mask iic c j ■ c. 

ST.PAUL.MlNN..2362UoWer,ityAve. KANSAS CITY;MO:.'2"l09G;:td Ave. SoNSm'r^'rBl'eiHySb 
In Canada: BURGESS BATTERIES, Ltd. 

^^^^^^ Winni peg, Toronto. Montreal 

BURGESS 



B" BATTE R I ES 



ff 




THIS IS A RADIO CHRISTMAS 

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ir. 1. .noo The Ma^Jdzlne of fhe Hour o oc 

Oecember, 1922 O Price 25 cents 



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Today even the ordinary Elec- 
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RADIO AGE 

The Magazine of the Hour 



Volume i 



Number 7 



CONTENTS 

Page 

National Radio Week Announcement 2 

How to Make a Battery Charger for $3 _. 3 

By Frank D. Pearne 

Radio Receiving Equipment 5 

By Frank Conrad 

How to Avoid Interference -— 8 

By C. W. Horn 

Questions and Answers. 9 

Homcharging Your Radio Battery 11 

What Radio Is Doing for Ohio Farmers..... 12 

By The Ohio Division of Markets 

Uncle Sam Is a Busy Broadcaster 13 

Radio Cheers Remote Camps 14 

Radio Direction and Range Finders 15 

By Carl H. Butman 

Thought Waves From the Editorial Tower 17 

By Frederick Smith 

The Voluntary Lid— Q S T Editorial 18 

National Broadcasters' League ...19 

Pick-Up Records by our Readers 21 

With the Radio Trade 22 

Broadcasting Stations of the U. S 23-24-25-26 

New Amateur Station List 27-28 



Radio Age is published monthly by 
RADIO AGE, Inc. 



Publication office, Mount Morris, 111. 

Editorial and Advertising Offices, Garrick Building, 64 W. 

Randolph St., Chicago. 



Frederick Smith, Editor 

Frank D. Pearne, Technical Editor 

M. B. Smith, Business Manager 

Mid-West Advertising Representatives: 
YOUNG & WARD 
308 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Eastern Representative: 

GEO. W. STEARNS 

Flatiron Building, New York City, N. Y. 



Advertising Forms Close on 19th of the Month 
Preceding Date of Issue. 

Issued monthly. Vol. 1, No. 7 Subscription price $2.50 a year. 

Entered as second-class matter September IS, 1922, at the post office at Mount 

Morris, Illinois, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



Copyright, 1922, by RADIO AGE. Inc. 



Famous as Teacher 




"^END me Radio Age for one year," 
"^ writes a Davenport, la., fan. 
"If Frank D. Pearne is technical 
editor of your magazine that's all 
I need to know." 

The Davenport subscriber is one 
of many who instinctively links radio 
with "Pearne." Mr. Pearne has 
been chief instructor in electricity 
at Lane Technical High School, 
Chicago, for twelve years. He has 
won thousands of friends also among 
readers of radio articles showing 
how to make and operate radio 
apparatus. 

MOST IMPORTANT OF ALL 
Mr. Pearne conducts for this maga- 
zine the department of questions 
and answers and in that capacity he 
answers queries sent in by sub- 
scribers free of charge. A self-ad- 
dressed and stamped envelope brings 
a prompt reply by mail. 

Send $2.00 in currency, check or 
money order to Radio Age and get 
this progressive, helpful magazine 
for one year. Keeping up with 
radio is easy when you follow Frank 
D. Pearne. Address Radio Age, 
64 West Randolph Street, Chicago. 



^iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii Ill iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii I iiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiini iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiii!^ 



National Radio Week to 
Emphasize Educational Value 
j of Radio Broadcasting 




^HE tremendous contribution of radio broadcasting to the educational life of the country 
is to be especially emphasized during NATIONAL RADIO WEEK, to be held from 
December 23 to 30. 

Broadcasting has assumed many roles since its inception, but none has received such whole- 
hearted and enthusiastic support from the nation's leaders as when it dons the toga of the educa- 
tor. 

Sending of operatic arias out on the air has become frequent within the past few months. 
All the progress thus far made in that field, together with a wealth of new material and ideas, 
is to be assembled during NATIONAL RADIO WEEK for a grand display. 

Announcement to this effect has just been made by J. Andrew White, chairman of the 
Executive Committee of NATIONAL RADIO WEEK. Mr. White and the Committee feel that 
the broadcasting of the highest type of music not only has recreational value but is inspirational 
in home circles, as well, and there is tremendous economic benefit to be gained in educating the 
American people through radio to an appreciation of the higher forms of culture. 

Radio's use in the church and school are also to be demonstrated in special nation-wide 
programs from scores of stations. 

NATIONAL RADIO WEEK is an unselfish, co-operative effort on the part of everyone in 
radio, from listener to manufacturer, to demonstrate what the new science and industry has 
accomplished thus far in the brief span of one year of general popularity and to give the listener 
an insight into the yet unrealized possibilities of the near future. It is an organized effort to add 
to the ranks of listeners — to double this number in fact. 

Every listener will endeavor to enlist one other person as a radio fan. This will double the 
number of broadcast listeners. Programs from every station in the country, specially prepared 
to fit the holiday season and the spirit of the week, will be sent out on the air. Sporting events, 
operas, jazz bands, speeches, and other particularly interesting programs will fill the air. Nation- 
wide broadcasts of a single event to be heard in every section of the country at once, will be 
made. 



I 1 11 L 111 mil 1 1 1 II I I I 1 1 1 ml I it 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 n 1 1 1 11 II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 II I I I n 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I n I II I 1 1 1 1 n 1 1 1 1 1 1 n iJLLiJ^Liijj- T r n Tn T n i n mi 



RADIO JIGE 

Tfie Ma^a^ine of Ifte Hour 




M,B,SrMIT 

■PUBLIBHE-P, 




FREBiERlCR SMITfti 



/>^ PUBLISHED MONTilLY GARRICK BI.DG CH.QO. ^^ ^M\ EDITOR 

/-7 ^^^"^-'^- 



II I ! nil I 11 I n 1 I 1 I I 1 I I M M 1 n I I I 1 I M n u I I I I I I I II I I I I 1 1 I 1 n II 11 I 1 1 I I I 111 I I I I I I I uii I 11 I I 1 I I I I 1 1 I I I I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 I I I I I I 1 1 I M i I I I 1 I i n- 



A Homemade Battery Charger for $3.00 

By F. D. PEARNE 

ONE of the most essential re- is comparatively easy where the before a battery can be charged with 

quirements of a radio set is electric lighting circuit is of the di- this current, some method of recti- 

some kind of a charging ap- rect current type, but unfortunately fication must be used. Various de- 

paratusjwhich will keep the storage for the radio fan, most lighting cir- vices for this purpose are now on the 

battery^charged at all times. This cuits use the alternating current and market, some of which are sold at 



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FIGURE I. 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR' 




CURf^ENT 
TERMIAIAL- 




LAMPS CON/ieCTSO 




P/RECr CURRENT 
*- TBFiMINAL. 




ALTBRNATtNCr CL4RF^£^T 



Al.-rSRNAT/NG CUF^R£f^T 



FIGUf^E a. 



teasonable prices, while others are 
really expensive, and as the average 
radio fan usually has plenty of out- 
lets for his spare change, I am going 
to describe a rectifier which any ama- 
teur can build at an expense of less 
than $3. 

This outfit is known as the "No- 
den valve" and will answer the pur- 
pose very well and in fact is really 
better than some of the rectifiers 
one may buy, for the reason that it 
rectifies both sides of the alternating 
current wave, which some of the 
standard outfits do not do. The 
materials required consist of four 
ordinary quart size mason jars, 
such as are used for putting up pre- 
serves; four pieces of sheet alum- 
inum one-eighth of an inch thick; 
four pieces of sheet lead of the same 
size and thickness, four wooden tops 
to cover the jars, a few brass ma- 
chine screws and nuts, and about 
two and one-half pounds of phos- 
phate of ammonium. 

First cut out four plates of good, 
soft sheet aluminum, six inches long, 
two inches wide and one-eighth of 
an inch thick. Bend one end over, 
one-half inch as shown at "A", 
Figure 1. Drill a hole through the 
center of the part which is turned 
over. This should be drilled with a 
No. 18 drill which is large enough to 
allow an 8-32 brass machine screw to 
pass through it. These plates should 
be made of soft aluminum for the 
reason that hard aluminum will 
rrark and break, if bent at a sharp 



angle. Next cut out four pieces of 
sheet lead of the same size and shape 
as the aluminum pieces, and drill 
holes of the same size in the same 
place. 

The wooden tops for the jars 
should be turned out of hard wood. 
The flange should be three inches in 
diameter and one-half inch thick 
and the smaller part is two and 
three-sixteenths inches in diameter 
and one-quarter inch thick. This 
small projection is to extend down 
into the jar and will just fit into the 
neck of the quart-sized fruit jar. 
If any other kind of a jar is used, 
this size should be changed to suit 
the case. If it is not convenient 
to turn these tops out in a lathe, 
they can be made of two pieces cut 
out with a jig saw and fastened to- 
gether with screws, but these screws 
must be so located that they do not 
interfere with the holes which are 
to be drilled, as shown at "B", 
Figure 1. Now mount one alum- 
inum plate and one lead plate on 
each of the tops as shown at "C," 
Figure 1. These plates are held in 
place by 8-32 brass machine screws, 
■ one and one-half inches long and 
fastened with a nut on the other side. 
The nut should be turned up very 
tight so that the plate is held rigidly 
in place. Another nut on top of the 
first one serves as a binding post to 
which the wires will be connected 
later. 

After all four units are complete 
the part of the plates which was 



turned over, as well as the screw 
heads and the part of the wood 
which goes down into the neck of the 
jar should be coated with melted 
wax, or paraffine to prevent any 
gas or fumes from the solution cor- 
roding the screws, thereby causing a 
poor joint. Next, make up the solu- 
tion with which the jars are to be 
partly filled, make a saturate solu- 
tion (all the water will dissolve) 
of distilled water and phosphate of 
ammonium. It is necessary that 
the distilled water be used as it will 
not work if the water contains any 
impurities. 

Fill the jars with this solution to 
within about one inch of the top, 
that is, the solution should be with- 
in one inch of the top when the 
plates are in the jars. It is a good 
plan to measure out enough water to 
fill the jars three-quarters full and 
then add the phosphate of am- 
monium, until no more can be dis- 
solved. In dissolving this chemical, 
it should not be stirred with a metal 
spoon, use a piece of glass, so as to 
make sure that no impurities get 
into the solution. Figure 2 is a dia- 
gram of the circuit, which shows 
how the connections are made. The 
aluminum plates are marked "A" 
and the lead plates are marked "L" 
respectively. Lamps are connected 
in the circuit, which allow only a 
certain amount of current to pass 
from the alternating current wires 
to the rectifier. Each lamp added in 
(Continued on page 28.) 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



Radio Receiving Equipment* 

By FRANK CONRAD 

Assistant Chief Engineer, Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa. 



THIS paper is intended to dis- 
cuss questions of design of 
those types of receiving ap- 
paratus which are adapted for re- 
ception over a limited range of wave 
length, and which depend for their 
operation on such manipulation as 
can be successfully carried out by 
persons entirely unfamiliar with the 
technique of radio apparatus. Their 
principal field of application is the 
reception of broadcast radio tel- 
ephone signals. 

Among the many requirements 
which an ideal receiver of this class 
should fulfil are that: 

(1) It should tune in the wave 
length desired with only simple ad- 
justments, which should not inter- 
act on each other. With a signal 
of normal audibility from a desired 
station, the signal strength from an- 
other equal or possibly more power- 
ful station, separated by ten thou- 
sand cycles, should be below audi- 
biUty. 

(2) Its sensibility should be such 
that its range will be limited by 
static interferences, fading, and so 
on, rather than by actual lack of 
response. Any local sources of 
power necessary for its operation 
should require infrequent attention. 

The first-mentioned requirement, 
which may be termed selectivity, 
is more or less fulfilled by giving the 
receiver a characteristic in which 
its impedance to the desired band 
of wave length is very low in com- 
parison with its impedance to the 




1 

1 


lO. 



Figure 1 



♦Presented before The Institute of Radio 
FniJlneprs, New York. October 4th, 1922. 



Figure 2 

wave length above and below this 
band. 

The curve in Figure 1 shows the 
relation of admittance to wave 
length in a simple oscillating circuit 
which has the constants of the an- 
tenna ordinarily used and which is 
tuned to a definite wave length by 
the addition of a variable induct- 
ance. 

An examination of this curve 
shows that, although the maximum 
signal is obtained for the wave 
length to which the circuit is tuned, 
appreciable response is given to wave 
lengths differing considerably from 
those for which it is in resonance. 

In order to obtain the desired se- 
lectivity, it is necessary consider- 
ably to increase the time constant 
of this circuit. This result can be 
accomplished in one or both of two 
ways: namely, by increasing the 
inductance element with a corre- 
sponding reduction, of capacity, or 
by decreasing the effective resistance 
by regeneration. 

The curve in Figure 2 shows the 
effect of placing an additional ca- 
pacity of 25 micro-microfarads in 
series with the circuit with a cor- 
responding increase in inductance 
to bring the circuit in resonance 
with the same wave length as under 
the first condition. It will be noted 
that the selectivity is very consid- 
erably improved. 

In the case of a vacuum tube de- 
tector, which is nominally a voltage- 
operated device, the large induct- 
ance implies a correspondingly large 
voltage available for operation of the 



detector, with the resultant increase 
in signal strength. In the case of the 
crystal detector, the maximum vsig- 
nal strength is obtained when the 
effective resistance due to the de- 
tector is equal to that of the balance 
of the antenna circuit. It, therefore, 
should be connected across such part 
of the inductance as will give the 
best compromise between selectiv- 
ity and sensitivity. 

The use of the regenerative vacuum- 
tube offers the further possibility of in- 
crease of selectivity with the additional 
advantage of a very marked increase in 
sensitivity. 

The curve, Figure 3, shows the rela- 
tion of admittance to wave length of the 
same circuit as that for Curve 2, with the 
exception that the resistance element is 
assumed to be one per cent of that in 
Figure 2. This is an amount of regenera- 
tion which can readily be obtained. The 
ordinates of this curve are drawn to a 
scale one hundred times that of Figure 1 
and 2, and it might be assumed that the 
signal strength would be one hundred 
times that which would be obtained from 
the circuit of Figure 2. This condition 
does not necessarily follow, owing to the 
fact that there is a definite limit to the 
component of antenna current which is 
proportional to the incoming signal. 

This condition may be illustrated by 
the diagram, Figure 4. In this diagram, 
E represents the incoming signal field 
affecting the receiving antenna. Should 
the impedance of the receiving antenna 
circuit be infinite, the voltage induced in 
this circuit will be in the phase C. For 
finite values of resistance impedance in 
this circuit, the current will be bounded 





10,000 


1 

1 

n 
''I 


lOOO 




lOl 




°/o /Yesonance 



Figure 3 



6 



RADIO AGE— "THE MAGAZINE OF THE HOUR" 



by the circle B A. Thus, for a given 
value of resistance impedance, the cur- 
rent will be represented by the line B. 
The field surrounding the antenna due to 
this current will have the same phase and 
relative length, and the total effective 
field will be the sum of E and OB, or 
O D. For zero resistance the current will 
have the phase and relative length A, 
with a zero resultant field. Further consid- 
eration will show that this ultimate re- 
ceived antenna current is independent 
of the height of the antenna, provided 
all sections of its length are affected by 
the same field intensity, it being depend- 
ent only upon the field per unit length. 
The antenna therefore may be consid- 
ered as a constant voltage generator, 
having a definite internal impedance, 
'which is proportional to antenna height. 
This generator supplies a load circuit 
having the constants of the oscillating 
circuit. 




Figure 4 

In the case of a regenerative system in 
which the regeneration is carried out to 
such an extent as to produce oscillations, 
the current due to the incoming signal 
will be super-imposed on the local current, 
and have a value dependent entirely up- 
on the effective resistance but independ- 
ent of any local oscillating current. 

Figure 5 shows the conditions deter- 
mining the resistance of the antenna cir- 
cuit under the oscillating condition. In 
this curve the line G shows the relation of 
voltage impressed on grid terminals to the 
oscillating component of plate circuit. 
Curve P shows the oscillating compo- 
nent of plate circuit set up by this im- 
pressed grid voltage. From this curve 
it will be seen that, once the oscillations 
are started, they will increase to a point 
where the curve P intersects the line G. 
The effective resistance of the antenna 
circuit is determined by the relation of 
the angle of this intersection to the angle 
of G with the base. In actual practice, 
it is possible to reduce the angle of inter- 
section at this point to such a value that 
the antenna current due to incoming sig- 
nal will closely approach the ultimate 
value. Any possible increase of the sen- 
sitivity is therefore limited to an increase 
of the inductance across which the de- 
tecting circuit is connected. The extent 
to which this increase can be carried out 
is largely a matter of design. 

The limitation of sensitivity due to 
ultimate antenna current also imposes 
an apparent reduction in selectivity and 
is a feature which usually is not consid- 
ered in the discussion of the oscillating 
circuit. 

Referring to the curves. Figures 2 and 
3, these show the characteristic of simple 
circuits made up of capacity, inductance 



and resistance. In the case of an actual 
antenna circuit, it has been shown that 
there is, in addition, a limiting impedance 
which is proportional to the height. In 
the consideration of the sharpness of tun- 
ing the antenna circuit, it is necessary to 
consider this limiting impedance in ad- 
dition to the actual impedance of the 
oscillating circuit. Therefore, the actual 
increase of sharpness of tuning which can 
be obtained by regeneration is largely 
determined by this limiting impedance, 
or, in other words, by the antenna height. 

In Figure 6 are shown two curves taken 
with similar receiving sets, but on an- 
tennas of different heights. The left- 
hand curve is from a single-wire, inverted- 
L antenna, having a height of 35 feet 
(10.6 m.) above ground, and a length of 
horizontal portion 75 feet (23m.). The 
right-hand curve was taken from an 
antenna having a height above ground 
of 15 feet (4.6m.), the length of horizontal 
portion being the same. The same re- 
ceiver was used in each case. 

These two curves show the very great 
increase of selectivity to be obtained by 
the use of the low antenna. In fact, the 
increase is considerably greater than 
would be expected from consideration of 
the comparative heights of the two an- 
tennas. It is probably accounted for by 
the condition that the effective height of 
the lower antenna is a considerably small- 
er percentage of its actual height than in 
the case of the higher antenna, owing to 
the indefinite height of the ground con- 
nection which was made to the hot water 
heating system, thus giving an effect 
equivalent to raising the height off the 
actual ground. 

Due to the absorption by objects on 
or near the ground, it is usually impossible 
to realize completely the condition of 
equal signal strength with low as with 
high antenna, and of course the possi- 
bilities in this direction depend on the 
surroundings of the antenna in question. 

Under conditions in which the reduc- 
tion of signal strength with height is due, 
as is often the case in thickly built-up dis- 
tricts, to the appreciable absorption near 
the ground, it is possible to improve the 
selectivity of the antenna by the use of a 
coupled secondary circuit in the receiving 
set. If another resonance circuit of the 
same constants were connected to the 
output circuit of a vacuum tube ampli- 
fier connected to a resonance circuit hav- 
ing the constants corresponding to that of 
Figure 2, the characteristic of this double 
circuit would be proportional to the prod- 
uct of the characteristic curves, which, it 
is evident, would give a very greatly in- 
creased selectivity. 

This arrangement constitutes the ideal 
method of improving the selectivity of a 
receiver. If, in place of