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Bertha Levitt 

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A Thesis submitted in conformity with the 

# Requirements for graduation in the # 

Fourth Year in the Central High 

# School of Commerce, Toronto # 

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I have chosen Radio because It marks a great 
advance in the business world, and will eventually 
be the best means of doing business. 

I wish to thank Miss Lucy Dickson and Mr. L. 
White for helping me with my thesis. 

Toronto, June, 1940, 



Chapter Page 

I The Invention of Radio 1 

II The Role of Radio in 

The Modern World 7 

III Radio Broadcasting and Reception.... 15 

IV Television 23 

V The Radio in Canada 34 

Bibliography 45 




Frontespiece ii 

The Emergency Service of Radio 8 

CBC Short-Wave Receiving Station at Ottawa, 
Canada. 16 

Largest Broadcasting Studio in the World, NBC, 
Radio City, New York city 18 

Master Control Board, NBC Studio Radio City, 

New York City 22 

Actual Broadcasting by Woodhouse and Hawkins, 
Comedians 25 

Actual Broadcast of Mark Kenny's Orchestra in 
Vancouver, British Columbia 27 

RCA Television 29 

Television Image Picture as it Appears on the 
Home Receiver in 441 Lines: Natural Photo- 
graph of the Girl: Inside the Television 
Studio Control Room 31 

Television Control Room: Inoscope or Electric 
Eye, of the Television Camera: The Kinescope 
Corresponding to the "Loud Speaker" of an Or- 
dinary Radio Receiver 34 

RCA Television Antennas Empire State Tower.... 36 

The First Telemobile Unit in America 39 

Actual Scene From "Nine Loves of Emily", at 

NBC's Television Studio 42 


Chapter I 

The discovery of radio has resulted from the 
combination of many single inventions rather than 
the result of one. Marconi is credited with the 
pioneer work in radio, and in 1896 managed to tele- 
graph almost two miles by radio. Before the end 
of 1897 he had sent radio messages to and from 
ships at sea over distances up to ten miles and on 
land between Salisbury and Bath in England, a dis- 
tance of twenty-four miles. Marconi ! s original 
transmitter was not much more than the enlarged 
electric wave generator devised in 1886 by Heinrich 
Hertz in Germany. This wave generator consisted of 
a spark-gap to which was attached a pair of out- 
wardly extended conductors corresponding somewhat 
to the aerial and ground wires of a modern transmitter. 
His receiver was a wire ring with a minute opening 
across which passed tiny sparks where electro magnetic 
waves were received. Marconi soon improved his distance 
by connecting one side of the generating spark-gap 
to an earth wire and the other to a high vertical aerial 


— 2— 
wire. This was then improved by dividing the trans- 
mitter into two parts — a driving circuit and radiating 
circuit. In 1900, Marconi and Professor R. Pessenden 
of University of Pittsburgh greatly improved the 
transmitter by adjusting its two divisions to work 
in harmony. The spark generator had a number of de- 
fects, however, and was not very efficient. Fes3enden, 
in 1902, improved this conductor by inventing a con- 
tinuous wave system depending upon the radio frequency 
alternator. By 1906 with the assistance of Mr. E. P. 
Alexanderson he had built generators to transmit sev- 
eral hundreds of miles. Valdemar Poulsen of Denmark 
invented a third type of transmitter which was a 
special arc-light generating continuous streams of 
waves for the production of slower alternating currents, 

Marconi 1 s father tried to help him as best he 
could. When Marconi decided that he was going to 
invent wireless no matter how long it would take him, 
he was given the garden of his home to experiment in, 
money with which to buy his wire, poles, string, tin, 
and whatever else he needed. He planted two poles 
at opposite sides of the garden. One of them had a 
wire with a spark-gap. A Morse telegraph key set 
off the electric current and caused the spark. When 
Marconi pressed the key, the spark crackled in the 
air. If he held down the key for several seconds, a 

— 3— 
dash of the spark occurred, if he just clicked it, 
a dot. These dots and dashes sounded in the wire on 
the opposite pole and could be heard through a tel- 
ephone receiver. Young Marconi, helped in this way 
by Bell and Morse, was able to send messages across 
the garden — without wires, Marconi was not sure that, 
if there was a hill or wall between the poles, the 
sounds go through these hills or walls. He set the 
poles on opposite sides of a hill and, to his surprise, 
the sounds went right through the hill and the walls. 

When he announced his Invention, people did not 
believe him, they thought he was Just exaggerating 
slightly. He said that this invention could con- 
nect continent with continent, and save lives, he made 
wireless do both. 

He was told that his system worked well for 
short distances, but it would never be made to serve 
for great lengths. They said that the earth being 
round, that would stop him from trying his system. 

Marconi planned a great test. For distance he 
would use the width of the Atlantic Ocean: on one 
shore a pole with a wire could send out electric 
waves; on the opposite shore, beyond three thousand 
miles of curving ocean, a kite, struggling on a wire 
in the air, should catch the — electricity. Some one 
would tap the telegraph key in the Old World, and 

— 4 — 
through the kite in the New World the click would be 

The dream was too daring to publish. Marconi 
knew what it might mean to the world if he made it 
come true; nations would be brought closer to one 
another, perhaps acting more kindly than in the 
past. He sailed for America and landed at St. John f s 
Newfoundland, on December 6, 1901. Before he left 
England, he had instructed his assistants there at 
Poldhu, the southwestern tip of Cornwall, to signal 
at a certain hour each day the letter "S", three dots 
in the Morse code. 

The first day for the signal was December 12. 
It was a raw, bleak day, the wind was high and so 
wild that Marconi had difficulty raising his kite which, 
like that of Franklin, was to catch electricity--in 
this case an electric signal, three dots in current. A 
telephone receiver, attached to the wire of the kite, 
was to transmit the sound to Marconi. At last, the 
nine-foot kite was lost in the sky, held by four hun- 
dred feet of swaying wire. Eagerly Marconi sat at his 
window in a house on the cliff below which thundered 
a cold sea. The receiver was at his ear. Three 
thousand miles away at Poldhu, a group of men had 
crowded about the "sending set." When the time came, 
the operator pressed a key. A spark, a foot long, 

— 5— 
and as thick as a man's wrist, sprang across the gap 
in the gigantic coils of wire. Heaven's lightning 
had found a rival. The very ground quivered and 
crackled. Three times the operator pressed and re- 
leased the key. That same moment, three thousand 
miles away in St. John's, Newfoundland, Marconi heard 
through the receiver at his ear, three little clicks, 
"S", it said. It meant, "Another wonder of the world 
has come. Marconi, prepare for glory." After this, 
Marconi started to build wireless stations the earth 
over, without wires. 

Seeing that this was possible, he started to think 
about human life. "if ships had wireless sets," he 
said, "they could signal for help in distress." On 
board the good ship Philadelphia, he fitted out a new 
kind of wireless — one that printed on a tape the mes- 
sage it received. He tried it out one day for the 
first time in the captain's cabin. The chief officer 
happened to step into the room just at the crucial 
moment. He saw with his own eyes a message from 
Poldhu being wisely written out. Excitedly he rushed 
from the cabin and about the ship, telling all of the 
marvel. The people also did not believe that, but when 
they heard the ticks they started to think how won- 
derful and clever was Marconi. 

The first boatload of people to owe gratitude 

— 6— 

to him were the passengers and crew of the liner 
Republic. One dark night in 1903, off the port of 
New York, this ship suddenly collided with another, 
the Florida. In a few moments the water was rushing 
through a hole in the side of the Republic. The ship 
was sinking. It was a matter of a moment to send a 
wireless S. 0. S., the signal meaning distress. The 
Florida was doing all it could. But the electric 
messenger brought aid from all sides, and the pas- 
sengers and the crew were saved. 

Chapter II 

The Achievements of Radio 

Radio has been the greatest single stride in 
communications since the existence of man. First 
we had wire— then telephone, both of which use hun- 
dreds of thousands of miles of wire to connect dif- 
ferent points. We will continue to use wire and 
telephone— radio will not replace them. Radio com- 
munication is unlimited in its scope—radio makes 
possible the things which were impossible in wire 
communication either from a practical view-point, 
or from the economic view-point. A transmitting 
station may send out a radio signal or a broadcast. 
It is possible to hear this in millions of radio 
receivers in any part of the world. An announcer 
in Toronto will introduce a speaker in San Francisco 
and the voice is "heard »round the world." The same 
Toronto announcer can also introduce a speaker in 
Chicago, London, Paris or Berlin. Radio makes this 
possible and all of it can be heard in any part of 
the globe. There is no barrier to the radio waves — 
no mountains, no water — nothing, because they go every 





— 9— 
place where there can be found human habitation. 
For ships at sea, there is only one form of 
communication--radio. Without radio, the ships 
which travel the seven seas would be out of touch 
with civilization for weeks and months. Without 
radio, the many scientific and exploration parties 
would be out of touch with civilization, not to 
mention the most important time signals which are 
sent several times every day and night. Time is 
one of the most essential things in our daily life 
--it is very necessary to shins at sea, to astronomers 
and to expeditions of scientific nature. Time and 
radio are tied closely together — one does not get 
along without the other in this modern day of science. 
The Emergency Service of Radio 

Radio is a very vital part of ships. An inter- 
national radio law requires every ship to carry adequate 
radio equipment. When the "S. 0. S. " distress signal 
is sent out, every ship within range "stands by" until 
the ship in trouble has been given assistance. Radio 
has been the means of saving more human lives when 
ships have been in distress than any other single 
mediuri--its value cannot be estimated because it 
would be impossible to place a value on human life. 

There are other emergencies in which radio is 
called upon to take a leading part. Fires, floods, 


storms and earthquakes usually disorganize rail trans- 
portation and wire communication of all kinds. Roads 
may be completely we shed out or torn up. The very 
first measure of relief is by means of radio. A 
radio amateur with his low-powered transmitter can 
immediately summon aid; he can communicate with aer- 
oplanes which bring food and medical assistance; he 
can keep the outside world informed of what is going 
on and what is necessary. These things actually have 
happened so many times that the American Radio Relay 
League (organized radio amateurs) co-operates with 
the Army, the Navy and the Red Cross in this sort of 
relief work. During the hurricane in Florida, and 
during the earthquake in Nicaragua, for many days 
the only means of communication was through amateur 
radio stations doing relief work. That is the way 
human lives are saved. 
Radio in Police Work 

Our modern cities are equipping the police 
and the fire departments with radio. More than 
seventy-five large cities are making use of radio in 
police work in preserving law and order. Special 
radio receivers are mounted in the automobiles used 
by the police--they pick up the broadcasts from a 
central transmitter. The special transmitter operates 
on a special frequency — one which usually cannot be 


picked up by the average receiver used in entertain- 
ment reception. This special police work itself is 
becoming a large part of radio, and not many years 
will go by before entire Canada will be interlinked 
by radio for this law and order work. 
The Scope of Radio 

In entertainment, we find everything can be done 
by radio. We hear the finest kind of music from the 
great symphony orchestras; we hear famous musicians, 
songs from the great artists, drama from accomplished 
actors and all manner of programs. The religious, 
educational and health work reaches the remote places 
of the world by means of radio. Lectures are given 
on every possible subject from playing golf to fig- 
uring income tax. Sport events, such as baseball 
games, basketball games, horse races, automobile 
races, aeroplane races and many others are handled 
by radio. Many broadcasting stations send out 
weather bulletins, storm warnings, market conditions 
of live stock and produce for the benefit of the 
farmers. There are many other reports for other busi- 
ness men in all branches of industry and science. 
Every business is helped in some way or other by 
radio. There are daily broadcasts of news events 
which are sent almost as soon as the event takes place. 
Radio keeps us right up to the minute on world events. 


The President of the United States can address an 
audience of over fifty million people. He can be 
sitting in the White House while he is talking, and 
if necessary, his address can be heard in every 
civilized country on the face of the globe. The 
King of England can address his subjects all over 
the world. ?/e have heard fine operas from Germany 
and Prance- -we have heard the voice of the King, 
and many others in different parts of the world. 
Without radio these things would have been impos- 
sible In our day. 
World-Wide Radio Communication 

Until radio came, our only means of communica- 
tion with Europe and other foreign countries was 
by means of the wire cable — thousands and thousands 
of miles of it. To send a message to some parts 
of Europe required a day or more because the message 
had to be handled and relayed through several dif- 
ferent stations and countries. The radio message 
goes direct to the receiving station no matter where 
it is located — it only takes a fraction of a minute 
to send it now. There was no telephone service to 
any European country before we had radio. Now we 
can sit in our own homes and talk to our relatives 
or friends in most any part of Europe or South America. 
The radiophone service between New York and London 

is very busy every minute of the day. This com- 
munication usually takes place on very short wave- 
lengths, or very high frequencies from 4,000 to 
25,000 kilocycles. Radio has done more to break 
down the diplomatic barriers between nations than 
all the wars and peace-pacts combined. It has 
made possible a better understanding between nations. 
It has broadened our minds and it has educated us 
much faster than anything else. 
Radio and Aeroplanes 

Today people are becoming more and more air- 
minded— the aeroplane is becoming a means of 
transportation for public convenience. Every pas- 
senger-carrying aeroplane must be equipped with 
radio— the law requires it. Radio is used to keep 
the pilots posted on the weather conditions, landing 
conditions, and, in fact, planes are being despatched 
by radio just as trains are being despatched by wire 
telegraph. Aeroplanes cannot get along without radio 
any more than the ships at sea. Radio beacon signals 
guide aeroplanes through storms and fogs when the 
pilot cannot see the ground. A radio beacon also 
is used in taking positions of ships at sea, especially 
during storms and foggy weather. 
Advertising Through the Air 

Thousands of years ago efforts were made to 

—14 — 
"win friends and influence people" by the spoken 
word. To this day, no other method of influencing 
men and women is as successful as words spoken feel- 
ingly and with conviction. 

The first advertising was conversational. Ad- 
vertising next employed pictures and symbols. Then 
came visible words carved or lettered laboriously by 
hand. Finally, only yesterday, the printing press 
enabled 333 advertisers to reach the masses with 
economy. Then came the radio, and broadcast adver- 

In less than two decades broadcasting has made 
available to the advertiser all the ancient and 
powerful attraction between the speaker and his 
listener. More, it has performed a unique service 
by multiplying incalculably the number of individual 
calls a single speaker can make. The salesman who 
talks in a single day to twenty prospects is excep- 
tional. But broadcasting enables a single personal 
salesman to speak to a thousand or a million or ten 
million people in the space of a few minutes. 

It is incorrect to think of broadcasting as only 
one medium. There are several different kinds of 
broadcast advertising. For one thing, local broadcasting 
through individual stations differs as much from 
network broadcasting as newspapers differ from 

magazines. The appeal in the first case may be 
concentrated on local interest, while in the case 
of network programs it is customary to broaden the 
appeal to attract a wider variety of population 

Even more important than the distinction between 
local and national broadcasting is the distinction 
between evening and daytime broadcasting. During 
the evening, radio reaches the entire family. Its 
broad appeal is to all ages. During the daytime, 
although men are not strangers in the home, broad- 
casting functions quite differently. It is primarily 
a woman's advertising medium reaching housewives. So 
both the program and the commercial announcements are 
noticeably different from those used at night. 



GBC Short- ave Receiving Station at Ottawa, Can. 

Chapter III 

The very first "radio sets" for home use com- 
prised one coil of wire, a piece of mineral called 
a crystal, a long wire strung out of doors and a pair 
of headphones operating much like the telephone re- 
ceiver you hold to your ear. 

A little later came receiving sets with a vacuum 
tube which worked into a pair of headphones. The 
"fans" of those days played every conceivable trick 
on that one tube to make it pull in more miles. It 
was not uncommon to find a receiver with a front 
panel a foot and a half square with a dozen to twenty- 
four knobs and dials — all for working that single 
tube. Nowadays our modern home receivers have but 
one tuning control, one volume control and these 
operate seven to ten tubes. 

The single tube in the first sets was a "detector" 
which received the radio waves and turned them into 
a form which would produce sound in the 'phones. The 
more ambitious constructors put one or two extra tubes 
between the detector and the headphone connection, re- 
placed the 'phones with a loud speaker and entertained 



the whole family at one time. The next development 
put tubes ahead of the detector, between the antenna 
and the detector. Those were the days of "DX-ing" 
for everybody. The letters "D X" in radio mean long 
distance reception. 

The whole object of early broadcast reception 
was to listen to some station on the other side of 
the country. The program was of no importance what- 
ever, so long as the station was a thousand miles or 
more away. Today the emphasis is placed in perfection 
of tone quality and selectivity and sensitivity. Most 
people claim now that they are well satisfied with 
programs from the "locals" provided the selections 
are worth hearing. But try stealing up behind some 
of these local enthusiasts on a cool winter's evening 
and see what they are tuning for. If what they are 
after is a "local" then their idea of distance must 
be the moon. 

There was no such thing as a factory-built re- 
ceiver and every one built his own. Radio parts stores 
sprang up everywhere and you could buy the now obsolete 
slide tuners, loose couplers, variometers and a hundred 
other necessities on every corner. The boy of the 
family would take a cereal box made of cardboard, add 
some wire, a crystal detector and somehow get hold of 
a pair of headphones. That started it and about a week 

— 20— 
later you would see the boy and his dad ride downtown 
on Saturday afternoon to come home loaded with bundles, 
In a few nights the neighbors would come in to listen 
to China — even if they did not hear it. 

Enterprising manufacturers observed these hap- 
penings and concluded that here lay a fertile field 
for sales. The factory-built receiver entered the 
contest and gradually made headway. The first of 
the ready-made sets was expensive in comparison with 
the home-made article and most of them were not so 
good. But times have changed and today the factory 
job has the better of the argument with the set built 
at home by a novice. While the "kitchen sink" or 
the "bread board" set, as a home-made receiver has 
been called, is now in the background, we still have 
with us two classes of receivers--the factory-built 
and the "custom-built." 

Custom-built receivers are built by professional 
radio men, generally using kits or sets of parts which 
are designed to operate well together in making a 
really high-grade set equal to factors-built ones in 
What ia Radio? 

Practically everything in radio is concerned 
with one of its two main divisions, the transmitter 
or the receiver. Between these two parts must be 

something to carry the signals from one to the other. 
In many of the commercial applications of radio and 
in some applications to home use, wires or metal con- 
ductors are used to carry the impulses or signals 
and we have what Is called wired radio or line radio. 
But for broadcasting and for most other purposes 
"space radio" is used and it transmits the signals 
through space by sending them up into an aerial at 
the transmitter and catching them on the antenna at 
the receiver. 

This electricity that makes radio possible is 
not easy to define. Ever since Franklin pulled elec- 
tricity out of the clouds with his kite and a key, 
men have been trying to discover exactly what elec- 
tricity is. As yet, nobody can say for sure. One 
scientist may have a theory which seems satisfactory 
and then another comes forward with another explana- 
tion which seems even more reasonable, but he is fol- 
lowed by a third and so it has been going. It actually 
seems that before long it will be proven that every- 
thing in existence is electricity, that all things 
finally can be divided into many things which make 
up electricity. 

Electricity itself is used only to carry energy 
from one place to another or to store energy in one 


place. Electricity itself, before any work is done 
upon it, contains no energy any more than the belt 
driving a piece of machinery contains energy. Elec- 
tricity put in motion will do work and so will the 
moving belt do work. A condenser containing electri- 
city from the condenser will then do work. 
Voltage and Current 

"Electric current" is pressure back of the voltage 
and turning on a switch causes the current. Movement 
of electricity in wires is called electric current and 
its rate of flow is measured in a unit called the 
"ampere." An ampere is a certain quantity of elec- 
tricity passing a point within a given length of time. 
Amperage is not a measure of quantity, it is a measure 
of rate of flow. It does not correspond to gallons in 
hydraulic measurements, but to gallons per minute 
or second. 

In an electric circuit, with the current shut 
off by a switch there is still electric pressure or 
voltage but there is no current or amperage. It is 
possible to have electric pressure without current 
but in no ordinary circuit is it possible to have 
current flow without voltapre or pressure to produce 
Alternating Currents 

"Alternating currents" is the voltage and flow 

increasing and decreasing working first in one direc- 
tion, then in the other. 

If the electricity in one part of the circuit 
moves back and forth or "alternate" this will make 
the electricity in all the other parts move in a simi- 
lar manner and that Is an alternating current. The 
electricity in one part of the wiring just moves one 
way for a little distance, then moves back but never 
leaves the part of the circuit. 

In an electric circuit all the wires are filled 
with electricity all the time. If the wires are 
separated at some point and a battery connected there, 
the battery's energy will push the electricity around 
through the wires, all of it moving around through 
the circuit away from one side of the battery and 
back Into the other side. When electricity is thus 
moved around through a circuit, always flowing in the 
one direction, that is a direct current. 
Wave Motion 

When we talk of a wave, we immediately think 
of something moving, in other words a wave is a pas- 
sing disturbance in something or other. If powerful 
high frequency currents are sent up into a transmitter, 
there will be electric waves or radio waves started off 
as disturbances. The disturbances or waves will follow 
one another out Into SDace and travel to great distances 



5u (~i & 


Each speaker taking the parts of three people 


away from the transmitter. 
The Transmitter 

The following articles are parts which enter 
into a transmitter: 

First there is a "microphone" which is directly 
affected by the sounds we desire to transmit and to 
receive. The microphone is a device which causes 
sounds to produce changes in an electric current so 
that the amount of current Increases and decreases. 

The next part in the transmitter is a "speech 
amplifier", a collection of parts which allows the 
comparatively feeble microphone currents to control 
much greater amounts of electricity so that from the 
amplifier we may secure currents carrying considerable 

In order to have the transmitter work properly 
there must be two parts to it, the "radio frequency 
oscillator" and the "speech modulator." The former 
consists of radio vacuum tubes and other parts which 
generate or produce alternating currents of very high 
frequency. The latter contains vacuum tubes and its 
function is to take the electric currents from the 
microphone speech amplifier and add them to the cur- 
rent from the radio frequency oscillator. With these 
two parts, changes in sound reach the microphone. 


— 28— 
The Receiver 

The first part is the "antenna" consisting of 
one or more wires placed in space where they are struck 
by the radio waves. The waves generate exceedingly 
small electric voltage in the antenna. The antenna 
connects to a radio frequency amplifier quite similar 
in action to the amplifier used at the transmitter 
and it increases the signals' powers. The next part 
is called the "detector." It is a radio vacuum tube 
ooerated in such a way that it separates the high 
frequency currents from the electrical changes that 
represent the sounds that we desire to hear. 



Chapter IV 

Television began in the minds of men centuries 
before it became practical. The longing to see afar, 
to penetrate fog and night, earth and substance with 
our sense of sight is a primitive instinct. But the 
specific inventions and discoveries that relate 
directly to television go back only to the year 1817 
when Baron Jons Jacob Berzekius, a Swedish Pharacist, 
discovered a strange element which he named selenium. 
A scientific oddity of that day, relatively little 
was heard of it until fifty-six years later. In 
May, 1873, a telegrapher working at the Valentia Trans- 
Atlantic Cable Station, in Southwestern Ireland, 
observed that a resistor made of selenium transmitted 
current better when the sun shone upon it. Other 
experimenters corroborated the fact that light causes 
selenium to transmit electricity better than when it 
Is fully in darkness. This discovery foreshadowed 
the modern photo-electric cell, a device designed 
to convert light variations into equivalent electrical 

Although we ordinarily think of television as 





441 LINES 



a 20th century development, it 3 basic principles 
were known and demonstrated in the 1880 ' s .' Sil- 
houettes and crude outlines were televised, trans- 
mitted over wires for short distances, and finally 
reproduced. Of course, the images did not compare 
with the 441-line standard of today. For several 
decades thereafter, television was rather at rest. 
People generally regarded it as an interesting 
laboratory oddity, but doubted whether it could 
ever by perfected. 

One factor which seriously hindered early prog- 
ress was the lack of a satisfactory medium for trans- 
mitting a program from the camera to the receiver. 
But in the period of the World War, 1914-1918, radio 
developed a new stride. Spurred by necessity, engi- 
neers greatly improved transmitting and receiving 
equipment and studied the peculiar nature of radio 
waves. Within a few brief years, radio entered the 
home, and the old crystal sets gave way to modern 
vacuum tube receivers. 

In the pioneer days of sound broadcasting, it 
was discovered that crude action pictures could be 
sent through the air on radio waves. At once, sensing 
the practical powers, experimenters attacked the 
television problem. 

A photo-electric cell made possible the first 

— S3— 
practical testa in television. The simplest of 
these tests employed a single photo-cell unit. The 
experimenters soon progressed to a unit containing 
eight photo-electric cells. 

The television subject stood before this battery 
of eagle eyes while a scanning machine swept a bril- 
liant point of light across his face in a series of 
parallel lines. In far less time than it takes to 
tell, the light was reflected from the subject's face 
to the photo-cells, which converted it into pulsating 
electric currents. Conducted to a transmitter station, 
the weak currents were amplified, superimposed upon 
a radio carrier-wave and broadcast — all similar to 
the procedure in sound broadcasting. The receiving 
equipment used in those early tests was rather crude. 
With the aid of a neon tube and a scanning disc, a 
radio signal was converted into visible light, thus 
reproducing the original studio action in a series 
of horizontal lines. The televiewers observed the 
program through a magnifying glass. The scanning 
disc was invented by Paul Nipkow in 1884. 

Scanning is the crux of television, and as im- 
portant to the modern electronic svstem as It was 
to the earl-' mechanical system. The experimenter 
dims the overhead light and turns on a "scanner" 
which projects a tiny spot of light upon a screen 







about ten feet away. As the scanning disc rotates 
on its axis you see the spot travelling from left 
to right in a series of parallel arc lines. These 
lines— actually composed of spots- -are reflected 
back to the electric eyes which creates what engi- 
neers call the "television signal," subsequently 
amplifies and broadcasts. Until a few years ago, 
the scanning function in the camera and receiver 
was accomplished mechanically. Then Dr. Vladimir 
Zworykin, a scientist, perfected his system of 
electronic scanning, which revolutionized television 
and ushered in the present era. 

The Iconoscope, the television camera's eagle 
eyes, corresponds to the microphone in sound broad- 
casting. It is a vacuum tube with a light-sensitive 
plate behind the camera lens. This mosaic plate 
consists of about 400,000 microscopic photo-electric 
cells. The camera lens focuses a given scene upon 
it, and an electron gun beam scans the scene as a 
searchlight would scan it, moving from left to 
right and top to bottom, covering the four to five- 
inch plate in about one-thirtieth of a second. The 
weak television "signal" thus created is subsequently 
amplified and broadcast on a radio carrier wave. 

The image-reproducing tube of the receiver consists 
of two main parts, an electron gun and a fluorescent 

— 36- 



glass screen. After a suitable antenna intercepts 
the television "signal," it speeds to the electron 
gun which scans the fluorescent screen in horizontal 
lines, and the picture reappears before your eyes, a 
faithful reproduction of what originally appeared on 
the Iconoscope plate. 

The electronic system of television appears 
effectively to solve the problem of seeing at a 

A television receiver bears strong resemblance 
to the ordinary home radio console, but it really 
consists of two receivers inside one cabinet — one 
receiver capable of reproducing the sound, and the 
other capable of reproducing the pictures. 

The heart of the instrument is the Kinescope, 
the large end of which comprises a glass screen on 
which pictures appear. The image is reflected into 
a mirror under the lid because it is impracticable 
to build a receiver with a direct-view screen. 

In a typical television studio, incandescent 
lights illuminate a scene and the camera focuses on 
that scene from behind the lights. A microphone 
attached to a "boom" is suspended above the camera's 
field of vision. In ordinary practice, the light 
is diffused evenly throughout the studio. Spotlights 
may be used to emphasize certain parts of a scene 


or closeup of actors. The purpose of an aluminum wall 
surface is to help the eyes make a normal adjustment 
when they turn suddenly from a bright scene to an 
unlighted surface. 

In dozens of laboratories scientists are busy 
perfecting one of the most fantastic of miracles-- 
TELEVISION J Picture the telephone equipped with a 
television set. The telephone rings. As you lift 
the receiver, a light shines. On a screen facing 
you an image flashes. You need not asv who is cal- 
ling, for your eyes behold your friend, who is per- 
haps many miles away. 

"Hello, how are you?" you say. "You are looking 
well this morning." 

Not only do you see the person you are talking 
to, but also the flesh tints of his face, the red 
of his lips, and the color of his clothes. 

It is not necessary to go down the street to 
see a show. The newspaper says that for tonight »s 
entertainment there would be the choice of a half 
dozen plays that would be broadcast. The loud 
speaker in homes serve for the movie screen. Or 
perhaps it is preferred to see a popular talkie. 
One would be broadcast by station "-1975." But it 
is not wished to listen to the make-believe world of 
entertainment. The knob of the radio dial is turned, 



and a football game Is seen being played one thousand 
miles west of the listening place. The gaily colored 
stadium is in the room. 

On another wave length a mass meeting is seen 
far-off in Japan, and the orator is seen speaking 
in his strange language. "Parliament to open in 
London," is read in the newspaper. People from the 
world over would like to hear the King of England 
speak from London. Just a simple matter, turn the 
knob of the radio set and London, the House of Lords, 
is seen. The motions and the colour of the royal 
robe can be seen. 

Now television is being offered as entertain- 
ment. The public can purchase receiving sets and watch 
programs in their homes as they have listened to them 
over sound receivers for years. 

Television will prove to be a soothing salve 
to the nation's eardrums, which have been subjected 
to a kilocycle bombardment of sound for nearly twenty 
years. For television will do most of its talking 
through camera instead of the microphone. 

The emphasis in television programs will be on 
sight rather than sound. In fact, too much sound 
is detrimental to the television program, whether 
it be a broadcast of an outdoor event or a studio 
drama. The talk that filters through the loud 
speaker is incidental to the picture reproduction 


on the screen in the receiving set. Too much talk 
will detract from that picture and retard, rather 
than increase, interest in the program. 

In sound broadcasting, the announcer assigned 
to broadcast a public or outdoor event describes 
everything in sight. His voice has to be the 
listener's eyes. In television, the dialer can see 
for himself. He does not have to be told, for example, 
what the crowd at a football game looks like. He 
will be able to see that crowd. It is believed that 
the announcer's chief duty will be to supplement the 
picture being broadcast by a flow of human interesting 

There will be no more need for a sportcaster 
to announce breathlessly that the ball has just been 
hit. All that the sportcaster will have to do is 
announce the lineup at the start of the game and 
any changes that occur during the afternoon. The 
battery of television cameras will tell the rest of 
the story. The important personality in airing the 
game will be the engineer at the master control, 
rather than the announcer in the radio box. Through 
an Instantaneous switching system he will follow the 
entire action by cutting from one camera to another 
without the loss of a split second's viewing. This 
multiple camera system is now being used effectively 




in studio broadcasts. Three cameras are employed 

to pick up the studio action, with the images recorded 

on a series of screens in the control room. 

Television has much more to offer its audience 
today than the motion pictures and sound radio did 
when they first were introduced to the Dublic. As 
a result, its perfection from a program standpoint 
should be more than was the case in these other two 
entertainment mediums, with which television is 
greatly compared. 

However, the television program of today is 
far from the finished product its sponsors predicted 
it would be when it was finally presented to the 
public. One of the reasons generally advanced 
in the past for withholding television in this 
country was that audiences would demand performances 
that compared with present-day screen and radio 
production. And it was often stated that television 
would not be offered the public until it could meet 
that theoretical demand. 

Television is here, and the programs it has to 
offer are lacking in many details. But, they are 
not as poor as the first movie and crystal-set radio 

In producing television drama it has been dis- 
covered that stage people, particularly those with 

—44 — 
stock backgrounds, are preferable to radio actors. 
Motion picture performers will be totally ineffective 
as far as television plays are concerned, unless they 
have had a background on the stage. One of the 
major problems now is the matter of costume changes. 
As television dramas are produced in the space of 
fifteen minutes or a half-hour, there is no time 
for a character to leave the scene of action and 
change costumes. 

In sound radio vocal expression was all that 
was necessary, just as beauty alone was the essential 
thing in silent movies. Some of the best voices on 
the air today will be lost before the television 

It took the British public two years to be- 
come sold on television. And it may take Americans 
as long, if not longer. Although England is now 
in its third year of broadcasting sight programs, 
it has only been in the last seven months that the 
public has shown a desire to purchase sets for 
home use. It took the broadcast of a prize fight 
to stimulate British interest in the new form of 
entertainment. The fight program was telecast on 
a large screen in a London theatre and proved so 
successful that additional public programs were 
scheduled. As a result of these the sale of sets 


Immediately jumped. The British have found that 
huge public demonstrations of this sort are opening 
the eyes of dialers to sight broadcasting. Before 
long television theatres featuring shows of public 
events will be an established thing in London. 

Chapter V 

The demand for and the construction of a national 
system grew cut of the conditions of population and 
geography. It was obvious both to the Aird Royal 
Commission which examined the situation in 1928 and 
1929 and to the special Parliamentary Committee of 
1932, that advertising revenue could not in Canada 
finance an adequate Canadian system. If left on 
that basis Canadian radio would become only an at- 
tendant of the American commercial networks. For 
example, analyses made in 1932 and based on Department 
of Marine figures showed that outside of the main 
advertising districts of Toronto and Montreal only 
about two-fifths of the population could get Canadian 
programs regularly. These programs in any event 
were chiefly gramaphone records. Of the six hours 
and fifteen minutes which represented the daily 
average broadcasting of all Canadian stations, only 
two hours and sixteen minutes were occupied by pro- 
grams using any original talent whatever. If adver- 
tising were the basis of operation, Canadian radio 
would have been lost for Canadian purposes. 



The Canadian Broadcast inp; Corporation have a 
duty to increase the quantity of programs; they have 
had the duty to improve the quality of programs. They 
have tried to obtain the best programs available wherever 
they come from. By September, 1937, they were put- 
ting on 876 programs a month; by December, 1938 they 
put on 1,595 programs a month. The Network time in- 
creased from six to twelve hours a day. 

During the past two years the Canadian Broadcasting 
Corporation have been obliged seriously to consider 
again the position with regard to short-wave radio. 
Canada, of all the great trading countries in the 
world, is the one country that is most seriously be- 
hind in short-wave development. Prom the purely 
commercial point of view, short-wave stations would 
give us a most excellent opportunity of advertising 
the sale of Canadian goods. 

The object of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation 
is eventually to provide all the population of Canada 
with first-class listening opportunities and first- 
class coverage. In November, 1936, the Canadian 
Broadcasting Corporation network served less than 
fifty per cent, of the population. In 1937 CBL was 
built at Hornby, and CBF at Vercheres. The new 
station CBA in the Maritimes opened on the first of 
June, 1937. When those two stations were opened, 


eighty-five per cent, of the people of Canada were 
able to listen to programs through Canadian Broadcasting 
Corporation. The prairie transmitter is operating 
programs. There are two reasons for this. The first 
reason Is to be found in the mountainous nature of 
the country and the difficulty of the terrain; the 
second is the fact that nearly all of the population 
of British Columbia is concentrated in one corner — and 
a very pleasant corner it is. It has been suggested 
that increasing the power in Vancouver to fifty thou- 
sand watts may solve some of the problems. It may 
be that there will have to be established, as soon 
as it is possible, a chain of subsidiary stations 
or something of that kind. It may be that engineers 
can find some ingenious way of doing it. Steps will 
be taken early this spring to see what can possibly 
be done to help that district. 

South-western Ontario, apart from the fact that 
it is pretty close to American Stations, is labouring 
under a sense of injustice; and that sense of injustice 
is to a great extent justified. Once Mexican inter- 
ference in finally taken away, CBL will no doubt 
give much better service in south-western Ontario 
than it is now giving. In the meantime, the Government 
has been asked for permission to erect a thousand- 
watt station, or to re-erect it in better shape 

outside of the city of Windsor. This station, will 
give 100 per cent, day and night service under all 
conditions to the whole of Essex county and to certain 
adjoining areas in Kent and Lambton counties. It 
will give effective daytime coverage to Sarnia. 
Sarnia, however, can only be adequately served at 
night either by the implementing of the Havana agree- 
ment and, therefore, a releasing of much more power to 
CBL; or, if the Havana agreement is not implemented, 
then by an exchange in frequencies, which will prob- 
ably have to take place in any event. 

The neighbouring Dominion of Newfoundland has 
recently instituted a national broadcasting system. 
It has founded it on the Canadian idea and the 
Canadian Act. It has established a licence system. 
It will operate at the present time one station 
only, a station of 12,500 watts. On March 13, the 
station was officially opened by joining up with 
the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Newfoundland 
has paid for lines from Montreal to Drummondvllle and 
proposes to take from the Canadian Broadcasting 
Corporation all sustaining features, which are given 
to them willingly for nothing. Some of the commercial 
features which are obtained from the United States 
and elsewhere may be extended to Newfoundland to 
give them some little additional revenue. It is believed 

— 50— 
that the life of both countries is going to be en- 
riched by the exchange of cultural features that 
can take place between the two countries. 


The following are the regulations of the News 
Service in Canada: 

Stations shall not transmit any news or informa- 
tion of any kind published in any newspaper, collected, 
or co-ordinated by any newspaper or association of 
newspapers or any news agency of service except the 

(a) Such news bulletins as are released regularly 
from the various bureaux of the Canadian Press 
for the express use of broadcasting stations 
in Canada. 

(b) Local news under arrangements to be made by each 
station individually with its local newspaper or 
newspapers, or such news as it may collect 
through its own employees. 

(c) News from sources other than those provided for 
in (a) and (b), shall not be broadcast unless 
the express permission in writing of the Cor- 
poration through its General Manager is secured 
in advance. 

The following are the regulations of CBC: 
(1) Each station shall maintain a program log in a 


— 52— 
form acceptable to the Corporation and shall cause 
entries to be made as follows: 

(a) date, call letters, location frequency; 

(b) The time at which each station identification 
announcement is made; 

(c) The title and brief description of each program 
broadcast, with the time of the beginning and 
ending as to give a continuous record of each 
day's broadcast. If a mechanical reproduction 
is used, that fact shall be noted, together with 
a statement v/hether or not announcement thereof 
was made. In the case of a talk or speech, the 
name of the speaker and the auspices under which 
the talk or speech wrs given shall be entered. If 
the speech is made by a political candidate or on 
behalf of a political candidate of political party, 
the political affiliation of the candidate or 
party shall also be entered; 

(d) The duration of each spot or other similar an- 
nouncement and the broadcast hour during which 
it was transmitted; 

(e) The name of the sponsor of any program or an- 
nouncement for which the station is paid. 

(2) Ke^ letters or abbreviations may be used if the 
explanation of each is plainly given in the log. 
The logs shall be produced for the inspection of 

— 53— 
the representatives of the Corporation upon the request 
of such representatives. 

(3) Each station shall keep on file a copy of: 

(a) the continuity used for any program; 

(b) all programs or other announcements containing 
advertising matter; 

(c) the manuscript of addressee or talks. 

(4) In the case of chain broadcasts these records 
shall be kept by the originating station. 

(5) Such records shall be retained by the station 
for a period of one year and shall be open for in- 
spection by representatives of the Corporation upon 
the request of such representatives. The time used 
is local or standard time. 

(6) No one shall broadcast: 

(a) anything contrary to law; 

(b) the actual proceedings at any trial in a Canadian 
Court ; 

(c) abusive comment on any race, religion or creed; 

(d) obscene, indecent or profane language; 

(e) malicious, scandalous, or defamatory matter; 

(f) advertising matter containing false or deceptive 

(g) false or misleading news; 

(h) upon the subject of public health which the 
Corporation may from time to time designate, 

— 54— 

unless such subjects be presented In a manner 
and at a time approved by the General Manager 
as appropriate to the medium of broadcasting; 
(i) (i) programs presenting a person who claims 
supernatural or psychic powers or a fortune- 
teller, character analyst, crystal -gazer or 
the like, or programs which lead or may lead 
the listening public to believe that the person 
presented claims to possess or possesses super- 
natural or psychic powers or is or claims to be 
a fortune-teller, character analyst, crystal- 
gazer or the like. (ii) programs in which a 
person answers or solves or purports to answer 
or solve questions or problems submitted by 
listeners or members of the public unless such 
programs prior to being broadcast shall have 
been approved In writing by a representative 
or the Corporation, 
(7) The advertising content of any program shall 
not exceed in time ten per cent, of any program 
period. Any station shall upon instruction in 
writing from the Corporation reduce the total daily 
advertising content of its program, if the said 
total daily advertising content in the opinion of 
the Corporation occupies an undue proportion of the 
daily broadcast time. 


(8) In any radio program no one shall advertise: 

(a) any act or thing prohibited by law; 

(b) the prices of goods or services, except the prices 
of publications auxiliary to the information 
services of the Corporation; 

(c) any insurance corporation not registered to do 
business in Canada; 

(d) bonds, shares, or other securities or mining or 
oil properties or royalties or other interests 
in mining or oil properties other than the 
securities of the Dominion or Provincial gov- 
ernments or municipalities or other public 
authorities, provided nothing herein shall 
prevent anyone from sponsoring a program giving 
quotations of market prices without comment; 

(e) spirituous liquors; 

(f ) wine and beer in any province of Canada. 

(9) Stations shall not transmit any news of in- 
formation of any kind published in any newspaper. 

(10) Representatives of the Corporation may re- 
quire the production of material to be broadcast 
before any broadcast is arranged to take place. 

(11) Time reserved for the broadcasting of corpor- 
ation programs shall be used only for such programs 
unless approval to the contrary has been received 
in writing from the Canadian Corporation in each 

specific case. 

(12) Stations shall upon request of the Corporation 
give the right of way to such corporation or other 
programs as the Corporation shall designate. In such 
event neither the station nor the Corporation shall 
incur any liability for compensation or damages. 

(13) No station shall "pick up" and re-broadcast any 
program unless permission in writing has first been 
obtained from the Corporation. 

(14) No private station shall operate in Canada as 
a part of a chain or network of stations except with 
the permission of, and in accordance with the re- 
gulations made by the Corporation. 

(15) Unless permission in writing is first obtained 
from the Corporation: 

(a) no station shall continue to be a part of, or 
shall form part of a chain or network origi- 
nating outside of Canada; 

(b) no chain or network of two or more stations shall 
continue to be operated within Canada or shall be 
set up or operated within Canada; 

(c) no station shall continue to be or become an outlet 
for any station, chain or network existing or 
originating outside of Canada; 

(d) no station shall continue to be or become an 
associate station of or with any station, chain 

—57 — 
or network existing or originating outside of 



Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Canadian Broad- 
casting. Toronto: March 2nd, and 3rd. 1940. 

Cottier. Heroes of Civilization. Boston, Massa- 
chusetts: Little, Brown and Company, 1931. 
Pp. vii 257. 

Radio and Television Institute, Inc. Radio and 

Television Institute Inc. Work Sheet. Chicago, 
Illinois: 1931. Pp. 18. 

National Broadcasting Company. RCA Television. New 
York City: 1938. Pp. 20. 

Siegel, Norman. Television. New York World-Telegram. 
New York City! June 19 to June 24, 1939. Pp. 26,