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Full text of "The Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa : with the commentary (the Samjivani) of Mallinatha ; Cantos I-X ; edited with a literal English translation, copious notes in Sanskrit and English, and various readings &c. &c. by M.R. Kale"

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THE <^^ 






The Commentary ( the Sanjivim ) of Mallinatha. 
Cantos I — X. 


With a literol translation into English, copiouB mtes in 
Sanskrit and English and various readings, c^'C. ^c. 


Author of ' Higher Sanskrit Grammar ', < Saliityasarasatlgraha ', 

Sanskrit Commentaries on the Vikramorvas'iya of 

Kalldasa, The Kadambari of Baaa, The Niti and 

Vair4gya Satakas of Bhartrhari, &c. &c. 

Third Revised Edition 


Book-Sellers ^ Publishers. 
Kalbadevi Road, Bombay. 


All rightt renerved by the Author, 

Printed by Chint&inan Sakh^ram Deole at the 'Bombay Vaibbav ' Pr«a*, 

Rervanta of India Society's Building, Sandhurst Road, Girgaon, Bornlay, 

and Publisbed by V. N. & D. V. Mulgaoker, Proprietors, 

Gopal Narayen & Co., Book-Sellers and Publisher*, 

Kalbadevi Road, Bombay. 


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ftqomf%T%^^j^c^ ^i^^^: m\^ ^^(i^^t « 

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In presenting to the public this new edition of the Raghuvanis'a, the 
editor feels himself called npon to explain the reasons for thus adding to 
the already large number of the existing editions of this poem. Certain 
Cantos of the Raghuvamsa are generally prescribed for the higher examina- 
tions of Indian Universities, and the students feel the ^vant of some good 
and correct edition which would be a useful and a safe guide in acquiring 
the varied information required of them by the University examiners- 
Only four or five editions, published here and at Calcutta, contain English 
notes and translation, and are thus meant to meet the wants of High 
School and College students. But in the humble opinion of the present 
editor they have certain deficiencies of their own, and are therefore 
inadequate for the purpose for which they are intended. The commentary 
of Mallinatha, though excellent in itself and a good guide to advanced 
scholars, is practically of small use to ordinary students. Judged from 
the standpoint of a beginner, it has certain distinct disadvantages. 
Its terseness of style and the technicalities of grammar it introduces, 
puzzle the novice ; again it does not often give the full vigraha of 
compounds but merely explains them. It does not also give the derivation 
of words. For these and other things the student has to depend upon 
English explanatory notes. No attempt has yet been made to give com- 
plete and exhaustive notes, critical, grammatical as well as explanatory... 

The present edition is an humble attempt to remedy all these defects. 

Since Mallinatha explains each S'loka by giving its anvaya, as he himself 
tells us in the introductory S'lokas to his commentary, the construction U 
not given separately. But the words of the text are printed in bold type 
in the com. in their prose order, and where Mallinatha does not quote the 
actual words of the text they are given encloted in rectangular brackets 
After reading the S'loka the student should read the words in bold type in 
the commentary in order, and he will get tho construction or anvaya. This 
will also assist him in separating the words of the text and readily finding 
out their meaning given by Mallinatha, as it immediately follows them. 
Difficult words in the Samjivanl are explained in easy Sanskrit in the 
foot-notes, which also supply the deficiencies of Mallina'tha's commentary 
where necessary by giving extracts from other commentaries and similar 
extraneous sources — an arrangement which will greatly add to the 
usefulness of the book without creating any confusion 

A full, literal translation has also been given. What is intended is 
this: — The student should first read the S'loka, then the anvaya and then 
the meaning in Sanskrit; he should then translate it in his own words and 

tlien coDBuIt the translation given at the end. Besides the translation, 
tlie present edition gives copious explanatory notes on each 8'loka, 
explains the compounds, notes peculiarities of g;ramniar and discusses the 
propriety of different readings where necessary. Certain important 
points not aoticed by MallinTitha are also considered herein. Allusions 
to mythology and history are explained, important etymologies given and 
the ancient geographical names of rivers, countries, &c. identified with 
their present names. Figures of speech are given and rhetorical discus- 
Bions introduced where necessary. The definitions and schemes of all 
thp metres used by the poet in this work are given, and model questions, 
as well as those set at the Bombay University examinations, are appended 
at the end. In short, an endeavour has been made to meet every possible 
difficulty of students, and no pains have been spared to make this famous 
poem easily intelligible even to an ordinary student. 


In this edition, while I have retained all the original features of the 
work, the whole has been submitted to a thorough revision, and it is 
hoped that in this form it will prove increasingly useful to those for whom 
it is intended. Tha introduction has been recast and re-written in part, 
and considerable additions made to the English notes. I am obliged to 
the editions of Messrs. Pandit, Nandargikar, and Ray, to whom my best 
thanks are due. 

Bombay, June 1922. M. R. Kalh. 



Before the student enters upon a critical and detailed study of 
the Raghuvamsi it is necessary that he should be acquainted with 
the salient features of what is called Kavya in Sanskrit.^ Sanskrit 
rhetoricians have divided all kinds of literary compositions into two 
main divisions, ^\r( ( what is capable of being seen ) and %t5?| 
( what can only be heard or chanted ). All the varieties of 
dramatic pieces come under the ^^^ class, while everything else can 
be broadly described as ars^. The ars^r Kavya', again, has been 
further sub-divided, on consideration? of its form, according as it 
is written in verse, or in prose, or in mixed verse and prose. ^ (1) 
Compositions in verse or metrical form are the commonest specimens 
of %r«'T Kavya. They generally fall into two classes, the dis- 
tinction being based chiefly on their length* : — (a) rf|]-^I5qs or < Great 
Poems ', such as the Raghuvamsa, the Sisnpalavadha &c., (b) and 
^^o^qjfsqs or * Small Poetical Pieces', a class which includes all 
minor lyrical poetry and such works as the Meghadnta, th© 
Bhaminivilasa, the Amarnsataka &c. (2) Prose works are com- 
paratively rare in Sanskrit; their main kinds are two' — Katha ( e. g, 
the Kadambari of Bdnabhatta ) and AkhySyika ( e. g. the 
Harshacharita of the same author ). (3) Works in which prose and 

1 The information given here has been briefly summarized from 
the KSv.-D. and the Scih.-D. For a historical outline of Kavya 
literature the student is recommended to consult any standard History 
(e. g. Macdonell's) of Sanskrit Literature. 

2 The student should be on his guard against the common conceptiott 
that Kavya, 'Poetry', is metrical composition. Kavya originally 
aignifies any literary piece, whether in prose or in verse; in popular usage 
it has been chiefly applied to verse. 

3 tnj IS =^ m?t =^ fT(^^ 5^^r%TcTJ^ i Dandin. 

4 This is clear from the words of Vis'vanatha who says W4 ^\^ ^ 
«f^?a|iTai^^^igHlR =f ; 'a Khanrla kavya treats of some portion of ( the 
subjects that fill a whole ) Mahukavya.' 

5 ^T.\\ TfH^Ht n^JRi^jJTrmr^^ i cr"^ cT?^ st^ 5f ii Dandin. The Agnipurana 
mentions five kinds, viz. arf^^rR^r ^m\ W^T^m m^^m a«TT I ^'-nf«%T% JPW 

verse are mixed are classed as Ohatnpu^ ( e. g. the Bbaratachampu, 
the Visvaguiiadarsa-champu, &o. )'. 

The student will thus notice that, along with dramas, the 
iTf T^IsiTS and ^irs^ipisifB have been the most popular forms of literary 
«ompo8ition, and have attracted the be^t geniuses to try their hand 
at them. It is true that the Kbanda Kavya attracted more atten- 
tion, chiefly because it is short and requires less expenditure of time 
and energy; and that the number of extant Mah&k&vyas, therefore, 
is not very large. But what is here lacking in quantity has 
been amply made up in quality. For in dignity of style; depth of 
thought and maie8^y of movement, the Mahasavya is far and away 
the bust exprdssion which the Sanskrit literary artist has found for 
his genius. The Righuviiusa is a Miihakavya, which the Sah.-DJ 
defines as follows: — 

^^: ^r^^ ^rfr vfrdfrrTirorif?^: n 

5TwrPr g^-srr ^r^\-- ^¥ ^vz^^y\^: i 
fffff r^fr^f ^TT^^?r ?t^^^m^»c ii 

sTifr T»Tfl^m€r^? 'T^f%^^ 7^ ^ II 

6 iiaq^jmi ^m "^ifTfTfi?^^ i S.;ii. — D. If we set aside the diatinction 
between sf^q und iijn, and consider form alone, it is also possible to 
class dramas as 'mixed KSvya,' as indeed hni been done by Dandini who 
says Chmw^ =\\z^\i}\^{ K.— D. I. 31 ). 

7 We give above the de&Ditioo of tl»e Suh. — D , which is more 
detailed, since its author, who lived in the fifteenth century, had all the 
famous Mahiik.ivyas before him, including even the later apecimens. The 
defiaition of Dandin ( of the sixth century ) is earlier and concise, and 
we give it below for comparison with thnt of Vit^vamitha : — 

sni^pif'rlr^^'^r^f^^TOTH: i 7wnTffrr?w*'rffrjr^TrsTt(fVr^; ii 

@tb«r definitions, more or less similar, will be foui^d in Agnipurlna 
(337), K:\vy&IanikTra(r.), Sarasvu'l-KantliAbbarana (V.), «Sc. 

5TRrfTT»T^: ijrn" ^'t' ^«^T s:?^^ ti 

^•^rfi'sn' ^^nfrif ^rwr^rnpr sT'fr ?? ii 

( Parickchheda VI. ) 
Thas, a Mah4k4vya should be divided into chapters, called ^ifs 
or Cantos. The hero should be either a divine personage, or a 
Sshatri^aa of noble descent and possessed of the qualities of a 
Dhirod&tta^ Hero. This is when the poem is concerned with the 
description of the life of a single hero ( as in the Sisup41avadha 
or the Vikramankadevacharita ); if like the Raghuvamsa it has for 
its theme a number of Heroes, then they should all be Kshatriya 
princes sprung from the same race, and of pure descent. The 
prominent sentiment (^^) should be either ^iffnc, ^K, or ^?cT> others 
being introduced as accessories. The subject-matter should be 
arranged as in a n&taka with the necessary changes. The plot may 
be historical, or may have for its subject-matter the glorious deeds 
of the good and the virtuous. The object of such compositions 
should be the attainment of the four aims of human pursuit — i. e., 
they should be written in such a way that their study would point 
out the means of attaining them. It should open with a verse or 
verses expressive of a salutation to a deity, or a blessing conf&rred 
on the readers, or a hinting of the subject-matter; these may 
sometimes be followed by censure of villains and praise of the 
good ( as in the Vikramankadevacharita). A Mah4k4vya should be 
divided into ^jfs not less than eight,' which should be neither too 

8 A 'Dliirodatta' ('self-controlled and exalted' ) Hero 10 one who is 
inagnanimoua, exceedingly grave, forbearing, not boastful, resolute, one 
whose high spirit is concealed, and who is faithful to his promis*' 
( JT^rffrtrsf^^fK: ?jJTr^;TK^c5!T5i: I f^ Hg;?r5^id '■M^rai |5^ct: 11 D.— E. III.; 

9 Some restrict the number to thirty; cf. srfFnr^r f ^ 
f^ijlWlf^ Trf^^ I I'^slnasamhita; but the Haravijaya posseaees as meny as 
fifty cantos. So the rale is not absolute. 


long nor too short.'" They should bo composed in the same metre^ 
which should change only at the end; sometimes ( as a variety ). 
a ^it mav be written in a number of metres. The contents of 
the next Oanto should be indicated at the end of the preceding one. 
It should describe, at more or less length, such incidents and topics 
as twilight, the rise of the sun and the moon, the night, the evening, 
darkness, the day, morning, noon, hunting, mountains, seasons, 
forests, oceans, the union and separation of loveis, sages, heaven, 
cities, sacrifices, battles, invasions, marriage ceremonies, advice, the 
birth of a son, &o. &c. It should be named after the poet, or the 
plot, or the Hero, or some other person; while each Sarga should 
be named in accordance with its own contents ( e. g. the 6th canto 
of the Ragh. is named ?^f^^t)"i;T ). 

It should be borne in mind that these elaborate rules were 
evolved after a minute examination of all available specimens. 
The works of early poets like K41id4sa will not therefore be found 
to conform strictly to the definition given above, nor is it necessary 
that they should do so, provided they follow the broad lines laid 
down. FoJT Daiidin himself says, ?g^JT«T5( %: %I8^^|^: ^i^q ^ f«?n'fr i 
'igTT^S ^Tf%mivT'iT% ?Ti%?[: II ( I. 20 ). Thus the Raghuvamsa, 
though it does not describe everyone of all those incidents 
and topics, still conforms mostly to the definition given, as 
the student can verify for himself. Thus, it has for its theme a 
number of noble kings born of the same family. The predo- 
minent sentiment is ^iffR, though Cr^ and if^0T are often in- 
troduced as accessories {e.g. in Oanto III. and VIII.). It is 
named after Raghu, the most eminent among its many heroes. The 
Bubjeot of the next Oanto is indicated toward* the close of the 
previous one- e. g. it is evident from what is said at the end of Oanto 

V that the Svayamvara of Indumati would be described in Oanto 

VI The metre changes at the end of each into, and the ninth 
Canto is written in a number of different metres. ^\^•.^^ is 
described in Canto V., gJT^T in IX., ^5 in XVI. and XIX., ^nln 
in XIX., m in VIT., J^^^ in VII., j^^ir in III. Each Oanto is 
named after the most important event described in it. Other 
particulars the student can find out for himself. Technically, the 
Raghuvamsa is quite a representative specimen of its class; as regards 

10 The iBina-Samlitii explains that the number of stanzas in a lingle 
canto Bhould not exceed 200, and should not be less than 30- 

i's other merits and distinguishing features, we shall have a few 
remarks to make, but theee more properly belong to a subsequent 



To turn now to the poet it must be admitted that we have absolute- 
ly no trustworthy information regarding the personal 
His Life history of Kdlidaaa, by unirersal consent the great- 
est of Indian poets. The curiosity of the querist who 
would ask-'Where and when was he born V 'Who were his parents V 
' When did he die ?' &c. — must ever remain unsatisfied. The poet 
has studiously observed complete silence about himself in his works. 
Read them howsoever we may, we find no allusion, no incident 
mentioned, that may directly shed any light either on his personal 
history or on any remarkable event of his life. Under these 
circumstances we have to content ourselves with gathering what 
little information we can about a poet of world-wide repute from 
external sources, and a few incidents found here and there in his 
works, which may be supposed to have a distant bearing upon the 
history of his life. Reserving for another Section the question of 
the date of the poet, we proceed here to state the few facts that can 
thus be known about him. A time-honoured tradition, supported 
by internal and external evidence^ associates the name of Kalidasa 
with that of the epoch-making king Vikramaditya of Ujjayini. 
The keen interest and admiration with which the poet describes the 
IMahakala, the Sipra, and other beauties of Ujjayini, unmistakably 
point to the conclusion that he must have been a native of that city. 
And the various covert references^' to the name of Vikrama in fully 
eulogistic terms, which are doubtless meant to immortalize king 
Vikramaditya, are inexplicable if that monarch be not regarded as 
the poet's patron. Kalid3,3a also betrays considerable acquaintance 
with court-life in his works. This circumstance, coupled with the 
fact that there is no allusion in his writings to the goddess of 
wealth having ever frowned upon him, shows that he was in afiluent 

11 E, g., 3Tgc^^: ^^ f^JTlcJ^rnc: (Vikr.), f^^HHl^fr «r^% m\% iTbid.) &c. 


ciroumstanoes, and had not the misfortune ever to drink the bitter 
cup of poverty. He was a Brahmana by caete and was a devout 
worshipper of Siva, though by no means a sectarian. He seems to 
have travelled a good deal, at least in Northern India. For, as Dr. 
Bhan Daji remarks, he is the only poet who describes a living saffron 
flower, the plant of which grows in Kashmir. His graphio descrip- 
tion of the Himalayan scenes looks very much like that of one who 
was an eye-witness. Unlike Bhavabhuti and many other brother- 
poets, he appears to have enjoyed great popularity during his life- 
time. He was 'an admirer of field-sports,' and 'describes their 
beneficial effects with the exactness of a true sportsman. ' Though 
fond of pleasures he was not the unscrupulous voluptuary he it 
supposed to be by some critics, as is clear from the many noble 
sentiments exprassed in the S4kuntala''- It also appears from the 
same play that he was against love-marriages, though always 
actuated with the most generous sentiments towards the fair sex. 
His works bear further testimony to his considerable acquaintance 
with the Vedas, the philosophy taught by the Upanishads, the Epics 
and the Pur&nas, the Bhagavadgitd, the systems of Samkhya, 
Toga, and Ved4nta as propounded by B&darayana, Medicine, 
and the rudiments of Astronomy. Beyond these few facts nothing 
is known for certain about our poet at present. It is inevitable 
that, during the course of time, a number of fanciful stories and 
legends should have clustered round the popular hero of literary 
India, Thus there is a story which relates how the poet was born 
a blockhead and a dunce, but had wisdom bestowed upon him in 
consequence of his subsequent propitiation of the goddess Kali, 
whence his name Kalidasa. Another story makes him a friend of 
King Kumiradasa of Oeylon, in whose city KAlidisa was murdered 
by a courtesan. No reliance need be placed on such accounts. 
Many such stories will be found in the Sanskrit Bhojaprabandha, and 
in a collection which, under the title of Tales of King Bhoja 
and Poet Kalidasa^ is a popular book in many Indian vernaculars. 
A few conjectures have been advanced as to some other particulars, 
but to test their veracity falls strictly within the province 
of the antiquary. 

The poet's silence about himself in his works gave an 

opportunity to many unscrupulous inferior poets to 

His Works f^^j^^, ^^^-^^ q^j, ^0,1^8 upon him. The following is 

— f, ■ 

12 Cf. 3TfM«^nf M1<*>ri^ &c. S'ak, V. and our note ad loc. 


a list of the works generally attributed to him: — ^1) ^irj^tTcJ' 
(2) i^^qrwi^ (3) JTrorR-^rijrfflT^ (4) x%iKi (5) ^^ir^^vrf (6) ^^^^ 

(7) ^"cT^^^ffcq (8) ^5#fl^ (9) 3T':^I^cTf (10) ^??TTOT?cTf (11) ^T^R^l^ 
(12) ^Ts^JTR^I^^RT: (?) (13) aud (14) two JTfIS"^3 (15) ^j^^Tr 

(16) ^Ta^^r^o^cfr^i^ (17) ^^m^ (18) s'Tif^fl^rvr^OT (19) j^g-^i'^^ 

(20) ^^\^^ (21) ^^x^i^^\^J (22) stsT^r^f^OTH (23) jt^^^^cTT (24) and 
(25) two ^foJT?^3 (?) (26) ^^\':^^^^ (27) ^^^\^ (28) ^r^^^fsq 
(29) ^^qm^ (30) c?3?rTf (31) ffffl^f^^s^ (32) ^^^]^^^^-^ (33) 
^^T^lTUr (34) sf%=^f^?^r (35) ^iiff^M^^ ( 36 ) ^l^RT^r?^ ( 37 ) 
^Wr^^fT^Is^ (38) ^?TTiT^[?cr5q? (39) 'j-ff^f^T ( 40) ^H'swr-^RPTT'^TaT and 
(41) %gf?vf. Of these the first six are aoknowledged by all critics 
to be undoubtedly his. (7) la not yet discovered, but is known 
only in a quotation by the Kashmirian scholar Kshemendra, in hid 
Auchityaviclaracharch^. The authorship of (8) is somewhat doubt 
ful; while the remaining ones are certainly to be dismissed as the 
productions of other poets. There is another fact also which should 
be borne in mind in this connexion. In Sanskrit literary history 
there have been mc^ny poets ivhi bore the name Kalidasa^ and at least 
three were known to Rajas'ekhara who wrote ci^fSPT ^CT^ f^fT 
^ff^^T^ ^ %^f%r|^ I \l^\X ^h^\^\l ^r[%?r^^^'r f%5 »• ^^ ^^ possible, 
therefore, that other KalidAsas than the author of the RaghuvamSa 
are responsible for the trifling pieces mentioned above. Here, then, 
we are concerned with the first six only. The most convenient and 
reliable method of studying the development of a poet's mind and 
its relation to his productions would be to read hia works in their 
chronological order. But we have no external evidence, whatsoever, 
to ascertain the chronology of Kalidasa's works. It must, there- 
fore, be based wholly on internal evidence. Judged as such the 
works would stand in this order — Poems — ^fTr^"», H^'f^ff and rj^^Tj 
Plays-Hif^Tf^r'*; R^«Tro and ^TI5i=fi3"; or, both indiscriminately, as — 
W^TK^j 'Rf^'t^o, f^^ifr«? ^^1^, ^Tf^'cTc7 and X.%^^. Space will not 
permit us even to refer to these briefly. We will only remark in 
passing that the last three are the outcome of the poet's matured 
poetic faculties and riper years. 

Kdlidasa is indisputably the greatest master-mind in Sanskrit 
„. p poetry. His genius has been recognized in India 

' from very early times. He has been and will ever 
be enshrined in the hearts of his countrymen as the Prince of Indian 
poets. Most Indian successors of K4liddsa have expressed in 
suitable words their admiration of the poet who stood far ahead ol 


them in the perfection of his art. Thus B4n ibhatta, the famous 
author of the Kadambari, speaks of him in the following words: — 

"When Kalid^sa's sweet sayings, charming with sweet sentiment, 
went forth, who did not feel delight in them as in honey-laden 
flowers?" Kum&rila, who flourished about the first half of the eighth 
century, has quoted with approval the passage from the Sukuntala, 
^ert i|fl-^fT^5 «r?35 ^m^JJ^<\:^v^^jjj^:. There is a Subh&shita 
which says : — 

** While once the poets were being counted, Kalidilsa ( aa being the 
first ) occupied the last finger. But the ring-finger remained true 
to its name ( 3T^uq=?j[ = nameless ), since his second has not yet been 
found ( by whom it can be occupied )". Patdit Govardhanich&rya 
thus speaks of our poet: — ■ 

** Two things only, viz. love-sport and Kiiliddsa's poetry, delight 
the heart even at the time of instruction, a? they mostly consist of the 
eweet, tender and touching words of a sportful girl" Almost 
€very Pandit j^as iu his mouth the following memorable verse — 

^' Among Kavyas the drama is the most charming. Among dramas 
Sdkuntala is specially charming. Even there the fourth Act is the bestj 
and lastly, four slokas'^ therein are especially most beautiful". The 
highest place is assigned to K4lid&sa among poets for the construc- 
tion of happy similes, when it is said — 

^VJ^^- q^c^Tfef't ^\^ «pcT 5T^ 5TITT: II 
Among later writers, Jayadeva has called our poet ^ff f^H? * the 
lord of poets' and the ff^jjfr or 'Graceful Play' of the Muse of Poetry.'* 

That his countrymen should place him at the head ol all 
Sanskrit poets, unparalleled and unsurpassed by those who have 

13 They are— irr^fJiJj 5Tj^%f^ &c.; ^'»;^ g^&o.; a^fJnpraffl «l4' *^^ 
&c.; and.^WT f^ni Ti^-(T'i6l«lf=ft &c. 


preceded or followed him, is natural enough; but he has evoked 
spontaaeous outpourings of praise and manifestations of admiration 
eren from foreign scholars and poets who had access to his works 
either directly or through translations. Goethe has voluntarily 
bestowed the highest meed of praise on him — so much was he 
enraptured by the charms of K3,lida9a'a Muse and struck with his 
poetic genius. This is what he says about the Sikuntala — 

"Wouldst thou the young year's blossoms and the fruits of 
its decline, 

And all by which the soul is charmed, enraptured, feasted, 
fed ? 

Wouldst thou the earth and heaven itself in one sole name 
combine ? 

1 name thee, O Sakuntala, and all at once is said. " ^* 

When we remember that Goethe himself was the greatest poet 
of Germany and one of the greatest of the world, we realize the 
importance of his estimate of our poet The well-kaown philosopher 
and traveller, Humboldt, pronounces the following judgment — 
'Kaliddsa is a masterly describer of the influence which Nature 
exercises upon the minds of lovers. Tenderness in the expression 
of feelings and richness of creative fancy have assigned to 
him his lofty place among the poets of all nations." The 
celebrated critic, Schlegel, has assigned him a very high position 
amongst the glorious company of tha ' Sons of Song '. Several 
eminent modern orientalists have also offered their tribute of praise 
to our Indian Shakespeare, as Sir William Jones was the first to 
call him — the very comparison of KalidSsa to Shakespeare is the 
highest form of eulogy that could be bestowed upon him by foreign 
critics. Sir Monier- Williams, while writing about the Sakuntala, 
thus expresses himself : — " No composition of Kaliddsa displays 
more the richness of his poetical genius, the exuberance of his 
imagination, the warmth and play of his fancy, his profound 
knowledge of the human heart, his delicate appreciation of its most 
refined and tender emotions, his familiarity with the workings and 
•counter-workings of its conflicting feelings — in short more entitles 
him to rank as the Shakespeare of India. " Prof. Lassen calls him 
^* the brightest star in the firmament of Indian poetry. " 

We thus find that Kalidasa has established his sovereignty in 
the hearts of all alike. Now it may be asked, < What is that in 

15 As translated from the German by Mr. E. B. Eastwick. 
R.I. 2 

K&Udasa which establishes hia undisputed claim to the highes;^ 
honour which ia thus bestowed upon him V Unless this question i» 
satisfactorily answered Kalid&sa's merits as a poet cannot be said 
to be determined. 1* His poetic genius has brought Sanskrit poetry 
to the highest elegance and refinement. His style is peculiarly 
pure and chaste. It has 'neither the laxity of the Par&iias nor the 
extravagant colouring of later poems. ' It is unartifioial and 
charaoterized by brevity consistent with perspicuity. An unaffected 
simplicity of expression and an easy-flowing language mark hid 
writings which are embellished with similes unparalleled for their 
beauty and appropriateness, and with pithy general sayings. His 
diction is marked by the absence of long compounds involved con- 
structions, over-wrought rhetoric, and artificial puns. K&lid&sa excels 
other poets in his description of the sublime and the beautiful. It is 
a principle recognized by all modern critics that 'Nature must be the 
life and essence of poetry'; and in respect of this, Kalidisa may be 
said to be essentially a poet of Nature ( of course in the limited 
sense of the term which it is possible to attach to it in those time* 
of gay luxury and general prosperity ). He describes with most 
effective touches the gorgeous scenery of the mountain Himdlaya — 
its snow-clad and mineral-covered summits, the peaks where sunshine 
ever reigns, the fragrant and cool breezes blowing there, the wilds 
with the hunters, the musk-deer, the potent herbs shedding lustre 
at right, the ehamara deer, the Manasa lake &o.; and his description 
of the Ganges and the peaceful hermitage-life is very striking and 
life-like. His descriptive powers are great, and some of the scenes 
in the S&k., the Megh., and the Hagh. are so enchanting as to hold 
hia readers spell-bouud. And as regards «tpT^I5^> the kind of 
poetry which suggests more than what it expresses, he is a master of 
acknowledged skill. 

( B ) HI8 DATE. 

The problem of the date of Kalidasa is a vexed one and it ha9 
yet to be finally settled. The earliest mention of Kalidasa by name 
is in the Aihole Inscription dated 634 A. D., and it furnishes the 
7th Century A. D. as the downward limit of the poet's date. 
Tradition mentions K^lid^sa as a contemporary and a court-poet of 
king Vikramaditya. One king of that name founded tbe era known 
after him, which is accepted as commencing with 57 B. 0. Some 
antiquarians once did not accept this date as tbe correct one, but 

16 For this tbe student is referred to pp. 27-29 of our iLtroduciion 
to the S'&kuntala, 5th ed. 


brought VikramSditya down to A. D. 544, propounding wh»t war 
known as the Korur Theory. The battle of Korur marked a 
turning-point in Indian history, Vikram&ditya having defeated th& 
Mlechchhas in it. Curiously enough, Mr. Ferguaaon held that ta 
commemorate the battle an era was invented, and that its beginning' 
was placed back 600 years. So he put the true date of Vikramadity* 
at 544 A. D., and this theory for a time held sway, since no 
inscription was discovered bearing a date prior to 600 of the Vikrama 
era. But the discovery of the Mandasor Inscription, which is dated 
Samvat 529, made this theory untenable, and the traditionary 
date ramained unshaken. Then there is the theory of the Nine Gems. 
Nine eminent men called the * Nine Gems ' adorned the^ 
court of king Vikram4ditya — 

Of these a^Jm^f is ^aid to have lived between 414 A, D. and 
642 A. D. Varahamihira is believed to have died in 587 A. D. 
On the strength of these dates of Kalid&sa's supposed contem- 
poraries, Dr. Kern placed him in the latter half of the sixth 
century. But in this there are many a priori conclusions and 
speculations as to probabilities. If ihe tradition proves anything 
definitely, it proves the connexion of K&lidasa with King 
Vikramaditya; but as regards the contemporaneity of the nine 
authors, the tradition cannot be true. Next there is the theory ol 
Renaissance propounded by Prof. Max Miiller. He divided the 
whole Sanskrit literary period into two parts. The first began 
with the Vedas and ended with the first century A. D, Then cam& 
an interregnum, a period during with foreigners invaded India and 
80 literary activity was dormant. The Professor placed the 
Renaissance of Sanskrit learning in the sixth century A. D. with 
the reign of VikramSditya. But, as has been shown by Drs. Peterson 
and Buhler, the period called interregnum was really not destitute 
of literary productivity, and, therefore, if Kalidasa is to be 
considered as the first poet of the new school, he must be placed 
considerably earlier than Prof. Max Muller did. 

There are some minor things which have been pushed into the 
controversy. These are — (1) the alleged covert references i<y 
Diilnaga and Nichula in the Meghaduta, the former a foe and the 
latter a friend of Kalidasa; (2) the identity of Matrigupta, a king 
of Kashmir, and Kalidasa ( for, names in Sanskrit are often titles,. 


and Mdtrigupta, lit. ' protected by the mother, ' may also be taken 
as Kaligupta or Kalidasa); (3) and the supposed astronomical 
references in the works of Kalidasa to the astronomical theories of 
A'ryabhata, who lived in 476 A. D. Prof. R. N. Apte has examined 
all these at some length, and on the first point he comes to the 
conclusion that Dinnaga and Nichula were not contemporaries of 
the great KSlidasi, but must have been contemporaries of some 
other Kalidasa. On the second point he observes that Mdtrigupta 
and K41ida'sa were two different persons, since they are differently 
quoted by Kshemendra and other writers and commentators. The 
supposed astronomical references have really no astronomical 
sigiiificanco at all, and it cannot be said that K&lid43a was acquainted 
with the astronomical works of A'ryabhala. Mr. K. B. Pathak, 
the latest exponent of the 6th century theory, repeats the arguments 
given above, but principally bases his conclusion on his theory 
about the Hiina kings, allusion to whom is made by the poet in the 
Raghuvamsa. He argues that since there is no mention made 
of the Hunas in the Ramayan^, the conclusion follows that 
KdlidAsa unconsciously refers to the Hu'na kings of his own time, 
who held sway over the Punjab and Kashmir, in the second quarter 
of the sixth century. But this rests merely on assumption; for 
there are references to the Hunas even in the Mah&bh4rata. Prof. 
Apte has also shown that just beyond Bactria or the threshold of 
ancient India, the Hanas had constituted a powerful empire from 
the middle of the 3rd century B. 0. to the end of the Ist or the 
2ud century A. D. 

Modern European scholars are generally inclined to hold that 
Kalidasa must have flourished under one or more of the Gupta 
kings. The Gupta period ( about 300-650 A. D. ) was noted in 
ancient Indian history for a revival of Sanskrit learning and arts. 
The late Mr. Vincent A. Smith (see hia Early History of India 
p. 3C4, 8rd ed. 1914 ) believed that Kalidasa must have lived in 
the reigns of the first two, or even in that of the third, of the Gupta 
Kings: — 

Chandragupta II. ( c. 357-413 ) 
Kumiragupta I. ( 413-455 ) 
Skandagupta ( 455-480 ) 

Both Chandragupta II. and Skandagupta had adopted the titl« 
of Vikramddityi. To quote the words of Mr. Smith, " It is not 
unlikely that the earliest works of K&lidasa may have boon 


composed before A. D. 413, that ia to aay, while Ohandragupta II. 
was on the throne; but I am inclined to regard the reign of 
Kumaragupta I. (413-455) as the time during which the poet's 
later works were composed, and it seems possible, that the whole 
of his literary career fell within the limits of that reign. It is 
also possible that he may have continued writing after the 
accession of Skandagupta". Mr. Smith thus makes Kaliddsa's 
literary career extend over a period of not less than thirty years. 
Note that, even according to Mr. Smith, there ia nothing wrong 
in the tradition about a Vikramdditya having been our poe;'3' 
patron; only we must arrive at an understanding as to which 
Vikramaditya is meant, because various kings in the history of 
ancient India oalled themselves by that title. We ourselves hold, 
for reasons given below, that we must accept as our poet's patron 
that king Vikramaditya whose traditional era commences at 56 
B. 0. The attempt to place Kaiida-sa in the court of the Gupta 
kings rests merely on the fact that Ohandragupta II. was named 
Vikram&ditya. But the existence of prior kings of that title is 
now a certainty.'' 

Vatsabhuti, the author of the Mandasor inscription, copies 
several ideas from Kalidasa; the latter must, therefore, have lived 
prior to 472 A. D. Again, Asvaghosha, the author of a life of the 
great Buddha in Sanskrit, has numerous passages similar to those 
occurring in the works of K§,lid^sa. Now, Kalidasa was an original 
poet borrowing his subjects from V&lmiki and other ancient authors; 
Asvaghosha was more a philosopher than a poet, and may, with 
greater probability, be supposed to have borrowed his ideas from 
Kllidasa. The date of Asvaghosha is given as 78 A. D.; and if 
we suppose him to have borrowed from Kalidasa, the latter will 
have to be placed earlier than 78 A. D. And in this view Dr.. 
Peterson also concurs when he s^ys ' Kalidasa stands near tht 
beginning of the Christian era, if, indeed, he does not overtop it.' 

There is also internal evidence pointing to the same conclusion. 
We have first the evidence obtained from the state of the law of 
inheritance and the penalty for theft aa they are indicated in 
passages in the Sakuntala. The passage in the sixth Act of the 
drama, announcing the death of the merchant Dhanamitra who died 

17 The R^jataranigini mentions an earlier Vikramaditya, a con- 
temporary of Pratapaditya of Kaahiuir. 


ihelrless, seems to Prof. Apfce to refer to a period when the widow 
of a deceased person oould not inherit his estate. Bach a period is 
to be fonnd only before the Christian era, when Mann, Apastamba 
and Vasishtha held sway, and Brihaapati, Sahkha, Likhita and 
Y4jnavalkya had not yet written their Codes. The penalty for 
theft, as indicated in the prologue to the sixth Act, seems to hare 
been the extreme one, and there is also a passage of similar import 
in the Vikramorvasiya ( an^JT^rr ^^nrr^trlf &c. V. 1 ). The penalty 
for theft has been from time to time mitigated with the progress of 
civilization. Mana and Apastamba lay down the extreme penalty 
the option of fine being introduced later on, as we find it in the 
Smriti Oi Brihaspati. These two circumstances tend to show that 
K&lidasa flourished at a period which is anterior to Brihaspati, the 
latter being generally placed in the first century A. D. 

Frof. Apte further calls attention to the fact that there is no 
reference to the Nyaya philosophy in the works of Kalidasa [ except 
perhaps in Ragh. XIII. 1, in which the word :(|«jj^ ui ( ari^T^ ) 
occurs, but which the poet might have borrowed from the 
S4mkhya3 ], and concludes that he must have lived before the 
development of that philosophy. Then again we have the evidence 
of style. The artificiality of diction and the fondness for long 
compounds and double-meaning words which mark the writings of 
Dandin ( who in his Kavyddarsa says that an abundance of com- 
pounds constitutes the quality of ojas in poetry ), Bana^ Bhavabhuti 
(7th century A. D.) and other mediaeval writers, are entirely absent 
in Kalid^sa's writings — a fact which shows that he must be placed 
some six or seven centuries before them, a period necessary to oaase 
such a revolution in the art of literary composition, considering the 
scanty means of the propagation of learning in those times. It 
thus becomes clear that K&lid§,sa lived in the first century B. 0. 
at the Jate«t.>» 

W Prof. S. Ray refers to the discovery in 1909-10 of the Bhita 
medallion, which pictures a scene which looks exatly like the opeoing 
scene of the S'&kuntala. The medallion is assigned to the Sunga period 
( 1B4 B. C.-72 B. C. ), and Prof. Ray assumes that K41id4aa is anterior 
to the date of the medallion, though the Archasological Survey authorities, 
holdiDg to the Vincent Smith date, are inclined to dispute the identificatioa 
of the scene with the one in the Flay. 



( 1 ) Summary of the Stoey. 

Before the student proceeds to a detailed study of his actual 
^ext, it is advisable that he should make himself familiar with the 
contents of the poem as a connected whole. "We, therefore, give 
below briefly the story of the Raghuvamsa as presented in its 
nineteen Oantos :— 

Oanto I. After saluting Siva and Pdrvati, the poet eulogizes 
the virtues of the kings of the race of Raghu, whose history he 
proposes to describe. The royal line of the Raghus originally 
■sprang from the Sun, whose son, Mann, was the first king in this 
race. In direct descent from Manu came the supremely eminent 
King Dilipa, with whose history the poem properly begins. Dilipa 
is an ideal king, being a most efiSoient, benign and virtuous ruler. 
He has a queen called Sudakshini, the very type of courtesy and 
kindliness, and the only thing that mars their happiness is 
that they have no issue. In course of time Dilipa decides to 
consult his family-priest, Vasishtha, as to what holy rites &c. 
he might perform that would bless him with a son and heir. 
Leaving the government of his kingdom to his ministers, Dilipa 
fB'.arts for Vasishtha's hermitage in the company of his wife. In 
the evening they reach their destination and make known their 
v^ishes to the preoeptor. Vasishtha explains that a curse, formerly 
pronounced upon the King by the divine cow Surabhi, but unknown 
to him, was the bar la the way, and for that purpose he should have 
to propitiate Surabhi's daughter, Nandinl, who was his (Vasishtha's) 
own cow. If she were pleased, she could grant that wish of his. 
Vasishtha then explains to the royal pair how to serve the cow- 
after which they retire for the flight. 

Oanto II. The next morning Diltpa begins the daily routine 
of disciplined service of the cow, Nandinl. He regularly accom- 
panies her every morning, after she was worshipped, to the forest 
and back again to the hermitage in the evening when she returned 
from the pasturage. Twenty-one days thus pass away. On the 
22nd day, the cow, wishing to test the devotion of her follower 
enters a cave of the Himalayas, overgrown with grass, for grazing. 
As the King's eyes are riveted on the mountain scenery, she 
creates an illusory lion pouncing upon her. The King's attention 
is suddenly called back by Nandini's cry ; and what does he see ? 
The cow in the grip of a formidable lion, imploringly looking at 

him. Instantly the King's band passes to the arrow-case, but 
just as be seizes an arrow bis hand remains fixed there. To add 
to tbe wonder of the already bewildered King, the lion speaks in 
human voice telling him that he was a servant of Siva, posted there 
to guard the trees, with orders not to leave the place, but to live on 
whatever came witbin his reach, and claims tbe cow as his rightful 
prey. Tbe King finds himself in a fix ; it was bis primary dnty to 
save the cow at any cost. What was he to do ? He could not shoot 
an arrow ; but be could offer himself up in lieu of tbe cow, as they- 
had both entered tbe cave together; for Siva's order to tbe lion wa» 
that he should eat whatever came within bis grasp. This tbe magna- 
nimous King does. After a long conversation with the lion he 
succeeds in prevailing upon the latter to eat him up and let go 
tbe cow. Tbe King thus stands the test; the illusion vanishes and 
instead of the terrible leap of the lion there falls on the King a 
shower of flowers from heaven. Tbe well-pleased cow confers on 
tbe King the wisbed-for blessing, and they return home. The king 
informs tbe sage and his queen of the cow's favour. Their object 
being gained Vasisbtba sends back the royal couple, and they enter 
their capital amidst the rejoicings of tbe citizens. In a short time 
Sudaksbini shows signs of pregnancy. 

Canto III. A son is then born to Dilipa. He is named 
Kagbu, as one destined to be the most illustrious of the kings 
of tbe solar race, tbe family being named after him. He is brought 
Tip and educated with due care. He is then married and installed 
as heir-apparent ( Yuvaraja). After this, Dilipa, who bad already 
performed 99 horse-sacrifices, wishes to perform the hundredth 
to complete tbe list. Indra, Lord of the gods, in jealousy secretly 
steals the sacrificial horse to prevent tbe completion of tbe rite. 
To Raghu was entrusted the duty of guarding the horse ; 
and ordinarily he would have been unable to trace the horse. But 
Nandini whose protege he was in a way, appears on the scene and 
bestows upon him superhuman sight, Raghu then sees Indra carry- 
ing away the horse, and fights with him most gallantly. Indra of 
course triumphs over Raghu in tbe end ; but he is so highly pleased 
with Raghu's bravery that, although he could not restore the 
horse be promises, (obestow upon bis father, Dilipa, the whole merit 
obtainable from tbe sacrifice, had it been duly completed, as a 
mark of his appreciation of Raghu's valour. Indra also acquaint? 
Dilipa, at Raghu's request, with what had occurred; highly gratified 


at the accoant, Dilipa accords his son a hearty welcome when he 
goes back to his court. A short while after he installs Raghu on the 
throne as King, and himself retires, with his queen, to the forest, 
as was the wont of the kings of Ikshvaka's race. 

Oanto IV". King Raghu now begins to rule, and all are made 
to feel his equal justice and caatious rigilance. When autumn 
comes, Baghu decides to start upon an expedition of conquest 
( Dig-vijaya ). Proceeding first to the east, he marches right 
up to the eastern ocean, where he vanquishes the Suhmas and the 
Vailgas. Crossing the river Kapisa he goes through Utkala to 
the Kaliriga country. He conquers its ruler and then marches 
to the south. After subduing the Pandya kings there, he crosses 
the Sahya mountain, and subjugates the Aparanta districts along 
the western coast. Then by land he proceeds northwards, where 
he conquers the Parasikas. Thence he traverses as far as the 
Sindhu river, where he defeats the Hdnas and the Kambojas. 
Thence he proceeds across the Himalayas, where he brings the 
Utsavasamketas under his sway. Descending to the plains he 
finally conquers Pragjyotisha and Kdmarupa, and returns to 
his capital laden with glory and wealth. He then performs the 
Vis'vajxt sacrifice ( indicative of universal conquest ), in which 
he gives away to Brahmanas (by way of Dakshini) everything that 
he possessed. 

Oanto V. While Raghu had thus practically beggared him- 
self in the ViSvajit sacrifice, an ascetic called Kautsa came to him. 
He wanted money, as much as fourteen crores, to enable him to 
pay his guru his tuition fees. Raghu had nothing with him, 
but he did not like to have it said of him that a supplicant, not 
gaining his object from Raghu, had to seek it from some other 
person. In order, therefore, to satisfy Kautsa's demand, he planned 
an expedition against Kabera, the God of wealth, to obtain the 
money from him. Divining his intention Kubera filled Raghu's 
treasury with a shower of gold daring the night, and Raghu gave 
all that to Kautsa. The latter, departing, blessed his benefactor 
that he would soon obtain a valiant son. This son is then born, 
and is named Aja. When Aja, who is properly educated, reaches the 
marriageable age, a messenger comes to Righu from King Bhoja of 
the Vidarbha country to invite the prince to be present at the 
Svayamvara ceremony of his sister, Indamatl, which was shortly 
to take place. The invitation is accepted and Aja goea 
B.I. 3 

ftooordingly. On his wAy he happens to kill a wild elephant, who 
turns out to be a Gandharva born in that form owing to a curse. 
The Gandharva gives to Aja a certain miraculous weapon ( as/ ra ) 
called Saiumohana. On reaching Bhoja's city, Aja rests for the 
night, and in the next morning goes to the hall where the 
Svayainvara ceremony was to be held. 

Oanto VI. There he takes his seat in the assembly of 
numerous other kings who had come from far and near for the 
Svayamvara ceremony. The Princess Indumati enters^ accom- 
panied by her clever maid SunandA, who takes her in turn to 
each one of the royal suitors and describes him and his qualifica- 
tions in a few well-chosen words. The Princess passes by them all, 
including among them the rulers of Magadha, Afiga, Avanti 
Anupa, Silrasena, Kaliriga and Pai.idya. Finally she comes to 
Aja, whom she chooses as her husband, to the deep chagrin of 
the other kings who feel envious and humiliated. 

Oanto VII. The actual wedding-ceremony of Aja and 
Indumati then takes place in the royal palace, after which all depart 
for their respective countries. The slighted kings, however, bear 
a grudge against Aja, and they, therefore, waylay his party on his 
way back to Ayodby.4. A very fierce fight ensues. Aja entrusts 
his bride to the care of his minister, and personally takes an active 
part in the slaughter of his foes, whom he completely vanquishes 
by means of the miraculous ' Samtnohana ' astra, which the 
Gandharva had given him before. He then returns to the capital; 
and his father entrusts the kingdom to his care, wishing to live 
in retirement. 

Oanio VIII. Aja begins to reign, and Raghu continues to 
live near by. in secluded retirement, when after a few years ha 
departs this life. Aja gives him a suitable funeral. In course of 
time Indumati gives birth to a son who is named DaSaratha. Aja 
pleases all by his excellent rule. A change comes over his happy 
life when once, while he and his royal consort were sporting in a 
pleasure- garden, a wreath of flowers falls from the sky below upon 
Indumutt who instantly drops down dead. The grief of the 
Iting at this unexpected stroke of misfortune knows no bounds. 
After the funeral was over, as Aja still remained plunged in sorrow 
and took no interest in life, his preoeptor Vasishtha sent to him a 
disciple with a message to cheer him. It was explained to Aja 
how his Wife bad formerly been a celestial nymph (apsarat) who 


had to come down upon the earth owing to a curse, and who left ai 
soon as the curse ceased to operate when the garland fell upon 
her from heaven. Life being an accident and death the rale, a 
firm-minded, wise ruler like Aja, should cease to 'brood over his 
grief. Thus ran the message, and the King received it dutifully 
as coming from his gurUy though it had little visible effect upon 
him. He spent some eight years more after this, all the while 
mourning for his lost wife, whom he finally went to join in the 
next world. 

Oanto IX. After his father, Dasaratha rules over AyodhyS 
as nobly as his predecessors. His greatness was such that even 
Indra himself on occasions asked his assistance in his own wars. 
Once, having enjoyed all the pleasures of the spring season with 
its attendant festivities, he plans a long hunting trip. He spends 
several days in that engrossing and delightful sport. One morning 
he starts after a deer, alone and without followers. In his pursuit 
he comes to the river Tamasd, where he hears the noise of a pot 
being filled with water. He mistakes it for the trumpet of a wild 
elephant, and discharges an arrow in that direction, aiming at the 
sound only, as he could not see the mark. As a matter of fact 
a young ascetic-boy was filling his jar there ; and the arrow hit 
him fatally. His parents, who were blind, were at hand. The 
King, who was horrified at what he had unwillingly done, related 
to them what had happened. As the boy died, his sorrow-stricken 
father cursed the King as the author of his bereavement, with the 
words : *'You, too, like me, shall die, in your old age, grieving 
for your son." The King had no son then; so he received the 
cursa as a sort of qualified blessing, since it meant that at any 
rate a son was bound to be born to him before he died. Tne aged 
couple burned themselves on the funeral pyre of their son, and 
D^isaratha returned to his city, full of grief not unmixed with a 
little anticipatory joy at the prospect of a son. 

Oanto X. Some ten thousand years pass, but still Dasaratha 
remains without the expected son. At last^ holy sages proceed 
to perform on his behalf a special kind of sacrifice intended to 
bring about the birth of a son. Now at about this time it so 
happens that the gods, who were continually harassed and persecuted 
by the dreaded and powerful demon Ravana, carry their tale of 
grievances to their lord Vishnu, who tells them how, by virtue 
of a boon given by Brahmi, R£vana was immune from death a^ 

the hands of all except human beings, whom he deapised and hence 
had left oat of the boon. Visbna, therefore, promises that be would 
be born as a man, as a son of King Dastratha of Ayodbyu, and 
that at his hands R^vaoa would meet death. — Now, out of the fire 
of that sacrifice which was being performed for Daaaratha, there 
arises a being who gives consecrated food ( charu ) to the King, 
who gives it to his three wives. Into this food Vishnu had entered 
spiritually, and thus Daaaratha's wives, who conceive afterwards, 
all bear sons who are partial incarnations (avntaras) of Vishnu* 
Bama was the eldest of them, born of Kausalya. Of Kaikey! 
was born Bharata, and of Sumitr& were born the twins, Lakshmana 
and Satraghna. 

Oanto XI. The sage Visvamitra, who wanted protection 
from demons iu his sacrificial work, now comes to Dasaratha with a 
request that the King should send R&ma with him for that purpose. 
Accordingly Il4ma, and also Lakshmana, accompany Visvamitra 
to his hermitage ; on tbeir way R^ma kills the demoness T&dakfi- 
In the hermitage of Visvamitra, R&ma routs the demons after 
having killed their leaders Sub&hu and Mariiha. On the completion 
of his sacrifice, Visvamitra goes to MitUila at the invitation of 
king Janaka of that city, taking with him the two princes. On 
their way Rama restores to her original form Ahalyii, the wife of 
Gautama, who had been cursed by him to be reduced to the form 
of a stone. On reaching MitbiU, Visv&mitra tells Janaka that 
R&ma was anxious to see the famous bow in his possession. It 
had been announced that whoever should sncceed in bending that 
bow, would be given Janaka's daughter, Sita, in marriage. No 
king had yet succeeded in bending the bow, and Janaka wondered 
how a mere boy should dare to make the attempt. R&ma, how- 
ever, bends the bow, and with such force that it cracks; he thus wins 
the princess Sit& for his bride. Dasaratha is then invited to Mithil&, 
when R^ma is married to Sita ; her sister is given to 
Lakshmana, and Bharata and Satrughna were married to the two 
nieces of Janaka. On their way back to Ayodby4, they are 
stopped by the Brahmana Parasurama, who had vowed vengeance 
on all Kshatriyas, and whose anger was stirred into action on 
hearing of that bow-breaking exploit of Rdma, a Kshatriya. He, 
therefore, challenges Rama to bend his ( Parasarama's ) bow, which 
was stronger than that of Janaka. Rama bends that too, and bumbles 
the pride of Paras urama, who recognizes in hia adversary the 


supreme lord Vishnu, and makes peace with him. The party then 
safely arrive in Ayodhya. 

Canto XII. King Dasaratha, who had grown old and was near- 
ing his end, declares his intention to set R§,ma on the throne, when 
Kaikeyi oontrives, by means of two boons which her husband 
had promised her, to have R4ma exiled for fourteen years and 
to hare her son Bbarata installed King. Rama quits willingly 
undertakes to go to the forest, and the old King, grieving at 
being separated from his beloved son, dies heart-broken, thus 
fulfilling the old man's curse (Canto IX ). Bharata declines to 
accept the sovereignty earned by intrigue, and after vainly 
trying to persuade Rama to come back, himself remains a sort 
of exile at Nandigr&ma, and from that place he rules the kingdom as 
Rama's representative. In his journey to the forest Rama is 
accompanied by Sitd and Lakshmana. He there kills Viradha, 
Eushana, Khara, and other demons, the news of whose death is 
carried to Ravana in Lanka by his sister Surpanakha, 
whom Lakshmana had disfigured. Ravana comes and carries off 
Sitd in Rama's absence. Rama makes friends with Sugriva, 
the monkey-Chief, and through his retainer Maruti discovers 
the whereabouts of Sitd. Building a bridge over the sea, Rama 
with Sugiiva's army crosses into Lanka, and is engaged in a 
series of battles with the hosts of Ravana, whoae death he 
finally accomplishes. R&ma recovers Sit4, gives Ravana's 
kingdom to his brother VibMshana, and starts back for Ayodhya 
in the well-known aerial car, Pushpaka, along with Sugriva and 
Vibhishana and their armies. 

Canto XIII. The journey of RIma from Lanka to Ayodhya 
by air is here described. Rama points out to 8lta the various 
objects and places of interest on the way, including, in order, 
Janasthdna, the mountain Malyavat, the lake Pampa, the 
Goddvari, Panchavati, the dwelling-places of the sages Agastya, 
Sdtakarni and Sarabhaiiga, the mountain Ohitrak^la, the stream 
Mandakini, the rivers Gallga and Yamuna, and lastly the Sarayii. 
After they had seen the Sarayu they observe Bharata advancirg 
with an army to welcome the home-coming king. Rama gets down 
from the Pushpaka, and the meeting of the brothers is touchingly 
described. Then Rama gets into the car and arrives at 
last in a garden outside Ayodhya, his capital. 

Canto XIV. There in the garden Rama and Lakshmana see 
the^r mothers who greet them with joy, Rama is then 


formally crowned King of Ayodhya with doe pomp and oeremony. 
He then gives the armies of Sagrtva and Vibbishapa leave to 
depart, and restores Pashpaka to its original rightful owner, 
Kubera. In course of time SitH shows signs of pregnancy. 
She expresses a desire again to visit the once- familiar regions 
along the banks of the Ganges. While B&ma promises her that, 
a scandal reaches his ear about his unquestioning acceptance of 
Btta after her residence in a stranger's house for a long time. 
A strong sense of duty towards his subjects both as the 
dispenser of law and justice and the up-holder of social order, 
compels him to abandon Bit& as a concession to this scandal, 
although he knew her to be pure and innocent. He, therefore, 
orders Lakshmana to take Sita away and leave her on the banks 
of the Ganges near the hermitage of Valmiki who, he thinks, 
would find her and take due care of her. Lakshmana very 
reluctantly performs this task; and when Sita knows why 
she is abandoned, she cries loud and long, though she would 
not blame Rama so much as she blamed herself. Valmiki takes 
her to his hermitage where afterwards in due time she gives 
birth to twins. Kama continues to discharge his kingly duties 
as usual, but without marrying again. 

Canto XV. Now, certain sages who were harassed by the 
demon Lavana apply to Rama for protection, who sends off 
Satiughna on that mission. Satrughna happens to halt at 
Valmiki's hermitage on his way, and it so chances that that very 
night Bita gives birth to twins. Satrughna proceeds against 
Lavana, whom he killes in battle, and builds for himself a city called 
Madhur& on the banks of the Yamuna. Siti's sons were named 
Kus'a and Lava ; they were duly brought up and eduoated by 
the venerable Valmiki, who also teaches them to sing his own poem 
'Ramayana', celebrating the exploits of their father. After some 
time Satrughna returns to Ayodhya, but says nothing to R4ma 
about Kus'a and Lava, at the express bidding of Talmiki, who 
bided his own time. Rama's killing of Sambuka is then related. 
Sambuka was a Sudra practising penance; this was against the 
rule, and this transgression caused other distresses in the state; 
it was therefore imperative that Sambuka should be killed. 
This done, Rama performs a horse-sacrifice, to which holy meu 
are invited from everywhere. Among them is Valmiki, who 
brings with him his two pupils, the princes Kusa and Lava. 


^hey sing the Ramayana in the presence of Rama, and charm all 
by their sweet singing as also by the majesty of their demeanour. 
Rama is then told that they are his sons, and Valmiki then 
asks him to take back Slt4. Rama agrees to do it if she would 
satisfy the public about her purity. Sita, therefore, calls upon the 
Earth to receive her in her bosom, if she (Sita) was really and 
truly pure. The Earth then appears in corporeal form and 
takes off SitI, whom R&ma thus loses for ever, although he gets his 
two sons. After a time Rama begins to feel his end approaching. 
He puts hia brothers, nephews and sons in charge of separate, 
small principalities. Lakshmana dies, and soon Rama also leaves 
this world of mortals and ascends to heaven, after having completed 
his special work here. 

Canto XVI. After the death of RS,ma, his son Kusa, who 
ruled in the city of Kusavati, is visited in a dream by the 
guardian deity ( Adhidevata ) of the city of Ayodhya, which 
being kingless lay now a deserted ruin. She invites him to 
come back to his father's capital and to re-people it and restore 
it to its former glory. He consents, and coming back to 
Ayodhyi re-endows it with its former splendour, and rules 
there in future. Once, while he is sporting in the river 
Sarayu, his bracelet drops in its waters and sinks to the 
bottom. He orders the river to be searched, but the ornament 
could not be recovered; at the suggestion that it was probably 
taken by the NAga Kumuda, who resided in a part of the river, 
Kusa takes up a missile ( astra ) to destroy the Naga, who 
hurriedly comes up, leading by the hand his sister Kumudvati. 
It was she who had taken the bracelet in curiosity, Kumuda 
requests Kusa to accept his sister as his wife; Kusa agrees 
and the two are then married. 

Oanto XVII. KuSa gets from Kumudvati a son, called Atithi, 
who ascends the throne on the death of bis father, who was killed 
in a fight with the demon Durjaya. Atithi is possessed of 
great political wisdom, and the Oanto describes at some length 
some of the main principles of the science of Polity ( Raja- Niti ) 
which Atithi sedulously acted upon, 

Oanto XVItl. This Oanto barely enumerates, without any 
illuminating details, the various kings, twenty-one in all, that 
STloceeded Atithi. They were Nishadha, Nala, Nabhas, Pundartka 
filshemadhanvan, Dev&ntka, Ahinagu, Pdriyfitra, Sila, Unnabha, 


Vajraiiabha, Sankhana, Vyuahitisva, Visvasaha, Hiranyanabha, 
Kausalya, Brahmisbtha, Putra, Pushya, Dhruvasarndhi and 
Sadarsana. The laat of these ( Sudarsana) ascends the throne when 
a young boy of ai%, his father having been killed by a lion. After he 
attains youth he is married. 

Oanto XIX. Sudarsana gets a eon, Agnivarna by name 
whom he installs king and hi^nself retires into the forest. 
Agnivarna turns out to be a voluptuous, pleasure-seeking sensualist. 
The Oanto describes at length his amorous sports and pastimfs. 
Agnivarna pays the penalty of having drunk too deep at the fountain 
of dissipation, and he falls a victim to consamption. At his 
death his wife was pregnant; she ascended the throne as the 
Queen-regent, and looked after the affairs of state on behalf of 
her unborn child. And here the story somewhat abruptly ends. 


In ancient Sanskrit literature history in the modern sense of 
the term is not to be found. It either merges in mythology or be- 
comes for the most part indistinguishable from it; henoe, although 
the Raghuvamsa is baaed on historical material, the latter is so 
slender that it can be disposed of in a few lines. Briefly eummariz- 
ed it amounts to this, that in the solar dynasty that ruled at 
Ayodhyi, there were four great kings, Dilipa, Raghu, Aja and 
Dasaratha; after these came R4ma, the greatest of all and the incar- 
nation of divine Vishnu; after him came 24 kings, the last being 
Agnivarna, who died without issue, leaving his queen enceinte. 
The account of the solar race must have been a matter of common 
knowledge in the times of Kiilidasa; but, with certain embellishments, 
it had been already presented in narrative form by the authors 
of the various Puraiias, and in particular by Valmiki, the author 
of the celebrated epic, Ilamuyana. It is obvious that Kalidasa 
was acquainted with this literature, and derived his 
details from the same, choosing and discarding matter as suited 
his purpose. Indeed he prominently mentions with deep reverence 
the Ramayana and its author (cf. f% KIH^^ Tr?*ff#: ^ft^fU 

f%?r^'Ef?f^ I f% ^^ff H^fr f 3*f* ?^mt ?r ^"f ?ir^ ii x v. 64), and 

he has utilized it for the Rama-portlon of his work. But the 
Ram&yana does not cover the whole ground of the Ragh.; and 
Kalidisa has referred to certain other accounts of the solar 

race, rather vagnely, when he speaks of it as having been described 
before by "former writers" (ijfg;ftf»T: I. 4). Here the use of the 
plural is significant, and it obviously includes others besides 
V4lmiki, By the others we can only understand the compilers of 
the Purinag. The Puranas are not all modern works, and many 
of them have been shown to date from times much anterior to 
the Christrian era. Of these Puranas he seems to have used the 
Vishnu-, the Vayu-, and the Padma- in particular. A word 
of caution, however, is here necessary. Tne Purfinas in their 
pres0nt form bear evidences of having been re-modelled and 
re-written at various periods, and their current recensions may 
not be those with which our poet was familiar. Indeed, in 
some of them ( e. g, in the Padma-P. ) it appears as though 
the stories had been revised in the light of the works of Kaliddsa. 
Hence, any remarks which one would be inclined to pass on 
the so-called *^ changes " made by the poet in his sources must 
be made with due reservations, since we may not have before 
US the actual version which was accessible to Kaliddsa, but some 
later redaction of it." 

With these preliminary remarks, we shall proceed to examine 
the poem itself. In the first place, the list of kings as given by the 
poet does not exactly agree with any that are available to us,'° but 
agrees nearest with the one in the Vishnu— Pnrana, with a slight 
difference. The Purana mentions a number of Kings before Dilipa, 
but these are omitted by Kalidasa. The Vishna-PurSna (as also 
the V&yu-P. ) represents Raghu as the son of one Dirghabahu, 
grandson of Dilipa; while Kalidasa mentions him as the son of 
Dilipa himself. K&lidasa's account stops with Agnivarna, while 
the Vishnti-P. enumerates a number of kings after him; but there 
is no incoDgruency here, since our poem is probably incomplete, a 
point which we have discussed elsewhere. 

Thus the line of succession in the Ragh. practically agrees with 
that of the Vishnu-P. and may be accepted as being historically 
true. But what about the various incidents specially described in 

19 This might be said to some extent of the R^m^yana also. There 
are at present three dilferent recension:) of the Bainayana extant, aod 
"about one third of the sTokaa in each recension occurs in neither of the 
other two." ( Macdonell's Iltatory of Sanskrit Literaturet p. 303). 

20 Thn3 the li^m. (B41a. Sarga 70) gives the genealogy quite 

B. I 4 


the Bagh. la the life of each king ? Are they all historical facts 'f 
The poet has not portrayed for us the whole life of each king, bat 
only such episodes as suited his poetic parpose or the require- 
ments of a M^Lak4vya Thus the bare facts he mentions about 
king Dili pa are his unildle^s state, his service of a cow, the birth 
of his son Baghu, and his horse-sacrifice. Ha devotes the first 
three Oantos to these, and the parallel account will be found in 
the Uttarakhaoda of tha Padma— Purina. We forbear from quoting 
it here, which the curious student may consult in the original. As 
regards the incidents in the lives of Raghu and Aja, no references 
can be found in the accounts that have been published till now. 
For example, the dig-vijayi of Raghu, the Kautsa episode, the 
battle in Oanto VII., or the tragic end of Aja's queen in 
Oanto VIII., have not yet buen traced to their sources. Kalid&sa 
could hardly havc> invented these, and they must be lying embedded 
in accounts that have not yet been brought to light. 

From Oanto IX. onwards the poet closely follows the R4m&- 
yana. Kalidasa was an admirer and a diligent student of the great 
epic. Indeed, as has beea pointed out by Pandit B. Krishnama- 
ohariar,'' the nanm "Raghuvamsa" of the poem itself seems to have 
been directly suggested by, and borrowed from, the Ramayana. 
•where it occurs twice (r^^ST '^f^ct ^^R" ^TfT'ST^: I. 3. 9; ar^ ^^ 
<^4a TV ^^R"^^ iTfr^tT: VI. 1. II ). It is no wonder, therefore, that 
VS,lmiki should have been the model of Kalidasa. What changes 
he makes in the Ranaayana-acoount are such as are necessary for 
poetic and dramatic effect. Thus in the Ram. Dasaratha shoots the 
joung ascetic-boy, who dies first, and then the parents are taken 
to him by the King; while in the Ragh. the poet makes the boy die 
in the presence of his parents, which enhances the tragic effect of 
Dasaratha's deed. In Oanto X. K/llidasa makes the gods approach 
Vishnu directly; while in the Ram4yana thoy approach BrahmH 
^rst, and then comes Vishnu to whom they repeat their grievances. 
In Oanto XII. the poet goes over the account very hurriedly, dispos- 
ing of importuut events in single verses and phrases even," as if 
anxious not to narrate at length what had been so well narrated by 
V&lmiki. Even here, some of the accounts diifer from those of the 

21 In his Rayh'ivams'avi/uart'a, Srirangam 1908, p. 130. 

22 E. g The wholn ntory of the pnri&catioa of Sit& in fire bo gives 
in one single word ^id^fiHg^^t (verse 104). 


B&m&yana. For example, the crow-story ( vv. 21-23 ) is given 
differently by Vllmiki; the reason of the burial of Viradha (verse 30), 
again; is not the same as that found in the Bamayana. But these are 
trifling variations. The thirteenth Oanto is based on sarga 123 of 
the Yuddha-KAnda of the Ram. It provides an excellent contrast 
between the methods of the two poets. While the narrative of 
Valmiki is crude and simple, that of Kalidasa is brilliant 
^ith high-wrought imagery. Thus, to take a single instance, 
where Vdlmiki merely wrote 3T?fr ^rT5 ^^Sf^^'^* ^T^r^^j Kali- 
dasa expanded the same into ( XIII. 47 ) — 

Cantos XIV. and XV, strictly follow the R&m4yani. From 
Oanto XVI. onwards, the poet goes beyond the story of the 
epic, and has recourse to PurS,nas. Here, too, the exiist references 
have not yet been brought to light, and it cannot be 
said, for instance, whether the episode of Kumudvati's 
espousal had any basis or was invented by the poet. The des- 
cription of n>5R"?r% in Oanto XVII. is evidtntly based on that given 
in ancient treatises like Kautilya's ArthaSastra,^^ a work which 
Kalidasa appears to have closely studied. The remaining portion 
of the poem only enumerates the kings in succession, and calls for 
no special comment. 


[ We give below in parallel columns, for ready reference, the kings of 
the solar race as enumerated in the Vishnu-Purana (IV.), in the Ramayana 
(I. 70 and II. 110 ), and in the Raghuvams'a. Tbe student will observe 
how closely Kalidasa has followed the Viahnu-P. list*. Before Raghu, 
Ikshvaku was ihe moat celebrated king of Ayodbya and tbe family 
was named after liim (ijfle I. 72; VI. 71; XV. 44; XIV. 55 &c.) 
Nimi, a son of Ik-'hvaku, was the founder of the Nimi dynasty that 
reigned at Mitliila.] 

23 This standard ancient treatise on the science of Politics has been 
only recently diacove^^d and published at^Mysore. It is frequently quoted 
by'i and is the original on which the "'.well-known Kimandaklya. 
Nitisllra is based. 



f^^f?^ (or J5rer^) 

«TT^«r ( or ^^?^ ) 
^^^T^f^ (or 53RR) 

^PTRTtT (or fiTO|F) 





































1 V 












ST^«I ( or 55 ) 






The student who has oloselj followed the preceding sammarr 
xionld not have failed to be immediately struck with the abrupt 
^ending of the poem ; this, and the absence of a suitable benedictory 
stanza which generally marks the close of Sanskrit compositions, 
have given rise to an important question, vis. whether the present 
nineteen Oantos are the whole poem, and whether the poet might 
not have written more Oantos than have descended to us. No 
decisive answer can be given to this question. The student might 
<}ompare how the Kum4rasambhava, too, similarly ends in an 
abrupt manner at the end of its 8th Oanto ; here some later poet 
has filled the deficiency by composing nine more Oantos. But no 
such thing has been done in the case of the Raghuvamsa. All th« 
M8S. of the poem yet discovered agree in ending the poem where 


it ends at present. All the oommentatora, again, who belong to 
different provinces of the land and different periods of time, seem to 
have believed the poem to be complete^ and they all conclade their 
commentaries formally at the end of the nineteenth Oanto ; and 
one of them, Hemadri, incidentally remarks at the beginning of 
the 16th Oanto that the R&m&yana, the poet's source for the history 
Tip to that portion, being exhausted, he now givei/our more Oantos 
from other souroeB. There is a persistent tradition, however, 
which says that the complete poem originally contained as many 
ad 25 Oantos ; and there is nothing that goes against this tradition. 
On the contrary many things tend to confirm it. As a general 
rule Sanskrit poets studiously avoid a tragic result; and even when 
they cannot avoid it, they are anxious to give it an agreeable finish. 
And we cannot reasonably suppose K41id&aa to have gone against 
a practice of such long standing as led the later writers on poetics 
to lay down a rule that the death of the hero should never be 
actually represented ( ^ifq-^|?^Tif w^J^ D.-R. HE. 40 ). "Further" 
remarks Mr. S. P. Pandit, '< he (Kalid&sa), who is on all hands 
praised for the happy choice of his subjects and the thorough 
execntion of his plans, cannot be supposed to have brought down 
the history of the most celebrated ancient Indian kings to such 
a sorry end. It is natural to imagine that his object must have 
been some such as to connect some one of the dynasties of kings 
existing in his time with the race anciently descended from the 
■un. The Visbnu-Pur&Da enumerates no less than 37 princes 
after Agnivaroa, of whom it represents 8 as having reigned up 
to the war of the Mah&bhArata and the rest after that event * * 
* • * The line of Kings, therefore, mentioned by our 
poet^ not being complete, the conclusion is inevitable either that 
the poet did not finish his work, or if he did, it has not descended 
to us in its entirety," The absence of any trace of additional 
Oantos having ever existed lends weight to the former conclusion. 
We think it highly likely that K41id&sa, though he might have 
intended to write more Oantos, was somehow prevented from 
carrying out his intention. 

Another feature, that oalls for notice on a review of the 
contents of the poem as a whole, is the evident lack of unity of 
plot. This, however, is part of the very design of the poem, 
and can hardly be accounted as a blemish. The poet did not choose 
a tingle episode , nor even the life of a single hero; but the lives 
of a number of famous kings ; it is unfair to expect unity of plot. 

in a work of sach character. On the contrary, it amounts to a 
triumph of skill on the poet'3 part to have welded together his 
detached episodes without incongrulfcy in presentation. Moreover, 
a unity of plot of a certain kiad does exist, if we remember that 
the incidents mentioned in the poem are all to be interpreted as 
part of the central idea running through the poem, viz. the 
portraying of the leading characteristics of an ideal kiag according 
to the A'ryan standard. Viewed in this light, even the slight 
charge of " a formless plot " vanishes into background, and we 
see the Raghuvamsa for what it is, being a word-painting, in the 
most polished phraseology of an accomplished poet, of the ideal of 
kingship; that is the theme of the Raghuvamsa, and not so much 
the complete life-history of each King. It is, therefore, inevitable 
that, as remarked by Dr. Ryder, we must regard the Raghuvamsa 
as a poem " in which single episodes take a stronger hold upon the 
reader than does the unfolding of an ingenious plot." 

It is in the Raghuvamsa, as in the S4kuntala, that Kalid^sa is 
seen at his best. The poem has been most popular in India from very 
early times and has evoked an unending chorus of praise from the 
learned and beginners alike. Stray lines, detaohed stanzas, and even 
whole Cantos of the poem are on the lips of many a cultured Indian 
to whom Kalidasa's muse embodies the very essence of the pleasure 
derivable from poetry: ^ f^ ^1»f? ^ U\l[ > says a well-known 
subhdshita. Almost every Oanto of the poem makes a special 
appeal to the reader by reason of some peculiar grace^ whether 
of mellifluous style, or of life-like description, or of dramatic 
dialogue. Let the student examine the various Oantos for 
himself. In the very opening stanzas (5-9) of the first Oanto the 
poet strikes the key-note of the whole poem in a resume of the 
accomplishments of the kings of the Raghu line. Then follows the 
description of Dilipa's good rule as well as that of his journey 
to Vasishtha's hermitage, which is of a kind that leaves its 
impress on the mind long after it is read, bringing visually 
before us the benign ruler and his simple subjects by such 
stanzas ,as ^qiT^t^TiTrcrPT ^r«rf^3Tr?»?cTT^ I JTfJT^'TTR i'^iy^cfr 
^^m^Tt flR^TTf^JTr^ II Then in Oaato II. the meeting of Dilfpa 
with the lion, and in Oanto III. Raghu's encounter with Indra are 
classic examples, known to almost every Indian Sanskrit-reading 
school-boy, of spirited and balanced dialogue and bright narration, 
apart from the noble ideals of self-sasrifice aad personal valour 
which they vividly place before him. In the fourth Canto we have- 

u striking description of the main parts of the eonntry ; it ia 
impossible to forget the word-pictares which the poet draws in 
such stanzas us ^'^sjf^cTrfpr?^- f^i%in^r»f(TP-^^: I »ir<7^TWr-fTfTfmT 
«T^*Jls{«Mf^^r: U or mlcTP^f^TTr^cT^T Rp^Tff^t?^: I f^f^fr^si: 
^''^^ffi^iT^fTrr^ H Oanto V. describes the magnanimity of Raghn, 

who gave to the sage Kaatsa wealth in excess of his demands; 
it is, as we have said elsewhere, probably the most characteristic 
kingly trait. This Canto contains also the famous address of the 
bards ( Vaitalikas) to prince Aja at dawn. The passage from 
<T?1lpT^r^^: ( V. 63 ) to the end of the Oanto is one of the 
best known in the works of Kalidasa, where the poet has expressed 
beantiful thoughts in language which is most rhythmical and 
oharming. The expression here is so sweet and so pleasing, the 
harmony between sound and sense is carried here to such exquisite 
perfection, that it is not without reason that a tradition has grown 
up around this passage as to its having been written by the 
Muse of Poetry, the goddess Sarasvati herself ! The sixth Oanto 
contains rapid pen-portraits of the various kings in the Svayam- 
vara ; here Killid&sa reveals himself as a master of the art of 
sketching a character with a few telling strokes. The seventh 
Oanto contains a description of a typical Aryan wedding, similar 
to the one in the seventh Oanto of the Kum., and the student can 
flee that the marriage-customs have not much altered materially 
during twenty centuries. The description of the fight (VIE. 35- 
63 ), it must be allowed, is rather tame and conventional. The 
eighth Oanto contains the famous ststrttt or lament of King 
Aja at the dnath of his wife Indumati. It is fine poetry, but it 
suffers by comparison with the corresponding rfffT^cTfT in Kum. 
IV. It is more natural in a woman, as being of the weaker sex, 
to indulge in lamentation ; while when a man grieves it is a sign 
■of weakness which does not enlist oar sympathy so much: the 
poet has therefore better succeeded in portraying a lamenting Rati. 
At the end of thi" Oanto is the beautiful message sent to Aja by 
his guru Va^ishtha, concerning the evanescence of this world and 
the futility of human sorrow for departed relatives. The ninth 
Oanto attracts many owing to the charming ^R'^s introduced. 
This is the only place in all the works of K&lid&sa where he tries 
his hand at fV^^n? ; he has succeeded well without patting an 
undue strain on the construction of the s'loka, as other inferior 
poets do when they try to employ ^tr^s. The Oanto also eontains 
fine dbsoriptiona of spring and deer-hant. 


In the tenth Oanto we have the passage where the gods praise 
"Vishnu, which has its counterpart in Kum. II. ; it does not possess 
any particular interest. In the eleventh we have a life-like descrip- 
tion of thb journey of the two boy-princes to Visvamitra's hermitage? 
its chief feature is the encounter of Rama with Parasur&ma, and the 
graceful way in which the poet brings the former out of it. 
The twelfth Canto has become one of the weakest in the whole 
poem, as the entire story of the R4m4yana from the death of 
Dasaratha in Ayodhyi to the killing of Rivana in Lanka 
<has been very hurriedly gone over. The poet felt the necessity 
of abridging it in this manner; for otherwise his poem 
would have grown interminably long. Dr. Ryder observes 
(pp. 150-151) — "It may well be doubted whether the cantos 
dealing with R4ma are the most successful. They are too com- 
pressed, too briefly allusive. Kalid&sa attempts to tell the story 
in about one-thirtieth of the space given to it by his great 
predecessor, Yalmiki. The result is much loss by omission and 
much loss by compression. Many of the best episodes of the 
R§,mayana are quite omitted by Edlid&sa : for example, the story 
of the jealous humpback who eggs on Queen Kaikeyi to demand 
her two boons ; the beautiful scene in which Sit4 insists on follow- 
ing R^ma into the forest; the account of the somnolent giant 
Pot-ear ... Other fine episodes are so briefly alluded to as to 
lose all their charm : for example, the story of the golden deer 
that attracts the attention of R4ma while R&rana is stealing his 
wife ; the journey of the monkey Han^mat to R&vana'a fortress 
and his interview with Sit4. The R&ma-story, as told by 
Y&lm!ki, is one of the great epic stories of the world. It has been 
for two thousand years and more the story par excellence of the 
Hindus ... There is, therefore, real matter for regret in the fact 
that so great a poet as EaLdasa should have treated it in a way 
not quite worthy of it and of himself." 

While we recognize the force of this criticism, we cannot 
quite agree with the learned scholar in his explanation. Dr. Ryder 
says that K&lid4sa did not care to put himself <^ into direct 
competition with Valoiiki, " and thus to challenge comparison with 
him. While Kalidasa doubtless felt great admiration for VSlmiki 
and his work, the real explanation of the weakness of the twelfth 
and the fifteenth cantos is, in our opinion, to be sought elsewhere. 
It is that the poet felt the need of abridging somewhere, and these 

B. I. 5 


are the parts of the story where he haa chosen to do it ; whenerer 
onr poet has had to relate incidents in a catalogue fashion, as for 
instance in Oantos XII., XV. and XVIII., he is never at his best. 
But whenever he gives full play to his fancy, his poetry is as good 
as, even better than, Valmiki's. For example, the famous journey 
back to Ayodhy4 from Lank& (Oanto XIII.) is to be found in 
the original R&m&yana also ; if we compare the two we see that 
our poet has excelled his predecessor in acnteness of observation 
in the elegance of style and in the vividness of expression (vide 
supra p. xxvii ). The fourteenth Oanto is rather colourless, but 
the sixteenth makes up the deficiency, containing as it does 
Kusa's interview with the guardian-deity of Ayodhyd, and further 
on, the charming description of summer beginning with ariTF'T" 
f^^^TIrW'fl'T &c. (sl. 44). The next Canto (XVII.) gives a 
detailed description of administrative policy, which would probably 
read dry to those not intersted in the subject. The ending Oanto 
describes amorous sports, much in the manner of the eighth Canto 
of the Kumarasambhava. We thus see that, barring a few 
exceptions, every canto of this poem has some attractive feature 
or other which endears it to the reader on that account ; there is 
no wonder, therefore, if the whole poem has found admirers by 
the million, and has become, in the words of Sanskrit rhetoricians, 
^■Erffirr^Tp of all the Kavyas in popularity. 

If we were to compare the Ragh. with the two other poems 
of K4lid&sa, it would be found inferior to them in unity of plot ; 
but, as we have remarked above, this happens because it treats of 
a number of Kings and not of one definite episode. It might also 
be said that the Meghaduta exoelB the Ragh. in perfection of 
polish, though here too the comparison would be slightly unjust 
since the Meghaduta is a small piece, while the Ragh. ia twelve 
times larger ; in a large work one cannot expect equal finish in 
every part. 

One chief reason of K&lid&sa's superiority over other poets is 
his brilliantly polished style ; there is no other Sanskrit poet who 
possesses an equal command over language so simple and withal 
so graceful. lu fact, all the works of K&lldasa are written in 
what the later rhetoricians have called the Vaidarbh* style, the ten 
chief excellences belonging to which are thus given by Dandin : — 
^S: H^TT?: ^RHT ^]^^ ^*Hr«ll I 3T«f5'Tf%^ir^f^«r:«Fn^'1fr»TIVT'7: « 
(K.-D. 1.41). K&lid&sa abhors the looseness and laxity of the epios. 


the anperflaouB piling of epithets found in lesser poets, and the 
artificiality of diction which is observable even in writers like 
B&pa and Magha. He stadioaslj avoids all meretricious ornament 
and the cheap tinsel of verbal tricks. His strength lies in the 
music of his words and in the swift conveying of precise and 
beautiful ideas. He employs no figures of speech except the 
commonest ones, and in particular he delights in Upama., of which 
he is a recognized master. He is a great lover of nature, and all 
his similes and illustrations are drawn from his close observation of 
natural phenomena. We note down a few here, chosen at random : 

JT^rsrrTRnr^^jrpjTfT wfrrsTrfr ^?=5"T#f nnr: \ ( VI. 22 ) 
f*mr5^f v^^^t ^fl ^r^1- flrr^^rr ^ '^^: i ( Vlil. 90 ) 
^^ ^rnrmT JTirr^ijrf^T^ i ( X. 9 ) 
Mr^^^^f^ 5«t^^m f *tt: I ( X. 49 ) 

*T^ Wf RTnTF% ^r»TT^ ff ^^r f^ I ( X. 83 ) 

nr^ r^:gRT^2J ^<»7=5^fqtT^r H ( XII. 100 ) 
The student can select many more ; the whole work richly 
abounds with them. Over the Raghuvamsa, as Dr. Ryder observes, 
<« is shed the magic charm of Kiliddsa's style;" and it is this 
magic charm of style, coupled with the discriminating choice of 
episodea and topics, that constitutes the main element in the 
universal admiration which the Raghuvamsa has continued to 
elicit from an appreciating and critical public. 

The poet has devoted the major part of his poem (Oantos I. — 
XV.) to describing the five chief princes of the Raghu race, whose 
collective virtues he has briefly summarized for us at the very 
beginning in these memorable lines : — 

^n4% Sf^fTTHT ^*r5t5Tn% dWcrM^n i H " 

K^ (I. 5-9) 


This, in brief, is the anoient Hinda ideal of Kingship ; and it Is 
here illastrated by a series of brilliant portraits which aim at show- 
ing the culture and civilization of ancient India at their best.. It is 
trae that a poet's powers of depicting a character are best seen in 
41 play, which is a ^{Zf qafsir, while in a long poem dealing with a 
series of kings characters will occupy — comparatively — a secondary 
place, it being the poet's object to make each canto an attractive 
piece of poetry by exhibiting his powers of narration and descrip- 
tion in melodious and poetical language.'* Nevertheless, there 
will be sufficient scope for character-painting if the poet takes care 
to choose ju3t suitable episodes for detailed narration, relegating 
minor incidents to the back-ground, or even omitting them altogether. 
Kalicasa has done this, and he has skilfully selected those 
incidents in the careers of his heroes which possess an absorbing 
dramatic interest ; thus the reader, when he comes to DiHpa's 
contest with the lion, or to Raghu's with Indra, feels the whole 
scene being acted before his eyes as though on a real stage. It is 
such scenes that leave a permanent impression on the reader, witHont 
being simply bald statements of facts in metrical language. 

The poet begins with King DilipEl. His general virtues arc 
described in slokas 13-29 of canto I.-, it is a description which, 
It may be remarked in passing, applies in a greater or less degree 
to all good and noble kings. We can hardly understand him that 
way ; if we are to know him better, we must have something 
more definite than a conventional description. Dilfpa had no 
issue and he decides to consult Yaslshtha on that account, whieh 
shows his great reverence for his spiritual guru aad his faith in 
the efficacy of religious rites in attaining the desired end. 
Vasishtha enjoins upon him service of the holy cow in his 
possession ; the readiness with which the King accepts the task, 
and the rigorous exactitude with which he performs it, show how 
simple and duty-loving his nature was. With him kingly graoe 
was not Incompatible with simplicity. But the trait of character 
which raises him far above the level of ordinary kings is his 
Interview with the lion wherein he offers his own body in ezehange 
for that of the cow, recalling the famous Instance of Sibi saving 
the pigeon in a similar manner. The moral may be given in the 

24 If thii were not so, where was the necessity of describing ia 
etail a model Government under the obscure King Atithi (Canto XVII.), 
irben it conid, with better propriety, have been done under Raghn ^ 


poet's own words— ^ctrfN^W sfr^cT ??5fiT: ^W?^ ^?t S^ ^2": r 
^T^^ Pfe clfSTfrfTf %: rnVq^fm^mt^r n . '' The highest duty 
of the rnler is to look after the weak and to save them from the 
aggressive strong." In due time, when his son Kaghu is born, 
he abdicates his throne in his favour, and retires to the forest 

Bag^hU is the next king. He was the most illustrious of his 
line, since not only is the poem named " Raghu-vamsa " after him, 
but even his equally illustrious sucoessor, Rama, is more oftan 
known by such titles as n^f, T^Tlff* ^'fFT ^^^ t^Q li*^©. While 
yet a young man^ B^ghu was entrusted with the task of guarding 
his father's sacrificial horse; we know how he had to fight with- 
the redoubtable Indra, the chief of the immortals. His intrepid 
bravery won him Indra's admiration and his father's blessing. 
In the poet's own words, the incident brings out Raghu's 
^f?jxf?f^il ( III. 62). Raghu's merits as a ruler will be found in - 
slokas 8-13 of canto IV., which also describes how Raghu brought 
the whole of India under his sway. It would appear that he was 
the first prince of his race who undertook; and brought to a 
successful termination, this wide, arduous and glorious campaign of 
universal conquest; and that is perhaps one reason why he came 
to be regarded as the greatest of his race, since doubtless a king 
who first brought a whole country under one chhattra could not 
have failed to win universal applause and approbation. It is, however, 
in a subsequent incident that his crowning achievement lies, whicl 
brought him undying'^ fame. Having given away all his wealth as - 
gift to Br&hmanas in a sacrifice, Raghu had practically become a 
beggar, so much so that even the vessels in his household were 
earthen and not of gold. But when the sage Kautsa comes to him for 
money he cannot turn him away, he wishes to satisfy hia wantj and 
the God of Wealth showers down gold, all of which he makes over 
to Kautsa. It is more than Kautsa \vants, but the king insists on. 
his taking all, as it was obtained for him ; as the poet beautifully 
expresses it— tsr^^cq 'Err%cI%TII%51?cft ^Ifc^jjpTiTT'^^^TfT I ?I^q?^r- 
m^:^|t5«lf ffnf^I^rJTr^m^tT??^ II ( V. 31 ). The incident 
reveals the highest type of selfless nobility in a king, illustrating, 
the complete harmony between ^rq ( enjoyment) and c?ir^ ( renun- 

25 That this was also the popular conceptioa is shown by a later- 
reference to Raghu, when in CAOto V[. be is described as •TfT^rTrf^'^'^rf: 


elation) and the T«Il^*rr%cTT^?^ and ??TT»irT ^^I?f?f of Raghu; we 
should not hes^itate to name it as probably the most striking episode 
in the whole book. After seeing his son married, Ragha departed 
this worldly existence by means of yoga (VIII. 24; cf. tft qw i ^J I 

The next King is Aja. He is presented in the three- fold 
• character of the best warrior ( VII. 57 ff. ), the best ruler, a second 
copy as it were of Raghu ( VIII. 4 ff. ), and the most loving 
husband ( VIII. 38 ff. ). Thus he is shown to have proved -himself 
a conquering hero, when he routed the hosts of his rival kings on 
his way back from the Svayamvara. The poet describes in the 
beginning of canto VIII, how Aja ruled wisely and justly; but what 
he has elected to describe at length is the death of Aja's queen, 
Indumati, and his consequent grief. It appears that K41id^sa had 
an object in giving prominence to this; probably here he wanted to 
present a contrast with the character of B4ma, showing that if a 
King of Raghu's race could cast off his wife under pressure of 
oircumstauoes ( as Rama will be described in the sequal to have 
done ), there was here one, the intensity of whose lo/e was so great 
that when he lost his wife he could not survive her but died pining 
for her. And the poet has done it very skilfully. 

The next ruler is Das'aratha, whose general merits are 
described in the beginning of the dth Oanto. He is as great a 
warrior and as wise a ruler as his two immediate predecessors and 
also a great performer of sacrifices. ( See IX. 5, 10, 20, 21 &c. ). 
He was neither much given to chase nor addicted to any of the 
principal vices of men (si. 7). But in fulfilment of a decree of 
fate he once went a-hunting and there inadvertently killed an 
ascetic youth ; and the father of the young ascetic cursed the King 
that he would die of grief for his son. This son is Rima, at 
separation from whom Dasaratha died as foretold. The poet explains 
away this one instance of breach of duty on the part of Dasaratha 
with the remark srq^T T^I't'Tf^cT ff ^fr^^r.^^f^ ^rfi^mf^tTT: (IX. 74). 
Finally we come to Rama. Here Kalidasa instinctively felt 
overshadowed by the genius of his great predecessor^ V^lmiki, 
and the vastness of the material before him ; and he has, therefore, 
hurriedly gone over the chief incidents in Rama's career — how oat 
of filial love and obedience he went out into the forcjt and killed 
the demon-king Ravaoa in Lailk^. Rama's abandoument of Sita, 
some think, la a sort of blot on his otherwise immaculate 
character; the poet, therefore^ explains why Sit& was abandoned. 


It was not because R&ma thought her guilty, but because he wanted 
not even a breath of criticism against him among his subjects. As 
a King he felt it was his duty to lay down an example of rigid 
moral purity, and to show that all his acts were above suspicion. 
Rama's killing of Sambuka is then related, which too was an act 
done with the intention of regulating the conduct of his subjects 
as a whole, and not of punishing Sambuka individually- for after all 
Sambuka did go to heaven as he wished ( XV. 53 ). We thus 
realize how R&ma has been portrayed particularly as a sovereign 
who is most anxious to rule his people with scrupulous punctilious- 
ness, following in his own person whatever he wanted hia people 
to follow, even when it entailed suffering on himself. No kingly 
ideal of later times can enjoin a better precept or point to a 
worthier model j and it is but fitting in the nature of things that 
Rama-Raj xf% should become in popular parlance a common expression 
for the ideal Government, where the interests of the people are 
placed first, even before those of the sovereign. 

Besides the Meghaduta, the Raghuvamsa is the only work of 
Kalidasa which contains a number of references to the geography 
of India as it was known to him in those days. These are to be 
found in the 4th, 6th and 13th cantos, but more particularly in 
the 4th, which describes the dig-vijaya of Raghu. The student can 
easily identify these places on the map^" which is reproduced 
elsewhere, and tie detailed explanations would be found in our 
Notes. He should especially trace the course of Raghu's tour of 
conquest. Starting from Ayodhyd, Raghu first marches towards 
the Easty where he conquers the Suhmas and the Vailgas, He 
then crosses the river Kapisa, which takes him to the South. 
Here he conquers, in order, the Utkalas, the Kalirigas, the P^ndyas 
the Keralas, and the Aparantas on the western coast. In the 
West and in the north-west he subdues the Parasikas, the Hunaa 
and the K&mbojas •, and in the North and the north-east, the 
Utsavasamketas,: the Pr&gjyotishas, and the Kimarupas, returning 
thence to his capital. Most of the principal rivers and mountains 
have been mentioned here; e.g. the Sahya and Himalaya ranges 

26 We are ^»«atly indebted to the Map given in Panilit R. 
Krishnamachariar's Raghuvanis'aoiinars'a ( 1908 ), from which we hav« 
borrowed some of these identifications. 


and the Ganges, the Kaveri and the Indus rivera. In the 6thj 
Canto, on the oocaBion of describing the various kings assembled 
in Kundina, the capital of the Vidarbhas in Central India, the 
principal provinces of India have naturally been mentioned ; these 
are Magadha, Ailga, Avanti, Anupa, Suraaena, Kalinga, Pandya 
and Uttara-Kosala. As all the chief princes were expected 
to have come there, it is almost certain, as observed by Mark 
Collins,'' that " we may see in this list a reflex of the principal 
kingdoms of India in the times of Kalidasa. " The 13th Canto - 
supplies some additional names of places lying in a straight line 
between Ceylon and Ayodhya; e. g. the mountain Milyavat, the lake 
Pampa, the river God6vari, the mountain Chitrakuta and the rivers 
Yamuna, and Sarayu. The description of many of these plaoes is 
far from being conventional or traditional; it very often reads like 
such as would be given by an eye-witness, and it is pretty certain 
that our poet must have travelled widedly with an observant eye.. 
No other poet in classical Sanskrit literature has described the 
country in such a familiar and vivid manner. 

There exist a large number of commentaries on this poem, 
but none of them is so well-known or so often studied a? that of 
Mallinatha, who enjoys a supreme position as the standard authority 
in the interpretation of K;Uid&sa'a poems. While writing about 
K&lidasa we had to remark above that he says absolutely nothing 
about himself in his writings, and the same is true his great 
scholiast, [Mallindtha. Pandit Y&man^ch&rya Zalktikar, the 
editor of the K^vyaprakiisa, wrote that Mallin&tha was a 
Br&hmana of the KSsyapa gotra, and that his descendants were still' 
living at Gajendragad in the Satara District. But the learned Pandit 
was hasty in his identification ; for Mr. M. S. Sa3tri (in his 
*' Second Report on the Search of Sanskrit M8S." ) has shown that 
Mallinatha was a native of Tailangana ( Andhia ), which fact is 
now accepted as established. He had a son named Kam&rasv&min,^ 
who was also an erudite scholar, and wrote a commentary on the 
Pratiparndriya. In addition to his three oommentaries on the 
three poems of Edlidiisa, Mallin&tha is credited to have written 
( a ) commentaries on aTRT^T^I, '^VT^^j 1»F8Tl^^f. I^err^^fT, fT^- 

27 The-.Oeographical Data of the Raghuvarns'a and Da$'akumAra- 
charita ( 1907 ), p. 17. 


^S<Tit^5^T<:«f?:> n^U'^rnV'-Jf, and ^f^^T'^fr ; and ( i ) independently, 
these works— T^fT^fSJT, ^f ^T^^KrT^rs^, l^^r'^rT^, and IsTrnfTrofr- It 
is possible that soaae of these prodautious belong to some other 
Mallinatha thin our comoientatar ; for there have been many 
Mallinathas, just as there hive been many Kalidasas, 

The date of Mallinatha can be fixed with tolerable certainty. 
He has written a com. on the Ekavali, a work on alamkara which 
frequently refers to King Vira-Narasimha, whose reign extended 
up to 1314 A. D. Mallinatha also often quotes the Prataparudriya, 
another work on alamkara, which meationa King Prataparudra 
who reigned from 1295 to 1323 A.D. Sir Dr. Bhandarkar has shown 
( p. xxi of his Preface to his 2nd ed. of the Mal.-Madh. ) that 
Mallinatha must be placed before the lexicographer Medinikara, 
the latest limit for whose date is 1431 A. D. Hence it is clear that 
the date of Mallinatha approximately falh somewhere between 1325 
and 1425 A. D. Most probably he balongs to the latter half of 
the 14th century. 

Mallinatha is a commentator of great merit and literary 
acumen. He was a profound grammarian, well versed in the 
Ny3,ya and Vaiseshlka philosophies, and thoroughly acquainted 
with Pauranlc as well as secular literature, as he himself tells us in 
his introductory slokas to the commentary on the Ragh. ; and the 
extreme popularity of his commentaries shows that this is not an 
idle boast. His commentaries are pre-omineatly adapted to the 
needs of the advancad general reader. They are sufficiently ex- 
pressive without being prolix. He never makes an unnecessary 
display of his knowledge, but strictly follows the principle he 
himself lays down, viz., m^^ r^^Ti ii1pf%5rr=T^%(T5=s^^. He is 
perhaps the only commentator on the poems of Kalidasa who shows 
a critical appreciation of poetry and endeavours to preserve as far 
as possible, the genuine readings of the poet, studiously rejecting 
the spurions substitutions of single words and phrases, and the 
occasional interpolations of whole slofcas. To his commentaries 
on the three poems of Kalidasa he has given the title ^^'f^^fs, 
meaning thereby that his commentaries re-inspire with life the 
words of Kalidasa "-'that lay in a swoon under the effect of the 
poison of bad commentaries." Every student of Kalidasa now 
recognizes that this was no vain presumption; Malli.'s commentaries 
have eclipsed all others, and he stands unrivalled as the commentator 
of Kalidilsa's poetical works. 

Important Abbreviations. 


A, G. — Apto'a Guide to Sanskrit 
Ak., Amae. — AmarakoSi. 
Ba'l.— RA':M._B41aRrinaayana 

Ba. — Bhagavadgiti 
Bhau — Bhartrihari's Satakas 
(N. and V.) * 
BnAiTi. — Bhalti-Kfivya.- 
Bn.-P.— Bbagavata-Piiraiu. 
BRin.-SAM— Brihat^ainhitri. 
Brih.-Up.— Brihadarany.iko- 

D.-K.— DasakatnaraGbarita.* 
D. R. — Dasarnpaka. 
CJi't — Gitagovinda. 
H.-Cu — Harshacharita. 
HiTOP.— Hitopadesi.* 
Tf. S. Gr. — Higher Sanskrit 
Gramnaar (by M. R. Kalo). 
Hv. — Harivamsa. 
Ka't). — Kfidaaibari.* 
Ka'm. N.— Kamandaka's 

Ka's'. — Kasika of Varnaaa. 
Ka's' -Kh.— Kasikhanda. 
Katha's.— Kath4«arit9agara. 
Ka'v., K -O. — KavyaJarsa of 

Kui. — KiratArjnniya.* 
K.-P. — Kavya-Prakasa, 
KuM.— Kumarasambhava.* 
Mah.-Bh.— M*bA-Bharata. 
Ma'lav. — Malavikagaimitra.* 

\ Malli.— Mallinatha. 
Ma'^.-Ma'dh.— MSlati- 

Ma'rk.-P. — lilarkanndeya- 

Megh. — Meghadufca.* 

Mrich. — Mrichehhakatika. 

Mud. — Mudrirakshasa.* 

Mv. — Mahlviracharita. 

M -W — M:onier.WilIiam3. 

Na'g — Vftgananda.* 

N.-Oh. — Naishadhiya-Oharita. 

Pa'n.— Piuini's Ashtadhyayi. 

Pa?.— Panobatantra* 

Ragii — Raghavainsa.* 

Ra'm. — Rilraayan* of VAloiiki. 

Ratn.— Ratnavalf .* 

R10..V.— Rig-Veda. 
RlXUS. — Ritu*ambara.--' 
Sa'k. — Sakantala.'-' 
8a'.ai.-K. — Samkhya-Karika. 
8,-D. — Sahitya-Dirpaiia. 
S -D -S. — Sarvadarsaua- 

Sin.-K. — Sicldhaatakanmudi, 
Si8'. — Sisapdlavadba. 
Tare. — Tarkasaingr^iha. 
Up, — Upaaisbad. 
Uttar. — Uttararaoaacharita.* 
VAr.i.. — Vallabhadeva. 
VA'nr.— Varttika. 
Yrsi\ — VeiiBamhira.* 
ViKB. — Vikranaorvasiya.* 
Visa. -P. — Vishoa- Parana. 
Yoo.-S. — Yogasutras. 

&c. &o. &c. 

** Annotated by thr EHItor. 

♦ Tv 

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( ^ ) ^1^ 

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f^^T^ — 

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(8) r^ 

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?5I ^^: ^: II 

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X X X II '«i% ^i^ 5^n^' Tiw m^ i 

^TJiTiit ^qf q^5r ^^ %^ oJ^i^^i: i ' f^^w«^i$<Al ^ ' %pmv. i 

^\^ ^m\ ^^^^'^l\^t ^m'^mt^i^^mnt ii m^ ii 

(m) ^tt 

^ ^^vk^ q'JT%?r JR^T aigJlRT: ^q^Tc^^fcTt mf^ sm^Uc^ I 
a«Tr T% I ^m^ ^oifcTJ^ 3Tft^cTT^ ^r ^3^iiTTc^qdf[ [ 3Tr?qTcTq^q- 

Wfe5f^M^JtT: I ffl^'ilt ^IPcfi^^ ?^l^ JT ^'-^ ^4: II 

3T^T3^^ ^"i^m 2?f^'ii ^^m f^^r<T^6?ff^ 3^r ^Ipr ^ nfl^r 
[ ^3w|?rr ] 3^: ^^T^% ^^^^ fm ^ cTqiRmJTmtT'src^ 11 

Rf :m %^^iTf ^ f q^ ?«n fl q^qR^-iq^H^ii^^r: 11 H^ 11 

^crq?iqQ5r^^: ^^iRaffH'- 1 ' ^i ^m^^^\'^^^^^^^-^^^!^ 1 ' ^ir: » 
far ^qrc^ f| 1 crirnq;— ' jrfci-^qqM^ ^fn^crr^rR'JT ^q^ 1 ' %m 11 

^Rf?^ ^\^ ^^ qqi^ s?^>?TfffTTH^TRq?^^ I 

TT'^5qi^f^^ -qm ^■im^ ^nrffBT f^^^^ i# n "^vs n 

§ffT I ^^{^^ ^^I?JT^ giT^Til: ?I^ ncl: II ' # I SJ^RflfT^Tl^^Jl^^ 

[ JnfriTH^TTf^*rTTfq'5r»^ ] »Tr?^i »F<^^^r^iii ^^i^cis^^f^ ^ifi^^ 

=^ W^?I^ ^^ I m^m^ f^V ^^cflc^'^: II 

q^m- ^: \ ( ^!« ) 

^TqTc5[ I'^^i'^ci^iqR I sq^cirf^^: i ^^m^ fa^i^^i? 3?^«?5i ^?nf ii 

5?[^3i^: I ^r^T ^^'^ rfT"4^ r^^t f^jqrt?^ri; ii' i f?r ^jjw^^^- \^\o\ ^jw- 
^r^fnnff FT f%^K w^ r«?TTTt ?T'Tr i ' v m^^ ir^^f ^r^ fW" W^j?: i 

^i^^tq^im^ ^^f q3[5rTsv:pm il \^ ii 

^TTH^: 1 I 3?%;^i^cq4: I ^\^^ f^f^ aii^Rf^r %^ Qm^I^Ic!: 

R5[T M^ 'Jf'^^TftS'^F ^^^ II ^« II 
?f5l gq^prku^ 1 ^^^^f^ffi^ ^mw- ^^^ imm^ ^ ^ 

f55%3 11 ' ^ 2TI^: I f^C^: ^VS^f^^: I ^^: ^^-rW^WrM^: I SHT^ 

^?(T: ' ?c2m^: I cnflH'- ^Sl^qfl: :3^f% m^^q^ sramarmrg: II 
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i%p!f ^n%T ?^ I ciiNjjtct 3nf — eft 3^*1 n:^?cf ^ trcfj^tfr aci 5^: m^ 

^M: I ?[ gl^T^T^^J^ ^^tTcT *IT^: II 

gy^o I -, Jr=i<MHH ff ^^^f ^^^-f: f%^ I ^Wf ^:-^fW%: ^1% ^ft^f^ ' 

f^?':-' nrcTT: ' ?. qT«» 

( ?^o ) ^^ 

=^^^i^^T5R^^qT c5^jfrf?i^^^5inJiRif% aRir^rf^^pE?ici i f^ci^;? 
^^TTH i^i^ ^uf^ I f^^^n^ri; • ^Tc^ra ct^t=^2 ' %.m (w^i^^- i ?ii?^?{^- 

qTq^'4'rqq%Hq^?T%R qe?^f^S II 

cTc^ ciWJ3^tqf^iT^^ g^S^n fl^i^^ I ' ^ ¥^ iT^'il =^ Jicg w%- 

\ ?T5r ' 3Tfq ' ^P^^ ' ^?fTT ' fr?T%5rr'T?T: I H^ffq- ?TftN^*MN I am tr?R- 
^^?r^^^^R rTf yM*Ip?r ff^?TRT qf^r^olfq^ rJTTrf I R'^qPT^lTPTq" = I 

^THif^^^r I f^ fitsT^TJ?: I ?r?-^« "-ft^sTrrr ?^^sTHqTrTTi^^^HHi ^ frf^ 
pf?rw^ fr^qr ^^f^^ i f^^^^- 1 R^i-Hrfj^t i '^^ ^^^■- i wi'^iaii^f i 

m?r%^ jntt^^a^'nwqf^f^T^nTTif : t q^rr = frfrfq ^rqf«T qf^: T>TrfT ^ im^?- 

^ ^if^ ^f»T: 5^: M ?f^ I ' 3T^f5fTrT<^ ' f7q^ ' aTSTWH"^ ' ?T^ ^o 

^^ ' 3^^^^ ' f f?r ^^]'^^ ^ \ f^o ^ ??r^q^ qf^m iT^?f i apt ^wf 

3T?a: [ q^q^^JTisfq^qcT^cTT?^ ] a^q^flRT =^^^1 ^^m iItjvit c^RT 

'^BTc^clR ^ II 

^^f^ ^ovrq^^m^^T^^il 

?Ti^i^5 3i^'Jii*^"i"^3 creq^5 qT%ct f^^^ ^t fi^rji^ f?Fmqq- 

3WRt q^iwn qT>»?f«it f^toq^r^T r?i qqf ^ ^^^rq^f^^frnf^^r: i 
ITT iiji; I g^q^Ris^^ ^sTT ^irT 3^55T %^]i^ mi^ ' tf^ 1 [ g^^^f oJ- 

^n^: ] g?^'^c«n^^WTT-SS^2TflRTl^ ?l^rf^ f^il^ ^^^f^ 

^r- ?^nTrT:^: ^-Wi: I q-*4m ^ ^'jf " 3T?^?Tf^ H^.'4H i Pt ' 1 h^- 

^^T?^ ^: I " q'^'T^ " ff^ f^'^'^'ETJTre ^y?^f^f^ fT I ' 'rirf^ '^ ' ?f?r 
twt F«»T ' ' rfcy^q^"^ v^^ ' ' ^>^ fT^^T^irftrTfrs-wrr ' ttW i 

\ ' ttiHIJIf 'f. qr» I ^ ' ^F^rf^rT ' f. qT= V ' lfq?f^B|xaf =^-' ^HK^FTt fHr^T^• 

q^»t: m- I ( t^^ ) 

' cTg^ Wi ^i^' f^ ^JH«n sr^ I ^^ 31^ c2Rf^ I ^^J ^^ 

^^sn^ipJTT Rf^^^PcT jfl^TH 
^315^: I 3TifT gr^: w^: f^t firfi^ JiCi'iaiR ^fm% s^i^^^nffi 

[ ^cn%T^iTqR^qT^?5^?n*. ] ^f^"^ 1 i^'^^r^i ^^tc^?^-. 1 ^iq ^\^ 
*i5^^T^ ^'m^^• q^?:^«j: % ^ ^^•- ?^c5i^><^'fiifl% Jff^ig^R^f 

qh:*T5i?TrJT?iRr qr^>2Tf^?TRT ^^^m^f^j\t iT=«&fT5^ g^t^n 

^g: Hi: I 

^^\^m^\ m^wmm^^^mi^mm^ II ? ii 

^^r^ TRiffomJ?: fl%^'^'^^-^H tHii^^i^rt mi^^^ciTi^ i ' ^^ra ' # 
qT^3j^RT ^^^^qj^r: i ^>^^^m^: i r\\^ ^i?-t^ [ 5T^^T^qT5fn. 1 

fWR^Tfni^T^^l^'^g^ ^r^fT^^^^ II ^ II 
3mr ^j?k: M^ w^^ f^r^'^ a^ra^ [ %^^%r|g»3; ] t^^ q% 

^^^H^T gf^flrR €T1T5!q5a5T ^^RT^IhTcI: l^#rl'. I ' qicT: qr^S^T 
1%j:-4T: qsj^: ^mw,: 1%^: I ' ^m: I f^^^lf f^*#^l=-TW: [ f^^nl^: ] 

^jjwn^^MM^^af^^H^lgi^ft^T 3f^ II \? II 

? 3TfKq?4 ^T 3TTf#t I ^r ^^R-- f^^ mW ^#^ I ^RrTTrf^ W^fqf = 

vt' ?, qr. ^ ^TT^ P^?^i«!^ '^^: ' fm" q^ 1 f^ . 

^#^TRm ^5^^f|Hx^: WTi^r qffi ft^^ II ^ 11 
?TTg ?:nTqT^q?:r?i m^n ^^^\ ^^fr q^ftg^f Ji^i^it qf^ f^- 

TTT5T "'Tmi 'l^T^ ^.^im^llitR qrfrsTFf: II ^ II 

^^^m- 1 5^ ^3^g\^ ^JTFr cTsrar i ' >^r ' # qr^sfcRRr^i^: i T?:nf i 

^i\r^z TT^^^^m 'PWf ^^ ^ T^: II vs II 

qR^rTST^?! ^5m3fT: ^gj^^qcfn^^^T^T r\V^^^ ^if f%^g: l ^ n^ 

T?>af?q Jp^rsi^^ f|^ tit i ^^ar fr^fciT: ^^m t^ ^ [ ^t%ct- 

? 'F?^^»n' ?. qro ^ '5T(TTqt7»TFT R^?qw ^H«r^' ?o i f^?f« '^Inji: i 
H^=^ T^^-'^nrrq- ^rf^ R^^mqrq- fr wrf^rTT i iim ^^^ f^inn ^f^wrq" ftnn 

? ' ^-7qH JTJTTrvfJTTff ^^'^ I ?r ^mr pm i q^ant n^q ^t^j^t ^f=qfTn[q 
^r5^^i=<T?^ ?T?Tfq qwrq^ rnnfq MifHHfH^r^ ^^^qrw i^^ tj9Ptftt^ frr- 

frt ?• I ^q^^^r: I 

it;vj'??t^ jn^fq^ftjTqr^FR; n ' rfrr i 

3T^ 3T?craf§: i[T5l^^'^|: ^R^^'- '=3ra'TT5%: | ' =1^: ^qr- 
5^: ' ?r3W: I HTm%^ ^fn?#RT^^ 5T^Sr^% ^^^? ^% 

]% ^ I '5^^qcp5 ^fTiq sq^JiPqm^ w ^qf [ 5^fq^^3iq^5fT- 
f^^ ^^^\^ TKcf: ^^' x^^m^ ^x?Har ^1'^3^'cf ?ri% 11 

f^ ^^-^^JT[^m Tmn ^^'^^r^ II ?« II 

' fl*iTT2?t -^1%-' 5'??Il^^T ?fl-S?3T3?: I ^oSHmcJT?^^ Wi^^l ^^^^'t J?5- 

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TRn '^ 'r5Fjrr^5TT^ ?• qj. y #j^t: ! ^nrq^qjriwqrrT ^r^ 1 'qr'TP^q:f q-^- 

( l^< ) ^^^ 

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^tTW«?ST5lS^TfiRg*li^^ ' wSm-' %s^^fi\: ^W.WAf^ I ??nU*lTB'JI^H; I 

7iT\f^^5^:qi'^^^'''^ ^"l^nft;^ >^q^2|f:R II ?? II 

37^ fg- q-yq- VT5 ?ry<1 ^ I M M H^f?^ : • '^F'^^^R* 3T|jTT fPT 'fhrt ' II ' sT^^tNtT- 

JTTffi^r: «rTJ^^'»i?rn%^: 3?fR: ' »• ^^- I ' T'*fRTRF?wm' 5?fffr ^rr^nr:- 

■^fH, I T^ftm: TO^i: ■^^^■. qrt^q ff^s^ ^jTf^fc; 3i[;rc!'-qT^^m^^ i 

■^^f 3T^T^ m^^?r ^rJffgf^ ?c^?5I%^ ?l^l^t ^'^ ^^ #f?c5^ [ ^^'H- 
[ ^T^IfJcT^^cl^ar' J ^Ntf d ra'^^ci =^1^ ^ q^ g c!?^=^: ^^ 

h4h^^(MH^^'w Tlt^ l# f^f%%^ ^3^ 11 ?H II 

fB3^ c4 JTc^4tqffm=sii% gqimar^?: i *5^i^^TOsq3;Tq^&3'Ji^ ^'^flc'jr- 

( 1^0 ) Xl^^ 

3T??I: gclT f^nQ'^rr: l^^TT^T T%^RT^ ^?^5T 5,^q5}*iriq, [ fg^rf^- 

Tr^^nT3T^PTTgf^(g«ftT^TWTH ^^l^i^^TH, II 5:<^ II 

^^^^l ] ^^ik^\^ «nai^ 3?^n^ qr^i^ i * 3i^ih3 \^^^' ^'^^i^ ^^ ' 
^c2w^-- I ^^fi^gfr^^TJii^ 3i%%q I 9Ti ^m ^M m |T% ^qrf^?i: » 

^^T^^^T^Miq: II 

^ ^^?rm gd^Tt4^ii i^?sR^i qfimT^ i 
mk^Ih^.m 'm^'^n^F^ ^fNi f^ifw^^^r^ i.i ^o ii 

1 ' 3Ttin=«Tr?^TRn% ifrfqfTfTJj; ' sfrT ^f = i r. '^fjo. = '!H'i i '^-< =^r>r^ ^r^rr^tr 
f f=^?TT I ?o. q«nirHH: ^r*r5nwHr#r't wr^fT^i^r. f?ro. e ^ grw 5r?r h^^im^^h i- 

qg: ^t I {my 

TTfl^ic^efira: I ^^^^^ ^rRq^t ^*T??r gsr^m??! afciiH ^a^^fci 

J^^STT ^R'ufm^f ^VJ^: W ^^ ^T^: I ' ^ ^V$' ' ^^ ^^^f^^' ^ 

^ ?7T» ^^ #W5^ Ti^^^nftmf^H ^^ I 

3R^ fTT: ^m H^^^: ^?5 I ^H^T ?:T^T^HRff ^l^^M 

» ^^i\^. \ ST^TT^Mltl Iridic: ^5Z tr^ I S crtfTiT^ ^r^ ^^gtT'TFT '?T^T?t 
T»Tr ffd^MC^-iT^ilil+i i\ ^?T^ ^T?T<Tf HKIM^M q"^ rTfft T^ t\ I =^=^= f ^- »■ 

( ?^* ) x%^ 

?Tf ^^ V^TjTf ^ Hf?f»r T[^^ Tnrgrrr frpt i 
^*fn:'mr^ ?TTf^T qin^ mH^^i^^tfi^ ii ^^ ii 

^nr^cTf ?:r5!T?rT^ ar^^riniT r%5TT?I I ^r%fl[«^: i q;«Tfflq I ^in^- 

^ ] q^T?fT^mci II 

rr^Hjff^ 5'|*Tcfi ^T(\^ ^ I l%Rra I 3??TRf HT^: 3TF^5TTvfr>^^: [ ^^- 

^5: ^^: » ( V^^ ) 

^r% ^f^t I3TCT iT^ ^fm^'' 3Tfq'^t q^^ ^^^^^ ^ i #^ ^^^^'t^^ni- 
^rmw. ^ffwrfM^i^^ jj^ f^ ?ttt: li ^<^ II 

^w :jP5^?i 3Tr%-^ ^3T f^;fTT ^\TJ "^^ ^t^\^m•^ I 3TRf^3^P^- 
[ R^m^T^T^'i^ ] \m7[^'. ^EWT^^T f*iv^ifq^ f^i^^iq^ i ^im^srw- 

^■3?^ ' ^RT -i^ I ^T^rlll ^frT^IT ^l^qfa^I^II m^T ^ ^TT^ ^^I|t 

( ?^8) <1^ 

ff I ^^4: 1 1% 5 5Jt^: 5i^^i f^^^%f| I ^%wq F%f%c^wjl'^ ij^^ I 

1^; fflf ff iT^r %?g g^?T ira ^■fi]^■. ii 
^J^^|: ^'r^^|: fif^T^g^i: rfgf tT*?^?T: ?<i^«fl^^: ant ^^ 

f#rT HnTJ^T%?5rrq^f sTHTJrd^n^^ ^^tm in? ii 

'C 5mT%?^f'F=5f3T'^rr5f; 5rfFq: i (Tst^t^tst tst: q^r^n^^ i f^^Hikn;- 

Mq^qrt^: I 

qg: ^^i I ( l^"^ ) 

* ^ 

W^ r%i ?TW^??'iT 1 ^ ci^rg^mu'Wif^^: 1 ^Fv^ft q^ic"^^ ^f^"iit qfr^ 

mm ^ ^ferTf ftmg^T^r ^35: ^[^ §?!^t 11 ?\9 li 

^^ ' ^ ^^: I ' sfrirT^ ' # ?fq 1 cITli^ I cTT afrTt 5ira:sj ^T f^^T^-' 

^T^^w^^^nrr^^i^ ^-^ ^'PTT w^ ^mw II ^<^ II 

■^^rTt^lT^ ^: s?lTRr 5TrW?W5R^ f^%m II ^^ II 

?f^ ^\^■ II 

^nw Hi^^^ifiMH ^N<yiirm*4i ^m^ ii ««> II 

[ ^?IT^^f5T^q5^3R ] 52TT^ JhWf ^^ ^^fl R^^: f^^J igUT 

f^sn^n 'l^^ *IT^: I 55^'^t'll ^^f^^ ^^ ^^I^ ^TTT^I^^'^JIT- 
* iTSff* *IR ^' ' ! ^cRSl^^ IT^ ^^-J J7T<JTqi2?i ^ 3 ^FSHflf^ *II5|: II 

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'TT3cqT'rT 7Tf»tTT: I ^Vd^^qiTM^r T'/^'n ^T ^ ll' f. f^JH'^ I ^ ^■TT^ITf^ 

TT^^qq^ 3Tq"^: le^nfci: !T)||[ f^fclH; i |2Tyr?Tc3?TW«r^T: wq: 5I^ra=^Fqc55[- 

•'TTTf ftrm Tm^T*^:??^ ^VT^?f=q^'T^Ri^ li «^ li 

J^q^r. 1 ' 5^T: 155R: ^%r%: q?;5I^ q^rsg-^: '" |c2W^: 1 f^cft ^r^'^t ^l^f 

MHK<Hi4^^^fuHHr '^r ^1% M«Tpi% ^Rm: ii v^ ii 

';3TTc5 ^^ 3TTJ!T^r5T^^^^^iqiq . " |c3?TR: I ^{^g ^T?7: f^^ a^T^^TT? U. 

5r?:tM4i^i^WTTt^^: mt^ ^^\m.m ^k^mt ii vv ii 

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{ ^^<2 ) ^5T 

3j!i2T#cq^f^^i?^Mi: I [ ^<%5nwqm ] m^^^^^i ^^irflmf^qf^ ^^ 

-%qt ^TflF^^ISiE^^ ^qi^cl^i: ^m^^: I ^ ^'^ 3TTf«rf^ goi: UT^- 

?^^JIH^^[f^5 ^^fSH^^ ftj^FT^ II v^ 11 

I'^siFa^ I ' i^m'K '^^t ^\^: ' 5c^<: i ^^^?^rpi w ?ig i 

^R^'?:r^[ w^\ rnivi vi^m^^"^^^ Him ii v<^ Ii 

qg: 'Em: I ( ^^^ ) 

cTT^gf^ m^^^. 5r^^5T [ ^gsft^^T ] =^9^T 3Tt3S: f^R ^f^ ^^i I 

^raffcl ^n^^cfr^ i *" bti^iV ^m\k^] ^m^w- i ^i?3*w^^'^5?^s^.?t 

i-d}r\^ ^^rm^ f^w:^r\\ i^ ^^fi^w II \o II 
^R^^mf TON w^ ^^ ^t:^^ 'm'l^^i^Ti II ^? n 

m ^3 « '^rg^^^f m w' r^m: I [ 3T»«r:iqcm%rm% ] 

^i:7T ^T^?^if-.^?{ ^T^g ^im^r 5fr qf^: ll ^y li 

'l^TT eT^?T iT3ir 5^-2?^: II 

fl% ^^m^ I 'fi^^ 'fi^'i' r^jR- I *^'^f ^^f^^ ^^^ ^^ 

T%H%ffflfr( 4]^: II 

OTFTTRm^^5%^¥^^^^5^ ^^* II H^ II 

'3T«r IT^^: I ^R^ q^qiill^TH.' ^c2?lRT^T^oiq^2fTiq jt^^^t^^^ ^m: 
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sT#ff^tn':^Tir?i^^i'?T %^^pn:5?T m^^^ i 

i44^|'i.m'4Hd |T15l ^^ ^^"J?T: mr!f^5[^rl^ II ^<^ II 

[ 3?Tp%^^5Tnir ] STTfcqi ^qq ^wfWT^Vr^I I Vf g q^flqii?: 

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?o ^., 3T>jfr^^PTR?li=fK: I ?'- '^. qiw^ 5fq^ ^^vm rriT^t ^ ?TR^5f q ?mic?;i 
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^«^4iqHT*TrTTqr ps^^qy ^^m f^r^^ ^Tri; i ^'^^^^qR^^it l^r^rm^^^^^^T 

( ?«^ ) T^'ft 

^%^^ ^ ??^ m*TP3^: ^^ rT^JlIT ^rf'^? SiqTcmcT afcJl^r U 

IfT^TW f^r^W ^^tf%r R3^^ ^TF^T^ II H^ II 

^fcl =^1"? I fstSTir? I 5^f M^'^\^ ^^S^c^ q^lS^Tio^ HgpTT^^r'J: II 

'^mh w^mv^m^i mk^xm tiwl^ii^: ii ^o n 
sftr^w^^^m?^: ^^^ ^^^ ^^^R^ni??^: II ^ni 

^: ^t I ( ^V^ ) 

5?:r 'ii [ ^5T^'^Ri'^fr?^T ] ^^i-^r^i^q m^^^^ \^^i^t ?h: 

■^r^ii^fq i%^?i4: 

^^ng^^m«T7^^i^ fir^: h^ ^ 7i%^^^t: ii ^.3, li 

irtJ^-^i^ qfxnf c?|i^ i^m^T =5?^-Trai'^ ^^(^ ^R 5^ 3^: I ' il?> ^^- 

( ^ys ) T^'^ 

m^^irf^qa: ^^i^^ ^=i?3' ^^i^Tcqi: %cfi% r\%^- 9*1^^^ 

^^mn. I'W^^ ^w^^^m '<i{mw^ ^c2Tt T^r. ^^g: 3?^: nt 
«i''^sw<?^«r[^ I ci^^^d: ^k #?Tg gsft^ n 

?o V ' rlHIMHi^;: ' s. ^° f^o '7:!:fj;T I "■• JR^IT?^ ^^T'4 '^THHJ?;. 'v TJT^ 
art *qp^W^5rr»mTqT^ ^fMT: I ' ?. f%^,HH^l'l'T I dTPT^rTTTfr^TKr '^^ 3^^ 

^ f| '^i ^^^r^ f^TFTT ^Tfm MiMrjj^ri n ^^. II 
^'^ ^fgqg^ffni w^m m^mi w^ li vso n 

f?|qcn»3[ 3?^^^ 3T5^fr^r ^i^^qi^R5T?%T ^?^? ^m^m ^-{^^k 
to% i ^5{w^Fq5^sfq m^ =^m%i ^ra *Tr^: i 3^1 t%55 g^iliti ?iw ^lai- 

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1^11 * * # PT^wr 2^ ^ ^f w^^ ww^ri^. I iT?q^r^i5?^ ^rsrf^tfrr 

( ^8^ ) TH^?T 

^^w^^ I f% 3 f^5iR-.qqiRq[sq'lJ^^rcfef?R?nq;ii^r4: i ai^i ^rr ^^^ 

^r%?#RTff^;g^ ^[^TR^i^nftFTT^ ^: li vsv II 
=!Tf^w5i; Tciafq naif ^r^rf^ ^'^. i [ igiT<m^ ] mi^^^ 

i TjfTfrr^r %jaT: ^^rwr^r: i ^n+Mif*RTf^: i %>Tnr?TT f«f^Hi 'tm r^TirNNr j' 
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irr'rT^rq'-'=*n>Tr'Trq'-?RT tt= i 

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1% =^ i ^\^ ^l^^H. I ^?^f^ f^iof 3TqrJTTSf]; I e^?5^m^^m5- 

5^' 3T ^ W^^ N^ 1^ 3[T^* ^T^ W^ H ^11 

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5^f ^;^^ ^t ^^01 '^^i^^"^ f%(f^^ fqsTT ^s^ 3^ ^^f ^^T 

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( ?«< ) TH^ 

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^r ^fprmr T^^FT^^ '^rnfmrRF^ ^THtw?: I 
^Tm^?njmT ^*w^ ^ g^ ij^rrnigrpi^ ii ^A ii 

^^^^ ^qr^m^rm mf: IK^ II 
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^nrr ^8": ^: I 

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ii^fl f^qtif^ g|^4 q^i^<q^ I 

^^\ Jn% 5^wfn:*4^TO^i w^ ^ m^^^i li ^ ii 

^Tfr^Mfgr^?^ ^qr^dsN ^^R ^ T%lrTr^^: lU II 

[ ^T%?I^rJTTr^ ] 1^: ^^?f^^^ i'it^m f^^WA^ [ ^^X^ \ Hfid\*i ] 

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^ ^: trsT gtcTT ^^ mq m^ u 

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W^ ^^NH^Ih*^ ^^ iJ^l+IMMn W^ II <^ II 

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[ 5TTCTJRfT% ] k^ f^^ II 

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m^K I iwT^ ^m\^^ It 

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f[^-^'JTWRr%> t^H'MVm^V^ih n^"'nhim ll r^ li 

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qm: 't^to tn# wi^<^-^i^ grmm^ I 

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4i'J!i'W4 TT^^T^^ ^mf^rT =^rn^: ^^'5: iu<^ n 

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^i^isjoafr^ II 

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vm^* imm^^m tj}^ wi^^ TR^m: ii ^^ li 

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^ 5r?:qfa: i ^r^crrf^ fgnrn a^r^TR q^^rf^ ^r.irr jt^t ^\ 

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1. For the right comprehension of words and their senses, I 
salute PSrvati (the mountain's daughter) and Parames'vara (the 
supreme lord) the parents of the universe, who are (perpetually) 
united like words and their meanings. 

2. The (exalted) race sprung from the sun, and my intellect 
of limited scope (to describe it), — how unequal the two! It is 
under a delusion that I am desirous of crossing, by means of a raft, 
the ocean, so difficult to be crossed. 

3. Dull (of intellect) and yet aspiring after a poet's fame, I 
shall expose myself to ridicule, like a dwarf, who, through 
greed, uplifts his hands for a fruit accessible (only) to the tall. 

4. Or rather, I shall find entrance into this race (I may enter 
upon the task of describing this line of kings), to which the door 
of description has already been opened by poets of yore, as does a 
thread into a gem previously perforated by a diamond -pin. 

5-6. I, who am such, will describe the line of the Raghus, 
though my powers of expression are scanty, being impelled to this 
inconsiderate act by their (transcendental) virtues coming to my 
ears: — the Raghus, who were pure from birth, who persevered in 
works until they bore fruit, who were lords of the earth bounded 
by the ocean, and the track of whose cars lay as far as the celestial 
regions (9, 5); who offered oblations to the holy fires in accord- 
ance with the prescribedrules, who honoured supplicants (by gifts) 
according to their desires, who inflicted punishment in proportion 
to the crime, and who (woke up, or) were on the alert at the proper 
time (6); who amassed wealth for giving it away in charity, who 
spoke sparingly for the sake of truthfulness, who were desirous of 
conquest for fame (alone), and who consorted with their wives 
solely for the sake of offspring (7); who (again) spent their 
boyhood in the study of letters, who enjoyed pleasures in their 
youth, who led an anchorite's life in their old age, and who 
finally resigned their bodies by means of yoga {i. e, fixing their 
minds in meditation upon the supreme spirit). (8). 

10. It behoves the learned who alone can discriminate what is 
good fiom what is bad {Jit. who are the causes of the distinction. 

between good and bad) to listen to this (poem); for it is in fire 
alone that the purity or alloy of gold is tested. 

11. There was a king, by name Manu, the son of Vivasvat, 
esteemed by the wise, who was the first of kings, as the sacred 
syllble Om is of the Vedas. 

12. In this pure race was born a purer king, Diltpa by name, 
a supremely eminent monarch, just as the -purer moon arose from 
the pure milky ocean. 

13. Broad-chested, stout- shouldered ( ///. having shoulders 
like those of a bull), tall as the sa'la tree, and massive-armed, he 
looked like the military virtue (heroism) appearing in a corporeal 
frame fitted for the discharge of its duties. 

14. Like the mountain Meru, he stood occupying (dominating) 
the whole earth, with a frame that exceeded all in strength, 
outshone all in lustre and transcended all in majesty. 

15. His intellect was commensurate with his bodily form, 
his knowledge with his intelligence, his undertakings with 
his knowledge, and his success with his undertakings. 

16. By his kingly virtues which were both awe-inspiring and 
amiable he was to his subjects, at once unapproachable and invit- 
ing, just as the ocean is on account of its monsters and gems . 

17. Acting like the rim of a wheel under a skilful driver, the 
subjects of him, their guide, swerved not even to the width of a 
line from the path that had been trodden from the days of Manu* 

18. He received taxes from his subjects only for the promotion 
of their welfare: for the sun sucks up water simply to give it back 
a thousand-fold (in the shape of rain), 

19. His army was but an appendage to him; his means of 
accomplishing his objects were only twofold-an intelligence that 
was unfoiled in ( penetrated ) the branches of learning, and the 
string stretched out on the bow. 

20. His counsels being secret and his countenance and designs 
inscrutable, his measures, like the impressions (left on the mind 
by the good or evil deeds) of a prior existence, were to be inferred 
only from their results. 

21. (Though) without fear, he protected his body; unafflicted 
with disease he performed religious rites; unavaricious he 
amassed wealth ; and unaddicted he enjoyed pleasures. 

22. His modest reserve, notwithstanding his knowleage; for- 
bearance, in spite of power; and absence of boasting, in the 
presence of beneficence ; thus virtues, from their association in 
him with others (of opposite nature), were, as it were, like brothers 
born of the same womb (linked in a tie of brotherhood), 

23. He, who was not attracted by carnal pleasures, who had 
seen the very end of (mastered) the branches of knowledge, and 
who took delight in the discharge of his duty, had all the perfec- 
tion of old age without being (actually) aged. 

24. By reason of his educating, Protecting, and maintaining 
his subjects, he was (virtually) their father; their (real) fathers 
were merely the source of their birth. 

25. He punished criminals for the preservation of order, and 
had married only for progeny, so that, even his pursuit of wealth 
and sensual pleasures was simply the (pursuit of) Dharma ( the 
performance of duty). 

26. He drained (collected tributes from ) the eaith for the 
performance of sacrifices, and Indra drained the heavens for (the 
growth of) crops; thus by an exchange of their wealth the two 
sustained the twin worlds. 

27. Other kings, indeed, could not attain his fame for protect- 
ing people; for (the crime of) theft having turned away from 
men's property, survived only in the term (expressive of theft). 

28. A good man, though unfriendly, was acceptable to him, 
just as (though distasteful) medicine is to the sick; and even a 
friend; if wicked, was to be discarded, like a finger bitten by a 

29. Verily the Creator fashioned him with the ingredients of 
the five great elements; for all his qualities had solely the good of 
others (for their object). 

30. He governed the earth as if it were a single city, having 
the shores of the seas for its line of ramparts* and the seas them- 
selves for its moats, and owning no other rule. 

31. He had a wife, like Dakshint of Yajna, a princess of the 
royal line of the Magadhas, by name Sudakshingi,, a^name grown 
out of her amiability (or generosity, benignity). 

32. He, th^ lord of the earth, though he had a large harem 
regarded himself as having a wife by her, a high-minded lady, 
and by the goddess of royal fortune. 


33. (Ever) longing for the birth of a son from her, his worthy 
consort, he passed his days in hopes, the realization of which was 
long delayed. 

34. With a view to perform some religious rite that he might 
obtain a son, he took down from his arms the heavy yoke of the 
world (withdrew himself from the heavy task of governing the 
world) and entrusted it to his ministers. 

35. Then being purified, the two, husband and wife, worship- 
ped the Creator of the world with the desire of obtaining a son, and 
then started for the hermitage of Vasishtha, their spiritual guide. 

36. They drove in a single chariot which made a deep but 
agreeable sound, and (therefore) looked like lightning and 
Air^vata riding a cloud of the rainy season. 

37. That there should be no disturbance to the hermritage, they 
took a limited retinue with them; but on account of their peculiar 
majesty they looked as if they were surrounded by an army. 

38. They were fanned (as they passed on) by breezes of a 
pleasant touch, wafting the odour of the exudations of the S'a'la 
trees, scattering about the pollen of flowers, and gently shaking 
the rows of the forest trees. 

39. They listened to the notes, delightful to the mind, of pea- 
cocks that raised their necks at ( on hearing) the rumbling of the 
wheels of the chariot, notes of a double kind and corresponding 
(in pitch) to the Shadja air. 

40. They observed the similarity of each other's eyes in those 
of the couples of deer, that moved a littlefout of the way and had 
their eyes riveted on the gliding car. 

41. Occasionally they raised their heads (attracted) by the 
cranes uttering sweet notes, and forming, as it were, as they flew 
in a row, a gateway garland unsupported by posts. 

42. On account of the favourableness of the wind betokening 
the fulfilment of their wish, the tresses of the queen and the turban 
of the king were not touched by the dust raised by the horses. 

43. They smelt the highly -pleasing fragrance of the lotuses 
in the tanks, cool by its coming in close "contact with the ripples 
and imitating (the fragrance of) their breath. 

44. In the vill ages granted by'themselves and marked with the 
sacrificial posts, they accepted, after they had received the 


•offerings of honour, the unfailing benedictions of the sacriflcers 
(Brdhmanas who properly performed the sacrificial rites.) 

45. They inquired of the aged cowherds, that came to them 
with fresh butter, the names of the wild trees by the road-side. 

46. As they journeyed on, clad in bright apparel, an indescriba- 
ble beauty was visible in them, like that in the conjunction of the 
constellation Chitra with the moon, when freed from the mists of 

47. Engaged in showing this thing and that thing (/. e. the 
various curiosities of the road) to his spouse, the lord of the earth, 
of amiable appearance and worthy to be compared with Budha, 
was not even aware of the whole distance travelled over. 

48. He (the king,) of a fame unattainable (by any one else) 
and having the queen for his companion, reached, at dusk, with 
his steeds fatigued, the hermitage of the mighty sage who always 
practised self-control. 

49. (The hermitage) which was (then) being filled by ancho- 
rites returning from other forests bringing with them sacrificial 
sticks, holy grass, and fruits, and welcomed back by the sacred 
fires advancing forward in an invisible form; 

50. — which was being crowded with deer accustomed to receive 
a share of the nivara corn (wild rice) and blocking up the doors 
of the huts, as if they were the children of the wives of the 

51. — wherein the saplings were quitted by the hermits' daughters 
immediately after the watering was over, in order to inspire confi- 
dence in the birds accustomed to drink water from the basins 
round the roots of the trees; 

52. — where the antelopes were chewing the cud, squatting in 
the courtyards of the huts in which wild rice had been collected 
into heaps, at the decline of the evening sunshine. 

53. — which was purifying the casual visitors coming towards it 
by the columns of smoke, indicating the blazing of fires, shaken 
tip by the wind and charged with the odour of the offerings. 

54. Then having ordered the charioteer to give rest to the 
Tiorses, the king assisted his wife to alight from the car and him- 
self also got down. 

55. The hospitable saints, with their senses perfectly controlled, 
gave an honourable welcome to him, their worthy protector, 

who was guided by the principles of justice^ and to his royal 

56. When the evening rites were over, the King saw the 
treasure of penance (Vasishtha) with Arundhati seated behind 
him, like the god of fire with the goddess Sva'ha sitting behind. 

57. The king and the queen, the princess of Magadha, seized 
(touched) their feet in adoration, and the spiritual guide and his 
wedded spouse greeted (blessed) them with affection in return. 

58. The sage asked him, who was a hermit in the hermitage of 
a kingdom, and whose fatigue caused by the jolting of the car had 
been removed by the act of hospitality, whether all was right with 
his kingdom. 

59. Then, before the sage, the repository of the Atharva-lore, 
he, the lord of wealth, who had conquered the cities of the enemies, 
and was foremost among eloquent men, began (entered upon) a 
speech full of sense. 

60. "Proper, indeed, it is that welfare should reign in all the 
seven elements of my state, of whose God-sent and man-caused 
calamities you are the averter. 

61. xMy arrows which can hit only a visible mark, are, as it 
were, rendered futile by the spells, which discomfit enemies from a 
distance (even before they are seen), of you the author of incanta- 

62. O sacrificer, the oblation duly offered by you to the holy 
fires turns itself into rain for nourishing the crops, which, else, 
would wither by drought. 

63. That my subjects live the full period of human life, that 
they are free from fears, and are never visited by public calamities, 
is all due to (the virtue of) your spiritual power. 

•64. When I am thus taken care of by you, my preceptor, the 
son of Brahman, and so am free from calamities, why should not 
my prosperity be uninterrupted ? 

65. But, even the (sovereignty of the whole) earth, with all 
its islands, though the yielder of the precious products, does not 
please me, who have not seen a worthy offspring born of this your 

66. Surely my departed ancestors, foreseeing the cessation of 
exequial offerings, after my death must not have been eating their 
fill at the S'r^ddha ceremony, being intent upon storing up the 
obsequial offerings (for future use). 


67. Verily the libation of water, offered by me, is drunk, rendered 
lukewarm with their sighs, by my forefathers, thinking that it 
would be diflScult to be obtained after my death. 

68. I, therefore, with my soul purified by the performance 
of sacrifices, but obscured by want of issue, am both shining and 
not shining like the mountain Lokdloka (which is lighted on one 
side and daik on the other). 

69. Religious merit, resulting from the performance of penance 
and acts of charity, produces happiness in the next world ; but off- 
spring, of pure extraction, leads to bliss in the next, as also in 
this world. 

70. How is it, O mighty sage, that you are not grieved to see 
me destitute of the same, like a sapling of the hermitage, watered 
personally through affection, bearing no fruit ? 

71. Know then, O mighty one, that the last debt has been 
causing me unendurable pain, as the tie -post piercing the vitals, 
does to an elephant, deprived of the bath. 

72. It behoves you, O father, to do that by which I may be 
released from it; for- when an object is difficult of attainment to the 
descendants of Ikshvaku, the success depends upon you." 

73. Thus respectfully informed by the king, the saint remained 
for a moment, with his eyes fixed in meditation, like a tank, with 
its fish asleep. 

74. He whose soul was purified by ascetic exercises, discover- 
ed by meditation the cause of the stoppoge of issue to the lord 
of the earth and then informed him thus: — 

75. "On a former occasion, when you were returning to the 
earth, having waited upon Indra, Surabhi ( the divine cow) was 
reposing under the shade of a A'a/^a-( desire-granting) tree on 
your way. 

76. Full of thoughts of this your queen, bathed after menstrua- 
tion, being afraid to violate a sacred obligation (to her), you did 
not act properly towards her who deserved the honour (/z/. act) of 

77. (And) she cursed you thus :— 'Since you have shown 
disrespect to me, no progeny shall be born to you unless you 
propitiate my daughter.' 

78. Neither by you, nor by your charioteer, was the impreca- 
tion heard (being pronounced), as the stream of the Celestial 


Ganges was then in tumultuous uproar on account of the elephants 
of the quarters sporting wantonly in it. 

79. Know, then, that the attainment of your desire is barred by 
( that disrespect towards the cow ) ; for omisssion of honour to those 
worthy of honour obstructs one's welfare. 

80- That heavenly cow, however, is at present dwelling in the 
nether regions, the gates of which are blocked up ( guarded ) by 
serpents, for the supply of oblations in the prolonged sacrificial 
session which VaruPa has instituted. 

81. Do you then take the daughter of Surabhi as her 
representative, and with your wife, propitiate her in a state of 
purity; for she, when pleased, is a milker of (gratiSes) desires." 

82. Just as he was speaking thus there came back from the 
forest the cow, Nandinf by name, blameless and the source 
(provider) of oblations to that habitual sacrificer. 

83. Of a soft pink colour, like a (new) leaf, and bearing a 
slightly -curved mark of white hair ( appearing on her forehead ), 
just as the evening-sky ( pale-red like the young shoot ), bears 
the crescent of the new moon. 

84. With a large udder, and drenching the earth with a 
stream of tepid milk, which flowed at the sight of her calf and 
which was more sanctifying than even the ablution performed at 
the conclusion of a sacrifice. 

85. Imparting to the king the sanctity that arises from ablutions 
in a holy stream, by means of the particles of dust raised by her 
lioofs and coming from near in contact with his body. 

86. Seeing her of holy appearance, the receptacle of ascetism 
( the sage ), ver.sed in reading omens, again addressed him ( the 
ting ), whose officiating priest he was, and whose desire to gain 
his object was not to be barren ( was sure to be fulfilled ). 

87. "Know for certain, O king, that the fulfilment of your wish 
is not far distant, since ihis blessed one has turned up the very 
moment her name was mentioned. 

88. It behoves you ( therefore ) to propitiate this cow by 
unceasing attendance upon her, and living upon the products of 
the forest, just as one does (gains) knowledge by close application. 

89. You should move on when she moves on, stand when she 
stands, sit down when she does so, and drink water when she 
has done the same. 


90. And let this our daughter-in-law too, being pure and full 
of devotion, follow her, after she is worshipped, in the morning, 
as far as the bounds of the penance- grove, and also advance thither 
in the evening to receive her- 

91. Thus be devoted to her service, until she is propitiated ; 
may no obstruction overtake you ; may you stand, like your 
father, at the head of those who are blessed with worthy sons !" 

92. The disciple ( of the sage, ) who knew the proper place 
and time, bowing accepted, in a pleased mood, with his queen, 
the command of his spiritual instructor, saying, "I will do so. 

93. Then at night, the learned son of the Creator, who always 
spoke agreeable and truthful words, dismissed the king, of dis- 
tinguished fortune (or of blazing radiance ) to retire to bed- 

94. Although possessed of the superhuman power due to ripe 
asceticism, the sage, learned in ritual, having regard for the 
vow ( undertaken by the king ), provided him with such 
accommodation as was suited to a forest life. 

95. The king, accompanied by his wife free from pollution, 
occupied a hut pointed out by the kulapati, and ( there ) lying on 
a bed of Kusa grass passed the night, the close of which was 
announced by the sage's disciples, chanting (aloud ) the Veda. 


1. Then at dawn, the lord of men, to whom his fame was a 
treasure, set free for ( going out to ) the forest the cow of the 
sage whose calf had been tied up after it had its suck and who was 
made to accept sandal, garlands of flowers &c. ( by him ) through 
his wife. 

2. The lawful wife of the lord of men, worthy of being named 
at the head of chaste ladies, followed the path of the cow, the dust 
whereof was consecrated by the plantings of her hoofs, as ( closely 
.as ) Sm?iti( remembered law) follows the sense of S'ruti. 

3- The kind-hearted monarch, lovely with glory, having asked 
his beloved spouse to return, (himself) began to guard the daugh- 
ter of Surabhit whose milk exceeded in quantity the waters of the 
four seas, as if he was protecting the earth itself, tranformed into 
a cow, with the four oceans turned into four teats. 

4. By him following the cow as a vow, the rest of his retinue 
too was sent back; the protection of his body was not due to an 


axternal source: for Manu'S descendants were ever protected by 
their own valour. 

5. By (giving her) savoury mouthfuls of grass, by scratchings». 
by keeping off flies, and by unobstructed rovings at will, thus 
did the supreme monarch become diligently engaged in her pro- 

6. The lord of the earth followed her like a shadow — standing 
still whenever she stopped, proceeding on when she went on, 
patiently sifting down when she sat down, and drinking water 
when she drank it. 

7. Possessing kingly fortune (or royalty) which, with its 
insignia cast aside, could be inferred from the super-eminence 
of majesty, he resembled a royal elephant, inwardly, in condition 
of rut but without the lines of ichor manifested externally. 

8. Marked with hair tied up with the tendrils of creepers, he, 
with his bow strung, wandered in the wood, as if wishing to 
discipline the ferocious beasts of the forest, under the pretext of 
guarding the sacrificial cow of the sage. 

9. The trees on either side of the king, mighty like the god 
with the noose (Varuna),(as he passed on) unattended by 
servants, uttered, as it were, the exclamations of "Victory to the 
king; here he comes," by means of the notes of impassioned birds. 

10. On him, bright as fire and worthy of adoration, the young 
creepers, agitated (urged) by the wind, showered their flowers, as 
he passed by their side, as the maidens of the city {lit, the 
daughters of citizens) would the customary la'ja'siiu^d. paddy); 

11. The female deer, gazing on his person declared to be full ol 
feelings, tender with compassion, by their hearts remaining unaffe- 
cted with fear though he wielded a bow, obtained the fruit of the 
great expanse of their eyes. 

12. He heard (as he went on) his own lofty glory, loudly 
carolled from the bowers by the sylvan nymphs, in a manner in. 
which the purpose of (the accompaniment of the music of) flutes 
was served by singing bamboos, having their holes filled with 

13. The wind charged with the spray of the mountain streams, 
and bearing the fragrance of the gently shaken flowers of the treesi 
served ( refreshed ) him, who, purified by his righteous conduct, was 
oppressed by heat as he had no umbrella with him. 


14. As he, the protector, entered the wood, the forest- confla- 
gration became extinguished even without a shower (of rain),. 
exuberant was the growth of fruits and flowers, and among animals,, 
the strong did not oppress the weak. 

15. Having purified the spaces between the directions by 
their courses, at the close of the day the light of the sun, and 
the cow of the sage, both red like the tint of a ( fresh ) leaf, began 
each to return to their abode. 

16. He, the protector of the middle world, followed her, who 
supplied to the sage the necessary articles for the rites due to godSr 
manes and guests; and attended by him, esteemed by the good, 
she, too, looked like (as graceful as) faith incarnate, when accom- 
panied by observance (also embodied ). 

17. He passed (returned), beholding the woods which were 
darkening up, in which herds of wild boars were emerging from 
the pools, in which peacocks were flying towards their roosting 
trees and where antelopes were squatting on the swards. 

18. The cow ( that had calved but once ) on account of her 
exertion to bear the burden of her full udder, and the king by rea- 
son of his massive body, both decorated with their charming 
gaits the way back to the penance-grove. 

19. His wife drank him in, from the skirt of the forest, as he 
returned following the cow of Vasishtha, with winkless eyes, that 
had fasted long, as it were. 

20. Placed in front, on the way, by tjie lord of the earth* and 
received by the king's wife ( his associate in religious rites ) 
advancing towards her, the cow shone between them, like 
twilight situated between day and night. 

21. Sudakshin^, with a pot of whole rice in her hands went 
round that milch-cow, keeping her on the right side, and, bowing, 
worshipped the broad space between her horns (the forehead,) the 
very door as it were to the fulfilment of her wish. 

22. They both ( the king and queen ) were delighted to see 
that the cow, though eager to meet her calf, patiently accepted the 
worship offered to her: for, verily the signs of pleasure of (venerable) 
beings of her type, manifested towards those full of ( or, who ap- 
proach them with ) devotion, indicate the? near fulfilment ( of 
their wishes ). 

23. After having shampooed the feet of his preceptor and his 
wife and having finished his evening devotions, Dilipa, who had 


uprooted his foes by ( the jnight of ) his arms, again waited upon 
the milch -cow, as she sat down after the milking was over. 

24. He, the protector, accompained by his wife, sat close after 
the cow, near whom were placed a lighted lamp and offerings of 
worship ; and as gradually she slept he slept too, following her 
example, and rose in the morning when she awoke from sleep. 

25. Three times seven days'passed away, while he, of adorable 
fame and accustomed to deliver persons in distress, was thus 
engaged, with his royal consort, in keeping the vow for the birth 
of a son. 

26. On the following day, the cow that supplied to the sage 
materials for sacrificial offerings, desirousof testing the devotion of 
her follower, entered a cave of the mountain Himalaya ( lit. 
Gaurf's father ) where tender grass had grown in ( or, owing 
to ) the vicinity of the fall of the Ganges. 

27. A lion, it appeared, unobserved in his attack by the king, 
who had directed his eyes to the beauty of the mountain, con- 
fident that the cow was not assailable even in thought, by the 
beasts of prey, forcibly pulled her. 

28. Her cry, deepened (or, prolonged) by its reverberations in 
the cave, drew back, by catching as it were in a noose of ropes, 
the sight of the king, the protector of the distressed, that was 
riveted on the King of mountains. 

29. That eminent archer saw a lion, seated upon the rosy cow, 
like a full -blossomed lodhYa tree, situated on the table-land of a 
mountain full of red minerals. 

30- Then the king? who walked as undauntedy (or, proudly) as 
a lion ( lord of brutes ), who was the protector of the distressed, 
and who had by force extirpated his enemies, being thus affronted, 
wished to take out an arrow from his quiver to slay the lion, who 
merited death. 

31. As he wished to strike, his right hand, with its fingers 
stuck fast to the haft of the arrow, the heron's feathers whereof 
were beautifully tinted by the lustre of its nails, remained with 
its action committed, as it were, tea picture. 

32. With his rage increased by the paralysis of his arm, the 
king burnt within himself by the fire of his own energy, which 
could not touch the offender though very near, like a cobra wit 
its power restrained by charms and herbs. 



33. ( Then ) the Hon, who bad seized the cow, spoke in human > 
accents to him, who was ever a partisan of the good, who was 
the most illustrious of Manu's race, and whose strength was as 
great as that of a lion,— thus astonishing him ( all the more ) 
already astonished at his own plight. 

34. "'Away, O astonished protector of the earth, with your 
effort; your weapon, though discharged against me, would prove 
of no avail; the fury of the storm, though ( able ) to uproot trees, 
has no effect upon a mountain. 

35. Know me to be a servant of the eight-formed god ( S'iva ), 
Kumbhodara by name, the friend of Nikumbha, whose back is 
consecrated by the favour of his planting his foot upon it, when he 
wishes to mount his bull, white like the mountain Kailasa. 

36. You see the yonder Davadaru tree; it has been adopted 
as a son by S'iva (the bull-bannered god) ; and it has 
known the taste of the Pay as (water- milk) of Skanda's mother 
issuing out from her ( maternal ) breasts, in the form of gold 

37. On one occasion its bark was destroyed by a wild elephant 
scratching his temples against it; whereupon P^rvati (///. the 
mountain's daughter ) grieved for it, as if it was Skanda ( IzL 
the general of the divine forces ) himself, wounded by the missiles 
of the demons. 

38. From that day forth, I have been placed in this cave of 
the mountain, by Siva ( the trident-holder ) for scaring away the 
wild elephants, directing me to prey, as a lion, on ( IzL making 
my condition as a lion depend for food on ) animals coming 
within my reach, 

39. For the gratification of me, thus situated and hungry, 
this feast of blood after fast, destined by the supreme lord for this 
time, and ( therefore ) coming tome, is enough; just as the nectar 
of the moon coming as a meal is to ( the gratification ot ) the 
enemy of gods (R^hu), 

40. Do you, therefore ( liL you who are thus made helpless ), 
go back, casting off shame ; you have shown your devotion, as a 
disciple, to your preceptor ; where it is impossible to protect a 
charge by means of arms, it ( inability to protect ) does not 
damage the reputation of those who wield arms." 


41. On hearing this bold C or, significant ) speech of the king 
)f beasts, the king of men ( knowing that) his missile was foiled 
•by the power of S'iva slackened his disregard of himself. 

42. And also (he) spoke in reply to him ( the lion ), being 
unsuccessful in his attempt to shoot an 'arrow, which for the first 
time knew what failure was, like the wielder of the thunderbolt 
( Indra ) paralysed by the glance of S'iva, when about to discharge 
his weapon. 

43. "O lord of beasts, laughable, indeed, is the speech, which I, 
whose actions are restrained, am going to utter; but you know the 
inward feelings of living beings, and therefore, I will say my say. 

44. All adorable to me is that ( S'iva ), who is the cause of the 
creation, preservation and destruction of all things, animate and 
inanimate; I cannot also, on the other hand> allow this property 
of ray preceptor to be destroyed before me ( my eyes ). 

45. Be pleased, therefore, to make your .subsistence on this 
my bodyi and let this cow of the great sage be liberated, whose 
young calf will be anxiously looking for her ( return ) at the 
close of the day." 

46. On hearing these words, that attendant of S'iva ( lit. the 
lord of beings ) laughed a little and spoke once more to the king 
( lit. the lord of riches ), rending into pieces the gloom of the 
mountain-caves by the gleam (rays) of his teeth. 

47. "Sovereignty over the world marked by one imperial 
umbrella, prime youth, and this handsome form — you who wish 
to forego all these for the sake of a trifle, seem to me to be want- 
ing in discernment. 

48. If this be your compassion for living beings, this cow 
alone will be happy ( saved ) by your death. But if alive, O 
king of men, you, like a father, will ever protect your subjects 
from calamities. 

rf 49. Now!if you dread your preceptor, who having an only cow, 
will be burning with anger at your offence, ( like a blazing ) fire, it 
is possible for you to pacify his wrath by presenting him with 
crores of cows with udders as big as pitchers. 

50. Preserve, therefore, your mighty body, the enjoyer of 
blessings: for the wise say that a prosperous kingdom is identical 
with the heaven of Indra, only differing in that it is situated on 
the earth." 


51. When the lord of beasts had ceased, having said this 
much, the mountain too, on account of the echo of his words 
resounding in the caves, seemed affectionately and loudly to say 
the very same thing to the king. 

52. Having heard thC' words of the attendant of S'iva, the 
king of men spoke again , his compassion being excited all the 
more, being looked at with terror-smitten eyes by the cow in 
the grip of the lion. 

53. "The noble name oi kshatra, (the military caste) is 
verily known in the worlds as 'the one that protects from danger'; 
but to one who acts in opposition to this , of what use is a kingdom, 
or a life tarnished by infamy ? 

54. And how is the pacification of ( the anger of ) the great 
sage possible by the gift of ordinary milch- cows ? Know that this 
cow is in no way inferior to Surabhi ( the divine cow ) ; that you 
have attacked her is only through the power of Rudra. 

55. It is, therefore, proper that I should deliver this one from 
you by offering my own body as a ransom. Thus your meal- 
after-fast will not be obstructed, and the means of the sage's 
rites also will not be destroyed. 

56. You, too, who are a servant, know this — for great is your 
care for the Devaddrii tree — that it is not possible ( for a servant) 
to stand before his employer, himself unhurt, after having allowed 
his charge to perish. 

57. Or, if somehow you deem me not fit to be killed, be 
compassionate to my ( other ) body consisting of glory ; for in 
the case of people like me, there is utter want of regal-d for the 
necessarily perishable lumps of matter ( the bodies ). 

58. They say that a friendly connexion has conversation for its 
cause ; and the same has been formed between us, ( thus ) met 
together in this forest tract ; hence, O follower of the lord of 
beings, it behoves you not to reject the request of me, your 

59. To the lion, who said 'So let be,' Dilipa, his hand released 
from restraint the very moment, offeied, after laying down his 
weapons, his body, like (as if it were no better than) a lump of 

60. At that moment upon the king ( lit, the protector of the 
people ) expecting, with his face downwards, the terrible leap of 

( 16 ) 


the lion, there fell a shower of flowers discharged by the hands of 
the Vidya dharas. 

61. Hearing the words gladdening like nectar — * Rise, my child, 
uttered there, the king rising, beheld the cow standing before him 
like his own mother, with milk dripping down ( from her udder), . 
and not the lion. 

62. The cow thus addressed the astonished king, — 'O benevo- 
lent one ! Creating an illusion, you have been tested by me ; by 
virtue of the sage's power, not even the god of death can strike 
me ; much less other destructive animals. 

63. My son, by vour devotion to your preceptor and your 
compassion for me I am pleased (with you) ; ask a boon ( of me) ; 
know me to be not only the producer of milk, but also a fulfiller 
of wishes when pleased.' 

64. Then he, who had honoured supplicants and earned the 
title of Hero by the might of his arms, joined his hands, and asked 
for a son by Sudakshina, snch as would be the founder of a 
dynasty and earn an undying reputation. 

65. Having promised, by saying ' So be it,* the gift of the 
desire of the king who longed for progeny, the milch-cow com- 
manded him thus — *My son, extract my milk in a vessel of leaves, 
and drink it.' 

66. *I wish to drink your milk, O mother, out of what will remain 
after the calf has sucked and after it has been used for the 
sacrificial rites, having received the sage's permission, as I 
receive the sixth portion of the ( produce of the ) earth> protected 
by me,' 

67. Thus addressed by the king, the cow of Vasishtha became 
still more pleased, and followed by him, returned with an easy 
pace from the Himalayan cave to the hermitage. 

68. The lord of kings, with his face bright like the smiling 
moon ( or his moonlike face smiling), informed his preceptor and 

, then his beloved wife, of the favour of the cow, in words which 
seemed to be a repetition, as it was already inferred ( by them ) 
from the external signs of ecstatic joy. 

69. He, of unblemished character, and kind to the virtuous, 
having been permitted by Vasishtha, drank, with unslaked thirst, 
the milk of Nandini> that remained after the calf had been 
gratified and the offerings made, as if it were his own spotless 
fame embodied- 

Canto II. ] ( 17 ) 

70. The next morning, the repast at the conclusion of the 
aforesaid vow being over, the self-restrained Vasishtha, dismissed 
the ( royal ) couple to return to their own capital, after having 
pronounced pn them the benediction proper at the time of depar- 
ture ( or, having performed the ceremony thht was to ensure 
them a happy journey). 

71. Having circumambulated the holy fire to which the offer- 
ings were made, and Arundhati just after her husband, and then 
the cow too, together with her calf, the king started on his 
journey, his prowess being rendered mightier by the auspicious 
rites ( performed at his departure ). 

72. The patient king, accompanied by his lawfully wedded 
wife, traversed the road, driving in a chariot, the sound of which 
was agreeable to the ear and which was comfortable on account of 
the absence of jolting, as if it was his own desire now fulfilled. 

73. His subjects, in whom a longing ( to see him ) was pro- 
duced on account of his absence, drank him in, as it were, whose 
form was emaciated by the observance of the vow for progeny, 
with eyes ever unsatiated, just as they would the newly-risen 
moon ( lit. the lord of plants), creating a longing ( for his sight) 
and his body wasted ( waned ) by the vow (of being devoured 
from day to day, ) for ( in the interest of ) the crention. 

74. He, with the splendour of Indra ( lit. the Splitter of 
the demons' towns ), entered the city decorated with flying ban- 
ners, greeted with acclamations by the citizens, and once agaio 
placed the yoke of the earth on his arm whose sustaining strength 
equalled that of the serpent-king ( resumed the government ). 

75. Then ( in course of time) for the well-being of the race of 
the king, the queen bore a fcetus, formed with the weighty essences 
of the guardians of regions, as the sky bore the luminary sprung 
from the tears of Atri, and as the divine river ( Gang^ ) bore S'iva's 
energy deposited by Agni ( the fire -god ). 


1. After that ( conception ) Sudakshind bore the evidence 
(signs) of pregnancy, which was (as it were,) the very desire of 
her husband, with its fulfilment approached, 3 which was ( as 
gladdening ) to the eyes of her female friends as the appearance of 
the moon -light, and which was again the cause of the perpetua- 
tion of Ikshvfiku's race. 

2. Not wearing all her ornaments on account of the attenuation 
of her body and with her face pale like the lodhra flower, she 
looked like the night bordering on dawn, with but a few 'stars dis- 
played ( therein ) and marked by the moon shining dimly. 

3. The king smelling, in private, her mouth fragrant with clay 
( that she would eat ), never • felt satisfaction, like an elephant 
smelling a small pond in a forest tract; sprinkled over with drops 
from the clouds, at the close of summer. 

4. Her ( future ) son was to enjoy ( the sovereignty of ) the 
earth with his ( conquering ) chariot stopping only at the 
extremities o( the quarters, as the lord of the gods enjoys that of 
heaven ; hence it was that she ( the queen ) set her heart upon an 
object of that kind (clay) in preference to all other objects of taste. 

5. "Through bashfulness the princess of Magadha does not tell 
me her wish ; what are the things that she has a craving for ? — '' 
thus did the lord of the North -Kosalas constantly ask his wife's 
companions in loving concern. 

6. Having reached the state piinful on account of hankerings 
of pregnancy, whatever she asked for, she saw brought to her ; 
for there was nothing, which being desired by him, was unattain- 
able to him, who had his bow strung, even if it were in heaven. 

7. Gradually getting over the painful state of pregnancy - 
cravings, she appeared beautiful, as her limbs grew plump, like 
a creeper, which after the fall of the old leaves, is dressed in lovely 

8. As days rolled on, her two breasts, growing exceedingly 
plump, and with nipples black all round, far surpassed the love- 
liness of a couple of well-formed lotus-buds with black bees per- 
ched upon them. 

9. The monarch regarded the queen with child, as if she 
were the sea-girt earth holding within a hiddden treasure, or the 

Canto III. ] ( 19 ) 

S'ami tree with fire lying concealed inside, or the river Sarasvati 
with its ( stream of ) water underground. 

10. He performed, in due order, the ceremonies (attendant 
on pregnancy) beginning with Pumsavana^ in a style worthy of 
the love he bore to his beloved queen, of the loftiness-of his mind, 
of the vast wealth he had acquired by the might of his arms 
from all quarters, and also of liis great joy. 

11. Whenever the king visited her apartment he was delighted 
to see how she, with tremulous glances, rose from her seat with 
difficulty on account of the heaviness of the foetus with the 
portions of the mighty gods (infused therein), and also experienced 
languor even as she joined together her hands to make the 
customary bow. 

12. Now, indue season, the development of the fcetus having 
been effected by trusty physicians, well versed in the treatment of 
infants, the husband saw, with a delighted mind, his beloved 
queen, about to be delivered, like the sky, over-hung with clouds, 
about to discharge a shower of rain at the close of summer. 

13. Then she, comparable to S'acht, gave birth to a son, 
whose most exalted fortune was betokened by five planets in their 
(respective ) ascendant high position, and not approaching the 
sun, just as regal power, arising from three agencies, produces in- 
exhaustible wealth. 

14. The very moment the quarters brightened; and the holy 
fire received the oblations with its flame turning to the right: (thus) 
everything indicated auspiciousness: for the birth of persons like 
him is for the good of the world. 

15. Deprived of their lustre all of a sudden by the natural re- 
fulgence of the well-born babe, spreading around the bed in the 
lying-in-chamber, the midnight lamps became as if they were 
painted in a picture. 

16. To the attendants of the inner apartments announcing the 
birth of a son, in words which rivalled nectar in sweetness, there 
were only three things which the king could not give, viz. his 
( imperial ) umbrella bright as the moon, and* the two chauries 
( being the insignia of royalty ). 

17. As the king was looking intently at ( lit- drinking in ) the 
lovely face of his son, with an eye as steady as a lotus in a breeze- 

(20) [OintoIII. 

less spt>t, his intense joy could not be contained in him^f, like the 
flood of the great ocean at the appearance of the moon. 

18. When the entire natal ceremony was performed !jy the 
ascetic -priest coming from the penance -forest, the son of Dilfpa 
shone forth with additional brilliance ( all the more ), like n gem 
produced in a mine, after it has undergone the process of polishing. 

19. The sounds of the auspicious musical instruments, pleas- 
ant to hear, accompanied by the delightful dances of the courte- 
sans, went on, not only in the palace of him, the husband of the 
Magadha princess, but also in the regions of the denizens of 

20. There was no prisoner— such a protector he was — whom, 
delighted at the birth of a son, he could release; only his own self 
was, on that occasion, liberated from the bond, called 'the ances* 
tors' debt'. 

21. Foreseeing that the boy would go to the end of all learn- 
ing and also of his foes in battle (z. e. would extirpate them ), the 
king, conversant with the meaning of words, named his son Ra^jhu* 
taking into consideration the meaning 'to go' of the root. 

22 Under the care of the father, who was endowed, with for- 
tune of every kind, the boy developed, day by day, the graceful 
limbs of his body, just as the young moon waxes in size by the in- 
fusion of the rays of the sun ( lit. he who drives green horses ). 

23. As Um^ and S'iva (lit. the bull-badged god) were delighted 
with Kdrtikeya ( lit. one born in reeds ), as S'achI and Indra 
(lit. the cleaver of the demons' cities) were delighted with 
Jayanta, so were the king and the Magadha princess, equal 
to them, pleased with their son, who was also like them ( the 
two divine boys ). 

24. The love which existed mutually between the king and 
the queen and which had united together their hearts, like that 
of a pair of Chakravd ka birds, increased ( deepened ) on the part 
of each towards the other, though now shared by their only son. 

25. The boy lisped the words first uttered by the nurse, 
walked holding her finger, and bent low ( bowed ) by being taught 
to make obeisance; by these acts he added to the joy of his father. 

26. Having placed on his lap the boy who seemed to be shed- 
ding ambrosia on his skin by means of the pleasurable sensation 

Canto III. ] < 21 ) 

generated by the contact of his body, the king, with. his eyes closed 
«t the corners, experienced the deliciousness of the touch of a 
son, after a long time ( i. e. a long period of disappointment ), or 
for a long time (or, came to the state of knowing -became conscious 
of — the pleasure of the touch of his son after a long time — so much 
benumbed with joy he was). 

27. And he, no transgressor of the prescribed bounds, consider- 
ed his line as well perpetuated by him ( his son ) of exalted birth, 
a different form of his own person and the possessor of the foremost 
of merits, just as Brahm^ ( lit. the lord of creation ) considers 
his own creation well preserved by that other form of his own self 
( Vishnu ) working in combination with Satva, the best of the 
three qualities (that govern the world.) 

28. When his tonsure ceremony', was performed, he, 
accompanied by the ministers' sons of the same age and with 
waving locks of hair, mastered properly the alphabet, and thereby 
entered the vast field of learning, as one enters the sea through 
the mouth of a river. 

29. And, when he had been duly invested with the sacred 
thread, learned preceptors educated him, a favourite with pre- 
ceptors (or, who loved his preceptors ), and found their labours 
not wasted upon him; for labour bestowed on a proper object ( or, 
instruction imparted to a worthy recipient ) is productive of fruit. 

30. Gifted with a noble understanding, he, by the force of all 
the excellences of intellect, got across ( mastered ), in succession, 
the four lores, comparable in vastness to the four oce;ms, as the 
lord of the directions ( the sun ) traverses the four quarters by 
means of his bay steeds, surpassing the wind in velocity. 

31. Having put on the holy skin of the ruru ( a kind of deer ) 
he learnt the art of using missiles, together with their incantations, 
from his father himself; for not only was his sire the sole sovereign 
on earth, but the sole archer also. 

?il' Ijike a young calf reaching the state of a full-grown bull, 
and the younjj elephant attaining the condition of a huge elephant, 
Raghu, whose childhood was gradually supplanted by youth, 
developed a frame charming by its gravity ( dignity ). 

33. Then after the ceremony of the cutting of the hair had been 
performed, his father performed the marriage rite, and the 

(22) [ Canto III. 

daughters of kings having found an excellent husband in him, 
shone like the daughters of Daksha married to the moon ( lit. the 
god who chases away darkness. ) 

34. Young, with arms long as the yoke of a car, a chest broad 
like a folding-door> and a neck well -turned, Raghu surpassed his 
father by his physical excellence and yet looked lowly before him 
through humility. 

35- Then the king wishing to lighten the exceedingly heavy 
burden of governing his subjects long sustained by himself, invest- 
ed Raghu with the title of ' young king', seeing that he was dis- 
ciplined ( fitted for it ) both by nature and by education. 

36. S'ri ( the goddess of royal fortune ) who always loves 
merits, went over partially from her original seat, the old king, to 
the new resting place called 'the young king', just as the godde?s 
of beauty passes from a lotus to a fresh blown one, 

37. Like the fire by its associate the wind, like the sun by its 
ally the autumnal season ( lit. in which there is the disappearance 
of clouds), and like the elephant by its auxiliary, the bursting of his 
temples, the king ( Dilfpa) became most irresistible by his help. 

38. Having appointed him, a pre-eminent archer, followed by 
( other ) princes, to guard the sacrificial horse, he, comparable to 
Indra ( lit. the performer of a hundred sacrifices ) performed a 
hundred sacrifices short by one, without obstruction. 

39. The horse let loose ( to wander ) unrestrained, after that, 
for another sacrifice, by that sacrificer, Indra in an invisible form, 
it is said, took off, even before the eyes of the guards armed with 

40. Then, just as the prince's army stood amazed, not know- 
ing what to do in their bewilderment, there was seen Nandinf, 
Vasishtha's cow, of well-known power, coming accidentally. 

41. The son of DiUpa, honoured by the j^ood, having cleansed 
his eyes with the holy water that flowed from her body ( her 
Mine ), was endued with the power of seeing objects even beyond 
the ken of senses. 

42. The prince ( lit. the son of the king ) descried, in the east, 
the cleaver of the wings of mountains ( Indra ), carrying away the 
horse, tethered by the traces of his car, with his restiveness re* 
peatedly checked by the charioteer. 

Canto III. ] ( 23 ) 

43. Recognizing him to be Indra, by his hundreds of wink-^ 
less eyes, and also by his green steeds, Raghu addressed him in 
a deep voice that reached the vaults of heaven, forcing him to 
turn back, as it were, thereby. 

44. "O lord of gods ! you alone are described by sages as the 
first of those who enjoy shares at sacrifices; how do you then 
proceed to obstruct the sacrifical rites of my sire, purified for 
( engaged in ) the constant performance of sacrificial vow ? 

45. The enemies of sacrifices ought, indeed, to be always check- 
ed (suppressed) by you, the lord of the three worlds, possessed 
of divine power of vision; but if you yourself stand in the way 
of the rites undertaken by the righteous, all pious work must be 
at an end ! 

46. Therefore, O Indra? it behoves you to set free the horse, 
the most essential part of the great sacrifice; great lords, who lead 
the paths pointed out by the Vedas, never adopt a sinful course." 

47. On hearing these bold words spoken by Raghu, the lord 
of the denizens of heaven, astonished, turned back the chariot 
and began to return a reply. 

48. "O son of akshatriya, what you say is all true; but those 
who regard their fame as their wealth must protect it from their 
enemies; and your father, by his sacrifices, is bent upon eclipsing 
the same in its entirety of me, so well known in all the worlds. 

49. As Hari alone is known by the name of Purushottaraa, as 
Tryambaka (the three- eyed god), and none else, is styled Mahes- 
vara, so do the sages know me as S'atakratu. This designation 
( respectively attached to us three ) does not refer (belong) to a 

50. Therefore has this horse of your father been carried away 
by me, imitating the sage Kapila; away with ( nothing will be 
gained from ) an effort in this matter; set not your foot upon th^ 
path pursued by Sagara's progeny (sons.)" 

51. Then the dauntless protector of the sacrificial horse laugh- 
ed and again addressed Purandara:-**Take up your weapon, if this 
be your determination ; you will never gain yonr object without 
conquering Raghu." 

52. Having thus addressed Indra, he, with his face turned 
upwards, and wishing to fix an arrow on his bow, stood with his 
majestic form appearing to advantage in the attitude of A li dJia 

( 24 ) [ Canto III. 

(the right leg advanced and the left one drawn In), thus imitating 
the god S'iva. 

53. The resentful splitter of mountains (Indra) too, struck at 

heart by Raghu's shaft consisting of his defiant posture, (or, spirit) 

placed an arrow, that never failed to hit its mark, on his bow, which 

shows itself as the momentary signal of the fresh clouds (/. e. the 

54. The arrow of Indra, accustomed to drink the blood of ter- 
rific demons, entered (penetrated) the broad chest of the son of 
Diltpa, and drank, out of curiosity as it were, the blood of a 
human being, never tasted before. 

55. The prince also, with the prowess of Kum^ra (K^rtikeya), 

planted an arrow, marked with his* own name, into Indra's arm, 

whose fingers were roughened by patting Air^vata (the celestial 

elephant), and which bore the prints of S'acht's ornamental paint- 

56. And with another arrow, having peacock's feathers attached 
to it, he struck down Indra's great thunderbolt 'banner; whereupon 
the god got mightily wroth with him, as if he had forcibly cropped 
off the hair of the deity presiding over the fortune of the celestials. 

57. A fierce fight then ensued between the two, each intent 
on overcoming the other, by means of feathered shafts, as frightful 
as winged snakes, flying upwards and downwards, while the 
Siddhas on the one side and the soldiers on the other stood by 
(as silent spectators). 

58. Even with showers of missiles poured in ceaseless succes- 
sion Indra was not able to extinguish him, the receptacle of 
exceedingly unbearable (irresistible) energy (power), as the 
cloud cannot extinguish by Its waters the fire ( of lightning ) 
emitted from itself. 

59. Then Raghu, by means of an arrow with a head shaped 
like X\xi crescent of the moon, cutoff the string of Indra's bow, 
roaring deep, like an ocean that is being churned, on his fore-arm, 
besmeared with the sandal of heaven. 

60- He, with his jealous anger intensified, threw aside the bow, 
and with a desire to slay his very powerful adversary, took up 
the thunderbolt, blazing with a circle of radiance and accustomed 
to clip off the wings of mountains. 

61. Severely struck on the breast by that weapon, Raghu fell 
on the ground, along with the tears of his soldiers; shaking off in 

Canto III. ] ( 5^5 ) 

an instant the pain caused thereby, he rose up, together with their 
acclamations of joy. 

62. Even then, the slayer of Vvitra (Indra) was pleased by the 
supreme valour of him who had long maintained a hostile position, 
cruel by the use of arms; for a foot is set ( an impression is made) 
everywhere by merits. 

63. "By none but you, was ever withstood (borne the stroke of) 
my weapon, unobstructed in its operation, by reason of its inherent 
strength, even on mountains; know me to be pleased; excepting 
the horse what else would you have (from me)? "-so said Vdsava 
to him in clear (unmistakable) terms. 

64. Then the son of the lord of kings, putting back an arrow 
which was not entirely drawn out from the quiver, and which 
tinged his fingers with the lustre of the gold on its feathered halt, 
replied (now) speaking sweetly to the lord of gods. 

65. "If you think, O lord, that the horse is not to be released, 
then let my s!re, purified by the constant performance of sacrifices 
be endowed with the entire fruit of the saciiQce? as if it had been 
completed iu due form. 

66. Moreover, O lord of the worldsi be it so arranged that the 
lord of the people, seated in the (sacred) chamber and inaccessible, 
being a part of the three-eyed god, may hear of this incident from 
your own messenger." 

67. Having promised to grant the wish of Raghu, with the 
words 'so it shall be', Indra (lit. the god having M^tali for his 
charioteer) went his way; and the son of Sudakshi^A, too, not 
much pleased at heart, returned to the council-hall of the king. 

68. The lord of men, already informed by the messenger of 
Indra, warmly received him touching his body marked with the 
wound of the thunderbolt, with a hand benumbed with joy. 

69. Thus did the lord of the earth, of laudable rule, wishing 
to ascend heaven, at the close ot his life, accomplish nine-and- 
ninety great sacrifices, as if he constructed a flight of steps. 

70. x\nd now he, with his mind turned away from the objects 
of sense, made over in due form to his young son the white 
umbrella, the emblem of royalty, and betook himself in company 
with his celebrated queen to the shade of a tre^ in a forest in- 
habited by hermits: for this, indeed, was the family vow (pra- 
ctice,) of the princes of Ikshv^ku's race, when in the decline of 
their life. 

4 — 


1. Having obtalnedTthe kingdom made over by his sire, 
Raghu shone yet more brilliantly (than before), as does fire {lit. 
the feeder on oblations ) on receiving the effulgence deposited 
with It by the sun at the close of the day. 

2. On hearing that he was established on the throne after 
Dilipa, the fire ( of jealousy ) which had long been thickly smok- 
ing in the hearts of (hostile) princes, now blazed forth, as it were. 

3. His subjects with their children rejoiced to see with beamig 
rows of eyes his new rise (to the throne), as they would see», 
with uplifted rows of eyes, the fiag hoisted in honour of Indra. 

4. Two things were simultaneously brought under himself by 
him who walked with the gait of an elephant ( or on elephant - 
back), viz. the paternal throne and the whole circle of his enemies. 

5. Him, consecrated to the universal sovereignty, served 
Padnid (the goddess of regal fortune), as it seemed, herself invisi- 
ble, by holding over him a lotus-umbrella, discernible from the 
halo of radiance ( that encircled him ). 

6. And the goddess of learning too, being present in the 
panegyrizing bards at stated hours, served him, worthy of praise, 
with eulogies, full of sense. 

7. The earth, though enjoyed by estimable monarchs, with 
Manu at their head, appeared in his case like one that had no 
previous master ( was not enjoyed by any one else before ). 

8. He> by the justice of his punishments, won the heart of all 
the people, like the southern breeze, which is neither very cold 
nor excessively hot ( and therefore delightful to every one ). 

9. By his possessing superior virtues the people were 
made to long less for his father by him just as they are by the 
fruit of the mango tree for its blossoming. 

10. By men versed in the political art, two courses, the fair 
and the unfair, were pointed out to the new king; but the first 
alone was adopted by him and not the second. 

11. Even the qualities of the five primary elements (now) 
attained a ( fresh ) excellence. Under his new regime everything 
became new, as it were. 

Canto IV. ] (27) 

12. As the moon by its power to delight is rightly called 
Uiandra; and as the sun by its diffusing heat is correctly named 
Tapana; so he, by pleasing his subjects, was justly styled i?aya. 

13. Granted that his eyes were large, extending to the ears; 
but the function of (real) eyes was discharged in his case by ( his 
knowledge of) the S'dstras, pointing out to him the minute details 
of his regal duties (or the subtle purposes to be accomplished). 

14. Now as he was at ease ( happy ) by the pacificatition of 
(establishment of order and peace in) his kingdom, there came to 
him, like a second goddess of wealth, autumn, marked by lotuses. 

15. His exceedingly unbearable prowess and the intolerable 
heat of the sun simultaneously pervaded all the quarters of heaven, 
their path being cleared by the clouds, lightened by their contents 
being discharged. 

16. Indra withdrew his pluvial bow and Raghu took up his 
victorious one; for they both took up their respective bows in turn 
for the good of the people. 

17. The (autumnal) season, with its umbrella of white lotuses 
and with its chauries of the opening K^sa flowers, imitated Raghu 
with his lotus- like umbrella and his chauries resembling the bloom- 
ing Kds'a flowers, but could not attain his regal splendour. 

18. At that time the delight of those who had eyes was of equal 
flavour ( or, ardour) at the sight of him with a sweet smiling face, 
and of the moon of bright lustre. 

19. The aflluence of his fame seemed to be distributed among 
the rows of geese, among the starry spheres, and in waters abound- 
ing in (white) lillies. 

20. Women keeping watch over the fields of paddy corn, 
seated in sugar-cane shades, sang the fame of him, the protector, 
springing from his merits, beginning from his heroic deeds as a boy 
( or whereof a beginning was made by even children ). 

21. At the rise of him sprung from a pitcher ( the star of 
Agastya), of great splendour, water became clear (pure and 
pellucid); at that of Raghu, of great might, the heart of his enemies 
apprehensive of defeat, got muddled (roiled). 

22. Huge bulls with massive humps, fierce with fury and rend- 
ing up (battering down) the banks of rivers, imitated the prowess 
of Raghu, which had much the grace of sport. 

(28) [OantolV. 

23. Wounded (in their vanity, or excited) by the rut -scented 
flowers of the saptapania trees, Raghu's elephants poured forth, 
as if in emulation, ichor in all the seven ways {i. e. from all the 
seven parts of their body ). 

24. Making the rivers fordable and the roads with their mud 
dried up, Autumn incited him to an expedition of conquest, before 
his personal energy ( insoired him to do it ). 

25. At the lustration ceremony of his horses, the sacrificial 
fire, fed with oblations duly offered, gave him (the blessing of) 
victory with his own hand, as it were, in the form of the flame 
turning towards the right (and thus betokening victory). 

26. Having his capital and the frontier forts well-guarded, and 
the rearlcleared of his foes «; or with his rear well protected), and 
attended with good luck, he marched out with a sixfold force for 
the conquest of the quarters- 

27. The women of the city, advanced in age, scattered over 
him fried rice, as the waves of the milky ocean deluged Achyuta 
with the drops thrown up by Mandara. 

28. He, Indra's peer ( in valour), first marctied towards the 
east, menacing, as it were, his foes with his flags waved by the 

29. And turning, as it were, the sky into the earth's surface and 
the earth's surface^ into the sky by means ( respectively ) of the 
clouds of dust raised by his chariots and of his elephants reseinbl- 
ing clouds. 

30. His prowess in tiie van, then the uproar, tht-'reaftei the 
dust, and last of all the chariots and the rest; thus did the army 
(of Raghu) march forward, consisting of four divisions (corps) as 
it were. 

31. By reason of his being possessed of power 6r (resources), 
he turned deserts into well- watered tracts, the navigable rivers 
into easily fordable ones, and the forests into open plains (spaces). 

32. lyeading his mighty army marching towards the eastern 
sea, he looked like Bhaj^fratha, leading the broad Ga/ig^ fallen 
from the matted hair of S'iva and flowing towards the eastern sea. 

33. His path was conspicuous by the (hostile) kings made to 
part with their acquisitions ( wealth), dethroned and variously 

Canto IV. ] (39) 

routed, like that of a tusker, which is marked by trees, shorn oj 
their fruits, uprooted and destroyed in various ways. 

34. Taus overrunniug the kingdoms in the east the victor came 
to the shore of the great ocean, dark with the forests of tdli trees. 

35. From him the uprooter of all that did not bend before him 
as from the current of a river, the Suhmas saved themselves by 
following the course of cane-plants (adopting the policy of submis- 

36. Having by his power uprooted the Vahga kings, who had 
resisted him by means of their ships, he, the leader, planted 
(memoiial) pillars of victory in the intervals of ( /. e. the islets 
between) the streams of the Ganges. 

37. Like the A'a/a/z^iz plants which bend low to ( or to the 
lotuses at ) their roots and yield a rich harvest after havin^^ been 
first uprooted and then transplanted, they, first uprooted and then 
reinstated, bowed down to his lotus- like feet and honoured him by? 
gifts of riches. 

38. He crossed the river Kapis'a with his troops by means of. 
a bridge formed of the elephants and marched towards Kalinga, 
the way being led by the Utkala (Orissa) princes- 

39. He planted his mighty prowess (made it keenly felt) on 
the head (peak) of the mountain Mahendra, just as a driver 
does his sharp goad in the head of a Gambhiravedi ( not easily 
senstive to pain ) elephant. 

40. The king of Kalinga, strong in his war elephants, received 
him with showers of missiles, as a mountain, showering stones, 
would ( receive ) Indra, prepared to cut its wings. 

41. Having borne a heavy ishower of the enemies' iron- 
arrows, the descendant of Kakutstha won the goddess of victory, 
as if after having taken an auspicious bath. 

42. There, his soldiers, having prepared places for wassail, 
quaffed in (cups of) betel leaves coconut -wine, and also the g'ory 
of their enemies. 

43. The king, a righteous conqueror, took away the wealth 
and not the territory of the lord of Mahendra, first made a captive 
but afterwards released. 

44. Then marching along the sea- coast, lined with betel-nut- 
trees bearing fruit, he, to whom victory was not a thing to be 

(30) [ Canto IV- 

sovight after, marched towards the quarter resorted to by Agastya 
(the south). 

45. By reason of her enjoyment by hfs army, redolent of 
(marked by) the sweet scent of elephants' ichor, he made K&verl 
(the river) suspectable (an object of suspicion), as it were, to the 
lord of the rivers (the Ocean). 

46. By the forces of him bent on conquest after he had 
travelled the day's distance, were occupied the adjoining grounds 
of the mountain Malaya, where the HSrtta birds (parrots of a parti- 
cular kind) were flying about in the forests of peppers. 

47. The dust of the fruits of the cardamom plants pounded 
by (the hoofs of) his horses, flying up, clung to ( settled on ) the 
temples of the infuriated elephants, exhaling a similar smell. 

48. The neck-chains of the elephants powerful enough to 
break down even the foot-chains, did not slip off, being tied round 
the lines of grooves (deppressions) made by the coilings of snakes 
into the sandal trees. 

49. Even the splendour (heat) of the sun is dimmed (mitigated) 
when in the southern quarter ; but in that very quarter the Pandya 
princes could not bear the burning prowess of Raghu. 

50. Bowing down (at his feet) they presented to him the finest 
pearls found at the place where the T^mraparni falls into the 
great ocean, their own accumulated glory, as it were. 

51-52. Having enjoyed to the satisfaction of his wish the 
mountains Malaya and Dardura, with sandal trees covering their 
skirts, as if they were the breasts of the quarter with sandal paste 
applied to their sides, he, of irresistible prowess, crossed ( or, 
reached ) the Sahya mountain, far left off by the sea, the rump of 
the earth, as it were, with its vesture slipped off. 

53. On account of his forces marching along, prepared to 
conquer the countries of the west, the sea, though far removed 
by the missile of Paras'urSraa, seemed to be connected with the 
mountain Sahya. 

54. The dust raised by the army was placed by him, as a 
substitute for the hair- powder, on the curls of the Kerala ladies 
who had given up personal decorations in terror. 

55. The pollen of the Ketaka flowers* wafted by breezes from 
the Murala, served as a scented powder obtained without effort 
for the armours of his warriors. 

Canto IV. ] (31) 

56. The rustling of the large palm forests shaken by the wind 
was drowned by the clank of armours on the bodies of his war- 
horses moving about. 

57. The black bees deserting the Punni,ga trees fell upon the 
temples scented with the flow of the ichor of elephants ^tted to the 
trunks of the date trees. 

58. History has it that the ocean gave space to Rama on 
being requested by him; but to Raghu, it gave tribute under 
the disguise of the western kings. 

59. There he turned the Triklita itself into a lofty pillar o{ 
victory, bear as it did the distinct record of his military valour in 
the form of the incisions of the tusks of his infuriated elephants. 

60. Thereafter he set out by a land- route to conquer the Per- 
sians, as a man possessed of self-control proceeds, with the help 
of the knowledge of truth, to subdue the foes known as the senses 

61. He did not bear the flush imparted by liquor to the lotus- 
like faces of the Yavana dames, just as an untimely rise of clouds 
does not (bear i. e. intercepts) the morning sunlight on (tinging) 
the lotuses. 

62. A fierce battle took place between him and the Yavanas 
of the west, whose army consisted of cavalry, in the midst of dust 
(raised by the armies) so (dense) that the opposing warriors could 
know each other simply by the twang of their bows. 

63. He strewed the earth with their bearded heads, "severed by 
means of Bhallas (arrows having broad blades) as if with so many 
honey-combs covered with bees. 

64. The rest (z. e. survivors) took off their helmets and sought 
his protection; for the wrath of the high-minded is appeased by 
humble submission ij,it. has submission for its remedy). 

65. His soldiers removed the fatigue of victory by means of 
wine, in vine-yards ( lit. grounds covered with bowers of vine ) 
with the finest deer -skins spread thereon. 

66. Then Raghu marched towards the quarter of Kubera ( the 
north) with the desire of uprooting, by means of his arrows, the 
northern kings, just as the great luminary ( sun ) passes north- 
wards in order to suck up moisture with his rays. 

( 3«.) [ Oanto IT. 

67. His horses baviag the fatigue of tbeir journey relieved by 
rolling on the bank of the Sindhu, shook their shoulders to whlcb 
were adhering the filauieuts of saffron (or, the manes of which 
had safforn sticking to then)). 
.68. There the exploits of Raghu, the prowess whereof was 
displayed on the husbands of the Hflna ladies, became a teacher 
of ruddiness in the cheeks to them ( or came to have the redness 
of their cheeks for a record). 

69. The K^mboja princes, unable to stand his valour in battle, 
bent low (before him ) together with the walnut trees strained 
(injured) all round by the fastening ( or fastesing-chaius. ) of his 

70. Lofty ( stupendous ) heaps ot riches, abounding in noble 
steeds, reached the lord of the Kosalas every day; but not theit 
boastful tnanuers ( or, 'but pride never touched iiim' ). 

71. Then he ascended the mountain Himalaya (Gaurf's father) 
with his cavalry, augmenting, in size, as it were, its peaks by the 
mineral dust raised up (by his horses). 

72. The gaze, by turning back (their necks), of the lions lying 
in their dens and of equal might (with the array), indicated absence 
of agitation (or fear) on their part (their intrepidity) even in the 
midst of the din (tumult) of the army. 

73. Breezes, rustling among the birch trees> the cause of the 
musical sounds of the singing bamboos, and charged with the 
spray of the Ganges, ministered to (fanned) him on the way. 

74. His soldiers took rest under the shade of the Naraeru trees, 
sitting on stone-slabs with their surfaces perfumed with the navel 
(musk) of the musk-deer squatting upon them. 

75. The lustrous herbs with their light reflected from the iron 
neck- chains of the elephants tied to the Sarala trees, served, at 
night, as lamps (that burnt) without oU, to him,, the leader of the 

76. In the halting places left by him, the devada'ru trees, the 
bark of which was rubbed off by the neck -ropes ( with which the 
elephants were tied to them ) indicated to the Kira'tas the height 
of his elephants. 

77. There a fierce battle took place between him and the 
mountain tribes, in which fire flashed forth as the iron darts and 
the stones flung^by means of slings clashed together. 

OantoiV. ] (3$) 

78. Having made the Utsavasamketas destitute of their festivi- 
ties by means of his arrows, he caused the Ki^^naras to sing the 
songs descriptive of the victory of ( won by ) his arms. 

79. When they approached ( him ), presents in hand, these 
came to be mutually known, Himavat's strength ( wealth ) by the 

. king and the King's strength ( prowess ) by Himadri ( the snowy 
mountain ). 

80. Having established there the unshakable ( or irrefragable ) 
mass of his glory, he descended (from the mountain ), causing 
shame, as it were, to the mountain that was balanced ( being 
uplifted ) by Paulastya ( Rd,vaiia ) — i. e. Kaildsa. 

81. When he crossed the Lauhitya the lord of the Pragjyo- 
tishas quaked (with fear), as also did the black aloe -wood trees 
got to the condition of (used as) tie -posts for his elephants. 

82. He could not bear even the dust raised from the track of 
his chariots, which hid the sun and which looked like a cloudy 
day ( atmosphere) without a shower; how could he face his 
army ? 

83. The king of the Kamarupas waited upon him whose valour 
exceeded that of Indra himself, with those very elephants, with 
ripped ichor- shedding temples, with wUch he had resisted ( or 
repulsed ) others. 

84. The lord of KSmariipas adored the lustre of Raghu's feet, 
the presiding goddess of the golden foot -stool, with offerfngs of 
flowers in the form of gems. 

85. Having thus conquered all the quarters, the conqueror 
turned back, making the dust raised by his chariots rest on the 
heads of the kings (now) stripped of the regal umbrellas. 

86. He performed the Vis'vajit sacrifice in which one's entire 
wealth is given away as DakshiV'a ; for of the good as of clouds, 
acquisition is for distribution. 

87. At the end of the sacrifice, the descendant of Kakutstha 
(Raghu), assisted by his ministers of state, allayed the wounded 
feelings of the defeated kings by honouring them with marks of 
great respect, and permitted them to go back to their capitals, 
where their wives were longing (for their return) owing to their 
long absence. 

88. They, at the time of their departure, bowed down to the 
emperor's pair of feet bearing linear marks of banners, swords, and 

B. T. 5 

P"— ^^"^-"^ (34) ^^— i 

royal unibiellas, and accessible by his favour alone, and made them 
yellowish white at the toes, with the pollen and honey that dropped 
from the garlands on their heads. 


1. Then there came to the monarch (Raghu) who had given 
away, so as to leave no remainder, his wealth of every kind ( or his 
whole treasure ) in the Fi/z^o/zV sacrifice, Kautsa, the disciple of 
Varatanlu, who had acquired learning (finished his education) and 
whose purpose it was to get money to pay his teacher (as tuition 
fees; or, seeking to obtain money fo rremunerating his preceptor ). 

2. On account ol the (stock of his) gold vessels being exhausted' 
he, of priceless (inestimable, noble) character, bright with glory, 
and hospitable, having placed the materials of worship in an 
earthen pot, went forth to receive the guest radiant (illustrious) 
with his Vedic knowledge. 

3. The lord of men, adept ( or versed ) in duty and the 
rules of action (prescribed by the S'^stras) and foremost among 
those to whom honour is wealth, having worshipped, in the proper 
form, the guest, who regarded penance as his wealth and who 
was sitting on a seat, thus addressed him with joined palms, 
remaining close by. 

4. O you of acute intellect (lit. whose intellect is as acute as 
the sharp end of a blade of Kus'a grass), is it all well with your 
preceptor, the foremost of the sages, the composers (or receipients) 
of the Vedic hymns, from whom you have acquired complete 
knowledge, as the world derives its animation ( or vitality ) from 
the sun ? 

5. I hope the threefold penance of the great sage, which has 
long been treasured up (by him) by (the exercise of) his body, 
speech, and mind, and which disturbs (or shakes off) the stability 
of Indra's mind, suffers no diminution ( is not spent up ) by 
impediments ( requiring its use )• 

6. I hope no calamity, such as a hurricane, visits (befalls) the 
trees of your hermitage, which beguile fatigue and which have 
been reared up without distinction with ( just like ) your sons 
with efforts, such as the construction of water-basins and others* 

7. Are those offspings of the female deer all right, whose desire 
to eat the Kus'a grass, the hermits, from affection, do not foil 
(^» «. indulge) even though it is necessary for sacred rites and 

Canto V. ] ( 35 ) 

whose umbilical cords drop down on their laps serving Cthe fawns) 
as beds ? 

8. I hope it is all right with your sacred waters wherein your 
daily ablutions are performed, from which handfuls of libations 
are presented to the manes, and whose sandy banks are marked 

-with the sixth part of the gleanings (gleaned corn). 

9. Ihope the ripe niva'ra and other corn, the sylvan means 
of the sustenance of your bodies, out of which portions are allotted 
to the guests coming in time, is not eaten up by country cattle 
(accustomed to eat chaff). 

10. Has the great sage, being pleased after he had well edu- 
cated you, permitted you to lead the house -holder's life ? For it 
is now time for you to enter on the second stage of life which is 
capable of benefiting all the other three ( or which enables one to 
oblige every body ). 

11. My mind is not satisfied by the (mere) coming of you. 
adorable one, (but) it longs to execute some command (of yours); 
is it at your preceptor's bidding or of your own accord that you 
have come to honour me (do me the honour of a visit ) from the 

12- Although he heard the noble words of Raghu, whose gift 
(or expenditure) of his whole wealth was inferred from the vessel 
containing the materials of worship, the disciple of Varatantu, 

having but a feeble hope of success in his object, thus addressed 

13. Know, O king, it is all well with us in all respects. How 
can woe betide the subjects while you are king (or, their protector)? 
How can the dark night (or a dense mass of darkness) obstruct 
the sight of men while the sun is shining ? 

14. _ Reverence for (or attention to) those worthy of honour is 
customary with your race (or is the hereditary possession of your 
dynasty) ; but, O illustrious one (or O great monarch) , you outdo 
your ancestors in that. I, however, have come to you as a suitor 
out of ( the proper ) time, and hence my regret. 

15. O lord of men> having bestowed all your wealth on worthy 
recipients, you appear with your body only remaining to you, like 
a nivara plant having its corn appropriated by foresters (forest - 
living ascetics) and its stalk (or culm) only left to it. 

16. It is but proper (or creditable to you, or becoming in you) 
that you, though a paramount king, should exhibit poverty {lit. 

( 36 ) [ Canto V* 

a state o! having nothing) born of (the result) of a sacrifice; for 
the waning of the moon (whose nectar is) drunk in their turns by 
gods is more to her praise than her waxing. 

17. I, therefore, who have no. other business in view, will strive 
to obtain money for my preceptor from some other source ; may 
you fare well. Even the chataka bird troubles not ( with its 
petitioning ) the autumnal cloud whose watery contents are all 

18. Dissuading (from going) the disciple of the great sage, 
who was desirous of going away, after having said this much, 
the king asked him, "Learned sir ! What thing and how much 
of it is to be presented by you to your preceptor ? " 

19. Then to the ruler of the (four) classes and the stages of 
life, who had duly performed a sacrifice and who was entirely free 
from the influence of vanity, the learned ascetic (thus) expressed 
his purpose ( immediate business ) — 

20. ' 'The great sage was requested by me, when I had completed 
my course of study, to accept from me preceptor's fee. He, how- 
ever, counted (regarded) foremost (hald more important than, or 
considered the best, fee) my long and unswerving devotion to him 
of that kind ( so diflficult to l^e performed ). 

21. Incensed at my importunities, my preceptor, without taking 
into consideration the scantiness of my means, said to me: "Bring 
me four-and-ten crores of money (gold coins) corresponding to 
the number of lores (studied) by you." 

22. Thus circumstanced I, concluding from your vessel of 
offerings that you have only the title of sovereign remaining to 
you, have not the mind to constrain you at present, on account of 
the price of my learning being other than (far from) low (z.^., 
very exorbitant or heavy)." 

23. Thus informed by the twice-born (Brdhmana), the' best of 

Vedic scholars, the sole lord of the world, fair as the moon, and 

with the propensities uf his senses restrained from sin, once 
more spoke to him. 

24. "A certain suitor who asked money for his preceptor and 
who had seen the end ( wr. master ) of learning, went to another 
donor, not obtaining his object from Raghu"— let there not be 
this new (or for the first time) reproach on my name. 

25. You» therefore (///. thus circumstanced), O venerable one, 
be pleased to wait, like a fourth fire, In my well-known and revered 

Canto V^ ] ( 37 ) 

sanctuary of (holy) fires, for two or three days, in which time 
I will endeavour to fulfil your object. 

26. With the words * Be it so' the Br^hmana, being delighted, 
accepted his unfailing promise. Raghu, on his part, seeing that 
the earth was drained of all its wealth, wished to wrench ( thought 
of procuring by force) money from Kubera. 

27. By virtue of the miraculous power accruing from Vasish- 
^ha's sprinkling accompanied by holy incantations (at the time 
of his coronation), the course of his chariot, like that of a cloud 
assisted by the wind, was not obstructed, whether on the sea, or 
in the sky, or on the mountains. 

28. Then in the evening Raghu, firm-minded and pious, slept 
in his chariot in the interior of which weapons were arranged* 
desirous of conquering the lord of Kaillsa (Kubera) by his prowess, 
looking upon him as ( as if be were no better than ) a mere 
feudatory prince. 

29. At dawn, ofiicers, employed in the treasury, full of wonder, 
reported to him, about to setfourth, a shower of gold fallen from 
the sky into the treasury- house. 

30. The king gave to Kautaa the whole of that glittering 
heap of gold which was obtained from Kubera, who was about to 
be attacked, and which looked like an adjoining hill of the 
(mountain) Sumeru detached by Indra's thunder-bolt. 

31. Both of them, the suitor who would not take {Hi. who 
had no desire to accept) more than what was to be given to his 
preceptor, and the king who gave more than what was asked 
by the suitor, had the greatness of their mind (or their conduct) 
greatly praised by the people inhabiting S^keta (Ayodhy^). 

32. Then at his departure, the great sage Kautsa, delighted in 
the mind, touched by the hand the king who had caused his 
treasure to be transported (or conveyed) by hundreds of camels 
and mares, as he bent the forepart of his body before him, and 
addressed him (this) speech— 

33. What wonder is there ( i. e. it is no wonder ) if the earth 
yields the desires of a monarch who abides by his duty ? But in- 
comprehensible is your power, since by you even heaven itself 
was milked ( made to grant) your desired object. 

34. Any other benediction ( than that of issue ) would be a 
repetition (superfluous) to you who have attained all blessings. 

(38) [ Canto V. 

May you obtain a son worthy of your excellences, as your father 
obtained your praiseworthy self. 

35. Having thus conferred a blessing upon the king, the Br&h- 
mana returned to his preceptor. The king, too, soon after, 
obtained a son from it (by virtue of it, ««/. the blessing) as the 
world of the living receives light from the sun. 

36. At the hour presided over by Brahma, history records 

(f^W), his queen gave birth to a son like KumSra. On that account 

the father made ( called ) his son Aja, after the name of Brahmft 

37. His majestic (or resplendent) form was the same, the valour 
the same, and the natural sublimity (or nobleness of nature ) also 
the same; the uew-born prince did not differ from his (generating 
cause ( father ) as a lamp lighted from another ( does not differ 
from it.) 

38. The goddess of royalty, though she had a yearning after 
him when he had duly received his education from his precep" 
tors and was looking all the more charming (or peculiarly charm- 
ing) by reason of his blooming youth, waited for her master's (or 
his sire's) permission, as a discreet, noble-minded daughter does 
for her father's. 

39. About this time, a trusty messenger was sent to Raghu 
by Bhoja, lord of the Krathakais'ikas, who was ardently desirous 
of bringing the prince (Aja) for (to be present at) the ceremony 
of the self-election-marriage of his sister Indumatt. 

40. Considering him to be one with whom a connexion was 
desirable and (further) that his son had arrived at a marriageable 
age, he sent him with an army to the flourishing ( or wealthy) 
capital of the king of the Vidarbhas^ 

41. The halting stations on the way of him, a king's son, in 
which accommodations of all kinds were provided in tents of royal 
state, and which, on account of the presents brought by the 
villagers, appeared other than ( the reverse of ) sylvan, were 
almost like places of amusement in gardens. 

42. When he had gone over some way (certain distance) he 
encamped his wearied army, with its banners sullied with dust, on 
the bank of the NarmadS, the naktaviala trees on which were 
made to dance a little ( gently shaken ) by the breezes charged 
with spray ( or moist with the drops of water ). 


Canto V. ] ( 39 ^ 

43. Just then there emerged from the river a wild elephant, 
whose plunge (/z7. entrance ) into the water had already been 
indicated by black bees hovering above ( over the surface of the 
water ) and whose expansive cheeks were clean, as the ichor 
had been entirely washed off. 

44. Who betrayed his butting- sports on the skirts of the 
Rikshavat mountain by means of his two rock- blunted tusks, 
which were checkered with blue lines running upwards, 
although completely washed of all mineral dust. 

45. As he faced the bank and cut( his way ) with (loud) noise 
(through) the large waves with his trunk quick in its contractions 
and protrusions, he looked as if engaged in breaking asunder the 
bolts of his stall. 

46. The mountain-like elephant dragging with him by his 
breast the meshes of moss (Jaivald) reached the bank afterwards, 
the current of waters violenty agitated by him having reached 
it first. 

47. The darkish splendour of the ichor flowing from the broad 
cheeks of that one (single of its kind, chief &c. ) elephant, which 
had been stopped for a moment by his plunge into water, shone 
forth afresh at the sight of tame ( lit. other than wild) elephants. 

48. On smelling his unbearable rut whose flow was as strong- 
smelling ( or fragrant) as the milky exudation of \h& saptachchhada 
( seven-leaved ) tree, the huge elephants in the army turned back 
( shied ), notwithstanding ( or defying ) the strenuous efforts of 
their drivers. 

49. In a moment he threw the encampment into utter confu- 
sion, cleared of horses which tore their bonds and fled, with the 
chariots fallen to the ground, their axles being broken and with 
the warriors perplexed in protecting the ladies. 

50. The prince, who knew ( from the S'^stras ) that a king 
ought not to kill a wild elephant, not drawing his horn- made-bow 
to any great length , .struck the rushing elephant on the forehead 
with an arrow, ( merely ) wishing to make him turn back. 

51. The moment he was wounded, as history tells us, he 
quitted the from of an elephant, and assumed the lovely figure 
of a heavenly being, encircled with a flashing halo of light, and 
looked at by the army astonished at the ( curious ) occurrence. 

52. Then having showered on the prince the flowers of the 
heavenly trees that came to him through his superhuman power, 

(40) t<^*antoV. 

the eloquent one (thus) spoke, enhancing with the lustre of 
his teeth the ( brightness of the ) necklace of large pearls pendant 
on his bosom. 

53. I was reduced to the state of an elephant by the curse of 
Mata'Pga, incurred by my own arrogance. Know me to be 
Priya^^vada, the son of Priyadars ana, king of the Gandharvas. 

54. The great sage, however, being supplicated by me falling 
at his feet, relented afterwards ; for the hotness of water is due to 
its contact with fire or solar heat; what is coldness is but the 
nature ( natural property ) of water. 

55. "When Aja, sprung from the family of Ikshviku, will split 
thy frontal globe with his iron- pointed shaft, then shalt thou be 
united with (restored to) thy magnificent form "—so spoke that 
repository of penance ( the great sage ) to me. 

56. I have been liberated from the curse by you endowed with 
might, whose sight had long been earnestly wished for by me- If 
I do you no good in return, my restoration to my proper position 
is all to no purpose. 

57. Accept, therefore, O friend, this missile of mine, 'San'mo- 
hana ( the stupifier )' by name, which has a Gandharva for its 
presiding deity, and has separate incantations for its discharge 
and withdrawal whereby the discharger has victory in his hand 
(sure in his possession) and yet has not to kill enemies- 

58. You should not be ashamed; for, though strikiug me, you 
were moved ( for a moment) with compassion; let not the 
rudeness of a refusal be shown to me who am beseeching you. 

59. With the words 'Be it so' the eminent (lit. the moon among 
men) prince, skilled in the use of weapons, having sipped the holy 
water of the river sprung from Soma ( Narmadd ) and turned his 
face towards the north, received ( learned ) the incantations of 
( connected with ) the missile from him who was freed from the 


60. Of them two, who, by a strange chance, had thus formed 
on the way> a friendship ( originating ) from some unknown 
cause, one went to the regions of Chaitraratba and the other to 
the country of Vidarbha delightful on account of the good govern- 
ment ( it enjoyed ). 

61. The lord of the Krathakais'ikas filled with ecstatic joy 
went forth to receive him who had halted in the vicinity of the 

(!anioV. ] (41) 

city, as the ocean with Its swelling waves goes forth to receive 
the moon. 

62. Walking in the front he led him into the city, and having 
presented to him his wealth, waited upon (ministered to) him with 
humility, in such a way that the people assembled there con- 
sidered Aja to be the host ( lit. the lord of the palace ) and the 
king of the Vidarbhas to be the guest. 

63. He, the representative of Raghu, occupied the delightful 
new pavilion into which be was shown by the officers of king 
Bhoja, bending low (before him), and in which vessels 6Iled 
with water were placed on a dais near its eastern entrance, as 
Madana (Cupid) occupies the state ( age) next to childhood. 

64. There, like a loved spouse unable to read (understand) the 
feelings ( of her husband )> ( or, clouded — displeased by her 
divination of the mental attitude-affection for a rival). Sleep came 
late' at night towards the eyes of Aja, longing to win the captivat- 
ing gem of a damsel, by whom a host of kings was caused to be 
assembled at her self -choice- marriage. 

65. At dawn, the sons of bards, of equal age (with Aja), and 
eloquent in speech, awakened, with their panegyrical songs, him, 
of reputed scholarship, whose stout shoulders were pressed by 
his ear-ornaments and the sweet unguents applied to whose 
body were almost effaced by his rollings on the bed-sheet. 

65. " O you, best of talented men, the night is gone; quit your 
bed; surely the burden of the world has been divided into two 
parts only, by the Creator: your vigilant father bears it at one end 
and your.honour is the supporter of the other ( lit. that borne by 
the other bearer ). 

67. The moon by (looking at) whom the goddess of beauty 
(lyakshmi) w?.s diverting herself at night, Vi&e a woman offended 
by her husband, (somehow) disregarding even her longing for 
you under the influence of sleep ; — he, too, now resting on the 
extremity of the western horizon, is giving up (losing) the 
splendour of your face. 

[Or, with the reading ST^T^^'TmoTr, (see notes ):— The moon by 
( looking at ) whom the goddess of beauty, though neglected by 
you under the influence of sleep, was, like a w^onian offended by 
her husband, beguiling her love-longing, even he &c. ] 

68. Let, therefore, the two, by their beautiful simultaneous 
unfolding, obtain mutual similitude: z'z.?, your eye with the 

( 4'2 ) 

[Cftnto V. 

^velj' ( lit. otlier than rough ) pupil rolling about within and the 
lotus with a black bee moving inside. 

69. The morning breeze, as if desirous of obtaining, by means 
of borrowed properties, the natural fragrance of the breath of your 
mouth, bears away the loosened flowers of trees from their stalks 
and comes in contact with lotuses opened by the rays of the 
morning sun ( Aru^a ). 

70. The dew-drops, white like the well -cleansed pearls of a 
necklace, fallen on the tender leaves of trees w^ith their interiors 
red, resemble, on account of the position of advantage thus 
gained by them (or their increased excellence), your sportive smile 
fallen on your lip, brightened by the splendour of your teeth. 

71. While the sun, the store of radiant heat, does not rise, 
even before that, darkness has been, all at once, dispelled by 
Aruiia; when, O hero, you have taken the lead in battles, will 
(why should) your sire himself extirpate the foes ? 

72. Your elephants, with their sleep shaken off frotu both 
sides, are leaving their beds, pulling at their clanking chains: the 
elephants whose bud -like tusks seem as if they had pierced 
the red- mineral- skirts of a mountain, on account of their having 
come in contact with the rosy tints of the morning sun. 

73. O lotus-eyed one, the horses of the breed of the Vanayu 
country ( Persian horses ), tied in spacious tents, having given 
up their sleep, are soiling with the warm breath (vapour) of their 
mouth the pieces of rock-salt placed before them for being licked. 

74. The flower -offering, being withered, has become loose in 
texture; the lamps are void of the throbbing circles (halo) of 
their light; and this your sweet -speaking parrot resting in its 
cage, imitates our speech employed to rouse you. 

75. The prince, his sleep dispelled by the young bards singiiig 
their songs in this strain, instantly left his bed, just as the heav- 
enly elephant, Supratika, awakened from sleep by the ro3'al 
swans cackling sweetly under excitement, leaves the sandy beach 
of the Ganges ". 

76. Then, having finished the riles proper for day-break, as 
prescribed in the S'a'stras, the prince, with beautiful eyelashes, 
after his toilet was finished in a fitting style by experts ( in that 
art ), repaired to the assembly of kings gathered in the hall of the 
self-election -marriage. 


1. There he saw the protectors of the human world ( kings )» 
seated on thrones placed on richly furnished platforms, and attired 
in fascinating dresses, ( thereby ) imitating the majesty of the gods 
moving in celestial cars. 

2. The mind of kings seeing Aja ( lit. the scion of Kakutstha's 
race ), who looked like K^ma with his corporeal frame restored to 
him by S'iva, at ( lit. accepting ) the entreaties of Rati, lost all 
hope of winning Indumati. 

3. The prince ascended the dais pointed out by the Vidarbha 
king, by means of a well-constructed flight of steps, as the young 
cub of the lord of beasts ( lion ) climbs the lofty peak of a 
mountain by means of ( step-like) projecting rocks. 

4. Seated on a throne covered with tapestry of the richest 
colour and set with jewels, his majestic appearance was most 
comparable with Guha ( K^rttikeya ) when riding his peacock. 

5. Her own self, portioned out in a thousand ways into those 
TOWS of kings by Lakshmi, and dazzling to the eyes on account o[ 
the appearance of a peculiar effulgence, shone pre-eminently like 
the flash of lightning which distributes itself into so many rows 
oi clouds. 

6. In the midst of those kings, all seated on magnificent thrones, 
and dressed in splendid costumes, the son of Raghu alone shone 
( looked pre-eminent ) by his majestic lustre, like the tree Parijata 
in the midst of other heavenly trees. 

7. The rows of the eyes of citizens leaving all ( other ) princes 

tell (rested ) on him, just as the black bees vacating the flower - 

trees fall upon a wild scent-elephant, infuriated under the influence 
of ichor. 

8. Now, while the whole assembly of monarchs, sprung from 

the solar and lunar races, was being glorified by bards acquainted 

with the pedigrees of kings, and the fume of the burnt pith of the 

fragrant aloe wood was ascending ( curling up ) to the flags on 

9. while the sound of auspicious musical instruments swelled 
by the blasts of conch-shells was waxing loud and spreading all 
round iu the quarters of heaven, making the peacocks roosting 
in the suburban gardens dance in a frantic manner, 

10. the princess, who was about to elect her husband, 
and who had put on apparel suited to the nuptial rite, entered 

R. T. 6 

(44) [Canto VI. 

the high road between the rows of platforms, seated in u 
quadrangular conveyance carried by men, and beautiful by her 
train of attendants. 

11. The kings fell down by their hearts on ( had theit hearts 
at once drawn to ) that supremely exquisite creation of the 
Creator, in the form of the damsel, the cynosure of hundreds of 
eyes ; their bodies alone remained on their seats. 

12. Various were the amatory gestures, the first messengers of 
their love, exhibited by the kings who had betrayed their passion 
ior her, as are the beautiful tender sprouts by trees. 

13. A certain king began to whirl round a sportive lotus, hold- 
ing its stock with both his hands, its restless petals striking black 
bees and its pollen forming a circle within it. 

14. Another gallant, with his handsome face obliquely turned 
Tound, drew up and put in it«; proper place the garlaud that had 
slipped from his shoulder and was sticking to the points of his 
armlet inlaid with gems. 

15. A third again, with beautiful eyes slightly turned down- 
wards, drew lines on the gold fool-stool with his foot, the top-toes 
of which were a little contracted and the lustre of whose nails was 
spread obliquely. 

16. One king, resting his left arm on a part of his seat, his 
shoulder ibeing raised a little by that act, became intent upon 
talking to a friend» his pearl -necklace rolling over ( or lying 
divided on) the lower part of his spine as it was slightly turned. 

17. Another young prince tore ofif, with the points of his nails, 
fit to be set on the hips of his beloved, a kctaka leaf, of a yellowish 
white colour, which serves as a sportive ear •ornament to coquet- 
tish women. 

18. Some one sportively cast up the dice, illumined with the 
glow of his jewelled ring, with his hand, the p^'m of which was 
as red as a lotus, and bore linear marks of banners. 

19. Some one put one of his hand>5, the lustre of the diamonds 
shooting through the finger chinks, on his crown, as if the latter had 
slipped from its proper place, although it was in its right position. 

20. Then Sananda, the doar-keeper of the harem, bold (cjever 
in speech like a man, and well acquainted with the lives and pedi- 

Ganto VI. ] ( 45 )' 

^rees of kings, took ibe princess, first of all, to tbe presence of the 
king of the Magadhas, and thus spoke — 

21. This is the king who rules over the Magadh a land— the 
refuge of those who look up to him for protection, of spirit 
unfathomable, and renowned for governing his people well — 
Paraiptapa by name, true to the sense. 

22. Granted that there are other kings by thousands ; but the 
earth is said* to have a pious ruler in him alone. True that the 
aight is crowded with constellations, stars and planets ; but it is 
by reason of the moon alone that it has light ( is illumined ). 

23. This king having to invite Indra (lit the god with a 
thousand eyes ) incessantly (to the earth), on account of the un- 
interrupted course of his sacrificial rites, caused ( thereby) the 
tresses of S acbi to be long flowing about her pallid cheeks and 
undecked with the flowers of the Mandara tree. 

24. If you wish that your hand should be accepted in marriage 
by this (prince), worthy to be chosen, then accepting him) 
give delight to the eyes of the ladies of Pushpapura, as they will 
be looking at you, at the time of your entering the city, from the 
windows of the mansions. 

25. When she had said this, the thin princess looked at him, 
and without saying anything rejected hinii with a cold salutation, 
while her garland of Madhfi^ka flowers interspersed with rfwryd 
grass was slightly displaced. 

26. The very same maid> whose office it was to bear the cane 
staff, conducted the princess to a second king, jugt as a wave 
Taised by the wind carries a female swan of Xh&manasa lake fron> 
cue lotus to another; 

27. and spoke to her — this is the lord of the AQgas, whose 
youthful beauty had been coveted bv (enamoured) the damsels of 
heaven, and who, having his elephants trained by the founders of 
the elephantine science, enjoys Indra's position though on earth. 

28. He, causing drops of tears as big as pearls to roll about on 
the bosoms of the wives of his enemies gave them back, as it were, 
their pearl necklaces without threads that had been first taken off. 

29. The two goddesses, S'ri (of wealth) and Sarasvat? (of 
learning), who by nature occupy two different stations, live in 
harmony in him : and you, O blessed princess, by reason of your 

(46) [ Oanto.VI 

charming loveliness and your truthful and pleasing speech, are fit 
tc be the third of them two. 

30. When Sunand^ had done, the princess t»ok off her eyes^ 
from the king of Anga, and said to the maid, "Pass onward" ; not 
that he was not amiable, nor was she unable to appreciate personal 
charms ; but people differ in their tastes. 

31. Then the maid (lit. she who was appointed to keep guard 
at the door of the harem), showed to Indumatf, as people show 
the newly -risen moon, an exceedingly handsome prince, who was 
not to be withstood by his enemies. 

.32 This is the king of Avanti, having stout and large arms, an 
expansive chest, and a slim, rounded waist, who (therefore) looks 
like the bright luminary (the sun) carefully trimmed by Tvashtfi 
by being placed on a turning lathe. 

33. In the expeditions of this king who commands a4I the 
three regal powers, the dust, raised by the horses marching in 
advance, obscures the streaming effulgence of the gems on the 
crests of the tributary princes. 

34. He, residing at no great distance from the moon-crested 
god (S iva), whose abode is Mah^kala, enjoys, in company with his 
beloveds, moonlight-nights, even during the dark half of a month. 

35. O you, having full round thighs (lit. thighs like the stem 
of a plantain tree), do you wish to sport with this youthful 
prince, in those rows of gardens which are fanned by the breezes 
blowing from the rippling water of the Sipra ? 

36. That supremely delicate princess did not fix her heart 
upon him who had caused the lotuses in the form of his relative* 
\6 bloom, and dried up the mire in tha shape of his foes by his- 
valour, just as the exceedingly soft white lily feds no attachment 
for the sun, who makes other lotuses bloom and dries up the mud 
by his heat. 

37. Then Sunandd led that lovely creation of the Creator (the 
princess) in front of the king of Anilpa — she whose complexion 
was like that of the inner part of a lotus, who was perfect in all 
accomplishments and who had a beautiful set of teeth — and again 
spoke to her. 

38. In days of yore, there was a king, given to ascetic exercises^ 
named K^rtavfrya, who could put forth a thousand arms in battle, 

<Janto VI. j ' 47 y 

who erected sacrificial posts in all the 18 continents oi the globe, 
and to whom belonged pre-eminently the title of ' king ' (lit. not 
shared in common by any one else). 

39. He, the governor, appearing before his subjects, bow in 
hand, the very moment they thought of committing a crime, pre- 
vented them from doing an immoral deed even in thought. 

40. In his prison-house dwelt the lord of I^anka, the conqueror 
even of Indra, whose arms were rendered motionless by being 
bound w^ith the bow-string, and whose row of mouths was gasr." 
ing for breath, until the captor's pleasure (set him free). 

41. In his line is born this prince, Prattpa by name, who 
reverentially honours those versed in sacred lore, and by whom 
has been wiped off the reproach that S'ri is fickle by nature, 
a reproach which attaches to her name owing to the faults of 
those with whom she resides. 

42. He, having obtained the god of fire as an ally in battles, 
considers the sharp edge of Paras' mama's axe, the destructive 
night to the military class, as no better than a lotus leaf in 

43. Be you the lovely occupant of the lap of this king with 
long arms, if you have the desire to look, through the latticed 
windows of his palace, at the (river) RevS,, delightful with its 
rippling stream, and encircling, like a waist -band, the rampart of 
the city of M^hishmat>\ 

44. That lord of the earth, though of an exceedingly lovely 
mien, did not seem amiable to her, just as the moon is not 
agreeable to the day -lotus, though complete in all his dieits and 
treed from the screen of clouds by autumn. 

45. The princess was then addressed by ihe maid keeping 
guard over the harem, with reference to Sushe^a, the lord of 
S iirasena, whose fame was sung in other worlds, and who was 
the most illustrious prince of both the (paternal and maternal) 
iamilies pure by their dutiful conduct. 

46. This is a descendant of Nipa's race, a constant ofterer of 
■sacrifices in due form, in whom virtues (of opposite nature) meet 
together, setting aside their natural antagonism, as do wild 
tinimals on coming to the hermitage of s great saint where 
tTanquillity ever reigns. 

( 48 ) [ Canto VL 

47. In his own house is spread his lovely splendour, delight- 
ful to the eyes, like that of the moon ; while there is always pre- 
sent his unendurable fiery energy on the mansions of his enemies- 
the terrace- tops of which are overgrown with grass. 

48. At the time of his sports in the water, when the sandal 
unguent is washed away from the bosoms of the ladies of his 
harem, the daughter of Kalinda (the river Yamuna) though as 
yet flowing by Mathur^, appears as if her waters were mingled 
with Gangi's waves. 

49. Wearing the gem, the lustre of which covers the surface 
of his chest, and which was presented to him, it is said, by K4liya 
who took shelter in the river Yaraun^, through teiror of Garuda, 
he puts to shame, as it were, Krishna with his Kaustubha. 

50. Do this youthful prince the honour of accepting him as 
your husband, O fair princess, and enjoy (the wealth, i.e., pleasures 
of) your youthful age, on a flower-bed, having tender leaves for 
its counterpane, in V?indavana, not inferior to Chaitraratha (the 
garden of Kubera). 

51. And in the rainy season, seated on stone slabs, moistened 
with particles of water, and scented with S'aileya, you may look 
at the dance of peacocks in the lovely caves of the Govardhana 

52. She, with a navel beautiful like a watery eddy, destined 
to be the wife of another, passed by that king; just as a river, 
proceeding to the sea, passes by a mountain it meets with in its 

53. Thereafter, when the young damsel, with a face like the 
full moon, had approached the King of KaliQga, Hem&rigada by 
name, whose arms were elapsed by armlets, and who had 
destroyed his foes, the maid thus addressed her — 

54. This king, equal to the mountain Mahendra in strength, 
is alike the lord of Mahendra and the sea; in his hostile 
expeditions Mahendra himself seems to march in the van under 
the disguise of his ichor-dripping war-elephantf. 

55. He, with beautiful arms, and the foremost of archers, 
hears on his forearms two scars made by the bow-string, as if they 
are the two pathways, besprinkled with tears mixed with colly^ 
rium of the Fortunes of his foes made captives by him. 

C^nto YI. ] ( 49 ) 

- 56. Him sleeping iu his palace the sea itself, being near, 
awakens from sleep,— the sea whose waves are visible from the 
windows of his palace, and which, by its deep roar, has rendered 
the morning trumpets unnecessary. 

57. (You should) Sporl with him on the shores of the sea, full 
of the rustling sound of the forests of palms ; while the drops of 
T:)eTSpiration (on your body) will be removed by breezes wafting 
clove- flowers from other islands. 

58. Though thus tempted by her, the younger sister of the 
\'idarbha king, who was capable of being attracted by (real) 
beauty, turned away from him, as the goddess of wealth 
tuins away from an unlucky man, howsoever far she may be 
drawn towards him by his politic measures. 

59. Now coming to the lord of the city known by a serpent's 
name (Nagapattana), who was like a god in beauty, the female 
door-keeper (Sunand^) having previously addressed the princess^ 
of Bhoja with the words 'Look this way, O you with eyes like 
those of a ckakora *, spoke to her as follows — 

60. This is the king of the Paodus, who, wfth a long pearl- 
necklace hanging down from his shoulders, and his body besmear- 
ed with powdered saffron (or red sandal), looks like the lord of 
mountains (Himalaya) with its peaks steeped in the morning 
sunlight and with rills flowing down its slopes. 

61. The saint Agastya, who checked the upward growth of the 
great mountain Vindhya and who drank to a drop and then ejected 
the whole ocean, asks him, from affection, when his body is we^ 
with the concluding bath at an Asvamedha sacrifice? if the 
ceremony of ablution has been properlj^ performed. 

62. In days gone by, the haughty lord of Lank^, fearing lest 
Janasthana might be destroyed (ia his absence) by this king who 
had obtained from S'iva a missile unattainable by any one else, 
made peace with him and then set out for the conquest of Indra's 

63. When your hand will have been duly accepted by this 
prince, born of an illustrious race, you like the great earth wiU 
be the co-wife of the southern region, encircled, as by a waist- 
hand, by the sea abounding in gems. 

(50) [ Canto Vi. 

64. Be pleased ever to amuse yourself in the sites of the Ma- 
taya mountain, where the areca-palms have the betel-nut creepers 
twining round them, where the sandal trees are encircled by the 
<:ardamom creepers, and where the ground is overspread with 
Tam3,la leaves. 

65. This prince has a bodily frame as dark as the blue lotus, 
while your slender form rivals in fairness the gorochana (a yel- 
low pigment); let there be a union between you two that it may 
•enhance each other's beauty, like that of lightning with a cloud. 

66. Her advice found no entrance into the heart of the sister of 
the Vidarbha king; jnst as a beam of the lord of stars (the moon) 
finds no room in the (day-) lotus with its petals closed into a bud 
dn the disappearance of the sun. 

67. Whatsoever king the maiden intent on choosing her hus- 
band passed by, like the flame of a moving lamp at night, that 
same king turned pale, just as a mansion situate on the highway . 
is shrouded in darkness when left behind (by a moving light/. 

68. When she approached the son pf Raghu, he became un- 
easy at heart, as to whether she would choose him or not; but 
his arm, other than the left, (;.«., the right one) dispelled ad hiK 
misgivings by its throbbings at the place where the armlet is 

69- On coming up to him faultless in every part of the body, 
the princess desisted from going to any other prince; for, verily, a 
row of black bees never has the desire to go to any other tree 
when it has once reached the Sahak^ra (mango) tree in full 

70. Having observed that Indumati, bright as the moon, had 
her heart riveted upon him, Sunandd, who was versed in the 
art of giving a well-arranged accounti delivered the foUowin.!^ 
speech in detail. 

71. There lived a monarch, of the I'kshvdku race, the most 
eminent of kings, who was distinguished by the title of Kakutshrn 
(or, after Malli, Kakutsta by name and renowned for his virtues). 
It is from him that the lords of the Northern Kosalas, of high 
aspirations, bear the proud patronymic of Kikutshta. 

72. He, riding in battle the great Indra in the form of a 
huge bull, and imitating the grace of S'iva, made, by means 

Caato VI. ] ( 51 ) 

of his arrows, the large (beautiiui) cheeks of the asura females 
destitute of ornamental paintings. 

73. It was he who shared with the Cleaver of the mountains 
(India) half of his seat, even when he had re-assumed hisown noble 
form, rubbing his own armlet against that of the god, loosened on 
account of his stroking Airdvata (the celestial elephant). . 

74. In his race was born, we are told , the widely renowned 
Dilfpa, the light of the race, who stopped short of performing a 
hundred sacrifices by one, in order to avert the jealousy of Indra. 

75. When he was reigning over the earth, even the wind dared 
not displace the garments of drunken women fallen asleep on the 
road when on their way to the house of merriment ; who could 
then stretch forth his hand for theft ? 

76. His son, Raghu, now rules over his dominions ;he, who 
performed the great sacrifice Visvajit and thereby reduced 
his wealth amassed from the four quarters to the residue of a few 
earthen pots. 

77. His fame has gone up to the mountains, descended to the 
seas, entered the nether world, the dwelling-place of the serpents, 
and has found its way to heaven ; thus spreading without 
cessation it is quite incapable of being exactly gauged. 

78- This prince, Aja by name, is born of him, as Jayanta i.s 
born of the lord of the three worlds (Indra); he, the heir -apparent, 
sustains the heavy yoke of the earth, along with his father accus- 
tomed to the task, like a young bull with one broken to the yoke. 

79. Do you choose him who is your equal in birth, beauty and 
youth, and in those various virtues of which modesty is the chief; 
let the jewel be matched with gold. 

80. Then at the conclusion of Sunand^'s speech, the princess, 
lessening her bashfulness, accepted the prince, by casting at him 
a bright glance of joy, as if with the marriage-garland. 

81 . Through her maidenly bashfulness the princess could not 
give expression to the love she felt for the young prince; but the 
love of that curly -haired damsel, piercing through her slender 
frame, manifested itself in the guise of her hair standing on end. 

82. The cane-staff-bearer (Sunandd), her companion, finding 
her friend in that state, said in jest: "Noble lady, kt us go tc 

R. T. 7 

(52) [Canto. Vli. 

another ;" thereupon the bride looked at her with a frown of dis- 

S3, She with beautiful thighs (Hi. whose thighs were compara- 
ble to the forearm), caused the bridal garland, red with the auspi- 
cious powder, to be properly placed round the neck of Raghu's 
son, which looked like the very embodimen* of her love, by the 
hands of her nurse, 

84. By that garland, strung with auspicious flowers, and 
hanging on his expansive chest, the eligible prince almost felt 
that the younger sister of the Vidarbha king had thown her 
delicate arms round his neck. 

S5. "Here is moon-light united with the moon freed from 
clouds ; here is the Ganges descended to the sea, the worthy recipient 
of its water;" these were the unanimous words, so harsh to the 
ears of the kings, which the citizens, delighted at the union of the 
two of equal merit, uttered there. 

86. That assemblage of kings, having on one side the 
party of the bride-groom transported with joy, and on the other 
looking sad ( with disappointment and despair ) was like a lake, 
at day-break, having full-blown lotuses at one place, and the 
night lilies gone to sleep (closed) at the other. 


1. Thereafter the lord of the Vidarbha country took with him 
hts sister united with a worthy bridegroom, like Dsvasen^ hersel 
\Tniied with Skanda, as it were, and bent his steps towards the 
entrance of his city. 

2. The (other) lords of the earth too, with their brightness 
dimmed like that of the morning stars, went to their respective 
camps, reproaching both their personal beauty and dress, having 
been disappointed in their hopes with respect to the princes^ 
of Bhoia. 

3. Verily owing to the presence of S'achJ at the spot there was 
an absence of those who would disturb the ceremony of self -elec- 
tion-marriage ; it was on account of this that the host of kings, 
though full of jealousy towards the descendant of Kakutsha, re- 
mained quiet. 

0%nto VII. ] ( 53 ) 

4. In the meantime, the bridegroom accompanied by the bride 
reached the royal road, which was decked all over with fresh 
decorations, which was marked by ornamental archways radian^ 
like rainbows, and which had the sunlight kept off from it by the 
shade of banners. 

5. Then the fair women of the city, setting aside all othe^ 
<x:capations in their eagerness to have a look at the bridegroom ' 
acted in the following manner, in mansions having lattice-window" 
ot gold. 

6. One lady walking with haste to the window did not at all 
think of tying up again her mass of hair, the wreath of flowers from 
which had dropped down on account of its knot having got 
loosened though she held it with her hand, until she reached the 

7. A certain lady, snatching her forefoot held by her dressing 
raaid, while the red paint on it was yet wet, and giving up hei 
graceful gait, stretched out a line of foot- prints marked with red 
lac as far as the window. 

S. Another lady, having adorned her right eye with collyruim 
while her left eye was yet without it, went, in that very state, to 
the vicinity of the window, holding (in her hand) the painting 

9. Another of the fair sex, who was looking through the lat- 
tices of the window, did not tie up the knot of her wearing gar- 
ment, loosened by her (hasty) movement; but stood, holding up 
her garment with her hand, the lustre of the ornaments put upon 
it entering her navel. 

10. The half-strung waist-band of another lady who rose in 
haste, the jewels of which dropped at every ill-placed step, had 
at last only the bare thread left of it, fastened round the big toe,, 
at the time. 

11. The windows, having their holes filled up with the faces of 
those ladies full ot intense curiosity, having the smell of wine 
within and the rolling eyes for black bees hovering about, seemed 
to be decorated with so many lotuses- 

12. Those ladies drinking, as it were, with their eyes the son 
of Raghu, did not attend to any other object (at all) ; thus the 
functions of their other organs of sense seemed to be transferred 
to their eyes. 

(54) [Canto VI f. 

13- "It was tight that the princess of Bhoja's house, thougli 
sought in marriage by princes whom she had never seen, thought 
self~election to be well for her; how, else, could she have obtained 
a husband worthy of her, as Lrakshrat obtained Nftraya"! (for 
her lord) ? 

14. It the lord of creation had not united together Ihe couple- 
possessed of mutually enviable beauty, all in vain would have 
baen the trouble taken by bim in bestowing such exquisite beauty 
upon these two. 

15. Certainly these two are Rati and her consort, the god of 
love incarnated in a mortal form ; this is why the maiden has 
selected one who is a counterpart of her own self, from among 
thousands of kings ; for the mind is aware pi union formed in « 
previous birth (life)." 

16. Hearing these words pleasing to the ears, uttered from the 
mouths of the ladies of the city, the prince (Aja) arrived at the 
house of his relative, adorned with auspicious decorations. 

17. Then having quickly alighted from the she-elephant seiz- 
ing the hand stretched out by the lord of the Kimariipas, he 
entered the inner qradrangular courtyard* shown by the 
Vidarbha king, as if he entered the heart of the ladies (assembled 

18. Seated on a costly throne, he accepted the offerings of 
worship with jewels and mixed with the Madhuparka (an oblation 
coasisting of curds, milk, honey &c.) and a pair of silk garments 
presented by Bhoja, as also the glances of the beautiful ladies. 

19. He, dressed in silken garments, was led near the bride by 
the well-behaved keepers of the harem, as the (water of the) sea 
with its cleat lines of foam is carried on to the shore by the new 
rays of the moon. 

20. There the revered priest of the Bhoja king, almost eqtmlto 
fire in effulgence, presented offerings of clarified butter and other 
things to the sacred fire, and having made it a witness to the 
marriage rite, united together the bride and the bridegroom. 

21. ■ That prince, holding the bride's hand with his own, looked 
still more beautiful, like the mango-tree, after it has reached the 
tender leaf of a neighbouring as'vka tree by means of a correspond- 
ing leaf of it« own. 

Uanto VII. ;\ ( 55 ) 

22 . The hair on the wrist of the bridegroom stood on end 
while the fingers of the bride became moist with perspiration ; so 
it seemed that by the joining of their hands, the action of love 
was, at that moment, equally divided between them. 

23. Their eyes eagerly longing to see each other which were 
casting sidelong glances but were withdrawn the moment they 
met, experienced a charming constraint of bashfulness- 

24. By going' round the blazing fire keeping it on their right 
side, that couple, now united to each other, glowed like day and 
night revolving round Meru, and following each close upon the 

25. The bashful bride, with heavy (fully developed) hips and 
eyes like those of an impassioned chakora bird, being directed by 
that spiritual guide (of the royal family), the very image of 
Brahma, made an offering of fried grain to the (sacred) fire. 

26. There issued from the fire the holy smoke charged with 
the smell of oblations, S'arai leaves and fried grain ; which, ag 
its spire passed by her cheeks, served for a moment the purpose of 
blue lotuses worn (as ornaments) on the ears. 

27. By the inhalation of the smoke as required by religious 
custom, the Jface' of the bride had her eyes troubled with thp 
moistened collyrium, the barley sprouts worn as ear ornaraentc 
withered, and the lovely cheeks rendered reddish white. 

28. Then the bride and the prince, seated on a golden seat, had 
wet whole rice applied to their foreheads, in order, by the holy 
BrahmaPas ('particular householders, according. to Malli. ), by 
king Bhoja with his kindred, and by the matronly ladies having 
their husbands and sons living. 

29. Having thus finished the connubial rite of his sister, the 
opulent monarch, the light of the race of Bhoja, ordered the 
officers to honour every one of the (other ) kings separately. 

30. Those (kings) concealing their malice by externa^ 
signs of joy, and resembling (thereby) clear lakes with alligators 
hidden from view, bade adieu to the king of Vidarbha and depart- 
ed, having requited the honour done to them by him under the 
guise of ( wedding ) presents. 

31. That multitude of kings, who had preconcerted a plan fot 
the accomplishment of their object, remained barring the path Of 

(56) [OintoVU. 

Aja, desirous of seizing that bait of a damsel ( the coveted obiect 
of all) to be secured at the right time. 

32. The lord of the Krathakais'hikas too, in the meantime, 
having completed his younger sister's marriage-ceremony, and 
having made a dowry of wealth such as befitted the magnanimity 
of his heart, permitted the son of Raghn (to return home) and 
himself also followed him. 

33. The lord of Kundina, having passed three nights on the 
way with Aja, renowned in the three worlds, turned back from 
him, as the moon recedes from the sun at the end of the conjunc- 

34. The kings, one and all, had already been mightily incens- 
ed against the lord of the Kosala country, having been despoiled 
of their wealth by him; and hence they, now unjled, could not 
bear the acquisition of that jewel of a maiden by his son. 

35. That haughty host of kings obstructed him on the way, as 
he was taking with him the princess of Bhoja's house, as the 
enemy of Indra (Prahldda) had intercepted the step of Trivikrama, 
when accepting the wealth presented to him by Bali. 

36. The prince ordered his father's minister, assisted by not a 
-small (r. c. sufficient) number of troops (or, who was no ordinary 
warrior) to protect her (his bride) and himself received that army 
of kings, as the river S'ona, tossing high its waves, meets the 
river that takes its name after Bhagiratha (the Ganges ). 

37. The foot-soldier fell on the foot-soldier (of the hostile party), 
the chariot -warrior on the chariot -warrior* the horseman on the 
fighter seated on ahorse, and the elephant driver on the combatant 
mounted on an elephant; thus a fight ensued in which the 
antagonists were of equal rank. 

38. As the trumpets sounded, the warriors fighting with bows, 
whose voices could not be understood, did not declare the designa- 
tions of their families; but they made known their noble name by 
means of the characters inscribed on their arrows. 

39. The dust, that was raised on the field of battle by the 
horses, thickened by the wheels of the array of chariots, and 
spread about by the flappings of the ears of the elephants, screen- 
ed the sua in the manner of an awning. 

Canto VII. ] (57) 

40. The fish-shaped flags with their mouths opened by the 
force of the wind, and taking in the thickened dust of the army, 
looked like real fishes drinking the new muddy rain-water. 

41. The cloud of dust growing dense, the chariot was known 
by the rattling of the wheels, and the elephant by the tinkling ot 
his moving bells ; while the distinction of friend or foe was made 
by the declaration of the master's name. 

42. As on the battle-field there spread the darkness in the 
form of dust obstructing the sight, the stream of blood, gushing 
forth from the bodies of horses, elephants and warriors, (who were) 
wounded with the weapons of war, arose like the morning sun 
dispelling the darkness. 

43. The column of dust, having its base cut off by the blood, 
and tossed about by the wind above it, looked like the previously 
arisen smoke of a fire now reduced to (a few) burning embers. 

44. A| the end of the swoon caused by a blow, the chariot- 
warriors protected in the chariots (being removed from the battle- 
field) took their charioteers severely to task, and making them 
turn back the horses (towards the field of battle), furiously attack- 
ed those very (antagonists) by whom they had been wounded and- 
whose flags they had previously marked. 

45. The arrows discharged by dexterous archers, though cut 
down in the course of their flight by the arrows of their adver- 
saries, reached the mark aimed at with their first halves tipped 
with iron, by reason of the continuation of their original velocity. 

46. In the elephant fight, the heads of the drivers though 
severed by quoits having razor-like edges, fell down alter a long 
time, the hair on them being entangled in the pointed extremities 
of the talons of the hawks (hovering above). 

47. The horseman who was the first to strike did not again 
strike at his adversary unable to return the blow, but waited, un- 
til the latter, with his body reclining on the neck of his horse, 
came back to his senses. 

48. The terrifi -d elephants quenched with the spray from their 
trunks the fire that was struck out, as the uiKheathed swords of 
the armoured warriors fighting desperately fell on their huge 

49. The battle-field looked like the very wassail -ground of 
Death, rich in fruits in the form of tbe heads of warriors severed" 

( 58 ) [ Canto VIT 

by arrows, having the helmets scattered abc»ut for so many drink- 
ing cups, and with a stream of blood for wine. 

50. A female jackal snatched from the birds a severed arm, 
from the extremities of which flesh was pecked up by them; but 
though fond of flesh, she flung it away, the roof of her palate 
being wounded by the armlet worn on it. 

51. A certain warrior having his head severed off by his ad- 
versary's sword instantly became the master of a celestial car. 
and with a heavenly nymph clung to his left side beheld his own 
headless trunk dancing about on the battle-field. 

52. Two other chariot- warriors, by their each killing the cha- 
rioteer of the other, themselves became the charioteers and the 
car-fighters; their steeds being slain, they engaged in a prolonged 
combat with their clubs; and these weapons also being brokeut 
they fell to fighting hand to hand. 

53. Two heroes, who, being struck by each others* breathed 
their last at one and the same moment, maintained a quarrel 
even in their immortal state, both having set their heart upon the 
same celestial nymph (or rather, both being courted by the same 
heavenly nymph). 

54. The two arrays of forces obtained from each other fluctu- 
ating defeat and victory; just like two waves of the mighty main, 
swelling up as a backward and forward gale blows alternately. 

55. The mighty Aja, though his army was worsted by the 
enemy, charged the hostile force nevertheless ; smoke may be 
turned back by the wind, but the fire proceeds in that very 
direction where the straw is. 

56. That peerless warrior, seated in a chariot, with a quiver 
behind, clad in mail, holding a bow in his hand, and high-spirit- 
ed, repelled the foe; just as the great boar (Vishnu's incarnation) 
drove back the oceanic waters overflowing their bounds at the 
final destruction of the universe. 

57. When engaged in battle he was seen putting the right nor 
the left hand into ( or, after Malli, — beautifully moving his right 
hand abont) the mouth of the quiver; it seemed as if the bow- 
string of the warrior, once drawn to his ear, produced anows that 
could kill his foes. 

58. He strewed the ground with the heads of his foes which 
were severed from the throats by broad -bladed arrows, which 

Canto VII. j ( 59 ) 

had their lips excessively red being bit in rage, which bore frowns^ 
upon them with lines prominently visible, and which had still 
the sound of defiance within. 

59. Now in the fight, all the kings with all efforts (or all 
their might ) attacked him with all the constituent parts of their 
armies, the war elephants being the chief among them, and us- 
ing all weapons, powerful enough to pierce through the coat 
of mail. 

60. His chariot being covered with volleys of missiles, he 
could be distinguished only by the top of his flagstaff, just as the 
forepart of the day, obscured by the mist, is known only by the 
faintly shining sun. 

61. The prince, the son of the universal monarch, handsome 
like the flower- shafted god and always wide awake (on the alert), 
employed against the kings the sleep-inducing missile, presidedd 
over by a Gandharva, which he had obtained from Priyamvada. 

62. Then the army of the lords of men stood (including them- 
selves) overpowered by sleep, their hands not able to draw the 
bow, their helmets slipping disorderly on one shoulder and their 
bodies reclining against the flagstaffs. 

63. Then the prince put the coach to his lips, the flavour of 
which was the property of his beloved, and blew it by which (act) 
he, a matchless warrior, seemed to be drinking his own embodied, 
fame, as it were, earned by the might of his arms. 

64. His own warriors, who now returned on recognising the 
sound of the conch (blown by Aja), saw him in the midst of his 
slumbering foes, like the shining image oi the moon in the midst 
of closed lotuses. 

65. He caused to be impressed on the banners of the kings, by- 
means of the points of the arrpws dipped in blood, the following 
words; ' Your glory has now been taken away by the son of 
Raghu, but not your lives, through mercy.' 

66. He, with one arm placed on the extremity of his bow, the 
lie of his hair loosened by the removal of the helmet, and his 
brow covered with perspiration brought on by fatigue, came to 
his terrified spouse and spoke to*her — 

67. lyook, O princess of Vidarbha, I give you permission to 
do so, at our enemies, who can now be despoiled of their weapons 
even by a child; it is by warlike acts like these that yon, come 
into my possession, are sought to be snatched away by them! 

R. T. 8 

( en ) [ Canto VIII. 

68. Her face, at once freed from the sadness arising from the 
enemy, glowed with joy, like a mirror with its natural brightness 
restored to it by the disappearance of the moisture caused by 

69. Though delighted yet overcome by bashfulness, she 
congratulated her beloved lord not herself, but by the words of her 
female friends, just as a natural site, sprinkled over with the 
drops of fresh rain water, hails the train of clouds by the notes of 
the peacocks. 

70. Thus he, free from blemish, having placed his left foot on 
ihe heads of the kings {t. e. having inflicted upon them a shame- 
ful defeat ) conducted (home ) his faultless bride; and she herself 
became the goddess of his martial victory, embodied in a corpo- 
real frame, with the ends of her hair rendered rough by the dust 
raised by the chariots and horses. 

71. Raghu, who knew every thing beforehand, greeted his 
son as he came back victorious, accompanied by his laudable 
bride; and then having made over to his son's care the household 
became eager to pursue the path of tranquillity; for the descen- 
dants of the solar dynasty are never for ( never wish to cling 
to ) the household, when there is one able to bear the yoke 
(burden) of the family. 

CANTO vin. 

1. Now, while the prince yet wore the graceful marriage- 
string, the king made over to him the earth also, like another 

2. Verily other princes strive to gain possession of a kingdom 
even by foul means; but the same, Aja accepted, when it came 
to him, simply in obedience to his father's command, and not out 
of thirst for enjoyment. 

3. Having undergone the ceremony of sprinking along with 
him (r- f. the prince Aja, at the time of his coronation ) with the 
water consecrated bj' Vasish/'ba, the Earth expressed as it were 
the gratification (of her wishes) by her clear (white) exhalations. 

4. All the rites (connected with his coronation ceremony ) 
being performed by (Vasish/ha) his spiritual guide, he became 
unassailable to his enemies; for it is a union of fire with wind that 

Cento VIII. ] (61) 

■the Brahmanical power should be combined with the martial spi- 
rit of the Kshatriya class. 

5. The subjects looked upon their new sovereign as Raghu 
himself restored to youth; for he not only inherited his regal for- 
tune but also all his virtues. 

6. Two things only, being united with two other blessed 
things respectively, looked peculiarity beautiful; viz. the prosper- 
ous ancestral kingdom by its union with Aja, and his youthful 
•age with his modest conduct. 

7. He, though powerful, enjoyed (governed) the Karth, that 
had recently come under his sway, with a tender heart, like a 
newly wedded spouse; lest by his violence she might take fright. 

8. * I alone am the king's favourite' so thought every one of 
his subjects; for no contempt was ever shown by him to any one, 
as there is none shown by the sea to any one of hundreds 
-of rivers. 

9. Neither too severe nor yet too mild, but pursuing a middle 
tourse of policy, he made the kings bend before him without de- 
throning them; just as a moderately strong gale bends down the 
trees but uproots them not. 

10. Now the king Raghu, finding that his son was firmly 
established among ^is (mijaisters) and subjects, became indiffer- 
ent to the objj^i^Cbe'^pJeasure, even though situated in heaven, 
which are perishable by nature. 

11-. For verily the descendants of Dilipa's race, when they 
grew old, transferred the royal fortune to their accomplished sons, 
and curbing their passions, betook themselves to the life of an- 
chorites, wearing garments of the bark of trees. 

12. The son (Aja) with his head adorned with the royal turban 
prostrated at the feet of his father who was about to repair to the 
forest, and begged that he should not be abandoned. 

13. Raghu, who tenderly loved his son, granted that desire of 
him whose face was covered with tears, but did not resume his 
kingly fortune, once abandoned, just as a serpent does not put on 
the slough it has once cast off. 

14. He, having entered the last stage of life, lived, it is said, 
in a convent outside the city, where he was served, his senses not 
being affected, by the goddess of the royal fortune, a!^ by a 
daughter-in-law, enjoyable only by his son. 

( 68 ) [ Onto VIII. 

15. That illustrious (royal) family, with the rtd king leading 
a life of spiritual tranquility, and the new king just entered upon 
his kingly career, was comparable to the sky with the moon al- 
most set and the sun newly risen. 

16. Raghu and his son, bearing (respectively) the emblems of 
the ascetic and the king, seemed to the people like the portions 
of the two dharmas (duties), come down to the earth, whose re- 
wards are final emancipation and earthly glory. 

17. For the acquisition of what was (yet) uuconquered, Aja 
took for his companions ministers well- versed in politics: while 
Raghu, in order to reach the state which is not subject to decay 
(salvation), associated himself with contemplative ascetics who 
had got true insight into Yoga and who ever spoke the truth. 

18. The youthful king took his judgment seat in order to look 
into (the affairs of) his subjects; while the aged monarch seated 
himself, in solitude, on the holy seat of the Kus'a grass in order to 
practise the abstract concentration of the mind. 

19. The one (Aja) by the super-eminence of his sovereign 
power reduced to submission the neighbouring princes; while the 
other ( Raghu) by virtue of his constant metaphysical exercises 
brought under his control the five vital airs existing in the body. 

20. The new king completely foiled the efforts (lit. reduced to 
ashes the fruits of the undertakings) of his enemies; while ttie 
old one engaged himself in burning down (/. i, completely an- 
nihilating), by means of the fire of knowledge, the fruits of his 
own actions. 

21. Aja employed the six expedients beginning with peace, 
with a due regard to their results; Raghu, on his part, who re - 
gaided gold and a clod of earth as eqaal, established his mastery 
over the three primary principles, the constituents of Prakrti. 

22. The new lord, steady in action, did never desist from his 
undertakings until they bore fruit; nor did the lord other than the 
new one, firm in mind, desist from the practice of holy medita- 
tion, until he obtained a vision of the Supreme Spirit. 

23. Thus the two (Aja and Raghu), who were watchful of the 
enemies and senses (respectively) whose course was checked, and 
who were bent on (attaining) prosperity and absolution, obtained 
their (respective) desired objects (lit. obtained the complete 
attainment of their desired objects). 

Canto VIII. ] ( 63 ) 

24. Then Raghu who regarded all beings with an equal eye 
passed some years out of regard for (the desire of) Aja and then 
obtained, by means of profound contemplation, the Supreme 
Spirit that is imperishable and that is beyond mental darkness 

25. The son of Raghu, who had kept the sacred fire, hearing 
of his father's abandonment of the body, shed tears for a long time 
and (then) performed, in company of ascetics, his funeral rites 
without (the use of) fire. 

26. He who knew the procedure in obsequial rites performed 
the funeral rites of his father through devotion to him: for those 
who resign the body in that way have no desire for (do not stand 
in need of) the oblations offered by their sons. 

27. He, whose mental affliction was assuaged by men knowing 
the highest truth by pointing out to him that one who had gone 
to the highest (obtained salvation) should not be grieved for, and 
whose bow was strung, brought the world completely imder the 
sway of one rule (lit. made the world destitute of a rival 
authority ). 

28. The Earth and Indumatt having obtained for their husband 
him whose manly powers were of the highest kind, the first 
produced various jewels while the second gave birth 
to a warlike son. 

29. (A son) whose lustre was comparable to that of the 
thousand -rayed one (the sun), who was known over (all) the ten 
quarters on account of his fame, and whom the wise knew by the 
name of ' Ratha ' with ' Das'a ' prefixed to it and as one who was 
the father of the enemy of the ten-necked RSvana {i.e., RS,ma). 

30. That king, who had absolved himself from the debt due to 
the sages, the gods and the manes, by learning, (performance of) 
sacrifices arid issue (respectively), shone like the sun released 
from the misty halo. - 

31 . His power was for allaying the fears of the distressed and 
his great learning for showing reverence to the learned; thus, not 
only the wealth of that king but even his possession of good 
qualities was (meant) for the benefit (good) of others. 

32. Once upon a time that king, who protected his subjects 
and who had a noble son, sported with his queen iu the garden of 
the city, just as the protector of the gods {i.e. Indra) does in 
company of S'achf in the Nandana garden. 

((;4) [Canto VIII 

33. Now (at this time), Narada was passing along the path of 
the sun's return from the north to wait upon, with the music of 
his lute, the God Siva who had taken up his residence in the 
temple at Gokari.'a on the shores of the southern ocean. 

34. It is said that an impetuous blast took away, as if through 
the desire for its fragrance, the garland made of celestial flowers 
which was placed (hanging) on the top of his lute. 

35. The lute of the sage, which was surrounded by bees follow- 
ing the flowers, appeared, as it were, to be shedding tears 
caused by the violence done by the wind and mixed ( lit. soiled ) 
with collyriuni. 

36. The heavenly garland, which surpassed the vernal splend- 
our of the creepers by means of its excessive honey and fragrance, 
obtained a good place ( or, a firm footing) on the nipples of the 
large breasts of the king's beloved. 

37. The beloved wife of the king, agitated at the sight of the 
garland, the momentary companion of her well-formed breasts, 
closed her eyes in death (died) like moonlight when the itioon is 
taken away (t. e. totally eclipsed) by R^hu. 

38. While falling herself with her body forsaken by the senses, 
she made her lord (husband) also drop down. Verily, the flame of 
a lamp comes to the earth along with a drop of dripping oil. 

39. Frightened at the confused cries of distress of the servants 
o£ them (both), the birds which had taken their al>ode in the 
(collection of) lotuses began to cry, as if they were their fellow- 
sufferers (in sympathy, as it were ). 

40. The swoon of the king was removed by means of fanning, 
and the like, but she remained in that very state ( of Hfelessness ' ) 
The application of a remedy is successful only when there Is a 
residue of life. 

41. The king, who was very fond of his wife, having held her 
up, whose condition, on account of the loss of life, resembled that 
of a lute which is to be stringed, placed her on his lap to which 
she was familiar. 

42. Her husband appeared, on account of her who was lying 
on his lap and whose complexion had faded owing to the loss of 
the senses, like the moon at dawn bearing the dim deer-like mark. 

43. Having given up even his natural firmness he began lo cry 
in accents choked by tears ( in a tone faltering through the flow ol 

Canto VIII. ] ( 65 ) 

tears). Even iron (when) heated becomes soft; what need we 
(then) say of those possessing bodies? 

44. Alas ! If even flowers can take away life by ( coming in ) 
contact with the body, what else will not be the weapon of Fate 
wishing to strike ( kill ) ? 

45. Or, the God of death (lit. destroyer of the people ) under- 
takes to destroy tender things by means of tender things alone. 
The lotus plant which is destroyed by frost I consider as the first 
instance of this. 

46. If this wreath has the power to take away life, why does it. 
not kill me, (when) placed on my breast ? By the will of the Al- 
mighty even poison sometimes becomes ( is changed into ) nectar : 
and nectar poison. 

47. Or perhaps, through the adverseness of my fate, the 
Creator has created this (strange) thunderbolt, since the tree was 
not felled down by it while it cut ofi the creeper twining round 
its branches. 

48. When you did not long show disregard towards me 
even when I had given offence, how (is it) (that) all at once you 
do not consider this person ( i. e. myself) who is quite innocent 
as worthy of being spoken to ? 

49. O lady of pleasant smiles, you really think nie lo be a 
rogue falsely making love, since you have gone to the other world, 
never to return, without bidding me farewell. 

50. If this wretched life of mine followed my beloved first, why 
has it returned without her ? Let it (then) su3er the grief, intense 
on account of its own action. 

51. Even the drops of perspiration brought on by the fatigue 
of enjoyment (still) remain on your face ; whereas you yourseli 
are gone (dead) ; fie upon this transitory state of living beings ! 

52. Never before have I done, even in thought, anything dis- 
agreeable to you ; why do you then abandon me ? Really I am 
lord ( husband ) of earth in name only ; my love springing from 
(or deepened by) real internal feeling is centred in you. 

53. O lady with thighs (tapering) like the fore -arm, the wind., 
shaking your curly hair, dark like the bees and set (adorned) with 
flowers, makes my mind hopeful of your return (to life). 

54. Therefore, O my beloved, be you pleased to remove my 
brief quickly by awaking, just as the herb at night dispels the 
darkness in the caves of the Himdlaya by its light. 

(66) [ Canto Vill. 

55. This face of yours with the hair waving and with the 
speech completely stopped pains me (causes distress) like a single 
lotus closed at night and having the humming of the bees in the 
interior suspended. 

56. The night comes back again to the moon, and its mate to 
the bird that moves about in pair (the Chakravdka); they are here- 
fore able to endure the period (duration) of separation. But how 
will you, who have gone never to return, not burn (pain) me ? 

57. O lady with beautiful thighs, tell ( me), how that delicate 
body of yours, which would be pained even when placed on a bed 
of tender sprouts, will bear ascending the funeral pyre. 

58. This girdle, your first companion in private, which is 
(now) noiseless on account of the cessation of your sporting gait, 
does not appear not to have followed, through grief, you who are 
sleeping not to awake again. 

59-60. It is true that although you were desirous of (going to) 
heaven, you kept here, out of regard for me, sweet voice in the 
cuckoos, the gait slow through intoxication in the female swans, 
tremulous (sprightly) glances in the deer, and amorous sports in 
the creepers shaken by the wind ; but they are not able to support 
(i.e. soothe) my heart which is heavily grieved (lit. whose 
ttorment is great) at your separation. 

61. The mango-tree and the Priyahgu creeper were, O dear 
one, fixed upon by you for (or intended as ) a couple. It is then 
improper for you to go without having celebrated their marriage - 

62. How shall I use for the funeral offering the flowers ( lit. 
•make a garland of the flowers to be used at the funeral) which 
this As oka tree, whose longing was gratified by you, would put 
iorth and which would have been (were you living) an ornament 
ior your hair ? 

63. O lady of fair form, you are mourned by this As'oka 
tree shedding tears in the form of flowers as if remembering the 
tavour of (the touch) of your foot (no more to be got), in which 
the anklet was jingling and which was difficult to be obtained 
by any one else. 

64. Ohlady of Kinnara-like voice, why have you slept without 
finishing the pleasure-girdle half wreathed (by you) in my com- 
pany with Baktila flowers imitating your breath (in point of ir»g- 
xance )? 

OantoVIIL] (67) 

65. Your (female) friends are your companions in joy as Well 
as in sorrow; this son (of yours) resembles the moon of the first 
day (of the month) : my love is centred wholly in you: still your 
behaviour (action) is cruel owing to your resolution. 

66. To-day all my self-command has vanished; my sports (joys) 
are at an end; music is stopped ; the season is without gaiety; 
ornaments are without their purpose and my bed is quite empty. 

67. (You were) my wife, my counsellor, my confidential friend, 
and my favourite pupil in the charming arts; tell me, what I am 
not deprived of by the God of Death who being averse to pity 
has taken you away from me. 

68. O lady with bewitching eyes, having (first) drunk sweet 
wine from my mouth, how, indeed, will you drink just after that 
the libation of water, (reaching you in the other world) sullied 
by my tears ? . 

69. Although there is abundance of wealth, the happiness of 
Aja, bereaved of you, should be considered (to be) of this extent, 
(ending here) only. All the pleasures of me who was not attracted 
by other temptations depended on you. 

70. The lord of the Kosalas, bemoaning (the loss of) his wife 
in this pathetic strain, made even the trees pour down a heavy 
shower of tears in the form of the exudations of the branches. 

71. Afterwards, his relatives, having removed with great dif- 
ficulty the (body of) that fair lady from his lap, consigned her. 
who was adorned with funeral decorations, to fire having the 
aloe wood and sandal wood for its fuel. 

72. The king did not consign his body to flames along with 
(that of) the queen, seeing that there would be the scandal that he, 
a wise (or, being a) king, died after his wife through grief, and not 
because he desired to live (any longer). 

73. Afterwards, the rites which were to be performed after 
the expiry of ten days, in connexion with his wife, whose virtues 
only remained, were finished in great afliuence ( magnificence ) 
by that wise king in the very garden of the city. 

74. He (the king), who without her appeared like the moon 
at the close of night, entered the city, seeing, as it were, the out- 
flow of his sorrow in the tears on the face of the women of the 

75. It is said that the (royal) preceptor (family priest), who 
was initiated for a sacrifice and who was staying at his hermitage, 

R. T. 9 

(88) [Canto VIII. 

learnt (came to know) by means of abstract contemplation that he 
(Aja) had been stunned by the great shock, exhorted him through 
his pupil (disciple, who spoke) thus: — 

76. Although the sage knows the cause of your grief, he has 
not come personally to restore you to your natural state from which 
you have fallen, since he has not (yet) finished the sacrifice. 

77. O righteous (virtuous) king, his few words of advice (lit. 
his speech containing a brief message) are entrusted to me ( for 
communication to you) ; hear them, O king, whose great mental 
strength is well-known; you should please treasure them in your 

78. The sage sees by his unobstructed eye of knowledge the 
triad — the past, the present and the future — in the three worlds 
(lit. steps of the God who is without birth). 

79. It is said that, injformer times, Indra, afraid of Tvinabindu 
practising hard penance, sent (against) him the celestial womar 
(Apsaras), named HarinJ, (able) to disturb his contemplation. 

80. The sage, through rage which was caused by the obstacle 
to his penance and which was a destructive wave to the shore of 
his mental tranquillity, cursed her, who exhibited before him her 
lovely amorous flirtations, in this (following) way: — ** Be you a 
woman on the earth." 

81. "Revered sir, this person is entirely dependent on another; 
( be pleased to) forgive my offensive conduct" : when ( she ) 
humbled (herself) in this way, he made her a denizen of the 
earth until she saw heavenly flowers. 

82. That (nymph), born in the family of the Krathakais'ikas. . 
became your queen, and having after a long time got the means 
of the end of the curse, dropped down from the sky, died. 

83. Enough then of thinking of her loss. Death falls to the lot 
of all who are born. This earth should be protected by 3'ou : 
for the Earth is the real wife of kings. 

84. Avoiding the censure of being called arrogant when good 
fortune smiled upon you, you showed by your self-possession 
(the good effects of) your knowledge: now that mental pain has 
be-fallen you, you should boldly show it again. 

85. How can she be obtained by you (by) crying ? She can- 
not be obtained by you even by dying after her. The paths ot 
persons going to the other world are different ( lit. in different 
directions ) according to their actions. 

Canto VUL] (69) 

86. With your mind relieved of its anguish, (you should) 
favour your wife by offering libations of water, &c. Indeed, they 
( the sages ) say that the continual flow of the tears of relatives 
burns the deceased. 

87. Death is said by the wise (to be) the nature of those who 
are endowed with a body, and life an accident. If a creature lives 
breathing even for a moment, he is really a gainer (blessed). 

88. An ignorant person looks upon the loss of a dear person 
as a dart fixed (implanted) in his heart; while a wise man regards 
the same as a dart extracted (from the heart) on account 
of its being a way leading to (z. e. means of obtaining) absolution 
( lit. happiness). 

89. Since even the body and soul of a person are known to be 
joined and disjoined, say (tell me), how, indeed, separation from 
external objects should pain a wise man. 

90. O you, (who are) the best of those who have subdued their 
passions (the best of the self-possessed), you ought not to become 
subject to grief like an ignorant (ordinary) person. What is ( or 
would be ) the distinction between a tree and a mountain if both 
of them were (equally) to shake when a gale blows ? 

91. Accepting the message of the noble-minded preceptor with 
the words "Be it so" he dismissed the sage ( bade him farewell ); 
but the message, not having found a place in his heart full of grief , 
returned, as it were, to the preceptor. 

92. Considering the childhood (tender age) of his son, that king;^, 
of agreeable but true speech, somehow ( with great difl&culty ) 
passed eight years by means of (the consolation derived from) look- 
ing at the pictures of his beloved and at objects having a like- 
ness to her, and also by means of the pleasure derived from her 
momentary company in dreams. 

93. The dart of grief, it is said, pierced his heart with force 
just as the shoot of a fig-tree rends asunder the terrace of a palace. 
However, on account of his impatience to follow his beloved, 
he looked upon it as a gain, although it was the cause of the 
destruction of his life and was incurabie by physicians. 

94. Afterwards, havmg entrusted, according to the rules, his 
son who was properly educated and who was old enough to wear 
armour, with the protection of the subjects (?.<?., with the duty of 
protecting the subjects ), the king, wishing to leave the wretched 


[ Canto IX. 

residence in the body affected by diseases, became intent on 
starving himself to death. 

95. Having secured a place (lit. reckoning) amongst the im- 
mortals, immediately after abandoning his body at the confluence 
of the Ganges and the Saray^i, and being reunited with his wife 
(now) possessing a loveliness surpassing that of her former form, 
he sported again in the pleasure-houses in the Nandana garden. 



1- After ( the death of ) his father, Das'aratha, who was * 
mighty warrior, who stood at the head of the self-controlled as 
well as the protectors ( of the people, t. e. kings ) and who had 
conquered (subdued) his senses by abstract contemplation, ruled 
over the North Kosala after he had acquired its possession. 

2. Since he, whose might (valour) was like that of Kdrttikeya, 
(lit. the piercer of the mountain) protected the whole kingdom (lit. 
the circle of his subjects together with the citizens) now obtained 
by him being the hereditary possession of his race, according to 
the laws, it (/. e. the kingdom along with the subjects) became the 
more attached to him (or attained a greater standard of virtue). 

3. Wise men speak of only two (per.sons) as the removers of 
the fatigue of those who have done their duty by timely gifts ( of 
rain and wealth respectively ), viz. of Indra (lit. killer of Bala) and 
of the king Das'aratha, a descendant of the king Manu. 

4. While the son of Aja, whose prowess (lustre) was like that 
of a god and who (yet) delighted in the tranquillity of mind was 
the king (lord) of the Earth, no disease set its foot in the country; 
whence can there be, indeed, an insult at the hands of an enemy ? 
The earth yielded an abundance of crops (lit. became fruit-bearing). 

5. Just as the Earth maintained prosperity ( or splendour ) by 
means of (the prowess of) Raghu who had conquered the ten quar- 
ters and after him by means of Aja, so also did she shine again, 
having obtained for her lord him whose valour (prowess) was 
nothing short ( of theirs ). 

6. By his impartiality, fby sending dayn the shower of riches 
( i, e. gifts of wealth ) and by punishing (restraining) the wicked, 
he equalled respectively Yama ( the God of Death ), Kubera (lit. 
lord of the Yakshas ) and Varuna; and by his splendour ( lustre ) 
he resembled the Sun. 

Canto IX. ] ( 71 ) 

7. Neither love for hunting, nor gambling, nor wine having 
the reflection of the moon for its ornament, not a beloved 
(mistress) of fresh youth ( z". e. in the prime of youth ), diverted 
( the mind of ) him who was striving for rise ( prosperity ). 

8. He did not address a supplicating speech even to Indra 
although he (Indra) was his (Das'aratha's) lord, nor did be tell 
a lie even in jest. Being free from (the influence of) anger he 
did not use (lit. speak) abusive (or harsh) language even towards 
his enemies. 

9. The (subordinate) kings obtained both rise and fall from 
(z. e. at the hands of) the descendant of Raghu. He was friendlly 
towards those who did not transgress his commands but had a 
stern heart towards those who defied him. 

10. He, whose bow was strung, conquered the Earth girt by the 
ocean (lit. whose circumference is the ocean) by means of one 
chariot only ( /. e. without the aid of any body else ). While his 
army abounding in elephants and steeds, impetuous through 
speed, simply proclaimed his victory. 

11. Verily the oceans, thundering like the clouds, served as 
drums proclaiming the victory of him, who, being an eminent 
bowman, conquered the Earth by means of a matchless (or single) 
chariot furnished with a protecting apparatus, and whose wealth 
equalled that of Kubera. 

12. Indra destroyed the force of the wings of mountains by 
means of ( his ) hundred -edged adamant; while he (Das'aratha ), 
whose face resembled a fresh lotus, routed the army and the allies 
of his' enemies by his twanging bow, that poured forth a shower 
of arrows. 

13. Hundreds of kings touched the feet of him ( lit. touched 
him at his feet) whose prowess knew no repulse, with the rays 
of the jewels in their crowns having their splendour enhanced by 
the redness (lustre) of the nails, just as the gods bow down to 

14. Having taken compassion on the wives of his enemies 
whose hairs were undecorated and who had caused their infant 
sons to fold (join) their hands (as a token of submission) to him, 
he returned from the shore of the great ocean to his capital not 
( in any way ) inferior to Alaka. 

15. Seeing that the Goddess of Wealth would escape whenever 
there was a loop-hole he whose lustre resembled that of fire and 

( 72 ) [ Canto IX. 

the Moon, and besides whose white umbrella none other was 
raised ( on the Earth), became vigilant, although he had attained 
the position of a paramount sovereign of the circle (of twelve 

16. Abandoning him (Das'aratha) sprung from the race of 
Kakutstha, and the Self-born Supreme Spirit (Vishnu), ( both ) 
liberal towards beggars (supplicants), to what other lord of men 
would the chaste Goddess of Wealth, with a lotus-flower in 
her hand, attach (or devote) herself? 

17. The daughters of the kings of Magadha, Kosala and Ke- 
kaya, who regarded iheir husband as their deity, obtained for their 
husband him — a mighty warrior (lit. who drove his arrows deep 
into the persons of his enemies), just as the ri^^ers, the daughters 
of the mountains, obtain the (mighty) main. 

18. He, who was expert in (employing) the means of destroy- 
ing (his) enemies, appeared, in company of his three wives, like 
Indra, come down to earth accompanied by the three regal 
powers, as if through the desire of ruling over the world ( lit. the 
mortals ). 

19. Having assisted Indra in the van of fight, that mighty 
warrior, it is said, made the wives of the gods, whose fears had 
been removed (by him) by (means of) his arrows, praise the great 
valour of his arms. 

20. Many a time was the dust on the battle-field, going up- 
wards in the direction of the sun, suppressed with the blood of the 
enemies of the gods (z. c. demons) by that powerful warrior, of a 
matchless chariot, who took the lead of Indra. 

21. Laying aside his crown during the (performance of) sacri- 
fices, he, who had collected the wealth of all the quarters and who 
was free from the quality of darkness ^ignorance), made the banks 
of theTamasi and the Sarayu look beautiful by erecting sacrificial 
posts of gold. 

22. The Lord, abiding in the body (of Das'aratha), which was 
consecrated for the sacrifice, which held the skin of an antelope 
and a staff, which wore a girdle of Kus'a grass, which had its 
speech restrained and which was furnished with the horn of a 
deer, made it shine with unsurpassed brightness- 

23. He who was purified by the ablutians performed at the 
end of the sacrifices, who had curbed his senses and who was 

Canto IX. ] (73) 

ijualified to take a seat in the assembly of the gods, bent his high 
head before the enemy of Namuchi {i. e. Indra), alone. 

24. Now the Spring, accompanied by fresh flowers, returned, 
as it were, to wait upon that sole sovereign of the people whose 
responsibility (burden) was equal to that of Yama, Kubera, 
Varuna, and Indra, and whose prowess was estimable. 

25. Being desirous of going to the direction presided over by 
Kubera (the North), the Sun, whose horses were turned aside by 
his charioteer, left the Malaya mountain, brightening the dawns 
by melting away the mist. 

26. First there was the bursting forth of flowers; then there 
were fresh sprouts, and after that the humming of bees and the 
cooing of cuckoos: — thus did Spring descending ( incarnate ) to 
the forest -site abounding in trees manifest himself in the proper 

27. The bees and the water-fowls (or, swans) repaired to the 
lotus- plant in the lake replenished (z. e. endowed with the wealth 
of flowers ) by the spring, just as supplicants resort to the 
wealth of the king amassed by the excellence of his state policy 
(or by his statesmanship and other qualities) and whose purpose 
Is to benefit the good. 

28. Not only did the fresh vernal flowers of the As'oka tree 
excite the passion of amorous persons, but even the bunch of 
its sprouts placed on the ears of their beloveds became an 

29. The Kuravaka flowers, which appeared like fresh lines of 
painting ( on the persons) of the Garden -beauties drawn by 
Spring and which were clever ( liberal ) in giving nectar ( to the 
bees ), became the cause of their humming. 

30. The appearance of flowers, caused by the wine from the 
mouths of ladies with beautiful faces, and possesssing the like 
quality, made the Bakula tree thick-set with bees in long rows 
ardently longing for honey. 

31. The cluster of buds on the Kiips'uka tree produced by 
the Vernal beauty ( lit. beauty of the close of the cold season ) 
shone like the ornaments ( in the form ) of nail-marks impressed 
by a young woman, deprived of her bashfulness by intoxication, 
on ( the body of ) her lover. 

32. The sun could not, indeed, at that stage, completely dis- 
sipate the frost, which was unbearable to the lower lips of young 

( 74 ) [ Canto. IX.- 

woraeu, sore with wounds ( from the teeth ) and which expelledLj 
the girdle froui its place (the loins) ; he rarefied it only. 

33. The young mango-tree (smiling) with buds, and with its ^ 
sprouts shaken by the breeze from the Malaya mountain, am 
appearing ( thereby ) as if intent on practisini; pantomimic move- 
ments (acting), delighted ( or, inflamed with passion ) the minds- 
even of those who had subdued hatred and passion. 

34. The measured notes, first uttered by the cuckoos in th< 
rows of forests in full blossom sweet with odour, were heard like 
the very rare (moderate) talk of young bashful females. 

35. The creepers at the borders of the gardens (or, groves) 
which had the humming of the bees pleasant to the ear for their 
songs and the flowers for the melow splendour of the teetb^ 
appeared, by means of the sprouts shaken by the wind, to be as 
it were, possessed of hands keeping time in music. 

36. The fair ladies merrily drank wine, the friend of love, 
which excelled the Bakula flowers in sweet smell and which was 
clever (or able) in giving rise to graceful amorous actions, in such 
a manner as not to mar (come in the way of the pleasure of) their 
love sports with their husbands. 

37. The pleasure-ponds attached to the houses, with lotuses 
full blown and with birds-fond-of-water uttering sweet but 
indistinct notes under the influence of passion, appeared beauti- 
ful like women with countenances rendered more lovely by smiles 
and with their girdles jingling by being loosened. 

38. The Night-lady, wronged (cut-short) by the spring and 
with the colour of her face palish owing to the rise of the cool- 
rayed (wanting in ardent love) n^oon grew thin ( /. e. short ) like a 
youthful damsel that does not obtain the happiness of the coveted 
company ( of her lover ). 

39. The moon enlivened (excited) the God of Love whose 
flag is distinguished by the shark, by means of his rays which 
removed the fatigue caused by sexual enjoyment and whose light 
was bright on account of the disappearance of ( the intervening ) 

40. The young women wore in their hair the flower ( implanted 
by their lovers), whose brightness resembled that of the sacrificial 
fire (blazing with oblations), which was in place of ( served as ^ 
a golden ornament to Sylvan- beauty, and which was tender in 
the ( i. e, which had tender) petals and filaments. 

Uauto IX. ] ( 75 ) 

41. Verily the Tilaka plant, which was variegated with beeS, 
charming like marks of collyrium, alighting on rows (or 
collections) 'of flowers, did but grace (adorn) the forest site just as 
the ' tilaka ' mark decorates a young woman. 

42. The Jasmine creeper, the charming beloved of the trees, 
fascinated the mind (of the lookers-on) by the beauty of the 
smiles, brought about by flowers, possessing the smell of honey 
(wine) and spreading over the lower lip in the form of the sprouts. 

43. By garments surpassing ( lit*, throwing into the back- 
ground ) the brilliance of the morning sun, by shoots of barley 
which had obtained a place on the ears and by the cooings of 
the female cuckoos, — by these agents ( lit. troops ) of the God o^ 
Love amorous persons were placed wholly in the power of women 
( lit. made solely devoted to women ). 

44. The bunch of blossoms of the Tilaka tree, fully developed 
in its parts by means of white pollen'and coming in contact with 
swarms of bees, appeared of a like beauty with the pearls in the 
net' like ornament worn in the hair. 

45. Swarms of bees followed the dust of the filaments of 
flowers rising from the garden agitated by the wind, which was 
the banner of the God of Love armed with his bow and the 
beautifying cosmetic for the face of the Vernal Beauty. 

46. Enjoying the festival of the season in which there were 
new swings, the women though clever (in the sports) relaxed 
(the grip of) their tender ( lit. creeper-like) arms in holding the 
ropes of their seats ( /. t. the swings) through the desire of em- 
bracing their lovers. 

47. " Give up (ye fair ones) your anger excited by jealousy; 
enough of your quarrels; the age so favourable to love-sports, 
(youth), when once gone, will never return" — the wish (or advice) 
of the God of Love, as it were, being thus communicated by the 
cuckoos, the women devoted themselves to sport. 

48. Now, after having enjoyed at his pleasure ( to his satis- 
faction ) the festival of the season in company with sportive 
women (his attendants), the king, resembling the God Vishnu, 
(lit. Destroyer of Madhu ), Vasanta, and the God of Love ( lit. 
tormentor of the mind), longed for the pleasure of chase. 

49* It ( i. Ck chase) makes one intimate ( lit. produces familia- 
rity ) with ( the art of ) shooting down a moving mark (game); it 
gives the knowledge of their gestures in (moment) ot fear and rage; 
B. T. 10 

( 76 ) [ Canto iX. 

dtid it makes the body acquiie excellent qtlaliltes owing to the 
conquest over fatigue; being, for these reasons, permitted by bis 
ministers, he went out ( for hunting ). 

50. That mighty monarch, putting on a dress suitable ( fitted) 
for going to the forest abounding in game and having the bow 
resting on his broad neck, furnished the sky with a canopy as it 
were by means of the dust raised by the hoofs of horses ( or made 
it a mere void, i. e. non-existent ). 

51. That king, with his -hair tied up with a garland of wild 
flowers and leaves, and being covered with an armour of a like 
colour with the leaves of trees, and with his ear-rings agitated 
owing to the gallopping of the horse, shone forth on the grounds 

or in the places ) frequented (or, trodden) by the Ruru deer. 

52. The sylvan deities, with their bodies incorporated into 
slender creepers, and with the function of their eyes transferred 
to the bees, saw him on the way who had beautiful eyes and who 
pleased ( made happy ) the people of Kosala by his righteous con- 
duct ( or just rule )• 

53. He then entered the forest which was first occupied by 
the keepers of hounds and deer-catchers ( lit. persons who carried 
about with them nets for catching deer) which was cleared of fire 
and thieves, the ground in which was firm and ( hence ) suitable 
for (the trottings of ) horses, which had reservoirs of water and 
which abounded in deer, birds and the Gayals. 

54. Thereupon^ he, the best of men, who had no mental pain 
and who had piovoked the lions by the twanging ( of his bow), 
took up his strong bow, just as the month of Bhadrapada holds 
up 'the weapon of the thrice-ten (gods, i, e. the rainbow) furnished 
with the string (in the form) of lightning as yellow as gold. 

55. Tn front of him appeared a herd of deer led by a proad 
spotted antelope, the motion of the hinds in which was often 
obstructed by the fawns eager to suck their teats and whose 
mouths were full of (lit. filled with) l^iiia grass. 

56. That ( herd ), pursued by the king riding a fleet horse, 
blackened the forest with their distracted glances wet with tears 
as If with the clusters of the juicy (fresh) petals of ( blue ) lotuses 
scattered about by the wind. 

57. That (eminent) archer, equal in proWess to Indra ( or> the 
god Vlsht?u ) seeing the mate of the deer aimed at ( by himself ) 
Stand interposing her body, and being softened with pity through 

Canto IX. ] (77) 

his being himself a lover, withdrew his arrow though drawn to 
the ear. 

58. The fist of that king, intent on levelling his darts agains^ 
other deer also, though firmly clenched, became loose ( loosened ) 
after having come to the ear, as they (z. e. the deer) reminded him 
of the sportive movements of the eyes of his youthful beloveds 
by means of their eyes excessively tremulous through fear, 

59. He then followed the track of a herd of wild boars that 
had run away having previously got up from the mud of damp 
pools, (the track) which was strewed along with bits of mouthfuls 
of the Musta grass and which was clearly indicated by the long 
line of wet foot-prints. 

60. With their bristles standing erect the boars wished to 
attack him in return as he pierced them, with the forepart of his 
body slightly bent downwards from the horse; but they did not 
know themselves (to be) suddenly fixed by his arrows to the trees, 
against which they had rested their loins. 

61. The arrow drawn and shot by him into the socket of the 
eye of the wild buffalo, that was preparing for an impetuous onset, 
pierced through its body with its feathered part not stained with 
blood, threw him down first and then dropped down itself. 

62. By means of his well-whetted steel- pointed arrows the 
king made the rhinoceroses (possessed) of light heads on account 
of the removal (z. e. breaking) of their horns. He whose duty it 
was to humble the proud, did not bear only the lofty horn ii.e. 
exalted supremacy) of others; but it is not that he did not bear 
also their long life. 

63. On account of the dexterity acquired by excellent training 
(or, long practice), the king, who knew no fear, in a moment 
turned into so many arrow -cases as it were, the tigers that 
rushed "against him from their caves, by filling the hollows of 
their maws with arrows, ( tigers) that looked like full -blossomed 
fore -branches of the A'sana trees smashed by a gale. 

64. Wishing to smite the lions lurking in their bowery dens, 
he provoked them by the twang of his bow-string, fierce like the 
thunder clap ( or the howl of contending winds in the sky ); and 
in this he was surely actuated by jealousy of their title of 'king 
of the beasts, noble (conspicuous) by their valour.' 

65. Having killed them, ever on a footing of great animosity 
with the elephant race, with pearls stuck to the points of theif 

(.78) [Canto IX 

curved claws, the descendant of Kakutstha thought himself to 
have, as it were, discharged, by means of his arrows, the debt he 
^vred to the elephants that had done him a service on the 

66. In some places urging his horse in pursuit of the 'Chamara* 
deer and sending forth a shower of crescent- shaped arrows (>TW) 
drawn to the ear, he felt immediately at ease after having deprived 
them, like kings, of their white chowries (?'. e, their bushy tails). 

67. He did not aim his arrow at (lit. make him the mark of 
his arrow ) the peacock having a beautiful plumage although 
skipping about near his horse, being instantly put in mind of the 
luxuriant tresses of his beloved interwoven with variegated flowers 
and with their band loosened in amatory sports. 

68. The sylvan breeze, which was saturated with cold dew- 
drops and which had opened the folds of the tender leaves, drank 
(dried) up the sweat caused by his hard exercise and collected 
into clusters of drops on his face, 

69. Thus did Hunting, like a clever damsel, attract away 
that Lord of the Earth, who, forgetful of his other kingly duties, 
had entrusted to his ministers the responsible task of governing 
the kingdom, and whose love (passion) for it was increased by 
its continuous practice. 

70. The king, unattended by any followers, passed, in some 
place, one night, in which tender flowers and leaves served as his 
bedding, and which was furnished with lights ( in the form ) 
of blasiing powerful herbs. 

71. There the king, whose slumber was dispelled at day-break 
by the musical flappings of the ears of the elepband-herd. 
resembling the sound of deep -sounding drums, amused himself 
by listenin<> to the sweet auspicious songs of bards in the form of 
the warblings of birds. 

72. Then on one occasion the king, who had taken ( i. e. was 
following) the path of a deer, unnoticed in the forest by his attend- 
ants, came with his horse foaming through exhaustion to the 
river TamasS, much frequented by ascetics. 

73. From its waters arose ( or was heard ) a clear, loud sound 
produced by the filling up of a jar; mistaking it for the grunt of 
an elephant, he discharged in that direction an arrow tracking 
( its mark ) by the sound- 

74. What Das'aratha did, transgressing the bounds of law, 
was surely forbidden to a king. Indeed, even men conversant 

Canto IX. ] ( 7d ) 

with the rules (of conduct, when ) blinded by passion, set foot 
on ( i.e, follow) a wrong road, 

73. Dejected on hearing the cry of distress—' O father ', he, 
searching for its source concealed in the reeds, and discovering 
( lit. seeing ) the son of a sage with a jar, pierced with his arrow, 
felt, through grief, though a king, as if he had a dart implanted . 
in his heart. 

76. Being questioned about his family by him ( the king ) 
of a renowned lineage, who had got down from his horse, he ( the 
son of the sage ), with his body resting on (his) water- jar, 
declared himself, in faltering syllables to be the son of an 
ascetic of a class other than that of the twice-born. 

77. Requested by him, the king took him, even with the arrow 
unextracted, to his parents who had lost their sight, and approach- 
ing them informed them of the condition their only son was in, 
and also of his own act (done) through ignorance. 

78. Having lamented bitterly, the couple got the infixed arrow 
extracted from their son's bosom by his assailant; he (then) be- 
came lifeless (died); and then the old man cursed the king with the 
very waters from his eyes, dropped (and collected) in his hands. 

79. The Lord of the Kosalas, who was the first to offend, thus 
addressed him who had said to him (pronounced the imprecation) 
"You, like myself j shall, in your old age, die through grief for 
your son," and who was (therefore) like a snake, that, being first 
trodden upon, had emitted poison. 

80. "Even the curse, inflicted by your Reverence on me who 
have not yet seen the loveliness of the lotus- like face of a son (or, 
of the lotus of a son's face ), is accompained with a blessing. 
Verily, the fire which is lighted from ( or, blazing with ) fuel, 
though burning the soil requiring tillage, makes it productive of 
sprouts from seeds (z. e. yield a rich harvest). 

Sir When things have taken such a turn what shall this cruel 
mar'j who deserves death at your hands, do ( for you )?" — thus 
addressed by the lord of the earth, the ascetic, who, with his 
wife, wished to follow his deceased son, begged for burning fuel 
(a funeral pyre to be lighted by him). 

82. Joined by his attendants, the king immediately executed 
his order and returned (from the forest) being depressed in spirits 
( lit. with his energy impaired ) on account of the sinful act and 
carrying ( with him ) the cmse, the cause of his destruction, that 
had found a place inside ( i. e. in his heart ), just like the ocean 
bewaring the sub.iiarine fire. 


l» While he (Das'aratha), equal in majesty to Indra and ii 
realth none the less, was ruling over the Earth, a little less thaaj 
myriad of years passed away. 

2. And yet he did not obtain that light called 'a. Son' which] 
Instantaneously dispels the gloom of sorrow and is the means of ' 
obtaining freedom from the debt due to ancestors. 

3. For a long time did the king, whose progeny was awaiting 
(the appearance oO an efficient cause, remain like the ocean with 
its production of the jewels not manifested before the churning 
it. e» before its being churned). 

4. The venerable priests, Rishyas'vinga and others, who were 
self -subdued, commenced the sacrifice conferring the blessing of 
a son, for him who was desirous of issue. 

5. At about the same time the gods, harassed by Rdvana, went 
to Hari, just as travellers, oppressed with heat, repair to an 
umbrageous tree. 

6. Just as they reached the ocean, the Primeval Being awoke. 
Absence of delay is, indeed, the sign of future success in an under- 

7. The gods beheld him, reclined on the seat of the body of 
the serpent, with His person illuminated by the ascending rays of 
the jewels in the circle of the hoods of that serpent — 

8. Him, who had placed His feet on the lap of Lakshmf, seated 
on a lotus, from which the girdle was separated by the ( interven- 
ing) silken garment and on which were spread her tender palms—- 

9. Him, whose eyes were like full-blown lotuses, whose gar- 
ment resembled the morning sunshine, who was easily seen ( lit. 
whose sight was easily obtainable) by ascetics and who was 
( therefore ) like the autumnal day, which has blooming lotuses 
for the eyes and morning sunshine for the garment and which 
is delightful to look at in the beginning {i.e. tit its commence- 
taent) — 

10. Him, who wore on his broad breast the essence of the 
(oceanic) waters called 'Kaustubha', which served as a toilet-mirror 
to Lakshmt and which covered with ils lustre the mark S'n'vatsa — 

11. Him, who on account of his branch-like arms decorated 
with heavenly ornaments* appeared like another PArijdta mani* 
festing itself in the midst of waters— 

Unto X. i (^1 ) 

12. Him, for whom the word 'Victory' was proclaimed by 
the sentient weapons which destroy the flush of wine on the 
cheeks of the wives of the demons — 

13. Him, who was waited upon by the humbled Garu^a who 
had folded his hands, who had given up his enmity with S'esha 
and who bore the scars of the wounds (Inflicted) by the thunder- 

14. Him, who by his sanctifying glances that looked bright at 
the end of his sleep of meditation was favouring Bhvigu and the 
other sages, the Inquirers about his balmy sleep. 

15- Then the gods, having made their obeisance to that de- 
stroyer of the demons, hymned with praises Him who is worthy 
of praise and who stands beyond the reach of speech and mind. 

16. "A bow to Thee whose self exists (appears) in three 
forms—first as the ' Creator, ' next as the ' Protector, ' and 
afterwards as the * Destroyer ' of the universe. 

17. Just as water from the sky which is originally of one 
(uniform) taste gains a diversity of flavours in different regions, so 
Thou, being immutable, assumest (different) conditions in (as 
identified with) different qualities. 

18. Thyself immeasurable, Thou measures! the worlds; 
desireless Thou grantest all desires ; unconguered (yet) Thou art 
victorious (over all) ; and Imperceptible, (yet) Thou art the cause 
of the manifested worlds. 

19. They (the sages) know Thee to be present in the heart 
and yet not to be near {i> c. incomprehensible) ; an ascetic though 
without desire ; compassionate though untouched '(unaffected) 
by woe j old (primeval), yet not subject to decay. 

20. Though omniscient, Thou art unknowable ; though the 
source of all. Thou art self ^ e^iistent ; the L,ord of all, Thou art 
without a master (a controller), though one. Thou assumest all 

21. They (n e. the sages) speak of Thee as glorified by (meanis 
ol) seven (metrical) hymns, as lying on the waters of the seven 
oceanS) as having the seven -flamed fire for Thy mouth, and as 
being the sole support of the seven worlds* 

22. Knowledge tesnlting in (the attainment of) the four ends 
of human life, the periods or Time, vh, the four ages, and the 
people consisting of the four castes— all these emanate from Thecj 
the four 'faced* 


I Oauto i. 

23. With their minds restrained by constant practice (of con- 
templation), ascetics seek Thee whose form consists of light and 
who abidest in their hearts, for absolution. 

24. Who knows the real nature of Thee who art unborn and 
yet eiiteresl upon corporeal existence, who destroyest Thy 
enemies though without desire, and who art ever awake though 

sleeping ? 

25. Thou art able to enjoy the objects of senses, vt'z\ sound and 
others, to practise arduous penance, to protect the people and to 
be (at the same time) indifferent. 

26. The ways which are the means of the attainment (of the 
object of life or eternal bliss), though different (/. g. laid down 
differently) in the different S'aslras, meet in Thee alone, just as 
the streams of the Ganges, which flow in different directions 
and which are the cause of puri6cation, (ultimately) fall into the 


27. Thou art the resort for the obtainment of freedom from 

birth and re-birth (lit. not returning again to this world) of those 
dispassionate (ascetics) that have concentrated their minds on, 
and consigned (all) their actions to, Thee. 

28. Thy glory (or greatnass), w:., Earth and the other things* 
though visible, is not definable ; what need we then say of Thee 
who are knowable (only) through authoritative testimony (the 
Vedas) and (processes of ) inference ? 

29. Since Thou purifiest a man when he simply remembers 
Thee, the remaining actions (of men) towards (i.e. with respact 
to) Thee have their effects (already) declared. 

30. Thy actions which are far beyond the reach of words and 
comprehension transcend (or, lie beyond) all praise, like the 
jewels of the ocean or the rays of the sun. 

31. There is nothing, wbich, being unattained, is yet to be 
obtained by Thee ; the only object of Thy birth and action it to 
favour (do good to) the creation. 

32. That our speech is stopped after having glorified Thy 
greatness is due either to fatigue or to (our) inability (to praise 
Thee further), and not to (there being) any limitation to Thy 


33. Thus did the gods propitiate Him who Is outside the ken 

of senses (Vishnu). It was really a statement of facts and not 
flattery (or, mere praise) of that Supreme God. 

•Canto X. ] ( 83 ) 

34. To him, whose good pleasure was clearly indicated by his 
inquiries after their welfare, did the gods mention the danger 
from the ocean (in the form) of the demons which had overflowed 
its shores though it was not the time of universal destruction. 

35. Then the Lord, drowning the roar of the ocean, spoke ia 
a voice resounding in the caves of the mountains near the shore 
(or, the adjoining mountains on the shore, according to Malli.). 

36. Speech being properly pronounced (articulated) from the 
organs of speech of (by) that Primeval Poet (or Scholar) and 
(hence) purified, certainly had its end accomplished (or its exist- 
ence glorified). 

37. Issued forth from the mouth of the Almighty, and pos- 
sessed of the lustre of His teeth, it appeared*like the residue of 
Gahga, after she had flown out from his foot, flowing upwards. 

38. "I know that your greatness and prowess are superseded 
by the demon (Ravana), just as the first and. the middle qualities 
of embodied beings are overpowered by (the quality of ) darkness. 

39. I further know that the three worlds are oppressed by 
him jast as the mind of a virtuous man is tormented ( afflicted) 
by a sinful act unconsciously committed. 

40. On account of our having a common cause, I need not be 
requested by Indra in matters to be accomplished. For Wind, 
of his own accord, undertakes the charioteership of (the office of 
a helper to) Agni. 

41. The tenth head, not cut off by the edge of his own sword, 
has been reserved by that demon as a fit portion (share), as it 
were, for my disc. 

42. But on account of the boon granted to him by the Creatori 
I put up with (connived at) the excessive rise of that wicked 
enemy, just as a sandal tree bears the forcible ascending of a 

43. That demon, averse to have any regard for (quite regard- 
less of) mortals, begged of the Creator, propitiated by his penance, 
exemption from death at the hands of (from) divine beings. 

44. I, therefore, being born as the son of Das aratha, will make 
the heap of the lotuses of his heads become a fit oblation to the 
battle-field with my sharp arrows. 

45. Before long you will again receive the share offered in 
due form by the sacrificers and untasted (undefiled) by the 
illusory night -rangers (demons). 

46. Let the meritorious persons moving about in heavenly cars 
give up their agitation ( or, fear ) at the sight of Pushpaka ( Rd- 
vana's balloon ) in the sky, intent thereupon to hide themselves 
fbehind the clouds. 

R. T. 11 

(84) [CanteX. 

47. You shall loosen the braids of hair of the captive damsels 
of heaven undefiled by the forcible seizure of their hair by 
Havana restrained (from such an act) by the curse." 

48. Having, in this way/drenched with the water (in the form) 
of speeh the crop-like gods withered (dried) by the drought of 
Ravana, the cloud -like KvishPa (Vishnu) disappeared. 

49. The gods, Indra and others, followed Vishnu, bent 
on doing (or, engaged in) the work of the gods, with their 
portions, as trees follow the wind with (their) flowers. 

50. Then, at the conclusion of the sacrifice performed with an 
object in view {viz. the attainment of a son) by the king, a Being 
arose out of the fire along with (to) the astonishment of the 
officiating priests. 

51. He held in his hands rice boiled with milk placed in a 
vessel of gold, which was difficult to be borne even by him on 
account of the entrace of the Primeval Being ( VishUu ) into it. 

52. The king accepted the food which was offered by that 
Being of (connected with) PrajS-pati, just as Indra did the essence 
of the waters (AmVita), laid bare (manifested) by the ocean. 

53. That the merits of that king were such as were unattain- 
able by others was declared by the fact that even He, the source 
of the three worlds, desired to be his progeny. 

54. He divided the energy of VishVu designated as (in the 
form of ) the sacrifical food between his two wives, just as the 
lord of day (the Sun) divides the morning sunshine between the 
Sky and the Earth. 

55. Kausaly^ was respected by him and Kaikeyi was his be- 
loved (or favourite). He, therefore^ wished th;.t Sumitri should 
be honoured by them (by giving her a portion thereof ). 

56. The two wives of the king, knowing the mind (divining 
the wish) of their husband, who was possessed of great 
knowledge, gave (each) a half of their share of the Cham to her. 
,57. She (Sumitra) too had (equal) affection for both co- 
wives jnst as the female bee is (equally) fond of both the 
streaks {i. e, on both the sides) of the exuding rut of an elephant. 

58. A foetus, grown out of Supreme Being, was borne by them 
for the prosperity of the people, as is a watery embryo by solar 
rays, called Amritds. 

59. They (the queens), who became big with child at one and 
the same time and whose complexion had grown a little pale, 
appeared like the luxuriant crops with the appearance oif the 
fruits hidden within. 

I 60. They all saw in dreams that they were guarded by dwarfs 
whose bodies were marked with conches, swords, maces, S'argr-a- 
bows and discs. 

Canto X. ] ( 85 ) 

fil. (They saw that) they were borne (in the sky) by Garuda 
spreading the mass of the lustre of his golden wings aloft and 
drawing the clouds (after him) by his velocity — 

62. That they were waited upon by Lakshm!, with the 
Kaustitbha jewel deposited with her pendent between the breasts- 
and having in her hand a fan (in the form) of a lotus — 

63. That they were worshipped by the seven Brahmanical 
sages, who had performed their ablutions in the (waters of the) 
heavenly Ganges and who were reciting in soft tones tayinns 
of the Supreme Spirit. 

64. The king, delighted on hearing from them dreams of that 
sort, thought himself (to be) most exalted (or supreme) on 
account ot being the father of the Father of the universe. 

65. The all -pervading Lord (Vishnu), though oue, resided 
in their wombs with his self variously divided (into four forms) 
just as the reflected moon (or the reflection of the moon) abides 
in the interior of clear waters (in many forms). 

66. Then (u e- at the proper time), the king's principal queen, 
a chaste (or virtuous) lady, obtained at the time of delivery a son, 
the dispeller of ignorance ( or grief ),, just as an herb obtains at 
night light that dispels darkness. 

67. Prompted by his lovely appearance (or charming form) the 
father bestowed upon him the name of Rama, the first (most) 
auspicious thing in the world. 

68. The lamps in the lying-in chamber were, as it were 
repelled (outshone) by that powerful light of Raghu's race, of 
matchless splendour. 

69. With Rdma lying in her bed, the thin-bellied mother ap- 
peared like the Ganges reduced in autumn and having an oblation 
of lotuses on its sandy bank. 

70. To Kaikeyi was bom a virtuous son, named Bharata, who 
adorned his mother as modesty does wealth (or prosperity). 

71. Sumitra gave birth to two twin -sons (named) Lakshma^a 
and S'atrughna, just as learning properly acquired produces real 
knowledge and modesty (or, according to Mallinatha, self-control). 

72. The whole world manifested good qualities and became 
free from calamities: as if heaven itself had followed Vishriu come 
down to the Earth. 

73. At the appearance of him of four forms (or of the fourfold 
incarnation), the (four) quarters, whose presiding deities quailed 
before the son of Pulastya (Ravana), breathed, as it were, a sigh 
of relief by means of the breezes which were free from dust. 

74. Fire and the Sun, who had been oppressed (persecuted) by 
the demon (j)iz.^ R^va^a), became, as it were, freed from grief — 
the one on account of his being smokeless and the other on account 
of his brightness. 

(86) [Canto X. 

75. At the very moment, the tear-drops of the goddess of 
Royalty of the demons were scattered on ground in the form 
of jewels from the crowns of R^vaua. 

76. The drums of the gods first made in heaven the beginning 
of the play of musical instruments to be caused at the isirth of 
sons in the case of him who now got excellent sons. 

77. And a shower of the Saint5naka flowers fell on his palace, 
and that itself became the first arrangement of the auspicious 
decorarions necessary on that joyful occasion. 

78. The princes whose purificatory rites were performed and 
who drank the milk of the nurses, grew up along with their 
father's joy, which was, as it were, the first-born. 

79. Their natural modesty increased on account of education 
(discipline), just as the native brightness of fire increases (is 
intensified) by offerings. 

80. (Being) friendly (lit. not adversely disposed) towards each 
other, they greatly adorned the unblemished family of the Rsghus, 
just as the .seasons (by their conjoint influence) adorn the Nan- 
dana garden. 

81. Although fraternal affection ( among those brothers) was 
equal, still? as R&ma and lyakshmai.ia gladly formed a pair, so did 
Bharata and S'atrughna. 

S2. The unity ( or harmony) between (the members of) those 
pairs was never interrupted, like that between fire and wind or the 
moon and the ocean. 

83. The princes attracted the minds of the people by their 
prowess and modesty, like the days with dark clouds at the close 
of the summer. 

84. The progeny of that king, divided fourfold, appeared like 
an embodied incarnation of ( the four ends of human life viz. ) 
righteousness (performance of religious duties ), attainment of 
riches (or, worldly prosperity), gratification of desires, and final 

85. Devoted to their father, they pleased him, the lord of the 
four quarters to their ends, by their merits, just as the great 
oceans propitiated him by (their) jewels- 

86. The Lord of the kings ( i. e. the Supreme King ) looked 
pre-eminent (or shone) by those four (sons) who were the portions 
of the God Vishnu, like the celestial elephant with his four tusks 
that had blunted the edges of the swords of the demons, like 
statesmanship with the four expedients whose employment is 
clearly indicated by the final object attained (or, the conclusion 
of peace), and like the god \'ishi.n: with his four arms as long 
as a yoke. 



^g«f^: — T^t t^tr T!^Xi' the race of the Raghu3, the solar dynasty 
of kings; and then by S'g^K ( transference of an ejnfchet ) cT^nsT." 
i]^?q-: the composition which describes T^t^T:} and since the word 
ir^^q- is in the mas. gender we get the form ^^^. That the poet 
intended to designate his work by some mas. title appears from his 
line •' cT 'ET'cT: %fr5^' &;c. where Malli, supplies the word •q^pvjjj;' 
as referred to by the demonstrative pronoun ^tj^. 

The authority for forming the titles of literary works is the 
Siitra 'fT^fq'Sftr ^ JJ^^' ( P^Q- IV. 3. 87 ) and the Vart. on it, viz., 
g3rT^(?TrPT^»^T ^f w^- S'lt the Sutra and the V4rtika do not apply 
in the present case. Nor can we add artrr by gf^ jjr^ ( IV.'S. 116 ); 
for then we shall get ^y^^j:- The title, therefore, ought to be 
explained like '^TTflT^^ ' the name of the venerable Sahkaracharya's 
Bhashya on the Yedanta-Sutra of Badardyana. In trying to explain 
this, Bhattoji Dikshita remarks — ^irrK^ viTs^fiTf?? ff ^Tf rT^ITTcj; " th» 
word ^iflT^ which means ^ the soul ' signifies the Bhashya by 
transference of an epithet." * |pirT^*T^/ '^^^^p?T' and other similar 
names ought to be explained similarly. 

Agreeably to the canon of poetics which lays down that *' Every 
poetic composition should open with ( a verse or verses expressive 
of) a blessing pronounced on its readers or a salutation by the author 
to his favourite deity, ■ or the hinting of the sabject-matter"'* the 
Raghuvamsa opens with a salutation by the poet to S'iva and Parvati, 
who, according to the verse quoted in his introduction by Malli. 
from the V&yupurana, ought to be invoked by those desirous of 
poetic fame. 

8'1. 1. t^nnrtn"^ is a compound word and not, as some might be 
led to think, two words. ' errfT'ff ' ^7 itself cannot be syntactically 
connected either with q?^ or with fqcrff, and Malli, rightly considers 
the two words ^^T\^\ and fef as forming an adverbial compound 
( 3T5?T^^*TrH ) modifying the sense of ^JtIf ( ^?t ^^"^ ^R«?Mf ). 

®3ir^^rl^^R^f^^'URcT?E^qJ Dandin. 

t ?r^ =^15^83 ^PT^qr I According to the general rule the word 37*^ ought to 
precede m^. But since the word is classed under the u^jT^p^rf^ gr cup w© 
have gnn4r- According to the Vritlik&ra 3Ts^qr=ft is also correct. 


The text of Malli.'s oom. on this word wherein we find ^^ ^9 
f%?TffiTT^: &c. seems to be oorrnpt; for Malli,, in explaining the com. 
quotes the Bh&shya of P&taiijali. Now Patanjali says ' ^^ ^5- 
^H\m f^^'qPfilcTTT: itq^JT^f^^T?^ ^ ^t^^^ * and not Af^T^o as appears 
in Malli.'s com. in the existing editions of the Ragha. Secondly, 
there are numerous instances in the Raghuvamsa itself which show 
that the comp. with f^ is optional and not Nitya ( obligatory ); e. g,, 
3"gTfFf '^RJT: ( f TT^T ?^ ); iT'n^^'Stf^Tfrrm^ &c. The text of Malli., 
therefore, has been corrected accordingly, ^ j i j -rf)' * ^ — Cf. ^V{ti\i{^ 
>TRr^T g?T^T ^"f^JTfllf I Kum. VI. 79. 

^PT^RfrPTrl^t — 3T«J 18 of three kinds. ^ y'sir or expressed, Tip^ or 
indicated, and ^^^ or suggested. Vide K.-P. II. fi ^H f Tfi f' qD — 
Note the formation of the comp. explained by Malli. The Oom. 
Vijayagani has— «t^ 3"f^?r »Tr ^if^^^^T^ qT*I: I ft 3T^ fs^: i Tf- 

JT«^r#r |s^T«^ 'ttrs^t: \ Cf. also f^ cr^r^JT5?T«f ^ '^ ^\^\\m ^ 1 ^fm 

^ ^^5^^'fFs^T^^'T ^rmff: 11 Some commentators give fanciful render- 
ings of thia-e. g. rrrftfi qrffT ?^^rm Trtm'fr ^^: 1 J:mm c7?^r i^v- ^- 

3T% II fr. r3[5^g:K=^FcT, as quoted by Nand. has opened almost all his works with a verse or verses 
either invoking a blessing of the God S'iva, or containing a salu- 
tation to him — a fact which might point to the oonolusion that he 
was a devotee of the God. It is not, however, to be inferred from 
this that he was a bigoted Saiva. For in the tenth canto of the 
present work, and in Kum. II., he assigns to Vishnu and Brahman 
respectively the highest attributes, which properly apply to 
Brahman ( nm. ); while in one place ( Kum. VII. 44 ) he speaks of 
all these three as one. All this shows that he regarded Brahman, 
Vishpu and S'iva, as each identical with the supreme Brahmau 
viewed in its different capacities of creating, protecting, and finally 
resolving into itself, the universe. 

SI. 2. 3T?^n"«I?n" — ft^^ proper province, range, ^^i^ — difficult 
to be crossed ( even in a ship ). Malli. who says * cTK^iTfr^'?"^ ' seems 
to connect it with ;jf cr^ ( g^"^^ J^cl^JTrg WT^gj^^f I^Tcfrs^f^R" ). 
qt^ni. — through a wrong conception of my true powers; through in- 
ability to judge of my true powers. 3^3-q lit. what protects ( q- ) 


on water (3^); a boat, a raft. ^Tf?:^— ^T»TT: ( ifw R^'^ ^ ^fcT : 
^^r- I ^»T^?«TT'T ^TTOT ^^ W! )— from Bagara, a king of the 
solar race, whose 60,000 sons, while in search of the sacrificial 
horse of their father, enlarged the bounds of the sea, which thence- 
forth came to be called ' SS,gara ' For further particulars see 
XIII. 3 and the note thereon; also Ramayana I. 40. Nanda. quotes 

f^^STT'^RcT I- 2. ( which is undoubtedly based on this ). 

"It is curious to note that there is still to the south of the delta in 
the Bay of Bengal a spot which has not yet been sounded and is sup- 
posed to be unfathomable. That mysterious phenomenon known 
as the ' Burrisaul Guns,' is supposed by some to emanate from the 
hollow of this unfathomable cavern". Prof. Ray's note. 

The figure of speech here is H^^f^? seo foot-note. 

SI. 3. ^>2r^:srr?fr— ^r>q^:in?fJTrgr^: (Malli.), persistingly striv- 
ing after a poet's fame. Or the compound may be expounded thus: 
5T^r«t: itT«T:, ^ff^^T'Tf sn^rTs'ffHffffrS^^by the Vartikas 'ar^-fT^r^Rrf^' 
and 'ei??cTrW.' ^?T«:-fr- 3T^ to pervade 3T?fcT s^P^Tcflf^ "^W-, the 3T of 
3T5T is changed to q before the Un4di aff. 3Tg^ ( 3T^). 

With these two a'lokas wherein the poet modestly speaks of his in- 
ability to complete the task he has set to himself, may be compared 
the last of B4na's iiitroductory verses to his Kdd. and the passage 
in the Har.-Cha. ^q^ fff^qTsrCrci; * ^ ^ W TKcrTSTR'TT'n^ff^^ 
&c. which, it is quite likely, Bana might have modelled on these 
verses of K^liddsa. 

SI. 4. 3T?nT — OJ^ rather. I need not be discouraged. STRT^ — The 
pron. ff^ refers to what is near, ^^ to what is not perceived owing 
to its distance. See Gr. § 72. Here the poet refers to the race by ^^^ 
since it is present to his mind. On such points Bbatt'^ji Dikshita 
remarks-^ f^^^^^\]q %^-q\ ^TRT'-^rftrcTPJ- ^^t: ^F^rq^^^f^TH^' what is 
far removed is often pictured to the mind as near and so addressed. 

I^RTH: — by Valmiki and other Pauranic writers, ^jft: — g^ ^^ 
fj he who gives birth to new ideas &c.; hence a poet; it also means 
a ' philosopher* as in the S'ruti '* ^^ "^^^FfT ^pj-' The sage 
Chyavana is said to have described the solar race bdfore Valmiki — 

qs^nr^^ ^f^5TJTT^ II Budd. I. 48. ^^^^gr^of-f^ ia a steel instru- 
ment with a diamond pin for perforating precious stones. 5^"^ 


«rf%: — this ought to be understood only metaphoricallj, the race 
being represented as a house. 

SI. 5. S'lokas 5-9 are to be construed together and form what 
is technically called a Kulako', see ft.-note. ^r,Sf^ — that 1. 1 as 
described above, i. «., X^frrfl": ^^^ ^r^RfiT fy5^!T>^: who have 
obtained entrance through the door opened by ancient poets. When 
we are speaking of something already described the correlative may 
be omitted, as in the present case. 

^jTrpiT &o. — in all these attributes the particle s^f implies limit 
both inceptive as well as conclusive (see Malli.). ^^gj^ — Via'va- 
nath remarks that for the sake of emphasis this should not have been 
compounded. 3Tr^^ &c. — see note on s'l. 75, and cf. V. 27. ^tt^:-^ 
happiness ^ ^ ar^; ^ 3T^ ^^ ^ ^TT^: ^^^: I Here ^ is not changed to 

=5r ?rr$^T^^5 ^^I%T ^RT: II See Pan. VI. 3, 75. 

8 1. 6. ?nnI^f^f?Tnff^r^ — This refers to the three sacred fires 
^^W, TT^ "Trq and STl^^^IT ( see Manu. II. 321) which a Dvija 
(twice-born, i.e., a Br&hma/ia, a Kshatriya and a Vaisya) is 
enjoined to consecrate and keep up. Cf. arfjrf t^ ^ ^'?r?i?l5% ?jf%llr" 
^^r I ^^^ =^T^5Tl^r'^ ^fOTtrr^JT M^ I? Il Manu. VI. 25j for the ffPT see 
Mauu. IV. 21-32. Oh&r. and Vijay. also dissolve as ^V(u^T^ ^fftTl'^ 
^: ff% ^T; remarking ^^n^nrTncrf^,. Jr»T^Jcfi?r ^^m: i The kings 
of the solar race had a special house built for the purpose; see 
infra Y. 25. The three fires are collectively called "^cTi; in Manu. 
III. 100, 185, five holy fires are mentioned, two more ^vvf and 
3TX^^«T being added to the list. 

^«rr^wqiitnT'Tni— The term f^ shows habit. This may mean 
who were in the habit of (1) waking up at the proper time, i. «., 
^I^T 5f ^ ( ^®® Manu. IV. 92 ) ; or (2) knowing in detail (^) and 
taking action. The latter is better. Who knew everything in time, 
such as the secret movements of their enemies &c. and provided for 
emergencies; who woke, in time, to the proper sense of danger 
whenever it threatened their subjects and protected them from it. 
Boo Malli. (!T5rrq[c3"JT^*TT &o. )• 

B'l. 7. ^^rnrnr, ^^^r^r &o. %ee MalU. and Gr. § 687. »Tf«lf^JTr^— 
Malliu&tha's explanation of this seems to be quite correct and S. P. 
Pandit's remarks on it quite out of place. Mr. Pandit would derive 
the word fr. ^g^^t^ a kind of sacrifice to be performed in a house, 
And Tfirn^ according to him is simply a householder. But this 


3oe9 not seem to be intended by the poet at least here. See s'l. 25, 
where the poet clearly says Tr^^rg: q'g;^^- The ^^^^ of Mr. Pandit 
has nothing to do with STSTF oi* 'progeny.' Manu's statement ' 3T^ 
117^1^%: &c.' applies to the welfare of the people in general, 
resulting from the performance of sacrifices. Char., Din. and 
Sumat. hare ■q^^^■T] f^^]^: m'Ef^^tj aiid Valla, says ^f ^^^ ^\q-% 

S'L 8. ffq-^fr^nj;— ff'Sfsq?^ fF^Jrrrot "^^ fl"^ ff«r'Ti: those on 
which the senses are set, t.c,. the objects of pleasure; f^?TT^ f^s^f^ifrn" 
m%N°r:. C/. '^ ?T^r iTf>?^^r^g^^m^T 3T*ft' Amar. ^fq-f^ffrq-ra- 
gi% fr. ip5; to think + |^ before which the 3? of i^^ is changed to gr. 
of^Rt — A Vyadhikarana Bah. Oomp.; g^HTTHf frTnf«lP^- 

According to the Mahabh^shya the comp. ought to be dissolved 
thus: — gq'r^t ffTfgf^f [%:, gHf (%K^ f RR^r^ , in accordance with the 
rule ' ^rw^T^HIfT^^^Tr^'^^T'TS^ ^Rps??:'. If dissolved otherwise there 
would be no g^qin^Tf • Malli. when he says gift^t f%- ?^ means 
5T%fT%rTWj see his com. on ^q^^^q": s'l. 13 further on. But Vamana 
and many other later grammarians do not seem to like to stick to 
the verbal rigour of the Bhashya in such cases. Thus Vamana, in 
his Kas'ika says 3^^q 5^W^ ^ T^^T ^ 3"S"5^: and not ^'^S^f^Tf ^W 
?I^ as in the Bhashya. Malli. evidently follows the Bh&shya. 

gjl i jiT — »• *• they practised yoga or contemplations ( see VIII. 19, 
20 ) and when they became adepts in that they caused their soul to 
merge into the supreme soul by contemplation. The four epithets 
in this s'l. imply the four stages of life of a twice-born; see com. 

S'l. 9. ^^rrr^ — Here by ^^nnr Raghus means 'the kings of the 

race of Raghu;' r^0Tr;i?ar??J3; fr% g cT^lc^ tJ^Uot^T- For the def. of 

^^T^I see K.-P. II. '^^'a\\ 5l^=^^^??TTcq^f3TTr^fT: ' I Bha. Pari. 

3T5=^?T^— 3TfH^f^ T^^TT ^'=^^ iT=^??pfr arfwf^r^^^: a connected 
line, geneology. rT^^p^^ffT-though my powers of expression are 
scanty or very poor; though possessed of a limited power of descrip- 
tion. ^FTrST^r see note on f?rR II. 1- 

iV. B. All these attributes of the Raghus will be found illustrated in 
"the present work; see ft. -note. 

S'l. 10. ^^: — ^ri properly 'what exists' ( pres. p. of ars;^); and 
A3 goodness alone endures for a long time, it secondarily means-good, 
a good man. ^fg'g i j p^^ rT^: — see Malli. Here 3T^c5[^ does not imply 
.negation of good, but has a positive sense; 'what is opposed to 
good.' Cf. MS.1. II. 10, quoted in the foot-note, where the idea nearly 


S'l. 11. ^^^^rif f{^: — There are 14 Manua iu a Kalpa. For their 
names see foot-note. fV^75 — the sun, is variously derived; i%f^ 
^fH aTfxgr^iji'H §f(T; or ffq[ ^f^q: ( fr. fw^ + ffrq-J, ar^'JRcfTrlT. It is 
also derived from ^^ with ff Ved 6. P. to shine forth, to dawn 
( 'J'^rn^ ): the brilliant one. 

The Manu referred to here is the 7th of the 14 Manua, aoraetimes called 
Ff^^fT from his purity. He is considered to be the eon of f^^r^rj; 'the sun', 
and is regarded as the progenitor of the present race of living beings- He 
is also described as the brother of Yama, who, aa son of Vivasvat, is also 
called Vaivasvata. This Blanu is regarded as the founder and first king 
of AyodhyA. His daughter I1& married Budha, son of the moon, the two 
great solar and lunar races being thus united. This Manu was preserved 
from a great flood, according to another account by Vishnu in the form of 
a fish, and has been compared in this respect to Noah of the Old Testament. 

T^fif^orr^ — Malli. takes this as a comp. of the g^'fr^nf^ class; x^t^ 
f"f^^=*r^+ff^ like ^q-(?;+ 3"?^:=f^^C, the 3T?r of ^^Tl being 
irregularly dropped; in this he follows the Bh&shya and Kaiyata. 
Bhattoji Dikshita includes this under the ^j^F'^frf^ Tfj; ir^+ 
ffV^ like ^^ + 3T?3 = g^ 3T^g., there being T^T?Tp«^, see Gr, § 15. 
T^ri^^ — one who goes to everything by his mind i.e. intellect; wise. 

*T?rf|T?Tr — Read iu the com. ^^{ {^iT^fi% as f^ in the sense of * to 
rule ' is of the vfff^ class. Cf. ^\ ^j »T'E^cl'tr?T«f ^^mr^lf?^ *i^rt i 
?f«Ts^f %'7?fr?^rfr f%^T^«^: sr^f^rr: H See note on ^f\\^^•. I. 85. 
srTT:-is the sacred syllable afr'JC, so called from its bsing repeated 
in the beginning of Vedic verses ( fr. m-g * to praise'). 
''According to some accounts the mystic ifoiaf was the source of all 
the Vedas. A passage in the Aitareya Br&hmana, however, makes 
the sforf arise from the Vedas. See Ai. — Br. V. 31." S. P. 
Pandit's note. 

A Br^hmana must repeat the holy syllable aRf(ii;^at the beginning and end 
of the recital of a Vedic passage; for unless the syll. a^rq;^ precedes, his 
learning will slip away from him; unless it follows nuthiug will be long 
retained by him. (Vide Manu quoted in the foot-nota). It appears for 
the first time in the Upanishads ( vide the M^nJukya and the Ohb&ndogyA 
Upahishad ) as a mystic monosyllable, and is there set forth as the object 
of profound religious meditation, the highest spiritual efficacy being 
attributed to it. " All rites ordained in the Vedas, solemn sacrifices and 
others," says Manu "pass away; but that which passeth not away is the 
imperishable Om." Om is also regarded as a mystic name for the Trinity 
of the (iodhead, the three sounds s?, 3 and j^ representing Vishnu, S'iva 
and Brahman respectively:— ai^r^ f^«^5^f^ff J*lf^ *t#*»t: ' tT i*» i <ui1^<<jl 
^fpr ^3rT^5 "^^ ^^'- " ^^^^ Manu. II. 74-84, Also Gough's Upanishads 
pp. 69-73. 


SI. 12. rm^: — Malli. translates this by STFrT:? meaning thereby 
that the root g; should be taken here as used intransitively. Unless 
we suppose so it is difficult to justify the use of the word with 
KcTPT- A transitive root may be used intransitively, when the ^^ is 
3TT^%fT> »*• e., not meant to be expressed; so we may say ^^\ ^irrt 
SSf or Iff g;cTr or q-^^ (c/. grr: irgcTr mr Bhav. ) the ^t in the 
latter case being suppressed and the affix ^ used ^^f^ ^^^ I But it 
is not easy to understand an expression like 5^: JT^fT: unless we 
supply rT-m^T- ?T^f ••— By S'TT^cT s^TTJrritpT: ^mp'Tiq'^rjr P&D. II. 
1. 56. t. c, a noun expressing the object of comparison is com- 
pounded in a Tat. (^^^rT'f) with a noun expressive of the standard 
of comparison, saoh as s^\^, when. the common attribute is not 
mentioned; here |?t implies excellence. 

f^: ^rfrr^^rf^^ — This refers to the churning of the milky 
ocean by the gods and demons. The moon was one of the fourteen 
gems rescued Irom the churned ocean. For further particulars see 
Mb. Adip. 14. ^^:_3^7% aTf^^ ^^p^^Tr ^T S^^ffrfcT; from 3^ to 
wet, to bathe, and the Unadi affix 3"; the 3" being irregularly changed 
to f . 

The word ^ ia frequently found in the Rigveda and ie said to mean 
either (1) a bright drop of the Soma juice or (2) the Soma juice itself. 
Cf. QcTT^T 1^5 Rv. I. 16. 6- The word then came to signify a 'globule or a 
round little body' and finally became a name of the moon. See note on 
^••yFTT^R:!!. 73. 

S'l. 13. s^^^^gff: — ^ is necessarily added to a Bah. ending in SX'H" j 
see com. ^TT^^tg^-has also a technical meaning, for which see ft. note. 
TfTJJ'STJ— Some understand by r{^ri_ 'reaching as far as the knees. ^ 
From Dilipa's hugeness of form which enabled him to discharge the 
noble functions of heroism, such as the protection of the weik &c. 
the poet infers that he was, as it were, heroism incarnate. 3TRrTgs^*r*t 
&c. Cf. ^r^r ^A: f«r?T f^ erg sr^^nrf'T Jjctt i Uttar. VI. 2. 

S'l. 14. ^^^TrriT^TTT^TrrT — Malli. does not expound this but 
simply gives the meaning. Dissolve gf 'siTTfcTKTpcl^: 'fffTmRTp: ( Gr. 
§ 135. 3) ^T?r 'J^; or arrnr?^: ^TKT 'T?*! ^^TT^K^^R:: ; ^af^'R^imnr^^F- 
mX^' ^^miiwrnx- I ^fH«fff*r*rTr?^r-3ee Malli.; or better dissolve 
^f =^ cT%"^: ^^"cT^:, fT^PrirT^T^; Up. com.; or cl'F'TIPI^lfr- According 
to V4mana the root ij^ with ^\^ takes f^ in the sense of the p, tense. 

^^fvT^fr — ^^*^ ^^r\^l^^ I %F^ — According to the geography of 
the Puranas, the mountain Meru forms the central point of the 
worlds, all the planets revolving round it, and is in shape like the 

or seed-vessel of a lotus, all the Dvtpas spreading round it like 
petals. It is formed of gold, and is 84,000 Yojanas in heiglit, 16,000 
of which are below the surface of the earth. The Ganges falls from 
heaven on its peak and thenoe ilows to the sea. Its sumoait is the 
residence of Brahman, and the meeting-place of the gods, Riskis^ 
Gandharvas &cj. Cf. Kal.-P. l^^fv^ E^^^ '^ Tcfl &c.-, also Mat.-P. 

&c. &c. 

The words of Manu srsrwa &c. quoted by Malli. apply to all kings in 
the true sense of the term. But here they apply to Dillpa alone, since ho 
was pre-eminently the kiog who ruled over the other kings, as if they 
were no better than mere subjects when compared withjhim. See s'l. 30. 

S'l. 15. !T^qT ^g"5rrTT: — This is grammatically inaccurate, if not 
wrong. The word ^^\ cannot be in the instrumental case, unless it 
be connected with ^[^^. Consequently all the three words ought to 
have been compounded together (iT ^ltlg ^^TT:) or ^^ and stttT should 
not have been compounded in a Bah., such a compound not being 
allowed except in the case of a ^srf^T?- The poet, however, may" 
be defended by supposing the ^cfl'Tr to be used I'tff; and the clause, 
consequently, to mean 'his study of the S'&stras was such as would 
do credit to him by reason of his (acute) intellect.' The same may 
be said of str^: ^s-^rfit: I 

aTTTT — According to Malli. 3TT»r*? in ?Tl"^nT*T means the study or 
the acquisition of the knowledge of the S'dstra (cf. ^fVfprirrirWwT: 
infra 26) while in 3Tiir^: it means the knowledge so acquired. For 
this latter sense, cf 3TTirJTf:g"%Cr «"/'"a VI- 41; and Kir. II. 28. g^?T: 
WJJsg" annir: ^^^ fr<T f^r«l?^'tq^ n ; ef also for the curious deri- 
vation of the word. — STpnt %<fW^*^ *T(f '^ fniT^g?Tt i *Tct ^ 

S'l. 16. sfprgffiT^: — may also be dissolved as a Dv. Oomp. a^- 
sflR-fr^— The Gen. is used by the rule < ^V^j ^F^R ^ " i ^<r3fn%=Tl 
5T vnl??'cT ?r?T STT^lf^JTW^^: I t|t ^^T^TT I For the two epithets 3T^T 
and 3TflT»r^iT, cf the quotations given in the foot-note. aiT^i: not 
to be approached or slighted. Cf S'&k. sjft ^ifW^nTtlQ ifMTH^T'iJfTrW 

8'!, 17. In this s'l. the poet very happily compares Dillpa to a 
skilful charioteer driving the car of social and state affairs, the 


aubjects to the circumference of the wheels and the line of conduct 
laid down by Macu to the track of the wheels. 

^CTon^_(a) practised; (b) beaten. PT^TJ^:— («) restrainer, guide; 
(b) charioteer. ^frTfrl^:— see note on gf^fTTRT^ s'l. 8. 

S'l. 18. ^Toq^— ij^fT^ ?i1T; ' 'Jr^T 3T«inr' given by Malli. is the ex- 
planation and not the disaolution of the comp.; for the Mah^bhashya 
remarks ' f^^: ^fqr^T 1%?=!?^*?^ 'I^ 1%Wr ( *'• *• ^^ terms of its 
own members) ^if^ |' ^'?rq^— ^S't^T^'^ -T^q; i Malli. Vide Manu. VII. 
128-132. 3Tr^%_Th6 root ^ to give ( 3 cl. ) takes either pada; 
but when preceded by 3TT it is Atm. in any other sense than that of 
'opening the mouth ', by ' 3TT#r ft.S^?Ti%^'Jt ' Pan. I. 3. 20. For 
other particulars, see Gr. p. 406. ff ^^ ^- — ^'tW ^cJ^^ T^^ T'^StflfH 
fT Tf^:; fr. ^ and :s^\]^ aff. f ( added to roots ending in a vowel ); 
c/. T[>, ^r^, 3m, 3Tiw &c. Of. canto X. 58. For the repetition of 
the thought, see IV. 86, 

S'l. 19. %;Tr— €f f^^ qipir a leader, ^^^ ffff. qK^.^^:— Here 
crf^'^^ is related as f^^^ to %^\. %JTTMK^U?' naay as well be taken 
as one comp, word ( %^r TK"*?^ T^Sr ) in the Gen. case qualifying 
?T^. ^fr^U^ ( 2;^) is what covers or surrounds a person, external 
appendage, paraphernalia-something more for show than for use. 
So great was the personal vigour of the king combined with his 
thorough knowledge of the political and military tactics, that his 
enemies dared not oppose him and his army^remained merely hang- 
ing upon him like his paraphernalia, scarcely having occasion to go 
to war. ^[^ — ^^^^Tf^^^ I fr. rIs + rTT optionally changed to ST'T 
by the Sutra ' f^^vqf cT^^^TFTSfT l' Hence we have the two forms 
fq- and f^f^q-; similarly ^^ and f^cT^. 

S'l. 20, ^ 'triH^M^^ cf- sir. 50. il?T^TTT%?T^-3TT^FTT external fea- 
tures or the expression of the face, as giving a clue to one's inward 
thoughts or mental disposition, ff^ — inward thoughts, secret 
aims or purposes. Cf. 3T^i;g^^r ? ??cTTll="cT^T &o- Kumar. V. 62. 
For other particulars see Samjlvani and foot^iotes. 

^f^Rirr: sn"TfrJrr for— The word ^^k is iised in different senses in 
different places by K41i., e.g., III. 18 where it means polishing^ XV. 
76 and Kum. I. 28, where it means grammatical purity; III, 35 and 
Kum, VII. 74, where it means education, mental culture &c. Here 
it is used in the sense of the impressions produced by the good or 
bad works performed by an individual in a previous life. Such 
impressions are called Samskaras because they remain clinging to 


the soul of the individual who performed the works like the smell 
(^r^^r) of a thing, like musk; which, though itaelf separated, yet 
remains in cloth. The new-born infant proceeding, untaught, to 
suck the mother's breast, is a case in point. According to the 
Nyaya philosophy the moral merit and demerit are qualities of the 
immortal soul, imperceptible but inferred from reasoning Accord- 
ing to the Vedanta philosophy, the soul has nothing to do with 
them but it is the astral body (fcj^^f ) which passes from one cor- 
poreal existence to another accorapaniod by the fruits of the good 
or evil actions a man performs in a life which influence his actions 
in a future life. Vide Sar.-Bhiis. on Br.-Siit. III. 1. 8. Vide, also 
Su. Ni. I. 45-52. Nearly the same thought is repeated in * »r%ff 
^JTI'cTr^JfTa^ ' VI r. 15. 

Note :— It will be seen that the etymological sense of the word Sams- 
k&ra underlies the various senses given above. The word is formed f r. 
^K^..^....^^{ 3T ). ^is pretixed to the root j by the rules HTR^^t ^fft SJIW i 
fl^sTT^ ^ ( Pin. VI. 1, 137-8 ) t. e. after the prepositions ^and qf^, when 
it means to ornament or to collect together. The Saniskura may in one 
sense be said to adorn a man iaasmuch as all that he does depends upon 
them, and which therefore are of prime importance. Or ^^^k may mean a 
collection. And since uo other coIlectioD is more important than that of 
good or bad deeds done by a man in a previous life as affecting his 
present life, it may pre-eminently and of all other collections be said to be 
his Saimkdra. 

S'l. 21. T f i \ m &c.-He took care of his body, as required by the 
s'istra; see foot-note. He did it, however, without employing body- 
guards like other kings ( see Kir. I, 14 f^^\^ i^\^ ^\^^- 'TTcT^r^ )t 
for he did not require these ( see infra II. 4). st^T^T: — For, 
while in the enjoyment of good health, a man doe:^ not generally 
think of God and his religious duties, but when attacked by a disease 
he turns his eyes to these; cf. ftm '^^^afH'^:. ^T^I*^: &c> — '^^^ foot- 
note. Cf. Bg. XVIII. 26:— gw^ifRtwr^T ??3f^f?^*T?^cT: t 
f€^-5rRr^4rfi^T^^r^: t^rrf^nf^ T^^tH H 'That agent is called good, 
who has cast o£P attachment, who is free from egotistic talk, who 
is possessed of courage and energy, :iud unaffected by success or ill- 
aaocess.' K, T. Telang's Translation. 

STT^rTv STTrHC: &o — The negative particle 3T^ ( 3T ) in these is 
emphatic, being meant to distinguish Dilipa from other princes. He 
protected his body not because he was in fear like other kings, but 
because it was his religious duty to do so. See Sam., and food-notes. 


This S'l. i3 quoted in the K.-P. VII. 3 to show that though the 
^oi'm :iTW^ &c. 13 compounded there is no a^Rf^ffvi^rhTfr'T ( «• «•? 
a fault of composition which consists in not expressing the predicate 
at all or iu as^-igning to it a subordinate or wrong position) here. 

marks the UdaharaTlachandrika. 

Writers on rhetoric explain two kinds of negation (^^) viz. ^^- 

^^^\^^^ and q^^r^r- 'arirr^r^ f%yr^ ^\^'^ it^jtctt i n'^^'rqTeT^qT^f 

f^^ir ^f ^^ ;T3?;||' The ^si^ is called ir^5q-£Tr%'^^ ( emphatic ) when 
the negation instead of the affirmation is prominent, and the ?T5T^is 
expressed with the verb. Again, ^^y^[^^^ f^^q^ irm^^Sq'^TrTT i T§?T^: 
^ ^^\ ^^Trf^qt^ ^5T II ' The ^5T^is called ^^\^ (unemphatic) when 
the affirmation is more prominent than the negation, the ^5i^ being 

The author of the K.-P. and his commentators seem to take the- 
negation in ar^^cT &;c. as q^f^r^ or unemphatic, by the general prin- 
ciple, that if a word enters into a compound it is subordinated and 
cannot, therefore, be emphasized ( ^^i^ ^m^^^\^^\'^^\ ). But this 
takes largely from the beauty of the s'loka. The ^551^ here must be 
taken as emphatic, since in the negation of these attributes lies the 
superiority of Dilipa over other princes. The general principle 
explained above does not hold good in every case. P&n. himself 
is often found compounding an emphatic q=iT^ and V&mana while 
commenting on P4n. III. 3. 19, remarks q-fr^qM^^r? ^nTT€tR?T V 
The ^5T here, therefore, ought to be taken as iT^^q'^^^^Ji aud not 
as ^^^^ 

S'l. 22. ^^ — Knowledge of the secret doings of others (Malli.) 
What is meant is this: Even though the king knew of the actions 
of men done in a spirit hostile to him, he did not give utterance to 
words calculated to give them pain, but silently adopted measures 
to thwart their object &c. In connexion with this the following s'l. 
from K^m. may be quoted: ^t ff:^- f^T?^«f ?t?TT ^PcTC'Irr 3T^: I qT%efTR 
ff ^^\^\ ?r r[\ ^R^^T^ri; 11 ^JT may also be taken to mean knowledge 
in general, ^r^, gT^I)" &c. — the Loc. here is sr^TT^j 'notwithstanding 
knowledge/ i. e. he attached greiit-."- importance to'observing silence 
than to displaying his knowledge, «fec. rarrrf &c. — Because of the 
precept ^ ^f^\ ^\W\h'krl I 

'FTST^nT- — A difficulty arises in solving compounds like these. Malli. 
says ^f iT?T^'^'^t% ^fr^fff?:; but it is very difficult to see what autho- 


rity he has for this. Thisoomp. is of the nature of ^it»jt» ^T^r^, fTSTIfft'T 
&c. But there is no Su'tra of Pan. satisfactorily explaining these. 
Vamana in his K&sik4 gives a very simple solution of the diflfioalty. 
While commenting on the Su'tra < ^qf;f;pT ?n=?PT5'4irf?5f'% ' he 
observes that the portion ' ^Rf^ir ' should be detached from this 
and considered as separate Sutra by itself, bo that it may explain 
the above-mentioned cases. Bhattoji Dikshita conforms to this 
opinion of Vjtmana, but following Haradatta, suggests that the ^ 
in compounds like ^ett^ may not be substituted for ^m^ but for ^ 
meaning ^ike to/ as in the case of ?r^f^(3TlTWr ^?I5?: FS^Tf^^'m?! I 
F1"?T: F^pzrr FFWrfcT T^ir l ), and that the comp. may be called Bah., 
the word ^^ not occurring in the f%ir?^Ifq-(fl^r?T»T^q?f^f I ^Tffnf: l)- 
We must therefore dissolve either as ^qr^: tr^f tJ'^T'i; » or following 
the Sid.-Kau., as ^g-^j: iWf r 'J'^t ?riTF^:, or F^iT^fr:, Ff being opti- 
onally changed to ^ by the rule ffT^^^f^; and not as Malli. has it 
( Ff if^^ ^^r^ ). It will thus be seen that it is difficult to find a 
defence for Malli, unless we suppose (not without warrant; see notes 
on I. 1 ) ^^ to be wrongly put in for ^j^^ by some meddlesome 

S'l. 23. f^^^: — for der. see notes to si. 8. r?r«rPTt TJT??^' — Tit 
??"^I'TITf<^I ( 't^+^^ F&n. III. 2. 94 ) one who has seen the other 
side, f^ is used at the end of a comp. ( see V. 24 ). Words of 
similar derivation are ^^5*.^, nvii*^<?<. &c. f^«|R|^ — According 
to some there are four Vidy'as ( see the s'l. quoted in foot-note ), 
vt~. ( 1 ) 3TT'«ilf^^r logic and metaphysics; (2) ^qi the three Vedas 
3fm, ?I5?T, and HT^T^j (3) ^13? t^ie practical arts such as agriculture, 
commerce &c. ( see XVI. 2 ); and (4) ^iry^rf^ the science of govern- 
ment or politics ( see XVIII. 46 ). To these Manu adds a fifth, viz. 
3TTr*TR?TT the philosophy of the soul ( vide Mann VII. 43 ). 
According to others the Vidyas are fourteen ( vide Sam. on V. 21 
and Manu. quoted therein ); while there are others aiill who add 
four more Vidyas to the above list, making up the numbor eighteen: 


SI. 24. fr^^mTRn — m'T good morals, discipline; here, 
dducation in general; cf III. 29 ( i^f%^: ); STT^^ir^— iiif^sing, 
inculcating; C^TTra* *mT5. all these are ablatives showing the 
5^ of Dilipa's being the father of his subjects. A noun 
denoting \^ may take the Abl. or the Inst. See Sid.-Kau. on Ptn. 


II. 3. 26. g- fq^r &c- — 'o'' the repetition of the same thought see II 
48; XIV. 23. Cf 9.\%o -^i^ ■^^\\^^\vmi'^;^^'v^\■^\■^^ i s'^k. V. 8 

%g-?y aT^H?^^- — ^ peculiar construction, though not rare in the writ* 
ings of Kalidasa. %f^ is an acTp. qualifying the verb «n3; in ^f?iT. 
Cf, ^ "^f^ ^T Hf^TT'Tm &c. Kum. V. 83. 

S'l. 25. f^zi^— the Dat. here is cTrf«;^> '^OJ" the purpose of pre- 
serving social order. ^^T^rTJ — Malli. renders this by RT^^fT: chastis- 
ing. The root ^u^alao means 'to fine' e. g. iTTT^ ^Trf ^^'^fcT I This 
seems to be the meaning intended by the poet here. Cf. ' -ST^sHcJ 
at^(^»icT^ ^ n5f[ ' Bk. I. 4; Kir. I. 13. H K^ls;— TR + jfl * to take 
round/ hence to marry; the root has this meaning probably because 
the husband takes the bride round the sacrificial fire at marriage. 
ir^jrT^ — This strengthens the statement ir^T% 'Jf^f^F'i; ' I- ^• 

ST'^^^FH'jfr &c. — even the attainment of the two objects 3T^ (wealth) 
and ^\^ ( sensual pleasure ) was to him the attainment of the third, 
viz. q^, i. e., he attained the two objects as a part of the third. His 
sense of his religious and temporal duties was so great that he 
attached special importance to qj? and subordinated to it the consi- 
deration of 3T^ and ^^[^. See the gist of the line given by Malli. 
aT^^rrr^r^jfr: &c. S. P. Pandit's note to this passage which 
purports to say that the king did not employ separate means to 
attain q'lr but attained this as the result of the attainment of the 
other two, does not seem to be correct; for we are already told in 
the 23rd si. that the king took care to do his religious duties 
( yr^^%: ). The poet simply means to say that the king did not extort 
money from his subjects to swell his treasury, nor did he give 
himself up to sensual pleasures, in such a way as to infringe 
scriptural law. For the recurrence of the same thought, see XVII. 67. 

Note •■ — Since words falling under the vrqn^ group may be compounded 
in any order ( vrqif^tscff^JTrf: ) we may have either 3T«fcp7^ or -^TJir^^f ; similarly 
<wr4t or a^iw^Titf, ^xflfrslf or 37«i^t# &o. 

S 1. 26. ^rf — Mark the use of ^ which means 'to milk' in the 
first instance and then to drain or empty of the best part; and the 
pun on in which means a cow and also earth. For this sense of 
5^, cf. 5^^?iff^^i' Kum. I. 2. lit ffiT — This does not mean that he 
deprived the people of their money, but simply this, that he spent 
the greater part of the state-rcvenue in the performance of 
sacrifices as'there were no wars to be carried on. JTeJ"^ — RU% ^^cT 
3T#r T^Tj irregularly derived from ^^ to adore and Uriadi afiix 

^f^=^ ( 3^^ ) and augment f^(^). There are twelve other words 
similarly derived: s^;?;, ?^^ , ^^, gfrf^^WT^, ^f^, H^k^, »T55r^, 
3T^JT^, f^s«?t^q;, TK^^, and qfcTK*^ ( by the Su'tra j«^5T^^ &o. 
Una. I. 159 ). 

fvjg : — Properly this should be in Atm. by the rule '^^ff ^jf^r- 
faw' 'the Atm. should be used to express exchange of motion' ( see 
Gr. § 662 ); but since the poet does not wish to convey the idea of 
'exchange of action ( fffmx ),' but expressly that of 'exchange of 
wealth ( ^*tri%R«T*T )' the Sfitra.does not apply -and we have the 
Par. ^?fj^«pj-_C/, Bg. III. 10-12 and S'4k. VII. 34 quoted in the 

S'l. 27. f%?7 — indeed, verily; or it may be used "^Irgr in the sense 
of 'history informs us &c. ' sr^fST:— other kings of course could 
not attain his fame of protection; for had they imitated him, that 
would have been a kind of theft; but theft did not exist in his 
kingdom, qr^ is a noun and not a pronoun here. See Gr. § 150. 
rr^^frrn"-cT?^C derived fr. fTci;+^^ ( tTc^ffcTrn ); by the Gana-Sn'tra 
VI. 1. 157. 'cT^f?Ti: qj^qc^rl;,' [ ^rtfcfqT: g^cT^q«^ ] ?!q;aud f^ 
when followed by ^^ and qfer drop the 6nal q; and insert g instead, 
provided the words mean ^j^ and ^cTT respectively; ri^^Ky lfWf?T- 
^^r — t. e. in the term expressive of theft ( ^r^^^T«% )> ». e. the word 
theft only remained; it did not exist in practice. See Malli. Or theft 
exerted itself ( operated on ) ^f%, t. e., the word theft was forgotten. 
This is more poetical. 

S'l. 28. |TJ2r: — one deserving to be hated; here used as equivalent 
to f^q'ci;^ a f oe. ra'S" • — Malli. seems to take it as an ad/.; it may as 
well be taken as a substantive. %S": ^s^tTT &0m this better harmo- 
nizes with 3Ttqvi. ;jc»t: — 3"^?ri *T=^?r<fFf?r I The ?t of g-^is dropped by 
<3"^^r ?7r<T«^' Vart. on Pan. III. 2. 48. 

S'l. 29. f viir: — According to the Sid.-Kau. this word is derived fr. 
^r with f^, and the affix 3T«;; f%^<?TR fT% ^^\' bo who creates: ^vj being 
substituted for f^^] by HVirsTf ^^ ^ Una. IV. 224 Some derive it fr. 
f^6 P. to rule, to govern, fftir^tf^. JlfT't^T^T'TrmT— ^*nm is 'what 
is collected together,' materials. The five great or primary elements 
are — earth ( ^if\ ), water ( srg ), fire .( ^si^^ ), air ( ^J^g ), and ether 
(sTT'FRT). Tor a similar idea see Kum. 1. 49, imtf^ — and henoo, 
owing to which. Tj^^'^^Tq^f^p—C/. 'SUTTrfjrq T^JT^Tr^T^l' infra VIII. 31 _ 

S'l. 30. oT^ar^r^^r^— 3T'«TW ^TiH^in=^<Tw^'i[. arff^rmj^iFiT^TRnT 
q^qr^cTra,! By the Vart. Rsft^pir^TRf ^ffrf^^f 'ftTiTqT^rqr ^w^^^■ 



" the negative particle ^5T in combination with a word having the 
eeuae of 'there is' may enter in a Bah. comp. and the word following 
it be dropped optionally, " \^^^J^ may optionally be dropped, and 
thus we may get the two forms 3TF%^m^P^^IH?Tf, and 3T?r==^^TW:TT^. 
^i^iP^ — lit. <the wide one/ the earth; /ctw. fr. gr^ irregularly derived 

fr. 3r^-375nTm 3r<t^^ ^r ( Un4. i. 31. ). 

The presence of the word f ^?t which usually means 'a bracelet^' 
in g'cJ'Ffq'^sr'^I^ suggests a side-meaning. The earth is the spouse of 
the king who wears a bracelet in the shape of the "^^j, a waist-zone 
in the form of the sea, and who is solely obedient to her husband's 
will. See Malli. on I. 32. 

S'l. 31. frf^T^^^ — ?f%iT?^ *ITfr ^]\^^^ gentleness, winning 
manners, attention to the wants of others; ( see Malli. ). Some 
derive it fr. ^f^tiT ( right-hand ) right-handed, skilful, knowing how 
to please everybody; fl^tir§"tq" sprung from, celebrated, grown 
familiar with everybody. *TJT^^?r^ — born in the family of the 
Magadha kings. 

" Magadha was the ancient name of Southern Behar, or that part of 
Behar which is to the South of the Ganges, between Bengal and the 
Karmanaa'S,, and watered by the lower S'ona and the numerous little streams 
flowing towards the east in a parallel direction. Magadha was once the 
eeat of several most celebrated dynasties of ancient Indian kings. It was 
also here that Buddhism first took its origin. Pataliputra, the capital of 
Magadha, was situated near the confluence of the S'ona with the Ganges. " 
S. P. Pandit's note. Its ancient capital was fSTR^^ or ^r^gf ( identified 
with K4jgir, which is about seven miles to the south of Nulanda or 
Baragaon ). Magadha was Kikata in later literature. 

crrTfT — Fem. of trf^; by the role ^r^^\ v^^^f^J, ^\'^ takes the 
augment ?r before the fem. aff. I ( f^ ) when participation in a 
sacrifice is implied. The use of this word shows that of all wives 
of Dilipa she alone was ••q"»^[ i. c. had the right of joining him in 
religious rites. 

5Tt.^^^f ff^^TT — 3lv^^:-The word is variously derived. (I) ^ \.^^J 
If^T ^rf^ir?; that in which there is no sinful killing (that being the be- 
lief of the MlmSmsakas. Vide Manu. V. 44 ). Sayana in his com. on 
the Rigv. derives it as (2) ^t fc^^circq^f t: ft'^^fcT: free from molestation 
by the Rakshaaas. See Sayana and Y^ska quoted in the ft. note. 
Later writers derive it thus: (3) ar^fw fir% ^^fcfr?^'--^^: that which 
opens up a good path (t. «., the path which leads to bliss or heaven ) 
for its performer; and lastly (4) ^ sff: ^f???:, ^ ^^m ^'fcfr ^mum 


?n that which never proves crooked, never fails to give its reward. 
The poet evidently uses it in the last two etymological senses. 

^f^forr — ( See Malli. ). The donation to Brahmanas at a sacrifice 
is personified as a goddess. She is said to be the author of Rg. X. 
107. She is sometimes regarded as a daughter of Prajapati, ^^ by 
name, or as the wife of Yajna or Sacrifice. She onght to be highly 
adored, else the sacrifice would be fruitless. Vide Bhag.-P. IX. 1. 
The Br.-V.-P. thus accounts for the name: — ^aTfrT^r^fcfrHT^t 5 ?l% 

Note: — The points of similarity on which the simile is based are 
these — the king was very munificent and granted the desires of every on« 
and 80 was like Adhvara which does the same. The Dakihind gladdens 
the Brrilnnanas at a sacrifice and so Sudahshind, pleased everybody liy her 
conduct. The appropriateness of the simile raiglit have been better 
understood in times when the sacrifices were in vogue than now. The 
particle §, which indicates excellence, perhaps s'lows that Dilipa's wife 
was even superior to the wife of Adhvara, as the latter is only Dakihind, 
while the former was Su-dakshijtii. 

S'l. 32. ST^Cf^T — 3T^?5^cT fr?T^?rvT: the wives of a king taken 
collectively. See IV. 68, 87; VI. 48; XVE. 58 &o. The Loc. 
here is 3^\^ ( Pan. IE. 3. 38 ) t. e. conveying the idea of disregard. 
H ^ fk^ ^T — q"?T?rt noble »T#r^?TT 3T^'itf^> high-minded. Here the aff. 
i%^ shows sr^T^'f or excellence. For the various additional senses 
in which affixes showing possession are used, see Gr. p. 209, ft. -note. ^ 

r^r^[ ^ ^g-v:frrTq-:— Malli., who remarks * ^?5-«m^ f?^5T ^^>T^ 
%Ff JF^^' 'the epithet lord of the earth,' indicates that he considered 
himself ^?j5ffr^, by the earth also,' takes c7^'tfr ^^ a distinct wife of 
the king. But cT^jfi" is iio* generally spoken of by poets as wife of 
kings. It is ^^^] ( the earth ) that is mentioned in numerous 
passages as the only Kalatra ( wife ) of kings except the wedded 
Queen and not Lakahmi. Cf. fgrre^fT ff ^TT: ^^V^W- VIII. 83; 

fRiTf 5rf?lrq ? irf^s ^^^ ^ 1 ^g^r^i^i ^^m ^w '? 5^ 'TiR'^'^ i S ak. 

III. 17. Lakshmi can, therefore, be spoken of as < wife ' of kings 
only through W^7T> ( cf. III. 36; 38 ) and we think the epithet 
< qnvin'^-TT: ' is used by the poet with that intention. In support of 
Mallinatha's remark, however, we may quote VI. 20, where 
the words of the poet f^^^ ^^qiftiT tT^fr^^HRF show that the poet 
speaks of the lord of the Ailgas as the l^ayaka of S'rt and Saraviat%\ 
also XIV. 86, and Kir. I. 44. 

S'l. 33. rf^iTR — of course refers to Sudakshinli, as she is princi- 
pally mentioBtd in the previous si. 8Tr?*irg5^"?I'?r^— s^^l^t ^^^'H 


3T3^<n, 3T|fM'fl!i^TIrHI^^Nr ^^^^^i I ^Tr^JnTfR^fgrf^:— c/. Malli. on 
the etymology of the word wmj ( II. 1 ) and the Smriti quoted by 
him there. JT^rC^: — ^^ ^^TTT ' by means of; ' iT^r^«i lit. 'the car of 
the mind/ hence a desire &c. 

S'l. 34. ^f?TrTrt[f?T--t«T^?r fffT ^cTH: (^?T^+^5T^t- e. 3T). ^cTH 
may have the sense of (1) progeny, 'and (2) continuation; as the 
aflSx ^5T is added in the sense of cF^ttt ot ^^ . Both the senses 
( though principally the first ) seem to have been intended by the 
poet. See II. 64, and XVIII. 52. 

ij:— ( derived fr. g^I. P. ) ^tfer ^^cT ^^f%m *^: i ' that which 
injures the animals yoked,' hence a yoke. But as the weight of the 
carriage or plough ( as the case may be ) presses heavily upon the 
animals at the yoke, it is sometimes used in the secondary sense of 
'weight, a heavy task &c.,' in which sense it is used here. See 
notes to I. 91. i^%^ is what one deposits with another intrust, and 
with the object of taking it back; cf. Kum. V. 13 (f^%^ ff Tf^ct gfT^)- 

S'l. 35. sft-ii^e;^ f^q^j ri r c^ — Brahmd, as the lord of creation, is 
worshipped by those desirous of progeny. The poet could have 
as well said * 3t«j ^^^Ju\^■)iT^^^' but he purposely uses the word f^^f^. 
It means he who ordains everything ( f^>iiTcflI% )j he upon whose 
will the birth of a child depends, and is very appropriate here. The 
use of the word Brahman would have destroyed the beauty of the 
s'loka. j^RfT^r — 5^'FP'^r is derived fr. the nomi. verb j^^Fj^mW 
* he wishes for a son ' fr. ^sf + ^i;:^ ( ^F^=^ ) added in the sense 
of ' wishing for that which is denoted by the base. ' Similar verbs 
are ^5I?^j:?ti%, ^I'qcq^r'^t &c. 

<^u|^ | — This word may be properly derived f r. ^^ ( f ^^^ ) *a house' 
and q-f^ ' the lord of, ' the dual ^rqffy meaning ' the two masters of 
the house,' the husband and the wife. The word ^ in the Veda 
means ' a house ' and the word ^iq^ is often used in the sing, in 
the Veda; e. g. < ^j{\^ ^^\^ jjSr ' Rgv. I. 127. 8; ' tt j^ ^%q- ^q% 
^I^^>ll% 3T^^: I * V. 22. 4 &o. The word, however, is never 
found used in the sing, in classical Sanskrit; and grammarians, PAn. 
included_, derive it fr. ^^ irregularly substituted for ^m\, and qf^; 

Sinn =^ «Tm«^ ^n^rqrfT, w*trm, ^'^qffr. 

This word is classed as one of the group ^fsr^n^; and as reference is 
made to this group several times in the com. or in the foot-notes we explain 
it here, ^nrr^irirf^ is a class of words, in which what ought to appear first 
in a comp. appears last. By the rule ' 3T*?iffct i;!*^' the compound should 
have been «if^r^, the word qf^ preceding ^trt inasmuch as the husband baa 
B. N. 3 


preference over the wife, when we are speaking of them with reference 
to the relation existing between them. But since the form :jTr'TNfft occunl 
in language, it is classed under ^rsr^Jfrrf^. | 

N. B, — When the relation of husband and wife that exists betweeal 
a man and woman is not directly and prominently meant to be expressed, 
it is the woman that generally precedes; ^^qeq^r^: &c. 

Note : — The king goes accompanied by his wife, because the wife 
ought to join her husband, as enjoined by the S'^stra, in the performance 
of every religious rite. 

B'l. 36. ^?p^^ — ^^?^^l^ that which moves on quickly; hence 
a chariot. It also means 'that which pours down', a cloud, iyrf^"^ — 
this epithet is used to account for f^^irtq' &o.', for an autumnal cloud is 
not 80. T2fr'^f^ — this epithet is used to keep up the pun implied 
in f?p^JT: for a cloud is that which contains and also pours water. 
f^f^jfuT^rir ?? — *^ instance where ^ is not compounded ( see our 
note on ^\^vJ'\{^^); for, if it were compounded, the comp. would 
qualify 3Tif?«f^r and ^^ff^^ T^^TfiC would be disconnected and 
thereby rendered meaningless. ^TT^* — ^^ Pauranic literature, the 
elephant of Indra produced at the churning of the milky ocean, and 
the prototype of the elephant race; ( see Bg. X. 27 ); also consider 
ed as the elephant of the eastern quarter. 

The earliest conception of Indra regards him as the lord of the 
atmosphere, the dispenser of rain and the governor of the weather. 
The elephant he rides can, therefore, be no other than a kind of 
cloud. Cf. the etymology of the word given by Malli. and Dakshi- 
navarta quoted in the ft. -note; for other particulars see ft .-notes. 

(T^ ^^H &c. — According CO the ancient custom of India, kings and 
queens did not drive in one and the same carriage. See Malliniltha's 
consequent remarks on this. 

S'l. 37. ^T ^rfriT»Tfr%i^— C/. trftf^rf^^rjTfr'Jt m -^ i 3fk^ ^«t 

.^^jTTTir 'TR^^fTHR I f^^lJT^^'^ irtS'SqTpT cT^r^^Tn^ ?riH I S'dk. I. qf^lpT— 
lit. 'what can be measured,' hence a small number of. 3T3HT^: — 
ST^T^r Trtr^TTf • l * Pradi Samasa. arg is not an Upaaarga here; for 
in that case ^ will not take the affix %i5t (ar) by the rule ?ftjTfH^^3''" 
^if ( P&n. III. 3. 21). * the roots %fr, ^r and ^ take tnr^ only when not 
preceded by a preposition'. Or it may be derived as STgvTlf^^frff i 
tj'^rra^ ( PAn. III. 1. 134 ). The majesty or awe-inspiring splendour 
of their mien or general bearing. 

S'l. 38. ^<j|^ff : — Q^ is an ady. here, and means 'pleasant.' This 
implies that the breezes were cool. ^wf%?ri"^»lf^f«f : — ?rTc?T^t f^^- 


9^^^ ir''4T ^^ i?«rifm% «»iTi?>Tqr^: l «^<Tffcjf|:— Wafting, bearing 
away. Cf. rR'R ^?«T'c!TtmT%nH5!T: Kum. V. 26. or^^: v. I. 
where 3c^^ means ' a collection; a cluster. ' 

An over-9crupulou3 critic may find fault with the epithet Q^T^t:. 
For, that is considered excellent poetry which is suggestive — it must 
suggest ideas which are striking and capable of pleasing and impres- 
sing the mind. Here the idea of g^ or pleasantness is the qT%rTT'l or 
the meaning intended to be conveyed by the poet, and should not, 
therefore, have been actually expressed, but left to be« inferred from 
something like **TT5flT?frR|T^^fr^r'nt ^3T' which leads to the inference 
that the breeze was cool and therefore pleasing ( in Kum. I, 
15 where the description of the wind is certainly more poetical 
than here). Also, the idea of fragrance suggested by 55TTtg;i^^: is 
repeated in ' 5TT^f^r'H^'TF*iinT-' which again spoils the beauty of the 
s'l. Perhaps the object of the poet is not so much to give us poetry 
as to describe the natural state of things by a ?f*TT^n%- The epithet 
fTT5J &c. seems to show that the strong smell of the exudations of the 
S^ala trees overpowered that of other flowers; while ^if^^^^: is 
intended to suggest an exuberance of flowers peculiar to the forest. 

s 1. 39. JT^TT^PTr:— 3Tf*T^TT% ^^ 3TT^ fr% 3Tr%r*Tr: I rr?r^7i'«TTr»TT 

H^rnrnTT: ravishing, delightful, to the mind. 

«r|.^RTfW"— 'ff^rfr R^cT arr^^m ^^if?^^:; now see Saiij. q-fST— 
The first of the seven primary notes of the Indian gamut. The seven 
notes in order of pitch are ^^^, m^^, m^^JK> iT^T, TafiT, %f?T and 
f^m^ abbreviated into ^, f?, ir, ^} ^> ^> and f^. For deriv. see Ma Hi. 
According to Narada it is called tsfg-^r because the other six notes 
proceed from it, i.e. are based on it. ^ujm^^ ^^J^^ ^?^*TT^J ^t^ 5 i 

f^^ f>TW' — Distinguished in two ways; t. e. peculiar to each sex 
^rs^^t^ Din.; wr^^cm^Trt GhL] Oh4. also observes — JTgTST^^f^Sf- 

t^fic T g - 1 Mallindtha's explanation is perhaps more scientific. Shadja 
is of two kinds, g;^ and \^^r^. It is called S'uddha when it consists 
of the four ^'%3 (tones or vibrations rT'^'r^rrft ^r^: ) viz, fft^r> ^3?cfT 
qj^T and ^RcfT ( cff^f ^^J 4^1 ^sT^J'TfJ ^%^m: I )•, otherwise it is 
called \^^^. It is further subdivided into two kinds, ^^ and sT^gfT. 
^S^ri^cfr fl'^r ^%^\ fs^mR^r »f^ti; l The sound which appears in 
its last component part ( tj^t^cfr ) is called ST^jfT; when otherwise 
^5?T. ^^' — For deriv. see Malli. The Loo. in ^: is retained by tha 


rule '?Tr5?^3jf?r arfg-^' < In a Tatpurusha tte Loc. term, is often 
retained when a ^ affix is added. ' 

S'l. 40. 7r?Hill'$l^ll???T^— 3TJ^air: m^^'fiTf^^TI?*^^ I By ' ^ifsqffffft 
frt^T^^F I fr'^f ' '^«Tr^^^a-^ ' ( Va'rtikas on P^n. VIII. 1. 12 ), a 
pronoun is always doubled and in many cases compounded (i. e. the 
case-termination of the first member may be dropped and the two 
words joined together as in a comp. ) to express interchange of 
action. To express the interchange of action here we must have 
TfF'T Tf?«r 3T%?rT?"^^^ I But comp. is not allowed in the case of xj^ 
and ST^q", as remarked by Bhattoji Dikshita ( ^cJUfoir^q^q^^fl^ 
^^m^^ )• Then by the Vart. ' ST^me^rf i:lT^«T?q gq: ^ttps^: ' 
when uncompounded, the case-term, of the first word is changed to 
fr, the term, of the nom. sing.; so we have rjx: ^x^ a°d by the rule 
* ^^i^5 ^ ' ( see Gr. § 43 d ) we have M <^(^<< . Now compound- 
ing this with 3T[%f[T?^zi^ we get q^TTrf^T^^'T^ I But here another 
difficulty arises. Since q^qr^qr becomes the first member of the 
new comp. g^ of the first q^ must be dropped by the general rule; 
Bhattoji Dlk. therefore, regards this as an irregularity (^TTJcJ^^^ 
^m^^)- See Sid.-Kau. on P4n. VIII. 1. 12. 

'Hlfrf^^m &o.~C/. ff s^mqiTH Ki vnsnrcTT: ^i^ ^|?^ ^t: &c. S'ik. 

I. This shows that the benign appearance of the king and his queen 
easily inspired confidence in the herds of the deer. V'^ide IE. 11. 

81. 41. ^rT^nfr^— s^q-'er ffcr ^5Ts=cfrm ^r w^ lit. 'that which is 

made or that which people make easily;' and as nothing is made 
more easily, and charms more when made, than a garland, it means - 
a garland, ^j^ij;— g^??q^fff, ^^??t iuw*<^l% ^ where people 
gather with exclamations of joy; or g^^ffT T^^rTT'? J^T'^S^ where 
people go in haste for auspicious purposes, ^^x^ usually means 
the outer gate of a palaoe or city, or an arched doorway. It also 
means ^a temporary ornamental arch,' which is the meaning here<. 
When kings and other great personages go out on a tour it is 
customary f^r people to exhibit their joy by raising ornamental 
arches with garlands suspended over them and the cranes here, 
as it were, did the same. 

As for Mallinatha's remark ' ^Jq^r^'T^qJ ' &c. see Sah.-Dar. 
quoted in the /f.-no<e to the 13th s'l. When words like f^, jf?^ 
&c. are omitted, the 3:f>j<rr is called iT«qT> ^Tf ^f or Jml^Rr^TT- 

S'l. 42. 3^5^f^rq^—3T3iTfT: ^^1^5^^: 'running along the current/ 
and not in a contrary direction; hence, favourable; ef. ^TF?TT3^^- 


7^:, Sak. IV. 11. ^sfff ^H^li l rtch &c. — The iTsr^in ar??? is emphatio 
( irfr«^in%«fq' )• See note to s'l. 21. As ar?^ is connected with 
r^rF*T-' the whole should either be 3TT5!":??ST<7^%H'^r <^^ 3y^^ 
should not be compounded. See note on sj^prr ^S^TT^TfT: s'l- l^- 

S'l. 43. srrf^F^T'Tra. — Lit. 'those which have petals resembling 
the spokes of a carriage- wheel' (see ft. -note). 3^\w^ has an exceeding- 
ly pleasing fragrance and is considered as one of the arrows of the 
Grod of love ( aeeft.-note ). It is a day-lotus. Cf. * g^TTgnrf^'sI- 
f^Rf%^^ ' Kum. I. 32. STT'frt — fragrance exceedingly gratifying; 
37T ^r^cTIfi: tl^^% ^c^lH^I^:; 5^ can. witharr+aT ( 3T^>, or an^R'rT 
^jRT ar^'T; with ^ ( 3T ) ^W. 

S'l, 44. ^T^ff5 — Having the sacrificial posts for their distin- 
guishing marks. This shows that the pious Brahmanas constantly 
performed sacrifices and thus used the revenue of the villages for 
the legitimate purpose for which they were granted to them. 
^r^TTT — Mark the meaning of ^■s^^} sr; is similarly added to g, grf ^• 
^TS^rfjTT^ &c. — ^^^^ ^^Vri (see com.); here ^^\r^, is the meaning of 
the preposition srg. 

S'l. 45. t^firfiR^— prar fm ftf v Tft ftf = Jfrftf ;, §i: yesterday; 
fffftfTf^T ff^TTF t^^^R ^^jftcT^ ( Sid.-Kau. ), ff^ff being irregu- 
larly substituted for ^ifrftf and the affix ar added. Vide Pan. V. 2. 
23; III. 1. 134. The Mb. has g'cT'^, but on this the Manorama 
remarks— zfs^q ^]z^ ^\ ^ ..f cTmcE^T^frrm'^ ' rT^ f^^r^ ^^ Wl^\- 

ft|i5^ fcrq; ' f?5^ fT«rrf^ ^Tf^^nr"^^ w^ f^^crm^ f ^ttt^: \ It means 

•fresh butter.' STrffT — The cow-herds brought butter with them, 
because one should never approach a king empty-handed. iqj^fCgT^- 
sftTpfT »TTff5^fcr '€]^'' a place inhabited by cow-herda; ?n^ f^r: ^T«ff:g'T: 
oomp. ^ grrr; old men of the villages of cow.herds. Or the word ^ft^ 
may mean a cow-herd ( ^TPfT ir^TiTriTHnT ^Ts^lT^ ffcT ^\^V' ) in which 
case the comp. will have to be dissolved as |^:^[ ^q-f ^t^^T;; the 
word ^ft^T, being one of the ^iT^r? class, optionally takes g;ff?itri?T • 
ffPT'^r^ — By the rule ■VTrT^rnTiJT^fr ^: ( Vart. on Pan. V. 4. 25 ) 
the affix %?T is added to ^;^, qrq- and ^]i\ without change of meaning. 
Note: — This SI. bears testimony to the magnanimity of the royal pair. 
They condescend to enter into conversation with the herdsmen on topics 
quite familiar to them. 

SI. 46. ^fq" — The pron. fq»^ in conjunction with srfcr expresses 
the idea of indescribability. pHT^r: — applies to f%^[ and =^f^?t 
also, they too being in their diurnal motion, gs'^q^: — when 
applied to f^^r^^f^Fr means 'of pure or bright ( g;^ ) appearance' 


{i.e. light, arr^ra; — According to Visvan&thathe simile here is vitiati 

I ed by the fault ^j^^H^. The beauty of OhitrS and the moou 

^ when in conjunction, being always visible, the past tense (aTWfc^l 

la inapplicable. See ft.-7iotes. i 

S'l. 47. rTrlt^ — 'that and that/ 'this thing and that thing', t. «., 
everything, all that struck him as beautiful. By the rule ]ipq^\z^q\: 
a pada may be repeated to denote frequency or univorsality; e. g. ^^ 
fJg T%2f r% «• e. all trees, fsni?^:— Malli. says f^4 g[^4 ^^k^ ^?q> 
whose sight was agreeable. We may rather say m^^^ and explain 
fq-q" ( an agreeable task) g[^4 showing things ^^^. ^v:if«TtT: — ^ay a^80 
be dissolved as ^^ ^^^j: as a nitya-samasa, 3"giTf having the sense 
of ^^xi when used as the latter part of a comp,; ef. ^^m^ f^wt I 
pT^^'^^^r^r^ir?fr^HTrT*TT5r5f: i Amara. This epithet is u^ed in order 
to indicate that the king was a lover of natural scenery and was able to 
see beauty in everything, giq- is thus described in the Matsya-P.: — cTfT- 

S'l. 48. fsjTPTjf^rr: — </. supra 27. gr^rHT: — 0^ pre-eminent 
asceticism or self-control ( st^cT*. ^'Ttff^T ); the affix f ^ shows 'excel- 
lence'. Vasishtha's self-control and patience are well known. He 
is described by poets as the receptacle of all knowledge and the 
greatest of self-restrainers. Cf. Bhatti. Tf^lRrgf ^Tf^r^t wf^: &C' !• 
15. tr fg ' tf f ^fe i: — Note this comp. which must be dissolved as a Gen. 
Tat. according to Pdu. V. 4, 91. Were it not for this technical 
necessity of grammar it would be more natural to dissolve it as a 
Biih. and understand by it •' who had the queen for his companion. ' 
The poet does not intend to imply ^r%?^ but merely ^f^^q- Cf. 
^V^^^W' IV. 87; 'ffTcTrc^^HOT^fi^: XII. 9; beiidos, all other com- 
pounds of a similar import are rendered as Bah. Cf. 'irqcTTRsffrgf^q.*' 
I- '*55 ¥rWr€fT^: II. 24. 

A^. B. — Mark the alliterative recurrence of identic&l Byllables of which 
there are numerous instances in this canto. See the preceding s'l. 

S'l. 49. qr^r?rirra— 3T'^'r ^^PcTt ^V\\ri I This is a Karm. of 
the iT^^s^T^^rr^ class. See Gr. §228. As the comp. is \^^ (obligatory) 
it can have no dissolution (f%?q: ^»TRfl WTOfTf^f ^^^ RSrfT ^TfRrT Mb. ), 
but only its meaning, which is here expressed by the words aT'^fff- 
g:^Tf^. ST^^^T^ftS^ iW^I^ Manorami. Hero ar??^ is used to show 
that the place the sages lived in was also a forest, ^»TPf — Pres. 
p. pass, of jr or g. 3Tf ?^rft" &<5- — According to the S ruti quoted 


by Malli. the holy fires go forth, in invisible forms, to meet their 
worshippers as they return from the forest in the evening laden 
with sacrificial sticks &c. See note on ^^nf^f^T^nir^r^ S'l. 6. 

S'l. 50. ^T^nRTfr^:— fT^ fr§" ^fr^ ^«TT^; now see Sanj. They 
gathered there in numbers to get their share of the Nlvara corn. 
yUr ^; — ^ qtTPrT N'cKTsW'T that by which the manea do not go to hell, 
hence, a child, a son; cf. ' ^s>^c5#tiT fq'fT?r^f'TI^'=^f ^ cfiT: ' Ait. Brah. 
Pafich. VII. It may also be derived fr. arq and czj 'that which 
springs from the stock.' Both these etymologies are countenanced 
by Yaska. See/f.-7J0fe. 

S'l. 51. %^F^ ^M^^^rf^r: — So in S'Sk. I. also we find the 
daughters of the hermits watering the trees of the hermitage. 
cTc?Ti^rf5^cT fee.-— ^ ^TiT^rfr^aT: Kapm. comp.; g^fr f^I f^^F"? now see 
Sanj. j^H-h'- gnftT: takes (jcfr^r in connexion with S'f^lTtr which there - 
fore ought better not to have been compounded. f^#f — The young 
trees were watered; so in the S'ak. ^fTfffT" fricT^?'7"'TF^?Tirf?r^: 

w^mv- &c. p. 19. N^^-rHiH,— Rfi'Tei Tsu-mm T^fFT" o^ -^*n: 

PAn. III. 2. 47; and Vurtikas on III. 2. 38. f^^rar^T— f^s^WScTT?- 
f?igi5; I see Gr. § 828. 

• S'l. 52. i^t\ ^'^f^^^^^^^^^^^m\\^ ^'^'., ^rirmf *P=«r: d^^*?: o^ 

frin^«^rfTf^?Frr«f: I i"^Tfnf^T^m3:> rumination, this habit being 
indispensable to digestion and health in the case of certain qua- 
drupeds. ^: may either be 3Tg% ^\K ^<ft'IT by poetical license, or 
^r^T'JjToJ'^St ^fir^IT, »'•«•, indicating a particular state of the hermitage 
( ^f^frflJp^T ) ^f% is appropriate with j^^ as Pan. has used it in the 
Satra ' ^^off fr;T^?TiT'fT'=^f ^f^'^f: I ' f[T-^ ^^TRT ?TJT?«ri^ff. 

S'l. 53. arfrnfr^ — 3TT%T*r lit- he who always goes; or he who does 
not stay for a second day at a place. See ft.-notes. Cf. ^f^^^\r^^^: 

3^cf 5?^ T^^T^f ^5^.* one with his face uplifted; and* since a person, 
who anxiously expects another, often raises his head to see if he is 
coming, raising up the head is a sign of anxiety, or eagerness, and 
hence the word has often the secondary sense of ' anxious ' or 
.-eager for.' Cf. VIII. 12; XII. 26; Kum. 34. Here it simply means 
'coming or advancing towards'. Cf. II. 17. 

See Sanj. Cf. VII. 26 and XIII. 37 where the purifying power of 
the sacrificial smoke is again referred to. 


S 1. 64. gr »-d t i*l> — He who checks the horses i. e. gaides their 
-motion; hence, a charioteer. f^'tTPRT — Properly far^fTTi 'ST^ being 
one of the roots designated as ffrr^. See Sanj.; but such forins as 
T%3TriT?TT%? ^JBTJT^m occur and the ffrT^^ says that such forms are to be 
explained by supposing optionality to exist in the rule fBrtTt f??: («. «. 
these roots may not lengthen their penultimate ) in certain fixed oases 
( f^TtTf f ?f fffT 1^ ^ f^rrfsr^H" ?fJT% ^^^^^'^ 5iT^ftsg^H»ir^I%fqBTT«I, )• 

S'l. 65. rT^q: — The dat. may be by ^^^\ ^q-fsr^*^ ^ ^Fif^T^ ; the 
^^(srl'JTr) is done with reference to the king and so ?I?^. ^v^jj.'-'those 
who know how to act well in an assembly;' hence, courteous, polite. 
This shows that the hermits were acquainted with the ways and 
manners of the world and knew how to welcome high personages 
Jike Dilipa and his queen. 

jfftT^FS'Tr"— 3TffT?[r^?r 5Frr% jifftTm^rf^^'Trm "^«fr^; who had perfect 

mastery over the senses. This is an additional reason why they 
were allowed to appear before the queen. The word %^^^ is 
curiously derived, f^^f^ aTI^tT^ft \^^\^^^\ — that which is a sign 
( t, «, which leads to the inference ) of the soul. Pan. has ff^^fif- 
^iWf*r'??m'=^2TiT-4 ^eT»T5^^f»TI?l fr ( V. 2. 93 ); on which 
Vamana thus comments :— ( 1 ) f^jr^jqr fcJ^firf^^T^ i ?''? aTTcm I ^ '^g- 

?5T^:i arrcR^ ?EWc?T^.- 1(3) 5?^oT ^^ i z^^^\ ^ht^; i iT?fr^ s«ns»T^- 
irtiTt?q-^Rrff sr?^r i ( 4 ) \^t^ ^z^^\ arrci?^ ^ %f^cT^ i fr^?i>oT t^rt- 

?^^I f#^ ( Sid.-Kau. ). JnT*^^ — ^^\^ cTrfffTm ^t: gr^q^ I Cf. IV. 
13. The rhetorical figure here is argqr^ ( ^''^^rwrR"3'TT^" * recurrence 
of similar sounds.' Kav.-Pra.). 

S'l. 56. ^ra'^T^^'l" — Pertaining to the evening time; the Tad. 
affix rfq- is added to ^f?f and other a (it;«r5» of time, such as ?[:, 9^:, 
f^^f, ^j«ff, f%f &c. in the sense of 'pertaining to'; ^r^cTT &c. 3?;% — 
Because a Brahmana ought not to be saluted, while engaged in 
religious service. riTfRf^ — this epithet is used to signify that the 
sage had the power to grant the king's wishes. Cf. I. 94. 
a^ y -^rf ^ gf^ — 'attended upon.' sTTH^becomes a trans, verb by virtue of 
the preposition 3T3. Cf. II. 24; also ^#»m»Pft?'^>r S'^k. III. 
^qXf 2ir — \^\%\ is the exclamation used at the time of throwing an 
offering into the fire, afterwards personified into a wife of Agni. 
It is very difficult to know what the original meaning of ^\^ was, 
•whether it was au oblation that could be well relished by the gods 


i ^ t ^ff s^? ), or whether it was an exclamation aaed to attract the deities 
V S3" STTCI^SH^ X or something else. The loss of its true etymology 
soon associated it with several other mystical exclamations connected with 
the sacrifices. Cf. ' ^^t^T % <»^N<jf^ «rnTl^ ^"^ ^^ ^^^' ^^' '^^^ 
utterance of the exclamation so invariably attended the throwing in of 
every offering into the sacred fire, that in aftertiraes it came to be 
personified into a wife of Agni (the fire-god ) and goddess presiding 
over burnt offerings. Her body is said to consist of the four Vedas and 
her limbs are the six aitgas ( minor works of) the Vedas. The Brah.- 
Vai.-P. has this on Sv4ha— tt^: chrf<j [l %^ W ^ »lf^ ' ^VvTM rqflr ' ?^ ^rfl^JT 

sVqWr37n:3^AT ^KV ^TPT^^Wj; II 3T^: ^jTTcf^^qrr ^ ^feTf ^ilt*^ < 
^4\'ii jf^^m ?r«7^TTr?'rq-f H^rf^^ ll From this it appears that ^^t^T was 
originally an offering of clarified butter which made the fire burn more 
briskly and look cheerful, as it were, like a man in the company of 
his wife. 

f^ ff%^^r^— This simile is suggested by the mention of the 
'ffT^tT^TI^I^ and is very appropriate here both in time and place, as 
the evening sacrifice was then just performed and Agni and Svaha 
were brought together. 

SI. 67. r[^: &c. — "STJTf g: — The use of the dual shows that the 
king and queen performed the salutation jointly. When an action 
is done by several agents jointly the verb is plural, and when 
separately, it is sing. Cf. Injra XIII. 27 and note thereon. 

iffc^n" Sfr%TJT5=3ff : — greeted or welcomed them with pleasure in 
return. qt??ir is added here to show that their joy at the sight of 
the royal pair was genuine and not feigned. Ohari. quotes g-^f 
p^?if^y^^ q-f^^?!^ ^f^T: I Manu. II 54, in support of this; in Manus., 
however, this is said in connexion with food ( 3T^t^ ). 

S'l. 58. 3Trf?r*-ir &c. — This adj. is used to show that the king 
was able, now that his exhaustion was removed, to enter into 
conversation with the sage who was also now freO; his evening 
prayers being done. i|\^4|^4TJT5f^— ^T^^II^riT: a i^^?fh^o, cT^ii 
cTRT-^r gR^ a comp. ^f ^qj. The epithet is used to account for the 
form of question put to the king ( see Malli. ). The following s'loka 
f r. the S'ak. is a good commentary on the word ?T5qT^fTgf^-3Ts«Tr^ip=rTr 

^\TJ^ ^RT^^^r^oTtf Jfr^r: ^y^: ^i^i ^fkfm Sf : ¥^W Xl^^^- ll See 
Malli. *3 remarks on ^^t^ and ^r^. 

R. N. 4 

S'l. 59. 3T«r^n"^: — The treasure of the knowledge of Atharra. 
( t. e. the magical spells and rites contained therein, which is 
necessary for averting coming evils, rendering innocuous evil 
omens, &c.) 

3T«T# — 3T»T#iTT ( See 3T«tI^ Apte's Die. ) jftru 3TTfiTrT: 3T'T^: aTT^Ttoir 
f[. It is also derived fr. 3T«i a particle expressing auspiciousness, ^ 
to go and aff. ^s^, 'that which leads to good or bliss.' Vasishtha is 
himself the author of a number of incantations and spells contained 
in the Atharva Veda. Cf. Mitil. quoted in the ft. -note, which says that 
the Purohita of a king ought to be well-versed in the Atharva Veda; 
see also VIII, 4. aqns^TTf^: — The lord of riches or master of polity, 
i. e. the king. We have in this s'l. Anuprasa again. 

S'l. 60. grTM — Proper, as it should be; cf. ^cTTf^gQT^^ Bg. II. 
3. It is used in various senses; cf. II. 16, 22, III. 41 &c. 
q^T^ ^^'^ ' — The seven essential constituents of government, 
according to Indian writers on politics, are: — (1) sovereign; (2) 
ministry; (3) allies; (4) treasury; (o) kingdom; (6) fortresses; and 
(7) army. All these contribute to the prosperity of government,- 
and the loss of any one of these renders the whole 'imperfect. Vide 
K&m. IV. 1, 2; and Manu. IX. 294. ^^?r — The correlative jT^q 
may be omitted when q"?iT occurs in the second part of a sentence 
( see V. 4 ), 'qx^^^q^rrT^fT^TirfrftHTTrfl^ ^R«;^[cTfi:fWIf^ cT'^??STPn«T- 
?f^' Sah.-Dar. faft^ &c. — See Kam. quoted in the Sanj., 3Tr5Ti3%«T: 
in the com. means-ministers, royal officers. 

S'l. 61. H^^<1 — One who has made mantras, and not one who 
makes or will make them ( Sid.-Kau. ); see note on 3T^# above. 
fn?R^r*T?T: — a comp. word. See Gr. §209. c. of^fi^: a Bah. irnnff^f^ 
— 'are ordered back' ( as superfluous and useless), rendered futile. See 
Malli.; or <are excelled;' for the mantras are aTfffcT^Tl'^:, while the 
arrows are only g;Sc3'?^f*T?:. !j|% has here the sense of 'opposition 
or contrariety,' and not of 'repetition.' Cf. VI. 39; X. 68. 

S'l. 62. r^f^?ni.-r>nr*T?HTf^ 'according to rules,' by the rule JT^f^- 
^r^RT^ — The Gen. for the Dat., which is allowed in the Vedas. 
ar^^fr^r^nf^TR; — which (else) would dry up in a drought. The 
words 3T«fiTf and ar^qrf mean the same thing, one is derived by the 
affix 31 q;, the other by ?r5T. The king means that Vasishtha 
constantly performed sacrifices and prevented his territories from 
being smittefa by famines. 




8'i. 63. q^fgq- &c. — 5^B(^5qfT5: ^^^jj^ the full period of human 
life. 3T is added to arrfR at the end of a Tat. by Pdn. V. 4. 77. 
Other inatancea are f%[«^fr ^'ff F%:^^^^, f^I^'T^' ^^*T?{% &c. 
RTFrTgr: — WfcT aTTcTf'r ^fETI^ f ree from fear or distress. STTcTf^ is 
derived fr. ^^'^ to contract, with ary, which gives it the special signi- 
ficance of coagulating. Hence 3Trfl|j' properly means bodily distress, 
torment; and then that which causes distress, mental disquietude &c. 
3TT?T5f?T which means 'butter-milk' is derived fr. the same root, 
f^Frl?!; — for the six scourges see Sanj. cf^§|^'#^^— % =T^«> would 
have been more forcible. For the 3? at the end of the comp. see 
note on ^^tS*^^. 

S'l. 64. f^^2TJTpT^?f-taken care of, looked after. Of, iTf^f*Tr%'f^- 
fTT^TRf Uttar. I. 19. ffffaffFT^r'-Vasishtha is regarded aa one of the 
ten mind-born sons of Brahman. See the Sans. note. ^rr3^>Tr: — 
arg^sqcf |??ig5pvr: ( 3T5+^j=^-{-^5t ) that which is fastened on in 
succession, hence an uninterrupted succession, continuous flow &c. 
3T3^?q-^^|-f#iTf^[: ^T^^qr: Bah. comp. (irregular, as there is no 
5??T?ffTT here ). HUT?-' ^^7 ^^so be construed with ^»:q^:. 

S'l- 65. ^^r^ — since Vasishtha was in the place of father to 
Dilipa, being his Guru^ Sudakshind was his daughter-in-law. 3T^f?r — 
' 3Tf( Latin avere ) meana originally to be gratified^ to rejoice; it 
then acquires the force of a transitive verb, and means to gratify, to 
please. Cf infra XI. 75. The more frequent signification of 
the root met with in classical Sanskrit , ^Jtz, that of protecting, is 
only a derived one from that of pleasing or favouring. ' S. P. 
Pandit. More than twenty other meanings are assigned to this 
root ia the Dha.-P. See Malli. 

^7r— fl^cTT 3TTq: 3T^ ^\^^ (f| + 3T'T, by Pdn. VI. 3. 97, 
'f^r^cf^q"fT^>-^rq" ffi;' ' the 3T of 3Tq[. becomes ^ when following f^, 3T?cT'', 
or a prep,- so ff + fqr and ffq by Pan. V. 4. 14 )fr^: ^f g^% ^^qj. 
For the number of dvtpas, see Sans, note on VI. 38. ^fRj: — Js^W^ 
( ^tq- means the best thing of every class; ^peu 'Sff^r ^5?3^ fl5[c?rRrff 
^ijq^ i ) ^^.S^r? according to modern grammarians. See Malli. 
^ff^— %Cr^?^^^W^ tffarR'r. According to the Purdnas, when the 
demons it§ and %5^ were slain, their fat and flesh covered the whole 
earth which was thenceforth called medint] ^^i^^^]^^^]^\^^- 

s'l. 66. fq^^fqTsg-^o — Rni5??T N^d"^ 5^: ^^: q^^ET^cfrf^ again and 
again seeing &c.; f^ shows repetition. See I. 42. t-j^—^^y s^^y^j^l^j^ 


^T^; ?r5T + 3T ( oi: ). ^Tir &o. — As f^rf^T meanB an oblation offered 
to the gods 80 ^^\ means food offered to the spirits of the departed 
ancestors. This is irregularly derived (r. ?f^, ^f?7^5%^ and is, like 
^flfT, an exclamation uttered at the time of offering food to the 
manes. ^m\ ^^l^ int% cT^TTi:; now see Sanj. 

S'l. 67. Cf. Sak. VI. 24; see tilaoft.-notea 

S'l. 68. ^fj^_aoe note on I. 5. f^ifj &c. — Dissolve If 5g^ "STPRI 
"^^ ^ lt3K[f»rr, ff^^\ ff^J^pirr f s^rff^js? f?JTr, and not as j^gm ffg^: 
^rrcTI ^^"^ in which case fs^sTTF cannot be compounded with f^^T' 
This attribute shows that Dilipa is internally bright ( pure ), his 
soul being purified by sacrifices. ^»rr^"T &c. — bat gloomy externally* 
because he has no son to continue his race — a thing external, as 
noticed by others. And soir^i^: (internally bright ) and 3^17^51= 
externally gloomy. 

rTr^rn7f?R': — See Malli. The ^T^ipfr^, according to the Paur&pic 
geography, is a belt or chain of mountains surrounding the outer- 
most of the seven seas, (the sea of fresh water which itself surrounds 
Pushkara, the last of the seven continents ) and dividing the visible 
world from the region of darkness. Since the sun and the whole 
firmament of stars roll within this circle, these mountains are lit 
up on one side and shrouded in perpetual darkness on the other. 

' tVot 56q[?^Frr«r arrfr^n^ rT«Tcfr ^^x^ 1 ^rj^^^s?^ ^ ^tFcn^^'Tri 11 

3Tr^f^^fTar ^R'r?=^ F%^TOT^?fTcT; 'IT'3; 1' Mat.-P. Oh. OXXII. ^sfTlT^PT 
5T% ^v^ m^^T^m^' I 1I51TT ^I^^T JiiR: Hf si^grfff^ffT II ^^lefr^ftTir: 
Wr ^r^^SfiF^^er: 1 a^-jr^rrcr cTT^fni ^f 5rnn?-=^?5t ^ ^: 11 Viah.-P. II. 
4. Cf. also Pad.-P. c^r^Fofi^r niK^^ w[^i% f^^ ^%\^ I arrfoif^ 

According to the Bh&g.-P. it is so called because it is situated 
in the middle of the enlightened and unenlightened, or inhabited 
and uoinhabited, regions. 

The Lokaloka ia really the wall of clouds that bonnd our hori/.on all 
round, conceived by the ancients to be a chain of mountains. .As the 
sun and the other heavenly bodies were seen dipping into the sea within 
this wall of clouds, it was naturally supposed that the world of living 
beings was within it, its outer aide being exposed to perpetual darkness. 
To this iniscouception are also due all the legends about Indra'a clipping 
the wings of mountains. 

S'l. 69. g^?— ggjfcfrfcT §<sr ( ^"^1^% )• ^n^frr:— ?RT'??^ frti^^r 1 

Ijc^o — This shows how anxious the Hidu Aryans were to keep 
their blood pure. 


S'l. 70. fr^W- — This epithet is very significant, Ik implies • 
neglect ( unintentional though it be ) on the part of Vasishtha, 
since he has the power to bless the king with progeny. See Malli. 
Endnotes on I. 35. fgrfT 'Ef^im &c.— f^% 3Tg^FF*Tm f2j: f^^:. 
The simile is very appropriate here as being drawn from the 
daily scenes of life and therefore perfectly familiar to sages. 
The Rishis considered the trees of the hermitage as their children 
( see V. 6 ) and so the king could very well rouse the mercy 
of Vasishtha by comparing himself to a tree reared up by the sage 
but bearing no fruit. 

S'l. 71. JTT^ — properly an epithet of the Supreme Being. It 
means 'one who possesses all kinds of excellences.' "^s"^^?^ ^JTir^T 

si^^^ ?T^«: tIt^: i^^r"??qT«T 4t^?'t ^u^if mj fcfROTr ii ( ^m f^^^ 3t?^ 
*nT^r^ i) 3rTf^ ^ ft^Rt ^ 'jcTHT^nrfcT ifa^ i ^]% fl?iiJTR?Tt =^ ^ ^i^4r 

vnTTTRTfT I • 3T^^ ^ °T^-*the last debt', t'.c. the debt due to the ancestors. 
According to the Hindu S'astras, everyone that is born has three 
debts to pay off, viz. to sages, to gods and to the departed forefa- 
thers. He frees himself from these respectively by studying the 
Vedas, offering the daily and other sacrificies, and by having a son, 
Cf. VIII. 30 and the S'ruti quoted by Malli. in his com. ad he. 

^^•^^"^f- 3T?5,+ 3^; ^^^ ^^® change of fr to jj^ see P^n. VI. 3. 
67. arrOTif^ — Here Malli. is quite right in understanding by arigTR 
the post to which an elephant is tied and not a chain or rope^ as 
some would have it. That the simile should be quite appropriate, 
3Ty^T^ must mean something that inflicts mental, and not actual 
bodily pain. The elephant would be as glad to enjoy a cool bath 
with a chain round his neck as without one. Cf. '^it R" clri^^JT^of- 
jfr^ aTTrJTR^ fTT^Wf f?^'^^"-' XIV. 38. That the force of the simile 
should be fully understood, construe : (1) 3?^?^^ % apr'T^ ^ffT'Ti^'fl"- 

DT^q ^RT^: 3T^?5?iTTeyRf^f 3T^T?Tqr^'g^ artrf, or (2) ar^fTTrff ^ s^'i^^, 

S'l. 72. f^c|r*oirJ^— f^fT^r: ^JW- 3Tq?^IT% JHf^l^^^w:? P^- of 
q^ff^: the aff. 3T3T^(3Tcrr in the com. is probably an (oversight) be- 
ing dropped when the word is used in the plural and nob 
in the fem.; see Pan. II. 4. 62. Ikshvaku was the son of 
Vaivasvata Manu and father of Vikukshi. He was the first king 
of the solar dynasty in Ayodhya. He was born from the nostril 
of Manu, as he happened to sneeze. Cf. Bh4g.-P. ^ g^tT^ T^fr^fT 
f^^T^moT^: Srr:i* f?fT^t may also be construed with T%^q:. 


?^*lRr." — ?ff^ 3Tm ff^tfn?TT: I The comp. being optional, the ancom- 
pounded form will be jfPT srfvi f%^*T:j 3TT^ necessarily takes the 
term. ^ (|^) when it is the latter member of a comp.: '-aTs^rTT^T^Ty^: ' 
Pdn. V. 4. 7. For a similar idea, cf. f^^^fPcT ^i(q ^^^\^ ^i%?fFcm: 
&c. S'ak. VII. 4. 

S'l. 73. 5^-thu8. f^^rftTri: — respectfully addressed or informed. 

A'', i^.— The verbs 3Tl3Tn?( and f%?T<T^ are tecljnical terms of addressing a 
person, without any idea of actual command or request. Thus when a 
person addresses one who is his superior in rank or dignity, the verb 
T'%?im?( is used, while in the case of one addressing another who is inferior 
in rank or dignity to him, sTnTN'T is the verb used. 

^^TFTfitr fH rf w r'^q': — This indicates that the functions of all the 
external senses were suspended. Cf. the description of the com- 
templation of S'iva, in Kum, III. 48, ' 3Tf fgff^»Tf*?'Tr *g^ f gH ' ^^• 
^tnTHT^ — Here Jjjs( is used to emphasize ^ui; a moment only. This 
shows that Vasishtha was a master of yoga^ who could put himself in 
a comtemplative mood ( ^qrnir ) in a moment, and set in operation 
the inner apparatus for discovering unknown things. 

inr^irJT X^ 5f : — Mark the use of the word jft^ which is deliberate. 
This shows how scrupulous the poet is in selecting proper words 
to express his similes. Vasishtha, who is the repository of harm- 
less thoughts and actions, can with propriety be compared to a ^ 
having nothing in it but such harmless creatures as fish. With 
this ef, VII. 30 where the princes looking pleased when really angry 
are described as 5^1: xi^raT ?f »i;?JT^;, where ^jfl^r: would not 
have suited. 

S'l. 74. ijfbrvqr^'T— Malli. takes' this with ?nf^?TT?*rTj it should 
rather be construed with arir^qcl^. ^ncrrvn^T 'close application', concen- 
tration of the mind upon one thing. sTT^rTTf^n" — viTf^ properly 
means to steep, as a medicine, into a liquid that it should imbibo its 
properties and be free from the inherent impurities it is desired to be 
cleared. Hence MIT^?T means completely pervaded or imbued by. 
>TT^(TT^^ therefore means one whose mind is purged of all impurities 
forming its rust by its being imbued with spiritual knowledge by 
..constant meditation. See Pat. Yog. I. 30; Ved. Sar. 32 ( Nir. Ed. ) 
7^ q'(7|^(7^ — The optional forms q^i^ &c. of the pronouns ff^ 
and q?T^ are used when there is 3T?^t^^T or a subsequent assertion; 
see Gr, ^ 137, The first assertion here is vTrf^cTI^ir ^'- ^"(^ ^l ^' 
&c.;-and then the second is introduced by 3T<j, at^^ JfTT^vjiiq^ For 
the aoc. q^. see Sanj. and Gr. § 808. 


S'l. 75. ^JPl— ^^Tffn% ^T^: lie who is able to do everything. 
Indra is regarded in the Vedas as the mightiest of all gods, though 
in the Pur^nas he occupies a position subordinate to Vishnu, Brah- 
maua and S'iva. g"7??ir^— ?«Tr with ^^ is trans.; cf. IV. 6, X. 13, 
The kings of the solar race are represented as often visiting Svarga 
to assist Indra in his wars with the demons. See VI. 71, 72, S'ak. 
VI. &c. This supports the assertion aTT^TT^TT^f^TRT'^, supra s'l. 5. 

^FqrTFSST^n^— ^FT: ^f^tfr^: what is desired; clcCfTHq?: ?I^:, or 
q»<r^l<:^ cl^: I SF^^^T^m^^F^'?^ ^OT I In either case the oomp. is ^yr^- 
TTI^fTR-* *'. «• S'TT^T^^r'fr. See Gr. § 229. Dissolve ^^qcTfT^ifl^F ^3:?TcT^- 
^^<TT cTT'g; and not ^^qtl^irf a3 the comp. will be neu. in that case. 
See Gr. § 245 (c). 

S'l. 76. f JTT ?*Ti:n[ — According to the M.-Bh. the root ?^ governs 
the gen. only when there is ^T'^f^ of the karma i. e. when a person 
or thing is not directly brought to the mind, but is remembered 
through the instrumentality of something else; e. g. ^\^•. ^^fer 5^:; 
here the good qualities of the mother are principally brought to the 
mind and then ( through them ) the mother. But when the m^ is 
directly remembered the ace. should be used ( ^^ qjif ff fT%?f ^T^frT 
cT^T ?gT ^ >T^far Mah.-Bha. ), as in the present instance; iT[?rt ¥^^. 
STfT^f^'M I ^N I H— ^'TfTT ^W iTf%at P^?- H. 1. 17; iT^%ai^zr f%^T 

iT^f^'nf^qr cTFfr sTf? 'frr^r ?tt^ \ ri^^rf— ^ as the arrvTrr of the 3tt=^^<^- 
%?TT takes the loc. Cf. ^^^\'^x}^\^^if S^vrrif crqrlf^j^rs S'ak. I. 25; 

S'l. 77. JT^jT%^-i7g;^»T?T?m irg;^: offspring, issue. ST^rrn'^^-indec. 
p. p. of ^pj with 3Tr; by the rules of ^ntax the subject of the 
abaolutive and of the main verb must be the same; here ir^r is not 
the subject of the 3TmvriTn5"^r; Malli. therefore, takes arj^j^^r in the 
causative sense, since he renders it by 3T%^PT?^r-!T^r ( c^?Tr ) iT?ir^ffr- 

jmrre^ ^ irffc^m" ( »*• e. iTcirgjqKr^^^rqrjtTr ^^"^fcT i > without having 

my child propitiated by you. Or we may explain qc^TfTfcTT^TTTF^ 

81. 78. ^TRfq-^rr — m^W 3Ts^rHf^ ^n'«r:; fr. ^ cau. and Unadi 
3Tf<T ( 3Tf^; ^lorfw ); or ^^qr ^f ^KW- ( Bah. ) ^mmA ( ^T«T+?53^). 
^I<hl^<l^*l — This is really the galaxy or the milky way. f^T^r^ — 
There are eight elephants belonging to the eight regents of the 
cardinal points who assist them in the defence and protection of the 
directions. ( 1 ) Indra's elephant at the East is \J,\^^\ ( 2 ) Agni's at 
the S.-East is ^ii^'r^., (3) Yama'a at the South ia ^\^^•^ (4) Siirya's 


at the S.-Weat is ^^; (5) Varuna's at the West ia ar^^; 6) Viyu's 
at the N.-West ia 5«q^^; (7) Kubera's at the North ia ^rt*^; ani 
(8) Soma'a at the N.-East ia ^ij^^. See ft.-note. 

S'l. 79. |"fc^ — P. p.p. of the desid. of arr^; see. com. ^ETPt?^— 
3<j j ^q ^5^ ^ff*TH^> bfi^o ar^^rmeana ( metaphorically ) obatruction. 
Sumati. quotes— Brg^^in ?r^ ^^^ g;5qT^i?5?ffei^q: I jftTJjj imT^[«9-- 
v{^^ ^ ^^: II 

Si. 80. ff%^ — Malli. aeems to take thia aa ?tt?^^ '^'Tfj 9©6 Gr.. 
§ 827. < {i >4 ^-» l ^ ^ — ^I^T^ ?l^ W^^, that in which prieats ait down, 
a sacrificial session. The period of time required for a Satra varies 
between one year and a thousand years. See Bhag-P. I. 1. 4. The 
distinction between an ordinary aacrifice and a dirgha satra is this; 
in the former the merit arising from the sacrifice belongs wholly to 
the Yajam^na; the prieats getting only the dakshina, while in the 
latter the merit is shared by the Yajam&na and the sixteen prieats. 
Vide As'v. 8u. Adh. XII. ^r ^ — Here ^ is q^ijfi^cft — but she; she 
again. ^^ypHf^ti ^ K^i— 5%^ ^f^tT^R^T Jpsusn^ S^^^"' S^ + T'i.+ ai 
(^(^ before which a naaal is added to the word ); also ^3fii(T and 
53T»T with ¥ ( 3T ) added. Rf|rcT = 3Tfqif|lT tbat on which any thing is 
placed; hence hidden, concealed. The word is generally used with 
reference to the closing or concealing the month of a pit or hole. 
According to the grammarian Bh^guri, arq- and •s\i^ used aa 3^q"fnt3 
drop their 3^ optionally; aiffirTf v ^^W-> STTW^, fqvjR^ &c. 

S'l. 81. ig^:— Abl. oaae, though the meaning ia that of the 
gen., by the deduction fr. the rule < q-fcTRf^qfrT^T^ ^ 'JTHTri;, ' on 
which Nagea'abhatta remarka 'a^FTi^q f%^r?T^r?'^3^«T T3f*fr !•' iffaRnT- 
alwaya mas. 

S'l. 82. S'lokaa 82 — 85 form what ia called a Aa/a/>aia, being 
ayntanctically connected; see ft.-note p. 3. ff^ ^^: (J'^Tf'l' — '^ 
ia used in the aense of 3TfqrT"^[, 'just as he uttered the words and 
before he could utter any more.' ^f^: ia a gram, inaccuracy, it 
being used in the sense of ^?[:. For the root f^ takes f;^ either 
when it denotes habit or when it implies impropriety, neither of 
which is possible here. 

Cr^^^'^W^THr-^g: ought to be construed with arrff^RTrV^, as 
Malli. does, and not with ^\[^^: as suggested by S. P. Pandit. The 
5 in ffg implies habit. See Malli. Vasishtha was habitually a 

Canto I. ] ( 33 ) 

sacrificer ( sTfjrflf^^ )> and therefore, habitually in need of ^, 
necessary for sacrifice, arrim^ro — This is emphatic and as such re- 
tains its gender. The cow was kept by Vasishtha not because ho 
cared to have milk for luxury, but because he wanted ^ff for sacrificial 
purposes. The cow was thus sTrfffT^r^JT^T'?; ^^^ ^^^ T'Ti^Ivj-^q,. The 
two words, therefore, ought to be construed together, otherwise 
they will lose their force. Strangely enough, Mr. Nandargikar 
also, following S. P. Pandit, says—' 3T??T fr^: may also be taken 
and perhaps more correctly with ^jf^^i, and be construed as its 
subject, rather than with the phrase STTffrT^r''^^^'- 

S'l. 83. The simile hero is one of the most beautiful and perfect 
similes for which our poet is famous. It is appropriate both in point 
of time and place. It was evening time and the cow visited the 
hermitage in the evening like ^?«Tr w'ith the moon on her forehead. 
FTrTrft^^ — cTpJT? nieana the forehead, and also by implication the 
western sky, where the new moon is seen at the evening time, g^zr 
means (1) appearance; and (2) rise, arfwir^-both were a little curved. 
"TW^f^^^r?^ — The cow was of a %Tq" i. e. pleasing ( mild ) pink 
colour. The Sandhya is also of this colour owing to the slanting 
rays of the sun falling upon the evening clouds. ^^^ — This attribute 
is used to account for the crescent shape of the moon and also to^ 
leave out of sight the stain, that the resemblance with the curve^ 
white tuft of hair on the forehead of the cow should be complete, 

SI. 84. ^sopf — ^ as the first member of a Karm. Comp. substi 
tutes for itself ^r, ^f and ^^, when meaning fq-q^ or little. See Gr. 
§ 224, (b). i^'Ji^v.ffr — derived fr. ^o^ a pitcher and gr^T^C changed to 
37^1^ in a Bah. Oomp. before f) an udder; Gr. §328; 'having a pitcher- 
like, i. e. full udder.' " 37^?^ has originally, like 3Tf^, two crude 
formSjVj's. 3rq^ and 37^^ (sometimes grq^)- The ^ in f uft^RT is, there- 
fore, radical, and not extraneous, as the grammarians have it. Cf. also 
g^vjj^ 'milk'. " S. P. P. ^^JTH'^^riTn"— ^*-^ lit. 'that which is fit 
to be killed or sacrificed;' hence holy, sacred. 3T^^?j a purificatory 
bath taken at the end of a great sacrifice. Vide Tait. Br. II, 6, 6. 
Also a minor sacrifice performed at the closa of a prinoipil 
sacrifice, 'fT^l?=^T5T^«fT q^"-' Amar, Here the former sense, of course, 
is intended. liCq"^ and STN — as ^^^ excess of holiness is expressed 
by arfq the purpose of the term. ?tT i^ served and we have ^^^^ 
instead of ^[Wfcft^, which also mfllans s[^n^^T^^ ^^^^. 

SI. 85, arf^^rni— from their vicinity ( being raised from the 
ground near the king), iTCr%W" — See Sanj.; according to Bopadeva 
R. N. 5 

( 34 ) [ Canto I. 

^^ ^?TT%; see also note on jTfrf^cTt ^' H- Here reference is made 
to a kind of bath technically known aa V&yavya. In the Kdr.- 
P. Bix kinds of baths are mentioned; ^r^T^Tfl'^gl^? ^I^'T f^'??^ ^ | 

SI. 86, qnrjf — is an adj. here and means ' sanctifying. ' It is 
also a noun; see a'l. 69. RffrxT^: — < Versed in omens/ i.e. who knew 
what were good omens and what were bad. Here the opportune 
appearance of the cow is an auspicious omen indicating the near 
fulfilment of the King'a wishes. ?qrr^«I'3[ — See Sanj. The king is 
the Yajamana] Vasiahtha is the Vajaka. ^FiTT l^iTIfT, ^r%3'ftT fr^JRffT; 
fl^ ?l^r ^I«^^ I 3Tr5tfrlT?rro— may also be explained as 3TrTtl%tTr 
(indicated) ^s{^■^^i^\ qr^^^r ^^'T whose desire was thus indicated as sure 
to be fulfilled. Some take 3Tf5fi%cTr separately, as the Nom , 
sing, of 3iT^tl%^ qualifying rTTif^Tl'^, but without propriety. Cf. 
for a similar idea ^x^'^ ^*^r% tgrs^cT: ^VT?T ^^Nfrff: 3?rl U^V. I 
^TfRm^t ^^I'T^^t^ s'T^f^ JfiTcTr>?1^l? ^r^m»^ II S'is'. I. 26, where 
Narada's appearance is similarly described as santifying at the time^ 
and indicating future good fortune. 

SI. 87. sTi^^f^qr^— Here the ^sl^ has the sense of opposition. 
For the various senses in which qr'^ is used, see Gr. § 875. ffrf^^ — 
according to Malli. is used for ^[q^^q f%[%'^. Cf. tT^^iy ilr^^ Kum . 
III. 18; and 3TT>fq-pcT ff q??Tr^^»TR^»TlfTinTr^ g-vrfR Mw^V\ t 
Kad. f^iTT'T — Cf. Eag. 'count upon. ' 

SI. 88. ^;q-ff%: — may also be interpreted as ^^ >fff ^?ti[ 5^^- 
\^^\ 11%: gRf[%: ^r ?^ fi%'^fT I 'leading the life of an anchorite or 
hermit.' ^i*^ Indec. qualifies 3TnRT3TT^^. 3TT?*ngn"*r%T — by personal 
attendance, by following her in person. 7^nTf2r5*TtT% — ^k^ rx^edi 
with the inf. in the second person ( and sometimes in the third ) ex- 
presses a mild command, or a courteous request, and should be trans- 
lated by * pray ' < be pleased to, ' &c.; see V. 25. 

SI. 89. sjflrirrnTr irrrr^^: &c. — By these injunctions the sage 
.implies that the king is to be absolutely guided in all his actions by 
those of the cow; i. e. he is not to move until she has moved, he 
is not to cease moving before the cow has done so, and so on. 

SI. 90. ^jr-Sudakshina is previously spoken of as the daughter- 
in-law of the sage by the king ( I. 63 ), and so Vasishtha calls her 
here ^%. But she is to worship the cow as the wife of the king 
and therefore Malli. translates it by ^m. 

€anto I. ] ( 35 ) 

3Tf%rTrR^%?T — Let her follow the cow worshipped ( already by 
ber ) t. e. let her worship the cow and then follow her ( see II 1 ). 
This is one of those constructions so common in synthetical langua- 
ges, jpnrr — This means fq-?TJTfrfr ^cfr leading an ascetic's life ( like 
the king ), ^r^ Jp^T^T^T^T — 3Tf^ shows that Sudakshina is to go 
forth to meet the cow and worship her also in the evening 
( Bee II. 21 ). 

SI. 91. ff^ — in this manner. q"ft=^«rfTt: — 'TfT'^q'f formed irre- 
gularly fr. ^^ with qK + 3T (^) fern.; similarly derived words are 
TR'H'fr, I'T^T and 3r?T35rr. See V^rt. on P&n, III. 3. 101. tj-^ — Solely, 
^^^^f ^% Tt Vf^ T^ I 3Tnin5[ — Absence of impediment. This is 
a H^^^I^ anfl therefore Malli. does not expound it but simply 
gives the meaning, '^f^ — See note on II. 2. 5f%aif^ — ^s(; is used 
Jj-r^^fq", See Sanj.^ 'those having noble sons.' 

SI. 92. sfrfsTTr^ — shows that the King undertook to carry out 
the instructions of the sage willingly and not under compulsion. 
^qKV?:-qrfT ^r^^^ ^5lW fpT ^\T.^^ fr. TKiTg;4-3T'T(3T); wife; see S'Akl 
III. 20. TTRiTfcrT ^f T^B" fPT I g^T^Tit ^f^rf?: I there being equa. 
j)artioipation in acting up to the injunctions of the sage, f Jfr^r??^-' — 
See Mallinatha's remarks on this. See also Oh&r. quoted in the 
it. -note. 

Si. 93. ^vi — a particle frequently used to introduce a change of 
subject. See notes on II. 1. 5rfr%— JTR^TF ft'?rTl'?*I=?: lit. that in which 
the night has its beginning. See also ft. note. ^\^\ adv. meaning* at 
•Bight' is a different word. fNg": — fl'T STRTrfim one able to know 
mistakes or faults; hence a learned man. This epithet is very signi- 
ficant here. Vasishtha knew that it would be a ^rq on his part to keep 
the king long engaged in conversation with him after the fatigues 
of a day's journey and so asked him to go to bod, just in tha 
first part of the night. This attribute also supports the use of tha 
•epithet fT^cTfr^. ^f JTr^T — The dat. here ought to be explained as 
used cTr^.^t I We cannot explain it aa ^j ff^'^'^; for this will 
mean 'the sage dismissed the king in order that he, and not the king 
may go to bad ', the inf. being used when both the verbs have the 
same subject ( ^fTH^4'^5 ^g^ ); the rules, %?Tr«TfTT?^qr &c. and 
gq«ng ^I^^^^Tri; are, therefore inapplicable. f^^rFTf^— This 
word is generally understood to be 3?^-^ '^r^RT^j and seems to ba 
-ased as a ^qn like i\w[ in many places. Cf. III. 66, V, 33 &g. 
And Malli. who translates it by q^^ts^t seems to take it as such 

( 36 ) [ Canto I- 

Bat there is nothing in P&n. or his commentators conntenancing 
such a supposition; while the passage further on 3T«i cT?T \^^\ n?5^ 
IT5: &c. ( X. 50 ) seems to go straight against it; for had ^^t«T^ 
been an alii/c oomp. we should have expected ft^Tl*'?^: a°<l not 

f^lfrT^r?^ — Q;f^-^ ^r^i^^ what is true and agreeable. "WV 
know that Vasistha had just addressed a speech to Diltpa which 
was at once pleasing and true, ^{^f^^^^ — Some editions read 
arfsTcTlV^'iC ; ^T^^l sTR^ great, excellent Jjfj: fortune ir?^. But 
the reading a'fgrcTlSpT^ seems to be preferable, as reference is madia* 
here to the king's fortune which consists in his being soon blessed 
with a son and which is therefore 3"f^rT now. ^f may also mean 
'brightness.' The king's countenance which was depressed so long: 
now looked bright with joy. 'grf%tT°' has no special propriety here; 
OT; ^g: — implies that the sage had the power to overcome all the 
obstacles to the king's successful performance of the vow of 
propitiating the cow and to the consequent birth of a son to him.. 
Mark the alliterations in this and in the following s'lokas. 

S'l. 94. ^cariirfqr &c. — The loc. ia ai^rr^- The phrase means- 
^cfrRi^ fT"T:f%l%*rTrf^'T deliberately not bringing into operation hii 
power of asceticism. This he did • f^rqirri^^iTT ' having regard to the* 
vow, I. e. that he should perform the vow properly. For an illustra- 
tion of the power of penance to call into being the desired things, 

^ f^^vf JTT*^ fq^cTlTT ^sf^ II Bhatti. III. 44; also 42, 43. ch^Pli, 
&c. — wao knew the proper ritualistic procedure or mode of perform- 
ing a religious rite; on this Ohjir. remarks : ijTrfg ?T'?r'TTfI?*^RrT^- 

S'l. 95. ^r^TfrRT — See ft. -note. Kulapati is a sage who feeds and 
instructs ten thousand Mttnis. T4?rrP5T-TOTprfHcTr ^TffTr. The oomp. 
is of the ^TI^Trf^J^ir? class, sj^^T — self-restrained, ( and also pure 
in body), rfr^tj^qr^fn" &c. — Sans, poets always represent kings at 
awakened in the morning by the songs of bards accompanied by^ 
music; and even when the usual appendages of royalty are not 
present, they imagine something as serving that purpose. Thus 
the noise of the pupils of the sage reading early in the morning i» 
jnade here to serve the purpose of the morning songs of bards to 
^ouee the king from his slumber. 

CANTO 11. 

S'. 1. >f^ — has here the sense of 3Tl^'fT^ 'then/ *after wards'; see 

3Ialli. It has also here the additional sense of 'auspieiousness' 

which it does not express directly, but conveys by its very utterance. 

Cf- '3T«fFfT^irs^ Tf ^«i^«^: ^rq"T JT^TyinTt^^t *T^%' 8'^- Bha.; also 

'3Ti^^«^r«T ^?s^ ^ffrfr ^^<jt: 5u I ^J^ mr^T ffF^'r^r ct^tt^^t- 

fT^^If ^t' li Tait. Pr&t. The particle is here used to indicate the 
future blessing of the cow, 

5rT^r &c- — See Mallin4tha's remarks on the word ^\m. Expound- 
^vjT ^^^'^^\W. ^T^'^^I^lf^ I The word is mas. and in the pi. num. 
according to the ManoramS, which remarks — '^^Tf^cT "^ T^vfgs^r 

^^fcT:' II ffrT ^Rir^ 1" »P?r^ mr?? ^ iT'VrfTr^^ I NowseeSanj. By 
whom perfumes and garlands were caused to be accepted by (through) 
his queen. Some grammarains, who differ from Pan,, class the root 
jf^^ among verbs which govern two acouaatives. But it will be difiScult 
to expound this comp. according to them. For, in this case we get 
^T^'TT ^S^'T^TT^ ijrlTJTrffeiT which is not compoundable. Remarks 
the Manoramd — ''nffft^^^t 'T^lf^ S'nr^TlfTTf ^T^ cT«?TrT ^g^TR- 

■^Kf^VTT^ ^iq[^ I (i^% ^t^ ^'T'^ f^5%: I cTcTS^ ^T'T^r T'^TI^ 

^^RT — Main, explains datives like '^iqcrTl' !• 9 '^J^T't/ '^fT'?/ 
V. 10 &c. by the rule <%?Tr«TrT'T?^«T ^ qj^for ^«?Tf^^:' Pan. II. 3. 
14, which means ''when an action is done with a view to a second' 
the ^k of the second takes ^5«ff, if the second act be not explicitly 
expressed; e. g. in cFST^^rfS ^TT^ the ^^^\^P^\ is accomplished with 
a view to 3TIfT'^%^T; hence when the 3^TfTWT%'Tr is iiot expressly 
mentioned, we may say cr^*^[ 'nf^ I so =^iq^?T iT^f^cT: means ^TT?r 
^ ^'€\\\^ '• I ^^FT gm^ means ^^ ly^ gm^ I Here the rule ^^^]^- 
^^%5 35^' °^*y ^^'^ ^^ insisted upon, since the inf. is not directly 
used. See Sid.-Kaa. on the same (Pan. III. 3. 158). If it be in- 
sisted upon it will be necessary to explain the first as ffl^*^ ^^3*11 
and the 2nd by the general rule sp^TTT 'TTf^f^ ^ ^^^J^^^ I P^?. I 4. 
82, where according to the Mb. it is not necessary to understand the 
^If of the root ^ alone^ as Vamana and Dikshita do. Kaiyata com 

(£8) [Canto 11^ 

menting on the passage in Mb., remarks:— %f9^;^»55Et?rri^^RTf^rT^- 

'frrTRf??^^f^r^— cffcT is made up of «fi?T 'drink' and the posaessive 
affix 3T, meaning 'that had its fill of drink.' See Sanj. on this. For 
further discussion on the subject, see Mallin&tha'a remarks on 'f%f^' 
Kir. I. 1. 3Tr|t q?cT: q«^r?qf^^^: TtfrsTfcl^^: Kar. Oomp.; 'the calf 
that had first its fill of milk and then was tied.' ;q^^r*^q". — jn^or the 
force of this epithet see Sanj. More probably this is intended 
by the poet to foreshadow the King's chivalrous resuo of the cow 
from the grip of the lion to be subsequently described. 

S'l. 2. qf^ — mark the different meanings of this word in this 
s). Note that the affix ^ (w%_) denotes 'possession'; c/. 3T^c7, ^cB^cT 
&c. See Gr. p. 213. «-f^ 'at the head of.' vj^ properly means the 
yoke of a carriage-, and as it is the yoke of an approaching carriage 
that prominently attracts attention, being in the front, it aometimea 
has the secondary sense of 'the first place or the front.' 

*j^»T?;fr — Gen. Tat., see Sanj. and ft.-notes; wife for ceremonials 
or the performance of religious rites. 

^pf^r^^&c. — This refers to the doctrine that the Smriti?, in 
laying down their injunctions, absolutely follow the S'rutis from 
which they derive their authority. And when a precept is found in 
the Smritis, for which there is no express authority in the Veda, the 
difficulty is obviated by supposing that the Vedio passage which once 
authorized the Smriti in question ia now lost. C/, Manu. II. 10. Smriti 
is defined as ' ST^i^'fgfHi;,?? *F^Tff^TrW^'- The simile is appro- 
priate as it suggests that SudakshitiA not only followed the cow 
close upon her heels physically, but mentally also, i. e. with a 
devout mind. S. P. Pandit (followed by Mr. Nandargikar ) i» 
unable to see the appropriateness of the simile and hazards the 
remark 'now and then he ( K&lidisa ) uses similes which seem to 
be objectionable on this ground that the object to which any thing 
is compared is less intelligible or vivid than the thing itself,* 
forgetting that KdlidSsa wrote at a time when S'rnti and Smriti 
were everything to the Hindus and the relation between the two 
was more vivid and better understood than now. Even now the 
simile is perfectly intelligible to those Hindus, who have not yet 
lost their regard for the authority of the Vedaa, and the Smritis 
based on them. For the rhetorical figure, see Sanj. and the ft.-notes. 

Canto II. ] ( 39 ) 

S'l'. 3. f?n^: — from ^+ 3TI5 (arr^^g; ) which indicates habit; c/. 
^fng, 5aq"fS, f^^r^ &«. ^n:^ g^:— 'tl^e use of the epithet ^{f^ 
for the king and ^^[?fr for the cow suggests maternal care in the 
king/ m^^ x^j^ s^-.—Prof. Ray. 

T^r'sTTPTrT &o. — This is called a f^^^q cAoi-formation. Such form- 
ations are classed as prepositional Tat. compounds. Vide Gr. §§ 
234, 343 ( sec. III. ). Mark the play on the word ^^H^ which means 
both water as well as milk. ifreTT^^r'^ — Possibly there is aa 
allusion here to the Earth's hiving assumed the form of a cow and 
her being milked by gods, sages, mountains »&o., as directed by 
Prithu, the son of Vena. See notes to Kad. p. 11; Kum. I. 2 and 
Malli. thereon. f^Hf»5^ — The simile hare serves a double purpose. 
It refers to the huge form of the cow ( seen s'l. 29. where 
the cow is again compared to the table-land of a mountain), and also 
suggests that the king though engaged in tending the cow seemed 
nevertheless to exercise the functions of a ruler of the earth. 

S'l. 4. sPTFT ^ g|Mr ^ — This gives the reason why Dilipa ordered 
his servants not to accompany him. He followed the cow for the 
performance of a vow, which he was desired by Vasishtha to do all 
alone. Vide I. 81. o^^H[^ot fr. ^+3T VTTf by the rule ^rf =^ f??: 
( a root ending in a consonant and having a long syll. takes 3T} 
so, If r. ) 

S'l. 5. ^ItiT^: — ?f \r- ^X^^]^^^^^ l The Vriddhi vowel is sub- 
stituted here by the Vart. ?qTfr^r?afr:' I See G. § 20 Exc. (c) 
?t^rFT TcTTH ?%iTeTTPT ^:. ^rwr?— ^F^m^^^^f I See Sanj. and G. § 36. 
The epithet brings out the high sense of duty of Dilipa. Himself 
a great king-served by other kings-he became devoted to the 
serrice of the cow. ^nriTr^^^^^^iTRT^^i'^. Gati Samdsa. 

SI'. 6. f^^|5n^_fq>f^^g- Perf. par. f r. ^^ with f^. The perf. 
participles are generally used in the sense of the Aorist, i. e., in the 
sense of 'who or what has or has been done.' See. G. §§ 875, 677. 
3Tr?rJT^>^'frc:— 3TR^^sq%c?JT^4 fr?^ ^'^^?tRt^ ^W- I Patiently 
seating himself down, sticking fast to his seat. The word vff^ pri- 
marily meaa3 one who is considerate (fq-^j thought ^TPf possesses |f^ ) 
one who bestows proper thought upon a thing; hence sticking fast 
to a purpose. And as a considerate man always acts wisely, i. e., 
by taking into account all possible difficulties &c., it has also 
act^uired the secondary sense of 'wise, learned.' 

( 40 ) [ Canto 11. 

^qrf — au appropriate simile. Since the word ^m\ is fern, tlie 
Upam4 is faulty according to afrvftsr and some other later 
rhetoricians, but not so according to Vimana, Daodin and otlier 
ancient writers. See ft. -note. 

S'l. 7. 3T?cI^rfW: — Here 3T?cT ^^^ the sense of ar^cl^fffT. 
According to a s'l. quoted by Vallabha, there are four species of 
4;lephants of which the one referred to here is of the Bhadra kind. 

ftC^s^JT! — ^\^^i f^^cftr% f?T.* I One who drinks with two, scil. first with 
the proboscis and then with the mouth; un elephant, f?^ in compounds 
like Jfgir'''^'. ^l^^ &c. means a king and is added here to f^q that 
it should better compare with Dilipa, who was himself a Manuja- 
indra. See ft.-note. ffqi^n'^T-^ ^^m^F^ ff'T'?: ' f^T f '? ?? fg^'?: I 
^'fTcT^'TT^: I Pan. II. 1. 56; or fgqs ^^' I 

SI. 8. w^rJTWR &'5- — This is a characteristic of the forester. 
When one intends to enter a forest for hunting &c., he is described as 
tying up his hair by means of tendrils or the like so that they may not 
be entangled in thorns and brambles. Cy. IX. 51. Thus the tying up 
of the hair being a sign ( ^^o] ) ot one about to enter a forest (ff^Jifr) 
the Sutra quoted by Malli. applies. arf^^JT'-T^^r — 3TnT^cTr ^^%^- 

3TJ^«rr^rT%Tri?t.v «lff'r<EriTF^: 1 See Sid. — Kau. on P4n. II. 1. 36. gq: 

Now the poet describes, in a poetical way of course, io s'lokas 
9-13 ( Hee Mallinfitha's introductory remark to theae ) how the king was 
received with usual formalities in the forest. When a monarch enters a 
town, his servants run on both sides shouting * Prosperity to the king; 
here comes he,' &c.; this is done here by the trees ( mark the maa. gender 
cf f *T that represents males). As on such occasions the town-damsels throw 
fried rice on the king and elderly ladies hurry to have a look at him, 
so the young creepers strew flowers upon the king and the female deer 
atandgazing upon him ( 10-11 ). Again songs in praise of the visitor are 
sung everywhere in the town, and so the glory of tlie king is here sung 
by the forest Dryads (12). Chauries are waved over him to remove 
perspiration, and that is done here by the gentle breezes (13). And lastly, 
as the royal visit is marked by some gracious act on the part of the 
monarch, so is described in s'l. 14. the good done to the forest by the 
presence of the king. 

SI. 9. ff^e-Tf^r^^^?^— C/- above ( s'l. 4. ); qr'^'ftTg^^r: qi*^r- 

3^n: I q^^i ^9f : '^I'^^ I The word q[5^ is derived from qg ( a con- 
tracted form of q^g ) which means a rib-bone, q^ or qc^ also means 
an axe, which sense it probably acquired from a sharp crooked rib - 

Canto II. ] ( 41 ) 

bone having been originally used as an axe. qrr?!^^ ^*TFT— The king, 
as chastiser of the wicked, is comparable to Varuna, the god armed 
-with the nooSG, who also discharges a similar fanction. (f^qT^ifVf^' 

^qsjazfsr^sq-fj- ^f^tiTr^^iiTrir^*^ ^^r ll See note to this s'l. 

3Tn'^r^fna'*f^-Sae Vallabha quoted in the it.-note. 3T(c5T^^T»^ i^ ^^® 
set formula of words which one must utter on seeing a king. It also 
means the panegyric cry of attendants which they utter when a king 
moves about, in order to clear the way, &c. S'flT^Rr^: — -^ happy 
idea. Varuna, as the lord of water, is the sustainer of the vegetable 
kingdom. Cf. Rig. VII. 49. 3. '^]^\ (arqt) x\^\ ^^crff ^rr% ^i^ ^c^TlC^- 
5^T?'T^^Hr'^' I The king resembled Varuna in every respect even 
in that he had with him the noose in the shape of his bow-string. 
Hence, naturally enough, the poet fancies, the trees expressed their 
reverence for the king, whom they mistook for Varuna ( by means 
of the loud carollings of the birds living threon. 

S'l. 10. »T^H^«rr*PI. — Fo"" dissolution and the force of the epithet, 
see Sanj. The king, by his resplendent body, resembled fire, the 
friend of the wind. This gives the reason why the creepers were 
T^q^rpr:. ^fTR"M?#^Rfl[,— passing by, approaching near, ^r^5?5"cTr'.- 
here ^\^ is used to preserve similarity with ^ppq-f. JT'EJT — f^. ^ 4th 
cl. with IT, Here if indicates ' excellence, ' and as flowers are the 
most lovely production of nature, the term is restricted to fowers 
only. STT'^ir^TT'lr: — see ft.-note. 

S'l. 11. v^S^: — ^T^cfrf% ^g: that which kills; a bow. This 
shows that the female deer had cause for fear, s^fq- has here the 
sense of irff or contempt; notwithstanding the king's having a bow, 
the weapon of destruction, in his hand. ^?n^*Tr^ — Malli. takes 
JTTf in the sense of ' feeling, intention; ' it may also be taken in 
the sense of ^^r or action. See Amar. quoted in the Sanj. a^prT:- 
<^C"^5-3T^:^^^ the internal sense, th3 mind. There are eleven senses, 
called ^^tJTS or the instruments of communication with the external 
^orld of the inner man. Of these the five ^f^f^JTs and the five ^qr^q's 
are external, while the mind, which is h'^t^t?*!^ is internal; 
pi. is used with reference to the number of the female deer, s^^g^ff^- 
p. p. p. of ^^g^and not of T^qr. According to Di'kshita who refers to 
the Mb. for support, the root i^m cannot take an A'rdhadhatuka 
term, ( arq" mt^^rrS^^Tr^l^'Tq': ), and hence cannot take rp. Cf. for 
a nearly similar idea ^ f jt: ^5 ^\^^^ fsT^fS'- ^(^STH ^? ci^TF ^^T H^\ 
^ I ffTcJ ^3'frvif^ ^?T: ^«rq?%f ffrimot R3 wr n Kir. XIII. 6. 
B. N. 6 

42 ) [ Uanto 11. 

=^c;ftfff ( 3T>^ qr ) |-fqf^, derived from 3T«; oth Atm. or arii; 1. P. 
and 5 ( UDiidi ). ^fr"'^: — mark the use of the fem Gen.; the exclu- 
Bion of ^(^UT m. is intentional. See introductory note to a'l. 9. 

S'l. 12. ^^'^•. — ^-^1% ^^T^ ^r that which produces a sound; 
a singing bamboo; der. fr. ^f^ the letters being interchanged by the 
rule =Ci^q%n?T^fTnrT4'T«^ I Un&di V. 36. j^F^ &c. — itt^cT the wind.. 
The Rdmayana thus accounts for the name: — When all the sons pf 
Diti were killed in a fierce battle by Aditi's sons, th^formor implor- 
ed her husband, Kas'yapa, to bless her with a son that could kill 
Indra in a fight. To this Kashyapa consented and ordered her to 
observe strict purity for two thousand years. While ^r^ was thus"* 
in the womb, Indra, the step-son of Diti, got jealous of the superior 
prowess of the forthcoming child, and watching his opportunity, 
entered the womb when his mother was asleep ( with her head 
towards the wrong end of the bed and thus in an impure state ) and' 
began disseoting the foetus. The child cried with pain, when Indra, 
fearing lest its cries should rouse his mother, whispered out *H\ '^^* 
'do not cry'. Diti was roused and requested Indra to spare the 
child that was already hewn into seven pieces. Bilakftoda. Oh»p, 
46. The child was saved and was called qf^cT from m ^^. Cf. 
f^f^r\^^ ^T^sTi I flT^ar fm PiwcTT: I &c- Chap. 47. See also Bhag. P* 
VI. 18, aTTTrff^T &c- — Cy, Kum. 1. 8. ^^er^firn — see ft.-note. 

S'l. 13. ^Tff: &c. — This shows that the breeze was cool and 
therefore gladdening. 3TJTr:^r &c. — This epithet is used to show 
that the breeze was gentle and fragrant. aT ^f r ^^ f — 3T^^! ^T¥2^'TI^ 
^A f'cf[?^!fV^f : an Upapada Tat.; that which impedes the motion of 
a carriage, hence a tree. The direct mention of ijf^ is not very 
poetical. See note on I. 38. ari^n^cj-^ — 3Tin"TTfi, stt^t^ ?ffT 3T[tT<T^; ^^^ 
^ + ^ (3T); arf^^Jn^mflT^ T^T ?T^. arnr^^l-dnHMT^rH,— These 
two epithets show how much the king was in need of some refreshing 
agencies, while the third stt'^R*' supplies the reason why he was 
served even by the wind ( the purifying element; mark the signifi- 
cance of q^?r ). See Sanj. 3TT^r^<j5T^ — Pure by his conduct, which 
was in strict accordance with scriptural rules and established custom. 

S'l. 14. f^%?iT — See Sanj.; also RTTfT: ^^fi^^f- that which is com- 
plete, perfect. "Tr^fff— ^?yri% ^ S^Trfwi ^^ITSTSeq" Sam. Dv. ^^ ffsf: I 
With the description here compare that of the hermitage of Vis'w&- 
mitra: g^r?r ^gfRoiPf ip^r rlffl'^^ 7r%»r^: ^JPrTrq^ I ^^fiTRRT: ^F^f^- 

Canto 11. J ( 43 ) 

?^^q =g^rRft fl^ ^^cTI ffcfr^r: n Bhatti. II. 25. ifnrft— Ho was the 
protecter of all; and he proved to be so here also; for the trees and 
creepers were protected from fire and the weaker animals from the 
stronger ones, and the unusual growth of fruits and flowers kept the 
foresters out of want. 

S'l. 15. ffiF?Tnr% — ». e. all the space between the quarters tra- 
versed by the sun and the cow respectively. The sun's purifying 
power fs well known. The cow being a celestial being had also 
such power; cf. ^^-qr^TTT^WTtg supra II. 2. ffn^^Tf'T — D^^- ^^ *^® 
Ace. by JTfq4^»Tm f|cfRr^3«:#f %H'RIiT^^^f% ( Pan. II. 3. 12 ) when 
a root having the sense of motion implies effort on the part of the 
agent, its ^^, if it does not mean a road, takes the Ace. or the Dat- 
But in ^^^\ ^k ^^PT where there ia no effort implied or in ST^WIJT 
iT'^g-ffT the Ace. is imperative, q^fq- &c. — cTRf 5iTt5'E'5r 3T^all^ rTl^r I 
the tT3<j;aflBx is dropped by the V4rt. 5aT^=5rR''-"'ft *T3'Tr Sf'T^' • ^°^ 
see Sanj.; c/ Tg-ff^TyfgiH^ I. 38. =^-here means also, as u-ell, and 
not and] hence the verb is in the sin^. 

8'1. 16. f5|iTr «feo.— This applies to^both qg and arz^Tj iii one case 
3T^ means iq-jfr^^ or purpose, in the other, f^^^ or province. 3T5=W^- 
3T3 3T^f% T'S'cfrRT an ind. or 3T5?T'7 used in the sense of 3T3^^. [ This 
line is important inasmuch as it settles the meaning of the ambigu- 
ous words of Amar, quoted by Malli. Had ar^faFt not been an 3^5?^^ 
we should have expected here ST'^^E^instead of 3T^^^ and cT^^T; instead, 
of cTT^i See Pdn. II. 3. 65; 3. 69; 4. 82]. H^^jf— rv.^ VTf: ^^^^^ I The 
earth is called itcjtimT'^ as it stands midway between the heaven 
above and the nether regions below. 

^rlt ^^?r — («) esteemed by; (b) approved of or practised by. For 
construction see Sanj. JTRfgf^ &o. ^^F — ^?, is ^ prep, meaning 'faith'* 
It gets the 3'q^»t^^r by the V4rt. '8T=5gr«^^?ftq^^qr^^ l' Cf. ^^^^ WW 
Rig. II. 22. T. f^ftf — is properly a scriptural injunction; it secondarily 
means <the performance of a religious rite in obedience to such an in- 
junction'. The simile here is very significant. It first suggests that 
Dilipa had implicit faith in the cow and so he minutely followed out 
the details of worship as enjoined by Vasishtha; and secondly that 
as each faith when accompanied by such practice is sure to be 
rewarded with its proper fruifc, the king was sure to be blessed with 
the fulfilment of his desire soon. 

s 1. 17. arr^r^ &c— sTTfT^^r i^t: I ^^ gqffT ^^m- 1 strt^^t i ^i 

^Tj aee Sanj. ^afRr^TTRrR" — Malli. supposes that the epithets q-?fc3"l- 

( 44 ) [ (!anto II. 

^I*^ &c. are intended to describe how the forest was becoming dark 
all over; and he is perfectly happy iu thia. When the king began 
to return, it was just the approach of evening. The light of the sun 
was a little dimoaed, bat the shades of night had not yet begun to 
close upon the forest; but within the forest the gloom caused by the 
approach of the eve and the spreading branches of the trees was 
deepened by the dark-skinned boars that now left the puddles and 
were spreading in all directions, by the expanded plumages of 
the peacocks that were now winging their way to their roosting 
trees, and by the agitated glances of the antelopes that were now 
gathering on the grass plots. In connexion with the last, ef. 

T^JTT^c^rrP-Tf^^mPcfrt'q^^rTirqitlTfl'^: n "ifra IX. 56. tT^?i7— This is 
emphatic. Though armed with a bow, and though he had 
such attractive games all round, he went on only looking at them, 
without the least idea of shooting at them. How muoh kings, are 
fond of shooting at good game like the boars, the deer and the 
peacocks, will appear from IX. 55, 59, 67. This corroborates the 
statement q-g^fffcq^q- ^?TT5"HT^q; &«• II • U- 

S'l. 18. arrfrT — That which is distended on all sides; hence, an 
udder, oji^i^^rg; — igt^qilT ^^Tr^:. ifs": — A. cow that calves but once^ 
and whose milk, therefore, never fails. stNrT — That which is 
worshipped or respected; and as things of a charming appearance 
only can be conceived as deserving respect or worship, it means 
secondarily what is charming. rf^ffrrafrrT^T^— ^alli- ^ho expounds 
^'Tr^JTr^TfrT-' T^^TT'* seems to take 3TrfT%<T«T in the sense of the way 
which led from and back to the penance-grove'. The cow was an 
unfailing source of milk and her udder was always fall, unlike that 
of ordinary cows, whioh is full in the evening only; also the king's 
massive frame had nothing particalar added to it in the evening; so 
that there is no reason why we should not suppose that the way was 
graced as the cow and the king walked from. and back to the penanoe- 
grove in the morning and evening. But if it be insisted upon that 
3Trff^ must mean 'return' ( see next s'loka ) then dissolve JT^^I^'T 
aTIfr'rr: l ^f ^^^m ^nrnr: l ^^V- 'T^«TT:the way back to the penance 
forest. B. P. Pandit and Mr. Nandargikar following him, both seem 
not to have grasped the correct meaning of Malli. and henoe their 
difficalty to give rT^T^'T & meaning. 

S'l, 19. 8i^?n"f'rT^— BTI^Tpt ^^*T'='!? rT'^C I Tf^^TT— » woman is not a 
■ ^R?Tr unless she has excessive love for her husband. Cf. Amar. : 

Canto II. ] ( 45 ) 

*?R?Tr STRfTTc^'cTr^TTTT'Tr "^ ^f^H ' I ^JTFrTr^— from the akirt of the 
forest. This may also be construed with tpTT- Sadakshina stood' 
intently looking at her husband at the border of the penance-grove 
whither she had gone to receive the cow in the evening, following' 
the precept of the saint ' g-jq- ^r^^^r[^\^.' Notice the use of qr with 
qq^ or ^tJT to look at or listen to intently; cf. farther on II. 79, 
III. 17, XI. 36 &c. 

S'l. 20. qrr^ and q^crwT — For derivation see Sauj. ffq-^qf &c, 
— ^Tq?7f^ %g"[RT% ^TI I The simile is appropriate here in point of 
time. The poet compares here the bright splendour of the king to 
the brightness of the day, the soft beauty of the queen to the moon- 
lit night, and the tawny colour of the cow to the rosy appearance of 
the twilight. The cow has already been compared to ^rWI at I. 82. 
See ft.-note. 

S'l. 21. Jifr%^7fr^— ir»rfr ^f^"^ sr^r^ir^ i stit^i'^'t ir?T%'T ^fr 

q^r^'ni^f^ Grati Samdsa. This seems to be irregular. irf%rfr 
being a word of the fhE^ class cannot enter into a compound with 
other words. q-?(f^;ftH;-Here the affix ff^ is used qT^nccr i. c to indicate 
goodness both as regards quantity and quality. ^^rTTT^^rTr — 3T^- 
cTRT 3T^fn5^ ^T Tf^fT^cT^T^ rf^T ^f >W^ fffT ^I^tfrTTT^T: now see San]. 
The comp. may also be expounded as 3t^^: ^f ^=^^\^ ^]?S^^^T^^4 m^ 
fFT'fnfPTT: I this would clearly indicate the presence of z^'^^t in the 
vessel; but Malli. prefers the other way as the compound, in this 
latter case, will be f fcTW^cTTr^r by the rule '^nr'frftn'^^i ^f^r|t' aa 
attributive and a noun in the Loc, should be placed first in a Bah. 
Oomp. oT^rTT — T ^^^T ^ lit. those that are not injured or braised: 
whole grains of unhusked and well cleansed rice, which are offered 
after being washed and sometimes mixed with red powder, to images^ 
and other objects of worship. 

The word does not mean fried rice generally, nor barley, both of which 
senses are give in the St. Petersburg Diet,; nor is the word understood 
in these senses at least in India at present. The word is always mas. 
and pi. 

^^FrTr IK^ — The expansive horns of the cow looking like pillars 
and bending towards each other at the top looked very much like an 
arched gateway and easily suggested the idea of a door. 

S'l. 22. ^c^fr^^-^^m ^f ^R%--^THm fc^: I fr. ^+ ^ Un. III. 62. 
^?% ^Trg^T ^?«FfS^T I g-q-zif— <3er. from w^r^a, word of the q?aj5rrlr class- 
meaning worship, and the affix. ?t^; ^qq^-l- 3T; %?Tf HPT ^T^ff I 3^TW5 

( 46 ) [ Canto II. 

2%3 Mall. Cf. supra IF. 16, rfff «?Ht q^ff^rf^— The Oomp. 
is to bo defended like |^?tT^?7 U^^^m, \ ^K-'f^Ti^—^^- ^^ ^l^I^ I 
which have their reward before thom, ». e. at hand. Bah. Oomp. by 
the V&rt. ars^^irf ^f^nf^T^jsq-:; e. g. 3^gf^: &c. 

S'l. 23. g^^TT^E'T — The der. of ^\i is very anausing. ^r^^r% Tf?f 
^T(J"T fl% ^TTT: 1 A wife is called ^\xy. because she ettranges her hus- 
band from his brothers, tt^ — is better construed with fr'wr and not 
with 5^: as Mr. S. P. Pandit does. fiJ^R^ ^"^ — attended upon the 
cow, did not attend to anything else. The use of the word ^[isff 
suggests that she might milk the king's desire. ^T^ npft^viftM ; — see 
below, notes to s'l. 25. 

S'l. 24. ifrar — This keeps up the idea suggested by >Tifff%?y?r- 
f^q-; I Also gee note to s'l. 25. Jjff'fw^r'T: — a Bah. both logically and 
grammatically, vdk'^ — Here the Inst, is ^^, ^q being tho cause of 
the succession of the actions. Here ^irciT indicates the succession of 
the actions of the cow herself, and arg shows the king's following 
them so that there is no tautology. See Sanj. arj — is a sp^^'f^^'T 
and governs the ace. by si^^fi^at *• «• when ^h denotes a sign (an 
attendent circumstance &c.), it has the force of 'after, in consequence 
of &c. lie slept after, i. «., slept because she had slept. ^f^rSTt, — 
awoke and rose up. Here the idea of rising up must also be included; 
otherwise we shall got tho form g^f^^JT instead of 3^iaa^<^ as ?tjf 
when preceded by g^^ takes the Atm. if it does not mean an upward 
action ( :j|i^v.fcp^iaT Pdn. I. 3. 24. ). 

SI. 25. vrrC'Trr: — practising with ease. To defend the Par. the 
idea of ease must be included. A Oausal verb takes the A'tm. when 
the action benefits the agent. Here the ^cT^ilT^ is for Dilipa's 
benefit and so wo should expect the A'tm. But by the rule '??;v^r?Tf: 
^T^lif^foT' P^°- III- 2. 130, ( on which Ndges'abhatta remarks, 
*3T^l'^jJtmr'TJTrin%^ f^'Trf^^?!^),' the roots f and ^ can take 51^ (^fj) 
when they imply absence of difficulty in the agent. See Gr. § 667 
(d). Cf. yJJX^r^^^;il^r\fi Bhatti. v. 63. ^f^^^f—^{^^: derived fr. rjj^ 
to worship, to honour ( »T5T^ ^5^% ?H ) with the aff. |^(r^^) 
and means a crowned king, and ^f^^\ the queen coronated with 
him. f^50TTR-5<iT properly means a string, then that part of a 
string which forms its fold when doubled; hence f^goi means 
having three folds, threefold. 

In a'lokas 23-25 the p^ot has used the four epithets (1) 5;^- 
f^fJTvriTS:; (2) 'flHTi (3) tTf^^^fr'ff:; an<i ?Ri:5Toflf^fT"Ti and they 

Canto II. ] ( 47 ) 

have their peculiar eigaificance here. For the poet is now about to 
describe aa event which will call into requisition and tax to their 
utmost these respective attributes of the king. A ^5 of Nandini 
will presently appear whom the iflH"f will try to destroy (3'f^lir^) 
with the power of his arm (5^); but failing to do this the king 
will set a higher value upon his fame (^tF^) than upon his body and 
will finally achieve the g":5'^aT of the cow in distress (fT'n)- 

S'l. 26, 3T^^: — si'^R'T^rff^- On the next, i. e. the 22nd day; 
^^: is substituted for 3Tfr[ by Fkn. V. 3. 22. nr^TT^^RT — ^^^- P. 
of the desid. of ^j, 'wishing to know.' jj^r &c.-This may also 
be explained as ar^a- irpaf ft^?rR ^^rrnot ^^^ r[^r[]^^^K\^^\ I 
TWr^r^'Tr'cTH^^s^'t TWT« ^^^^ which tender grass had grown 
owing to the fall of the Ganges. This epithet is intended to show 
that the act of the cow looked quite natural and aroused not 
the least suspicion in the mind of the king. 

S'l. 27. ^jjvjftq-^r— 5:^^ !T^J«^fT fRT I 31 fqr expresses a hyperbole. 
She was unassailable even mentally, f^^: — Tne word ^uq-vni is 
formed from ^+q^ + ^T+the affix ^377; so the Gen. f^^f^f cannot 
be used owing to the prohibition '^ ^F^T'^^f^ST^rJ'^iJ^T'i;' — but not 
in connexion with the affixes ^, ^^ 3"^, an ,3Ts?nT, a J^r^i^ affix 
and the affixes Hfff ( cT of ths p. p. ) and ^^. f%^:-from f^ to 
kill, the consonants being interchanged; see ft. — note. f^?»r— • 
According to Malli. this is used here 3T^t^ ». e. showing that this 
was a fiction-, 'as it appeared'. 

S'l. 28. arr^W^' — Kind or doing good to the distressed. 
^r^. H l'^'?? &c. — The idea is that the cry of distress of the cow drew 
back the glance of the king with that suddenness and certainty 
with which one pulls away a thing by catching it in a noose of 
Topes. For the Loc. see ft. -note. Char, who remarks '?t?TI ^^'^'• ^fs^ri; 

^rf:' seems to take ff as a sign of 3"T^rj but in this case there is 
nothing in the sight corresponding to reins by which to catch it. 
X(^q is derived fr. btst^S cl. Atm. with the affix fpf, ar^gB" 3T^JT ^r I 
The 3T is changed to i by ar^r^ ^^- Unadi IV. 46. ;T»1r5=?g"^r^— ^ 
J\--^€\f^ ^Tr: or 3Tin: 1 Nan.-Tat. sfiTRt or ^% ^?^: or ^t\ ??^ |^ 1 
isee f^^^ II. 7. Himalaya was the actual crowned king of 
mountains. Kum. I. 17. 

S'l. 29. ?|f^?x^g^— form used in the Veda, formed fr. ??jt + 1j'5 
< ^Jll). See Sid.-Kau. on Pan. II[. 2. 107. 'ct fTff«I?M JT^fn^oV f?^TI? 

(48) [ Canto IL 

UF?^ 3Tfq^ ^rrTf'Tt Tf F?! I Maaorama. v^ji^^:— Gen. Tat. Oomp.; 
this implies that he had a bow ready in his hand for use and was 
thus able to punish the offender. %ffTfC'or'iC — ^^^^ word is used herer 
in preference to other words for a lion with the intention that the 
lion with the mane should better resemble the loddhra tree with the 
flowers. %^nfT%^ ir^W?^!?^'^'^^ Ohar. and Din. arf-^JT^ — seems to 
be used hero merely in the sense of an upland. v:rr5fTC?riX — 13 added 
to complete the resemblance with the cow who is described as 
^^^X^f\^\^\ l See also ft.-note. ?^lTjf^*T^ — ?»T is derived as follows; 
?ff"^ ^h ir=5?3rffrm f : a tree and by the maxim '^g^r^r f wr: K^%\ 
3T^?T'^5^fq- ^^^' it secondarily means a branch; ^•fr?*! ^^^\^ ?Tt 
(? + it) by the rule g"5>Tqt q: Pan. V. 2. 108. ^f^*T?T: — 'fffS 'a pea^^ 
or a level plot of ground on a mountain' + JT<i;- 

S'l. 30. ^rf?S^rrr*fr — "Who walked (habitually) with the majesty 
or fearlessness of a lion (under such circumstances). Prof. Ray thinks 
that the rapidity with which the King turned caused his movement 
to resemble that of the lion and and take« the f^ ( foy/q- ) ^4ir 
3"TiTI%. But the poet does not seem to use the epithet with reference 
to the present act of the King. Again the poet does not describo 
a lion as turning round rapidly when disturbed, but only calmly; cf. 
infra. IV". 72. The epithet is meant to imply that he faced the lion like 
a lion- g^r^-the Dat. by 'gJT«frir VTI^^^^Ir^' Pia. II. 3. 15. Gr. § 
828 (rt). '?^t^?r'— The epithets ^t^'^ and STfrTinT^riF explain why the 
lion deserved death. ■3rrfirf>T'T^; — who felt himself insulted. The 
King was the protector of the distressed and yet in his very 
presence the lion ventured to attack the cow, the same on whom he 
had rested his hopes of issue, and thus gravely insulted the king, 
forfeiting his life thereby. 3Tf^<5fff lit. that which sticks to the 
heart, and is not easily discarded; hence an insult that is keenly 
felt. m^Iri;-|%cT^t ^S^iFriTflR^ ^TCf fm I q'tT'fr'f^rft:— see Milli. 
This indicates power in the king to punish the offender. If ^^^ 
be taken to mean 'an act done without giving thought to it ' 
'unhesitatingly' ( q-TcTr 'ETTT fk'^Kl T?Trq[,), then this will mean-'who 
readily uprooted his foes,' 

S'l. 31. qr^c: — The use of the word here seems to be 
intentional, a pun being intended on the word ^\^ which means left 
as well as perverse, inimical. The right hand got stuck and refused 
to strike because it was also intuitively friendly ( the lion being 
unreal), rff^: — of him who was about to strike. The Pre. usel 

Canto II. ] ( 49 ) 

in the sense of immediate futarity. 0^7317% — Ancient "warriora 
used to furnish the hafts of their arrows with heron's feathers to 
regulate their motion. ^xKT^T^: — this goes with 5%; the hand 
remained stuck to the hafb of the arrow; but then the two words 
should have been compounded o<T55l^TFTfT%:; since they are not, it 
is a case of ^q"^cfR iW^c^rf^fTT^'. Some propose the construction 
^V' W^T^m-' ^^rJnPJ% ^f sT^cT?^. But in this case the STF^f^r of 
^np still remains : — where was it stuck ? f^TTfT'H^rT &c.-Here 3TR^*T 
means an action (f^qr)? "/• !• 1^5 Megh. I. 55. The hand of Dilipa, 
involuntarily stuck to the root of the arrow, looked like a painted 
hand in the act of drawing out an arrow. STfrT^M' — ?Tf is A'tm. 
when preceded by ^^, s{^, ^ and f^ ( ^rr^ffi-zr: ^^: Pan. I. 3. 23 ). 

S'l. 32. 3T»-^"^— P- P- P- ofsrf with srpf; the other formic 
3T«n^cT ( distressed ). Malli. takes it as an indec. ( 3jzvm ). it 
may be taken as an adj. meaning 'standing near/ qualifying STFT^iirf. 
9TT'Rfr9:-3TTT: ^cT?TFr?^riT?^(^ ; ^f HF ^f^ ff^ 3TriT: crime, sin, fr. ^ to 
go and the Unadi afE. 3^. ^^^Tffr%: — ^B'^'T is that inborn spirit 
or sense of self-respect which does not allow one to put up with an 
insult at any cost; see ft. -note. *frf^ — *fr^ the hood ( or, body ) 
qf a serpent, + 1^ ' one having. ' ^T'^fl-q-nir &<5. — It is a well- 
known fact, at least in India, that the cobra is reduced to a helpless 
condition, being made a prisoner within a charmed circle, by serpent- 
charmers by means of spells and the roots of herbs. C/. cTfrnT^T- 
;TT?-5f«T^ ^cTT^T^: gf :^fT^TT^T?rf^?KiT: I Kir. 1. 24. 

S'l. 33. 3Tr#n-§j — 'a partisan of the good, i. e, one who always 
stands by the good, (such as Vasishtha's cow in the present instaaoe). 
See Sanj. and ft. -note. Cf. ari'^g^. T^^V^TgH;— ^3 is properly i 
flag, and since a flag prominently attracts attention and is the mos's 
important factor in an army, it means ^the most prominent or chieE 
thing in a class.' 

f^RT^^T^ — Pj^Q- p. of the Oau. of f^q. On the reading R^qrq-JTJj; 
Malli. remarks as follows: — With the reading ff^^qrqqq; we have only 
the q coming in; but this may be questioned. For when we change 
f^ to ?HT by the rule Rrq- ^qzf^:, Pan. VI. I. 57, the wonder is under _ 
stood to bo due to the fg ( causative agent ) and not to a ^co]- or 
instrument. But by the rule ^^fr^rqrf^vfq-' PSn. 1. 3. 68, we must 
have the A'tm. and the reading becomes f^^?n"T^TR: I Therefore, taking 
^Tjuq^f^ as the ^^aj of the f^^^r( we get rlrWT^^'^. See Sanj. and 
ft.-notes. Bhattoji Dikshitaalso thinks that ff^*ir'T^^ is the poet's 
R. N. 7 

( 50 ) [ Canto II- 

reading. He, however, finds out a defence for the reading f^fj^fT'T^- 

•^?r JTf^'Tfrq?: iT^t^'Tv^ff ifFTrTir"^ i fr^r f^sr ff^mq^riir^ inyrTFoft 

( t. e. taking the can. of ff^irrq^im ) 5l"^fpr sqr^fir^l' Sid.-Kau. on 
Pan. VI. 1. 67. Rt^^titT^— This epithet is used to show that 
Dilipa was not at all unnerved in his helpless condition. The 
epithets arr'fs'fr &c. show why the celestial lion condescended to 
speak to the mortal king. 

S'l. 34. »T?r7n7— ^?f Tr^'Tffn'^, Tgfr TTS-^imm ^m-, ^^\^^J^'^ 

If rTfcT: I sr^oT — on the Instr. here Malli. observes — Here ^q is the 
^^OT of the ^pT'Tr%'TT which is understood, and therefore takes ^tfprr- 
For it is remarked in Nyasoddyota — a f|fr5q"r which is understood, 
implies instrumentality just as well &s one actually mentioned; so 
>>T^OT 3TcJ is equivalent to ^q^n ^yii ^?t; ^r^^Wrflfi; *Tift ^ ^^«T: — 
you are not to make an effort, for you cannot achieve your object. 
Tf; — neu. velocity, force. ^^g^frT — prevails or has power against. 
Cf. VI. 9; IX. 79; XII. 57; also VIII. 89. 

S'l. 35. %t^r^ — a mountain in the vicinity of Himalaya, formed 
of crystals, the site of Kubera's capital and the favourite abode of 
S'iva. (?/. Meg. II. 52; g-rT^cT: %3T«T fftT^ri'TKVTjsiTfs^ I Br.-Sam. 
3T?r^t ^TTF ^i^^fTr^: ^t^ncf'f: I Kas'. K. ZIII, For its description 
•see H. V. 217. f spj;— ^"^fff "F^Rf^ f <?: i STS"^: — For the eight forms 
of S'iva see Sanj. and the invocatory stanzas of the S'ak. and 
Mai. Here by referring to the pre-eminence of S'iva, the Hon 
indirectly suggests his own greatness, as the follower of such 
a mighty master. f^fr*»n*I'ra^ — It is not clear whether this 
Nikumbha is one of celestial beings ( itots ) attending on S'iva, or 
Parvati's lion, as Vallabha has it. This latter, however, is probable 
as ^Ht^^ is a lion. 

S'l. 36. T^eira' — *f^ ^^:' — By this Malli. means that the word 
q^^uf^ ought to be uttered in such a tone as to emphasize it. C/, 
S.-D. quoted in the com. S^T-^:— ^ 5<rS5^: l 3T3^: 5^: ^cT: I 
^^'tTi.^'rr: — ^^ means a standard; and since it is the marks on and 
the shape of a flag that distinguish one king from another, it means 
a distinguishing mark; hence f^qcf^jT means the God who has the bull 
lor his distinguishing mark; S'iva; ef. i^qf^f^r, >liT«T^> fTH^cT^ &c. 

t H $ ^*T &;c. — The remark on this in the Sanj. 'f^^T^ ^j? f ?q (^ 
^^^-.^ seems to be an interpolation. For in that case the Gomp. will 
be ?fr^|»T^«r and not 1Jif»>T &c. For by the rule 'g-tTTHcf °^]m\if^:* — 
P&n. II. !• 56, the 7?fiT^ ought to precede. It is also not 

Canto II. ] ( 51 ) 

necessary to take it with ^^^. ?^r»^2r &c. — This is used to show 
that the devadaru tree was in every way Gauri's child, like 
"Skanda. Mark the play on the word q?T?C ^° ^^^^ respect, which 
means water as well as milk. The Mah.-Bh&r. thus accounts for the 
name < Skanda':— '^^cfrf^^J^tTf mffF 5fr^I^r^ff^*T^' fm i 

S'l. 37. ^2f: — ^ ■i{^'. I aTT — 3TTR^^ 'then,' this implies that 
what preceded was the cause of what followed. %^r<-<MH — Skanda 
was called %?rRr because, just as he was born, he was appointed the 
general of the divine army that was to march against Tilraka. See 
Kum. III. 15. STF r-v r dH, — licked from all sides; hence, wounded. 
Cf. 3TW^fTr7r^?ffg &c. Veni. III. 7. 3T5n#:— 3TgT is variously 
derived: — (1) ^ ^x\ ^^IV., Nan Tat., the ^53^ indicating \^XV^- 
(2) According to theRdrad. those who partookof the heavenly drink 
C S^r> otherwise called 3i[^rT ) were called 'g^T:' while those who 
obtained no share of it were designated 'arg^f:' I 'g;^rTfTirfT^fl5 g^I 
ffiTr^R^cTr: I 3Tin%5TfaTfTf??TT I^^I^rg^RcTTr II' (3) The Nirukta derives 
the word thus— 3T^fn: rr^q^frfcTT "?%: ?»TR*^.- I 3T5^crr. ?«TRS ^ Sf 
yffr: ?«rrft5 =^7^1 P^«T: 1 or srg: irm^^ cT^^rrr ^^f^cT 1 fr ^'r^^ 1 

In the oldest parts of the Rigveda, the term A&ura is used in the sense 
of 'a god' or 'divine'; ( lit. one full of spirit, life, or created from the breath 
of Prajapati; see Nir. quoted above ); and is several times applied to Indra, 
Yaruna and Agni; and soraetiraes it is used even for the Supreme Spirit. 
Now after the Persians, who had borrowed from their neighbours, the 
Hindu Aryans, the term Asura to designate their Supreme Deity (Ahura), 
quarrelled with the Hindus, they called their clevas devils and the latter in 
retaliation said *Your Ahura ( asura ) is a demon.' Thus the word asura 
which had so long signified ' a god, ' came to signify * a demon ' with the 
Aryans; and their fertile genius easily led them to coin a word ' sura ' 
for ' a god, ' from the very term asura ( which now meant ' not a god ' ) 
by eliminating 37 from it, as if it were a negative particle. Cf. r%cT derived 
from 3Tl%cT meaning ' black ' which was an original word and not a com- 
pound of 3T and !%?[. 

SI. 38. ^^ft^HlH— ^^Wr f|Trv ^^T^'JV', a Oomp. of the ^tt^ctt- 
'ftl^rfcT class. ^r^r§^-is a Nitya Samasa and as such has no ffiTfq'if^. 
3^f^ — properly means 'a cavity, ' 'a hollow '; hence, here, a cavern, 
fj^ar — The reference to ^ is probably intended to strike terror 
into the heart of the king who was going to meddle in the matter. 
STf^HTrT &o. — here fftT means food; cf. supra ;88. This implies 

( 5^ ) [ Canto 11^ 

that S'iva had* so ordained it that the lion should get animals 
supplied to him for his subsistence; without his having to go in 
search of them. See next S'l. and 44. 

S'l. 39. f^cc^ — Sea A. G. § 67. Valla, takes 3TcT with gftirr*^ 
and g"Ti^«TfTT as the predi.; see ft. — note. U ' r^g':t\ r f^ r — This implies 
that the king ought not to attempt her rescue. ^^fffTrTTn"^ — ^7 the 
mention of ^TtFicT the lion seems to keep out of sight the ift?^ o' 
^fT^' Tmr is * dinner, generally a sumptuous one, at the end ( on 
the second day ) of a fast; e. g. on the 12th day of each half of a 
lunar month. Cf. qr^ij ^\^^ 5^f fltTTTiroTITTJTTt I 3'T^r^Tf ^«t =^ ^^i 
5j[^^[^(il^ II Bra. V. P. g^fif^: — of R&hu, who is populary supposed 
to devour the moon at an eclipse. x\% a^^ ^ ^^^ properly the 
names given in Hindu astronomy to the points of intersection of 
the ecliptic and the moon's orbit, t. e. the nodes, or rather to the 
shadows of the earth and the moon respectively. For the Pauranic 
account of Rahu, see Apte's Die. ^r^JT^r C^f — This shows that 
the lion was to get his meals at stated times, just as the enemy of 
the gods gets them. There is an allusion here to the extraction of 
nectar from the milky ocean and Rahu's betrayal by the sun and 
the moon. See note to K4d. Intro. S'l. 7. On this S'l. Prof. 
Ray remarks : — 

" This Sloka shows good knowledge of astronomy on the part of 
the poet. This will be obvious if we examine the simile. Here 
the lion constantly watching the ^f^l^ tvithout moving from his 
plans, is compared to lTfi[^ »'• «• n^> which we have aeon is the 
name given to the 7iodea of the path of the moon. Hence the poet 
implies that j]^ is fixed, and does not hunt after the moon to devour 
her. Indeed this is evident from the epithets qf^^^$5r aid 3TTf^«Tar- 
The cow had her time to become a meal of the lion ordained before- 
hand, and she appeared at the appointed hour, just as the moon has 
her time, and appears before ^fg^^accordingly. There is a limited 
area ( snp ) within which the animal must be, in ordei to be seized 
upon by the lion, just as there is a limit, on both sides near the 
node, within which the moon must be for the eclipse to be possible. 
This is the astronomical theory of eclipse ( u^<i\ ). The cow was 
copper-coloured ( q^fTr^TcTr^T ) and tha moon also becomes copper- 
coloured after entering the penumbra, just .before actual eclipse 
akcs place. " 

Canto II.] ( 53 ) 

S'l. 40. g- c^^ — 'that you' i.e. who are made powerless by S'iva. 
This ia the reason why he should not be ashamed of his inability to 
save the cow. K^^f^ — TPT l^\ ^^^F W^ that which ought to be 
protected, being committed to one's care; object of protection, 

S'l. 41. jjTr?=*r^— intelligent, full of sense; and not 'proud' as 
some take it. Cf. '^J\^^: tj"fcT*TTfN%' Amar.-, ' x^ij^^m^ ' Kum. Y. 30. 
^ it' NII ^ilTi — 3T[W^ 13 a Pr4di Sam&sa. firifW^T^ — The word 
arftj^PT though used for alliteration further shows that there was a 
sort of equality between the two. qizir^frir^: — iTc^TfrT is what is 
struck back or repelled by being hit, as a missile by an enemy's 
missile, or soma other force operating upon it. Hence, here, what is 
rendered futile and useless (although not actually struck back). 
nriT^: — Sv8,mi derives it as fiifr ?r% ?T^ I This is a Vaidio form. 
In ordinary language the form will be firR^PT: by ' arf^T^^W ^T%:' 
Pan. III. 2. 15. Bhattoji Dikshita includes fifR under the ?7i*rrf^ 
class and consequently it may take the possessive affix ^jj so we 
may explain firRn%r^<"^?^T?cfrT% HtTt^T:. Oh4r. also derives it in 
this way. 

S'l. 42. rjc'rlpTl' — *of which that was the first failure or repulse,* 
;t^ does not necessarily mean * defeat, ' but has often the sense of 
' a mere failure in doing a thing. ' Some read ^ ( which is 
found in some MS. copies of Malli.'s com. also) but it is difficult to 
see how ^f' means a < hindrance ' here. The Sans. Dictionaries, 
Vach. included, do not give this meaning to ^^. True that this 
sense of the word is given in Apte's Die. But there it is probably 
based on the variant here and on III. 63, where the word has 
this meaning by ^^pJTT. r-?t?IST^t:— j%»ra cT^TF ^^ T^mr'^F'^ F'^^«T^7fF^. 
Cf, Amar. ' ffcT«T r^'pf ^'=^: ' i And since words which have no 
truth in them often fail to bear their fruit, the word has the 
secondary sense of ' what is fruitless. * ■SFT^TfT??: — STSTllr WS' 3jcT: I 

5^*^cK^?^rT^ — =^H+ is a name of S'iva. Kali, sometimes uses 
the Vaidic form f^^F^^. See Kum, III, 44. The word is variously 
derived: see Sanj. and ft. -note; fcF^FS'^^ 3T^ having three mothers. 
Cf. Kali. P._|^f^^on*T^IJTt IFH ^F^F '^^F fT'- I SIcT^^'MH^FTFtr 
t^F% "^ ^FF^^ II In the Veda the term is applied to the father of 
the three deities, Brahma, Vishnu and S'iva. ^JFyoFt 'T^I^'S'S^MF 
Fq?Tf TSfFJTt &c. Say. on Rig. VII. 29. 12. 

The allusion here refers to the story given in the Mah.-Bhftr. See ft.- 
note. Once upon a time the gods being harassed by the demons, secure 
^vithin their three cities, applied to Mabadeva for deliverance, who, in 

( 54 ) [ Canto II. 

t-ompliance with their request, began to burn the three cities of the demons. 
To witness the scene^of destruction there came the goddess Durgfi, bearing 
in lier arras a child of wondrous effulgence. Indra, getting jealous of the 
child, raised his thunderbolt for its destruction, when strangely enough, 
the arm of Indra became motionless, being paralysed by the glance of 
the child. In this plight Indra saw Brahma, who told him to propitiate 
the child, which was no other than S'iva himself, who had assamed that 
form to please Durga. Thereupon Indra, accompanied by all the gods, 
went to the child and propitiated it with prayers and had his arm released 
from the paralysis. 

S'l. 43. ^f7f«i[ — an indecl. meaning an 'assent given with reluo- 
tance.' ' ar^iirfgqcff cjryji;^' Amar.; granted that, admitting for the 
sake of argument that, ar'^rfif?!:^— Ace. Tat. Oomp. ff ia ^ised here 
"|"cft; because; for this reason. >T^fn=tf — ^^^ so Joi ^^^^ "^e that' 
I do not mean to overreach or mislead you. %;^ pres. 3rd per- sing. 
of f^^, optional form, ^i% being the other. 3t?I: &c- — What the 
king means is that now, powerless as he was, any proposal that he 
might make to the lion would simply seem ridiculoas to him after 
he had expressed his desire to eat up the cow. Bat since the lion 
knew the inward thoughts of men, he ( the king ) could freely speak 
them out. See, however, Sanj. 

S'l. 44. ^ n r < T ijt » — See ft.-note. f«n^ fr. ^«f I + !f^ means < what 
always remains fixed by habit.* ^sfffq' means the opposite of this; that 
which is constantly in motion. The ^^ ( T of the Frequentative ) 
here must be taken as ^^^TT^ K ^* denoting frequency . of action. 
^^ &c. — Here S'iva is identified with the Supreme Brahman, though 
the part usually assigned to him is the last of the three mentioned 
here, viz. the destruction of the world. srr hjH l A^ — This epithet is 
used to show that Vasishtha is constantly in need of offerings 
supplied by the cow, and consequently he cannot afford to lose the 
cow. See Sanj. On the other hand the order of S'iva is inviolable. 
So the king finds himself in a dilemma. The solution of the 
difficulty is proposed in the next s'l. 

S'l. 45. ^ t^fJT — See Sanj., and s'l. 40 above; you who are sucb, I.e. 
ordered by S'iva to feed upon the animals coming within your reach 
^[K — lit. that whioh is subject to decay; ^fr^^ ^-f^ from^ + fn^ 
Una. ip^^ — What the king means is this : since the cow and he 
entered the cave together it was left to the option of the lion to 
make his meal either upon the cow or on himself. In either caae- 
his act would be within the meaning of S'iva's command. So he^ 

Canto II. ] ( 55 ) 

should be pleased to release the cow aud 3eize him, instead. f^^TT^^R 
&o. — Here the word ^797 is used to excite pity in the lion; since the 
calf would be helpless i£ its mother were not to return in the 
evening. According to Ohar. the loss of the cow would also mean 
the destruction of the calf ( and so the lion would incur the sin of 
killing the calf for nothing ). 

SI. 46. ar^^rt ^^^ni^ W^ — -^ ^®^y pregnant construction. 
^^F«^R being the f^q?T of 3T?vnPT^ is not required to be necessarily 
in the sing. This is more forcible than ^•ra^lfif^. The meaning is 
this : — Each cave of the mountain was enveloped in a mass of dark- 
ness. Now the rays of the lion's teeth, as they shot forth, dispelled 
the darkness from the places where they fell and thus split up the 
mass in each cave into a number of pieces, as it were. f?r — ^^^ 
3TH?fr f fer 5 fr- ^V:, and the aff. g; ( ^ ^p^ ). f^^ — The lion laughed 
at the absurd proposal of the king. apTTfrT^ — This epithet is very 
appropriate here. The king was the master of 3T«T or sense, ». e. 
a speech full of sense; and we shall see him finally succeeding in per- 
suading the lion to accept his proposal. 

S'l. 47. (jcfe ' MM-^ ^g^&c. — Now the lion points out the advantages^ 
which the king is about to forego. For aTTfTT'Tj see sitpra II. 13. 
An imperial king alone could wear a white silken umbrella; see 
infra III. 16. ^a[: — ^zfr{ ffcT i'- ff to go. 3T^?zr t^: — When 
the word "^-g is actually mentioned, the Genitive ought to be used 
instead of the usual Abl. or Inst.; see Samj. However, by the 
Vart. • Hr*fTT^TT'n?3f ^^f^ iTPT^^^^TT^ ' a pronoun takes all cases, 
and words other than a pronoun take all except the Nom. and the 
Ace. when used with the words hT^tT, ^K'JT, ^3 &c.; so 3T5^J7 
ll^TT, 3Te^^f Irl"^, 3T^r?1^1^i: are also correct. 

S'l. 48. ^^ — 'If, *on the other hand'. ' q"^PiK %^Tf^ ^' Amar. 
This shows a shifting of the point from which the question is 
viewed. ^^ f^^ T Mrf r — happy by being saved. ^ff^?T is often found used 
like a substantive in the Veda. g'Tg^*-?^: — H^^^f der. fr. g-q- + 3^ + 
3Tcr; lit. that which passes over, and since nothing which passes over 
a man is felt more heavily than a calamity, it means <a calamity or 
misfortune.' So the root gtjg^ means to cause affliction or calamity. 

Cf. X. 5; Zum. II. 32. jfrrr: — The pi. is used for the sake of 
contrast. Dying you save a single cow; but living you save numer- 
ous individuals. fq%^ — The word fq^ is derived by some f r. qy to 
protect and the Una. affix g ( r%^ )» by others irregularly fr. qr 

(56.) [Canto II. 

andg(^g;); lit. one who protects. Here the literal sense is 
meant to be prominent. ThH lion points out that it is emphatically 
the duty of the king to protect his subjects, not so much to save 
the cow. 

S'l. 49. sTTcrvT'^'^^r?!.— 3TT?:r^ sTTH^r '^¥Tci I f^>n«r— see Banj. 
If on the other hand you fear, then your fear is out of place- for &c • 
?T^?i: &c. — This is pass.; the active cons, will be irq^R^q q^j T%%3 
5I^^rfj;. As the idea of qv^ is intended to be prominent here, the 
pass con. is used. See Apte's G. §§ 178-9. ^^rr^:— 3?^^frT a^^tllT 
|f?r; fr. S>5i^+3Tr3 (^). XTRfirni— see Main.; or q-ffTtrner imitates ffjT 
irfertT: fr. ^] + q; (3T); ^^TT^fr: ^\^^^ ^\l\o. cfnf^^r:— Here the affix ^ 
shows repetition fic^rqf. 'A Koti at a time, in Kotis.' 

S'l. 50. ^F^f o m ^a -qiyprt — the word q^q^ appears to be formed 
om ijj; repeated, and Wilson indeed derives it as such. But it 
seems to be wrong, According to Bhattoji Dikshita this word has no 
deri vation (cTT'T^r^F^^f^Scqw gs^RT^ WTTSfff^ )• ^^^f??— 3r^ takes 
fcJ and also f^^ ; so gr«fft^ also- ^TfTrTt? &c. — Expound iTf icT^^^d^ 
STTroTJT^iTT^r iTf rfTSr^tT^HiTr^r *f?: I %^ f^Wi, l We must not say 
*ffrcT?3"?cr^f^^^ iT^TficJ^^HHI?'^ ; ^ot in that case the Oomp. becomes 
one of the iJ^^s^^r^Tf? class, and further compounding is precluded. 
«ft^ — P- p. P-of =R-j 4. 5 P. to prosper, to flourish; see V. 40. CT^^ 

S'l. 51. jjf%^^_i}f^y%%: ^;t: itj^^^t: a Pradi. Oomp. We must 
not dissolve it as an Upa. Oomp., as we shall get q"f^?^R and not 
qf^^if as it cannot take 3Tq\ 3T^^? — ^^ is a root governing two 
objects, being a synonym of ^. In explaining this Malli. quotes a 
K4rik4 from the Mah.-Bhash. which means : — That which is the 
RT^tT ( cause or origin ) of gTrqyi]- ( what is desired e. ff. tr^r." ) with 
respect to the roots g^, ^n'^&c. and also that for whom is intended 
the subject-matter of the roots st and ^fpr, is, unless directed other- 
wise by special rules, called 3T¥rf^?T »• <• 3T^«ia 'what is not defined 
by the Sfitrak&ra.' In the present case, 3t«^ is the subject-matter 
of STHT^cT and is intended for %f^qr^: wherefore f^ffuricT is 3T«Ff«j?T- 
And by the rule 'ar^l^ff ^'. P&n. I. 4. 51, f^ffTTTc?" " ^^ of aT^nqcT- 

S 1. 52. JT^WTff: — The king of men-. *TgK?;rrnt \^- IT^TT. C/- 
Amar. ^i^srr ^^I^^r %^- I or v{^v^\ \^ ^. There is a pun on the word 
^^ which means a king and also a god, intended to show the 
excellence of Dilipa over the lion who is only a ^[3^- rffTi^rrRni 
&o.— we may also dissolve %^>.qTr%?n ?T?«^n%cTr I ^^'^TrftcTT "^lit 

.•€anto II. ] • ( 57 ) 

^cTn^r '^ cTTT I Malli. says %q instead of rf^q as here the sfJifrTT is 
emphasized. See Patanjali's remarks on the the Vart. '^rj'Ef^ Hl^ 
S^g^^ifH^' I gcT^T^ — from ^, an indecl., me&ning 'what is exceedingly 
proper, much' &c.; and as the excess expressed here by the Tad. affix 
cT^ belongs to ^?TrgcTr (the ^^^]%^) and not to the king, we have 
^^f^. The king was fitly all the more moved. 

S'l. 53. This is a reply to s'lokaa 47, 48, 50. ^?ini— from 
destruction, peril, &c.; see ft.-aote. f^rr7 — is used here ^TfTfTT^ I 
^cJ^T^?3 ^[frfq'T'a^ — JT% f^^'- 'Such is the traditional history of the 
word.' 5rr?T^ &o. — What the poet gives is the meaning and not the 
derivation of the term ^^, for which see Sanj. ^fqJ — vis^dMif ^^ 
lit. whose point is raised above the general level or over the 
surface; hence prominently attracting attention; and finally what is 
renowned, noble. Cf. IV. 22, VI.: 32. ^:^:— On this Malli. remarks 
(see Sanj.): — ''The word does not mean 'the Kshatriya race' by mere 
convention, like the word ars'^lJof which means '& S'dla tree', but 
is qr^T^g" »'. e. has its etymological sense restricted to a particular 
class, just as the term q^^r means a lotus to the exclusion of every 
other thing growing in mud." Cf. the word STTcTT^T a^d the English 
word parasol. Words have three kinds of meanings — ^ftf'T^ o^ 
etymological, as ctT"^^ &c.> ^2" or established by convention, as ifr, 
ars^^oT &c.; and ^nr^S" or etymological as well as conventional^ as 
^'^^^ The Naiyayikas recognize a fourth meaning, ?nf^^^3"; ^^ 
3"f^- See Muktavali on Bha. Par. 87. ^q^?r — Ignominy, reproach; 
fr. ^g; with ^7 and aS. ^o^( 3? ). »Tr?nRr— ^TeT i^J^FHl^ iTcfw^T:; 
tr. ^^ + ^^^ a possessive affix; tarnished; foul. ^ — used in the 
sense of =^ 'and.^ Cf. Kir. quoted in the ft.-notes. 

S'l. 54. This is a reply to s'l. 49. 5 — is interrogative, involving 
some doubt or uncertainty; c/. Kir. V. 1; gr?f ?r — How possibly; 
by no means. ^ I 4n : — ^^^ is not generally used independently as here 
but with the inf.; see infra 56. arjT'Er: — Lit, leading one after; hence 
propitiation, pacification of anger. It has a slightly different sense 
in VI. 2. ^H^; — may also be taken as ^57 and explained by the 
Sutra 'pjfT^TI^r'IiTF^t lcfT'rr''TcR^^J^ ' I Fin. II. 3. 72; Apte'5 
G. § 117. ^ST^i^T — The name ^ is variously explained :— ff ^q - c^ - 
mr^ fm ^: i Of the S'ruti— f r figfrg^fr^'iTnC ?^T^ ^s^^ I Also 
(r^^lTTf W% ^'Tt^ ^TRC'jfer 1 Kurm. P.; and ^«r: ^^T TFTH^ 
f\V^m 5fiTf^ I frf 4 f f?iT 'T^TT^ ^^^WI4f m U Skan. P. ^^s(^-' 
see Malli.; or f^??T 3T^?Tt W^^I ^fct iTfR: ^cT: ('5 g ^^^ )• 
!R. N. 8 

( 58 ) [ Canto li. 

S'l. 56. f^cif^ — Here means H55FriT^y;T as ar^or is a f^i, the 
body being the ransom paid in exchange; for the meaning 'ransom' ef. 
infra XV. 55. For the meaning 'price' cf. V, 22. f<irf^ — obstructed. 
The root ^;^ with f^ is generally used to express the violation of a 
sacred duty. The trj^orr is as much enjoined as a fast itself by 
the S'&stras. 

S'l. 66. arnr — is used here ^g^^ indicating equal participation 
in the knowledge by both %. e. the king and the lion. q ^^ r ^ -q^: (a 
master ) stft^T- ^T^T'I^R'T — W^ is ^sed in the sense of the Inst, 
and is equivalent to ^{Jr^^] ( with one's body ). ST^nt*r is emphatic. 
Want of a wound on the body indicates neglect on the part of the 
^%(=[ and supplies the reason why it is impossible for a servant 
to stand &c. 

S'l. 57. ^inr — is used here q^[?ff^; see com.; 'if, on the other 
hand.' The king finding the lion averse to cruelty seeks to move 
him from another stand-point. f^iTR may also be construed with 
arff^'T: as suggested by 8. P. Pandit though not with equal 
propriety, and be translated as 'for some reason ( best known to 
you, after what I have said to you),' 'owing to some indefinable cause.' 
qr^TFrT &c. — (j^^fp^ f^^ ?Tf^ ^T^r^^rT^ 1 * 0* one form/ 'never 
changing,' i. e. sure'to perish; or qr^: 3t?<t: ft^«^- 'lf6T'=^m» R^I'?r 

?T«TT fT«n f^^-^T%g m^ %M ^5 1 Cf. Hit. ^\^ f^^rf^r^ ^^ RrJ'^I^Ti 1 

^^T. ^r%^ ^».%cT cf5r ^^ ^^ f^ 11; also Kir. II. 19; Yen. III. 6 
last two lines; and Bhag. II. 34 — ^>Tn%fT?'T ^mfcTJfrnT^fcnrE^^ I 
fqo%;5' — The use of the word fquy shows the extreme insignificance 
of the body when compared with ?i9TTr. STSTrPTT — The ^5j^ here, 
though compounded, is emphatic. *|^nT%5 — formed of the elements;, 
fr. ^ + 555 (?^). See com. 

S'l. 68. «Tr>TrTTJ^^ — 1^ lit. 'what precedes/ and since it is the 
cause that precedes the effect, it may be taken here to mean 'cause'. 
Good men are said to become friends very easily, even if they take 
seven steps together or exchange seven words in conversation. Cf. 
Hit. and Kum. V. 39 quoted in the ft.-note. ^^|>^ — in this tract 
of the forest; or simply ^"^; cf. supra s'l. 19. 

S'l. 59. TTT^— ?ft speech; see V. 12. Ohdr. seems to have read 
Tt (^) gTgJi^ who released. ?r«[:— The very moment; irregularly 
formed from ^STT^T + aif^ (^WT^if^ffr ). f^TT a lump. Cf. the 
meaning of the same word in s'l. 57. arrf^j^^— This shows the 
indifference with which the king offered his body 4o the lion. For 
a different meaning, see VII. 31. 

Canto II. ] ( 59 ) 

S'l. 60. qr^rf^f: ifiTnTr^— The use of this paraphrastic epithet 
without any reference to the king's proper name is intentional, and 
is very appropriate here. This shows that the king amply merited 
the title as was shown by his present act. g"cT^ar?i: — I^it. looking 
upwards; hence expecting, looking for; mark how the sense of grf 
is quite lost; he was 3T^r?;S^'- aTfr^g^sT^q' — 3T^ HJ^JT^TSfmc^fr^R; ■ 
3T^T^ ( ««w- ) g^ 'T^- ff^P^ &c. — H^^r: of secret arts ( gf^^m- 
^f^^I^r: ) ^r- f^^l^V- The Vidyddharas are a class of demigods. 
The mountain Himalaya is supposed to be their favourite haunt. 
They are described as wandering in the air and showering down 
heavenly flowers whenever they notice any act of extraordinary 
merit performed by mortals. See also ft.-note. 

S'l. 61. sT^r^rTTT^— Pres. p. of the denom. from 3TffT; ^Tf?cT 
f cT^^e^f fT^^ I 3Tf cTT%fT=^^'7fm'T?r I Formed with the afE. w^^, see 
ft.-note. ST^TrT: — here the affix cTH^is used in the sense of the Loc. 
ST?ir>'Tn3[~^3>^* ^^' ^^^' I * P^^^i Oomp. ^i^?2rT 3I?cftf^ cTrq; l The 
flawing of milk generally takes place at the sight of the offspring. 
Cf. I. 84. This shows that the cow looked upon Dilipa as her own 
offspring, and hence the poet says '5r^rT%^.' fflT^^— See ft.-note 
p. 34. This word is used here to make the contrast more glaring. 
Instead of a cruel monster, the king saw before him a loving 

S'l. 62. ^mfr~^r^^Tiff ^rr-'ff^ fr ^# tt^t't %r% i jett^:— lit. one 

who is always devoted to his duty or to the work of another; hence 
this ii the fittest epithet that the cow could have used after wit- 
nessing the self-sacrifice of the king. Hr*irHr~^'Tr is illusion, a 
delusive fantom. According to some the derived fr. ^^J the 
originator of the magical art. ^^( r o gr — Like the inf., the absolutive 
also can sometimes be used passively, q^frfi^:— well put to test, 
qfrg^ properly means to look at a thing all round, hence to carefully 
examine, &c. ^jt^fST^^rTni;— iT^tT ^r^: ^^J^- Prddi Oomp. s^^^t^:— 

3T??TfcT ^'^wn^ irrfoT^ %j^ i 3t^^i% ?rT^f?Tn% ^r sT'ct^?: i F^^ri— much 

less. See Apte's G. § 267 («). 

S'l. 63. sfhirR*! — R?raTR»T I ^-S*^q; 'with you.' The dat, by the 
Vdrt. (see com.) 'the person for whom an actio a is done is also the 
9«r^R of that action;' but this is unnecessary according to the 
'TTs^^T^ a3 the case is covered by ^^dir sTiTT^^r^ ^ ^wr?H^. 
5^ ^H^ — Some commentators take this as one word, not with 
good taste, however, and explain j^r^s^'t spT^ I f %^?n'»rr^&c- — See 

( 60 ) [ Canto II- 

S'l. 64. ffrRfTryf — This epithet ia used for the sake of effect. 
"The king who always granted the wishes of auitors was now a 
suitor himself. ^f^^rf^HT &c. — Dilipa had earned for himself the 
title of 'hero' in all its aspects by the power of his arms. That he 
was a 5:5"fK, ?[rCr and yjl{^ix is described in the first Oanto. And 
here he proves himself to be a ^q^rCr^ al^o like 'ofrqijrT^Tf'l' g^ff?^T- 
?Tr^ — 8n. being the STTVIR of the ^«Tl*:qi of the child is pot in the 
Loo. case. dH^lM,— cT^tr% ^^TWm cR^: I 

S'l. 65. ^<-HI'f'4)r^r^ — Upa. Tat. Oomp,} see Sanj. ^r^ — The 
Dat. by the rule ipq-f^q-f ^f ; i^^^q ^cTT I In the case of ^ with ^{^ 
or sq-f meaning to 'promise/ the person to whom some thing is 
promised, after request, is put in the Dat, case, jr^ff &«. — The 
cow wished to impart a peculiar efficacy to her milk which would 
ondo the effect of the curse of her mother and remove the child* 
lessness of the king. The king was ^^q^f^ and had not tasted her 
milk as yet. 

S'l. 66. ^c^^— This means by ^!^m, ^mi\m^ I 3TJ?rnTrTT*«l— 
This is necessary as the sage had desired him to live on the products 
of the forest alone. 3f}\iif?t — milk-, lit. that produced in the udder 
C3r^^). q'gr ^ I»^ &c. — According to Manu, a sixth of the produce 
of the earth was due to the king from his subjects. See ft. -note; 
and cf. V. 8. The cow is here again compared to the earth; see II. 3. 
Here Ohar. notices a different reading, viz, ^f^\fJ|(^^^T^fir^fp^\;■^ i 
B'^ X^ ^I^T cT^"tT*ft^ ^Ehi &c. and remarks— ^^(^ ^Tj^^f* 
HT^FiTf^iff^'^F^^ ^] I Nandargikar. 

S'l. 67. f^(fr%^_f|iqf?^ i%f^i% inm^Ts^^rf^rm %r%w^'7T ?^- i 

The forca of the epithet is this: — Dilipa was a king and so could 
hare done any thing he liked. Yet he awaited the order of the sage 
to drink the cow's milk. This humility in the king pleased the cow. 
^f^^j: — The reference to Vasishlha here is not out of place. 
Though the king was ordered to drink the milk there and then, he 
declined to do so. And yet the cow was not offended. This was 
because Dilipa wished to take the permission of Vasishlha, her 
revered master. <^ — shows that the two actions expressed by 
iHrTrTCr ^'J^ and q^q^pfqf took place simultaneously. aTM^T — because 
both of tht'^m were in a pleased mood, and so did not feel the 
fatigue of the journey. 

S'l. 68, q"^%;f 5?jT: — Ere this Dilipa's face was overspread with 
a sort of gloom caused by his childless state. It now wore away 

Canto II.] (61) 

and his face shone bright like the autumnal moon freed from the 
clouds. ^^ &c. — We might dissolve q^s'r f ^: ^^^^^ ^ q[? f%f iTgiTl- 
T^ cT?^ ^T I%iTT% %^ ^flSfPTcT^ I S^T^TTf^rr— 5^^^ °i"3t be taken 
here in the sense of 'repeated' and not 'superfluous ' (which meatiing 
also it has; see V. 34 ) as the word fq- is used. If we take the 
latter meaning, the figure will be faulty, whether we take |-f as 
the sign of an 3"q"RT or grq^^r? i^ both of which the two things 
compared ought to be distinct, since Dilipa's words wore actually- 
superfluous and not like to or as ty superfluous. 

S'l. 69. 3TMl%?ncTr, ^C^^i^: — These two epithets, though 
apparently they seem to be used for the sake of alliteration, have a 
meaning here. The king's recent self-sacrifice had now proved that 
he was pre-eminently ^t^)H'?5' or kind to the good and being blessed by 
the cow, he was free from the ban of sonlessness. Thus he was 
peculiarly ^gjc^cT ^^^ 3Tf^F?fTrf^I now. For the meaning and der. of 
f?^^, see Sanj. and notes on V. 7. q«^ — drank, received in. To 
drink fame seems to be a queer expression; but it is the Sanskrit 
idiom, meaning 'to receive in a fresh accession or addition of fame.' 
Cf. VII. 63 where '.the idea is repeated. gi>^ ^j^ff g^nr^f — ^4^3; — 
p. p. p. of ^^, incarnate, having a bodily existence. 

On this S. P. Pandit observes: — " That renown or good fame should be 
conceived to be as white, i. e. clear or bright, aa the shine of the full moon, 
free from all approach of obscuring clouds, or as any other perfectly white 
substance, as pure milk, is intelligible enough. Bnt when things of actual 
existence and of established whiteness like milk, snow, &c., are compared 
to renown, we leave the region of metaphor or simile as such, and step 
into the region of what may perhaps be called unreal similes. " 

But this criticism seems to be based either on a misunderstanding 
of the force of ^^, or on an ignorance of the distinction between an 
grfiTT, and an g'cq's^r. The fig. of speech here is* gr^q"^! and not grrq-f, 
the T^ indicating ^FT^qr^^r a^id not ^r^^^; as is clear from the pre- 
sence of the word t^ in the line. The 3"?q'^r requires that the g-qPTI^ 
should be unreal. What is a fault in an :J^^\ is the essential con- 
dition of, and constitutes the beauty in, an 3r^^T. See K. P. X. 
All that the poet means here is, that Dilipa's sonlessness, which had 
so long hung like a dark cloud obsouring his otherwise spotless- 
fame, was now removed, so that it seemed he was drinking in not a 
quantity of milk, but was receiving in, a3 it vrere, a new fund of 
spotless fame ( of having a child ). 

(62) [Canto II. 

S'l. 70. ?i«jhrir&;'^.— T^?«rRr%^frF«i«fr^ A.vya.Oomp.^T^jfTPH^^r- 
fffiffr ^«tit^^ ; 'T^ffT^ + ar (3T^)> an affix showing poflseasion and 
added to the words of the ar^tarrff class by the role < 3l<l3TFf^':^FS^ ', 
now see San j.; q-tft'tji wH 'T^fn^ff ?T?^ TT^Tin^I aT'ff. !nfW%^T^— 
from ir?»Tr^ + f^ (^^) ; ^^^ com.; customary at the time of setting 
out. According to the words of the Vrittikara, quoted by Malli., 
words expressing time, even by cT^utt, may take the afifixes added to 
words expressive of time. Here the word irffj[JT means by py^oyi 
the irf«?R^c7 and hence it takes j5T. sf^f??!* — ^^ ^c^M, an 
indec; ?^fffT ST^T^ ffpJT^4. ^3r^!fr»i[— vft'J^S'RrRrff ^^\ I KJt] 
^jft TT3|vir^r I ^^ — Self-controlled. Here the word is peculiarly 
happy. Yasishtha would certainly have liked to keep the king 
for a day or two with him and to entertain him sumptuously; but 
he know that an immediate return to his capital would please the 
king more than a feast, now that bis objeot was gained and so 
checking his desire sent him away. 

S'l. 71. qff^o f sr f ?ir5rar~Such was the custom; ef. ^% ^Pf: ^^i- 
gai^f'CT^f^Tf^^ S'ik. IV. p. 100. Mark the difference between the 
meanings of ^(T iii ^cT^ <^Qd ^(Tr^^< ^^ one case it means ^propitiated 
with offerings', from 5 to please; in the other 'what is offered' fr. 5 
to offer. ^^Tiffjy &c.— ^PcT ^^■^u'^ ^iTSfOTl'^; ^: arffT^T^^r^iT ^V^X- 
(more mighty or pre-eminent) mrift ^^- Here ^^:^]^ rather means 
(though we have translated it by 'prowess') dignity, majestic 
appearance, as in ir*TI^fI=^ ?^ cT^^^ S'4k. I. p. 28; g^ means 
prominent, bright. He was no longer if^rTpjtTR^FRT^- His face 
had its usual majestic splendour; the maiigalai made it 
brighter, Diaakara explains this as ^^\ qf^^^ ifFcT^f|»Tr^F?TiTir?f^Dn- 
!Fr'it?r"l^!TcT^ flfr^F^ V^V ^^^^ l See ft.-note. C/.— vr^fr^q-gr^ f^JT^- 
gT^ri'Tf^iT'nTfcT^l'^ l'^5qWFIif^>7rf5r5|TiTrai^r5^T*TI?5TqrTT^r: I «^JTM "^ft 

JT^^iq: II According to Vallabha ^?iT^3" refers to the auspicious 
appearance of birds and the manifestation of other signs at Dillpa's 

S'l. 72. 'ifr'TrfHrrm &o.— arnrriTn f?^F'*Tn»T: ^q^rsr^i^nT^iirfff^ 1 

frff«'T:— ^rf ^fl^-tT^q; fr. ^5-l-j65 C'^l^); similarly ST^tFR'^S, ^fj^^\ 
see P&n. III. 2. 136. This is said with reference to his successful 
performance of the ifr%^f^cT he had undertaken. 3T2?T?Tg<^— 3TF'^- 
<m]^ 3:S'.'cTTSr'?»TIiP'l3^cT:; uot tossed up and down; free from jolting. 
2^0 w see Sanj. qjfrn^T— iRet T^ »RFl«F: I The desire carries tha 

Canto il. ] ( 63 ) 

mind from one object to another just as a car does a man; so the 
desire is called the car of the mind. The epithets sq'r^TWTT'-^f^^r 
and 3T3^TcT9^^ ^pply ^<> 'fT^IT'T as well. lu this case \.^]^ means 
•the sound of the desire being pronounced aloud' which was pleasing 
now that its fulfilment was certain; and srg^TJT means * the removal 
of obstacles'; see Sanj. 

SI. 73. 3TTff?T — lit. placed in the heart; produced; 3^g^q" f^jm 
3^^^^ eager longing, yearning. ^'tTT^ &c- — When referring to the 
moon iT^[ means -the people, the world.' The moon also obserres 
a sort of vow, viz., of allowing the gods to drink of him for the 
good of the world, and gets emaciated. See ft.-note. q-^: q"T: — cf. 
JT^RWJTW^oT^T ^^ 5^: ^ 5^f%r%^cT*Tt^^l?^Tr l sis'. XIII. 40; and 
supra II. 19. fir'Tf^fT^^f'Tret — See ft.-note. The moon is called 
the lord of plants, aa moonlight is essential to their growth. Cf. 

Rig. X. 85. 2-'^rtr^ri^?ir ^fer^r: #m^ ?f^CT?Tfr i 3T«Tt JT^^r^T^irgq?^ 

mn 3TT[|cT:' I Where S^yana explains '3Tffr%%=fr'T'-^r*Tf'-^r fPTS^I 

^T^f^' I Hv. XXV— cTcT^f*^ ?fr i\^ sr^rr ^rfrff^ ^r- 1 ^r^rT^fRt 

ffin'niiTit =^ 3THMvj1^ II &c.; and Kas'. K. XIV— ff??T q-r^ffct %^: 

^m^ rr5TI'i;?iT5p*Rr'^ I &c- See also Vayu P. XXVIII. 12.16. 
S. P. Pandit has the following note on the history of the word. 

"Properly speaking sa1iT>5Nt =n«r- or * the king of plants,' is the Soma 
plant, whicli being largely used in sacrificea, naturally came to be regarded 
as the highest plant, and be styled 'the king of plants. ' The key to the 
fact of 3TiT4rrfrr! meaning both the Soma plant and the Moon seems to lie in 
the word f^. This word is frequently found in the Rigveda, but always 
in the sense of ( 1 ) a drop of the Soma juice, and ( 2 ) the Soma juice 
itself. It appears that the word |t|, coming then to signify a globule, or a 
round little body, very naturally became a name of the full Moon. Now 
according to a very common principle that has had such a prominent 
influence on the development of the Sanskrit vocabulary, — viz. that 
whenever a vocable that signifies two things, has other synonyms, those 
other synonyms also become each expressive of the same two things, — the 
word Soma acquired the additional sense of the Moon. Then, aa is very 
common in the growth of mythology, the conception.s, attributes &c. 
connected with the original personified or rather deified concept, Soma, viz 
■'that of the plant, became attached to the new concept, viz. that of the 
Moon. Thus the whole derivation may be put in the following pseudo- 
logical form. * The word 5^5 meant both a drop of the juice of the 
sacrificial plant, (or the juice itself) and the Moon; a synonym of |;| in the 
first sense is the word em; therefore ^\h meant both the plant and the 

( 64 ) [ Canto II, 

Moon. Now because Soma, ' the plant ', waa developed into a personlfica - 
tion by certain attributes, therefore, Soma, the Moon, acquired also the 
same attributes.' And thus it is that the Moon, also came to be described 
as • the King or Lord of the plants. " 

S'l. 74. 2T5=fi:^: — Purandara or <the destroyer of the enemies^ 
cities/ is a name of Indra, because he is described in the hjmns of 
the Rigveda as having destroyed the cities of his enemies, t. e. the 
clouds. In the Pur&nas, however, he is described as often being driven 
out of hia heaven by the demons, but as always re-entering bis capital 
on all such occasions, after having finally overcome his foes, and 
restoring order to the universe. Here the poet probably refers to this 
when he says that Dilipa, entering his capital and once more resuming 
the government of the earth, had the grace of Indra. arsT^yf &c. — 
The lord of serpents is S^esha regarded as the emblem of eternity, 
whence he is also called Ananta. He is represented as supporting the 
entire world on his head. Cf. Vish. Purana < cnfn?5"HT»Tvr5inE?r f^«'Tr^^ 

^H5T^ ^^^1% n' &c.-, and Kumar. III. 13. Hence the comparison. 
9^y^^^ — Here frorjT must be taken as used in the cau., as it is 
intransitive by itself ( 3rTnTfl%tT«nT^: ). 

S'l. 75. 3T%4^rwg?'i" &c. — Atri is a celebrated sage and author 
of many Vedic hymna. He is one of the sons of Brahmd. According 
to the V6yu P., the essence of Soma or moon dropped down in ten 
streams from the eyes of Atri, while he was absorbed in meditation. 
The presiding goddesses of the ten quarters, at the command of 
Brahma, bore the foetus and the moon was born. For a fuller account^ 
see Hv. quoted by Malli. Wilson's Vishnu P. p. 392, and Padma P. 
Svargakhanda. grfTK^^ &c- — ^o' the allusion see Sanj.; also 
Mah. Bh&r. Ann. Parva, 84, 85, Vamana P. 54, Kum. IX. and X. 
Wilson's Meg., note 79. 

PTf^FTTrOT^HT^: — The Lokap&las are the guardian deities presiding 
over the eight quarters. For their names see note on ffTq-jf I. 78. 
Cf. Amar. ^^^'r ^f^: N^m^%ar ^^0]] iT^ri: ' *%T §^: Tcl'T: %V^\^ T^^lt 
iffTTrl II 3T3MR seems to be used here in the sense of m^j or arg 'a 
portion of.' Cf. III. 11. Vallabha quotes the following s'l. on this; 

^Rfr^r'T ^I^: r^Tff ^ftl^, II ^'f. Maiiu. V. 06, quoted by Malli. and 
ft.-note. s^r^w—On this Malli. remarki — the queen simply bore 

Canto III. ] ( 65 ) 

the foetus, meaning thereby, that she took no part in its developmett 
(as it was formed of divine energies). In support of this he 
quotes A's'val&yana. The word arrvTR is used in various senses by 
Kalidasa. See I. 24, 85; VII. 20. Meg. I. 3, 10, &c. 

The two similes here contain in them the promise of tender and 
warlike virtues in the future child, besides beinj; complimentary to- 
the magnanimity and the sanctity of the king and the queen. 


S'l. 1. ^Tf^'TrfrT'f >Tjfrr%rT^— This is in apposition with |^ff- 
pT^niT ' outward marks of being with child', which were the very- 
wish of her husband with its fulfilment at hand. 3TTC3ffr5"ifrf^^ct-bere 
used substantively. Pandit thinks that Vallabha has explained it 
better by taking it as an adj. qualifying ^rfi?o2r?T''T, and meaning 
srfvnT^, 'wished for;' but ^^«> was not the ffc^rf of the king, but the 
birth of a son. ?n?ft*r^T &c. — ^^T^lf W^: ^^T5T=t: I In such cases 
^^ means, 'a collection or multitude'; ,'c/. tff^^Rsq VI. 7; ^j^jt^: 
Kum. I. 26. ^r?^cT ^f*TK?3^?^aTn%, eyes; now see Sanj. ^rgfj-o- 
The first gleam of moonlight, to be soon followed by the moon, 
oq^ — tJ. /. refers to the festival celebrated on the full-moon- night 
of AVvina; cf. ^7^m^^^^^.i\^W'^ &c , Mal.-Mad. IX. 21. 

RfTTHr-The root, chief cause. Cr^ff^^TT^— llf^^'T ^^^ oT^oi^r 
On this Main, has the following remark: — A pregnant woman is 
said to be f^ffTT oi^ one who has two hearts, her own, and that of 
the foetus. And the foetus, in connexion with that, is called ^[f^, 
while the woman in relation to it is called ^f|"(%^f i See Sanj. 

Cf. ^?Hi^3^ T^T^g ^\^\ m-^ ^i*irm i fr^ f|f T^rr '7??^r^Tr7 ^rfffift 

»TcTT II Sua'ruta. ^f^, therefore, is irregularly derived from fg + f?" 
to be explained like ^ifT^^; or it may be derived from f + f?, 
also irregularly ( the regular form being ff|-[f ); ^p- |-^ |-^?j;T?q-r 

Soma read ^Tf?, which, though irregular, may be explained like 
^f7^5, for which see Uttar. I. 45 and our note ad. he. The best 
way to avoid all these irregularities is to adopt the reading 
<^[^^^^«T^' which appears to be the reading of the poet also; see 
s'lokas 6, 7. 

S'l. 2. nm^.-^ir. «^+3T (^5t); wasting away, emaciation^ 
of the body (and the consequent weakness). For a different sense 
R. N. 9. 

( «6 ) [ Canto III. 

«ee VIII. 68. »T?nT«Io — 'FTfFffJTJTJT^^^i^ ^qtf lit. having the end attached, 
hence, complete; ^ ^^v(w^^i( ij^ot ^^^\: \ g^T — Malli. takes this as 
^TcJ^T^ g;?fr^T; Prof. Ray thinks that it will be better to take this 
and ^Tfll^r as ^^r ^^h Bee his note. <^7W4f " ^H r— From this it 
seems that the Lodhra has flowers of a palish white colour; cf. the 
simile in II. 29. In literature we often find the lodhra flower 
mentioned to convey the idea of paleness. See Sis'. VI. 64. 
f^'^^r^irt^r — If%^: which are to be searched for, hence, few. 
JITr?T'?i?"TT— iTFT^'a «TrtT*T^'Tt ^\^^\ ^F vrr^T^m JT^TrfTT I See Sanj. i^^ 
added to nouus and adjectives means 'a little less than, nearly 
equal to' &c. ?r#n— ^Iirrfff %?T ffcT i Un&. II. 121. For the 
external signs of pregnancy see Vagbhata quoted by Malli. C/. also 
Bhavaprakas'a:— ^^^r^: fqqr^r =^;'^rpT: I fT^'TTg'a^patf ?qr?W- 

S'l. 3. ^g^rpf — Having an earthy fragrance, smelling of earth; 
applies to both arr^^ and q?f?r- Some pregnant women eat baked 
earth; Sudakshina also did it and had an earthy fragrance about 
her lips. The king welcomed it for its significance. See next s'loka. 
T^f^ (a) in private; (b) in a sequestered spot. q^r^^T &«• — The 
poet in several places refers to the earthy fragrance issuing forth 
from a dry ground during the first showers of rain after summer. 

S'l. 4. JT^r^r^— »T^^T %^r: «-f?rfqr3'^^t^r% ^^f^r^l He who is 
followed by the gods; Indra. In the Veda the Maruts are described 
as the gods of the air. nnr^o — Dissolve ff 5TnT?fT: ITT'iT: I f^»P% 
f«r«rFtT: r?»T'?ir^%ri'cT: ; f^^^ll^r^: ^«t: ^^ l f^p??r— The root 
%r^ with f^ means generally to rest or to relieve fatigue; see I. 54, 
IV. 74; and also, though less often, to stop moving, to cease, 
in which sense it is used here; cf. for this^sense V(W'(\(k^f^^' 
Rat. I. 8; f^^j^i l%«rr^: Uttar. VI. 11. 

S'l. 6. iTg%fT^— %c7T2Tt %nnT3^cT^ I Here arg has the sense of 
•"ficei' or repetition. g^Trr^RT^C:— 3"Tri^r?raT=Trift»^T: i TrTr^r^TPr 
being a ^^\ has no I'^ir^r?^. The country of Kosala, according to 
the Rumayaua, was situated along the banks of the Sarayv, the river 
Gogra of modern times. Its capital Ayodhya is described in the fifth 
chapter of the A'dikanda and said to have been twelve Vojanas in 
length and three in breadth. It was also called Saketa; one of its prin- 
cipal suburbs was ^f^^qr^T staying where Bharata ruled the kingdom 
during the absence of Rama. Kosala was divided into ' Uttara 

Canto III. ] ( 67 ) 

Kosala' and ' Dakshina Kosala/ In the Matsya Puraoa, the former 
is called Ganda, a district still known by the same name, and occur, 
ring in the Mah. Bhar. after Paficb&la among |the conquests of 
Bhima. See Mah. Bhar. Sab. Parva Ohap. XXX. It is certain, there- 
fore, that the country north of Ayodhy4 comprising Ganda and 
Baraitch was known as Uttara-kosala. Aja, Das'aratha &c. are 
said to have ruled over this province. At the time of Rama's death, 
his two sons Kus'a and Lava reigned respectively at Ku3'avati in 
Southern Kosala in the defiles of the Vindhyas, and at S'rdvaati in 
Northern Kosala. For fuller information see Anandoram Borooah"s 
Ancient Geography of India pp. 86-90, paras 93-96. 

SI. 6. frf^ &c.— ^r^cnfim f :w^ I f :<3 ^\^ ?f *rrfr ^v^ ^l■^ ^rff 

J^^^cf^r ( the pain-causing condition ); now see Sanj. ^ff ^" ^if : I 
fTfTT^'f ^TTcfrf^ ^f^: the qualms or hankerings of pregnancy; ^\-^ 
also means the foetus. On this Sus'ruta has the following : — 
cT^T^^ »T^?g &c., quoted before; supra si. 1. ^ff^ff ^'TT ^^ ^V^^^^ 

=g ^\^^^. i ff§>?Ti5?tT^^ ^r 5^ ^rifi ^^?'^ ii ?tct: #t frit ^t^^ ^T^^nr 
JH-^^ nfW II iT5^TqT>T^TTmcTn'^«?inf f?T ^,■^^^^ 11 &c. ^ifK^^H g;" 

nrfff: — is curiously derived; 1% three i.e. the gods -s^x, f^cw 
and f^T^, and f^ to sport; lit. the place where the three gods take 
divine pleasure. fw^sqc^^^?TT^ =rqV STfTIf^^^I ^T gfl^^^^^llT , 

?^«^?T^rarj %^g;t^c^TvT s't: I or sn^Wqtr^^^^ ^Tfr^^i^jr^fTm^- 

Hf^ ^T Mm f r3^r% s'lTff ^r% q'^RfcT ^m 1^ This is free from any 
grammatical irregularity. Or i%^T^ir "^V- I Rff#, neu. is also correct. 

3Tf^^^>J^T:— fllr fg»T*f r#'itrt ( t. e. which explains why nothing 
was ST^TT'^rT^ to him. ). 

S'l. 7. f^^^r^ — Having got over or passed through. ^ — is used 
here q^r^rft- — ^Bat when she had got over' &c. ^^^s^^ff — t. c. the 
painful period of. ^r€\^^m\^ — Pres. p. of f% with q-, pass; cf. for 
this sense '^J^'^ mi^m^^V^ W^7TlT?TT^f«r: I Mud. I. 3; ^mFJT^T^ 
=q^: I Bh. g^pf—^TTVT^ 5n?rJT or ^-[xil formed irregularly. 3^-;t^^__ 
hero indicates nearness in point of time. 

S'l. 8. ff^5 — The period of gestation, 'as days passed' i. e. as she 

advanced in pregnancy. nT^V^JHT— T%^?^cT properly means, what is 

iidden from view and therefore not noticed; hence, secondarily, what 

is not noticed even though not hidden. Thus when one of two things 

■by its superior excellence prominently draws attention to itself 

• diverting it from the other, the second thing is said to be i%^rircr 

( G8 ) [ Canto lii.- 

». 0. excelled by the other. vrprffJnft: — rff is liere transitive, though, 
it is generally used intransitively. g^»ir51^". — well-formed or deve- 
loped; corresponds to fJTfrprT'fTfT- See VIII. 37. f^— see IV. 17. 
8'1. 9. f^^T &o.— f^vff^>.rq%% RVTf^ f^tfvT:, a treasure. This 
epithet indicates the mighty fortune of the forthcoming babe. 
^MK I *^< r^ — ^fir^: sjnr^ (a garment) ^^?TT: the sea is more often - 
spoken of as the waist-band of the earth; c/.XV. I (T?;TI^T^^T7r). Malli- 
takes this as a ^^r. Of. ' ij^fTvrrf f T^^^i ffJpJT ^»m»=^n' ?f?r ^: i 
Vdmaoa, however, cites this as an instance of an attribute alone 
being used for the corresponding substantive when the moaning is 
plain; ff^T«f'^frT?r!T^fjft Rr^>qiTffTTTTt ^«TT— 'HrvTR^i^ir^f Hrn^p^r^*' 

irqfJir 'a^r^Trffrt l ^*fr^ — fire is believed to reside in the S'ami tree, 
a rod of which is used to produce fire by friction for holy purposes. 
See ft.-note. By this epithet STfTri or prowess in the child is 
indicated. ^frffTf &c- — This indicates purity in the child to bo 
born. ST5=?T:?rf^?rt— 3T^iT«T ^]^^ ^^V- m 3T??T:fTra"c7T cTT^. ^r^T^frT— - 
The river Saraavati flows near Th&neshvara ( ?«?rir^'rs^r ) • It» 
modern name is Sarasvati or Caggar. Anandoram Borooah says — 
' Two other junctions are mentioned which are borne out by the map, 
013. of the Kaus'iki and the Drishadvati on the west and of the 
Arnna with the Sarasvati below Th&neshvara. Near the first is 
Vyusasthall, the modern Basthalt. Not far from the junctions of 
the two combined streams (Sarasvati and Drishadvati) is the 
modern Kaithal, which is probably Kapisthala of the Vanaparvan. 
The Sarasvati which loses itself in the sandy desert is supposed by 
the poets to flow nnder the surface of the earth, and join ultimately 
the ocean.' The Rigveda represents it as flowing into the sea. But 
later legends make it disappear under ground and join theGaDg& and 
Tamuna at Prayaga. Pilgrims yet speak of a river in Bihar having a 
dry bed but giving water within a few inches of its sandy surface, 
which they call Falgu-Qang& and consider almost as sacred as Ganga 
itself. The Mah.-Bhar. thus accounts for its disappearancei^Varuoa 
once carried off Bhadra, the beautiful spouse of a Brahmana named 
gTTt^, and would not yield her up. The BrAhmana then addressed 
himself to the countries and the river Sarasvati, saying, ' goddess 
Saras vat!, vanish into the deserts and let this land, deserted by trees, 
become impure.' When the country had been thus turned into a 
desert, Varuoa restored his wife to :j^i:^. 

Janto III. ] ( 69 ) 

^^Tr^rr^— ^>JT f\^¥^ ^f ^^cT |T%i The fig. of speech here accord- 
ing to Oh&r. is irn^n^j 866 K.-D. II. 42. 

S'l. 10. JT^TJ^go — The loftiness, magnanimity of the mind; cf. 

»nr^: rlK^roTf ^ 5Ers'?fr W ^g^rm: i Kum. VI. 66. ^^r^^rrf^r^:— 5^^ 

is the first ceremony performed on a woman's showing distinct 
signs of conception with a view to the birth of a male child. This 
is performed in the 2nd or 3rd month when the moon is in conjunc- 
tion with some male star. Cf. Gobhila:— ^cfPTFT irq-m^PTTT^iT^'^T 
5^^^q ^loJ": I S'aunaka-5?T% t\^ ^cfm g m% t^^ ^^^' 1^65^%^^*^ 
%Wg^ HTHT srr H>f]^ll and Vasishtha-^q^cij^^^ ifffl^m^ T^ g:{Tf^S^?T 

ini% ^qfrcTcT^r g^Tir%Tat 5«t:s«Tf rtsiT> i ifc^ ^^^^ w^^^r^\^''^^m^ 

m«ft S% ^^^^^'^ g^^T5I^5TTf^0Tt ^]^\ II See Sanj. >fr^;— Wise, 
patient ( and not agitated by the loss of money ); hence he did all 
that; cf. ^ ^;^^^^T^r^X If ^r^: l infra XVI. 74. ^f^f— ^TRR f^ 
■'R'Tcflfef ^?^: ^?'^ ^T; though thus derived, the idea of 'seeing' 
is not present in those words; they have a meaning established 
by usage. 

S'l. 11. ^-^pg- &c.— s>5 ff^r pJ^iT??T "^sm- ^^^^^ &c ; cf. 
II. 75. g-T=^rCT^I^ &g.— g-q^^^g^ |T% 3"T=^I^: I ( act of honouring or 
worshipping, homage ) ;Tf% ^^t^'j or g-q^^% 3T^^ I ^m ^T^by which 
respect is shown; cf. ^ er^Sf^rm ^jq^^RiTfT'cI I S'ak. III. 18; now see 
Safij. This shows how feeble ^%tiTT ^ad grown when advanced in 
pregnancy. It is a duty enjoined on every Hindu woman to rise 
and join hands to show respect when her husband approaches her. 

Cf 3T^5r9TT^sqT^ff w^h ^?rH5r ^^^\ cTf^r?TfqcT?r%^?Frfa[m?cT^qw 

W^^^^^\^-- W Trf^^ &c.— qR3fef^ ^fcT qf?3;^ii; I ' That which moves 
all round/ hence, unsteady; q^irgf^? qiKS^'S; I qru^f^f^ ^aa nothing 
to do with pregnancy in particular. It is a sign of natural timidity 
which is a characteristic of women in general. Cf. =r^a"^fR^5^W- 
Rcfr^^S": &c Uttar. III. 28; ^^^cTfRafrq-^nrr Meg. II 22. 

S'l. 12. aR-qK^c^rrsr^^: — Kumarabhritya is the name given by 
Sas'ruta to one of the eight branches of medical science which deals 
with the proper development of the foetus, taking care of the mother 
during the latter days of her pregnancy, and of the babe when born, 

s^iq'?^r5T^T»Tf9^'3; I Sus'ruta. ^iTR^'^rr Tf*T«"EIT: qKW=s?T% i H4ravali. 
^^^:-5?5TT^Srrcfrr% ^^TcJ'^lit- oQQ who plucks the blades of Kus'a grass; 
but as it requires great skill to pluck the sharp blades of Kus'a grass 

( 70 ) [ Canto IlL- 

without hurting one's fiugers, it has come to mean 'one who is skilful' . 
«p^4fbr — The development of the foetus. According to the 8id.-Kau. 
the affix is ^rf^ and not m^^. jmr?T:— f?: Malli. Cf. V. 26. It may 
also mean 'confident.' ^n% — ^^s a double sense — (1) in the tenth- 
month; (2) at the advent of the rains. 

8'1. 13. tr^:— jffSPcT >Trilra»Trs*Tqr?yqi3T;T^T ^^r'TTftj^-aTT^ '^fr: i 

%^ occupying a high position; in the ascendant. Malli. seems to 
have read 3^^f^«;^:. This and the other adj. 3j^%: have been 
fully explained in the Sanj. and the foot-notes. The s'l. ' 3T^3Tf^*r ' 
&c. quoted by Malli. means : — ^f is the technical term for * high, 
in the ascendant.' If a ^r^ be divided into 30 equal parts, then the 
■even planets n'^, ^q, *r^t7, %^, f fTqrefj S^ and ^tt% are said to be 
in the ascendant when they are each in the following zodiacal 
signs respectively: "^ ( aries ), f^vr ( taurus ), ^ ( cervus ), 3{ff^T 
( virgo ), ^^ ( cancer ), iff;T ( pisoes ), and ^^f ( libra ); and particu- 
larly so when in the 10th, 3rd, 28th, 15th, 11th, 27th, and 20th 
division respectively of oach. A low position is at the end of the 
diameter through a high position, t. e. the 7th sign from the high 
position. ST^^;^: — The ^ here, though compounded, is emphatic. 
Close proximity with the sun forms the setting ( arffTRT ) of the 
planets, and their separation from the sun is their rise. ( 8ee Sanj.)*- 
This indicates that the glory of the child to be born would be 
ever in the ascendant. ^f^lT ^^- — W^ excellence, exuberance. 
One planet in the ascendant at the time of one's birth foretells 
happiness, two great achievements, three a king-like position, four 
a throne and five a divine position. Baghu was foreshown by five 
such planets to be a divine being. Only a divine incarnation is 
said to be favoured by five planets. C/. the account of Rdma's 
birth:— ;j^?ijr iTf T^ff^ ^UTt %=^r ^%-^^i V'.Vl ^ ^^% 5^^^1[^ %^ 

'if?'*!'^^^ ^^•- li nr^PirTr ^f^: — the efficiency which combines in 
itself the three agencies or powers, riz. (1) q-^^i% or the power 
arising from the resources at the command of and the pre-eminent 
position of the king; (2) 3rffr5^^TT% or that arising from the king's 
personal energy or enthusiasm; and (3) »t^^% or that arising- 
from good counsel. 

S'l. 14. i^^: &o. — These are the signs that attend the birth of 
a great benefactor of the world. Cf. with this Kum. I. 23 quoted 

Canto III.] ( 71 ) 

in the ft.-note; and qt ^mi WW^- ^^f^ ?I^' W^K^^ ^ftl?<TeifT^ f 
Vikra.-Ch. II. 86. 

S'l. 15. 3n?H"5T^^^— A comp. ^ gtrrj see com.; ^r?t ITH'H^, ^ 

R5^ff ?5r ff^: (by evil doers) ^fer ^r 3TRS^ , ( fro™ U^ I- ^^- ^- *° 
hurt, to harm). Mr. S. P. Pandit says that arf^H" is one of those 
many words in Sanskrit which bear senses quite opposed to each 
other. 3TlT9r originally meant unhurt, safe, certain. And then it 
means, in classical Sanskrit, unhappy, unfortunate, dangerous. Cf. 
3Tru^near, at a distance-, 5 to join, to disjoin; sr^l^sr a chaste., 
and an unchaste woman. It is quite possible that this should 
arise from a later generation misunderstanding the language of 
their ancestors, especially in regard to words which, though once 
clear as daylight, have become somehow obscure to them, f^r^^^: — 
&c. Cf. infra X. 68; and ^ j? H*Tr^iT*rq7^^c3^^T cfrT^^lt W^T" 
^'g'fl'? I Bud.-Oh, I. 35. 

S'l. 16. g:5T5Tr — ^r 3"TqT3J^r: (of t"ed continence i%^T^5^r:) 
IW^ 3T^ ^Rm^^m g:?"I'cT: 1 or ^■^: 3T^?t: the border, surrounding 
part, ^sif, no objectionable person being allowed to enter it. 3T9?T 
&c. — ^ fsfipW 3R^ ffcT 3Tfrt» fr. ^ + f with ff ( ?T^ Unadi ); 3T^?^ 

^'^\^^^\ ar^'Tj see note on ^, supra 1. 19. 

^r^spf &c. For this was the emblem of universal sovereigatyr 
see IV. 17. 

S'l. 17. fjTfm &c.— ffi^r RfTTt ^r fmrswrcq-|^f^r% f^ier: r 

See Sanj. Cf ^^\ qfiqr f^fTcT?«fr &«. Bg. VI. 19. ^^^pf^pj;— Here the 
compounded form is better than gfT?^ 3TRR^ as it brings prominent- 
ly the idea of ^ff before the mind, the idea of sn^T^ being subordi- 
nate in the compound and consequently makes the joy due to thfr 
face being that of his child. In the other case ^F?t would qualify 
sTf^R directly, so the joy would be due to the loveliness of the face, 
which is not so good as the first. 3TniTf^ JTW^rg" — See Sanj. Cf. 

*rflnTmrq"?TT*^rir*T^*r^T %T- 11 S'is'. I. 23; also Kum. VI. 59. 

S'l. 18. ■5frrR»ji'^ — A ceremony performed at the birth of a 
child before the scission of the navel string. It is thus summarized 
by 8. P. Pandit from Nar&yanabhatta's Prayogaratna : — 

" The moment the birth of a son is announced the father shall 
see his face, and shall bathe in a river with his face turned towards 

( 72 ) [ Canto III. 

the east, or if that is not possible, shall bathe at home in oold 
water mixed with hot water, brought ( from a river ) daring day- 
time, and purified by a bit of gold being thrown in it. Then hav- 
ing sipped water, ho shall besmear himself with sandal and wear 
garlands of flowers, and before the scission of the navel-stalk, and 
before the baby is touched by any one except the midwife, he shall 
cause it to be placed on the lap of its mother, with its face turned 
to the east, and say ^^]^ ^^m^ »TvrF5qR5TT^cT^-ir?jfl^I>t^^5^^f" 
rHlP5"CT5T3rri5^S?r>%'%^|ai5Rr %f(q^qs^?ifl?^«T 5flcT^*T ^R6^. He 
then shall perform a S'raddha to the nine ancestors, and shall throw 
oblations of clarified butter in the sacred fire, kindled for the pur- 
pose, in honour of Agni, Indra, Prajapati, the Viii'vedevas, and 
Brahma. He shall then mix a little honey and clarified butter 
together,* in unequal proportions, and put up the compound on a 
.flat piece of stone, and shall rub a bit of gold on it till some 
portion of it shall have been mixed with honey and clarified butter 
and with the same bit of gold he shall take the mixed honey and 
put it in the baby's mouth, with this Mantra : ^ ^ "^ T^lfT ^^^l 
^^W Mi ^f^^r iTQiH ^^^]^^ l 3TT3«iTF?IFT^^tTJr*T: ^Tcf ^m xi^v ^i^ 
3Tfl^r[ I He shall then wash clean the bit of gold and putting it 
on the right ear of the baby, he shall bring his own mouth close to 
the baby's and shall say : gj" tfvjf ^ f^: ^ffffl Rvrf ^fr ^^?9rffr I %^t % 
arfsg^I ^^ni'-il^r 5«*l5r^r l Putting again the piece of gold on the 
left ear of the baby he shall repeat the same verse. He shall then 
lightly touch with the span of his right hand both the shoulders 
of the baby at the same moment, and repeat thus : a^^i^F >m ^T^^^ 

^TI% "^ff r^(% ^^?^ Q>^T?^»T?% I 'Tt^ ^^toiIRRf? cT^^f ?^miJt mW. 51^- 

^Kfr '5f[?% vjr 3T?*t fin^lfs^cT 1^ f»Tl'^ II Then, to secure well-being 
and long life for the new-born, he shall say: arffl^^r^HVTWf^ f^'^f- 
^Pc? ^]n^ I 3TI?iTT I !5^^RII« ^ 5i"if ^T^^: ^TfT^ I And with this he 
shall thrice smell the head of the baby. And having returned to 
the sacrifice, he shall complete it. Then with cold water, he shall 
wash the right breast of the mother, and shall make her suckle the 
babe with this ^fatra : 38> %^\ ^^W ^t «r^g C'^»TT5: 5T503[% I 3Tf^ 
^T^n iT35:3TT^r 3TT3f^f ^J^fl ^^'^ I He shall then give cows, lands, 
tila corn, and gold to Brilhmanas as presents". 

'^mft=T if^ ^T 3TI^t: a luine.. ari^^ ^j:?^: 3T?^; in its original or 

Canto III. ] ( 73 ) 

uncut state, n ^^ ^^^r^: — (1) With the purificatory ceremonies 
performed 5 (2) subjected to grinding or the polishing process. Cf. 
infra VI. 32j ^^^RF%I%cfT iTfTiTm: S'ak. Vr. 5. 

S'l. 19. ^r^^fTRrrTT^— ^K a multitude, sfTT^^ 'fincT: I ff^^F^r^— 
Malli. takes this as a comp. of f^^aud g^t^^ and so iias to justify 
it by referring it to the g;qT^?;rR class. The comp., however, will be 
regular if we analyse it as i\^;fr^T ^"?t H"; Rf » ^m.-, 'it?^: ItT^T*. ^T^P^T^ 
^ f?^ 'TT: ' ffir f^r^Io^^T^: I Malli. himself seems to take it thus 
elsewhere. See s'l. 47 infra. *Tr*T^nT%: — Ihe reference to rrr^T^'f 
is significant; the poet does not say r[V^ 'i.'^:; the king's joy was 
all the greater as the son was born of g^r%an' as desired by him; 
see I. 65. 

S'l. 20. ^ %^^\ &c. — On the custom of liberating prisoners on 
the birth of a son and heir to the throne, and other joyous occasions, 
cf. Hem. quoted in the ft. -note. T^^^. — This explains why there 
■ were no prisoners whom he might set free. fq^TTr^ — According to 
the Hindu S'asinxs, a man remains indebted to his ancestors as long 
as he gets no son. Hence the compulsory character of the marriage 
rite among the Hindus. See note to I. 71. 

S'l. 21. ^rT^ — ^^ fT% ^^-knowledge gained by means of the 
ear; hence the various S'Sstras; see V. 2. ;»rfvj" &c. — It will be 
seen from the 4th Canto that this expectation of the king was also 
fulfilled. aT>t^:— ^tTI% ff^ in^fT %V^ I TTTF^— i^t? TT &c. are pro- 
nouns when they imply sq^^xfi- i. e., denote mere relation in time, 
space or person, and are not class names. See P&n. I. 1. 43. 
Thus tr^ properly means * one who stands in a specified relative 
order to another, hence is different from him.' It is through this 
meaning of 'different' that the meaning 'enemy or adversary' is 
obtained by :s^^K- Gf. Manoramd— ^'g^yp^fPTf B?Tf ?«?Tit<?^^Kf TTT^TT- 
?l*?%PT^RT?irf^fTKR "^ ir'TFT: &c. 3T%^^ ^mr &;c. — This der. is of 
course poetical. See, however, Sanj. 

S'l. 22. ^f]xr^2f|-:_3T^q^ (a) limbs; (6) digits. fJTf'g:— The 
sun has seven horses, all of green colour, harnessed to his chariot, 
also called by the name fTTr^- flf>?%: — The ray referred to here is 
called ^5^3]. It is one of the principal rays of the sun which 
causes the moon to wax; cf ^jS\t{: ggroTr ??^fqjl#^ ^'^r: I 
UBtrrq^^JR: ^Ts^qt^ f 5vrm?T: II Vishnu-PuraJQa. '^^in':— '^'t ^\^ 
^rs^^^r ^\\^ 3^?Tmm ^^j^hi: Una. IV. 228; or ^^'^^Tgi^ ftjflH l%f^- 
*fl% ffcT I or cpf^ \^■^■^ n% f{\\ I the maker of time; m«^#r ^^^'^^ 
R. N. 10 

( 74 ) [ Canto IIL 

TTST^errfl": I or ^^^9^\^ r{\: I The pleasant maker of time. The sun 
and the moon are both the keepers of time; ef. 'ij "^ ^^ f^^J\' 
S'&k. I. I; bat the moon is called the pleasant: time-maker as her- 
rays do not hurt the eye. C/. Earn. I. 25 quoted in the ft.-note. 

8'1. 23. g-irr — For a poetic acoofnt of the name, ef. 3" %t% jthtt 
f^fjm f^fer^r »T«^^r^ gsiCr 3nn»T Kum. I. 26; ^r%^?^ m cJ^«?t- 

Iflff ^r I yr ^ T< »-K? r — Kartikeya, so called because he was born in the 
Sara grass and reared there by the six divine Krittikas. See foot- 
note and Main, on II. 75. 

S'l- 24, ?:qTf ScG.-x^^jt '^^ ^T«T "^PTJ^) TTTW^mr I Now see 
8anj, HT^T^vrr^ — Malli. takes «n? in the sense of ^^t( and he is 
supported in this by Bhavabhuti's lines '3T5=cT:^^<JTcTT^?q- ^»q??ft: ^f^- 
*rT»j[ I 3nJF=r^T'<T>^r5'7iTl?^fm^ W^-^^ ll' ar^tT-^rir is given as one of 
the senses of xfj^ in the Vichaspatya where it is derived fr. 
'i r'^'?Tr^I^+^^ 3?\i Oh&r. Vail, and others understand by nrf, 
%cTIR^K a particular feeling or emotion produced by affection or 
love; in this case trj^^TV^T ^^f n^s&n ' that which strengthens 
or steadies affection;' or which is founded on love. For this 
sense of tc^]^ cf. VI. 36; Eum. III. 35. Either of these meanings 
would suit the context. TC^rTM^^ — which had each of them for its 
3ir«nq" or support. nmpJTFI^tnT-Poets suppose that the very separation 
of the Ohakrav&ka birds creates longing in each for the other and 
thus it ever increases their love for each other. See \njra VIII. 66. 

q^-^'nrrT — Imperf. 3rd pers. sing of the passive of f% 5th conj. 
with qf^. 

S'l. 25. ;jif: — See note on arsr^ below s'l. 44. ^^ — The 
sing, shows that the king's joy was due to each of his son's actions 
separately, and not necessarily to all these taking place simultane- 
ously. 3T^ — See VII. 67. This s'l. is cited in the Sih.-Dar. as an 
instance of ^^^w^^. See ft.-note. 

S'l. 26. ?rfr^r»— mfTf^ ('T'T^m>'n) 'fm: ^KTr'7T»R^'Tn55ir^?^%:. 

^TTrSrl &0.— 3-qf?«T^?^r ^^{■. or ^giTfTf^^STPm &«•; see Sanj.; 'with 
eyes closed at the extremities.' This is the sign of extreme pleasure, 
a spontaneous action of the body, being the result of a thrill of joy, 
rather than a wilful action, as S. P. Pandit's note seems to suggest. 
^/. «><^ '^ ^'T^TRtfrra^r^Tf f Jfrtr^f^iTfT ^nsir^t^: i Kum. III. 36. f^m 
&c.-after or for a long time. wrflFcOm ^: ^cT^^r^^ W- 5«TW^T- 
??r^?fT?T ^r^^TTf cTI^ I Knew (experienced) after a long time (i. «. a 
period of unrealized longing) the delioiousness of the touch of a son; 

Canto III. ] ( 75 ) 

knew that he was enjoying the touch of a 3on after a long time, so 
benumbed was he with joy; or it may mean 'attained, foralongtime, 
to the condition of enjoying fee.'; see ft.-note. Also c/. S'ak. VII. 17. 
S'l. 27. rj^j%.^ &c.— cR%r5r«f ^^ ^\^^ I and as it is the upper 
half of any thing that is high up and more important, qn«^ means 
' the best ' (3?^?). See ft.-note, and infra VI. 4. ^q^^^rir— not 
the transgressor, {. e. the preserver, of proper conduct ( the social 
order ). This he did by keeping himself within the limits of his 
own duties and not allowing each individual to violate his. Cf. 
supra I. n. ^^^flrnt^— applies both to Raghu and Vishnu; see 
ft.-note. jprf^o &c. — 3Tfl- ^T^i4 5^15 3Ti;4 U^\^'^ ^^ &°-'. ^®® 
Sanj. qf^: jTrrnrr^— This is purposely left uncompounded that it 
may apply to the king as well. 

S'l. 28. f TTf^: — f^T =^<5T ^^ I "^ is the ceremony of cutting 
of the hair on the head of a child, leaving only one lock on the 
crown of Brdhmana boys and five in the case of Kshatriyas; see 
Uttar. V. 2 ( =^^rq5f =g-:i-: &c. ). The i" here is changed to r^ for the 
sake of alliteration; for a similar change cf. IX. 46. See Manu 
quoted in the Sanj, For this ceremony see Narayanabhatta's Prayo- 
garatna, under that heading. ^RTT^Ii".* — ^^T^ fff% ^^^^^• 
( looking like a crow's wing ), locks of hair left on either side of 
the head after tonsure, so called aTTF^^ — STHT ^W\^ '^^^' 1 " means 
originally a companion at home, a follower -''. S. P. Pandit. 
g^^f^: — ^q-R ^^T ^tsff ^: 1 ^^\^ becomes ^ when followed by 
fq-g^; see Pan. VI. 3. 85; lit. ' one of the same age'; it however 
means technically 'a friend of the same age'; see the quotation in 
Sanj. 3l?Tnr^f^— q?Tr ^TIS-^T^TlmTcT ^'^J^ri\ Here ^ri. has the 
sense of ' as is proper for one '; see Pan. V. I. 117. ^n=?f — fT"^: 
ffqjff:; the science of words, literature, ^g^ — ^g^TTTfct ^RI'^RT 

S'l, 29. xl M HI ri H,~ 3^^^^ lit. 'leading near' i e. either to the 
Guru for instruction in the Veda, or to the Veda, which is done 
after investiture with the sacred thread; hence the thread-ceremony. 

f^^f?^: — f^^r means to train , to instruct; and is Par. in this 
sense, Cf. II. 8, V. 10, X. 79; for its A'tm. use cf. IV. 65. TT^fsT^f — 
may also be taken as a Bah. (see ft.-note)-"to whom his preceptors 
were dear" i. e, who loved them, f%^r &g. — an action directed to 
or an efEort bestowed upon; here, instruction. For various senses 

(76) [ Canto III. 

cf. I. 68,76, 10,44; V. 7. 11, 45 &o. For parallel passages see ft.- 
note. ^ — may also be taken in the sense of st^vikot, !T#r2,?%^- ^^ — 
the propor material; a fit object. 

S'l. 30. f^: 5^: — The following qualities of the intellect are 
enumerated in the s'l. quoted by Malli. from E^Am. — (1) Desire to 
hear, hence earnest desire for knowledge; (2) Attention; (3) Oom 
prehension or proper understanding; (4) Retention; (5) Ratiocination 
or consideration of the pros and cons; (6) Grasping the correct 
sense and (7) Knowledge of truth or correct knowledge. Or :^ 
(inference) and STcfTf (rejection), may be taken separately. g^K>fr: — 
3^f^I excellent, of the first class s(\: ^^^^\ explains how he had all 
the qualities of vfr. "^riW- f^'JTr: — see Sanj. and note to I. 23. 
^?^T"^tnTHr: — an instance of farTf^^^lff. This indicates the immen- 
sity of the four lores. qr?r^rfrT<Tlfrrf*T:— Tf^TTfcTrf^Eq q^g ?fra'^<^rfiTm 
cT«5rTWr^-'> qualifies ^\(\^^• and goj:. The qualities of Raghu's 
intellect penetrating the various regions of thought, with a rapidity 
unknown to the wind, and the horses of the sun journeying through 
the sky with an enormous velocity, are fitly compared with each 
other. It should also be noted that the sun has seven horses and 
the qualities are also seven. The sun's horses bear him through the 
four regions of space; and the qualities of Raghu's intellect carried 
him through the four lores. The v%,\^ here is this : — As the sun 
moves lighting up places whore his rays penetrate, so Raghu by 
virtue of his keen intellect threw light on many an obscure passage 
in the S'a.stras. 

S'l. 31. ^nnft—C/. ^fBt^li^r^^i^cTrR =^*I^m 5T5T=^rfcaT: I Manu. 
11.41. -^^ — 3T^?f% what is thrown ffrT fr. 3Tfl;^4 P., or a^fr 1 P. to 
shine and ^r ( ^;^ Unadi); a missile, distinguished from ^tw which is 
taken in the hand ( as a sword ). T^??^ — Mantras are the magical 
spells which endow the arrows with peculiar virtue; see V. 57. 

S'l. 32. if^eRT^:— ?Tg: T<W- Xr^^V- I The jtT is added by ' ff^r^T»q- 
5r^«T«^ cT5?f' P&n. V. 8. 91; lit. a calf in which there is very little 
{cI5 ) of ^^rf or the first stage of development, t e. which has just 
entered the second stage of development, mjtf^q-f ^^r?^?^ cT5?'f 
^fft?j^ii:mlff: I &o. Viimana. Here the 3rd stage g-^^TT is left out, 
qr^^ &o. — ?frf^^ i*T5r * broken off, obscured ', (». c. left behind) ^t^ 
( RT^fnH: ) '^\^\ who has just ceased to be a boy and arrived at the 
atage of youth. See It.-notes. JlT'=»fr?^*T'ft?r — »TT*»fT^ depth or steadi- 

Canto III. ] ( 77 ) 

neas of character; it is defined as vfr^n^^r^f'srr^^F'frv Hlf^ITcTT !' 
S.-Dar. III. 52 (the being unaffected by fear, grief, anger, joy &c,) 

S'l. 33. <n r fR r?^i — ^r^H is the ceremony of cutting the hair 
performed in the 16th or 18th year, when a youth is shaved for the 
first time shortly before marriage. See ft. -note, and N^rdyana- 
bhatta's Prayogaratna. Some derive it from ifr having its usual 
sense of ' a cow', cows being given to Brahmanas as presents on 
such occasions. f^fT??!"^!^ — ^^^ vow of marriage, "^^j ia the 
assumption of a particular observance or observances during the 
performance of a ceremony. A sacrificer is said to take the ??^T^^r 
i. «. the vow to observe particular rules of conduct till the end of 
the sacrifice. So the young prince taking up the ff^rf^r^r, binds 
himself to live in the condition of a married man until he should 
enter the Vdnaprasthas'rama". (Pandit's note). rTHT^f — ?T*T: 3^RT 
dispels ^f% crm52^( fr. 3^+i^a^). f^^[fTr: — ^^ is one of the 
Prajapatis, and a son of Brahma, being born from his right thumb, 
as his wife was from the left. Daksha had 28 daughters of whom 27 
were married to Chandra and the youngest (^^0 toS'iva; see Kum. I. 
21. The 27 daughters are the 27 constellations of stars 
in the 12 lunar mansions. According to other accounts he had 50, 
60, or 44 daughters, out of whom thirteen, or according to some 
seventeen, or even eight according to others, became the wives of 
Kas'yapa, and became by him the mothers of Gods, demons, men &c. 

S'l. 34. 3f^n^5 — having muscular shoulders. The sffix ^ ( 55^) 
here denotes strength. It will be more grammatical to expound tho 
Oomp. as 3f#r ^pypf^^ R^It fc^t^??': i According to the Vrittik&ra, 3T^ 
in its proper sense cannot take Wi 3T^r 3T^ ^'- will be sr^JTfT?. 
'*HI<i<4OT: — ^ ^TcT f^^I ?r TTT^ffT fHT ^TF?: I ^^u^roT^I the leaf or panel 
of a door, or a door; ^^\^ry^^ f^r: T?^ W- I ift'T^'* — '7Rit:5T ( full- 
developed, well-rounded ) ^^cfrr neck ^^^^\ q? f^TH ^^'71% I "^^^ ot 
^ RTTT '^rUM I 'S\% 1 ^-mJ- ^^^.^^^rl — IT^^ excellence, due to 
muscular development. Prof. Ray is right in thinking that this 
s'loka ought naturally to precede s'l. 33. 

S'l. 35. FTyTr ^r i n^ — Heavy because of the responsibilities of 
government long sustained (Char. ). ?5eTni'»>!rtTr — This he would do 
by delegating to his son some of his regal functions, ^at — Gf- ^ ■ 66. 
PRfiT &c. — S. P. Pandit thinks that by a zeugma the word 'y^^^tC 
means 'modest' wben taken with Nisarga, and 'disciplined' when 
^i\.)x Samskara. %f^ — expresses |5 (reason ) here. ^^r^5I«?*Tr3^— 

( 78 ) [ Canto III. 

nov see com. 

It appears to have been an ancient custom in Asiatic raonarchies, for the 
heir-apparent to be solemnly recognized aa such in the life-time of hia father 
by being formally installed in the regal dignity, and admitted to a share 
in the administration. The object of this custom appears to have been three- 
fold. In the first place, it settled the succession, and prevented any civif 
war between rival claimants for throne, which might arise at the death oE 
the sovereign. Secondly, it furnished an aged or infirm ruler with a 
youthful coadjutor, who might relieve him of all the more activ« 
duties of Government, military as well as civil. Finally, it familiarized the 
young Prince with the administration of Justice and other branchc-s of Go- 
vernment, and enabled him on the death of tlie father to fulfil with efficiency 
all the duties of sovereignty. Under such circumstances an heir- 
apparent on attaining his majority would besolemoly installed as liija, and 
henceforth he would receive the title of yuvarflja, or 'Young Raja', and 
would be presumed to act in subordination to his father, who would still 
retftin the title of Mahirija, or Great Rlj4. The installation of a Yuvaraja 
would naturally be regarded throughout the Raj as an important political 
event, Since the accession of a young and promising Prince would be 
expected to result in such an infusion of new blood into the administration 
as would materially affect the interests of both chieftains and the people. 
The eldest son, properly educated, naturally occupied the position of 
a Yuvar&ja. ( See Wheeler's History of India, Vol. II. Chap. VI.'). 

S'l. 36. MH«^<H,— srf^^T'n^T^cTf 5Tm ^^ m. > ^wfftT^ ; for this 
■ense ef. VII. 21. ar^^cR'JC. ^^7 al"o be taken as an adv. ( after Rag. 
was installed as 3?nW ). 3Tr?«T^— stTcit^T: T? given by Malli. is 
the meaning and not the Ffiff ^R?i of arr^cr^^ ; ariT^fr 3TRRr5r?^r€^?^ ' 
*3TT^ JTmSFTinrm ^g: ' l P*?. VI. l. 146. ^f^—may also be taken 
as not compounded. ijTrPTWrf^'Tr — Malli. seems to add here fb]^ 
in the sense of the agent (^FafO by the rule 'JTP^r5^q^rf^>-^r c^fopiT^:' 
Pin. III. 1. 134. But the root fJ^is not to be fonnd among the 
roots of the !T$irf^ class. It may be derived as JiaTr5Tr^r5"f«r3 ?frcTiT?«li: I 
by the general rule ' gca^r^ faif^[xff|Fq^/ Pdn. III. 2. 78. But 
according to some the root ^\ ought to take ^^ ( g^?5T ) in this 
sense by Pan. III. 2. 154. The best way to avoid all difficulties of 
grammar will be to derive it as gSrg; arfV^nrrs^qr ST^lfff SoirfMcCT- 
NoTr I sT^^n:^— 3TfcT?:fcl 3Trf^4^?^'i^?^WcTrT: an inoamation. The 
poet here supposes the old lotus to reappear in the shape of the bud. 
This also applies to Baghu; for according to the Hinda notion, ths 
father takes a new birth in the form of his son. 

€anto III. ] ( 79 ) 

S'l. 37. ra>TT^— f^ ^5 ^^ ^^ whose wealth is light; refers 
to the BUD and fire, here, the latter. It Bometimes means 'the moon» 
also. wrf'TTr — liere WIK]^ ^^^ the secondary meaning of ' a helper.' 
q^ T sq qr ^^ — ^ERT^t ^^\^ ( the passing away or disappearance of ) 
^f^*J^ 'ff : the autumnal season-, %q- i ?T>TftrT»Tn3[ — ^' fTTf J^: ( knowable 
things ) ^ ^>Tf^ cfPT^m ?fcT lUlf^: a ray fr. w 3. Par.; j^^^: 3T??t 

S'l. 38. fr*TH5C^:— frtiT f^T'^T T^^JTrTif^ gf»T: or ^r^: or ^Tf *T: I 
fT«TW 3TW' I fTR«"^ '^^f^irre': I There is a reference here to the 3Ts^^'4; 
for which see note on VI. 61. ^ld*"riqjT:--<Ic^ ^?T^r ^^m 3T?^F ^T?r^: I 
Strictly speaking the comp. gcT^g: should not be expounded, as it is 
a ^^i. According to western scholars =^: in the Rigveda invariably 
means power, either mental or physical, i. e. wisdom or strength; 
and Indra is the god of hundred wisdoms or powers, t. e. whose 
wisdom and power are infinite. It has never in the Veda the sense 
of 'a sacrifice' which was attributed to it in post-Vedic times. 'It 
is quite possible' remarks S. P. Pandit, 'that the Vedic epithet 
^cT^ niay liave been misunderstood by the prosaic minds of the 
post-Vedic ages, and may have given rise to the current myth of 
Indra having performed one hundred sacrifices before he became the 
leader of the gods.' See note to the next s'l. s^HHr^ — ^1% f^sT^ ^ 
ff% ^M^r- ^ + 3Tg (*g Unadi 1. 77). Cf. Greek Krates; JZeod Khratu. 

S'l. 39. ^j^^r^—See I. 74. 3T^jf?7?^— STTf^RRiTW "^m I 3?^% or 
3T*f5yi properly the bar or wooden bolt thrown across a door when 
closed; hence restraint, obstruction. The custom was to allow the* 
sacrificial horse to go unchecked wherever it liked. The duty of 
the guards was simply to see that it was not captured by any one. 
iT ^ r ^ ! — According to the Pauranic accounts Indra is always alarmed 
whenever any mortal performs unusual religious austerities or trie 3 
to complete a hundred sacrifices, fearing lest he should lose his owu 
position being superseded by his mortal rival; and his jealousy being 
excited interposes various obstacles in the way of his supposed 
rival in order to thwart his object, ^j^: — ^^Itfifct lit. the powerful 
one. flfit^ — as the story goes, as we hear. Cf. I. 27; II. 27; IV. 5 &c, 

S'l. 40. ff^rrf** — nr^l? dejection or disappointment; q"i%qT% the 
adoption of proper measures, course of action-, for a different sense 
flee VIII. 65, ^ — =^. The repetition of ^ indicates that the two 
actions, — the guards remaining paralysed with wonder, and 

( 80 ) ■" Canto III. 

Nandini's appearance— were simultaneous. ^^^m^ — whose 
( superhuman ) power was well known. 

S'l 41. f'T^^f — Chdr., followed by Vail, and Din., understands 
by WW'^, ^>3[. JT^ITW: ^r?ir^— I' ST^^T means ^j^TrT, as Malli. takes 
it then ^cTt is subjective Gen. by '^^^ ^ ^^^l^' Pan. 11. 3. 67, but 
if it means stitcT: ^cT: »• «• 'chief of, foremost among,' then the Gen, 
is specific, by the rule <^a«r RvftT'nJ^ l' The latter meaning seems 
preferable. BT€rFer'T-P»''*<i» Oomp.; see Sanj. arnr^— things, objects 
of perception. Ohar. translates >nf by ^^rJ and Vail, by TfT'^, 
which means the same as ^?g. For other meanings ef. infra V. 64, 
VI 36, VIII. 52 &c. ;gmM-p( «> — come to have, produced. See 
notes on II. 16. This conferring on Raghu of the power of percep- 
tion of the imperceptible is an exhibition of Nandinl's divine power 

( ir«»T5 ). 

S'l. 42. T#?f: — Here cfff has the sense of the Loc. qr#?rw- 
WrT^T^— ^TFcT'TIfT 5m V\^^'-, ^O'' see Sanj.; or q^T?<inJit vm^ 'TWr?! \ 
The mountains had wings in ancient times, with which they flew 
about and grew very troublesome and refractory. On seeing this 
Indra cut off their wings with his thunderbolt, when hundreds of 
them flew to the sea for shelter; see XIII. 7. Only Mainaka is said 
to have ea^ped the fate which overtook others. See Kum. I. 20. 
It is temSmR^ the demon Hirany4ksha, by virtue of his magical 
power, endowed the mountains with wings. See Harivains'a quoted 
in the ft. -note. For the real nature of these mountains with wings, 
see note on ^Jf'^Ic^t^ I- 68. f^^ ^^^ — On this Prof. Ray thus 
remarks: — 

'* This sudden introduction of NandiDt may appear at first sight rather 
childisli on the part of the poet. But it should be remembered that Indra 
was here trying his bent to remain concealed, and it would not have been 
well for the prestige of the Lord of Gods if a mortal could discover him by 
mortal means alone. So the intervention of supernatural agency was 
necessary. If so, it was better that help should come from one whose gift 
Haghu was, and who was in a manner already interested in the cause of 
Baghu. " 

SI. 43. 5T^«^f 5T^: — »«. ten; hence. Indra is called ^5?;fT^- 

The reference here is to Irdra's amoiirswith Ahalyu, the wifeof thesage 

Gautama. On one occasion Indra, enamoured of her beauty, assumed the 

form of her husband ond raviehed her in his absence. According to one 

account A halyi b new the god in disguise, but in the wantonness of bet 

Canto III. ] ( 81 ) 

heart yielded to hia desire. Gautama returning from ablution saw the god- 
running away in disguise, and understanding at once what had happened, 
cursed him to be covered with a thousand sores which he afterwards 
changed into eyes; and also cursed his spouse to be petrified. 

a^H^q- &c.— Hfl^i^crTfTTr: f^"^'sifT%: i 3Tiq?TRRI frrfTTf fw^cff %; | It ia 
a characteristic of gods that they do not wink. ffrr*f: — See Saitj. 
Bat according to the S4lihotra, this word has a technical meaning: 

qr;n^ — To justify the use of the form here, we must have 3T?f7>^]^ 
which it is difficult to get here. Probably 'qf^a;' is the poet's reading, 
>fR'T — ^R as applied to voice means *deep and powerful', stentorian; 
cf. ^^^]^\x^J:^JX^]l^r[ Uttar. VI. 17. This shows that Raghu 
was not at all daunted, but addressed Indrain a steady voice actually 
stopping him. 

S'l. 44. JT^rr^:— See note on ^^u^^ I. 11. 3T5T5f &c.— ^ q?^rrq- 
5f??7ffr (allows no break) ff^ 3T^# ^'cTcTi^; I By ^fp[=pr*'7 &«. Pdn. III. 
2.167, 7 is added to the roots q^, cp?:^ &c., to indicate habit, 
( ^erTt cTTWt^^ ) 3TT%^5=/^: i%^Tmclc^ ^r(^■■, Sid. Kau.; so we have ^w 
^nr, ^, 3T^iT^7 ^5", I'i'^ and %tj. st^jT^ ?r^T ar^^frajr; now see 
Sanj. r5F^rT^qTrTT^-l%'Tr here means the sacrifices and other 
ceremonies connected therewith. 

S'l. 45. nr^r^q-i$T^~Malli. expounds this as a i%tT^cTr5^<T which 
is objectionable according to P6n. The Manorama has this observa- 
tion on this-''^?t ''rfff ra"c?T^F?TT^?T ^fTF T^l^lf'T:" ff^ ^ffe^r^: if^s'r^- 
^s^^^r^^f^Iri; I ^ =^ ^»TTfT? its: I l1'TIT?T% ^fcg^f Hi; I ^ ^ ^m]^^ 
cp^tzfj]^ ( It should not be considered as one of the qr^rf^ class ) '^jp- 

^\^^^^ I Cf. T%cf[^^5!fr mt^T I? ^\^W' I Vik. 1. 5. j>?ix2ir:— On this 
Din. has the following discussioni-Though by the general rule 
''TfTfT^Irl^' a root ending in a letter of the labial class and having 3^- 
for its penultimate can take ij^, yet by the exception '^ffT^^^q'iT^^R;- 
rr^nt' the root qij; cannot take it when preceded by an grj^. How 
do you defend the form then ? We reply-We first add the affix and 
then prefix the gxfo. Or we defend it by ^TT^q"JTT<n; for Kdtyayana 
saya '[ ^^ Tf =ifr f^'^^- ^R^cT^^T ] ^ ^ WfFrT»?rq;' 1 and he cannot 
use a wrong form. Or we may explain as f?r^H ^TWft RT^^ti: by Pan 
IV. 4. 98. Or HTiT^frtmi^ ^rl I v^H'^FR'^r^— ^^ ^f^^ Ki\^ ^'^t h^]\ \ 
R. N, 11 

(82) [Canto 111. 

S'l. 46. 9^ — a requisite or implement of. t^^TW^: — A horse- 
saorifice which could be performed onlj by a universal sovereign; 
alio called ^grr?. See VI. 61. xj^: — is Aoo. pi. ^: f5rf^?TR: — 
those whose duty it is to point out the ways of, t. e. the rites and 
ceremonies enjoined by, the Vedas. This is said in conformity with 
the belief that the Vedas are eternal and therefore older than Indra. 
Some read y%: for v^: \ ^^^r — Malli. means by iTfPcT: 'mighty/ 
• powerful ' ( cf. ^S\'^^i^^ ^fuT^ \^^^ ) as it makes the remark more 

sarcastic. TglrnC— TTTT*^ &^^ f^ 'T^%: I ^''- 'TTT + ^^+% ( ffT ) 
what is trodden over; hence a foot-path; a course of behaviour, qr^ 
becomes q^ when followed by f^q-, t^u^^ and ff^ by the rule f^- 
iFTN^r^S ^ I P&n- VI. 3. 54. 

S'l. 47. q ^FH ^ — bold and intelligent. It is generally applied to 
a speech addressed to a person superior in rank by one inferior 
to him when it is uttered with confidence and without any feeling 
of nervousness, which he is not expected to do. Cf. II. 41; VI. 20. 
3ti<H — ^Tfr'q^WJT I That by which one gets over. When one urges 
forward an argument it is a sort of barrier to his adversary and 
since the reply he makes in order to refute the argument takes him, 
as it were, over this barrier, it is termed as g'rlT* 

S'l. 48. THI??!— n^"r 3T^4 ^rsp^: ^m?j:. — ^»m"— By thus 
addressing the prince Indra shows that he treats him like an ordinary 
Kshatriya. ffin" — just so, true, j — But, on the other hand (q^T^). 
^^.jj— See II. 40. *14|rychl?r^— ^fiR^ JT«FT^ I 

S'l. 49. ^^^trTff: — Mallinatha's expoundinng of this seems to 
be objectionable. ' ^If qJT ^^H?»T»nrfff^€TT^ft'ni[ I STff Tf 5?^5 31T»T 
ffa ?f q^ff 551^^^ ^J^^f'^Tir' I Tb. Better to expound as ^^r 3TT?m^: I 
3Tim^F?*l^^"^r ^I ^^T ?f^^ ^JTT^: ( 3T?fT^f^lTf : ) f%fni»n^: I As Indra 
wishes here to emphasize the ^"^r?^ of the three words j^FtTit, »T%>^f 
and ^Tfl^g we must take them ai Nitya Compounds having no 
^^q^l%Uf; so R^'^iT :— N^: ?^IRiriT«j5WT?f?w1 Hc^^Wm:; also ^w^i 

]^<I^ niRI rScfi'TTml I See Sanj.; or ff^ij ipg ^c3-*Tf?r I '»»TT»fr ^-'will 
not refer to or indicate'. 

Here the ridiculoasneas of Indra'd argument is quite clear . lie put* 
forth this argument as be has no better defence to give. For if ^^^ ia a. 
^^r it could have denoted him in spite of Dilipa's performing a hundred 
eacritices, as the term f^qrr7Q Btill denotc>fl the mount Himalaya though there 
are other mountains which are the abodes of snow. If it be admitted for 

•'Ganto III. ] ( 83 ) 

argument that ^Tri^fi is not a ^ftr, then the best course for Indra to adopt, 
fn order to defeat Dilipa's object, would have been to perform two hundred 
sacrifices, or more if necessary, a thing quite within the competence of 
the Lord of gods. 

S'l. 50. 3Trr: — t.e. in order to prevent another man from becoming 

S'atakratu. ^rrwr^^frrr— ^r'T^?'TT3^T?r^[?cfiT% ^PTpyi^^r %jt i 

Kapila is an ancient sage, of whom mention is made in the 8'rutis, and 
who is often spoken of as an incarnation of Vishnu. According to the 
Sdrirakabhashya, the Vaidic sage Kapila ought not to be confounded 
with Kapila the author of the Samkhya Sutras. Here it should be 
remembered that it was Indra himself who had stolen the horse of 
^ir^ and left it by the side of Kapila. But Indra purposely coneeals 
the fact and makes mention of Kapila in order to strike terror into 
■Raghu's heart by implying that he will destroy him as Kapila had 
done the sons of Sagara. ^iT?:^ ^'^W: — Sagara — a king of the solar 
race, son of Bahu, who was driven out of his kingdom by the Haiha- 
yas. Poison was given to his mother by a rival wife of his father 
by virtue of which the foetus remained in the womb for seven years. 
After this Bahu died; and his wife was delivered of a prince who was 
named Sagara ( born with poison-if^or ^i|rcT: ) by the sage afr^. He 
vanquished the Yavanas and made them shave their heads entirely. 
See Vayu P. Vol. II. Chap. 26. For an account of Kapila's 
taking away the sacrificial horse of Sagara and reducing to ashes 
his sixty thousand sons^ see ft. -note and note on vrifR^T IV. 32. 
See also Vish.-Purdna Vol. II. XXVI. 146-147. 

S'l. 51. g^^^^—see supra note on 5{?^^sff: II. 74. ^if:— means 
iere 'determination.' ^a^ — the mention of the name indicates 
Raghu's self-confidence and chivalrous spirit. frfrl^ — may also be 
derived as firiPT^^fTcfrm I 'TT^I^cCfT'T f^ I 

S'l. 52. ^^5(^: — Raghu stood with his face turned up in order 
to observe the movements of his adversary. ^in^PT^ — ^^f 3?^^?=^ 
ar^R- I arrcfrs" &o- — f^Xi^^ m'i^t ^I'^iTR^m mi«f^Trm l now see Sanj. 
3Tr<^ — see ft.-note and comp. Kum. III. 70, quoted therein. 
According to the lexicon quoted by Malli., there are five postures 
which archers assume when fighting. They are; — (1) ^gyg in 
which the feet are separated sideways by three Vitastis ( about 
24 inches ); (2) tt'='S^ when the feet are so stretched that the part 
of the body from the waist appears like a gateway; (3) ^f^^^ when 
both the feet are placed evenly; (4) 3TI^'"i3' ia which the right foot 

( 84 ) [ Canto 111. 

i3 advanced and the left bent back; and (5) iTrqicfi? which is the 
reverse of arfpjl?. Vallabha mentions eight postures, substituting 
^^ for wj^^ and adding q^rTH^T, f^J^ri and n^T^^T. ^:s?^^'^ — 
see 34, supra. f^Tf*?^'^'- — t^^e root f^^^\ is used when the imitation 
is not exact, though much like the original. Cf. IV. 17. The 
allusion here is to the destruction of Tripura ( the three cities of 
gold, copper and iron, each built by Maya for the asuraa in the sky^ 
in mid-space, and on earth ) by S'iva, who had to wait for thousand 
years in the a^jS'fj posture with his face upturned to watch 
for the moment when the three cities woald meet, which was the 
right time for shooting the arrow, the cities being at other times 
invulnerable. See ft. -note. 

S'l. 53. 5Tf'2'**T*T«IT — S. P. Pandit translates this by 'with an 
arrow consisting of a post' t. e. 'as big as a post'; but this does not 
seom to be the meaning here. Not because there is anything impos- 
sible about it; for the Mah.-Bh4r. tells us that Bhishma's bow was 
a? long as a t&la tree ( cnS"?^^ ^=1^33'^^ X w^il® t^® arrows discharged 
by many of the warriors of those times were as big as a yoke or a 
pole; see Bh. P. 4',', 35; but because the context does not justify it. 
It is decidedly better, as remarked by the late Prof. Apte in his 
Die, to translate this by ' with an arrow consisting of his defiance' 
1. e. the challenge thrown out, and the bold front presented, by him 
to Indra. Char, and Vail, give this sense of the word, and 
Mallinatha's rendering '^fcT'^vf^^tpiT' though somewhat ambiguous, 
seems to favour this meaning. It certainly brings out more forcibly 
the heroic conduct of Raghu if we suppose that he contented himself 
with a mere challenge and waited for his enemy to commence 
fighting, ^f^ — JT^foT struck at his heart. This clearly shows that 
37??^^ mtans ' defiance '. Raghu's defiance wounded Indra's pride. 
A real arrow would have struck him on the chest (^?<tr%and not frlf). 
'rmfH^— *Tt ^f^^^l" ^f^'tT ?lll itr^lf?rr^ firJTTfrrlT l Indra so called on 
account of his having lopped off the wings of mountains, ^^^jr^rf^j^ 
&c. — The standard of new clouds i. e. the rainbow ( f'^vjg: ). 
^^|-^ — properly an army; hence a multitude of. ^hvJtT ^tt^— This 
shows that Indra did not wait to be struck first, but fitted au arrow 
and even discharged it. The reason for this overhastiness is 
supplied by the epithet 'arqqor:'. 

S'l. 51. ^ifr,-?li:— the chest; cf. ^f i-cT-^ i L -'"', »"pra. >#Jn"5?:o- 
Jor 3T5T »c« note on argn^: H. 37; ifturenorf xh\^.^ 3-f^: 

Canto III. ] ( 85 ) 

( accustomed to drink ). ST^ir^^TRrTo — ^ 3TT^^Tf^fIiRr^T^fr'3[ ^ 
PW^I?fTr??t^RT^T%Ti;f^ ; a comp. ^^ gcfT- ^ takes q^^qTcT ( come3 
latter in the comp. ) as suggested by Pdn.'s Sutra ^^ ^^ 
STrgpr: — 3TT3J <l'^ickly ir^^ji^ fffTj an arrow. It also means 'the wind 5' 

S'l. 55. ^HK l '^sla - H :— f%^PT ^sT^'T^^m ff^mSffl^TnFrTT excessive 
prowess; ^q^TT^^ f^*Tt '^^ I See, however, note on^gRfrfRT^' I- §• 
^]%rT: ittT: ^^■. 3T?^; or .^ on earth tTK^Tm f^H; ( ff- ^ + 1" °^^ ) 
T^ruir^l ffh ^itr:. According to Svimi he is so called because of his 
perpetual celibacy. The V4ya P., however refers to ^^^?rT as the 
wife of Kartikeya, grffTT ^ I t^'T &c. — Cf. Kam. III. 22, This 
^hows that Indra was no carpet warrior with whom Raghu had to 
deal. Cf. Din. i5Tfi[>?'Tn?f%^T^0T?^^ ^T^T fv(^ IW^r^rt 'Cl^??^ I 
5% — t. e. the left arm, which served Sachi as her pillow. Cf. 
TTJT^rf ^T^fFTfT^ ^ I Uttar. 1.37. ^=sfrT5r &c.— q^r^Tt ff^T^^ T^rf^liq^ a 
Karm. of the ^TT^qrf^fTf^ class; ^T'^^r: qsTfaRPT^ ^T=^'rq^f^^Tq^'3[ ' 
oq%^f^^, which was marked with a print of the ornamental leaffike 
figures traced by Sachi on her forehead, or cheeks. Raghu planted 
his arrow exactly in the place where Sachi much liked to rest her 
forehead. This gives the reason why the insult was unbearable to 
Indra. ^THTf^^J'j; — It was customary with ancient warriors to 
-engrave their names on their arrows. Cf, VII. 38^ Vik. V. 7. 

S'l. 56. ;t^;c— ;rq% q^mcT^T^ rtcfrfcr ^r w^: 1 i^f it &o.— This 

was the greatest ofience that Baghn could have given to Indra. 
Even to this day the loss of the standard is considered the greatest 
disgrace that an enemy can inflict upon the other. See Sanj. 

S'l. 57. g-qr^rrfpm &c.— 3T-cT^ 'ff'TTTS^I^^ I Avy. Oomp ; giTF^ 
RTfTT 3'qT^?TT?'T«n: I Now see Sanj. fg-cg": — TheSiddhas are semi-divine 
beings characterized by eight superhuman powers called Siddhis: 
(^s^V^^•[\^'^:^y. Malli. on Kum. I. 5 ). They are eighty eight thousand 
in number, of subdued passions, continent and pure, not subjecu 
to death, and free from all worldly desires. See Wilson's Vish. 
P. p. 227. ^^^fr^frm" &c.— iT^: q^T f%?FcT ^^TTm^iT^iT-cT: winged: 
the addition of this is necessary to make the serpents resemble 
the feathered arrows. 3Trr%fq m^qiffTc^RTTf^qr: I fqi^^Tf^^r^eT^: l So 
the commentators on Amar. According to some it is a regular form : 
aTT^TT ffq qq"t ^ 1 arrgr being a word by itself, ^g^jy — See note on ^gcT 
infra IV. 62; or rTT'^TRT 3T^; ?^qi5[UI^: wherein the warriors shout 

( 86 ) [ Canto III^ 

SI. 58. ^p<m,\j^ &c.— 3Tf?r^RfT: ^^'tJrfrTir^'^T: I Uninterrupted 
succesaion, close continuity. ^ra"(T:-The commentators on Amara. de- 
rive this word in three ways: (]) ^^fr ^fF ^^J^ vrp^W fT ^Prftl^} (2) 
^ITTT'ri'iTl^ ^r: (•^) TI^^T'n^f ^rffin W( i 0' these the second is not 
supported by the Pur&pas. Indra is the son of ^^^TT ^^o ia not a 
Vaiu. Of the other two, the third seems better, being in accordance 
with Indra's character. ^ ^ti^-ft^fi S. — This applies to Raghn also. 
Raghu who was formed out of the energies of the Lohapalat of' 
whom Indra was the greatest, may be said to have sprung from 
Indra. See II. 75; III. 11. 

SI. 59. n-i^ ^ — n4p i H is the part between the elbow and tlie 
wrist. fff^Tf^ — ^ir^PT "^y^JT^ I The celestial sandal tree; it is 
one of the five trees of heaven— tr=l^ %^?T^?r JT^^TT' TIK^r?r^: I ^nrTPT: 
V?Tfe3«^ 5r%^r ^k^^^JT^ i Ak.; here its paste, ^r^xjn &c.— vfrf ^f^. 

TfifcTt?f^r ^^tr^TTRsfr i inre'iJTRro^^ f^ vfRRTf^^fi m^ i or ina^HHiaiffj^ 
^^JTr^: q-qsL-^nriRpJiV-fr^^rsf: ffr^^prr ?m ^\^, • The story of the 

(hnrning of the milky ocean for Jmrita by the gods and th© 
demons under the guidance of Vishnu is well known; see B. P- 
VIII. 7, 8. ^rW|Fro — ^^r|^ st^t: » pa't ^T^if i^q-:; here artj does- 
not mean 'a half; for in that case ar^ is neu. and the comp. will 
be 3Tv^^5rT^ by the rule 3t5 ^TgW^ i^f^ S^*!?^. ^rT^WH:— Accord- 
ing to Bhanuji Dikshit T?<ri% fvr^TfrfcT ff¥ ^?^»^ l f^Ifl'l^T 'I^ I Thi» 
leaves no irregularity in the Comp. ChlLr. also derives it thus. 

S'l. 60. f%f^5H?Hr:— *T?^T vehement anger; it was increased be- 
cause Raghu a mortal kept him at bay. PTll!^: — ^ll^ ?% fT% 
ff%? cTF?. JT^fVT &c.— »Tf[ tii^^im ^imv• l Malli; has >TTT^I5=?r which, 
is probably a slip. The allusion hag been already explained. See Ram. 
Sun. K&nda. I. 115.-119. fJT^JPTT"— ^^Tl'^^ ^^^^^^:^\^ ^^^ (Tf^- 
Sf^nC — This is the thunderbolt, the peculiar weapon of Indra. It 
is said to have been fashioned out of the bones of the sage f tff'^ ( o' 
•f%) by Vis'vakarman, for the destruction of Vyitra. It is sometimea 
described as circular, like Vishnu's chaf:ra^ or shaped like a quoit, but 
with a broader circumference and a smaller central hole, and when 
hurled against an enemy, the fire of lightning is said to issue forth. 
in destructive flames from its perifery. 

S'l. 61. ^R^— %^JTf fm^err: %R^: i ^ &c.— Raghu's fall 
was the cause; the tears shed by his soldiers the effect. But so 
imperceptible was the interval between the two that they might be 
said to have taken place simultaneouslv. f^'St^JTHIT'T— f^T^'t f^T^ 

Canto 111.] ( 87 ) 

the act of winking once; ]^^^ r^ \^^^^\^\ I By the rule '^^^\^■S- 
t^ ^JX^^^' the AM. or the Loc. may be used to express the time or 
•pace between two actions. Hence, H^^TT^Tr^ > or 'TT^ ^^^^ ^^-^v. — 
^^^o -^tt^T m^\ ^H^^^lh a comp. of the :{TT^TTl%fTr? da^s. :<C^Ni±i 

S'l. 62. ^^52Tf9R: &c.— oq ^fT^:— T> ^TT^n^^f ^^f f ^ f TT 3=5^^ » 
JTF iTC^fit^TTTfw^ V^ ^^' " ^^ ^?^T»?^- I So sq^flT primarily 
means <what removes all doubts'; and since all doubts are not remove'^ 
unless we put into practice or use the knowledge we aquire, it 
•econdarily means 'use\ This is the meaning here, f^q^^: — f^^^ ^- 
^\^mm^- I f=^r— The killer of Vritra; Indra. Vritra was the 
chief of certain tribes of the demons known as the K^lakeyas. 
Endowed with terrible prowess he discomfited the gods with ludra 
and drove them out of heaven. Whereupon the gods applied to 
Brahma for redress. The deity said— "Ye gods, go to sage Dadhicha 
and solicit from him his bones. With them prepare a mighty weapon 
called Fajra endowed with six sides and of terrible roar. With that 
weapon Indra would be able to kill Vritra." See above, note on, arw 
s'l. 60." The gods accordingly repaired to the sage who, for the good 
of the three worlds, renounced his body. Vis'vakarm^ fabricated the 
thunderbolt and with it Indra killed Vritra and routed the Asuras. 

In the Veda, Vritra is thepersonificationof an imaginary malignant 
influence, the demon of darkness and drought, supposed to take pos- ^ 
session of the clouds, making them obscure the sky and keep back the 
waters. He is variously designated as Vritra, Ahi, S^ambara, 
Namuchi, Bala &c. Indra is represented as battling successfully with 
this influence and letting loose the pent-up waters to the delight of 
the world. The clouds are also poetically pictured as the castles or 
towns of the demons which he shatters with his thunderbolt. 

q-f ff &c. — See ft.-note. Virtues set foot-step in, ». e. prevail,, 
everywhere; or virtues make impression (q^) everywhere. 

S'l. 63. aT^nP^ — li^*- *^ot sticking' i. e, cutting through ; hence 
unimpeded. Din. reads 3T«T^J3;*not repulsed', which is certainly the 
best reading, being the easiest; see note on ' cTc55»rw ' supra II. 42. 
^5-^ 'distinctly.' 'For at first he felt only pleased secretly (g^I^) at 
the manifestation of valour by the prince, but had not given expres- 
sion to his feeling', S. P. Pandit- stT? — is here used in the sense of 
^■^r'^. Strictly speaking this use of it is ungrammatical, since accord- 
ing to the best authorities it has never the sense of the past tense. In 

(88) [Canto III. 

this respect the reading 'f^TR^fJ^rfcT FR" cTRff fT^f :' ia better, as it 
removes the difficulty of grammar. 

A rrows of a superior class are described as having gold hafts. It is not 
easy to see why gold was needed. It was probably used for the sake 
of beauty; perhaps it added to the efficacy of some kind of charm? 
{Mantras) with which arrows were charmed. Ordinary arrows were 
probably made of hard wood or steel. Or g^of may mean of golden, 
beautiful yellow colour, f^^^: — some (including S. P. Pandit a-id 
Mr. Nandargikar ) road 'f^nt^^^' i But the reading 'ftrq^^:' qualifying 
Raghu, is certainly preferable. We know that Raghu said what wa^ 
desired by ludra* ». e. he was ftpt?^ to Indra. But what Indra said 
(^^ 3f ^*TIf1^ &o.) to Raghu was not pleasing to him. We shall sea 
further on Raghu returning home not much pleased (^q?^ ^TTfTiT^TTT: 
■&0. 67 ); so Indra cannot be said to have been fu"4^? to Righu. 

S'l. 65. xj«fj — This ia to imply that Indra has the power to grant 
his request, ff^: &c. — This may also be construed as ^^: arfffvr^r 
S^^T?f»^T>^???T>TI^rr^ ) ^.^ ^^1% ^mff m'^ &c- ^TSTO &o.— This shows 
that Dillpa liad taken a vow to be engaged in sacrifices without cesga- 
tion for a certain period of time. 

S'l. 66. nr?ff'gr ^t ^ U l f t<^r — Because S'iva is said to enter the 
body of a sacrificer during the time he is under the sacrificial vow; 
he is considered as a form of SUva. 8ee and ft. -notes, cf. S'ak. I. 1 
S'iva is then called jjf. Vallabha, commenting on ^fT'^P'S^TTfy^ 
?[Ti%"rTT V. I. V. 4. quotes— >;^r 3T^ f^K'r ^ifi ^?T*s^r qgi: Tf^: 1 

|?^?T ^?^l»Tir^ ^e'l^S"^ fSJ^ II fcm^:— See VIII. 4. ^rfPTfT: — 
Seated in the assembly of sacrificial priests. The sacrificer or ?73T»TR 
when duly initiated for the performance of the sacrifice is., on no 
account, to leave the sacrificial hall, or to attend to any other business 
than that connected with the sacrifice. So Dillpa was surrounded by 
learned Brahmanas; and probably the prince, out of modesty, did 
not like to announce personally his own success to the king, in their 
presence. i^p^ffrT — is bere equivalent to ^rS^r^ i 

S'l. 67. ^^rrTrf^— aTTTcT^ '^IT^ T^ITrT^ I Just as ho had come 
i. e. vanished from the sight of Raghu's men as suddenly as he 
had come, when the sacrificial horse was stolen. On this Oh&r^ 
remarks — Indra went back as he had come ». e. without conquering 
Raghu. Hrf%IT*RT:— 51f^ T^R^f^ ITT^IT: I 3T?^^ ^''T^i: 3Tl?rq"lT?ri: I H 

Cauto lY. ] ( 89 ) 

3^ffT5IJT^T- ^ifrTiTRJTT: 1 The Oomp. here is not with ?r5T, in which case i • 
would have been '3^i]fc\^^^^^' but with the word ^ which is different 
from ;t5T, bat has the same meaning; cf. ^^R-qr &c. ;5fffir^j|[-The house 
where sacrificial priests sit, hence, the sacrificial house. Cf. 3TT??T*nT 
V. 25; and the word ^^^?t. ^^T^rT — Here Malli. supplies ^f^. Kali, 
seems to use the root fj^^ with fir as a transitive verb. Cf. IX. 14. 

S'l. 68. ar^'TJr^f ^^Congratulated, hailed with marks of affection. 
See ft.-note. ^g-^ro — ^TI^R^ ( order, message ) ^^ ^JJ^W^^ fT% oflff a 
messenger ^^. f^TTf'^ — Moving slowly on account of joy. Malli. 
translates sn" by %f^T7, meaning thereby that the hand was benumb- 
ed, as it were, with joy. a^py^ &c.-^%^TTffifBj^T=T ^ ^m' ^I%?r^T: 
rT^ff^l^l See ft.-note. 

S'l. 69, ;^^T^^^_t. e. the As'avmedha sacrifices. ^"rcfRRt m- 
^n ^fTRTT^T^r cTI'^ I The word 'TT*'^TT ^^^ ^<> derivation. See note 
on the word; II. 50. This is probably suggested by stt^?^: I cTcTR — 
'stretched out, constructed'; cT^ to stretch, to spread successively; 
hence to perform ( as a sacrifice ). 

S'l. 70. ft^rirnn'o— ifRa5[ficT5^'^ff^^^f&T fl^s^pcT ?mR^'TT:"^>-'T: 
^^TfTf 3?Tc»Tr ( mind ) ^^. The reason is supplied by JTfsrrT^=!T^ f « f W- 
^r{^- 5jq"f?r^75|^^— Ace. case in apposition with f^FrrcTT^Rin^ 1 f 7%: 
^Wt fTI^^^^j t^e emblem or insignia of royalty, m?^^ ia properly 
the hump which distinguishes the full-grown Indian bull. Hence any 
distinguishing mark. According to Amara and Medini, the word is 
mas. and new.; our poet, however, seems always to prefer the neu. gen- 
der. Cf. VI. 71. 5RqR- &c. — gi%^fT^^3iq-T and not f{W\Tfi I First 
because if we take the plu. the Comp. will be 'a^^tJTT^' by the rule 
^Ul'^J ^f ?^' Pan. II. 4. 22; secondly because anchorites have their 
habitation fixed under the shade of some one tree. %o?fr rfTF — with his 
renowned or famous queen. See ft. -notes. lyf^^o f>W5rrl^ — cf supra 
I. 8 (^'\^^ f^«i*ri'^OTt) and infra VIII, 10, 11. 


S'l. 1. f t ^jj — The kingdom with the full responsibility of gove- 
rnment, sovereignty. ff?rp^ — ^^ tbe case of Raghu means ' at the 
close of Dilipa's days of sovereignty'. ^n%^ — ^V^ ^X^f^ qiTOTJ^r 
V^^^S flcT ^\^riJ I It may also be derived from g^ 'to give birth to', 
though not so preferably. In the Rigv. the sun (^f^^) is very often 
spoken of either as 'the impeller'^ he who impels men to active work} 
R. N. 12 

( 00 ) [ Canto IV» 

or as 'the producer, since when he rises in the morning, he prodnces 
afresh, as it were, the creation, swallowed np by noctnrnal darkness. 
See Rigv. II. 38. In the Veda, the sun-god is represented by four 
deities, vix., ^, ^ij, ^^ and ftnr, being sometimes identified, at 
others, separated with slightly varying functions aseigned to each. 
According to the Purdtiag, the seven rays of the sun. 55*01, fK^5T.. 
f^>^'^% Rs^^pf, e^'^grg, 3T^^ and ^^TJ^, supply heat severally 
to ^, the ^jfjsTS, and to jvf, g^ir, ^fp^, 55- and ^f^. Cf. V4yu, 
Pur&naVol II, Ohap. LIU. s'l. 7-13. If we take ^t?5 as an a<i;'. 
it may also refer to Dilipa. meaning the father of Raghu. For 
a similar idea, ef. ^R-vrrf^T «r^K ^^t r>*TOT: q<c?I*M*5'T»T% f^S". ^ • 
^cTJTR^: ^«Tfif^tTT«TT gw*fr''M^"Hf% ^ c^ TprT: II Sis'. IX. 13. 

S'l. 2. ^if^ — During the time of Dilipa; Malli. It may refer to 
the time of Raghu's ^f^^n^^ as well. arfTTft^ff^^l: — sTtIt here re- 
fers to the feeling of jealousy and heart-burnings of the kings con- 
quered by Dilipa. Raghu was known to be mightier even than his 
father; and his accession to the throne was as unbearable to them as 
the flame of a long-smouldering fire. Or, ever sinoe the advancement 
of the prince to the ^ft^^T^^i, the fire of jealousy had already been 
consuming the hearts of the tributary princes, as he had to force them 
to acknowledge his supremacy as guardian of Dilipa's sacrificial 
horses. See supra III. 38, But now that he actually occupied the 
throne, it took flame as it were. On this Malli. remarks — Though 
the ar^iTTN^r f^r 'f^^«T' has for its Nom. tTSTR:? and the ^httr*' 
llp'n 'S'R^TfT:' arnr, yet by transference of epithets ( 3"^^^ ) the 
hearing may be attributed to Agni, and so ^qi^^Tf established; see. 
however, foot-note. 

This si. seems to be quite out of place here. It is connected neither 
with the preceding nor with the succeeding si. If it is genuine, its 
proper place is either after si. 15 or 20. 

Si. 3. 5^^tT^T»T^ — A festival in honour of Indra was held 
for five days, from the 8th of the bright half of Bhadrapada to the 
12th. Its chief feature was the erection of a post with a flag 
attached to it. For its size and other particulars, see ft. -note, t^i ' grl 
lit. he who is invoked by many, either for protection or in sacrifices; 
Indra, 5^]gcT'-^3T originally meant the rain-bow (p^^T^O which being 
the standard of fresh or retiring clouds was worshipped to show 
honour to Indra, the god of rain. The custom of worshipping 
Indra's banner, referred to by our poet here, is no longer observed 

Canto IV. ] ( 91 ) 

now, at least in the Deccan. ^5nT'r &;c. — When applied to Raghu- 
3^i%cTr sT^T^T^T^^ff ?TT^f with eyes wide open through joy; when 
applied to |^^=T3T, 3^^^ ^T^^'Trp^T '^F^t with eyes turned upwards. 
3Tv^«IR-(n) elevation, prosperity; (b) rising up; ^^^:-Cf. ft.-note 
( sf^m: V(^^ fTTT &c. ). g-qrrr: — (^) because people take their 
children with them when going out to see sights. 

S'l. 4. ^fjT^— See ft.-note. nT^Tlf^r— %? f ^ Jfs^Jm stepping 
as majestically as, when taken with reference to f%fT^, andf^^c^jf'^ 
( marching accompanied by ) ^ffcJiT^ when taken with reference to 
3mH04rf- RrfRTHl— f^fl^^ T%f ff ^T 3Tm^ ; it is made of gold; 
when set with jewels, not being made of gold, it is called ^Tf^^r or 

^2[RR". Of- Amara-'^q[^;f g ^?^^^ mfT^* 3cT(^l fH^' I ^wr^^— 
thp multitude or territory of. 

S'l. 5. ^T^ f H"^t^ — («) The halo or circular orb of splendour; (5)%- 
circular shade. The word IJT'TT ^^^ a double meaning here. Raghu's 
royal person was so majestic that an orb of glow was always 
visible about him. This the poet explains by supposing that 
Lakshmi, the goddess of fortune, attended upon him in an invisible 
form and her presence endowed him with unusual splendour, which 
was visible in the form of a halo of light round him. Again, when 
an umbrella is held over a person a ^fq'iq'gg^ ( circular shadow ) is 
seen about him. And this gr^TTRi?^ ( note the pun on grqr which 
in this case means splendour ) was seen round Raghu. So the poet 
fancies that Lakshmi held an umbrella over him. And when 
Lakshmi is made to serve the king with the umbrella, the only um- 
brella she could use would be the lotus-umbrella, the lotus being her 
special favourite, f^n^ — indicates jft^^T^ 'niethinks,' 'as it seemed.' 
^gT5«|<fr^rrra. — who had entered upon the vow of discharging the 
duties of an emperor. For :^rT%cT see note on fq^rf^r^T^ III. 33. 

S'l. 6. q K <* f^Trf ^f% Ji^n"— TIT^rlTct ^rf^>^ ^T^^-.'t ^^r; here 
^?T^(^) is added to ^1ti% ^fjif by the Vartika ^^T^^aq-i^Hf ^^]^ 
^m^^^^"^. 3T«'TTnT: — lit. not departing from ar^, i. e., full of 
meaning, true. As a general rule much of the praise bestowed upon 
monarchs is flattery and is therefore meaningless. But as Raghu 
possessed virtues of every kind, anything said in praise of him was 
but simple truth, gxi^^q- — served with reverence, worshipped; 
Sarasvati worshipped Raghu, because a king is supposed to be a- 
divine being. For the senses in which ?«?[ with g^r is Atm. see- 
Sanj., and H. S. Gr. Chapter XI. 

(92) [ Canto lY. 

S'l. 7. *i^!pTnTf»T: — qg i.«. Vaivasvata Manu; see «ttj?ra 1. 11 and 
note thereon, rf^' — beloved and esteemed. This is used to indicate 
the saperior excellence of Raghu. ^g^^fTT — the earth t. e. the people. 
Raghn's subjects were so much attached to him that their attachment 
■eemed to be the first of the kind, the attachment of their pre- 
decessors for such worthy and excellent kings as Manu &c., not being 
comparable with it. Here the word cfg^^i is used, as the earth 
is metophorioally spoken of as the wife of a king; cf, ^^fRfTlf^ ^TI" 
^rrf^oi: I VIII. 83. 

S'l. 8. f^ — Malli. takes this ^i[\. It may also be taken st^vjitt^ ' 
^tfT l|^ of one and all, of all people without exception. sr^FT'TrRn' — 
Jrpr ^ij ^W rRT HT^frTTTT ^'TT I Trm^rapstir:— ^TTrt "^ 3"6fft =^ ?rjT 
^fRIBcfr I 3Tf^;:ff ^fm'pj^ arfflsftmoaT I %5T?^ ^ffff 3TrfT^aT60T: I see supra 
note on ^s({ II. 15. i^ arf^^iycfi^oftq^jnTo; acomp. ^^ ^t- In the case of 
Raghu this means 'neither too kind nor too severe'. See ft. -note. 

fr?^IT^— ^ ^R^ffT ^^m 5?^ I A mango tree. It is difficult to 
see how the word has acquired this meaning. The mango tree is so 
called probably because its leaves are used in the marriage ceremony 
to cover the auspicious pots&c. Or poets represent it as the favourite 
resort of lovers on account of its constant association with the lovely 
Madhavi creeper; hence ( i. e. for bringing lovers together ) it may 
have acquired that name. 

S'l. 10. ;T^f%^: — The word f^T is formed irregularly (^r|of¥Ifl ) 
from ;fy+3^;^. for by the rule ' ^nff^f rsgtj^'jt ' the proper affix for 
^r without a preposition is ^5i^(3T) which gives the form ^\^: i ^^ 
'flfa^Iff ff^^rf^T ^^f%^: I 5En[— right policy, fair means; ar^rj^ 
crooked policy, foul means. 3tT5C-' — ^TJ^^^HI^er Z^' lit. higher; 
but since what is higher is reached later, it secondly means 'latter'. 

S'l. 11. q^^apTT^ &c. — The five elements are gt^r, ' earth ' artj^ 
* water ', ^gf^ < fire,' ffj 'air' and 3T(^I^ 'ether'. Their qualities 
are :— ^s^ of arr^r^, ^s^ and f^^\ of ^t^; ^T*^, ^1^ ^^^ ^T of ^k; 
515^, ?q^, ^57 and m of arnr ; and ^s^, ?q^, ^^ m, and ij^ of ^^i\, 
the additional quality in each case being its special quality. See 
foot-note. ^^ — possessed off fresh i. e. unprcedented vigour, 
prosperity &c., 

S'l. 12. ^^ — From ^^ to be glad; see com.; according to those 
who treat the root as trans. ^?^«tffr. •T^?rir:-3T3»mr«f*T3»mT*TI "^^ 

Canto IV. ] ( 93 ) 

^ I PradiiSamdsa; or Bah. n^r— rnf^ TS^mffT I The poet here 

supposes ^jT to mean 'to please', by poetical license. See Sanj. 

S'l. 13. gfTf^T?:— ail »«^- i^^plyi^g 'unwilling assent.' 3TqJiiTT3- 

here used ^^ i. e. to show the difference between the two pairs of 
eyes he possessed. That Raghu had his physical pair of eyes, the 
poet has to admit. But these were not his real eyes. His true eyes 
were the S'astras ( the knowledge and wisdom obtained by a study 
of these ); these assisted him in settling intricate questions and 
accomplishing great ends. ^f'^'T — The Instrumental is either 3tW^ 
( ^TT^ being identified with =^g: ) or |fcfr. ^^ &c. — ^qT«^ h" 3T«t'i8? 
^'rWr: I ^^V' ^nTT«Tr: g.^'*Tr^r^T«rF?f1T^g'l^^ ^Tlc^H^^m ^^ l See foot- 

S'l. 14. r^^ &c. — Here ®5Vf is a noun ( the kingdom obtained 
from his father ). ir^TiR giving stability to what is obtained, by 
the conciliation or removal of opponents; see com. ?wf?^rC f?i8fnT% 
^^^^^. at ease. if^TH?r may also mean 'the measures of pacification' 
iT^F^ci ^'iTJ^ ^^^^^\9t l See the s'l. quoted by Malli. Ps^^jfij i^^jj- 
^TH«<^^ ^^^H?rfT?r: I arrfr ^^q-^TJT^: T«^Tc^FT: I 'Who was at 
ease after he had adopted proper measures to give peace to his 
kingdom.' q^TT^j^rrr — The lotuses are one of the characteristics, 
and not a special sign, of the autumn. But the poet makes special 
mention of these here, probably because of the idea of worship 
expressed in 3"gf^«TciT- We are already told that the goddess of 
royal fortune waited upon Raghu with a lotas umbrella (s'l. 5); 
and now the goddess of autumnal beauty comes to worship him 
with actual lotuses. This is explained by * mr^r^^firtfTl^^' &c ; 
cf. infra IX. 24. 

S'l. 15. 1 [5TK^?;?t — Main, takes this as the cause of gg:^^: i It 
is better to take this with e??H^T. The q-fTiq" ( heat in the case of 
the sun, and prowess in the case of Raghu ) was already g^?;^^-, 
but the world was screened from it by the intervening clouds. But 
since the clouds became light cow, they moved away from its route 
and fled. So that it spread through all quarters without obstruc- 
tion. The meaning is that now that the rainy season passed off and 
autumn came, the other princes became uneasy dreading every 
moment an expedition of conquest by Raghu. 

S*l. 16. ^^th;— %g ^"r^fT^^ ^g ; a?^ ^^ by adding apT^^^T^. see 
com. il"5rr^^R^ — Indra by his rainbow produced rain and thereby 
brought prosperity to the people. Raghu after the lapse of the 

(94) [ Canto IV. 

monsoons undertook an expedition of conquest and thereby brought 
wealth and prosperity to the people; he also performed sacrifices with 
that wealth and propitiated the gods who in their turn sent down 
rain. (Jf. I. 26. 

8'1. 17. ^ U vjO'^ lffT?' — The lotuses bloom in autumn and are 
here poetically spoken of as the umbrella of ^^. The white lotus 
is here chosen because the royal umbrella is of that colour, f^^- 
^gffr^i'^JTT '• — The K&s'a flowers look very much like chauries and 
are also white. Cf. Rit. III. 1, 2. f^T»^?jrqf^ — imitated, mimicked; 
see note on f^^f*^^*^^: III. 52. ^q-. — 'but/ showing ^^. 

S'l. 18. ?fff — During that time, then only. The poet suggests 
by a hyperbole that Eaghu's face was always pleasant to look at, 
while the moon was not so during the whole of the rainy season. It 
was now on the clearing up of the sky that the moon became as 
delightful to look at as Raghu's face. iraTT?^ — "^^7 '^^bo mean 
delightful-faced on account of his benignity. 

S'l. 19. Hr^Jrl^: — H?I'?T ^J.frrfsf'i.Tfr: affluence, excess. Fame is 
described by Sanskrit poets as white*, and here the poet supposes the 
whiteness of geese, stars, &c. to be due to the excess of Haghu's white 
1. 1. spotless fame. Geese, bright-shining stars, and lotus-abound- 
ing waters marked the advent of autumn. Whence, if not from 
Raghu's spotless fame, did they derive this whiteness ? See Sanj. 

S'l. 20. f^«OT?r &c.— f^gr^ (see Sanj. ) R«(^ ^fic7W^Ii%Iff I 
Malli. notices and explains the reading * S§xfrj?^^Fi'^<^n'^;iT: ' but 
Dikshita's explanation of this seems better. For he remarks — ?^pit 
IFRr f?5^syr^^ I ?§^fFl«I5 3TT ^TR^rifr'^n^^: sitting round the fields 
&c. This is perhaps the better reading. It is usual with cultivators 
of all times to grow round corn-fields in two or three rows, such 
useful plants as the sugarcane &c., which are not shady enough to 
screen the sun from the corn>fields aud yet form a fence of sufficient 
strength round them. Village girls appointed to keep watch over 
the fields pass the noon-day hoar in singing merrily, seated under 
the scanty shade afforded by sugar-canes, &;o. Now so wide-spread 
was Haghu's fame and so deeply was he loved that the female 
gaardiuns would every day sing in his praise, iftn": — This supplies 
the reason why he was so much beloved. rrof^f^fJj^ — A Vyadhikarana 
Bah.; see Sanj.; such a Bah. though not directly sanctioned by Pan 
is often used by poets, but Vamana remarks — '3TW5qT (^ ^f^llf'^^- 
^\^\ W^\^V\\'-^ — -A. Vya, Bha. is, indeed, unavoidable when 

Canto IV. ] (95) 

the last member of the Oomp. is a word like ^pir, ff^ &c, Cf 
■^STPTST^l^' V. 36. STTfTiTT?: &c.— if^K SfTT'ST'TT^r^iTina: I also see 
Sanj. The whole is either an ado. modifying srg: or an aij. qualify- 
ing zT^j: ( the narrative of which was eommenced even by boys ). 

S'l. 21. <j<4J4 | ti^ — has a double sense here} rise and spread of 
power. fr^tT^rK: — This is the celebrated sage Agastya,, who is said 
to have been born in a water jar. For the account of his birth along 
with Vasishtha from the divine Mitra and Varuna, see ft. -note and 
•Sayana on Rg. VII. 33. 11. Agastya is said to rest in the heavens 
in the form of the star '• Canopus' belonging to the constellation 
Argo Navis t. e. the lunar mansion gitJT | Agastya begins to rise at 
sunset when the sun is in f^f ( leo ) t. e. in August^ from the latter 
half of S'ravaaa, just before the commencement of ^j^ or autumn. 
TfT^T^: — Here there is a reference to the power of Agastya. 
See VI. 61 and note thereon. Agastya had once drunk off the 
whole sea. So dreading his power, as it were, water cleared up. 
See XIII. 36. =^^JT &c. — At the approach of autumn, water lost its 
turbidity; it was transferred, as it were, fancies the poefc to the 
hearts of Raghu's foes. For they trembled to think that that was 
the season for him to set out on his conquering expedition. 

S'l. 22. JTfffq— 3^?T'm'?rfR"ffr 3^!TI: l\t. prominent; hence for- 
midable; HfJT T^JTF: qfr^in:. 'f wgf 3rr: — Upapada Tat., the roots 
^»T and fg;^take the aflSx ^5T^( 3T ) when preceded by g-jj^, and q^g- in 
the Ace. as their g-gcrf ; similarly -^fSjj^^:. Words ending in a vowel 
and the words a^^and f|[<Tg;, take 5^ (^), when an affix, dropping 
^, fallows. See Sanj. rffPTT^t?^— i^rfrffT^^: ^\^^\ ^^\ efr?rr#frw^ i 
gracefully sportive. Here the poet, by means of three epithets, descri- 
bes the changes worked in the bulls by autumn. The bulls had lost 
their flesh and their humps had dwindled away before the rains set 
in for want of pasture and the hard work they had to do in the rainy 
season. But now at the advent of autumn, all things being favoura- 
ble, they grew in flesh and regained their spirits, and so began their 
butting sports, when grazing by the riverside. 

S'l. 23. ^T^f^v^fJr:— JT^^%^ jp:v^y ^q-f ^ ^^iT-''irq: ^; arrfrfl:— 
•struck, incited. aT9:2TTr— 3Tg;?TT 5% ^ITTReqi^oTf^ I Sid.-Kau. The 
SaptaparUa trees naturally sent forth the rut-like scent from their 
ilowers (i. e. one part) only; but the elephants, thinking that they did 
it to provoke them, as if in jealous emulation, poured ichor from the 
seven parts of their body. The autumn is the season when the 

( 96 ) [ Canto IV. 

elephants are In rut. For the seven parts of the elephant's body 
from which ichor exudes, see Sanj. and ft. noto. 

S'l. 24. sTT A^ f H — P- P- of ^^ with 3?i; roots beginning with a con- 
junct consonant and ending in 3TT an^ containing JJ^^^^^ or ?t change 
the cT of the p. p. p. to ^. See com. ^TTTr^ 'frf^^IW — The autumn 
held out before Raghu peculiar facilities for carrying on a compaigu 
and thus actuated him, as it were, to undertake an expedition. The 
beasts of burden (the bulls especially) were now in full spirits, the war- 
elephants in their ruttish condition were eminently fitted for fight- 
ing, the rivers had become fordable and the roads being dried up 
would afford easy passage to Raghu's troops. 

S'l. 25. W3nnTr*r'Trrt*^ — ^rn^sRt see ft.-note. it may also be de- 
rived fr. T]^ with Hf with the aff. 3T^ (3^) added vrf^; the act of de- 
coration. It is a kind of military and relegious ceremony performed 
bv kings on the 9th of A's'vina, or on the 8th, 12th or 15th day of the 
bright half of Kartika, before taking the field. It consists in the general 
purification of the king's Purohita, the ministers and all the variou» 
component parts of the army, together with the arms and implem- 
ents of war, by offering oblations to the sacred fire, waving lights 
before idols, &c.,and reciting the sacred mantras- ^]f^ here stands for 
both a horse and an elephant, possessed of auspicious signs. The ce- 
remony is called *fTl%^frr^'Tr' because the lustration of the horse and 
the elephant is its essential part. C/. ^^'^^ grij fllT^^T 't^ frf^PT 

^^[^T^^'^Ti X X ?T?TTjfrmlciEr^i"^'n^Ttitf'T: ^rgi'f^cii I ^^sfiirfTfi^^^^s'.- 
sTf^i^Tnt^Tr '?^r(!;il &o. Varahamihira's Br.-Sam,, chap. 44. See ft.- 
note. The five kinds of ^rn^T^TF are — tr^jftrr^^ ^^'lcir«T4 iJ^^\vf^ I 

RfaTTr^JT ^r?l!f^ ^«lTl^nT II For other particulars See Pad. P. 
3Tf^^. chap. 107; Agni. P. chap. 267. ji^i%onT'% &c.— ir»rcTf ^r%ini 
fl/^^] ^r T^fyoTi; by the rule q-yrf*^ ^rg^?'^ &e., V&rt. on P&ii. II. 
2. 24. iT^%'ni 3Tf^: T3[rs?mrT^: I ^f 5?n3Tffl^ I f%TF"^qi3TI% %T1% 
( outwit, deceive ) 3T%%F?t 5?it^:; under the disguise of the flame 
moving to the right. Expounding the Comp. thus is free from any 
grammatical difficulty. 

S'l. 26, ij(?ri?r^5FrT:— i|?j- themetrapolis or capital; irF!F?r the bor- 
der forts protecting the city, ?j^q7r«'^:— Ti^q the rear. He had taken 
adequate measures to guard his capital and the frontier forts, and so 
feared no attack from behind or attack on his capital in bis absence. 

Canto IV. ] ( 97 ) 

sTir^TrT: — Accompanied by good fortune. This was because he had 
propitiated the gods before starting. See ft. -note, ^j^^t^— See 
Sanj. and foot-note. The six kinds of soldiers are: — (1) Manias or 
those that are well-born and hereditary servants of the king; ( 2 ) 
Bhrityas or those paid by the king; (3) Suhrits or those, who belong 
to his allies, or those who are well-disposed towards him, i.«., on whom 
he has no claim such as tie of blood or service; ( 4 ) Srenis or force* 
levied on occasions of war; mercinaries; (5) Dvishads or the forces of 
the kings inimically disposed towards his enemy; ( 6 ) and Atavikas 
or the foresters. These last are crnel, rapacious and hardy, and 
therefore best suited to lead an attack. See Hit. III. 96 and Kdm. 
Nit. VIII. 23. 

S'l. 27. ^^frf^: — The elderly women with husbands living 
( and not young girls as in II. 10, as this was not an ordinary tour) 
scattered fried rice over him by way of expressing good wishes as 
they alone could do it. t^r^: — is mas. and pi. ^rrffjfq': — The waves 
of the milky ocean. The word g^f;^ is both mas. and yew.; but it is 
preferable to have it here in thefem. that it may compare well with 
'fi^^iRcT: 1 The allusion here is to the churning of the milky ocean 
when Vishuu supported and kept in position the mount Mandara 
by his arms. See Bhdg. P. VIII. 7. 12. 

S'l. 28. jirfnc— IT iTTniTW snnrnr ^T^m irr^r i qi'^T^r^ff^— 

Raghu was Indra's equal; so he commenced by making the east feei 
his power. See ft. -note. fr'5^2r^ — Pres. p. of ?t:h which belongs to 
the Ist and the 10th classes. The former is Par. and the latter 
A'tm., so that the one would give cT^ and the other fT^?i»ffq-: | To 
defend the form ^i{Xi\ ( see also XII. 41 ) Malli. quotes V4mana 
who remarks — "Roots which are 3Tg^I=^fj; may be Par., because Pan. 
when he says '=^f|l^ sq-rPT^f fu%' himself indicates that mere 
3Tg^T%T^ does not always give the A tm. For the root ^?t, though 
it has an aT^fTrT f, has an additional indicatory §: to give it the 
Atm. Hence ^T^and ic\k^ may be Par." Bhattoji's explanation is 
decidedly better. He takes fTof^T^as the pre. p. of the causal of ffsf-, 
^cT^W^Pff, 'the flags menace', and Raghu went on causing them to 
menace ( %5f*T^cT^^'^«Jt ). Cf, 'msTcf- '^TST^R^T it*t' XI. 78. 

S'l. 29. q-?T?rf9r^:— ^f^*r properly means that which appears or 
shines; while the meaning wanted here is 'equal or like to.' Amara 
says that words like fflfH", ^^I^T &c. express this meaning when they 
form the latter members of compounds-^j^Tj^q^c^r I f%'T^^r?I5Tr^r5r, 
iT€r^T^fTT*n3f^: U So this is a m^qr^iTI^ which has no f^q^r^irf . We 
R. N. 13 

(98) [Canto IV. 

must, therefore, explain ^^^t ^^'- I See Malli. on 'u^f^XVV^^\^^'-' 
S'is'. I. 22. Malli. aays the elephants resembled the clouds ^ntfr: ( in 
coloar ), f%rirrcT: by their aotion, i. «., by their pouring down the rain 
of rut, and Ti^JnoTfT: i.e. in size (the hugest of the lot being chosen for 
war-service). »nj?!r'^ — cl^ is both mas. and new.; here it is neu. as 
it will compare better with sqiq. 

S'l. 30. JTrfPT: — technically means 'the pre-eminent majesty' of 
the king due to his having ample resources at command. This makes 
his enemies dread him; cf. iTcTTTrfflcT^iT^^R^a'^^: K&d. p. 1. 
According to Vail, it means here the report of Raghu's approach 
which struck terror into his enemies' hearts. '^5:^gR^vin" — ^?^R: 
^^'«Tr ^Wfl' ^r I "^g:^^^ niay also be taken as a Oomp. word. The 
four divisions meant here are those poetically given by the poet 
( the 6r8t three having done the work of striking terror into the 
baarts of the enemies like the fourth ), and not the usual four 
diviHions of any army. <^]t: — An army consisted of four divisions 
(1) chariots ; (2) elephants; (3) horsemen; and (4) foot-soldiers. A 
^q;^ consists of 729 elephants, as many chariots, 2,187 horse-warriors, 
and 3,645 foot-soldiers. But this technical meaning is not intended 
here. <^^: ^i^rff^T^ =^ %J^rmt '^ 'frf^IcT ' ffcT RI?^ I 

S'l. 31. iT^HTPT— fg^T^ar J3;?TP^rwf5ri% tT^: a waterless place, an 
arid tract or desert, vf^^jaii jgrf^T ( surfaces ) q^giR I ^f*>?rftr — 
^S'STR 3rP*rt% ^5 mf^ with waters springing or spouting up. 
^f^q^fq^ — on account of his having the power and means to do it. 
Some take ^jf^ in the sense of ?frir^75 'superhuman power' — Raghu 
did all this without having had to use human efforts, such as 
digging out wells, building bridges &c.; see ft. -note. 

S'l. 32. <j%^Tr?: &c.— ^^??Tt f^HT «f : ^: I ik: m^'- J,^m»T^=7»Tf^ir 

iRtFriliar i^^^r^TTFffTjfr at; or iTm"sw^ njfjt^ j^im^t »nRHr ^k- 

»T^rr^ Hjfrrus — Hlll'a may be called the Indian Hercules. Sagura, au 
ancifot king of the solar race, determined on performing 100 A8^:amedha 
sacrifices. Wheu he commenced the lOOlh sacrifice, the horse that was 
loosened was carried uway by Indra. The 60,000 sons of Sagara, being 
commanded by tbeir father, searched througliout the world for the horse 
bat in vain. At leogth they excavated the earth, entered the nether regiona 
and found the horHe grazing by the side of the eage Kapila. Upon this 
they rashly charged him with having stolen the horse, whereupon the sage 
at ome reduced them to ashes with the fire of his wrath. Subsequently 
Sagara came to know that his sons could only obtain salvation by being 
purified with the water of Gatig&, who then watered the plains of heaven 

Oanto IV.] ( &9 ) 

alone. Now it wag no easy task to induce Ganga to come down to the 
humbler regions of the earth. So Sagara, his son Asamanjasa, and his 
grandson and great-grandson Ani8'um3,n and Diltpa, all died without being 
able to effect the descent of the celestial rivers and the sons of Sagara, 
all the time, continued to be mere heaps of ashe; At length Bhagiratha, 
bis great-great-grandson, succeeded, by his long-continued austerities, in 
propitiating Brahmsl, who told him to propitiate S'iva, since he alone was 
able to sustain on his head the current of the heavenly river. S'iva also 
was pleased with the penance of Bhagtratha, granted him his prayer, and 
called upon Ganga to descend upon his head. Gafigi, imagining in her 
pride that she would bear down even S'iva, fell upon his head with 
tremendous force, but had to wander through the labyrinths of S'iva's 
matted hair for one year. At length being liberated by S'iva at the 
entreaties of Bhagiratha, the river descended upon the earth, and all the 
gods and other divine beings came to behold the wondrous sight. After 
this Bhagiratha directed his chariot towards the sea and the Ganges 
followed him as far as the Sugar Kunda and thence entering the Patiila 
watered the ashes of Sagara 's sons, who were at once purified by the holy 
water and their souls ascended to heaven. The whole story is given in 
Earn. I. 35-44. 

SI. 33. Raghu's march through the eastern kingdoms is herein 
compared to the passage of an elephant through a forest. As an 
•elephant marches straight on, smashing the trees that come in his 
way, 80 Raghu marched on. subduing ordinary kings and uprooting 
those that had the daring to defy him. The eastern kings, it seema, 
had given special offence to Raghu. For his treatment of other 
kings was marked with generosity and leniencyj they were Sc^sncT- 
ij-fffrrf^rT and not S'fii^TcT alone. mrnT^: — Some grammarians include 
roots like k^^^, ^% &c. in the list of the f^^;^^ roots on the 
authority of ^ in Pan.'s 3T^«TtT "^ I And Kali, uses the root r^qST as 
such; cf. XV. 58; Kum. VII. 14; Meg. II. 36. Others do not h'old 
this view. Kaiyata says imj q"?T?f^3TTffT I C/. also Bhatti — ^"pq-f^jfqt. 
^-l^[^r«J €TtTl n>TT^^f|^r l "^TWH;— (o) profits i. e. the treasure; 
(b) fruits. 3^??5rrrr: — (a) dethroned; (b) uprooted. vjTf: — (a) defeated; 
(h) destroyed. gf?=^^ — clear; well-marked. 

S 1. 34. 7f^^«Tr^ — The Mat. P. mentions the following as the 
countries situated in the east: '^^\^^fH'gl^\ ST^^fn^fr ^fl^fjlff Urr^^'ft- 
m^]'i^ 5|[s^ » * # * I ^^i:ff^: ifi=r3f?^T trprf Hf^urr^f i: ii Adhy&ya 
113; see'also M4h. Bh&r. Sabh. P. Adh. 30. ^zfr— This shows that 
being always victorious he reached the sea-coast without having 
sustained a single defeat. ^TT'^^^ — S^tTtT: ^trs^T^aa:: ( Prddi 
Sam. ) ?T^ I JT^r^'^:— JfqsTK 'frq?^5r^frr%?5?fvr: I R^J^Mfr^m: I 

( 100 ) [ Canto IV. 

SI. 35. ST?nrnT?r5«>-Tbe fate of some of the eastern king« served 
aa a waroicg to the Suhmas; it showed that Raghu was the frg^i of 
the 3TiTg alone. g^|&: — The people of the Suhma country which wa» 
sitnated to the west of Vahga. It was so called after Sohma, the 
foQfth son of Bali. Its capital fTrg-faTT, also called fTWcTTf, ?THfe¥' 
?T[irf3Tfr and ^^T^ (see Hem. IV. 45) has been long identified with 
the modern Tumlook, on the right bank of the Oossya ( here called 
Rdpan&riyana ) which is the Kapis'i of Kalidasa, In ancient times 
it was situated closer to the sea than at present, and was a place 
of considerable maritime trade. In the Mah. Bh&r , however,. 
Tamralipta is mentioned as a separate country from Suhmades'a (See 
Sabh. P. XXX. 24, 25), which, therefore, seems to have included wes- 
tern Midnapur only. But in later times its extent was undoubtedly 
greater, as T&mralipta is mentioned by many writers as its capital. 
According to the commentator of the Mah4bh6rata, the Suhmas were 
also called Radhas (Vide Sabh. P. XXX. 16), which is the name of 
Western Bengal and from which the R&dhi Brahmanas take their 
name. It probably included Bardw&n, (Vardhamana) Bankoora 
(Mallabhflmi), and Beerbhoom (Virabhqmi)as no separate mention is 
made of these districts in early works. Vail, and Sum. explain 
5^: as 5^^5(1?^: Trai«r:. ^j^_^% ar^^f^ lf%:; behaviour, the 
action. %?l?fV^ — The Suhmas lived in a country abounding in the 
oane-plants growing along the banks of the Ganges. Thus they 
had every day an opportunity to see how big trees resisting the 
force of the current were borne down by the river while the supple 
cane was spared, and to learn thereby the safest course of action in 
case of an invasion by a more powerful enemy. The simile is 
therefore appropriate in this respect. See ft.— note. 

SI. 36. ^f«r^ — The kings of the Vallga country. See Sanj. on 
■^•., and ft.-note. The country of Vallga or Eastern Bengal lay to 
the west of Tipperah. It must not be confounded with Gauda (iftr) 
or Northern Bengal. In the M&dhavachampd the two countries are 
<:learly distinguished and VaDga is described to be that country 
through which the Padm4 and the Brahmaputra flow. And this will 
be clear to us if we remember that the main channel of the Brahma- 
putra originally flowed through Mymensing. The passage is impor- 
tant inasmuch as it introduces the word Vallga. from which Bengal 
is derived, and which is applied as a nickname by Oaiontta people to 
the people of Eastern Bengal. K&lidAsa here speaks of the branches 
of the Ganges, so it seema that Vallga included the sea-coast oi 
Bengal. It is also called Samatata or plains. The word occurs in 

€anto IV. ] ( 101 ) 

Varihasamhita, XIV. 6 along with Odra (Orissa) and Pragjyotisha 
^Kamroop), but without any indication of its position. Hiouen 
Thsang does not make mention of Vailga, but in its place speaks of 
samatata. And we know that the Gangetic doab ( Kuru P§,nch3,la ) 
was known by a similar name, Samasthali. So it seems beyond 
•doubt that Samatata was Vailga. The principal old towns of 
this province are the early Mahomedan capital SuvarDagr&ma 
{ Sonargaum) or 'the golden village' near Painam, and Vikramapura 
or 'the capital of Vikrama', now the name of a Purganah. Vailga 
in old Sanskrit means 'tin/ and it occurs in this sense in literature. 
Now tin is not found in Bengal, but in Malaya, Pegu, Ohina and 
especially in the island of Banka in the East Indies It is probably 
so called because it was known to the Hindoos through Vailga or 
Eastern Bengal. Hence it must have had a considerable maritime 
trade from the earliest times. %?ff — ^15 JfTFT %5TTTHT%~* skilful 
general. Because he was always victorious in land fights as well 
as in naval fights. ffr^!TVr%?T?I-3RrcT 'prepared to offer resistance.' 
^^T^'HR-^^S.^^^: ^^'TT «Tq'??T«nJ 'pillars commemorating victory.' 

S'l. 37. aTfTTT'nrT'irir:— ( «) tr: T^n^f Tr?^?f ct^'tNt^?^ stnt?- 

q?f ^xi\^\: bending low as far as his lotus-like feet; (b) qjf ^%t q^ Ti^q^ 
^T 'TR[T^ wn^\' bending low (by the weight of their ears ) to the 
lotuses at their roots. The paddy fields are covered over with water 
during the rains and often abound in lotuses. Cf. Kir. IV. 4 '^fft^ 

'q^'sr^^pyii^T ^"f^f^^* ^^V[^ ^ifrm u*nnnr^*i' 1 ^?^nTirmnf^r:-appii«s 

both to % and to q??7iTT: I The paddy is a kind of corn first sown in 
^sT or %^TT^ in burnt soil and after a month or two transplanted 
to a softer soil, full of water. When thus transplanted the paddy 
has a luxuriant harvest. To understand the appropriateness and force 
of the simile we must suppose that the princes were replaced on 
their thrones by Baghu after they were defeated and dethroned. 
Then struck by the magnanimity of the victor and overcome by gra- 
titude, they came to him with presents, and prostrating themselves 
before him, offered them. The simile here is appropriate both 
as regards time and place. The paddy flourished in water and so 
did the Vailgas, who were great navigators ('^'fri'^^T: ) anid Raghu 
attacked them at a. time when the paddies were probably bent low 
on account of the weight of corn. 

S'l. 38. ^fq-^pj— See note on s'l. 35. ^cSfr^y — The country of 
Utkala or Odra ( Orissa ) lay to the south of Tamralipta, and from 
the present S\, seems to have extended up to the river Kapis'4. Odra 

( 102 ) [ Canto IV. 

is probably the ancient name representing the aboriginal tribes of 
the country. It is mentioutd in the Mah&bb&rata among the Indian 
provinces along with Videha and T4mralipta and in the list of the 
southern conquests of Sahadeva. In the Brih. Sain., however, iti» 
mtntiontod as a different country from Udra. The chief town of thi» 
province 'Cuttak' is said to have been founded by Nripakosarl in the 
tenth century. It was probably better known as Padm4vati. Jaipur 
( Yajnapura ) on the borders of the Balsor (Bales'vara) district, and 
the city of the celebrated temple of Bhuvaneshvara in the Purr 
district, are said to be the older capitals of the district. The most 
important place, however, from a Hindoo point of view, is thfr 
town of Puri, the site of the far-famed temple of Jagannatha. It* 
ctlebrity, however, dates from comparatively recent times, as na 
notice of it is found in the Mahabh&rata or the earliar Puranas. 
3^^?n^%rfT^": — This shows that the Utkalas easily yeilded 
to Raghu and assisted him in his passage towards Ealihga. 
^f^iprfHS^g": — The country of Kaliilga lay to the south of Odra 
and extended to the mouths of the God&vari. In the time 
of the Mah. Bh4r. it seems to have included Udra, as the river 
Vaitarani, which runs by Jaipur, is clearly stated in one place to be 
in Ealihga. It did not generally extend beyond the God^v&ri, as it» 
mouths are mentioned to have been in the possession of the A'ndh- 
ras. According to Dandin its capital KaliDganagara was at some 
distbnce from the sea-coast, inasmuch as he says that the king of 
Ealihga went out to pass some days at the seaside, when he waft 
taken captive with iiis daughter by the king of A'ndhra ( see Dk • 
Ull. 7 ). The capital was, therefore, not at Ealihgapattana, on 
the north, nor probably at Yizagapattam ( Vijayapattana ) but at 
R&jamahendri on the south, as it is at some distance from the sea 
and borders on A'ndhra-desa. The Ealihgas are described as 
having sprung from Ealihga, the son of DTrghatamas, and his 
wife Sudeshp&. It is thus described in the Tantras — ^* | ^ |<jifi^*^T't 

S'l. 39. H^?!^ — This may mean by pyyniT the lord of Mahendra 
or the mountain itself, since the humiliation suffered by the moun^ 
tain was also suffered by its lord. By Mahendra is meant the 
ehain of mountains that extends from Utkala or Orissa and th^ 
Northern Circars to Gond-vana. See Wilson's Vish. P. p. 174. It 
Ib one of the seven principal mountain chains of India. Genera 
Gunningham ( see his Ancient Geography of India p. 516 ) identifies 

Canto IV. ] ( 103 ) 

thi3 mountain with Mahendra Mile which divides Ganjam front 
tho valley of Mah&nadi. According to Anndoram Borooah, how- 
ever, it included the whole of the eastern Qhhts between the Maha- 
nadi and the Godavari. Kalid&sa calls the king of KaliDga <lord of 
Mahendra/ and Kaliiigawas not limited to the country about Ganjam 
but extended upto the God&vari. The present town of R&jamahen- 
dri on the Godavari probably originally represented the capital 
of the Lord of Mahendra. m?«r^— (o) unbearable ( q-fTTT ); (^) 
sharp (3T^^T). ?2r%?r^— ( « ) stamped; ( b ) drove in. ^if^^—m^j 
also refer to Raghu 'the controller' i. e. chastiser of the haughty. 
T^srktft^:— n'^RK tl^ 5fTcy»T^ I This is a technical name for a- 
king of elephants. According to a SI. quoted by Char, from the 
Palak^pya (see-ft. note), and another quoted by Malli. from the 
Rajaputriya, a Gambhiravedi elephant is one who is not easily 
sensible to wounds, cutting of flesh or actual spilling of blood from 
his body. According to another quotation given by Malli., an 
elephant who is slow in understanding even well-understood signs 
is called JF^r^^f. 

S'l. 40. sifrrsTin"? — iffclJJ^ usually means 'to accept;' here it 
means 'to oppose, to meet or receive in a hostile spirit.' The root 
occurs again in this sense in VII. 36. ehlM^^*: — ^^e king of the 
Kalingas. As this signifies one individual, the aroi^is retained. 

T^^^fN^rT^ — For allusion flee *«jora III. 60, This epithet also 
applies to Raghu. q^ means the allies, 'the forces on the side of the 
enemy;' q^rprr srfT R ^rmt ^^' &c. ^o' *^6 recurrence of the same 

thought, cf. '^^f^^^>^^9: ^cr^s^ ' &c. IX 12. Rn^rw'Tf—wr: rocks, 

hillocks. Kaliilga was like a mountain of yore. For he fought 
with huge elephants who resembled in colour, size and strength, 
the hillocks thrown by the mountains upon Indra. Cf. VI. 54. 

SI. 41. SFTT^?^:— ^i??«T?^ JltwrTf^t 5»TP^T^?^«T: I The descendant 
of Kakutstha. For the allusion, see VI. 71-73 and note under 71; 
also the quotation from Bhag. P. given in the ft.-note, p. 146; also 
Hariv. Ohap. X. ^irr^fffH?^— JT^nut Wii\ ^\^R I ^RSTI=5rTWfB 
^^f^: I an arrow made wholly of iron or steel ( and therefore surely 
killing by entering deep into the body ). fffjHJ; — means by ^^PTT 
a shower. This answers the purpose of a bath. ^FJT^^^ri: — 
T^^IT ^srra: ^o■, or ^^%^ fJ^^^jil^<J\ ^i^ ^fm'^si^^ ^r (see Sanj.) 
m^- Hii^Wri -- I ^rj; ^^if^m JTWeJ^rm: ^'H^<9tHM: I It ia necessary 
according to the Sastras to take an auspicious bath before taking 
possession of s^\. The poet fancies that this was furnished in the 

( 104 ) [ Canto IV. 

present case by the shower of iron arrows ( a bath quite befitting a 
warrior ). 

S'l. 42. ^: — by means of leaves, t. e. drinking bowls or vessels 
made of the leaves. This ought to be construed with q-^: and not 
TfVff, as S. P. Pandit would have it. STR f ^^ ^RT: — srr ^R^I?6»i?T ^\ 
I^^^T^Pt ariTT^^ I S^TTI^TFI ^^'' &c. This is a technical name for 
a drinking place. ^5rT ^ 15^^: — The fact that Raghu'a soldiers 
had their carousings there without the least molestation from the 
enemy shows that they had infiioted a crushing defeat upon their 
foes. So that, thinks the poet, along with the wine they quaffed 
there, they also drank off the fame of the enemy; t. e. by defeating 
the enemy they deprived him of his fame as a skilful warrior. 
Or ^TT^^ may mean '^T^ST^icq^r^.' They drank in the fame springing 
from their defeat of the enemy, i. e. got additional fame. C/. II. 6y, 
VII. 60. Bhattoji DIkshit and Jninendrabhikshu read ^ for ^ 
( ^r^r? ? T^^t: ), and Bhattoji remarks that this is quoted as the 
poet's reading by the old commentators of Amara. Here ^ stands 
for 1^ 'like' ( though Klli. is not likely to use it thus ), ^jTWt ^!T 
f^ qj:, the likeness lying in the purity of the two — the wine they 
drank was simply unfomented cooonut-juice, which was therefore 
clear and transparent; and the fame they obtained was also pure 
«. e. not sullied by defeat. Cf. Med. ' ^ Jf%m% ^[^ITrff^F^ 3 
rf^«T?^' I This reading is better inasmuch as it gives a mora 
beautiful meaning. 

Si. 43. ^^f^Yf^Tr — A conqueror for religious purposes, i. e. for 
the sake of offering sacrifices &c. Three kinds of conquerors are 
mentioned by Sanskrit writer8:(l) vr^ff^Ttfr or a 'righteous conqueror' 
is one who takes the wealth of a conquered king but raises him to 
his throne again; (2) the conqueror who deprives him of his 
wealth and royalty as well, but spares his life is ?frHf^^«n; (3) and 
one who robs him of all these three is arg^srqr. See ft. -note. 
^: — The protector of men. An epithet peculiarly happy, as it 
comes after vi^'^^nfr. T § i^f^ HT *^ — Mallin&tha's remark on this 
fieems to be unnecessary, as the reason of this is given by the poet 
himself by describing Hagha as vr4f^^. 

SI. 44. ^gm?^— ^f is the land covered by the waters of the 
sea at high tide. flr^T-by the coast-line of the sea. «frt^WJr*Tr^^- 

resorted to. Cf. in this sense, 'J^nT^=^K% ^^* Mah, Bh&r.} 

''<T>cTr^R?Tt f?^^' Rim. HJTTOr?T5Rr:— ar^^n^'Tr ar^Tr ^^ 'to whom 

Canto IV. ] ( 105 ) 

victory was not a thing to be sought after,' i. e. to whom victory 
came of itself. See Sanj. It may also mean ^over whom victory 
was not to be hoped for', arr^TTR is derived from ^ipr^with an Atm., 
to wish for. [ The rule '^\^ ^^-^ ^ ^T-' Pan. VI. 4. 34-( the root 
^q^ changes its 3TT to f when followed by 3T3^ or by an 
affix beginning with a consonant and having an indicatory ^ or 
l^-applies to ^JIH Paras, meaning ' to introduce, to order ' &c., 
from which we have the form arinPT: ]• 

SI. 45. ^^TTK^TT^ — The army enjoyed a cool bath in the river 
and the water bore scent of the rut of the elephants in the army as 
they plunged into it. Now the rivers are poetically considered as 
the wives of the sea ( Cf. XIII. 9 ) and as such must be faithful to 
their lord. But here K&veri bore marks of her sporting with others 
and so made the sea suspicious, as it were, of her virtue. 
TrrfPf^TFtT^ — Malli. holds a long discussion on this and considers 
the form ogirff^ir a poetic license. According to the Vart. quoted 
and interpreted by him the smell must be natural to have the 
^*TT^TF?T %'i aiid since the ^^^^^, referred to here, is not the natural 
smell of water the form should have been ^iptr: i The supposition 
that we have the ^t^^\■^ affix fp^ here, will also not do^ because a 
qcf^ftT is prohibited after a Karm. See Sanj. The word ^^ffl^, 
however, is not to be found in the Mah&.-Bhashya or the Vritti, 
and grammarians like Kaiyata, Bhattoji, Nagesabhatta, &c. do not 
hold such a view. And Mallin^tha's criticism, though he has on his 
side Bhatti who says 'arfrnf^T sfP^^'-T^f: ^^?v|^JTinf?5'TffT'TWf1«?' 
II. 5. seems to be out of place See ft. -note and Gr. § 256 (c). 
iSftMi l — A river of Southern India. It rises in the Western Ghauts 
• and falls into the Bay of Bengal. 

SI. 46. f^fW'Tr^: — Simply means 'the conqueror,, 'one who 
had set out on a tour of conquest,' and does not imply 
that he longed for victory. See si. 44. JrrCT'^t^F?! &c. — 
Rfl^HT f%^^ iTTfHr: the land of q^ the black-pepper 
creepers; flfmr: — flfp is a kind of parrot ( the wood- 
pigeon, according to some ) feeding on the leaves of the pepper- 
creepers; cf. ^^[^^ ^\^J; nfHI«M^«4<^OTH" ^T^^^RRT^ I Kad. p. 281. 
*T<T'5rTt: — Hc4*4K»«fr iTc3"'?«rT¥T^%«lT'^ ^I cT^ I The mountain which 
forms the southern part of the western Ghats. See below si. 51, 
note on »rc3^^fn. Malaya especially abounds in sandal trees and 
is famous for its cool breezes; the place, therefore, was a pleasant one 
.for the jaded army to halt. >m^<(eht : — the adjoining sites. 
B. N. 14 

(108) [Canto IV. 

S'l. 47. 5c=ZTTrf5>i5 — Malli. defends this by referring to the- 
V/irt. '^q7^«^' ; but the accuracy of his defence may be questioned aa 
thiH does not begin with ^^, while the instances given in the Bhashya 
all begin with ^t- We may, therefore, expound g^^^q *T'yrfg5qii?q': 
^ t^'^nr^fffrR g^^nr'^g^^^S l JTW»T— »rfT is used to indicate the pres- 
ence of ichor on the temples of the elephants, ^^r*^: — shows the 
great size and number of his elephants. The dust of cardamom 
seeds was raised by the hoofs of the horses, bat so great was the 
obstruction caused by the compact line of his huge elephants, that 
it could not escape into the sky, but got stuck to the wet temples 
of the elephants. 

S'l. 48. Hrf^7?*f &c. — Serpents are supposed to coil round the 
■andal trees, being attracted by their sweet smell. 5T?raq[— ^?^ 
though A'tm. is Paras, when it take the 2nd variety of the Aorist. 
^^^ — ifffl^ T-^ ^^^^ tied round ( not born on ) the neck; the metai 
neck-chains round the neck. 'EiT^T^sfr ^iHRf^'^^WT^t ^f^T?^- 
^^ I (^tTT *Rf«»«Jt ^^^ ^ st^h') Vrittikara. HH<(1^NhIH— ^'^^ 
TI^I ^^^T |1^ f^'^^ ( tlie foot-ohain ), formed irregularly like 
^vrqgfr according to the Sid.-Kau. which includes firq^r under the 
^W^t list. According to the Vrittikdra we have two forms 
fg-qT^ and f^rTTefl. See ft. -note. 

'The poet menns that elephants, who were so strong that they would 
have broken their foot-chains, were kept on their spots by the mere rope* 
tied round their necks, because the ropes were very firmly tied to the 
sandals on account of the grooves being so well-adapted to them; and 
because the odoriferous exhalations given out by the sandal trees were so 
charming to the elephants that they did not tear off neck-ropes.' S P. 

SU. 49. ff^ R?^^ &c — STRJ^^ ^i 'Tfm Rs^pra becomes dim; 
Malli. derives this with the affix ^i^ which takes the Atm. option- 
ally; 80 according to him the form q^^nrf^ will also be correct. Bat 
according to the Bhashya, which is followed by Kaiyata, Bhattoji 
and others, f^^^is to bo affixed to oJTIf?T and words with the affix yr^ 
( i. e. 3TT ) a»id w^^^ to the other words found in the list ^n^firr^. 
Hence ^^^ is the only correct affix and q^iq% is the only correct 
form. ^n% — Even of the sun. When in the winter solstice the sun 
apparently moves from the north towards the south, the heat is 
mitigated. So the poet fancies the southern quarter to be invincible, 
since even the heat of the sun is subdued in that quarter. rr^STr^ — 
in the very quarter the P4adya8 found Raghu's irflffq unbearable i. «. 
it did not diminish, qry^s^r-' — The derivation of the word given in 
the com. seems to be an interpolation. For vq'or^ being a f^^ affix 

Caoto IV. ] (107) 

oaght to disap pear in the plural by 'er^iST^ ^55 — ' P&9- I^- *. 62. 
Malli. has correctly applied the Sutra in other places and he could 
not have misapplied it here. It may be derived after Bhattoji — 
TP^f^ rrsrr ^J^'S-^: ^^^^ ^\^^'- ( well-disposed towards ) quig'-qr: ^^^e 
partisans of Pindya i. e. his people ( warriors ) — ^%j ?Tff-fT?^TW? 
m: 'TPis^^r fm I TR^^ «T^^ fm^m^T^Sid. Kan. P&ndya is the 
name of a country in the extreme south of India and lying to the 
south-west of Ohola-desa. The mountain Malaya and the river 
T6mraparni fix its position indisputably; cf. Bal- Bam. III. 31' 
Iq the time of K&lidasa it must have extended from the banks of 
the Kaveri to the shores of the Indian ocean, as he says that its 
capital was 'Serpent town' ( VI. 59 ) which must be the same as 
Negapattam ( Nagapattana ) 160 miles south of Madras The town 
of Madhurfi was founded some centuries after by king Kulasekhara^ 
The holy island of Rdmesvara belonged to this kingdom. The 
Mah. Bhdr. speaks of Kum^ris in this country which evirlently 
seems to refer to Gape Oomorin and shows that the principality 
at one time included part of the Malabar Coast, as independently 
testified by a Greek writer. In the same work we also find men- 
tion made of a mountain, Rishabha, in it. It is very likely a sum- 
mmit of the Malaya mountains. 

Si. 50. tTr?T°ffg' Hg [ ^g T — Timraparni is a small but celebrated 
river flowing past Pallamcotta and falling into the gulf of Man&r 
near the small town of Punakail. The place where it joins the sea is 
famous for its pearl-fisheries. Here the poet speaks of the union 
of the sea and the river^ his wife, leading to the production of pearly 
treasures, which constitute the glory of the land, ^vhi gpc^ — see 
Malli.; or g^ST ^ €R: f?^<f^^^ I ^RT: ^^J^'i — The point of simi^ 
larity is whiteness — real in one case and supposed in the other. 

S'l. 61. Rff^ — t. «., having enjoyed their scenes and produc- 
tions. ^rTTlf^f — The simile here is bad as far as Raghu is conerned 
since he was never given to lust. ff^PErF^r: — »• "• of t^^e South. 
H t^j <i f |i^ — The two mountain chains in the country of the Pandyas. 
They are the southern portions of the western Ghats. The Malaya 
is also reckoned to be one of the seven Kulaparvatas. The Rag. 
and the Mv. tell us that the slopes of the Malaya mountain are 
encircled by the river K4veri, In the B41. R4m. the mountain is 
siiid to abound in cardamom9,pepper,eandal and betelnut trees, which 
are all found in abundance in most southerly India. We can 
therefore safely identify it with the southern portion of the Gbdts 

n08) [Canto IV. 

running from the south of Mysore and forming the eastern boundary 
of Travanoore. K&liddsa in this si. calls the mountains Malaya 
and Dardura the breasts of the earth, and Dandin describes the 
southerly breeze as cool with the embrace of sandals on the sides 
of the mountain Dardura. The two mountains are also spoken o' 
in one connexion in the Mark. P. Dardura, therefore, must be that 
portion of the Ghjts which forms the south-eastern boundary of 
Mysore. The sources of four rivers are placed in this chain, viz- 
KritamSl4, Timraparui, PushpajA and Utpalavati. 

S'l. o2. ST^5rf^^»T:— ^1?R?T?«fri^T^: \^^^i T^ I sfHERr-One of 
the seven principal chains of mountains in India. It is still known 
as Sahyi'vdri and is the same as "Western Ghats, as far as their junc- 
tion with the Neilgherries north of the Malaya. 9T«^'T^ — reached 
or crossed. The two S'lokas form a ^^. 

S'l. 53. 3T7fi^: — "3THt^ is originally the face; and meaning then 

the edge of any sharp weapon, it signifies, like the Latin acies, the 

sharp edge or edgelike appearance of an army in march t. e. a row. 

In classical Sanskrit the word only bears one signification derived 

from the last, viz., that of 'multitude' or arwiy." S. P. Pandit. 

f«r?I^^: — marching. STTTFrT: — 3TTfpcT: s^TTI'ff- ^^^ other side, ». «• 

tne West ( said with reference to the East ). STTTT'^i: the westerner' 

( ^Ft^oir: Vail. ). Konkan is the name of the strip of land between 

Bahya mountains and the sea, particularly the portion lying between 

Daman on the North and Goa on the South. CPTr ^cf fr fr rt: — The 

Rama referred to here is Parasur&ma. He destroyed the Kshatriyas 

twt-ntyone times and then made a gift of the earth, which was his 

by the right of conquest, to Kasyapa, as dakthini in a sacrifice- 

After this Parasur&ma wished to practise religious austerities. 

.But now he found himself in a fix, for no merit accrues from 

penance practised on another's ground, aud all the land thea 

available in the world belonged to Kasyapa. So he applied to the 

ocean for space. The ocean told him to raise land by removing the 

water if he could. This was no difficult task for a warrior like 

Parasur&ma. He took up his bow and shot an arrow, with the result 

that the waters of the sea receded from the vicinity of Sahyadri, 

relinquishing the maritime district, named Burp&raka, according to 

the Mah. Bhar. Bee also the passage quoted from the Msh. Bb&r. 

in the foot-note. 

The traditions of the Peninsula ascribe the formation of the coast of 
Malabar to this origin and relate that Paras ur&ma compelled the ocean to 
retire and introduced Br&limanas and colonists from the north into Kerala 

Canto IV. ] ( 109 ) 

or Malabar. According to Borae accounts he stood on the promontory of ' 
Delhi and shot his arrows to the South over the site of Kerala. It seems- 
likely that we hare proof of the local legend being at least as old as the 
beginning of the Christian-era, as the Mods Pyrrhusof Ptolomy is, probably 
the mountain of Paras'a or Paras'ura'raa. ( See Wilson's Viahnu Purina 
p. 404, Note 21 ). 

S'l. 54. >nfn^ &c. — The women were struck with terror at 
the sudden appearance of Raghu's vast army and gave up decorating 
their persons. %?:^gf JfMd r H — Kerala is the ancient name of the 
whole tract comprising the districts of Oochin, Oanara, and 
Travanoore. Dandin says ( see Dk. UU. 8th ) that the king of 
As'maka or hilly country incited the kings of Kuntala, Konkana, 
Vanavasi, Murala, Richika, and Nasikya, to rise in a general revolt 
against the king of Vidarbha, and it will appear that Marala is the 
name of Kerala. The positions of all these countries except- 
As'maka are definitely known and cover all southern India except 
Traranoore. Hence it is clear that As'maka must be the old name 
for Tr&vancore. This is confirmed by the fact that it is called 
Kuta by some Mahomedan writers, which means the same thing as 
Asmaka. The principal rivers in this tract are the Netravati on 
which Mangalore stands, the Sarasvati on which is situated - 
Honawar, and the K41inadi on which Sadasivagad is situated. As 
the first two rivers have their distinctive names, the last must be 
the same as the Murala referred toby Kalidasain the next SI. and by 
BhavabhSti in his Uttar. III. This is the principal river in Kerala 
and hence the people were sometimes called Muralas. From the 
description in the Raghuvams'a and the Kathasarits^gara, it appears - 
that Kerala meant the strip of land between the Western Ghats 
and the sea north of the Kaveri. Popular opinion also fixes its 
northern boundary on the south of Konkan. In Hemachandra's 
gloesary Urga is given as a synonym of Kerala. 

3T9y#r^ — 3Tc?^ seems to mean the locks of soft, curly hair flowing 
on either side of the female face. Cf. VI. 23, VIII. 52, 51. ^^t^ijf^. 
^r^:— irmf%>Tt^% ?ft irfeiRf^r: i i;«ir?srm^fvr: 'f^orgf^f^vr: i We may- 
take this as an Ab. Tat. because Pan. says 3Tl%T^fq^: !nff?"R ^ ^'^ftlrl^ i 
which shows that he prefers the Ab. with in%ffll^. 3T^'^iTRTRI'q«3"'^- 
irrm'^I?-* ^wr^rirrJ^: ^cis^qrraf^^^cr: l The remark of Malli. on thii 
^^^T ^[f^fTt THHT^ &c. seems to be an interpolation. Hindu war- 
riors are nev^er described as pursuing women, far less frightened 
women; and Malli. who himself gives the prohibition ^ij^^i^^^iTP^' 
^\^ &c. in his com. on VII. 49 is not likely to make such a 

(110) [Canto IV. 

remark. What is meant is this — So vast was the cloud of dast 
raised by the army that it spread over the whole country of 
Kerala and the dust settling on the heads of the women in it 
served the purpose of scented powder which women apply to 
their hair. 

81. 55. g^fi r &c- — For Mural4 see note on^cT^Tlo, preceding 
si. This implies that the breeze was cool and fragrant. ^r^rPTPTPi — 
^KT'cTrfff ^rrr: ( which ward off or resist); ^oTHt ^TfT: W^THJ- the 
armours; the appearance of ^JX first in tho Comp. is to be accounted 
for by referring it to the JT^^^l^IIf class which is an 3Ti^rnT*riT 
and by reference to which, according to the Vrittik&ra, any 
Tat., not actually explained by the rules given, may be 
explained. H^f^q^TF^nrr^ — TJt ^R^fTS^^:- ^*'- that by which a 
garment is scented; a kind of fragrant powder of a yellowish-red 
oolour; cf. iT^tJiqJfT^H^f^IfJT &c. Rat. I. p. 11. 3Ti%mT?fT ^HF ^^ 
3T?l?^: I arq?^: T?fm?a?»I nr^^Trr ?TI^ I For the component parts 
of ^^^]^, according to the Br. Sam., see ft.-note. 

S'l. 56. ?[ ^ HI H r-3^?T ^nr^ ^l^r. horses. «qTfTr«^— Malli. 
translates this by ir^i^cTI^ which must be understood in the sense 
of 'moving about' and not 'marching on for battle.' For the poet 
seems to describe here | halt and not a march, as is clear from 
the next si. and the word nTl^cT is & gentle sound. It may 
better be translated by 'grazing.' The horses, of course mailed, wore 
let off to graze by the riverside or so. "T^jfr^g^ &« — tTTcTT^t ^I^^t 
n^cTT?q: probably a kind of gigantic palm; a Oomp. of the 
TFsrSf'fTTrt or JT^^sqH^rK gro^P- 3T>-2f?j;qrT- This implies the vast- 
ness of Raghu's cavalry. For the rustling noise produced by 
the forests of gigantic palms was drowned by the jinglings of 
the armours caused by the gentle motion of the horso8, whose 
oambor, therefore, must have been proportionately great. 

S'l. 57. < gji C r ^* ->T — ^^^ properly means that part of the 
trunk of a tree where it branches off. But the date tree being a 
kind of palm does not branch off but has a stalk and leaves. So this 
probably here means 'the top of.' This shows that K&li. did not 
know the south personally; for the date tree does not grow in the 
Konkan. HfrsrrcgTFvjij— ^R fr. 3^+ ^ + ^5j^ ( >?rf ) the pouring 
out of. Here it refers to the act of pouring and not to the thing 
poured out. For in the latter case it will be difficult to account for 
the ^ at the end of the compound, the rut being separable from 
tho temples. See note on si. 45. 3?(rxr»-T: — ^r- Roxbury think • 

*CautoIV.] (Ill) 

that the Punn&ga tree is a native of the Ooromandal Coast. It 
seems also to be a native of the opposite coast. Rir^rs^jTr^ — RI^I 
^T??t g^i^*r^t lit- 'needle-moathedj' bees. 

S'l. 58. 3Tf^r?r^— 3T?'ll?nTfT fctr^^ig: open space. f^^~m&j 
be taken Ri%^; so it is related. Or we may place f^w last-^-q^ ^^ 
^■fr I%?r-taking it as a sign of 3fq"^T- ^RT^T-See the allusion under 
SI. 53 (nmWR^ff^n &c.). ar^TFrr &c. — The Inst, here is ^x^- As 
the sea could not have given the tribute in person some such dis- 
guise was necessary. 

S'l. 59. ^■%^ &c.— See Sanj.j or tr^iK^ti:: 3?^mfH ( "oun ) 
o^Tpf^^HcJSMTR 'Tr?iT'3^ I On which the cuts made by the tusks of 
infuriated elephants were the distinct marks of prowess ( t. e. a 
writing commeiflorating his victory ) Or we may take ST^jTiof 
as the p. p. and transtate: — 'On which the visible marks of victory 
were engraved by the tusks &c.;' or again, f^^j ^^^%S^^{^ I%?»I- 
p^^'T:, the indicator of prowess; sittW i%^frB^Ti: sq^ff^^jT^^piy: l 
iTWiTT^^Tc^rorftT 'Tf 5^T^I%^tT^?af"^' ^ cT«fTT^: 'which wa(5 a 
distinct indicator of prowess because marked by' &c. nr^*?^ — W<. 
a mountain with three peaks. The one referred to here must be 
a hill in the territory of Trdvancore. Kfita or As'maka is the 
ancient name of Travancore, and hence it is possible that Trikuta 
may be one of the mountains in that country. This is distinct 
from the Trikuta on the top of which Laflka is described to have 
been situated, though Vail, paraphrases this by '^c^TrrrJT^'- 

8*1. 60. «Tr^^?5f7r^ — These are supposed to be the ancieu- 
Porsians or inhabitants of that part of Persia which lies nearesi. 

to the Indus. See Wilson's Vish. P. p. 176 note 3. ^x^'^rR'^ 

by the knowledge of the real nature of the individual soul and its 
relation to the supreme soul of the cosmos and the Supreme spirit. 
This alludes to the Hindu doctrine that ^y^ or final emancipation 
is not possible without Tattvajnana. ^^r^^r^l — Malli. eays that 
Raghu preferred the land-route because a voyage by sea is prohibited 
This does not seem to be the correct explanation. The simile 
seems to suggest the true reason. A man can overcome his toes, 
the passions, only when he has cTt^^I^. So Raghu knew where 
the Persians were really weak ( ». e. had fix^^r^r of their weakness ). 
He might have thought that he could more easily defeat them on 
land and so undertaken a march by the perilous and circuitous 

S'l. 61, ^TqRrg^crna'Rr^— The Gen. here is emphatic. He did 
not suffer the glow because it belonged to the lotus-like faces of the 

(112) [Canto IV. 

I'avana ladiea. Sinoo K&li. applies the term yavana to the ancient 
PerBians (and the other tribes on the North-west of India) it is 
clear that the term was not restricted to the Greeks or lonians 
as some "Western scholars suppose. *Ivj»t^^ — The flash imparted hj 
liquor. The invasion of Raghu struck terror into the hearts of the 
Persian ladies, who, though they were habitual drinkers, gave up 
drinking wine, so that their cheeks lost the usual glow of liquor. 
^prnTT^ — the young, i.e., the morning sun. This is added because it i» 
the morning sun that gives the reddish glow to the lotuses. This 
serves to bear up resemblance with the red flush imparted by wine. 
3T'^T'T &c. — out of the proper ( the rainy ) season i. «. in autumn, 
when a sudden appearance of clouds is not expected. Raghu's 
invasion, too, took place at a time ( i. e. in autumn ) when the 
Yavana women were in their best spirits and did not at all expect an 
invanon. For a similar idea, cf, %?^§fum"<%?^T^ ^T^rr^TH^lfTnT: I 

SI. 62. 95??: — 'Tlfrn%j irregularly derived from g 'to become 
full, to move, to injure', + 5W; 'tumultuous.' q|TurT^:_q^i:jrjf|.^: ^ 
^^T^^vq'^: — The special feature of the army of the Persians was 
their cavalry, and so they are spoken of here as 3T»^^vhf:> 
like the king of the Kalihgas who is described as ifSTiETrvT^ in S'l. 40, 
and the VaDgas as ^mi%Ri?!T?T in Si. 26. There is a distinct 
reference to the cavalry of the Persians as being their speciality in the 
Mudra. "Jr^i^: T^mr?»F??ig':'r^c7: qTT^iq?rwr^: &c. I. 20; see also 
infra V. 73. In fact the Yavanas, inhabiting the North-western 
frontier of India, were strong in their horse; ef. ^•. \m^^^i\\ 
V^^^- ^ TfT'^fl^fi^OTfT^nET '^^5T»^^'~I^^ ^^^\^\ JTlf^fT: I Mai. V. p. 105. 
mfr^f^if?! &<^.— ^# Me Sanj. f^^rj ^^[tj;] ff^?Ti: i ^f^5««i??T ffh- 
JTfhncTT 'T^TT ^1 qfcT'fmi:; warriors on the other side, i. *. the Periiaus. 
This seems to show that though clouds of dust were raised here 
Raghu*s skilful marksmen could still hit their enemies, while the 
Persians were confused, being blinded. 

B'l. 63. >T3rr"T^^:— *W% ?!% ^^: that which injures or kills, 
a kind of arrow with a cresoeut-shaped blade, generally made 
of steel. ^q^fir?iiH ^=1 ^S^:--^»Tyj'5T ^riJj ^% ^.-i Malli. 
explains this by referring it to the i%«»Tri^ class; but the word is not 
found in that list. We may therefore explain — ^q^far ^RTu'^ \f\^- 
^f^ having beards, ^^r— ^ iTl%Jl?c^ ^cl'TmilT ^ nr<^ *r<^I T^?T 
%\^ ^\ I ^raTJ^rt? — The bearded heads of the fair-skinned Persians, 
with the scalp clean shaved, well resembled the honey-combs with. a. 
clustering swarm of bees over them. 

Canto IV. ] (113) 

SI. 64. aTT^firT &c. — This indicates that they did not wish to 
continue the fight. % ^TTT ?I5": — approached him as their protector. 
A Sanskrit idiom which means 'sought his protection.' ff — See Sanj, 
Or we may take it arf^TK^ — 'certainly', and construe fTfT^R^t ^{**T: 
irmqrclimT^r ff l JT^tT^n^-here 3Trc>r3; may mean 'soul', high-soul- 
ed men; or 'effort', men of mighty efforts. It is impossible to resist 
such men, and therefore submission is the safest course. Cf. *3n?iTr 
?Tc^T ^ffrtf^: ^fviTft ^^ ^BiT ^ ' Amara. 

SI. 65. f^^2f?gr — ^r with ff is AHm. when its object is in the 
body of the agent and not a part of the body, by the rule ^^^«i &c. 
Pan. I- 3, 37. See Sanj. Thus here sq-q being in the body of the^j^^ or 
agent, and not a part of his body, we get f^JT^T^. For farther discus- 
sion of this point see Sid -Kau. on the Sntra. 5Tf^;TTr;TrH-3Tr%^5 
r^JTTM 3T[%^??^rr% best kinds of skins. Cf, ^r4t sficfr ^fff g- fr^c^r'iTi'^- 
^«."^^l ^^:^^—^^ 'TTffTm f^«r'- a circle; a bower of. The regions ta 
the North-west of India are still known for their luscious grapes 
and other fruits. 5^^^?!; '^f^'Sf'jmg f H TI?: I cT^ ^3"^ ^13; 1 ^cT^r 
^^^tlt \mm-- I Ohar. 

SI. 66. In this si. Raghu is compared to the sun, his arms to 
the solar rays, and the kings he dethroned to the moisture sucked up 
by the rays of the sun. ^rr%fr^ — (^^e quarter ) presided over br 
Kubera, i. «. the north. ^^:— ^FcT \^\ 3TT?H%?5^: I The rays of the 
sun are compared to the bright arrows shot by Raghu in a battle. 
This indicates the agility with which Raghu discharged his arrows 
as well as their immensity. sj^r*^l^ — By this the poet refers to the- 
whole tract including the north-west, the north and the north-east, 
^■^rc^^ — The idea of lifting up is involved in both the instances. 
It is supposed that in the summer solstice ( srTfTT'T'T ) the sun goes 
towards the north to dry up moisture with his rays, and in the winter 
solstice ( ^^cnr^PT ) he goes towards the south in order to pour the 
absorbed moisture in the form of rain. Cf. si. 39. 

SI. 67. 3?*.?^*?: — 3TtTJfU«^T wr V(^•^ i rt?^— This may not 
necessarily be the Indus, but some river in KasLmere, as remarked 
by Malli. Oh&r. reads ^^ for j%?5 ( while Sum. reads ^^ ) and 
remarks that it is a pond in the country of Kas'mere, which is 
a mere guess. Tiiis has been conclusively proved to be the Oxus 
by Prof. Pathak (see Ind. Ant. Nov. 1912, p. 266) and is probably 
the older reading. M-^5H: — by rolling on their sides and 
Stretching their limbs. It is thus that horses are relieved of their 
fatigue. PJiTfTg^^'^rcr^ — (1) to which filaments of saffron were 
R. N. lo 

(114) [ r'liiifo IV. 

sticking or (2; to tho muueH of which eaffron was Milking, if, 
however the reading hs — ^5(T^r^, the first sense alone is possible. 
For either %^^ or %^f is correct wheu the meaning i« 'pollen' or 
(llaments of flowers; but when the meaning is 'the mane of a lion' 
lor horse) mj^T alone is the correct form. Thi .:1. shows that the 
horses were quite refroshetl and were now ready for fight again. 
The horses are especially mentioned here because Kaghu had to 
make use of his cavalry in fighting with the Persians who were also 
3T)^9T^T«T aad so the horses were hard-taxed. 

Si. f>8. f«rrffY'^PTTfl[ — the white Huns or Indo-JS-vVthians who 
were established in the Punjab and along the Indus at tho commence- 
ment of tho Christian era. See Wilson's Vish. P. Vol. II. p. 135. 
They evidently belonged to that nomadic tribe of the Haus who lived 
for some centuries in the plains of Tartary and were a great scourge 
to the Chinese and Komau possessions. gFTTiR^ &c. — aTl'tt 'Jl?5"R?^- 
r^r?f?T; seo Sanj. The Iluna ladies had given up drinking which used 
to impart a red flush to their cheeks. But now that their husbands 
were killed in battle, they slapped their faces through grief which 
reddened their cheeks again. Thus Raghu ordered back, as it were, 
the red flush on their cheeks. Malli. suggests the alternative 
construction — ^]^^ STT^TTT ari^f ^?^ of which the red hue was an 
indicator ». e. it became as it were a writing to keep up the memory 
of Raghu's valour. 

SI. 69. 5ffn:^3TT:— In the Sab. P. of the Mah. Bh4r. (XXVII. 
22-3) the Kambojas are said to have been conquered by Arjuaa along 
with the Daradaa, after the conquest of Balkh. They must have 
inhabited the Hindukusha mountain which separates the Gil jit valley 
from Balkh and the adjoining country, as its Kafirs, according to 
Elphinstone, still call themselves Kamoj, and probably extended upto 
Little Thibet and Ladak. Their country was famous for handsome 
horses and shawls made of goats', rats', and dogs' wool, and abounded 
in walnut trees. In the great war of Kurukshetra they are said to 
have fought on the side of the Kauravas. According to the Pnr&Das 
they were originally Kshatriyas but degraded by the omission of 
the necessary rites. STfnfT: — (1) the trees bent down being 
pulled down by the elephants; (2) the kings bowed in submission 
to Baghu. 

S'l. 70. ^TT^ — Horses of the best breed, gip-: — t^igh. I* will 
be better to take ^ as compounded with ^fYciri^T^: and read 
IW^*) th® whole word would then qualify ^q^f: (presents including 

Uauto IV. ] (115) 

lofty heaps of gold (joins ) and will thus improvo the nense.' 
^"T^r: — S'q^PT^ |?5Tcfl what is presented respectfully. ^r%^r: — 
pride, arrogance. The root j%=g^ with g^ means 'to be pufEed up 
with pride.' Compare the use of the root in XVII. 43, n cT?'TII%f^% 
q^: I The pcet means to say that though Raghu got wealth from 
every quarter he did not feel proud or conceited. 

S'l. 71. ST'^^p^fT' — tifi marched only with his cavalry, as it 
would have been very inconvenient for him to take the oars &c. with 
him on the mountain. ?>|3Tf%7 — This shows the vastness of his 
cavalry, ^rg'lf: — i. e. by the horses' hoofs. The mass of dust raised 
from the mineral soil was so great that it seemed to augment as it 
were the size of the peaks as it rose above them. 

S'l. 72. ^^^sf^T^Rr^ — ^Tf properly means that quality of the 
mind which does not allow it to be flurried or perplexed In times of 
difficulties or dangers; hence, fortitude, courage; or ^f^ ihay mean 
sq^^fjf, deeds of valour, exploit. The lions were equal in valour with 
the army and were not frightened at all. Ir?ar^q" — The din and 
bustle of the army. ST^jyrT^ — The idea of negation is prominent 
here ( 3T#t^iT ^RT^ being equivalent to ^^^\ Tr^cfri^ ) though the ^-^^ 
is compounded. See note on I. 21. 3T^?yrf5ff^ — is used he ein the 
sense of 'a glance'. Oharitravardhana and Dihakara interpret the 
passage differently. Dinakara says q-^?:^!?^ f^^'STrf^Tlr i'^ ^^TfrR^r 

5?q ^T^ qc(t cTis"^TRt Qf T§ R^rerr^Tt i%fHt %-^^f?yTf#':^^<prA '^^^ <T%Tr 

5«rT qKf RTf f^T^^ W^l^rfr<flrT. He praised the bold glance cast by the 
lions turning round &c. Yallabha also construes the passage like Din. 
but takes si^t^H' as qualifying 3T^OT%cT'=[. This way of takiut^ the 
passage is better no doubt, but then the difficulty is about the subject. 
We cannot get it from the context as Ohir. and Dinakara propose to 
do, since there is no attribute referring to ^5 in this s'l. For nearly 
the same thought cf. S'is'. XII. 52. 

S'l. 73. HTO'^^r: — RiTT is a rustling sound. This indicates that 
the breezes were gentle, ^f^^^ &c. — This epithet shows that the 
breezes wafted musical sounds. JT^r^fr^nTT^ — implies cooIneKs in 
the wind. 

S'l. 74. ^f^r^ff^^jpr:— ^^5T?rqi?JT^ |T% ^f^: fr. ^513;+ 3T 
i(^) 3Tiq^^5t. ^rffff lit. means 'the lap;' hence the surface, fffirfr 
properly means 'to which other qualities are imparted;' hence, here, 
scented. With their surfaces scented. sfTPT-ni'i^k (in the navels). 
These two slokas show that Raghu's soldiery had all the comforts' 
there that might be desired. 

(116) [ Canto IVc. 

S'l. 75. ir%«r— qifrg «t?tr fPT?Tn% ti^^rm; ae« tupra si. 48. 

iTr^>ir?r:— The other form is aft'STR. ^T^fT^-at night, if^^ifq-^fy:— 

^ r«[?m «■?■: 'TRTt cTi sT^fr:; fiT^^arRr frf^^r:; ar'sr^w ^rr ^Vj 
ar^ffrfqqJT: lamps requiring no oil. The mountain Himalaya is said 
to have on it potent herbs endowed with the power of emitting 
light at night. See Kum. I. 10. The herbs here serred as watch- 
fires to Eaghu's soldier:^. 

S'l. 76. «^4Y^»iH^%5 — The presence of the word 3og? show: 
that even the hardy and ferocious Kir&tas had tied away through 
fear when Kaghn approached them. They ventured forth from 
their lurking places only when they found that Raghuhad left. Since 
the word ia emphatic it should not have been compounded. Jfvrf^^H — 
the height of the elephants. For a similar idea compare — fSR flrTI^ 

Srf^^nf^^: 11 S'is'. XII. 64. 

T%rrd>-2T:— The word ia derived as f%'c vT^^^i^m-iTrTTlT ^^^^mv^T\^- 
one who lives on the borders of hills or mountains, a barbarian. Cf. 
Tii^F^TRim'^sr?^ ^^\^ ^l?r: fsp^ret; W.?i\ \ Rat. II. 3. The Kiratas 
are hillmen living by hunting and clad in a dress made of peacock's 
feathers. See Kum. I. 6, 15. In the Puranas they are mentioned 
along with Mlechchhas, and are described to be of a dark complexion, 
dwartish in stature, with short arms and legs, projecting chin, broad, 
tiat nose, red eyos and tawny hair. In the Sab. For. of the Mah. 
Bhar. (XXX. 15), Bhima is said to have conquered seven Kirata 
chiefs from Yideha which included Oarabhangi and part of Eastern 
Nepal. In another passage they are said to be ferocious bow-men clad 
in hides and living upon fruits and roots. The Kir.'itas therefore seem 
to be a tribe of mountaineers inhabiting the sub-HimAlayan regions. 

S'l. 77. 7^ffr^- — With the mountain tribes. For derivation 
see Malli. Bhattoji Dikshita prefers the reading grtffr^: and explain.^ 
n^l\ ^?r: T^ffr'7r:> ^rifft'TRrm"^ qrf^ITr; l rr^.— refers to the seven 
tribes (that inhabited the northern slopes of the Himalaya). 
See next Si. and notes. JTITT^-steel arrows, c^xpjff^ir^ &o. — shows 
the great skill of the mountaineers in throwing stones with slings. 

S'l. 78. ^c^f^qirir^ — The Utsavaaainketas were a hill-tribe liv- 
ing in Ladak (its Sankrit name is Hataka), north of Kas'mere or in 
the north-east region of Ladak which is watered by the Keener, and. 
which is said to be the mythological abode of the Kimpurushas, the 
Kiinnaras and other semi-divine beings. According to the Mah&- 
bh-Arata, Arjuua, at the time of the Rajasuya sacrifice performed by 

JantoIV.} (117) 

Yndhishthira, conquered these barbarous tribes who are said to have 
been divided into seven classes. Of, ^■{^ jrT RT^r'T ^?^'?t^fTT%^: I 
»Ttnig?^^^%clR^?TrfnT "TTO^^: II Mah. BhAr. Sab. P. Adh. XXVII. 
Ritfig^d ^^ — implies that they were vanquished. ^r^fTfTT^ — 
3TT%?T^y'^fTr%?^TfTTir; a connected account. S^TfT'T is the loud 
narration of a connected account. ChA. and Din. take it simply 
in the sense of 'songs declamatory of glory.' According. to some 
it has its technical meaning here, viz. a panegyric song begin- 
ning with such words as ^qffT &c., full of alliteration and composed 
in the M2,lini or other similar metre, &c. See PratAparudra quoted 
in the foot-note. f^R-^TR; — f i%fTr ^TT- a Nityasamasa. They are so 
called because they have a deformed body — the face of a horse with a 
human body. See Wilson's Vish. P. Vol. I. pp. 82, 87. 

S'l. 79. q-^;^qr^— .^07 tf^i^ q^^qtoT. By the rule 'iTfaiF%i;3rr%f- 
•i-^rs^' the affix gr is added in the sense of the present tense. And when 
80 added it governs the Gen. case. Following this reasoning, many 
commentators adopt the reading tj-f^tj-{^?j. But there seems to be no 
necessity for changing the reading. The rule alluded to above does 
not always prevent the ^ from being added in the past tense; e. g. 
g;fwm 'T: ^TTgV: I We have a ^Tqqjq-jnnr for this. See PAn. IV. 
3. 115. g-qnRqrf^r^— ^TCT^n^ 'TTf^S'^'Tf ^5 l Malli. dissolves as 
^^TR'TJ^PT: ^V^^\ "^f probably to avoid the application of the rule 
^ ^ff*rf^^^^ ^^^r^r ' forgetting that qiR is treated as an exception 
in the Bh^shya, ^\K'- — (1) riches; (2) power. 

S'l. 80. 3T^-^^— ^r*TR"JT| : 3T^T»-'T:.not to be shaken oS i. e. 
imperishable, q ^^ y j^q — j^j^^j^q- Jft^T'Tf'i 5*n^ I This alludes to the 
^tory of RAvana's lifting up the mountain KaiLlsa, Once while 
E4vana was passing in his aerial car (called Pushpaka) which he had 
taken by force from Kubera, its motion was suddenly arrested as he 
approached that part of the mountain KaiUsa where lived Siva and 
PArvati. He was told by Naudi to leave the mountain. But Havana 
in anger uplifted it with his arms. Thereupon Siva pressed the 
mountain with the little finger of his left foot and compelled Ravana 
to relinquish his hold upon the mountain. See Ram. Utt. K. 
^fhsp^gi^?? &<5- — Here the poet gives the reason why the mountain 
had^to be ashamed of itself. Raghu thought it beneath his dignity 
to advance against Kailasa as the^mountain was once overcome by 
R4vana who was a Brahmana^ and therefore was not worthy of his 
superior prowess as a Kshatriya, 

( 118 ) r Catnto IV. 

S'l. 81. ?frir#rff?^ — Lauhity& is the ancient name for the Brah- 
niaputrft. Raghu crossed the river ond re-entered India by the North- 
caatern frontier where lay the kingdom of Pragjyotiaha. The an- 
oient capital of Kfimarupa was at Pr&gjyotishapnra situated on the 
LauLitya. yM^ t TdM^ qr: — The lord of Pr&gjyotisha or the City of 
eas(«rn atari. Seo Kali. P. quoted in the foot-note. Prigjyotisha, 
is idenii6ed with the eastern-most part of India comprising Western 
Bhootan and Eastern Assam. ■^H f gggi^ : — qjr<75r?iT»j??a"?T^ jxTf 
*f*^f1^3»TT: I As Raghu's elephants were tied to the trees they 
qfaakcd and simultaneonsly with them trembled also the king of 
the land with fear. For a similar idea cf. si. 69. 

S'j. 82. 9TvnTrT«f &o.— trrrr^f ar^r vnr^^; arfr^r^R: ^rTm-- 

^W-T fT^^TF^ff^^ I 3T^CTf^ ^ ?T? ^r?^ ^ ft cloudy gloom without 
rainfall ( caused by the dust raised by the moving chariots). 
"T^rrf^f^r — TtTT^: f%^^ stf^I that in which there are flags displayed; 
henoo, an army. 

6'1. 8.3. ^n'*W<fnr^ — An important kingdom said to have ex- 
tended from the banks of the Karatoyi'i or Sad.'mira to the oxtremitio-' 
of Assam. Its king Bhagadatta plays a conspicuous part in the Ma- 
h4bharata. In the Babh/iparva he is said to have fought with Arjuna. 
for eight days with an army of 'Kirataa, Ohinas, and seafaring men.' 
And in the Udyogaparva ho is said to have assisted Duryodhana 
with an array of the Kir/itas and Ohinas. From these references it 
is clear that his kingdom must have extended upto the Him4laya on 
the north and the borders of China on the oast. Further, Kalid^ta 
speaks hereof elephants whioh are still found in the jungles of Upper 
Alsam and the Dooars, and of the aloe-wood tree which, 
according to Dr. Roxburgh, is a native of the eastern frontier; and 
this fact also loads to the same inference. »T?^RI"'?W &c. — STTW'^y^R- 
^^^r^WTfji^rr^^: the destroyer of the enemies' army, Indra. 3T?qi^p=tT- 
arr^lua-fTM^HMyqrf^iny^-MrJT: I'ridi Oomp.; or 3Ti%JTcf arr^trTf^^RT 
^^ a Jiah. The reference to the prowess of Raghti as superior evei: 
to that of Tndra is very pertinent. It shows how Jllaghu's very 
name struck terror into the heart of the king, of K&mardpa- 
N'^T'^: — With the temples split open {. «. elephants in rut. Be* 
aupra si. 47. 

S'l. 84. — f*TTR:rrTf'T?Trfl[~"f»TRfi^ft t'i? imil^^n Uttarapadalop. 
Oomp; arf'in^'fn' 't^tTT arfvf^q^TI the presiding deity} ^qfT^^rRrrffT. 
frr'j^ I ^PfPl — The orb of the splendour ( of Raghu's feet ). ^JT^fTf- 
q^l^ — As Knghn's feet rested on the golden foot-»tool their Instr. 

Canto IV. ] (110^ 

spread all fonnd. The poet uousidera the orb of laatre a=j the pre- 
siding goddess of the foot-atool and the gema that were presented to 
him a- t,hf; offering of tlowera made to that deity. 

S'i. ^o. rf^ — in this manner, fw^- — a habitual couqueror. 
Bee Sarij.j this may refer to Raghu by the maxim ' f^\^^^^]^^^\^f 
f^^sqq^iffqTff, ' or may CLualify ^: understood, as Malli. would have 
it. i53r3J^^ — destitute of the umbrellas i. c. of the white umbrellas. 
The white umbrella is an emblem of royalty and independence. Since 
the kings were conquered by Raghu and made his vassals they lost 
their independence and could no longer use the white umbrella, ?:^ff 
f^^^^ij — This and the preceding epithets indicate the undisputed 
univoraal sovereignty of Raghu. See note on ff^^qq I. 54. 

S']. Hf,. f^^f^a^_^s^ 5f?jfP,f^ [>»^f^ ?f^ I The beat of all 
sacrifices or a sacrifice for the universal conqueror. This is a kind of 
sacrifice in which the sacrificer has to give as Dakshina all his wealtU 
to the officiating priests and in which the immolation consists of 
five or two goats, f^ — is used here in the sense of ^^. ff^iTRC — 
The dative may be explained as ' ?jjT«ff^ ^Tf^^'^^fri.' *• *'• equivalent 
to f^^\•, or r^[^%;ii, ftfniH^- ^TrfTT &g. — a proverbial saying. Cf- 
3T^--3^T?% ^^^ I. 21. 

S'I. 87. ^H -H I •^ — Wr??f 'igrR ^ ^m ^^^ l » sacrifice. ^rf'q-^^ET'ifr;— 
FT%^Hf ^W I Mallinatha says that the king is here called the triend 
of the ministers to indicate that ho and his ministers always acted 
in perfect accord. See Sanj. This shows that the king and 
his ministers were equally careful in attending to the kings. Cf. 
^Tgw^S T? l^^fr m ^J^H\-^% ^ ^t^T^: I Kir. I. 5. iTcf^aj^irfiT:— E^' 
I%E7Tr lit. placing in the front; hence, honouring; respectful treatment. 
a'TCnT^tTrfreR'R' — ST^fl'F is what is not liked; hence, a feeling of dis- 
satisfaction; f^st^dlf^f^ 5iff^T^J3[ I ^Tf^T?^ 3?Tf5T^&c.; or, as Malli. 
takes it, cr^r5T%?T ( ^3^) 5^^t#? the comp. being e? W^\- 

N^Wifl**— Nt ffTf : r%r%f -"i 3T^^«T% ^r^^fmi:; ( those restricte'lr 
within a limited area, the harem); now see Sanj; * whose wives 
had become anxious on account of their long absence.' Thi-i 
indicates that the sacrificial session continued for many days - 
n"?r^?rr^ — TI^riT^^rPr Trsn^^n- the vanquished princes. Here the poet 
uses this word instead of r\^: as their royalty did not deserve pro- 
minent mention along with that of Raghu. See Sanj. 

S'I. 88. V^f*.^^ &c. — The linear marks of flags, umbrellas k'-.. 
on the palms of the hands and the soles of feet indicate royalty. (Jf. 
the si. f rom Samudraka quoted in the foot-note. The marks on the 

( 120 ) [ Canto V. 

bands of a universal sovereign are given in the following si.: — arf^r^: 

JETirr»T: — A ^g^i? ( mark the Saindhi ) is one who rales over vassal 
kiugs and has performed a R4ja9uya sacrifice. See Malli. on II. 4. 
5TWrT5Prfrf — obeisance at the time of parting. ^f?5^f^ &c.— 
Malli. dissolves as t^w^'^ T"!^*^ &c.-, the Comp. should have 
been i^^irq;^?^ &c. by the rule • 3T?'^I^flT'|^i ' but the rule is often 
disregarded. Raghn's feet became yellow at the fingers on account 
of the particles of honey and the pollen dropped down from the 
.garlatds on the heads of kings. This implies that a vast number 
of kings prostrated themselves at Raghu's feet. 


S'l. I. r\H^ — To him (the conqueror of the four quarters as descri- 
bed in the fourth Canto). «Tt^ — See note on I. 31. f^'^'xrf^ — See 
note on the word IV. 86. PTi^&c.— f^qfT: ^^rs^FTT??^ 'i(^ PT:^PT'i ' 
Now see Sanj, irTrrif^^: — For the fourteen vidyas see below (V.21). 

^f^ffflt?^ I ST^ — For this sense rf. Kum. I. 21; Bhatti. IV. 1 &c. 
The s'loka begins with the syllable fT which indicates the fulfilment 
of one's wishes. Cf. Brihaspati— cT^H: ?r«?I%T%'!«^ m^'^ f^5?% ^J^H. I 
fl%«fr ^m^ ^^^ '^qirr^rff ii 

S'l. 2. ff^X^t^ — formed irregularly fr. ff^oq + *???; see Sanj. 
«f^^ — what is intended for worship (a^tii); see com.; a respectful 
offering to gods, venerable men &o., consisting of flowers, water, 
rice &c. According to the tantras it comprises eight articles, 
which are— wTq: 53R ^^Tlff ^ ^T^ «f^: ^cTOJcT^ 1 ^^: HT:gT4^^^ 
STS^I^jf^^: irqprf^?!: II The Devi — P. mentions these somewhat dif- 
ferently— ?t|b:^^IJ3%: S^qfrvrfTr^ltHcT"^: 1 ^TRT'T: ^^t^HT^nff't 

ffr^:, ^?I^r R^r^: — These two epithets explain why Raghu did 
not hesitate to expose his poverty before Kautsa. Indeed Kantsa 
reveres him all the more for this. See further on ( 16 ). ?g?Tfl^TnT^- 
This shows that Kautsa deserved the worship. sff^ftPl. — See 
(note on I. 53. 

S'l. 3. f^f^:— This may be an TTT^fwrfi ( f^ 3fr^RT?M by 
adding qp ». e. ar by the rute 3nmS3T^»f W-) or a ^^^o (grRT?ftffT 
.^'. K^r^O I f^^rf ffff: — See note under I. 13. fTffJTTTr^— ff??fT^ 

Canto V. ] ( li>l ) 

(that which is spread) gi% f^^:, when meaning 'a seat that is spread 
on the ground' (for pious Brahmauas or aacetics who do not sit on 
any other seat ). ff^fTT-" is the form when referring to speech ( a 
detailed description )•, as in 3T(7 ff^tTTiT. The ^ is changed to ?r 
by Pan. VIII. 3. 93. See Sanj. 

S'l. 4. STq«Tr: — 3TJJ" the front R^^r^ffcT; a leader, the foremost of. 
+l^f»dr^ — Those who arranged the Mantras or Vedic hymns; or 
rather those to whom the hymns were revealed; cf. S4yana — 
^^ % |^f?T ^mfr srS]V ^t ^^ ff ' i Or the Mantras referred to 
here may be those of the Atharva Veda, in which case we may 
translate — <of those who are the authors of the mantras'; cf. I. 61. 
^^fq^^ — ^^TrflT%f 11%^'F'T I one whose intellect is as sharp 
as the blade of Kus'a grass, very acute or sharp, g^: — <^ Jl^A- 
f^R^t ®?fr ^?JT^ JTT'sgT'H'; 'he is called a Guru who performs 
the initiatory ceremonies ( 3-rr;T^^ ) and teaches the Veda.' (Yaj.) 
There are eleven Gurus ( not taken in this technical sense ) 
mentioned by Devala — STP^I'fsar f^ctT ^^fff wmi %^ Tf fTm; I ^J^- 

^STwmr m?niTinm»T|V » ^m'^^- i^^^'^^ 5?^^ sr^r jtcti: 11 "Iri'^T^— 

-%;T?f?^ HTf s^'cT'?^ I The simile here is peculiarly appropriate. As 

the world of living beings is wholly and solely indebted to the sun 

for all its activity, its very life, so the disciple was fully indebted 

to his preceptor for the whole stock of his knowledge, — knowledge 

on which his future life depended. The King's question here is in 

accordance with the precept < Hn^ot 5^# S""^^' &c. 

S'l. 5. 3Trr~'a«d\ ST^n^r:— 3T??Tt s^WVIR^PfrT »T^fjr?'^^7??T fT 

3^^: ■s\^^ from §• and aff, ■sfST^ or the root 3T3" and 3T^. ^T^nj; — asks 

a question mixed with hope, the expected answer being 'yes or no ' 

according to the form of .the questioil, and is translated by 

*l hope that' &c.: see A. G. § 263. ^f%>^ — f^^r ffm ^^t( \ The 

saint would be exhausting the store of his penance if he had to use 

his power of imprecation in removing obstacles or subduing 

temptations; and hence the question of the king. ( See ft. -note 5 ). 

For ancient kings considered it their duty to protect sages from 

all sorts of disturbances, Cf. Kir. II. 48, ff yfk^wr°T^g: ff^r 't: 
&c ; S'ak. I. 13, V. 14. 

S'l. 6. sTTflT &c.— 3TT^;nT^iT ^-v^ arr^iT^r-vr: 1 q-jrcfr s^ ^^w. 

^TS^^^I^I R^m: — Malli. takes this in the sense of arm^iq"; but 
the meaning vr^ ( ' difference ' ) will do' here, g q g^ ; — see note on 
3TTS^>-^: II. 48. qifTprr^lr-'Trt'- mffrn TI^T; that which sucks up 
^noisture by its roots, ^hence, a tree. 

R. N. 16 

( 122 ) [ (Janto V. 

'*^\^^^^^ rTfTrrj; l The Jj^q^ affix ^ is added to ^?^ and 34?t in the 
flense 0/ 'love for' and 'strength' roapcotivcly. ' TrffWI-Tt ^FTH^' 
Pin. V. 2. 98. So ^?^ when it takes sj loaoa its proper meaning 
and has a te<!hnical signification. ^S'fc?" and ^<?rr^I^ have the same 
meaning; but m^^ is not the same as ^f^^i^?; •, the one means <fond, 
compassionate,' the other < one who has a child. ' ffrTr^I^'l 

3t^r«7T fr RcTff I V&mana. 'JTTfiT'nwr— ^TTnTf^TTR STrcfTf^T i^rw^Fcm"^ » 
»TTTr — grfif^TRPTR^T harm, a mishap ?T?Tr:; cf- further XIV. 75-, and 

f jT^v^^i^T '*f^^ir^r ^^m S'&k. V. p. 105. 

S'l. H. f;T?r»Trf>T^^:— f^RFT R'q[iTr«rf ?rw^: i Properly a bath, 
preliminary to the discharge of daily duties; hence the daily bath- 
f^^rr— -gcifH ?rfT> \^^^^ ^T? fr. ^g with k + Si (^"?; added ^;^foi or 
>Tn. It ia a technical term applied to the oblations .consisting of 
water, BSfjamum &c. offered to the souls of departed parents or 
other relfttivofl. See in/ra VIII. 86, Mudr. IV. o. ft^^^—Tho 
dcceai^od ancestors; as well as a class of divine beings known as the 
Pitris, to whom every Br&hmaria has to offer oblations every day. 

Tlio f'itiirt lire supposed to be the progenitors of mankind. They inliabit 
celestial regions of their own. The original Pitiia are divided into seven 
orders:— (1) %rr3ir:; (2) arfS^tTT;; (3) i(f^:; (4) a^R?r:; (5) 3irf|=n?-.i 
(6) »|»^v[:; (7) and ^qr: i Of these the first three orders are withoiit 
form ( '*Tf<f?|t ) i. c. composed of spiritual, not elementary substance, and 
they can assume any form they please ; the other four are corporeal. Cf. 
Hv. m^ i\r^\m €^ f^ij^orrs ^iSf: i ^^\<\ ^^h^ % ^m <iin*ifjt»?: n According 
to a Ieg(;n<l given by the Vayu P. and the Hv., the gods once olTendcfl 
bralun'i. hy neglecting to worship him, and were cursed to be fools. 
Upon their repenting they were directed to apply to their sons for 
instrtiction. Being taught accordingly the rites of expiation and penancn 
by tliem, llie gods addressed tliem as fathers, whence thf aons of god» 
b<?c«ifi'! Ibfl fifsl Pitris. 

5J'>^^T?rr|f?T— 'The sixth parts of the rice collected by the ascetics 
due from them to the king were placed on the bank of the river 
to b« lakoii away by tho royal officers. See supra, t^yt^gsiji: &c. 
II. r)(., and foot-note thereon. Malli. justifies the ^rffa^J' i" 
7^»7^9 thai — Here ^^ is not an ordinal numeral, but means * the 
sixth part' and so thoro is no difficulty about compounding. 
The affix, a^^ is here added in the sense of a part ( t)rin<t ) >nd not 
^[TTrjs^'by tho rule «»a:rH^Rp^t 5T =5r P&n. V. 3. fiO. The Sutra '^qgoi'- 
( Pan. ff. 2. 11 ) forbids a (^en. Tat. with ^rn\^f^■^\^^ (an ordinal 

Canto v.] ( 123 ) 

numeral) and not with an 3Ts=qr???n?'T- Acoording to Bbattojr 
Dikshita, however, many (who take ^5^7^^^ aa a Gen. Tat.) consider 
thia as a slip of the poet. He suggests two alternatives: — (1) ^'S^g 
^E 3r^?J"<?y.- Loc. Tat.; (2) 3">I5T?*T^: ^^^ ^^^^^' 9TT^fTn*r^Flt= ' ^ce 
Man Oram a on '«rnir50T — .' %^^ fr % — For der. see Sanj. The word 
f%^?Tr is generally used in the plural. ^frtfrnrrFT — -Holy water=; 
fffi»t water used by sages; HTT^liTiT^'r^rfl »^?n^? ^^ sft I f^m- i Or 
ffr«T a flight of steps for reaching water called a (/haf] and as such 
tirthas are constracted at different places along the banks of holy 
rivers in India, ^r^ also signifies holy water. ^T«f 3TT%:Wt '8T^r'TT'?T' 

SM. 9. ^^^(jr^ff^—^l^y^^q- qy^; #ifTJ-rf[fr: ^ 3TrfT=^'=«T ^n I Sec 
also ft.-note. ^r\K^'- — %cfr% ^V- i ^5?T ^^'iir'T^ ^■- ^t^- 
the nasal comes in irregularly (Pan. V. 1. G9 ). ^ir^: — that which 
contains the grain i. e. chaff, husks. t{^\ =^g-ffT *TT '^ffm% ^pf i ^^ 
^ ?r?fr "^ fT?rcfTr% '^t^X- 1 and by adding ^ i%^) in the sense of 
'deserving to feed on,' we get ^m\^\ see Sanj. Vamana, Haradattu, 
and Bhattoji reject the reading ^^^r and adopt ^5^'' instead; so it 
will be preferable to read qj^ffq^: here. ^vS'C^ — that which causes 
intoxication ( ^^) or distraction; properly, 'what appears perfect 
outwardly but has no grain within and thus becomes food fo' 
cattle only.' It takes this name probably because it has got the 
property of causing slight intoxication, stt ^^ it ^ — is eaten up. 
The more general meaning of this root is ' to touch superficially, 
to Landle roughly' &c.; cf. Kir. IV. 14; S'is', IX. 34} Kum. III. 36. 
It also means 'to seize by force,' as in Kum. II. 31. tTRtI': — For 
it was the duty of villagers to see that their cattle did not trespass 
on holy grounds. ^ i rtf q Mv TP &c.— It is the duty of 
^veij householder to wait for some time, before taking his meal, 
to see if a guest is coming. Cf. ^i^^t^ ^ ^^: ^^\i^J^] ^RlfWlsF^H i 
Sg^^'TI^^ ^T»r5f f^^*r ^mf«T^trX 11 Mark. P. ^fnr^nT— feeding or 
■ustenance of the body; for this sense cf. ?5lfiTft«?m^^ri; Kad . 
^^KTI^rf^ niay also be taken as an adj. qualifying ^Kf^^rm^r^^ 
which may be regarded as ^rmr i^qpf^^q; I ' I hope the wild ^\^\^ corn 
and the other wild sources of the nouriahmeut' &c. 

S'l. 10. f^^ — See III. 29. jj^r^ — see note on II. 1. fir— g-^f. 
This gives the reason for asking the question ' Have jou been per- 
mitted' &c. ?rff"T^!T^§nT^— which enables one to oblige everybody: 
which affords the amplest scope to charity of every kind. Or 
according to Malli. 'which is the upholder of the other three 

( 124 ) [ Canto V. 

As'ramas or on which the other Aa'ramat depend/ See Manu 
quoted by Malli. in support of his meaning. We may also quote 

^rfwilT'q;! a^^WRtn: ^"^ ^p^'TTl^^R^jffT^n' Manu. VI. 89, 90 
>TT'H»r^ — The religious life of a Brihmana is divided into four 
stages: — (1) sr^T'^^ or the period of celibacy, which he oaght to 
pass at his Guru's house in Vedic studies; (2) itt^H'T or the married 
life, which he leads as a house-holder; (3) y p iT ^ "^ or the life of 
an anchorite, in which he retires to the forest with or without his 
wife ( see Mann. VI. 3 ) which is meant as an initiative ( see 
Manu. VI. 33) to — (4) ^?^[^ or the last stage, in which, all bia 
passions being properly subdued, he may fix his mind on Moksha. 

S'l. 11. HffT: — of one deserving of honour, respectable. 
f'Rffnf'K^r — f^I^l?^ l%«Tr — the execution of a command, t^^^ii^ — 
The words iff^cT aod ;j?^^ govern the Instr. or the Loo. case. *it 
^Tni^^ &c. — The fig. of speech here according to Hem. is '$^:,' 
v(^: fii^rcT^T^p'TI^j see K;iv. D. 11.275. In asking these queries Raghu's 
observance of propriety is worthy of note. He first chooees the 
most important person in the hermitage, viz., the saint and inquires 
first after the welfare of his body and mind, then after his ascetic 
exercises and lastly after the well-being of everything connected 
with the hermitage of the sage. He next directs his inquiries to 
Kautsa himself, first with reference to his person and then to hi 8 
purpose. The first line may also be translated as — "my mind, eager 
for the execution of some command from you, i not satisfied by 
the mere arrival of you." 

S'l. 12. ^fq- — has here the force of J\^\ or disregard. Though 
Kautsa heard the noble words of Raghu, he placed more faith in the 
visible evidence of his poverty, disregarding his words; and so he 
was f^c7T5l &c. f^lT^fhnRf RfrT — with respect to the attainment of 
his object. This way of restricting a general statement ( here 
5#?fRT: ) is called f^«^^J;fTT=I•^H. ^rTfT is a ^qir^xf^pT in this sense- 
cJ«3^?U'iai^Tr^*TT'T^c^§ qfcTT^^^: »• «• ffW, qR and 3*15 are wM^ in 
the sense of indication, limitation, share and repetition; see Sid.- 
Kftu. on P&n. I. 4. 90. 

S'l. 13. ?Tr^^— welfare; filTTff^i?*T^ ( V4rt. on Pau. V. 2. 101); 

cf. infra XV. 41 ( ^ J?: ^k^\ '^^^\^^^^^ ^ctiIr); ^^ji?«^ ?nifl^- 

*^^5W ^ ' ®^^'' ^^I^' ^^- 3TfI>T^— Here ^ has the sense of opposi- 
tion. Hence arjjvr means all that is opposed to 1%^ and not merely 
absence of ftif . ^f^^\--^^\ sff f7*Tf?'T€^I»5 I This word is irregularly 

Canto V. ] ( 125 ) 

formed, like ^5Tlc^r and others given in Pan. V. 2. 114. It means 
'a 'dark night' or <a mass of darkness.' irf^^ ^^fnT^cTm: Vis'vakos'a' 
anr^T^ F. I. — This reading, which is also noticed by Malli , i* 
perhaps preferable as it agrees with ar^tr in gender. ^ &c. — The 
fig. of speech here according to Malli. is 3T«Tt'c1^^m- This is after 
the older writers on Rhetoric, according to whom whenever one 
thing is cited in support of another, the fig. is 3T*IT^????r^. Cf. 
Dandin quoted in the ft. -note. According to modern writers, 
however, a general fact must support a particular one or ticp. versa 
to constitute an ar^l^^T'^re. According to them the fig. here will 
be a fs-pfr aiid not 3T«Tr^cTT'^r^- For a parallel passage, see ft.- 
note; also cf. ^^\\^ m^f^fT If cTTf^^^n^ '=TR?r'TT?5?'Tim"*ftl1srcTr^ II Mai. 
S'l. 14. JT^^^^ — lit- those who are fit to be waited upon, to be 
treated with consideration; hence venerable, respectable, q-^^w— c^. 
3T3^rKm 'P'^t S^JPFTW^ m^ I S ak. II. 16. *Tfr»fr»r— glorious or 
illustrious one, cf. ^^^^\^•. ^[q JT^q'mW5ri?«Tm^^r I S'dk. V. 10. 
Malli. translates this by ^l^^^iiT-, so he takes the word ^[it to meau 
'■ a portion of the world,' *rfT>TI»T meaning -one who possesses a verv 
large portion of the world' ». e. a kingdom. ^\^ may also mean a 
portion of virtues, such as ^qr, flf%i«J &c-j or of good fortune. Somo 

take »Tf r^rirrTTT as one word, ' by your magnanimity. ' arfq-^TI^fri; 

^\k^'. ^\^•^ (the position or condition of) stpi^it^^^Tc^, as 'a saitor.' 

S'l. 15. ^^RJTT^or — gft^%? 5TfRiT[5»a; ; a ««f3/«-aoOTasa. According 
to IBhattoji JT^^s^^qFlt^f^rr^m^: i ^TC^ — These two words are 
purposely placed side by side with each other in order to make the 
contrast more glaring. ?fr?f — note the different senses of this word. 

See 3*1. 8. Some take ?fr«^ to mean,' a sacrifice.' arrc^^o may also 

mean forest-dwelling ascetics, cf. cTT: qg^^TRfT^iq ^^^\l^^^J f|- ^■. \ 
S'ak. II. 34. ^ci»q- — a stack. ^{mx.—i.e. the stalk with the grain on. 

S'l. 16. ^trT% — This should rather be taken as an adv. qualify- 
ing 5?i?rf%; 'well or very properly do you' &c. Some take it as 
qualifying the whole sentence 3Ti%=^^r^ 5??5Tr% fR ^r\r[^ ?«7h &c. 
This makes ??if?r an adj.\ cf. infra VII. 13, Kum. VI. 67. n^- 
sRTf^T:— 5?*r5!lcTr^T ^nr"^^: a paramount king. q^'fzjcfr^T^—see ft.- 
note. The word ^^ is here used because the moon is supposed to 
be a watery mass. Cf ^^^^^^ ijTf^lffT ^>?TfvfcI^r gf%cTr?c^^r '^^^i 
VarShamihira; ^^IrRqf^ifq^?^ ^5»T^:, Kum. V. 22; ^^^\\k ^\^^y. 

^<v tmr 'i.c^r r^icTqj: I Bg. XV. 13. f^Jthfr:— ffifr ijDiT f^cTcT M\ W 

ffPfr: I The possessive afBx is dropped after words expressive of 
qualities (by the Vart. ^or^'^^J.^r »rgqr %v\^:)\ f^^\ ^\\^\m ^^^ I 

( 12G ) I ( Huto V. 

in the (iSLUb of tbu w»r<l ff»»^|^, ffJT means •' snow' which is a ys^ 
and not a 30[. For tho reverence in which the new moon is held 
see II. 73, VI. 31; Kir. II. 11. 

8*1. 17, ar^q — may either be taken ^fj^?^ (entirely, without 
any other object in view ) as Malli. seems to do, or 3Tf ^K&T and 
construed with 3ig^. ST?F2T^»nT: — S{]^^^\^^^^^J^ ^^n. »rt»^~Qn- 
l^:—& Gen. Tat. like 3TJ^^r^; or m'^ ^^i^J: i rTTrf?r?T &c.— pt:^«J 

Gen. or a Loc. Tat. ^r^: — A bird often referred to in Sanskrit 
poetry as entirely depending on clouds for water to drink, cf. ^%j^^- 
^Ifl^^TI^m ^^- I Hit, II. 3, 

The Chdidha is not a fabulous bird, and what EJli. says iiore ia a fact. 
It ia a "migratory bird which ia seen in India in the rainy aeuBon and 
disappears in the autumn. It has a shrill but not unpleasant iiot«, which 
is of the same pitch as that of tlie cuckoo, and very much resembles tlie 
word for 'a cloud' pronounced aa vocative. Hence the bird is supposed 
to invoke the clouds for a shower, tliat it may intercept a few drops to 
quench ita thirst. S. P. Pandit :in his notes to Vik. II. tliud deecribea 
the bird that ia seen in Western India — *It is u small bird, smaller than 
the smalleat dove, lias a long tail and combines in itself the black, the 
yellow and the white. It has a long crest on its head, of the ahape of a 
bow wHh an arrow stretched on it, which is supposed to prt^veut it from 
bending its head by coming opposite the'back and thereby to prevent it 
from drinking water lying on the ground — or any water to drink which 
the beak is to be lowered.' 

s^fcf — For the force of this eee 8anj. and ft.-note. The fig. of 
speech here is 3T»:rr'c!^'^re occording to Dandin, Bhoja &o,, and 
g-^f^ atJcording to modern writers on Rhetoric. 

B'l. 18, n-riprq;— (^rlfi; Trl«rr>niT?'T l WR^F^^T^— The nasal of 
the inf. is dropped before sprxT and JT^Tg^j «ee Sanj. '■ J^fefn?! is properly 
a substantive from v^i^xfj with the affix 5. What is used in 
classical Sanskrit as the infinitive mood is only the aco. sing, of a 
mas. substantive ending in 5. In the Veda we meet with the Abl. 
Gen. and Dat. sing, of the so-called infinitive; «. ff. JT'rf^, jfat: &c." 

Pandit, Cf. *> p*T V9^ ?<i?«f Oer^TrTtJTfif ^\^r^^ \k^^ «jrSRr w-^mn^ i* 

Uttar, II. 10. ?f«rT — Ry the rule ' ^f^i^ ^5K ^l' '^e agent takes 
Gen. or Inst, in connexion with ^57, 3T^r«T, ^ &c.; so both r^^j and 
^^ are admissible, 

S'l. 19. ^mrT'i—'^'^' 'iif !mfmr^ ^m^rj; 1 ^^J^r^ farf^tr: 'r«Trf iflrfl^r: 

^%%^: zr^ fTH- ^^^ ^^^- ^^^^ i" significant. It shows that Kautsa 
gives the details to Ragha, because he wished to kaow^them. It ia 

€anto V. ] ( 1^7 ) 

a reply to Raghu's question. Had it be«n the primary objeot of 
Kautsa to acquaint the king with the facts by way of a prayer we 
should have expected qjj; instead of cT^^by the rule ' ^g^ffc^fTrTiT ^q- ' I 
The Dat. here may be explained either as rff^^W; or by *f^?7r«ff<7q? — " 
l^ sflTRi'?; ; or by ' qu^aiT 'TTrvT^r^'— T^^HTq"?^ ^^m^^—f^^-^ 
vanity 3T[^5(T: touch or influence. '^'TF^'Tr'^ra, — The ^aye are the four 
classes of men vi~ the Brahmatias, Kshatriyas, Vaia'yas and 
fi^udras. For the As'ramas see note on 'sTT^TfT^' SI. 10. ^off — 707: 
^^%^^^^'rr% «r'3f[ 1 a Brahmacharin. ir^f^fT means 'moral excellence/ 
which is explained as absolute abstaining from eight kinds of 
sensual pleasures, for which see Malli. on «rf5ira"fT K!ir. I. 1, The 
affix ^^ showing possession ie added to this word in this sense alone; 
in other cases we shall have ^^Iri;^ I Vide the Kas'. on ' ^OTISf^r^TltR' 
P&n, V. 2. 134. Rr=^^«T:— r^tniT =^% fm R=q2T + 3T^ (5?,); wise, 
learned, clever. jjsfrirT^ — nsed as a noun. It properly means 'wha - 
is brought on or introduced by JT^cTlf (occasion or opportunity)' what 
is introduced with relevancy, there being a fit opportunity for itj 
hence what is pertinent or to the point, as opposed to 3Tirfg«i which 
means ' for which there is no proper opportunity' 1. e. which doeB 
not refer to the subject under discussion, irrelevant. 

Si. 20. p^ ^ ^r^ — indec. used in the sense of the Ace. by the rule 
* ^^T^f^Kc^cT^qrit' Pkn. II. 3. 5. 3T^l3"f^^rT=^n:ra,— see ft -note 
^'^^ ( 3"'?'^^% 1 3T^^ ^r ) may mean here 'service (tf j) or materials 
of worship.' 3T^(3f^cT ^'T^F^: ^^I'SC in which the service I rendered 
him was without a flaw, was unswerving; or ar^^rpyfrr 3'T^rTT ^^^^% 
in which no materials of worship were wanting i. e. 1 ministered 
fully to all his wants. ^JC^cITti;. — indec. der. fr. i5 + 3T)fflt(i;, ^ bsing 
•changed to c^r ; in the first pla^J^, or foremost, i. e. above fees. 

SI. 21. sriT^r^^Jj; — ST^f'? of wealth ^j(ij scantiness. We may 
have the Gen. Tat. here, as the prohibition 'q^oigor* &c. is not 
obligatory in the case of a word expressive. of quality. Cf. Sid. 
Kau. 3TRc^?i JiH^ f^v:r: 1 ' cT^f^Ts^t ^^rqqrJIc^Trt' lf«TntR^^TFfI= i 
%JTI'qw^ l%Hr'Umr':TT^ \^^ I R"«rr«Trl:^<s^r— For the 14 vidgas 
see Sanj. The six o/i^a 5 are HTJijir qj^tfr s^T^^ot f^^t^ «^irrr«?f »Tl%: » 

SI. 22, ^f| — I _thu3 circumstanced, t. e, whose sole object is 
to procure money, gfq^r — fr. the root ^^r^ TgrW— of the ^o?Tr% 
^lass to which zf is added ( ^^l\h )^by adding ^ to it f^^ (an fem ). 

4ihe price of (^(T^q" f^o ); cf, II. 55, 

(128) [ Canto V. 

S'l. 23. nrstT — r?^ the twice-born; a term which though 
applying to the first three classes, specially applies to theBr&hmana;; 
([f- »TI5nT5fvr3T^=* f|ffR jflf^r^'tilJT l Mauu. II. 160. ^ITTTW ^ r f^ :— 
Tl[3TiJTf n^rr t? sr^r^; ^^q %^ ^tFcT^?^ i a Vya. Bah. The moon is 
considered to be the lord of dvijas or Brahmanaa. The epithet 
indicates that as the moon, although stripped of light, borrows it 
from the sun, and again illumines the world at night, so Raghu too, 
though now penniless, would procure money from Eubera, and so 
Kautsa had no reason to be disappointed. See Sauj. 

flr^TTTSr — an epithet which originully properly belonged to Soma the 
plant, 80 universally used in sacrificial offerings in ancient days, with 
reference to which alone the S'ruti quoted by Malli. '^Wf^tflt' &c. is to be 
understood. Afterwards, however, by b confusion of terms, all the epithets 
of Soma, the plant, were transferred to Soma, the moon. Soma, the moon, 
is also called the king of plants or vanasjpaiis, while it was Soma, the plant., 
that was originally so called. See our note on aTrr-fl^t ^[»TJ^ II. 73. 

%fr^fr»^— f?l^ r>?'=cf(f^^?m?cl«II^ I T^rf^?%r?5f?T &o.~f f% opera- 
tion or exercise; c/. ?f[^fr*T'5riFSI»l>'^ ff% ^I^ ^«T»^viij%f?5-JiriTr»^ I 
Kum. IV. 73. This epithet which is purposely used here, shows 
how scrupulous the poet is in not allowing his hero's fame to be 
tarnished even indirectly. Raghu was f^cTn^lSTT'cT no doubt, but he 
was by no means a sinner like dvijaraja. The allusion here is to 
the Pauranic legend aocording to which 'g?^ carried off Tar&, the 
wife of Brihaspati, his preceptor, for which he was oursed by the 
wronged husband to be indelibly marked with the stain, visible t<^^n 
this day. The student will notice the alliterations in this s'l. 4^1 

S'l. 24. nti|»T«ff— 5^% ?i #4^ I S^r^fr ^f?R'^^ai?m m\ adv. 
modifying the ^{•qf^q] implied in 3T«fr ( 3T«rT^ ?l% ) 5ftf ?T«7r 
rT«?Tf«Jvrff^ fcTiTH: I coming as a suitor, seeking money for his 
preceptor; this is the chief reason why such a request could not 
be refused. g^TTl'f^r — who had seen the other end of the S'astras^ 
t. e. thoroughly mastered them. jf-Eff: — The mention of his name 
by the king shows, according to Malli , his high sense of personal 
honour, aud the unbearableness of the reproach in connexion with 
it. See Sauj. and Bg. quoted therein. Indeed, the reproach 
that 'the king of Kosala refused the request of a suitor* would not 
be 80 great as the one that 'Raghu refused the request of a suitor." 
The lesson taught here by Raghu was not lost upon his descendants. 
Of. XI. 2; see ft.-uoto. ^fr^^F^Tr^— Rf 'JT'^^f fffT f?ffri% f^T^: | 
Un. III. 104; 3P?t: ^V^'- ^^I'^I'cTT'^ I 2S^ityasamasa. ^J ^—Here 
the Aorist is used in the sense of the Future by the rule »ni% S^G^' 

Canto V. ] ( 129 ) 

*the Aorist with the ang. 3{ dropped is used with the prohibitive 
particle ^\w^ in all the tenses;' ef. ^J q^ff?^^ iTf?frJTJT??TjT'RT TF % »T?rt- 
iT^'|5FTT^JTT HfcT^Jri; I MAl.-Mad. I. 32. cpfr^r^—or qf^ff^ by 3"q-^*f^ 
^fsT 3TH3«^ ^«^ 1 Pa'.^- VI. 3. 122. 

S'l. 25. jg- ^ — i. e, you, whose request cannot be refused. 
'^g^ fffffi^ — Because there were three fires already. The three 
sacred fires^, which a householder is enjoined to perpetuate and' 
worship, are (l)JiTf^?^> that which the ^fqr^ or the lord of the house 
receives from his father and transmits to his son in his turn, and 
from which fires for sacrificial purposes are lighted; ( i ) 3Trff=?TT. 
that which is lighted from <the perpetual fire' and into which all 
the offerings are made; and (3) ?%tinfjT, the southern fire, sometimes 
called 3T?^r^5q-!T^^. Cf. iiT#Tt^Ta[Tf fHi^' ^^J'cTg^gTri; I Fffr f r q'TfiflTf 
'^^\^' 5^T JTrflf^: "ff^ 3TTff5fl«r: 1 As'valayana. See notes on I. 6. 
ff^"T — I ^[ #FT ^ \ ^li — to bear (the delay of); hence, wait for. 
^r^ — See com.; it may also be taken here f^s^q^ ( ar^^y^ot ); 
'RTmi%?fr r^T^^ g'rcTTci:' Sid. Kau. 'And I will surely try' &c. 

Si. 26. arf^'T^— not always coming true, unfailing; a fact 

which accounts for his delight. aTT'SFflT — see ft. -note. STTTTWITr 

sTItT p. p. p. of ^ with 3TI 3rd couj.; ^ttT- wealth. ^r^nq^T-Kubera is 
the son of Vis'ravas by ld4vid&, and thus the half-brother of Ravana. 
|Je is the lord of wealth and master of nine inestimable treasures 
( I%T% )• He is the regent of the North, his capital is situated on 
the mount Kailasa and he is the king of Yakshas, Kimnaras and 
other inferior deities. The name ^%i is expressive of his deformity, 
being derived f r. ^ vile, ugly, and %f body; ef. Vayu P. 'fF^nrf i%i%- 
K^^xA m\i %T5^^^ 1 ^^' ?F^TfR?^ Rn^^n %JT =^ ^rf^:' ll He is described 
as having three legs, only eight teeth and a yellow mark in place of 
one eye. No images of him occur, nor is any particular worship 
paid to him. In these respects there is a considerable anal -gy 
between him and the Grecian Plutus. Plutus is described as blind 
malignant and cowardly and seems to have received but very slender 
homage from Greek or Roman devotion, |p%7 is also derived fr. ^^ 
to cover t, s. to protect; the protector of wealth, gr^af — sprinkling 
with water, fr. ;j^I. P. to sprinkle. 

Si. 27. <ff^aH ^ &c.— consecrated by mantras. Vasishtha 
was a master as well as the compo^^er of charms. See I. 61. Fox 
the repetition of the idea, see VIII. 4. iTT^t — 3"?^R ^Srr^^ I 3^^ 
is changed to 3^ before iT?i. aiid f^ when the Oomp. forms a name 
of the sea; see Pan. VIII. 2. IJJ. But g^^fi^ ^:, a jar 
B. N. 17 

( 130 ) [ Canto V. 

<30iitaining water. Jnf^^(?r^ — From the remark of Malli., and the 
synonym ^TS^gWP?' given by him, it appears that he would have 
preferred to take this as a Bah. were it not for a technical dif)icalty 
of grammar. But the Tat. will better suit here. For, though 
^%rf implies mutual affection, yet ^'^r\^^ ^^^ recognizes affection in 
^^ , while iT^rT ^^T ^V^ ( ^^]W^^^ ) implies affection in ^PJig"*- 
The former better explains why q^q^ should be the helper of thi- 
cloud of its own accord. ^r^ff^^T — ^ comp. of the g^qi^Tri^ class. 

vSl. 28. q^rf: — Pare in mind and body, t. «., having bathed and 
observed the rules of conduct, such as restraining the passions, 
&c., as he had to attack a divine person. See I. 90. ^iff^T — See 
supra [. 93. ;fn"«FrT^»=>Tn"T'Tr — fF^^T'cT: ^iT^cT: border, frontier, cT^ 
*T?: ^R^: a frontier-king; a tributary prince. ^ir=fT ffcT ^VTTfflT 
^R^cT^'^^F^^r fT^r considering or treating him as a mere frontier-chief- 
tain or tributary prince. q"f — The forje of tl^ is that Raghu 
considered Kubera to be no better than a tributary prince and 
therefore easy to be conquered. Raghu was the conqueror of 
Indra, the strongest of the lokapalas and therefore, more than 
a match for Kubera, an ordinary lokapala. Again we saw in 
cauto IV., how Raghu turned back from the mountain Himalaya, 
having established his sovereignty there when on his expedition 
of universal conquest. Evidently he, as conqueror of Hima., 
treated the lord of Kallasa, a mountain inferior to Hima., as 
Simanta. See IV. 80. 

S'l. 29. sr5!Tr°rrptg^r2r— arfHir^ gw»T?^rr%5^:- Lit. with one's 

face turned towards, facing; hence preparing for, about to start; 
sT?TI«n?^ir*^S^- 'Tir'nrKg?^":. ^y.^ — inside the treasury. This was the 
cause of astonishment. Here the poet very ingeniously extricates 
Jla^hu from the difficulty he was in. It would not have looked 
decent to make a lokapala like Kubera bend before a mortul like 
Raghu nor to bring back his hero unsuccessful from his expedition. 
He therefore, devises a third alternative which makes his hero 
achieve his object and spares Kubera the humiliation of a defeat at 
the hands of a mortal king. 

S'l. 30. STPT'TrPI*— Fat. pass. p. of m with arnr. qiTH— A 
-4kirt-hill. Q^O* — Sumeru is the same as Meru, for which see notes 
on I. 14. T>%^— g*'o'» ^/ »'»^''<» ^^- 2, XVI. 72; and ^m^^ ^i^ 
f^^ f^5J^ K:ir. XIII. 68. 

g'l. 31. W%fT — The name of Ayodhya; see note on ^[^<^ III. 6. 
3r;Tm 3Tr*T'T*«T'TT^ — Here ■^^ takes the Gen. ^f^ff in connexion 

:jaufccV. ] (131) 

with 3TpT^^ which, thererfore, ought not to have bsen compounded 
with ^Tf as it is. The Oomp., however, may be defended by the 
general maxim '^fT»T^fq^ iTtT^f?r?^TT^5'; or the Gen. may be taken 
Fp^^^ ^^^ — The strength of the mind, mental calibre; here the 
nobility or greatness of the mind, as Malli. takes it. 

8*1. 32. ^ &c.— fTrl"fr: 3T«?f ^^ ^ wrfferr'T:; see Sanj. irir'^^ 

W^^ g^T — i. e. on the head (as a sign of blessing). STrTrT^^^r^T^- 
These two epithets show the magnanimity of Raghu's character. 
He was the lord of suhjects and yet he was so hnmble in his dealing 
with Kautsa, who was also a subject. ^=^^ — Commentafcorg find 
fault with the poet for having used this superfluous word; and this 
is cited by rhetoricians as an instance of STf^^T^r^f^f^--' 3T^ ?r^- 
fiT?^Tviq?gqT%r?r^%? ?7frT«?f^ig;' l Sah.-Dar. ^r^^^ cannot be used 
with 3"^T^ unless there is an adj. to qualify it, as observed by 
Vamana-fg^T'TiT?^ =^ H^T'J^il'RITT^^grjjr^t'^ ^^]^•. I See ft. -note. But 
one must not be so fastidious in small matters. Prof. Ray how- 
ever, finds a defence for the poet by proposing to read STfr"^ 
( qualifying if;5r»^t) — 'speechless, through excessive modesty.' 

SM. 33. f^ — frT Ht. what is well-rounded; hence, one's proper 
sphere of duties. According to Kam. quoted by Malli. the duty of 
a king is fourfold. See Satj. For frT or proper conduct, as com- 
monly understood, see ft. -note. JT^ff^rT^— R^'ffr kv^t( what is reached 
by the mind, i. e. a desire. To be explained with reference to the 
7'?r^^rf^ or ^T=F^'-?rfT class. See note on H^lf'T'iTr^ I. 11. 

S'l. 34. 3Tr^r^--'Pot. p. used as a noun; a blessing or benedic- 
tion; flf. aTF^TF^fr^^^cTrfffTnTv^r ^i^? I Kum. Vir. 87. 5;7^:?f;;^^^_CT?r: 
3"^ J^^^'j; I Avyaya Samasa. n^ means rrq- or equal; see Amara. 
III. 3. 78. 5^^%q jj;ft j^^TirFcT'a;^ t^^e Comp. being ^^ ^^y. 'equal to 
that which is repeated' t. c. superfluous. Char, takes jj^fl in the 
sense of ^§^\ «TPT'5P^^: — poetical license, these forms being 
used only in the Veda. See note on cTT^^f^t^H;, II. 29. 3^r^»Tin'':TrT- 

St. 35. ri^JTrcX — From him t. e. the sage ( the benediction prono- 
unced by him) was the cause (%5 ) of Raghu's getting a son so soon. 
Our poet is very careful to show that pious deeds are sure to be 
rewarded in this world. 3:rr?fNTfT^fg[— 3T^fT C^JW^^rPT ^iTfr^frf^ 

S'l. 36. 50"^ gf^ — The Muhuf-ta presided over by Brahma; the 
last four ( according to some two ) ghatikas of the night. For 
further information and the advantages accruing to a child born 


at this hour, see ft. -note. o t^ ^ yH ' iJ — See Sanj. f«r^^»ncfir ^e^^?^- 
af^ft^: I The aftixee ^f^t, ^^^ and TJUft'f are added to a noun or 
rerb in the sense of ^a little less than,' almost equal to*, so fl|(^?:, 
T^ffTV^'T^. 8Tn*TTr5^nra; — ann?^: ^jF»T ^n?-, see note on ' snfrr^^ ' 
IV. 20-, for the idea cf, 3TWT^fT5^^^r% gT^?f^453TT^% I 3Tr?^f ^^JTRim 
fT Sfhr V^'- RTrT^ M Mann. 

SI. 37. 15:7^— The symmetrical bodily make, as Malli. gives, or 
beauty. ^^ — The very same, afrwf?? — resplendent , or muscular, 
well-built. %«fiir^^— f%^if"T^ f^frrq; natural, as distinguished from 
that which is acquired by training. ^vfrT?^ — Magnanimity, high- 
mindedness-, or height, the bodily stature. cffrCTR^ — The root \x\-^ 
having the sense ol * 3T?^ ' governs the abl. by ' ar^iJHTl^cIT — ' 
P&n. II. 3. 39. TffrT — is a powerful lamp. The word frg and 
ir^T'1 are very happily selected. Cf. VIII. 5. 

S'l. 38. 3^TTf%* — See supra si. 1. ^v^\ — The pi. shows that 
a separate Guru, adept in a particular branch of science, was engaged 
to teach him that branch. j^\\ — i. e. the person fit to give her 
away as in marriage. ?fr was now in love with Aja, and it was in 
Raghu's power to bestow her upon him by making him a 5^^^. 
Raghu is, therefore, fitly called the g^ of sjfr. S'ri is always repre- 
sented as ceasing to look upon a king as ,her lord as soon as he 
abandons the throne in favour of his sou. Cf. VIII. 14, where 
^\ is called the daughter-in-law of Raghu. vfrn" — This may refer 
to sfy also. Further on we shall see our poet attributing the fick- 
leness of Lakshmi to the faults of the person to whom she attaches 
herself for the time being. Vxit VI. 41. 

Si. 39. STT — *Then*, ». «. when Aja had reached his youth. The 
pirdcle implies a blessing and is probably used here as the auspicious 
subject of the prince's marriage is about to be introduced. i R V T % - 
Kf'?»rTn3[ — ^«T%%^ 13 a class of Kshatriyas, said to be derived origi- 
nally from Kratha and Kais'ika, who were the sons of Vidarbha — 
a king who ruled over the province of the same name. The name 
^r^f^f^T^ thus came to be used synonymously with Vidarbha. For 
this latter name, see note on f^sf^ si, 60. gp«Tlf<T^[^f HfF^r ^^^^^'■ 
^«T^'^Ra««r^ I 'FT'iTCriJ— ?^fTr^^ ^?;>in»J; adv. qualifying 
anJf'RI^^- ^o'" 'F^^fT see notes, si. 64. infra, arrff: — ^^- Malli. j 
I. •• one who would take interest in the matter and persuade Raghu 
to send his son in case of u refusal. The meaning of 'trusty' will 
ftlso do. aft^ir'T — The king of the country is meant; see in/ra si. 62. 
'The Bhojas were, a branch of the Yadavas. They were one of the 

Gaato V. ] ( 133 ) 

greatest and mightiest peoples of ancient India. At different 
times they are represented to have occupied different parts of central 
and southern India.' 8. P. Pandit. 

S'l. 40. rf%^ 3T^» ^^TJ, — By these thr«e pronouns the poet 
refers *;o Bhoja, Raghu and Aja. Bhoja is altogether absent ( irfts? ) 
to him and so he refers to him by cT^i of the remaining two Aja is 
^ H^g to him being the object of immediate description and so he 
refers to him by f^, and Raghu being ffq-^gf by 3T^. Cf. ?^i?fl 

fR:f%arr &c.— ^r^iit ( ?Tn«r^r ) t%i"t i fTT?««» ^m^: i ^^\ ^j^m ^m 

aga, stage of life ?r^ i 


S'l. 41. ^q-^3(t— ^^1%^% fm ^JT^T^Ir I ^km ' ^f^i«j^fj[' i C'?*?- 

^?lf?T' in the Sanj. explaining ;jq-^yiT^r I ) g"cr^?n is a tent or a 
temporary house prepared for the reception or residence of Toval 
or other great personages when they go out on a journey or oc an 
excursion of pleasure. g^T^KF- — articles of comfort and decorations. 
.^af^f: — A Bah.; if taken as a Tat. ( ^^t:}- |-cft ) we shall have 
f?q?T>; or, as Hemadri says — ^^^(]fi^ fcT^q-pcT ?% I tnT^pT^^U^ I 
.ftTT«?'cTm l^'-TTf : I iTr«f f^^W: — haltings or stations on the way 
Malli. seems to take the two words as an Aluk Comp-, by the rule 
.rcT??tTIc?raT=^i: ^^r^rec or clfS?^ fffcT ^%^^ ! Pan. VI-3-9, 14. 
We may, however, take the two words as uncompounded, f^rg 
meaning residence, halting. ^^fri^N^JK*^!:— ^d^JM l^T 3T?r %m 
^?rR a garden; fr. ^^+^(\ \ 3?^ (^51^)j rlrfTn=cT ^^ ?TcT ftfKr: RfIT^«7T- 
-^TFR, ^5T being added arf^^^^ I Now see Sanj.; it will be, however, 
preferable to analyse the Oomp. as ^^ri^ f^fl^: as better corres- 
ponding with the Comp, fn^TR^r^r: I If we take iri'f and r^^tI"- 
separately, RfR will mean 'sporting', ?r5T being added *?[%• Hamadri 
suggests another construction, taking gt^r'TT separately and as the 
subject; ^fVm^^U 3"'T^FTT---^l'f f^TWT ^^: I 

S'l. 42. ^Rjn^- &;c. — The breezes were cool^ fragrant, gentle 
and therefore highly pleasant. This explains why a halt there was 
desirable. f^f'jferlP'^r — The day's journey being accomplished. -^y^rj, 
-T^PCi^f^^) all these give the reason why the halt was necessiary. 

81. 43. ^mSTri:— 37-^^^r \^Vi PSIlTs'Ir^i from g^it irregularly 
^jhanged to ijiT + fr^Tt^CI WH^I: — W^mrm Wiis[.- fr. »^^+3T^^l Uii. III. 
128. The presence of two rakaras in this word has given ri?e to 
another name for the bee, viz. f^t^. Rr^r^rT &c. — 3T^:^fs^ may 
be explained in two ways:— ^%f^K?fF{f: 3T-cT:mWc2r^, ^M^fSrHf?; or 

( 1^'4 ) 

[ Canto T' 

l HI. 44. ^frt^f:-? &«^- —The blackish-dust firmly settled in the 
cracks in the tusks was not washed off and so it served as a clear 
evidence of his m^w or the sport of butting against the skirts. 
See Meg. I. 5, ?f^ <r'T*T5»r — This shows the simultaneity of 
the two actions, emerging from water, and the indication of ^q-fifr^ji, 
^*r^fl, — ( lit- possessed of bears ) is one of the Kulaparvatas, or the 
seven principal mountain-chains, for which see ft -note. It has 
been identified with the mountains of Gondavana. ff^^ — at 
different places of its sides. 

S'l. 45. ?r' ^| | l Ka[or — ?y^T T%^r ^^^ of quick action. Dinakara 
translates by '^^^?f'. gr^'twr &c. — ^Hf ' an elephant's stall or 
fold.' When an elephant gets iufuriated, huge trunks of trees are 
placed horizontally in his rttall to serve as bolts. It is these that 
are compared to the waves obstructing the elephant's progress 
every moment. iSome understand by ^ffr, *a chain.' but it is difficult 
to understand how a chain can be fitly compared to a wave. 

S'l. 46. ^?rr«T«T:— 3qm^rf5'TiT: 1 ^cT?^ 3"<TtT:j ^TcT 3^m 3"q*1R 
JT^^fer ^rr or h'^^ ^\^^^ ^^''f-, a »»<2'« sam^sa. 

si. 47. tr^^r'R^ — Here j;^ has the secondary sense of ' peer- 
less,' exceptionally huge, as Ohar. and Hem. suggest. Unless we 
understand it in this sense, is will be difficult to see why a whole 
boat of tame elephants turned tail at the very scent of his rut. 
^FTlr^PTT^:— See Malli. on iprrr^TTfr si. 43 supra. ^!^T^iTTW &c. — 
^it: HT^r iTm'n*!?^? ^r?7^m etT^im^r: ; ( and not ^07 (^^arqr^ as the 
Oomp. will be of the JTJfs^^* class and there will be no further 
compounding ) ^tnm^ ^ir^fTI ^nrqr^^TRTT I now see Sanj. ^^^M 
— ^ q^: s(i\^: 3T^P^t m?frm I »Tf?FtTi?r:— 5i?4 f* ( See IV. 41)^^ 
{T^ 9f)[:. f^^^ — Shone forth t. 0. the rut gushed out at once. ^^^| 

S'l. 4^. ^? — bitter-, strong-smelling ( 'agreeable,' Malli. ).^^ 
STPifN:^— 3Tr%^P=fT irfrT^^^g^ i:^5^rf«JI'ifn"mr-, elephant-drivers, ffr^ 
— arduous, great. 

S'l. 49. %^^^ &c.— 3ti|t T%vr5T''^i: T«^T?, ?eTT: f^^^^^^fW- I 
^ ^ ff f«fr: ( 3ee com. ) nJST^'q-^tT.^TC ( Karm. ) %: ^^q-q; 1 Malli. 
takes the first as a Bah. and combiness it with ^s^; but the %?rn^f ^T 
was not quite la;??^-, it was only ^;ii so far as horses ( and probably 
oxen ) were concerned. This meaning is brought out by explain- 
ing the comp. as given above, flff^ — ff%ff: ( badly or help- 
lessly thrown about ) or f^^: ?^r5^^ {^^^ without hands as it 
wore); hence, at a loss to know whatto do; 5ff^IKr»TKffT-^=^?Tr^'I" 
( Bhftnuji Dikshita on Amara. ). %Jn"f%t?r — see VII. 2. 

■'auto V. ] ( 135 ) 

S'l. 50. 3TTT<1^^ — rushing, charging ( at the army ). ^7^: — - 
Kings are prohibited from killing elephants except in battles 
( see Sanj. ): and since wild elephants are never brought to 
battle, the prohibition includes them. gjT^-the temple (of an elepha-^ 
aut) ^ ^f5Tvq-ff[[l} gjtvT: I ^T^?v.^rf^:. •srq'R — Here we see with 
what masterly skill the poet keeps out of view the warriors in 
the army and makes Aja himself strike, which is necessary for the 
subsequent development of the events representing the whole thing 
as a natural consequence of things. 

S'l. 51. fg";5iTnr: — The mas. is irregular. For, \^:^ q-f becomes 
ff^Tr^^ I (See Vart. on Pan. V. 2. 37) and no other term is avail- 
able to explain the mas. form. f^Fy. — It is related. rHI^ — t. e. his 
assuming a divine form. o^iffT'^?: — s^nfi" ^^cflRTj fr. ^{;+3T (?) by 
^V «• ( '^'^ takes j when a word expressive of 3Tr%^T^ precedes ). 

S'l. 52. ii">Tr^f'> — ^:^\^ is the superhuman power which heavenly 
beings possess; cf. sr^^f^m^ 'i^Tt'JT WI3'^ItT71 *ingR=^l?rR I 
Vik. II. p. 47. !^t-H!fHrriT: — for ^;^^^ see notes, I. 75; ^r^^^'-'ST 
3:(%5%TrT vr?qgjfir?TrR |: I ^^f^ &c.— jr^jHrTgT 3"t:?«T?J»3; I The- 
word ^«TW like Jvri% indicates excellence. See Sanj. on f*n% s'l- 43. 
^r?;frc: — ~K ^ig ^^ bright, shining ( the pearls being flawless ) 
See Malli on Meg. I. 33. ^ ^ 7;^;}^ — eloquent, a clever speaker-, jr^^ 
is added to ^f^^iu a good sense, as an?" or 3^[^ is added in a bad 
sense ( =r;^[? or ^r=^^ ). 

S'l. 5S. JTrl^^rTr^ — See ft.-note. 3Tf?*T — may be taken as a verb, 
or ind. equivalent to 3Tfq;. JTrf^xT^^^— JTflWTf^^'rfT: *TcTfsr: 
( Bh.Anuji Dikshit ) an elephant. It is difficult to see how the 
sage ftJT^ was the producer of elephants. Probably he was the 
first person to tame elephants and show their utility to the world 
and hence the name. Taran^thr. in the Vach. derives the word 
thu8-;fnf' H^ ^^ ^[?fff fm iTflW^^cI^ cT^T^FTTcWr^i; I fjT^*^— see III. 64. 

S'l. 54. ar^HR* — conciliated ( by entreaty ); cf. ar^^T^ II. 54. 
^T^^^r — hy you, the powerful one ( for he-Aja. -could split open 
the temple of such a powerful elephant as he was with an arrow 
shot with a slight force). =^ — on the other hand. 5t »m c ^ *i, — ^"wfr ^^ 
3T^qr?mf^ ITSTI^R ^Tf'F'T^^i Explain similarly %rsr^; fj?^ jg- ^r^^— 
what is known as coldness. 

SM. 55. f^fr^o— qjT^r^^frrT^f^ q-*T^: epTir'JT5?TTTr?«?Rf^f«1^- 1 3T^r- 
5^?r— 3rq"^*r ]^^T'^ 3T?frr^ir: i ^ g^ir^q l Bah., the word f^^R being 
dropped by the Vart. ^3^r'TI%T7<Tg^IW ^^rff^TTT^o3^T«^% 

( 136 ) [ Cauto V. 

power in him to undo what had been done. ('^fWB\ — »T??ft Hlf : 

8*1. 56. irf?rriTzrn--irffi^ m4 in?fT^^ i iTrc!q7oii?flT% ^i i ^^ij- 

■^m^ The potentials show futurity. 

SI. 57. ^%|^^ — causing sleep, hypnotic. STsrtT — &c. — Here 
sfilTjj and ^^r?: do not mean merely the shooting or the thrusting 
back into the quiver of an arrow. ir^t*r means the repetition of a 
certain mantra to endow the arrow with a peculiar virtue which 
enables it to assume a particular form or to bring about a certain 
result; while ^ff^ means the repetition of the counter-wian^ro which 

■takes away from the arrow the peculiar virtue it was endowed 
with and it becomes again an ordinary arrow. See also note ou 

!lll. 64. f^tTrfto — The Mantra for which has two part?; one for its 
employment, the other for its withdrawal. STT??^ — ^i with 
3Tr is Atm. except in the sense of 'opening'; gee Sid. Kau. ou 
Pan I. 3.-20. ^ ^TnrifffTr — Slaughter (ff^l), except where absolutely 
neoessery, was looked upon with horror long before the teachings 

-of Buddha and was prohibited by the S&stra. See ft.-note. The 
repetition of ^ indicates the simultaneous existence of the two. 

'«»■=. ffgr'T and 3^f|«T. 

SI. 58. JTT jrf^ — Malli. takes this with vg^j. He seems to 

emphasize 'mtj^'. 'You need not feel ashamed in my presence' (»'. t 
of me to whom you have been kind). We may also say with Churi. 
and perhaps perferably, ^\ v(m 7^\1T: i f^ftR::— 2[^T TTF a^W^TonRrf ^ 
iraf 'T^ I arnr — iised here to express a hyperbole. You showed 
kindness to me even at a time when it is impossible to show it. 

'4MI-^t$«^4Rf *Tf^ — uow that I am entreating you; =j^ with :jq lOth 

'conj. to entreat, jnfts^n^ — ^^]^ ^T^^^ i capable of being employed; 

• by the rule 'nrq'[;yqf^?ft>»'fr ^?iir«5'-the words ir^r?^ a^d f%?TYs'T are 
formed only in the sense of capability or practicability Malli. has 
'^ ^sjjj^' but then we shall get the form q^i»?^ and not jnfTsijj^- 
The sense is — You who were kind to me even whec you struc/: 

• cannot be unkind to me noic when I am entreating you. 

SI. o9. gq^ w^q — 31^?^. lias a technical meaning viz. that of 
touching the cavities of the eye or performing the Achamana- 

^f^f^'ir: I or after Malli., ^IT^c^Wrr^rfT 7?r^' ^Vi; uow see com. 
^^I^aiRiTc^Ifl- The river Narmada is so called because a channe 
was opened to it by king Pururavas of the lunar race, ^^fp?: — 
implies that he was always a delight-giver. ;J7^9<!T: — 3"?tit^ 

OaatoV. ] (137) 

5^q^. [Properly ^ff^lt l?f9T m, 3-fT=^r + 3TWim . 3T^T^ ): 
the afBx ^^]^ which has the sense of the Loc. • and 
which is added ?tT^ ( see Pan. Y. 3. 27 ) is dropped by 
the rule '3T5=%#5;' P^n. V. 3. 30 j and we have grfl^"r which again 
becomes ^^^ by the rule *^TPi%rT^%' ' when a Taddhita affix dis- 
appears, the fern, affix also disappears;' and finally we have 3^iird 
5WT^ I ] 3T^*Far^ — The sing, because the mantra of vi%r and that 
of ^*fT^ formed but parts of one mantra. 

S'l. 60. o^TT^ni, — through the combinatern or interveiition of; 
hence as the result of; cf. m\^^^,'^^\^ cIT: V^^^ g*r%^nfr ' 
S'ak. II. 14. 3Tr^f"srr: — Gen. dual of 3TT%f?W-,; V^^^- P* ^^ ^§L ^^^^ 
3Tr. The perf. participles in ^^ of the roots ^t , fH^and %T only are 
used in ordinary language. Vkn. III. 2. 108. #rTrs^^:^r^— S ^ITH^f 
^fsrr ^t% STT^TFT: (not ^oTf:, the rule 'n^f:'— applying only to Tat • 
Oomp. ) '^^\ x{\m #^[5^^ I f%f *?H~f^?^T^T 'iTm'fF^T R^lfr "^^^V 
ffgf^: I The name is derived from n' without and t^ the Ks'ha 
grass, which is supposed not to grow in Vidarbha. because the 
son of a saint died there of a wound inflicted by the ?harp blade 
of the grass. 

Vidarbha, the modern Berar, but a far more extensive kingdom than 
its modern representative, lay on the north of Kuntala, extending 
from the banks of the Kriabna to about the banks of the Narmada. On 
accoont of its great size the country was also called Mabaiaishtra. Cf- 
Bil.-Ram. X. 14, where two names are applied to the same country. 
It lay to the South of Xarmada as Aja crossed the river before enter- 
ing it. Its people were cal'.ed Krathakais'ikas (see note on that 
word, s'l. 39 ). Kui.ijinapura, sometimes called Vidarbha, was its capital, 
which is probably the modern Bedar. It was the aoat of Bhima, father of 
Damayanti and of Bhima, father of Rukmini. According to the Malav., 
king Agnimitra divided Vidarbha into two parts, separated by the river 
VaradS, ( Warda) which, in its Payne Ganga branch, separates the Assigned 
Districts of Berar from the Nizam's Cominions. Amaravati ( Oomara- 
vati ) in Berar seems to have been the capital of the northern and Pra- 
tishthana ( Paithan ) on the Godavari, that of the southern division. This 
was the land of the Bhojas, who are said to be descendants of Druhyu. 
They were not, however, confined to this province, as there are several 
Bhojapuras in different parts of India. They had different clans such 
as the Kunti-Bhojas to whom Kunti belonged apd the Martik^Lvatas or 
Bhojas of Mrittikavata whose chief fought at Kurukshetra on the side of 
Duryodhana. The celebrated king Bhojaraja who reigned at Dhard in the 
beginning of the tenth century, was evidently a descendant of tliese 

B. N. 18 

(138) [ Canto V. 

S'l. •!. ^q^HT'-— 3TTrf: ?F'J(f S'T^ffj: Pr4cli Tat.; who is near; 
now. see com. ^'v!j%f5I^^?: — 'I'^o lord of the Krathakais'ikaa 
See Dotes si. 39. ijftjrfir — ^f^r: begun to swell ( Tf»: arif^^irfoi) 
3r»nfr ^?^. The joy of the king rising every moment as he advanced 
to receive the prince is aptly compared to the swelling waves of the 
Ocean ;it noon-rise. tirf^JTrwr— 374^1 *ricJT 3T?^r?rfrpT I For a similar 
idea see III. 17, VII. 19, X. 82, XII. 36, XVI. 27; and also 
Knm. III. 67. 

S'l. (■>2. q^T^ — Aja is referred to by af^ ( cf ?1l^«?f M &c. ) in 
the previona s'loka, so the use of Qr;T^ here is a poetical licence. (^^ 
not being allowed to be substituted for ff^. ^i^r^r — A poetic 
licence again; ^^ is not added to ifr unless habit is implied. 
^'TTTiT?!— served, waited upon. Cf. ' nrn'?Tg"T^=gir ^^^'^ m ^'^^fl ' 
Kum. I. 60. |^_y"^5-;^^[aTt T\:jj\ ^^^■. \ fr. t>^m + 3T ( 3T5T ) STHT^g 
— 3TF-€SmlT%; fr. 31in^ with 5 ( gs[ Dpadi ) a guest. 

S'l. 63. vn^jx &c.— irii1?«T% 5rt ^i^i^^, I iTr»?r^?«ir itf^rft ^r 

?r^: &<-".; see Sanj. Din. explains this differently for, which see ft.- 
note. The placing of a pot ( of copper or silver ) full of water on 
the vedi(& quadrangular raised spot) near the front door is 
considered auspicious even to this day. 5[^sifrT'> — JTldPl^Rn fT^ ^^■ 
fijftj: fr. ^]^+y;fJ + :^ ( H* ) added q;4f5t-the roots ^r and vfr take this 
aff. when a preposition precedes, in the sense of ^rjf or any K&raka 
except the agent ( ^5). ^^q^Tf^: iTfffHnT:-a representative or deputy 
of. Eaghu being the sole lord of the world, special reception was 
accorded to his representative. ^p^fcTTT &«• — The simile is appro- 
priate both in point of time and place. Aja was now lodged in 
such a delightful place and at such a time, that being at ease there, 
he could not but have felt within himself the influence of love, as 
indicated in the next s'l. 

S'l. 64. ^^^^ &c.—^^^f i%q^si?tTi5rfB, ^fv ^forwm ^r ^^^^T■■ \ 
This form of marriage in which the bride chose her own husband 
seems to have been very popular in ancient India and was adopted 
specially by the Kshatriyas. h^^> ??4ft=^ ^T ^nTT^'fTf U^Tfrt^t ^^ • 
^r^ c?I^r »I^l^: I 5F5;2Tr?rpyr*T— ^311^3; ( also ^^J^ m. ». ) means 

' the btst '] sR-iirg sr?7iiT ^sJTisrpfiiT 1 gR^?!'^— ^m*jg 'ft'^^ i 

desirable, covetable. >Tf^T?^vy j <>ff m — According to Malli. * unable 
to know the mind ( of her husband )', .t «., who hesitates lest her 
approach might displease him. Soma take ^\^ in the sense of 'love 
for another', offended or jealous because conscious of her husband's 
love for another. But MallinAtha's meaning seems to be preferable. 

an to V. ] ( 139 ) 

The womaa is ^r^err dearly loved by her husband, and though- 
unable to read his thoughts ^ (i.e. to know whether he is really 
longing for her ), yet makes a tardy approach towards him of her 
own accord ( arnTJ^r^r^fiT ), which an offended lady does not do.. 
See below, 3l. 67. The simple idea so poetically expressed by the 
poet is, that Aja being absorbed in thoughts about Indumati could 
not get sleep for a long time. The report of Indumati's unparal- 
lelled charms had attracted such a crowd of kings there, that, pitted 
against these, Aja could well feel misgivings within himself. It is 
said that Kdlidlsa had a strong desire to finish the canto before 
going to bed that day. But sleep overpowered him at this stage 
and he had to put down his pen. The goddess of learning, however, 
wishing to gratify the wish of her favourite son, wrote down for 
him the following S'lokas^ and the poet to his astonishment found 
the canto completed when he woke up the next morning. True or 
not, the anecdote shows how exquisitely beautiful the following 
verses are. 

S'l. 65. cR"<=T^5io]- &c. — The ear-ornament meant is the Kundala 
worn round the ear, which is made of gold, and is long and heavy 
enough to leave an impression upon the shoulder when the head is 
bent sufficiently either side in a mood of anxiety or care. ^p^rrT^o 
&c. — ^rTT^if^ — the bed-sheet. Indumati had such hold on Aja's 
mind that disturbed by thoughts about her, he restlessly moved in 
his bed, so that the sandal-marks on his body were worn off and his 
shoulders bore traces of hard pressure. g[rirfJT5Tr- — *• *. young bards. 
^T'i"^- — tiiis implies equality of age and intimacy, ^^ra" — *• ^• 
at the hour presided over by Brahma ( ^^ g?^ ) when it was the 
duty of kings to rise, ^nf'"*!* ^Tr^^^RT^ — It was customary to rouse 
kings from their slumber by means of songs accompanied by gentle 
music: see ft. -note. 

S'l. 66. On this and the following slokas S. P. Pandit thus 
remarks : — ''These 'awakening verses ' have no special reference to 
the present time and place, but form what the bards used to recite 
in the Prince's own capital." But the remark does not seem to be 
correct. The poet's description of the bards as gr^TT^TI'^' scarcely 
leaves us room to suppose that they sang on this occasion the same 
stale and hackneyed song which they were wont to sing in the capital. 
On the contrary, the contents of the verses show that they are meant 
peculiarly to suit the present occasion. For the bards begin with 
early morn, first describing how the moon gradually loses her 
splendour and how the lotuses are about to bloom and then hov- 

( 140 ) [ Oanto V. 

'chej actoally bloom at the first peep of the morning suii. Next 
they describe how the rays of the morning sun tinge thetnsks of the* 
elephants which were within their sight, and conclude by de8cribiu^ 
how, as the sun progresses a good way over the horizon, his rays 
penetrate the tents and overpower the light of the lamps there. So 
the description here, on the whole, seems to apply to one residing 
in a tent surrounded by the stables of horses and elephants &c., and 
not in his palace, as well as to one who is a late riser, which Aja, 
a scion of the solar race, could not have been («?/. ?T«JI^Ic7q^?y^PJ^ 
1,6 ) had he been in bis capital and not troubled by distracting 
thoughts as he was on the present occasion. 

^rf^Hrfi ^T. — This is meant to indicate that the prinoe 
would readily do his duty on being reminded of that. fy>^ — in 
"two parts, y: — The pressure and not the load itself, rr^, ^^ — both 
are used 3TW^K^> 'indeed, 'surely:' \: j'Vvr^I ^g indeed the burden is 
divided; but f|[^?r n«?'?!iT it is divided into two parts only ( so that 
you oai not expect a third person to help your father ). f^fifg : — 
( your father ) has quitted his bed (and is in his place). This may 
also qualify X{^J^ — and your royal self having left the bed &o. 
^^tT^;^-— you are to take the place of the other bearer. What is 
meant is this — your father is up by this time and attending to his 
duties; and you as yuvaraja ought to do the same. Cf. ij^^ fif^ 
r^>% 9'R^^^T%?II'^"^H I Kum. VI. 76. 

S'l. 67. Oh&ritravardhana and Dinakara, though in their 
'usual manner they give a full com. upon this si., consider it to be 
an interpolation, but without giving reasons. There seems to be, 
however, nothing in it that would warrant such a supposition, and 
Malli. who is always scrupulous in detecting spurious slokas, 
regards it as quite genuine. 

>T^rrr«I5T%^»TrTT — This si. seems to have perplexed some com- 
mentators and annotators. Bat all difficulty about its correct 
interpretation would vanish if one were to understand correctly 
the commentary of Malli. vrf^r ought to be construed with qjrg^Rrf 
as Malli. very properly has done, and not with vr^ar ae suggested 
by Pandit. The meaning of the poet is very well brought out in 
the com. Indian poets describe three places as the favourite resorts 
of Lakshmi (the goddess of beauty ), vir., the lotus, the moon and 
the most lovely face in the world (as that of a prince or a princess). 
The last is generally represented as her most favourite haunt. Cf. 

CautoV. ] (141) 

f?^^Tt ifn^JTflT ^^^\^■ II Kum. I, 43. The poet here describes- 
Lakahmi a3 the wife of Aja. As such she approaches liim, but finds- 
Aja fast in the enjojment of sleep ( personified as a female;. This 
is too offeasive a sight for Lakshmi to bear, who is ^]f^^\. Great i? 
her longing for Aja; but in her wounded pride she disregards even 
this, ang shows the extreme difficulty of doing so. Inwardly, how- 
ever^ she is restless and does not know how to beguile her love-sick- 
ness due to the Prince's action. She discovers that the moon makes 
the nearest approach to Aja'e beautiful face. Thither therefore in 
her helpless condition she bends her gaze and somehow manages 
to beguile her longing for Aja (qgFg^cq'). But even the moon is 
now parting with the beauty of Aja's face, and the condition of 
Lakshmi will be really miserable. She caunot herself approach 
Aja, and even the moon from whom she derived some consolation 
is fast sinking down Hence the earnest appeal of the bards to 
Aja, on behalf of Lakshmi, to get up and gladden her. 

^'T^^TT'^ — Not taking into consideration, not caring for; 
q-^^^o -anxious longing for: note the use of this with the instr. 
^^ar. ^ g f o ^r Tr — a woman offended with her husband on account 
of his infidelity to her and full of self-pride. See ft.-note. 
fT=fnprt% — diverts, amuses herself with; ef. XIV. 77; also Sak 

The reading BT^^S^JTlTiTT. however, noticed and commented upon 
by Malli., seems to be preferable as it yields a much better sense 
by making the appeal more touching and therefore better calculated 
to excite pity in AJa. vr^cTTN-'by you too'. Lakshmi was already 
repulsed by lotuses. So her hopes entirely rested upon you. But 
you too being under the influence of sleep refused to look after her. 
She was therefore utterly helpless and compelled to beguile her 
yearning for you by being with the moon. It was not a wilful 
act on her part and you need not. therefore, be jealous of her. 
f^^T^^m is the Oau. of 1%^. ^;^: qgcg^ff Iwg^rcT the moon diverts 
her anxiety, ^s^qr; ^^n ^^^^3f;i^ H^r^^ffT Lakshmi causes the 
moon to allay her anxiety. See Sanj. If we read \g instead of 
3Tfit, ff may be taken in the sense of ar^q'R'^. The meaning in this 
case will present no difficulties. If the object of the poet be to 
repres*^nt Lakshmi not so much as an object of compassion to Aia 
as a ^u^^\ mf^^j. the reading in the text ought to be preferred. 

SI. 68. fig^^ — 'therefore', t. «. because Lakshmi is helpless as ihe 
moon, her nightly resort, ia giving up splendour. Malli. sav^ 

(142) [ Canto V. 

f?^«frTf?!T9<nr<? oonnectiug r]^ with ^55; but there does not seem to 

be any propriety of this when applied to the lotuses. For in thy 

previous si. the appeal for the TRiffar of Lakshmi is to Aja and 

not to the lotuses. T^^^r — refers to both — the opening of Aja's 

eyes and the blooming of lotuses, ^nrTf f^iTr5r^sT — If tlie poet 

means that the beauty lies in the simultaneous opening of the 

two, then it will be better to take this as a Oomp. word as Prof. 

Ray suggests, q^q-ffrr— q?<^r^l fcTT or ir^^r frRT 'T^r: I The idea 

here is this — The moon is going down; the lotuses have begun 

to bloom, you should therefore ( fTr^ ) wake betimee and prevent 

the lotuses from taking sole possession of Lakshmi in the absence 

of any other rival in beauty. if^r*^?nT*rt — Bees are described as 

being held up in lotuses when closed up at the approach of night and 

■ remaining there till sun-rise; cf. Ratn. I. 25, ( ^f'T'B' g^cTI''^'''^ &'■ 

and infra VII. 55. 

SI. 6v», aTsff^^Rri^ — see II. 8. ^^^:-Aluk. Oomp.; see Sanj. 
T»t|-:— f*T^ opened; cf. m^'k^H^^^^m ff s^m^rgW^:; Venl. 1. 1. 
> q'^;nor^ — q^'sft of others (». e. borrowed) "JUR. f^ — indicates ^^^^f. 

SI. 70. PTv|r?ifr?: &«•— Si^^Fr by ^jjiort ( g^r^^n" ) means here 
'a pearl.' qTHTT — TT-" ^8": *ir»r: qT*TTT: 1 A position of great 
advantage. rm[ — being most advantageously placed. H'-^Oi"- 

ST'cjns: is an optional form. See ft. -notes. In this and 

the foregoing slokaa the excellence of Aja's breath and his 
lustrous teeth illumined by his beautiful smile are described in a 
poetic style. Vail, notices the reading ^?y^?T?r ?^TJT'^f==?^^r5R^ 

Si 71. STrTRf'TP-T: — The treasure, the source, of heat which 
causes cTIT- Ck — ^^^ ^^^ causes ^m to his foes. The two epithets 
are used to keep up the reaemblanoe. HF^T — Araria is the 
charioteer of the Sun, and the elder brother of Garuda. He is ^h^ 
( without thighs ) having been prematurely brought out of the egg 
by his mother. See A. Die. Uere Aruua and Raghu are compared. 
Raghu having the same relation with respect to Aja which Aruna 
has with respect to the sun. Aruii* precedes the Sun and Raghu 
precedes Aja. Each is the precursor of the other. HT^n^^rR^T?:??!^ — 
'JTTT^'^^ar arf^JTIS'tTT^t'-^^ fiT^ 1 arir ^TfOPrf 2^^m:, formed irregularly 
.according to some. By the rule 'jfTSiT^a^f ^cT:' 5 when preceded by 
X<:n, 3Hli=T?r, and 3^^ takes j'^ (3?) to express ^^\ or the agent. 
Ljt^uce the proper form should be 3TffffT'- [ This is according to the 


C:iutoV.] (143) 

Vrittikara who supposes 3T% to be the word used in the 8itr3. He 
is followed by Bhattoji, and Jfi&nendra Bhikshu. Patanjali gives 
no comm. on this Sutra. Nages'abhatta, however, differs and 
supposes 3TJr'ETr to be the correct form., 3TEr^r being obtained by the 
rale '^7^^ ^m ^f??^' I ] ^ali. uses both the forms. Cf. a^jr^lgj-f^. 

nT^f?«Tfr[R' VI. 335 \9^ r[^m^f^r^^^'J^^^^! '^^vn\^•^]^Bt ^=^t' ix. 

55, 61, Amara gives the form sTJTH^T. This question is discussed 
by Hem. and Ch&r. for which see ft.-note. f% ^ — ]% is to be 
pronounced with a =PTf> (intonation) and ?t expresses ff^«^^: f^ fT 
^pE^JTI^ would your father destroy the foesj ;t^[f^?5^rw no; certainly 
he would not. Cf. '{^ ^J S^T^^T^'n^^^t ffWrTr' 1 Sak. VII. 4. 

The idea here is this — Aruna destroys the enemy of the sun ( /. e. 
darkness) only so long as he himself has not taken up the work of 
destruction. So your father would destroy your enemies only so long 
as you are not able to take care of yourself. But now you are able 
(f[^) to take the lead in the battle, so get up and chase your 
enemies if there be any). Prof. Ray thinks that the enemies here 
referred to are the morning breeze, the dew drops, the lotuses, &c., 
which are poetically spoken of as the stealers of Aja's Lakshmi. 

S'l. 72. ^»T3^"<T^ &c — According to Kaiyata, quoted by Malli., 
the word 3-*^ appearing first in a Comp. always takes the Tad. affix 
3Tq=^(3T?T ), i. e. becomes 3"»T^, as indicated by the word 'r%ciT'=(' 
in the Sutra • ^iTTf^TWr f^^^J i ?rr*tr*TP— ^cT*^ a clump of grass. 
See com. g^jr^ &c.-]i^]i^^ S^iT'Fn S^^TSTf r?^"T^r^ ^"^^Ttr^: i one who 
has to say something on every topic; garrulous; or g^ gf^s^TNT'' 

TRIT^j noisy. Here of course it means .'resounding ' ^1^?5" ^ffl 

rll^a'RT fT 'WcyHrfa" l In either case it is of the g'fif^T^ class. 
rT^'^re'T — the newly risen sun (giving reddish light). Of. ^r^T 
^^RT tT^!^I^?:rir Kam. III. 54. pfvTrrg-*— T%fr >TtirR^ (fr. fiTR + 75T 
i. e. ^^ ) .a reddish brown mineral; trf^^nq-^rr cT?r: »m^cT2T: a comp. of 

thegrapgrf^ class, ar^: ml:^fi?r arf^o; f^r^rr arf^^K^rr^r Wct. 
•.f^^?iTr: — bud-like, i. «. beautiful tusk^ (Malli.). 

S'l. 73. fr^ &c.— shows that Aja had a large number of 
.horses with him. ^^rTTT^— f^ STRrf ??% ^^^; f^T^ ^^ 3TT%Trr q^ 
^f^TSTTSr:. ^^rr^^ir:— ^^r2:^?T:cT? ^^\: i o^3r+^. A grammatical 
inaccuracy, for the Tad. affix, though added to ^g in this sense, 
is not available in the case of compounds ending in ^^T. Vanayu 
is a country in the North- West of India, celebrated for its breed 
of horses. %?crrFf — The reason of making the horses lick pieces 
of Rock-salt is given in the Sanj. ^KRr_f%;p^5 ^^. ^ produced iu 

( 144 ) [ Canto V. 

Sindhu^ %?v^'f; Vku. IV. 2. 133; ff??I T%c^iwmt ^T5F^%. ^TfT-— 

v^'^ ^^^r^m^T^ gif^tfrm ^rrfr: fr. fT? + 3T^-, horses. 

S'l, T4. fTC57>T?%— If!:?? TT%r^?^ I TJH^g't'J^r =^f^7T?: I If we 
dissolva ad fif^r ^rfrp^^ we shall not get ilf^?r, "j'Tf^ being 
prohibited with words of the fi(?TriV clas8 to which vf% belongs. 
According to ^psfTIsr, however, r%TOT "mw^VJ will also do, if 
vrfTp be derived from ^r jT by adding ffj ^Tf% (meaning 'arrangement' ). 
See Malli. on J^jthP XII. 19. TsfTTfrc: — the garlands or boqueta 
of flowera presented to Aja. See IV. 84. As the flowers faded in 
the mcming and shrank np, the garlands got loosened, ^ffy f of 
&c. — The lamps lost their halo of rays, it being broad day-light 
now. The three s'lckas show that the sun is above the horizon 
( and not below it as 8. P. Pandit supposes ) and it is already late. 
See notes, si. 66. Sfff^Fr — mark the sense of 535^ with q which 
means 'to att'er or pronounce' (when used with words ). 

S'l. 75. R^f^rTo — This also shows that the verses were com- 
posed for the occasion. Cf. HTf^cTlf ^"^g^r^^rflTT Meg. II. 26. 
PnmFrjr: — Here ftilfT is equal to f%»Tm?r (rmfsTfT) the sense 
of the causal being expressed without the affix; or JT^may 
be taken in its primitive sense; f^iTcTr ^^\ H^ ^^, the inatr. 
^F^^t: being "f ^y. THT^^:— ?OTHt n^rpTF ^r^f fTr: I a comp. of the 
Trsf^^an^ class. jtf^ ^t^Trl^— i%-^fTT." *T^^f^r%f^ ^^^ a sandy 
place: 3W, 1= added to i%^tTT and ^i^n in the sense of t{ri ( the 
affix showing possession ), so ^j^ also. ^7?fr^: — ^"tpHf: JTeTrqsT: 
limits 3T^. The simile is probably intended to indicate the 
purity of Aja's bed, who, unlike many of the other princes 
assembled there was a bachelor. 

S'l. 76. ar^g-fczj- — Indce. p. p. of ^t cau. with 3Tf. f^7H5??ff«> — 

3TKTT8;1TTt5i the eyelashes. See Sanj. and ft -note. 3T5^?T — ST^TTTI 

'???f^f»rrfT ^^t^lii^i'fr^r ^JTrif; (^»3;+3T:H + ?r^) a multitude; Pan. 
III. 3, 19. But ^jt5t: (^+3T^+3TqL) ^^ group of lower animals 
birds &c. Cf. Fkn. III. 3. 60. 'q^^rt fl'T^fts;^'?} ^mw.' Amara Cf] 
^SFsr^Rt ^^in fkX^ 1 Ras. Cf. Eng. 'flock' or 'herd', ^^^f^^^r—f^ij 
farqH 3iff*r? ?T^ ^^^^l^^ the place of selection, fr. f with 3^ ( 3^7) added 
3Tilr5fi«3t. ^^^k i%5cni%- f^f«T7«»»Tr<I— This shows that the other 
king^ were already there when Aja went. 




S'l. 1. ?nr — J. «. in the place or hall of the s^^t^. JT^5 — Maficha 
seems to mean here 'a dais/ or small wooden well-decked platform 
on which a small throne was placed for each king. ^T=^rr^r^ — 
^•cr=^n: f%2j% ffa 3"T^rT^-cr?^5> furnished with a canopy and other 
decorations such as garlands, scents &c. ^^irR^Rr^ — if^t^oT ITT^^- 
RirfHw iTTTl'TJTr^^m ^T fk^]^- l ^^^r^^rm wmr^^r;, those moving in 
balloons or aerial vehicles: fr. T%iTR + f'^ (5^)- STF^S'pfr??!^ — 
r^]^-[ being connected with H^^I^il^ ought not to have been com- 
pounded, when ^T^tTi' left uncompounded. or the whole should 
have been 3TTl>S'fT^f^R. But since the meaning is quite plain 
the comp. is allowed; and hence Malli. remarks gfq^r^ffT &c. See 
Sanj. pfrryr — t^e graceful appearance of. 

S'l. 2. sr^^rf^rT^npH;— ?fH# ?fIW bis body; ifr^TNct ?^rf ^T?^ i 
t^rr— fRTg ^ffr?iT^^ I This implies power to give or to keep back 
at pleasure. qfrrfTr^^T^— See note on IV. 41. f?ff??frR'^r^J5[--HifcTT 
3TT5IT 'r^HlTTT^r^T?!^ I f 'f^c^t f^^^ f^^m\iF%^^'JWT^^^^ I 

The allusio?i — While S iva was practising meditation io a seiiuestered 
spot of the Himalayas, Kama, at the request of the gods, attempted to 
inspire bim with love, that the God might raarry Pu'rvati. But he was re- 
duced to ashes by the fire of Siva's wrath. Subsequently, the'god being 
moved with compassion by the entreaties of Rati, reunited Kama with his 
lost body. See Kum. III., VI. 

S'l. 3. |^*ro— For IfH see V. 62; Hyfs" pointed out, see I. 95. 
^TFTT^^— ^f R^T^R: ^'-T 3"qR- 3TI^r T*r^tT%^ jfer trqR a flight 
of steps ( generally of stone); ^rTRf^: *^^3?r: €PTIR^«r: I raHT- 
f%^^:— by means of projecting rocks, ^rr^:— a young lion, not yet 
of full age bat bigger than a cub (^Hf^); this is used to keep up the 
comparison with ^?TR. Dilipa is also described by the poet as 
walking like a lion ( ^iT'^irTtTr ) H- 30. ^ifrcgr^^—^^^ is pro_ 
perly the lap; hence ^ifr?^Tf ia a level plot in the side of, or tho 
upper surface of a hill. Cf. ^r^R^f^ Meg. I. 27. Or, after Malli., 
'the peak of a mountain'. Cf. Kir. VII. 21j Meg. II. 33. 

S'l. 4. q^T^^ &c. — tTTT'^f excellent, supremely beautiful; see 

note on III. 27. aTT^cT^iJT a covering, a carpet &c. ^T^^T^FfT: 

^^^lt ^r^fl'R'^T ^ir^^^^ whose splendour might be compared with. 

n^ &o.—^7^^^ g-g- ^7^^t ct^t^t^t 'tpt ?frr H^j^^r^fcl- ^^ i We 

cannot affix the cTT=e=jn<^qr W[H as it is prohibited in the case of 
f%T except when it is preceded by f^. iT|?r — See note on r^?? H. 
36; a peacock is the vehicle of Kartikeya. 
R. N. 19 

( 146 ) [ Canto VI- 

S'l. 5. Jl>Tr^^^ &0- — may mean either excessive aplendour. or 
unique, peculiar, splendour, such as was not seen before, ^^r?-^: — 
r%fr%g ^r^^fr frfr^^;-, 5:^^. f^rr^: JRU^^: ( as it dazzled the 
eyes ). This explains why RjTT^r<S«:«ir^iTT s'l^^f?; i ^Tf?TVjr — Here 
^T^T? implies a groat number. Like a streak of lightning reli2ct«d 
in a thousand clouds, the goddess of splendour shone forth in a 
thousand different ways as represented by every one of the kings 
assembled there. 

S'l. 6. XT^IfF'tTSr &c.— Ji^l^lt ^ir^ ^^f ^IR iTf T^lf^ &c. g-frir ^c— 
^^KrfoT splendid, magnificent, ^^m ^l^'Jr?'^ ?TIR f^^cftfcT ^■SfT-.rffR. 
vrr^r — ^y ^^^ peculiar lustre. This is used to mark out prince Aja 
from other kings. The q^r in ^^p^ is Rv^^^; and we cannot have 
f%''TRaT unless we have something to express the 3TlfT^T?T or excess 
which the part separated from the whole has over the rest. The 
arffT^T^ may be expressed by (1) an affix; as fcrf^ ^ji^: '^^■.■. (2) or 
by a word-, as rffj ^ti[[ ^f e^i^rj ( 3 ) or sometimes by the entire 
absence of the distinguishing attribute in other things; as gr^ ^^: 
q^: where ^^K^ possessed by ^?{ is entirely absent in other students 
and is sufficient to distinguish him from them. The present case 
is to be explained similarly. The simile used by the poet in s'l. 5 
implies absence of 'natural luttre' in the kings, as they are 
compared to clouds. Was it also absent in Aja? No. He only 
was distinguished by his own luttre. The reading jjirr at lirst 
sight seems to be better, as it directly expresses the a^f^^ij. But 
if we adopt it the simile in the previous s'l. will lose its foroe. 
^rF^f^^\\ — See Sanj. and note on «j:?qa^ I- 75; also ft. -note. 
TrR^r^r: — m\i\ according to some is a name of the sea; qiKwff- 
.S«^^i(T: I This was one of the fourteen jewels obtained at the 
churning of the ocean. See infra X. xl. 

S'l. 7. ^g-jf jfr: — The pi. indicates the plurality of the groups 
of eyes. We should suppose that different groups of people had 
gathered in different advantageous places to have a good look of 
the scene. »ifR!ii%— 3I?^T ^?rf?^ ^ 3"?^?": i J?\ifr?^?: JTfr^*^: I "^f^W- 
^cqsr^r- — See Sanj. It will be better to analyse jsTf^r: as js^Tgr^T 
\v^y. ( a Tat. of the :(Ti^qrf«i^IR[ t^^ass ); for.jsqroif f «i[: may not 
necessarily indicate the presence of flowers on the trees at the 
time. TT^vfff^ — -^n elephant of the best class, the scent of whose 
ichor is unbearable to other elephants and whose possession ensures 
victory to a king-, for the force of the epithet see Sanj. 

Si. 8. 3T^^^: — Here 3T^?i by a'«3"^r means 'the history of the 
race.' ^rmM^— ^I»TT^^T: f^TT ^TRI^=t^T^ cT^I- m^ff : I Here we o«n- 

Canto VI. ] {_Wi) 

not affix the ^^T«f ^r[. and say ^fXTi^^^pfr: TfT: I ^ri may be affixed to 
f^T but not to compounds ending in ^^^. ' ^ygf^^^Ti: ^'tw^'Tr: fr^lT^q: 

i^SToTTTf rf^ ^c^^: I if^'^TWcTr ITfl'^TTf^JT cT^?Tn^- ITRI^'^Trl' I Vimana. 
Malli. seems to derive this as follows — ^^j >T«rr ^\^J: €'^^\^s^J•^ ^s^l: 
m^J^K^V I ^rm^ — Here the word 3T% being 3T^rar^?(T ought to 
\have been placed first. Hem. says the Oomp. is of the ^fSf^'^ff^ 
class and so we have ^TTT^f- aT^^^TK^R'r— 3T5^oT: ^^RTiS^^R: 
the core of the black sandal; ^ ^rR^^ I ItRF?^-' — f^^^^ fT% 
.#5T?7?ff: I Uq. III. 128; one who conquers, a victor; rl^q?t f 3rT???ffi- 1 

S'l. 9. ^wrrq^rr^— ^^^riTwrfrr ^^r ^»fmf^?n 3Tr:?T^s'%"^m ^r ^mm 

^?oJT'f['=?TR=Tfr% ^r^nfr l 3'^?B;?«I^r — Peacocks are described as being 
deceived by any noise resembling the rumbling of clouds and then 
dancing and singing with joy. Cf. I. 39. t^^ — This word is vari- 
ously derived as : — ^ti^'??'?^ f -'^ ^J^^ '^^]^^ (when blown and 

i heard) | 3jq^r?7»T^?7frTT% ^^^•' (that which removes calamity) from 
^T^-f ^ by :{T%: J^: Un. I. 102; :}f tIt^ ^^Tlli sr^T^rfcT fili, &c. ; see 
foot-note, ij^ilrrr — spreading, pervading. For a slightly different 
meaning cf. II. 34. »rfwr«f:— H^^^T^: ir^f^TJTJT^ I 

S'l. 10. ffJKHf— q;^r5Tlmfrr% ^^^r. \ "^^r^^m^PJc-a palanquin. 
See ft.-note. ch<-zrr — Some take ^'JTRR^lT?rn*r as one comp. word. 

SI. 11. f^v^rTrfcT^ra" — Rvtr^^tfi^^TT^cTRT^ I the highest limit or 
perfection of creation or design. Char, translates this by r%»Tf^ 
^lir^T^. Of. ^^^JX^^^^^ ^^iTfm ^T%^ 'T^T^^^^T??-^^ I Bhatti. I. 3. 
^F^rr*!^ — ^i'^\ qfrir(^^«T ^^^irff^r: l Here the «p??tt is looked upon 
as the material which was given the best form ( ff>^Rif?T^T?T ). 

S'l. 12. ^or^TnTfcT: — 3TJTr ff'T aqg-fr^r: ^'J\^^^mt^^•■ 1 ^^R^ — 
desire to have. ?TFrC^^r: — TRl is defined to be 'the permanent long- 
ing which young lovers have for each other.' This is the ^?jj-f?rvTr^ 
of S'ringara. When this Hatl is rendered agreeably manifest to 
the audience by the exhibition of the proper Vihhavas, Anuhhdvas 
and the Vyahhicharibhavas. it is called ^fTT- See Sanj. By "^g^f 
Malli. understands the Anubhavas, which are the outer signs of 
the internal feelings. These are of four kinds: (1) mental; (2) 
bodily; (3) lingual; and (4) intellectual. See ft. -notes. 

Ic s'lokas XIII. -XIX. .the poet describes the various amatory actions of 
the kings in the excited condition of their minds when they saw the 

(148) [Cant. VI. 

princess actually befere them. These were naturally to be expected from 
theni on sucb an occasion in their half abscut-mindednesg; and thcr^^ was 
no particular moaning in them, boyond an intention to attract her notice 
or exhibit their love for her or to show themselves to advantage An 
attempt is made, however, by the commentators, Hem. and Malli., to 
make Indumati and her suitors interpret the actions each in a way favour- 
able to either, but the hidden sense discovered by them is more d. >ho\» 
the subtlety of their critical faculty than real. 

S'l. 13. 57JT3''>— ^TTI,? ( clasped, held ) ^]^ 7;^. ^^^ the hollow 
stalk especially of a lotus; cf. i^^^sp^h•. i^rq^^^f^: Meg. II. 16. 
ofeC'TT — shows that it had a powerfully attractive smell. TfCTT- 

trf^^isflrtT^lfl &c. Nai. I. 14. r^f^f^^^—^\p^^j.^i\^.^^ ^RT^-T^ 1 
A lotus taken by a handsome person in his or her hand as an 
additional grace to his or her person. »j»T?n'^^5RTT — The king did 
this probably to attract Indumati's notice, which he wanted to do 
without committing any breach of decorum or propriety. 

SI. 14. Rprr^r— f«r5r^+f^g^ (f=i) m^ifr^q i Pan. ill. 2. us. 

A beau. See ft.-note. ^[^^rgo &c — ^c^?:^!'^:^- ^f^ft inlaid with 
gems. 3Tf^^— 3T|r- ^TW f5^m ?Tfff im 3Tir? an ornament worn ou the 
upper arm (between the elbow and shoulder). ^T^^^iT^rq — aTf-^rTT: 
??TT4 ^R^m^^^ I '^F'CrfrrT — mP^ 'turned obliquely.' grf^ is an indec; 
but Mukuta ( a commentator of Ak.) says ia^>eTI%m VS^\^. ffiT 

^f^^r'T:- ^ ^r^ 3T^n% i sT^rf^ ^rf^ ^g^q^r^ ^ft ^r^rsri^ &e. This 

prince in his vanity wanted to show his person to best advantage. 
So without turning aside his face wholly from Indumati, he 
replaced the garland extricating it from the points of his armlet, 
and thus accomplished his object. 

S'l. 15. arrf Nf?T &c.— aprr*^ m »TWc?'T^Fa'rff?5?i": I see Sanj. 

or 3{\^\k^l^^mm ^\€j ?TI aTrfir^f^nrr:, &«. ^*TrTnrfr — inclined down- 
wards. It means — With his beautiful ©yes slightly cast down. 
For this sense cf. Kum. 11. 26 '' 3TrwT%^3r7Tmrc7r^?yfi^m<l^r«^:' 
also III. 54 ( arrff^cn &o- ) and ^f~^53T?ff iT»TJT»TcT^r ^S^T^Tr?^^ 
;jt1: I Meg. I. 48. ifft f^f^^^ — scratched or drew lines on his 
foot-stool. This is to be distinguished from »ffj i?f^^. The 
former means <a meaningless scratching', and is a sign of absent- 
mindedness-, while the latter implies 'intentional writing." The 
king was utterly absent-minded and did not know what he wrote. 
Cf' '^iflN m^T^'J; ^r«T»i' Kum. II. 23; 'q fq&T%?% "^K^.H ^f? j%%r. 
^tsTT^?Tc7T=^JTt n^\>' Kir. VIII. 14. See ft. notes. 



Canto VI. ] (140) 

S'l. 16, arr^^r^— srr^^e^r^^: qy^H-^T^ft^^ l Here 3Tt does not 
mean exactly 'a half/ bat a part only. The word 3T^ meaning a half 
is of the neu. gender and is placed first in a Gen. Tat. f^frTo — 
flr^ the snaall of the back, or the part near the lower end of the 
spine ; or it may better mean 'the part of the spine between the 
shoulder-blades.' f5f?f — divided i. e. fallen on either side, or rolled 
round ( gfasci: ) according to Malli. ^|7^— ^ffVR f Q[?f ^^ I The 
word gfg[_ and gfrj, meaning a friend and a foe respectively, are 
derived from g and ^r^ prefixed to f^Jf, by 'g^^ffr ffl^IR^^r:' V?-.n. 
V. 4 150. If we expound as g ^frvrq" f ^ 5?^ «? we shall get the word 
gg-fj^ but then the meaning will be 'one with a good heart' ( just 
like ^ffq': ), and not necessarily 'a friend.' The king placed his 
left hand on. his throne and reclining on it turned to his neighbour 
to converse with him. This raised his left shoulder and depressed 
the right one, and thus brought the back in a position to receive 
the displaced long necklace of pearls. This act of the king 
indicates the nervousness he felt when the princess presented 

SI 17. f?^q-5T^ — A kind of ear-ornament made of ivory 
(probably of the form of the folded Ketaki which is worn 
in the hair of the head by women ). arrTT'^^'?. — TRfT'pTf^rFnr 
'^'^l^'j; ' 3Tr f«r?Tr''fT'TrTFfT'3[ l This action of the king shows that 
he was extremely beside himself, being under the power of the 
intensity of his feelings. According to Oharitravardhana it 
indicates his proficiency in the Erotic science. 

S'l. 18. |r^^?r— f?r ^sr ^"^ ff^r^^T^^ i '^tM^- ^5t ^Tr'j;' im 
v:f;T3T?T: I Now see Sanj. This is a sign of delicacy and beauty. 
C?err^-TW — ■^^^'^pHTcfr sw^r: ^^r^sr: &g. This is one of the linear 
marks of royalty said to be found on the palms or soles, x^f^^^ — 
according to Mallinatha's exposition this will mean 'rings made 
of gems;' it is better, however, to take this as a comp. of the 
^TT^TTf^flf^ cla8S-f^<3P^T'^f;:?f[?j7f^ ^^fpf^JfTTR" I ^frf^rr^ITO"— threw 
up; perf. of the caus. |r^ to go, to move, 2nd Atm.; for a different 
sense cf. supra II. 9. This was only a feint used by the king to 
prevent others from guessing his feelings by observing his features. 

Kum. VI. 84. 

SI. 19. s?Tf?f?jf|:^ — Passing over, slipping down from. q-tsTTfJ'- 
f^lTiTT»R:^T^I fg^nif:. now see com. ^r^^rrPT — the interstices or 
spaces between. This was also a manoeuvre on the part of the king 

(l'>0) [CantoVI.- 

intonded to conceal the agitation of his mind from the observation. 
of the other kings and the spectators. It, however, betrayed hi». 
feelings, as remarked by Hem. See ft.-note. 

SI. 20. ?|rTf rT^m — wbo was acquainted with the historv, the 
prowess &c , of the kings and their pedigrees. The reading ver^jif rfT 
is bad as it simply means *who knew the history of their families 
and not the particular exploits of each King. q>?Y — ^^^ 7?^?^ \ 
Malli. takes this with ST^^ri; I 'She spoke like a man,' i. e. without • 
feeling nervous in the presence of so many kings, which she, as a- 
woman, was expected to do. Tae reason of this is supplied by 
tfT^^r, We may, however, better connect it with 5rir?*rrj 'advanced 
( ac!complished ) like a man, speaking boldly and sensibly.' jjf^^^-o-- 
5(fffT%'7fr ?ia ifmfR: 1 Now see Sanj. jr^^jv^^^^^—^^jyvfr^f ^ig-?jroi|. 
Hfr^I ^i^T^fr Jrnvfi: l For the disappearance of the suffix ^r^ and 
the pi. see Pan. IV. 2. 81, I. 2. 51: ^n^T^\H\9^T•. \ ^t^rrr— ^["fcT 
ffcT f'^rfr an unmarried woman, a maiden. The affix ^ implies 

Si. 21. ^caj: — lit. able to protect : see com. ^TT'^r^^rRTI. — 

3Ti'^?RRr »rrvi: i^«?i%?tl> arirrvf^q; i Bah., by the Vart. '^57F^*trt^' 
on PAn. II, 2. 24. »iiTvj5fffi^:— See Malli.; or ^tit^t: ^rm^ 3TW j 
?mr^'Tr*?r— 3T«T^'nnT^'T??T 'fP'T 'f^TI^; in; keeping with the sense. 
An Avya. of the f%??Tf)iTW class; q"«rT here indicates iffTdT. See 
Sid.-Kau. on Pan. II. 4, 18. ^vfj is compounded in an Avya, when 
not implying ^Ig-^?r, by '?7?Tr5^r?^^' P&n. II. 1. 7; jj^\^ ^m^. 
What is meant is this — He was a king in the real sense of the word/ 
since he was always the protector of his subjects and thus had 
secured their good-will ( ir^fiT'd^^ &c, ) and was also a chastiser of» 
his enemies ( ^tr[^ )• So both these epithets were literally 
trae in his case. 

Si. 22. gRTR^ — Granted that; see note on IV, 43. and S'ik. I. 
31. ^TfW^T:-^^^: ^^: qKi^^j^t: by thousand?; here implies mere 
plurality. 5CriTS=?tfr^— ^TpT^r ^TSTF ^^^\: i The ^ is here irregularis 
retained in this sense; while ^r^rs^^r ff?I^ becomes ^r^^^F. See 
Sanj. and Amara. quoted therein, ^fl^^rTRnTf— ^T ^f^ 'F^^TRIfj; 
''^riin^ ^ ^^'fffilr ny^for those which do not move from their placet, 
«. a., the stars, which are fixed. This distinguishes them from the 
planets which move round the sun. Or ^ ^in% ff?r ^T^sTTf'T those 
which nevor fade, i. e. have a steady light. This also distinguisheit 
them from the planets which, owing to their motion round the sun, 

Canto YI. ] ( 151 ) 

present diiiereut phases and sometimes appear less, at others more^ 
brilliant. This term, howeverp is generally restricted to the 27 
constellations of stars through which the moon while moving round 
the earth appears to pass. cT^?cqif*n?r^ fTTU:— Those by which 
people travelling through strange countries guide their course, i. e. 
the stars. Cf. ' '^^-»niT(f^^5TmTlt JT^tfl-5[% f^^T-*' I Mah.-Bhdr. 
This is the general name for stars; see ft.-note. ^^f^cT Q;#^^fH'tT% 
ir^[: those which shine by the light they get from the sun, i. e. the 
planets. "rsflf^s'Trfr — having a luminary shining in. 

S'l. 23. J?R^m^^\^ — ^^^^ uninterruptsd succession. 3T>-.'T^ — 
see note on the word under I. 81. According to Ohdr, this ef)ithet 
implies that the king was much given to religious rites and was not. 
therefore, a fit mate for the princess. sTtTW^ — See note on the word 
III. 44. ^r^^^: — ^f?r%^rT% 3T?^I% Indra. See notes on III. 43; 
Budh. Ch. I. 27. irr°^^!fr?y &c. — Tfjv^ 5P^cf[ TI'Tf^'Ttffr fl'ff^'^^fT 
ITcT rTfn I S'achi's face was pale because of the anxiety caused by her 
husband's absence. Whenever a sacrifice is performed the gods are 
supposed to come down in person to accept the offerings, and hence 
Indra'a constant absence. See the quotation in the Sanj. 
H5?^^TT?J^r^ — *T^r^ here means <the flowers of the MandSra tree, 
which seem to be specially favourite with the damsels of heaven; 
ef. ^'^^g^JV■^^]J^r^PT\ &c. Vik. IV. 35. Ohaste ladies do not 
decorate their locks with flowers when their husbands are absent. 
See Sanj. Here Sunandl indirectly hints, supposes Hem., that the 
young princess would not be very happy in his company. 

S'l. 24. *r%JT '%^ — This, according to Hem. and Ghir., expresses 
Sunandd's disapproval of the match. But this and other remarks 
of a similar nature of these commentators seem to be quite out of 
place. Malli. shows better taste in not attempting to discover any 
hints &c. in Sunanda's speech. Sunanda's duty was simply to 
describe the kings as best as she could, without betraying any leaning 
or partiality towards any one of them. It was a svayamvara and 
Icdumati had to exercise her free choice in selecting her husband. 
Any attempt on the maid's part direct or indirect, to bias her mind 
in favour of or against a particular prince would have vitiated the 
character of the svayarrivara. ^^^^^ — V^^H ST^f ^V^^'- oiie fitly 
chosen; estimable, elegible; fr. f and ^,^^, an Un. aff. Sfr^f^ &c. — 

^m\^'!^ \ ^^WA^^ ^\w\'^^^ ^iItcti^ctt^tj^ i The comp. is ^f ^qr 

and not an Ace. Tat. %^ir?^^ — 3"rgfcfT?3c'H^: I lit. that which. 

(152) [Canto VI. 

incilos one to action or drives away depression; hence, festivity. 

I^2^riF?rr^r'5t-^m'TF^!Fif^ ^^'TrErmi% a^w^^r: by the Virt. 

'3T|ff?^??TIoi' on Pall V. 2. 100. «J«T<T^ — modern Patnft, the same as 
Pataliputta, the capital of Magadha, which was situated near the 
tionfiaence of the S'oiia with the Ganges. 

S'l. 2.). f^^Rr &c.— rf^%g glrjTfqr ^r (^w^^'\ i f;«fi 3?f •* 

I^i;H^'Tr $ffl f^ffl I Now see Sanj. "Whose garland of Madhcka 
flowers, interspersed with diirva grass, was slightly displaced." 
Such a garlaud is considered auspicious, and the bride ought to 
wear it ojji the occasion of her marriage, ^ft^^''^^fw^^ — with a 
straight bfciutation, t. e. by making a bow, without bending herself 
much, implying thereby her dislike to him. Malli. has ^TI^ ^ y^^^ 
with a plain salutation, t. e. without any indication of lore, a cold 
and formal salutation. Char, and Din. also explain in the same 
way. But this will not explain why the garland was not much 
displaced. Slight displacement of the garland ( f^r%|%^l% ) is only 
possible if the bow was made with the body nearly erect ( ^"^ ) 
»'. e. slightly bent. cFff — here means 'slender- waisted," a well- 
proportioned woman as opposed to a fat one. 

S'l. 2C. ;g^ — She that had spoken before and none else. 
Because she was able to divine Indumati's feelings (see Sanj.). 
't'nif^ — ^sr. the official staft ( ornamented with gold or silver) 
of a door-keeper; see Kum. III. 41. ^^TR'TT^r — ^»=«fniH ^^iTtftfh 
^JTRot: rTWri?rTrB"mffT » r^lp^'OT— bere ^j^] is the same as >^i a 
line, hence each wave. TT^Wrnrt^r — TT'T^ ^be sacred lake on 
the mountain Kail&sa in the Himalayan range. It is also called 
^I?f W- ( XIII. 60 ) having been created by Brahma from his mind. 
According to the Ram. the river Sarayu or Gogra issues from it. 

'^(^r^Tl^ l]^ T^^ T>T% T^ n «^ ii ^frinr "^ik^j^ '^^^ jtr^ 
m- I frpTrfgm^ bx^- «i^fs^igQ»i;fri n «^ ii ??T:iTfTTr m^^- %^^J ^^- 

^«5^T I' &«. R&m&. B41. K&iida Chap. XXIV. But in reality no 
river issues from it, though the river Satlej flows from another 
and larger lake called ^i^oi^^ which lies close to the west of 
M&nasa. It is stated in the V&y. Par. that when Gang4 fall 
from Heaven upon the monntain Meru, she ran four times 
round the mountain and then divided herself into four rivers 
whioh ran down the mountain and formed four great lakes, 
ar^efyiT on the east, ^i^f^ on the west, qfT*r^ on the north and jfm^ 
on the south. i}H% ^r3ri€r*TT^^?W^«( I The simile, according to Hem., 
implies power of discrimination between good and bad on the part of 
the prinoess. The lake Stanasa is said to be the favourite haunt of 

Canto VI. j (153) 

flamingoes which migrate to its shores at the commencement of 
the monsoons. Ftdc Vik. IV. 14, ISj Meg. I, 11,11. 16. -Those 
birds finding in the rocks bordering on the lake an agreeable and 
safe asylum when the swell of the rivers in the rains and the 
inundation of the plains conceal their usual food.' Moorecroft's 
Journey to Manasa-Sarovara, Asiatic Researches, XII. 4G6. 

SI. 27. q^r<3t — A poetical license, the princess being referred to 
by fT^ in the preceding s'l. ^_^\'R[^ cannot be substituted for cTT^- 5*?- 
^Iprr^: — The important kingdom of Aliga was situated on the right 
bank of the Ganges and to the south of Kaus'iki Kaohchha. Its 
capital was Champa, sometimes called Ailgapuri, Lomap&dapurl or 
capital of king Lomapada, Karnaputi or capital of king Karria, and 
Malini. According to Hiouen Thsang it stood on the Ganges about 
24 miles west of a rocky island. Greneral Cunningham has shown that 
this description applies to the hill opposite to Patharghata, that it is 
24 miles east of Bhagalpur and that there are villages called Oham- 
p4pura and Champ4nagara adjoining the last. According to Sanskrit 
writers the town was situated on the Bh4girathi, east ( properly 
south-east ) of Mithil&, and near the confluence of the Kaus'iki. So 
there is no doubt that Champ4 stood at or about Bhagalpur. Ohampi 
was probably so called from the abundance of Ohamp& or Champaka 
flowers: at any rate, according to the Mah.-BhSr. there was a 
Champaka wood near Kaus'iki. In the present s'l. there is an allu- 
sion to elephants, which are not found in the hills to the south and 
east of Bhagalpur, but in the Himalayan regions on the north, so 
it seems Ailga at one time included Kaus'iki Kachchha. ^^HpTr 
&c. — Tradition has it that this ki/ig was called away by Indra to 
assist him in a war with the demons, when his youthful beauty 
enamoured the damsels of heaven (see Sanj ). ff^lrTTrT: — ^ 

^'Sijcfrm ^it: qf?T: I ?r^ vr^r: ^]^: elephants, ^^r^rc: — ^^rm ^ 

^fTc5'^'^Tf^l%%: the composers or writers of aphorisms on the 
elephantine science. According to the commentators Malli.. Hem. 
and Ohdr., the elephants of this king were trained by such eminent 
original writers on the science and art of training elephants, as 
Palakapya, Gautama, Mrigaeharman and others. According to the 
story given by Malli. this king ■> nv a troop of the elephants of 
heaven descended to this world on account of some curse. Unable 
to seize them he applied to Indri, who directed some of the 
heavenly sages to accompany him to r,Ue world of mortals and to 
train the elephants for him. It h-hs thus that the science of 

R. N. 20 

(154) [Canto VI > 

traiaing elephants was introduced into thia world. See Sanj. ^79 
'Tt— cf. II. 54. 

S'l. 28, q-?n-^2|rn'— causing to be oast or arranged round: prei. 
p. of 3TR cau. with qf^. gTTr'ircy &«• — SWr^c^RI^ F-f.^1 »rk\^^- 
^^^V I ?^ ^^K^m^'T^ 5^T<?rc7?'^^r5TPTir?Tr^ryrT»TT: I f?T^5~We may 
construe this with tRfWflfTT.or ijf'^fq^r-- gT'S^T-hoving taken away. 
The idea is this — The king killed his enemies in battle. Upon 
this their wives threw away their pearl-necklaces, but the big 
drops of tears which they shed through grief came trickling down, 
and being settled on their breasts, looked like so many pearls 
arranged together, as it were, without a string. The poet fancies 
that these were the very necklaces which they had discarded that 
were now given back to them by the king without their strings. 
Cf. Mudr. I. 11; Nai. I. 10. 

SI. 29. q"^5EfBr^ — "nay be taken as a Vya. Bah. as Malli. 
does, or as an Upapada Tat. ^'>ir:^*j^g-[% ?t% i ^^ ^prFfrfr '^— 
It is supposed that these two goddesses are generally opposed to 
each other, t. e. generally the same person is not both learned and 
■wealthy ( or beautiful ). «f7?=zrrf«r — ^^^ ^r^w^m^i\m ^i^^m^^. 
/em. ^^qpjfy. ^?jf: — may also be taken with ^]J'^] which in this 
case will mean ' equal to '; f^Fq-fPT g^i^TF 5f*Tf ^I'r^r g]JtT«ir fncf ^ 
tT'ir: ^U^\ 1 "You, on account of your possessing a handsome person 
and a fine tongue, are equal to Lakshmi and Sarasvati combined 
and therefore the better suited to be the king's bride." Ohar. and 
Hem. think that this indicates the undesirability of electing him, as 
he had already two wives, viz. Lakshmi and Sarasvati. 

SI. 30. iT^zn"'^ — Malli. roudors this by ' Friend of the mother.' 
See Sanj. We may also explain ^i^'TRt ^fiCr 3r?^l, well-disposed 
towards, a well-wisher of, the bride. Hem. and Dinakara read t&e 
text of the line as ' ^iafd 5R^H^^c^*TTfr '" — the maiden ordered her 
bearers to proceed, a reading wliicb Malli. also notices and com- 
ments upon. Hem. says ^;fi ^f?fl^fr W^\'- and further remarks 
gr^^y: %ivirr ^X¥^ ^ 1^ |c5"7®i3TRcHfffrq: ?t% ?if^ff»fT 1 Din. also adds 
ir^IRrff qfs =Ti^ m^^t TT'^r: &^- Ohar. and Vail, also read ^ffTfcT 
Tf'^TR^f^RTfr I The former iraoalates ?ii?ir(^ by <TRflff^: ^nd the 
latter by fTfF^- T-JT — The t\vo negatives are equivalent to au 
emphatic affirmative. ^r>=ZT: — ^fJTH3 ^^'- worthy to be liked, 
acceptable. fiT5r?I%T'f {7r^:-'but people have different tastes.* 
Sanj.; cf. Kir. I. 37 quoted i i the ft.-note. 

SI. 31. q?:^ — 'another/ is a /»0N. here, aud declined like ^, 
f^^=^r «r?ff«»— c/. iTFcTf IT^Jifr supra si. 20. ^jf»r-the place or site of. i^: 

Cauto VI. ] ( 156 ) 

^^TTr^tTPTTrsf^ I Vis'va, f^^sffg^ij — To be seen with partioular-close- 
attention; hence, ' of lovely appearance.' T^ff^R^ — ^^9?«Tr^ rise 
?T?j? • appearing after new moon.' Such a moon ie supposed to be 
lovely. Of. II. 73. f?f »??# — Here the Dat. may be explained by 
'^^rr,j ^^\k^J^ e ^iT^rr^ ' P^?. I. 4. 32. ??5;f?fnTrvrErcq-rJT»T: I See 
Apte's G. § 45 (a), f^ffff^f »Tc§ — Here we must not suppose that 
the king is directly compared to the moon; for in the next si. he is 
compared to the sun and the comparison is kept up until the rejec- 
tion of the prince by Indumati ( &'l. 36 ). The resemblance here 
is simply between the act of showing the king and the act of 
showing the new moon. 

SI. 32. 3Tg"f?rT?TrT: — Avanti is name of a country on the north 
of the Narmad4. Its capital was Ujjayiui, also called Avanti -puri 
or Avanti, and Vis'&la or the great city ( see Meg. I. 30 ), situated 
on the Sipr4. Its temple of Mahak4la was widely known. Hema- 
ohandra gives M41ava as a synonym of Avanti. But the accuracy 
of this may be doubted, as the former country covered in ancient 
times, as now, a wider area than Avanti; and Banabhatta applied 
it to a neighbouring kingdom on the east whose capital was Vidisi 
on the Vetravatl. It appears from Kali. ( see Meg. I. 24-25 ) that 
DasArna was the name of this country through which the Das'arna 
flows. And Anandoram Borooah identifies it with Bhilsa, which 
agrees with it in name and position, four miles from which there is 
a detached hill with vast remains of antiquity. According to the 
Mah.-Bhiir. the province of Avanti extended on the south to the 
bank of the Narmada, and on the west probably to the banks of the 
Mahi or Myhe. On the north of Avanti lay another principality 
with its capital Das'apura on the Oharmanvati river, which appear- 
to be the modern town of Dholpur, and was the capital of Ranti- 
deva. 3T«fn=cT is considered to be one of the seven sacred citie; of 
the Hindus, to die at which is supposed to secure eternal happines:. 

Of. 3T^i«gT 5T«jTr 'Tf^T ^^ft ^i%iw%^r I 5fT ^r^RcTr %^ ^Wcrr jfr^Tf- 

f%^: II The women of this city are described as very skilful in all 
erotic arts. See Bal.-R. X. 83. '^SR^qjg^ — See San j. We may also 
analyse =^ ^q: wH^j ■x^^^: ff^^ I '^^ a round lathe, cf. ^r^j^'^^zT- 
WT>yrr'cTJ?Tf^'i¥3?f[ffT^^^fc5";' i Uttar. VI. 3. ^^ — Tvashtri, the 
Vulcan of Indian Pantheon^ is the architect of the gods, well-versed 
in all arts and wonderful contrivances. He sharpens the axe 
of Brahmanaspati, and forges the thunderbolts of Indra. He had 
two children, a sonnamei Trisiras and a daughter named 8arajn4. 
The allusion here is to the story of ^^ who was given in marriage 

(156) [ Canto VI- 

"^0 the San. Uuable to endure the excessive splendour of her hus- 
band she applied to her father to reduce the luminary. Tvashtri 
accordingly obtained the consent of ^if to work upon him, and 
placing him on a turning lathe trimmed off a portion of his bright 
disc. The part trimmed off is said to have been used by him in 
fashioning the discus ( ^gp ) of Vishnu, the Tris'ula of Siva, the 
rod(^tJ3-)of Yama and other redoubted weapons of the gods, 
wherewith they discomfited the demons. With all his offorts, 
however, Tvashtri succeeded in reducing only an eighth of the sun's 
spendour ( according to the Vishnu P. ), and hence the poet adds 
' ^r#?r '. See Malli. For a fuller account see Mark. P. 105-108. 
^fsrRjnr: — trimmed out or lopped off. 

SI. 33. ^a-fntr^r^: — Tho S'aktla referred to are !r^3Tl% or the 
power arising from personal energy (se« f t.-note ); jii=^?it% or the 
power arising from good counsel; and Tf?rrf^f^ or the power 
arising from the possession of a good treasury and an efficient 
army. ^RiTr^rPT — Eaised. This is causal in sense, though 
primitive in form ( 3T;?t^w57«t ) and is therefore transitive. 
HR^fT <fei!. — see note on the word utdor V. 18. q-*TnTfrfTffnT^T — 
ST^fTJT^ f r. 3TWa; adv. and f to go. ^x^x is connected with • fg^- 
JTofRTJ^ ' and is therefore ^jq^; i^ i- nevertheless not compounded, 
like ^w^Tf^q 'JR'JrJ^St- Malli. remarks on this ' m^: &c., where 
^flBI^: means 'the vanguards, thi' soldiers marching in the van.' 

S'l. 34. *I?r^?r &c« — Mahakal k is the name of the celebrated 
temple of S'iva, one of the tvt&\vc jyotirlihgas^ at Ujjayini. This is 
immortalized by Kali, in his Mi-j.'. iiich gives a beautiful descrip- 
tion of the god, his temple, wor-t.i ., &c. ( see I. 35-89 ). S'iva is 
always said to be present ther- This indirectly points to the 
sanctity of the laud. =^?5Hr^:- ~ 'Tfr?"i •s^'PT a Vya. Bah. This 
epithet explains why the rrf^f'^; ilways lighted up. ^\^^ — 
?iRI?«ITfmm fir%^ der. irregul; :)f^y^|%5fj__' Vki}. V. 2. 1145 
'dark.' ^\X{m ^^^^\^^^^^.\ oi rar.y mean darkness; cTT%?rP? 
Ty?eirn^'TJ[iT: I •3TrViTriTSf%rTt'i?i- rrw cR:' Amara. f^^*?:-- 
The pi. shows that ho had air. y wives, and thereby implies 
his ineligibility. 'S^R^-T^- ?fi7f% sq-j?^! der. irregularly. 
iffr^T^-Here q^^n^ must be urn' ; its usual sense of 'the fore- 
part of tbe night' and not in t e iiight' as Malli. does. Cf. 
"stCnI ^^rgr=l^' Amara. If - ".and it in that sense w© shall 
miss the poinl of the poot-, f< y in the dark half of a month 
fhat there is no moonlight in i .rt o£ the night, and bo all oau 


CautoYL] (157) 

never enjoy it then, while this king was so fortunate that he could 
enjoy it even in the forepart of the night. 

S'l. 35. ;cnTr? — Having thighs tapering li'ie a plantain tree. 
^Tflffj^ — Indec. implying merely a question according to Malli. 
But if it be a question it would imply Sunanda's disapproval of tbe 
choice. And in fact Hem. and Oh^r. remark to that effect. But 
Sunanda'3 part in the svayamvara is simply to describe the kings 
and not to seek to bias Indumati's mind, as is already remarked 
( see remarks under s'l. 24 ) It is better, therefore, to understand 
5Fr%(^iu its usual sense of 'I hope you have the desire' &c.; see V. 
5-9. ^srr &c, — This shows that the gardens are situated 
near the river and therefore a walk in them must be pleasant. 
SiprS, is a liver near Ujjayini, |being tributary of the Ghambal. 
See note on Avanti s'l. 32. 

S'l. 36. 3TPt^f?r?T &c- — III this s'loka the king is compared to 
the sun and Indumati to the white lily. Hence the epithets are so 
chosen as to apply primarily to the sun and secondarily to the king. 
aTPT^rf^cf ( 1 ) caused to bloom; hence ( 2) gladdened. iirirT — ( 1 ) 
heat; ( 2 ) prowess. ?f^Tr^?t — ( 1 ) dried up; ( 2 ) destroyed.' The 
epithet ^^]^ &c. implies the king's fisecrq- as remarked by Char, and 
thus supplies the reason why the princess who was 3lT^^'^ffT'l'r 
rejected him. vjj^ q- ^^vf — did not fix her heart i. e. affection on 
him. ^g'frfr — The white lily that blooms at night, Cf 3T-(Tf|^ 
\\m^ %W ^?m R &c. S'ak. IV. 3. 

S'l. 37. ^r*TTgT;^^r»Tr»^— cT^JTT means water; aw't ^ ^T% (lies 
on ) ff% cfW^^'a: a lotus; fr^^PflT eT[fT?:^['cT?:^ i ri^^^mr 'T^qiWr^l 
5T5TT — See Sanj. sffr^r^— Malli. has 3Tr%^r^ eminent for, dis- 
tinguished by. But the sense of •equal, not inferior to,' will also 
do; inferior to none in personal excellences, ^frfr^ — '^[^RT ??fTT 
^'^r: 'Sr ^7i^r cTI^ I The word ^rcT at the end of a Bah. Oomp. 
beginning with ^ or a numeral becomes ^rj; when the comp. denotes 
a particular age; see Sanj. and Prin. V. 4. 141 quoted therein. 
Hence ^ + 7^+t=^cfr when it means one having a complete set of 
fine teeth, which is had only in youth; and then a young woman. 
While gT^at will simply mean a woman having fine teeth without 
implying any stage of life. She may be young or old. 

S'l. 38. ^^m &c.— ^if[rr5 Hr?ST: ^f^ ^fff .* ^^; here ^^^ is 
considered to be an ordinary gq^rrf^ word. It was only when fight- 
ing on the battle-field that he manifested a thousand arms. Elsewhere 
he had only two. See the remark in Sanj. The reason of this is 

( 158 ) [ Cauto VI- 

..cCi^iiys giTeu by the epithet ^\jf]. The mystic power was givuu him 
by his i'oga or metaphydical contemplations. See, however, note on 
5rr«Tfr^. 3Ti5T?'^ITr'? — ^'^'' '^^ names of the 18 dvlpas see ft. -note, 
'iTiTrfm?r?5Ic!t f^m^^J '^^^^^^\'J^^^m^f'if^\ Nai. I. 5. 5?5FJTOT'Tn:T 

( Karm, ; ^jfr: ^T^ff ^T^^ ( Gen. Tat, ) ffer fr n^f^Ti?:: uow =ee 
Sanj. ^jiff — here JiirJT may mean f^TrffWHTr-ir after Patanjali or 
' identifying the individual with the supreme soul in meditation ', 
after the Ved&ntins ' ff^rfjjrr i^ii fsjrpr gfff ic*nTnTTriT^i:' I ^T^'^^: — 
The Bon of Ivritavirya, and king of the Haihayas, a people of 
Cei^tral India. He is sometimes called Sahagrarjuna, K4rtavtryar- 
juna or simply Arjuna. Ki'irtavirya propitiated the sage Datt4treya, 
the son of Atri, who was a portion of Vishnu and obtained from 
him these boons: — a thousand arms and a golden chariot that would 
move wherever he willed it to go; the power to restrain wrong by 
justice; subjugation of the world and governing it equitably; invin- 
cibility by hid enemies and death at the hands of a person renowned 
in the three regions of the universe. By virtue of these boons he 
ruled over the world with might and justice and offered ten 
thousand sacrifices. And of him it was sung ( see ft.-note ): 'The 
lords of the earth will, assuredly, never tread in the footsteps of 
(equal) Kartavirya in respect of sacrifices, munificence, religious 
austerities, courtesy and self-control." Vishnu P. He is said to 
have governed the earth for 85,000 years with unimpaired health, 
prosperity, power and valour. He once visited the hermitage of 
the saire Jamadagni who happened to be absent then, but was received 
hospitably by his wife. He, however, recompensed this hospitality 
by carrying off violently the sage's KAmadhenu, and was slain by 
■paras'ur4ma. According to other accounts he grew very insolent 
and oppressed both men and gods. The latter prayed to Vishnu 
for redress and that divinity came down to the earth as Paraa'urdma 
to kill him. He was a contemporary of R4vana, See s'l, 39, 40, 

1 '. ^':?TT^f^^m — 3T5T^TFff ^FI^^I^^ I Here the neg. particle 
has the >en8o of * wicked, reprehensible.' '^q'vjx: — see foot-note. 
rf|-»^^ — This he could do on account of hi.i qfij^c^. ST^ST^^frf^ — 
:^?fT'H 5Tfn*T^rT.5Tfin5 ; properly the I9f^f or the subtle body 
But here ^ift^ seems to mean by c7S?iTI *an organ of sense' or ff;jq. 
See Sanj. Hence 3T'a:^TfF'r means 'the mind,' Other kings could 
reetrain the outward actions of men. Bat this king could punish 

Canto VI. ] (159) 

people even for their wicked thoughts. This Justifies the use of 
the epithet 'ST^TJ^^^r'^I^'iTTrsT^Ta?:'- R^^rf^f^ — ^»^- ordered back; 
prevented the subjects from carrying out their wicked thoughts, 
made them banish them from their hearts. 3Tf^»nt — an improper 
act, a breach of propriety; also an offence or crime. f%H"rff — «T3 
^'?!T^rrTT^-one properly leading ( the people); the excellent governor 
or trainer. The word is apnropriaste with 3Tlf^. 

SI. 40. :52frg^^ar &c. — This shows to what humiliation Ravana 
was put. nT%:'v^^q; &c. — Ravana was so much overpowered by 
the superior strength of Kartavirya that he wae not only breathing 
through his nostrils but was gasping at his mouth. This indicates 
his extreme helplessness. Or this might be due to his unavailing 
wrath. ^fTrfT^r<3r?T — Here Ravana is extolled as the conqueror of 
Indra to bring cue more prominently the valour of Kartavirya. 
^'^T^i^aj — Once upon a time king Kartavirya was sporting with the 
females of the seraglio in the waters of the Narmada when his thou- 
sand arms obstructed the current of the river. In the meantime 
Rdvana, who was out on a victorious excursion was sitting on a 
spot thus left dry in the bed of the river worshipping the liiiga of 
B'iva. When the obstructed current was let loose by the removal 
of the king's arms, it swamped Rivana and the image of S'iva. 
Chafed at this Ravana came up to him and challenged him to fight. 
He was, however, overpowered by the superior prowess of the 
king, who took him prisoner and kept him confined in his prison 
like a wild beast. At last his grandfather, the sage Pulastya, took 
oompassion upon him and appeasing Kdrtavirya's wrath procured 
his freedom. The Ykyn P. states that Kartavirya invaded Lahka, 
and there took Rdvaua prisoner. 

S'l. 41. 3T?W% — see I. 9. ffeT — Known as, renowned as. 
MfiTHf ^€r— srrir^^ f ?t: STiirTf^^RfTl^f^^ ^fr^^R^^r devoted to those 
old in knowledge. Or preferably striT: ^TlWlf^ f ^I«? fTr'%R5 «fcc. 
Who followed the Sastras and the elders, i.e., men of experience. 
C/. ^ffr gcTT f^iT^S: ••ifliTr?, Rhatti. III. 52. s^:^-— sprung up; caused 
by. ^^>fr^?fr<^— ?f??T -mm ^^^\^■ one's own nature; ^^^\^^ ^^vrr^lgT 

S'l. 42. fT'J'TTTf^^— ^^r iTr%^^^ that which leaves behind a 

black track. ^r?[^ &c. — The reference here is to Agni's love for 

the daughter of Nila, one of the kings of Mdhishmati. She was of 

a ravishing beauty and used to stay near the sacred fire of her 

, -father to kindle it into a rtame with her breath. Agni fell in love 

(160) [Canto VI. 

with hb^ and would not blaze np, evon though forcibly faixned. till 
agitated by the gentle breath of that girl's fair lip?. Agni made 
confession of his love to her and his suit was accepted by the girl 
herself. Agnl accordingly assumed the form of a Br4hmana and 
used to enjoy the company of the king's fair daughter. One day 
this being discovered by the king he ordered the Brdhmana to be 
punished according to the law. Upon this the god flamed up in 
wratli. The king much marvelling at this fell down at the feet 
of the deity in the Br4hmana'a disguise and respectfully bestowed 
his daughter upon hi«i' Whereupon the deity being graciously 
plefised with the king asked him to name a boon. The king begged 
that his soldiers should ever be safe in battles. From that time 
those kings who from ignorance invaded the territory of the kings 
of M&hishmati were consumed by fire. Hence all kings avoided the 
citv through the dread of Agni. Mah.-Bhiir. Sabh. Par. Dig. P. 
Ohap. XXXI. 

STHT^^rc?" &c.— ^Tc??^ Trfir: ^Tpf^n'ir: the night at the end of a 
kal/Mi when the whole universe is destroyed and which is terrific on 
account of the oceanic and the atmospheric waters mingling tog<- 
ther to assist in the work of destruction., with terrible flashes of 
lightning, &c. ?3i%^I<Tlt ^rcTni%: ^^r^T^^I^^ir^:- The poet mentions 
the ^T(?Uf^ because the axe is also of a dark colour. This alludes 
to Paras'uriima's having cleared the earth of the Kshatriyas 
twenty-one times. After Paras'urima killed Kartavlrya ( see 
note under 38 ), the sons of the latter, in retaliation, attacked the 
hermitage of Jamadagni while Paras'urdma was out and slew the 
pious unresisting sage. When Paras'urama came back and saw 
what had happened, he took a vow to extirpate the whole race 
of the Kshatriyaa including the sons of Kartavirya. He accord- 
ingly destroyed the Kshatriyaa thrice seven times, filling with their 
blood the five* lakes of Samantapanchaka ( Kurukshetra ) from 
which he offered libations to the race of Bhrigu. He then performed 
an As'vamedha sacrifice and presented the earth to Kas'yapa. 
See notes on IV. 53. 68, Vide Mah.-Bhdr. Van. Chap. CXVI. 
,^^^^:j:_54 growth, qrpi 5^ m^^ l TTJ^ ^?If!?B m^^- an axe. 
^^^P^^_j^j.^pj^ — 3nsr is *^6 blue lotus; having the strength of a blue 
lotus-leaf ». e. of no strength at all. grqcJ" is here selected because 
a polished axe better resembles its leaf thaa that of any other varietj 
of the lotus. 

SI. 43. BTJfPJ^^n"-— 3^i, ''^^ir^^ '■. e. looking as beautiful 
Lakshmi on bis lap. ^l^nrr^'J: — This indicates his resemblance to* 

Canto VI. ] ( 161 ) 

"Vishnu who is strgfrgsfrf 'having arms reaching the knees.'" 
Trff^rfr — ' The Haihayas or Kalachuris ruled M^hlshmati, situ- 
ated on the Narmada between the Vindhya and Riksha mountains 
about Bhera Ghat below Jabalpoor, where the channel of the 
Narmada is contracted between two high perpendicular cliifs of 
Magnesian limestones, white as snow.' According to the Hv, it 
was founded by Mnchukunda, It was also the seat of king Nala. 
?^Rt{ H ^l^r^—?? ^ HcT*=^: ^^i^c^^^' buttocks in the form of the 
rampart; Karm. comp.; mff's^^r: ^^]^^^•■ &c. ■JTf'JtrT— ^FT is pro- 
perly the braid of hair; hence ^fcT^for means the current of the river 
charming with its ripples, ^^r — oi ' that which roars' is a name 
of the Narmada. It is also known by such names as Somodbhavd 
and others signifying 'born of the moon/ such as Induja &c., by 
Parvagaiigd or the eastern Ganges, and by Mekhalakanyaka and 
others meaning • issuing from the mountain Mekhala. ' Cf, ^^ ^?N- 
^T^f^T^ r%«^TI> N^m^^ I Meg. I. 19. 

SI. 44. q5fn"fT^ — Fully, to one's desire; hence, 'exceedingly.^ 
^^Ricsigg- &c.— 3TJ^^t ^^r 3T*ivi^T-- I 3"T^«^*ci-3Tq^-fr ffer sirfrq: a. 
covering, an envelope; ST^gqiToirSTn^:; now see Sanj. q^rnr^Fr: — 
qj^ when referring to the king means ' sixty-four arts.' ^fpr?2[r: — 
The simile according to Hem. shows that the princess belonged to 
the Padmini kind of females. 

Si. 45. sj^^T — Name of a country about Mathura and it& 
people. ?^^wr— ^fr*Rr%^r 'T^T I ( the q- being changed to oy after 
lj)Hem. wr^J??Tr — ST'^f cfr^r ^l^^clt »• «• the two other worlds; 
heaven and nether regions. Din. and Vail, read %^T?tT7 instead of 
«?T=FFc1T- of'rq^ — 'the lamp,' of i. e. shedding his lustre upon, bringing 
glory to both the races, very illustrious. ^c^FcTT^r — ^^ ^^^\- 
5:gT ( of tried purity ) i^^ ^^ ?T^q- or ^:^: 3j?er; the environs with 
the interior q-^q- ^ ^J^^cT: the sacred apartments, the harem; ^j; r^f. 

SI. 46. #TF^^: — ^N: 3^-^?ft ^^^, of the race of the Nipas. 
These were a sub-division of the Pdiichalaa. Their capital was 
Kampilya, from which their country was sometimes called Kampilya- 
des'a and it probably included Kanyakubja, as this latter is not 
mentioned as a separate principality in the Mah, Bhar. Its other 
important town was Makandi on the Ganges. Kampil, which is to 
the N. W. of Kdnyakubja, is identified with the ancient Kampilya, 
The kingdom of southern Pafiohala seems to have merged in the 
kingdom of Hastinapura after the fall of Drupada and his sons in 
the great war of Kurukshetra. 
B. N. 21 

( 162 ) [ Canto VT, 

?r5^— fti'vprr ?H1T^ T^T o°e who had duly sacrificed. fa^^ i^PTS.— 
ffrtg- is one who obtaius miraculous power by meditation. ^ i Kd ^ — 
Tranquil, not disturbed by antagonistic feelings. C/. x\^?fffJ^^]i^^- 
cRr;;^ &c. S'ak. I. ^^rpf^: — RT^jfoT ^cT-' natural. 5^: &c. — Cf. with 
this I. 22. 

S'l. 47. f|»TTJ[fr:— fl-m sort R^TcT q-t^rfiTf^ ff-JTT: 3T?Tfr 'Tf'?- I f»^inT 
&c. — f» ^pr5 — Malli. takes this in the sense of <in the neighbour- 
hood or borders of mansions;' we may, however, understand it in the 
sense of ' on the tops or roofs of mansions.' The houses were 
deserted on account of the constant inroads of Susheoa, and so grass 
had grown on their tops as there was none to look after them, to 
weed overgrowths &c. %»t: — The predicate to be supplied here is 
^T^rf^j by changing the gender of ^arHffHT. Here the irresisti- 
ble power of the king is indicated. 

S*l, 48. ar^frvT — 3??^-^^ f^Tffrvii: the queens, the ladies of 
the harem. o'^^fTTTt — The application of sandal paste to the 
bosom, or drawing ornamental figures with it on the breasts in the case 
of females ( as a cooling remedy), was a common practice in ancient 
times and has been often referred to by the poets. ^f f'>»-ij'^«-q f— -Lit. 
the daughter of the mountain Kalinda, i.e. the river Yamuna, which 
rises from the mountain, flows by Mathuri and joins the Ganges 
later down at Prayaga. ^^K\ Trlrf^ — Though as yet flowing past 
Mathura and not yet joining the Ganges. On this Malli. has these 
remarks :— There seems to be an anachronism here, since the poet 
himself will tell us further on ( see canto XV. 28 ) that Mathura 
Avas founded by S'atrughna. Or the city founded by S'atrughna 
might be different from this. iTlprr^ &o. — This indicates that he 
had a large harem and thus supplies the reason, according to Ohar , 
why Indumati was not inclined to choose him. 

8*1. 49. ^fcJ^T — K&liya was a huge surpent dwelling in the 
island of Bamapaka. By his insolence he incurred the displeasure 
of Garuda and being worsted in the fight which ensued, he was com- 
pelled to seek shelter under the waters of the Yamun& in the terri- 
tory of Surasena, which were forbidden to the enemy of serpents 
( Garuda ) owing to the curse of the sage Saubhari. Vide Srfdhara 
on Viah. P. Sec V.Chap. 6, The serpent was afterwards hum- 
bled by Krishna when a mere boy. See Bhag. P. Sk. X. Sec. I. Adh. 
16. ?^%^ — Hem. Ohar. Vail. Din. and some other commentators 
read ^i^R", *which', remarks S. P. Pandit, 'appears to be better as 
the gem given was a price for proteotion from Garuda and not 

Canto VI. ] ( 163 ) 

simply through terror of that formidable enemy of Kdliya.' But 
this does not seem to be correct. We cannot suppose that Kdliya 
was protected from Garuda by Surasena; for in that case the epithet 
"^JT^l^^T will have no meaning. The serpent was protected by the 
curse of the sage Saubhari, which forbade Garuda to approach the 
the Yamun4. Cf. cr:ti%cT8^ ^TT't^: ^5t5=^^^^I cTfT: I f^T'TI ^^^\^^ ^fT 

5riTTrr Tf^Tf?'?: I ^ t #rvrR5iN^ wi-t^ jT?5ifrs^^: ii Br. V. p. 

Krishiiajanma Khanda. Oh. 19. Malli., therefore, is correct in 
preferring the reading ^^q-. Kiliya, through dread of Garuda, 
left his original abode and came to live at the bottom of the YamunA 
and presented the king with the gem that he might be permitted to 
live there without further molestation, fgfrw — may be taken ^f^^ 
or fcfr. In the latter case it should be construed with ^g%^^I. 
Tg^T^^ f^c?" H^?^-given because he was residing in the YamunA. 
7^:^?7 &c.— q-!}T^^^: f?T:^?Tr^; ^^:?«Tc7 ^\% ^TTc^iTFTT^cTTg-^fr ^r^'T I 
^^THH'iC— t ttie earth ?g^rcfTT% f ?g^: the sea; ^JF^^T^^rr^ ^r?§vr: i 
The celebrated gem obtained at the churning of the sea and 
awarded to Vishnu. See X. 10. 

SI. 50. ^^iTTejf — having accepted him as your husband, having 
honoured him with your hand. ^jST^R^rrT^ &c. — ^fiffraT ^tT^T 
grqf^R«r?ir ^%^\ ^r '^r^ i 55^1^^?^: W-'^V- ^^'^W-^V- 1 Now see Sanj. 
Malli., it seems, takes this as a Bah. comp.; Ch^r. also, who says 
'^H?ir%€<7^Tf^=FT:' &o. seems to take it as a Bah. But this does not 
seem to be grammatically accurate. For by the rule '^nnT?r%%^Fl 
^f=nfr' Pfin- II- 2. 35, the fcf^T'TiT ought to appear first in the comp.5 
so this will read TtTTI'^it^Tc!'!-' instead of ffq'^icS'rTrn: I It is 
better, therefore, to take this as a Tat. as Hem. and Vail. do. 
I'gq'^llj': ^tTTF: «rST: ( exoe-llent, pleasing), or fq^rr: (mixed with) 
&c.; see ft. -note. f?frw% — The garden named after f-^r^ the 
daughter of a king named Kedara. She desired to have the 
god Hari for her husband and obtained her desire after practising 
penance for 60^000 years, and it was here that she sported in the 
company of the deity. f^T jq^ ^^\m a^ f^fl^^ ^^.^'\ I F?«?I^ fTcTr 
^TTTH^ WT 5R5Tf II ^^?:?T— The garden of Kubera. ^^fft-The 
reference to her beauty is significant. A maiden with such lovely 
beauty ought to pass her youth walking in such celestial gardens as 
Sushena possessed, and not to rot in an ordinary harem. ?^R^-^r: — 
The fulness of youth. 

SI. 51. ST»>T*?^?frf^?rrpr — This must be at the beginning of the 
rainy season when the peacocks are particularly hilarious and given 

( 104 ) [ Canto VI. 

to wild dancing. Cf. VII. 69. |Fr^Tr?viTr%— T%rn^t Ht ^^'i^ , a 
kind of mo88 growing on rocks. ' ^^-^r ??r' fffl vf^T^f ?'^, ( ^ )i 
Pin. IV. 1. 120. ^T^^ also means 'a kind of mineral earth/ which 
seems to be the meaning here. In this sense the word is derived as 
nT?rr ^ ^lanr^, the affix. S^ ( q[«T ) being added in the sense of |^ or 
'likeness' by f^fTRT: Pan. V. 3. 102. 3T*vr:gTTmM3?TTI% 3TcT q^ tlS^- 
jT'^tTt^i Oh&r. Vail, and Din. read %c^?r!^rR> which is also the reading 
(Vr^'I^T^S ) in Kum. I. 55. ;^r?7rn^t ^^T — Peacocks are represented 
as being exhilarated and dancing in the rainy season. Cf. Rit. II. G; 
Si5. VI. 31. qrfPr— T^'^ffir^ !Trf? the rainy season. The it is 
lengthened by the rale '^fpffcTf f«r5^m^r%€If tTR5 #[ ' Pai.i VI. 3. 
116; ». e. the final vowel of the T5T? is lengthened before ^%y fq;; 
&c., ending in the f^T aflQx (an affix which is added and dropped ): 
^TT^Tfl, Jffff5[, iTIl?^, »1iTTI>fi: &c. The sing, in irrff^ is ^n^'TI^y^T'n^; 'in 
every rainy season.' tf^ — may you see. The Impera. expresses 
'benediction', thereby implying that the princess should never be 
separated from Sushena in case she would choose him. Jir^q" — a 
mountain in VrindAvana near Mathur&, which Krishna lifted up and' 
held on his little finger for seven days to protect the people from 
the deluge of rain sent down by Indra. ^?^r — a dale or valley;. 
this is also mas. ( ^^l: ) and new.; see Meg. I. 58. 

Si. 52. 3Tr^*T^r?RTr»T: — The Sanskrit poets regard a deep navel 
as a mark of beauty, which they often compare to an eddy of water; 
c/ nwr^a^^lf*!: ^inr: l Das\ I. The rule that '■^\^^ at the end of 
a Bah. becomes ^\xC is not universal. The rule is deduced by the- 
separation of 3?=^ from the Sutra '3T=f irt?T?^g;?>r^ ^iTc?I^:' sinaply 
to explain such forms as qRPrT*T, gfTOT^T^T &c.. which occur in 
language. Mukuta, one of the commentators on Amara remarks: — 

=qi5TK*TTT?'r T? i;fHT^s^r^FT'iT^?^^ I ^ ^ s^r»-^'rrf^ Bl^fi=?, ^nrrrn'o 
ff% h^»t: I a?T *q-3fr ^^rTFf^^f^f^T^:' %\h ^\w. i HnrCr— ^rffg^fr 'fit 

to be* (fr. ^+^^); oJf ^^3 viRiifq-r: !nf5^T^5T[(1[ 'destined to be' 
(fr. »i+(|^). »T?i>Tr^— applies to the king also. JTf>tf?rr<I,— 
m^tj ?^T cT?HTc| I This shows that the meeting was unavoidable. It 
applies both to the king and the mountain. She approached the 
king because he was on her route onward. ^iTTirR^ — destined 
to reach the sea. Acording to Hem. this is an instance of Bff^^fsq. 
See ft. -note 3. 

Si. 53. 3Tlpf-3TJ ^Tr% %5T=?t7i% a^lT^^; see 14 supra. This epithet 
according to Char, indicates good physique. ^\^^\ — H^ ^^I'^" 
l^gr^CT — Lit. one who Uvea upon the residue of her master's food^ 

'Canto VI. ] ( 165 ) 

kenoe, a servant girl. ^\^ — a girl 16 years old; cf. ^\ ^\ts^X?^^\^\ 

ft^fn rr^<nr ^m l q^T^^r^rm ^]^ ^K?:?! cTcT: TT^II Jayadeva. 

- # 

SI. 54. J^^y^rfs: &c--T|5=?«^mT^l'^«^ a Karm. comp.; if, however, 
the il^T^^Tlt^t'T'THTf be objected to, then the comp. may be explained 
as a ^TT^Tn^^TI?- Vail, renders it by il%'^ f^: 3Tf^: ^' ^^r* 
^•TT^T^^: I q r ' i<r !^ &c.-marche3 against, in expeditions. This indicates 
the huge proportions of the elephants. The ichor flowing from 
their temples is here compared to the flow of water from the 
mountain springs. Cf. ?f^Ji JT^RMS supra 33. 

SI. 55. ggTf: — mf^] 5^r ^f^T having beautiful arms, the 
beauty lying in their being muscular and well-turned. fcjT^^ 
&c. — Hem. Din. Vail, and some other commentators read 
Rsf^^T' &c., and S. P. Pandit considers this to be the better 
reading, with the remark 'the fortune of the enemies may, if 
in the sing., be more intelligibly conceived to have shed tears down 
Ms shoulders when seized and carried ofE by Hamallgada in his arms.* 
But he seems to have altogether missed the point of the poet. The 
simple sense is this. The king always was victorious in battle. So 
every time he attacked an enemy he was sure to get his wealth (?fr); 
also, so constantly was he engaged in fights, that his arms bore black 
lines caused by the friction of the bow-string. This the poet describes 
figuratively. Every time the king fought an enemy^ his «ff would 
travel along his arm. sometimes the right, sometimes the left, as he 
was a savyasaehi ( shooting his arrows with equal skill with either 
hand ), along the one that dealt the final blow to his enemy. Thus,, 
being compelled to part from her old master, she would naturally shed 
tears, which, mingling with the collyrium in her eyes, would mark 
ier passage as she walked up HemaDgada's arms. This happened so 
frequently that a black track was left along each of the king's arms. 
One ssift would not be able to leave a black track behind. Besides, 
how could the tears roll down both the arms ? Even supposing she 
constantly shed tears and they ran down his arms, how could we 
account for the black colour of the tears, as the collyrium would be 
washed away the first time she wept profusely ? Mallindtha's read- 
ing, therefore, appears to be decidedly better. ^ff^r^Tr^ — ^?t: ficTT: 
^T^^err: i g^g^m 'ET'TT^: I 'made captives.' For ^^r cf. ^iw^^t 
Kum. II. 61; ^f^cTT ff I'^^T^FH: Vik. I. 3. q^r_8ee III. 46. 

SI. 56. ^T^rr^T'. &0. — On this Pandit remarks — It is true that 
as 3Tr?*T^ is a reflexive pronoun, it may seem to mislead by referring 
to the subject of the verb, i. e. to STtn^. But as it is evident that 

( 166 ) [ Canto VI. 

the dnbject zf;^ is more prominent in the paaaage than the subjeot 
aroif, the use of 3ir?iT^: as a reflexive referring to ?7q; need not be 
considerea aa constituting any difficulty. la fact while writing in 
the active voice the poet seems to have had the passive voice in his 
mind. So that the apparent diflloulty is easily explained by sup- 
posing that the poet meant to say 'ij: §c?t: arrcRiT: WVR 3T0lt^ 
q^ifh-iT^' I Hem. considers ^r^TR'R: to be a jtV^jj ( vulgar ) expression 
eince the combined word prominently suggests the idea of ^ir, the 
god of death, and thereby indirectly suggests the undesirability of 
choosing him for her husband. ^fSTf^^^ — Vail, reads ^f^^B"^ ^^^ 
translates it by 3rntT>TIiT^. *T^?piTf?r &c. — The deep sound of the 
sea^ which was distinctly heard in the stillness of the latter part of 
the night, rendered the morning trumpets unnecessary. jj^— See 
VI. 9. JirOT^ &o- — This refers to the delightful and majestic scenes 
presented by the sea in the morning. 

SI. 67. ?f^5 — indicates that the breezes were cool. oJiJiiV"^ — J^^: 
the rustling of leaves. ^r^rs^'^IWW ^^Km 35 i fT^n^ff'^r^nT &c.~ 
This shows that the breezes werej perfumed. Hem. thinks that the 
clove-iiowers would serve the purpose of necklaces of pearls. 

S 1. 58. STrfTRTpfrH'TRrr — Who was capable of being attracted by 
a ( really ) handsome form ( which HemSngada possessed ). This 
must be so interpreted; otherwise the simile will have no propriety. 
The reading o^h^jft^qryf^ is preferable in this respect; see foot-note. 
Oharitravardhana's remark ( ?iT??rsT &c.. see ft. -note ) in which he 
is followed by Din., is unnecessary. Indumati was likely to be 
attracted to the prince, but HemaHgada's adverse fate alone, and no 
lault in his beauty, drew her away from him, q'Rr ^f y y^ p]' — Malli. 
takes this as referring to the person whom Lakshmi approaches. 
But this may also refer to Hemangada. The ff^T^^T ia probably 
suppressed to serve this double purpose. Cf. for a similar idea. 

?T?rfq ^Tij^oT^T^rT qnff^i ^m^ ^^^fR i Vik. Ch. IX. 121. 

S'L 59. ^irr^i?^ — i.e. the town known as ^xTTf ^T or ooi (Nega- 
pattam ) in the Rdjamahendri district of the Madras Presidency. 

tr^t^r— 'r. 5rr+f^ ( j^) P4n. IV. 4. 69. t^^?:^^— ^»iH f<tr?^ 
Sl% ?T^t: ^^^t ^^q: "^flWi: equal in beauty to a god. ^g^n^f— ^^r- 
^^i^I^ofr |^f^of[ q^?n:} see in/ra VII. 25. The Ohakora is a kind 
of partridge of the genus Tefrao^itfrdrj; of which there are several 
varieties. It is a smart bird with a well-set head and prominent 
reddish ey©a and legs. In the tropics it is generally found in the 

Canto VI. ] ( 167 ) 

Dew greenswards in pairs after the rains. Its eyes are said to grow^ 
turbid at the sight of poison. See Kam. Nit. VIL 12. .The words 
3T% and ^f^«| meaning * part of one's body' and coming final in a 
Bah. change their final to 3T. <J5r5r%CT^— st^T^RT^ i;3[^gRIH"I cfT^ 
* who was previously instructed. ' The instruction referred to 
being ' f^\ ffcfr^^ '. 

S'l. 60. mu^^i;— qinffFT R^^f ^T^T^?: ^^^?^^^ ( Nom. pi. ) }[^i 
^I^TT «TT'^-^: I See note on VI. 49. ar^rfTrT — &c. — The long neck- 
laces are compared to the crystal streams of the Himalayas. 
^^j^fT — fR (reddish brown) =^^?f fK^^^^t %JT. It is a kind of 
sandal having a strong smell, which, when out, is red, but turns 
yellow when rubbed ( #^ ^rt ^^ qt?t f R^^^^^^'Tfi). Or a paste made 
of the dry Tulas* stalks rubbed and mixed with saffron; ef, %^ "^ 
gcT^l^^ ^TS^riTcf: I 3T?T ^T^inl'^TSq- fR^'^g^^^'rr II Padma- 
Pur4na. This corresponds to the sri^jr^q (the morning sun) tingeing 
the skirt-hills (^[5) of ^^^ Him&layas. The complexion of P3.ndya, 
which is dark ( see s'l. 65 ), also helps his comparison with (f^rr^'T 
which is also blue. 

S'l. 61. fq^v,2f^^ ^^»jTf^r — According to a story told in the 
Vanaparva of the Mah. Bhdr., the mountain Vindhya once grew 
jealous of Meru and wanted to have the sun go round him in the 
same way as about Meru. This the sun refused to do. Whereupon 
the mountain rose to an enormous height and obstructed the path of 
the great luminary. The gods being alarmed requested Agastya, 
the preceptor of Vindhya, to check the progress of the mountain, and 
to restore order to the universe. Complying with the request of the 
gods the saint came down to the mountain who bowed down to his 
preceptor's feet and was told by the sage to remain in that posture 
till he should return from the south. But Agastya never returned 
from the south, and Vindhya still continues in a stooping posture. 
The story, as given in the Kaa' . Khanda, Ch. V. , is somewhat different. 
PTi^q- &o. — i^n'cT: "^r^^TTTRT'TT cT«rT &c. When the demon Vritra. 
was killed by Indra, his followers, the Kdleyas, took shelter at the 
bottom of the sea, and came out at night to destroy the pious sages 
and learned Brahmanas. The gods, knowing through Vishnu their 
place of concealment, requested j Agastya to drink off the sea and 
«xpose the demons. This Agastya did accordingly and the Klleyas 
were slain by the gods. According to the Mah. Bh4r. and the 
Padma-Par4na the ocean was refilled afterwards by Bhagiratha with 
the waters of the Ganges. 

(16S) [Canto VI. 

*T'^l^r>Tr^>y^' — SI'^R'il the actual or emblematic sacritce of a horse. 
This sacritiee was one of the highest order, and, performed a hundred times, 
-entitled the sacrificer to tlie dominion of Svarga or Paradise. It appears 
to have been originally typical ; the horse and other animals being simply 
bound during the performance of certain ceremonies. In the As camedha 
of the Vedic period, »\x hundred and nine animals of variona prescribed 
kinds, domestic and wild, including birds, fish, and reptiles, were made 
-fast, the tame ones to twenty-one posts, and the wild, in the intervals 
between the pillar!? ; and, after certain prayers were recite!, the victims 
■were let loose without injury. The horse, which is .the subject of As i'a' 
medha, was aUo avowedly an emblem of Virdj, or- the primeval and uni- 
versal manifested Being. In the last section of the TaUttrlya-Yajurvedu ^ 
the various parts of the horse's body are described as divisions of time and 
portions of the universe ; morning is his head ; the sun, his eye ; air, his 
breath; the moon, his ear; &c. A similar passage in the 14th book of the 
.S"a.'a2;a^Aa-^r(iAn<a//a describes the same allegorical horse, for the medi- 
tation of such as cannot perform an As'vamedha ; and tlit- assemblage of 
living animals, constituting an imaginary victim, at a real As'vamedha, 
■equally represents the universal being, according to the doctrines of tlie 
Vedas. The actual sacrifices of horses and men in the As'vamedha and 
Parushamedha, were not authorized by the Vedas : but were either then 
abrogated, and an emblematical ceremony substituted in their place; or they 
must have been introduced in later times, on the authority of certain Pnra. 
'las or Tantras, fabricated by persons who, in this as in other matters, 
established many uhjustiiiable practices, on, the foundation of emblems 
and allegories which they misunderstood. In the Post-Vedic period, none 
.but an emperor (universal monarch), was authorized to perform As'ra- 
medha. It is thus said by A'pastamha, *' ^T^ ^lV^I#T6»^*Ivr^ 'J^cT 
■^rc<J^r^*?1'Ji:" &c. ( See Colebrooke on the Vedas ). 

M^)j^— See notea on I. 84; and IX. 23. ^r^iffr^.-—^ ^j-g^^ ^^^ 
g^[ft a bath properly performed, i. e. according to the form laid 
down in the S'aatraa. t^ee Sanj. This shows what affectionate regard 
the august sage had for the king. 

Si. 62. 5TT»r2iri — T^'jTTR for the conquest of. These two 
words are not generally used in the same sense. 3r?-T% generally 
-means *to conquer back.' Cf. f fTt f^'HW^nT^ri; Mah. Bhir. »r^FVT'T 
— the eastern part of the Dandaka forest in the Deccan. ^PTRT- 
This shows that even H&vana treated him as his equal. Mallin&tha's 
remark 'p^T^^*^^:' &c. does not appear to be supported by the s'l. 

SI. 63. ffrvj^ — ff'-^fWrT ?T«Tr according to sacred rites, duly. 
o^^^^\'. — The comparison of the four oceans to a girdle and of the 
earth to a woman is common in Sanskrit literature; cf, '^g^PTTTpJT- 

•CautoVl. ] (169) 

%g^[^r 3fr *TrTT K4d.: ^ ^m^^^^^gff infra XV.; ^wr^m^TcJli fT| r 
Das. ^(T^^fr— ^^tr: qf^^^ 3T??Tn%- 

S'l. 64. m^^tJi &c., Trm &c.— The words ^fm^ and sTif^w^ i^^ 
these two epithets are significant. They show how congenial the 
80\ithern land is to the growth of love; how even trees and creepers 
there are, as it were, joined in wedlock. The two epithets also show 
how nature in the southern quarter holds forth all the luxuries 
necessary to make lovers happy. cTTT^S' &c. — This shows that the 
ground in the southern quarter is naturally covered with a soft 
covering. ^^J^ — be 'pleased/ i. e. if you will accept the king as yonr 
husband and condescend to honour these beautiful sites with a visit, 
the purpose of their existence will be fulfilled, ^^n^r — ^ natural 
spot of ground, as opposed to ^?t?JT which is ^IfTrr (to'iched by art) ^. 

S'l. 65. v=fr^— f^r ^^RhcT^'TT w(- ( liked by ) ^mx rrf?? \^\^\ 
cTgq^^j-. ^tFCrCTI^ — ?lfR ^TeR? a stick-like i. e. slim or thin body; an 
excellent bodily frame; cf. qrHT fT«IT frr^Tf^[%.' Vik. Ch. IX. 33. 
ST^F^f^r^rr &G. — 3T?qf?T 3T^^T 3T??"r-^^^5 see note on ttT?'TTT%€I?^^^ 
I. 40; 3T?»fT'=^^ ^Tr^ir &c. rlflrfpr^r — According to Ohar. this 
gives the reason why the princess rejects the king, as the comparison 
suggests a short-lived union. 

S'l. 66. ^^,S5=?lt&c. — An idiomatic expression. ff^^^-i%^r ^fr- 
Hrra he who rouses men to activity during the day; \^^J f^^ ^fra^TfrT 
^\ the maker of the day; the sun. This refers to %i=ff% also. In this 
case K^T^r means by S'g^f^, f^fl^t^T^j «'. 6. Aja. Indumati's mind 
had an intuitive longing for Aja and so Sunand&'a words found no 
room in her heart. Hem. also remarks to the same effect, arcf^f 
— a day-lotus, art ^Tfjf f^jc^t ( desire to possess ) f^f^ |f^, arn^mfor 

SI. 67. ^''^rMr—s^: 5^: €"=^Tffrr% ^rfr^^^T 3T?fTTi^gr ^'^rfrinr. 

applies to fTTHmr by ^^ff or ^^n\j, like w{^^f[ in the instance 
T^r: 'PRTp?r, and to Indumati. frq"f5r?3T — Indumati resembled the 
flame of a lamp by her lustrous beauty. Cf, rf "^T^^r^K^^r^^rB": s'l. 65. 
4" ^ ^ ^ — *'• e. every one, whoever was passed over became pale. 
See Sanj. Cf ^\ t;[ firq-: %^^ ^\^i\^i m m \t^\ ^^^.^\^^ I S'is'. III. 
16. 5r^?5*TnTf?" f ^ — ^"t'sT?^ Rr>f: JTT-^m'^^rf : 1 3Tf does not mean 
■a mansion' here, but <an upper turret.' See Sanj. It should be 
remembered that the kings were seated on big platforms and so 
resembled attas. ^^^^^—f^■^^^ forf^?! \^^W• I 3[«T in the case of 
kings means <the brightness of face,' while in the ease of sTf it means 
"colour'; f^f(nviT^-(a) paleness; (b) darkness. 
R. N. 22 

(170) [ Canto VL 

S'l. 68. ^ q r j>« : — in suspense, undecided. ^R«R — ^itTlffcTT: 
^fjf f^^ T^fTri^ffT ^T I In the former case the word is a pron. and 
should be declined like ^f ; in the latter it is a noun and should be 
declined like n»T. The throbbing of the right arm is considered 
auspicious in the case of males; see ft. -note. %^^*^': — ^^U 
^s^tT^ I. e. the upper arm where the Keyu. is fastened; or ^^^i- 
^^i%fT may mean 'the heavings of the knot of the Keyu.,' indicating 
a corresponding movement of the arm. See ft. -note, and comp. 
Vik. I. 6 ( pr;TiT*-^I=ef rm^T)- 

S'l. 69. 8Tq^«r — ^giR'r"!: or ^ 3^ff 3TW?i: reproachable; here 
?T (If!;) implies reproach. Distinguish this from argcr ( also from 
^^ with T[ ) which does not indicate reproach; 3T5?j 5^^I*r I crf^ ^T ^ 
^"^JTr^rfsq- I Sid.-Kau.; ^ ^^^^^^^: irreproachable, without 
blemish, f^ — may also be construed with ^Fis^fh and understood in 
the sense of 3T?«:rrr°T. M^ri^ fl^ — aee the remark on this in the Sanj. 
^f^^— See IV. 9. 

Si. 70. ?nn"TRlrT &c. — Indumati's mind seemed to be concen- 
trated upon Aja; he was the sole object of her thought, every other 
object being absent from her mind, f^f JT^TTH; — This implies that Indu- 
mati at this moment looked as delightful to Aja as the moon-light. 
3T^^?r — having well observed, marked. This explains why SunandS 
addressed a detailed (^rf^cTl) speech to Indumati. She wanted to 
foster the feeling of love that was rising in Indumati's heart by a 
glowing description. 

S'l. 71. ^T^^ — ^^' properly the peak or the hump on the back 
of a bull, expresses pre-emiuence;-'the best or foremost of;' it is always 
used in the neu. of^^^q — This was the son of Vikukshi, otherwise 
called VW^f and grandson of Ikshv&ku. His real name was 
Purainjaya. In the Tret^age a fierce war broke out between the gods 
and the demons. The former being worsted applied to Vishnu for 
assistance and propitiated him by their prayers. The Eternal Deity 
in answer to their prayer told them that he would infuse a portion 
of himself into the person of Purainjaya, an illustrious prince of the 
race of Ikshv&ku, and destroy their foes. The gods under Indra 
accordingly repaired to Puramjaya and solicited his assistance. 
The prince said that he would put himself in alliance with them and 
wage battle with their adversaries, if Indra, the lord of spheres and 
their chief, would assume the form of a bull and carry him on his 
shoulders. The gods and Indra readily said 'so be it', and the 
latter assumed the form of a bull. The prince then mounted upon 
his shoulders ( or hump ^firi;) and being invigorated by the power 

UantoVI. ] (171) 

of the Ruler of all movable and immovable things, destroyed, 
in the battle that ensued, all the enemies of the gods. He thus 
acquired the name of Kakutstha or he who sits upon the hump. 
See Wilson's Vish. P. and the quotation from the Bhdg. P. 
given in the ft. note. Vide also s^lokas 72-73. 

S T rr ^t TPT^T- — Malli. translates this by ir^prfffgar: and quotes Amara 
in support of his meaning. But we find SfrfcT^^T^ in ^11 ^^^ printed 
texts of Amara, and not 3TlffcTc7^in^, and it is difficult to see which is 
the misprint. STTf cT^^'^T as explained by the commentators of Amara 
means 'one whose name is oft repeated, is in every one's mouth ; . 
3TIf cT^^dT:— 3Trf cTiP-^ct ^m ^TIT T^ I c5^^^f^>KT c7^ot ?rilT; while 
3Tlff fT^^'^ means arrff cf ^ff c3"^iT ( a characteristic mark ) ^^ who 
made for him the distinguishing mark, &c. The meaning 'jt^^T^- 
w^'' ' is better got out from the former, and 3TTI% cT? therefore, seems 
to be a misprint in the Sanj. g ^ T ^-s^ r: — having always a noble ambi- 
tion, high-souled. '^\^^^^^»^\^\^\ ^\%: s^T^'T^ proud, glorious. 

SI. 72. ^^l^ &c. — ^See Sanj. and note on qfr^l^ III. 32. 
sir^rnrnf^cfn^: — mr^: (TlffTf^ that which protects) the bow of 
S'iva. n^[i%^ is S'iva, the wielder of the bow ; ^rarr 'lie graceful . 
appearance or action j who attained the graceful appearance of S'iva 
Tof^^^rfr: — Jf^cTr TU^T iT0¥f'qe5'Tf^j fom. r[i3"?«Ic=q-: | A Nitya-sam4sa. 
snfq"?T«> — see ft. -note; Tg^^i: ornamental figures in the shape of 
Uaves &c. painted on their cheeks and breasts by women. 

S'l. 73. q-cr^ &c.—5n water, fCT: ^?f«jff^^ fm ITTf [^ the sea; 
?rffT% '^^ ^TRcT: the celestial elephant churned out of the ocean. 
STT^'FTcR'-stroking, thumping on the back; cf. ^r^fllV-hldH^^'^^ 
Kum. III. 22. f^»^?j-slipped down. This explains how the two* 
armlets rubbed against each other, when Indra was sitting in his 
own august form. si^t^'T^ — The neu. arvf meaning exactly a half 
comes first in a Gen. Tat.; see Sanj.; but aTT^^I^^ will mean a part 
of the seat. g'T^: — See ft. -note. Jfr^lf^." — ft the earth ^pcj-^cT fifT 
Tf[^T: the mountains; ^TFVT^TTTTf^j see note on iTfWT^ &c. HI. 60. 
Mr. Pandit has the following note on this: — 'More literally gotra is a 
place where cows are kept, a cow-pen; hence, a place where the cows of 
heaven were concealed, i. c, a cave of the mountain or cloud. 
Indra is everywhere praised in the hymns of the Veda for his 
having broken asunder the mountains ( t. e. the clouds ) by his 
thunderbolt ( i. e. lightning ) and liberated the heavenly cows ( the 
rain-waters )'. STr^rT^ — mark the change of n;tc q\ The substitu- 
tion of q^ takes place in the case of ?%T[ even thou{;ithe reduplicative 
syllable intervens. Pan. VIII. 3. 64, 

( 172 ) r Canto VI. 

B'l. 74. ^firsifpT: — Lit. the illuminator of his race, who render- 
ad his race fanaoua. ^HFr^^li;^ &c- — V^^^ ^^'^(J*T (0° t^e P*'^ of 
Indra ) 3T>-?7g^^r jealousy ^^^]: ftrTfTT^ to turn back from, to avoid. 
n-^R-o—See III. 69. 

SI. 75. ^^rppfr — Here used in the sense of 'a drunken or intoxi- 
cated woman.' It also means a dancing girl. Hem. reads ^]fv]^]^\ 
and explained tot% ffh ?T^Tc9"I 7s^ir^f^%5?T: women selling curds 
*c. Rrfrrr^'^ — 3Ti|«^^ T?*?! 3T*TT«T: a part of the way. fj^jr — 
may mean a rendezvous or a pleasure-garden. STT?^'^?! — 
3Trf^ to steal; the dat. by 5q«Ti% Hr^^^^TTfl. Hem. Vail, 
and some other commentators read BTrviTOTfq'. But 3TT)f "ir^ 
seems to be the better reading. With 3TT>TMR we shall 
have to explain 3TJiT?af ?Tf[g or so, where 3Tr*TTT means an 
ornament. And since at^^ is in the plural 3TT>TT'T also ought 
to be in the plural; as a woman who at the most wears two or 
three pieces of garment at a time necessarily wears more than half 
a dozen of ornaments at all times. Also because arrfTOT is a general 
term for theft, while arr^rrur will limit the sense to a particular 
kind of theft. 

Si. 76. fj^2f — Malli. construes this with 5=r:. It should rather 
be construed with tr^ ( Raghu is the King in his place ), as there 
would be no difficulty in understanding whose ^ is meant. Cf, 
STcT^ f^fTI 5r^<iT ^^ RT^T &c. V. 36. Or it should be construed with 
both, as Oh&r. remarks, by the maxim (^m^) of ^i5pr%iftc7^. 
f%'^rf»nT- — See IV. 86. o Brr^f^TtT^^Jrlt collected from the four 
quarters, and increased by additions from his own revenue; or 
swollen into a groat mass by being collected from the four quarters. 

S'l. 77. 3TR'^^ — Ever continuous because ever growing (as 
Raghu is yet living). See Sanj. This may perhaps be better deri- 
ved from 3T3^T^ + f^ (the possessive affix.). 6'/. ^t3^^TT: ^«T ^ 
?5; &c. I. 64. qf<:^^^»^ — To define exactly, to set a boundary to, 
to limit. fijTiqr— ?? TK^miT?^ ?^rt this much, ^^ ^ri^ S'^'^n ^?I- 
See infra XIII. 5. 

S'l. 78. ISHTK'. — -A. young prince. SunandA here refers to the 
,prime youth of Aja in order to point out to Indumati the 
desirability of choosing him. This does not detract from her 
character as a neutral person. She does so after she has perceived 
that Indumati was interested in the prince. She does not guide her 
ohoice, only approves of it. STjsrr?!- — Though this properly 
applies to a younger brother, yet it is applied to a ohild here, eince 

Canto VI.] (173) 

succession exists between the father and child. See Sanj.; or better, 
we may construe 3?^ 3T^: ^^K^' ffRg ^IcT: is born an exact copj 
of him, t. e. like him in every respect-, see supra V. 37. f^f%S"- 
q-^?r — fV^Ff'Tf?'T?g^r%^: f R f^S"'T that in which pious people enter: 
(Jrfl^ f^^^ l%f%5"'t the third region of space, heaven, ^^t — able 
to bear the yoke ( responsibility of government )} an experienced 
governor. See supra V. 66. ^r^: — ^»T^R"fcltr% one requiring training. 
By this Sun. indicates that Aja wasa l'«<rar(i;'a,yetto be trained and 
fitted for the administration of government. Cf. for a, similar idea 
Mudr. III. 3, ^5r^ — Malli. construes this with fq^T equally with 
his father. It should rather be construed with T%*TfcT- f^^J ^f ^^^^ 
1«n" cT«TT T%'tT^ bears in a manner worthy of his ability. Otherwise 
the epithets g^: and ^r^: will lose their force. 

S'l. 79. aTTc'R^'T^-With words like g?^ the gen. or instr. is 
used. See ft.-note. ^fTFT^S'f — The root jj^ takes A'tm. when 
preceded by ^t^, but here it does not, as the prep, a^r intervenes. 
The rule wants that ^ should immediately precede itt[. The fig. of 
speech here according to Hem. and Ohdr. is trffT^^cjcrTT; see ft.-note. 

S'l. 80. ?T^fr?«r— ^ cTg: 3Tag: 3TcT3 ^3 ^Tf^r I Jf^rfR?!r2fr— applies 
both to ^H^T and ^TSTT- There is a pun on. the word 3TJf^ which 
means pure, bright, and also white. The flowers in the garland being 
fresh and therefore white, and her steady glances also being sjq-^ 
both compare well. o"^f — Such materialization of g-f% is not rare 
with our poet. Cf, rf^Tf^ffi^f^T &c. II. 28. iTr?r?Tfr^— 'accepted,' a 
sense which we have already met with; see II. 22- for a different 
sense cf. IV. 40; VII. 36. 

S'l. 81. 3Tf*f?5T^^^>5r: — IJi*' ^-^fi k'lot <>^ love, «. e. the fixing of 
love. ?ETrr?RrT2rr— ^TTcTTq"t^TiT|ffrm i^Tc^r^r ar^r irregularly formed 
by 'mcfF^R 3T^r^T^%--' P^o- V. 2. 20; fT^^r »Trf: ms'r^fTr bash. 
fulness. ^Rr^ — is the standing on end of the hair as the result 
of sudden joy, as at the sight of a lover, &c. See Rat. I. 2. 
( ^?rfc5^^T &c. ); Hnpy^^r:— baving curly hair, i. e. the beautiful 
ringlets at the sides of the head. 

S'l. 82. fr«Tr»T?(f^R[.— ?T«rr ms-m^^'lf TfTT^rr^ l In that con- 
dition.«rf^fr^'J5-<TKfr^: If: qff»T?^4faTfT?I?TrcT«TT; jestingly; gee Kum. 
V. 62. ^^r — Here means simply <a well-wisher or companion of ' 
and may be applied to a servant. Cf. ^^ ^^ cfi^Ttr^rH^frj^; Kum III. 
12; ^ f^ ^^T ^Tg ^ ?TI% qTf'^'7»=[ Kir. I. 5. arr^— nsed as an hono- 
rific term and simply means 'good lady.' 3T?5»j?T:-in another direction 
i. e. to another king, ^pjf — is here used 3TH?cT^ — after Sunandu 

(174) r Canto Vi. 

bad addressed hor. 7v7:-is like the English word 'bride', a relative 
term, used in connexion with the term ^^. The poet probably 
applies it here to Indumati as she had already made her choice, 
which is the chief thing in a Svayarnvara. Now that she is ^tj; she 
cannot approach any other king. srg^'n' — reproaching, finding 
fault with. 

Si. 83. = ?'n > fi' C^ — red with the powder of saffron and other 
auspicious materials; or, yellow with turmeric powder. v^rsTf- 
'^TTP^r?— ■^TrifT firriHfcT ^r=rT a nurse. Malli. understands by vn^r 
Sunandfi, which is hardly possible. For Sunanda is distinctly 
spoken of as the portress. And there is nothing to prevent us 
from supposing that Indumati's nurse was also with her all the 
while. For we are already told that Indumati came there 
accompanied by her relatives and retinue. See si. 10. Besides the 
poet has called Sunand4 Indumati's ^;^r in the previous s'l. and he 
cannot with propriety call her yj\^j now. ?|7T'>TrTHre: — ^PT*? means 
the back of the hand from the wrist to the root of the little finger- 
see Amara quoted in the Banj. It may also mean 'the trunk of an 
elephant' to which the thighs of ladies are often compared. Cf. 
Kum. I, 36. We have giv»n the reading ( t. e. with a short final 
7 ) adopted by Bhattoji Dikshita, N4ges'a and others, and not the 
one ( with longgr ) adopted by Hem. Malli. and others. For the 
reading qsWT^^* does not seem to be grammatically correct. 
The Sutra quoted by Malli. to explain the long gr requires, as 
explained by Dikshita and others, that 37^ should be HtT^T^ and should 
at the same time imply 3^q^Ji"Rc^> and applies to compounds like 
TTi^I^:, ^T^^' &<^-, b'^t iiot to 5J^>flT^r?:. For in this last 
case the 3"<TtTr^f is actually expressed by the word gTT*n 
which separates the two words ^^q and g^^. gr?- therefore is not the 
g^j^Tgr of ^^*r nor is ^«f the ^fcf^ of 37?. ?rTriTf^— in its proper 
place*, ef. Kum. I. 49, VII. 34. nj^^ — the word 50T is hera 
used in preference to ^rsr^ or ni^, that it should better compare 
with 3T5^iJT (redness) which was also the gor of the garland. (Hem.) 

SI. 84. j^ip^^sq-Hc^r— ^iw^Tfi^ s^^im *T^»rc75«Ti(0T ■^<rt f?^r 
^qffWjsqiT'fr I ff«^rpy^^:^«Tf7 &c.— 5ry:^«T^ ( if^^ff ?ri^:, see ft -note ) 
itself means 'broad chest' and so the word \^^\^ seems to bo 
redundant. Perhaps the poet prominently refers to the fsr^cJ^ 
of the chest of Aja, as being fit to receive the huge garland, in 
which case ^^\^\^ may not be out of place. qp'Trfq^T^r^TnTrv-^^'^'T 
& noose formed with the hands, as it were, ^r^qf^ may also meaa 

Canto VII. ] ( 175 ) 

delicate arms, tlie word q-y^T being taken q-j^Rc^ like ?«r^, »TcT%^r 
fee. This meaning is perhaps the better as it is the garland that 
is compared to the arms. 

S'l. 85. ^mrgfr — This either means by gTT'^TT '^^^^ ^T5^r' (as Malli. 
takes it ) or the poet may be supposed to identify Indumati with 
Kaumudi and say this is ^gfr- Trgcfivqr — See note on ^iggfr. This 
is the name of JTfT. When Bhagiratha brought down the heavenly 
river irfT, it accidentally inundated, in its course to the sea, the 
sacrificial ground of the royal sage Jahnu, who being angry drank 
it up. His anger, however, being appeased by the gods, the sages 
and particularly by Bhagiratha, he discharged the waters of the 
river from his ear. Hence the river is spoken of as his daughter. 
For the idea cf. ^\m^^[^K^\ W ^T 'TfT^^J^ancT I S'ak. IV. p. 72. 
^JT?PT &c- — ^rrntJT^fi-it^-^qriTrfT ifrfH^^Kl A Vyad. Bah.; though 
such a Bah. is not sanctioned by P5,n., yet it appears in many good 
writers. See note on ' 2,tnt^^' IV. 20. 

S'l- 86- ^rT*ni[ — The party i- e. the friends and relatives of the 
bridegroom. f^rfr'T'^ — void of life through dejection; or dismayed 
joyless (g=5??); ' ^3mfTl^^rT^''r RrTPt f^ 3^sr¥ i' Amara. 



S'l. 1. 3T^ — i.e. after the marriage-garland was put round 
Aja's neck; see VI. 83. Or it may here have the sense of ^^^. 
k-^^i ^ — by Karttikeya; the derivation is thus given in the Mah. 
Bhar.:— ?^5rcfTc^T5=^^t q'THlr 5fT^r^^|r«Tfri; I f?r#^r^— Devasena 
according to Pauranic accounts, was the daughtar of Indra and 
wife of Skanda. See ft.-note. '•'^Ta^rg^rfvif^'^ ?^^ %JTRm" tTa[T I 

^^^K cTT %^%^ 'Tr ^r ci^ HJTiT%cTr i ^^ m^v- Tm^ft f^^n^\ ^r^on 

JT^^jr^iiri'i: I ^^m ^f%3r \^\: trrfuT^rr t^^=#^ ii ^^gTp: ^ ^r^^ j^^^. 
TFR ?Tqn%'^ I ^i ^'?*^ ^\^^\ ^f%^t fff^^nni" %\^ \ t^^^r is 

properly \^\^\ %^r the army of gods ; so the marriage of Karttikeya 
with Devaseni seems to be merely an allegorical representation 
of his assuming the generalship of the heavenly foroa that marched 
against T^rakasura. ^Csrf^pTg^sT::— 3Tfvr»T?t g^fT^rf^Tgw-- I 5T- 
^f^^^Tmg^: 5T^f^TTI^5W: ready or about to enter the citj. 

(176) [ Canto Vir 

SI. 1'. %^f^%5m;— camps; %^r H>:{?Tar 3T^ fffT %^R>^:; fr. 
prnrsr with ar ( ^5?;) added srr'ir^W to express the place of the aotioa • 
Each king had a small army with him. See supra V. 49. ^>n% — 
ffm? *rTcT«7Flfr^ ilH ff Mm the dawn ( ff¥ir?t is a noun, the ?t being 
added by ^%^^ w't tp: ); ftHf^ ^IV. l^mcnrfT: I ^f ^W ?r»Tr«:; or 
f^»r<t ^ict 'lit ^ r>Mrm: lustreless; qv^r Mr 'T'Tt^ »T'^Mr^: I it>TrcTirf r f^ 

?T«Tt ei 5«T3|*TifR«rrffl'Tf Mr^W^Tiq i ^»-3T^?fr:— 3Tg;^r means 'finding 
fault with what is good' ( goij^nifn'^s^faTi^ ); arg^^T'fr ^^ ^(f^n^Tf: 
full of disregard for. They found fault with their beauty and 
splendid dresses, because they were of no use as they failed to attract 
the princess. Cf. j^m ^^^ ?fcTT *T^(*T^ fq^ri%^T *ur»T^rf«ir ^m I 
T%HFT ^ f^iT TT^ffr fir^5 #rii'^<?r?7r f^ =^i^ar u Kum. V. i. 

S'l. 3. q^ff%'J!nTl"nT^ — Here ^Tr means her ^.jrrf existence or pre- 
sence in all her majesty, the aflBx %t5T being added vrrlf: see Sanj. 
S'achi being duly invoked was present there ( ^^^ ) in all her 
majesty, and consequently there was an utter absence of disturbers of 
the Svayamvara. Unless we understand the word ?ftT in this sense, 
it becomes meaningless. For, the mere presence of S'achi is no gua- 
rantee against disturbance being created in a Svayamvara. For we 
know that despite the presence of S'achi serious disturbances did take 
place in the Svayamvara of the daughters of the king of Kas'i, who 
were borne away by Bhishma, as well as in that of Lakshmi and 
Draupadi. f^pj- — Either implies an STfTfT or tradition, or an histori- 
cal fact (^irl?r). ^^«rr: — At the beginning of a Hindu marriage rite, it 
is customary to invoke S'achi ( and her husband ) to be present. The 
reason why S'achi's presence was (and is) prayed for seems to be to 
obtain perpetual freedom from widowhood, which the goddess is 
^uppoised to enjoy, as well as progeny, wealth, fortune &c. In the 
Tait. Sanih. Indraiii or S'achi is represented as the best of wives, 
as one than whom nothing is more excellent, and whose husband 
never dies by age. sF-?rift»Tr^ JTT^J STmTfJT??^ I ^ ^m 3TTi i^ ^ 
^KW Trar Tm: l l. 7. 13. Again in the Tait, Brah. she is represented 
as ever free from widowhood. ^ ^^\^^^\\^^^\ 3TfVr%Rf 95^1 ' 
Kind. III. Prap. 7, Anu. 5. Das'. 10. Nar^yanabhatta in his 
Prayoga Rat. says fT??r ^m\ &>3.; see ft. -note. ^>f — interruption 
of. disturbance in. ^rf?^?^ — with reference to, regarding. ^*T?^r' — 
^<^^^ ^1" ^cTRR." jeilous. cr?r-by that i. «. because of the deterrent 
effect whioh S'achi's presence had on all dieturbets of the 

Canto VIL] ( 177 ) 

SI. 4. rfff^ — Malli. takes thia as compounded and understands 
it in the sense of ^T^^q" or fulness, entirety. But this does ncfc- 
improve the sense. It is certainly better to take it separately in 
the sense of jth or sr^iq" meaning — 'by the time the kings returned 
to their camps*,' in the meantime. The word is used in this sense 
on a similar occasion in Kum, VII. 63-crr?f^fTr^rf ^fpr5fifff?5^WrTit 
^fsrq^t ^^\ \ The commentators. Hem. Char, and Vail, also interpret it 
thus. f?5T^ &c- — f5=^rg'?rr% rain-bows ff ^ffffffrrR resplendent, 
gaudy frKoTTI^r gate-ways, triumphal arches sr^: distinguishing 
marks zf^ rl^\ Char, and Din. translate fJs;-!^^: by ff^^iTTiirfjT: 
but without quoting authority for their interpretation. Sach a'rTTS 
are also called ^'^irrcfTS according to the HaUyudha lexicon. 
Tr^rTr*?^ — The main road or the road leading to the royal palace 
MjI-^^ RT &<5- — 1^^® ^*S^ were those raised by the citizens in 
honour of Aja. For the comp. «^^^gT^ se© Sanj. and note on 
f^v?Rc IV. 20. 

S'l. 0. Now the poet proceeds to describe the confusion of the 
ladies of the town as they hurried to the windows of their mansions to 
have a look at the procession — a practice very common with the 
Indian poets Vide S'is'. XIII. 30-48; Bud. Cha. Ill, 13-24; Vik. 
Oha. VI. 11-19; and ft.-note. S'lokas 6-11 are found in almost the 
same words in Kum. VII. '^THT^fT^TnT^l — "^m^'C 'gold' is derived 
either as ^r?^> 3TT^(f^^^ (in » particular mine) >t^^ or ^r*ff ^frwf 
^mm i ^r^ properly means *a network of wood or metal, with 
air-holes in it set into window frames;' hence 'a window'. The 
mansions of the city of Bhoja had their windows and 
their lattices made of gold. Cf. j^TT^ which also means 'a window'. 
Though the net-work windows are nearly out of use now, they may 
still be seen in some of the ancient houses. JC^^ffprr^— ff^ 3-^f% 

fm ^'^r-; fr. :j?^ with ^ + 3TT; S + 3- being = ^ like ^^;^; see Varfc. 
on Fka. VI. 1. 94; fem. s?^ff; 5^?^ ^^^: ^TS^^: I 

S'l 6. STH'yr^TT*!^— STTrff^^^ 3T^%c^T?JI^: 'that through which- 
a thing can be seen'; hence a window; or STTrff^ mayjmean <that 
by which a thing can be seen,' 'light'; 3TTe!Tq^Pr mnVMT^JTPf^ I ^^- 
in a h'lrry; thoughtlessly, g^f?^ &c.— 3^ ^?^jff^[f ^;t: j ^p^Jf^ 

The use of the word ^\^^ though mentioned as one of the STj^q- words 
does not constitute the fault 'Vulgarism' here, as observed by 

^JTT|% H K:av. D. I. 95. ^>nrfrT:— was thought of. ?Tffv— ^eems 
R. N. 23 

(178) [ Canto VII. 

to be U8ed here ^y^F^Ji^ i Malli. says '3TFc3l^HI^TH'?^??T^' but 
not in good taste. For if .the woman forgot all .about the knot when 
making for the window, it was not likely that she should remember 
it when actually at the window where her attention would be mor« 
engrossed. ;p^fqr — This is a preliminary step to the tying up of the 
hair. This shows how great was her absent-mindedness. OhAr. 
followed by Din. says— %[?Tqi^: ^^ cTH^T <T*TTm 1^ ^ifT ^^ ^?: i 
Bat this rendering is not very happy, as it does not bring out so 
prominently the absent-mindedness of the lady. ^^TTT^T* — A Ntti/a 
Samasa] explain ^^jRt ^r^T; ^^TTF^t: I The words <q\^-\, m^ and g-?cT, 
coming after "^^ or its synonyms mean ^*Tf. 

SM. 7. sig^rr^gffr— the toilet-woman. STlTTrf^ — 3TlT«^#r TT^^ I 
A Karm. comp.; see Sanj. If it be dissolved as a Gen. Tat. (qr^^'TTfl^.) 
the compounded form will be crf^jJT and not 3TJi7r^. Malli. in support 
of his statement (quotes the words of V&mana, 'f^tTnrr — &o/, the 
meaning of which is thi8:-The compounds f^TJT and srir^^E^ are obtain- 
ed by taking the jq ( 3Tff?5 ) and .the goft ( p^ ) as distinct and as 
identical respectively. In the present case the 50T (3TJr?f ) which re- 
-sides in the forepart of the foot also resides 'in the foot which is the 
gcify. The poet here speaks of both of them as identical, disregarding 
the distinction between the whole qrr^ and its foreport to which 
alone 3T<7r? properly applies. When the distinction is observed we 
get qy^Tir^ ( qi^^5!Trir^ ). Hem. remarks that q[^^[!j may also give 
3fqqi? by the rule '^rfl'cTi^^Tf^s' T'S.n. II. 2. 37; but the remark 
does not seem to be correct ( and is probably an interpolation ). 
For in the first place^ the Sfitra quoted sanctions optionality of the 
'^[tr^TTcT o^ words ending in the affix -^ of which we have none in the 
present comp.*, in the second place, if it be argued that since the 
3TTffcT'''^U? class includes words likeirf",, epoj, &c. itmay also include 
-words not ending in the affix rfi, it must be remembered that the 
Sutra enjoins optionality of ^^RqitT in the case of Bah. Oomp. and 
not in any other class of compounds. grf^jE^ &c. — cfl^T'TT ^c7I5^I 
^T nfa: cfl?nTi?[: sportive ». e. slow gait. STr^rKspTf^ra; — is the same 
as 3Tcf tp^rl^^ra; I 

S'l. 8. f^rTt^^'T &c- — This implies extreme hurry according to 
Malli, who quotes the S'ruti '^sif &c.' ( See also ft. -note ) to show 
that it is the left part of the body that is first decorated. The lady 
was in such a great hurry that instead of decorating the left eye 
tirst as usual, she decorated the right one and left the left eye 
andecorated. i^T^nFT — a thin pencil or hair-brush for applying 
colly rium-, see Kum. I. 47; or it may mean here *a collyrium-sfick.' 

€antoVII. ] (179) 

S'l. 9. TTFTFrTT &c.— sfrpJT'cTt— 'cT>oT ( through the openings of ) 
the lattices ?t ^f^fJT ?flr^«TT I xr??TR — Her quick gait, rapid motion. 
^ Tt pfi r f^ ' jl — The word ^\^^ indicates depth of the navel, which is 
considered to be amark of beauty. C/. st«/>ra*3TrfttJT^r?Rrf*r:' VI. 52 

SI. 10. STsfr^fTr— 3T^*TTf^cTT half-strung; a comp. gcgqr- 
V. 1. iT>^fnftTr — ST"^"^ takes f before ?t in the sense of ^\ or honour; 
•so this means ^half-graced' which it could not be without being 
woveuj hence, ihalf-woven or half-strung. fPT^TW — P. p. p. of f^ 
5 U. to measure, to throw, with 5?t and h; ill-measured, ill- 
placed; ^r: qff OTff^T^g^jfrfqrra^^ f tP5?t: I fm ^ mr^^^. f^^TF — ( also 
written as ^^^7 ), from rsr^ or r=R;^ to make a sound, is a girdle 
consisting of several strings' of pearls or gems or beads; cf, xr^r^ 

3lfg*Ttr^T2fr ^^c?T r^7 ^W^V \ T^i^\ ^T«^T ^"^V- ^c7TT: T^T?^Tm: II But 
this distinction is dispensed with in practice; see Mai. III. 20, 21. 
rsT^pg- &c. — A certain lady was putting together her waist-band, 

here of one string, one end of the thread being attached to her 
'big toe. But as soon as she heard of the procession approaching, 
she ran up to the window^ witnout securing that portion of th<- 
waist-band which was strung, and so all the gems or pearls dropped 
^own and the string only remained hanging from her toe. 

S'l. 11. STT^^ &c — See com. The word 17^ takes qTRTTcT by 
the Vart. JT^grt-" T^T ^ff'fl i Drinking wine seems to have 
been a fashionable vice among the women of even the higher grades 
of society in ancient India; notwithstanding the dictum '^^r aft^T 
,3Tf5TT aTJTI^I'? as it is 'often described by poets; cf. infrv VIII. 
69, IX. 33, 36, XIX. 12 &c.; Kum. I /. 12. S'is'. II. 20, X. 33 &c. 
The poets may have made much of it, but it cannot be merely a 
poetical fiction, ^fs" &:g. — This shows that the women remained 
stationary and so their faces resembled lotuses the more, ff r?f«r 
. &c.— ^q^Ctmm »?cfT:, ^^TfTrRT^T I The moving eyes served as bees. 
It is usual with poets to describe lotuses with black bees hovering 
over them. iT^r^r: — ^r means *a ray of light;' 37% something like 
an eye, i. e. a hole. JT^rq^TTfrf T^r>3i: I 3TT% becomes 3^^ at the end 
of a comp. when it does not mean 'an eye', by 3T^(iir5?{lJTr^ Pan. 
V. 4. 76. So ^^]^ means 'a hole for admitting light,' hence a 
window. The word ought to be new. ( see Kas'ika); it is mas. hy 
custom : 3^?^ ?f[^T«^ Manorama and Tat. Bod. ^f^ — ^^-^f ( i. », 
.% ]arge number of ) q-:Trfan^rf»Tf?T ^f^rq^lfoT cTIH aqi^TT'^rf^ 'T'STf ^ I 

Si. 12. 2"f5"nTCrfT5^^'T*- — This is an idiom which we have already 
.tnet with. See supra II. 19, 73. ^\i^: ^ tF^: — Women, i. e. of course 

(ISO) [ Canto VIU 

their sensea, did not go to their objects. $[qfvrfzr &c. — The ladiea 
were so intently looking at the prince, that the functions of their 
senses other than the eyes seemed to be arrested — ears caught no 
sounds, skin noticed no touch &c. This the poet describes by 
saying that the functions of their other senses were, as it were, 
transferred to their eyes, in their fullest entirety. Cf. Kum. VII. 64, 

SI. 13. q^: — ST?'^: Tfr^T ff^?^niTTT»ft'^TT: not visible to the 
senses, absent. The word is irregularly formed, gr^ — good i. t. 
preferable, better suited to her purpose. snTT'T'T — The word ^i^qor 
is variously derived: — ^^foit ^ff ^TTr all creatures; tT?^TT4 final 
resort. Cf. ff^RTR -^ »icTTl% ^RFPfllT iT^^R I ^W^^^ 'T^mWJT 
^m^OT: ?f a: II JTH^ri^i^^Is^fTT ^WV- waters 3T^jf 'TW 1 Cf. Mann. 

arNr J^rrT ?ffr q'r^T 3Tiqi ^ ^T9.r^: i trr v.^^m^ ^'m 'tft'?'^: ^?fr: ii- 

The Sdnkhyas derive it thus — ^n^S^'Tr^sritTTR JTRim Rf^'fl'clT^T^ 

^Tin^T'iT: ?^': l> W^tt — Here the foJ^ or potential is used in the sense 
of STR^^c^ffr (which is explained as 3T^«?r^^r of disbelief), the speaker- 
not believing in the possibility of Iryiumati's having obtained a 
suitable husband without a Svayamvara. It is not to be explained 
as Hem. does by citing the rule 'f^viiqi ^«jf% ^J2|;^' though the 
word ^«T5q| is used here, since the |%^ by this rule implies xr^ or 
censure, which the speaker does not here certainly mean. 

Si. 14. q-^Trr — This may be better construed with ^j^raMTq-siiivr^,. 
whieii Hem. also does, f?^^^ — irregularly formed fr. ft + lf. The 
word is irregularly formed in the five senses given in the Sutra 
quoted by Malli. the full text of which is 'j?a*-^^^-Jsr'3T^f^^vT- 
55?^;Tm-^^qT5fi[^ir-3TPT5'TI%5 l VIII. 1. 15. 5T>Tr=T«^?^— The meaning 
of Mallindtha's remark on this is this: — The conditional ^g^ should 
be used where the potential ought to be used (f^^^^pfHrT) provided that 
the non-fulfilment of some action (i^?nifl'?r% ) i^ implied. Here we 
have the fp5lji%ft7T the relation of cause and effect existing between 
5^5^ snTT^jf which is the cause and the fruitlessness of the 
^qf^vTl^qg- which is the effect. But there is non-fulfilment of the 
f^^i; so the two being united, the fruitlessness of the tfforts of the 
Creator has not followed. Hence the use of the conditional. 

S'l. 15. ^frj?*i^ — Oh&r. and Din. read gTinTfTft 'those who have 
remembrance of their past liv^-s.' But the reading ia not good. For 
the stnse will be spoiled and the clause t{^\ ff &o. will bj rendered 
meaningless f^ — an \^%^ Dvandva. U^RL— Tte Gt-n. is used 
^l'^ »'. <■. to express the relation of part and the whole. arP'TWi'^^r^^- 

-Canto VII. ] (181) 

srfhw ^ ma^TM a Pradi Sam&sa; 3TTcTT?t: sffer^T: r\^ I »=Rr ^ ^°- — 
Cf. ^^KV- qr^^I f^ I- 20 and note thereon. 

S'l. 16. ff%— It l3 used here in the sense of ^^ (thus), and refers 
to the women's remarks in s'lokas 13-15. ^slrg^^sTP — ^^'PcfrfB ^W- 

decorations; fr. ^ff^r + 3T (3T^) added -^^m or gpr^aT. fl^c3"^?T,-^r«TT 
^T ^I?^: ?Tff*T:5 auspicious decorations such as placing earthern 
pitchers full of water near the entrance, hanging garlands along the 
walls, hoisting flags &c.; see ft.-notes, gr^F>T^:— ^^'^U^'TKcfnlT 
fr^iff, the word is generally used to express the bride's relatives; 
cf. ^^f^'^^r ^f^^rCHT cTTcT^rr^r^Tff l Uttar. I. 16. It is also 
used to express any kind of relation. Cf. ^^^^^\^\^^^^^]%'^ 
II. 58; %=ff^4fvT?ftn tT^: ^^^ &C- Kum. VII. 5. 

S'l. 17. ^CT^ — a young she-elephant. According to Hem. 
it is customary with kings to ride elephants even in marriage 
•ceremonies. A female elephant is chosen on such occasions, as she 
does not get as easily infuriated as the male. cRTJt^T^C &c.-8ee Malli. 
It would be better to take this with 3T<T€pf as Hem. does. 
Aja caught hold of the hand stretched out by the king of 
the Kamarupas and alighted. Cf. ^=rr^cTT^'r'E3?TfTrf^cT: ^K|TT^- 
f^J^'T[f^?I?'n: I Kum. VII. 70, where Malli. himself says ar^rf^ 
^TTf ^dt f%crMf^iTRc3"»=^: ^^r^cfi^ &c. ^vn — used in the sense of 
STT^^tT'T here (Malli.). But according to^ the construction given 
above 3T?Tt ^1^1 ^^ redundant, the sense of sTT^RT^^jbging expressed 
by the gerund 3Tfcf[q. So it will be better; to take 3T«n iJi the 
sense of 3^?fT?^T-=^5^ f^^^^ st^Tt ^ifrJTHt^Tf m^T I He entered the 
quadrangle and then entered, as it were, the hearts of the ladies. 
[ ST'^^^a means the subsequent assertion of something else about a 
person after something has been already asserted of him. ] fg" — 
along with ( according to some commentators ). ^gsgp-The inner 
quadrangular commentators hall where the marriage-ceremony was 
to take place. Women are especially anxious to see the marriage- 
ceremony. The ladies assembled in the hall were eagerly awaiting 
the arrival oi the bridegroom; honce the propriety of the Utpreksha- 

S'l. 18. jT?r# fee. — See note on J^flft^^ &c. VI. 6. Jrgq^T- 
«r^ — See ft.-note. Madhuparka is the technical name for an offer- 
ing consisting of a mixture of honey, curdled milk, clarified butter* 
sugar and water. It is offered to a distinguished guest or to the 
bridegroom on his arrival at the door of the marriage-hall or 
Mandap. ^2rr^ — is used here in a double sen3e-(l) accepted as his 

( 182 ) [ Canto Vll. 

own ( the p&ir of silk garments ); (2) received the glances &c.; i. « 
he was looked at by the ladies as the garments were presented to him. 

81- ly. f^i^: — well-trained, behaving respectfully, p^zi^- 
^rfw: — Large masses of foam make the sea appear white. It thus 
compares well with Aja who was dressed in white silk-garments. 
^:^-Thi3 epithet is used because the rays of the new moon give a 
milder light and so compare well with the humble attendants of the 
harem, ^^^^j^j- — Here the bridegroom is compared to the sea. the 
bride to the coast-line (^^\), and the attendants to the beams of 
the new moon. So this is a case of 3'TJTI and not of f^^ ** ^^^ 
com. statea it. The text of the com. therefore seems to be spurious. 
Probably S. P. Pandit is right in omitting s'lokas 17-19, implying 
thereby that they might have been interpolations from the poet> 
other work, the Kum.; c/. Kum. VII. 70. 72, 73. 

S'l. 20. ?f?f — i. e. in that particular part of the courtyard where 
the bride was. j^hTf: — 5ft ^^V^ fffTj the family priest. afRan^PT:- 
3TT 'Frs^nr^nT^sW^ftr ari^^ l It literally means *that which makes 
manifest;' hence, clarified butter which renders the presence 
of the sacrificial fire manifest to the sacrificer. arhT'^r^: — t'l^^*TrF: 
srf^^f^^?^: almost a second god of fire. f^^^T^^^-^ — fifl^T^ fS^ ffflfJ 
lit. supporting or maintaining in every way; hence 'a marriage. '^ 
flr^f^?^^^ fr. ^^?-f |;3;, a witness, m]^- ^^ ^^"^ I Se» 
XI. 48, and ft.-note. 

8*1. 21. 5?in — Adv. with the comp. a£E. cT? changed to c!U? 'very 
much, exceedingly.' ar'T^n &c.-3n%?r»TrR^iT^CJT'F«Tl ST^'aUjaee Sanj. 
Or 3T^T^^: aTTTr^STiTrq'^rc?: &0.; ir^f^s is both mas. and aeu.; but it is 
preferably mas. here as it agrees in gender with |^^cr> to which it is 
compared. ^' R f q^ q': — m^ilrr: ^^^'■ an extending leaf. Here ^ is 
compared to Aja, its qf^TW^ ^o ^i^ hand, and the ^^\^ to the hand 
of the bride. 

S'l. 22. ^ro2/%?f_^o7qjy: ^snfff 3i?«T fffT ^^Z\^: horripilated,. 
with the hair standing erect. f^fTrvf^: — (Hvrr; covered with 
perspiration STf^qT T^T- These are the external manifestations or 

signs of amour. See Sanj. fRT^sfr: — «IR*?»^% "^o- '• '• — 3TtfJTfI%'. 
his ( the god of love ) action or working. H»f f^H^fTT — Because- 
the emotion was equally visible in both. The reading fi%RT'Tt: 
7Tr^<F<T[^^ &c. is preferable as it is more logical and poetical t» 
say that the influence of the god of love was equally divided 
between them by the joining of the handa oi the couple than to 

Canto VII. ] (183) 

aay that the Mind-born himself divided his action between them 
None of the older commentators of the Raghu notices this 
reading which seems to be genuine, given and commented upon 
by Malli. The same occurs in Kum. VII. 71. f^ — Indicates an 3T=ff^T- 
SI. 23. BTTT'Jp — stTT^e: 3T^[rj; that which is removed from the 
body; or arqiifm fcr%^ =^^rcT '^^^^] fr. a?^ to go with 37T and aff. 
3?=?. Here it means 'the outer corner of the eye.' f^^ff^TrTfrT — 
The meeting ( of the action ) of the eyes. ^f?n=^<Tr — The check or 
curb imposed by bashfulness, ;. e. through bashfulness they could 
not look at each other steadily; cf. Kum. VII. 75. 

SI, 24. xTff^«r &c.— q-^f^oT q-«Tr cT^T ^^^'^^, i fr^rrg:— ^^Tcrfm 

that which reduces the mass of a thing; hence, fire. %?ff: — The 
mountain Meru is formed of shining gold, and hence compares 
well with blazing fire. STff^T^R^— =5rm ^r*TT '^^^T ^fcT l^Wr 
that which consists of three Yamas or prakaraa, the first half of the- 
first m^^ and second half of the last if^^ being reckoned as parts 
of day, being the periods of activity. Or sff^ ^T<T^cfri% that 
which leaves no room for vjj-^, aq-sf and ^\^, the time being especially 
suited for ^\^. arg^^gr I^nrriTr "^ 3Tf fw^T^n? I The sing, by the rule 
' ffJ^f^T^^ "^ 3T?Tf M'-*»<" lfTI%^ Pan. IV. 4, 13, ' words not denoting 
^vcfs or concrete substances and meaning things incapable of 
existing together ( ff ^TfcTT^: ^r?T^^«rf?rTT^c3"^'ifT mf^: Haradatta ) 
optionally become neu. and sing, when compounded in a Sam, 
Dvandva.' And since day and night cannot be seen together and do not 
denote ^^s, the rule applies and^we get 3T^%miTq;- 3Tf1%^r^ is 
also correct. This s'l. is the same as Kum. VII. 79. 

S'l. 25. fsTfl^SfJJ^ — heavy by reason of her ( well-developed > 
hips, not a happy epithet to be used at a time when a religious' 
rite was being performed. n^n^JTf^?r — irr%*Tr?ftm q"I%*T: an equal. 
tV^T^ or the Creator is the god who presides over all that relates 
to marriage and progeny. Hence, the presence of Vasishtha 
there, who was like a second Brahma, augured well for the future 
welfare of the couple that was now being united. qTrT ^ ^TC^^ — See 
VI. 59. Her eyes becoming red by the smoke resembled those of a 
Ohakora bird maddened with passion. Psr^rn"^'!^ — The offering into 
the fire of lajaa ( rice parched without being husked, which then 
lose the husks and swell considerably in the process of parching 
thereby assuming a beautiful shape) is enjoined by the most ancien 
writers as a marriage rite. Cf. 'fHT^ c37^TT3r"7Tf^ ^f f^TtfTH; ^^ ^^W 

(184) [Canto VII. 

^q?4r I 5rT^\3^fg ^ Tf^iv^'frt ^m% »TJT i ^r^r' l liiranyakes'i-Sutra 
XIX. 6. 2. Cf. Kum. VII. 80. 

S'l. 26. ^^TTSTf — The S'ami is a tree of the kind of Acacia 
( Acacia Suma ) the wood of which is very hard. It i§ supposed to 
contain fire in it and is held sacred. Sacrificial fire is kindled by 
rubbing two" dried pieces of it. ^fM &c. — 5^: 5^: ^Hqrl'rffT #^fQoft 
again and again reaching. '^5a:*TIHl^>' fl% !%%: t 5fT'T^^«T?nrT^— 
The poet here selects g^q^? because it is blue in colour and therefore 
compares well with smoke. C/. Kum. VII. 81. 

S'l. 27. iETHTfTry — Disturbed, dimmed. iFPn'T — quite faded 
( being exposed to the hot fumes ). ^ffrs^c — The young shoots of 
wheat or rice artificially grown under shade and watered with any 
dye, generally yellow, that the tender blades are desired to take. 
They are then worn as ornamenta on the ear. HK<^i | "-jf^(jfH; — 
Xl^^srr ^"^r l^^^^ beautiful cheeks. 3Tr^ryr*f»Tf "T — The customary 
inhaling of smoke; arr'^IT is 'an established custom/ arr^RiTTF ^ * T ifgM 
3TnrrT*i A compound of the S'&kaparthiy^di class. 

S'l. 28. ^r^5j7 — ^t?T "T? wrff^: one who has bathed at the close of 
his course of study. It is a technical term applied to a Brahmacharin 
who has finished his Vedio studies but has not yet entered on the 
householder's stage of life ( Bhanuji Dikshita ). Malli. applies it here 
to a particular class of householders. Some mention three kinds of 
^ T t T ^ g — :(1) f^^JI^fcT'^ OT one who, at the end of the student's life, has 
completed a course of study of the Vedas only-, (2) ^(T^ra^ or one 
who has completed the prescribed ^cTS or vows to be observed, without 
becoming perfect in the Vedas; and (3) the f^r^cT^TfcT^ or one who 
has completed bath his course of Vedic studies and the Vratas. 
5^*1% — See com. and ft.-note. aTT^Ir^rrnTfTT^ — This, according to 
Char., is enjoined by custom. 

S'l. 29. i^T^rt^r^^ — Tnis may be taken as a compound word 
( ^f S'TT ), ^^^k^J^ ?f^ ?«?n|!nr^^ , or as two words, srf^vr:— 
arfvr arf^^I ^7*??^, srfvnrfTl %fi: ^^ ?fa m 1 The epithet is appropriate 
here. It shows that king Bhoja had the power to meet the heavy 
expense required by the separate reception of the kings. 

S'l. 30. f?^^: — I%|F an outward sign or mark; here a false or 
deceptive sign; a disguise; cf. jpqtrr-Tfsf^iinfi Mud. I. f^^ft^ — 
Change of feeling, spite, jealousy. c?~a large tank with very deep 
water. ^5if»n'?^3t B^: I Ak. > ^<iHa> t: — This shows how scrupulous 
the poet is in selecting his similes to suit a particnlar occasion. 
Sea note on gTH^TT: I. 73. ;n^: — ^ ^T»Tfflr f;r^«T?5T%m; ff- ^^ with 

Canto VII. j ( 1S5 ) 

the neg. particle, which in this case is not changed to 3T. The alli- 
gator darts suddenly and is a dangerous animal-, hence the propriety 
of the simile. T5rr^— «• e- the presents they had received, which 
it is customary to give on such occasions. 

S'l. 31. ^^—^f^^'^ ^R^ 3T^%ffr that by which anything is 
known beforehand; an agreement or mutual understanding. For the 
form ^cTi^t ( see com. ) we have a |TN^ authority in the words of 
Pan., '11^^^ ^^' I arrt^ — an undertaking, an object desired to be 
achieved. ^ETti^qr^v^j^ — to be acquired at the right moment, t. e. 
when Aja would be alone marching back to his capital, arri^^ — 
Anything that has a strong attraction for anot^her, hence, an object 
of desire. 

S'l. 32. 35rfT — ia used here ^rg^q i. e. of the two actions — The 
kings lying in ambush and Bhoja's sending Aja off. tir^ — i^ the 
meanwhile, i. e. during the time the kings stationed themselves on 
Aja's way. ^tT— nobility of mind, magnanimity; who had giver, 
a dowry in a manner becoming the nobility of his mind. 

S'l. 33. Hfr^r^q-m^^— =q^qfr ofr^"- f^#^:; if dissolved as 
^^F'JTf ^r^FTf ^*Trfr^: we shall have to adopt the reading f^^I^fo; 
see sujpra note on fsTOT^^r^I^ HI- 45. This epithet serves no 
special purpose here, except that it serves to help on the com- 
parison of Aja with the sun, who is well-known in the three regions 
of space. j%fT: — Cf. XI. 57. ^^\^ — here means 'a night', q-f^ — 
time of conjunction, that which separates Amavasya from the 

S'l. 34. ^^^^^:-^^^'.^^\^\ ir^^iw^ wrathful, pc^g^^— 

^^'^ srm" ^r^ip mm\ ?T«rr l It may qualify the fgFTT either in 
STPtf^cf^T ( as Malli. takes it ) or in q-fFT^: I aTTrT^^nr— ariTT ^ vi^ 
^^\ % 3TrTT^r: rTff ^\^'- 3TItT?^cTT cT^j on account of their being 
deprived of their possessions.' WilH" — ^t 'C^^m^, S^Tf^^m^:; Xl^ 
being included in the ^^\T:i\\^ group; or ^c^ST WT WfTf^ a 
Nitya samasa, by the rule sr^T^cT^^^^^; cf. ^sricfr ^TTcfl Tgcg^E fT^tsrW^ 
^«^Wj or lastly ^tf J.r^\^^, a comp. ^^ gqj. 

SI. 35, ^^7rP5— -means here leading, or taking with him. 
^tP^T^'^: — ^r^JfT^qiR, TT^'cfrr% fl ^r^T^^r^'Tf Toi: the host of kings- 
^F?* — Bali was the son of Virochana and a conqueror of Indra. 

He was a powerful demon and oppressed the gods very much. They 

therefore prayed to Vishnu for deliverance. Visbna came down to the 

earth as a dwarf, being the son of Kas'yapa and Aditi, and, approaching 

the unsuspecting Asura who was a devout Vaishnava and a renowned donor, 

B. N. 24 

(1S8) [■ Canto VII . 

prayed for the grant of three steps of space to be lueasured with his own. 
feet. No sooner did Bali go through the ceremony of granting his request, 
notwithstanding the warning of bis preceptor S ukracharya, the seeming 
dwarf grew to gigantic proportions, covered with one step the entire earth, 
occupied with the other the heavens, and asked Bali to point out space- 
where to plant the third step. Bali, who now knew who the dwarf really 
was. was over-joyed to see the god, the object of his worship, in a visible 
form before him, and offered his own head for the third foot to rest upon 
and thereafter relinquishing the kingdom of heaven and earth to Indra,. 
retired to Patala. 

^f^r^H^— ^^ f^^FiTT 3T^T f^lf^R: ^^m^ ^]^^^•. \ For the origin 
of the Paurauio legend of Vishnu's taking three steps, see Rig. I. 
l^**- f^JRTj: — Prahlada, the grand-father of Bali; see ft. -note: 
Bhug. P. VII. 7. 2-9. 

SI. 36. aTT^^^fN^ — 3TJT5T: T^l^ '^P-t: o^T''^: a who was no small 
J. e. a great warrior. Or this may mean 'accompanied by not a 
small number of soldiers/ i. e. with a groat body of warriors to help 
him. f^?fTi[ — Oome from his father, {. e. who was long in service 
and therefore trustworthy. HT*frC*TrH; — some propose to read 
*3^?frf«ri^' instead of this; but that does not seem to be the poet's 
reading. The poet's object seems here to be to show the vaatness 
of the army of Aja's enemies ss compared to his small host. This 
end is well served by comparing the forces of the enemies to 
Bh4girathl and Aja's army to a comparatively small river. To 
read '5?ftrrT^«n'BC' therefore is to destroy the force of the simile, 
^"fof:— The river Soiia rises in Gondwana in the district of Nagpar 
on the tableland of Amarkantaka, four or five miles east of the 
source of .the Narmad;i, and running first northerly and then easterly 
for five hundred miles falls into the Ganges above Pitaliputra 
or Titnk. 

Now the poet proceeds ( in s'lokas 36-49 ) to describe the first 
stage of the battle. In s'l. 37 the battle begin?; then ( s'l. 38 ) we 
have the general confusion and clamour as the warriors close 
togbther; and later on we have the clouds of dust rising above the 
elephants and gradually spreading to the tops of and even above the 
flags ( s'lokas 39-43). 

^T^ I a cavalier, a horse-rider. The word ^^ which by itself 
means a horse-rider ( see Amar. quoted by ^alli. ) has here the 
general sense of 'one who rides', it may be a horse, an elephant or 
any other vehicle. JF^qfwff^' — In which the antagonists or the 

Canto VII..] ( 187 ) 

warriors on either side were in an equal position, t. e. evenh 
matched. Anoient writers on war prohibit a fight between wariora 
on unequal terms. 

SI. 38. 3Tf^r52I'5rr5[ — Whose words could not be distinctly 
understood, sffffo ?iT — \^ gives the present tense the sense of the 
past tense. frw?q-f?rnc— ^cygTrT^q"^ ^nTHT% ^cm^^TT: descriptions 
of families. It was customary with ancient Hindu warriors 
vauntingly to declare their genealogy and to describe the exploits 
of their ancestors to their antagonists before they began a duel, 
^fforr^: — ^riii^«?%: 3T^: a comp.of the S'&kapdrthivadi class. It was 
also usual with ancient warriors to engrave their names on the. 
arrows, ^x^ &c. — Construe 3rf%d ^fff ^^^T^^T »•«• ^Vk^ ^l^^ ^T^S" 
each declared to his adversary his noble name. 

S'l. 39. ^KsO^H:— 3T^r^ ^FSr: 3>cT: ^T'^ITcT: rendered densje. 
?^?fT^-The collection of chariots. fT^^C — ^^l ^RfTf 3- ^f^'IT^TItT- 
f ^?:; by the Vart. 'x^^t^ ^^^^^^ ^^^'^^\^^l on P4n. V. 2. 107. 
?nTT — The flapping of the elephant's ears. ^^rsR^-in the manner 
of a canopy ( made of a silk garment ) i. e. as completely as by a 
thick veil of cloth. 

SI. 40. jtc^vi^tTT: — iTc^'IT^RT '=^^^1: fish-shaped banners, grj- 
^^^ — ^\^: ^^ force or influence ^r^^^T cT^'TTfi;- STf^^-^^^T: ^'^^^IW% 
v^f^^t an army; ^\^\: \^\\%. IT?^ &c. — as the mass of dust swelled. 
qT*TP| HH gTr: — ^K^' 3T^: q^Jfl'^: the primary or the principal sense; 
^^\^^ ^^'^\\ ^T^^^^r^'^\ fishes in the primary or chief sense i. e,^ 
real fishes. q^rf^FR" — tRcT: ail round arrR^ffT turbid. JTWff^f^ — 
water at the commencement of the rains which is muddy and 
therefore comparable with the dust. 

S'l. 41. r'trnp — is pre-eminently the wheel; cf. m\^\'^^, m\^;- 
^m^ etc., which are names of the chakravaha bird. ^>T^HIH^?"^f^~ 
t. e. by shouting out the name of his master. Each warrior perhaps - 
uttered the name of his king or of the leader under whose command. 
he was, as his party or war cry, «. g. sr??^ iTf RI^T5^^ W^% qT'^*T"-, &c. 
»m*rTrr^5fhT:— srrcJTr =^ tf^8^rc»TTrt c^'fr^'^: l The knowledge of friend . 
and foe. 

S'l. 42. This and the following Slokas indicate the close of the 
first stage of the fight by describing how the gloom caused by the 
mass of dust was gradually dispelled, the dust being wetted by the 
enormous quantity of bloodshed caused by the carnage of animals 
and men. 3TT^f-3T3Tr% 'ff^ 3TRf: fr. 3T^ + | (fcrr ). nr^p:>T?T— That 
spread all round. ^^ &c.-;jj#: s^ct ^IT^^fT^; 3T>^I«^ f|qT9^ <\l\^. 

(188) [.Canto Vn 

^.^i^^\j: Sam. Dvan.; ^T^^fr ^ rT^^i?lftt ^ ?TWT5^-iT 'Tf^ I Malli.. 
who says ofi^vif: seems not to regard f^T ^^ %^Tf^ ( »• «• in its 
technical sense e. g. qf%, ^flr^ &c. ). ^TH'rre^: — The epithet ^\^ 
serves a double purpose here. The early sun is not only red but 
also performs the special task of dispelling darkness. The com- 
parison extends to this much only. 

S'l. 43. ^pj-5t;t— ^ffy^g^fq^i ^y^ that which flows from a wound 
blood, ^qfcerq; — See V. 43; ;jtff^ is similarly formed by adding f^ 
to 37%,^. 3T^cd^^— 3Tfrn: ^T^r T^^j reduced to embers, i. e. 
^rithout flame, but with the embers still red hot. ffTT^R^ — 
CrTJT^RH^^ I The figure is now slightly changed and the columns,, 
of dust are in this S'l. compared to volumes of smoke curling over 
the fire they rose from without being attached to it, because of 
its having ceased to burn-, while the dust near the surface of the 
earth, being wet with blood, is compared to live charcoal. 

The poet now (S'l. 44-54. ) proceeds to describe the second stage 
of the battle. The dust is now put down and the battle rages 
afresh. In S'lokas 44-45 he telh us how the discomfited chariot- 
warriora come back and fight with fury. Thus the 1st and the 
main division of the army is engaged. The next S'l. describes the 
fight of warriors on elephants, another chief division of the army. 
In S'l. 46 the cavalry is brought in and enters the field of action. 
Lastly ( S'l. 48 ) the infantry is described as taking its fair share 
in the fight. S'lokas 49-54 describe the result of the fight of 
the two armies. 

S'l. 44. rsT^Tr- — Those seated in chariots: here refers to the 
warriors, though strictly it may apply to the drivers as well. 
fTif^rTP^: — Causing the drivers to turn the horses, %.». the chariots, 
towards the field of battle, ^rf^rfr- — struck, wounded, pyf^ff &t=- — 
Here ^ ought to be understood in its secondary sense of ^^vy, 
objects seen before-, ^t%cT?: g;^%?Tf:, r31%cTT: ?i%a^r%: by whom the 
previously seen-flags were recognized, i. e. the warriors first 
recognized their antagonists by observing their flags which they 
had marked before, and then fought with thorn wrathfully. 

SI. 45. arJjTT'f — ill the course of their flight-, it does not mean 
•exactly in the middle,' in which sense :s{x( is iteu. q-^^o — q-f is properly 
a pron. and refers to a place; 'enemy' is its sencondary sense; 

Kaiyata. f^^ra.— Jf^FtTl ^m ^^\ a p^f'cT?fl^t; bere ^^ means by 
=7J3(T1T skill, dexterity. aTgffrT— continuance- OT«Tr — owing to &e. 

Canto VII,] ( 189 ) 

blades, steel-tips q-qf ^arm ^f^^?^:> cf. ^^^\^^^\c^ ^R^HJ Mud. 
VII. 10. ^T^s^r^ — aim, target. 

S^l. 46. arr^r^wRr*!,— 3TT^7n'a[ irfcT'^igif i^pct ffcT arr^r^'^T: 

those who make tbe elephants move skilfully, elephant-drivera. 
^RTFcT — a clashing together, a fight, ^arf^ — severed, cut off. The 
root % occurs ia this sense in s'l. 51 again and in III. 56. ^^ &c. — 
snTF^^^ 3^'aTqf ^r %\ZW- 3T5r^T?q: pointed extremities; ^qq-^^^f &c. 
o?n^r=rir — entangled. 

S'l. 47. srRT^?r?T^*T^— q^m^fcf: iT|TT: iri%JrfTT: a blow in return, 
rfFTT^ir: cl^ I of^oraro— fiT<?aar: resting on, leaning against \-^: ^\^ ^.. 
«/. ^nfra ^c75?:iTf^'^cnT^f : IX. 76. iTc?ns^^?T^— Coming back to 
consciousness. The Hindu warriors never struck a fallen enemy. 
not even one who was disarmed or wounded or who supplicated 
for life. This was strictly prohibited by the S'astras. See 
Manu. VII. 90-93 and ft.-notes. 

S*l. 48. fTg^3l*rr^— ?T3 f^^'fflfrr "^^m I lit. quitting their bodies, 
dying. But here it means 'prepared to lose their bodies', fighting- 
regardless of their livfs. Cf. 3i?^ =g ^f^: ^^r ^^^ pq^sfrfiffTT: \ 
Bg. I. 9. ^4^?ir^— For ^^^ see IV. 56. This shows that the foot- 
soldiers were now engaged in fight. ^;^f^:_f^ij-^f. ^y-,,; scabbards, 
sheaths ij^f^:; a Bah.; or f^frs:!: ^T^*^:; a Pr^di Tat. a^gp^j—The 
Inst, ia ff[|. ^^Tr^tT— ^fr^^ properly means the particles of 
water carried by the wind. '^fi^fr^f^P^T: ?f cir:' (^T3^r ^clfcTcT; irRnp I ) 
Amara. ^^^fj^ means the particles blown from the trunk. 

S'l. 49. f^?5^:— nicfT-^T?^ a sharp point g^ ^^rf; for a differ- 
ent meaning see IV. 67. ^^r^iTTH— SfTTH may mean excelleit 
( :^ ) conspicuous by, or mixed (wsflf) with. ^^^: :j^^j ^'si-:prTT?T 
Inst. Tat.; excelling i. e. abounding in drinking cups, or mixed t. e. 
provided with, drinking vessels. Malli. takes the eomp. as a 
Bab.; but that presents a grammatical difficulty; it should be giTT- 
^q^^r. See note on f ^ct^T^ItT^ &c. VI, 50. tTR'JR:— a place for 
drinking, a place where liquors and beverages of all sorts aie 
served plentifully and men revel and make merry. See R4m. Sun. 
Kind. Chap. 14. 

S'l 50. f^'sajfqfi^— Torn off by pecking; from the extremities 
of which fltsh was extracted by the vultures! €'/. ^f%R5^f%cf >afvi -" 
^Pffc7?T mtrrsmgioscT^ &c. %3;^^rr2: &c— For %^^ see VI. (8. 
The cofctly armlet was yet on tie arm. This shows that the arcient 

( 190 ) [ Cauto VII. 

.varriore did never think of robbing their adverflariee of orna- 
montB. The object was glory and not plunder. arrr^^iK — may 
oe Perf. of ^ or f^ as Malli. suggests. Cf. the use of the root in 
3T«7Tl>(T^?[c?^r *T^f^: VI. 57; fT^c^qr^qiTJT: ft*tf^r^ &c. Kum. V. 28. 

Si. 51. rf«r?^o— 1%'^rT: ^^- %^ ffTS^nTfff ^^^ W. I r%»n-f H^rTF^— 
It was a common belief with the ancients that a warrior who fell 
on the battle-field while fighting was raised to the dignity of 
a god who could move in a heavenly oar and had the privilege of 
being wedded to a heavenly nymph; c/. ^^7 f j ^\cf:^\^ ;c^it^ (fee. 
Bg. II. 37. fprnp®-"^®® below note on (^rcfTTisno, si. 53. ^^;:vr^— A 
headless trunk dancing about, not having lost vitality yet. This 
indicates that the battle was bloody, as a ^^Pvr is said to dance on 
the battlefield when one thousand warriors perish. 

S"l. 52. K^m^zr &«• — shows that the combatants were skilled 
in every kind of fighting. sq-fHTri — prolonged. ^rgfTTf <fec. — \^^^ 
rubbing, hence fighting. Rgj — destruction. 

S'l. 53. tr?:fqc'T^ — qroT Tm by each other, ^j^gjpfrq-fcfr:— ^15 

the vital breath. ir^rc^?::mfq"tT«fi"- — who were courted by one and 

4:.he same nymph. Malli. takes this in the sense of 'who sought 

one and the same damsel.' What the poet means, however, is this 

— A heavenly maiden was watahing the two warriors as they 

engaged in a deadly combat. As she saw them fall she ran forth 

^-fco greet the one who would reach her first. But as both reached 

ieaven at one and the same moment the damsel did not know 

whom to chose. Each of the warriors on the other hand fancied 

; that the nymph had come forth to receive himself and would not 

• allow the other to have her. Thus their hostility was kept up in 

"heaven alsj. The general notion is that the nymphs seek those 

warriors who fall on the battle-field ( see foot-note ) and therefore 

the commentators who makes the two warriors seek the nymph 

altogether miss the point of the poet. 

5^^^ — The apsarases area class of subordinate deities who 
reside in heaven and arc regarded sometimes as the wives of the 
Gandharvas, sometimes as the courtesans at the court of Indra. It 
is in this their last character that they are promised as reward to 
heroes who die gloriously on the battle-field. They are so named 
because they were born from the churned waters. Gf. R4ma. arc^ 
T%»T«T^rt^ 7^rTT^Tr?U%'T- I S-cTgR-Ssr??? ?T^fTTT<:^^trs»Tf^ II They are 
fond of bathing, can change their form at will and are endowed 
with superhuman power. Whenever Indra ia alarmed by ths 

<CantoVII.] (191) 

-performance of unusual austerities by a mortal he sends them down 
to disturb his ascetic exercise. Bana in his Kad. mentions fourteen 
Jfamilies of these, perhaps on some authority known to him. The 
word is generally used in the pi- But the sing. ( as also the form 
STTfrrr) is sometimes used, as in the present s'l.; ^?r^T RTTfCffU-" 
■;^f«r?TT S&k. I.; 3?^':^^ STm»TTr^% 1 Vik. I. p. 14. 

S'l. 54. 5|r^— l>^T^<^ 37?fcT5RTT%m s^f : li^. that in which an 
inference is drawn with due care-, hence a particular position 
in which a general draws up his army after asertaining from a due 
•consideration of circumstances what would be the most advantageous 
position. 3T52r^^«T'?^— STI^irm^T =2r^?«n 3T?^ I 7^5: &c.— qs^ig; '^ 
,5^%^ gs^T?5^: I q«^rr5^: m?at cT^t:- lit- winds from the rear and 
the front i. e. contrary. T^ir^jaT^rr— T'TI^ ff%: action r\^; ef. 
W\^^^T^\^m^^•' Mai. Mad. IX. 32. grf^— is both mas. and /era.; 
here mas. since it is compared to s^f which is mas. 

8*1. 55. This si, coming rather suddenly upon si. 54 seems to 
leaye a gap in the narrative. For in si. 54 we are told that the two 
armies prevailed against each other in turns. And in the present si, 
the poet tells us, all of a sudden, what happened after the dispersion 
<of Aja's force. So we are to infer that Aja's army which had held 
its own against odds for some time gave way in the end and that the 
prince had to run to its succour. »Tff*rr- — ^IX. STrsf: spirit, 
prowess ^^^. ^^: — The comparison to grass implies that the 
destruction of the army was a matter of no difficulty to Aja. 

S'l. 56. f%^r— f%«f^-" 3T?'7m?T fia m#r. Having a quiver at his 
•service. ^■^f^r'C: — This ought to be properly fft^:; but since it is 
found used by great poets it is explained to be irregularly obtained. 
^[^f75rg-!JT[rrj%63Tfh; Dlkshita. The alternative cr%g g^q^g ^"^^r^ frff 
;T^^(r: is suggested in the Manorama and Tatvabodhiai. *Tfr^rrf : — 
•i. e, Vishnu in his third incarnation. qif^sq-^^T — A ^^q- which forms 
but a day of Brahma is equal to 1,000 cycles of human ages i. e. 432 
^millions of human years; so long the creation exists. At the end 
of this period a night of equal duration follows, in which the 
■universe collapses and is turned into an immense ocean, all things 
merging into hopeless chaos. Vishnu, the lord of all, sleeps on 
his S'esha on the surface of water till the break of morn, when the 
-universe is created again, and a new Kalpa begins. According to 
<the Puranas, Vishnu, in the form of a boar of immense proportions, 
lifted up the submerged earth above the surface of the ocean 
•holding it up on his jaw. Cf. fTcT: ^gf^^cq t^rf ^^q-f JTfrfrff : 

(192) [Canto VII. 

^5r?q^»^r^?i: i ^^r^^T^r^^^^f^^- ^5f?w^'r?rifr^m»Tfi53;,ii Pad. P.; 
also Hv. jjcf r ^^T^^rfF^t ^in*:?: m[>^7^^: I anlr: ^tfif^aigif ^ arnr^- 
rq3T[«7rct: II ^^Trf^— The story given in the Bbag. P. is different 
from that alluded to here. There the waters do not rise. See 8k. 
III. Ad. 28; also Adh. 13 si. 46. Western scholars consider 
this as an allegorical account in connexion with the creation of the 
earth-, see Max MUller's 'India, What it can teaoh us,' p, 137 
g-^Tt — c/*- infra XIII. 8. 

S'l. 57. 5Er fflT'T &c- — Mallinatha's interpretation of the first 
half of this S'l. is faulty and fails to bring out the poet's meaning. 
In Sanskrit manuscript writing, words are ueully written in close 
succession and it is left to the reader to separate them according to 
the sense. So what was written as ^org^q^fiq' Malli, separated aa 
fT"*rS&^ (inatr. sing.) and ^J^, and, trying to give a meaning to these 
words, he construed: — ^ arr^^r ?r%<it f^ct (j;Tg^^ mff ( adv ^'beauti- 
fully' ) 5^TTR^=^ 3T<7^cT. Perhaps hia idea was, '' Aja's left hand 
was once for all engaged in holding the bow; the movements of his 
right hand from the quiver to the bow and irom it back to thg 
the quiver again were too rapid for the eye to follow, so that, once 
the hand was directed to the mouth of the quiver, the eye only saw 
it moving beautifully there. " But the idea is faulty; for if one 
directs one's eye to anything it must be to the bow and not to the 
quiver. The explanation is also open to other objections. The 
instrumental (joig^^ is quite awkardly used with si^tttT^^?; since it 
does not come under any well-known rules of syntax . Moreover, the 
word ^\^ is used in a very unusual sense which is rarely found in 
Kalid^sa; coming after ^%ot one naturally expects it to mean 
' left ' and to qualify f??t. Thirdly, with this sense the eecond 
half of the S'l. is rendered quite unintelligible. If the right hand 
is near ^tjig^;^, thej bow-string cannot remain on a stretch ( ^^^ 
3TT^if?F?T ) in appearance. Nor can it be described aa of ittelf pro- 
ducing the arrows, since the right hand is actually seen as taking 
part in their production; being busy near the quiver. So it is 
better to follow the other commentators and construe the line as 
^ 3TT^t ^f^*^ f ?ft ^-^ ( loo- sing. ) s^TRT?^ ^ 'TST^'^rT, n\A ( adj. 
* left ' ) f^(t (?t) (^org^fr s^r'il^^^ ^ STcT^^^- He was so quick in hi^ 
operations that he was seen putting neither th$ right nor the left hand 
into the mouth of the quiver. To an observer it seemed that the 
arrows flying from his bow were not taken from the quiver by 
either of his hand^, bat that the bow-string itself produced them 

Canto VII. ] ( 193 ) 

as it were ( ^5^ f^ ). One of his hands held the frame of the 
bow and the other pulled its string. The left and right hands are 
used respectively for these purposes by ordinary archers; but & 
very skilled warrior can also hold the frame with his right hand 
and pull the string with his left; this is called ^5?T«TI%?f. To indicate 
Aja'a ^o^f^f^rq^ the poet mentions both ^%ot and ^[q- in the verse. 
By the second half of the stanza the poet draws a picture of Aja 
whose one hand holds the bow-staff, and the other keeps the string at 
a stretch, drawn as far back as the ear once for all. 

;q^5 — As a matter of fact the string was drawn back right up to 
the ear each time that an arrow was discharged; but, after it vraa 
first so drawn, what followed took place so rapidly that it could not 
be properly observed, and the repeated drawings could not be distin- 
guished. Hence it seemed as if the string had been pulled only once 
and remained so there in that position. Cf. ^gri^^gj f^a^^ ^■{^^ 
Kir. 16. 20. 

S'l. 58. s^iTT^r'^t^r: — The prominent vertical ridges that were 
formed on the forehead when frowning. In the case of ordinary 
mortals these lines are irregular- in the case of kings they are 
vertical, ^fr: — %^' wf^= knitting or bending ^ff?:; also written 

aa >Tlff?and g-jf? and sometimes w;ff2T- H^ — See IV. 63. t^x 

The utterance of ^q; a sound of defiance; cf. ST^Tflf'^ru^^IrfcT: T(\ 
Kum. V. 54. 

S'l. 59, ^ITT^- — »' e. the four divisions of the army. See Sanj' 
^U^ &e. — T%l^v. ^v^'^\ cTIH T^^?q'VTT^n% ^:. q'vrr^ is neu. ^f^qr 
and ^qzi^^qf^ — Since ^f is emphatic it ought not to have been* com- 
pounded. ?fR*T^ — Though Aja is here in the various Karaka rela- 
tions, such as ^^\ of one kind of action ( killing the enemy ), m-^ of 
another kind of action ( being struck by his enemies ) &c., the poet 
ignoring all other relations gives prominence to his being the 
^r%^1 or receptacle of the iTf^T%?TT o^ his enemies and uses the Loc. 

S'l. 60. In . this si. the following are compared: 3^^ and 
RTi;^»TTiI, 3T^^^ and ^Tf IT, ^J^TT^T and ^JX and ^.^■^ and f^^^ffr;^. 
*> ^ T<m H M°r— ^?^^nt ^^^TTif, ^"^^rrim s^^tititt#, a comp. of the 
iT^q'^T^f^ class; If^. There is a pun on the word -j^^ which means 
(1) a flag, and also (2) a sign (f^^), the dimly-shining sun being 
the sign of the i^^g^tvrTT. f^f^^r— f^^: %5r: 3T??7r?tTTfcT f^^^ff^. 

S'l. 61. f^af^rf5ir?f— See V. 59. arf^i^x^r—aT^j^r TTWI aTf^rrgj-:. 
Supreme king, Ragbu. Or. aqf^ TT5f^>S^; Hem ^ i^\f^^x^^ — 
This epithet is not without its force here. It shows that Aja, like 
B. K. 25 

( 194 ) [ Canto VII. 

the god of love, would come out victorlouB without inflicting 
bodily injury upon his enemies. ST^TT^ — See Malli.: or better 
^^^]^^f^^^,^r. i^^tT oau. with 3T^(?g2^) ^1%. ?Tin"'TfTT &c.— 
t^r^PT ^\i( c?r?^; m HyW ^^ '^^^ with desire to ^leep gone; not 
given to drowsiness (want of vigilance ); hence, oue who was ever 
on the alert and knew the exact moment when to use the proper 
( here the Gandharva ) weapon. 

S'l. 62. ?fri: — By virtue of the weapon; Hem. v^* — vf^^ 
^^DT »^», v:i36^<t0T q:?r f^frr ^?^. WV mT'% fnr fm^u"^ helmets. 
F^JrrT^^'I^— N^5 V^^ f^^^^ capable of being rendered obedient; 
subject to, in the power of: fR'^r^T 1%^^ H?r»- 

S'l. 63. fir^TrTT?:^ — ^^\t^'. simply means ^r^fT 'reserved for 
■herself by, made her property by,' &c,; it cannot be taken in the 
sense of '^ffcT tasted' as that was not possible; see foot-note, f^^ 
^^: — The idea of drinking white fame has already ocoured-, see II. 
69; IV. 42. 

S'l. 64. ^^- tfec. — 5Tr*T^IJFcfR'Tf>T^: who could recognize; 
Vt^^?'«?lf*r|r[:. RfrTi': — As they had previously fled away. Cf. tR^ 
^flt'T ^ S'l. 52. ^vf5r|-_^5, p^ p. p. of ^^; drooping; helpless, or, 
motionless. f^T^: 'F^^'-^r: — Mark the use of ^f here, which, 
though a reflexive pronominal adjective, is nevertheless not so reflexive 
in its character as its Latin equivalent suum. The poet would, how- 
ever, have used the word more in conformity to its sense, if he had 
«aid, as he probably meant, '^^T^T^^^'?^ ^^F^:'- (Pandit). ^^TrnC — 
Shining tremulously ( as a reflected heavenly body ). C/. for this 
sens'e ^iTcT in IV'. 75. ^^ — is often used in the sense of 'quivering 
or throbbing'; as f^T^fcf "^ sprf : &c.; and sometimes in the sense of 
^merely 'shining as in 3r*>^^f?^Tvr%TfjT^^ &c. Bhatti. I. t>. 
irf^ir — irmm'^^ sr^^r ffrr; fr. STm + irr+aT (srg;) ef^; an image; 
now sae com. o^fHT^ — This simile is very appropriate. There is 
opposition between the moon and the pail kaj as, and when the one 
is shining the others fade away, so the moon alone prevails against 
a forest of lotuses; similarly Aja alone defeated his enemies. Again, 
Aja is described above as ^gtrrfT^F^cT:, ^o he is fl ily compared to 
the moon here. 

S'l. 65. fJT^nTrTT: — Caused to be impressed or written. ^^fffT^: 
&c. — ^The idea is very spirited. It is very worthy of a warrior of 
Aja's stamp to write a declaration of his victory with snoh 
materials of writing as blood and 6teol-pointed arrows for ink and 
pen. %^ — Seems to mean <on the flags' ( from which thej conld 

Oautc VII. ] ( 195 ) 

be prominently seen ), rather than 'on the flag-staffs', a> Maili. 
lEakes it. 

8'1. 66. ^rT^FRT &c, — This and the following epithets 
•represent Aja as presenting himself before Indumati in the attitude 
cf a true hero. i%6^^ot putting or taking off of. fif^r — Loosened 
disarranged, ^tf^: — tied mass of hair. ?^?^r?o — sfrfT^T «fTf^ vm^JW, 
"fTBT f%^?^:; now see com. ^^: — is redundant as sr^Tf^ means the same 
thing as ^^] ^^i^ . 

S'l. 67. H>f5F &c —311?%: fRrm 3Tif ^^T??Tm ^T^rm "^^f cTT'T, 
"Who oould be disarmed even by children; i. e. who are in a helpless 
condition. v[7S(i aTT^TrTTRT — Bacause according to the A'ryan notion 
it is a sin for a married woman to look at the face of any other 
male than her husband. When expressly permitted by her husband 
she may do it, as in duty bound to obey her husband implicitlv. 
■n-^fgr^qf &c. — implies a taunt, afff^o— 3TTfff^ %I%ct fighting work, 

S'l. 68. xrmtff^^?;— ^i%5%*'fr ^^mm arising from the 
•enemies^ as Malli. seems to derive it: or iTt^^fg^: '^^^'. cause 
x^^ whos cause was the foes. f^q^f-fear, sorrow, gloom. 
5TgT?i; — Used as a double-meaning word here; it means ij^r?rfrr or 
brightness when applied to face; cf. irms'^SW ^f?ir3; &c. IV. 18; 
and R^^cTI ( transparency ), when applied to the mirror. 

S'l. 69. 3T»-"2r'T«=T<I. — greeted, congratulated upon. ^r5T A 

natural site, (t. e. not affected by human intervention) as distinguish- 
ed from ^xirTT which is a spot artificially prepared. *Tf^r#rfrrpf.' 

^T^fyoit ^^r*. it^%^T:; the notes meant here are those of pea-hens 
as they correspond in the simile to the words of Indumati's female 
friends, ir^fr becomes vf^^ by the Vartika ^m^'^{^J^J^<JW\]^^ t^?ii\ 
^Tppm. The iT^fls are compared to the ^^ji. 

S'l. 70. ff?r — Thus, in the manner described. f^^T% ^R 
qf^Fff^^r^ — A. proverbial expression implying disgrace or great 
humiliation. Having inflicted a disgraceful defeat on his enemies, 
^f ^f^ — The root ^^ with g-g; generally means to marry; but as the 
marriage actually took place some four days before this 
( see SI. 33 ), the sense would not suit the context. Malli. hiipself 
sees the difficulty and takes g"^ff i^; in the secondary sense of ajfrq-- 

Tra^f^ -midehis own,' now that the opposing kings were defeated a 

meaning that better suits the context though hardly sanctioned by 
lexicons. The meaning of 'led or took her on to (Ayodhyd,' will do 
as well and agree with the second half of the si. — he took her with, 
iiim to Ayodhya, but as a second goddess of victory incarnate. We 

(196) [CafntoViri 

have met with the root in this sense already (si. 35.). Some com- 
mentators take the root in the sense of ' marrying ' and create 
insuperable difticultiea in their way for nothing. ST^'CrrfJ — A.3 
remarked by Malli. the word 3T^?7 is irregularly formed, as the ^TfJ 
affix ?j has not its usual sense of 'capable or worthy of being' &c. in 
this case. 3Tf?i here means 'what ought to be censured', a reprehen- 
sible act, &c. i:tfo — Malli. says 3[%jg^jrjait because the idea of the 
^q'S and ^^tjb bting %^rf' is not prominent here. They are no 
longer considered as parts of an army, but merely of the retinue of 
Aja. ^pn: — ^R^'r?lff*Ti5rf% ^iT^: lit. that in which people meet 
together; a battle. ^q"f f^^fJr: ^^T*> ^f C^m ^^^^^^^1 or ^jjt^ij f^m^i. 
SI. 71. »p5r^*rrzfr &<^- — ^^af STf^rrwifr ^m of whom the hus- 
band is born ( in the form of a son ) "iTT^mFTT^ ^n^If^ 'i^^'Tt ^ri% 
^'.y Manu. Cf. Malli. on the word in II. 1. ot;?s^: — Here ^»^ does 
not mean merely the family bat the dependents as well. ^rf^tTRTif- 
the way leading to eternal quiet i. e. 3foksha. ^?r-j^ — gf ^^an% 
gif: one who bears the yoke, f. e. any kind of bnrdeo. a supporter. 
^cJ^T S'T: ^^3^: I f?^#?^r: ^k\l m^^- 1 See not© on ^my^f^^ 
VI. 8. 



S'l. 1. f^^?=ffr§'^ — ^15^ is the auspicious thread, generally 
dyed yellow, worn round the wrist by the bride and bridegroom 
before the commencement of the marriage-ceremony. It is generally 
taken away en the third day after the conclusion of the marriage 
rite. It may, howevtr, be worn during the whole period of celibacy 
which is enjoined upon a newly-married couple, aud which in the 
case of grown-up persons extends to a period of three or twelve 
days, or even a year. See As'v. 8u. quoted in the foot-note. fST^HT 
q-^ — This merely means that the prince was invested with kingly 
powers immediately after the celebration of his marriage-ceremony, 
s^rfxri^ — shows that he had to cherish the Earth with as much 
affection as his wife Indumat!. 

S'l. 2. fff^TfT— ( f ? fff ^^^^^^ '). Mark the foroe of ar/q and 
TO. They ought not to do tbis being the sons of protectors of 
men. See K&m. quo<ed in the foot-note. «»6T?^ — expresses complete 
poasessi n. fft — Hwm. takes this iTTm^^ ( urm^i^ii^ 51^15% |c?T«f: ) 
and quotes P D. VUI. 1. 33, :f4 in support of his interpretation. 
But it is better to take it 3T?cn^ ^ith Malli. 

^^anto VIU. ] ( 197 ) 

S'l. 3. o^)t|:— Got ready by mixing them together and giving 
them spiritual' effioacy by the recital oi holy mantras. Water 
brought from all aaered streams and from the conflaence of the 
Ganges and the Yamuna and filled in golden pots with various 
articles immersed therein, formed an essential part at a royal 
inauguration. 5=5^rllrf— (1) Sending forth vapour; (2) a pleasant 
breathing expressive of satisfaction. Cf. 3Tl^Tfl'^3"%cT Vik. IV. p. 
103. ^fffr— "^T-' ( «. ) ^ ^r^^ra^^efrf^ so called because supposed to 
have been covered with the fat of the demons Madhu and Kaitabha 
when slain by Vishnu. JTS%2^'m:r#%?%^ ^U%^^ < ^^^ hT^^J ^^F 

SI. 4. fCT^^: — gr^^T 3Tmi3Tn ?m accessible with great difficulty; 

hence, uncong^uerable; fr. ^a^ with 3TT + 3T (^^H cf. III. 66. 

^T^tf^fr — We have already seen that Vasishtha is not only adept 

in the Atharvan lore, but is himself a composer of some of the 

mantras. See notes on I. 59, 61. After the necessary sacrifices 

and the other rites in connexion with a coronation ceremony are 

performed, verses from the Atharva Veda are recited, conferring 

long life on the newly-crowned king, and prosperity on his kingdom, 

and invoking the blessing of the gods upon him, praying for safety 

i;o him from all kinds of danger, and lastly, invoking the gods to 

make him invincible by his foes, by reciting the verses which begin 

with q-: ^T^f ^r^^T^ ^^ f^^^^m ^ tfresr iff ^sg-' whoever, 

whether friend or foe, or whether a hater, surpasses us ( in valour ), 

may all the gods destroy him.' See Rdjanitimayukha, Rajabhishe- 

kaprayoga by Nilakagthabhatta, son of S'amkarabhatta. q-^^rrnfT® — 

The principle is woU emphasized and better put by Bhavabhuti in 

Mah. II. 5; see foot-note, jj^-here means Brahmanic energy or 

the power a Brahmaua gets from his ascetic practices- cf. S'ak. II. 9. 

S'l. 5. q'^^^ — ^^^t »• '• is iJot good as the context ( Hf xT^r?^ 
&c. ) requires the former. ^ f^ &c.-This was expected of Aja; 
see V. 34, 37. Cf. this description with that of Raghu who was 
bound to excel his predecessors as desired by Dilipa himself (see 
II. 64); supra IV. 1-12. 

S'l. 6. ^H^ — ^>T»Tl«TI?cfr''fr The matuh (showing possession) 
affix 5 (?t) is added to the indec. 3Tf' (pride, arrogance ) and 
gq"i see com. f^fj^ — ''The force of ^^ is^ that no union of two other 
things ever appeared so beautiful as that of Raghu's kingdom with 
Aja, except the union of his (Aja's) youth with his virtue: or 
vice versa., no union of two other things appeared so beautiful as 

( VJS ) [ Canto VRl. 

that of Aja's youth with his yirtue, except the ttnlon of hia 
father's kingdom with himself." 8. P. Pandit, f^if^j^ — f^s^T is 
generallv found to be wanting in a young man, especially when he 
comes to be in possession of power and wealth; but Aja's youth was 
graced by Vinaija. ^fsf — corresponds to ^;g'. ffJ^I is called g^^ 
beoauaa it potentially contains many a blessing. 

B'l. 7. w'>Til" — Enjoyed (the fruits of). The idea of enjoying 
carnally is also present; cf. IV. 7. 'gsft^T^^ F6n. I. 3. 68; t^^ in 
any other sense than that of protecting is A'tm. This root has a 
rariety of senses: — (1) to govern; ^^^7 ^IirrTR^JJ^IfS^^ S'ak. 
II. p. 61. (2) to cherish; as ^^T^?; •T^rf^ f^cTF- (3) to eat, as ^\^^ ij%: 

(4) to enjoy as here; %^ % 'f^^r^'^ vfy^i^g^^j ^^ Bha. Vai. 

(5) to suffer or endure; f;^r 3T% f :^^cTrH ■f^- ^^\'^^^ — implies 
great physical strength, arfq^ must be supposed to be understood — 
^Although very powerful.' ^f^ — With force, foroibly; originally 
the inatr. sing, of ^fw; power, force, treated as an indec. 

SM. 8. ^^: iTfTT^: — The p. p. participle* of roots showing- 
*eateem; &c.' ( see com.) are used in the sense of the present tense 
and are oonstrued with the gen.: JrfjTi'Vf^gT, %^'- ?»I!I'TT^Fn<I.5 71?rt 
'T?r ^?f^^ i ' ^??n°T f ?^o I Sid.-Kau. The same thought is differently but 
less forcibly expressed in IV. 12. firaTT — rr*^ iT^tJ^T^ that whioh 
flows along a declivity or to a lower level. Mark the propriety of 
the word. It suggests humility on the part of the subjects in their 
behaviour towards the king. The si. is quoted in the S4h. Dar. 
(see III. 61) as an instance of arguf't'cTT a subdivision of ^HT> oo® 
of the eight manly qualities of a hero proceeding from 8attva 
( ^^^: qi^f Jjqr: )• 

S'l. 3. ^ ^jx: &c — ^mA \ — iised adverbially-' Very much, in a 
high degree'-goes with ^f^; and ^f:; c/i f^^T^'^flr 'i^'Tm 5:^'Tf==?T 
Mud. VI. 9, and S'ak. I. 7 (JJ^^ ^^T.\A ). This si. is a raflex of 
IV. 8. and an illustration of the statement in si. 6 ( jpn^ irfff*?^ )• 
Cf. Bharata and Kir. quoted in the foot-note; also cfi^^Ffft^'cT ^t 
<Tft>T^^^r7T ^l%a% &c. Mud. III. .'). jt^itft:— suggests purity in. 
the king. Derived fr. ^ ( qf% gf?f ) and ^^^ (3TPT)> which is also 
added to ?t3t (^joTifR: ) by P&n. III. 2. 128. Apte's Die. is wrong 
in saying nr'^^f?^ ^PT^- ?nTTr^?R( — For tie comparison see 
M&lav. I. 8. jr^fTfr — placed before him as the chief thing., followed. 
^t^ — r,. e. ^n^sijf-ffnC remark Din. and Vail. ( see infra 
si. I^,, notes ). 

SI. 10. xrmfar^ — established, ». e. with his rule made firm 
»Tr?*r?rTT'Jr — This is the best reading. ■S{\^^\ 3t^ p}?m ST^f 3irrTTR| 

Canto VIII. ] (.199 ) 

?T«^ ^j^: 3{\r^^J^ ?R[5 3TTciTr may mean-(l) firmness of miBd or 
self-control; the king was aelf-possessed, did not act precipitately 
but took action after careful thought; or (2) vigour, energy; the 
King acted vigorously; was full of 3:c^f?TI% a»d made his rule 
firm-footedj or (3) by 3TIciT5^ we may understand ariJiT^T^i iii the 
language of politics 3TTc*T^f^ is the same as 3TT^?TT5r> and the two- 
words are so used by K^mandaka in his Nitisara; see V. 3. 4, 5. 
The qualities which form the wealth of the soul are briefly descri- 
bed by K4m. as, ^JTW q^T W^^"^ q'T'Tp^'t ^ff'I'^fTI I Srf^Tft ^TFTcfy 

^«^r% ?r^T: ^'?l%f?T^.* II Nitisd. I. 23, 24. This last seems to be 
the sense intended here. The King was possessed of most of these 
qualities. Cf. fit^r^^T If" ^T^'^^^RT^iT^I^TF'^ K\^W I Mud. IIL 
Din. takes this in the sense of 'just like. himself, i.e. Baghu 
(see ft.-note3),.but without propriety. BTT^^rffTT^rr — v. I. may mean od 
account of his knowing himself, «'. e. his proper duty; ef. Sis'. II- 
116 (?? ffTc»nf^r f^^^T^ &c.). Malli. seems to prefer this reading 
which he translates as 'on account of his having STTcrflt??; or 
A' tmajvjia a-' th&t nothing, not even the pleasures of heaven, is 
real and permanent except A'tman'-j but the word is needlessly taken 
from its legitimate place and construed with the second line, going 
with Raghu. ovjjf^ — Mark the ending; '^^ preceded by a single 
member in a Bah. takes ^hj see com. ^rf^^ — l%lf^: ^I^^soyg^- 
j^^^^ ^"r^qtlf s'^^fTI^r 3T^ Bh^. Dik.; it may, however, be explained, 
as ^T^I erf:; 1% being treated as in' flr^;r. 

SI. 11. g«T^&c. — Mark the force of gar. They never entru- 
sted their kingdom to one incapable to govern. q^nc^rfH" — Kali- 
uses this word in the s^nse of old age-, cf. the similar use of qKUiTa". 
in Vik. III. 1. iT^rfir: — With their passions restrained; for another 
sense of the word cf, IX. 18. ^^ifir^ — ^^^ 'T'TlflcT ^^\ pious devo- 
tees or ascetics with senses properly controlled; see Bg. II. 69; 
or ifJT ™ay mean 'a moral duty'; these are mentioned as ten — ^^^T 
^^\ ^TFn^H ^TJT^5q^T I 3Tffm5^%^HT3^ ^H^frf ^^]•. ^^V- H Pata- 
njali mentions five Yamas — arffm^^^RoT'T^l^^'TT'TKU'^r ^TT". I Tog. 
Su. II. 30. qcfff u^f^ — For the custom cf. I. 8, III. 70; see also 
Manu. quoted in the foot-note. 

S'l. 12. gr^w^f 0— ar^JT^Tj- ^;Tr^T^: ST^a'To cT^ 3^^: cT^. t^JT- 
^lf*nTr~^'i^ ^TT*m f f^ ^H^^I?^ ^^5 shows that he made the request 
not only as a sou but also in his kingly characttr. The In^tr. ia 
3TW^5t: see A. G. § 56. It is a Hindu custom to bow to a deity 

(200). [Canto VIII- 

■or a respectable or elderly person with a covered head. Hem. sag. 
gests that Aja pat on his royal turban in order that hiB:hair may not 
toach his father's feet, he being then a Muni. He further saggeets 
that the word may be ar^j^oj but then ^if>f'Tr will lose its propriety- 

8*1. 13. ffcFTcT — ^' p. p- of the desider. of STTI^; see com. I. 79. 
HI^TWfff^: — Notice the comp.; by the V&rt. 'm fflTT?'?' ( on Pan, 
II. 2, 35 ) fq-q optionally takes qu%qit1 ; cf. HT^RR^r^t farther on 
( XIII. 55 ). oJiq^fsf^jr — r^J^^OT 3TTfnir?Tt cast off once for all. 

S'l. 14. ST^r^r — The last t. e. fourth. 3T?>r v\^•.] ^ being abded 
in the sense of vm, ar^cT being a word of the f^»rrf? class. For the 
four A's'ramas, see notes on V. 10. Some hold that the ^^narr^TR 
is meant for a man of the Brahmana class only, and not for others; 
Mallinatha has discussed the question and shown that view to be 
ansound. See com. sir^^ra' — A dwelling} fr. qw with 3tt and the 
Unadi aff. 3T«T which ^ takes when preceded by prepositions; so 
^^^v( a village. 

S'l. 15. !j^*i — Malli. renders this elsewhere ( Kir. II. 32.) as 
^r^n^rf^cT:- ?r»T Jn Ved&nta means «r^0TTf^5'?f?TI?'»^'^'?^^'r ^^W i^^W- 
• restraining the mind from the pursuit of temporal objects and 
devoting it to the hearing of the recital of holy texts ( leading to 
the knowledge of A'tman ).' This is the meaning here; cf ff^^si^f- 
fTfrc^n Itl. 10, f^>T ff; -f q r — pf^cl properly means 'what is filled.* and 
hence, heavy, sinking down, humble; here it means 'about to set/ with 
its brightness softened to dimness. JFTT^ — P4n. says ' j^q^r^rg^T" 
in*^f gcTl^rrs^cn^r^ ' II. 3. 72; so that strictly ^\ and :s^^[ can- 
not be used with the Instr.; bat this is against good usage. Cf' 
3oyt 'T^IUg'W ^ff^r^r Kum. 1. 34; see also S'is'. I. 4. See Apte's G. 
^§ 52, 117. Malli. tries to reconcile the use of Instr. with P4d.'s 
rule, but his defence is evidently weak. The Tattvabodhinl says-^«t- 

tTi?-5cJt '^TT^ifi^ ?'frf T^?ir ff^ ^Ti%^rfl: i ^yst'^'r ^fr\\^^^ ?t^i% 

SI. 16. ^feTTrfif^ — The principal emblems of royalty are the 
throne, the sceptre, the C kauri, the oonch, the j^hite umbrella, 
the diadem «feo.; and those of a recluse are the deer-skin, the staff 
(of Pala8'a,or8o), the Kamaiidalu, the Kaupina, brown or red-yellow 
garments, shaving of the head and want of the sacred thread, ^f^ 
— From Hemadri's remark ( see foot-note ) it appears. that he does 
not take the word in the sense of a Sannyasi, Bat Malli. has shown 
that a Kshatriya could be a Sanny4si ( see his remarks on si. 14 ). 

Canto VIII. ] ( 201 ) 

^cf;^ — fr. fiT 7 A. to abandon, to leave; with 3TT a"d afi 3^- ( et^j^)? a 
complete leaving off of worldly objects} final emancipation (i%cTf^^T- 
:H^: Sid.-Kam.). vj^^in — Here K&liddsa uses the word ^^ in the gene- 
ral sense of the injunctions of the Vedas — those which enjoin the 
performance of religious duties as well as those which enjoin their 
renunciation with a view to obtain the knowledge of Brahman — and 
not in its limited sense of '^r^^Tp5-;{jaft?T;' (Jaimini I. 1. 2.). This 
shows that Kalidasa lived at a time anterior to that when the gulf 
between the Piirva and the Utiara Mim&insds grew wider. See also 

S'l. 17. ?rrr% — politics, f^^rr^? — Skilled or proficient in ; gene" 
rally at the end of a comp. ^jj^ >T^: <IK^: produced in the S'arad 
season; fresh, attractive; hence, clever, skilled in; ffisj^: ^TT^" 
f^^T^:. STTTrnr-^n 3T^f?r ^oes not meet with destruction, per- 
manent. Cy. q^Tf y ^ H"^#^ ^^W mA ^^ \ Bg. VIII. 21. aTTFT— 
Those who know and interpret correctly the hoiy texts, 

S'l. 18. o^T^r^r^T^T — =^ff K administration of justice, deciding 
legal disputes. It, is thus derived by Katyiiyana — \^ ^RT^S? ?r|f 
fTot W 3^^^ I ^T^f#C^|Tm?5?-^^R %\h ^f er: ll oarr^nr— The judg- 
ment seat, also called sfsraf^q- and qqr^f^ ( Uttar. I. 7; S'ak. V, qrfr- 
^^Ff RTcTR P- 116 ). By a law of Manu ( VIII. 2 ) the king had 
personally to dispense justice. See note on Vik. II. 1. ^qifj — ^qi^f tTT 
^^oir^^rfi^ that place from which the rays have turned back, hence? 
a rotlret- or secret place; •in a secret place.' ^^iTWf — Steady abstra- 
ction of the mind, one of the eight stages or parts of Yoga. See Yog 
S'u. II. 29. It means the fixing of the mind properly controlled by 
means of Yama &c. on the internal soul. See Malli. and foot-notes. 
f^Bf^ — A seat; fr. fg- with i^ and the afiix 3T; when the meaning is 
a tree or seat \^t ia the form ; but ^s^^iT Pf^cT^:- 

S'l. 19. JT^^mr — See Malli. and note on i%Hiq-?rr^TfTF III. 13. 
H^^fTCr^ — Scil^f those to be attacked for wrongs done, i. e. against 
whom the king has to march (zfjcT*^) ^^^ those in the rear, z. e, 
from whom an attack may be expected (TTiEtjiJTf^ ); Malli. qforkTHT — 
See I. 14. It is one of the niyamas and a means of attaining 
samadki-^ see Yog. Su. II. 32, 45. ^•[^^[ — ^rTrq'..q"vr^[%; constant 
practice or exercise leading to perfect concentration. ^^^: &c, — 
This does not refer to the four kinds of Praoayama, but to what 
leads to them (guiding or controlling their functions ). A Yog 
geti^ the power of making the inner vayus or airs ( see com. and 
foot-notes ) perform their work at his desire; cf. g^^^f*^ S5Sf*r- 

'^'fftrfTJTiqri^JTii^eT 1 Vik. 1. 1. 

R. N. 26 

( -202 ) [ (lanto VIII. 

SI. 20. 5Tf'?ix»^: — '*Tf^R?5^^: an Avyayasamusa ( or according 
to Hem. 3Tf^: jj.^: ); cf. f^^ET^Rfr Hit. H^tTJEir^ — mark the force 
ot ^ETTr^. Here some such word aa gxfrmfjr^j must be supplied; oi 
^TnifSj^ may be taken with Aja also-'by means of the fire of his 
knowledge of the enemies' undertakings'. ^% &o. — Because free- 
dom from transmigration is not possible unless all actions, good or 
bad (». e. the fruits thereof), are annihilated. See Ved&nta 8u. IV. 
1. 13, 14, and Samkarucharya on them •. Bhag. IV. 37. 

SI. 21. TT^vj &c. — xj<j\: ( the stipulated sum, henoe also a con- 
dition, a compact) 5ft?ifTS[T*?^» fr% T^I^^: ^ 5^ ( the chief, first ) ^?i 
?Tr^. The six expedients to be used in foreign politics are : — (1) 
Alliance; (2) Warfare; (3) Marching against the enemy after en- 
suring the protection of one's own realm; (4) Temporary cessation 
of hostilities with a view to improve one's position or to find out 
a suitable opportunity, &e.; (5) Duplicity; (6) Seeking shelter. 
See foot-notes. Cf. S'is'. II, 93. STfT^^it — Inherent in nature. 
Malli. takes this as an adv., which seems preferable, iT^far is defined- 
as a state of equilibrium of the three qualities, Sattva, Rajas and 
Tamas. When this Prakriti is stimulated, action takes place. Cf. 
^S^^m(^^\%'- S&nk. Kari. 3. 

SI. 22, affirf^nir: — The practice of meditation or abstract con- 
templation; according to Malli., 'realizing in the mind the iden- 
tity of the individual soul with the Supreme Spirit,' f^yT>fr: — cf. 'He • 
whose heart ie not agitated in the midst of calamities, who has no 
longing for pleasures and from whom ( the feelings of ) affection, 
fear and wrath have departed, is called a sage of steady mind'. 
Bhag. II. 56, (K. T. Telang), nf^nT — for the Paras, see com, 

SI. 23. srax — (1) forward movement, extension of power; (2) 
thirst for pleasures; lit. moving towards their objects, which is 
their nature; cf. cr?ira" l^IR 5«7^'iI5?^^Ji?cT^*Tr^Tr^^'TH ^TT'^KfcH^. ; 
Kathavalll, IV. 1. V(f^^ — closely applying themselves to, intent 
on attaining, ^aj^ — of the two sorts: cT? (here changed to arcf ) 
shows q^TT. 

S'l. 24, o^qq jj ^jjf — saf^^I regard for, consideration of. ^iTf^- 
— see fool-note and cf. Bhag. II. 14, 15. ^flr: — ^TRf^cT (produce a 
destructive effect on ) ^tfjTr%; years . This word is generally used 
in the plural. The sing, is rarely met with; cf. Bhishya on e*Tt 

m\ firsrr^ft i P^p v. 2, 12. ^jxri r%qt ^f»n ^r?'^ ^*^^> '^ ?^'i^ t 

Prat4pam4rtaiida, as quoted by Hemii. rHT?-' Tt — Tamap is M4ya. 
also called Avidyi and j^^]^1f] ^^\^f^. Cf. !S^tf?f^i^i^ ^[9^\f{- 

Canto Vlir. ] ( 203 ) 

'^fTfr^: TTS^'f^ I Bg. XIII. 16. ^^^^—^ 55rfcf q-mcT ^q'Ti m^Qi 

3\ he who undergoes no chaago; not decaying. 55^ — 5R ^TS 
3T^ 5^?- a comp. of the jq^TsTTTH? class; he who reposes in 
the body; the supreme Spirit; ^f^ STit^ ^^'il 5^5 S^^r fr#r Bh. 
P. VII. 14. 37; ^ frq 5^«f: ^^fg ?i W^^^'- &«• ^^a^- ^P^- "^^ ^^■ 
S'l. 25. ^fB"tf — From f%r meaning 'death/ prgT + f^ (3'^)' 
^nTf*T: ^Tf'f^ — This was not owing to any express authority requiring 
the presence of recluses on such an occasion; the recluses attended 
the obsequial rites simply because the deceased King deserved such 
an honour. ST^f^ — Because the dead body of a Tati is not to be 
burnt but only buried; a custom which exists to this day. Cf. 
S'aunaka quoted in the com.; comp. al80-gi<£y=^^ (a class oi' 
Sanni/asins) 5 ^Tf?!?'^ ^?* I t^f ^^ 5 H^cq: tr^wi-^ q-g^ifcX 1' 

Dharmasiudhu. STHTf^g; — 3THT I^cT^T^; P^ri. HI. 2. 91; cf. 
notes on I. 6. 

S'l. 26. 3^?.f|f^%--^^^^^q;-,^-^^: ^f3^^^r,^: | 37^%^ it^jj;! Also 
^T^^ll^- The a£E. is J^(f':p), added by 3T=.^rcJnt?n%5?f^ Vart. on 
Pin. IV". 3. 60. osp^ — The procedure, the proper method of 
performing religious rites. f|'-Malli. seems to take this sr^q^R^; 
we may aho take it in the sense of 'because' zj-fi: ?r •^f^'^: 3TcT- 
fqrg>iT5^r &c. ^ q-«rr &c. — Those who quit the body in that way^ 
and become one with the Supreme Spirit. 

S'l. 27. Tn**^^: — for q^[-.q 'excellent, most high', see note 
on III. 27. q^T^^ V. I. does not give this sense. ^^^.^ may also mean 
Supreme Being; g^'-^ ^f^ Tf^^?^- 3"ff^^ — having regard to. 
^f?f— highest knowledge, or the object that truly exists ( ^^T^T 
3T«f«r. — the Supreme Ens or Brahman); hence the Vedanta- 
Philosophy. arrf^: — ( 3Tf vpR^ irc^'r^r^»f JT^^^JT) i^3 mental pain as 
distinguished from ^-qjfq bodily pain. ^^rg^J — ^^ot T^T^rffi'^ 
5Frg^; — with his bow strung i. e. ready to fight in case his supremacy 
was not admitted, ay^'m'*— ^T f^im irm 5TmJ|T^: ^tW^JTsT— i- e, he. 
became the supreme ruler of the earth. 

S'l. 28. 5^jfiT;fi-_-^q^|- %^ Trwsfr; a self-respecting woman 
( see foot-note ) who feels her honour easily wounded. ludumati. 
in emulation of the earth, as it were, gave birth to a son. ^{^^ — 
3^5" ^T^JTJq pre-eminent; great, ifre^ — (1) manly vigour; (2) prowess. 
^ — who was therefore a jewel himself. 

SI. 29, Mark the alliteration and the connexion poetically ex- 
pressed between the word ^^ and Aja's son. Cf. the similar 

( 204 ) [ Canto VIII. 

explanation of the name <Raghu' III. 21. ^^n^tr^TfT— In such 
cases ^^^cT indicates immensity as in ^f^^ffi'^'r J^"?- ^'fTlf^^i — 
See com. and foot-note. Ttiis periphrasis is probably used as the 
metre would not admit of the four short letters ?^f «}• coming 
together. Cf. q-f H >4 ^ l^r<TR^?^ i\\kw^ ^r'^T5 ^^^^ I Sis. I. 42; 
^T5^TT^TT?^"<^?JT«irf?^^ I Kir. XVIII. 44. ^THr^s^r^rr— Hem. thinks 
( but this is over-nicety ) that there is here the rhetorical fault of 
'vulgarity' since the sense of Yama ( the Destroyer ) prominently 
strikes the reader. 

S'l. 30. ^F^^TT^tT:— ^^i^rif 'Tfrt ^5TF1% ?Tf ^ifcT fmi t^e Pitris or 
the departed ancestors, ^vjt ^"^ indec., but originally probably a 
noun; see note on that word, I. 66, '^H ( Vedic studies ) ^ q\n^ 
IT^^: (an issue, a son ) '^^r. 3T9^Tcf— see notes on I. 71, III. 20, 
and Bud. Oh. IX. 5 quoted in the foot-note, q"R-^: — ^UV^ a misty 
halo round the sun or the moon; cf- ?TRTTfnvnT^r%^¥Sr^^ rT^ I 
Nai. II. 108. Failure to discharge all or any of the three debts was 
supposed to constitute a stain from a religious point of view on the 
character of a man; cf. with the thought expressed here that con. 
tained in I. 68. 

S'l. 31. STT^H^f** — This was a characteristic of the kings of 
the solar dynasty; cf. II. 28; and 3?((t5rraTT'T ?• ^, S'&k, I. f^^: — 
The mighty one or the sovereign, implying abundance of vasu. 
*J"NTi r-This means by Lakskand Rfmg'srflf^r %'^\^■ ( ^he merits 
naturally possessed by him) like >iiig*TTir iii Kum. I. 4. 

S'l. 32. 8T%f^?fjnf: — After he had looked after, i.e. had properly 
taken care, and secured the well-being, of his subjects, ginrr: — 7«TT 
and trvfT when preceded by ^, jh^ and ar in a Bah. become ifsffl; and 
'i^^^. ^"FTT— 3'TTrr f^, ^^T^h ^\ ^^^ a large public garden out 
of a city in which artificial and natural sceneries blend; see ft. -note. 
?T'«fr?n?r:— see note on irff^fT^: I- 48. t{^^\ qfrSTflmr— In t^ie 
Rigveda the Maruts are spoken of as the storm-gods who assist 
Indra in his wars with the demons of the air. There they 
are represented as independent of Indra, as his friends, and 
not as his subordinates. In later times the term marut came to 
signify gods in general, and Indra being regarded a? the lord 
of the gods naturally came to be called 'the protector or the 
governor of the maruts also.' 

S'l. 33, r'»IcT=--'fT^^' fH¥cT: iri^ofR^JT:-, m^: jft^off^qF^: "^^T 
abiding in the temple at Gokarna. m^A — A place of pilgrimage 

Cantso VJII.] ( 205 ) 

in the south of India. gt^^Cr'T'T — to sing before;, a denom. from ^loyf 
with ■s^ by P^n. III. 1. 25; see Malli. ?:'^ffTrT«>-Thi3 simply means 
from north to south and by a heavenly path. qrfCf — Oiie of the ten mind- 
born sons of Brahma and a great divine sage and a Paramabhagavata. 
He is represented as always wandering, Vina in hand ( which 
instrument he is said to have invented), from world to world singing 
praises of God and acting as a universal messenger. He is 
popularly represented as creating discord. 

S'l, 34. 3T<Trw:— ff^s'Tr fJTTT% Tif^f^rr^ I ^Trm^n^ arq-imfrH «:,• 

celestial. arrrTr^T — this word, though applied to the four kinds of 
musical instruments collectively (see foot-note) is here restricted to 
Vina (a stringed instrument ) as indicated by the word ^'^^lnrf^g. 
f%^ — As history informs us. arf^^r^ — (with the desire of) 
perfuming itself 5 or it may simply mean here its 'great fragrance' 

S'l. 35. qfr^f^f — surrounded by; as the garland foil from the 
lute, the bees settled on it, missed it and hoverod round. TR^rff'fr — 

The name of N^^ada's lute is Mahatt ; see foot-note, af^^q- 

Violence, an outrage. 3T3^ftf*T: — The aff. ^^ is added here 
(Tl^^fr?^- According to some Commentators |^ cannot be added by 
P4n. III. 1'. 78 in the sense of fTT^^T^'^ to roots preceded by a 
preposition; but Bhattoji sanctions its use on the authority of 
such forma as ^?3;^TT3T'tr'?^ ( I. 16 ) 3T5?Ilf«Jf^: ( II. 4 ) q-af^rvfr ^]^ 
far^rfr ( 8'ia' I. 2.) &c.; see also Jayamailgala on Bhatti. I. H. ard 
our note thereon. 

SI. 36. arfir^'r — Has here the force of the present participle. 
r%>Tf^ — Wealth of thef ragrance of flowers. aTT^Ci -C*/". q"T^rg T^l- 
^?M Vik I. 8. 

SI. 37. ^^^j.—Cf. s^rfT^i: qf srCiq^TJ; III. died 8. f^f^^Jf^ 
— pjfTfJ to close the eyes; hence perhaps to bo involved in darkness 
as when the soul ( which is tejas ) leaves the body; cf. the sense 
at I. 68. Tj^T^-Darkness wuich obscures the moon, personified 
as a demon ( U^hu ). 

SI. 88. ^T^of — Malli. takes this in the sense of ' life ' by 
Lakshand, but the usual meaning of ' the senses ' will do as well 
^5 — 'Does it not ? It certainly does'. |:??r^^o — ■n?5"?q R^^: the 
act of dnppiiig down, trikliug, ^j^zf f^'J^^T; blazing dr jps of burn- 
ing oil falling Irom the protracted wick of an Indian lamp, The 
fig. is I'Sl^. 

( 206 ) [Canto VIII. 

SI. 39, 55<^ — Properly, ihe mingled sound of instruments 
or of warriors fighting on a battle-field; cf. Bg, I. 13,19: hence 
any mixed sound. '^rnT^Tr: — frightened; or sorrowfully affected 
( in the sense of 3^i5Tcir: )• 

S'l. 40. r.?f^T?rr'>— 5^^^ a fan ( «"• «• fanning ) z{\^ %^t %•'• 
HJi:— Swoon. 55^ — Pass, perf . of g^; cf, 3Tq[p?^T gSTR^friT ^^•• ^ 
Sis. I. 27. um^TT^ — also sfcfr^rT a remedy ?t^ f^vin^t using, appli- 

S'l. 41. xrfcn^'srpTrfs^l — To be readjusted and tuned (after the 
strings have been. loosened ). ^»n^?TT — The words are ?Eiq + 3T«f?»JI; 
the 3T of the prepositions 3Tf and arfcr may be optionally dropped; 
do ^cr + ?^^T: or ^ may be taken in the sense of ^^\^ as in the 
Sutra of Pan. SRT'^'iTt ^R'/f^^fT^ ; ac iording to Bhattoji, this is to be 
explained as a word of the ?T^?5=*iffrlf class. Some take )H»T^?«^t in 
the sense of 3T?^<7T and K&li. often uses it in that sense alao; see 
Malay, IV. 7. 

Sn, 42. ?f?fr— The Instr, is r^^^X^^^^ ^^9- I^. 3. 21.— An 
attribute which indicates the existence of a particular state or 
condition is put in the Instr. case to express that relation. ^C"TT- 
;fPf — The death of or loss of sensation from all the limbs. HfPTW — 
Changed; or dispelled. 

S'l. 43, 3Tf*TrlJt — '^iTh — Uas passed into a proverb. %^ — 
^ What indeed ! ' t. c. there is no need to say &o. Here ^ simply 
.strengthens the sense of ^\. 

SI. 44. BT'ft^"^ — (^''- ^ff Of ^% with 3TT)to remove, to takeaway 
or to destroy; cf. ^ f| f^KTR^ff fff i 8'ak. III. 1; arf^ri^^fr J^: 
^^^f-^T^'^'iTfffr I Uttar. II. 19. Rrf*!?^ — %% is often added to 
interrogative pronouns in the sense of •' possibly, indeed, I should 
like to know ' &o.; cf. t%R^ \% fl^JUilt ^^^^ ^I^ffRT'R: I S4k. I. 
20. 59n:<»13- — Wishing to strike. The Future p. in Sanskrit has 
often the sense of the Dosiderative. 

Si. 45. 3TrCT% — Endeavourtj, undertakes; 3TTT**T bas sometimes 
this sense in literature; cf. Bg. XIV. 12. Trrrr'?!^: — The term 
suggests absolute power to kill by using any means. r^ q f% — 
death destruction. ^ — Indec; see foot-note. f»Tf?nt — an instance; 
cf if5 gg^f H^^t^ Q'kk. II. HW — in this case, in proof of the state- 
ment ^ ^fg f|r^^. 

SI. 46. "sfrfV^nfr — There is some grammatical difficulty about 
■the formation of this word. According to the rule 3T^ *^5niT%r: 

OantoVm. ] (207) 

; P4n. III. 2. 50 ) the affix ? (3T ) is added to %^_ with arcr when 
the object in composition with it is the word ^^t or fTlHi but accord- 
ing to the quotation from im^^ot ( see foot-note ) any word may 
precede arTf^; see XVII. 61, XIX. 39. Some defend the use of ^ 
on the authority of 3Tf^ in the Sutra srs^^fq- js^^. Although the 
S^tra properly applies to ^^, grammarians say that the force of 
3?[qr frees the Sutra from all restrictions, so that the affix may come 
after other verbs and other objects in composition with these. 

-Sid.-Kau. ); see Malli. on XVII. 61. 

SI. 47. «nr5[^rri; — f^g^ opposition; hence adverseiess of^ 
■3T^f^ — Mark the sense of this word here, which means 'the fire 
•of lightning.' ^n=T?i: — Malli. takes this in the sense of 3\'^: ^ff: 
which the context justifies. ^^^ — explains the 37g;|cW. 

S'l. 48, STT^r^ — The affix, rfj (^) is added to the root ri'-i, 
^^K; see com. tj^j — 'Since'. Mark how the contrast between 
31^Ti;f" and f^TH^ makes the situation extremely painful. 

S'l. 49. ^5: — is a deceitful lover, who apparently loves his 
wife but secretly pays his addresses to another sweetheart. See 
com. gf^f^% — implies innocence, and further suggests that she 
was always unsuspecting. q"^t^r^?l"^T^Tf^ JT?Tr — Note the expres- 
sion; cf. ar^f^lxq- fT^dr^ S'4k. VI. 9. STfrri"^^^— T^ with srr 
Is Atm. when it means <to take leave of.' 

S*l. 50. ?rf^ ^n^ — This Aja concludes from the fact that he 

had swooned f rTsfrf^^ — fcl generally comes last in a compound in the 

-sense of 'cursed or wretched'; sometimes the order of words is reversed 

as here; see XIV. 65 '^qfg^'^t fcT^'rffrrRiT^-' aTpfr^^T— See oom. 

The Instrumental should rather be taken ^cfr. 

S'l. 51. ?%^t^^r?fT — is used here in the sense of gr^cT^^^T^r:. 
artr ^— And yet. ar^fTrTr— 3T?cT^ fcTT- Here again the ^^rf^.-^^rrfq 
of the soul is referred to. 

S'l. 52. frri<T# — Some class this comp. under the class arnffTTFir 
( *Tf ^4 ^cTf5 ) bat that is not necessary-, see supra VII. 31, note 
on ^cr|;5^<»- ^TSfTRT: — By this he means to say that he is not a 
•^TS^iqq? as she might perhaps have thought. *ir?r — naay have here 
the same sense ( t. c. arg^rn ) as in VI. 36. 

SI. 54. 'JfTT^ — Soil., in the caves in which the creepers grow^. 
s?r^K: — The mountain Himalaya is describtd as haviug such nerbs; 
^/. Kum. I. 10; ^l^JT^r^^rT^i: nwf JTfl'TS'ST: ^f^r^Tl: ! Bhatti. XV. 106 

(208) [ Cantt) YIII. 

S'l. 55. ^Tr^,_3-^,%pfy ( heaved op, agitated ) skw^ «TPr ^n. • 
Pt% — implioa darkness which corresponda to hor dark hair, f^rir® 
— The bees are often poetically de'^cribed as being encased in the 
closing lotu^o^ at san-setj ef. ^ r;^7( f[?T^55f^'?7«7^ Bliafti. H. 19; 
see supra V. 68. • 

S*l. 56. f[^(j — Here the night is spoken of a? the wife of the 
moon. Cf. the epithets f^^yi^f if &c. ffjjirr ^"^k ^T* — TheCaakravaka 
bird. " The males and females of these birds are found to keep 
together during day, and are, like the turtle-dove, patterns of con- 
stancy and connubial affection." M. -Williams. It is an anachronism, 
according; to some commentators, to make A ja allude to the separation 
of the chakravaha birds. For it is the curse pronounced by Rama 
that parts *he male Chakrav^ka frotn the female during the whole 
night. While R&ma was mourning the loss of his beloved, Sita, 
sitting on the bank of the lake Pamp4 the ehakravaha birds laughed 
at him, whereupon he condemned them to perpetual separation du- 
ring nights. FiTJrr^^ — See Malli.; it rather means * the interval of 
the separation.' This (^^iVaAa of the jpair is often alluded to in Sanskrit 
literature. s?r2i'»-fi»rffr — 'Gone to return no mor^'. Since there is no 
returtiiug, the separation is final and not for an interval; hence 
his grief. 

S'l. 57. ^T^TgrTf^* — ^^ new; hence, very tender and soft; cf. 
^a^^^a"^ 'I'JT j^p^k^tiiIt fTg RvTif^Ert I Knm. IV. 34. ^H\^ — ^^^\ 
3j;^ q"f»3T: HT ^IRi^; the fern. 37 is added to 37^ when preceded by 
words like ^r^fr ^\^ &'!.• see P&n. IV. 1. 70. 

S'l. 58. ^qf^gfrv:jo_c/ 3Tc?t?cT»I?1T si. 56. Tf : H??fr— » f : ^#; see 
com. ^T?— iJ'-ssation, lofs of ; <?/. S'is*. IX. 77. r^TT'l'T — Here 3Tg is 
^ifff^^^'T'T «•* it governs fhe Aco. in the sense of the inst.; see com. 
T-T »^?-^% — Tif t^vo ntigatives m*ke one emph itio af!i<-mative; r/". 

S'ls. 5y-tiU. aT?2p£^r — The Indian cuokcoo, so called because 
the eggs ot tht^ bird are supposed to be hatched by the crow. See 
jn/ro note on 3?''?^ ir IX 34. ^^%— g-q-^rr: e^"^*7 Jt^'. (^ifr/.) 
the sputud ' ♦- f. q'^^Tn^T — Ths wind is poetically supposed to teach 
gestnreti ko the ^r.'epers; cf. Vik. II. 4.. f^r|"Trfg"^?n" — For fsTIf? 
see supra li\ ^ T^r^^ T^fff^ M\ :jff^r f\^\ anxious to go to heaven. 
For a simi a- n ou^iht, rj. ^\^ ^yv^^A%^^\^^\■\^•. ^'fj Tff »r^5 I 
?7cTT5 R^'fllMM tf^ta 5?T^ r^>1^1 r^fqil iq??T '»T U Mai Mad. iX. 27; 
also Mig li. 44. H^^7 HT- Out of re.ard for me.' ^ c^^Trft^g &c. — 
On tht) > •iiitrMiy lUoy Bervo as excitants aud add to niy afHiction. 
See ooui. 

Canto VIII.] ( 209 ) 

S'l. 61. ft[Tf5f M K' ^r^ ^ i i •fee. — The matching of a tree with some 
or«eper and even the celebration of their wedding ia a favonrite 
theme with the Sanskrit poets. Cf. fq^?fi?;^ &c., Sak. p. 104, wher* 
S'ak.'s favourite creeper Vanajyotsna ia spoken of aa being happily 
united with the mango-tree, vyf^rf r — is the Priyamgu creeper, also 
called ^^T<TT' It gets an exuberance of flowers when thus unitedf 
ef. foot-note. It has the gracefulness of a woman's body; cf. 

III. 18. ST^rxra^ — Adv. used with an adjectival force; cf. 
K^f^^ ^r-'f Wi "l?=^JT^ir?T^ Kum. 11. 55; S'is. II. 71. H* 
meana-You are in the position of a mother to the creeper; and it 
ia not proper for a mother to have her daughter unmarried. 

SI. 62. fTwflff : — ^^'- 3®® supra III. 6; here it meana a crav- 
ing for something felt by plants ( according to poetic ideaa ); it 
ia described aa a kind of prep/iration or recipe which en ables plants 
to put forth flowers or fruits, even out of their season; see foot-note 
and Malli. on Meg. II. 18 and Kum. III. 26. The As'oha tree is 
conventionally described by poets as putting forth flowers at any 
time when struck by young ladies with their feet decorated with 
jingling ornaments. Sir William Jones observes — 'The vegetable 
world scarce exhibits a richer sight than the As'oka in full bloom. 
Ita flowers are very large and beautifully diversified with tints 
of orange scarlet, of pale yellow and of bright orange, which form 
a variety cf ^hades according to the age of the blossom." ?^<f^ - 
K9^ — will raise up or put forth; cau. of f?; 2A. with g^ ; ef 
3^T^f^l3rT: Da>'- 3T«T^»TrT — »• «.? which should have been, were 
you living, your hair decoration. R^r«T*TF^rlf — for f^^x^ see V» 
8. Mr. Pandit compares — ^m?*T^ ^^ iFVTJir^^^TfrTT'SiJrT^TRi JT^PT^ I 
AVv. Gr. 85. Adh. IV. Kandik4 8. 

S'l. 63. H^rsf^St — ^T is a foot-ornament worn on the 

ankle ( called q!3ri| in Marithi ). See Kum III. ^%. R^XtTT Now 

only thinking of it, aa it is no more to be got, you being dead . 3T?=^Tf^H 
— Asoka only being the recipient of such favour. 3T5;n" "Tffo^ 
This is another tree than the one referred to in the previous s'l. 
which had no flowera on yet. ^jixT^— Voc. of girr^; sTrTT^TT?^ iT'srifor 
'T^rtW; also 5irra"T according to the V^rtika quoted by Malli. -^ 
but the Sid.-Kau. remarks— TTr'nTI?I5TpffT3"q'tTriTTr%f?r ^\^^^\\\ 

SI. 64. ^:^?<3"5I'* — means by Lak&hana. the fragrance of her 
breath. ^^:— The Bakula or Kesara has star-shaped flowers 
R. N. 27 

( 210 ) [ Cauto VIII. 

^bioh on acconnt of their enduring fragrance are much liked by 
-women. They have a bole iu the centre and are easily strung 
together. f^RT^^JTWr— f%?7TOT<fr ^^^T sportive zone ( t. e- made 
of flowers and worn in place of the usual one of gold or gems ). 

SI. 65. q fj^Htl^a — Commentators understand by tiiis the 
l§(fl1T^^^ as the moon is scarcely visible on the pratipat day. But 
the poets allude to the pratipat Chandra; cf. 37f^<T^^?yW ^TSTT ^^ I 
Kir. II. 11. •Ptt: — Young and promising. nfrTTnfpm:: — 'cruel 
by your resolve "; (Malli.) Aja means-'There are these strong reasons 
why you should not leave us; and yet you have taken a step which 
is decidely cruel.' We may as well take ifffftrfTf in the sense of 
jfsffvf ( see f^«f (iuoted by Malli. ) and direotly translate < and yet 
your action is difficult to understand.' Some interpret it as ^ and 
yet your action is opposed to love.' 

SI. 60. v^f?f: — Malli. 's first interpretation ( viz, ^ firmness or 
quietude or calmness of the mind ) is preferable, 'i\^ — Song, 
music. This shows that women in those days knew vocal and 
instrumental music and could appreciate it; cf. *?^rwij Rn'VaT^ 
'W5S:r3^I'^I ' Meg. II. 26. 

SI. 67. ir^off ?rf^^: Scc.—cf. '^pmtf^TcTiT^qf^T 5^' K. P. I.; 
.♦nd the Subhishita-^r^j ^^^\ qFT^5 ^m ^ft^^ij iTT?TT ^T«I^5 T^^TT ' 
*a»TI5^?rr ^^^^ ^TPT^'r >Tr^r '^ '^rfjP'r? cfrf f #»TT II The manner in which 
the poet here speaks of Indumati shows the high respect in which 
women were held in his times. Jjf^^fr — Fof the ^qualifications 
of a house wife see Sik. IV. 18. ^f^^: — ^rf^ friendship ^n^ ^\ 
fr. WI4-3T ( ^O which is added to roots without a preposition and 
j)reoeded by their object. rq?n%«^ — ^TTm^flTf'r f51«IT one fit to be 
inslructed. ?7f3'% &c. — Such as dancing, singing, painting,&c. . 
SI. 68. JT^CIW — ^\^l\ properly means 'wine'; then by LakshaTta, ' 
intoxicating like wine; hence charming or fascinating. Such eyes, 
are described to be inclined to roll about, with the pupils a little 
contracted and the angles dilated in consequence of the f ush of 
youth. See com, and foot-note. Or ^^^ maddening, intoxicating 
(fr, v[^ and the Unadi aff. ^x ) arf^uff ^t^tjTm see the other version i 
of Malli." s com. »TfnTTTf?ff — 'Received into my mouth before it] 
was given to you.' Hem. and Oh4r. analyse the comp. a<* xri[H^| 
«nd not as it^t^^ a^lcTtf as Malli. does. This means — 'Ton liked to 
<irink the wine from my mouth'-and so implies -love': The former 
•would simply mean, jmr »T?RiTJT aTicrft. irwn»f%— The water 
<;oatained in the cavity of the hollowed palms joined together and 

Canto VIII. ] (211 ) 

• offered to the souls of the departed forefathers. iT5'Tr'E«?%— 
Drink immediately after. When alive also Indumati used to drink 
after A ja. Hem. thinks that "the medical sense of argqr is also 
intended, water being prohibited as an anupana after wine. But 
this is far-fetched. 

SI. 69. 5?sl^r^^ &c.— "T^rcrf^qroTtT^^ q-cTT^rl[» si^owing that Aja 

was a most devoted husband. f^ffpTJTr'rT^:~RcfT*T'I?cfrm f^r- 
*fqn% temptations sr^ri^ T^??tVT?{rr% ff^r*f^^^TT0I %:; see infra, IX. 
7 ; Hem4dri explains ff^F^% ^\^ %m \^^\^^X m^T:. 

SI. 70. ^5En7rmT: — foi" ^^^T See supra III. 5. ^^orr?|« — 
See com.; Hemadri takes ^^im'T iii the sense of ^^utt^ (^^"T: 3l«ff 
^\^^\ ^^■^ ^ %jt liVm )• f rr^r^irn:^ fee— Sanskrit poets often 
make trees weep in sympathy for another^s grief*, cf. Bhatti. IL 
4. 5rr?3TT^ — ™*y *lso mean the dew dropping from the branches. 
^ff't — properly, <a rainy day,' henoe, a shower. 

Si. 71. ^^^^: — ^^ is «!««. and not a ^jrofi. here. frr!r?r«r'T''^3^- 
She was entitled to wear certain ornaments inasmuch as she died as 
a Suvisinl ( the wife of a living husband) in addition to those pre- 
scribed by the codes of religious law. Cf. ^^ ^^'^f^r^r ^S^fT-(a kind 
of fragrant root called ^-sff^-Marathi ^\^i) 3T5T%^^ JTW?iTr?^f 'srqTiTMf 
^ q-mS"^ ^c?rars|t!^re^l ( unwashed or new doth ) ^\^^\^^^\k^^ 

^^iTFtX I A'sv. G-r. Parisishta Adh. III. Kandika 1. sfrr^ — 
See com.; the word is also neu. 

S'l. 72. Jjqfrf: ^SPl — Malli. takes ^s[ in the sense of f^^;j; 'con- 
versant with S'dstra':, it seems however better to translate as -being 
( although he was ) a king ( lit. the protector of men )' whose duty 
as such was to look to the protection of the people rather than to 
personal comfort. Or, 'being a King and therefore more firm-minded 
than the ordinary people.' ^f'^f^o — ^T"^^ blame, reproach; c/l 
f^^xi ^1=^4 ^ «lfT: qSTfqnr:; also S'is'. III. 55. srlrr^Tra:— Here the 
suffix ^Tf^ has the sense of 'under the control of, making over to* 
See com.; it also has the sense of 'entirety or pervasion;' as 
3mr^T?^m entirely reduced to fire, i. e.' burnt; 3^^^rc^q-?T^ s^-^oj^ 

S'l. 73. f^rfrf: TC — to be performed after ten days. There are 
two kinds of rites constituting the Antyeshti or funeral ceremony 
Those of the first kind are required to be performed during the 
period of mourning ( i. e. t'ae first ten days ^. These must ba 
performed in the burning-ground, in a room or shed built for that 

(212) [ Canto VIIL 

purpose Those of the second kind are performed from the 11th 
day. Theee may be performed at home, in a cow-ahed or a garden 
attached to the honse. € « Tf^^<t — is naed in the sense of 3fV<?r. 
jfrf^^ — ia here used in the sense of 'a beautiful woman'. iTf^^: — 
^f<ft 7(7= '^*(t requiring great expenditure (lit. amount of wealth). 
^qf^ — On account of his heavj grief Aja did not thiuk of returning 
to hit palace from which he had departed with his wife. 

Si. 74. %r*r^ — night; ^tfr ^^rrfl^ that which gives rest or joy. 
TPrtTf — ( Also iffo ) the outflow of. qr^^^T? properly means ' a 
stream of water issuing through a sluice or the like when dammed 
into a collection'. The poet means that Aja beheld, as it were, aa 
outflow of his own sorrow from the eyes of the women of the city 
who were his co-sufferers in grief. See com.; cf. Kum. and Uttar^ 
quoted In the foot>note. 

Si. 75. ^TTl^ ^frflr?T' — When the itktlvt or the initiatory 
ceremony of a sacrifice is gone through, the sacriflcer cannot 
leave the place where the sacrifice is to be performed, until its 
completion. He should remain in his seat every day at sunrise 
and sunset. Cf. Baudhayana— 'in ??F^^ ^rf^nfRcTr^^r^P-Sf^TST^ 
iq^fffiT?lT?T." 8o™*P'*k"*'?*- srrr^To — Seel. 74. 3?f>f^ — deep or 
poignant grief, from arfiT'^siST; lit. that which closely adheres to the 
heart; hence, keenly felt grief, a sudden calamity; see infra XIV. 
54; Kum. III. 73. ftys^T — According to Hem. the name of the 
disciple was Vamadeva. 

Si. "ft. frflfT^ — The pre. p. of this root ie not in use, but the 
perf. p. is sometimes used in the sense of the pre. p. ^ T7rF«TrT: ^f'T- 
Mark , the ingenuity of the poet in making Vasishtha not come 
in person. Aja was not likely to pay much heed to his advise 
at such a time and such an act on the part of the king would have 
looked like a gross insult to the dignity of his Guru. This unto- 
ward consequence the poet avoids by making the sage send his 
pupil to the king instead of coming in .person. ST^tTT — JT^i% one's 
natural disposition or state ( here equanimity of the mind; opposite 
of K^frT ). 

Si. 77. n'55?T<» — i%^fT: W^^^ ^W- ( the strength of the mental 
oalibr*) -H^W, Hem. explains this as-fif^iqift ^^ ^^^ ?i^. g|r^, n-g?f- 

The allusion to the king's ^frT and ffrf are intentional. The 

pupil suggests that Aja should take heart and bravely resist the 

€antoVm.] (213) 

S'l. 78. 5^>c^ ci%5— The worlds covered by the steps of 
Vishnu; the three worlds. See notes to VII. 35. prcsr^ijr;— HJt?i: 
STflivr: obstruction ^(^^Jrl, ^n^^^—W^^^ V^F- ^r^HT^ ^^ ■ *^« ^^^ 
of knowledge; cf. aT^^r^fr^'fm: 3?!"^ ^ =^g; Uttar, III. ^iVilrf — 
Cf. I. 74. 

S'l. 79. ^ttP^?^: — Trinabindu, according to Hem., was a 
sage of the Atri family. TR^TI^rT: — This fear on the part of 
Indra is often alluded to by the poets: c/. cl^iffg^Tft^lf^cT?^ &c- 
Vik. p. 10, and our note ad. loc- also supra notes to III. 39. f^«fr 
— may be a subordinate nymph of heaven, as her name it not men- 
tioned among the twelve principal apsarases. Hem. explaina- 

^mf^'fr ssr ^m f^ *Tmf^ ?m i 

SI. 80 irg^fo — See com.; or ij-g^-before him-arfffsf-^,: =^r^ft- 
1S^\ T'STFj see XIII. 42. %c3T — The high-water line or that margin 
of land which is reached by the waves at high tide. ::;r?^2ftf% — 
jj-p3-?TF?T:^f^: q^^o ^^. v[^vi is the final destruction of the world caused 
by a deluge. q'T^^TR is a wave which, breaking through i;he barrier 
of the coast, inundates the whole world and sweeps away everything 
before it. ?rflfc!To therefore means, ''which completely anclermined 
or swept away the tranquillity of his mind'. 

SI. 81. qftiar^ — ^tfiq^P^r^UfSffc? lit- contrary to tiie current; 
adverse. Mark the force of the word which is used in connexion 
with ^TiTsrOT^rJ^o- 3TT'^rR^=3Tr'^CaT 'conduct;' ^ being added vtr. 
3'<R"?fr — lit. 'approached humbly;' hence ^T^'^TRcTr. 

S'l. 82. 5F??%flr^ — The same as Vidarbha; see notes to V. 
39, 60. f^n^ — may also be taken with ^r^\. f^^^j — -Ut,^ 
helpless^ with all control over the senses gone, insensible; hence 

S'l. 83. s^qr^r — Passing off, death. ^q-f^^rrr — At hand; cf. 
* ^^Hr>T7t STTT^JTr'i: ' Meg.; and ^*rr*Tm: ^fTTTr: ^fgrq-jf^ V{^TJi^ I 
Hit. ^^JTr^iT — Earth ia their real wife; ^?7g- is only of secondary 
importance; cf. ^v(v^^^. it»jcR l 3Tcq^^T»Tf ?T?^RcTt ^rq tr^ P^'iT%"Ji: \\ 
supra I. 25. 

S'l. 84. ^fif — The poet probably means — When the kingdom 
came into your possession and you strengthened your rule by sub- 
duing the other princes ( See supra 19 ) you were likely to act 
wilfully or haughtily. ff^WT"^ — Censure due to an set done 

( 2l4 ) [ Canto VIII. 

through, arrogance. ^?TJTr» — See'«My>;-a 6,9,31. HnH^Tf^r — See 
supra 10. •s^^ — mental pain or affliction, distress. BTI^rTfT^r — with 
manliness, manning your jaind. q ^ f ^q trt-*- «. bring it to bear on it. 

S'l. 86. ^r^: — destinations, the places kept in store for them 
f^ifWmV — «• «. the souls follow different paths to enjoy the fruit* 
of or suffer the punishment for their actions. Cf. K&d. quoted ia 
the foot-note, f^^: q?«n^: ^mi m f*T5rq»ir:} see Pac>. V. 4. 14. 

SI. 86. sTT^fj^o — 3Tg»rfr: ^fr^: ?TFTrTTfq?fi^; o^fiap ^^\ ^^^: «:. 
Sif'W'fr— |?^'^*TFsr?^r: f[%; a woman with a son, and having her 
husband living. pnrTTo — For h^tt aee V. 10. fT%-a giftj fr. ^i 
to give and %. ^'J^is substituted for ^f before fl and ^ (i^rf- ^Tlfl^r 
fl%: ). STf?T^<T^ — When continued beyond the reasonable limit. 

S'l. 87. »i^ — This means the quitting of or getting liberated 
from corporeal existence; loss of the body; cf. ^riT?^ I? VJ^ grff: 
Bg. II. 27. . This is certain to happen in the case of a corporeal 
being; but when the body is once cast off it is not known when 
the soul will enter into pother. 3?^%^ — SF«TT is Atm. when 
preceded by gi^, ar^. it and f^; see com. on I. 89. Cf. Bud. Ch. 

f T ^F?" ^{^ R<r^r R^RT: i' III. 58. 59. 

SI. 88. ij3"^?nT' — ^3"' confounded, unable to perceive rightly; 
*/• 'ir*T#q;«"%fTr: Bg. II. 7. ^^j — is used here in the sense of 
< power of discrimination.' ftift^' — A man of steady mind, one 
whose mind ia not swayed by passions t^:c.: cf. Bg. IT. o5-58. 
^^T^S^f rnT<^ — Because it ( i. e. fif^fj]^ ) opens the door to blis* 
by removing the principal obstade to Vairagya. 

S'l. 89. ^^^iftTo— Analyse the oomp. as ftrPT JJlfR ff^lfH" Vf^ 
^. ^ refers to the 5in?ir«T*TT^I 3TWT- For, if we connect ^^ with 
^Tfir^ also, there remains nothing to which ^ may refer, Malli., 
too,, seems to prefer his second way of taking the comp. to his first 
when he remarks — 3T«i ^t &c. of^^^ — rfT^ the opposite or 
reverse of fi^i\, separation; cf. ^^[itri: ^giniT:- MH^Vf — 'How 
possibly,' with what reason? f^qfv?!, — \^^^ ( i** a. pre-eminent 
way ) RT%^rf?T ^dfr f^nT^rm ^r; a comp. of the ^^nf^ class. Cf. 
the two S'lokat quoted in the foot-note, 

S'l. '.>o. g^f ^ti &0--C/. irmg?T^c!r^" ^Tfs^Tr^f'cT ^^^f^\■ i and 

II. 11, 27. i?f^PTrg'?T*T — ^ addressing him as 'the best of thoi« 
having self-oontrol/ the sage desires him to exert the power of self- 
control, and not to reduce himself to the lovel of ordinary people 

•Canto Tin.] (215) 

i^^ — The aff. ^^ ahows q-^R. . The two, of two aorta, t. e. quit* 
different by nature. "Words ending in cT'T are optionally declined 
like pronoun $ in the Nom. phiral. 

S'l. 91. g^rrCRt: — Noble-minded, having generous thoughts. The 
epithet 'showa that Vaaiahtha sent the message under the belief that 
the adrice contained therein would be followed, ^r^rrriq" ^^: — "/. 

Tm^SI ?TcT: ^ ^^IW ^'^^- 0^- V- -^1- *n*M^— ^%^ ^5 com- 
pletely f.lled with grief. Hia heart being entirely occupied by grief 
no room waa left in it for the advice, and so it went back as it were 
to Vasishtha; Aja could not help it. srfrRTITlfjn'— For the advice 
waa forgotten the next moment. 

S'l. 02. ?T*n": — See iupra si. 24. 3Tf7rT^t|7T%rr — who spoke 
agreeably but truly. The force of the epithet is this. — Although 
Aja survived Indumati for some years he led a life of strict renunci- 
ation through grief ( cf. the next si. ) and did nothing contrary to 
hia professions contained in his lamentations. q?n'«n' t^c<f r ^ — This 
gives the reason why he survived his wife for ao many years*. 
^j^Zjt( <S:c. — These are the usual means by which Sanskrit poets make 
their heroes divert their longing. Cf. JTf^f^q f%TfcT3 ^I "TT^T^ 
f^^??fT 1 Meg. II. 25i Vik. II. 10. 

S'l. 93. !T^|Cf— Violently, forcibly. ^— a dart; ef. fr^^ ffi^ 
f f^ ^II^^f^mPT fnT5n^ \^ ^ ^r?: I Uttar. III. 35. ^^o— giajfer 
^er^'^r iT=5trT% im W.^'^ i The fig-tree ( ^^ in Marfithi ) also called 
?zr$T«i; aee Malli. on XIII. 71, infra. The simile expresses the 
gradual effect of the grief. The roots of this tree are known to 
break walls or bases of houses by forcing themselves through 
crevices and then growing in size. ^ — soil. ^TfSR^Tf^; the physioians^ 
were powerless before the disease of deep-seated grief; or the 
wasting disease brought on by it, (as Malli. has it ). 

S'l. 94. ^n^^fr^jfr^ — fally trained and thus fitted for the 
responsibilities of government ; see com. on III. 35 supra. ^^^ — 
When he was able to wear an armour, i. e. when he attained youth.. 
The aff. 3T=g;^( 3T) added to f indicates age: Pan. III. 2. 10. ^q^g- — 
engrossed or affected by. f^<jf^— f:^^ ^m^:] painful stay or 
residence in. The body is said to be the house of the soul; efl 
5T^fT> 5> ^ft &c. iiT?T>Tt'nrJT— ifRiir ( ^J^ m. ) 3-q>5Ifr sitting down 
and abstaining absolutely from food with a desire to die. This- 
mode of putting an efid to one's life under the oironmstance* 
mentioned is free from the sin of suicide. See com. 

(;il6) [Canto IX. 

;8*1. 03. jT^tlF^fr — The Ganges : see notes on VI. 85 supra. 
^ahnn was a deeoendant of Paruravas and son of Suhotra. ^(K^ — 
The river on the bank of which Ayodhya is situated. It is the 
modern Goghr4. See supra XIII. 61-03. ^ t ; << tT'll< I, — ■'^J* seems 
t^o have cast himself into the confluence of the rivers when about to 
•die by his q-fiffqlf^i^. ^t^ — a writing (i. e. a reckoning among). 


S'l. 1. ^iTii^' r ^t^ r ^l, — The country over which Haghu and hie 
descendants ruled. See III. 5. Two Kosalas are generally 
mentioned, the other being mwj^^J- or the Eastern Kosala. Kua'a, 
ihowever, is said to have reigned at Kus 4vati in Southern Kosala. 
See XV. 97. ^Tf^Trvsr — having obtained it in the proper manner. 
Cy"' VIII. 2. ^*TrPT — self-restraint. f^n^^i: — Das'aratha's 
f^?IF?'T?^ is illustrated in si. 7, 8 &c. This is a necessary qualifica- 
tion of a good king., cf. K6m. — f3Tm%'5l?iI IT'^^'fffT^Tlwrg^RnT: i 
*T?I?eT ^^fefrr ^^^•^ ^I^«I«r ^*t:??^T: ll This was a characteristic 
mark of the kings of the solar race, and the poet has taken special 
care to mention it in the case of Da8''.s three predecessors, q ^ f fij :- 
'has a technical meaning for which see com. and foot-note. Four 
kinds of chariot-warriors are mentioned by ancient writers on the sci- 
ence of war, each superior to the one preceding, uts., 3T^^, r«T,',;TfR«T, 
•and srrHr^r* ^^T^r^T^rTT — III the fourth lines of 1-54 slokas of this 
■canto the poet uses Yamaka, a kind of ?i«^i%g^ ( a division of 
poetry; see K. P. I. ); see foot-notes. The S4hityadarpaiia defines 

it as ^r^^ ^^r^^^v^ ^m^^^^t^n'. \ '^^^ ^H^\\\r^H^ ffH^r^nr n 

The repetition in the same order of a group of vowels and 
consonants, having sense but with different meanings, is temed '^t{^. 
^ f^?j:— c/.^r^T^rs^W VIII. 90. 

S'l. i', irfrf^H°'^fy — By Jfr^^^^'^I'? ( the maxim of 'cattle and the 
bull' ) this term is limited to the people living outside the City. 
^PTift &c. — Mark how an attempt to secure ^T«^f^5r mars the ease 
and natural flow of language. nor^Tft — The king was jpifj^ and so 
the if^o became goT^rTl ( arffT^T^^ W^^^ pre-eminently possessed of 
advantages or excellences ); see supra. IV. 11, and com.; or the 507 
in one case may mean 'good government,' and in the other 'loyalty, 
attachment.': the ir^f^o became deeply attached to him (after Malli.). 
5ftn^^^^^#T— ^iTT'W-^ is here undoubtedly K3,rttikeya ( see III. 
55 ) and not Paras'urama before whom Das'aratha had to flee several 

Canto IX. ] (217) 

•times. Mahishdsara, flying from the battle in which Taraka was 

slain by K4rttikeya, took refuge in a oavein the Krauiioha mountain. 

A dispute arising between Kirttikeya and Indra as to their respective 

• powers, they determined to decide the q^aestion by circumambulating 

ihe mountain, the palm to be given to him who should first go round 

it. Disagreeing about the result, they appealed to the mountain who 

falsely decided in favour of Indra. Karttikeya, to punish this 

^falsehood, hurled his lance at the mountain Krauncha and pierced 

at once it and the demon Mahisha. See Wilson's Vish. Purana p. 

/.1 7 9, note 10. 

S'l. 3. ?T^TfTT:-learned men i.e. men able to give judgment ( and 
whose opinion has value ). See notes on I. 11. ff?i^'=Tt— ^li^J^e who 
rendered service to the state or attained special excellence in their 
.professions ( ^f^?rt ). ^HPT^'T — 'the killer of the demon Bala; 
name of Indra. Bala, more correctly Vala, occurs in numerous 
passages of the Rigveda, as the name of the cloud fancied as a 
demon. It literally means-the coverer of the heavenly cows, the 
rain waters, fr. ^ to cover. See our note on f 5|T HI- 62. 
Indra destroys the demon with his thunderbolt and sets 
free the pent-up cows; cf. f^f ij^^r ^q^roTr 3F'-?^TfiRfcJ^f 
qffWR[ I I. 52. 5 ; ^ fr^Tf|*miTTc^F I%=^i^ ^] m ^TW^^T 
^3-?^ I II. 12, 3; and ^^\ ^^ ^-fM^ft f^Rt ^^rvt^ f^'^^n) 
r^u[ I X. 67. 6. Vala was subsequently looked upon as & separate 
demon, the son of An4yu8h4 and brother of Vritra. feee H. V. 
Bhavishya Pur. Adh. 24. »T5fo^>7?:— Manu was the first king 
of Ayodhya which city was built by him. See notes on I. 11. 
aqF^^r—progenitor; 4^Malli.); or o^oi-vfr^^jp^jff jf^^j Hen;. 

S'l. 4. ^cr^— ^q?^f^ one like a ^ctcRT ( P^n. IV. 2. 145); 
hence, an enemy, ^q^^ seems rather to be a corrupt form of ^nf^ 
^aon of a co-wife.' f^f^o— For cultivators could attend to their 
lands undisturbed, the king being sj^r^ff. ^jf^— who delighted in a 
policy of peace. ^3??^^^^— though used for alliteration is not 
without its prop*riety here. He was ^i>TTtT though he had the 
power of a god and could have easily vanquished any mortal foe. 

S'l. 5. fii^^^^—cJ. s'ak. I. ^ 5?rTcj^Rw ^ s^^rm i p 20. ^-^ 

the two ^s give an emphatic affirmative. sTfR''— It^ is certaii^ly »ot 
inferior to that of the other two. For other possible meanings 
see foot-note. The sense given by Malli. seems to he quite natural.. 
CUritravardhana suggests that sTfR may appropriately mean 
-S'esha', he and the king being both the sustainers of the earth. 
K. N. 28 

(218) [Canto IX > 

TQIffiF-siiows that his gifts were not stinted, ^vf the restrainer, the 
Pinto of the Greeks, is the regent of the south and the god of the 
dead. According to the Panranic accounts he is th» son of the 
Sun by Samjnfi, named as 3T»?T«F ( see. fl. 62 ), Mrityu, Kala, 
Dandadhara, Pitripati, etc. Yama is known for his impartialitj 
and even-handed justice ; ef. his name tr4n«I (lord of justice). 
Varuna is a Vedic god. Among other qualities he is represented 
as a d'spenaer of justice, who punishes sin and seizes the wicked. 
Comp. arffi i%qjTr^ ^^r ^jgtm Tait. BrAh. I. 7. 2. 6; f^ ^ xf<?r 
^iffT ^- <TT«1?TT ^r^r T^ffT S'atap. Br^h. XII. 7, 2, IT; |r 
^f^^ ^^^h'^li n^r frt? ^•n^gtU'r: Atharva Veda IV. 16 ; and 
f^Tt ^9^^ ^^^] J\W ^^9^ft ff ^: I Manu IX. 245. jtnnT^— A 
class of demigods or Yakshas ( see XIII. 60;) mentioned along with 
others in the following passage from the Atharva Veda — iT'^fic^c^: 
^) ^^r. SORTcTTT" nrfT^: Atharva Veda VIII. 8. 15. $71^9^ — Also 
*f%^7 and 3TiT?r.^^ "j see «Mp-fl note on 3{7fRm V. 71. The author 
of K. P. notices in this the fault tf^r^v^^, since ^ii?T«rr and ^j^r »'e 
in the Instr. and f%ii*i?TTr^ in the Abl. 

S'l. 7. ^rf^nf^nc^ — Addiction to hunting. It is not meant 
that he absolutely refrained from it ( see s'l. tVi/ra 48 ); but he 
enjoyed the sport only occasionally, ftt^ — 5^^ 3T( W*Tnir5?t ^^ ; 
gambling. This seems to have been a common vice ( though less 
common than wine-drinking ) among the people from early times^ 
and was also much indulged in bv kings. Dharma and Nala lost 
their kingdoms by it. ^fSTiTfrl^Tro — For, wine was usually drunk 
in the clear light of the moon. Of. f^m^'Tr #^3T»r»T^T4 g^ ^TSfp^ 
irffjT^'W^r'^^r 1 eiT'T^T^TW ?TTI%cTrff> Sf^^F^q ^^^ TfJTtS^r U -Tina. 
[II. 73. fSRTrTRr — o- course other than his queens. Of all the vices 
arising from perverted will, the four vices mentioned here are 
described by Manu as most ruinous to kings. Cf. ^<r?r^f^«Tr ^^ 

iTff«TrT% JTfr^srri^ 1 ??-Rfr'^«rfg f^T?: Troj^^vrff^'iTs 11 K4m. I. 66. 

Bee com. and foot-notes. • 

S'l. b. qHTI% — may batter be taken with VAsava who was his 
superior -.-though he had the power to grant. fenTOT — I^T'Tft fTVr ?T?'t 
^^m- I iffTV + /«m. aff. an. ?T«TI indee.. truth. <t«tt becomes rTV by 
f?fr ^Wt ^\\r\^'\^^^^ Pad. I. 2. 47. stt^^— ariJiefT ^? anger 
^^mr\ ^^W.. ?r^ I 'rf'Trwt &c.— For Manu says ff^ ff :? ?fT?*T«T TTF 

S'l. ''. ^9 — the chief or best of. Hem. takes this in the sense 
of *a descendant'. arprrCTC-obtained ; Cf. cp^ J^ITT^'^K iTf|«^: ^'ai 

Canto IX. ] ( 219 ) 

Vr. 43 : al3o supra YIl. i?S. ^i«r— Friend ; see cam.; lit. one 
having a good heart. STfrTTsfffr^— »'•«• ^i' opposers, those Vho 
acted in a hostile spirit. Cf. sT^grurf ^g^rf: and foot-note (p. 83^)- 
IV. 35. 

S'l. 10. JTcfrc'trT — indieato3 his exceptional prowess ; for it 
shows that he was not only never ranquished, but even did not 
allow his chariot to be damaged, o^f*? — %W properly means * the 
felly or rim of a wheel' ( see I. 17 and Amara quoted in the com.) ; 
here it is used for the surrounding ring or boundary line, arf^'^^*— 
see. II. 8. iTJ^ifsn'T'Tri; &^c. — cf. for a parallel, I. 19. 

S'l. 11. ^^T^^ — f^«Tt 3T5nTl?cfTrcT 5f^r«r^ defended by 5f^?T ( a 
sort of wooden fence or fender with which a chariot was provided 
as a protection against collision &c ). f^ir^ — •f^^'T^^ f^^T^^r- 
T'^r fr 5'f *T«t: I^^r^r^f ir^; ^<^f *Tf^?fTTrT trt ; the state of being 
the victory-proclaiming kettle-drums, ^if^^r: — ^^TRffiTf ^^f ^'ft ^• 
^^r?T=— JT?: ^If^T ^€Tr^r ^rffrf^: Kubera ; fr^T ff ^T3^ 'T?^. 
We are already told ( in s'l. 6.) that Das'a. had the munificence 
of Kubera 

S'l. 12. ^^fiTrTo — nfk^ T^T«rff (of wings — adherents, allies) 
^^Vi^^- Mountains were supposed to have wings which Indra 
lopped oS afterwards. See notes on III. 42. The later stories 
aboat the wings of mountains and their cutting off by Indra 
arose out of the earlier notions or allusions in the Yedas, where 
Indra is represented as having destroyed the supposed mountains, 
which were really clouds moved about by the winds. See notes 
to I. 68. ^rT?|frr5r — \W ^r?^ ^^T ^^; having a hundred edges; the 
thunder-bolt, eptf? &c. V. l^ ^grftfT ( 3«o ft. note ) — ^grp^rr: 3's^r%rTI 
( flashing forth ) ^fy^^T'^Tt *Tfrw ^^^ ^^- ^^^\^K^^\'*■—^i ^ 

[S'l. between 11-12. z^T^^\y^^[^%^ : (who had the prowess of 
Kubera) ^ frS^rTfi^f ^T^fTroTf ^m^ ^^\r\^^^^ ( Hem.) ^?r^».?i: 
( Char. ) Rf#'T?fi^cTT ( displaced, removed ) sr^cJT ( the waist-band ) 
'^^\ m^ l arSP^fr^ ar^J^'T^^fT arworr RgHT ff'^T'f^r* ( the ornamental 
marks on the forehead or ornamental paintings on the cheeks ) ^^\ 
?r«Tr^?Tr^ ^r^-fer^^r^ i arfarq-q-Rr 3Tw«pt: ^^ir ^^\ ^^^^^\% ^^r^ i ] 

SI. 13. ^^Tnr&e.— ^^Rt n»T: (lustre) JT^riRfT^ ^ff%^t 
(heightened or increased by) %:. ?Er?T»Tl3"— ^Tit »r<3r 3T?^- The per- 
former of a hundred sacrifices; Indra. ^J^ is a synonym of ^^ and 
Indra came to be called ^Tfffli^ &c. on the analogy of ^TrfiFj after 
3r5 was misunderstood as meaning 'a sacrifice', ^(f^— originally 

(220) [ Tan to IX. 

meant haudiuess, art, skill, wisdom; it also meant 'a sacrifice*, as 
being an act done with skill or art. And ^cT^g which originally 
meant 'the god of infinite wisdom' then came to signify 'the 
performer of a handred sacrifices.' See note on ^?f^5 III. 38. 
STiSTF^flf*— ^ ^prf fT (broken, interrupted) ar^fi^h qH^ ( %%^^^ ^k 
▼alonr, prowess ) ^^^• this explains why hundreds of kings paid 
homage to him. 

b"i. 14. ^f=^^^rftrfo— The full sentence is ^qrc^gfrirf; *Tf%%: 
qjf^ffi: &c., see com.: ^ffpjgfTRF — because their fathers were slain 
in battles. st^Tc^^R; — Malli. takes 3T^ in the sense of 3Tir»Tfff i.e. 
not combed and decorated. Oharitravardhana ( followed by 
Dinakara) says ^^Pim^'^lJ^^^^J^^l^.^ 3T«gFir — The capital of 
Kubera, situated on KaiUsa, a snowy peak of the Himalayas. It 
is also called ^gviTU> fi^fTcff a°<^ ^*fr- For its description 
see Meg. 7. ar'T^JTr— 3T=3; not dn^q inferior to; fr. z{^ to protect + 3^1? 
( Un&di V. 54 ) ^^^i^^^J^\r^\ifJ^f^''i^ • ^^^, ^"-T^ are also similarly 
formed; now see foot-note; cf. ^^^J^^^\ in/j-a XVII. 27. 

S'l. 15. H'^TWrPT — '1lf*f the central i.e. chief prince. 5?o§"?f, 
also called ^^ , is the circle of tributary princes whose kingdoms 
lie on the borders of the imperial country. Kam., as .quoted 
by Malli., mentions 12 classes of thase prinoes, viz. — (l)3TfT0'' 
iaimical kings to be subdued ; ( 2 ) r^ allies , (3; sfn^ • 
( 4 ) f^srriT^ and ( 5 ) 3Tf?r%5rf«r5r whose territories are in front ; 
the four kings, whose territories lie in the rear viz. (6) qTl2<»TirTf 
whose kingdom is next to that of the chief king , (7) srr^^ 
whose territory lies next to that of TrfGoio, and who is likely to 
prevent an ally from helping another, ( 8 ) q-[f sJiirr^rfrK a^d (9) 
:»Tr?K'^rWR whose kingdoms are separated by those of the fore- 
going; (10) q-qiT or intermediate whose territory lies between that 
of the fc[f3rJfrs and 3Tnr i and (U) ^fi^f^r one who is indif erent or 
neutral ( neither a friend nor a foo ), whose kingdom is situated 
outside the territories of the above-mentioned kings — both strong 
in force, and when in league with others, able to change the 
fortunes of war: and lastly, ( 12 ) the imperial monarch himself, 
more powerful than the two last mentioned. See com. 5T^f^<Tr* — 
WK^Tlflf ( keeps off) ^fff flTot; STrfTTfif ^ff OT*Tf rTT« • T%R =^ JT^IcTT^Tfot ■<; 
now see com.; c/. Q,^i^q-^ supra II. 47. ^^sl^m — »TTf^«" — 
cf. infra XVII. 61. STSTP^WT* — *• «• his appearance though 
refulgent was inviting ( did not strike terror into the beholder); 
the same idea is differently clothed in I. 16 und in arft ^''^fffTtl'T 

Ganta IX. J ( 221 ) 

\^9^^^i^frm Tr^^JTM S'ak. II. ^»t:— # arfcTTHT'^: fr. ^-fp^ 
( Unidi afE. ). See notes to II. 73. 

S'l. 1'?. Some editions give the verses ^55 &c. immediately 
after the preceding sloka; but it will be seen that the order follow- 
ed here is the most natural one. The si. ?T*TTfT'T can only natura- 
ally follow the description of the king's universal conquest, and 
the verses descriptive of the king'a marriage must precede those 
describing the sacrifices performed by him. ^fr?^ — See note 
on tha word, aupra VI. 71. o^T^t — o^r?Tf?f ?frf^ -. H, with 
g^+3T^; or ofprg^^iq?^; 3ir^c?T^»TTI^f5^^:. 3TR»T>T^-3TfrJT^T 'T^cfM: : 
ef. X. 20. ^TfrT g ftlT — Because her chastity remains inviolate 
although she waits upon a king, as he is regarded as a portion of 

Vishnu. Cf. ^i^^m ^?i?q^ ^i^^r ^n^^rg^ 1 ^\%\^•. ^^'h ^m 

m^v^: ^]k(^]^f^: I ST?rR''f — shows that Lakshmi ever abode with 
him as she does with Vishnu. 

S'l. 17. ^HTTPr^ — The sea is poetically described as the hus- 
band of rivers; ef. XIII. 9; Sis'. III. 72 (^^Pf»TR '?r1l*TITTrJTt ) .^ 
JTirvfo — for jjiT^ and ^^cS" ^ee notes on I, 31 and III. 5. %^^ — 
The country of the Kekayas (the modern Kattia of K&tbiawar are 
:ioppoaed to be their descedants ) bordering on Sindhudesa and 
lying beyond the Jhelum on this side of the Indus. Its capital 
was Girivraja; see Ram4., Ayodhy4k&nc?a, wherein the journey 
of Bharata to the capital of Yudhajit is described, ff^???:: — 
^ff^ must be a very old word, a relio of the times when the 
A'ryans led a very simple and pious life; it means 'the milker', the 
office of the daughter being in those days to milk the cows or 
sheep, 3Tf?r[^rf^o — If ti^is epithet has any propriety here it is 
this — the kings could not have refused Dasaratha the hand of 
their daughters. 

S'l. 18. rt^pt: 3[rnTffH:— see note on III. 13. q^_only; accom- 
panied only by three powers, ff^ffr^: — implies the good rule 
of Dasaratha. ^f^^^:—'The god having bay horses.' See supra 
III. 43. In Rigveda we find ff^ and ^x^: ( 1. 16. 1; 101. 10 ) for 
the horses of Indra. In Nirukta I. 15 the different vehicles 01 
the gods are given, and among i hem ' hart Indrasya.^ Hence Indra 
is called f fff?T and f r^^Tf ^ ( Vik. III. 6) and in Rigveda hariyojana. 
1:^^^ — Malli. justifies the form by remarking — The rule ^^yor 
&c. ( Pan. III. 2. 87 ) i. e, ' The verb ^^ takes the afE. f|rq; (%) 
in the sense of the past tense when preceded by s ^ ^ "^ a Brdhmana. 
^tj] a fcetus and f^ a demon' — is not absolute as remarked by 

(222) [CautoIX. 

Nyfisak^ra. since we fiad in use eueh forms as x{^^\ S^a henee 
the ai). may be used after ?^ and m the sense of the present tense 
with other Upapadas in a few oases, as in 3?rl^> f^fT ^^' 

SI. lit. ^^^^T— ^ST^I ^v(\ ^irq;«ir fTTW^; ft^ or fg^JT when 
coming after roi, »t5»T <.*co. means 'the forefront or van of.* *T^^ — 
Irregularly derived fr. ^^ 'i^V^\ ( Unadi 1, 159 ): ^x(, howeTcr, 
in Veda means 'a gift, wealth' and so the word may be regnlarly 
derived by afnxing ^ showing possession-, 'the liberal or muni- 
ficent Indra*. WT^ffH^n: — 3TT*iJft^^ ^\m rli:.This he did by routing 
and killing the demons, ^f^x^ — properly, what is raised up; hence 
exalted, noble. 

Si. '20. qr^dtT — A Bah. Comp. and not • Tat. as in s'l. 11. 
Da^aratha had no oocassion to change his chariot as he never 
allowed the enemy to smash it. ffl^f ^PTfTrT — » repitition of the 
idea in ^iTT^fw si. 19. 

§1. 21. ?F5— ^Tllff nruit ^T fr. ^ + g by Unidi I. 77. Lit., 
'what man does or is done by himr and as nothing done was consi- 
dered in ancient times so impoitant as a sacrifice, it came to mean 
<a sacrifice.' Cf, Gr. kratos. Mrtf^^TT — 'flf«^ *tli» crown.' According 
toCh4r. and Din. ' 3TT^I^^T^ ^% ^ TT^r^ f H^inPi; wf^cTmnTT'j 
( with the head shaven ). •JWH'TTK^o — It was customary for kinj 
holding universal sway to obtain by conquest the money necessary 
for the A?vamedha sacrifice, ^^ f -^-yq — posts of .gold, ( replacing 
the sacrificial ones which must be made of the Udumbara tree, — 
see remark by Malli. ) erected by Dasa. ( as more lasting ) to 
commemorate the sacrifices performed by him, » q^-at^^ — 'r, f^ 
with ^q; and 3^=1+ 3T=^ by 'qr?' P^"- Hi. 3. 56. The rule ;jj%«nrftT« 
P&ii. III. 3. 49 — 'q'^ (=3T, which causes \f^ ) should be affixed to 
the verbs (hi, g, ^ and sr when the pre}). 37^ precedes', necessita- 
tes the application of ^ and we have t^jTR: the rising of a 
planet, grri^: mixing or blending, ^'^n^: purifying ghee, and :s^^•. 
'fight.' But the word ffrnTT 'optionally' ocearing in the next Sutra 
exerts a retrospective iafluence on this Sutra by what is called the 
fx»ra^j=l>^qm and leaves scope for the optional application of 
W5T and we have the optional forma 3^?t. The maxim of 'the 
lion's backward glance' applies when a thing bears connexion with 
what precedes and follows. Or, the form may be justified by the 
general rule 'ff^q^STt ^§?J^' P^M- III. 3. 113.— -the affixes called 
sT^q ( of which ^5^ is one,' and the affix 53? apply in most cases 
( and not in all ), so that 3T«T may be affixed, mnm — Like Sarayfi 

€anto IX. ] ( 223) 

this is a trifeat&ry of the Ganges, joining it below Pratishthana. 
The city of Ayodhy4 is situated on the southern bank of the 
•river, and it was on the bank of this river that Eama halted on 
the first night of his exile. See below, si. 72. 

S'l. 22, fr^^^PJT — The Mekhala, ought to be made of sara or 
munja grass. Kali, perhaps forgot the fact. Malli,, however, defends 
this by supposing that Kus'a grass might have been used as a 
/jratinidhi ( for Sara or Munja ) which is allowed in a few oasee, 
Hr>T^^^ — Siva is supposed to enter the body of a sacrificer ; or 
rather the sacrificer for the time being is supposed to be a form of 
S'iva; ef. supra 111. 66 andS'&k. I. 1, 3T*>^cfrr^?lMor ^wraee notes 
on III. 61. iT^iTHRf-Either from >ff^ mas. and used as an adv. 
as Malli. takes it, or according to some from ^jn/em. ^B^\ *n (^?^f: 
-flf^) and used as an objective accusative governed by 3T*Tr^=t?fl. 

S'l. 23. af^q" — A ceremony performed by a sacrificer with 
•sixteen other officiating priests at the oonclusion of a great 
sacrifice. It consists chiefly in collecting the articles, the sacrificial 
implements and the refuse of the principal sacrifice ( called iff^sfN^ ), 
«uch as the parts of the Soma plant after the juice is extracted 
In the cas« of a Soma sacrifice, and in taking them down to a 
river-side and throwing them into the water after offering 
oblations to god VaruHa. The sacrificer ( Yajamina ) and his wife 
=are enjoi»ed to bathe there rubbing each other back to back. That 
lis the first bathing they can enjoy after they take the di/csha ; for 
during the whole time the sacrifice continues, they can neither 
bathe ner change their clothes. Though there are three more 
THinor ceremonies, vh. :^^^^^} 3Tr3sr?s?f and 3"?^^^???, to be 
performed after Avabhritha, the sacrifice may be said to be com- 
plete after the 3Tf^«T, as it is the most important of the conclud- 
ing ceremonies. See Baudhiyana's Agnishtoma Sutra, Prashna 
5, Su'tras 62, 63. The Acahhritha invests the sacrificers with 
peculiar sanetity, and blessings given by them immediately after 
are supposed to be peculiarly efficacious. Q^^^n*^ — E^TiTt fl'^TTa!": 
5r^i?r5T: cT'^T 5ff*Tr5jf»T«ir W^'' ^Vm^ ^V^r\: accustomed to join, con- 
-stantly attending. ^^5^-^^ water g^^rfff ^^5-5 rT^. ^T^'t^rq"- 
Namuchi is the name of a demon with whom Indra watted war • 
c/. Bg. i^ H^t'jt ^gK RTJ? *frf«T^^ I. 53. 7. It is said in the 
BgT. that Indra ground ' the head of the slave Namuchi like a 
thundering and rolling cloud. The story is ; amplified by the 
■oommeiitator, and is also given in the S'atap. Brah. and the Mah. 

(224) r. ^antoIX. 

Bh&r. When Indra conqnered the a9ura$ there was only one 
called Namachi who strongly resisted and captured him. He 
offered to let Indra go provided he promised ' not to kill him by 
day or bv night, with wet or with dry/ Indra promised to do 
so and was released, bat he cat off Namachi'i head at twilight and 
with the foam of water ( which was according to the aathorities 
neither wet nor dry). The Mah. Bh&r. adds that the severed 
head followed Indra crying out < O wicked slayer of thy friend.' 
According to another version, Namuohi was a friend of Indra and 
once drank up his strength and made him quite imbecile The 
As'vins, ( and Sarasvati also as the story goes ) then supplied 
Indra with a rajra with whiuh he oat off the demon's head. 

SI. ii4. ^-^I: ^tI-:— The Inst, is < ?r^Ji;rT?j-^0r ' Pan, 11.3.21; 
see note on Hrgrrfl'rTRrjfV^t II. 8. The fl.iwera are a characteristic 
mark of the vernal season whence it is called ^sq^F^: ( Vik. I. 8 ). 
The season brought with it the flowers, intentionally as it were,, 
in order to do honiiage to the king. See com. STtr^^c* — shows that 
the king deserved such a tribute of respect at the hands of the 
season. The king possessed the four characteristics of the four 
deities ; he had the impartiality of Yama, the liberality of Kubera^ 
the power to chastise the wicked like Varuna, and supreme power 
like that of Indra. See com. STna?T«» — a^fa'cT graceful, esteemed. 
for his prowess was always distinguished by acts of humanity- 
and a due regard to the rights of others. 

S'l. 25. fsTlfRJ — noun in 3" from the desiderative base of ^i^. 
^;T^K^f%r}T — The north, of which Kubera, the god of riches, is 
the regent. T'Tgwr-r*? S^fr^ ?ra {«T5^ a charioteer, fr. 3^+f^ 
by Pai.t. ill. 2. 61. ^Tt^^■lT!I; — refers to the beginning of the 
sammer solstice during which the sun, in its apparent annual re- 
volution, appears to go more and more to the north, and cold 
gradually diminisihes. The same description occurs in Kum. 

III. 25 f^^is^f f^^gwi^m 1=3 ^f^ ^*T^ Hf^^if I f^'L^f^'TT &c. 

si. 26. 'jr^TT'T &0- — This is not the absolute order in nature^ 
it is so given here because the majority of plants put forth flower* 
early in spring. The poet does not speak with reference to the same 
plant or tree putting forth first flowers and then leaves. See Mallt. 
jfx^ — This cannot be taken as a Gen. Tat, (see PAn. II. 2.11); 
37^ should therefore be treated as a Karmapravachaniya, as Malli. 
does. H^m. says— «jT«[!5ffi — ?fw ?T»Tmi%^vriTT^5 ^^ ^mm TfT^- 

•Ajnft^^ FT^: » i^m^^-fk^ cr^g fijvr^ (X. le ); ^t^r^n^-^^ 

Canto IX. ] ( 226 ) 

^ rr^3 ^?r? ( J. 13 ) ^"^ I qa^qi^JTrm wT 1 ^f^^Wa'r^^"^'! ^nrT^> 

Hi'^sqrf^ fKT 9r I '7?Tf'»— Obar. observea— ^g^TIir^i: '^J^Wr: %^r?"- 

g- ^ f ^ T f r — ^io^ ill" flowering plants. The aff, ^^ indicates ^tjx 
'abundance', ar^cf]"^ — 3TfcTR properly means, the birth on earth 
( lit. the coming down) of a heavenly being in the shape of au 
incarnation; hence, birth in general. The vernal season is supposed 
to have a presiding deity called Madhu. Vasanta and the like, 
and hence the use of the root ^ with,3TW. C/.^g^cTIffTng^'^^K ^fpijIiTraf 

ir^r^^?^ Vik. p. 38 •, aa^r ^^cTr^mT^'Tq' &c- S'ak. I. p. 31. 

S'l. 27. ?r^T — !rT may also mean ^'feqf^q-: cr^igoiy: ( aeu 
VIII. 21), ;jqf%r»r— grown, increased, f^ 3J|T^: &c. — Hei'e the 
poet, though making an apparently general statement, pays a 
compliment to Das 'a, whose wealth, obtained in a righteous way 
and ever open to the needy, he compares to the ricbness of tho 
lotus plant. ^irn'Jsfi' &<5, — In winter the frosts of which have a 
destructive effect on lotus plants (see VIIE. 45) the Kamalini 
was deserted by the acqaatic birds; but now that the advent of 
spring had refreshed it and replenished its flowers with hon 7, th(5' 
bees and the birds returned to it again. Or ^rr^: nsay perhapS'be 
better taken as Abl. sing, and ^irfcJ^r to moan ' a land lottis ' 
as the bpring has a particular influence on land plants. 

S'l. 28. STHT^ — blowing in the season ; seasonal. ST^fr^? — one 
of the spring flowers which the poets describe as favourites of 
lovers. See Kum. Ill 26. f^^t^^fo — The bunch of tender 
sprouts of the As'oka used by amorous ladies as an ear- decoration 
looked so charming that it also excited the passion of lovers, 
^f^nrr^— ^RtcTRT: «r^^ arf^er:. ft<^rr?PTf— an objective Genitive. 

SI. 29. qg-f^^^aFfr:— T^HFrn R>TTq?T: 'T^l^?r'?-^: I a comp, of the 
S&kapirthiv&di class. f^"^i?T^T- (♦»• and ».) — Ornamental leaf-like 
figures drawn on the fore-head (and other parts of body) with some 

fragrant substances, as a decoration. See III. 55. jfaf>j»f is 

preferable to jt^^j^T «• ^ , the Kuravakas being represented as 
iT^^Rlt^TTT^. ftT^'iT — Although the word is generally written as 
^^^^, it Seems from the Yamaka here that the poet prefers ^;[^^, 
5f%a: fTsTT 3TofT?ntT5^H*< -4 ?f I ?wi S=5 . It has a flower of a"reddish- 
brown colour which has little honey in it. The poet, however^ 
forget-" the faofc. For the comparison to ff(T'?^ cf, qH T t^^ TrcfftlT'T^ 
^T^# ^^mi^Tcn^oT Mai. III. 5. , 

( 226 ) [ Canto IX • 

S'l. 30. 9^^r'=> — Acoordiug to the conveutioQ of poets, th*' 
Bakula tree is Bald to put forth flowers when sprinkled by , yoong 
ladies with mouthful of wine. Cf. qrfnri^l^^f'ipf^s^iff^fl^ 
fliS'nTrarw^T*^! ^forf ^Tgif^JT'Ifrff^Hffr ^rf 5J: €T3»rof^%-:Frfi; &c. Cf. alao 
Kum. III. 26 and Malli. thereon. osqr^T^ffJTT: — Jl^ here refers to 
its 'smell'; cf. 36. Mark the anuprasa or alliteration here, g yr ^ y q - — 
^ff «T g"Tf^ ?I% one greedy to a fault, i. e. exoessively greedy} fr. the 
Froq. of gt^+argi (f- 3^^^^^^^^]^^^ &c. S'Ak. V. 1. vnf:^ — 
crowded or closely-packed with. 

SI.- 31. f?rr%n'> — f5lf^^FTr"T»T»T' the passing of the cold eeasou, 
t. e. the advent of spring; ^?q ^r«TTI. g-Jf^o—g^fcT ^f^lcff%TfT 
^^^: ( also n. ) ; fr. 5^4- 3"c?; a partly opened bud- g^^Rf ^TTST net- 
work or cluster of. f%gj^ — (also called q?yi^) ia a tree having red, 
scentless flowers. Cf. the similar decription in Kum. quoted in the 
foot-note. q"^5sT?TT'^^ — The nail-wounds are usually described as 
being inflicted on the person of his beloved by a lover; here we have 
the reverse of it. This necessitates the next two epithets. ^f{^ — 
R3>?r *r?: ( the pride or flush of youth ) ^^^]^.y a young woman. »f^- 

SI. 32. rr? — swollen, or painful. «j:^f — difficult to be borne; 
used in a Pass, sense, rfrfr^ — as yet, at that stage of the season. 
•>prr^2frfrcT — for the touch of the Jr?3c3T was also cold. 

SI. 33. HPPTT — A movement of the body, look, gesture or 
posture, indicative of inward sentiment or feeling, t^f^^rf-to 
make itself familiar with, q^^f — which corresponds to hands. 
^'SKF^r^r — H^^R: c7cTr f^- The comparison to «rii. suggests youth 
and tenderness. 

S'l. 34. 3T^2l^r — Also called <T?ij?rr &c. The Indian cuckoo so 
called because the female of this bird is supposed to leave her eggs 
in the nest of the orow whioh unknowingly hatches them and brings 
them up. The youngs, when their wings are developed, leave their 
protectors and live independently. The crow ia similarly called 
qf ^jq^ ( the nourisher of another bird ). grv^^tJ — one young and coy, 
(opp. to xfr^r); innocent girls who have not yet attained full youth 
( and who therefore speak little ). 

S'l. 35. Qf;({7<q-: — indicates a smile ( in which the pearly bod- 
like teeth are a little exposed to view ). w^ — properly means the 
harmony of instrumental music, song, planting of the feet in danc- 
ing and th« beatings of hands. Here by Lakthana it means sportive 
movement, gesticulation. See Malli* 

'Canto IX. ] ( 227 ) 

S'l. 36. r5i%rl«— c7l^a«SrT?n ff^T^^^ ?rf?i1^ fsf'^??''! expert in 
producing ( tending to ) graceful or charming amatory sports. 
Some take?^r%cT separately; it means — 'the act of manifesting the 
feeling of love towards the lover'; see foot-note. But this is not 
a good way. It is better to take c?l%cr as an adj. qualifying \^■^^o, 
as Mall. does, ilrs'fr means the flutter and the confusion at the 
appearance of a lover and the consequent misplacing of ornaments, 
&c. which is certainly pleasing. This is produced also by the 
influence of wine, sf^ — Notice the mas. gender; see com. jf^ is one 
of the words of the 3T^=^W^ group, which are m. and «.; as 3T^^:, 
o=#;^. 3T|pTr — ^^T^rR^ ^Wf rTF"- I women with beautiful limbs. 
'31|^Tc^F?iroi' P4ii. V. 2. 100. q"f%5r — with regard to their hue- 
bands. ^q;?:^<(^~For wine also tends to excite amatory sports when 
drunk moderately. ?:tT)i5T'^¥^<»— not so excessively andintemporately 
as to be unable to enjoy the pleasures of the company of their 
lovers. Hem., Ch^r. and Din. understand by ^ 'flavour;' 'rtT^^r ^tri'^ 
ff%?^^ ^fsTfT ^%^ ^^]%\^r^^:' ( i- e. the wine did not lose its 
favour by being kept long in the mouth ). 

S*l. 37. f^Jfri — See foot-note. '>rir*n:grr: — The clusters of lotus- 
flowers correspond to the faces and the noisy birds to the jingling 
waist-bands. fTT^^^ is a lotus and not necessarily a red lotus; ^f^k 
r\\m:^ Amar. ^]qt in water ^f^fr lies f[^ cTnTT'Er; another derivation 
is o"T% fR cIITr what is coveted owing to its loveliness; ^^q->f 1^% ^^; 
fTW ^ cT^t^ of lovely sight, ^rf^^r — oblong pleasure-wells with 
lotus plants in them, li^^ — This is necessary; for if the zones were 
not loosened, they would not be ringing with their bells, g-^^^jf?^- 
It will perhaps be better to analyse the comp. as 3-^^ ^fcTr: "^^^j: 
'restless, moving about,' as better in keeping with »5J"?j; h?'^?5T%j h 

S'l, 38. o^frr^ffr — There is a play on this word : — (1) made 
short; (2) an offended woman. See V. 67 and notes thereon. Hero 
the night is compared to a ^sf^^^r JTlfsT^I, iTg implying the lover 
paying attention to another sweetheart. *^f^ Tn^g^T ^W\J =^ ^^\^' 
ffJTTTtrff — Because the moon is one of the excitants of passion. 

S'l. 39. 5T'Tg"Trf:?T2ir &c. — The same idea is expressed in I. 46 
'>»r^n:rf5rcIo — arr^rrT 'distinguished or prominent', shows the universal 
sway of the tiower-arrojved god. The flag of K&ma is supposed to 
have on it the representation of a makara ( a sea-monster killed bv 
him ) as a commemoration of his victory. 

(228) [OuntolX 

S'l. 40. q^f^fi^i — .'virhioh took the plaoe of.' ^rrf — "••'• *^^ 
Karoik&ra flower. See Kam. III. 28. aTrrf^ — Malli, very 
ingeniously supplies fi^q:, bat the poet might have simply meant 
(TTPT: ' which they stack into their hair and bore there.' 

S*l. 41. ffff^^:— Din. remarks ?i«ji ^^^^^]\^ ( musk ) f^'f?fqi?«f- 
?^I fV^T'T^: r§r^ ^r*TT«fr5«T«f: I The poet more probably refers to 
marks of oolljriom; see Kum. III. 30. Jl»T?rr*T^ — The comparison 
shows that the Vanasthali was also in its youth, being gorgeoasly 
decked by flowers and foliage. 

S'l, 42. j^ — (1) honey, (2) wine. Tho adjectival clauses ar« 
so worded as to suit the comparison of the creeper to a sportive 
woman, f^j^^^^jy^c—c/. 3T^r: jIj^oJ^THIT: S'&k. I. 21. R?r»HfSRfT— 
(generally written ^fJTlFcT^l) is » kind of jasmine with beaatifal and 
deliciously fragrant flowers, and one of the five flowery arrows of 
Madana. rTif^rer^OTf^nT: v. I. is to be rejected, as a tree cannot be 
supposed to have a mind. 

S'l. 43. oR«Tf^4^f»T: — asking to stay behind-, heuce^ surpassing, ex- 
celling. Poets defccribe women as wearing light rod garments in the 
vernal season; see foot-note. ^^\w\'- — see supra notes on ^TsTTffT 
VII. 27. q-c^?Tr«»— c/. S'l. 47 further on. 

S'l. 44. ^?*^^ — a swarm of; ^q^^r — ^eQi- of the perf. p. 
of f with g-q. »f?T^5rr'7^ — a comp Qtggj; ^(e?^ a hair-ornament 
in the form of a net-work of pearls or so; ^Tf?^ may also mean ' * 
mass of '. *Trr?F%— 5^[ q-T *TII%F, by affixing J^ ( f ^ ) to ^r^. 

SI. 45. t^^jTI? — Tae very banner-cloth or fl*g of. >T5*J'?T- — 
armed with his bow, and so ready to undertake his expedition 
of universal conquest, for which Vasanta is the favourable season. 
The fii?. here according to Hem. is Jiupakax see foot-note, g o-rjui i 
— a powder for giving gloss to the face. 

SI. 46. ^fc^TT — The spring festival held in celebration of 
the return of Vasanta and in honour of God Krishpa, though 
originally Mtdana or Kamadeva was the chief object of worship 
in this festival. See our not© oa ^B?aF?«f» Sak. VI. p. 152. 
Imajies of Krishna were placed on swings and rocked by maldP 
and females with songs. New swings were put ap or planks 
suspended by ropes were used as swiiigs and f'loirflfOT was enjoyed 
by females, often in company with their hasbauds, as spring set in. 
K(Z' — 'cil. ^TSTTU?^. »n^?Tr = :i1«iTr for alliteration. Poets hav« 
the optiou of sa'-stituti g rir lur m, ^ for ^, t? lor ^ &o., if it suits 
their purpose. See foot-note. 

Canto IX. ] ( ^29 ) 

SI. 47, ^^ — is used to call attention, f^^ — Love-quarrels. 
*flC*ltT — The mandate of Madana. r*T% ?jt — shows that they se* 
aside their mana. 

SI. 48. 3T^ — ^indicatea change of topic. f^WT^^rl?^^: — See 
iiote ou JTltTTT^: I- 48. He enjoyed the festival in the company 
of sportive women, but without being attached to them; see si. 7 
$U2)ra. ^xf^ — sport. *f*ir*T?T*<3^'> — He resembled Vishnu in prowess, 
Madhu in cheerfulness and giving universal pleasure, and Madana 
in personal beauty. f^JT^;^ — The slayer of Madhu. Madhu and 
.Kaitabha were two demons sprung from the wax of Vishnu's e