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PROPERTY OF 



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A KEY TO THE BANKRUPT ACT. 



THE BANEBUFT ACT. Printed from the Offi- 
cial Copy, and Annotated, •Digested, and provided 
with a copious Index for the easy and convenient 
reference of the Legal *Profession and of Business 
Men. By G. Morgan Eldridgb, of the Philadel- 
phia Bar. 8vo., paper covers, price 50 cents. Cloth, 
$1 00. 

" Mr. Eldridge explains many of the legal technicslitiefl obccariDg 
the new Bankrupt Act, and has prepared the whole law for easy and 
eonvenient reference. Numerous annotations and a copious index 
enable unprofessional readers to find, at a moment's notice, any one 
of the numerous provisions of the act with a fair idea of its practical 
bearing and significance.''— P^'^. Inquirer. 



Sent, postpaid, to any address, on receipt of price, by 

JOHN E. rOTTJEB & CO., JPublishers, 

Kos. 614 and 617 Sansom Street, 
PHILADELPHIA. 



THE 




UMOADS OF THE UNITED STATES; 



THEIR HISTORY AKD STATISTICS: 

COMPRISING 

THE PROGRESS AND PRESENT CONDITION OF THE VARIOUS 

LINES WITH THEIR EARNINGS AND EXPENSES, 

AND SHOWING THEIR WONDERFUL POWER 

IN DEVELortNG THE RESOURCES 

OF THE COUNTRY. 

TO WHICH ARE ADDED ▲ 

SYNOPSIS OF THE RAILROAD LAWS OP THE UNITED STATES, 
AND AN ARTICLE ON THE COMPARATIVE MERITS OF 

IRON AND STEEL RAILS. 



BY 

HENEY M^'^TLINT, 

AUTHOR OF "the LIFE OF STEPHEN A. ]'Ol «<I.AS,*' '* MBXICO UVDER 

MAXIMILIAN,'* ETC. ETC. 



. i*. •■■^•. " ■ 




— jr^* 

" They butld not merely roads of earth ftii'd ston^, an of old, but they bnlld Iron road* : 
and, not content with horses of flesh, they^re building horses of iron, such as never faint 
nor lose their breath."— 2>r. Bothnia, i ! 



\ 



■^ r 



/ 






'r., 



7 .-' r 



PHILADELPHIA: *^ 







•^A>^ 



JOHN E. POTTER AND COMPANY, 

Nos. 614 and 617 Sansom Street. ^' 

1868. 






Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1868, by 

JOHN E. POTTER A CO., 

in the Clerk's OflSce of the District Court of the United States for the 
Eastern District of the State of Pennsylvania. 



PREFACE. 



The work which is now submitted to the indulgence 
of a generous public, supplies, it is believed, to some 
extent, a want that has long been felt on both sides of 
the Atlantic. The absence of any authentic work 
which should give a connected and reliable history of 
the principal railroads in the United States, is a fact 
of which every intelligent person must be sensible. 
The preparation of such a work involves an immense 
amount of labor ; but it was cheerfully undertaken and 
has been faithfully pursued, under the encouraging 
conviction that the results of that labor, as now laid 
before the public, would be fully appreciated. 

The thanks ot the author are due, and they are 
hereby most gratefully tendered, to the many gentle- 
men, prominently connected with the great railroads 
of the country, for the exceedingly kind manner in 
which they responded to his request for data and de- 
tails in regard to many points, without which the work 
would have been incomplete. It is owing to this con- 
siderate kindness on their part, that the author is now 
enabled to present his work to the public as authentic 
and reliable upon every important point. 

In a work of such extent, and embracing so many 

(5) 



G PREFACE. 

ramifications, some errors may be detected. The 
author will be happy to correct these in a subsequent 
edition of the work, if pointed out by competent 
authority. 

If there is any one fact which stands out in this 
work more prominently than another, it is the great 
and surprising effects that have followed the consoli- 
dation of several lines of railroad into one corporation. 
The New York and Erie road ; the New York Central 
road ; the Pennsylvania Eailroad ; the Pittsburg, Fort 
Wayue, and Chicago road ; and the Chicago and North 
Western road, all afford striking illustrations of the 
vast benefits of judicious consolidation. 

The effect of particular railroads in developing the 
resources of the country is a subject that has not been 
overlooked ; and the chapters on the condition of the 
Western country before the introduction of railroads, 
will show how vast a change has been wrought by these 
great promoters of civilization. 

But, without further introduction, the work itself is 
committed to an indulgent public, as an humble contri- 
bution to the literature of the day. 

H. M. F. 

Washington, April, 1868. 



CONTEITTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE OftlQIN OP RAILROADS . 

CHAPTER It. 



HOW A RAILROAD IS BUILT .... 

Tdnveli 

American Tuvvels .... 
Cost of Railroads . • • . 
JBarvivgs and Operating Expenses . 

CHAPTER IIL 



ORIGIN OF RAILROADS IN RUSSIA 

Anecdotes of Opposition to Railroads 
Using Railroads on Sundays 



CHAPTER IV. 

PROGRESS OF RAILROADS IN THE UNITED STATES 

Principal Trunk Lines 

From Boston to the West . 
From New York to the West 
From Philadelphia to the West 
"^ From Baltimore to the West 
From New York to the Sooth 
From Chicago to the Sonth 
From Chicago to the West 
Chicago to the Northwest 
Chicago to the Soathwest 

CHAPTER Y. 

THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD 

CHAPTER YI. 

BALTIMORE AND OHIO B,AILIiOAJ)-^eontinued 

CHAPTER YII. 

OHIO AND MISSISSIPPI RAILROAD 



Paoe 
11 



19 
21 
2Z 
25 
31 



Zi 
37 
40 



43 

4$ 

46 
47 
49 
49 
60 
51 
52 
52 
52 



53 



65 



83 



(7) 



8 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER YIIL 

Page 
THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD 86 

CHAPTER IX. 

PENNSYLVANIA 'RAlLB.OAD—conttmied 96 

CHAPTER X. 

PENNSYLVANIA B.A1LR0 AJ>— contimied 107 

CHAPTER XI. 

PITTSBURG, FORT WAYNE, AND CHICAGO RAILROAD . 126 

CHAPTER XII. 

NORTHERN CENTRAL RAILROAD 141 

CHAPTER XIII. 

NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD 144 

CHAPTER XIY. 

NEW YORK CENTRAL B,AlLROAJ>—co7iet7iii€d ... 156 

CHAPTER XY. 

MICHIGAN CENTRAL RAILROAD AND GREAT WESTERN 

RAILROAD OF CANADA 167 

Michigan Central Railroad 168 

Hotel Cars . . . . . . .170 

CHAPTER XYI. 

NEW YORK AND ERIE RAILROAD 172 

Increase of Means to Operate the Road . . 183 

Financial Condition 186 

Earnings for various Years 190 

CHAPTER XYII. 

ATLANTIC AND GREAT WESTERN RAILROAD . . .191 

CHAPTER XYIII. 

THE MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILROAD .... 204 

CHAPTER XIX. 

RAILROADS OF NEW ENGLAND 214 



CONTEN-BS. 9 

CHAPTER XX. 

Paqk 
RAILROADS IN NEW JERSEY 230 

CHAPTER XXI. 

CENTRAL RAILROAD OF NEW JERSEY 236 

CHAPTER XXII. 

CONDITION OP THE WESTERN COUNTRY BEFORE THE 
INTRODUCTION OF RAILROADS 239 

CHAPTER XXIIL 

CONDITION OF THE WESTERN COUNTRY BEFORE THE 
INTRODUCTION OF IiAlhB,0AD8— continued . . .248 

CHAPTER XXIY. 

THE RAILROADS OF ILLINOIS 258 

Railroads now in Operation 261 

CHAPTER XXY. 

THE RAILROADS OF CHICAGO 263 

Trunk Lines Centering at Chicago .... 265 

CHAPTER XXYI. 

CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD .270 

CHAPTER XXYII. 

CHICAGO AND NORIHWESTERN RAILROAD— <rowim««; . 281 

CHAPTER XXYIIL 

CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN HAILRO AD— contimied . 293 
History of the Peninsula Railroad . . . 302 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD 311 

* CHAPTER XXX. 

ILLINOIS CENTRAL 'RAILB.O AD— continued .... 320 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

CHICAGO AND ST. LOUIS RAILROAD. TOLEDO, WABASH 
AND WESTERN RAILROAD 336 



10 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

Page 
CHICAGO, ROCK ISLAND, AND PACIFIC RAILROAD. CHI- 
CAGO, BURLINGTON, AND QUINCY RAILROAD . . 335 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

RAILROADS IN THE SOUTHERN STATES. NEW ORLEAl^S, 
JACKSON AND GREAT NORTHERN RAILROAD . .343 

CHAPTER XXXIY. 

MEMPHIS AND CHARl^ESTON RAILROAD .... 358 

CHAPTER XXXY. 

ORANGE AND ALEXANDRIA RAILROAD . . . .370 

CHAPTER XXXYI. 

RAILROADS IN TEXAS 374 

CHAPTER XXXYII. 

PROJECTED AAILROADS IN THE SOUTH AND WEST. THE 



PACIFIC RAILROAD .... 

Projected Railroads in the South 
Projected Railroads in the West 
Railroads in Iowa and Minnesota 
Railroad to the Pacific Ocean 



384 
385 
386 
393 
394 



CHAPTER XXXYIII. 

ON THE COMPARATIVE MERITS OF IRON AND STEEL ' 
RAILS . 412 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 

RAILROAD LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES . . .426 

Railroad Laws of Pennsylvania .... 438 
Consolidation of Railroad Companies . . . 439 

Railroad Laws of Illinoii 440 

The Consolidation Act ; Providing for the Con- 
solidation OF Railroad Companies . . . 442 



APPENDIX. 

Note A.— NEW YORK AND ERIE RAILWAY .... 443 

Note B.— PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD 446 

Note C— NORTHERN CENTRAL RAILROAD .... 450 



RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE ORIGIN OF RAILROADS. 

To that imperial people who colonized when they 
had conquered, England owes her first road, in the 
year 415. Wherever the Romans penetrated — into 
whatever distant countries their victorious legions 
marched, the arts went hand in hand with arms. The 
Roman camp required the Roman way: and it has 
been remarked that the general direction of those 
works, which excite and astonish the beholder, is 
closely allied to that of the modern railway. 

In the Dark Ages, the roads of England were beset 
with danger and delay ; and the age of chivalry was 
a terrible era for the traveller. The great highway 
of Watling Street, says Francis, was beset, even in the 
age of Edward the Confessor, by robbers and highway- 
men. The highwayman, indeed, was a portion of the 
English roads until 1763, as he is now a portion of 
established English literature. 

Seventy-five years ago tram-roads were extensively 
employed in many parts of England. They consisted 
of thin beams or rails of wood, upon which the wheeb 

(11) 



12 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

of wagons rested, in their passage. The wooden rails, 
forming the tracks for the wagon wheels, were about 
four inches broad, supported on thicker pieces of tim- 
ber laid at right angles to them, called sleepers, to 
which they were secured by wooden pins. Over a 
road: thus constructed it was found that wagons, heav- 
ily loaded, could be drawn with ease. The friction of 
the wheels, however, passing over the rails, gradually 
wearing out the latter, new ones were substituted: 
and afterwards these tram-roads were made by laying 
down two rails, one above the other, so that when the 
upper rails were worn out, they could be easily re- 
placed. These tramways were of especial value in 
mining and coal districts. 

At the Colebrook Iron Works, in 1767, in order to 
protect these wooden rails still more, plates of iron 
were laid over them. These iron plates were four 
inches wide, one inch thick, and five feet long, and 
were made with holes through which spikes were 
driven to fasten them down. Tramways constructed in 
this manner were found to be so durable that their use 
became greatly extended, so that, in 1811, there were 
one hundred and eighty miles in operation in Wales 
alone. The first railroads that were constructed in 
the United States were little more than iron tram-roads 
of this kind. 

In 1805 a tram-road was .opened at Croydon, and 
the advantages which it presented were subjected to a 
practical test. A good horse, on an ordinary turnpike 
road, can draw two thousand pounds, or a ton. A 
party of gentlemen were invited to witness the ex- 
periment, that the superiority of the new road might 



THE ORIGIN OF RAILROADS. 13 

be established by ocalar demonstration. Twelve 
wagons were loaded with stones, till each wagon 
weighed three tons, and the wagons were fastened 
together. A horse was then attached, which drew the 
twelve wagons with ease, six miles in two hours, 
having stopped four times, in order to show that he 
had the power of starting, as well as drawing this 
great load. 

Horses continued to be used on these tram-wavs 
for many years; and as long as the only motive 
power on these roads continued to be horses, few or 
no improvements were made in the construction of 
the roads themselves. But in 1820, Mr. Thomas 
Gray, of England, published a book in which he 
propounded a general iron railroad, or land steam 
conveyance, to supersede the necessity of horses in 
all public vehicles. This was a startling innovation ; 
for steam had not yet begun to be used on railroads, 
or as a means of propulsion on land. Mr. Gray pro- 
posed that his plan should first be attempted between 
Liverpool and Manchester. He laid his plan before 
the capitalists of Manchester. But, although they 
owed their fortunes to steam, they could not appre- 
ciate the idea. Macaulay says: "There were fools 
then, as there are fools now; fools, who laughed at 
railways as they had laughed at canals; fools, who 
thought they evinced their wisdom by doubting what 
they could not understand." 

In 1825, ther first, railroad in England, for the con- 
veyance of passengers, was established. It was the 
Stockton and Darlington road, was thirty-seven miles 
long, and consisted of a single track with sidings. It 



14 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

commenced by carrying jBve hundred or six hundred 
passengers every week, in coaches which carried six 
passengers inside, and twenty passengers outside. 
Each carriage was drawn by one trorse, and the speed 
was ten miles per hour. To the success of this line, 
says an English writer, may be attributed the origin 
of all the others. 

The proposal to construct a railroad between Liver- 
pool and Manchester was made in 1822, but it was 
not till 1826 that the consent of Parliament was ob- 
tained. Ojf^the land owners on the line of the road, 
one hundred and fifty-two were in favor of it, and 
eighty-six were opposed to its construction. When 
the works approached completion, it was necessary to 
decide what motive power should be used. Horse 
power was found to be altogether inadequate. In 
order to attract the attention of men of science to the 
undertaking, a premium of twenty-five hundred dol- 
lars was ofiered for the best locomotive engine that 
could be constructed. The company required that 
the engine should consume its own smoke, that it 
should be capable of drawing a train of twenty tons 
weight at ten miles per hour, and that its height 
should not exceed fifteen feet. 

The successful engine was built by Mr. George 
Stephenson. This engine, on its trial trip, ran a dis- 
'tance of thirty miles twice, drawing the required load. 
The first time it performed the distance in two hours 
and fifteen minutes, the second tinje in -two hours and 
seven minutes. It attained a speed of thirty miles 
an hour, and its average speed was fourteen miles an 
hour. Mr. Stephenson was immediately appointed to 



THE ORIGIN Of RAILROADS, 15 

construct all the engines that might be required for 
the new road. The cost of this road was one hun- 
dred and twenty thousand dollars per mile. 

This line was formally opened on the 15th of Sep- 
tember, 183QJ!:! in the presence of a gay and very 
distinguished company, among whom were the Duke 
of Wellington and Lord Brougham. On returning 
from the opening excursion, the guests sat down to 
an elegant banquet provided by the company; and 
after the repast, Lord Brougham made a speech in his 
usual eloquent vein, in which he said of the excursion 
on the new road: "There I saw the difficulties of 
space overcome; I surveyed masses of solid rock 
pierced through; I saw mountains, on which it was 
barely possible, before, for man or beast to plant the 
sole of the foot, now traversed by a smooth and solid 
road ; I saw valleys made practicable by the bridges 
of ample height and length which spanned them ; saw 
the steam railway traversing the surface of the water 
at a height of sixty or seventy feet ; saw the rocks 
excavated, and the gigantic power of man penetrating 
through miles of solid rock, and gaining a great, a 
lasting conquest, over the powers of nature." 

This railroad carried seven hundred thousand per- 
sons during the first eighteen months after it was 
opened ; being one thousand and seventy persons per 
day. The success of this line removed all doubt as 
to the possibilities of the railroad system. In 1888, 

* The first division of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad had been 
opened in May of the same year.^ In the same year, also, a locomo- 
tive and passenger cars were ranning on six miles of the Charles- 
ton and Georgia Railroad. 



16 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

the road between London and Birmingham was com- 
pleted and opened; and between the year 1840 and 
1850, the other principal lines of railroad in England 
wefe constructed. In 1841^ there were fifteen hundred 
and fifty miles of railroad in operation in England, 
and twenty millions of people safely transported 
during the year. In 1843, there were eighteen hun- 
dred miles of railroad in operation, and twenty-seven 
millions of people were transported. In 1844, there 
were nineteen hundred miles of railroad in operation, 
and thirty millions of passengers were transported. 

Although £60,000,000 of capital had been invested 
in little more than ten years, in these now fashionable 
enterprises, all the principal lines paid large profits. 
Dividends of ten per cent, were declared, and the 
shares rose largely in value. The demand for these 
shares became a popular rage, but it was met with an 
abundant supply. In 1845, three hundred miles of 
new railroad were opened, and acts were passed by 
Parliament, sanctioning the construction of eighteen 
hundred miles more. 

Ten years ago, a writer in the " London Economist" 
called attention to the £300,000,000 which, up to that 
time, had been embarked in railroad enterprises in 
England, as the largest aggregate property that was 
ever contributed to any one commercial object. And 
yet there could have been added to this sum the five 
hundred millions of dollars invested in the same 
commercial object in France; the six hundred and 
fifty millions of dollars similarly invested in the 
United States up to that time, and the relatively large 
amount contributed in Belgium, Germany, Spain, and 



THE ORIGIN OP RAILROADS. 17 

Italy. According to Mr. Stephenson, tlie lines con- 
structed in England exceeded, in 1856, the aggregate 
length of the ten chief rivers of Europe — the Volga, 
the Danube, the Dnieper, the Ehine, the Dwina, the 
Loire, the Vistula, the Dniester, the Rhone, and the 
Guadalquivir ; and, exclusive of the Thames and the 
Mersey, they undoubtedly carried more goods and 
passengers than were conveyed on all those rivers. 

In the United States, there were at that time twenty- 
three thousand three hundred and forty-two miles of 
railroad in operation, the increase in the year 1855 
alone hsfVing been three thousand four hundred and 
eight miles. When to these, then, are added the rail- 
roads of France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, and India, 
it becomes, says the writer above named, manifest, 
that railways constitute the greatest uniform work 
performed in a few years by the hand of man. All 
the highroads in Europe, though they were the work 
of many ages, sink into, insignificance when brought 
into comparison with the railroads built within thirty 
years. All the vast pyramids, all the towering monu- 
ments and mighty walls of the ancients, all the spa- 
cious churches and proud cathedrals of the middle 
ages, were but trivial works, compared with the rail- 
roads that in a short period have sprung into ex- 
istence, as if by the "conspiration and the mighty 
magic" of one mind and one will, throughout the 
whole civilized world. It is remarkable, too, that this 
great work has been executed without any constraint, 
or any serious derangement of any other needful 
branch of industry. By saving time, and bringing 
remote lands into cultivation, it has increased capital 
2 



18 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES- 

with all the means of subsistence; and multiplied 
employment whenever it has come into use. It has 
made the rich man its client, and the poor man its 
debtor. In the United States, by rapidly bringing 
the surplus produce of the interior to the seaboard, 
it saved a part of the population of Europe from 
starvation. 

The railroads of the United States are by no means 
finished. The principal roads are constantly making 
improvements in their tracks and rolling stock, by 
which distance is shortened, speed increased, and the 
comfort and safety of passengers promotedt New 
roads, too, are being built ; and the necessity for them 
is shown in the fact that the freight and traffic for 
them accumulate along the route, even before the 
track is laid. 



HOW A RAILROAD, IS BUILT. 19 



CHAPTER II. 

HOW A RAILROAD IS BUILT. 

How little the railroad traveller, thoughtful only of 
speed, comfort, and cheapness, sees of the formidable 
works over and through which he is so safely and 
rapidly *^carried ! How little he knows of the hercu- 
lean labors that have been performed, the anxieties 
that have been borne, the skill and invention that have 
been brought into exercise, the desperate difficulties 
that have been surmounted, in order to provide for 
him those two parallel lines of iron over which he 
smoothly glides and peacefully snores. Yet for bold- 
ness of design, skill in construction, and success in 
completion, the gigantic achievements of engineering 
performed in the laying of great railroads, greatly 
surpass in magnitude as well as in utility, those that 
have left their Own monuments from earlier ages. 

The main object of the railroad engineer is to 
reduce his road as nearly as possible to a level. High 
grounds are to be cut down, and embankments raised 
across the lower lands. When a mountain intervenes, 
through which an open cut is impracticable, the ex- 
pedient of a tunnel has to be adopted. When a deep 
valley lays in the way, and an embankment is not 
feasible, then there must be a viaduct. And when an 
arm of the sea, such as the Menai Straits, has to be 



# • 



20 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

crossed, it must be overleaped on iron tubes swung in 
mid air. Of the eight thousand and fifty-five miles 
of railroad in operation in England six years ago, 
seventy miles passed through tunnels, and more than 
fifty miles over viaducts; while of railroad bridges 
there had been built some three thousand large and 
costly structures. 

Incredible difficulties have been encountered by 
engineers in carrying embankments of earth across low 
grounds. These grounds; in many places, under a 
fair, green surface, have been found to conceal the re- 
mains of ancient bogs and swamps, sometimes of great 
depth. Thus, on one English railroad, about six 
hundred tons of stone and earth were daily used to 
form an embankment across a valley, and morning 
after morning, for many weeks, the material deposited 
on the preceding day was found to have disappeared. 
A still more remarkable instance, however, is said to 
have occurred on a road in the United States, where 
an embankment, which had been entirely constructed, 
suddenly disappeared from view, and was found to 
have sunk in thirty feet of water. The cause of this 
was ascribed to the fact that an extensiAre lake had, in 
the course of ages, been covered with various deposits, 
which at length formed a soil of sufficient stability to 
withstand the operations of agriculture without giving 
way ; but being oppressed by the weight of so extra- 
ordinary a contrivance as a railroad embankment, it 
declined to be thus burdened, and sunk at last beneath 
the waters. 

The Michigan Southern Eailroad, to fill a '' sink hole" 
of forty rods under its track in Northern Indiana, has 



HOW A RAILROAD IS BUILT. 21 

dumped in two acres of earth averaging ten feet in 
depth ; three acres of timber and brushwood : the 
ditchings and scrapings of fifty miles of railroad track 
for about eight years past ; the old ties of about one 
hundred miles of repaired track ; and about three thou- 
sand car-loads of gravel ; besides the forty rods of em- 
bankment, from four to six feet high, that were made 
before the sinking occurred. The work of filling seems 
now to have been accomplished. 

Tunnels. — In Chester County, England, the great 
Woodhead tunnel penetrates the mountain for a length 
of about three miles, under^ a dreary, barren moor, 
undisturbed save by the sportsman's gun. The usual 
shafts were sunk over the line of the tunnel, down 
towards its base. The average depth of the shafts 
-was six hundred feet — but it was long, indeed, before 
the workmen could reach the bottom level. The 
sinking, blasting, and winding went on so slowly, that 
the tunnel was six years in progress. This was caused 
by the hardness of the material, and the immense 
quantity of water that flowed into the shafts. The 
operation of pumping continued incessantly for five 
years, during which time the engines brought up no 
less than eight millions of tons of water. At two of 
the shafts, where continuous pumping was kept up, 
not an inch was gained in nine months. In another, 
it took eleven months to sink fourteen yards. The 
water was never entirely conquered, until the under 
drift was blasted through the lifte of the tunnel, 
whereby the upper springs were tapped, and the 
water flowed out of the open end of the tunnel by its 
own gravity. The blasting in this tunnel was on so 



22 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

enormous a scale, that not less than three thousand 
five hundred barrels of gunpowder, weighing about 
one hundred and sixty tons, were used in the opera- 
tion. 

More gunpowder, indeed, has been expended in 
railroad works than has been blown away in the 
recent Civil War in America, with the Crimean War 
added. Near Dover, in England, Sir William Cubit, 
in 1833, blew away, with one charge of nineteen 
thousand pounds of gunpowder, the entire mass of the 
Eound Down CliflF, which rose to the height of three 
hundred and fifty feet^ above the level of the sea- 
This terrible blast, fired by galvanic electricity at 
several points instantaneously, at once hurled off from 
the cliff a mass of more than a million tons of chalk, 
which rolled down upon the beach — the dislodged 
masses of chalk covering and whitening a space of 
more than fifteen acres, as may still be seen, stretching 
towards the sea near the western base of the well- 
known Skakspeare's Cliff. 

By means of a similar blast, on the Londonderry 
and Coleraine Eailway, a hill was thrown into the sea 
by a charge of three thousand pounds of gunpowder ; 
and thirty thousand tons of material were thus instan- 
taneously removed from the line of the works. 

A delicate piece of tunnel surveying and under- 
ground building was executed at Glasgow, in Scot- 
land, where the Garnkirk Eailroad passes, by means 
of a tunnel four hundred feet long, under the Monk- 
land Canal, and over the tunnel of the Edinburgh and 
Glasgow Eailroad. The two tunnels stand secure, 
tier over tier. 



HOW A RAILROAD IS BUILT. 23 

In Derbysliire, Eaojlaiid, Mr. George Stephenson 
carried a railroad over a bridge which there spanned 
the river Amber, and at the same point, under the 
aquedact of the Cromford Canal. Eiver, bridge, rail- 
road, and canal, were thus piled one above the other, 
four stories high. Such another curious complication 
in railroad engineering probably does not exist. 

American Tunnels. — Most of the tunnels on 
American roads are on the lines crossing the Alle- 
ghany Mountains. Through the main Alleghany 
ridge, near its summit, a tunnel was completed in 
January, 1854, for the Pennsylvania Railroad, the 
length of which was three thousand six hundred and 
twelve feet, the width twenty-four feet, and the height 
twenty-two feet. To expedite the work, and facilitate 
the removal of the rocky material, four shafts were 
sunk, from the surface down to the level of the tun- 
nel. One of these was thirteen feet wide, the others 
were ten feet wide. These shafts varied in depth, 
being one hundred and fifty, one liundred and fifty- 
four, one hundred and ninety-six, and one hundred 
and ninety-four feet deep respectively. The rocks 
were fouad to be the nearly horizontal strata of the 
coal measures, the tunnel in great part lying along a 
bed of fire clay, which, though easily excavated, 
caused considerable expense and much trouble in 
properly securing the walls and roof. The work was 
completed in two years, at a cost of nearly half a 
million of dollars ($450,000). 

Many fine tunnels are found on the line of the Balti- 
more and Ohio Railroad, particularly on the Parkers- 
burg branch. On the main stem of this road, the 



24 BAILROADS OF THE UNITED STAGES. 

« 

Kingwood and the Broadtree tunnels are works of 
superior magnitude and notable skill. 

The Blue. Bidge Bailroad crosses the Blue Bidge in 
Virginia by a tunnel four thousand two hundred and 
seventy-three feet long, on a grade ascending seventy 
feet to the mile. Its height is twenty-one feet> its 
greatest width sixteen feet. The work was carried on 
from each end, at the rate of nearly a foot every 
twenty-four hours. It was commenced in 1850, and 
finished in 1857, without shafts, at a cost of nearly 
half a million of dollars ($464,000). On the Blue Bidge 
Bailroad in South Carolina, three tunnels were com- 
pleted shortly before the war broke out in the Pickens 
district. One of these is six hundred and sixteen feet 
long, another over two thousand feet long, and the third, 
the Stump House Mountain tunnel, is five thousand 
eight hundred and sixty-four feet long. Four shafts 
were sunk from the summit of the mountains to ex- 
pedite this work. In Georgia, on the same road, there 
are two more tunnels. 

The Long Dock Tunnel in Bergen, New Jersey, 
opposite the city of New York, was completed in 
1860. It passes through the Trap Hills that extend 
from the Palisades south, and is four thousan4 three 
hundred and eleven feet long, twenty-three feet high, 
and thirty feet wide. Eight large shafts, from seventy 
to ninety feet deep, were sunk from the summit down 
to its level. 

The largest tunnel projected in the United States, is 
that through the Hoosic Mountain, in Massachusetts, 
between the Housatonic and Deerfield Bivers. Its total 
length is twenty-four thousand five hundred feet, or 



HOW A RAILROAD IS BUILT. 25 

more than a mile and a half long. The mountain is of 
mica slate and quartz rock, and rises seventeen hundred 
feet above the level of the tunnel, so that shafts have 
been considered entirely out of the question. In May, 
1860, the work had progressed sixteen hundred and 
eighty-three feet on the east side, and eight hundred 
feet on the west side, with such imperfect ventilation 
that it would seem to be almost a hopeless undertak- 
ing; should the task of penetrating this mountain 
ever be accomplished, the distance from Troy to 
Boston will be reduced from two hundred and eight, 
to one hundred and sixty-five miles, with an import- 
ant reduction, also, of high grades and sharp curves. 

Cost of Eailroads. — In Great Britain, in 1855, 
there were eight thousand two hundred and ninety- 
seven miles of railroad in operation, which had cost 
one million four hundred and eighty-seven thousand 
four hundred and twenty dollars. In France, in 1856, 
there were four thousand and thirty-eight miles, which 
had cost six hundred and sixteen millions one hundred 
and eighteen thousand nine hundred and ninety-five 
dollars. In the United States, in 1857, there were 
twenty-six thousand miles, which had cost nine hundred 
and twenty millions of dollars ($920,000,000). British 
roads, therefore, cost one hundred and seventy-nine 
thousand dollars per mile ; French roads one hundred 
and fifty-two thousand dollars per mile; and American 
roads, only thirty-five thousand dollars per mile. Ten 
years later, namely, at the present time, in 1868, there 
are thirty -eight thousand miles of railroads in opera- 
tion in the United States, which have cost one billion 
fi.ve hundred and thirty-two millions, five hundred 



26 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

thousand dollars ; being an average cost of less than 
thirty thousand dollars per mile, namely, twenty-nine 
thousand three hundred and thirty dollars and fifty 
cents. 

The average cost per mile of the railways of Penn- 
sylvania is forty-five thousand one hundred and 
eighty-six dollars and ninety-one cents; of Illinois, 
thirty-seven thousand five hundred and thirty-eight 
dollars and thirteen cents; of Nebraska, nineteen 
thousand three hundred and thirty-four dollars and 
eighty-eight cents; of Missouri, thirty thousand one 
hundred and sixty-seven dollars and sixty-three cents; 
of Texas, sixty-two thousand two dollars and fifteen 
cents. 

The low rates of cost, which these figures show, re- 
quired for the construction of American railroads has 
naturally excited the surprise of the financier and the 
political economist. How is it that, with a territory so 
vast, such great railroads as the Baltimore and Ohio, the 
Pennsylvania Central, and the New York and Erie, 
can be built at so comparatively low a rate I It is 
due, first, to the general nature of the country ; second, 
to the American mode of construction ; and third, to 
the prevailing -manner of working railroad^ in the 
United States. 

The immense cost in the construction of English 
railroads is mainly derived from the extravagant 
prices which are demanded, and have to be paid at 
the outset for the land. The average of this item, 
for all the lines, has been rated at forty-three thousand 
dollars per mile, or more than the entire average cost 
of American roads. The parliamentary charges 



HOW A RAILROAD IS BUILT. "27 

incurred in procuring a charter, are also enormous — 
many roads having cost over ten thousand dollars per 
mile for this item alone. 

After an English railroad is once built, however, 
it requires a far less expenditure to keep it in work- 
ing order, than an American road requires. The cost 
of keeping an English road in perfect order has been 
demonstrated to be less than eleven cents per mile, 
annually ; of French roads, eight cents per mile ; while 
it costs to keep American roads in order twenty -five 
cents per mile, annually. 

Except where the traffic is so considerable as to 
compel a double rail, American railroads are built 
with single tracks ; and sidings at convenient stations 
answer all the requirements of safety and promptness 
in the passage of trains. In the structure of the roads 
themselves, principles attended with remarkable eco- 
nomy have been universally adopted. In laying out 
these lines, the engineers did not, as in England, 
impose on themselves the difficult and expensive con- 
dition of excluding all curves, except those of the 
most liberal radius. On the contrary, curves having 
a radius of one thousand feet are common, and oc- 
casionally those of five hundred feet are allowed. 
Every one will remember the two sharp curves just 
outside of the cjty of Baltimore, on the road from 
Washington to Philadelphia. 

Nor are the grades restricted to the same low 
limits as in Europe. Acclivities rising at the r^e of 
one foot in a hundred and thirty, are considered a 
moderate ascent; and there are not less than fifty 
lineS; in which the gradients are laid down at a rate 



28 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

varying from one foot in a hundred to one in seventy- 
five. Nevertheless, these lines are worked without 
difficulty by locomotives, and without the expedient 
of either assistant or stationary engines. The conse- 
quence of which has been to diminish the cost of 
earthworks, bridges, and viaducts, even in districts of 
country where the character of the surface is least 
favorable. 

In Massachusetts, the Western Eailroad ascends from 
Springfield to Pittsfield at the rate of eighty-three 
feet to the mile. The New York and Erie road has 
grades of sixty feet to the mile. The Baltimore and 
Ohio road climbs the Alleghanies from Piedmont to 
Altamont on grades of one hundred and sixteen feet 
to the mile. The Virginia Central road crosses the 
Blue Eidge by inclined planes of two hundred and 
fifty, and two hundred and ninety-five feet to the 
mile. The mountain pierced by the Kingwood tun- 
nel, on the Baltimore and Ohio road, was temporarily 
surmounted by grades of five hundred feet to the 
mile, of which each separate car was drawn by a 
powerful locomotive. 

In the working of American railroads the same 
studious regard for economy is observable. The 
engines are strongly built, perfectly safe, and suffi- 
ciently powerful ; but they dispense .with much of that 
elegance of exterior and fine workmanship, which 
engage to an expensive degree the pride of British 
builders. 

The form and structure of the passenger cars con- 
stitute a means of considerable economy in the work- 
ing of American roads. There are no first, second. 



HOW A RAILROAD IS BUILT. 29 

and third class carriages, as in England. Except the 
emigrant cars and the troop cars, all the passenger 
cars are of the same class; and for the purpose for 
which they are designed, they present many advan- 
tages. The simplicity of the structure renders the 
cost of their construction comparatively less than that 
of any class of carriages on European railroads. But 
a still greater source of saving is found in their ope- 
ration. The proportion of dead weight to the paying 
weight is far less than in the first or second class 
carriages on the English railroads. It is true, they 
do not ofier to the wealthy passenger all the luxurious 
accommodations which he finds in the best first class 
carriages on English roads, but they afford every 
necessary convenience and comfort, and are far pre- 
ferable to the second class carriages on European 
lines. 

Some very decided improvements in passenger cars 
have recently been introduced on some of the princi- 
pal roads in the United States, which will be men- 
tioned hereafter. 

There is at present finished and in operation in the 
United States, thirty -eight thousand miles of railroads. 
Of this, Pennsylvania has four thousand and thirty- 
seven miles. Ohio is second in rank, having thirty- 
four hundred and two and ^%% miles ; Illinois third, 
having thirty-two hundred and fifty and //(j miles ; 
New York fourth, having thirty hundred and twenty- 
five and j%% miles ; Indiana fifth, having twenty-four 
hundred and ninety and ^Viy nailes. Oregon ranks 
lowest in the number of miles of railway completed, 
having but nineteen and /^^^ miles. East of the 



30 KAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Eocky Mountains, Ehode Island contains. Jhe fewest 
miles of railway, having but one hundred and nine- 
teen and xV(r miles; Delaware has one hundred and 
fifty and jYo miles; Arkansas, one hundred and 
ninety -one miles; Kansas, two hundred and forty; 
Nebraska, two hundred and seventy-five. 

The total cost of these internal improvements is 
one billion five hundred and thirty-two millions five 
hundred thousand dollars — a vast sum, invested to 
keep us in motion and move what we produce and 
consume. It is alone a significant comment upon the 
development and magnitude or our domestic com- 
merce. 

The following is a statement of the earnings and 
operating expenses of some of the principal railroads 
in the United States : — 



HOW A RAILROAD IS BUILT. 



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32 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The celebrated Scotch writer Mr. Wm. Chambers, 
after a tour through the United States some years ago, 
thus speaks of American Eailroads: "The land on 
which they are built has often either been given for 
nothing or for a comparatively trifling consideration. 
The lines have generally no fences, and they go through 
populous towns along the open streets without fear of 
the consequences ; the only care taken against accidents 
is for the engine-driver to ring a bell. The waiting 
rooms are generally of a poor description. All varieties 
of passengers travel together in one carriage ; and there 
is a marked deficiency of porters and other officials, 
to give information or render assistance to passengers. 
The trains proceed at a comparatively slow rate, and 
seem to stop at the discretion of the conductor. The 
whole organization and management is, in fact, on a 
loose and primitive footing, though perhaps well adap- 
ted to the raw condition of a large part of the country. 

"The absence of any classification of passengers 
strikes the Englishman as a curious feature in the 
system. This defect is felt to be a grievance by many 
Americans. ****** From this sketch it will be 
observed that the railroad system of the United 
States can in no way be brought into comparison with 
that of Great Britain, for the two things are constituted 
on very different principles. ThJ^ chief desire in 
America has been to open up the country at all 
hazards to railroad communication, leaving improve- 
ments to be effected afterwards by the wealth which 
that communication is certain to create. On the 
contrary, in Great Britain, there has been no aim of 
this kind ; the comfort of passengers and safety to the 



now A RAILROAD IS BUILT. 33 

public have, on the whole, at whatever cost, been 
matters of primary concern to the railroad companies." 

An article in the January, 1867, number of the 
'* Edinburgh Review" says of American railroads : — 

" Nptwithstanding the diversity of circumstances 
between America and England, the results of a railway 
system initiated by private enterprise have proved, in 
the older and more settled States at least, on the whole 
very similar to those arrived at in this country. 
America imported her first locomotive engine from 
England in the year 1829, but unlike the States of the 
European continent, she did not wait for English ex- 
perience, but at once struck out her own course. In 
the following year an engine of American manufacture 
was at work upon a railway in the Southern States 
designed to connect Charleston with Savannah. As 
in Europe, however, so in America, coal gave the great 
impetus to the construction of metal roads. The great 
mining State, Pennsylvania, took the lead, and, in the 
session of 1880, granted no less than twelve charters to 
as many corporations, while before three years had 
elapsed sixty-seven lines were opened within its borders. 
Virginia, and next Massachusetts and other Northern 
States, followed the example of Pennsylvania. Each 
State hastened to grant charters for its own purposes, 
but often refused to authorize a road lest it should bene- 
fit a neighbor, or give some special advantage to a 
portion of its own territory. Competition and self-de- 
fence, on the part both of States and corporations, also 
played a great -part in the creation of Transatlantic 
railways. Boston first pushed a line westward to 
secure the traffic of the inland States, and New York 
3 



34 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

felt compelled to send out a similar line without delay. 
Pennsylvania was thus driven to carry her rails &rat 
over, and latterly through the. AUeghanies, to Pitts- 
burg and the regions beyond. Thereupon Baltimore, 
Charleston, Savannah, in turn, pressed on to reach the 
Mississippi, and their lines again obliged the Gulf cities 
Mobile and New Orleans, to construct lines running 
north an3 south, lest the rival towns on the Atlantic 
seaboard should rob them of the trade of the great 
valley. 

"American lines have thus, like the English, been 
laid out and constructed without reference to any defi- 
nite or comprehensive system. In many instances 
they have been made with the deliberate intention of 
thwarting, rather than facilitating, continuous commu- 
nication. One among numerous evils that have ensued, 
has been the introduction of a great diversity of 
gauges, varying from four feet ten inches in Ohio and 
New Jersey to six feet on the New York and Erie line. 
Owing mainly to the cheapness of land and the great 
extent of level country, the capital expenses of Ameri- 
can roads have been less, but in consequence of their 
inferior construction, their working expenses are greater 
than those of English railways. Their embankments 
are usually narrow, their drainage neglected, the sleep- 
ers of unseasoned wood, and the iron of very indifferent 
quality. Their fares are indeed less than our own, 
but so also are their comfort, their speed, and their 
safety.'' 



THE ORIGIN OF RAILROADS IN RUSSIA. 35 



CHAPTEE III. 

THE ORIGIN OF RAILROADS IN RUSSIA. 

During the first few months after the opening of 
the first division of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 
in 1830, the cars were drawn by horses and mules. 
Locomotive engines were not yet in use in England. 
It was at this time that a Mr. Thomas, of Baltimore, 
constructed a car, of which the propelling power con- 
sisted of sails. This car was called the Eolus, and 
it actually ran between Baltimore and Ellicott's Mills, 
propelled by the wind alone acting upon its sails. 
The Eolus had the honor, from time to tin^e, of thus 
wafting on scientific excursions many passengers of 
distinction, Europeans as well as Americans. Among 
these, on one occasion, was the Baron Krudener, envoy 
to the United States from the Emperor of Eussia, 
who made the trip in this novel land yacht, trimming 
the sails himself. On his return from the animating 
excursion, he expressed his lively gratification. He 
had never, he said, travelled so agreeably. Where- 
upon the President of the road, Philip E. Thomas, 
Esq., caused another, car of this construction to be 
built, and fitted with the friction- wheels invented by 
Mr. Winans, of Baltimore. This car was presented 
to the Eussian envoy, together with the several reports 
that had been published by the company, to be sent 



36 KAILBOADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

to the Emperor of Eussia. In acknowledging this 
happy compliment, the envoy wrote : " The nature and 
importance of the great undertaking to which you 
have devoted your exertions, cannot fail of giving a 
high degree of interest to the documents relating to 
its origin and progress ; and I do not doubt that his 
majesty will find them, as well as the ingeniously 
improved principle on which the railroad car is con- 
structed, deserving of serious attention." A few days 
•after this a letter was received from the envoy, intro- 
ducing a deputation of scientific men from Eussia, 
who had been appointed by the Emperor to visit the 
United States. These gentlemen at once entered upon 
a minute examination of the railroad from Baltimore 
to Ellicott's Mills, and the machinery used upon it. 
On the return of the deputation to St. Petersburg, 
they communicated to the Eussian government such 
minute information, and of so great value, relative to 
the material and management of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Eailroad, that the Emperor extended an invita- 
tion to Eoss Winans, Esq., of Baltimore, to superintend 
the construction, in Eussia, of machinery for the ex- 
tensive railroads even then contemplated by the 
Eussian Emperor. The invitation was accepted ; and 
thus, says a well-informed writer, " there is no doubt 
that the early introduction of railroads into Eussia 
originated in the disclosures made to his court at this 
time by the Baron de Krudener." In a conversation 
between the envoy and Mr. Thomas, the President 
of the Baltimore and Ohio road, concerning the eft'ects 
which the railroad system, then in its infancy, would 
produce, Mr. Thomas is said to have remarked that 



THE ORIGIN OP RAILROADS IN RUSSIA. 37 

"should our. present anticipations of the elBBciency of 
railroads be realized, a total change will be brought 
about in commercial and social intercourse in every 
country where these roads may be introduced; that 
the experiments already made had demonstrated them 
to be capable of affording to an extensive continent 
the facilities of inter-communication now incident to a 
small island ; and that the discovery promised greater 
advantages to Eussia and the United States than to 
any other countries." He then further observed, that 
" should the Emperor introduce railroads into Russia, 
it would not be many years before a railroad would 
be constructed between the Baltic and the Black Sea, 
along the rivers Dwina and Dnieper ; and that such a 
road would enable Russia to encircle in her arms, not 
only the entire northern, but also the eastern frontier 
of Europe, and thus to greatly extend her power and 
influence." The extended foresight of Mr. Thomas 
was here again conspicuously manifested, for the year 
1853 witnessed the completion of a large portion of 
the great railroads that are so rapidly stretching over 
the Russian continent. The great railroad from St. 
Petersburg to. Moscow was completed and opened in 
1852 ; and its continuation to Odessa, on the Black 
Sea, is now in progress of construction. It will be, 
when finished, sixteen hundred miles long, as far as 
, from Boston to New Orleans, and will connect the 
Baltic and the Black Sea. Mr. Winans remains in 
Russia, superintending the construction of the machi- 
nery for these great roads. 

Anecdotes of Opposition to Railroads. — It is 
related in the annals of English railroads, that one 



38 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

man sold some land to a railroad company, and was 
loud and long in his outcries for compensation, expa- 
tiating on the damages which the formation of the line 
would bring, as he said, to his property. He was 
assured that the construction of the road would greatly 
increase the value of his property ; but to this he would 
not listen for a moment. His complaints were only 
stopped by the payment of his demands. A few 
mouths afterwards, a little additional land was re- 
quired of the same individual, when he actually de- 
manded a much larger price for the new land than for 
that which he had first sold to the company. On 
surprise being expressed at his conduct, he coolly 
replied: "Oh, I made a mistake, then, in thinking the 
railroad would injure my property. It has increased 
its value, and of course you must pay an increased 
price for it." 

On another occasion, a trial occurred in a court of 
justice, before a jury, in which an eminent land valuer 
was put into the witness box to swell the amount of 
damages, and he proceeded to expatiate on the injury 
committed by railroads in general, and especially by 
the one in question, in cutting up the properties which 
they invaded, &c. When he had finished the delivery 
of this weighty piece of evidence, the counsel for the 
company put a newspaper into his hand, and calling 
his attention to a certain advertisement therein, asked 
him whether he had inserted that advertisement I He 
was compelled to admit that he had. The counsel 
then proceeded to read the advertisement to the jury. 
Imagine the amusement of the latter, when the adver- 
tisement proved to be a declaration from the land 



THE ORIGIN OF RAILROADS IN RUSSIA. 39 

Valuer himself, that the approach of the railroad which 
he had come there to oppose, would be exceediugly 
beneficial to the property in its immediate vicinity 
then for sale 1 

Chancellor Livingston, who was a man of distinction 
and thought, and who was- even* associated with his 
brother-in-law, Robert Fulton, in the endeavor to 
apply steam as a motive power to navigation by sea, 
was an unbeliever in the possibility of using it for 
travel by land^ He believed that the railway could 
never compete with the canal. His letter on this 
subject may not be amiss in exhibiting how completely 
the last half century has revolutionized former ideas 
and opinions, and opened up the progress of improve- 
ment and civilization. It is quite refreshing in view 
of the present : — 

"Albany, March 11, 1811. 

"Dear Sir: I did not till yesterday receive yours of 
the 25th of February ; where it has loitered on the 
road, I am at a loss to say. I had before read of your 
very ingenious proposition as to the railway commu- 
nication. I fear, however, on mature reflection, that 
they will be liable to serious objections, and ulti- 
mately more expensive than a canal. They must be 
doubly so to prevent the danger of two such heavy 
bodies meeting. The walls on which they are placed 
must be at least four feet below the surface, and three 
above, and must be clamped with iron, and even then 
would hardly sustain so heavy a weight as you pro- 
pose moving at the rate of four miles an hour on 
wheels. As to wood, it would not last a week. They 
must be covered with iron, and that, too, very thick 



40 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

and strong. The means of stopping these heavy 
carriages without a great shock, and of ppeventing 
them from running upon each other — for there would 
be many running upon the road at once — ^would be 
very difficult. In cases of accidental stops or necessary 
stops to take wood and water, etc., many accidents would 
happen. The carriage of condensing water would be 
very troublesome. XJgpn the whole, I fear the expense 
would be much greater than that of canals, without 
being so convenient. E. E. Livingston." 

Using Eailroads on Sundays. — The opposition to 
the use of railroads on Sundays began with the first 
introduction of the railroad system, and it still prevails, 
notwithstanding the progress towards enlightenment 
which the world has made. One gentleman in Eng- 
land, mistakenly called Eev., speaks of all railroad 
travel on Sunday, as " trips to hell at 7^. 6c?. per head." 
Awful denunciations were uttered on the sin of enjoy- 
ing the Sabbath. Handbills, of which the following is 
a copy, were sent about the streets of London, and 
thrust into travellers hands : " Solemn Warning to 
Sabbath Breakers ! God coming in Judgment ! as re- 
vealed by the sudden destruction of nearly one 
hundred immortal beings on the Paris and Versailles 
Eailroad, on Sabbath the 8th instant ; and also in the 
destruction, by fire., pf the Sabbath-breaking town of 
Hamburg I" 

It is a great error to confound the Jewish with the 
Christian Sabbath. They who lived nearest to the 
time of Christ, made no such mistake. The apostles 
did not enjoin their followers to refrain from labor on 



THE ORIGIN OF RAILROADS IN RUSSIA. 41 

Sunday. Jesus himself showed his contempt for the 
Jewish Sabbath by openly violating the Jewish law of 
the Sabbath, and by commanding his disciples to " do 
well "on the Sabbath day. When the self-righteous 
Pharisees rebuked him for his open violation of the 
Jewish law of the Sabbath, he demonstrated the ab- 
surdity of that law, defended his own conduct on the 
ground of reason and common sense, and told them 
plainly, with all the authority of the Son of God, that 
the Sabbath had been instituted for the use and enjoy- 
ment of man. (See Mark, Chap. ii. 23-28. Matthew, 
Chap. xii. 1-13.) Peter no doubt worked at his tents 
on Sundays. During the first three centuries it was 
not regarded as a Sabbath : and the initiative step was 
only taken in the fourth century, by the half pagan 
Constantine closing the courts of law on that day. The 
most learned researches have shown that previous to 
this era there was no law binding to its strict obser- 
vance. Eight hundred and twenty-nine years after 
Christ, it was determined by a council solemnly con- 
vened for the purpose, that the keeping of the Lord's 
day had no other ground but mere custom. 

The benefits of railroads on Sundays are incalcula- 
ble. In the cities, they carry thousands of persons 
comfortably to church, on wet and rainy days, and 
convey them safely to their homes, again, without in- 
jury to their health, nine-tenths of whom would other- 
wise have been compelled to remain at home. And 
even on fine days it enables thousands of persons to go 
to church, who live too far off to walk. They take the 
workman from his hot, close, loathsome neighborhood ; 
carry him and his family, in an hour, to the purest 



42 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

haunts of nature ; and for that one day thus passed in 
the pure air with those he loves, with the cool, refresh- 
ing breezes making music in the trees above his head, 
and with all the charms of nature spread out before 
him, he is a better man and a better citizen. 

Wherever Sunday cars have been introduced, they 
have had to encounter the opposition of those persons 
in the community who pride themselves on their rigid 
Sabbath observances, and who cannot believe that any 
views of the observance of the Sabbath, different from 
their own, can be founded upon Christian principles. 
But these prejudices have always worn away: and the 
great mass of every community, where the cars run on 
Sunday, regard them as promoters of health and mo- 
rality, and by no means antagonistic to religion. 



PROGRESS OF RAILROADS. 49 



CHAPTER IV. 

PROGRESS OP RAILROADS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

In the year 1850, there were only eight thousand, 
six hundred (8,600) miles of railroad fioished and 
in operation in the United States, which had cost 
less than three hundred millions of dollars, namely, 
8296,260,128. In 1860, there were thirty thousand 
six hundred (30,600) miles of railroad finished and in 
operation, which had cost over a thousand millions of 
dollars, namely, 81,184,452,909. 

Before the year 1850, there was only one line of 
railroad completed and in operation between tide wa- 
ter navigation and the great interior producing regions 
of the country. This line was formed of several links, 
which, now consolidated, form the New York Central 
Railroad, extending, with its water communications, 
from New York and Albany to Buffalo and the west- 
ern shores of Lake Erie. There was another line 
opened soon afterwards, however, extending from Bos- 
ton to Ogdensburg on the St. Lawrence Eiver. This 
was completed in 1851. A large business at once 
sprang up along this line, by which Boston was greatly 
benefited. The New York and Erie Eailroad, of 
which full mention will be made hereafter, was also 
opened in May, 1851. This great road extended from 
New York to Dunkirk on Lake Erie, and the great 



44 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

fertility of the country through which it passes, at 
once furnished it with business fully equal to its capa- 
city. The Pennsylvania Eailroad, from Philadelphia 
to Pittsburg, was virtually completed in 1852, al- 
though it was not formally opened as a through route 
until 1854. It began at once to draw a very heavy 
passenger and freight business from the West. " The 
Baltimore and Ohio Eailroad, from Baltimore to 
Wheeling, was finished in 1858, and entered at once 
upon its sqjDsequent career of prosperity. 

" The Tennessee Eiver, a tributary of the Mississippi, 
was reached, in 1850, by the Western and Atlantic 
Eailroad of Georgia, and the Mississippi itself, by the 
Memphis and Charleston Eailroad, in 1859. In the ex- 
treme north the Atlantic and St. Lawrence, now known 
as the Grand Trunk, was completed early in 1853. In 
1858, the Virginia system was extended to a connection 
with the Memphis and Charleston and with the Nash- 
ville and Chattanooga Eailraods. 

" Previous to 1850, by far the greater portion of rail- 
roads constructed were in the States bordering the 
Atlantic, and, as before remarked, were for the most 
part isolated lines, whose limited traffics were alto- 
gether local. Up to the date named, the internal com- 
merce of the country was conducted almost entirely 
through water lines, natural and artificial, and over or- 
dinary highways. The period of the settlement of 
California marks really the commencement of the new 
era in the physical progress of the United States. The 
vast quantities of * gold it produced imparted new life 
and activity to every portion of the Union, particularly 
the western States, the people of which, at the com- 



PROGRESS OF RAILROADS. 45 

mencement of 1850, were thoroughly aroused as to the 
value and importance of railroads. Each presented 
great facilities for the construction of such works, 
which promised to be almost equally productive. 
Enterprises were undertaken and speedily executed 
which have literally converted them into a net- work of 
lines, and secured their advantages to almost every 
farmer and producer. 

" The only important line opened in the west, pre- 
vious to 1850, was the one from Sandusky to Cincin- 
nati, formed by the Mad Kiver and Little Miami roads. 
But these pioneer works were rude, unsubstantial struc- 
tures, compared with the finished works of the present 
day, and were employed almost wholly in the transpor- 
tation of passengers. Within the decade, in place of 
this one line, railroads have been constructed radiating 
from Lakes Erie and Michigan, striking the Mississippi 
at ten and the Ohio at eight different points. These 
trunk lines are cut every few miles by cross lines, 
which, in the States east of the Mississippi, are suffi- 
ciently numerous to meet every public and private 
want, and to afford every needful encouragement to 
the development of the resources of this country."* 

The necessity of continuous lines of railroad from 
various points in the valley of the Mississippi and on 
the shores of the great lakes, will be at once apparent 
on examining the vast productive capacity of the 
western States. Illinois alone sends to New York two 
thousand head of beef cattle every week. Illinois 
alone produces every year one hundred thousand head 

* Census of United SUtes : 1860. 



46 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

of beef cattle, one hundred and twenty thousand head 
of sheep, two and a half million head of hogs, thirty- 
millions of bushels of wheat, and one hundred and 
fifty millions of bushels of corn. Imagine for a 
moment the wealth there is, in these productions of a 
single State. But take the six western States of Illi- 
nois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minne- 
sota. The productions of those States, in the year 
1860, were as follows : — 



minois • 

Indiana . 

Iowa . . 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 
Minnesota 



Head of Cattle. Head of Sheep. Head of Hogs. 

. 881,877 894,043 2,279,722 

. 582,990 1,122,493 2,498,528 

. 291,145 149,960 921,161 

. 267,683 746,435 374,664 

. 225,210 124,896 333,957 

. 51,043 80 101,252 



2,299,948 3,037,907 6,510,284 



Batiheb of Wheat. Bashels of Corn. 

Illinois 24,159,500 115,296,779 

Indiana 15,219,120 69,641,591 

Iowa 8,433,206 41,116,994 

Michigan 8,313,185 12,162,110 

Wisconsin 15,812,626 7,665,290 

Minnesota 2,195,812 2,987,670 

73,133,447 238,760,334 

Principal Trunk Lines. 

The principal trunk lines of railroad in the United 
States are as follows : — 

I. FROM BOSTON TO THE WEST. Miles. 

From Boston to Chicago : 102-4 

Namely, from Boston to Albany, by the 
Western Eailroad of Massachusetts, two hun- 



PROGRESS OF RAILROADS. 41 

dred miles; from Albany to the Suspension 
Bridge and Niagara Falls, by the New York 
Central Bailroad, three hundred and six 
miles; from the Suspension Bridge to Wind- 
sor, two hundred and twenty-nine miles; 
from Detroit to Chicago by the Michigan 
Central Kailroad, two hundred and eighty- 
nine miles. 

II. FROM NEW YORK TO THE WEST. 

« 

1. From New York to Chicago by the Erie Milea. 
Kailroad : 958 

Namely, from New York to Dunkirk, on 
the New York and Erie Eailroad, four hun- 
dred and sixty miles; from Dunkirk to 
Toledo, by Lake Shore Eailroad, two hundred 
and fifty-five; from Toledo to Chicago, two 
hundred and forty -three miles. 

2. From New York to Chicago by way of 
Albany and the Central Eailroads : 974 

Namely, from New York to Albany by the 
Hudson Eiver Eailroad or New York and Har- 
lem Eailroad, one hundred and fifty miles; 
from Albany to Suspension Bridge, as above, 
three hundred and six miles; from Niagara 
Falls to Chicago by the Great Western Eail- 
road of Canada and the Michigan Central, five 
hundred and nineteen miles. 

3. From New York to Chicago by the Allen- 
town and Pittsburg route : 809 

Namely, from New York to Harrisburg, by 
the New Jersey Central road, one hundred and 



48 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

eighty-two miles; from Harrisburg to Pitts- 
burg, on the Pennsylvania road, two hundred 
and forty-nine miles; from Pittsburg to Chi- 
cago, on the Fort Wayne road, four hundred 
and sixty-eight miles. 

4. From New York to St. Louis by way of Mil 
Dunkirk and Cleveland: 11 

Namely, from New York to Dunkirk, on the 
Erie Eailroad, four hundred and sixty miles ; 
from Dunkirk to St. Louis, by the Bellefontaine 
line, passing through Cleveland, Crestline, 
Bellefontaine, Indianapolis, and Terre Haute, 
six hundred and eighty-seven miles. 

5. From New York to St, Louis by way of 
Salamanca and Cincinnati : 12 

Namely, from New York to Salamanca, on 
the Erie Eailroad, four hundred and fifteen 
miles; from Salamanca to Cincinnati, on the 
Atlantic and Great Western Eailroad, four 
hundred and forty-eight miles ; from Cincinnati 
to St. Louis, on the Ohio and Mississippi road, 
three hundred and forty miles. 

6. From New York to St. Louis by the 
Allentown route, Pittsburg, and Columbus : 10 

Namely, from New York to Pittsburg, by 
the New Jersey Central Eailroad to Harris- 
burg, and the Pennsylvania road, four hundred 
and thirty-one miles ; from Pittsburg to Colum- 
bus, one hundred and ninety-three miles ; from 
Columbus to Cincinnati, one hundred and 
twenty miles ; from Cincinnati to St. Louis, as 
above, three hundred and forty miles. 



PROGRESS OF RAILROADS. 49 

7. From New York to Cincimiati by way of Miles. 
Dunkirk, Cleveland, and Columbus : 861 

Namely, from New York to Dunkirk, on the 
New York and Erie road, four hundred and 
sixty miles; Dunkirk to Cleveland, one hun- 
dred and forty-three miles ; Cleveland to Cin- 
cinnati, two hundred and fifty-eight miles. 

8. From New York to Cincinnati by way of 
Salamanca, as above : 863 

9. From New York to Cincinnati^ by the 
Allentown route, Pittsburg, and Columbus, as 
above : 744 

III. FROM PHILADELPHIA TO THE WEST. 

1. From Philadelphia to Chicago: 823 
Namely, from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, on 

the Pennsylvania Central Eailrbad, three hun- 
dred and fifty-five miles; from Pittsburg to 
Chicago, by the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and 
Chicago Eailroad, four hundred and sixty-eight 
miles. 

2, From Philadelphia to St. Louis: 998 
Namely, from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, 

three hundred and fifty-five miles ; from Pitts- 
burg to Columbus, Ohio, one hundred and 
ninety -three miles ; from Columbus to Indian- 
apolis, one hundred and eighty-eight miles; 
from Indianapolis to St. Louis, by way of 
Terre Haute, two hundred and sixty -two miles. 

IV. FROM BALTIMORE TO THE WEST. 

1. From Baltimore to St. Louis: 928 

Namely, from Baltimore to Parkersburg, by 



60 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

the Baltimore and Ohio Kailroad, three hun- 
dred and eighty -three miles ; from Parkersburg 
to Cincinnati, by the Marietta and Cincinnati 
Railroad, two hundred and five miles; from 
Cincinnati to St. Louis, by the Ohio and Missis- 
sippi Railroad, three hundred and forty miles. Miles. 
2. Fr(yin Baltimore to Terre Haute: 777 

Namely, from Baltimore to Wheeling, on the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, three hundred 
and seventy -nine miles ; ."from Wheeling to Co- 
lumbus, one hundred and thirty-seven miles; 
from Columbus to Indianapolis, one hundred 
and eighty-eight miles; from Indianapolis to 
Terre Haute, seventy -three miles. 

V. FROM NEW YORK TO THE SOUTH. 

1. From New York to Memphis: 1163 
Namely, from New York to Washington, by 

way of Philadelphia and Baltimore, two hun- 
dred and thirty miles; from Washington to 
Lynchburg, by way of Manasses Junction and 
Gordonsville, one hundred and seventy-eight 
miles; from Lynchburg to Knoxville, by the 
Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, three hun- 
dred and thirty-four miles ; from Knoxville to 
Chattanooga, one hundred and twelve miles; 
from Chattanooga to Memphis, by the Memphis 
and Charleston Railroad, three hundred and 
nine miles. 

2. From New York to New Orleans : 1506 
Namely, by the same route to Chattanooga, 

eight hundred and fifty-four miles; from Chat- 



PROGRESS OP RAILROADS. 51 

tanooga to Grand Junction, on the line between 
Mississippi and Tennessee, two hundred and 
fifty-seven miles ; from Grand Junction to New 
Orleans, by way of Jacksbn, Mississippi, three 
hundred and ninety-five miles. Miles. 

8. From New York to Mobile : 1399 

Namely, by the same route as above to Chat- 
tanooga ; from Chattanooga to Corinth, in Mis- 
sissippi, two hundred and sixteen miles ; from 
Corinth to Mobile, by the Mobile and Ohio 
Railroad, three hundred and twenty-nine miles. 

4. From New York to Charleston and Savan- 
nah: 

Namely, from New York to Washington, . 
two hundred and thirty miles ; from Washing- 
ton to Wilmington, in North Carolina, by way 
of Eichmond, Weldon, and Goldsborough. 

VI. FROM CHICAGO TO THE SOUTH. 

1. From Chicago to New Orleans: 914 
Namely, by the Illinois Central Eailroad, 

from Chicago to Cairo, three hundred and 
sixty -five miles ; from Cairo to Jackson, by the 
Mobile and Ohio road, ninety-seven miles ; from 
Jackson to Canton, on the Mississippi Central 
road, two hundred and thirty-six miles; and 
from Canton to New Orleans, on the New 
Orleans and Jackson road, two hundred and 
six miles. 

2. From Chicago to Mobile: 858 
Namely, by the Illinois Central Railroad 

from Chicago to Cairo, three hundred and 



62 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

sixty -five miles ; and from Cairo to Mobile, by 
the Mobile and Ohio road, four hundred and 
ninety-two miles. 

VII. FROM CHICAGO TO THE WEST. 

From Chicago towards the Rochy Mountains, 
nine hundred and ninety miles : namely, from 
Chicago to Council Bluffs, on the Missouri Eiver, 
by the Chicago and Northwestern Eailroad, four 
hundred and ninety miles, by way of Geneva, 
Cedar Eapids, and Boonsboro ; crossing the Mis- 
sissippi River at Clinton, in Iowa; and from 
Council Bluffs, five hundred miles west of Omaha. 
This is the eastern end of the Pacific Bailroad. 

VIII. CHICAGO TO THE NORTHWEST. 

Chicago to La Crosse, in Wisconsin^ by the 
Chicago and Northwestern Railroad from Miles. 
Chicago, by way of Janesville and Watertown : 280 

IX. CHICAGO TO THE SOUTH WEST. 

From Chicago to Texas, by the Chicago and 
St. Louis Railroad to St. Louis ; from St. Louis 
to Van Buren in Arkansas, on the Arkansas 
River, by the Southwest branch of the Pacific 
Railroad ; and from Van Buren, across the Red 
River to the interior of Texas. 



THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 53. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 

The through route between Baltimore and St. Louis 
consists of three roads, namely, the Baltimore and 
Ohio, from Baltimore to Parkersburg ; the Cincinnati 
and Marietta, from Parkersburg to Cincinnati; and 
the Ohio and Mississippi, from Cincinnati to St. Louis. 
The entire distance from Baltimore to St. Louis is 
nine-hundred and twenty-eight miles. There are only 
two changes of cars : namely, at the Ohio River, and 
at Cincinnati. 

The Washington Branch of this road, from Balti-. 
more to Washington, a distance of forty miles, consti- 
tutes part of the great through route between New 
York and Washington. The whole line consists of 
the New Jersey Railroad, from New York to Phila- 
delphia; the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Balti- 
more Railroad, from Philadelphia to Baltimore ; and 
the Baltimore and Ohio road, from Baltimore to 
Washington. The whole distance is two hundred and 
twenty-six miles, and the time consumed in the trip 
is ten hours, or twenty-three miles per hour. 

Over the main line of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road, from Baltimore to the Ohio River, there are four 
trains per day, two running from the east, and two 
from the west. 



54 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

The depot of the road at Washington is not exactly 
what it ought to be; but probably in a few years a 
more elegant structure will be erected. The depot at 
Baltimore, however, known as "Camden Station," is 
one of the handsomest and most commodious depot 
buildings in the United States. Besides containing all 
the necessary offices for the Company, it contains wait- 
ing-rooms for ladies and gentlemen, dining-rooms, 
wash-rooms, closets, and every convenience and com- 
fort that passengers could desire. 

The President of the road, John W. Garrett, Esq., 
of Baltimore, has held that responsible position for the 
last eight years, the greater part of which period has 
been a very trying time to the Company. And yet 
the prosperity of the road and its present enviable 
position are unquestionably due, first, to the good sense 
and discrimination of the Board of Directors in succes- 
sively re-electing Mr. Garrett President ; and, second, 
in the remarkable good fortune and tact of Mr. Garrett 
himself, in having under him a body of officers who 
faithfully carried out his policy, and who have proved 
themselves to be zealously devoted to the interests of 
the road. Of these, two gentlemen deserve especial 
mention, namely, Wm. Prescott Smith, Esq., for many 
years Master of Transportation of the road, and John 
L. Wilson, Esq., who at present occupies that important 
and responsible position. 

The Baltimore and Ohio Eailroad was the 
first road ever constructed in America for the convey- 
ance of passengers. The first division of the road was 
opened and put in operation in 1830, the same year 
in which the Liverpool and Manchester Railroad was 



TH£ BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 55 

opened in England. In the year 1826, Philip E. 
Thomas, the founder of railroads in America, resigned 
the position which he had held as a commissioner on 
the part of Maryland in the Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal Company, and from that time, in connection 
with George Brown, he devoted all his energies to the 
formation of the Baltimore and Ohio Eailroad Com- 
pany, and to the construction of the road. These 
gentlemen prevailed upon the merchants and leading 
men of Baltimore to hold a public meeting, at which 
it was resolved to build a railroad to connect the na- 
vigable waters of Chesapeake Bay with those of the 
Ohio Kiver. This was the origin of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Eailroad Company. 

The actual construction of the road was commenced 
on the 4th of July, 1828. The people of Baltimore 
were deeply interested in the work. All business 
was suspended, and a vast crowd of the citizens assem- 
bled near the southwestern boundary of the city 
where the work was to commence. The day was 
bright and beautiful. Strains of martial music floated 
through the air, and a military and Masonic procession 
approached the designated spot. A carriage drives 
slowly between the opening lines, and from it descends 
the venerable Charles Carroll of Carrollton, then over 
ninety years of age, but still strong and vigorous. 
Every head is uncovered, and bowed in respectful salu- 
tation, as the honored patriot, accompanied by the Di- 
rectors of the road, proceeds with the ceremonies of 
inaugurating the great work. The first sod was turned, 
and the first stone laid, by the distinguished Eevolu- 
tionary patriot : and then a discharge of artillery an- 



66 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

nounced that the mighty enterprise was commenced. 
Then, turning to the people, Mr. Carroll made a very 
short and appropriate address, containing these memora- 
ble words : " I consider what I have just now done to 
be among the most important acts of my life, second 
only to my signing the Declaration of Independence, 
if, indeed, it be even second to that. " Mr. Carroll, 
therefore, with prophetic foresight, foresaw what was to 
be the future of this road ; that was the meaning of his 
remarkable and impressive words. 

The first division of the road, from Baltimore to 
EUicott's Mills, was completed and opened for travel 
in the year 1830. In January, 1831, the Company 
offered the sum of four thousand dollars for the most 
approved locomotive engine of American manufacture, 
and three thousand for the second best. By the engine 
which was. accepted, a speed of thirty miles per hour, 
on straight lines, was obtained. On the 9th of March, 
1833, the charter for the construction of the branch 
railroad from Baltimore to Washington was obtained. 
It stipulated that one-fifth of the gross earnings from 
passengers should be paid to the Treasurer, for the 
benefit of the State of Maryland, the amount so paid not 
to be less than twenty-five cents from each passenger. 
The construction of this branch was soon commenced ; 
surveys of the route having been previously made. 
It was opened to Bladensburgon the 20th of July, and 
to Washington on the 2oth of August, 1835. Previous 
to this period, Washington had had no railroad coanmu- 
nication with the north. In 1834, the main road was 
completed and opened to Harper's Ferry. In 1836, 
surveys were made fgr th^ QXteosiou of the road to 



THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 57 

Cumberland and Wheeling. In 1836 the viaduct over 
the Potomac, at Harper's Ferry, was completed. The 
road was completed and opened to Cumberland in 1842. 

At this time the great National road was in opera- 
tion, and was in its full glory. It was a magnificent 
turnpike road, built 'in the very best style of Mc- 
Adamized roads, and it extended from the Capitol at 
Washington, to St. Louis in Missouri, passing through 
Bockville, Frederick, Hagerstown, and Cumberland, 
in Maryland; Uniontown and Washington in Penn- 
sylvania; Wheeling in Virginia, and crossing the 
Ohio Eiver at that point ; Columbus in Ohio ; Indian- 
apolis and Terre Haute in Indiana, and crossing the 
Wabash Eiver at the latter point, by means of a ferry- 
boat ; and Vandalia in Illinois, the former capital of 
that State. 

This great road was built by the authority of Con- 
gress, and it was intended to be the great means of 
communication between the east and the west. And 
so it was, for many long years before the railroad 
system of the United States got into use. From 1837 
to 1850, thousands affer thousands of emigrants from 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, New York, New 
Jersey, and New England, with their wagons, their 
horses, their cattle, and their household goods, struck 
this road about Cumberland or Wheeling, and moved 
over it slowly, but securely and comfortably, to their 
new homes in Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Mis- 
souri, 

The mails were also carried on this route, in hand- 
sftme mail-coaches, each drawn by four horses, and 
each coach carrying from six to nine passengers and 



68 BAILBOADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

their baggage. These coaches generally made about 
sixty miles per day. 

But to return to the Baltimore and Ohio Bailroad. 
The road was completed to Wheeling in 1853; and 
the Parkersburg branch was completed and opened to 
Parkersburg on the 1st of May, 1857. 

The entire length of the Baltimore and Ohio road, 
including the Washington and Parkersburg branches, 
is five hundred and twenty -three miles. The distance 
from Baltimore to Wheeling is three hundred and 
seventy-nine miles; from Baltimore to Parkersburg 
three hundred and eighty-three miles. At Grafton, 
in Taylor County in Virginia, the road forks; one 
track leading to Wheeling, and the other to Parkers- 
burg. 

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, how- 
ever, has recently purchased the Central Ohio Rail- 
road, from Columbus to Wheeling, a distance of one 
hundred and thirty-seven miles, so that it will be 
worked in future, as a continuation of the main stem 
of the Baltimore and Ohio road. The latter road will 
then virtually extend from Baltimore to Columbus, a 
distance of five hundred and sixteen miles. This new 
addition to their road will be of vast service to the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, as will be 
seen by the examination of a good railroad map. 
The various railroads from the west and northwest 
seem to meet at Columbus as at a focus ; and it will be 
strange, indeed, if the energy and enterprise which 
control the operations of the Baltimore and Ohio 
road, do not, in a few years, draw to that road a 
large share of the business of those rich regions. 



THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 69 

' During the year 1859, the Columbus and Piqua 
Railroad, in Ohio, was completed, which gave the 
Baltimore and Ohio Company an additional important 
and useful connection with Chicago and the north- 
west, both for passengers and freight. Merchandise 
loaded in Baltimore could now be sent promptly 
through to Chicago with only one change of cars, and 
the benefits of this trade, which began in 1859, have 
increased every year since. 

In 1859 the Company had in constant use two hun- 
dred and thirty-five locomotive engines, of which one 
hundred and seventy were of the first class. 

The services which the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
Company rendered to the government during the recent 
war, in the rapid transportation of large bodies of 
troops, were very great, and of the highest importance. 
The destruction of this road, therefore, became an 
object of the first importance to the Confederates ; and 
it was, at several times during the war, wholly or in 
part in their possession, the track destroyed for many 
miles, and hundreds of its cars and locomotives ruined. 
On the 28th of May, 1861, general possession was 
taken, by the Confederate forces, of more than one 
hundred miles of the road, embracing chiefly the region 
between the Point of Rocks and Cumberland. 

Occasional movements were also made, accompanied 
by considerable destruction, upon the road between 
Cumberland and Wheeling, and between Grafton and 
Parkersburg, during the same year. The protection 
of the United States Government was not restored 
throughout the line until March, 1862, when the work 
of reconstruction was undertaken and pressed with 



60 BAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

great* energy, and the road was reopened on the 29th 
of that month. Before that period, the destruction of 
the property, bridges, and tracks of the Company was 
of the most extensive and serious character. The 
large and costly machine shops and engine houses at 
Martinsburg were greatly damaged. Fourteen loco- 
motives and tenders, and a larger number of cars, much 
machinery from the shops, and the separated portions 
of nine additional locomotive engines, were taken from 
the road, and transported, by the aid of horses, oxen, 
and mules, over turnpikes and common roads, to 
southern railroads, and thus entirely lost to the 
Company. 

Forty-two locomotives and tenders, three hundred 
and eighty-six cars, twenty-three bridges, including 
three between Cumberland and Wheeling, three be- 
tween Parkersburg and Grafton, and the great bridge 
at Harper's Ferry, embracing one hundred and twenty- 
seven spans and a total length of four thousand 
seven hundred and thirteen feet, were also destroyed 
by fire ; and numerous other engines and cars were 
thrown into the Potomac, the Opequan, and other 
streams. The rails of thirty-six miles of track were 
torn up, and the rails and track fixtures were removed 
for use on southern roads. The lines of telegraph for 
one hundred and two miles, two water stations, and 
much other valuable property were also destroyed. 

At the close of the year 1862, the Confederate forces 
continued in possession of a portion of the road, upon 
which the tracks, bridges, and property of the Company 
were generally destroyed. Much of the region be- 
tween Hancock and Harper's Ferry was thus held until 



THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO BAILBOAD. 61 

the 29th of December, 1862. At the earliest practica- 
ble moment large forces commenced the work of re- 
construction, which was pressed with great vigor from 
the east and west. On the 6th of January, 1863., the 
restoration of the bridges and tracks was completed, 
and the entire route again reopened. From the 1st 
of October, 1861, to March 29, 1862, a period of six 
months, the road was in operation only at its extremi- 
ties, one hundred miles of it, between Harper's Ferry 
and Cumberland, being virtually out of use. This was 
the result of the first general destruction of the road 
by Stonewall Jackson, when forty miles of the track 
were torn up and destroyed, and numerous bridges 
and buildings burned, some of them a second or third 
time. 

The road was only permitted to be in operation from 
the 29th of March to the 25th of May, 1862, on which 
day Gen. Banks retreated from Winchester, through 
Martinsburg, and the line of the road was again occu- 
pied by the Confederates. Its possession, however, 
was soon recovered, and on the 15th of June it was 
again reopened throughout its entire length. It was 
once more fully interrupted, on the 5th of September, 
by the retreat of Gen. Julius White from Winchester, 
and by the first invasion of Maryland by General Lee's 
army, between Harper's Ferry and the Monocacy, now 
known as the Antietam campaign. The entire road 
was thus in the Company's possession only a little more 
than four months of the year 1862. During the same 
period minor interruptions occurred, of greater or less 
extent, west of Cumberland, near New Creek and 
Rowlesburg, and between Parkersburg and Grafton. 



62 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

Many periods of alarm were also passed through, when 
the road was merely threatened ; in all of which, how- 
ever, the regular business of the line was seriously 
affected. 

The work of destruction on this road, during the 
war, was not confined to the Confederate troops. 
Much damage, also, was done to the track, and to the 
equipment of the road, by United States troops, under 
the plea of military necessity. 

The present equipment of the road consists of 
three hundred and fifty locomotive engines, seventy- 
six stationary engines, two hundred and fifty pas- 
senger cars, and six thousand freight cars. The 
length of finished track is one thousand miles, as 
follows: Baltimore to Wheeling, three hundred and 
seventy-nine miles; Washington Junction to Wash- 
ington, thirty-one miles ; Grafton to Parkersburg, one 
hundred and four miles; Monocacy to Frederick, 
three miles: Double track, two hundred and thirty- 
seven miles ; sidings, ninety miles ; Central Ohio Divi- 
sions, one hundred and thirty-seven miles; sidings nine- 
teen miles. 

The length of the roads under construction is sixty- 
six and a half miles, as follows : Hagerstown to Knox- 
ville, twenty-three miles; Washington to Point of 
Eocks, forty-two miles ; South Paca Street, in Baltimore, 
to Deep Cut, one and a half mile. The length of the 
proposed lines is as follows : Virginia Valley Eailroad, 
from Winchester to Salem, one hundred and seventy- 
eight miles ; Pittsburg and Connellsville Eailroad, from 
Pittsburg to Connellsville, one hundred and forty -nine 



THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 68 

miles. (Seventy-two miles of this road are completed 
and in operation.) 

Distance from Washington to Pittsburg by Metropolitan 
Branch and the Pittsburg and Connellsville Railroads. 

Miles. 

Washington to Point of Rocks 42 

Point of Rooks to Cumberland 109 

Cumberland to Pittsburg 149 

Washington to Pittsburg— Total 300 

Distance from Baltimore to Pittsburg via the Pittsburg 

and Connellsville Railroad. . 

Miles. 

Baltimore to Cumberland 178 

Cumberland to Pittsburg 149 



Baltimore to Pittsburg— Total 327 

Through Distances between Eastern and Western points 
by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and Connections. 

Fbom^ To Wheblinci. Bekwood. Pjibkersburo. 

Baltimore 377 373 381 

Washington (via Met. Br.) . 351 347 355 

Philadelphia . . . .475 371 479 

KewYork 562 558 564 



Columbus. Dattow. Cincinnati. 

/ via Columbus 629 

Baltimore ... 510 580 } " Wilm'g 614 

( "Parkersb'g 583 

Washington (via Met. Br.) 484 554 557 

Philadelphia t* • .^08 678 666 

New York ... 695 765 783 

From— Louisville. Indianapolis. St. Louis. 

Baltimore . . . 720 | ^^* ^^^- ^^^ 923 

I " Cin. 698 

Washington (via Met. Br.) 694 665 897 

Philadelphia . . 818 789 1021 

Kew York ... 905 876 1108 



64 



RAILROADS OF TUE UNITED STATES. 



Baltimore 
Washington 



Baltimore 

Washington (via Met. Br.) 879 

Philadelphia 

New York . 



Clbvrt.akd. 


Toledo. 


515 


627 


489 


601 


KAsnviLi^. 


Cairo. 


9()5 


979 


r.) 879 


953 


1003 


1077- 


1090 


1164 



Chicago. 
826 
800 

BiBMPnis. 
10.97 
1071 
1195 
1282 



Kansas. LEAVEXwoBTn. Omaux. 

Baltimore . . . 1205 1234 ) viaP. &c. R. R. 1187 

Washington (via Met. Br.) 1179 1228 ) Met. Br. 1161 

Baltimore to New Orleans, bj the prox>osed Virginia Valley Rail- 
road, thirteen hundred miles. 



THE BALTQCOBE AND OHIO BAILBOAD. 65 



CHAPTEE VI. 

BALTIMORE AND OHIO BAILROAD: CONTINUED. 

On the 12th of Dec. 1866, Mr. Garrett having been 
for the eighth year in succession elected President of 
the Company, made an address to the Directors, from 
which the following interesting extracts are made, as 
showing the present condition of the road : — 

"During the past year, extensive and satisfactory 
progress has been made in many important improve- 
ments. In addition to the regulal* employees engaged 
in the working departments of the road, more than two 
thousand men have been employed in constructing 
double track, tunnels, bridges, buildings, &c. These 
large forces have accomplished rapid and marked 
results. The President has the satisfaction to announce 
that since October 1st, 1865, eighty miles of first class 
second track have been constructed, and are now in 
use. In accomplishing this construction many diffi- 
culties and obstacles were encountered, embracing 
much heavy work in rock, grading, and embankments. 

" It was found that a portion of the tunnels constructed 
for double track were not of sufficient capacity for the 
large cars now used, and the tunnel at Marriottsville 
was consequently enlarged to the requisite size. The 
tunnel at Paw Paw is also being enlarged. 
5 



€6 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

" Besides the construction of these eighty miles of 
double track, a large amount of grading and other 
work has been done upon the remaining part of the 
line east of Piedmont ; and we have the satisfaction of 
being able to state that the entire line from Baltimore 
to Piedmont (a distance of two hundred and six miles) 
will be completed with a superior double track during 
the next year. 

" It was found, that in order to insure safety and re- 
liability at the difficult passage near the Point of Rocks 
— where the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal borders on 
the Potomac River, and the great mountain of rock 
rises directly from the bed of the present single track 
— it would be essential to construct a tunnel of eight 
hundred feet in Iqpgth through the hard rock for- 
mation of that mountain. This costly and difficult 
work was commenced on the 16th of December, 1865, 
and by the employment of the largest forces which 
could be used, working from each end and from a 
side drift, thus working from four different points, 
working also day and night — more than half of this 
work has already been accomplished, and in the course 
of the month of February, 1867, it is expected, the 
heading will be through, and that by August, 1867, the 
double track can be laid through this rock-tunnel, and 
the exposed line upon the banks of the canal at this 
point be abandoned. The rock from this excavation, 
which is exceedingly hard and durable, is broken 
chiefly by an improved steam ballast-crusher, and is 
used in ballasting the new second track. 

" To avoid the sharp curve near the canal at Wil- 
liams's Point, west of the tunnel described, it will be 



THE BALTDCOBE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 67 

necessary to constmct an additional tunnel. Prepara- 
tions are being made to commence this work, and large 
forces will be placed at all points along the line of the 
canal, as soon as the navigation thereon ceases. Thus 
during the winter, this construction can be safely per- 
formed without interference with that work. 

" It has been the policy of the Company at this and 
other points, recognizing that the vast and increasing 
business of the route requires the best possible and 
permanent improvements, to hesitate at no cost in giv- 
ing to the line those perfections which skill and enter- 
prise can command. It has also been an object 
continuously of the Road Department to improve the 
curvatures whilst constructing the double track, and, 
at all points where practicable, to^undertake the neces- 
sary expense to straighten the line. Excellent results 
have attended this policy, and very decided improve- 
ments of this character have been and are being made. 

"Since the destruction of the wooden and other 
bridges upon its line during the war, twelve first class 
iron bridges, aggregating three thousand four hundred 
and seventy-five feet, with twenty-seven spans, varying 
from seventy-eight to two hundred and five feet in 
length, and of very costly character, have been built 
at the Mount Clare workshops, placed upon superior 
masonry, and are now in successful use. 

" The increasing business having demonstrated the 
advantages of much larger buildings than those hereto- 
fore used by the Machinery Department, the Company 
has erected at Mount Clare a fire-proof, brick machine 
shop, two stories in height, with slate roof, and one 
hundred and ninety-nine feet in length by sixty feet in 



68 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

width. Schroeder's Eun has been securely arched, the 
stone tunnel being of twelve feet span for its entire 
distance through the Company's property at Mount 
Clare ; and, by filling over this arch, large and valuable 
additions have been made to the available grounds at 
this important station. A very extensive blacksmith 
shop, five hundred and sixty-eight feet in length by 
seventy-five feet in width, and a wheel-house one hun- 
dred by fifty feet, have been built of brick, with slate 
roofs, in the most substantial manner, and are nearly 
completed. 

" At Martinsburg, an engine house for sixteen loco- 
motives, and a machine shop one hundred and eighty- 
four by sixty feet, of similar character to that at Mount 
Clare, have been completed. A shop for car purposes 
M that point, one hundred by two hundred feet, con- 
structed also of brick, with slate roof, is now approach- 
ing completion. At Piedmont, a new passenger station 
has been erected, and the engine-house, blacksmith, car 
and other shops have been completed, and are in use. 
At Grafton, a superior engine-house for sixteen engines, 
built of brick, upon stone foundations, thirty-three feet 
in height, is nearly completed, and will be used during 
the present season. Additional buildings have also 
been erected, and are being constructed at Parkersburg, 
Wheeling, and other important and desirable points. 

"A large amount of difficult work has been done 
upon the Parkersburg branch. Three hundred and 
twenty men are now employed in arching the tunnels 
on that road.. It is gratifying to announce that the 
arching of three of these tunnels will be completed in 
the most substantial manner during the present month. 



THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 69 

In addition to this work, one thousand and ten feet of 
Eaton's tunnel have been securely arched. The arch- 
ing of three additional tunnels upon this line will be 
immediatelj commenced. Although the remainder of 
these tunnels are quite securely timbered, yet it is the 
policy and determination of the Company, in view of 
the important and large business of this branch, and 
our desire to develop its advantages in every possible 
form, to press energetically the work of arching every 
tunnel upon the lines as rapidly as it can be judiciously 
performed. 

" The arrangements of this line extend from Balti- 
more, via Parkersburg, and the Marietta and Cincin- 
nati road, to Cincinnati and the Southwest, and via 
Bellair and the Central Ohio road to Columbus, and 
all points in the West and Northwest. The rapid 
improvements eflfected by heavy expenditures upon 
the Parkersburg branch, and the approaching com- 
pletion of the arching of its tunnels, combined with 
the great improvements eflfected upon the line of the 
Marietta and Cincinnati road, especially in connection 
with the use of the direct line into the western part 
of the city of Cincinnati, will enable this Company, 
with these connections, during the next season, to 
furnish the best and shortest possible line for passen- 
gers and freight between Cincinnati and Baltimore 
and Cincinnati and Washington. 

" The establishment of the line of steamships between 
Baltimore and Liverpool has answered the most san- 
guine expectations formed in regard to this enterprise. 
During this period, our steamers have made fourteen 
voyages with passengers and full cargoes to Liverpool, 



70 



RAItROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 



and twelve voyages with full cargoes and large num- 
bers of passengers from Liverpool. It was anticipated 
that arrangements would have been made prior to this 
time for a line of large ships, which the increasing 
business of the port requires ; but in consequence of 
the derangements caused by the European war, the 
requisite arrangements were deferred. Negotiations 
are again pending, which it is hoped will result in 
securing large iron steamers, of a capacity and charac- 
ter suitable for the extensive business now ofi^ng for 
the line." 

In order to shorten the distance between Washing- 
ton and the West, the Company have long entertained 
the design of constructing a road from Point of Bocks, 
near Harper's Ferry, direct to Washington. The 
route for this line has been surveyed, and it is the 
intention of the Company to proceed with the con- 
struction of the road as soon as possible. 

The following statement shows the total earnings of 
the road, the total expenses, and the net earnings of 
the road, for a series of years. It is certainly a most 
gratifying exhibit for the stockholders. 

Earnings of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad^ including 
the Washington and Parkersburg branches. 

Total Earnings. Total Expenses. Net Earnings. 



1656 






. $4,830,172 


$2,593,056 


$2,287,116 


1857 






. 5,145,682 


3,004,938 


2,140,744 


1858 






. 4,673,912 


2,986,906 


1,587,006 


1859 




> 1 


. 4,301,009 


2,056,948 


2,244,061 


1860 






. 4,654,286 


1,984,245 


2,670,041 


1861 






. 4,000,097 


1,817,432 


2,182,665 


1862 






. 5,624,297 


1,847,704 


3,776,693 


1863 






. 7,659,289 


2,643,176 


6,016,113 


1864 






. 10,138,876 


4,446,195 


6,692,681 



THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 71 

The following is a list of the officers of the Com- 
pany : — 

John W. Garrett, President ; John King, Yice-Presi- 
dent ; J. J. Atkinson, Treasurer ; J. L. Wilson, Master 
of Transportation ; G, E, Blanchard, General Freight 
Agent ; L. M. Cole, General Ticket Agent ; John W. 
Brown, General Passenger Agent. 

There are three great railroads in America, on 
which the courage and skill of the engineer have 
surmounted, with peculiar triumph, the tremendous 
barriers to his advance which Nature had set up. 
These roads are the New York and Erie ; the Penn- 
sylvania Central as it crosses the Alleghany Mountains; 
and the Baltimore and Ohio. We shall proceed to 
speak of some examples on the latter road. 

At Tunnelton, nineteen miles east of Grafton, the 
grand scenery of the Cheat River region begins (to 
the traveller going eastward). It is at this part of the 
road, also, that some of the greatest feats of railway 
engineering have been achieved. Those who desire 
to understand the power of science in conquering 
nature by means of iron and steam, will here find 
abundant examples. Here is a great railroad, which, 
at the will of man, has been made to pass over, under, 
and around, the rugged Alleghany Mountains. To 
the unscientific eye, it would appear impossible that a 
railroad could be built so as to cross the mountains in 
this region, under any circumstances, so proudly do 
they lift their heads into the clouds, and so steep and 
precipitous are their tempest-washed sides. But not 
so thought the engineer of the road, Benjamin H. 
Latrobe. Day after day did this enthusiastic votary 



72 BAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

of railroad science spend in reconnoitring these moun- 
tain steeps, and in wandering throagh what was then 
an unbroken solitude. Victory rewarded him at last. 
The great Kingwood tunnel is only one of the monu- 
ments of his genius. It is four thousand one hundred 
feet long, and its construction cost the Company a 
million of dollars. Between Tunnelton and Bowels- 
burg there is a constant succession of marvels of rail- 
way work. The Tray Eun Viaduct is one of these ; a 
light and graceful structure, yet so firm in its welded 
strength that thousands of tons of merchandise pass 
over it daily without causing the least oscillation of its 
airy arches. This viaduct is built entirely of iron. It 
is six hundred feet long : it rests upon a massive base 
of masonry as firm as the mountain itself; and it is 
one hundred and fifty feet above the water in the little 
stream beneath. 

For several miles, on this part of the line, the road 
runs along the steep mountain side, presenting a suc- 
cession of the most delightful landscapes. At Cran- 
berry Summit, two hundred and' forty-two miles west 
of Baltimore, the traveller will nearly have reached 
the top of the Alleghany Mountains. Here, looking 
back to the westward, can be seen the grand panorama 
of the long, gradual sweep of the Alleghanies towards 
the Ohio Eiver, up which, to the present surprising al- 
titude, the traveller has climbed, without effort, and 
almost unconscious of the ascent. At Oakland, two 
hundred and thirty-two miles west of Baltimore, the 
traveller will be tempted to stop for a short time, if his 
journey is in the summer, at the Glades Hotel. " The 
Glades " are the mountain meadows, a region on the 



THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 73 

high table land at the summit of the Alleghany Moun- 
tains. At this height the air is extremely rarefied and 
cool, during the heats of summer. The landscape 
abounds in groves of the beautiful white oak, and in 
copious streams of the purest and clearest water, kept 
full and fresh by the clouds that condense around the 
summits ; and abounding with delicious trout. It pas- 
tures innumerable herds of sheep, the tenderness and 
flavor of whose flesh rival that of the deer which 
abound in the woods. Wild turkeys and pheasants 
hide among its oaks, beeches, walnuts, and magnolias ; 
the groves of sugar-maple trees resound with the songs 
of larks, thrushes and mocking birds ; while a profusion 
of wild flowers completes the attractions of this moun- 
tain paradise. It is no wonder that many families 
from Baltimore come to the Glades Hotel to spend a 
few weeks in the hot summer months. 

At Altamont, two hundred and twenty-three miles 
west of Baltimore, the traveller finds himself at the 
surprising altitude of two thousand seven hundred feet 
above that city, and upon the extreme summit of the 
Alleghany Mountains. It is here that the mountain 
streams divide, flowing in one direction towards the 
Potomac Eiver, the Chesapeake Bay, and the Atlantic 
Ocean, and in the other towards the Ohio Eiver, the 
Mississippi, and the Gulf of Mexico. Mr. Prescott 
Smith, lately and for many years the Master of Trans- 
portation of the Baltimore and Ohio Eailroad, who is as 
poetical as he is practical, has made the beautiful sug- 
gestion that these waters, thus divided on the summit of 
the Alleghany Mountains, unite again in the broad At- 
lantic, amid the turbid waves of the Gulf Stream. Nor 



74 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

is this beautiful theory at all improbable, for the vast 
volume of water which the Mississippi pours into the 
Gulf Stream is, as is well known, carried, with all the 
velocity of that mysterious ocean current, northwards 
past the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, where it receives 
the waters from the eastward-flowing streams. 

From Altamont the grade of the road begins to de- 
scend, and at Piedmont, two hundred and six miles 
west of Baltimore, the traveller reaches, as its name 
impliQp, the foot of the Alleghany Mountains. Here, 
if he be at all of a contemplative turn of mind, he will 
pause, and consider for a moment the wonderful engi- 
neering skill that has thus carried this great railroad 
across such mighty obstacles. 

There are in all sixteen tunnels on this road, mea- 
suring in all nearly thirteen thousand feet in length, 
namely, twelve thousand eight hundred and four feet^ 
or which twelve thousand and seventy-two feet are 
arched with substantial masonry, and seven hundred 
and thirty-two feet are cut through solid rock. 

In June, 1856, a party of tourists, among whom 
was the historian Bancroft, were taken over the road 
in a special train. Brantz Mayer, the author, was among 
them, and he thus describes some of the beautiful fea- 
tures along the route : — 

" No one, I am sure, has ever looked westward from 
this point without wondering how the passage is to be 
effected; yet no one has made the journey without 
equal surprise at the seeming ease by which science 
and energy hav^e overcome every impediment. As you 
pass forward from Piedmont, the impression is that 
you are about to run a tilt against the mountain flank 



THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 75 

# 

with blind and aimless impulse ; but a graceful curve 
winds the train out of harm, and you move securely 
into the primeval forest^ feeling the engine begin to tug 
up the steeps as it strikes the edge of Savage Eiver, 
which boils down the western shoulder of Savage 
Mountain. The transit from the world to the wilder- 
ness is instantaneous. Mr. Bancroft and I mounted 
the engine at this spot so as to enjoy an unobstructed 
view of the scenery during the ascent; and although 
a gust began to growl over the mountains, with fre- 
quent flashes of lightning and thunder, we kept our 
post, finding the grandeur of the prospect enhanced by 
the rush of the storm as we rose higher and higher on 
the mountain flank. 

" No one has observed fine scenery without acknow- 
ledging the difiiculty of its description; for its impres- 
sion is purely emotional^ and emotion is so evanescent 
that the effort to condense it into language destroys the 
sentiment as breath destroys the prisms of a snow-flake. 
We may give a catalogue of pines, precipices, rocks, 
torrents, ledges, overarching trees, and all the elements 
that make one ' feel the sublimity of a stern solitude ;' 
but I have never been able to convey, by words, the 
exact impression of such scenes, nor do I believe we 
can obtain what is somewhere called ' a realizing sense' 
in the descriptions of others. In this respect^ music 
and painting have more power than language ; music 
has the spirituality which painting lacks, and painting 
the body in which music is deficient; but, as their 
effects can never be completely united, we must despair 
of influencing the mind at second hand from Nature. 

''And so we rolled resistlessly upward, for seventeen 



76 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

miles along the broad ledges, seeing tlie tree-tops sink- 
ing as we swooped into the air, which freshened as we 
arose ; seeing the vale grow less and less, and the sum- 
mits that were just now above us come closer and 
closer till we touched their level; seeing the river 
whence we started shrink into a film into its bed ; and 
seeing the narrow upward, imprisoning glimpse widen 
into a downward, distant reach, 

" On we hurried without halting but once, till we 
turned from the Savage Valley into the Crabtree Gorge, 
along the flank of the great Alleghany Backbone ; and 
a few miles above Frankville (an eyrie among the 
summits, some one thousand eight hundred feet 
above tide, and one thousand one hundred feet 
above Cumberland), cast our eyes back toward the 
northeast for a rapid glimpse of one of the grandest 
views in the mountains. The gloomy masses of Sav- 
age Mountain tower on the right, fold upon fold, and 
the eastern slopes of Meadow Mountain, with its spurs, 
on the left ; while between them the Savage Eiver winds 
away for miles and miles in a silvery trail till it is lost 
in the distance. Throughout the whole passage from 
Piedmont to Altamont (two thousand six hundred and 
twenty feet above tide, and the greatest elevation along 
the route) the road constantly and almost insensibly 
ascends, in every portion filling the mind with a sense 
of as perfect security as if the transit were made in a 
coach. 

" At Altamont we dipped over the eastern edge of 
the Alleghanies, and by a slight descent entered the 
highland basin of the old mountain lakes, which ex- 
tends over many thousand acres, and is known as the 



THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 77 

'Glades.' There the Youghiogheny takes its rise, 
while the dividing ridge of the great Backbone sends 
the water on one side into the Gulf of Mexico, and on 
the other into the Chesapeake. These beautiful glades, 
or mountain meadows, are not connected in a level 
field like our western prairies, but lie in broken out- 
lines, with small wooded ranges between them, or jut- 
ting out from their midst in moderate elevations. At 
this height the air is extremely rarefied and cool 
throughout the summer ; so that, although the country 
is not adapted for agriculture, it is calculated for every 
species of animal and vegetable life that is disposed 
to run wild and take the world as it finds it. 

"We slept at Oakland. The mists hung high over 
these highlands long aflber sunrise, and the air was so 
bracing that we found overcoats necessary as we 
bowled across the great Youghiogheny, on a single 
arch of timber and iron, and passed the picturesque 
Falls of Snowy Creek, where the road quits the prairie 
and strikes a glen through which the stream brawls in 
foam, contrasting bravely with the hemlocks and 
laurels that line the pass. 

"At Cranberry Summit the mountain-levels and 
gladelands terminate, at an elevation of two thousand 
five hundred and fifty fefet above tide, and only 
seventy-six feet lower than Altamont, where we 
entered the field, twenty miles back. 

"From this elevated point we catch the first grand 
glimpse of the ' Western World,' in a long gradual 
sweep down the AUeghanies toward the affluents of 
the Ohio. The descent begins instantly, along the 
slopes of Saltlick Creek, through a mass of excava- 



78 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

tions, two tunnels, and fifty feet of viaduct. Down- 
ward and downward we swept as comfortably as on a 
plain, till an easy and almost imperceptible descent of 
twelve miles, through a forest of firs and pines, 
brought us to the dark waters of Cheat Eiver. After 
the difiBiculties of ascending, crossing the Backbone 
of the Alleghany, and descending its first western 
slope — all of which, like Columbus's discovery, ' seem 
so easy' now that they are overcome — a new marvel 
has been accomplished in the preservation of a high 
level by massive viaducts and by boring the moun- 
tains with tunnels. On Cheat Eiver, at the bottom of 
this descent, we approached the first of these marvels, 
two noble arches of iron, firm and substantial as the 
mountains they join. Then comes the ascent of Cheat 
Eiver Hill. Next are the slopes of Laurel, and its 
spurs, with the river on the right; till the dell of 
Kyer's Eun is passed on an embankment, and Buckeye 
Hollow crossed on a solid work whose foundations are 
laid deeply below the level of the road. Both of these 
splendid structures have walls of masonry, built of the 
adjacent rock. 

" Beyond this we reach Tray Eun, which is passed 
by an iron viaduct, six hundred feet in length, founded 
on a massive base of masonry as firm as the moubtain 
itself. All these remarkable works — chiefly designed 
by Mr. Fink — have borne the trial of heat and frost, 
travel and transportation for several years ; and when 
closely inspected, their immense solidity, security and 
strength, are as easily tested by the eye as they have 
been by use and time. 

^^ These beautiful structures had hardly been passed 



THE BALTDCORB AND OHIO RAILROAD. 79 

when we wound upward across Buckthorne branch, 
and, half a mile further, left the declivities of Cheat 
River, with its brown waters dyed by the roots of 
laurel and hemlock, and * bordered by the bright 
flowers of the rhododendron. Our last glimpse of this 
mountain river was through a tall arch of forest, 
rounding off, far below, in its dark valley of uninha- 
bited wilderness. 

" Beyond Gassidy's Bidge, we encountered another, 
and perhaps the most remarkable of these gigantic 
works. The road can only escape from its mountain 
prison by bursting the wall. Up hill and down hill, 
through brake and ravine, it has cleft its way from 
Piedmont, like a prisoner seeking release from his 
bars, till at last it finds a bold barrier of two hundred 
^nd twenty feet abruptly opposed to its departure! 
For a while (before the entire completion of the road) 
engineering skill led a track ovei* this steep by an ascent 
of jive hundred feet in a mile; but finally the giant has 
been subdued, and the last great wall of the AUegha- 
nies pjlssed by piercing the mountain. For nearly 
three years crowds of laborers were engaged in blast- 
ing through solid rock the four thousand one hundred 
feet of the Kingwood Tunnel, and a year and a half 
more was spent in shielding it with iron and brick, 
so as to make its walls more solid, if possible, than the 
original hills. 

*' For five miles from the western end of this tunnel, 
we descended to the broader valleys about Eaccoon 
Creek, and gliding through another tunnel of two 
hundred and fifty feet, followed the water till we 
entered the Tygart River Yalley, at Grafton, where the 



80 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Northwestern Eailway diverges to Parkersburg, on the 
Ohio, ninety -five miles below Wheeling. The estab- 
lishments of the Company at this point are erected in 
the most substantial way for the comfort and security 
of all who may visit this interesting region. 

'* There are few routes of travel in America — and 
none, probably, by rail — worthier of attention than 
the region between the slopes of the western gladeland 
to the mountain exit at Kingwood. It is all absolute 
mountain, absolute forest, absolute solitude. In 
winter it is the very soul of desolation, when the trees 
are iced, like huge stalactites, from top to bottom, 
and the ravines among the cliffs blocked with drifted 
snow. But in spring or summer it presents splendid 
bits of forest scenery. The glens are narrow, and 
there are few distant prospects; but there is everj^- 
where the same ragged bloom — the same overarching 
hemlocks and firs — the same torrent roar, foaming 
over rocky beds — the same fringing of thick-leaved 
laurel — the same oozy plashes of morass, rank with 
dark vegetation — the same black mountain face — the 
same absence of people and farms — the same sense of 
absolute solitude. 

"But in Tygart's Valley the landscape softens and 
becomes more human, with the marks of agriculture 
and habitation, and the road seems to bound &long 
more gayly, as if exulting in its release from the 
mountain. The river winds gently through rounder 
and lower hills and broader meadows, broken only by 
'the Falls,' which, in a few steep pitches, tnmble 
seventy feet in the distance of a mile. Not far frocti 
this point, Tygart River and the West Fork unite to 



THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD. 81 

form the Monongahela, which, a quarter of a mile 
below the junction, is crossed by an iron viaduct of 
six hundred and fifty feet long — the largest iron 
bridge in America, and due to the engineering skill 
of Mr. Fink. 

" In these central solitudes everything seems to be 
the property of the. wilderness — a wilderness incapa- 
ble of yielding to any mastery but that of an engi- 
neer; and it may fairly become a matter of national 
pride, that scientific men were found in our country 
bold enough to venture on grades by which any 
mountain may be passed. Where ground was wanted, 
Nature seemed to have scooped it away ; where it was 
not wanted. Nature seemed to have stacked it up for 
future purposes. There are considerable difficulties 
]?etween Baltimore and Cumberland ; yet, in a country 
which rises only six hundred and thirty-nine feet 
above tide in one hundred and seventy-nine miles, a 
road may be constructed by ordinary perseverance 
and skill. But they who desire to understand the 
power of science in conquering nature by steam and 
iron, must climb and cross the AUeghanies between 
Piedmont and Kingwood. The success of this, the 
most difficult portion of the enterprise, is due to the 
engineering of Mr. Latrobe, and the financial energy 
of Mr. Garrett and Mr; Swann. 

" As the pioneer of such internal improvements in 
the Union, it has been the school for subsequent rail- 
ways, and deserves the gratitude of scientific men for 
the true principles of location and construction. The 
bridging and tunnelling along the whole route amount 
to about five and a quarter miles; the laborers and 
6 



82 BAILBOADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

employees form almost five regiments in number ; and, 
when we take into consideration the depots, tanks, 
engines, rails, station-houses, and innumerable cars for 
freight and travel, as well as the two lines of telegrai)h 
wires, belonging exclusively to the Company, which 
keep every portion in communication and successful 
operation throughout the line, one no longer wonders 
that twenty-five millions were expended on the struc- 
ture, but is only surprised that the people of a small, 
single State, could accomplish so colossal an enter- 
prise." 

This chapter was written in July, 1867, at which 
time several great improvements were in progress 
along the line of the road. These are now, for the 
most part, finished ; but on those yet in progress, and 
in the workshops of the Company, there are employed 
ton thousand men. Mr. Garrett has been elected Presi- 
dent for the tenth time, and is now in the tenth year 
of his ofiice as President of the road. This is a very- 
great, but richly deserved compliment, paid "to one of 
the first railroad men of the age. 



OHIO AND MISSISSIPPI RAILROAD. 83 



CHAPTEE VII. 

OHIO AND MISSISSIPPI RAILROAD. 

The through route between Baltimore and St 
Iiouis is nine hundred and twenty-eight miles long. 
It is composed of the Baltimore and Ohio road, from 
Baltimore to Parkersburg, three hundred and eighty- 
three miles; the Marietta and Cincinnati road, from 
Marietta to Cincinnati, two hundred and five miles; 
and the Ohio and Mississippi road, from Cincinnati to 
St. Louis, three hundred and forty miles. The Balti- 
more and Ohio Eailroad Company are about to build 
two bridges of stone and iron, over the Ohio Eiver, 
one at Wheeling and one at Parkersburg ; indeed the 
work on the former is already in a good state of for- 
wardness. But in the meantime passengers cross the 
river at Parkersburg on a steamboat, and take the cars 
on the other side at Marietta. 

The Ohio and Mississippi Eailroad Company was 
chartered in 1848, and its chartered powers were ex- 
tended in 1849 and 1851. A contract was made by 
the Board of Directors on the 22d of November, 
1851, with Hezekiah C. Lyman, of New York, to 
construct and complete the road from Cincinnati to 
Vincennes, on the Wabash Eiver, in Indiana, a dis- 
tance of one hundred and ninety-two miles, for six 
and a half millions of dollars (?6,500,000). Owing 



84 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

to Mr. Lyman's death, the contract passed into other 
hands. After several years of perplexing embarrass- 
ments, an agreement was made in May, 1856, with 
William H. Aspinwall, of New York, and his asso- 
ciates, to complete the work. Under that agreement 
the road was constructed, and was opened to Vincen- 
nes oh the 15th of April, 1857. The western division 
of the road from Vincennes to St. Louis, a distance 
of one hundred and forty-eight miles, was constructed 
between the years 1856 and 1859, and the whole road 
was in full operation early in 1860. 

This road possesses some remarkable advantages. 
It runs in nearly a straight line, has no sharp curves, 
and is nearly on a level. It connects two of the great 
cities of the West, and the running time between them 
is only sixteen hours. It runs through the great hog- 
raising district of the West. Finally, the following 
great roads, which cross and intersect it^ act as feeders 
to it, namely, the road from Lafayette to Lawrence- 
burg ; the road from Michigan City to Mitchell Sta- 
tion; the road from Terre Haute to Evansville; the 
two roads of the Illinois Central line, from Chicago 
and Galena ; and the road from Indianapolis to Louis- 
ville. With all these advantages, it ought to be, and 
no doubt will be, one of the best paying roads in the 
country. It has been, hitherto, highly profi})erous. 
But its business has not been half so great as it might 
have been, owing to the fact that it is worked in two 
divisions, and to all intents and purposes as two roads. 
When it is worked as one great road, under one set 
of officers, its revenues, great as they are now, will 
become doubled. 



OHIO AND MISSISSIPPI RAILROAD. 85 

Passengers from Cincinnati, on arriving at the Mis- 
sissippi Biver, opposite St. Louis, are subjected to 
serious inconvenience. Thej are transported across 
the river in a ferry boat, the motion of which is im- 
perceptible, so smoothly does the machinery work. 
But the boat itself is ugly, dirty, smoky, and has no 
accommodations. The passengers, however, are seated 
in long omnibuses^ each drawn by four horses, in 
which they have been driven on board the boat. On 
arriving at the St. Louis side of the river, these omni- 
buses are driven up the steep levee, into the city. 
Instead of being driven straight up the hill, however, 
they are driven sideways, so that one side of the omni- 
bus is much lower than the other. This sensation is 
anything but pleasant, and the passengers are in con- 
stant fear of the omnibus upsetting. To see the 
omnibuses leaning over during the whole distance 
up the long hill, they se^m to be in fact, on the point 
of capsizing every moment. It is certainly a very 
dangerous practice. 

The reader will be glad to learn, however, that 
arrangements are in progress for building a substantial 
stone and iron bridge over the Mississippi at St. Louis, 
so that trains can pass directly over, and deposit 
their passengers in the city. The bridge will be two 
thousand seven hundred feet long. 

In December, 1867, a new election of Directors was 
held, and Wm. D. Griswold, Esq., was elected Presi- 
dent of the Company. The prosperity of the road 
will now, no doubt, be greatly enhanced. 



86 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

^ THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 

The lines of railroad owned and worked by the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, consist of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, and 
the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad, formerly and more 
properly called the Sunbury and Erie road, from Har- 
risburg to Erie. The consolidation of these two great 
railroads has been productive of the most beneficial 
efiects, as will be presently seen. The canals of the 
State of Pennsylvania are also owned and worked by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Conipany, 

The great through route between Philadelphia and 
Chicago consists of two railroads, namely, the Penn- 
sylvania Central, from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, and 
the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne and Chicago, from Pitts- 
burg to Chicago. There is only one change of cars 
on the route, namely, at Pittsburg, and here the pas- 
sengers only have to walk a few steps, under the same 
roof, in changing from one train of cars to another. 

The entire length of the Pennsylvania Central Rail- 
road is three hundred and fifty-five miles. It was 
commenced in 1831, as the Philadelphia and Columbia 
Railroad, intending to terminate at Columbia, on the 
Susquehanna River. In September, 1882, twenty 
miles of the road were ready for use. In April, 183-i, 



THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 87 

a single track was completed, and opened for travel, 
from Philadelphia to Columbia. In October, 183-4, 
the doable track was completed and opened for public 
use. 

This road crossed the Schuylkill River, at Philadel- 
phia, on a wooden viaduct nine hundred and eighty- 
four feet long, fifty feet wide, and thirty-eight feet 
above the water. The road then immediately ascended 
an inclined plane, two thousand eight hundred and five 
feet long, and one hundred and eighty-seven feet high. 
Between Philadelphia and Lancaster the grades were 
very steep, some of them being forty -five feet to the 
mile, and none being less than thirty feet. The deepest 
cuttings on the road were from thirty to forty feet 
deep ; the highest embankments were eighty feet high. 
The road entered Columbia by an inclined plane 
eighteen hundred feet long and ninety feet high. 
Efforts were soon made to avoid these inclined planes ; 
but it was some years before these eftbrts were success- 
ful. In the mean time they were ascended with ease, 
by means of stationary engines. At the inclined plane 
near the Schuylkill, a building at the head of the as- 
cent contained a stationary engine of sixty horse power. 
An endless rope, three inches in diameter, was used to 
draw the cars up. One train passed up, while another 
train passed down. 

Another division of* what afterwards became the 
Pennsylvania Central Railroad, from Hollidaysburg to 
Johnstown, a distance of thirty-seven miles, was soon 
after completed. There was one viaduct on this road, 
built of stone, having a single arch of eighty-feet span. 
It was seventy feet above the water, and cost fifty-four 



88 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

thousand five hundred dollars. There were two very 
long inclined planes, at the top of each of which two 
stationary engines were placed, and were worked with 
the usual endless rope. Four cars were drawn up and 
four were let down at the same time. A safety-car 
attended each trip, and could stop all the cars, in case 
of accident to the rope. The track of this road was 
made of English iron, which cost one hundred and 
eighteen thousand eight hundred and eighty-nine dol- 
lars for the first track that was laid. The double track 
was made with the same kind of iron, which cost 
eighty-seven thousand four hundred and ninety-five 
dollars, or forty-eight dollars and fifty cents per ton* 
This road attained an elevation of two thousand 
four hundred and ninety-one feet above the level of 
the Atlantic Ocean. It was completed March 18th, 
1834. 

In a little work entitled " Pleasant Peregrinations 
through the Prettiest Parts of Pennsylvania, by Pere- 
grine Prolix," now entirely out of print, we find the 
following amusing and interesting account of a journey 
from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, before this great road 
was completed : — 

" The omnibus being now full, we proceeded to the 
depot at Broad Street (in Philadelphia), to be trans- 
ferred to a railroad car. Two cars, filled with passen- 
gers and covered with their baggage, are drawn by 
four horses for four miles, to the foot of an inclined 
plane, which is on the western bank of the Schuylkill 
Eiver, and is approached by a spacious viaduct, extend- 
ing across the river, built of strong timber, and 
covered with a roof, The ride to the foot of the 



THE PENNSYLVANIA BAILROAD. 89 

inclined plane is very interesting, first passing tbrough 
a deep cnt made forty years ago, for a canal that was 
never finished, and then by a number of beautiful 
coantry-seats on the eastern bank of the Schuylkill ; 
afiTording occasional glimpses of the romantic river 
itself, and the lovely scenery on its western bank. 
The view from the viaduct towards the north is 
particularly fine, embracing a long reach of the river 
with a beautiful green island in the foreground, and 
the banks on both sides rising into bold hills crowned 
with romantic villas. 

"At the foot of the inclined plane the horses were 
loosed from the cars. Several cars were then fastened 
to an endless rope, and presently began to mount the 
steep acclivity at a speed of five miles per hour. When 
the cars had all arrived at the top of the plane, fourteen 
of them were strung together like beads, and were 
lowered down the other side of the plane, in the same 
manner. We arrived at Lancaster at three P. M., dined 
well, and slept comfortably. On the next morning we 
left Lancaster at five o'clock, in a railroad car drawn 
by two horses, and arrived at Columbia at half past 
six the same morning." Here were twenty-two hours 
consumed in travelling eighty-two miles, a portion of 
the road that is now traversed in four hours I But we 
will let this pleasant traveller resume, and tell his 
story in his own way. Columbia, on the Susquehanna 
Eiver, he says, ''is the western termination of the rail- 
road ; and goods from the seaboard, for the great West, 
are here transshipped into canal boats. At four in the 
afternoon we went on board the canal boat, to ascend 
the canal which follows the eastern bank of the Sus- 



90 BAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

quehanna. A canal packet-boat is eighfy feet long 
and twelve feet wide. It has a house built in it, that 
extends to within six feet of stem and stern. Thirty- 
six feet of this space are used as a cabin by day and a 
dormitory by night ; the forward twelve feet being cut 
off by a thick curtain, for the accommodation of 
ladies.- In front of this is the ladies' dressing-room, 
six feet by ten. At nine o'clock in the evening, the 
steward and his satellites begin the work of arrang- 
ing the sleeping apparatus (much after the manner of 
a modern sleeping car). Abaft the cabin is the pantry 
and kitchen, where an escaped slave from Virginia 
usually performs the part of cook. The breakfasts, 
dinners, and suppers on board these boats are excel- 
lent, thirty -seven cents being charged for the dinners, 
and twenty-five cents each for the other meals." (It 
may be remarked that *it is only within a few years 
past that travellers have been systematically robbed, 
by being charged fifty cents, and even seventy-five 
cents, for breakfasts and suppers, and a dollar and one 
dollar and twenty-five cents for dinner, at station^ on 
many of the railroads. The meals that are given to 
travellers at these places could be furnished at thirty- 
seven and fifty cents each, and still leave a handsome 
profit. It may safely be said, for instance, that the 
" dinner" for which the traveller pays a dollar, does 
not cost the landlord more than fifteen cents. The 
people who keep these eating-houses at railroad sta- 
tions, make immense fortunes in a very few years. 
But to resume our traveller's narrative) : " This ma- 
chine, and all that it inhabit, is dragged through the 
water at the rate of four miles per hour, by three 



THE PENNSYLVANIA BAILROAD. 91 

horses. The rope, which is two hundred feet long, is 
&stened to the deck, twenty feet from the bows, so that 
it can be loosed from the boat by touching a spring. 
The horses are changed every three hours, and seepi 
to be much jaded by their work." The traveller, ap- 
preciating the beauties of the scenery, here laments 
the custom of travelling at night, and urges the estab- 
lishment of a line of canal packet-boats travelling only 
by day, at five miles per hour ; starting at six A. M. 
and stopping at seven P. M. at good hotels in pleasant 
places, and furnishing them excellent and appetizing 
breakfasts and dinners on board. 

" At five in the morning," he says, " we rose, deter- 
mined to land on Duncan's Island, which we were now 
approaching. The scenery around us was a combina- 
tion of the magnificence of nature in her grandest and 
wildest mood, and of the ingenuity of art in some of 
her greatest efforts. The canal here runs along the 
southwest side of a mountain, in whose basement of 
rock a bed is partly cut ; and is separated from the 
Susquehanna by an enormous wall of stone. Through 
a wide opening of solid masonry it debouches into the 
mighty river, here converted into a lake by an im- 
mense dam. As the boat entered the river at this 
point, the horses ascended to a gallery high in the air, 
attached to the side of a great bridge of timber, which 
here extends its numerous and expanded arches across 
the river, and thus drew us across the wide expanse 
of water. Having passed the river, the boat entered 
the canal on the southwest side of Duncan's Island, 
through a superb lock of solid masonry : the romantic 
river Juniata discharging its limpid waters into the 



92 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Susquehanna, close on tlie left. The boat stopped, and 
we landed and took up our quarters at Mrs. Duncan's, 
whose spacious mansion stands on the island, three 
hundred feet from the canal." Here the discriminating 
traveller goes into raptures about Mrs. Duncan's house 
and its comforts, the excellent bread, the fragrant but- 
ter, the profusion of rich cream, the variety of pre- 
served fruits, &c., and then says, more prosaically: 
" The island itself is situated at the confluence of the 
Susquehanna and Juniata, and contains three hundred 
and sixty acres. It is elevated twenty-five feet above 
the river. At six the next morning we embarked on 
another canal boat, and resumed our journey. The 
canal here passes along the bank of the island for a 
mile, and then crosses the Juniata on a substantial 
aqueduct. We had now reached a most romantic re- 
gion, having the Juniata, and the ever-changing scen- 
ery of its bold and picturesque banks constantly in 
view. We arrived at Lewistown at sunset, but did not 
stop there. We passed a comfortable night on board 
the boat, and arrived at Huntington at seven the next 
morning, and at HoUidaysburg at half-past six that 
evening. 

'*In the artificial canal basin, at HoUidaysburg 
which is large and commodious, terminates that part of 
the Pennsylvania Canal which lies east of the Alle- 
ghany Mountains. The goods and merchandise 
destined for the west are here taken from the canal 
boats, and placed in freight cars, which are to carry 
them over the mountains by means of the Alleghany 
Portage Eailroad. 

" At half past eight the next morning we left Holli- 



THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 93 

daysburg in a stage coach with four horses. After 
jolting twenty -one miles in the mud, which occupied 
six hours, we stopped at a village tavern kept, as the 
sign informed us, by P. Amich." Here the traveller 
goes into raptures again over the bountiful and deli- 
cious dinner to which he and his companions sat down. 
He praises the snow white table cloth, the glittering 
glasses, the juicy ham, the tender turkey, the roast 
beef cooked to a turn, the preserved fruits and cream, 
and the fragrant coffee ; and for all this, oh ! reader, the 
travellers were charged just thirty-seven cents each ! 

"On the next morning," continues our cheerful 
friend, "we found ourselves, at six o'clock, in motion 
in the railroad cars, again, on the first level, as it is 
called, of four miles long leading to the foot of the first 
inclined plane. This level has an ascent of one hundred 
feet, and we passed over it in horse cars, at the rate 
of six miles per hour. The passengers and cars were 
now to be raised eleven hundred and fifty-two feet of 
perpendicular height, and then to be lowered fourteen 
hundred feet in perpendicular descent. This was to be 
done by means of complicated and powerful ma- 
chinery, and we were thus to pass over a mountain, 
in six hours, which, with a similar weight, three years 
ago, would have required three days. The idea of 
rising so rapidly in the world, particularly by steam 
and a rope, is very agitating. As soon as we arrived 
at the foot of the inclined plane, the horses were 
unhitched, and the cars were fastened to a rope, which 
passes up the middle of one track, and down the middle 
of the other. The stationary steam engine at the head 
of the plane was then started, and the cars moved ma- 



94 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

jestically up the steep and long acclivity in four minutes. 
The length of this plane is sixteen hundred and eight 
feet, and its height one hundred and fifty feet. The 
cars were now attached to horses, and drawn through 
a magnificent tunnel nine hundred feet long, having 
two tracks through it, and being cut through the solid 
rock. 

" The valley of the Conemaugh is now passed, on a 
viaduct of most beautiful construction. It is of one 
arch, a perfect semicircle, with a diameter of eighty 
feet. It is built of cut stone ; and its entire height 
from the foundation, is seventy -eight feet. The four- 
teen miles of the second level are passed in an hour, 
and the train arrives at the foot of the second inclined 
plane, which is seventeen hundred arfd sixty feet long, 
and one hundred and thirty -two feet high. The third 
level is nearly two iniles long. The third inclined 
plane is fourteen hundred and eigEty feet long, and 
one hundred and thirty feet high. The fourth level is 
two miles long. The fourth plane is two thousand 
one hundred and ninety-six feet long, and one hun- 
dred and eighty-eight feet high. The fifth level is 
three miles long. The fifth plane is two thousand 
six hundred and twenty-nine feet long, and two 
hundred feet high. This brings us to the top of the 
mountain. We are now two thousand three hun- 
dred and ninety-seven feet above the ocean. At this 
elevation, in the midst of summer, you breath an air 
like that of spring, clear, cool, and refreshing. The 
length of the road on the top of the mountain is nearly 
two miles. There are five planes and five levels also. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 95 

on the other side of the mountain, by which you 
descend." 

Such was the mode of travel, on this delightful 
rente, before the Pennsylvania Eailroad was finished. 
It must be confessed, that, if the rate of progress was 
slow, the journey was attended by many pleasures. 
But the great increase of travel, the rapid settlement 
of the Western States, and the enormous freight busi- 
ness that gradually sprang up between the east and 
the west, demanded a far more rapid means of commu- 
nication, and this the Pennsylvania Central Eailroad 
Company proceeded to furiiish. 

The work was a stupendous one, and could not have 
been accopiplish^d in the magnificent manner in which 
the road now exists, without talents and abilities of the 
very first order on the part of the chief officers of the 
Company. Of these, the Company is more indebted 
to J. Edgar Thomson and Thomas A. Scott, the 
present President and Vice-President of the road, than 
to any others. Mr. Thomson was for many years 
Chief Engineer and General Superintendefnt of the 
road ; and the untiring energy and judicious enterprise 
of Mr. Scott, always directed to the right object, have 
secured for the Company the most brilliant results. 



96 BAILBOADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTER IX. 

t 

PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD, CONTINUED. 

That part of the road between Harrisburg and 
Lewistown, a distance of sixty-one miles, was com- 
pleted and opened or^ the 1st of September, 1848 ; and 
good progress had been made, up to that time, upon 
the section between the mouth of the Little Juniata 
and the base of the Alleghany Mountains. At this 
time the railroad over the Alleghany Mountains, by 
means of the inclined planes described above, was 
called the Alleghany Portage Eoad, and was not 
owned by the Pennsylvania Eailroad Company. The 
Eastern Division of the Pennsylvania Boad had, how- 
ever, been completed to the Tyrone Forge, from 
whence it was continued along the route designated by 
the preliminary surveys, to the summit, where the 
town of Altoona is now situated. From that point, it 
was proposed that the main line should commence the 
ascent of the eastern slope of the Alleghany Mountains. 
In the mean time a branch six miles long connected 
the road with the Alleghany Portage, making a con- 
tinuous road two hundred and seventy-nine miles long, 
from Philadelphia to the point now known as Johns- 
town, seventy-eight miles east of Pittsburg. 

In the Second Annual Eeport which he made to the 
Company, on the 15th of November, 1849, J. Edgar 



THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 97 

Thomson, Esq., then the Chief Engineer and General 
Superintendent of the road, stated that during the pre- 
ceding summer, an actual location of the main line of 
the road had been '* made from Altoona to the sum- 
mit of the mountain. The ascent is accomplished in 
twelve miles and a quarter, by a maximum gradient 
of eighty -four feet six inches on straight lines. From 
the Laurel Swamp Summit, the road descends along 
the valley of the Conemaugh to Johnstown, at a maxi- 
mum inclination of fifty feet per mile. The most im- 
portant obstacle to be overcome is a tunnel seven 
hundred feet long. 

" In the descent of the western slope of the moun- 
tain, the direction of our line is generally in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the Portage Eailroad ; crossing it 
five times by bridges, and once upon a level. When 
our whole line on the western side is finished, the two 
roads can be advantageously joined, at the summit of 
the Portage, by a steep ascending gradient from the 
vicinity of Laurel Swamp Summit, less than two miles 
long, by which means all the western planes will be 
avoided." 

The condition of the whole route, as it existed on 
the 1st of January 1852, is very clearly set forth in 
the report of the General Superintendent, as follows : — 

" Gentlemen : The commencement of the last fiscal 
year found the Pennsylvania Eailroad in operation as 
far as the western termination of the Eastern Division 
of the Pennsylvania Eailroad, with a connection with 
the Alleghany Portage Eailroad, near Hollidaysburg ; 
since that time portions of the Western division have 
been brought into operation, and transportation be- 



98 BAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

tween Philadelphia and JPittsburg is now conducted 
over several separate links, forming a broken, and, to 
some extent, unsatisfactory, chain of communication 
between the two extreme termini of the line. 

" The first, or eastern portion of the route, is formed 
by that part of the Philadelphia and Columbia Rail- 
road which lies east of Dillerville ; the length of which 
is seventy-one miles. This improvement is owned and 
operated by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and 
is controlled and managed by the Board of Canal 
Commissioners, and officers ap})ointed by them. The 
State furnishes motive power, but participates in no 
other way, in the conduct of transportation upon the 
road, which is open to the free use of individual trans- 
porters. 

" The Lancaster and Harrisburg Railroad, from its 
intersection with the Columbia Railroad, at Dillerville, 
is thirty-six miles in length, and is operated by the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, under a contract 
with the company owning the road. The Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad Company furnish all the motive power, 
and the cars used in their own business, but do not 
attend to the repairs of track or bridges. 

" The Eastern Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
extends from Harrisburg to Altoona, a distance of one 
hundred and thirty-two miles, from which a branch of 
six miles connects it temporarily with ^e Alleghany 
Portage Railroad, at a point about one and a quarter 
miles west of Hollidaysburg. 

" The Portage Railroad is owned by the Ooitimon- 
wealth of Pennsylvania, and forms part of the main 
line of railroad and canal connecting the cities of Phil- 



TBS PENNSYLVANIA BAILROAD. 99 

adelphia and Pittsburg; its^leBgtli from the intersec- 
tion with the Pennsylvania Railroad is thirty-four 
miles, and ibe ascent and descent of the mountain are 
each efieofteii by five inclined planes. Two miles east 
of Johnatowiiy a connection was made on the 25th of 
August, 1851, with the Portage Eailroad, and twenty 
miles of the Western Division of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, extending to Lockport, was brought into 
use." 

During the year 1851, fifty seven miles of the road 
were built, including twelve miles from Pittsburg east- 
ward. The completion of this portion of the road left 
a gap in the Western Division of only twenty-eight 
miles to be filled up. To faciliate the completion of 
the heavy work near Greensburg, a tunnel six hundred 
feet long was constructed, being cut through solid 
rock. ♦ 

Mr. J. Edgar Thomson, the Chief Engineer, in his 
fourth annual report, January 15th, 1852, says : — " 

" That portion of this division between Johnstown's 
and the stone viaduct, avoiding inclined plane No. 1, 
of the Portage Eailroad, will not be ready for use 
before the opening of navigation, when it is expected 
that plane No. 2, and shortly afterwards plane No. 8, 
will be avoided at the expense of the Commonwealth, 
thus leaving but seven of these impediments to rapid 
transit upon the line of that work — all contained in a 
space of ten miles. This will enable the business of 
the Portage Eoad to be better systematized, and greatly 
facilitate its operations, reducing the time consumed in 
its passage to three hours. 

" The whole of the grading upon the Mountain Divi- 



100 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

sion is now under contract, and is progressing with 
considerable rapidity. The Alleghany Tunnel at 
Sugar Eun Summit, which forms the greatest obstacle 
to the completion of this division, has been commenced 
at each end and at two of the shafts, making six 
points of operation. The progress made at the shafts, 
and at the approaches, has not been as great as antici- 
pated, in consequence of the great flow of water 
encountered; which has caused, for the present, the 
abandonment of the third shaft. The contractors still 
feel confident that they will be able to permit the 
passage of trains through it during the summer of 
1853. But I cannot anticipate so early a termination 
of our labors at this difficult and uncertain job, though 
it can scarcely throw us into the use of the Portage 
for a third winter. The material to be removed is for 
Hhe most part easily excavated, but a considerable 
portion of it, probably one-third, will require arching, 
which will add materially to its cost. The unreliable 
character of the excavation exposed in opening the 
eastern approach to the tunnel, induced me to increase 
the gradient upon the eastern slope of the mountain 
from ninety -two to ninety-five feet per mile on straight 
lines, and eighty-two upon curves of minimum radii. 
This arrangement reduces the length of the tunnel to 
three thousand and five hundred and seventy feet, and 
the maximum gradient to nine and three-fourths miles 
in length, commencing about one and a half miles 
west of Altoona, and extending to'the east end of the 
tunnel ; overcoming in that distance a rise of eight 
hundred and ninety-six feet, equal to an average of 
ninety-one and six-tenths feet per mile. By continu- 



THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 101 

ing the maximum gradient of the Western Division 
through the tunnel, we obtain the incidental advan- 
tage, if it should at a future period become desirable 
to avail ourselves of it, of overcoming the mountain 
by a single inclined plane, worked by stationary 
power, to be used by freight trains, instead of 
assistant locomotives, upon the steep gradient. This 
arrangement would make the maximum locomotive 
gradient west of Altoona fifty- two and eight-tenths feet 
per mile on straight lines. Below that point, it has 
been before stated that the steepest ascent against the 
heavy trade is but ten and a half feet per mile. Our 
high gradient is, however, twenty-one feet per mile 
less, and five. and one-fourth miles shorter than the 
similar ascent of the Alleghany Mountain on the Bal- 
timore and Ohio Railroad. Upon which road the 
descent upon the west side of this barrier is at the 
same inclination as the ascent; while ours does not 
exceed fifty -two and eight- tenths feet per mile. In 
addition to the Alleghany Mountain, the Baltimore 
route passes Laurel Hill — which we avoid — by a 
gradient on each side, of one hundred and five feet per 
mile. 

" The difierence in elevation overcome at the summit 
of the Alleghanies, by each route, is four hundred and 
forty-four feet ; theirs being two thousand six hundred 
and twenty feet above tide, and that of the Penn- 
sylvania Eailroad two thousand one hundred and 
seventy-six feet. These facts are not presented with a 
view of disparaging that important work. There is 
sufficient business for both roads." 

Mr. Thomson then presents a detailed and^very 



102 BAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

interesting estimate of the cost of the whole road, with 
a single track, which he fixes, including the equip- 
ment then required, at about eleven and a half mil- 
lions of dollars ; and including additional machinery 
which would be required as soon as the Mountain Di- 
vision should be completed, at twelve millions of dol- 
lars. " To widen the grading," says Mr. Thompson, 
" where it has been prepared for a single track, and 
lay down a double track from Harrisburg to Pittsburg, 
will require an additional expenditure of three millions 
six hundred thousand dollars." 

At this early date, the experience of the Company 
had already demonstrated that it was better for them, 
and cheaper, to build their own cars, than to have 
them built by contract ; and it was determined to erect, 
at Altoona, those extensive car-works and machine 
shops which have since turned out such fine specimens 
of railway architecture, if it may be so called. 

The passenger travel over this road had greatly 
increased during the year 1851. The General Super- 
intendent^ in his report made January 1st, 1852, states 
that the extent of the passenger business requires that 
every attention should be paid to their proper accom- 
modation, at the terminal depots, and offers the follow- 
ing admirable practical suggestions, all of which were 
soon after acted upon and carried into effect, and 
which now contribute so much to the comfort and 
convenience of travellers. " Baggage," he says, " could 
be delivered by responsible parties, under contract 
with the Company, at any place agreed upon with the 
passenger, and at moderate expense — an arrangement 
which is now in operation. Each of the principal ho- 



THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 103 

tels oould have an omnibus in attendance, on the arri- 
val of the cars, as in Baltimore, Boston, and other cities, 
and it would be to the interest of other companies to 
provide conveyances to their boats or deppts, for pas- 
sengers' who did not wish to remain in the city. 

" If this arrangement should not be acceptable, a con- 
tract could be made to convey passengers in omnibuses, 
at a fixed charge, to any of the hotels, depots, or pri- 
vate residences within the limits of the city ; the bag- 
gage being sent either by separate conveyance, as al- 
ready explained, or carried on the omnibus, at the 
pleasure of the passenger. Parties not wishing to be 
^ separated from their baggage, could retain their checks, 
and employ a hack or cab, many of which would al- 
ways be in attendance. Imposition from hackmen 
could be prevented by proper regulations. Passengers 
arriving in the night, and wishing conveyance to pri- 
vate residences in inconvenient localities, would em- 
ploy hacks ; passengers leaving the city from any of 
the principal hotels could be carried, with their baggage, 
in omnibuses or hacks; from second rate hotels, or 
private residences, hacks could be employed. 

" A ticket office, with a convenient baggage-room, 
should be secured in some central location. Baggage 
brought to this office could be checked, and sent to 
West Philadelphia in a wagon ; passengers could col- 
lect at this point, and be removed at short intervals by 
omnibuses running to the outer depot. 

" With a complete system similar to that described, 
or any other that may be considered preferable, the 
inconvenience of the location at West Philadelphia 
would not be serious, and the annoyance, delay, and 



104 BAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

expense of hauling passengers through the streets in 
cars would be avoided." 

At this time some of the railroads leading from 
Pittsburg westward were already in progress of con- 
struction. There was a railroad completed between 
Pittsburg and Cleveland, a distance of one hundred 
and forty miles. The Pennsylvania and Ohio Eail- 
road was also completed from Pittsburg to Alliance, 
a distance of eighty-two miles. This afterwards be- 
came a part of the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and Chi- 
cago road. 

In January, 1853, J. Edgar Thomson, Esq., was 
elected President of the Company ; and this high trust 
has been conferred upon him annually ever since. A 
continuous railroad from Philadelphia to Pittsburg 
had been completed on the 10th of December, 1852. 
Mr. Thomson, in his. report made January 31st, 1853, 
says : " The Portage Eailroad, over which we exer- 
cise no control, at present forms a part of this continu- 
ous line ; and it is still obstructed by seven inclined 
planes." It will be remembered that there were, 
originally, ten of these planes. Three of them had 
already been avoided by the construction of additional 
new portions of the Company's road, west of Al* 
toona, as suggested by Mr. Thomson, in his report as 
Chief Engineer, November 15th, 1849. 

The most formidable work on this portion of the 
route is the Summit Tunnel through the Alleghany 
Mountains. Its. length is three thousand five hun- 
dred and seventy- feet. It was worked from both 
ends at once, and also from three working shafts, two 
of which are each two hundred feet deep. Steam en- 



THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 105 

gines were required at all the shafts; and at the 
middle one the water was so abundant that a power- 
ful pumping engine, of fifty horse power, had to be 
resorted to. 

It was by this time evident that the early comple- 
tion of several of the roads leading from Pittsburg 
westward would be of great advantage to the Penn- 
sylvania road, in drawing to the latter much valuable 
business. The Board of Directors therefore agreed to 
subscribe three hundred thousand dollars to aid in the 
construction of the road from Crestline in Ohio to 
Fort Wayne in Indiana, with the understanding that 
this road was to be continued eastward to Alliance, 
and westward to Chicago. The Pennsylvania and 
Ohio road was, in fact, at this time finished nearly to 
Crestline. 

On the 15th of February, 1854, the whole line of 
the road from Harrisburg to Pittsburg was completed 
and opened for business, entirely avoiding all of the 
inclined platLes on the Alleghany Mountains. Three 
passenger trains per day were now run over the road, 
between Philadelphia and Pittsburg : one, leaving 
Philadelphia at eight A. M., reached Pittsburg in 
seventeen hours, stopping at all the way stations; the 
second, leaving Philadelphia at one P. M., reached 
Pittsburg in thirteen hours ; the third, leaving Phila- 
delphia at eleven at night, reached Pittsburg in fifteen 
hours; and three trains per day, likewise, ran from 
Pittsburg to Philadelphia. 

By the year 1857, the passenger traffic of the road 
had become greatly increased, by the completion of 
several roads from the west, centring at Pittsburg. 



106 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

But on arriving at Pittsburg, or rather on arriving at 
Alleghany City, opposite Pittsburg, on the western 
side of the Alleghany Eiver, western passengers, bound 
for Philadelphia, found themselves exposed to a 
serious annoyance. Alighting from the cars; the 
passengers were compelled to enter omnibuses, and 
were jolted across the river on a long, rickety wooden 
bridge. To obviate this difficulty, a fine railroad 
bridge was built across the Alleghany Eiver, by the 
joint exertions of this Company and the Pennsylvania 
and Ohio Eailroad Company. It was completed and 
used in 1858, In the year 1858 there were transported 
over the road one million and thirty thousand passen- 
gers. In this year, too, all trains arriving at or depart- 
ing from Pittsburg began to use the Union Depot in 
that city. 



THE PHSTWSYLVANIA BAILROAD. 107 



CHAPTEE X. 

PENNSYLVANIA BAILROAD : CONTINUED. 

By the year 1862, considerable progress had been 
made in the construction of the Philadelphia and 
Erie Eailroad, which was designed to extend from 
Philadelphia to Lake Erie. The road properly and 
really extended from Erie to Sunbury, passing through 
Lock Haven and Williamsport and following the geneial 
direction of the west branch of the Susquehanna Ei ver. 
It was thought by the Directors of the Pennsylvania 
Eailroad Company, that its interests would be advanced, 
by being in possession of this road, as it would con- 
stitute, in fact, a branch of their own road, diverging 
from it at Harrisburg ; and accordingly an arrangement 
was made, by which the Philadelphia and Erie Eail- 
road Company leased their road, for a long term of 
years, to the Pennsylvania Eailroad Company. The 
arrangement has been found to work most admirably, 
and to the entire satisfaction of all parties concerned. 
The management of the Philadelphia and Erie road 
was committed to the charge of Joseph D. Potts, Esq., 
who successfully conducted its affairs until within 
a recent period. At the beginning of the year 1866 
the business of this road had increased to be twice 
what it had been estimated, at the time when the 
stockholders of the Pennsylvania road had been 



108 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

asked to authorize its lease. Alfred L. Tyler, Esq., 
had become General Superintendent of the road, and 
under his energetic and judicious management, its 
affairs were being most admirably conducted. 

A correspondent of the " New York Tribune" gives 
the following description of a portion of the country 
through which this road passes : — 

" The western branch of the Susquehanna, running 
far between the spurs of the AUeghanies, has been 
the highway thither, while for many years it has 
borne on its waters logs and lumber bound for the 
known world. The lumbermen were a hardy race; 
in the valleys they raised a little grain, and for meat 
they depended much on venison, bear, and speckled 
trout. Several new counties have been organized out 
of this region, and named Cameron, Elk, and Forest; 
but portions of it still are included in the counties of 
Potter, McKean, Clinton, Clarion, and Jefferson. It 
may be roughly estimated as one hundred miles long 
and sixty wide, and it contains the head-springs of 
the Susquehanna, the Alleghany, and Genesee Eivers. 
Not a single important road passed through from the 
north, south, east, or west : the country towns were in- 
significant hamlets, reached after days or weeks of 
travel. It required years for a new fashion to be in- 
troduced. The most important men were the law- 
yers. Almost always, a' lawyer was a special agent 
for non-resident land-owners : he had a good salary ; 
his duty was limited to preventing the land from being 
stripped of timber. 

"A large part of the land is owned by capitaUsts in 
New York and Philadelphia, but perhaps the heaviest 



THE PENNSYLVANU RAILROAD. 109 

owners are well-known banking-houses in Europe, 
and their possessions include millions of acres. The 
title originally was in the Holland Land Company, and 
these foreign proprietors now properly represent that 
organization. The leading idea has been that some 
day this land would be valuable, and that there could 
be no safer or more profitable investment. Coal and 
iron were known to exist, and there might be other 
minerals. Still, here and there small tracts of a few 
thousands acres each were held by persons of limited 
means; sometimes they sold their land, sometimes the 
sheriff sold it for them, and a few settlers gained a 
foothold. After the railroad reached Williamsport, 
there was some activity, and a few new settlers went 
up the Susquehanna with goods, and their families 
in canoes, while one of their number drove a yoke of 
oxen along the valley. When the river became too 
shallow to be navigated, the canoe was abandoned, 
a sled was constructed, regardless as to whether the 
ground was bare or covered with snow, and they 
pushed on through the wilderness to the. waters of 
the Alleghany, and selected locations where the rail- 
road was to come. But they had to wait many years ; 
some did not live to see their hopes realized. Their 
children seldom went to meeting, never to school, and 
all looked back with sad hearts to the land they had 
left behind. I was told of one man who had lived 
in a valley fifteen years, waiting for the railroad ; when 
it did come, he improved the first good chance to sell 
out and return to his native place to educate his chil- 
dren. 

^'In passing through this country, I saw many signn 



110 BAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

of recent improvement. There are good saw-mills, 
and at least one first-class tannery newly put in 
operation, with a fine prospect, for bark is plentiful, 
and several valuable coal mines are shipping large 
quantities of coal. Beyond Saint Mary's is a mine of 
cannel coal, so named from * candle,' as it was used 
by the miners in England instead of candles. I saw 
it burning in a grate, and it left a residuum similar to 
the ashes of hard wood. Perhaps this is the only coal 
of the kind in our country, unless it be in the Breckin- 
ridge mines of Kentucky. 

" I was told that the soil in the narrow valleys is in- 
clined to leach ; that for this reason grass does not do 
well ; but that on the mountain levels it is retentive, 
of fine quality, and excellent for grass, oats, potatoes, 
and perhaps other crops; but lumbermen pay little 
attention to farming. From many sources I learned 
that the amount of level flat land is considerable, and 
that, if the saw timber has been cut ofl^ it can be 
bought very cheap. 

" It is a recent discovery that an acre of good grass 
land is worth any acre of choice plough land. More 
than this; the grass land is destined to increase in 
value, because the climate in which it is natural 
is limited to a few degrees of latitude. Philadelphia 
does not lie within it,- nor any place south of it, 
unless sufficiently elevated to make a climate corres- 
ponding to a higher degree of latitude. 

" On the continent of North America, there are more 
degrees of latitude in which the climate is suited to 
figs, oranges, lemons, cotton, and sugar-cane, than 
to grass. Now, while dairy products are limited to a 



THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. Ill 

belt not exceeding three hundred miles wide, and a 
part of which must always be devoted to other crops, 
the importance of developing all our grass land is ap- 
parent. The increased demand for butter and cheese, 
owing to the increase of our population, and the great 
profits arising from this source, make a grass farm of 
especial value. It is of no consequence that pastures 
shall be level; still, the land to be mown should 
not be too rough. It is a well-known fact that the 
grass of mountain regions is more nutritious than 
that in the low lands. 

"Now, this Pennsylvania wilderness is surrounded 
on every side by the most fruitful regions in the 
world. On the east are the famous wheat and clover 
regions ; on the south the counties of Centre and In- 
diana ; on the west the great dairy and fruit regions 
of Ohio; and on the north Chautauqua, Cattaraugus, 
and Alleghany Counties, where the farms are as 
valuable as in any part of the world. Some twenty or 
thirty years ago, these western counties were lightly 
esteemed, for the reason that they were so frosty, and 
the winters were so long. Perhaps it has been dis- 
covered that in countries where cattle have to be fod- 
dered seven months in the year grass enough grows 
to feed them, and that where the winters are mild the 
summers are so hot the grass will not grow at all. 
Boston folks are very particular, and if any people 
know how to pick out things good to eat, they do. 
The very best beef in their market comes from the 
State of Maine. 

"Innumerable streams of cold, pure water come down 
through the hills: on the upland levels springs are 



112 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

frequent, and in the small rivulets trout are abundant. 
Snow falls early and remains all winter,, and, when 
it melts in April, the ground is unfrozen. Hence, 
here is a region supposed similar to Labrador, but in 
the heart of all that is fruitful and choice in this 
happy land, where winter stiffens the soil less than 
it does at Nashville, where verbenas, tender roses, 
dahlias, and other flower bulbs and delicate shrub- 
bery, as well as vines, need no more protection from 
the frost than they would at Natchez or Vicksburg. 

" For health, these localities can hardly be surpassed. 
Now that a railroad penetrates them, they will be 
valued as summer resorts. Pure air and water will 
work all the wonders said to be wrought by sul- 
phurous and carbonic acid gas springs. 

" Within twenty years, progress in every branch of 
mechanics and agriculture has been so great that lo- 
calities once considered of little value are now taking 
a respectable, some a first rank. Not only is it possi- 
ble now, but it is easy, to develop regions which, 
in the last generation, presented obstacles too great 
for mortal men to overcome. And then, when the 
development is made, advantages which no one sus- 
pected are presented. 

" Of course, the country I am speaking of is rough. 
One first passing through will think farming impos- 
sible. But there are places more or less remote from 
stations, and perhaps difficult to reach, where good 
farms can be made. Many are known only to the 
hunters or to the lumbermen. 

" Among these, I came across one locality where hun- 
dreds of farms can be made all adjoining each other ; 



THB PENJfSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 113 

and the whole tract is so level that a good trotting 
road can be made from one end to another. 

"The railroad runs through this land. The timber 
is maple, beech, white wood, and a sprinkle of hemlock. 
The greater part is a succession of sugar maple 
groves. I was reminded of some townships on 
the Ohio Western Keserve, as I saw them in an early- 
day. But I must reserve a further description for 
another letter." 

The writer of this letter does not do justice to the 
subject. Since the opening of the railroad between 
Lock Haven and Erie, a great improvement has taken 
place in the condition of the country. New settle- 
ments have sprung np all along the line of the road. 
Hundreds of farms have been purchased, in good loca- 
tions, not only within a mile of the road, but as far 
back as five or ten miles from the line of the road, and 
are now under good cultivation. All the towns and 
villages on the line of the road have greatly increased 
in population. Lock Haven and Jersey Shore have 
nearly doubled their population and the wealth of 
their citizens, during the last five years, in consequence 
of the increased business brought to them by the rail- 
road. 

In the months of June and July, 1863, the opera- 
tions of the Pennsylvania Eailroad were somewhat 
interrupted by the invasion of the State of Pennsylva- 
nia by a portion of the Confederate army. The track, 
however, was not damaged, nor were any bridges on 
the line of the road in any way injured. 

During the year 1864, the number of passengers 
transported over the road was considerably over two 
8 



114 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

millions, namely: two millions three hundred and 
sixty-six thousand two hundred and thirteen. 

In the year 1857, the Pennsylvania Eailroad Com- 
pany became the owners of the Pennsylvania canals, 
and have worked them ever since. 

The construction of the Pennsylvania Eailroad has 
proved to be a greater work even than was at first 
anticipated. During the progress of the work, and 
particularly during the last few years, the Company 
have found it necessary to extend their aid, and that 
to a very liberal extent, to assist in the completion of 
similar works in Ohio and Pennsylvania, and to 
become the lessees and virtual owners of the Phila- 
delphia and Erie road. The circumstances under 
which these extended operations took place, and the 
results of those operations, are thus clearly set forth, 
in the report of J. Edgar Thomson, Esq., President 
of the Company, made Feb. 19, 1867. 

" The Company has been placed in this strong posi- 
tion, while it has, at the same time, to a larger extent 
than any other corporation of the kind, promoted the 
development of the interior of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania, by aiding the completion and extension of other 
railroads where private capital would not incur the 
risks of such investments. The Pennsylvania Rail- 
road was commenced under the sanguine hope that it 
could be completed and equipped without incurring 
any debt. The efforts of the Company in this direc- 
tion, in view of the great abuse that had attended the 
financial operations of the earlier corporations of 
Pennsylvania, were eminently wise, and worthy of an 
earnest effort to carry them into effect. But after 



THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 115 

some years of persistent labor, it became evident that 
the enterprise was too great for the local capital of 
Philadelphia, without submitting to a delay in its 
completion, which neither the commercial prosperity 
of that city nor the interest of the shareholders of the 
Company would justify. This policy was therefore 
abandoned for one which limited the mortgage in- 
debtedness of the Company to its capital stock. 

" At the commencement of its work, the views of the 
Company extended only to the construction of a rail- 
way between Harrisburg and Pittsburg. But in ope- 
rating such a line in connection with the uncertain 
and frequently adverse management of the Philadel- 
phia and Columbia Eailroad, under the State authori- 
ties, it became evident that it must fail to meet the 
just expectations of its projectors, unless an inde- 
pendent connection could be made with its commercial 
depot, or a lease or purchase of the existing lines 
effected. After many abortive efforts, this object was 
accomplished by a lease of the Harrisburg and Lan- 
caster Eailroad, and the purchase of the State im- 
provements at a high price, but upon a satisfactory 
credit. The great point, however, of securing harmo- 
nious action throughout the line, from Philadelphia 
to Pittsburg, was accomplished, which at once im- 
parted new life and vigor to the enterprise, and in- 
sured its prosperity. 

" It was early foreseen that a trunk line, intended 
to accommodate the traffic between the East and West, 
would fail in its object if wholly dependent upon the 
uncertain navigation of the Ohio Eiver as a feeder. 
The earlier commencement of the other trunk lines had 



116 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

already diverted the routes of the railroads in progress 
from the commercial centres of the West towards the 
East, to their works. To overcome this disadvantage, 
it became essential that other lines connecting your 
road with these trade centres of the West should be 
commenced, and to effect this, direct and efllcient aid 
by this Company towards their construction was 
necessary. So fully impressed were the shareholders 
of this Company, at the time, of the importance of this 
movement, that, in voting such aid, they exceeded the 
views of the directors. The three principal lines 
selected for such aid were one to Cincinnati, a second 
to the centre of Ohio, at Columbus, and a third 
towards Chicago. The connection with Cincinnati 
via Marietta, was adopted, and failed from the inade- 
quate means provided to construct a line over what 
proved to be an unexpectedly rugged country. The 
line to Chicago was only saved as an investment, after 
the failure of the credit of that Company, by much 
labor and large additional outlays by this Company 
to secure its completion. These efforts were crowned 
with entire success, and the enterprise, both financially 
and as a feeder of your main line, has met our most 
sanguine expectations. 

"The line to Columbus — ^which also afforded an 
equally good connection with Cincinnati as that via 
Marietta, though leaving a large district of country 
tributary to another railway — after long delays, grow- 
ing mainly out of a failure to procure adequate legisla- 
tion in Virginia, has recently been brought into 
efficient use, and promises satisfactory results. The 
Pennsylvania Eailroad Company will own as a pre- 



THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 117 

ferred shareholder more than half of the capital stock 
of this line. 

" The eastern end of this line, known as the Pitts- 
burg and Steubenville Railroad, extending from Pitts- 
burg to the Virginia State line, was commenced under 
the patronage of the city of Pittsburg and Alleghany 
County, but owing to the absence of any legal right 
to extend its road to the Steubenville and Indiana 
Railroad across Virginia, It failed to obtain a credit 
that would justify any responsible individuals in un- 
dertaking its construction. A further increase of its 
capital stock was therefore impracticable. 

" A contract was entered into by the Pittsburg and 
Steubenville Railroad Company, with parties of in- 
sufficient capital for the completion of this line, which, 
as might have been expected, only resulted in still 
further embarrassing the condition of the Company by 
a disproportionate increase of its indebtedness, com- 
pared with the work done. After further efforts to 
secure other parties to build the road, a contract was 
entered into with the Western Transportation Company 
for that object — a corporation in which this Company 
became the chief shareholder — and through its in- 
strumentality a concession was obtained from Western 
Virginia, permitting the construction of a railroad 
across that State. From this period the work was pushed 
with as much vigor as the condition of the labor mar- 
ket would permit, notwithstanding the extraordinary 
advance 'that had taken place in every element that 
entered into the cost of constructing railways. Under 
this contract, the work has been opened for use for 
more than a year. In view of the expenditures that 



118 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

had been made upon the line, and those directed to be 
made under the commutation act, it was, at the time, 
deemed best to advance the means required to com- 
plete this line ; but, in consequence of the unexpectedly 
large amount required, it would have probably been 
better to have permitted the road to have been sold, 
and thus divested it of the complications surrounding 
it and which now render such a sale essential to 
ascertain the relation of its creditors. There is much 
work still to be done, to complete this road in a 
manner that will enable it to meet the demands of its 
traffic. 

" The Marietta line, which had enlisted the warmest 
support from the shareholders and the merchants of 
this city, of either of the lines mentioned, became so 
hopelessly involved that the funds advanced by this 
Company, for the construction of that part of the road 
between Marietta and Wheeling, were taken without 
our assent, to meet its debts incurred upon the line 
west of that point. In consequence of this misappli- 
cation of the means furnished by this Company, and 
the immense sums that would have been absorbed in 
carrying out the original plan, it was not deemed 
prudent to make any attempt to save the amount 
invested in the enterprise, under your instructions. 
This amount was accordingly charged to profit and 
loss, and its stock no longer appears among your 
assets. 

" The interest of the Company in the Chicago line 
has nearly all been disposed of, at a profit to this Com- 
pany fully equal to its loss upon the Marietta line. 
But for the timely aid afibrded by this Company, it 



THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 119 

would have proved, as an investment, nearly as un- 
productive. 

" The completion of the Columbus route having, in 
consequence of want of legal authority in Virginia, 
been thrown into a period of inflated prices, its cost 
has so far exceeded our anticipations that it will re- 
quire a long time for it to repay this Company in 
direct returns for the outlays incurred. For these ex- 
penditures it has received various securities, some of 
which have been disposed of, and on the remainder 
there will probably be no loss except a few years of 
interest, for which the indirect advantages gained by 
the Company must be its compensation. 

"The shareholders will perceive, from this rSsumS 
of the operations of the Company, the extent of the 
means required, and the labor and responsibility 
incurred to save the original investments made under 
your instructions, to build up lines to connect yours 
with the trade centres of the West — expenditures that 
were necessary to the success of your own work, but 
which a few years' earlier commencement of it would 
have rendered unnecessary, as the tendency of the 
Western lines would probably then have been towards 
Pittsburg. 

" These expenditures have frequently been referred 
to by shareholders as unwise, without reflecting that 
they were the result of their own action, and that the 
officers of the Company are really the parties to com- 
plain of the immense unrequited labor and responsi- 
bility they have had to assume to save the object the 
Company had in view in making these investments, 
and in providing the means necessary to eflfect them. 



120 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

That they have required outlays, to secure the original 
objects, far exceeding any just expectation at the time 
they were entered into, is quite true; but this has 
arisen from the inadequate stock basis furnished by 
their shareholders for the completion of these works 
and the subsequent increased cost of building rail- 
ways. The result, however, we think will justify the 
policy of this Company. 

"These extraordinary outlays were commenced while 
the traffic of this line was comparatively small, and 
burthened by a heavy impost duty levied by the State, 
and assessed upon no other competing line, greatly 
diminishing its ability to meet these necessary expen- 
ditures to insure the prosperity of the State — and 
from which burden it was only released upon condi- 
tion that the Company would apply the unpaid instal- 
ment towards the construction of the Mifflin and 
Centre County, Bedford, Bald Eagle Valley, Tyrone 
and Clearfield, Ebensburg and Cresson, Western 
Pennsylvania, and the Pittsburg and Steubenville 
Eailroads — all improvements within the common- 
wealth. The effect of this mandate was the same as 
that which followed the appropriations made by the 
stockholders to Western lines, already stated, entail- 
ing upon this Company either the loss of the whole 
investment directed to be made, or advances of the 
additional amounts required to complete these works. 
The Board saw no other alternative but to meet this 
difficulty by the adoption of a liberal and active 
policy, and thus bring all of these lines into produc- 
tive use as speedily as practicable. The outlays neces- 
sary to secure this object, frona the causey already 



THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 121 

referred to, have been very large, but the results have 
proved much more satisfactory than if the original 
expenditures had been suffered to remain unproduc- 
tive, as would have been the case if they had simply 
fulfilled the requirements of the law. The further 
extension of some of these lines will still be necessary, 
to enable them to become productive and meet the 
wants of the districts they were built to accommodate. 

" We have thus presented to you the extent, and the 
causes for the unusually heavy expenditures made by 
this Company on account of its tributaries. Their 
magnitude has made it necessary, not only to protect 
the investments made in them, but also to secure the 
control of other lines important to their success. This 
policy has eventuated in a system which includes the 
Philadelphia and Erie and Northern Central Eailroads, 
by which the Company's cars find their way over 
continuous and unbroken lines, under one control, 
from Columbus, Erie and Pittsburg to Philadelphia 
•and Baltimore. 

''The earnings of the Company's canals were, in 
1866 :— 

From SasqnehaDna Division 1252,681 42 

" Juniata " 35,175 32 

** miscellaneous sources • . • . . 10,010 42 

Total earnings $297,867 16 

Against $181,015 38 for 1865. 

"The cost* of maintaining, enlarging and operating 
the canals, was : — 



122 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

For Susquehanna Division . • • . • 1130,212 93 
" Juniata ** ..... 101,501 50 
" Western " 1,723 55 

Total expenses ....... $233,437 98 

"Showing a net profit during 1866 of $64,429 18. 

"Estimating the value of these canals when purchased 
at one million of dollars, they now stand this Com- 
pany, including interest and the cost of their renewals 
and enlargement as far as it has progressed, at about 
two millions seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars, 
for which sum they will be sold to the Pennsylvania 
Canal Company for stock in said Company, in pur- 
suance of the policy sanctioned at your last annual 
meeting." 

During the year 1865, there were transported over 
thfe Pennsylvania Railroad nearly three millions of 
passengers, namely (2,861,836) ; and during the year 
1866, more than two and a half millions, namely 
(2,673,568). 

The revenue of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company 
from its several lines during the year 1866, is as 
follows : — 

From the Pennsylvania Railroad and branches . $16,583,882 84 
" " Canals .... 297,867 16 

" Philadelphia and Erie Railroad . . 2,541,051 79 

$19,422,801 79 

On railroads having so great a traflic as that which 
is daily carried over the Pennsylvania road the de- 
struction of the iron rails has been found to be very 
rapid. The constant friction of the car- wheels causes 
the iron of the rails to peel off, in thin flakes, and 



• 



THE PENKSYLYANIA RAILROAD. 123 

although this is almost imperceptible, yet in time it 
actoall J wears away the iron rail, and makes frequent 
renewals of the rails necessary. On this subject Mr. 
Thomson, in his report says :— 

" Every effort to materially improve the quality of 
the iron to meet the wants of the augmenting traffic 
of the trunk lines having heretofore failed, attention 
was directed to the introduction of steel rails, and, 
with a view to test their efficiency, the President^ 
while in England, in 1862, ordered a few hundred 
tons for trial. These proved so satisfactory that 
larger importations have been made of Bessemer steel 
rails, which have entirely confirmed our expectations 
of their success. The cost of steel rails is at present 
about twice the price of the best iron rails, while their 
durability is fully eight times greater. It is con- 
fidently believed, however, that with enlarged works, 
increased knowledge of the ores required to produce 
the best quality of this metal, and greater experience 
in its production, they will be successfully manufac- 
tured at home and the price very largely reduced. At 
present the demand is equal to the supply, and prices 
are maintained. To avoid the heavy annual outlays 
that a change from a cheap to a dearer material would 
necessarily entail upon your revenues, it is proposed to 
continue for the present to re-roll the worn-out rails, 
and replace the annual wear and tear with steel rails. 
The general introduction of steel rails is now wholly 
a commercial question, in which the cost of the in- 
creased capital required for their purchase becomes 
the chief impediment to their general adoption. While 
the business of a line is small, it will still be economy 



124 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

to use iron rails, at an ordinary rate of interest upon 
capital, until the cost of producing steel is reduced to 
its minimum. When this result is accomplished, the 
general public will be materially benefited by the re- 
duced cost of transportation which the introduction of 
steel rails will enable railway companies to afford." 

The following statement exhibits the earnings of 
the Company for a series of years : — 

Earnings of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. 

1851 $1,039,565 

1854 3,512,295 

1856 4,720,193 

1857 4,855,669 

1858 6,185,330 

1859 5,362,355 

1860 6,932,701 

1861 7,300,000 

1862^ $413,000; and canals .... 10,969,239 

1863* 727,669 ; and canals 12,906,239 

1864* 1,131,147 ; and canals 308,615 . . 16,198,820 

1865* 2,074,140 ; and canals 181,015 . . 19,714,325 

1866 as per page 149 19,422,801 

The "Philadelphia News" of May 9, 1867, says:— 
"In accordance with the policy adopted by the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company the Board of Direc- 
tors have declared a semi-annual cash dividend of 
three per cent, on the capital stock, and an extra 
dividend of five per cent., which will be paid to the 
stockholders in the shares of the Company, both clear 
of National and State tax. The extra dividend is 
derived from earnings of the road prior to Januaty 1, 
and it is quite probable that the surplus earnings 

* Including Philadelphia and Erie Railroad. 



THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 125 

above six per cent, for the current year, will enable 
the Board to declare a like extra dividend in Novem- 
ber." 

The officers of the Company are as follows : — 

President, J. Edgar Thomson; Vice-Presidents, 
Thomas A. Scott, and H. J. Lombaert; Treasurer, 
Thos. T. Firth ; Secretary, Edmund Smith. 

We have thus endeavored to present a sketch of 
the history, operations, and prospects of this great road, 
which is jtistly regarded with pride by every citizen 
of Pennsylvania. The amazing success which has 
attended all the operations of the Company, and the 
bright prospects that lie before it in the future, are 
almost entirely due to the good sense on the part of 
the Directors, in re-electing and keeping in office Mr. 
Thomson and Mr. Scott, the chief officers of the Com- 
pany. The occasions have been frequent, particularly 
during the last few years, when the rare executive and 
administrative qualities of these gentlemen not only 
saved the Company from heavy losses, but brought 
about results that are now seen in the enviable posi- 
tion which the road and the Company occupy. 

The Pennsylvania Eailroad Company has recently 
purchased the Pan-Handle, or Steubenville Eailroad, 
extending from Pittsburg to Newark in Ohio; so that 
the Company's cars can now run pn its own road, 
from Philadelphia nearly to the Capital of Ohio. The 
western operations of the Company will be greatly 
facilitated by this purchase ; as it now has the virtual 
control of an uninterrupted line from Philadelphia to 
Cincinnati. 



126 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTEE XI. 

PITTSBURG, FORT WAYNE, AND CHICAGO RAILROAD. 

This great road aflfords an excellent example of the 
benefits of railroad consolidation ; of the good eflFects 
of which we shall meet with so many examples in the 
progress of this work. 

The distance between Philadelphia and Chicago is 
eight hundred and twenty-three miles. Previous to 
the year 1856, there was no direct railroad communi- 
cation between these two cities. The through line is 
now composed of two roads, namely, the Pennsylva- 
nia Central from Philadelphia to Pittsburg; and the 
Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and Chicago, from Pittsburg 
to Chicago. The construction of the latter road was 
formally commenced by breaking ground at the 
boundary line between the States of Pennsylvania and 
Ohio, on the 4th of July, 1849, the work having been 
commenced by the Ohio and Pennsylvania Bailroad 
Company, of which Gen. Wm. Eobinson, Jr., was the 
first and then President, and S. W. Eoberts, Esq., the 
Chief Engineer. The Ohio and Pennsylvania Bail- 
road Company was incorporated by an Act of the 
Legislature of Ohio, passed 24th of February, 1848 ; 
and the Legislature of Pennsylvania, by an Act of the 
11th of April of the same year, concurrently made tho 
Company a corporation of Pennsylvania. The Act 



PITTSBUBG, F. W., AND CHICAGO RAILBoId. 127 

of Incorporation gave the Company "power to con- 
stmct a railroad from the town of Mansfield, in Bich- 
land County, eastward by the way of the towns of 
Wooster, Massillon, and Canton, to some point in the 
eastern boundary of Ohio, within the county of Colum- 
biana, as hereinafter provided ; thence to the city of 
Pittsburg, in the State of Pennsylvania ; and from the 
said town of Mansfield westwardly by way of Bu- 
cyrus, in Crawford County, until it intersects the west 
line of the State of Ohio." Under this authority the 
preliminary surveys for the road were commenced in 
Pennsylvania, on the bank of the Ohio Eiver, at the 
mouth of Big Beaver Eiver, on the 11th of July, 1848. 
The surveys were pressed forward with much energy, 
and completed for the whole line in less than two 
years. The work of construction was commenced in 
the last half of 1849, and the entire track was laid 
and the road opened for use between Pittsburg (Alle- 
ghany City) and Crestline, a distance of one hundred 
and eighty seven miles, on the 11th of April, 1858. 
Although the Company was authorized to extend its 
road to the western boundary of the State of Ohio, 
the Board of Directors did, as early as 1850, make 
Crestline the western terminus of the road. This 
action was taken in view of the certainty that the line 
would be practically carried to the western boundary 
of Ohio by the building of the Ohio and Indiana 
Bailroad in the direction of Fort Wayne, and the 
building of the Bellefontaine and Indiana Railroad in 
the direction of Indianapolis. 

The means for building the Ohio and Pennsylvania 
road were derived from the sale of shares, bonds, and 



128 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

temporary loans. A large proportion of the shares 
was subscribed for by municipal and other corpora- 
tions, and not paid for in cash, but in the bonds of the 
corporations subscribing. These had to be sold at a 
discount by the Eailroad Company, and the loss sus- 
tained by it, thereby adding to the cost of the road. 
The shares subscribed for by individuals were paid 
for in cash, or by contractors' work, the latter being 
to the Company as good as cash, so far as the work 
was contracted for at cash rates. The actual cash, 
however, paid into the treasury of the Company by 
shareholders was only about one-fifth of the cost of 
the road and equipment. 

The great desire to have pushed forward to early 
completion a continuous railway from Pittsburg to 
Chicago induced parties the most interested to organize 
new companies, believing their object could be reached 
more speedily by several corporations than by one. 
In furtherance of this view, the Legislature of Ohio, on 
the 20th of March, 1850, passed an Act incorporating 
the Ohio and Indiana Eailroad Company, with " power 
to construct a railroad commencing at a suitable 
point, to be selected by said Company, on the Cleve- 
land, Columbus, and Cincinnati Railroad, near Seltzer's 
tavern, in the county of Eichland ; thence to Bucyrus, 
in the county of Crawford; thence to Upper San- 
dusky, in the county of Wyandotte, and thence, on 
such route as the Directors of said Company, or a 
majority of them may select, to the west line of the 
State of Ohio ; and thence to Fort Wayne, in the State 
of Indiana." This Company was made a corporation 
of Indiana by concurrent legislation of that State with 



PITTSBURG, F. W. AND CHICAGO RAILROAD. 129 

Ohio, by an Act of the State approved January 15th, 
1851. The organization of the Company was com- 
pleted at Bucyrus on the 4ta of July, 1850, by the 
election of a Board of Directors, which met as soon as 
elected and selected Dr. Willis Merriman as President. 
On the 10th of the same month, J. R. Straughan was 
elected, by the Board, Chief Engineer ; who at once 
organized his Engineer Corps and comjnenced making 
the necessary surveys for the location of the road. 

On the 18th of September of the same year, the 
Board of Directors fixed the eastern terminus of the 
road at Crestline, the point where the Ohio and Penn- 
sylvania Railroad intersects the Cleveland, Columbus, 
and Cincinnati Railroad. 

On the 28th of January, 1852, the Board of Direc- 
tors awarded to Wm. Mitchell & Co. the contract for 
building the entire road (the Company furnishing the 
rails) from Crestline to Fort Wayne, a distance of one 
hundred and thirty-one miles. These contractors com-' 
menced the work soon after, and prosecuted it to com- 
pletion with such commendable energy as to have it 
ready for passing trains over the whole road on the 
first of November, 1854. 

The means for building this road were obtained, as 
in the case of the Ohio and Pennsylvania Road, by 
sales of shares and bonds, and temporary loans. But 
a small amount of the money expended in the con- 
struction of this road was realized by a direct payment 
of cash into the treasury. Large subscriptions to the 
stock were made by municipal and other corporations, 
and paid for in the bonds of the corporations so sub- 
scribing ; which bonds were sold at a discount, and at 
9 



130 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

the loss of the Ohio and Indiana Railroad Company. 
The contractors also received stock in part payment 
for work ; or, in other words, stock was paid for in 
contract work. In some instances stock was paid for 
in uncultivated lands, in farms, town lots, and the pro- 
ducts of the farm ; and the proceeds realized from the 
sale of stock thus paid for in the various ways made 
available in the payments for building the road. The 
amount of cash paid into the treasury by the share- 
holders of this Company was less than five per cent, 
of the cost of the road and its equipment. 

Before either of the two companies building roads 
east of Fort Wayne had half completed the works 
they had in charge, the people iiUhe counties between 
Fort Wayne and Chicago determined on an indepen- 
dent efibrt to build the last link in the chain between 
Philadelphia and Chicago. To accomplish it, a Con- 
vention was held at Warsaw, Kosciusko County, In- 
diana, on the 14th of September, 1852, "to make 
arrangements for extending the Ohio and Indiana 
Eailroad westerly." Delegates were in attendance 
from Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and lUinios, repre- 
senting large, varied, and important interests^ from 
the seaboard to the Mississippi Eiven A good degree 
of unanimity and much earnestness characterized the 
proceedings. 

During the sitting of the Convention " Articles of 
Association" were formed in the manner prescribed 
by an Act of the Legislature of Indiana, entitled "An 
Act to provide for the Incorporation of Eailroad Com- 
panies," approved May lltb, 1852. Two hundred and 
thirteen individuals and firms, mostly members of the 



PITTSBURG, F. W., AND CHICAGO RAILROAD. 131 

Convention, subscribed, in the aggregate, for one thou- 
sand shares of the stock of this corporation, just formed 
under the style of the " Fort Wayne and Chicago Eail- 
road Company." The names of the persons to consti- 
tute the first Board of Directors were incorporated 
into the ''Articles of Association," and therefore their 
election, and the legal existence of the corporation, 
date from the 14th of September, 1852. The Board 
of Directors was formally organized at a meeting held 
at Warsaw, September 24th, 1852, by electing Hon. 
Samuel Hanna, of Fort Wayne, President. At the 
same meeting, J. E. Straughan, Esq., was appointed 
Chief Engineer. By an Act of the Legislature of 
Illinois, approved February 5th, 1853, and entitled 
"An Act to Incorporate the Fort Wayne and Chicago 
Bailroad Company," the Indiana corporation was given 
legal existence in Illinois. 

An engineer corps was organized and the location 
of the line commenced during the fall of 1852, and so 
far progressed in as to enable the Board, on the 8tli of 
June, 1853, to put under contract the entire road from 
Fort Wayne to Chicago, excepting the seven miles at 
the west end, the final location of which depended 
upon the selection of the station grounds in the city 
of Chicago, which had not yet been made. The 
means of the Company to prosecute the work was to 
be derived from the sale of stocks and bonds. The 
stock subscriptions which were paid in cash into the 
treasury of the Company were very small — amounting, 
perhaps, in all, to less than three per cent, on the final 
cost of building and equipping the road between Fort 
Wayne and Chicago. The stock subscriptions were 



132 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

paid for mostly in uncultivated lands, farms, town 
lots, and labor upon the road. A large portion of the 
real estate thus conveyed to the Company in payment 
of subscriptions to stock (over one million of dollars in 
value) was mortgaged by the Company to obtain the 
necessary cash means to pay for grading the roadway, 
&o. The balance of the cash means of the Company 
was derived from the sale of bonds. 

The Company, having only a very small cash sub- 
scription to its stock, and not being able to make a 
free sale of its securities, progressed slowly with the 
work of construction during the years 1853, 1854, and 
1855. In 1855, the work was confined almost exclu- 
sively to the portion between Fort Wayne and Colum- 
bia City, a distance of twenty miles ; and that piece 
was completed and opened for business in February, 
1856. 

We have now reached a point in the history of these 
corporations when it became evident to the Managers 
that, to secure the early completion of the line to 
Chicago, and the ultimate success of the three roads, 
some plan for harmonizing all interests, and creating a 
unit for management, would have to be devised. The 
Ohio and Pennsylvania Eailroad Company was at this 
time in fair working order from Alleghany City to 
Crestline, a distance of one hundred and eighty-seven 
miles, with a business suflScient to pay the interest on 
her debt, but no dividends on the stock. The Com- 
pany had yet to build its track into the city of Pitts- 
burg, across the Alleghany River, and provide station 
grounds and buildings in that city, which would in- 
volve an outlay of four hundred thousand dollars. Its 



PITTSBURG, P. W., AND CHICAGO RAILROAD. 133 

western terminus rested on the Cleveland, Columbus 
and Cincinnati Eailroad, at a point sixty miles north 
of the southern terminus of that road ; which made the 
Ohio and Pennsylvania Eailroad dependent upon a 
Company, whose interests were adverse, for the Cin- 
cinnati and Southwestern trade. It was also at this 
time quite certain that four other lines, then building, 
would in time compete for the Southwest trade, with 
advantages in all cases equal, and in some superior, to 
any that the Ohio and Pennsylvania road could ever 
enjoy. The direct Western business of the road was 
by means of the so-called Bellefontaine line, reaching 
from Gallon, a point four miles south of Crestline, on 
the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Eailroad, to 
Indianapolis ; which line was owned by two corpora- 
tions. The business of this connection had to be 
filtered through four miles of an adverse corporation, 
owning the road between Crestline and Gallon. The 
proximity of the eastern terminus (eighty miles) of the 
Bellefontaine line to Lake Erie, aided by a large 
Cleveland interest in the Bellefontaine and Indiana 
Eailroad Company, caused the larger portion of the 
business of that line to gravitate towards the lakes. 
The Northwestern trade of the Ohio and Pennsylvania 
road, however much or little it might be, could have 
but one avenue — over the line through Fort Wayne, 
then building by corporations embarrassed in their 
finances. Even on the completion of this line, the 
Ohio and Pennsylvania road would stand in the same 
relation to it as the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincin- 
nati Eailroad, or any other intersecting, road. In 
all previous contracts between the parties, this princi- 



134 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

pie had been clearly recognized and set forth, by which 
the Ohio and Indiana and the Fort Wayne and Chi- 
cago Companies were at liberty to give to any connect- 
ing road or roads the same rates, facilities and rights 
as to the Ohio and Pennsylvania road. Nothing could 
be more evident to any one conversant with railway 
strategy and the laws of trade, than that the position 
of the Ohio and Pennsylvania road would soon become 
secondary, as compared with the leading lines in the 
West, and would degenerate into a local road, de- 
pendent on way-local businesa; or, if competing for 
through traffic, would have to do so under circum- 
stances which would leave no profit to result there- 
from. To become a portion of one of the great trunk 
lines controlling the traffic between the East and West, 
was the only security to the shareholders of the Com- 
pany that their interests would, at a future day, be of 
any value. And it was this view as to the probable 
future value of the property which induced the Mana- 
gers and Stockholders to assent to the terms of consoli- 
dation, which were agreed to and consummated on the 
first day of August, 1856. 

At this same period the Ohio and Indiana Railroad 
was unable to earn sufficient to pay the interest on the 
funded debt and improve the track, which was in very 
bad order. The hope of this Company was in the 
completion of the whole line to Chicago, and it ap- 
pearing evident to the Managers and Shareholders 
that a consolidation of the three Corporations into one 
would effect this object, they were the first to urge 
consolidation. 

The Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad Company 



PITTSBURG, F. W., AND CHICAGO RAILROAD. 135 

had now been brought to a stand still for want of cash 
means, although they had their iron purchased and 
paid for, and large but unavailable assets. The pres- 
sure of the times^ with an acquiescence in the policy 
that the line from Chicago to Pittsburg should be a 
unit, made the Managers and Shareholders of that 
Company the advocates of consolidation. Thus, with 
great unanimity, the Shareholders of these three Cor- 
porations voted in favor of the consolidation of the three 
Corporations into the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and 
Chicago Eailroad Company ; the existence of which 
Corporation dates from August 1st, 1856. 

Before the final consummation of the consolidation, 
and in anticipation of it, arrangements were made to 
improve the condition of the track of the Ohio and 
Indiana road, and put to active work the contractors 
on the portion of the Fort Wayne and Chicago road 
between Columbia City and Plymouth, a distance of 
forty-five miles. The work was pushed forward with 
energy, under the direction of Jesse L. Williams, Esq., 
the Chief Engineer ; so that, on the 10th of November 
following, a period of about ninety days, the road was 
open to travel. The portion of the Cincinnati, Peru, 
and Chicago road between Plymouth and La Porte 
was opened about the same day ; so that on the 10th 
of November, 1856, a line was opened between Pitts- 
burg and Chicago, by way of La Porte, which brought 
into use, for the traffic of the Northwest, three hundred 
and eighty-four miles of the Consolidated line. This 
result was accomplished by temporary loans and 
credits made and given by the Pennsylvania Eailroad 
Company, and the Harrisburg and Lancaster Eailroad 
Company. 



136 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Although the struggle for the completion of the line 
to Chicago was tedious, and protracted beyond what 
was anticipated, and the financial difficulties embar- 
rassing, yet all these obstacles were overcome by the 
energy and enterprise of the gentlemen engaged in 
the undertaking; and the shareholders and bond- 
holders have now the satisfaction of knowing that they 
own a property the great value and controlling import- 
ance of which is assured beyond a question. With- 
out such a consolidation as was made in 1856, this 
result could never have been attained. 

On the first of January, 1857, the new Company 
executed a mortgage on their entire property for ten 
millions of dollars, to secure an issue of ten millions 
of thirty-year bonds. These bonds were divided into 
two classes of three and one-half and six and one-half 
millions of dollars, respectively. The first were 
denominated construction bonds, and were to be used 
in the construction and equipment of the road ; the 
second were denominated redemption bonds, and were 
to be used for redeeming or relieving all the issues of 
the old corporations. The discredit 'Vfhich had fallen 
upon railway securities, and the diminished traffic at 
this period of the leading railways of the West, made 
it impossible to realize the expectations which had 
been formed for thus obtaining the means to complete 
the road to Chicago. During the year 1857, and the 
early part of 1858, therefore, no great progress was 
made in the work of construction, and all that was 
done was paid for by the operations of the road, and 
at the expense of the transportation department. 

In the spring of 1858 arrangements were made for 



PITTSBURG, P. W., AND CHICAGO RAILROAD. 137 

deferring the interest on the bonded debt; which, with 
aid from the Pennsylvania Eailroad Company, enabled 
the Company, by the close of the year, to complete 
their track to Chicago. The means and credit of the 
Company were entirely exhausted, and a large floating 
debt incurred, in the effort -which accomplished the 
completion of the road to Chicago. This burden was 
beyond the ability of the revenue derived from trans- 
portation to remove in the time demanded by the 
creditors of the Company. Efforts were made to 
convert the floating debt into funded debt, and thus 
relieve the Company ; but the difference of views of 
creditors, and the anxiety of all to get more money 
than the Company possessed, delayed the accomplish- 
ment of any plan until the bondholders, in December, 
1859, commenced proceedings for foreclosure, and put 
the property in the hands of a receiver. Soon after, 
a plan was perfected by which the whole property 
was to be sold under legal proceedings in the several 
States, and purchased in for the benefit of all classes 
of creditors assenting to the arrangement. A new 
corporation was to be created to hold the property, 
and by means of which all interests were to receive 
their respective portions, as agreed upon previous to 
the sale. The plan has been successfully executed. 

At a future day it will be a marvel, as it is now 
difficult to realize, how so long a line of road — the 
longest in the United States between terminal stations 
• — much of it built through a country sparsely inha- 
bited and but little improved, could be built, and at 
last rest on a solid foundation of business and credit, 
with so small amount of cash means contributed by the 



138 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

shareholders of the Company. Of the eighteen mil- 
lion six hundred and sixty-three thousand eight hun- 
dred and seventy- six dollars now representing the cost 
of the road, equipment, &c,, the shareholders contri- 
buted in cash only about ten per cent., or less than 
two millions of dollars; and their contributions in 
cash, bonds, notes, lands and personal property, labor, 
&c., to something less than four millions of dollars, 
or rather more than twenty per cent, of the present 
cost of the work. The diflferenoe between this sum 
and the capital stock, as now shown by the books of 
the Company, is m^de up of dividends which were 
paid in stock, interest on stock paid in stock, premium 
on stock of Ohio and Pennsylvania and Fort Wayne 
and Chicago Eailroad Companies, allowed to the stock- 
holders therein at the time of the consolidation, which 
was paid in stock, and a balance of stock still held by 
the Trustees. 

It is a satisfaction to be able to say, that from the 
commencement of this great enterprise in 1849, to the 
consummation of the plan of re-organization in 1862, 
no creditor of the Company was ever required to abate 
one dollar from any just claim, but that all such debts, 
with interest, have been paid in cash, or in the bonds 
of the Company, which are now recognized as among 
the best railway securities in this country. 

The completion of the last link in the road, from 
Plymouth to Valparaiso and thence to Chicago, was 
an event of no small importance to the latter city. It 
gave her one more grand trunk line to the east, and a 
direct, air-line route to Pittsburg and Philadelphia. 
Her citizens were not slow to avail themselves of these 



PITTSBURG, F. W., AND CHICAGO RAILROAD. 139 

advantages ; and the passenger and freight traffic of the 
road, from Chicago, large from the first, has been 
steadily increasing every year. 

The effect of the opening of the road, upon the * 
prosperity of the country through which it passes, was 
most remarkable. In Indiana and Ohio particularly, 
new settlements sprung up all along the line of the 
road, while all the older towns along the route rapidly 
increased in population. Hundreds of farms lying 
within a mile or two of the road, which before had 
been regarded as nearly valueless, were now eagerly 
sought for, were sold at good prices, and were imme- 
diately put under a system of high cultivation. The 
result of this state of things soon showed itself. The 
production of grain and cattle increased enormously 
all over the region alluded to ; lands rose in value ; and 
the wealth and prosperity of the country have been 
ever since increasing. 

The present organization of the Pittsburg, Fort 
Wayne, and Chicago Eailroad Company, under the 
new arrangement, was effected on the 26th of February, 
1862, when George W. Cass, Esq., of Pittsburg, was 
elected President, The Directors have shown their 
appreciation of the value of the services of Mr. Cass, 
and his eminent fitness for this responsible position, 
by re-electing him President at every subsequent 
annual election. Under the wise and judicious man- 
agement of Mr. Cass, the affairs of the road have greatly 
prospered. During the last six years, the business of 
the road has steadily increased. 

The running time of the through trains between 
Philadelphia and Chicago is about thirty-five hours^ 



140 



RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 



or two days and a night. There is only one change 
of cars, and that at Pittsburg. The depot here is so 
admirably arranged that the traveller has only a few 
steps to walk, under the same roof, in order to enter the 
cars in which he wishes to continue his journey. Many 
persons who travel on this line, who are opposed to 
sleeping cars, and who do not like to travel at night, 
spend the intervening two nights of the journey either 
at Altoona, Pittsburg, Crestline, or Fort Wayne; at 
all of which places excellent accommodations are 
found. 

The earnings of the railway since the consolidation 
of the three original Corporations have been from year 
to year as follows 



In 1857, 
« 1858, 
1859, 
1860, 
1861, 
1862, 
1863, 
1864, 
1865, 



(( 



(( 



(( 



(( 



(( 



(( 



(( 



$1,660,424 89 
1,567,232 22 
1,965,987 80 
2,335,353 83 
3,031,887 42 
3,734,390 43 
5,132,933 74 
7,120,465 76 
8,489,062 56 



In 1866 the earnings of the road amounted to seven 
million four hundred and sixty-seven thousand two 
hundred and eighteen dollars; and the expenses to 
five million one hundred and forty-seven thousand six 
hundred and eighty-six dollars. 

The officers of the Company are George "W. Cass, 
President; Samuel Hanna, Vice-President; J. N. 
McCuUough, General Superintendent ; H. A. Gardner, 
Chief Engineer; John B. Jarvis, Consulting Engineer; 
J. P. Henderson, Treasurer ; F. M. Hutchinson, Secre- 
tary. 



NORTHERN CENTRAL RAILROAD. 141 



CHAPTEE XII. 

. NORTHERN CENTRAL RAILROAD. 

The route between Washington and Niagara Falls 

consists of the following railroads namely : — 

MUea 
The Baltimore and Ohio, from Washington to 

Baltimore 40 

The Northern Central road, from Baltimore to 

Oanandaigua 315 

New York Central road, from Canandaigua to 

Suspension Bridge . -. . . . 106 

Total 461 

The Northern Central Eailroad, as originally built, 
extended only from Baltimore to Sunbury. Previous 
to the year 1853, its business was confined to the re- 
gion between these two points. The passenger traffic 
between Harrisburg and Baltimore was always good, 
and generally taxed the capacity of the rolling stock 
of the Company to its full extent. Between Sunbury 
and Baltimore the freight traffic was principally in 
coal, of which immense quantities were dug from the 
mines near Sunbury. In 1854 a portion of the Sun- 
bury and Erie Eailroad was completed ; and that part 
between Williamsport and Sunbury was thrown open 
to the public. This proved to be of great service to 



142 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

the Northern Central Eailroad. Williamsport is a large 
and growing town, and has a very extensiro trade in 
lumber and iron machinery of various kinds. Besides 
the usual county courts, the United States District 
Court is also held here. Its inhabitants embrace many 
persons of wealth, culture, and refinement, and of great 
enterprise and public spirit. The opening of the Sun- 
bury and Erie Railroad, connecting it with Sunbury, 
and thence with Baltimore a.nd Philadelphia, gave a 
new impetus to all branches of business in the place,* 
and during the ten years succeeding 1855, Williams- 
port increased rapidly in wealth and population. The 
Northern Central Railroad felt an immediate improve- 
ment in its business in consequence, and this has been 
every year increasing. 

The Williamsport and Elmira Railroad, from Wil- 
liamsport to Elmira, had been built and was in opera- 
tion about the year 1846. Its business, however, was 
small and unremunerative, until it became consolidated 
with the Northern Central Railroad. From that time * 
a remarkable change took place in its affairs. The 
whole consolidated line, from Canandaigua to Balti- 
more, is now in the best possible condition. It is re- 
garded as one road, and is under one. management. 
Particular pains are taken to keep the track in perfect 
order. It is constantly examined, and the rails 
renewed as often as necessary. The locomotives are 
the best and most powerful that can be procured, and 
the passenger cars are models of cleanliness and com- 
fort. 

The enormous amount of the passenger travel over 
this road may be judged from the fact that during the 



NORTHERN CENTRAL RAILROAD. 143 

year 1866, eight hundred and eighty-five thousand pas- 
sengers passed over it. The present equipment of the 
road includes ninety-five locomotives, sixty passen- 
ger cars, thirty-seven baggage cars, ^nd three thousand 
six hundred and eighty -six freight cars. The total earn- 
ings of the year 1866 were over four millions of dol- 
lars (namely, $4,042,125) ; .and the net earnings were 
over a million of dollars (namely, $1,295,288). The 
prosperity of the road, for -a series of years past, is 
chiefly due to the energy and great experience of J. N". 
Du Barry, Esq., the General Superintendent, who has 
given his personal attention to all the details of the 
service. 

The officers of the Company are as follows : — 
James D. Cameron, President; J. N. Du Barry, 
General Superintendent ; Edward L. Du Barry, Assist- 
ant Superintendent ; J. S. Leib, Treasurer ; R. S. Hol- 
lins, Secretary. 

' The Company are at present engaged in building 
four new bridge's between Sunbury and Shamokin in 
Pennsylvania, in order to run a through train between 
New York and Sunbury. The new portion of the 
route, and the through trains, will be in operation by 
next Marchi 



144 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTEE XIII. 

NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD. 

The great through route between New York and 
Chicago, by way of Albany and Niagara Falls, consists* 
of the following lines of railroad : — 

Miles. 

The Hudson Eiver Eailroad, from New York 

to Albany 144 

The New York Central Eailroad, from Albany 

to Suspension Bridge 304 

The Great Western Eailroad of Canada, from 

Suspension Bridge to Detroit . . . 229 

The Michigan Central Eailroad, from Detroit to 

Chicago . ! 274 

Total 951 

The whole length of the New York Central Eail- 
road is five hundred and fifty-six miles. 

The whole length of the first track, laid on 
main lines and branches measuring the 
length of the road exclusive of second Miles, 
tracks and sidings, is as above . . . 555.88 

The length of the second track, laid on 
main lines and branches (exclusive of 
sidings and turnouts less than one mile in 
length) is .' 280.51 



NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD. 145 

The length of sidings, turnouts, and switches Miles 
laid on main lines and branches is . . 152.27 

The total length of equivalent single track, 

laid on main lines and branches, adding to 

. tbe length of the first track the length of 

the second track, of the sidings and of the 

turnouts, is . . . . . . 988.66 

The length of lines leased by the New York Central 
, Eailroad Company is as follows : — 

Niagara Bridge and Canandaigua Eail- 
road, from Suspension Bridge to Miles 
Canandaigua, 98.46 

Sidings, turnouts, and switches, . . 3.42 Miles 



Saratoga and Hudson Eiver Eailroad, 
from Junction, east of Schenectady, 
to Athens, 37.87 

Sidings, turnouts, and switches, . . 5.32 



101.88 



43.19 



Total length of equivalent single track, 145.07 

Total length of equivalent single track 

on lines owned and lines leased, . 1,133.73 

The New York Central Eailroad Company was 
organized under an Act of the Legislature of the State 
of New York (Chap. 76 of the Laws of 1853), entitled 
" An act to authorize the consolidation of certain rail- 
road companies," whereby the Albany and Schenec- 
tady, the Schenectady and Troy, the Utica and Sche- 
nectady, the Syracuse and Utica, the Eochester and 
Syracuse, the Buffalo and Lockport, the Mohawk Val- 
10 



146 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

ley, the Syracuse and Utica direct, the Buffalo and 
Bochester, and the Eochester, Lockport, and Niagara 
Falls Eailroad Companies, were authorized at any 
time to consolidate the said companies into a single 
corporation. 

Articles of agreement were accordingly entered 
into by the said several companies, bearing date the 
17th day of May, 1853, which were duly executed in 
duplicate, and a copy filed in the office of the Secretary 
of the State of New York, as required by the said 
act of the Legislature, by which the said several com- 
panies were consolidated into one corporation, under 
the name of " The New York Central Railroad Com- 
pany:' 

The first Board of Directors of the new Company 
were elected on the sixth day of July, 1853, and the 
Company then organized. The officers of the former 
companies continued to receive the income of the 
several lines of road of which they are in charge, until 
the first day of August, 1853. 

The first railroad ever constructed in the State of 
New York was the Mohawk and Hudson road. It 
was chartered in 1826, commenced in 1830, and fin- 
ished in 1831. It was one of the first railroads in the 
United States, to use locomotive engines. Horse 
power was employed upon it for a few months at first, 
but two locomotives were placed upon it soon after 
its completion, to which we will refer again. There 
were considerable elevations at both ends of the road, 
but these were overcome by stationary engines, operat- 
ing on inclined planes. The plane at Albany was 
three thousand one hundred and three feet long ; that 



NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD. 147 

• 

at Schenectady two thousand and forty-six feet long. 
The road was built in a very primitive style, in con- 
formity to the crude and defective stage of railway en- 
terprise at that early day. Instead of the massive and 
durable rail of modern times, weighing seventy -five 
pounds to the yard, a flat bar was used not quite three- 
quarters of an inch thick, and two and a half inches 
wide. • 

At that time the Erie Canal was the principal 
medium of communication between all points along 
its line, from Albany to Buffalo. The great number 
of locks, however, between Troy and Schenectady, 
and the slow progress made by the canal boats, made 
the journey anything but desirable. Before the year 
1831, a regular line of stage coaches ran between Al- 
bany and Schenectady, and these were well patronized 
by the travelling public. But when the railway was 
first built, it was found to be a great convenience, and 
it soon crowded the line of stage coaches off the track. 

Early in the year 1830, the Mohawk and Hudson 
Eailroad Company made an engagement with John B. 
Jervis, Esq., who afterwards became so celebrated as 
a civil engineer, and whose merits in that capacity, 
even then, began to be appreciated. Mr. Jervis at 
once entered upon his duties, as chief engineer of the 
road. In July, 1830, the grading of the road was 
put under contract, and the work of laying the track 
was commenced in the spring of 1831. About mid- 
summer of that year, the rails were so far laid as to 
allow coaches for passengers to run from the head of 
the inclined plane at Schenectady, to the junction of 
the western turnpike road, about two miles west of 



148 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

Albany. This section, of about twelve miles, was 
then operated for passengers, mostly by horse-power. 
Two locomotive engines were put on, soon afterwards ; 
one of them an English engine, and one of American 
manufacture. 

The latter was built in New York, by the West 
Point Foundry Association. The American engine 
was quite light, not (wer six tons weight, but was able 
to haul a train of eighty or a hundred passengers. 
The English engine was larger, weighing about eight 
tons, and was able to haul a train of one hundred and 
twenty-five, or one hundred and fifty passengers from 
twenty to twenty-five miles an hour. The line of the 
railroad was very straight, with light grades. The 
above was the utmost capacity of these two engines. 
The sharpest grade between the heads of the inclined 
planes was twenty -six feet per mile for a distance of 
about two miles. The formation of the country was 
abrupt at both ends of the railway, and at that day a 
railway was regarded as impracticable without the 
use of inclined planes with stationary engines^ where 
the elevation to be overcome was so great as on this 
road. Hence the use of inclined planes* of great 
length on the Pennsylvania railroad, which were con- 
tinued to as late a period as the year 1858. 

Subsequent experience, of course, has demonstrated 
that this idea was erroneous, and it has been corrected 
for many years. It is proper, however, to remarl^ 
that the line eventually adopted for this part of what 
afterwards became the New York Central Bailroad, 
could not have been established in the commencement 
of the work, on account of the opposition to a location 



NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD. 149 

in the heart of the city, of a railroad to be operated 
by locomotive engines. The history of railroads in 
this country has shown that this kind of influence has 
often been powerful and very embarrassing, although 
in time it has generally yielded. Mr. Jervis was one 
of the commissioners who subsequently established 
the present line of that part of the New York Central 
Railroad, doing away with the inclined planes, and he 
has often remarked, since, that he was very much im- 
pressed with the manifest difference in public opinion 
on such a question. What would have been impracti- 
cable in the original proceedings, was now sought as 
a public benefit. 

It was truly interesting to observe the change of 
views in regard to inclined planes, on which a great 
controversy grew up, both in England and America. 
In the course of this controversy, and of the experi- 
ments which it involved, it was soon found that 
inclined planes were a serious impediment to the 
passenger traffic, and they are now, it is believed, 
entirely dispensed with, and are only used on roads 
during a heavy freight traffic mostly in minerals. For 
the latter, they are still regarded in mountainous dis- 
tricts as being very advantageous for cheap transport. 

To return to the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad : 
A branch railway was made from the junction of the 
western turnpike, along that turnpike and through 
State Street, in Albany, to a station a short distance 
below the Capitol. This was afterwards extended to 
the foot of State Street. It was operated by horse 
power for several years, and then abandoned. Finally 



150 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

the inclined planes were abandoned, and the road was 
operated entirely by locomotive engines. 

The rails of the track were originally composed of 
plate iron laid on yellow pine stringers. The iron 
plate had a flange, to give it more stiffness, and to hold 
the plate more firmly to the stringer. The plate was 
nearly three-quarters of an inch thick, and two and a 
half inches wide. The stringer timbers were six 
inches square. 

Over embankments, the rail was supported by cedar 
cross-ties, on which two cast-iron chairs were fastened^ 
to receive the rail stringer, and were secured by a key 
or wedge. In excavations, the stringers rested on 
stone blocks, secured in the same way, by cast-iron 
chairs. The stone blocks were then regarded as the 
best kind of foundation for railways, and they were 
very generally adopted in England, and were exten- 
sively used in this country. This railroad, at the 
time it was constructed, was regarded as a first class 
road. 

The coaches were hung on through braces, like a 
stage coach, and passed over the road very smoothly. 
But it did not require very long use of even the com- 
paratively small engines that were then used, to de- 
monstrate the importance of securing, if possible, some 
changes in the locomotives. The English engine, 
before alluded to, was on four wheels, which were all 
driving wheels. According to the impression at that 
time prevailing, it was necessary to gear the wheels as 
near together as possible, in order to facilitate the 
movement in curves. This required the engine to pro- 
ject about four feet beyond the point of support in the 



NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD. 151 

axles. This again gave a good dqal of vertical motion 
at the ends of the machine, whenever it passed inequali- 
ties in the track. The attention of Mr. Jervis, and of 
other gentlemen connected with the road, was drawn to 
this circumstance, and some means to remedy this evil 
were diligently sought. It also appeared very import- 
ant to distribute the weight on a greater number of 
wheels, in order to reduce it on any one point of the 
rail. The result desired was, to obtain more whees 
and so to arrange the plan of the machine that it would 
be supported near its ends, and so give more ease to 
the rail, and a greater degree of steadiness to the motion. 
These ends were finally acomplished, and a great and 
most beneficial change effected, by the genius of Mr. 
Jervis. 

After a good deal of reflection, it appeared to Mr. 
Jervis that a truck might be placed under the forward 
end of the frame and so support it, and by means of a 
centre pin the truck would play freely under the 
frame. In this it appeared that the truck, moving 
freely under the frame, could be geared so as to work 
most favorably around the curves, and thus secure a 
guide to the whole machine, and allow it to be a sup- 
port near, or at the end of the engine, by which the 
greatest practicable steadiness would be secured. At * 
that time there was little experience in railway ma- 
chinery ; and it was generally considered that a truck 
in this situation would not be safe for high speed, and 
therefore unfit for passenger work. This idea prevailed 
in England in 1850. 

They called these engines bog-engines; and although 
therQ was at one time, several of them introduced on 



152 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

English railroads, the impression of unsafety was so 
strong that they abandoned them. Having from 
careful reflection become strongly impressed in his 
own mind with the practicability of the truck plan, 
Mr. Jervis made drawings and a working model of 
the same. A contract for a truck engine was then 
made with the West Point Foundry Association in 
New York. This engine was completed according to 
the plans of Mr. Jervis, and was put upon the Mohawk 
and Hudson Eailroad in 1832. Mr. Jervis also at- 
tempted to combine a boiler with a furnace adapted 
to the use of anthracite coal as a fuel. In regard to 
coal burning it was a failure, and it was not well 
adapted to the use of wood as a fuel. Mr. Jervis suc- 
ceeded!^ however, in running it with wood, sufficiently 
to test the principle of the truck. In the following 
winter a new boiler was put in, adapted to the use of 
wood as a fuel, and it did good service. 

Mr. Jervis was at the same time chief engineer of 
the Schenectady and Saratoga Eailroad ; and as soon as 
he had ascertained that his improved truck could • be 
relied on, he made the plans and drawings for an 
engine for that railway, with truck and the most ap- 
proved boiler for the use of wood as a fuel. The 
plans were sent to England, and a contract made with 
the celebrated English engineers, George Stephenson 
& Co., in the autumn of 1832. This engine arrived 
safely at New York, and was put on the Schenectady 
and Saratoga Railroad in the spring of 1883. Even 
to this late day, Mr. Jervis well remembers the 
pleasure he enjoyed in riding on that engine, as com- 



NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD. 153 

pared with the. motion of the four-wheeled engine 
before referred to. 

The railroads in the Eastern States were slow to 
adopt the improved truck ; and for several years after- 
wards the Western Railroad of Massachusetts and 
other railroads in New England continued to use four- 
wheeled engines. Now. however, the truck is used 
in all the railroads of the United States, and its utility 
and value are universally acknowledged. The principle 
of the truck, moreover, is carried into practical ope- 
ration in both passenger coaches and freight cars, on 
more than thirty thousand miles of railroad. 

It is no more than what is due to Mr. Jervis, and to 
the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad Company, that this 
acknowledgment should be made, of the great bene- 
fits which railroads have derived from the introduction 
of the truck on this small railway, at a time when the 
idea was met with great scepticism as to its probable 
success. It is due to the directors of the Company to 
say, that they uniformly supported the proceedings of 
Mr. Jervis, and gave him every facility that he needed, 
in carrying out the experiment. 

Mr. Jervis, although now somewhat advanced in 
life, is still actively engaged in professional duties, 
and is now consulting engineer of the Pittsburg, Fort 
Wayne, and Chicago Railroad. At his advanced age, 
it must be a great pleasure to him to notice the ex- 
tensive use of his early invention ; and the more so, 
that this, like all the other improvements that he has 
made in railway works and machinery, has been freely 
given to the public, without any attempt on his part 



154 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

to secure to himself any special advantage or pecuni- 
ary benefits from patent rights. 

The success of the Mohawk and Hudson road 
created a revolution in public sentiment in relation to 
railroads, and an effort was soon made to extend the 
road up the valley of the Mohawk. The construction 
of the Utica and Schenectady road was soon after- 
wards commenced, and it was completed and opened 
in 1836 ; the distance being seventy-eight miles. It 
was built as cheaply as possible, the flat, thin iron bar 
being then in universal use for railroads ; but it was a 
richly-paying road from the commencement. In fact 
it was one of the most productive railroad enterprises 
then in operation in the whole country, the annual 
divideiids averaging ten per cent., up to the period of 
its consolidation with the New York Central road. 
Utica was a great point of concentration from the 
North, the South, the East, and the West, and the cars 
were crowded throughout the year. 

The Buffalo and Niagara Falls Eailroad, twenty-two 
miles in length, was constructed in 1836, and 'opened 
for business in 1837. The Tonawanda road, running 
from Rochester to Attica, a distance of forty-two 
miles, was put in operation in 1837, and these two 
roads at once found as much business as they could 
attend to. In the mean time, another link in what 
afterwards became the New York Central road, was 
being built. This was the Utica and Syracuse Bail- 
road, by way of Eome, fifty-three miles long, which 
was completed and opened in the year 1839. The 
business of this road was very great from the first. 
The annual dividends, for a long series of years, 



NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD. 155 

reached about ten per cent. Still another link, the 
Auburn and Syracuse Eailroad, twenty-six miles in 
lengthy mm commenced in 1836, and opened in 1888. 
Until 1840 it was operated with horse-power coaches 
on a wooden rail. In 1840 the wooden rail was 
superseded by the iron strap rail, and the road was 
operated by steam. In 1843 the first saloon, or long 
car with seats having reversible backs, used on the 
New York Central Eailroad, was placed upon the 
Auburn and Syracuse Eailroad, and would hold 
between thirty and forty passengers. 

The Auburn and Eochester Eailroad was begun in 
1838, and completed with iron rail, and operated by 
steam in 1843, a portion of the road (from Eochester 
to Canandaigua) having been opened two or three 
years before. This road crosses the northern ex- 
tremity of Cayuga Lake near the site of the famous 
old Cayuga Bridge, over which, before the Erie 
Canal was built, thirty crowded stage coaches thun- 
dered each way daily on the route between Albany 
and Buffalo. The site of this old bridge is now 
marked by rows of piles that formerly supported the 
roadway. 



166 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTEE XIV. 

NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD: CONTINUED. 

The two roads last mentioned formed the zigzag line 
between Rochester and Syracuse, by way of Ganandai- 
gua, Auburn, and Geneva. The route was exceedingly 
crooked and indirect, but it was necessarily so, on 
account of the financial difficulties that were encoun- 
tered in the inception of the enterprise. At that time 
money was very scarce, and could only be obtained at 
very high rates ; and capitalists were reluctant to em- 
bark in enterprises the success of which was not fully 
assured. The towns and villages near the proposed 
line, however, strained their means to assist the work ; 
and it has been truly said that the zigzag course of the 
track shows that they exerted a commanding influence 
in determining its course. This road was used until 
it was superseded by the Rochester and Syracuse 
direct road in 1853. 

The short, but important road from Troy to Sche- 
nectady, was built in 1841 and 1842. It was a 
losing, concern from the outset. It never paid apy 
dividends, and was never profitable until it was con- 
solidated with the Central road. 

The Attica and Buffalo Railroad, thirty miles in 
length, was opened in 1844, and the next year a gap 
of about a quarter of a mile between the Auburn and 



NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD. 15T 

Rochester Railroad and the Tonawanda Railroad was 
closed, which completed the connection by rail of Al- 
bany with Buftalo. 
^ All the railroads now forming the New York Cen- 
tral were operated by steam from their opening ex- 
cept the Mohawk and Hudson, Auburn and Syracuse, 
and tTie Lockport and Niagara Falls Railroad, which 
were for a short time operated by horse-power. 

Thus the connection of the waters of the Hudson 
River with Lake Erie by railroad was now complete 
with the exception of the gaps between the roads com- 
posing the line. These gaps made it necessary for 
the passengers to change cars five or six times in the 
course of the journey. Baggage checks had not yet 
been invented, and the vexation and annoyance attend- 
ing these frequent transfers of baggage, the great 
delay consequent, and the extortion of hackmen, all 
conspired to produce great impatience and dissatisfac- 
tion. The running time of course was very slow. The 
train which left Buffalo at seven in the morning 
reached Rochester at one o'clock in the afternoon, 
Auburn at seven in the evening, and Syracuse at nine 
o'clock at night. It was customary for most of the 
passengers to remain at Syracuse over night. Sleep- 
ing cars had not then been invented ; and after riding 
fourteen hours in the uncomfortable cars then in use, 
some rest seemed to be indispensably necessary. In 
the summer, two trains daily were run each way, but 
in the winter only one train each way daily. The 
trains from Albany to the west usually stopped at 
Syracuse over night, while those from Buffalo to Al- 
bany usually stopped at Auburn. Snow-storms fre- 



158 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

quently blocked up the road, and it was no unusual 
thing for travel to be interrupted for three or four days 
at a time. 

In the year 1849, an entire revolution in the mode, 
of travel took place. The different railway companies 
on the line, united their tracks, took up the thin bar 
iron rail, and put down a heavy uniform T rail on the 
whole track. New locomotives, and cars of an im- 
proved construction, were put upon the track, and the 
trains began to run at a very high rate of speed. 
From twenty miles an hour the speed was increased 
to twenty-five, and then to thirty. After running 
some weeks at thirty miles an hour, the speed was 
still further increased to thirty -five, then to forty, and 
finally to forty-five miles per hour. The frightful 
velocity of the latter rate of speed was kept up for 
some months, but it was finally reduced to thirty miles 
an hour, and kept at that rate. 

In 1850 the Auburn and Syracuse, and Auburn and 
Eochester Eailroad, were consolidated under the title 
of the Eochester and Syracuse Eailroad, and imme- 
diately commenced the construction of a more direct 
line between the two cities, called the Eochester and 
Syracuse Direct Eailroad, and opened it in 1858, 
making a saving in distance over the old line of 
twenty-one miles. 

About the same time (1850) the Tonawanda Eail- 
road was consolidated with the Attica and Buffalo 
Eailroad, under the title of the Buffalo and Eochester 
Eailroad, and in 1852 opened a- more direct line 
between Buffalo and Batavia, making a saving of five 
miles over the old line. Upon the opening of the new 



NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD. 369 

line between Buffalo and Rochester; the portion of the 
old line between Attica and Buffalo was sold to the 
Buffalo and New York City Railroad Company. The 
Rochester, Lockport, and Niagara Falls Railroad, was 
opened in 1852, having bought out the franchises of 
the old Lockport and Niagara Falls Railroad. 

The Buffalo and Lockport Railroad was opened in 
1853, and since then the Bufl^lo and Lockport Rail- 
road and the Buffalo and Niagara Falls Railroad, have 
used the same track from Buffalo to Tonawanda, eleven 
miles. 

As heretofore stated, the several railroads com- 
prising the entire line between Albany and Buffalo 
were consolidated in the year 1853, under the name 
of the New York Central Railroad Company. The 
bill for the consolidation was strenuously opposed by 
the New York legislature, but it finally passed by a- 
handsome mdjority. It has proved to be a wise and 
excellent measure. The public convenience, and the 
interest of the stockholders were alike consulted by 
the gentlemen through whose exertions it was consum- 
mated ; and it is well known that its opponents now 
cheerfully acknowledge the great advantages that 
have resulted from it. 

Immediately after consolidation, the New York 
Central Railroad leased for the term of their respective 
charters, the Buffalo and Niagara Falls Railroad, the 
Lewiston Railroad (opened in 1854), and the Rochester 
and Lake Ontario Railroad ; and under an act of the 
legislature, passed in 1855, these roads became practi- 
cally consolidated with the New York Central Rail- 
road, by exchange or conversion of the stock of the 



160 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

companies for stock of the New York Central Rail- 
road. 

The Canandaigua and Niagara Falls Railroad was 
opened as a broad gauge Railroad from Canandaigua 
to Batavia (fifty miles) in 1853, and to Suspension 
Bridge, forty-nine miles further, in 1864, and was 
intended to furnish a broad gauge line from New 
York via New York and Erie, Canandaigua and 
Elmira Railroads, connecting with the Great Western 
Railroad of Canada at Suspension Bridge, but not prov- 
ing a success financially, it was sold to satisfy mort- 
gages in 1857. A new company was formed under 
the title of the Niagara Bridge and Canandaigua Rail- 
road, and in 1858 it was leased in perpetuity to the 
New York Central Railroad Company, who at once 
changed the gauge to four feet eight and a half inches, 
and since then the Buffalo and Niagara Falls Railroad 
has been run upon the track of this railroad, between 
Tonawanda and Niagara Falls. 

The whole of the original line of the Buffalo and 
Niagara Falls Railroad which was for nearly the 
whole distance within the limits of the travelled high- 
way, is now abandoned, the track of the Buffido and 
Lockport Railroad being used between Bui&lo and 
Tonawanda, and the track of the Niagara Bridge and 
Canandaigua Railroad between Tonawanda and Nia- 
gara Falls. 

The Saratoga and Hudson River Railroad was 
begun in 1864, and opened in the spring of 1866. 
This railroad runs from the village of Athens on the 
west side of the Hudson River opposite the city of 
Hudson and about thirty miles below Albany, to a 



NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD. 1©1 

point on the line of the New York Central Eailroad 
about three and a half miles east of Schenectady, and 
is thirty -seven and a half miles long. It was designed 
to give the traffic upon the New York Central, an 
outlet upon the river below the shoals and shifting 
channel between that point and Albany, which have 
in years past made the navigation of the river by 
large vessels and steamers somewhat uncertain. This 
railroad is leased and operated by the New York 
Central Railroad Company. 

The main trunk of the New York Central Eailroad 
via Mohawk and Hudson Railroad, Utica and Schenec- 
tady Railroad, Syracuse and Utica Railroad, Roches- 
ter and Syracuse Direct Railroad, and Buffalo and 
Rochester Railroad, is double tracked the whole dis- 
tance. The other lines are all single tracked. 

Thus thirteen distinct corporations have been 
united, under the consolidation act, to form the present 
New York Central Railroad Company. 

The capital stock of the Company is twenty-four 
millions five hundred and ninety -one thousand dollars. 
The Company has no floating debt. The entire cost 
of the construction and equipment of the road has been 
thirty-four millions one hundred and thirty-three thou- 
sand nine hundred and eleven dollars. 

In 1855, the equipment of the road consisted of one 
hundred and eighty-eight locomotive, two hundred 
and sixty-three passenger cars, and two thousand one 
hundred and sixty-two freight cars. Additions to this 
equipment have been made every subsequent year. 
In 1866 the equipment consisted of two hundred and 
seventy-six locomotives, two hundred and ninety-two 
11 



162 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

passenger cars, and four thousand nine hundred and 
fifty-nine freight cars. In 1854, the number of pas- 
sengers carried was about two and a half million 
(namely, 2,556,874) persons. This number somewhat 
increased until the year 1858, when it fell off in con- 
sequence of competing roads, to a little over two mil- 
lion (namely, 2,124,439) persons. Since that time the 
number of passengers has steadily and largely in- 
-creased, and in the year 1863 it had amounted to 
nearly three millions, and in 1864 to three and a half 
millions. In 1866 the number of passengers reached 
the enormous number of three million seven hundred 
and forty thousand, one hundred and fifty-six. 

The earnings of the road in 1854 amounted to 
nearly six millions of dollars (namely, $5,918,334). 
The earnings of the road have steadily increased every 
subsequent year, except in 1858 and 1859, in both of 
which years, however, they were over six millions. In 
the year 1862 they were over nine millions of dollars; 
in 1863 nearly eleven millions; in 1864 nearly thirteen 
millions; 1865 nearly fourteen millions; and in 1866 
the earnings of the road amounted to over fourteen and 
a half millions of dollars (namely, $14,596,786). 

The engraving at the beginning of this chapter is 
an accurate representation ofthe first train of passenger 
cars that ever ran on the New York Central Railroad. 
In 1831, as before stated, that part of the road then 
known as the Mohawk and Hudson, being completed, 
the Company had a locomotive built in New York by 
the West Point Foundry Association, which is accu- 
rately represented in the engraving. It was called the 
Do Witt Clinton, and made its first trip in July. The 



NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD. 163 

cylinders were five and a half inches in diameter, with 
sixteen inch stroke. The wheels were four and a half 
feet in diameter. The boiler had thirty copper tubes, 
five feet long and four inches in diameter. The con- 
necting rods worked on double cranks in the front 
axle. John Thompson, an Englishman, was the en- 
gineer. 

The profiles in the engraving are life portraits of the 
passengers who took passage in the first trip over the 
road, and the names of all have been preserved. The 
fourth from the engine, counting the engineer one, is 
Thurlow Weed, and the likeness can easily be recog- 
nized. It will be observed that the cars are built 
like stage coaches, and hung on springs in stage coach 
fashion. 

In another chapter of this work, we have spoken of 
the New York Central Eailroad as a part of the great 
through route between Chicago and Boston. Previ- 
ous to the year 1865, however, passengers on arriving 
at Albany were compelled to change cars, and to cross 
the Hudson Eiver on a ferry boat. In that year the 
great railroad bridge across the Hudson was built by 
the New York Central Eailroad Company. It was 
completed, and opened for use, on the 22d of Febru- 
ary, 1866, and since that time trains from both New 
York and Boston have run through to BuflSilo and 
Suspension Bridge, without the transfer of either pas- 
sengers or freight. 

The New York Central Eailroad Company has been 
peculiarly fortunate in having for its oflScers, for some 
years past, a body of gentlemen who are emphatically 
the right men in the right places. It is owing to their 



164 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

fidelity in the discharge of their respective duties, that 
this road has gained such an enviable reputation as it 
has long enjoyed. And without making any invidious 
distinctions, it is no more than an act of simple justice 
to say that the labors of Mr. H. W. Chittenden, the 
General Superintendent, and of Mr. Charles Hilton, the 
Chief Engineer, have made the road what it is : one of 
the best constructed, best managed, and best paying 
roads in the United States. 

In November, 1867, the Stockholders of the -Com- 
pany became convinced that the interests of so vast a 
corporation required at its head a person of no ordi- 
nary abilities. They did not have to look outside of 
the circle of their own members to find the man they 
needed. Commodore Vanderbilt was already one of 
the largest stockholders. His remarkable administra- 
tive talents, and his great experience in the manage- 
ment of railroads, pointed him out as the man for the 
crisis. The stockholders holding thirteen millions of 
stock, therefore, placed their proxies in the hands of 
Commodore Vanderbilt, which enabled him to select 
such a board of directors as he deemed suitable. Mr. 
Vanderbilt accepted the trust; and the board of di- 
rectors thus chosen, elected him as president. 

The following table exhibits in a condensed shape, 
the financial history of the road from the year 1858 to 
1867 :— 



NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD. 



165 



M 
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? 



166 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

The officers of the Company are C. Vanderbilt, Pre- 
sident ; E. M. Blatchford, Vice-President ; E. D. Wor- 
cester, Treasurer; Harlow W. Chittenden, General 
Superintendent; Charles Hilton, Chief Engineer; 
Julius A. Spencer, Assistant Superintendent. 

The election of Commodore Vanderbilt as president 
of the Company, in December, 1867, marks the com- 
mencement of a new era in the history of this great 
road. With its well-constructed track and road-bed, 
its powerful and gigantic locomotives, and its superb 
passenger cars, fitted up with state-rooms and with 
every luxury and comfort, it would seem that the road 
was all that could be desired ; while the steady increase 
of its passenger and freight business, during the last 
ten years, sufficiently indicates its popularity. But 
Commodore Vanderbilt and the new Board of Direc- 
tors believe that the road and its management is sus- 
ceptible of still further improvements — improvements 
that will greatly increase the comfort and safety of 
passengers, and that will greatly augment the revenues 
of the Company. These improvements will be imme- 
diately carried out ; and when we consider the great 
experience of Mr. Vanderbilt in railroad matters^ and 
the energetic character of the gentlemen composing 
the new Board of Directors, it cannot be doubt^ that 
the contemplated improvements will lead to the most 
happy results. 



MICHIGAN CENTRAL AND GREAT WESTERN. 167 



CHAPTER XV. 

MICHIGAN CENTRAL RAILROAD ; AND GREAT WESTERN 

RAILROAD OF CANADA. 

The New York Central Eailroad terminates at the 
famous iron Suspension Bridge, at Niagara Falls. 
This bridge crosses the Niagara Eiver at a point two 
miles below the Falls, and was built in order to carry 
the New York Central Eailroad across the river at 
this point. It is constructed of iron wires bound to- 
gether, and presents an exceedingly light and graceful 
appearance. It is eight hundred and twenty -one feet 
long, and consists of two main passages, a roadway for 
horses and carriages, and a track for the railroad, the 
latter being uppermost. The elevation of the railway 
track above the water is two hundred and forty-five 
feet. This bridge was completed in 1855, and has been 
in daily use ever since. The heaviest trains have 
passed over it daily, yet it is, so far as the most scien- 
tific investigation can show, as strong now as when first 
constructed. 

Crossing this fine bridge, with the bottomless waters 
of the Niagara Eiver two hundred and forty-five feet 
beneath our feet, we find ourselves on the 

Great Western Eailroad of Canada. — This 
road extends from Niagara Falls to Detroit, and is 
two hundred and thirty miles long. The total re- 



168 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

ceipts of this road, since its completion have amounted 
to nearly twenty-six millions of dollars (namely, 
$25,843,906). The Company has recently completed 
and launched a new car ferry boat, on the Detroit 
Eiver, by which trains of cars can be safely and 
speedily transported across the river to Detroit, 
without making it necessary for the passengers to 
leave their seats. 

Michigan Central Eailroad. — The Michigan 
Central Eailroad extends from Chicago to Detroit, a 
distance of two hundred and eighty-four miles. It 
has a wide track, and has the reputation of being one 
of the best constructed roads in the United States. 
The passenger cars are certainly all that could be 
desired, being models of comfort and convenience. 
Four trains are run daily, from Chicago to Detroit, 
and four also from Detroit to Chicago. The trains 
from the east leave Detroit on the arrival of the cars 
on the Great Western Eailroad of Canada from Nia- 
gara Falls, about 7 and 10.30 A. M., and 5.30 and 
11 P. M., and arrive at Chicago at about 8 and 
11 P. M., and 6 A. M., and 12.30 at noon ; the run- 
ning time being thirteen hours. Trains for the east 
leave the depot of the Illinois Central Eailroad, at 
Chicago about 4 and 6 A. M., and 5.30 and 10 P. M., 
and arrive at Detroit in time to connect with the trains 
for Suspension Bridge. 

In May, 1849, the Michigan Central Eailroad was 
completed and in operation from Detroit to .New Buf- 
falo. New Buffalo was a small village at the southern 
extremity of Lake Michigan, a few miles east of the 



MICHIGAN CENTRAL RAILROAD. 



169 



present Michigan City. It has now entirely disap- 
peared from the map. The Michigan Central Eailroad 
terminated there, and from this point two daily lines 
of steamers ran to Chicago, a distance of nearly forty- 
five miles. The time between Chicago and New York 
became thus reduced to two and a half days. The 
population of Chicago in 1850 was twenty-eight thou- 
sand. The Galena Eailroad of Illinois was at that 
time completed and in operation from Chicago to 
Elgin, a distance of forty -two miles. The Galena 
Eailroad Company for a time entertained the design 
of Completing the Michigan Central road from New 
Buffalo into Chicago, but that was finally done by the 
Michigan Central Eailroad Company themselves. 

The following statement shows the earnings from 
passengers, freight, &c., and the proportion of earnings 
consumed in operating expenses of this road, for a 
series of years. 



* yTaaw 








Per ct. of earn- 


X ear 
ending 
May 31, 


Passenger Earn- 
ings. 


Freight Earnings. 


BfiscellaneoQs 
Earnings. 


ings nsed in 
operating ex- 
penses, excln- 

sive of tax. 


1857 


$1,610,415 75 


$1,413,492 47 


$80,694 47 


64A 


1858 


1,321,039 56 


1,033,748 32 


73,969 64 


69A 


1859 


938,609 29 


831,435 46 


68,084 82 


63,«, 


1860 


803,507 97 


962,621 70 


66,815 19 


53,', 


1861 


775,228 53 


1,218,186 29 


64,637 79 


51 


1862 


724,915 48 


1,559,060 98 


77,264 96 


45t>. 


1863 


889,682 28 


1,983,757 35 


73,120 92 


40iV 


1864 


1,262,415 07 


2,073,274 71 


98,858 85 


47A 


1865 


1,771,813 60 


2,233,529 47 


140,076 50 


66A 


1866 


2,061,335 05 


2,208,591 82 


176,563 64 


61 



) VI 



170 



RAILROADS OF TUE UNITED STATES. 



The following table sliows the earnings and ex- 
penses of the last two years : — 





1865. 


1866. 


Passenger earaings . . . 
Freight earnings 
Misoellaneoas earnings 


$1,771,813 60 

2,233,529 47 

140,076 50 


$2,061,335 05 

2,208,591 82 

176,563 64 


Total earnings 
Operating expenses, inclnding 
taxes . . 


$4,145,419 57 
2,406,149 63 


$4,446,490 51 
2,808,375 92 


Net earnings 
Ratio of expenses, less taxes, to 
earnings 


$1,739,269 94 


$1,638,114 59 
61' 



Hotel Cars. — On the whole of this route, between 
New York and Chicago, by way of Albany and Sus- 
pension Bridge, are to be found the elegant new 
sleeping cars of Mr. Pullman, which are as much 
superior to the sleeping cars in recent use, as the 
present mode of railroad travelling is superior to 
the old stage coach. Here are no dirty bed-clothing< 
reeking with foul smells ; no unclean mattresses ; no 
foul air ; in a word, none of the features that make the 
traveller turn away in disgust. No ; here everything 
is beautifully clean, fresh, and sweet. The cars are 
divided into compartments, each one as private as a 
room in a hotel, and quite as comforlable. In each 
there is a sofa, a table, and two arm-chairs. At night 
the sofa and chairs are made up into three double 
berths, with plenty of room above and below, and 
plenty of ventilation. The traveller gets up in the 
moraing refreshed with a comfortable sleep, finds all 
the conveniences for washing, rings his bell, orders 



MICHIGAN CENTRAL RAILROAD. 171 

his breakfast from a printed bill of fare, and has it 
brought to him hot, in warm plates, and with clean 
linen, bright glasses and silver forks. The meals are 
cooked on board, and are served up in delicious style, 
and the traveller eats them at his leisure. Such is 
the hotel car which has just been introduced, and 
which will add so much to the comfort of travellers. 
A lady writes, in regard to the meals on these cars : — 

''Our breakfast consisted of delicious porter-house 
steak, eggs, toast, hot rolls, and splendid tea and 
coffee, and the dinner was made up of chickens, roast 
beef, potatoes, sweet corn, currie, with a dessert of 
nicely canned peaches, and other nice things. The ta- 
bles set in the car remind one of a table at Delmonico's. 
All. is cooked in the baggage car." 

The admirable and successful management of this 
important road, the Michigan Central, is due in a great 
measure to the personal exertions and great experience 
of the General Superintendent, E. N. Eice, Esq., who 
resides at Detroit, and who exercises the most vigilant 
supervision over all the departments of the service. 

The Company has just erected a new freight build- 
ing at Detroit, which is one of the finest structures of 
the kind in the country. 

The oflScers of the Company are John W, Brooks 
President; E. -B. Forbes, Vice-President; Isaac Liver- 
more, Treasurer, B. N. Eice, General Superintendent. 



172 BAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTEE XVI. 

NEW YORK AND ERIE RAILROAD. 

The main line of the Erie Eailway is four hun- 
dred and sixty miles in length, and passes through 
portions of the most important valleys of the Atlantic 
Slope. From the valley of the Hudson it crosses the 
Shawangunk Mountains into the valley of the Dela- 
ware. From Susquehanna to Waverley it runs along 
the banks of the north branch of the Susquehanna. 
Next on the Genesee it is found in the valley of the 
lower St. Lawrence. From Olean to Salamanca it 
runs for twenty miles on the margin of a river which 
flows into the Mississippi, and its western terminus 
is on the shore of the system of lakes which forms 
the upper St. Lawrence. Except the great Pacific 
road, no other road in the country has a better 
right to the title of national. 

Before the Erie Canal was completed projects were 
agitated for the improvement of the means of commu- 
nication through the southern tier of counties in the 
State of New York ; and soon after that great work 
was opened application was made to the General 
Government for a corps of engineers to survey the 
proposed route. The application at first promised to 
be cpmpletely successful, but the aid was ultimately 
limited to the services of one oflScer on terms 



NEW YORK AND ERIE RAILROAD. 173 

which were availed of only by the counties of Orange, 
Rochester, and Sullivan. 

This reconnoissance was made in the year 1832, 
under the superintendence of Col. De Witt Clinton, Jtj 
and, though not made at the request of the corporation 
by whom the road was eventually constructed, it 
proved to be of great service to them, demonstrating 
that the supposed obstacles had been exaggerated, 
and it identified the name of Clinton with the Erie 
Railway as indelibly as it had been identified with 
that of the Erie Canal. 

In the season of 1832, the Legislature of New York 
incorporated the New York and Erie Railroad Com- 
pany, with authority to construct a railroad with single, 
double, or treble tracks from the Hudson River to 
Lake Erie through the southern tier of counties of 
the State. With the sectional state jealousy which 
distinguished the legislation of that time, the Corpo- 
ration was specially forbidden to connect their road 
with any road in the State of New Jersey. 

It was not until May, 1833, that steps were taken 
to act under this charter ; when a notice of the open- 
ing of the books and the terms of subscription of the 
stock was issued, signed by such men as Morgan 
Lewis, Isaac Lawrence, Stephen Whitney, John Hag- 
gerty, Elisba Riggs, Gideon Lee, John Duer, and 
others. The pamphlet which accompanied this notice, 
extravagant as it doubtless seemed to some of the 
signers, will bring a smile on the face of the reader 
of 1867. They say " there can be no extravagance 
in the opinion that the proposed railway would be 
altogether the most important and most productive 



174 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

thoroughfare from the coast to the interior in any 
part of the country, whether we regard the present 
amount of trade and intercourse to be accommodated, 
or that which a few years would exhibit, requiring 
thirty or forty hours only for the passage hence to 
Lake Erie." '' A single railway of suf&cient strength 
and solidity to be used with advantage and economy 
by animal power can be constructed for less than 
three millions of dollars." "A railroad of this 
description would be most satisfactory to the inhabi- 
tants on and near the route," and "although on 
railways designed for the use of steam, heavier loads 
may be drawn and greater speed attained than on 
those for animal power," yet " it is to be considered 
that a railway for horses on the route in view would 
be as much superior in both these respects to any ex- 
isting or probable means of communication as steam 
is in any respect to animal power," and for these 
reasons the gentlemen who issue the notice " entertain 
the most entire confidence that the stock of a railroad 
of the description proposed would be both safe and 
productive." 

By July, 1833, the very modest promises held out 
in the call from which we have quoted had induced 
gentlemen to subscribe to the stock of the new Com- 
pany to the amount one million of dollars, and the 
New York and Erie Railroad Company was organized 
and went into business, and on the 29th of September. 
1835, the Directors made their first annual report to 
the Stockholders. During the interim a new survey 
of the route had been made under directions of the 
State of New York by Mr. Wright, the engineer ap- 



NEW YORK AND ERIE RAILROAD. 175 

pointed by Governor Marcy, and as the result of tbat 
it was announced that the estimates were increased to 
six millions of dollars, and that the road was to be 
constructed entirely for transportation by steam. The 
Board further stated to the Stockholders in italics, 
in order to mark the importance of the announcement, 
that they had the gratification of announcing the 
following result, to wit, "that loads of sixty tons 
gross (or deducting the weight of the cars, forty tons 
net) may be drawn in a single train from the Hudson 
River to Lake Erie at an average speed of from 
twelve to fourteen miles to the hour ; that with the 
rate of speed augmented one-half a locomotive engine 
will nevertheless suffice to transport two hundred 
passengers and their baggage ; that no stationary en- 
gine will be requisite on any part of the work, and 
that one or at most two auxiliary engines only will 
be requisite on the whole length of the line." The 
Directors further advised the Stockholders that they 
proposed at once to commence the construction of 
the road and to rely for means upon increasing the 
stock subscription to three millions, borrowing the 
other three millions either from foreign capitalists or 
from the State. The stock subscriptions were actually 
increased so as to net about one million five hundred 
and eighty thousand dollars, and a loan of three mil- 
lions of dollars was obtained from the State of New 
York under a law passed in 1836 and subsequently 
modified. 

The construction of the road was commenced and 
continued from these and other sources until April, 
1842, when the Company, being without further 



176 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

means and without credit, voluntarily suspended 
work, and made an assignment of all their property 
to assignees for the benefit of their creditors. This 
assignment was subsequently held by the Supreme 
Court of New York to be invalid. At the time of the 
assignment the estimated total cost had increased up 
to twelve millions four hundred and twenty -two thou- 
sand eight hundred and ninety dollars, of which eight 
million two hundred and eighty-one thousand dollars 
were still to be raised. Application was made to the 
Legislature for State aid, which was granted, but with 
conditions attached that made it useless. The city of 
New York was applied to and refused to lend its 
credit. New books of subscription were opened, but 
no one applied. 

At length, in 1845, the act of the State of New York 
was passed under which the construction of the road 
was resumed and completed. The Stockholders were 
required to surrender and cancel one-half of their 
shares, and to increase their subscriptions by three 
millions of dollars new subscriptions; in consideration 
of which the State relinquished entirely its claims for 
the return of the three millions of dollars already 
loaned, and agreed to virtually become a trustee for 
the holders of new first moirtgage bonds to the like 
amount secured upon the whole property. The con- 
ditions were all complied with, the construction of the 
work was resumed, and on the 22d day of April, 1851, 
the road was opened for travel from Pierraont to 
Lake Erie, a distance of four hundred and fifty-one 
miles, with a branch from Gray Court to Newburgb, 
a distance of nineteen miles. 



NEW YORK AND ERIE RAILROAD. 177 

In order to secure a terminus at New York, the 
Company, in 1852, acquired by lease, the Paterson 
and Hudson Eiver Eailroad and the Paterson and 
Eamapo Eailroad of New Jersey, and the Union 
Eailroad of New York, by means of which their 
passenger trains were enabled to reach the Hudson 
Eiver at the station of the New Jersey Eailroad and 
Transportation Company. But this was soon found 
insufficient accommodation, and a contract was in 1856 
made with the Long Dock Company, by which that 
Company undertook to acquire all the lands and water 
rights necessary for an independent terminus at 
Jersey City, and to construct a railroad thence to the 
Paterson and Hudson Eiver Eailroad, tunnelling the 
Bergen Hill, which contract was carried out so that 
freight and passenger trains commenced discharging 
at the Long Dock in 1862. 

In April, 1859, the New York and Erie Eailroad 
Company went to protest upon its mortgage interest, 
and in the following July proceedings were commenced 
for the foreclosure of two of the mortgages, and a re- 
ceiver of all the property was appointed by the court. 
The creditors and stockholders having succeeded in 
making an amicable arrangement, applied to the 
Legislature for authority to carry it out, and the for- 
mation of the present Erie Eailway Company was 
authorized by an act passed in 1860. This Company 
was duly organized in 1861, and in 1862 the road, 
property, and franchises of the old New York and 
Erie Eailroad Company having been sold to trustees 
under a de'cree for the foreclosure of the fifth mort- 
12 



178 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

gage, was conveyed to the new company by the 
trustees. The same trustees also conveyed to the 
Erie Railway Company sixty miles of road between 
Hornellsville and Attica, which they had purchased 
during their trusteeship. Since January 1st, 1862, 
the day on which the new company entered into 
possession of their property, the Erie Railway Com- 
pany has also acquired by leases the BufiBEdo, New 
York and Erie Railroad and the Buffalo, Bradford, 
and Pittsburg Railroad, and they now operate, in- 
cluding the main line and all its branches, seven 
hundred and seventy-three miles of road, of which 
three hundred and fifty miles are double track. Their 
equipment consists of three hundred and seventy-one 
locomotives, three hundred and five passenger and 
baggage cars, and five thousand seven hundred and 
seventeen freight cars. 

The aggregate population of the counties of Rock- 
land, Orange, Sullivan, Delaware, Broome, Tioga, 
Chemung, Steuben, Alleghany, Cattaraugus, and Chau- 
tauque, in the State of New York, through which only 
the New York and Erie Railroad, as originally pro- 
jected, was to run, was in 1830 two hundred and thirty- 
four thousand one hundred and fifty -three. / 

The present population of the territory tributary to 
the road and branches, including terminal stations, is 
probably not short of two millions. 

The estimated cost of construction was three mil- 
lion dollars. The actual cost, exclusive of rentals, has 
been forty-eight million eight hundred an4 eighty-five 
thousand seven hundred and thirty -eight dollars. 



NEW YORK AND ERIE RAILROAD. 179 

The estimated revenue on wtich the projectors in- 
vited the public to invest in its shares was — 

From passengers . • . • • $900,000 
« freight 1,069,088 

$1,969,088 
Less operating expenses . . $919,088 
" repairs .... 144,000 1,063,088 

Net profits $906 000 

The actual results for 1866 were, as reported by the 
Company — 

From passengers $3,148,290 

* « freight 11,261,641 

$14,409,931 
Operating expenses and Repairs . • 10,853,140 

Surplus $3,556,791 

The local business of the road was very large, 
from the first opening of this great thoroughfare. 
The country through which it passes is one of re- 
markable fertility, and it was already thickly settled, 
•and all the farms along the route in a state of high 
cultivation. The railroad, however, afibrded the 
farmers what they had not before, namely, the means 
of getting their produce" quickly and cheaply to 
market. They eagerly embraced the opportunity, and 
the production of grain, fruit, and cattle, all along the 
route, became greatly stimulated. 

The value of the road was further seen, in the 
rapid growth of the towns along the route. Elmira, 
Binghampton, Owego, and Corning, were all small 
towns, when the road was commenced. Now they are 



180 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

all flourishing cities, and their wealth and population 
have steadily increased. 

But it was. as a through route between the East and 
the West^ that the New York and Erie Railroad 
acquired its greatest celebrity, and gained its greatest 
wealth. The Michigan Southern Bailroad was opened 
to Chicago in 1852, and the Lake Shore Railroads, from 
Dunkirk to Toledo, in 1853. In connection with these 
roads, the New York and Erie road at once began to 
carry passengers, and this route between New York 
and Chicago became immediately popular. The pas- 
senger traffic over this through route increased 
rapidly, year after year, from 1854 to 1860; and 
during these six years the revenues of the New York 
and Erie Railroad, from passengers, were enormous. 
Freight, of course, followed the same route ; and the 
freight business of the road, between New York and 
Chicago, increased rapidly year after year. 

The great trouble with regard to freight was, that 
it all had to be unloaded at Erie, and transshipped 
into other cars. This was owing to the difference of 
gauge in the roads west of Erie, from that in use on 
the New York and Erie road. After some years, 
however, this difference was obviated, but not until a 
serious riot had taken place at Erie, in consequence of 
the attempt to equalize the grades. Since that time 
there has been no difficulty on this point, and loaded 
freight cars now go through, between New York and 
Chicago, without breaking bulk. 

This road has an eastern terminus at Newburg, as 
well as at New York. It will be connected at New- 
burg, in a few months, with the Boston, Hartford, and 



NEW YORK AND ERIE RAILROAD. 181 

Erie Eailroad, which is now completed, except a dis- 
tance of twenty-six miles, east of Newburg. This 
road, when completed, will extend from Boston to New- 
burg, passing through Hartford, and several other 
important towns in Connecticut. It will })rove a most 
valuable feeder to the New York and Erie road, and 
will add greatly to the business of the latter. 

The Erie Eailway, for convenience in operating, is 

divided in four divisions, while the branches leading 

from the main line to Buffalo constitute a fifth divi- 

•eion, each under the charge of an assistant, or division 

superintendent. 

The Eastern Division, extending from Jersey City 
to Port Jervis, 87J miles, is double-tracked the entire 
distance, the last completed portion of the second 
track (near Hohokus) having been brought into use 
earlv in March, 1866. 

The Delaware Division, extending from Port Jervis 
to Susquehanna, a distance of one hundred and four 
miles, has nineteen and a half miles of double track, 
and fifteen miles have been graded for a second track. 
It is the intention of the Company that nothing shall 
be allowed to interfere with the steady prosecution of 
this important and essential work, until the double 
track is completed over the whole division. The 
Susquehanna Division extends from Susquehanna to 
Hornellsville, one hundred and thirty-nine miles, and 
of this one hundred miles are supplied with double 
track. The Western Division extends from Hornells- 
ville to Dunkirk, one hundred and twenty-eight miles, 
and a single track has been found suflScient. The 
Buffalo and Northwestern Divisions, united under the 



182 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

charge of one Division Superintendent, comprise the 
road from BuflEalo to Corning, one hundred and forty- 
two miles ; from Attica to Hornellsville, sixty miles • 
and from Avon to Rochester, eighteen miles, making 
two hundred and twenty miles of single track road. 

In the year 1861, the earnings of the road were, 
from passengers one million eighty-five thousand nine 
hundred and sixty-nine dollars; from freight five 
millions eleven thousand six hundred and sixty-one 
dollars. The total earnings were six million two 
hundred and fourteen thousand one hundred and* 
eighty-two dollars, and the net earnings were two 
million four hundred and twenty-nine thousand six 
hundred and ninety-eight dollars. 

On the 1st of January, 1862, the whole property of 
the road, and its management, passed from the hands 
of the Supreme Court into the possession of the present 
New York and Erie Eailroad Company. For two 
years and a-half previously, the road had been ope- 
rated by a receiver appointed by the court ; but all 
liabilities and claims against the Company and its 
property having been paid or satisfactorily adjusted, 
by arrangement between the shareholders and. credi- 
tors, he was discharged. On handing over the property 
to the new Company, the receiver said: "With the 
ability to earn more income than ever before, it is 
hoped the early return of peace and prosperity to the 
country will so increase the traffic that the road will 
hereafter earn full interest»on the entire capital and 
debt of the Company." This hope, so far only as the 
earnings of the road are concerned, has beenfiiHy 
realized. The road has not only earned more than the- 



NEW YORK AND ERIE RAILROAD. 183 

interest on its entire cost to the Company, but is in a 
condition so improved in its permanent way and rol- 
ling stock as to be able to ekm still larger income, 
subject only to the state of the times and the degree of 
the general prosperity of the country. 

During the year 1862 the road bed was very much 
improved by widening cuts, deepening ditches, 
adding new culverts, and raising the grade in places 
exposed to floods, substituting stone ballast for gravel, 
and increasing the number and size of cross-ties. 
The whole road was now fenced for the first time, on 
both sides, along its entire length. The rolling stock 
consisted of two hundred and twenty-six locomotives, 
one hundred passenger cars, and tliree thousand one 
hundred and fifty freight cars. The net earnings of 
the road were three million five hundred and thirty- 
nine thousand five hundred and eighty-six dollars. 

During the year 1863 the eflSciency of the rolling 
stock was largely increased by the addition of seventeen 
fine locomotives and two hundred and fifty-seven cars. 

Increase of Means to Operate the Road. — 
The report of the President for this year says: — 

" The necessity for more equipment both of locomo- 
tives and cars, as well as additional double track, 
machine shops, station accommodations and turnouts, 
IS strongly impressed upon the minds of the Board of 
Directors. In order to increase the earnings, or even 
to maintain the rate of last year for any considerable 
time, these increased facilities are indispensable. The 
large earnings of 1863 were produced by working the 
machinery almost to its utmost capacity, and far be- 
yond the limits of economy ; while some parts of the 



184 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

single track were so constantly filled with trains as to 
render delays, always costly, unavoidable. The earn- 
ings of 1863 were ten million four hundred and sixty- 
nine thousand against five million three hundred and 
forty-two thousand dollars in 1860, while the in- 
crease in the number of locomotives was compara- 
tively small. In 1863 there were two hundred and 
forty -three against two hundred and twenty in 1860. 
Of this increase, less than one-half were in use the 
whole of last year. The increase of freight cars has 
been somewhat greater in proportion, though the 
present stock is quite inadequate. With a moderate 
increase of equipment the earnings of last year would 
have been at least one million dollars larger than they 
were, while the expenses would not have been pro- 
portionately increased. 

" In view of these facts the Directors have author- 
ized the President to contract for as many locomo- 
tives, and to build in the shops of the Company as 
many cars as the Executive Committee and the offi- 
cers shall judge necessary. Under this authority 
forty first-class freight locomotives have been ordered 
and are in course of delivery. The whole number 
will probably be completed by the first of June. The 
building of cars is going on in the Company's shops. 
Additions to the double track, new turnouts, machine 
shops, engine houses, and station houses will be com- 
menced in the spring. To provide the means to meet 
the cost of these improvements, the Board of Directors 
have only two resources — either to use the earnings of 
the road, or to raise new Capital." 

They determined in favor pf the latter, and obtained 



NEW YORK AND ERIE RAILROAD. 185 

legislative authority to increase the capital stock five 
millions of dollars. 

In this year the rolling stock of the road consisted 
of two hundred and forty-three locomotives, one hun- 
dred and nine passenger cars, and three thousand five 
hundred freight cars. The net earnings of the road 
were four million eighty-eight thousand nine hundred 
and seventy dollars. 

The report of the President for the year 1864 stated 
that, although the road was now very welf supplied with 
cars, except passenger cars, there was "still a great 
deficiency of engines. The engines have been, for the 
last three years, worked night and day without any 
intermission. 

"In addition to the extra service required of the 
engines, the shops of the Company were found inade- 
quate, to repair them when they could be spared for 
that purpose, and it has been found absolutely neces- 
sary to provide more shops and larger accommoda- 
tions for the repairs of engines and cars. The room 
provided did not anticipate so large an increase in 
the rolling stock as has been found necessary to do the 
increased, and constantly increasing business offered. 

"To meet this want the Company have nearly com- 
pleted a new machine shop at Susquehanna, which 
will much facilitate the repairs of engines now so 
much needed, and give accommodations for building 
new ones. 

" There would have been a much more economical 
working of the road if the motive power had been 
greater and in first-rate working order. 



186 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

" To provide for this deficiency contracts have been 
made to furnish sixty-seven (67) engines of the most 
approved pattern, to burn coal." 

In this year the rolling stock of the Company con- 
sisted of two hundred and seventy-six locomotives, 
one hundred and fourteen passenger cars, and four 
thousand and eighty-seven locomotives. The net 
earnings of the road were four millions five hundred 
and ninety-four thousand two hundred and twenty-five 
dollars. In 1665, the rolling stock consisted of three 
hundred and thirty-two locomotives, one hundred and 
thirty-three passenger cars, and four thousand two 
hundred freight cars. The net earnings reached the 
enormous sum of five millions of dollars, namely, 
five million sixty-six thousand five hundred and 
eleven dollars. 

Operations of the Eoad for the Year 1866. — 
The earnings of the road for the year 1866 were four- 
fourteen million five hundred and ninety-six thousand 
four hundred and thirteen dollars ; and the expenses 
ten million eight hundred and fifty-three thousand 
one hundred and forty dollars. 

The expenses of operating the road in 1865 were $11,754,395 
« « *t " " « " 1866 »* 10,853,140 

Decrease of expenses in 1866 " $901,255 

It is no more than just to state that this large 
decrease in the working expenses of the road was not 
made at the expense of the condition of the track, or 
the efficiency of the equipment. 

Financial Condition. — The financial conditign of 
the Company, December 31, 1866, was: — 



NEW YORK AND ERIE RAILROAD. 187 

Capital stock issued .... $25,111,210 00 

Funded debt . . . ... . 22,429,920 00 

Accounts payable, current business • • 4,894,452 04 
Accrued interest on bonds, not jet due . 624,107 04 
Earnings for preferred stock, payable Janu- 
ary 21, 1867 567,304 86 

Balance of " income account," • . . 660,880 56 

$54,287,874 49 

These amounts are represented by — 



Cost of road and equipments 



Hawlej branch .... 

Cash and cash items 

Materials and fuel (as per tables) . 

Accounts receivable, current business 

Long Dock Company 

Buffalo, Bradford, and Pittsburg Railroad 60,073 09 

Twenty-third Street property . . . 32,425 24 



$48,885,738 73 



236,946 99 

994,150 73 

2,606,494 99 

1,191,556 21 

280,488 51 



$54,287,874 49 

• 

The three million first mortgage bonds mature and 
become payable on the first of July next. Previous 
to their maturity it is the intention of the Company 
to invite proposals for their extension for a period of 
thirty years, at seven per cent., per annum ; authority 
being given to the Company, by a statute of the 
State of New York, to extend any or all of its mort- 
gage bonds, in the order of their respective priorities. 

These bonds being a first mortgage on the entire pro- 
perty of the Company, must be regarded as a very 
desirable investment, and the Company will un- 
doubtedly be able to negotiate for their extension on 
advantageous terms. 

The passenger travel over this road for the last ten 
years has been immense, and seems to be steadily 



188 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

increasing every year. It forms a part of one of the 
favorite routes between New York and Chicago, the 
other roads on the route being the Michigan Southern, 
and the Lake Shore line. The distance from New 
York to Chicago, by this route, is nine hundred and 
fifty-eight miles, and the running time about thirty- 
six hours. Four passenger trains leave New York 
daily, from the depot at the foot of Chambers Street, 
at about eight and ten A. M., and five and seven P. M., 
passing through Hornellsville, Dunkirk, Erie, Cleve- 
land, and Toledo, and arriving at Chicago at about 
six and eleven A. M. and eight P. M. The trains run 
into the new depot of the Michigan Southern road, 
on the corner of Yan Buren and Sherman Streets. 

Harper's Guide Book of the Erie Bailroad says: 
"We would suggest to the traveller that he make 
his first day's journey extend as far as Port Jervis, 
and go the next day to Susquehanna, drive down to 
Lanesburg, and pass the night at the quiet little inn 
there, and devote the next morning to an examination 
of the viaduct and the cascade bridge. He can then 
take an afternoon train for Binghampton or Elmira, 
where he can pass the night. The next day he should 
go to Hornellsville, and the next to Dunkirk. The 
question is frequently asked, which side of the car 
is preferable to sit on ? It is impossible to select one 
side as preferable for the entire route, for one side is 
often hidden for many miles by mountains, while from 
the other side the view is good. From Middleton 
to Mount Hope, where the road returns from Penn- 
sylvania to New York across the Delaware River, the 
right hand side presents one continuous scene of 



NEW YORK AND ERIE RAILROAD. 189 

beauty, grandeur, and magnificence; while,. from the 
left side almost nothing is visible. From this bridge 
to Deposit, the left hand side is to be chosen, as the 
right is hidden by mountains all the way. From De- 
posit to Susquehanna, the right hand side is to be 

selected." 

The ofiicers of the Company are John S. Eld- 
ridge, President ; Alexander S. Diven, Vice-President ; 
Samuel Marsh, Honorary Vice-President ; H. N. Otis, 
Secretary ; E. W. Brown, Treasurer. 

The following is a statement of the earnings of the 
road for the last thirteen years : — 



190 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 



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ATLANTIC AND GREAT WESTERN. 191 



OH.APTEE XVII. 

ATLANTIC AND GREAT WESTEKN RAILROAD. 

The broad-gauge through route between New York 
and St. Louis, by way of Cincinnati, consists of the 
New York and Erie road, from New York to Sala- 
n;ianca, four hundred and fifteen miles; the Atlantic 
and Great Western road, from Salamanca to Cincin- 
nati, by way of Akron, Mansfield, Gallon and Dayton, 
five hundred and seven miles ; and the Ohio and Mis- 
sissippi road, from Cincinnati to St. Louis, by way of 
Vincennes, three hundred and forty miles ; total, twelve 
hundred and sixty-two miles. The running time for 
the entire distance is forty-eight hours. 

The Atlantic and Great Western Eailroad affords 
us another example of the benefits of railroad consoli- 
dation. It is only about six years since this enterprise 
was commenced, and it has now five hundred and 
seven miles in operation. • The rapid progress made 
in the construction of this fine road has seldom been 
surpassed. Up to the year 1850, the New York and 
Erie Railroad had only been extended as far west as 
Hornellsville. In September of that year, a meeting 
of the citizens of Western New York was held at 
Jamestown, to discuss the project of building a railroad 
from Salamanca to the town of Erie in Pennsylvania, 
on Lake Erie. The attention of the directors of the 



192 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

New York and Erie road, then in its infancy, had been 
frequently called to the importance of extending their 
road to the harbor of Erie : and the route by way of 
Salamanca and Jamestown was found to be feasible. 
Surveys of the route were made in November and 
December, 1850, at the instance and expense of the Hon. 
Benj. Chamberlain, T. S. Sheldon, Esq.; Wm. Hall, Esq ; 
Samuel Barrett, Esq.; Mr. Henry Baker, and Mr. A. F. 
Allen, well known in Western New York for their 
energy and liberality. In July, 1851, a company was 
organized under the title of the Erie and New York 
City Eailroad Company, and in March, 1852, the line 
of the road was located. In May, 1853, the whole line 
from Salamanca to Ashville, a distance of thirty-eight 
miles, was under contract for construction, and the 
grading progressing favorably. On account of finan- 
cial difficulties the work was very much retarded. The 
work of grading however was pushed along with 
energy till January, 1855. 

In July, 1857, the citizens of Meadville, in Crawford 
County, Pennsylvania, organized a Bailroad Company, 
under the name of the Meadville Bailroad Company, 
in order to construct a road through the counties of 
Crawford and Mercer. The gentleman prominently 
concerned in the enterprise were Wm. Beynolds, Esq., 
John Dick, Hon. Gaylord Church, James R Dick, and 
Hon. D. A. Finney. In pursuance of the powers 
granted to this Company in their charter, they pur- 
chased all the property and franchises of the Pittsburg 
and Erie Eailroad Company within these two conn- ' 
ties. 

In June, 1851, a company was organized in Ohi(^ 



ATLANTIC AND GREAT WESTERN. 193 

for the purpose of building a railroad under the name 
of the Franklin and Warren Railroad, from Warren, 
in Trumbull County, to Dayton in Montgomery County. 
In July, 1853, operations were actively commenced on 
the eastern end of the line, and, during the year 1854, 
that part of the road between Akron and Warren was 
completed. 

During the summer of 1852, some gentlemen in 
Pennsylvania and Ohio proposed the project of con- 
tinuing the broad-gauge of the Ohio and Mississippi 
Railroad through Ohio and Pennsylvania, so a^ to con- 
nect with the New York and Erie Railroad. This, 
grand plan for a broad-gauge through line from N^ 
York to St. Louis, one thousand two hundred miles 
long, was submitted, in November, 1856, to the direc- 
tors of the three local companies above referred to, and 
was favorably considered. 

In the month of May, 1859, a company was organ- 
ized in the State of New York, under the name of the 
Atlantic and Great Western Railroad Company, In 
1860, this Company purchased the track, road-bed, 
property and franchises of the Erie and New York 
City Railroad, extending for thirty-eight miles, and ex- 
tended, the track for a distance of eleven miles further, 
so as to join the track of the Franklin and Warren 
Company. 

Negotiations were commenced in Europe, in the fall 
of 1858, with James McHenry, Esq., for the necessary 
means to carry on the work. In the fall of that year, 
at the instance of Mr. McHenry, T. W. Kennard, Esq., 
a civil engineer of prominence in England, came out 
to make an exploration of the entire line. He per- 
13 



194 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

formed his work most thoroughly; and, upon the 
receipt of his report by Mr. McHenry, preparations 
were made for actively commencing operations. Mr. 
Kennard came out as the agent and attoniej of Mr. 
McHenry, and also as engineer-in-chief of the whole 
work. 

On the 20th day of April, 1860, a corps of engineers 
commenced their labors at Jamestown, N. Y., and on 
the 26th day of the same month a second corps com- 
menced at the junction with the New York and Erie 
Eailroad at Salamanca. On the 27th the contractors 
commenced grading, and May 8th, 1860, the first rail 
was laid, and the first spike driven. Daring the same 
month a construction train was put on the work, and 
on July 3d, of the same year, seventeen miles of track 
were laid to Eandolph, N. Y. On the 5th day of August 
following, tho track was laid across Main Street, in the 
village of Jamestown, N. Y., thirty-four miles from 
Salamanca ; and in the afternoon of that day an ex- 
cursion train arrived from the city of New York, con- 
taining the chief officers of the New York and Erie 
Eailroad Company, and other gentlemen. In May, 
1861, another link was opened, from Jamestown, N. 
Y., to Corr}'-, Pa., a distance of twenty-seven miles 
from the former place, and sixty-one miles firom Sala- 
manca. On the 27th day of the same month regular 
trains commenced running over this portion of the road. 

In 1861 the contracts for the completion of the en- 
tire line- passed into the hands of Mr. McHenry; but 
the work was suspended from June 1st, 1861, to March 
18th, 1862, when the engineers were again placed upon 
the line in Pennsylvania. The construction was now 



ATLANTIC AND GREAT WESTERN. 195 

driven forward with energy under the immediate 
supervision of Mr. Kennard. On the 21st day of 
October, 1862, the road was opened to Meadville, Pa., 
forty-one miles distant from Corry, and one hundred 
and two miles from Salamanca. ^ 

During this time the work was progressing in Ohio, 
not very rapidly, however ; but in the spring of 1862 
it was energetically commenced. 

January 4th, 1863, another section of the road was 
opened, from Meadville, Pa., to Warren, 0., fifty-nine 
miles from the former place, and one hundred and 
sixty-one miles from Salamanca. 

February 23d following, the track-laying was com- 
pleted to Eavenna, and on the 18th of May express 
trains commenced running regularly to this point ; and 
eight days subsequently, the broad gauge cars reached 
Akron, two hundred and two miles from Salamanca. 

On the 30lh of this same month the track-layers 
completed the track on the Franklin Branch (Mead- 
ville to Franklin Pa.), twenty-five miles. 

The work accomplished during the year, so briefly 
referred to, is without parallel in the history of rail- 
roads. When we consider the great scarcity of labor- 
ers, the army absorbing able-bodied men, to the extent 
that it became necessary to keep agents in Canada and 
Ireland to send them out for this particular work by 
the ship-load, the building and bringing into active 
operation so many miles of road in so short a period 
of time may well be called a wonderful achievement.^ 

During the whole of this time the Meadville" Eail- 
road Company and the Franklin and Warren Railroad 
Company were working in harmony with the Atlantic 



196 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

and Great Western Eailroad Company, under the 
same name as the latter, and with the view of ultimate 
consolidation. Indeed, the three companies may 
henceforth be regarded as one corporation, and we shall 
speak of them as jne. 

In October, 1863, the Company leased for ninety- 
nine years the Cleveland and Mahoning Eailroad, 
extending from Cleveland to Youngstown, sixty-seven 
miles. This road had been built on the narrow gauge, 
but the Company laid down an additional rail outside 
of the track, thus converting it into a broad-gauge 
railroad. On the 3d of November, 1863, trains began 
to arrive at Cleveland, by way of this new track and 
the New York and Erie Eailroad, the broad-gauge 
being unbroken during the entire distance. 

On the 27th of December, 1863, the last rail between 
Akron and Gallon was spiked, eighty-two miles of 
additional road being thereby brought into use. In 
June, 1864, a special train reached Dayton, and a con- 
nection was made with the Ohio and Mississippi road 
at Cincinnati, over the broad-gauge track of the Cin- 
cinnati, Hamilton, and Dayton Eailroad, which had 
been provided by that Company for the business of the 
Atlantic and Great Western road. 

In August, 1865, the companies of the three roads 
were consolidated under |fie provisions of Acts of 
Consolidation passed by the respective Legislatures of 
the three States of New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. 
Included in the consolidation is a branch road„ hereto- 
fore Known as "The Buffalo Extension of the Atlantic 
and Great Western Eailway Company," leaving the 
main line of the consolidated roads at Eandolph, New 



ATLANTIC AND GREAT WESTERN. 197 

York, seventeen miles west of Salamanca, and extend- 
ing to Buffalo, a distance of about sixty-seven miles. 
This branch was to have been completed in 1866, and 
will, when built, form a connection with the Erie and 
Niagara Railroad in Canada, crossing the Niagara 
Eiver near Buffalo. 

The present condition of the road will be apparent 
from the following facts: That part of the road 
between Salamanca and Meadville requires considera- 
ble repairs, although it was greatly improved during the 
year 1866. Owing to the hasty and temporary manner in 
which some parts of the road were at first constructed, 
the destruction of the permanent way has been very 
great, requiring almost a total renewal of the track 
material, and the substitution of permanent structures 
for temporary ones. There were placed upon this part 
of the road during the year 1866, one hundred thousand 
five hundred and seventy -five cross-ties and ten miles of 
re-rolled iron rails, besides four new bridges. During 
the year 1867, thirty miles of re-rolled iron rails were 
laid down, besides fifty thousand cross-ties. 

On that part of the road between Meadville and 
Kent, the track is not in first-class condition, for the 
same reasons. The character of the material in the 
road-bed here is much worse than that mentioned 
above. Nothing less than a thorough re-baUasting of 
the track between Meadville and Leavittsburg, sixty- 
three miles, will be safe to rely upon. From Leavitts- 
burg to Kent, the ^•oad is much better, although a 
considerable quantity of new iron is needed. During 
the year 1866, twenty thousand cross-ties and six miles 
of re-rolled iron rails have been laid down on this part 



198 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

of the road. In respect to drainage and ditching, a 
very important consideration, this portion of the road 
is in far better condition than at any previous time. 
During the year 1867, twenty-seven miles of re-rolled 
iron rails, fifty thousand cross-ties, and fifty thousand 
cubic yards of ballasting, were laid down on this part 
of the road. 

That portion of the road between Kent and Gallon, 
a distance of ninety-two miles, is in very good condi- 
tion. The same may also be said of that portion of 
the road between Dayton and Galion, a distance of one 
hundred and four miles ; and of that portion of the road 
between Cleveland and Levittsburg, a distance of fifty 
miles. 

The General Superintendent of the road, D. McLaren, 
Esq., says in his last annual report :- 

" Permit me to say in connection with this, that the 
subject of iron should engage the most serious atten- 
tion of railway managers, as the cost of renewal of iron 
is far the heaviest item of expense in the maintenance 
of a road. The experience of the American railways 
proves that the average life of iron (needing in the 
meantime re-rolling) does not exceed ten years, requir- 
ing, therefore, the renewal of at least ten per cent, of 
the entire quantity each year from the commencement 
of its use. Of this road, sixty miles, from Salamanca 
to Corry, has been used six years. One hundred and 
thirty miles, from Corry to Akron, four years. Two 
hundred and thirty-six miles, from Akron to Dayton 
and broad-gauge of the Mahoning Branch, three years. 
The narrow gauge of the Mahoning Branch, from Cleve- 
land to Youngstown; ten years, and the Franklin 



ATLANTIC AND GREAT WESTERN. 199 

Branch, from Meadville to Oil City, tbirty-three miles> 
two years ; making an average of four and one-half 
years upon the entire amount of iron upon the road, 
or nearly one-half the life of the whole. But a very 
inconsiderable amount of this has been renewed — 
twenty-two miles in all — during the past year, or 
barely four per cent, leaving ninety-six per cent., of 
iron one-half worn out. From this it will appear that 
forty-one per cent., equal to two hundred and five miles, 
should be added to the iron at once to make the depre- 
ciation good. 

" The large expenditure for repairs of track and road- 
way, for the past year, and requirements for the future 
have arisen from the incomplete manner in which part 
of the road was originally constructed. The cuttings 
in many instances were too narrow, thereby obstructing 
the drainage and qpvering the track with mud, and 
requiring a constant outlay in widening and ditching. 
The embankments are still, in many places, too nar- 
row to retain ballast and furnish sufficient bearing for 
the cross-ties. No portion of the line, except the Fourth 
Division, has ever been sufficiently ballasted. Many 
miles on the other divisions, up to this time, have 
never been ballasted. The cross ties originally were 
insufficient in number and size to sustain the rail 
under the pressure of the heavy machinery used upon 
the line. A large per cent, of the cross-ties were fur- 
nished from poor material — about one hundred and 
seventy-five miles of track being laid almost exclu- 
sively with hemlock ties, which we are discarding, 
and using, for the most part, white oak of the best 
quality ; and none other should be used in the future 



200 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

as a matter of economy. Four years being the extent 
of the life of hemlock ties as proven by our expe- 
rience, while white oak ties are good for eight years. 

" A number of temporary structures were erected in 
the original construction. Those upon the first and a 
portion of the second divisions are of an inferior cha- 
racter of material, requiring their substitution by ma- 
^ sonry and embankments. It is owing to these facts 
that your track material has so rapidly depreciated, 
and at the same time requiring an extraordinary ex- 
pense in repairs of the road and machinery. 

" The pattern of iron used in our renewals is a sixty 
pound fish-plate rail, making a very excellent road, 
requiring very small expense in laying, avoiding the 
continuous pounding and jar of joints, approaching as 
near as anything yet adopted to a continuous rail." 

The managers of the Company, in a pamphlet re- 
cently put forth by them, make the following statement 
in regard to the expenses of working the road : — 

"The cost on the Atlantic and Great Western Rail- 
way is 72.80 per cent., while on the Pennsylvania the 
cost of operating in 1865 was 76 per cent., and in 1866, 
77.13 per cent. The expenses of the New York Cen- 
tral for 1865, inclusive of taxes, was 80.29 per cent., 
and in 1866, 77.66 per cent. The Ohio and Missis- 
sippi was operated in 1865 at a cost of 78.10 per cent., 
and the Erie Eailway 72.27 per cent. In 1866, the ex- 
penses of the Erie Eailway, including taxes, were 78,10 
per cent., and of the Philadelphia and Erie Bailroad 
82 per cent. The working expenses of the Boston 
and Worcester Eailroad for 1866 were 74 r\, per 
cent. All the roads named have been made for years, 



ATLANTIC AND GREAT WESTERN. 201 

and are free from many of the extraordinary expenses 
of operating a new line of railway, especially a line so 
hastily and in very many respects poorly constructed 
as the Atlantic and Great Western, and yet their 
average percentage is much greater. These figures 
are taken from the official reports of the several com- 
panies, and are, therefore, reliable. Added to this we 
have the exhibit made by the Auditor Greneral's Ee- 
port of the Eailroads of Pennsylvania, for 1866, which 
shows that the average cost of operating all the lines 
in the State is 66.58 per cent. The Pennsylvania and 
the New York Central, two of the oldest, best equipped 
and managed roads in the country, are operated at a 
greater cost than any of the other lines. Certainly 
the Atlantic and Great Western does not suffer by 
comparison with these old and well-established routes. 
Furthermore, it should be borne in mind that this road 
i^ a new competitor for the trajQSc between the west 
and the seaboard, and in the outset is subject to more 
than ordinary expenses to attract business. Moreover, 
the reports of many of the leading railways indicate 
that the cost of supplies knd materials in transporta- 
tion expenses has increased enormously during the 
past two or three years. The New York Central, in 
view of this fact, has been seeking legislation to enable 
them to charge one-half cent more per mile on all 
passengers, and their exhibit made to the investigating 
committee shows that the increase of cost of most sup- 
plies is from 60 to 200 per cent. The annual report 
of the Michigan Southern Eailroad Company shows 
that the increase in transportation expenses on that 



202 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES, • 

line has been from 4 to 5 per cent, during the past 
year. 

" So far, therefore, as the charge of expensive man- 
agement enters into the controversy, these facts and 
figures dispose of that." 

Comparison op Business for 1866 and 1865. — 
Statement showing the earnings and expenses of run- 
ning the road for the ten months ending October 
31st, 1866, compared with the corresponding period in 
the year 1865, viz : — 

1866. Earnings . . $4,833,489 86 

Expenses . . . 3,522,460 23 . 

Net Earnings . . . $1,311,029 63 

1865. Earnings . . . $4,614,727 38 

Expenses . . . 2,804,474 38 

Net Earnings . . . $1,810,253 00 

The expenses in 1865 were 63 ^% per cent, of the 
gross earnings. The expenses in 1866 were 72 f^ per 
cent, of the gross earnings. 

The total number of passengers carried during the 
year 1865 was eight hundred and forty-seven thousand 
six hundred and eight, giving a revenue of one million 
two hundred and ninety-one thousand four hundred 
and seventy-six dollars and sixty-one cents, or an 
average fare per passenger of one dollar and fifty-two 
cents. 

In the year 1866 the total number of passengers 
carried was seven hundred and forty-two thousand 
and seventy-seven, giving a revenue of one million 
one hundred and twelve thousand five hundred and 



ATLANTIC AND GREAT WESTERN. 203 

seventeen dollars and thirty cents, or an average from 
each passenger of one dollar and fifty cents. 

The equipment of the road at present consists of 
about one hundred and eighty locomotives, one hun- 
dred passenger cars, and about two thousand freight 
cars. 

The officers of the Company are S. S. L'Hommedieu, 
President; J. J. Shyrock, Vice-President; J. M. Dick, 
Treasurer; J. C. Calhoun, Secretary; L. D. Eucker, 
General Superintendent ; T. W. Kennard, Chief Engi- 
neer. 

During the year 1867, the increased prosperity of 
the New York and Erie road was fully shared by its 
western continuation, the Atlantic and Great Western. 
The great improvements that have recently been made 
in the track and road-bed of the latter, and its com- 
fortable, wide coaches, render it a most pleasant road 
to ride upon ; and the through trains upon it between 
New York and Cincinnati are always full of passen- 
gers. The road is excellently managed, and every 
precaution is taken to guard against accidents, with 
the most happy results. The President of the road, 
Mr. L'Hommedieu, and the General Superintendent, L. 
D. Eucker, Esq., are emphatically the right men in the 
right places ; and it is chiefly to their untiring energy 
and great railroad experience that the road has won 
such an enviable degree of popularity. 



204 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILROAD. 

Previous to the year 1852, there was no complete 
and uninterrupted line of railroad between Chicago 
and the eastern cities. In that jear> the Michigan 
Southern Railroad was opened, in connection with the 
lake shore lines, and these roads, with the New York 
and Erie road, began that career of usefulness which 
has ever since added so much to the convenience of 
the travelling public. 

The Michigan Southern Railroad extends from 
Chicago to Toledo, a distance of two hundred and 
forty -three miles. Three trains leave Chicago daily, 
from the new depot on the corner of Van Buren and 
Sherman Streets, namely, at 7 A. M. and 5 and 10 P. 
M., arriving at Toledo at 4 and 9 A. M., and 4.30 P. M. 

The Jiistory of this road affords another example of 
the benefits of railroad consolidation. 

The Michigan Southern and Northern Indiana 
Railroad Company was formed on the 25th of April, 
1855, by the consolidation of two railroads which had 
existed for some time previously, namely, the Michigan 
Southern Railroad, and the .Northern Indiana Rail- 
road. The Northern Indiana Railroad, as it existed 
at the time of its consolidation with the Michigan 
Southern Railroad Company in 1855, originated in a 



THE MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILROAD. 205 

Company formed in Indiana, as early as 1835, under a 
charter from that State, as the Buffalo and Mississippi 
Eailroad Company. The Northern Indiana Eailroad 
Company commenced its operations in the year 1852, 
under the provisions of a charter from the State of 
Ohio, which was granted on the 3d of March, 1851. 
The Northern Indiana and Chicago Eailroad had also 
commenced its operations about the same time, under 
a charter from the State of Illinois. The three roads 
last named became merged into one about the year 
1854, under the name of the NortTiern Eailroad Com- 
pany. 

The Michigan Southern Eailroad Company was 
formed under a charter from the State of Michigan, 
on the 9th of May, 1846, and in pursuance of an act 
authorizing the sale to them of the existing Michigan 
Southern Eailroad and the Jackson and Tecumseh 
Branch thereof, which were both owned and operated by 
the State of Michigan. The organization was completed, 
and the conditions of the act were complied with, in 
December, 1846, so that the Michigan Southern Eail- 
road Company entered into possession of the railroad 
and its branch that year. The railroad, from Monroe 
westward, was commenced by the State of Michigan 
about 1838, but it was only finished as far as to Hills- 
dale at the time of its sale to the Michigan Southern 
Eailroad Company, in 1846. It was extended by that 
Company, in 1852, to the Indiana State line, near 
Middlebury, and was connected there with the Northern 
Indiana Eailroad. The latter road was completed to 
Chicago in June, 1852. 

The Jackson and Tecumseh Branch was extended 



206 



RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



to Jackson in 1855, and a branch was built from Con- 
stantine, which was the terminus of the old Michigan 
Southern Eailroad, to Three Rivers, in Michigan, in 
1853. The Goshen Branch forms part of the Goshen 
air-line from Toledo to Elkhart, where it makes con- 
nection with the old line from Chicago to Monroe. 

The Erie and Kalamazoo Eailroad, from Toledo to 
Adrian, leased from the Erie and Kalamazoo Railroad 
Company, is run and used as part of the main line of 
the Michigan Southern Railroad from Chicago to 
Toledo. Part of the Detroit, Monroe, and Toledo 
Railroad, which was mostly built by the Michigan 
Southern Railroad Company, and is exclusively con- 
trolled and operated by them, is used as far as Monroe 
as part of the Michigan Southern Railroad from Chi- 
cago to Detroit. The Detroit, Monroe, and Toledo road 
is also used as a line from Detroit to Toledo, connect- 
ing at Toledo with roads to Cincinnati and Cleveland. 

The number of miles of road now owned and 
operated by the Michigan Southern and Northern In- 
diana Railroad Company is as follows : — 



Toledo to Chicago, via old line , 


. 243 


Toledo to Elkhart, air line 


. 132 


Detroit to Toledo 


. 65 


Monroe to Adrian 


. 33 


Jackson Branch 


. . 42 


Three Eivers Branch, sub-leased 


. 12 


Total miles . . , . 


. 527 



In September, 1849, soon after the organization of 
the Michigan Southern Railroad Company, a statement 



THE MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILROAD. 207 

was submitted to the Stockholders by the Board of 
Directors, exhibiting the condition of the road and 
the finances of the Company, and soliciting a new 
subscription of a quarter of a million of dollars to 
provide means for extending the road west from 
Hillsdale. A por,tion of the stock was subscribed, and 
in the spring of 1850 the line from Hillsdale to Cold- 
water, a distance of twenty-two miles, was put under 
contract. The road then in operation from Monroe to 
Hillsdale, a distance of sixty-nine miles, was that 
which had been originally constructed by the State 
of Michigan. It had a wooden rail covered by a flat 
bar of iron. The Company had leased the Erie and 
Kalamazoo road, extending from Adrian to Toledo, 
thirty-three miles in length, making a total of one 
hundred and eleven miles then operated by the Com- 
pany. 

In the original grading of these roads the crossing 
of the valleys was effected, for the most part, by 
bridges of timber. Since that time, however, the 
whole extent of the tracks on these roads has been re- 
laid with heavy rails, and the valleys on the route 
have been filled with permanent embankments, with 
new bridges and culverts for the streams and water- 
courses. Heavy expenses have also been incurred in 
providing abundant station accommodation all along 
the line. 

In the summer of 1850, the line was put under con- 
tract from Coldwater to Sturgis, a distance of twenty- 
three miles, and in March, 1851, this portion of the 
road was completed and opened. Some delay was ex- 
perienced in determining upon the location of the 



208 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

line west of Sturgis, and contracts for the remainder 
of the road in Michigan were not made until 
May, 1851. During the winter and spring of 1851, 
the Indiana road was put under contract. The Michi- 
gan Southern road was opened to White Pigeon in the 
latter part of July, 1851. The Northern Indiana road 
was opened in successive stages : During the fall of 
1851, to South Bend, and on the 9th of January, 1862, 
to La Porte. In February, 1852, the road was opened 
from Michigan City to Ainsworth, in Illinois, and to 
Chicago in March, 1852. On the 22d of May, 1852, 
the entire line was opened, and a passenger train went 
through from Toledo to Chicago. Thus, in the space 
of twenty months, embracing two severe winters, the 
Company constructed one hundred and sixty miles of 
new road, and relaid, and nearly rebuilt, fifty miles 
of old road. 

The last act of legislation necessary to the consolida- 
tion of the companies owning the Michigan Southern 
and the Northern Indiana lines of railroad was passed 
by the Michigan Legislature on the 13th of February, 
1855 ; full authority therefor having previously been 
given by the States of Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. Im- 
mediately after the passage of the last-mentioned act, 
the necessary measures were taken to carry the same 
into eflfect, and on the 26th of April, 1855, the articles 
of consolidation were finally sanctioned and approved 
by the unanimous vote of the stockholders of the 
respective corporations. 

Improvements of every kind at once sprang up in 
all directions, through the region in which the roads 
run. At Toledo, the new depot grounds were 80on 



THE MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILROAD. 209 

brought into use, and the whole business of that termi- 
nus was transferred to them. These grounds are situ- 
ated on the Maumee Eiver. At this point the Cleve- 
land and Toledo Eailroad unites with the Michigan 
Southern. The inconvenient ferry which formerly 
existed at this point has long since been dispensed 
with, and in place of it a handsome bridge has been 
erected. This point is also the eastern terminus of the 
Toledo, Wabash and Western Eailroad, whose trains 
run into the passenger depot of the Michigan Southern 
road. This depot is a very handsome and commodious 
structure, built of brick, four hundred and eighty feet 
long and one hundred and sixty feet wide. These de- 
pot grounds cover an area of twenty-six acres, and the 
Company has expended one million of dollars upon 
them in improvements. The depot and station build- 
ings, freight houses, and grain elevators, that have been 
built by the Company upon these grounds, are very 
extensivQ and complete, and are admirably adapted to 
the accommodation of the business for which they were 
constructed, and which is concentrated at this point. 

In the location and planning of these grounds and 
buildings, they were made accessible to other import- 
ant railroads terminating at Toledo, an arrangement 
which has been found to be exceedingly convenient to 
these other railroads, and at the same time very profit- 
able to the Michigan Southern Eailroad. In addition 
to the improvements already enumerated, the Company 
in 1855, erected at Toledo two very large warehouses 
for the storage of grain and its transfer in bulk to ves- 
sels. They both front upon the river, and will hold 
four hundred thousand bushels of grain. Soon after 
14 



210 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

the Michigan Southern Eailroad got into operation, it 
was found that the immense production of wheat and 
corn along the line of the road rendered such warehouse 
accommodation indispensable. 

The rolling stock of the Company, in 1855, consisted 
of seventy-four locomotives, ninety-eight passenger 
cars, twenty-five baggage cars, seven hundred and 
twenty-two freight cars. 

The earnings of the road in 1854 were two million 
one hundred and fifty-eight thousand three hundred 
and twelve dollars ; in 1855, they were two million five 
hundred and ninety-five thousand six hundred and 
thirty dollars ; and in 1856, they were two million seven 
hundred and fourteen thousand eight hundred and forty- 
eight dollars. In 1857, the earnings were two million 
three hundred and nine thousand four hundred and 
eighty -seven dollars ; and in 1858, they were two mil- 
lion two hundred and twenty-seven thousand eight hun- 
dred and ninety -four dollars. In 1860, the, earnings 
were two million seventy-five thousand four hundred 
and fifty-nine dollars ; in 1861, they were two million 
two hundred and twenty-six thousand two hundred and 
ninety-nine dollars; in 1862, they were two million 
eight hundred and thirteen thousand eight hundred 
and thirty-one dollars ; in 1863, they were three mil- 
lion three hundred and eighty-four thousand two hun- 
dred and ninety-four dollars ; in 1864, they were four 
million two hundred and eighty-nine thousand four 
hundred and sixty-six dollars ; in 1865, they were four 
million six hundred and eighty-six thousand four hun- 
dred and forty-five dollars ; and in 1866, they were 



THE MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILROAD. 211 

four million six hundred and forty-seven thousand 
five hundred and twenty-eight dollars. 

During the year 1866, one hundred and three miles 
of the road were relaid with new and re-rolled iron, and 
one hundred and thirty-one miles were relaid with 
new cross-ties. 

During the year 1866, the new passenger depot at 
Chicago and the new freight depot there were com- 
pleted, and the Company has been at the expense of 
the grading of the streets in their immediate vicinity. 

In the matter of other permanent improvements, a 
large expenditure has been made in the substitution of 
stone structures in place of wooden bridging, for new 
stations, woodsheds, and other conveniences upon the 
line, as well as the increase in number and length of 
side tracks. 

In February, 1868, a contract was entered into with 
the Erie Eailway, of New York, by the terms of which 
that Company guarantees the building a broad gauge 
railroad from a point on the Atlantic and Great West- 
ern Eailway, near Akron, Ohio, to Toledo, Ohio, less 
than one hundred miles. The Michigan Southern and 
Northern Indiana Railroad agree to lay a third rail 
on their line to Chicago, thus to perfect a broad gauge 
route from Chicago to New York by one of the short- 
est lines. The new road will be completed within a 
year, and will effect a revolution in travel between 
New York and Chicago, as the wide and comfortable 
cars of the Erie road can then carry passengers from 
one city to the other without change. 

The road carried during the last year eight hundred 
and forty-six thousand six hundred and ninety-eight 



212 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

passengers and six hundred and ninety-nine thousand 
seven hundred and sixty -five tons of freight. It has five 
hundred and twenty-three miles of road in use, and 
owns one thousand three hundred and sixty freight 
cars, one hundred and ten passenger cars, and one 
hundred and twenty-one locomotives. 

The new passenger depot of the Company is one of 
the handsomest buildings in Chicago, and one of the 
largest and finest depot buildings in the United States. 
It is used in common with the Chicago and Bock 
Island Eailroad Company. It occupies the whole 
square of ground between Harrison and Van Buren 
Streets, and between Griswold and Sherman Streets, 
and is five hundred and fifty-two feet long, and one 
hundred and sixty feet wide. It is built of rough 
faced stone, with a slate roof. Besides all the neces- 
sary offices for the Company's business, the depot con- 
tains commodious waiting rooms for passengers, dining 
rooms, baggage rooms, &c. 

To the south of the passenger depot is the old en- 
gine house of the Michigan Southern road, and im- 
mediately south of this building the new freight house. 
It is built of stone, and has a slate roof. The length 
is six hundred feet, by fifty-two in width, an 1 about 
fifty in height. Considering that each car will occupy 
about thirty feet, this house is able to accommodate 
twenty cars at a time. It has storage room for two 
hundred cars, which, at ten tons to the car, will give 
a total of two thousand tons, though these figures are 
practically greatly increased, from the fact that the 
freight is moving during the entire day. One of the 
noticeable features of this building is the presence of 



THE MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILROAD. 213 

an improved transfer table, by which cars can be sent 
from the shed to the track outside with little labor and 
without interfering with other cars. The oflBces are in 
the south end of the building. 

Both of these fine depots were constructed by Mr. 
W. W. Boyington, an eminent architect of Chicago. 

The officers of the Company are E. B. Phillips, 
President ; Charles F. Hatch, General Superintendent ; 
Charles Paine, Chief Engineer ; Legrand Lockwood, 
Treasurer ; C. P. Leland, General Passenger Agent ; 
Charles Gray, General Freight Agent ; S. C. Hough, 
Western Passenger Agent. 

The business of the road for the year 1867 was large 
and remunerative ; much more so, in fact, than in pre- 
vious years. The condition of the track and road-bed 
is now all that could be desired, and the passenger cars 
are furnished with every requisite for comfort. The 
time-tables and arrangements for the running of 
through trains on this route between Chicago and 
New York, in connection, with the New York and 
Erie road, aflford every desirable accommodation and 
facility to the travelling public ; and these advantages 
are fully appreciated by the latter. All the indica- 
tions, in fact, point to a steady increase in the income 
of the road, from year to year. 



214 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

RAILROADS OP NEW ENGLAND. 

A RAILROAD map shows that the New England 
States are covered with a perfect network of railroads. 
They are all, however, short roads, each one extending 
only a few miles in length. All the long lines, such 
as the Boston, Hartford and Erie, the Vermont Cen- 
tral, and the "Western of Massachusetts, as well as the 
lines from Boston to Ogdensburg and from New Haven 
to Montreal, are composed of short links, constructed 
at different times, by different corporations, and with 
different and often conflicting interests in view. Gen- 
erally, when a consolidation of these short roads 
was proposed, it has been found very diflScult, and 
sometimes impossible, to reconcile these conflicting 
interests. 

We have heretofore given a complete list of these 
short roads, and need only refer to the list here. 
The history of these roads affords very little of inter- 
est to the reader. They were generally well built, 
and were moderately supplied with rolling stock of the 
best construction. Previous to the year 1845, the rail- 
roads of New England were almost exclusively of this 
character. By that time, indeed as early as 1840, the 
necessity of having direct railroad communication with 
the West, became apparent. The Vermont Central Rail- 



RAILROADS OF NEW ENGLAND. 215 

road was thereupon built, connecting Boston with 
Ogdensburg on the St. Lawrence Eiver, and making a 
•liile three hundred and eighty-two miles long. Or 
rather, four railroads, which had been built a short 
time previously, were consolidated, and formed the 
line from Boston to Ogdensburg. These were, first, 
the road from Boston to Concord, seventy -five miles 
long, which had been built a number of years, and 
had always enjoyed an immense local traffic ; second, 
the road from Concord to Montpelier, one hundred and 
thirteen miles, which had also been in operation for 
some years, 'and was doing well in connection with 
the road to Boston ; third, the road from Montpelier 
to Rouse's Point, seventy-six miles long, a road which 
soon became a favorite with travellers, on account of 
the fine scenery along its route ; and fourth, the road 
from Rouse's Point to Ogdensburg, one hundred and 
eighteen miles. The whole of this line was completed 
and in operation in 1851. 

The country through which the greater part of this 
road passes is not remarkable for its fertility. In- 
deed, compared with the rich soil of the western 
country, or even with that through which the New 
York and Erie and New York Central road passes, it is 
a barren and sterile region. And yet the local busi- 
ness of the line has increased year after year, and the 
local traffic of the whole line is now profitable. The 
design in opening the line as a through route, was to 
draw western produce, arriving at Ogdensburg from 
BuSklo and Chicago, to Boston ; and this object was 
attained to a reasonable extent. 

Another line, which was constructed about the same 



216 RAILROADS OF TUE UNITED STATES. 

time, is the " Western" Railroad, as it is called, 
extending from Boston to Albany, a distance of two 
hundred miles. This line, also, is formed by the con- 
solidation of four short roads, namely, first, the Boston 
and Worcester road, forty -four miles long; second, 
the Worcester and Springfield road, fifty-four miles 
long ; third, the Springfield and Pittsfield road, fifty- 
three miles long ; and fourth, the Pittsfield and Hud- 
son River road, seventy-five miles long, and termi- 
nating at Albany. This line runs across the whole 
length of the State of Massachusetts, and is exclusively 
a Massachusetts road. It was built mainly by Massa- 
chusetts capital; and Massachusetts men are justly 
entitled to the credit of the enterprise. The object 
of the consolidation of the four roads was to form a 
connection with the New York Central road ; and in 
this it has been remarkably successful. Passengers 
from Chicago to Boston find in the great depot of the 
Illinois Central Railroad at Chicago, a train of cars 
made up, with this sign alongside: "These cars for 
Boston." Once in these cars, they are all right They 
are whirled along on the Michigan Central road to 
Detroit; thence, on the Great Western Railroad of 
Canada, to Niagara Falls ; thence, after crossing the 
Suspension Bridge, on the New York Central road, 
through Rochester, Canandaigua, and Syracuse, to 
Albany ; and thence, crossing the Hudson River, on 
the Western Railroad of Massachusetts, to Boston. 
Freight from the West to Boston, of course, took the 
same route ; and, very soon after it was opened, the 
Western Railroad of Massachusetts became profita- 
ble. Its local business, particularly between Bostoq 



RAILROADS OF NEW ENGLAND. 217 

and Pittsfield, has always been good. Its affairs are 
managed with a great deal of tact and ability. The 
officers of the Company are C. W. Chapin, President ; 
C. 0. Russell, Superintendent ; and J. B. Chapin, Assist- 
ant Superintendent. 

Some time afterwards, the line from New Haven to 
Montreal was opened, to run in connection with the 
Grand Trunk Railroad of Canada, from Detroit. This 
line Was made up by consolidating no less than seven 
different short roads, namely, first the road from New 
Haven to Hartford ; second, the road from Hartford 
to Springfield ; third, the road from Springfield to 
Bellows Falls ; fourth, the road from Bellows Falls to 
Lebanon ; fifth, the road from Lebanon to Montpelier ; 
sixth, the road from Montpelier to Rouse's Point ; and 
seventh, the road from Rouse's Point to Montreal. The 
business of this road has been fair, and on the whole 
satisfactory, but not equal to some others. There are 
too many conflicting interests connected with it, which 
are as yet unharmonized. It runs, however, through 
the richest and most fertile portion of New England, 
and its revenues, large as they are, can be probably 
doubled. 

The Boston and Maine Railroad, extending from 
Boston to Bangor, in Maine, was constructed at a later 
period, and at once became remunerative. It passes 
through Portsmouth, Portland, and Augusta, and its 
local and through traffic are both very large. 

The Boston, Hartford and Erie Railroad Company, of 
which I shall speak in detail presently, applied to the 
legislature of Massachusetts during the winter of 1867, 
for some material aid. Their interests were very ably 



218 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

managed by an eminent lawyer whom they had re- 
tained for that purpose. In the course of his argu- 
ment before the legislature, he gave the following 
reminiscences in relation to that and other railroads 
in Massachusetts: — 

"I have spoken freely, Mr. Chairman and gentle- 
men, of the present state of things in this Common- 
wealth, because I have very decided opinions on the 
subject, opinions founded on a careful consider&tion 
of facts and fortified by the observation of thirty 
years, while engaged in active business in this city, 
and because it is well for us to look at the other side 
of the fancy picture so constantly presented to us. 
We all take pride in the material prosperity of the 
Commonwealth, and are fond, perhaps too fond, of 
making comparisons between our own position and 
that of less favored communities. But are we not 
dwelling a little too much on this, or rather are we 
not resting too confidently on the laurels won in 
former years, on the prestige secured for us by the 
eflTorts of eminent men who have now passed away ? 
Those who have carefully watched the course of legis- 
lation and of business operations for the past ten 
years, and have instituted a comparison between this 
Commonwealth and some other States in the Union, 
are by no means so confident of our position as men 
who never go abroad even with their eyes and who 
are content to let well enough alone. To stand still 
in these matters is to fall behind. Let us glance a 
moment at the State of Maine, the daughter of Massa- 
chusetts and bound to us by many other ties than 
those of mere business relationship. We shall find 



RAILROADS OF NEW ENGLAND. 219 

that while the State of Maine was formerly apparently 
insensible to its great natural advantages, its magnifi- 
cent harbors, its extended seacoast, and its unrivalled 
facilities for manufacturing operations, there has been 
of , late years a most marked change. In point of 
energy, sagacity and ability, she now more than rivals 
our own Commonwealth; while in comprehensive, 
wise, and sensible legislation in matters affecting her 
material interests, she is excelled by none of her sister 
States. In former years, Massachusetts bore the palm 
in this respect. In the active years of Webster (who 
was a most thorough and sagacious business man for 
everybody but himself), Everett, Lawrence, Appleton, 
Davis, Briggs, Dwight, the most enlarged views were 
prevalent, and the most judicious and even artistio 
plans were made to secure the capital of the Common- 
wealth within its own borders, to develop our own 
resources, and to attract the labor, the skill and the 
industry of the whole country here. To this end our 
State legislation was carefully shaped. The most 
favorable system of corporations was originated here. 
Our plan was peculiar. There never was anything 
like it before in the world. The English system was 
quite different. The great idea was to draw into 
effective operation capital from all quarters. The 
rich and the poor acted in the same interest. Any 
man who could raise the amount of a single share was 
to that extent enabled to compete with the millionaire ; 
while, on the other hand, the man of wealth had at 
risk only that which he put into the concern. This 
all seems very simple to us now, but it was in its day 
a grand and original idea. It was the subject of 



220 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

constant assault. The great division of the two parties 
was on this very point — one of them insisting on the 
encouragement of these manufacturing corporations 
and the other resisting it. 

"The same feeling extended to railroads. It was 
early perceived by these able and intelligent men, that> 
from the position of our State, its poor soil, its small 
extent, we must not only create a market, but we must 
afford extraordinary facilities for customers to reach it. 
The natural tendency of the West was to the South, 
to New York, Baltimore, and Philadelphia. They 
would not reach Boston unless we held out extra- 
ordinary inducements. Accordingly the policy was 
adopted of making these great highways for travel 
and for traffic. Not only were most liberal charters 
granted, but the State made express grants of money. 
When the Western Railroad was projected, the project 
excited ridicule. But the Commonwealth subscribed 
one million dollars to the stock. In a year or two 
afterwards, it advanced two million one hundred thou- 
sand dollars more. Then another and another million, 
and so on to five million dollars. All this time, or at 
first certainly, there was no serious expectation of any 
return for these grants. The idea was not an investment 
for the sake of dividends ; but for the sake of commu- 
nication with the West, for the sake of opening a 
market for our manufactures, for the sake of an avenue 
for trade. The return was to be indirect and remote 
and not direct or immediate. Nor was this all. Our 
wise legislators, not satisfied with one route to the 
West, desired several. They also desired to reach the 
North and the East. In 1837, they assisted the Andover 



RAILROADS OF NEW ENGLAND. 221 

and Haverhill (now the Boston and Maine) Eailroad 
by a loan of one hundred thousand dollars. In the 
same year, the Eastern, by five hundred thousand dol- 
lars. The Norwich and Worcester by four hundred 
thousand dollars. In 1838, the Eastern by ninety 
thousand dollars. The Nashua and Lowell by fifty 
thousand dollars. In 1839, the Boston and Portland 
(now Boston and Maine) by fifty thousand dollars. 
And subsequently the Troy and Greenfield by two 
million dollars ; and so on. The State has never yet 
lost a cent. It has gained immensely in wealth, in 
population, and in influence and importance. It has 
even made millions of dollars by its investments. 
Even the promoters of these projects have been asto- 
nished at the results, for they never expected to be 
made whole by direct returns'from these grants. 

"These things were not done without opposition. 
Of course not I The croakers are not a recent race; 
nor, it may be added, are the fools all dead. Politi- 
cians perambulated the State. They advised the dear 
people that every man's farm was mortgaged to these 
grasping corporations. We all remember the pother 
that was made because the Legislature laid a State 
tax for the enormous .sum of seventy-five thousand 
dollars ! The matter was debated in this hall several 
days, and a great many declared that the passage of 
the act would change the politics of the State. On 
one occasion a surveying party, in making a triangula- 
tion of the Commonwealth for the great map, were 
taking some observations on a hill in Berkshire, when 
some village politicians created a great excitement by 
the cry that they were surveyors sent up to set off the 



222 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

town for our enormous State debt, which had been con- 
tracted for these rich corporations." 

We now come to speak of the Boston, Hartford and 
Erie Eailroad itself; an enterprise worthy of the ener- 
gies of the people of a great State, and destined to add 
greatly to the wealth and influence of Massachusetts. 
Yet in order to illustrate still further the peculiar 
character of the short railroads of New England, we 
will make another extract from the able speech of the 
eminent lawyer quoted above. He says, in speaking 
of the consolidated line : — 

" Our franchise covers various roads. Several of 
them are in operation. They are doing fairly. But 
our operations are necessarily and essentially frag- 
mentary. The business now is purely local, and 
on short routes and a small scale. In one sense, we 
begin nowhere and end nowhere. Essential links are 
wanting. 

" As I said before, all this is fragmentary. The road 
consists of isolated tracks. There is and there can 
be no system, no order, no definite and profitable ar- 
rangements until certain important links are made. 
It is as though the Worcester road only ran to West- 
borough, or the Western ran from Albany to Palmer, 
or the Eastern from Boston to Ipswich. _ ' 

" In this state of things," he says, " we present our 
case. We show you a road already built and in ope- 
ration two hundred and thirty-three miles. We ex- 
hibit to you an air line to the Hudson River. We 
present to you a route almost straight to St. Louis and 
across the continent. We ask you to aid this mag- 
nificent route to the extent of twenty-six miles of road^ 



RAILROADS OF NEW ENGLAND. 223 

already partly graded. And we ask this on the ex- 
press conditition that another party shall put in twice 
as much as you advance. We also desire assistance in 
making a seqond track and further equipment." 

Probably no railway that leads out of Boston is so 
little understood as the one now under consideration. 
We all know that a new line was projected several 
years ago between Boston and New York City, and 
between Boston and some point on the Hudson Eiver 
below Albany. We all know that this general project 
had been split up into a variety of lesser schemes — 
some sensible and some foolish — that there have been 
several Corporations, a great deal of contention be- 
tween them, considerable bitterness, and, in general, a 
state of things that effectually prevented any energetic, 
concentrated and vigorous action to accomplish the 
great purpose of a new route to the West. 

There was the New York and Hartford Eailroad 
Company, chartered in 1845, the Manchester road in 
1833, the Hartford and Providence in 1847; these 
were merged in the New York and Hartford road and 
made one corporation by the name of the Providence, 
Hartford and Fishkill Company. These were com- 
panies of Connecticut, indicative of a policy of uniting 
by railroads with the city of New York on the south- 
west, and with the New York and Erie Eailroad on 
the west. 

In 1850, the legislature of Massachusetts entered 
upon the ground, and the Midland, the Norfolk County, 
and the Southridge and Blackstone roads were author- 
ized to unite with the Willimantic, and the Providence; 



224 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Hartford and Fishkill roads (all these were very short 
roads), and form one corporation. In 1846, the State 
of Ehode Island granted a charter to the Providence 
and Plainfield Eailroad Company, and in 1852, au- 
thorized a consolidation with the Providence, Hart- 
ford and Fishkill Company. These rival corporations 
have ever since been very quarrelsome, and have 
fought each other, New England Eailroad men say, 
with all the fury of the Kilkenny cats. The result of 
such a condition of things was destructive of all suc- 
cessful operations. 

Meanwhile the grand project of a new and shorter 
route to New York and the West continued to occupy 
the minds of many enterprising citizens of Massa- 
chusetts. As the result of their efforts, in 1868, the 
present corporation was created, by the name of the 
Boston, Hartford and Erie Eailroad Company, and they 
were authorized to purchase, contract with, or lease 
the whole or part of any railways whose lines form 
part of railway lines from Boston and from Provi- 
dence, westwardly across the State of Connecticut 

Under this charter and other suitable legislation by 
the States of Massachusetts, Ehode Island, Connecticut^ 
and New York, the various companies have been 
united in one grand corporation, which now includes 
all the various projected enterprises that have hitherto 
been in an antagonistical position, and effectually ex- 
tinguished all rivalries and buried all jealousies and 
animosities. 

" What then," says the eloquent lawyer from whose 
speech I have so freely quoted : " What then does the 



RAILROADS OF NEW ENGLAND. 226 

franchise of the Boston, Hartford and Erie Railroad 
cover ?" I answer : — 

1. A line from Boston to New York City shorter 
than any other. 

2. A line from Boston to Fishkill, on the Hudson 
Eiver, about midway between Albany and New York 
City, two hundred and twenty-five miles in length, 
passing through Blackstone, Hartford, and Waterbury, 
one of the wealthiest sections of country in the United 
States. 

3. A line from Providence to Fishkill. These 
lines centre at Willimantic, in Cohnecticut, from which 
the roads branch eastward to Providence and Boston* 
and westward to New York City and Fishkill. 

4. A branch to Webster and Southbridge, and 
other rich manufacturing villages in Massachusetts. 

5. It embraces what is known as the Airline road 
which commences at Brookline and is completed and 
in operation to Woonsocket in Rhode Island. 

"Now, it is unnecessary to say that this is a grand 
enterprise; that this franchise embraces the very 
richest part of New England, and that this road when 
completed will be one of the most important in the 
whole country. 

" It is astonishing how little the subject is generally 
understood. They know about it better in Rhode Is- 
land and Connecticut than we do in Massachusetts. 
The scheme is far better understood in Hartford than 
it is in Boston. The various old corporations have 
fought each other so much, and have called each 
other such hard names, that some of the public have 
taken them at their word and have regarded the whole 
15 



226 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

thing as. a visionary affair that would never come to 
any good. But to a great majority of the people 
there has been the greatest difficulty of nnderstand- 
ing the various projects or the precise character and 
purpose of the consolidated road which we now re- 
present before the Committee. And in point of fact it 
is only quite recently that the consolidation of the 
various routes and a harmonious adjustment of con- 
flicting interests have been effected, so that the pro- 
jectors could appeal to the public with any hope of 
being fully appreciated. The new corporation is now 
in a position where it can stand a severe scrutiny, and 
can satisfy the most skeptical that, with suitable man- 
agement, it will command the confidence of the public. 

*' Let me now state a few facts that have been proved 
before the Committee. 

" In the first place, this corporation has more miles of 
road in actual operation than the Western Bailroad. 



Boston to W oonsocket . 


84.00 


Boston to Mechanicville 


59.57 


Boston to W aterbury . 


. 122.50 


Southbridge Branch 


17.50 



233.57 

" Two Hundred and Thirty-three Miles of Road 
IN Actual Operation. — Longer than both the Boston 
and Maine and the Eastern. Five times as long as the 
Boston and Worcester. Ten times as long as the Bos- 
ton and Lowell. Almost as long again as the Western. 
At this moment in operation and connecting Boston 
with the Patchcoag Valley and the rich manufactur- 



RAILROADS OF NEW ENGLANP. 227 

ing towns of Ehode Island and Connecticut, and the 
immense quantities of coal, iron, lumber and farming 
productions of New York and Pennsylvania. . The 
Southbridge Branch, connecting Boston with that 
thriving manufacturing town, is sixty miles long, ac- 
tually longer than any railroad that leads out of Bos- 
ton, except the Boston and Maine. 

" The equipment of the road, as shown by the testi- 
mony in the case, is thirty-nine engines, thirty-two 
passenger cars, fifteen baggage and express cars, three 
hundred and sixteen eight-wheel freight cars, thirteen 
four-wheel freight cars, one hundred and sixty-five 
four-wheel coal cars — not so much by one-half as it 
should be, but for a Boston road pretty well. Tivo 
hundred and thirty-three miles in good running order and 
fairly equipped, 

" And how much do we ask the Commonwealth to do ? 
Why, to aid us in furnishing a better equipment than 
we now have, to enable us to serve the public better, 
and in the completion with a double track of the small 
space between Willimantio and Putman, about twenty- 
six miles, a part of which is already graded. That is 
the whole of it. There will then remain the portion 
between Waterbur}'- and the Hudson Eiver, seventy- 
six miles, the completion of which will be provided 
for otherwise. So that if the Commonwealth will aid 
in the partial building of twenty-six miles of road, we 
shall have an entirely new and independent route to the 
West, with easy grades, with a large local business, 
and connecting with the New York and Erie Railroad, 
the most important trunk line in the United States. 
All this can be accomplished in two years. 



228 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

" Now let us take a glance at the prospective busi- 
ness of the new route, as it is proved and estimated 
before the Committee. The main trunk and branches, 
when completed, will pass through one of the most 
thriving portions of New England, about midway be- 
tween Long Island Sound and the ' Western' Bailroad, 
crossing and connecting with all the roads — not less 
than eleven in number, running north and south 
through Bhode Island, Connecticut^ and the eastern 
part of New York, making connections through them, 
with the lines running north into Massachusetts, New 
Hampshire, and Vermont, and opening direct com- 
munication with all the important manufacturing 
cities and towns in New England. 

" The great article of local traffic will be coal. The 
road will connect a considerable portion of New Eng- 
land with the great coal fields of Pennsylvania. At 
present and heretofore, vast quantities of coal for New 
England are shipped to New York and Philadelphia, 
come round by water in the summer through the Sound, 
and are sent into the interior by the railroads running 
north. A great amount of coal is required for manu- 
facturing operations, in the States of Massachusetts 
Eliode Island, Connecticut, and Vermont. For a very 
large portion of this coal, our railroad will be the 
natural channel. We have had the field carefully 
examined by a competent engineer, whose dear and 
satisfactory statement on the subject you have heard. 
His estimate of freight from coal alone is five hundred 
and fifty-four tons, and he places the freight at one 
million uix hundred and eighty-six thousand dollars, 
from this one article. You have from another and 



RAILROADS OF NEW ENGLAND. 229 

distinct source the evidence that upon careful inquiry 
it appears that four hundred and fifty thousand tons of 
coal were sent by railroad from ports on Long Island 
Sound, during last year, to ports in Connecticut, Ehode 
Island, and Massachusetts, all of which could be sup- 
plied from Newburg, if our own road were opened to 
the Hudson, at lower rates than is now done. Lowell, 
Nashua, and Manchester consume more than one hun- 
dred thousand tons annually. The consumption of 
coal is rapidly increasing throughout New England, 
by the constant building of new mills and factories, 
and by the more general use of coal for domestic pur- 
poses. 

"But this is not all. The amount that the road 
may earn for its stockholders is but a small portion of 
its probable benefit to the public. You must bear in 
mind that this road connects the capital of Massachu- 
setts with the great railroad of the country. This road 
is to make the station on Summer Street an important 
outlet to the sea for the great New York and Erie 
Railroad — in fact, by building this twenty-six miles of 
road, you connect Boston with St. Louis by the shortest, 
easiest, and best route." 

This link of twenty-six miles has not yet been 
completed. It is, however, in active progress, and, 
when finished, it will constitute the eastern continua- 
tion of the New York and Erie road, which will then 
extend in an unbroken line from Buffalo to Boston, 
crossing the Hudson River at Newburg. 



230 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTER XX. 

RAILROADS IN NEW JERSEY. 

The great througli route between New York and 
Washington consists, first, of the Eailroads in New 
Jersey between New York and Philadelphia, namely, 
the Camden and Amboy road, and the New Jersey 
Eailroad ; secoud, of the Philadelphia, Wilmington, 
and Baltimore Eailroad, from Philadelphia to Balti- 
more ; and third, the Washington Branch of the Balti- 
more and Ohio Eailroad, from Baltimore to Washing- 
ton. Passengers who take the Camden and Amboy 
line have a fine sail between New York and Amboy. 
They have to cross the Delaware Eiver at Camden, but 
there is now no delay in making connections at Phila- 
delphia. By the New Jersey Eailroad, also, there is 
now neither delay nor detention. By crossing the 
Delaware Eiver on the railroad bridge at Trenton, and 
by passing to the west of Philadelphia, the delay which 
was formerly experienced at that city is now avoided; 
and by the recent construction of the fine railroad 
bridge over the Susquehanna at Havre de Grace, the 
delay which was formerly experienced at the ferry 
there is now avoided ; so that the trip might be made, 
and ought to be made now, by express trains, in seven 
hours, which would be thirty-three miles per hour. 
This rate of speed is maintained on some roads in the 



RAILROADS IN NEW JERSEY. 231 

United States; and in Europe forty miles per hour, 
for express trains, is not unusual. 

There is a delay of about half an hour at Baltimore, 
which ought to be a'voided. On arriving at the Phila- 
delphia depot, at President Street, the passengers are 
not required to leave their seats, but the locomo- 
tive is detached, the train is broken up, and each car 
is drawn separately by five horses, through Pratt 
Street, to the Washington depot, on Eutaw Street. 
Here the train is made up afresh, the passengers from 
Baltimore are hitched on in additional cars, a fresh 
locomotive is furnished, and the train takes a fresb 
start for Washington. There is a double track be- 
tween Baltimore and Washington, and between these 
two cities there are fourteen passenger trains daily; 
seven running each way. Between Washington and 

New York there are eight trains per day, four running 
each way. 

It is difficult to realize what the condition of the 
country was between New York and Washington 
before these railroads were built. It was a good six 
days' distance between the two cities, and few persons 
made the journey in less than eight days. There was 
an excellent turnpike road, and a daily line of stage 
coaches. But the more wealthy people made the trip 
in their carriages, and many persons travelled on 
horseback. The country, except imipediately along 
the line of the road, was comparatively rude and un- 
cultivated; and the best lands were held at a low 
figure compared with the prices which they now com- 
mand. The soil was not worked to one-quarter of its 
capacity, because its capacity was not known. Of New 



232 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

Jersey, for instance, which is now one of the most fer- 
tile and fruitful States in the Union, it was supposed 
that the soil of the whole State was either all sand, or 
all pine. A recent writer says that the State was 
" traversed by the old high-road between Philadelphia 
and New York, 4aid out by the British Government 
in. colonial days, and protected at various points by 
blockhouses and barracks, in which garrisons of 
troops were stationed. Some of these block-houses 
remain to this day. Along this royal highway passed 
all the early travel between the New England Colonies, 
and those south and west of the Delaware and the Po- 
tomac. After the colonies had been severed from the 
parent country, this road continued to be, up to the 
advent of steamboats and railroads, the only thorough- 
fare between the two cities of Philadelphia and New 
York. Stage coaches occupied five weary days 
between them, the horses exhausted and jaded by 
wading through a deep, tenacious sand in summer, or 
the still deeper and more sticky mud through which 
they floundered in winter. On many miles of this 
road the sand was frightful. No local authorities 
worked it, no merciful builder of turnpikes ever 
thought of reclaiming it. It lay, from generation to 
generation, as waste and wild as when the native 
pines were first cleared away. Access was so difficult 
and laborious, that few strangers visited the region 
through which it passed ; and the land was held in 
large tracts, whereon but few settlers, had made any 
clearings. Everybody judged the soil to be as worth- 
less as the deep sand in the highway. Where some 
adventurous settler had cleared up a farm, his 



RAILROADS IN NEW JERSEY. 233 

labors presented no inviting spectacle to the pass- 
ing traveller. If manure was known in those days, 
the farmer did not appear to value it, for he neither 
manufactured nor used it. Phosphates and fertili- 
zers had not been dreamed of. If the farmer spread 
any fertilizer over his fields, it was but a starveling 
ration ; hence his corn crop was a harvest of small, 
worthless ears ; and this again gave the soil of New 
Jersey a bad name. 

" Wheat he never thought of raising. Eye was the 
sole winter grain ; and rye-bread, rye-mush, and rye 
pie-crust, held uncontested dominion, squalid condi- 
ments as they usually are, in every squalid farm-house. 
Eagweed and pigweed took alternate possession of the 
fields ; cultivation was at its last point of attenuation ; 
none grew rich, while all became poor ; and as autumn 
came on, even the ordinarily thoughtless grasshopper 
climbed feebly up to the abounding mullein stalk, and 
with tears in his eyes surveyed the melancholy picture 
of desolation around him." Such is a true picture of 
the condition of New Jersey up to the building of the 
railroads of that State. 

"No wonder," says this graceful writer, "that the 
great public who passed over this road should think 
that the whole State of New Jersey was all sand, seeing 
that in their passage through it they beheld but little 
else. The sandy road alone was seen, while the green 
and fertile tracts that lay beyond and around it were 
unknown, because unseen." 

All this was changed, as if by enchantment, as soon 
as the New Jersey Eailroad, and the Camden and 
Amboy Eailroad had been built. " Every mile of the 



234 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

old highway," says the writer from whom we have 
quoted, " is now a splendid gravel turnpike, intersected 
by a dozen similar roads, which stretch in every direc- 
tion through the State. As good roads invite settle- 
ment, so population, the great promoter of the value 
of land, has come in rapidly, and changed the aspect 
of every ferm-house. Good fences line the roadside, 
rank hedge-rows have disappeared, new farm-houses 
have everywhere been built, low lands have been 
drained, manures have been imported from the cities, 
and wheat is now the staple winter grain." 

All this has been owing, in a great measure, to the 
construction of the Camden and Amboy, and the New 
Jersey Railroads. Terminating at New York and 
Philadelphia, they opened up a cash market among 
thousands asking for daily bread. When these rail- 
roads were first opened, their annual way-freight 
yielded less than one hundred dollars a year. But 
their managers wisely built station-houses at every 
cross-road, as the farmers called for them. To these 
railroad stations the produce of entire townships quickly 
gathered in astonishing quantities. A cash market 
being thus brought to the very doors of the farmers, 
an immense stimulus to production was created, and 
a new spirit was infused into the whole region. Hun- 
dreds of farms were renovated, cleared of foul weeds, 
drained, and liberally manured. New v^etables were 
cultivated. Tomatoes, peas, rhubarb, and early pota- 
toes rose to be the prime staples. From one county, 
corn for the table is now taken in July, to the extent 
of two thousand tons daily. Way-trains ard run for 
the sole accommodation of this business of the fsurmers, 



RAILROADS IN NEW JERSEY. 235 

stopping every two or three miles to take in the fresh 
vegetables and fruit that have been collected at these 
stations. This traffic, thus grown up within the last 
ten years, has proved highly remunerative, both to the 
railroad and the farmer. These way-freighte, thus 
wisely cultivated by the railroad, now amount to many 
thousands annually, and are steadily growing larger. 

It must be manifest that crops of fruit and vegeta- 
bles, of such magnitude as are now produced in New 
Jersey, cannot be produced on mere sand. Men da 
not grow rich upon a barren desert^ such as this 
region has been described. Yet the farmers who 
occupy this State are notoriously becoming rich. 

A great deal of growling is often heard against the 
Camden and Amboy, and the New Jersey railroads, 
because, it is said, they are monopolies. But if the 
growlers will remember in future what vast benefits 
these railroads have conferred upon the State and 
people of New Jersey, perhaps they will be more just 
in their observations about the roads. 

The officers of the New Jersey Eailroad are A. L. 
Dennis, President, and F. W. Jackson, General Super- 
intendent. Of the Camden and Amboy Eailroad, E. 
A. Stevens, President, and A. Welch, Vice-President. 
Of the Philadelphia and Trenton Eailroad, V. L. Brad- 
ford, President, and E. S, Van Eensselaer, General 
Superintendent. 



236 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTER XXI 

CE^TTRAL RAILROAD OF NEW JERSEY. 

The Central Railroad of New Jersey forms a part 
of what has become a very popular route between 
New York and the west^ by way of Pittsburg. The 
whole route consists of the Central Railroad of New 
Jersey, from New York to AUentown, by way of 
Easton on the Delaware River, ninety-two miles ; the 
Lehigh Valley road, from AUentown to Harrisburg, 
ninety miles ; and the Pennsylvania Railroad from 
Harrisburg to Pittsburg, two hundred and forty-nine 
miles ; total, four hundred and thirty-one miles. 

Three express trains leave New York, daily, on this 
route. 

The early history of the New Jersey Central Rail- 
road presents a striking example of perseverance in 
overcoming obstacles. That part of the road from 
Elizabethport to Somerville was built by a company 
of that name between the years 1832 and 1842. It 
was first opened to Plainfield, and then to Bound 
Brook, and finally to Somerville, by a desperate 
effort, resulting in the failure of the Company and the 
foreclosure of the mortgage on the road. In 1846 the 
road was sold. The strap rail was taken up by the 
new organization, the track relaid with heavy rails, 
and preparations were made for a large business. A 



CENTRAL RAILROAD OF NEW JERSEY. 237 

new company was chartered in 1847, to extend the 
road from Somerville to Easton, called the Somerville 
and Easton Company. The same year that part of the 
road between Somerville and White House waff put 
Tinder contract, and in the fall of 1848 it was completed 
and opened to White House. In 1849 the Company 
obtained authority to purchase the Elizabeth and Som- 
erville Eailway, and the name of the consolidated 
Company was changed to that of the Central Eailroad 
Company of New Jersey. In 1850 the existing roads 
were brought under one management, and immediately . 
after the spring of 1850 the remainder of the route, to 
Philipsburg on the Delaware Eiver, opposite Easton, 
was put under contract. The road as far as to Clinton 
was opened in May, 1852, and the entire road was 
completed and opened in July, 1852. The railroad 
bridge over the Delaware Eiver at Easton belongs to 
the Lehigh Valley Eailroad Company. 

In 1860 the Central Eailroad of New Jersey obtained 
authority to extend its road eastward to Jersey City, 
and this was done. In 1855, the Lehigh Yalley road 
was opened from Easton to Allentown. During this 
year, also, the Delaware, Lackawana, and Western 
Eailroad Company completed their line from New 
Hampton to Scranton, the centre of the Lackawana 
coal region, and a convenient depot for coal transporta- 
tion. By means of these two roads, the products of 
the richest anthracite mines in Pennsylvania were 
brought to the Central Eailroad of New Jersey for 
transportation to New York. 

The Lackawana connection requiring a six feet 
gauge, the Central Eailroad Company anticipated this 



238 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

necessity by laying a third rail on the track. The 
value of these connecting lines may be appreciated 
from the fact that during the first year after their com- 
pletion the business of the Central Eailroad of New- 
Jersey was nearly doubled. 

In 1858, the Pennsylvania Eailroad was opened to 
Allentown and Eeading, establishing a direct line with 
unbroken gauge to Harrisburg, Pittsburg, and the 
West. From Somerville a branch road has recently 
been opened to Flemington, which gives another route 
to Philadelphia. 

During the last ten years, the business of the New- 
Jersey Central Eailroad has been constantly increasing. 
The freight traffic has increased so rapidly as to require 
large additions to the freight cars, each year. As a 
part of the through route between New York and the 
West, by way of Pittsburg, its popularity has steadily 
increased. It is truly a wonderful sight, to see the 
three express trains full of passengers every day moving 
westward, and the same number coming in the opposite 
direction. The financial condition of the Company of 
course is all that could be desired. 

The President of the Company is J. T. Johnston, Esq., 
and the General Superintendent is J. O. Steams, Esq., 
both of them gentlemen of great experience and ability 
in railroad matters. 



WESTERN COUNTRY BEFORE RAILROADS. 239 



CHAPTER XXII. 

CONDITION" Ot THE WESTERN COUNTRY BEFORE THE 
INTRODUCTION OF RAILROADS. 

It may not be inappropriate, in this place, to make 
some observations upon the peculiar manners and cus- 
toms, modes of dress, religious observances, amuse- 
ments, and social features, of the people of Illinois and 
Indiana, at the period just before the general introduc- 
tion of railroads. The territory comprised within the 
limits of these two States is of immense extent, reaching 
for three hundred and fifty miles from east to west, and 
the same distance from north to south. The northern 
and southern portions of the two States were settled 
by people of widely different views and habits of life ; 
and the southern parts of the States were populous and 
flourishing while the northern counties were but little 
more than an untrodden wilderness. Keeping these 
facts in view, we proceed to notice first the manners 
and customs of the early settlers of Illinois ; those who 
founded Kaskaskia and other towns in what are now 
the counties of Randolph, Jackson, and Monroe. These 
being Frenchmen, brought with them to Illinois the 
light-hearted gayety and cheerful manners of the 
French people. They were Roman Catholics, and their 
priests shared with them the innocent gayeties of life. 
They were followed by hundreds of families from Vir- 



240 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

ginia^ Maryland, North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, 
Tennessee, and Kentucky, who spread themselves all 
over the southern and middle parts of the State, and 
made numerous settlements in the counties of Cham- 
paign, Macon, Sangamon, Marion, Washington, Jeffer- 
son, Franklin, and Pope ; and at points along the Ohio 
and Wabash Elvers. They brought with them the 
manners and customs, and the institutions,, of the 
Southern States, and proved to be a most valuable 
acquisition to the wealth and growth of the State. 
They commenced the cultivation of cotton, but did not 
carry it to any great extent, and finally abandoned 
it. Their slaves assisted them in the. cultivation of 
the soil ; but it soon became evident that the products 
of Illinois were not adapted to slave labor. Conse- 
quently, these southern settlers took no measures to 
promote the increase of their slaves, and as the latter 
gradually died off, replaced them by hired white 
laborers from the New England States and from Ger- 
many and Ireland. 

As is the case in all new countries, the early settlers 
of Illinois paid very little attention to dress. Utilitj, 
durability, and comfort were the only requisites 
thought necessary in the dress of either sex. Broad- 
cloth, satin, velvet, fine linen, silks, and rich dress 
goods were rarely seen, and were only worn by the 
rich, and on extraordinary occasions. These, together 
with delains, merinos, French calico, and, indeed, any 
dress fabrics of eastern manufacture, were called 
'' store goods," and were bought and used but gparingly. 
Linsey woolsey, Kentucky jeans, and a coarse and 
strong linen wore manufactured in the looms of the 



WESTERN COUNTRY BEFORE RAILROADS. 241 

settlers themselves, and were made up into garments 
by their wives and daughters. The dressed skins of 
the sheep and the deer were also frequently made into 
trowsers, which were found extremely serviceable. 
The skins of the deer, and of several other wild animals 
were also dressed with the fur left on, and were made 
into overcoats, which, for real comfort and utility, have 
never been surpassed by any modern tailor work. The 
gloves made by the women, from the skins of the rac- 
coon, wild-cat, mink, martin, fitch, otter, squirrel, and 
rabbit, were certainly as warm and comfortable as any 
that are now sold in the stores of New York or Phila- 
delphia for five to ten dollars a pair. 

The summer dress of the early settlers of Illinois 
was more remarkable for simplicity than for adherence 
to the rules of fashion. A shirt of t6w linen, trowsers 
of the same, or of linsey wooJsey, and coarse shoes, or 
none at all, completed the attire. On Sundays a coat 
made of linsey woolsey, and cut in a style that would 
have sent a fashionable tailor into convulsions, was 
added. The women were attired with equal simplici- 
ty. On Sundays alone, the taste for finery inherent in 
the sex everywhere, was indulged to a moderate ex- 
tent. Hoops were unknown. The ladies wore linsey 
woolsey dresses which their own hands had made, dyed 
with colors as various and as brilliant as tlie rainbow 
hues. Their bonnets, some of them real leghorns, 
which had been handed down from generation to gen- 
eration, were trimmed with ribbons of fabulous width, 
and of colors that were sure to be in striking contrast 
with the rest of the dress. She who could wear a 
16 



242 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

ribbon on her bonnet an inch or two wider than her 
neighbors, was sure to be envied by all who saw her. 

The people of Illinois were not unmindful of their 
religious duties. In the Catholic settlements, the 
priests were regarded with unbounded love and rever- 
ence. Their authority was paramount. They used 
this authority with moderation, and there is no in- 
stance on record of its being abused. The people were 
devotedly attached to the church, and were scrupulous 
in their regard for all its requirements. They have 
been distinguished, in every period in the history of 
the State, for their obedience to the laws, and for their 
reverence for the constituted authorities. 

The Protestant settlements in the State were not so 
well supplied with ministers of the gospel, and with 
what are called " the means of grace." The Methodists 
made the first efforts for the conversion of the people. 
They sent out their preachers ; and as there were few 
churches built, these preachers frequently used to hold 
meetings in groves, in the open air, which the people 
were invited to attend. Oftentimes, when the vocifer- 
ous preaching of these missionaries seemed to be 
attended with more than usual excitement (or as the 
preachers themselves expressed it, when their preach- 
ing was attended by an outpouring of the spirit)^ these 
meetings were protracted from day to day, and fre- 
quently lasted for two or three weeks at a time. They 
were then called camp-meetings. It must not be sup- 
posed, however, that the same people attended these 
meetings during the whole time. Parties consisting 
of a few families from the same neighborhood would 
go together, taking with them provisions and cooking 



WESTERN COUNTRY BEFORE RAILROADS. 243 

utensils, stay three or four days, camp out at night, 
and then return home. The scenes that took place at 
these camp-meetings were strange indeed. A tin 
horn would be blown to call the people together for 
worship, three or four times in the course of the day. 
Forth from their tents would come men, women, and 
children, and seat themselves on the rude benches in 
front of the preacher's stand. If it was the evening 
service, innumerable lights gleamed from torches of 
pine and other resinous wood, lighting up the scene 
with a strange and fitful glare. The preachers ascend 
the rude pulpit. One of them begins to sing one of 
those hymns peculiar to the Methodists, in which he is 
soon joined by the whole congregation. 

The sound of so many voices blended together 
echoes and re-echoes through the forest, and forms a 
wild and not unpleasing melody. The hymn being 
over, one of the preachers kneels down and pray^ 
He prays loudly and with fervor. He prays that the 
Lord would open the blind eyes, and carry conviction 
to the heart of every sinner present. He prays that 
the Lord would come down with mighty power, and 
bring every sinner to repentance, and turn the hearts 
of the people, even as the rivers of water are turned. 
He waxes importunate, uses the most familiar language, 
and insists that the Lord shall not wait one instant, 
but come right down at once. By the time he is done, 
he is in a profuse perspiration, and his voice is entirely 
gone. Another preacher now rises, and preaches the 
sermon. This was usually a wild rhapsody, filled with 
denunciations of the wicked, assurances of God's wrath 
against sinners, and urgent appeals to the people to flee 



244 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

from the wrath to come, and seek refuge in the ark of 
safety. The people become worked up to the highest 
pitch of excitement. One after another would rise, 
and go forward to the " mourning bench." This was 
an inclosed space immediately in front of the pulpit, 
and strewn plentifully with straw. Upon this straw, 
men and women would throw themselves indiscrimi- 
nately, and roll about in paroxysms of excitement. 
The loud tones of the preacher's voice would now be 
mingled with shouts of Amen! Glory to God! Halle- 
lujah ! &c., from the congregation ; and with groans and 
cries from the persons in the straw. When the latter 
fancied that they had " got religion," as they expressed 
it, they would leap up, dance about, throw, up their 
hats, shout and sing, embrace each other, and go 
through other antics equally ridiculous. 

It may well be doubted whether any permanent good 
ever resulted from these meetings. The excitement 
quickly vanished, and the feelings to which it gave 
rise soon disappeared. The meetings, however, served 
to give to the preachers of the Methodist denomination 
a power and consequence among the people not en- 
joyed by the ministers of any other sect. As new vil- 
lages sprang up, and as the towns increased in size, 
the Methodists began to build churches ; and as these 
increased in number, camp-meetings began to decline, 
and were held less frequently. 

The early Methodist preachers were, for the most 
part, illiterate men, who passed six days of the week 
in secular labor. They were unsparing in the ridicule 
which they cast upon the ministers of other sects, who 
began to come into the State about the year 1837, They 



WESTERN COUNTRY BEFORE RAILROADS. 245 

spoke of them ia the most contemptuous manner, and 
said they had brought with them barrels of old ser- 
mons that had been preached a hundred years ago. It 
is much to be regretted that few authentic reports exist 
of the sermons preached by these pioneer preachers. 
One extract, however, has been handed down to pos- 
terity, the authenticity of which was beyond dispute. 
The preacher was addressing a congregation which 
had become somewhat sleepy, and in order to waken 
them up he used the following language : — 

" I would ask you a strange question. Who is the 
most diligent man in the whole country; that sur- 
passeth all the rest in doing of his office ? I can tell, 
for I know him, who it is. I know him well. But 
now I think I see you listening and hearkening that 
I should name him. There is one that surpasseth all 
others, and is the most diligent man in all the West. 
And will you know who it is ? It is not you. Brother 
Watson, nor you. Farmer Hodge, nor is it honest John 
Thompson the blacksmith. It is — ^the devil I Among 
all the pack of you, the devil is the man for my money, 
for he fulfilleth his business. Therefore, ye idle men 
and women, learn of the devil to be diligent in your 
office. If ye will not learn of God, for shame's sake 
learn of the devil." 

The amusements of the people were for the most 
part of a nature to develop the physical more than 
the intellectual qualities. Hunting was pursued with 
avidity, both for the sport and game it aftbrded, as well 
as from the necessity of clearing the State of trouble- 
some wild animals. The custom of collecting at the 
shop of the village blacksmith, and pitching quoits or 



246 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

horseshoes, promised at one time to become a popular 
amusement, but happily it was frowned down, and 
never got much into vogue. It was justly regarded as 
an idle and unprofitable waste of time. In the winter 
time, sleighing parties and dancing parties were much 
in vogue among the inhabitants. These innocent and 
healthful amusements were the means of bringing to- 
gether the young people for miles around, and of pro- 
moting refinement and good manners. The music for 
the dancing was furnished by the fiddles played by 
negro slaves. Senator Douglas and Lyman Trumbull, 
when young men, frequently danced at these parties, 
to the music played by these slaves. 

Military trainings were kept up in the ancient fashion 
till as late a period as the year 1838, and in some coun- 
ties in the State, for some years later. These " train- 
ings," were little more than assemblages of all the 
able-bodied men in the community, required by law to 
be made on two days in the year. It was the design of 
the law that the men should be " trained" on those 
days in the use of arms, and in military evolutions. 
But this design was completely defeated by the igno- 
rance of the officers themselves in regard to military 
matters, and by the lack of arms. Thus the only use 
in these " trainings" was in keeping up the enrolment, 
of the men able to perform military duty. For all 
other purposes, these trainings were the broadest far^s. 
The field and staff officers (I I) pranced about on fiery, 
untamed plough-horses, gorgeous in tinsel, feathers, 
and fancy uniforms. The men wore their common 
clothes. Those who had guns or rifles brought them, 
but these were less than half of the whole number. 



WESTERN COUNTRY BEFORE RAILROADS. 24T 

The rest actually carried wooden guns, sticks, and even 
corn-stalks. Some carried umbrellas; and if the sun 
was hot or the day rainy, did not scruple to raise them 
in the ranks. The "officers" made a show of instruct- 
ing the men in the manual exercise, and in marching; 
— but the instruction did not amount to much. Those 
who had rifles were usually good marksman ; but all 
the others were the veriest rabble. It will be remem- 
bered that we are speaking now of the period between 
1835 and 1840, during which time most of the settlers 
in Illinois came there without arms, because there was 
little or no use for them. Those who lived in the 
State in 1831-2, at the time of the Black Hawk War, 
were well armed, and made excellent soldiers. And 
by the year 1840 volunteer military companies began 
to be formed in various parts of the State, and as these 
were uniformed, and arms furnished to them by the 
government, the ridiculous features of the trainings 
soon began to disappear. It may be mentioned here, 
though greatly in anticipation of the order of time, 
that the great improvements in fire-arms that were 
introduced in 1858, did not find their way to Illinois 
till the close of the year 1860, when the Chicago Light 
Guard were supplied with the Minie musket. 



248 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

CONDITION OF THE WESTERN COUNTRY BEFORE THE 
INTRODUCTION OF RAILROADS : CONTINUED. 

Previous to the adoption of tlie system of Public 
Schools, during the administration of Gov. Mattison 
in 1853, no adequate provision was made for the edu- 
cation of the rising generation. The schools through- 
out the State were generally under the District School 
system of the older States. The teachers were usually 
young gentlemen from the Eastern States, who had 
come to the west with the ultimate intention of prac- 
tising law, but who were willing to devote a few months 
or a year or two, to teaching school. They were gen- 
erally well educated and honorable, and made excellent 
teachers. The custom of the teacher "boarding 
around" prevailed to some extent. In other localities, 
the teacher was engaged by the trustees of the district 
for a certain stipulated sum, and was then at liberty to 
engage board for himself at any house convenient to 
the scene of his labors. The schoolhouses were almost 
invariably built of logs, and if they kept out the rain 
and the cold, they were thought sufl&ciently comforta- 
ble. The seats were made of logs split in two, and 
the desks were similarly constructed, both being sup- 
ported by stakes set in auger holes. Boys and girls 
attended these schools together, ThQ studies pursued 



WESTERN COUNTRY BEFORE RAILROADS. 249 

were usually the lower English branches. Beading, 
spelling, writing, arithmetic, English grammar, and geo- 
graphy, were the branches usually taught. It was not 
till several years later that classes were formed in 
some of the schools for the study of Natural Philoso- 
phy, Chemistry, Astronomy, and Algebra. Occasion- 
ally, however, some teacher, anxious to foster a taste 
for a more enlarged view of education, would deliver 
a course of lectures, on one evening in the week, on 
Chemistry, Astronomy, and Natural Philosophy. 
These lectures were of course free, and were attended 
by the older pupils, and. their parents and friends. 
They were generally delivered in the school-room, but 
sometimes in the village church. If the teacher were 
the fortunate possessor of a telescope of moderate 
power, or an electrical machine, or of a limited chemi- 
cal apparatus, it lent additional, interest to his lectures, 
and caused him to be regarded with a feeling approach- 
ing to reverence. 

Many anecdotes are current among the people, relat- 
ing to these early schools. The recital of half of them 
would fill many pages, and we select therefore only two. 
One of the schools was taught by a young gentleman 
who was a graduate of one of the military schools in 
the Eastern States. AmoAg his pupils there was one 
big boy, the bully of the school, who was the only one 
who gave the teacher any trouble. He was refractory 
from the first, openly set at defiance the rules of the 
school, and the admonition of the teacher, and had 
often been heard to declare that he would whip the 
teacher if the latter dared to punish him. He was 
eighteen years old, and was much larger than the 



250 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

teacher, who was twenty-two. One morning he had com- 
mitted some offence of a more glaring nature than usual, 
and at the morning recess had "absquatulated." When 
the afternoon session had begun, he stalked in, and 
stood in an attitude of defiance in front of the fireplace. 
The master sternly bade him come forward to the desk. 
He muttered, but so loudly that all in the room heard 
him, that he would come when he got ready, and then 
taking up a stick of wood from the hearth, and siting 
the action to the w^ord, he exclaimed, "Shoulder arms 1" 
Now the master had succeeded hitherto in maintaining 
good order in his school, and such daring rebellion as 
this threw the whole school into consternation. Every 
one wondered what was coming next, and not a few 
thought that the authority of the master was at an end, 
and that he would have to succumb before the big boy 
who thus defied him. If he had done so, his authority 
would have been at an end, the school would have been 
a pandemonium, and he would have been compelled 
to retire from the school with ignominy. These 
thoughts passed through his mind in one moment. 
The next, he was by the side of the big boy, and had 
taken up another stick of wood. The fireplace was 
of the old-fashioned, large, and open kind, and the 
wood provided for it was in sticks four feet long, and 
of all sizes, from large back-logs to small round sticks 
two inches thick. It was the latter kind that the mas- 
ter and the boy now held respectively. "Shoulder 
arms !" the big boy had just exclaimed. *' Ah 1" replied 
the master, " military, hey ? I understand those tactics 
myself. Ground arras !" and with a rapid motion of his 
stick, he sent that of the big boy flying out of his hand, 



WESTERN COUNTRY BEFORE RAILROADS. 251 

and the next instant the big boy found himself sprawl- 
ing on the floor. Bullies are always cowards ; and 
when the big boy saw that he was conquered, he 
begged piteously for mercy. The master had no more 
trouble in his school. The big boy subsequently went 
to California, fell into evil courses, and finally became 
a victim to justice as administered by a Vigilance 
Committee. The master was, soon after the close of 
his school, admitted to practise law, and is now an emi- 
nent lawyer. 

The other anecdote is of a quick-witted lad, -John 
Thomas by name, who always had a ready answer to 
help him out of any difficulty. The wood for the 
school-house fire was furnished by the families of the 
district in turn; each one supplying the fuel for a 
week. The fires were made by the boys in rotation, 
each one making it for three days in succession. Some 
of the farmers sent good wood, but others sent the 
poorest they had, and one man sent a load of brush- 
wood and small twigs, although he had plenty of good 
wood. It was the turn of the boy of whom we have 
spoken to make the fire ; but one morning, the skating 
being good, John Thomas spent the morning in skat- 
ing, and at nine o'clock, when the master came, there 
was no fire, the school-house was cold, the girls were 
shivering around the fireplace, and John Thomas was 
just bringing in an armful of farmer Plowder's twigs. 
" How is this, John ?" said the master. " No fire yet ?" 
Now John, among his other accomplishments, was an 
incorrigible stutterer, but a lad of great good humor. 
" No, sir," he replied. " I've been here ever since day- 
light, k-k-keeping the snow b-b-birds from k-k-k- 
carrying away Mr. Plowder's wood I" 



252 BAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

The schools in the towns were often of a higher 
grade of excellence, and by the year 1840 there began 
to be many private or select schools. These schools 
were really excellent. Many of the teachers were 
men of great erudition, and gave instruction in the 
Latin and Greek languages, in the sciencesi, mathe- 
matics, and the higher English branches. At the 
close of their sessions they usually gave a public ex- 
hibition of the progress of their pupils. At some of 
these exhibitions, little dramas used to be performed 
by the pupils. 

Railroads did not begin to exist (except a few short 
ones in the southern part of the State) before the year 
1845. All the travel was by the common country 
roads ; and the travel was necessarily slow. Taverns 
and public houses quickly sprang up on all the principal 
routes of travel, but the accommodations they afforded 
were, almost without exception, of the most inferior de- 
scription. It was impossible to get a comfortable or 
wholesome meal at any of them. Hota'nd doughy bis- - 
cuit and ill-cooked meats formed the unvarying repast. 
The beds were hard and uncomfortable, stuffed with dried 
husks of corn, and the sheets and blankets anything but 
clean. During " court weeks" the taverns at the county 
seats would be crowded, and late comers found it difficult 
to obtain rooms at all. A good anecdote is related of 
a distinguished member of the bar, and a prominent 
Whig, who came late one day to one of these taverns. It 
was in the year 1851. The landlord told him that all 
his rooms were occupied, but that he could give him a 
bed in a room with some other gentlemen. "It is the 
room, sir," said the landlord, "that Judge Douglas 



WESTERN COUNTRY BEFORE RAILROADS. 253 

occupied when he was here." "Oh, well," said the 
lawyer, " I am quite willing, to sleep in any room 
that Judge Douglas has occupied." So the landlord 
took him up, showed him the door of the room, and 
bade him good night. The lawyer advanced, candle in 
hand, and opened the door. The sight that met his 
astonished gaze was one that might well cause him to 
start back in amazement. There were six beds in the 
room. Each bed had two occupants, save one, in which 
there was room for the astonished lawyer. The 
rafters overhead re-echoed with the snoring of the 
eleven sleepers. Twenty-two boots, twenty-two socks, 
eleven coats and eleven pair of trowsers lay strewn 
over the floor. A large table in the middle of the floor 
was covered with empty brandy bottles and tumblers. 
On the floor were four enormous spittoons, each one 
filled with that for which they were designed, and with 
the stumps of cigars. The atmosphere of the room was 
impregnated with an odor that can be more easily ima- 
gined than described. The lawyer took in the whole 
at a glance. But a glance was sufficient. Eushing 
down to the bar (office was then unknown), he called 
frantically for the landlord. The latter came, with 
wonder on his face, a nightcap on his head, and a mug 
of lager beer in his hand. "Sir," said the lawyer, "I 
said I would sleep with Judge Douglas; but I'll 
be hanged if I'll sleep with the whole Democratic 
party 1" 

But to return to country taverns: On the cross- 
roads, and in the more newly-settled districts, where 
there were no taverns, the traveller fared really better 
than where they were. The houses of the farmers of 



254 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

all degrees were freely opened to the traveller, and 
the hospitable host invariably declined to receive any 
remuneration. The beds in the farm-houses were al- 
ways clean and comfortable, and the meals plentiful and 
wholesome. Happy the traveller whose fortune it was 
to come across one of these abodes of real comfort; for 
there he had an opportunity to see real country life in 
Illinois. 

The sun, rising in the early summer at four or five 
o'clock, would find the farmer's family all astir even 
at that early hour. The animals were all fed, and the 
cows milked and sent out to pasture, and at five or six 
o'clock the family assembled for breakfast. At this, 
meal, large, fat, juicy beef-steaks, potatoes, excellent 
bread of wheat, of rye, and of corn, delicious butter, 
and rich milk, with " store coffee" for such as preferred 
it, constituted the basis of a substantial repast : and 
fastidious indeed must have been the taste that would 
not have done justice to it. Breakfast over, the men 
hied to the fields, to attend to the various avocations 
of the season. There was prairie land to be ploughed, 
ditches to be dug for draining the land, seeds to be 
sown, corn planted, hay to be cut, grain to be cradled, 
wheat to be threshed, com to be shelled, colts to be 
broken, fences to be made, and an endless variety of 
employments. At noon, a horn loudly blown sum- 
moned all hands to dinner. This meal surpassed in 
profusion the morning repast. Boiled or roast beef, 
lamb, veal, or mutton, fresh or salt pork, potatoes, tur- 
nips, cabbage, beets, and parsneps, formed the staple 
of the bill of fare. Water alone was drunk, or per- 
haps milk or cider. Soup was a rare dish, and when 



WESTERN COUNTRY BEFORE RAILROADS. 265 

made it was usually meagre, tasteless, and without 
nourishment. The meal concluded with a variety of 
simple but excellent -pies or puddings. The dinner 
was quickly dispatched, the time spent at table not 
exceeding half an hour. The intervening time be- 
fore one o'clock was spent in some cool or shady 
spot, where, with jovial conversation, the nooning hour 
passed quickly away. The afternoon labors, com- 
mencing at one, terminated at sunset, when a hearty 
supper, spread with the same profusion as the other 
meals, restored the strength of the honest sons of toil. 
The evenings were usually spent by the farmers at 
their own firesides, in reading the newspapers of the 
day, or such books as they possessed, or in the instruc- 
tion of their children. The village " store," however,* 
was ati institution by no means neglected by those 
who lived near enough. This store, which was fre- 
quently the post-office also, was furnished with seats 
or benches in front of the counters, where as many as 
twenty men could sit. Every evening these benches 
would be occupied by a dozen or more of the neigh- 
boring farmers, who met here to get their newspapers, 
hear the news, talk politics, and discuss farming. 

One more western institution remains to be described ; 
namely, the barbecue. This was usually a compliment 
to some eminent public man ; but was also frequently 
arranged as a means of affi)rding the people an oppor- 
tunity to hear both sides of the political questions of 
the day discussed. A spot of ground was selected, 
where a prairie was skirted by a grove of timber free 
from underbush. A platform and rude seats were 
constructed. Deep trenches were dug in the ground, 
and large fires made in them. On these beds of coals 



256 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

all sorts of meats were cooked ; roast beef, turkeys, 
chickens, beef-steaks &c. Tables were set provided 
with everything necessary in profusion. Dozens of 
barrels of cider were provided, with plenty of tin cups 
and gourds. The people of all political parties 
assembled ; and not only the men, but the ladies also 
came. Then, if the barbecue was given as a compli- 
ment to some distinguished man, that individual would 
address the multitude. If it was to be a discussion 
between two rival candidates to Congress^ one of tbem 
would speak in the morning, and then, after dinner, 
his antagonist would reply. These enterlainments 
were free to all ; and the presence of the ladies pre- 
vented any improper conduct. 

What has been heretofore said, has had reference to 
the mode of life in the middle and southern parts of 
the State. The northern counties were settled by very 
different people. They were, for the most part^ from 
the New England States, and brought with them, to 
Illinois, much of sour austerity, gloomy puritanism, 
and sectional fanaticism. They were chiefly Congrega- 
tionalists, but many were Presbyterians, some Baptists, 
and a few Universal ists and Unitarians. Many of 
them were abolitionists of the most bigoted class. 

The foregoing observations, although written 
mainly with reference to Illinois, apply with equal 
truth, for the most part, to Indiana. 

With the introduction of railroads into all parts of 
the States came a vast change in the habits of life, 
manners, and customs of the people. The paths trod- 
den by the footsteps of the Indian and the pioneer 
settler were broken up, and were crossed and recrossed 
by the iron track of an advancing civilization. Old 



WESTERN COUNTRY BEFORE RAILROADS. 257 

things were passing away; all things were to become 
new. The old hunters were dying; the log-cabin and 
the old Catholic church were crumbling into ruins; 
and all the forms and modes of life in old Illinois were 
passing away, never to return. People in all the Eas- 
tern States began to hear of the wonderful fertility of 
the plains of Illinois and Indiana, and emigrated there 
by hundreds. It required three weeks of constant 
travel, even by persons unencumbered wiih flocks and 
herds, to reach the prairie land. 

The author, then a mere child, made the journey in 
the year 1837. By railroad and canal from Philadel- 
phia to Pittsburg, thence down the Ohio to Cincinnati, 
thence by stage-coach through Columbus, Eichmond, 
Indianoplis, Terre Haute, and St. Louis. The memory 
of that journey still remains, but how changed is every- 
thing on the route. The wild and uncultivated coun- 
try, the road here winding along some lonely stream, 
there stretching in a straight line for miles without a 
sign of a human habitation, the log-huts of the pioneer 
settlers, the herds of deer, the tall grass of the prairies 
waving in the breeze like the billows of the ocean ; all 
these are now gone like an unsubstantial pageant faded, 
and left not a trace behind. 

Between us of the year 1868 and Old Illinois there 
lies a chasm which the prose of the historian can never 
bridge. Only when we are out on the Grand Prairie, 
in the month of June, far from the busy hum of men, 
out of sight of all the works of man's hands, with the 
bright prairie flowers around us, and no object in view 
but the vast plain at our feet and the blue sky over 
our heads, can we realize what Illinois was in 1886. 
17 



258 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTEE XXIV. 

THE RAILROADS OF ILLINOIS. 

In 1836, the whole country was wild on the subject 
of internal improvement, and the people of Illinois 
partook of the prevailing excitement. The legisla- 
ture passed acts incorporating the following railroad 
companies : — 

Miles. 

The Illinois Central, to extend . . 300 

The Galena and Chicago Union . . 175 

The Chicago and Vincennes . . 240 

The Springfield and St. Louis . . 80 

The St. Louis, Wabash and Lake Erie 250 

Besides twenty-one other roads; extending, in all, 
three thousand two hundred and eighty-seven miles. 
The twenty-one other roads were never built. 

Mr. Stephen A. Douglas, afterwards the iUostrioas 
Senator from Illinois, was at that time a member of 
the State legislature. He was opposed to any system 
of internal improvements to which the State of Illinois 
was to be merely a party. But he favored a plan by 
which the State was to select some of the most import- 
ant works, which were to be owned,- constructed, and 
operated by the agents of the State Government. The 
following resolution, submitted by Mr. Douglas^ indi- 
cates his policy : — 



THE RAILROADS OF ILLINOIS. 259 

Besolvedf That the Committee on laternal Improve, 
ments be instructed to report a bill for the commence- 
ment of a general system of internal improvements, as 
follows : — 

1. For the completion of the Illinois and Michigan 
Canal, to connect Lake Michigan with the waters of 
the Mississippi, by means of the Illinois River. 

2. For the construction of a railroad from the ter- 
mination of the above canal^ which was about at 
Ottawa, in La Salle County, at the head of steamboat 
navigation on the Illinois River, to the point now 
occupied by Cairo, at the mouth of the Ohio River. A 
glance at the map will show that this was the route 
which was afterwards taken by the Illinois Central 
Railroad, from La Salle, on the Illinois River, to 
Cairo ; although the road extended much further north- 
ward. 

3. For the construction of a railroad from Quincy, 
on the Mississippi River, about one hundred and 
thirty miles above St. Louis, eastward to the State line, 
in the direction of the Wabash and Erie Canal. This 
road was never built. The Wabash and Erie Canal 
extends from Toledo, in Ohio, through Indiana, along 
the upper waters of the Wabash River, to Terre Haute. 
It was of vast benefit to the inhabitants of Ohio and 
Indiana, and if this proposed railroad had been con- 
structed at that time, Illinois would have been greatly 
enriched and benefited by the business which it would 
have brought to the State. 

4. For the improvement of the navigation of the 
Illinois and Wabash Rivers. These rivers are both 
navigable for steamboats ; the Illinois River, from its 



260 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

mouth to Ottawa, a distance of two hundred and fifty 
miles ; the Wabash, from its mouth to Lafayette, also a 
distance of two hundred and fifty miles. It was of the 
first importance that the navigation of these rivers 
should be improved. 

Resolved, That as the basis of the system, the im- 
provements shall be constructed and owned exclusively 
by the State. 

But the plan of Mr. Douglas was rejected, because 
the people at that time were wild with excitement, and 
his proposal seemed to them to be entirely too mode- 
rate. The people, in accordance with the gigantic views 
of the day, demanded a hundred railroads, crossing 
and interlacing each other in every direction. In the 
year 1837, the gigantic system of internal improve- 
ments, increase of banking capital, and subscription to 
railroad stock by the State, which afterwards involved 
the State in such trouble, was adopted by the legisla- 
ture. The act provided for the construction of nine 
long railroads, and made large appropriations in order 
to aid in their construction. The appropriation for 
what afterwards became the Illinois Central Bailroad, 
from Cairo to Galena, by way of Centralia, Decatar, 
Bloomington, La Salle, and Freeport, was three mil- 
lion five hundred thousand dollars. The other eight 
railroads were never built. Among them all there 
was no provision made for any railroad to or from 
Chicago. The northern part of the State was as yet 
very thinly settled, and Chicago was an insignificant 
village. Few persons at that time dreamed of the 
brilliant destiny that was in store for that wonderful 
city. 



THE RAILROADS OF ILLINOIS. 261 

Eailroads now in Operation. — The principal 
railroads in Illinois now in operation, are the follow- 
ing :— 

1. The Michigan Central, from Chicago to Detroit, 
two hundred and eighty -two miles. 

2. The Michigan Southern, from Chicago to Toledo, 
two hundred and forty-two miles. 

3. The Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and Chicago, from 
Chicago to Pittsburg, four hundred and sixty-seven 
miles. 

4. The Great Western Eailroad of Illinois begins at 
Quincy on the Mississippi Eiver, and runs nearly east 
through the State, passing through Springfield and 
Decatur, and joining th'C Toledo, Wabash, and Western 
Eailroad, which extends to Toledo, passing through 
Lafayette and Fort Wayne, in Indiana. 

5. The Terre Haute and St. Louis Eailroad, from 
St. Louis to Terre Haute, directly across the State, and 
crossing both branches of the Illinois Central Eoad. 

6. The Ohio and Mississippi Eailroad, from St. Louis 
to Cincinnati, running directly across the State, and 
crossing the Illinois Central Eoad a little above the 
fork, at Centralia. 

7. The Illinois Central Eailroad, from Chicago to 
Cairo on the Mississippi Eiver; and from Centralia to 
Dunleith. The entire length of the road is seven hun- 
dred and eight miles, all within the State of Illinois. 
The Illinois Central Eailroad Company pays seven per 
cent, of its earnings to the State. 

8. The Chicago and St. Louis Eailroad, from Chi- 
cago to St. Louis, two hundred and eighty-four miles, 
passing through Bloomington and Springfield.. 



262 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

9. The Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad, 
from Chicago to Quincy, on the Mississippi River, five 
hundred and fifteen miles, including a branch to Bur- 
lington. 

10. The Chicago and Rock Island Railroad, from 
Chicago to Rock Island, on the Mississippi River, one 
hundred and eighty-two miles ; since extended some 
distance west of Iowa City. 

11. The Chicago and Milwaukee Railroad, from 
Chicago to Milwaukee, eighty-five miles ; extended 
thence to La Crosse. 

12. The Chicago and North Western Railroad, from 
Chicago to Oshkash, two hundred and thirty miles. 

13. The Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, from 
Chicago to Dunleith, one hundred and forty-one miles. 
This road has paid as high as twenty-one per cent, in' 
dividends to its stockholders, in a single year. 

14. The Chicago and Fulton Air Line Railroad, from 
Chicago to Fulton, on the Mississippi River, one hun- 
dred and thirty-six miles. 

The last four great roads have been consolidated for 
some years past, and have been worked under ad- 
mirable management and with great success, as the 
Chicago and Northwestern Railroad. The President 
is Hon. Wm. B. Ogden ; and the General Superintendent 
is George L. Dunlap, Esq., two of the most accom- 
plished and efficient railroad men in the world, and 
men of the same stamp for energy and enterprise as 
John W. Garrett, of the Baltimore and Ohio road. 



THE RAILROADS OF CHICAGO. 263 



CHAPTER XXV. 

THE RAILROADS OF CHICAGO. 

There is nothing more wonderfiil in the history of 
the United States than the growth of the City of Chi- 
cago. Forty years ago, Chicago was a howling wil- 
derness, where the red man and the buffalo roamed 
undisturbed. Thirty years ago, there were white 
people at Chicago, but it was a mere straggling 
village, the population being one thousand four hun- 
dred and seventy inhabitants. It was scarcely known 
then, even by name in the Eastern and Middle States. 
Two years later, in the year 1837, it was incorporated 
as a city, with the Hon. Wm. B. Ogden as mayor ; but 
the population then was only four thousand one hun- 
dred and seventy souls. The city grew slowly at 
first. In 184Q, when General Harrison was elected 
President of the United States, the population of Chi- 
cago was four thousand four hundred and eighty-nine. 
In 1843, the population was seven thousand five hun- 
dred and eighty ; in 1844 it was eight thousand eight 
hundred and fifty ; and in 1845 it was twelve thou- 
sand. Even in 1847, twenty years ago, the population 
was qnly seventeen thousand. In 1849 the popu- 
lation amounted to twenty -three thousand, and from 
that time it has increased rapidly. Its commercial 
advantages began then to be appreciated, and from 



264 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

that fime a steady stream of enterprising person 
from the east and south began to come to Chicago t 
settle. At that time, too, the railroads of Illinoi 
began to be built, and some of them were fairly unde 
way. 

In 1850, when the Galena Railroad had been com 
pleted to Freeport, the population of Chicago wa 
twenty-eight thousand. In J858, when the Michigai 
Central and Michigan Southern Bailroads had beei 
completed to Chicago ; when considerable progress hac 
been made in the construction of the Illinois Centra 
Sailroad ; and when the Eock Island Eailroad hac 
been commenced, the population of Chicago had in 
creased to sixty-six thousand. In 1864 it had in 
creased to seventy-four thousand five hundred. It 
1855, when the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy, the 
Dixon air line, and the Chicago and Bock Island 
Railroads were all completed, the population of Chi- 
cago had increased to eighty-two thousand seven hun- 
dred and fifty ; and in 1856 to ninety thousand. 

At the present time, Chicago has a population ol 
nearly two hundred thousand; its streets are well- 
paved, and well-lighted at night, and it has an admira- 
ble system of drainage. Its commerce amountaf to 
two hundred and fifty millions of dollars annually; its 
harbor is one of the finest and most capacious in the 
west, and is constantly crowded with vessels ; it is the 
largest grain market, pork market, and lumber mar- 
ket in the world ; many of its churches and public 
buildings, and private dwelling-houses, are equal to, il 
they do not surpass, any similar buildings in New 
York or Philadelphia ; two of its railroad depots fai 



THE RAILROADS OF CHICAGO. 265 

surpass any similar buildings in the United States ; 
and its best hotel, the Tremont House, is probably 
the best in the United States, except the far-famed 
Continental, of Philadelphia. 

In the year 1866, there were manufactured at Chi- 
cago four hundred and forty-four thousand five hun- 
dred and twenty-four barrels of flour ; and during the 
same year, one million seven hundred and eighty-four 
thousand barrels were exported. The receipts of wheat 
during the same year amounted to twelve million 
eight hundred and seventy-four thousand nine hun- 
dred and thirty -four bushels ; and the exports of wheat 
to nine million seven hundred and eleven thousand 
two hundred and twenty-six bushels. The receipts of 
corn in the same year amounted to thirty -three million 
and seventy-three thousand bushels ; and the exports 
of corn to thirty-three million five hundred and forty 
thousand bushels. 

Such is Chicago in its commercial aspect ; and she 
owes her unexampled growth, and the rapid develop- 
ment of her resources, almost entirely to her railroads, 
whi h, traversing the whole State, and indeed the whole 
northwest, bring to her, and pour into her lap, the rich 
treasures of those fertile regions. 

Trunk Lines, Centering at Chicago. — There are 
thirteen grand lines of railroads starting out from 
Chicago from seven principal depots, as follows : — 

1. To THE East. — The Michigan Central Eailroad, 
to Niagara Falls, New York, and Boston, by way of 
Detroit, Suspension Bridge, and the New York Cen- 
tral Eailroad. Four trains daily leave the Depot of 
the Illinois Central Railroad, at the foot of Lake Street, 



266 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

at about 6 and 8 A. M., and at 5 and 10 P. M. T)is- 
tauce to Detroit two hundred and eighty-four miles. 
Bunning time twelve hours. Fare, eight dollars and 
twenty-five cents. 

2. To THE East. — The Michigan Southern Railroad, 
to New York by way of Toledo, Cleveland, Dunkirk, 
and the New York and Erie Railroad. Four trains 
leave Chicago daily, at about 7 and 9 A. M., and 5 
and 10 P. M. Distance to Toledo two hundred and 
forty-four miles. Running time eleven hours. Depot 
corner Van Burefn and Sherman Streets. 

3. To THE East. — The Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and 
Chicago Railroad, to Philadelphia, by way of Fort 
Wayne, Crestline, Alliance, Pittsburg, Altoona^ Har- 
risburg, and Lancaster. Three trains daily, leave the 
depot at Chicago, near Madison Street bridge on the 
west side, at about 7 A. M., and 5 and 10 P. M. Dis- 
tance to Pittsburg, four hundred and sixty-eight miles. 
Running time twenty hours, or about twenty-threp 
miles per hour. This is also a very popular route 
from Chicago to New York, as the time and distance 
are shorter than by any other route, and there is only 
one change of cars between Chicago and New York. 
Three express trains daily leave the depot of the 
Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and Chicago Railroad, near 
Madison Street bridge, and proceed as above to Har- 
risburg, and thence to New York by way of Allen- 
town and Easton. Distance from Chicago to New 
York by this route, eight hundred and ninety-nine 
miles. 

4. To THE Southeast. — Chicago and Great Eastern 
Railroad to Cincinnati, by way of Logansport and 



THE RAILROADS OF CHICAGO. 267 

Richmond. Distance two hundred and ninety-four 
miles. Running time, fifteen hours. Twc trains daily 
leave Chicago at about 6 A. M. and 9 P. M. Fare, 
eleven dollars and forty-five cents. 

5. To THE South. — The Louisville, New Albany, 
and Chicago Railroad, to Louisville, by way of Lafay- 
ette, Crawfordsville, Green Castle, and New Albany. 
Two trains per day. 

6. To THE South. — The Illinois Central Railroad 
to New Orleans, Mobile, and Memphis. Two trains 
daily leave the Illinois Central Depot, foot of Lake 
Street, at about 9 A. M. and 10 P. M. Running time 
to Cairo, nineteen hours ; distance three hundred and 
sixty-five miles. 

7. To the Southwest. — The Chicago and St. Louis 
Railroad, to St. Louis, by way of Bloomington, Spring- 
field, and Alton. Two trains daily leave Chicagof, 
from depot on West Division, near Madison Street 
bridge, at about 8 A. M. and 8 P. M. Distance to 
St Louis, two hundred and eighty miles. Running 
time, thirteen hours. 

8. To THE West. — Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific 
Railroad, to Fort Des Moines, by way of Davenport 
and Iowa City. Distance to Kellogg Station, which is 
eeventy-six miles west of Iowa City, three hundred and 
fifteen miles. Two trains daily leave Chicago for Rock 
Island and Davenport, on the Mississippi River, one of 
which runs through to Kellogg. Running time to Rock 
Island, eight hours and a half. The depot at Chicago 
is on the corner of Van Buren and Sherman Streets. 

9. To the West. — The Chicago, Burlington, and 
Quincy Railroad, to the towns of Burlington and Quia- 



268 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

cy, on the Mississippi River. Distance to Burlington, 
two hundred and ten miles ; to Quincy, two hundred 
and sixty-five miles. Eunning time to Burlington, 
eleven hours. Two trains leave Chicago daily, about 
8 A. M., and 10 P. M. Fare to Burlington eight 
dollars. 

10. To THE West. — The Chicago, Council Bluffs, 
and Omaha line of the Chicago and Northwestern 
Railway, to Council Bluffs, Iowa, on the Missouri River, 
without change of cars. Distance to Council Blufig, 
four hundred and eighty-eight miles. Two trains leave 
Chicago daily at about three and eleven P. M., cross- 
ing the Mississippi River on a fine railroad bridge. 
This is really the commencement, or eastern section, of 
the Pacific Railroad. 

11. To THE West. — The Galena and Chicago Union 
Railroad, to Dubuque, by way of Freeport. Two trains 
leave Chicago daily, at about 9 A. M. at^d 10 P. M. 
from the depot corner of Wells and Water Streets, in 
the North Division, near Wells Street bridge. Distance 
to Freeport, one hundred and twenty miled. Running 
time, six hours and a half. 

12. To THE Northwest. — The Chicago and North- 
western Railroad, to Fort Howard, at the head of 
Green Bay in Wisconsin, by way of Crysti^ Lake, 
Janesville, Fond-du-lac, and Oshkash. Distance to 
Fort Howard, two hundred and forty-two miles. 
Running time, twelve hours and a half. Two trains 
leave Chicago daily, from the depot in Kinzie Street^ 
in the North Division, north of Lake Street Bridge, 
at about 9 A. M., and 4.30 P. M. The trains for Be- 
loit leaves at 4.80 P. M. 



THE RAILROADS OF CHICAGO. 269 

13. To THE North. — The Milwaukee Division of 
the Chicago and Northwestern Eailway. Six pas- 
senger trains leave Chicago daily on this road, namely : 
for Milwaukee at 9 A. M., 3.45 P. M., and 11.45 P. M. ; 
for Evanston at 1.30 P. M. ; for Kenosha at 4.40 P. M. ; 
and for Waukegan at 5.30 P. M. 

The four roads last mentioned are embraced among 
those of the consolidated Chicago and Northwestern 
Eailroad Company. 



270 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 

We will now present to the reader the most re- 
markable illustration of the benefits of railroad consoli- 
dation which this volume aflfords. 

The Pacific Railroad — for there is only one^ as will 
be presently shown, in another Chapter on "The 
Pacific Railroad" — the Pacific Railroad begins at 
Chicago, on what was formally the Dixon and Fulton 
Air-line Railroad; crosses the Mississippi River at 
Fulton ; runs across the whole State of .Iowa on what 
was formerly the Chicago, Iowa» and Nebraska Rail- 
road, to Council Bluffs, and there crosses the Missouri 
River at Omaha. It then proceeds along the north 
side of the Platte River, and through Nebraska to 
Salt Lake City, The distance from Chicago to Council 
Bluffs is about five hundred miles, and this forms a 
part of the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad. 

The lines of railroad which are now consolidated, 
and worked as the Chicago and Northwestern Rail- 
road, are as follows : — 

1. The Wisconsia Division, being the old 
main line of the road, extending from Chicago 
to Fort Howard, at the head of Green Bay, by 
way of Janesville, Fond du Lac, Oshkosh, and MUes. 
Appleton 242 



CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 271 

2. The Kenosha Division, extending from 
Kenosha on Lake Michigan, to Eockford, the Miles, 
point of junction with the old Galena road , 73 

3. The Galena Division, consisting, first of 
the original Galena and Chicago Union Eail- 
road, extending from. the Junction, a point 
thirty miles west of Chicago, to Freepoi% by 
way of Elgin, Belvidere, and Eockford, ninety- 
one miles ; second, of the Dixon and Fulton Air- 
line Eailroad, extending from Chicago due west 
to Clinton on the Mississippi Eiver, by way of 
the Junction, Geneva, and Dixon, one hundred 
and thirty-eight miles ; and third, the road from 
Elgin to Eichmond, thirty-three miles, and the 
South Branch track at Chicago, five miles, mak- 
ing in all . . . . " . . , 268 

4. The Madison Division, being the Beloit 
and Madison Eailroad, from Belvidere to Madi- 
son, by way of Beloit 69 

5. The Iowa Division, consisting of the Cedar 
Eapids and Missouri Eiver Eailroad, extending 
from Clinton on the Mississippi Eiver, one hun- 
dred and thirty-seven miles west of Chicago, to 
Council Blufis, on the Missouri Eiver, in Iowa, 

by way of Cedar Eapids and Boonsboro . . 852 

6. The Milwaukee Division, from Chicago to 
Milwaukee 85 

7. The Peninsula Division, consisting of the 
Peninsula Eailroad of Michigan, extending from . 
the harbor of Escanaba, at the mouth of Green 
Bay, to the Cleveland and Great Jackson iron 
mines ........ 72 

Total 1160 



272 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The above railroads constitute five great lines radi- 
ating from Chicago from west to north, as follows : — 

MUes. 

1. The road from Chicago to Milwaukee . 85 

2. The road from Chicago to the head of Green 
Bay . . . .242 

3. The road from Chicago to Madison, by way 

of Elgin, Belvidere, and Beloit .... 147 

4. The road from Chicago to IVeeport, by way 

of Elgin, Belvidere, and Eockford . . . 121 

5. The road from Chicago to Council Blufl& on 
the Missouri Eiver, by way of Dixon, Fulton, 
Clinton, Cedar Rapids, and Boonsboro, cross- 
ing the Mississippi Biver at Clinton . . • 491 

K the reader will now examine a map of the States 
of Illinois, Wisconsin, and Iowa, he will see that these 
railroads traverse and completely drain the richest and 
most fertile portion of the great northwest. These 
three States, as has been shown on a previous page, are 
the great wheat growing, com growing, and hog rais- 
ing States of the West ; and the whole of Iowa, the 
southern half of Wisconsin, and the northern half of 
Illinois, are drained of their rich productions, by these 
long lines of railroads, with their lateral branches. 

The consolidation of the above railroads under one 
organization, dates &om a recent period ; and it will 
be necessary therefore to speak of the origin of each 
road separately. 

The bright future that lay before the Western States 
was clearly perceived, at a very early period, by the 
first settlers of those wild and uncultivated regions. 



CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 273 

In the year 1836, travellers who came to Chicago by- 
land, entered that village, as it was then, in the Great 
Eastern mail stage, which was sometimes an actual 
stage coach, and at others a common wagon with a 
canvas cover. This stage coach, with a baggage wagon 
added sometimes, brought all the travellers from the 
east, except those who came on the lake schooners. 
Chicago was then a primitive village, with 1470 inhab- 
itants. A wooden block-house, called Fort Dearborn, 
at the mouth of the Chicago Eiver, and which was still 
standing as late as 1856, was the headquarters of a gar- 
rison of United States troops, whose presence was ab- 
solutely necessary to protect the people from the attacks 
of Indians. The latter were quite numerous in the 
neighborhood, and were of an exceedingly treacherous 
and bloodthirsty disposition. 

In the fall of 1836, there were farming settlements 
near JKenosha, Racine, and Milwaukee. There were 
probably twenty families on Fox Eiver, from Burling- 
ton to Wfiukesha. There were twenty-seven in Wal- 
worth County. On Rock River, there were five fami- 
lies at Beloit, three at Watertown, two at or near Janes- 
ville, and two at Fort Atkinson. The number of souls, 
at that time, from the settlements by the Lake Shore 
to Mineral Point and Dodgeville, could not have ex- 
ceeded three hundred and fifty, nearly all of whom 
came in the same season. Travellers from place to 
place made their way by Indian trails, which were 
numerous, and about si^ inches in depth ^nd eighteen 
in width. 

During the years 1886 and 1837, there was not a 

gospel minister residing between the villages on the 
18 



274 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

shore of Lake Michigan and the mineral region, a dis- 
tance of one hundred and twenty -five miles. 

At that early day, the project of constmctiDg a rail- 
road from Chicago westward across the northern part 
of the State of Illinois, to the Mississippi Biver, was 
conceived by some of the citizens of Chicago. They 
applied to the legislature of the State, and obtained a 
charter for that purpose, under the name of the Galena 
and Chicago Union Bailroad Company. At that time 
there were less than a thousand miles of railroad oon- 
structed in the United States. The Baltimore and 
Ohio Boad had been built from Baltimore to Washing- 
ton, and from Baltimore to Harper's Ferry, and had 
been surveyed as far as Cumberland. The Pennsyl- 
vania Bailroad had been built from Philadelphia to 
Columbia, on the Susquehanna Biver; and there were 
a few short railroads in the south. 

Their charter gave the Galena and Chicago Union 
Bailroad Company of Illinois power to construct a 
railroad from Chicago to Galena, and to construct, 
maintain, and use such other lateral routes of road as 
the Company might deem advantageous^ expedient, 
and necessary. The corporation was authorized to 
unite (the word " consolidate" not having at that time 
been applied to railroads) with any other railroad com- 
pany already incorporated, or which might be incor- 
porated, on such terms as might be agreed upon by 
the directors of the companies so uniting ; and also to 
construct such other lateral routes as might be neces- 
sary to connect these united roads with any other rail- 
road routes that might be deemed expedient. 

Under this charter, the Galena and Chicago Union 



CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 275 

Eailroad Company, in 1847, commenced the construc- 
tion of the present line of road from Chicago, via Elgin, 
Belvidere, and Eockford, to Freeport, and by February, 
1850, had completed its first forty-two miles from Chi- 
cago to Elgin, and thereafter extended that line of its 
road to Eockford and to Freeport, from whence it 
yielded its right of construction to Galena to the " Illi- 
nois Central Eailroad," and unfortunately lost thereby 
the control of the direction of the business of the Mis- 
sissippi Eiver at Dunleith and Galena. 

Soon after completing the road to Freeport, the error 
in losing the control of the Mississippi Eiver business, 
by surrendering it to the "Illinois Central Eailroad," 
became so apparent, and the Mississippi Eiver connec- 
tion so important, that the Galena and Chicago Union 
Eailroad Company sought a remedy and relief in the 
construction of another line of road, as authorized 
under their charter, from the Junction, so called, about 
thirty miles west of Chicago, on a line due we«t 
through Geneva and Dixon to the Mississippi Biver 
at Fulton, now commonly called the " Dixon Air-Line," 
and an air-line it almost literally is, reducing the diH' 
tance from Chicago to the Mississippi Biver, on thin 
now much the^nost important line of road, then owned 
by the Galena Company, to less than one hundred and 
thirty -eight miles. 

While constructing this air-line road, tba OaUmii 
Company thought proper to consolidata with ib« Ml#* 
sissippi and Bock Eiver Junction Uailroad Company, 
which latter Company was incorporated by tlM> Hl#i# 
of Illinois on the 15tb of February, 1861, and iin 
charier amended by an act approved Juiw 2l#t; Wi% 



276 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

and again on the 28th of February, 1854, and whose 
charter contained powers at that time desirable to pos- 
sess, including ample powers of consolidation. 

By an act of the Legislature of the State of Illinois, 
approved February 25th, 1854, the Galena and Chicago 
Union Bailroad Company was authorized to connect 
its (air-line) road by lease, purchase, or consolidation, 
with any railroad extending to the Mississippi River 
at or near Fulton. Under these powers, and under 
the general law of the State of Illinois authorizing the 
consolidation of railroads, the Qalena and Chicago 
Union Eailroad Company and the Mississippi and 
Eock River Junction Railroad Company, on the 9th 
of January, 1855, united and consolidated their roads, 
under the name of the Galena and Chicago Union Rail- 
road Company. 

Under this consolidation, the air-line road was 
constructed to Fulton ; and by an act of the Legisla- 
ture of the State of Illinois, approved February 15th, 
1855, the articles of agreement and consolidation, 
made and executed between the two companies, were 
not only sanctioned, confirmed, and approved, but it 
was especially declared in the act that thenceforward 
all the immunities, franchises, and privileges granted 
to either of the two companies should be united and 
consolidated in the one consolidated company, and the 
capital stock of the two companies should be blended 
in one capital stock. 

Under the powers possessed by the Mississippi and 
Rock River Junction Railroad Company, whiob powers 
were by the act of February 15, 1855, declared to be 
conferred upon the consolidated Galena and Chicago 



CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 277 

Union Railroad Company, the last-named Company 
acquired and exercised a right which it did not other- 
wise possess, to increase its capital stock, and also the 
right to consolidate its stock and franchises with the 
stock and franchises of any other railroad company. 

After completing its air line of road to the Missis- 
sippi River at Fulton, and about the 3d of July, 1862, 
the Galena Company obtained a perpetual lease of the 
franchises of the Albany Bridge Company, having the 
right to maintain a ferry or build a bridge across the 
Mississippi Biver, from a point near Fulton, to Clinton 
in the State of Iowa ; and also a lease of the Chicago, 
Iowa, and Nebraska Railroad, extending west from 
Clinton, on the west bank of the Mississippi River, to 
Cedar Rapids, in Iowa, a distance of eighty-two miles, 
and also a lease of the Cedar Rapids and Missouri 
River Railroad, the line of which extends westward 
from Cedar Rapids to the Missouri River opposite 
Omaha, and opposite the Pacific Railroad Depot at 
Omaha. 

Only a small portion of the Cedar Rapids and Mis- 
souri River Railroad, however, was constructed at the 
time of making the lease ; but the whole road has since 
been fully completed to Council BluflSj, on the Missouri 
River. 

These leased roads and the ferry were operated by 
the Galena Company from and after the date of the 
leases. 

Just previous to the consolidation of the Galena 
Company with the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad 
Company, in June, 1864, the Galena Company had 
commenced the construction of a bridge over the Min- 



278 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

sissippi Eiver at Clinton, which bridge has since been 
completed by the Chicago and Northwestern Company, 
and is the second bridge built over that river below 
St. Paul, the bridge at Rock Island being the first 

The extension of the Cedar Bapids and Missouri 
River Railroad to Boonsboro', and to the abundant 
coal fields on the Des Moines River, in that vicinity, is 
a matter of great value and importance to the Company 
in the economical operation of this entire line of road, 
running through a country so rich in productions and 
so destitute of wood. 

The Company now enjoys in this direction a con- 
tinuous and almost air-line of road, running due west 
through a country of extraordinary richness and fer- 
tility, from Chicago to Council Blufis, on the Missouri 
River, a distance of four hundred and ninety-one 
miles. 

In 1847, the route of the Galena Railroad, from Chi- 
cago to Freeport, was surveyed by Richard P. Morgan, 
an eminent engineer, who says in his interesting 
report : — 

"Instead of crossing high mountains and barren 
plains, the Galena and Chicago Railroad passes through 
one of the most fertile countries on the globe, where 
every man will rejoice in its construction and con- 
tribute all he is able for the purpose. Instead of stag- 
nation and opposition, as in Massachusetts, during the 
interval between its commencement and completion, 
its population and wealth will increase by anticipation, 
and the accumulated products of industry and enter- 
prise will throng the railroad immediately upon its 
going into operation. Settlers now avoid coming on 



CHICAGO AND NOBTHWESTERK RAILROAD. 279 

to lands of the utmost fertility and posseaeang ereiy 
good quality they can wish for, if compelled to sacri- 
fice all they can make in hauling their products to 
market. It is a fact well known, and frequently ad- 
verted to, that a farmer near Bock Biver expends as 
much in getting his wheat to market as all other ex- 
penses of ploughing, sowing, harvesting and threshing. 
To build the Galena Boad is to offer an annuity of 
one hundred and fifly dollars to every &rmer within 
twenty miles of it, who lives forty miles from Chicago. 
If it could be completed by 1850, and if it ooold be 
known that such would be the case, it is a moral cer- 
tainty that an amount of agricultural and mineral pro- 
ducts would be awaiting its operation, equal to what 
is assumed in the estimate as the business of a large 
portion of the year. It is not, however, from these 
causes alone that the increase of population, instead of 
going on in a decreasing ratio, will proceed with as 
much rapidity as for years past; the railroad will ctkr 
a thousand inducements to ^iterprise that cannot now 
exist ; much fine water power lying useless will be 
applied to various purposes; a new stimolnswill be 
given to manufacturing and mechanical labor, and by 
establishing numerous branches of bosiness, which 
could not otherwise exist, will continue to create new 
traffic and rapidly accelerate the period when North- 
ern Illinois will take the first rank in •wealth and 
importance." 

These anticipations were more than realized, even 
in the first few years after the completion of the road. 

The road was completed to Preeport, one hundred 
and twenty-one miles from Chicago, in September, ld5L 



280 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

In 1850 the number of passengers carried was sixty- 
nine thousand seven hundred and eighty-two, their 
fare amounting to fifty-six thousand four hundred and 
seventy -two dollars; and the whole receipts of the 
road being one hundred and twenty -seven thousand 
six hundred and eighty-seven dollars. In 1851, the 
number of passengers carried was ninety-one thousand 
nine hundred and twenty. The amount received from 
passengers was eighty-five thousand one hundred and 
seventy-six dollars, and from freight one hundred and 
twenty-five thousand eight hundred and five dollars; 
and the total receipts of the road were two hundred 
and twelve thousand three hundred and ten dollars. " 
Now mark the increase. In 1852, the number of pas-' 
sengers was two hundred and thirty-eight thousand 
two hundred and ninety-six ; the amount received 
from passengers was three hundred and thirty-nine 
thousand nine hundred and ninety-six dollars; from 
freight four hundred and fifty-nine thousand and-seven- 
teen dollars ; and the total receipts of the road were 
seven hundred and ninety-nine thousand and thirteen 
dollars. Such a result was truly gratifying and en- 
couraging. Twenty-one miles of the Beloit branch of 
the road were completed and opened for business 
during this year. The equipment of the road at this 
time consisted of thirty locomotives, thirty passenger 
cars, and about four hundred freight cars. 



I'O'if'frnii 



CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 28t 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD : CONTINUED. 

The business of the road for 1853 was equally 
good, and in 1854 there was another large increase. 
The number of passengers carr4ed was four hundred 
and six thousand six hundred and ninety-eight; the 
amount received from passengers was six hundred and 
twenty-nine thousand six hundred and ninety-two dol- 
lars ; and from freight eight hundred and seventy-seven 
thousand and seventeen dollars ; and the total receipts 
of the road were a million and a half of dollars 
(namely, $1,506,710). The business of the road 
steadily increased during the succeeding two years. 
In 1855, the receipts from passengers were eight hun- 
dred and eighty thousand four hundred and ten dol- 
lars ; and from freight nearly a million and a half of 
dollars (namely, $1,435,376) ; and the total receipts of 
the road were considerably over two millions of dol- 
lars (namely, $2,315,787). In 1856, the receipts from 
passengers were nearly a million of dollars (namely, 
$906,069) ; and from freight a million and a half of 
dollars (namely, $1,510,275); and the total receipts of 
the road were nearly two millions and a half of dollars 
(namely, $2,416,344). 

• In 1857, the great financial panic took place in the 
west, and of course this railroad was seriously affected 
by it. During this year, the receipts from passengers 



282 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

were only half a million of dollars (namely, $522,187) 
and from freight a little over a million dollars (namely, 
1,118,620); and the total receipts of the road were 
one million six hundred and forty thousand eight hun- 
dred and seven dollars. The equipment of the road 
at this time included sixty locomotives, fifty passenger 
cars, and twelve hundred freight oars. 

Large expenditures had been made, each year, in 
the improvement of the track and buildings^ and 
everything about the road was by this time in splendid 
order. The fencing of the entire line was completed. 
It had been found that in the winter, during heavy 
snow storms, the snow drifted many feet high, and 
covered the track in certain places. Th^se places, 
therefore, were protected by building a high and 
strong board fence on each side of the track, behind 
which the snow drifted, instead of covering the track. 

The financial depression continued during the year 
1858, and was aggravated by a scanty crop of wheat 
in the Western States. The receipts from passengers 
during this year were four hundred and seventy -two 
thousand two hundred and sixty-nine dollars; from 
freight one million seventy -five thousand two hundred 
and ninety-two dollars ; and the total receipts were one 
million five hundred and forty-seven thousand five 
hundred and sixty-one dollars. The receipts for the 
succeeding years were as follows : — 





Passengers. 


Freight and Mails. 


TotaL 


1858 . 


. $472,269 


$1,075,292 


$1,547,561 


1859 . 


. 397,402 


972,039 


1,369,441 


1860 . 


. 341,384 


1,120,367 


1,462,752 


1861 . 


. 338,851 


1,381,845 


1,720,396 


1862 . 


. 389,833 


1,387,708 


1,777,541 


1863 . 


. 496,316 


1,696,979 


2,193,295 



CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 283 

Previous to the year 1854, the Galena and Chicago. 
Bailroad Company constructed and completed the 
road from Belvidere to Beloit, a distance of twenty- 
one miles, calling it the Beloit Branch ; and in 1854 
they entered into a contract or lease with the Beloit 
and Madison Bailroad Company, for the construction 
of the line from Beloit to Madison, the capital of Wis- 
consin, a distance of forty-seven miles. That Company, 
although materially aided by the Galena Company, 
failed to complete its road, and was subsequently 
leased to the Galena and Chicago Company in perpe- 
tuity. The lease bound the latter Company to equip 
and maintain the road permanently. 

The Company also, previous to 1857, became identi- 
fied with the construction of the Fox Eiver Valley 
Bailroad, and in fact became the lessees of that road. 
Its name, at the time of the lease, was changed to that 
of the Elgin and State Line Bailroad. It extends from 
Elgin, northward, to Bichmond, near the north line of 
the State of Illinois. It is thirty-three miles long, and 
by the consolidation of the Chicago and Northwestern 
Bailroad Company with the Galena Company, is now 
the property of, and is controlled by the former Com- 
pany. 

The Galena and Chicago Union Bailroad Company, 
also, some years since purchased the entire rights and 
franchises of the St. Charles and Mississippi Air-Line 
Bailroad Company, including all its road and track then 
constructed, and its right of way and depot grounds^ 
paying a large price for the same. Only about nine 
miles of this road from the south branch of the Chi- 
cago Eiver to Harlem, on the Galena road, was ever 



284 BAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

constructed, and this the Galena road used chiefly as 
a connecting track with the other roads in the city of 
Chicago. 

That part of this St. Charles and Mississippi Air- 
Line Railroad which extended between the western 
limits of the city of Chicago and Harlem, has been 
removed by the Chicago and Northwestern Bailroad 
Company since its consolidation with the Galena ; and 
a new track, commencing near the west line of the 
city of Chicago, at the present western terminus of this 
St. Charles road, and extending north parallel with, 
and a little west of and outside of the western limits 
of the city, to the main track of the Galena road, has 
been constructed, making a shorter and more con- 
venient connection with other roads than formerly ex- 
isted by way of Harlem. This connecting track is 
now being extended still farther north, to the track of 
the original Chicago and Northwestern Bailroad, now 
the Wisconsin Division of the present Chicago and 
Northwestern Railroad, and to the track of the Mil- 
waukee Division of the same road (formerly the Chi- 
cago and Milwaukee Railroad). It will thus form a 
very complete and desirable outside connection between 
all the railroads of the city. 

The long-continued, unwise, and injurious competi- 
tion which existed between the Gtilena and the North- 
western Railroads at their several points of contact and 
which seemed to be chronic, and not likely to termi- 
nate, and which induced the companies to give too 
much of their time and attention to the control or con- 
struction of inferior, rival, and illegitimate lines, natur- 
ally gave rise to proposals for the combination of these 



CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 285 

two lines as the only certain and permanent remedy 
for the loss of earnings and increase of expenses re- 
sulting from the senseless but apparently unavoidable 
competition which existed. The stockholders of both 
roads were consulted. They very generally and cor- 
dially consented to and approved of a consolidation, 
in the manner and on the terms on which it was 
effected and carried out on the 2d of June, 1864. 

In making the consolidation, these two companies 
had the benefit of the example of some of the oldest 
and wealthiest roads in the United States. The first 
great leading example of railroad consolidation was 
the New York Central Railroad, which corporation 
now includes not less than ten original different railroad 
companies, some of which were utterly worthless as 
sources of income previous to consolidation; all of 
which are, by consolidation, made valuable and highly 
appreciated income paying property. 

The great New York and Erie Railroad was never 
a reliable dividend paying road, until the various 
roads leading from it to New York, to Buffalo, and to 
other places, had been consolidated with it. The 
Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and Chicago Railroad, now 
paying fiill interest upon all its securities, and ten per 
cent, dividends upon all its stock, and with a large 
surplus of net earnings beyond, with which it is con- 
stanfly perfecting itself and adding to its machinery 
and facilities for doing business, is largely indebted 
for its great prosperity and success to the consolida- 
tion and reorganization into it of the several original, 
comparatively inferior, and non-dividend paying com- 
panies which now compose it. The same is eminently 



286 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

the case with the now largely profitable Chicago and 
St. Louis llailroad, now paying handsome dividends to 
its stockholders. 

The great Pennsylvania Central Bailroad, now com- 
prising the raost extensive combination of railroad 
lines under one control in the United States, is indebted, 
in good part, for its present great prosperity, and for 
the enormous earnings upon its main line of nearly 
forty thousand dollars per mile every year, to the busi- 
ness secured to it by the control which it has acquired 
over its various extensions and lateral routes. 

The Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy iftailroad, 
through its series of consolidations, purchases, and con- 
struction, has made itself one of the largest earning and 
best paying roads in the United States. 

To the Chicago and Northwestern Bailroad. itself, 
the advantages that have resulted from the consolida- 
tion have proved to be all that were anticipated. By 
it the management of the respective roads and of the 
consolidated line has been improved, the uses of the 
engines and cars extended, and the earnings of the 
road largely increased, and the ability of the Company 
to transfer their engines and cars to the different lines 
of the road, where they are most required, has proved 
a great benefit to its interests. The general facilities 
of the consolidated roads in the way of connections 
with all other roads terminating in Chicago, for the in- 
terchange and transfer of freight, cars, and engines, and 
for the general interchange of all business transactions 
with those roads, have been largely increased and 
much economized by the consolidation. It is the in- 
tention of the Company to establish one general Central 



CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 287 

Depot and Passepger House for the accommodation of 
its different lines of road. As soon as this is done the 
business of them all can be conducted there with the 
ease of one road, and with a very large reduction in 
the expense of management incurred by these lines 
previous to consolidation. 

The increased earnings of these roads since the con- 
solidation, and in great part resulting from it, clearly 
indicate the wisdom and good policy of that step, and 
the officers of the Company are perfectly confident that 
when they shall have perfected their new organizations 
and appointments, and the economical plans for the 
conduct of the business of the consolidated ro^s, and 
as soon as labor and material shall return to fair prices, 
they will be enabled, if supplied with an equipment 
sufficient to transact the business offering, to reduce 
their tariff on freight and passengers to a very mode- 
rate rate, and to furnish increased facilities for trade 
and travel to all the country and people doing business 
with them to their entire satisfaction ; and yet be able 
to make full and regular payments of interests and 
dividends to all of their bond-holders and stock- 
holders. 

Soon after the commencement of the construction of 
the Galena road, in 1847, the officers of that Company 
visited Janesville, Mineral Point, and pther places in 
Wisconsin, soliciting aid and co-operation in their 
efforts, and proposing branches and extensions of their 
line of road, from the line between Chicago and Galena 
then in process of construction to Beloit, Janesville, 
Madison and beyond, being substantially the same 



288 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

lateral route subsequently adopted and now occupied 
by the Chicago and Northwestern Railway. 

Incited by these ofiers and promises of co-operation, 
the people of Wisconsin, living upon the line of the 
route of road above suggested, were prompted to pro- 
cure an act incorporating the Madison and Beloit Rail- 
road Company of Wisconsin, which act was approved 
August 19th, 1848. 

Under this act, and the several acts amendatory 
thereof, containing full and ample powers, said Com- 
pany was authorized to construct and operate a rail- 
road from Beloit, or from any other point on the north 
line o£. the State of Illinois, via Janesville, Madison, 
and La Crosse, to a point on the Mississippi River, at 
the line of territory, now State of Minnesota, near St 
Paul, and also from Janesville to Fond du Lao. And 
by an act of the Legislature of the State of Wisconsin, 
approved February 9th, 1850, the name of the Madison 
and Beloit Railroad Company was changed to that of 
the Rock River Valley Union Railroad Company, and 
its powers extended. 

The officers of this Company repeatedly sought in- 
terviews with the Galena Company, for the purpose of 
securing the proposed co-operation of that Company 
in the construction of the proposed branch or lateral 
line of road frgm the Galena and Chicago line, then in 
process of construction, to the State line of Wisconsin, 
there to connect with the said Madison and Beloit or 
Rock River Valley Company of Wisconsin. 

Becoming, finally, displeased with the result of these 
interviews, the officers of the Wisconsin Company 
sought and obtained, from the legislature of the State 



CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 289 

or Illinois, an act, approved February 12tb, 1851, in- 
corporating the Illinois and Wisconsin Eailroad Com- 
pany, with powers under the said act, and the several 
acts amendatory thereof, to construct and operate a rail- 
road from the city of Chicago to the north line of the 
State of Illinois, and to unite and consolidate with any 
railroad company then incorporated, or which might be 
thereafter incorporated in the State of Wisconsin ; and 
the work of construction upon this line^of road, from 
Chicago northwest to the Stafe line of Wisconsin, was 
commenced. 

By a subsequent act of the State of Wisconsin, ap- 
proved March 10th, 1855, the Illinois and Wisconsin 
Eailroad Company and the Rock River Valley Union 
Railroad Company were authorized to consolidate the 
stock property and franchises of the two corporations, 
and to take such corporate name as the Board of Di- 
rectors of the consolidated corporation might select^ 
and all the powers, franchises and immunities possessed * 
by either of said corporations were granted to the con- 
solidated corporation. 

On the 30th March, 1855, the consolidation of these 
two roads was perfected, and all the powers, property 
and franchises of the two corporations thereupon be- 
came vested in the consolidated corporation thereby 
created and called the Chicago, St. Paul, and Fond du 
Lac Railroad Company. 

The object and desire of the Chicago, St. Paul, and 
Fond du Lac Railroad Company from the beginning 
was the extension of their line of road from Janesville 
northwest, via Madison and La Crosse, to St. Paul, and 
from Janesville north along the valley of Rock River 
19 



290 BAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

to Fond du Lac, and to the great iron and copper re- 
gions of Lake Superior. 

Application was made to Congress for a grant of 
lands in aid ot both these lines of road, which grant, 
chiefly through the efforts of the Chicago, St. Paul, 
and Fond du Lac Eailroad Company, was obtained in 
June, 1856, at which time Congress granted six sec- 
tions (three thousand eight hundred and forty acres) 
per mile to the State of Wisconsin, to be used in aid 
of the construction of those lines of road. 

An extra session of the legislature of the State of 
"Wisconsin was called in September or October, 1856, 
at which a contest arose between different railroad 
companies seeking to have these lands conferred upon 
them by the State. 

The result was, that the lands npon the northwestern 
line were given by the State to the La Crosse and Mil- 
waukee Railroad Company, and the lands npon the 
northern line, from Fond du Lac to the north line of 
the State, in the direction of Lake Superior, were 
granted by the State to the Wisconsin and Superior 
Eailroad Company, a corporation created at that ses- 
sion of the legislature of the State of Wisconsin, by 
an act approved October 11th, 1856, thus depriving 
the Chicago, St. Paul, and Fond du Lac Eailroad Com- 
pany of the grant of lands mainly if not wholly ob- 
tained by their efforts, and granted in aid of the lines 
adopted and then in process of construction by said 
Company. 

The charter of the Wisconsin and Superior Eailroad 
Company, which contained very broad general, detailed 
and extraordinary powers, and which authorized the 



CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 291 

construction of a railroad from the city of Fond duLac 
to the north line of the State of Wisconsin, and a 
branch from the main line to some point on the Michi- 
gan State line, also authorized the consolidation of the 
rights and franchises of the Wisconsin and Superior 
Eailroad Company with any railroad company in the 
State of Michigan ; and by the general railroad law of the 
State of Michigan, any railroad company of that State 
was authorized to consolidate its stock ^nd franchises 
with any other railroad company in or out of said 
State, forming together a continuous line. 

By virtue of an act of the legislature of Wisconsin, 
approved February 12, and amended February 28, 
1857, the Wisconsin and Superior Eailroad Company 
and the consolidated corporation called the Chicago, 
St. Paul and Fond du Lac Railroad Company were 
authorized to consolidate their rights, property, land 
and franchises, under the name of the corporation last 
mentioned, with all the powers and franchises pos- 
sessed by either of said corporations ; and on the 5th day 
of March, 1857, the said corporations were so consoli- 
dated, retaining the name of the Chicago, St. Paul and 
Fond du Lac Eailroad Company, and all the lands 
granted by Congress to the State of Wisconsin, and by 
the State of Wisconsin to the Wisconsin and Superior 
Eailroad Company, were by this consolidation secured 
to the Chicago, St. Paul and Fond du Lac Eailroad 
Company. 

In June, 1856, Congress also granted lands to the 
State of Michigan in aid of a road from Marquette, on 
Lake Superior, southerly to the State line of Wiscon- 
sin, and also from Ontonagon, on Lake Superior, to the 



292 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

said State line of Wisconsin, in contemplation of the 
connection of these roads at the State line with the 
northern line of road of the Chicago, St. Paul and Fond 
du Lac Railroad Company. 

Subsequently railroad companies were organized 
from Marquette to the State line, and from Ontonagon 
to the State line of Wisconsin, with a view to a union 
and consolidation with the Chicago, St. Paul and Fond 
du Lac Railroad Company ; and the grants of public 
land to the State of Michigan to aid in the construction 
of these- roads were conferred upon them, and they 
were consolidated with the Chicago, St. Paul and Fond 
du Lac Railroad Company, forming with it a complete 
line of road from Chicago to Marquette and the great 
Iron Mountain regions of Lake Superior, and to On- 
tonagon, on Lake Superior, and the extensive copper 
regions in its vicinity. 

The great financial revulsion of 1857, which pros- 
trated so many railroads in the country in process of 
construction, carried down with it and suspended for 
a time all further progress of the Chicago, St. Paul and 
Fond du Lac Railroad Company. 

In consequence of the financial misfortunes of the 
Chicago, St. Paul and Fond du Lac Railroad Company 
in 1867, the consolidation of the Marquette and Onton- 
agon Railroads with it were defeated, and the public 
lands conferred upon those companies reverted to the 
State of Michigan. 



CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 293 



CHAPTEE XXVIII. 

CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD : CONTINUED. 

In February, 1859, at a meeting held in New York 
of the bond-holders, stock-holders, and creditors of the 
Chicago, St. Paul and Fond duiac Eailroad Company, 
a plan for the organization, extension, and ultimate 
completion of that Company's road was agreed upon ; 
which plan provided for a sale of the road^ under both 
its outstanding mortgage deeds of trust ; for the pur- 
chase of the same by the duly appointed agents of the 
Company, provided they could make a satisfactory pur- 
chase of the road. Legislation was applied for in 
order to carry into effect this proposed plan of reor- 
ganization, and by an act of the legislature of the State 
of Illinois, approved February 19th, 1859, and by an 
act of the legislature of the State of Wisconsin, approved 
March 14th, 1859,^ and by a general law of the State 
of Wisconsin, approved October 10th, 1856, such per- 
sons as might become the purchasers of the road and 
property of the Chicago, St. Paul and Fond du Lac 
Railroad Company, were authorized to organize a cor- 
poration, under such name as they might elect, with 
all the powers, rights, and franchises before possessed 
by that corporation, by virtue of all existing laws and 
charters of both Illinois and Wisconsin. 

On the 2d of June, 1859, in pursuance of these laws 



294 BAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

and powers, the bond-holders, by their agents, purchased 
the entire road and property of the Chicago, St Paul 
and Fond du Lac Eailroad Company. These agents 
proceeded immediately to the further execution of the 
trust reposed in them, and on the 6th of June, 1859, 
organized a corporation, under the more comprehen- 
sive and desirable name of the Chicago and North- 
western Railroad Company, having all the powers, 
rights, and franchises theretofore possessed by the Chi- 
cago, St. Paul and Fond du Lac Bailroad Company, or 
by any of the railroads of the States of Illinois or Wis- 
consin previously consolidated into it, including the 
full power to consolidate its stock, franohii^ and pro- 
perty with the stock, franchises, and property of any 
other railroad company with which its line of road 
might connect or intersect, in the States of Illinois, 
Wisconsin, and Michigan respectively ; and the law of 
Illinois of February 19th, 1859, specially conferred 
upon this Company the right to exercise and enjoy, in 
the State of Illinois, all the rights, powers, privileges 
and franchises theretofore granted by the States of 
Wisconsin or Michigan to the Chicago, St. Paul and 
Fond du Lac Railroad Company, or to the previously 
existing companies consolidated into it. 

The Chicago and Northwestern Railway Company 
was authorized, by a law of Wisconsin, approved 
April 10th, 1861, to locate the line of its road, or a 
branch thereof, by the way of Fort Howard or Green 
Bay, northerly to the north line of' the State at the 
Menominee River, still retaining its grants of lands 
on the original line to aid in the construction of thia 
changed line. 



CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 295 

And by an act of said State, approved Marcli 8th, 
1862, it was further authorized to locate, construct, and 
operate a line of road to the Michigan State line, and 
this act expressly confers all the rights, privileges, 
powers, and authority contained in the charter of said 
Chicago and Northwestern Railway Company, or in 
the charter of the Chicago, St. Paul and Fond du Lao 
Eailroad Company, or in the charter of the Wisconsin 
and Superior Eailroad Company, upon the Chicago 
and Northwestern Eailway Company ; and the Chicago 
and Northwestern Eailway Company was declared to 
be the successor to all the rights and franchises of the 
said railroad companies. 

By an act of the legislature of the State of Illinois, 
approved February 13th, 1863, the Chicago and North- 
western Railway Company was recognized as an exist- 
ing corporation ; and it and every other railroad com- 
pany with which it might connect or intersect were 
respectively authorized to make running connections 
with each other, and to consolidate their respective 
stocks and property in such manner and upon such 
terms as might be agreed upon between said com- 
panies. 

Supported and authorized by all these manifold 
charters and varied powers, and often repeated enact- 
ments of the States of Illinois, Wisconsin, and of Michi- 
gan, the Chicago and Northwestern Railway Company 
entered upon its renewed corporate existence under 
the before mentioned reorganization of June 2d, 1859. 

In accordance with the provisions of its plan of re- 
organization, as agreed upon by bond-holders, stock- 
holders, and creditors in February, 1859, a general 



296 * RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

seven per cent. . first mortgage was created upon tbe 
Chicago and Northwestern line of railway from Chi- 
cago to Oshkosh, one hundred and ninety -four miles, to 
secure three million six hundred thousand dollars of 
general first mortgage bonds, to be issued to the 
holders of outstanding first mortgage bonds of the old 
Chicago, St. Paul and Fond du Lac Railroad Company 
in exchange for said old bonds, and the interest ac- 
crued thereon ; and one million two hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars preferred sinking 'fund bonds were 
issued to pay and remove special existing incum- 
brances, and to be disposed of at their par value in 
money to subscribers for them under provisions of the 
said plan of reorganization, and were also secured in 
priority by said first mortgage. 

A second six per cent, mortgage was also issued, to 
secure two million dollars of six per cent, second mort- 
gage bonds. 

These latter bonds (subsequently exchanged for pre- 
ferred stock), together with about one hundred and 
fifty thousand acres of land, acquired by the Company 
under grants of Congress for portions of the road 
already constructed, were used and disposed of in ex- 
change for about three million dollars of outstanding 
eight per cent, land grant bonds of the old Fond du Lao 
Company, and upon which land grant bonds some 
eight hundred thousand dollars of interest had accumu- 
lated. 

The plan also authorized the organizing committee, 
in their discretion, within a time, and in a manner 
fixed and limited, to cause stock of the new Company 
to be issued at par in payment of such debts of the old 



CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 29 1 

Company as they should think just and equitable, at 
seventy-five cents for the dollar of said debts ; and 
further authorized them to cause the stock of the new 
Company to be issued at par in exchange for stock of 
the old Company, at sixty cents on the dollar of said 
old stock. 

The plan further required that the holders of the 
bonds of the old Company should subscribe for and 
take the new sinking fund bonds at par to the extent 
of ten per cent, of the old bonds held by them, on re- 
ceiving new bonds in exchange for said old bonds. 
This provision of the plan furnished the new Company 
with about six hundred thousand dollars in money, 
with which they constructed, in the summer and fall 
of 1859, fifty-sQven miles of road, from Janesville to 
Minnesota Junction, which completed their entire line 
from Chicago to Oshkosh, one hundred and ninety-four 
miles. 

From this relation it will be seen that the stock and 
bond capital of the Chicago and Northwestern Eailway 
Company did not represent any actual cost and dis- 
bursement of money by said new Company, but con- 
stituted an ^amount which was then considered to 
represent the actual and in part prospective value of 
the road and property of the Company ; and which was 
equitably distributed among the bond and stockholders 
and creditors of the old Chicago, St. Paul, and Fond da 
Lac Eailroad Company, and which amounted to a sum 
much larger than it would have then cost to build the 
road from Chicago to Oshkosh. 

It was because of this large amount of representative 
capital, issued by the Chicago and 'Northwestern Eail- 



298 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

way Company, at the time and subsequent to its reor- 
ganization, that the additional common stock was issued 
to the stockholders of the Galena Company at the time 
of the Chicago and Northwestern Bail way Company's 
consolidation with it, iu order to equalize the interests 
of the owners»of the two companies in the consolidated 
roads. 

In the fall of 1860 and early in 1861, the Chicago 
and Northwestern Eailway Company extended its Kne 
of road from Oshkosh to Appleton, 6ver twenty miles^ 
at a very low cost, issuing but one hundred and eighty- 
four thousand dollars of Appleton Extension seven per 
cent, first mortgage bonds, and some thirty thousand 
dollars of the common stock of the Company, in ex- 
change at par for Appleton and Neenah bonds^ to cover 
the cost of its construction. 

la 1862, the Chicago and Northwestern Bailway 
Company issued three hundred thousand dollars' of 
Green Bay Extension seven per cent, first mortgage 
bonds, and. about sixty-five thousand dollars of its com- 
mon stock in exchange, at par, for bonds of Brown 
County and the town of Fort Howard, at Green Bay, 
with the proceeds of which bonds and stock it con- 
structed and extended its line of road from Appleton 
to Green Bay, about twenty-eight miles. 

The Appleton and Green Bay Extension bonds, 
issued as above mentioned, were secured respectively 
upon the portion of road for the construction of whicli 
they were issued, and upon the portion of public lands 
granted to the Company in aid of such constructions, 
which lands, amounting to a little more than two bun- 



CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 299 

dred thousand acres, are still held by the Company in 
security for said bonds. 

In addition to the general grant of lands conferred 
upon the Company in aid of the construction of its line 
of road from Fond du Lac to Green Bay,^ and to the 
northerly line of the State of Wisconsin, Congress made 
a special grant of eighty acres- of land, out of its Fort 
Howard reservation, fo;' the depot grounds of this Com- 
pany at Green Bay, which grant, from its favorable 
location, large water-front and ample dimensions, is of 
great value and convenience to the Company. 

The length of the said Company's road from Chi- 
cago, via Fond du Lac and Appleton, to Green Bay, is 
two hundred and forty-two miles. 

In the summer of 1863 the " Kenosha, Eockford, and 
Eock Island Eailroad Company," with its road recently 
completed and in operation from Kenosha, on Lake 
Michigan, to Eockford (one of the most important 
towns and stations on the Galena road), about seventy- 
three miles in length, and diagonally crossing the Chi- 
cago and Northwestern Eailway at Harvard, about 
sixty miles northwest from Chicago, and which was at 
that time in competition with the Galena, and a valu- 
able feeder to the business of the Northwestern Eoad 
from Eockford and in that direction, became embar- 
rassed, and parties controlling its securities were desir- 
ous of disposing of them to the Galena Company, or 
to the Chicago and Northwestern Company, carrying 
with them the control of that road. 

To have, at that time, allowed that control -to pass 
into the hands of the Galena Company would have 
deprived the Chicago and Northwestern Eailway of a 



300 BAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

very considerable source of revenue, derived through 
its connection with this road. An arrangement was, 
therefore, made, whereby several large holders of these 
securities, and such capitalists as could be induced to 
purchase them in the interest of the Northwestern 
Eailway Company, associated themselves to purchase 
and recognize the Kenosha Railroad, embracing nearly 
all the first mortgage bonds. 

A foreclosure sale of the road having taken place, 
and a reorganization being effected, consolidation was 
made in accordance with the provisions of the laws of 
the States of Illinois and Wisconsin. 

It had been originally proposed that bonds of the 
Chicago and Northwestern Eailway Company, secured 
by a mortgage upon the Kenosha line, and to be called 
the " Chicago and Northwestern Bailway Kenosha 
Extension bonds," should be issued to an amount, 
which, at the market value of similar securities of the 
Company, would reimburse the cost to the new parties, 
of the bonds purchased by them, and that the old 
holders should accept bonds at the same rate, so that 
these new Kenosha Extension bonds would be disposed 
of in payment for the Kenosha road at cost, at a better 
rate than the whole issue could be sold at in the mar- 
ket, and the line would then cost this Company about 
eight hundred thousand dollars in its Kenosha Exten- 
sion bonds, at par, or less than eleven thousand dollars 
per mile, in bonds, at par. 

But instead of issuing these Kenosha bonds, it was 
subsequently agreed to issue one million four hundred 
thousand dollars of the common stock of this Company 
then considered equivalent to the cost of said road to 



CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 301 

the owners thereof, in full consideration for this seventy- 
three miles of a new and well-ironed road, and for its 
equipment, consisting of six engines and one hundred 
cars, and including also an amount of about one hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars, surplus of cash assets, 
resulting to this Company in the transaction. 

The preceding account of the Northwestern Railway 
brings its history down to the period of consolidation 
with the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad Company, 
June 2d, 1864, except so far as relates to its prelimi- 
nary action, in connection with the Peninsula Railroad 
Company, which is referred to hereafter, in the history 
of that road. 

At the time of consolidation wdth the Galena, on the 
2d of June, 1864, the Chicago and Northwestern Rail- 
way comprised the following lines of roads, to wit : — 

Its main line, or " Wisconsin Division," as 
now called, extending from Chicago via Janes- 
ville. Fond du Lac, Oshkosh, and Appleton, to Miles. 
Green Bay 242 

Its " Kenosha Division," extending from the 
town of Kenosha, on Lake Michigan, to its junc- 
tion at Rockford, on the Rock River, with the 
old Galena road ..;... 73 



Total length of railroad line owned by Chicago 
and Northwestern Railway at the time of con- 
solidation with the Galena, aforesaid . . 315 

To which add the lines of road owned by the 
Galena at the time of consolidation . . . 294 

Length of Galena leased lines of road at the 
time of consolidation 227 



302 BAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Galena exteDsions of leased roads since con- Miles, 
solidation 24 

Total length of roads owned and leased at the 
time of consolidation 860 

History of the Peninsula Railroad. — As has 
been already observed, it was always a part of the 
original plan and desire of the Chicago and North- 
western Eailway Company to reach the business^ trade, 
and travel of the important and growing mineral re- 
gions of Lake Superior, and the board of directors 
scarcely failed in their annual reports^ for years past> 
to urge upon the attention of their stockholders the 
importance of securing that trade and traffic. 

In the extension of the road to -Green Bay this ob- 
ject was prominent. 

The enlarged operations of the copper and iron mines 
of Lake Superior for the last few years> and their 
promise of still greater increase of business in the 
future, was beginning to attract the attention of rail- 
road parties not in the interests of this Company, so 
seriously that it became important to secure, without 
delay, this business to the long line of railroad of this 
Company, already extending from Chicago to Green 
Bay, two hundred and forty-two miles; and it became 
apparent, also, that unless, at least, that portion of the 
line of road between Little Bay de Noquet^ on Green 
Bay, now called " Escanaba," and the Iron Mines, was 
secured and built in the interests of the Chicago and 
Northwestern Eailway Company, it would be con- 
structed by others having adverse interests and con- 
nections, threatening ultimately to entirely deprive the 



CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 303 

Chicago and Northwestern Eailway Company of its 
valuable Lake Superior business, now so perfectly 
secured to it by the Peninsula Eailway, besides other- 
wise materially and injuriously aflFecting it. 

The Northwestern Eailway Company having, about 
that time, with considerable eflfort, completed its line 
of road to Green Bay, the Board hesitated in regard to 
immediate proposals for further eflTorts, by the Com- 
pany, in that direction. 

Capitalists, in the main unconnected with the Chi- 
cago and Northwestern Eailway Company, were ap- 
pealed to, to furnish the funds and build a road across 
the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, as of itself a desira- 
ble investment. The appeal was successful, and the 
result was the prompt construction of the " Peninsula 
Eailroad of Michigan," commenced in '1863 and 
opened in December,' 1864, by a company duly or- 
ganized under the general laws of that State ; said 
road extending from Escanaba, on Green Bay, to 
nearly all the great iron mines of Lake Superior, and 
connecting at the Jackson Mine with the railroad from 
Marquette to the mines, thus making a through line to 
Lake Syperior. 

The length of the Peninsula road, from the harbor 
and ore-docks at Escanaba to tte great Jackson mine 
at Negaunee, and to its jtmction with the Marquette 
road at that point, is about sixty-two miles, and its ex- 
tension from that point to the end of the Peninsula road, 
at the Cleveland Iron Mountain and the New York 
Company's mines, is about three miles further. 

Branches from the main line to some five or six 
other mines recently opened, and to the neighborhood 



304 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

of others proposed to be opened, amount in all to about 
five miles more of track, making the entire length of 
the Peninsula road extension and branches full seventy 
miles, besides several miles of side track, including ore- 
dock tracks at'Escanaba. 

The large ore-dock at Escanaba, thirty-two feet high, 
thirty-seven feet wide and a quarter of a mile long, 
constructed for receiving and holding some twenty to 
thirty thousand tons of ore in pockets, at a time, and 
for shuting it thence into the holds of ships without 
re-handling, seems a perfect success, and great saving 
of time and money in shipping ores, and offers supe-, 
rior inducements to shippers over anything of the 
kind known to be in use elsewhere. Its cost was very 
considerable, near two hundred thousand dollars ; but 
its efiiciency and economy, in the expense of handling 
and shipping ores, is very satisfactory, and the facili- 
ties it furnishes invite shippers, and insure business 
and ample returns. 

The ample, perfectly safe, deep, and desirable harbor 
for ships at Escanaba, with its easy, unobstructed, broad, 
and liberal entrance, also greatly attracts shippers and 
purchasers of iron ores to that point. Vessels can 
make nearly or quite two trips from Cleveland or 
Buffalo to Escanaba ill the time required to make one 
to Marquette, on Lake Superior, the only point hereto- 
fore from which iron ore was shipped. The season for 
shipping is also much longer from Escanaba, and the 
St. Mary's Eiver and canal are avoided by going there, 
and large vessels can load much heavier and deeper at 
Escanaba. 

The engines and cars for this road were contracted 



CHICAGO A2^D NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 305 

for just previous to the great rise in these articles during 
the war, on very favorable terms : the contracts for con- 
struction were let favorably also ; but labor became so 
high and inefficient, and the difficulties of construction 
through such an entire wilderness as the road traverses, 
being greater than was anticipated, considerable extra 
expenses was incurred before the road was finally 
opened in December, 1864. 

The length of the through line from Escanaba, on 
Green Bay, to Marquette, on Lake Superior, is about 
seventy-five miles — sixty -two miles of which is over the 
Peninsula Eailroad, from Escanaba to its junction with 
the Marquette Road, at the Jackson Iron Mines, at the 
village of Negaunee, and thence thirteen miles over the 
Marquette and Bay de Noquet Eailroad to Marquette, 
on Lake Superior. 

The securities of the Peninsula Road rose rapidly, 
with the increase in value of the equipment materials 
and work which had already been provided, and were 
in brisk demand for near a year before its completion, 
the stock reaching eighty and ninety cents for the dol- 
lar, and the bonds were sought for and sold at par. 
There was danger that they might pass into the hands 
of holders having interests adverse to the Northwestern, 
and again expose that Company to the hazard of losing 
the benefits of a close connection with it, as the key to 
the Lake Superior business, so important to the long 
line of road already extended in that direction. 

EflTorts were made from time to time by the North- 
western, previous to its consolidation with the Galena, 
to secure a permanent connection or consolidation with 
20 



306 BAILROADS OF THE UNITED 8TATES. 

this road, but were unsuccessfal^ tbe owners of it then 
being indisposed except at too high rates. 

Meanwhile, at the annual meeting, at the tim^ of con- 
solidation between the Galena and Northwestern Bail- 
roads, in June, 1864^ authority was conferred upon the 
Board of Directors by the stockholders to consoli- 
date with the Peninsula, if terms acceptable could be 
obtained. 

Subsequently better terms were obtained, and in 
October, 1864, after the consolidation between the Ga- 
lena and Northwestern, a consolidation was effected 
with the Peninsula Railroad Company, by an exchange 
of one-half share of the common stock and one-half 
share of the preferred stock of this Company, for one 
full share of the stock of the Peninsula Railroad Com- 
pany. 

The agreement of consolidation contained a provision, 
however, in accordance with the law of the State of 
Wisconsin, approved March 26, 1864, authorizing this 
Company to create and issue different classes of pre- 
ferred and special stock, under which provision holders 
of Peninsula Railroad stock might, if they elected so to 
do, continue to hold their Peninsula stock, and receive 
any dividends thereon which might be declared from 
the special earnings of that road, instead of exchanging 
it in the manner above stated ; and. a portion of the 
Peninsula stockholders still continue to hold their stock, 
preferring to rely upon the earnings of that road for 
dividends upon it, rather than upon the general earn- 
ings of the consolidated Company. 

Some months previous to the opening of the Penin- 
sula Railroad from Escanaba to the Iron Mines^ re- 



CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 807 

peated efforts were made and branch roads offered to 
induce the Sault St. Mary Canal Mineral Land Com- 
pany, who held a large body of superior, heavily tim- 
bered mineral lands, containing valuable iron ores, and 
situate at and near the northern termini of the Penin- 
sula Railroad, to open and work their iron mines, or to 
lease them to others who would open and work them. 
That Company, however, declined either to work or 
lease them, but, finally, determined to sell them in a 
body. 

It was of great importance to the business of the 
Peninsula Eailroad that these mines should be 
promptly and amply developed ; and just before its 
completion, parties engaged in the production or 
manufacture of iron in various parts of the United 
States and others, were induced to make the purchase 
of these mineral lands. 

Large expenses were immediately incurred by the 
new owners in the development of these new mines 
in which great progress has already been and is still 
being made. 

Branches of the Peninsula Eailroad have been ex- 
tended to these new mines, and they are so situated 
that the only outlet for their ores to market is over the 
Peninsula road, to which their supply of iron ores for 
transportation will hereafter be large, constituting, no 
doubt, one of the main sources of the business of that 
rpad. 

The temporary paralysis which the close of the war 
produced in the iron trade, prevented the " Peninsula 
Division" of the Chicago and Northwestern Eailway 
Company from opening the present season with the* 



308 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

amount of local business anticipated. Latterly, how- 
ever, it has been occupied to the extent of capacity of 
its machinery in the transportation of iron ore, and 
promises to be so occupied to the close of navigation. 

A line of steamboats is established between Green 
Bay and Escanaba, adding, in connection with the 
Peninsula road, large numbera of through passengers 
and business, both ways, to this Company's line be* 
tween Green Bay and Chicago, and promising in 
the future all that was ever expected from this connec- 
tion. 

A matter of great value and importance, in connec- 
tion with this Peninsula road, is the grants to it (and 
to an extension of it south to the Michigan State line 
at the Menominee Eiver, in the direction of Green Bay, 
about sixty miles) by Congress and by the State of 
Michigan together, of about a million of acres of land, 
if the same can be found in alternate sections, of Go- 
vernment lands and in lands of the State, within twenty 
miles pf either side of the line of the road. 

The old grant of six sections, three thousand eight 
hundred and forty acres to the mile, to the Chicago 
and Northwestern Eailroad Company, in aid of the 
extension of its line of road from Green Bay to 
the State line of Michigan, at the Menominee Biver, 
about fifty miles, and to its point of connection there 
with the Peninsula road, is still extant and valid ; and 
both these grants were extended at a recent session of 
Congress for five years from June, 1866, within which 
time, aided by these lands, the Chicago and North- 
western Eailroad Company can, if it shall think proper, 
readily and easily construct this only remaining con- 



CHICAGO AND NORTHWESTERN RAILROAD. 309 

Tiecting link from Green Bay, by way of the Menomi- 
nee Eiver, to Escanaba, about one hundred and ten 
miles, from the proceeds of bonds to be secured upon 
it, and of stock subscriptions and donations that will 
be made along the line of it. 

The report of the Hon. Wm. B. Ogden, President of 
the consolidated Company, made in October, 1865^ 
says : — 

" Notwithstanding the large increase of equipment, 
secured during the past year, this Company is still in 
great need of at least five hundred further and addi- 
tional cars. A much greater number and additional 
engines could at this time be fully and profitably em- 
ployed, and the prospect of the continuance of an 
enlarged business throughout the year is at present 
very encouraging. 

" Every month, since the first of June last, our earn- 
ings would have been increased from fifty to 'one hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars per month, and probably 
some months to a still greater sum, by additional 
machinery, sufficient to earn that increased sum ; and 
the only reason why the earnings of September, Octo- 
ber, and even November, of this year, will fall short of 
a million and more per month, if they do fail to reach 
that amount, will be because our present equipment is 
insufficient and incapable of earning more than it now 
does. 

" The earnings of this Company's roads for the past 
fiscal year, ending May 31st, 1865, exceeded, it will be 
seen, those of the previous year, two million one hun- 
dred and thirty-eight thousand nine hundred and forty- 
two dollars and thirty-five cents, being 45.69 percent. 



310 BAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

increase. The earnings for the first four months, June, 
July, August, and September of the present year, show 
a still further increase over the same months of last 
year of nine hundred and thirty thousand and eighty- 
three dollars, being 41.62 per cent., making the earn- 
ings of these four months more than twice the amount 
earned in the same months but two years since, and 
without any material additional earnings from new 
additional or extended lines of road.^ 

The equipment and rolling stock of the Company, 
in May, 1865, included one hundred and fifty-four lo- 
comotives, ninety-four passenger cars, eighty baggage 
cars, and two thousand nine hundred and eighty-seven 
freight cars. 

The earnings of the Company for two years were as 
follows : — 

Year ending May 31. Passengers. Freight, &e. Total. 

1864 . . . $1,321,819 $3,359,988 $4,^81,807 

1865 . . . 2,167,902 4,652,848 . 6,820,750 

This does not include the earnings of the Milwaukee 
Division. 

The total expenses of the Company for the jrear 
ending May 31, 1865, were six million one hundred 
and forty-one thousand eight hundred and twenty dol- 
lars, including four million two- hundred and ninety- 
five thousand four hundred and seventy-three dollars 
for operating expenses. 

The oflBicers of the consolidated Company are 
William B. Ogden, President; George L. Dunlap, 
General Superintendent ; P. H. Smith, Vice-President ; 
James E. Young, Secretary; George P. Lee, Trea- 
surer. 



THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD. 311 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD. 

The rapid development of the State of Illinois, in 
wealth and population, is owing in a great measure 
to the existence and early completion of the Illinois 
Central Eailroad. This magnificent road, for such it 
truly is, is seven hundred and eight miles long, ex- 
tending the entire length of the State, from Chicago 
to Cairo, and from Centralia to Dubuque. The road, 
after the route was surveyed and agreed upon, was 
constructed in a shorter time than is usual in a work 
of such magnitude, and it owes its rapid completion to 
the indefatigable exertions of the late Senator Douglas, 
through whose efforts Congress was prevailed upon to 
grant to the State of Illinois, in 1850, two million 
five hundred and ninety-five thousand acres of land, 
to aid in its construction. It was not without diffi- 
culty that the bUl granting these lands, valued at 
thirty millions of dollars, to the State of Illinois 
was passed by both houses of Congress. It will be 
seen, by reference to the '^ Congressional Globe" for 
the years 1848, 1849, and 1850, that the bill was 
opposed, on various grounds. The consideration, 
probably, which finally secured its passage was, that 
the lands thus granted to the State would secure the 
building of the road, and that a road thus built across 



312 BAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

the whole length of the State would secure the sale, at 
an advanced price, of all the public lands in the State. 
The public lands in the interior of the State of Illinois 
had been ia the market for many years, and although 
they were known to be rich and fertile, nobody would 
buy them, because, after the farmer had raised his 
crops, there would be no means for him to get it to 
market In one of his great speeches in the Senate, in 
favor of the bill, Senator Douglas said : " These lands 
have been in the market for about twenty-three years ; 
but they will not sell even at the usual government 
price of one dollar and a quarter per acre, because 
they are distant from any navigable stream or a mar-^ 
ket for produce. A railroad will make the lands sale- 
able even at double the usual price, because the 
improvement made by the State will make them yalo- 
able." 

All these anticipations were realized. The lands 
thus granted to the State of Illinois were made over 
to the Illinois Central Bailroad Company, upon certain 
conditions, and the road was built. The construction 
of the road, and its massive and substantial buildings, 
has probably cost thirty millions of dollars. 

The surveys for the location of t]jp road were com- 
menced June 1st, 1851, and on the 1st of January, 
1852, the entire line was located. For convenience, 
the road was divided into twelve Divisions, as fol- 
lows ; — 

MfleB. 

1st Division, from Cairo to the Big Muddy River, 60 
2d " " Big Muddy River to Centralia 52 

3d " " Centralia, to ilamsev • , 89 



THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD. 



ai3 



4tli Division, from Ramsey to Decatur 

Decatur to Bloomington 
Bloomington to La Salle 
La Salle to Freeport 
Freeport to Dunleith 
Chicago to Kankakee 
Kankakee to Urbana 
Urbana to Mattoon 
Mattoon to Centraha 



5th 




(( 


6th 




It 


7th 




it 


8th 




a 


9th 




it 


10th 




t( 


11th 




u 


12tli 




It 



Miles. 

53 
43 
61 
78 
68 
56 
72 
45 
77 



On the 15th of March, 1852, a portion of the 9th 
Division, from Chicago to Calumet, was put under con- 
tract, being sixteen miles. On the 19th of June, 1852, 
the 1st, 2d, 6th, 8th, 10th, and the remainder of the 
9th Divisions were put under contract. On the 14tli 
of October, 1852, the 3d, 4th, 5th, 7th, 11th, and 12th 
Divisions were put under contract. By the end of 
the year 1853, one hundred and thirty-two miles of 
the road had been constructed. By the end of 1854, 
four hundred and thirtv-two miles had been con- 
structed. By the end of 1855, six hundred and 
twenty-seven miles were completed ; and the remainder 
of the road was finished in 1857. The road was put in 
operation : — 

From Chicago to Calumet in June, 1852. 

La Salle to Bloomington in June, 1853. 
La Salle to Mendota in the fall of 1853. 
Chicago to Kankakee, July 4, 1854. "*' 

During the^year 1854, the road was opened from 
Chicago to Urbana, one hundred and twenty-eight 
miles ; also a considerable portion of the distance from 



tt 



tt 



tt 



314 RAILROADS OP TUB UNITED STATES. 

Cairo to Centralia, about ninety miles ; and a portion 
of the distance between Bloomington and Decatur, and 
from Freeport west. On the 28th of December, 1855, 
the last rail was laid on the main line of the road, 
about ten miles south of Yandalia, and the entire main 
line was then in operation. During the year 1855, the 
road was opened from Chicago to Mattoon, one hundred 
and seventy -three miles. In 1857, the whole line was 
completed and in operation. 

The larger portion of the rails originally laid, were 
of English or Welsh manufiicture, and although they 
cost a high price, yet they proved to be fully worth all 
that was paid for them. They wore remarkably well, 
and did excellent service. The rails that have been 
used in renewals have been principally made in Eng- 
land, and at Trenton, in New Jersey. A large amount 
of worn-out rails have been rerolled, at the rolling mills 
at Chicago. 

The principal difficulties which were encountered 
in constructing the road arose from the newness of the 
country, the few settlements near the line of the road, 
the difficulty of procuring men and of supplying them, 
and the difficulty of getting engines, cars, and iron, at 
points where they were first wanted. In order to pro- 
cure men, agents were sent to New York, New Orleans^ 
and Montreal : and in many cases the fare and expenses 
of the men were paid, in order to get them on the 
work. Flour and pork were transported in wagons^ 
over the rude country roads, seventy miles, in order to 
supply them with food. The country at that time was 
80 new that in several places it was forty miles between 



THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD. 815 

the settlements, and in one case there was only one set- 
tlement within seventy miles. 

In one case an engine was sent from New York to 
Cincinnati, and then taken on a flat-bottomed boat and 
taken down the Ohio Eiver to the mouth of Cache 
River, thence up the Cache, and landed on the track, 
ten miles north of Cairo. Another engine, sent from 
New York to Chicago, was thence taken through the 
Illinois and Michigan Canal to La Salle, and then down 
the Illinois and Mississippi Eivers to the mouth of the 
Big Muddy Eiver, south of St. Louis, thence up the 
Big Muddy to the line of the road. Other engines 
were sent by the way of St. Louis, Alton, Naples, La 
Salle, arid Galena: and in each case, of course, the 
transportation of them to the line of the road was at- 
tended with heavy expense. The cars were manufac- 
tured at Chicago, and were sent to all points on the 
road where they were needed. The rails for the track 
were purchased in England, landed at New York and 
New Orleans, brought thence to Chicago and Cairo, 
and therefrom distributed at La Salle, Naples, Galena, 
St. Louis, Alton, Dunleith, the mouth of the Big Muddy, 
and at other convenient points. 

The most expensive portion of the work was in 
crossing and cutting through the high bluflfs on each 
side of the Illinois Eiver. At this point there is a 
bridge twenty-eight hundred feet long, and seventy - 
five feet above low water. The next most expensive 
part of the work was from Cairo to the Big Muddy 
River ; and from Freeport to Galena. 

Ever since the road has been in operation, the 
Company has devoted much attention to securing a 



316 BAILBOADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

proper degree of elasticity in the track. Nothing is 
more destructive, both to the rails and the cars, than a 
perfectly hard and solid track : and all railroad tracks 
become so, unless the proper means are used to pre- 
vent it. On this road, whenever the ballast becomes 
hard and packed to such an extent as to render the 
track Tinelastic, the ballast is broken np, and the whole 
track is raised slightly, say two inches. This gives a 
new and uniform bearing to each crosstie, and renders 
the track perfectly elastic and easy. In order to keep 
a road in perfect order, this should be done every three 
or five years, depending upon the character of the bal- 
last, a portion being thus treated each year. There 
are portions of this road that are not ballasted, the na- 
ture of the soil on which the track is laid not requiring 
it. When such a road bed is dry, and the track put 
np in good condition, it is found that there is less "wear- 
ing of the rails than where the track is ballasted. This 
is due to the greater natural elasticity of the unbal- 
lasted road bed. 

By the construction of this road the vast and hither- 
to desert prairie lands of Illinois have been transformed 
into well cultivated farms, which are now, and for years 
past have been annually contributing many millions 
of bushels of grain ; and which present the prospect of 
much larger crops in future. The lands of the Com- 
pany extend on both sides of the road, in a breadth of, 
about thirty miles. They are usually well watered by 
small streams, and water is abundant Coal also is 
found in abundance at almost all points along the road. 
The rich, black soil of the country is five feet deep. 

No sooner were the lands of the Company thrown 



THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD. 317 

open to sale, than plenty of purchasers at once olBFered 
themselves, and the number of these soon rapidly in- 
creased. From August, 1854, to December 31st, 1855, 
five hundred and twenty-eight thousand eight hundred 
and sixty-three acres were sold for five million five 
hundred and ninety-eight thousand five hundred and 
seventy-seven dollars. By December 1st, 1856, eight 
hundred and nineteen thousand one hundred and thirty- 
eight acres had been sold for ten million thirty-three 
thousand four hundred and eighty-six dollars, leaving 
at that time one million seven hundred and seventy- 
five thousand eight hundred and sixty-one acres unsold. 

In 1866, the Company announced that they had sold, 
during the previous ten years, one million four hun- 
dred thousand acres, to more than twenty thousand 
actual settlers. During the year 1865, twQ hundred 
and sixty-four thousand four hundred and twenty-two 
acres were sold. Up to the present time, the sales 
have amounted to about one million seven hundred 
and fifty thousand acres, leaving about eight hundred 
and sixty thousand acres of the best and most eligible 
lands of the Company still unsold. 

But what did the United State Government gain by 
this magnificent grant of lands? The Government 
realized far more than had been promised by Senator 
Douglas. The grant to the State of Illinois was not 
of every section, but of every aUemate section. The 
alternate sections the Government reserved to itself: 
and raising the price of them from one dollar and a 
quarter to two dollars and a half per acre, threw them 
upon the market. What was the result ? The Illinois 
Central Eailroad Company was hard at work, construct- 



318 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

ing their road. It was easy to see that in a few years the 
whole condition of things in the State would be changed; 
that there would be a great highway in existence 
between the north and the south ; and that lands along 
the line of the road would be worth, not two dollars 
and a half, nor even five dollars, but ten dollars, twenty 
dollars, and even thirty dollars per acre. 

The consequence was that there was a perfect rush 
for these reserved sections of land, particularly between 
the years 1853 and 1857 ; and the Government readily 
disposed of all the land which it owned in Illinois at 
from two dollars and a half to seven dollars per acre ; 
for the price did not long remain at two dollars and a 
half. As Mr. Yates said, in a receut speech in the 
Senate: — 

"It is a well-known fact that for some of these 
reserved lands the Government received as high as 
seven dollars per acre. How was this? Why, sir, 
because this much-abused road made that half of the 
lands reserved by the Government far more valuable 
than the whole by bringing them nearer to market^ 
and by attracting an industrious and energetic popula- 
tion to purchase and settle them. By this grant the 
Government was the greatest gainer, and it got early 
purchasers for lands which for thirty years had lain 
unsought and undesirable in a wilderness prairie? 
Stately cities, a thousand prosperous villages, comfort- 
able mansions, and highly cultivated farms bave 
sprung up along the line of this railroad in the wil- 
derness prairie where before wolves howled and the 
rank grass waved untrodden. 

" It is said, however, that the Company has realised 



THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD. 319 

far more than two million dollars for these lands. 
This is true; but through whose agency? Not that 
of the Government, surely. No, sir; the Company, by 
investing millions of money and by great energy and 
Avise management, opened these lands to market and 
settlement and made them valuable. Is the United 
States, after granting these lands, and after they are 
made valuable, to set up a claim on the road on account 
of the increased value? 

"The road was located for the benefit of the State 
and the United States, and very much to the pecuniary 
prejudice of the stockholders of the Company. The 
road was, by the charter, made to run, not between 
important commercial points, such as Chicago and St. 
Louis, nor along any of ^\he lines of trade and -traffic 
running east and west, nor through the settled por- 
tions of the State, but north and south, through the 
wild and unsettled lands of the United States ; the sale,- 
settlement, and improvement of these lands being the 
chief consideration which influenced Congress to make 
the grant. At the date of the grant the settlements 
had been principally confined to the public highways 
or stage routes, and mainly to the timber lands, leav- 
ing the prairies to bloom in their native wilderness. 
Flourishing little villages and a considerably dense 
population had sprung up along these thoroughfares 
and natural channels of intercommunication, which, 
from the beginning, have furnished travel and traffic 
and most remunerative profits to the roads which have 
since been constructed along them. On the other 
hand, the Central Railroad had to build up its own 
settlements, its own towns and farms, and to create its 
own trade, travel, and business." 



320 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD: CONTINUED. 

In 1850, when the route for the railroad was sur- 
veyed, the population of the forty-nine counties 
through which it passes was three hundred and fifty- 
one thousand eight hundred and eighty-seven. In 
1865, the population of those counties had increased 
to one million one hundred and twenty-seven thou- 
sand and eighty-seven, being more than half the popula- 
tion of the entire State! 

Until within the last two or three years, the Com- 
pany did not require any payment to be made, for 
lands sold by them, during the first two years ; a long 
credit was given, and interest on the payments was 
computed at only 3 per cent. The prices of the 
lands varied then from five dollars to twenty-five 
dollars per acre ; as they do now from eight dollars to 
thirty dollars. Interest for the payments of the first 
two years was paid upon making the contract. The 
first instalment of the purchase money, one-fifth of the 
whole amount, became due at the expiration of two 
years from the time the contract was made, and an- 
other fifth at the close of each subsequent year, with 
8 per cent, interest on the unpaid instalment^ so that 
the last instalment became due at the end of six 
years. At present the Company permit a cash pay- 



THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD. 321 

meat of one-quarter of the whole amount of the pur- 
chase money to be paid at onqe, on making the contract 
together with interest at 6 per cent on the remain- 
ing three instalments due. At the end of the first 
year, another quarter of the whole amount of the 
purchase money must be paid, with ijiterest for one 
year on the remaining one half of the whole pur- 
chase money. At the end of the second year, the pur- 
chaser must pay another quarter of the whole amount, 
with interest on the sole remaining one quarter. At 
the end of the third year, the purchaser pays the, re- 
maining one quarter of the purchase money, without 
interest, and the Company gives him a deed in fee sim- 
ple for his land. 

• 

In the year 1857, the Illinois Central Railroad Com- 
pany, overwhelmed by a floating debt of several mil- 
lions of dollars, was compelled to make an assignment. 
At that time the interest of the funded debt largely 
exceeded the receipts from the sales of land and 
from the earnings of the railroad. The financial 
crisis, then prevalent, and which produced so much 
and so great distress at the west, aggravated by 
a short crop of grain, deprived . the owners of the 
Company's lands of the means of meeting the pay- 
ments due on their notes ; land sales fell ofi) traffic 
declined, and altogether the prospect for the future was 
about as gloomy as can be imagined* But, fortunately 
for the Company, its interests were in the hands of 
men whom no difficulties could discourage. They bent 
all their energies to the task of saving the road and 
restoring its former prosperity, and success at last 
crowned their eflforts. 
21 



322 BAILBOADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Three years elapsed, and a wonderfal change had 
been wrought in the condition of the affairs of the 
Company. Not only had the former prosperity of the 
road been restored, but the entire floating debt of the 
Company had been paid. The whole history of rail- 
roads, in Europe and America, does not fiumish so 
striking an example of misfortune so uobly overcome, 
or so encouraging an illustration of the results of 
energy and indomitable perseverance. By the year 
1860 the Illinois Central Eailroad Company could and 
did face the world, with all their obligations fairly 
met, and without a dollar of floating debt. Its condition 
was as follows : — 

Cb. 

By cost of railroad $27,000,000 

** land notes in hand 12,598,000 

" Talue of 1,334,727 acres of land unsoid, at |15 . 20,020,905 

Total 59,618,905 

Db. 

To Capital stock .... $15,656,000 
" Funded debt .... 15,672,000 
" Floating debt .... none 

" Ultimate profit .... 28,417,000~$59,804,obo 

In other words, it was now plainly evident that, as 
had been foreseen by the early promoters of the enter- 
prise, the stockholders would eventually get all their 
money back, and would also own a magnificent rail- 
road, seven hundred miles long, besides. The land 
notes above referred to, amounting to twelve million 
five hundred and ninety-eight thousand dollars^ were 
all secured by mortgage on the lands sold ; and the 
Company, at this time, could have made money by 
foreclosing the mortgages, and resuming possession of 



THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD. 



323 



the land, in cases when the notes were not met at 
maturity. The Company, however, have always found 
it good policy to pursue an indulgent course towards 
the persons who have settled on their lands. Two 
good crops enable a farmer in Illinois to pay for his 
land, and sooner or later all these notes were paid, with 
interest. 

The above estimate of the land unsold in 1860, one 
million three hundred and thirty-four thousand seven 
hundred and twenty seven acres, at fifteen dollars per 
acre, was rather less than the average price at which 
lands were then selling. As these lands became settled 
too, they became of course more valuable. The Presi- 
dent of the Company, in his report in 1860, recom- 
mended the Company gradually to advance the price, 
according to the following sliding scale, which makea 
their aggregate value twenty-seven million six hun- 
dred and thirty-six thousand three hundred and fifty, 
instead of twenty million twenty thousand nine hun- 
dred and five dollars, as above estimated : — 



200,000 acres to be sold at $13 



200,000 


(( 


ti 


it 


15 


• 200,000 


(( 


tl 


u 


16 


200,000 


It 


u 


tl 


18 


200,000 


ti 


tl 


tl 


20 


100,000 


(( 


u 


tt 


25 


100,000 


(( 


tt 


It 


30 


100,000 


(( 


it 


it 


40 


34,727 


u 


u 


ti 


50 



1,334,727 



$2,600,000 
3,000,000 
3,200,000 
3,600,000 
4,000,000 
2,500,000 
3,000,000 
4,000,000 
1,736,360 

$27,636,350 



The gross earnings of the road for the year 1860 
were two million seven hundred and twenty-one 
thousand five hundred and ninety dollars ; the operat- 



324 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES: 



ing expenses were one million six hundred and ninety- 
three thousand four hundred and three dollars ; and 
the net earnings were one million twenty-eight thou- 
sand one hundred and eighty-seven dollars. Oat of 
this the State tax of one hundred and seventy-seven 
thousand five hundred and fifty-seven dollars was 
paid, which left eight hundred and fifty thousand six 
hundred and thirty dollars as the clear gains of the 
road for the year. 

The following table will show the amount, for six 
years, of the interest paid on construction bonds, of 
the net revenue from the road and of the revenue 
from the lands : — 



Year. 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 



The history of the road, since 1860, has been one 
continued scene of prosperity. The lands of the Com- 
pany have been steadily sold, and every year thou- 
sands of new acres have been brought under enlight- 
tened cultivation. New settlements have sprung up 
all along the line of the road ; and churches, schools 
and academies have everywhere been built. Every 
year, too, a better class of people come and settle upon 
the Company's lands : in many cases men of education 
and refinement, who bring with them not only wealth 
but all the modern improvements in agriculture. 

The regular business of the road steadily increased 
year after year. The earnings of the road, from freight 



Interest paid on 


Net earnings 


Cash received 


coDstraction bonds. 


of road. 


in land depa*t 


. $1,099,723 


527,952 


234,439 


. 1,095,187 


938,436 


422,811 


. 1,081,318 


391,473 


791,718 


. 1,110,610 


424,618 


588,237 


. 1,055,085 


492,765 


523,310 


. 1,026,507 


850,765 


653,312 



THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD, 325 

and passengers alone, in 1863, were over four and a 
half millions of dollars ; in 186A, they were nearly six 
and a half millions, and in 1865, they were over seven 
millions of dollars. In 1866, as we shall see presently, 
the net earnings of the road exceeded those of 1865. 

The operations of the road during the year 1866 * 
were highly satisfactory, enabling the Company to pay 
two dividends to the stockholders, of five per cent, each 
in February and August, amounting, with the govern- 
ment tax, to nearly two and a half millions of dollars 
(namely, $2,459,679). The earnings of the road for the 
year 1866 were over six and a half millions of dollars 
(namely, 6,546,741). The operating expenses were four 
million three hundred and seventy-one thousand two 
hundred and ninety-four dollars, being six hundred 
and thirty-four thousand nine hundred and ninety dol- 
lars less than in 1865. The net earnings for the year 
were over two millions of dollars (namely, $2,175,447), 
which is a slight increase over the net earnings of 1865, 
which were two million one hundred and seventy-four 
thousand nine hundred and twenty-four. The income 
from passengers, during the year 1866, was nearly two 
millions of dollars (namely, $1,&87,705). The income 
from this source would have been much greater, had. 
it not been for the fact that the Southera States have 
not yet recovered from the ravages of war sufficiently 
to give to the road the business which must, in time, 
come from that source. Sadly desolated by the war, 
and by the evils that the war brought in its train, with 
its system of labor utterly disorganized, with a very 
general disinclination on the part of the negroes to 
work, and with great distress prevailing in consequence, 



326 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

it is not strange that the reconstraction of southern 
industry has been so slow that the vast and hitherto 
fruitful country below the southern terminus of the 
road has contributed, since the war, little or nothing to 
the resources of the Company. It is much to be hoped 
that the lapse of a year or two will change this for the 
better. 

The income for freight, during the year 1866, was 
four million three hundred and fourteen thousand one 
hundred and sixty dollars, showing a healthy growth 
in the local business of the road, the earnings from 
freight in 1865 having been four million two hundred 
and forty-one thousand one hundred and seventy-nine 
dollars, being an increase for 1866 of seventy-two 
thousand nine hundred and eighty-eight dollars. 

During the year 1866, the Company laid six thou- 
sand tons of new and re-rolled rails in the track. The 
equipment of the road was increased by the addition 
of two new locomotives, seven passenger coaches, and 
one hundred and fifty cars for the transportation of 
cattle, built at the workshops of the Company at Chi- 
cago at a cost of two hundred and twenty-five thousand 
four hundred and seventy-four dollars. A new wharf 
boat has been built at Cairo, and is found to be a great 
convenience. At one place on the road, where the 
grade was eighty-five feet to the mile, it has been 
reduced, by cutting through solid rock, to forty feet to 
the mile, at a cost of fifty-six thousand three hundred 
and seventy-four dollars. The whole of the track has 
been carefully examined, repairs made wherever 
needed, and the whole road is now in better condition 
than ever before. 

The Company commenced the year 1867 with a 



THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD. 327 

balance on hand of over two millions of dollars (namely, 
$2,029,319), out of which the semi-annual dividend of 
Feb. 1st, 1867, has since been paid to the stockholders, 
leaving a balance on hand in March, 1867, of eight 
hundred thousand dollars. The dividend of 5 per cent, 
in August, 1867, was also paid as usual. 

The amount of care and attention which is bestowed 
upon the condition of the road may be inferred from 
the fact that, during the year 1866, the sum of one mil- 
lion two hundred and ninety-nine thousand nine hun- 
dred and sixty-three dollars was expended on the item 
of " Maintenance of Way," which consists in keeping 
the track in order, &c. 

The number of locomotive engines now in use by the 
Company is one hundred and fifty ; number of passen- 
ger cars seventy-seven; besides seven sleeping cars; 
number of baggage cars thirty -five ; number of freight 
cars three-thousand four hundred and eighty-seven. 

The sales of the Company's land, during the year 
1866, amounted to one hundred and fifty-eight thousand 
acres. This was sold to two thousand two hundred 
and eighteen different persons, at an average of ten 
dollars and sixty-five cents per acre, and amounting in 
the aggregate to over a million and a half of dollars 
(namely, $1,683,694). The total number of acres now 
remaining unsold is eight hundred and sixty-eight 
thousand eight hundred and forty-one, geographically 
situated as follows : — 

On Main Line, 

Between Cairo and the Ohio and Mississippi R. R. . 313,987.78 

Between the Ohio and Mississippi R. R. and Decatur . 95,384.77 

Between Decatur and Dixon ..... 85,398.30 

Between Dixon and Dunleith 33,962.33 



328 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

On Chicago Branch, 

Between the Ohio and Mississippi R. R. and Tolono . 85,903.47 
Between Tolono and Chicago 254,204.82 

A considerable quantity of these lands, it will be 
eeen, lies between Chicago and Centralia, in the rich 
and populous counties of Kankakee, Ford, Iroquois, 
Vermilion, Piatt, and Champaign, in the centre of the 
most favored climate in the State, and almost at the 
Tery door of the great market of Chicago. For rais- 
ing grain and cattle, these lands present unsurpassed 
advantages, and every year these advantages are becom- 
ing better appreciated. The impression long prevailed 
that Illinois was not adapted to the raising of fruit ; 
but experience has demonstrated the contrary. Young 
orchards of apples, pears, and peaches, which wene set 
out only a few years ago, now produce every year the 
most abundant crops, and the fruit is of the finest qual- 
ity and of the most delicious flavor. Nor is this all. 
Strawberries, grapes, and raspberries were formerly 
not cultivated in Illinois, simply because the proper 
mode of cultivating them was not understood. Enter- 
prising men, however, have^ taken the matter in hand, 
and have demonstrated that with the proper care and 
attention, the finest flavored and the largest straw- 
berries and raspberries, as well as grapes, can be raised 
in all parts of the State. 

This business, however, is yet in its infancy : and the 
demand for these fine fruits in Chicago always exceeds 
the supply. The business of raising fruit for Chicago, 
however, has already assumed so much importance 
that special fruit trains are now run on the Illinois 
Central Eailroad to meet its requirements. Persons, 



THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD. 329 

therefore, who are hesitating whether to buy a farm ia 
New Jersey or ia Illinois, should not forget these facts. 
A little farm in New Jersey, of only ten acres, if it is 
worth anything at all, cannot be bought for less than 
a thousand dollars. A farm of forty acres in Illinois, 
on the line of the Illinois Central Railroad, with the 
land incomparably richer than in New Jersey, can be 
bought for five hundred dollars, in four annual pay- 
ments. On this farm can be raised every kind of fruit 
and vegetables that can be grown in New Jersey, in the 
same perfection, and which can be sold at equally good 
prices at Chicago. 

A farm of fifty acres, of the rich lands of the Com- 
pany, can be bought for eight hundred dollars : or a 
farm of one hundred acres for ten hundred dollars. 
On these larger farms in Illinois, any man who is pru- 
dent, industrious, and intelligent, cannot fail to grow 
rich in a few years. 

The following statement shows the total earnings of 
the road, the amount of sales of land, and the operating 
expenses, for the last four years : — 





Total earnings. 


Land sales. 


Operating expenses. 


1863 . 


. $4,636,827 




$2,151,786 


1864 . 


. 6,403,034 


$2,939,733 


3,460,739 


1865 . 


. 7,264,010 


• 2,191,630 


4,509,794 


1866 . 


. 6,621,741 


1,683,691 


8,944,218 



The officers of the Company are : President, John 
M. Douglas ; Land Commissioner, John B. Calhoun ; 
Treasurer, Thomas E. Walker; General Superintendent, 
Marvin Hughitt; General Passenger Agent, W. P. 
Johnson. 



330 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATESL 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

CHICAGO AND ST. LOUIS RAILROAD. 
TOLEDO, WABASH, AND WESTERN RAILROAD. 

The Chicago and St. Louis Railroad presents a 
most remarkable illustration of the good efiects of 
proper railroad management. It extends from Chi- 
cago to St. Louis, a distance of two hundred and 
eighty miles, and the running time between the two 
cities is fourteen hours. It encounters two powerful 
rivals in the Illinois Central and the Chicago, Bur- 
lington, and Quincy roads, as will be seen by the ex- 
amination of a railroad map. And yet, so admirable 
has the management of the road been, that its local 
freight business has always exceeded the capacity of 
its rolling stock. The latter has recently been 
largely increased. The track of this road is one of 
the best in the country. The enormous traffic that 
passes over it was found to wear out the ordinary iron 
rails in a very short time. The Directors, therefore, 
have begun to relay the track with steel rails> and in 
the mean time are using iron rails of an improved 
construction. The rolling stock now in use on the 
road includes seventy locomotives, forty passenger 
cars, and twelve hundred freight cars. The Company, 
in connection with the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and 
Chicago Eailroad Company, is about to erect a 



CHICAGO, ST. LOUIS, ETC., RAILROADS. 331 

handsome and commodious passenger depot at Chi- 
cago, near Madison Street bridge, in the West Divi- 
sion. 

The total earnings of the road in 1865 were nearly 
four millions of dollars (namely, $3,840,092), of which 
over a million and a half of dollars were from passen- 
gers (namely, $1,604,188). The entire expenses of 
the road were two millions of dollars (namely, 
$2,006,574), leaving the net earnings of the year 
nearly two millions of dollars (namely, $1,833,517). 
The total income of the road, during the year 1865, 
including these net earnings, was two million six 
hundred and nineteen thousand seven hundred and 
ninety-two dollars, and the total disbursements one 
million three hundred and twenty-eight thousand 
three hundred and ninety-four dollars, leaving as the 
net balance on hand over a million of dollars (namely, 
$1,291,398). The total earnings of the road in 1866 
were three million six hundred and ninety-five thou- 
sand one hundred and fifty -three dollars ; and the total 
expenses two million two hundred and ten thousand five 
hundred and thirty-six dollars, leaving the net earn- 
ings one million four hundred and eighty-four thousand 
six hundred and sixteen dollars. The total income 
of the road, including these earnings, was two million 
seven hundred and seventy-six thousand and fourteen 
dollars, and the total disbursements one million two 
hundred and seventy-eight thousand and fifty-nine 
dollars, leaving the net balance on hand of one million 
four hundred and ninety-seven thousand nine hundred 
and fifty -five dollars. Such a result of two years' 
work may well be considered gratifying by the stock- 



332 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

holders, particularly when thej realize the splendid 
condition at present of the track, road-bed, and equip- 
ment of the road. The present officers are as fol- 
lows : — 

T. B. Blackstone, President; Bobt. Hale, General 
Superintendent ; W. M. Larrabee, Secretary and Trea- 
surer, 

The Toledo, Wabash, and Western Railboad. 
— This is one of the greatest railroads in the western 
country. It is composed of the Toledo and Wabash 
Railroad, the Great Western Railroad, the Quincy 
and Toledo Railroad, and the Illinois and Southern 
Iowa Railroad, which were consolidated and merged 
into one, July 1st, 1865. The present Company is 
operating a great, direct, through line of railroad 
commencing at Toledo, in Ohio, and terminating at 
Quincy, Illinois, with branches to Naples and Keokuk, 
making the entire length of road operated, five hun- 
dred and twenty miles. The capital stock of the Ck>m- 
pany amounts to twenty millions of dollars. 

The entire revenues of the road, for the eighteen 
months ending Dec. 31, 1866, amount to five mil- 
lion seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars; and 
the operating expenses to four million two hundred 
and ninety-eight thousand dollars; leaving the net 
earnings during this period to be nearly a million and 
a half of dollars (namely, $1,451,971). The number 
of locomotives in use upon the road is one hundred 
and two, number of passenger cars forty-seven, num- 
ber of freight cars, one thousand and forty. 

The Company is at present engaged in the oons^ruc- 



CHICAGO, ST. LOUIS, ETC., RAILROADS* 333 

» 

tion of an iron railroad bridge across the Mississippi 
River at Quincy. It is expected that this bridge will 
be ready for the passage of trains befof e the close of 
the year 1867. The Company have also contracted 
for the construction of another railroad bridge across 
the Mississippi River, at Keokuk. The President 
says, in his report : " The accomplishment of this im- 
portant undertaking, the success of which is already 
quite assured, ))laces our line without competition or 
rivalry in direct railway connection * with the Des 
Moines Valley Railroad, thereby affording us easy 
and favorable access to the vast grain and stock busi- 
ness of Central and Northern Iowa, one of the most 
productive" and greatest wheat growing regions of the 
west. 

During the past year, the Company have expended 
three millions of dollars in improving their road and 
in adding to its equipment. Sixty-one miles of en- 
tirely new track have been laid, twenty -one new first- 
class locomoti ves have been purchased, and six elegant 
passenger coaches have been built, at the Company's 
shopB. Four new passenger depots have been built, 
and three large freight buildings. Several new 
bridges have been built, besides those over the Mis- 
sissippi River ; among them is a wrought iron bridge 
over the Wea River, west of Lafayette, in Indiana, at 
a cost of fifty thousand dollars. 

The President's Report says : — 

"The Elevators used by our Company at Toledo, 
with a storage capacity of one million four hundred and 
fifty-two thousand bushels, are now in good repair and 
efiicient working condition, and their present manage- 



334 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES, 

ment seems to secure the entire confidence and approba- 
tion of all doing business with them. Upon the comple- 
tion of the track now in process of building through Ele- 
vator ' No. 3/ the unloading facilities will be fully equal 
to two hundred and fifty oars daily, which, in emerg- 
encies, can be increased to four hundred daily, thns 
assuring us against delays and detentions in times of 
a great pressure of business." 

The machine shops of the Company at Toledo are 
very extensive, and are admirably managed. All the 
necessary repairs to cars and locomotives are done 
here, and the shops turn out, besides, two new fireight 
cars daily. Four new and elegantly arranged sleeping 
cars were put upon the route in the spring of 1867. 

The officers of the Company are Azariab Boody, 
President; Warren Colburn, Vice-President; E. A. 
Chapin, General Superintendent ; John N. Drummond, 
Secretary and Treasurer. 



CHICAGO, ROCK ISLAND, ETC., RAILROADS.* 335 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

CHICAGO, ROCK ISLAND, AND PACIFIC RAILROAD. 
CHICAGO, BURLINGTON, AND QUINCY RAILROAD. 

The Chicago and Rock Island Railroad was one 
of the earliest roads completed from Chicago to the 
west. It extends from Chicago to Rock Island on the 
Mississippi River, which it crosses on a fine bridge. 
The distance is one hundred and eighty-two miles. It- 
owes its construction, and the success of its early ma- 
nagement, particularly up to the year 1860, to the 
energy, enterprise, and liberality of Henry Farnum, 
Esq., the former Pr.esident of the Company. The road 
is constructed in the best possible manner, and its » 
equipment and rolling stock are not surpassed by that 
of any road in the western country. The passenger 
depot of the Company, at Chicago, is at the corner of 
Van Buren and Sherman Streets, and is one of the 
finest railroad buildings in the country. 

The Chicago and Rock Island Railroad was virtually 
completed as early as the year 1854, and was in full 
operation in 1855. It runs through a very rich and 
fertile portion of the State of Illinois, passing through 
the flourishing towns of Joliet, La Salle, and Bureau. 
These were all small villages at the time the road was 
laid out, but their growth was very rapid immediately 
after the road went into operation. Many other settle- 



336 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

ments also sprung up along the line of the- road, and 
liave since grown to be large and flourishing towns. 
But it was in the improvement of the country along 
the route of the road, that the change was most marked 
and gratifying. Much of the land, especially between 
La Salle and Bock Island, was still uncultivated at the 
time when the road was completed. But it no longer 
remained so. Hundreds of industrious and enterpris- 
ing men at once settled themselves on farms near the 
line of the road, where the land, although cheap, was 
of unsurpassed fertility, and at once devoted all their 
energies to the raising of wheat and cattle. 

In a short time every farm along the line of the road, 
and for miles on each side of it, was under a high state 
of cultivation. The result of this state of things was soon 
apparent in the increased business of the railroad. 
From the year 1856 to the year 1861, the receipts of 
wheat at Chicago, over this road, continued to increase 
. rapidly, and finally became enormous in amount. 

By the year 1857, the Mississippi and Missouri Rail- 
road, beginning iat Davenport, opposite Bock Island, 
had been extended to Iowa City. It has since been 
completed to Fort Des Moines, on the Des Moines 
River, one hundred and fifty miles west of the Missis- 
sippi River. The whole of this road is in progress to 
the Missouri River, and will probably be completed to 
Council Bluf& in a few months. The road will "bud run 
and worked by the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific 
Company, in pursuance of a contract to that effect. 
The latter Company recently advanced half a million 
of dollars to the Mississippi and Missouri Company, to 



CHICAGO, ROCK ISLAND, ETC., RAILROADS. 337 

aid the latter in the construction of their road to the 
Missouri Eiver. 

The increasing prosperity of the Chicago and Eock 
Island Eailroad Company, for the last six years,. is 
mainly due to the energy and enterprise of Charles 
W. Durant, the President, and John F. Tracy, the 
Vice-President of the Company. The latter gentleman 
particularly, living at Chicago, and devoting his per- 
sonal attention to the interests of the road in all its 
details, has had the satisfaction to see, as the result of 
his labors, a steady improvement in the condition of 
the affairs of the Company, year after year. 

The Company are the owners of a large tract of land 
about three miles west of Chicago, on which they are 
erecting this summer very extensive buildings for the 
use of the road. There will be a machine shop three 
hundred and thirty-six feet long, a blacksnaith shop two 
hundred and fifty -two feet long, a boiler shop ninety- 
two feet long, and engine-house of two hundred and 
seventy-eight feet in diameter, a car shop two hundred 
and.fifty-two feet long, and a painting house one hun- 
dred and two feet long. In these buildings constant 
employment will be given to six hundred men. 

The earnings of the Eock Island Eailroad for the 
year ending March 31, 1866, were three million one 
hundred and fifty-four thousand two hundred and 
thirty ;six dollars, and the operating expenses one mil- 
lion seven hundred and eleven thousand four hundred 
and fifty-five dollars, leaving one million four hun- 
dred and forty-two thousand seven hundred and 
eighty-one dollars, as the net earnings of the road. 
Various payments, however, amounting to one million, 
22 



338 BAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

one hundred and nine thousand and ninety -nine dol- 
lars, reduced the net earnings to three bandred and 
thirty-three thousand six hundred and eighty-two 
dollars, which is considered in every way satisfactory. 
The President of the Company is Charl^ W. Du- 
rant, Esq. ; Vice-President, John F. Tracy, Esq. 

Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Bailboad. — 
This railroad, one of the most important roads of the 
west, and at the same time one of the most wealthy, is 
comparatively unknown at the east, except among rail- 
road men. The reader "will presently see that it 
deserves to be as well known as any railroad mentioned 
in this volume. The road extends from Chicago, in a 
general southwest direction, to Galesbnrg, where it 
forks. One branch reaches the Mississippi Rrver at 
Burlington, and the other at Quincy. At Quincy, 
after crossing the Mississippi Eiver, the road makes 
connection with the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad, 
which extends from Quincy to the town of St. Joseph 
on the Missouri River. 

At Burlington, after crossing the Mississippi River, 
the road makes connection with the Burlington and 
Missouri Railroad, a road designed to extend from 
Burlington on the Mississippi River to Council Bluffs 
on the Missouri. The latter road is now completed to 
a distance of one hundred and thirty-two miles west of 
Burlington, which is fifty-seven miles west of the 
station marked Ottumwa, on the railroad maps. This 
one hundred and thirty-two miles of the Burlingfon 
and Missouri Railroad runs through the richest and 
most fertile part of Iowa, a part of that State which is 



CHICAGO, ROCK ISLAND, ETC., RAILROADS. 33S 

rapidly increasing in population. The business to 
and from this part of Iowa passes over the Chicago, 
Burlington, and Quincy Eailroad alone, and is, there- 
fore, of great importance to it. It is generally through 
business bn the latter road, between Burlington and 
Chicago, and is therefore of a very valuable nature. 

The Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad, although a 
new road, is already somewhat known. It extends 
through a very rich and fertile portion of the State of 
Missouri, and its local freight traffic has increased 
amazingly during the last eighteen months. During 
the last year, particularly, it has poured a vast stream 
of business upon the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy 
Eailroad, draining, for this purpose, fully one-third of 
the State of Missouri of its most valuable products. 
It was to secure such rich traffic as this that the Chi- 
cago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad was built. 

But what shall we say of the country through which 
the latter road itself passes ? Starting from Chicago, 
the road passes through the counties of Cook, Du 
Page, Kane, Kendall, De Kalb, La Salle, Bureau, 
Henry, Knox, Warren, Henderson, McDonough, Han- 
cock, Adams, Peoria, and Fulton. If the reader 
will cast his eye over that portion of the State of Illi- 
nois, he will see that it comprises the very best farm- 
ing land in the State. It is in these counties, and in 
those through which the Illinois Central Railroad runs 
that the immense crops of wheat and corn are raised 
that have made that State so celebrated. Coal 
also abounds in the counties that we have named, of 
the very best quality. The engines on the Chicago, 
Burlington, and Quincy road are mostly run by coal. 



340 RAILBOADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

On the line of the road many cities and large towns 
have grown up. 

At Quincj, a city of twenty thousand inhabitants, 
the railroad Company has boats constructed like the 
Steamer Baltimore, at Havre de Grace, to -transmit 
loaded cars across the Mississippi River without deten- 
tion or the breaking of bulk. This ingenious con- 
trivance greatly shortens the time of transporting grain 
to market and in getting quick returns of cash for it; 
and has largely increased the business of the Com- 
pany. For example, a train of freight cars is loaded 
with wheat raised in Missouri at St. Joseph, or at 
Cameron, or at La Clede, one hundred or two hundred 
miles west of Quincy, and four hundred miles west of 
Chicago. It is of great importance that it should reach 
Chicago as soon as possible. On arriving at Quincy, 
instead of unloading the cars and transshipping the 
grain the cars are run directly on board of these large 
ferry boats, the train is quickly made up again on 
the eastern side of the river, and it starts off for Chi- 
cago without having been delayed a single hour. 

At Aurora, another city on the line of the Chicago, 
Burlington, and Quincy Railroad, of twelve thousand 
inhabitants, the Company have their machine shops and 
workshops, and employ a large number of men. The 
sum of six hundred thousand dollars was paid out 
there for work and material, during the year 1866. 
At Galesburg, also, the Company have very extensive 
works. 

During the year 1866 a large addition was made to 
the equipment and rolling stock of the Company, con- 
sisting of six locomotives, eight passenger coaches, two 



CHICAGO, ROCK ISLAND, ETC., RAILROADS. 341 

elegant sleeping cars, and one hundred and thirty-one 
freight cars. During this year, too, fifty-three miles of 
the track have been relaid with new and re-roUed iron, 
being about one-eighth of the whole track. 

The Ohicagc^ Burlington, and Quincy Eailroad was 
laid out and surveyed in the year 1853. The work of 
construction was commenced in 1854, and in 1855, the 
road was completed according to the original design, 
namely, from Galesburg to the junction of the Galena 
Eoad, thirty miles west of Chicag<j, a distance of one 
hundred and forty miles. From the Junction to Chi- 
cago, the cars of .the Company were run over the track 
of the Galena Railroad. In 1856 the road was extended 
to Burlington ; in 1857 the branch to Peoria was com- 
pleted ; and in 1858 the road was finished to Quincy. 
In 1860, the Company constructed a track of their own, 
from Chicago to Aurora, forty miles, and the route by 
way of the junction was thenceforth abandoned. The 
whole road is nearly four hundred miles long, namely, 
from Chicago to Quincy, two hundred and sixty-five 
miles; from Galesburg to Burlington, forty-five miles; 
from Peoria to Galesburg fifty-three miles ; from Lewis- 
ton to Yates City, thirty miles, total three hundred and 
ninety-three miles. Four passenger trains leave Chi- 
cago daily, for the west, over this road, starting .from 
the depot of the Illinois Central Railroad, at the foot of 
Lake Street. 

The present equipment of the road includes one 
hundred and twelve locomotives, fifty-four passenger 
coaches, twenty-five baggage cars, and two thousand 
freight cars. This equipment, although large, is inade- 
quate to the business of the road, and will be greatly 



84:2 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

increased this year. There is now building for the 
Company eight new locomotives, twelve passenger 
coaches, and two hundred freight cars, which will be 
added to the rolling stock of the road before the close 
of the present year. During the year 1866, the num- 
ber of passengers who passed over the road was nearly 
a million (namely, 939,201). The earnings of the road 
during the year 1866 were over six millions of dollars^ 
of which one million seven hundred and fifty-seven 
thousand three hundred and eighty-eight dollars were 
from passengers, and four million four hundred and 
eighteen thousand dollars were from freight ; total^ six 
million one hundred and seventy-five thousand "five 
hundred and fifty-three dollars; while the net earn- 
ings were nearly three millions of dollars (namely, 
2,799,435). The capital stock of the Company now 
amounts to over ten millions of dollars (namely, 
10,193,010). 

The officers of the Company are : James F. Joy, 
President ; Robert Harris, General Superintendent; H. 
Hitchcock, Assistant Superintendent; A. N. Towne, 
Assistant Superintendent ; Samuel Powell, General 
Ticket Agent; E. E. Wadsworth, General Freight 
Agent. 



NEW ORLEANS, JACKSON, AND G. N. RAILROAD. 343 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

RAILROADS IN THE SOUTHERN STATES. 
NEW ORLEANS, JACKSON, AND GREAT NORTHERN RAIL- 
ROAD. 

Railroads in the Southern States. — The citi- 
zens of Charleston and Savannah were quick to appre- 
ciate the importance of connecting their harbors with 
the productive districts of the interior, by railroads ; 
and when these had penetrated their own States, the 
line, of equal importance to both, was extended through 
Georgia into Tennessee, connecting, in 1849, Chatta- 
nooga with those cities. All these advances into the 
valleys watered by the branches of the Mississippi, 
affected the cities near the Gulf of Mexico ; and New 
Orleans and Mobile hastened forward the completion 
of the lines which, in the early years of American 
railroads, they had projected for securing to themselves 
the trade of these rich valleys. From Mobile, a road 
directed towards the mouth of the Ohio was completed 
into Mississippi : and from New Orleans, through the 
central part of Mississippi, and across Tennessee and 
Kentucky, the Ohio Eiver was reached at Paducah, a 
few miles above its mouth, 

Eailroad operations in South Carolina were com* 
menoed in 1829, on a road designed to connect Charles- 
ton with Hamburg on the Savannah Eiver. Six miles 



344 * RAILROADS OF THE UinTED STATES. 

were completed from Charleston that year. It is a fact 
worthy of remark, that, before the use of locomotives 
was established in Great Britain, and before they were 
even known in the United States, the directors of this 
road in South Carolina determined, under the advice 
of their engineer, Mr. Horatio Allen, to make locomo- 
tive engines exclusively their motive power. Their 
road was so constructed as to be wholly dependent 
upon locomotives, beiiig built, often for miles together, 
upon piles, and often at great height from the ground. 

In the winter of 1829-30, Mr. C. E. Detmold made 
the drawings of the first American steam locomotive, 
which was planned by Mr. E. L. Miller, of Charleston, 
and constructed by the Kembles of New York. It 
was placed on the road which has just been described in 
the summer of 1830. It was a small, four-wheeled 
engine, with upright boiler, the flames circulating 
around the water flues. It worked successfully for 
two years, when it exploded, and was rebuilt with a 
flue boiler, the other parts having been uninjured by 
the explosion. 

On this road was introduced, in 1831, for the first 
time on any railroad, either in Europe or the United 
States, the important arrangement of two four-wheeled 
trucks for locomotives and long passenger cars. These 
were built from plans designed by Mr. Horatio Allen 
in 1830; and with no essential change, his system of 
double-truck running-gear, including, the application 
of pedestals to the springs, has been ever since adopted 
upon all the roads in the United States. 

Virginia, seeking the trade of the same region, also 
reached Tennessee by the road from Bichmond, through 



NEW ORLEANS, JACKSON, AND G. N. RAILROAd! 345 

Lynchburg to Knoxville and Chattanooga, whence the 
western line, already completed to Memphis on the 
Mississippi, crossed the Mississippi Railroad at Grand 
Junction on the Southern line of Tennessee, and with 
this made the communication complete from Alexan- 
dria, Norfolk, and Richmond to New Orleans. The 
connection between the cities on the Atlantic Coast was 
completed soon afterwards, by independent railroads, 
planned originally from one city to the next. Between 
Portland in Maine, and Philadelphia, several nearly 
parallel railroads were afterwards constructed. 

During the period between the years 1850 and 1860, 
the Southern States manifested remarkabie vigor in 
the prosecution of all public enterprises, and especially 
in the construction of railroad?. Virginia particularly, 
threw herself into the work of extending her railroads, 
with great energy ; and during the period named, she 
nearly trebled the extent of her existing railroads, and 
increased her railroad investments seven fold. At the 
same time Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi competed 
with each other in spirited manifestations of railroad 
progress. 

Th\is Macon and Atlanta became railroad centres of 
considerable importance. At Macon, trains arrived 
daily from Savannah on the east and Montgomery on 
the west ; from Atlanta and Tennessee on the north, 
and from the southern part of Georgia. At Atlanta, 
also, trains arrived daily from Charleston on the east, 
from Knoxville and Memphis on the north and west> 
and from Savannah and Montgomery on the south. 
The prosperity of these cities was built up, in a good 
degree, by the increasing* business of all these rail- 



346 • RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

roads, and when the war broke out, in 1861, all the 
roads were doing an excellent business, and these two 
cities were on the highroad to advancement How 
much they suflfered during the war has never yet 
been fully realized ; but the calamities that swept over 
the south reduced hundreds of wealthy persons to 
poverty. 

Since the close of the war, and since the southern 
railroads have again got into operation, they have re- 
covered, in some measure, from the shock of war. 
The citizens, in spite of their reverses, have moved 
with commendablo public spirit in reconstructing 
those- of their buildings that were destroyed, and in 
restoring their cities to that degree of elegance which 
was so marked a feature before the war. The editor 
of the "Macon Telegraph" recently visited Atlanta, 
and he thus speaks of matters connected with rail- 
roads there : — 

'^Atlanta has risen as if by magic from the desola- 
tion and ashes of war. There has been nothing like it in 
the past, and the matchless energy that has thus spoken 
a large city, with massive and costly blocks for busi- 
ness and. every necessary public building on a grand 
scale, into sudden existence, is passing all* comprehen- 
sion. Such enterprise need not stagger at any under- 
taking. It has been, too, a most beneficent movement 
Thousands would have suffered and hundreds starved 
but for the labor opened up to them in the rebuilding 
of the city. "We would be glad to specify many new 
structures and comment on them and their purpose, 
but fear to make this hasty sketch too long. 

" The extensive iron worjis and rolling mills of J. 



NEW ORLEANS, JACKSON, AND G. N. RAILROAD. 347 

D. Gray & Co., on the State road, about a mile and 
a half from the city, were visited and attracted much 
attention by their novelty. Many of our party 
had never witnessed the operation of the powerful 
machinery used in such establishments, and were 
wonder-struck at the facility with which a glowing 
and jagged mass was converted into smooth and solid 
rods or bars. 

" The Marietta paper mills have undergone com- 
plete reconstruction, and are now prepared to supply 
the press and dealers with any amount and quality of 
paper. 

''On Friday afternoon the association was compli- 
mented with an excursion by special train over the 
State road to Marietta, a courtesy for which we were 
indebted to the accomplished Superintendent, Major 
Campbell Wallace. Mr. J. B. Peck, Master of Trans- 
portation ; Ira E. Taylor, Auditor ; and Mr. John Flynn, 
Master Machinist ; accompanied the party on the trip, 
which was in all respects a most delightful one. The 
road and rolling stock are in better condition than we 
have ever seen them before, and reflect the highest 
credit upon those officers. There are no rough places 
in the track, the engines are kept bright and clean as 
if just from the manufacturer's hands, and even the 
freight cars are well painted and in an excellent state 
of preservation. The road, too, is pouring thousands 
monthly into the treasury, thiis proving the hitherto 
disputed fact that there is more than one man in Geor- 
gia who has the ability to manage it successfully. In 
Mr. Wallace and Mr. Peck the Governor has found real 
treasures, and we hope no inducement will be wanting 



348 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

to keep them on the road. The railroad depot and 
offices and all the neighboring buildings, with nearly 
the whole of the Public Square at Marietta^ were de- 
stroyed by Sherman's army when they eyacnated it 
It was a hard and undeserved fate for that beautiful 
little city, but we are glad to see that it is slowly 
rising from its ashes." 

New Orleans, Jackson, and Great Northern 
Eailroad. — The great through route between New 
Orleans and Chicago, which is nine hundred and four- 
teen miles long, is composed of the following lines of 
railroad : — 

The New Orleans, Jackson and Great North- 
ern Eailroad, from New Orleans to Canton, in MUes. 
Mississippi . . . . • . . 206 

The Mississippi Central Railroad, from Canton 
to Jackson, in Tennessee . • . . 236 

The northern part of the Mobile and Ohio 
Eailroad, from Jackson in Tennessee to Colum- 
bus, in Kentucky, on the Mississippi Eiver . 87 

Steamboat on the Mississippi Eiver, from Co- 
lumbus to Cairo . . . . ' . .20 

The Illinois Central Eailroad, Cairo to Chi- 
cago 365 

Total ' . 914 

It was originally intended that the New Orleans, 
Jackson, and Great Northern Eailroad should connect 
New Orleans with Nashville, in Tennessee, and, in 
order to accomplish this end, the route,.a8 surveyed, 
was made to run from Canton in a northeast direction 



NEW ORLEANS, JACKSON, AND G. N. RAILROAD. 349 

towards Nashville, until it struck the State line of 
Tennessee, or the Tennessee Eiver, at the northwest 
corner of Alabama. That portion of the road, how- 
ever, between Canton and the Tennessee Eiver, has 
never been constructed. The route has been surveyed, 
however, and a portion of it graded. As it presents 
no formidable engineering obstacles, it may possibly 
be completed at some future period, if •the prosperity 
of the south should justify the undertaking. 

By the first of December, 1860, the road had been 
completed with a single track, together with the neces- 
sary side-tracks, depot buildings, and water stations, 
from New Orleans to Canton, in Mississippi, a distance 
of two hundred and six miles, in a substantial and per- 
manent manner, equal to any railroad in the United 
States. 

, On that portion above Canton, known as the exten- 
sion, twenty-six miles had been graded, at a cost of two 
hundred and twenty thousand dollars, and an addi- 
tional section of fourteen miles to the town of Koscius- 
ko was under contract, and was completed during the 
year 1861 ; another section, extending south from Aber- 
deen, Mississippi, to the intersection of the Mobile and 
Ohio Eailroad nine miles, was under contract, the 
grading of which was nearly completed and ready 
for the rails. In addition to the Work done on the 
above nine miles, more or less work had been done 
upon about forty miles of the line through Munroe 
County, above and below Aberdeen, at an expense of 
about eighty-five thousand five hundred dollars. 

The amount expended in the construction of the road 
from New Orleans to Canton, Mississippi, including 



350 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

tbe right of way, real estate, depot buildings, station 
houses, iron rails, wood and water stations, and work- 
manship of all kinds, up to December 1st, 1860, 
was $5,549,211 81 

For locomotive engines, cars, tools, 
etc., in the machine shop . . . 1,044,661 20 

For grading, right of way, and real 
estate, etc., north of Canton . . • 445,000, 00 

Total cost of road and rolling stock . $7,038,873 01 

The amount of indebtedness for 

money borrowed upon first mortgage 

bonds was $2,645,000 00 

Loans from the State of Mississippi . 205,000 00 
Amount of bills payable . . 735,335 73 

Total loans and bills payable . $3,585,335 73 

The net earnings of the road, for the year 1860, were 
over half a million of dollars (namely, 556,712). The 
equipment of the road, at that time, amounted to forty- 
five locomotives, thirty-seven passenger cars, nine bag- 
gage cars, and five hundred and three freight cars. 

The total earnings of the road, from freight, pas- 
sengers and mails, for the — 

Twelve months ending Deo. 31st, 1857, were $277,088 24 

*' ** '* <' 31st, 1858, were 593,093 69 

<' " " Nov. 30th, 1859, were 954,961 66 

" " " " 30th, 1860, were 1,272,862 87 

Showing a regular increase of more than three hun- 
dred thousand dollars each year since 1857, notwith- 
standing the interruptions to the traffic from the extra- 



NEW ORLEANS, JACKSON, AND G. N. RAILROAD. 351 

ordinary storms, crevasses, and short crops of the years 
1859 and 1860. 

On the 1st of January, 1862, the whole road from 
New Orleans to Canton, Mississippi, was in the best 
possible condition, being better than any railroad in 
the south, as regards capacity, rolling stock, ko. 

The earnings of the road from the transportation of 
freight and passengers, during the year 1861, were 
over a million of dollars (namely, 1,128,537). The 
cost'for the same, including»repairs of the road, engines, 
cars, &c., was five hundred and thirty-one thousand 
five hundred and ninety dollars, yielding a net revenue 
of five hundred and ninety-six thousand nine hundred 
and forty-seven dollars, which was applied to the 
reduction of the floating debt, payment of interest on 
loans, and the extension of the road. 

On the 24th of April, 1862, the rolling stock and 
locomotives of the Company were taken possession of 
by Major-General Lovell, and removed to that part 
of the road north of Ponchatoula, where it remained 
under his absolute control for twenty days. It was 
then returned to the control of the officers of the road, 
who continued to manage the same during the years 
1862, 1863, 1864, and a portion of 1865, up to the 
date of the surrender of the department by General 
Taylor. On the 27th of August, 1862, the Directors, 
who were then in Mississippi, met in the town of Can- 
ton, and fixed the temporary domicile of the Company 
at that place. They held regular board meetings, and 
their attention was given to the business of the Com- 
pany for a period of eight months, subject to the con- 
trol of the Confederate military authorities. 



352 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

About the middle of April, 1863, the country tlirough 
which the road passes was disturbed by the raid of ^ 
General Grierson, and subsequently by the invasion of 
General Grant, and General Sherman, in May. At 
that time, Jackson, the capital of Mississippi, was cap- 
tured, and much of the road in its vicinity was torn 
up and destroyed. In the years 1863 and 1864, the 
rolling stock and locomotives belonging to the road 
were destroyed by the contending forces, or rendered 
unfit for service. 

On the 7th of June, 1865, an order was obtained 
from Major-General Canby, directed to the proper 
officers, to turn over that portion of the road and some 
of the rolling stock then in their hands, to the posses- 
sion and control of the President and Directors of the 
Company. The severe illness of Colonel Holabird, 
the officer in charge, delayed the execution of this 
order until the 24:th of June, when that portion of the 
road in their possession, and some of the rolling stock, 
were received for the use of the Company. Shortly 
afterwards the machine shop was given up and the 
tools in the same restored to the use of the Company. 

At the time the road was turned over to the Board 
of Directors, it was being used, and was in good con- 
dition as far as Ponchatoula, forty-seven miles north 
of New Orleans. From that point to Brookhaven, a 
distance of eighty-one miles, the road had not been 
used since the spring of 1863, as most of the bridges, 
between those points had been destroyed by the dif- 
ferent armed forces traversing that section of the 
country. That portion of the road not having re- 
ceived any attention since 1862, it became enveloped 



NEW ORLEANS, JACKSON, AND G. N. RAILROAD. 353 

with briers, bushes, and grass, the undisturbed growth 
of three years, thus causing, by shade and moisture, 
the decay of the pine timber used in its construction. 
There was scarcely a single bridge on that section 
that was not wholly or in part destroyed by fire, or 
rendered unfit for use by decay. Of the cross-ties on 
this section, fully three-fourths had to be replaced to 
render the road safe for the transit of cars and locomo- 
tives. From Brookhaven to Jackson — a distance of 
fifty- five miles — the road, though dilapidated, was in 
use, save some two and a half miles immediately south 
of the latter place, where the road-bed had been torn 
up and bridges and cross-ties burnt. 

From Jackson to Canton, the present terminus of 
the road, a distance of twenty-three miles, the road, 
though much out of repair, having been often torn up 
and destroyed, was still being used. • Of the splendidly 
equipped road of 1861 and '62, of the forty-nine loco- 
motives, thirty-seven passenger cars (many of which 
had never been used), and five hundred and fifty freight, 
baggage, and gravel cars, there remained fit for use, 
though in a damaged condition, between Jackson and 
Canton, one locomotive, two second class passenger 
cars, one first class passenger car, one baggage and 
one provision car, two stock and two flat cars. 

On the section between Jackson and Brookhaven, 
there were in use two locomotives, damaged, having 
been partly burned ; four box cars, one of which was 
used for passengers, and nine flat cars. All the other 
locomotives had been burned or damaged by time and 
exposure and rendered unfit for service. The amount of 
rolling stock turned over to the Company by the mili- 
23 



364 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

tarj authorities at New Orleans consisted of one loco- 
motive, one passenger car, four box and ten flat cars, 
one baggage and two cattle cars. 

Ot all the depot buildings and platforms attached, 
wood-sheds and water stations, and division bouses^ 
which were in complete repair in 1862, there remained 
only the buildings at Osyka, Magnolia, and Summit ; 
the remainder having all, from time to time, been de- 
stroyed by the armed forces in their vicinity. 

Such was the general condition of the road, and the 
amount of rolling stock and motive power, when it 
was placed under the control of the present Board of 
Directors, on the 24th of June, 1865. Of its financial 
condition, it need only be said, there was not a dollar 
of available funds in its treasury. To rebuild the road 
and restore its shattered finances was the first work 
to which the Directors addressed themselves. Work- 
men were immediately employed to rebuild the 
bridges, commencing directly north of Pontchatoula. 
Other portions of the road were also undergoing 
repairs, and every efibrt, commensurate with their 
ability, was used to render the road, in its entire 
length, fit for use at the earliest day. On the 8d of 
July, the President of the Company was directed to 
go to Washington to negotiate with the Government 
for rolling stock, and to make postal arrangements for 
the transmission of mails over the road. Contracts for 
mail service were made on the same terms as with 
other southern roads at this time. The negotiations 
for rolling stock and locomotives resulted in a pro- 
mise on the part of the Government, that when the 
stock belonging to the Government was sold, the 



NEW ORLEANS, JACKSON, AND G. N. RAILROAD. 365 

several roads in the south would be permitted to pur- 
chase, for their respective Companies, amounts accord- 
ing to the length of road. Since that time there have 
been purchased, for this road, ten locomotives and one 
hundred and ninety freight cars. 

Since the 24:th of June, 1865, the date of the posses- 
sion of the road in its entire length by the Company, 
there have been built and repaired ninety bridges, mea- 
suring three thousand five hundred feet ; fifty thousand 
cross-ties have been purchased and placed in the 
road-bed ; all of which, together with the large increase 
of rolling stock, tools &c., has been done with the 
earnings of* the road during the time, and without 
borrowing a dollar, or incurring any debt, except the 
one to the United States Government for engines and 
cars. 

On the 2d of November, 1865, the Board of Direc- 
tors elected General Beauregard as President of the 
Company ; and he was re-elected iir February, 1867. 
General Beauregard has devoted his whole time, with 
well-known energy and ability, to restore the road to 
its former high position, as one of the most substantial 
and permanent in the country. 

By the end of the year 1866, under the energetic 
management of General Beauregard, the condition of 
the road had become very much improved. Many of 
the depots and section houses destroyed during the 
war had been rebuilt ; and passenger trains ran 
regularly from New Orleans to Canton, two hundfed 
and six miles, in thirteen hours. The rolling stock 
now includes twenty-seven locomotives, thirty pas- 
senger cars, nine baggage cars, and two hundred and 



356 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

fifty freight cars. The earnings of the road for the 
year 1866 were over a million and a half of dollars 
(namely, $1,628,134). The present indebtedness of the 
Company amounts to about the same sum. 

In May, 1866, General Beauregard, the President of 
the road, and two of the directors, were appointed 
commissioners to confer with the Northern and 
European first mortgage bondholders relative to the 
outstanding coupons and interests due them, and 
which the Company was unable to meet. This ina- 
bility was solely owing to the troubles which had 
prevailed in this country, and which had left the road 
in a most dilapidated condition. The Commissioners 
repaired immediately, by way of New York and 
Liverpool, to London, where they met and conferred 
with some of the most prominent bondholders. They 
were everywhere received with great kindness and 
liberality, and the following agreement was entered 
into with the London bondholders, to be submitted to 
the other bondholders, namely : To deposit with trustees 
the matured coupons held by them of the first mort- 
gage bonds of the Company, including the coupons 
due July 1st, 1865, and to receive, in lieu thereof, the 
second mortgage bonds of the Company at par. In 
case of failure on the part of the Company to meet their 
new obligations in the payment of the interest on the 
second mortgage bonds thus issued, or on the first 
mortgage bonds (commencing with the coupons due 
Jan. 1st, 1867), then the bondholders to reclaim their 
first mortgage bond coupons and surrender the seoond 
mortgage bonds which were issued for them, thus plao- 



NEW ORLEANS, JACKSON, AND G. N. RAILROAD. 357 

ing them in their original position with their first 
mortgage lien upon the road. 

The Company has a large claim against the United 
States Government for railroad iron ^nd other mate- 
rials taken by the United States forces during the war, 
properly receipted for by the Government officers on 
taking possession of the same. This amount will no 
doubt be accepted by the Government in part payment 
of the sum of seventy- two thousand one hundred and 
seventy-three dollars, due by the Company to the 
Government, for rolling stock bought at New Orleans 
and Nashville since the close of the war. 

Thus it will be seen that the monetary condition of 
the Company is most encouraging, and that, with con- 
tinued watchfulness over its afiairs, and economy in 
the expenditure of its constantly increasing receipts, 
the obligations of the Company towards its bondholders 
and other creditors will certainly be met at maturity ; 
and that, before many years, the road will become a 
source of profit to the States of Louisiana and Missis- 
sippi, the city of New Orleans, and the othe\ stock- 
holders. 



358 KAILUOADS OF TBE UNITED SPATES. 



CHAPT.E.R XXXIV. 

MEMPHIS .AND CHABLESTON BAILBOAD. 

The through route between Memphis and Charles- 
ton, in South Carolina, which is seven hundred and fifty- 
six miles long, is composed of the following railroads : — 

Memphis and Charleston Railroad, from Mem- MUes. 
phis to Stephenson, in Alabama . .. . 272 

The southern part of the Nashvillcand Chatta- 
nooga Railroad, from Stephenson to Chattanooga. 88 

The Western and Atlantic Railroad, from Chat- 
tanooga to Atlanta, in Georgia . . ... 138 

The Georgia Railroad, from Atlanta to Augus- 
ta, on the Savannah River . . . .171 

The South Carolina Railroad, from Augusta^ 
in Georgia, to Charleston 187 

Total 756 

The Memphis and Charleston Railroad was designed, 
at first, to furnish an .air line route between those two 
cities, and in order to accomplish this, a route was 
selected and surveyed between Decatur, in Alabama, 
on the Tennessee River, and Atlanta. But this road, 
as thus surveyed, has never been built. The route in 
use at present, although reasonably direct, is not aa 
air line. The road from Memphis to Stephenson, two 
hundred and seventy-two miles, was built about the 
year 1850, and was in full operation in 1851. From 



MEMPHIS AND CHARLESTON RAILROAD. 369 

that time till 1861, its operations were conducted with, 
great success, and to the entire satisfaction of the 
stockholders- The want of such a road had long been 
felt, and its completion, together with the subsequent 
completion of its extensions to Charleston, as above, 
gave the planters along its route the means of rapidlj 
transporting their crops, at reasonable rates, to Charles- 
ton, whence they were shipped to New York and 
Liverpool by steamers. The completion of the road, 
and the facilities that it thus afforded, acted as a power- 
ful stimulus to production. All the plantations, for 
miles on each side of the route, were worked to their 
fullest extent, and thousands of acres were added to the 
cultivated lands, each succeeding year. The produc- 
tions of the southern part of Tennessee, and of the 
northern 'piirt of Mississippi and Alabama, rapidly in- 
creased each year: and the prosperity of the road 
itself, owing to its increased business, became so much 
enhanced by the year 1860, that the project of com* 
mencing to build the air line connection, between De- 
catur and Atlanta^ was seriously entertained. This 
project, perhaps, would have been carried out at that 
time, had it not been for the breaking out of the war. 
That event, however, disarranged all plans of this 
kind. 

The road, however, was operated as usual until the 
eleventh of April, 1862, and proved to be of great use 
to the south, in the transportation of troops and mili- 
tary supplies during the first year of the war. On the 
9th of January, 1862, the directors were able to declare 
a dividend of 33 J per cent, on the profits of the road. 

On the eleventh of April, 1862, the United States 



360 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

military forces, under Gen. Mitchell, occupied Hunts- 
ville, Alabama, and took possession of the rood from 
Stephenson to Tuscumbia, together with eighteen loco- 
motives, one hundred freight cars, a large number of 
passenger cars and some baggage cars, the shop at 
Huntsville with its tools and material, and a large 
amount of wood, cross-ties, and other valuable property 
on the line of the road between Decatur and Stephen- 
son. Five days before this capture, the bloody battle 
©r Shiloh had been fought near the line of the road, 
north of Corinth. The Confederate troops were falling 
back to their intrench men ts at Corinth, and the Federal 
army was pressing up the line of the road near Big 
Bear Creek. 

Immediately after the capture of Huntsville, the 
Confederate commander at Corinth gave orders for the 
remainder of the rolling stock west of Huntsville to be 
concentrated at and west of Corinth with the least pos- 
sible delay. The Federal army was then moving 
rapidly in or Jer to frustato this movement^ and, under 
the excitement and haste attending the surrounding 
scenes, it was made in great confusion, and much loss 
of property necessarily took place. The pressing neces- 
sity for railroad aid, and the exciting scenes in and 
around Corinth from the eleventh of April, to the SOth 
of May, incident to a heavy and determined siege, and 
the concentration of two immense and hostile armies^ 
taxed the road, its rolling stock, and the energies of its 
officers and men to their utmost capacity, day and 
night. 

On the 29th of May, 1862, the Confederate forces at 
Corinth, and on the line of the railroad, retired south- 



MEMPHIS AND CHARLESTON RAILROAD. 361 

ward, and by the order of the military authorities of 
the Confederacy, all the machinery and rolling stock 
were carried to points further south, by way of the 
Mobile and Ohio, and Ohio and Mississippi Central 
Eailroads. 

Before the last trains leavinsf Corinth could reach 
Cypress Creek, thirteen miles west of Corinth, the 
bridge across that stream was burned, preventing the 
further progress of trains, which, by military order, 
were abandoned and partially destroyed. The road 
lost four locomotives, one passenger car, an'd thirty-two 
freight cars. 

A subsequent order located the machinery and roll- 
ing stock at Marion Station, on the Mobile and Ohio 
Eailroad, five miles north of Meridian, in Mississippi, 
at which place the Company erected a temporary shop. 
The repairs of engines and cars were commenced here, 
and continued till June, 1863, during which time mili- 
tary requisitions were made, and the stock taken and 
distributed on the Selma and Meridian, and southern 
railroads. In July and August, 1863, nineteen loco- 
motives and eighty-three passenger and freight cars 
were removed to Montgomery, in Alabama, by order 
of General Pemberton, incurring water transportation 
of twenty miles. After the arrival of the rolling stock, 
&c., at Montgomery, the Quartermaster-General of the 
Confederate States army distributed it all, except six 
passenger cars, on various southern roads, where it 
remained till the close of the war. The rolling stock, 
tools, and materials remaining at Montgomery, in Ala^ 
bama, were all destroyed by General Wilson's United 
States forces. A large amount of the rolling stock on 

If 



362 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

the different roads in North Carolina, South Carolina, 
and Georgia, was subsequently burned and^ destroyed 
by the troops acting under Gen. Sherman. 

In August, 1862, the northern part of Alabama was 
evacuated by the United States forces, and in the fall 
of that year, the road being clear from Decatur to Ste- 
phenson, the Company again resumed its possession 
by order of General Bragg, rebuilt the road between 
those points, and a portion of the shop machinery, all 
of which had been destroyed or badly damaged. As 
soon as rebuilt, they operated this portion of the road 
until July 1st, 1863, when they were again forced to 
evacuate by order of General Bragg, taking south what 
little machitiery they had left. From this time until 
the close of the war, the railroad and most of its pro- 
perty remained in the hands of the Federal forces, 
being constantly attacked and injured by the Confed- 
erates. The contest over this section of the country 
was so hot that neither party was able to run the road 
through, after it was first cut, in April, 1862. 

Immediately after the surrender of Gen. Taylor, the 
President of the road, Sam. Tate, Esq., proceeded to 
Washington and procured from President Johnson a 
special pardon. He then made application to the Presi- 
dent for the restoration of the railroad property to its 
owners. President Johnson informed him that the 
property would be so restored as soon as the Company 
was reorganized, and a Board of Directors chosen 
whose loyalty was undoubted. Mr. Tate at once adver- 
tised for a meeting of the stockholders to elect a Board 
and reorganize the Company. This was done in July, 
1865. Mr. Tate went to Washington and presented 



MEMPHIS AND CHARLESTON RAILROAD. 363 

tbe organization to tlie President, who approved it. 
On the 8th of August the President gave an order to 
the Military Commander of the Division of the Ten- 
nessee, to turn over to the Company the railroad and 
property belonging to it. The President of the road 
then went to Nashville, to get the approval of Gen. 
Thomas, and an order for the surrender of the property 
which the President's order required. 

This he succeeded in getting on the 1st of Septem- 
ber, 1865, and on the 3d, the eastern division of the 
road, from Stevenson to Decatur, eighty -four miles, was 
turned over by the United States, military authorities 
to the Company. On the 11th of September, the 
western division, from Memphis to Pocahonfas, seventy- 
four miles, was likewise surrendered. This left the 
gap from Pocahontas to Decatur, one hundred and 
fourteen, miles, almost entirely destroyed, except the 
road-bed, the iron rails being in very bad condition. 
Every bridge and trestle on this part of the route was 
destroyed, the cross-ties were rotten, the buildings 
burned, the water-tanks gone, the ditches and drains 
filled up, the track grown over with weeds and 
bushes. There was not a saw-mill near the line ; and 
the labor system of the country was gone. About 
forty miles of the track was burned, the cross-ties en- 
tirely consumed, the rails bent and t\^isted, and many 
of them destroyed. 

What little rolling stock the Company had left vas 
principally scattered over the south, and had been run 
for four years without proper repairs ; consequently it 
was not in a condition to be made available without 
heavy repairs. The Company was not in a condition' 



364 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

to undertake this. They had before them over one 
hundred miles of the road to rebuild, all the baildinga 
to renew, and nearly three hundred miles of road to 
equip and run, with but little cash means, and less 
credit. It was not a very flattering prospect before 
the Company, to try to rebuild and equip the road, 
and put it in operation. But great as the embarrass- 
ments were, the Directors determined to overcome 
them, and restore the road to active use, in order that 
the country might get the benefit of i1^ and the invest- 
ment again be made profitable. 

In order to equip and run that portion of *the road 
which had been turned over to them by the Govern- 
ment, it w*as necessary to purchase rolling stock, which 
could alone be had of the United States Government 
They therefore availed themselves of the benefits of 
the President's order of August 8, 1865, which pro- 
vided for the sale, to southern railroads, of certain 
government locomotives and cars. Under the pro- 
visions of this order, the Company purchased ten 
locomotives, two hundred and twenty-six freight cars 
fourteen passenger cars, tools for the shops at Hunts- 
ville and Memphis, and a large amount of road mate- 
rial and shop fixtures, amounting in all to four hundred 
and ninety-one thousand nine hundred and twenty 
dollars. By this purchase the road was organized 
once more on a working basis, and had time to get 
home such of their own rolling stock as could be found 
and have it repaired. The Government also turned 
over to the Company eighteen locomotives that had 
been seized on the road, which added much to the 



MEMPHIS AND CHARLESTON RAILROAD. 3(35 

ability of the Company to prosecute needed repairs, 
and do such business as was offered on the line. 

The work of construction equipping and reorganiz- 
ing the road, was prosecuted with all the vigor aiiS 
energy that the means of the Company and the con- 
dition of the country and its labor would admit. It 
was operated as fast as repaired, and on the 6th of 
November, 1865, trains were run over the entire main 
line, with but one break, the bridge at Decatur, across 
the Tennessee Eiver, over one thousand seven hundred 
feet long, having been destroyed. 

The Company was compelled to transfer freight and 
passengers by steamer at that point. A contract was 
made in October, with Albert Fink, of Louisville, Ky., 
one of the most experienced and reliable bridge build- 
ers in the country, to rebuild the bridge at that point 
with the least possible delay, but the scarcity of suita- 
ble lumber, and the high water in winter retarded its 
progress to some extent, so that it was not completed 
and ready to pass trains over it until July 7th, 1866. 
It is a first-class bridge, of the Fink V. patent^ with 
wrought iron bottom chords, and wooden top chords 
covered with tin, and wooden braces so arranged that 
any one of them can be removed without interruption 
to passing trains, combining, probably more strength, 
durability, and economy, than any bridge now con- 
structed, with less liability to accident than any bridge 
except those built of iron. 

For two years past, and ever since the completion of 
this bridge, the road has been operated with great 
regularity and success. It forms a part of the great 
through line between New York and Memphis, by 



386 RAILROADS OF TU£ UNITED STATES. 

way of Washington, Lynchburg, Knoxville, and Chat- 
tanooga, and through trains on this route are now 
running daily. The distance from Memphis to New 
York, by this route, is eleven, hundred and sixty-four 
miles. The road is now well supplied with rolling 
stock including locomotives and passenger cars of the 
most approved construction, and the track and road- 
bed are in perfect order. The management of the road 
is excellent. Every person employed by the Company 
is required to be of good character, and to be faithful 
and zealous in the Company's service. 

In his Beport, made July, 1, 1866, the President of 
the road urges the importance of constructing; at an 
early day, a branch of the road from Decatur to Mont- 
gomery, in Alabama, running nearly south from the 
former point. This enterprise seriously commends 
itself to the support of the citizens of Alabama, as it 
will be of immense advantage to them when completed, 
and it will no doubt be undertaken at no distant day. 

Mr. Tate, also urges the resumption and completion 
of the road from Decatur to Atlanta, to which allusion 
has been made above. On this point he says that the 
distance will be " one hundred and forty to one hun- 
dred and seventy miles. This road completed, the 
Company would have an air-line from Memphis to 
Charleston on the shortest line that can ever be built 
between Charleston and the Mississippi River three- 
fourths of which is now completed, on what is practi- 
cally an air-line. When this road is finished you can 
defy all competition for the imported goods from New 
York and other eastern cities, as well as the manufac- 
tured articles from New England and other northern 



MEMPHIS AND CHARDESTON RAILROAD. 367 

manufacturing districts, to be consumed, in the Valley 
of the Mississippi south of the mouth of the Ohio, as 
well as for western produce, to be distributed over its 
entire line. By steamer, from New York to Charleston 
you have the cheapest transportation for a like distance 
known. The time is two and a half days ; the distance 
by this line to Memphis is six hundred and sixty-five 
miles, and could be run in two and a half days by a 
day and night freight schedule, allowing twenty-four 
hours for transfer at Charleston, and you have six 
days between New York and Memphis, and the short- 
est rail line that can ever be had between the points 
named. The time and the price would settle competi- 
tion for all eastern goods to be consumed on the line, as 
well as at Memphis or south of that point, as low as 
the mouth of the Arkansas Kiver. 

" From St. Louis to Memphis is two days' run of 
steamer ; goods can be placed on the cars at Memphis 
from St. Louis at twenty cents per hundred pounds; 
from that to Charleston the time would be two and a 
half days ; allowing twelve hours for transfer, would 
give five days between St. Louis and Charleston. The 
time and price here would again give you loaded cars 
going East, every mile of the line requiring Western 
produce. These lines would all be then in one in- 
terest, and would be worked as one company, without 
change of cars — another great inducement, as it adds 
facility to transportation, saves labor and liability to 
damage and pillaging while transferring. The distance 
being sixteen miles nearer from Atlanta to Savannah 
than Charleston, the same advantages would accrue to 
you for the trade of that line. If this line was com- 



368 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

pleted, the distance from Memphis to Atlanta would 
be three hundred and fifty-eight miles against four 
hundred and forty-seven, via Chattanooga. The dis- 
tance by rail from Louisville to Atlanta is four hun- 
dred and seventy-four miles. Should Cincinnati ever 
build a line direct to Chattanooga^ it will be at least 
four hundred and fifty miles from Cincinnati to At- 
lanta. 

'' I cannot urge upon you too strongly the importance 
of this connection, even if you had to build it unaided, 
whenever your finances would admit of it. The line 
is a practical one, and most of it can be built cheap, 
and when built, secures yours as one of the heaviest 
freight lines, south of the Potomac and Ohio Bivers^ 
and gives permanence to the value of your property, 
and secures your power as the great through line 
between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mississippi River, 
without a successful rival. The investment is bound 
to be profitable, and no fears need be entertained on 
that subject. 

"New sources of labor and wealth will be estab- 
lished ; your lands will be divided up into smaller 
plantations, accommodating a much larger population 
that will cultivate them to greater advantage, produc- 
ing double what they now do, and supporting double 
the population; your 'rich mineral jesources will invite 
capital from the North and elsewhere to develop your 
iron and coal fields, equalled in quantity, quality, or the 
ease and cheapness with which they can be worked, 
by none on this continent ; your splendid water power, 
abundant provisions and healthy climate, will invito 
the cotton and woollen manufacturer to such points as 



MEMPHIS AND CHARLESTON RAILROAD. 369 

Shoal Creek and Cypress Creek, and the Muscle Shoals 
on the Tennessee, to build up manufacturing establish- 
ments, where the raw material and provisions can be 
grown within sight of the factory, and a home market 
for everything you produce be provided, thereby sav- 
ing the heavy cost of transportation now paid to get 
the raw material to the factory and to return the manu- 
factured product to the consumer, as well as the cost 
of transportation of provisions to feed the operatives. 
These inducements will soon produce the results 
named, and prosperity will spring up from all quarters. 
We will be astonished at the vast recuperative ener- 
gies of a country and people who have so recently been 
overrun and their country desolated by the ruthless 
hand of war. Eventually your property will recover 
from its immense losses, and be much more valuable 
and permanently profitable than before the war ; and 
finally, it is to be hoped, it will be proved to us that 
Providence, in its wisdom, has sent to us our misfor- 
tunes as blessings in disguise ; and if we are oot per- 
mitted to enjoy them ourselves, our children will be. 
Let us all go to work in good earnest; act our part 
well, and in good faith ; do our duty to ourselves as 
well as others, and leave the consequences to Him who 
rules our destiny." 

The officers of the Company are: Samuel Tate, 
President ; W. J. Ross, General Superintendent ; James 
L. Meigs, Chief Engineer. 
24 



370 BAILBOADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTER XXXV 

ORANGE AND ALEXANDRIA RAILROAD. 

This road extends from Alexandria, in Virginia 
(near Washington), to Lynchburg, in the same State, a 
distance of one hundred and seventy-eight miles. It 
forms a part of the great through route between New 
York and New Orleans, by way of Philadelphia, Bal- 
timore, Washington, Gordonsville, Knoxville, Chatta- 
nooga, Grand Junction, and Jackson, in Mississippi. 
The Company was chartered by the State of Virginia 
in March, 1848 ; and an extension of the charter was 
made in 1852. The branch road to Warrenton, which 
was very much needed, was completed in 1852, and 
proved of great benefit to the inhabitants. The road 
was finished from Alexandria to Gordonsville in 
1854; and fromGordonsville to Lynchburg in January, 
1860. The capital stock of the Company is two mil- 
lion sixty-three thousand six hundred and fifty-nine 
dollars. At Gordonsville, the road connects with the 
Virginia Central Eailroad, running from Bichmond 
to Covington, by way of Charlottesville and Staunton. 
At Lynchburg, the termination of the road, it connects 
with the Virginia and Tennessee Bailroad for Knox- 
ville ; and with the Petersburg and Lynchburg Eail- 
road for Eichmond and Norfolk. It will also connect 
at Lynchburg with the Lynchburg and Danville Bail- 



ORANGE AND ALEXANDRIA RAILROAD, 571 

road, when the latter is completed to Danville, and 
will thus form an almost air-line route from Alexandria 
to Charlotte in North Carolina. 

This railroad was of immense advantage to the Con- 
federates during the recent war, as it enabled them to 
transport rapidly large bodies of troops from all points 
in the south to the line of the Potomac, which was, 
for so long a period, the frontier between the two con- 
tending parties. To destroy and cripple this road, 
therefore, became an object of the first importance on 
the part of commanders of the Federal troops. But, as 
the Confederates retained possession of the country be- 
tween the Potomac and Eappahannock (except in the 
immediate vicinity of Washington) during the greater 
part of the time until General Grant began his over- 
land campaign, there was no very favorable opportu- 
nity for extended destruction. On one or two occa- 
sions, indeed, parties of cavalry succeeded, in a few 
hours, in destroying several miles of the track, as well 
on this road as on the Virginia Central and the Pe- 
tersburg and Eichmond roads. But these occurrences 
were always provided for in advance. Supplies of 
new rails, and of all materials needed for repairs, were 
kept constantly on hand. Construction trains were 
instantly put in motion, and in a few days all the 
damage was repaired, and trains were running as 
usual. 

The country through which the Orange and Alex- 
andria Eailroad runs was the great battle-ground of 
the war, during almost the whole contest, from the 
first of May, 1861, until the summer of 1864. On the 
21st of July, 1861, the first battle of Bull Eun was 



372 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

fought near Manasses Junction ; and from that time 
till February, 1862, the Confederate lines were ad- 
vanced close to the vicinity of "Washington. While 
General McClellan's Peninsula campaign was in pro- 
gress, from March to August, 1862, the road was not 
used by either party. No sooner was General Mc- 
Clellan's army withdrawn from the Peninsula, how- 
ever, than the road began to be again used by the Con- 
federates, in moving troops towards Washington. 
General Pope used it also, for the transportation of 
the supplies for his army, from Alexandria to Cul- 
pepper, early in August, 1862. His disastrous defeats, 
the second battle of Bull Run on the 29th of August, 
and the retreat of the Federal army to Washington, 
followed ; and then the road remained in the hands of 
the Confederates until the middle of November, 1862. 
At that time the army of the Potomac, under General 
Burnside, was at Warrenton Junction, on its march to 
Fredericksburg, and the use of the road was divided. 
The Confederate army ran their trains upon it from 
Lynchburg to Culpepper ; and the Federal army used 
it for transporting their supplies, from Alexandria to 
Warrenton Junction. Thus matters remained till the 
8d of May, 1863, when the army of the Potomac, under 
General Hooker, was defeated at Chancellorsville near 
Fredericksburg. The army under Hooker retreated to 
Washington early in June, and by the 16th of that 
month the whole road was in the possession of the 
Confederates. 

The month of August, 1863, found both of the con- 
tending armies south of the Rappahannock. The inva- 
sion of Pennsylvania by General Lee, and the battle of 



ORANGE AND ALEXANDRIA RAILROAD. 373 

Gettysburg on the 3d of July, had taken place, and 
tlien General Lee, retiring into Virginia on the western 
side of the Blue Eidge, had taken up a very strong 
position south of the Eapidan. This position was 
known as Mine Run ; and after making several inef- 
fectual attempts to drive General Lee from it, General 
Meade, with the army of the Potomac, went into winter 
quarters near Culpepper. Thus matters remained 
until General Grant began his overland campaign 
against Richmond, on the 3d of May, 1864. The road 
from Washington to Culpepper was used by the 
Federal army, and from Lynchburg to Orange Court 
House by the Confederate army; and proved very 
useful to both, until the end of June, 1864, when Gen- 
eral Grant began his operations against Petersburg. 
From that time to the end of the war the road was not 
used to any extent by the Federal army, as a mili- 
tary road, although it was used to a limited extent by 
the Confederates, until the fall of that year. 

Since the close of the war, the track has been put in 
excellent order, and a daily train is run each way over 
it, carrying the great mail between New York and 
New Orleans. The business of the road is steadily in- 
creasing, and there is every prospect that the earnings 
for the year 1868 will be quite satisfactory to the 
stockholders. The officers of the Company are John 
S. Barbour, President; H. "W. Yandegrift, Superintend- 
ent; Anthony McfLean, Auditor. 



374 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

RAILROADS IN TEXAS. 

The vast and illimitable resources of Texas have 
scarcely yet begun to be developed ; nor will they be 
fully developed, until the various railroads in that 
State which are now projected, and some of which are 
in progress, shall have been completed. Texas was an 
independent nation — an empire of itself — before it 
became one of the United States; and it yet possesses 
its imperial domain, of which Daniel Webster gave 
such a glowing description. When Texas was an- 
nexed to the United States, in 1845, it was stipulated 
in the articles of annexation, that, as the population in- 
creased, four other States might be made out of its im- 
mense territory, which States, when formed in the usual 
manner, were to be received into the Union on the 
same footing as the original States. Texas is quite 
large enough thus to make five States. It comprises 
two hundred and thirty-seven thousand square miles; 
equal, in territorial extent, to five States of the size of 
New York or Pennsylvania ; or equal to the six States 
of New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, Indiana, 
and Illinois. It is already probably the greatest cat- 
tle raising State in the Union, and the soil and climate 
are admirably adapted to the raising of wheat and corn- 
The following remarks of Judge Robertson on this 



RAILROADS IN TEXAS. 375 

subject, although spoken in reference to Louisiana, the 
adjoining State, apply equally well to Texas. 

" Our seed should come from Missouri, Tennessee, or 
Texas. The Mediterranean varieties would suit us 
bestj.perhaps. Wheat with us should be planted in 
September, October, or November. It is a beautiful 
season for preparing the ground. It may then be 
reaped in the last half of April and May, a time usually 
selected for making brick, on account of its fair 
weather. The daily quotations show that southern 
flour, raised in Missouri, Tennessee, and Yirginia, 
brings from three to five dollars more per barrel than 
the best New York Genesee flour. Louisiana and 
Texas flour is far superior to the Tennessee, Virginia, 
or Missouri, owing to the superior dryness, and the 
fact that it contains more gluten and does not ferment 
so easily. Southern flour makes better dough and 
maccaroni than northern or western flour ; it is better 
adapted for transportation over the sea, and keeps bet- 
ter in the tropics. It is, therefore, the flour that is 
sought after for Brazil, Central America, Mexico, and 
the West India market, which are at our doors. 

"A barrel of strictly southern flour will make 
twenty pounds more bread than Illinois flour, because, 
being so much drier, it takes up more water in making 
up. In addition to this vast superiority of our grain, 
we have other advantages over the Western States in 
grain-growing. Our climate advances the crop so 
rapidly that we can cut our wheat six weeks before a 
scythe is put into the fields of Illinois ; and being so 
near the Gulf^ we avoid the delays in shipping and the 
long transportation, the cgst of which consumes nearly 



376 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

one-half of the product of the West. These advan- 
tages, the superior quality of the flour, the earlier 
harvest, and the cheap and easy shipment, enable us 
absolutely to forestall the West, in the foreign demand, 
which is now about forty millions of bushels annually, 
and is rapidly increasing, and also in the Atlantic sea- 
board trade. 

" Massachusetts, it is calculated, raises not more than 
one month's supply of flour for her vast population. 
New York, not six months' supply for her population, 
and the other Atlantic States in like proportion. This 
vast deficit is now supplied by the Western States, 
and the trade has enriched the West, and has built 
railroads in every direction to carry toward the East 
the gold-producing grain. We can, if we choose, have 
a monopoly of this immense trade, and the time may 
not be far distant when, in the dispensation of Provi- 
dence, the West, which contributed so largely to the 
uprooting of our servile system and the destruction of 
our property, will find that she has forced us into a 
rivalry against which she cannot compete, and that 
she will have to draw not only for supplies of cotton, 
sugar, and rice, but even her breadstuff from the 
South." 

George Wilkes Kendall, Esq., the well-known and 
genial editor of the New Orleans Picayune, whose 
long residence in Texas made him perfectly familiar 
with the resources and capabilities of that superb coun- 
try, thus speaks of the railroads of Texas, and the 
need of reliable labor there : — 

" I find Indianola much improved since I was here 
in August last — new buildings up and going up, olcl 



RAILROADS IN TEXAS. 377 

ones repaired and freshly painted, and numerous un- 
mistakable signs of prosperity. I have heard, too, the 
joyous jingle of Mexican castings, as the silver dollars 
from the other side of the Eio Grande are called ; they 
are ringing their merry chimes on all sides. And all 
is life and bustle, too, and the faces of men are glad 
and hopeful. One great cause of this, independent of 
a prosperous season, is the fixed fact that the railroad 
to Lavaca is soon to be built, and that the work beyond 
Victoria, in the direction of San Antonio, is immedi- 
ately to be pushed forward. When called upon the 
other day for the sum of fifteen thousand dollars, to 
make up the amount necessary to commence work be- 
tween this and Lavaca on the road which is already 
graded, sixteen thousand were subscribed in a singl^ 
evening, and many have not as yet put down their 
names. Mr. Warner, who represents a company of 
rich British capitalists, and Mr. Julian, a competent 
English engineer, have just completed a thorough sur- 
vey of the route between Indianola and both Austin 
and San Antonio, are perfectly satisfied, and are at once 
to leave for England with the intention of bringing out 
laborers, rails, and all the rolling stock necessary. As 
far as Concrete, in De Witt County, the road will soon 
be under construction, and once there, it will soon be 
branching off either to San Antonio or Austin — proba- 
bly to both. I give you the common talk of the town, 
all jubilant over the flattering prospects for early rail- 
road communication with the interior. If I have a 
leisure half-hour on the way up to San Antonio, I wilL 
drop you another line on this subject — certainly, after 
reaching that city. The introduction of English 



378 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

laborers to work on the road is certainly important to 
Western Texas; they will all settle down after the 
railroad is completed, and help materially to develop 
the rich resources of the region. 

" Messrs. Hughes & Lily, who have established a 
beef-packing establishment here on a large scale, are 
still unable to supply the great demandr upon them. 
They are sending their beef to Mobile and Pensacola, 
as well as New Orleans, where it is pronounced equal, 
if not superior, to the same article sent down the Mis- 
sissippi from the West. They are enterprising men, 
deserve success, and will undoubtedly achieve it. 

" The steamship Mexico went out this evening with 
some four hundred and fifty head of cattle, for New 
Orleans. She returns immediately, and her next load 
of beeves will be taken to Havana. The time may 
come, and sooner than many expect, when our Cuban 
neighbors will be regularly supplied with Texan beef, 
and much cheaper than they can raise it at home. As 
I am now writing, a large drove of beeves is passing 
the door, to be shipped to-morrow for New Orleans. 

" I must again recur to the subject of foreign emi- 
gration. Finding out, to my cost, that no contract 
made in Europe is binding in this country, under our 
present laws, would it not be well for our legislators 
immediately to pass an act by which we can enforce 
the terms of a regularly signed and stamped contract ? 
If I understand the matter, our present law was passed 
to prevent the introduction of Coolies for a long term ; 
it operates as an incentive to Germans, French, Irish, 
Scotch and all to oi:)enly violate the most solemn en- 
gagements, and after we have advanced them six 



RAILROADS IN TEXAS. 379 

months' or a year's wages, and their passage across seas 
has been paid by us, they can snap their fingers in our 
faces, and laugh at us for our folly. 

" Texas wants working emigrants ; so does Louisiana, 
and all our Southern States. We want industrious 
laborers to take the places of the loafing and improvi- 
dent negroes, who will not work — cannot be made to 
work under our present laws. The tide of German emi- 
gration, constantly increasing, all flows to New York, the 
great feeder of the West. In New York they want 
emigrants with money to pay their way across the 
ocean in the first place, their railroad fare out to Wis- 
consin, Minnesota, and other Western States in the 
second, and have enough left to purchase farms when 
they get to their journey 'send. For the New Yorkers 
it is a money making business all round ; to an extent 
they own the ships, the railroads, and the wild lands 
of the West — lands which, once under cultivation, fur- 
nish them with increased business. We of the South 
want emigrants who can pay their way and purchase 
their lands after they get here ; but we cannot, to any 
extent, divert the great current setting towards New 
York. But one thing we can do, either by the exer- 
tions of individuals oj the enactments of legislatures, 
and that is to bring over an immense number of stal- 
wart laborers who a^e willing and most anxious to 
come, but who have not, and never can have, the 
means to pay their way. Hundreds of thousands, yes, 
millions of lusty laborers in the European States, who 
can barely earn enough, by working from daylight 
until dark, to keep starvation from their doors, would 
throw up their hats for joy could they have their pas- 



380 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

sages paid to any Southern port. And for forty dol- 
lars a head, j^ sum which they could earn in four 
months in Texas, first-class laborers could be brought 
over, and the wealth their strong arms would add to 
the State would soon cover all this expense. 

" In a conversation at Galveston the other day, with 
Mr. Flake, of the Bulletin, he told me that laborers, 
unable to pay their own way, could at once be thrown 
upon the prolific soil of Texas, if the State would but 
simply furnish the passage money. Ten thousand, or 
even five thousand of such laborers thrown into Texas 
this season, would be of incalculable advantage — would 
prove a greater source of stable wealth than the dis- 
covery of a gold mine richer than those of California. 

" But how could Texas undertake such a job ? This 
question will be asked. Surely there is legislative 
wisdom enough in the State to adopt some plan, 
some system which would be advantageous to the 
laborers, their employers, and the public coffers at the 
same time. The passage of a law that the State should 
simply hold a claim upon the services of the emigrants 
until the expense of bringing them over was refunded 
might do, and thousands of farmers and planters would 
cheerfully advance this amount .if the service of the 
foreigner could be insured to them a single year, of 
course with the hope that he might, by kind treatment, 
be induced to work on for a longer period, or until 
he had secured the means to purchase a place of^his 
own. 

" The throwing of fifty thousand stout German la- 
borers upon our soil would have a better effect upon 
the freed men than any philanthropic acts of their 



RAILROADS IN TEXAS. 381 

northern friends — so-called pliilanthropic. It would 
open wide their eyes to a fact that they now seem to 
ignore — the fact that we could get along without their 
labor. There is work, and more than work for all of 
them,, and hundreds of thousands besides, and compe- 
tition in the labor market would draw out whatever 
there may be of industry in them. Of this I am cer- 
tain. A large number of negroes now congregating 
about our cities, towns, and villages, must die off^ — they 
cannot live from hand to mouth long. Among a class 
of them loafing is chronic: they are doomed, yet there 
are many who have not become hopelessly and irra- 
dicably indolent and worthless, and the influx of a 
large and industrious working element among them 
would have a most beneficial effect. At all events, 
there is no harm in introducing it. 

" We came up from Lavaca last evening on the San 
Antonio and Mexican Gulf Eailroad; starting at half- 
past four o'clock, we got over thirty miles by dark. 
The windows were wide open ; thousands of cattle were 
seen feeding on the wide prairies; the evening air, 
after a hot and sultry day, was mild and balmy, and 
every hundred yards a brood of prairie chickens either 
ran off across the prairies, or else rose and flew a few 
yards to settle down again almost within gunshot. It 
was aggravating to one who has the sporting proclivi- 
ties I claim to possess, to see covey after covey of these 
splendid birds so close, and without being able to pay 
my respects to them with the new breech-loader re- 
cently presented me by" an old English friend; I 
could almost fancy I heard the gun rattling in its case, 
at the close proximity of such noble game, in its 



382 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

eagerness to ' up and at them.' They may catch it one 
of these days. 

" Some few weeks since the depot of the Company 
here in Victoria was burned, and the larger locomotive 
destroyed ; but the smaller, a mustangy looking afiFair, 
brought us up safely, and more speedily than we an- 
ticipated. We should always speak well of the bridge 
that brings us well over. 

"Among the passengers were Judge Paschal, Col. 
Schleicher, Mr. J. C. French, of San Antonio, all 
representing the interests of the railroad, and from 
them I learned many interesting and cheering particu- 
lars in relation to the work they have so much • at 
heart. For some weeks Mr. Warner and Mr. JuUian, 
the latter a practical English engineer of much expe- 
rience, have been going over the country and along 
the route, and have been so well pleased with what 
they have seen that last evening, as I have previously 
stated in a letter from Lavaca, the former signed con- 
tracts with Messers. French, Paschal and others to set 
to work immediately to push the road forward to 
Cuero, thirty miles above this city, and near a fork in 
the Guadalupe, where there is a fine water-power, and 
all this to be done with British capital, which Mr. 
Warner, a gentleman of rare intelligence and driving 
industry, ably represents. 

" The plan of operations is as follows : On the 1st of 
July the work is to be commenced both on the India- 
nola branch, which is already graded, and on the regular 
track between this city and Lavaca, which is now used, 
but is much out of repair. This part is to be regraded, 
new yellow pine ties are to be used, the whole route is 



RAILROADS IN TEXAS. 383 

4)0 be raised and gravelled, and deeper draining ditches 
are to be dug on either side. The work is to be done 
by laborers introduced from England, or in great part, 
and all is to be finished by this time next year, proba- 
bly before. The work is then to be started vigorously 
on the route from this city to Cuero, and finished in 
less than two years. From Cuero the road will next 
run either to Austin, drawing the rich trade of that 
prolific section to Matagorda Bay, or else to San An- 
tonio, and very probably to both. The entire work is 
to be well done — as well done as on any English rail- 
road — and a rate of speed is to be attained equal to 
that on a parliamentary train, if not faster. Fancy the 
citizens of Austin being whirled through to the Gulf 
in three hours, and the legislative Wfisdom of Texas 
obtaining the fine flavored, luscious and most savory 
oysters of Matagorda Bay before the shells are well 
dry ! And the San Antonio folk can go, come, and 
be supplied in even less time. Those who have 
journeyed over these routes on the outside of a pony, 
as I have often done, and occupied several weary days 
in doing it, can appreciate the difference when the iron 
horse jerks us through between a late breakfast and an 
early dinner. 

" I am firmly convinced that such a necessity would 
follow the completion of railroad communication from 
the Gulf to Austin, and to San Antonio as well, that 
more British capital would be piling in upon us. Look 
at the vast region west, northwest, and north of San 
Antonio.'' 



384 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

PROJECTED RAILROADS IN THE SOUTH AND WEST. 

THE PACIFIC RAILROAD. 

An article in the January, 1867, number of the 
"Edinburgh Review," in speaking of some projected 
railroads in England, says : — 

'* The time is now come, or is close at hand, when 
railways may become the ordinary means of commu- 
nication throughout the kingdom ; when the locomo- 
tive, having superseded the mail coach and the stage 
Avagon, may enter into competition with the omnibus 
and the carrier. Trains are no longer unwieldy 
saurians that can only drag their length along the 
level for which the spade and the pick must fill up the 
valley and 

* Pare the mountain to the plain to leave an equal baseness.* 

Lines can now adapt themselves to the natural features 
of the country, they can follow the sinuosities of the 
watercourse and ravine, scale the hill-top and wind 
down the mountain-side. Opposuit natura Alpesque 
nivesque — yet locomotive engines, ascending and de- 
scending by gradients of one in twelve, rolling round 
curves with a radius of one hundred and twenty feet, 
have proved themselves able to convey trains weighing 
from twenty to forty tons over Mount Cenis and the 
Semmering at the rate of twelve miles per hour and 



PROJECTED RAILROADS IN THE SOUTH. 385 

upwards. Slight and cheap railways fitted to the 
character of the country they serve have already beea 
constructed in Scotland. Even in France the local 
authorities have begun to apply to roads the power 
given them by law to make highways. The Council 
of the Bas-Rhin, with the aid of the communes con- 
cerned, within the last two years has planned and 
opened some subsidiary lines, and other departments 
are said to be preparing to follow the example thus set 
in Alsatia. 

" That minor railways admit of being introduced in 
every part of the British Isles will scarcely be called 
in question. It is, indeed, estimated by competent 
engineers that a class of lines having a gauge of three 
or even three and a half feet, gradients of one in forty, 
and curves of three hundred feet radius, may be con- 
structed at a cost of three to five thousand pounds a 
mile, the average cost of the existing English lines 
having*been thirty thousand pounds a mile." 

Projected Railroads in the South. — The pre- 
sent railroad route between New York and New 
Orleans is a very direct one, and nearly on a straight 
line, from New York to Chattanooga or Dalton, by 
way of Washington, Lynchburg, and Knoxville. From 
Chattanooga or Dalton to New Orleans, the route is a 
very circuitous and round-about one, by way of Grand 
Junction, on the Memphis Railroad. It is proposed, 
therefore, to build an air-line railroad from New 
Orleans to Dalton. The whole route of this proposed 
road has been surveyed, much of it has been graded 
between Dalton and Selma, and the track has actually 
25 



386 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

been laid from Selrna to Jacksonville, in Alabama, a 
distance of one hundred and fifty miles. This portion 
of the road is in fact in operation, and is known as the 
Alabama and Tennessee Eiver Eailroad. 

There remains to be constructed, of the proposed 
route, one hundred miles between Dalton and Jackson- 
ville, and two hundred and fifty miles between New 
Orleans and Selma. 

Projected Railroads in the West. — Notwith- 
standing the amazing progress that has been made in 
the construction of railroads during the last ten years, 
in all probability the next ten years will see an equally 
remarkable increase. To say nothing of the rail- 
roads in Texas, there are several other important lines 
of railroad now in progress, and others in contempla- 
tion which will doubtless be undertaken, in the west 
One of these is a railroad from Chicago to the seaport 
of Guaymas, on the Gulf of California. The proposed 
route is by the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Rail- 
road to Quincy, on the Mississippi River, or else by 
the Chicago and St. Louis Railroad to St. Louis; 
thence by the Southern Pacific Railroad to Kansas 
City ; thence by the general direction of the old Santa 
Pd trail to Santa Pd ; thence down the valley of the 
Rio Grande to El Paso ; and thence across the northern 
j>art of Mexico to Guaymas. The route from Kansas 
City to Santa Pe is said to have been surveyed. 

A glance at the map will show to the reader that 
the route of this proposed railway is the shortest 
possible line between Chicago, the great commercial 
emporium of the west, and the Pacific. The distance 



PROJECTED RAILROADS IN THE WEST. 387 

is at least one- fifth less than the distance by the most 
direct route between Chicago and San Francisco. The 
country through which the road would pass affords a 
more feasible route through the mountains than any 
yet found in a more northern latitude. Unlike the 
more northern Pacific railways, the route does not 
lay entirely through mountain wildernesses and unin- 
habited deserts. More than one-third of the whole 
distance is one of the oldest settled regions in America 
— a region where the European had " stuck his stake," 
was cultivating his fields and feeding vast flocks and 
herds, while the red man was yet disputing with the 
Dutch settlers the possession of Manhattan Island. 
A recent article in the " Chicago Times" says : — 
" The Federal Congress has recently admitted Ne- 
braska to the dignity, equality, and rights of a State, 
and the territory of Colorado stands knocking for ad- 
mission, with a prospect that she also will soon be 
ushered in. The circumstance gives to Nebraska and 
Colorado an importance in the popular mind which 
does not really belong to them. People do not take 
the trouble to know that southward of Colorado lies a 
territory, equal in extent, having a free white popula- 
tion threefold that of Colorado or of Nebraska, and 
one-third greater than both of them together. Such, 
nevertheless, is the fact. 

" The total white population of New Mexico in 1860 
was eighty-two thousand nine hundred and seventy- 
nine. In addition to whites, there were ten thousand 
four hundred and fifty-two Indians, of a class rather 
superior to those who are allowed to vote under the 
constitution of Minnesota. There were also eighty- 



388 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



five Ethiopians, making a total free population of 
ninety-three thousand five hundred and sixteen. The 
total population of Colorado, in the same year, includ- 
ing Indians who could be kept in one place long 
enough to count them, was thirty-four thousand 
two hundred and seventy- seven, and the total aggre- 
gate of Nebraska was twenty-eight thousand eight 
hundred and twenty-six. The population of Colorado 
is believed to have decreased, rather than increased, 
since the census was taken; that of Nebraska has 
probably somewhat increased ; but the population of 
both together does not equal the present population of 
New Mexico. 

" The comparison is yet more remarkable in other 
respects. The subjoined table will give some idea of 
the material and social condition of New Mexico as 



a by the census oi iobU : — 




Occupied land, acres . . . . 


1,326,470 


Improved acres 


149,415 


Unimproved acres 


1,177,066 


Farm implements, valae • • 


$194,005 


Hordes and mules, number • 


11,255 


Milk cows, number • • 


34,461 


Oxen, number 


26,104 


Other cattle, number . • . , 


29,228 


Sheep, number 


836,459 


Wool product, lbs. 


479,245 


Wine product, gals 


8,201 


Flour and meal, value . . • , 


$374,190 


Copper, zinc, and nickel • 


415,000 


Capital invested 


2,081,900 


Assessed value of real and personal pro 




pertj 


$20,838,780 



"It will be seen, upon a comparison of these statis- 
tics with those of other Territories and States, that 



PROJECTED RAILROADS IN THE WEST. 389 

not only was New Mexico far in advance of Colorado 
and Nebraska, but that in some particulars it was in 
advance of States long settled, highly civilized, and 
very radical in politics. The number of sheep in that 
territory exceeded the number in any State of the Re- 
public, excepting only the States of California, Indiana, 
Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, New York, Ohio; 
Pennsylvania, and Virginia, and the wool product was 
greater than in any one of the fifteen States now in the 
Union (including nine of the Southern States which 
are not now in the Union). The wool product seems 
to have been greatly disproportionate to the number 
of sheep, doubtless on account of the difficulty of get- 
ting that product to market. 

" These statistics reveal the important fact that New 
Mexico, unlike Colorado, and regions in the same 
longitude, but of higher latitude, is already an agri- 
cultural and grazing country of no small importance. 
They reveal, moreover, that its inhabitants comprise a 
fixed population engaged in agricultural pursuits, and 
not made up, as in Colorado, of mere adventurers in 
pursuit of gold, here to-day and to-morrow gone. If 
the growth of the territory since it became an Ameri- 
can possession has not been so rapid as some others, it 
has been at the same time less unhealthy. The popu- 
lation increased between 1850 and 1860 from sixty-one 
thousand to ninety-three thousand ; at the same rate 
of increase it is not less at the present time than one 
hundred and twenty thousand. 

" This large population, inhabiting one of the most 
fertile and romantic regions in America, is shut out, 
by distance and by want of facilities of communication, 



390 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

from all the great markets of the continent. It needs 
no remarkable foresight to perceive that the first rail- 
way which penetrates New Mexico will find from the 
moment of its completion a large and remunerative 
traffic. And the construction of such a road will be 
the direct means of stimulating the productions of that 
country, upon a foundation already broadly and per- 
manently laid, with a vigor and rapidity which no 
portion of America has hitherto surpassed. All that 
is needed is that New Mexico shall be connected by 
railv/ay with Chicago. The field of enterprise which 
invites the attention of Chicago in that direction is one 
that has long been sown, and is already ripe witli a 
golden harvest." 

Another article in the same paper says : — 
"Leavenworth now proposes to construct a railway 
link to connect that flourishing city which the great 
Chicago line through Northern Missouri, at Cameron, 
The distance between Leavenworth and Cameron is 
about the same as between Kansas City and Cameron. 
The two lines, with the Missouri Eiver, form an acute 
triangle, the base of which is not more than twenty -five 
or thirty miles (the distance between Kansas City and 
Leavenworth). The rivalry between these two cities 
for commercial supremacy is already lively, and 
promises to be in future yet more active. Leavenworth 
has at present the advantage of greater age, greater 
numbers, and greater wealth than its energetic rival. 
But Kansas City has the advantage in position, save 
only in being located just within the border of Mis- 
souri. Commercially, it is a city of Kansas, and the 
most natural entrepot of the extensive region watered 



PROJECTED RAILROADS IN THE WEST. 391 

• 

by the Kansas Eiver, as well as of the vast country 
southward of that stream, embracing two-thirds of 
the State — a region of prairie and woodland, generally 
well watered, and capable of sustaining a population 
as great as the southern half of Illinois. It is this 
region that the railway system of Kansas is destined 
mainly to penetrate. The Kansas City and Galveston 
line crosses it from north to south ; the Union Pacific 
skirts its northern border ; the great road already pro- 
jected to New Mexico passes diagonally through it. 
These grand trunk lines all concentrate at Kansas 
City, giving to that point ulterior advantages which no 
other place on the Missouri Eiver possesses. If 
Leavenworth expects to retain supremacy as the com- 
mercial emporium of Kansas, it is very evident that 
her inhabitants must be up and doing. This fact they 
are beginning to perceive. 

" Leavenworth County, in Kansas, and the opposite 
County of Platte, in Missouri, have each voted five 
hundred thousand dollars to build the proposed link 
connecting Leavenworth by a direct route with Chi- 
cago. The distance is fifty miles; the amount sub- 
scribed is therefore twenty thousand dollars per mile, 
or about two-thirds of what will be required to com- 
plete the road. This is an energetic beginning, and 
looks like a determination to carry the enterprise to a 
speedy fulfilment. 

" A committee of citizens of Leavenworth will arrive 
in Chicago to-day, to confer with the merchants and 
capitalists of this city, and solicit their interest in the 
enterprise. Nothing is or can be of greater importance 
to this city than the extension of its railway connec- 



392 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

• 

tions in Western Missouri and. Kansas. Every con- 
necting link with the railway system of Kansas is 
more important than two connections with Nebraska, 
or any half dozen connections with regions farther 
north. For roads extending south westwardly from this 
city form, as it were, the base line of the vast region 
whose natural commercial nucleus is Chicago. It is 
the true policy of Chicago to give all the encourage- 
ment in her power to the extension of that base line 
in a southwesterly direction." 

On the 21st of March, 1867, the following article 
appeared in the same paper: — 

"The railway enter])rises in Western Missouri and 
Kansas, having for their immediate object the connec- 
tion of Kansas City and Leavenworth by direct rail- 
way lines with Chicago, are to be followed by an en- 
terprise even more important to a large region of 
country than either. This is, the construction of a 
railway from Ilannibal, Missouri, to a point on the 
North Missouri Eoad in Randolph County, called 
Mowberly, a distance, by direct line, of about sixty 
miles. From Mowberly, the route of the North Mis- 
souri Road is due west to Kansas City, and this part 
of the road, with the proposed link to Hannibal, will 
constitute an air-line from the latter place to Kansas 
City, and thence, by the south branch of the Pacific, 
• an equally direct line to Fort Riley. 

" The legislature of Missouri recently passed an act 
amending the charter of the Hannibal and St. Jo Road, 
by which the latter is bound to 'pro-rate' with any 
and all roads coming to Hannibal on the eastern bank 
of the Mississippi. This will insure the speedy com- 



RAILROADS IN IOWA AND JIINNESOTA. 393 

pletion of the Hannibal and Naples Eoad, in Illinois, 
which was all ready for the iron before the war com- 
menced. From Naples to J^ksonville, and thence up 
the Illinois Kiver Valley to Peoria, and onward by 
connecting lines to Chicago, trains are now daily run- 
ning. 

"The proposed road from Hannibal to Mowberly 
will give to Chicago, by the route indicated, the 
shortest and most direct line of railway to Kansas 
City — so much shorter than other routes that it will, 
not improbably, become the great thoroughfare of travel 
and trade from this point to Kansas, Colorado, and New 
Mexico. Much of the line from Mowberly to Kansas 
City is graded, and a large force of men is now at 
work on it. Over eighty miles of the distance (from 
the mouth of Grand Eiver to Kansas City) has a 
grade of not over seven feet in the mile, and on the re- 
mainder of the route the grades do not exceed forty 
feet in the mile. The link from Mowberly to Hanni- 
bal is under survey." 

Railroads in Iowa and Minnesota. — The Iowa 
and Minnesota Railway Construction Company are 
rapidly progressing in the construction of their lines 
of road from New Oregon, Iowa, to Owatonna, Minne- 
sota, about eighty-five miles. This line of railroad 
runs through the garden of Minnesota, and connects 
St. Paul by rail with Milwaukee and Chicago. It will 
be the first and nearest connection by rail. They have 
now in their employ constructing said road about one 
thousand men. It is expected it will be completed in 
October of this year, in time to move the crops of the 



394 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

present season. In anticipation of its completion, the 
farmers on the line have put under cultivation many 
thousands of additional acres of wheat lands. The 
prospects of a large wheat crop tributary to this line 
of road were never better at this season of the year than 
at present. The line of road, when iSnished, will 
belong to the Milwaukee and St. Paul Eailway Com- 
pany. 

Railroad to the Pacific Ocean. — The railroad 
to the Pacific Ocean is now fairly under way, with a 
good prospect of ultimate success, unless unexpected 
obstacles develop themselves. The route commences 
at Chicago, on the Dixon and Fulton air-line Railroad, 
now a part of the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad, 
and crosses the Mississippi River at Clinton, on a fine, 
iron railroad bridge. It then proceeds, on the con- 
tinuation of the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad, 
to Council Bluffs on the Missouri River, by way of 
Cedar Rapids and Boonsboro. At this point it crosses 
the Missouri River, the town of Omaha being on the 
western side. It then proceeds along the northern 
bank of the Platte River, through Nebraska, for a dis- 
tance of about three hundred miles. It is expected 
that the road will be extended to the base of the 
Rocky Mountains by the summer of 1868. In the 
mean time the work is being prosecuted with energy, 
although not with equal rapidity, from the western end. 
Starting at Sacramento, ninety-four miles are com- 
pleted, to Cisco Station, which is twelve miles from the 
summit of the grand mountain chain of the Sierra 
Nevada. From Cisco to the summit, most of the heavy 



RAILROADS TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN. 395 

rock cutting is now completed. The highest moun- 
tain on the ridge is being pierced by a tunnel which 
will be sixteen hundred and fifty-eight feet long. 
Only five hundred feet of this tunnel remain to be cut, 
and large parties of men are working at it day and 
night. East of the summit, the descent will be much 
easier, as the surveys have shown that the great inte- 
rior basin of Nevada is elevated four thousand feet 
above the sea level. 

The two working parties, working from the east and 
west, the one from Sacramento and the other from 
Omaha, are expected to meet each other at Salt Lake 
City about five years from the present time. A recent 
article in the New York Express says : — 

*^ The necessity for a railroad to the Pacific has been 
recognized ever since the discoveries of gold on that 
coast drew thither large numbers of our most energetic 
people. The more recent discoveries of the precious 
metals, both in California and the contiguous territory ; 
the demonstration of extraordinary agricultural capa- 
cities, and the prospect of a large trade with the Em- 
pires of Eastern Asia, have successively added to the 
original need for railroad communication with the Far 
West. There is a manifest disability in being obliged 
to send passengers, mails, and freight through the 
tropics, across a foreign territory, a distance of six 
thousand miles ; or through the Antarctic Ocean, half 
round the world, when we might have a short road of 
our own. The commercial and social requirements of 
our Pacific Colonies — not to mention the military ad- 
vantages to the national authority — would long ago 
have justified the Government in constructing such a 



396 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

road, if the building of railroads were any part of its 
functions. The development of a considerable min- 
ing industry in the intermediate territories, and a 
growing population along the temperate belt across 
the continent, render it at this time a work of para- 
mount importance ; since railroads have become prime 
agencies in expanding our productive power, the arte- 
ries and veins of our social organism. 

" To encourage such a work of internal improvement 
Congress granted to three separate routes large quan- 
tities of public lands ; but the outbreak of war, and the 
diversion of capital to other channels, delayed the 
enterprise — which was all the while becoming more 
indispensable. At last, after examination, Congress 
came again to the relief of the only route which had 
made a fair beginning, and generously loaned its credit 
to an amount estimated to be half sufficient to build a 
continuous line of road from the Missouri to the Pacific ; 
providing for the repayment by the services of the road, 
or a small percentage upon its future business. The 
route adopted for this subsidy, as is well-known, was 
the Central Route, undertaken by two separate corpora- 
tions — the Union Pacific, building from this end for- 
ward ; and the Central Pacific, building from the other 
end this way. The sum of fifty millions was set apart 
to be divided equally between these two companies, 
and a much smaller sum for an Eastern Branch, on this 
side of the Rocky Mountains; the two links of the main 
line to build as fast and as far as they could, till a junc- 
tion was effected ; the bonds of the Government being 
issued in proportion to the length done, and the diffi- 
culty of construction. The road is required to be first- 



RAILROADS TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN. 397 

class, and the further grant of twelve thousand eight 
hundred acres of land per mile may be reckoned among 
its ulterior resources. 

''Under this stimulus the two companies have made 
commendable progress within the past two years. At 
this end the Union Pacific had been stretched three 
hundred miles beyond the Missouri at Omaha, and ex- 
pects to reach the base of the Eocky Mountains by 
the close of this year. The connection at the meet- 
ing point near Salt Lake City is set down for July, 
1871, or six years earlier than the limit fixed by law. 
The Central Pacific Company, at the other end, being 
less affected by the war, and powerfully attracted by 
the immense traffic between California and the rich 
mining regions of Nevada and Idaho, has made even 
more gratifying progress ; and is relatively at this day 
nearer completion than the Union. In- November 
last it had ninety-four miles in running order, from 
Sacramento to Cisco ; that is, to within twelve miles of 
the summit of the grand mountain chain of the Sierras. 
Grading has been done for some miles beyond, and a 
tunnel through the crest, now half cut, is all that de- 
lays the successful passage of the dreaded mountains. 
In August next, it is confidently expected the road 
will have reached the comparatively even surface of 
the inferior plains. The average ascent, in the one 
hundred miles built is about seventy-one feet per mile ; 
once gained, the elevation is never lost ; the greatest 
elevation being seven thousand and forty-two feet 
above the sea-level. Nowhere are the grades heavier 
than on the Baltimore and Ohio, and it is quite practi- 
cable to cross with the locomotives at a high rate of 
speed at all seasons of the year. 



398 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

" The costliest and heaviest portion of tlie Central 
Company's grading is now don^ and passed. Iron is 
being hauled across the mountain summit to be laid 
at once. In July next, it is expected, the last rock 
will have been blown out of the mountain tunnels^ 
and the locomotive will be shrieking its glad tidings 
at the Nevada boundary. The mountain section, gf 
which each Company has one hundred and fifty miles, 
is so nearly completed on the part of the Central Pa- 
cific Eailroad Company that the bulk of the difficulty 
is practically overcome as the course across the plains 
to Salt Lake is comparatively easy work. 

'' The cost of building the road from Sacramento to 
the eastern base of the Sierra Nevadas will be, in 
round numbers, fifteen million six hundred thousand 
dollars ; or at the rate of one hundred thousand dollars 
per mile. Five millions more will have been expend- 
ed by the 1st of July, which will cover a very libe- 
ral equipment for that length of road and iron enough 
for one hundred and fifty miles additional. This is a 
good sum of money, but the Company has been favored 
by abundant revenues, viz : — 

Donation of San Francisco Gold bear- 
ing Bonds ..... $400,000 00 
U. S. Government Bonds . . . 7,336,000 00 
First Mortgage Bonds . ... 7,336,000 00 
Convertible Bonds .... 1,500,000 00 
California State Aid Bonds . . 1,500,000 00 
Subscriptions to Capital stock (mostly 

in Gold) 3,000,000 00 

Public Land, 2,000,000 acres . . 3,000,000 00 
Net earnings after interest pajmenta 

(gold 1865 and 1866) . . . 708,664 42 

Net earnings to July, 18C7 . . . 386 ,818 27 

Total resources for 156 miles $25,166,482 69 



RAILROADS TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN. 399 

" It will be seen that only two of these items bear 
interest for the payment of which the Company is 
chargeable. The whole interest liability upon this 
schedule will be, for the present year, but five hundred 
and forty-five thousand one hundred and sixty dollars 
in gold ; while its net earnings by a moderate estimate 
will be three or four times that sum. 

" As a still further inducement to enlisting private 
capital in this semi-public enterprise, the Central 
Pacific Company was authorized to issue its own 
first mortgage bonds to the same amount with the 
bonds issued by the United States for the purpose 
which should have precedence over all others; that is 
to say, they are made by law an absolute first lien 
upon the road, its franchises, improvements, &c. 
These bonds, it appears, the Central Pacific Com- 
pany are now offering, to a limited amount (in order 
to finish the remainder of the road as rapidly as pos- 
sible), at rates very advantageous to surplus capital. 
As they constitute a prior claim upon such a valua- 
ble property, and are offered at ten per cent, less 
than the Government bonds, bearing the same inter- 
est, they are one of the most profitable and certain 
investments to be found. So long as there are peo- 
ple, land, law, and property, there must be railroads ; 
and a road lying athwart the continent, through the 
present centres of population of the Far West, with 
an immense through traffic waiting for . it, is one of 
the most stable things in existence. These bonds, 
at the present rate of gold, will pay over eight per cent. 
and the business profit of the road upon a mere un- 



400 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

flnisbed fragment is more than four times the amount 
of interest upon its bonded debt." 

An article in the "New York Tribune/' on the 
same subject, says : — 

" The chief difficulties apprehended in the construc- 
tion of the great railroad .to the Pacific, higli moun- 
tain crossings and winter snow obstructions, prove, 
upon practical test, to be not at all formidable. The 
two mountain ranges have to be crossed at elevations 
of over seven thousand feet, or nearly three times the 
height of any railroad lines hitherto built on this conti- 
nent. Experience shows that it is entirely practicable, 
and that the deep snows are not likely to prove very 
serious obstacles. The Central Pacific Railroad of 
California, the western end of the great national route, 
commencing at Sacramento (tide water) in 1863 en- 
countered, at the outset of its career, the mountain 
difficulty in its worst form ; the dreaded Sierras had to 
be overcome within the first hundred miles. In 
November last, however, it had carried its track 
nearly to the summit, and had demonstrated the feasi- 
bility of the whole mountain passage with less average 
engineering resistance than the Alleghanies afe crossed, 
thus disposing of one of the twin fears. During an 
unusually severe winter just closed, it has successfully 
operated the road as far as built, and could have done 
so over the mountains with equal ease. It has had 
large working parties on the Summit Pass, so as to 
convince its officers that the other fear of impassable 
snow-drifts is equally needless. Only three days have 
the trains failed to make the regular trips, which is far 



RAILROADS TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN. 401 

less interruption than has attended many of the Atlan- 
tic lines. 

•* The whole mountain ascent and descent is now in 
the hands of the contractors, and nearly graded, -de- 
veloping a feasible and favorable line, the most diffi- 
cult portion of which is now running. From Sacra- 
mento to Cisco Station, the present terminus, is ninety- 
four miles, in which five thousand nine hundred 
and eleven of the total seven thousand and forty-two 
feet of ascent are made. This portion embraces the 
heaviest and costliest portion of the work. The ascent 
is continuous ; once gained, it is never lost, the average 
rate being sevepty-five feet to the mile; the maximum, 
one hundred and sixteen feet to the mile, of which there 
are but three and a half miles. The bulk of the heavy 
grade is at one hundred and five feet to the mile, with 
numerous level intervals interspersed. Thirty per 
cent, only of the distance is occupied by curves, none 
of which have a radius of less than five hundred and 
seventy -three feet, or ten degrees. The Baltimore and 
Ohio Eailroad has seventeen miles, in two stretches, of 
one hundred and sixteen feet grade, with curves of four 
hundred Teet radius; and the Virginia Central for 
many years worked w^ith the unaided locomotive 
grades of two hundred and ninety-six feet to the mile, 
and ruling curves whose radii were three hundred feet. 
By crossing from one spur and ridge to another, pierc- 
ing by a number of short tunnels and deep cuts where 
necessary, the line has been made available for pas- 
senger trains to run at twenty-five miles an hour, and 
freight trains at half that speed. The time consumed 
26 



402 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

in making the trip, including stoppages, is six hours, 
with ordinary engines and trains. 

" From Cisco to the Summit most of the heavy rock 
cutting is now done. The crest of the ridge is pierced 
by a tunnel of one thousand six hundred and fifty- 
eight feet, the longest on the road, of which about five 
hundred feet remain uncut, and at which men are 
working night and day the week round, excayating at 
the rate of seven feet per day. East of the summit the 
descent is much easier, the great interior basin being 
elevated four thousand feet above the sea level. In 
fourteen miles there is a fall of one thousand one hun- 
dred feet, after which there is a gentle slope, nowhere 
exceeding forty-five feet to the mile, eastward toward 
Salt Lake. Tliere are, including the Summit Tunnel, 
fourteen tunnels (in all two thousand feet) on the por- 
tion now grading, two-thirds of which have been cut 
out. The greater portion of the line is so sheltered by 
excavations that it will be necessary to erect sheds 
over it fior two miles only, in order to shoot the snow- 
slides clear of the track. Provision is made in the 
larger tunnels and heavy cuttings for a double track, 
which, from present indications, will be necessary at 
no distant day to accommodate the growing traffic. 
Ten thousand men, mostly Chinese laborers, are em- 
ployed on the work, the heavy parts of which are in 
a forward state, and it is confidently believed that in 
July next the locomotive will be traversing the plains 
of Nevada. 

" The following table will show the rate of progress 
and the elevation above the sea level : — 



Miles. 


Feet. 


31 


930 


36 




42 


1,600 


66 


2,448 


66 


3,416 


73 


3,700 


94 


5,911 


. 105 


7,042 


. 150 


6,800 


. 250 


4,000 


. 725 


4,285 



RAILROADS TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN. 403 

Jan. 1, 1865, to New Castle 

May 13, 1865, to Auburn . 

June 10, 1865, to Clipper Gap 

Sept. 4, 1865, to Colfax 

May 8, 1866, to Secret Town 

July 10, 1866, to Alta 

Nov. 29, 1866, to Cisco 

July, 1867, to Summit 

September, J867, to Virginia Station 

January, 1868, to Big Meadow . 

January, 1870, to Salt Lake City . 

" The original estimated cost of building the road 
across the Sierras was slightly above that of the most 
expensive railroads in the country where the right of 
way had to be purchased at considerable cost ; and 
compared as follows : — 

Boston and Providence Railroad cost per mile . $81,273 

Boston and Lowell Railroad cost per mile • 78,636 

New York and Erie Railway about . . . 80,000 

Hudson River Railroad about .... 80,000 

Pacific Central (Mountain Division) estimated . 88,400 

" Up to the first of January last the Central Pacific 
Company had expended in building the ninety-four 
miles in operation together with about a third of the 
preparation upon twenty-five miles additional and for 
a liberal equipment of rolling stock, nearly fifteen 
millions of dollars ($14,558,714). Fifty miles addi- 
tional, or about one hundred and fifty in all, will, it is 
confidently expected, be running in July next, which 
brings the road to the comparatively smooth ground. 
The total construction cost of this mountain section 
will be about fifteen millions of dollars, or at the rate 
of one hundred thousand dollars per mile. The rest 



404 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

of the (listiince to Salt Lake City, five hundred and 
scvcnty-five miles, can be constructed for about sixty 
thousand dollars per mile. The difference in the 
prices of labor and iron sufficiently accounts for the 
increase upon the original estimate. About five mil- 
lions of dollars more will have been expended by mid- 
summer for iron rails and equipments, most of which 
are either on the other side or en route. The bulk of 
the engineering difficulties, it will be observed, has 
already been overcome; and by far the most costly 
and rugged resistance left behind. Rails are already 
being laid east of the summit, ready for the advance 
when the tunnel is opened. 

"As might be anticipated, the Central Pacific is to 
be classed among the most expensive roads in the 
country. Such were the imperative demands of the 
local transportation between California and the min- 
ing regions east of the Sierras, that a steam road even 
at this cost was an economy. It has been estimated 
that the wagon freights across the mountains in a 
single year, before the commencement of a railroad, 
amounted to fully thirteen millions of dollars ; which of 
itself would, without any increase, be a sufficient motive 
for building a railroad. If wc consider the enormous 
through travel, which is to pass to and fro between 
China and Europe — the natural expansion of the 
Western States and Territories ; the stimulation which 
must follow to mining enterprises; and the equally im- 
portant national, military, social, and civilizing ad- 
vantage to be reached — the railroad becomes a pressing 
necessity ; and the liberal subsidies of the Govern- 
ment to such a work of internal improvement seem 



KAILROADS TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN. 405 

eminently wise and proper. Thus far the Cali- 
fornia projectors have pushed on their half of the 
work with commendable vigor and steadiness; and 
in a few weeks will have easy work before them. 
'^I'he law requires that the road shall be substantially 
built, of the best American materials, and in such a 
way as befits its semi-national. character. 

" The following table will show the actual net earn- 
ings of tTie road as it progressed up the mountain side, 
after the payment of operating expenses, for the past 
three years, the earnings being stated in gold, the 
money of California, and the relation of the earnings 
to the interest charges assumed by the road, upon the 
supposition that the whole amount of bonds authorized 
will have been issued : — 



Date. 


Av. miles 


Net earnings 


Int. payable on 


Av. net earn- At. debt 




raDDing. 


(gold). 


bonded debt. 


ings p. mile, charges p. m. 


1865 


40 


$280,272 


$102,111 


$7,000 $2,550 


1866 


75 


655,883 


125,380 


8,750 1,672 


1867 


150 


1,600,000 


545,000 


10,937 3,633 



" Thus it will be seen that the road is abundantly 
able to pay the interest engagements upon the con- 
struction ; but as the general Government and Cali- 
fornia corporations have assumed the larger portion 
ot the interest bearing charge, the Company is able 
to carry over a handsome surplus to the construction 
fund. As the heaviest expenditure is now made, and 
every extension of the road adds to the value of the 
whole, by decreasing the ratio of operating expenses 
at the same time that it multiplies its own natural 
business, the point of financial difficulty has also 
been passed. Once across the mountains, a whole 
scheme of industrial enterprises in Nevada and 



406 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Idaho stand ready to be quickened into aotivitj, 
which have hitherto been beyond the limit of pro- 
fitable working. With the topographical, climatic, 
and financial difficulties subdued, the Pacific Bailroad 
of California becomes a settled and imminent suc- 
cess. In its outlays, it is worthy to be noted, the 
Californians are fortunate in being able to command 
large numbers of cheap, serviceable Chinese laborers; 
and also in the fact that the iron and heavy freights 
can be shipped round the horn at less cost than it 
would take to send them to the Missouri River. We 
may look for some astonishing advances from the en- 
ergetic people on the Pacific, in completing the great 
work which is to bring them two weeks nearer to their 
old homes." 

A recent letter in the "New York Express," signed 
by the well-known initials " J. B.," gives the following 
lively account of the state of afiairs on the Pacific Eail- 
road in May, 1867 : — 

" We left Albany, a little party of us, about ten 
o'clock of a morning, in a Pullman's saloon parlor car, to 
go in it to Council Bluffs, on the Missouri River. The 
Central Eailroad added on one of its splendid day cars, 
and gave us an extra locomotive, and we rolled — we 
flew to Niagara. The Canadian Great Western added 
on an official car of their own, and we rolled, and flew, 
at night, through Upper Canada. Our eyes opened in 
the morning on the clear waters of the Detroit River. 
The Michigan Central gave us another special locomo- 
tive, and we found ourselves in Chicago, near two P. M., 
not twenty-eight hours from Albany. Now, speed is 
something — but comfort is the thing. Pullman pro- 



RAILROADS TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN. 407 

vided us with the best of beds, some, in state rooms, 
private and solitary, if not alone — some, in a saloon — 
h I presto, converted by some machinery into bedrooms; 
and Kingsley — (honor be on his head forever, for he 
knows how to cook, and cooking is an art divine, that 
comes only from the gods) — and Kingsley gave us 
breakfasts and dinners and teas — and such breakfasts 
and dinners and teas as only the gods have in their 
symposia. He cooked his dinner in the car, in a little 
bit of a kitchen, about as big as a Saratoga trunk, and 
served it up on tables for two, or three, persons, 
between every seat of the car. We were eighty miles 
long eating one dinner, and you can judge, therefore, 
how good must have been such linked sweetness thus 
drawn out. 

'' Hence, I honor Kingsley, Great as we are — we, 
the mighty American People — capable, peradventure, 
of thrashing all mankind — ' galorious' as is our eagle, 
' wide-spread,' 'broad-spread,' 'ever soaring,' etc. — a 
beef steak or a mutton chop is yet beyond our genius, 
and a loaf of bread — not of dough — is among us a 
miracle. Great is a cook, therefore, in a cookless coun- 
try ; for more lives are to be saved, or to be prolonged 
by cookery than by all the arts of the Pharmacopoeia. 
Feed 'us well, and there will be no dyspepsia, and no 
cross husbands, nor cross wives, nor cross children. 
Next to a Christian Missionary is a Christian Cook — 
and he best serves God in this country, who is teach- 
ing us — as Pullman and Kingsley are how to ride on 
a rail — and at peace, and at leisure, to be an hour eat- 
ing breakfast — an hour or two for a dinner, and an 
hour or more for a tea. Think of how we rush in and 



408 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

rush out of the eating houses en route, and think how 
we die, therefrom, of dyspepsia I 'Ten minutes for 
dinner,' cries the conductor. The bell rings, the 
waiters cry, and j'ell, and pull, and haul. 'Twenty 
minutes' is a luxury. More lives are cut short in this 
way, than by all the whiskey in the country. We eat 
and run. Both hands and arms pitch in. Here, there 
goes a slice of bacon ; there, a lot of eggs^ or a chicken, 
legs, wings, and all! there^ corned beei as tough as 
hide; there, white-oak pies — all, all are pitched into 
the gullet, and the poor stomach raves and roars under 
the terrible burden. Pullman and King8le;y are to 
save us all therefrom, and God bless them. 

" Chicago was left between ten and eleven A. M., 
and by three or four we were on the bridge over the 
Mississippi, at Clinton. The great father of waters 
— think of it, now, has to consent to be shackled by 
bridges, and loconrjotives, and cars ! The common law 
made him a monarch of waters — but the locomotive, 
now, repeals and reverses such common laws. Water 
here is no match for fire. The boatmen growl, the 
raftsmen swear — but on strides the locomotive, from 
bank to bank, over mast and pipe — with an utter 
recklessness of all the craft below it. The Missouri is 
to be everywhere bridged, as well as the Mississippi, 
for trade runs East and West — and what trade wills, 
the laws obey — while the great waters of the West 
will soon be left only to the heavy freights of the com- 
mon boatmen. 

•'And now, here at Omaha, we are on the track of 
the Great Pacific Railroad, which we had come to 
sec and to ride over. If ever there was art audacious 



RAILROADS TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN. 409 

enterprise on earth, it is this Pacific Eoad. We are 
one thousand eight hundred miles from New York by 
rail ; and here, with no railroad connection east, when 
the work was begun ; with a very imperfect and 
roundabout river communication on the Missouri; 
with no timber for ties ; with iron to be transported 
all the way from Pennsylvania via Chicago and St. 
Joseph's (Mo.) ; with labor to be improvised, beyond the 
reach of bed and board, &c., far beyond all civiliza- 
tion ; with car-houses on tracks for laborers to eat and 
sleep in ; with cooking establishments, bed establish- 
ments, and all — a railroad is pushed on three hundred 
and seven miles west of Omaha, last year two miles 
per day, and this year, soon, two miles per day more. 
There never was anything like it * in Greek or Eoman 
fame.' Talk not of the Colossus of Ehodes — but a 
trifle at best — or even of the hanging gardens of Baby- 
lon, or of the Pyramids — for what were they all but 
the works of a great and civilized people, in the heart 
of high civilization, while here is the locomotive run- 
ning where you can shoot the antelope from the engine* 
or prairie dogs, or wolves, that howl about at night ? 
The tawny Pawnee, hanging about you here, is not the 
intelligent, cultivated, scientific Egyptian, that put up 
the Pyramids, but a lazy, loafing savage, ready for 
murder or robbery, if necessary ; and hostile tribes of 
savages, Cheyennes, and Sioux, even now, not far ofl^ 
are perpetrating horrible butcheries. To build a road 
then, such as the Union Pacific, over treeless prairies, 
where there is not even a stone for an abutment or a 
foundation, over rivers like the fierce Elkhorn ijnd the 
wild Platte ; where there is not a thing to eat, save the 



410 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

antelope or the buffalo ; to be pushing it on in front 
of, and in defiance of the Rocky Mountain Alpine sum- 
mits and passes — does, indeed, ' eclipse all Greek and 
Roman fame.' And, what is wonderful, the mind, the 
genius that conceives and directs the great work, is 
one thousand eight hundred miles from here, in Nassau 
Street, New York, where the telegraph is the daily 
messenger, that guides all things with success and 
safety. 3Iind and matter never before thus co- worked 
or worked better together. The Electric Thought of 
the Managing Director, T. C. Durant, in his New York 
office, flashes off orders and directions, one thousand 
eight hundred miles off, and all, seemingly, goes on • 
well, as if he were on the spot, personally superintend- 
ing the wonderful creation. 

" Omaha is full of workshops. The locomotives are 
not built here, but completely kept in order and repair 
here. The cars of all kinds are made here. The 
workshops also manufacture all sorts of things neces- 
sary for a new country, and such as could not be 
brought from the East without too much delay and 
expense, the tin ware, the iron ware, the stoves, the 
furniture of the cars, &c. ; things almost innumerable. 

" Well, on a Tuesday morning, about ten A. M., we 
were rolled from the depot at Omaha — with a Com- 
mittee of the Directors on board, Mr. Ames, the great 
shovel man of Massachusetts, Mr. Dillon, the great 
railroad contractor of the Jersey Central and other 
roads, now living in New York, with Mr. Dufl^ of Bos- 
ton, the builder of the Hannibal and St. Joseph's — with 
Mr. Cooke, the President of the Bock Island, and the 
Government Directors from Springfield, Illinois^ Mr. 



RAILROADS TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN. 411 

Carter — in a voyage of discovery, on the railroad and 
over the plains. These Directors were here, to receive 
from the Credit Mobilier, the work contracted for — and 
in an officers' car — with the now indispensable Kings- 
ley — over the rough Elkhorn, and the boundless 
prairies and plains, we were rolling again till late in 
the evening. About the best dinner hungry man ever 
had was served up in the cars on the plains. We slept 
during the night, as if in the Fifth Avenue, New York, 
or in the Continental, Philadelphia. There was nothing 
to see but ' plain,' ' plain,' ' prairie, ' prairie' — nothing 
save a depot here and there- — no houses, no settlements, 
beyond the Elkhorn. We took from the armory of 
the cars rifles with sixteen shots in them, and banged 
away and away — and actually shot one antelope, while 
going thirty miles an hout*. Night brought us up 
beyond the North Platte, on the great plain, where 
were workmen by hundreds, with long strings of cars, 
with rails and ties upon them, and provisions, construc- 
tion houses, &c. — the laborers therefrom, rising with 
the sun, washing themselves in the muddy water of the 
ditches, and toiling on all the day, with tie over tie, 
and rail upon rail. The road makers expect to be two 
hundred miles from here, on the Rocky Mountain pla- 
teaux, before the next winter storms set in. 

"I cannot end this long, rambling 'yarn,' without 
adding on, that we of the East are about a quarter of a 
century behind the West in cars, and the comforts and 
appliances of travelling. We have no such sleeping 
cars as Pullman is running over the Pacific road, 
through the very wilds of Nebraska. 

* Westward the Star of Empire takes its way.' " 



412 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

ON THE COMPARATIVE MERITS OF IRON AND STEEL 

RAILS. 

An article in the " London Quarterly Review," for 
July, 1866, says : — 

" The first wrought-iron rails laid down were only 
twenty-five pounds to the yard ; but they were soon 
found too light for the loads they had to carry. When 
George Stephenson was examined by Mr. (afterwards 
Baron) Alderson, before the Committee on the Liver- 
pool and Manchester Railway Bill, he was taken to 
task about the weakness of the Hetton Road, and the 
danger of travelling by railway, on the assumption of 
trains being run at the dangerous, but then hypotheti- 
cal, speed of twelve miles an hour. The witness was 
asked — 'Do not wrought-iron rails bend — take Hetton 
Colliery for instance ?' — ' They are wrought-iron, but 
they are weak rails.' 'Do you not know that those 
bend ?' — ' Perhaps they may bend, not being made 
sufficiently strong.' ' And if they are made sufi&ciently 
strong, that will involve an additional expense ?' — ' It 
will.' ' Then if you were to make them of adamant^ 
that would be very expensive?' — 'It does not require 
a very great expense to make them strong enough for 
heavier work.' 

" That there might be no deficiency of strength in 



MERITS OF IRON AND STEEL RAILS. 413 

the fish-bellied rails first laid down upon the Liverpool 
and Manchester line, they were made of the unusual 
weight of thirty-five pounds to the yard. But the ex- 
traordinary speed of the locomotive had not yet been 
discovered, and there is no doubt that the performances 
of the 'Eocket' surpassed the expectations of even 
George Stephenson himself. Although the engine 
weighed only four and a half tons, it proved too heavy 
— when running at high speeds — for the malleable 
rails ; and as the traflSc grew, and heavier engines were 
introduced on the line, the weight of the rails was in- 
creased from time to time, but not in like proportion 
to the weight of the locomotives. For while the mal- 
leable rails have been increased from twenty-eight 
pounds to seventy-five and even eighty-six pounds to 
the yard, the locomotive has been increased from four 
and a half tons, as in the 'Eocket,' to thirty and thirty- 
five tons, the weight of first-class express engines. 
The disproportion between the weight and force of the 
engine and the resistance of the rail has been con- 
stantly increasing ; until the point has at length been 
reached at which no additional weight in the rails will 
enable them to resist the crushing load of the modern 
locomotive. As in the case of the battle between guns 
and iron plates, the weight of both has been increased, 
until at length, unless a new material — the ' adamant' 
imagined by Mr. Alderson — be employed, it is clear 
that as regards the locomotive and the iron road the 
latter will be vanquished in the contest. The defect is 
in the material, to which a crushing power is applied 
which ordinary iron is positively incapable of resisting. 
The points of contact of the wheels of a thirty ton loco- 



414 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

motive with the rail are very minute, and upon these 
points, the whole weight of the engine presses. The 
cfl'cct is to squeeze and crush the iron and roll it off 
in lamina3, as any one may observe who examines a 
rail laid down on a line of heavy traffic that has borne 
a fair amount of work under the heavier class of en- 
gine.* On some of the metropolitan lines iron rails, 
especially if placed on sharp curves, will scarcely last 
a year. Hence the railroad has become even less 'per- 
manent' now, with its rail of iron, than it was with its 
original rail of wood a hundred years ago. It has 
thus become absolutely necessary to introduce a new 
material, and that material is to be found in Steel. 

*' The greatly superior resistance which steel offers 
to crushing as compared with iron, may be learnt from 
the experiments made by Mr. William Fairbairn, with 
the object of ascertaining their respective strengths in 
this respect. A piece of cast-iron, both ends flat, was 
crushed by a pressure to which it was subjected of fifty- 
five tons to the square inch ; and a piece of malleable 
iron of the same shape was flattened by a pressure of 
seventy -three tons to the square inch ; while a piece of 
steel of the same shape resisted a pressure of one hun- 
dred and twenty tons per square inch without being 

* " The friction between the driving wheels and the raUa, when 
, the engine is thundering along at high speed, is also very great, 
and the iron is ground off in minute particles, and thrown into the 
air. Dr. Angus Smith, when once travelling by railway, took the 
pains to collect some of the particles which floated about him in 
the carriage and seemed to shine with metallic lustre. On exami- 
nation they were found to be in reality minute rolled plates of Iron, 
which seeniod to have been heavily pressed and torn up from the 
surface of the rails." 



MERITS OF IBON AND STEEL RAILS. 415 

either crushed or flattened * The result of certain 
American experiments, quoted by Mr. Mallett, was to 
a like effect. The mean resistance of cast steel to com- 
pre^ion was found to be two hundred and ninety-five 
thousand pounds, of cast iron, one hundred and twenty- 
five thousand pounds, and of wrought iron eighty-three 
thousand five hundred pounds; while the tensile 
strength was forty tons for mild cast steel, twenty to 
twenty-five tons for wrought iron, and ten to twelve 
tons for cast iron. Thus in cast steel we find a mate- 
rial not only capable of resisting a far greater compres- 
sive force than any known metal can do, but also one 
whose tensile strength is nearly double that of wrought 
and more than three times that of cast iron. 

"The comparatively perishable nature of wrought 
iron when subjected to the crushing load ot the 
modern express locomotive, has necessarily led to a 
large increase in the annual cost for maintenance and 
renewal of railways. Thus, while the percentage of 
locomotive expenses on gross receipts has somewhat 
decreased on the Great Northern line during the last 
fourteen years, the cost of maintenance of way has in- 
creased during the same period more than two hun- 
dred per cent. In an excellent practical paper re- 
cently read by Mr. R. Price Williamsf before the In- 
stitute of Civil Engineers, some striking facts were 
adduced in illustration of this rapid increase in the 

* ^'Ti^atise on Iron Shipbuilding." By Wm. Fairbaini, C. K 
18G5. p. 48. 

t On the maintenance and renewal of permanent way. Read 
hy R. Price Williams, M.I. C.E., before the Institute of Civil Engi- 
neers, March 12, 1866. 



416 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

tear and wear of permanent way of late years. It was 
shown that during a period of thirteen years, most of 
the Great Northern up-line between Potter's Bar and 
Ilornsey, where there are heavy descending gradients, 
has been renewed not less than three times, giving an 
average of only three and a half years as the * life of a 
rair under heavy coal and passenger traffic worked at 
high speeds. That it is ' the pace that kills' as well as 
the weight, is obvious from another fact stated by Mr. 
Williams with respect to the Lancashire and York- 
shire line, where an equal number of trains erf about 
the same tonnage as in the case of the Great Northern 
line, were worked at low speeds over a portion of rail- 
way between Bury and Accrington, but there the rails 
lasted as long as seven and a quarter years. 

"The heavy cost of maintenance and renewals on 
the London and Northwestern Railway has for some 
time been a marked feature in the accounts of that 
Company. As the renewal of the road is properly 
chargeable against revenue, any large increase of ex- 
pense on this account necessarily tells upon dividend ; 
and hence, to relieve revenue against exceptionally 
heavy charges for renewals, the expedient of a saspense 
fund has been adopted by some of the larger com- 
j):inies. But, in 1857, the suspense renewal fund of 
the London and Northwestern Company was found to 
be so heavily in debt, that the only practical mode 
that could be devised for dealing with it was to write 
it off direct to capital to the amount of two hundred 
and fifty-six thousand five hundred and eighty-eight 
pounds ; and since that date fifty-six thousand pounds 
have been charged to capital for renewals in like 



MERITS OP IRON AND STEEL RAILS. 417 

manner. The Great Eastern Company also cut the 
same knot by charging eighty-six thousand pounds to 
capital instead of revenue only two years ago ; while 
the Manchester, Sheffield, and Linconshire Company, 
between the years 1854 and 1861, judging by the 
accounts, charged renewals direct to capital, without 
even the pretence of a suspense account. The charge 
in respect of renewals is always exceedingly variable. 
During the first few years of working a railway, while 
materials are all new, the cost is comparatively light ; 
no provision is made for replacing them when worn 
out ; but as years pass on, and the rails, sleepers, and 
chairs have to be renewed, the outlay rapidly in- 
creasesi Thus, in 1847, the charge for renewals on the 
London and Northwestern Eailway was thirty-eight 
pounds per mile; in the next five years it was one 
hundred and one pounds per mile; and in the ten 
years following, two hundred pounds per mile; the 
total expenditure of the Company on renewals of way 
alone, during nineteen years, having amounted to one 
million nine hundred and six thousand eight hundred 
and fifty-eight pounds. 'The average annual expen- 
diture of the Company for renewals since 1847,' says 
Mr. Williams, 'has amounted to one hundred and 
three thousand and seventy-four pounds. This repre- 
sents something like seventy-three miles of single way 
of the main line broken up and entirely replaced annu- 
ally during the period; chiefly in situations where the 
traffic was heaviest, and where consequently (owing to 
the short intervals between trains) the facilities for do- 
ing the work are the least, and the danger of accident 
the greatest.' 
27 



418 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

'• The consideration of these circumstaDees led tho 
officials of the London and Northwestern Company to 
direct their attention to the employment of some more 
durable material than ordinary wrought iron for rails, 
with the object of providing a more 'permanent' way 
than any that had yet been adopted. Mr. Woodhouse, 
the Superintendent of the permanent way department, 
induced the Directors, in 1861, to order five hundred 
tons of Bessemer steel rails, which were laid down at 
such i>arts of the line as were subject to the most rapid 
destruction, not only by the passage of the regular 
traffic, but the starting, stopping, shunting, and mak- 
ing up of trains. Some of these were laid down in the 
Crowe Station, and others at Camden Station. Per- 
haps there is no spot on any railway in Europe where 
the traffic is so great as at the latter place. At Chalk 
Farm Bridge there is a narrow throat in the line, at 
Avliich tlic whole system of rails employed at the Lon- 
don termini of this great Company converges. There 
all tlic passenger, goods, and coal trains have-to pass, 
and the shunting of carriages is constantly going on 
day and night. The iron rails laid down in this throat 
were rapidly ground to pieces by the enormous 
traffic. The face of a rail was usually worn away in 
little more than two months; and the traffic being so 
uninterniitting, its stoppage for the purpose of chang- 
ing tlio mils or renewing them was found most inconve- 
]iionl as well as dangerous. 

" Certainly no better spot could have been fixed 
upon for determining the durability of the Bessemer 
matei-ial. On the 2d of May, 1862, two steel rails 
were laid down i:)rcciscly opposite two new iron rails 



MERITS OF IRON AND STEEL RAILS. 419 

of the best quality, so that no engine or carriage could 
pass over the iron rails without also passing over the 
steel. When the iron rails were worn as far as the 
safety of the traffic would allow, they were turned, the 
lower side upwards, and the second face was worn off 
in like manner. The old rail was then replaced by a 
new one, and this process went on until the 22d of 
August, 1865, when one of the steel rails- was taken 
up. It was computed by the engineer, that during 
the period that had elapsed since it was laid down 
(three years and about four months) not fewer than 
nine million five hundred and fifty thousand engines, 
carriages, and trucks, weighing ninety-five million 
five hundred and seventy-seven thousand two hun- 
dred and forty tons, had passed over one face of the 
steel rail, and worn it evenly down about a quarter 
of an inch, whilst it was still capable of enduring a 
good -deal more of the same work. During the same 
time eight iron rails had been entirely worn out on 
both faces, and the seventeenth face was in use when 
the steel rail was taken up. The extraordinary en- 
durance of the new material compared with the old 
was farther proved at Crewe Station, along both sides 
of which steel rails were laid down, and after three 
years' wear not one of them required turning ; whilst 
iron rails similarly placed had been removed or turned 
every few months. 

" These results were deemed quite conclusive on the 
subject ; and, after mature consideration, the Directors 
of the Company were so satisfied of the advantages in 
an economical point of view, as well as on the ground 
of increased safety to the public, of using the strongest 



420 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

and more durable material, that they wisely resolved 
on erecting extensive Bessemer steel works at Crewe, 
which are now in active and successful operation, 
turning out about four hundred tons per week. Mr. 
Ramsbottom, the Company's locomotive engineer at 
Crewe, had for some time before been gradually intro- 
ducing steel in the construction of passenger-engines, 
wherever great strength and durability were required, 
arf iu the case of axles and wheel-tyres ; and the results 
were so satisfactory, that steel is now employed by 
him in all such cases instead of iron. In designing 
the machinery and plant of the steel works at Urewe, 
Mr. Eamsbottom introduced many ingenious modifi- 
cations and improvements, so that they may be re- 
garded as models of their kind. One of his most 
valuable contrivances for working up the steel .re- 
quired for engine purposes, is his duplex hammer, 
which strikes a blow on both sides of the ingot at once 
in a horizontal direction, thus rendering unnecessary 
the enormous foundations required for ordinary ham- 
mers. 

*' The London and Northwestern Company have 
been very slowly, and at a great distance, followed by 
railway companies generally, who are for the most 
part content, so long as they can go forward on the 
old iron ways. But it seems to us quite clear that 
the days of iron as the material for main express lines 
are numbered; and that not only considerations of 
safety, but of economy, will, before long, lead to the 
general use of steel instead of iron. The Americans, 
who arc quick to discern the merits of any new inven- 
tion, have already recognized the important uses of 



MERITS OF IRON AND STEEL RAILS. 421 

Bessemer steel to a much greater extent than English 
railway engineers have done. They are already sub- 
stituting steel for wrought iron in almost every depart- 
ment of railway construction ; and within the last few 
months orders have been received by a single Sheffield 
firm for about ten thousand tons of Bessemer steel 
rails for the Pennsylvania, Erie, Philadelphia, Balti- 
more and Ohio, and the Michigan Central Eailroads. 

"Another circumstance remains to be mentioned in 
favor of the substitution of steel for iron, which is, the 
great deterioration in the quality of modern-made 
iron. All the earlier experimenters on iron found 
greater strength in ordinary qualities than is now pos- 
sessed by the very best. The rails made thirty years 
since possessed much more durability than those made 
now. Whether this arises from the greater rapidity 
of the processes now adopted — the use of squeezers, 
by which cinder and sand are pressed into the metal, 
instead of being beaten out by the tilt-hammer, as 
formerly — the use of the hot-blast, by means of which 
inferior ores are capable of being reduced — or the 
spirit of competition which induces iron manufacturers 
to turn out the largest possible quantity of iron 
at the cheapest possible rate — certain it is, that the 
manufacture of wrought iron in this country has 
undergone a serious deterioration during the last half 
century. 

" Dr. Percy raises an important point for discussion, 
with reference to a supposed deterioration in the 
quality of iron resulting from the effects of percussion, 
which applies equally to steel. It has long been a 
moot point with engineers, whether, under repeated- 



422 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

light blows, or rapid vibration of machinery in action, 
iron becomes disintegrated and consequently brittle. 
This is undoubtedly the case with brass, which, when 
subjected to vibration, in a few weeks becomes as brit- 
tle as glass. When the frightful accident occurred on 
the Yersailles Railway, some years since, occasioned by 
the breaking of a crank axle, the best men of science 
and practice in Prance were called upon to give evi- 
dence on the point; but they were by no means 
agreed. The whole subject was again discussed before 
the Commissioners appointed by our own Parliament^ 
in 1849, to inquire into the application of iron to rail- 
way structures. Evidence was given to show that 
pieces of wrought iron exposed to vibration frequently 
break after long use, and exhibit a peculiar crystalline 
fracture and loss of tenacity ; whilst other witnesses 
maintained that this peculiar structure was the result 
of an original fault in the process of manufacture, and 
that the internal constitution of the metal remained 
unaffected by vibration however rapid or long-con- 
tinued. In opposition to the popular view as to the 
brittleness of iron being occasioned by vibration, Mr. 
Robert Stephenson pointed to the engine-beam of a 
Cornish engine which received a shock equal to about 
fifty-five tons eight or ten times a minute, and yet 
went on working for twenty years without apparent 
change. He also referred to the connecting-rod that 
communicates the power of the locomotive to the wheel 
and receives a violent jar eight times in a second at 
ordinary speed, and yet remains unaffected. He 
pointed out that in a case of that sort a rod that has 



/ 



MERITS OP IRON •AND STEEL RAILS. 423 

borne two hundred millions of such jars, will be found, 
on examination, to have retained its fibrinous structure. 

" Where iron exhibits a crystalline appearance on 
breaking, Dr. Percy rightly points out that time plays 
a most important part in determining the character of 
the fracture. When the metal is broken with extreme 
rapidity, the fracture will be crystalline ; when broken 
slowly, it will be of a fibrous appearance. In the case 
of the breakage of a crank-axle, we apprehend the 
cause to be torsion, not vibration. It was stated in 
evidence by a locomotive engineer, at the inquiry into 
the causes of the Bow accident on the Great Eastern 
Line, that the very first turn of a crank-axle begins the 
process of breaking ; and that the final fracture — nearly 
always at the same place — is only a question of time. 

" That the brittleness of iron is increased by frost is 
also a prevalent notion amongst engineers, similar to 
the popular impression that bones are more brittle in 
winter than in summer. But the railway accidents 
which occur in frosty weather are- more probably at- 
tributable to the circumstance that at that time the 
road is hard and rigid, and the engines running over 
it at high speeds are much more strained, and conse- 
quently more liable to accident than they are in ordi- 
nary weather when the road is soft and yielding; just 
as in frosty weather we are more liable to falls, and 
consequently to fractured limbs, arising from the slip- 
periness of the roads rather than to the increased brit- 
tleness of our bones at that season. To put the matter 
to a practical test, however, Mr. Eamsbottom had a 
piece of rail taken up while covered with sharp frost 
and placed under the large steam-hammer at Crewe, 



424 RAILROADS OF TIJE UNITED STATES. 

when it stood the blows necessary to double both end^ 
together without showing the smallest indication of 
fracture. Nevertheless the suggestion of Dr. Percy is 
well worthy of consideration, in which he says, * It is 
most desirable that the subject should be accurately 
investigated; and the Tustitution of Civil Engineers 
would render excellent service by conducting an ela- 
borate inquiry into it.' " 

The President of the Northern Central Railroad of 
Pennsylvania, in his last Annual Report, in speaking 
of this subject, says : — 

" We have, in common with all the railroads of the 
country, suffered very much from the rapidity with 
wliich the iron rails wear out. The average life of a rail 
has diminished fully fifty per cent, during the last ten 
years, they lasting now but about three years. This 
causes an expenditure in maintaining the road which 
tells severely upon the working expenses. We are 
not prepared to say that the railroad iron now manu- 
factured in this country is inferior in quality, but 
the increase of speed by our passenger trains, and the 
increase in weight of engines, together with the in- 
creased tonnage, may account for their rapid destruc- 
tion. 

"Some of the principal railroads have been purchas- 
ing steel rails to a considerable extent. We purchased 
a small lot, sixty tons, in May last, and laid them on 
the heavy grade between Calvert Station and Bolton. 
So far they show no evidence of wear. If our means 
admitted, we would recommend the adoption of steel 
rails, as those now in use must be replaced. The 
Freedom Iron and Steel Company at Lewistown, Pa., 



MERITS OP IRON AND STEEL RAILS. 425 

and the Pennsylvania Steel Works at Harrisburg, and 
other rolling mills, we understand, will soon be pre- 
pared to furnish ^teel rails, at, we suppose, so small an 
advance upon the price now paid for iron that there 
will be no doubt about the propriety of adopting them 
on our road." 

Steel rails are used to a limited extent, on both the 
New York Central, and the New York and Erie 
Eailroads, and on many other railroads in the United 
States ; and their use is every year becoming more 
general. They will, luidoubtedly, in time, entirely 
supersede the iron rail. Where steel rails have been 
laid upon one side of a track, and iron rails upon the 
other, as an experiment, it has been found that the iron 
rails require to be renewed seventeen times before the 
steel rails begin to show any signs of wearing out. 



42C BAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 

RAILROAD LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES. " 

The basis of the railroad laws of New York is the 
Act of April 2, 1850. The following is a comprehen- 
sive summary of its provisions (the Act) of 1818 is 
repealed) : — 

Section 1. Any number of persons, not less than 
twenty-five, may form a company for the purpose of 
constructing, maintaining and operating a railroad for 
public use in the conveyance of persons and property, 
or for the purpose of maintaining and operating any 
unincorporated railroad already constructed for the 
like public use ; and for that purpose may make and 
sign articles of association, in which shall be stated the 
name of the company ; the number of years the same 
is to continue ; the places from and to which the road 
is to be constructed, or maintained and operated ; the 
length of such road as near as may be, and the name 
of each county in this State through or into which it 
is made, or intended to be made ; the amount of the 
capital stock of the company, which shall not be less 
than ten thousand dollars for every mile of road con- 
structed, or proposed to be constructed, and the num- 
ber of shares of which said capital stock shall consist 
and the names and places of residence of thirteen di- 
rectors of the company, who shall manage its affairs 



RAILROAD LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES. 427 

for the first year, and until others are chosen in their 
places. Each subscriber to such articles of association 
shall subscribe thereto his name, place of residence, 
and the number of shares of stock he agrees to take 
in said company. On compliance with the provisions 
of the next section, such articles of association may 
be filed in the office of the Secretary of State, who shall 
indorse thereon the day they are filed, and record the 
same in a book to be provided by him for that pur- 
pose ; and thereupon the persons who have so sub- 
scribed such articles of association, and all persons who 
shall become stockholders in such company, shall }je 
a corporation by the name specified in such articles of 
association, and shall possess the powers and privileges 
granted to corporations, and be subject to the provi- 
sions contained in title three of chapter eighteen 
of the first part of the Revised Statutes, except the 
provisions contained in the seventh section of the 
said title. 

Sec. 5. Provides for a board of thirteen dir^^c- 
tors, to be chosen annually, by a majority of the HUff:k' 
holders. 

Sec. 6. The directors shall appoint one of tli';ir num- 
ber President. 

Sec. 8. The stock of railroad companies Khali Ix; 
deemed personal estate. 

Sec. 9. In jcase the capital stock of any company in 
found to be insufficient for constructing and op';njtirig 
its road, the company may increase it to any amount 
required for those purposes. 

Section 10 has been amended by the Act of April 
15, 1854, and now reads as follows : — 



% 



428 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Sec. 10. Each stockholder of any company formed 
under this act shall be individually liable to the credi- 
tors of such company, to an amount equal to the amount 
unpaid on the stock held by him, for all the debts and 
liabilities of such company, until the whole amount of 
the capital stock so held by him shall have been paid 
to the company, and all the stockholders of any such 
company shall be jointly and severally liable for the 
debts due or owing to any. of its laborers and servants 
other than contractors, for personal services for thirty 
days' service performed for such company, but shall not 
be liable to an action therefor before an execution shall 
be returned unsatisfied in whole or in part against 
the corporation, and the amount due on such execu- 
tions shall be the amount recoverable with costs against 
such stockholders ; before such laborer or servant shall 
charge such stockholder for such thirty days' services 
he shall give him notice in writing, within twenty 
days after the performance of such service, that he 
intends so to hold him liable, and shall commence 
such action therefor within thirty days after the return 
of such execution, unsatisfied, as above mentioned ; and 
every such stockholder, against whom any such recovery 
by such laborer or servant shall have been had, shall 
have a right to recover the same of the other stock- 
holders in said corporation, in ratable proportion to the 
amount of the stock they shall respectively hold witli 
himself; and all laws whereby the stockholders, officers 
and agents of any railroad corporation are made indivi- 
dually liable for the debts or liabilities of such corpora- 
tion beyond the provisions contained in the act entitled 
"An act to authorize the formation of railroad corpo- 



RAILROAD LAWS OP THE UNITED STATES. 429 

rations, and to regulate the same," passed April 2, 
1850, and the acts amending the same, are hereby re- 
pealed. 

Sec. 11. No person holding stock in any such com- 
pany, as executor, administrator, guardian or trustee, 
and no person holding such stock as collateral security, 
shall be personally subject to any liability as stock- 
holders of such company ; but the person pledging such 
stock shall be considered as holding the same, and 
shall be liable as a stockholder accordingly ; and the 
estates and funds in the hands of such executor, ad- 
ministrator, guardian or trustee, shall be liable in like 
manner and to the same extent as the testator, or intes- 
tate, or the ward or person interested in such trust 
fund would have been, if he had been living and 
competent to act, and held the same stock in his own 
name. 

Sec. 13. In case any company formed under this act 
is unable to agree for the purchase of any real estate 
required for the purposes of its incorporation, it shall 
have the right to acquire title to the same in the 
manner and by the special proceedings prescribed in 
this act. 

Sec. 14. For the purpose of acquiring such title, the 
said company may present a petition, praying for the 
appointment of commissioners of appraisal, to the Su- 
preme Court, at any general or special term thereof 
held in the district in which the real estate described 
in the petition is situated. Such petition shall Ikj 
signed and verified according to the rules and practice 
of such court. It must contain a description of the 
real estate which the company seeks to acquire; and it 



\ 



430 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

must, in effect, state that the company is duly incor- 
porated, and that it is the intention of the company, in 
good faith, to construct and finish a railroad from and 
to the places named for that purpose in its articles of 
association ; and the whole capital stock of the com- 
pany has been in good faith subscribed as required by 
this act ; that the company has surveyed the line or 
route of its proposed road, and made a map or survey 
thereof, by which such route or line is designated, and 
that they have located their said road according to 
such survey, and filed certificates of such location, 
signed by a majority of the directors of the company, 
in the clerks' office of the several counties througb or 
into which the said road is to be constructed ; that the 
laud described in the petition is required for the pur- 
pose of constructing or operating the proposed road ; 
and that the company has not been able to acquire 
title thereto, and the reason of such inability. The 
petition must also state the names and places of resi- 
dence of the parties, so far as the same can by reasona- 
ble diligence be ascertained, who own or have, or 
claim to own or have estates or interests in the said 
real estate ; and if any such persons are infants, their 
ages as near as may be, must be stated ; and if any 
of such persons are idiots or persons of unsound mind, 
or are unknown, that fact must be stated, together witli 
such other allegations and statements of liens or in- 
cumbrances on said real estate as the company may 
see fit to make. A copy of such petition, with a notice 
of the time and place the same will be presented to tlic 
Supreme Court, must be served on all persons whose 



RAILEOAD LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES. 431 

interests are to be affected by tbe proceedings, ten da^'s 
before tbe presentation of tbe same to tbe court. 

Tbe section tben describes tbe mode of service upon 
different classes of persons; and section fifteen pro- 
vides for tbe appointment, by tbe Supreme Court, of 
Commissioners to ascertain tbe compensation to be 
made to tbe owners of tbe real estate proposed to be 
taken. Tbis section bas been amended by tbe act of 
April 15tb, 185-i, and now reads as follows : — 

Sec. 15. On presenting sucb petition to the Supreme 
Court as aforesaid, witb proof of service of a copy 
tbereof and notice as aforesaid, all or any of tbe per- 
sons wbose estates or interests are to be affected bv tlic 
proceedings may sbow cause against granting the 
prayer of tbe petition, and may disprove any of the 
facts alleged in it. The court shall bear the proofs 
and allegations of the parties, and if no sufficient cau.so 
is shown against granting the prayer of the petition, it 
shall make an order for the appointment of three dis- 
interested and com|)etent freeholders, who resi-le in the 
county or some adjoining county where the premises 
to be appraised are situated, commissioners to ascer- 
tain and appraise the compensation to l>e made to the 
owners or persons interested in the real estate propos^^d 
to be taken in such county for the purpose of the com- 
pany, and to fix the time and place for the first meeting 
of the commissioners. 

Sec. 16 has also been amended by the act of April 
15th, 1854, and now provides that the commissioners 
shall view the premises described in the petition, and 
hear the proofs and allegations of the parties, and re- 
duce the testimony taken by them, if any, to writing. 



432 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

and after the testimony in each case is closed, they or 
a majority of them, all being present^ i^^all, without 
any unnecessary delay, and before proceeding to the 
examination of any other claim, ascertain and deter- 
mine the compensation which ought justly to be made 
by the company to the owners or persons interested in 
the real estate appraised by them ; and in fixing the 
amount of such compensation, said commissioners 
shall not make any allowance or deduction on account 
of any real or supposed benefits which the parties in 
interest may derive from the construction of the pro- 
posed railroad, or the construction of the proposed im- 
provement connected with such road, for which ^uch 
real estate may be taken. 

Sec. 17. Makes it the duty of the commissioners to 
report their proceedings to the Supreme Court : which 
report and decision of the commissioners must be 
confirnflfed by the court, and an order made to that 
effect. 

Sec. 18. A certified copy of the order so to be made 
as aforesaid, shall be recorded at full length in the 
clerk's office of the county in which the land described 
in it is situated; and thereupon, and on the payment or 
deposit by the company of the sums to be paid as 
compensation for the land, and for costs, expenses, and 
counsel fees as aforesaid, and as directed by said order, 
the company shall be entitled to enter upon, take pos- 
session of, and use the said land for the purposes of its 
incorporation. 

Sec. 20. The court shall appoint some competent 
attorney to appear for, and protect the righti of any 
party in interest who is unknown, or whose residence 



RAILROAD LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES. 433 

is unknown, and who lias not appeared in the proceed- 
ings by an- attorney or agent. 

Sec. 23. The directors of every company formed 
under this act may, by a vote of two-thirds of their 
whole number, at any time alter or change the route 
or any part of the route of their road, if it shall appear 
to them that the line can be improved thereby ; and 
they shall make and file in the clerk's office of the 
proper county, a survey, map, and certificate of such 
alteration or change ; and shall have the same right 
and power to acquire title to any lands required for the 
purposes of the company, in such altered or changed 
route, as if the road had been located there in the first 
instance ; and no such alteration shall be made in any 
city or village, after the road shall have been con- 
structed, unless the same is sanctioned by a vote of 
two-thirds of the common council of said city or trustees 
of said village; and in case of any alteration made in 
the route of any railroad after the company has com- 
menced grading, compensation shall be made to all per- 
sons for injury so done to any lands that may have 
been donated to the company. All the provisions of 
this act relative to the first location, and to acquiring 
title to land, shall apply to every such new or altered 
portion of the route. 

Sec. 24. Whenever the track of a railroad con- 
structed by a company formed under this act shall 
cross a railroad, a highway, turnpike or plank road, 
such highway, turnpike or plank road may be carried 
under or over the track, as may be found most expe- 
dient ; and in cases where an embankment or cutting 
shall make a change in the line of such highway, turn- 
28 



434 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

pike or plauk road desirable, with a view to a iDore 
eany ascent or descent^ the said company may take 
such additional lauds for the coiistruetion of such road, 
highway, turnpike or plank road on such new line as 
may be deemed requisite by the directors. Unless the 
lands so taken shall be purchased for the purposes 
aforesaid, compensation therefor shall be ascertained 
in the manner prescribed in this act for acquiring title 
to real estate, and duly made by said corporation to the 
owners and persons interested in such lands. The same, 
when BO taken, shall become part of such intersecting 
highway, turnpike or plank road, in such manner and 
by such tenure as the adjacent parts of the same high- 
way, turnpike or plank road maybe held for highway 
purposes. 

Sec. 27 (as amended by the act of April 22, 1862). 
No company formed under this act shall lay down or 
use in the construction of their road any iron rail of 
less weight than fifty-six pounds to the lineal yard, 
except for turnouts, sidings and switches and roads 
upon which steam power cannot by law be used ; and 
on the last mentioned road such weight shall not bo 
less than forty pounds to the lineal yard. 

Sec. 28. Every railroad company shall have power 
to construct their road across, along, or upon any 
stream of water, street, road, or canal, which the route 
of its road shall interest ; but the company shall restore 
the same to such a state as not to have impaired its use- 
fulness. But no railroad bridge shall be erected 
across any stream navigated by steam boats or sail boats. 
Every railroad company shall have power to cross, 
intersect, join and unite its road with any other rail- 



RAILROAD LAWS OP THE UNITED STATES. 435 

road, at any point on its route. Every compaay whose 
railroad, shall be intersected by any new railroad, shall 
unite with such new railroad in forming such intersec- 
tions and connections, and grant the necessary facilities 
therefor. 

Every railroad company shall have power — 

7. To take and convoy persons and property on their 
railroad by the power or force of steam or of animals, 
or by any mechanical power, and to receive compensa- 
tion therefor. 

8. To erect and maintain all necessary and conve- 
nient buildings, stations, fixtures and machinery for 
the accommodation and use of their passengers, freights 
and business. 

9. To regulate the time and manner in which pas- 
sengers and property shall be transported, and the 
compensation to be paid therefor ; but such compensa- 
tion, for any passenger and his ordinary baggage, shall 
not exceed three cents per mile. 

10. From time to time to borrow such sums of 
money as may be necessary for completing and finish- 
ing or operating their railroad, and to issue and dispose 
of their bonds for any amount so borrowed, and to 
mortgage their corporate property and franchises to 
secure the payment of any debt contracted by the 
company for the purposes aforesaid ; and the directors 
of the company may confer on any holder of any bond 
issued for money borrowed as aforesaid, the right to 
convert the principal due or owing thereon, into stock 
of said company, at any time not exceeding ten years 
from the date of the bond, under, such regulations as 
the directors may sec fit to adopt. 



436 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Sec. 29. Whenever the railroad of any company 
formed under this act shall run parallel or nearly 
parallel to any canal of this State, and within thirty 
miles of such canal, the company owning such railroad 
shall pay to the canal fund, on all property transported 
upon its railroad other than the ordinary baggage of 
passengers, the same tolls upon that portion of th^'road 
running parallel to the canal, that would have been 
payable to the State if such property other than bag- 
gage had been transported on any such canal ; and 
every such company shall make returns, at such times 
and in such manner as the commissioners of the canal 
fund shall prescribe, of all the property transported 
on its railroad, except ordinary baggage of passengers; 
and the same commissioners are authorized and re- 
quired to prescribe the manner in which such tolls so 
payable to the canal fund by such company, shall be 
collected and paid, and to enforce the collection and 
payment thereof, and to make such regulations as they 
shall deem proper for that purpose ; and every such 
company that shall neglect or refuse to comply with any 
such regulations, shall forfeit to the people of this State 
the sum of five hundred dollars for every day it shall 
so neglect or refuse ; and in every case of such for- 
feiture, it shall be the duty of the attorney-general to 
prosecute such company for the penalty. 

Sec. 30. Suitable uniforms and badges of office must 
be worn by every person employed. 

Sec. 31. Every railroad company must make a com- 
prehensive annual report to the State Engineer, under 
one hundred and five distinct heads ; or else shall pay 



BAILBOAD LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES. 437 

to the State two hundred and fifty dollars for every 
report omitted. 

Sec. 84. All railroad companies shall, iihen applied 
to by the Postmaster-General,, convey the U. S. Mails. 
And in case the Postmaster-General shall require the 
mail to be-c^rried at other hours, or at a higher speed 
than the passenger trains are run, the corporation shall 
furnish an extra train for the mail, and be allowed an 
extra compensation for the expenses, and wear and 
tear thereof, and for the service, to be fixed as afore- 
said. 

Sec. 37. A check shall be affixed to every parcel of 
baggage, when taken for transportation, by the ag*:r.t 
or servant of such corporation, if tr;ere is a h&rA\% 
loop or fixture, so that the same can be atUic-he'i ;j/ori 
the parcel or baggage so offered for tran.-fx^rva:iori. a:*d 
a duplicate thereof given to the pas.y:r;r/*;r or yzZr/jZi 
delivering the same on his behalf: and if h'i^::i cr.eck 
be refused on demand, the corr^o.^ation >-?.a!I pav v> 
such passenger the sum of ten doiiars. to r^ ro<;ov';.-';d 
in a civil action; and further, no fare or to.i k':.^,., :/• 
collected or received from suoVi pah.->;ri:7';r, a^d if .-/-^/ri 
passenger shall have paid hi.=j fare, the .-^rr.e ht.^V. 'v; 
refunded bv the conductor in char'^e of trie tra!.-; : ar.'] 
on producing said check, if his bag^a:/e r'f.'^i.. :/*. !v; 
delivered to him, he rnav hirnnelf be a v/!tr. ';-,.-; in ar.v 
suit brought by him, to prove the cont';rit>, J^r.d va. -e 
of said bafr<2:apre. 

Several subsequent act.s have Vren pn -::-/;'!, tr.o rno-'*, 
important of wliich are thone of F';b. I '5, V^JA : M'^r^-.'i 
25,1853; April 15, 1854: April II, l^oT: Ar-ri. 7, 
1858; April 20, 1863; April 22, l-J'/Z: Mny r,, \>M-, 



43S RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

and April 20, 1S64. The amendments to the general 
railroad act of April 2, 1850, are noticed above, in the 
respective sections that have been amended. 

Railroad Laws of Pexxsylvaxia.— Act of Feb. 
19th, 18:19. Sec. 1. Whenever a special act of the 
legislature shall be passed, authorizing the incorpora- 
tion of a company for the construction of a railroad, 
any five of the commissioners named in the act shall 
have power to open subscription books. No subscrip- 
tion to railroad stock shall be valid, unless a payment 
of five dollars is made on every share subscribed, at 
the time of subscribing. 

Sec. 2. When ten per cent, on the capital stock shall 
have been subscribed, and five dollars^ as abov^ paid 
on each share, the governor shall (and this duty is dis- 
cretionary, and not ministerial, and cannot be inter- 
fered with by injunction or mandamus) create and con- 
stitute the subscribers ir\to a body politic and corporate, 
with the full powers of a railroad company. But they 
are not to purchase or hold any real estate, except 
such as may be necessary for constructing their rail- 
road, ice. 

Sec. 4. The stockholders shall elect a President and 
twelve Directors annually, on the second Monday in 
January. 

Sec. 0. The President and Directors arc authorized 
to exercise all the powers of the corporation. 

Sk(j. 8. The capital stock shall be divided into shares 
of fifty dollars each. 

Sec. 9. The dividends of so much of the profits as 
shall jii)pear advisable to the directors, shall be declared 



CONSOLIDATION OP RAILROAD COMPANIES. 439 

lu January and July, in each year; but the dividends 
shall in no case exceed the amount of the net profits. 

Sec. 10. The President shall make an annual report 
to the stockholders ; and whenever rec^uired, shall fur- 
nish a full report to the legislature. 

Sec. 11. The legislature may revoke the charter in 
case of abuse, and may take the road for public use, 
on making full compensation to the stockholders. 

Sec. 12. The company may enter upon and occupy 
lands necessary for the road, not, however, passing 
through any burying ground or place of public wor- 
ship, or any dwelling house without the owner's con- 
sent. 

Sec. 18. When the company cannot agree with the 
owners of lands for the compensation, the Court of 
Common Pleas shall appoint seven freeholders of the 
county. Any five of them shall view the premises, 
and shall estimate and determine the amount of com- 
pensation, and make report to the court ; and if the 
report be confirmed by the court, judgment shall be 
entered thereon, and execution may issue thirty days 
thereafter. 

Sec. 17. Wherever it is necessary to cross any es- 
tablished road, the railroad shall be constructed across 
such road so as not to injure the use of the latter. 

Sec. 19. (Act of Feb. 11, 1853.) Every railroad 
company is authorized to change the gauge of their 
road. 

Consolidation of Railroad Companies. — Act of 
May 16, 1861. 

Sec. 24. Bailroad companies may conaol\dft.^^^S.^^^^ 



440 RAILROADS OP THE UNITED STATES. 

articles of consolidation are ratified by tke stock- 
holders. 

Sec. 86. (Act of April 2, 1859.) Every railroad 
company must make a full annual report to the audi- 
tor-general, on the 1st of December, under a penalty 
of five thousand dollars for each omission. 

Railroad Laws of Illinois. — The basis of the rail- 
road laws of Illinois is the Act of November 5, 1849. 
It is voluminous, and very comprehensive in its provi- 
sions. Of these the following is a brief -summary. 

Sec. 1. Any number of persons, not less than 
twenty-five, may associate, take stock, pay ten per 
cent., sign articles, become incorporated, and construct 
and operate railroads. The articles of association 
must set forth the name of the company, the amount 
of the capital stock, the names o'f the directors, and 
the termini of the proposed road. 

Sec. 6. No person can be a director unless he is a 
stockholder. Sec. 9 requires the President to make 
an annual report. Sec. 13 provides that the stock of 
the company shall bo deemed personal property, and 
may be transferable. 

Sec. 14. ''AH the stockholders shall be severally 
and individually liable, to an amount equal to the 
amount of stock held by them respectively, for all debts 
and contracts made by the company." 

Sec. 21. Among the general powers of the company 

they are empowered to enter upon the lands of any 

person, but subject to responsibility for damnges ; to 

purchase, hold, and use all such real estate and other 

^property as may be necessary for the construction and 



RAILROAD LAWS OF ILUNOIS. 441 

maintenance of the road depots and stations ; to con- 
struct their road upon or across any stteam of water, 
road, railroad, or canal, which the route of its road 
shall intersect, but without impairing the usefulness of 
such stream, road, railroad or canal ; ** to cross, intersect, 
join, or unite its railroad with any other railroad, at 
any point on its route, and upon the grounds of such 
other railroad company; and every company whose 
railroad shall be intersected by any new railroad, shall 
unite with the owners of such new railroad in forming 
such connections, and shall grant the facilities afore- 
said." 

Sec. 2-1. Nothing in this act shall authorize any 
railroad company to make a location of their track 
within any city, without the consent of the common 
council. 

Sec. 28. Every railroad company must make an 
annual and comprehensive report to the Secretary of 
State. 

Sec. 29. Or may omit to make it, on payment of 
two hundred and fifty dollars for each omission, to 
be sued for by the State. 

Sec. 31. The State shall have a lien upon all rail- 
roads and their appurtenances and stock, which shall 
take precedence of all judgments. 

Sec. 33. All railroads must cary the U. S. Mail, if 
applied to by the Post- Master-General. In case the 
latter shall require the mail to be carried at other 
hours and at a higher speed than the passenger trains 
be run at, the railroad company shall furnish an extra 
train for the mail, and be allowed an extra compensa- 
tion. 



442 RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

The Consolidation Act; Providing* for the 
Consolidation of Eailroad Companies. — Act of 
Feb. 28, 1854. 

Sec. 1. All railroad •companies and plank- road com- 
panies which have the termini fixed by law, whenever 
their roads intersect, may consolidate their property 
and stock, and may consolidate with companies out of 
the State, whenever their lines connect with the lines 
of such companies. 

Sec. 2. Such consolidated companies are regarded, 
after consolidation, as one body corporate .and politic 

Sec. 8. The consolidated corporation shall have 
power to increase their capital stock to any amount 
not exceeding the cost*of the consolidated roads and 
works. 

Other railroad laws have subsequently been passed 
by the legislature of Illinois, but none in conflict with 
the above. 

To give even a synopsis of the railroad laws of 
the other States, would swell this volume to an un- 
wieldy bulk. The above synopsis of the railroad 
laws of New York, Pennsylvania, and Illinois, will 
give a good general idea of those of the other States, 
And as a general rule, in regard to the railroad laws 
of the respective States, it may be observed 1st, that 
they confer every necessary power and privilege on 
railroad companies, and that to the fullest extent ; and 
second, that they fully protect the rights of private indi- 
viduals, and the public, from any invasion on the part 
of these corporations. Where these ends are both 
secured, no other legislation is necessary. 



APPENDIX. 



Note A. — New York and Erie Railway. 

During the year 185Y, it was determined by the Board 
of Directors of this Company to replace iron with steel 
rails whenever renewals were made ; and to lay a double 
track on the Delaware Division of the road, also with steel 
rails. The report of the General Superintendent, made 
M^rch 3, 1868, is as follows : — 

" Office General Superintendent, 

New York, March 3, 1868. 

Hon. John S. Eldridge, President Erie Railivay. 

" Sir : On the 3d of December I addressed a communica- 
tion to the Vice-President recommending the purchase of 
five thousand tons of steel rails, and at an interview with 
you I expressed the opinion that fifteen thousand to 
eighteen thousand tons of rails would be required for the 
repairs of track during the year 18G8. 

*' Since that opinion was given we have passed through 
three months of unusually severe winter weather and 
moved more than an average winter tonnage, with the road- 
bed frozen solid as a rock, the rails encased in snow and 
ice, so that it has been impossible to do much in the way 
of repairs ; the iron rails have broken, laminated and worn 
out beyond all precedent, until there is scarce a mile of 
your road, except that laid with steel rails, between Jersey 
Citv and Salamanca or Buffalo, where it is safe to run a 
train at the ordinary passenger-train speed, and many por- 

( 443 ), 



444 APPENDIX 

tioDS of the road can only be traversed safely by redncuig 
the speed of all trains to twelve or fifteen miles per hoar, 
solely on account of the worn-out and rotten condition of 
the rails. Broken wheels,* axles, engines, and trains -off the 
track have been of daily, almost hourly, occurrence for the 
last two months, caused mostly by defective rails. Folly 
one thousand broken rails were tiaken from the track in the 
month of January, while (he number removed on account 
of lamination, crushing, or wearing out, was much greater. 
February will show a still worse record than January. 
! " The failure of rails is confined to no particular make, 
although there is a difference, easily observed, between 
those made at Scranton and those re-rolled at Elmira. The 
former break readily into many pieces, and by so doing are 
pretty sure to throw a train from the track ; a hurge num- 
ber of these rails have broken with less than six months' 
service, some with scarce one month's wear. 

** The Elmira rc-rolled iron seldom breaks until very 
much worn, but it docs not possess the hardness and dura- 
bility found in the Scranton iron, when the latter has 
strength to resist breaking strains. 

" With the ten miles laid with the John Brown Besse- 
mer steel no fault need be found. Only one rail has broken 
during the winter, and no lamination and very little wear 
is perceptible. Twenty steel rails were laid in Jersey City 
yard last March ; the iron rails adjoining, subject 'to the 
same wear, have been renewed four times since the steel 
was put down, and I have no doubt the steel rails will out- 
last three times as many more iron rails. 

"This winter's experience has satisfied me that the 
quality and weight of the iron rails in use cannot be de- 
pended upon to sustain the traffic of the Erie Railway. 
Forty-two tons locomotives hauling trains of fifty and sixty 
loaded cars, and passenger engines weighing thirty-seven 



NEW YORK AND ERIE RAILRO.VD. 445 

tons, running at a speed of thirty to forty miles per hour, 
literally crush and grind out the iron rails beneath them. 
Instances have been reported to mc of rails removed from 
track too much worn for safety, where the first imperfection 
was visible but the day before. 

"In view of. this state of things what is the remedy? 
Manifestly the adopti()n of steel rails as far as practicable, 
and iron rails of superior quality and heavier section, to be 
followed by the gradual reduction of the weight of engines 
and cars as new equipment becomes necessary. The ten- 
dency has beea of late years to larger and more powerful 
locomotives, and heavier, stronger cars, and this has been 
carried to such an extent as to render them out of all pro- 
portion to the strength and durability of the track. Espe- 
cially has this been the fact upon the Erie Railway. 

"The condition of the iron at the present date is such 
as to give not much anxiety and apprehension for the 
safety of trains. Wo cannot and do not attempt to make 
the schedule time with our trains ; nearly all lose from two 
to five hours in passing over the road, and it has been only 
by the exercise of extreme caution we have been able thus 
far to escape serious accident. 

"A very large quantity of rails must be laid as soon as 
the weather will permit and they can be furnished. 

" In conclusion, I desire to modify my estimate of the 
quantity of rails required for the current year. After a 
careful observation of the whole road, assisted by informa- 
tion obtained from Division Superintendents and Track 
Masters, I have come to the conclusion that twenty-five 
thousand tons of rail will be needed to keep up your track 
in 1868, and I would earnestly recommend that as large a 
proportion as possible shall be of steel. 

"Yery respectfully, your obedient servant, 

H. RIDDLE, 
General SuperiHleuOi^wX?'' 



^ 



446 APPENDIX. 

Note B. — Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Tho earnings of the Company during the jcnr 18Gf 
exceeded sixteen millions of dollars, being sixteen million 
three hundred and forty thousand one hundred and fifty- 
six dollars. Of this amount, nearly three and a half mil- 
lions of dollars were from passengers. The expenses 
amounted to twelve millions of dollars ($12,080,299); 
leaving as the net earnings of the road for the year 1867, 
four million two hundred and fifty-nine thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-six dollars; being an increase of two 
hundred and fifty-one thousand nine hundred and seventy- 
eight dollars, over the net earnings of 1866. 

The general results of the year 1867 show a large in- 
crease in the business of the road. 

The annual report of J. Edgar Thomson, Esq., Presi- 
dent of the Company, made Feb. 15, 18G8, says : — 

" The Tyrone and Clearfield Railroad at present termi- 
nates at Phillipsburg. During the past year the road-bed 
has been graded to the town of Clearfield, and the track 
will be laid upon it in the ensuing spring and sanimer. 

'*That portion of the railway between Pittsburg and 
Columbus, Ohio, extending from Pittsburg to the Ohio 
River, across the State of West Virginia — in consequence 
of its great cost and long delay in its construction — became 
involved in inextricable financial difiicnlty, to free it from 
which it was sold under a decree of the Supreme Court 
Arrangements are now being made to consolidate it with 
the Stcubenville and Indiana Railroad, under the name of 
the Pittsburg, Cincinnati and St. Louis Railway Com- 
pony, with a view to make but one corporation between 
Pittsburg and Columbus. In this line the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company has a large interest in its shares, and 
we entertain the belief that its revenues will at once pay 



PENNSYLTANIA RAILROAD. 447 

an interest upon the amount now charged to that account. 
The chief niotive, howcTcr, in incurring this expenditure 
was, as already mentioned, the advantage it afforded to this 
Company in securing the freight and travel to and from 
the Southwest, for which we had previously no independent 
connection. The lino is now in full operation, and in this 
respect has met our expectation, gaining for the traveller 
a saving of several hours in his journey from Philadelphia 
and New York to Cincinnati, over any other route. 

" The Philadelphia and Erie Railroad Company, under 
the lease, is obliged to furnish the money to meet the ex- 
penditures for this object, but as it is without means or 
available credit, it devolves upon this Company to supply 
the deficiency or continue an unprofitable arrangement. 
As. neither the public advantage nor the permanent inte- 
rest of this Company will justify the latter alternative, the 
Board, with a view to apply the expenditures mentioned in 
a manner that will best promote the objects in view, has 
purchased and converted obligations that have accrued 
against that Company, into its capital stock to the extent 
of thirty-one thousand six hundred and thirty-six shares 
of Common, and forty-eight thousand of Preferred, 
amounting in all, at par, to nearly four million of dollars — 
sufficient to determine the future mode of managing the 
affairs of the Company. 

" This line and the Pennsylvania Railroad occupy the 
only routes within this Commonwealth upon which a rail- 
way for through business can be built, and yield a reason- 
able return upon the capital that may be expended in its 
construction. Upon all other routes, several additional 
mountain summits will be encountered, besides the in- 
creased cost hereafter of constructing such a work. With 
this kiiowhudgc we may safely make outlays for the develop- 
ment of their traffic. The extent to which this can bo 



448 APPENDIX. 

done by a judicious enlargement of the field of operations 
of the Philadelphia and Erie line may be appreciated by 
referring to the history of our own railroad, which was 
only opened as a continuous railway in connection with 
the State road, between Philadelphia and Columbia, on 
the 15th of February, 1854 — at which date the Eastern 
and Western Divisions of what was originally the Penn- 
sylvania Eailroad were united, avoiding the ten inclined 
planes, operated by stationary powder, which had previously 
lifted the traffic over the Alleghanies. Tlie revenues of 
this Company, from the whole line, from Philadelphia to 
Pittsburg, during 1854, the first year of its operation as a 
continuous line, were three million five hundred and twelve 
thousand two hundred and ninety-five dollars. In 1867, 
between the same points — with addition of the local busi- 
ness of the State railroad — they were sixteen million five 
hundred and eighty-three thousand dollars, an increase of 
nearly fivefold in money and much larger in tonnage. 

** It is true the Pennsylvania Railroad traversed a coun- 
try that had been partially developed by the State im- 
provements, and a large local traflBc became immediately 
availa])le, but at that time the through business was of 
inconsiderable extent. It has since vastly increased by 
the rapid growth of the West, both in population and 
wealth, and is capable of still greater development by the 
introduction of rates of freight that will successfully com- 
])etc with those charged upon the lakes and the New York 
canals. 

"A line possessing a large mixed traffic, such as com- 
manded by the Pennsylvania Railroad, cannot fully meet 
this requirement without the construction of a third track 
throughout its length, by which trains can be moved at a 
low rate of speed without serious interruption to the traffic 
that will pay for the cost of a more rapid movement 



PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. 449 

Instead of a third track upon the Pennsylvania Railroad 
to meet this demand, as originally suggested, it has been 
proposed that the line of the Philadelphia and Erie RaU- 
road, as far as practicable, be taken for such a thorough- 
fare. This line will cross the summit between the eastern 
and western waters where the elevation is fourteen hun- 
dred and fifty feet above tide, which may be overcome by 
gradients not exceeding a rise of a half of a foot in one 
hundred feet, passing through a region abounding in the 
best bituminous coal for fuel. 

" A road built to accommodate the object contemplated 
must be located and constructed with a view to secure the 
lowest possible cost of movement of trains, and its locomo- 
tives and cars adapted to the business they are intended 
to move and the speed they will travel. Instead of chang- 
ing locomotives at the end of each day's service as at 
present, the trains under this system will be provided with 
double crews, alternating their time upon duty until thc^ir 
destination is completed and the return trip accomplislied. 
The speed of the freight trains should not exceed an ave- 
rage of six miles per hour. 

'* As through travel and general merchandise will seek 
lines where the movement is more rapid, a railway ope- 
rated upon this principle can only be introduced with 
advantage to the community and profit to its .shareholders, 
where the trafl&c that it will command is very large. Tiie 
profits upon the capital invested in such a line inuHt );e 
realized from a small margin over cost upon a very larjre 
tonnage to be moved. But few, if any, locations at pre- 
sent afford a business sufficient to justify the construction 
of a railway specially operated upon this principle, and one 
between the East and West will be sufficient to inr^et the 
public demand for many years. Jn New York the Kri<j 
Canal fulfils the oly'ects of such a work not only for that 
29 



450 APPENDIX. 

State bat for through tonnage between the East and the 
West. No route in Pennsylvania or elsewhere between 
the seaboard and the West affords equal facilities for the 
introduction of this system as the line occupied by the 
Eastern portion of the Philadelphia and Erie Railroad, 
where a basis for it may be laid with confidence as to its 
affording favorable results. A railroad operated upon this 
plan will ultimately be extended to the Mississippi River 
across the table lands of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, sooth 
of the great lakes, which, when the tonnage is sufficient to 
justify its construction, will afford a medium of transporta- 
tion at all seasons of the year, as cheap and more expedi- 
tious than via the lakes and Erie Canal, without materially 
interfering with the profits of existing lines. The general 
introduction of this system of railways to supersede the 
present lines can only end in a disastrous failure wherever 
tried. ^^ 

Note C. — Xobthern Central Railroad. 

The earnings of the road for the year 186Y were three 
million six hundred and ninety thousand eight hundred 
and sixty-eight dollars. The operating expenses were two 
million four hundred and seventy-eight thousand seven 
hundred and nine dollars ; making the net revenue one 
million two hundred and twelve thousand one hundred and 
fifty -eight dollars. 

The annual report of J. D. Cameron, Esq., President of 
the Company, made Feb. 20, 1868, for the year 1807, 
says : — 

"Our business has grown so rapidly within a short space 
of time, and so nuich expenditure has been necessary to 
perfect the track, extend sidings and furnish equij>ment, 
that wc have delayed, as far as we could, the building of 



NOBTHEBN CENTRAL RAILROAD. 451 

shops for the repair of engines and cars. Additional shops 
have now become an urgent necessity, and we propose to 
erect suitable buildings for that purpose at Suubury. Dur- 
ing this year we have added to the equipment seven loco- 
motives, two passenger cars, two baggage cars, twenty-five 
box cars, twenty-nine gondolas, thirty-four lime cars, and 
three hundred and seventy-seven coal cars, at a cost of 
two hundred and sixty-five thousand one hundred and 
thirty-four dollars and forty-one cents, and we have already 
contracted to have delivered in the early part of this year 
ten locomotives, one hundred stock cars, and five hundred 
coal cars. 

" We have purchased and put into the track some addi- 
tional steel rails. Our experience so far with steel rails 
has been satisfactory, and w:e regret- that we have not the 
ability to use them exclusively in the renewal of the track. 
As the tires on the locomotives have worn out they have 
been replaced bj steel tires, and the change has been 
found to be an economical one. The operations of the 
leased roads have been much more satisfactory than during 
the preceding year. The increase of tonnage from them 
has added materially to the business of the main line, and 
the arrangements lately consummated for securing addi- 
tional trade from the West and Northwest are Buch that wo 
feel the time is not far distant when we will be bencQted, 
not only by the trade which they add to the main lino, but 
that the increase will make them self-sustaining, and they 
will become a source of direct profit, as the Shamokin divi- 
sion has been since the commencement of its lease by this 
company. 

"As the receipts incident to the inflation of trade pro- 
duced by the war arc no longer perceptible in our business, 
a comparison of the business of this road for the year just 



452 APPENDIX. 

closed with that of the year immediately preceding the 
war, will bo interesting. 

In the year 1864 the entire receipts of the road were $964,621 30 
The expenses were 717,265 64 

And the net revenue was $247,355 66 

In 1867 the gross receipU were .... $2,676,084 61 
Expenses 1,556,538 71 

Showing net earnings amoanting to • . . $1,119,545 90 

" The net earnings of 18G7 are one hundred and fifty-foar 
thousand nine hundred and twenty-four dollars and sixty 
cents in excess of the entire earnings in 1860, and the 
comparison shows an increase of 17t per cent in the gross 
earnings, and 452 per cent, in the profits. The number 
of passengers carried in 1860 was two hundred and eighty- 
seven thousand six hundred and thirty, while in' 1867 we 
carried six hundred and fifty-five thousand six hundred and 
fifty-one." 



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SETTLERS. Embracing Desperate Encounters with Indians, Beftigeeip 
Gamblers, Desperadoes, etc. etc. By Warren Wildwood, Esq. lUiii- 
trated by 200 engravings. 12mo., cloth. Price $1 75. 

THRILLING INCIDENTS IN THE WARS OF THE 

UXITED STATES. Embracing all the Wars previoos to the Rel»«llioa. 
With 800 engravings. 12mo., cloth. Price $1 75. 

QUR BOYS. The rich and racy scenes of Army and Camp 
Life, as seen and participated in by one of the Rank and File. By A. 
F. Hill, of the Eighth Pa. Beserres. With illastraiions. l2mo., eiotk 
Price $1 75. 

QUR CAMPAIGNS; or, a Three Years' Term of Sendee in 
the War. By E. M. Woodward, A4jntaat Second Penn^lviiifs Bieaai im. 
12mo., cloth. Price $1 75. 

'pHE BEAUTIFUL SPY. An exciting story of Army and 

High Life in New York in 1776. By Charles Bardeti. 12dio., eloth. 
Price $1 75. 

'pHE ROYALIST'S DAUGHTER AND THE REBELS. 

A tale of the ReTolution of unusaal power and interest By Rev. David 
Murdoch, D. D. 12mo., cloth. Price $1 75. 

'pHE HERO GIRL, and how she became a Captain in the 
Army. By Thrace lalmon. With illiutrations. 12mo. , cloth. Prio« 
$175. 

fJUNTING ADVENTURES IN THE NORTHERN 

WILDS. By S. II. Hammond.. Illustrated. Cloth. Price $1 76. 

"^ILD NORTHERN SCENES. By S. H. Hammond, au- 
thor of "Hunting Adventures in the Northern Wilds." Illustrated. 
Cloth. Price $1 75. 

PANNY HUNTER'S WESTERN ADVENTURES. 11- 
Jnstrated. 12mo., cloth. Price $1 75. 



JOHN B. POTTER AND CO/s NEW PUBLICATIONS. 8 

\yONDERFUL ADVENTURES BY LAND AND SEA 

of tha Seren Queer Trarellcrs who met at an Inn. By Josia|i Bamei. 
12mo., cloth. Price $1 73. 

'PHE EARLY DAYS OF CALIFORNIA. By Col. J. T. 

Famham. 12ino., Uluiitrated, cloth. Price $1 75. 

JsJICARAGUA, PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE. By 

Peter F. Stout, E«q., late United Statea Yice-Coxural. With a Map. 
12mo., cloth. Price $1 75. 

PEMALE LIFE AMONG THE MORMONS. By Maria 
Ward, the Wife of a Mormon Elder. Illaatrated. 12mo., cloth. Prica 
$1 75. 

J^ALE LIFE AMONG THE MORMONS. By Austin N. 

Ward. niuBtrated. 12mo., cloth. Price $1 75. 

THE WHITE ROCKS; or, the Robber's Den. A Tragedy 
of the Mountains of thrilling interest. By A. F. Hill, author of *< Our 
Beys/' etc. 12mo., cloth. Price $1 75. 

'J^UPPER'S COMPLETE POETICAL WORKS. With 

Portrait oa steel. 12mo.| cloth. Price $1 75. 
THE YOUNG LADY'S OWN BOOK. An offering of 

har% and Sympathy. By Emily Thornwell. 12mo., cloth. Price $1 76. 

SUNLIGHT AND SHADOW; or, the Poetry of Home. 
By narry Pencillor. I2mo., cloth. Price $1 75. 

QREAT EXPECTATIONS. By Charles Dickens. With 
steel engravings. 12mo., cloth. Price $1 75. 

'JpHE SOLDIER AND THE SORCERESS; or, the Ad- 

Tentures of Jane Seton. 12mo.| cloth. Price $1 75. 

'JpHE ORPHAN BOY; or, Lights and Shadows of Humble 
Life. By Jeremy Loud. 12mo., cloth. Price $1 75. 

'JpHE ORPHAN GIRLS. A Talc of Southcpn Life. By 
James S. Peacocke, M. D., of Mi8jtis«ippi. ]2mo., cloth. Price ^t tb 



4 JOHN B. POTTER AND C0.*8 NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

QOOK OF ANECDOTES AND JOKER'S KNAPSACK. 

Xndnding Vifcticimu of the ]at« President Lincoln, and Hnmon, Inoi- 
dentSi and Absurdities of the War. 12mo., oloth. Price $1 75. 

\\^AY DOWN EAST; or. Portraitures of Yankee Lire. By 
Seba Smith, the original Major Jaolc Downing. Illustrated. ISmo., 
oloth. Price $1 75. 

THE LADIES' MEDICAL GUIDE AND MARRIAGE 

PRIEND. By 8. Pnncoost, M. D., Professor of Physiologj in Penn 
Medioal University, Philadelphia. With upwards of 100 illnstrationa. 
ISmo., doth. Price $1 75. 

BOYHOOD'S PERILS AND MANHOOD'S CURSE. An 

eameit appeal to the young men of America. By S. Paneoait, K. B. 
With numerous illustrations. 12mo., cloth. Price $1 75. 

THE CURABILITY OF CONSUMPTION by Medicated 

Inhalation and Adjunct Bemedies. By S. Pancoast, M. D. With illua- 
irations. Cloth. Price $1 50. 

THE AMERICAN TEXT-BOOK. Containing the Con- 
stitution of the United States, the Declaration of Independence, and 
Washington's Farewell Address. 24mo., cloth. Price 25 cents. 

fJORSE TRAINING MADE EASY. A New and Practical 

System of Teaching and Educating the Horse. By Robert Jenningi, 
V. S. of tho Veterinary College of Philadelphia, author of '* Tho Hone 
and his Ditfcasej," etc. etc. With illurtrations. 16mo., oloth. Price 
$125. 

THE HORSE AND HIS DISEASES. By Robert Jennings, 

V. S., author of " Ilorfte Training Made Easy,'* etc. etc. With nume- 
rous illustrations. 12mo., cloth. Price $1 75. 

QATTLE AND THEIR DISEASES. By Robert Jennings, 
V. S. With numerous illustrations. I2mo., cloth. Price $1 75. (Uni* 
form with the above.) 

gHEEP, SWINE, AND POULTRY. By Robert Jennings, 

V. S. With numerous illustrations. 12mo., cloth. Price $1 75. (Uni- 
form with the above.) 

J7VERYBODV'S LAWYER AND COUNSELLOR IN 

BUSINESS. By Frank Crosby, E.y«i., of the Phllmlelphia Bar. 12mo. 
h Price $1 75. . ' 



JOHN E. POTTER AND CO.'s NEW PUBLICATIONS. 5 

'PHE FAMILY DOCTOR; containing, in Plain Language, 

free from Medical Terms, the Causes, Symptoms, and Cure of Disease in 
all forms. By Henry S. Taylor, M. D. With illustrations. Cloth. 
Price $1 50. 

J^ODERN COOKERY in all its Branches. By Miss Eliza 
Acton. Carefully revised by Mrs. S. J. Uale. With numerooa illastra- 
tions. 12mo., cloth. Price $1 75. 

'PHE EARLY MORN. An Address to the Young on the 
Importance of Religion. By John Foster. 24mo., cloth. Price 25 ctfi. 

PAMILY PRAYERS. Adapted to every day in the week. 
By the late Rev. William Wilberforoe. Cloth. Price 37 cents. 

'pHE HISTORY OF PALESTINE from the Patriarchal 
Ages to the Present Time. By John Eitto. With illustrations. Cloth. 
Price $1 50. 

'pHE WREATH OF GEMS. A gift book for the young of 
both sexes. By Emily Percival. Cloth. Price $1 50. 

'pHE RAINBOW AROUND THE TOMB; or, Rays of 
Hope for those who Mourn. By Emily Thorn well. Cloth. Pi ice $1 50. 

^HE LIFE OF OUR LORD AND SAVIOUR JESUS 

CHRIST, from his Incarnation to his Ascension into Heaven. By Rev. 
John Fleetwood, D. D. With steel and colored plates. Crown 8vo., 
library style. Price $4. 

^HE RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS IN THE 

UNITED STATES. Their History, Doctrine, Government, and Sta- 
tistics. By Rev. Joseph Belcher, D. D., author of "William Carey, a 
Biography," and editor of the "Complete Works of Andrew Fuller," 
"Works of Robert Hall," etc. With nearly 200 engravings. Crown 
8vo., library style. Price $4 50. 

^HK GOOD CHILD'S ILLUSTRATED INSTRUC- 

TION BOOK. With more than sixty illustrations. Quarto, bound in 
cloth. i*Jain pictures, $1. Illuminated, $1 25. 

^HE LITTLE FOLKS' OWN BOOK. With sixty illus- 
trations. Quarto, cloth. Plain pictures, $1. Illuminated, $1 25.