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Full text of "Railway accident law : the liability of railways for injuries to the person"

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dill' iiii^ilvijt'j tiLirani 



II 



KAILWAY ACCIDENT LAW. 



THE UABILITY OF RAILWAYS 



nw 



INJURIES TO THE PERSON. 



CHmSTOPHER STUART PATTERSON, 

OF TBC FSCLAJIELrail. BjIL 



PHILADELPHIA: 

T. A J. W. JOHNSON A CO., 




BT 
CHUm<ffHK» &nJABT Patteewb. 



10 

MY FBIEKD, ASD UT PBfiCEPTOB 
or t<B L4<r, 

THE HONOtJEABLE WILLIAM A, FOETEE, 

I QKATEFULLT DEDICATE THIS BOOK. 

[ IflKTV iboc irotiU at daduatioD, h ttwj mn vnttm vben (be pRpar^ 
lum of Lhii ««k VM bffiVDi BithDOgb be. vboae name lufuon ihd 
pB^ lua. uDcc Uin, Ln tlte fallDCK of rcAn, La ib« DHDiri^ of hif 
powertfUtdiotbeHmnarKlLwhokiwir him, piMKtt mvmj from Hirtk. 

CHRISTOPHER STUAKT PATTERiSOS. 



W 



PREFACE. 



My object in writing thb boob haa been tbat of 
providing in a compact form a treatise^ which should 
be of practical uae to judges and to counBcI in the trial 
of actionB against railways for injuries to the persoui 
not only by furnishing references to the leading, and 
to the more recent, cofiea^ but also by stating dearly 
the general principles^ whose application must deter- 
mine cases for which exact precedents are not to be 
found- 

T am as conscious, as any of my readers can be, of 
the many imperfectiond of my work, but I Bubmit it 
to the indulgent judgment of my professional brethren 
in the hope that they will appreciate the labour and 
the pains that have been devoted to its preparation. 

C. 8. P. 



(» 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

BOOK I. 

THE OBITEBAL NATUBE OF THE RAJLWAYB LIABILITY. 



CHAPTER L 



VVQTjaEHC*. 



IL Tbe liabLULr u ^fleeted bj the qoafli-pablic "hmrmM^ of iwHnjt. 
Ill- Nq^li^cQCfi defoed. 
TV^ DialinclLDnB in degrfffl of lugligeaca. 
V. PmiLnuLA and nnula c±uh. 
VL The liabiliij tot u^iirts ctUHd bjvitrtof Godr 
VT]. Tha liftbUItj for iiuaria CBOHd by u net of tbe pablic enemy. 
VIII- Tb« JiHbU JI7 RjT iqarin CHSed by iixvitmble secident. 

IX. Tb« liibilJiF for iEtjnriefl cxued nJel; by tbo vA of the Li^iind penoQ 
X. The lubilily for omiHioiu utd mcU of eomnuujaii by kg«Dt« and 

XI, Tbe lL»kliEf for tb« iwfiligeiit uM of (boH tdio mrt not iLffeato or 
KrriuiU. 
Xn. The QUD'perfDmuDCfl of ■ du^ impoHd bj lUtaLa or muaicipAJ 
DrdLiuiHfli. 
XHt. Ulln vLki. 



CEAPTEB II. 

coimiKJTDiiT nouoncc 

I- ContHbolorr aeflifiviM lO guer*J, 
n. The nilv in Dmvis v. Mua. 



VIU TABLE or L-ONTENTB, 

TIT. The OBS of T. A F, S. P. Ej. v, Boadroii. 
IV. CompuitivQ D^gli^Dce. 
V' KegligeiuH in AToiding danger or IncoiiTEiiieDce. 
VL N4™.pflTformii]M ofcoUaitraTjiiUiWrjdaijBB proof of ciontribnioiji 
Dtgiigonaa. 
VQ. Tb« comributdt/ u^llgeaDe of Jautio, [dioU, ud cbildren. 
V£IId Tlie pliinliff'! conLrLbaEazj Ewgligence nhcD Buing lor li^ucieB U 

tX. The iLlribntion lo the puBenger ol tTift arriw's conttibuLorj ufigli' 

?L The uuibnLiau of Lhe cODtribulur; neglifcntH of on? who hu been 
killed ro thne vho mh for daina^« for hu detiFi. 
XL Tbe ftttribatiDD of ibe <»ntribDLor7 ne^i^nee of th« codtracUnd 
pArl7 U> the pulj on whoH behilf the contncl naa mada. 
Xn. The BitrihntiDTi of the canLELbuLorj iiegl^ieace of pKmiU mod £iuir- 

diaru lo children. 
ZIU. The UTnbdiian to tbe penoa li^iued of ;he oontribator^ DegligcDce 
of (hinl peiKK 



BOOK II. 



THE PZB0OSIS FOB WSOSE ACTS OB OUTOIOI^ THE RAILWAY 



CHAPTER . 

omUip jtATUKX or thv B&HdWAT'a ssPovBiBruTy for orum 

L T%e liatnlitj u ifiwbid b; the chuwAer of the met, at odq of omiHOO 

or of corominiDn, 
U- Bp«cieJ und general tgeucT. 
to. QiB^ficBtioii of ihfi p«i«ju for irhon ada niLwftjA ue liaUb 

CHAPTEK n. 

m> uuhjtt or mLWAVi fob the acts or thkib eEnTum. 

L The ^cDcrml nalvn of a muter^g lialnlit^ for the ada of t sambL 
IL The relation of mMter aod tarruit must in fnkct aitX- 
TIT, Th« act moA be irithLn iha teope of the veriranf ■ ecDploTment- 
IV. If tbe relaiion eiiolB, mud if the s?t be vithin the ecope of the employ 
taeat, h ia not material thai Ibe ouiler did not order the parlicnlu 

ACL 



TABLE OF COKT£Nie. IX 



V. Tbfl liftbEUtj of the nilnj for Ita a&rrttOd (r«pi 
VX TIm liMbLUlj of tht mlwaj Bsr it* »rt«i[tf wilful ■«*. 

CHAPTEB UI, 

TBK uixrurr or AiTLTATa for the uns or utirmvES DEvr cov' 
TBAcrroHa. 

I. Thf ^merml mle of liabilitj for ibe negliffciK of cunlniclon, 
IL Th« JiibUitj for & wroo^l Kt done in puriaasce of a coiLl7t<:t. 
Ill Th« liftlHlitj for t oaaanaoi't □oD-perfonmiuw li l duty Inraimbent 

on (bfl T&ilvtj. 
[V. The raUir&y'H obligtijon to uitidpai* Def;llgHKa on tli« put of in 
CDaiJvctor. 

CHAPTBB IV. 

THV BAILWAT*! LUBIUTT FOB TBE AC13 AITD OKUSOTft OF OTHKS KAIL- 
WATV AHD or PntBON OIBEE TBAV BIBTAHTB iJn> COKTKICTOBB. 

I. The gaoarkl mla daiwmining th« tubilkj. 
11, Ths liablliij of nilwayt for Itmtm. 
Ml. The IJahUUy of rr^livays for mnrtKBEQ tmtWQia pouHHlbTi. 
rV, Tbfl liabUilr of iwlwiiji Tor rw«v«i- 
V- The lubilitj of railwaja for meuu of trADipoiUtion ander Iha im- 

mnJuU coQlrol of third putiea. 
VL The liabilitj of niLwiTS for cormHtEog linea. 
Vll, TheliiblliLj of Bnilwij forihe n^ligean of olher milflB^a which 
andFi- lULuUirj Anihorit/ Kue in MnBr 
VffI- Thr \\tiii\iij of 4 rvilvm; for other nilviTa or indiTidDKli irhich b; 
conuvct life lis Jliie. 



BOOK ni. 



T]tC PERSONS FOR t£fJCBlEB TO WHOH THE RAILWAT TS 

LIABLE. 



CUAFTBR I, 
dJ^mtTirAtUin OF thk i^uorni wno ii*t he htjctafd if the corpse 

OF &AILWAT OPC&ATIOn. 



X TAJiLE OF CONTENTS. 

CHAPTEE TT. 

m GEETKIUL TSJVCIFlX DErEBUlNlNQ THB Ui^HJTI OF TBB OAlIf- 
WAT TO TBB PEfiADNB I!1CI<IJI>ED TS TQS FIBST TEHEf CATMOOBIB. 

' CBAPTEB UL 

WBK LIABTTJTf CV THE KAJXW&.Y TO TOE FEBeVHB niCLin>ED Ifl THE mWI 
tmFEOOKY, THAT »» PEHSOHB VHO XBR BIGOTFOXLT UFON BlOHWXn 

ixaoniTHG OE CBoaenia the kulvat'b link ok f obhibbl 

L The li&bilitj qf th* nilw%j to tmT«Uer» on th* bigLway for t»*in 

vithin lu own prtmivu vhJi^ eodaoger the sufet; of the tnvtllerf 

OD t^e tigbwaj. 
n. Th* Jjpbilttf of iLq nilwij Id tnrcllen on Ute hi^hviy for ill neffU- 

gflot coDfltmctioD of, or fulare lo npur, its building etc 
UL The liability of Ibe rulv&j for inJoriH cmund to penoiu on tha hi^h- 

my by the ntgUgtai opeiulan of il4 lina^ 
rV. The limbiiiiy of the milway for its nfgli^bt cooftnic^QQ ofj or &ilim 

to TDfAir, grad? crmiD^ 
V- The dal7 of the nulvay io the opemtioD of i% tine nt grude croningi 
VL Ojntribntorj negii^ace ai grade crcflem^ 

CHAPTEE IV. 
IBS uABun or tbs ratlwat to thi FEEHom nrcLQDKD Dr TBI ni> 

OKD CATCEaaaT. TEAT T^ UODHIUB. 

L The UsHlir? for iDJurite rteulTing ftorn begjligcnce in the cDiuCnicliDD 

of, or In Lbe future to repiir, the nilirayi pnmiaeB, 
TL The lUhilUy for the argliguil DpemtiuD of the Unt- 
in. The eSecl of notice not to Ir«piui- 

■ 

CHAPTEB V. 

THIE LUBILITT OF THE BXILWAT TO THE FERffiNB IRCLUDDT) EB TffK THUD 
CATEOOBT, THAT IS, TPJBFXMKga. 

L TrtepBnen on railivBr pnmisM. 
II. Tbe turu'table ouo, 
III. TreapKBKr? upon the cmn. 
TV, Trtspusen on the lioe. 

CHAPTER VT. 

TKr- UABIUTT OF TEE BAILWAY TO THE FEHOHB JVCtUPFD m THE rooBTQ 
CAnOOBTp— FAHXlTOEIta, FTC- 



T. The gcQEnl pHodpte det«nnining the liabilit;^. 
[L PHDeo^n. 



XIBEa OF tXfStOiHL zl 

n*. TW l*«n7t*Hlft An «r 4 Aprfl. I9tt. 

vboB tl «PB % Ilk* 4lj15 
VL n* Aatj ■■ tq lb4 ■do^^ion *^ imprind i^iiliiuwn ud nvLhoiLi ot 

VIL tuOBaf r^nlMtOH ■■ tiTiWlDir pUHngHV. 

CHAPTER TIL 
B uiacuTT or mi v^ilitit to rni i-Kumi mcLmD b th nmi 

L Tka cwiatl (tfiiK^k drttnninioi; klic IJafclUt/ af LLa nUhAir [0 lb 
irm»li, 
JI. Tltf A«l^ tf ih* rvnaaj' In kb aHjdd doMnidtloq mA wnbaeqama 
—inlminiB 14 sttmii lA ila tinik nlilqr auul[» antl AjijiUdiiiA*, 
m. Th« 4i<^ «f ttifr r^lfm^ In Ua vlhslnq «n4 vrL^tUnn tf ■rmnbi 
IT- n*iliiit7Bf Utanjln^ La ili upuftlum <]f ilj IIuk 

TL Tba ■rniot^ ImpUad UBilartaUiif ID Ulw ufwi h'kmaDlf Ibifjikaof 

VUatrrkK 
Vlt. Miktr ■•vTibiii. 
Vm. TV« iBrfun'i anitriWlorj n^cUnuaL 






CDAPTint I. 

TVS rw ?r m icnu. 

^ WhnllHnBAl/klvinlAaiiilnudvhM^ialtUaqdlf 
IL ntAUAOtactf unf^ Tin IW. 
UL Tis Muliiitpa favmM nv hihI kdnn|Hlt- 



Xn XABLE OF GOKXENIB. 

CH4JTEE H 

TBI miQHT or Affnog ru TVJUBtis OAOsnra i>uiK 

L The BWaLorr right oT mction. 
IL The cnmiDori'lBw ri^Tit. 
UL T«nzu of HtainMg corLTdrriDg the right of utioiL 

CHAPTER m. 

THC PikSTJBB TO THK ACnOH, 

1. Thepluiill& 
IT- The deludutfl. 

CEAPTBR IV. 

■nmBroE a actionb aqadwt KxiLWATa ros dijdbib to tbe FtBaon 

I. AdmloHibilJly of proof of dodtnUou nod tdnilauoTU b; *c«qU nail 
■ecTwito of th« nilwm^. 
IL AdminibUitj for the pLEintifl' of declBrmtlDiu of Ihe penon iiiJLiTed. 
m. AdmiflflibiliLy for the rulvtj of ■dminioiu and declirmLioDB of thv 

perflOD injurad. 
IV. AdmiMitUitj of arhfMM u id chuigoa in th* coTutrneilao or modfl 
of operation nf tho railwi; Eotde ni^veqiLOnLlj' lo the hippeoiuj 
of the i^jurj. 
V. IiupeciiaD of Lhe ii^Drifii of Ihd psnon iqjond, 
VT, Eridarice « ifl ths apMd of tniiu. 
VII, EridencA bh to Blgnak 
VIIL AdminihiJit7 of Ijr? Labln in tvldeoce. 
TX. ETidoiHH OB lo pDvertj' of penoo iDjored, elc, 

CHAPTER V. 

TBK BTJBDEn OF TOOOW, 

L Th« bordm of proriag D^T{g«iiC4, 
TI. The banleii of proTing contribatory iKgligeccn. 

CHAPTER VI. 
pLnmiPTiOTB. 

L Tht pRniuptlon u to MglfgoDO. 
IL The pnfuraptlan u lo mmribatorj n^lEgencft 
HL CertElD minor pntomptloiu- 



TABLE OF OORTEKTB. XUl 

CHAPTER Vn. 

VB> jLBTButJvv navTKm or tbm ooubt abd tht jumr. 

I Hfl^ignioe mud ■»iitribaUt7 aegllgeue tt qanUoiu of ^ai 
n. Tht dalj of tbc jnd^fl- 

CHAFTEB Vlll* 



X T>Biniffi>''OTtiR«ohflofcoDUvl 

H- Duufci for torU. 
nL Eiemptu^ duiugH. 
IV, Tbe meuare of dumaj^a bi cum of buarlfl not cAcoug dnth. 

V. The meuare of ducB^ci io ohb of iiijaria cmanng dnlb, 
VX SLUuurj limiiiiifim of dutu^vA. 

CHAPTEE TX. 



X Tba nilwiT^ DOiitnictii>] einnpLioii from lubililj m n antv 
, bj iJu pkiatlf or the pemo iigiii«iL 



TABLE OF CASES CITED. 



THi titntKwm AMI m tsi nHOL 



h.alEt, nmi. 

ti4 «V,MI, 



AMI & «. M . K. &. «> JliL 
C^ n Aa A Eotf, B. B. 

Ab»J..T 

<^ ill Ji&MI, ^4 

AtH% Kattfhi •, e l^«TH. »t. 

Atiktn > C M, A >^ MCj. » 

Mitt*,tiQ UrV.AM 

AkkMi^U^AvsSlt.Ar. ?I4 n 

AUiki- cft &.*««« Ill m 

AlnhH«.BvrD*l^«ll AH, 

Irh^iniirir r i/inniB 
K >»s lu^ in 

Alhli I f; C & a, 3 Vmii« 

»< «n 

JLCIL A U. Gd. BnvTv t. 3 

a.ACAU 1X1301 

M/^m^V. IL R. >, U Fu>» Ht 

ttllvl*1Lit*,Om,l74 fiOV 
■ fLA^ J. KILTI U<^ 
iU^ 7 An. A W a IC 
CW.4I4 «l« 

«l.AVHsL>^«<'<^ 

«.UAS. niU ICf- , 
fl A^AfivLlLCM. 

«n SU 

D^ Mir, 4, U Cam. 4tT, 
1«AB,AK«fe.lLl^ 

n VUk a. ur. ^ 4tr 

«kSfH4tttlL» W3 

m^BMi^iatlLtH MM 



Ajpjmr, P. A R. B, R, t, t| 

<:» Ilia 'Jitl 43A 

A.Q,a.Kr.i^n''>4Mf^B7 Al« 

III «n, in 

AlIi>rk.tSAU]LZT4An 

t^a 7Ai,;c^BNf«ra 

AlN«fi«i>. X- a J. A ci. N, >E, 

K «s V >U«- 314 ^«. «3> 
e. K,A]X)J. iL^lL^tJi |«v.i 

IW Ttf 

AllTiftiMn, UVW ti, M I>IL04. 

»L. «;& mi 

Akiwn. MrnH v, S W«Ut 
3(oMb «< Cten (PhiiaO 
«>l I4« 

AUiB«N.y.aRB,>a5 T. 

f(^&]<T4^5«la 4iSS 603 
AIbM^ Hili^Ml •,. 1 Vmli. 

FHuct fL,«| NnpJt^SVfl >l 
Wilt*, M fto^Ub it. Ai» 411 
Alloa .. K. d B. A N, Kr, 17 

/■7<ni e3>, A An, A l^u. 

It 41 1- ^ ^ 1S3 
■Ll.AliW,IL7,l.K. dq 

R a lift 

». Xfv itai (.^ I Ks. D. 
»l m 

P, IL IL f^ « IVno*. m 



KVl 



TABLE OF CABES CITED. 



rAOE 
AU«n, I^ P. ^ C B. B. v., 31 lod. 

39S &01 

BchdchordL v^ 1 WiJl. SGS 4M 
AJlsDder v. C. R. 1, & P. R, R^ 

»-C,R-L&P.Ry.,43Io*a 

Alliird, Wynn t... 6 W. A S, ^^^ 47 
Amng, SherEofkr., 44 1nJ. L»{ 233 
ALiBon, (JroEt v- 4 R, d AU, 590. 

Allwn w. C. & K W. Ry, 42 

lo^a 274 2fl, 232. 421 

Allou V. Midland Rr., Id C. R 
JJ.S. 243, lloE.C, L. 

3M, J91,400, 413 
Alljn 6. B. 4 A, R.K. 105 Mwt 

77 434 

AmbersaiA By,, Wnlwa v., 15 

Jar- 44a 1»7 

AmeHcan 3. 8. Co, f. Brjon, S3 

PeukE. gi. 44^ 454 

Eiprm Cn. t- S«ciid Sat. 
Bank ol TittuviUe, G^ 
Peniu. Sl ^'Ji 50] 

Amac. U. Rj^llV Mbhb. 541 ^2 
AndflMon. P. & li. K. K. c, 94 
Pyiina. St. 351, G Am. A 
Kofi. K, B Cao. 407 

^0, 31. 34, 233, 240, 440 
Co. V. Beal, 113 U. S. 227 454 
AndrewB, P. & Q B B. p.. 39 

Md, 320 W(4. 447 

PhcEna v., 5^ PvunL St 4Sti 400 
Angiu. Dultoti v., 6 App- t^aa. 

740 120 

Annul^^v r. Karl nf AuRlFftea. 17 

Mow, St Tr njO 423 

AukII v. Whlerboofe, M. ^b B. 

303 3^0,3^1, 394 

Anlesci OLI fo. t. Gllnod, l*Lf 

Penni-St 146 12^,305 

Arnaud, Regian u-, Q- H- 30G, 

68 R C L. 413 

Atmonr v. Hahn. Ul U, 8. 313 35U 
Atin^ M, A Hi. P- By. p., 91 U. 

a 405 ^ 471 

Armstf^jD^, C. B B lu 49 
Peiinn.8i. 186,52 Id- 2S2 

50, m, 211. 227, B72, 491 
elevens t- 2 Scld. 4:L.^ 102 

t.L.AY.By.,L.B,lQEx- 

47 HO, 30 

V. N. Y. Q 4 H- B. B. K, 
64 N. Y. 03,1 257 

ArmBwnrtK v. S. ifi, Rj., II Jur, 

758 460, 401 

Anwid. Zell T^. 2 Pen. & W. 292 3y0 
c I.e. BR. 33 111, 273 

251, 601, 603 



ArTw]d,C. Ar,,C.C-B.B.t-31 

lod. 174 3De, 360 

A. B. R-, CuupbflU t, 53 Ql 

48S 60 

Artx t^ C, R. L A P- Ej, M 

Iowa 153 170 

AaburT, T, W. A W. By, p_ M 

111. 420 301 

Aahcran. 91. & M. B. B t., 43 
AlLl6,4UId.50D 

276, 420, 471 
Aslinioi^T, Pwuna, THnt-CD-.ZS 

N. J. L. JHO 602 

Asbti^D, iHoces p, L. B 4 Q, E 

476 102 

Tarry ii.,l Q.BD.3U 127, 14S 
Asbwotib t. Sunwii, 3 El. 4 El. 

701, 107RC.L. 313 

Atipell, P, E. B, TJ-, 23 PtDna. BL 

J47 22,47, Wi, 2^1, 262. 2«4 
Aflwp V- Yaitfl, 2 H- A N. 763 37* 
Aston t. HaiTea, 2 Ear. 533 3ft 

AUinta, W, & A.. B. K. r.. Gt. 
, li Am. & Eng. B, B. 
Cu.233 412 

AUettan, Miagmn f^ L. R. 1 Ei. 

23U 3U, 94, »3, 148 

A,, T- kt a F. B R., BroiTfl t^ 21 
KuiA- I, 15 Am, A Eu, 
B. R C«- 271 34fi 

T. Thu], 29 Kbih. 466, 10 
Aid, & EiiB. H. B C^ 
373 424 

Smith v., 50 Ebiu. 738, 4 
Am. & Eag. K. R Cu 
654 91 

V. Plunkctr 25 K^db. IgSn 2 
Am, & Ede. R. R. Cu. 
127 34« 

t. Flinn. 24 King. 627, 1 
Aic. & Edk. B, B, Cu. 
240 35, 72 

rr. Holt, 20 KuB. 140. U 
Am. & Ed)?. B R. Cu. 
206 363, 337 

V. Hi^ford, IS Et«. 246 308 
V. Lwlbeuer^ 34 K%ta, 3^0, 
2IAm. H^Eng, R. R,Ci* 
555 307 

1. Wagner, 33 Kant 600, 21 
Am. & Eds. R B Cu. 
6PE7 307, 346 

D. Moore, 20 Eacii. 632, 11 
Am, & Ei^. B B. Cu. 
£43, 31 KaDS.197, 16 Am. 
A Eag. B. B. Cu. 312 
329,3 
A,T,&aF,RB.r,MiH^DdliM, 
33 Kdiu. 3U6, 22 Am. A 
Eds. B H. Cnh 296 



TABL£ OP CA2ES dUEO. 



zrii 



Ku> tVU, ^l Ail A iW- 
9 Wuit n »t 

rUACRR-lbOUloML 
11 tM 

A««i> •.0.«.B;,Lfi.2 a 



t.ld.&A L-Rr, LO<;s 

tax. 



4[4» 



3«« 



&. 



A. T. ft K. *. r%a41«^ * W«k1r 

rl^«l PaiBu.a.4t3 

•,«! PnutlLCll, 

4 AK.A £BftR.B.Cte 

lU. I 99l I'M. 9011, ^DO, ^ ;, 3U 
!<hI* >^. M I>4m. Hi. » TO 

^11, HDL m. I^ >DM» 
lU,3it,lT AnAEtvtL 
At— ■.IjimaMKItoL 

IKt iir 

A^m\-A1L A-LBLB^Cht;, 

A.*|:. VI- IL K > Vr<«d- 

%, Krt.70Okf:^a JUL 

A. AC, aTI- KF^h'liunf.At 
y. liMl^HAkA Kw 

A.AO.W. ft. LfL t>l«^ IV 

OUoSLltt 471 

A. A K. K O, CMir f , ir Kaik 

in lU 

7e i» 

90% I Aa A W B. R. 
Ok 77 t9M«\ HI. »< 

A.AR.A UIMLi-Ajm^ I* 

Oft II K 

4.A ft. K B. Prxhrifriui <». 



rvOA 

MTHi-. ft< in 

ltn[4.'.«>. ^ri\. 11.0 A!l 

A-AK.k K,4Vp]liMi^,13|h^ 

A^AW. V K. H.. Vi^'Unr**,** 
0& 3(H\ » An. ^ KiiK. R 

IL. c» AST aa 

«^w«i>t%ui (it.;^w SOS 

■.WiIt, A3 4Il ma Am, 

AS^^RRC^m «0,1M 
euiBf.u^ GLsm« Ai» 

A Eru. IL K <:«. fft» mi m 
A.dF, rT^.t. Wdlsr,48AliL 

teUtI, Obplq *. SI -(. Y. Ut »S 
BmiTih, I- O, ti. K, ■„ AA LIL 3» !» 
lbcn% John * . I. It- A C V, UJ 

UQ, Ml 

lAAn.AKrw 1^ IL '^u. 

■IW 191 

JfaAVtf, T. W,AW.K K^r.M 

VL 10 aSs 3An, 3M 

IteOvy, A.AK,aa>.. II Svty. 

zva 10 Aiou A &v V. a 

Cm. Tti ISA 

fiahcr >, A. V. a K, 0% iVnuL 
£1311,6 Am.A Eur ^ 
K. Chill JSU-|,30a 

ft PMtlVMl. M ^1l, IVtf M 

t.W.*A- It l^UniJt.40fl 

lilfT, MS 
Iteljil H iVtiil. TO l*niruL SL 477 iTZ 
lUdnih-.i:, U. t. A 1-, Ry, m 

lonilHO V>9 

Btlybmf. O. A A. Tl K- Ih, 1A 

B>n, itivr^ntffU >. 4 P. A F. IJ2 tf 

BiuuQ *, r. A ?(> W. B«. U 
VFw. inr. J) adi. A su. 

C ]> MfjT 0>.r.;i ID.4LB Mi 
f. TiifiuiL ft Attn -^7 lKi> 

Buvs U >\ A U. S. R^. t, «T 
MJrli. «Ti\ 3 Am. A &^, 
K. a i:^. lan ^!M 

BudD, K A C a K D.. » IdJ, 

htak uf VnaluA VvtohniRTi r, 

lA Kvi r.,^ «r). loT 

of l^vlon, EAimrpn •- ]Jl V-, 
aM,Ji<iK|-. Ih W. lit 

Of 7<-<r »fnh \Hrki«* .. 
<l«inn. t A|i|>, 1^ 170 110 

W »0 



ZTUl 



TABLE OF CABEB OITED. 



L9AiiL&EDg.B.R Cu. 

139 65, HI 

Bubmi, P. R. R c. &4 feaoiL. 

SL 495 40% 493 

BmncroU t. B. d W. B. B^ 97 

Uah.^5 S59 

BHbonr, Bitton t-, IWU.S.ISB 

Buber, B, B. t^ fiO Ohio Hl bil 
Bird IT. Yobo, 2fl Fenna. rii. 4fc2 102 
Bvber V. B«w, GU M^ih. eH)6 29 

Bikriw, M. H. <fi L. E. R E. D^ « 

OfaioBLMl 301, 307 

Bwkw, R F, C. Co. P., 4 Colo. 

314 :^ 292 

Bums v. WanL 9 C R 392. fi7 

B. C. L, 1*8 

BanwtL, F. B. R. c., fifi Fenni. 

259 15L 153 

Bunej, CAn]Dttr.,G3N.¥.2Hl 136 
Budcn rr. B. i^.A F. R. R^ ISI 

MftK 42S 2S2 

EarkBT, L- B. A I, S, Kf. t- Kfl 

Ark.4g[, Ift AiiL & Eog. 

B. a Cu 196 499 

BaTTT r. et louin, 17 Mo. 121 122 
BuiWr B. D, 4 H. C. Co., 19 

Hun 2ia ^, 353 

BiLTta «- WiiHler, 49 N. H. U 134 
BarnJD, L C B. R ^ 5 WmU. 90 

133,141,469, 473 
Bmy p. N. T. C- A H. R R B.. 

92 N. Y. 28S, 13 Am. A 

Eng. B. B. Cu, 615 

69, 102, 179 
BwtoMhm Coal Co. f. McGui™, 

3 Mun. H. I., B07 S66 
V. Beid, 3 Micq- H, L, 2S2, 

4 Jni". N, 8- 7e7 

97^99.100, 353, 36Sj 3fie 
Bbtlett, Blod^t v^ 60 On. 353 

266, 284 
Vu*oa T. Barbonr, 104 V. B. 136 

i 136, 3S6 
Bvtkk V. EoaliBh Jnict Stock 

Bulk, L. R 2 Et. 259 103 
Bam V, a & N. W. Rt- 36 Wise 
^ 39 Id. C36, 42 Id «64 

113, 25L 41fl 
Bftlmun, MQ&t b- L. B, 3 F. C. 

116 203 

BUchelor t. VoHfVttt, II Q. B 

D. 474 jn 

EMvm V. DowiimzL 4 B. A Aid. 

39 49B 

BoUenoEi n. C A G. T. Br , 49 
HIdi. IM, 3 Am. & Eng. 
B.&.CU. 123 

301, 304, SOG* 316 



Buton « G. R B., SO Oa. SIO 190 
Buendd^ Hadlev F, 9 Ex. 341 400 
BUc; rr,, Ij H. A >\ 446 342 

Buur r, BflbertA 44 C«L 187 
Bftjficli C A nTw. R R p_ 37 

Mlct. 206 112, S60 

Bftjlej ■, M. fi. A L. Rr„ L. E. T 

ap.4i5j8id-:4a 

106, ioe» IM 

B*j]ia V. TniTPUen' lu. Co., 113 

U. a 313 154, 45« 

Baylor e. D. L, & W. R B., 40 

N. J. L. 23 302, 345 

Buoglimu] c. S. A A. R B., 92 

FeoiM. gL 336 1B&, 172 

BuoIk v., N. Y & H. R. R.. fi9 

K. Y. 353 314, 316 

BMler, K. O., J. & G. N. R R, t, 

40 Ui& 396 224 

Baird t. C, R I. 4 F. Rj^ 65 
Iowa 121, 13 N. W. B«p. 
731, 8 Am, A Eng. R B. 
Cw 123, iH fowl 3i9, 12 
Am. A Eiig. R B. Cai. 
76 30S 

BiLTiiKiD Ti, R A O. R. B^ 21 Md. 

JOB 193 

BBilnm, C. C. A C. R. R v., 11 

Ohio SI. 467 261 

B. CimBl Co., Dann c. L. R 7 Q. 

B 241, H Id. 12 146 

R C. F. Rt. t, Kemp., 61 Md. 74, 
le Aid, a En?. R. B. Cu, 
«0 as, 391, 451 

B C, F^ R R «. McDomieLl, 43 

Ud.652 42 

B. C. R. R- Mulhado t., 30 tJ. 

Y. 370 274, 424 

Mangon ir^ 30 H. Y. 415 63 

Sptnner v- bt NY. -2^ 290 
d^Kip ",, fi3 N. Y. 596 393, 431 
Biw;hB,, 29aunll2 8fl 

Miumun v^ 33 N. Y. 466 91 

B.CB. R, IhijB„7tiK.Y.593 111 
Epwmdorfii,69 KY.lSfi 291 
R C. R. T. A N, B, B., Smiih ti, 

3 Ex. 119 
R C. R A N. Kfr B. Dowell, 62 
JotvB629, 16 Am. A Kas- 
R B^ Cu 163 431 

V. CdU«, 62 Id^ 437, 16 
Am.AEiie.RRaiB.266 

313, 431 
H&wea V, M Iowa 315, 19 
Aid. a Enff. R R Cu 
220 13G, 508 

Crowtej t^, 66 Iowa 66B, Hi 

Am. A Eug. B. R. Cbb. 64 31& 
AJldtL p,, 67 Iowa 623, 6 Am. 
A Ed^ R R Cu. 61^ 303 



^^^^^B^^^^V T1SL8 OF CASES CITED. %\jt ^| 




IWl, tUinn ». A ML A A !«. t H 


Kurt s:-r. mcL. sm»fr ■ 


^^K RR.1^MS M7 


CLltLAP.lLLiwTOlIL ■ 

107 71, m _■ 




^KMlHdBT.lOa &X ^H 


^^H Ul W 


Ha*?. t«fElCL, 4TI ^^1 




kJLAA.J.Ka,rtU». ^H 




^^^V I»U1IT 4M 


^^^r W«ttt»,Ml»m«intAB 


^^^K Abt-aac^^a 


SI 111.70 IM ^^H 


^^^B ^"^ MS 


ft I. C A R Ttt. ^'t Ind, AT ISA ^^H 


^^^P Miiilii«,mwn9*».U 


B^ T. Vr A W. B. It i, r«l ^1 


^^^^ An. A Kv K. IL 1.^ 


UL av ifi.s\t\ )im, uo ^M 


^M VI ass 


Bdirnv t. K. P R*. i Vol tCA ^M 


^^^ B.o.a A u- a*. v«iTv»,4T 


»( .\a A £u. K. R. Ck ■ 


^^^H IvnM* 4ia 


itn x:4, X7\ «» ^M 


^^^V nivi: >, at tnwrn ftiA ia; 


BiiMi«cl*.Itr.T.C. Br., h .N. ^^H 


^^^ & C A 3C, IL R. X«Ih *, «7 I^t, 


Y-O 1^. 102, l'i^ ^^H 


^H Y-Ck3 AslAIC^ K.n. 


B4>iwi^ iMuH t^fiUA i--3:!^ ^^H 


^^^^ 1^4^ 90 


Mile. sij ^^M 


^^^m uum 1, io» ^- T.in 


t. <j- V %., ^ OnL c. r. ix ^M 




l«,]X.iiiLA KriE. K. K ^1 


Itettr JW» 101 ■ 


clXJ. lLlL,MIff,J,|^ H 


^V EC.AI-. ILR, JiHit, MN. 


s» e« ■ 


^1 T,4I IXLIM 
^H R C A r R. IL. BbMbi >, m 


f.UA XKK, 103 v. a ■ 


ATT, t Am. A b« K. H. ■ 


^K Hm 4U Sfit 


i:v n «ot. »a ■ 




i(% 108, lao H 


^B Aaijw* Oh h, IIS a a 


f.C. Kf.ARR*,fi6Ia*ft ■ 


^H 0r lu 


«w tc» ■ 


^^^ ^d^rB.lL«.TlpiMB«. A. 


B«MliT,p.auUCh>wMhDiii. ■ 

81. St UfL 4M ■ 
Bh« T, C U. A St. P, Kt. JlO ■ 

Wi.clJU,« Ao-A &g, ■ 


^^^B Mi l«L tf I 


^H B-Ui. w 


R R.<^L^> H4 ^^B 


^H Aw«,t&S.«,«U(^4*« 


BmHTi, i*vtM* r.. z lA- fUruHod ^^^^1 


^H m, 3» 


UK i Nil, ^.Afrl.t:*!. iw ^^^M 


^H BwH L IMUHL ie Hum ^ 


WW, 91 ^^B 


^H «Si 141 


Bcrrlai:*- V. a X, rCT,4CJ\J)- ^1 








r.C.bf^VP JoxbAM 474 H 


Bi^t S.Y.C All ft ILK. ■ 


^K TH. 9t Sfll 


TON. y. l^J.VtlnaVk; H 


^^b iL a 1IIM« Oft, to MM. 




^^B m 


^^^ ftMh-kWv^MI^Lltt V>? 


,vvt 1K.1 H 


^m »i^r,C A A. K. IL *, T< tU. 


IMi * 1^:1- IT Wtnn XXi^ Jl ■ 


■ W 


An. A I'rtf Vivpof, ()i& ^| 


^H "-"- « Awh 4 1U*1* 


u: «i> H 


^H ITV EDI 


Hfndfu ■, HoEnnv, Idl ft. Y- ■ 


^H l*«ft it^ 14 .\» A Kiff- 


B«H( •. C A :t Vr. ftp., «t ■ 


^H tt- K <.w AW xn 


wikCT am H 


^H BrfaJr ff. C. A 5. w, a B, a 


D-n. ILIUJu-ijiM^lt QivA, H 


^^^^ lm«U in 


■ 



TABLE OF OAfiEfl OTTED. 



S. H. A E. R R, Qwdfello- v^ 

I0« Mw. 4fl] 170 

School Diflt tN, 102 Mm. 662 601 
B^H.&Ji, H. RrThompHm, v., 

6 It. a L. 517 2fl2 

BidwflU* McKee ■_ 71 Peiuu. SL 

2ia 201, 422, 464 

Bigeloir t. Rwd, 61 U«. 3^ «6 

Bigfllow Cupel Co, Bi^ui p^ 131 

Utm. 491 3»4 

BllbH V. L,£.&aC. Et, is 

C.M.N.8,6M,I14E.C L- JW 
Billiiwi, Bbirier t- 8 Blub. MT 

114.233 
BUlnun v. I„ C & L. H. R 70 
Ind. 166, a Am. A Eag. 
RB-Oail 13,^,161 

BUIb, TngaUi t^ 9 Male 1 233 

B]DvhuiT.RogBr^6W.<ta.4e6 601 
BinBigar, Cnter v., 33 N. J, L. 

512 460 

£lnks r. a. Y. R7, 3 B- 4 a 344, 

113 E- C- L. 183 

BLid T- Halbfook, 4 Jting- 638. IB 

E, U. L. 39, 183 

v.G.W-K^^23l^ J. Eich. 
3 439 

Bir^ T, GudiKr, 19 Cohd. 607 01 
KrmuifhDiD Water-WDrke Ca, 

l]nho_ll Ei,781 fl.lilie 
Btrkett d. W. U. J. By^ 4 El A 

N. 730 133 

Biaelt p. N. Y. C- B. R, 25 K, Y, 

442 50S 

^U.S.AKI.Rj,S2N,Y 
3M 48. laS. 414 

Bishop. W, A A- B. R P. 6U G^i, 

466 610 

BJKkraRB^IOLm.Aii.33 £33 
V. Dr & Rr C^mI Co., 22 N. 

J, Eq. 130 133 

T.W.i W, R.B. *-881[l. 

112 34^, 376 

t B, C^ B. & U. Rjr, 38 
Idwl 516 157 

BlMkbum, Sirth TT, 4 C AP. 297, 

19 E. a L, 1&3 

BJjdr ^ E- Rj, 66 N- Y. 313 

216, 602 
Bl>ke, G.W. R-.P„ 7 H-A N. 

9S7 13S 

V. U. C. R R, 70 Ub 60 

314. 363 
V. Midland By^l3Q.B.03, 

B3E.C. L. 4S6. 49], 402, 4G3 

B. Ferrii6KY.5S 122 

P. Thitat, 2 H, 4 C 20 123,127 

BlAk^lr, M. R. R D^ fiO AIl 477 233 

BUkemoifi d- B. A R R»- 8 EL 

&BL1036,V2R'C.L. S24 



now 
Bkmim c. L. A Y- Rj, I^ R ^ 

Ex. 2:^ 41.270 

BleauDg t. Si. L., K, C d N. R^^ 

77Mo.4]l>,16Am-4Eiig- 

R. R Oo, S9S SW 

BlKher, B. i 0. R R B, 27 Md. 

277 !J4,*" 

BlodgAU Ti, BartlfltL 60 Ga. 363 

265,284 
Bluhm. P. P. a Co. r^ 100 III. 

20, IS Am. A ^. B. R 

CH.S7 300,480 

BlnmeaLtKl t. SmlLh, 38 VL 402 

1S6 
Blyth V. BirmlD^hun WaIct- 

irorks<:v>-HUEi.7Sl 6,1^146 
P. Topham. Cro. Jtc. 168 1B3 
B. L. & C. J. Ry, Rm D, 7 Et, 

36 107,110.112.113 

^ iocb v., 6 Be G^ 4 8, 6G2. 

IC Jur k035 133 

Bo«dl«, Bxn» ^, 2 H, 4 a 7aB 

14S.440 
Bock, P, R, a v^ 93 Ptrnm St 

427. S AUL A Ear R R 

C-L 20 76. 188. 38A 

Bolaod v^ Uo, R R 36 Mo. 434 

64, 6» 
Bolch V- Smilh, 7 R A N. 736 

175 
Boldt t. N. Y. C. B, B, 18 N. Y 

432 366, 376 

B«ii5eld. a A A. R R. v.. 104 

III. 223,8 Am, & Eng.R 

R C«*, 443 264. 334 

Bookp B. Borough of DutvUlt. 96 

PencB, SL, 1,^8 407 

P.B.R.^.,57l'EnDi_eL346 

209,440,468,471,478 
Boolhi-. B,& A, R, B.73N. Y- 

38 317,329.380,337 

Borriec v. HdLchinKii, 13 C. B. 

N. S, 44,'i. 114 E. C L, 460 
Borcmgh of DiinTUle, B(K>k0 1,, 95 

Tenna fel. IbH 407 

of SLis^DehaniLLi Depot c. Blm - 

raona, 17 WeekEf 'Nnjice of 

Cues (PeroiL] 382 lifS 

Bont w. L. ^. A M. 3. Br., 66 N. 

Y. B39 151. 166 

Boflbm, BowdiLch f., 101 U- S- IS 464 
Gsa-Jigbi C&, Holly *, 8 

Gniv 123 SI 

BMi»ell •7. 1-iM. a Cal. 468 122 

BosvorCb r. ^KKorwr, 10 Ueto- 

368 65 

BoileTord v. U- C. Bf, 38 Hich. 

266 303 

Bothvell, ChapmiD v- 4 Jur. N. 

a 1181 439 



TASLK or cjkjust crrviiL 



XXI 



* V44I* XVM 4f Cttm 
BfVhBhWatoUr. U H'. B.SX0 

>V«lili k BaMb 103 U.S, 14 4U 
Sow > [L C fr Kf, M HiO. 

■.!r.T,CB.L. la »,V. 

4W MA 

Bww » rHi^ I a ft. II. ns 9T» m 

iLaL. KfiJ 

hrA<3 ft-Ai.rit».«ti.>d. 

P.A a IE Rp^pffVoiu. 
CL tti. 1 ,\u, A E^. R. ft. 
(W. 173 

IrilAV MtL ft ft. F, 41 Ohid eL 
01, tl An A Kdj^ K. R. 

ante I^AX.CL^flwOHii^. 

X.J. ?,U» l» 

«t an 

OkBM «4 

Bh^ Phob C» -. t>M m 
IM, 10 An A KKf. a IC> 

II. L AA W Kf.M 

ft. R C^ JTI' 41 WW. 

On t!4 ]ij; 414 

«. rtili*, «l lat n 4iT, (70 
B, P- « W R IL » <yB>r^ 



Br*iJ^«I.AT. Br, US. 
1»ChP-U« <di 

IK 1L W. R>, aa UoL i-nf MV 

Fbl. 1^ 103 

BhJIc; » B. 4 »L a R. 1 CmlL 

BntM, a W. Rj. t, 1 M«L P. L-. 

Bndlnm ■. O. W. Rf^ L. k l^J 

Ks- 1 r«. 4U4 

llnuiu, Mib. r.. [tin. Cor k3^ 

V. -V Ti* KM 

Bfunw^n, 'l\ W A W, Rt. ■, T^ 
7nd -Itfii, ^ ^n-AEncIL 
IL i«* s«i IH,4M 

BfwiDiHij I'.. W- A ?£ IL n, *s 1h 



Bp«An 









I AT 



*^ C. It, L A P. Ut, » 

R u. cw »o SM, afi? 

MS 6oa 

brt^oia T. Ailub EiL Co^ «» ILL 

Brcimwr r. WlllEui^ 1 C. A P, 

11, II I'lr L SSS 

Bi^U, WiL*ii c, I J U. A W. 116 ft 

BsHHH, O. A CM, Br. ■:, «T 

Bri^iHiKJlCILlLtaClTJ JtUA 
iTiW >. B-ouEI. H (X ft P. T^ 

Krt&.B-,\.Y,4PRa,aK 

X.V. UlSv VI Am A Knjt 
RRfW-OoA i£t.n^»4T.AIM 
UridA* r <1. J. Kt, :i »- .* w. 

ui 4HS.4;,ai,Tv, M 

IMdfH -, N U Uv^ 1- a A a 

ii.5;i,? II r. iwa 

n. SA I. ^^2. 3M, 3r^ ViO. IM 
BrWt •^ T*«t4^r» 2hVi. EU x, 44't 
t.OUt.^, 4f|, AC.4ni VC« 

BricMm, P, F, W AC By, •, 

WO^k»fii j:i ^f,Ja.1TT 
BrvMi^U *. l\ A G, IL B. R, 4 

m}^ m M0.7TA. 4n 

R/lllOn ». A. A C A. U [^, M 
X.CaM,]BAtt.4£«b 

RRcwm sM,iKtii 

Ex-IM U,»« 



XXll 



TABLE OF CASSa CITED. 



Tun 
Brimoii, Q ft. R r-, TO Oa. £07, 
04 Id. 475, mAin.&Ea?. 
B.R.Cto.42 lB0,l«:^m,443 
Brockuoidi, Oweti t M Mo- 286 *9i 
Briu, ^. L- 4 fi, E, Rj- 1^ 72 lU, 

^1 S42, SOS 

BrooUT^W-A W. R R o., 81 

ill. 245,2gS ESa, 208,200 

D. SomervjlLc, iOO Man. 271 4» 
9.B.& M. R. R- 136 Mbh. 
21, 1ft Am. AEDg.R.R. 
Cbb, 34S £62, 2fl3, B60 

AdiiMKi.Carj4Sia4:iS 502 
Rrooke, Mayor- 'if Colc^ie^ter v.^ 
7 Q. B, 338, 377,63 E.G. 
L. 51, » 

Brooklj-n, Letmui t^ 20 Bu-b. 

234 441 

Broom, E. C By. ir,, e Ei. 314 

9», 110,312, 118 
Broka* t. N. J, R. E., 3 Vrwm 

32a 108 

KR, R, BuniBo.,&OMo, 130 290 
Brephj-, G, F. Ry, f., 105 Panna. 
Sl^ 38, 10 Am. & En^, R. 
K, Cbb. 801 SBC 

Brotherlon t. Wood. 3 Rrod, Ji Q, 

B4,7 E.CL, 830,304 

Broim, Cildwrfl t^ 63 Penni, St, 

468 323, 35ft, 403 

ft A, T, A S. F. R. Rj^ 31 
Kina. 1, 15 Am. A Env. 
R R, Ch. 271 34B 

t rt,. C. a. A M. Ctt, 8 R A 

a 611 ]22,S01 

w. C. M. A Sl P, Rj^ 64 
Wlac. 342, 8 Am. & Eng- 
R. a.. Vae.UA 25, 27, 232, 407 
t. O. A B. Ht. Rf- 40 Mich. 
lo3, H Am,« iiiE-K. R 
Ou. 386 112, 434 

T, F»nch, 14 WwkW Kot« 

of <.^H«« (FeiiDL) 4l2 112 

■. KrYrC B, R, 34 N.Y. 

404,32 16.000 166,240,276 
O.AR.V, R. Rr., 14 NtV 
I70j 11 Am.AEJis,B,R 
Cm. 601 32 

aila p,, 9 CAP. 001, 38 E- 

C L, 47, 48 

V, E. A J4. A. B. R.. 53 He. 

3S4 01 

t.B. AS.L.RR,22N.Y. 

101 42 

Bulk of Onnee a., 3 Weod. 

158 ftOO 

(.M, Aat.L,R¥,, SlMlno, 
658, 15 Ara, A Eng. H, B, 
CU.333 8Qfl 

« M, R R,, 04 Ato. 630 IBS 



Brpwn T. W. A Si. F. R. B- ST 

Miui. 16V 3Aa 

W^A.AG-B.R^^nWiR 
446 732, 18> 

T, H- A St. J. B. B., 60 Uo. 
461 IH 

t.M..e:,AT-RR, ft4Uc. 

536 soe 

V. G. W- Rjj 40 Vp. Ckn. Q. 

R 338, 2 Out. A& Cu. oi 

3 C&n. 3 a 150 eSl 

«. Bootra^p. 11 CI. A Fin- 

44 Sffl 

Bnnmell ir, Flagler, 6 HUl 232 50 
Sruw, P, A L. £. R R v., 102 

Fnuw. 81, 23 4 

Bnmer, JolinnD r- 61 FeoiiLSt. 

53 300 

Bftui, Amerinn S. S. Co. c.. 88 

Ptone. Sl 44a 4H 

p. K. Y. C. E- K, 81 B«rt, 

335 S« 

Tb^jruvood t., B C B. 110, 66 

E. C L. 7S, 36, 8fl 

Brruit V. BieelDW Cirp?t Go,. 

181 Mua. 4«] 304 

t. K. C B. A N. Rj. BO 

lawa 505, 21 Am. A Eng- 

B. K, Oh. 533 Wr 

«. RicK, 106 Mu.l80,20£ 114 
t.C,B.LAI\Bv-,63lo«fl 

4ft4, 10 Am, A Eng. R B. 

Cbb.335 114 

BTTdon D. tuwu-t, 2 Uuq. H. L. 

80 BU 

Broughtonp, M.G,W,E7^l Ir, 

<M.lfi» 140 

BeoweivII V- P. R. R, 47 Uo- 

240 417 

B. R7,, Oirty p,, ] <yab. 476 SB7 
Brmnd, 11. Hy. w., L. R, 1 Q. B. 

130,2 Id. 223, L. R 4 H- 

L. 171 14« 

BnckeD IT. Q. H. A B. A. Rj„ 67 

Tei 71, U Am, A Ebg. 

R R. Cm. n91 163 

Brewalian p. M. C K7, 49 Mich, 

410, B Am, A Eng, B R 

Cbb, 147 190 

R B, B. R r, HarriB, 87 Ali, 8 473 
B., S., O. A a R. B. t H-inholl, 

00 Ind. 5!>l. 21 Am, A 

Enjf. R. B. Cu. 466 240, 440 
Bocher, Hie^aa »., lelv. tfO 3U7 

cFiichborgR.B, 131 ^fBs. 

15G, 6 Am. A Eng. R R. 

Cu.212 «6 

fr,N.Y.C. ARRE.R,08 

U.Y. 123, 21 Am. A Edr. 

B.RCu,3til £63,204,287 



^^^^^^^^^V TABLE <jr cAsss cii'a>. xxm ^J 




^^^k|MlAlLA,r-R.X,N»«lkA" 


UmUD <. C. 11. A^XRR. ^M 


^^^V^^m U Aa. A &V IL IL 


41 Ttk, fifn. U Am. A ^M 


^^^^ n»»i ai«3M 








<ri at« ^1 


^^^1 BBdiln''^Ab«^'l B^l^i 


Fnebr I^r.n.R.211 HnnlU «d ■ 


^^H maL 




^^^1 B^*.lldM.87.«T4U.S0a3aT 


^^M 4kwwuf. n. p,ii*M, 


^^^^ llf.aMin VWXHAca. 


Bdiv dl [idiiiiaHEi, 4 IIlIL t^UQ 4611 _^H 


^^^ ^4 a. xTyT c 1L K, u y.^. 


ttAtnr >; V. (V H. K Uf'*^ Wb>^. ^^| 


4« 11'^ ITA ^^1 


^^^H S14 t\<II 


r, 1LILD..A1 lVEnk.N^:Un ^M 


^^^B BwililiV >L OwHthi IX, n 


^IC, 4IIA, 4U1, M>1 ■ 


^^^l »*. TS 4^ 4«< 




^^^B ndbii -H r,jih. ft. K- 40 X. V. 




Omiflftt^J » Knrr-Uf^ JI Art ■ 


fai 4ft. «7» SI ^1 


^V Ctet»3 i37 


• W. R H. 10 Mltn Sna IBS ^^| 


^H Jgi^h. li<Uu % kl htioiL 


Buttw *. II, B. R IE, 1« X Y- .^^H 


^H HT 130 


»4 ^.4da ^^H 


^^^H ^fl, V Am.4 b£B.S. 


CArG.W.Kj.f^O^KL^lhP UJ ^^H 


Buinu 1 ?v. t: Bj., L, a a (i. ^^H 


^^^B CAtM 109 


R MU 1» H 


^^^^ %rH3r'0,^£«AC,R,K.t, 


l^n f; £4dMl 3I.A 0,719 ■ 


^V UU^W fiAl 


14ft.Ml ■ 


^■^ «.t^K.UT,AC.P.lXl AOO 


KT. CAlLlLtK.Vi ■ 


^^^V >'atit of CMt If^OAO 


X. Y. llf t«r, ]«| ■ 


«,K.Ya-*ll lLlE.mM ■ 


^^^ nt y::i 


K.Y. ccGD ug ^^M 


^H «t«&WfW*,W7C.Y.Mft not 


tLAA-IL lL,A»ni*. IflAMuK ^^H 


^H in «. I^hWii^ L. K. V a IV 


4fti ^^B 


^H ui ttt 


0«r]-nliv ts. f« linn 104,V^ ^H 


^^^ <L C A Y, Kt^ IX C I. (5. 


R. R4:^a3i ■ iij^au ■ 


^^^B A^Ul »T 


^^^P < »lGK,AnM«HlXO 2^ 


Ovntu f . m iimm. «0T ^| 


^^^^ & RA t.& ft. lUl Ua>. 


SOU, «i^l« 44i. 444 ^^H 


^H *<» a* 


nund F., 7a K. Y. an ^^H 


^^^H BmXiO«»t,4rTr. lU 


»l7,UV.^a37 ^^H 


^^^K hi^ft«LVr,1t7^a(\KX. 


tVaath ft, 1<M1 Xam. Mi\ ^M 


^^^r ft «V\ M K C. 1. Sit) 


t!\\ 3A4. 139 ■ 


^H ftiit^r t 1 P r - IlL 11 


An, AKiiE)LH.c^A 1Ui^ ■ 


^K^ Ji\>'n7 


^^^L anr>n h &u Br, «l ?E,Y. 


a09<SlL»%3tf7 ■ 


^^^V U* [»!,)«« 


KuJiln* -, m Mhh lA, e ■ 


^^^ ■. >Um|>, O JI C Cf. £. L 


-inA |Ci« R R Lte 406 ■ 


^^^ BwMt • & AM, K R, li XtK 


3»,407 ■ 


IVi^'lot*. OO Ot, »1 114 ■ 


Riv>.MBf. Y. SI7 UO ■ 




Am.lEojr. R.1t<W lir. IM ■ 


^K *« 148 


Uun^ir << » >- ^- iu< " ^1 


^^^H • «t^n>i«, 1 »n 4 ruL 


Adi.AE<v,RRU«.»IO ^^H 


^^^1 11* 


■MKia ^^M 




nih»it,^V.Y.M» ■ 


^^^^^^ «N^ft:ai>;3 M 


■ 
• 1 





xnT 



TABLE OF CASES CITED, 



B. 4 A- R B, ElWns t, Ub 

M>H.19a 69 

Jackie v., 131 Mtn. 61 H, R 

Affl.&Eiig.RR.Cu.203 149 
innneT v^ G^ Bub. 2lH 2W 

Murpbj v^ [33 Mbm. lU 170 
aart w., 128 Mb« 1, 1 Am. 

di t;pg. R.R.Ch^134 S75 
BuHdeDD, 104UH.1i7 

100, 110 
WhHlwright v., iSS Mbh. 

236^ 16 Am. A Eog, B- £. 

CuaiA S60 

Wheeloti f., 105 Una. 203 2fi7 
a A B. K7^ V. Ken, e IL L. C 

B, A C. K. R, etfliwi «^ 90 N. 
¥. 58^, 12 Am. A Eog, B. 
B.Cflil27 114,117 

B. A B. Et., BUk«ian b, a El. 

4BM035, 93E, CL. 224 
fcColUi>i,7H. L.1M 137 

P»*^er»^2*L,T. N.aiOfi 

SAG, 267 
Ttbbutt r, L. R e q. B, 73 

217,259 
B. A H. t4. R B.. Di«uich c^ 56 
Md.34V,liAto.4EQg. R 
B.Ciu.115 251,416,464 

a A 1. R R D. Bnrder, 24 Ohio 

SL 670 76 

r. BDfd?r, 18 Ohia SL 399 91 
B. & J. R Cfi.. SvHDv p_ 101 K. 

Y. 520, 624 S43 

R 4 L. R B, O'Cnnow tl, 135 
MBflR.3£2, 16 Am A En;. 
RRCu.362 6it.70,m,lSft 
Bnnii t., 10L Muh. 60 £24 

Chi0«e t^ 104 Mah. lOS 257 
OaLa^u c,^ ] Allen 137 233 
CoumuniBraUiK v^ 134 Mm*. 

211 405 

EuOQc.pJl Allen 600 B6,95, 130 
UicVey v., 14 Allen 429 266, 284 
TmLtP^ 131 Uhi. 371, HAUL 

& £%. R R. Cu. 423 231 
Cooke lu 133 Mw 186 140 

Lowell T., 23 Fiek. 24 127 

FiTor*., ll4MtH.360 152 

Lorejo^ e., L26 Mi», 70 30S 
YeuoD D^l^td Man. 4]S, 16 

Aid. A Eog. B. R C>«- 25S 346 
Wobum B^ J09 Ma«. 283 412 
a AU. R R, Uvfov^ 104 KiiM. 

I.'i? 43B 

Gonl-m F.p 5S X. H. 396 421 

BeiVPf r, 14 lirgy 4^0 211, 36^ 
HilWrv. IT.'^Mm.S, 1 Am. 

AKag. RB, Cis. 141 366 
fimJdi K, 120 Uw. 490 AA 



R A U. R R. Hob« v^ 20 

Iiiwk 6«2 374 

Qplmhj v^ 60 Mfc 340 2*3 

Eubbum P., J6 ^'eU 441, 10 
Am.AEiw.RRCH.137 160 

WiUher el, iS Mas- 8, 1 Ant 
AEri;.RRCu.J41 306,3*6 

Brullej t^ 2 Coeh. 530 16K 

Brookd r^ 136 Mah. 21, 16 
Am . A EaB. B, R Cha, 345 

262, 263, 2« 

BametL t^ 16 Neb. 332, 19 
Am,AErif.B.RCu.25 ^1^ 

JoliDHD c. J25 Mks. 7S 214, 2aS 

CMnmimvealLh v., 129 Mm. 
500. 1 Aid. A Eca. R R 
Ou. 4^7 2U 

WrJt?hL B„]29 Mh«. 4*0.2 
AiD.AZCw.RB.CulSI 

169.190 

9.Jtoae,n Neb. 177, 1 Am^ 
&EDg.B.B.Cns.253 250,251 

UcKimble v., 139 Ubh. 542, 
21 Am. & Eds. R R Cu 
213 4W 

B. A N. R. R, SbendfiD b- 36 N- 

Y. 39 290, 29S 

B- A K C. Bj , Comiij t^ 9 Irah 

6- L, 4U6 306 

B. A K. W. Bj., MoAlliit^ v^, «4 
loira 365, 10 Am. &El>ff- 
B. B. CU.108 191,104 

tBloeher, 27Md.277 114,471 

tPepdw, 40OM{»Sl.12I, 12 
Am- A EnB. R B. Cu. 64 

191, 224 

BanrwD v., 24 Md. 108 193 

Uwu I., 3:4 Md. 538 286 

IF, Guu, 33 Ud. 542 

64, 212, 372, 376 

c. suit, 63 Md. 136, 21 Am. 
A Erg. B, R- Cts. 202 

2»7, 440, 490. 403 

WaHhinglon v.. 17 W. Vs. 
190, ID Am. A Eng, R R 
Cbs. 749 6 

V. tir^u, 29 Md. 262. Id. 420 246 

BUle B, 24 Md. 84 

36. 54. 158, 233. 493 

t. Echool DiiiU-lct. m PeonL 
65, 2 Am, A Eng. RR 
Cts. 166 30, 31, 34 

»,ftuie,60Md,449, 12 Am, 
A T.ne. R B. Cm. 149 257, 2S3 

T- Schnicidlirs, 12 ^Vrtk^j 
NotH of Cnsn 349, Mil 
PeoDtfit. 2&S 177.196 

V. SUte, G2 Md. 479, 19 Am. 
A Eog^ R R Cu 83 

107, 4ie, 434 



«iBlX OP CMB CTT£D. 



ARV.Ir » 



mui 



EOS 



HHk «, U W. V4 IJU 901 
kBM^ JU. jVAa 

nffilnMw inTni vr 

Ua<L 4A&A Li^&Jl IL 
L^ 1^9 41? 

r.fari^,t >l<.(rtbaip«J Wt, 4M 

&,A B. ft >. ft, »;i(DirfU % >K 

lC.TiliaAA.AEii|f. K. 

X IT. lOS W) 

& A & C K/. ftvlliM >, L a 

1. A ft I. R. a. Bfwb *« 19 K. 

X. i>t 4^ 

1. 4 W> It a, BiamA #, K 

MwfTA «» 

nndlt.4M*lc l«k t ic<4r. 
u-t.4i» an 



&aBBa^BaBlad«.ttObU» M 



W«U» 



»91 J.H.!r.i4,4Tll 
r. A.AM.kf.^74 
&4SI 



^ 



.^ 



IW 



fMOl 



f. K. a w. &T, {( tKA a 

I, A.aiL, &3<i«.4H« 

I, I-. IL I. A r. »/, 4fi 

IftbniA4 Olf t.. S BlbL 

(ft r.) f^ 
CMtnll,Ei.Ul'liI-AaH,a 
USI Aflr. fik»,4 .VdlA 
Eeme RkC«i lAH 

CkAlcm SehHBir '» 11 C a a>1 

Ur;«urk,aA A-aF{^V7 N. 
Y.4H9lAiii,Akn«. IL 

». MfniM Co, ftfi y, Y 4J 

OtrmlL Utrntti *„ 4^ Mil. -.'M 

»i], ax,aaXY. 1£C 

lLA>Lr.Cn,«,f«IVjiik>. 

K. A<,a R *,« UaUt. 

IK i;^ 

t. M. V B. a. Lis U^mu.so 
QiriiMO 1. 1. A K lU. A <J h. 
1<3. 4»E.L. U L1< 

1U 
Cknv ', C A a ir IL, lif 
Shudtar^^M. lb An. 

A fjw a a (w. 414 

». L.,?f. \- A <IU-R,0» 

Innl j^^ ri Am, A >j>r. 
It IL <'B.;iiu iiFli. 

(^rtwrtfM t. I A II. T n*^ ^a 
MJ''lt,4WH 10 Am. A l^'ir, 
J( IL (■> :ij| 

CvnOi, M- (; It a »,M uw 

Vtm. I. a A U K a t, I^>uti 

kUai-AT, a,Mlr»» 
7^10 AaA En^R K. 

c^mlTI. T.c.Aii aaiL. 
rex. \. aw 



DO 



310 



a A w. a ft, 

IM 



m 



lk«ll»; 



SIVl 



TABLE OF CASES CITED. 



Cktlin ^ HillE, S C. B. 123, S5 E. 

CL. M,e8 

Ciuilej B. P,, a 4Si.L.R.K,% 

P^DEiL Sir 23^. U» Id- 4^ 

CkolkinB, Erie v,, S5 Peniui. Sl 

Owper f. L. E- & 6L L. B. B^ 
103 lol 3U5, 21 Am. & 
Eog. R R Cafl. 625 367, 381 

Ckaidy n, U C B^ R., 70 Me. 
488, 17 Am. A Eds- ^ R- 

Cu 619 3&G. sai 

CkiletoD Vr F. 1. Co-. W Mts- 

210 201 

CuneroD, Fries v-y 4 BLcbudKiD 

228 201 

CAveiu. L. C A L. R. B. f., 

Euab {Ky,) 55» 323 

Cwlln P. O^ R I. 4 P. Ry, 37 

1q*&31S 170 

GudpBD D. M, a. E. K^ 3« Mich. 

Wi ISO 

Ckrev P. H, Ky,, 1 CmIi, 475 397 

G„ B. A Q^ B. R t. Gwrge, 10 

nrSlO 275, «» 

V, Huard. 2« Dl 373 2S8, 292 
■.lo«A.»4U. S. 161 4, 6 

DDUffheriT «_ 3U IIL 4€7 

200, 427 
Lalor rr^ £2 TU. 401 3&0 

Morris v, 45 Idwk 20 

leij 19ft, 4flU 
V. Bjktf, M TU. IG2. 2 Am. 
A Eds- R. K, Cbv. 251 

287, 2SS 
t Wamer, IflS 111- 53B, IB 
Am. 4J1 Enff, R, R Cub. I OD 

307, 373, 445 
b Vui PUlen, 74 HI. 91 60 

c. I^okeoa, 67 Jit. 122 411 

V, DichHon, 63 111. 1&1,T Am. 

Ry. R«p. 45 114 

V, (iregory, 58 ILL 272 303 

r. JohEAOQ, 103 liL. ^I^ 3 
Am. A Eos- R. E, Cm. 
ffi-t 425, 43a 

T.KlUiilpfi.,fi5ll1. 3C7 427 

T. Stump-, e& [II 40ft 73 

Bei-ininir v., 3 ]li*, 43 13fl, 254 
GoiJd D., 66 tDwii 590, 22 
Am. & Ens- R- R. Cu. 
2-^9 3oa 

Huiard v.. 1 Bin. 503 2^ 

V. A^ry, 100 111. 314, 17 
Am. & Enr. R R Cat. 
640 313, 329 

Oaiis br, 92 111 43 342 

tDickAM,33 11|.43l 161. 427 



<!, B. A Q. R B. P. DaDD, 52 m. 

451 161 

p. Doa^h^rty. 110 Til. 521, 10 

Am. & Eng. R. R. Cu. 202 103 
t. Dewey^ -£0 111. 1^ 260. SB3 
f. Let, 60 TU. 601 430 

a B. U. P. Ry., Mc<iomi r. 30 
Kaiu. &89, 15 Am. A Eiix. 
R R Cu- 220 21T, 807 

IT. HQiiigb.23 Ruu 347 TS 

C. B. B. R c. FhUJippi, 20 Kmaa. 

12 lU 

C C, a & T. R, R, LuT IS 7S 
Tod. 323, 3 Am. ^ Kng, 
R. B. Cm 493 177, 1» 

t. Kft»eB, 75 Tnd. 542. R Am. 
iEi>g.RR.CB5.377 

240, 275, 276, 439 
T- WiJmih, 38 Ohio BL 461, 
3 Am. & Eds- ^ R- Caa. 
371 136,240,243,276,440 
Rerwhmcker i<-, 3 Ohio SL 172 

64,efi 
a a R R V. O^mi, 3 Cula. 499 

329, 3V9 
Ti.Mirtin,7Co]o. ,17 Am. 

& Kng. R. R Cbb- 602 3ff7 
V- Holra«, 5 CqIu. 197, 3 Am. 

A Kng- R R Cu 410 54 

Word v^ J9 Shutd (S. G) 
62J, 10 Am. A Eng. R R 
Cm. 3-jO ^4 

HimrUeyt^ l20Ma5i 263,48* 
c. McMdlLDa. 103 LIL485, 8 
Am. hS Eng, R K. Cm- OB 

111,423 
c. Uiimrord. 97 Til, 500, 3 
Aiii.&E£w.R.R.Cu.3l2 

274,301 
Sammen f,, 34 Ta. An. 13S 2B& 
Fills V. 50 Wise. 326, 15 Am. 
A Eng. R. B. Cm. 462 4M 
G. C. e. N. CO.,Y«inftDfl p,44 

Cal. 71 218 

G,CAC.R. R.i^Terrr,8 0liio 

St. 570 75, aa 

T. MuL, 2G Ohio 8t. 135 4ia 
Bflriianip.,11 OhioSL457 2&1 
V. Keu7, 3 Ohio Bl 254 

324,326,870 
C, C A T. C Ry. n. Uuuod, 3D 

Ohio St. 451 237 

v.Pawe]L,40ldd.37 109,215,292 
c TroHch, G8 III. 54ri 3Q7. 484 
C, D. A M. Ry., WiUWr p- 39 

Tonji 33 60 

Cliftflw r. Jl. A L. R R, 104 

Mom. 108 173,257 

ChmmberJBin v. Chuid]«r, 3 M^ 

»a242 LU 



^^^^^^^V TABLC or cAat» ciTui. xxrii ^M 


^^^■CkMfcKlA <k IL A U R ft, 

^^^K tiwrw.ns iv^MMa 


Si^6Am,A Eur O. R. ^^^1 


^^H<^^^ LcB.atw'iJU. 


Cii.«i4 ar<«3« ^^H 


^^^H aoc 


FcwU*.. lun ,l?jLa. ^B 


^^^B OHh f^ « Q. a !>. XT 


«lsiiR.K,BCu.«*« 4M ^B 




Kiltuw t., low* , J:l ^^B 


Am. A lltii. K. a tk^ ^^H 


^ « MS 1)4 


4r^ ara ^B 


^H nwihr, L— >,<a)faW» 


SLuui t,. 0Et low* r^l, II ^B 


_ 


Am, A Enir. & a Uifc ^H 


146 IJ» ^M 




c.^LAaa K.if-<r»i«^0N ^^H 




WS-V.I^ 41T ^^H 


Ouk *^ UumUn^ a (^ U £>. ^^^H 


^^M.!" i- * ' " • ' r 


Kn xu, A 14*, m ^B 


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t. IV' ^ oMf.vi.:it±* in 1^ ^B 


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T.IJ. « I. a ]£ f H^-t JdA ^I 


^ «3 JU 


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^B CbwfnM.CRlL.TTM'.A^ 


CW M lAt>. IfW ^B 


^B tVA&«B^|l&.CW 


nnr, 4CN] 417,444 ^B 


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|]» Tvr< i>«,454 ^B 


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^B frBwnrn t^ la *M IS 


lA 5W ^B 


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^^^■Ori^ia ■- I'ftjv^ 7 C^ni^ TS 


a a t^ i:4t' 34a ^_^B 


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c A iL 1. Kr. w.. 1^ la ^^H 




iiiv in 4ni, A Knv a a ^^^B 

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1, 1 AoL d Eiifr B.. a ^1 


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T.lStX OF CjIAEB CRXDl 



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alvnU ui 

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XXXLl 



TABLE OF CASES CITEB. 



FAQV 

C. K. B. Tj. Rouh, e4 Oft fiSB, 8 
AQ.AEDfrRI^Cae.>9 

15, 62h 376^ 4fll 
v.VuHoni, 38 N. 1 L. 133 

262,266 
ir. Ricb&rdB, ^2 Ga- 804 43L 

Hulunump v., 37 Uor fi37 M 

30M, 3M, 374, 378 
York T-, 3 Will- US 601 

t. Beans 65 Gil 4M 471 

•.Cook, 1 W«U- Now of 

Caaefl (PemiB.) ^I^ i^ 

Dflnnlcb c, 103 U. &11]. 1 
An. \ Eng. R. R. Cu. 

Klndey p.. 34 N. J. L- 613 

2U3, &0£ 
McNiughUm v., Ifl Cl of 

fieffl.T^ 271 867 

Hard v., 3? VL 473 386 

0. R. R. B., R&DdKll It.. 132 

Mom. 2fi9 160 

BUof ^, 13d MuB. 292, 1^ 
Am. A Kog, E. B. Cu. 
181 444 

LflwiFsv., J30 Has. 1, 13 
Am. & Yne. R. R. Cu. 
9G 307 329, 337, 360, 380 

AUeoder t., 37 Iowa 264 

213, 430 
CrtritT V- Metrtpoliun Rj., L, 

R. T c. [^ 300 a&e 

CnnvPlJcr, MiKheil v., 13 C. B. 

yj7, 7<l E, U, L. 102.101 

Cnter v. RimDzer, 33 N, J. !>. 

S]2 460 

Crocd V. P. B. R^ &0 Pcnru. St, 
13LI 

47, 5fi, M9h KiO, 2S2| 237, 445 
P, FiiWf 9 Ei. 472 470 

Cregin r, E C R R, 83 U. Y. 

rm 3oa, 48 1 

Cremcr p. PnrHaiid, 30 Wxbc flJ 47 
Criekctt, McMonus r,, 1 Eaul 

107 lOrt, !1* 

Criapin f. BabbiU, 81 N, Y. 6iU 328 
Crifctey r IL. U. A F. Rj., 75 

l^>nn3. ^i. 9-.i 6»,454 

CrqclwniQ !■. S, S. S. J, FariY, 53 

N. Y. G.W 2^S 

Crocker, Klnrej f, 18 Wik. 74 168 
Croft Tj, .llison, 4 B. & AW. 5W, 

fl£. aL 112, 113 

Ctook. a. Eii, Co. V, 44 Al*. 408 601 
CfOsBH, Miirph; t., 03 Peima. 

fl. 4'i6 300 

Crowle? fl. R C. R. A N. R. R_ 

f-'t Iowa 068, IB Am. A 

ILug. R. R. Cu. 53 3ie 



Cramp, Jordin p.^ 8 H. & W, 

782 183 

Orulchfield c R A D, R. R. 78 

N. C 300, 76 Id. 3W) 337, 37< 
Crofta V. WuerbauH, 3 Buw- 310, 

U £. C. L. 447 

C. S. B- Cix. McGlmda ?„ 49 

Ulcb.406, 8 Am. A Eiu, 

R-RC^o. 186 

301, 302. 306, 338 
O, SL L. A N. O. R R B. Dmle, 

60 MiH. g77, 8 Am. A 

Eng RROi*.17l 8M 

Perkifla ^^ SO Mun- 72fi, 21 

Am. A Edb. R. R. Cu. 

242 SM 

PenistoD v., 84 Ia An. 777 S64 
b. Trolter.61 Uibl 417,18 

Am. & Eng. R. R. Oit 

160 ZSO, 434 

It. TroitQT-, eo HiK 44Z 44S 

r^ Scurr, 60 Alw.4M, 8 Am. 

AEnK.R.R.<:W861 263,471 
Moore c.. 69 Min. 243, 

Am. <t Eng. R. R Oifr 

401 4I« 

O. HL P. ft M- B. E^ Jewel w- 

64 W w OTO, G Am, & Eog. 

R. R Cu 87& £A» 

C^ St. P, M, j[ O. R R.. Ruuom 

*..62WiK.178,IOAiiLj[ 

Eog. R. K. Cu 16 180 

F. Lundairem, Ifi Neb, 264, 

21 Am. A Ecg. B. B, Cu. 

623 370 

LowBon F,. 04 Wise 447, 21 

Am. & Ens. R. R Cu 

240 S06 

C. St. Rt. p. SteeD. 42 Ark. 3^, 

10 Am. 4 Eng. R. R, Cm. 

30 54,471, 473 

CS Co,,FiirtbUdB^130J.e04 233 
C. e, K. R., McKune v^ CaL 

17 Am, & KDff. R R C^ 

680,21 Id. 63y 3:^^370,377 
Trukt.,03 Cil. 00,11 Ana. 

& Eng. R. R. Cu. 102 305 
Mf Kiime i^ C&i. , 21 

Am. & tag. K. R, Cba. 

5311 323 

C. S, N. Co., Leoowl r., 84 N. 

Y.48 40» 

C. e. ft M, S, R B., Riiulcj p.. 

126 Mmb. 64 343 

CnbilL, Rapwn v., 9 M. ft W. 

710 102, JW 

CulbwM t, N. Y. G ft H. R, R 

R. eo N. Y.133 427 

Coip c. A. ft JS. R, R. 17 £■!&. 

476 161 



^^^^^^^H IAB££ OF CJSES CniEDL ^XXlli H 




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ft fmmiiw^ la 111, tta 114 

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1 Ottrii^lbnr •,!.>. AG I-, 


ft VvJa>|]L3n,J«An, 1 


1 94 103^10 


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tkl^ 1F3 MD, CT«4 430 , 
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IXXIT 



TABLE OF CASES CITED. 



C. A IT. V. B. R, Bh. v- 30 

Wlhj, 450, 3U Id. 030, 42 

Id. 6^4 113, 20L 410 

Ballou 0., 54 Wuc a&7. 5 

Am- A £ne, B. R. Cm. 

4flO 807, 309. a« 

DeliQ c, 51 Wuo. 400 !S, 473 
V. BalUm.08m.4O» 411 

*. Bayfield, 37 Mich. 205 11% S£0 
JohosoD P., 4V WiK. fi20, 1 

Am. A Edc. R. R. Cu. 1^ 09 
EwBn o, 3a WiH) fll4 69,70 
Johpwn B, 50 Wiflc 37i 8 

Am,&Eii«.K.KCu.4?l 09 
WJUou?hbrc.,37 1o«i432 4S4 
WoodvEird e.. 23 Wise 400 400 
Bneetf., 46 111. J97 482 

*. Miller, 4G Mich. 632, 3 Am. 

A Eng, a R. Cm. 30 76, 109 
Dnrep p., 3L Iov& 373 SB 

C™l(^ ■., 3S Wiflt eC7 114 

Dimick D^ 30 III- 930 160 

&o7€ T., 02 WiK 066. 1 9 Am. 

A Eng.R. B. Ch. 347 168,454 
Griswold P., WIk, ,23 

Am. & Eag. R. R. Cka. 

408 220 

Mt^T1h»T^, 33 IawL502 109 
UoKJolby r., 44 lovk 314 114 
Qoaife D^ 48 WiH. £33 254 

Daviiii..l0Wiii&]75 

263,264,265 
B«eic, 45WiBG.477 303 

Qtedti. 40 Wise 609 133 

EFuvuii^ ^S Wise 040, 15 Am. 

& Eng. R. R- Cm. 424 179 
p. Piinirk,96Ill. 42,2 Am- 

& Ew R. R Cm. 201 169 
!>D& c, 32 Wist 2S9 169 

Poirler t_ 61 Wiec 169, 17 

Am.&Ei».R.B.CBa. 534 

346,369 
HanL fr, 26 Ion 363 356 

V. jAekBon, 55 Dl. 492 304, 320 
SkelieDHT b., 61 lo>i 714, 12 

Ami Ena. R. R. Cu. 200 340 
i,T»lar,09IIL401 319 

Bran D^ 60 111.171 330,300 

r. Whiiua. 13 WbII. 270 400 
WeJgqud d.,44 WIk- 44, 41 

Id. 478 SOO, 307 

t. Wftr<i. 01 111. 130 346 

V. MiT^Hi&,l08 ni. 676,13 

Am. A Ed£. R. R. Cu. 664 304 
t. MonndB, 93 Til. 302 370 

Bftlur p- 43 Ion 062 377 

HbIby r- 21 IftwA 15 26 

FaUuir^ 21 Wuc. 37% 22 Id 

BI5 60, 4B» 

b FUlmon, 67 ni- S6» 263,416 



G. A K W, R. B- AUim b., 42 

lawB 274 20, 20% 421 

FIahuad iL, 45 WiK i&, 50 
Id. 4S% 2 Am. A E^. B- 
R. Cm. lAO 30% 307, U« 

Foler p.. 48 Mich, G£% 6 
Am. & EoB. &- B. Cu 
101 344 

P. Douhne. 7G IIL 106 

318,U4,37S 

Hutwi^ t^O WiK 353, 1 
Am. & Eng- R. R- C^ 
66 tU 

H^uir., A6Wiic62S 827,300 

Lodctrood *, 61 WiK, 50, 
Am. A Eug, R B. Ck 
151 31S, 37i 874 

V. Smith. 46 MLch. 50^ 4 
Am. A Eag. R. R. Cu. 
535 112,138,139,434 

McDonUd P., 26 Ion 124, 

sa Id. 170 

m 261, 2M, 373, 431 
N»t1oi B-, 53 WiK- 661, 5 

Am- d &ig- B, B, Cm. 

160 343,34V 

PuteD v., 32 Wise 524, 36 

Id. 413 264 

Roberts v., 35 Wise 079 

166,100 
c SaTu.901]]. 586 254 

p. Stpbii^, 52 III. B30 00. 173 
Joclier P^ 53 Wiflc 150, 2 

Am, & EuK. R, R Cu 41 28 
BrabbilU d.. 33 Wise ::89 36« 
Peue f^, 01 Wise 103, 17 

Am. A Eiiff, R. R. CW. 

627 327. 338, 346. 308 

a 4 G. T. R. B., Rhod« b_ 

Mich- , 2i Am. A Eilr- 

R. R.Cm.0->9 164,427 

Kajser p.. Mich, , 1ft 

Am- A Eng. R. R. Cu. 31 

lOA. 19H 

aAQ.E.K B., MtfthilL p. 48 

HI. 475 IIS 

C. A I., a C. R B. *. Arnold. 

31 Ind. 174 306. 360 

C. A M. R R., TmholT p^ 20 

Wixa 344 215, 20* 

G 4 W. M. Rt, Mtltb; ._ 62 
Mich, I0g,13 AIa-AEng- 
R R, Cat 606 160 

C- A &. I. R. R. D. McSeu, 40 

lU. 218 17S 

C 1 T. R H., Simmoru v.. 110 
lll.Sir^lS Am.AE^R 
RCm.60 34» 

hfuvilk p., 11 Ohiv St. 
417 M8 



^^^^^^^^^^^^Astx or ci*Bi ctrzo, ^^ifS^^ 




Da*ldKin *. Owiua. 2 Ohiu £i, 

111 Ml 


^^B r«^Ai.«a )»4.«n. 


■ .n.mJ^^'^l^ 


^B hJPiM^MVaiH.iu. ;i^ t<a 


ati AK. A. R ft t, ai 






^^1 WftboM t, k: vt itD leii 


Utrtm f lUnn, 10 U. A W. 




DnR ifnhui r^ 4 Ohio PL 

m m ' 


» C R R, 60 O*. »:]> 4T« 


■, C t, a R^ 10 How- Pt. -* 


^H <WBB »09 


»> tl» 


^H «ba«(KJttmiU.lftAai. 


kC;V.RR,UVl14, U 1 


^H A C^ R R CV. «1 3U 


ADLAKDsRR(^m ^i^m 




M. m. SOA, BO^ «*^H 
Uefv^a h, 20 Pppu. ft. ^^ 


^H a>?i> 117 


m 11 ^ 


^^H aA^ P.]LR.iHMdC^rtljT,3i1 


hDijfnn {1^ A <- L%ftA 


^H m. «a lu. t4i 


DE^ kflH\ IT Ab, A 






^^B ILtte IO«.«ttdKW i»,m 


W M, fcTT £4 


^H IX. iHl MS 30 


^ O.A IX R R, « Onvitu 


^H e 4 X iL R I. WcUi^ It oitiu 


US :<.«3a 






^H M tHJ. 3Tt 


It A W. R R >, r 0<k 


^H 1*^0. ^&KRRCta. 


lU M 


« X,T.C4a RB.R. 


^H n 


4?K.t.4iiO H» 


^H IUAm It IL lb Bf . » MlBTk 


EMbf.aA!C.W.R*.UWL>e. 
A4fi, 11 An. A W K. R 


^H cwm »» 


(^h w m 


^H kb ■. n 1. A V. R 1L 71 X, 


DHUfwrlr, NY, 1. K A VJfL 

IL-.. II Vit^lyXaatitt , 


^H Y. 4W »«. 431 


^H «.«|.UE,C* It. R R. 

^H «rrK « c. e jf. ft 


Ckm a'Muk) CtT 


Wn. MA, TTi in 
PiPfon » U. Kr , 7 KA KJMT 

t:4,4» 


*,kAN,RR, Ej, , 

It Am. AlJir. R RCWl 


^^1 Tu.I««lII Ak* Ent 


tM 941 


^^H R K. <^ AT« am 


Dua, MiiiWlAir t. lOT T. K ]«2 tM 


^B rtOfTKN.AW.RB^MCGui 


1ii^?-T y V. A S, ILK- R. 32 1 


^^1 


Ohul &m tja ^ 


^H Q. R a« 10% ST 


DvlUviDn, 1^ r, £ Ki- D K^ 


DwiCH f. K. V. A X. R R. R., J 
At C^rm. tM^ tA Au. 4 ■ 


^B R»a r:tu,wi.iit 


W K- R. ( K «f« >S3 


^^l DMA t. iMiff. 1 c A r, m 


R It 4W tbu ea 


v^Chnn^A tfk4i.AlO ^ 




*T, C t* * ti Ry,4t 
)M,£iAt Am. A Ecta- 





xxxtI 



TABLE OF CASES CITED. 



M4I 

« fr c^ k a, T« H. T. 

a«s 114 

Vfi, 14 Alb A Rhff. B. B. 
Gh»» tIK 

Bii«H V, M litab. 4UA, ly 
Aoi. Jk Rh. It. K, Cm. 

&«M, JhttU ■., :t lUn*. 44T, tl 

r. *'- i. tra 

II rt. WiN.Y.JTTT ilO 

1>tcku. It. A B, T. K, K -^ fiS 

ai4, 3J1>, 446, m 
Di Furnl p Wright, 2 Mi^^b, 

* Jtvcu. 8S S-Y. BM, B 
A4ll.itKl>|t It. h. I^K^ 411^ 

UiT, JiiA, ^U, 2V. 

DtMm, rw> >^. 7 i\r \ K i:^: v^ 

Bqn a, MJillund iCr , nl. -t N. 

UiQnijf n \,Y H 4 11 H U- 

IL,:0N.T I2;> iV\*j7,S7a 

IMudMTT . M. A T'. M, *.:. a 

IC. X4 Wlwv &7A sn4 

fi*tthiiniT, O, U^ »v A' B. K. 
■■« f>a T«i. 300, 4 Am. A 
RriK &> IL CkL ess 304 

DBt|.hI *H LwHT, 74 lod, «hJ 

lUU, -ivu 
nolanaj. It. 1 1. A 8i- L a It 

»,. as Ql. lU* W>j WO 

DtiDldfct, (X R. It if N. J. iflH 

r.ft. nu I \m, A Una. 

Itamr r. WllltumK h AIlfHT t IM 

r N. Y. i:. U. fU U L^ny 

m n 

m 

Dbj^ «. r^ f^ t. A P K. R. U. 

DvrnwIiiwliPr f. L-V B. R. S? 
NY 6», 4 Am. A En*. 
B B.C<t.«34 £0a 

Du-W, P. A a a H, r^ 14 Hdw. 

4eo Utfn S31; 2^. SM 

Elinnn 1:, l,i)QtiiDr, !^1 UfflO- 

DvntaLlm Iadu ^ 1S4 Um. 

;ia7 OA 



DAhM. ciitwdB s L« (^ a 

An- A Em. R a CW 

P.ny, L, B. A a a a. « 111. 

;£&« ««),««} 

■-C, 4 K,W-Er, il Ion 

Dhiv i !tpw. 1 UwOQ ItA 4«» 
UvUnuiw, t'r-JH< »., iCO N- Y- 

::iK 301 

LiMpPfr, ILAC>. IL Rr., 4nOli]0 

A 131, l3Aiu,A Kiiff It. 

R. C« M Lftl. 234 

[toi> p. N. Y, C.1L a, M N.Y. 

47 

D, (J-, H A tt lly. YouHK r, 
Mii-h . IV Atd. a 

a^ aR.CK«i7 ui 

PL.Il.A£.Kj„T*l-r ^,71 H. 

Y 169 lAa 

Lhbhiii. ltiiifoii>„ ^Ad.AEL K- 

ksHi,!^ k.L.U « 

Diok-,rc',AL R.R,l«f>tio 

Ml -Miif. H Am. rb Kmr. tt 

(u Idl S79 

me-Ur^a, O A U, R O, •, » 

W. ni: 474 

LHcikdwrni, tibicia * . ^ M^tn OH 134 
^ Ji, E. Ky.ill Au;v« 4» 
*, r II i \. IL IL W,.^ 

KUi;iL, ta.21 Alii. A Kuie, 

lUh <M3^ti )CA» ST^aeA 

347, II Aula [i^i;. a a 
Ou, 116 aVl. 4IEC4M 

Di\K K, Cv Rr, 1.. 4 Bi-li. iKy I 

frja >^4n 

h, a: s, v,*^ lu 

fiitoD ^. IWI, A U A A, 19J1, t 

MLiirk£c.sK,ii u ^e. 0a 

« M. 1lo>ihior W<irfa> 7Q 
It 1X4114 3l,]4| 

Y. 171 ar^ 5« 

DleitMi, a, B A a a R. *<., vr 
nu 12:1 4it 

C, a A q. a R. T, A3 lU. 
161, 7 Aid- Rv, Rn>, 4fi ]|« 

Kii 1JM,43T 

DUulabv.P, U.&-TL I^ddl M- 



^^^^^^^^f TABLE OF CMSV» ClT)a>. 


^H aon* * :v T. c 1. K, u^ 




^H &v« to tu 


bio 3H,»« f 


^^1 tttiU, lj - P^ R- &> K, n K^ 


ti>.Aaccisii s.v. ' 


^H 4n, ti A*. A W B K 


ftu la t 


^B <^ VO JM 


111, IOC il«.U4.>T> 


^H l3fcAw ^ V. V. C A H. &. U. S. 


^H *4 !i. Y. 031 1« Aa 4 


Q^ IL A 1G. A. H. n. *, W 


^^1 K«lLft,l^tn 001,807 


Tfi- li-^ V Am. A fW 


It IIIW 357 11* I 


^^^^H ^^4 Xa.A Kb^K^ 


r, A. A M- r lU, *. TO ' 


^^^^B <te ;:? 


iVnnjv M 1l» lffl>» Ut 


^B 47 HlM ISA t«T 


300 «a 


^^1 SHUifl^ aA A. K. K. 1)1 Mw. 


SeO 43l.43^iB» 


t>lrr V. 7i. i. A N, t:o- 4 Sudf 


^^F Cb» 908 HO 


s a iM «ai 


^K M DJ. 4«J ]«fl 


niTMtv, RACC.CV,4;Wue. 


A&3 SOB . 

Tk^ <. M., E. A T. R. R., £9 i 

Uc. ar, a Am, K-. K^! 1 


^H Hn,o.*c.ft.iL a u«>m- 


^^1 *M ItT 


^H t}I^KGAB.ir.KT^AOnL 


4By tf^ aw, 4T1 


^H w ^ ta« 


LJ<i*T*lW It n, R A X. 14< , III 


^^1 CAX.W.R'. -hMUI-CI 


lawiA^. IB Am, A V-Dg- 


^^H 3 An. A tna. ILft^Clh 


ia.\x..*-*^v^ 4M 


^^V vt 100 


■h V,A ». K, ic.,ni U^H. 


^^m K L A V, B. lU Ihrtdr >. 4» 


M«»IHAiii ABn«, 11. If 


^^1 XJ. Ml WQ^»A 


Ok *3 311. r.i4 


^^H Cbv>,ei TV V »;:.7 Ah 


h ti 8. Kh. (^a, S l!^ a R I 


^^L A iW SL ]t. Ck» &T JM» tfT 


laCL Id R C L. AS, u ■ 


^^^^H 9Ut>, UN. T. MB al, 433 


Ifli 438 




imiO. e, Hflr>dr3dH U Ukh. 


IW, t AfQ-4 Ei.it- K,R 


^^^^ Ho«ii.«rN.T3te «]i\4ti 


i-W^ VM :£V1 


^^^H <b Hiftirrii. «4 Fvim. H. 


IloHV', L ('. B, R. », U in. 


^^^H si«^«iu»A t^c^*r.tss 


V^ \\% llA 


^^^^B B*vna«HMISAU.I|L4M 


t>^t*.(:.,)k.kAN.UIL|C*„ 


^^^^H < 


rtfl »r« 1*n. H Am A 


^^^^H T:-r'--.'T " " "" lU 


Ki>f. R K. raa 171 »14 


^^^^H A& A W R B. Oh. 


r* 0, K, K*,»s« T«, 


iw atff 


^^^H « Ifl^lM 


Ckn*»^ Balwh *- 4 RA Aid, 


^^^^1 WM»r(%i> *. IM Fiwit. 


3ft 4M 


^^^^1 ft ««(i. 14 W«A|t ftotm 


DotKCvR lap. Br'*-*^B 


^^^^B ^ Cm* ir^K) » V, IW 


K«H Bfl 314 


^^^^ Ti«M.>,1f flLdAtU) 140 


Doufhwi* *C B. A Q. R R, 


^■^ BBMihfc,»Jg.J,t,|gy 14V 


HG [IL <U7 1:06 


^H D,1.4k UM. Kt«I^4 «.&] 


C, K A 4r B. •.. ita Lll. 


^H Ml.^«3> «7» 


UIhIU Am.A&ii RR 


^^K^ ELM, V-IL)C.lU4t,«i>a*« 


«^. Eu:: 10s, 4*r 




■.M.B. lull Mo.a>\11 J 
ABb A ina. It R Cm, 


^^^^ tkH^ L « H- IL K. •, U 


407 ^m,%¥i 


^H PvH, ii. >r» MB 


DvgihlTf,LP^Ck.T«M«-l4K WA 


^B DtMta * RA D, K ICSI 1*. 


DncIh Uvuoi f-^AU- IL !>' 


^H c- M4 131^ sro 


14« ai 


^^^^ J)BUaAi»a«TiLl«5.rWl 


HmUiNrr.V. Y.CA It. R R 
8. 00 pi. Y ff^M3 Aitt. 


^^^B B Am. A CtV R ft. Cte. 


^^^H IHM 


A E^ R R cu 79 aa 



XXXTIU 



XABL£ Of CAfiES CTTED. 



nam 

DnytoD V. N. R a £-, 10 
W«kJ; NoE« of Cbh 

Dn*t. FHr,MFaiiu.St2M 88fi 
p. Nev River Co.. fl C A P. 

764. 26 E. C^ L. 14fl 

t, Siiih At#, a B^ 2* IJ. 

Y. 4tt 49fl 

Drrburgb. N. Y. A W, TbL Co. 

*.,35FbiiiL8l^29B W 

Drymalii n. ThompKtD, 29 Uidq- 

40 3O&S20,83O 

DiTBdile, W. A A. R, fi. v. 61 

Gi. 044 474 

D., S. P. A P. R R P. Pickird, 

5 CfAo. laS, 18 Am. & Ertg, 

R. R, Can BSe n. 164, 266 
WiUni>B„7OiK101,16Ain, 

6 Eng. H. R Cu. ]«3 £19 
«. WwJward, 4 Cfllo, 1 431 

D. TurapikQ Cq^ v. Stewmrt, 2 

Heic{ET.) lift 80 

Dockirorth t, JdIiiudil 4 H. & 

N. 063 4&% 48a 

PngffMi, E.. X V. ft G. R B- ft, 

Gl G>. 212 4la 

Dnff r. A- V- R R, 91 Vtata- 
St.468 ISS, 189, 196, 2DBp 

^OOh 217, 23S 
V. Bndd, 3 Brad. & R 177, T 

E. C. L. 7 

V. O. N. Rj., 4 Iriih I^v 
Rep. 17^ fiOl 

Dnffr "^ C. & N. W.Rj, 3B Wise. 

269 169 

Jhiffij, L. R- 4 P- S- R, R, B,, Sa 
Ark. S02, 4 Am. ft tog. 
B. R. Cu, GOT 301, 349 

DuffleJd, E, T V. & G. H, R. c 
12 I^tT«in^)63,18Aiii. 
A Eiw. R R. Cu 36 3S2 

Donbar, O. ft U. R, R. c, 20 DL 

623 141 

Duruaiv Davia ir. fD. B. C. C. Bo. 
DiET. Hiu\ 17 Am. & 
Eag. R. R. 6v. 295 13G, 13S 
Morw B. (U, a U. a So. Diet. 
ML-d,), H Am. ft Eiu. K. 
R Cpfl. 374 4efl 

RftC-KR.c.,2eiiid.441 

285,270 
Dank, Welln- il, 4 F. ft F. ^S 143 
DaDhEuc, 11- ft T. C. Rj. t., 49 

Tex. 187 SOS 

]>iiDD v. G. T. Rt, 6S Me, 187 

210, 233. 283, 202 
P_ F. W. ft G B J V, flS 

PmntSLSBO 351, 16fl,ie3 
A.4Q.W.R.tB,19 0hio 
Bf- IG2 471 



Dtma P^ B C^iul Co., L. R 7 Q. 

R 244, S Id. 42 140 

C^Rft d.RR->-62 ni. 
4fil IM 

DDH-in V. MnnHD, 9 Allen OK SOfi 
Dq^ 1. a F, R R, 56 CftL 

BBS 49i 

DDrkiD o. Bhtrp, BB X. Y. 236, 
8 Ahl ft Eag. R B- Ou 
620 30^,330 

T.. W. ft W. By. », 7fl 111. 
396 a6« 

DimkuLL., N. A.AG,Rt. «,, 92 
iadr aOl, 16 Am. ft Eog. 
RR. Cu.422 llS, 19D 

DnnleiVT ». O, R. I, 4 P. Ry, 
lowk , 21 Am. ft 
Eiw. B. RC>lM2 Hi 

Don V. B. ft R B. a, 7B Va- M6, 
16 Am. ft Eue. R B. Ctt 
363 2S4 

D, W. & P. Rt-, Slnrtheim r. 87 

PenDK, gt.282 146 

D, W, 4 W.Ry. T. BliltoiT, a 
App.Cu.n66 174,180, 
260,427.436,448,462,454,467 
Dyke f . E- R R, 46 N. Y. 113 407 
l^nen t. Lwcb, 26 U J. Rr. 

221 S7S 

Dyert. E. R.R.TIM. Y,22S 
D. 4 B. J. R*. HneT D,, B IrithO. 

L. 206 
H^ 4 W. Bt., BwEt IT., 11 Iriih 

Com. Law 377 M' 

n SpicktTH 81 I>i. 427. 21 
AiD.ftEoB-B-R.CH. 160 

240. 436. 491 
D. A M. R R, Cu«i« 14 S3 Wise 

162.37 Id, IW 253,264 

r.VuiSt?JiibarD,17 7dicb.V9 425 
B- 4 B. C. B. R., Greerdnf D.. 33 

loiri 62 373 

D- 4 H. C. Co.. Beninnr t-, 19 

HuiL 216 307, 388 

Mud v., 91 N. Y. 495. 12 
Am.4Rag.B.RCM.iyfl 

314,315,320,320,332 
r. Carroll, 39 Fennik. €l. 374 

320. 321, 32> 

Masoth v., B4 S. Y. 631 169 

DolBnii.,71 N. Y. 285 163 

&Lterb..3Huii. (N.Y.)338 421 

D. ft R Ctrul Co.,RlKk T., 22 N. 

J. Eq. 130 ISa 

D. 4 B. <l. Rj. r. Huria. New 
hfei. , 16 Am. 4 Eat. 
R.R.Cu^ 142 111 

D. ft S- W, R. R, Fry ir^ 45 !&« 

418 473 

BtuT7 v., 51 Ion 4I» 486 



373 



TiBLE OP OAflUi CtTKa 



Xjj-JK 



Hb 



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Em ft-»A K«ffr O. La Ihmi 

ft^n JL b, Tfmll », Ul 

IGaua* ILAU ft^a^n Alltn, 

t>.l. AVr. D,Bk«T:f Y, 

a« SHI, 

Cn.ALR Kr.^ InJ. 
t.r.RXL,II» Uw U4.S 

A& « Eb» a. a ('a 

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bMftT. A ff- a a a,o 

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Mv.tr Ar««i >ai 

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kfofif »4 >vr 

VI, K.LnA}>«R.a 
C^MTJIOfd.A|bM 

l.KCU m 

l^Mc. Jt-Y.C^II. H, fciL, 

4 C P. «tt 110, 111 



1^ 



but, Ailu 
Pripl 



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^[UUfL 0>ui»t *, I. U. V C f . 

at* m 

Ebriull lu Tlie Uu«r. UK }f, T- 

s V. :m 290 

£Ufptad - U. A ML t. K. u, 

Eng^ li. IL i^ «t4 U:m 

Dk]» < IL ft A, Jt A, ]]« 

£U*tf.N. UK.tt. A Ti, IB*,. 

TU M«. All, 12 Am. A 
Itng-lt, IL (4 LbA ^.^f7? 
mtnd >. h( t. A L M. It K. 

AT >Io £73 «I4 

V,F;f,v,04llI,4»l.4 Am. 
A bMt IE. R Ck «bl 

t, HtU, 1«Q. B, Um Wt 

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Una « UcWn, IJU ytmrn, »?£. 
IbAn.AKos lLl£,C4Bi 

B1TCMI-.IC.C AT?, nt^n 

NvpHlOALhALuK. R 
R i.^ %*2 31; 411 

CfliUu 1. Ui^n, IL A H. 

M m 

EawrnD v, 7(. K. Oo., V OdU 

|1.an.?£8« no 

Eoplrf TruiL Co ■. Wuvuiu 

01ICa.43F«iiiiD, tLL4 tiU 

b^i^ TtlOmii u? a A a 

t la. ;»a ^19\ UX. i(M 

Enjrllvh JninL^tl»k lliinli. Iki^ 

■triLf ,u II, f k:< t3^ ion 

bnl4l#^ ftrnitr.ni lUs ?I4 4IT 
EpKBdorf •- U. C- IC U-, U X, 

t,lB6 S»l 

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KffW *, I'tulklni^ U Pnnb A 

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Vanw* h, H 3!, Y, *M 

101^ >M 



TABLE OF CASES CTTED. 



Tina 
E. B, R, QrMD t.. 11 Han 333 267 
Hwper u^Si N- J. L. as, fl 

Vroom 88 47, 2*4 

Knoirlioii v., 10 Ohio St 

hjooB V. BT K Y. 4S» 4B0 

McOarj t^ 135 Hia. 8«3, 
]g Am. d Eiiffr B. B. Cu 
♦07 ei 

Morri*oa d, W S. ¥. 302 lOS 
If JcholHD Vr. 41 K. Y. BSS 

40, IV7, 178 
Bobertwn v^ 22 Bn-^^ 91 ^«3 
Wiraer t- 44 K Y, 4W 434 
Gilnun k, 10 Allen 233, 13 

Td. 433 814, 3?ie, 36S 

PmcdU *, 113 UtH. 370 168 
HuT«T B^ lift Uin, 209 

260,204 
Dyer p^ 71 K Y, 223 86 

Norlenv., 113 Mub- SSd 103 
Kwley p., 47 How. Vr. 256 3* 
GlbHii f, 63 N. Y. 44ft 843, 

345,373 
Wtjri«T>.,3ftN,Y.468 298,806 
Chtpmaa rr., 56 N. Y. 679 814 
IforFivaj v.. yi6 Mas. 377 1M 
Trufti v^ 4 Unaing Iflft 2lfl 
Pollock v^ Vi4 M-M. lo3 153 
Kodffkiiuv, liaMsas. 419 303 
Paulmwr v,, b VrOQiD 131 

300,337 
Porter t, 3 Vroom S61 471 

SDiiLhK., 124 Mora. 164 134 

H&alu ir^ 114 Mu& 34 139 

AckeruDTj, 3 Vtoom 254 471 
Corilon Vm lH-'t Mas. 105, 16 

Anl,*KqB-R.K.Cftl« 161 

J>rk«t.,15 N, Y.1^8 4ff7 

Ptuoimer u.. 73 Me. 691, ft 
Am. & Eua. H. B, ChS. 
166 • lOT 

Fftulkoer r, 49 Bub- 324 806 
EFviD,P.&B R. Bd.,S9 PanoL 

St. 71 4! 

Enrin,N.AaB.R.N Teim. 
, 3 Am, A Ebg. B. R. 
Cm, 465 IB, ca 2^6, 2S7 

EflCT Bank. Foster t^ 17 Midft, 

479 7 

EBl»,t.K.B. 1^06 111.470 30e 

ET. V, & (J. R. Rp. Fain, 12 
L« JTeQD,) 35, ]» Am, 
& En^, R. R. (u, 102 IM 
QayiKfl t^ 3 Cold. (Tenn.) 

^22 365 

TrolleD£« v^ 11 Tenn. 533 2£1 
i». Gutlej, 12 r.f& {Teen.) 
48,17 Ain.iL Eng. R R, 
Cv. 6S8 15, 62, 314, 80e 



198 



100 
113 
467 

laa 



E, T. V A G, R R.. Colli™ ^ 

Heiik, (Teoo.} B4] 4aS 

ff. Dameld, 12 Ltt (Teoo.) 
83, 18 Am. A Eua. B. IL 
CiB.36 SS3 

*. Dnnan. ^l 0>. 212 41fi 

«. Smnk 1a (Term.) ft35 

m.*74 
V. fiwirirt, IS L*» (Term.) 
432, 2] AoL A Ei«, B. B. 
C».ei4 300 

V. EL JoliD, 5 Suad CTsniL.) 

624 19« 

t. Toppiue, 10 L*a ITeim.) 
58, U Am. A EoK- B.R, 
Oi«. 222 80B, S7S 

*- Humplmn, 12 Lo* 
(TcDD.J 2C6, 16 Am, A 
Eng. R. R Cu. 472 
f. FeaLhen, 10 Lu (Ttaa.) 
103, 15 Am. it Eng. R K 
Cu.440 
K T. Co,, Cooper x^, 76 N, T, 

116 

EvuH P. P., F, W. & C. E. H. «, 

63 Puniu. 3t 260 

Wnj v^ Sa FemiK, 6t 102 

Eruuich r. O, C <& S. F. R R, 

57 Tei. 123, a Am A Eng. 

RB. CsMB2 S, IM 

ErerhM p, T. U.&hK R, 73 

Ind. 292, 4 AiQ. & Eng. 

RR, Gu.699 212,370,371 

Eiren r C. A N. W. By., 38 

Wi». 614 09, TB 

Eiurua Co, v^ KcntH, a Will. 

343 SOI 

EjH RAvenscroft «., 2 WUs. 295 46ft 

Et«w, w.u,T, 0.1^,91 u, a 

496, note 471 

E. A C. R R P. HiotL, 17 Ind. 

102 37, M 

V. Duncan. 28 Ind. 441 266, 270 

fl. Wolf, 69 InA 8B 7fl 

1. BftniD, 26 Ind. 70 108 

E. A N. R. B, Btavya v^ 8? 

Ue,e4 

E, & N. A. B. B, 8t«lo v„ 67 

Me, 479 
Brown i<3, 68 Ue. 384 
RAT. H, E. R. V. MoKfK, 99 

lod 619,22 Am. A Eng. 

B B.Cu.36(; 
Fiber p. Sl. P., M. A M, Rj 29 

Minn. 465, 3 Am. A Kog, 

R. R C«. 277 
Fidn, E. T. V, A G. R R p., 12 

J, B. Lea (Tenn.) 36, 19 

Am, A Eds. R R CH- 

102 IM 



114 

134 
91 



110 



160 



^^^^^^^^f TAB1£ OP CiEEa CfTEIX kU ^M 


^^^PMhAU <<C & OkIKU «DI Sift 


rviWD », Ck 1 , R* « V T«n t«^ ^^^1 


^^^■Tiinli '"flUMii 1 , 1 It^CX 


A Am. A Edi. R R C^ ^^^H 


^^^ m 177 


U14 k:i «t^ ^^H 


^V rfelhk«> r) E. A W. Rt«A L 


FM^I. HuKT «, S e » A B. B 


^^^_ C 1. »« 2«9 


»S IW ■ 


^^^H VW^ Ka.«i> -. V3 Will 1?] <S3 


nildiDK, OtLlimil Br ft, 4M ^B 


^^^KyUfHM r TfciMin, Tl lad. Me «T0 


^^^r JWa^ BdU« ^, 9 An« <; L3« 


nfi<Uft2f RR.UN.H.S1&1 ■ 


^^^■TMs^ h c a a. b, il, «s 


Hoa,M4 ^M 


^^^B fteu.et«: AOi 


FU|p«m.l:.AK.R.R*,«naL. ^B 


^^^1 l*«4 SK OK 111 »f , X 


lKj> AN M ^B 


FUv-.N.Y,CXAH,RRR,44 ■ 


^^^1 Ak.«IL^1L1LOb.I0« 


N,T.4:,A»M .V^l ^M 




It, tn\ ar^i. i.^:. 47% ^B 
PUlBsaiLCA>.U.A.t^C>UL ■ 


^^^ rtmlLCA L C A. B. fe^M 




^^KVMMv FcMir O Bk A A 


FfBttu WaMrfl r. 70 PemiL 6t- ^B 


4<^o aoi ■ 


^^^V Mb Ul K C 1^ Hit S70 


Wlatf. M. A M. R R fi- 10 ^^ 


^H FVmU h. ft a W B. K. 4 


ft N. P. Bw. D&L. ■ 


12AU. aW. RR, (^ ^1 


^^^B a*i«A 


iu ■ 


^^^H «M,ftft|,AM. W H^34a 


FWli^. A.V. R R -^ < Wnil; ■ 


^^^■TWfw ft H. * L R X, 1 1 < kw 


^^H «o 


m m ^fl 


^H M Ur, Vl T^ 1» Ail* 


>«k ST'^ III An. A Fpc ^^H 


^H i:kf. It iL<^i 11,19 


K. IL twL 00 HR »^ 134 ^^H 


^H. fM, r. A (r. E R t, U- 111 JfJJt Tfl2 


Kltrhbiir; K. U. Borttf ft. 3A^ ^^B 
U4M.1&A»« Am. AEuK. ^^B 


^^B SMI A&iB^ R R 


RRCM.1I3 K ■ 


^^^V Ck& Itl «Oli» SAO 


PBivviM ft et ?. U. A H, R ^^M 


^ rMWsET.V.AaR.Rr, 
^H kO Urn (THk) 1«^ IS 
^1 Ai^ A ^ R B. C>ft 


Eofr R R. Uft JIO ^^H 
K>Ui«iriL'k ft N, A. A R, B, R, r ■ 


^■. M» ]«0 


^^^ rM« t. LCdbaB.R.a 


lul «2C MT ■ 


^^B Mtiiii*«4ioa m 


ftO. w. K*. i;; i;;i i^n. ^M 


^^^r Mlo;aRR.a,«4P«i».Bt 


CU. B.]v(A ~ir. 2«1 ^^H 
L U. R R dt (tbirn HL ^^H 


^V itt lu, l«a^ i&4 


^■^ faft— ft IMupL t b. a r 


J]f, IT Am-A Kiu. R R ^^H 
Oft &?a KXJ, HiD, mvAjJT ^^H 


^^^B Id. » m *3i >M 


L. K A M. R R R .„ ^\ ^^B 


^^^^ riiil 1 1317 '^ tidUlft ■«MD 


(ihm n. «TV HA ^^H 


^B riNMCawaA^ARm 


FlaitmirL[ipftK-iMl7,i«IAKBiift ^^H 


^^^ »Rci. loa 




^^^1 rWfHT i:*nMtft,eoHA tii 41; 


^^^V rMftkBbfo*.«S. Y. I» la 


^ r«kfr • Im U rmu SL 


FUirr. <>m4 r„ S Ki- m in> ^H 


^K 111 wo 


Ktm t K- c; Br. w w^ na, H 


^^^ fMii ft kt R. R. la Mi« m 


l.> Aoj. A K^. R R Oft^ ^M 


^^^B «^ 439 


itt2 «M ^1 




To, L CAW. Br. ' , 6^ rod. H 


&il, tlAa-A KdcR R ■ 


ckft in i&.im H 


^M ». V. A T. R. X, U Kv«. 


riaOL C- A JL R R % 41 IR ■ 


^^^^ IH 


3H lUtUlU ■ 



xiii 



TABLE OF CASTS CTTEIK 



rij^lcr, BroimfiU v^ fi Hill ^3 50 
FUndert v. MuUt 27 (i>. 3AS ?4 
JUxiigta, I., H. A W. B, K. b™ 77 

JUi. 306 802, 303 

Fltaupui V. C. ^ N^ W. Rt^ 16 

WiB&ft&,50Id.4a2.2Aia, 

AEw. kB.C« 160 

S02, 807, S46 
F^Arnan. C^ A E. B. R. lu 103 

IIL &4& a Am. A E^ a 

B. Cu. 3&4 lU 

nmiiWH L- A N. B, B. t^ U 

L«(TeaD.) 123^ IB Am. 

JE EoK. B. B. Ou 347 

!6,a0,26<^4«6 
fledr V. U. Bt- 134 Mui. 400, la 

Au,AEw-RH.U»872 2B0 
Flamnipg n, St P- 4 D, B, R_ 

27 MinD- 111 814 

Fleldier n. Braddick, 6 B». & 

PdI 18^ 108 

Brlindi n, 8 H. A (L 774, 

;-. R 1 Et ffi5, L. R. 3 

H. L. S3U I4fi 

nTMleur, ]7aB.^l, MR 

GL. 400 

Hiim, A. T, 4 a F, R R B^ 24 

K&n». QS7) 1 Am. A i^. 

R B. CsB, 240 36, 72 

t. P^ W. A B. R. B., 1 

HoogtoD (I>f».) 409 206, 238 
Flint P, N. A N, Y. T, Co, M 

Ojdii. 564 2S1 

v. N.A W. B, R, llOMkK. 

222 tfi2 

Flower t. F. R R, 69 Perma. 

St 210 

74, 116, ISft, IM, m 3711,371 
Flita t. B. A A. R. R, &3 N. Y, 

619 317. 322, 330 

neylM V P. R R^ la L». An. 

O S. 330 192 

njnn, K. 0. Si. J. A C, E By- 

T, 73 Mo. 185,13 Am, A 

EDe,R-RC»a. 23 

306, :SS2, 436, 444 
F. L. & T. Co,, SeiimHi n^ 1& 

WiBc, fi7& 4e» 

Foley T. C. A U. W, Ky, 48 

Mkli. fl^^ Amr A Eds. 

K. It, (>,, lai 844 

Foonl. Htntad r,.. I £1. & EJ. 602, 

lO'iE.CL, 460 

Fotd IT. L. & S. W. Rt., 2 F. a 

F. 7X0 165, 240 

P. C [, B. K,, loirm , 

17 AnL A Eue. R. R. Cu. 

699 434 

K F. R S, lia Mw8. 241 

800, 3'^, 369, 3S2 



Foidhum V. B, A B. a Bt, li. B. 

a c P. aaa, 4 Id. £19 sn 

Fonditn d. tiUtat, L. B. 8 Q P. 

007 478 

Foinster, BnBerfioid ■_ 11 E^ 

«0 46, 47, 51 

Fort, U, P. R E. «, 17 W»1L 

5&3 839,5U^370 

PoTwyth tL a d A, B. B-, 103 

Ubk 6IU 263, 264, SB) 

PorsTthB, McOiU <^ 4 W. A a. 

179 3fia 3M 

FMttv JudUu Brid^ Co, Ifi 

PemuL ^ 393 81 

T>, Fooler, eo I'EDiu- 3l 37 4 
V. FflKT Itanli. 17 M«. 47» 7 
PitEaburv CoeU Co. n, 69 

Penu. f^. sea 4W 

N, C. A BL L. Rj. v^ 
Tenn. ,llAm.A£ix. 
RRC^B.160 ^ a<T 

E.a&A.RR,84IlL 
IM 370 

FaiilkaKM.By-4aP.D. 2d7, 
6 Id. 167 

217, 213, 288, 289, Sn 
Fdw1«lH, AT.a a B. fc-M 
Tet, 452, S Am. A Eag. 
B. K. Ch*. 604 n 

F«t« r., 60 PQIUVL BL 27 4 
rLock?, 1X.B.7C.P.372, 
9 Id. 761 □. 2Sa 

PriMllert^aM.AW. 1 

2»6l344,3» 
t.B. AO. R. R, ISW.Vi. 
679, B Am. A Ew. R R 
Cu 4S0 ISO 

^ G A N. W. By, 81 WiK, 
169, 17 Am. A Erw. R R 
CkA.538 348 

Fdx, ViiKgHX T, 11 Ex. 332 

342,358 
Kpwtl v., 5 Ex. 721 121 

U. A 6l, J. R R »_ 31 
K«u. 6S7, IS Am. A Eu. 
E. RC«. 326 570 

For B. L. R A S, C By, 18 C R 

N.S.225, 114E. C, L 263 
t^ P. W. A B. R R, 47 Md. 
7C 18B 

FortHcuc, BHLcheloF il 11 Q. R. 

1?. 474 177 

FortiHT, R B. B p., 90 Ppiituu 
Hi. 323, 1 Am A FMg. B. 
R Cu. 129 174,441. 164 

Fo« t. C. M. A Sl P. R. R, 38 
MmiL 392, 19 Am. A Eiu. 
B. RCm.113 224 

Foiley, C. P. Bj. t^ 107 Penirn. 

£l. 537 464 



tABLE OF CA3XS CRBBl 



It** 
lU 



phk«* * Ml r. u, A ki icr. n 

Htta M,IA An 4£h, 

Laos 3D0 

1*4 mi wo, am, ar 

fVtfi^* r. tU IL L A r. a IE« 

ltA&AEB«,B.B.auk 
IVi^v ft p. R ft, » Pwat. Si. 

io« at».Bi<iiu,v^ Madura 

FbMiKT.W.A V,>LB.*, 

Tidi V4 201 

TWmirH f, I. A X. W. Itt„ lC» 

11 b. .s K u& :wk c 

1. ^VtU7 

P»«iH^OiHW«t^ ti (V 1L wt:, 

71 K. C- L ISa 

tr- >. M Ark. 4L * 

Ah. A Xf« «. £. Ite 

JWiftm t. K A Al I. Kt. U 
Mlw 40, T Ato, A 1^ 

R. R n» 4»a m 

TMlkkLaLB t. Lloni.ltS, 
^nAiLA£^& KC^ 

h*T, 9l««ha >, 4 0411 «M IM 
ttrMfl^ft. L. K. C A X. K It, 
»lUMV«AnAEnf. 

Af AaABw.fLR 

tMm u )9 Um. mi. a 
Ak A K«» ft. ft. I-H. 
HO iin.ifl3 

IW>«*, IK >tH HIU 
A«. A Ki» JL hTo^ 

vui*ft.iaa xh astis 

A&i ^ II. ft fW 

14* mtfi^m 



13W. V t ,M3i^ SAT. 9r,«Sd; 60t 

r\iJJr f. U4 M«-i tVdit 
Aui. A W R K CkL 

W iev,u»»«» 

BwTi-.iOiiifwau^ m 

lIWIS] Mw.»ll,7Ain. 
AEd«&K.CW§A ih> 

p. ^.. JhXB *., L B. 3 Q. a 

TVS I4« 

FMut w, 0-T. B. R.TO AUw JtiT 

lU3,tT0 
CHf4d«,ltF.AF.«3» »M 
mdmivk. W^ E. R. r, 9J CU 

xm avr 

Pit. Uvk k, 1 Ohia 8l A^H 

irtisr 

V- U A rt. Vf. Kr,. 4d lowjt 
41 e iTl 

hW •' ikmHQD. i jLlcbinlian 

FlMwo t. K.lL,T|'hUi. 

■ffpt il7 

r. fi A r V Mr t OHmh, flft 

IVjh. ». 83 «U 

p. & ft. U. U, lAI <L, 17 Xs Y, 

Si; Tft «^ 4A9 

F, R A O, ». P, R R.^, IT-**^ 

« S. t 2W.S1 A"i.A 

EdK R.ELCh,3J8 Wl 

FDatf« MiwL DiiCrict oT Erie *., 

ROft HMh V?E1; SM 
f. :C, R, B . ?1 Conn. V,7 iUJ, ^1 
riiilntaB.V-K J^A A, R^ K.-^ 
H t\ & N.tLM, IOaK. 
0. 1. It], lU 

Vitnmt Ki.. M'CbwIn*. L> liL 

B li 1^. «7 4U0 

PbM *iC A, i^lL»Ts^. T. 

MX lie 

PiMUh «. a 1L I A r- itf . til 

loatU^ U AD'. A K'-t, 
H. H. iMw,Mi> \r7v. m 

rW-J.AK lU. t i^llOpnlHtv, 

7, A A, >« 1' lly Cn », ftnUrr. 

r. A IL 'l'iirF>r>iW <Vk • P. A T. 
IE, K, M r«B. IH. :Ui 

r. A P. M Kr.* Wflr,5T MvA, 

ill AAB 

GUW;*,Bl»Ic1h 4M lU 

A&:«.lLll.r«m St\«M 
h imin, t7 MhK ft»i> '■ Am- 
A £a| tt R. Ck W>6 IM 



iliv 



TABLE OF CASES CITED. 



F. A P. Ry , QUtmOf b, 57 Psdm. 

8i. 172 7ft 

F. A W. R. S- BotoDNn p., 7 

a*hie&n tJ B. & L. R. S., 1 Alkd 

187 2S3 

Ode c, N, Y, C- A H. R. R. R, 

7eN,Y,W* 470 

GmlHu 1. 11. S. E. B^ IS Fad. 

Rep. lia 114 

Gilmtine, P«iiiu. Ca v-, 77 Idd. 

320, 7 Am. A Eav. B. li. 

Cu.517 43« 

(M]Aj;hcr, HtjH *, 72 Proiia, 

SLr 136 14a 

P, Piper, le CB- N 9.889, 

111 E.CL. 3*5,333,434 
W. P. P. Rj, V,, 16 We*tlj 

Nol« of CoBH (PeDHAJ 

413 6^291 

P. HumphifTH ft L. T, K. 3. 

8b4 17S 

PflDhL Cd- e., 40 Ohio B.. 

€37, 15 Anu A Kng. R- R- 

CuML 222 

GftUiETd V L. A Y. B^-, 12 L. 

T. 356 438, 401 

QnUin b. L. A K. W. Bf ., L. R. 

]0(i.B.212 500 

GuDon E. H. R. R- 113 Uns. 

234 372 

Gudlner, Itirg^ t- 19 Conti. 507 &1 
I>eiin.*^,, 411.A W.9 481 
Gmrdner t, S. H. A N. R.B., 61 

CoDQ. 113- IBAm.AEnj. 

R. K.CM,nO ISB, SOS, 200 
«. L. C. A D- Ry, L- B- 2 

Ch. 201 132, 134 

G«iti«i r. EgertoD, L. B. 2 C. P 

374 177 

G«waj r. A- A W. P. R?., 6S 

Ob^^IO 113, 114 

Gu Li^ht Oi-, BiHAclitng t^ 73 

Mo, 229 43a, 444 

G«ta v.a M. R. B, 23 Miim. 

110,2 Am. A Eng. R. R. 

Cm. 237 31,32.300,3^ 

303,306 
GoYfltt r. M. A L. R. R, le Grmy 

mi ^ 205 

Guy, WtrBti.H Pick- lOS 43ft 

Gaynor p. 0, C A K. B R., 100 

Maw. 2ns 173,257,200 

GmKlE.T.AP.Ry.B,e2Tex.235, 

21 An. A Eur, R R. Cu. 

S'H 205, 210 

Gwtland v T, W. A W. Ry, 87 - 

lU. 4ya S33 

GuTf J, C, A A. R. E. ■, 68 m. 

33 ie« 



G. A, Ry.. 8t^ p_ 10 FhOa. 

440 41« 

G*llowij p, W. A A. R. R_ b7 

Gl 512 510 

G. C A e. F. JL R, Eruuich ■., 
67 Tex. 123, S Am- A 
Edj. BBO*lB2 fi9, IS* 
Dmilu r^ Bl T*it- 196, 21 
Alb, A Bug, R. R CWb. 
&75 S«8 

Q«jy, C. A E- 1. R. R »- 110 
IlL 383,13 Am. AEag. 
R R. CkE. 608 317, 3^ S7Z 
Gte h MetTopoliLu By., L. R 3 

Q.RI61 15,03,278,280 

P. L. A Y. Ry.. fl H, A K. 
211 400,463 

Gf«By, FIdJa p, 71 TtoBM. BL 

439 55,80 

Geddn p, U. R R, 108 Hk 

391 283 

G«oj««s G- B. A Q- B R «-, 10 

III. 510 ^5, 430 

p,St.L.,LM.AH.BB,3* 
Aril. S13, 1 AoL A Eos. 
RR.Oi«.2«4 240,275, 

439,508 
P, Skiviniiian, L. R 5 Ek. 1 413 
GertJil t. P-B. R. 12 Phils. 304, 
5 Weekly Nol« of Cba 
(PeoDL) 251 2S9 

Q. E. Ry., BerringM t., 4 C. P. 

D. 363 393 

PuLiag p, 9 Q. B. D, 110 388 
Bvd p., L R, 2 Q. E 565 

410,509 
BichBrdnn p. L. R 10 C 
P- 4«8, 1 G. P. D. 342 

238,240,309 
Smilh p., L. R. 2 C P. M 209 
Gerety t, P. W. A B- B R., 81 

PendA. Ht 274 S8« JOB 

Gereka p. G. E. A I. Bt- 

MicK. , 22Am.AEiif. 
R. RCu.56] 15L, 154,474 
G, H, A e. A. R R. p. Bnck«L 
57Tei.7L14 Am.AEDd. 
R E. Ck& 691 168 

Bunon t, 61 Tex. A26, 21 
An. A Eog. B. B Cb. 
218 in 

«, Xi#1a1iiiaty, 63 I^. 208, 
4 Am. A Eng, B. R Cn. 
628 306 

* DoiiAbae,58 Tei. 16^0 
Am. A Eag. B B. Cm. 
237 lU 

Hamntau t^ N Tu, 550, 4 
Am. A £jig. R R Ch. 
528 341 



TAJiLK or CJAES cnxi** 



xIt 



w 



■k UMim «» Tta. IlL U 
AB.«WR.n.<^Vl Uf 

«1 ITT 

U-Wl IlK^ r»Lj« !■ a, 

.<! It A KIH1L II U 

IT. V?, ist SD\ w), nr, asb 

GMto Ik MdiMho. I* it X r C^ 

(I^Ll HI wi 14^ At2 

kflLU K.CA K ij.B 

» C Br<. «* K, T. 440 

fe3t-CKr,fttlIim W tfS.Jltt; 
OUkv, Urdi^ f, s II. A .V 

««i ST« 

0(l»a.T V^ttv, ? IXA HI. pa% 

» IL f; I. 441 

am fi^ K. «, 4 L. fitr, i. ft. 4 Ik 

R IW aiT 

r, F W. * C Bf, •, 

MFM^St.44) )!.» 

k & B. B. &, 10 

CM, Si til, Susans 
auii>Eft.&.wPwKfit. 

Ui t7T 

•; J. C n. Bt. T« Ua. 

misAiB.AtaH.R'iL 
CM. in nt 

E<L 1*4 TB^Mt 

kMl/ >. 14 P-Ab. &L 
I Ml 

•M^ 14 iB. 4 £h IL E^ 
OM.a44 Jtt.mMi 

ia.K|LK,14 4Jhiim 

QOtaL IL C IL R > . 44 »(!. 
1}«, 1 Aa 4 £i«. K K 

<ir4 p.u-Br.MirkK. 

4M Itt 

L4 O y. R Itf. MTn 

uc, :n abi- 4 W a. B^ 

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Ik. 144 



OliKM k ^A. R, R, 47 l*.y. 

MUt 901 

ClHUr, Mol.f«a r. «a Kf >H. 

4 An. A V-nu. JL IL f'«K 

I^AUErL. VlJi ?L]7, :iri4, 4111 
OIIt«U. O^bnni ' . 1. k- > Ki, h^ «07 
O. l-P-llr. M^ri^u '.^, I- IL, Jl 

Kv. B 21T 

OIILluk t.a4 Et, A. RR, 7C} 

AU.3fi^ ;n Am.& ii^oe 

S« M,4;, M.?^*« 

GliJinmi. W 4 O. Rt-. f. U 

WftiL wi «7. «a, lae 

Gludliit. IIdI] t,. 43 FenDB. ^ 

4W» 47, &6, (to 

QlwftiT •- F- 4 P- Rj^ M 

TtarmfcSLira Tfl 

GUivm, L-. R R >.. dU Ql ^V 6Q 

m. Hmmm, bO M« ?9! 4M 

Gla*h:ng -..Shuii.V'^ N.V.«7(^ 

STT 141 

O. |d%, t:^- CloDiv *^ ti iL C. 

an njt 

O. y, Br-. D>rtr *, 4 Irlit Lftw 

kfvl^R HOI 

G«tr «,. 4 E. 4 R. «Ta^ lOT 

EC.1. 440 

HuBha 1. 1 Q, 4 K. 408 4A0 
«. UwiMB, 10 El 374 !0e,3Va 
Bvruwt e, 3 E. 4 C J3l UU, ^ 

Mutij]L.16C;B.ITD;HIE, 

PTBeHSB4RTfia,nOK. 
CL-i 4£.4 Raue, JIA 
£. i;. I, ' MT, 4M3 

tijla w., I. R. I C, P. r\»U 

Mi. litt 
* fc C Rt, U JIb« 304 m 

(;af(U^,n W.JI.Rstaind. 

14A SO, 1di7 

« a T S^, CT lU 3D1 Hi 4^1 
Oddln, CWwiJ n^ » Pruim. BL 

ill IW 

I. HwiTlj, 20 PwoL St. 

Oo(JdJiv,f£uini<nit^4&Ma.43B W 
Oodln?. LCRR^:ua6UU 

I:T, ]«ttk 197 
Goff iL Q. 5. Br. S B. 4 £, 471 

ICFJK, Gt- «4ft 

GuLdH*ta t. C, U. 4 Bu P. Br^ 

4fin>L tU4 tS4 

Ooo^Ull^ BDauix <, 1 W. B1. 

m 40 

OoUff >. P. R R, aO PtiiDt. flL 

Mt Mft 



xlvi 



TABLH OP CAfi£8 CITED. 



ramm 

GoodmiD V. EeDTwlL 3 C A P- 

lfi7, 14 E. a L. W 

wra?: i4S 

Goodwin, lllide* r^ 5 a* p. IM, 

M E, C. L- 39. », 148 

V. C^ B. I, A P. B. R, TC 

Md. is, ] I Am. A Eng- B, 

H. Cbl 4ea 16S 

Oorbetl, H. A T, Q By, v- 49 

T«i. fi73 47, flO 

OordoD r. Q. St. A N. B. R^ 40 

fiu-b. 64S ai3 

v,B.&M.R.R^5AKH.SSa 42| 
t. Roll, 4 Ex. 384 3J3a, 388 

Oorml*7 ^ 0, A M- Hj, 73 Ind. 

31^ 6 Am^ A Eaff- R K. 

Cu,«3L 308 

Gorru n. Bcott, L, R. 9 Eich, 1£6 42 
GoDld D. McEeaoB. 86 Feuam. 3L 

297 31, 47 

■- C. B. A Q. B. B., 66 iDirft 

590, 22 Am. & Edb. B. B. 

Cu. 2^9 S0& 

GopxaJh V. N. Y. A R. B. R. K, 

^ How. Fr. 126 206 

GoUwpi r. A- G. a. B. R, fl7 Alt 

114 fiO, ITI 

Gooleib T, N. Y^ L. £. A W. H. 

R, 29 Hm (N. Y) fl37. 

100 KY, 462 80^311 

QoDdfellav r, a, H. A £. B. B- 

106 Mrh 401 179 

Ooodman, P. B. R t- 62 PeonL 

Sl320 157,4SI,490 

Ooeti. L., C. A L. B. B. ^. 79 

Kt.442, 14 Am. A Eue. 

R B. Cu 627 1&9 

G, P. By. t^ Brophj, 105 Peuna. 

81. 38. 16 Am. A Ena. B, 

B, Cu. 361 S86 

T-Waltingr 97 PeDikL3t.5fi, 

2 Am. 4)1 Eug^ B. RCbu, 

20 390,454 

ffntvl, T., W. A W, Bj. v,. 03 

lU. 411 91 

^iradin t, SU P. A D. By^ 30 

Minn. 217, 11 Am. A Eng. 

R B. CoBr 644 209 

Unhun. Dkridno v., 2 Ohio St. 

131 501 

v. DAvi& 4 Ohio St. 362 501 

fr N. E By.. 18 C B. N. S. 

22*,114E,G.L. Zn,308,372 
*, Ptci&c B B., 6« Md. A36 501 
P. A O. C^ul Od. v^ 63 

PeDiiL SL 2QD f 43. 149, 473 
T-H. A l.ER. r,, 9S Ind. 

X80, 12 Am. A Eng- B, K 

CtM. 77 Iftl, 193 



MOB 

Gimbum t. Q, W, By., 41 Up. Cm. 

jd BJ 3M 240 

Gnoll Ji V. WuiWf 86 Pawu. BL 

74 183. 196 

Qnj, H., It A F. By. t., 3 
Weekly KdU of Ouh 
(Penna.) 421 68 

«.P.ARRR(n.S.C.C. 
N, D- N. Y.), 22 Am. A 
EDg- B. R. Qu. 351 HQ 

h SwO, 66 Peoiu. St. 34B 68 
Shup P- 9 BiiuF. 457, 23 R 
al. _ 282 

Gnen i^ Loodon G«i4 Omnibm 
Co,7C-RN.S.290,97 
K C, L- 99. 107 

fl.E.RT-.llHon33a 257 

M. A C R R T^ 52 Ulia. 

779 460 

P. P. Rt. Ts U Md. 84, A 
Am. A Enr- R R Cm. 
168 212, 371 

X. 0. B. B. r, 81 HI. 19 283 

fr E:,B.RB-2 Eeys (H. 
Y.) 2H 398 

Gwo Bay Co, McArthar «, 34 

Wt*tl39 05 

QntDH, L. A If, R B. t, Ky. 
, Ifl Am. A Eng, K R 
Ctf. 9& 192, IM 

frM.ASt.L.By.811GDD. 
248, 15 Am.AEog. B.B- 
Caa.214 30ft 

Gnenlutd t. Chwtin, G £1. 34A 

IB, aft 

GreeoiTDod. Siymoor v.. 7 H. A 

K 354 107. lOa 

QKflnnld fr H , H. A O. R R. 

4U Uich. 1^7, § Am. A Eng. 

B. RCU.IS3 338,3^867 
Qr*-oy p, L. 1. B. R, 101 N- Y, 

410 437 

C]»enla>r d, I. C. B R, 20 lows 

14 373 

frB.AS.C. RR,33 1owB 

52 373 

C.AA. RR>,fi6m. 



G«Bo^. 



C. aAQ.RRfr,5el1L 

772 308 

frPipu, 9BAG.59I,17E 
ex. 886, 88T 

Ore.hoi. F, a M. 4 SL P. R B, 
U. a. C. C- DiBtjict of 
UiiiD., 19 Am. AEitg. R 
R. Cte 342 94, 193 

GnUnor, C. A A. R R v- 40 

111. 70 64. 427 

Greer, PilUbiinF v. 22 Poniu. Sl 

54 3f^3ftO 




^ ^ T. p. K n.w^s> 
8l ti: i» 

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t. ini^, iM D, & tu ao 
117. »L n:, MO 

CW* Ml} 

nj, SK, in. 41M 

» BvHl « liA ^ ZSA. MO 

Am A Kv 1L R C» 
Ml IJl, »< n 

■ -- — l'"^ '" lat 

QiM^ Tvfov ■, 4 C r, a 40 M« 
«K a K. A & €a h KfiCurdf . 

Ikft. A L It K- ll«u -^ 43 
Hlik 401 1 Ai«. A W, 

IL ft r^ :h ]c^ j4lS, m 

', W.A J. K.K. V2 V. 
4X1.n AAAICiKK.a 

WW. , p Ak A be 
kiL<te.4« m 

fr lC.A&■MaMK>CU 
a AAV.Kr, 5idWlit-Tlr. 

Q&A 7t.K K,a«|i«.>.IO 

bfkUA US 

O % R L J. llHle^ U AIl 



0- T. B* , a™nBiL I, 3 Out. C 

P. b. 4tU, tHAuL A l^B. 
K. B. Cv, OUT lai), 

tloljrukdf^ 48H-II-M1 

nnl>^tOAllfb^t£T 103, 
<«al<lud >^ AT «*. VEi? 1 14, 

4. ^fJt,. C^l, 

Tvlffrx,!^!^. It SUV, 3U>i 

SW.4«fL 

Tm? *, »n.'p.<^ «^ RJ 

tlV V I flU 
Mh t. m k h. «11 

eton f^ VI r^ Ckb £C. P.) 

Wartlion t , IV Umb. fV 
HLBbi p„ S(i Uo. i:a 111, 
J««Ilr„JSa>, U,M 

io&3nx 

Jatw IE, 4& Up. Uhl (<t Ej 
193 

KUiA*«ki P. Uldu , 

IE ,lip. A Rtv K, ILC^ 

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N«*lhMji »., :i> VuS94 

l-fVlF.IOCInL A^^1P).lg 

Am, A JOng. IL II, Ul 

as 

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V^ lb Av. A Ibi«. a ft. 
(^ 4«)k ft It V- id t^n, 

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OulnuL I. TC, A i>, tt. B. R h, 11 

In fTnjit I ^ 
Ouiat r. C. U A ^L r. ftr.l^ 
UiK 4^Z J^ Aui. A )Cuf 

a a ch M3 11^ 

Chnrtw kQ. Hl^ Cks 1ft & a 

Qoo, HiU *. £5 I«L 4S 

Qubfar 1. A >.B.E,I] La 
gVn} 3T1; lA An. A 
BrLrKlLClHtOO 

ChiHiT, K T. V. A a. K. ft. f. 

A CiK. a £^ C«L btV 



lOJ 

i» 

Ml 
Itl 

v?o 
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M» 
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311 

3S 

103 
1M 

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293 

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an 

XVI 

SOT 



xlviii 



TABLE OF CASES GIT£I>. 



Gnggenhemi t. L. B. A iS, B. 

Ry , Uicb. , 22 Am. 

A W, R. R. Oi& MA 103, 447 
Qd11«L 0. £ U. B. B. v^ 16 lud. 

a. W. Rj^ Urd r.p 23 L. J. £x. 

*. BImke. T H. A M, 937 130 

Bndbuni t?^ L. R. 10 Ei. 1 

474, 4M 
*. Bnid, 1 UoD, P. C. H. 3. 

101, 9 Jar. £{. 3. 339 

31, 32, 240, 440 
Broim f^ 40 Up. ChD. Q. B. 

333, 2 Out. Ap. Cu. U4, » 

Cut. & C 15ft 221 

H*7 ^., 37 Up- Cm. {il a) 

i:30 2^3 

Baizes v.. S C. B. R a 923, 

M B. C. L 2W 

Hald&n «., 30 Up. Cu. (& 

P.) &9 20G 

AuB^o IT, L, R. 2 Q. R 442 

205,390 
Filxpntrick v., 12 Up. Cut. 

(Q, B.) 345 2S, 262 

Panwll V. (neiidoaed bj 

Meltiflh L. J- in 2 C. F. 

D. 210) 103 
Sio*r B,. L. B-S Ei.150,4 

Id, 117 lR,Bl.fe3,270 

Bulherland t- 1 Up. Q*n. 

{aP.t400 602 

Will^uaa c^ L. K 9 Ex. 167 

23,41 
"Woodgot ^ L. B. a C P. 

313 432 

Wvaltp. e B, A 9. 709, 113 

E. C. L- 34 L.J, [Q.B,) 
204 20,21,37,64,63 

Wnitidfl --,37 L. T. N. B. 

193 299 

Jamefi p,. L. R, 2 G P- 634, 

note 133 

Lenfttoore t, 19 C B- N- S, 

isa, 115B. GL. 153 

FicbullAc., 27 Up. Cbo-^Q. 

B,] 332 63 

T. Redtijoft, L. B-l GP^ 

329 460, 431 

Onliini v^ 41 Up. Con, (<i. 

B. 324 240 

Ellis c, L. R. G P^ 361 423 
O. W^ R. R., Hiwkini «, 17 

Mich. 67, IB Id. 427 602 

t. Mi1]«r, ]9Uich.30G 103 

Q. W. I'oE'ita Co^ Bi^itoii tL, L. 

H. 7 Et, 130 41, 304 

G. W. 4 S. Ry., JohnMiJ »., fl 

Irish Bep, G L. 103 603 



G. 4 G. SL P. By. P. 

97 Penna. St 103 34fl, 3T3 
G. A U, U. B. B. D. Jacolie, SO 

IIL 473 30 

G. A G K R. R. h DOI, 23 IIL 

234 167 

Ebu c. G. a 4 T. B- R, 47 
Mich. 401, a Am. A Ew. 
R.R.C*i,26a 163,16i.ITl 
H«l.et, Lkile -.. llfl U S. 363 IM 
Hmdley c, BaiecidBle, 9 Ex. 341 460 
D. Taylor, L. B, 1 C P- 63 llB 
HaIL I. B. A W^ B. B. v., 103 
ni. 371, 12 Am. A Bug, 
R. R- Cka. 143 * 177 

L C R R^ t-. 72 nL 222 1«0 
w. Johmoo. 3 H, A G 6S0 >U 
L. V. B. B- v., 31 F«i>DL 8l 

331 174.441,4tt 

V. &L P. Ry., 71 Ud. 293, 3 
Am. A Eng. K. R. Cki. 
106 320, S» 

D, K, E, By^ L. R 10 Q. B. 

4OT 600,603 

QliDtt % Ifl Q. B, D- 316 203 
hSmiih, 2 Bliif- 163 123 

#- N. J. B, N-Co- 16 Cmd. 

639 DOI 

V- U. P. Ry- 13 Fed. Ben. 
744 308 

HuKi, r, A T. B. R «,, 47 

FeoM- St 244 103, 174 

Hwcrty, Godley r.. 20 Fouuk 

Si.337 300 

Habn t. S. P. Ry- 61 Cml. OM 163 
Uiyue^ Aduu E^. Co- »-, 42 U1. 

99 601 

Hildu IT. O. W^ Ky-, 30 Up- 

Can, {aR)39 M6 

Haley, U. P. Ry. d., 2S Ebh. 33, 
6 Am. A Enf. R. R Caa, 
694 299, 319. 383 

HaUoren. L A Q, K, B, R t, 63 
Tar. 46, 3 Am. A Eng. R 
B, CHS, 343 

31, 32, 233, S40, 24ti 
Hfthp. ATTnonrti.,111 U. S. 313 363 
H&ltiday, Longneid v^ fl Eli- 

731 413 

ail*y ^. C. A N- W. B- a, 21 

Tan 16 Sfl 

EalUhBD D. H. A St J. R. R- 71 
Mo. 1l3,2Am.AEii2.B. 
RCai, 117 

35, 283, B99, 34i BJl 

Haijh, MaredtD h, 14 WeeHy 

NoUfl af CaHfl (PenmO 

626 878 

Hunlln D- O. N. Bj. I B. A N. . 

403 430 



TXULB or i:<uua& axEii. 



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n«Bif« X, O , M A CR IL IS 

lIW.JL<-ll lti,VH 

TO VI 

C. F. X. IL t, 7 XvH Mi 133 

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llutTt. r. A II.,«X Y *iW J« 
lUtJd. l*Fviof f , 4 C A !■■ 337. 

la R 1., L. 140 

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Ark, RS4 309 

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t^A.£-* 317 

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301 266 
P. R B, *, 31 Penoi Si. 

372 OS, 63, ISl, 4?1,482 

TrukBTer Co. v.. Stl Ohio Bl 
33, 3 Am^ A Eag. &. B. 
CaiL335 30 

p, JoliD^D, 123 Moaa. 530 373 
BteLmneu t., 7-i lad. 412 50 

r. St. P„ M. A M. By, 29 
MiOD. 1, 6 Am. A Eng. R. 
R, 0«. D3 1&3, 160 

■- W, C R^M Wilt , 
21 Am.A£afi,B. K. Caa. 
633 302, 309 

Br HcDdriv, 20 Micb, 266 63 

K«er<, U. A A. B. K v., 47 lU. 

103 367 

KeeRon r. W, R B., 8 N, Y. 175 306 
KbLTo* c C. L R. R. Iowl , 
21 Adl A Eng, B, R Cu, 
486 276 

Ka\ogg. ML A Sl. p. Bt. v., 94 

TJ S. 489. 475 10,13 

^ N. Y. G. A H. R R R.. 
7S N. Y. 72 leO. 404 

Ettidricic S, R R t^ 40 Mia& 

374 2fi3, 487, 471 

Kennani, N, J, R. R v^ ?1 

E'«mia. Si. 20^ 234 

Kwiwj P, C. a B,. ai Gil 500 307 

C. R R B, 63 Gb, 485, 04 

Id. 100,3 Am. A Erw. R 

B. Cm. 155 307 

VoDge c, 24 Ql 111 273, 440 



TXQM 

KennBdj, Hmj» w^ 41 Pannt St 

373 31 

L A St. L. B. B. «^ 77 Ind. 

607, 3 Am. A Eufr R B. 

Cu.407 £31 

t. K. M. R. R^, 34 Uo. 361 54 
Eflntle, L A G- N. Ry. v^ T«. 
, 16 Am.AEiuE.R R 

CoA. 337 114 

Kemp, B. a P. Bj. <^ 01 HA 

74, 13 Am. A Ei^. B. R 

Gh 2^aj 25, 301, 4B1 

Kenaell, GoodiiiAD v- 3 Q A ?. 

137, 14 E.G L. n 

KuiDDde, Ldwh c., 8 TmnnL HO 406 
Ker«aj t>. K, U., SL J. A C R E. 

a, 70 Mo, 302, 17 Am. A 

Eng, R R Ckfl. 333 314 

Kerfcticktr r- a.a, a A L E7-. 

3 Ohio St 17S 54, 36 

Eewenger n. N. Y, A H, E. R, 

&6 N. Y. 643 les, lea 

Eeru, B. A R Rt. V,, H. L. 

G.66G 20ft 

E«}«ona Bridge Co, f. Ne«- 

bflr^, OU Feniu. St. 240 330 
KejMT IT. C. A G. T. Ey^ 

Midi. , ISAm-AEiiff. 

R E. Cu, 91 103, IW 

E. I. Od^ KmjpOa s, &4 N. Y. 

491 4a 

Kj?th D^ N. n. A N. E. K, 140 

M&H^ 175, 23 Am. A £w 

E. B. Cu. 421 310 

EilffDre. P, K. R t, 32 Penns. 

at 2S2 18, 263, 261 

KUliw P. R- B. P, Sa Ptmut 9L 

405 151, 136, 447 

SimbtU t. R A B. R R, 23 Vt 

247 A0« 

KLndrel 1. A Q. N. E. R a, 57 

Tei, 401, II Am.A Eag- 

B, H^ Cbl 049 480 

King T. B. A W. R R, Cosh. 

112 ' 301, 333,306 

ff. N, Y. 0. A G. B, E. R., 

72 N. Y, 607 300 

r. O. A M. By, U, R C. C, 

lod^ la Am. A Eng. R, 

B. Cu. 3«6 aai 

,.G. B. R, U. S-C. ainA. 

3 Am. A Bug. E, R Cu 

no 37T 

BteamboBt New World n., 10 

lIo«. 469 3,207,233 

V- Ttiompwa, 37 P«niu. tit 

3e5 481 

tr. M. Bf., 14 Fed Bap. 277, 

3 Am. A Eog. R R. Cu. 

no 230,339 



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1^ A IL i:t„ t^vwit r^A Q. B, 

;4;,4MK,C, !,> 174, Ut 

Wflfurn f^ I., n. 4 Q, a 
09!^ £^4.434,443 

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U A 5, B^ R.. rvHvn f . Xr 

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TABLE OF CASES G1T£D. 



L.A N,&.IL,T3aEHrT.,60AlL 

e2l 233,410 

9. Kelle^, 93 Ind, S71, IS 
Am. a bji^. b- H- Cu, 1 

sa^p 230, sax 

t. aneo, Kt. , 1» Am. 

d £d£, E. B. Cu. &5 192, lOS 
TTBtia ir,, 9 Lu (TeiiD.) ^1 416 
■^ODllmi, 2]>iiv^L 114 

60, 327, S06, B70 
t. FleitaiDg. 14 L» iTenn.) 

128, la ArD-& J!j«, K.R- 

Gm. 347 26, 60, £60, 466 

OutLHe p^ 11 L« (Tun.) 

872, 16 Am. A Euff, R. &. 

C^2O0 307 

V. Cooper, K7. , 6 Am. 

& Eng. R. R. Cu. 6 193 

■. RobJMQjt, 4 Buah (Kt,) 

607 3a6 

h Bowlu, Htiik. (TebD.) 

S66 3^370 

Jt^DBon T.. Et. , 13 

Am. & Ebb. R. R Cu. 

623 76, lUU. 161 

■L UcKsmut, 13 La (Temi) 

aao, 18 Am, & Bog. R. B. 

Cu276 40 

» McKetLDa, T_L«i {TeDit) 

313. 2 Am. A Eoff. fi. B. 

C». 114 100 

V. MiUm, 10 Term. 223, 13 

Am. A Ene. R R, C>fl. 

507 16a 

<i. UeltOP. 2 L« (TfPTi.) 

232 lfl7 

v.FilberD, 6B[fflh(Rr )a7'l 64 
AduDs □., Ky. , 21 Am. 

& En^r. R. B^ Gu. 380 266 
B<nn€tt v.. 102 U. S 677, 3 

Am. A Eng. R. R. Cu. 71 

201,^3 
Bmilh T., 76 AK 449, 21 Am, 

&E^. B-K.Cai. 167 404 
•. WkLkini, Kj. , 12 

Am. AEdv. B. B.CkB.B9 191 
L.4N- W, Ry.,Colle«f,ieQ. 

B. 01*4,71 E. C. L. 216 

Edw&rdK 0, L. B. 6 C, F. 

446 111^ 112 

Shiirtod t, 4 Ex. 680 3fle 

BMniitni B_s aB.N-aeB7, 

98 Jt a L 481 

Freemmnllft tu 10 C B. N. a 

95, 100 E a L. 246,247 

Gdlio v^ L. It. 10 Q- B. 212 600 
lIutn>iLt v^ 4 Ex, 243 

97, 102, 120 
T^BImoahc u^, 1 C. R H, 286 467 
J.imt P., L. B. I q, B. S77 L«4 



L. A H. W. By^ Badl«5 «., U IL 9 
El 91, lOld-lOO,! App. 
Cb764 «}L,64 

B«du «^ 4 El. S4S 

33, 97, ]f>2, 120, I3fi 
Bovler >^ L. K. a £j- 2S1 

431, 469, 476, 479, 464 
SkalUd v.. L. B. 2 C F. 

361 172 

Btublej V- L^ B. 1 Ex. 13 

163,166 
Wrifht t, L. B- 10 Q. a 
S98, 1 a B. D. :^2 2U3, 072 
L. A P^ Rj, HdKhuap f^ S ]iL 

6 W. 421 137 
L. A M^ M. Et, v. liontKtaattj, 

7 lod. 4^ a 43 
L. A SL K, Docks Co., Bntt *., 3 

U. A C^ 696 483, 441 

GriffiibE «., 12 Q. B. I>. 493, 

13 Id. 269 344 

N. P. 4 O. G. M. Co. •_ 9 

Ch- D. 616 a 

Bmith ?.. L. B, 3 C P. 3S« 200 
L. A 8, E Rj, Cocklfl 0., L K 

6 C P, 457, 7 R 321 S«l, 267 
L. A B. W. Rf., Alleq *., L. B- 

6Q. &66 110 

Dbtst v^ 11 Q. B. D. 318, 

12 Id. 78 172,438 

Ford *- 2 F. A F. 730 16^ S48 
HoblHiL, L-B.10Q. Rill 

24.263,391,469,403 
PoallM n., L. R. 2 t^. K 

&34 110 

Bmll}. v., L R. 5 C, P- 102 6, 89 
L. A y. B7,, Adjimi B^ L B. 4 

CP,739 15,16,63,379 

AnDiLrmiff * ., L, B, 10 £x- 

47 80,36 

BIuuIth v- L. B, S E j. 283 

41,276 
BndahuT e. L. B. 10 C P- 

IB9 401 

GBUiktdc,12L.T.35A 

436.491 
0« v.. 6 H, A X. 211 460, 462 
NirJiulflonc„3H.AC5a4 256 
euKflbr c, 1 Q. B. D. 42 39 

Vdhv,2E.AN,7:» 

22Q,3Je, 066.373 
L. A F. R. R^ E3Qq *, 14 a 

MoBT. 204 897 

L. A I. Bt. v. ETaffbdnn, 2S Ind. 

K7 01 

Umddox, H. A T. C, B^^ "-, 

T*i. , 21 Am^ A Eng. 
R, R. Cu. 636 307 

Barmonr c, 16 Q. B. 827, 71 
E-GL. 344 



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HutLHC^ 4»= 

n4nw.i.ft.tap, IS! 

400, 4A£ 
M!iu>ii'n4ll-A>J-fllJS W 

411, 4 Id ■:« 

iijLzJi, 3*i,*rr7, M 

TuiMTv,I.ll. 1 C.KltuI 

±10, iat 

WrriM-s, 1. ft. * KlIHT 

]IW, 140 

ln1-^ Lft. A r.^ Ht *,« 

AAO«,l3l An>.A Kng, 
B.1L<^10 

fOS, 3T^ 9l», 440 

irnKK-Oftr. ^«i Md, «rA 

IV Am. A Eiiv. IL IL Ou 
too 4*1 



Ixz 



TABLE OF CAfi^ CITED. 



10Il«r W.T. & R. B. B- II 
WceUj Strtf* of Cahb 
{FnnL) 3AU lfi2 

H. A G- K. B. B, *, U T«JL 

370 338, 341 

E^ P. Br- f^ S CoL 442. SO 

Am. Bj. Bfp.245 3^ 440, 403 
» U F- B/-. 17 fed. Bct. 

07, 12 IcL 000 307, m 3S2 
fl,B.&U.R. B-iae Mw. 

& I Am. A Eiiff. B. B. 

C^14l 3a« 

C. A H. W. Bj. fc, 46 Mkh. 

t&t, 6 Am. A tbg. B. B. 

Cm. SO 7&, IN 

G, W, B. K. *., 1» Uich. 

3W> i«a 

L. S. A H. a Bt. t., SS 

Mich. ^74 86, lfl> 

Si. L, A. A T- H. B,E-F, 
43 III. 199 135 

HUligHi V. Wedge, 12 A. A £ 
737, 40 E. a L. 

102, 122, m 124 
MUlimun >. N. Y. C A hTb. B 

B. eflK.Y. Wa 74.263,292 
UiUv.H»kltcr,L. B. » Ex. 309, 

10 Id. 92 111 

Uining Co., Cupdiiter ■■, 6£ N. 

Y. 13 134 

Milun, L. A N. R B, n, 10 TeoiL 
i7^ IB Am.AEne^BB. 
Cw£07 15B 

UlLU, C. W. D. Rt. fr. 105 III. 
03, 11 Am. A Bog. B B. 
Cm. 123 2H3, CT4 

Miilcnberger v. Logiiiisport Hj-, 

106 U, 3. ai2 4 

MirindiK C, A N. W. Ry. p.. 108 
III. 570,18 Am.AEw.B. 
B. Caa. 504 384 

Minoorj R. B., Balud t\. 36 

Md. 4^4 M, «B 

Mitehell p. CfBrtweller, 13 C K. 

^7, 76B, aL, 102, 104 

t. AlWrw. 1 Veolr. 295 434 
CB R, P., 63 G». 177, I 
Am. A Eu. B B Cu. 
145 305, 3S3 

» C A G. T. Bj., 61 Mich, 
236, 18 Am-AEnE, B.B. 
Cul76 

202,205,270,434, 443 
Bufiii|p,9U & P- 013, 33 

E-C. L H 

Bijner II,, 2 0, P. r. 857 102 

t. W, A A. R. B , 30 Gi. 22 263 

B.R.V, 11 JIi!]sk.4U0 430 

UiUib«ra, U P. E. R v., 8 Eufl. 

047 313 



IL E. A T, B. B^ Brown f„ 64 

Mo.5M »H 

]>H t- fifl Mo. 27, 3 Am- 
Bt, Ba. 442 2Sa 264, 471 

k Low, ^ Kuft e«4 I5« 

-. Wff-Ter, 10 KxDi 464 470 
K L B, A W, Bj-, HuTl-ad •- 
54 WiH. 226, 5 Am. A 
Eng. B B Ch. 673 349, 363 

Boh« s 60 WiK. 20, 15 
Am. A £iV' B R CW 
374, 81 Wi»t 301, 19 
Am. A Ec«, R R Cu. 
27B 187 

B(»iu p. 58 Wkc 325, 10 
Am.AEru:. RRCib. 7U 

15% ne 

M, N,Cft.r.C^™ii»flW.AH.iOt 14ft 
UobiJe L. 1» Co, V. Bruiu. H 

U.B.754 3M 

Mock, C.AA,RR *,8sm 

37 484 

Modglin, L C B. R «, 36 m 

401 196, 377 

MnffOt V, BaUDun, L B 3 P, 

C. 115 293 

Mohii^ f. Cook, 26 Pmuk -St. 

Hwu^un. CAPS. Frrr; Ca 
v- 10 WeeklT NdU« uf 
Cms (Pi^Tu.f 46 233, 440 
Afoodnj, ImiUdBRB-isSllDd. 

48 501 

Moon P. R A A, K. B, 78 Va. 

• 74S, 17 Am. A EoE. B. B 
CU.&31 

S^ Et. Co. i/.. 39 Min. 822 501 
Uoor« V. N. Rj, L. R. » Q. B,30 IIO 

G, R, K, T., 59 T*r. 64 

P.P-B.K,UW«kljHol« 
of Cmm [p¥pni}Bl<X » 
PeniiL 301, 4 Am. 4 £ng- 
B. R Cta 569 73, 190, IM 

V. P. B. B, 4 Gnj 465 108 

t, P, W. A B B. R, 16 
W»Uy Notiu of <:^B» 
(P»niiA.)53 157,169, 193 

P. C, Si, L, a yt. 0. R. R, 
59 Uifl, 243, 9 Am. A 
Eur. B, R Cu 401 4tft 

T. W. A W. Bj. P, 77 m. 
217 299, 308, 44ft 

B. A D. B B t, 7& Vm. 93, 
15 Am. A £dK.BBCi& 
239 307 

A., T. A S. F, By, »,, B9 Km* 
632, 11 Am. A EoB- R. 
B. Cbs. 243, 31 Kam ]97, 
15 Am. A Eng. B B Cu. 
312 329, S69 




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£70^ in K d. U, U H. 1 
<^ D. LW HO, 

471 
)lorU«J«1^4 CIA ?. Ml. 

Ifarlut* r LC A l>. B«» L 

Viffftea fL liKfH 30 PuBuei. 
171 

ft Erit Kr, u y. V. 3oi 

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>:a 4Aft 

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Uvmi ». ^ Kai>m. ^ e 
Am. A ttH. IL U. Cv. I 

roavll >,, jfi Mo- K\ B AiO, 
4 Jtng. IL JL U>. 407 

BKtel%, n T«, 4flO. Si 
Ara. A Kng. UL H. Ute 
W^ >^ 

BukiiTE T> »1 Mo. Mft 31 
Aa. A &«. K K. €tK 

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1*07 :f:i. «11 

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143, IM 



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U. «. A L, T!:, nj .WhuUd s « 

IL Kf J C^ Clu. IVpa fs II C 

104, l»i AiuA £njt. K. R 
Cm- 303 SS5 

» C H A Su P. I^. S3 
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11 CRV-S Uh IKS E 

Mubliw ^. A IL R R r„ KO 

Hit »J7.aitt 

U.liifeL(.«&c.RR,aa-c Y. 

WhIiI^ Nue« of C«-a 
fPcmv;.} ttJS. 431 

UuIJuPEt^ *. I. C K R. M 
toK* 4tfJL :iV Id, QIA 

UuHiPrrln, D , U A W- ft, R. >^ 

44 I'niu. Itt JiTtk «L U. 

Uollnr. f,*H.».P.9l<^.TH 

I'-DAi. FFi. sa «:(^ nsi 414 



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^^*tR*42 

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S Am.A WRRCWl 
311 174, 

Mupoh *. ti R. lU 39 N II- V 

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MvH. t\ e Ah, A Km 
R K t-^ »M 11% 

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t^SmiiL, lU CRJI.e.3tL 
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KInn t2.\nlB> 1^ An. A 
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7« •„ ao Minn, asn II 

Aw, A Ki^ R l^ r«. 

FmuD «H, Sa UlflD. 4a 7 
Abl a nu. B. R CWb 
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UA no, MT, M* 

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]«H »9, m42L.413 

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llxiT 



TiiBLE OF CAB^ CFFED. 



M. A W, P. K. B. *. BoTinB, Al 

Oa.5S2 J34 

Vi^ t. M. P. Rj, 76 Mo. fi53» 
10 Am. A Baa. B. B. Gh. 

TOfj ee, ise, 460 

Niglex. A-V, B. R-8B fanu. 

St. 36 70 

NupbeTSf I>. L. A W. R R. t- 
ftOPeiiDk.SLmiAin.A 
Edh. R R. Cu £2 

270, 271, 443 
N»jlor P. C. A N. W. Rj„ 65 
WiBc SCI, 6 Am. A tas^ 
R R. Ou. 460 34I 349 

K A. 4 H. Ry., Hicki p„ 4 B, 

4a403n,IjeE-dl* 4M 
U. A. A S, R K., FjtipslTick v- 

7 ltd, 4M SOT 

K B. Cordw Oj^ Coambs v. 

102 Mm 622 3^ 

H*. B. A T. R. R, Lnm *. A 

Gri.j65 220 

K. B, R R- Lfldd *^ 119 Mih. 

412 306,50? 

K. B. A M. R. R. Whttloii 1^ 

30 CftL £93 233 

». a a B. R, UanlT v^, 74 K 

a 734 803 

N. C B- R» LNDbetb t. 66 K. 

C. 494 204, 287 

McCDmb v., 70 N. C. 178 41« 
Welli«r v., 1 Weekly Not« 

of Caws (Penoft.) ^10 31 

Sbiiuck tr., ^ Md. 4C2 3S3 

Turner 6. f 63 R C. ftSS Sfi 

Pool* t.,&JoQPH(N,0,} 340 76 
c. IIlusod, \^ \Vt?1(l7 >~oleA 
of Curt rPeuiiH,} 361, 12 
Am. & Eng. R B. Cm. 
24 L 346 

GltBOD v., 23 Han 289 335, 367 
PaiDWu B., 83 :J. Y. 7, 5 
Am, A Ecff. R. R. Ca& 
464 307, 346 

Hflwlej P. S2 N. Y. 370, 1^ 
Am. A Edg, B, R C«. 
24d 306, 876, SS2 

r. MiUl fli Md, 366, T9 
Am^ & Eag. R R O*. 
lao <81 

ff. The State, 29 Md. 420 29 

S. C. Kv,, KcMaIk^d n., 30 Md. 

4S6 69, 73, 447 

>:. SUile, 64 Md. 113,6 Am. 

A EiiK-R-RrCiut 66 170 

Hiuiraihj t., 46 Md. 2H0 307 
N^ Cr A 81. L. R. R rr. Wtiel««, 
10 Left (T«iTij 74], 4 
Am. A Eng. R R. Cm. 
eja, 16 lA alS 346, 367 



W, C A eu L. R R, JMk™ fc, 
13 L« {Ttna.) <»1, 1« 
Am. A Er^r B R CkL 
433 S4, Ifil 

p. F«Ur, Teau. , 11 
Am. A Em. B R l^B. 

jBo 336. sar 

K. Co, SlilK v., 38 L. J. N. 6. 

311 ]4fi 

Nebrukft Otr v. Campbell S 

Blftck (S. G) 600 473 

IJHdIum F. S. F. ^ B. J. R R. 

37 Ol. 409 64 

D. Q. T. R R.. 38 Yt. 2H 4S0 
NduW s, C P. R R, 62 C«L 

320, 14 Am. A Eng. R R 

Cm. 370 160 

Ueitir. W. P. Br, 13 Mo. App, 

86 431 

K«l»u V. A. d F. B. B, 6S Mo. 

693 A6, 2Afi 

T, V, C R B, 2fl Vt 717 

13^141 

«. c. M. A et. P. Br^. eo 

WiBe.32a22 Am.AEufc 

RRCu.391 373 

N. E. Rr.. Dii^iuDii », 2 H, A 

a 735 49S 

BuxioD D., L, R. 3 Q. R M9 133 
Gr*huo !<„ 13 C. R N. & 

229, 114 E,C,L-S21, 308.37! 
EiU «., L. R 10 Q. B 437 

600, 602 
BunmuDd p., 6 & Q 130 21fl 
llelheriDElDD d- 9 a B, D. 

100 430 

BaluH b^ L. R. 4 Ei. 264, 

B Id. L^ 223, 373 

B«y[Lolda v., Rncoe'i N. P. 

^01 217 

BohBonr^L.R. 2 Q. R IX 

87, 10 Id- 371 

266, 263, 451, 464 
ajt«t, 32L,T-N,S,]pfl 439 
BAuuson 11., 8 Ei. D, 341 373 
ThodipwD t, 2 B. A e. loe, 

IIOE.CL. 17,54, 200 

BftW V- 2 Et. D. 248 £66, 263 
OliTer D,, L. R. q. B. 409 160 
Waile v., Ei, Bl, A EL 72fi, 

06 E, 0, L. 84, 83, 94 

WaiilEnr.,L.B,6Q.B.48l 164 
Boubeur, M. C. R B, b , C2 Md. 

30}, 10 Am. A Ei«. B. R 

Cm. 261 64. 163, 160 

>'«irbold. Ljgo v., 8 £i. 392 91 

NawtU, C, C., C. A I. R R, «.. 76 

Ind. Mi 8 Am, A Edk 

BB.Cb377 

240. 276, 276. 4S9 



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X.U At; k- K, Dammit •, U ^^H 


■ »*™}»™7N™«-^„ 


1.4. An u; ISA, SU ^^H 


IkilMjT^ ilf Pr f Tt tad. 


T(pj><-<Hr f. saiA A», lu': an ^^H 


tJI 301. VH 


Ilu^li T,, fr Lfe An 4M ^^H 


Ml. iLo. I. K.»Ch IX 


\\,i\Ut V. 10 U. An ^ m ^^H 
Wttkt *. » U. An. Cl« 7i ^^H 


Ul «1 


lUtofhChrkiaU lil lit 

^ KH. a c a ft t, «« G& bn 


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Pnu.8l.Ma ^^H 


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■ «L/ lLa,B«Mi«,»K.J. 


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!tQrdii«n t Mdt«, ^ Pviak ^^H 


■ finkff >;, « Vffvns tm MM 


^Mb 149 ^^1 


■ K riMiij U PkniA. flL 


Naithmp T- R;- P. A. C», 43 K. ^^H 




«io ^^H 



^^m jxxri TABLE OP CMAm UTfiDk ^^^^| 


^^^H 


r*a 


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X R K, FU4)i r,«l 5, a. ttS 


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^^H AJ&t1uiH,3dM^*t> rt.4a» 


WiUt 1, U ?!. Y. IM Alt 
X. & Kv., i\tk f« 10 H. 1. 




^H >u^^4 ai« 


M s. y. iU me 








Kunlfii, l.-ncd «, 1 q, B. M «1 


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:(. T. 11 ». ft,AU«NSt 5. 


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T. ItrlE O^ HO 


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^^^^^ £^ ,174 


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Ri'hurlwA i.ti S' Y^ M4 141 


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O^if ^ M y. T. 44 314 

Y.Aw no 

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lb«»w >, 44 ». T, Hop, 
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KMpM44* k7* ?<■ T. M* «n 



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Br"o«^.^4X. Y, U IW.IW 

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OU.V.H t EdBi.&a«8» >40 

t.Y'uuE«,a3PnH,ei. ITt I4A 
Bwwam-^tft^.T, 419 4?4 
N.Y, N.H,A JL K, B. IL, EV^k 

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BuPMXsW Y.lil VT4 

<MAiM *, a K. IX tetLk 

103.IIK.Y >I0 4M.4m 
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^^^^^ K-T-AailE,8mjUir-, IBS,'**" 


S. Y. C ^ C. ( VVrUU* ^ 13> 




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^^^^^H CDlac»r«iv=0!f,Y. iv^d 


400 m 


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TABLE OF C&AFS CITED, 



_ tAan 

Proctor r. Httrfi, 4 C A P. S»T, 

19 E^ C, L> 143 

PiTor, UcLwubliD 1, 4 II A G. 

4», 48 E^ C L. 386, 388 

P17 V. H. A BL J. K R- 73 Mo. 

123 47D 

Prince v. L A Q. N. R. B- 84 
Tet 144, 21 Am. 4 Eng. 
KE.Cm-152 208,210 

Pringl* ^ C, E. 1. 4 P, Rj, W 
lr>wA filS, la Am. A £■«, 
R-E. Cm. 91 SMI, 417 

P. B. R V, AckmnuL 74 Peniw, 

&L 265 l&B, 171 

r. AkwII, 13 Peuu. SL 147 

22,47,63,261,282,264 
K AUeCj 53 PeiuiA. St. 270 473 
*. Bantom, H PftODi- St. 40fi 

4»S,493 
t. Bale, 73 P^miA. Sv fi04 

IBB, 171 
t. BoakB, b7 Pemtv- Bv 340 

209,44,i,4fl8, *71, 47a 
■. BimeLt, 1^9 FeoDK. 6t. 259 

^51,153 
f. Roek, 93 PflDu. St 427, 6 
Am. & Ec«. B. R. Cu. 
2U 76, 168, 3M 

t, Butl«t, 67 Pmdl Si. 336 

207, 40B, 4»1, 601 
Brownell p, 47 Mo. 240 4J7 

Vr AdiuDB. 5ft FeniiB. Si. 499 4Q0 
CErmtl v.. 12 W«klT >ot« 
of Cbt« LFemu.,) S48 

169, 172, 260 
V. Coon, 17 Weekly iHtlee of 

C&F^ (Fenuft ] 137 15B 

Ctf»i v.. »6 FcoQB. Si. 139 

47 !<6, MO, 2M, 25^, 2fc7, 445 
Dwlrich v^ "I Ptnni. Si, 

432 315 

Flower r,, flS Penni, Rl 210 

74, 115, IBS, 196,288,370,371 
V. Forlnev. 90 P?diiil 8l 
323, 1 Aid. & Enp. R. R, 
On. 129 174. 441, 454 

YrajJtr r^ 3A PenoA. SL 104 

313, 314. 3dU, 368, 368, 373 
FlertMF, lBU.AiL(0.a) 

339 192 

GenrA t., 12 Phil^ 394, 5 
WkIiIt Kola of Cua 
(PeDDL) 251 229 

QlUib TT., &U Penna. St 139 177 
iioUey v., 'i^ Peona. Si. 242 205 
V. Goodmu, 62 Penna, &i. 

B29 IS!, AHl, 490 

«. McndFnOEi, 51 PfuDB. St. 
ai5, 43 1± 449 

50, 205, 254, 42^ 491, 501 



P. B. R. «; HofM, 80 Penu. Bt 

373 13,3V 

■. HorA, 16 WmIiIj Noia 

DfCtHi[Pei>iiJL) 667 Ifil, l&G 
Hont Ti^ fil PEnOL SL 47fi 125 
.. Keller, 67 PenpiL Su 3O0 490 
.. Kellj, 31 Prona. Bt, 372 

6^69,151,471,432 
V. Kilgon, 32 FenuL St. 292 

18,263,284 
Eirbr b-, 76 Penna. SL BOO 

235,223 
Kaight ts 23 La. An. 482 285 
Kar t^, 66 Penna. Sl 273 

t^ OH, 91, 92, 188,179 
v-lAngdoD, 92 P#DDA.St.2l, 

1 Am. 4 Ecg. R R. Cm. 

67 Z«1, 262. 2M6, 2HS, 2^9, 495 
Longeii^ckcr b-, 105 Pviina. 

et-323 163,427, 444.464 

1. Lewii, 79 Peniu- tH. 33 

76,77, 163, 198,108 
v. UcClDikeTi 23 Fciipil. St- 

628 237, 492, 001 

Meier v- 84 Fenni- St. 225 

233, 235, 240, 243 
(^ Hatiheiri, 38 K. J. L. 581 

183,168 

Uoar4 V, 11 WhU; yota 

of Cam (Peooa.) 310,09 

Feona- St. 301, 4 Am. A 

Eiw. R B. Cw 660 

73, IBO, 198 
V. Mcl^he, 48 PuiUL tk- 

Zl& 4S« 

McDermott t., 30 Mo. IIB 300 
V. Mornn, »2 Penni. St. 13G 195 
B. P«»^es, 3L Obio St. 637 391 
Pof>ell T<., 32FeDrLL St, 414 260 
r. PriH, HO FtnriL St. 266, 
1T3 V. &. 210, 1 Am. A 
Log R. R. C&4. 234, 13 
Id. 273 204, 216, 228,22* 

V. Oner, 35 PenDH. St. GO 

162, 174 
Richt« c, 104 Penu- Bl. 

511 223, 230 

1^Rietlt«^, 42 N.J, Law ISO, 

2 Am. A Eng. R. R. Cu. 
220 80, 160, 173 

IT. Shay, R2 P«urA. SL lOS 508 
BchulU v.. G We«k]j NdI« 

of GsKfl (I'enna.) 60 158,169 
Bchnm t, 107 Pmiu. Si. 8 

174, 444. 447 
■.Spicbar, 108 P?Eu]a.St,l42 

103,474 
v.Vudi*er, 38 Pfsmn. St. 
293. 42 Id. 366 

107, 108, 100, 488, 491, 493 



^^^^^^^f TABLE OF CABEa dXED. IxXXT 1 


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Ou. 213 345, 346 

Wu6m T. O. a R R^137 Ubb. 

%4.21 Am.AEiig,RR 

Ch. ei2 304, 30« 

W., A. 4 G. R B. », Browa. li 

WoR 445 133, 133 

W»T r. L C R E_ 40 Io« 341 373 
W^nM, A_T,*S, F- H.B-II. 

^ Euu. 660, 21 Am. A 

Ed^ R R Cu. 637 307, 346 
Walura r. C- R. L A P, R R, 

41 Ioirm7l 77, lOG 

■VTjJlOP T. N. T. C. & C Co., 130 

Uarm. 566, 21 Am. A Ew. 

R R (■& GOO, oaM l<& 2M 
WMhbqm T.*i.A C R R, 3 

Head jTeiui,) 638 374 

WuhinftDQ V.&.AO.K. R, 17 

W. V». 10ft, 10 Aid- A 

&V. R R Cw 749 

W^ R Cual Co. D. MnUiDer, 66 

Pcnu. SL 3a7 146 

W- C A P. R R. JohiKii p., 70 

Thuil El 366 6, IS, 63, 2S4 
■^ HcElwfe, 67 Pcniu. Gl 

311 423 

W. C. V- M- A G. S. R R_ 

Sch«ffer d, 106 U, S. 349 

11, 20 
W. CEt, Femwon ■.eSWiac, 

145, 10 Am, A£t«sR.R 

Cu. ^«& 166, 173, 444 

K^\j T„ WiK . 31 

Aid. a Eh^. R R Ou. 

633 30^309 



^^^^^^^P tAULU OF CUaE» CITED, 4V ^^^| 




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TABLE OF CABSa CITED. 



OU 



V. N, A R Br^ HotcliiwHi il, 



Thev ■. WuroL SI PoiDL St. 

ft Ex. 34 jT 

B42. Am, 3&S, S57, 36fl 

Blmhrn]] v., 11 C, & tia J, 

73 E- G L, 206, aao, 393 

Tohii. Bud P. SO F«ink. bL 482 102 
York D. G &, R., 3 Will. 113 6D1 
YooU r a G. A P. Rt , Se Jowm 

346, 21 Adl A Eog. K B. 

Taui«, N. Y. A E. B. B p., 3Ji 

Pano*. St I7fi 140 

•. D- a IL A U. Bj„ 
WcL JSAoa-AEiw. 
R. B. CkL 417 161 



Yondl. P, C. « SL L. B, B- t^ 

73 lad. 373, 3 Am. A Eng. 

B. B. Ub. &02 164. IW 

Y. A M. L. B. B. V. Wloiiu, IT 

How. 30 133 

Zolw, F, H. B. v^ 33 PcDDL SL 

313, 37 Id. 420 
2bO, 251, 2^, 270, 272, 

40a, 40Z, 493 
Zaiglcrt. D, A N. B^ R., K Cona. 

M3, 23 Am. A Eiw. B. R. 

Cu.400 SSS 

Zell f. Arnold, "i Ptn. A W. 2l>% 3M 
Zamp V. \V. A M. B- R, 9 Rich. 

L, tf4 384 

ZimiDcniwi V, H, A St. J. R. R^ 

7LMD.47a,2Aiii.<iI^. 

R. R. C^ lyi BB, 75 



BOOK L 

not QBHSUL :ffATUEB OF TOE EaILWATS LIAntUTl 



CHAPTER r. 



PUUUQKKCX 

L Xiflltfnak ib> twt ^T IWiililj. 

IL TW iuibjljif ■> ftfiHiff] hy 1I10 riouJ iiuUto iiEiAm'tBr «f iiiln^ 
IIL N<«IlRniv d^iwj, 
IT. DbliDriifEB Ml dtipw of ntvlii^Diuv, 

Tl Tbd liiLiihr tot iiijiiiM Awd t>Y ui vt E>f Qod, 
Vtt "Hk Elbhlurr ^v tn^r^'* rfujuril hf mn tn at ih« piihU*; ntny 
VUL TIk lu^liij for ii^nriat mmHl 1^ inBrjtaJit* vukiUnL 

X. Tb« lUUtll]' Utr otnimiifrm ami am ut onunLwDn tijr afeEito vihl 
snub 
XL TV lUiUHr fv tbt aailL/iHil kdt of dhi^ irhA nn not lutvnu cr 

ZIL n« BaQ-fHrfW«9U«B of » diilT^ Impnad by lUlnliv ttf idiidId1|«L 

niLGlBBttH*. 



KtfUfmm Hfvn r^ pft 0/ t^ milwty it th« l«dt of it* tiahilitir. 

1. It ifl oHrinnii tliAt rlin mlation brtTrH*ii l\w mllwKy 
ftlld UJ pMVou wliT} muy bufipan to be ]iij[iri.<il in thn 
COan» of tlitt rwilwHy'? ijiicntliou^ umal he tnllj^r ojii- 
CrMCoft), or noD^conlnurtiijd. Of ooutnA. if tlicir^ b« « 
li^lj uiiroroaable coutrftc^L boiweou tlic ruilwujr aud ui 
iikiliriiliaU, Um ttmt of UiAt coniract miut, 90 fof ■« 
Umjt ■SModp detamiikfl die liabilitj of tlio nflway &v 

I 



s 



srxouoexc& 



pentcaal lojurlos lo that bdiridua]- But tbc oontncV 
Although full and («inplp|<t in oihrT r^pfWU, WAJ not 
odutmi^ miy cxprtMi tiliiiuUtJoa m to the nature rdJ 
eiteut of (bat littUlity, or, if Uicre be ^ch a slipuU- 
timi, it Qinv hi^ c>f jnic)i ft clkAmciter tJmt it w ftgni&»t tliC 
IKtbujr <jf tU« Juw to rocuf^oijM &m) vuf^irce it. In ttllvtr 
of thcM conlijigCTK'iH the liability of the rAilnDy rattn 
be rtttterl U[>oii |li« iiufiliuil irontnLt.'t b^lwwn tli(> jiHriiw, 
or, ui othcf Wfirdfln iij)on the *\vXj niKti by Uic Inw niid 
Ibundod upon tUa rvUliun of tiie pnrLic*- Tli'^ru mu^ 
aIao be, where there is a conti-acUtul r^ktiou botwcvo 
the milnny mid the injumi prrKiu, in aiddiUoD to the 
obligAtiotJ orviLUnl hy ilic couriuct, n duty l^iwd by the 
laiv. If thA rvtnlion iwtwi^^n ihn rriilwny nail IVj-: in- 
juntd pt'rwu i>r not tbunJoJ cpyu conl^-ui-i, ibe Jiubitiiy 
of the reilway ntMni M^ly defend D|»on iIm> noloro «im1 
fixti^ni rtf the duty imimnciJ by Uw. 

2. In neL-tioii HO the jwrvoiu vtho inttj pciuiblj Iw 
ir^uiXHl iulhe course of railway op«nLtioDfia/oelMdi<Kl, 
And it in vhown tlirit th(? liuhiltty of the nulvtty lo 
iIla irdividiuiU of onch cUn b pnoKirily dqwodeai 
upou ihc fad of the railway'* riu|^]|ceiwv, yd, ah will 
bo ehoira in oth«r oliu]>terH of ttiiH \took, Ual duty 
upon the part of ihe railway^ whowe no«-pcrfiirman^ 
i* thr rMpniia! rlcmonl of iW ne;cliiCi'M*. in not fixn! 
unil uMVLiryini;. hut ta dependent on the reUtion bo- 
twWD the individUAl ii^ui^ and the milwHy, and may 
be Aflecled by the nicuLtd or phy«icAl iiic&{ncity of thai 
Individunlt an<l in Home mAiw, nhui, liy thr. cimiin- 
«tnn«9 undirr whkh lh<? mjury w Inllii.-U'd- Thus tlic 
ruilwuy diK'M not owe a like dnry to lut pivnrajEvra, in tin 
«orvAnU> to pptKonft who ore rightfully tipno pablic 
hiphw«\-a ir}iii.-h adjoin or cnm tto line, to penona wlio 
come npon itn liitc or promuina aa mere licenav^i^ And to 
perAoiut vrlio trv^pcist xtpcm ita line or preibisM; nor 



TBS BAILTXT'S OESrULAL 6CTT. 



8 



doci the mitvrty la all ca«F owe a like datr to mIuIcb 
ttd ii> tti&Dlfl, bar to per^na of ftvflnge pbjncal ud 
iDtnuJ cip»dej, ftnd to dhon wbo are of Um ihiD 
ATCTVgv capacity, umJ wbove inuipttcity htu been nude 
knoWQ 10 tb« r&itvaj'fl Bgnitfl or seiTUklA. 80, ftbo, 
vlint«r9T be tbo relnitMni which a |i«inoQ oonj hoM to 
ilio railvay, iLu railway ivaj tcfU|>otvUjr one lo him a 
hij[bcr dcgTM of daty if its fl^rntji or vtmatn IiAVr% in 
tlie exerdiae of Ehelr deleguod aitUiortty. «tth^ bj v<ird« 
or Ij Km, lod him to rdj on the pOTformiiMV h; ll>o 
nUwny of thM higher di^^rec of duty. For the pur* 
fooaa of thu iatrodiKtory chapter, it ia <tioagh to buj 
ihflt the f*ciwnil dutj of the rmllvny to all who ar« 
Immgbt lato eootaot with tb« opcmioo of lla Mat re- 
trca H in tbo on^n^l coortrociMii aad sttbrniiunt 
iteuaiice in ropatr of ita tft«t»a approiichev, Uiild* 
and plailbmu, sdiI of the embankiiiciit«, brid|;n» 
ip, iona«hi, IfTvnla, road-boci, mib, and «wil<ii«t 
rhbdt oQOJtitute ltd Itue* aiid of tlie vnglnce and oa 
it euplf^ in the condwM of lt» bumiMiH, to ilea 
good Bod nttcient mtenAl, lo mi]^^ BluUed f!nfcioecra 
ttod ooDtractorv, aoil 10 toilo^ correct melhoda of cou- 
woction ; from tiuo to xxme to adopt and put into opor* 
atioD auofa appliAn^m and BMthoda of oparation «•« 
hivin]^ Ustn inU4 ujd fotiiid to iittt«riaJ!v codttribota 
lo tbo naCt^ of railwaj op«ntion«, me iu practioil il», 
and caa, In ha, be adopted by th« railmj ; to t«at ila 
larj and ^pplkiwea beGbrc they oxv put into tuc ; 
Irotn tfn« to timo to invpMn tin 1iti>f, buildings, nu- 
^chtnory, mti4 »ppliatJoca ta order to gnuxd againrt do- 
hy went and taar and by lai^vof tinii;; to 
ike sivd fcifom- muBoikablF niIcA and n^gnUtintu for 
nfctj of all pcTooat vho kLuU be brought into 
with Ihe oportdoM of itx line ; lo «Bap1oj a 
iKcknt number of Mmnta; to wJect tbow wrvaikta 



cvjeftillj; 10 iiuk« umI colom n^nlaUooa Ibr tlii 
goulunx; ftod to Qtt LD Um op«ntioQ of £u line «tvi 
noKuiablv pivoMitim for tlte mtc cendiMl of its 
ftna ; and a &Uiu« of iJuiy in anj otie of tbeae 
will rcoder the nilvny liable [4;>r »Dch injurin as mi] 
luT« b»«ti atoiikd V tbc |«rfuniuuic«f of tli« 



n. TBS LUBiunr ah Amx:Ta> ky tui: i^vjuu nmuO' 

3. 'While it Mtra«llk«i railTajroTporan'oiu^ftllhoti] 
cr««Uxi hf Uw iavwttticttt of private, mftd not pnblii 
oipital, Kt^ aa giautecit of public IV«iiidEikvB» Mibjvei lo 
I^OTernmonul n^ulnxion and cnotrot, «■> far a* thtry mi 
not protected by ibo lemu of tlicir ohartcr*,^ yet, inaa^ 
niuciU atf ilvey aiv pnuunlj orgaaiud for piurpoao» of 
privala £nin, thfjr arc priviui; rorporatiomi*' and thvir 
obUgatioQ to {[ideiniuf/ those wbov iboy may ii^^ure 
th« cscrcisc oj' iticir IHnchiaai ia ncUJtvf iDumtfnl 
dinunwUvd bj ih^ qvata publii! charaifMn It ta tnra 
tliAt Br^lej, J., ba» wid' lluit '' tbc bmincw of tW 
common nrricr in tJiia oountrjTp at leut, i* cntpbaticaUj 
a bnuii^U tti i1i« public aerricfi, and tko coBdlttoaw 
ivhich ihal public acTTin: aball be ^rhrmod bj private 
enlopriac an not yet de&aitoly seUM ;" but tjia 
gestion tlierein conT^vnd of a fnlatc aaBceTtainvkcni of 

■Vudr. nihwii^M I7.fi.lWjCk.Jt 1>ft-ILm.t*«, U.1«t:IIT. 

'Tlihliv -- r.AK-ILK, W IN«H.[4.9U: J'. A U a K R^ K 
iMI&sa: ricffct* Till "■■■wiiiwiiiMJI-Virttj'friiinrfTkiiBtT 
lr««te taMr » A, * IL K. m J lUa MT 

> Ck T, Kr. I. am« t» t7 & MO. 



IB DEPICTED, 







ihp cfKrnltnl tvkiiffitinnj^ of contracts of corriago hj mil* 
wMj mtinU ia tii« Il^ht of prmrdcnt and prindplov bo 
eoii0iruf*d u.^ Au iiitiiuuizuii of protpBctivif Icj^pUlion 
ntbor thfttt Ai jin AUlljoritAf ivo doclarttLloo of oxi&liuK 
Iftw, or evea &m a fon^Aliucl^^viD^ of a juiJid«U d«iv«lop- 
nuot of olrl priQcipli?? ux iiev dtrectiuD», for «b»n h 
nilmi^ has boen cbartcred to ooiwLruirt a lint; and 
dUTioa U> tnuwpoTt j>a§seng«ni ;uid goods for liire* >IB 
fisncliue \» tbo c^ptcity thereby coufnrrK) of Iranucl- 
iMg Uie biMlnen of » common earner tfubjc^ct only to 
Aioh liniUlinni m lU chittiftr proflpriSM, nnr] foFUch 
wgqIatiOBi ai tUe SlAte may, in th«< L<xFruHi? of ifn police 
powor, Iftwftilly impo*^ iip(»!i indiviJiinls iloing the like 
bunniML Thui mutli is-uh codhkIlhI hv Wjutn.0. J./ 
vlwn bo said: '^Thl'^ ojiupuu^, lu the iniiiHiicticm of it* 
buflinn*^ hns the Htiae rtghtiCf And in (inbjn^t to ihc cjuiie 
control ^ pHrvieindiTidtmlri uruler th«< Mtm? oircum- 
■Udcoi." Nftwrthoic^ it mu^t bn borne in miml thai 
in oerbuo jnHAdiciIonA tb« law. from c^unnitlorHtione of 
public policy, il«ni«* to nulvntya tho privilr^ of oon* 
Inedog for exemption Crom the rvullji of their iieglj* 

m. trBOLIOEKCB DEPUTE]), 

4. Tliovojil "nvgli^uiTo" itftsodcflued by lexJcog- 
n|ib«rv M to oonvry only rhp idc» of a airftlcnw or 
thoughlJaH onu^ioa to lu^t, but thut iiO|;lit^'noe which 
b thv ubjoct of ftu *ctk>a «t law iucWiIr^ iicU of com* 
ttinoo uid of omintion, b4IiI couapcvhendfl fn^uiJIy that 
b«Mll««B»att- Mhich downotconflidor tha pOMiblo rvulla 
of ui ut, that whnwi vhicb cftja not wh^.^er or Dot 

■ G & A a H. & «. Im. M U. & leL 



e 



|IKa.KISVCC DfTINED. 



wroc;g he dono by an sol, &]>il tliai wilful mftlico which 
latvodji the doiDg ornTOi»g,atid iik« (3ifitincD0ii lMit««9Q 
> <aMl«Ba noa-ptribrcaiuicv of duly tutd the viUtil 
ddcij of vrong, in tbo diankctCTixatiMi of utj |Mr- 
lioulttr act, wbvQ done by na hgcnt or ccnmat of tiio 
milwny ia only mal^riiil in dutttrmuuug the ratponi* 
lility of I he; ruilwny thitrcfor. 

5- AUIurttou, B./ htm ild^ced ne^liseiice m "die 
omunon to do »omi^lbiu^ vrbich m rcoeonnblc tntm, 
^iJwl by those priuoipJCB wbicJi ordlntirilj r^gulttM 
the oonHacl of buuiAii aflbtr«, would do, or dolug w)nie- 
tliinf; willful A yiruclojit fin<l fnwonabUi man wouUI not 
do*'' PaxEt^-ii, J./ biiB Willi j;Tv£ilL-r btwity tl^Aned 
ncf^ti^ncc jui " the atmiiicc of c&r« mctording to tL« ox* 
cumsinaow/' bad WiUw(» JV bw pertinaiily tiM: 
"(Innfiwinn hiw an*i>n iVnm mgnrdlng n^glignm-^ an u 
jXHitivi; itiHtctiil uf u ntgutivu wojxi. It iw rtuUy UitJ 
alavucu of fluch van aa II wsn Uie duly of Uio d^tititUnt 

to lW<i."* 

a, Y«t it Oiiinot he mild (hit ny one of iUtnv dt-ii- 
oitoooa La perfci-iiy MClafaclory, for tlwy nil fail to ado 
quntclycTpreMtbothn«efl»ntiftl«lem*nti(of a^doiuble 
iio^^igence, tb&t ia, flnt» ihe exietcnce of a, duty owing 
by tbo dofeiubint to the pliiInUfT or to the pvreon wboin 
tbut pljLinlifT r''|'i'<-"tfU; ei^uiiid, a nou-perfonnMie* 



-•-t- 



t of f.oniniienoD or ninuwion od - 



of ihfll diity I'j. 

tho pirtor the dtffendiuil; and third, &u iajury1oth« 

> r. w. A 11 n. i£. .. Mingn, n r^BDiL ttL £a& 

>Qr1l1«, Lna8fiT*D>[l>rrOs t~K. ICr.flU 

■ Hhalkr iltdnEdnw an ftrcfi la Drk^ > X- L Itf^ ^ >I^ «- 1^ *'■>: 
BmUb *, L&aW. JCj. L.K.ai;.P.LUV: J^huubt.V. CAT. lLtE.?fl 
I^nft-Hi M«, JEi^ r,r, RIUM U. 7M . TumplU <V > r. ■« T R R« 
M IiLSAi- KrUvh h Allii|rii«9', Di 111. ;;dj JtuilHn «& J. AS. CB. iL« 
lUk 1^. AW1,R Au.A Enc. B. ll (W ^V'O; llA T, K- IL * Jwa, M U-ft 



ycaUOE^'CE 1>EFJXEI>. 



pUinliiT or lb<j [JHnwm whom Jit rwiirtiit'iil* ilirtMOly ro* 
jiultiiig froiD Uie defotiiiAuiB uo[i-(kerfL.ii-r[iaTKv uC that 
dolj. TlL«n.- mvitit hv: ItoUj tlvtr rxuitcnt^ of tlic^ duty 
uid Uie bniuch of tliat duty, for otlitrwistf the deftridant 
has doQo DO wroug^ for as Krlc> C J^, »iaid ' tbcre can be 
no aiLidCttCtoij proof of ncigUgcncc lu ugiunHt a defend* 
ftDt, "union it besliowu diac there evidi*^ aoiae duty 
owln^ from tlio ilnfccdunt to thn pluiiuifT, nj>d l.fiut thcri? 
hu bttQ & bMuh of that daly." So fur a^ rej^Jinift Uiu 
right of action, il i« iramntvrial wh«t.Iier t]ie non-per- 
ibroLiUio^; of duty upua tLc piirt of tlic dt^findant hu 
been vllfnl or oard«s, but the form of ih'.- rvtmnly und 
tb« f ttunitt/n nf dftmji^ m^y bn mnh<rially jtfTcdiTd by 
ibe TilfiU or i^rulcw clmructflr i>f tliu defvEid:tiu'd lul, 
And wh^re the li^ury U doiio by ihe tusc of £i avrvaut, 
tba cordott or willful phjtrortnr of thf^ acI; ni^y bn mit- 
Ulna} io d«termtu]U); Ibu rvMjhJUtiibility of llxu uiuitcri 
TbftTO diiut be actual injury, for oUicrwJac iLc pUiutUT 
1m «nflbnMl only darnnuia a&aipie injuria.. 

7. Brutt, M. R.,' Jt^firiea actioimble nogligonce u 
" die neglect of Lho u:u? of ordrnnry cure nr nkill toward 
ft p«nto«i lo whom tb* dufuudiiut i>wee the duty of ob- 
acrviog oriiinjtry (ura and dkillj by nbich n^^doct tJi« 
plaiQliff, widiout contributory ncxH^^^noc oa hb put, 
baa BiUfSFred injury to bi?) p«n^o ur (trO|>erty." Of all 
Um' judicial daSaittoriA of nogligrnor, ihU p<Hmtji to ma 
to b« the m^t cc)(apl(;U\ but I I'Vutuiv to nu^gi^t that 
aotioAabla ii«j;lig«fic-e may be de6iiRd, with eulficiOAt 
accurvty for all pmcLiovl purpnics, tu be a non*per> 
fjrn»uoJ of duty eauaiug injury to iLe pvnou to mLoui 
tho duty U owini;- 

iCbiMar.W»i9CB.Ram,M£Ctk 
■ Uwm h TmAa, 11 4^, B. O. Wt. 



rrasm op nniJox«ai 



IT. DOFWICIIQXB IK DEOBEXS OF XBQUQSV^IK 

du Tlie unrlicr uiatVt' foIWrngthcdril Inw, uUcmpt4>d 
lo claasiiy nt^ligeiico under tiu.- ilirw vakgonM of 
'"•light," "ordinaTj" and "frow," but, bttflriDg in 
mind tho (lofiDliiuiiH quoa^l in the preoeiiiiig ptiragtaplif 
duiioGtloDfl between ihe degrees of negUgcnco bcoc<tn0 
of lilUc or or no ini|>vrtaiJWt for ihc vviuic of thtii ctJ 
vhicli the oircuruptaiKys i^f Ihu ptirticular «a8e laaVi 
^MfvoiOty 18 Uk fouiidAticin of n leggX liubililj, wlictbt 
h beinlteelf aligbl, i>rdinury,orj;row«ut'^Iigt-ni*. Tbis 
Ti«w htu been sanctioaerl by high luilhcaiqr. Ijord 
Deaman' luia suid: "ittDu^i«cll bo doubted whcdii 
b«t«Mii gnisa ne^'liReuw and nvglipmco BMrroly AD] 
intflllt^blf^ dixrinction mriATA-" I^ord Cnuiworth^ him 
EKiid ihui liv "ormld xw no diflvrt^rioiT butwiicu ue|{Ugi»GO 
mid giiifii tii.'g\'r^L*aeti ; [liui il wua tbt riHiui.' Lliing;^ i^l 
thn nddir.inn nf n Tituprrativr crpilbt^-^ In tb? ^iif^romol 
Court of ibi^ Uuitwl StJitctf, Cttrtair, J./ biui i^luructcr* 
ificd a^ icnpraotioablf^ any dwUnclion bcinccn di 
of n^gligoDc^; Aiid Duvin, iL/ bat «md; ^^grou lu^glk 
gence 18 ft r^UlIve lerm ; titter all, it mcuiib iW abwnt 
of caro tbut wiu ]iri.>c«ury tiadur the circuiutflAHoA.' 
Tbe eaiae viuvr Iria be«ci Ukirii m utliur niM».* 

9. Bai Uradlcy, J^' ho* mid: "in c«cb <»M llut 

4<a; Ohw f. BoniMl, « T:rr l£S; ^llb t- Hurar, ?( Tmmu IM, 4 K & L.j 

■Hlntoitf, rMUifn,? Alt A ];i >.H. nfiL,» K U t. 
•Vn^n- Drt<lHilM.4V,Mlfi. 
•8Eviji)k«t N«r WvUI PJ. K^n£, 1(1 tl«. «DlL 

«]WL-.tl, ]XKr,Jlli.ACL»l]:(;ri11*.lniiMHvCMIiwO>. L.K.t 
IN. 

T K. T. c a a f, Lorkiood, ir Wi:i, »t» 



PBOZIHATE AKD REUOTB CAOOC 

CHgtigMtce, wliatever e|iil1i«t we give it, U failure to 
beaCoir tbc caxc aiiJ tjkDI whloli Hic idluulion <lciQau<le; 
Vid h«ac« il Sa more BlrJL'tly nocurult^ ]>orhA]i«, too«U 
it SBply ' negligBDce/ And thU i^i^fniJi to be the icn- 
deacj of modern aullioriticv. If Uii-y mvnu murv lliua 
Cl^s An<I »<iek Co flboliali iLc iliMtiuL:- lions of 'logrmv of 
iMJv, «k[ll, luid dtligencc n^quimi in the pcTHbrumTKV 

tracu, wx think thoj gi> loo fflr, tinco ihc iPi^HitenQt'jjt 
of dil&t«ut (kjjrwa of cutvt in diilV-rtut wtijiiliuua h loo 
ftnnlv souled slqU Qiod lu the law lo ie iguorcd or 
chjuigod/' 

n« mtffli^nv cf Ihji raittny mud^ At prtaimafjc, ami un( (Am t» 

10, It bi bovrever, not Bufficricui to OefiDo uegligenoe 
in ftb«met Urm^ It i* ncc<«ttr]r. ntj^j, to diecrimin&te 
b«lir««i) tbo«c cauw*ii of irgurj to inJividujiL) w^kli do, 
mnd iboMA vrtilrli do not, rmull from TLrgiigiini>^ on tbe 
pin of tbc rvtwuy, and !■> iUustnilc tliu duttlitcLuju bj 
roftmoe lo adjudged uum. 

IL The tip^ligrmw of thn rnilwjiy miiftt hnv^ bpcn 
Um eCficiuui cuuvt of the injury, for aa (tibK^n. C. JV 
bM >ud, the cU-f«mbui 'Ma mi«(Tcrublo for tliu couwt- 
(|iiei>r«« of npfrli>:i-iiw, and not for Ita nUtmot cxiiit- 
nw/' and aa dtriiA, IaC,' }\a» said,**t1i« negligenca 
QIMt in ■onu wny t^nncvC iUMf, or bo <vinnr£^r-d by 
eriil^iico. with tlie ai^Md(^Qt> It nmnt U> * * * uifruria 
^ffiu l^ctitn iiyurur.** If iu EiPgligOTic^ hr t1i« efflrl«ot 
ante of Uie uijury, th« railway mudi, an Nureaj J,' 



10 



PBOXIVATS AM> KEUOTT ClCSK 



MuJ, niOx ivgvd Id tlie ori^lnftl tlirowtf id thai a^lib 
vklch bae played so iin]>oruiii a ptm id the biMoir]Fof 
the bw, be "nufwcnlk Tor all tli« comKquencai " ct^ 
Us aegligrace; but Umm c>OB«eqi»ou«n t& a l«|;iJ mam 
ant dia proxunnlo anil sot elm rcoioca oooMqnaica^ 
fur utf LonJ Bucon^ viudr id exj»lai»iilEuii of Uver uaaiiia 
•* amua prtnima ncn r^taoia ^fct^tur;' "it wnr* infinite 
fof tlia bw to JQilgc tUe caua of caiam and tb«u wt*^ 
paldiona woof aaotW; llM»n»« U cootttoUfL ttadi 
vith iho itmncdiaic cauito, and judgrth of Ktff^bj 
vitbout Loukmg Ici aiiy furtJi«r (1i>gH«.'* 

12, Ofcoiinv, tbotu^iiiiJmwortbomkwtliw 
geijcrrully ooiKKfled, but tlivre b oAen Kn«t pi 
dilficullj in it« a|iplioatiou to ilio faclA of jwrlicular 
cane- It would, tlicnibrc, he doirmblc to obtain, IT U 
w«ffa pomble, a c««i bv wbioli to d«tenvuac wbeiW 
not nnjr fiprcndo nrT ol' nngUgoncv be tha 
cauhc of tlic ii^uO' in any jjorticular caff. 

13. I>if&nnt tt^U bttVL- htxn MiKg«lled- In ona 
dMS of cflmw the Miggi^i^^cl u^i in tbn ^itftoncv of an 
tinbrokcr; c^jtivotiou bctnwu the wrongful net or ouuft> 
eiOD aud the itjury* Tbo HiwTj of ibi« loi is tboi 
axpbtinoi] by Strong, J.,* "wo tie not rj ihM «vtfn 
the D;itunil anJ pruluble conaequ^nccfl of a wroogfkil 
act or ooiiui^iii nrr, in hII ctuc** io bt chargmlilo to tliio 
mistvUHuiK^ or iioij r^rjtHiuo^. Thvy dje Dut| when t1i«i9 
i« A i^ijltcit-iit lukd indcpeudont cntiM opcntting bKwvan 
the wroTiK uiid ib*» injury. In audi u attt^ the rttcvt 
of tb«> eu9«rer muai be to tbe ongtnalor of tbo inter- 
mcdiutu cauw^ Snt when tbe/v ii no inttnncdiatc 
efliciontcAuge, ibe origlnA) wrong niu«t be oon«iilcrftl at 
reuchijig totbrrflbct and pirncimjiTn tn ie. Tb«-tnqtiiry 
miiHl. tb(<roforj>, iilways U.', wht'lhtx ibt-rt- ww aoy inter- 
nicdiiitA caiicc dUor^nnivioi) frotn Uio primary tiuh and 

•UuLKfa^l, •M.A&EBlr->vKilL>nHt.lLmf». 



rttoxmiTK Axi> ttzaoTR oavhk. 



It 



frlf-optimting vhich produced ihi^ injury. FTrrolics 
%\tv iliCiL'uUv. But tilt; luquiry luiul bu ai^HviHrtU lu 
tCCoHoAOG witli coinmon uiuJcrvlAuding. In a jni^ 
eCMiT^ii of depMjdtnt erwit*. «n inltrvij may Jilnuya b« 
■ecu by an nt'ui^ mbd IwIwc^d n caujic luiJ Ju cflf'ctf 
though il lujLj hv so imporoepttbTv mi lu he uvc<i'ti)ok«d 
bj & common mmd. * * * In thfr HAturfi of livings, 
tben IM m tfrcr; tnumcliou a iucccwioii of evciito 
man op h« d«^>eiidout ujKin iUM<^ prpof<dii>gj and it u 
tbo proriaoe of a jury Ui Imik iit ihli micccwioii of 
ev^U or IjLvhi und uactrtniii nrLvtbi^ \hvy aro uulurftlly 
uid probably conn^ctMl wiili onrh ofbtr by n roTiritiii- 
OM teqnmcv or im? diracrvt-r^Hl by nt-n uiid judej>tiidi'ut 
•C«QcI««^ftDd tLi» UDU&i be dcl^iiuiacd in view <ji' tho 
eirciniwUnw oxuiling at Hic time.^' 

14.1 AaotlMr suggiated to»t u t^ist tlie Lr^uiy shoulil 
be wch a oonjKquouco lu, utsdcr the ffurrDuiidiiig cir- 
flunMuicei of the 0AK4, might and CDghL to have been Ibre- 
bj tbo vrongtloor m Likely to follow from hii act 
BovUI, C J^' Btutva it tliQH : " Ko doubt on« who com- 
miln ft wrongfdl ad b responsible lor thn orliikLkry con- 
BCi|UciiocM which nrc likcjy to reBuU therdrtim; hut, 
)(MMf«Uj vpe&kiug, ho 18 not liableXor durungv, whii-h fa 
not the natunl or ordinnry oocmvjuiuka of KUi^.h nn lu-i, 
it b« nhown tliHt he kuoirv, or hm reaAOu^Uu 
of kziowinj^> ibat cjiiMHjuoiicce not unuUIy rc^ 
■ultinj fron tho oiot vet, by mmou of mhho oxvliog 
<auM, Likely to iotcrreno so se to oocn«ioi) dniiMgc lo a 
iJiird iwnoii. Wbi^rv ihcro is no rrvMm to uxpcci it. 
Aiul £iu koovladge iu the pciraoQ doing the irrongful not 
tlMt eocli ■ bMIo of tkingi qxima w to render the duxii* 






Ifi 



nttoxiHATX Asrii luniort: CACSC 



*p? probublo, if mjnr^ do«4 r«iilt to n ibUd panoD* it 
is g^rif-nUly ooi>»iiJ«rv<l tliat thu wruiigTul act in noC iha 
pTnxiamLc inusc gf cbc injiirj w Bs U> rciidpr ifae 
wnmgtUjer llubk to ao hdion." In Uie hjqji' cae 
GrOfv, J-, »Hiil : "The exiirtK^ion, tlie 'iistanftl' dod* 
Mqu'miw, whic^h bn« been uhhI in so miuijr cwc«^ uid 
irhit^h ] niywif h^vr* no doul:-l oA«n tidvd« li^ uo mesai 
<wavcy« to ihc midd im ndivjuiilo nc'tit^n nf what tt 

»iim/' nnd Knating^ J., hfuct] h'w jiidgmrnt f>r tiMt 
dcfuiiiliuit oa the iuL't llial iliu damage m qucvltUD wu 
QOI **Oiio whicb tli« dof(;u4nnt coulil ia\r\\ bt cj;|xvted 
tn antlcripiitd u* likdj to «fi)(iie from hm rLCt/' 

Id. Tli« nme view wu obvloDBly prc^irDt lo ih« alikd 
of Bntmwdl, R,' when be muJ, "it would be tnon- 
stroQflto bolJ t1i« rleft-mlAiila Kt^torreibTe Ixtraaf^ thej 
(lid not forcwc and ;>rvi'cut un jiocidt*Jit, Ih^ «vtiw of 
whjicb vtna mo obcf-'uiv thut it woh ncrl [Uscovi.-rtil until 
many niont}ifi after t]i« soddent had bapp«B^" 

PnXROt), J,,' FlJitc« tlic nmo view clmrly and forci- 
bly, tliiiB. '* tt [uau'a reujioiiidbilify for ha at^llf^rtiW^ trnd 
ihnl of hin (wrvnnin, miiKt iriid BomrwhffM: Thcr^ a A 
puAfibllitj of carrying hu udirilLI«dly comet jirineiplA 
loo fiir. It mny hf\ ^iti^ndi^d *o na ro rmeh tho lYjfv^^ 
ai:f aWn^um,iiofai'4ii it u|'>{>li«d to ib« practkm) biwinem 
of life Wo thick ttiia difllcDity may bo arotJvd by ul- 
bcring to the prindplo ■ • ' tiat^ in detprmimog nthmt 
in proximitce rAii«^, tl)i? true niJo 18 that tht; injury n»iwt 

thr untnnil und prcibablo eonMKjiwuco of IliC nrgli- 
mc6— «iiob a conN^()i»enc^ 9f, under tli« surrouitdlngdr^ 
cunwUnca of tlic cntCf toii^ht and ou^bt to hvvc been 
furteven by iht wronK*!^'' ^ lik^^lj lo flow IVom hh 
net. Tliifl in not a limiutinn of the maxim inmni 






ntOXlVATK XSV URUOTE CAfftL 



IS 



pttmma atm remoia tpcrJatur: it only nSotStM ib ipplk- 

m But, M ifi poinioJ <mi in ibe Jiiilgincnti in i^auth 
«L Lr. <^ S. W. Bj./ it niiut be boruo ia niiiKl in Apf^tj- 
ug tb« toK 0Ugg*«rtad Mt tbiit a dnfimdjinc, who 6otM a 
iwgUgvnl ict, uugtit to be belU ctuputiubk for bdjt 
iMlural ix)Meq»nc« of thai wi, nltbough the jKirtiriUjir 
ootwrqiMnoo vbicb nntillcil fruQU ttitf tict talhtr wu not 
or could not Imre boou a&tlcipaUd bf bim. Ncitlier 
of titc Mig;p:itt«Ml lc«ta i« no pn^djic unti doBnite UizlI iu 
AppliAtion to tSo fiulAof any powlbic ca«(f iTtL]>«l once 
uU\ b^ymd dmibtf dcu^rminc the liubility of Ihc rullway 
to the plai[ititf, aijd in tliti vixd Uj» coneot flolutioti of 
tlso pfobJvni in any om a dcjwndcQt upon ibc cxcrcue 
of attound judgineiitbj thejudg«&ii0 the jury; G6r, IL 
bi for tha jury, oa Pax^on, J-/ huA oniil. ^to iwcvrtsun 
tbi? rvlatiovi of oiiv fm;t to uiutbvr, mid bovr fur lliviv 
iv a ounliDulion of tbe causatiOD by wliieli tli« rf«ull 
i» linkMl to tbc csiuw by an unbrokim rhiun of nrriiitJp, 
cadi one of ^bicb I9 cL^ uaiumlj forcvwu, and ni<v<^»urjr 
mtttU of fflHi cnnv.'*' UuC it is for the couiL in tbw, 
m fin all otber qum wliinb go to tb« jury, to determiDe 
ill Uw flnt iattanco wLclhor, tiaramJng tbo tnilb of tlio 
critlnKV, tfa« jury cua r«attonablj find u Tcrdiol for the 
party upon irbom, uudar tha plMdlngs, tbe burden of 
proof nttM^ 

* Tto !■< MMliaari lal b ^r:^*^! « lbs ewn>4 nao in OmrtUnd t. 
OMpttit* BkMI; tl04* T.I- H-A M H U. IL, M IVnoo. K. 3^, IMt 
I^.Kt^fat, 104 14 304; Uugtu » I^'uiuuWh IT WevU? >M4 of Om 
irifML I SI 1 ftauL 1^. O. IKfM 7. 

• lU^ V I. It. A M. Ft K R, W PffDL A Mi 

•Vtlib f.& W.Aa K ll,4SN, y.tfd; IML K. i>, llop^ no l-Nn*. ML 
m, TAX. T.C IL a r. Urr^, *Q U4M; lit A«s P. Bj. t. KcU^ict >« 

aa«u^ L R, u. u. f, iujCaH\. to i*fviK ^ iizj rvr, jt ii k il*h 

Ifc iMt. IT Vfwfcl/ y<M*r<^» jFi™.t tU; DUIdwi lI-GAI^BE, 
*lla««^t.B.AlLA X K, UpnaL9l.»l 



14 THJTTKiEs nr Avomn^G dakges, 

17. Where injariea are inflicted, in the course of rail- 
way operations, upon the person of one who is hiiUBelf 
without ftailt, thoee injuries are generally so immediate 
and all their effects so ohviously coDuected, tliat there is 
DO reaaOQ to doubt that the damage ]s the proximate re- 
sult of some particular act or omifieion on the part of the 
rulway, bnt when the question of proximate or remote 
cause is raised, it turns either on the relation of the in- 
Junee, whatever they may be, to the particular act or 
omission on the part of the railway, or on the connec- 
tion between some eubeequeutly developed ii^ury to the 
pl^ntifl' and his original injury. 

18. As illustrationB of the ffrst claes there are the cases 
of injuries sufiered by one in attempting to escape from 
a situation of apparent peril to life or limb in wbich he 
has been placed by negligence on the part of the rail- 
way, and the cases of injuries incurred in attempting to 
obviate some more or less serious inconvenience, which 
the railway's negligence or breach of contract has 
brought upon one. As illustrations of the second 
class, there are the cases of disabilities or maladies 
supervening upon the immediately apparent injuries 
inflicted hy the railway's negligence. 

Ifie railira-if u liahfffor injuriet raffered by ont m aiffmpiing lo escape 
from a tiluation of apparent peril to iife or, limb, in vhich hf has 
been placed by Ihe negligence of ihe railmiy. 

19. The leading case is Jones v, Boyce,^ where the 
plaintiff was a pa^euger by the defendant's coach; a 
rein having broken, and one of the leaders becoming 
ungovernable, whilst the coacli was passing a hill, the 
plaintiff, apprehending the overturning of the coach, 

' which, however, was not overturned, jumped off*, and in 

■ 1 SCukie 4fi3, S E. C. L. 



w> dtang brak« liU Ir^, trherNu if be liiul Tmuuncd od 
tho GOAclt It* woulf] not lijvve Win iDJirre<l. Lur<l Ellvn- 
bormiKli dirvdcU tlic jur^ tluit " to cuubic tho plointitF 
to iOBtAJii llie action, it itt [i4t rieci«F»ry ihjit 1ti.« alioukl 
baT« btvn tlirown off thn coach ; it b nitfEoirnt if ho 
waa pluodd by iho mLjci>ud»ct of ihv JcffJiduiU io »ucli 
A nliiAlion n^ ohllgml him to oitoft ihi^ nltomnlirrt of a 
dapgerou* Imji or Io n^rmiiu at cvnain ]wnL If timl 
pOMtioD wm occflHJonoil Uy iht^ ilornuU of (he Jofdudaiii, 
tlia sctinn may tw nifpjHvrrJMl. 1>n tlio nihf^ hAnd, if 
Ui« plaiutitTB ucc r^uhed ffO[ii a mth apprebenKion of 
dAnjc^ trhich did not ritjitf nnd the injury which ho 
nviUJued Id Lo btf HttrlLiuteil to nwhiiuv nnd iiMpniduiiue, 
}i^ is nol oHlillcil to rocov^r. T\\p. iju^^lioii 1? whtfth«r 
b* was pitMwd iu such n nitUBtiuu di \o rojidtir whut ho 
did A pnidcnt pr«c8UlioD for tlie purpose of eeJf-preeer- 
T4tioii."' 



t%t toiI#ty ii Utibtefof in/'tritw inrurrrd Ay om in taUmptin^, by an 
4rf tut ohti$Vti]f dtMytr^m, to altvvtt* V tcriiruM iMVHtVHtetteio Itt hm 

MX Tbw, in Adnrn* v. L. 4 V, Ity,," thn door of tho 
in which the plaiatifT waa ritlmg would not 
romua »hut vliilc ihc train wna in motion, hut thcro 
w room enough for the plaiaiiff to sit awny from the 
door, tod llw woathvr wa« goo^i Tho plfUntiflT. liAving 

>flHibi>M^tt*Biliauul]. ISl^lfcl. NAT. lLB.f.BnrlA(Tdifk|, 
I Am. A Rw R- O. (^ 4ftA: C^vvll « It. A W K. R. DH Uv. IMi 

MliUK-Kw IChiido^Mi;* M«: UK K.w. KAvh,fit Iil. run. Ji An, A 
&V fi ftrH.nP:P RAW &iLr %ohnmn. It 'VCwMj S<Am <,t i-m^n 
tM^ UJi* AK>w K.lLitelT4.Hmhh . Kl P. 1|. A U. K/.SO MLna. 
iHLft IB A E>«. a RGw.t«1;lfoa aft. ■.UimrTtU Obis at il^ 
SAA^AKitt 1LU.<VMI; fh»J» K, Y ^ K, K, SI X. Y, »(; & W. B. 
It >.r^«lk.H <!-.>», WUm >.N, P, B.IL.»Ulni.fn,U.AW. a 

• L. a 4 a p T3». 



16 



JflfXtRlRB IK IVOIDUro Rfi^^MVBVlEVCnL 



aliut t)ie door thr«« tinii«s, atteiDpl«<l for tiw feurtb 
tiiBo to dofv it witliiD throe muiuics of tiis tii»c of 
omTal of Che tmiii ai a f^t^itkni, uid. in vo (fotng, Iw fell 
oat and wu it^oreti. JuU^rneni was totorviJ for thft 
doEendaiit upoD Ute ^roucU tlmt^ uci Uic uiconireiiUiioe 
to th« ftlAlntiff fVom ihe op«ui door vnn sligbl, and ihe 
peril iu kltrmpliiig iocltw it wnttcimHidiTnibk, ihr 11^ 
jurv r^ulUog iroiu iLiai aUeu^pt vraif fau»i.*il aoMj by 
hifi own cnrvlewnDiv.^ On the otbnr bund, in W. IL 
B. R. V. 9t«jil<fy,' a pa^stager »iw Leld eiilitltd to t*- 
COvw for injunra rocoivcd in fliUimplittg to dOM the 
door of liu u&r irhile jimwiri^ ihruugZi u ttiunel* the 
railway having omitiod ii> ll^hi ihc car, and llw opea 
door luoonvcDicDciitg thu |ikinmr aod the other paft* 
Beogien lii tlieearby il^ailmi^ionof amok«aEkd ciDdoni. 
In casw NUcb oa th&»i.% probably tlit- true x**^^"^ <^ ^^ 
doiou u tbat ibe plftinfifT cannoi rpcover if \n MtMnpt- 
iDg t*:i avoid that wliicb ia mrrcly irto^nv^^niont, and in 
no vrnHc ilmigoruua, ]i« vucuunl^^n a dungvr obrtoutilj 
tippiiruiit to tho miFtrlfl of mfUHiTinhln mm; bni, on iho 
odicr hnrnL ns Brett, J.,' suid, "if tbu itjouovi^nicnor ih 
•0 Kn-dt ibat it h rca^i^tiHl^Ic to ^«t Hd of it hy hl ad 
QOt obvioiiflj dnngeroua. und rKvcuLi'd witliout atn*U«»* 
natt," ilm nLilway '^ wo<ild be IJablo for aiiy ii^ury ibat 
latglii rcfiult frum nn uttf^mpt to avoid euch iiKonvciu* 
once" 



Jfy, b tvmaVMtA «■. anrl itiii kppliutlon Id Uw fMi of Ubt chi «f 1^ Aflifr 
M1 W-l Itf^^ :AAin. ATjik A- A.Od.lV)B. 



JWnW pfvWfi fl? oiTqlofd fty Au <ivn ntflA ant 44 tMrmmnifnA etmmd 
to Aha Igr M« mi^uay'f brvoeA of »iilruL 

2L Tbrrv u» iiIbu oiljor <»«» wbicJi, ilic-ngh b 

tboio sni llic CB9C9 of pnsscngcrv who, ntu-ii Uio riiilwjij 
ilow not bring it^ tnUn toaelop at a ctAtkni^or doc* 
dot Gtap thn Imm for & sulEdcnt length of liino to 
ooable th^m to eclMr or alight fruriL the train in utXtrtj, 
■ttmnpt To get on or ofT the trmin vhite il b iti mouou, 
BDd an: tLtir<-ti^ ii\}iirv J- Mauy uf the uutburilie^ lioM 
tfaitt thi) rule r>f drviffion in fiijch (^lsp? is thnt tlic mil* 
Vraj iM to hv hvlJ UllLIu for it^uriee tLua ^'utie^J, lutlcw 
lojnryahail find thnt tho pom>n iojnri^ in ^^^tting 00 
or off t1i« curp «ncvtuDt«re(I a dan^ obviouaiy a|)|iHreQt 
(othe miniUorrvoaoMiblcmf'D, Othrr Rutlj4?HEJ<i4 bold 
that mch iDJurim ur« ^-If inllicftod, uml tliui iht- rtiitwjij' 
is not to b« iidd liaLlo tWrefur. llio priociplo involvod 
In theae GaacB wcu niloJ in Cluvurdx v^ Dvthiok/ wliore 
Um d«ifUndanl hod dug a dAJignnuR ImnHi m ihn rtnly 
ODttot frooi a mewt, uud the plaintifT'p br)r».- lu cuming 
out of th^ ra«w? foil in[o llio ditelj aoil wo8 kJllctU. Di^ii> 
I, CL J^ dirrctcd thu Jury " that U uould not he iho 
littiiTa duly to rofnuu ullvgalhar fVom ctimlng oulof 
nunrft mcrttj beoin>» the dofaniknt hod mad* the 
ia iome degree dangvnjua, • • • though, if th* 
itiff had pentiKtcd m running npnn n i^rrai and 
iMooB danger liia aotiou could oat b« ntHint^Lincd." 
TCrdiet hanng ptuncd for tho phuatiiT, u rnlo for a 
trial wai diwhorged, Ciajarda t>. JMUiok U citod 
with approval and folbvrd in Tbomppon r. N. E. Ry./ 



IS tKJiTBna TH itoiBuriro ov ix&vnro rsAtii^ 



irfaert llie ikfcGdaiiU ta proprictot* of ft c^ock auid lidal 
httria. which Ihey had opened for um b^fur^ iid cuu- 
itmctjnn hiu) bwn oomplcteil W ilra<j^n|r U tbrcnglKint 
to t1i« rcijuirvd iK'prh, vcr^ bvlU liable in dmnagetCO 
thft AwnfTT of A flbift which hjid groimtJcd in Icflfuig the 
ilut'k, aUhuu^b the pllul kiicw ilial tbv duuioel <if 
rciplritc depth wiu nnrrow, for ibc vcrdki of Uic jury 
fairing ne^livfiil negligence on lh» [lArt uf ihe platn- 
HfT^ tliv plnbitifi''* recovery vriw tiot Ut be jimxnuvl 
widiout proor thnt tb« «Taie of the basin w$» ttidi ju to 
render it impruiJcat to attempt tp late the vmwl oat. 
lo einer w. G. W, Ry„' whmr it waa hdU tb«t tbe 
rftilifxy wnji not linhlc tn a (c^mnlc pjwfvngpr who WM 
iojured iu deciec^ndjitg frL>ni » fuilwaj CJUriHi^^ Inxiumo 
nhp ^hiyfci to jnmp down rnlbcT thiin to ftvnil lii^rerif of 
tbif utejid of Lbe cArria^, Kullj, C B., wiilt in hi* dtv* 
BOating juclgmpnt,^ " I an* clenrly of opinion, howorw, 
^■t ft nilwiij com]iaiiy are cnt i-ntitl«i to capcMO tnj 
paawng«r to iho noctftritv of choauag b«twe« two Alt«r- 
OAtivcES Ticitbftr of vhioh he M»ld Uw^ilf j bo oUkd on 
to choo««, DJUJKfly, oithor to go ou to Bftii^r ur bo Ukft 
bin cbftnc« of Uaii^i-r and jump out ; tmd if tb«y do to 
lh« oboioo If mndn nt ibnir p(>J-)l."* 

22. On llie utlitT biLDti, ia hax p. Dftrlitt^too,' 
BnuvHI, I., J^. finidr "A por«oii IraTeJing on a 
nulwity ii< taken la rjomc place whum br ought not 
lo bnvo be«n tftkcD — bc-youtl ft pUtforiu, foir mstuiocL 
H« jump* out, ntkin;; the danger, and hun« hin)- 
seir. En in^ opmion io 8ucb ft C8«e ad that be ooght 
to bavc no reinnij ajcuinM the tooijituiy fbr tbe 
hurt; if be choosra to jump out and turt binudf^ ho 

• lUiBllv t(«v* tn npiwnd h ni« *. K T. C ft R, 40 N. Y.« ; P. L 
Kt, KQiranwli Prnm. 8^*19: Jobvcs t^ W-U A r, A. Jt,7t ll3STt 

Hitt in Dk»7 oiW ant. 




muBtn ty b&asaoo os lkitdto traikv. 19 



\wami uko cLe UutL ^Vhat lie mu«t do te to >H in 
cvrmgH and be <arric<I on bcyonii witcrc he wiiitii 
to K(S ajiij tlivn bnn|; his KCtiuu e^iuut ihv oom- 
jAiiy for noC AfTirding bim pmprr nccomnii>3ntioTi lo 
get out, I lia^ uo doubi of the ^oil tieufm of tbat; 
I liftTO yot ■ mii^Ting of it, tind I connoi n^nv lo ft 
frati dfid of what inia naii iu Iht ta»e of Clhyanlia 
r, Dvlhlck/ U ww there wkml, 'wns the colitnuo 
Unind tueiajifl ull darf Botindt Bound towhum? 
A ptnoQ bring boRTJil ntippodcs Iiih being bouQd to 
tMaubedj* U 11 ui iu^curalo oxpn^ticru. Out- dou» 
||UM tan ■bwiE wordn oxccpf when tln^y mielcwl. Th« 
crprewioQ 'bound' was u^w-d tlifn.'. Wby, of courw, 
bv WB» not bqond, bftf^Ti**^ thrr^* WAR noboflj- to wiy lo 
'Ibb, ' 70U flittJL' Bui if bcf cliuortu (o gu 4)ui wjlli an 
cbrioiM danger bcf^^ro him hn imi^i iaJc« tbo conae- 
qncoiM*- duppodu & eiicid i« idiut up in the top iwini of 
■a liooM lUilawfuUj, is be bound to (itay Lbere? H« la 
rBot bound to do BUjtliiaji of Uil- kind ; he nmy jump 
oot If Le Ukee to nin iIm risk of breaking hie Tit^t-k or 
hilt limbft; be Duy lot binuclf do^u by a jtqjkj or a 
ladder, b«t if be ra&s the rii^k of gi>ttiiif? out oud broak* 
Ui Mclc, tlio p^mm who nhute him tip iti not guilty of 
maadmj^tpr ; tmd if lie break? UU 1^ bo ought not to 
hanf anjr right of anion n^inel ihnt poraon, AltJiougli 
Iw WM not bound to MtAj therv. Tbtm tlirr« ^lui un- 
Otber oxfTOMOon usod wUcb £ ownot help ihbikiu^ 
«w oa cmfi>rtun4.1ie tma. It ir*ft th]» : ' Whnt would a 
|>nfedent nta doT* Juat soe the coneoqneoce of thai 
tort of TOMoninjc. A pmdcnt oibmnn with c ^chhI 
bone bATing e Bhilliitg ibro clknd to btui would have 
Ooppodatbonur; eprtidcntciLbmunvitbabndhorTCan^ 
* pM&d &re woQld hiTe olunred it. Tlie conaequono^ 
wooJd be tlat ht could reoorcr if btt hurt ■ bad horn:, 



2D nrjuRiEB ui boakdiico or le&tiicq tiuisl 

buiootiM not re(rt\«r If lie hurt a good oim^ Tli* trnlli 
i% to Ulk of what A prudcijt mui wciuld do a ii fok* 
leading wuj of couftKlering ihf^ mslUT- A pni<lfiDt 
miui would Inid a forlofn hope under Kinae dnxm* 
BUnce^ lecauiw the (lottaible gain, iii hia t«tiinadco* 
would bp Aqinl In this rlflk. U ii notf UicrcJon^ a 
qunlion uf [irucleiLCV- I dare Mj a frrudvut mMa mif^ht 
jump out of n irain goiikg very fan, if h« uiw nom^ ink* 
mini-nt danger i(> liix vife or child^ cr unvbody Tor 
ivhom he had grciU nllcctioii, ftud he couUl iEnokedinlcly 
go and resuuf? them- It 10 nut, ther*^un\ a question of 
prudence oa far aa he i" (loncerjicd. 1 ilkink ibat i«tt 
— I ehould tiQt hiive diMUMvd It at the Itrcgtb 1 have 
done if an erroneous iilM wwt txot fionvpjml hj u^^vn 
only be juaiiflvd on u ic^und wbicb, I think, will be 
£bQDd, ttspocially in th« judgmffni of WightDaan, J,, 
apil upon whieb I um inclinf^d to tluuk itaraa of th* 
judp-'H tvaUy- di«ciJiHl il. It \a tbi*): TLiit ibe diuigcr 
tbeiv wvf not nn obTiOUa oiic- ihnt when Ibc cabnjsii 
went out be p^l into lroub]« from wbau in Initb. 
was a pilfall, tbc nninrcof whii-h he wna unaware of, 
but whifb bad bwin pn-j'tared Ibr bira by tbc del«odunl. 
Upon tbut ground, jH^rhji^ie, tbo judgment may be sup- 
ported; but I have a mifgivinjE, even then, wbdhcr, 
whf-n there v»f- a danger of accident, it was col bi*— 1 
will not >uy hiit duty— but whether U wiu* not for hitn 
b> a0c«naln tbe extent of it hetore be ran tb« risk of it. 
Howrvcr^ I lliink it in iipnn that ground only that iIm 
eaaeoui be ^uHtuini^'L It iffauld Liml it bun \nxtt after* 
ward ciicd ni^ti jidf>pT<HJ in WyMt v. O. M'. Ky.' It wM 
no doubt eit4>d and udopted, but I am very much inclined 
to tiiiiik it wofl adopted upon the pi^ndple that 1 liav« 
mentioned, nnd tlmt nuy be Men cspecinJly from tho 
JodgmmC of tbe innjority nf the court. If Oaymrcb Wt 

' « B A a. T«a; ;» £. C. L; M I. M<1, &i »!. 



DoUii^ nd Wynlt v. OraU W«tem Rjr. Co. tro 
»do|]««J io tlielr full exUni, I aw ooooU^ed to expra« 
a^ (li«Uu8t of tliooc cAHv." 

23, Tho fwult n*elj«l la Wyatl »l O, W. Kj-..' m 
iiKOiinetcttt iridi th« doctrine of Clfl]rflr<1« i^, D^thick, 
f6r it wm there hdd tliit a [fcnon vrhij wliilc truvcLi&g 
<iii a hSgfiw&y had bevn ir\|tmd in opening tar himeeir, 
Uitf nilwAjr u-rvnnU licing nWiit^ }i tUitutonr gvto whitrh 
1 nllvwy haA vrvt[L-<l ul u luuil iTOMiuig. uud whiclj* whuu 
doMkI, bnrred xhn lugliwny, coul'i not i^-TOvpr Brani- 
wrfl,B,ittidfordMjiiiSiDi?r^O,W. Ry7"*npp<>Mthc 
dofbndsate had covouantod widi the plaiDtilTt uudt^r acal, 
to QMTj her to n particn lar place, nod to provide proprr 
ramne of exit dVom thv i^rrlagf^ and thai the plnincilir, 
dcdnricjc upon the cnrcnnnt, Al1i^;in] n btrnch of cop- 
Cnct, and then well tori invaj.jffir gu/td, IJiiihihhI Tram 
Ibc rarrin^, and in no di-Fing hurt myflfilf, would that Iw 
p<r qxuidt Would it be damugc Icji^itimEilcly flontng 
htm ibe breach of cootraof ? 1 thiuk uc>t El^hc^ coald 
oqIj ny thnt her net mm Ivd nr indiicw^d, nnt thnt it 
vaa caui«ed, bv tht'Ir hrmob uf (.'untruc-t. It ouuld not 
bn faid ihnt h^r jumping out wju a Logiilmnti^ onnM^ 
^Mnue of Uifdr uvgl^t, 4U<1 U ii norn^ tho moi-i' m\ 
beoMiCibofim in tort. Th« qiioetiori hue bix'u ftr^^ued 
u if ii were <in« of contributory negt^ence : but it i* 
not Tim whole muchief resulted frurn the plaiutiflT'd 
own net, ftikd ercn Hamming ut^gligcnw in the drf«ind- 
aocii, Ihat n«ig1i};eDue wuh not tbo cause of the nccideut" 

34. Unqticvtionmblyf C^f* tnie ground of docn^ion in 
«BMi of th&a doM tt thnt wbiHi 14 bu}<^uiI4^ by the d^cta 
quoted from Iho jitdgmfrOT. of Itriimwoll, J., in Hin^r'n 
COW. Tlie obligatioQ <if > railway tu tuke up or net down 
a paiMSger at a partirnlftr nfMJon in an ohiigjttion df^ 

• «B.aaTo»;ius,ai. 



32 UtrjL'UlJA Ur ttOAItPlJltl OU LKAITI^CA 



pendent wJcty upon the atntrncl btftwntn tbo pftiticoLu' 

flat of the gfnrml dntj of tbn mlwAV to iu pMMSgcnft. 
Wb«D. tfaereforv, the milvru}- ilo«ii pot ktop iu tralii at 
llic pnrtlcuUr aULtioo at which U Um cgntmcUd to 
ri'^'eivo or debrw the paiwtfngcr^ or wbcn the niilnuy 
daca Dcit »t*>p its iniln ftl that «tatiou for * tiuflbdciit 
tiinc to coablo the pomcugia Xt> enter or blight fron Itfl 
c^r, it thereby broftW its coolrai.^ viib tLc pMiPO^ar, 
but it dou not iailict u|xjii blni tbnt vurt of vroos 
which th« Iait chaTaclcriMe ba a ^/. Uudor mch rir- 
<iiJTnntmii<tv ihti ppnm^rr who, by llici fniliinr of tlio 
roilwuy lu slup lbs imia, ifl currivj jjiut liu tAulicu. or 
U l(ifl on the liiUition plniforin, a» the: mw may bo* hw 
ivmiMly \t VI iteilon at law Jhgainst the milwajr for 
t}jo brcAcli of iu ooLtrncli and iu that acuoD lie can 
recover the damttgoa irhicb tiatiirally anii neeonnrilj' 
r«wilt IVom tbai breach of oo&tnict> that u^ conDptuw- 
tioD for aiij incoQVfniciico to which ihc mlway'* 
broach of coiitnict limi put him. But if, not conUot 
with the r«iu«dv which th« law givoi hinit or iiu- 
pdlt-d hy a ontuml dvnn to aarj out bis preoao- 
oBivfd j'-urpoAfr, h« jumps upoD or from ibe tnin in 
motiuHpor di)Oi tuy other act whidi b tlii- nurw of 
injure' to him> the railway ought :iot to bo \iM liable. 
for that injury, howi?vcj- niif^riniHiii^ wnd hmrcxtr 
•vrlouB, b thir mull not uf thv raUnay'a failure to ilop 
i1» traiu in nccordnnco with iU contract, but of hi* own 
WHh /K-t. Btuck, C. J., puta tliM T*rif forcibly,' teqriu^ 
" If a paascufOT be Dcgli^cuilj cairicil bcyoDd lh« tto- 
tion nhcTif hts mteiidflO to Htop, and wlicrtr ho bait a 
right to bo Ivt olf, ho gau rvcorfx cMnipoimtkio for tbo 
uiconvcfiieuoo, tbo low of time^ and tbo lobor of tiftnl* 
ing back ; bocaoM ihMn aro iha tfinct com«i«ieiiMa 

> p. B. &. •- AjptU, » PwL 5L 1<T, 



utjiTKimy AVOt&tXfi moHWAToBifTKVurcoyv. S3 



uf the vroaj- done to Ulm- But if ht a foolbardf 
«ttOii£li to jump off withoQt WAitinjC for tht tnb to 
■lop^ Le dt)ca it *t hb own rbk, b^ciUM tliii is gr<iM 
ivD|jni(icii<o, for vfaicJi he con blnmtr nobody but lunx- 
VElf." If ihaTiuwvburcinejiprtikieJUiiKiuiiU, lUuiutafitja 
bftTe been wnoii^l^v diwiiJed whoittn it hAs bofin held 
Ukat,itn<lnrpi>ch drciiiuHija]cxft.th^plAtntifrcaii re<KJVer. 
2&. AnoUm cUm uf comw lo wLidi Uw «aiuo nMuIt 
•liCHikl bo mditti is tJi&c of j^lalt petMnn, vbo, find- 
(o£ ft rwJwttj QroHBing of a bighwajr blgukin] by cjir*, 
M£ciii|>C 10 ptbu undor or climb ovor the auy, imd in so 
dotug s» bgorthL In Uicn ouHa (Jwrt? u, uf ooiursa* no 
<ttfttnuc4ttftL nUtiou b«ivr««Q die pereoa Jiijunxl uid tho 
nulwur, but orejy «ncb pervoc Lu hin rvmtdy bj action 
«j3iin4t iIm rdliray for bis ixidividaaL loss resulting fVoia 
ils obpururtinn of th« bi^himj', and nay injuHes irhicb 
1m niaj brt&g upu:i LinuL^lf iu ^ cUbirtd Lu uvuid the 
inoofeT«Di«OM caus«d by that obstruction sra self iti- 
Sicltd, tfid orr uot juitly clmrxi^nhlo t^t tlic mlvnj. 
Of covrw, wh«rc, under sucli circuiustancott. tL^r pe»ou 
lnjin«d, U bj i]ifaiic7 or othvnmo, incjipaeitAiod from 
mlijciii^ tho dsagsr of duing tie titst wliich causes tho 
U^ury, n diSl-rctil principle iippJii;^ tmd the ruilwvy 
BMj JoftiJy be \iM IluMs for its utqgligenoe iu ImviuK 
upon A Lighnruy lli^t nhjcliiDAy bocooifl k CKOScvif icgiiry 
to perasus so iiicsi|itfu-il^kted. Tiie intfiiakon reeult irJiidi 
hvt bnea raicb4:d in m tiijuiy itf thn e-smai at injnriMi 
iQcuired in gottiog oii or off uiavin^ cum, ur jii climb 
tttg 0T«r or in pAAiing undnr cafs which obstruct a 
highway cnjcaiUf, h» Ur^ly due Ui the (net tbiit thoMT 
«wes •». iu goneral, considOTMl tO r&Ise quOHlioiLu of 
QMitribalOT^ nogligPiiov, whtfr^tu they rcnily rniwf the 
qve8t>o«i of Iho rolutlou bclwcca the pluutiff's lujury 
tori the nilvray's uon-porforaimion of }t> duty oa tho 
proiiiBftte or maoto ouuc of ihnt injury. 



£f>. Id fartLcr UJudtniUoa of tli^ graora] doctrine fl« 

^ITM h«ld t»> b« Uio reiuoi« to liit c--on«i<l4TfiiI tko vflldokt 
euunc of thf! injiirv fbr wKidi ibv pTnlntiff Mougbt repft- 
ratlou. lu P. C. & 8t. L. E^- v. Siakj,* iKe rwl»«y 
htkTing unlonrfully abtafjudcd a highway GroMuig bj- a 
tmiu Hi rMt, tilt plainliff', iti order to ttvciil ike ob- 
struction, fEiriKAl inio uDothf^r street, nnd (here w» iit* 
j.ir«il by railing ou Uie ioK In P. ^ By. r. Tnylor,' 
the nulnay hud pi^rniittml a dcinjl«d and ovcrioni«d 
car to rexEUiiu ul the Ms of a hij^hway crooedti);* mnd 
Llii> plainlilTH hf>iw w^a fVighlonot) r}>rvrQby. Tn Jnck-* 
Bun V. N, C. & Ht- L. Ky./ th« ruilwuy ohrtJiicted tt 
bt^liwny croi4^ing by a train, nnd ilto pTaifilifl', \a a^oid- 
ing thff ohftnirrjon by driring jutoak ihrr lii^t^ jii a podit 
whvre tlieru viia u^f publit! vrubuu^'. juid, ixaitsequ^ntly, 
no pknkin^ between tltc rniU, was Jolted out of liia 
veUidc, and iherohy injured. In M- Railway v. Jack* 
(iod/ the carringo in nhicli tho pa8«c-ng«r waa riding 
being overcrowd^, otbcr pi^nontt ELlUtrifit<Td nt a ntutiuQ 
to force tiieir tnj into Cha carnage, sod iha filuinilin 
hiLvin^ riMfCi to prov^nt tbdr entrance v the Inuo 
Btarl'jd, ir( onier to iwTe himftelf fVom fjklling, put bis 
hnnil nn tJid odge of iho door, urbvrv it wiu cnughl and 
cruHhi'J by i)n^ »at of the rai]wa]r'a eervaiit in dOBing 
ttiA donr, in thn pr-rfortnnnco of hJii duty. En f!<ib1f« r. 
L. & Sv W^ By-,^ tb« railway ital down tlic (thuuiiff uid 
bia wife and childroo, at night and in a ndrt oonn, ai a 

< 41 Ohio at iit^ 10 Am.A Emt R. iL c^ an. 

• !a Tj« CTnin 1 lai, l» Ab, A Eitft R H- Cm. ua 
•SApv CW lB3v ■ L.& rt^ & UL 



nxcsTB^noicia of niiuorE ^zouczxcm. 



29 



staiioQ ae<T«nl milis dudAnt irom tluit to wbicli it btd 
M^n^ lo curjr them, fti>d ili« wife oontmot«J a ftnrtns 
illcicv frota viLlkiiig in Uic itomi.' 

27. Li Coramaa p, E. C. Rv„< ibe plalnliff vhilc in- 
(^uinng lor a pttOftl nt a RtAiion apon a holiJAy, «aa 
Ibrasd by a CTOwd of iHuHriiAtTm againut b^ weighing 
Vflchinc, ibe foot of which prt^ocl^l abotil six iochcv 
■boTT ibft Invc] of tho platihrm, juid wnn injiirfvl bj 
UUng ov<;r Umt uaubiae. In Huuter v< Btew«rt,' tlsa 
pUtQltfT, an QQinarriM woman, wiui difJlgured by lUe 
BCj^U^MKC ofa oirner, and ber |iutrtibilitj" of iLiowHful 
BiafTt^ tVrcby diminiahixl. In Willininiviii v. G. T, 
Bj.,* ibi? irUintifT wft* wroHjcftfily ctpeflcti rrom n cor^ 
aikd in leaving it Ml and wa^ injureil. In Pbyf« i^. M. 
Ry./ ibu plaintiff wu lu^ wcrcly bnrt aii to bi> confmed 
to biB liOuM for ft time, 4ud be alone btdng abb to open 
tJia «±ft M hif< plfl«o of hatnntm, tionut gold wfaich was 
itored Uicron eontd not be ivJd, tLud he thereby 1o»t 
tlir ]wolii« oil iie eaK Id MvClelkud v. L. N. A. & 
C- Ry-t* ib(j railvTJir wjui li^ld r\ni lo br Habit io iJAuiugv* 
for tbu dvutb uf & dninLeu pumtigcr, vbn^ Uaving hrrn 
HgbtiuUy ospelkd from a tnin,4iabe«qucrnl]y nuud^ri^d 
apon tJic liiH nml «art run over by anothrr train, but 
wiUkOul finlt on lliv p»rt of ilie aen^nute in chjtr^n of 

* S^ aW., fai Hnvrl I*' 'It nls In [titliViuc: U'll^ v. C U- d M, I', 
Br.«tWbn:£1] I.A ?r ItU r. n«i»)iv, M L« ri'fnk] l». 1« Anu & 
mp.R.lLt'v.MT; tfw» 'TAP U. n*.M »I^ «J^ U An. A ^ 

&ft.*,T'^74 »- U:, SAm A Eoic-K R. i^ W^ «L |^ K- C A 5 
RIC « Muil*n,TKKa.110 m AitlA &>c R, It (^ QlH; nrf Y Hm** 
■.V- W A;«t r. lt7„M Wbc M\S Jtm. AITikf It- |L (4^ 444- CQ, A L 
K tt-r Eibn. M InJ. 474, it Au. A Eat. B. &, Cv. 3Mj L. £ A W, Kf. 
■.r>i.M;»i a>^n Am. a Knf^lLK-t^ 3l>tk 
*tlt A.VTH. •i:Ua.4]g. 

■ M t«d- ^ IH Ab A Em, B. B, Ck«. 9S0. 



20 iiiti»rBA^nov« or pbcxuuts vsouoqe'cl 

wnr wrvjitit haviiig dirvciod ft pAsMitgcr Co clmga Ctom 
ooe GUT to ADothnr aX a way *tiitkin> and tJie paMMn^tr, 
Laviuf- us directed gooe lo llie otb<T car, soil bariD^ 
Ikcea ]iif'>niiciJ by n rnilway acrvaat tluiL be vtoM noi 
l>6 pt*nnhtcd to reumb in Uiat cat Waoea Lu train wus 
not m4ul» up, Alighti^d ilicrrrn^oi, lUid vluk rtandinf; on 
lUti lint wTui injutvtl by anoth<?r Train, and h w»a bdd 
that tii0 9xjml^jon l>cim tbe car Kas Lot Uk*]>fOxiniaC« 
c«tt>v<if bia injury. 

evMi ^ £At I'fu wii- 

28. Ill itiv (blluwiu^ L-aMv Uie oe^i^uco proTCD wis 
hflM 10 b*T a ?nlTiHriiilr proximato covw <if iJ»^ injury 
10 rtnJtr llie rMilwuy rt»pf>nsibl^? tberfl!ar: in P„^\A 
B, K. K. (J. Brannpn,' tbe negligent blowiDg of an 
fingin« whUtlo by an engine driver, thereby Itightcoing 
a liorat* on a higbvfay, who, in running a«ay, run oin^r 
and izgiirrd ihr plnintilT nbiLc walking on Utc high* 
way ;' the nogliK*?"ce of a railway in uoi mabtainbg 
Its rofldbod and r^la in a condition for ibe wiV mov»- 
mmt of tminSp wbcrcby an vn;;me wa« dvraikd, and 
tbft ^^n4i driv^^r in r^wTning ibo \t^vi*T broke bifl 
arm;' thv act of the milway'ii icvvaut in muUikHdy 
puilJug a feu^alo fa8«cikgpr off Uii3 train at a elatlan 
thrr^ milc« Mhort of the itation towhirb tbc rnttwny 
liad L-ontraclvd ty carry lier, wL«nrhy «be. being f rtg- 

• IT Wttaif NoiH if Uw [IVflU.} ^. «ta ilB t««WT *< Hi B^- 



nxmKATiosa OF rftoxiiurc sjahaq^xce. 37 

-Dfttit uul Iwing uiial>lo to obuln m^vina of coikvu;&uc>e» 
VAlktfd to Ii«T dcitintitioiK imd tlicnrb;^ btxiUf;ht on a 

'iigcr, htvio^ bcdi ^ocUd from u irain ui mich nmti* 

*r tlisi Im «HA run over Lv tbul Irain. jiud huIw^ 

iqiHnUy by ttni>t^«r train of lltc railway dd^odunt, and 

|doath oimiicd, it voa hvid Umt tliure iru ft <Aue« of 

iXCkm v«t0d ia hta penooal noprownlativc* uadcr tbo 

lOtvvKn itAtute, wbvtlier ihc finit or iiL-tuud Iroiu 

tcUwIly caused liia d«atL." So* in Eamce v. T. i& N. 

O- B. R.,' it WW held IHaI llio failure of u milwuy to 

cul dotiuLfijiiH riglitof vruj LubLwttbichdFjrJtdco^CT 

to itmyiD^ cjilllo irw ihn proiimatA ntuim nf injury to 

cittlf «lio, iruddt^nly vnicrgiu^ &um bucli cm^r aod 

going upon th« VuK, wcro niii ot<t by u tmia bcforo 

the (HTTTTOta in dtirgeof it <v)u1d bring it ti> u atop, 

60, In Hayca t*> 7k[, C, H. K</ wlivre tlie ruilw^y vat, 

by fraran of It* fulurc in [icTff>rjii h statutory dat^ of 

hftftdng iu Ud6 an tli« Uinit-r^ of a public park, lield 

le for ibe injuria of s boy who had »itnijcd ii^ian 

Uw line uid bcvQ niu over by a tmio, Matlbv^a, J,, 

tald: "ll lit furlber argued tbat the dLreetiOD of the 

court M(m won ngbt, bcc^uuv^r thtr woiit of u fvnce 

ocmid not re«*Ouably hv ftllo^-t'd m tlie cuu** of tbtt 

Ukjur^' Tq lb(> ivinR«of ftn f'fHpicnt oitiPC'^ r^irv^rt rfiu^an^^ 

thia 11 no doLibt Arictlj trwi ; but titzit iti not Tin.- Aiine 

in wLLcb tlic Uw u^^ts lb« term Id this connection, TLe 

qMdon ia, WAN it «itti«i mc f«d n^n — a cuuNe whicb, 

if ic had bot frxifltcd, the injury would not bave takeu 

p b ic» ■ an ooenpoial otwc ; aod tiiatbuqw^tiooof foot. 



• Itt C, & ne, i» JLd. A B«, B. R. Ch. ]I»L 



Z5 BcwsBnamr pcruivcit 

nnljiw the ttsul oHUkHDOfl ■ enlcBili ml 



nc nOnf ■£■» 



29- Wheiv the qoedtMi t^ pAnxiinaliC ud icnule 
CK^e mm^ on the oxuKctiaa bctweoi ecnw Bab»- 
qoentlr derelopci] poscMuI injarr to the pbindff and 
the origio«l iDJarr, the rale deduciblc &tMn the cnm 
nema to be ihu the mjwar k nepofieible for eroy sodi 
fiubeequenclj developed injiuy thu caimoc be proren 
to hare resulied from a sufficient indepoident caise; 
thoe rail vara have been heid liable for cancer fbliowiD^ 
at ui iuierra] of three week^ after a blow OD the bieaat 
of a female p«8BeDger f for death bj malarial ferer f<^ 
lowing apou a fall into a creek at nij^l;' for the 
death of a child by paeumonia following upon the 
shock of a blow &om an engine;' for hernia following 
DiDC months after a scalding br an escape of Eteam 
from an eogine;^ for the death of a pei^on tmder a 
Enrgical operadoo which was made necesBary bj the 
original injory, and which, althongh performed bj 
a competent snrgeon, was nnsQCce^sful ;* for a pre- 
mature confinement and birth of a dead child re- 



■ Sh kJw \ntlunB T. G. W, B*^ I- K. 9 Ex. l?7; llmba >. W. A Bl P- 
Bt, 31 MioD. VjI, 13 Am. A En^. B^E^C^^ST^i f^miLk r. £l P, 3C A IL 
B*^30 Mica. 169,9 Am.& Eu. R. R. Cu. 3C:? : Htm r.E.F. A ^,P. B. R, 
ft5 <>1. :Sia, 3) Xta.A Eng |LR.Cu.<f6: Sclmiidi r, M. d Sl P. Bj.. 
Wij, \^: a FiizgwuU r. St P, SL A M. Rt^ *9 Uinn. 33A, S Ab A 
&K. E,B.ds,330; Knight r- N, Y_ i_E, AW. R.B,OTS.T.35l 

■ B. C. P. Bt. r. Eerap, til Ud. 71, H^ Aiil A Ei^. B B. Cm. KO. 

* T. H. A J. Bt. f. Bdc^ 96 Ind. 34ti, 18 Am. A EDg, R B. C^ 2M. 

* Jarka r. C. A >'. W. B. B^ «S Wk ISC^ ! Abl A Em^ B^ E^ C^ 

' DdiB r C A y. W, R. R^ &] ^Hi, 4ML 

* ^Bim *, K, Y, C A H. B B. B. U X. I. U. 



DTJVBIEE C^ra£D BT ACT OP GODu 29 

wiltui; froot &i|^t AUtfod to a pr«gikaiit fi-mulf psaaon- 
gpr by a oolUnoa.* So. in AHmou r. C ci: N. \\\ %. * 
it WW bold tliAt A puMcngErnbo had o^ti mjunxl bj 
Uie fttiittof ibe lailvay, and UMitaAor* whik bci&g 
csrrjod bj the rulv«y m ft j Mi s nyf, woji a|;iuD injured 
bj hd &iilt, coutd r«coT««- for th« £«ooiid ii^tttrir ami Air 
its albcte, filthoiigh those vAota wefv aggtavuicd bjr iJw 
prior iojnry/ On tlieochcr HaimI, Uw nulwtij htf bam 
bftUl not to be UaUc for tbe dntb of & paaBMigvr bj 
nicide mgbt nuMUhs Aftvr a coltiBon in whkli be r> 
ctaired Uowv 00 Uie bead ftnd apdoe;* oor Sot tbe ]MMn- 
billljr of ft B«cood ftiid fature fhwiord of « l«f; bj rMson 
thft oUi(]iip« ehmnieuT of ft fnetiire wbkh had bMQ 
bj tb« nilwftjr'B iKgli^aee.* 



Ti- mK r^Anturr rok ticJtnerEa cai:s£d by av act 

OF ODD. 
mkJ iSlhfftf n^h'^n«a «n ib pari. 

80. A rfti1vr«7 U not liable for iojurkft cftoseij bj u 
''•ctofOod,''wlucb.ft»d«nQedbjJimfle,l..J.,lDNQgent 
«. Soiiih,* ii Ui^ ro«uli of lb«t optrmiifm of "natanl 
cmmta, dlrvvtlj aad t!j[c1uitivdy, witboul bumui intcr- 
TMtMn " vtd which "conid not bare b««tt pirev«nl«d, 
bj ftnj ftntouot of fi>roight and pahia and cart- rnwoa- 
aUy to be czpeeced" of ibu rallimj. Tbiu in Withers 
a; M. K. Rf.,* an ccoihankniftni vhirb bail bt«Q fltand- 
log fer five j«arv. in a coanlry imbicct to floods, waa 



> UH*i«.aa&LR.0Wnd.«iL 

* 1 0. p. D, ««L < S IL a X, ML 



•^Slllh' 



30 



INJURIES CACftBD BY JlCT op OODh 



uiitli^nniDeil hy an extniordiniiTj Uoocl. Tli« tr&iii on 
vhich the plauilifF was a pus«DgMr,anclwhich iru ma- 
uiu^ at cxptM xpcfHir nui off die Line aI tiigbl hj rviioo 
<if ihc ^ukin^ of t1i« enibhnkmcnit^ud tbo frlaindETirM 
iajnriML Aftcrav^niict for thi* pWndff, n mlc forn 
urw IrJdl was mmlc itWtuU^ Po1I<ick, C B-, mybg: 
" The company wore not bound to have ooDrtn]t:EoH th«ir 
embciDkrafTut mi >ii Ui mott rifrh uxtraordiiiAij UmmIm." 
lu r. Je 11. E. K. r. AuJcnucj/ lU« nccidcut w» Uk^ 
wirtc CAumd bj th<i full of Hit ttaboBknoot, but ihvn 
WHB cuatradiolory ttutimony witli regHTtt to th« onpn] 
oODrtractioD of i\w cmbjinkmeiiti OD^EMKtfui^ cipcrti 
diflerinf; net to whether it liod be«n h> draioiHl v ta 
drry oET the ivster. Tliere waft aJao proof Uiat Um 
train wtt0 drawn by an cD^Iue rcvencil, and tbnl k> 
numiog dso eugine at night iind in a Aornt vaa MgU^ 
goTM^c*. Jiidgmt^nt npon a verdict for tho pljiirttUr waa 
ufltnutd tn error upon tho ground that upoa Um evi- 
dence thus stated iJio que^ilijD wub prop irly left (o tbe 
jory. In RAO, U, R. i-. S. a Indopwidcol Scbool 
DuitriL-t,' tko didU-jiit Kucd tu rec'OTvr damag«v fbr tbe 
dtttruciiou of lb scLool-bouH'. wLIdi waa cani«d nwaj 
by n flood which a onlvirrt nndtrr dj«: rtiilwfty Mnbonk- 
a«ut waa nut sufficiently tarf^ 10 paoL Jiid|^ait upon 
a Tcrdid for tbc plaioliiT waa rcvnwd in en«r, because 
the court bdow bad iaatnictcd tbo jury in cflbci thai 
negligence upon tht* part of tJie defrttidant oou^urn&g 
wilb tho net. of Go^U nltboLigh tbat oegtigicDce did doc 
produei^ tlio it^ury, and iiA uhtvnct would not liavc prc> 
vented ii, wae ftiiffici^nc to render llie defendaai liable) 
QrecD> J., flnyin^. " If tbc act of God la lbi» parlicular 
caae waa of euoli an oretwhelming and dMtnx4]Te cbar- 
8d**r ap by it* own fntvp, nnd indfrpPridpnTly of the pai^ 
ticular nu£iigi^uivullE-j{(.-durvbfiwn, pnHjimd tiMuijuiy, 



UrJUftlUi CADNKD KT AtTT aW ittiV. 



31 



there WDttId bo no IJAUIitf^ AtUiomgli there wiuv wiinu 
iivgligCDVtr m Uitf luiiitikuttiioe of tbv iiarlicuJuT (tfuct< 
unt. To cn«U li&bitit^ it tnu&t have r^quintd th« DOirt- 
biacd eHect of tlie nut of <^d nnc! tlic i>oDi:iiTring tivg- 
UgeDoe li> pwwluce the injun," lo P., F. W. & tX Ky, 
r, Driglunt,* ihc pUintifT eu^d to recover for injunea 
noftfrd bj (b« &I1 of the roof of a Btotion-hoiut^, ifliiuh 
wsi blown down by a «t»)r(&, the roof having stood for 
ctgbkea jt^n, and tlic tc^timcny Ix-.ing conHictijijt oa 10 
vbethtr ibe roof had b««Q pro|ier]y ccmttucied, and as co 
the iinual or nnu^uaJ clL&ractflr of the storm. Jiid^cnt 
ipoD a vvrdict fur the pUinlifT wiu* rcv«r»od ia error, be- 
'owiM Ui« judge at the trial iiu^trurt^J 1h€ Jurj "tbAl the 
dcAndairiavtiTttboiuid to provide! n^uinRtiilliitonTV which 
could r«a»ooabIx bate beeo eji|>vcU'(I. uu<] by pluiu im- 
plicatioai UiAt tho dof^-ikdHnis ivcre bound to provido 
Rfainst all vlonn* tlmt wur? aot napn>uidL'ri(ed, or vrti^ 
of ■ kind dial bud ever huppt-ncd wiUuD tbu nu^'C uf 
Imnan vxpm^nc^ whorraa tJi« linbibt? ought to bavo 
beKi nude to turn upon the qufiriioFi of wbctlier or uoi 
Uw defnidaoU b^td us«<I " that degree of cure wbic^b a 
nan of ordmary prudcnc*? w acciifriomvd to *^mpby la 
CDwtTurdug or mamtuDinj; a building '* for isudi a pur- 
pose. The ^n«r8l pnnciple, t}\ua stated, i« supported 
bj iDftD5 anttioTj^s.* 

31. Car«Ai1ly oonHructed and operated railways are, 

AN 0.«lh«tt»! r,«R B. R» Andtfva.VI Vmm.tt.»\i IL 4 «X 
ftK.*atldel DCwiflBftU. n^l AaLA&it.Il.aat.lflftjFo-Ur f. 

4U, li««4*r -^ rh^UMpli^ A4 bi 100] W^kn kXXILU^ I V-'wrnkly 
>3t4w [/ I waflVium.; 11*) ; EInjn * KiNincd7» 41 |d.aTa; SlwuvB fl. Dt^ 

U 171; G«^t.MfE«ni]^KGU, in; ^tj^tW >.i4cukMr r 1>4S) . 
A<», S, it H.t, HiJI-m^UTni<vJAm 4 Cue R. K 4^9Uj U-A 
ftE-i. B«ta> ]OW*n. n«; OMSr. B M, K B, » >riii& 11(11 Ak 4 



S2 



mnruftftiK^i act op oon. 



therefore, not to hn Md liable for ii^udoa resulting 
from ihe cairrirlii^ avtay d' tboir emb&DkmotitK or bridgm 
bjdiidilrnaihlcxtrftoiijiii&rjr floods;^ nor fruin ibv pr(j»- 
tratdon of thnr atntioD buildings in jin oxinioriliiiarjr 
g»1e;^ itor whfru ilie tr&tn la blown front the treck bj a 
cfdnnc;* nnr vijcci » trata is derancd. hy thu bmkuig 
of a nxl by tnidd^Ti fnJbL.' Under lltm* autitoritics, tbe 
duljr of ihv rniliTiiy, ii« to it« l[n» sdcI buUdiugv, hi ade- 
quAtctjr porfi^rmvd if tbcy be eo constructed n to resist 
tli4 ordinary und prob^bU notion of the el«n«Db) ; but 
in K. P. Iljr, V, TkUllcr.^ u bigher nicuure of rvjt]ionn> 
bilit; VHH wroDglj impuA^, fur it waa iberu bdd Ib&t 
ih« r^ira; is liable if k ful to provido agftinftt ftnjr 
extniotdiiuiry iloudi wbicb way in the exvreiH of ^a 
lugbivt dvgrveof carv ha imudpat^. 



dBi* Id hajiruj't^ e/ntrtteUr-itrU hm ati "tiel u/ Hod." 

S2. To oonatilula an extraordinary natural event, in 
Fi Irgiil ^n8i>, im "iict of Ood/' it ia not necessary tbot 
audi im event Iihh never happened before, nor do** such 
an e\'ent» by bajfpemng a second lime, cnwff to be an 
" act of <iod ;" ihus in P., F, W. & C Ry. v. GUIdaud.' 
ihejudx^-, ui the triikl. \a Lis dSreotioD to tl>c jury, haviDg 
eaid: "Now, under thcw drcumntnTicca, it will be for 
yon to ilotemiine ^vli^btr thu d'.<rt<ndaulb ouglit or ought 
not ;iftf r ibf finil uud second OooiIh lo Blt^'r thHr culvert 

■ Wlilienr.^. K i:^ ,3IL A N>«09| (>, W. By, » Ib-hl, J »r>D» 7, C 
K. S^ 101 : L A O, 74. TL R > OnILoivn, All To- tA.^Aia A^sg, aK Cw 
MliOvM* 8,U.Kr,2}iMinD,lia2Auj.&eiv.K. B,CW:£^1TjlLAT-C; 
B^^FuwIb, MTflit,4nS A«A Kns.R.R''^'»fllW;0,AB, V, Rf-» 
nrnVTiH 14 ?<<<b.]70.ll Am, A Gnji. B, R Ou^Ml j Bljr r. fil. L,E. & d M. 
Kf„ T7 Ud, 34, lA Jub. .& Eof H. It, Cva. Jl4f. 

■ r. r W. 4 Cr K/. • Bfi^limn, 2» tl[,.a Pli, BTl 

■ Mp<'lm*7 1. 1. C Kx~ i K*l>. *l. 
"Kfr-ad^lniT K Y.C.R. ll.«Nlf ^'1. 

I 



jict OP Qoa 



88 



tbese iloiMfor wn tt ta wa« E( not n«g1ig?nt in tVi^m not 
to do lo liUcr ihc repeated infltoncu uad povtivc ootica, 
ooupled wilb UiQ r«qu«t ratified 10." judgm^nl n^ r^ 
Ttceecl; A^^w, J., in his opinion, uid «« to thw in- 
Btructioa: " In cUcct ibut vrm to leuvv U to the jurj to 
find » liabilUy Tor cxtruonlinflry floodfi, brcaiMft a p»com1 
imd tk third luppDCtxl liki! tbc £n<t, un<l cumc in rupid 
Mooewiob. Ifull vrerv t-xlnurdiaary.aa iLeioArucLioo 
COBCtdm, thpc linrfiHK' At tIi^ Mbcond And third (*r^n}d not 
be 1«v llmzi At tL« ijnti, and it wim hLiU uiurti durpriaiug 
tbst tbcj should come in lIils mpid eucci«^ion> Ikin^ 
cxtnu^rdituTf, neither nrcond ii»r third ocpuM haivt been 
expcttud inon? than the fintt. The rule as 1o «xlracrdi- 
Dtrj tUoiUnAH lh<TifforR not chMigcd. Utit thi> rri^qncnt 
roMrrtnMoTwhAt mtH ^;>^oirfiE2 to be citr^jordtnary nua 
com* ATidence thAt liie real chArAcU^r of all tbc«e floods 
ba<3 brtti mifllAkca bj lIlom who tntificd lu to tlidr ex-* 
trttcirdiDarr chunict^-r, axiU tla-y wore leiiUj oulj ordi* 
rtnrj ftwhfiU, Ihough tnpAJiunng up lt> the htgliwi nlil- 
Unk: of tlml dHiB. It wna proper, theti?forc, tu (ubroit 
tbb qomJOfi to the jury with in^truotioiij if thtj- eo 
fOQDd the fnct, to Apjdj the rule n* to onlinnry rrfflii*t«. 
But TrurD th< mAiiiier cf Hubiulttlug the iiutmctjonut 
doabtloM ib* jnrr might nndcmnnd thnt ihe? ««rv 
pftrmittiyl to aIIuw dama^ Tor ihvitc citrboidinArj 
lloodfl hccAiiw of lh<Jr rfCun«iiG9 one ador Another m 
m ehurt A time^ In thin there iru error." Fry, J,, 
«xprenad tJie wnA vi^iv in hi«juJgaient in K, P. ^0. 
C M. Ox n L. A St. K. I>gck» Co,/ »yi»9 : " 1 tl^ not 
ihiiik tiul 111* ni«r« f:tct th«t A ph«tnometir>D Las ha[>- 
peoad oiHv.wheii U do«* not enrrvwith it nr import mnj 
|iiobahI]iiy of n rocurrraor, wliea. in ocber vordn. it 
doM not inijilfAny hiw from whidi it« rfcuironca <iiii 



34 ^EGLiaEflCE C»RCCBETNO WITH ACT OF QOD. 

be inferred — places tbat pheoomenoD ont of tbe opera 
tion of the rule of law with regard to tbe act of God 
In order that the phenomenon should fall within thai 
rule, it ia not, in my opinion, necessary tbat it should 
be unique; that it should happen for tbe first time. It 
is enough that it is extraordinary, and Bucb as eoidd not 
reasonably be anticipated/' 

Where rugligeTKe on (he part of tJn railway ha wneurred ui£A a% 
" act of Qod " in oaveing the if jury, the raiivupf muat be h^ iiahlt 
thereof, 

33. But, of eouree, where negligence on the part of a 
railway haa concurred with the act of Qod in causing 
tbe injury, the railway will be held liable, BS, for in- 
stance, where there has been negligence in the original 
construction of tbe line;' or, where tbe railway aer- 
vanifi, being aware that a railway bridge had been car^ 
rled away by a flood, do not take the proper steps 1o stop 
an approaching train;' or, where a storm of unuaual 
severity having carried awsy a properly conatnjcled 
embankment, the railway ran a train without causing 
the roadbed and track to be carefully examined in 
sdvance of the coming of the train,* 

^ p. A K, E. K p. Andcrwn. W Peons, St B56 ; IHtIi v. C. V. E. TL, 6S 
Vl. B4, n Am. & Eiig. R, R Cm. 173, 

■ Lsmblcin r. &. R Rv,, 6 App. Cte 3fi2. 

' EUet p-Sl, L, K. dA N. Ey., 76 Mo.MSja Am. 4 Enj^ K. R. O* 
1S3. Sm, also, as to tlie efl«i <if negliE™" on ih* part of tb* railway eon- 
carrlog willi an "act of God" in cfluainH ihe injury; Diion r, M- Boud of 
Workii,7Q. B. D- ii&-. T™l(tt.H, dSt J,R. R.. 82 Mo j"h27 ; B, fi O. R. IL 
V. School Diilrjd, 96 P»na. St, 66, 2 Am. & £n^ R. R. (^ 1^; ikrMonr. 
W, St. L. A P. Ry^ 17 Fed- R*p, 209. 



TIL TOB UADIUTT POR IXJURIV CJlOSlS) AY AV XCt 

OF TJi£ ruftuc Esreanr, 

84. TUilwan nrc not lutf^k' ior injunt!* oumcJ, wilb- 
iiegti^U4?i) on their pnrt^ Ijy a[i act ijf ili@ public 
•onomr, v, wht^.r^ n milimy hridgr hnvirtg \>Ken buntud 
,by im umed fbroe in rvMli'^i uf^iiii<t tbo j^uvi-rriaicnl 

i1m put of iht nilwAT, pTi>d|i]lEiL«d into Uw chnsizL.* 

Tin. Tlir MiniLITY rv>tl IXjrnTIOi fUVKKD BY ISKVTT- 

35. lUilvfi^js iLTi? not to b« bold llnbliv for injiirirjf 
' Tiuhiog from in^rWtablu itocidi*nt, Itiat itr, mxriderit cot 
diw in uiy vitr to n(^)igeDc« on ibe perl of tbo nul- 
wsjr And nath ta no hucDiLQ forrvij^Ut cm.i[|M uvcrt. 'J'ho 
<li»liu4-lioa U<twr<en ftn act of 0ml ^iid aii izievJIabl^ 
ucidciit i\ llmt -ID tbc one cnn: there i», and in dio 
other <a«pe tbcr« Is not, tbe prvM-aco niad op^^nitiou of 
m w^or/* tbiu, tho railwny wn» be!<l net f^ be liable 
Jbr the dc«th of a hoj wlio dimbcd ua u niovin); coal tur, 
•ail* bavini; droppod hi^ bni, fell, in the eUurl to re- 
cDVor tt^ Odd vu kilkd ;' Dor wlu^m t r.hild hR%-in^ hid 
himMlf 10 n. d'lidU on Uio Uav wim diuuurert^d by tlw 

* Aah *, )Ul«.«, 3 &l<. «Si| ILkvinuli IS Whiffy It C R X. <l rJM4)3 
£.C 1. : Bwh t- PuniflUr. W fmi4 Al IV? - A-T-A A P. IL K^ ■ riiEin, :!« 
K«frDl7. I As A Rsf & R1W.34DJ lULilian f. BL J. H &.TI Mi.. 
1)1^1 A».d Kv'K- R.^'v. UTi MmrttA r ^ t. It ft. 71 U^ fT«/J 
JLa *^.B.B.CW»; tt MAT P.K'.t Ktllcr. TOt FVuh-SL 111. 

* VittfMdp ft. [V U A W. IL L, lUl Vni-t. M. Uii, lA Vh^}/ !Ci*h 



se 



SZUM'AV^r:^ IKJITKIEIL 



engine driver coo bL« to sup lli« truo;^ nor wImto 
boys liAving, without the kitowlcc^ of the Inin tncii, 
dEjabed ui>od a moving Tn^igbt car, wnt Uirowb off b; 
ft joU in rci(in<lin£ n carT«*^' Upf^n th<r mtn* pnndpU 
ike nllvttj IB Wd not to be lUblf? ti> iu ptMevgi^n for 
ji^imefl rmultm; from a bi-Jd^ik direct in its raiLchb«rf 
or pppliaiMMvi, wbich^ by the cxf^rda^ of ctre upon itt 
part, wDolU uoK httt b«^ di»cov«r«d. 



THK jiCT or itu: i:)LjL-iuni fsumt. 

ti|fyfWf*r j gn, 

36. Kftilwnjrs are not liAbk for u^uriCK >o3dy cnoscd 
by th« act of th» iiijurett party, wUliout iH^J^eccifr ua 
tbo pan of xb9 ralliray; thufi, in OuTrell r. WoUb' 
tbe pUintilT, a Ncrrmut, having Jcdnred upon a bradti 
by h\B nukJ^t^r, the defraidaiit., of a itatntory docy to 
fetuv pertain 4axigttrtitvi mjicbttiery, tbn dr fmdnnt 
pleaded tpeoiully Ibhl the pkiutUT wiltblly and know- 
ingly, and oonirary to ihn <^prrat comniHAda of Uw 
defendaal, ««t the inadiiciery in jDcRion, and, on di 
mnrror, JodgiiKiot was raicrcd for tbo dof^fidtDt.* 80.' 
where a nilway, m obedience to t ctatule. bad erected 
gates Hi a erc<ttiDg but did BOt bare arry person In at- 
ten<)anco to opeit and clow thctn, and tlir plaintiff at 
iiighi had Dpe[i«d the galea litniK^If, and while lie wi» 
driving throngh^ tho ^Ice in irwingiag «tmck vmd 
firigbtened the plaiatlfT* bone, wbert^y tbo pUiotiff 
wn thrown oui and injureiJ, it waa bdid ihat th* raihray 



< Bu><kHC«R.a(Kft.lMllU.M. 

•AELaBLM»,aiaftL. 



.tii««irhibv4 



ACTt ASD OliUHUO»L or »K>1VANT1S I.TC- 87 

VM noi liublc.^ Nor ought Uio niociv£i,)iovcv^pnifi»- 

irorlhj. vvbicb tuduoui the pvmou iiijurLtt to 60 the tit 

which U domonfitjnblT tho w-lo wiuse of hJB iigurv, 

nior ibo milway liublt for that injiiry; tliiin, in I* 

[A C K. K. p. IliHii/ JL WU0 hvtd tliuL tt Hctii, whu in 

[order to mta hw ikihf rV ]i(*s Fi^pprd npon tho Wtw m 

)t of ft nMnn^ trAm and wu4 injuruil, could not 

jv«r froto iLe railway, A conUAry cuacluHiuu wji* 

•bed in Erkcrt u, L. I. Hy./ whore tlic pkinlJlV* 

rd^tfidoat, BlandtDg n^ur u rj^ilwuj lice und Brc^ni; n 

C^itd IjRlircvn tbo rvh before a mj>i'lly flppJOftohiDg 

^tnun, niklicd upon thn lino und tbrtn' lb? child rrl!' nt 

cost of hw ova life, und judj^uietit ttpou u vt^rxlict 

^ the plaintilT vtjji nilirmci] in ifTTCrr by a divided 

court, Allen and Fol^r^ JJ., dJttenliafc. It a obrious 

,l]iAt, in tttcb of thiiMft citf^r^ ihtt <]n<«tion at issue was (»« 

Id Eif^li|^ce cm tbc purt of ibe rDiIwiiy» and not on to 

coulritiulory uegljgciiov on tb<] jmrtoT tke pvnon ia* 

jand, and that in noitber c?w> <iid llie railway ono any 

1^ to tbff pcmon injunxl, and, for that rcoMn), it cniild 

be eegUgent sa to blm. Tbe Indiana coeo ^a^. tbtrv- 

rigbdyt and tho New York cjw<i wrongly, deeid«d. 

IHB UATttLmr POB OMiwioxa ast> acta of cou- 
jiiMiiov nr jkOKJcm xiso xftnvATmL 

«Nr Atf |Ki;^)rm«vi(« Ci omittAt and far nefftSgnt tut* vfet/minMirH, 

87- Upon tbo priiidjjlo utatixl by Blackburn, J.,* 
[iirliore tbc ti^nry u doa« by thv omiwfion of a parliculELr 
of ram, wbifh tl)« dn(j of Tb« rAiltrny to the pi?rfion 
Injured ra^md it to do for bia proU-clion, tbi? ^t i>f 

■ ytjm •. a w. Bf ^ * u. A a, tm, ii« b. o i. 

«Tbill«wD«4iTnMa..0iM^L & I a L lU. 



»8 



ACTS OF OniEK* THXV SZRViTTI. 



tbn omisaoii fixttt tlje linbiliij of llie nilnny, uid tbo 
re1;ttiOD between Ote nilway tad the pfmMi wlio liat 
Dmiiicd 10 ptTionn t\w parCtntUr dntj w imtaaxtfxU\ 
but irbcre the injury t» the ranilt of mUcoMuicc, tbe 
linbililv of tW rjulnny is fMiH««irU5 drjveiulfot not 
only iiptin thir diiimrier of the ftct doinr, hot sW ttpon 
tbe reEttLiofi of eipnusor tniplieU aj^imcy l>t<«wo tho 
TxWwAy nnd lb« 'wrongdovr, for, u Bolfo, ])-, Wid.' 
" thv li&bility uf mir oim oiW Uud Um ptti^ tpottully 
guiltj of tt wruuf^ful hct pruweda on Ibo bulia ^ 



XL TltU LUULUTY WVL TUK rCI^IUUKIiT A€TM 
Tno§E WHO AJIE aOT AOQHB OE &£BVJJI78, 



or 



d8. Kailirayi »ro oot to he bcld JiubJo for icgorW 
o&iued Aolely by tba a^U of pcntoiw who iSo pot bold to 
tbo Tul^vay aijy reluliou of »x|>ri8s or implied n^enc^t 
hji, for iDAtaocCr vrhrrc tbo injury muiis fiom the aci 
of » Btraoger in pl&clug obtrtnit.'tJou on (be ]iti« ;* Ofi in 
hirning n «witdi ao ^ to (UnLiI a tntin ;' or^ in fiuUil^ 
im tliv tnick 11 fog ai^niil, vrJtiuli, ]xwfi «rjcplodcd bj the 
train, i 1^11 red a pageeDj^er/ Nor le tbe raitvoy liable 
wljcrc injury to n powcngcr mulla from tlie fkltij)^ 
u]>i>u a rjiilway cairiago of a bridge girder, vbicb «o 
}u-!ng plooTfi in portion by a contncTor on^agcd by 
imotliLT i-orjH>rution, tbti nulway baring no nuvon to 
KUtlclpaLo negligt^uce on tbe part of ilio contiacLor;* 

-irnrtur T^Atf^u.l^lAN, Y.oiH:fUrtitfe.r. r.B.a,ur*d.iiip, 

K-^i-r V r. Hj, 4; lltnr, t^. v/m. 
* Joan h G. T. Rj^ 4i T^v Cmi, (Q. Bl IflS. 



nor for u^nrifv naultiag from nvgtigcnuc iipoa ihr i>art 
of uiocbur railwHy in tbe tixerciat vS tflatuiurjr runxiUi^ 
powers ovci tUe dtfBudani'B liwf nor, for iiijurio 
C&iumm) to A jmMebfftT bj A mob of dwanlrrljr iiitrudorii 
Yiho forood tbuir nny iutu ilio Iruiii uud wsKiuItvii tlii; 
frtnrfmgT:' nor, mgoDeral^for tlk« aoIs or oniiMonft of 
indop<aiiJoat conirafton oiiiploycil by thii rjiilwAy. 

' SO. WLcn the plunliff*! uijurr citn Ur tntcvd Eo 
iMftligence ood Ui« pan of thu mUwuj m iu priuiiit-j' 
And pfoxUnaia cniuu;, the fiouoiirmnoc of tli© neglig(*ncp 
of a jwnnn ancoonuctvd wiUi cither tho rmlwjiy or tha 
pi^mKi iiijur^J will [ioi reli^T^ the i-ullwuj frum rv?<j>ori- 
flibfliijr for rlift ooT^»qniinMM of it* upgligfrncp. This 
gancnX doCTxir* i« >iA«Tt^<l in mnny omp*.* Ont* of tin* 
blwl iUutfljotiouii of Uiu 0[H:trm(; u 10 Lv found iu the 
ttM ofStoitb V. N, V, i^. & \V. R, R,,' v/bcrc a r^il*vay 
mu hM lirtblc fur injuria ojmiii?ii hj coLliiioD rcfitiHing 
from ib« mureinerit uf u^lAin earn wbit^li had bwn nc^g- 
ligtBtlj' kft OD ft eidiag in eiicb a situation iLal a 

«Tlvl«t.O. K.Kr.L U t CP. A»; UVIfM l If , Bj, L. IL a Ex. 
' P* r W. A C Bj, • iDriis M V«.«. *v ait 

nt«v*. B<II.5M, AK ]««. I]IM«««Gootlv1a.J^C.AP. 1|I0,S« £C, L.. 

£ CI* ; H^ftv ■.!!««■. Atihott >, Hufl** S E, 4 C r44j binl l. IIi>l- 

w«k. « iii«. «A i£ K t; L, : iriii *.:t i; cv>„ ir u. a a. sor; cvaiini ». 

Bwly T. t- * \. Rj.l (^ b. D. 43; CJMrk>.niHuiUri.aq.ai< S^T^db- 

iniV ILR *,|Uf'.''^'^Rr3jO.CC4>C4.«.Bo«iiwa.be Id. J : ll«^ 
a KiMi^rl^ T W<»tr7 N«««tf (^w iI^oilI 4Wi lUjdinv t. Knight. U. 
ra^raiina*. iVCAi^tL K/, » Vr. V^tv^ uAicuA Gd^.&L (^ L 
< tf K. J. L. T. II Ab. A !:■«, ]L H. U*. SbU. 



SOX'PESrOBU&XCS OF OTATXTTOKy DUTT. 

vTongdocr ocmM readily throw ih^ni on to the notn 
ll&e.^ XieltoboD vl £. R. R.,' vhloh apptreatl^ con- 
trndict* tho IjaUcLbod oi^ n, f«7bap<, UvUnguuili- 
abl«f in timl Ulv person, wlionc uijuritit vm« tbfi MiLgect 
of llio ftcIioQ in iliat at£e, vaa & mero lirrmifft 



SIATUTIS OB UUMCIFAL OBDIZrjL:iCZ& 

r«u£!inj7 ^frffftm. if tfn- ftatvU nrvb in EA^ ^mvoi v^vrt'i • r^it 
^ tutim fur ttteh nvn-jfrfurmnnf* itf Jtthf : bul vAffv ilf ufunM 
(ib iMt dinetijf rtttU/nim #tuA TWn^wi;/i>rwmA «/ duly, or bAct* 
lb tlatui* <t«tt iwt, in Cmij«> vod £u lA« pawn it^vtvt • r^Al ^ 
«eitm, tJU mi7tAiy w nof l« i» AWd JfioUv m>^ bf riMMn i^ Midi 

40, Tho 8iiit. Wmm. 2, 13 Edw. 1. c. 60, giw an 
Mtian ort the uiac to any on« ^pgrifrvMl by tbo Di^itoet 
of a atamtory duty,' tut it doea not iiecawriljr MJom 
thai tliat nhich )iivL'« Uic rigbt to «gc i« codcIubIvo vtE- 
dcftcc of th(T {net upon whidi the right to recover mart 
b« bubed. Id Coucli «^ St4N]l/ a sliip owner b&vlDg 
negloclcd & tUtutoiy July of kefipiDg on bovd bis ahip 
a proper BUpply of niediciiiM^ it was held tbat a aukr 

1 t^ .1.1, L. ^ 7f. a B. & McKnai^ L> Ia (TtfnoJ UeC^ U Aat A E^ 

•SK AD.4(I3,77 tC<^l.. 

KoTV-— All tiiilri0tiri ifhich ijumn iLrvtil (JiouIiL W cuar^M) DOl otilflif 

ap«4i if ijiw nil, w] H Io fhv^ fmrn L^u miiin Umi * mx 1/ inipntyaclf 
DjVTvI DD ilid ■idiiijt Id lL* oh vt m iuuM* tfuki-d Miw miK tUJi^ «lidtld 

|iri>^wilmLl]ai*]itB J|Evciti-E] iuvliichif&iubpmcHJ uii tlir(taujiUiict«*f% *^ 
Hjrhu V nijrhT, w tmiijttil m ia nhw ■aiouHilAll/ vbn it< urUik to 



m^ir-rEBTOtUtAXCB OF STArUTOKT DVXT* 



41 



b«Jth bad hron i^jtwed for wftnt of micli m^W 
dikci could DUiiQtiiui his octicni. In Blnmir^ v. I« dt 
Y. Bjr<,^ k fru hetd Um nouKcuipliuriw with » Fl^utoiy 
>9(|iiinmofit of niftinCaiQui^ umiis of oommunication 
iMtwcfti pMaKogen ftod j^rd*, ia, where tiyur^r bas 
iwvlud U) a p»M»Dg*r from tho want of «ugI) tn^iu of 
03tnnuifii«Htkin. itvicleDoe of negligence 60 in Bnttoa 
tkO. W. Cotioa Col," wiiere iLe plamtUT, «u «tQ^Ioy^ 
Ittd bom ii^nrftd from the dctVini)nnt> rirglort of tho 
eulutoTjr dutj uf fmcing a dy wheel hvH, ii wtu Wld 
tbdit Um ^fiUfr WM oulilUO 10 Koovor. 80 alnom 
dtaploj IV L^ B. A S. C, tty.,* th« muho rulo w applied 
«bera the dcfinidam h&d ii«gleoled lU statutory duty of 
mtiuinjiimgn scrvnnt in cburjcG of the gitlo» mroan n 
public uvtiAgo-waj, Id Willmoib v. 0. AV. Ry./ vhvt^ 
ihm ddi)»dftiit'« lino crowed a jjubtio fnott^iLili, on tbo 
Itrtl, And tbo dftfendiiiit bud Miod to perfonrk ii4 eUttU' 
Wrj diiljr of oreotmi^ sattt> and cbo pl^ntiff was found 
trpon Cbc crnimng with hin foot nrrvrrcd, the dcfen<lant^« 
nou-'fuLfilm^rit of eeb dtutuLory oblt^uLiuti wu» LirlJ to bo 
BUlBcicnt fTid^nPO ^f nrglignnor to jiwltfy a TrrdicI for 
tb* plainUft la HsiyM v. M^ 0, R- Rv/ a iniiiBidpuUtj 
kaTmg und^r etalutofy authority mado regulfttiooFi for 
the frodnj: of milwjiy* wilhm Us !im:t*, and tho dft- 
ftodjwi iuivmg llulud to comply wilb the r«;;(ihttJoD», 
ttttd ft boy baving bora injured for want of such fence, 
il waM b«Jd cimt tb4 ddVadantV negWt of tt^ t^tuliitory 
Ally wai eridraco of ncgligpow*. The wimo doctrino ia 
MMtcd ia Nitra>Pl)Oii>halc Co. «. L, S. Jt tit. K. Co.* 
irWo tbft pL^lilTa Iom was directly incoAble lo Tb«t 
dafu>daiU'« fiulure to comply iflth the itatutory rcffiik- 
tioa tmpoacd by iu cbarter milh rogaid to iho height 



« U ft. i !:■. 3n 



•LRSEtJCT. 
■UlLaCkLUAOI. 



43 



tinOVKKVCV TO ■VVIdTAI. iMiMyj 



of iti nnlL Od tbe other hand, b Allmoo ▼. N. A G. 
Water Worlu 0>>,* « hMw bj jtBCstB tiM JrfgoAmc 
ra|uirttii to mdntsiA lb<Q-pliiga willi s piflbtst 
of ir&i«r, a&il |>]ilnuff wIicm pnvpertj lad faoni 
througb <l«fci>iUiit'tt dc&uU >a oot wffljiftg t 
npply ikf wiu-r, bnwgiU hU sctioM ^;m&m Umu, it ra 
bitld DO ikmmrcT, by ibc £xch«c|a«T uf FIcm;. thtt tb« 
Birr rasood, but Id UieCoon of Appmb Uu8«vf»- 
v«twd, upon l)ie ground thai ihc luliiUtT to priTvie 
idion for nc|;[vct uf h ttalDtory iluiy dq^nfa ^oti ihs 
J>^^vil^w of ilie le^Uftiire fn the particBltr atacvto ud 
thn Inngiingo which th^ hftro CBplojtd." The rvU 
doclncitile froiu the cmtm neiw CO bo thit wbkli Is rtsud 
in Uie lioadUig of tbia Motion. 



41. Tt i* li«!d in w>mv ciued that diftotiedkiaee tot 
tuaiiii.-i|iul ordiu^kuoo ia not a ground of ti4balitv.* Hi* 
CODtrAry iloctrinn in anwri^d in other qii».* It u hdd 
in otiicir ciuicfl Lliut t)w fiLilure of a railway to porftna t 
dui^v irupoftoU by a iiiitikicip«l ordiniuico najr bo oon- 
l)d«n>ti not M noglixoactf. but merely aa evideiKe of 

<L.lLafU.t04,!tIti.EiL44J. 

Rr-, K» Mlim. 3^ t An. « JCn< JL K. CW ^10; Snn t. b. A & 1. 1- L 
SJf % Y. 141 ; 'I'lM;«r « flu U A, d T H. a EU a Ind. M, 
<r * liKR.*, Kr*la.W VwK, HLTM F, A ft- It. IL >. TbT*. «T kl 

' AvfU-irr • H'ritmir^lH, lOO Ham. 46H\ O^in^ •, J««« 9 )U. 1U| 
n CPU IL * M^UimJI. 4A td-JUil; Ikiit *. Pmli. 3Bl(ba.)3f,a Ak* 
ftV, Oaf^of. Cm. 4tfT. 

• K»LJ-y f II. A mj. R. IL, 7* Mo. I»^ IJl An, A Kiif. R. K Oa «§; 
UaI <.]^uiuOa^Wriiaoate0^1»AiB.dEiiM TL R. C^ »«; Ikata 
A & a a. »■ B, 1» Uh. m > An. A K^ It K- <^ 1*. 



nrju TiBV. 



48 



ZUL VLTBA VIBQ. 

/rmvt It lb rviliiinf Aal the injury it-nt done in eV <nMm* of (jOi 
^rVMMfirt* ^ a Auf It*" tthkJi U hud i>nd<p iU ekuritr *ka ptivtr 

42^ Ab JjMsky. C J„ *wd in X. Y. L, E. A W.B. R. 
r. Hftriog,' " it wouliJ, imlwti, Iw an aaoBanUtiu rumlt in 
Ifgal «deace if a oorportkiiuu «UouIU L^ jjtirmltieil to not 
up tl^tr iannmnoh u ft bmndi of tlio biwhiOM proMCUled 
bj- It vaa wrongful, thbrefortf^il] tbe tpeoial irrODg> (!oo« 
to iodiTidualfl in the course of it w«r« ruiicdilfisa. * * * 
All wroiiir* dont} bf nudi bndiu on, in a kiuc, W^^ 
riret; ^ttd if tLi« wan I of a fr&aoLi«9Cf> du iWtoriloua 
■Ct bo a JcJciKOp ^cn <X)rp<jrntioiifl havca ditpcnAuiion 
^m liabilit;r for lh«w* uci^ pt^iapto tli«iTitf*lvtH," lu 
thai C3M t!i«i pfaintJtV having been it^ured on a street 
nilvrny which w«j operated by thu ilc-fctiiiunt* the court 
lueld lliat the mllutty'd wuui uf autTiori/txl c<jr]H>ruli* 
porer V> opnrnUi ibc^ Htmel milirny did not rclt^njui it 
from legal rcvpuuBibiliiy for the iitt^li^^mt cipvmtiua uf 
Uiat etroet raJlwajr. Tho docl.nne of ibis cnse ia eop 
pOTtikd bj oilier aut^nritifvt,' So in BiiwcJl t^, M. H. A. 
K* J. B. lt»* two rallvraye, one of which had been char* 
tMtd by the filiate of AHrhignn^ and xUo other by the 
8niM of Indiaap, and t^aoh of wkifh Inul been nuthor' 
imi to cOtfuUuct a line nithtn its o^n Stnte itnd c&rry 
pMittiiseni tb«T«on» haTin;; i<igt>thL-r f^a^agiMJ Id tho 
buaUi«n of carrying i^aft^ugtira over a third lino in 
another Stale, orcr which tine thdr charter poipven» did 
DOC 6Xl«nd, and apaeeonger while belug carried ov^ 

• RtfftdUws r V, A A, B. ft, « ItaD. CM } OnW iL W. 4 J. K. B, tt 
y, C 1. » An, A ^ X. ft. Ck& m 

•ax, T.n& 



41 VXOMA. TIU& 

that third line Tiaying been injured, it waa Ldd that iht 
two railirays were jointly liable to him. 

43. On the other band, in Hood v. K T. A N, H. 
K. IL,^ the railway, not beiDg aothomed by its charter 
to carry paaaeDgets by coaches to ODy point, or to carry 
pflfisengere by any mode of conveyance to C, having 
contracted with the plaintiff to cany him by nil to P. 
and thence by coach to C-, and the plaintiff having been 
injured while traveUing by coach ^m P. to C, it was 
held that the defendant was not liable to the pluntiff 
fbr Bach injniiea and was not estopped &om pleading 
that its contract with the plaintiff was uiira virea; bnt 
the doctrine of this case is not generally accepted, and 
the rule b that which is stated in the heading of thia 
section, and which is further illnstrated by the cases 
as to the liahitity of railways for negligence npoa the 
part of connecting railways. 

1 12 Gdiul 1, !a Id. na. 



J 



ODITTKIBDTCUtir KKOUUKXGX. 



CHAPTEE II. 

1 timtrtiinitnj nirUtmrr JnarMjml, 
IL T^t* eqI* in Iiin'* f. MoPin 
IIL ■n^fm^iJT.ikV.ti.l'.li^.t. noaJma. 

V. y^KJjjBw la iTBiitlii^ iinir or hmotiHJvniT, 
VL ilvn^ipr ita aMBBfQfeo\it. t t n} rtaUxuajAaij u proof of AnliibnUdj 

tllL Tlifl iiluMilTf 4ViiijiViiluE7 uiKLiiiiiiuiM «ibuu luinir lur JujuriA to 

IJk. tha ttmbulinti m ll»t pwiupr af Urn c«iTlar'' mmrlluUirj' tu^l- 

3C. Tb* aicribqttoii of 111* amiFilmtai^ iKwll^wKaflf wivohii hu b*^ 
Ulltd lo [tu*T wfiOwff fur iliuriBjie* fur MB^nlb. 
XL yhf tliriifiUim at ili* cThiitrlliiihvy nvftl^nn of Itm mntnrlinf 
paftf n (he P*(^ "^ tLoh heltilf Llto f^oninf t *» mide, 
Xlt' Tlir •llHbuihiij uT lL* OJbUltpgUif^ migJltcvao* uf |«iiWfU uiJ junr- 
dkTBUchkklm- 
XUL Hm k»ffiliiiIiDa «> ill* pvnoa iqjorif of lb* nairibDlorT o^iinoB 
•f lUrdp*rvu 



jTrw ^ tfCrAulAiJc la Atf ji/umf^, Vt to Jar eoutrihiitfJ fo fA« 
Aifmy tf hit uani nf wdinaty <uri, Viot, InU for tuoA teant tff 
l>JwB| nrw OH hit fawi. (JU vrywr^ voji/tf noT KuBf 6am pftrn^^ 



44, Hut doctHao ofontribm^rj nvgligv^ncv waa llret 
iroCQgnuixl in [iuUorfiulnl v. Fiirrv«tvr/ dcddcd in 1809, 
rbfln the del^silaDlt for the pur|ii]«e of repAinng Lie 
hvrisg obetructcd pjut gf a public highwtjr, th« 
~f Ul&tUt riding l*^r ^ <I^^> r«n n^ioHt lh« obetruu- 

■JI1M«L 



46 



oovnamnonT nouoivcs ix oocBftii. 



Uidt if A pcrnoQ ruling witb PMuonolilo uid ordiiwry 
cnr« could bavo pwo sikI Hmiiii-J Oi« i>Viructioai, anO 
if Um7 wera NU-iMllryJ that Um plffiDliff wm nding ex* 
trtuMlj lt4ml,tLi] J wi Jiout onfioBTj oiire,lliej iJtoiild iiul 
for liift defeiidiint Aft*r a verHid for the il^ff^ndauit, ft 
mntioti fi>r nrulo far n new trinloo tlxigroitiiclof raiwlU 
recLiou wan n^fuwd. EMt'iiU^nw^, C. J., wyiogi "One 
ptfnacm brin^ in fitull wtil luit dvptinftf viUi in<iU>«r'« ' 
UBiug uriliitarjr cure for biraiidf. Two (biii|^ luuet C0«- 
cur to vDppoiC ihm action: an otelraclioD lu lJi« rcdd 
Hy the fiult of the dcf^nilwat, ncd no wnnt of ordbarj 
G»re to avoid tt on ihe |>urt of the jjUUiiiff.'* In Rrhlgt 
fl. 0- J. By./ tbti fikintiir dcdttTfij m CMC, ircrrin^c a 
oe^ligejil iiiaAaffLMiii^nt bj tJio defendant of lis two, 
whorcbv n oolli^ion wn« cnu^d wilh ft train id wbich iho.- 
pUItiulf wiuf a pawingcr. The dcfcndnnt pleaded «pc-- 
(^iMlly tliaf tliofle maiiAguig tbi< 1?iiii> cm vbicb the 
l^Umliff will A puMH^r w?re 80 n^Hg«nt ibnt^ '' la 
juirt br ihtir ui'>;li}ffiK't% »■ well mt in (lart br the ddbul- 
arrt*i negligence," the defendant'^ Iraiii rsu agnfn^t xhe 
other, <fCc On dcmnrriTr, iho ploA wnji hrld bad m 
form, becauw it amounted to tbv gen^rul iutu:, uud t:^* 
in mibFiJinoo, b<^o-'kl]»> it Kbowed no ground fof defiling 
tW plaiutifT's r^mvvr}% Vurk^, C. B^ Bayuif^T "Altbov^^ 
tlvero Diay bavc been nc^llgmce on tbu yvi of ll 
|i1iintiir, yet, unlcn be might, bj the cxcrcifc of ordU 
nary oar«^ bare Hvoided the corrsL-qii^uoM of Uio defen^i- 
nnt* nr;[5iKpnw, lic« entitled E^ recover; if by ordinary 
car« bo might bare avoided ll>«m hob tbu Aullioirof li 
own wrong." 

46, The nilo may. tbcrdbrc, be fonnnlatcd In 
terms; where the jwraon Injured. or tb<^ plaintiff, Of tnj 
pawotk whoa: ntgligracw in AitrihutAblo to the plaJatH 



*raE tt&iHOx Of Tue rulx* 



47 



bad «o for contribuud to the injurj hy lu« watiC of 
urdinftrj cAr« tliuv liul for sucL wHot of onlJnnrv Arc 
Dii hu piTl, llic uijuiT would ngi huvc boon (1oim\ (he 
mitwmj )H not VniAe to tlie plttintiff ia (kmaf^w for such 
injury, Tikiu ncttiad, iLo rule ui Hupportcd by iunumer- 
»1« atitboritittL^ 

40. Tli« r«aaoii of tbe rQl« Ift thai th« d«ftndiitit van- 

lot jiM]^ bo CilUd Qfon lo indftraniiy the plkintilT f^r a 

'vroaiE wbiub i\w plulutitr bu duuu to hliuseir, TViUf, 

in Ihil V, Glancing,' Strong J, wid, " the rcnftoii why, 

in cuMci of mabin] ooncttrriiig ougligL-iK-c, uuitht-r party 

cui iDaiateia uj aotioD agoinaC ihe olit«r U. not that th# 

vroog of th* ODO i» let off ngnburt thft wronf; of llu» 

itW; it b that the kw caimot measure boiv much <ff 

14 diratgc tudbnyl >> Hllnbijtnbk to the p!ninliif*« own 

[L If be were AUoir«d tci n^ovur* it might bb th^Lt 

vmU ohtaia frarti the othor piin^ oomponsalion for 

hw ovii mUcondutrt/' Whllr-n drlVnclont'c nclioJinUo 

[li|^cc coiBifltfl in his Muro to p«r(hrm a duly 

which h« owm to tJte pIsimifTt tho plaintifT^ comnbu- 

tory tivxUjEciicu i* aictcly a fiulurv to pcrlgnn a dnlj 

rhkh he ove«8i not tO ttiO defezidant, but lo Limaelf. 

Ttio \mw, thtmfor^t dnww no diHiiiKnion b^cvi^en a 



^ ]kHMv6iU « Fomiur. 1 1 B«l M; TUtTik Wftrmu, ft C ft, H. M Ar\ M 

-aw. a A d, t,u R i\u, iiton t. w^u^ n n. a aiiK no4, iv r. r. L; 

IUb* las. W.BT.lRiAS. VS;E.Ar. K B. f. Jnn.^ W U,Al.1li; 

A U AIL; Vr*iiE] i-.A-UaM, A W, A A ^U4 i OWk,! t, McKtA-i^ e« 

ft.»flEl»4lJHhtt^P.Kj.hBn>1ni^«»IiL«eO; BdU v.OUiiil> 

4lllM»ieHl*«.Bnn.»CAP.Aai,UftaLi1>*«dKMt]U 

tt Ikt, StTt. lU^ >. M. J-. K^, U Fttt M«^ SO: K C a K b 
VfKA Ul D>im<^^ r.KXVL. 1L,_M N. Y.«: J. K 3. *. BurincU 1» 



48 



ooatrmjBrTo&T stXiUovxcE porscs. 



pliuotiTs wilful or bMdk» •olJMdoo of tiimsftlf ti> 
|MrU« aad, in Mum OM^ tlM iBtziB] *" r^tmli oM j£< 
injuria " ii ■pplkablo, for it n aiwmyt 10 b« pi 
ibit oim'0 bjlur^ to ilooiM'e <htt7 tooike'snlf >• 

47. Cbotribntofj DCfUgoice m^, UierdbM, faa w- 
liMd U> be Utti wut of f aonabit nr» upon lit* 
of tlift prmra injured whkli CQacnrTcd wtUt iIm d«S^* 
gmoe of Ui« nilvntj ui csvui^ U9« Ixtiurj. 

48. OmtribvtoTj D<^1l£Cn<c c*&, tlicrcfon^ b« proi 
onlj- bj $howinf./ni, that on Um put oT lh« pbJn- 
tiff wiBeUDDg bu viUMT bna ^oaii^ or ovhtrd to 
don^ whicb, Bikdcr Uie cir c miw t t iiee» tnd from ft 
dent n^vd for Qi« pliUDiifTi mSmj, oogbt, ia lbs oi 
QM«> to btn b««n omitced, or, is the otb«r omc, t» 
hmTo boflndooe; and, jaeowct that tfant fi«rt>eol*rM(of| 
eoraWoo or OflDMon on lie pfttt of tbe plaKntifl' 
comd vitb tiM deftndant'fl braMh of duty iu g«i 
tb« injuiy to ibe plointifl^ If i)tc proo& fall lo alnw 
««Ui«T ijf tbeao ek'uK-iiu ibe |>Ia£uiiff'6 ooatHbutorj 
iw^ligmce mitn'^it b<^ mid to b«i fiOBblblMNL In tkaa, 
VAw, jt U oBriitUI» aa Ooloijilge^ J., wd/ lltft 
n«gligMioe upoa the part or t]i» plftjatijr vbkh b to 
^r bb rvooTcry, fJioald hAvc vnbui&jntiftllj contributed 
lo tbe occtureooe of tbe muT* end not hmrIj to Ito 
nanooat.* 

4tf, In Mertm e. O. K. Br..* Jeme, C J^ ftbd 
Haute, J,, doubu^l vlietber tii« d^froK of coiklributory 
negUgeooA js nvftilablc to e tvilwmj vbon Mwd bj 
pn»cn^for p«t80Bil injurk^ for tlieTCaeon t}<*i 

•edii»fr*«i^icAr.e»L««KaL. 

>te,>lAWKHr*.Du1.4 W, lLk,a05 T«3^1 JtiL*]^ 

irm it l fcCatJfc p. 11^1 U ItnD^n AimA Ki^K ILIWUIj 
1. A H. M. R. It *. Mttitewtrr. 7 lad. 474. 



COgmUMTTOKT VBOUOE^rc^ 15 OCCIUtAt. 



49 



actiOQ m grooiided not opon n jmrf. lort> hut upon fl 
lort vUicb b also a 1in«ch of a coQtraci to gottj haAIt. 
LTbo jud^cut in thccnuAC, however, turned upon lti« 
ibt tbot. Bt Hat trial, the d«fon<^v had hbtn ndv^msilj 
p«1, not ujian unv lJift>ry i>F ^sontributorj aegti^iic^, but 
upon Hit fuel of lli« plurtLtiiT'c oCKligcncc being tb« 
>1a cuiuof his injurr, nod that Iha jar;, upon ori- 
lanc* MJufiictorj to them aud to the judgu, luul <Jets^ 
iLhi id0uo »<lvor«ely <o the Jefeuduul. TJi« doubt 
in thfit rauic dov Dot Hppmir In bo impiiort^d 
utbur auUiority. 

XIat rfuljf #/ wAniafy mn iij»« <Ab |>Ffrf of Ih4 ptntm ir^h'^'i. whom 
it d/frnd^il vpan ElU rrnunnlattfitt <■/ lA* jMirtwuiAtf oik 

5(X Cootribulorj noglig?nc4 upon the part of ihe 

licnon iojuTf^, or upo& the pjirt uf nny ima wLodo 

np^igGikaa h KilTibutvble to bim. v&iinot bMx»m(? u uiu- 

'Inial nno iti tb« cslum; tJulMi Q«g]igenc« upon tbo 

put of th« mUvaj b« eitb«r proroi or oonoodod. Tbo 

dotj of OTdinarjr fan upon the purt fhf th*» ptnaon 

injnml fbf biii oiru Kjifoty in not imvuryiii^, but \» 

<fepoiideot upon ibo eiruuitkelauc^^ of l\\& [lortloular 

LCMB, nod aino upon th« mertnl luid phyidrul cspiurity of 

iba parton iajurivL Tbud, tbo pomou iujun-d is tobti 

JmM to the exereiiw of a lower ^bgrec of ntrc^, whc^, by 

■MgUgc^co upon chtf jwrt of tli« rnilwiy, biH vigilnnoo 

bn bna put 1o sleep utd bo ba« been lulled into a con- 

fdition of vecurity, m, for iusiuuce, vhtn tlie rnitwiiy 

luft hj Eaaviii^ open a gale at a croaung, int.Iraatwl tJiat 

tbe lioitt nnaj bo mIUj croMcd; or, ncliou the railway 

baa, hj tbo modo of ooiulnicfiofi aud looACion of Ica 

Matiowor canititnplicdly wnnuntcd ibe uifctyof a poa* 

1)^ ID •one purlieulur pluw lu ita HlHtloiiH oreura; 

OT) whao a r^Iwa^ aarraot haa iaritod n pmengcr to 

4 



coKTButi'toBv rnaiMiatK tat oksz^m^ 

iMXiap5 m puUculor poritiop BBdtt an cxpics or [n- 
^wd MpPnmEsdoQ ihst he Duf lafttlv occupj that 
poniioa. U a not ooQUibaloiry iMgligcacc In tlio 
psnco Injur^, If, sfid^r cinruiDBtAocea of imminvitt 
dtDg^r, when thone ii iw time for rtflvction. Iw ftit (a 
BCt U die fixerclee of a oool and lieliberaie judsDcnt* 

5L N«^lbcT th« moral qanliijrof Ui« plninUCTfl ajctf 
nor Utf moiire, tnvtrvtr nidmiralilc, cno, if tJ»t wX b« « 
prnzuntw ceaso of Lis u^aiyr niin^ him from tii» 
]^bJ canvequencn of conuibiilory Di^gcnco^' 

^. Nor dooa tbe belief of ft cootHbtitoHly DegUgenl 
pIuinltffT hofTL-vcr ruiHOiuiblc^ thiil lie will tiot tic injurt4 
bjr cite Degligfint act, avail lo relieve bim Crom iU Ufsl 

fi3, Wberc iSe ooniribiitory n^li^pnoe of ibo pfnoil 
injiiTOd ja ^oprnilpninpon hifl fenowWg^ of tbevoLiet- 
oDcv of s fuct, bt, if Dot pbjKicnlly or Tni'iitutlj inc** 
pucitntod. niuHt be anumed to have bad that knowMg^ 
if hn hnd mirb ftp[)orairit}' of knowing tho fnct m 
wrmlj buve mad« it knowu lo a pvrsOH of mverage **• 
pitcity exeroi^Dg oniinniy cnn^ for hie own aafftj,* 

QmlH^irry neffli^mf* vpim tkii pari of fA« pmon rif^irvd wHT *4f 

64. Wboo iho injury hjw bc^n wilfully inflicted^ con* 
tribiilory oeg]i;,'enc^ upon the pari of Uie Miff^rer is 
obrioixMly noi nvaiUble im a dt^fmco lo tli« wrongilow' 

^PkLIL* Vftnwr.H^ r^MjtL 8t, «U; &hkU -.Col*, iv; U 1^ UmI ■. 
BL P^ U. A M. B« , 80 Minn tVi. t2 Am. A tUic R R Cte Hv 
<K.«CIMI.*.lli4it.IT|Lk1 ]»?; W^.Kckfn*. t.lfLlCOX. T. 

ACil. 

•KwrrvU lFIvW-AHO] 2Ht: T K & •kUn^.ADiHii SBT: SjaA* 
|iir4*.f>lliAt&R.II., 7:iN Y.I4!lLM«UfHti<.IUl3r,niikd.MXLU«X 



TBS RULE Cf DATI£& r, VAlTX* 



U 



HfelTilvM Av Aft uvH')'- ^ foiiiMi/ v<U nrnrthtlfm A# Ha^U^ if 
■Br im M itt amU hy iSt txrrtim of v v dm arj oon Aw* mMidmi 1&« 
■i^wf l» U« plairiiff. 

GSi. Thin qualification of the general rule nas ^ml 
•IMUICmImI in Tlnviox v. Mnan,^ wh<!TC thfl plaintilf 
liavEDj; feiu^d Ui« front leg* of hb doiikuy liad curacd 
iitn ottt into the public liigliw»y to ^rozc-, and while 
there the dden<Jaat, driving r«cklewlj, run ovtr tlie 
donkey, and & verdict liaving heen obtained "hy tho 
phuutiCr, ft rule for a cov triul wui rofuAed : Abingtr, 
C. R, njing, " u llie defondant mighT, by proper care, 
btv« sToided lujuriD^ the animal, ftEirl did not, he ii 
Lifthte for tho ooaui«quetiCGH of hi» iitg]jg«ooe, tliouj;U 
the ftnimal nutj bnvd beftn improperly there;" and 
Pnrkn, fL, »flffT ri'frrring (o Hiiltrr6<;1d u, Forrwtar, and 
Brid^ r. O- J. Rj., us uiilhofiuea tmHixJuiiLg the plidu* 
tiff, Ailding, ''Although th^ am may hnvt^ boen wrong- 
AiUjr thvre, vtill the dcfuiidiuit tvim bound to go iiloiig 
Om ro«d a1 »ucb a pac« aa would be XWAy to prevc-nt 
Were thi« notio^ a man might jufitifydriviug 
foodi left OD a public bighwaj^oreTeu over u tjiun 
l^njt nulcvp Uic^rct or the purpoi?elj ruDning agninsl a 
gotog 0[i the wrxjng ^jde of the road>" lit 
ijor of OolchcjncT t-, J3^ook^^ Denman, CX J., dm 
DariQ» p. Mann aa uuibonty fcff the propontioD, that, 
"» a gonoTftl nile of law. every one^ in the conduct of 
which Quij be burmful lootherK, if miKoonducled, 
bound to the uao ^ due care und bkill; uuii llie 
\t m not without the pnlo of tho Uw fur tbiji 
pvpOM;" aad lu lyitixiA e. Peitej,' CumpbeU, C. J-, 






•T^aiBgt«3,tti.cL. 



62 



TBR RULE Uff OAVIEa V. MJJtg, 



tjtkctf tlie tocne view of that cwct. In Duwdl i>. KaH- 
gAlion Co./ Campbell, C J., i^id, " iii & court i>f octnt- 
tiign liiw tlic plainrifl' Liiii no ntnv^y. It Id* ac^i^iivoe 
mim^df^nfiofniri/rui^loihewxadtiaU Id socuu i<ftaua 
tli^re mav IkAvif lr«oii ii»glig»nce cm tli^ fiarl oS a pUio- 
tiQ* remotely ci>nncctv(l with tliu uccidcat; aiid, in tJWBa 
ca8«a, tli« quMtiotL ari»«^ wlt(^t)i«r tlie det^dflttl b)r IIm 
«xcrd4c of cirdinnry c^rv itnd ubill tniglit liavo fttxiidod 
the ucrcid'^nt* uuli^itlidUuidin^ tlii^ tit-gliKODoe of ibfl 
pininlifl', AK in ihn often quoted donifyam: PuTJ***^ 
Mnnn. T}ji>rti, although without tha Dcgli^iioe of tiM 
[ilalrjlifT the arx.'iiI*>(iL cuuld uol LbTi> liup|«a«d, ih/t 
nngligpnor in tint fliippnfirc) lo havn tvnirihut^ to thfl^ 
biy^idriic wjtbiit th« rule upon tliie injbj«ot; nn^, if tlrt 
accident might have heea svoidcd bj llic excn-ieeuf 
ordinary cnr« diid okill on itc pert of thn iicfcmUnl, 
to hi4 grow nf<gligenoe it in «niir«ij ujioribw}, li« mid b& 
only |>roximal«ly c«QgIug the Lon." In Toff r.'Wfir* 
miin/ Wijchtmaii, J.^ rofcn to thn cmici which 1 lisvo 
dtrd, and aayft, " mere negligfmce or want of onlinvyi 
CMrti or caution would not^ bow^Vfr, dJMnUitlt^ him (th« 
plniTitlft't to recover, uoltv* it w«re micb, tlml^ Imt for 
that negligence or want of ordinary care and cani»on. 
lhf» miflfortunff conld not havn happrm^d; nor, if tli* 
dcEbndiint mi^ht, by tho esordae of citre on \m paitt 
liave avoided tho conseqnoticm of tbo negU»M or chtik' 
IcwmfwofthnpUintilf." In With^rly v. Rcgi^^t* <^al 
Co.,' Bylui, J., treuttf iha rule in Davies t. Maun u 
eqilivnTeiir to a doolaration that the plaintiff'^ coatribi^< 
tory nfi};l;g«no« miuit, in otii«r lo bar tu reoovcij. 
be«u a ptuxlmftte cnuae of tbo iojat^. 
56. The Intcit iTX|io(iitiQn of tliia doatriae u &ig^d 



« I It A n 1D^ 9DA, lU K (V L> 



<«llB.y.«.l?l,MLCL 



TRR HI7LX lie nxVim V- JfASVIff. 



08 



to b« foo&d io tbe cose of RmJl^ v v. L. <lt N. W. It v^,' 
whore the pljuniifT iteing a colliery ownrr, upon whow 
ppcmliw tbera w» a ddiu;; conuwrttd vriilt iliu ddcoit 
•ttt'f Untt *ad OT<tr that eidii^ a bridge ci^bt [«ot higb, 
tlw d«len<)ttfit on ^ Situnlfty tLftemoon, after the pJaii>> 
tiflTa semuU Ua<l l^ft work, ran upou the ^dlti^ ^lae 
trackArOaGof wUicli IukI a hrokcu Txiict pilcJ iijton it 
^la Uw ke^ht of doirtn tect On Sunday bvenin;^ the 
it brought olIifT «<mf»ly Iruchj* on rJi^ (liillng, 
and piuhiaj; them ic^rward the truek oa wliidi wub |>il<?d 
iLo broken iruck atruck iLo bridge aiid broke ft down, 
The pbiniiJr brought bis iit^iion to rocov«r for tho loM 
oftbo tridfpf- Tbcdclcnov was contributory oeglij^oiice 
OiU thn [ttn of tli4^ plAinlilT in pcrmiinng the trucks to 
remiun oa the aiding from Baliirduy aftrmonn cntit 
&aftdaj evening. At tbo trial Btvtl^ J., Jirecled tin; 
JUJJ in ibo following t«ffm«: ''thn pltiinTifl' mui^t have 
wahfad jmi thjit thift hnppf'nt-i] hy the negligence of 
tbo duEttidauia" ner^itub, aud without any cuutnbutory 
fi^^cncc of Ubrif own. In other «oM». that it wna 
■dtly bj llu? npglig^nM of tli* defonduutt" servanla. 
ir yoo think it van, then your verdict will be for the 
plaintiff; if ymi think it wiia not loldy by ihc tn^iU 
genc« ol (lie diefeiulaut«^ aervanlfs ^<>ur vvrJiL-i luuBt be 
Ibr lh« ddandantn." Thtt jury found for the dcfcnit 
oata, And the Exchequer of Pleaa ruaJc absolute a rule 
a nmw trials npnn the groiinci nf miFdimrlion. Th^ 

Echc^uier ChamU^f rrvi'iaed uo*l eDterL-d judgment for 
|]i« dWettdant, but the Hoitf^ of f»rd« ojvirbei} the 
I'^xcbc^Dfir Cluimhc^r and nrin^Ealcd tho jiid^ent of 
Uio Eich«qu«rr of ri<vu» maktug aUiolute the rule for 
B Aow trial. Lord IVnxnDCo aaying: "Tike lair In ihno 
oMH of iivf;Ug««ioe is perfectly aettl«d and beyoud diic 
lute, Tbo firvt propoiition ia a gc&cml oncv to thia 

' L. R. » Sl VI, 10 Id. lOCM Apjf. C^ TM. 



efttdcX, ilijit tbo pluJiitiff in tin action for iM^ngtDce 
cunuoil Rtix^oii if it ifl fibiui<] by tke Juty ibsl he huM 
hiiia»elf bi>iui %in\iy of utf ttcgl^D<« or want of o^- 
dinarr cAre which coniributo tt> eauat Wvt accideat 
But tJicrc in another propoiiitioD vqiiallf nt-ll ixlmb!uh«dt 
and it Se « quulilicuUoD upMi t}ic lint, Q^ndy, that 
itniigh xh^ plmniiifniAy ]uiT(>bofii^iIt)'Of M^ligCnc^i 
ttiid ulthoujjh Uiat negligtrncv mftj, in fact, hmn con* 
tributf-d to the accidmc, jel if llio Oef^udaiit cuald it) 
tho resnlt, by the cxcTcd»« of orditutnr cato and dUi* 
jfrrwr, Imve a^n-ided tlw m Wiief wliicb liapfWDed, 
pliuntitT's nc^ligc^co vlU Dot eioufC binu This 
Billon, aa one of law, cannot Iw fjnalion^d." TJie cw»' 
of UnviE« r, Mnnn liaa been foU<Kwed in la^ay olh^r 

CU£C&* 

^, Tlie rule ie aometiiuea aUL«d that tbe p&ainlif| 

UulCA.Tf C1l,lC.K%in4 Ki-l-:TbirkWtrn.in,A(. riK HK3^ 

ILPL^Jd. M4^ h^tr p. I%dd0 n, a, 40ld, 1A2^ Uiil^ f. ^ Lmto kLlL, 
Id, AM; tkwu *. D. a W. K*. II trvh Oira. 1«* S?T:CA A. K R. *- 
i:tT«ipAi'r,4dILL?«i C.A A. lL»,hl^nilTqni,6l U-SU. K.V-Jty. «.})ilU, 

ti^. l^lii, i»;; U.&V>MLft. «^WioihU«W, ll^o >, MkuM], V i:.^- 
I-. ftlA, i* K (M_: Mvc* o' CikTi-ur ^ Bi^ik^H 7 g. B^^W'O' O- W ■>' 

9 ILA )i li|fi,lln K^Cl..^ W;rm >.L^.W.K^,E ItaKTUP, lU ti:,L.j 

fi Am.a 1^ R K i^nUi }i*w^hm • K. r, A 3CJ. JC II, XS r*l.««|/ 

tL n A O. R. R. » Md M ; Tnw f. V, U. Kj, H Vt in; : .X, D. J<. A T Ca 

I, V.ndHblli.iaConii-4tl; K«vhvfc«f t.a,Q,CJhl, B?.* SOIria Hi. ITtS 
HiirwU 1. E AM. R.R,l4SfUSR2,ia Am. A Kqt RlLCWa&; ILC 
JL I'.. V. NrubHjr, m Ua. 3ikl. IV AdlA Et«. R. ILi^^l; Kaw*, RA 
0. R. K-H «1 Md. IM, lEi AoL A E'lir K R >.««. ^J\ -. Jf>hw*t *. II. R. It. &, 
ADttf 3;:lMUMi-,11 rait-<tn?tf V. JW, n. A ix ItlL ■. IV rt»K 
Mil. Mi; UC A I, K)C >. UiUiouj, T bmb lKj,l !£SA: 1* A ^t- & & 
ruicrn, <l Id. ^4LT]L^«*f Mtl U A AT. II R% tS Ih1, St^aHi.) 
1^, K fi~^, VI Alt, Sfl, IV Am. A Ri^ a R, Uh K. 



Tire ItULB 15 DAVIK* I'. uAir^r. 



«[ 



tboq^ oonlnbulorilv uegli^i!iit, can recover if Ow ri^ii- 
vTAj'* MfviiiilfT idler tccomiug airaro of iL^ tjaajpfrcnu 
potiCioQ into vbkb thf i^Uintiff, bj hi« cocinbutoTy 
negligence, ImJ brought Iiinuelf, a>M haw uvciiUcd 
Ui<^ lE^'urj lo lum l>jr Ui« exerctcte of due c«re uu ibeir 
pari, and ihiled to exfimUft ihnt dnfi mrc.^ 

Cd. Thu nde iu Puvi(» r, ^tum ho4 been nuviuKler- 
Atoot) and minapplieJ. It ntfuw only ibat tbnto<^Ii- 
g«noe upon the pftrCof Uio plmatilT' wliidi b^nt bii 
rvo^Tory iVom the liefeiulaiu mm; bave been u prozi- 
■iDte caxK« of the injur?! o^*^ ^hat it ii not n proximate, 
but oolj A refi30(«T ouuae 4>1^ tli<J injurv. whvji tliii <Ie- 
fvndant, DotwjthfltMiiling tho pii;iiuilTV nogligvuoc, 
luigbt, by tbo ex«r<ib» of ordinary cArr nod vkill, luive 
ftTojiied the doing of tli^ injury. Tijua HtftlFid, tb^ ruTo 
U cotaMXtti with the tbcury ujion which the doctrine 
of coDtributory iie^Uj^'cnoe \b Inui^iJ, anU furuuhce no 
nupport for tbnt of coTnpnrntivc ni^gligf^ce. 

£9. Thu niltLii Diiviuiv. Munn hun nui bivn fr>11ci«r»l 
Ik PenEivjrlvutiiu. In Riwvim v^ I>., h. ^ W. li. 11.,* 
vWe tlipR pUintifF niiod ii> mcovcr for rnttlo kill«] nl jl 
bixhvrftr cnannfc. judj^menl on a vtrdict fcrr the dv 
fhadint irna rcvcnc-d for nii'ilii 'nlnr] lu failing; to 
c]iATg« tbfi jury, "that if ihc u^jury ^«iiU from tho 
mol of cure of boib paru«e, neitLi^r Loa i^uiedy uguinat 
the other ; but if it bo not in luiy dt^gm ucnbublc to 
tlie n«gl&g!(TJW of one purty, iImv rv^nttX being liEid lo all 
the drcuiMteacm of hi8 j>o«iUon> lof niay have redrew 
from the otbcr.** In StUo* v. Gocvcy,' thu plaintifT's 
wAf^o and honea, while Uitoh^ to a trve un (l higUwuy 

i9Gili»*A>AML»., OlKa.Mni PriwtH «L U K. C A >, K. a,T1 
Hfr4K* Aa-4 B>v.1taCv.JWA; Ubtt il II. A Al. J » It. «l Uiw 

K^itUt, 43|^nAm^A Knt IL K. Tm. AM ; »niin*m»a > JLASl J.S. 

*ia iViH. M. AM. 'n r^u. Si. 43D. 



« 



YKB uxrtx nr datus r. imnr. 



And lUMlUfidcid, v«re Mnck uid iujunctl by d>e d6* 
feoduitV wtgon dnvn by Imr&n, tlu* deSMLdant'a b«t- 
vuit wftlkinjc m mmc duiUiKv from tbo twm nul Dot 
guidiuK tLuui. JuJgEu«EiL ou « T«Tilki for die plaift* 
tiff viu? rovnntMl in titor, for miAdirrctioTi m inrtriKtin^ 
dm jury. Uju-t if Uiuy Gcnuul tbbt Uie defsndant Lud 
be«a CLOgiig«ul m faUitig to guide LU L«ttia ItcovatituUd 
no dcfoDce to bim thftt tkt pJuntlff did not axuvrcim 
oftiiuarj atr^ lu leaving )Ua property wbere Uwm, In 
Crooi V. F. ii. K.,' nhcre the pldntlff wed to recover 
for iTijiiriifl rrouituij; from the derailment of tbo Irnn 
in Vkliick bo wa0 riding, and tbe deftinoe vqb bued OQ 
the contributory ncjcli^nce of tho plnintiff m riding 10 
irbat was claimed to !» a poeftioQ of danger, the coort 
bftving left to ih« jury tlia question* of ncglignice snd 
oontrLbuLor^' nc^ligenc^ and a rcrdicl liavin^ pumd 
for itio pi aiDtiir^ judgment mm t>hsUtnt« vft«dicto was 
cntortiil f^t lite def(\ndNnt, tipon the graund tbat the 
plaintiff wua mntributorily nvglijftsutr Hud tliat jitdf* 
meui WttB rcvewcl in mror, Gordon, J, > saying: "Th* 
t<«t for contributory ncgUgcnue in found in tbe aAma- 
tive of the quuailou ' Doca Ui»l uvgli^nue cootribuie in 
any degree to the production of the injury eootplaincd 
of?' If it do^ there can be no re<xivtfr>- ; if it dooi 
uot, it 10 not to bo considerod."' It u obrioua that 
tbceo coac* nre not n*eozicikble with Dnvicav. Alann, 
and the many caa« whicb Ijave folloired in Ite lead. 

1 M PotinL ^L IS». 



I«E »(>n>Bf>U CiSE 



a7 



QL TUR VTVVtYLTXitlA RUUl IN 13tH XVJ> l&TH £ra, 

60- IL U t^tt^t In some of tlid authorities, that the 
plAintilTV nc^gligniKn «hoii1d hjivc bocn u concurnng 
CMPie^ ui<l uot aj4!n^]jr u couOiUou, uf tbu pIuIudtT'ii in- 
jury- OfwurM^ i^9V9 ie An obTJoaad^vtiuGUoQ bc^t.^f^a 
Urn muM, Uu£ i*. Uut irhidi producci the injurx, uud 
tliow coatiitiuua or UddtuiU whicli are the accideaul, 
W nol nccovary, (n^iicumhnntM of the injury, itni1« tli«^ 
fov^, iLal ii«g1ig^oe upon ibe jiart of tha plalatifir, 
vbicli can be ncairtttely cbftraci^rizod a4 & condition of 
iht iajory, ia nol in any proper mnw ooulributory nag- 
ligMoe, b«cflaie tl do^ not contTJbute to th« injury* 
Tbcrv A, howerer, u I'umiEiylviuiiA cuw, In which tlib 
dlatiaction aMma to bdvc b4>eu caTrfod to a dangoroue 
oxttfit. In IStb and 15i:h }^tii. R Ry. v. Hmidrnn,^ tha 
plaidtiK bivlu^ buui^mt; u puHden^cr ut ui^ljt upuu ft 
•tmc car wlilch wa« m crowded that In? could not obtaia 
ftMttt^Ntood upon the bode plfitform, nnd whilff th«ra 
wna iiyurtJ by Iwiag Hlmck by tbo pule t>f auutEivr c*r 
of (he «Ainc line which, followjugthocar upon which the 
pUintiCT vrw riding, oamc into coUition with that car by 
tMMW of iba breaking of the brake chain. At tlia 
trial, ihejndge directed the jnry that iIlc diin^f^r of & 
gdIIuqoo betireen the oar npon which the piuftcagcr was 
riding vid anolbnr ear following it woe nut cue uf tlia 
danfptn wlucb rendfrr it pcrUoua to Hda upon thn rear 
platfoniuuid that, thar^brc, irUiojury nbould £aJ the 
ptainliff negligent in iilAnding upon th^ rear platlbrnit 
ftnd yei tluJ thui ihe culliuua uauld not have happened 
but lor ihA nnglignnce of iha drfver of Uie roUowlu]^ car, 
the pUUUCf*! negligonoa w» to bo ennnidarod too ro- 
iiiot« to ooovlituto a Cttusu of the it^ury, and thcrvfora 



>U 



aL4nL 



I» 



TKK wommou ctf& 



ooiild bot W his noorerj. The judge abo de^IniMl to 
dir«<ct tho J1U7 tkui, if thcv ftbovU £bd from tlic evi- 
dence tJttt the pbioUff occupied tlie beck platlbnB of 
tbti on on whidi lie r«o«iv«d hi« iryur; fbr Um parpoee 
of beiu^ c»rH<^ ttd « pawengcr, he wu guiltj of uoti* 
trtbutorj- nn^igirncp. Judgment npon a verdict for l]i« 
pljuntifT vfoa ttiErmiHl id cnvtr, Tninkcr, J,, in deliver- 
ing tLi^ judgment of iJie Su{<r«Qio Cuurt> vii^^iiig: "The 
hrgn nrimbAF of pJUMngmv ib tbn city nbo Tolentirilj 
Bt&nd upon tlicpUtformtt^bemuKelbcnT ifoeitbcrduiDg 
nor fetoiLdlfi^ room m t}i« cara, du nol, Bod ougbl ikol Ic^ 
luiticipeUr that thcj will be nin OT«r by IblioviDg cen. 
TlMr i^uvttion lia8 u6 tfai<l«iity I0 tnduM tike driving of 
one cnp into snoUicr. Wb^U^or Uw d^:rcc of tlior 
iiegUj^oDoo in ridinj; rm Ibu pletform. and tbe tkia thef 
iak^ ill BO doing, every ciio kiiovre that m loog ae b« re* 
n)nm« iherc, he U iD no dnn^T of bciDg ruu down bj a 
cur, uqIha from itt beedlesa haudllu^. Wbcn ibo 
plftiuLiflT WHS ainiok, h\s poH wsa e f^ondiiion, btit not n 
cnxtti*t lif th(f injiinr. It neither leivenisl Uiv ^pced of 
ibe our be wua ou uor iu<!n:<ad«d thai of lb« oiiier; hm 
prrf^t\ce wnA not n mmw of tf^c broken cbiun and r«ok* 
Icffl (Irivinf; of cur 14 ; hut placf was »o iaridi-nl of an 
Ovyj'-crowJod car, wb<?n? iho conductor had Jcfttb^ |^nt- 
form to give him itnmling room, und liad nol foiuL^ 
Um to ft i»«at Of requeoted bitn toent«T ihccar" 8biii^ 
wood, C J> nn<l Paxiion, J^ ditucnUid, boldiog tJiat Uie 
qiicetion of lb« pUiiiLitf '« mnlributorj Df^ligtocetbocU 
have been eubmitted to the jury. Tbc diHcntlng jud^ 
HKnt of Pax«on, J„ b repori«d In 8 Weekly Noue of 
CiaM ''^44. This case iUiT\(U nlonr, for tn ill tbi! otber 
eoKv dcT^iliDg nitli thv quustivn of ibe philntilT'it VDO- 
tribuLurr nt^j^Uf^nce iu sLandiit^* ojxm Ibfr pUlform of a 
fltnH>i cAtj it i« hiktd that the nf&(<t of iJic net ut, «t Uvt^ 
aijUuLiou for tba jury. Thu daiigeruue mieotof ibo 



OOXPAftlTtVK XEGUUEMre. 



5& 



Uid domt in the jndgmeni of ih? court ii c1>- 
Tiooft fbr h emu be said in every ooocclviiblt: ciuo that 
[tbe contributory negUj^cd i^f tlie |jluiutitf vaa not a 
of Ui9 d«fondftEkt*« nogligenco; thiia, when a drlvi^r 

ipprottcbm II nitwA/ linti ut u lugtiwity iircBijiug wiiUvut 
looking or lufUuiiiig t'itr d|i^roucliiiig truiudi and on ^0 
oroasiii^ 18 ran tlown b; nn •ngine whose driver Hm 
fpnrn no warning of ilM o<»ioiDg, bia toiitribuiorj' iitgli- 
gvucto III GilIlu^ tu kilL« tliul piwuuljiju, the tukiug of 
ubicb ut gcncrallT held to bo eui indispenaable prvrc>c|iii* 
mtn to but ttvxfwry of damngef, i^ if the* judgment of the 
pBoudrou n>M be right, ni«iriT]ir a condition uud not a 
cuiiv of tbu injurf, for hu fuDcire to look and lixLcn 
did liol affect ihe *p^ of tbti ttjijiroudiing train, nor 
.WV( It dio CftOM of the engine drivvr'^ fnilure to givtt 
idoe waroing of tho approiLOb of liii train to Ibe croee- 
;iig. PrwiMly tbe Hatns rMsontn^' c»ii b« a|>plie<] u> 
et'vry povtibb can of oooCributory neglig«Dc«, If tbe 

judjfmvnl in th« BiruOrou cum u to «tund uurcvcraed, 
^tbero h in Pi>nn^ylv»(im,Acloa&t, an eud of the dcx^triuv 
ifi oontrihutory ncgligcncu. 

IV. OOBU'AKATIVi: KWX.I<»l:^UG, 



^i^ MftJff ecrJoJA Opryit£kifH» fbddtahmniiiUilutTiievinrdim'igfa 

6L TU« doctrine of comportlive negligence is admin* 
^tuorad to ilA full «it^ut in IDiuuia, uud to a moditicd 
MLtcDt in <^]eoT|^ and TennoMOfl. In niinoie the rule 
it, that if tbe i^^iued ynriy ocoltd some aligbl pracaiilion 
fiV biji •afbtf, and if iho raWwuj antltn all caro on ita 
partp or, iu other vrorik, if l)ie plointifni nr^^Tigrnoo bo 
alight, nnJ lliat of the r^ilwaj^ irhcn oc>mpared with tkat 



CO 



COJll'A]t4TIVS 



of lixil plnintiff be groas, ft recorerj mn DercrtlielcM bo 
hud.' 
02, In Gvorjpft th» roJ^ a« dododbk from the cuem, 
tpHint (o \m UiaL if Um ccntribiHorj ii<|^g«!iice on dM 
Lrl of tlje plunliff bu been ^row ho caD&ot ncxivcr, 
but thut if hi« contributory tic^Ux^ncc haa bten aligbl, 
tts iMiiiiiiind wilU tli« uegl^g«t]oe on tlio [lArt of U*o do- 
fondniit, tiio latTor U to bo Wlii linblc, but tbc jnij kto 
then to luke Uuit ooutributory ncgligvoce inu* tfo«isid«r- 
atton in roifigsUion of th« dnmiigM ncoTftublo from tks 
dcfcndint.^ 

C3. Tbe ru)c In Tennnsoe is as eUl«d b^ Jdr. Clwf loa 
Viakn Ikut'.h, Jr., lu bin viiluAbl(itr4iiti«Q upon Oootribu* 
Uiry Ni:gligi;ua\ vubnULtitiull^ tbv vamo ua Oiftt wbk^l 
prevailu in G*oi^isL' 

64, ThoTtf uTfi mwiy cuwat m wliidi tht theory of 
comparativo uc-gUgince bna becu diflapprOTcd,* Kor u 
ttic rule in itself ration able or doibi«iblo upon prindpl^. 
Wbcro thtf pluintiff'a mat of curv biiA betn u j>rDxintil4 
cao«e of hU utjury, tbo dcf^mUnt ouinot, uodor any 

» w. NtLA r n^. * wtiiv*, no m. tt-i.iv An. A ijv IL a r^ 

CC.AQ. Rll», V«nriU»ii.T«ItI.VI.].CR.lL*.rUMiH^MIAtM». 
O. A a I!. IL R f. Jju«K :iU U- 4797 l\ A N, W. Oj. i,»wh^, H U.lN|f 
H tC. I, 4( 5( I. ft. R f^ Deknc^. tl IiL 1V«. 

>.V AIL A- L »-lC.KAfwm,^lL'vl'i^ r. K IL K <UMai,«Old. 
A. A e R. R «, M<:£liuurr7, 34 Id. ?S ; A. <l W. P, & a •. WjV. CA 14, ltO;i 
T]ixmj.«r.*,CILK,MM.A[>«LC^I>1ir(I « A. K. K, « Id. «U; £Ia* 
drickj «. W. Jk A. a E, &tt Id l«r j 31. A W. & R. tk Da*K n U. lU. 

• Hm^ up CnntrltAUHT NrvJIvriu*. |v DT; N, A C & & k (kmdl; 4 
II4iik. :»; - R, iLi, Wtlk-r. [3 tlPl>t 3U^ I^ A ». IL BL t^ niBiBlw, 11 
XiV(T«i>Uu) LV^; IHAiu.A E1141. R. R Ch ^T, 

■ L. H. N, R It, -. Nnrlon. 3| lVn«. ?l «itA ^ HM t. tlUaAioi, 43 11 lOSi 

.V ATTqUpnng. « M 1S>:1; Wllil. ^ IL R R. M K. Y, «2 ; PnuL C^ 
BoMT, bUlhd t^; O'KHfdt.L', R. L AP- R K., »tf Imiii «;; P. R IL •> 
lUtEhi^r.t^iV. J. lAiTlA(l:Gv^ihtrdt.A^G.g. RB.ir? Alh J14l ^Uar f^ 
C & y. W. B7-, ti WW 3r2-. MhtUb f, Koai^ t!j| >Um. M , It A T. r, K 
JL •- 4A4-WU, 4D Tni. »;* ; K. I", Hf . f. r«ii*V, tf KJH JTC, U Ab. A &«. 
l.LCte.MO. 



OOVF^RATIVK >EaiJOeSCK. 



61 



ikeoTjof duty or [raplEoJ fontnt^, bo latlcd 
to lodonQirj liim toT tliat i[^ur}\ To p^nnU tlld 
tbintUT'tf rocovvrjr undor luob drcuutatunca ia U> de- 
cide Ihni h« may hold the defendant rMponiriblo for Iii« 
Bou^perfonDiuicu ofhi* duly to himwif, 4Utditu<Ji ^i run* 
clusioa is uo( rvcouciUble with tbe ibvury ujiun virlii<;ti 
tbv gctif^ml doctrmnof t»fgligon(»iiibiiiHvl, TlinprnrlU 
<»] diilioiiUy In tlie admmuitriitiuii uf the doctrine of 
oompara^vo nogligenoo ia ^nau II is not eo^ for 
tnUn«d Judges, and it is ul^ija di^icuh for untruaed 
juiytncn, lo d«t«rmiiie by compariacm, in caaefl wher^ 
both plmintiir and ilcfundunt hnve by negligence con- 
tributed U> Uifl luJTirrt irlioM- nttgligT^iioe e:E<*ee4lr( that of 
tho olhfT* A* WowiwiLfd, J., mM in L. S. N, R. E, v, 
Kortoii/"ll*o bur lui-i na BcnU^ to deknuine m mxvh 
yrhof^ wrong doing weighed mo«x in the C(:im[>oitnd 
'tint oocMioncd ibc mincbii^f/' und the jiaiuU of lliv op- 
plkMjoo of iht rule iu ^mi>!il iiiL causeA, whc^n^b bdi* 
Tidmla nre pUinfitT^and railwny«nrederondMnt«>iHthn| 
tbo jury munt ptuii uiuin tht; qucsticm uf contributory 
MC^iseDcv, fur bowever olotrly it might be proven ibal 
the pliuntiff hftd fitiled to obMirve thitt i^rt? which n iht^ 
ngsrd to bu own intvnstA nsquirod vf blui, it would bo 
Jorib« jurv to A8y wbeUier or not the rJulwrtjV DCgli- 
g«QOt VM gTov M compared with that of th« pIuiuiiiT, 
fti>d in «Yery eucb ouae the jury would find for (be 
plaintJfL 



63 



KSGLIOD'CX n AVOmUCQ IXUlClKftS, KTCL 



▼. XBOUQEIfCE Df At<JffiIXO PA^GEBB OK 



^ pifnon u nd( eftortffohlf with anJri^ufurnf nrylifmet vAtf v v^pwioiC 
tJi CAf fftrl rcma^H/ran an inanintnt ptrilltiBMr^ hthttb^at 

AfHunlA u<Ar> u it^trad in tha atttmpt h? «Miatf , Ay «i «« not 
tttmlviUy duti^fmut, an inoonwtmumK to JUn EUwii fr^ Hkf lUfJ^ 
jTfvW qT ''^ raiiifay. 

66. I Imrt given mf nttoiifl for 1h« opuuon tfuil Um 
rcttl quMliOu m cneee of ix^urio ipcurtcJ in ^r'lu^ 
from A dang«r, nr in Att^niprin^ 10 obviate eome »iM»ii- 
vcTiionnt cauBLvci hy nngUgciiiM or broftcK of contract on 
the pail of liie railwHy, li, wLclher or not tli« uc^ 
gnn™ on thn pnit of the railwny i*< th* proximiUo cauM> 
of tbe pliuQtUT'tt uijur^, mtlttr tbno ithuth^r or not l))« 
plaiutitriBCuutriLulorEly u4fgUgCQl; bui in aHojof tlia 
Cft«s thp f^iKiition w tttaxcd ah ono of contributor? ttog^ 
ligenre, and it ik ^Titnilly h«1<t that a perMo Uanl 
cbargcabk wiih cootrlbnKJry negligence wbo Is ii^imd, 
la the I'lfort to ocapo frcnn an imaiineat peril to whieb 
lie hna been exjioeed by tii>g]i^n(w on the part of tW 
rjtilwny.' Nor IB it conlributory nogligraicv if tlia 
pluiridiT haa be<ii t[ijiir«J in tli« t^rt to %\oid au 
convonienoe by an HCt"Gu)C obrioadf dan^BTone; 

)f1- K.A C IE. R v^ErviripS Aa. A ?i«. B. R 0ml Mi CW^vll >^ & A 

1? Am. A Enr R. R <U«e«; C. a B. *. RhoJr^ AO [)&&»: aRftm 

Tl Fi. fl'1 IhT i:l\ R Avi A KiiK. ILR (V ?»& J\ R A W. R & » lUto- 

RiAh, 1» SV»klT N<>L« oT ruv SAH, IS Aiv.ai^ VL. Rl^H. If«i iteAkh' 
N;.?. M. ikU. Kr.SOUiim. LbP. DAb.. A Euc. R & C^SSli IrM R a 
>. UowTfT. »A oMn Ht 4tX. » Am. A ^iif R R Tv Ml i lHf4 « X. V, C 

aR,A] iT.y,3Uja. v.B.R*. rw^ Mcu.au; TV««^«^cr,!:. 

ARILK.IC., AflN. T. l«fl; Mirir * H r«M. A U. «r,«ff HMi 4M^ II 
Aa. a Edg, R fi. Cm. sa 



nsQuovNCx nr atoipi^i) 



ETC. 



03 



vlAoat evnlvHMn.'^ On the otiwbwvd, 
Ibnlorj D<ifflis«noe, if, tn tin* ;LU«nipt to %r<M 
ihM vbich a m«r«ly ][iconv«-nie(it ftiiJ in do Bon^c dan- 
gerous, iImt |wnfOR injured uDCOvnCcn & danger obri* 
otuLy ttpputnt lo the minds of [«amial>le mtn} 

65. Tvo P^nneylrfliiia csam 0««in to bo open to 
criti^m. Ill JohntoD v^ W. C. 4 P. R. R^' by ur- 
nnjcctacnt two nilwaj corapanitt, whoec lines met at a 
Junction, sold tickets ovr en'^h oih^rn linp, A jijw- 
flmger by fine of the line*, Iiuviag nrrivwl ui the jimp* 
lion juut lu thi' tujuiit^'Liug Utttu ^jnus leaving, atti^iupUHl, 
although h« WW carrying Inggt^ in both arm*, to 
braird that train af^vr it wtu in motion, and in the 
tA>rt WAJi thrown down and injured. Judgmenl on a 
Tordict fbr tho defendant wtu rtrvcrHvl in error, becnoia 
the judge at tli« trial direetMf the jury that, " if the 
train vw diatinclly njunirg upon ih^ track whon th© 
plain lifTuttcinptcd to «il^r, he wan ^ullly of negligence, 
and cannot recover," the iia\tTenUi Court holding that It 
•faouM hftTO been lofl lo tli<i jury to eay, nnder all the oir* 
camslancn in evidence, wlietbcr the dungcr of hoarding 
train, pIi«^u in motion, ^Ta« bo appar<-ut lut to buvo 
le it th4 duEy of the plaintiff to de«iBt tH>rn tho 
attempt. la W. P. P. Ry. v. WItlpple,* a frmnle paa- 
•mger got into a <Towc)ed &tro«t car and voluutarily 

>Gmi 3f<Uvpulflu B*^ 1. It iii.a, laiL L1ix>nU p. DBiJildt. lUt X 
«H^M ItC. f-E U'rul* <> W KT.e n.A n.7m, U% K-t:. t.; (hvjtirlj^ 
ip«lii^ KtUr. C-. &» in Sintf ».O.W. iCf^LH a Ej, LM)- John-™* W- 
C a I- H. IL, TO l-fflxh «L lAT ; W. P. l\ K*. f , Wbffpplf, & W^tUy !r«t« 

>Adtfi..^I.aT BT,LR4C.RW0:SlBMt-aW.Br.t,a,aRiF. 
.4ld.nTj 0,1LA K A. K. H. t. U OInws A] IVi. IKS^ t^vu^l r. K 

t, IL a* 14 Av^r ML| J, RIC K JlMtf^c-K M lixl San^ Jbr!(^>i>i dF 
iw^LJ. In tJii tDvrLlaREon, A Ki 1>. 98^ r.lL a •- Ai]>*ll,S9 

> TO l^a. K **J. 

• & WflUj Kot* «f Cam flW>^ *1 



64 



sox-reftroit»A»CE op irrATcroftT urrt. 



Btood, without Inking hold of thft «lm]M liajigiti^ from 
tbe roof of iht oar. vliicb were witiiia ber nweh* and 
wUtch werd placied for the ftopport of sCaixling paatca* 
g^rf. Btie aloacr of all liv pafv^gvn ul Uie car, ww 
thurvu down by tbe jolt of m sudden elop, ud, in 
orDtflt-e:c&nii(i«tbA, sli9 «vCQMd b^ fnilcirv lotnkR lite 
fitrnp hrrjiTian her (Imn wim no tightly UoFd tbat «be 
<^uld Dot rttitfe ber ami. She ttdmlUtd tba^ «x««f>t, 
for her etajs, Fihft couM havo held thft rtnp, ukI Umt 
»h<^ (TouUl pill htT fing^TH purtly tbrough it. and ibat 
tb« rt^tufou wL}' filie did u>ot hoU th« fiU«p w«e tbtt it 
voulcJ baT« di^nrmngdd bor droM, The jodge, at tba. 
trml.direeted the jury thftt the plamtiffirw not diwoli- 
tled tor«€Overby r«osonof liorijiilurttoftTailbermtfof 
the support which the xtmpv *(ould bave all^irclcd her, 
if tibe cmild not "conveniently" r«tich them, and tl|>o>i 
ft bill of exeiiptioD^ (« chat direction judgment \ipoB ft 
verdict for the plAtntlff was alRnnod in orroT- la 
JoliTt«on*0 MM there waa roully no quenion fbr the 
Jury, for th«t plftintttTe own lf«tiDioDy showed thUt 
while encumbered with the lug^n^ he wiu currying, 
ho utteinpted lo boucil & tnoviug train ; and In WhipJ 
ple'aesae Ihfrrt wuf nn obviQUA miiadirccHoii in p«rniit- 
ting tb<-ji]ry t<>euniudcrlhepoiuib[lity of liKMiivi^nkiii 
io the plamtilT ilk the di^arrongeBieiit ofhcr dn!a8.aa. 
miAquAtd «xcui*c for bur voluntofily inrumng th«» rial 
of etfuidlug wllbuut ttupporl in a uivviug car. 

TT. VOK-PULFOIUlA^Ci: OF trTATVTOWT IMTTT. 



mght n<ttlobt tmat'Td <u toatrihulvfj tttgStfmm. 

67. The £tct tbul t)ie pL^ivnn injured wt», >t the ttmftj 
of the ii^ury, ncting iii diuobcdi^uco to a ooUi 
vtatutory duty, oii^ht not to bo held to b« locb co^ 



irax-PSkvouiAarcj: or in-ATrnniiT Dtn-r. 65 

^tnboiory ni>gligaiK« m bsra bu rtcomr. Tbtu^ it 
b«VD bdd that 4t«ob«d>enia; to ibe Um, wluch, in 
eoiM 9lat«a, Nquira lli« otMTTSDce of Sundaj w n ckj 
of rcKt anfl jittftinmirr from vorldlj bivuiew, «ill not 

RDCM OA i^dflT, frocn rtcoTcrin^ frotn a dcfaidKot 
whf>» oegligpEM^ haftittuanl iht itijurj.' Tlie contrvj 
rinc H, bowcvcr, uwrti^ in miuiy <»tis.' 
G& Tbft «zUiit 10 irliicli tbL> Uoctriae of Ui«fl« oaem 
b« ctrrM w ilhuitmed in Honte of lh« cstM*. In 
tlie Miiiciio*clln WKt s idr^rftfib compfttiT hnd Eiikd 
obtain IVom Tbe rannMpI AuihoritlM of Boston lh« 
writtrn evklcatn of pnrtntwion In (onirtrufi a t^lf^ph 
liu« 111 ibaA ciEjk, ttii J ODtfof lh« lelegrafb <'uiui|xinka' 
rvatiU, vbilft ongn^od in rlimhing a polA an<1 ftirrpng 
«irr, niui injuriNl bj a piKTiytr tar rtuinmg agaliiHt 
te wire, «»ii, *ftcr vonlici for ibc plALiiiilT, ibc "i^fcmU 
it'» esceptiom were aucnlnod, on the ground tSnt this 
J1117 tJiould ii^ve been JnetruoEed llral lb« plaknljfT v^aa 
Mil); jui illc;cvl iict, nhich contributed lo biN injurr, 
id Uiat b<» v^uld r«coT«T Gn- notbing Imt tbun wanton 
tjHty^ In tlw Ooorfia caM, t1i« pUinliff, n ficrvniit of 
th^ nUlway, wjb injurvd wUilc engaged in tbe perform* 

'M<4>v ihOnl^ 34 JWna. Ht. Ml j T. A & R K.*^ TcvUm CO^S 
r,MI;Qwn««LaXC&.M7r,T, ISA; Un^AnHitr ' Ct^n Kl^^C^, U 

Ion Off; hlwHt « LtrtiftoM. JA S. II- ?7J ; n(pa« •> ib«1» &l M*, KUj 

»,V.C AC \^-.i OfcJnfti IT-, K™-*]i*»ri .. H r, Jl, 11, £» Wl«. ^^ 111 

* iVavHth *. l^niMf, ID UHr> VG^, V^nloa k MrtmficiU(ui TC H. )l 
AU>B«^^; liaiiir. h 4>l-&.R.lttt>M«M.lM*i l.^mBT.l^oi*!]*, Et!t M. 
a^L &Drli4 r ril'Nhtjfx R. R. 1X1 14. IM. ft \m.A Tnt ». R rvSlf; 
Mdllnik iLMcivrn. Wl Id. 4<i: ^ Ihif * llltKluO ^ K;^ IM U1. 11^ 1& 
AiiLAek^B.a<:^tM: eu]Dt.IL8i.R>., If^Uw.t^f^lOAm.AEnf- 
In tttlw iB> rwr»IJ>4uti« 

a 



66 ooxTUflimttT nauaBKB or niiu>K£sr, nc. 

c^rr^iog troo^ nud uiuuiljotta (MT wv for tli< CixiM- 
cnito j[ovcmmcnt, find it «iii held tluit hu vioktioci, in 
ihHt rM]>tH<l, of hh i\u\y sa & dlil^n it> the gOT«miu«iit 
of the Unit^if Stutcn harrcil libi iccovf^r^. t^ in ^nrtin 
Wflllnof?,' ncid m Turner r. K. C B, B..' it «W bcld 
lat M>liljcr» in l1i« Confe<l«Tsto #crvicv wbo Mtn iujiirrd 
vIj1« tnvvllbg by milwuj ?u tlic pcifonuuicv of tmli- 
tary duty could vol recover from th* raitirsvf for 

Oy. TLe ri;iliE tluvubc is. ib«i tUbi vSolution of [niblie 
or privitcn HiitT whiclt iv t^filUlf^rnl lo ihn injuTT cttnnoc 
hv in luw r4.'pfcrd(?<l its un vffK-iciit cn-iuv of Uie injury, 
and fur tbitt rc^ficnj caT]tioibi?coi:i»i<ivr«d«8 0oulrJbutory 
ncgligonoi. Trir-d by lliii tmt. tbe ciuiofl referred to in 
the last e«cttoii v(«re tiroiigly decided. 



TIL J-USATim, imOTO ASDrUILUftKS. 

l^HifJlia, idifU, and rhitdrrtL i^r^ to he hfM fmh tt tSt ntrtiat f^lAer 
dfffret fffbuft and ditfrtlion whifA ouffkt nnjofiiibfy i» te rjptfhd 

^ penood t^f tJifir iiffe ind vapovity. 

70- A higlirr dpgm? of nirr in to W fT<(drpd of per- 
tttiixa uf [tuiturv yvan lliuzi iff SnTautv, and of (^lenouB iu 
Ib4> full poiv«f>noa of their fnciiliicH linn of ihoM ofin- 
f(?riiir meiitiil or jihyajcdl efficiency. Luootbo, idftou, 
and cluldrcn iirc ii^nly to be b«-1i1 lo lb(' exercise of llinC 
dpgrec of rairv tind diupreiiou whu'b ongbl n^ieuoubly to 
bff ex]ii<ul^d in0iiobper«oiiB,liAVLiigrq,»hr(ieo UiflBftosad 
mental (Tonditimi of tbc Jndlvitiual nnd tlie circunHttmcc* 
of tli»' jiarfif^nlftr cusp, Tliu* in Lynch t. XurdW lb* 
dpf^ndnni'n wrvant iinving; nc<glig<'iil1r !cfl n curl anil' 
honi'T utufidtn^ unntrc^tdod iu ii liigbwuv. n c1ii]i], while 
dirabjng inu> tbn cnrl, witft thrown dnwc nnd injutd) 



ociafT£ii»rTOBT TtECiAat:y<:T. or cmLDui:9i, irrc. 67 

J»j iLu iaovoin«iit of the cftrt, anolbpr child hnring 
kklhI the boroe- After rerdict for tiit* pl&ir;1tff, a rule 
for 4 MB trial was tqAim^. DcuLnsQ, C> J., said, " but 

tlieqUMiit^n roii)«iu,aui the pliuDliir,lheii,<0]ieEistetLlJ;r 
ivilb tEiu JtutWillayniainlaiD hii net ioo, hs ring beeo si 
loMt winoll^ la liiiilt ? Tbu UQdWui in that, «uppo»iD^ 
thut &ct nACortaioed by tJi« J^rj, bat to Uiis «xt*DC, 
tbal ho tnan^ly indiil^d ihc ujiiLiml imitiDct of n duld 
ill uuiiioa^ blmavlf uilli tliu ^^lEiplv cmi autt dtM'Med 
horee, \hor\ «n think ihat ihn dcrnnditnt ciinnot br per* 
miUcd Ui iLvuil liiiotfclf uf llutl fnuL Tbtt iuohI Lliuuubk 
caK-loMQWi of hi« urvnat bAYtng t^onptcd lh« child, Lo 
oQj^Iit not to roproocb iho child witli ;iel<ling lo thjit 
temptatioiip H« haa be^ tiie nal and only caua^ of tlia 
mnwhiuf. lie hfui l>ccn dvlScit-rU in ondiiiur; oirv. Tlic 
child. &ctiug ^rLlltoTLl prud^iioe or tliouj-Lt, haa. however, 
flUown tboic qujilitlci in aa grcut a dc^ct! qk lie could 
be ox|x-ct«d U* jMBst« lli4<in- Ilin inifltnndiic't bwiim no 
proportion to that of the defi^mbnt, ^bich prixlucfd 
it- In \y. A a. By. r. Gludmcm,' where ii idiiU of 
aeven j«an of ago aued to recover f<>r injurli* rtwultfng 
froin being run over by n milirny our nn a nUcfty jiidg- 
Beiti tl|iOil « Ttrdict for Lb« pkiiitilT nuH uiTiruiid in 
oiTor, Hnnt, J^ wvying, " ihp mlf of law in regard (o 
tko negligeoceof ao adtiU, und tlie rule in rc^cnrd to 
(Itftof aa infant of tondor yean, Ja (|Qite dtlTcrtuL By 
tbc ftdnlt there mu^t be givf^n tbot cure and nllcniion 
for hifl own firoioction that L» ordinarily ^xen'ittrd by 
jvrrvQiiA of inbdtiicciicr and dixcivtiori. If he faib to 
give ii, bla Ipjury Eb t1i« raeult of bis own folly, and 
caaoot bf] vUiEod upon acollier- Of an it^fatnt of tondtr 
jcam !«■ ducrction la required, and tbe dc^grcc <1cpcnd» 
upoQ liu ag* and knowledge. Of a rhiJd of tKr«v' yi^UTv 
of age kM caulioo would be r^'cjuimi than of ntip of 

•1AW«aiOi. 



fi8 co^TittncTORr xcouoirxcs or cniLDRrar, rm 



Mven, £UiJ of 3 cftilO of e^en kes iLan one of tvrits 
or fiftvGQ. Tlic oiutioM rtt^iiirrd u ftccmdiojt lo Use 
niBturit^ a&d caiAcilj' Of ibo clill^i, ami thb M to be 
<lctrmiincii in oAch cnat bv the rircuni«Uii«« of lUat 
oiKc.*' lu Buudi v< Lloyd,' ib<^ pkiiiuff',j««reu jrv«n of 
fl^ in ptfrforming ftn nrnmrl, )iaiJ fftfoly rro0nt6 xlm 
track of a rtUnud at k publio crowing. On rtriurnLOg 
he fbunil tli« cjxKvin^g Uuuked hy the 6vSta^ui'» OFSf 
id nliilrr cndcflTonn^ to pun under ooc of Uicca, tbo 
irv startwl* etncl the plaintiff vthm tud over aud injurfti* 
Tlie judge at L>ic triaJ in(Untcl«d Uic jnrj in Ilus9 
tcnna: " hai or liaH not n b<iy vbo U tnpMc of [M^ 
forinbg An erntrid «uinmiil iiiielli^^cDoe ftod dJacrvtien 
to know die liHsard of creeping under a tnin of mra 
)iabl« to be «tAtW at any iiioui«atT And bwl or bail 
not thi* plniniiff nuch iniHlig^nrfl sind diinHioD?" 
Ju^gmt-itl buvliig bteu vQttrvd on a irerdicl fiw ibo 
dofendantfe «sa ravonod In error. Wuo^IvrarO, J., in 
doliverin^ tbv j^i^jgtncnt, m.\A : " Children an; to 1w buUl 
ittipc*iiBil»le ouly for Llie diti'rtiion of cliUdreii. • ♦ • 
If he hod gc-no oui of IjU nay to placo binuKdf under 
tha tAm, it might be afoouotcd nubitM*, even iu « 
cliild; but puntitiag tlie bigbway be ma^ vi^ll Iiavo 
HiippofMl Hmt III? men wbo pb^ ibn curt tboro 
<<x|>i>ct^l blni to ]iH«8 noder tbein. OoDHJdenD^ bEa ago 
fli)d all ibc cirv*tiixi4ULncv9 of tho c&vo, wo mo oocbtDj^ 
tbut Mould justify tli« imputation of negligenco Orln- 
prad«iica. llo acl<^d likvacliild, and ho h no( <o bo 
judged u a muii. * * * The Klrvngtb c>f ihc pbmtiff** 
eHve la Ibat Tie bad n right to paae ulorjg tbe higUvrayp 
nnd tbn <laf«niinnlii hod no right to ohftrurt it. Ho 
wiui ill xlie extrt'iHO of a ri^hu in a nuuincr DUt nnrttt* 
eonnblft or imprudent for n fbild. nnd ibey TDJnnxd bin 
b^ rtfiwonor haytng slopped «h«rv tbujr had no ngbt' 
• »FMK6i.ase. 



oonuBinoRY veauoe^tcs of tsiFXKtb. 



69 



stop." Them mifif are vuppurU-d b^ mzuiy oUht 

71. h w, thf^xfore, not contributory i](!g1i^i[ici) id 
aa in^t to iull 1o exerdw Ui&t degrt^ of ciire foi 
bin C'vn ftft&tj, vbiclt xany roagonnblv bo «xpoctod in im 
nltilt of aiTMv^ (aptki^ttV- On thi.' namo principle, it m 
not oDutributory nrgJi^cncc in n paralviic lo fail to run 
wt&y from an imininent fiitcgt^, or in n blind umii not 
lo 0w an apju^oftcbiog peril, or id a deaf maii to ta\[ to 
bcftT a worui&g of danger^ nr in n foreigner who d<M« 
not midervlaiid llic Engli^b |[1ij;-ua^o to &;1 lo apprtcU 
aU and act opon a. v^ming spoken id (b»l tongue.* 



fi^m ffii^ <0 AoH Awn e<rriMrJ 6y Ikt it^ured ii^tnt, 

n. TUos, iu p. B. R. v, Kelly,; iho fuci« Ubj- 
almo4t idnnlii^I witb ihoM* in Ititiicit v. JAn^tX^ the jnil^e 
at tlw trial intfJructtd tbe jnry lo conaider "whttb*T 
tl>e tpjfirj ml^Lt htivtf boca avohlod by tbo cx^rcuu of 
tbftt CATC «nd dincTFtion irhicb irju rpi\«onnb1y to be 
looked for \n & boy of bi^ years," and tli^ jury having 

ft*. *HPMdt^4A U »0; Smith r. O'C-Kiiw, 14. 21«; IE- U, A F- Rj- r. 

Ev t- P- a &. U H. »M>: P C. P, Er- ft K«-vd, T& la. MT ; Ol«T ■-H. 
Ift^AIVU^, U. U|OfV-l^*J"'^'>'^l'-t">^X>l*'''l W-AU.n^.-bOUiJmini, 
» W4lL4ai; Ma«0Ji t^&Ck,K«^ KY^ M; W. P, By. » Oolli^u, 

K,T.MU4AAKa«&lLl^i.4ia[ lWli[.v«, V, VC. jk H. H. It. K. 

Xt.m- ii#r*9idi>L?c. Y. r-.Aii. ii h il^can. y^mh; ttrmttn. 

JI9t.P.Bf, nWlauLKi l\ Jl .L IL R. bGn«i^,bd IILlUtt^ IMuhJ <». 

A, &. E, 111 UfK m 
• VaUv *. C D. A u. Br, «a lev* SI 



JO 



OIXTnUIUTOXY XB0UQC7CS OF UTijria. 



ClHlQd foi tb<- pUmiiCr, judjTa^nt *>tx ihi^ verdict 
affinuttil is ctrur.' 



Whm iJb &|fMntf perm* it eirn/atfdly «/ (HKragt taptfUy ati mt 
infaitt «A^ 4k li^ thmry, it mt^ll mat U ^ ifft ht ike jvry «» dO' 
Umirii vfhit amount of diaer^ion pujU; tukdtr dk« oiVfMifcnw* 
0/ C&< jHiilieuJur VIM, (^ AotM JWn uierawJ A5 OU utfumf ^th^ 

7& The ^neral rule, hh «f^tefl In tL« [iwoecTing itf^ 
tion, 10, that -f fi* for tlic- jurv to ilrlcrmiur irhnt tifrouiil 
oif rou^an trnd dfBccL-iiori i)u);lil, iiii<ti.'r Uil^ etrftinuiatiMi 
>f th» particuW oaw^ to have been «x«niceil \ty tke 
j^jored in&iit, bat, ol' course, tbw doctnac ouitiot n«> 
voDftbly be ap]»11ed In tb« ofL«ee of iho^e irbo ato Infanta 
only in lognl theory, sji, for innutni^fr, thiuA who ftr« fx^ 
In'wu fuurt4*(?fi aiiU iwtruly-iane yuai^of >g^ In l^uj(k 
p, A. V» K, K-,' whpre thero was effirmM m error a 
jad^RDtof Doni^mt upon tl»^ ftrnunJ of ihtt Munlrib* 
litory Dogligimcti *j£ ibt- pluiuliiT, u Uiy uf bvlvtvn fiiui^ 
t««Ja aiid Hftofn yeara of age, Paxeon, J., in & carvfully 
T«BJM>nod jnd|;mAiit myn: "tito Inw fixu i^o arliitrnry 
perbd when tbt> iuiiuutilty of childhood oeaeas and Um 
rttpoQ^ibiliiic* of life bt^gin. For wni« pnrpop(« ma- 
jority is the rule. It is not bo ber^ It would be 
irrational to bold tbat n ra»n wa)> rc«|xiDtible Jor hia 
tiegli^Tioo lit twenty-one ycnn of a^u, mid doI n> 
nponnible a day or A w«eik prior tbcrma At vb^t &ge 

>§•* dD JoiuHo hCiA sr.v.nr^ « wwui^iiB. A i^n,B. 

a>Uaj Snn t.CA X.W.R^. «« Wiat «H; Tvnlc7 kCU-A t& P. 

a«<l«.Mt,A AULA rJu-ILRC^K )4.A U. Gj^-KCnub^M AU 
»0A, 8 An. A Ei« IL R f-H MO; JiAv<v i-C A X-W, R^^ VWIaS*, 

B,B.Cte,Ta?;r.«K n. n.>. lt«iH l3bili(K:r < II- IfrrroUnLX.r 
CAII.]L)La,l«X,V.!£i»; nJf;F.SatB.&.«TX.T,ajT;34un^ik 
CuRK 100 Mm «1Sj OCwinv h E A U IL K, lA U*m. U3, 1» Av. A 
liVt- IL K. 0» US. 



COVrunCTOBT XCOUQIIKCE op iTCTATm, 



71 



tbeoi mmt an biiuit^s ro&pODBlbilitj for n€gligf<noo 1)« 
promEnod 1<i r^crniic^^cv? Thia (lonttiiML cannot b» sn-* 
fwurcd by referring it lo tht- jury, TJiai would I'tKaiHli 
us witb no rule »fhHt**vor. It vfci;jl(l f^ve m b Wftre 
•biftittg AAfidnrd, uflcct^d hy tlio nynipathtw or prfju- 
dioft* of the jury bi ijat'li piriiLuUr caae. One Jurr 
would &x ihc period of rcspouRibilily at fourteen, 
mother nt twenty or lw«uty-oue, Thia m not n que*- 
iiou of fact for thtj jury. It. is fi»c«Ciou of Uw for Ihr 
court Nor iu Itn soliition di^criitt. Thv riglilH. dutiM, 
and rafpua^i)>fliliw of iiitaiiU ar« rk'arly dir^iK-d by 
ihtt Icil wriUr* itf well m bjr numeroui* Jccinlonn. Wc 
liaro soea tbat tho law pftettni«« that ui fourEoen yean 
of tg9 fta iafftnt biU Bofflci^iit di^rpr.ion nini iinckr- 
■binding to vdocl a ^lardkn uud coaEnic^t u marriu^fe, 
Si CAiKible of hurlHjruj;; uuilico unU gf Uikinj^ humau 
lifb Dudor ciixmnmiiuii^i^ ihal noni^liCLilc tb(^ oRnncw 
innrdcr. It, t}ii!rr]foro« r^^quirtm nu vtrmn U> hold rbiLt 
at fourtceu uu lufajit u prtwuuvrd lu Imve euffluiuut 
CApnciiy BAil nndcrwlftnding to bo s^nitiblc of d&ngrir, 
ftnd to huro the povcr cc avoid it And tbifl piyviiMi|v 
tioo ought to st^nd imlU it U overtlirowo by dear 
proof of tbc nbionco of xuch discrcclon and inlelligcoco 
Afl JA mmal with Snfkul^ of fuurtL'eti yeurs of &gc.''^ 

tpplltd iIh hdw nil to Lhv na* tt 4 bo* tixEmi rv* ■>' "^T^ i'** ■>« 
iMfWvli t.H.AIM« Ki.U >M, .117. 11 Am, A KnE U, iC.GiA IIA, when 
l9btlV>rM^ m flftAin ^D*n of ^: bnE l(k IJarrrDfEi. 1. H A \f . H. Ky^ 
01 ^. V. 4M, vbtr* ^br iitju^ uiImI *^ ft firl, ^lio «bb datIv ■DrBhTnru 
jrHTidf 1^ 4>4 *Tlihb Ln^iir;r w cEwirlr *1iv Cj> liff uvi^ i«ftlciiui<>H| ji «■# 
kaU Ikal Ik <ldfn* *if cu« !<> ba «fv«cunl hf hat w Udl H hlf h wi that 
*Urk *vi prafvrtj ^4nuii4>ib]» nf kA n^iUr ^nv^JX lAd ihal il i>«t Cot ih* 
^■rr tai Oawim vbtniiw or oui iliv ww mnLrilMiiarlljr na^tgnt 



OOVTKIBUTOBT SfEOUOeKCB OF UTPAVTS. 

mT fti«y>>fly, g A/pCr muw* ^ 4ay Dhm Ctol «««fA A «<Mi <« 

74. Orraiin^.arflilwBrov-Aitti KD biikalfOf to&p«r- 
0on of knonn iufeTi>>r nicuijd or {^bjfwcsl cftpftdt^, a 
hl^lior luon-turv of dtity thoii ihnt wlucb tl ovrtn lo 
fldultli of avprdgn n^niul and ph/8ic«1 <-;ij>acLljr ; Uius io 
BihiIIl r. O'Connor/ wli^ro the plnintjfl^ M:vca jam of 
Bg«, EQod to rooovor damfli^ from lljc Jvf^^UnuI f<ir Uifc 
baring nfgHg^ntly drivi'n n !ioT*e and wagon on^ brr 
ut u publio croainj^rjiKJguiuit oil ft verdict for tbcploto- 
ciJT waa alLnucd in error. Sti-oug, X, anyiug, "uuduubt- 
odly the ogr And ctip^Ldtjr of tbc? pcivon inji3r«d maj 
bttvc Buuif-ibuig t<j d(j ytlik thv i^uoftiou, ivlictbcr n de> 
foudant na« ^illy of ik«gltg«Dc«, for ^very onft bas a 
Tight to act upon th(* HiippoKition thitndull ponoDavilL 
utke ordiQury cure k> avoid daiij^r, vbile web & pr^ 
eumption r^ unw:irr»utcd mpociingthccondoctoftbcee 
who have not yet rmcbcd jean of disorction- HeQco §. 
fiigljer degree of f^re aui] grn^tor pr«c^ulioii ato JuHlj 
dcnittUclcd to nvoiil injnry In Uic Utter." Tine eaDw 
rule ii upptlocl wbcre tli<i miKuy (vrvunU know tb^l an 
adult is iocapacitat^d by deal^en,' and io ui(^ a caae 
l1»y arc bound to cxercivc for hia protoc^ion * gmur 
doi^rce of core tlian tliey would bo requir^ to exfirdM 
if ibey did not know of bia incapacity. 



Jigjmi of fiU infttTUip, ur tit^tv tttatjiaaly, uf U* v)^vww4 piratm mB 
not n/'ply the vitmt rr/yriKf t^ neyiijvncB «ft Ok p4rf if Af r•tfi*03^ 

76, The fiurt of the lafancy of (he Injured party wtU 
not mii^ply wantof proof of nt^gligirnft* upon Ui9 pan of 
tb« roiiway ; tlmii. in A. T, A S. F. Ey. K Fltnn/ the 






lU 



ooffnuBUTOBv vix^uocxce oy ixi-Atrn. 



78 



>1uDLiir, a girl of Hvo yMUV of (tgo, hartag;, wltL Hti<iLlie.'r 
girl of llio aani« ftg^ been |)Ut by a rvlaiitv on the nut- 
»•/« ttuia lo prw»cd lo ft way el8lion,aufl th« »errjiutii 
tn cbftTfEc of tlw train mipponttg llicm to be uiiijcr tbe 
charge of a paMcnger not liaviu^; ooll«cUi J any Turc from 
tkciu tior uiijuircd oa to their dcAliantlon, and t1j« iraip 
Ittviag arrived and aflor v^tJuj; a rcuouDulrlc lbii<j for 
fWMOfTvr^ to alight, had gctlen under way, when tli« 
plaifitiiT in tLUcmjitiii;: Ui alight wut injurrd, it wdj^ held 
UialUieraiUuy wiwnoLlbbk'. 9y iuC RdQ.R. B, 
«. 8ttin|i«,' tho rnilfrny vaji hc\<\ not to Iw liable to a bo/ 
Df«CT«o jeare of agu. who waa UijurtHl wMk t-ncWrar- 
ii^ U> dinb on ou9 of tho car^ ofa frvlgbt iroiu* which 
wuxnorin^OD th(« railway line which had horn cnn- 
MmctodoQ a |kubUe highway in a i4>wu. theproofahoi^ 
lag that the train wa^ moving alowly under proper cou- 
tro), aid that it waa adcqiintdy manned. l5o ivt 
McMtih4>Q V. N. C. Ry,.* th*? rj^ilway vtm held not to b* 
l&abla to a boy low than aix y*jf^r» of agr, who vsa id- 
JQCvd vliilc atlfuiptiL^g bi cmwl undtT n oar in mcilloo. 
So io OoUrtag V. P» K R,/ the railway was held nol to 
be Uabl0 lor Uw doaUi of a boy, wlio, having tal^cn }m 
Mat bcEKath a fruight car on a trcstk was kill«d by a 
■iid(J«a starting of tli« train. So in 0, B. U. P. R, R. 
«■ 84010/ the railrond wu« bdd not to b« liable for the 
dooli oT a bo>* who cUiabed on a uar on a bidiog, 
lowoiwd il8 hrakf«, and ft:l] otT nr Jnmpfld OifT in front 
of thtfi mr M it wim moving by force of gravity on a 
down giwdv. So b Wt'cidcll f, N, Y. C. & 11, R, R. K," 
«Lti« ft father Kuod for tbi? duiih nf a tan Hcvcn yi-arv 
of agi^, wbo, bdng Mcuvtomud to go to aehouL and alxjut 
ihe Mfeeca without an alleadant, waa roo over and killed 
ftt a loTcl crOMing of a highway in thi» dty of Sohunuo- 



*ttKiai.U7. 



• ii y, v. 430. 



■OtUoL^U. 



74 UCT0XIC4TIOX Aft OOSTIUnilTOBT ^tmUOKTBOS. 

tiv*ly, vhlh nttf^jiting to mn ftcroM <tvn linn m pUin 
view of uu upproucbutg trujn, it wm txJd Uiat lUc^ jiUio- 
tiffKhonld liave Wn uoueuUcil. because llttr UDCoutra- 
diclod Trsciniotiy pro^mvij (^«i iiit bdi^lf ttbnv^d no 
Q^t'ligence. So hi Hoor« v. P. R B.,' a tomil^ ruling 
«M made in the cd» of s boj ka vcanof age vlio 
wae kUlnl irhilc tro^uusin^ no n niil^nij |jn& lu 
SbcnoAFi V. 11. (t 8t, J. R. R.,' Uoii^li, J., ijuotn wilh 
Approval the roiucirlc of Agncw, J., in Floici^r t>. K 
R. R-i" tbAl rhe youth of ibe penon injured "maj 
4fXeu»i?- him fiom concnrring negligence, bul il csfiDOt 
•apply tbt; plac« of nejslijct-ucu an the part of tbc com* 

77ui Jitel of tJi€ intarvvtitm a/ttu' ru/u-ml pmaH of ih*Um* nf lf»hf 
jnry u^// jiuf rt^/y nut refin-o hiin/roTH tha kj/itt emttqum^m ^ kit . 

j»rw/ (ff ttnunimlirry tujjUgettte. 

76. Tht- fiL(rt thut thc^ pcmon Injured waa tntoxiCKUd 
at the <iine of the iujnr^r. wDl not r^H^vo btni IVona Ui« 
legal con*i^qticni!(v or liiii cimtrihctorr ncgli^cnca*' 
Pruof of ihn tuloxicuiiuD of the pe»oii i»jun>ii at Ui9 
timft i^f thi* injury, is ndmi»ihlfl in nvidcnOft for thia 
deftfitditnt, if tbu intoxicMed »tate oftlie perwn U^uiwL 

> a WtvlLlj Kom of Chh (Ttoub) »C, « Am. A Ijig. R. K. Ck »». 
• 7C Ma aSL 4 Aq. 4 Enf. B, B, CMl AaOi 

■ 00 Pnt» ^ lie. 

riu^^lrniti. Umlti, 37l^jlV4; KflUrr -. Ak K. K. IL Ckl. .lOAn-AB^p, 
R1(.iV.H:n;llqtut.CM,4ai.^B/. 6r»nK.)»,U.Ui.aE^aa 
C^l.TOi >Ew4.r4 vm.1. R|L,7IU&Ka«S AAA JK^IL IL 1^»| 

>K«n*^H A O A ». m Nil. IX » An, A &«, B. B <W SBI > T. P. 
AVT, ILtt, >;lU1<r,iTm,Mt;C,h.tAP. K.X.fe.Ml,n 14.101} LC 
B.RtJ!uUhluw. IT ld.4«4; W«l. t. X. Ol A C. E ^ SI U Aa.lS» 
HUUioH •. V. T, C « II IL It, 1^ <C y. Y, U& 



XjniWLJCDOKOrTIIXITLrCltKDrKWBOX^ttlXCil'JiOlIT, 7J> 

COntrtbulAd to Uiv hn|>[«'-n]ng of xha injury.* KvuIunGC 
u BiliuiiHiblc ii} >lio« UiAt the pldiuliiT wufl tui Lubliual 
draDknrtl, »x heaxiif^ ou llic qooetion of lite corn|Ninui* 
tory danngoi U> ^hicb he muj^ bo cnutlvd.' 



roi^kiqr ttiftfp dp Aipn uvfcr ^irvimdana/t in which if i»>fjJJ iiitt U 
J&iUf f* ■ junon of luwit^ fupaciiy, imUm t\at ine^taij hi 
infliA It Mf r/tUvay ttmnti. 

77. It liita Wu HtnUid tliat kuowlciSgo OD the |>&rt of 
the milwuy of the tnjarixl pcnoiin incnpicity, impo«(« 
upon ili« railvraj & liigljrrr laeoaure of Jaty with re- 
gard to lEiat prn«oo, but h in, ncvcrLhclcv, c1<:ar, tliJit 
tiie irmpooitj of the injurixi pereou, Ef not known to 
th« railway eervantM, wJll iioi rvGiIer th« railvrny Itnble 
Uikdt-r cirvuiiuitaDctJai tu irbich it uould Qot be liublc to 
pertfow nho are not ao [iicapaciUil«d. Tbb rule has 
been applied in owe* of <leflf porwinB.' 

7d. It in viinti to bti Hiid tbiit tho inoupndtjr of thu 
peraou iujun:d imptieHS ou bitu tbe duty uf cxi-'rciflii^g, 
foe bie owu prolcctiou, that digrpo of cam for hi* nwn 
iftffTlT ihaC will, nn fir nx pnwiUlc'T d^mpirnnite for hiv 
impairvd Mmma of bearing, uir of ut;ht, or oibcr diBik- 
biUty.' 

•Honfaai^W. 4b R K. K. lOlnidlOf^ I. <; K. K. * Hqlchlmnn, IT HL 
«»; VrMW*.KO. A C K.R. «:■ U,Jta«LA; UrbrO, A & B^a.B 

MTat-iai, tAo^AEoH- i:.it lV,i;)l- 
>aJ^, fi iL> 8Qih*taiiii0oiii4a. 111. 

'C,C*CltIl,»'Ufi7,lt Oh[o«.aTWi I'm!. w.y.CU. IL,11 Johh 

HACRR •,Tht«,9 Ohio ».«T0; Xiiamerami k U. A ai,J, E, K.tl 
U*, <ia, V Ajv. A Kw K-h-tW 1P1: PurlnHt UK^CA S. Ilr-.n>(a^ 

m« AB.A EuriLR. CK^TiC.Ay.^^R^,f.UtU». 40 uich. imp« 

Ab.AC^RIL1^i«; Ulrli>p *. XO, J, A H L K. SA Ia \cl, »S0 ; 
CnffiJI*aACB,fc,ftOF^Qo4n. 



76 XSE rLjJsrrirr'ti cowisiuuxoiEr sixiuoKarQk 



Tin. THB FiuxnPF'a oirir coNTftiBntJtRT 3iaau- 

OCX<TE WUOI SU1HO FOR IKJCttl^B TO TUX FEnVOV 
OF AVOTBER. 

kttitetfoT dvnas* tit hini$^ rrmiUingJrffm Ifu ptmtial ii)fUi(a *f 

70, Thtt plnintiir* ovti oontributfirf ticgli^taicoTill 
bar ]ik r^QQ^vry, uut guly vU»u U« niuw lur hk penuciul 
injiinnif but ntco nlic:) he ei]«s for tlie Iom cuirail (0 
liim by penooul ii^uri«« <t()ii« to Krmt one ehM, tt 
ih a hu^ikd, master, or parenl £uca for lliC loea of 
rcMcrriccAof AH injure] wilc,iicTTaQt, or child/ Thui^ 
it liiuf bwn hoM to be uontrjlfulory uegltg«iicfi la a 
jiarcnt te koo«i»gly alW &n infjijit of Ics« ibno four 
yi'um of n^ to go al Jargo in a city «Uxvt without a 
protector f or, & boy to aerve tlie drivera of Iioreo cvfl 
wltb n'uUrr ;* or, a boy to lide iipoQ tb« IcmI horer of a 
tcum at JL railway crouing, tbc teonurter retunuig no 
control over tbat bone ;* or & boy to «erT« Ubovvrv OD 
A cnn>itrnotion imin with WTitcr;' or dulilnn to pluy 
upoD u ruilvTtty Vuw^ 

SO. On ibo orbi^r hancj, it bw b^nn b«1d not to b« 
nACflANirily contributory n<!^1i^i.<nc» in poruita to pur- 
luit u cbUd of eij-bto^u moutba of ag* to pU; £■ doee 

U.4fi(i;CukTh ?.c;a0l L-K^^aa jd.'TMj r n. &.#. j)«k,oi id. 

Vr, ]b)llfirr,&aaRH at , id Am, a £i«. lt.K<^»a;B.4l, 
B.av,Siijd>r.M Ohio KCCdfF.r W,«QIL &». Vkb« XT Ul 
lU, 
*aiM^B.F.A P. Rf^n PvpEuhiktTl 

• IMI- R. «. HDdE, v;l EVuu. &ru 4tf7. 

' V'iniubt, T, A 1*. R7'>flDTtfL?U4> tA Abu Aftif.E.ECK <»; tiA 
CB.B.1'. W<dn5»tp<l. A»; J. U A I RR.« TW«h,« IW. Ut; A[h«rl. 
tm Ih K. A IX >I. IL]L,al^i«Bi^Lr3i ITwvd tv C d >\ W. Kj^U ITlKAJft; 



vzouoExtrc or foor farc^tb. 



77 



firoxinitj to a rallwfty Iid^v umler 1li» guard innthip of 
kuioibar cUiJd cigbt yean of Kg? ;^ or to #i?ni] n boy rino 
yam of il|^ tipoa an orrUD^ nhich nsjuired him to 
wnlk upon a railway lino;' or, to leave a child of ItnilfT 
ypiim iinilur thi? cure of n boy thirti<cn ynm<kf d^;* or, 
auij«r the <iurv of a j^irl <rr viglit jmnt of ug«-* 

81. Il hfMi born hr!il tbni poor prnvntn of infflltt 
cbildrm are not t-<iu tributarily ot^^cl^f^^^it ^f ^^^^y '^'^ ^"t 
rtut ihoir infMut cbildt^ci from btruyiu^; Jitto tbe 
|)iibHe>troc4«, orupon (lie lincact'tAilwAys.* The jnd^ 
nenuin iho^eca^ms^iu tohavebevn lar^ly iiifluettD^i] 
by th^ MMiiimrnbil rr-di-ctinna of tJi<^ J(l<I^ npon tli4 
poverty oftho jjluituIiVs, ami Uidr tfjtiM'qiii^ni itmtiiliiy to 
tploy wiTuitfi to watch iltelr djildrea, ani3 ibe liani- 
«htp of requiritig tbcm to keep tliMc cbihlrcn nilhin 
doOf9 vhen they oould not go eaff<ly abroad ; but ih'j«» 
Ifamod joHgM fnn«i4 to giv^ fhin wnighl to tho r/innid- 
ermlion Ihut the rui!iniy was not rvqHiuNible for tlio wti 
of cbo parrots In bi'In^ing the childii-n iuto tho world, 
nor for that dngrcv nf mi»fortnnr whtt^h mlAinod thona 
parantii id a uouilitluEi ul' taarv or k-os wutiL. aijJ Uiut 
Umnt 19 fto rolo of Isiw. nor principle of jostico, which 
compfll* rallwayii to inmr^ th« public aj^innt the niKV** 
Btry iuclJenU of jioverty. nor which euililc-^ people, 
*itl>fT poot pr rich, to m«ko, ul \\u: tipcnw! of rnilwnyn, 
priolitablo f]x>cii}M lions owl of the rkMiLhM of tlii? ('hiklrt'n 
whom ibeir own neglect of pui'cntnl doty baa o:cpo8od 



> P. K IL I. Ufrk :o P<iLnB, fik sa, 

'<! A A. E. k. •. Uf-piTT. M Il» aS«, 

■P.A.A M.Bx-hrMr*d.73 rtoih. St. 1««: P. 4 RIkB.<^L>H«n 
ti V7l fteM. Cb ft Junn, tflj Id- Itft^ T'. IL It w, f j>vK TIP 1d,Sli 
Ui9f* L r. It A SL P- Rj,. i^l WiK. 357.19 Am- A Ei» SLBChT*; 

J*n 71 ; (/FblMnx t U, B. Dl, tA »c. TO; Frkk <^. 6l L, K.C. A K U. ft^ 
TO V*. ML 10 Ja A e^ & K CW TTDl 



78 ATTiUBUTiGar or 



GABUEKS zesauodOK 



U> periL Tlie cneiof PtarHUD, Long, Lcvrli, uoo Junni 
nrc op«n 1ocriUd»ni in oiJ>ct m^HVta. Id PcvKia's 
ciM tba jtirj w«n pcrmitltd to Bnd tltMt ft gifl of «igb; 
)rear8 of age v&a a (^mi>oieiit nnrae for an m&nt j)«i^ 
iniUc<l to lAny lu projLimIt;y U> a milvaj Unck, yet »Doh 
a findiiig ]« dttirlj coDlniry to rmtcn. In Loog'Vi 
X>dvia*«, and Juiiee caMoi. tlj? injured infnikU< wore irc^ 
psMcni* ojid U)« dd't-u^unt*« oitvd ao duty to iLcm, 
And. a/tirl^m^ norto lo I he parfulJi nlio took &o Cfir« to 
|ir(TTL-nt thi'ir cbildrrn jitmyitig into danger. Judge 
R«diield» vitti b^ usual vkaruc6», ex|>i««Me aouiul vlt-«a 



JX. Tl]£ ATTKUtUTJON OF TBEl CAfifitCX a HtmUQGRCZ 
TO TIIK TAIESEVOKU. 

U'Kfrv o j^sMtair/rr wue* for ij^vrieg rfom fty 6EW Ann tt** pattrw 
^Bf't oofrittt ntyfiffenta vfum ifu ^"jft of thai forrirr it^ m Knmt 

S2, Th« reason of th^ ttHq w, not that t]i« Mrtuit of 
ihe poK^ngcrV ciirricr, who, by bia no^'Hgcncc, haft coo- 
lribul«id to tlie accident, is pns Aju? vi>« the wrvaitt of 
the pn^^ngrr, but tlint tlic canitr w ibo for tbu agunt 
of the pu^^Df^ tbfrt bia ncgli^^nce Utbc iiaasenger'a 
iipgligoiicxi, or, in othsr trorda, tJiftl l.ho pn»rngrr. Hav- 
ing entniftcd biii pvrtfou to tbo c!iuTierp uiid Imviug b«VD 
ti^ured b; tbc ne^ligencf- of tbat CArrior. conihin^ 
with T.bi> nr^ligftn«*of n third p»rty who wa* not iin*\tT 
any ofrntntduul duty Lu Uuu, cauuoI be p«ruii(tod to 
recovor from ibal tbird pmty for atj injury vbicb 
would not boTO happened If H bad not bei-n for iwgtl- 
geuoe 00 tb«t part of tbal oirrior co-nprmtiDg in bria^ 



ATTButuno^ OP TOR casjuer's zveouoevcb. 79 



lof* (bo pMiaogtr into « pcwtion o£ diu]g(>r. Tbia rulo 
oi Inir i» t4tctLlj ftswoied, though not oxproMly nTAtod, 
in Briilp; t. G. J. Ry,,' for them tJio couiribuUkry mg* 
li^nce tthicli waa uouEudervJ, vnas nvl the pWiaUtT'i 
own ne^lig«noc, bill thni of hU curHrrr^ In Thoro^L^od 
1J. Bryaa.' Ui« pbintiiT jfued lo ret^over, uod^ Lord 
Ounpbcir^ Act, for ihv d^aih of her huebaQtl* who vvttJr 
eegti|;vntlj ki!l«i by tJio ddrndont'n acrvnnt driving on 
ommhiw, tli« decvdtMiC hHTing b<X'n u jiuauengcrr oq im- 
Othcr otnaibus whwc dHvcr Wim negligent m not drniv- 
bg up at tW curb, and in ]>ernuttjnK Ui« decedent (o 
alight on thp strwl iVom lii* oiuniha? while in znoHort. 
At Iho trial Williamji, tT., directed the jury that "if 
Ihcf mtre of opinion lliai iraut of care on Iho part of 
tfaa driwr of his omnibnn in not drawing np to tJio 
curb lo put till" dot'i?us*«l di>wu, or any vtunt of tTire on 
th<? part of lb** docojwed hiineolf, had boon conducive- to 
the injury, iJi«>r Tfrdit^t miirt ho for ihfl dofrndftnt." 
TL« jury Imviug found for ibv dt&ndant, a nile fur a 
&•« brial wn» dl»cbajg«d, Maale, J-, ^yiug, "if ibo 
dooeoMil binnelf had been driving the cubo woutd hnvo 
bo«D rr«« fWtia doubt. So th^re could have Iwon no 
dotibl hnd the driver boon ciaploycd lo diivc him and 
no oao vW On tbi< part of ibe pbuiitlfr^ it m aug- 
pmiwl that a paiMcnger lu & public eonirfyancti has uo 
control over the drivL*r. But I think ibtt cuiiuot with 
propriety be »ii He ael«cu Iho oonvi-yanct*. He 
Mitvn iaio a contmct with the owner, whom, by hie 
icrrint, be tauployn (o drive biiu. If be is di^sAl- 
liAod with the mode of cooveynnce, be lb nuL obliged 
to Rvail himtwif of it. According to tbi^ trrme of thtf 
ooalract he nn^uixtionitLly hud u roLiRnly fur any ncg- 
]]^j<inen on the pnrt of tlio pcirfon wiib whoru ho cun- 
Cncta for tbo journey. * * * If tben^ i» nt^Iigenoo on 



80 ATTBIBUnOff or IBZ Ca&&I££*S ysouocxcL 



the [>art of diow who Imve ooaLmctcd to carr^ tbo f^A- 
i«n^r», thoM who ftr^ Liy'nrod hAvo ft c1(«r nitd un- 
i3(iubb?d »roedj ngninitt them. But it twttnB MrvDgt to 
Aay. thai, although ihe defeu^lant couU not, uoOcr (ho 
ciTciinitl^inco, be linblc to tbi? owntr of tlio othor oin* 
nibuii for aTiv dntnage rloni) to Ills carrki^ he m\i 
wooM bo rorponnihJo for an injiiry to a poMcuj^cr. Tho 
piHFwn^r la not without remwly. But^aa rfgaHe die 
present (^^ftnclant, be is not RltogeUier without fnult. 
He cho» hb uwn conTcynnci^ nnd niujtt takv iJir cocs- 
aoqaoiic^ or atij <K-fiiull of the driver whom ho «aw fit 
to Lriia!." 

83. ItiCatUriv, HilWtliG iiltuutiC, having b^Ei a F^a- 
N^ngfTr on tW Moflmboal "Ponp of thn Thaitirti," «ith 
which Uk lidVndant'* boat '*Pup|"hire" had co!Jiii«d, 
and havjng hcan Iiijui-edby reitaou of ihc anchor of lli^ 
Son^ of thp Thnmr* buring become dtnlodged in th« 
poTliHioa and frtlliog ui>on him, brought hi* action agalnat 
ihe ownora of the Sapphire Crttawoll, J., dii^cccad the 
jtiry tbiit the plainliH* vw not cnlitl^^d to rrcortr if tboj 
weru t^f (ipiuioii iTrnt thero baJ b«<t<n uei^'Iigeiice cin tli« 
l^nrC of thr^Ac cntniHtlcd witit iLc conduct and tattaug^ 
in^ut of thi- @oLt»oflhoTlmmc«, but that tbejr rousi dJ^ 
mitt; from th«ir mind!^ aII tbftt hail b'^'^n caid nhoni tM 
itowin;; of lite nni:tii>r. for the plntiitilT would bu ca* 
lilloJ u> a vcihlicc avvu tbough \\ivy a1ic<n)d ihlnk 
thnt. thn nncbnr hnd bnnn impropnriy Trft iinfn»4on«d. 
The jury bimng fmind for ibt' pkinliiT. a rule for a new 
triul u|)oii tiii^ ^ruuiid of miadiroo^oii waa argu«d, hut 
bfrforo judgment WM rrnd^red fh* raw mF n-Hkd. it 
bdng ilEt«d in a nol€ to tli« re[>on thai it waa under- 
Stood lliat iho court woiiW have dJK-hnrgcd tbc roK 
In Arrastrtrng v. I* A Y, By-,* lli* L. & N\ W. By. 
had etrittitory running [lowersovcr Ui« dofendant'a Him^ 



ArnLtiono^r or riijt cjnuui-jt'i Brbui,t(3»tCK. 81 



wu tmvt^ltiu^ on ihi-'it puss nud iu ihtur trtua over tho 
cMenOnntV lin^i, and iran injured bj* an accident ceaeed 
bj thu ooncDrring Dugligenoc of tJie two ixjnipHniM. It 
ftra^ bvid ttiHt lLo plaiDiiff wu« 00 ^r ideuLiiivd wiUi tbo 

oflui being ai paH-[]>^tfr <ni itd iraia, tliut ht» could tiul 
rocovor for nogli^nco to which x\wv hod cotiiributod. 
In Child r, Rotrn>* the pUintitf, n phlo iay«r in the 
aerrico of Ui« G. £. Ky,, wjia moving on their line in jl 
hand cnr when tbit df:f<--ndn tit's pigs* huviiig run throuj^h 
« ftfcce whicli the railway haJ, iuid«r aUtutory ohli-* 
^■liona^ oorutniotcd, and which ifhs im^unjcunUj (^d- 
■tracled, opwl the hand Mr and lujurad the f^kbtiir 
h wa» hdd that th» phiintiff by uaing tho oompany^a 
ling for ihoir piirpwc* ww idcntiJiod with tJiflir n«gli- 
^ncc? und coulJ uoL n;ixiv<jr irom the dtli-xidaiit.* Iti 
Peiiuaylvauiu the doctrine seems to hnre be4^u aJopMid 
to ilA fnll f^irrnt. In Bimpfion v. Hnitd,* tho plnintiffiv, 
owner* of ^>odi sbip|)iHl on the Httiuuer TUurn, whicli 
w»d run into by the steonicr William Ilonr^ and the 
good>^ do«croj<fd. brought an nct'mn nf^Mnit thit owners 
of iJie WiUiam Hi-ury, who dtfoudeU upuu tli« ^rtruml 
ifaat tliecollifliork wcu* coiilributcnl to by tJto iicglig«rice 
of tho nutter and cn>w of Th« Thorn, It wn» held that 
tho Offgtigenco af the carrier'^ crew was iLttrii>uinMe to 
1I10 pli^ntif&r nod thtit tlicy conid not recover. In 
Lockhnrt 9. LichlAitlmkr/ the pWulitf, a widow, ■uud 
to re&>viir for ti>n d<-.kth of bcr hiiT^band, a hrakamnu 
upon ooal «m which wury run owr llit A, V. R. R. by 
loeo«otlv«of i\w 00113 puiVr t}(a lUcmlpnt hnriag he^n 

n;, Ahi 'H-* itoHius*' u r, Pl h. 
« 



62 ATTBlDUnOX OF TBZ OK£I£a*il 5&OUGK3rCB; 



dofondnnt hnd D^^gUg^ntl^' placed n«fir Ibo nulrond 
tnwk, najfUgnncG upon the part of tbe A. V, R. R. hat- 
iog v.vmtnbuLi>d to the accideaL At ibo in»L the judgQ 
iniicnicti^d tliRJurr tn diiiragarii ibc r^utrjbutory nvgli* 
genoti rjf rh« railroikJ, but jaJgrnenl upon & vtrdiin for 
the pliiintifT was tcvarscd in error, tlic Supvfime Court 
haUling thai thfT cciitriburory noj^'lig^'MOt^ of ibe cnrrier 
miiirt be impnt*H| to Uj* drcoi3fmt- In 1*. tk It E. K. r, 
Buyur," tbu pJiiititiff sued iu rtcovt-r ior lb<i? dt-iilb of bur 
hiiflhand. a jioweng^r In ft Cftr of ft etr<Tet Fnilfrnv, wlio 
woM killed in n cnWmon of bw i^r witJi lh«t ddWidnnt't 
tnirfi- JuJ;;iu(-ii[^ upon u vt-rdk't for Ebc [ibtnlilT irnd 
r^vnrRpd in rrri>r biv.aniio thft juHgfl nt ihr ttiaJ took n«ny 
from ibc jury tb«qntfatioii of the oonnibutory neglifeaec 
upon the pari oflhi- Urivcr of the vln>ot car. 

Si. Tbcro ari>, how^rrcr, »oin« KngliUi <aM» which 
diAuot, at tir&l sight, sfwni to be rwoncilnht* wiUi lh« 
prewiling cafl<?*i. In Rigby v. Hewitt,' ihe plaintifl*, 
]mviu]{ Itcnn n pcE^ngcr in on omnibi», brouji^it mX 
H^niTiai the owiiore of ftuother oitinibus vrhlch, whilft 
t>oth omnlbnaea were driving at gnat )i|}ccdj collidcil 
with the oninibuE in which tho plainild* wan a pamcnger 
and thrflw him out, Rolfe, B., dirpcied th* jory ifaM 
the pluintlfTwus not diaeutitlcd lorvt^ver mrrvly bcciiuM 
Llie umnibun in vrliiob be eat waa driving ftl « fUrioua 
toXb nf Hpnrd, and thnt if the jury thcnight the coDiuno 
pbuM from the ii«g1igQiicu of the driver of defcnl- 

^fflonuiibuAftnd thnt plaintiff's cmnibufl wa* BOt i» 
fault, in not end«Avorlng to avoid the nrddent^ tlwn thi 
det^ndaiU waa liable. The jury btkrlng foiutd fbr the 
plaintiff a new trial wn* moved for xipmi ihe jcround of 
miBdIr«ction, but tlie rul^ wm reJWed, Tu Cmnland 
f. Chaplin/ tbt facia were t^urkmtdjr iikblical witli ihnM 



ATIR£BOK»r OP THE CAKKIEB'm NBOUGEirCS. $3 



in C«UiJi V. ICILl Pu11<kJc, C. B.. illrecu*^ Uie jury 
tbfltirUiay wnre of tbf opinion thni the collwon «n4 
oving t4 bwJ oavigfttloa of l)m Utfe^otlimt'A otunmboat, 
llie}' alioiild QnU for iho |>[ati>tL0', Aud jf tlicv thougbc 
thar# wnn any rtc^li^nrsi dtlicr in the «tow»gfr o£ tbo 
aacbor or on the jj^irl uf llt4' i^UintifT in piiltiug UiiUAulf 
ia Hio [>Uce irlicjc he vnu^ od l>oard hi*: ncninboFLt they 
Bliotild fiud ri;»r the litfrndaiiu Tliu jury having founi 
for cbo plaijilitTa rate Tor ft n«ff iml was duchar^vdi 
PoUoclc, C iJ., uftor Daiacicaliuit oci Jio findiDg of iho 
jury which hxd D«gat1vecl n«gligeDceon llie pftitofUio 
pUmtifr« currbr, addeij, '*(hi conKideratioa I stn of 
opiuiuD tUitt ih^ law. a^ laid d'jwu bj me Iti Uiii* mpcct, 
WW not correct. I ^niii^iy concur wiib the rn^i of tW 
court, tiMt A pvrHT/u who ifl guiUy of iivgligumv, and 
Uwf«il»7 produce tE^ury Lo auoth^r. Iijib u4> ri^bt U> eay 
«-'l'iut of that mLKhi^f would not have arisen, if yt^a 
jMndf had aot hucu guilty of some negligence.' I 
tju&k tkni wber« ttio ne^ligciice of tbe party Loured did 
not in any d«groa contribuic to Iho iiniucdiaie cause of 
thieaodiimt|eu«b aflglig^rtou ought not to bv set up oa ati 
muBvttr to tbe action. And certainly I am not aware 
Uwi acoordijis U> uny (I«ciia0fi which hoa ever occiirrcdr 
Um jury am to tak« iha cone^qiWDoea and divide them 
in proportion nor^rdiog to tbv ucglt^c^ucc of the ono or 
ibf other party." Yot tbcBe o«e«e are not really author- 
iticp ajpiiHt the rule, for in oacK cmmt th« findinpf of the 
jory negallv*»d oogligeur^ on the part of tbt |i!aiulifl"ii 
carrier, and the dicta of thn jiidgiwobnou^ly bod n^fer- 
«U(.^. nut to tbti liability of the puubngcr for ibo negli- 
gence of hi> carrier, in goiii^ra], but to hta liabiHly for 
that n«i;IigeQoe opon tho jmrt of the carrier which 
wa» too r«DOtA to he conaidcrod a proKiniaX« cauae of the 
Injury. In Mann v. Wicand,' where a widow «4od u> 



d4 AltvMB'ho.Y OF THK ClftftlKH'ft VKmUOEXCK. 



iMoror Tor injiiriM r^uliitig in Ui«i drnlli of faerhi»band, 

to Alive nnd wn« MagcArriod^ judgxucitt u;>oaaTCTdict 
for iht plhiTititf wfw rcvcraed on otbcr graiuul*, but in 
his Jtidgiiif.rii Mrreur, C J., sud : "tli« famb&iid lirtd no 
control or nuttjorily orrrthc driTcr^ n^^rdid Ok drinr 
control t1i« pemtnul conduirt of UiA buabiuid. He, 
th«rc&rc, wni not liablo for tJM»D«gli^nlcoikdlMtoriIiG 
drWer, * * " Nfj^liK^ttcv in u general ti»ive voold not 
proCficC tho defencJ^iii from Liability fi>r a direct aiid 
pn^iimntv injury cnujif^d by bit own ni^i^cv." 
Judgment ufKJii u T*;rdk-l fwr tbu plamtUT w^* U'vtrwd 
in rrror upon olbnT gmuode, aiid tlie remaiksoif IIm 
WrncU Cliicf JuEfticc njfon tbii; mibj^ci nu'l l>c regArded 
«a obitsr dieta, viWkIi ure out to be rvwuclled »ilK U>6 
judgmontt of bis court in ibo curlier cow of Lockiiait 

IJ(!hl^ntbA!«r or thi> Inter i^iuan nf 1'^ £ H. R. H. «. 

>yen in wbuH^ decii^un be partidpBtkt, In Bngland 
ibc rule bft« bovn cniiciftcd by ibc learned cdilor of 
(^miib's L«idin^ Camb,^ by Williom*. J,, in tbo oooirve 
of the arguiiuinr. in TulT v. Woriuan/ And by tLennne 
jnd^ again in Wniic i\ N, K. ify.,* nud by Ur. LtuJi* 
in^ton in Tbe Milan,* but Its N^-«inT-jnance In iht faen 
vhicb bnvt been cil«d from ibe I^w ItofKirtA mould 
aeem to abuw tfmt in tliv oplniooa of Euj^lJah jml;:i^ 
tliMA cnti^ibriiB aro not ^cll tbuTidc<l. 

85. In Little, RfceivOT, vXp., v, }i*ckoiif where tbo 
Bu-U vrtre ibat Ibe pbiniill', wbile bviny^ dHveo in a 
biroil biK'k, wmi iiijtirpd nl s graJp crtn^in^ bv tlip roi** 
(Ttifring ntgligtmrc of tbi* niilwuy nnd tbc IimI drit«i, 
tbu jud^^e at tbe trial directed tbtf jury ibal tbc u«gli- 
i;aao« of tM bnek drirtr wns not to be aUribntod to tbe 






•ica:*.B,T«iLif £atr 



ATtOUlCriOJ QY TUS CJJUtU»'» VJEOUOJCVa:. 85 



U ttidfli h thouU bs Ibund lliat (be poneucer 
And conlreJIM tiM setionof ttm ibKcr TIte 
jvrjr Itaring fouad a vonlJ<*t for t]|« pUintitT, juilj^nHfiit 
tborcoQ wn* aiUnncd by tltc Supppnac Court of the Uniteil 
Stikrt upoD a bill oi' ax(x*j>tiaiu to iUt' dirvi^Iion nf i\w 
}]^dff9B,t die crial, Fiold, J., id d^livoriii^JmlpDt-jii, 
litd : " Cnies cited ttoui the EnglUh couru * * * stnil 
Bomeroiitt oUien deeldod Ea tliv court* oi* lUu country* 
riiow thnt thn rolotioA of ittfutor nnd wrvimt does not 
Qxirt between thtf pRiMC!njcer nnd tlw drircr, or bntw^n 
the peiseiiger and the ouuer. In tfie ubaciicv uf tLiv 
nJAiionrthaimputAEionof thmr npgligetioo co th^poi^on- 
ger, irbfju im f*uUof omimoji or m>mmi."«ion EBc^lurge- 
able toliim,ia>£MiL»l^ili;guLruliM. irOicIrnL'^Liguuoj 
could bft imputed lo him, it vould ivndor him rquully 
with (hem r««pi>nHible to third purtitw ihureby injured, 
aftd would also pivcludc hina from mninUining an notion 
agutulthcowncrformjurinrvi7(!LT<!dltyhitii. Hutndtlitr 
of time onu<tIii4Et>ne can bu niTiirilJuiied ; uv\i\wT hojf tlic 
■appoil of any fuljiid^d caM9 vntiilttd to conHidtrrAtioik 
Tb« EniLh It, tlio dceiflioD in Thorogood v. Bryiui rtvU 
upon iQtl«f«nBiblf> ground. Thfi idnntJfiojilion of tb*> 
pl^CDgcr witli thf] ttvglrgcnt driver, ttr the <twni.% with* 
out hifl pen^uul uO'uperutiou or ont^jur^g^'uiout, U a 
gratnilODH niwiiinplioTi. Thfni in no iiudi identity. Thtf 
partial arv uot ia thu «iiine poKltinn. The owner of h 
pubUo ooaveyftaoe !« & currier, and tbo driver, or thi<< 
pcnoo mnnnjcing it, in hifl Rfrrrant. Neither of IhAm i« 
tbe servant of the puswngpr; and hU aAHcrUMl ideatlty 
with UicB i> coutradlcled by tljedotly cxpcricDOcofthc 
wwld.*' 

86, Tt iRiLy bi? J4uj^^<vted in raply tr> ttie line of argu- 
aeut M fbrcihiy statod hy Finld, J., in the? Inut cilttd ctue, 
Ikat tbe raww of th« rule U, aa put Ly Miule, J^ in 



8ti ATT&lfiUTIO?l OF THE CAttaECHH ^fEOUOI^XCS. 

T1ion>0:ooo(l ^ Sry:in,^ thut ihe pnoKtif^er having volvm* 
rily contnckd vUL LU <arri«r, and luiTing tlior^b^ 
hiaudf under xIk coQtrol of tbftt curler abd of iIiaI 
otrH«r'e t«rvartt8> nioflr uki> cpoti liEnuoIf ilie coii»»- 
quracMlo hiiDf>rIf'of that carrier* iMfllffVico. Iti« 
irrclevaut to urge iliiit ii utuat l>e vooceded Uial liiv cmr- 
mr sriH Uip carriw'* ficrvanl an not tlifr wrTant» oftlio 
pDMcng^, imd ttmt iht puEmvger ia not rGvjMxinble to 
tiiinl parlina foE iEUuri«&<Joit« 10 lbcn>b/Ui« nc^tlgfuiCO 
ort]»»oflrrirr, or of the GArri^V ncnrAnt ; r<irUie«ttri* 
butioQ W ihe poaaeD^r of tie carrier'a coiiUibuiur; iw^ 
l^gcDoc ia boBCilr not upon an UBumpUon bj tbc pnnicn- 
ger of control ov«r tbe r-iirnvr, Lut ufion a BubiniHlon 
by tbc pancngor of bin pcrwa to the oonUvI of iJtc car- 
rier, Dttipit^ tlio criiLdninB, ttivr^forfi, of so manj mjtd 
ia bigh fluthoritjos I viiniuro lo b«Ii«rve that Thoro^^ood 
V. Brj'uu WEL1 rightly docidi^d. unU lluLt tbc nilv. ui mulo- 
tajued io Ku^lujid and in PcnnAjlvaala, b fuuuded upcii 
COflToctprimiipIpnof law.' 

■ < C. a 1 liV, na E. C. 1^ HcKon IS. 

* 111 (tp^tAliitpfi ifl lb* nil* thtn w> ■!« tw ebvd 0[J«|;mf« *,V-Y-M K- 
tL &, I2.»tUS, y. 103; EE>i»urilf, N. J. R]E«n«S',XL*« 23Sj T>iib|ikiw 
■.Cji^.-tLll It IL, OJ, , IHAdlA l:nr. |t.RrHl«4;C^Aimi>ii>^ 
1C> B, B. B. 1* S- X. BU T W. 8l L A P. Ky. -. SbuilK IftS III »t 13 JUu, 
AKnC^lLlLrMinflL lifHi'. Kri* Klt^TJ M. V. ^^i tkirrlJIi l>inl|illH 
U. < ^wivn, :( U«i«. tKr) 1 19 J L, H. U. t. CteK » OriA TU j EUdP t. a « 

1^KRI.^«1U; KoMwr^ * rv. Y C A II R IL J^il* 14. 11 ; UiJiwcn 
hU.]I.AO,tLA., 4VMIc<h.M»»Ain. 4 Sn^ H. O. Ca. SU ; K T. L. K. 
d W. IL K k »rkJmi»r. 47 H. J. L. Iffl; r«nT ». I^nlir. 17 lt«M- 
Ituivb *. n, C IL lLX!»llan llS; Cir^ r. P. A R. IL B. (U- S, C^ C N-IX!^. 
y.K» AnAEnjtR R C^ 3iM : Wdvlv f. JLB.R,M N. Y.t*»; ^^CA 
Vt.|»te.]Lf,fr]wnw.'Jiliiil. llB^^l Ant A Enr-R-X <]h tn. Pflik* 
Tdl* L^nasbadM, TW>Ai|f<«>l-. Br^uv A C. R 11^ tf 11 C. L ; B»ilcB 
•-», J. BXtVM^A W-7U; I'41]1d -, If tEk K C. IL K^ CMt. C L I Afi>- 
■trvdir*^ L, 4 t- En L, K, !■] Ll 4r i <liHJ f. HvaL. E,UEi. ISO: ' !!• 
Airalu.**!! I- n.ll. Klntpmn., irjti»L«Wh,ait; Idvkhvi r UfkAHrtUvr. 



67- XTpoD ibo «u»e pHnciplo it bva b«i?ti held thai 
irbuiv ft wlfi» ij iiyurvd by coIIIaoq witb n indn, whiln 
travcllm^ in a volijcle dnvcu Ly lu>r jiu^liuuil, liii mn* 
tribxitarj nugligi-Jitv Uirs her rofx>fcry/ 80, whcro a 
iBMtet 01M6 Jlit injury tloii« to bin projiorty, whtk under 
tlie CSTO of A scTTfLnl, Hic couiilbuturjr nvgljgeooe of 
tbit •cm&t will bar t reoorcry by ihc laavtcr/ 



t, TBE ITTRIfilTTIOFf OF TBIi XI»1LT01'JCCR OF TBK 

FAf MnrWi&HriTry nejii^nM^a furtui wAa ftfv hrrn t^7i^f mB fiora 
mowFj/ by rJtote ttho iitr Jar d<aaa^tm for h^dr^tXh^ 

S8l CbatTibutAry u^k^^K^^^ ^^ ^^^ I''"^ '^^ '^'^ P'^* 
»^u klHcJ, aUL be a ttcfvuiv lo an aciiutj bj tltu jiHrtias 
nilitlcd iQ rc-eovcr fgr h» death. The limitation io 
Lord Campbeir> Act of tba right to recover to hmcIi 
cnint odIj "aa woulJ, if iJea;L lind uut eiit«UL^, huvt^ 
raiiUmi the pnrty to muinUiin nii iM;lioii to recover 
diuimgn ill n»)WL-t tberrgf/' bne bei^n (.'ouMlruLil by ihc 
QueMi'* Bench iu Tyin *'. G. N, V^y-^ ^> l"*^*' " v«»fer- 
ciicv, tKJt to the oaturc uf the lund or injury tfUtflaiuvfl, 
bvt to tbe <drcuuifttiAncee und«r which tlie bodily injury 
AroM^^nd the niitnreof tiic wnrntifiil art, ot^lc^a, or 
defNuU oooijiluiuvd oC' lutd CWkbuni, C. J^. udded, 

■bTH»!>l-T. r. IL IL, HI llvU 11:^1 iririvithhli. VT, 11^1.^ I> ^^blIQ. 

hjaMhiBiV^I fviii]B"> iijiH'j • fttilwiiv |iii-r n riHi i»»vr *"r ll^e fu-* ^t^^ * lr«'U 

([■wm llif fiari 'if dm idi:«ri^fiiiiii n^nirti^r' MBltu>f«ii it U. IL A O. IC> R, 
4» KMi. IK 1^ Ac^ tf Knf H, n iW Ti\ 

'Uu<Mt»,Ah*l(latk£tVLMU^ r^i t.K V, V.a A tl R. K. bU Ovm. 
SrS; l« An. A &«. K. K tlifr lai. 



66 ssauQKSCL of cc:(ti^ciu;g pibtt* 

"thua^if UwdooeuvJ U&db^ Lb ova ii«gljg«ic« uiflle- 
torially contribulcxl to th« accidcbl vheroby bo lost hi* 
Ufe, na he. if etUl Urjng, oould doI bavie nuiniAiiied jui 
adiou in mji^c of any b<xlik injury, DotwilJiaUDdJiig 
tliero might hivo biH-n iit-j^lis<L'iia< on tllt^ part of Ibe 
dd^endant, lii?^ jtc^o&C nclion could not liAva b«eii sup- 
ported." 8o> Dcnmtto, C. J., in Tucker t. CliofLiii,^ 
:ifm under Lord Campbeira AoltdirKtfxl the 
Lbjtt "lIlc rulcv in action* broi^bc tiaJtr ibis 
ttlatuC^ by repreaejiintiva^ ure ibu i«iue u^ in actkiiie 
brought by thn injijn-d pn,rTirv tWinjHilvWi tbttdW, 
if the dwtiui(ud, by bin otmdiict, Ic^idn ui die uccidcul, 
uu ajjtioii under tbe Htatutv <ioe6 ooi lie,"^ 

XT, THE XEOLIOBNCB OF A OOHTUAGTIKQ PABTr AS 
TUX COXTTEACT WAS UADX. 

^ a mnsTry h^ tJw jwrmn iipan it^Am* 4?Aa!^ <A« rvnIrwC wu vioilfc 

^9. Wbcre the suit is brougbl, not Ibr a pun Utri, 
but fur u turt founded ujjoel mnlruvt^ ooTilributory 11^ 
U^cnci n}vin tlic jmrt or thtr oonlrn^ilng pnrly will bar 
m nHBJvery by Uifl iigiuvd ptiretm ou irlioae b^rbulf tbw 
couLTHCt wa* majc, Thim, iti Waiio v. X. E. Ky.,' Uio 
pjftinliff, uc infaul of fiv*, bad bi**n tiUfen by it» grantl- 
motlier to ihti <)creuiljinre i^lAiion, wbcre abo bati bou^t 
tictcota for lb(! cbUd ami bvrsrjf, Hnviog to crw the 
Unu ITI orJc>T to gel Lo ibe plAtform sL wbicb tbe tnin 

>8M,il»,Walwkr».Btfn1^aBd<Kl3C>IL>ff,K ft, lOl E C L; 
D^AiHi h V^h^lT Jfbil.IOAc KavUhl *^t^im«.U (;«. luL; U^m; k. »% 
W.AaS.ft.<Lri>fiBt.aL^t;E>rt«rK.C;EL XA H. B K IE.&IIUh 

inc. 



XSOUO^CK OF COMBACn^O PABTT. 



89 



luie, wcftt run onr ftnd Ikn^ cliil<i huft. Tbo jury }iitv- 
lof found tpodally that the dofendunU aud diu jjkJn* 
dlTii grwidmotli^ wern negligent, on lh«« findings 
Uttrliii, B., vQCcn,*!! tlio vvrdict for the pluintiflji, witli 
Imtq (0 l1j« ileteuOuuta to move for a uoutfuit or the 
DOtrj of A jadgmmt frjr thorn. Afhrr nrgLTmrtQt cha 
rule wua lutule uhHoluLv. Ouuphe)!, C J., timd; '* Thtr 
riJatiou of zamW and Mrva&t c^TUioJy did not euhaitri 
Wvefrn thcf grandchild and thogTAndmothfr; nnd Jtlm 
cannou in uay wiue, b« coaiJd«ied hb ag«it; but we 
think tlioL tho dirff-nduiitR, in furitwhiDg th^ licked to 
the one and the half ticket fur the othrr* did not incur a 
greater liabilltv toward tlw gnuidcUld thuu toward 
the gnuidtncithrr, and tlml hIk?, the (Hjii true-ting {mrt^. 
incut be implied to hare pronitset] that ordiunry care 
diouldbeiikcnorthcgnin^child, • • • At all event*, a 
ooDopIeta ideatiticudoa ucoi* to u« lo be cooiiititijlcd 
bccweffi tb« plaintiff aud tbo party wliode ne^bgcnce 
cnotrihiitrd to iho diunnge whtrh » ih*^ alleged rstnui of 
actiiOi), in tb« nmut.' uiunucrr ua if iht- )>luiuti11' liud hvt'tt a 
baby only a f^w dnyn old, I-:* be rnrriod in a niireeV anna." 
A «rnt uf error luiving hcvn tukvn to tbn Exohnjucr 
Chamber, t^« judgmeat vsa alTJrued. Cucibum, C J.p 
•aid: "1 put tli« c-jiMt\ on ihiK ground, timt, whtn a 
ehild of to6\i tender yflin und imbecile uge is brf^tight 
(o a railway Htalirm or lo any conveyance, for the por- 
pow of bejnjc cDuvuyc'd, and m wholly unable lo tnkc 
care of ilaelf, the coatract of conveyance w on thar im- 
plied eotidiiioa that the cbtld b to be conveyed fluhjc^^ 
la due aod pMper can on the part of the penum huviuf; 
it in ehar^" FcJIork. C B^md: "There rtnlly ia 
no difftfrenoe betvret'u the cuoe of a pvnou of tender 
yeare under tbo mm of anotlwr, and a vnluFkble cltnttel 
eDBiinitied to tbo cure of an individual, or cvtu not uom- 



M 



tcBQuoisrcB or PAuam^ Bfo. 



ndttod to ladi iSiK. 'ni« ■ctiooi cnooot be uniatAlaM] 
iioluM it can be iiiaicUin«U by the [i«non Lmving Uie 
appsrent pOflMnioOr 4tvji ttiougb t]i«i graudcLlId or tho 
diuttcl TTiU) uot regularly put into lUc poMuwon of 
the person. a», for ItttCaooCL though tbo party tekibg 
charge of tbv cbtid hnd dou« w wiUicuC Uic fotbvr'i 
xxuwut; tbdl vkcumaUu<« would raakv no difkrtoco 
HB CO tbo quMlion of Uio cbiUr* rigt^t," Bmniwcll, B>, 
id ; '^ Til fomi thci itdinn tJ f*>T n «croog ; tut U ir» m 
K't. lor u brt.'iu.-b uf iluly crL-;iU'd hy COIltiHeL' It b 
sllcgoil that ihr platniifF irn^ Inwfully on th^ niiU 
iruy, T)mt oonM bevn imty on ibe ttup^jodtloiu that 
lie IiuJ W-ume u jjuwougcr thruu^li tbo LustruinciiUiily 
of hininrtf or nnoibcr. Thtic umt-l be n eoctr«a or 
duty, ll u irii[>oaBtbIu to tay tliAt the oompuny COQ- 
traclod any other duty lo^vnril the infuitt, tbufl accod' 
panii-'d, ibun ih(?y woulJ liove cv>rilnicitU liiwivnJ an 
udiilt, or tbit ihpy nor^ n«poii»itb1« fur >vbut ifould 
liAVt^ tM^CAMnvei] Hi) mWbi»i' hut for tint iif^gli^iica of ft 
pcivr>u bavLtig thu oustotly of tbc pkiuliE" 



Xn. THE ATTRISUTIOX TO tlVFAMV OF TVB OOHTKIB- 

i;tvuv KKULiorNuj: or PAKutis a>d utJAitoiAJUft. 

ffWrfikf iufvreiptrKn u alt wfant of imdtr ^n, mtJ Ud^ 

^ lAf viwt w a jrbfv fffrfn ^ ■* /^^ ''^ ^l' *>**^ '>'' /" ''^ 

to l£ito«UMf tuJ^fiW c^ no' fAf (w^InltTiAH^ nrgti^mn Iff tikt J UT ^utt * 

«r ptivilt*fu o^ M« in/ajif ijt ;irfnr4kUin^ Jiirn cr W ia ^ ai Jor^' 

*J0. Tlit^rv »TV inuuy ttuiiiori^jes for the propoall 
tbalwbera aii ii^rod iiifnnt is tho i^lAinlifT. amJ tbvj 
cuuw of ftotion le ft pure tori, eoffitrtbatory DCf^igcnes' 
on tlie part of tha part^nia or gnBrdJans of Um ioftnt 
pUintiH In pcnfiUliujt bim or her to roam at torgi! will 
nob bar tlic plalntlir^ recoi^vry- Tb« iitiostlon ^Itx^ tiot 
«MDi to ham bwa nilw! m Ko^laod. In Lyncb i^ 



OF rARg-Mg, dC 



91 



ftirdin/ vhich in ofttD cit^ in iuppart of Hub Forup^ 
tttioQp the quwUoD was not mle^, dtLougk id tbo csiv 
l^r^ t>, Newbold,* Lynch v. Ntirdin having been 
cited, Ald^raoUt B^t intsij>pr«hvuiibg that ohhi*, Aftldt 
Uio Dfi|gligeiio>, in Truth, ih »LUrili»tAUc ii> the pnrGOt 
lu> pcrmtbi thi^ ebikl to be ill lur^\ it sn-jiin bItud)^ 
tot tt pei«>u tfIio rlika lu hEe cartiaf^e without a ser- 
it, ifa child recuivea sin lE^ury bj getting up behind 
for the piirpcw: of huviu^ a t'ldt^, should b« linblo t^T 
Uid liyiay ;" but Tollock, C B-, obviously replying to 
A1d«T*on> U-j ptit Lynfrh p. Nurdiii on thv is^rrvot 
ind. thut *Hh(j pUintiS'. Uuii;; a child of tender 
renrs couhj not bo <v>n!i^ifEr'rci1 nn r^iiMng; nr\y purt i>f 
ifl injury it hud nUHtuiniKl, but tbut tbt- tiun^Uirf wud 
F^ecntoued nokly by Ui^ d«reiidaut'e default.'*' 

91. Cowon, J., in linrtfieid v. ItopeV where tho 
[•[nti£r, a child of Iw5 y^ara of >ig% had ifu«d to r^ 
for Lujur](<8 reciivod by bcdi); run ov«r while 
lying on n highmty, putM the ^ruiiTul ^f iiin judg- 
m«!at ftg^ust the plaintiff tUuA: "an infant i« doI w 
H« belong;? lo unothnr tovvhom diflc^cuon in 
rbo 4&r« of liin penou la txoluaivi>1y coufidnL That 
i« kMper and agont for thia pnrpou, and in r»- 

> !■ T ga ri t# Ux |inv>j-JLiim tbw mi anf bd olMdi ^bhuea ilGib^ 
tSVLTU^ JJhi>t,<lv,i;i^j8C»a.«0TiEM^ *. T B. B. Aft ?»«. K 
r;Q.£«.KlC.i^Hutoiu^ AUi.70; HA LR. It >. HnH'r, Ti tlHnitL 
U 5LAMe.|LkCrHbT,frC?mL4tt; Priaht.B«.UlC(lA N, Br.TA 
U>:an-&ll-Ur <. Uih'P.^ ftUTci,ft4,lO Am, A 1^, )L R l^fe>. T4Ai 

1« AmL 4t Ka^ R It (^ W i Mmlth -- \ , T. A H V, K K.. SA K<ii- T». 4 

Ah.*&<f.B.lLCbAJM;9LU!.M.A*tR3"',P'n-ni«i, in Afk,4],4 Aid. 

i* b|. It RCtf. noi*, A^itUfl lh<riirn|HlllvnUK'rr«iilierlrnl: HtrUtilJ 

ri.B«pKt]Vn>i«]£; lfADirain>,RaiLft.3»X.Y,liWii Holly •, Ibjtfija 

hQHL%MU»,«i>fv1^^ ltn)*D<.KAK-A RB, A^MoLim: Hu- 

L, 4 L Vr. « UtAoiiai, IS luiL 2ii7 ; T, W. A W. Br- «■ Of^M. KS ILL 44] I 

■ U Wi^ «|& 



^Kl to ^M p«MWt fail flcC «« te dsnmd tint ofllM : 
ut&irt, fak n^Mf, die la&nl'i oe^coL If Iub fVQpa 
■£*■! umI gmrdbn Itti idind bim lit xftcru' nuscftiivf, 
il V UDcb mor^ fit tkst he «lro«k] look for imli — 10 
Kbit jpnrdka, than tlMt U» bOcr elMold iKigBs*»^ 
iDeiwldiviTdtobtiD A« wsTnTlnmlkn asd tlwn 
baiHi llxra in eourb of jutke, Rcovcring b«ftTj tu^ 
dktt fcr Ilk «vft BimodBCL'' 

92. On OiD oUmt kud is K^ fi P. R. Bw,* vlii 
l]ie|)UbtUt iuoetMBaio<Uliftofag«,sD«J tonooTtflbr' 
jnjoriM eoMttd bf b«ifig nD ow bjr d^Ertidutt'* ws 
npoa a ndias <i>i ui open lot* of wbicH W iMeatell 
vw ia poncNMB. TIm fbinliir Liv«d mttb Ikt pvrak 
in a •liAiuj OD Ute Loi^ wut thft ddcoduit bad pvrmiil»d 
ike pobtic lo BUik« aw of Um gnmnd. TV ii^nt^ wu 
cawed bj (IctBchiiig a lumber tmx and nrndlDi; it BrciUBd 
a eurre oo a down gtvde otiaU(?ndad bj a brakunan. 
Tlie Jury found for th« plaioUfa but vpoo a fioiut r^ 
acrrcJ, tlkc court bdaw cfitered jndgnctit for tbc Jdend- 
ant non cManU ivra^Mio, «bicb «w rav«»fd in error 
npoo ibn ground that ibn di^flndant having hetn*cd tho 
pablia hm of Uic kil it wna Car the jury tu lay wbcthtr 
tlify bad bMD Mjglignnt in mimmg Uwir can under ilie 
Hivutnitjuacot, aod also tbal tbo ongJi^eDiea of tba pai 
enta, if any. in penuiulu;; (bv cbild 10 Ittaj from ibo 
bOijiW oonM not be impntod to tbo ciiild, Aj^inrv, J^ 
uTing: "Thtt doi^trine whicb impuloi the nt^gl^dboe oT 
the parent u> tba child InaudiacttBaaa tbie la rqjobivi 
to oiir natanl inatincta and rvpt])^uit to tbo cooilil 
of ibat olasa of pCTaone wbo bavo to mainlaln life bj 
daily t<Hl. It i» not tbo «aao -mhwu tba ponttvaaa of fl 
paroat or guardian had piacod a cbild in a poailiooi 
danger, iwcimarilf r«r|iiiring the care of the adali lo b« 
noiustantly «xercawd, aa wbcn a luirtnt takca a child 



VEOUOE^CS OP FABEnnS, BKL 



98 



inUt llll^ o«m. And by bis no;;]fct vufftiM it to he injuivit 
hj Alnivin^ oATupon the platform. Dut hen a mocber 
toiling for dailj brciL^t juid huvuig dt>nc the Irctt nhv 
CMild, io the midot of hoir u^oowury ^niitlovmont, IOtf«d 
«ii;(til of hor rliild for an in^tniil, nm] h ntnyA upon iho 
tmck. With no in«vi« to proridu u vrvant I'nr her 
vbilU, why aliould Uiu ucoc^lLios of ber {JObi^ou ][i lifo 
atlaob to thf* cbild, and oovnr it with blamr? When 
injured bj pojaitivv ov^lijcpiticc, wby tdiould It be without 
r«dx«eB? A u^liKent wroug la dooe; It I« Inoapuble 
of oootributing to it— tboQ why Ahould the wrong not 
he compeoitiitiMl V' 

$3. In order lojiutlyoitlmalctlic relative weigbt and 
vnlwj of UiOM conllictinif autliorilioi, it munt be rnnctn- 
IwrerJ tbut tbd precifc« question, Ea^ whether or not, wbt^ii 
an infftikt bu boQn injured by ilit: n^-^ligcnco of n rail- 
wny, that b, by a fiiiluro on thu ptirt of tbo ruil^vuy to 
fTorfufrii Bome apAcSAc duty which, under th« particular 
cironmflEunci» of the laiw, it owed to the infant, the 
pUintilT'B rei'ovtry U to be bwrcd by the unteftdcDt 
JWihireof biHor her parents or ^aniiAnu lo |>vrrorm 
tliaCgcaoml daly nf protr^ei.ion whirh th^^y owe lo Oio 
iitGinL The quT3l]ou. Uien-furv, does not turn; until 
iMgligoocooD llio pan of iho TAilnay haa bten proven, 
bat wh<m that bna bpen pmvtfo, tho iint<^piHient nngli- 
gence on the part uf t]i« infaiiL'e pdrcruta ur j^Liurdidna 
doQ«tiotco<i*iiiutc, in juaiicc, adrr^ncc to the r^iilway, 
for If tbe nilwny ctin luy to ibo infant, "you w-.-mld not 
have been injured by my negligence, if your p^irentit or 
gdirdiuiK bnd u»i bcvn Drji:ligcDl in pennittlug you lo 
stmy on ih« hij^hway.^ the infant can mply, "It iw tnio 
ihcy neglected ibeir duty, but nolwiihuUndtng that 
lM)Elect 1 would not have Im^cu liurl if you hitd uol foiled 
to ilo your duty lo me." T!ie tiwcsanry alltpitiona of 
lb« it^uf^^ infant uid iho railway being thu« stated, it 



^^ 



« 



V&i\ 



PABBVn, BTC 



woqH i*««cd llut tbo iK^i|tenc« ob the |«H oT ihe 
in^t*« fwrmtt or gQardians w $. rtmoCc a&ci iKit a 
proximate amm of thn tnjttfy, kiuI tiiHt, fur ihmi rcMiia, 
ibal n«^i£eiia» m not iu uujr proper Mone CMiiiiitilory 
Mgligoncft. T1ii= liri^ of muffling REHkn it antiMt** 
mytoiDTolnftKe ImmiULitamn and ndLtiBCDiLd ouuBklex- 
aiioria upon vhl^ Agovit, J., dwclla in K*^ i\ P. B. 
iLr End til* iRtnuioa of whkli into ibc jodgntontN (if 
oouna BO <iA«n Jarniihc* ill uiftrat zona of ibe Duxlm: 
"Ikftrd c«aw niflb* bod !*«/' l>r, Wbo/ton* a»nniiM 
lliat m EnfiUncI Uw law b w IrmI tUiwa In lUnJIi-M vi 
1to|ieri The qafi«tioii Iitfi, as I Imt« rtstod, urr^r bn 
rnbod in Englmnd. Neither Lyncb r. Nnrdin/ Singlu* 
ton tv K. C Bv./ Mangan r. Aiurtoo/ nor Wuito A^ N. 
R Ky.,* touch the quoftiion, Whm it do«* ooim Ui b« 
conKidtrvd to Eaglutid, the u|>pticuticm of thv duclriM 
of Davloa V. Mum wiUnccoaeaiilylpdHliodioooi 
that tw ibo injury oould Imvo Wn, nonrilhMuidiiig 
nr^ligvncd cif thn infant'a purcnt* or gnnrdioiWr tvoulvJi 
by tli6 exercise of reaAooablo Ctre on the jmrt of the 
riilwny. Ihe nogUgeAco of th« pftrcntK or giuudkiM will 
not bar the plaJutifTB reoovery. The canfUly gui 
JM^gmcnU iu M'nllc v. N. K Ky^, fthow tlmt thaCCuo 
on the orintrUf.'tuBl reT^tioi: betwMm t1]« pATl»« ukI ^r> 
iiiMlirv nn niJtlioHly for no nction grounrled on a pure toriij 

UL Of cotirRir, wL^re a paroot penoaally conduct* 
cKild into a pcwi^'oxi of dan^^r. th«paif(nt'a«ontribiil 
negliK^jco will be uttiibuicd to the diild; v^ for in- 
iiuiTio\ vhvrt a cliitd cf Imder yeata ia ii^red wink 
Lrwpmin^ upon a railway Una in cntD|iAny with its 






"T<;iL».!tfliiT.BTKC.t* 



OOQITEtfUIOItY VlWUgcvcS OT ttUMXOl 



95 



xnL TUB iTr^nnrnas or tbe owrTRiBuroitT scequ- 
osfca or tnitiMiKBaL 

95^ Thn GontriUitorr nogtigi?no« <rf prTvoox lUioon- 
Diictnl wiili thtf pLiiatifT nJtl not bo baputed ki tb« 
plAtuLiCT 08 oouu-ibutory udgligeuco* TliuB Id N, P. R, 
B. V. MahoD^j,' ihn plainti^ ft ohild of four jeura of 
R^ vrJiUe pkjbt^ nv^ ibe def^DiUul'^ Hue, liavtag 
been pvc^cd up by an Atuit to whom b«r pitr^^u hml 
not clekgiUtic] lier care nnd cuslody, waa uijurtfd by tlw 
nulvft^a negUgence ooncarriug willi thut of tb« nnnc 
wbo mut carrying bcr ucrnnfl die line; uad it wmi bdd 
that ihn MgWf-mux of tbo aunt couM not be imputvd 
■• oottcribnioiTy negligence lo tbo plaintitT. In F. A. eft 
P. Ry. V. fjlJwtll/ u ncoilBr ruling was iuud« wbcrtr 
infill wiui iiijun-Hi by ii(.^gUg«(ic<; on ibo part of ibe 
rkilwaVi cont'UiTLTig with iho iLegligrnoti of unothcir iii' 
fuit frbo wuji HCtimpftmoD of thu plum tifl*, but not tii 
diftrg« of ber/ 

• Iff Pw^ SL 1«T. 

• T« nnu*. m. 431- 

■ Am >I« XiAM .. B, A I* a R. II Allti Mti-. aam tr, Sbtt^bdrd t W. 
BL ttt^ DU» *s JMU 3 U. A Jk J»^ «Wli W7. 3 ICs C: L.I riliJfa k 

AC^P, ^IfrKaLtaHthOhnba^L. R, 3 (^ EL IX ^7, fTlli- 
«iai«Uu«i4<; ArtoUii, UH, J iCi 'JOB. 



warn wmm tss bulwat 



BOOK XL 
IBB roacaa fobwhobbacd ob oinaBiraB the bail 

WATBLI4BIA 



CHAFTEB L 




td^mdl,m^^ 



L IHBUABfumfl AFFBCTKD BT THE CHABACXEK Off 
THB ACT, AB OXB OF OHOBTOB OB OF ODHHlBIOV. 

Wktre Ae injury it dtfiw Ajr tt« tfPiiWww 0/ a paUtmlar uti ^ tan 
vkiek tke duty vftKtrailttay b lAf pfm iJijuntl rej ui r a fl <« dp 
/»r AiijfnifiWHiH, JA«/»< 0/ Lie omiition fias tke tiabUity of nit 
vnjr ; and tke rdafwn brlinen Utt raiiiK^ and Ou ptrton wbo JIal 
omiUfd to prrform ifkt ilttly it imtmateriiU; but vkere Utt u^jtay it 
daiu by an ofiof mwniaun. At liMHty 9J Ute Tmlmrf dt^ehdt 
^^<m th^jvi of Ae relation o^ ayauy hahren tkt roifiiqy mnd Qta 
aetmai vTonydoef, 

96, To render ft railway liable for an injury Id the 
course of its operatione to the peiron of one vho ia him" 
aelf without faultj it must necessarily be proven that 
the injury resulted &om either the omiEcion of some 
particular act of care^ or the commi^iou of some par^ 
ticular act of carelessness or of vilfnl wrongdoing, or 
the negligent performance of some rightful act by the 
nilwaj, or by Bome person for whose act caiumg the 
injury the railway is l^ally responsible. 



U^UIUXT X9 AJftWCTEH DY CUAOACTl^B OF ACT. $7 



fi7i Orooitrwv vliBre Oif Injitrj in dt^tt by in oct.thi; 
Mttul wroD^ilocr u ewiiiier Tt^yjuaMc Ui tiiv j.>t<i«L3ii 
i%jurv<J ; but tliv tugul Liability of iLe r^lway for tb« 
ii^iiry i« (!«ip«iid«»t U|hmi tlit^ [lOMtirv or ncgatiTfl char- 
lof tlic act wb-icb <muaHS lEic iiOury^ uul upon ibe 
in of Uie wruu^<iuer lo liie railway. Wheiv iJi* 
U^ttty i« don* by Uw nniijHion nf a particular act of 
caru, which the Juty of tJio iiulwny to tlie pwacu iu- 
Jur^ raqutTfu it tij Jo hr hie protcoiion, llid fact of ibn 
onwion &XCII the liiibility of tho mi]tr«j ; and tliv r»- 
iMion betweva llw iiijjway aud the uidividtml who hua 
omittc'l to perform the duty u immutorkl^ Ibr, ta 
Blockburo, iK, huji Minl,^ "the Imbitity for an ombnou 
to do 0i>Tii«lliiug tlv^viLilu «iilir«]y on the vxlmit to which 
■ duty ia im[ioHCil Lo cbuao thai ihii^g to be <)oik«, nnd 
" * it is quiu.- irQoiatorittl wtiotltcr tJto uictuut uclDm Jtrc 
wrfanEfi or Dot," Upon thd aame principle, a railway 
» ItabJe for an indcp^nJent co^ktr-^ctorV oiin-pvrforru- 
ftaofr of a duty fvhow; perfoTmuncc wan Lucumbcni upon 
tdi eDip1oy«r, ilit- TAilway," Ou th« otbiT Laud, wher^ 
lh«! injnry if> dnnc by nc atri of oomminuon, n8 ihe mil- 
w«y i« im iirLilJciii] (it^raLoi aud cuu ucl tmly by iu AgojiU 
or serranf;4, iln llahiliiy nmai dopeuU upon llyv fuct of 
the reUlioni of Sf^nry hniwron thn rnilivny nnd th« 
wAiial mroni^dovr, fbr, od Rolfc, B.» has Mtd,' *'tho lia- 
bility of luiy out\ oih;.T ihuu tliv party ovtuully f^iiUy 
of • irron^rul ntl, proweda oo the xnaxiiu '^i/mrU 
per aUum faint ptr a^."** 

ft l>. J^a. 

■ JC«^ «li^ t^ JvdpOrtL of Ul<d Ci»«or;L ki iJAriunliLlE Cbiif Co, ■. Ba4 
T 




98. b Ae 
U 

todoAe 
or bf m 

tf Ae nihny^ ii fixed if Ae act be 
«Cnfed be «koeiB ibe ooaeoC^ 



OL cu^DKAxnor or 

KAHiVATB 

99- Tbe p0vnfe«lMMe etfa cnmg iigaKyvait 
vara are Uabl«. xoar be clasvfiol ms fbUovs: 

I- SenuiiB of the nilvav, indadiisg imdcr that lenii 
sU of the railwaj's officcn and eiDplpjA of emj 
grade- 

2. loJepeodent cootractora. 

3. Other corporadons and indhidoals, indndiDg ccah 
necting railmavs, owners of can nm orer Uie lin^ kB- 
aee railways etc 



UAIU1.ITT or Ain^WlYSroK ICTft DP0>mVi:(7S. 99 



CBAPTEB IX. 

IVK UAUUTV or BAtLVAYH njH THE ACTS OP FHEIK 

]L The R^iijun of ntiiciF uul Hrnai miM in (an ninL 

IV. filh*nUllnt«xl4i^ mil if ttwcvi hoahhkn IH* ifvipn dT ih* tnplDj 
Aifli^il U a/A iDHlurik] Uiil Ibe i>b4cf iLil uM imUr ilia («jlii'ijla« 

ML 

TL ^vUal^ljof liu ni^nj fijr iu martax^ wUfbl aria. 
I, TOK OE^KAL KATORE OP A HABTEB'a UABILFTT 

roK TUK Acn or a orvakt. 

Tid nan'i "rwpon'fAi/ mpmirr " mentu thnt a nufifi^, |£|* 0lW 
m-iuttn. iatkiiiifr rufiantiltt far the acid af Um wnwnb ^ tAfpiv^ 
fihRtCv w< A4win^ C^ ifyuf^ ha utMm tA« tw^iri ^, and A« dtftu ut 
A« fttftm Iff, (A4 KmiU'i JfZr^I^ tmfhonty, 

lOO, Tbe ^fftiiMTLl m!fi b tlut a milvaj, like olli*r 
aauUTi, 18 L^Uj mpoiwibltf for »n injury c3aii«i by an 
met of il« MTv&iit if the partJcuUr u<;b bo withiu tbo 
»cope oC ftn<l b« doQ« in tiiv exercUu of, the «ervtLul*d 

< fttw»hEll CotI 0>. ., R.id. 5 Mv^. H. L WA, 4 Jvr. »,a TOT ; TU»!1*- 
■OB n 3ibim<, 4 .i. A £ 100.^ Ca L.I YHFt>4n!iv1i h Buk DfEncluirip Itt 
|;»L «j n-MiRffld hA K. lU, 1 Kl, III, A KL. nrsy^. K. C ^.^ Umj^u* i^ 
LMidivi<l4iLCiWiaiiaCb,l U.Ac;^?rti rjf-rn l^Wat, r C R. N.K VQl). 
tTB.CU:BiT*wr<>OnmTt>uJ.a a&N%^L>: U^tou t^ TW B^ili »f 
L«n4tTiil4<Mt<K,»A tCL. IL C Uf. h Smim St. ll«i CblhH «. 
t^ACSf, JB M.AUMltj&niUi iLB^AftOiH l.lfbl Oa, J Ad. A EL 
■MLtl KdL: PWbwft ftM.t a n N » m«< in K C. L : OAalinut *. 
KiHMlLKVA P. ita.l* ItCU; r*^ : liatrl^^ U A AIVT; HW* k. 
lUvl. « W, A a 73 , K. V. A W. Tri. 0> 1. PiTlWnb. » iVnii*. Sl m ; P. 
A «. IL IL ■. CMbf, U lloiL «fiV. 



lOO QEVESixL noLt: or uAnti.tTv ron mirvaigii. 

lOL Tlic r^8on of tUv rtilc is rovhrn^ atoT*' cl<«Hv 
e3ipluiri«0thjiD hj Lcvil Cnm worth/ wbiii«iil: " WLtrv 
ao iikjurv i» occuuooed lo Aiiy oiie by tbe i>«g1tgeDoe of 
ftnothcr, if the jwrvoo injuivii sfckit tn cUnrj^i: iffiili !U 
oomequ«Jic<« «[iv yenon otlcr Uiuti him win; tttioull^ 
C&nMid the daniAgp, il Ur* on tUtt pn^on injurrd to iJtov 
thut thit drcuni^tant cs vcrv ^udi om Io niske Htut otLvr 

|iurpo^n io lihoir thiLt the p(n-)M>n «boM nt^lcct <iiaw<i 
tlie ii^ury wiu ztt tlie time wLcu il wttv ovo^iujueil 
acting not OD Ills owa uecouiil, but m tbo COQIM of bii 
employment nit h ivrvant in the btmiiiMV of ftniMtcr^, 
aud tlt:tt thv dduidgt- re^LiUeJ iVom tli« urvattt «> oi 
ployrd iioi bnving coJiduct<-iJ hh manor^ biininc^ witfa 
tluo mre- Id fiU(*b a outfo llie mnxim * nugwfliwf ai^ mfft- 
ri&r* prevHils, awO the ma&ter ie rajJCiD^i^loi Tb*w, if 
a t»crvjt:Ll driving lib niniilcr'f; cariiitj^c aJoD)C tlic bigh 
w»y tyia'luHly runa over u liyHtnocirr, or, if a gam^ 
k(.^peT employed to kill game oAr«l«^ly fli^ at a hartr 
80 M to alioot n pcrK>n [uifsdjijc on ibc gPoubJ, ur, if « 
wurkmaD eiDployi?d by a l>uiM^x iu building a boroa 
D«igU£v>ntly T.hrowfl a Atono r-r brick frttm a itoifToM asd 
wi buriB a pii)u4^r*by; in ul) thuw (mfH^n (uud ui^ianon 
miglil bi? uiuUipiiuiI iDdcliiiilely] tb« jipr^on iiijur«d' 
h(W n right to tn-nt the wronx*^'' *^ mtul^sBl act s» ihe' 
ttL-tofttiv- uiiiftttr: Qul/acU per aliitm facii prrtt. If 
tlio maalcr hiroiH^lf bod driven bi« cni-Hng^ improptrly, 
or Hrod carelcotly, or Tieg)ij;«ntl7 tiiruwn Lb«> «tone or 
Tiriok, he would have been diroetly rwj>on»ible, aod 
liLW doca nol permit bim to cioapo liability b^cfttlM 
sot uomplmnnl of vmi imI done witb hia owzt baiul- 
ITe i" coTiflidvred a« Vmnd to guarnatPo tbird 
igatutft all bun urji&iag Jrom tbv «ttrvLeaKD«ce of liivtMl^ 



1 UuUr^UI i'kmlOa.f. ft^ • »1»|. II. L 



ttSLinoy ok kaoteb Avit eBBVAfcr as a pact. 101 



I 
I 



«T of tliofte iii^tin;; unJer hta onlfrrfi, in the coumo of hiM 
biuiiiOHL Tbird ix^rvr^ns o:irLTiot> or, at all evecla, maj 
not, know vbethor Uic particitliir injury compTnincd of 
wu ihe ad of the msaier or the act of the servant. A 
pentoii iiLiiliuning; ^QJ^Jry in any of the mcKlv* I batv 
tfi^gsnted hud & li^lit toanj: 'I wiis uu purl; to jocr 
««rriag« bping dnT^n along thti nwri, to vour *lioonng 
nvtir thif public )ti|tbiTuy, aui) to your bring cngftged in 
buildiug a LuuMCT- If }0a rbot^re tu du, ur uuiuti to ba 
iliMic, ftny nf thfwr ndv, it in to yi>n. and not tj? Tour 
wrrBDU, I tDU«t knik for rtHJr(»s, if mincbk-f bupimim to 
Dafi jift tbi>ir conee^vcokO^' A largb |>orlion of the ordl- 
imry net* of 1if<^ aro iitC«ndcd with Momc rink to (bird 
|iai«onH, uud nooue hua a right lu involve uibi*ra iu 
ri»1u wiibout their conscati TLia couijd«rarjoa is alojiu 
mfficient to jiutify tbt; wiwlom <tf ihenildn'hicJi muk^M 
ibe jiunniD by ftlu)ni» or by wbone orrlers, theH^ rlnba 
srt iQCUrrvd, mponnbl« lo ibinl p^rKino for any ill 
ooiiMi|ueiiccji rauhJrtx ^^^ wniLt of due vklll or 
oautioii/' The re^Bou of ibo rule, therefore, \s, thftt 
thft EBiior who biU mudf^ dtoicx- of an inconijictcrit or 
Cftrclvtf W!rvuiitouKht>iii jpi»tiv(\(ckiudeuiEiily iboot^^^bo 
tn not partkoa to lht> contract of Bprricc, and who hnvc 
injurfld in tha i^Qurvu c>f thi? HL^rvnnt'H notioit in 
tbe cxerciiw of tbu autiioriiy dt'leg^ti-d io him by bla 



n. THK RELATION ftP HlfmiK AST> S6RVAKT MUST IN 
7ACT rXIST, 

fk$ nUt diPM i»#( *'^/'^ ^ i^urt tf^rrv fAtr rictfray 'U^ nni ff^mJ >rt 

102l In order to rtudcr the milvAT WM^. for ihA 
■ct of A jwrrant, it moit bft nhown ibnt the rdntioii nf 



103 LiABiuTY rpu Acn or fovtil cuouu, nc; 

■oasur and carvBai m hei tx'ana,^ Tb« r^wt; 
ihcrvfonv nol Uabk if ll do» D<ft aluiil in the chuncur' 
of «fn|)lajrcr to the poxij' by mhcM net the iojurir hai 
Wej <icctt«iuu4icl.^ Tbud, a ruilvay b not ImUo for la* 
jiiHc* cttUAcU to A per>4on while at ir»rk on a bMUiqiii 
jjUtt'omi bj- tbe Oi-^]]jccnt act of ft puaiu] Mgrmt, 
imttfA under coniruct with tbe PoM-Offiot 
ia ihroirbg % luail tag froni tZM djoU cur of « p««iixi| 
crnin, it bfriDg proreu tbat il VfoA ibir umgo of busili 
for liir mail bng to be thrown off »t n podnt iBjuMt ti 
huuJrt-d iut^t awn/ from llic AtutiuOp utid tU&L (lie 
vtny ]in/J, tlioreror^ no rooaoti to antidpnio xhnt tli 
uuil hiif^ would Iw ilkrown on thn lUtiodi j>UtCana.* lo 
Ql\k*.'C L-aaiM* tb« r^lwuj wiu bt-ld Uablo to pflMtHj 
irljo, while wniUug for 9. train on n ^tioii plfltii)nnj 
were injurtxl by njflil Imgi tlirown by povcial Hgniiit, It 
\mng [iroveii ibat lite railvrnj Ijad n:»^>n to know tliot 
idaU bs^ wero Labitufllly lliiown upon ihnt pUtI 
from pOMDg tmiiix, nnd tbu ruilwuy hvlttf^ Ixwod 
gQftrd ltd paar«ngear» flgHinet 8uoh ir^'uriee, wlwrnsoem 
migbtbotJ^poraoiivJuMcactGDUvcd Uicuijcry. Tl 

Q, n. iTA; H-nKHF «, Ulmh*!], 2<Xt.H. &IT; Ham t. PmI-a, L R, 1 
C P, AU^; Vrhul)|o r. BniLh. V <^Rtl VT^L L}*w ■■ 3(irtK a A- Jk & 
«0C> .M K. C L : MeKfWl* «. MrT.>«rf, Id R SO. tt R C\ t. : WU11 
fcj?iuiv:j Jl. ACOlAj Cchuu>.JfklHi^iaaiL10«»tl£.GLii 

• I^BhfT >, Kili.iar,d IL AC Ci^, 11 It C L; Qavnai t; B>aMU,« 

kKoKn^ K»^t4»; MiUicvi r W«In L3A.AMTVT» M RCL; 
fclL^bqit,»M.& W.710i !,□€«*- ktiHPA, JU ILlOKxSAlitfoTiqrKi 
1. IL C R »!; ItHifb- >L Wkilc M^w UJlfcHT Ch, I C P. Ll S«j 
IkaitM ^ Amvtroni^ S ^vMco 4M: K-OiHiji^Il h FbsHBus li W< 

• UttBcr ff. C>L A 5t. P. Bj, ai Wk X^ U .i». A £04. B. a Oa, 111 
*Bk4r,F,R.a, ]>nHm^ m AJh4 TVv ILH C^LlSj 

V.KAX tG,fi.,»Ty.Y.tH»AB A !:■» it ]L<^ra, 



LLutrLmr for ras acta op volvntkcssl 108 

Dgnc, not oulj iu lioliiing tli* poatal agnate not to 
bo Mn'AnU of tho niLlwiiy, but a1?o in TTCAling »« lh« 
tevtof lEic miln-uj-'a liubUity iUi rullun- tojcucird Uioas 
who aro lanrfully upun ite atAiiou jilairi^rm agaitin 
dangen wlik^ ciaj rojuona^ljr bv retried w Kkcl; to 
occur. 

103. Nor ia a railway liable for ih^ acLe of a voIuti- 
Mr Mttstin^ ic« wrvanu, as, fi^r InHtmrc, ff>r ihc negli- 
gence of pwiiicnj;un in awutting oUi^ {itusdcuxvri to 
alight;^ DOr for ndvico givpo hj pnnwngora to &tifrl\ieT 
pwnen^or to Ir^p iVora a m(}ving train ;* ^r to loave & 
tnin ttt a pljtvo oUior tliciu a aUilion ;' nor ia Hiv rallwuy 
to bo ItrM Itftbli* fot thn ni>glig«nt acr nf a pi^rson on- 
pigied itn hilt (kwuEiiut hy A nervant to wlioni the railvrHT 
hiM not i3e1ef^t«^ the power of employing au aaHl^uifiL* 
Wbethcr or not the person cantdn^ the injury be n ht* 
rant oF the nulwny i% of oootm^ a i^uwtion of Taut for 
th^jnfT.* 

104. The te»t of tho cjsiBtcnco of Uw n^lntioo of mwffeT 
and »prv«nL ia to he (bnnd not in the pnynicnt of tlio 
ienruic'ft wagte by the rnilway, but Ln tho oxorclM by tho 
railway of autlioriiy in npprpindng the iwmnt, in dU 
rocting hitf ac^^ in mcciv^nK the bt-ucili of tho»e tieta, and 
tu rttorving tlw pow*r of <ii»mis8ing liif» twrrunt^ 



• Fpfl- r. X. V. G A It, K a R. flo N. T. sai. 

> Jrt-Ll f, c. T, B^, aa H. IL M. 

'tMnthf fl I'rpkiuT, fr n. AC wr, MR f; t,i ^Hnniw tv ntiKriii. e M, 

A W, «!>Vl J^|(»a ft a Vr> R^. «n>liAi>d b;^ Meltili, J.J, Ln til l>. IX 

D. ttOt TiMcliW «, |k»UM. » K-L. A I'm. I«3j «|Mtf Ih lUiTLialmvt;. N 
P(cL 1 : Ifcw^v K miu U« Crilkir? Co^ 3 C P. a tti; Lhll* t. HvfcM, 
ItttJ. >.>««, 



IM 



TUK sTorE or tatutruarr. 



m- TUi: ACT MTiT BK vmrix mK KOTB OP nn 

105« WH«n> tb* nktion of mvtrr sod wttadi «iitti 
betvecB tbo rmilwar snd die povn vImbo act a llic 
ctuM gf b^ary to Aitoiber pnvMi, ilie rmiltt^y i« uou 
lijUilr if iho jwrrant tn CiiMBg the injnrj in noc boud^I 
vTiilitxi tbt- Mcopv of hit enipkrjmvDL Hitu,^ « 
ill powtesion ofs Iioust Wtt h*kl noC to bt liable l<» tlitl 
Awocr of ibfT honiie fhr tite act of a Ntrruit who^ M^j? 
oniploTiMl to light t ftre In ft flre^kUce^ uderuxik to 
cImd ibe chiiBMy hj Umtng H out, and ia so doai^ 
Mt ftra to the hoa«^ Bo tmt,^ to wbosi mnoibrr hod' 
louMd hkriiod, in onW thtt a sigB-bnnl ui^bt bt 
■Back tlivrMD, -mm Md b lh« Excb«qt>cr f.litfiibBf Mt 
to bo lioblo for tbo oct of 4 carp^fit^r. vho, while to* 
gagfd Iniittki&gUierigii-boord, )it hvpipeudilropfwij 
%h% nuitcfa, tborabr witivg fo to and bunini; tb> ihedA 
Tbb doctrine b «L*o iliostiMed bj the tw«a of bijiirT- 
<J<Mt« br 'VTTSDts vhc^ vintnMMl vitb ih«ir ^topLnTerV 
honiM ftoT tbo doing of crnutdf, tarn tukAc to iieoiapliih 
aoiiw piurpoae of Uieir own, acrl «hiT« acoDnpl 
that tDfOiV aonHt on* i>Uo, Tbn Irrt in fnionk of tbip < 
U thai put Ht Mank, JV whotafi^ "tb(-ma?4Fr Uliahtv, 
«T«n Ihongb tb08Prvant,in tbvpvribnnancvof tb<>du1y, 
ia gniltj of a dortatkin or a ftUarc to perform it in ths^ 
atiklMl BQil DMti ooDTviueni Bi&Mr; but wbes 
aVTvant^ inEtcud of doinjt tbnt wbkJi be ta raploynl to 
dOpdowMiwdiins vhkb be a ooi mijilornl io<loat 

• )t«K«iW <L U>|.«1I4 a 4 C Si^ V t CL. 
< 1llk*4l « Ok>*riVi, 13 CIl ST. n & C L. 



THB SOOPZ OP BKW^rtllBlT. 



106 



All. ilifu ihn mft»ti>r cannol he vfud to do ft hv lil'i iwi^ 
VAnt, nn4 th-v^fom hp jji not rMponnihlc fc^r ibt? tinglU 
genre nf the nerviinc in doEug it" Upon ihin priuetplOi 
a Blvepiii^'-cur oompftuywa* Md nol to bo liable for 
injiirif* lAiinc^d to ono HtnndLn^ an a ntntiom plntform, I17 
iht mtI of lIi<? porter uf ti BWpjjj^Liir ld tLironir^t for 
hU pcnuMtAl convenience, a bun4l« of tolled eloil^tii from 
« Biorinj^ v^t} 

J06l Btit tbn fact Uiftt » railway Arrvnot hnii for fl 
OOQvidoniMd loDjEth of time p«rftirme(i it (H.'rEjiin duty iM 
evidence to go to the jury tli«t in «o doing he va? acting 
by the cxprcM or boplied uwDt of tho nilwMy, thuN,* 
fl rij^gniAti, not omplojed hy thi? ra.llway 10 watch a main 
Unacroning. bnt occEiMnmncl to vrnrn pcrn^nii nhoiil to 
€roM tbe mam line, havinj;; iuviied ih*! pUtulilTto crotfi 
whi^n Ih* lino vrtw not nl<^E', nnd the plAtntiff having 
bcoD injun.vl il wjia bL*Id that '*lho tnat thnt he htnl unt* 
ftinnly pETrorui-.*d such duly for Et^vvrtd ymrH wiur cum- 
pet#iit oridenec to bo MobmiitiM to tlio jnrj' M i<mding 
to prove thai be wiw jio actinj; by tho exproa or implied 
■sWDt of the railway/' 



17. ft ta JKtt VATi:]tTAL TTIAT TTIE UAflTKIt PID ^VOT 
ORDER THK PARTICULAR ACT, 



Wlitrt ttr rvhltoA ^ nwC^ nrt'J *mwi< nviati. and wKfra Ihe oft 
d ^im f <f Ik ^rtMfdr wC, itr tKti in dviity Ifi* art, vr in th* mai- 



^ 107- Tf iher^latioRof ma^ternadtf^TTtint^xiBt, and if 
tliu act cowing tlic ii^ury be wiihin the «go|>« uf tho eer- 

■ WaltH h y, T. C fl CCki, »U »w AM, Ifl An. A Euc, RaCtfh 
miKmtf. 



106 UAUUTY ruB A flEKVJurr'a tmutAmm 

Tint** ciaployDoentt il W not iraricrial tLu Um inatfff 
did aoL ^rdor or •tmi kii</« i>f ili« doixi|; of U)# p^/ticD* 
Ur OA^ Thm van- it ripatly wUttd bj WiU«, J^ 
tn a cum' ivlien a buik ra held Ikblc for i bmudiikkt 
murqircwDUtiiui iDftdc hj its cveliicr in Ui» covive iif 
bunnoM That I»n»d jueigc wd : " iLe gtttfnl mU 
Ifl llttt tho master n anewenble fbr evvy mdi vrODg 
gf th(f n^rvAiit or npnt b» il oommiUttd in tlic cuarM of j 
tli^ tiM'vIc^ and for Uie maMer's bcmdlt, Allhoa^li no 
rxpmw coniniAnd or pririiy of Uw vatuur he prvrwl,** 
ttml al\cr rdbrring lovpecUic toMaiicu*, be adda: *'ni 
all ihtte oa«e« it maj b« said, m it wv Mid hvn, ihatg 
thomRjrtorhaa not nntfinrii^^d the act. It i» InMi he 
□ut jLUihorbed iho pariieulur acl» but l>« has |iui ibi 
ngtmt in 1ii« plfloo to i)o ilkftt dnw of act*, and b« miuli 
}»} aiiHwiJTable ftir the mnncer in ivbich tliv a^^tut liafj 
coDUuGt«d liimeeLf Jn doing iW busincsa nhkii it 
tho act or hii toflnKr to pUc« bim in."" 

V, 111k UABIUTY or THK KAILWAY fOK 1TB aKBVA^ltf^ 

TnivrAH«i» IX Tac f3EEJtci&£ or tdc Avmourr^ 

DtXEOATRn Tr> TlfKU. 

10& Nor will llin milnny c^cAp? liahUhy^if in doio| 
t1i« ttct or in the uianutr of iUt perfbrmuiicfv lJi« mtti 
diflob«y tho oxprflv inJuDclJoDa of bia eujxruT 
provided tlint tli« act bo af ilial olut with «hoM» pof*-^ 
fbrmnnG« tbo wrvant ie oTurgid. TLa^ In' a csm wfaicli 
ri^uU, 11-, hint uhiimctcrijtcd tk$ " vrrj ncsr Utc 1iiii\'* a 
milway was belJ liable for \h& uct fif ita (mrU-r in pull* 
ing the jiUmtifTotit of n railvnj cnjriaga abont 10 
beoauati ho bviiL-vi-d tlic pkinliff wa« in a wfoi^ 

< BiLTnii^r. Briffli-li JakI ftmk Bvilt^L. ILl Bx. «*: RvH^ *; tltU, 
SC.M.AU,«39:TlicTbM^L.asAd.«EaJe«:;oiiHnt.Cr.&ft. 
U VI. TOT. 

■ iWwVk r. EnjilbFi Ji^Snl ^«n& Dafl, L. B. ! Kl EUh 



UAULnT roft A mbtahVs ntapMiwi- 107 

Tiftg«> although t]ie plalDtifT was, in fact, b lib rigbt 
c&rrluj|c, It bcln^ proven lli&t while tbo ruloKif theocui- 
pQQj rtqutre<l Uio portcvs to prcvvnl pas«e'iiK«r« from 
going hj wfong tnunut iJioy did not ftTipT«wlir dirert 
tlioa lo rvmo^^ it puMMajper from ft cnrritLgv. St/ a 
railwav Ilah bec^ii WId llaUe fbr tbe «ct of a bmkraifln 
in nmciving n p^vmigc.r frum n cnr rc*nrvi-J for kdits, 
it btjiug tluj dutjof Iho bnwktjmiui to notify Ui« ["aiftou- 
gor thnt th« c^r mq rMOrvod, So^ a ^niI^TnT Lju boen 
L«l4l liable for the lieiith of a pufseug^ resulLtog fAHB 
lii« wroogful aDil forcible rciuovit] Irom a cor hf iti 
ccDttuctor. 80' a milwnf btia br.-e(i boM liabk for ita 
togiD&JriTcr'a n«ghgUDt blowi:i^' of n wbihtle in dU- 
obodieaoo of the raUwaja rc^aiioua. 

HWotf* porlkii/v iio( £1 Jff;i«ifi jWAirrun^ (/ (/t£ gimretU pur* 
iff, tlU Pflkirviy £« fboAffr, 4VM dwur^h tkao^tbim irftp<iM. 

109. Wb«re llie p&rtlcular act la doiM iu fuxlberanco 
of the geckcrn] purpi^m of the railway, and ia within the 
•oop«of the Ai^rvAui'i aiitliorlly, ibe railwHy h Iial)l«, 
•veil tltouj^h ibo net bo n trvapos^.* Thu^^ in n cnHS 
yifhtm the pUintiET wua a prudiMig<jr in the jL'fondanl'a 
omnibiu, and vtm r«mi>ved by the conductor, a servant 
of the dcicDiLuit, io *uoh a nuioncr that the plaiutifT fcU 
loco ibo ro»d nuj Wiw aeverely lujured. Pollock, C B., 
fttiit : " I do noT. boli^vn he ititend^! to do any miubif^f, 
tut bis wktil of ciitv dcurly wus tbo cause of the mu^ 
cliJOt' &od Uioreforo 1 think tho oGlicl of tlii^ eviJcnoo 19 
Uiat the ncrvnnt, by careloMlj oxocMitin^ hia mujderV 

>r«Ek«!r. T.a*TLK.a^TOx, y.sst. 
■ p. a a '. Vmi<I>»*i-, a FViiMi »i 'in\ 

BLAIQ n«y ft( & CL. : I>««n l^ r.O Oman « Oo, 7 C B. X. & ttO, 0T 



109 uABorat tot A •jutTApnr'i nvrifui. 

eommitnfTA, cftiwvd th« mlKlkVtf C0Bip]a!a«d of s^ tlut 
la vrhtti [ ftlioulft hnrefuu^il bpi} I bfco oo lb«juiy. 
TJkto U no doubt Uiat the bir on lliic Mibjoct %ria ocio« 
vory mueh confuscdf ttad irhcn UcMamui r. Crickctt' 
WAfa det.-tifnil. the Ijiw liad Dot bom mUIM. I 
think the vicv wr tnho of thi« cftM i« qniU in fonrona- 
Uy wkli aJl thu ukjiv reamt dcdnoM. PobUv caTctjr 

id pri^'fti*^ coTi¥PTi]fiiin> Toquim that ire should m >l^ 
dflt! ; Tor If wv vcrc to liold tliut n rmllrfuj ouanpany in 
not to bo reepoii§ibl& for Ibe ecL of lia ^ervantt cftuaiiip 
dvna^ to a third ponion, ujiUjh ii he wi o^ done m M^ 
mfi^ nf^ti^ent ohediencf to thff ordm of fAffotn^Hmy, 
thtfrii n>t>uld Bfi no proteetimi /* tht pu^dcJ^ Aud Mnr- 
rin, B., uii'led : " I have no doubt t)ia£ iftbe tx^ndtictor 
iwipj iinncixwwirT violcncft in rt-moviiig tbo [klaintifT, llw 
mutter vrould ho mpoiiHible. IT, by on rcI doot) bj a 
fii^rvaikt nitl^in the scope of hie oniiriRrv employoMHC, 
nnotbfO' pennon in inJTinHl, that prn^n nmy maiDtain An 
octioD a^iuuBt the mmjt(>r; mid the ii«t of romoTJDg ibe 
plaintitT hnm tha omnihiifl wan wiihin lb« ivope of tbff 
winduHor'i ordimiry fnipbymuiit. • • • Tbe crilcrioa 
is uot wLelh<:'r the mAsk^r he« givi^ii tb? autborilj lo do 
the pnnirnhirnt't, biit whnUierthc ur^'ant dora it in thtt 
ordliinry tioursu yf hia employ men U" 

110. Tho railnay ifi, ihrtvibrc-t liiiblo Tor the acU of its 
condacHor*, hrakeitivn, guards, or porter*, in wpongfullj 
pjoeling either jMWflfijig*'™ or troipnwor* from ils Iraiwi, 
or in rigbt.r»lly pjot'ti(i>c suob pi^rtunii with tmoocwaary 
fcroe '^ aud for the acta of & etiition oauter in ^OClii^ 

> I Bhl tor. 

lUium' W^Wnrlil, U AllH AlQ: 1. \, A. Jl C, K K. i llnAIn M tnt 
Ml, lA Am, X l-'-nt- h^tLi^a. ttl-. «ai« ^ ELa^ 2 tXitclw tM; Otk 
X. V.ATf. II. 1^ R.liVL Vw, inn* UphUk t^ N. J. II Jt,ll Vr-H 



LUBrUTT FOft WXFmmt3VB^ 



ioo 



witli anaocasaary violeuc* orie irho wm I^Urlng In iko 
«Ution ;^ AEiiI for injtirir^ mruiH] b/ wvcinlU by itii»r- 
raatu upcjci piuftiiiK^rai wtiilv Ihd iterviLuTa are AUliog 
witliia tho acop«i of ih&h »ulhoricj.* 

111. Somrnfthftauific' liold tUnt tlie foroiMerrmovnl 

i^iotl «ulligrilj ^r tnun hjintU, nnd that lo r«fl<Jcr thiO 
imUwft3r liiibk for damngs clointf bj Hiich un bcc uii v-X' 
Mtilhortiy uuat bi) ahi^wa^ Tbo Joetrinc of moat 
^(hf the ai4M, however^ ill, thnl vfljuroirer iiruilHrufMTv^l 
b |)ul ill chnrgtf of ^ay propeitj of t)i6 railwiky, it^ a 
lion iDut«r in gUa^ of ■ ^uuion, or a couiiucior in 
of u Iram. or an oii^iuisdrivt'r or lir^uiun in 
of an engiiift, or a bntkotnan in i^hargfl of a c-af, 
that AcrrxQt i* nuo=«ririly ohurfCf^d with Ihc Jiuy of pto* 
[mg tUat purUcukr proi^srt/, uud bu it*, iberefow, 
for th;(t purpow rrjitci wifli nn implird itiiThoriiy tj} r<9* 
oai>rQ troapiiMer* thci^frnm ; and if he innkci n miicalcd, 
uUImt by ix'aioviii^ d pormu vrbo is risbtfull;^ Uj^ruin 
or ihoro<](], or by nsing imiiixifiwury violoni^i^ id liip r^ 
iioovnl of u Uu«piua«r, Cb« milwuy murit bu lieM iialiEb 
br all audi ii^jurioa lu rwult, Id tbo ouc caao fnjui tbu 

B.R mUIUA, l« Mlob.SU; J««lwi f.^A. K B. «T N-Y>tT4;1vEtiw 
■-IJ. r It lU » OaL CA? ( aUcflBii-, VT, T.A U, K-,«a ?f, V^TIl t.l*\Al. 
KtLr P<^I1.V>IbJ. ^:8un>plf. K. A. H R. ^N, Y.Ml; ^r1■^llLrtl# 

An. A Knjt a R-t^u ar^u- Kiln" ^ C P K. It, ar OiJ- VHi; Kchrdtir-T, 
A, S R. 19 N, T ^% W JKm A V-'it IE R <.Wh :^?fl i N Y. C, A Jl K IC K. 
KRoAavi. IC S. V 91.4 Aia A Kdj(. R. J(,(W£»[ ll*iiinq«.C H L 4 

U^MA f U 1L I A r. Ur. M TnmlUi, " 4in. A Kitf, H. tC I.W 2t>a, 

iBA.*l*r*-U a \ U B:^ . U St- J. C v. il\ tU. Ua-. IMt ICh Vu- 
JIw.4KlWi*i4 l^LMt; I R A W. »« *, JliintN^N t»l M, iSAm, ASuf, 
lLlLU«.JK(j fUiBiilaq «^ ft A A R. K^ l{>4 Mw.UTt llwiOnh v, f , K 

Ch»r-t R-t^ 10<M».Vni A t.;r,(. K. R Ca-.E^fi W. ft, L, A Mt^, 
«,||#AW, I04P, 94,V An.A Ki^, IL IE, Cm VAJ, 

■T.GOiHKHRMui,*BP«in A 4tH; riiiLl*v>. P,c.A0LUttr,O«Il 
4Ml P A.AU-1* lU-r- D(iQ^v^:ii M, LIU, tWEiii. O. «; TtHwwr. VI U. 



no 



UAIUUTT FOR T%]:CPAMJB. 



remoTB], and in ike otLcr c*m fron Ui9 lUiiiMMNiy 
vIol«aiC9 with mhUAt tliftC r«monl i« eflbcud. 

112. A nulway » aUo U«l>1ti for the aott of JU WE^ 
raiiU in tiio «t^rcisc of aUtutory power conA-rrfvi upon 
Uio rftilwuy tq urnst pcmunt uUcmj^ting to d«lHud tiieni.' 
It \» l]«ld i[i aumu UU8M, Uiut wbeK Lhe raUwnj bu no 
powc^r uiiilcr iu clurtor to niakc lu orrcvL tLv nuJwy 
U nut ]iu1>l«<, for Uien> oannut bo aji iiiii>IEetl aitthorilf 
to iu »jrv8Dt« to do thnt which tJki coifxtrAtioQ liM no 
otmrter power to tlo.^ In oibi-r aiKv,'it in h«liJ tbal 
railways are liable for wrorigru] armis taade bv ibrjr 
0iirvjintj> in tbn mintihceii pjErmar of tbo Authority rurltd 
iu Uivm bj tJR' railway, aud tbut in audi a cafi* it coo- 
etlttiUw nn (Irfrntv to t|j(^ rdilwAj lliAt iU ngcnC ia doAOif 
the act did timt wbich tbe rnilwiy wna not taUiorJ] 

-Icr to do, uud tbaL wlitcb llie railway IimI not 
iu niTTTtiTit to do. Upon tbc >amo prinHplo 
a ruilwny wiu b<^ld Imbk*^ for tbc act of it* Mfraitl in 
mjsiii^ a puesooger'e baggage to «iifom payowtit of h» 
fiTo. 1'he doctrine of tho Lut-moutionDd data of 
j04>iTis to be Bouud, for, if Lbe fior^toii wlio Jooi tin 
wronj^ful net he, iD fnct, n Kcrv^nt of llic milwny, ncidj 
£f tlifr act bedono ui furlbeniaooof tbC|;CDC;al purpucca^ 
of tbe rdlway, and not to accoinpliab an lodajx^nd^t 
porumul purj^ottL' on tbv partof tbv xervant, tlic railway, 
ougbt 1^ l»^ lii>kl liabk tborefor, on tbe gtouad of ad 
impliad (lidi-'j^ition to tho liorvuntof auUionty for ilia 



■ K C B/, (u Bnidcii. Eje.3H; Chfllmit, T.A CR^n ISU-A W^ntj 
Rw*^ n.K AC J. Rv«.TEt. 90; VWrvlfui] *LBniiw.«T.a IK; Hm- 
lN, Br, Ln, H^n.W; iLml of ^W Ibcith WiU* iv onus « A^^ <^k 
jnO; I'.lnr.!.*, !. «N. W n^. U K A C ^ MA; AllfB r. t, A A IT, Kf, 

L. K. ft, & tta ; (lofl t. <;, ». 1L7. » K. A K ffTs; 107 K r. I. 

OaL fC'an.J ASA. 

*L*«l.f.H.B,Kr,M X,T,T7,lSAfi,* I^HaR.O>.)»i ILiT. 
11. It ft. h McKM,Wt'iJ-'^^^.^J AffvA tine, ft iLCteMt. 

*|ri— jinfcB,^ A-H-K-, maiM. il7. 



uAviurr roit uKiivA^Ttf acts. 



Ill 



p^formanco of ibo p^rirajlnr art, ntii! the dix4ni» of 
uAni tfinM coaoot he hM to no^tivtj ib« implicfllt<>Ji <if 
eticli ft dclcgfiltouj ttultta, La HtQ woriln of Kf^Uj^ (.\ R, 
in hia diivonttiig jadgmect in Mill i*. H^^wkfrr,^ corpora- 
tkiiw are "not to b« liable fur any tori at all conuuili^d 
or uitborixod by th<^ni/' 

11^ A rniivay la liablo for an uvanlt oomTnii1«d bj 
a servant qtiJw tbe orrler^ of an eiecotivc ol^ccr of the 
compuiy, tliufl: tvhore n aervMUt of tmt ruilwaj wBft 
^vouiideil by a pisiol »<hol fired by some on^ of tb# ner- 

kU of arkolhor rAJIwny. acting uikdrir tbc ordcni of ibc 
Tlo«-pnvitIcQl ubd geuend mantif^r of tbvir line, in au 
atuimpt W) uk*> forcible ro^«*«^lon of tbe linp of rlio 
flrat-mcntioncci niilw^iy, ilit InflUnicnliotied rmlwuy vrim 
bcdd liabl« in Uiuua^'v vt the iiijur^ pcrsoD* 

114p A milwny in nlno Imbl^* for tbc^ art of itii Forrnnt 
£n aUempdng to hilht an udvenH.- witucftei, tlie wrvaiit 
b^ng tti^g^ Lo pj'upurv for trml m.'(io[i4 u^^lusl llio 
oampnny, aad ihct fact of mkIi attcmptml brtbrry boing 
adaitfibU la evitleooe agauitt tlio cum[«uny on the Iriul 
of na acljoa for ifuurios lo tbo ptirvoui In wbicli action 
tbe ptfTooQ H^Qgtit to be bribi^d wiu a wiliinn.' 

116, RailwayBftra aot liiibl'* for h misUken exercifta 
of jtidgmeat upon ihc piirt of iticir Hcrvniit;i iu nii coiCT- 
g«Qoy;* nor, for ji failure upon tlie part of tlLirir aw 
Taut« to a«c ^th thn iitmoRl ponsiblf prompiitLido 
ivlien tbe cirvumaULiicea urcj hucL tu to afford iii> timts 
foif drKbomlion ; Hwifi* wbf^re a psw^ng«>r railwny car 
ma appRftoliiiig u anJEi^b, nud thi? uticntion nf ibo 
drivor «a« fMCwaarily Jir^ci^^l to the awjtcli, and u boy 

■UEVRl 100, to Id m. 

■RAKaStr-r ll^rrii. ^few M«, , U All. .« Knfl, IL a (^ IIX 

■ c r, K^. », i«(V4TicA iia 111 iA\ K ^14, * Ki(. ti R. i:^ <«. 

U a St J. k K, ?S KiL ni^ < AM A Fi^t. R A. Ol A^O, 



lis 



UaBIUTY FOa WlLFUt ACTS. 



jumped cat tfac froDt platSorn^ rtniaioftl tktr« tbout 
Uurtj AM^oude^ ind in Juidpdng off was ii^ral, it wu 
liriJ Ui8t Uwr« va* no tt^ligODuc oq tbe part of ibe 
dc£ciiduit, OreCD. J,, Mj-uig : " wImiv tbe vote bvala 
oT Uftbtllt^ is ihft ominioii to p«rforai a cnrtain doij 
fEoddpnly and uncxpMtudly ftruii^t «e tbink ih/en 
oughl lo be «l leBcil u ooovcknittiitw of Uie facia irliich 
rabe Ibe duijr on th* ptin of the potvcoi «]u> in cluirgMl 
witb itH perfomuuice, and a rcMuoablQ opputimk; lo 

TL TUfi UAHILITT or TJIS XtllLWAT FOft ITS U^ 

S raihny h not tin^/vr £W M^vf oH t/ &t trrmnt JijlJ ll« 

ftujfiT 1^ lAol «rmiMr« jwvro/ avthmlj/, mitkm it S« ^rvMi oUt 

116. A miliTBy ■ not Gable for the wilful act of ill 
eervaTit li«i/oDd tbe aoope of Uiui ^rvmu'^ genoral 
nntboritv, urtinu it can bn prortn thn; tborawiw an 
tiuEL<o(.'Ji^iil D|.iuciiil autUonxaliuu or a Bulnquent mtiJl* 
car ion'' 'J'iiopfrr ciimm jiidgRirnt of ibo King's Bcndl 



t Couon 1. WwL « C a :r, R Ml «« E. a L : Bnm K Phk^ 14 Wi 
KalM of I MH ( l^miiK-l 411 J OwK •- IX U- JL Vl IMI7, M Vtl«L IC^ A Al 

A Eiir EL K Cu M?i Uwlith ». ». L. R. R.. 71 Uo lT4,t AkA 
Jt iH*^. Vi\ tninlmT7 V. t:^ R. 1, A I* Hy^ tfm» ,t1 A« A E««.K., 
KCM.I.K: F.ruwBt G * B, Si. Ry, Uldu IW, il -Vm. A Ei«- R B- C^.^ 
SAri, C A N. W. n;,*,HniUL,4(l M^lt. 'jM. 4 Alu>A ti« K. ILi^U*; 

■Ui^AiiyirCm^HI.1 £;**L10«;ODft».Ann^4 B.A AU.4Mt«& 
aL; Umanr. Runkof ]«ii|aix 1bC-& M.«G KCLl lidw* •.UA 

K-R7-i-n.*c p. Hi I Wtiw «. s, £ ft;. 1. R. A cp.*ioi e^cv 

t Krnnm. It 1:1 SI4: Kih* H, L A^lJ-Uj..? Id ;;f^; fnUrRAS-GM 
LuMilWlA AE.AV«p38EC.L.;Hj>^ ti.ILa.V Rm4a T<x.T*>] 
o II, A K A. n. iL «. tiHiitA^ an lA.\r.%9 ^hvA Ei« ft. B-Ck&mi 
Iwi.T-A- K R,«T5-T-I£!i R.T. l4-r. V4>»l»rUli, } S. Y. «TVi CL 

A N, W. D;/, n ltbr(k;Ut ^ MJoIlh aOA; t C; g. B. *, Doour, iB IlLUtL 



LtABILITY FOK WlUDL ACtt* 



118 



wmat driving a cairiigo, in ^rdrr lo cfl'tct wjrop p«r- 
[>OM0f hU OWD, waniottlj slrikoi the hurHui of unolhc^r 
fienon, and pro^ltioe nn nccMenUlli^ master will no! bd 
Itablo. Bui if, in onlcr In pcrTorm li»i miuilcr'* ordcm, 
be atrik^, but jttjit^lioioHBlv, uuU in ordor to e:(iricviio 
blnucir iVom a iltEflculty. thftt wiTl b^ nvgUgent and 
CDrelrvu c^uJiict for which tb« mmiltr vill be Ijublct 
bnug uu ai't don«iu purauauut' ufUie i^rvajit'e eiuploy- 

!I7. or coanto tbc railway Eri Imble for a wilful 
Hbiuult bjr 11 4vrvaut beyond the 0UO|je uf bi» t^pluj- 
ment, if it SLib«K]Ucrit,Iv miiAc* tbo not. I'rcof of rttti- 
Gcattou <'iUi be disliiot'd from fTi» fuel thrit th*^ railway, 
vilh knowledge of iu ei*rvaDt'« comuilaiuoii af an un- 
■uUioriMd tMunlt on a (laiomxr'-r, has retains] liini in 
}tA aerviM and pi'Oini>te>] biin.' Dul* It }ia« bevn bi*Id 
Uul a pfixnUe by a m?cr(iTrtrj flf a railway to luok iato 
the auutcr, and the m^WM|ijcul otTvr fjf a pt;ciiuiiry com- 
piramiM of tb« pLii»tilT'ft cUiia, waa nol evidence of a 
ntilicJiUon hf tb<» railway of tbi^ nnaiiib^irtzi'd art nf a 
MffauLiunrrvstlnK the pkiuliflToruou-pnviututoftuiv; 
and tbo Htct tbai llir arrornryof ihr railway attended 
before a nn^trntc ui i\\c huikrlng t)f a iibjirgir against 
UiQ pUiiililT, wua hirld not to be a raliGcatiom of tbtr uu- 
MtboriiKl >CL €f a iKTn-ant in liking tha plaintiff Into 
Ij aod carryiuf? liim before > lutigiatrauu* 

lid. It i*, bowGvcr, laid dowa by aoiuv autLoritleii 
dial tbc railiray \a liftbtv fi^r wilful nfifuult^ by itsi:crtU[iUi, 

fQ beyocid Ibe liuv of ili«ir duty, aa, for intftjinoe, for 



> tiv t, D. L. A O. J. tt7, r Be. Ml 



U4 



uAsiLiTt JOB ^nsvh icn. 



ibr tlic act of a bfiLLcroiui, vrlio, ftl»eii accoBoiJI qT tlivft 
bjra pMvcDgcr, fiUuck tJit; paiiwnj;pr m th«iiic«;^ for 
tbe aot of a oonducUir in csJljng a paa^vu^ oul of ft 
imic Ml a viiy nbitioii untl boilinjc hiin ^ for Um a«t oif 
» bruLt-mmi ill llirowiug watiT oq a pAAM«]-«r vLl1« 
eiAmliQg in tbo^loorvu^ of ■ car;* for iho Ktof tt coca- 
ductoT iu poititiiijc IX tuttdcd rcrolvur at a i«M«ag«T, 
And forcing liina to leap from a moving Imin ;* for 1b« 
wrt of n conductor in wilfiitly insulting uiid vmuttin^ 
u puHL-itgirrp tviic-u tilt? cocduL-uir wua ucit cpga^ed in 
thf>perroriiianoeor]]Hduii««;'^ for theacftof antogiiu 
i3riv«r la «mridiijg the wlu*ik of Kin ctigiJie luiudcoa- 
«oriIy, hud wJtL lli« Jnlouuou gf frt^butulug bortca;^ 
fur mitiltuig and olfi^njijvc c|>ithcU* nppIiLHl by aniilwmf 
«Lervaiki to a paiutnger,* 

no. On Uic Jlltor hand, itliaabecQ bdd tlmt a nti]> 
tvny in no; Wahlc for liic net of ■ icrvunc, v^io, baring 
bt*eii [iliwud ui a cur tloor to nWitt fLb «itraiioe iyf fda- 
HQogcre willjoiit cick«t«, a^eaultcd il i>ji«Acrii^cr vlio au 
tvutptc'd to fbtcv na cniriujcc;^ aoi for tbc act of « 



■ cnJw .t c « 3C, w. It?,, M Vbc aar. 

>C ftR, R.ltKFIt<itiiim,vaiJLM4»aAn.ABr«, 1CR.Q«L>M 

' FHfdM 1. a A A. It, B, «0 Oi. ^L, 

>T-n,«LlI.ILii. JHt»ii,.i] tfi.1, iV.fl AnLA|:r«,ILR.iW ITS. 

• Qiltfu i; B. S. B. R,» 13 Fill E«jL Uo, 

»l^l>^^Kr^ • IVr. R^.f? M0.^Qf; H-fAon rCA X. R-]t,ai ti.!U| 

■Ibruiit^t', 11 LAP. 1L«. lUl<iwft4n< Lfl Am^AfO^ VLlLiWXfl. 

Owb HTi OiuDU-ltlii *. ChuJIvr.a Uiwu SIS: Btjun i. Vkt ' ' - 

t«v«i^ri.lp]Afv,jVlI., <;> V1^;l,Ai), X. Kt.'>K««rK T.«, , 
ta Aa.A £i«a&C«, ^;; Jukn r. tVvid AtitB. R,«7 Bt.Y.STt; 
K.Mi»lit.lJ, K AUMe.lL,MKir: tV/>RCB K^UUUlj V** 
ICii.lrrcAVAN,nMtr.Ul**KU«^tiMn7-.JWAVr,MLft,U<M.tl4. 
» Prim h,itA.K.a,<»X. Yl*«^ 



UAnruTT FOIL wiLrrL actk 



lift 



it in slKlctn^ with ei lintcTif't n pnWFAgCT irHo BmI 
pvOTok^Hl a quArrul wicti him/ nor for tli« act of a fir^ 
iBttii 111 iuducuis ft Im^ Eo !i4aj>it lu vh-aieiiu|^ un euj^iitfT* 
nor for tl»n act ofA brukcmnn in onlcring a boy ti^ move 
a loAil of lumb^^ im a (!ur la mottunp' nur it>r thi^ dct of 
a bnUEi?Tn»'i hi ihrutviag ft atonr^itA boy (rc^piiM^trtgi.rns 
Unin/ HOC- for the net of a cotiduf^tDr in ibrrinx a trcv* 

na^ boy to juinji from & muvlng car,* uor fur the ftot 
of ft driver of ft vUeot or in xlrlking ■ boy nn^l kni>ck> 
injc Lim oCFtbe «ur,' nor fur ibo act uf a wnOuutor in 
jniatiiii^ u tmpasser olT a moving car,^ uor for ihe act 
of an ^ngini^'JHrc^ in purpooviy dnring h'm mgine ovor 
iltlcuti thv line/ nor fur lliu uctoftbedrivi-rornHtrevt 

In flritfiilly running hid oar Into a ^t?l^1}u/ nor for 
I* net of n brnkriHAii in nbdiioting n boy from bi^ boma 
■ntl tiuryiJif; him away on a train. '° ^ 

120. Tbu K\'ori*!il uctiouM agaicflt railways for w^Uful 

(alls coTnmit(«id hy ibfvir arrrnnU niny bn i^lnuifird 

tbr«< (ttteffiriui : Jtrft. lho<e In which th<? [lerKoii in- 
jur^ WA$ Wit u pu»it-up]r of iht^ ruilttuy ; se^tfndt t}iOM 
in which tlic p^nwn injtircii wha a pfljv<rng<i', ati<i lh« 

tnk wMConuniUedby th** railway V *i-rvant atft time 

^wlieu he WJL8 engAgfld in tlie |>erfurniftQce of ItJB duly to 

Uio railwny, n>, lor iniirAnci;, when rollvcltng ihc |>mM?n- 

f^r'fj fdrdi or whi^n prevcnliny; the pnssen^ur fruni rnter* 

.lag, or remaining, in a particular car; anJ tUirdj thrme 



* Avwa ., II. A i^ J. K. a, n M-y. 11 1 An, a &« K. R €^ Ml 

* Tvwm4* CV«t i\k 1 n>«nui. lU lVf<u Se. 4IB. 
Chflbv a. p. C- A HI. U Rf« '/^ Prnv. K. IW, 

%r^ OS, • iB. A &f. R. R. C^ in. 

* VfaJ •, D a S. Kj. (4 Xkh. «)llOAi&AEfK.RRCH.J=>L 

« OaUM fL a A K. ,V R It , TO Ak. ItimA A» * »^ R B. CifL lUl 



114 



UAMurr roK vilftl ir^& 



Snwiitcb Ui#p«i«aiili^tirednsa |«aKQe«r of ibe lail- 

wAj, «jhI llic ttSHUlt comibittod b^ tbo wrvnnc ma mA 

oc>iiictnpor4n<s>n> vi^ that Acrviuit*« ptrlonDttiiov <»f bb 

dutr u» Llie ruilwdv. lo eacli category tlio Ufciaons uv 

ooiifliclinfr. In liufso nf tW flrvt cnl^'jK^r^, tlir rsilway 

wx^nen^ly li«l<l not tu bit iMbJc, Aud in tliiOMof Ui6 

ioooiid afiil tliini cal«igoHee, tbo niilwfly if^ gi^n^nlly 

bcM to be Ii4t]>!c. A cnrditl oonaidentioa <if ttu 4uc^ 

tion upO» principle will ttttUV 4Aj <iii« tliHt ll^ tnM 

rnl^ of ■)flH«oEt in nv^rx cn^ wh^m it iV nongi^t Uk Itolil 

iL niUwuy r«poimil>Jr fir th* itrl uF u wrvanl cntuiiig 

IiTjiirv to n [jer^oiir w}i«tber tlifli ptTsoii be <ir Ijc km>I 

n piijufrngor, or vhn:rwr br tha rcl/iiioa in which he 

vlnnd^ lu the fnilvrjiy, in tci hn fruinit in tlieutiivrvr li> 

tbo :|Vf(vlIuii, vffU8 lb<r wrvdiil m ilulng lh« Ml |>erfoTKt- 

ingi bowcv<T n^glif^^ntly nnd how^rw^ wrongfbllj^ bi» 

dutj fo ihtr rjvjiwny, or van boiiccoinplifJiTnj^ttODMf |iiir* 

porieof hbown. wblcb h&d uo uvcvft^ry ^LmiJiootioD wtlb 

Ihc- iwrPjrmnnce of bifi duly lo ibc niiUity 7 If \lw 

tbnncr, tb« ruilw^Ly lit liahiff ; if tl>« l»-ttrr, tl*e lailwoy 

i« iicii liuble. In Jri|iii»«^n v, (1, R. I. A P. Ry.,^ vrber^ 

the mllway vran held iUihh for ibo act of iu rtAtioo.' 

DMiFfl^r in f-Jecting llir- {itEiintifl^ from itii tiiAiioo boon 

rightfully, but mih unncoM«ary mUnw. Kolhrod;, J^ 

Uju* itiitcs tbc mic: "tbc Imc tot by wbic^ todctcr* 

mino th«t TiahiliTy of th^ tnoBl«r, or (mployor, Jbr tbe 

nogli^nt or wrongful ncU of the PRrvnnt,orrniplAy6, m 

ull thia diii« of tivwj in, wiu tilt vn>ngful or oc^ligi'Di 

net rlono in fbft coiiraf' nnd scopf of iho wnploymoni ol 

ihr urTrdni, or njrpnt? If k wn^, th*- rmploypr w lUliJc. 

JJul if tlie (fmploT*- (l<fC(i any aitt c»iit nf his emploTnictil 

• • iho employer i« noi IJnblc, For rxAnj|>Jc, if «n 

ogtnt. conductor, or oth^r employ^^ nhould nMtuh n 

lonfer in a waiijng-roi^ra in a pentoml fjiiart^t, bftvlo^ 



lUBIUTT rOR WtLFVL ^CTt. 



117 



no rolftlios to his ampler III eutr tW conipooy would luil 

121, Uao^tif tU«L-aM*»hoUtlL&tU^raUvray U Uublo 
to its pmnsagm for unouiliomHrti anil wilful uwultii by 
lis servaiite vhen it wotitd not Iw liubl« 10 jx>nioiifl oilier 
ibait |>GL«oi)gen^ f^jr »ucb a4«auli8> Tho groimii of <lo- 
Gwou m luob 0EUC4 id tbim aUttcd bf Tmoy, J.:' " By tb« 
d^ffiiulani^Bcoutractfritli the fikihiifTjLhail uiKlertakcoi 
to ctury Iiim safely, nud to Uvat bim rc^Mp^^tfully : iiid 

fVnin injury Agiunat cvrry jiowililt Hnngrr, it do^uiid^r- 
Uko to {trvuxi th« pflawiigrr uguiiieit Htiv iojurv iLfixirig 
ffotn tltc uv^D^i.'iKie or wihul miecoiiJuct ut lU sorvuiilit 
wbiki ftngitgoti 10 pcaf<>rini]ig n duty wliich n cnrricr 
onroi to the twAHtii^r.'* Tb« fdllucy iu Oiis rauonbg 
Gftii be rCAdlly poiiiI<'r} out. ll i« hated on a Rit»oppro- 
bciwiottof th« ruilwuy'a unplied abli^Tion to it* pti- 
feeBgSen« T^k^ ntjiway does not inaure il]«{r tafe 
tmn^ptirtitiion. U dm^* not wtirritni lotbcm tbcwcurily 
of Urt lixic^ nor tJiu rottdivorthi:3ou of it* currin^v, aor 
iht) c»p«bility of il8 servniiM. The duty of tliv railTvaj 
lo itH |»fwin^ if potformod to it* fuU zncunirc vbcii 
Ui^ r^lway tficcvum tho highuit po«iblc can in the 
eoet'Cniciiou nnd opAraiton of itn ]\n^ mticiUin^rv, and 
ftpjdbjinv, UDd iti ih^ jcdf*ction, or^tinmirioEi. und din- 
ci tiling of lltt wrvhji[>< It 19 \\u\Av Ilt iru |*uA4^ii^ni 
only for ncglif^ntv. ind it » not nngligrnra iipnii 1I0 
|>ai1, whuu u Krvant who huit bwn cuiTfuUy Kclwtwi, 
,aaJ for wIiiwci)fui<lniioii iu ihv pcrfonnaoovuf bitfiluEim 
Judioion* n^iiluticitiA \mvc bf^t-ti pnwmbci], but who in 
vewribeloM buman uid mortiih auri. iLoreforev to MOtne 
cxuriit, at loutf both fallible mid HidfnwnkH}, doc^ ihnt, 
fn iho cxcroisi? of bin own vulitjun und Eo mttg bitf ova 
|>iir]HiRM; which ihf- rmilwny hm uoi expnwiy nor 1m- 



118 LUBnJTY FOB WILFUL ACIB. 

I^iedlj authorized him to do on its hehal£ To hold the 
railway liable in snch a case ia not oooaiatent, either 
with the principleB npon which rests the reaponBihilitj 

of railways to their passengers fbr injuriee cattsed by a 
&ilure of their means of transportation, or with thoss 
other rules of law of wider applicatioD which detenniiis 
the liability of principals for the acts of their sgeutB. 
It docs not afibct the question to argue, as Mr. H. G. 
Wood has argued,^ that because a common earner of 
goods is absolutely liable fbr its serTsnts' loss of or 
wanton injury to the goods which it has* contracted to 
Cfltry, that, therefore, "it would be a ungnlar rule and 
an absurd one, that did not hold the CBjriers of pas- 
sengers" responsible for- injuries wilfdlly inflicted 1^ its 
servants upon those passengers- It is only Dece^saiy, 
in reply to this view, to refer to the judgment of Mon- 
tague Smithy J., iu Besdhesd v. Midland By.,^ where 
he shows the essential diHtincdou between the implied 
obligations of cnrriera of goods and of passengers. It 
must be remembered that science has not yet enabled 
railways to manufacture their servants to order. Thej 
must take as tlioee Bervants sentient human beings, each 
of whom lias an indivitiuatity >vhich can not be altogether 
repressed. All tliat the railway can do in the exercise 
of the highest poBsihIe care is to prudently eelect and 
train its servants, and to make wise regulations for 
their government, and when it has done thiit itisaplain 
injustice to hold the railway responsible for its servant's 
wilful and unauthorized act. 

■ L«w of ^faster iind BerruiL 643 a^eq^Z L*w uf B»Ujudi 1196. 
' L. B. * (i. B. 37*. 



urDi:i>-EyDE?iT coynucTOM. 



119 



CHAPTER III. 
,Tnx MAKLTTT OF hailways rou Titc ACTV or urp£rzy> 

f_ iribf pNianlt ni1« fpf IJtIttllty Car ih* rugllfifua ^ caartttim. 
tt- Hi/ IlkbUlFf tor ■ YroE^cfiEt 111 iludtt la ^ujkijmiiid of ■ cuirincL 
lit T|i« UiUlUjr £W « WBUHUir't imq ptrAmauWi «f a dnlf lummWrn 

on ihf fdhnv- 
IV. Tht nUn^t fF*^|M'"* l>o uuicti^u DCuCiiiM* oa Iht f«rt of lia 



I. TQB OeifCRAL ftOLi: OF LIABILITY IVB TOE ITfeOLI- 
0B3(0C OI" COHTIlA<rn>im. 

J raiIiM|r If *al iin^n f'rr ihr ntpti'/auK of aft ijidrpeniieHt atnitraOur 
cr ^ Ait Mnonfi ^ eA« Aunr« (^ f^c ^nrfccufiun □/ a lawful w^rk. 

132. It ofWu bajk|>ene, iii ;li« course of railway opoi-a- 
doiiis lh>t mdrprndmit coninu^Lnr* nrho nr<^ ant forvanu 
of tbe railway uru (uigugt^d pro /lac vu^f lo yt^rftjim H(nu& 
•pQCiAod work of coD*iruction, flltcrnlii^ii, or rtfmir, 
Tlie carlkcr cgaa held bim who had M^^lM to an- 
ot1i«ir lb« perrorruanoc of any uct, or who bail contructoil 
vrith t^mt rtii^T fbr it# perform a iicl\ 1iaM<^ not ouly for 
■U ibe ooiA (toTitf by Un* (Nxit.mcior b lb« tixcrciec uf ilie 
iMdgfttwi fluUioriiy >ncl in ihc pcrfonndfice of the,coTi- 
tnct, but uho liublc f^r tbc n«<j£li^nKX' of Uio oontmo* 
tor, iiu] of th« contractor** errTntil*. Thus, in Itueli v. 
Hlriaiuio/ ihc d<<rcndiint being the owner at n bouw, 
ocfiiir«ri«d will] A T^urveyor to repair ti, uuil tbo Burvuvor 
fablot ibn onniTJi<:l to u rHrprniirr. ^rho *-mp1ny«l Ji hricb- 
Uyor, wbo ajfltrat'ted with a limu-burntr fiir lime, wbirb 
ifao li(n<^bunic-rV ^rvnnt |>[rtrt'il on tbc Iitgbirsy la 



120 THE OLD RULE OF LIABILFIT. 

frODt of die bouae, auil the plaiutifl', haviu^ been in- 
jured by I'CJwon of bia carriage beiug overturned on the 
lime, brought bis nctloij and recovered ag&in^t the de- 
Jendantf Roukc, J., saving, '* the person from vbom the 
whole ituI]ioritj is originally derived, b the person who 
cuglit to be auswei-able, aud great inconvenience would 
follow if it were otherwise." llie same view is taken 
in two other cu^^cs,' but the doctrine of these casee ha& 
long aince been overruled. In Laugher v. Pointer,' and 
in Quarmun v. Bennett,' where the question was as to lia- 
bility for the negligence of an independent contractor 
where the contract liad reference to personal property, 
Bush V. Steinuian was fcoughl to be di&tinguiehed upon 
the ground that the contract in question in that case re- 
lated to fixed property, aud that therefore the owner 
was to be held liable, but this shadowy and unsubstan- 
tial distinction was rejected and finally overthrown in 
Reedie v. L. tt N- W. Ry. and Hobbitt v. Same,* in which 
csKca t\iQ plaintifis sued under Lord CampbeH's Act, as 
widott'3 of iXT.-^ons wlio wuio killed while paa&iug on a 
highway ujidcr a viiiduot in coui'^e of construction as 
pjirt of the deli-ndjint's line, the accident having re- 
sulted from the negligence of the workmen employed 
by a contractor who luid uudertakon lo build the via- 
duct. The Jury having fuuud for ihe pl^lntifi's, a rule 
for a litfw tijjil wsifi made absolute, liolfe, B., euying, 
" the cjise of Bush v. tStcinman, where the owner of a 
house was held liable for tJic act of a f^rvant of a eub- 
eoiitrnctor, auling under a builder employed by the 
owner, was :l ease of fixed real properly. That ease wae 
stmngly prccaed in argument in support of the liability 
of the defendants, both in Laugher v. Pointer and 

' Sly t EJglej, fl E^.6,oni] in MaiUieWB r,\V. L, W«i*r»iirta Co, 3 Camp. 
4U3. 

» D B. A C 547, 12 E. f. L. » 6 JL & W. 46ft ' * Ex. £41, 



LVI)i:PS:f&EXT COTTKACTOUL 



m 



Qnarinau v. Bvunctt ; oad us the circurxiitiLncc* of ihoac 
liro c»tt8 WOM* iuch nH iioi to m^ktr it iR«ct4qiiry lo ovi-r* 
mla BimIi u. Hli^ininnn, if nu^r (iMTinciion in jioinl of 
Jaw ilid txiit, m «iuat likv tlu; pnsvtil, bctWLiii tixi.*!! 
|iro]%rly an<l oriliiuiry [uotul.>!i? djAUt^H it wh& ri^^ltt lo 
nodoft ths pinnL Ilutr on lull ronsiilcnitiaii, ^i: tmvo 
CQQV U> ib« uuudueiuii UuLl thvrv la uo aucb iliHLiiKitiuiv, 
QCihei, perbnffl, in euma ^lierc tho act cnniplaiiifrti of a 
racb aM to mnouiit toantiasnue: undin iiirttliLit, kii:r<ird* 
ing to tho iuo<lcrn decIaoDa, BukL v. SU'inmiiti uiuhI te 
Uikm not to be \nw, or, at all crcntiVf tliut it citnn'H b« 
nifrporirxi ou tli« ground oti vtliit^li the jiulj^iumC uf lIja 
court i*rocwtlc"i. • • • Mr Jn^iiic** Liiiltdftle in his 
wry abl« jud^mvnt iu LuLijcbc^r v. Tuiiitcr, gbivcrvcd 
tliAl ilie UiT dote not rwo^fkiija a Buvi^ml li^bilif y bi two 
principals wlw urc uiicotkiirctvtJ. If ihcy arc joinily 
liable, you muy lut- vUber> Liil you cuuuol bu«« tiro 
teparutoLy limbic. TLiia duciHat* U one- of gfnerfil ap- 
plifution, irT«"|inctitf> of rht* nitttim nf Uin fim|J<*ymi:--nt j 
and applyoig the jirim-'iplt- lo ihy prv»t'ut taae, ti wi>uM 
bo li»|)c»«iblo b) holfl th^ prc^ont Jffk>iitjaii[« liable, 
vithont, at tiie raiihi tituA, dmiiin^E timt ihc conlrttoLon 
dT^ tiol liabli^, which it ii^ould be impotbibU lo hv cuu- 
t^ndod* It rcainina nnly lo bc^tUicrvcd that hi iioncof 
tliA more modern uftfui had c]|« allrgiHl diHtinclton bo- 
tw«u real 8T»d pcrwimd |-mE*ny Wii mlinitlcil. Our 
atl^nCioH mu dinrctcd during llic ur^uinvnt lu tbc^ pro* 
vistoitt of theojiitraci, wbt^roby the d^fvuduiiLi hnd tlio 
powft of iniLiting no llic rcnjci^fd of t'jiroI(^i« or Lncom^ 
pctont workmnii, and no U uiui ouiiU<LkW1 tbiiy euubI bo 
rapOOfablo for thoir n*>n-M»moval. Itut ihw iir^wftr of 
nnnoval dooi mil wimi to iw to fury tbt* iive. TUo 
irorknifta Ig aitti fh« aeriant ^tf tlio puiitrHCTtor ODJy, aud 
Uke f*c4 tint ihn dcfrndnDr^ ini^^bt hiivc in5iiilc^i nn hia 
KDoral ifUivy liiuught Uiia irutvlna or unskiUful, did 



IB m&na Mout or Lunti-in'. 

nolmalEphini tlj«Jr0«cvaiil." In FainUr i-,PiU«Uirgli,* 
Siroiig. J., Buic) UliU Bii«Ii V, SU4natsa "(oog atficc 
cea«e(l lo be re^ni«d nj n oorroct coimctitioti of tlw 
Inw in KngUibd, aaU boUi liA re«ecviiDg anO AuUioritj 

129. ThetiKKJom doclnne is dim if an uidepeudeDl 
contmrtor ia f-mplofed 10 do n kwfijl act, tli« employer 
not reserrittjc n cx)£:troL ovvr the tnuimirr of iln |>crr<knn> 
anco, Slid !u tb« voiinii- of lUc wurk lietjir U!b pitiiiqI 
commits »omR on^inl ofl. of Dogli^encr, il»n ^finploypr U 
not itniwvruble.' By foru! ut' Uivvc fHcdpIv*, ft nut* 
wtty hi uot liable fijr l[ijurJM ^m>i ju iLu ti|:i«vslion of 
il« lino vhilp in pi^occm of cnncrrtic-tidn hy a rmimoior ^ 
but where A ptiwenger in iqjuriNl wliile trtuig tmtt> 

tl (Z 11 mir.TAK.C. ^: Knli^fatf Nn AKi^TSIj AtTfo >- llnTn' ' ^ 

JWwin >^l.o«<3U V^ ti, m»L Upptfin f, (tabiU. V >l- A W. :tU: JiiJlUrd 
•.lU^bvilfOO,^ Cr^liV; dieuiiwp«vCiaiaNiX» til. 1*1: «rftHi| tHiukl 
of Krif a, 1\ni». M nsiirit. »!. 000 ) 9Miir A r KtnmiHHt l.<i WmAIj Tfdv «f On^ 

Aim[|nLn>^WixljTu.1'J A- AK, 73T.I0K C L.; »urnj t. Oirriv. L It «& 
P. U: OuiirW > WJilW M4« (.^Uitrr Cb, L, IL ICK l> ?iJ HtUi^ 
Hmhh. 9 MnfT lAA; v ttpklnnd b^ Aldnvn, B, In tW41 1 Ufti>«i;f HW^ 

K. iu AlimUiA r )l-rn.atU, £ II. A N, 14!^ Ui4 [|W<ntM Ci«» trf CteUs^ 

Pvnni.Si. 213^ Ar^cB*i <>L1 Cm r, OtbrMin nil lA. [«A^ Kiti nI^i^IJ^U |1 
1^7) KkJhui^^ cf F^M[iivhiinjH I)0p«<-[%lmctMiEH. 3^ Wall; NcUfltirf Chb 
{l^»L1]L^sa^; llfolp^AIIf^w. 7l^pL6l.StJ0^ lhirr^r^N,LB«Kl' Mb lll| 
Bkho t, F.i-rifc fl 5- r W; N. O, * S K R ll -- »hi* *r Vl- Wj 
llnBtkMt. C AK.Ux-.L'^Aa.'^Kdjc B-ROu LuO. ui! Djtf^ ^ '^ 

lum, HifilOi, aOmj-NTi I>*l"orf»t f.Wii«^t.S «Jr*t. •«;:'._.;,■. 
e D. AlMl.K R, A1 X, Y. ITK. Kp<vi<II > Ulnl.J<(U IWl OuLcFrr. 
WUMiliLtWj lt<.fiii;«^>,X. Y.CAaK, RU.U X. V««^ Kit^ %. 
3I.T.C.AJLE,lt.&,«fa.lSl; ll.t.'<i4>r*.W*tMA| Id. Sn. 
* ^.C-Uj.r P'lUilininnjw, U Kuk M. tA A&. B^. Bt^ n*i Go^d^ 



i!ii>i:rKXDi^x-r ooxthactojw. 



123 



ported ovOT A liiM wlifch La in procoaaof ciMimnctioa 
bjr contrvclonv nnd ythxoh liojt noi boen fonnully re* 
edvol fruui U«tf c.-untRiCt<)r[», but ihts truiu is maiuiod by 

cnoMd bj t]i« n^ligouoe ot' thmie M;rv)iDlii, the roilwdj 
HUM bo hiaM ImbJa iberafor.^ 



nVrv t^t nihof. kavtnff mtineiBd fit t^e jutformatia of a «9fkt 
Aw raTW U ittcjf iK« nnM frcfA r^ ^ fAuA owf t;/ ike fuon* 
4y vAiirA Elidl rgnA ti '» ^ Kwrnji^i^iAnf, it u l^bU fir tKt ntfj^ 

VIA. Wb*rc thu riUway hni" (XintnwWiO fcir tltc per* 
fi>nnwQC6 of a work^ kuJ huA reserved lu ttBtjlT ^'oulrul 
botli of tbc itvult unil of the iijcan« by which thnt ri^- 
wU E* to be u«\MnptLdH*d. ihft oontmctop nnd hi* Htr- 
vonts Ari» the wrvttnTs of the mil way, and tbe rolLway 
is beld lUble u» in^LiU^r fnr Ibrir jirt«,' In Knndhwoii 
». Murmy,' tbo defrnduiiL wurt a wHrchmiiwmiio who 
«ag8g«d H lUAAter fjurt^ir to remove u hnrrel IVtjm hia 
WBjrohoiuic:, ilic miutlc^r jw>fti!r omplojin^ hw own nork- 
□iCG bod Uoklo. nod fcQUi tbi.* iio|;tigCEJOO of tboiw UlOu 
Um tacklo faiUid, tli9 bari^l fVU, And tlir* plninrilf wan 
bijnnd. Tbc ouo u rvportvd dtxn not UuitiiH.liy mIlow 
wbvlhiT ihtf muetcr purt^rr wud oiij^il^ihI i»(-rti|y for tbo 
pftT^culnr ji^b or nhnlbrr hn nvkc nngngvd bj th^ dny or 
wofllt for lb« penioirnl <if otHi'r bum;)*. Ci>!eridi^. -T., 
dinK'ttxl lliu JLiiy 1^ hrid a vvrdicl foe the plmrilltT if 
tL^ coniiiiltr^ thftrA bnd bonn n^gltgnnc^ in lh(r um 
oTthtf Ucklc, nnd n rt^ditl h^ivm;; piuwoj for i1j<^ pluin- 
lIK 1^ Tulo for a ucw Irml wa? rofuKd* l>«miuui. C. J.| 

« ■ .1 A «C lot^ A K I'- I, nw «1« U^irirxn t Wnlps ^^ A A K. 7X7, 40 
C <\ I.: (Wn-f >. lt>Qt«k. « El A Fl »:Ul ^ B C L.i Bl.kti r. TlilnL, 
«n AC»»:«(«M*^Vit4^L?^ V 104; If a IL A C It It • IUodIjic 



ISi 



iXhXTlLACTmiUt Wit Kit AOKXTIL 



taking : " H»d tho Jnrj in ihis ctie bran asked wlwilmr 
ibe portirn, whoow ni^ligeiKX onnmotiri) Uiv •ct-idi'Ul, 
wt'rv Llw Borvuaia of th** ikr^^nikui, tlim- cuu l>c iM 
diiiihi ilipy nouli] havo t'otiiLd iu lli« nHlnnAtiT«," nnil 
Liuludiili?^ J.y gliding: " It wcidh lo me to nuikft n<i<Uf- 

tiic ijijury be ih(i faciTnniJi of the dcf<^ntJiint, paid bj 
ilditv wu^, or ha brdiigbt to the wArehotuo hv ■ pvnm 
4»iApli>;vd by ihe di^ffuditnt Tbe Ifiit^r fi^ucmily 
oocnri in it lar^c; plnctr tike ]^vcrj>ooI, wlit^c iua&v pcr> 
»i)ti» fix«TrciMT tht* oci!U|mtiun of a iixuhUt (-irtcr. But 
ibo law u (bp Mra« iii eAch c«(4;" lu tiie hipr casr of 
MiUigftd I'. Wvd^\' wL«re tlic ddcuduit, a Ultcber, 
having bou^bt \k bulloi'^k, bad ^ngsj^ a Ihwaied drorw 
to drive it i'Ti>m Dm ^'ithSiM UarkeU "od the dronr 
omplo^td a buy hy whwc uf^ilgn-acv tbu buUock ewapcd 
ouU ii^jureii tU>^ pUujitiC, lL«< jury having r<>ui^d ^]if>f^iAlljr 
that tlio boT wju aot dof<*rki)Anrn M^rvani, bin luving 
fmiiid n vor^Lct for tlie jtljiifiLiff an iha gootml b«ni^ 
Disnman, C-J.,BuiJ wiiii ru^^ardtu BuitdLncicv-Murrmj: 
" The tfork waa in dfo^t dnnn by tlio d^tiUnl blniKrir 
At, hii nnii warchoiuie. If li« cbtw! inxttad oi k(a*}uti|; « 
porter U) liirv oim only for iLv day, be did aot tLvrvby 
cesM 10 ijo liablo for injury done by tlie porter wbik 
undc-r Itiii oi>»trol. Here it dofw not appear tJiat li>e 
dvl^Hkiliiril atti^tjded llii> drover or bib aorvncii, mid ihb 
niit^L-bicf mm lionc!^ not in tbu ci>uivc of tbi- butchur** 
buBJuavt, biu of tbL' drover'»," And WilUaMKJ, J, addej ^ 
*' I a^reii-^ >vitb tho di^ciflioii of lUndlwoD f . Murniy, for 
Xhii WLkrctioujdoLnun'a fli.*fvant, wbclhct doily or ntvkly. 
IB iNjitally under ib« ooutrol of ihv wareboiLMmian ;*' and 
ColmdgD, J^ Aald: ^' Tho true t4vt ui to anB^TtKia tbe 
robriiuu bulw?en tbu parly diur^;^ liitd ibu parly acitt* 
ally doiii^ ibcT injury. UiLle«4 lliFr rolatioo of iiiH«t«r 



IIfrDEPSXI>B:!<r CONTOACTOBfl. 



1» 



tm^ atsmai exut b«twi>oo tiuiu, tlio uct ot the onu 

RkiKlktttia V. Miirmif lui it in uxplmneJ In ^IlUI^^ui 9. 
Wtnlgo, it U iioi iiio)»Hiaii?(it wiili t(i* lawrcaaea. UuJer 
the ilijcirvnc of ibu wcikm, iwo rpcrnt criM« hnvc bwn 
dcoidcvl: ihiw, where n niLlway cinnpuny cwwiraictcd 
ivith Hn iii^ivtdual to take fiilire charge of its frm^ht 
Imtlontf nt ibt tRmitEit)!*, nwdcr Ibo inip(?n"isIon of th^ 
iMtlvrnt All peri n ton 'Iirri^ tli^ rjXilwuy was Ij^ld liable to 
fi pfrfjjn injnrprl hr ihe ufglignnl haniilmg of n train 
by tli« (wQlnictor'* ncrvauta,^ bud vrhcrc a milwnr per* 
nilM a ooutruotor to eierdfie i» fraiicbwe of niiming 
ant dmvn by Kimm ot«]- itA Imp/ iltn railwiiy wan li^LiI 
liaMc for irgiiriut <laDo by tb« uvgligL^iii^v tif liiv ccin> 



/ninf t^ iMTib tuiU not rmdrr the nj^mn^ ttnltr/at tht nonlrwiot't 

125, Tbu fnct tliat the mntrt^t rrqiiinv the oontittdor 
todothi>work \n actiuniaucv wJEh the ]>tatiH» Bpeolficft- 
tiotw, umI infttnictJotiA furiiis^hi^il hy ilift mil^vny irill not 
rviitkv tbo niilwtLy liable/ nor that tho contract rawrvo 
to tlw raDiray powr to iiiBUt ou tli« removal uf careJcn 
or iniyimpf^ttii ^vorkm^ «Tap!oy^ by Ihc* eonirnotm";* 
iKir tJiat tlii» contract rM^rro to the railnay pow*^ to 
direct d»i]go<t in iho time ftrnt manner of doing iho 
vrtH-k;* nor that th«coDtractri?*crvc« to Ihc railway the 
rigbl to iliroct as lo (he ijuantlty of work to b« done, or 
M to the coodition of the work whon c^n)pliy(«d ;* nor 

■ ifnJ *. .L A P. IL ft, Tl lf<^ 20,tH ! -Vm. A Knc- ft B. Cu. H, 
*H.A.1.|L1.*, Mvrv»<»«.nr.^ 

* QuM *^ P, IL R. &1 lVtin>^F4. iTa^ Amhh >v Mlnmons m Id. J1^ 



198 



WBoxQB w pmtatrAVCK of oo»nu<T. 



tint ibecontninoT 11 p«M hj tlt« dMj:f nor tbot t!i« 
OOD 1 rector's Berrun I vihtjw ii^^ligetice caaMtl tlMitijtirj 
i« p«id by xhc rtilwuy mhtle dirccKd «nd coDlroUul in 

biB &0tiun bv thfr (Minlnu-tOTp* 



II. Ttu u.LiinjTr roK ji wjiokcfvl act doxi: ue 

r/u roifuvt^ ifi^ be HobU ohfTt At iiynfj it dcnt tf « wrMfl^ 
act ju^ftnnfd ^ rAa MnFmBtor n lA« o«vvliM ^ Uf natnut 

I2fi- 1*hR Hfirtrinfi of thp indoprn^prt «Dnintct4^r will 
not iTxrni|Jt u rftilwuy frtim liiibilisy whrrt ibr oct wbirh 
UOOiiaioui? iIeo ii^ury ia OD^ which tht* OiOJitrmdor npj* vih 
gSLged tn Jii, nnil ivhich ho htm dnno in inintnaiico oriiS 
contz^Kt, :ind whenthoftct inftwif iinv^mnj?. In mch 
OMe« Ulv (jiiipluytir iH, ofi'OurseJiaiblc.CbtllieoouUw^-lor 
in AilflMtng hiEi <v)tttrDct bi the cmploycr'n AgcnL tliv* 
iu H(j|i> »j. S. it S. Ky-t* ih* tlutVfi'Juni, l>cing intboriwd 
by Act of Pafliam»<titiocur»Blru(-[ a reilvty drnv-ttndge 
tteron • nnrigiihlc river, hnil niii|]1or<xl n oontrc^iior, by 
whosa nVfiVi^eatx in li»c ucmBtTuciiun of tlic hni!^ lh« 
brMg^t vfliori completed, couhl nol be ojifriiM, umj llie 
pluutiir*s vctbfl wus pri.'vcntcd fi^Mii oavijpiting Ui» 
rinr. After venJiot for ili« plhiuLtfTa nilo for 9 d*w 
trial wu diachiirgixl, rollnck, C l^tmying: "ThiBiBS 
CMvfiu which llic maxim 'pti/<K\tp^aJiwafacitptrH' 
lL|iipdke> Wfiere a jH?r>o^j is timhorizi^d by^uAvtof 
Parljjunrni nr boiinil by rontmc^ toiloft pardtmlar vork 
be tsiau<Tt avaUl rvopuajubiliEy by cyniriKflxn^ with a»- 
oth<^r |wr*wfi toiJo thnt work. Wh^mili^Rct co(ii;<taitied 
oi' ii piimly cr>Ihtorji[ and nriMft iiicidrDUiUy in tlie cnnrw 
i»f the perJbrmanc^ of the work, lh« eiuployvr ia uiH lin* 

• Knrka it Wh\u Wtm KiAlUry €«, t. R 3 C P. D, HI 



msraNUKTr C09ITRAlfri>]dl. 



127 



bio, bi!(!iiii!MT hn nrvnr nnthoriEiMl ihft ritL — tlio roincdj 
ivjigvinul IIk' ptmua wbo lU^l it» * • • But wljfu th# 
coDinLcwr is employed to do a parLioiikr act, Ibt^ Jum^ 
of which CAOftw miichicf, unothi^r doninnc n^jilln^ 
Here tbe ]eg)«lstur« «m|jloye4l tbo <x»uip4uj tu build 
Iho bridg^i in building that brid^o cho caiiliactor 
cremixt nn ohttniction to tli? nnviguiion, and for ibut 
die oonip&ny nr^ liubl^/" 



nt. Tiic LumUTT Fou TUB rosTRACToas sox-mn* 

FORHAM'K OP A DCTV IXCUXBENT OX TUB 1U1LWAT. 

127. Soalsotheomplojrerialiable^hereilLecoiKracIor, 
bnvIrtjE bc<-n cnTruj«tc<l with ihc jiGrforinaQCC of a iluty 
mcumbc-iit upon the oinplayi^r, tiogliwu ita fulGlliucnt* 
whfinbv ail ipjnry le (M:(»tfioued. Tliiift in Piclcard tv 
Siuilli/ WilUjtma, J,, after »taUng tU? gniit^rul rLtloof 
noi>-luibilHy for Lli« ncgUgonco ot nn indoprndtiit 4»»- 
UacCOr, add^: "That rale, bovATer. is inapplic^kMe ti^ 
CMM in wliich the oc^c whidi r^'^iiflEonfl the injury ]« on« 
wliidi tho cootnotor was cmplojr^d to do ; net by ft 
pftHty of ro«*omiig to cjvw^ in wliioh ihi* conlraclor, 
hafiag hocn cninuicil with the pFrlarmiiurcora duty 
incumWiit «p(»u Ibo <.*uiplt»jer, ui'^'lv^^ta ibs fulfitlmt-ul, 
«borsby an iiyury i* owiuinncd. • • • • • if ib^ pr- 
foniuuicc of tlu duly bv uiiiittcd, ibe &ut of biir having 
<iiUu»t«d U lo ai pHF»un wto aUo naglecl^i Lt, fujuifilta 

T1ilm.:rll.A41»j PUtitl r. 9mllb.]C C B, !f. A, -170. iOd E. C. L.; 
T^nyr AtfLUiQ.IQ.aP.JiU:ChLnffa*, lEn>Mnfc ? Tn*Dlr IL«: tIn1>Mito ^ 

a4a«cp« -I WfeU, »: I <.:Mk». rij.t uyc !<Ly/j, i^«<ii i.b.a l&k, 

«t<Ur,*4;Gi.r W>l«CWr.Vi'iK. UirK]].BA«; H & LA l3Ll.lt.lL 
* W^ «« III. «VI ; a A. ?ft. L K. a h W«mU7. fc/ Id, >7«L 



138 KOv-rKitriuucAxoK or r:ittijarat't Ptrr. 

Dn «xciMT fMur in good wn>e m hw." AnA Jn Boiwr 
V- Ptmv,^ tLc {lUintiff and the dcfrnduDt Uing nwiwn 
of M^oittiDg bouMs, uid lli« pbioiiflT being enuUnl la 
fntCTfll jit3|>pori for Lin hoiiflc front ihft dof^iirl»iit'ii mUi 
the il^feiiJiuit emplojed u cociracCor lo poll ^kiwo lii*^ 
hoN»G, oxojiVHlo ihe cellar, atid nl-iiild* tLe DunuwiUir 
fltip^ilaiing Ti> underpin th^ plaJmJff'* boitfouad Aiaic 
gooJ ;iiiv duiutij;^^. The [lUintiff'M haufte liAviog bees 
inJTtfvi! hv the? ni^giigrrior of Uiu conimctw's lurvaiil, it 
wa£ bt-M rhMt tho JvfMidunc wu tiabk^ C'OckbcirD. C J^ 
>^,Tijtg : "A iD»ri who onleni a work to l>e f tfculed. fWan 
which, in tbiT naturJil ooiLr»c of thin^, iiijuri-ws coitse- 
<|uCDc*M to lii» neighbour mult L« expcc^cil to htm; 
unjpw m<>nnH itr^ ndoft^ hy vhk-l) eucb fionM<qQ4>oc«0> 
ntu5 hi' prcwnlvd, a buuiul to «^ to the iktin^ of thnt 
irhivh la ucco^try to prereat llie uxiBcbkf, uad cuimot 
rclinro binuwif nf bin rrsprtuflibniry hr rmplo^u^ koim 
an*! pUp, whether it bo the contmctor uii|]!iojc>d tn 4i 
tbu work from which thu limigcr urivtUiCr tmrnv iimIc* 
pcoi|i?iil person, m do 'wUjit. ii. noccmiry to pre\vnl lh# 
net h(T ha* onlprcd to be clone from hiicciniitg wrxmgfnt^ 
Tliere in ^iii ohriouA ^liTercrieo betwt^o eoiDmitting vcr^' 
to A conlrnctoi", from which, :f pi-opcTly floiic, noiiytiri- 
ODK oonsuquencw can ariae, an<1 banJirg ortr to hin 
work la be t^one from which iiii«chi^oua ooiweqnmi 
will uriac ii»lo» prrvcrttive iQfiLHurv* ire ftrloplni" 
While it may bo ju^l to hold tho party autboHiring ihe 
work in tlie former cadQoxoiDpt fwm liubilUy R>r injury, 
rt-Mvilting fj'Qm Dc^^lgcnoe which he hftd no r«iUH)ti 
imticipiilc, Uii*ro Sft» on tho other hac<i, ^ood gtocod ft 
hoMiiighim HflhlA for injiiry cjiiutcd by ui ii^t cpti^a' 
to be uttimclE^d wEih injunoiiH cunsc<iticnofw jf «nch ood- 
Bcqucnotfi Are uot, io fact, prevcnird, no mailer ihrougj 
whom de&iilt tho umimiion to tak* tlie ntxvrmrj 



Iirr>EPCXI>£:?T COTTRACtOBB. 



1S9 



b rooogniW au<1 apptortd bj the Howe of Lonla io 



IT. TRCIUILWAT'llOBUOATlO^VASTOTtlSlNTJClPiTtOIf 

or xiii.utiKrnttc o^ ritr. vakt or it» coimuoxoiL 

s 

hrtjokJ U# prodKiifi'aflh t^a fuirjvl toorh 

128. A raDway ia Dot bouiiJ ro ftntlcijmU* tbat a caro- 
fiill; detected and ^otpuricii^ coatractor will do hiM 
vrork ii«gli^iitljr, and. tht^rofore. the roJlway i» d«1 Ij&ble 
if it fnilH to talc4] prpatiitionv ng^iiniit ponibU n«ig1ig«iK» 
on thv piLTt of iht- ouutractor or of liu Ncrvuiits ; thiu iu 
DnniaU «. M. Ity./ I/inl W^thury, witti titat clt^r ftp- 
pPBciatton of tbc practiod nSrcts nf niln nf Inw whic^h 
ia ulwajB to bv t«iui4 In UtQ judgmuuta <if Uiu Huu»« of 
Lord«, Mid: "Tho ordinary buaiiiMs of life could not go 
OQ it m h;ici not a right to rtrlj upon thinga bmng 
properly doDO vU«n we liave comtohi^ and entrusted 
ibom to ponoiii whoec duty it ia ttj do thin^ of ilmt 
nature and irbo ate aelect^d for tk* purpoae with pni- 
doncQ and rarj;, oj being ciparicn<!cd in Lho malter, and 
are UddmponnbUfbTihoexdontionof tbo vrork. Un- 
doubtedl/ it would create confbeion in all things if you 
vera to aajthat tb« man who cmploya othtn for thq 
ftBCCtttlon of «acb a work, or the man who ia a party to 
tJi* nrnploymnnt, Urw no right whafflvor In hnlinrft that 
Uieihin;^ uill bj; dooe<»fiifLilly uud mull, harini^B^-Opt^ttfd, 
jriih all pmdonoe, proper p<'rsonjj to perform the work, 

Lt that hm j% mill under an obligataon lo do tljat which, 

•< ar^Ctef«0. Ah alia Ibuuu t. HlitJij* OH l^iu>^ IU, 4Mi T^ 
It D, TnrttM *, f tUili^ L. K. 1 B. L 11«. 
>L.lC.fclLI>«l- 
t 



130 



AimctPiTtoir or B£ouacKCB. 



to him, in many cases, iroald be impoeuble, namelj^ to 
interpose &om time to time in order to adccrlain ihat 
iLat wfia done correctly and properly, (be buainew of 
doing which he had rightfully and properly committed 
to other peraona." On the other hand, in Y. C. R. R. 
V. Sanger,^ the ruilway was held liable to a passeuger 
who was injured by the derailzoeoc of a Iraiu, resulting 
irom the fall of a slone from an embankment then in 
proceaa of construction by a contractor employed by the 
railway, it being held that the railway was negligent in 
filing to guard against Euch an aecjdeot- The nght 
doctrine, howcTcr, would seem lo be that whicb ie bu 
dearly stated by Lord Westbury. 



*UG»U, 1130 







itmunr ros coBea co&eoTLxnon, etc. 131 



CHAPTER ir. 

THE BAILV.LY'f tl-LVUTT J*>K THE ACtE AlTp DUMnoni 
trr OTaCR KAILVAViL AKU OT rj;R(i>y3 OTtltlt TSAV BEB- 
TAJtTt XtUt OiyrBXCToVA. 

L 'Hi* g*n«nU rnL* A*(«rtnlnkfv ihA llkbfllt^. 
n. Tb* LialrU]!/ at ndlwu^ toi \tmam. 
UL Tb» llaljillt/ nf nJluK^t Tor OLurtMialntfHt In puHndon, 
n\ Thn Jl4bllii^>>r ni1*i>r> fi>r iKdmiL 

V^ Tba UkbillLr W nilnyt Ajf fH«H of Cmu^yftBllBn undv Ilia bs- 

XL Tim luHnthj of rtil^tj* lot a»ciiwlliic Hun 
VIL TbrlUrHULror*nitt'«r tiir ilin ntflUfUU 0^ otlio- nllvftji wMrh 

TitL Tbo linbiltty uf • rrulw*^ ruriMhvr nilihijkiH indiTldDlLU whkh bf 
WDUVt 111* lu ILd* 

L XaKOSXlUtjU, BULB Df:T£a«USJjCU TUB llAUIUTV. 
Tk$ nufimy m liahU fat ih^ ntyti$mt orit nf ttOi^t tvrjHjraUam and 

199. Upon ih* principle suted in lli^ pr«c«diDg 
duptcri, the nilwuy in ncit lUbk for thu negligent ncU 
of tkwe who arv uoi \\a a^-t-iitd^ aud tliis dootTui4:< ia 
ftiTtknr LlhiHtrAlM m thn (wicw of injuria donfi in t1ie 
opcntion of & failtt&y Un« by 4 rooi;iv«r ajif^iuted bj 
ft fiOQrt of ooi&f«to&i jurladicltriu, or by mortgage tro«* 
tMi in oxcTimvc poMOMton of tK« line, nnd alno in Ifao 
CBMi of Uijurie^ done by nesfUj^ence uj>ou tb« purt uf 
■iMllM4r ndlwHT, which «3E«rciMB sUttulor? ruoaiag 
power* ov«r iha line, or which opi-raiea Uie Une by 
▼i rluo of A l«a« hmJo ttDd«r 8Z|iTe« stAtotory ftutbonij i 
bot t1>o coorcno of tfao propomtion i» illuvlmtod la tho 
mot of bjURU done ia tho operation of \ Ibe by a 



133 



LtAUUTT rOft 



IcvGt lo mhtm tli« Bm bv bent Uncd withcnit 
tfUhiUiry ftuUiorily, md tW id the cwwi of inji 
Jon^ to ■ j«i«ieng«r hy lb« fail&rT! of s tomw of 
potution trhicb u umicr iLc coDlrol of ft lliinl iwrtjr. 



IL TSE UAnUTT OT BJHWaY* FOB THK VSOUOEXI 

or UMUJi. 

ISOl a nilwvy cwinoC williotit crprtvi 
ftulLoritj divMt iutlt of U« fntkduw. or ddti^ftlo lo 
otlMTrn llic ppCTfbrmoiioD of ibal <l(ity which tbo 
turv liKft iui|>OBHl upun it; lliuti. iu tiAnloer*. L. C- A' 
D. Af ,,^ Ounis, Ia J^ nkl, ** vbeo Pariiunmt, acting 
tor Uic publk intcrcsit, viilionum tlw coodnictkia 
miimuu3Uiici> of n nulwftj, boUi a> ft b^baaj Tor tJi«] 
|i()b]ic, aad as a road on vliloh tbv MOnpajij maj thoia- 
nclvua become corncrn of p—ingwi locI gfo^ ii cvm* 
fen [lowtrrt uuU iuipoMu dtttiwaad rmposmibililks of 
tbe [flf^o&t Anr) nio»t loftponADi kind, vet tt ixuiien 
ftEid ini|)tiiic'ji ihcm npcm tbi: compfUiy wlucb Par1iam«n(, 
litia bufurt) iL| uud upuu no t>ll«ir boJjr of 
Th««e poTOTfL niuflt bft fi«cuKd.«iid tb««o dotim be 
cbargvd lij ilu- c^ixnpiinj, Tbey tunnoit br dctc^gBtod xa 
irflDslVrml/' * * • So, In W,A,4 G. R R, r- Broira,", 
Davifl, J., imld, "k is tbc ncccpicd dcctfiac in Uiii 
couDtry. tbAt a nulroad corponttion cacioot cflcapctfae 
|ierrormaiLCO of anj dut^ or obligation iiapoeod by ibi 
chnricj or llic gcncmt Invm of tbo blMte by ft vol- 
unUry hurrciiUvr of iU road into the faa&de of lo- 
BNL^ Theae views are abimduitlj ffU]>)>orted b; otlicr 



>I.lt.tClL, »1. 



•lWiIL44k 



UAStUTT rOA LEWEB8; 



1^ 



ftatWitioa>* Therefore, irbcie tbo Iomo liaa uot Wu 
aulliorisod b^ exprcw fUat»t«ry aothoTity, both tho Icfu 
9&r D&d lufHcv nilwuyf ure Ikblv lor iiyurits Oiint' bv 
like lea&ee^a uf^lIf^Dt operMtloti of the 1iik&* Upon iLe 
MRiA pHndpIr, n milwnj tK hIjio liable for nf^gligcn(» 
ua ibc part of jwrs-jUH w!ioui ii voIuoiJiriljr jwnuita to 
«Iftrcifl« ita fnmcUiK: of niJkiiing Qon ovct iu lice" 

ISl. On the Otb«T hiiiil, wLtTtf U railwiiy, uii(ii-r due 
Buthoritj of low, baa Usu^ ita line lo anoilier ntilwAy, 
the l««ft>r milway i« not linblo [gr torb comniiticii by ih(* 
lasM niilway in tliv operaliou of the line.' Yet, tii 
Siogleton n S. W* R. R»* whore a Iraiw had bpcn 
mthoriied bv fttiituiJ^p tlio lover ruilwtiy wuh hvld liable 
to a paMEiTtgf-r who wag injuriHl by the nflglig^nt opera- 
tion of u train by the xenmnlit of the Icwvo railvntj, 
tipoo Ibo ground ihixi iheel^Luie liuibttmins the leuEie 
did not, in fjimm, pxfrmpT, tlio Ifwor railway from lin- 
bilitr; hut thin cjihg ui ixrtiaaly m coudiuL with tlic 
current of uulburiiy. 

132, A railw;iy opfrraffsd on joint af^ci^otit by rr- 
«dtera of part of tbt 1iiie> and uImo by Imtew of the 
remBining part thereof. Is liable where tJje milwu; hius 
per mUt ed tjokcta to be lasued in ita »Bmo for Irannpor- 
tAlioii OT«ir tli« whole tine;* for, a» Davin, J,, eald, ''tli» 



>T.* )|.I.Tt.n.t^VriaiHi%lT llnwvd mi^ Dnun p, Kulfttrd, ] ttb. Iff. 
LMOi Vincb t-B-L. A CJ.Ry.H [X G. A ri. rmz 11^ Jur UrajS;0. K. 
l^pkKC^r.t tbHOMilltuk. ^.^ iL^wjil (a, as IC.J. ]^. lint 

Wl 1-AlLLR.R -, Wdppk a Rla^■ >d«n * V. C. It R« iS Vl 
?|T; U?KI/K7*.!f. 1^11.4 0^11 too ; Y. A M. L- K. It fi Wlotf^ 17 flov, 
>D[ n«-<nunnf-U,AM.Unj^^Mi(m, 4<^ 7 Am, 4 Rd(i K, ItiW tlO^ 
Bpmmk t, X 4 R a R . ri Mif. 303 ; 3 Au A Eiv- IL IL C«L n. 

> 14 « hI. R k. h u»r*« 4U It*, jua. 

■W.A.4aB.a«Bmn.lt WdLMS. 



134 



UABILtTr rOK MOnOiAB nUSTOS. 



oomptnj hamg pomioed tinfa 

Qoikdact the buMoes of 1^ IomI tf 

U ilier« fttrt &o duage of p uttiMi Jon, b not in a pou- 

tion to ruM onjr (|QGcuaD « to its IwIhIUj Tor lib«lrj 



in. triK uABiurr or mailwatn rov nti: 

aE?fCE or HORTOIOK T^tBTEES d hMSlMElOlt. 






^^Ku 



133- A TVilwaj cwiEiot, witlKnt expiuv kUtutor; 
aolliontj, i»orIgtg« iu fruielkiH or }iii«.' Bm when 

b taongtfSP liv t'C^ti *July cxocuicd ua<Jcr web nutbontjrt 
a&i] Ili«< mortgage tTu«t«etluT««ntcr«d into pc 
of th4f lini; in aonordmneowilh tlittCvmworMi'Ji > nMrt-' 
giigc, litu nilway ui not Uabk £>r injuries daac bjr the 
tuortgage tmaiew or llii^ir «xTTuit8L* Mongage ln»-i 
tm tn pmnsnbn an? liiible for InjarM mBKrd by Uli 
jiL-glud ur eJiuc of tli^Ir nervauu, aad tliB LinliUilj 
•Dforc«able in «njr jiirihiictiori id vhidi U>oy maj W 
prnpci) J »«TT»i irith proocM.' A ixrqxirmlicft or lu indi- 
vidual, who, by voliinury coorcyiuicr. bcooran the legal- 
*ii?cc«nr of iL miKuy ami On^aaugiiwuf ititnMKOi, uk<x 
tb'jHd Uflt«w cliJir^nt with the IJabiUtlee cocambfring 
tboni) iiicluili&g claimt Jbr <JatDog<9 iof pcraoitul ii^urioa ;* 
but pitrdia««« of a railway ncderajtidiciial for«do«rt 
of a morigAge ana not liaUo for utjuiicf dooe prior U> 

* « «7i Aikii»rm f- U, a & B, K« tA Ohio ei tl. 
• 11. A ff - r. a K -. Dmuv, M OkML 



ix&KUTY rox ucvr^Ei^ 



135 



Ibfiir tntiy into poBWMoni of ^ mlnaj/ nnlcwr sucb « 
Uibility be impOMd by statutes' 



IT. TtlS UABtLITT OT TEAn.^ATfi FOR THfi V£OU- 

Tl» rmihmt if not tOtbtf for h^juritt i/m€ AilAf nTHrotiea ^ Ai Ibi 
tf a reem<r itAv A<u bt*n nj/jittHttd b^ n amrt vj von^tt^Jitr^ 

\M, A railway whoM lin« is ixi thfl custody of. and 
Ojpentod by & ivcdver* la not liable in dumit^ for 
i^nlM resulting IVoin ilie negli^euce of Llit) rv^'eivcr 
or hiA MTvano.* BDCOLrrin in pOMMMion nnd npfrnling 
ruUwuvB me pei^tjuull^ liubli* for tLcir liHlividmil 
bT«iK<hp« of «OTitiuct nnd lorv, but not for torLa oom- 
mitted by Uvt wrvanm wboio ibey employ in iho opirm- 
lioQ of tbo railwa7< KhiIway rcmven are Ji&ble iu 
their (jiHci^tl i^ipuehjy mid to tho oxtrnt of tbe propvrty 
lo tlt«fr ciiBt<xiy, Sift 0U<^}i r«ci>iTer^ tbr tboir br«ooh«H of 
cc4iinu!(, and Ccir all U>rld ilonc by thcmRrly<i0 or tli^ 
tcrvniiin in tho courts of tlie opi^rutjuii of the raiiwny.^ 
So, where a recpJvnT bw, in oHndionc© to a doorM of 
court, rv1inqukb«d pcisHniion of lli^ nLilwuy lino nnd 
pfOp«rly and bc«ri diiiHi^hnE^od, ho oiinroi bo Of>mpt-Ued 
to nakm oompaiuNtion tn one who vrw injured in the 
coorae of ibo 0[;arut!oQ of Uk« Irno by UiO uejjligt^cv of 

^W.AT,? Kr^OrlAivfiT Perm., SkllT; 31<U ?. &C,&RK.&.J» 
•aiL.X4T.lLB.lt.f. HkJlcr, 43 IlL IDD; HkbtiK « T, W. A W, It. 

•ftA«KFiiniiui,«\IIm<Ti a A 31 R K.*, I>BtK :U Inl £U[ Nfll 

Duan {F. ft C. C ^ [Ka M\m). H An. A Qif. K. IL CW ^ - U. A L- 
IL IL It >^ Hlr-iirallH, U A'k- St* U An. A Kfl«, IL It ^.h. 1T4; Titmff 
■.ttASLJ. lLR,T4Vii.fl(A, «Arit.A8r«lLaCW.Sa. 
■ISmii« lUbroiik^S) Ohio ^ICTj 9ldu >.CLHr, tt ImTSM^ll 



186 LIABILITY FOB PABLOR CABS, ETC 

the receiver's iervantH-' It has, however^ been held 
that receivers are only liable U> action within the juris- 
diction authon^ng them to aet^ and by leave of the 
court appointing tliem,' A receiver ie j>er&onaUy liable 
when he voluntarily becomee lessee of a counecling line 
on which plamtiff is injured," 

Y. THB LIABILTTT OP BATLWATS FOR SiffiAnB 0?" 
THANSPOJITATION- IJNDEB THE IMIIEDLATE COTTTROL 
OF THiltD PABTJES. 

TherailvjayuluAie toitspatKn^enfomutgHgeneeinlln eonttnutiw, 
morinJmaiVtf «i rgxjiV. nr opcratitm of meiiut of triai^ort, vAkA aiv 
ttjidertlM tuanediaia confrai of tliiT'l pariiei, 

135. This rule h applied in caees ■where the injury is 
done iu an omuihue engaged by the railway to hnng 
the passonger to its station ;* or, in a ferry boat operated 
by an independent corporBtion^ but used by the raiJiray 
to carry its pai^senpera to their point of dealinalion f or, 
Oil wharves and landings/ and in parlor and sleeping 
carB." 

■ DiTld V. Dimcia (U. B, C C 3d. UiL Mln), £7 Am. A Eng. B. B, Cte 

age. 

■ Cnniiti t. Buney, 63 K. Y. SSI ; SJeu k B. C. A P. B;., bE Id. ni ; KltEb 
B. Jcvftt, Sa N. J. Eq. 474 : Barton v. Barbftnr, 104 C- &r ISA. hfV, cnTttn •- 
}i\ainen%hBiv.Kn^iii,3H\t.iV^-. NeweU c.»siiiitt,« Id, WO [ P<ig» *.8iuiLh, 
99 Mm* BCi; Nichok r. f^mich, lift Ed. ^tS^. 

' Kaifl B, amilb, 80 K Y. 46a, 2 Am. A ^g. a R- Cl*Mft- 

■ Baffetl r, T. 4 a R B^ 40 N. Y. IflS. 

» S. J. R R ft PtlfOBT. 4 Vroom (N, J.) 90, 

'jDhDT-Bw»ii,L.RBC,F.4ST; Eii[Kht(i.?.S.c«P.RK,GflBC&ttH, 
Oniber t. W. A J. R R. «Z N\ C I, SI Am. A Kng. R R Cu. 433. 

' Penna. Co. t. B07, 102 U. S. 4G1 ; C, C. & I. Rj.t. Wftlrkth. 38 Oyo St 
40]^ e Am, A Eng-B. RCu STl^ Einslf^ v. RR,126 Mi^M; Tluvpt k 
R Y. C A H. R B, R, rfl N. Y. i02. 




UAUtLITT FOR COVXCCnKO UXSS, 



197 



Tl. TDX LUJBIUTT OF XAfLWATH tOU THE KEOUOEVCB 

or coxifBcrriro uss. 

Tfk fiii/jj>Ti/ u /(4^£0 ta one uAom U Aw <tin/nirif>tj ro <>irr7 Co a jiinnit 
bfjfOuJeJK IfrindniM pf tl9 tvn Hnfi and ottr iJu Un* iff *i €07m*etiny 
TXtiktaii for mjtirv4 rfflftfl on that oannootini/ Unp, 

]3dL The quQvUon lui to Uit« liulrilit^ of raEltrayfl for 
Um Degtigen^of a>itD«ctJr)^' mlwft}'«8e6iTiatotuivc bc«n 
fint nijwd in HuKhiimp v. L, ^ P. Hy^^ wb<Tr« the 
plaiiittfT eued for Lhe taIu^ of ft parcel whi<^li hA<i Htwn 
doUr«T«d at oha of th« d^fondantV sutioufi for r-urniLgo 
to a poiut Iwyood the tcrmmuH uf Itn Imu, ami vrLkli 
wftj* «liown to haw bwn lo&t after its doUvery to n rnt- 
ndctiDg liiw. Jndgniont wm (inCnrotl upcm « vcnrict for 
the pkiiiCllT. TbLf ^Tuov vfutt Ju1tuwr-J iu Wut^ou n, 
AmbiETgnt^ Ky.' an<i 8oorhorn v, S. S. Uy.,* anfl wn* 
dt«d wilh ap^iruvaJ in tlie jnd^entt of Uie Hoiue of 
Lonia in B. dt E. Ry. r, MUoa.' The converse of iLe 
propofiilion wna niird in tlio lost c!lod OU»C> whcfc lh« 
plAintjfr. iiaviiig lii'livercd gwitLi at llii> Butli StAtlun of 
tbo G, W. Ky. t« be forwarded to Tori^iay over Llie linta 
of Uie O, W- & B. ^ K. Ky. Compiiaics, und tho good* 
having boen donroyed by fire wliile in iransit over Llie 
line of the litter dmpany, it was }ield tiiat for want of 
privity of oontrucl tlut couipauy *ii3 not luiblc for their 
loM. In Myiton V. MidUmi Hj.,^ a slmitxr roling wm 
nude with nagurU Ut n foicwngcr'j iitggug^> rt Wng hM 
tiMt thero wu DO privity of couiriiot ua b^twueu tlie 
jMiMfn^r And thn ciMinocting niiitrfty, hin contraol iwfng 
enUro wiih Llie r^tilway Tctttn wliom h« had Ixmght hi* 
tidcM Ibr thf (nJi^porlAtloii of liitnaelf and hi^ luggdgu 
to tb« poLQt of dwtiiution, although thut point of dc^ti- 



>aiLAW,43l. 



* tA Jar. 4«i 
*} E.L.tM. 



183 



uj^murr rou connEoruio ukk& 



natioD mm i)|ion the lino of tbo coaiwcttng railwAj 
cODipauy. Tilt qui^iloD with rvgvtl to tlw ImliiLtj uf ib« 
contnu^ting milvrftj c<iin|>anj for ir^iiricc U» tV pOTMO 
ofULupdMen^orinufirunLiBfrd iii G, W. Ey. «. Blak^* 

fcndant for liii tmnftporution to Milford, tlie defendtuitli 
Kue termtnaiJn;; Ht Gnuige Cbnrl ftnd tbeir train t)i«*cB 
pTQctwliDg over the lice of tho S. W. K;., jukI t1i« de 
feodant'K traiD wKib on Uio S. W. Uoo bavitig came bto 
collision witli an engine of tbe S. W. CompAU^, the vtA' 
luioa being wicly due ti> the ncgUgVooc of tLc icnmau 
of l!ie 8. W. Rj., tilo plaintiiT wu* iDJurt*d ; bdcI Si w« 
hrrli^ in thn Kicrhf<q(ii>r CtaniW Uiat iImG^W. Ry, 
wim liikblt- tj> thv pUlntifT (or tliu breach of Ui«ir implied 
oomtiuct lo oaa reasouubl^ ean> to aLamlaJn tlic vliole 
line to Milfnrd In a condillon ^t for tnJRc. Tlii* cam 
wu follciwt-J 111 BJrkcU 1^, W. H. J. Rj. * Buxton v. If. 
RRy.,'juiU Tliumotf v. Rbjuu^y By.;* altbovtgh to 
tb« Erat ofthot* OAMf the jndgnont of t^e court mtj^b 
liavu bwn put upon Uto narrower grot;rj<J that thcro «v 
ovidoDc^ of Di^Ii^Qncd upon tho part of the ilc£ni(J>&i'< 
lorvanU, booaiine the euddmit, althou^b beppfflucig upon 
a ODatidutiug line, had btten ciLUBfO by tlic ii>*g]igt4it tlis- 
phiceincnt of a switch by a acrruil of the iMciuknl 
company.^ In Spni^iii^ v. 8iniUi,*aconlrury cond-wka 
was reached, We^i upon the iIi«OTy ihai tho pbintill 
b^ng QMttHirily liwure that he uu»t be uitpwd lo tbo 
rink of Injury ftom n^gWffi'^iix on the part of Ui« petwM 
opemring thci linn over whrtJi tliit dirttttitant ha<t oca* 
tmctcd to curry Lim. muni be hvld to Haw undi^rtalca 

•8M«liBUdFt'li>c.aaH»FWfrDiFi«;<;T.caS' w ^r.^aviA 
Mftj W. 9L t* A P. Rf t, riTTUiik t(« Ja Ait ; ^juiv^l? r VwWftU^ IT JC-T- 
IM- Jlt«>llp,M.A.Jk», Lit KHELT.d^a. 



UABorrr roB coinrBcmro icns. 



139 



I'^pMF thit rinJc, M tie defeuJaut could J-ivrci« no 
'CrafroL over the uiHhagcrikoiil. of ihtf Other lliio. This 
ease dor^ not ■rcini to ^>i: iiupportRd tnr ot}i«r mithiirit^, 
jtnd iu raaMiung oinuut be regarded aM aatlHfurlor^.* 
8i>iae of tba coMt hold tbat, whilo el nulwny ecLIing to ft 
IMUvangor a tidcct fbr tncuporbitioD hj oth^r TAtln-a7>, 
or oUtcr oorricn, to a point bejond tbe l^riuiutu uf it& 
liDo inay biijJ iuc'lf by contmct to bo Liabln for injurlrd 
to thut pnaengrr reccWfetl upon tJi« lintfe of thotfe othtr 
tttilwujA. or carrjer«r jet tbe mora eal« of tUe ticket doea 
not liAVi; Xhil oHi^ct.' N overt belees, ibe wtigbt nf au- 
thoriLj ia in Givour of tbe propo^iilon thai a railway, bj 
oantractiitg to delirvrr a paseeager at a point bojond the 
tCftDiQUKof iu ovn Uov, dou* juipU^'Jly cugugc to bi 
«i»wcrttble to hEm fbr the nogligirnoe of tbo ageat« «r]iOiii 
it an^ployiL fbr the piirpcwo of performing i^s contract. 

1S7. A ruilway hf ulsir liublo to lis |>udBt;ugeni ^hiln 
OD ltd tine fur ii^urJoa cauaed by negligenci; upou tbe 
part of nnotbcT nulwaj whone line connects with the 
line of Um currying nulroad ; as, for ui^tunoe, where a 
paaen^or waa ii^nrod by the DCgLiict^oce of a servuit of 
Uic olhcr railway in coupUo;; iU cnrriu^ to t!je dcfcrid- 
sat'a carria^ ou a ttytng vwiu^b.' Tliu «hid« priuciple 
ai^Ucftwfaoro hoontnict of carriage having tjeeo ina<le 
by tbe railwHy, the motive power ia furnisbeU by anotlw^r 
party, and the carrier ta ht^d liable fur uej^ligenoti 
upon the part of tho ptfraoii furuiabta^ ibc tnottrc powar.' 

•a»tiAnoo4<kX.T.aN h. r. mi« Odd, i, 33 u iwo. 

(THAI. til. 

»K. R tt,HAlbanT; &«w » B, A I. R. B. 11 U SOO. 
*f^rt»>.R7UBkKllWHA.4BTi K*tl>«.l. K ^0 K«l. Hiv^ni- 



140 



lUJXUTT roK ontiift i^au-wata. 



TU- T1IX UAmi-rrr or A railway roK mm stOU* 

VTATVTOftT AUTBORITT. 



mdtr ttahOaff mu/htrHf and 






1S& It iH, hoii«TCr, to W borne in mind, Uist tlw 
carri«r Tnilwnr, wfa^re tbere bu beici no DogU^cntt 
upon iu part, or upon tlie ptrt of ilii a^raln or iervancs^ 
Im uot U> be IktU liable for an iujur>* o«uaed to rU ptmn- 
gpr wlflly bTiiogUgencconthii part of itnolbcr niliti^, 
ifliich. unJt^ i(tatuIcirT>ul)]OfUy,tt»ui ilH Hno. ThiiB.ia 
Tavlor tt. G. N- Hy./ llie duE^dant littvlog botn |it^ 
v^t<NJ from onnying the plnintift'i goodft vHiJuii a na- 
«onnM« tini« bj ao uuAvcidaMe obatnMiioQ on its JJan, 
cauood solely by tli^ ncgUg^aoe of the Midland Rr., 
*»liich h»d, under an Ad of l'Rrluunciit,TiuiDlii; pOVfO 
OTcr iht dfrftfDdant'tt linf^ it waa held (bpt the dcR«d*ol 
waa not liable to IIki pUiiuifTfar diunagvcaiMKl hjtbt 
tloLiy. And upon the oame prittdplo, in Wrigbt t^ 
MidluTid Ry..* where the defnidaot liad oootnwtod to 
carry tli? pim^cngcr from Ixcda to SbolMd orer tbtir 
own lino, iind ft trvm of tlio I^ A N^ \V\ Hy,, whick 
had etamroiy running ffy'mm ornr ibe Midland ttn^ 
having* without hhj fuiili u|>oii tbu port of th^ ilefcnd* 
nnt, run into the defeudajit'a tntn and i^jurx-d ib< 
phiiiiLifT. H wfie hHd ihnt Iho plnintilf wnn not onlillfd 
to rocovrr, ih? ground of iht dt^evioa bdng Omt tWi dr^ 
frndttut waa not an Insurer of the eafrly of ita p n m il 
^n*. but a contractor *' thnt oil pervona nuinccted wkb 
iJie carrying, and with the meana and ibc applianoet «f 



>Uft.iaP'M 



'L.ft.ft£i.lJT. 



LUBIUTT FOB OTHEB RAILWATB. 141 

tiiOo«rryuis, vitfithGciirr]a(-««» tli«r read, ihe si gu ailing 
and othorviM iha]! use cf^rt und ililigf^ncv, nu ihnt no 
ncdilcQt inay buppcn, but they couLrnct no itirthcr." 
Whero, hovflver, the carrier railway U id any rwp?ct 
nc^ttgcQt, it ht liable, ftltbough th« itijuiy W!Lit« in port, 
caottixl by m^jtlig^ow ou iJii; jjarl c»f u raJviaj whkb 4?x- 
ttTcivH KtAliitory running powi^^m over iui Hua TboM, 
ID JJcElroy TT. N, & L. R. K-,' Lbc iiUintifT, u puatfttu* 
giyr i>a tJio dvi^aodfluri^ IW. wua lujureJ by xhv n^gli- 
gi^nt diitpbuMnwnt of n nwltch by a ■wiicli-tnnd^, tho 
Bwiioh haviug b^jea put in poaitiou, And tHe irwitcli* 
tender brmg iippoiouxl, pnM, and controlled b; ibc C. 
Bh Rv, wbicb, without dcfi^ndttDt's crocfcnl, hod hvcn 
tntjxywerod Vy ntaluto to eater upou Aad oonuect with 
dcft^ndiintn line; and the defendant via hM liable 
upcQ Uie ground that Ui« EwiuAx was a part of defend-* 
ant> line, and tbitt " it wrgv within ibe Hcops of tlicir 
dnly to «DC Uiat Ui« svitcb noA riKbtly cniiAtractcd, nt- 
Uoded, and moaaffed, before they vr«n>JuatiiIod In car- 
tying pMwngera ov^t it" 

TV. TBI UiaiLTTY 07 A UAILWAT FOR TIIK XECLT- 

aKBCKorcmmi luiLWAva iBiifo m uhkisy con- 
tract. 

A rtUvay. loAicA, ^ e^tnt'itri, ivlnnlarU'j pttrnUU tiutthtr raitttaj, or 

139, On tbc other Kimd, wli«rc3 a milvrny has, by 
OOntnct, aathoriitid Nuotber railway or an Indiridual to 
ran train* over ita line, it \u liable to iU posst^n^cm for 
ii^uiMB caond bjr ncj^ligonce on tbo piirt of that oUief 

«tOuh.4ML 



142 



LlAfilLITT FOK OTHER RAILWATO^ 



rnilwaj or person." Upon the aame principle, tbe ra3- 
w&;,in Speed v. A. it P. K R.,* wa6 heia lUble for tlie 
negligeace of a coatisctor to whom it ka4i delegated ita 
charter duty of transporting freight. 

' I. C a. R r Bsirm, 5 W4JI. W; CA BLV.&.R.9. lUIMftr^ » DL 
t»^-, a & >L K. S. f. iKabftj, Id. 623^ C A R. L IL B, >^ WUnK tt U 
lOfr:NeltuuT,V,AaR R,2d Vl7IT; tf. A A. B. & l iCi;^ 4U Ga. BU. 




TUB PSBSon TO WaOtt UABLS. 



143 



mm 



BOOK rrt 

iOB mjUBiEB TO vmou the eailwav is 

LIAHL& 



CHAPTEB !• 



CLASSiriCATlDN OF THE P£BSO^ WHO UXT BE IfJUJOIlP 

IV ras couBHD Of Hjulway o]-r:iuTioNEL 

140. The peraooii wIjo poaaiLly may he injured m th« 
counvo of FMlvray operatioua cAn be cln^ilied imder llie 

I. Pervouii ttIio Hre rigliLfully upon IiigTinayB m^um" 
ilig or crosain^ tbo milnAj'fl line or promises. 

■ IJ. PemiM who come upon the railway's line cr 
K pnmliBes «§ id«k licensee. 

^^ IIL IVvpttien upon the railwajr'a ime, premia?^ or 

■ IV. IVninni who^ in the course of the performancA 
I cf ft conlroot buwd u|>oit u vilIuuIIu cuiididtrstiui). cvma 
m upon Uii.1 1irLi>. j»ri?]iii4«4, or cars of llie nLll«v;»y, tucltiJing 

boreiii ptuvcngein of the miWay; nitcQUanr^ of pas* 
veogers; pASH^ugertt of aiiothi>r railway, r«cvlvvd for 
trvatporUtioti in the railw^y'i can; puMnj^m of 
oootbtfT railway, wLu*e tars are mn over the luita of 
Ui# rmilvay ; pa^woi^m of another railway wilb whom 
* iUtioQ » jotnllj oiH!upied ; HtirvuutB of unollKT rail* 
vty wTiifd upon iho lino or promiMit of the railway in 
thij pcrformuice of tLcir duty to thaX other raUnny; 
ooneigaore, c6iiri^«Qi, uid tlunr ftgenta, peraoQ^y w- 



114 



CLAfiBIFiaATtOR. 



aiflting in the reception, carriage, or delivery of tLelr 
freight; persons Bnlermg under gpecial contract upon 
the railway's Vme or premiseB; j>o»t-oirice employes 
curried under u coutract buLneeii the railway and the 
Post^Oflioe Department, or under a statutory duty Ira- 
posed upon the railway; persons carried under contract 
betwoen the railway and a third party \ serrantfl of 
express companies whose cars are run, or whose goods 
are carried over the line j and perBons who are carried 
on the line to eell refreahmeats, aewspapGre, etc, to 
passongcra. 

V. The servante of the railway, including hoicai 
such officers and employ^ of every grade as are engaged 
in the operarJou of the Mae. 

The relation between the railway and the perEona in- 
eluded in the first three categories iii non^contractual, 
and the relation between the railway and the person* 
included in the laeb twu categoric Ja contractuaL 



( 



xoy-<x»iriucn'4L uAiui^irr. 



149 



CHAPTER IL 



THE BAILVAV f1> Tllie raKOOTS U(CLi;i>KP U& TUK VtOgT 
IIIKKB CAmUOKIS^ 

nfj^ fiU rrj^ftfqy b* tijtfru£E>ri ui/Auuf fv^fnu Mtututory iiurAun'tf, it ii 

^ul if it ba opfntttd vndtr ozpnH §talub/ry attthtritjf, it -ia H^If 

HI. ThfT op"»rntion of it taiIwaj, involving tho rapiJ 
moTviufsnt of (!Dgiue* uid csre by th? use of st^nro ok t 
niuLi>-ti powtr, b u LautrJoua Vu^Inctta, and^ if uut oklU- 
faUy and cnrcrull^ concliicicd, Ibrenteiia dnn^cr to itfo 
uid limb AQci iujury lo projterty- Ita conduct, ui tho 
Hbattiio« of ejcpre>« «UbiuU>ry uutViunty for ilie um of iu 
dnik^croUM nj^linDOEB, fuIU ivitiiia thnl rule of Ibw viLich 
hap fouDtl ilA b«fL eipr^iHioTi in Rylaiule v. Flololier,' 
BAil wbioh lioldfl liim who keoj)^ or os«« Aiiylbliig eMeu* 
liully Jjuigcrou*, dvititpr rcsponaiblv for nil the ilnmnpl 
wliluh t.b« tilling caueedt «<ir«a though tJ](^r<T bo on hi« 
ptrt n^ilhijr wilful wrongdoing nor nnglig^ntw* But, 
ndCockbtini.C, J^, vikidiu Vuu>jbnri f/f. V. Kyt'^^whcii 
lli« lo^ii^Uturc hflJt unncrioned a^id AutboHn-d the usv nf 
a pHnicii}«r tbi&g, iind it i» uud for thn purpose for 
wbidi it wttB uulLuriieJ, uud vw^ry precaution luu" br»»n 
ohAftmd 10 prevent injury, the aanotioo of tbe k^glsk- 
turo ATTioi with it thin coiueiiuciice, that^ if dnms^ 

• J4H> ■. IMI/, I^ R. 4 Q, tt Tn^ HtjUnAv k KViDhfV. 1 H. A C ?ri 
L. ». I Ee 9H^ U a 3 a L. SSO; ailM t. 5. 0. O U J. >'. & 111 ; <i«kM 

W 




VOV-OONTBACTTAI. UABTU TT 



1 m the uw of nich thing m^pendentlj of 
I mce, the {mrlT using It is not respoBHible.'* ^ 

ihU. Therefore, a railway, whose oonstnjctioD and 
tode of operation, and whisc Qfp of 9t«am as a motive 
power lias been daly sHQCtioned bj le^Lstive auihoriiy, 
in casG of Injury caused to anj individual ID the 
coarse of ita operatiims, liable onlj for nt^ligencc upon 
itft part, unices il had bj contract U*rfii!Iy bound ilaelf 
to a higher oraloiver jf liabihty. The char- 

at^rer of tlie dutj y way ow^ to the several 

classes of persoiis im i le fiivt three cati^riM 

u dqiendent upon the inuri: lees rightful presence of 
the person iD the plai he receivea hia iiijury; 

thua, the railway owts lleir^i on the highway a 

higli degree of duty, for ireaence on the highway 

b rightful, while it owi hose who come on ilB 

promiep^, an mere licem less dogrtw of duty, for 

]i(;enHeea are bound to t le premiaea as they £nd 

them, and It owes to trespaaserB on its line or premia^ 
no duty beyond that of abstaining from intentional in- 
jury to them, for it ia not bouud to anticipate the pres- 
ence ofj and to guard against unintentional injury to, 
treepaaeers. 

'BijlJiT-TheB.Witer Work^n En. 781; Vnoglmd p, T. V. By., * H. A 
Tf. 685; Bexv. Vemi.i B. A Al 30, 24 E. C L.; M. N. Co. «. Cootm, fl W. A 
H. 101; nearj « P. & \. Bri^lj-e Co.. 8 Id, S6j CyConnw o. T^iEBborgh, IB 
PeiiTiB St- mi N.Y.AB.R.R. r.Youi^fSaid. 175; C A P. R.R- fc.Sp«, 
Mid. 3^; W, B, Uoal Co. ^. Mamner, 03 Id- 3-37 ; Slnilhara ». D,W.AF. 
Kr, »7 Id. 282; DunnT, B. Oni-ICo., L.R 7Q. B. 244. 8 Id. 42; Bi^od ■, K 
R7,L. E-1Q.B. 130, 2Id-£23, L. R. 4 II. L. 171 ; Bprnghton p. M, G.W. 
B7.,lIr.CL-lflO; DJion t. M. Boud of Works, 7 QsE, D-41&; P,W.A 
B- R. R. t. Stingy, 7& Pamii Si. 219 ; F. 4 a IWaptlis Co. ^ P. A T. B R, 
M Id. 34fi: WUds p. H. & R. K., 29 N. Y- 31Q, 



UABIU1¥ JO rUOtOJ&n Olf IIUlflVATtt. 



117 



CBAPTEE III. 

TBI UA»n,FTT or TRK BATLWAT TO THB PRRWJN* riRtUDIES* 

IX Titn niurr rAtwionv, that in, rKiunMi wiio am 
itmirrpru-y nw*y moHWAtH AUJOir'nto or CRoesivo thb 

1. Th« luibUUf of tba ml*i/ to iFi*4tI«ni oci Iht UiftiLri^ for tx»|B 

WEtliLh iU L>Hn j4A'liii«l» i*ki*t'lt fnitAFt|frr iht Wrt/ vf ili4 tnvT- 
i9[]t(i rm ilkB lLiirhfi'a:r, 
IL TU lliMIJIf of tbu miUij 16 InavlL^r* on ilm bJvbttij fOt |U 

blcb*iTl>' [h* oav^icvnL ij^<nLi<iii of lutiuv, 
IV. Tlu UBbltU;r "^ the r>ll?r4;v Int tu cw^ligoni oonamnjitnn of, w 

143L Th* first vnU^gary indudes thoBc who nm rijilit- 
fiill; upon highways aitj 01 ilIii^ or croeaing tlie raltway'a 
line or protows. 



I. TtIK MAHII.ITT OV TBE railway T*> TRAVKLLCftft 
ox THK tUtmirAV roll TIlAl-f* WITIIIK ITS OWM I'UJlM* 
IBIS WtUCU E>PASOEit THE eAFETY OF THE TKAV- 



T^ ni^vtf it Ha^ fir anything in tht nuhire ^ a tnpt ^vkiah. 

H-i A Ttilmy, lifco oUict ownft™ and ti^nsnte of 
ml ttlaU, id ttlao to be held liable for unytljiD^ in the 



I4d LUDILITT rtift TBAI^ STC 

UAlun of ft trap, lliovgh witlun its own pmiuMf, bvt 
yci •■> ncnr U> the bigbwmr u lo be dan^roQii to Inr- 
tfdknonUte liighwvjr. Xb«<»bviuu« lUuMntiotn of ilaa 
nile Are to bt foi»d in ib^ cmm of improtaeted juts isd 
cxevratioiM dug williiik ibc nilwaj** prcoiisA, but ;m 
•V a^laoMt to tbe bighwjij tliM p4iBtn on cb« lughv«T 
ftPt likrJjr, wilbout (nuU oa diar p*m, to full into 

\i. SHB LiABCLfrr or tiik kailvat to tiuvkij 
OF ^^e niaBWAT fob hb snOiJOCVT ouTiinuLxmuv 
or, OK rAii.mtR to kk^aib, ito vtiuiinob, ktc; 

14fi. Whfrrv. xh** railvaf'a line or pnifileM «biU O) 
u pcblJo higbway, tbe rnilwiiT, like oc^or ownm or 
«ocupiiut0 ot rvfil «tBle, ia liable lo pcnooi UvrruUy 
upon Th« higbway Tor any injury cuutid by ita ncgl 
gi>ricrf ia the origiDnL r'HintructioD of, or in it» ^itunr 
muinUiii in repair, lid line luid premuAtt** Tbi« mlf? 

■II*.llf?t.Tvlu% L.B.lcr.M. DuMf^lTMLO C^B.3*t«r E^C. 
I,; JnnU k DniB. Jl lllp» 447, U R. C Lrl>4plivt m. fluAqc^Mi, 1 
Uop,«»»: WtU«r.t>uiik. tF. A R3M; PiHtoF k tli«k AC A R IV, 
10 »ir [„: llivh >- J<iJin-t(m, VK IVnn^ M. Iin>i l^matf i Liilbw, 1« 
4ea; i;n*r r. ^m|wH., ^ U. 1-^; Ujw t-ft^tte, fidthtl; >. r «*;" 
ftiibE»iil r \'\itm.\^ in MrU^ It?], 

fHf.Gnihu^fiS P^miH. £l :^M»: Oaklind R7. r. FIcMIic V tit 
a It fil[j]«rrf^U l-t IV), -Vhii.ritLII NmT.Cats JiliiDDMM*^^ U 71; 
TwfT t A^Wh 1 <^ EL U £1 1 - Clirk f. (.lonUc^ A U. Kl. oUiifl^ 
JIbqbu >> AiiwioUh I^ IE. I Ki. X3V: Djth t. B04>^^ 7 II, X t\ rzj. m- 
tdB>«<>wiiTln AC A P-]V(].» tl^CU: Qol.hhqrp« r- lltfil»«n. IK )L 

IVrhf Iml \i»rd.S It V. tXiVt; ilimut * tiom\tj,m fwm. M. IHt 
Xum^Lown ■. Uoy«, ef id.U6; fU^Lo r. Moir^ e« Id IM; Bmjm' <■•)' 

Bobtdoi h Ji»«. 1^ a It. 2f , a 331. !«• K.a 1. ; n-KG^ «. C L U^- tt li 
HJLA Aa.d eii(.K. R. C^ Il0;}rte«i9 t.*\ C: K- K, W All* Stftl' 

Atonn ■. PaoB. Co, t>d. , u Ai&« c^ aiL(wanL 



IIKUtWAT JXEWQJOL 

hM bwn applied In c&kv nficrrc iTio rmttrny line !i wr- 
riftd over & highway by a bridge?/ Tliua, iu KttiriiBy f. 
L, B. A S, C> Rj'i* tlie iJefen<kiil, whoao lii^ crotwcd n 
bighirny by a bridge, wan hdd liable to lb<: plumli(r> 
who» wbil« vralkiii.q oa tin? highwuy tinder lie bridge, 
mm iiyured by iht falling or a brick fV«m an ibm- 
ment, the MHng of the brick buitiic couBidt^rvU. iti the 
ah«0coe of oxpljuiAtloa by the raiJway na to ibo auM 
of JU full, lo be ovidenc*! of nrgligrpci'. 

146. TLia thIl- Uiu uiiu bcnin upplioJ iu uujea where 
A highvfiiy ij? CArricd over fbc rftilvrny Tinfl by ft bridg*),' 
Thiw, in Mrtulnj" «■ St. H. Ry. & Carnal Co.* lb« tie- 
ftniiaiil bHi'iu^. uuOur sUttutory pOM'or* cori)^truc1o<l i(e 
canal, and, li:iV]ng <>ut n public bighnny nnd fkroil 
ih*T« :ii Hwivvl bridgt*. which, when niovttl for ihe j^aa- 
Vigc of hontH, Zrft ihr liigbwny iinfonof^d, luid, nt night, 
alfto uiillgWHl^ niid tbi- plainiiff'ft d4>tfed4^nt, wbil« walk* 
Ukg on tbt bi^biray at iiiji^ljl, haviu;; KL«|i|wd into tliA 
CUial and bwn dn;>Tn«d, ibf bridge being kft o|wa for 
tho paw^ of a boat, it vtut held that the dofvaduut 
WM liablft. So, Jn P. A O. Oinal Co. t'. GrflJiam.* the 
(uoal company bi'ing; n-nniivd by iU idinrttT to bnild 
and koc<p in n'|wlr brlJ^iff. by which hij^Jiwuyd werti 
carriod ovnr the nrinAl^ nnd th(f plniDtifT, while pmuiing 
orer one of thene briUgua. having U*ca injured by iho 
fell of the bridge reaultiug from u«i;dkgo»c« on the |«rl 
of th« oompaay, it wwi hnld that lb« eotapany wna 
JEaUo. So, in HurBt i-. Taylor,' a contractor Ibr ibe 
oonatniciicdi of a niilwiiy line, who. in tho course of his 



■X««^iLLKAaLCTtr.,L.R.S^B>4aA LL T«« : Cook* a a A 

ti.a.£4iB4iu«ta.T«B. 

■ UmUj t^t^lL ttf-M ^^/^ iX f ir A ^. MO ^ r ft O (^ful Ta h 

■^ B. k. l:^ vu 1 Ili>»ia1> h r. R IL, 13 Altai lEM. 

•10. ARAM. ■GhoH.a.nu, M4q,ILI>.ttlR 



150 FAILUBE JO BEPAIB HlflHWATB. 

work, had dtverted a pnblio fbotpathj ind had left tb« 
point of divei^ence £nm the old mj ougoftrdedr md 
dangerous hj reaaon of ils leading <m to the line, wai 
held liable iu damages to one who, at night, following 
the old way, wan injured bj filling orer a l»idge aboU 
roeot; the ground of decdsion bdng that *'a du^iscait 
upon those, who, in the ezerciBe of atatntoij powers 
divert a public footpath, to protect by fendng or others 
wise, reaeonabJy carefdl peraona aeing the fix)tpflth 
from injury through going aatny at the point of diver- 
Bion." 

147. This rule has also been applied in caaea where 
the railway line ie conetracted upon a highway which 
it IB the duty of the railway to keep in repair, and 
which duty the railway haa not performed.^ IlinB, in 
Oakland By. v. Fielding,^ the defendant, whose line 
occupied a public highway, and who bad negligently 
permitted a hole in the highway to remain unrepaired, 
was licM liable to the pkiutifT, who waa injured by 
fulling into the hole. Bo, where the line is eonslructed 
on a highway within the bounda of a municipality, 
who^e ordioanoes, made under a legislative grant of 
authority, require the line to be kept clear of enow, 
the ruilwny is liable for injuries done by its failure to 
TPTuove the snow in a reasonable time,* 80, where the 
railway has permitted an engineer's stake to remain on 
a highway, and tlie plaintiff has been injured by foiling 
over thut stake while walking on the highway^ the nil- 
way is liable to him iu damages therefor-' So, in Con- 

i Oiltlnnd Ht, t. Keldin|r, 4& P«n». BL 320 -. KacLborn i. B, A U. &. R, 
III Nob. 441, 19 Am. A Eiuj, K. R Cba IS? ; StiBet E. R. p. Bolilm^ 40 
i^hitt^t. 'Hia. :n \aj.& EiLg. R.K €u. 191; O. C. B^ n Nfllu, 63 Tu. IH^ 
n Am. A Knj<. B. R, Cu. 387. 

■ 40 I'cDiu. SL 320. 

<no«« V.R e.g. Bj.,M Mich, 1M, Ifi Am- A Eiig.KB.CulM. 

• Qvdgw ». W. N. C. B. 1L, S7 K C- «2Ck 



E»i;sii» TO muooct o:* ittauwATS. 



151 



Ion ti, E. R R.,' t!io railway wnjt held tiabic to one 
Lajurcd on ft highway by ihc full af u Ui-rridtk us^ iQ 
U)« oauatracLioQ of a culvert. 



m. THK LlABtLlTT OF THE RAILWAY rOR I7IJDICJU> 
CACVXP TO rClUfOXlf 09 TltK UIOUWAY DY THE 

5iauo£:rT oreuATroH or ns im. 

XA* rifliwj V Uatk Ui pmtuK Kt-itfiiUy on th4 hifh^tm/ /or injvrin 
amumd iy Cb vjr^Mrenf o^irolkpn of tit Una. 

US. The rnilwny is hIhd llnblo to pvrronnmbo luv 
bvfully on tha lii^hway, if it no w^jcW^utXy tmaflaot IXb 
buBuiees as to rentier moveuieiit <jii Hie highway danger- 
OUH to punorv-by ; um whcrv m piMtrf on the Ligbwuy ui 
lujtircd by thu oe>;li>^Qi ropiuf; of n cur into o. cc«l 
y.inl,' or by tli<? ohfll.nirr.ioii of a higKway by ram, por- 
uiiium] ti> rt.*muin tit r«t, bloi^kiiij; iipn crc«*iiig;* or by 
ti baud cur ncK^i^T'uU}' left upon a bifibwuv bri<is^''/wby 
lh« fright of hoi*(« o;ni*o<l by lln? (luneprwflry and 
cxoenre vburtUag of an engine,^ t^r by nn unnuota«fliry 
and exc««8iT« tecupv uf »(«ttiu frum lui «uglu^i' or 

■ 3G. r. IL K IV l^l>ia«urv U l^van*. «%. 17^ 

*SamUm.JJ^yi.i] Pomijk- kl l^*: l>. K tt. f^ K«tlT. U»T*: P. Hl 11 
«L nam, 16 WoAli Njla«rfCW»[r<mu.|60;; a>njvt,K.P. By,H33>Iiiiii 
4iTria An. A Kn^IC A,lktU7< Jhikmn t [f, T- ^ iCt ML U, 13 Lm 
(Tten ) *»l, tft Am A Cnt E, B. C« 4A'< . ^^. ._ ht. A K, K, JJ, :ffi «. J. 

• K C A a 1> R K •. Spiftiif, M Ind, |(.\ « Am. A &.(t a R Cm. *M 

■P, 1La--lW^MT^r>tf |\Hki,»«.Et.vrpV. p, ARB Rt.KillJ|<v8>ili1. i>^; 

P.W.A B-lt. R f.-^iEU^, »!lA?IVilJ, lLK.fbThOBi<«l»(<4.;44;<>jLp 

t A-A7f A Jt,L?K«H. 1T&; a IL R. *. 5*-^iMiid. 60 IH. 4VJ2'. C B. A 4. 

B. a * IMiikBh. K9 til. 41] 1 C K A g R IL f iJimn. .^9 Ul' t^l. 

'« f^ J.A A, lE,Y,*Funvun,HCR>.AM, ilMli;,!?. L: I. AM. ft. 
ft. 1. S^hmMu 1] IfMl. ^4.itAin.AKn£, K. K. T^ M4: Glt-d^ iv »4 U K, 
Cv A X Hf. » Mo. Ap^.ttii »utl ■^O.T lt^,S« L^p.1^. (CP.JMTi 
■dm* l.n A,U.t(.lt«,iKllY.«8»;BlElmiu.r...1.C.AL,K.B,M1ed. 
!«. « Aa. A Emi- B.»LC»4liT W, A. W. K/,*, H^ifiiMpii*JIIl.»li 



16S 



vtDUiOEjiT oraxnos or un^ 



bjr lliA fright ofa horve CBUMd bj m dnwk twgligviill/ 
pemiUerl U) mnftiu prc^^log <iv«t a bighwy m Mch 
a maitDtrr tuk vmM naxurmlly frigktcn boncK,^ arbr i^ 
fright of a bonw otuMil b}- a liaotl olt IpA at a croftdag,' 
or bj tll>^ falliDg of burmog i»als fnHs ib« fln box of 
an i>ngine of an derated rwliraj upon tbe b»ek of ■ 
horx utuched to a wagoo on iba acmt umJct tba Utte, 
ami upon the bond of the driver of the «iHC<)a, thereby 
caofling the borne Eo nio avaj and pcweailng th& drirer 
from controlling biiB, (be borec in running avaj rtriJt- 
Lhe pluiDtiflTaDdiajurti^ him.' Bai ib« nilmj u qoi 
li«bla for ii^anes rmuUing from Uio fright of boras* en 
a hif hwnr caiufrd bjr the mete vtfht of the train, or bj 
tbe ndan pcewwarily incident to ib inoir«iii»it* mWj 
vhora the fr^t m ea««ad br tba off^Daij ntumt tM 
tnia in paottiiig orer a brid^ ;^ oor ii the raUwaj InUe 
where the bonu were CngbUQ«d bj an onliuai^r «c«pt 
of iiMtm from a tocomoliT*^ and in GQbort e. F. A 1*r 
M. Ry.* it w r^M ibflt the £mI that a ou- mw left at a 
hij;h««j croeaingr and that a borao wa& fri^bleDeif, will 
not render the raiiwav liable, onlcf* )t be abowm tbai 
ibo neoweary eSbet of learinc the oar in that 
wai to fnghten bo4v«« who vera not mom than 
Mrroua ' Tlte railwaj owa to pcnooa on tlie highway, 
wboaeboneB may befrighlADcdbj iboBoddeni 

> /^ & B. K. B. ler MvL BSL 
C*^B.tB.Aft>^B.fc.<^.«Bia I fcM,t-3^^y.Ky,>i 

• l^mtr ■. 31 K7. n A- V> lU^ 

n c R, R, «» Ma an ; bfu *. r w, « 1; ^ E, 4 Uwi^tiii »& 
* nw *. R a u R. E, 1 u Mwi, aia 

• Dnr«H f. X. p. R R, 14 WnU,* ?CAa if Chb 'Pt^c) Uj M&tot 



oTs tmn, iktt clut^ of ^viog notice of Uie approacli of 
itfl troiiu;' und tbi« rale u cpplicablc wbcrc tho liigli-- 
Wfty u outM ever tji« r^lwaj by a bridge.' 

IH^. 'fho fuilnra to give flutuiory eignaU of thtt aji- 
pniBch o£ a tmm to a cru^ug is ocgligtnce tu ugaiiut 
thoM whom ho*ui?« flf^ frigljteiied by tho appeanuoe of 
a train which hns not given such aignnl^* 

1^. TU« plaue wher^ or ibe circuiutttiuicca uuOur 
which, tb« HCt is done nifty ren3«r tJiit nr-gllg^Dt vbldi 
oUuToriiw wntilil not l>e negligent : thus, in M. !^. J. & 
A. Kj. V. FolUrton/ ih« railway was Leii tiitbk l^* ^ 
driver waiting nt a mtlwoy gnie on a high^ny to cronv 
a loT^ erasing for iujurite U> tE]t< tion^^ Jind uarriagr* 
^^OMd by hill hocve* Ix^bg tVighlK^ucd hy &u escape of 
^mOm from on engine* resulting Irotn thi- net of the en* 
giiM-dHver in blowing olf eteam horn the T4<iit cot^ks of 
ikt «ll|^nc near thr ruilnny giU;. £rle, C- J., said: ''it 
appfwm that the plaintiil'*ji honce were using the roud 
»a of right, and that tb« compaoy were aUo aa of Hght 
«X0RTiiring Um povier givpa tb»m by tbflir Act of croiw- 
ing the highway, and, if there hjui been nothing to iihow 
that lhi>y wi^re not ^'xerotBin^ tlii'jr riglitti in i\it* ordi- 
Dury w»y and witli diifi nnd rnuionnhln nan?, the oonipuny 
umttmbtcdly w()uM not be liuble for Uie minrortune 
which h^ bupponod. Bui I am of opinion tbal tho 
«nd(tnco abnndjtntly phow* thnt the company* by ihdr 
■emnta, «TCr<rbi*d their right of crw^ing tbti highway 
fcn aa iucoovYDieot and jmt'roporinaDncr. WhiUt near 
the g3tc which *cparatca the railwiiy from the rund. ibo 
driver bW.olT iha Rt«am from ihe mud cocka in froot 

*lU^tLr_L-AX n. a., H ftiuhfKj,) 3<>3ja.ap.B^&. f.^nD^n 
CV. 39^ h An JlKng K IM^ ^A, 

■ r. B. & « Buuu, AV FfAQk m, V^« 

■ K^tum *. K R. R, 1U Mh 3»»j VnmU f, f'mam, 10. XTOe ra]l»k « 



i&i C05TIlI£FrOKT TTEGUGETfCK O^f DICUW^TIL 



of tbc engine, to tJint the pUiatiff'j honM became «d- 
Teloped Ihereiu and frigbti^D^d, aud bo bocHme umuttn- 
■{Mblfi. It it clp-nr that Ibn M>m|innv hnvir not lued 
tlicLr nulwuj witb tbat ttttvulioti tu thv rigliU uud atfely 
of (ho Qjoen*0 subjecta iilncb, uuJer tlie drcuiuDUu<tt^ 
they wofo bminti Ui cxercine.''' 

ItfX, It iH LuiitrjLuiunr uei^ligtuce to drive a horse 
which i« ktiown lo bo nfrAi<l of ioc^fmaiiriM on a hi^h- 
mjafljainiug a ruilwuy,' f>r to drire borvta cp lo a 
oroadiig as an cxprc^ tr&iu is awn to bo approacUiDg ;* 
or to lead a bona up ta iw ruilnny crowlnjt nt wbicii 
Ui«ra Itf f<L&nding uu eii^'iiie, fram wbich ftieum te fMrsp* 
iDg;* or to drive a, hcirnc up tn >□ otutlructioD At & croM* 
ing which ttiu kooitn to buve fiigbic^ied otb^r horvcs,* 
or lo lio a l^-im on a highway n^ar n rrow-ing ;' nor via 
ft tnivellcr onliicliigUwuy rfi^ivcrforiiijurie* unuecd bj 
tkic li'i^lit (^r UtB lu>r9>-is whcij h^ lids driven Uieui ililO 
ftD ftjiparpntly dangoroua fdiwnge hnlwron railwny raira 
ob*trii<-'ting tb« highway ;' but if tb<j borw? be kcovrn 
uoL U> bu &&aid of engjno« or car8, nor to bo ea»ly 
frigbUincd, it ia not nepcssarily oontribHtory ni^gligwiee 
to l«aT« Uiui untied siud unattouded ucur a niilway 
croasiiigt" In any au(?li case lbc<tUc«tion of t^ntributory 
jjogligi?noo is di:pt>iideut upun tlie nioro or lefesdangCV" 
oup cb;;racti'r of T.be point to whioJi llw! liofre i» drivMi, 
or where he is jwrmiliod to amnd, and upuu thi* driv*r'« 
knoAvludge of hie IiOwe'« disposition. Of course, wi^*re 
one driyes or rides a hoi^tj up to a cru^iDg upm the 



MkL. 






■ I*.r V. A IL IL It h 5tlii««, 7» P«uuk St. filV. 

*IfKuv]»u,C.AQ.T. K. R., NW-h. ,11 Am.A Kn^. 11- R C^ M«. 
■L JH N, tLlli, 3rliiiiJ4ll,H: lod. ^;4, 6 Abl A Ka^. a. B-Cte»8. 

• I', ft, R^- n. Turt-fP. 1<>* PdBMiLM. aOik 

■ PoulU-vrtli T. O. C dk S. a B, 10^ Mk U3. 



iHTililionof ft ntilwuy Quf^Dian or gutiskccpur, ami tbc 
hone It cliCtt fH^littucd hy a «iidd(TU ^Citpv ofaU'uiu or 
b^ olbor noim moilc in thr o|iemi>(?n ol' ihe i^ilwAy, 
the nutwtt}' in ltttbK% hr tht Liiviutit^u of tl« ikgman or 
gAt«-koej>«r u aji o^faurauce tbal itie oioitiiiig louy bo 
Bftfoljf ftpproochod/ 



IV. 1I.UXTB1CA2ICB OP 01EAI»B CAOffiUnH. 

jtmEfj mnib-utifil or tmtiniidHeiL 

152i Whflfo Uio railway lino i« cwrioij acroie a pi-e- 
frxUlIng lujchwAy, It u ){«utrul]j ibcduiy gf the nul* 
vuy to keep the «ro»iitg in r^imir;" nud diia diity 
indwlM th* repairing nf cmlmnkini^ntH, which nre a 
noodMory piut of the L^ru-aiujC ;' but Uic; milwuy )h net 
bound lo uuprove the higlirtay ho ua to put tt lu bettor 
ordor ihAii h wan bfiforo tlin rnilwny i7ro«rd it.* Tlio 
twi in, whetlier or nut tbo cnnuin^T aa cinislTmAfd nml 
uuiuL&iuod hy thc'^ railvpAv, luiikCoeBcurJIy iiiL|jairEi thi! 
ttw^nriv of ihn hij;hn^ay uml intcriVriv villi tho Mifo 
cnjoymvntof Uat highwihv by tho publio;^ if it d<M^ 
the nilwaj htm oot p^Tformod iu duly io ihn promifice ; 
if U doca not, Uie miluuy ht» dooe nil lliut il onjcht to 
bo expwiod Io do. Tlio raileyHV ia uuL to bf r<.-lit*vt>d 
IVou tbo performance of thix duty, bci^u^o u ^tj'Oftratl- 

*BHiaf.L,a.Aii«L Kr. AA x. T.na^r ^^ r. r h iimii, icwMkir 

■ F«*v *' C B, L A Mlj,« |ov>33^ FdVMbr.V-A T-RB. 1* 

Oiainiwullh M Kr- t^T, 10 -Vm. A Eli«. R IL Cu £]& ; F»;>U r, C A ;k. 
Et.<7 nLlk»iBUUfLp.AH.£.K.Il, »OUa0b Ull,&An>, A Eof, ]L 

' FvliT * <-*■ tt- I- A P^ Br, 4B toi« 2*C 

* 9mUf *.<Xt ILt. M hn fl^ 4 An- A Bnfl, «. R Cte £1Cl 



IM 



nxi^FTKtAXi-z or oiOttuun. 



WSJ wboM lino nsM Ux Lighvtj tad tbc rrri liij, tt a 
put thereof u BBdtf a like otiUgilMD lo keep the nom 
log in repair.^ Whil«, n u ^tnen} ntle, tliA winy k 
not bouDd to koop in repur the crowipp of h^kwsTv^ 
wbiidi hare not been legvUj ImI oot and cipCDrd.' ytt, 
vban tlia nUvaj haa l!e«nB«d n genera] and pnblk wm 
of mdi a ennring, it i« booixl to tcaintani it ia repair* 
163. Tbe railwa* u Uublc to ftvhen <m tlic bif^waj 
Ibr a croeaing W iwgUgeiilJj oonsinict^ a« to cauee in- 
jnriaa to penona InrfUlj nnng it,* for inalanAv ^ * 
ddeotir*; plttuking of a crt^&g/ or fur Uk? mainie- 
nanoe of ita nOs at such a hc^bt sbovo tbo ler^l of iba 
croMing aa to «nc3ang«T th« sa£R traxtsic of vagon%* or 
Ibr an obvtructjou uf tbv crOBtuig bj a vr^ck, provided 
mora tbau a roft«onably bufficicDl tiiibe for tbc removal 
of tli0 irrock bnii cln|«Dd.' 

'MMfaM* Iff. v,<:>a ji. iL K u, 14 ?(, Y,t(T,s A&.a 1^ & n. 

• F. A ?. M. Rf. f. WiEIr*. 4T Mioh. n,&AB.AEAt.B.]L(:^aD6:>£, 
K.MT.tlf.9. l«ti,71 KuA. AM. 

• KcU/ L a K K. K. 3fl UEiib. 1>8, « An. A E^c- R a <^ »L 

63MIfh. JDS. M.VoL A £bj£. R. aGu.400; U 3. A.AC B.B.f^&-^«t 
JehL 11V. iJt Am. A Fjik It IL (^L A4VI, 

•P. P.W.Aa Br r. IlUDD MPtfUV.9Lt£M; !WijfthMflT,ajt A-H.B, 
m*], niAi UAnitr. r V. JC K,.Wi.4B|. 14 Ab. A Frut H & Ck eift; 
K<d];r ■. H- M. K7. ::i UJnn. ^t, 1 Am, A Ki^, R. IL (^ 2Hj </Ckwr h 
&&L }; It, U^ Mi»»JLS. L& An. A i:n|t B. L (WSU; PnH.Oa.1. 

T,ATJ.i]AiiL Ahojc. R, Kr^M^ W»fi»T«^I>,l.aW, R. fl,r«X.r. 
313; KVm. A £d«. a H. Ul I^ 

•Ot)r»«. SC.JLJI/,!. U (»^ 11 400;U,«CB.at. QHUr, UVTub 
lHOi Jthimiiiw.aLt,AV^Kf^&l UkiULStiS. tA An.a Kne >Lai^««7. 

'P. B, Kj, f.T^tor. IM Pc€UiL£i, £0& !Un t; O.T.B5, «a ILB. 
<1L 




Ok^DK LrUOmlXtM. 



167 



tAi rai!/Way imv U IsbJ Mpon a hi^huiay, tr^vf^^a an thai AiyA 
fluy rifi^vUy froa Ihe Hnx at <^Tjy jfitid, fijid jiitt mBftly oj 

15"L Wbero a highway ia umd a* a pnrt of a raU- 
iTfty Itue, InvclJon od ihi:! hixhwiiy linvr? a ri^ht Ui I'-Toni 
tJL« railway )ln« at aiiy poiiii, uud uM merely at th« in- 
tdvoctions of ol>i(Tr IiigiiVfLjg, and the railway if> lUtJc 
to CM iDJurcd whil« croEbia^ at d point other thou tbu 
iotcraection of another higbifAy» if Lhe rnUway vf^ iii 
ftDjr renpnci nAgligant in tha fip^mlion of 1I4 Un« ;^ anti 
uiulor tfuci) cirvumaUinvQc Uiv ruilwuy in b^iuiid to ub- 
aerve, at every |}oinc<]f itfi line ou thi> Li^bway, the 

10 jirnmuiioni whir-h it in boun^i lo oheorvo at an 

liuary liigkvray crusuiig. 



r. Tvi: i>t'TT or TiiK ujlilway jv Tiue opxRATiOEf or 

m UrClE AT (4IEAI>K CHO^lNilH 

Jr at ALc ifniy <tf ihf raittmy tkt n^narale bit lin* iff yvaja mtMtJHijt nf 
Afjjtta^, nM Juf Mfff far tha rigKu ttf tnnfrlftvi aa t/kt M^hwty. 

165. Th^ CTOfltfing at grade of n highvroy by a rail- 
lyliDeiM always ol^flCtiuuabTe. It woiilJ undoubt«rl)y 
haw been vi«e in the hUercHi^ of the public, and oco- 
nonico] In the ioUrrcBt of railway*, If the lav had n>- 
qairvd that wh^Mievvr a r^lway hue iit'0f4^h1 a pr^^^ibt- 
iDg highway, il mliOMld 1m the duly of tho railway to 
carry iu lice; ovvr or under the hij^hway ; ottd when* 
«Tev • newly laid oul highway oroeeed » pre-eKtaliiij; 
railway line. It flhonld bn lh« duty of thu mnnidpality, 
borotigh. or coanty, na tfie cuik- nii^ht be, to carry lU 
hlghvuy over or uader the railway line^ 

iA6. Whera a milwiiy lin^ crowoi a hiiihfiay on tlio 

■ L, tl, A, a C It K. >■ Tb»1. 10 lid IIT^^Am. a Sflf. It a.Cte4]«i 
rrWkt A.L,K. CAN. aK^.TA Mo AM, A Am, A Biv K- R(^»0: 




106 kjulwat's Dvrr at oiuub cEoausciL 

U-Vcl, the rdntivG rigbti ukI obti^tioiM of the rulw«^ 
tad of tnr«ll«n on the higdvftj &r« reci|iixMmL but it im 
ihc privilcgv of thv niilvvj ibnt its tmm sban liare div 
right of way, and tbat oU penoud oa ti>c lughw&jr tbiXl 
y'n]d pr«oedaooft to tho mns.' 

157. It ill the dutj of tbu nulwajr to ivw niKb ttonoc- 
ftbt^ protwatioUH iiti frill prevvot voUnniM ut fni<t)i 
jngn, 4^]ifTci«iikg to ikMi <fjtd Midi can and skiU 14 
dvut ftiid diNOTM^t ptrvtaut, havitig tbo nunogcnseiM 
Budi A buaiQQ», would u«u. under tbe drcumBbuicai, 
the piirtiL-iilnr croneiDg. Wh^n? Ui« liD<tcro«M> a bigl 
way io ur io tJio iMaghbofiiOOd of a towQ.uid the 
in^ is Liot protected bv a gaco, or by the prceeMM of a 
itutubmuji, It XK the dmy of thu lullwiT lo to nxKUw 
Hiid cojitrol thv upvtiil of ile Unlua lli&l th«« fMund of l3iv 
wlkietlo or bell of t)io cr^uo will ht\ an cdTfcliuI iran- 
ing to ponoQs on the bighn&y ,^ but no rate of *po«d, 
liowtivcr liSgb, b n6g|jg«iiue jw $t* Nor b « ndlimy 
required tonin itslmin^atflUchaniodtTiUitratoof Fpvtd 
ihut thiry con he elnpfied wiiliin thi* dbitaito; in wtiicb 
oUtuclra on tbfl line Min bo dWoverwi a1 night by iho 
li«od]i^bf-' Gropo, J-t »<ju*l pi^rtmimtly, in I^ACR> 
R. V. Ritehlu:* " Thu rery purpose of IoomuoIjod by 

h<ld(«n1 ., K, V. C. Kj, 10 5 Y. fi; Uvan (L r. H\ d U II. It, It W.«ai:- 
KolcofCw-(r*nn*mif' ACIt IIB.*IM1LKIH, ft:(iT4Vf-*tK 

Qulmljvr. V.t\ Kr-> ^ Vl :u; , VituAv.CiuuuB4biA3CU:4t, R ft ft 
*, J^n'j,;^ P*mi4, Sl M7; S<tull< v. P. K-K, « WnW* N«im ftfOvB 
(PaniHyAO; P. R R h L*rlh TO Onn. sl a^; Ptf c& Co- *■ J«b^ 111 U. 
IH;R1L1L«, A«biaaui,T4ld fidfi^ PR JC f.Gwi, ir WnUir K««>^ 

'ILACVlLa*, lHlprimflJTViiM.flL4»i I* Am A »:■« IL & CW 

M « .Vu. A Knjt K. IL tW m. 
• L. A % . It. K. r. MJ)uii. 10 TcniW M 13 AM. * RiV K- iL Qm CB7. 



irSKD AT OftADB CnCMtKOfl. 



169 



raUi oTvpMd in ihe moTom^nt ofpfM^qngen and fW^i^bL 
It M ttulUoraoed hy \nw, nnd u mllrojid oomptiiy in pre- 
pcllin}- ii8 tnliu al liigh epeed ulou^ tu irurku in ibe 
opPH poiiHlry, U fiimplv <nignj;«^d iri i.li« lawful rii^iiX'iPO 

of ltd IjHlK^Uiwr- If It 11^ l^virJT^ElCt uf Jlf(-ligunc« tUflt J| 



tnin is ran tit iIi 



'[•cod, it uiuei be bccniuro 



njuoinj; at a !«■« r«ro ia a Jogal dut; ; but them i« no 
fluoh duty «aUb1iahed «itber by BLitufu or d^'wione. 
Whik there may, of courw?, be cJrcuai«taoc(« which ro 
qaire m dimiuiBhtd speed, ii ui only thu forw af thow* 
Gircum«tAncn» which crvHtm such a duty." Wh«tli«r 
i\ic Tact diftt the train, a oolluiob wiUi which on n hi^Eh* 
w&y oranSog hai oaused tb^ li^^Jry lo ihi; pkiiirlll^ b«a 
tpproAchcd the croMin^ at a rate of apeod in «xc«n of 
that [WrmUiad by utatutv, in to bo regarded U4 rjt-xU* 
gCQce oa ihfl part of tho ratlwuy, depeuda on die pur- 
vie* of tha pArtiriilar Atacuto. 

15d, If tho cruHiag b» u Hpaiainlly {hiiigcroitit imv, U 
ia aef^lig«nc« in the mllway if iU train apiirauL^htja tho 
crowing at ihft rut** pcnnittwl !iy statute, prnvidptl Umi 
nte be m vxotud of that whioh a dut^ regurd lo ibe 
mUty of the public r«quirc4,' and It le for tho jmv to 
dcC<Tnninc wht-ther or not the rjite of wpecd of tho train 
Iki Df'i^lEgf^dt, with reference to fhe more or \viiti danger- 
QUM chanLct<^r of the i^ron'mg.^ 



•FrlArSLUK. C.AK. E.B.,nBfo, &^nAtt,AFjiif.B.1LCka.UMi 
M*7H.U, KILU. l.Xt^^lS, WJLptt* ir&RK^aO wait: l^n^ 
li^ h U A F. Ai C R. E, IV VfW. Arti I- C A I. IL TL > OaW. T9 Ky. 
441 U Jin A Kn*. R ft- 'W f^ ; Rltnonkl r G, T. Br. ITirbr , 
91 Aa. A £f^ n. IL IJv^ »« J >Uii^LJt v, II A irci Cn,C« K. Y, ASI j T, 
It ALa&f. Citri. Tnibl, iOd,ajv»_AKaiC-K. ]t.(^ M; LAV.lL 

MHlii^ n IM. 4I«^ 4 An. A K>«. R. It (^ U,U j iWJl-F >. H. A & It R. R, 



leo 



BTATrroKY aia^TAiA. 



159, Thcrf&otofllLCnulwaj'tfnon-pcrFbrinaiiccorilie 
dntj of giviiif; nolice of the approuL-li of its trains tin & 
gnulc cromin^ nliea tliiit duty w n^ulalcd by^ hIaUiU^ 
d6f>ends upon ibe tArmn uf ihe pHrtit^u lur Htaiulf, but it 

mftj bo MiH tbnl in gcJif-mL atatutoiy directiona m to 
giving uoti(!t: of llic uppruucli of n in&tn to u croeitiig 
nitiHl be followed, auil a Chllure Ui fullow Llieni \a avgii- 
g&ncp. HB to pi-rMonv on die highwAjr injunH] while crrdA* 
uig ihe litiiO 

100, ll Iiii3 been hold thnl Piich regtilations being 
primarily intended for the prul«Jtion of pervonft on the 
highway, the fuilurc to give iLe notice tliereby pr^crib«d 
is not tLc^ligertce a^ to ntilwiL^ »rvuiilii noikiii^ on iho 
liiiFi ;' nor tie to trifipd<fr4!Ta uti th« liiR'/ [lor fut to pcr^ 
K»n« who, nlthoitgli on the highwAy^ nro not intendttig to 
oroB the line;' nor aa to piu^tnger^ in trmns,^ nords 1o 
travellers approaching the line on a private way/ or on 
a blind nilty ;^ nor as to trnrdlers upprouching the tine 
ou ti privult way ruuning through tliv railway"* yard/ 
nor as to one who ti^ hU teniu ou ihn liighnay near a 
i^roiwinE-' 

^ A, A W. p. E, B, c. \Vf\^. W 0& IM, H .\pi A Fp» R R. Tml MB; 1. 
A?i IL K. T', M^'Kl 41^11 rry. 31 Ol Tn ; T„ 1. A 1<.U. JC, t, Kik^, IUKmulUK; 
CB-B.R-". PttinipplnflOU-iajM-P. ILK- t. Wil«n.>fiU flMi Pmn 
p, t>.T. Rj.jOQnt-Ai^^lVMV Aia.ABnc.R. B. Cm. 3!t0i Ftbiv>.fti. P^ 
UrAM^Itr, SfUbD-^flA.)! Am. AEdh^&B, CMVTT; W.R.ELf;0«^ 

■ lUniiiLii >. n, A (>- H. ft., inn □, n. m. 

* ilflH- c. L', E, E, IJ S. T. -iOa ^ Olvmodl ■■- p, A W. B. B, a a I.SII; 
Bill 1', II A »it J Ry.. ;? ?tii-H, to, 4 Am. 4 t^v 1^ IL ^~H nfl>. 

• fVM.H-. N, V O, A IJ- ft, it, E„ « S Y iSS: Bjm-t ftfcu*.M U- lli 
B,T- V- AO>.a R. V. FvrtbcmlO LfA^^HinJ 103, m ^nv« l^i^ Ik R. 

•A.aftB5.«.Hmwk.?AAU-l»: Ls * X, R. R-<. KirK^^^H, T Lh 
(T^ii.) SIR* S Am. A Kb«. K. IL Uk n«. 

«Jfihn«nf. L AN. K R. Ky. . lA An. A Enjr, R. R Ci&Att 

' BiTM -■ ?S- Y, C A It- R. :t It, M N. Y. 11 

*nMit\rnm.Q.r.^..90nt.C, P. D, «ft, la Am, A Eiijf. B, R. CW. W ; 
HfxLiTi^r.ai. UE. a a:C Rt^TI T4n, no, a Ajh. di Un«. It VL,<W t». 

'61s L. A«.r, KT^B.lV»»i^^^«A^l^il^AtB.^Kq«-K.£.Ui.etti 



|TATUTl>nY KIOXAIA 



IM 



161. OiiUiooth«T Imnd it bnii httn WH tlijit iht 
nilwij'i ocsiMion to j^ive Hit stulvtury Hij^^uab ifi D«gU- 
gnco >a to pertoiu wlicec Lor»cs, wbilc on ihc higbwav, 
«» rHgbt<!ncd by the ctp[>mftch ot' a trnin :^ And gcncr* 
ally tliat t]i« omiEttioTi (if hijoIi ti^iiuT^ is n^gligent^ aa to 
hU pcm>aR, who 1>cin^ hmfuily nt or nc^nr acrowing nrc 
Qxpwetl to iojtiry by raaaon of Htv fullure to );iTe mieli 
sigiuila.' Tndvoilr th« Supreme Court of Gwr^in hta 
^ont so Gu", iQ OIK CRAv,'* bs t<i hr>IJ tli:it l}i« omiuioD of 
mch eignnlff m nog)igi>incP in tli« roAi* of injury to a 
hone which, hu^'iiig vtrujcd upon tbo liitc, wim run over 
at a pctni b<>roiiil iJio oroeaJni;- 

1G2. PmUibW ibr tmn doctrine U tbiit tho tfrmw of 
the pnrticuldr Htfttule luust be Gr^it lookf^ lu m order to 
(kt^mina tho cUieM of porsonE for vrhoH> proCOction thg 
jivinff of lh« KigD&lfl ta i^Tfecritt^d, and thnt in ftubordi* 
nation to tlic diracUoM of iKc pjtriimlar alAtul*^ tlia giT< 
Ing of fucb f igonl9 ought to he hi^ld to he intended for 
iho protection of all persone who, b*ins nRhtfuUy upon 
llie bijgliwny, arc ifyuroil bj reaiion of tlie raUway'a aon- 
pcffurmanoo of thi> sUitulory duly. 

Itt3, Of coiinu', fh* railwrty mAy pii^tiw ita non-ptfr- 
Ebmiuiict! of the jilniutory duty by xbowm^ thut tbt^ duty 
nva, OD ibo |>flirtioukr ocoaalon, oiuitti^ witblu tho 
bounds of n maoidpulitr whou^ nrdmnncTH Inwf^lly C3i- 
wsbtd forbade Ut« KivUig of tu^uaLi wkLIu iu limiti,* 
Hio OBumon of cCalutory njni'^l)'. obviouflly, in nol iteg' 
lig«ac« to peraouA nthot/a ir^urzui ar« not caused by nieh 



Ms Bmiihgnii t Q. TRf>*Om*p, !■(£ U XmA Eflf. !La(^4U| 
VfiafrfrAH.:!)!. in Auj.A &■)( ft A (^4 J KuwiD m O, fll. P, ]iL « O. 
Ilf, OS Wbc irA. iO Am. A Enj, U. K. Om \n. 

> W. a A. fi, R ». J.MV et Ot. «SI. I A>. « &«. S. IL Cta. »r. 

• 1^BH. <-iiw » iiwit T* ba. MS. s Aa. a b^ u. IL On TfL 
u 



omlmatu, «i where > hoy wba «m« ui spproocbtoe tnin 
sUoMpbi to piM ID ftoot of h, uid Gotchinf hu foot 
uodcribo nil is h«4ii *i»d run ixrcr;^ or «hor« a man 
M(4 llie Rrnakc of Alt tti^dc, bac KcciHokIj wvntiDfA 
tlufti it liB uujvlug frum uulcxl of apj'roaoLing UiA^ 

164. Tlu>T« AT« B>mc AuUiOTitiat far tli« |iroporition 
tLxl vrbeu tUo mil^uy liaa fblktvcd the dtsiubory dire^ 
tioiuu to giving 4i£EinXci&. it hujL iliAchargcd itP wbc^ 
duty in th« prvfnisM ^ but Lhe Munder iloctniw would 
m<aa to bft tbnt compliitiipv v^tb adcIi ftAiotory regnli- 
^ii» docB not ntwoArily ro]i«r« Uie nilvay from the 
neoenlty of Uking mich eddidonA) prvoiJjtionfl la ara 
MMntiiil to the Kifcly of puncn on (lie bljihvaj.* 

166. Even when ibno la no mtotorj nMiiiirtfa«Ql «• 
to notice of A Tjmin'n upprroit^h lo n crmiiiig* s mllvsv ii 
nc^gUgtjEit if Out; notice Iw not giveu of ibt; u|ipnj*cb of 
its truicia to a level croeeirkg, atid iL u for tht jwry to 
deterraini^ wimt noticr u nrrtMnnblp, cntUr tlio <drcaii^ 
Btan<H*^ of tke porticiUaj crtwuing.' 

1G6» Tho «Amo prmciplM fttift sp[>tlcoblo u) tli« nil- 
way 'i n on^pfrHbrm aucc of a Atatuiory itu t j of crocAin^ tign- 

n->xjU]«k7 ^.is.x.c.A II. a r il,ki5. t,4S«,« Abla 1=«. 
■ iiifi *. !4<. u, R. c 4 ?r. Kr^ :i u& iffi, e .In. A Tmi^ k aCM. ». 

■CRAQ R Tt>. nnvB^'Tl;, no III. Ml JV Ab.A Ei^tVLRC^Mi 
CAA U, R V, HitUiwii. IDB III, 1J£. » JUn A r«c H^ iL Ufc. tOti 
Baul^ ^, 5. T. C l:^., «0 5. T. « ; <»ri]>fM r. Suh^ R M. 

<BIphft>4vn*,N. V,r. n;r,4alf-y, Mil; fbadlr? k & A U. Hr-^lf^iia. 
tHO j (Wrrj B, S. T. C. A IL R, B. II. OJ X- Y. W. 11 Ab. A Bb«. fr 
Ck «M. KMi>n *, Y. H K, l«n MiM ^ta4, V Am. A frf; X K. <:h. IA 

* ■it-lmm », H.. a * >- Y. It n, 1>*i S- T. iWi P. R It f. (%kr, » 
St.BD; P. AT. R R t, Htc'irt 47 M. !JU^ l^i«tita<)*r * K U. lt,|QA 

m ; P. F W. A C R R. T. Ibduo. 60 rnru, R. 3M 1 KA«iA *. X. Y. C k 
K,:iny. Y. IB^ prM^a^n. !LlLlt,»y-V.W^nimiil»rtin L^ 

a u- ut., ?» mu> t,eAB.a&)^t;.ii.<:ii^t«. 



n^oxjoi Ajn> OAiis. 



163 



bowdi ttt a terel canning,' but thg fiilurc of Uic rsilwftj 
tQ nDiuiitAiQ foj^-boArUn aX a erauuQg ui cdl iiog]igeuc« 
aA to |>«T0on« wbo, in &cu kooif of Ui« exiawnce nod 
the l<KiitMiti of llic croHUig.^ 

167. There is no rul« of law which roquiroa railways, 
w1i<]n not iu> rcqtiircd b v Mntntc-* lo mjiintDio gaU* at 
uU GrowmgH,' uor iTuj^mt^-ii hi :ill vi^mlij^;' bul. If it 
bA pnmin that tUtt fTOunn^ at whirh oortjrrad the 
injury mtd for, w of *ucU it c}iaraL*ier iJiat ihe imaiinir 
of a fii^man va« Dccraa^nr to tbc aafrtv of cravclkn od 
tbo higbwaT, and would buvo prevented the particular 
iifjury, ib« jury luay tlicQ find negligence on ibe pan 
of tUo ruilnuy in itn thilurv to pofit a flji^iimii there* 
Where a railway does employ a flAj^iaan at a. tiTUMiui^, 
hie failure to pcrforiL the dolica of hia post l» uegli- 
gaicv on tbv part of the nulway,' And die wittidinwnl 
of the flagman by tbo railway, wtthout BOticc to tlic 
pnblic, IB Rp.gligpofn* or thfl purl of r.hc railwuy ;' but 
wbalyvtr bu tLv cUuriictiir of tUo cru«mg, the fidlnre 
to po8t s. ilngntHM ia not nC£Ug«-Dce as to |>frr>^oiiH whotw 
iujuriis aro not due to tlia alieencc of thn flngumn,' 

16S. \Vlwrc a rallvray L^, m ubeJiynw to irtiitutOTy 
nqaircmaotc, erect^ gntes at a lcv«l croaaiDg, liio fact 

< Bhdiv «. ft. F, H, A IL a B,H ^ Afinib 10S» « Am. 4 EiU' Kv n. On liA. 
*}i^r,a ft-AMt IL.4; VLoh. 4i^l,H Am, A [Cu^ R B. <W 201. 

• SwUo- 1-- 1* A K. W. Ity, L. B. t Et, 13. 
•llfMfrfIitVY.un.]t,40N Y, fli M C:RRr.N'«iUiiF.07Md,3«1. 

iaAu.AKB«,B.B.GHUSU Vvjk^^V.A IT, ]ML,4: MiI.TAj f.RK, 
■. MMlW*ita« N J, I. G«] [ Hi<iwb *.1C. VC.A K ]LR. B^bO K. Y. 
«a^ a li. Xa ; POjLUnpkx f. K. Y, <l A II, It IL IL, -2 !?, Y, 4M, 3 Abl A 
B^ R L 4W 3M i WrW *. N, Y. a R &. «S X. Y. 4£9^ 

• WtfafA «. U, A *tL J. R a, n &l4 ^^L. n Am, A }.->if R R Ch TA; 

»>f. iLRCKVAj XuAa •. K K, U, Itt Uu.M4pSAvl A &.«, R. R 

•KflW>-I^'Y,An.Ra^MTff.T.M3:S-«.yt.aC4X.R.R, 
ItAllniHaHtied; I>0lniLT]. A irr:i-ii.Ti ^ Y,iMk 

< r C A «k I. ». R p. YaiiM. f 8 Ind. 3;K « An, 4 &«■, R U. l:fe» Ml 
*ri>M.tk«>lUHil,TDl»lAn, a Ain.A Kn^ K JC.CW,TVL 



164 



or anJT-i 



mmxnun Unt lU Iim en U nfelj ctuvBd;* iftd 
mhtm theinlnj'* jpwi kaptr, flapnin, nr tnin ban^i 

llic tmelkr knot boHD^ tocnvcM lJwMB*dc|tn« 
of can vki«4 1m voaU W tsxptrttd lo cmkmo if na 
mtA iaricUM nrv ftna :* but miA ui nitttBiioii bj 
* avTsm oC lit* nOmj vill Bot euttM ft Um lij ibi, 
wjand pMMB CD cwidw aftj chi* lor hi* ova mIWj.' 
Il i» lite Jtttj of ^iL»m (v claw tlie fsks vbvs 
tniA flpppoachw ft cnsni^ ftini tb« nUvsv m aot InUvl 
to ft tnivUcr on tb* bighmf vfao k iojimd wbik 
vonmpiimg lo Mn acroai ibe Um befan ft noviftg 
tnuD, bj tbo wbcd of bk isrm^ Uiag cu^bl i& ihi 



168L ItbwbMftbtUlliatUMfaitonof tb0nn««x 
10 p«ribrv K vdf^ispoaed dMj k MA ntfUipBee ; 

vbtn A nilwsj, it a krel cfvoiifte ^ foM 
HmI nfatittriJT ended r^itig gum, aod voAilj lofked' 
Ibft gMM «fa«a ft inon vaw iiifiroftebiDit (be Gut UuKJ 
on a putiaibr ocforiaft iIm gM«* ««• ogft i»dk«<l. 
btdJ 001 to be tfftdi ng^igtoei tm nndtrvd tb« mtwmy 
Uablt Cor lii<t (kaib ol* » penoii vfao wsILwI an tbe UdIi 
It tb^ crOMiiig Aod WM run ortr.^ On di« ocbrr b«Dd, 
Ib P. A B. B. R. V. EHIIp*,' » jnr; wtn p«nita«a to 
find A Tvilway nffti^roi in ibat, liATing vobmtftril; 
maintaic«cl m watohm&a mod £■(«■ 9l o rrowiftg of tto 
lino bj « dtj ntract, tbr gotco won opa aad an wiocb* 
mm ia aUcotknoe at a tiisfl whta tbr pkistiC* tkcv^ 

'Wfa;iij.^La<>flt.C»y, t-a.1 Ex-tl; ITv^v • X K. Kr* t, ft 
« ^ R «S| - A«7 * OlaUaft M !C T. r^ Tl Ab. a £!■« R B. Cm VI. 

* r. a & B. ft. h bbth^ K Paw. 0L n. t jkjK ft &« L a. ^ n^ 

* pMh >, X. T, N It. 4 IL ft a^ M Dh. BVl 

•BMW-. LAy W. My. LK.lCI'Vt, etoateOiavM.ltr,L 

B.*Q.a»a;tt(afi^KK.T.iiaaiLftft,aK.r «^i»u4n 



tnvsJtot or tELr^ixiMticii uutv. 



165 



tt, (tnvfn^ a ImM on ttt vuvot, wfl» Icillixl bv being 

irrma froni liia oarfaigft la eoiMequfjiic^ of liu bocM 

being fnght«[ied bj Lhe Mi^d«a apiMarance of an 

[tngjbc, >nd by its exccwvc wbutling,^ 8c^ the miU 

17 bos been bdd liaM«. ivhoii. und^r droijnutouoee 

d«ng«r, lb» inritaiion lo crow "wna ^roo bj lis ter- 

r^Qi^ wlio, wblt« 4-mp]<jyud 10 ptrform olbur dniltyal 

th» ^rOMiag, bad, for t^rerftl jr^re, volunlarilir aasomod 

tJio ^luty of wnrning pcT*onin not to cram ihn linn when 

It^'wit Acru tt})proEu:iiitj^.' Pri^bubly the righl duclriue 

thai if thrt pflrijcuUr pTPnumioii, nlthoogh wlf im- 

ptMHl by tbti nulwttv. Itnat htttn obnvrvfid for no long m 

ttiuie. tbot CraveUen gji Lbe b^gbway bave Un/fjuie a^^ua- 

icd to re-Jy on ic lui • mmaff of protection to thcnt, 

k«Q, Buil tlivu only, iU iJjtfooutiiiuHne« migbl tr> be 

irHoil » ncgligcncn on tbc pnrl of the railway. 

170< Wbero tliL> nurrotuidtng cirouaiHtaiicm nandfr 

.the cfTWsIng epeoklly ilaii^roiu tL> trartritera on llie 

riiighvrriy, a» wbcre lli« lin^ ifl curved, or there ve 

obtttruoiionB to the vic^, U in tbi> duty of tb« railwuy to 

<|ateB pr«>cHUtioikfi COT^meoaurftt^ to thn d^ngfir, and it in 

ir th« jiirr to ik-turmme trIietW or not the iibscncoof 

ly particular prw.*uulioii b nt-j-l'iifu*.'*-.' 

171- It in a duly inriiinbnnt on lhe iftUway to cau»v 



l«tiLl.4h SCV^n^^l. ILI R>. ]>i ttUpLg^v^U IL A K.C ll;^-* I^ S^ k 
■OvkAbb^IAUIU: ^ K R. *. »|aulir*iLM N. J. [-531: Fpbi<ia&C, 

IL^R,«iW^aM|1NHi<*&aA X, w.itr,toiu.aw; p. rAi. 



)66 



FLVJXO tWITCBBS, RC 



iu tnioft to Dpproiic}i uid pw tli« crosiii^ with ct»b' 
Tli« peribrnjftiJcc of tbu duly ntjuiirs, u bcTonr Rtntol, 
notice to uuvcllem oa ibo bigcbwuf of U>e «xiMetic« 4i»d 
JooAtioa of (iia croaeiiig, aad of iLtt inins' appmdt 
tlMEVto, >Dd sudi ft nte of if>ocd of lL« ttnn ii^ 
under die ccDdltiou* of i\vt croeiius. Id pnident iridi 
KgArd to travcllora on th«* highwnjr. Tho i^rHnrttuum 
of iliis dulj ttlw rvquimi u cftrcfiil opcntun uf tbe line, 
iu other r»|ieclH: itius tnins alicoUl iu>t paw radij 
oiWat ftpcfd on Uic crowing;* exImoniiDftij pi 
tbun aUouM U Uikvu if u train or fto «iig{ii« U to b« 
bftcJc^d over a crowing ;* aikd «4|>ciciallir miiflt tlic 
greaiM mre be obscnTd, if c«rv ar« la be Ickkcd, ec 
wot on a dying Bytiich ovtt a creating ;* but llie btck- 
iug pr ft Iniin or cngtnu over a crowcg, or tbc 
of a orortftiiig hy c«™ ou a flying nritdi, ttttmot properfy 
be Hoiil lo be oogilgc-nt, if fkrvcautkODfi cconnKDntrnte 
witb tJiD dnnger Arc observed by ibc rulvniT.* 

173< It it ^e duty of th« »U«ay to adequately tijebt 
its ons^iMi >Dd can at nigbl, 1)101 lUKrvanu ibereoM 
inftj be euftbLcd to kc ob«uuctio&rf', tmimntc nod instti* 



. > lIuidiiiHcm t. St, I". », A K. Rt., » Ulnci. Sda^ 10 Av. A Ki« R S. 
Ot, SiiO . MxtEtiinli t, :C. Y. C It, K„ «S », T. ttC . Kifu«« il y. T. A IL 
R, W,H flfl N- Y K^B; ft A M. B, B. ■. Hhprnrvr. M Alu- fcTl; Ji^Km-lk. ^ 

Out- dUH, lA Am, til KniF a ILIW47*; Howards. Nl I*, Jl. A tf. Hy^tt 
MiriEi^ 2k I. IV Arur A Ear K. )L Ca*. tf a. 

■ Tr>nju«n b. K A It. U. IC, U Wfl^t; XoEMoTCWai fPnoL} «U; i:if 

», r. a a„« PvnnLgL. aei>; F«fWQn*.w.c.aj^<B wiiK.i«M» jm 

A l<;it|j. K. tr t^s^.'ii lloHArd hTri. I"., U. AkLBr^Sr]|1^n.3]«HltJU 
A Tjir. It, B.<^, Ut:S; iVbtU^, M,*n r. Br-, S mn ««; . I«*«ii f^:r. 
Y. C H. ^ n ». V. im J R B. K. >. St.1. h tiiA <rf NKtIir, SI Hd. M^ 10 
ADi,AlEn«n.aUft.3£fl;|. CJLK.& DwIitsAfl DL XVj C, JL LA P. 
B. R, h [>iin>kiip «e nL 48t t Stiawell 1^ C R. K, M K Y. 10 1 C * A. K B. 
■.flinwr, Mill «S, 
«llDh^*, U^ L a AW, n^^AH WbbJV^iaAB-Al^. |L|LO«n4£ 

«l W|». wi. le AEtAEnf aR.CiLi;ei0^aft.ClLAeLF.]l9-,M 

WiA IW. 1« An. A Ijiff. IL a:, Uk WI. 



uoaniTQ Exoi5E£, STC, IT in<niT. 



1C7 



by iho TWO of thp bwt .ipjilknOM Itt pnctiCfll uiw;^ bul 
the niliTAy u not to b« \it\d IMit for injurjc* t)i4t 
result, without uf^Ug«DC« ou ii^ part, froui tlio light 
becoming obi^urcd by tbe oprnaion of tiDturuI cftusoi, 
«(iirU«rft Ui6 Lead tight of a W^omutLve bucftmeitootK 
ffcurwl by a driving mUi thiit nn ol^Atructlon on tb« 
liau coutU not I»u ^iiren by ilit: eiiginu-Urivcr." It U iJnO 
tlie duty of lU^ railway to have iw craion adf^i^uaiely 
0(|i]ippci^ with brjikr^, natl tnannvd by axufTidcnl nnm- 
bor of baada lo proTn|uly oontrol tlie moreui^nt of the 
train, thni^ it hnjt bci^r ht^ld lo hft n^^gligtmr^ in tlir mil- 
way to jH-'noit an t'lLglnt- to piun a vruuiig without un 
^engino-drivcr aud oniJer the eolo codLtoI of a riroiuaiL.' 
tar«vi>r quMtionublo may he that drmnion, thcrci in no 
Ooiibl tluit the ot-rvautd ou tlav train mudl he vigilaat 
and atf<;ntivo to Ihtrir dutic« when the trairi approaches 
a CTOMing;' and the pnaorioo of ntran^cn hi tlm cab of 
ibe engine a> it ap[jrouoh<M a crtwaing, mrty, properlj', 
be belli to be avgllgccc^ ou the part of the rulvay, on 
tho jcround that thrrir pruurDCD divurbf tbu attention of 
tha aoglae-iirlver an<J flraman, when Lbeir att«utioii 
ahould bo coaix!nLr[ilcd on the pcrformaaco of their 
dQtiai.' 



T- lit « An a Km- K' »■ i"^- *««■ 
■ L a >. & R *, UiUma, 1 Ia HVhtlI S«1 

'iftLaAK-ttj,. lUtihi^MiinUdfii rrukf,«(.L^ic.ca5. Rr, 

7f Kd. £*\ 4 Am. A Flic B. ». <4k 2^0. 



108 ooHTBiBmoAT zmmuoKxvrE at ^rxnwtx^n. 



\1. OOXTREVCTOBT Z^EOUQESCE AT GftAPS CfeOtSOni. 









178. Itia tfa^ddtyof travollvnupoo cLft Lighw/, 
wliatbcr on foot, or iiiou»ti.<d, or m wcgcoi^ to exerdte 
a onre fur ilieir ottd faffftj In a)i{inncirtni; the Eliif, and 
WjHX^AUy to }Qnk and lli^tcD before iltPin|»ting U> cnw 
tho ItQ^' TbU rul^ iji al«o nF»ptiu*bl« lo )iortt»<n» 
crowding tb« linps of sfwim milwHf*, ftiid k » the Hmy 
of the diivDn of aucb cun to look and liih-n bcfon 
crowiiij^ die lime* liut where the teailniony aa 10 tbe 
plnintifTp fmliirfl to look juid Vwnti^ cr, in otbrr r^ 
Hpt^bt, lo exL-rclHt! lurL-, ill coni/ttJicUiry, ibe qtuvlioii 
i«, of courw, for the jury/ 

174. Tli«T« an mnnj nutKontic* for tbo propontioii, 
that wbcrfi tbe plalntift'jcue ahovra that thit pervon in* 
jun'd did noi look and Itabfta belbrocnmis Uic It&o, 
it ifl the duty of th<^ judfcc to nonsitiit th^ plfuntiiroT to 
dirwta veriJidn for tbe d«fetKlanL* OtKer attthotiiin 

■X,r, IL ILp. II«JliD>[i, 40 rHDL slao; c.illa r, it. n v^na» 
iHm, W U. & aV7 ; Slalf ti H. C R R . 70 lU 3«7, IB .4jii A I-^ XL & Om. 
nt , MC- A. <L rtuio, Id Hf «r XKibr, Al >ia. 101, 1« Am. 4 !■« It. R. 
1^,3:^0; ?«rk.tf ff, W. A W. K. B„ M K.CUl, « Am. il l£i«&R.<^ 
Ait: WnxUrt^tlA t V.H. ILJf) Allrn MV; IlitatUh V,A Ks]Ln^4rF«*a 
li; ; IWk -. M, Y,p y. H, A H. U. R. AO Coon, ^Lk, 14 ,\ai. A Hqft, R. L 
CWLfiMi (^. ILAJ^ A^ Uj. > tltni^Wn^ar rt>. ;i. 14 \n a T'C-K K.CHk^ 

ovj , ^'bm* t, c, u, I- .V ir it?^ uii Ion ;4a, 10 Am, A >:iL£ k. il tw m*) 

K«lln- U A 81. J. R R,rMil<< ISt, 13 .Vin. AEnic K. R Cm. C«^ 

* I'- A IL K. n. f. RLi^HFt W I'Mnn^ M, VJ, = Afn. A fMg. tL IL (al ITS; 
UkiTlfi V. C. M. A Sl R By., M,.£i- Rj. t a«af, Jd Miiwu ^ lO Am A Ee^ 

■ Hw. r.j**«i.a(t?t, 7. eia.fi av.a Fjut. b, a<^iir: H. r.1l« 

CojE#,f>C I'rob*, Av JM: Ui^y* *. C A 5. W K% 03 Wut6«^ IV Ak A 
&«. R.[tC^A47i P. ILRilImA. D:ifVpmL)lE.«ST, aJlK.4&«n,& 
CteSO. 

* P, K. ft. b ftnlcv T» I'rttiVL Al 114 : rx R R ■. fVllfr. K4 M Wl 



nmry to louk A:ri> LinTcir, 



169 



kM UialitlBibr diejiur to decide nbeUier, under Ibft 
cut7ainfitaacc«> xho plniotUTi fuilurv to look und Uvtcn 
mu »iicb cuntrilmtorj ii«glip-TiM lui kIiouM detmi hb 
rtooTUy*^ It 10 bald, in another Unn of auihoriu^?, 
tlut only vrbcre the pluintifl'i cow diBclovcs a fuilura lo 
look aud liatiMi before crot^ing, or otli^rwift? to ei^roiae 
con for hit owd tsSctj, vhim the view of ibo line va« 
imobitftictcd, juid lb«Ttf were ito circum»tiiiic<B to jwr- 
Uirb hia Judgment or impodo J)i« aouon, la the court 



D. ILK, Ml lVTiM.r>«.r«:(:ltKAlVU,lt >i.lloa-UmpVrir.M.niCj)hlM> 
flild t. a M- A St p. Sj. U4 IT. fi. «]fi I C^ntill •. R B. a, 1ft W«klY :(oEfi 
0falHtPnu1H4Ell.CRILt.r>r<?utxHr,'i'JMl].A9].lVAIn.AKD;^K.B. 
Gia.Ml ^ It A a a R- f, lUtdliH, lUt Pninh at 4oa, l» An A Eug, K- JL Ok 
W; B.AO. K IL>. Hubb^ Md. , 10 An. A li^iie R K.(^ ;i^; T ?. 
ft^.* Adun^lSKBU.4?7, l4Aiii.ASaa,an.i;>L:i:r;^ Mocr^r. 1'., W A 

UAu.A&iiK-iE.iLa«nn3,u?^Li?ti. H KT..,Mnwr.stuktb.?;iiU4ii' 

Ivfia. l-ft. ^ U.a R^„ 4U ?tfic|.,,vi.s, u Am, \ Knr- K. H, <'i4«j£; I l-owoll 
K U. P. Kr-t ;6 Mo. eUk A Am, A Etc K. B> C^ 407 p Vi'riMTit t, B. A M, ». 
B, IW MiBhtWl.^ An. A t\n^ K. It (W. i::l ^ 1I4M*,I4.1L A i- R IL. IT 
Xi^.«Ul,aAin,A &tH, E, E,Cu»«; Uvmae.^ L^ E,C4KB. E«T1 
Hq «in, 1 AftL a Kiiir K U (^ «IS;P, n. R«L ttiitht**»42 \, J, Mn.i 
An- 4 Knr ^1t.Uf.S9J; Turvrt.U.4dL J. IL K,T4 Ua Gl», & Abl 

HM.i:^'^M-h1,»17-et Mill H-iUihlnvnf.ft. P^ U-A U Hj.SVMEdd, 
»W;1»a™-A tueRRdSHyj lyiu i^ N, Y. A K. K K. K, la? Mi« 
m 1» A& «!;-«, R IE. (^ zv; . Han** t^ C M, 4 )<L P, IC^.,i^[ W(a 
•17, lU in*. A fMf. K P,. (^ ani 1 Utiiaki f. tl W, ft Ht, R Ifj-. JI Mlmi. 
CCiIhIV AtK A EvK,ail. Cm W^i «)t«)i<r rift. P, M, A M. RR.^ Mmu. 
KA^AnAlfjir.K.R.tbi. IIA; J^i«Ua «- 1:« R i.Al'. tij^Jil lp<r* tf^ 
l4JLiB.AEi«. Rlt.(^MO;%«b«i* LCR B^Xlt lowi. &&; I>.fb« 
X, Y.r. Air K- R R,*; X V,4nn; ICvikvink iS, YC Jt R, Ml S, T. 

T. ILALlLltt.a*it,71liid.la4.«AiiL*Rqf. R RCteM- RCA 
Ht LR^. -. VutlAs;tfbt.4Ta, aA1n.AFn4.It R OiiB^S; K*!!^ ». Ht 
P,lfHA>f- R.-.>lUlu&lp4.tin A Kiu; R R (^l M; C A N, W. »/. k. 
|>tekKWUmTAni.4Kl«,RRU«.snL.CA I^ W- K^ t. »RI«, 
«9 Uck Ul«ABA&«.RaC<i«.dU; Vimam^ -, K. R R, U Mp^ .^Pl, 
«A*AEirK.R<:Wle»; Horn i,CIl, 11,4: low* 44»: Lanrwtr.G, 
R.I-AP,Xr,MlmSi«,«AB>AXiif. RR 1^ 1T4: IbiBiitll ft U, L. 
AW. Rfi,A}».J L. lW-B>Akllt.(;& RB, ISSUk V«,T^u»*» 
«9f. V-dAll- R RR.T»K Y,4JM| KmUntt •> tt, Y^C All. RRft, 
T0X.Y,:];8te*t;Jocft!>«5.V.414i4)iwv',l.l.RR,lOI tf.T. 
IIBl 




uo 



9CTT 10 



htthM,w>diroChitiUliLB^M,ii, JtbfcrtheJTiry to 

17& Tbcn do« Ml, bcwr ^ ' q, mcm to fas »«j iqiumI 
nam vLj utrdi&imtnkBlHvUheaiiinKdl^Uie 

pfeiaik m all fltfao' ■ctaootf fn^adei pyaa "'^f ™ 
■ad ia vlui^ canfirib«B0i7 Mj^igvtt i* aviSbUeMt 
ideaec. TbfnkttacvwycMi^afnfiMiBaiy^MMm 
JW the Judge to <ktenBme,uiii that m. irbctJfccg, —r aa- 
ittg the tnah </ t^ Mmoo^ uid all Um ial«r«MM 
Uial. kytiM Mlely caa br dma froa it, tbo jorj wmU, 
m nmamhk ««&, b« Jaitifiod la fiDdii^ a verdict in 
&TDar of lb* pftttjr OB «b(HB tb« bai^va of imofnata. 
TIm applkaticui of tint mlv of fmerdnn wdqU Icare 
to Uw jarv tbc ^iHMJoa of tbt «fiwtof llw Culimof 
tba injuriHl pcnoa lo look and Qmb, «2capl in tboit 
OMBi nberv UiAt £u]qiv, bemf pt>Tcai or cxukoeded ai a 
&ct bj ibo plai8Uff*B case «w w obnomlj a eo«itn- 
hntorj one of tbe pUniiiT* iojarj, and m> iaco&iro 
TtrtiLlj n«gltgtBt tint a jury of nwoiahle moa would 
aoi bo jofiificd ia fiadiag a ronlicE lur tbo plaUitUL 
T1i« baid aad $ml rtiK £nt eaoomtcd m the Pciui* 
■jrlnaii cttM, thai mdtf til cbcwcaaon ihe imvoa 
uijareiliaiHt'*tfop, lool^ at>d Ivtva" btffonrcTDMin^a 
railwaj lia<v baa ooeuiuUiry baev, uiii it nalljr a jn- 
didal WDqwdon of tha fnnctJon of %h» jury, Ibr ilimfi 
an ooaonTaUu««0ai ia irlucU tb« pcnwa injimd ai^bi 
joAiiabljrgODpoii tb« rullwa/a Hue WLtlictit |Mtaia£ to 
"Mopr look, and litfen," a^ for inMuicc^ irbea a Aif- 

Aftit.c,i.rarBr<M loo mi €^mi% t ict '.a ilie.il &, 



uwr OP nrcRB^m cakm. 



in 



nan InviKs Lim lo croWr or «1j«ii a gate protw4ing ilie 
croMing itADib oftn, or wbrn th« Tiev of tlie line w m 
olutruct^ lli^tt tiutUng ^[1 be Beeu, &uj u tiiorm of 
fetich 9ovcHtT U rnprig that do Roontin incident to the 
BiOT«iii«nt of tmtiiH cuiilil pouibly be hnirfb Tlie 
FtnasvlTiuiia nilo alnogftnt fuTt^cr than thai in mo«t 
Otbcr juriadictionH, in timt it rtquinw tlvs pcivon injured 
not only to "look nml li^trii," but also to "atop;" jBt, 
in mat ctta,<ine«lio approacLvi tbecroidagorttrul* 
way line can effectuallv caro for ljf« safcrjr bjr looking 
wad liMtening^ witboiil Hloppin^. 

176. Tfaet9 1ft of cuuroi^ no Joubt tbat be b con- 
tributorily nnglignnl whn nlnrmpld lo crora n milway 
irlii-a he !UK» or bvars ibut n tiiiiu U niovlug toward* 
ibo cro**ing.' 

177. Where the viow of the line from tbo bighway 
ia obaiructci}, or the crcv^ing w in other rnpedA ap^ 
dftliy dnnxcrmiff, h in tbc dut^ of tijc traveller to ncrciec 
tt liisber i!<-Kre« uf mre, find if btf oiunot. by looking 
lutd li»l«tiiTig, natiafy bini»ii|f tbat il ii4 pritd«nt to crom 
the Uuc^ be mtuit vtop ' or b« tunat uJopt uncb otbcr pro- 
Cfliitiona an onghi to Imtakflo uuJi"r ihfi partk-nUr cir- 
CUUimUoous of tbu cuav ; ibiia, vhctc iht; view of (be ]in« 
b ohetnicted ti tnay be Ihe duty of tt iruvellor in a 
WHgon to get out and Imd hU homo np to and ovat tbo 
crowing;' y«U in P- R- R' ^. Ackurmun,* a tniveller 
bofbro cuariao on a foggy tuormug liuviug ajij^roat-beJ 
Uvt tine at a lerd cra«ing, Ibcre b^ing mri'm on thA Uno 
which deadened the eound of the tmii, stopped bb 
wngon about ten *lepA from the line, where bb view wiui 

OMbvJ ■. A. O. S R R. «T AU. HI 
'lWw4»t« U.M. AAtr. H/,A1T0nrlH U Am A Knjr 11^ H '^^ 

C*f<Ml » !f y. C A II- 11 TML M », Y. A^ 70 lit. 119, 
" P. B. & I. BmK ;« Fntu. Bt «04. - 74 Pwa. Al Ml. 



17^ 



■scum FOK CAfiXLBBIIJ 



obuructftit by c&ts on a siding and after looking and 
UelcDJD^, nUbout nDCtAg or bearing any tnUi, droro 
upon th« liiie anJ tib struck by atnln wbirli had ^tm 
tLO VAr&Jn^ of iu ipproocli, niul it mm LolJ tbat tLo 
IntvoTlc^T hiul poHbnncd hia whob duly in ihe fiwtml 
Wli^re on^ track of s donUa tracked tloe u obstnii 
at ■ cr»«ijg by cither a Ntatiooary or a moviojc Iraio, 
k o^ntrtbuturj n^gllgeooe for a paewngfr to £0 upon 
line tritliout looking up and dovn die otber lino of 

178, Tiic niln nndirr conindcnttioa Km do appficatioQ^ 
to eaaCi where tbv plaiuUlT** biture to mop. look, and 
liatOD vae not .i proiiiDstc coiue of tbe injury, aa libera 
tho pliuntilTivaA injured bwuue a cork of Ww Loncf^ 
aboe vaacaugbtaudh4JdiaacraTioob«lw«» th^planka 
on tJic crowiiijf.* 

17U- Tbo DOQ-pflTformanofr by tba peraon iDjjzn^d nf 
the duly of approacliing lUo cronaing nitli can vill not 
b« vxcLUcd by the fuct tbut ihv tmio, by colUwoti niEk 
wlikb ho mtf lujured, waa a apL-^hl train ;* nor that 
train W4ii hnhind timf:;* ncir that tb^im wu a ^hirv rat 
th« ptirl oftJiv milwiiy to givo noliuotrf tt«»pj»rottcU of 
ibo trjtin to (bo croNiing •/ dot thni (h« train wbb run" 



]>nrr ih <--, l:. I *, V Kr . 1!^ [a-« '^'s ^^ '^tn- a lln^ ft. R CW Wft 

• Bauflbittm »^ S^ & X a ^ IPV Pnu &1, A»^ 

4: Mfl, 7a, 

' I>iiv.T * I- A Hl W. ^t* 11 Q. B' ^- »>. 13 liL ?Sj C, B. L a P.K. & 
n, ll^mliv, vn r, 8. fi^ ; L * O- X, 1C^- v. Jof^n. T«t- , 10 Ab. A 
Rbi-w ^tl- CA It L K K. V. U<&mii. M 111, f IJJ L R«3eT*L Q.ASL, 

Kii, rnXa.ia^ia Am iicnv K IL c^ obl tT-, f%. 1. A r n?. 

WiiTlwi.ltaiU. nMU.Vn A^:iic;R.lt.Q«.Ba«: l\P. t^r A4 
KArAtiTnin All A ¥,r<t U T( i.m rf , Ihiw^i^ T.. K <*- « ^. Rj, T1 



KxcuM&f roR €Afti:r.iaw:vni, 



173 



Ig At A ratfi of speed in ercem of that pennttt^il b^ a 
Lniciptil ordtnAEicc;^ nor tlint &r cDginiT ul ntjfiii ha4 
« tnuD haaJCs Uattra Uuug iu fruul of it iudtead of to 
ordinnrT hpinIHgliL' 

lAU. It mny, howvter, nuluuryiuHmably bt coofliiluriHl 
thai tlie raitwdv'fi uoD-tK^rrorniano^ of its ilutj* In tbfs 
ri«pfci onghr ro hAv^f the effect of rf^lic^ring tbn plnintrlf 
of tlie Qix^iMitj of exvrcuuiKad htj^h a dej^n.-u ufcure aa 
would hnvo been iikcumbcnt on bim if tht^ rnJlwAj ImU 
parformeil itii dtity tn ilid promiflM;' UtUBi, it buB be<m 
heliJ tbnt, wbero io lb« mnkiug of a flying fiwilrb over 
I hifEhimy cronuig, the engine boa poMnl the cnmRg, 
A p«rf(on on the bighvay w not bound to anticipate tbe 
coming of tbc detuchcd caiv, and it U for tbc jnry to 
4ki«ruiiiio «b«<i)er be k u«gH^nt In Roing upou tbe 
lina without !r>rtking nnd lint^nm^,* It hiu nlu) hp^n 
held tbiLt ibr fuilurt of the Ht^-rviLiitH yf thu ruilwuy to 
givo due notice of tbe approai:^! of a train to a Hlutloa 
or m l«T«1 crowing (an, for iniitancit, by ncglnoting to 
wbivtlo or to wmnd the eugme btll) may put ti> alt^ep 
lli9 TigiUo«»of a tmvdifit Approaching tho «talii>n or 
ihft croBiuig, lod nuiy KUtrve him of tba Dccexity of 
Btoppini* to look and listen (K-forc going upon the line ;' 
tutd in !>., W. A W. Ry. ^ SlotliM-y,* it wiw licld that 
ibiO neglect of tbe driver of a lighted expraaa tmiu in 

A& A E«e L K> Ch* 330. Shtv f, J«Ftt^ » V. T. 610. « An. A Em^ B. 
E.Dt> ni: IXAN, W.KJr,ff^ltWHBi];r,aa in. nft; II«hf> r^ tr ^ »t r. 

■K«tl*^>.I1.^PL J. IE,1L.TA Wo, IIH. i:i Ant, A Knjv H. ILCMkOlL 
> MiMf t. L a A U. Fi Bt^ U Uicli, «Sfi. 14 Am A Knit a F. Cb OR. 

'iT,ai,i.Ar 1(7 « WkUHhUanj^iEi, 10 av. a kiv k & c^ 

Krvlf^B K.R.»N.¥.«J. 

■ BrilW h 11 A K IV a^.. tf Wm WT 1 FviuoQ h W. C By, «* vte 
141. 14 Ab A IE«ft K. R. Cu tfft. 



174 



rsncKiTtox la to c^ts. 



not witiftiting wbRHapprowbiRganUlion tt{ ni^bl w 

WIiIimI a fltaC^utry IraiD, had o>id9 o<] ilw Him witbouL 
looking MC<1 Iwco run over. 

1^1. Br^ifUMpAreoasnjurcdliMiWncontribiUOTil^ 
iH^ij^c in IteLkllevljr going npock the line, die ndlvay 
will uuvvrtli«leM be Uabk Ui Ulni* ntider ifao rule iu 
1>iTirji V. Mann, if tUf. milwAjr fmrontji, hiring (timov- 
«it>d liii» perOouH eitualivn in liaw Ut etcp tlie tnin 
boforo (ilrlkifig him, negligently foil to »top il.' 

t8'J. It iM huld in Mmojuri»di(TLfoni(, ibat^ in tli« ab- 
flfMtv of proof. tW firc»uraplion i« HiM (be pereOD ui- 
juh-hI iilid lock and linten, or in cvtbirr «Drd«,lliailie m 
i>ot cDiilnbutorily u^ligent,^ bul ibis grrami&plioa >a re- 
buttcil nhcn testimony to thccontrarybiui bcvo ftdducfij 
on ib« part of Ibe rHilivuy. end in Aucb a cnee Um jury 
ithmild b« iiirf!<^ind thiit if they bniior* ihM t««Htnony, 
tbcy nhoutd find for ihi; milway.' Iitntbcrjofi^clictioM 
It la bold tliat where Et ia pmnen tbat (be decedent, 
bring juiwiimfid of oHinaty iKcnlticflnnd intHligrnefS WW 
iitru<^kuiu1uvvU'roi*iiugbyuinc>vm^nndti^btMltnui,tha 
pre^utopUon U that b? wns coDtributorlty iieiKlEsant la 
not Imiking nnd lioLeninj;. for if h«f bw) looked and 
lidtened be inu^t hitve seen the tmm, and he would P<A 
bavo t>Gcn fltruck-' f>fconncthi« Iwit-incniitmed pre* 
Humptioii baa no a|>|)lit-«tion t43 a caats nhenr, if tbe pei^ 
son uijuriNl bod ]cK)kDd and |j«toncd, bo could not In all 
probabiliiy lutve iu>«n or beard any varning of ibager, 

■Ktt&T. E, AO R.K,fil Mil IH ^^ '^i^'^ Dv. It K CW 311 ■ Rf««« 

tcv, iLiLr. ii4]i»niisnBii.rtL»i;cap n.R.4.a<in<^«eiii»i 

f . B, a «. H'-Wr, TA [li, l&T ^ Wha f^P. & ^TV bLSaT.«Tld.4<rj F>& 

B^ r PflrtD4T. to liL S?A . fVl^nn h r, IL R« lOT 14^ t. 



PkfiBaMFTIOy AB TO CARE. 



176 



» wbom B tnmtler vlu run ovtr at n ilaul)l«*iruk 
1«T«I CTonngat niglit b j & fraiu, wliiob naa ruiining 
dowB gmdo with ttcwD ^uil ofr> without n hrudlijElit, 
AQ(1 notftountlii)^ iU]^][i|fl> wliito acotlier tr.iiu wiv^ ap- 
projidimg lli« cru64ii]^ on the otW truck, nitli head- 
li^Lt lit aad ^ouiulin^ iiigniJa.^ 

1S3. A* bclvMQ tbeae cx>DdtotIi]g ^'^^^■"[^^<^'^^> ^^^^ 
Wmofl of sound reaJHin #wnw to pi-flpondornlc in fnvour 
of t}ic proiumpti^m diiit ttiv pcnoii iiijuruJ wud negli- 
gent if he tlwa iioL prove iLut lie wad curefltl, for, if 
thn AtpHffnco of tnnnkind proTfff Anvthirg. h doi!* 
■bundootly prove tbut IIll^□, womca. mid cliildrvu ilto, 
oapmallj la ihia cuuiiirv, bubltually ruckleHA m ai>- 
prOAching n mtlvcny lino, Ttflilvnv linrfi nrr hor^ u> 
nreJy fieaced, *0 liul* f^uurded, ho wisily a|:fpraHClie!j, 
sad »o uuner«ttlly u^d iw fout^valka at all pkcos Bav4» 
in tli« EkcighborhE>nd of Ltrg< d(i», nnd gmdc croeaiti^ 
■re uitfoTtunatcly ao much the rule and not the excep- 
tion, that raniiliarity bn«d» oontempt, and people np- 
prowh Md croM tbc line witliout rraliKinK the dnngcr 
whicrli ihoy ininir. Evury miin who drivtw or wnlka 
about tlMi ooniilr/, in hia own experience much moro 
frorjitcntly obwr^ca iiisiuiicea of coreleseneai tbnn of 
CAr«<ral(L««4 In the approach of peopk to riLilwaj liuo«, 
Mr, IWrh pnia ihifl view forcibly in hia work on "Con- 
Iribntgry Negligence/' 




L The I1iU]!Lt fur jnjurtei remliin^ froRL iKgriuijpce id tUf nnsTmcUDn 
or La the fiillurc U>rp[>air the nulvar'a prcnii»s. 
IT, Ttiu liaUlilj- fur iba Di^lI^dL DpciddDU of LLe IEda. 
III. Tti? ettBf:t of aE^LirEiua in ira^nsi, 

184- The aecood oite^oiy includes pereona who come 
upon tlie railway's liue or premises as mere licensees, 
that is, perhotiji who, bcin^^ neither pasficugere, sorvanls, 
nor trespasser, and not standing in any contracmal re- 
lation to the railway, are perjiiitteJ by the railway to 
come upon its premises for their own interest, coilv6- 
Qience, or gratificaiiou. 

I, THE LTABTLITT FOR INJIHIES BESULTrTQ FBOH FEO- 
UQEZffCE IPJ THE CONSTRUCnON OF, OH TN THE FAtL- 
UBE TO BEPAIB, THE RAILWAY'S PREUISES, 

The raUway it not Ivihle to lieETtteet for injariea rd«u££in^ jVfln ikt 
ooftdiiioji of lis premiu&a or catissd by tJj faiiure to maintain tkost 
premises in repair, hut it is Uable to licefiseiafor injuria eau»ed bjf 
negligenP^ in Wie operaiion ef iU Une. 

185. As Martin^ B., said in Bolch v. Smith/ " permifl- 
gion involves leave and license, but it gives no right." A 
railway, like other owners of real estate, is, therefore, 
not liable to mere licensees if ita premises be out of repair. 




FABtnr TnGUOBVCK 



177 



prurided tltom ha no mrh concetlfd diDgnr ui mn b« 
GOfisJdcTvd n Uup £or tlto unwiuj.' 

186. Uailer this ^u&ral rulo railwaTshnTO WnMd 
not to Ixf liitltle to riiritont for tbc viifllcienoy tmd mfiilj 
of tlieir nUtJou bulldlii^ ;* Uiuh lu Lury v. C-i C, C. db I. 
IL R/ the milKBj wns hnld n<>l t^ bo linble to otie wbo, 
biLving tak«n rtfuRt from a »torm in a (bUipidatCfl buiM- 
iilg vbicb La<l formerly been used as a IVcLghl bouw^ 
bat bnriQg hean far votuc time unused hnd not bwn 
mabtibim] in & i;ohdi(if>n i:>f reitair, ^vae itjjureJ by the 
falling of tl> roof; ho, in Gillie v. P. R- R./ the; |)laiii- 
tiff'miiHl U> rwwwr for ii^uri«c caue^d by tbe breaking 
4onn of th^ d&f^ndAnt'e platform ni n alntton nnder (bo 
mre of u o-owd of il^eht^vrs, tbe pluinlitT LuvbjC 
^pme to llifT t^AlLon to fi^ a tntin carrying ibc Pri?«ident 
of tbfl ITnittd HlJkitv fta^ tbditation. At tbn tri4i] tbe 
cuurt dlrccTted h rvrdii*! Un thu di^fiiuduut, mid juJ^ 
]n«Dl ibereoo v^hi^ nJlirQied In errur upou tbi? ground 
tbnt the plain tztr having gone to thn dcfnndani'K jatntion 
for no pnrpvM of budjii«si, but fur bia pcreonal i;nitiG*.-Ji- 
tion, ccold not maintaiD tbe action ; so, in li. A O. K. 
K, r. Schwtndtiiig,* tlio pUmtifl", an infnnt of ^vv ywirs 
of ngf^loit^inj^ upon tb^plaiform of dilendaal'i^ elation, 
wui utruelc by a piuving Irnin and injnrvd, and it vm 
beld that he vha aoL itntilled to reoover, for ilio dr^f^ud- 
»itt owed bim no duty; no, in O. <t It. V. R. R- v. 

< Oufna k ^[crVMi* UR-C. P, 3T4;(A11|. t E?<ldon, L B, 3. I<L 4U: 
HHtbMCtt H«r^, 1 tL A N'. 210, WilliirWTJ r. Tbrni, I tt A. C.033; 
In*>.[l«V<-*Q- It !>■*■>( AtOoni, ■<, r.T- IL R, HA N- Y, 1>43| Mrhdl 
HQ r EiitrB.T^4] ItLCOfiT BaUilMUvr, Fitriwun 11 i^ B, D iHi Mtmutt 
It (^rffilU <fi Mil ^[7; V«ni1«r<Hrk r llrihlry^M ?tf. J, Ij(]t4T3| KvTvrj v. 
Xfe^avmn. 7V<jykM.300^ UnEtoim C.P I <'a, lu| 5. y, 3V]. 

•1,11 K^ n,<.i>viriV7.:i 111. AOfl; r. f w. at; r k. -, nrnckwm,w 

OMoM.SMj l.d7>.4VC«r ALlCK,;ViH] :LSJt;iAA.AKfl|,R.ILCaK 

u 



178 



ACirrS VBGLWCXCB. 



tbrtin/ Ilif< railway v» ]w\^ doi to he 1iiibl« to a iDtv« 
]iivnjtR4^ nho, whilo drivi&g over the railnvy*K pnnnbcv 
nuK iujuri^J b}' falKu^ luio au titiguuniixl ex<avatiou; 
00, in NicholnoD f. E. Ky^' and in Sutton v. N. Y. GL 
A H. It R. R.,* the ruilwvj waa bdd tKii Id be tuilil« 
to lloeue««0 for a lailttni lo »«t Ui« bmkw ob <vfi etorod 
on Anding, nr othfrnriMi block tbpMn, to pnrvcnt ihtit 
movument b}' force of UiQ irtuJ, or by gmvity< 



II. TT11C MA&iLiTy rofi Tui: ^i^uoritT orxMATioifor 

THB LRTB. 

1S7. WbiloUoeiue«iDuattal:«tJi«milimj'Bpr«mi»f« 
»8 tliGy Jind them, and* tlMnfore, cannot bold lb« rail- 
xsav linble Tor u tuilnrc of ^Mtj in Dot ijinjiibunlnx it* 
pretntdea in a coudltion of eouml rej^alr. yet the railway 
is bound dfl to fliicb licenacCA lo <a€rcu9 ordinnry oiirv 
In Ebcctrndoctof ilfbu^Dueon the prcmuc* u{kiI3 mbkh 
it iieriuite tb«i liccDscee to ooid^ and It h liable to iboin 
for injuHrfl donr to them by \Ta wnnt of uneh rant. Tkia 
diatuictioH U'lwi't'u wlmt may hv iNilk-d active and jwi*- 
&ivo negU^Piice is well illuMrnt^ by :J}« jud^HitF of 
ll»f Qiie^m's Beiicli ia Giillnjih^ v. Ilumphruy/ when 
H wiireliouse owiiw waia held liable to «i lic«uKe for i»- 
juncffcauitedby iJie negligcoccoraaCFTTani in hii lovtr^ 
ing of a barn'l froni nn upp^r fitory of tlii* war«hou>f, 
Cockbiirn, V. J., piiw tbt <ii»liriction tbiis; "1 quilo 
agree tliDt a pt!r>Dn, who racTvly ^ivca pcrtnukoon to poia 
aitd repa^ along hid olom, k nut bonnd to do noratban 
to nllow tlia eqjoymcriit of nm^ iiRnnuwivc ri^bt under 
thfr cireuiaatancea In wbiiJi lb« wny tx'uta^ tbai be la bot 
bound, for inntftnoA, if thd ^-ny panrn al^ng ibit veda of 
11 duii^furouB dilch, or along the tdgfi of a prvapicv, to 



■ H Kib. iaM« An. ft E^, a B. Ck Ol 






ACnTK SEOUOKHCl; 



i;i» 



Smob ofT tbv tUtoU or |>ftcipiE;^ The gnulec ruttsl uw 
Ui« pr^aiiHff ne Ui« ihing oxijitjt. li in ft difloroal tluo^ 
howATCT, wh«» oegligepce oa tlie part of th« p«rtt<)n 
tlixu hftving granted tbe ponnianoD is noponuldoiL It 
CODDOt bv thtitf having; >nuiit<!j [icrTniniun to nu? ihc way 
mbJMt to cautiiig daiig«n. Lit m tu b« allowed lo do aaj 
Airth^r act to vodiuig^tr tboaafctr of ilic pcn^nn iisiQg 
iho vniy" In ibc iiuue ttuc^ U'ixlaiau'^ J.> auid : " il 
pppean t6 lae that vaeh peTra\mon 3« jfi herpall^geci 
conv lweutij«ct lo thr qiiEiIilinitinii that th« jwrHan giv- 
iiiK i^ >li>>^ iioL ^ \'\M.ii Ci.tr iLJuricH Lo piinfOim luiiug tie 
wajr arinog IVom Lho ordifntrr etftit? of thin^ or of tho 
oniiaiuy tiuturo of the buBincM carriisd on, hut it w dU* 
tinguivJuLhle from th« case ot Injuriw wholly ariaiug 
from lh& negligence of thfii p«rfK>n*a BfTTnutfl/' 

IH8. UpoD thtM pTin('t]>l« * nulwAj han ht-fm hrUI 
Hsble to lieen»6ea for injuria caused b}' the nu>veTn4>nt 
of tniina hy a flying awitcL* &> aJeo, a ndlway liaa 
heon hdd to hft Imhlc tn <Jdmn[i^ for ita negUgr^iiot in 
leavLzig unatri^iidvd th^ htiiler of a bteuni pllv dr'tvfjT, 
which cxjilodixi nnd injnn^d aim who wn« pnsemg ovef 
ft footway which, without ohjtMnion from iht.' miiway, 
bail bveo, for many y«ar«t u»^d hy th«i jiuhlie.' It 
may be therefore utatcd ai a ^cncrfll rule, tliut whoro a 
railway permita penoaa to cttm iLe Wftva or prtmivoi, 
it ifl bonnd, iu> to thonn pntaons^ to ateivine cAre In tJi^ 
Opentioil of iU linr, tuid it cannot ln.-]it tlicm u trftt- 
paaMn,* It ia, of course, for ihejury todeoidtvwhvthtr 



•Dwv«i ftCA KW. Rr.Aa WlacUi^lb Av. A lEiif, R ». C^ 494: 
UmpLr i; IL A A. a K, IH U» 171 ; lhjf«a r, M Kt, I T, j« F. f<l ; 

OMdaOM t.ft«H.aK.K.K,ioa »«■ ««i. 



180 



voticB xot to TKBa>.m. 



tlic u»cr «a« edfWM tiiiiW a cUiiD of n^ht, off mmij 
pormifHivc *a a liuciuw*.' 

ISif. If ibe nilwftf lias, bj die act of ics MnvBl, 
givca tUc pcncffl icjvrcd rviutim to believe thu hv might, 
for 11 proper purpove, go cm Ul« Hue with Mfctj, lik prc^ 
CQoe on tbo boe aod his lack of TigUaDoe is nol «oottibti- 
teaj ncgMgetiGK. Thuii,* povon ww hdd to b««ait[tW 
bo rooovur. w)io, wUiliJ truitrUuig in ctu-^ of cattle, wu« 
atnick by a pawfig tmin cu ifao mnin trecl: vhm li« 
hnd potion out nf ii cnttle tTuin on n Hiding to tvmvfET a 
4xr« wkicU bUid ivcapifii fruui tlio tnuxi, tlie o»itlucUir 
Laving tu^urcd him tliai Lb« c&lll<t train Jiad tbo right 
of my, and Uiat Ha might aifely go u|)od the line;' but 
iLe fttct that tbe peiaou injured is a Mrvant of a oon- 
tractor oiigagod bj a monicipal corpoialiou to cooatJiMt 
a brld^ over ihe linv, will ncl onlitlo bim to go upon 
the tmu, nor give bim uny slatiia oilier ihtm that cnT ft 
tTeHpBABer, If ibe clrcuTnalaacea afaow that tb** bridge 
oould havo hcca bulk witbont roquiriiig the 0orTaQt> of 
ihm oontnctoT to go upufi iho liao.* 

ni. lan Ofynci- of itoticb sot to Tusai-iea. 

190. Where notlcQi bare be<n put up by a rmitway, 
forbidding peraons to crOM tbe line at a partionlar poiot. 
but t)i««& notic« bnvn b<wti ccintinuatly difirvgnrdMl hy 
tbopublio, and the mUway'itjtervpnt* have not uit«rfi!rcd 
to tiiifurotf their obtLervanoj^, tb^ railway oannot, in tbu 
caw of au injury oc-nurrin^ in any ana (^TONQOg tliv lina 
at ihnt point, net up lliv exuteuce of lb« uotlua av 
n drfcnirv to ibe elalia of tbo ponOD lujur^ for dano- 
agi«.' 

" KcwUf T. B. A O. a B, in W, V*. SJ9. « Am, A »!«, K. a <^ «0. 

'piMicjiLn ft n IT K^iu«M^^i adl A &« a a 1^ m 

ISA IdMm SSa, I& Am. A Euit It R Ol MS, 



nTCS£Afi£D DUTT TO OTHEBS- l&l 

191. It must be remembered, in llib connection, that 
irhere a perfion comes upon the prembce of the railway, 
not aa a trespasser, nor as a mere licensee, bat for the 
purpose of transecting Bome business of common inter- 
est to both parties^ or where that person comes upon the 
railway premisee in the course of the performance of a 
contract based upon a valuable consideration, there is 
an implied warranty to him that the premises ar» 
reasonably safe^ and that ndther he, nor his property, 
shall he injured by negligence upon the part of tho 
railway. 



182 



UABUJTT 10 TSBtfj 



CHAPTER V. 

lUB UAnrurr or tiik raiutat to ranoim raauTiMn> la 
Tax Tmxp cfcTEooBY, THAT ifl^ TWTirinwmi 

I IVnpOHfi an nil^v pncauK 
II, 1'h* iurn lAlili-h >-.tv4 
HI, TrHpuHon upcni ibo nfL 
IV. TfupHHn u[i diB UiH. 

192, Tlie third cAt^gor; bolo(l«e tres piB aaci apom tbe 
TtLilvnj'B pr\>mi«ur, line, cpt catl 

I. XBeapifimrtfl oar ms fiAiLWAT*8 p&eubs. 

vijunt- — iJiif If. Jar its mniin.&niA7i/K uj n mr*ms nf ityitng M — m 
tudit} dunfrfoiv that H$ rrUCfrut ii tvyardfd at m/ltnt* tf at w^ 
tniHtm U lit. a u-itfai ir^iy ; or, uAcn fAf «tru*|i il dl«i« tf IliU 
Urii^HNTWW c/ a M<rviint,Jor Iha/iMtiu-n t^ Uim tm^M t» «tmim 9f* 

^flar he fmt ditoovend eAff ir^und pffTum t^htin jMnl &a miM 
hAV$ (Pioidrd 1^ dvinj ^ tti4 itijvfy : «r i£ji«r*A&« ufri^vdl^M 
hn tfui not of a tfrvant in fJU ttMfni^ of vjTtm aulScrilf itfiigniad 

tit him 6jf Uu ntUwuy tu *ia the partiimiat itoL 

193, Onticrfl luid ictiiuitA of real estate m lioblfi to 
trcepnfeere for mjurleA cau^mI hy tluur u&ftutliorued 
toamlcDftDce of mrauJit of iqjury m Gawaitully dulgc^* 
cus Ihat Uidr exu>tO[lc^c upon Ui« praniftt* e< a 1m re- 
garded fifl Dot iii«r«]j Degti^enc« opon tb« |<fLH of thn 
tynnve or tenant but u cvidenoo of an uit4!titJ(Jo to <liO 
irilfoliiuat?. TliebevtiUuHlratiooaoftlLiBiiMftHjiean 



mepAtffiSRK ox HAILWAT m^HimTU 



183 



lobtifouuil m tliecaaevofspnugguDaaitd Jog uplLu*;' 
yel,0ToQ in nttch a\M», a pliuntifT who biu goii<» upon 
tho defcndflut A ^romuiWi witJi iioiiov oT Ui« exuLcnoe of 
tli6 meaDA of ii^ur/, will not b^ ponuiUeJ to recorcr*' 
iU-l. Uut a mllwnj', tm in owner or t«n&Dt of tcaI 
«0bi(«> la Dot to l« litfld lia1jl« for ii^uri«a to a plainlttf 
wbo bae stmycd from itio higliira^, nad bcOD injured b^ 
ft ctxuats of injury wittim the luilway'tf pTtmiMtL,ftad not 
ftdjuLiiIng the iiij;iiwdy, au<l wbo8e exJaleooo ia notevi- 
dencc of no intention to do wilful iigury.' Tbun ia 
Harilca8i!e v. 6. Y. Ry.,' tlie plainlifl"^ iJ<!C!ei)unt bav* 
ing straj«l from tb« bi^hway nl nigbt, And fallon inio 
an iw&iiced cftud-iccdor witbui tbc OcTcikIuql'i pn> 
raiBn, anil boon drowned, it wa& held tliat tbo railway 
wo* not liabk*, So, in (ijllaipir v. Mt^Oowiin^' thr d«- 
fvudaut wufl htjld not to (r- liublu for tbtrdvutli uf a buy 
of about eigbc ypam of agp, who was dromiwl to au 
opnn woll upon a vncflnt lot ownt^il liy thfr drft^ndnnt 
So, in Oramlich v. Wuret,* tbo rule ia kid down, iliat 
"wbem ibc owDcr of JaacJ, in the oieii^ of hwful 
dominion orer U, oaIew un excavation thereon which Is 
at Bucb a di8lanco from tb9 jtublic litghway, tliat a p«r- 
■on fiilUni; InW it would be a tropancr upon tbc land 
before tvoobiiig it, tbv oirnttr U nut liable for an injuiy 
tbiM mirtunod-" 

■ EUrJ K nallir4Ali, 4 Ulna n^inK-CL; riMM >, nkjlon, T T«Qiit. IS0, 
tB. C I*; >WiU f> BlackhonLl UA F- HUT. lU K. C. L.; TovBHAd ■; 

>nnit.WUk«^ifi, A Atd, :hH, a R C L I Jqvdta *.<lnjmmK M,A W. 
T«& 

m£.CU;AoHt.J»Woi4]V<: B.IVV, mitCl-i Blflh t, Topba, 

AUn. a fcoEK 81. 4:;^ i^mmllrii lWdM. %a Id, :4j OIII»pl« r- »^ 
(io*in, 100 [J. N4h o, ail V. 1L ll.«,Mulliv U XdxSaS.lft AblA Ei«. 
ft. R c:^ 7.1S, 
« 1 fL A X. r. MOO P«BH Bl IM. 



164 



TUL TVlLX-TAJll^ CAHII. 



R. TUK lUMS'TABl^B CMStB, 



[05b 'Hk^f* in ■ cUm of cva— iLi! "bini*talife 
Goan" — lo m<fft of wliicli u n«ulL lja« Uen f««idh«d 
wluch ifl DOt roconcilnbli: with tb« atitboritkft juKt n>- 
f^rred la Thu^ bi S, C & ?. Ry. r. Stoui,' tbe pkin- 
mr. a boj of Btx yc-ure of mge, h^jiag been UJimd 
while plciying with other l)oy» opon * turo-fal>lv withia 
t(]« ruilwAyV preiuiii^ bal uafeooed Uiil bulockeil, the 
il^ury Laving been dircctlj caiwed by the otbcr bop id 
no lurniuf; tlie Lullv whilo iLe plaintiff waa i)0 it tlttt 
his fool wM crushodi Dillnn, J^ ia ibe court b«lov, di- 
rected tbe jiujp "iKjit lo muiututn tlie nctioai U mtiat 
Appear b^ the «Tid«n«o thai the turn-iabl«, in the Mo* 
didon, (dIuiLtiQR, ^nd jiluiw wbcre it tbon wui, wiin a 
dttDi^erouJi mHchiue — ouo whit^lt, IT uuguarJed or do* 
locked, would ho likHy to cuiMiinjnry to children; iliAt 
if in it* coaitruotion and tbe Bmnner iti wbtch it wnji 
kit il vra» uot d&u^vroua lu ll^ ualur«, ibedelmdutiiv 
vere oot WMq tor no^li^ncc ; thnt ihcy wo^ ftUlhcTr 
to fsoQfiider wh^tlier, nitujitvd u it »tu in the defendjut^ 
properly in a amnll towD samewhst remote frofn Labila- 
Uona, tliere nas negligence >a not iuitici[iu£iojf th«lio- 
jur; might occur if it wa8 lell unliwked or unguaxd^vj ; 
tbiit if they did not have reojKin ti> aalicipatc diat cliil" 
drea would belikelj to reeort to it, or tiiat th«y would 

OillA|^ v^ lliKld*u% and arunllch t Vani, So am hbih h ht r«vfr 
pUiMe ■'lit 1I14 «ir]i«r fwm*i( Ilt^nuEio WtiTb », Orr, U I'hiab. H|,S34 
hu iti Lliti U;ar I'ahiurrl''*'!^ '^mi of Schilhitjt "> AWnxhp^ tT WfukJ^ 
NoM ijf r«K* !]IH, ■1i*[T llkt owvw of ftJi tl]*;, Id wlikk Ihiv* ««■■ ««■■ 
rnm ft Jujiim vEtltli vv lri mhiii'iiuil, nu hvlil llililu i'> iTw unnfifa laiy a 
bd^fif lirelw ^Mo uf «(fij, fur Icjtirirf roociitJ hj Tt« fklliiLir ujiroi lum gf Uit 
■ill pf 1 prtrf vhilti h* Hu W'lk^^ kq ilia ■ll'f, eU« dnEipn^Kiit ImTiiiAitv^f' 
cull.* fiTiiUn! ■■' iiiDiML>iii Khi abU lEi > LinuUi JDQ of D^od iiuj, Ouf^pii, J^ 
uVUf* ll/dnuU« Worta *, Cirr. ukd irrtULluof wiiiLtknHAlioriL;^. 



TOE TUKJI-TABU CiaBft 



185 



be likely to 1w iajurcil if tbej did ittfort to it^ Ibcn 
Uior« wae no negligeoocL" JtidgmfrDt upon A verdict for 
tbft plninUlTwnft Jiflinncd in error, Kant, J., myrrg, '* tliat 
the lutci-tablfl vru a dat^g«roua ciacbEne* vrbkh ttould be 
litcty 10 CBii« injury lo cbiljrcn who w*ortcd to it, 
niif^bt fiurly ^ inferred frara the injury whidi acCudlly 
oocurroil to the pIsinLift Thi^n^ wjm tlio win« liftbiliiy 
of injury to bim* and tio greater, tliut «xi«tc<l with r^ft-r- 
etiv^ to all diitdreu. Wli«iii the jury l«am«d inm the 
cvidcDcc lluit ho hud vuffcrvd a mt1ou« injury by hi« 
fuoc beiuj; cAugtki Wlvtc^u the ilxod rnil of the roadbed 
And Ihv turning mil of the tnblr^ lliey tcw juM.iflod in 
bdiuving tbul lliert wu* a prububilily of tin? ^Lvurmicc 
of 8iKfa acciiJeBl«. @0j in looking at thn n?motej)(iH4 of 
tha machtn^ from inhiihlted dwclUn^cXi wh^u it mm 
proved to ihv jury that Bevvml huye froiu iLv haultit 
irtro At pifly thcT« on ^thi* occaoion, rtnd that they bad 
b«en ot playufion tlxatum^lAbioonoiht^roocauoiw; &nd 
within the oWrvntioii end to llie knoKkdge of the «m- 
pIoy6< of the dcfcndkLnt, the jury yicrv juitlfied in be- 
lieving that children wouM probably report to it, and 
that the df^fcniijtnl ahould bnvo nnlJdpittfd that Fuch 
would be the vuiK. As it van, m fiicE, on thit occmrion, 
to it wwi to b*«peotfld that tho amuwmral of th^hnyw 
would hare br<tn found iu turning thin tublt; wliile tbey 
vmm on it or nhimi il. Tbin vould ctTUiiuty havo brcu 
prvTcititcd by looking tlin Ciim-T4ibk when not in uvc by 
line company. It whb not xhowu ibut thin wtiidd ooubo 
•Qjr oontid^bio oxpon^«< or inoonvonl^'nco CO iht^ d&* 
ftadant. Ttcould probably hnvo bwn prevented by tho 
fnfmr of iho brokeu laick TJiia niia a hcnvy catch, 
wbiob, by dr<ip|nn|i into a noclit!!, pruvvntwl ibo ri'volu- 
tion of tho table- There had been one oa tbi« Ub)e 
w«jghin)r >omo oij[bt or ten pouadi, but it hud bwQ 
brokcD off and had not been replaced. It waa proved 




to liav« b^D uau&l viih rnilroftil mmpaxiiai to have, 
upoQ \hvlr lum-ubloi, & latch or boll, or oonm risoQar 
iDtitium-aut. Tlic jurjr toMj trdE Lave bclinrod tk«t if 
the defendant liad incurred lUe trifiiiigcx|>Mee of r^ 
pluirin^ thin Intoh, nii<l had taken tbc Aligbt iroil1)l« of 
putting it in it4 pkce, thor vuy 4iaall boy* «rould not 
hiLir« tflkoii th« pnjue to Hft it out, aod tliuA tho vhoLe 
difRniltjr bnvrr hvcn avoi<loiI. Thuii rrmcming, lh« jury 
Hould huvi? EvitcUvd tlie cuutlubjou tltut ibe di:fQi]duit 
hfut omitted ibc cam and nttcntloa it ought to iiavt 
f^rcD, tlial it VHfl n(>gtigvu(, uud that il» M^ligenctt 
caui^ t\\a injdvy to ttio iilftioliff- 'Hir <-vu)ence ia Ml 
•iroo^, and tlic iK^jclisvuco is ali^bi, bat wu luc not 
iille tu Hay tliuL tWe m ootevideace auflicieiit to Justify 
the verdict, Wc arc not culled UfKJO to wvigb, to 
m«un]r«^ to M&uoethf> evidence, odT to aaoettainhov we 
ahould hRTO drilled if acting Aft jurors Th* irhftrg* 
TAH tn nil respecLs sound nnii judiciotut, nod there being 
wiiUdi^uC evideitw to juHLirj the Jitidlug, wu tuo not 
auLliori^od to disturb it-"' 

196. On the othur luind, in St, L., V. 4 T- H, It R 
t^ Bel],' vrherv l\ie facttf diffi^roU from iLoM la B. C d P. 
Hy.i'.Stmitonlyin thtit thfl turn-t«btc, tlioiigh iinl^^'kal, 
WW securutl by a lulch, it w&ii held ilial ibe rdlvuy waa 
aot linblc; and in KnUi t^, M. &81. L. Ky.,* Iho turit- 
tobk hiivtng bM?n Ut4.-bf.Hl but not lockviL tb« defendant 
having beoD pormittotl, a^nij^iet th@ plointifl'^e objwiioit, 
to provothut the r[iKt«<rilnfp( of ttfltura-tublewtETOiuiuilBr 
in cHaracter to Uiow in g^n«ial nee on tum-liibtM, the 
judge huTiag dircL-ttid thi: jury thiit "the dcfc&duit 



I 




TUIUt-TAALe CjiSUL 



187 



nol rmpurod to an fnntDTi nr necure the Um^tM^ thst 
bo^a liko Uu) j^jurvd hay oould uoldlH|>1ac«fl(Kli ^tfiui- 
iDff- nAd pnt tho tiim-Uhln in motion/* nml the jtirj 
having fauiid a T«di<^l for the rnilway. au on!*T refnn* 
iitg a uew [ml vsa^ nQlcmvl iJi error. The docume of 
S. C. <& ['. iiy, V. Stout, And tlw ca*c« of ibi clmn is, 
titat railvaya u'o Lo be helO to be negUgetit if tliey do 
not io oonvtmcL the ii|}plijin4?r4 nliich Ihc; utc in Ibc 
OondtMt of their buidnoaa, crtto jcueinl tliom, ttmt childrifn 
onnot po«ibLy ii^nro tliemselvra id meddling with iboee 
appliODcev wttcu ihty come upon the railway premise* 
or Ud^, without aiiy iuviiAtioii, cor a^ iijer« liocii«ee«^ 
bnl M trpjipiuurrn, Thw di^iriiii? is fftr-rrsi'hiTig, «nd 
if it is Lo he gt'ucnUly utot-pied, it must he: ujiplk'ci in 
roiiny otkor oaaea beeid^^ thobV of tuiu-ublm. It iiiusL 
blltiiT Groin this <lootrifio th^t rnilwayp nill he WMc^y if 
fJuldrftD ii^un; thetmitjlvui by iitt-ulitig into n rouud- 
bowo and pullirij^ in motiuu u bcomotive vu^iuc^j or b/ 
looaoniag tho brAkcs> t«kinj[ nwny the blocio, nnd mnr- 
isg Gxn 0lorod ou a. Htdiug in a railway yurd, or by 
drowninjt; thcmeclTCS in n ^tntioti wnltT lanli, or by faU- 
Ing iuto UT1 odh pit, or by dotug Auy one of a hui^dred 
otlkcr thin^ which they have no right to do, and nhicb 
it i* Dot pduible to prvvcDt thcEU from doing, onlcK 
nilwayi fence nod guard by police th«ir alatioDA, 
pjcmin^ yards, and iincv. The miscurringe of justice 
in theee tt»«a Las probably resulu-d fVom a lulsappre- 
hmnron of that HneoroAniv, nf whii^b Djmiellsv. Pottar,* 
H^igh^ p, MacfiL% Abbiitt V. MuoCu/ Lyni^h f, Kurdio,* 
aiid Clark v, Chambere' arc tli« mo«t conjapicuL:iu^ nnd 
which d^de that ono who li^avoi, in a public place 
vberQ peraoua hare a right to comc> a dangcrooa 
Baaohinc, is liable for injuries cansod tberrby to ptntorxa 









18S 



tlllt TUKFI-TAIU^ 



who «]*«» in flict, wftliont fftoh, <ir who, bfittg in&DlA, 
urr, ID liifc, latinpMe of Wiuf^ cotitribi»ton)y niT^poil 
Tlie distJnotion bolwoi^n that Mae of oisw aad iL« turu- 
Ublo awnt in in iKa pnblic (ir prlvniA clmmrJ^T of llin 
plaice 111 which Om UisLmmeiitof tUuger u (fx|io*ttd. 
Tbc luiKLpprdicDnoa w to the l^)d offi^ of Ljiicli ir. 
}Cttrdia and the cukq oT its dam i« widcDccd bj iho 
ttem«nt uf Hunt, J., in hh JuJgmeoi in @. C- & P. 
kt^ thjil tbc injarrd child in Lyncit 9. Niirditt 
]iiA»r, v-h^m^M tho &ct wmi that ho TU in- 
Jurad while clinihing upon a cart irhicL, wilh a hone 
attached to it, tbo defendant hftd Idl tmutlcndcd in a 
public t!ti(*etr where the It^urod boj had a right to bd, 
an<i vhr-i^ Iho dtrfrndsint hdul no right TO loftv^i hit hontt 
and uurt unnttcuded. Id oontnut with the "tarn-Uble" 
euBQs, lJi«i CA^ of C A A, R. Ki p, HoLaughthi/ may 
bn profttably tonmtlercd, fur in that nw it, wm h«M thnt 
it viui Dot the duty tif tlic milwuy U> no guiirU tta cun* 
when j^taudiog Od its lin» im to prxweut chiidiOA from 
injuring themselves by olimbiug Civ<-r tbt^m. 

m. TiuspASsEm^ UPON cass. 

Id7i An a geneml nite milwaja ovo no duty to ptr- 
Hon* who com« upou their cuda, t^iiffiniy, or otber nettoi 
of Iruuaportation, as tro«f>a^i?re, and ar^ thefQlbT«i POt 
UabI* to them for anything Inn than wilful iDJnry,* thus 



» 47 m. a«. 

■T W.^Vr, Bj, mBnwlbia m. W^Sn: & AB Tt Hvh M1«U^«I 

ia,4V7^ Hrown », U, U. It, M Ufl. U»; T, W^ A W, Kj- k Hw*^ >^ 10- 

H KfAin. UHe WalorN^FT •- F^h Y. CI A U, K. K. JL, 17 r«d K<(^ «;i ] £uaa 
V, J>,. h. A W, R. R, 1? Frf R*p, ms a W- E B. »aiB«Irt<a ^<h. »t i 
iTr^r *. M. r. IE7. 70 Mh lU-^ J a.J^ .. r, C A «l. U »r> VC IViH. n- M, 
WM, <^; Fl'.wfl'* P. K B.aufd. m;H M.AF, P.l^. hCDoHlLO 
1.1 ;^k>- t»iiT., A. V. f( It.fti U4M; <;a5 W. R/. »te^«AMkk. 
AOI, 4 Ab. A Ki3tf, K. K. Ck Oa. 



■r ■—**■*'■" ox THS OAB& 



189 



ID Dttff ti iL V. 11. ll.t' i^ tnoUior wied to ttoortt dam- 
agcB Ibr ibe dealli of Ii«r ftou, QIWii ;«>» of ng«, a 
nawaboj, IrevulUng hj th*i <xi»niTAiacc of tltc c^onduotor 
for tltc purpose of «cllini; papci«,Dnii kill^ in & coHIb- 
iun ; juflgmeitt on a vordict for the tl^cndnnt wa» 
afflrmod id «nor, bovau^o tJ]« pkiiitifi' wiu» n Crttipa«er 
■nd tbe dtrtcndaQl owtsl liim no duly ; bo iu C. A K, 
W, Rj. «. gmillj,' thn roilwny wnji h<Jd not lo be Imble 
to a bny vrho wjm iojurcd iii JLUnpIu^ frum tliv Btvp of 
au onj^iT upoci wWli btf troHpuTciuiJ, u-ud from wbich 
ho %it^ nrdorc^d ofT by t\\a ftu^tnan ; to in CbuI«J i^ P., 
C. A 8l L. Ry,.' a bc^y, *i;T«a yiyvw of ag^, whil* pUy- 
iuj^ witli eoDic older toja upon a Jlat cur, which ivn« 
tM^fng nlowly cliIDod from one twitch to another on the 
d-?A<mfHOl'a liue at tb« ouUkiru of a city, wua ordered 
by tJic di-rc^dnnt''a servimEa to jump oif^ and ui no doing 
waa Ii^itred. The boy aod bia par^uca brought Bepurtiio 
actlona, aod the cftsm were trien] together, and the judge 
at tho trial directed u vcnlict for tbc ddcndani, judg* 
nieoc npyu which was afUna^d la wror, upou the 
|rr-)imii4 ihat th^ father vm tvmtrihutorily neglig^nr in 
j)'Tr[nittiii^ hU child to (nspuaH npim die dd'cndont'a 
lino, and iJiac the child being a tro^paaeer thodvfuudanl 
owed him no dn^. 

1S>8- Xorerthulusi, alt]ioui;h th* person injured he a 
trMpwvtor,lbo railway will be liable lohiui if lUfaorvauts, 
In tti« exordia of autlioHiy dele^rnt^^d 10 thnm, expnl 
him vrilh uuueizoieary riolence.* Tliu ditfttnction w thia: 
if the tratpamcr** mjiin«fl ar^ fhc result aimply of the 

* VI f^nn n 4M. 

■ 4« Mioli. &04. 4 jLm. a C^ K B- Ou aaL 
> M Pttu^ ft, 9^. U la. 1001. 

* U )C a, A C IL 1^ . rhmtlD. Ot loi 801, IB Xm.h Kn^ K K. C^ 
«i It«ai» » K, Y, II a 11. tt It. IL, fT N, T. sa^ I Aq. 4 £<«. b. r. 
OH.«nr:«Fbalia nT. a. R Bv # ?<. Y- ;5«X » Am. A Kns. K KC^a^Dj 



m 



TMOPAmKS^ OX TUS LDFL 



railwiy'a fttHura Co peHbnn thai ilntv whldi Si Airui lo 
twrjr c-nc whi> i« rightful ly QfKiii iu cure or oUicr imvii 
of troiiuportetioit, lio ctsoot recorer, for be mw» not 
HglitfliLly t>ienv «id tlid T^lv^y has aol i^iled to per- 
form tuiv duty wtikb it owtd to him ; bcit if* oti tl)« 
Doutrary, bid ii^urim lire iK- rvvullof tiit' vtoknoe «ith 
wbich ihr rniltray'* wrmnu Iiavr ffipnllMl bim from 
ibc nulwuy'ir <nn or prvmiMS, or if Uiove itijuim vtvn 
oaused by th« oimiaifl1uic«i uador vkicb be «v ex- 
pffllffd, a«, for inManoa, fron ft tnm in molioD, tlivn 
the railwiiy la liable to Uim tberefor, ptoriM aJwiyi 
iliac the ecTTant who expelM him was, In eo i3oixig» 
Ofitinjf tn th<T excrdn of Authority dclcg^ttd to him by 
the railway. 



IV. XEEapAa&ERa ox toe UStE, 

19d. A railway, vhifrc it hnjr not granted Co otbrni a 
perniuBive u»e of ita line, itttutiUtfd to the exdusiw 
tuo and occupAncy thcrcy)f. In Kaglmid it is, aind tt 
ought to bo ev^nrwhiire, forbidden by itLittoti^ to trei^nM 
U[X»Q a Taitway'i line. It M tha gerieral rule that trea- 
pAMcrn upon a niilwuy tine are entitled w roooTor for 
notbinj;lt«alli«[jvFiirulii^Qr7i>Uim^mL.6.N.dtdt. 

fE7 u.40A;atfk< ^p>af:. R. K.«urHU*Xni»<joNB<riNMjir»i 

I', A K.ILK.>^lliiTnmrlLH 41 tVnrt4. Jtt ^CTA; Ivf f. ('-, C^ r^ A I. H. R, 
T«|iia,3^3AB, AEncB TE. C^ 4»H: tlul<ui *. Si. L. K- G A <f. B. K, 
114 M^4*fl; r. r IM!. *,4i«.ifMr, 71 IM noi : r. R ». f. Mho. m G& 

rJ<■^1bOO> UHf^; L, A ^.R K > tlirifuH. K^ , Itt An.A Fa* 

B, a (^ «e ; I. c B, R. >. auL ?:: UE. USS ; 1-»1U -. tf, C R H, >| u»<^ 

UrrnuMui *- M, r, Kr, 411 Mfi«, 4ti>, f \n. « Boc- H. R <>L ICT; 3litfB 
». M. P. Ry, tT Kbdi. «S, fl Am. A Knr K. K CW. I ; TWi>M>riftt •. ?l P. 
4;U.1^MCU«n^A An.A b>v K.aCWi;T«iiakeLL,K.CA 



TBl>irAfl<Er0 on Tits LIXK. 



191 



KortoiO tbed^roniiantcoEiipQiiy ^sa tlielfwwof ft 
Liidk 1in« cnnnAfting niih iU<i nmin line of the P. A 
R.C0.U Port Clbl^iR. Thv pluiiiLlET, ati iunpk>jr^ of 
P. A K. Co., wttB working with ft portjibb irlfinm 
^D« «jid drciikr mw vthich he hjitl pborci u|iork the 
idnDl'd Itu^ iui4 bt.' wuB i[ijur^d l>y a Lraiu on iho 
IcfCDilttnl's liDC running into him. J[i<igmcxit upon a 
TVnlict for tii^ pluiniiU' vent reT«n«d in error upon tlie 
;rounil llml ll)e ttct^Mlnnl waa t^jitlllvd to (lir rxcluKiTC 
[Occupiuicy of iU lim^ rind thiit it crmd do duly Lo U16 
fiUintiJr; BO in Oirter v, C & Q. B. B.,' tlio railway 
voji held oot to bn liable to a tn^piuvcT on iU lint, who 
luul boeu iDJuTt'd by the «xp]otLioQ of a torpedo vihk-h 
a railway Mrvnnt htnl pUirf^ii on (hn rtila jmd wfih whic^It 
tbv IrtvpuMier Lful intcriut-dcJUU : no :u P, & K. K. K. v, 
nuniiiu*!!,' tbe plaLittifTj hevtn yoara of age, brought 
ffalt to recover for injuri« rnc^invefl wbik ninnin^ 
bcKidtt « car upon the- di-ftTiidunt'a liuv, lui'l iuUiiig 
under tli« wheola of ihe car. Judgment upon a vt^r- 
dict for thij pkinliff wan rcvtriinTl in error for want of 
proof of doftudaui'd nuglijjenc*. Strong, Jh, eaying, 
railwAy companies 'Htave a right lo jtivfinTnc and net 
tM i\M prMiimptEon that tboHc in the viainity will nol 
^i>Iato ih^ Uwii will not tn^j>a08 upon the road of a. 

,TR.IL.T&Vfr aTA. 10 Am^ttnc, ft. 1t-<^TMi tl, AO, B. k. « D*]**, 
«>OhiD«l 121, U AnAEnic R iL<^ft»l- IE AT C. R^ r lUcluciU «fl 
7«Ln, tSAm AUif K H-fWro^ r U A t. IC n. > Hjsbta.BA liitl. 
t<il ^ia A Kiijc It B. <>• rj r I^ 4 N'. R. R t. W.nliij^, Ky. ,H 
Am A 1^411, RR Oh. ««;B»v>Ei V. D. A P. R IE. «« bid. V^ 16 Aci A 
£«. RlLCbiOV; y, ACft lt.>.MiBllh, t^ {Tmn.S 410^ 16 Am. A 
Ka« K nOw «ll«; V4rT*r. C, B A Q ^j, 47, Icw« »; t C ft. ft «. 

luii.?sni-:£rfj Vc<A[ii4«*,ii.A N w iey-.ii4 i^fkiui^iu Am. a r:«a. 

a IL C*>. IM ^ tUi>U*iiU«lui c U A ^ R. R-p Sr- , 19 Am, A Edu, 
lLRnwLllhrWt«(n*r -, M. A Ml- I. ftr . :i? U1'hl£I(\ tft Am. A T^i^ 

ft jL<w i;i. 

< 11 filling r^(?)«\UAA Albv lLiLCu4l4 
> 44 IWiH. 81,^76. 



192 



7ftlBrASȣB8 Off TUC UXC 



ckar Imck ; tW even children ofm Uiiilfrr N£t will not 
be Uicft<, Toi tbough ihir/ &r« penouaUj- bTOpODeEbH 
ibpj cnnoot bp iipcn ih^ milrmid wittumt a cfllixibh 
TiolAticm of cltLtj by ibvir iwrmt* or gumntkiuc ;" «o in 
^Ijuiozi t;. JM- r. Rt,/ th« railway vw lidil not lo be 
IkliUi for lti« injurifM of Avomiii who tiw nin ore? 
wlillo walkln;; oa k mUwaj bridge. A /arUor%. diwe 
ara dMm»d to be lrap«MCT«v *^ a* ^^ iKHoiiUc^ to 
rooover tUnugca from iIm railvriy, wlioae injoria vn 
tUe reault of their culpaUo caret«aaaffia in gc^mj; lo «l««p 
on A niUwJij' Hqo; or in lyinjc down w Um Udo when 
uitoxi(»t4Mi.' Nor will it relieve a trmj.i*»*T on the- 
line frurii linbUity for contribulory ne^igenoe if he ii 
injured ou u bijfhnuy oroBcin^. to vrhiofa he hni cmdo, 
not fVom the hij^hway, but fVom llieline;* nor* if I^vEuf 
b<wn tnilking on th« line, nnd having Iff^ it U) <MAp« ft 
movlns Lruiu, be duOB not p]4oe hinuulf «t • Mtfll^ent 
difitnnoe from the tnJn, aii<l b struck by a p«jeotitt{, 
pinnk.' 

200. Hi.'gulutLOMit ri>qLiIrmg tfat; wnindujg of ngaftl* 
bptjnT BpproflChing cn^^ingi^ or ^rvefr on (he line 
int^TKlcnl for the protectioD cf tr«TeJleT«, tnd on 4di^ni»' 
driverV dlflobedleooe of tiuch a rule in net evkl«nce of 
no);lij(ci-k(y> whcQ a tr^ApdMcr on ihc line ie injurod,' 

!ilJL Engizitii-^dnverH are «ntitl«() to AiMiinM (Juit trc^ 
pa80<<r4 u|Jon liif lin^ who tire ftppareally of aver*^ 

- ■ ^ ^«K -n:!. Ini. A Knit K, R C^ 1. 

* fllohimiH^n >, W, A M, IL S,. » Uob. L, 130« FaMtr t.L.C AC.lt R, 
1lMiu^mu]lAfi4rk3; E^rrior t.W.A R-TMU 10 ImL If!*?. 3|u|, ^tT. A W, 

iME^Ti :4. (T.OA.^1 i.cn. iLi. iiiibjijii*u^(r ia«o«i if«*ktf h&r ft. 

It. A!! r'al Q(H; E^A NMt. a n Chwtiit, Kr- , If Aa A £■» a ft 
Ci>. K , KLtjvAu t- r. IL a, IS L*. An. (O. S? S80^ 

A Fjiii, r. a niuk S11 

•C a K V. Elrlnnn, rttOk 707. t» <fn. .t Kng. K a <:Vk tt 
> L, 4 N. a M. : EL>H.r^ Kj. , IV A». A Ex* a a Ck M [ 



IMFA^T TnKii*AiamA 



193 



bodilr ftnc! Ti«>tifaT capnrity, inll g*r, onl of lh*i way of 
the Imia;' Ixit, whvru iLc ruiliifuy Krvuntv iu djargo 
of the train sw od the tine & [reflpoaeer, vfliom th«y 
koQW Ui be incnpjicitatiMt 1>]r ilminQif from beprinx tbe 
tmn or il8 eignal^, it la iliulr duly to etop the inuD ; 
ind tlie railway will tw linbk tf th«7 do r^ot make irvi-'ry 
effort to do »o ;" »o also, where they aee a IreapaaMr who 
b jiT^vcntcd from escaping by hi* foot hdog ciiujthi 
belWMii (h« gtiard ^[ul niniii nul &l u fmltoli f ao aleci 
vh«rc Uioy ««o a team aiallod upon the Itaa.' 

S02. The railway, under tome cireumitAao«% may 
om to Ml infant a lil^lier nieasnre of Juty than thai 
which it owM to an adalt; tbuv, if as engine-driver 
wore to Bee a chUd U(>om thi:^ Ueki ll wouM be hie ditty 
to ^TO WAmitig by signal nnd mukfi <^Vflry effort In 
etop tha truiu. for it ia u rtnuonablo nuppuiiitioD ibiit 
tho ehild might not eulllcic^ntly rcaltm il« dangor, or, if 
it did, might noi acciirnl^ly jipprpo-intn iho np<^f>**ity of 
motlag promptly off the liue ;" thus, in P. & R. R. R, 
«». Spcaron,* tho plaintiff, a girl of flvc yt-an of age, ww 
injuri!d in uttorapting to run acroaa the d«f«ndanl'a Hue, 
not At a public croaking, and botwoen n ooJit imin nnd 
nn cnjfinc followin^c cWJy atUrr the truin. Judgmont 
npon a rerdiel for ibe plaintiff waa r^Teired in entir 



(UOnL SrhlUmbrin 1 I. A N. It. 1L, Kj. .i9 \m.dif\nt.H.i^m.l\ii 

KVt.A KR a. IkllHildlHilTi Ibri ^ ir. ^« Si, J. It t^T^I^I'' ^. < Am. 
Abi^B-ft-t.^ ttO; LA VaiL r. Cooper, Kr .0 Afn.A Kn^ 
B.B,CkL«;T. II. & fit R« Gmliun.Aa ipA,^M^n\m.A r.ng M- H. 
0>»77. 

<LAa.K. &7 * SnUb. St T^T. CSl ia Am A K^ S. fi.O*)!. 

> HanMI f^ IL A M- K. K, I a N«1k lU, 1 9 Am. A &«. It. IL Qu. 3». 

• C 4 A- n, K t, lIojT^th. M HL STC 

■P.A B.ILR*^— mm: IVm.u, n,«M:«b>hh >, (VCmhnr, 4.4 Id 
ftLH; lMk.1«*;N.y.r.A H. E-H lt,9U K.Y.Ufl, UAm A £^tB.L<^ 
OW ; y. EkfAco t. B. d O. a. K. 34 Ml letL 

* IT Piof A IM. JM. 
13 



1«4 



DTPjl^rr TBESPJiaSEBL 



for irnnt of proof of dcfcnduif* n«^1ijc«cice, Aj^ncir* 3^ 
myitig: ''Thn dtigrrp of c*ro reqnirc! of th« »crv»ut« 
of ibo <^mi]mny in iiiidi u cmc v <U]Timdi!nI, in fiom* 
DiAftMiM^ npou ilie capaoic; of Uw ii^ureil ^^rt^. If an 
aduU flhoiild pbure bimiti^lf upon the railrond irbirrr Ir 
Kaa no ri^bc to be, but ythvtm iLo cuuapany b oilJilctl 
10 ft cItQr trade, and the benefit of the prcvumplwn 
that il will DOC he ^.^b^trtictixl, md nlionld hv ntn davrii, 
lh« annpnny tvill Ifr liahlt^ titr nilful injury, or It* 
counterpari, gro&ji ni.'glt^nc«. But if & diild of IcmWr 
ytan «hould do «f>, and »uflVr injarf, Uw ixxnpftny 
would be liable for ihc wrxnt of crdmBTjr cure. IT* 
pnnHpIn may he iflnAirAt^;i ihiin. If rhe fingin«^r «•« 
l!ie dduU in lirne If) ilop his triuti, but the train bring 
in full vicT, and potbinj^ lo mdicato to liim a want of 
ciiniidmiimrfii of Itfi Jtpprnnrh, hv irnnlil not br bound to 
tflop bid tnun- H^vjug die rlj^bt to a dirur track, ba 
wouM bo eiLtldoJ 10 tlie fin-^^uuiiiiloQ tiiatiliL'troH^«A»vr 
TToiild remove from it in tdm^r to avoi<l thv daogor : or, 
if he thonglc Lh« penon did not notice lU« a])ptai<^iig 
trflli). it wriiilit be K)dlc6ent to whifiik I0 ftltmct hit 
Blti*ntjar without aloppiiij;. But ifi infdi-Aii of ibu 4<)uJtt 
it were n little child upoD the tracks h nouM b«»tliO 
duty of thoi>ugJDOor to atop hia Iniiu upon acoiJiK tU 
TIte change or rh-cuni^inDCM fVom th« poeiOMOO 
cupucity in iht? trtL-^spiLSivr to avoid the danger to ft Wfli 
of lU would create a correspond big chfliige m the duty 
in thn <^nginp(tr. In the formrr owe, the »doU, eno* 
curring in the n«glit^uee euubin^ iho Jieaatt*^, la wit 
out remedy ; in the 1fitter« the child not <H)neiirrmg froi 
A want of copaoiiy, the want of ordinary eare In tjje 
engineer would crcnto lioJiility. Bnt if tlw train ^Trc 
upoa the child before it eonld be aeeD, or \t It tw 
and i»no3EpMit«dly tlirew itmlf m the way of the oiifpi 
the engineer being inrnpnhle of exervipinj; tht nKOaure 



IKPATTT t&BHrAflam, 



idd 



of orJioarj cure to »vc it, the ohild would he wiUiout 
Tcnudj', for tJi* compuny'* tulc ot' th«? tntck in In^fkil, 
amd Htn praseuce of tho child iipoa tL« u-ack u un* 
lawful." 

203i Y«t tlieT« Lt no ineiT>raL1« nil^ uf luvr irhich re* 
qiiimft train lobe vtoppctlwhciicyi^rn child uamD upoci 
iho lltm ;^ CT a ftro«t our ;' lliuv, in P. R^ R- v. Morgna,' 
theplHij^tlff.ngirlof fiY»*ycftraofrtge,w»% jtlajingon the 
dpfendnnt'ii Unu in thv <iubikirti of ft town, wh^n a 
fx^iHur iruin, wjlh u o«botiso trar in the Ironl, buekixi 
iJonly clowDt two of thn train hcincff hning cin T.lir. look- 
Dot ni Uic rn>ul of tin? cubuufw git. Tlti? pluintiAj m^ip- 
m^' ihe itHtUt blurted (o run off tho track, but caught 
hor foot bLHiwncn t}to rail 4m! a vpooe letl tor the flnug;e 
of the whwl. The train band». seeing ber cQUghl, 
procaplly n|>pJioii the bmkixt and >iif;[tultc4i to tbo 
rugino-drivor, who reverB^ the fiiigbe, but alihcmgh 
«V4fry ]M)«titM« extortion whm u»iid it vita impossible lo 
atop the tnun tmttl thv fnmt our hod run piat her. 
Thv frutit wh^l of [lie caboow. sliding uoder the prefr 
Bare of the bnik^^* piuhrd the plai£tiifr'« fbot OQt of b^ 
•hoc ftbd lucemlt-'d bur fooL, pruduiiti^ u pifrmuiu-ut 
injury. Jmlgmonl. on n vnrdicl for th*^ pljiintifT was 
tVTF-.rvfd in orror, bLt'iiuHt! the juJgu, at tht trial, in- 
«truct4*d the jury that the train haiitfe, having- ^cvii ihi? 
girl Dpon thn track, wtrc bound to «top, b«c«m>o tlicy 
htul no ri|;bl to a^iuaie that a child knonti lU Junj^r, 
or liad the capacity to apprehend it, whi^rciui, it should 
bftTO been lotl to the Jury to Grid, whether, under all iho 
rifCOa M lftOQW, the dnfi^ndnnt wiw nc^lij^rnl, ihrnt bving 
no inexorftblo rule that a tnuu muHt ttap, tindn-r ull dr* 

> lNn«1-bm K B.C B*^ 7 C E tf. a VT, V; £. £. L.; R R R >. Utr^a, 



cunucaficea, when « diikl b amd upon Uu tiMk. Xor 
can an ibfni-t, wbi> » a tmpaBsrr on Uie Uoe, raooi 
for anjrtliiag lu« ihiut itiJful injurj. or a c*rtl 
n^ion Lbcr pan of tl>e railvnj wrranK ^ ^reflt itf noi to 
bo dtfltinituiitbabtc from wilful injury, wh«r« tlivcii 
i1aii<^ are not sudi ai to brtti^ !]»« fnct of e1i« ditit 
inbncy and couMqiKTit iraiit of oip4>dtj to tbe 
of thti M;rvaiilji ol' llio rallmj.' 

304. Tn M>mc JurtBdictioiu U u bcld that a 
upon tlui 1:na ran rvooTfir, if lb« iujurr might hvn 
avuJdtMj by tbc UK i>f ordinary rAro nnd caulion «] 
Lho part of tho railway.' 80 it liu bcto )i«kl Uihi wh«i 
tntrpaiuiTnion ih«* line wero mn otvr whU« ukcp, or 
la»uuHil]e from iiifitirjitinti, ihm rulway w«a liable. If 
iU*crvrtnt* in oLargi^ of ibe Inun oonld, by ibo frx^rrriwr 
of ordinary can, havo discoverod tb« pr««mcv of iIm 
ii^ored peroojiA tnd uvoidcd tho injniy itnd did ooi tXo 
fio.^ The practioal aff^t of thoM autboritiR* ar«nM u> b« 

*«Inat<.r<w . K C II7.. T C, R K, fl, or. W E, ^ I„j I*.* It R S*< 

Kl n?0; IKiITt' a V. RR, Ot T'l t^fl; B « O K H. t- KrW1kil&« 
U^SSH^Miunt^P iLU.p 11 Wh4I* XfiLotuTC^M (Fhok AlO: UydivUk' 

Wnrl#r<j.i< aiT.8^PbnrtLtiL.£S:;H<ipUlrwdli<<;nnIIpkKVivikW]4'. 

r,.$., Cs A^t, L,K;^V4 IlT, Htin- Wnndhrlit^ - l>. t- ^ W. K. R. 1<A 1^ 
4fl0: L AK. K. It ■-. (JfTRie. K7- . It Am. A Kiif. It K c^l M ^ Xtfr- 
rf«j-tE R,lt, lUfl Mhl .TT;: 0: P. B. R r I«it TS PUn» Bl ttj 
IVi.ft. r«...Jin«.*Hia,lM; PfMi t. tfn. ]^ K. C.A X. U7, TA Ua.. 
»Aitt A Kti«. K, RCW340- LA ». XA C, It ». ■. IU«^ » tbt 117, 
«Ain.Ati.|[ H.ltf^ftta^ ThM* ILA^L J.Ra.»IIdrL 

•KT V.Art. It K .rmia.l*J.H.I*.|T-flft.),>*.» A» A Klv It 
R Om. ma^ iSi.rTU "h C^ It A Q. Bt- *^ I^" Wi Hlfi^iUUir *. It A X. W 
B^. Ion ,IU.im,it Kn^r ILRl^bllU: 1 C RT. t.Mfi^^aS 
4*1 1 Mftfki* RPR a.WCiJ, Ma, BAm.A >i>t K-U.<:hA.M4j 
f. H- A Sl. J, It R. AU Mf^ 4iM 

Ml. arc Br ff-6Tnlpkil.^MT«,flH•An- A Enr R R <^ It: 

u«0k*»,aiMtir.^<ir>]. M^^aAm-ARnr- R.R cu. ni; E T. V a 

<>. It R V Hampbnr^tif lMrTr«o.)Wn, tA Au. A Enf. K R (^ fTt: 
Kafw*.CAO T, Ry, Mich. ,]d Aiu.a iDf. R ft Cte»; KXA 

&RR v-Bt. JqhB, ft?ta«ft|{Ttrmje^ 



UIC1V» T9 laLGftTAHL 



197 



that iho rsilvniy u to W hf^ld Habl* if Ila a«rvanU do 
not, id ruimiiLg ite tmm>, r&crid«D tij^Iadi^ in lc<>kiQg 
for Crwp&aiflra on iLe Kntv sukI cnre in bvuiding injury 
10 tlicni, bul u tZu: rnilwiLV ih <^ntiUn<l to U)9 «xelu«in 
poACBmon vid aae of iu lmt» it is not rcuoDtibk lo rt- 
^Utra Its ff«TV»ntfl to AimiTiie ttist trMfwe^m viU como 
on lb(* line, or tJiut being on thv Ime dKry will nc^ b«cd 
dignflb iH8tvam th«fiiof tbo^rd&ngtsr, Uj^on principle 
thct more rcujNinulilr ilot^lrine wouM Hvm tn bn tbnc 
•Cutf>d in ihi* precvJtug parugrupli, ilv; rttiult of wbi«li 
ui th«t ong:inAH]rivi?n( nm not boun^ \r\ tumttne that 
tmpasd&TB ivill be on tb« line, or tA w^iCcb fnrtbfcm.nnd 
t^iikl wb^n they do lOO a ttc8|>aflMr on tLc Ikii«, up- 
liurc^nt^j of adult jtvn and of avenge oapiici^r tlicy 
ftre bound to warn hiio by aign&l of Ilu danger, And 
thnt hnving done no tbcy mny nwunic that be mil jKCt 
offibti Uuc and lliat thoy are onlj bound to stop the 
tiHLii irbea Lbe clrcumeUncM of the locality are eudi 
(for ui4t>eocv on a bridge or in a ndrrovf cutting) tbnt 
ibe treapftM^^ data not liAve an opportunity to Mcap«v 
or whftn thfl trrapuwnr dooK not nppfln^ntly lienr or b««i 
or compn.-ht'nd tl»o wnrubs of bis duiiger. 

30& The mnre fact, tbnt pwf Ip b.ivn rrix|unntly tr<** 
pHBod upon a riiilwuy Hni-\ and tbut the railwuy b»4 
tiol red4>rt«d to auy jucan^ lo prutcn it« nxcluflivc pOf* 
AiMvion ofiti Uii«, will not iiH|vly the milwuy'ii coneent 
to BUfb uNSr, nor \^l in ihf^ public any ngbt tlicrcto.* 
On ihc ollivr bnnd. in Hopjw f. C M. A St. P. Ry,* 
in tbo onM of a cbitd wbo na^ ki11«>d wblle tro:4p«jiein)^ 
on tbn Uqc^ widcni?o wok admitted to cbow tbat tbe ruil* 
way luiO woa generally ueed as a footway by tb« r«fti- 



I a K. B. «. Mm^ T1> Gh SOT, 1ft ifn, A ICp^ L X. Oh tt| L Cl & ft. 



deoto of tlie neighborhood r snd a recovtrrj Jigaitiet the 
t&ilvaj wiiB BusEaintd. The same riew was taken iu 
P. E. R, f, Lewia," Bat, of course, u right of way 
across a lioe may bo gained by an advoree nRer just as 
any other right of way may be acquired, atid people 
whom the railway liae permitU;d to ero&& its line can^ 
not be treated as trespapeere, for ibey are licenBecs, 

206. In Hayefi r. IL C. Ry-^" the railway was, by 
rciiHon of its iuiiure to pi^rform a etuluEory duty to fence 
its line on the border of a public jmrk^ held linblo for 
the injunee of a boy of less tban nine years of age, 
who hiiving ttraye*! Irorn tlio park was, while ttespass- 
jDg on the line, run over by a train/ On the other 
hnnd, in Fitzgt^rald v. Sl P., JiL & M. Ry./ it wab heU, 
Giifilkn^ C^ J., di^enting, that a failure on the part of 
the railwiiy to fence its line in obedience to a etaiute, 
whose declared purpose was the prevention of injury to 
eattlet could not he imputed to the railway as negligence 
iti the case of a child who bad str&5'ed upon tlie line and 
been injured. 

■ 79 FeniiA. St. BS. 

* 111 U. a 22S, 16 Am. & Eng. TLB.Cu.S94. 

■ Bee kIbo, KerBer r. C & G. T- Rj., Micb, , 13 Am. A Er^. B. B, C^ 
fit; H;d« ?. B. F. A K. P. R. R, E:al, ,20 Am. A En«. B. B. Cu^ttft; 
SchmidL v. M, A St. P. By, £3 Wise IBS. 

> 29 Minn. B2A, & Am- A Fj^. B. B. Gu, aiO. 



IJAJULITY TO rjUlai:M>J£B^ ETC 



IW 



CHAPTKR VI. 
mm Lujuum ov tiu raelway to rrrc rEn^>N'f laroi.VDiD 

Dt TKB FOCBTO CAT»»t>nY,— rAlBKKOEIM, ETC. 

ItL rtfwwtonhiiii Lht nflatf nm ib« wng iHwan of doljr i)in h 

IV- Tb« I'cuutvl'fiui* AUufl Apr)], ttC^ 

«liQni |i on* ■ llki iluTT. 
VI. TU* itulf « b> <^» biiiyXMu u( imifioTfiJ tiiiillHW huI dloLJioiJa of 
OpfWiDO- 

VII. ]UUvB;r nfqJvIfiru H alXBotlaff pttHt^n 

IX. Btfvifiiuc tad iUh^uIluji fruu am. 
X TfiftilDEf ofilitrilliTV Ed tljtci^rttjaaof luUuk 



BaiTT OF THS RAILWAY. 

207. Tbe fourch«)ti>gory incluil*?* [wnsoua wlio, m tlic 
Counw of ihv fwtCorntnaeo of ii cflnrm^i h:a»ii1 upon a vaIu- 
ubU cuuMidurriliou, ouuic U|>oa lLt< line, pi^niiHj*, i>r iMn 
oriheniilwiiy, indndinghrmn pfl^rtrrgi^reof ihcraUway; 
nllrn^UuiJiof {NkHHii^tnt: fmsiuiiRt' nidfun other milwriy ro- 
UFiTtHl (ar (r.-LiiepoTiAiioEun thcrJiiJwuy'dL-uniipiuftwiigen 
of flDother nilway wbnw cAm itrA ma over the Une of iho 
lilway ; paasenj^ra of luoiber railtvuy iritli uvbom ji vtu* 
'tlon u jointlj oooupicfll: MrvunU of another milvray while 
npon tlie IJiio or preaimeft of lI^u milvfuy iii the pcribrm- 
aiicepf timr duty totluklotborraJIway; coiulgrion, cou* 
lipMCVt and Xhmr ag^ntEt, penoaullj diwiatuig la tha ro* 
ttbu, e«Tru|H«^or dMUery of tfcieir freight; p«noni 
OBtcrinfc uDikr eyiKCiai conlmct apon th« nilw&yV Ibi* 



200 



QEfTMAL BULK OF UlBtUTT. 



or premtMB ; Post OfEw conplojiii c«m«l tmdtr a oem* 
troct b»tireen tlie railwaj &iul ibe Pot 0IBc6 P^tl; 
IQ«IC| or undrr a jtUituUiry dstj Uapovni upcm Uw 
raiLmy; I^nous c&rricJ uudvr contract between lIm) 
r^lwaj anH a third part^; iiDrvnnUorra|irc«»«i)cnpeiki6< 
whfwc ain are ruu, or vrluMv ^chhIs «rc mTriod, onr 
llio liue; ftud poreooA vho aro carrJixl oo ibe ltii« to 
sell nrfVivhmentit, nein(pft|«n, cb^ to Iho piawpiggw. 
All lliQ iudiviilua1» luduiivd tu Uie eeT«nd da«*a of 
tlu« catcgorv or^ entitled to ddcuid of tlic nUnsj a 
like mwniTW of duty, 

37ia rai'Jwy it titAU for rugti^mM fo pwrm/V viv ewn* ipcai ib ii'itf, 

20R. Whorrtii pcrwm, in thfl ooorw of tijo p^dbnu- 
ttnf'fl of a cuuiruct uiade by ibe rulw^j njion a ralniibla 
cooaid^rulion, comt^ ujiod ibc liue^auuou, itatkin Ap* 
proachc* ond ADrraiindingi, or oil>cr preaJftcv of t 
rnilway, tbor^ la ait implied wuTAnt^ upon ibe f^rt of 
tho niiEwiiy to livm tlint Ha lioe, elaiiou. titatiou ap* 
proQohes aud Eurroundinga, or oUmt prrmiars, aro nftt 
in eo far ns cflra on tho part of the milwaj <nu 
them wif!?, and that he sbtdl not be irjurcd hj acgli^ 
gt^uce upon tljA pnrt of tho milvrAjr in tbc oooductof 
ite bn»tin<^a.' The lencliiig cnw ut I'nrnftb/ i*. I^ncutcr 

■ ?jmubr «. I- [^-1 C«„ II Ad. 4 El. K^ » E. C. Ui UffttT Dhcih«0»> 
OiliK 3 IL a K IH tl U. J.C^L-K.IH.L,9a;M4H^tlf K,W. 

'B.0GiF.S7«; tIifl[uIlnB*^eO!iiuiin.4a4asKai. MaKCU:I1hi»7 
fcllydBroiiiin™., fl H. rtWNH\ n? K r,T..; (Virion tlDl, 4 (tE N-Kj 
VSE.CL; Pk-ktt^ ^ Suiiilin IOC U, N iv (;u, L<iU:.C.L.; Chifaib 
1lMhiTi>]r, r. HI 4 K. irn, wK.r- J.; ThontMi*. >',E Vif^tU-kKiU^ 
no £ O.Li ladviDHiirE. D«4i-i. L. If. K", I- 37*. 1 UStl; fruiih t. L. 
A»li- K. Doi!i»Cki^L. B^^H. 520: ITIiiir o Fanwk L. » T C T, H X«f 
Yi%ivr\M ■.Coebrtll.LaaQ It IM. £c^l : T,ai », ei^^nlka fpf DbUvlakj 



ECfuL ntnj: or UABiUTY. 



fiOl 



Gaoftl Ca,' wKere It wtus Md in tlie Court of Excbtquf^r 
Chftmbtf thai n cnnAl cimpnny^ uking Ui\U fur tho 
D&vigjLtiou, wen; bound to uue reaMoiiublo cure iu uiaL- 
ing tha nnvignlion noctiro, and wota lubln in djimn^ui 
to iUti iiUiutiffr "wboM boat m navig^liog UiiO cauaJ had 
been ii^arod hj collLaion wUU a 0uiik«-u boat vbich lJi« 
oin&l (Ktcnpanv bnd Df'^lcotcd to mnovc^ and Tindul, 
Cl J-/ tJiiu 8l&t«d the (irinciple upon irhich was rralcd 
the Imbility of tho dofcndAnt : '* llit^ cnmpnny iimdc tlie 
oanal fi>r tUeir pri>flt> and opeiioii It to il]« public upon 
[Mjriniuit of toll0 lo Ut« <:ompAay ; and tho comiuoix law, 
in i»uch a ciiM, impooe* & duly upon tU« proprietors, uot 
|i«rhnpfi ^0 repair tbo canal, or abaoluiflly to friw if from 
obflnirEioEu. but to ijikv rcunmablc ojtrv* no ton^ lu tlicy 
k«op il open for tlie pulillo uw of all nbo nidy cl^oo'^ 
to navigate 11^ that ihcy may navigate it fvitbout rlongt^r 
to lUwT livw or propwij" TUe grouud of liability 
iboi eUsrIy ntatod ttaa approved in ihe jmlgunnUi dc- 
lifted m the Hfiu«e of Lords in tlie later o^iae uf The 
Mon«y Doclu, Tnj^to«8 p. Gibbs.' So in FraDcis r. 
CookreU,* wlwrc U»p dofifiidunt, boing one of lb** stow- 
ank of A race, bnd empli.tj'iLHl n Li:»i»;»-i«ut ci>n[»ciorio 
tnct a itiind from which tho mcc could be vivwud, imd 
the plaintiff, having paM a jioouniary con«ideraiion for 
Mtmiiiion, wn« injured by tb^' fall of ilu- Ktimd rv^uhing 
ftoiQ iWgUgi'utx* 01^ lljt? purl -jf till' cuulruiior iu buildiug 
U, It WOA lifrlii tliat thn ikff^ndimt wk liable in damaged 
to tbe pUiutiil^ Kvlly, C K, i^uymg: "ibat otm who 
lets for biro, or «»gng<4 for tlio supply off any nriicl* 
or thing, wbetlier it be a carriage to b« riddt^u in. or k 

111; WiMMi t. norb. Ti^ Td. MO^ u<K*i t, sidvoii, u tJ. ^A[ ?r. Ok 

U.At; B.lLt.HBmiitifl.U Will. lUU; »tui-lt f, L A >. R, It. lU'^ U.Bl 
Ml AA ABI.m«0lt&l. 'p. 042. 




OBnftAL ttVLt or I.IA«l.nT, 



bridge to bo pnM«d Ofitt, or ft tftauJ from whicL to view 
• st4fifi|« cKam, or a ploco to be Ait in bjr uajrhodv wbo 
w to vritDcn a 0p«cMcJci, ht * ^wvnUrj camUcnUioik 
^oet warnjit nnd tlocs implicilly cotttnict Uiai Uic nnide 
U nuoDtblj Si for the pvpCM to vliidi fc la to be ap- 
plied ; but, vccobdlxt W ^po* not oovimct aguMt wj oe- 
*e«i, or uiilciKJWD, (l^rfuct which ocnild not b«di»oov«Te4, 
or vliich lujr b« Bud U) be nndieonwable bj «nj ofi^ 
<tUiar7 or rwwnibU) nmtw oTiniiuify or cioniiimlioa.*' 
So in IIf«TRn V. IVnder,* wlM*ro the ilfreiHlanl, » dtick 
owner, AipjTtiixl, under ootiintrt with a iihip owner, i 
vtoguig Gc^ uM by the Mrvuit« of a puuti^r «rlio lud 
cootJVMd with tho «liip ownor to paint thn»liip. •od 
the plftiDtifll wlio «M oiie of the poUnc^r^* Mrvantu, wv 
IqjoKd by noiaoQ of tho fall of the siegiuf twoltJ&j 
iVora nc-^ligc-noc upon the p^rt of ibv doeJ: owner in 
ibiUng to proinile nmnd tacld«v Uwu h^ld b tJie Coort 
of Appeal, rvvt-n^iiig the Qnetn'fl Iknch Division, iJiat 
the dcfradaDt waa tiable^ Brrll, U. K,/ puttibfE the 
)uib:ljty in |£«aenil tertna eeya; "chat whcneTf^ on« 
p«r0ou IBr by drcunutencca, pieced iu nich e pouticn 
fvitli regud to acother, that every one of ordinary eenee 
wJto did think would et onee rrcngnij^ lluit if he did 
not Ufl« ordinary care and vIcJU m hie own cooducfl. with 
rvgEird to thoiw cirtametaitcve he would ceuee Jeuj^ 
of Liijttry to tlm porvou or the proprrty of tJie otbi*r» a 
duty ariMe to un^ urdiniiry cure and iikitl to avukl duch 
dunt^vr," Ctition and lIo«<-n, J^ JJ., liow«Tor, while 
hoidinj^ the deJoidnnt hahh did nut concur iu iIm p^n- 
eraltty of the priuciplc as el«lcd by liic Master of iho 
Bolli. Bo In Klliott r. llatl,' e colU«ry oyiotr end am- 
algiLi>r of cuaLs wu£ lield liable to tJte eenuit of bii 
oonvjgnoc for ii^urice rccviv<Ml in unloediog cuoli frou 



uig>B.a«e 



•F.m 



>l*Q.n-P^3U> 



OEnlA&WrLE OF LIABILITT, 



203 



m intck, ^vhidi lind bccii liircd by iLc ot>nsijE;iior iVom « 
tliird pATlv f[ir iL^e tri tlio imiisporttttjon And ii«lir^ 
of OT^U 10 the ooikflignpfi, and vhi<^h, whoa <mt of r^^piiir 
bj thft ifccgligcncv of the ixiUdigQur'i wrvuulii, hud bft-n 

^MOi to tliio uoottiguiw. Grovo. J., «aid : ** if vn^dor^ of 
gOCMlii forw&rd Uiftm to the pardinji«r>, and f<jr llmt pur- 
p^Ho lupply 4 tnidt, vr otLur niHaiiB of courevaxico for 
tU« varnA^ of ll:<i i^ooflia, and the gooJ0 trt Doc^iwnrily 
to b# miloAdod from xuch m«ttz» of t^onrejancv by tlw 
pardiaaer's serTauu, u sc^ma lo me p<.<rfucUy clear ilial 
ttwTD is « duty on tUo Finn of th? vcudcn towards thow 

^-poMQK hIio, i)u(.viwirtly> will liaviy lo mdoJtd, or othcir- 
ivIm deal Willi tlio good^, to eee that the truck, or oihur 
nootiJi of convcyuDcCf is in ^[ood coudition auU rqmir, 
ao UH not to \m dutigeroua fo huoIi pftrBonaL 1 do tiijt nny 
that ibe TOodore vould bo reapacttble for latent defecte, 
or muitvnt thut tbuy ci>uLd not reuiitjimbly fnrcwN!, but 
thvy ara, 19 my upltuuu, boilud to eev thut Uiv lOJichiucry 
of iKo ln»ok i* flpiJari^Mtty in good ordi>r," 

20U. ThiT mult of the outhorilicvir thvK-forr, ia thai 
irbtM^vifr ouv party L'ukM's iulu ruiulivtu) with unutliiT 
party upon lh<i h^t^iA of n cn'^itrnct uiodo upon n valj- 
ablf], though not ui^^tvHarily a pecmiiiiry, wttnidt-ratbti, 
uid tho«o rolatJood bring ono of the \mrim Into contact 
irith a mjitarial agency which iho coatracl m^iitrtt Iho 
Othar party to supply, th^ law tlit-u exuc'tH of him who 
0Uppli«« that nuiLi^-Hal o^rn^y the duty of exeiv^ing 
eai« in ittt wlcctioii, muiuU^nauc^H in ropnir, uaU oi^nu 

[^(iOQ : and this duly must be eo ^^rfurmed an to pmtvcl 
not ODly the conlructiug party, but alao thoAc n^ciili^ 
B^rrAnu, And aaiwlanE«, whom the n^iLur^ of ihc ri^liitiou 
l>f^Lwccn tlic portmcting partifA jiutifinji him in nmploy- 
iu^- Such Ib ihc guijcral prluc-iplv u|N)n which nnU 
tlio- liability of rnilwuvB to lUa pprno^w included in the 
fijurlh auugory. It mutt, howuver, W borno in taind. 



\n ihiA iioniw-KioD, Hm if Hnttrn bo an exprrw ottUrafi 
between iho milvay «nd tuiy one of Ui« peraou ia- 
cluded in the Tourtb category, and if tbat <i3niinict be 
raforcvablc in law> its vattm mait, ■□ far «a Uiv; ext«od, 
di^termho tbe liabilitj, but, if th«rv be no auch eDfbre^ 
able coQtracC, t£i« Liability of ihe railvaj niAa aoldj 
upon tbc duty impoRGd by law. 



IL FJ 

SIO. A paMcngt^f luuy b« <k£oul to be a jwraon vLom 
a railway, in tbo porfc^rnkanco of itn duty wi a oomiiKin 
carrier, liaa iMntnLckd tn carry frum oae placti to aaocher 
place Car a vi^luablij coiuidurauou, aud whom tke raU- 
wny, in i!u> course oi' tli« |>orform^mco of that coaitrad. 
liHM rcomTfldHt iu Mtdtiao. or in ila atr.orunrkrita cara, 
, A eubflUiQiially aiiailar deOiiltioit b ^raa by Pawoo, J., 

:ill. Tli« tdrioH of tbe d^GuItian aliow tbat the i«1a- 
tion of C4irri(?r a&d paAwn^ ii dcpvDdcnt apoo tin 
exfsteoce of IL contract of fiarHaga made upoo a vari- 
able conRideraiion bntwoon l\\9 pnsft^ag^r and tli« rail- 
way BCtinj; in die Cfxertilve of Jt< cJiartcr powen^ but lo 
GOnatitate ona ft paying ]>aiweDger, the payment of fan 
in money u not ewontial,' lor any mlnablc oonaider^ 
Hon moviag &om the pereou figured 10 ibe railway will 
tender him u paying pnv^n^, mii^h ag tbe fiict ibnt 
bfl wufl ti'dvvllitif^ Jib jL dru^vr in vb«rga of bia cottJb, 
which the railway wrts traa^portiii^ ^ bira;* or tbat 

■ OA IVnnA. Ml, {M?, 

■ Ctt^I.EbJ r, N. J. & Co, «ft Sf.T, 30a MTui *. K ft. ft, «0 HW Mt. 

• y, V, C IL R •. LinkvcKki. IT Witl, M7 : 1, A Si. t. ft B. f. HcfW, fl 



TAJtB VOT MID TK KOVET. 



206 



11^,08 ilrt owner ofa pulJ*nU^d coupler, *ih inivt'liitijjf on 
the <latViid>ukt'« Vtne At \tp, inviiAfion in tli'^ i^umr of 
tlitticiuit r<ir liic udopliou of kin pii1«-iit ;* or thut ha 
'iras a dolectivu carrleU over tlie lino oq a liaiii!*car in 
the Tiprfbrmfttipe of nmprHal dnij. ftir whirh i,hn miU 
vav IidU t«ut«teU into a ^-utitniL^l vtriih liliii ;^ Ot ihM he 

WM iTLih llic oomcnt of the railway trflvclllog od a 
frciglit tr»in in charge of ictock or gootLt imrritd by tho 
milivHy for him.' 

2lll- Bi> ffhcri' the ruilwuy Um (xiiilntcti»] to cnnj 
an iiiillviilual wh'j«e far« is paid^ or u aj;reed to be paid, 
hy the pcntoD with whom the ooibtnicl in niulci the niiU 
Wily Id liablo to the inJiTiduul. who ifi ho romvod for 
Cflmngi*, to thfi fumt^ ^iittnt ns if hn hod piimnnnliy pnid 
iure bvfoK comiiig upou ihv mlwuy'tf prL-uuM!4 or vntcT' 
iag iu cars; lhu«, in Austin i'. ih W. Ry.,* tli^ dpfeod- 
ant'B charter rcqairtii); it to c-urry griiltuluuHly iij>f>Q 
■Oertiun trauw uUiliUuu uudor tlinw jwara uf a^^*, liiiJ lu 
<ihaTg« half faro fbr children bciwron throc^ nnd twdve 
Ijanra of age, and lh« pUiniiCf, a child of rooru than 
tUree joaw of ag;p, having Ui'n without fVauduU-nt in- 
tent taken hy iUi niatltor, who hud purchased a ticket 
only for her^lf, upon th& d»fendanl*8 train, and having 
bton iajLiT<cd by Ihc^ dcfcnduut'e aegtigcnoOt after verdict 
L,ibr the pluintilT, a nil« for a new trial was rffused, it 
li^ng held that tho pLaiotifT could recover upon the 



« lad. CI i UHdn f, B. A O. K, IL. It W Vl irtAi L IL A F. ft It?- ■> 
Nai^il) Aik HfiflL 1^. 11 Tl. r lf>n<ln*oii. M Pciiid.BLai.>;0'iU1«v « P. 
K. H^MIS-Ui; r> AU. a?,!'. N~u'lilcii« ri Irnl.^E' }^\ni, *. I\ W, 4 & 
KB. I BmA rl>1,) 4A9. T *t IV Ur-K^iwU, 03 Ta.B^ tl An-d 
1^ H. K. (ink »4 

■G.T,Rf-ff;8l«*cfli^95r ft nVl. 

<l\wl*.r-, U,aw. I* K^. U Wi-d nftT,3 AmaEOf. K. IL<W AMpU 
VIA £Z7» 6 Aa a Etif , a R, Ch MO. 

mar, M;. SI An 4 1^, Rat^MSl 



dutj of die nUv«7 to cany Mfaly erecj om vIma Si 
h^ wcoivvd for csmiigf^ utd >!•» «poa ifatt groonil or 
n coBtnut bj Uio delenduit with tli* nuMhef to t%TTT 
li«r >n4l Ute pUindlT safclj^ uid thsi tlie noQ-psyviKiil 
of Utv by the Bkotbrr for hti chikl. «i)i)c RftfUrisric 
tbe molW' Ikble lo tlie (l«r«QiIaiU for tiiil fnrv, could 
not ba Ikold to b&r tbc ploistifTa fvoovor;, So iii G. N, 
K, R. t>. HarriMDr* tho mmt bcdng vlMtfaer tbe phiii^ 
lifT vEwn u^urvd was UvfiiTtjr in Um d«tedstt('e ar- 
mge, it via beld by the Court of EjLcfaeqQer CSwinbrr 
llMt tbe plainiifT waa e&tkled lo l)i« renllct on thM 
iMO^. having prnreti thxt b^« bouig n rvportcr of m 
otrreifuper, hatd inwUvd bo^tajitU upon a ticket bamcil 
n ft mIiic(Hl raift to ilw proprmlor of tJw fflpor for tiM 
r«port«Ta, anil npplM by jiin to tbe pUintiC tbnu^b 
tbo ticket W^ tbo Dftue of a&otbflr rtporlcr of tlut 
paper And wu marked ** n^ tTmudcrablr," it alao being 
■hown flittt iLv d(fr«Ei<lmil'i poTl«r bad CUMibtrd tbtf 
ticket nnd bn<l placod cha vopoirtnr in s cwfiaga, And 
ntao tbflt the Ud'vndant'a acrrant* bttd on otli^r oco^ 
sioiifi pfrrmUtcd reporMuv of tbat pa|Mr lo SM inliffer- 
catly tJav Ac^'cml tit^ta lamed for tJiBt pspcr. Upon 
the same pnoolple X\)^ nlliray. in Marahall ^, Y, N. A 
B. Ry.,^ wju hdd liable to tht; tnJoI of a aoblasuui fer 
the km of Ilia penoual luggage altbottgh the Bftirt«r 
bad takmi and pniil for tbn aorraat'a ikkvi. So tn 
6kma«T v< L. B. db S. C Ry./ tli« defendant bad oon- 
trsLcifHl viib a banovolent vocioty lo mn a imn fVoo 
mdon to Brighton and T«runi for a gra» aum lo b« 
by the society. TJi« ptaiutiiT, & paewngtr on the 
tiwn, having purcboHxl bb itckcrt frcim tho toractyt iroa 
mnr^ in & co][i«ion cjiuMd by ib« dof«niJant'« urgti- 
gc!nc& At the triAl tb« ddeadant objected tluit tliofa 



*l»Ei.ffTl 



•llCA^C^TJEaL. 



•ftSx.T«T. 



YKOi riUKXatASk 



fi07 



mu DO eriiluica thnl ihc pUtntiir vm ■ pruacnj^ Uk be 
carrM by the dtfeudnut ior liirc, but. i(W vcrdScl foar 
thn pinintifl'. ii wa# held ihfti Hie del«<ndant*p duty lo 
anrjr wfetr nnj pi?Twcia luwfidl^ in ite currlugoi would 
•QppoK ihe AdJOD..' 

213. Bowherv b mntrm^^ of dirrmge li^id bnn in fiift 
le Wt"V«n till! nulway Kud tJi« paaHrugCr, Biid iLa 
dlfTAj' hM Agroc'd to IrnnnpoTt lh<r Jlasel^ngef gmtuU 
iiwIt, it U( liiibl« to liim io fh« Buint^^iient a^ if be had 
Lid bia &rQ buforcooiumg upon the nulnay's prcmi^^ 
uT «ntcrin]C its cunt. The* vxielcnce ot the cottlraot of 
c»rTi«g«> M ft fflct, fixm the liability of tlie railwnyi »ud 
^c )m<r fin<lii na adci;|itut4! ODiLddcrntion for eiich u con- 
traou iri tb« floctrlue thui " the oonfidenc«i induced hy 
undcrtiUnEig any Mfrrico for Aiio1]icr is a Buffidtnt Icg/il 
iiuidoTttlJOu loCTtwIcadtily ill tJie porformuuc*? of It-"' 
Thfl milwny is, ilio r<*foi"p, liable lo pornon* vhom it, n^* 
eepiJi fur truji»jiortiLtion over itn lice, and from wbnm it 
diJiiumda uu fur«f tu tbi' suuio esiittiit ih&t iL lit liable to 
3ong;rr» who pny fnn*. Thun, in P. ijt K. U. It, ij. 
Derby,* the plitiiittif, a pretttd«nt of anotb^r tiii«, and 
.* ab&reliolder of llie corporBtiou dcftadiLut, hnving 
JO injuri^il while being airri'?d over the defondaiii's 
lino at Hw inviralion of it^ pn?«iJenl> judgmfrnc upon a 
Tcrdii*! for the plainiifT nai oflirmcd in trrorpGripf. J., 
oaymg, the <loty of iho defendant to carry o^refblly 
doot not HKiilt aloiM! from the cjniideration puid for 
the Berrioe. Il ia imposed by the law, own whore rlin 
nrviooM gmtiiitoiw." * 



HitBl»O.AM. B.lLhKahfJng,»ni]l,»[ir.*aiL>.f.MvIiWH t 
(Tmii,) ISO; I|jint.aa,fl.4(fHi^a*L 

•Bb*-lMflHwtalXf«W«44>,K^bidlIiT*. <aO; P. R Jt, « 1>ill*r. 



soe 



tEiar^ALJU 091 CAUL 



214. It }iiw bum Muted ia wrccm 211,di«t tboa^cvt- 
•n«o of tfaa relauoQ of curri^rr aa^ paiMogvr » dtf ptCHkoi 
upon the molcing of ■ ci^nttncl of c^mA^ From lliii^ 
kfoUowfl tliut nit«ra}-A an not liible tc ptfrwmt wbo 
have not bcuii iLcccp1<^ n» possnigcn^ utd iba inlcDlion 
of ilie ]wraoD to pBv his fuv and Iiu good itiith are im- 
tmitcrtal, wlirn ihoro hne bwB do «ootntcl, eipme or 
iiapliedr on tli« part of the nulwmjJ Afirti»i» irhcn 
thtt pemon iQJiirei.1 ia a traspaH^r on th« can, Ui« nil* 
way onis hiiri no dulj^ luid ui rtoi Utimd to indnniufy 
}i!tii for ariythiii^ less than injunn wilftillj uiflktbd.* 
TKiis, ID Duff 1". A, V. R li,,* a Tnoth«r ini«d U) TO>yr«r 
for lie deiLtii of ht-r mm, a ncimbny, vhom tlic dcdtnd* 
ant'it tmiii liamly poriuitted lo IraveJ for the purpofi* of 
celling nf^wjipikptim, nnd jadjnn«nt on & rtfdirt fhr tlio 
Jrrtti'imil nas aiHrujcJ lu iirror, upon iht grvuinl tbat 
the plninliff't «oik ytiM a trc«pii«ior and nol > paf9fa>g«r. 
Bo, uhc-ru t}i« penon injunsl triT«lii on a D0n*4raiiilb^1 
ab]« fre« pa»8, which wa^ inu«d to another peraon, and' 
ropruvnU lilnuiclf to be (hnt pciwn, ho c&n rooovcr for 



ItkI. 47] -. VVlrrbiirr r. >\ T. C 4 11 K K. K, IT Kn). Kf|« f;i ; AMI h 

W. M. It 1i.. (!n ^Ttl «,-i:k -il Am ^t I^ng It R C:u. ^0a; CiUl-ArA? ■, U. 
AIR R^a [ibI.H3V', O.&M. Rf. - NlvVIi^ T| luLTTl; Prw**l A 
O, N, IL II M r»ii U4, SI An^ A rng, JL K c:^., IKL 

' (}iu^IiiDM< N, IL A N. 0>,, M Ctrnn. lil IH Am, A Khm. R K. «K im 

[d.4!ri llmrnh M K AT- R a,.«l lUSM; T,W- AW.KT'Vk llicw 
SSmeOn thjlTi^A. V. ]t.R,01]^iiDLft4n. 

■ Ul lVnn« Mt 4BIL 

III •«ne fiT tlw am, tK ftt- 1iirtA>i«r. Ip B. P. A W. R. R r. O'Bu^ It 
IfctUv SfoWAf ^ta» (1N|«1K,>1I\ [t libtld ihaimnlliraf nuri. I7 cw 
Btct with a piMmi||Tr vhon U aona fmuilTinuilr. «iaiii'i itt^ fan* lU 
Uj fur tliit riHiJit <if iia urv^i^rM*^ bm ItH^aatru; dHfilw It ■«Mtit4 In J 
0ti>tt AV^ £h IimUuuB, ia KtMirf l C. K £L of FT. J, »t N. J. U lU 
iVibti^ uftlrt nUnBj'* riubL b* lioiU Itt lltMUlr «a tvarr^prt^ ■bHM 



AVmOEfTT TO ILBCEITX PiJmrOKU. 



S09 



nothing IcM tbni) wilibE iijury.' Nor ouu oue roei>T«r, 
whtj, wilh UttAnC to defraud tho milwny, ioddCiM Ui* 
milwuy serTaau lo carry liim wUhout jwymmit of fare * 
The tnuic prlndpLc wn^ npiiLkU id the oue of B. Jt B. 
Ry. V. Kcjs,' wh«T« titu plttiiitiOT, knowing ihtl n}iilo 
Um defnidftDt carrieiJ lugg&ga f^««i it y«t t^quIrHl mer- 
cliaaduc to be puiii lor, twAi vrith him in ilcfvnilftijl'a 
ovritkge & ooae of morohandtfte us luggage, and <lid act 
dacUrtf nor pAf for it, ftod it ww lidd tliat lieoould not 
n^GOVcr fbr iu low ; bccniiM;, by rvuKm of ha fmiiduUiot 
«uioetLcD»t, (bore was no expttea or impLiod uouirajjt 
b«l«r«on thn dnrrndnntu nnd himjirirwitb r«ap4Ct to tbdt 
mi^ebnndijH;, 

215. Wher^the jx^rsofi injured kaabfl6np«rmiucd by 
thft dAfiukdantU usrviuttii ift ride upon tho riulivAy with* 
out (NLyiog fnrc, tbu nuiway la liaUo if tbv HM-vuxtt njui 
oxprtwly or Impliedly oulboritod to bind lUe railway 
l»y«aoh p«r(ni84ion;* but whoro th« rv^Udons of th« 
xwlway deny tollw (it>rvanl tbe utilUority of ttGct^ling 
|iUBaiigor«* tbe railway U not Uabto.* Oooductota ia 
diargo of puMuiger troim hnvir an icnpUcd uiiibority to 
aoeept penoDfl aa pawengetv tlier^ou/ but ax fruigbt 
trnine are nm by rallwaya for llifl lrnnfli>ortaUori of 
freight, aol puBeu^cm, the aervunU uf thv ruilway when 



> T, VT, A W. Itj. f B^cpi M lU. 80. 

'0H,L.C6»a 

«8fauBU>. ir AM, J. R n.73 UfKOt « An. A Fmt. 1L It Cdii ;(>0; 
WUt«t-ll, It Tt.]LiTMj« 141iawivJrfW(Ti«,lsn>tHi. I^Il T., A. A >[ 

S17hII Am,AKn« II H i.^ Alt; |Gconr< Si. P. M. A Bin«, IflTdlH Rffk 
m; tmpLH.A at r.R;., n WW. t\, Or-v4 p. K a IL, M I'Uih. 

' T, W, ft W- It^, i- HhmU. n III- V«A; C A n. IL k. * UU-lL^Otit 
4|7; DnfT*^. A. V. trR.npaiiia.&l, tM: JnUcu «. C, M. A Si. P. ftr, 
t\ WltfMllL It AT^i:.ll7.»»f-tkPh«4r»i,Xl, CtentMF >. », IL A IC 

u 



210 



MItVAXn A« PARSi:X«Kfig, 



in chnrgo of sucb tminFi bnvit no implied natlxtHtj tu 
invjttf ■tmngon to b«uoiDo pimcn^^rs thorvon, nnd ba 
iho abseuce of proof of expreea autWity vqiUhI id tliv 
ocmdiiPlOT rtf a freight train ihr uc^pljinoft of lfi» ijavi- 
ttttiuu to Hiie Llioreau doas nut tankt n Hirnnj^cr a pn»* 
Mngor;^ nor h Fire railway MrraDU itu implied aalhorhy 
to ticGCft persona m xmsacn^n on pny oir*,' or on band 
c3r«," bul if it be proven that tli« raUv«j aenrnot vm 
autlioH:dRd to occept tbc person hh n pnimtngfT on & band 
e«-#* or CD a frtiglit train** the railway will, by rcoMm 
of eucb acceptance, bf liable to him aj4 h pa»«enger. 

210. Where on indiviOuul id cnrrkcl hj u rnilwny in 
performance of th« comlitioneof acontruotof tsE^ivico he 
in to ba rfgarded u a mirrnnt, not u a piuvenger, rhur^ 
La Tuiuit^y ii. Ttiv Midlaitd Ry.,* the plaiolifT n«A ft 
Inborpr flniplnyeil to loail n pich-np train, nail the de- 
ffrndimt had ni>ntrnr_tcd to currj him lo and firnm hia 
irork bj trail!' Whilv returning ufWr lua day's wi^rk 
wa« done he wrm injured through the ncj[1igicncc^ of ono 
of the ^arcbi,tind itvruet held that lie conM nnt rtfeovT<r. 
for he was ciirned, boi as a pin^ni^ng^r, hot «ndcr a con- 
tract of aervicc!, and Uw onuM? of ihc. injury waa iho 
iwgligviDce of n fellow-eitrvant ; Willett J., easing: 
*'th«re iM ulwaye a strong inelinntion to find voinc mode 
to give the plaintiir redreaa iu custs of thiB sort, but one 
muu'a miufotttinp mu^tnol be comp«nHitfld lorntanotlj#r 



» Huir *. M. G IV . TO Mfc 6fl. 

< tVN>1 " f% )vr, A -li. V. Ily. Ad WliA 237. H Am. A Fl>if, R, K. Ov, ttOi 
tVlitm •. I- A O. y. It tt.. «4 Trt. 144. 31 An. A Env. H. ft Ou. T^l 

>|>uiur,l.t,T. Kj^r.r* Vn, 1K7, l.iw r, M- A Nl K llj^ » Wbe. 4J; 
VLMod p. »l. I\, M. A K By. 18 FbJ. lU-p, 321 ^ Elivnp-n r. H. A Si, X R 
IL, rs M9. «9I, t in. A Fnc It 11. (Vi. %JVt! O A U. U, H. f^ ftUfcllnft RD 



aSSXxTTA M» PAJASKOraH 



Sli 



n&it'6 eipcDfie." So alao En Kyait v. C. V. R. R./ iht 
pluntUfr a kbivAr in tho d<^f<3Q{knrvomployiii«nt, ivud 
engHj^ in r«{iuLritig tlitf ruuJ. uiid van CArrwd lu aikl 
from his work on tho cam, tiiul while bvitig ao osttjoU 
1)6 wu injured by llie nfgUgenco uf thu eijgme-drivor. 
It w» holJ that ho oonlcl not rocovcr braauw he wiu 
Udl A pwuDgcr, bill bl vrrv^at whow ir&nHpcutAtion was 
mn iooitletit tu liia aervlc^, abd tb&t tho defoodvit i*^ 
not Uabic for llio ac^li^cnce of tite vti^xie-drivi^r, who 
wu iht) plfhiutitf'd co^Jiiploy^* This rulfi bm h(«n 
hold to bar rrrovcry in tbp com of u di^rhargnl (i;rv«rLi, 
who* ou u juuriivy to obtmu iitLvr umploym^uU waa lu- 
jurwl while riiiliig in a tw^gfigc crtr wilboul paymonl of 
ikrc;' but w.i* h«ld not tn hiir rinMVcry in xhv tism of a 
serviuil 4^f a <vJTitru(;hfruu^g^ iu rvpuirluj^ thu liuu nuil 
UnQiportod in tho niilwnyV cnm.' Th«» btd, howi^vor. 
Home cuum whi(?h itrft not rvoonciluble wiUk Lhow- wbit^h 
har* been quoted : tliua, la O'Douudl v. A. \\ K K,* 
lh« plAintilF, n journey mnn cnrpi^ikicu', L'mpbycd by the 
(l«ifundaiit to ropnir iu bridged, and i^med to and frum 
bin work b^ the de&indaDt*« train, ma ongngcd ai lower 
Vfli^ In couttd<^raUi>u of tk« couipuny^H otLrrying Uim 
Am Io and itom hi? work, and wbile Mdq eo carried 
he woji JDJurvd, t1iL*cnr in which he wu« riding boing 
ibrown froia thn irftok by u brok«n rail. It waa held 
Ihai tha plaintiir wn4 a pwu^ngnr bf^cnuHo hn haA rto 
duty to perform cpon tJie tnun, j&ad boouuMU, by the re- 



■ «3 fVniu. 8L SK« 

1 !W blA <i11UbuB« « & B R. 1L)« Okk.aSI ] Vniw f. B, A 11. A. ft, 
]4 0f«r49Sj Bok-U * fL R. R. K. r H, Y. lAt; R— -. N, T.aA H. ft. 
K ]t,;i1.Lfii;;.'C. V,C Alt. KRIi. .. Vkh^OfittLls;. If AhlAEv 

ft. R. 30 Kkdh 000, I& As. Jt &.K^ EL B. Cm. Sai. 

> TorpT t. a r Bf , 3U |T|h Cu, (1^ ai 444 
*■» r»>A«, K. 1«0h •* ^-i >n- 



212 



loiiKO AH nrsvADrr. 



duccion io liw «a^x*i ^^ ui cfl<cti ptid fim for hk 
tmiHj»jrui]irii.^ The riglit duclriM voukl w«i& to be 
tbnt wiKaievf^r the pcrvoit iiyurod i» csrried m pcv^ 
foriuAQCo of a contmct of m^rvicc, ibc nulwoj w not 
to be lu^kle to tiim u ft pa o w m ger, but only n t, 

217, II wouU BM^Qi also to be dmr Uwl a paaoGue^r 
will not, b^ tb« pr^rforDkHiic^ of A CMual MairicQOti b 
bmuifCoaM Ui be& pNaNm^er nikd boocoiuuictiiplpTfof 
llie r^way. TLuB, in C. V. R R r. Myer^' iW «q«i- 
dactor of A prirnLe frt^ght <nr whiVJi wiu brin^ hftnlDcl 
cm die dtfeiidaiit'a H^^, harmg, Bt the rti^iHHl of tb« 
dofijDiknt's ««rv&nt, cul loow the cnra foKovriiig liu oini, 
and havitig n^um^d hU prcipcr pinctt iv a imaatx\g^t 

driver ; nni) il wn« ht^ld lliat bin nx-ovorv vr* not bnnvd 
beoftUEL' hti tuiJ done tm mtat of m^^ra ftotTomiuodAUon at 
tb» requuat of defeudnnt'^ irerrajii, &ud williout liim' 
Bnt nhorv tbo pusKigfrr^* icijurlni a.n dciHy Uic roiall 
^ bit voliuiUry act ta UklDj; upon KimMlf Ui« per- 
formiinrfl of a fprvant'** doty, fJio mJlvray r.ughl nM Ut 
L'.' held liiiUi? Li> biin, mid jiuc^ Bctinn oug^hi iq Iw rf> 
gardod »8 CDMUrbuiory iK^glt^aoo ou ilio pail of tLv 
piUKrmgiT. In thin vii^, the CfUfv of McI. R R. fL 
Bolum,' and P- P. Rj. r. Green,' widd m*cm to Iwv* 
bflcii wvongly docidod, 

218^ Thn r^ktion of c«xncr ood pu»cn£Cr liegii 

>BM4twjIt. AO B. &i-,TlHfi|iil^to vHoT TnTuw, S UlMtj AMI 
ft V. U- It lU (].*■ Mri, i|^ 31 ABl A B^ 1L IL (^ £01 

> rW alto Unl, K n. f . ItaLlHTi. Ohto ^ ,SlAm.Aei«. a.iL(^ 
Mil; r. i*, U^p.<;rf«n M Vit- M. 4 An, Jh Kni:- IE, K-lVt.l««j <- t^>«f 
•. M. Rv„ lll.AS. 7^3, Poll* f. FfcuHnw. I B^ A & tiM i*i B. C.L.i 
Kf*rJiui^. r. tl. AI.IL lU Tfi tjhl. 2H,1 Am- A Kitf K K. C^ »iL 
Nhvnuiir,1L^»,J a B. ?SUo.«^ t A& AE^ R-ILCM-Uft 

* Obl00L ,SI Am AKn£ R.k.CHM4, 



FA»E50£liai. 



313 



wben, A conLract oT carrlt^ bftvlog \*<-^n made, or the 
pMMngcr Lariiig been acocfUHl oi fudi b^ the nulvny, 
ho hotfCQQic Qpoa tberaitvuj'B premiM^or W«nter«0 
upoDaaymoiDAorcoDveyfuice provided by tlifraitvayj 
Tbiu, ill BriRZt 1^ Rcnnott,' the jmup bctnx nhcUicr or 
Qot llie flaiTiiilT wj4^ a paaaengeTi It voa bold that proof 
tfaAt ihdpliunt^fr, huvingliald up hi'ji finger Eoth« driver 
of the dt-lVndaut') nmiiibud, aud thai Ui^ <lriviT, luivin^ 
stoppnd io tnkc bim ujv a»() jnst a« fhc pUintilTvaji 
putiitifc hU (not tin tlie xtcp ckf ihi? omnibui, hml tirirtu 
Ou, [^ausiuj; tikv pliuiitiiT to &lt, tiutitlvd tiie pluititiif to 
th« vAnJJcton iJiat iwne. So. in Bmith v. St P. (X Ry*,* 
one w» huld to be a pjuMfn^r wlio liiid huilnl tbe 
dmer of a titrot^l car. jiuJ for wLotu tbi- our Lul beea 
«topp4kdt nad vhOr "bil^ having nan foot iijinu tho rivp 
of tlw» wor plattbnn of tlie car, wan in ilia act of opening 
its door whi^n hn wa8 if^ured b^'ocolliaion bf^tncoQ tbftl 
car*ndiuiQtJicrrixr, 

319. Of oounL\ iba m«re puivWr-> of n ttclcE>t doei 
not miiki* th<" purcha*"*r a ptuwdngor ; h<^ moat also cooie 
upon liic^ ruUvruy'v promi9«H, or ui>od JU mcuiu of euu*- 
Toyii(ic« before tlt«i relation can b<^ Mid lo hav9 begun* 
Kor iff ii diouj^b thtt he Uan c^onio to the roilwAy't its- 
tioD ivltli tL« iut(*[itiuu of Lakiu^ paxifa^ by ib Iraiu nt 
fome indrflniiJi iiTtm in thn Aitiirc. Hr must come to 
th«»Iulion tt rvKiiuniiUe tinitf boturo tli« depiirtura of 
the tnua by which ho is to traveL* But if a poraou hm 

•Brffli«BannHI,«C.aP.TH«<E^C[-: Wum il r KR-fiAlIn 
S77L Daiip*. CL. a It., lf> llow. IV Xfl- Oor^lim r <!- Ki. A .N^ IL IL, W 
biKMfl: Sniih^M F. C Rr. » Wan. 1^ lAAid.A Ehf. £L aOAAlO; 



214 



VIIKX KSLinOV BBOm MSD Esm. 



Uto hvnafidt iikunti^ii oftolLing posMgP bj ■ timiD. and 
\i \ic f-'iw to a 4tttUoD ftt « nuo«*ble tiioc be is «i»u( U«i 
to prococ^OD an a pft«sOD^, Mt only from ibn mcoMfiC 
he; ant4Tni upc3ii tJic mUnNj'j pfvaiuttf, but aW ubile 
rn rt'uf^ to llie elalSoa iii tn onmibw run hj ilift rAil- 
vay to uikf? pUTi^ngc'jv tq tbcir tni&&* 

220, Tbfl rvbi^joD of (urti«r uu) pAaevuger bari&g 
beeix ooitfiUutcdp cotituiDts nmil tbo jounMj* «3L|rTn*Jj 
or itaplicilly ooQtrnc^1«t for, 1i4S b«*rii cDOtJiidinl, nnd 
die paaseoger baui l«fi tbo nilmjr's pranisci; ihns 
one whc bns b«^n kccvptcd lu a poMBenstT, it eoliiM hi 
prot«ctioi4 )W 8uch whUo b« is m U» rmilMay'ii ■titbft, 
joumc^'iiig on itfi Uoo, ui tnocit frooj one nMftueoT 
couvoyau<w to &uotlier provided hy ili« rsilv^yi ani 
while U« is lemponrUy abovnt ^m tbc qltil At it mij 
iitziUi>a for u pmpirr |mr|Hm;;' but, in Stale r. G. T. K. 
B.,* ii L» lieJd, lUui u inmeoger, wlio t^imporujljr ImvM 
a tnun Ht a way vLution ahorl nf bit ddliDaliofir il, 
nhilo ahtoal Iroro the Irum, nut a paHeDgcr. AjuI in 
JotinHon V. B. 4& M. K. JL/it ^rsi Uelil. IbaL « p^ 
wo^i-T who, having in tbe coufm of a joiinkcy by raJ], 
atopifvU over T^ir u duy at a way AatkiQ, uul vblla 
tliero having gone to tbo ruilway ttatioo fw n putpen 
not directly concocted vitb hia jeurnor, was ooc a pa^ 
aenj^r wbilc at ltd ntntion. 6o, in OmphiohwmII^ 9k 
]{. 4!t M» R. R.,* in tbe c&ae of tin indirtmcot of tbc 
Tullwiiy uncicr the Manachueotta Suiute of 1874,* far 
nf^glig^itly caudin^ ib^; iJcutli of a paHtfriiger, U vaa 
bold, tbjit r>nf. wbo had li^fi tb« tnin inblte it wa^ hi 
motion bud voUinturily ocmird to be a [^ewu^jcr, aod 
had thm-fiby forfLiiloJ Iiib rigbt to protrctiaQ in tlMt 

^ ■BiiAUflLT.4B.R.lt,40N.V.ua 
Mi K. X f^ lWi«t C& r. Trvc be lU. «K 



rXUom OTHKR TUAS PAMENOEM. Slfi 

dunoter. A persou who liiia been ris^lfuUj ijecud 
from iha tan for miicoiuluct or aoQ-p»j'nieDt of Jkra, 
ouuiot bvc»[ui<> u )]aadCQgi>t hy aubvi:({ucad> ci^tcsiiig 
Um cftT anil tend^in^ hi« fare** A pa£e«»pjr irho liaai 
bjr miitukur token n wnng tniti, i«, ko Car os rag^uda 
prvtectlou &OJU injury, a paAMru^iT uu tbtti Iniii.' 

231. T[i« mlfition of nu-Horand pawdngOT ends ooly 
vhun tlio jouruoy cuutructiNl for W Iracn ontdudwl, 
fluil tU« puueogier bw ioli llie rnlMuy'e |jr«xiuMB f or, 
if n mwiBfiblo timo bu aUpMd &ltcr ihr nrrivAl of ib^ 
traiu at th« pajuvu^er'a d^tiuatioD, wliidi wud eufTidi^t 
for iIlo pauoctgcr to Icavo Ibt huIwa; preBuece.* 

UL PEaSOSrs OTBEIi THAN PAMBNOKBS TO WHOM TUB 
RAILWAY Ii* UAntiK 1^)^115 MAMR KSrENt THAT CT 
M LIAttLB TO ITH FAttJiNCJj^iaa. 

&if2. Thogfnnntl pn'ndplo nlAted in section SOS, dctvT- 
iuln«« Uto liiibilitj' of ruilwuy;^ la poat-olKco employ^ 
earned uudur coiiiracL viib tb^ posl-olfice, or iiuil«r a 
etoiutory duly impound uitoti tb(f railway ; ttiu^ in Cal- 
IcU r, [1 & N. W. By^' iLo di^cliruLkui Imving iiv«rr«d 
ilidl tho dofcDdant wiu bound by a BlAtuU to aary Uic 
Oftilfl toguth^ vith ariy o^^vr of tJio poftt-oifficf dopnxt* 
tiMDt nhota tbe poBUaaALar-geoer&l abould duiii^ftt«. 
ihnt Uk plaiatifT wiui bi} dai^naUxi, llml while bcin^ 
carried by the dL-fvu^Jkul* with the ntuiU. bfl wiu tu* 

lOBrieniL&A VT, RK.Il t_h%jtCti REtWM •■ N. Y, A K,K.K,I3 

4«1 
* C 0. A I. It. U. ft. roirtlE, <U I»i V7. 
> P, G * St. U Rt, t. Kn»H «0 OU^ 8l 'J31 

•lAhaffLCAU-B 11,30 W». Hi. M>IitB.9»iTlKCI> 

TW fHtna^ shor Ihvi ii4H<iiir«r^ «t whnm the. r^lw^ vn* llu mum 

1U. «k1 ill* c**"*^ flnrtpl* ^ln*rwnii\ing tbt lUhLIU/ nf ih* tattwmj m 



216 



FO0T-OFnCB EMrUDiTK& 



jDred bf iIm mcgUgcMje of ll>e ddendutt'a Kmal 
jodgMOOl vtfl, on gai4r«l demumr, catered fbr 
plni&tiii; CWnipbdlr C J^myin^, '"tliftiliftoilu>t*« datf 
duea ucil iLTUie iu rc^XfCt of a«j conUUt Uiwct-ii ibc 
compooy nn^ Ui« p«noiu couTe^ bj tli«m, bul is 
VThic!i iJie Ittw impoMs; if tLej an bottml lo 

thoj AM bouud lo CUT7 taMj;" aJQtJ FiUowq, J., 

ftddinj^, " tiio pUiQiift"it right to «utt tnwm, dot from any 
p«rti(uj]Ar coctnct with the <MHMhnU, but fraiB tb^ 
^Biiersl duty tocarrytLomftilsaodofflcvra;^ and &U, 
J,, oddiDXt " tlio dvlbndanbi have ■ public dutj U> ^«r* 
fbnu in ounv^yLiij^ thu een-A&tAof Uia public saJWy' 
the |>]aIiitifT ha« bc«g i^uivd by ibdr neglect in 
f«rfciraiai)co of that duty, and btf a xi}(bt of DCtion a 
COOMM^uence.''^ In P. R R «. PHob,' wber» a 
agent, wltilc cngigod in the pcrfonaaacc at hw duty tm 
a train, bud been killed by negligence oo the iiait 
Xh% railway, th« court held thAt ho wii not a pasMDgerJ 
but tbnt hn wiw " bwfuJly fn^ngvd " on tbo tnua 
\h« leruia of tbt- Pi!uiiHy]vuam Act uf 4t1i ApKli IJ 
and that a rt^e-ayrrj of dnmn^ for hisdenib wnii barrv^' 
by tliat acu Kailwuyji ur« tdfto Ikbloto tbenmcea^. 
tout in the cuwa of Auldicn cairkd under coniraci wil 
the government,' and ageati aimed under ooul 
with the cxpreis company amploy&ng Hwm,* aud vend* 
en of noinipapcni, lufrcfihment*, rtc, who art pcrraitlcdj 
by roilwayn to travel on tti^ir inuiui for Lho purpoe^ 
C^fDg tht-ir warefl to p«LW«Dgere f but a pnaoD aooont- 

* SefV tlM. Notion t^ W. IL R. 15 K Y. Wl : StrVill t. X. Y. L. H A W. 

SLH,^!^ \it.lJit, lUmmnwl « N. K, U^, « «. iX in)| IL A L C Uf-b 
tlui[jioii. 04 Tu, 42T. 2S Am. d £d(^ & a Ok »L 

'BIS iwift*. wi, a^n, 

> Tnut c. EC. n. DU « L4HlDg IM 
-BJ>irrRK.K.UN,Y,atSj dwibvliJii >11. A ILK, A« U Wl,» 

S»f lViPiLahhW«tfnrlii,3OOhl«0LCH. 

> CcminDd-iAlLh K T. C a K^ lOa Ui*. 7 1 Tfouoi t C, C a K. Os M 
CiLTl. 



OF OtHEK Ll^ia 



117 



_ MfifiliW $^nt 4l )\U uiviUtiorA and > iMnitft- 
11^ «a a tnbi ^viifjotit tbe p4?nuue[0D of Uio 
niliDj, sod «ol«I;r bj tJio connivuico of tbo troia 
liond*/ «re to bo regarded na trtttpBrneTR, for t)i6 rail- 
way U no party to flieir piwcncn on tlii^ iniiii. 

'J23« Upan the mini' prindptv, the rtilwuy U liobk to 
l1ii« pAMeiiger of jiiioth^r »ll«ay wboee care are run 
«>vor Ui« lino of tlio rAllwny; thus ia Orote v. C Jt 
U- Ky%' the dcfoudant wm held liable lo tbe plftintiC; 
vlio, wliilu being oarHkl m n pamfrng^r tn lh» ^n of 
llie S. A C Ry, orr.r tho dciffmUrila !in« (n wntal lieing 
puiJ by ibu S. <£ C Ryn U> llio defi-Qduut fur iht- uiw of 
its Vin»), wrt* injurr-l by the fall of a hrlilgw whioli l»rt<1 
Im«i] ncxligcotly conjttrutitvd. So in llc^ikoltl^ ir. N. E. 
Hy.* vrtiur^ a ptMuugur liavlii^ Ukmi il tii^ktit fruoi mil* 
way A for a jourtioy over ii« lino, artd ov^r tiji>liDoe of 
TuilwAyH B uicl C^ wu ii^jured on tht^ linv of Hh it ww 
hold tlwt B waa liable to him- &» iii Dulyell »-. Tyrw * 
lite pluintifT liuviDg oontroctctl with n rsTrymun (o bo <:tLr^ 
lied daily foraccTtain period wa«, white bdng ferried on 
of tliooe Jay»> by a boat and t-row bir<>d by tb« ferry* 
'loan, u^umd by negligctioc on ihc^ purt r-f that ctt'w^ and 
tho nuattT of th^ boat and ercw wan bt^ld liubk to him.* 

234. The fiame riil^ a applied in cafifs of li^fur^ to 
the p(MKDfcef« of unutUcr ruUirjiy with whom n iJtatloil 

joantly occupied ; tha&, in Ttbbutt v. h. ^ E. Ry.* 

ta atalicmit at BrinLol of the J^f., thn R A K,, and tli^ 
Q. W, ndwayu w^rre artjoiniiig Hnd o|>eit to one anoTht^r, 

< K^i^t X. P. »1. dud by Th<al(««. I- Jn tn rcuUw f. U. Bf ^ fi C P. 

* » I. J. Q. a M. », la A n, *«o, M K. c L 

•AMti«Mu^ f^O, LP. St. t-< ^^1^ Vf i»IT-,M S. AL Rr^.L. 
a ft It B-1M:»>bo|<«i»f.C, A V. fL&,9 0iiL5t^ V, tft. L- 4 T. ftr. 
«. 1%V«ij« 104 lU. &»«, 

■L.B •q,&7a. 



218 



OP QTHEJG UICB& 



and t1i« plftiDtiff liaving came iii hj a tnin of dis M. 
Rjr., and iniciMliiig to go 9q hy U]« U. W< rvJiVAf, mmt 
puricj; Uircu^ Um fl«fciMhiit'tt «uuioi) on liu «»jr to 
thfiO. W. fitalinn vh^n Im vu tDJured bj the n«£B-, 
gvciue of a vc^nnt of defvutknt in morbig a trurl: UtUn 
witli Icggage^aiida veciijct barliigp moo dtor diepfaiu' 
tilTA rule foe n new Irial wb( tlifchir^od. 

225. The HUiuc ritlo ui appliad tu cbjiw of mjuriea to 
|MUKDg!9n of ukoUior rftilwuy At Uf^ aT<«uiig8 orih* 
tin) rAadii and in juriiHiiclioiiii, nbon thfl t«I« in Tliony 
gootl t\ Br^oji U DOC ODforced, iwigllgmctt upoo the pan 
of tUc' aurrior con«^tute« no dcfcitcc lo the miln^j vhcvo; 
law id tbuproxbsatoauaeof ilio iujury.^ U|>oa 
i« flOfliQ pnncipk in Fftttonoti if. W. Sl L. <i P. By.,^ 
a line oinrntHl \ty tlic P. R. R. bdnjt uMd 1^ MTcral 
oomjiauiee under ruiming powers grafted bj<oBliBCti 
tb« pUintifT, jb puiwcngvr on a tfttia of oneof Uiom 
ponici, vu held lo bv untitlcU to recover £nm anollxcr^ 
of tho oompauiea for injurJ<,-« cauaed bj th« noglificut 
dii^plnr'^rnnnl of n unilcb by u fjjrvAnt of th« Ia>t-4n<il> 

2^0. The application of UMenmcTDlod^lonainiMtli* 
liability of u raitwuy to tha pcuotiL^'ir of unochvr rail* 
way I'tiwivod Ijy it for Lnuiaporlaljon in lU cart ; Uuui la 
Toulkcs V. 11, U. Ity..' tItQ d«f<^ndant oi^mpony liaviu^^ 
■unaiiig powera over Lhe lin^- of lli« &, AV. Ry., mnd 
tUlnliff baving l>ouglit at Rirb(thon<l,on ilia lina of 
8. \V. Ry., a tLuJGct from tlic d. W. oompimj vbicL en' 
tJtk-d tjiiu to be ourried to Hadinien^miLb, on the line of 
tb<: M. D. Ry., and returned from ibcrc to Ricbmond, 
tht two compimitti by [irnnj;titD<rul dlvidinjj tbc pro*' 
oeod« of tbniuil«R of audi tirk-t^Es, ami liavingWu n- 

■ p. a A fil. U E a t. fiv««r» 1^ IbJ' A«^ 31 An- A En^ B- K (^ tfS- 
•4C.P.t\3ll7,3U,UT. 



ATTJ 



or pianrasBs. 



519 



calved lbrhieivturujetini«7 V a pottB^QjccTinncnrriflge 
of iho dvfcDdaDl coinpaa}', i«u»«at ihu lenuindtjoo of 
tb»t jourucy, iiijun:<l in oli^liciEi^ nt ihc Itirlimond etit- 
lion of ihe S. W. Ry. by tmuou of the carm^ being 
tiQMuit^i Li> the AUtikjn filntfornL. AfUr v<rn]ict for th« 
pluiiitilT, u ruk lo aeL imUc ibut verdict and to enter u 
vcniirt fui^ jijilguiont for iho i]^fi>mlaj)t wps di*charged 
Vy iho Commiui Pleai Dividtmn, oiid the dufcudAtit'i 
ikppoal vfla dlaautt^d'ia tbe Court of AppeaL Tli» 
ju<l£3nentji ia both coiirtn mtm put upon th# gronnd 
diM t^e dd^udaui liavb^ potuiia«d tbe plaJntUT to 
tmrcl by ibcir trniii miA bcruiid to mnkc provi^ioQ lor 
hifl vafeCy, but BrAmnt-lIf L. J., PAid, in ooncEmling liift 
juilgmDDt, " if iUc ixiuLntct baU iLot been a coatmct with 
the dcfeDdaDltt and all that could have bwa mmpliuncd 
of ira« a noD-fesAanc^, I slionld hold ihst tbey iFere not 
liable" Thii dtictrine duv# not wcm to be rt^co^icilnbl^ 
irith tho judgment lit thut vtiae, uor with the drift of the 
MilhorltJM. 

227. Tbwc who, by llwj jwnniMi<m of th« niilwiiy, 
oome upon iin pn^miflcs to reaU^ persoual a^^uttruL-v to 
trriving or dppdTling pftj«i*nj**r» tirf. not mere Hcvorp**, 
ibr th<7 ruUtiutj between Lbe ruilAvay nad iIa pucBt^iigpr* 
Wflldg to aad {}rot<'CU tUovc nhoiti ll^o mlwivy priults 
to oltend the pojuon^r npoc iU prrminpi Thf railway 
roay, if it cbuo>tiv, exclude such atuiidnjitH from ila 
pTf^iniAiai, or from any piirt thereof, but if it pprmit* their 
pruM-iirx it a buund to protect lb^r[i to the sama ectlvot 
tliAt it w bound to provide for the wfcty of itn ptu- 
Mui^n ; thuB, in McKoiif v. M. C It R >,* lli* railwiy 
WM held liabSa r^r irijonpflrannHl by tlic nnmfi> cnn- 
diiton of itN KtAlion mrrcmndiuK* to u hujtbuiid wlio had 
oome Qpou tho rftllvay't premifuv to mrct liif^ wifr, vrho 
VTM A pAiWiiger upon an incoming truui. So in L«a- 
* U Mich. eOMS Aht A f:i« R R (W » 



^JO 



8£BVAJm) or OfBER UXKBL 



liublc 19 3 iwreon vlko> LsTing come U> \u atilioa lo bm 
n fri«i]d ofl^ wiuL, wbiln wftlkiog on tlte f Uirom> Hinick 
ill llii> Wk by the bumpor of u rnqvicg «sigino, tUIcIi 
bumjHT proji?iTtcd I'l^htt^nii inclic^ovfrtli^ pisiform. 6a 
in Stiitv V, A. Jb M\ P. IC K^/ n'b^r ibt ii^urixl i^n<m 
had boarded a railway imin, vbeii il biid atoppnl nuur * 
■ta^n, to look f(}r biv wife and chiU) vbo wcto jnuh 
tforjgocA on ibe Ir&iu, it waa bdd tluti ftltliotiKh be wm 
cniitlf^il 14 lU] ibA riglitB of r pRAwngor, jn ibo |>roo& 
diowr-ii EMI (ftuftr n etue cf cotrtributonr iicgtigi^nop on bii 
paH that Uio roilttsy wa« not to W livM liublo Ebr bii 
injiirira.' In Tobin v. W 8. A P. it. It,' tbi« nile na* 
lielJ Iq ftfuJer ibt milwaj liable for tte ueglipuijot l<i a 
hftchEunn who bad dnvo<n a pAa^u^cr Eo ttie ruIlMtty 
tttution, Lucu r^^ N. K & '£. H^ IL/ doe* not conlnul'Ki 
tht^'i* HiitborjlIe», for, bi <hat <^>«, tbe pervon injured li«t- 
liigi'nUTC4]aiitroflbpdcl«iidaDlatkl«ai6Lion,uo<atapa»* 
fiork^crjjcir Ibrthc purpoHof Mifting an infirm pnsM«i|:«r, 
mnn tttjiiri^d In lo^vlog tli^ car a/tertbe train hM »lvtcd, 
acd it wnfl» ibcrcrorc, & olciArcBwofaolf-mllicied tj^urj. 
22S. Tbfr iMUD« rule Ia applif>d In gomv of itijarJa lo 
thef«rvai):« ofanoth^ rulvay while up<^D iii« tint* or 
pr(TniiHL» of tlku dufotidunl in ibo purformano; of tbor 
duly la ibai olber rnilway; ibuft, in VobCt^LAY. 
]ty,,* ft HUTSi>n iMfiiig in ih? ji^itil fh^fiifmrion of Um de* 
fcniluiit jxiid tbu £. L. Ry., and ibt- pluiuUffV il«ec<lt!att 
a blacLamitb In tb« mttio^ of tli« E. L, By., wltila «d- 
gngpd in rrpmring oq^ of if wngona on n Hdisg ai ibo 
nUtioit, was kiUvd by tLir uogLigeot aliiuitiiig of a trvn 

■ ;? lEn, X?^ 1 Am, A Kng, It I;, r*v :Lfi|^ 

• UA 4M. :i;i>> ^ Atn A Euu. R. B. Cum. Jl>«. 

• 6m «1m Dw *» M K. « T- H. m » UdL n ITutUVD iL T. a P. n5,«4 
Ite. lM,:i AiB^A£v,B.ftiOhn« •:«lk.l>& 



<CBVAX7« or OntSB t!X£8- 



221 



0f <h« L. A Vh Co. on tliai siJiuf-. Ttie jury Uanu^ 
f!>unU Hppcinily that thi^ ivgiiLtliorifl for itu^ mfina^mtait 
of the alutioi] vrtt« t1i;feciivc, nod tbat no pcrooiiEi odier 
tbftH ihc? dofcLiiJiints wcro Dr^llgent, the voixUci iru oq- 
tflteil for tlio plniutil!^ and a tulc for n ntvi trial wm 
diachftr^. So ic Orabam tr. N. F. Ry.,^ t1i« jilaiiiliff, 
A ^uurd in the licrvicc of th« N. B. Ky , ivLivli liod 
SlAtiicory running povere over tbu defbudaiit'tf Liill^ Maf, 
lehlh cnga^nl In tEt« pc<rfonnaDc« of his duty on s train 
of tbv N- B^ Ojmpauy, pujunna owr the dvfr^uduui'v Vmc, 
ii^nn>d fyv his head coraing in oouloot with it pr>»c whioU 
VM in siw^h proximity to the Hnn ha nrrraiinnly in on- 
d&uger tbo ^IHy of ^ifurd-i oh the tniiiiH. TJicjui/ 
liAvmg found for thft phuniifT, a rule for a now Irisil waa 
dtobargwL So b Snow v. H. R. R.,' the W. R, K 
LftTjn^ by a^jeciuoulr runitjn^ powtim uvvr c«r(^u 
trnckitof the d<T(endantat D..iind the pkintiff^nftrrvaci 
in the employ muni of the W. R, R, having betn injupftl 
by a defoct \q iho planlu between the raila of thf i)e- 
ErndantV tnwt^ wiiv hold cntitkd to recover from the 
dofundnntv So inC. R. U, i^. AmialronR/ the dtftn Jant 
haTiog niQuing powers over ibe line of the P, i!t & R. 
R., had the phkintifT**: deccduct, n K-'Tvantof the P. & 
E. R. Rj whik travelling on It* llae In a li&nd-cftr for 
th« purpose of going lo tho point whore be ffu to rffp«ir 
a brokon rati, bsjiviu;; been killed by the negligent 
roovemenl of n train of the dpfeDdant company, it wu 
bold ttmt hi« connrciion with tho P^ £ E. R. R did not 

L>Hr \us reoOTCrj from ihv dt^fciiJunt. &> ill Brown v^ 

(i. W. Hy.v'ft collision having occurred at a. milwny 
grade croAnng behreeii tr^iiuti of two Unei, becuu»u> of a 
fiipDrcofcbe stir-brakeaon one train to act, and bccnuso 

• iaaB.ir.&t».]J«s.CL. 'eiticd4«i, 

> le tTpL C^B. i^ ft M S Om. Ap. (te. «^ R Gut 5. a IttL 



333 



exBTiim OF ontKB uvim. 



of Uifl npglvct of the Mm&bi cm tlxt Miti M Bji^iTr tLe 
ftir-brnkca lU a clivEancc from ibo cro«iii|t tnlBL-imt tu 
porinit l]i» atoppAge of Uie tnb bv tbe qm of lia hawl- 
hmkf^ thit mtlwAj owning nnd opofudng itiAt trftiA 
«UH ht^tJ liable tu a ecrvuitof tbaMlivr nilwHj ivha 
«itfl iiijoinil h; ihr colli»toin vliiU im^^ Upon tll4 
ntlicr coUitUtig traio.^ Tlitt Mimv nik vav ftpp}]«d in 
8n-airi9on v. N. £. Ry,,' is llw caw of s n^ial vnaiir ou 
of n joint itaiion vUlT, but engaged and pud bj ome cm 
paQ^, and it^ur«d hy tUe n«g1lg«noo of the Mrranla 
the other coni]HiDjr, while in ihc liiiM^iujtQ of hU dutl«a 
to both ronipHiiiw/ XIm reault of tlio &atlH>riUm ^ 
that wh^PQ a line, or n Rtation, in ia tbo jt^nl oecvpttti^i 
of two or more oompnui^, tho vorvantBof i*«diciMap«)« 
Ftre not s^rmnM of the other conpftniai; nor fe1]oir-e(T- 
YKtt» witti thi; M:rvunU of thmu other companipa^ but 
U«!t rl^hi of rwoverr, in c«» of UOur? caused by 
Ijgsnco upon ili4^ fifirt of tho«A ot'hvr compAftM, diher' 
in nn onginnl ^L^fccdvc nun Ml mention of tbiur line*. «• fn 
Oruhflm'd cfifltf, or in n failure to oiaintAln tho Unc tn on 
a<l0(]imtn fiondition of tvpiur, nfi in Snriw'ft ra^ or m (I 
c&rdt^QCSd of tholr eervant^ ai b Votie'ti, Arnutron^i^ 
Wnrburton'a, nnd J}ri>wn*0 cMca, ia ibat not of a eerri 
hut of n pfUBmgar^ In this vIub of ouca, the injiiroJ 
pereona Are more than mere licvnacf«. The nIatfoD 
twcpo th(! milwny whom ih&y «rve anJ ibo oUmt nS\' 
Wiiy, by whoee nt^ligence th«y ar» ii^ured. is M> £ftr 
fouj^ Jt^i) iipoji a vuluubk GcinuUcmtjon, that it rmiiva apoa 
the purt of that otljt^r ruilwfty aii lEOplied oU^lion 
it will not btk n^gligttnt a« ngnitmc thoao •nrvninta* 

&«iv,ceV4i 1??: I, ciK. R.-^ r^ru ltd til, IW.14AV A ■:■ 

841; i» f«M«rilI (C V. R R>),M VtSOO^ n .\>l A F««E.a€^«», 



COmiOTOWt AKD OONgiUlS] 



228 



22Dl Th^sam^niUisiipptirdiDCBMvoriiyiiijtoooil- 
fignom and CDiiidjj;i]CQi pcrwinaUjUttiiatiiig m tbedcUrtjj 
orf«oeplioik of th^ir fVelght ThuR, in Holinee «. N. E. 
RjrVillwing thonM^AOfbnvinrA'attini.Ll'miy ftntimi for 
ooul wngonn to be iliunted ou u tfiding ttud tUun unladcD 
by the sbootlng of ibeir oonUntn into oftllft bAnmUi the 
mdlng, the Minvi^noni pcrwinally tbviJdmg in the upcnt- 
UoD, tlu! pUuititF wliilc, wkli till* aiviui^ao^iioe of the 
roilwfly's atAlioiimiiAUr, |inutn^ ^iToiig n fln^:gixl way 
OT*r tlie cdi* ii>f tho pur^HUJe of gtfttiug Bonie ooul from 
ft wihgon wliich bft(] brx-n consi^Dod to him, via injured 
by th4^ giving tray of it llu^. niid a ooiucMjueut tiiit uib> 
a cell: and n vi^nliot hnviii^ ikljb^t]') fur ihe I'lftlnlkflT, a 
rule to cntor the vrnlict for ihc dcfi-udani for vkqI of 
*vidt»nMi of riL'^lifCtnot- wiia dLti^}iargcd, upon th* ground 
that the relation Mvcn^n the ponsign'v nnd ihfl rni!way> 
■nd the iicqni«M4^ci: of ^lu ftatian-miuitt'r Jii the oi>i)- 
nj[nec'd action mUed an implied wurnintj' on ilio |Kirt 
of tho tailvrayt ihat iTa prcminP* woirn mnnoTtntily Miff^ 
and ivoderod it liubk- for thi- c<>mM.-qitvno»t uf d breach 
of UiAt WHrranty ; uml kc tho Court of Eidi^utr 
Cimmhor, Thr ortI*r of the Kxrhflquer Division wns nf* 
firmtxl upon itic! gn^uEid Htuiijil in Lliejudgcuvnta of tliu 
court tK^low. 80. !a Wright t. L. & N. W. Ey./ tho 
umc principlo ww appJi*d by the Court of Appen] in 
thd OMOofa conaigtiee of (tattle, who, vhlle ivith the 
pCTiniwiOD of tho milwnyV Htttloik-iiinster, nssuiLing in 
thrt ttbuntiu^ of A aiT whidt IleuI bucn cuuMj-nod to Ulm, 
WM injurod by th» negligent movement of aiiollier ottr 
by tlic railway's HTVonts, Colcridjc«, L. J., luyiiig, " tbo 
liefoodiuite betng bound by ooiitrjut to deliver the betftr 
tD tlie plaintifT ibty, by tlmir tvprwnnlativif, the RUiiinn- 
aa«ter, ollowt-d tUf^pIdntiCTtutuku purt in the delivery, 

■t.RtKL3KA»l». 



m 



OOBiraMUft AitD CV^fSJOVEO. 



and iImj w«ti», thoreibn^ boond to bm thu bo did not 
gei iiyar«d bv tbe &e^l^iw>« of tliMr Mcruits." Bo^ 
ia A. V. K. R. p. FindUy,' tbo pUiutifi; « MUkMcr^ 
hftvin; goTie to tho dufciodpiit'a eUiiioii to recehro m nm* 
aigomont of lime, ftnd bRving brought Lie Imbi up 1o 
Utc track upi^ii ihe dMiamucc uf tJt« atatioa nfcttit 
no tr^ would pn(8 for hnlf An hour, saJ a traia bav- 
ing come uncxpcclcdlj: and mptdljr, and iujurvd ibc 
^lUlifTtf bvrticjudgiui.'ui upvu u v^nlicl f^ lliv |il»tli-- 
IJIT waA nAlniKd in fitror.' Itul the railway i» not 
lUble to a voluut^r vthv, ivhilc lutiuUng b eooiw^a; in 
romoTing hia freight, is iiyurvd bv ibo bortftkiiig of 
CTAJK creeled bjr thn railway on iu pmnioni, oiul 
calU^ lo be uaed \ty tbe owadgae^ ^t Uie nilway 
no duty to the vo!uDtwr.* Nor ia tbo railway liaWc w 
B oontti^nee wbo is contribuiorily oegllj^Dti m^ foj ox- 
Bnijil^ ill driving b vagou ialoa pfta^ago vay on 
Bid^r tyf a cunnl «o norroff tliat in sttcniptm^ Co poaiBi 
otbtfT ^dj^on he tb tbi^wn iDto tbo cwaal ;* or in goi 
on th« lino belvreen the cam of a ft<«£fat train for 
purpuM of iincijupljng tliccoTi;'* or in curclaftlj ctgm^ 
ing tb«< tracks in a railway yard ;* or (n walktngoii ilie 
lino in n railway yard in from rf a lonomnlivir and 
iTiLiu whicb a obvi<iuHly ru*uly lo move,' 



■ i W»kl7 Vatm of CkH* {?IHU.> 4atu 

'N.#.Un K-4> !■»[!. MA fit r. It. IL.AMlmi.^^lD \m.S S«, K 

N. T^U«3, y.O. J.AO. N, ILK.*, Uiill«;,l« UWllA. S-I-JL K, lUi 
t«wBj%. t InA. IT I ; §uiur r. l^Dvh, 1 LuiIh 4H. 

• J)]ak«i»» k IL « R, nj, « RL A 111, LWs U R 0. U !■ Uhw « 
Aod<ir> lig. B I». .^tJ^H GdiluQ Biul IkFWon. L J J^ qui^ab lU pnpriii^ d 
OBBMartof Lb* plijollfr Id BI*k*nKpniV oh* ■■ ■ nlu&Wrc- 

• Boat ». BL A L B. R,. 101 Uim «a 

• BBCObI t. n. I', U. * H. Kj^ .^t Minn. Sni^H A«. A IP«^ B. B. Oml 
Mia 



■rscuL coxTKArnu 



225 



230. Tlio tvxta rii1« U appliod Iti coan of Injurj to 
jicmuuti uAing fbr liiro, or under apodal combiKA. inj 
jiortion of thn milnrny'ii liim or premiaM; thua. in Mftr- 
fell i\ S. W. Ry..^ a railway haring iwinillcl ia iu linv 
a Iromvay, wljich ^^n iiiicil by tbciw uf tLc public iilio 
pud lolls to the rikilnay for drafting goo^a m Irurki) on 
the Irainwfty, ami which |p:imwiiy ctowi-hI iLc ml«iiy'« 
liDo &t A point wht-rc tii(?rc witre tvria^ag gum. and 
vhile ^10 plhiiiittT'a BerraQis with a horm &nd track 
iKracroning thn lint^ lh« honw, b<^C(>miiLx frighu^icd 
by on approocluDg Inun, Kvpun'ud upon the tiu« and 
was killeil, ftod it waa held that rhn railway wan linbb, 
for Um plnmti^, hy rt^siwon i>f hi* iwiiiff the tmmwuy 
§0T birt^ wild orjiiiJi^d lo iiiifiBL u^joti lib bi-iii^ rvuBouiibly 



IV. ras MODiyiCAtiox ut^ t»i; kulk in I'fiiritfaYi.rAffu 

BY STATUTE 

231. The applicfttlou of the general rule, ts alated 
section 20$, hjM been limitt^d by »Utntc in I'cnnayl- 
vantH, for the Aol of 4 April 18G8,^ pim-idw "that 
irhon any poraon bhdil siislnin pOTvonal injury r^r Iom 
of lifowhtk Uwt'ully ougngod or employ ini about th« 
roadfl, workfl, depots, and premiaea of a railroad coin- 
ly, or in or nliont nny iratii ar cnr thcrciit or ihereort, 
rhich company eut-'h pL-r?im id not au cHij^loyf, 
lo right of arlion an/I recovery In all such ca^d 
fi^^m tbv c^>mpany nhitll he mn^h only tu wrmld eiiai 
if aiic^h ponon were nn &[u|»1oy<?: providtnl thnt thin 
McUon «liidl nol npply tn pfutfpngoM," The LunBiiiM- 
lfonality of thift jiL^tuli: htu hern »UHt^tincd in Kirhy i>, 
P. H. IL»* Ajtncw. C J-, delivering the judgment, na 
■acBN.F at\nK.cL, 



226 



7SS rtMtmtVTA^tA Id or I86& 



follovn: "it nu^rlw coix«dccl tliot tku mftinil r^bl 
uf i»en, snong them that of peraonal srcaru^p *ra 
by Ibc Hill of Ki^ts, aiMl ' iLtti aU ooaH« «hal 
opcDr and e^nrj inftD for an injury iWe Um, in tik 
Janib, goods, penon» and r«p«iwi<ni, lUall ban mn«<)j 
»y due course of In^, atiJ r^t anil jcMm« adaiiawtcri 
«ilLout m1&, il«ii«l, or dolriT.' But in «!»! rvpfct 
dom thb Inw iTmch upon tbb g^uamfitT, or, indfecd, 
uiiy olUtx la the Oouatiuatiou T Th*: ivrsoii to 
al^t4*J br It mueC. bo OM k^ulfy vnynff^ w 
on or alHkdt tbu road, etc To bu tlitu vngn^il bu m 
be Ultra ^^ /t^ ouTt etmsrni, lie ky cb«reibrt^ voluj 
t-arily thprr. To |wrfonn noma nict nr liotinffti ««nncr»fj' 
with tlie roid nr ;t« itorlca. Hf knunifigU- ancucius ji 
nklioD rc^Utod b^ lhi> law> aiid ibiu i^acw ht&iMlf 
under the o]icratii>n of tbo Uvr nhich ^Ttna Uic rrli- 
lion. He is uot bounil tu aaeaiDa ibe relatino, snd. 
wlu'ii liodopfl ho n«tH witli bis ojva 0]>on, Tbo law 
ncit rcLroipiHtivti, u»c) take* from bun no rcmadj for an 
Injury already ausuined. The relalioo be ftBS«na» b 
01^ of ibingcrp ^nd tbc fact of dnrigrr auilioima iJi#' 
rvxnluLiuu hy lbs 8tatc> aa ^e ooi$i*TViitor of ihx lirvt, 
pw^iirity, and jin^pfltty of ber dlixcni". Ii ia a police 
r<*fi[iUtion. whiob, Imring r»p(!c^C to ibif gortcral |;ood, 
foibi'U iadJvit^uaU fVom uiidtrtaLing a dang^nMHtmi 
|)|c]j-mnnt, i^if^f^t itt their avn mk, to tbc fom^etl 
0.9 if th(-y w«r« iu tb« ininicdjatc empIoynMuil oT tba 
railroad company* Ii«nving oacli oue to wktI Iii* 
proper rtniwly Rpiin*t the peraon vrboa* act of n#gH 
^'.'iK-c il<}0^ liiiii ihu injury, tbo law «aya to biin that lh«' 
U'i^ui prirLCiplu of 'rewpondrat fupcrU>r aball baT« oo 
place In tbui iiartiouUr relation; tbu% ua n naiUrt of 
propor |>olicy for iIia good of all. tboe& wbo roluotoHlj^ 
Y'-'riture into cinpTf>vnicnt ftlonftwd* of ibc scmrnM of tf 
TEiilroad compfLoy, eljall hnre juftt tb« eaum ranu^Ivv €ot 



Tiie ftJt.sflTLVXiru Act op iSQS^ 2.7 

injnriu* hnppcntng in tbc emplu^rtiwoi tlutt ihcM bftvei 
aud uoiio txlior. tu dobg UiiSt no fundairionul ngbt 
uf tlin pfrraoin tbo* rolunturtly TtrnUtring v cut off or 
*uuck down. Tlid liabUiij of llie couipauj Tor tlie 
flcU or odumIoii* of others tliougb iktoy be wrvaniv, in 
ouly an oftpruig of !aw. Tlio Q«glig»iice which Injuru^ 
w not t1k«:ni m fkclt but J4 m only b; impuLaiion ol' law. 
Tbu luw which thun iin|nilMt it i<t Hia ct]tii|iimy for ttOf 
IDDB of policT, can T«move tlie imjtuUIioti ftath ih« 
Buutur^ aud Ivi it rcmaiJi with llic tviviuit, wUowv ncgli- 
ijMaoo OAutt«« the li^ur/." 

2-T2. Pftxnnn, J.^ Flairs m hU jiiilgtnrnt in MitlhirrTiii 
l#. D„ L. (& W, K K/ thtit iL itt probubit- ihut ihc uct yim 
in vl^wof ih^aawrLJoQ it) C- it- R«. ^niHlroii^,' 
of thff wdUi-ttTed vnXa of law, Uiut whcrti <nit milway 
gTUnU to axioUier railway ruuuiti}- ^wwL'ta oviT Jta Kut, 
a tcrvAQt of the coo raifiray in aoi <t foUon-tcrvimt of 
tho iKTrLinU of that olhor railway, and, therefore^, not 
barrud from r^^coveriog fWitu dial other lailway fur in- 
juria cau»cd by bho oi;^1i^nco of iu ecrvanu. Bui 
^irbatever may have bwn tbo ivfmoiiA wliich ihtincyHi ito 
ilatiTfE loitid to cunct Um Htalut?, jt la ceriaioly au 
uojustmublo ^erclae of Ltgbiativc power, lutd ii ou^hb 
to \m «trict1y construed. An anfklytita r>f the aci ahowe^ 
[Ihiit iQ order to bring any peraon within itii purnaw it 

kUBt be proT«D, firat. that the peraou i» not u Mmnt 
or a pweutiger npoiH tha milwAy ; Micond, tb«t ibe 
ii^ury must bttv« ooc*urrvJ vihWa th« jwrvon lujorod w<i* 
^lawfully «ng<^9d, or omployod. OQ or about tL<f liuij, 
imwM, or cam of Iha railway, loil tluLt whan thcM, 
oro proTOD iLo right of recovery of the petsoa io- 
jortHl will bo Qtiithor more nor Icai ihnn ilml of a acr- 

iDi of the railway. The dictum at Gordon, J>, in 



>ftirw>.aLJM. 



Mer<fii-.aita 



ssd 



THE poncvyLTAiru act or IddS, 



Bloard v; K. P. B. B^> tbMt Um) wonk " BDgii^ or «ni 
ploy«d*' M imkI la tbe auiui^ oompMilNnd "cn-e^ 
imaguiable nniintH^ by vhicU Any ODO m^y* or nt'igfit 
b«^ bnwgiii in. u^au, or about, tbe rMiibd, ww, or 
worka of $, mizwtti conip«uj/' sliltou^h <)uoti*J «Uh 
Bpproml bj PuEBon, J,, in P. K. 11. i'. i'ricc^' irguU 
«acm to t>e (Ii8U{i|<ruvt*d of by iLe jiiilgiD«tit of Ui« oovrf 
in tbc later cum of U>ctiicr v. P. K. R* lliiu dicUiai 
it abo irny'uEicilAbl^ iffitJi tli« rcuuuing ii]>oo nbieb tli* 
C(matitimnn»lity of tbeM^uiM ie eopponed in Eirbyr. 
P- R. R.^ w & police regulation Ibrbidding indiTiduab 
ftomlcnowiogly untlcri&kiDj; h dAng^rouA AcuplojiaOul 
connoRted with ii milivny H»«, vxcopC opoo ibo iioptied 
oaocJiliiOii llml tbuy wiU liolO lUts railwuy lo oo grauer 
liftbiltty tboQ tLal wliJcL it iocurs wiUi rvgird to iti 

233. It luu been held ibat tb« Blatal« bdr« tMOVM^r, 
in ili« ease of a (ildiuLJlT wlju, wbUfl eogagcd in tlM ser* 
V100 of anotltor parly in loudin^ qoftl i^ n tiding irbkb 
wjirt IT] tlic* note poftKwicm ami under tli« eacluure eon- 
irul of tho riLilwny, wd« lujurcd by tbcdiwognfijrf^iil 
frgin Uidr eOKLi)'^ ^^ mmm oars whidi 'v^rf^ ncH u|ni|ipod 
wlUi a 8uJljdent JiuniU^r of irain baurlfl to roolrol lli««, 
ntul which, riuuiing upoa a doiVD gmdc, cninc upon Um 
ndiD)^ tlic swLiob conncrting tlie tiding iritb ibe nnia 
line b&Ting be«n left opfoi by the negIig«Tiooof 1h* nH- 
way*e entrant* ;' whurt? thcruilwjiy h«il ninniiiK pcivrov 
over titc line of another oonijiajiy. and the pUiotUta 
iW^glil hmkrmjiii in tlio rmjilnyiurniof ibai oiImtt oDOn- 

my Jmving IdHiU train U^lurnuvwitdi^wliili-walki^ 
liie liui.^ wua ruu over by a train of tbo fimt-ni 
tioiif^ milwfty, of irhoio approach no notice irjut j^vcr;' 



xmt pi3JF»TLV4xiA 4cr OF 1868. 



2S9 



r1i«r« t1i« pUtutifT, bAvtTtg gotie (o « sUtiou to rcocivo 
JVeiglit conpignoii to him^ nmi hiring, bj pennittbMi o^ 
Um tflitwAir'fl ng«nt, antl tor the piirfroaa of unloaiiing 
bb fr^i^Kl, enlereO a cnr u|>on a aUlin^ nim ii^nrv^l by 
tUe ncgli^ncc of the milvnijr'a ncrvuntB innhunlingcum 
to the ^drnt;:* wbi're a pvrt/^n, wliili* untoAiljiig t'rci^lil 
from s th'i^ ly^ Al & wliftrf offu«'l Aod ci^ntrollcd by 
the railway, was u^iitod by thn ocgligvucc of tliv rkil* 
my'i tcrvuiit* in pcrmhtiux lui uttuduul ^ev»y» of «l«Ani 
&ii»n wi engine ttufi Mk A-i^literiing tljep]&intLff'«honc«;' 
irhdTfi th^ phintiflT, bein^ tUe employ^ of a coul iIctiliT, 
Aa«t «ngtt£cd in unloaiiinjt am apon & «i<liu£ ctitutrtictoil 
by the dttbr upon liia own kad. and us«d by tbe mil* 
Wfty, not m part of it* linn, hiit only for ihc pnrpopc of 
ddivering coil to ihv Jiat<.'r, wju injunn] by u coiUwou 
caused by die □ifglL^t.-ui sLil^iTigof can from lliedefenJ- 
aat*B mftirt lino;* nnd where tho plnintifT, a mftil i^Dt 
of tb«^ P<Mi Of!l<^(i Dopiirtmcnt travelling on clofcmdaiLl'* 
liuv I:i lliv pL'rIonDHBCe ofllW duti«ci aa Hucb uuiil agf'Ut. 

W(i3 injafC'J by the n«glJg«noo of tbo raJIntty*)? eurviuiu 
in dfaiobajing ordmnnd tliuM oaiining a collUion.' 

!£34. Tlw al»Cul« baa been held ni>t to bar twotct)' 
ill iIk case of 3 pkintifT who, wKilo employed ui and 
about II rolling miil in huulnig pjihcH in n bnrrow across 
a ^iilizij; uiwii hu etnployer'H premJM«, luiind the iray 
blocked by »oaiD t^mpty oae^ unallacbed to any t^Tiglne 
or trhiu, ancl in nnixiuplinx nnU atti^niptinx to more ibe 
tais iraa killed by a moTement of the uira, caiuod by 
lb* »^ig«iic« of ftn ^ugin^wlriver of tb^ d»feDdaul 



• P. ft H. f- Pri«. M Unn*. Ml aJlft fBdSnnnJ k IW U ti. SlO. « Um 
UnUai Hum bouM bb« Ai)[iii*wn «» >t14*] Awn ■ AUc nn«rt). 



280 



mi; i-j^x.^TiYLVAxiA ACT OF 1868. 



bi oDOTing the can wuhouL u«tJo«^ nor \n tKe 
oc' m 8BrT«Di of Ukc nwocr of a tamlter yard ac^jcdniiij 
tha nilwftv I[iii\ m wbidi ^tud Ukiro vai a Hiding IVui 
die r^Lw^y, who wfic killed bj fu« ruu on Uii^ &itib| 
tpd »uilcui£ D^iuAt n cat will] » ikfrctive bmke u>J 
uiibJock«d. wblc^L lia^l bj tb« ii«]$liguu(.'v cf ibc ml* 
wav baan perriilit^ii to rcoiuin on tlie viding.^ 

2So. Somv of dioe djvHndoi mum to bn ojten to crid- 
ciam. ItJ Kirbf o. P. B. U., tbc uegbgww npno 
pnrt of ihn milw^^ vsw iwo-folH, ftret. In iWl lli« cai 
tliat dill tLo iujurj nvro mrudiclcntly ofioijipiHl villi' 
tmiu LauJif, ojid. a«cuiiJ, ia ibat UieiufkittLt nud ocgli- 
gcrntly left open, if th^ ploiD^iT bad bwa a b«rv»Dl 
i>f th* railirHj" lie could not bur* ncoren^l frcfla iLd 
i'ailwuy upon ihe Mjoud grauud, for ibat vdm the do^h 
jCCDcu of hiiT ix>-ciu|>lov(ii ; b»t, ulthou^b a scrvoui. 
ci>u[d htivn rcoort'rcd iipi>ii tbe find grovoil of MgU' 
^noe, for it wtw Ibe ilulj of th« raUwaj to biivc i1» 
cara CM^ui].-j^iI wiUi a sufficient anmbcr of traSn bajit 
to pKTVcnt injury to otber wmnta from il^nl wiKW, 
>roiild a-eem, theretbre, tbat in Uiat oaao tlm Mtatut* 
ought iioi to buvc biirr«d tlio plainiiflfV ffKCVtry. Tbo 
cscc of Cijiiimio^-b V. i\. C- & St, h. K. It., in wliicb 
was ]iM Ihat tlio pljiirtlltT caiho willuu tb^.^ tcriuaof Ui« 
jiutiitc, V* not rvcoiidlubl<f witli ilia cmta of N. P. R. K. 
V. Ivirkp 19 wiiivb, ii|>ou u oimUor Mate (if Butji, a con- 
trary oonoliiHton wn« ri'Achrd, In ib« fit«t-Hi«otii 
imuici tbtf /wiw in quo of ibi; injury wiui a nidtng 
vlrucU^d by a ooal dealer upou buf own laud, aikd 
by tbo railway, not tm a pore of it*: li'n^ (as waa tbe 
in Kirby v. P. R. R). but only for tbe coDvenHmco 
tUe di^alur in doliwring coal to bini. Tfaid atatsl^ 



1 XUHv a^ P. n. H, i (H l^vnu. A. At L 

■ S. p. E. &, >. Kirk. 1M 1-^atui. fit. la^ I jLm, 4 Bi^ fl; R, <W. «. 



rue DUTT TO rAB&ESCOBftS. 



2$1 



'OOgM to b« r«j>Ml«d, fnr tU o»If oflicc ia Ui rdkvt- 
Tliiwuyi {r<3ta |Mtjui;c u jual cjiui^L^ELtfuiIori lo petaoiM 
EujureJiBilliOut- fiiuhon their jinrt, by thonng]ig<Tiq«<rf 
tho B«f rftnts of iIm mlvuy. la r»iun.- juUic^iul Jipplicu- 
lioan oi" ibt otalute, it nmy, perfiujw, U? burEJc In iniiii). 
tliil to bur the plaintiffV rccQvnry, il miisr. br lUnwn 
tluo, nut Udcg a |>UHi?iJgur i^ n mrvflal, be vuIuuUirilj 
^t«T«d upoa Ha ^uiplujiuc^nl wliiob exposed bun U> 
,4jbnj[or in the oounaa of thtt opomtio& of ihrr nilvmy, 
uul duU if iigureil witliout Biult ou liU |)ciitt be can 
nooTtTr uotwtiLidxaiidin^ UiQ sialui«, wliorovor^ unikr 
lilcG ciTcutnoiuiiec*, a «crviuit of tbc nilirnjr could r^ 
oonr. 



r. THK 0£^i:SAL DUTY OP tlU: tt^ILWAT TO PAWE5- 

TAif duly a/ the railv^ to itt piMtn^trr, and ta tkott to whom it t/V^ 
rif nmt wmvn of d^ lAdl tl «*■* U tU jMMtif nv, p^tiinv it to 

«ihnfr of, !AfBr h/4^ 

23fS. As Moutafpie Bmitb. J., eaii^, iti R^dli^ad v. M. 
Ry.,' " ih« !ftw of England h*w, from iJit cnrlJtvt ljia<^ 
nubliftbod & broitd djulinetion bctwe<?D tlicr linliiliiy vf 
'<viminon cArmreof gooda nn<i of paan-'ui-vna." In tbe 
l«U(bu£ cuwj i)f Co]()C> r. Bernard,^ itoit, C J^ <buA ALat<« 
iho rule with regard to tbo liability of cominoii OEuricrs 
of good« &iid the reason for IL " The law charj^es tbla 
|H^nioii ibuH Qutnmfed to carry gowl« njialust hU ^ml« 
but BiT(« of God iibd of tb© oiioisi«ii of ibu Kinjc- 
For, tituugh thu forcn bn nnvffr n> grnUf ha if nn irr«- 
•JRCiblo luuliiludo uf peopli^ vliould rob him, novi-r* 
^thelcM he U rbnr^i-Ab1(>, And thiu la & politic ^^Eab- 
liahnmri contrived by tbo policy of t}ie Iniv for tho 



>L.ft.4q.ai7«; 



■ I lA. it>,TiiHiid »LM Sol L. a |»L 



282 



tHE PCIT TO PMOSSCi 



mSetj of rU penon*. tiM oMudtj of wtiow «l!Uis 
<»Ut2« iheoa lo cniA tli«M tons oT pcnooF, thai tli«7' 
mjr b* mJ* in tboir VA/m of dnttiaj; ribr eb« Uib« 
^mriicni mif^i b«T« vi oftporUiaitj- uf otidoing aU p«r- 
0DO0 Uttl ktd MX doJio^ Tiifa iJwcii, by conbuiii^ 
wkh duaroiv '^t ^^ jvt doai^ it in «icb m cliiJci^iiM 
maantr ta vooH ikiI Ix; pOB&able to br diBaiTet*4. Att4 
this IB tbo r«a«oii ibv Iflw i» foundod opoti iq tbiu foixttJ" 
It is obrioof Uiot ncalber thfr rule tb» lAUd. nor Uw 
Mtfon ^T«n for iu ^ t^lk^\e to <vri«n of ]>«8nw 
gtn. In Wbitc v. Boulton/ Kcojon, C J-» nc Nm 
PritiB in 17^1. diretrtMl tbe jur>- th»t cnrricn ««n 
bound Co curry lh«r pweencara " *afe!jf ud pTOpwiy * 
Jn 1809, in Cbrtftw w. Of%|^* Sr Jiuncs Mmwfielil, 
CL J« held tb« onrncr's dutj ta ht, "tbat, w &r «i 
batt&Q cftra nnd fomight could go, he would pii>vtdo 
■nib oonvcjnncc." In Unrrit r. Cortnr/ Bcvt, j^ briil 
tbe oblif^tion to carry tejitlj " tncnot that tb« dc* 
idfintM irf^m lo niui duo caiv-^ Innummbk (fiWa 10 
u Vik*^ t^et^ tni^ht be ijuoUvl, but it i* ndBidvni to dia 
tlie wonla of Gtier, J., wbu aaitl, in tlie letding coiw in 
the tTnil«H States/ that *'wbi^n cArtiore ttttdfrtlnke lo 
tunvev jH-ragiis by the |»o<r»:rful but dAZ)gi;ro» njpi 
Oif aloaiUt poblic poLicj and s&Tcly rf<jujru tb«t tKvj 
be h*bl to the grent«st jvisejble cftr* md diligraco. And 
wb«tber tliv coiiai<l«raliou for auch 1niiJ>i|>ortat>0D b*, 
pccLininry or otbcrvisc, llic prrwnal nftty of tlto p 
aunf^rm ahould uot be left to tbb dport of cluuio or die 
D«g1lg?i3c^ of csrelese ngenta/' Ttie geo^rxl rul«, an 
thiu ftatedr u aupportcd hy a multitude of witboritiCA.' 

^pMhelia. *SC»rt>p.7V. Mll4F.«li.ll&C£. 

U.t!btr]ft I V, U:; U'hiift. F.<i]lt4hf^L«IIS] lltKtirCw- 



KAILWAYB arOT X!mUE£Ba 



238 



S.'IT. Railvnyv, nor lining mEurcrx of iUc ntEt^j of 
tliQir piiiawuj|;i;n; uor liaLilv fur injuriei lo iLi^Ir |mii»- 
tK'[i^i« ctuaed hj an act of God. or nwnliing fVnni in- 
fiviublo sccidftni, it wuiilil acinn to (ulluw tJiat l]ity 
ooiiM not reftiWD&bly be hM aiuirerublL' for ii^urkt^ i<j 
iWir plWWljTrn retailing frnm mich d&(<>cU itt dmir 
mAchiDOTT or RppliaoocK m ^mhiIiI not have hvtn giunli'd 
agiiiiut by the eierL-iu* of tare on tlielr parL Y*t tbertj 
hMbeoii soiiMcoafiict of nutboriljon lliU point. 'Hiis 
question rici-m* flnt to linre bwn miMwl in Inpillii i^, 
BiUti,^ Krhvre ibe jiUiTitllf, u |>^L^fienger on a ooacli, vvuk 
li^urMl by tI*o hrwitinx of rn nxU-trrc of UiO conch by 
rniikjn of h hiUnk-c lliiw, whiuli the mofd run^rul f^xnmi- 
iiftiiou fai]«il lo diwOTer. Hubbnn), J., b a lertmed 
ftud i^Dunilly mtfonod opinion. HUmTncii iijj tbn Uvr m 
the proptMitiou tliat " wh*"!* ilic acoli-Icnt urisra from u 
hidJca flad lolcrnal ticfect vhtch a onrcfLil an<l ttioron^h 

lUfHkn«.yH.«>.}ltl, 103; nrmuat Xf%t Id, aSft; Whi»f;F.R.H, 

l» WW* ASK A.I4-S W«M*rn ««o(>i.« l««>M7. WlJ»a >.N. P.R. 
K,«I Minn. ^H<; ^wHkff;K-tt R,! Allm -i^-. trnjinr ■ TJ T. II^^V 
K It tttt:T. II AW IE R r. Uo-lilrW. M III 1«; t>orai t O. T- 1«, M 

M*. lAT : Ti>ii*f •- T•Il»^ zn iii. a:.; . t\ tt i\ ». it «, ri ikiii, i^n Id. 

13!(i LAStUaO.'. ^lan^^:(U,&0«|;T.lLd I. B. K- >, JiitUw, Kl 
tal Ji>: Rii^lmk*, AMtit^, 44 M. Ul; }■««». Tal r. ^t. l<>3C.fi (.'.1^ H. 
iLlLa. lU«>ia*, &4 Ali.4;;; T-niMr «i L. A X. R. O^OU U «3l, WhMUpn 
■lAI, B>aMllK>M <.^t. A»»| P. P. C (Vt. r. Barhnn 4 talo, ^t4 ; Vtf 
tVt^t^wm,Sl i:wau-2n%; VlUin » |>.W,A IL IL IL. Ulou-I^ii [D«|.> 
4Mi V.P. K. K * H«i>d.T FUifL Sfft: !th»l«r *. KUHiw^ « Ihith. iRIi 
ni*A>v&ILEJ4U,Ait J^»L n,AO IL 11 f. W'>nlibi«ioii. SI M-iVfl; 
t(«<3-r7 *. 8, (I P. K. R, i ><U, Al ; l^i^f l CnlW-r. V I'^nnii, fit Ul; 
iM't r. r.R n.r^U £Vi; l* ail n. at AnJ^i-jti, 'Jl M 'MI; 1, AO, 
N. JL a fl^ lUUixm, ^^ T*i. M, Y. it IL IL ik iiMjipr. 1.^ I^rit i^*^ . P. k 
as R ». I>f rV- " Ho* «^; fi*Mrabafcl 5** Wd*M ». King. I* Id. Wyj 
\, Y. t- IL |L*.U<^n.^.1<ir Wtll JHtHkHklM-. rn?, lODUMiTbt 
fit.i*r, BvA O, aR. ^1 >M, M;McElnr •'KA LR.IL,4 Ctrnt*. V^i 
Ri>bdpnv h a « W, R K,»M.»; KaicM *. KK A P. a a,Jt; Ma^SOS; 

SAa AOtift R.ac^&vii P. aaa. uaR *.wiuutA^T4 udi^^ 
&9ft.a<^aHi 



2H 



1EAILVJLYH KIT ISGHUICOlK. 



exflnlnaTiort vouM BOH disnlof^, and vhicfa odoU noi bv 
guarik<] ngainjit hj Uic vxvrcUt ui* a «>u»il JQilgnicnt 
ainl ibte mowl vigilant otrrsigliU Uivu iLu fiPOjiruXur ia 
not liftblo for ihn iajnr^. but thn icUfbrtaDA miin (w 
"[mirnt hj LliQ imfTcrer ua ooc of (Jut cUvt nf uijimui fc* 
ttliich lL« Iftw CAU afilird uo redntti in lUf fonii <j/ a 
pDcuniflry rocompoiuH'." In Bcodhnul t-. Midlnnd Kj./ 
t]i« pUiQiiiT. a fjflawoger bj Uw ikrti^ddQra Iuht. w«a 
i^un>d bj t\u: dt-nuliactic of Uie curmgoin whicb li« 
Toa riding, MiiMd bj tbe breaking of tbe tirv of a 
wbe«^ fruoi a hiddwi flaw, which Qtat U wa^ provea wty 
DOl poMible of di*cor«ir^ by Uw czvnnM of ^Q grcatoi 
oar«v eitber on ibo part of tb«T raitwHj- oamixmjr or of 
thft manubctur«rof tbewboeL Th«}iidge)eft it {oUi* 
juiy bo way nbe^r on tbc cvidciKv ibcjr tmc viuiifiiril 
tbat tlie injury to the ptalntilT vr^ du« to (be otfglij;enod 
of ib4> dofbndnnn, TSr jnry foiiitd for di« defifiifedaiiB^ 
and JTidgmcDt wa« ciitLTi^d on tlK< vnrdict for ihi*i&, and 
aflirni^d iu ilic Eiebw^uf^r Cliunibi-r ou ibe j^roimd ibaC 
Cftrri^m of piLUfingi^ri^ ar^. noi ttaf.TsvTiM^ 09 ioniiere fbr 
tbfi utt^ty ()f ibeir Tebicl«« a&d apj>IiAJii3«, bat tbfll 
lilt'/ unj Jlnblc only for diiub accuknta a» uu^y btt|ip<u 
f^>m nny dcfn-t tboro-m vlikb miglit bavc b«4li ^f^ 
v«nti*d by the exvruiM? of dn«) care on tXwir part, bdJ 
Uiat "the duty lo Islco due cnro, liowev^r widely con* 
Bidrn^cl nr btiwuvur riKoronjtly cnforcvd, will i>ot aub- 
jwi tli^ d^feadante to tbo jilaia injudliou uf being eom* 
jx?ll<>il by tbc kw to mabo ropniulion for m dinstfT 
fuifJu^ fi'Oiu a laCcui dcftwt in tb^ mncbinerj wtuch 
di^y are obliged to uae, whlob no IitJiuAn skill or ato 
conld citli<T Imvu prevented or drw^cTiHl/' Dlackbtim, 
J,, ditfwniod iu the vuurt Iwlow, conwdiiijc ibnl tbe rule 
in Oosga t^ llnrnard wha not «pp]i<:ablcs uid tbat lb« 



*UKtQ,%,4\t,4}dm. 



KAU-VATV 3Kn tKSUKBKS. 



«85 



r^TTi^T of iMAMrngcrtt U not an insurer, but holding llial 

tihly lit fur the JQurrttjr ii iLbvuluC^-, aitfl ibat a Pailum lo 
Ibinil that obli;-dliua ie eulKdoiit to coako bun tutble 
for all tlko cry [i«c^iA-itcc«, for ihc rcutfoc thiii dii: T«bido 
betiig tfuppliud ttud soUcCvd b^ tlio ourh'er, tho paaMDg«f 
linving no nMiLnA of oXAniintng t1i« rarriAgD imd no voice 
in iEii MctLHTliou, tiiore in ou implkxl wiunuity ibul tbo 
4«rHAg«i i* ivas<jiJ!iMy fit. In Al'Ion if. N, Y. C. It, IL,' 
tie 0>urt of AfjpwJt of NeiT Yijrk to(*k tlw fauw iritfiT 
A0 lliat vxprvBbi.'U bj BWkburn, J., but ibc kui caMft 
IQ N^w York havo follow^-d Uic rule ut Inid <lo;)rn by 
ibe Court of Ex(;h«qun' Cluunber. In ilvier v. P. R. 
R I* the injury mtulTvil from a Ubldcn Hiiw in ibu Axlir; 
anJ jud^nii^tit ibr tbo ddiinilmit was affirmed bj- tbu 
8u|>r(Tin<t Court, Agnew, X, eavbig: "Ab«i;jluU- lUbilit^ 
roiiiirci Uw>)iite iwrfcction in nuicbinvr)- m ull ropvob, 
wbioh ta ImpoeHible. Tbo utmost *bu<b buinuu kuuwl- 
fHtgv», butnnn Hkill, and hnrnnn fV^rmight unH c<nm cna 
jiruvidv Jji^uU ibuc lu rtuiK>u cua bv nquircd. Tu lufk 
nioro ifl 14 proyblt cbw ruanlii^ of mllirftfs ui)lf«« t\wy 
|tnqen a nprul nnd ■urjihisi n-bicK will tnjibU tbem 
(o ^kdO a u«w dviuuul to tbcir buBiuuv* tbut uf iu- 

238. It w, th«refor«, th« duty of tbir railwuy to «x- 
orv^ cnro iu ibe jirovi^ou of gix^l and auffloieot male- 
rial. 4o utaploy ikill^ L-njcineprs und contmcloni. and to 
follovr oornrct lui^tbodfl in tbu uriginal construction, iii- 
•poctiOQ, and lJllbM^<]uont inuntcuai^cv in rcpiuj of ii9 



* » X. Y- I'M. • « P«)n*. ei, Mi. 

TA Id lin, U«|-«J<]« *, y. T. C & 1C4I U. CfiCkldnll t. S. J 6l 
CoHCTUtfOi i^mll * A. J, B. O^ tf ti l»1:<t-1l.A I. tL IL t, Vey^ 

Id. MO. 



EKTsn OP bailwayV nvrr. 



anJ f)f ihc rmbonknivEibi, bridgcK, cttOui^ tni 
levels rcadlMxl, mil^ wA mffldiie*. wh&dt ooaAdtule i1 
JIm^ uid of the oi)giii«e and ctn which il wm in tbt 
UuiiportKtJoa of iU \^mmctigen ; >o<l it i« obo Uio doij 
of Ui« nU««y 10 ftiiopi Ukii pot Into ^prnUon a »jBt< 
fi>r tbn op*nrtion of it* lui«vloiiuk*iiiil ififbron 
Mts ro](4 aud reguluUunci Tur Lbc H&ri?tT of tis pnBCDj 
to Mn|>kif A suflkoraii numW of Mcvmiiu, to «)ect its 
VPtranU cajvfiillr, to makoAiKl enfbrce rcgBUtJoiu for 
tlncdr guiduicu, aiul to ate m Uie opvntion uf ]ta Uoo 
«f«T7 nuoDflbla pncunioo for dio ittA tra»#poriati( 
of ilM poMHigvrK A faituK of duty in anr of tl 
twpMlB Till nfndvr tbo nilwr liible; iliiw, wKetvA 
bnd|!V or tm «niti«nlEincnt tidK bnikco dnvn, ii« Tall, 
muiftl) Ed tlie ah»i>G» of i-u ttv^or, liavu r«mU«d 
want 4>r vicill on Ui^ fart of Xhn fngincer wlio |>l»iii«il 
It, or on the part of the comtractor who built it, cr fr 
a fiiilutf) to ftclopt tbo boct UMhod of oonaiructEon or 
n^glnot u> UN! mitteiiaU of advqmte rtrcn^h, or from 
failure Ui Qiuliitaiii llie bridg« or ^nibankBent in 
coiidilioii. To tvli«m ihi? miLwnjr fh>m m]vtiwibilli^ 
for FUL'h nu lUMuJvnt, il uiunl aj>jM»r dtot tiiirru vnn no 
ti»>^ii^oiioti j» itny onoof thwo rra]i«otB, find It b nn( 
cnciiigli to Khow thut tU<» bridge wiu planned by a nni 
poicm Gii^Eii«vr;^ [bus, id Grolc v. C\ & 11. By.,' vhctfi 
a pOHcn^ wan iiijanxi by th^^ full of a bHdgi:, nhich 
faad boon buili by a <-oni[M-l«nt ongioiwr «nf-a^i>d l>y tli« 
defan'liiiit, at tbc tnnl, SVillianta, J., dirrr^lod ibo jtxty 
'*thnt lh» q[i4<<tioii iruH wbethvr tho bridge wnd roi 
Btrucied and mninuinisl wiib mifHciVni carv and A^\ 
■nd of it^cwonEibly proper «tjvu^tli wJlL ra^ard to the 

'Gfot* *.C.4 H Ry^a KLfMi P. A &. B, IL it AsAnv 



Dm- OF COK9nt(T(mOS ASU TAlfXSK. 



237 



furpobo for wliich it yr^ maJe, and tbftt If ihfrv vHould 
ibink not. And chnt thif ii^^^uli^Ql wn« owmg to miv vudi 
^^TJicii^vy, Uiti (JiuLiliir ^ould b« t«iiiJit<HL (o reooirer-" 
A lyirdirc hnvbg bwn fou<«l for the pkimiffj n mU for 
II HL-w irinl upo«i the (^'''^■^■^^ <jf luiAdirM-'liori wua rffm^, 
Pulluck, CI B., IjolJiiig tho loaL of frecJom from lUbilitf 
to be wlicthcr llio dt^fendjint had cmplojvii n |A-n»otL 
"fully iv>mpeivnl to tW wi»rk, aiiJ tbe bwt ui^ljud is 
Rili^plcyl nikd the ina^ inaU-.ihi\H tm* uwtl/' und juldiii^: 
*'U mnuot bd oontenUi-il thia ihb deCendHulfl an^ not 
raspoiwlble for t]i# acdd«(it merelj on the ground tbnt 
"tbcj biLTc oia|)!uj'cd a competuul pcnraa to coiutnict 
le bridge." 

239. ThFmnin priitdp1aaankipplicAblAiiicflM*wbiini 
InjaTf to n ptuuKUKvr resulb from tho Hulunf of any 
iriBiiw of tnuisporlalion, «hoth«T rwulting tiova original 
defecta in cniutructbii or fVaiii sijb[<t«ji](?Bt wcsr and tntr 
En opomUon/ Wbilv iJi« huIvkclv bua il right to oawino 
that rolUng stock bou^iit from a ropuublo maisiifudurer 
In reotonably nillic^it^nt, unci bt not to ht ftold linblc lor 
Uteiit def«cta in tucb ^>1]Ill>;; Hiock, wbiL-Ii euuld uoi bate 
been diBCOvenvl by Ibo mlHUyor by l.bi^ i»unufjtrti>r«r» 
bj Any rtiOdonablo aiiil |/Tut'ttcji]>k- mturm of innjrtH'dQC,* 
y«t whoro ifijnry to n pki^sfliigcr rMwIUi frijin an impw- 
ibction in tbo lim\ or in iIk- m(?uai <*f tranupnrtJitioa, 
due b> fhd negligQDoaof fbe jiirly who huUt tia* ^nnid 
und fumuilwd it to tbu ruilwtiy, the ruilvny i* LinbU 
tbcnfor,' 

34(X Upon tbo prTncifklr poinlnl ont in M«My DocIm 
^uatecB V, OtbUt*' tf kDovrl<]dgu of the «xi«t»ncQ of r 

> O, ft 4 t B. R t- lL.ftil-7f ** WW^. M7' 

•QioM^CAIf te^^SK^. l.'ll; KrvDw >. CvknU, L. R A Q.ftMBi 

■L.A.IILI.ML 



S»8 



MJTT or impxcnojv. 



Viuitf of utiflcliiff iiuken tlie railway rfvpotHuUo fiir iUm 
injurnf it oocttaiodtf, it wilt be c<|unlly rapoiviUe wbco, 
bv lU Q«}-l]g«oc«,tbe«JCi«t«i>c»ortliat«ui0i>rJiikMhi«r 
19 nol known to it, nnd, of tftarm, in amJi a i«Mf, ili« 
nffgliyenoe of tbe «ip«nutcuditts oflSviab of « rail««j^ 
nnifit bp hold u> he OBgll^ocft npon tko jiart of tW 
nulvny. 

241. It lathoiltttyof di4rfli1«ay tovigiluiltviEV^^t 
iu lim artd buiMinp^ and, cut hnn biiaci iliovo, tbn taut 
tbal ftil injury vrua iminedbKl/ oausrd by an M of God, 
will nol rHicTVO tlur nllwfty, if thai injury covld have 
bMU guarded a(;aiu«L by lli« wcariM iif rare on lli« jiMrt 
of iho niilvAy. It K &l40 tUo duty of tiie rxilwoy, tK4 
only t<t l«tft its mpcbinery And oppliuncts before tiivy 
an [>Rt iDto usp, b(il aleo 10 Mt tlk^m Ooea tiisA tA tiat 
v(ibw<p)rntly, in order thut It oijiy be known If tboy m 
d«ierior&thi£ by wear aod l«ar.^ Tlie «rli«rioo uf ii«^ 
1t^nn« in such coem 10, not whoihcr xU^ pnrticvlar di^ 
fcnt, whidh WM tbo cntvtf] of tlie injuryt itmUi fiamhij 
liavo beeu detculed by llie uao of Mrtentifit; uitur* of it>- 
vmtigntioUr but wlifthor tlt4^ dofflct ou^ht in h^v^ Iwtm 
ubnervtfii praclically and by ^e ub« of ordinary sad 
r«wionabk c^rcL* fy in Ibo cBWof <ari r«cctvtd by Uio 
niilmij fruin nnoilliOT lin« for tom^rtalion trror its 
lin«, till? duty of ihv r^ilwny rnjnirvf il to BUlject 9io<h 
can tn ua thi>roufch un inipociicm n.i tbc necfwiry cii- 
gBucIea of ihe tr&ilto jifimiil ; ilius, in Kicliardsoo t^ Q, 
K. Hy/ lh(T piniiitiir, n [iiwpngvr qq tbc <lefoiiJ«m'« 
l!u«,}mdbi»ti injured by noollituoDCftUtftdbTili^bT^* 
Ing i>f tha nil« of n (-rail trud:, nuuldng from • tnt^k 
wliitih <MM)M bkVL' bi^an dtBoovcnd if the ixte )Md brvn 

* NuHT f^ S Cl Rj, S L. T. K, e t»»; T. A 9t L a B, *. 8^Vw « To. 



DCTT *tr jscurKcnos. 



Nr^wl dean or dirt, and bsdboiinviiVji'ctod toAmimito 
oxuiination. TlicJineof ihc Midland Itiulwajr con- 
necMd wUU tU« de^dant's line et ree«rb<m>D^» «nd 
nndfr a HtatiUHt' thA dcTitTidiiiifl wcrn btmiul to rv^^eiTi* 
uid forwttnj carrkxce aud Lruck« dvlu^ered U) tUeiu by 
th« Midland OonipHny, and tvsmtty to thirty thoiiNuid 
orxuo^ tnickuwemnodved at tbnt juucuon weekly arid 
furwardoil. M^d tlik purtioulur Lruole W8% brou^bt 
on th« dfil«ndAnc i liiifi at iVtor borough certain dtfirt^t*, 
in no way connecttd. Lo\r(*v«r, irjib Lli« d^ftici vrhich 
uidioataly caused Uie accident, wor» pcrccpliblc, and 
Bucb of tlip fopdira lui i*oiild be emcilc wcro laadi*- Tbo 
ejig^Dciffl of truffic prevented tb<i dof^itdBCt from mi- 
nutely esLamining the axle. TIjc jury foiiJid »pecid1y 
tliftttb« defect wliieh enured xhis atTiderU wun dis^ovfrr* 
abln by cAniftil namination, that h wra not th^ duty of 
Um dufeuduoU to uxaminc tliv uxler but tlictt it niu thvlr 
duty (O require from tbe vtb^ii compuny mymt strict 
UMmrmncA that it had Ikrrn Th<M^iigh1y mnTniiLf^d nnd 
n-|Niired- The jtidgy directed & v<?Tdi(!t for the ddund' 
ftni*, hut ih^ Court of Exchequer cnt^r^d judj;Tn«iit for 
the plfiinti^T upcin th<- gmnnd thftt ihr dAfendaotn wcro 
[le^li^enl lU not iiH.X'1'Laiini]^ that proper f-miuiiiatlou 
luul beon made before the irnck was nllowcd to proc^H. 
in the GoLirt of Apimul, however, thin jmlffmert wiii* re* 
Tented npan the gmiiiicl tliat t|j« d^f^ndiiDla wtri^ ik'I 
boQtkd to do more tbim had hwn doni? in the way of cu* 
araining lh« trnolc under the cirtTuniftl&nceB of tlieoate^ 
and thnt na llie dtfircM nhidi iVRm dwoovcnd vera un- 
ooan^ot^d «itb the particuUr d«fv(^t cutiaing the Accident, 
than WW notiiing to impnv upon ihv irltfimdantv the 
duty of making a morv mJimle laumiiiaUon thua ihv 

242. The railway U, thi-reforp^ liiibte for negligence 



^» 



DCTT or MAOnSVASi^Z- 



in ibo ongiual oonaLrttalioii, or mWqoL-Di jiuUU«ui«« 
of iu voadway/ or of ile niV «r of its liw.' or of it* 
1>TuJg«ii/ or of U« ftmhftDkm«ntK,' or of iu icnJ cnMnsgii 
of otltor Ima * r>f of )t& inritcbaK,' or i>f iia i^Uiu^ Hiock, 
bduUin^ ciira,*ctr axlcdt' car br«ke#»*' car wli«vU»*' u»i 
loccaiotir««." 

2^'A. TLtf ilulj of tlie rtilirty «teiHl« lo all its man* 
of inui8porl, vhethertba pArlirulnr lufonnvrhicb jkn>irfii 
to be dcfictout be, or be ooc, dl tbc line of the iigurj. 



lkBi^7« M. V>ii *m.u»-i\i t. A. V. B. K. » >Vi4>. 8tSM| V.C &K.*. 
ftngv. lA<;mt.'ilO;Mi»linf,9l. T.UIL R,B» K.Y.Mir, KA J. 

>llrl^'>ll fs a AO, R ]L Il,« r«V 1*3l >f. AAX.J, fc.R«. 
tt» loi J^ i C, C. C A 1. K^. t. t«<«*U. Tb IihLMJ, V Apu A fiv h- B. ' 
an : GHiit A a. U r u. A a B- B. 34 Alt. ftm 1 An. « nr«. n. IL Cm. 

im-, U<4-4ddH-..V. Y,CILK,44K. V.47«; IUpJ <l 3L Y. C. & B, U 

* Ph> C A »iL L. K. R ^ TriPiiir««h H IIL IM I T A IML IL f. Hariid. «I 
TmL M«7, si Aw. a nng. ». JL CW V^OL 

«Ori*i 1. C. A a R.*., H Kx SAI : T- W, A W.Bj.r.CMiffv, flSIlkM»j 

oiwtt*.5.y.AE t:. u.»iKdii..»sC.A«0. L«k«»ii.r-AiMtr.«i««s 

IdBl K-P. Ky. «KI1W, aroTfl.Uti JiitiWiit *,EtL J,AS.i;|L B^Ci^CO- 
AOa^S An A Enji, JLaCi»,^&l>; £L.S.O.AB.B.lL>.[UInb«^V«]f>4,W, 
n Am AKnK. )L B. l>k itiA. I\ A W, B. IL ■. JG|iir«tf, flil^ «JT,11 Am 
APuH, R-aCtalUO- 
Mli/nl^r. It RK^[ F^ni.Kc;i»: R Aie.lLIL<kANl«>ii^M t^Mi. 
m.»l , TAaNMLlLr tJallnrvn, A:JTtL4MAiB.AEi^B.B.G«LSa 
■ tinham r 0. W. Bj, U l'|i Otn (Q. R] »!*, 

■N, Y^^U KA W, IL ]L'-naii«lt*Tt-, t1 WHklf S'flMidt Ohm rftn«J 
■W7j 1* AK.I. RIC*.|jui«^taiII. 4il>- i!;,AaKR*.irartUBEHhU 
lld.airttUiJ:[ruy t^N.AL K- JE^ iCVIi, 4lJi>. ffnirtli >.»- T- A IL R IL. 
IB H- T. tSfT ; t'-xiT*H ». IV A W- R II, ** Mml 1H- 

* pHia. 0>. -, Bc^ 10? U, ti. lAl. 1 Abl A Eoc- B. a Om at ; CCC A 
LRR^Wtlnth, WOhln «(.«ai. 

■lU^ma^W, RR. IBN, Y, Ui AlHi.nnN-T. aB.B-»R. T IW; 
VohiUcAt;6«f«HllM, 4?«;0lB.A].R It * BoHttloL^^I ltli*«^ 
m % a K Bj, U IL 30 r. I', 1f«^ I C I- U M^ 

" >T. T. t, E. A W. BL H. >. DnifliBTiT. 11 Wp»kl5lffdl««' <lM»<ltaw} 
is: I l>bi-rb>hi^ARRR,«ABHUVL 

■' T. W. A W. K. R <- l^Ri^ la IR M; hm^hmA •.U-Ur^l^tLt^lK 
Ul, 4 U «TVi Jd«Iv r, £-. |{. B, tli r«M. at ISSl 

i>|bUHa^ff.Y,C All RAft,S»BUuf Xtt;MavtE.C.«:, 
BUT, K. J. Ml 



IMJTT hUI to vcakh or TlUJ^mftT. 



241 



Uldct thft manngi'nicnl of tht nulwn^, or of a third 
pftfty ; ^ tbus iu Juho v^ BucQa^' tlic dcfeudant Lavittg 
conlntct^d 10 carr^ ihe plainuff b^ stMraer frofa Mil- 
lard Hftvcn Lo livorpooit, the moi\c of trnti£t pmvidcd 
beiU]; ibal pafttcu^un eliould ^0 on Luurd of u hulk, 
Oit^ncid by n third jMrCy, nnd Tkioorfni in ihft hArl>or nf 
HUfbrd Haveti* nud t^iviu-c ciuWk on Llie dimmer -nhen 
it should atop mt rotUt iVotu £Iav«rfurd Wc«rt, Tb^ 
pliiQliff) in dMOfinding from fho hulk tc th« Jitcumer, 
fell iQto a Imtchfray ia the hulk, uc^^lij^DLly ]«D im- 
XUardcil. and aftj^rr & vcirdict for tlu! pluiuttfT 11 rule for 
a iitfvr trial w:m discbiirgvd, Ui^ grouui} of ilucbiou htniig 
that the carri«x wu ftnawnLbUi for any uuid«ijutLcy ia 
tho modiui of trttiuit rotultia^ from DCf^if^cc on hit 
owD pari, or on the part of the pereou providing the 
pftrticatAr mc^inn whoflc dirfflctiro oondition wiu tliu ca.imc 
i>f Ii^ury to the jHiafwuj^er. So in Kui^hi tj. P. 8. i P 
It. It.* H railway which had conlrtkctod to carry a. pna- 
ivsngrr purt wny by truin aii<l ptirt wny by ■ti?nml»n(it, 
wLu hvld liuhle U> him for ii^urieo cuuBcd by tt railurO 
to mftmLiiTi in goo<l rcTpnir l.ho wharf OTpr which the 
puvenger ww oomjHtlllid tu psuui in going from the truin 
to the eEjttmboaL 9o in V. dt "SL IC U. v, Howi^/ tlie 
wreeic of & freight Intio having ot/ippcd Uhj progmt* of 
& paflMiiger train at night, tho j>aM<inf;en were directod 
by clio milway'fl iiorvaiitK to Icatc their trua and to 
walk to Another tr«ia beyond the wreck, oroMing on a 
plank ot^tt a ditch, th^rclmiDg do light it th« phmk, 
smi no notice beiojc given of the nppraoch lo it> and ibe 
plalntitTin fo doing ^11 and was injnrml, and the rail- 
way TU bdd lubk thcrt-for.^ So in Hnflbtt 1-. T. &, B. 

■ Jrtlnfl;IUwi,UXACr,««T; Sniffbf, P.ft A P. R. It.M Vfe.>r : 
T.AM fi &..nu-4l4UiK301;JuBkHiK%J.«AC.a&.A6C^ 
MS, ) 4« A br It It <^ ua 
• 1* a A C, P. 447. • U tf* SM. * U Wm. WL 

•l>BlAt^Hpr<Delpt« rtww baU In NoKtif ui< v, Kjr. PM. A«b«h« 
M 



^2 



ETCl 



1^ K.,' a nttlvAj wu bcid lUblo to & poiMngcT for m- 
Jarli* rfo^ived m « rul^my omnibus vJiile on Iim nj 
Ui (he milirnj kUIioq, nmj in X. J. K. IC r. I'slntRrf* a 
Keir Jer^e; nilway ww held liublu Tor bjariea r^ 
cuTtd by a pusMingvr whiln atxKsvi^ on » forrv boat' 
from Now York lo Jon*t>" Cilj-. 

244- litiln-jiTfl arp iilju> Uahln for injurifv tvrrivAil \rf 
ihtlr ptuM!(igur» iu ^Iccpitjjz-cnrv mifl ociicr cum nm bjr 
tbc rftilvftj as A )inrl of iU truiri. nltliough (uch <*j% 
nuiy In* nwj^pi:! jtnd ninnnc^ by nn ioiicpniidcnl «OT|ii)n- 
iiuu, b,ud uliUou;;b tb(T puawuger tbuy bav« specnll^ 
oontrncMd irilh ihnl ind^'pond^nt corpnnLiipOH for the 
priviUge of riding iti aucIi cut, Thun, m Pentit. Ox iv 
Roji' liio plftiutitr, having- purtbn.acd a ucbct froai Ili« 
dfrfciKlcint, und bco<jme a puHcngcr on iIn JinCk <i1k> p^^ 
thdfli.-'d a liuket from iIhi Pullman Palace Ckr Ox, aiMl 
having Utkcn a scat in a car of tlio Inltor oompwiy^, 
yih'wU viiM run an jurt of a tram of ihe defaidaitt, wafl- 
inJurBd by the IkLliDg of a b^rth iu t)i« car, mulimg 
^thnr fn>m a dcfuctlvo CDartrucUon of Uie cttr, or fravi 
nvj^li^^ucc uu tlic part of di<* aerrauta in cbarg^ of thV' 
cnr Jiiflgmcmt upon a vifrdicl t<ir iho plninciff wm r^ 
vurw^l for uu urror iu the wiurt btlow ui admtiiing ir- 
rvlevtiiLt ovidt>itn>; but ihft liability of thn di^frtitUni lo 
tba plaintiH' wtiit ilnut iikurly auied by HarUji, J. ; '* Um, 
duty of the ruilruad i>j[u]iany waa lo convey xhn 
gcrovcr ilji liner. In porforming thut dtity, ttcoutd not, 
(<^niiiHteDtly ttltli fbi? law and the obligatiooa ariniig 
of the iiatiirr^ of itn biidinom, nac cnra or Tcbtda whcMr 
iitadc<iiiacy or inr<»fliciLH<iy, for bu1« oouvayaikD«, «ae 

O*-. 4H % T, A1A, t^>l thi- pcrxrfihl r«|ima1alivTB vf » |irnB* ki^iri I* 
pHUHu/ujirtirriBr |pj i wanvfiJiic rilI"iTiiTid aiAi&tbutl Iln*, ^ ■ t»ll cb • 
illpitfrr Blflm^tktltllpitiilkStiii fRiii>atiiv&1i4l IbUnin.stiVj nni 



iiu:Ki-iN<wrjiiut, vrc 



243 



dlsooreraMo upon the mt»i cftrrlbl and Ihotoug}! oi- 
iMMPflticm- If il c^OK to nuikc no »uch oxAininHiion, 
<ir ic uause it to be maik ; if il elected lo r«Burv« or «x* 
(Tcafw no Jiuoh control or riglit of iitR|H^tinn, from timq 
to time, of the eJeepb^^-car^ wLkh it used lu cimvL^- 
Jug p<iBflengcn> ns U &hoaM cx^rci^c over lU own <nn, 
it wo* ohnrgcfrliU with ppglijjeiiw or failure of dutjf . 
The law will ooDcliuiTiilj jTC^Huaie tLat ilio (KJiiductur 
Itnd porter, n^gncd hy the Pullmjui Pahtcrr Oir Coiq- 
pi^ny LO tUti ooEiLrol of tlie i[il«rior arratigvicf^iie of tli^ 
^•iMpiiJg-car iu wtildi Boy wmf ridiitg wlicii irLJnrf^dt «Jk- 
cnnMd mdi contrul witb tJi« oaavut of tJjc riulrDud 
,€ompany. For t1i% purpoFfs of ih» contact itndf^r 
whk^ tlie rAttrond company uiideruidk to airry Roy 
i^rer ila Uue, aud, in view of Ita obligatiou to we uuly 
care ibat wnto iid(>qi]utn f<a vnf« cotivcj^Anrf^f the «locp- 
in^-car t»m|Kiny. iU (xinduc-Inr, aad porivr, warr, in law, 
ikts »trvv^n\ji tuid viu).>loyi.^ of tlio niilruud (;oiupiuiy* 
Tlkoir i]Cfgli^nctf> or tlio ii^glig«incQ of citli^ of th<iD, 
w to any xQalt4r» iurolvbig tL« lafely or v«cimly of 
panengeis vlulo being conveyed. wv« tbe DcglJgcuce of 
tl&e nulraul ooinptuiy. Tin.* law will not pi>rDiit n rail- 
road oompany. cDgagod iu tbo buaiueesof carryiitg p«r- 
nansk for birc, tlirou^U uuy dcivico or tmngcmont witli 
B »lceping>oar oompony wjioeo can an ii»ed by iIkt 
rdlroad conpany, ud comttltuta « part of ite tr>in, to 
fivudo tlio duty of pruvidiug propvr tuvuuv for the tiHSt 
€finvoy&ncfl of tboM whom it hw: ngrni^d lo convoy.'*^ 
8^ in Thorpe v. K. Y, C. Jt H. K R R..' u piuMager, 
Uung uiukblo to obtain a 8fiat Id any ear of the trafn 
othor than iho driL wing-room cor (which wv not ownod 
nor nia[iiied by iho ruLlway)i «eai«d hinxaelf In that car. 



», Chi, 37) j Kte^ « L A. A M. 0. IL &. ISA Mm U. 



S44 



iJfFBOVSD APTLIXSttB, 



nod, baring rvfuMvl to pKy die extn fure dumiukid for 
a seat in ih»X c$j, bo vw 88MuU«d Iit iW porter m 
chflTgc of tb«l car, nod the nulvay ww beM habto to 
tbe panen^er. 

VI. THB DCTT OF TBE RAlLV.iY AS tO TH£ ASOmOK 

or tiffHovrD Ami±vct» a>d iii:Ttio£« ovoriiiu- 
Tioy. 

ttfbtfQWtd la jMlmaiiy cmfanftufr to f A/ yjjVfy ff/ rmU^tay ty mi b ' tnj , 
orr uj prfMAlunJ uH, OT»rf fvn £e mfaot luiajittd. 

24J>. TLc ai&D^d of railway ^cieuo; diaogc* &ua 
day lo (liiy with the pmgrmi of dwsormm tn adt^nc^ 
Mid tnventioii* lU the uHj*. u&O that Ayautm mid thoM 
upi^liiiuct'tt of o|>cration, whoae adofitiou siid appliotioii 
iL few ycAtn A^o were rc^nrtlad a* the lull pcHbrmftDOO 
of the nulwnj'a duty to iltf pa»eDs««B irould he. to-dof, 
considered, in the practice of vrell-inaTja^ railwaj^ lo 
fdl fnr tthort of an adMi^Qtu pi*r(bnnaDOe of tb^i doty. 
It ie obviously within the «oopa of LreaUM« upon engi* 
aearing mud \i\Mn nuln-jiy opcxatioD. and not vithin the 
tcopo of a Utr book, to pr^aorlba the particular vyatoa 
and applinncfw whit^h, ncoirditig to thn ulandArd of 10- 
dny. uu^bt to ht ^.-ufurced and UMd by railwaya. bcit it 
may bo proper to notice hej*e certnin practitaJ jxibta 
which rnilway cxpericnci; biu, up to thi« tinke, mtkb- 
liaU«d. Thv Uni point la tho oeceMitj of an LoteWKanl 
Aoancial AdminiflU^tioD bn»od upon noand pnadples, 
ibr a ritilwuy which b under the prwrnre of chronic 
p^cuniury cmbarraseDicut cannot \>e na cfQcitrjitjv opar* 
ated M aac vhoH caminj^ exLvn! iti: ncotnaiy d>>- 
burrieTrt«Til>4 for 'ij'orating expeaeoe, maintaDaooe ^f line 
and ro]liu>c ntock, and payin«<it of iptermt tipoo fuudoa,! 
debt, to 9&y iioUi1d£ of divldcnda to ehureholdcrfL If 



IHPKOVItl) AITUAXCKO. 



946 



ItH (n«lHLTrMUni*nbtn,ri>iu>gr(ULtnj:lDmvfllvctliC€TCiUon 
of tt flottliDsdubtt incurred tiir opcrado^ eiipniMe* and 
Mpedftlly ir lie omploj^« flre not promptlj uid ide- 
qofttoly pflid, it ift obviwiH thftt th« (jit« uuuuieuttoc^ «if 
line uiO rolliii^' tolix'k will be Doglect«d, nntl that iu 
Mnricj) will bn diM>rgani?:f>d. Tbr^ n^xt point w iht 
necovItjortlMorgftniciiLiuuof tli^ aervioeoftLeliMOQ 
« ^omprohmuivo wyvtnm, U Dor<bi no nrtciimeot to tliow 
that the oniplcy6a of s ruIwA^ which und^HdcM lo 
movo ft largo vMitiii« of Iradlc aro >(i hiiuit in Diimbpr, 
«ad thdr datio* ore «o voncnu, aatJ iLoao dutltti require, 
for iheir rijjhi perform«nc«« bo morh int«l]ig««nce and 
(ynocntrntioa of purpve that tlic «ai}ilciy^ anut not 
oalj' bo adL-viusMy reitiuneml<Hl, ami hjivc ibe abided 
MKitnnhiJi of antidpntrd proniolion » n rcwnrd for fniUi- 
ful scTv'mvt und of pruinpl punudiiiKnit fur tbeir uou- 
p«tfonuancc of duty, but ihoy mast aUo bv oigaiii2cd, 
tnunad, «itbj(vEc^d to diitdpllnfE. and controlled in their 
action by winely frdm^ rvgulatlona vblch w!ll, au f^r 
Mpovibin, mmiiuitotbooEcrciVof individaflldUcrction 
l^ ftLthordinnLtML Th« next point irt that u tlioroujjh 
and vi^Unt inep^ion f>f the line aod a frco luo of the 
taUftmpb In opcnlinjc it^ cvpccially if tliv block nynlicni 
be adopted and erttbrcod,w]1h to agrcat extent, diminbh 
thti danjc^T of ccptljHion on the line with cithfT moving 
or Hiatiouary obatrucliond otber rhaii duch us ne^f^tMurily 
rc«uli from want offtnring mid tlir fr^^uonfy of gnids 
Oroaaiu^; Mtxd aulomatio imiti brukis will, if ob*imc- 
ttonn bft obanrvod, «nnbla thf^ train to be brought to a 
apoedj rtop, and tbt m*>dcrti itiurBUpd milidity of iJi^ 
MTA. and thrir clwcand n^idcouphug will, If theobatmv- 
iLon be met, prereot the breaking up or tcltfcoping of 
Iha can.* Then kt^ many other poinia that might be 

' BaDnj ■dncH haa pol r« tain^ |)u jmhEm at h>*iirv <*n it «dgL k 



Me 



tKP1tOT£D AVPt^AXCm, 



nutMl. tmfh tt the twt of guArd r^k on brid^ utd 
laoknwQts; tf^c flix'nn^ of bri(l^D>r "^^ ^P^'^^^Bl 
&]liiij[ of dcrailiHl unj^noi or i»tfl tipoD lb« tnuMfl 
thsbrJdg^E IhACOiUMCtionofflidrng^wiUi tiiciuAiiilifie 
truck* ao iJiAl a tmin iciuil back in order logo tipoo tC^tj 
•Iding ; the locklD^ of aiding! w> that a Irain «aniio4 
linodlenffj movod from ihif fridingUiUwitine; l!ivnnH>^ 
in^of andsof imuiitbvilu^audligbU; tliefsuiirdiiigof 
fittitrhdi by niil.nmAiic Uirgpiii «i>d ligliu^ &nil tlii« oper- 
utiUQ [>f i!i(? U&« upoa thtt block >jr¥lffni, and bj U»e 
gf inicrlo<?kii;g eigaali wlioee nomaJ conditkm 
danger, AQil vrhicli cnn only ho morod to lafrly by Icrctv 
work«d in tbe block Loima.^ Y<4 It eaunot b« li 
ddwn a* n gicncni) nil« of bv that tbe ditty r>f (ttvi 
railwuy to iU jjaaamgAm require it to nloji in iu m*' 
linrty the «y«l«ni of operalioD and tbe aj^pliaocce 1o 
wlticb rcfurtDgv biu htxn made, gr apy otW j(J>(i^ixi 
appliaD(?«B» but It c&ti ouly bv aaid, th^t if h bv proi 
ihnt Qny partiriiUr npp1iMnr<i or method bHTing 
U-9lt;d und itjuud to tiiutcriuJly contribute; to ibv Aafvl 
of rftilwny ofterntioni*, I« in practical Cf^b could htvt 
Wu Miopipcl by ibr rnilwiti,y> am) if adnp1«d »o«i1d bai 
piuvc'ut^'d tliv Injury lo ibe pluiutifH il la tli«u for 
jury to di^tc-trainc, wli<-i.hcr or not tlio £kilar« to adr 
tUdt particular uppliuaofi or method «av.nci(I«r nW tbe 
oircoinslnnccc of the cH«c, ii^^Hgcncv upon ibo jiart of 
ibc railway.' The rule on tbitimibject bvell illtucmtcd 



<H«a1lirr;-i'lUftwiLTApi.]Ur«rA^tft*'2CoM«D]Uiln»4. 
> Fn«m.ml> c, L. A N W. hr. :«> Cl a It fi. «a, KA F. C U^ rH4a,t;i 
&KW IV. ?F Ay rAi}- nvwMU>.W«iHniERO>r]--nlk<LlJX-T- 

* I'ltrhhnrflKTpJ* A^IWST; l.pa*nn> *« Kaa IkdM F41TT IX II Id. Mtj 
Uti^ '. V. a R. M PftoL a. S» J F A aTtorriia- T^ >- P. A T- R tL, 
Jit. IW ; t.. A II It IL I*. l\*k, ftl Id X^i y. Y. L F. 4 W. B. & 
UudMhntTH 11 W. y. a 4^; I, A Q. HI. Sr. h lUUm, M Ts<- 4<^S AlL 
KDfrLKCta.>U|tlnWhX,V<:.aaj9K.Y.4a«;E.ca&>,r 



mrUOVBD AI<PL1A3CCISB. 



MJ 



by tbc CMC of Prcenuntlo v- h. iSt N- W. Ry^' in 
wbluli Uie guneral oliligulion of Lhi) raiUHy as lo dxr 
sdopUoo of iiaproToJ nppliaoow wiv iliwiuwd with 
ipodul rctvnuue to lajury to proporly cuuBi><i hy fire 
CommuQicstfld by sparkB w^iiapirig from an engine. 
There wu contrndictory cviJcucv ia the {:utuie tut to iliti 
nivde of couatruction of the en^Lue, ihe spaikB fVom 
whicli nin«n4 tho fire, lu rj> tlif: Miffiulrncy of iui AppH- 
■ncMi Cbr (bu prvvcutiou) of the uinuHiou uf Jijiurkj), uid 
M to tbtf poeNibility of prevonting th^ir cmiMiou by tlio 
nw of iip|i!iiinci!d^tlu^ thjin thoac ivhich were u»ed. 
Willianie, J,, dlractcd dio jury diac tbo railway "lu iLe 
OQntniotion of tlicir otiKina arc not oniy bmitid to tnn> 
ploy a\\ due aare^ und all Jul* akUl for the prov^ntjon 
of TOiAcbicf occurring lo llic property of ofbcra by the 
emiwion of »pttrk< or any ulher cuwatf, but ihvy arc alvo 
bound to avail tliom^elvc* of all the di?Lcoven€« wliloh 
ftCiMce has put witHin their rnacli ri:ir ibot parpoee, 
provided they an> auch u^ under the circuinHtmieo, it 
18 reAHottahle to rinpiire th* company lo udopL For 
vKuinpIu, if tile dnnpsr lo be avoided vrtru iDaignillcnnt, 
or wry unlikt-ly to uocur, nad i\iQ reiu«dy HU^^>4tcd 
wcru Tory cionlly nr vwy trouhlfwmnr, or mv.\\ an ini4>r- 
ierad uwtorially vrit^theefticit'iit working of the co^me, 
tlioo you vill have to eay cvh^ther It eouM ivaaoiiaMy 
be evprpted that the company tliould adopt »uch ft 
maedy for eucb an evih On tlie other'hand. If the 
ri.ik wirrc cgnsicUirablv, and if the vxpcnnc or trouhk OT 
ioconveai^uoe of providing the iviiKfdy ia not great, in 
proportion to llw^ riak, Ihvn yoii would bav* lo Bay 
wlu-ther the oompauy e<juld rLMUKJuubly b6Cxout4uJ from 



mi brt3^«LaK.R,aerjt.iKtj x.a j, & r. >. ifd!f«u, « m^«i^ 



246 



Ulpfil>rB> APTUAJKO. 



arajliuc themflelvcB of vudi % nsmcdf , bvmne It mig]>i» 
to eoiue exUot, be stMndod vriUi coM or oUtcr dvadvnti- 
1a^ Io tbcnkfclvt*." Aha ft verdict for iKo ploictiC i 
rule for a new trial on tli«» groQAd of mbdirertion wi 

246^ b b wld Id oone eoaes, ihit Ui» dutj of tJtf' 
railwii^ doM not roquiro it, lor th* mke of UMldag 
truvtil oio lU rojid Irva from pml, to locur « dugroe of 
•zpooao vhidi would r«ud^ Uu opomion of its 1m« 
ifDprmfttinUslo;' yet it may bo qiwvtknied wboU>er tbv 
co»l of (be adopiJoQ of new ajapl^cc* or moika of 
opoTRtioD, CAD bo Inlcn into coa^dctntion u ah oltf> 
inent io dctcnniniDf tbo duty of tW nulmjr* for if 
Ili«ir adoplton be Deoraeory to lliv mf* ofmnuioQ of tlic 
line, the tuilwiy ougbt to bdopl tboia vb^Eover tbor 
oocrt 

247. The oxiivnt of tb« ftpplicntioe of thi» r\ilo b, 
counWi dcpcn<lcnt on tbc CutM of tbc putknUr 
A ntv]y rxiDeiriicted rolWy Lbe, o«ped»Uy if Uid oat! 
tbrougb n thinly Hf^tlnd tnmtnry, mnvirtg btil 1illk» timf- 
lie, uml rutmin>c iw truiuid zit a Junr rattr orv|iv«d« fmBord 
U.-L'i|ject«dtobe€lthi^rcquipp«^iioro)iofittiyl ui prtcj«ely 
tbc f-umi^ manner on ik Qcr««ury in tbr cok of ft rmil* 
wny whicli ujov^ft ft Ifti-ge x^^liuue of Uaific, tlmnigli a 
aetllod country, nnd wLioh lunn iCa tniinf) •! a bigb ruto 
of ip4H>d- It luhy woll b« h«ld timt til* Utt^nuflitMiood^ 
rai1i«ay ia negl;g<?nt if ir fail^ to adopt vmy ftppllftiii 
and rvrry mcllioU uf opcruliim vrbich Lm* b<«fi proved 
to coittlutw to the b&Uty of paMUig«ift; v-btlo in 
caso of thn flrAUniontioDcd rniliviiy, it> ftpplimiias 
metbodft of opcrutioiL ucvU ouiy he mob on tbo 
onO0 of wi'll-m!in»g(^ milwavn ban Abovfo to b« cwontlil 
to ihv iiulc oi>cniLi(>n orKucli u line If any noratfrhi- 






Tt 



ii£FBovsi» A>*i-ij4xcaa 



dift 



ffftM nilo limn thu !■ colbirocd. nil nulwajn BoAvither 
bwomt ififTurenKifllifiB^f^l^ of tlitfir |»frf wugenor <MM 
Ihdr opcralioru. If ndc^unlo ta«U of tnal ftzu! u«e 
have *hown thttt nnj purticulur uppljaoco or mclLod of 
operation will malerially i«nd lo Aecnro fjie safetj^ of 
[lUiBngcrB, it niuy wull bu held that the fitilnr^ to adopt 
it b u^^llgtfuca on the [larl of the niilway. But mil* 
wajfl are not co bo <*xpfl<nfld tOA^nil LhtMi^Hi^lrm of every 
aiTW mvpiitiim thai U Wau^^t to tJi*--ir tjotu^. The 
ttuggUBlr*il imjiruv^mcnt mii^l iiavc ]inAt:>J heyuttd iha 
ttftg* of f^xp^Timcat, n:id itii thfomticnl nifRdency mu^t 
hard r«cviv«d the ee^l of a recognhux! pntcticul effi- 
ciency before ft rnllwuy onij bRhcfd tic^li^riit for fruliug 
lo adopt it. While on the on« han<l the evidf^vc of 
this recogttitjoo cfLnnot b? found in tht* fihct that unt^ cr 
<rvnQ tome rallwayv have a<lopted the imiticulnr ftppli- 
uiioe, BO, on fh« other hand, tlie fact thut ftlhi-r rnilnui^ 
linve not ailopled it U oot conchiKLv« proof (hal it i>u;;}ic 
not to lin^'c hecD ftdoptod m the purticubr cujki ; und 
ih^ tMt in any f»uoh oau> la, wharher or not th<} par* 
linilnr nppjmnru ht of rcM-'Oftnixt'd olTii-iiry, nnd, iimW 
liIcQ oujiditjoua* in general ubo hy wtll-uimiiigtd ruil- 
wajft. In ihi' npplicfliion of thfup prinoiplw it ia to be 
homn in mine!, thai, lu ordtfr to hold tbi; milwuy linblo 
fur u«^ltg«Qce in failing to ndopt and pot Into pnicti<<ul 
oprmtion any *p«olfic applinDce or method of oi>ornlion. 
it miiitt b« ahonn th^t ihe a^loption of the purtiiuEir 
■pplkaoG or method of cjpf<tniion wuitM Itavc prevented 
the injury to iLe plaiutllT, nnd tlmt a vull-niami^id 
milw:iy wonl>l, haviTij; tv^rd Id tbo vilnntion of rlie 
particuUr nilwiiy and th* volumo of traffic- whkh it 
moveil. h^To adnptj^d ihi? particnlar appliauciCL 



fiSD 



mAU/WAV BKOVLATlOVt- 



Tu. luiLWAT Kwrution i« AmDcnsco rumrG] 

2^ It U botb tlia right tad tlie dui; of Ibir nllirfty 
to iiiivk« rt^kliuQi fur the Mfe coaduct of its 
but thote regiilnliouA ibiut lie rteaoiiabU in lliMnwV 
Aad intut be to publuJicd, tLui ■!! pcivons vrbo afii to 
tio jA>ot«d ibereby, m&j hiTe tn opportuultj cf Imth- 
iiigttK*cxixirni:wanddW<if«iidi n^lAtkiM.' ^1im« 
Uie n-^ulutiuus uit\ iu tlicmvdva^ mvoouble, tiiid Emvo 
bocn pfxiporl^ piibli^bcil, tli« pa8MEngi>r is bouml to 
inronn himiNJf » to tbcur dlbctn and li« mnit oonibrm 
lliproio:* llius. Li Sullivttii f, P. A R, R. K* Wt>oJwBrd, 
J.» «mL tbtt pfuvonger'ji "conMct b implied u> &1I tbA 
coni|ia»y'0 mu^outtblv rulo and r«gul*tionii for entering 
oceup>'ing, and IcnTiog thrir cnra, sad \f ii^tur befall 
Him by TtioHon of Km dttrcgoTti of r<^Uatioiui which uv 
i«c«8wrj to the oonduct of tb« buHinwcv ^'^ Cf>mpfliiy 
Arc not linblt^ In dnniRgfs, frren tbongh tho n(<glLgriu* 
ot tlitflr aervviti coocurmd nilb hitf owd n«gli>;i>oc« la 
producing tlie mischief/' 

24U. There Ji K)inc eon£Jct in the cams upon the 
quenllori s« to the dctprmfnttion of clio r^uonablcDtM 
of imy pHrtiitulnr tvpilniicrn by th** t-ourt or bj thr Jiifj- 
In Bome «[*«' il is bvlJ, Ihul it i^ for the court 
to di^r^rmino wbfthrr flny pAHiouJflr rof^iilfltion JBrcn- 
nonublt In otber cajftrt it in held» thjit ibe jury w th« 
ftppvoprmic trJbuual for tho deltmumAlion of tbtt qii«»- 



■ WtlijaaTd 1. C A N. W. B. Bh W !"« )t4? SDnivtB- P. « ft. S.fc, 
Sn I<am4. I<4. XU I ]-, IL K. t. X«K Lt M KB; I*. K. It <k U<Oii, M U- 

sDi i PoiMiu P. R Rh aft Ji 4U : c a a t- 0««. ?5 M. «tl : 0*1 

f. A, V, H K,C^ RnVjCwO i^RRk^M IJ. I3«i ILA >L &K. 
B»> n H«b. in. 1 An, d Htw a a Cte IM, 

^^M IL H.«Kd.e.liy*tLlT?,IAa.dParlLTL<:hLffiL 

■ rrii^vtina ■. n. t, iA k i:,r, u x. v«ut i** v.B.wu*.Whakm 

H U- llVus.} It% 18 ij». d Ens B. &.<^U;. 



B&ILWAY BKorJl^UCVI. 



201 



tion,^ The laat dt«d gum iroulil »e«iii t« enundflte the 
soaadcr Jociriae, eapeciaU; In toscs whcro itc niilvmy 
haa Dot been bv liUituic «n)pov«rod to impooe such rvg- 
uWiuiu upon iCfi pttBttoigbm, fur tlierv ae no aiiaJof^jr 
bt^tnccQ rftilwbv rogiilH(i<>n)inB aflVclm^ pnnwngon*, wlio 
arv dLmiigt-rv £q tbu ruilnny CNirpomlion nvd ordicmry 
o>rporai« bj-UwB aa allHcUiii; meiuben of l1i« oorporo- 
lioa- Wlnjiher or not Any prtrtkulHr rjiilwny r*gulii- 
tiour iu aB^tiii^ ibc! action of a piuMu^vr, impOMS A 
proper r^iH^riuci upi^ii tliut pflsaeni^er'B iDd«peii4tMioe 
of Eiit^dnn, can <nt]y b« drU-miini-d iipon n fH^nidilerAtJOii 
of till- oircanistuiicui uf tbr {wrliculttr cum;, aciU for vucb 
n ooD^Meratioii the jur^, rutli^ir than the ju^1|;^ voold 
veecn lo bn the pmppr iriUjnnL Tho foltcnin^ rrguJii" 
lloiu bit« bMU hvU to bt< reiuiuoubU : n-Hjuirm^ piu* 
c«ogl»ra to ttaioT tha oui> oiily rxi>Di tbo «iatioi) pUt- 
farm ;' pni«cnbing the place and tQuDtirr of Itaving the 
curl:' forbidding p)i£«ungfTra tri rifle in b:tj;g)tge can, 
ctc^;* forbidding paaaeu^vra IVoin puitJuj^ tbcir arma 
out of Oir windowa,-* forbiddin|c pfuwi^ngcrR lo ride on 
phitforina of cars;* proviiliug tbtit BpeciRfil Iraine fthall 
Dol »top at pjtniculAr »ilAtiuij#;' forbiddiDg pawongen 
Co ride oa frvi^bt tmiiLK ;* perniittiiig poacngerv to rida 
on IVeigbt traiua only upo[i certain fipudfied ouDdUiona.' 

■J«^B.09lwiu! Si)mi»r UxL^BUkt* i.OtBdaii,* X(K4AA; Btmw. 
CAM- W. Uf.M WbbV^n; iHj * 0>«, « Midi. 020, 

• Milbtinia w-C A 7i. W. IE. Jt, -ia Icf-a J3i. 
■ P. K. U. r &bD, SA PeniiL Si. S^ 

'■P.«G.R.IL»^ MdHurt. Vie l-onft*. ^ W*. 

U -lA. A Kits H, IL Ui. I»4. 
>T>ulU<u£v '. E.T, V.A9.B.ft,U TvnuOHH; Bwobvap ^I-AOl 

> iiiBKh p. iMt R, 3D »- n. y. 

• IL A H H. R * Itim II V.b. irr. 1 Aq. 4 Bnjt K. B. CW. nS: L 4 

XC.Rft.»[iLra;&AA. ii a FFivr.^i>i»M: 0,cx*cb.&il 



202 HAILWAT SEOULATIONB. 

250. It is tLe duty of a railway to enforce its rcgula 
^onp;^ and railway servants, by petmitllng tlie pafiii*:a' 
gers to dieobey ri-gulations, will makt lIiu railway liable 
for injuries cttU3f?d to pitsecDgcrs by such Jisob&dieDce; 
but the Berrant's diepenaing power does not apply lo 
regulatioDH wliiuh forbid a passecgtr to occupy a po**i- 
tioQ of danger. Tbua, in P. R. K. v. Laugdon ' where 
the plaim.itF'fl decedent had been injured while ridiug 
in the baggage car^ iu TiolaLion of the company's ruiea, 
a reojfonable view waa taken sl-j to tiie cooJuctor'g die- 
penfiing power, Paison, X, diHtinguiflhIng between rules 
which have regard to the convenience of the railway, 
Others to the comfort of the paBsenger, and yet oliiere lo 
the safety of the pa^eoger, mid holding that a oonduc- 
ior cannot, in violation of a known rule of the railway^ 
license n passeuger to occupy a place of danger so ns to 
make the railway res^ioneible. Of cour^ that disobe- 
dience upon the part of the paBacnger to the railway's 
rt'i^iilrLf.i'^iijj, whidi is ti." relieve? the jiilter from the con- 
sequences of the negligence of its eervanta, mnat be • 
disobedience which is a projimate cause of his injury. 
Thus, in P. R, B,.v. Langdon/ the passenger was tidinj^ 
in the baggage car, and was killed by reason of being 
there ; while in L. & B. R. R. v. Clieuewith/ the plaJn- 
tift's freight car was, in violation of the ruleSi attached 
to a passenger train, but the plaintiff was injured by 
reason of the negligence of the engine-driver in run- 
ning over a cow upon the track. And in Creed v^ P. 
R. R,," a passenger, in violation of rules, was riding in 
a caboose attached to a mijed freight and passenger 



^ BritUm r. A. A C A L P^, St N. C. liSe, IS Am, A Bug. R. R. CW. 
■ 9£ Fenu. Bt. 21. > 92 F«uu. BL SL 



^ L> 



^Ifr 



RATlOtlB. 



US 



ILD, but tl;« j>o«iikiii of the p M >eo g < j iru not tbo 
cause of hu jeOutj* 



TOL ffTATtorc Appftcucns, ptAtPonus, Ain> jam^fom- 

251- Th« railway h liable for Degligeoce m iu con- 
stniotion of« or iaitare to rrpalr, iu ntulion jtp|iro7u^hcf,* 
Thujs, in Longmore i<, 0. W. Ry./ tliH pUlntifl^ ricc^ 
difikt, while on hi« wnv Eo tUp Jcrjuilant'^ hooking ofSce 
at a vtatioQ on a moonUgbt night, in <!rouiDg a wociUcd 
brid^ over llie dffecihnt^a lice, fell ihrougli an aper- 
ture in thr xide niiling Jind wnfl kilted, und tho drre7id<* 
ant wjuj h*ld linbJc, upon ihe ground lluil the Ji;fwt ww 
DOl patent, nnd thnt it wn« for ibo jury to<lotonnia« 
irhotbirr the bridge vrns rcjisnnnhly tafc. Sa, in Burgnpp 
II, O, W. Ry-t' lilt' plaintiff, clwiifiiig n'iriMhmcfnU, hav- 
ing alighted al fl Blation where be was 1o change care 
after dnrt, and iho fliirrcnindingR of thft stAtion not being 
lit, prtx-unnl a |>oritr with a hiDiern to ahfiw the vtuy U* 
a public hottee. While there he heard a train bell riog^ 
and, harrying ht^ek by the mc»t diriH-t line to the tram, 
and tniKtalcing th« engine light for that of the atation. 
Cell into a ditch oo the defendant h pramiaoi and wu 
injures], Afltr vcrdicl for tlie plaintiff, u rule lor a new 
trial was refiured. The raDway la al^o liahle for the 
rf««onablo sufficiency of the approoobca to a tolegmpb 
cffieo at El fftutioD.* 

B>&, 4er^T. Hf^T C< A L C L K. vl runU. H1 lm|. V»\ IWtfira t. 
l»4?l. H.K.103U-AKTTI Hmrtwlf « U A N, W. 14r* ^^ Win J .■, 1 
Aa.a£vf '^B.Ou.e»:T«bint.P.a.«F.&a&»»a ISA- l'..Fi^h *; 

B.aA,K.mii»MwMeE iKikr*<, X, Y>c.iL ii,m n.rb, :ro, jioff. 

CL Wj <tbialfr r. n A M K, R, W Hi. MOi Uagmon •. 0. V. IL^, l« 

•4CR:t.a.M^t»&aL 

• a^ua >. L. L m. ft, n !i. r. 0C0L 



iVM 



VTATIOSr PLATTOBJO- 



262. It b the «lii^ of Ui« nUwitj to proviiie, at iBi 
fftattou, rtMonablo aecoromodAtiocw for wAJling f^mirt* 
£i*»; artti UtenUwaj Lb, tlii«rt1i»«,1UM«rur ni^l£g«tice 
wIlIi rr|:iir^ to its 9Mum building*,' unnalB,'aDil ttstios 
platrormo^* Tlw milwajr k dso Iial1« for negligence i& 
formiUiog niov aemI ioe to remain on ita etailim plit- 
formi.' Tlic milnny a nlvo liable lor injuricn rcnllifij; 
from iu failure to adeqnatoly lE^lit iiH dttlioua mid pUt> 
formj<.* Tina, in BcanJ r. CX A P, it R. R,.' tbt imil- 
wuj wiL» bvM Utibic to u pudbengor iigur^ by (kUi&g ia 
tbo dark 'lovn An uiiUl euiTway on lUe T«Iln&y*« ptw* 
tHca from the»tntj:>n platform lotKRfoiblicHgiivny.tlM 
etAire bttviu^ U^jo oouBtmctiHl bj ad exfirttRt 0(ini{i«aj, 
but tli«r« bcii^ DoClking to uoxlfy ]in»f^g^» iliAl tJbe 
etAirs were not intoniled for tJiolr uNft. RaUvaj* arc 
nho Uabl« fur u^jurii^ 10 jtt«(fDg«» cauMxl by obttntO' 
Uonp upon Hifttion plaTfrtrmn. Thua, in Alartin v. G- Jf. 
KyV thoplitinUff', hnvin^iLTrinxl jit th« defifindimt'ft tt^ 

B;r>lf^C,n, IT^Hl K i; l^ itul atKo Uin Jal^mnlnr limti^ J. b Vb' 

ibt iHi «iit4 wo (Q 3 TMr, uy, <te «n 

• H^iKo^ T^ M. a K.K,t.\ Ukh, OOL 13 Ad, A bif;B. a. CkL Sft 
■Bnwilr 3f. r.C.ArLK K. 44 ?;, Y. Ill ; Duhk^ki t. Bl«p» S« U 

UfT)aim]d^,(IAN\ W. Rr. aalDnlH-EO U 170; A. L^ 1- U, jfc A KH 
I'. 0»iirvl], ir Apt AIV.M Am, AKii£,IL & Oi. )»1 ; rit R. » IIvbAhh^ 
Al Iwnn^ HI. £ie - 1a 4 S-IL a « Wolfk. 80 Kf. H* A An^ 4 K<«. K R- 
01^036; T.W.AW.B7.t.<inilu«Tta3D3f UHumb*. V. J.E.B,«tAi. 

78. 

B<-T4rW'r 70flj W«Mnn n, \, Y K IL U. T:i K V. ATA 

>|{>n»Jtor>.AL.a a.UO RliBDd (H. a> St»; ^n»*rtfl «; L A A )L t/, 
BSTa.W^fl.lKLA^. K. BLCm 4»T- rftTlf" * ft A A. R E. M 

ibKUOt DHfdhC.Aiv It, a,,«« VLtoi. Knifftii'vr.H.A r-ie.iL,a« 

Kk W; ?Mt« f. C. A F?. W. Rj.. as WW ai4 ; PbiIb r G 4 1?. V, B^, 

lb tK. P, U. A M. Kr. AU Ulbn. »U0, |« An, 4 &^ O, R. CM^ Uti Qh»*^ 
•«V1.101- 

■»a&nvk6JB.at^ 



flTATlOlf n,ATPYiKll8. 



265 



titbin lm> miixiitn «>f ihp Lime of departure oTlik 
tnin. In ruoniag along theJinc in thrdnrk, bejond tho 
HUtioQ phifurm, ia order to reach the triiin. Ml over a 
^ilih bmndlo ftod w injored. No quwtJou of ooo- 
tributorj o«f;Ugtncc was nu«6d in iht cnunr^bnl thed^ 
fbnoo V1U rented pntir^Ir upon the giouud that tho 
pUiniiiT'fl ncgligcncD hud bt-on tEio«xdiiidT«cniiiu>of tM 
awideut; nod the jur^' buviii^ fuuud & verdict for 
thri pUiniiflTa rnlf fbr a dc-w tri:il wiu rtdW(L' 60 xa 
NicliuUou i'< L- & Y. Rr-,^ the rmlwujr ww hdd liublo 
to a plamticr wbo had been put dowa fruui the dvfoQd' 
aat'» tram at a atalion* and tbe usual plnoe of egr^ea 
beitig blocked by aDotbcr ir^iu, in altemplJEig to pM^ 
behind that other tmin, h? Mumbled over sonic hampcra 
iffbiuh bad b*fu pat out at its rear onrriage, and waa 
tbnroby injuivd. 

2o3, XUU^riLya are aW Liable to puacageni on ttatloa 
p]atfl>rrtiH for Jojoi-jea catined by obji!ctii no^ligenlly 
thrown or titUihg from pCMing trnioji, rs» for iiutanc«, 
■tick* of vkXKKl.* ar miiil bui^n.' Iti Rilc-y a atid MiuDu'a 
caeea, the railway was UM Vinhh hprajinr. the nog?igenl 
aciH wprv doniT by tta ncr/iuxt. and in Carptntrr'j und 
Snuw'a c»a«a, the luall hu^ baviir^ been Llirowu out by 
potfu! ngi-ntfl, who Wfrrn not pprvnnts of ihf- railway, Iho 
railway wn^ held hablc btfOLuite it had reaaon to appre- 
hc^ud t]i;Lt iiuil hogi would bv thrown IVom the pMalag 
train on the partimlnr platform on which the injury 
VM done, und it waj, iber^fare, bound to guard paMi^n- 
gen on its platform trom the danger of being etnick by 



B/« « R A N. Til. 
•J. kLA I. IL L t Mtfr. H lAd.Ul;T. W.AW.Rr.^UilsmaT IJL 
<tk^tr*.r.H.iUl» M Ml »3s ta Am, A Krv K HCteTflU Chtri™ 



mall U&. 'Xhti doctrtM of U>«M cues ii funlier'Si 
tmu^ bT MiiAUr 9. C, M. A &1. P. %.,■ and bj Wal- 
lon <j. n! Y, <X B. Cl Cx,' in tiie fonu*r of iBluch 
Uio nilwity *ru held aot u> bo Itibk Xo a nrrvHiU niio,' 
whilo&twork on&Aisiiou pUltbnn, «jui iiijuml bjr ^ 
mdl iMig UirowQ from a pbniag tmio, U Imu>^ 
ttiat tbc ruiwAj- hwl no reuoo to ftpprt^ond ttwt tni 
hop vouM bn thrown on UiaC particiUttr plfttfonu ; 
in iLiu tuuor uf irbich cn«u», Utu nuLway wu bdd 
lo be linble for iqjurfee fo a pasBonger upon a 
plutfurm, majH^d by tlie net of s porter oi a pHvutc car 
In ibri)WLug. foi ItLs ova touvt>niout.-e, upou lite 
^fbrm frnm a pflMiing tmin, a bandU of aoUod clodii 
the porter not being a verranl of the nultray, and tbe 
railway having no reason lo appreliend tliat sodi ft 
ncx3T)^nt act would be done. Of Aoane, wh«rc the 
ariid^ whicli flow the ii^nry aiwidenlally Ial1« from • 
pji»iiTig IntLD, or nberd the iz^arrd pwoni)^ w evn^^ 
trihulonly negligent, tbo railway «anoot beheld Ikl 
for his it^nriM.' Railwaya sre alao liable to patsooi' 
hinfuUy upon th^r vtatlon pJatfornw, fur injitritvcntixd 
by \\\(^ oarol»wneB& of Htvo roilway'a pervnnia in nH>viiig 
or hnrtdliikg luggage.* Ruilway* are liulile tn pa^ 
vn'iij^rs on dtatiun pliiiformu if tber are ^ruok. by a 
pnjwin^ trnin, nnr pnrr nf who»e nngin« at mnt projecti 
OTcr tbe platform.^ If tlit-re be do platform at tke 
tmiu'e alopping-plnc^, tbc milway i« nt^ligent if lb 
eerrantMdo not unit pttaMogera to alight, and If, for 
want of Budi awiitaaoc^ a pMien^ in uligbting bt 



•laUMnKAAa, Am. A Eiije. R R <:te ,«Mb 
< O. ^ IfL K, K, * OiiLMl, ]£ Ind, 4r. 
• TpblmU h ft A E, Br, L. R. e <t. B. 7S. 

MLULM-AflRr,?lt1tfii.»^>AB.A^a.fi.CKMAia« A. It 



wtAnem ArvMOAfcma> 



sn 



ii^oml vitliout huh oil lile ptn. ihxt railwAj is hahW 
(0 tiim in dAmaga ihcnrforJ 

254, Wher« the urrunRi^^ut of a Matlou la flucli tli^ 
ft ptmAngt^r lia^ to citmu n track, either bafdr« enicrittg 
or tiftcr IcATing ihv c^m« bu Iiu3 n rigbt to bssiudc tLflt 
tliat track may Ix? croMeit ^fi^Iy, uud tJio rallwAy i« 
liable if ho bo iitrurJ; bj » tnun moving on th*t track, 
wbeti hu b appifjucliing or kuvlng tk^ can or 4iiaiiou* 
A* Andrc-ifffi, J,, nnid in Urnfsrll v- N. Y. C. *fe U. 
R* R. R^,^ '""a |>iuui(!u;;urp wlieu Inking or It^aring u mU- 
road cnr At a statigo, haa iho ngbt to assume tbat Uta 
ooiQ[miiy will not «kih)» bim to unnwcmnry dangt-r; 
ftiirl wWih b4< muHt biii;n«[r ox^Trciae r«a«ODab]e cftr«, bis 
nuiibiuhic^ ix nuturully diminubod hj bia rvUnnra 
opoD tbe dincbfir^'e by the conipanv of Ita duty to p»- 
vengrrs CO provide tlicm -mih a Kife pnssnge to and fViQiu 
tbt irjim." 

2o5. or oouraG, a r^ilwaj is not to be beld Uable to 
Hvc ptisfsn^r* at iu utation* or on Jts prcmifiv, far 
ii^uri^x whjcb do not rusult troiu ita ui>g]i^i>ucv ; tbtih, 
m Cnrnman t\ T-1 C Ry./ tbo plainijfi' Imvjng gonc^ in 
<thti daik to a luggage oouuter upon lii^ arrival at the 
d«fcnJant*ii glalLon, in ofdor to get a parcel, and nb'de 
atanding tkere, a train baTing come in und n crowd of 
paMBagvTB pasui^ out forced tbe platnlifT a^iiat a 
wdgbing macbine^ in fallinfc over q-bich he wiuj injiirod. 



■ >L A G H. K. «. WhUHolil M MIk 4U, 

• BflffHi f; a, Rj, VS L, T. N. 14. 1JV i Ww«) t- F. K. K. tt AUba ST ; 
<imynarw.O.C* S tt- IL, IflO MMt, lOftj T*«7 * Jf-fik T* 7C, T.tU; 
bnHU*N. T.CAII R a IL, M Id. IHI.H Ab.a Q« E, n.CW»Ai 

JvwfU. M V. J, Kq. IT« ; Xvt^nmt *. X, Y. C.a H. R A. O, «4 :f. T,I53A i 
a. <k ly a. n. -, Kw. i>* u^ <-t Huwr, «n Wd. «I0. 13 Aa, a Kn* R K. 

100 Id. 303: l'bml|i« T. R. a a. R, iL.r^T B^h. 641; sd- ^^ L4VlLB.% 

Hndfii-Hs 1^ iBd. an. 

IT 



258 



AOCEDEVTUf nJ1J1tn« AT fTATIOM. 



afWr v««nllct for the pIstctUT t nile vu made ftbeolvlv 
Ibr BOcvtHAl, on tlic ground that tbera vm nocri- 
dffioo of n«f-ligenf!« f>D tlie prtrt of th« nJlirftj. So, in 
Craflfr r, MciropolitAn Ry-»* ih(? plaintiff, n frciiiicni 
tnvvllor upon tlic di^renduut'fi imin, in itooanidiiig a 
■Uircsao ]eia<JinglVom lh« highway to lb« dtftnduil^ 
plmliboiD, Flipped upon ibccaain^of the «t«in«, wbich 
was of hnm, originally rcagb, hot nnooth hf oomatani 
tiHL Two vitnfntfH liaving teHtiBvd UuM tliv vtainrnj 
wan unaafe, tieuiuHe ibe caaiuf ibooH hare been of 
laad notbrfuw«a%-rTilirT, pAfVod Ibr tb«T plaintiff, Nit a mW 
for a uoiiiuii vaa mud*^ abiioltitt for *vaut of proof of ifo-i 
feodant^fl neglige nf<^' So, in Toomcy t*. L. R A 9^ (X^ 
Rj,* where on u rrbLtion platform there were two ik»n^ 
tb« one liftving pft-iutj^l over il the w<>rd9. " For geville- 
men," and ihe other hnving pointed over it the vrord* 
" Ijimp-room/* and a paflseoger intending to go U> lh« 
urlnaU having opened rhc <nh(^ of thf two doora. All 
down aome alcps uud wjls iujured, it nta bclU lliai tlie 
railway waa nol liahle. So,in PoTr*ri»,W. A W.K R.,* 
thr miiwny wiiB beMnot to U-HublurorifijurioiaMiMdlo 
a girl hy her Tripping over fl mil od n track which th^ 
waa croMiDg m order to board a train. 80, in Wellaro vl 
L. A ILBy.i^ it wae proven that ihe plaintiff wont to tbe 
ileSsiuiant*a Btalion as an intpmltne pnEScn^crH nnd, hnr* 
ing made aome inqmri4i4 re^pecTing tht* dt^parture of 
tfaa traioB, and having been diriccted by the: dclVndanr^ 
portor to look at a iiine-tablo Auqiendrd on tho wall of 
Ih-? portIeoortbeaTftlion,wa8» while looking at thoiimft-, 
tahU\ inJuriMl by u plunk und roll of xiuc wbidi broke 
tJirough the roof and fftll upon h\m. and through the 

■L.1L1C.P,300, 

•eHCrwhrmh r. ?f. t^ 6 1. K«77, riA N. Y. M«, In *]iLch the fiHUvas 
f'-f'*" ubd (S* Jadifmail >lv Cor iKe d^frtdxat- 

>1ttKC.ML,!Jl Afa.aKog-R. ELCulVB^, * I.. R. « Q- B. OSS. 



juCdMMTAL nrjuBiai. 



259 



it vu observed tkat b man iru ou the 
inm, J», aoiuuit«d the pUintiET, and tli<> 
Que^u'd Btudi Tt;ftiwd to take Dfl* the aoiuruit, holding 
that the railway couM not be held Ikble fbr th« dofto- 
tivu coiuUtioa of th« roof in th« nbAAhOftof proof of 
kuijwled^', or lutiuiirt of kouvr]v(lg« or obltgpiJiHi to 
know ihtf siAiooftLo roof, und that, as rogarda Any po^ 
ftibk n(^]igcn<won tli« pftrt of the man on thi? txHif, non 
cc;n«^f that hu wHauolaBerranlof ail Wep«ud«m cou- 
tTTLctor ntth-jr than a forvoot of ihc riilwav. UpoD the 
B&m« princif^k- it ww held that a ruilvuj wiu not liallo 
to a pa«aeiij;er for it^nriw caused by lJi« bite of a dog, 
ff]j.it^ liELd vtmycd upon a atntiija iiliitfonti.^ Nor ia 
the railway liable to a paaeenger who, in enurl&g a oar 
at Tftft, fftlU ujion its ifl«p«, for that i« s cbm of tnorite- 
bic tkcctijctit.^ 

2S6. It is the duty of pnssengon on station platforma 
to «iprciMi a rttiuinnsibTn cam Ibr thalr own KifHx i* ihxtn, 
it va coutj'ibutury u^^^Ugeuce in a piUtei>DK4^r to run upon 
a narrow platfornk by tho f-Uh of n moTing train,* or in 
daylight to utrike hi* hoail a^iiuit a pUnk over the 
phtifuriii. va whitjh -a pjrlur 10 Bl^udlu^ U> lAvvm a lamp? 
So, ifthf poflccngcr, whc-Ti> a aafo and convcnionl pUl- 
fbnn hail be«ii provided, volontarily altgbta Ou t}ie «ide 
oppoaiie to lh« plairorcu, and wbiJo h«edJaiely croMQg 
■ traok a injured, thtr railway ui not liable/ nor where 



> O. «t t. * X. a IL ft. » Tmw, at UI.. 417, IS Aa. « Kde. ft. IL C^ 

ue. 

<1tMhliH<.&CRf..WeiMi>lSC9lV:Fiinrth f. a A A.S.a,1«9 

•P.&ak2i4-.S3PAib.^3tft.V}U.49U; Bwwnfl >. & 4 W> & B- 
«T>lKr?i.lXf4jn1ElrLn. It P R R. fH CM tffl^ ]« Am. d KPc &■ & CM> 
JU^ Fon^lli <- B. a A. a r^IUit MikAIO^ tfT II ff I Tni|lB.firmM 

lb or* 



260 



xEcuQrjrcK or ruusiGinA. 



tbo p«wwngcr liAviDf Anivod at Ui« suiion afUr dark 
in HunicM'Eit cimo to g«4 to the pUiibra ToluntimJj 
wnitfl fthd &tteuifiU lo get on ibe ear from Uie side uw%j 
frorti llic ■tntioii i^ nor will prgligrncc apon ibc part oJ" 
Lbo nulwnj, la filing to girv ootioc of the ftppn)acli of 
B inciving irnin, Iri all cahb laodn' it ItabJa to oft« wbo 
IbiU to cxcrciAC roupnable cm aa lo hk owd vaftlf ; 
tho^ in OarroU v. ?. B. B.,' tliO plaintiff, in going to 
th« dirlcncLanfn ■Lation, intfrndlng to be a pawner and 
aiKmpliiL^C U> pan in irout of a movmg Iruiii whtcli, at 
hn LrLiI julmiii^ ho coul J hrivo wen if hn hnd l^xtkcd, 
WHH run avct, nad having hwa nonauitttd at the trial 
juOgokQQt for tL« dorouJuiit wiu uffirmtMl uifffvor.* On 
the other hand, in D. W, A W, Uy. v^ ^tuiory* th% 
pULiniir'ttd«««d6nthavin^gim«iotfat>ildon^m'atflation 
to accompany a rclotivc wLo waa gobg lo tak4 ft mill 
and hnving crowod tlio line at night m fn>nt of an aj^ 
proaHiitij; timiii oblaiueiJ tlio tickH fbr th« paaMOger 
and rcci'0>Mcd iioUiud thnl train and trufl killed by a 
iktft cxprtfcB Inia upun ihv other track. Tl)« widenoo 
WM contradiclory ft8 to whelher the OTprew irain had 
whittled or given othi^r notice nfixs ajiproucli, and afUr 
vordici fur l\^'^• pluii^Lia\ it vru^ bt^ld. Lorda lliLlherly, 
Colrridgn, nnd lllnttkbum dlEsenting, that the cian bod 
bevn properly lufL to tlicjury. 

257- It i« tbo duty of rnilwaye to give to paesengera 
at iia etiLtJotiH rciuufiiablu nuiiot- uf tbo starting of its 



■Sb* abo VbMl-riffaL r. b. « A. K It. 1^ Uu^ XIA, Id Am, AKng. K 

l.ca& Jin, cnaq U- ft. «. Dv**7, » tii,36^ 
•«Ap, Ufr llAb 



OULDK) ffAUK or ffTAtlOX. 



»1 



Ijujiis.* unci to givn to itji pRMii-ngnr>i in iie intins rvAMn- 
Me noUc^ of the upproucb of llie Iruin to itm fUtioni^ 
io order thai tlie jTaesengere wlio &r« to Le&va ttie o«n 
may propftro to mli^u*' There hna btco nomo divoreitf 
ofopiuion M to th« «fllbot of oiiUiDg out the name of a 
station when a train is in raolion. Id L«wifl f. L, C A 
D. Ry./ Bl3jdcbum, -]., w<l, **Ciilling out the nnmc of 

U HlutiUQ Uf QOl aU LllV]tJllLC>U 1^ blight." lu W^UcT P, 

i- n. A S, C Uy-,' iJratt, J., wild, *' I egroB that th« 
oilUn^out thcf munc uf a luitbii Iwfbnr the tnun hn* 
coiuij <o a stouJiitill is DO OTideuc^ of uct'lig^iieo on tlie 
part of thn cninpiLny;" and Iloncymnn, J-,* ^xprMMd 
hit opfnion to the aumu ell«ct. In Whiltafcer v. M, ft 
S- Kj',* Bovin, Cv J.jWiiil, it is *'aqu(«lion for the jury 
ivIi^Uirr U]<*cfLmngoutuf theiiiimcof mrutionnnionnti, 
uii'^er all the circum»CaDoeft, to mi iuviiaiion to nli^'htf' 
nnd WillcK, J.^ onld, "I (^aumot nnn nudt^rBtotnd how it 
could bo mH as n mutter of luw thjvt tlir cultin^ out of 
the name of a alatioo naa not an iuvitation/* In Bridf;f« 
V. N. Ia Ry./ Pollock, B,, mid, '' ii vi nn nnnounccmcnt 
by tho ratlwAy offiwrn Umt tli« truin ia apprwichiug or 
liAH arriv^ fit 1,h<^ plntfomip and thai thf^ pami^ngoni 
may ^ out wlieu Uio tnin Mlopi ut the plaUorm/' 
And Brvtt and Deooian, JJ., thought iLat ILb qucbtJon 
inw on* for ihr jury. Tho nibjroj wn* iiIro «wnc?whnt 
coufiitltrvd ID p. R. R. V. Aa^vU* and in P. R. R. r. 
While/ but no powitivo ricw (rith regard to the ncc«- 
■ary h?jpit v^ocl of oalling out the nain« of th« Etation 



> Pmry t^ d K. R, M Gt. Ml, M Id. TIO, 

•Id. IK •!.&&<; km^hek 



CALUirO BIAMK OF HTATtiDsr. 



imitimj** •ervutl va a trmln Ui noUon Bt nigbt voouunced 
Umt tlie iwit 0U>p would bo lU a a*r1«it vCfttiDn, nuntn; 
It, imd ihf train barhig topped slioTUjr afttrwanb oj 
ftiuding Un mEW abort criT ibe sUtton. a femdv 
magovt whoic dmiiikjOioD w« tbu p^nkiitmr 
And wbo yem iitiaoqim£fil«il wtlli Ui<? nMit« of the nttlvav 
<ir tli« locatioD «f Us euijotti, tlicro s%litH «ith ih« 
•MwUmo? of u milway tcrvtuit wbo odEcd li«r nv i|ui 
tloEtt, and the train th«iti proce«d«d, leaving Ker aloi 
and it wa* h^^ld Oiat tlic r&ilnAjr iw luUiK In Kdgwr 
f. N. R. Bv/ n-h«TO tlic rdKuy iirft» licid lUltc lo ■ 
femfilf pru«»Dg«ar who iva« iujurvd In slighring from 4 
iit>rwly moviTtg Irom «l t jtlation, PkUIenKm, J, A,, nid: 
'•UieannouiiL-omoDt ibat tW next ntutjon waa* Lcf r»>y 
doTfl Hit HlTikn mo us having mvidi ngiuflctuicc^ Aj ■ 
•uleniuQt of a HicU it ixtutiilui^ notliuig new to Uie 
plalutifl^ aud aa a Hlatuuoul ibat it nn^ i&ttudcd tlut 
niTtnia pue^ngore ihouldgetodrth^tnJDftiluit lUtkci, 
It conlAined no more iururmatiou tbac «liat wu coo* 
UJtwd in the contnift evidenced by tho lickcla. But. 
taken in ouunecfluii wiib Oiv eloiring of tbv trmin witli< 
out Hloi^jiiug it, it w, u» fur iu it go««r a bit of frvidcnee 
conuKtcut with the pollJon \akt:a bj tI>o plmintilT" 
Perhaps, the right deduotion from the fOam is tbnt tW 

^«««4liia],*iflBP,L.r Air lt.% l>U-?q,n.T]i VrtOavv-L-K Af^a 
R:-. L K Q r. p. 190. 131; WhltuicF r. M. A S. Rr, L. n. ft C r. 44< 
ihil-, tIrMfP,. X, I. It^. I. J£.T LL L »■$ f. R R <i AifilL » Phk 
BlH?; p. K. K li, WhlM^WId. KT; C & It •; V-o llar% » V, i. L 
m^ UftoWltvCAU, T JEj«£;iMJL:li.aM»lllAM.A£af.aB.(WJ»j 
T^W t. Dl, H. A U Rr„ Tt N, Y. 4:iU ; C. I H. R w. »Vtr||. ,^1 1^1. «llj 

L, Wl Thiifnpnn -. 11, H, A H. K;r. ^ Id^ "lT; M^th^ «. IL A U R &, lH 
Mk|> 31, te AiU. A Cnir K. R. (^ ftU; Eilof t. 5^ IL K, « ^>ii<- Il^kftJ 
Ul,llIAiiLAVii«>tlLI^B4Tj I'ffuiL IJb.*. Ilaabn^m^. «)i^ «Am 
A bt a RCkL4M, 
■?« JimLIW^ » AnLA ft:iv R. R <V. W. 



ninr Tu bxop tuaue^ etc 



flfi'ect wbw^ i« to be aitriVfutwl to muh nn ^itinouiic4moiit 
ii for tlicjury, if drcuuutann^a aiiitw iLul lUt? uuuounuo 
meat yrit& to luado t6 to bUuoi^ iho |ior«oii Ir^urod to 
Iwlleva tbttt Uif- next fitop af thr imin would b« at » 
MatioD, lit wbidi ltd mJj^hi DuTtty Imivv llii; truia, 

259, It \a Ibe dulj of tJi« raiLwa; to stop lI« Iraui&j 
for ft roMonuble rinno, nt wnjr ntationji in onlffT tlut pi#* 
Mi^irni iJiiiy ^ct ua urolT tb«can will: jsafvLj;* aud (lie 
nUway a Uahh wtiCG It* conductor or orLtr Mrvuott 
^TM a Kignu] to »tart wUUo ft pftseogcr ii obviooslj in 
tLbact of grtiingoQ orolTliA truin,' butif the trun ha» 
stopped ft raugosbk tiiiu^ luiJ tbc pJWon^Dr bi8giv«u 
&0 ogtioe of ui micatioti to lill^bt, uad tbe ooodiictor 
dow iKit ae^ liicQ iQ ibe act of ftlt^lumg, iIju r^illway ui 
Dot lIjLblc Ibrtbeftctof ]tKo>nducU>r iiiJitJutiL^jitlJic tnun,* 
26R A puawugcr who id CATriod pa«l tiid tftatiou, or 
tio ia not uken up At llw ntncion to or fVoiu which th9 
mWay had oonlnictixl to curry Lim, U cntitlod Eo r9- 
coTcr cDuipL-iuutury ^iimajEeft.' I huvv, ui twcllou 1^4, 

• itDcW*. K, Y. ciftaTcaB^fkaN. T. i»; w»d*LaftaLft 

CWtt*. WlK irkS^ ^ R t,M; ^ It U. » K<-ih1fl>^ <0111« JTIl lahaT 
mem *. N^ T.C A IL IL R. a. iia ^r. Y. ^? ; P K R. v. K.i\fn. &2 Puub*. 

CW«n: W, Xt. I. A l^U^ » Knv>f, L04 rtj. 3Wke ,ia.*Eo»aR.CMb 

'Ariipv* r. a A!^ J. R R. 7BMa «fi, * A«.AEwK. ft CbLSni 
■BQhvf-N. Y. CAH, ILU H. MS. Y, UljKMiinf >^», rCA^aS. 

k. IL O Id. «ra J UiiiJiclU. W. A -V R H„ :ic Oa. U; C W. U. kf . « 3UJK 
|«ft m nt 11 \rn « Kojc K ROw IK 

•0bw>i * X, U.N, J. AUailj.TA »a, 1>U,0A(B.AXli«-K. K- I^l 
,1 i|.A» J.RRf.OfiifvrtV. ^^Mi' no, 31 Am.AEu/ R.B..Cm.Sn. 

•ItntJH*. L A H WKf. LK 14>4K lit l C,l<l. L A K, a U. R «u 
BmrT, £1/ UW. ISO. « Am, A Ev a a. <^ Ml ; tria » Bb U K, C A X. 
aiL,;<U^tC.SABLA Cog RAC^MSi L A O. PL IL ft. ■. IMt^ 
«S Tk liOk H Avu A Et« &. K. Cte JA 



2M 



BD^ADIXG AXD IXAVUtO TBADO; 



given my xiswmb fgr di« opimoo, tliat wbfii a paotn g cf, 
uot bftving boon Mt doiro or takt-Q up aI the vlatictfi t6 
or from vliicb tbe rallv«j hu ooalroci^ lo cairy Kim, 
u InjuiW in ibc aUcmpt to board or Icnrc ft moring 
traia the mUwnj u not lUUe to liin, for bk li^urine 
ftre the ooQMquenoe, uot of tlie nilwaj^fl bnacli of ocm- 
mct* but of hU own rub act. Tior« nrr, bowcrer, 
aiftDy iiathontiM for the |>n)fKMilJoii tliat \n eitdi « one 
tlio railway Is MabU, if tlx« penoo iiguml in g<ttiiig o* 
or off tbc triun did not incur n dHcj^r obvlotuly oppv- 
cat to tbc niiud of a re«fiOii&ble man*' ll h^ tierertiut- 
Um, gonornllj bold thnt wbfrn iho tmm t* moving at «o 
high A nUt <jf trpcwd > or wbi-re iJw |Ja«!v uf tbe panen^tnT 
uact^iii or dwocdl ia so obviously perilous, tbat a p«faoii 
of ordtonry pnidcntxt wotiM not attttCD|it to get on or off 
tlic trma tUeu and tln^rv, tUn act of tliu jjcnhin injured 
iu m doing la eiich contribuiorj negligcvco aa will bar 
Ll3 recover;,' it in, aforti^, coDtribator; n«gU|^iic« 

^RuphH >, n. T. C aiLB,IL&,M!t.T. lAlfhr^HtklfAFLJ. 
ft a, 7AHo. 4TA, 9 4iD. A Eiir S RCK«?t; C A. ft. >. t*^ny.UO^ 
4ni,i^nR ?4ni Jf^hruon.. W Cit I- RlL,tf>Pnn.«l, »?; P. H ft. it 
KI]ann,a^Id.Ql>2;C. V.lt,B.frU*iqpiii%«l Md AJIv IS An * Ki^ L K. 
Ui^ 1^, EilNU ^^ ». B;, 4 OiiMt^B') S«l i ttaar U., K a r K K, U U« 
S7l f J>7it T, H. A Rt J- R. Tt, U Id. A0]>; CfafHi » Ti A U E IL. t? Wk. 
I&fli aaM.R&.t.Cunk>3UlM;FtEv»,K.T.CniU«tN. T.«7| 
D^l^mmTf L «- * r', M, U «. *I, M Wl» BT*i D*tU <l C * ». W. fij, l« 
11174; Phoi t^SL L»K,C.a^,RiUn>J4.41t,3 JUi. 4 >!««.«.&, 
C^ MS 1 «. 1^ I M. A ii R. R. p, Ouiinll. ST Art. ai0, « Ael a ^ L W 
C^ IW; CaX- B. R f, Booidvlil, t04 l)L 92JI, h Am. A f^ IL KCte 
44S^ Umk-tL v> K, <! R. R, «fl ». C IM^ V. P. R R. t t>l*U, JftK^ft 
«SS, ^: An A Kng^lL ItCW t.^(k, ]J«b. IT AW It R R t. ,tl 
AtD'<« Rtvc RR a>.MI: K ABt J. R. R*.<laTin^[ih*>»fr llft««^||' 
Am.AlCa«, It, ICCW-Vri. U.A I. R JG.B.r. B^-tid^vv^U Art.«Xll 

'M^Tortr-^^CjII aRB7,ai1<mmW.nailipaf;a.aii.R|L,4t 
», Y. i;rilliir|»f-, K.Kj'.J(ir?f-J.I. Mi tk.K.r at. R R •^PkfcHd, 
e dtle. \tt9[ H. C. Ry. «. CUerdBEi, ^ Ukb. 440j llH*»;r ■ Jt |L R, Hi 
Mw.3^H; I'R K,-; AH-lUU^fWin^l^i, |4;-Q. II A S A. R R «. 1^ 
Oirm.M Tex. IftO- Ua^ & C, K. L A P. R R, «4 I<mt M?. l»A^a 
Mqfl. R R tW, ITV^ U «. A M ft K7 f Rw*. 47 HIcIl OV; C R, >, 
LMcbarpW a:* lOt^ Ift Ab A &d«. ft.lL, C^IU; RaiVHt « £. Bj, 



BTATUTOftT RIX|UlSi:MEyT^, KTC 



S65 



Lu u paflHCagCT to allenipt to boanj a IrAlD pftecin); n wuy 
»Uiioii wEicin the Irnia haui not lM«cn fidggcij. bccI Uio 
aiTrvant* to cbiirge of tfiB truin bave no rtasou laexp«:t 
tLut a |>fi3aeagor vvill attompi to get on tlic tniu ihcn 

990, 8tututary rcfjultttJOuH r«^uiriug oertaio fligoala 
to bo given npon the approacli of ui cnging or cat to a 
railway iitntion or hi>;hwiiy cronaiug uro jirimiirUy iri- 
toudoi] for the prufectloii of persons approaching ihe 
VuiCt and not of pf^reoiDt vho arc b or upon the on :* 
nur will the n»Uwuy*ii oojcl^t't lo gWo duo iiotjce, or eten 
to particular nolico prwr'rihf^ii by fllnlnrory Authority, 
thi^ Ktjtrtjng; of n train rrnni u wiiy ntdtioD n^n<lcr it 
liablo to a paaK-n^t-r who njlunturily ftiiU wiUioul uirlico 
to iho riilfffty'e )?i*n^HnlA jiiinpn from thtv Iraiii nllcr it 
hnn gpttrn underway;' nor will tUr tnilnay'fl nc^kct 
to giT« tJ]« at^tulory uotivo i-oquirad bofon^ putllni; ta 

:i, T AM; J R R. h TlpiblrfrW. ?rt Trd ni; i;Afrit ■ H, A ^ R R, l« 

Wm M&i Ktlntf^A A PR EL tk^ K^j. V>t; KrU* f. II. A » J It ft, 
71 td.iUH,)«fH«f.K, CM^J, AC, K U^.,TAJil INMI Am. A Kojf R K. 
C«i.«f«, II. A T. a Ry. ■, L-lk AT T«i. tH, » AuL A Ea« K R IV. 344; 
Ch W, & R >. !»i^tl4ifs n? OjlAM; JomtvII *, T-.M. 1<, iS M. U^ . M TT^ 
eifl,«Ain. A lCr« It RCH^TVi I C- R R v, Chuinhfr*, TI mMV; L C; 
,&.Rt, tiiii.ft4lJ bW. l\Hial'<nyT C, B A <^ R R, »4a M, («T ; K A IX 
ll.v^M0rrlA.]<IOf«».SiVl, ti^ikult* t, K, Y.A1I. R J{.D.,S« tlvr. Pr. 
l(a»tv,T P,A W. RR, Ilk r«d. R<L|v U; Bludtim >, r>>mtl, rOO^ 
ll IbLdwi ■ O. Xf. Rj. ^ U]!. <^i^. ra P } f« : Kni^T «, P. R, R« B 
Aih *tt'li tliitmvf^ K.O.AC. K. 11^ Id 4sl, Mlb-kk#l] <s C A II. T, 
Ir, ^ UicU. m 1« 'in- A Sutf. R. K. <kv. trq ; MiCvrUq >. C.. K. L A r. 
l^,«lIm5«i^l«AA AKov. KR r*^ IM: W.ALAP. Ky t.lEMUr^ 
m1lLflkft«tAKAEi4) R It. i-'wL 104 , R AIX R H, f. Mnrr^lUSrvU. 
fO«: DxwM >. TC.l1 AE.. R R, ■» L* An. 141; [.aRK-c Ahl«, «■> IlL 
IJII; i. Rlt •.fhrl^'JDTM USi K A C R R h I>aD«iL Sf' lad ML; L 
CRR«4Lu»m. MirilKSiO A U, R K.* BrAtW», «« HI UO; IfAT. 
CR R- k MtnMl, 01 Tn SR^ 31 An. Abi«,IL R.CW 3Ui .vdAm>t.U 
AK, R. IL, Ky. ,Tl An. A ITncR. K. Ou. »0r R a :?. A. R ILi^ 
AEbuiltvFpHilLlM^tl.Vm A Fut R. R Cb, V>S, 

■ ti« A P, A r Kf. t. Ptr4u4 n n>)c, lilt. IH Am. A Euf. R & CV «M. 

■ VOaRr. r. IU»|[.7; A^ ll% LH Am. a fjtff. R. RlM. tH 
■tl.RRAaQ).rlAlirtf, 60.ilLlO^liAa<.AEi« R R CfeL lU^ 



2C6 



AUQBnM^nOH CAX AT UIT. 



motion a frdght trdn AtnoiliQg oit ihe Iwie render 
liable to « pMAMngL-r wbo, banng left }ii* train, ttUcMtpbi 
lo |«aa iiuiIot the coujiIiDg vrliidi coanecM two of Uie 
oani of thu liviKbt tram/ 

^L While h la tbfi duly of a rajlwnj oonpsDj to 
provide rcfkwQnblyufoabdcouvaiicut mcnoM ot iag;nM 
»uJ e^tM fryym iu cdn fiDd cHrriftg«i, tJie nilvay 
only to be hvLd liable fur iicddcm« hnpfKOuag to 
pas«t-iij^'rt» \u di^vwdlug frvm n car wbeo st rcM M 

^tntirin, if T^c cirGUiUKtnrk(V4 nr^ fiich ■• to indlM* tiM 

]macugi7r to bolievv lliut ht Lju ruBchvd UU jwiat of 
(1^»4tiL)fLlLon, nnd ibnt it isaafe ^r hliu to^'touL' I» 
oontnuiiitg the Amurioan aad Knglub Jociidociii. Um 
dtfllrviLoe la tlie mode of coiulruction betwMD raUway 
cnrrjagc4 commonly uwtl In Kn^Iand uid AiiMricwi 
|>tt»L-Tjger <;arH umtit Iw boru« in iciiiil. Tbus, in Foy 
L> B- & £?> C K. li-' by ruwon of tJic oocnpatioa 
the plutiorm hy uiiijlhcr tnviii, the cnrrlugc in vhi 
tbd pkijitiff wAsa |»!iMeiiger on mdiing iXB termi 
ID tho dnylimv tlid not tumc up to tlic platform. The" 
door of tbt! i^rrinj-e being aoitK three ftvt aboYo tb^ 
ground, thp: dnfrndnnl * porUtr rrejomttd ihft |>lftinuff^ ft 
fomalu pttflwugLT, to aliglit, Tb<^n^ wtro tvo tft(<p«, uoe 
ou a level with U10 door, ai id tbe otb«r oni^ ^iglueoa 



> Ft-r * u B. 4 & c Rf ■. i» CL B, V. & m IH E. e L i rw«*r .. a . 

B.7 It L?L!li l^hfon ^y.KMj^ U R 14 g &^.4Tl:H*»•. R 

&i«, n, Rau.Ml;C.dl. &R Rt F-r^lp811cA4M;Oifik4iL0.11 
4 21. Bj- IW lUh. 3D»L liKott *. R A U, R m lU iitm. U. 1« Am. A 
tv« K. RCbRfA^ P^tr N. &R,4 0nLSat. l«AB.Ab«RUCW 



AUOHTISQ TBOU CAB AT KB?T. 



m 



mcbcB Mow ihaL Tbv plamUfT fipt oc lUv fitvt tttp, 
ftixl Liking Ihft hnnJ of ft gOTttleniAri jumj^od 1a tho 
jrouiidr uid bviji^ in ddicjitc bimlUi T-bv (Kmcujviutt lq« 
jared Iier spiue, Erie, C J., left it Uj Uie jurj eo sa/ 
vhethor th* Mcddottt wm duo fai tbe plAindflTii rnrdew* 
iMM, or to the dD&uJ^ul'B ueglignuci! iu not pruvidiug 
• convonicot tncftos of dcscoat. ThtMVw « rcniict 
for the plikinlifT, ^md the oourt rvlwd n n«w triiU- In 
Profgor V. B, A £, Ry.,^ the Iriiin bad uHer dark dnLva 
up la u dinil; lixbtcd Etation, th(i plulf^rm avl bcin^ 
^rull<^l l4i Lb^ ni\p^ bul by n^iusuu of ilfi buiii^ buvet«d 
off 1,0 ija»ke room for n ^idiag, being Home two fcot nwiiy 
(rota tbv «dTriugo in nliiob UiU pkiutU^ a muJv putt* 
mnger, wiw nding- A gijard opeupd iha door, and Haid 
uglLing, and Uio pbiiiitll!'* bvllc^ving ilini bu wuh mapping 
upon tbo pl&if^rm. Slipped out oud full betvhei-u the uur* 
mg4 wid tho platform. Judgmnnt on n vordin-t for Urn 
plnintifTwttjiMlfirmird iu tbuExdicNjuttrCtuiiiiW on iba 
gruuiid llittt tbero waa ovldeuce of negllj^uuou ou Lbo 
part of tho dfifftndnnt in that tbtt nUtion vn« diiidy 
lighl«d, the platform wnn dtfet^iivuly ccirifitrticlcd, Jind 
tbe defeudftDt'B B«rvsiit omUtcd lo waru Uie paa!Vt>j;«r 
not to aligbL In Cockle i^. L. ■& S. H. Hj,/ tlic fnnts 
wur^ idenlical with ibow* tri Pruogoret oure, «xt<^ting 
tbAt nd jfiiftnl bod opRni^d Oir nirriitgo doori aud It was 
buld iu tbe Exchfy|uiTr Cbmubur ibni "' tb^ IpnviaK a oflr- 
riagd which hod b«eD brought up to a place &t nbich 
k M uiuafe for a pafieQdgcr to ftlifEbt, uudcr circEimHtancCft 
which wamot the pafiftengfrr \u boUeriug that ii is in-< 
tond&d bo Nball got out. Mud tbut be mny, xh^mforR, do 
ao ivith aufvty, wIlIiuuI uny wnruiu}^ uf bia dongfTi 
unouDtf* 10 ufigiigtncf «n the part of ihn company." 
In Wnllur tf. L. B. d 3. C. R. R/ th« tnin after dark 



< M L. r ?£ e iti. 



< L. B. « C r. 07. ? LL ttL 



SG3 



iLtonTino ntou caa at rgvt. 



wsA ap]>roHcliing a elation, the Uiuj]» of wblch wen uQi 
111) vbcri the porter liJkTuig tviIlcU out the name, ibm 
mln iyi-«n»lkOt the platform umi cani« to » finftl fttop. 
Th« pUintifT, a (Oal« passcngrr, ami a coromulw, h«nr- 
ing tJie doors opcu anU rliul miil vi^-iuf; pursutis gettitsg 
out of the uexi enrringi?, »il«pporl out mid «aa hurt At 
th(t tnnl he Via nnnsintcJ, but a rulv to Uke off the 
DOfJBiuit wuB inittiv ubeulut«i u;>OQ ibc gruuntl tliut ibu 
dofoutlnTit was negligent in sTopping Its CTdio at a poirit 
whtro tha light? wei^ not lit, and in not vrnraiog tbo 
paaeoDgcr not lo alight In Bridgoa v. JS. L. H^-,' 
Highbur}^ Stntlou n-iis at the mouUi of a tunnel, Ibo 
|il!i[Li>nu 4?ite(iditig into the tuunvh The train ArriTod 
niWr liurk, thft carrliige in which tho plainllfTj » <»ii]- 
mutt-r, woa riding having dtuppcd in the tunnel, but 
Dot At the platform, and the nama of the atation having 
hwn OJilJed by the guard. The plniniifT^K tlcco/I^nt fr!l 
iu gi'tling out of the carriage, and died irinn the iu- 
juriw ihereby caused, li whb hold siifflcicnl ovidoooo 
of dt'ft-'ndont'a ncgligiuico fur the jury^ In Bolwoii «. 
K- K. By,,' the fact^ w^re idcfotlcal witli ihoBe lu Lowit^ 
CMC, and it waa held by the Queen's Bench and by the 
Court of Api>eal that the defendant was oegligent in 
not stoppiug the carriage at the platform, and that 1L0 
plaintiff hnJ a rigtit to aupjjoep that if she did nut get 
out the train nuuld pro«€od, and that tho defendant wim 
also negligent in not providing »ome aafc means for 
women to alight. In Rose r. K. E. Ry..' tl»o train had 
stopped atafltAtion; th« carriage In wTiicb tho plnm- 
tiiff a femulc pusBcnger. ^ua riding being Ix-yood tlio. 
pktform. The porter oallod r.o the pasaengnr^ To Vmp' 
their eeale. Tlte plainliff waited some time, but tho 
train not having hacked, she got out, and In so doing 



' t- R »n^. & 3T7. i IT. L. Hit 



•l-lL10q,B.77;, 



was Irytirvd. Th« jurj found for the pluntUI^ maA 
\mvtt mu gircEi to Uic cWvti<liml to Euove to «nu^r a 
DOUitiiiU Tli« court Mow eoUireiJ tli« nonfliiii, but 
thfl Omrt of A|>p«w! rovorwEl ainl onUrwI juit^iicul 
for the plainUCf, L^jMlii^' ihai the cuuipauy waa uogli- 
gi^uL id uoE tiacking i\s (niin, or in not provuling i^rr* 
TADtK to WBiKl tho ppUtH-tij^en lU gcttiug out fti Foulktv 
V. M. D. Rj./ tlie door of tlie carrisge lu whidi tbo 
plftiniiff tntvi^Itni wu 4boui Iwo fwt thrc« inohc« ahovm 
tlw pUlForm of the suttlon at wlxtch tliv pluiniifT VHe to 
ftllgliL AUIiough it 1TU4I aflor du-k, ui^ the c«mag9 
hntl ni--lUiur pluirorm nor utopA, no nrummg was given 
to tlifl |>laltitiff OS to the de^li of Jwoenl frtnu iho car- 
rtngo Lo tho platform, nnd in gctliDj^ out \ic fell and vii8 
injured. It wa* JieU tbdt thtTu waa evidt-ac^ of nPgll* 
g^Doe on the part of ibe defendftnt. In P. R. R. v. 
Wliitv,* the dcfcodunt'if trum on ftpprgudiing Pttm 
Valley Statiou slowed tip and »lop|Wcl opposito a Iiouao 
markod ^^IVnn VaIW StAtton," thf« brakenian liAmg 
annoucood brfuru the train came to u jiL»p. " iht? uc^xt 
elatioa ia Pooti Valley." The plaiutifT'H doo^doiil 
Kl^ppod off th« rar af^nr it had comp to & atop on thit 
aide towards the platf^jriQ, hut ^epamted from tlie pkl- 
form \>v nnotlicr track, and wa4 struck by a putting 
«xi>r^ train and killtd. The truin h^\ stopper! under 
the company'a nilea that local tmins should givd 
way to exprcm ininti at atutiona, the regular atAtloQ 
being on the right side of the Lrain niid iiomu diHtanoo 
from wh«nf tho train liad itopped. The coart beloir 
CQU«ml judgmtfut on the verdict for the plaiatifl', iui4 
tbo Supr«rme Court s^irm^d it on th« ground tbnt it 
mulbrthajitrytouiy vhfithor^nndar ihp circnmaUncps, 
ibe plabiUfT liiid a n};ht to vappoac tbnt the tniiu hid 



■l.&4CP,DL>ir,»U.lU. 



*ii 



.BLitf. 



no 



AUonmQ AT wTA-nam, 



6MMloalb»l vtopstbb point of dcBtliiatkn. In <X 
dt 1. C R. R. r. F»mai,' tbe mlvay »m bold ImVlo 
Co ■ pHfCD^ who m iDJurMl iQ dij;btiD{ fram tbe 
can %t ciight, ihe train liAving come to % 0to|> oa s 
bn<]^ over a colvcrtr luul * milmy temuii bsTilig 
c$]M out tbe D&me of the Btaiuin- 

2$2> On ihff otb«r hand, whnt % p eww n g fr, in tli« 
cx«rciiio of nuonble care^ can mc that bj x^^'^JC ^^ 
thcQ aod there in his own wav, be i« cttcounMring a 
poril, *bc nulmty i^ nm lijibli*-^ Tbn*, in Pianr ». O. W, 
Ry./ tlie fuictJ vtrc aiiuilHr 4i> iboae lU Foy a caw; wt* 
cepting lljal uo Bervatit of ihe dekts^tmi rcquwled lliA 
plnintiiy to alight. At th« trial the platntiiT wnn po»* 
BuiteJ, and tbt; Exdiequij Chamber :ilEnii«d tbo t^fnf^ 
of ihe court bolow to lake it ofT^ q[^n tlw groatid that 
there wa« no cadence of negUg«fi(^« upon tbti part of 
tbe defendant^ th« accident baring been roUlj ccauwd 
by the plaintilT'e own dc^Ij^cikv bi dttrrgardiiig ber 
duty to nw tb« convonicnoat provided by the coatpany, 
Haunen, J., saying: "oth^r people got dovn witltout 
Injury. It u trno the firmid« plaintiff naidslM could 
Dot, But fthe <Ioe« not tsuy uvhy «bo could ool- Bup- 
po«e eh« had «Aid «o of an ordinaiy pladbns. Tbe 
ban usertion would not be unougb ; and applying tbe 
common knowledge we all have as to ibo <:onairuct«on 
of carringni, T ihiitk it lay upon the plaintifl* to abov 
luore apt-oiul ruuBun why It wua ikngvrtiutf or unpowtble 
to lue the foothoaril, ttoMio tnako it D(^^ii>oe on tbo 
pan of ibe (KnufHiny not lo provide aomo other mcaiw 
of a]j>;btiij^ :" and Mellor, J*, added, "the evLdeooe 

> SI lad. 104 

ll.9(tB.«A, t). I.AW. ft.X*. Ka[>h47f.«0 1>niiL Hi IS- Mt.Kt. 
£ifc«.aSId.:A]tl,:tT 114^1 K.AV. It Itc Uin'u, > la^Ulj UlB«e«D 

ftCAO.T. nr.*iMickss6i f™* •, e, r Bj, lo ad- w. 



ALIOHTISO AT STATIOrfB. 



971 



■earns lo mo to wtftbliftb, not neglEguice, but only * leas 
iogt^ of eoavttnbnco tban is qsuaI, and fi>r tbit tii« 
dcfcndaaU luc not nspounblc." ]n Lcida v. L. C £ 
D. By-t^ a &m&]c puseoger for Bromley, vLik tbe 
tnin WM prtBUD^ nt>or dnrk through tb< aution, which 
Hhe luitfw wull, heard the Dume of the itntlou culled by 
tho gnivd ; tho tr^u then au)p[>fd, with the eAiridgo in 
yi\i\ch the plaimiiT wiui riJing, lit & p<unt beyond tho 
plfltforiu. TLh ftlaiulUT litt^iuplcd to |;et out, uJid ab 
thnt momADt thf Tmiii Hlnrt^ to hack tn tb^ pklff^rm, 
and the pluintjff fell und wuj injured. The iilaiuiiff 
wm noncuitcd. In D., L. & W. K. K. r. NnpbcT^,* tho 
iaot« vror* ldl^nticAl with those b Foy's and Sinur'a 
OMw, and it wa8 hold that thvra was no evidence of 
iir>tli^ri]nc npon tlwi purt of the ilefendnnt, Srerrctt, J., 
sayinj^, in his judgment: " th© caxft w en> at rOBl on the 
ir%ck; th»r« was no jar or bmakiag of mac^hmrry, 
MnL Naphcys, with tlie aesijataacc of her huMbHiKl^ wan 
doftccKdiiifc the cte|» from the platform of the cur. 
Tll4iy had or(»rr flppoTliuiity nf Rnaiiig nn'l knowing 
where ahe triid goiag^ and ccintrullmg her movomenbL 
If the lower stop were inconveniently or dangoroualy 
high fbr hor in thcr rendition id:f> wm, the and her hu«- 

jid haa a« good au oppurtuuity an auy imi« «!«« of 
knowinj^ Ih^ fnct. If ibovghnd ovon a su^pU-ioD that it 
in tho leuftt degree unuf« (or htT to taScu the taut 
T>tep, Ih^re waa no urg«nl uoceealty for her to do mk 
The tniin bod rciiohe<l ttff dfvtination, and tbrrc was no 
iH^cueioii for ha*rt« in le#iving the (Mt. If tliey had any 
^apprehoQaioD of danger, or «vnn of inoouTwiifnoo in 
idliift irom tho lower etc p, there wia notbiuK to 
irompt them to incur the riak, Th*y might liavo 

diud on ChoMo in charge of the train to pnsvide a 
ir and more oouveaieut uieauo of ^^n»a If they 



»t.Kft<iB.m 



■Whin&A.I»L 



272 



AUOBTOIG AT ffTATIOVS* 



deemed It Dcceeaarj." In P. H. K v. ZeW tbe plaliw 
tilf iiucd to recover damagoi for thr dcvth of hi« iOtU 
Tli« plointilT iknd his oon ifero pun!M.-ngere on • tr&in 
if}kii:1i «lop|>eil at iU de^LinalioD at the at«tion platfomi. 
At thjtt |>oint the dcfbndunfn line boii Iwa trackii, aii4 
ibo plftiuiiiTttrkd hifi don, inhlcad of gelling out upon Uio 
plAlfonn eide of ihu tmiii, got out upon ihn otli^r nide, 
Btid tbc viU wv kilk'd by a tntia ptuvm); upon tliO 
other tntj^k. The c»8i? witP twiee Lri^, ftod esoao lwi<« 
before the Siijirenie Court, the jury finding for 1I19 
plaintiff u|>ou eucli oocaaiou, tbc court below (uitcTtii^i 
jrjdgniGnt on tlic vordict, and llvft Snprem^ Court re- 
vernn^ In tbe firf^t report the jndgmtnt «u rArnnvd, 
bocsuae the court U'Iljw leA Lb« cose U> tb« Juq- wiUiout 
proof of any necc^ity justifying UkC plabiiff and hit 
ton in i]f«(.'«niiing from tbe cur upon tbtf Me nnvy 
from ibeplntforTii. In Ibneocond re|X)r1, tbi.* ju<]gui4^Tit 
wiM rcvci'^d beciiii^c the court beiciw ndmitled ibo <ivi- 
dence of tno witiie^ses that tbey were in tbi» b&bit, at 
tliat hlittion, of gelling ont from tbut Hide wbicb ww 
uway from tbo plutforui. And in eocb report^ U ww 
hdld timi the duties of (he carrier and ibe pasa^gcw 
iiru rpfTij>rwrtl, the currier bciing boimd to prnvido a 
*' Bdfe luid CDnvf>riit'nt mtan» uf t'^r<nH ttnJ ri-grc«B tound 
from tho line of their T«n(]," aiul the duly of tb^ 
pUMiingur Uiing to comply vrJth "ull Uic; iximpuny** 
I'eu^uable rales and regulAiIoua furejiknu};, oceupyiof; 
and leaving the atv^." Nor k the railway, vlicn iia 
train is stopped ut uij^bl before comifig up to a elnlion, 
liable to oue who, hnviog bofirded Ibe tnun to look far 
KtE wife tmd child, whom heeip«:led to lind na piusen- 
gen on th« train, c^releaaly alo|)0o]Ta car platfonn into 
a culvi^n, which he did not see in the durkuets.' 



lIlO0Tl»a AT BrAtWJiK 



273 



SR.t, Tt in DJit jHWiiblc to rocimciI<f all the csmk, mid 
MOmv two ur ituvu gfUiij EugluiJi iMt&» nuglit liavo bocu 
diffflrcnlly rfocidtd if ihfi juilgcs who docicl«d ihom hnil 
not iuitsa.pprelicadT^<l tlie ilkrcv ftitd cflu^t of the iHts^tiva 
of the lluuiic of iMtdti ill Brulj^'tf cuflO us 10 ihe re- 
ipeetire |>rov]nci** of the court and the jury. Hut ihorc 
Is out liroad ground of duitiDction ruwiiDg through ilie 
CAMS which serve* to reconcile most of thcra, nrd thnt 
b, ihttl wliilo it w the duty of a luilKuy In pruride 
reasonably safe aDiH oouvenlent m«aiiK of m^i«e nnd 
Ggrcae from ita ciU9 uid cftrria^i the riulwoy in only 
to bi> held Imhio for aocident* liftppening lo pa^ongen 
ia do^ceiiding fVom iU c&raat rest wheu thiacircumstAnces 
are such jl9 Ut inclucu n paaicngt^r to helii^vv that he has 
toaoh«d hia j>oiut of d^matiou, aud tbat St h Bafe for 
him to gi^t out In thin cfitrgory are diif (vsfs of 
Prutger, Owkk, WoUvr, Bridgiw, Ri>hH>]i, Bo)»e, Finilko, 
Whit(^ und HlmJluf chwe^ Ou the oilwt hniid. Oii? com- 
pany iM nnt to br hnid linhio wlii^m' tliri pfwi^^gcr, in 
the i*ii;n:iflB of reaumuLIa carf^, van act? that by getting 
Odt thoa and (h«ro m hiu owu way ho i^ «Dcouiiti»i&g 
pcrij- Thb in th^ rpmilt of ibe cqbcb of SinfT^ I^fwiti, 
Kaph^-M. Zuhe, aod idmiJar iai£4w. 

2W. U U not HMMnrily contributory ccgllgrncr ia 
a pawongLT to atlciupt to enter or loavc a oar ut rtvt 
|irh«n It lA not ui jiofiltioii at the jtlatf^^rin ;^ aod «epe-* 
'utly in thu the com wbcn the ruilwuy has osuolly pcr> 
milled panengen lo »o c^uK^r its can.' 

285. U in Iha dnty of a railway opfrrating Htnvf, ^^rj; 
to allow to jEKuvn^cen n nojKtaabh oppurtuuity Ut uligbt 



KX>T.CAIL&.R&«4*K.Y.flT«^ FUiUi}Aff;a Aft B^R.M TtarLvur 



w-l 



tutvwxic tt DCtY i3r orEiUTr:?^ usrc 



frooi tfaecan;'and^epa»oBgeroiiaitn«tcarBb(mld 
pre to the ««rviint in clurgc of tho car a rcMOMble 
notice of hla iziteii^un to alight;' but vvlit-n tlie cv haa 
COITUS U) B «Lop, a paHOngar in jo»iifl«d in nltanplilig to 
a]ij;tit, and it ii unmatierial ihai lio did not request tliA 
condoclor to maka the atop far him« or noiU^ the ooo- 
ducUir tbii he intctidcd to gvi ofT ih^ti and tli«c«.' 



X. THB Dtrrr or the KAtLWAT TO IT^ FASSrSQOtB IS 

266- Thnt *l»Xj of cure for their wtfoly which tha 
rnjlway ovroa 1t> iLa pjAKU^^i-n T4.-quin4 it to qebc U) Lba 
oparntion of il* Vinr pvpry procRTiTion which thp «Xp^ 
ritnct' of vB^U-nuuingtM] ruilwuys biui Hhottn lo be e«cs- 
tial lo the trftiis[M>Hutioii uf paasengofa lU aafiHy. Tfao 
mlliFnv lA, ihcrr-frim^ linbk whenisver a pafsrnj;pr w m* 
jurvJ, without fuuU on his |mrt, bv tta negligcul con- 
duct of iu buemesfl ; as. for loi^lAncc, bv a coUisioii bc- 
tircon traina on thn lirLt*/ or by a cotliaion betwOHi a 
truiQ and caraoa a Hiding;' orbetweea two»lre«t ciare/ 
or by a d«mlinai)t of the tmin carrying the puvcngc^;' 

■ a c. Hj, *. iLTvhir.Phi, 07 n. mo ; w>mik >, !c. a cit iu la t& aa. 

|09;U Am. A Tnc Ii. h,<.^au^ KTwuUcti >; U. C IL a, M Wlic 17^ It 
Am. 4 li:iiit a it, CWl 330; Wuil *. <A C a IL, IV tUod {fS. OJ ftSl. 1» 

.Aiaairnf.a afWiM. 

'ViiHuMto I. ll,C, E. It, a)N,Y.370:Omm*HHRR, 113 Uiife,a*E 
Hicbala r. Jd. ft. R. Wi [il. 4i3. 

r. U- R, n.. IS a T, 7W. 18 .Im. A Er< R K f^ A^ 

'SHnoPf .. I> B, * a r. Kt, 5 Ei, TK; L a R, ^, Wo-fy, BA OWff Sl 
4tN, 3 Am. A Eog. a a C^ »1 ; K, a, J. A 0. :>«. a a k AlbH««A. U 

' y, T.» L. E, & w. B a t, Beriutc, fteRY.Miu Aa.A&^aa 

CM.I'tS; KvU>w*.Rfl|]rJUAU.aa8. 
« HaltK e, §L. P. C B.'. 33 Mian. I.IA Am, A friT ^ R.^WUa, 

■ Cirrupvs L.Ab. ar^Al^ R.TIT. IK E.C.L.; D^itaiD «. U. Ry, 7 ILA 

^, iu;l7, ttuji^tub *, F A a aa.aDPBOfLBt^TMj n.y.. uaa w.k. 



di;tt di oPBBJkmro usx. 



37d 



or by an«xplcinoaof tkeloUvrvf tvlocuuiotivc;'orVy 
DOglJ^out ooupllug of aoothsr cur lo Uja-t ia wlikh 

itfae ptuaNdger U cdini«<lp lui Uiat tlic jHUtfeuger ia uijuTDd 

\hy liio Jar;' or b^ the knocLin^ of a guU boj at a 
ling Bgainit a train by u iimuwity Imm;' gr by a 
jet of irftt«r tbrowQ fVom a waur tank upon a jw»- 

l&Gagcr;* or by a j«t of kIciud iUrowu ou a iiunea^ in 
luiVLug a eleamboat wliii^li the raitiray o|Xrratc» am 4 
put of iiA Vinci^ or by n collislcin with > conJ bm in 
too vlutMj prOEiuihy to Uio Ibv/ &j alw tbu mlwuy ui 

f^b1# wli«n it« flCTVnnui, bring AWnrc U^at a brid^Oi 
vKicb coudituiui purl of iL? Liul', biu bMn ciurHoi] 
ttifay liy a II001I, Jo nol lake tbe pro]>er meuus 10 «U>p 
«n apprcttdkin^ train ;' or wbvro rupairt ic a Vtaa ard 
D«^lgeiiUy coutiucttfd tliut a <x»lliHt4>u tniiue-t iktHtlhu 
% pawtngcf tnuD nnil a coa&trucUoA train-* &> llie 
nJl^my ifi liulilr* fur injuii^ to a. j>u»«ng«T in entering 
a tfLr«4>t car, caused by tlti negllgt^iKV in baEikiu^- up un 
the tided of iU liuo Htjow wlii<jl] it hud removed tliciv- 
ftOBk* 8o> also, the railwfly la liable for n^ligenlly 

A V. BARIUM K.Y.l^, F«-t4i ».M.lLn., 1V^ UuhTSJj (l«rs« -^ 
Ht U 1. IL * »L B. a. M Ark. «1H, I Am. A Enji. IL R l^ EB4j P,C A 

CwlUt.B.A RR.R. 18 K,T-6»I:Tb«iI* f C, &LA PRjh « Imi» 
SM; WckU t. C- a 0. K^ IL IL, 4 DilIj (X Y,J IfV, C, a A Q, fi. R « 
Ovry^ l« ULAIO; L.K.i« r. ASf.-. MUK 40 Ark :tft<. Ifl AM.a£i« 
B.B.CW.10:Tnt«^Krpir«, S:l Oi. Ill ; T. A «t. L R. R. v. Bo^k «1 
Ta.lV,3l Am.AEnf, K.R.CW.4T4; ICC, H. It -^TIicniiH^TI} Kj.KW, 
I «B. * &£ L K. a& ?9 ; Pm*i) t. S. T C; JL a» M K. Y. 404 : C. R. h 
k lMt/-KMoXn« U Ill.SVDj If- A C. IL tt. K MfMin, I bliwl fTiHt) 

tso. 

»|lATdmD*.KT.CAir, 11 It R, 10 ItlAh^Uf- KUv 
*W1k[t«o.raimftAM.K^I. 'TTn*lt.E.ai!^)n V-*.e4iL 

'T, IT. A I, am •iA^n.SlInd l«,«AiL*lb«, fE, RU« ira 
*<kn1v t. W. A J. a H. M V- a 1. £1 Adl A Kbjc- R. a Ua. 431 
• I«(Ud« *, Ph IL A It W.]LR,«3Ukb,UUl«x. «£(«.&&. CM. 

■ UMl4fa f. IK. R Bf,, « Af^ Cte. »^ 
*UutaMt>.?f.r. r, aii.:irr4,\, ««7. 
*DiMBi;R,CA5,RB^100 5.T.lTl. 



«r 



ID or 



kBtaz 



uDwiT ii InUs 




1^ or W vhid clw pascn^?? 
vilfc tfcc fivr^ ;' and the 
injoriei cvased Ij Ui« &11 of s 
badi in s ileepiBe-cKr,* Illia- 
■^t be EDokiplittl iaiAaUijt bnl it b not 
fiv tbc resell of tbe satliaritiiGa if sunf Jt 
ikB, that Uke nUvrnj is lifthle Ibr ih« injarj ioaarTrd 
bj ibfr pusBk^FT in Uw opentim of the Ibvt, wlifTiseTer 
it ii ihovB ihu fthat iiQttfy «■■ «iMed diber W Um 
iiijhnY*B fintimftn of mabc pnanlioa wbkb it ms 
boGod to take £oT bis fvoCectiija], or bv tbe commismai 
of s iM^i$«nt act bj rooke OM Ibr wbo«« ac;a Uie ral- 
vmr B Iftgallj revpoiutbl& 

'J*j7. Xi ru:-.' 'A' ^i^-'.d, liUBrevep bigb, oan be saiil lo 
be necesaanlj De^Ug^Dce as to paseDgen in the trmin;* 
bat, of course, Dothmg wkll jaaufr a bigh rate of speed 
ander coadiiioasof daoger.' Thus, where the line is out 
of repair, iE i^ DegLi^nce to ran troins at a high r&teof 
Bpeed.' &>, in Whice F. M. C. Ry.* it wis held to be 
Deg|[gence with r^ard to a pasenger in a sti«et rail- 
way, to run iu car at a high rate of speed over rails 



■ Kellow F. C. 1. R. K^ la«K ^ 31 Am. A Et«. B. B. G^ UC Bm 
■Ik P P. Er. t. Weilla, 17 W#«kT- yota ot Cmto (Paib.) 300. 

* M. R. R. r. AjbfnlV 48 AU. IG, 49 JtL 305. 

' BlualfH r. I^ a YHt, L B- S El 23i 

' P«™. Cft r. Rot, 102 L", 8, «l ; C, C, C A L IL & fc WiOn^ » 0U« 
fit «l. B Am. A Km. B, R C« STl. 

' 'J. R. A 1. R K r. HnDtleT, 33 Midi. 537, 

■C^C.,r„A 1-B.a.t. N*wBlL75lpd-M« 3 Abl AEi^E.B.RC»4Sa; 

'P. r. A J, R R r RcTMld^ A^ Hl 41&J O. A M. Bj- 1^ Sdbr, 47 
*n ; M. P. Bj, p. Collier, fi3 Tei, 3IS, 18 Am. A Tjig. R. E. Cm. m. 

'«! WiA^ 18 Adl A £j«. R. B. Ch. SIS. 



OF THAIS, 



«n 



ungnarderi by fn^, nt th« entrance to t swinging 
ridge. So, lit Elk-ti V. 8l L.. K. a A N. Rj.,' ibe 
milwiiy wn« hM to bo nt^gli^nt a« n^onb a pownnngiir 
vho WLifl injured by a tkrailniput uf ibti Irnin wnteq^eot 
D|H>i a ^iulciog of (he irnck in a flood, tbc UDgiue- 
driTor bavlng rua th« Imin at k high rata of speed 
UTidur cooditioDS of danger : eo in I., B, & W, JL R- 47. 
Hull/ n jury wcro pomilLat to find tbu milwoy nrsli- 
genr a^ to a paaa^gfir In a train wbioli waa derailed bj 
Hitriling a cow on a ptrnight line of Imck on a pmiric, 
tbo train wus rumiiag, voon uftrr daybreak of a 
morning, npon ite schfidiili?! tim^^ Hfty mWfn an 
hour, tbv judgv, ut the trml. huvLn;^ Ic-ft to thtjury tbe 
queslJOE] wbell]i?r or not. under tlie circumatanuott, ih^ 
raio of tpMHl WEie n^gligenL Tlie tat of tbo proxi* 
matcnoiot renott-iii^as of ib<; B|>fM cu a cauBevf m- 
jory in any case of collision or demilmi-nt iq to bo 
found in the answer 10 ihe r^uuftion, i«ad or yim n<it that 
apeod pnideut under t.be circumatanccta, a« tboaadrcum- 
Btan«!A citlitr were, or oiigbt lo have hwn knoim, to 
iha aervanl who dir^cled ihe movement of tbe tmiii f 

26d> Tlic mllwAj ui dIjio liable to ila paaaengcm Ibr 
li^uriea oauB9d bv tbe n«j;l]|^Dt eloeing of ft door of a 
ear by a jumrant of thn tnilway. Thn« in Fordhani tf, 
B. 4 8. C. Ry.,* Iho pUiutifT. while entering ihe do- 
foniiaiit'fl oarnikgrt nAnr dark, boTding a |>TLrocl in hla 
ri^ht baud, p]:u.vd hv left huud iipon the o}ien door of 
tlM carriage, and a guard from witbout olo«ed the door, 
and in n> doing injur^ the plninttfTa leA hand ; nnd it 
waa held that ihe |>laintiff w»m entitled lo reoover.' So, 
in G. U. A Q. A. K. IL v. Davidflon,* wiicre tho pbin- 

■TAMq,&1S. *lMIIlr3,l3A>i.aKDfl.EaCkLJ4<. 

*»mtim CbUuu *, [t. r. Kr, 4 It A C «Ml 



C*Jt 1XM>Bfi. 



llffnticd (br tDJorioi recdTtd Sn nn oHImtj AsMriota 
Rilooa nr, bj tUe acI of a nilnv Mrvaat ra ctodtig 
ihm door upciD tlic pljiiiili6~tf luiul. It tm ]l<^Ili tliat it 
mi £>r tbu jury lo ii«ternifne vli^l^er or Tioc tbn t^ of 
tht B«TV%Qt vFM nrgUgirnt, regard bctc^ had tu the 
pldisUir'v po&itiuu ui ihe time of Ui« bjur>\ and lh« 
kD0vl«iJg« vhich ihn HrrvRDi lad of tho poiMiUJlity of 
injury ia tlit* jiUiiitifT by rvtuvun of tbo cJusIug ciT tlKl 
JoLrr, On tlio otIicT bai:d, la KicbardMO r. McUfpoU- 
Un RjV ap1iuotifrjmvb|;cnter«daairri>gv.peniulttd 
Ills hsQiI to reoi^iiu opoii lL« door for lonc Ualfs 
mimite, nnd tbc <liTfcitda[tt'ii jiortrr, hnvmg lint call«il| 
"Tnk&yotir fii'»l2," doHvd tliP d^ror, and iigureil Ui« 
j>latn1ifF*A haud ; nnJ it viti» }irld tliut tbc ddbndoiit 
mu [lot l[ul>To, tfiff fK>rt^ baving clc««^ ibe door iit i1i# 
ordinnry cxnrciF^ of bi^ duty nfi^ dut* wiming, otid the 
mtl<; cuuflt' of tlif^ Injury bciii^tJie |)lai]itiJk*a segjigcooo 
In |jerniit1iiig hia hfind to remain on Xivr^ door afttfr He 
bad cntnrcrl the cnrringc So, b JacIchou r. M, By,,* 
i1 nao hold, lu ib^ Hcuae of Lordd, tdBmiuig di« CcUTl 
of Appral nnd rerfirmnji; thi" Comtnon I'kwL, lli*t, 
wht'rv the pluiutiff bad been EujureU by reaeoo 0/ Laviag 
rUon in tin overcrowded Cftrrin^ io prevent (be entry of 
mun* iiase^^ugora, thv dL>or being ba«tily elcn^ by iJbt 
df^fondnnt^HRcrvnrl upon tbn i>lftIn|i(rB band^ Uit nuJ- 
uay wj(H nut tliibk-. Iti UicbtiixlEoa'ft And in JftckMo't 
CMfSt tbo tnjitry i^s dcno by an act of t aerrant ia tli« 
oooTK of lib duty, and not &c!>;l!>;utdy pcrfbruicd, audi 
injury rmnltod to the pauBCngi^ronly becaua« L« hiDuol£i 
van nugLigvnt; wbUc id Fonlhaiii*i cam Uic wrvmnt 
cicMd tbe door upon a pnewingcr in Ui« M of «jii«ruig 
tlie c&r; und in Duvi<bion'» c«m tbcrc vim cridpnco 
from which the juiy mi|;bt propttly, aud did, in &ct,; 

< L. A. 10 c r, 40, 9 c rb, laih I Arr <^ UL 



OXU DDOim. 



279 



find t!uU tlie jierTiint oitglit t/> Tiato nmn tKn poiation in 
wbieh tbe pUiutJiT wud fliuudiug, Tlie diatluctiori, 
dwrcfnre^ ia that tha pofNogw ta MitiU^rl to rccovor for 
an^h iiijuriou wli«n tb«; rMult frnm cordttWDWa on tbo 
|MLrtof tlw niilwA^'a wrTaut, llic ptueeBgr^r col coa- 
tribn^Dg to the floddcnt bj any iin|irudrat act on hii 
part- 

^9. A pns«pn;E^r lin* ihc ri^ht to lumno tbnt tlic 
dooTS of the ear ara reaflonablj Hi^urt^ Ibllt, in G«t* r. 
M. Rf ./ the pUiniifT, having men from hlft e«ftt in the 
duringo for lh« purpooe of looluo); at llic ngnaX li^hu 
upon the line, put hh hand on th« bai acfoea ihe win- 
dow; ih« door flew o|>«ei, ami thi* pkintiff frll out Jind 
wtut LujurL'd, and it wua LeM thjiL Li; wuu i-ulilti^J tu 
recotet, for lio might rraBonaWy Knppofift thai iVi© ilooir 
hofl ^Mt-u jTrojiflrly iiliiit by the defvodiuit'v iirrvant«, m^ 
lliAt he couM with tofcty Icnn npoD It, Su> in W, M, 
li, H p, Stanloy,' « pnuipnger wm kcJd **nti!lrc! to 
rvTOTftr for ii^urittt reoelrtnj in attempting to clode tlia 
door of hia citr while fuKsin^ through u lunnd, tJic 
TVjIway harbx omilttti to light thv tjir, and tJie oijou 
duor inconvenienclDg the pUluUif ai^J the other 1^9- 
■OD^cm ia tito ci^ by iU udiuivioa of unokc and da- 
dcv*. On th« other hand, In AdamB r. L- & Y, Rj,,' 
IIm door of the cttrringe in vrhidj the plaiutifT wn« 
riduij would not r^Diniu fshut while the traiu ^mt in 
Diotioa, but ther« wtm room i^noiigh for the pluintiiT to 
nit virnj frum the dour, »nd tlie irutthitr yios good. 
The pl^uliir> having ehnt the door thme tiin«, nt- 
l«mpiM!, for th«; fourth time, to Atioe it witliin threfr 
monittea of the time of arrival of th^ train at a fitation, 
and, ID »o doiogt ho fell out and wju iiyured. JudjC 
meot wfu trntcred for tbe dtrfvodaut upon the ground 






< « U<L =«^ L> An A BflC- B. IL C^ S0& 



250 



m»ORDiniLY TAmSSQEJO. 



llial, as ih^ LncottTfoitnoe to the pJabitiff from the open 
door WAN ttlight, And tbc peril in nttcmjituig lo don It 
WM cojialderabW, the injury nvulting from ihat luiciiipl 
WM cauctd sololj by hit owd csrelvnnede ; LuL !u tli« 
Litvr cuoo of Gee v, M. Bjr./ Adnjuji v. h. ^ V. Kv^ is 
ooaunented ttp«i,&Dd Uie Bi>[>]icacioii to Uie hau of 
ihni end* of Uif. dortrine na *Iiot4" rtutrd f|iirAtinnf>d. 

270^ It ill bolb tht' n^hi uud tliv July uf tlie nulfnij 
to recnOY« from itf cani Jisonlerly f^tftm^ngcre whofaO 
muinrmduct eDcUogei? the sntviy of ihrir fv]low*pai«Mi* 
gieia ;' bui iLo duty uf iLt> rait«ay to lU pubtsougviu (iotu 
not require it to mamtiiin a po]i(^c forc«, ^th«r ftt lU 
KldlioneioroiL iLs care, fijr lli« ftuppri^loii of Tiote,OT tbo 

prevcikiLOQ of nny pontile' brcncb of iLo peace; Uidb^ 
la v., ii., N. C. It. K. I'. UiEiOd/ thb pIidDiifl; a fumilc* 
having hGea !igur«d m tli* cour>ip of a ftght Wwe^n r 
nuiubi^r of druiikou men, wliui nt a ^(atiou, hod forced 
thojDwlved itilo tbe def^udAnt'^ cat and usurped Uio 
control thereof, it vna hrld ihul tho tlefendnnt wju not 
liable, for it* duty wiis lo j^rovide stTvucts L'uuusb for 
the ordiuury cuuJucL of iu tnuisporifttioii bvrAiii(*ifi, but 
jiot to provido polkr, and the cuuduutor, not having 
Voluntjirily admitted tho crealore of the d)alurbaiiv'*% 
but huviug bocu overpowered by thf^ni, ihc defendant 
vsaa not to h& held liable. On tho ^me pniidple it 
wpji hold iu CaunoQ v. M., G. "ft'. Ry./ that u nulitny 
in not liablo for iiijuriea raused by the disord«rly con- 
duct of 0- luob who had taken possc»ioH tjf u uliiticjn 
platform. So alsf, in Putnam v, B. & i% A. R. K./ ft 
rijilwuy was held not Ui be nsponaible for n wilful 
a^uuh by oiio paesojjgt^r caoflirr^ Uio dealb of unuiher 

m- ti- P- A CI R. R- *. MfDwiftld. M lad. 3]fl -. Umml ». W. 4 0, It. K, 



IQICIW- 



SSI 



paa^ngf'r, inhere the semoto of Uio railway bad no 
kiiowlc^ii};^ of the character or diApotiitiDii of Uic wrong- 
doer, and no reason to a|i|>rehei]iJ tliot fae woiilil oom- 
mll an oci of violence Kor m t!ie rulvraj liable to a 
poMCDgcr for the va1u« of securitiM of wblcli dint |>o«- 
nrrgcr b robbfi) by violon^v » ti» ia leaving tbn truin 
ou ila orriTttl ut a sUtioii-' IfcvertlivlMm* ihti duly of 
ttie railway m(iiiLrf« it to protwt it^ pn>wngc-rH fVom 
tbtf (litiorderly acta of uthtM* poswuj^m nud uf iXrausvn, 
providcil that iho parties caTuiug tbo disorder w not 
toffidectly ouDieronR or flrofig to overthrow the au- 
thority of tlic rAilway Hrrvaota; fbr m such a cnw tha 
BcrraatA are neicU^cnt in ngt nmioviiijc or conlrotUnj; 
the dt«ord«r1y pt^rvoDti; tLuo, hi F. t!^ 0, K. R. v. VW- 
low,^ wLcro tbc pluinti^ Wd U^cn Injured in ihc ccojno 
of a fight in d«f«Ddiint> car belwfou two other poeseo- 
gere, defcDdunt'* iiarvantH npgllgivntly omitting to rnCeK 
order, It was held thut the pluitLtilT wiui cutilJtd to 
rccoTer.' Upon tbo same iirltioijilo lh« railway U llablo 
to a poMenger, who^ ithiln Hllgbtin^ nt n ntatton i* 
pilfliU*dofrtbeidti?f<4of tbL>oar hy uvrvwd of pub4eiig«r«.* 
The railway » n\*a MMo for injnricA dono to it« poc* 
•augen by the wrongful and wilful ju.'ta of Eta aer^untt, 
jf tho milway hn* lM!cn ni-glii-cnt, cUhvr ia iXn vclccllon 
or releutioii of th<^ wniugduer in tho nurvke; or if it 
hia Bubooquentlr milA^^d tho ^orvantV unnntlionxcd at:t 
by TOtftiaing biiu in thotEervioc, UDdft/prfiori pt^^uiotiug 
hinitaftpr hij> wrongful act boa b«?Q brought to th« 



■ Vfm^M *, K, Y. X, H, A R. R. IC 73 X. Y, JW. 
* :« JVnri*. ^ «inL 



K-»iftn T. A * r. K, ft„ 



KOMI* An A Ek«.aE.CM.att;H«ailri<L*>.&,JLn. )i.*tH. 
Mlk>p.CllL3C.0H.ai.UAC1LR*.«arU»M UJk 300; Elf« r.aA 

M n S. & B7^ » L T. X. tL SI. 



S89 iuppisr jott*, m<a 

knowledge of bU sap«Li>r offlc«ar» Pat if th« nilffij 
luw iiM fxprovlj AT uDplMlj actbonsed or AtUUd^ 
lliQ ucL. or Wu &ctglig«it ia Um sdocliOQ or rcUnilu 
of the irrongdijcrj it cannot be Iicid liablo for Im wiifiil 
act. 

271. Tlio nDway ui tikewtM lublo ior injuric* to 
pa^seDgerfi in \ts can caneei] by a fiii<idec jolting of 
our in vUning or comiag to & MU}p^ and iii »ucb cuts U 
b Ibr the Jury to ^y vliether or not the ptoiQUff 
contribiitonly negligent in nirirtg fVfitn hui iifrBt brfa 
tliis wir Uud ttldpjittL' II id tbt dtiLy of tlic nitluiij- to 
prorido f)<intP for thd |ut^f:rngi-ni wljom it nndtrrintni 1o 
carry ;' but tJjtf mt^rv &itunj to proride m wttt for 
pft*B»cngw ift Dot 8ucb nogHgcncc n*i will render a 
^ray r<'Hj>0DAtbLe to the puiuengor. if b(>, wLili? tflaDdis| 
b<? ihrowTi liowH without nogligtrnc^ upon tJw jiarlof 
tlir niilway.' It him, bnwtvLT, Itpcn hdJ thai Uh? 
vuy tii liable to & puAffViigtfr, irbo> bating ^ter^ 
ci-owilcd caTr and no wat botlig obtainablf, l^o a] 
tb'^plaironauoclwjLsii^urvdwtiild upon the platforiD;^ 
but tliran div^iHinnfl nnem to bn opf»n to dilicinn aj 
the grouodtt *tutucl tu ibf? u«Jit Motioiii. 

XI, corTTaiuvTonT KKoi-iaExciE or rAasxirorM. 

S72. It if nt'W Kiit]rA ibiit a jmmnn^!^ wbo« rob 
tarily and uuaec«itiarUy» plaoea biiube If iu a poaition 

JO w'wkir >oi«°r Com jtviiu.}-ta; w. F. 1'. K^, «. vU|i^*, t u.m^ 

:Bu^eaf.KC AF. ft.R^lUUwL4S0j Wertlm t. O, T, Kf, [tf M W: 
Ci*l>U«i^M, Hit, :o:ildKi:| fipMnqubi:.SLlLlUfi?CiiZ.Ol.t IB. 

1LC^««; llDuglwrtj f^ U. a H, tl Vo- R^l Aal A C^, IL Ri 

• Boj.™ (. W, J. Ftrtf <:h, n I u, a i14. 

•W*fl4f.L-l. K.a,C«y.T-««0iOilW?v«11 « K tLB,R,ia 



« srEGiAOurox. 



283 



dutgcT cttnnot Hold tliO ttElMy- M^pDBlIblfi for icj^n^m 
of vlikJi IkiBpofluoD istftsefflcuntcaiuo, v, for in>lLUlc■.^ 
irhcTG hui Injuncs rtmtt from £iu cTXuaiu^ llit; tluti la 
IjtiulofiLULavJL^'tntiiiivlioeeaj'pn^iavlj LslEuowufoLlm;' 
<ir fWrm his returning^ nlW a Pi]o<:U!uriil cfluipi^ to a 
bunuog cnr m onlor to rocovvr a ralwo wlui-h Lad bean 
toft bftliin<l ;* or frora lus riding on nn pnginp^* or from 
hiM ricUog on u fnvght car inatfoil of in tliv cabuoee, aud 
vkllo tlier^ IiiEiLirrlLg Jucrcaac^J danger in fuljuiftiii^ ft 
fAllingloed of timber ;' orfironi his walking on Uid track 
iu a T^va^ janl;^ or from hiacroAdiDg on the plal- 
fona of ft car of a frri>cbt tmin, njifmri^nlly rcndy to 
atftrt, in ordi^ to Ttaah the peawnger lAin, and n-ttbout 
noticft lo tTioee m chsr^ of th« fm^bt train ;° or from 
bij ^iug on tbu Une, aflcr aligbtiu^ trom a truiu dt ft 
Mation And ttauiling for a ueoemary pUT|»OM, and with- 
out notiou to tbn rnilflrny w^rvriniH on tlit iTni\k Miinil 
firdght can which ore linbli? to be moved ;' or iVoiu Lk 
«?ftwUn^ uniler and b^twoon ihtt whocU of n froigbt 
tmid m Ittavinga mitway station;' or from hU rlJing 
on lli^ platTomi of a moving car before the IraJn cuiu«a 
to ft stop i* bat a$ bufore stated, it hdn b««n hc^ld that 

ia4O.B.a<^SuHv»UJ.«40^ Falk»t h 0, a. & w. Rj^ a L c. £• 
tix 
'iuj*ti. w. it^^ nr Tip. f\B, (Q n,) 4u, 

•IWl«rip^ '. K Rr..llS Du-b,!*); a A P, R R, v. Jimh. OA L'.attfl: 

«:1.0RK,»ll<i«a^,^. W. 8t L A P, B^ r. «^iu:k]irf. lUA IIJ. 3a4| It 

-Mmwd t.lLAfti. J. Rlt,rj U<L a::. 4 Am. A Kuff. 0. B. Cte n>i 
Pla^t ft.CRft. A. R.n-.r^iflW47£n. IS Am. >i;»t. li^itc^ut 

|M;llilinHi».1l>«FiL J. R U,ri U«1)^3An.aEDcRltC«LUr; 
JflTLHtq I. ft. ft U. R, R.» LU Mh. 7fi. 

•C,B>A<tbr...U«?^MlU t&l;Lnr|<kB.A0.B.E,3»IU.aet| 
OU^ t. II- A L, U. IL, I M\mi tic. 

* V«fe BAakfc P. U. S. R R^m N. Y. AST. ' 

•an>i^T-,F.ft W.ftfs,)OF*LB«ip.Ui LCRr- -< Urp«D» »1 Ul. ]»j 



S84 



FAloaon'B siiouotaEcs. 



!b« hStm of tilt rBil««7 1o p«rfora ib ihitj of prorid-j 
lag Um puiwMyr iriUi a bcM «iU excuM bb contrite] 
tor; Ki«gUg«iKi» in ridini; oo iLe [ilftifbrm,' y^i ihin 
doctrine onnot be rcguilcd u fvmoojiUit, fur if tlio 
|i*99eqger Cttaoot obtatn a umI be nay ettoJ vitbin tJi« 
car, ov bo naj nAut* to praoaod no tbft joamcj, and 
niAj bold tbc nulmj respcnudblc Gur ibv dwMgts r^ 
auluug fn»i iu bra»di ofcoaUlwi; bvt injarics ramlt^ 
iiig poriKDorilf frocD bU TolunUjily pulling liimtttf 
% poaitioii of eucb obriooe daager aa ibai of riding 
tbo platform of « ar in moiioB i^iiiiot W lOud to lmT« 
bMD pruximatotj cnoiDd bj ibe nilvra}''* falturo to |>n>- 
vidc bim witb ft eoaL 

2T3L It at nlao cotiuibutcirj tu^Iigmco in tb« paewn- 
ger to put bEa b«&d or arm <mi of ih« window <ift en 
in motioQ.' On tbo otbti buid, in K. J. R- K, v. Kcb- 
uard,' lb« nulwuj waa bdd iv be uegligml hvam^ it 
dtd not BO bar ita windows aa to pbyttcillj prvvani 
paaMOi^rtK fronn putting thrur bifida or araia tbrnogb 
tWe vlddown, but tiiat ctue in overruM by tL« JaM 
caMfl in Penn^jlnLnia^ In C Jt A. It TL r. Pondroon,' 
it waa held l^i^t tbe nogligenoe of tbe jWdMOgcr la per*- 
luiumg hh ariu U> rMt ou die window aili and to extend 
outaide woB aligbt in comporiaon with tho iii>g1i{;eDc« of 
tbe ruilwH^ in permitting t^ra on diiftarent tncica to ba 



It R f. Il«w<. RO Prno* 6l I»}; Htchf* > D. A 1* ft, B, H Alias mi 
«^iin * r. 11 R IL, M IIE.4WVL M.<t W, U. & il Jobfliia,»Oa.4U| K 
K 1. 4 I'M. U R R •; (?DiilM% 4Tt ta )»a, 
■WUlk* r.1. L R |L,St N- Y. fiTO^ Xnpt, W. A k|, & S, t Hiflk I. 

■T<>dJ..O.<llLK,,^Mr^M^TU30?;P.RRf.UHnw«»l«l>l^ 
BiSM; l> ACB-a*. KwKtrAiH, ?UlQd.ia; P. AC.R Rt Aiadnv^a* 
»d.n»:IIo]lirwkt.U,aif.RR,UN.T.3M:t>giif^«ARRR.raVk 
641,10 A«.AEnftRR<^iaiI.*»,RR)Ltt«Ui>p^An.L(S7j 



riVBTIQBftS VBouoiarcc. 



SSff 



In >udi doae projiimitir na to cauae tli« injury r«r vhicli 
th« pUiniifT CQodr nnd thnt, Uxct^I^, tinder tho doc- 
trine of Oiimparaiive ue-gUgenoe the plaiuliff was ciitltttd 
lo recover. In B[fcei»CTr i'. M, & 1*. t C R- R.,^ Win* 
Unv.H,A St, J. R. R.,' *u<l &nmmvn p- C. C IL R-.* 
H Is held tUftl il i? not nect>«Aril7 corilribjtorj ii<:gU- 
gcDCd ia a ptt«wiijjfcr to put im h&td oi arm out of ■ 
cair vindow. im*l lUat li la for tli« Jurj to decide whpih^r 
or DQt, uodor nil tlic circiimKtuicci of ttic* jwrticuliir 
awo, ibe act i« »o iiej^lij^.'ul us to bttr Im retovorj*. Tlio 
right H^H>trtnn Mvrmii io bft ihitt oTTodd V. O. CL K. 11., 
and ll» caw» of ibt olttta, fbr tliv plitcin^ by u piLAscuf^r 
ofnny portion of hiB p«r»0D oiiUid« of iU*> wimlow of a 
ear In motion ima obvlouil^ d^inf^roiT« thnt mhilu of 
tToriLgo mental capsclly inellDCllveL)' refViilD from U, 
But where tho pnucng^r lutving resiii^d hia arm on ihc 
Bill of the >rlndowr within llif^ oHr. it vutf josth^ one Hud 
injured by 8 colliaio» vltti a. frot^lu c«r which hitd l>^rn 
rtc^Hj(ent1y tdl on a ndiog id Fuch a position that the 
oar carrySng the paA^enger miuft strike ir, the railway 
wiw properly hold liabk.* So tlic nvilway wn* hohl lia- 
ble^ whoro the pikiMVfigvr*a nrui ajuiiturly pliLc'n-d wiihia a 
atnwt car va« jolted out by n colHeion of Oiae car with 
another ult upon a difTi^rcnt track, on a enrv<v whivJi 
waA »o i^harp that the oara nect'^furily bU-ulJc in ptittf- 
ing^ tti the milmy wiin hnhl liahlr whrrr a pnj4u>i]^Qr 
in a »tr«et car while io th» act of takuig hw vcaU bar* 
jjkg rolled bin hnnd on th« baae of an open window. It 
W>a itmck by a prnjwiinf^ wwer phink/ 
274. It is contributory negUgenoe in a pSABenger to 



•IT VHlSf. "aft Wft4M. 

• M Ia An, !■» < Pirln *. Killr, 108 T. 6. t3§. 

<rMlt>r.v«U itnt.nMlf-iWMSAiiLAEo*. B. R, C*iWtSB» 
■iM «^xltMOa II F, IL A Sr. W. IL k, U .H. W. Bcp. (IdiiAJ UUL 



fabbexoeb's ^bouoexok 



ride in a 1M^g^ ot otW ceit, out Intended Ibr tfa^ 
earrwfo of pamngVN^ vava with die ti>nf«nt of the 
nilvAj/ jwoTkdcd, of cwna, ihat the pwiikin of tho 
pOiTrrnpT w&a a ootitrlhutinj- ojluh^ uf hm injuij, and 
wu, in tucif, so dan^rou« ft placf: Chnt a m&D of crdi- 
iikirv pnideiuw would uot Lavu vutuuti&rUy occupied ;t 
undfrr ordinary circumsUnccfl. Bs^agft car« &iid lug- 
gage vaiui are not pnmiirily inumdcd iW the cnniagr of 
pUMDgai*. It ifl, in (Moa of oaidinl Lv iUe U-juh, 
dangarona to hn in lhnn>, not onlv bDrjiUiBO thrj arir in,, 
gaottral coupled <o the tuguK drtiwing the train, 
precodiJOg tba puwi^r can, but td«> bccauBO, in 
of der^liiiQitl or oulIitElun, tliv bmui nod trunk* In 
bm^gooor aro Tioluitly thrown a1>ouU II ia, thi 
Etot roaaoEiabIc lo huM the nulnny liable to on<t vl 
tl^aritt hftv<? beeu caused by hia iuij»nidetioe la ToJni 
tnnly riding in k^icIi il au-. It ii^. of courw, not 
Iribuiur)- ut-Kliilt'ULi? in a pmiHmiJi.'r lo rldv in a 
aongor c^r Olhor limn that in which he hn« be«t] ft^gu«d 
lo a, BoaXJ 

27C. If the pHwenger afigumo4 a position of d^ger 
tho iovitiition tif a prrrraiit of the niUwaj', nr nndor 
oxprew or impliwl ropm?«uTJiLion by a ^rvant of tkt 
niilwny that ho nJHy mfcly ot^cupy tbo poeiUou. tlia 
nilvray will, in geiivrnl, he held Ikbte for thv iiijuric*^ 
I*wi)tin^therofh]m;'llii)J4, iu B<&O.K. K. f^. State, to' 

* 1L il T. 0. H. R, V, aauiD'-i^ &A Tu 8«,a Am. A &ia. B^ ILChLlWl 
K, C, K. K.t. 'niuiiJuTVlCy-lmi, L Am. A RngK R. Ck 7»; p. H.B.ih 
lAnpl<irt, VI I'^nnit '*L il, 1 Am. A Eivt. iL !<. I^l «■ P, A K I. IL K. L 
LuHi, e;E [11, II.K; Ilivfliu'' n.A 9H.J. B. R, W&IH; <^. WaiKu t. KL 
H'.St tiL> Tah [^ ]t,i L>ii; Jjuubiu o. HL, f, A C. K:r-i WULnn, ISA. 

'' P-m>it tta, p, Ray, 11« r. fl. *:i|, 

■ OThiPMfll V. A. V- K. K^Ml J^inni.BL^^aW; I>uiin >, G, T. t(. K. J^ Jl^ 
liTi KdffBruio », ^- Y, 0. a B.p JTl" N Y-*27:N.A CRB-f^ErwIn, 
T^nn. ,3Am.A£:fl<.}LK.r^4flA; L&St L R, fl^tNllancMaH 
SSI . L. A r?. 0- K. >. Kdl^, K lad 371, 13 An^. A Fa«. B, R Cb 1 ^ I'm! 
aCB.a,AaWbEil3T; SL^l ^.A «:, IL U, » 1Jut'«II.A7 Ark.UfiL§ 
AAaEii«pB.lt.0Kl9A;a U. a A B, COh fl. HdCocdj, U (Ja. 3»; 



PAAETfOER e yBOEJaBCK 



287 



'6f \ruJione.' and In Wftiren v. T. R IL,' ihe nl\- 
waj ynw hold liabln to pniwuiguni who, upon Uif! inri- 
tdtioD of and to company niili a »tuci(^ii master, vrbll^ 
oroesln^ ibo lino to ttnf^r n fur, wrro Ftmrk h; an nn- 
guic zoo^ng upou ttD iutLTvcnuig tmoL So in P. R. 
R- r. JtfcCloskej,' Ui^ roiiwiy ww hi^lii linltl--' tr> * pfl»- 
irtrnjE^ who wn* injurud bj reiuiaii t>f hm ob«dic<nn« to 
ffpeclfjc iiujtructloiiA vf tlio rnilwjiy*« wrranU, roqu'iriu^ 
hlra lo pldcc bimnclf hi n pckninilnx mr, nltbougb ibftso 
npeafic iitttniolione were nt variance iviUi the railway's 
IpraonC rr^ulnli^HF. Ho in CL, (I, C tit L K. K. fr, Mnn- 
*on,* L. A N. R. R. v. Kelly,* And iu MoTotyre n. N» 
Y. C. R, R," riillway« were hpM iiabl^i to pasftcngnre 
wbo wen: injurvtl while ptMi^j; from ooe cur to imothcr 
of a Irttin in motion, Tin/Jnr thn diitotion of the oon- 
dnctor. Si> in N. d£ C, R R. v. Krwin,' tho rttilwiiy 
ma hti\d liable to oue, who, having arriv(<d at a atution 
too laW for bin train, got upon nn tn^ne At the inYita- 
doa of tbc^ fltutinn mjurtrr, aud wbll« j<mntt?yit]{* on thn 
Line la ihe engine for the purpose of ovortsking hh 
train, wju {njur4.*cl by tbe negUgrncc of >crvnnl> of tbo 
mtl^ray. So io St! L, I. M. A B, R R v. Canirell* 
the railway wiis ht-ld linblo to a paaHingcr who, at tbo 
•uggeetiou of rhn (xinductor, jumped frora thr platform 
of t ilovJy oiQnng train and waa ii^nrcd,' 80 iu 

7. £»l ^ Ctwlt. p. R. K, M Pdium. K lAtt : OJiViUf ■ T^y. Y. d K A ». Y.ft 

Jt ]TJtv,?nX V t'Ji-. i'.,tV<'Al-X. lLD,Miiiv*An,nonhli^SLlM; TtibM. 
hatr •. V. T, C. A H. R R. B„ U Fed. lUp 971 ; C> £, A ^ R. K. «k 9>b^ 

M nr 1A7. 7 An. A >;iii. il ti t-v. ^m, 

■«fMJ, 1^, Sr A&.ftEDC,B.R1^ sot •SAUmBT. 

* *9 Ini «?1, 13 Am. A F.nff. IL a C>t. 1, * AT X. T. W, 

■ Tom ,S An.A K^R [Lr^4ilV 

■r AikMS. AAco-ATK^. R.1LCi>L]ftt 

•fiHilMn]«r^ S. Y.attlLWN Y.Mlia R B. * Uc^itfdy. 4) 
OlSH; BndKr ■.!(.¥. a ail an ft. «• K IT. It^ » Att. A BUf-B. 



288 



■mvAxr'* nrviTATiox. 



Allcoder v. C., B. I. A P. Bj.,* iU nlliray wu lidd 
liftble 10 a ]:i«0Hnf^ irho wnn tnjared \vhiIo noder iJm 
ilir^ctfon of llie nu'lv^y conductor, enteriDg a cat At 
rc*t, bwt nol in poailion nl ihp Twwnl plniform. &o in 
aUotinoU I'. A. V, K. R./ i1i« mUw^j ym> hM liable 
to a poM^^ wbo 1TA8 mjurf!<d while riding in ft b«s- 
^jcv cur m Tioliilluu of n ru!« i>f tbo niUwuir, but wicb 
tlie OBMikt of tho corkdoctor of tbo Ir^in. ^ in C K A 
Q. R. R. 1-, 6ykni,' nn intnnititig pwHvngcr vn« held noi 
Lo l>o necoeaari})' L-txitribulorlljr j^egll^Qi in ]>awjTig, on 
tho mvirnlion of n xv^ndurt^r, ond«ra freight car vlitch 
barred hia way Ui ihr rtntion. 

27G. The fitct ilui H MrvAQt of llie nlliraj InTiC«*d. 
or eT<-n tlircclcd tbe pcuwciigrT lo oconpy fi pomtion of 
darigt^r wHl not reader ibo railTruy tinbk for tDJuried 
resulting lli^'ivfTom, if tbe dangrr wtu so obvioun, IbSpt 
n rttiaonable lattn wonid not bove obey<>d tbeaCTTinl^or 
scc^pt^id his invitation ;* nor will iho railway be liable 
to a piisEtng«r who h injureil m uljgbtiug at a diwjrcr* 
one place, bocauee the conductor f^lls hitn tliat ^9- 
©?n^erst*ometimeanlighl tber«, but dofinot cither invila 
or (zoicimuiirl ibi* |iurtj(.'u)!Lr puur^u^or to slight at ibat 
poiot.' Nor will tbo ruiTwAV b^ btld rrnpoTiHibl* ifth* 
pprvant waa not ^atprewly, or impliedly, authori^d to 
give til*' inviiiitinn.' In purticiilnr h thin tlironfic whm 
tho gt'nerJil rrgultttiona of the rnilwfty for the protcctioa 
of t)ie pa80engor forbad him to occupy a powtion of 
danger, as, for inBUnci;, Co ride to the Uiggnge cor. Op 

■ 4)1 liwn ^TiS- * ^ iVncui. ^ 'iSV. 

*BumfAw.C^n,Aq,.tLn,l Ow^yi-S; C. il A, U. IC, t. KBn.1o||<\FS 
III, (IOl B, Jk p. 1L B.*.J«u^rat-B.4S0: »v W. K. R. *. Eii^irlf^on. ffT 
O*. HOa M U 202; S, A X. A. ]L a, t, E^luiifl>r,T^ Ala. 130, 11 As, £ Kn^ 

•C^K AQ. Tt It.., IIuiu^,a>Ill,!rTB. 

•L. il,4F,e.Rr-r. MUb^ « Art S5fiT 1>a1f t A-V. R. R, 01 Pnek 
fit. ibA -. llvwv >. P. a a, »V U 110 ; P. a B. *. L«iJN<Ji^ 93 14. £l» 



LLC£3CrtX TO JUaOJlCt UUL]^ 



S99 



lifl poJBt pAXfOn, J., mfB wUU grait Torco in P. It R. 
«. LAnRiI<iu/ "the ralm adoiiUwl b^ nllfoaiJ ccanjiAfii^^ 
ai« a p»rt of their police ArraiaguracntiL 8omc of tbcm 
wxb (or tLu uonvvaivnuo ui'thc comptmy m tljo iiuiuuge- 
ment of its bualrii:;^?^ Others ato Tot t.lift oomron of 
paseDgcn^ and ^nt otLura buw trxdiuuve rogu^ tu the 
eftfct; cT pafiseD)(«r& TJie Jigtijictjon bolween ibom, 
and tlie ttiffcreiico in tb« Doniuifjiicnon of T.lieir TioklioD 
Je maalfi^eu As an UlualruttQu : It ivauld he unrtMeon- 
lUo to bold that the violation of the riilo nguiiiHt amok- 

ig oouldbe Mit uj> ufltt defence to uiiaotioQ for personal 
injnrieft nnulting from iho iicgligeacc of the compuny. 
Ou the other hand, fllimild a. pu^Muger iu«tbt uport ridiug 
tho coff-catcher, in the face of a nilp prohihiiing 
And ti n Knitwquvncv abould be h^urcJ, I appi^tihend 
it wonld bo a goorl defence to an action a^imt th« 
Cnmpiinjr livcti ihfUJj;)! tiiif nc^liguncr of the hitlurV Mir- 
ntMa WBH th« cuuts^^ <jF Lhe ooJ]i»iou ur other itccidciit, 
bj which tho injury wnji oocwdnnfid. And if ihn fioj^ 
>e-agvr thus n<ckl«ily vxposiug but Hie to poiiHjUv jtcci- 
dcnU n-crc « unc man, more cspodntly if ho were a 
nflnad mao, it ia diiHoult to m« hovr the knowledge or 
Oftta thesMOnt of tlie condactor to blit occupying auch 
apodtion ootihl utTcoCthocaic. Thencnn hi no liocnM 
lO OOnmit aoioidfi. IL is truo the couducLor bae tlie oou- 
tn>t of the train nnd may uwlgn piuvcngan tbcir scnti^ 
but t4> mny not aMign a paa^en^r to a «eat on the cow- 
GRiobrr, a pTAJtion on t1i4i platform, or in tlie baggage 
ear. ThhiiiikiiuiArutoi'vt^ry i[itelUg<-niiuiLE],aiidupji«ani 
npon tlio fftci? of tho nilo ite^lf. He is ei}»ret«Iy nv 
^ulcvd to tiiifbrcti it, and to prohibit any of tbr acis> m* 
ftrred tMi&I«Bi it b« riding npou ihecow-catcbfr, which 
b ao maaife^tly dingcroiu and improper iliat it ha» not 
baan deemad neonBuy to prolilbit it. ^Ve are nnahTe 

1ft 



2&0 PAui^aEa's xisoLraEircs on flnEBr CiU. 

to SCO Uow ft coxuloctor, in violatioa of* l:novn rale of 
dwoompuiv, oulfoHiM & mnQ to occup/ & place uf 
chngtr to V Co mukc the ompaajr nvpoiwUv* U U 
othvrM^Uu w to rulw wLicli urc uiUuitlvd mifrvljr for the 
cotiT^oif nc* <'f tbr (xtnip/uij or ii* jiftMongipra. U me 
«aicl bjr WooilwarJ, J., lu &ulU%^aci v. Thv Riiilrand 
Coiupttuy.^ 'HvAi on tbn y^ri of tbo paeeen^r bin tiaittiit 
ia implied to nW the compnnT'A Tt^iAt^nuhlft rukf find 
ngulatloiu fr>r enturiuj:, occupying, &ud leaving Ui^ir 
CSlMt Uid if injury bofjtil him by rttMfn of bin Jiiirc|csHi 
of ro^lfttSoDH, which ar« nec'duarj to llieuomluct of tbo 
buflinrit- of ihn com[*Jiiiy, tbo comE»it»y arc hoI liabJ* in 
(lfunji^;i»r cveit thou^b the iK^^Iigi-iLiw oi tbcir ncmuiti 
concarred with hi? onn neglig^^tc^ in caunng die mis- 
cbivf.' Thij pntid|>lc ui vwn brandcrr ibun thv one w« 
ftre DOW contending Ton Wo only aesert hon), Uiai if ft 
piwrngf^ wilfiilly violnfr^ a knoirn nilo intrndrd for 
hit AttA^ty, anj Ih icjnrvd ju cutLSDquvncu of huvL viola- 
Uon, he is not nikiicLail to rr^coTcr dftma^fv fur eucti 
injury*" 

277. Tht conditions of travel on a slroel car are, of 
oourstf, dlltcrcnt fr^m tb»c on l]n<!a of railwny whoso 
cars are propelled at the higlier rate which the um of 
picnm as u motor uakca pooeibJi^, and U h uot ncwnarily 
contributory no^ligenoe to ride ou the platform of % 
atrt^et cnr ;' nor to lcnT<! one s scat in n *Ireet car and to 
etaad ou the rL'ar platform, on w]i[i:h tberp ii un nccu- 
miihttion of ico aad snow;' nor to atfl.od on tlje front 



* XMel *, L, A. 11 n. K. H AlU^ =ttl j H|>ooii«r tn |L C, IL ft, M FT, Y. UO; 

a?. Rr.r-W-llli«, W PtainiST, fi*' M-ril™ ti, M, R. R.< US U«.*y;; 

flfaulAHi p,a Ai IT, KK., M y.r.m-. noik ,. %iU Aviv IL IL, R IM- 
Uiirm », a K. a, to W(K »:i»; Nojjo t It C A N. K K, HT N, Y. BJ, I Am. 

» Vf-paWf Nolo* of Ohh {r^nnL} 'Mi. 

• Flv-dL iH U. B>„ 1^1 Km 180, IQ Aro, « But- R B. C^ STL 



DISABLED PASftEXOntS, 



sn 



•fcpoft honiecftr;' nor to g<?l on or ofTn moving Mnwl 
car ;' but it hta boeu ln^l J to b« oontnbulory iiculi^iruco 
to alirmpt to g«t 00 the front pTfttform of a moving 
»tr«t<t cur «h'-i*cj nU-'p w obvioiwJy broki^n ;' or to nit on 
Uie laUiug of ilie (iklforiu of ^ elrcol car;* or lo Jtit on 
the Ktcp of H Ktrnnt tuir,'* A Ktrnpt iniiwny iff, of COUIW^ 
not littlil« to » piuntum^r vrha ut iajurvJ wblle HbrndiDg 
on lli« stop of tbo front platform by b^lng jollod off by 
an ordinaiy tnov«m(Mit of tbo air,* A itPi»t milwciy in 
opvntitig atr^l cats U uol bound lo preveut pdAiMug«n 
from gcttiiig on nml off the front platform of a car by 
jUonU or feniiera, but tht ii1jbi-:hn? of suoh mearui of 
protection may properly be conmil^roJ by the jury in 
debenuioing wiicthcr or not the milwny failed ia itfl 
dot/ to one who \ta£ injured irbtid fiJIgKiing tVom the 
ftotd p)«tfbnn:' yet in W. V. l\ Hy. i\ Gftllaghpr/ 
Judpwuit for the pSuintilT wiu rtvEiruL^d by ihi' sumu 
Oimrt wblch bad deoidod P. C P, Ky. tj, Hmi^ard, be- 
ceoM ihft jndgriii the trinl Inft it to tbo jury to find ihn 
nilwny ttegligi'Ot iii fiuliug Ur provide audi gudrdfl or 
fbnders. 

27fl. Wh*rrp thft railway volnntarily flcohpta tiB a pa»- 
•eager one wbosv pbyjjia;) diBubility k upparvot, or la 
made known to iti torrAntA, luid rccdert nptcinl afieist- 
U)00 DDCttWMj, tlie r^lvny in negUgi-^ut if Much uesUt- 



• a C^ nj. -. llpmT^ni, ^lU.M0^8jLitLAEivR]t.Cu 311; UoDdv* 

• iKKfkh *. a. A n. a Br p 83 MJ. »7. 11 An 4 Knc R 1L 1^ iia. 

• ]• WnU/ K«l« or (^H (IteiuJ 411. 



rmarQ] 



oar FBDOEIT 



«ie« be not ftlTorded'' It baa boeo hM tbat wlim tki 
pliyidca] oonditioci of tho i>rr*<>Tt Jiijiirtyi u at ttc titue 
oTtJielqjury ludi UuLitbc injuria cauuvl hy iKglig«Dc< 
OD th(i pun of t])c nilway are UiL-r^b^ i^j^ranud, tbt 
Tmilnuy JA not liable for thai tk^gmntliott ;* bol tbe mot* 
correct vittw veciiut to 1h3 that titkea >d than cmmw wbicfa 
hoM Hint ft doCcndast is «q«tU;r napooiiibk Tor bjuriis 
luflicled bj hilt nogligeiux-. And fbr an oggraYsiiou of 
tboH injuries bj reana of tJi« iiD|3Air«d phjakal 
ditlcn of the pcraoa injured prior U> and al Uie tiiBfl 
the injury.' 

279. It ia the duty of tho nllwaj, wliatev«r be llu 
mewu of ooDvcytinoi: whicb it uMna, to provido ei 
thing whii^li is ottODiiul to the M&t; of tbe pavcnj 
aod rvHHonnbly con0i?t«nt with 1h« traiwportatkiA of 
the |)iufKU];;r!r br thu particular mcaiu of coni 
«o ua*^ ; tiiu« on« wlio has bean aooepLcd as a pui 
U> bo cnrriod in n Frright tmin u erttklod to the 
duLmctvr, thougb not to the aune degree, of proMtiOil 
aa if ho woro earriod in a paa»eu|i^r InuD.* 

280. The itringftntobligntionfi which ihe lav tQi|Hiit0' 
ufun common carrlen of ^^mmgm an doc appUcaiUa 
to tudlvi^uQ-la occa:?ioua!tjr carryiiig ponnDgtn gnuJ- 

■T.W.AW. RKf.n>.Ur«lr»MII].l4:aClR Rr.ISnri^«!at 
VTl UJIlimMn >^ N,Y-f;. <bILlLILr»,««;f.Y-«Ui AMSduv-B-CKi 
E, M X. Y. SQ ; K. O. J. d U N. R ft. » 8Mbi«^ «i Ul>. lOT. 

* R P. 0. Co. t. Bukar, 4 f^lo. £H. 

■ALlIm ».CAN.W. IV.O tint;!: Dnw* ft & H. A «^ P. B?, H 
«lt[ua4£, S .Vol d Eu«. IE. IL C*» Ht; Fftif«cri<A k O.V.B7. U 1> 
On. (Q Rl Mfts Vtfmn *. Klp-n. I« WIa IM. 

■ Uiitirh tv C. K. B, 20 >'. n, » I C a A Q. K. Bv *. lluw^ W ». Kl; I 
Ra,i BM»»r, <l M(t 49n-, I. A m. L, K, H f^ Mi>m. vn r.i<i»|- C-4 
■ML IL. Tu KiL^ laiu. Mtf, Bel(Eflm»i-K-Y 4 a tt&^B^ J»N.V,r;rL 
tucnt Q.T.Kt.MM* IM, 

Aa 10 ihv TflfLrkbHl ■Utiitfrj llkbitll;- of rkLlim^ \m Hyifc<lj|t to f^Hfr 
ftr. cin ^Ifllil iniii^ « Code IM(X | KM; PiqUm «.G;SkL.A3LO.X. 



fiP£ClAL CABBJEBS. 293 

touslj;^ nor to railway contraotors, isho, in the course 
of conf^tmcting a line, occasionally cany paaaengerB for 
hire;" nor are statutory regulationa for the running of 
tr^ns which hare been enacted for the protection of 
pasaengere applicable to consCruction traina run by con- 
tractors npoQ an uncompleted line.' 

1 tfo&tt r. SuUmmn, I^ B. 8 P. C IIB, 

■ Shoanukar 9. KJiiffihoxj, 12 WaU. 3W. 

■ Qriggi t. HonAOD, lOi U^ S. £&Sv 



2d4 



^AUMAt B^rAin^ 



CHAPTEtt VII. 

TKK UABIUTV or THE RAJLVAY TO TUZ PCfiSOm I^CCtUDO 

IX THE rirat ci^itoouT, lax-r ib, the EuevAxrt or tvx 

IL Till diECf of Uio nUwAf In lu uHftHl fnniiMiaiiin •ml nW^cHot 

■MJoUiDiiM in Fvjiairaf !«■ Iio^ rfilliotf 'Ui^ Kirl •ii|»]iqpm. 
HI- Ttrt diHjr 0f ilia nllny 1q lu PD]«ctian >nd fvianfloAof iwwilik 
IT- Tht 4ul^ of Ihs railway iu iia c^Faiii>ii tit lU lin*. 
V. Tfa> llhUflif fit ■allwn^ ig ih«lr aimnU tnr Hi* v^ltgm** of ftlhtt 
MnwUk 

TU' Kifivr HmmH, 

YLIL Tb> ■naot'fl oMirRuEovr m^O^mou. 
TT ftiftiB Ifcrrriif l!ii MirTllr/ nf rtllinji 1r rlirlr iifniH 



BILITT OF ras. KAILWAY TO ITS aERVAZfTS. 

281. In tlie temi "servanis" there are IncliuW all 
nf tlie railwav^B officers auJ omplov^a of cvtry grade 
>vIjo &ro cDgngeil in tL« operation of its line J use th<t 
nnmo "servant" rather tlian "employ^," not only b^- 
CAti^ il la of Turger import, but iJ»^n bei^uu^ the relation 
of "muster oml servant" hoa long boon a roraguized 
topic in ilio law, amJ the usfl of the t^nn **wrvaot" 
renders more easy the reference to the tiiuny adjudged 
cos^ vrhjch doal with that rGlalion- The Datura and 
ejcteot of thn liiLbility of railwap far injiiHf* to their 
Borraute la tUo course of railway opertttimuf 10 dcUTmin- 



KAILWAY ttlLRTAlGT*. 



205 



Ma apoD tbo g^nora! prbciplm wLich aro applicable 
to tha relation of Mftrvaiitji to other muil^r* noting in 
their izidlvldiiftl capaciii^ Ma«l«t^ do uot iDdurv die 
flB&tj of their tcrvauU; am] tlit^y nrclmblc to th«si 
<tn\y for DegllgecceT tb&t ih, for u non-ivrfomumciti of 
doty cauding iiyury lo iho wrvantjv. Tho r'?Iati<>n l»o- 
lif«ea mojtien aad tlicir BuniuiU bdnj; purely vohintiiry 
flnd contractua], the nature and eitfot of Uia nirtnli^r'a 
duly u( nuccmarily dcp<^ndcnt itpon tbc icrnu^ irliclhvr 
cKHrees or Implied, of tli*^ coutmvt of wrvitv. If Ukw 
Imj an flxpr*w« contract of wrviw" lioflning tho ill«et«Ka 
liulility, it« lerma muiit ^vcra, but in tbi; ab««nco of 
any «\K-h fMotracl tbe implied ifbli^aiou of tLe mfislcrr 
h only that ha *bal] not be n^gli^f^t in hix pj>rflrmnl 
]»rtici;>iitJou in the work, nor in ilio pereoual participa- 
tion in tho work of any one vbom Im ha* pnl in hie 
ptiiou to reppMent him, and, in ihc exerowe of nn uncon* 
trolled dlNrt^tion, to vdiiduct tKe bu^ueKS fur bim ; nor 
in the proTifrion of the miu^hini^ry nnii npplinnc^ to be 
opomied by tho wrvuti, nor in failing to repair mu- 
chioery and applJancea which, aUbotigb nrigiiiAll y ^meiJ, 
have bocomo dnngtroualy defective^ anil wl^nt i^cnditioa 
eiihor Kor onght to be^ known Co Mm; nor In the 
ori^nal Milociion, or Hnhnnqnnnt mtnntinn in thir i«rvic«t 
of acrrantd whc»y int'orji|M.'tcncy witbi^r ih. or ought 10 be, 
known tfl him, Tim Iwiing th*^ oxlint of thfi mnfitCT's 
intpliod obU|cation Uj th« arrvant, it fDlIowa, not only 
that thu tfcrvual mual bo held by reaaon of the voluntary 
chftr«ctor of hia ongngfrm^nt in th^ fl^rriot', ia hnvn ui^- 
inmed the riaka of danger to himBt!lf ueu^urily incident 
to the chancier of iho aerrice fbr which bo cngjo^, in- 
oludlftjc iJio mka of the nr^sligcmw of bin fpllnw-flcrvant*, 
hut alio tliaE the aorraDt cAonot hold ihe master liol^ 
for on injury lo the happening of which hia, the «eiw 
TADt'*^ neglig^Doe haa «onLribnled. The gemeral prEo- 



SM 



OmBU ttinx OF lAAMlITT, 



cip)» thus acatod are Aillj supported bj the ititlioritii 
TKft Ic&ding ciuf' i« I'riefAlcj r, F<i«]«ff/ ivbcf^, la 
BiCtiou by B wTTant agninjf hk in3f4#T, a butcIi«T, for 
ii^urlw rec<ji\^ by tU« bn^u ; duwn uT hh orirrtnni 

on tliv ground, u «tatad bj Abiugcr^ C B^, tluu 
ibo mere rclolloQ of uiaaUx uid tcrvtcL no cuau«ct 
hqJ, tb«iL-fciM*, no duty out bo implied on th<T pnTt of 
th« maauir to caiue (lie vervuit to be ufely autl Mcunlj 
carried, or U> make tbc muEvr iiabk for dAnHga to 
iwrrnut ariaiiig from any vice or impfrlVction unkoDHil 
i« tb« inA0l«r ia ibe carrU^» or in Hit mode of loHdhi^ 
and oouductiDg itf* nnd ia ducidalJoaof tk« 
prinr;ipk\ ilie Lord Clilef Buroc Mid, the matter "it,' 
no doubc, bound to provide for ihe B&fety of hM sertAci, 
iu tlie tiuunvoi'hix Maployment todw bvut of hiitjodj^ 
meot, iaforniAlioo, aud belief, Tbo servsul h dM 
hoiind to riflk hU ^nr^ty in tho fpfViCQ of hia maatfTi 
ttnd muy, if bo tliinkv tit> decUoc a&y nvrict in wbxdi bt 
rea<iouHbly a|;]>relieuda u^Jury to liimaolf; ajaJ in moat 
of t,hn (witti in TvhirJi tnjiiry irijiy bo inciimxl, if not id 
all, h*i u juRt aui likely lo be aoquuiut^d vlth ibe pmbt*- 
Vility aud eattenl of it aa ihc niiurtar. • • • In faci, 
to allow iKb sort of aclion to prevail woald ho ui <ii- 
couragetiietil to ilie servaui to omit tbnt diltgcnco and 
caution whidi he ia in duty bound to i^xfrciie in bobalf 
of bis tCDett-T to protect him against th« tabcoudiKl* or 
Dflgligenc«, of others wbo tcrvc Lira, aud if liicb diligou* 
and <uutiQ]i. wiiile tbi*y protect tlKMUMtcraro o iDOch 
belter iwcurity ngniiiRt any injury the Mtrront mty rw^ 
tain by ihc ni^gligcnccof otlii^nti-u^ged under ibrHtnO 
muHter tiiau any reccuree a|;aiiist his Q]Mt«r for danign 
could aflbrd." So ia Wibion v, Blerry,' vbvn tho 



■IU.AW.I. 



-LlUlSe.AOif,m 



&AILW^Y SBBVJkffn. 



^m 



owQvrii and 0|«tatur4 of a miuo were HO^igbt to be held 
liable Tor lUc iWili of a raiaar, Ctainifl; L U, aaiil : " the 
zniutcr ii iiot» and ciutnot be, liablo to hi* norvtwi untcM 
tliera be D«i^li(,-euc:u oq |L« part ui' cJitf ma^lcfr iii that 
irliicli Lc, Uic muntcr, LjucotitnLctod,oraadcn^keD, xith 
lu* Mrraci lo do. Tli« uiaatar haa n^ oontractod hot 
idfittRkftn to ^xacuta in ]Wn>on llw> wop> coniifKied with 
iifl 1jui!ui:«a. The roBult of un obli^aion on the miutcr 
parsou^llj^ to <^xeculd tbo work ciciuiii.Hn^tl wiibliifl busi- 
nflM, in pljuv tjf Iniiiig bnnctl^NLl, might bn dUo^tronn to 
bia Bvrvuui4, fijr ibu MiaxUit mlgbt be ia<HmipvL«ut, p«r- 
soncilly, to pni'foi'jn tbo work. At ^ 0T«Dte, itMrvaiit 
BiAy chcKhM fur himNelf b«tir«eii «i?Tviiig a nuuter who 
dues, and & ma«tGr wlio doea iioU attend Ui penou to hie 
bunincRL Jlut whut tlic master ia, in mv opinion, bnuiid 
to hid wrvact to do, in the event of Jiid not pCTinonully 
8uporiQton<Iitig and dircKitiiig tlia work, 10 (o ncleot 
profKir and C4)mpi!tcnt pcnoaR to do so, nnd Ui funiiidi 
Uii«ni with ttdiH.|UKt« uuiturial und reaourcn for ilie work, 
Wlian ha bag dont^ this ba hns, m my opinion, dnni! all 
that ha ia bound to do." Ho in Onnoud v^ UoUund,^ 
wharo tho defohJaikUi wurc buiLdore and the plamtilT 
mm u w^rvunt, whti, whiiiT njiRrnding a kdd« at a build- 
ing iu couf«e of oouuti'uctiou hy tbo dvfe[idunt», waa 
injumd by the breaking of one of the ronnds of tbr Udder 
nnd iL full tb«ref>uin, tharo b«ng no jrruuf that thL- d«- 
focliTa eonditioo of tbo ladder bad bcoo in any waj 
brought hcimu to the knowlodji^o of the dbfvudanl^, 
Campbell, C J-, diraoled a verdict for the dafoadantar 
•nd a rule to enter tlic verdict for the platntiiTwaa d!a- 
obargc^d, Campbell^ OL J., ttii^iug : *' we all agree that 
the action ia not molnltduable. TJicre wnv no cvidcnco 
of pervomd uogti^cuce ; the buUdera uemmI due and raa- 



■Bl.BLAa,l«;»OB.GI^ 



LL BUT-S of UABfUTT. 

■onablo cuv to hflveoompetcnl wrmnls; and I ibinL 
Ui«7 tiMd mon thaa ordinary cure, and tocJc eitrnor- 
liicarjr jircduitioa, lliat thff [iljint «bou)iJ b« xilGcM'Dt 
There b^ng no «vidunc« of peraoitil iw^igoioi)^ <atli«r 
b^ inl«rf«Teuce in ihevork, or in hiring the a^nrinCs^ 
or ui cb(M)4Liig the itnpleioeatR, T !iid iDclioed to Uk% 
wi>ta-L' llaoic to nivbelf for cuwumgln^ Om vpplicitioii 
to tlx« court; for, accord iog to bolh decided caocB 
«iid to prionijite. ttmiwlfail." 60 in Warner t. E. Ry^' 
^viien? it waa suuglit Lu buld lIil- rallwaj llublv for in* 
jimea lo n Mrrrnnt cnuwd by t.U« fnll of a blidgc vblcb 
had buen cartfiilly ojnitlructpd and fwqticnlly indpnctod, 
judgmcnl for the i>kmliff wua rcrenwd lu en^r, Bocoo, 
J., raying, inUr alia: *'th« only grou&d which the IftW 
T^coptizm of liabilily oii Lhe part of the d<^ti-ndant la 
that which aritw from ptir»>nnl Dcgligcnce, or «udi v%Dt 
of core and prudeiico in the inanogiTincnl of ib aflhlni, 
or In iho selectioD of lU agenta or SLppllanoea, the <imiA- 
Fion of which oi^ditiitincd the injury, and which, if thoj 
had b(Wo ewrcLwd, mould hun? nvcrled It," All of tbo 
CaACfl which niv died in this chapter ?erve to iThinlrnie 
tho propojiition as atated by Buc^ju, J., for, howivcr 
widr-]y they may difler in their ^ndin^ of that wLidi 
coTkKtitntrs negligence under ^my pftninilar ■intc of fact*, 
they ugreein htilding ue^^li^-enceou the j-arl of the rail- 
way to be tlo teat of its liabilily, 

262. Tho ImbUity of the rullwjiy to ita flerrantjt buing 
dej>eudent upon ita negligence, It la i^ot liable for m- 
jiiri»> to them resulting ftDm inevitable nceidi-nEs, e^uch 
OH the full of a bridge which had been ^kiirully con- 
structed nnd carefully inspected;' nor the explosion of 
tlic boiler of an ^ igiue from cuoees which could ^ot 



■WJF.T.4II 



* Wuns t. £. Ef., >0 ». T> M. 



iro^'U^manr vQit^Btevrr. 



S99 



have beoa doiectod nor guarded agalaat;^ dot tbe 
brettkiog of & roiJ by front ; ^ nor the ibrovring of n 
muil b&£ ly a mull ugeut frum a paAiiug tntln upou « 
■tntiijn pUtfjno, when tlic roilway bad no reason locx* 
peel LliJti tiio hn^ would Uo thrown upon the iiklfonu;' 
nor iho forioalJon of a poi^onoua autwUnoe hj the dd- 
cay orUiogruaiii in an uxlo-box, cad the cominuaiuu-- 
tionofthat poison to a cut in llie eervaol'^ IiaiiJ, the 
milMTuy hiLvm^ no niajton to &nticipn(c thnl uny poicua- 

oiuflubstauce would rcWtftom iht dv-wiyof iby k"-""^;* 
nnr th« mddf^n rrvcivA] of the ciigino and Atoppngo of 
a Lruifi bf lyiQAtmnioQ ciini ta nvoid u iMiIUKicm witli 
CAUlo ort tho ]iri(.\ ihvreby tlii-owinj^ off a ]abur«r who 
was ujion this lust ciir nf th« train ;^ nor tha mnvimicnt 
of a car U|iou a HJdiug by ihv nbiiliug uf &a<rlher car OQ 
to th« mding, Ihv^icby kHling a e«rvAnt who wu ntnntl* 
ing bi4ilnd it* t^hcn thu other vcmnbt, who wer« duing 
t]i0 ali]l\iiig, had uo ri^tuori to auppom that any ono 
vrould be injnivd by the movmncnt of that ciir\* nor 
Hi^ fitW of a brakcmin from a movfug tnin when the 
pr»rhf fiiiU to Mhow wljy he fdl ;' nor [he derailment of 
« tmin by n miaphiccd nwiicb, the cvidcnoo not showing 
whfln, how, or by whom tho siritch wm miaphuwrj;" 
nor m collJJiion bKwcim a bjind*cHr and a truiii, wbJcb 
wae vauAeJ by the titia that iho fift'onma^e vMch was 
ilownr than tbntof t!i<* condgrtor of the citLliding tnuu^ 

• LCBf,i^lCAUi«,T«in,£U;T, W.A W. tt/.*, l4oar«, ;? U-XLT; 1 
EJl W-R/,RTor.^UJ. 4:4. 

" Ibiu? « U S, A »L Sl K7, to MEeb. 40A. • Am. 4 Kr£ & ILCh IIOl 

• KiilvHiirliuu f SlCAP. B7,02l4«>e9A. 1(4 AiikdLDg.Rlk<^IL 
•M. rUj.u, llL(i7,&;k'Mi« SA, <\ Am, AKnji-n, lLUwED4;^.JcaV 

pK.AlXM.R.a.4f)l<>*uA4^bAiii.4 Dug aB.C«LUl 
•lt4Utbu*Hll,A«L J, R lE^r] Mi^lll.-i-^'n AlCD^U.K.ChAllT. 

I^HB^ 1M. «». t Ad. A 1^ IL B Ch IHl 

• Tldoiy «. a A A. 0. R, ftS Vuk tli. 



8W 



itvTT or CDnTEFCnO^r EfO. 



nor thdalTppingofiiNrittnt Crou tLo Plcp u teir 
climbbg on n mnrtog Migino UJ make a txJupliD^' 

288i Aa Uie JiaboUtj of tlm miliriy to itt vorvuiti 
d(ip«uilent tjfion Uie £m of iu iicgU^iwe^ il k boonij 
so ir^ MTrvauui lo frxATcw in rt« coMUiMkm ami in il 
tiiuLut«iiaiio« III npttir uf ita LJoe, rolling Mock mod a[^' 
plitacQi of labor, in 'm oporatioii of ila luin ut iLa 
oonducL of i[d buttincM, aod in iu «ol«et*OD of iU hi* 
vauu of ever^ rauk, iLat d«gr«e of <v» wHidi 
tend to Mcun) its aeirviint^ sofc^ to aa gnil an «xl 
aaiBCoeDi>aiiUe mih tlie oouxlDotof an oaenltally hai- 
nrJoui buaiu««s hj the u«e of huii»ii UMtnunantolkkft 

IL rae DUTT OF THE ^XOMXX TO OS BEKTANlV IX TH»^ 
OftlCtHflL €0NflTtil7CTlOX AXD SraQQCEXT ILLUTTA- 
9A3IC£ Hr REPAIK OF m UXE, BOLLIS« STOCK, )U* 

nriiJTKiir and APi-iJAitcm 

77id if rifgr f;^ iA« mt'iiM^ Id tit ttrurab rr^iVr* lK« gtmrmt ^ Mr« w 
cb jKirt in tJif art^ifnU fVntlna'^U'tn. ifti^yvtiajk, Oftd TTinlWiMMW JA 

repait iff iU lint, roilta^ iiock. and iqijitiimv^ 

2B4- Rftilwayfi ^o not warr&nt totli«ir BarraDla Uie 
eafv (K>uditioo of Uioir lino, nor the npcuriljr of thair 
&pplianc(v and marliinery, and lli«v ^-uanuitcc Odilf tbal 
<liiv care flliitU be UHvd iu cututnictiDg a&d in keeping 
In repair, atid lu opomti&g tho Un^ appSknooa and 
nuu^hinorj.^ Hug»r, C J., in Frofaat p< IMuu»- 



Ml4rk>,llfl1qif4,T)l-4K. BUT- WIIIUim «. dflnc^ S 14. tta : IDv^ 

i'hniLt..,:MUT. tTT; iiffl]£t*.T F. br. loott.&aiX; Fwir. p. aa, 

B4liiJ.r>0,# Aiii^^ KiV, a ItCuMj FiJln V. JwdK,W N. Y.44; L. a 
in.aAm, AB[tt It. n.<'-«a8;(hilui«RM.K^,Ml&BK. Ilf.3 Xtu, A 



DCTTT OF COSfSTBUCnOX, CTC 



801 



Tt' tIluA iil&tcv tbc role : " tb^ duty of Uiv maMvr to fur- 
ili Bafi?r auiiablo, and «OiJil<i tOoU, Qinchinory and nppli- 
ftn«», fdr ihti xum of th« KbiviLnt ia the pcrfVtrnmiicD of 
tho work of the master, and to keep tlieiu iu repair, la 
not aa absolute on^, iLn<l U mxtiiifirrl by the cicrrciRO of 
rottBonabb dtre and pru<]«Qi?u ua the part of the Tnant«r 
ID the iBftQufflcturo, wleclioor and rq-airof 8uch ap- 
piiancm. • • • Vol, wlicu tht* raiialw has cxcrciBod Jtll 
of the care and caatJon whicli a prudent man would 
Ukn for the nfetv and prntcctiqu of ha own person, tho 
law dodi not bold him liable for tho C0Liac<iueQc«tt of a 
dofocC which conld not be ^iBi:n>vnrfvl by rjir*'ftil inflpnc- 
iAOti, or the jipfJioiIiou of uppropriutv tcvbi to di:t<-Tinm(» 
ita exiiiU<iic&" 

285. lUilwaT* am not IxMind to th^itr iMrmntit to pro- 
Tidutke WlpuwibWttppliaiittw^hutlbcy arv bound onlj 
to supply mcU applionocv a* arc m wso by woU msna^d 
raUwayn, and which th«y hare akilfiilly coDttrttctod 
and cnrufikHy luaiataTned in repair' MilW, X, tUua 
pQ(«it>Q Manh V. Cliirkcrmg,' "tUc rule U that tho 
mMtcr dow not owe to Uu twrvanLH the duty to furnbh 



HON, T. U^j Howdr M. C El SL,60}iJm. ITd; llft»tF«ii w. C. 4 CI. T. 
Bf.,«>fl''h ir.*,* .Km.Ar.PK ILKI^ J3i: Wr.n<Jr<r », ft A <>. H. B.^ 

• Brtmi tXCB.4B£.Co,3ItA(l«ll!M.CACO»,t MtlfcuwTp « 
F«Bi.».IM: UTt.Ar. Alt R,h T>aAf,S; A/k rM)?. Wou>ltr>iaAa 
B.ft.J5M^«ll;Rlii«KB. AW.aa.*CmlL ll^!; I, & A U tt H^, •, 
MfCtu-mie4. 74 lod. UO <qliiUl^rlDi SL L. A S. K. K^.^Vil^riu^ U Id, 
5H). Vf^:innU<,aSt ltn>H4eHUh. laOplAm, A Knc IL, It. (^ lAK* 
acliaUtCbL«hlOTP«EiLSl.li Cotf^t r. C. a K. U Ion IS4; F. A C R. 
R^ V. l^muTrr. fll I'Hinx. Ht m ; i^nvjr. II A Al J. ft.K,^ AS Uiil41«; 
T-W-AW.Ex rFrricrki^TlOL^iirWAW. B^^A-»Mrty,»4I.L 
O*: E«"li'» -N N. Y. * 1L K, IU 1ft Xr r. tn ; ni-w *, If Y. r A IL K. 
ft. A, <1 N. Y. t4^ 14 Aa A Eii(. EL R. CiB. Oa; ihuta h V'JlIw1i«. X 
S-Y-Ml 



ao! 



iwTT OF cosgntccnox. Bra 



Hf bfMt kaovm or ooneeinble 8p|ilkBoa ; be k tioiplj 

nqvlrvd to hrtuah ladi u are rcfttouU^ soft uid «al^- 

«blc i fudi u A prudflDt man votild furauiK if htn own 

Ufo won exposed to ibe dsD^r tEiAt would rmutt fVom 

DnaijitoUs or oaMre K|ipluiDcc«." Am tlic duly of » 

nilvuj u> itft e«T&ntfl doa not i^uire it to ]irovide lie 

beet poMible appLiaiicca, nor tc iotura ittMrvRnts ngsinit 

the ordm&rj clAnxvm of the vcrrio^r iht railwdj in not 

iinblo to firtkght brakerocn hecaiue lli« brldgee ortr In 

lina nra not mtffidcntJy bijph to permit brakcnun ta 

»U$itd safviy ou iLe roo& of c&nt xnoviirg mider tmch 

bridgex;* nor b^j»]M*ibt Kn^istioc bBll««n^»orui ifi1«r- 

netod with (!ti(^h«fl;* uor beaiin« iti twitch hnj^ u^- 

not blocked;' nor bcciiuM it fxu dokycd IbreaylODgUi 

of time to rupciir a cttr nhich u not in tiac, nnd wbteh 

hu not been lefl in a posJEion of danger;* nor because 

il b«^ not nil imirorm coupling Tor all of ice cn^ncfl 

and cam;^ nor bocaiuo itA car pUtfomu on of 

BW|0<F«>;».Y.Cli.B.»t UoLlM-ItoThl t.P. a fi^ » KuvMl; 
B A O. n. R. -. MrUkt. M MiL 4T i tUiv «. I« T^ 1. M. A H Kj, ?1 Ifo. 

t An. AEiv K. R C«i.»S; ll^Uir* l>.L. AVT, IL K,Hf >. J, U Si 
Oili-it -r Ttt. tE^^ 3 <:h]t [Cut] tf>Vi CUtk V. B. (b D- B. O, 7^ W TM^ J* 
An. A linn- R. K. f>4 7*: •«; «Mi«, R.AaA&aRik fioiru, to4 « 

>l',Alt,K.R, >LikiluirlH07 Pntiu. 8l, «A(T, « Aib. A Eim^. R R. <^ 
IW; l>^Dn«L*^J*«t4^M KT,S04.6 AulA £ti|t, R It. CM^-tAfl; WU- 
liuiBf.Cs R tl,4:ilinrB W; OiubB t. K U- Kf. s» Ulum 110, t Am. A 
U«(. R.R(W.:^i FVniHOikt. Efdkvj, MtU, tea 

' UcOltfiii >^ C K n, C^ 49 l|^fh.<f<H \m.A )Cf.» K. U. C^ l» i U 
M A U. A. TCr -. hlcOofnii.:^ T4 lodu UO ; ^. Utjn •. O. R L A E Rj« AT 
lo*ft^\A ,\m A !>« U R l^ 1^27. 

' nuBgn P. a A X. w. Br- 4A wia 0S, ao ]>l 401 e a&, a Kq«. E. ft. 

<M. a It RnftraiEhKD. lAMt^ =12. 1 Atn. A Kn«, R R CulDl; F, 
RAW, RILt. FIvijjc»1lT7 lU.AA^; WbiimMu t. V. A M- B/^&4 W^v 
40\13A[ii.Ar:n«, RRC^yU^ K«U7hW. a Bf^ Wkb ,>LA« 
4£nf. R Ri^teMI^ 



Durr or iTrenwriOK, 



303 



mi«fii3al Iielgbt;' Dor beoaoM thd car coupling* work 

2Sfi. Tn onlAT that thn nilvrBj may Iw oMuitd tUftt 

hfi line* mlliQg trUK^> uiil appIiuuL'^ ui^ ju & reason&lit^ 
Bnfo condilion^ f1i« <loty dovolvm upon it of (nuAing ui 
Sequent tirtti thorough iii^peclioDtt ol it« llxie and appU- 
aiKva to be iiiude as cau be done couulelcj^lly vith the 
conduct ot'itn bii«m«3$, fln<j the rnilway which nc^gtocta 
to perform th/iT dxtij of iiLBp«ction U liable to a aervant 
iigitr«il by rawon of any defect in llw linp, rolling 
atrx-k, or ap]>liai)c<!S wbioh sudi au iuHrjtei^lioii ought to 
hnt^ ^el«ot«iI/ U&iler circuinelatncea of ruori^ Lhan 
onliDiiry peril, as in the cuae of violent slonnB, it b iho 
duly of the railivay to inepect its line with tooro tliau 
Onlinary promptitude and tVio rough dom^ and in pnreic- 
nlcir to pxiiTnioe suHi porlionsof it ns are pcMTiiIi:irly 
liable to injury by fllonus, Buch an enjliuukiueui^* It 
I* aliTO Ihp doty gC tho railway, in rp*»;^iiTion of iJie 
DDpnttary dietiTrinritiou in it* iitic,ro)linKitu<:lc.ni«clan(.Ty 
and «ppUauc«a, Uy wear aad U-ar iu unv, and by decay, 

Mln1«l* * UTC,C A W Ht , fi7 Mn. MU h 1" W, J. aa TEt. f. flllii*!*- 
■1pm, 21 Mirli. IKii Ml A W, PL |L i. Fboitrnu. :t ULJVK^r Hwlpikifti o. 

E.lLRJ]flM*«<iei TVflurr,r,l. V r Uy.,:.1 XI.^T., Wn. R( L. I M. 

KT.L.iiaw,&R.MN,Y.B4a;a,i>iafLRatxaa,e4K.a«ovv 

« WlElliru f. C a B^ «2 Ion 8». 

IS; A-T.AaF^a R. a flolt, 9) Kjin^ llU, 11 Am. AKiia IL iLlW^jHt 
tw«*f,S CATR ,4iM-«sl<rg| T. W.A W. Rj. r.^vuroj, AlllL MO; 
DfetteiLC. V. a H. M Vl M, « Am, a Eng. IL K. I^l ITlj |:iftl« •. St. I^ 
K.C A y. &It,flaUo. VA: H.4T. C Bj. i^ Dudun. iV Tn, lU; 
taOB—ftor*^rH*w. IftrtfTiil I0L 



IHJTT OF 

to exerebe eu«Sd intpeelJOD JbrUic jairo<^^?Jii>«g«i 
iDg not onljr scddeaial d«fecu Iml «]» tlM «0Mitf 
dctoriontioD ^nd the p<roi^;TcOT of de«tf ;^ tbw, vhrr* 
t Ttilw^j had nocQtlj ooae into pc««He»oa of ■ Ua» 
constmctod hy aaoclior compoajr, it wm bald not U> U 
littblu for tDJurku ramltiDg from tlie defwtive conditka 
of that Itn^ U Lot beSn^ elbOwa Uiat llio ralltt^jr Ind 
btx*n nti^ligcQt fnthnr in tint imtpecdDg, or m not rfT|^r< 
iug il,' but wlivre u nuliruy bad oome into ptWtMwJop, m 
]r»«M>, of anolher line, and had op«TAUd it vjUhmiI i»- 
epc(!t]rm. It wan lu^d liiMe l4> & ieirant who hmd bt^ 
Itijured by tho &11 of a bridge, wbow defffCla could bate 
boca diacorcrod ifihc bridge Emd been eiamin<N| bja 
«onipMoiit oopneer,' 

387. If the railway baa not boon ncgl^atit ia lbs 
onginni tronntmoium, nor in Ute ii(]baM|ueot insptcticm 
ofita line, roUing fitock.Tiiflchiner7,Had ap[>lk&Gn, 
tt aervaut ia, neyerilielflM, ii^ured by ranon of a defc 
tbvrcLn, it ntufit b<i ahonn, iq order to bold ihu ndli 
liable for the injury, ibat iLe officer, whop* duly h itm 
to Tt^pnW ir, hud \mTi noiiiWI of tlwi poriicaUr dcd<vl 
vrlmh wait, thv cituw of tbu ii^ury.* A iiiaB(«r ia luibl» 
if tbe iiiacLliiorv Or ap^LilianceB are dfdbctiTCi in lliat 
thfiy do not comply with utotntory requuiun, tod if 
injury to a ^naut in ottued iltrreby.^ A mflater ii 
liubJo for L!^ pei^nnl nt^li^nco in the oonstroctkin «f 
moobiner^-, Rnd tho nc^lifccne^ of the jpfwklent of a 
corporation, under auch drcametaDC«a, is the Defied 



Mo»fH^aAiuAli«.R.R.CHU;C.AA.1i.n.iLrUri,hODl.H1: T.V, 
* BtfnoD V. (»- W, Onkw Co, 1. B.7 £1. UO. 



utrrr ju to lise, rtc. 



80& 



of the oorporatiou.' RaiIwivb are Uabli* if a pftTKtn of 
known itkcoiiipetcnry lian be«n omj^loycd lo cutmtruct 
rolling iitock, DiachinerVr or uppHumTn^^ eiikI, Dllhoil^b 
a ooaij>ul«[]t ouiitriK^lor han bvtn e»i].>1oy^ for tbut 
piirpcdc, the nulwajr u tjahlc for hu uc^ligf^ica in 
oonHtruciion, 

28*^. Thfl rnjlwiiy mn«, thftrnforrt. wi^rclfle care In its 
ooiuCruG^OQ, timpeutiimt and uimtilvnnii<:v in rcjinir of 
tls Llao, ro»u]Led, nud inkcb," Jia vtubi^ikiuTTiiia,' Iia 
brid^ nnd trntlcff/ ito cnlvtirtfi/ iu turn -Ublmj' its 



«01, lA An, A fine It R C^ Wt. 

• P«(» - P, <l 4 & II7-, a W- It ft24. 

* Purt*r *. 11 A »K J. H, 16^ Tl Mu. <W. « Am. A El* R. R <W *| 1 IL1-, 
h? f. N. (.'. Ut. H :<. T. a;Ok ; Au, * Rdc, 1l IE. Ui S^^ ; fonm -, U, ]l. 
St.RAIknlU^O'DantiolJt. A. V. IL1L.AffPmH.^l:4P; I,AO.K IL*. 

Ld«« i« r-tui; nij«jii ^y, Kmu K^ami irAo. tr.iLB:^ 

? ft C A ?. B:r-- <*A 1''^** ^- 1^ ^B' A K°& R R <:W ai>! I>vVnrtuiL ^ 
J«n(V»-'<-T.SA^« Am.AGn|,RRC^4Wi BrkkiBiin t.J1^C. RJk 
GH.Ci:3; Uirtit, BM. A t. M. R>., J^D Uo, 10A; DrfUaU i^ ThoiBfVt^ 
SaWnnMi tk^l * r^ IC I A r. n^. Aa lovtUI, is K.V. lU^.TSt,* 
AbA^».ltB.£WlW-«| itFi J.'tf. 1VA»,A Fjq(, R R ()■& 75 ; II. 
AXUB/. H Hii*o, dlll^ft' &10| lA Adl A Eug. RRCU'^aii, t«11«Hn*^ 
C A<< T. Kr^l^ Mfeli-lvf^K Aq^AKrif. K. IM^ 17;i; l*anl r. Q. M- A 
ft. r. Bj,«£Wlic ^,6Ain. A Eu. B a, (^ 304Ji?,Aa B. RlW 
MHrtJi^ VT IVnnL A. IAOl !£ Am A tJiR IC, IL <^ lUL 
> a R. IL t, M^Ei^IkIIh «3 Oti. Ki. 1 Am. A Kotf, R R (^ I4A; G>IB*,R 

•UuDAOHt t^ p. R K, 90 M**. lt&;\;'>(ti>f %.KVi7,S't K,T,4«8l 
nmiov f. & Br« 4» Barb ^4iO B.CnKVp Km«1 .^ Wnht* Nil* gf 

«Im«]OCI;T. P.A W. Itj. >. CviiF<v*,*>l ICJ. iHi; T. W. AW. B/. >. IVn- 

1ft P«d, R-i^ iTA, 1& .Im. A Fjv »■ R' f^ ITS; Kvmtt t- C, B. 1 A P. 

Bv^Cfi 11^*334, I* ^n "t Krr R R Cm. f«L E1-i(r ^ l^b*. 1S.*l »m. 
'BT^lLAn- A Ka^ R R Ck»^ JlLiO; ^. W- Rj. f. KLIkM, W llL4ftl, « An. 

A&ic.RROi&Ni]. 
<|]iat^»CV.Rlt,ai VLM.I1 A*, AKnf;. IL R (^ TT1, 
*l*aAU.RBT.f;nupVrklu3l Ohlu F4,47Ei; t>urxlD r Uantf n, » 

AUm3M; K.T,V.A(KRRhTapplBivlO LHCrton.l&a,!! ABbACiv. 

RROftBl 




DCTY 4S TO UOLLrTfO fftOCX. 



clQ<ling boilen/ cow^oatclier,'' pilol an<I vlli9U^' air- 
bnka,' valY(tt,*oil-cii|\*<]ra«-W,"uid dttOu^irontf;'^ 
llv di^rickd, pole*, and tncklp;" iu bntf^i^uiini*;^ iu 

■ Pvkrva 1 1'- 4 C R II, T« IVnn*, Si, na, 

S Am AKnC B ILCa4ir4 [^uUfyiejcilio mtv liiddort In CH. U A f^Z. 

•Purd* ^. K.K. 11UU— ,*tl; FtiLI-r r, Jrt^ >« », Y,««] D*^ i^ 
l.4r llj.IWC 1^313;? & S.Y.S A R B. O* r. U>iiMii Wf«Ur 
Nob«ar(^i«*>(P«in«.^lVl: N.Ar>. K K- r- Jniif«« llrU iTrti^) ff ; C 
A ]-. R, R r Th« t4«i^ llMd. «^; Kirkr«l«ck *. ^,Y.C4 U- K It K, 
79 >■ Y 2W; 1. C A W, Ky- •. T-^-^l llirii T, W. A W. Fj. t Jloon, 
77 M IIT; LC]L)C.»JL«>Mk. Ti Id.U^^M.A IX K. IL t . TVmm^ U 
All. rfTMCf^^t W.1LB.G», Y1T«;CA I, C. C & & r. A»tH 

lijton, to ^fib^fT^lft Abd A E^. R. K L'hIV; Uiui-h/ '- B AA. KR, 
tt4y Y. I4f^9 Ajk A EnK IL R CHLJUOi ib Lh L U^ AR Bf. *. Huy«T, 

• J. R.K.>^bM^»am4Ta 

<K.<^. flkJ^A a B, B^ t, FUm TS Uch IDS, la Aa. A V^.RB, 

•cv,n« t, D, L. A W, a&. Hi N- T. VtrT ^ C^ A R- L EL ». t^thmg. IM 
TIL ftU. U An. A Kb|. K^ K. (W 3l». 
<B.T.V.AaiI;.f. ^»«vi,n iM (T»Bib| 4I\ SI Am. A ni&B.K. 

» Wl.irinui >. Wh A M. IL lt/^ M Wbc. «Dti, IS An. A E^. K. R. CW VC 
" Oftvu t. U- A SL L Rt., si M&nn. ;4«. tA Am. A y!ru(. a TL Cu tl4, 
9lU46mt.r.R KJITOMm.S'^KSAiu.ASuvK RCW.M:HacTfL 
A,V. B. &.ft«Pwii».«t 31). U Ah, A Ki^ R. B-Ck& 141; Kluff t. >',Y, 
CA H-ltltIl,ny-Y.«::IVmcibM'Wr. L.V. RK, « liCSB, 4 
Am. A Ertf B II i^nflfl; fl, If. A :^ A, K. R r. JVIjihimrr. All Tf^ 2iV1. 
4 Am, A Knff- E, R. Cml 6:^8; K. P. Rr. t. LIuIb, IV Kua- VlfJ i MdGww^ 
ft»Ll^ A t M It R, 11 M<i. n9l; ]'. :M'v r^ -, \Ma\m. ]f)9 Jll.SCt Ift 
Aia.A Kiw ft. ROu.a7i LA K. RRf. On, 84 lb<16i fiAm. AKn^ 
R.R.CBlrtj llnoMf *.CMLrARft/,4<ll4-i0O,KAiii A Bnc R R 
r>..KH, 
» U tf<Us >- a C R m m Ml* sot, 21 Ab, A Ki^ R a Cte «l& 



Aft TO APTUAXC^. 



807 



Lftnd cftn;' Uh poawbgQr uid fjwigbt cat** inclodmg 
&«ight oir ItuIdCTi,' couplinjtc' bmk«M and bnke cLuhd,* 

23t>. Theniilvn47':< <iuty9rcaro(t«toUieooiutmctioa 
or tia lino n-ii<liMH it tmbte to its eervanls for injuri«s 
CttUftLHl hy the l'>cati->u in Jungefoafl proximity lo Im 
liaG of aiij HirQclUPc over whicli il may ri^btiiillj ex- 



fW,ttft; CR K. f. KfjjiwT, M>ift.|£5i Kruibv t C. IL G^4I I>1 SWti U 
K ft. » K0nn'r> r^ M 100,4 Am, dl ttn^ K- irCH IfiBt K. T, V- A Or K. 
E. A9iiuvb.UU«lT<iiB.)«iA; L A O. ??.[£. Ifnt. l>D>fcWTiiL lUU^ Bu- 
rii«v *. U.AII. r. r«^l1>tl.iA. Sin^ IdlllAr •, IM- Hf. IT VtA \U-p.f^i 
A K. fL V, Jow^ :iu KviL WJI, lA Am. A Kna- H. K- Ch& Wl ^ T. dk P, K/- 
h KiA^ Tn. . I r> An. Ji Kof. U R r«> 311} - MfQunn i, V. H. V- P. 
■If, »> Kinh vtl^ l&AinAKiii, 11, IC Cii- li^i l-onl h C, U,A W. ^-ll>., 
MWtKar.SAo, AEoj^aiLauiUO: C T. 0>. t. Thuru-u., :|A Euu, 

•C, B.4Q,n.lLt^Wirw, )0H 1U.i^ 14 AnkAGmr- b-R-r«lO0; 
M.ILAL &RlLf.Da>bH,6 0lualft.&4]j llALiui^u r.CAS W. U/. 
«\ iriAtk n-t. nn M. tfi-J. i Am. 4 Kng, K K <^ l^a 

■l.\AA-[LIi. ', Fliitl. E« JlLLU^T.fW, A W.Rjr. r.lfi«nbua» 77 Id 
309; B4llaa >v C A K. W. ftf ^ M Hin SftT. «ABLAIblfthS.CkL4e(»- 
lC,4D, R lL«^M«ns7H Va.V\in Aiik A Kn«, K. K. 1>h W, 

• UivEoa K C. R B. R. 1«S Uu L, IB Ad. A Ei«, R R Cm M; T, 4 
Wn, Rf^rndtrli^TUU, 394! KlJit*. N, Y^ I. K. ft W, R mVJ^ N, V. 
»Ul ^ T. A A F. a R >, UlbriW. ^ RtHM. :t1>A. at Am. A Eq«. S. R 
Ctetta:ll.ATCR.Rt^Hkh]»i. IVi. .31 Aiu. 4 £^ R &I^l 
t»^ A,T-4&RK.K.t W«cii>tr.fl.1 Kuh flAO, ^J Am A iHg. R R Q« 
Ut. 

Bf, ON.T.r. « Aaih* ^,aRtiH.«Mi KARRU. t, A,«tw*. U 
WffVf X«Mi «f OiM fPui k 3M^ tl«fwi *. X. P. Bf. Ml . » 
A».4Ee«R K.i^l^j JobiMnr,& A IX tt R M S. r-4AS: lit Unfl" 
- X, T, C A It R R R. :« X. Y. llSi Imhf f; S, P- Rj, C*L ,1* 
AAA£iif.RR<^:£inj Hi^kk-r » X. Y. C A Uh R K R, M K.T.fia3j 
lA AjkA &eRR<WS3^| iUmytK RLR?. Al ^.r.m. t A» A 
Ciit-lLR<:H.a>« lUMlnrT,M, A«(.URr4S9MLiiiLS».tk An-Af^ 
RRCWW1. 

*UMh.V.V. RR.lLBM>Kia 

'P^W.A RRR-^Xwiu, IDJ IVnnift, lM:<»nihrW r. L A N R 
a^nijm -[TW&i^S. l&AoL AKnr-U. R i^^tjv^ nuttf r.W.A-UR 



SOB PASQEMWBLT LOCAIED OBSTSCCnOV& 

•miVB exchiaTo cofttroJ, radi u etule AimMm,^ coal 
ehniMt' bridge su|>j>wi«/ bndgo traaacB.* dfnd povto 
and icfegAph polca*^ wkUt uak»,* » tuiioo niMUr's 
dolli&i-liiii? poA,^ mait OftU^vm* plwoT lumber/ cikI 
itttiofi ftw&uigi.^ Dot ibe dul; of Uie rallvmj to its 
McrauitA doei Dot roqairc it to coiutnieC and aaibuiii 
fJi« brulgoa, bj which biglmava or oUicr nUv&y^ m 
cvriod or«T iln Uimv a1 mch b boighl thnt i» perttuitb 
ema BlAiid CEivet or move on ibe lopv of ila cuiu iviUxiul 
poailbiBtxor tke edUsioa of ibeir panona witL bucb 
bridgfM. TIm muwin of Ih^ diAincHoii v that mi^ 
brid^ an not ondv cbe «xclimir« oomtfol of tbe ratt- 
ingr vhoec tino p — u ucilrr ihcn, uid ibo MTfWtU of 
(bit nUwaj^, in enMring upon the performuiM of ihitM 
vhJcb nqvtre Ui«na toauuiii or mova u[>on iLe lo[« <ff 
ItB cam vshi\c in trujuit nn tbc littCt knotr tliU one of 
tbe <U&i;cnt iDiri'ieiit to iheir «tap)o7men4 U tJiM of 
coning io conl^t wiili micb bridgnt, gfid tbar, tb«r»> 
fon^ bj ctitcrinjc itito tbe wrvke. iuiptiedlj undertake 
io btfor ibat riak, but Ili«t}r do not implitxIlT nitdi^rt<l» 
to hanr tho rink of injury from dnngcruutf uooMniCtlona 



Dnf >. r * fx I', it^ a w»*. UL 

• A, T. 4 a F. a fr >- RrtforJ. I * Ktni. MA- 

> w. »r, P. HUM, M ni, 4«i. 4 ahl A EdM. B. a Cm. «ai. 

A. « a A. I. a IL >. W-Milnfl; U 04- r«T; IL A T- 11^. f. Oiwa. O Tai. 
Ml i VjU ■. O. K^. A X. Oft, 10 Orv« aw- «rf f . Loti^ r. B, ft L. n. 
R, I9» »«& TV, 

•A- AW. P. an. r.Wri>]^ *\ n«. ^aft- A.dCvA.B, a* WoD-tmi^ as 

14, ;fi7| ir. A T, Ur- *<>"m, « Tft-Mli Wil.h *, O. B-.A Jff. C^ 10 
(bwa »0; ^. Onulil t'. G, & A Q. a a, M Im<. fiUti, 2S Am. A li:ns. H. IL 

* K<w >. (1^ U, A Sf, ?^ B;,, AH I«i>* &W, S3 Am. A W^§. IL R C^ 

> ri. n, A <1 K. It >. Iln|«xr, fiS nL £71. 
» L C IL n, -. Vfmlch, AS lU. 189. 



CAU FftOM OTBEK LlSffl, 



Alio 



wblob an und«r tlic oxdiiuvo oonlrol of due nilvAj 
which ompbjs Uucnu 

parMUtn vffr iu tin* nre prop^fy fimUmnoleii, vnd U ie vnfy (fHibf 
lo ruiiv ffuM an Jn^prWian r>^ (Ami of li« «i^wkMi ^ tnt^ 

200, The thruugli tra(iflpr>rtiit]ciD of puissyn^-rB uuJ 
goodfi orer contiw(ing lims without chaDgiog can or 
hnuiking hullc frcriucnclj require* rnilvaini to rR«tve 
and li^ul vara Crova other linea. The railway ae a com- 
inoii cuTior is bound to rcorivo and IiauI nuch am, bnt 
tU iluty to llu !!if.'rvfLn1«9 ivquirM it tr> tnibjcict nil mioh 
catv u> ut thorough nn in«|)ection u tl^c cxig«nfi(M of 
tralEc permit, and If thu-t iiutpoctloii be Dfit mmk^ or if 
upon ftach an inspootioii auy euch cAr be found to be 
ilty jti cniiiitnjc:tii>n or dnngcroiuTy iHit of rcpnir, the 
ulwfty oujiht to dediiii- to huul it, arid if it does undor- 
lake to haul it, tha rmlwny oiigJit to bo Imhifl lor anif 
injury to a wrvnnt cuunod tUf»reby, Tlit* milvniy o«g)»t 
itot, li'jwL'ver^ to he beld liable for hlddfru dt-^fr^cb which 
Oould not b<T dctno-tnd I15 mch an inKprctiritk an the exi- 
gencioa uf irafGc perniit, nor uu^'}it il lo bv hHd liable 
for iCe iDepoctor*0 D<^]igcnt prrformnnec of Lin duty, 
Ban iindtr iho** conditionit which rend<rr a milnay 
liable r->r the De^llgcDcv of any servant cauaiog iigurj 
to ft fcllow^CTvant.' 



^ Bb^onlBB *. d, K. Rr. I. E 10 C F. m I C P. IX US: F^ *, M. 4 
L, l:.Y.M UJiulS), II Am. A V-rtg.lt. IL Ou. lD3j 8t L A A. £ Rf. 
ftT■AiH>^ Vilud.ftll: ^lLn4i >. C, ?tL A M P. R-.. At WW. ^AT, I Au A 
EiiC IE. R Cb. VO. U. C K 11 •. »iu>Ll»<ii, 4> Mi.<L. 31& 1 Ahl \ Ki«. 
». Ctat Itll 1 floJUblb • N,Y,hI* E jS W. K- IL VU Hub |?C.Y.]fl&:, V^ 

fU,i ,\Tn. 4 ):rLj(K,K.i'« ]|4>; Mv^a • ft A A. & It, tU Ifaa. 
UU Am^A V.^KKr^m-. L U. a R t- FlUv-UfU, « OUn M. 
l«,T,A IMtj.LO^rlr-Hvfi" TM-WT, W An%. A ft.* R tUCta^l^i 



310 



LTOS. 



nifaari(MS4H tKii nl^fcL I^m, ia X* U, R R. n 
Fiapatrirk,'whcretfacnnvi3rvBMbcMiK«to be IMile 
to > wt^toi for j^jqiiBt wwilliuft l^tm ihonr^lffmt»<it' 
iiN iamp$<tttr of cv TC|ialf*k tn ftUis^ to iktcd ia a car] 
nceiT«d frWB anodicr li&«, a 1iol« vbkcli had beea 
kmMd IB tbe fiiDWvy on Ui^ Lop of A freight car, and 
abn in US^ng to diMaorer that if brake «li«d via h^j 
adkUatly fa ttpod , llw cooatqocnca of wbkh D«gli* 
{OM^ vas, tkat tlw auvaul^ in valkiag on tbo mowaf 
in llic distlkarge of bis dnij, vlitk ilio on aaa in nao- 
tioOr vaw Um burned tiolc, uid, in atttfopdng to avoid 
ti, allpp^d, tad. c^tcUag bold of tbfl brake vlbttl 10 
foivo biioi^lf, it gave wa^, a&d bo Mi bmwt^tt tlto can 
Mod WW hurt, Mcllvaizw, J., ttftid: " nndo^blc'^lj Uio 
bw nqolra a nilroad oontpaat to excrdao rfstonable 
can io proTidin^ and maicuinlng 8Hfi^ ujwJimpnr for 
lb« OM of U» oaapLoj^ fopiig^d In ruuuluj; Umaa upon 
ilaroad, botmicfa emplojcraf ui fntdivirtplo^tfiftuotan 
iniorvr <tf the fitn^ee of ila madiiocry fov the purpoH 
Jbr vUdi it mw lau^dciL It U bouod to rlgila&c^, 
bntTigibnee b themajumumof itsduly. Tii« 
^1 maaa^meBl of a railroAi) nojuin^ tbe cv>-opeTntloi 
of Ruuiir serranta. Reavonnblc can in iLo rmployi 
of ^ar«fiil and competent wTranlfl is r«4]u]rv(] of tbo 
(N^mpanv. but the cxcrclw of rcaaooablo caro hj ftuch 
vrrvAQid m ul tliv rLfcik uf ble fellaw^ervaoti: Tho car 
AllpgfH t^ bo Heftictive, in tbU mse, as tho tOHluuotiy 
ti-ndii to eiuiv, vraa lli« c^u- of sDoiLer ctjmjiun^ on tia 
way huint>; but arlmilling tlie duij^of tbo coaitxiuy wac 
tho iiamA nn if it h;i<l been ltd uwo ear, tliiH duty traa to 

H. A|n>,l>™, K^i J>m» ■. N,V.C A H. il-RK. as line, to*. »3 N.Y- 
0£«:KMb t. K, ILA V. ILIC^ l« Ujk l?a, lU Am. A Ei« a K.!:^ 



(UKR y»yyt CTitKs Lirtf. 



311 



1/ tliai W6ro daoa, ila *^uty to olli*r operntivts* qf ihd 
rOMl WW performed.'' So, in Mackla r. B. A A. R. R.,» 
opon Bmilkr fnclii a like nvult wiuc rrtchtxl <»ii ibo 
grotifid, AA ttaurd bj AUuu, 0. J-^ tli^i the nUIwuj, 
boing bound m a ooirinioa earner, to roc«iv« fVoni oilier 
linoi am for tnij]is[K>rtiitiou over lU Lbv^ itc duly to Iba 
MTvanta wirfa regard to care so recel«'«d, was DCt that 
**or ftiniwhing proper iiudnimcnulitim for wrrico, 
Lul of iiupi.vti<;ri. Ktid lljifl dutj la pcrffonucd Ij llic 
einplo]rmi?nt of ftul&ciniit, f^inpoTi<>nt, and «uitAble in- 
dprrtort, who iire to «ft tiiidur jiniptir KHperinniuIrnM", 
raitu, Aud iii»lructJoufi ; aad, bowe>i-r it nmy bt us lo 
otber care, ibo inftpontoni mnM bo dj^^nK^J to bo ci]}^:>^l 
In » commno mnplojmtfot wJtb the bmkcmcii w lofiiirb 
tun wbiti^ in LntuBit, and uulll rc^'.l^ to hv tiibfwcted lur 
a uevr wrvicc/* Moil of the cuh'!I Hloi] in the \itKt 
DOto ngtce iti ibcir conclunon with thu i^'itzpulHck end 
tbd Mu^'kin taam. In QottJelb ir, N. Y., h.^.& W, 
B- R.,' the nLJIwny unn held linbb 1o ii freijEht bruke- 
tnnn, whit wjui lujurucl ^b'lte ooujiling dtftW'tivi.- mni 
Trbiob liiiJ bvieo r^iC'ivod frojn auothor railwaiy for lra[j»- 
porULion over ihc line, and Eurt, J., toidj '^ tUo dcfi^iid- 
unt wiiA undn- oblij^ntion to lU «QipIoy^« to ^erouo 
re&Bouable vatv nnd diligence in fnrnMhiiLg them safe 
and HQiUiblo impk-mi-'iiu, airtt ntxd maddavsy for tho 
ducb&rse of thdi dutim, and upon Ibe nMonnpllon thai 
tH« d«f«ndfinl woJt rupinnble f<ir Hie LHiuditton of tbt^JW 
caw. «» if ihej wero owrn"! by Iwihvrv t-au le hut ItuW 
doubt ibal tli« «vidpne^ ^iw iimplo to f^bow that it ha'l 
ftll«d in ita diity tf» the plamLiC Tliu dufMtrt nojt nn 
xbrioiiiB fme. easily di8covcrablo by ib« moat ordifiaty 
ItaapectLOOt and it won Id uwra to bo th<»gro(fiC«t ncgli- 

< 131 Uhl Vl. t£ A& A r.BC IE. a Cte t»i. 
■lOOX.T.Wl 



312 



cjhnn rftox oiHis uxes- 



£DiK* to put micli csrs into aay inin, flod «pecMl]y 
into u timin coniktuig of cnn of diSbvBt g^u^ « • • 
All llw autborib'n boM iIiAt iW omtipany drawing ilic 
csnt of ftiickUlcT i-ompanj^oT^rilfl road oweA.iQreftmioa 
to tfuch cant, h^uli.- Jutj lu iu tmployiV^ It » uot 
botini] to Utko Aucli cu« iT ihcy are kuowu to be dvfvo 
tive and uhmEa "Extn if tt Jn not bound w mnVc ic^ 
to diaoover Becrn dcfuolA. aud ;■ not rwp(m»ibk' for nwh 
d«R«l<, it ifl bonnd to inH|Vicl forolgn Cftra,juBt iw )t 
would mapeft iu oviix car*. It fiww the duly of ii^r^rc- 
tion «s iQMlor, aud Is, nt I&jhI. reApansible for tli« con- 
Mitiiunoea of «U(!li dofc^c'tA as vtoukl be disclosed or db- 
OOT^nnl by ordinary iii4^HwLiufL< W'li«u cara col^^ lo il. 
wtifh hftT« doA^ctfl tImMc t>r diwxJveraWo by ordlnanr 
bwpvcdoD, it muEjt citbcr rL^inudy ^cb dcf^.-cU, or ntfiiM 
to take audi cAra; eo much, at IcAet^ ifl due fMn it to 
lU wnpby^F, The employ^ cvn nn mnro be wiTd to aa- 

itUL- tho rUks of aucU ddVots iu foreign caiv Uijui in 
belougiu£ to tb^ cionipnDy. A« lo«ucb defi^cis, tbe 

luty of tile oiMnpnny u the mm*! ee to ull atn drnivo 
OTW ittf roud. TTu; ruk* iniposmg lUJa reapcuflibllay 
ia not an oueroufl, or in<ynivoiii<>ni, or imprariicablo cue. 
It rwjLiiroi. Wore a train nturU, nud while it at upon ila 
pn]Bag«, the aaiae luspecUon and care aa Lo all the carv 
in tha train," The jiidgnifnt in GwltUib's cnw wiui un- 
(jDortionubly right, upon iiw tacts Df found by the Jiiryt 
atid tha law a« laid dowu by EnrI, J-, in his jiidgiu^iit, 
ia uot in practiml i'flcct nl variiinw with thnt cniintun- 
Icd in lliQ Fti/pulrii-k and Maoktn ai»e«-, for iu thoae 
{uaM There wa* ncgligvucu in tbo pta^brniunce of the 
inpp^^:^lrV duty; while iu the Goitleib cuHe> thmv vrta/ 
ti UfUl failnre on f.hp part of thp milway to prrfnmi tho 
iluty of iniippiiilion^ 

292. Afl tlio Diilway ow^ to ila servants thf* duty of 
tix«r<jlBiii;; duA care with rt-gurd to all iha intftrumc^nlAli* 



DUTY 19 TO KKUECTIOff OF BKBVAN1& 



313 



of work which it (^uppliM for their tis^, the fact tbttt 
another milw^j hu cr>ritnLfti>J with it bo keep i[i r«j>air 
tlie rolHog atock which h dclivercit by tliat other ecni- 
p«nj Tor (niTiiipi>rtatii>n ovi-T iU line, will nut rvlk've it 
IVom itii oUigAtioD to [tft own Mrvants to exerciwdud 
oare as to iho eaF» oonditioD of such rolling abock, luid, 
to tbftt fuid, of Ibipvctinx !t.^ 

m. TriR MITT «r TIIK KAtl.WJlY A-t Tfi Tllli SKUSCTiOH 
A»I> KEIB^IO^ *>F SERVAMfl- 

Th0 dutf of Ihf railiOiyla iU trrvarJa rAi;ui>iM Jhf iUvrav#^«P| 

in iCf tfirftian ntut rtUTttKn ^J nwvanit, 

293. ll i(i thfl dutjr of tho railway te iw torvaole to 
cxrrciJie duo cnru iii tU Hoint^tioD, autl retention tn wr^ 
Ti<.'L\ of iJit-ir fi'llow-wrviiuta,' und tlii' full f*rforHiHno« 
of ihifi i^hligntion TW|iiiFr«, ak llnilnn, J., Mifd, in W- 
Rj. 1*. MoDnnlol,' the px«r(*i«e on it* pint of not dimply 
'tho dei^rHV of iltli^cui^ which ta cuttloitmry nuiofig 
iJiopft cntniirtcd with thp lannniTPinriw of rnilw^v prap- 
«rty, hut iiit^h, afl haririg ml[>pc^ lu IIk* ^xigttEL-ii<i of 
the partirHlnr ^ervict*, oii>r)»t rriwonnhly to be ohsj^rveci," 
• • • Bad mch tut "in fuvrly tvHtimeivHiinitiT with ihc 
p(?ril* or dangifP' lik»*ly to lie (rncouulereil."* Tii ord**r, 
tlivrcfbrt, to rvnilLT ihc milwiiy liubl? by rf'mirin ul' lla 
•elMiion or rM^tin'oo of an inuum^ioteul vi^rvdiif , it mi-iHt 
b« ihown ihnC the iirgligyncff of iIxaI mn^nnL vna th^ 
pmximLLiu iruu9v of tht- iujurv Eo thv pluiiiliff, uud tluit 
the oflioiT of ilio rftilwny, who i* Hmrgpil wJili tin- duly 
of npi^intiiig mid diamiwitig iierTiuitd uf thut ehuv, 



■C.frAa^ K- >< A«>f7, I0» til 3K IT Aia. A Eds, B. 2. L^ 

<MoH t P. a Rh^Md. i«r. FruitT fL P. &, a, a« PmoL % jo<t 

O'lh wll 1. A- V, IL lU R« l^.u Hl ZU^ Hdbbuft *. F.S. K»1S KhlIST; 

a r. H, R. >, uiiJik*^ i G»i« Mr. 



UA 



lacoDMrmsrcv or HmviPriH. 



^i&QT keiow, or ought to h^T% Vnovm of tlie tiieotBp»i, 
tOuqr of iliu wn-aiiL' ^otioe ur d ll-ltow-A^rfaiit'e lii< 
oompetouoy to llic officer pcrfonoiug, upon bohjiir ef' 
tbo nulw^Tr thf! duty nf tmplaying koc) tli?<hur^iig 
wrvanto, or «levluig tbcia for jwrlicuW werriw, la, of 
ooano, Qotico lo the riulwaj ;^ but i^oiico to « t«llf>tt-fiei^ 
vant » not notion t/) thu nilvjij, ns^ for iiisUiice, noUce 
of a co£L<lucior*8 Iii<^pacUy to a aervafit, wbosq duty it 
U to cnll Ihc conducioro for ?ervtrc in m dvet^tOtd 
oriJ«r, i» DOl uoticu to ibe niiliruy of like moompMciH^ 
of a condtictor-' 

2'iJ'l, Tb« rtulwuy yrlW be linblo if it rctuma in ita 
Hmceasorrant wbose liAliir^ aro known to be intem- 
pumtv/ or an va^hn^-driwr who hm hahiiMiiWy dit> 
obt'yeil & rule* of tlie railwu}' IbrbiJUinic tbe ruliiKjuloL- 

Tumid ff^ W»l W'l^ I Mimi.H.L Ti?: Bryant, dievui,fH SO; Wm^ 
%. MMihim^a, 4 Id. il:. ] Tunui r, Wvhb, IJ^ C U, TtC. » K V. L,i Jf, * ■. 
T. K.n r. IJftLn, 67 r<iinri.8(. lib: tiTd. (](»; Fiv1«r t . T. 1L K . » 14. 

in*. M. Ch n.i(.D, »iiJ«f^iii Mt-'h. ]r<i, 1 aw. a tni RR4^->, saoj 

MiicpU:r n^l*« I'M^ b^'^TlMiL^^f; »«■>, JML U,, 4U id- ItfU ^ El- 

ailing r-e,a]r„lU-UlflB9:(^ II(iL49U; l/L7.V,^ii- U. It ¥,V^nr\^.ll 
Ub lTul,) 40. 17 Am. a ^» B. B. Cm. A«A I K. O. J. dt X. B^. t, Hufilua, 
4B MBkLW; llimlc, H, IX tL IL, AO td. [7» ; i^ IM.rt KK^ KlIiLniwu^, 

78 M* to.!: AiilA EfiK' B- ^' *^" ^^ 1 ^i^^'l' «■ I'o'^r--*'* M'-ih. W^li 
Am A Aruf. M. lll>L H4>, M, 4 O. II. K, > Tall. 7J4 Mlrti. 1A«: ^IhIk il 

Y, A H. IL Kh '-D rc, Y. 3M; 1'. M. & M. K. \L f. Smlih. &ft AIl UtA, 

Kt^*D- t.JC-c,st. J-A aaic.u^:^' Mf^&iis, i: aid- 4 ^^^ ilie.u«. 

F„M LLlMjIViter^ f, P, A aR. R. Ifl I J. AH; IX A M. «f , <l <M-^ 
lam, T3tD<L3tilpO Auf.dlKDV'B^ R. Cm, AMj t. M. R IL v. Whilvot^ tt 
T^r -m. 11 Am. A ICnif, ^U,(^w.tM; Ty*<m o.».AH.A.H,h^til Mm, 
l>M; M'^tiuuidTl r It, A tL J. BhBhT3 ^f« ^14.1 Am. ^ Vm^^K R.C^ 
KA; ]Mli«>, -V. Y.11, K, H,. 4U^. Y.^il] Umm t. I>- A D.O.Cn„8l X* 
T- 40A, IK Am. A EiK. R, R, Ch I». 

■ M, i^ W. It * tii.Uii, :iJ MI<Jk L-»l<i, 

"n.AB T-R, It ■- D«.h^r, a'JPcui.tt. fli.ll^MH <]ft;C.d V B. B. 
1, Ntimv»n,M III. S«;l[ M I- U It. * l?ilbfln.4fi »kh. |?n. 7 ^m. A Kbii. 

R. n. fV.aao;(n-Ei"*B" v y, c .* ji. r. b. R,fiiiN. y.mi t'}iMi>nua 



IVTOXICAICD UeftVA3(TB. 



815 



pt^nt of the ccmirol of hli engine to b» flrvmnfi.' Hie 
pruoF of frtf4|n>>ut isrcivutiiiucd acbs of ccftligtcicc by itB«r' 
vnni^withknn^rkdgpThrn^r^broaghthornoloth^rBilwnv, 
•cili fix il4lkbiliiy;» ibm,mHilUi».C.AO.T.Ry.,'t!iv 
foot ihai no on^in«-(tnv(<r liaiJ been tiruuk on duly tbrvi^ 
timnt wiihin n prrUKl ot umn monthi, no* held Ut ho 
cvlJvcct uf Ui.-gUgPuce «d the i«rt of Uw rjulwsy to 
tb»t iu executive olCccra fulM to Imrn ofhu diMifiaLod 
liabitorAnd the milvrny irtw hdd Liable to o Kurvtmt who 
WM killed by being tuo otw by Uie engiue-driver'a 
corelcM iuan[i^[uc!iit d£ t!ic engine at a time when Ii< 
va8 i[itoxiuat<il. But [iruof ot (fptddo JUitfl of nc(;li* 
g«D04 by ft flcrvanl will not <*tAMiflL hie inc&iupcU»ncy, 
nor ivndcr the nLilvray Imbic for his rc'tcntioii, utt]<w it 
be shown chat the Bervaut'e negll^ul ehaructor 6tih^ 
VM, or TOUcrtuibly onght to hive bwn, known ro tb« 
olfic«r> wh<^, vu bt-Lutr of iho nilwuy, vjtvrcued the 
^Kywi^T of tij-ipoliiifi^^ and OUrafMin^ tueh servuntA :' uor 
will iho fiul fhftt juj *^n^nivii river in iihown to be npnr- 
■i^hted and ^vun|wlled (o u»v glnaMW, retider Ui? ruilfiuy 
ne^li^eut if it rvlaiine liirn in l\w eervice** 

2^5. The duty of the rmlwAy to it« mrrnntai i* not 
•dvcjualcly purforiuvd, unites lare by tjiert'I^d nut ^>uly 
ill it« origiikd sclcctiou of «prvniit«, but also in iU «ub- 
«K]aimt orjfanixation, discipHn?', urid ooutroJ of thow 
f«rv»ritfl. The acr.ion of iU »ervanid muat be inteUi- 
gcnily direet<!d iind vigii'^'ill? BUpervijied, and, to tliftt 
eai^judiGioUB reguliitiouB niuBt bo uiuJe and enforced 

■ a A M- Xr- •. OiUtfm T3 lad. Ml, Ab, 4 Ei«. R. a Oil ^M. 

•CK-r^l' H^-^iruiTnann.r4 Me. 00, IT An, A Ki>c. ft. aCH> ett| 
alvuD -- M- C R R, ?« Ua til. IT Am A Et« R K. f^>. «^ j fli pn i^ 
«.« riLR,£i WU<j «l«: l\K Vh'»ACU.R. t. Riibf. K ImLWii 
B»t«^ f L A f*t, L. R. R, 44 M<., 4HV 

• T. A R fij. r. tlurioctOEh 03 Tu. ««?, U Am. A Soi- R B. CW «l. 



316 



Drrv rir onauTiXf} ms Lurs; 



fiir t1i« gOToninieat of ii« wrviuiia to tho tliMcJ^rs^ "' 
ibdr (tmi«; ibott Mrvaiitji nttitt hf. kdiyjtiAtrly |i*id; 
tbey luuat b« promoted, or t/tkK-rmue revrurdvU, vbim 
thcj" merit H|>cdAlct>iiimi^QiJAtton fof oicritonoutwrvbco; 
tTity miitfl be |iroiii|itly puiiiilit**! itlieo lJ]«y ^1 aliCTt 
of « ftJI anJ faillcfLjl pfrrforrontkor of iluljr; 41h1 Ui«y 
miutt be unbtwitutiii^El^ 4i<^io^ vrbi'ii Uicir ioconp*' 
tsBC^ Lfta been prov«u. 



IV. rruK itirrr or tcAiLWAVi tx> moH hebvaxts cx 
ran omEATiox or rue loxe. 






^om* 



29IX It i* ttic dulj of rtiilwuiri lo tonkc rvgolatlim 
fur the ifitA?tjr of (Juuir servjiittft, aod lo u&« aU rt— onaUt 
meAii« for tbo enforcemout of iboaft regulations^' but t 
TdiWa; ifl not liublc to nii injured NcrvaDl mci^lj Iv^ 
I'aod^ bia foU^vr^orvUDta Lavir JifsoboT«J rach iripik* 
lions,' A railway im, boTr«T«r, lial^^c if il j>vcmitfl la 
ncrv^ntv to Itubiiuully ilittrvicard rvgulMtiouv, whoM M- 
Jbroeui^fLt id neotKHAry to the sal^iv of olbfr aerviuit^ m 
wiir^rv n wrvant in injiirn] bif the i«rr]fi« haDcllifig of 
an viij^iiit bv u Gruuiuu^ it bt'iug prurt'ii lliui tbtf tfogiii^ 
driver. Id disobndif^ncf^ of ihn regiilatione of ibo niJiraj, 
VJLA to thn knnwtiMgu of liift jitij>c>rioo' afUctrt in t)l4^ lutiit 
of iturreu^t^nng tbe coatrolof bifi engine lo the firemui.' 
A rrtilwjiy U net nc^h^c^nt to ita sorTanU if it v«ri« 
iVom ibi rr^utnr tim&-tab1« in mnntng ita tmim, |ir>- 

I V<-« (^ T. A T, Hr^ fi K, A y, Tia; Sbtv k Jwmi CA K T. «i. b Am\ 

•ii**f p,AA.itmui:c.T.viT. 

> a A U. Kr. r Collirn, 7S iDd. W, a Am, A Ej«. & B Ou. U4 1 (^ni« 



mnr cr oPEaATiyo urtr^ 



317 



%i cLiit it givGi to ilH M^rvnntji rtuiiinnnblc nnlico of 
(my cburigc* wbicli if uiikiiowu to tlivm> muy HfidiiH>£ur 
thiir mffity ;^ bill whpm on m rnngU track litip a «f «elal 
trnln in onlrrLn] to run vtliun ft regiilur Inuu Ik (3i]o« nnd^ 
no offort liavLii^ been niUfJc Lo Lcld Llie rv^ulur truiti, u 
coIHiiinR nnmi™ nnd n futrvnnt u injiirwl, ihft milwny is 
lkb)i\ for tU« negUt;«Tio« of Ittt dup«niit«D<Ieiit in im 
noglIg9DC«^' &> e-Uo^ wbore a ctJDotnictioo tram ts 
allowed to vtand on the lino In a curvrd cutting nt n 
tinio iTb«a a Kgul&r truin is due, no tiotic« being gitm 
lo the cngino-Hrivcf or conductor of th« regular train 
tbnt they may eipwrt lo lind llii* countrMPticin tmin m 
thvir w&y, at>d tbrougb the failure of a Lnbotirer to 
properly signal tbc regulnr tmin, n oollUion biiving en* 
Kiod And a bervjiut on the cooBtructlon traiu hnvfTL^ 
Wn inJtiPTfl, tin* fflilwny wit* bold !iabl'> fhrivfor,' Ri> 
iu Mc^LwhI v. OiiitW/ ibu railway wiu hi^ld liaMu 
to a vervant Injured in a collision wbieb r^ult^d from 
thn nngligmcp of a Idrgmph i>prrator in bo writing out 
un order for the movetncnl uf a traiu on iL miclkU track 
lino as lo convoy to tb^ minxi of a train conductor t^io 
idoft that be might nfcly occupy tlit' Unc tor ■ long«r 
lime than that liui^ wLicb the order waA iuiendod to 
give him. 

287- II ia tbe dnty of tlie railway not (o inervone tho 
perila of ita eervunta by the inadequacy of tbo force 
oniployod in any fmriicnkr trork, and, in particolar, 
tnhif must be manned b}' a &u£ticieDt number of irn'\n 
hflildi;*bnt amilwny lAnot nc^gligc.nt to itji Ubonren 

■ Ihtar t. Jtntt. U S. Y, 6t. I> Am, A Ei« IL R Oh IMS, 
■Sh«b»t,KY.Ct All R ILH-* VI », Y n-ms Aid. A ^nt-fLlL 

»rUb>f. I1.AA RIL.£aX-Y,AI«;1bv(lif.lt • A. ILU.rxmi] 
C AR L K. lLi.<huT, 110 lU. tt3,l' A&AB« K.B.UIL eOttj 



t» 



amv OP Tv^tw. 



if it itak to pnt n couducior in oliar^ of a £rt 

S9d. Tlw Tact iLnt « Lnla b ran at a nti*otmitf*d m 
lAOCSiorUiftt prabiUlcd by«tatulc U not nwcnttfly 
3!ie5li^a«««sCo»rTantA«r tlii> ruilv&j ou Um tnia.' 
anil Aji^rt from eUliiloiy rergohlioD *<» rate of Hp«ed k 
^tfp 99 nOgl^Qt,* bat tJio circunutnncvi of thif jmnuvUr 
oase, incli m llw aj>pr«Mh lo n l«v«l cmBBmi^ or 
proximil}- to b <ntj, town, or viUngc. or tbtt d«fe 
ooiidUiou of the liue, may rvuikr lliat nUvof »pocd 
HgifOl irhich-i naHnr o^htirfritcnTnMAAccK, fu, AwinAlaiico, 
on R itmi^ht linv in gvoil order Id tbc «fwn cv;«ntry cr 
M f^owd tbat neiihor tretpttsJDg )iui»au beiog* nor 
lutliDAU can oomo nfon U, irould not br orgligvot' 
Tbo ruaning of a trAio at a liigli taie of ai>«iHl ]w< a 
wav »tatiOD ia not p«r m unUvfBl, and la not utrgligrcKt 
as to itaranla engaged tn wr>rk ^n tbo atatioo pUlform,' 
yot. Ill Crowky w, B. C R. 4 N. B. R. * whew a 
Inbourcr winlrclwiriiig iiwny snow in a milway jaid 
waa injarud bj bcinfc »truelc by a train moving at a rata 
of epeeJ In exc^e^ of that [ifvmitifid bj ntitiictpal ordi* 
oanoa within lh« cii^ Limila, the nilvay wu \M 
liabki 

299. A railway ia n«g1]gont to thmr tcrvania whf*a 
duty r^uirea 1h«m to walk ou it« Itue, or id it* j§s^ 
if il ii]ov€« engJued or Imus at nigjit witbovU a bead- 

"1 ^n'lijijhiii) nin t" ri 1 i^mti^TAii' :- 

BB^^&'C'KFSIIbi 333; Uamt p. N, Y. &a 11, R. a mRJ \ . 
|«], aAm. ATiitf It. It |-«M ;^, BhI*. N.Y, CsA IL a II ft. - V 

V. 171, ivri(FiLi]i[i|]QJitdtfD>c[iii>rtrMlairvnurtHf«t'»aliiia Han 4^7 
■lf>«Tf.a.l. Kr^h] N. Y.a»L 
•Ih.ulltT.AH. aE^OI MI* fia, iaAm,ABi^&B.Cte.a; 

> W*ll*™ ■, St, U 1- M, * S. ft/,, T4 Mft fiM, 

• C« K. 1. A P. By. t. llidtEuami. raM4k«4LTTA&AK«B.IL<:^«3a 

■MiMT hCHt. K A M, hj^n UWal, U Att.A Eq«. It. KC^lIt 



liglil ;* but iZie reverftHl of an engbe in loabing up, or 
fwiiohing, inin« i« not negligvnoo on tto lutrt of t)ie 
nulwftj ;' nor dd« the nOwtty'tt Jutj lo tf« Irain hftn^ia 
eDg&go<i OQ moving t.minFi Tfqnirv it to nnlity ihcrn bi^ 
fbro bringing ibu imla ta ik v[]d<]vu stop lu unli^r to 
avoii a culliHiou nttli Ln«[wj^iiij| c=iIlT(f on the liri?.' 
Tlin rnJlwnif lit liiihle to itn ^i^mnbi for injuriiift caiuiCHl 
by c<iltiAioit iritb i>b(iirui.'iioiiEi on Uiv Iiiiv wLicli it boB 
bocu nv^li^ui ia not 4i)900VcrJi^g ami rrmoring/ 
Novcnhi*le«i, u U hcroiniLft«T stai^xt, th« Bemuit takes 
ujiou Ijiiiinelf the mk of injurjr from llie ordinary con- 
diiL^t of tbn bu«incMt including; t}ic ncgligcm^o of ht* 
tvHtjw-in^xTj^utA, and tho railway is only Uabfi? fur such 
i^uri«0 AS result from lb« non-perrormance of iU duty 
lo bim, 

V» TB< LtA.BILtTr OF AAnWAT« TO TllErS snjtVANTl! 

Tool tue »n>Lioeyc£ of omRa fiCKVAxraL 

dOO> A mAMtc'r ]« linbb lo hin wrvnnU for ir^jtiricft 
aoaod by lus n^^lif^ce -wbilt^ j>erHona1ly panid|>atii]j! 
with iliem in tbo work,^ Oo the esi&e principTe, vrher^ 
ibo nuiatcT, by Lis pcmoiial intcrlcTcncc in the conduct 
of a work who^e peribnoftnoe with eafetj to ft ewvant 
rnqiiim oxtraordinflry <^n? on thn pitrt of that, fl^rvani> 
ar^t^ the sorvani to tt dvfii^H? uf speod wliloh compek 
him to nf^loct pnocniitionfl nh^i fi<^ would oLlionfiDe 
bdcc, uticb conduct on thu pun oi the twrvimt in not onn- 
trlbutory n^lJgeooOt* Kuilwuy ooqjurtitionB hiding 

■ laHbir Ik T' C^ A- B^ «^ HL IS ; C A X, W. Itr- h TkTlor, AO 111. tAt. 
tJuhmir E.C.L4&X.B.&,SlKjvmTai. l«AaAR>V.R.lL(te. 

'VOhh* U. J^r ^ I-. Kir.TOnlfr lOL. I) An. A Enr B. O. Chl, l«l 

■Arfi*pnh -.fti»ft-rit,i VIA ja. :ou(oi:K<t,i.- iUFbei«>f.AD^th,t 
1L A K. ns: )J*lli>f« f, KUr, I ft. A & 44S. lOt E. C. L 



320 



Tid^miKciriiA 



■niHdU Wnp aimI frfotiurce ot lav, cbdqdC rr^^ 
Urt iM ilfti liibU bj 9nj pcnunsJ |k«rUcix<iuoai in iHeir 
■TTTUiU* work, bat Umj ar«vofcwir«c,ti«l>li'tntbowM'r^ 
Ttnta for Uie ni^jJgeiKecirUiMr fellav-Aenrsntu wbrrcvcr 
tmlirifluA] tnMTcr^ would b* Hublo for lli« negUf^trKu of 
Rich tfuTTAiiu* uid Uie oorponte cbflncttT of rnilwayi 
iii*itli«r ii3craL»» Dor diruitibhce tli«lr littbilllj in tbkt 

30L Tbv QiasCer being U&bl« IT bis own m^i^voo* 
in bin prT><>jin] pKrtidpUion inib hig wrvaut In tbe 
work bti UiQ cauM! of itijury to the ccrvnni. it would 
aoem tbat tbc iDn»<tcr ou^bi Lo be ef^uuUj liable if tb« 
<uue of injury to Uie eiurvMnt be the nigU^ciicc of % 
pecaon wboin th« masiCT' has placvd in Hudi a pc*iiion 
tbftt he can fiiiiLy be conudcrod m ibe inaaber*^ n.'pnv' 
tfcntJdJTC. Willi iK)wfir to conduct tbe buainfw in tbo 
«iceriM of an tmcontrollcd discretion. Tliat llic mAjtlcr 
would be llubic in xuch u ciu« wu« tucriclj^ udniitied in 
Uurplijr V. Sm'ilW aud in Feltliiim v, Eu|[lnod,' and 
Mpronlj- ruled in GHxxlc v. FrMt;' and the doctrioe 
of thews OLHid i* HUpporled by mimy AineriL-iii] raMis,* 
Oii tbtt utber buuJj in Wilaou i: Merry,'' wIkti' it vriu 
held thftt r.he operators of u min« were not rr»y>i:i]i'-]blti 
for the dcHth of a miuer caused by au bterruption of 
tbo fc&^ voQtilntJon gf the mine and n coniiL^^iutnt txplo- 
sion of Hre-dump, nj^ulting fruni the erwtion of n scaf- 
folding by ihe n^auagt^r of the mine, Lord Cairnis toad : 
"what the nimit«r in, ic iny opinion, bound lo Ula 
■ervimtn to do> In the oirent of bin not personally anptr^ 

«WC K K- 8- Ml-llfi It a L. 

■L.B.BCtB.W- 'aRAF.Ml. 

■ II b vflUial U dft Cormrta is HulbrvoV, AV N, T Ct7; MuTlaii ■, 1-. A 
B, ILK*. Cb;.7B V^rifti^fH. 3% im fntinLmod In I- V. t'o>l tV> ■. Joitc^ tHi 
[J. 44L. ifld Id IX A IL Ckatl 0* »^ C4WiH, *" W. ;i:< ; Nffimi. r. tl A », G 



rtcE-PBi^riPAia. 



8^1 



Sntendiiij; %nd dtrtctiag tbc work, ifl lo fwlcct proper 
and comp^wnt pcn*rir« l« cio w, nnd in fiimi»h tln^ni 
with *lL*qTULti-' mitU'riuU intl reMouroo* for llie wurk. 
Wh^ii h& has done lliis lii- haa, in my opinion, Jouo all 
thftt hi> iM bnun'i tci da. And if the persona so sclf^tM 
aitf guiity of utglifc'*^!^:*:' Lliiu ja not tli« u«glig«uoe c»f lUo 
mnfltcr.'' InTnrrtinii', WcbVJervisjU^J.,patlh<i?«imG 
vk'w l^n^ly, MiyLijg : " t)i« mviHitr may be r^jwutfible 
wliorr ho U |>crBonn]ly giiilty of ncgligcDce, but ccN 
tninly nut Hhvr« lie <U>ffi hlft be«t Irr get oompotont 
pon^na. He ts not bound to irarrant tlimr competenf^.** 
In lIo<wc!U V. L. B. St<:vl Co,,' wltvre a minc^ In obcnll* 
moe lOflUbJtory proriAionn, bavlDgboen put by lu oirner 
undnr th« "mntn^l '* of n mjinng^r, and u minr.r living 
been killed by llio nuglis^uco of lluil maiiiig^^r in fail- 
ing to withdraw the minpi^ whnn iha minfr wan invaded 
by noiioii* gOMA, it vras Huld that tte maater. the op- 
erult^r of tlM i]ila«v wu6 not litibZe for tlio doalL ho cau^^ 
C^ckbnnif C X, saying: "sinc« the ccuKf of Wil»on «, 
M^rry, it b not open to dispute that in general the 
muflirr is not liflbl*? to n Bcrvnnt for tho ncglip'nco of n 
fello«-si>rvmLt, u)thougb he bo iho mana|-vr of llio con- 
cwn" It 10 t1i« ol«ar Tnalt of thtno caM« Ihat in Eng- 
land titAfll^n are not to be hiiM Iiublo to their tcrvunls 
for tlio pflTflonal negHgeoce of vicfrprinoipils.* 

802, Thogonond rule in tbc UuiKd ^Cutcn » thnt 
vlildi 1b eunod by Allen, X, In Malone v. Huihairtty,' 
in tbrvn tertnf : ** vhnn ihn ■crvnnt, by whoia* nctii oif 
Da^igntoCi or vauI of eLill. utlii^r flv.^rvantfl uf thv i^om- 
mon ^mploy^r hnxe rtcfivod injury, in f h^ aiUr ctja of 
tlie morter to whotn (he employer hAH 1^ everyttiing, 
nmrrriDg to himself no dincrotion, tbni the middlo-mun'a 









322 



TOa-VBt»Cll-AUI. 



ncglTpffn^ u the nftgligcoc* of tbe vrnfi^xptTt ftr vlildi 
tke luiUT in Uublc. The Mrrutt id vuch oue reymMoti 
tke meal^r, and ta chajrged with Uie mwier'u ilut^', 
• ♦ • ♦ When tho niiddl^Eniin, or enjtennr utorrani,. 
Maplojfft uid diacLarg«e thi) eubalteniA, uifd llii- prtctu- 
pftl witbdnm fr)TO tbo mojiAgcm^ait of ihe biuincm, or 
the buffloeaa U of »uch ft tiAlotv tlmt it is ttceiwiiirily 
coiomittixl to n^DiJs ^ ^n ^h<'- <^a9c of corporalioDi; di4 
prmFt^rttl U Imblo fi^r ih« neglects and omisnoowof dutj 
of tltfi odia dmrged Filh ihe wl«vHon of oUwr Berruil^ 
la employiDg and edectang nicb eervotitSr uul in Uic 
gfihpral conduct of tb© bueine^ commitf^ W hit €are." 
Id L, V. Old Co- r, Jone*/ Muroiir, C- J-, xttai ji^vly 
Identical] ]aij;;i]a;;e, gn^rlug: " \flii]re Uio niobler hi 
pl^i^tv] the entlm cbnrge of the bueinoe in tht* bnnda of' 
tUL iLgiitii, exvrciajijg un atithuritv and iiq mpt-rmten* 
dipnce of his own (herein, ho may W liflblo for the neglS*, 
gcnne of fiuoh nn agt-nt to « subordinate etxipbj^." 
tJader all the AiuorJcan csece a eervant to vtiom P> 
«xt<?nifive an nuthonty hjid been dckgutod woitld be 
held to be a vit.'e-prJndpH.li hot id Toauy^ of tli^ caatt 
murh more limited delc^iittion of Jtitthorit^ In hHd tQ' 
conalituitj the person enlrimted tbervwilU a vic^priDcU' 
paL The test, in some of lh<* muv in tha grsnt to a 
Bervant of the puwer of uppriitiung uiid divdjargioj 
subordiaate ^ervani^and aa lo «uotL ^itltordinatee 
BOrrajit invested nith that power w hM to \)V n 
piHdcipaL' A more lugicAl tuft ia to be found in tho 
grant to aeervflnt of that discretionnrj and flupfnriwry 
power in the H.clTiiiniEtration of n ruilwny w}iic}i it n«cM* 
sbtWj ex^rciaed by the contioUiug aulhorJly of Ibc rail-l 

•UuJI^F.P,AaM.g.a.Co.78P«DA,&HtfiiBatAf.aG*F.B. 
|AX«KAk;1, ITAolA ^^.R. K Ou-nril; Mike p. IL AJL ft. ft^M M, Y^ 
MVj MoKu&B r C a R. a, C4l, . 17 Am, A En^ B' a Ot^ ^; C' 
4 A,. Bf.v. Uftf, 108 lU. 2Mt U Am. A Ed£, K R Oh, na 



TftAUr-DUPATCB£Efl. 



8S8 



\ or by Aomfi ajc^t to wliom it bw beon «peoiuJ!y 

Led. 
80^ If tliu Uft Ic applied, it will ba foubd ihiit, tho 
<uljve ofitcerv, Tfhu din^ct mid couuol tlio op«rftlioQ 
of thQ line, or of any integral portion of il, and irba 
appoint and ■duct sabortiinat^ iK^rviuiU, ure vii^c-pnud* 
pale, and that foremen i>f ^ai^^, yard-muBtert, ataiiou- 
agnnis, ongint-driv^'ra, and cniidjj<!b'fni of IntinA, arv-. not 
Yice'prlndpaUr but niervly fLdlow-ourvauta uf tliu avr* 
Vanta who serve uuder tliem. Upon ibia priuoiple, 
a tmin*d[i;piitc^h(!r ]uui benn hold to bci a vicc^prin- 

8(M. A foremftD ia marely a superior aetrtat, aod ha 
cannot properly bo regardiNl an nn alter e^o of hU maa* 
ter. NvvurtlitfleiH. in itumti caMv, it ix held tliat f^r^ 
naen are rfce-priiidpfLl^,' Oq tha other hand, ii i« bold 
in otlior cjuK«, lliiit a foreman is not li vioe-princi|>u.] :' 



CU H^X, V,a N-K IL lt,AZ {Vnb. UH^ 10 Am. A Ruff- R, It (^n. mCj 

fUuiFi<kCiu.aa, P-BT.4«wiK<Tt^i3AiiLaisiv aacHiAs. 

aifti P, F. W. « Cs Rf, «k U*K £1 Ohio Si. tM; L a A U.S. Sj .. 

1%. M i<]. 111. A ato. a QiN. n. R. i:^ r>tB ^ vauh « «. u a i\ Kj, 

yabLasa^ll Am, A Kd«. K. ft Dk «dl ; rVwlca ff.R.aD;R.&,K« N, 

a sotf ; Bwaii* L M. A ci R. K.P s Buia (T<'»ii.) laajUcai-Kat. 
n«k.iLCH.au4; iMbiMn «. k a u a k^ sj >. a lu, 

k <: 1. 1 f-IihHi >- Hi^Und, ]- IL 3 4^- ^^ T R A a cnn ; Wtp™"* 
t.Jaf.lVBLaM; WriRMv.y. Y.G.R.II. »|t. T. H«^ EfTVunt QtM^V 
CiD^f.N«w1nrTTi«aiViiaLM.l«(L llFirk * K,:(,Y.« P. IL K, VA :V, Y, 
1I9jl, V. Cd«l CtK:Jfa,m.96 Pobiu Rl4I1 ; WfffH t P. R R. M Id, 

iV»iiL AA V. n. IU1 S. Y,W2: WIIIUt. aR»,A », Oa,!! Otf«rnl'-r„ 
i: .Im. A Kat. B. K. t^ M\p ; VmcW r. C, M. A tit. F. Bj, « Wi>c M^ 
i; Avi. A En; . U. IL f'u MA : Kanhtn f. !4rl^t*r, «4 Ua AAit i G^mb «, 

•LLALK.aiU0iid.A:UjR*k>t.sL[-, 1 iLAaKr^^t la, IH4 
A ^w a R cu. <I0: «b«vk f. N, a a R, U M<1, tlS; -n^AfPr t 

U A, A T. IL a a« n Ind. « s PiUar ■. flL P^ >L A X . It7^ If Miaib 
1AAB.A &i<.aR<Wfta».(^^iH*,l,£.Aft.L.Br, 1«L 

AihAttef^aauArr. 



824 



ttoff, to F^tbaa i^ E^lud.* tbe ikAnauit wm m 
■ibkur of locomotWo ^ta^am^ >i»d tba |iUi&dir wiA * 
Vforkiu^u in liiii n^rvioe; vriiile u cnpiio «u bdag 
howMd on » tTftVolling crAn« r««Ting oa brEck ^int, Um 

nsBB or itiAD«^r> Lavtug gutU'U ou the tnpiiv, w«m 
ugtirtd by iU thl), TtsuUitix Irnm thn giving irajr of ibo 
piien. AiWr u ver^Uct for tbe i^UmtiEr a rule to enter 
tt iKWsuit wii« midc absuULtc> Mdlor^ J^ rajlng, '^ tl>e 
aoffUiT MtiU roUunvU the oonlrol of Uio «auibtudimcQ^ 
asd Uioro was notliiiig t{> sliow ibat tho masagvr 4>r 
fonrmcLt; wnd otUcr tliuu a fcUotv-«crvatit of Uic pkintiCT, 
ftlthou^li he was a serr&ul bftving greater autborityi" 

^5. In 8OUJ0 of tlw <nsc9i tt in held Hax ;bo condiK^ 
ton c»f LruiuB arv vice-prIiiC4itLU, ua tij tUetatj^nie-dri^X'r^ 
fltwafto or etokcTfit and train han<U or giiiudit, of Uieir 
tnuiu;* that, m C^ C & (X Ry. v. Keury,' whem a 
ndlvray was bold Uabio to a IrtLtu baud fur injuriifl 
CBuavd by tbe ncgligcnco of th« cncductor of bin imin, 
Xbiraey, X. euggttU tbe foUowiti^ rea^oma fcir ibe ooo- 
cliiUDTi to nhic-h ihe court cbric, '* thnt Uio {iHnd[«l is, 
by anything iiiddout to ii»* contract of service, to- 
laaaed from hia obtigntion tn (rv«rybody to rajwrJut^rtd 
and coutrol tbo bua;a(«a with curv and prudeocepSooa 
to prevent ti^ury, we tbink wholly unsupported by r«a- 
Bon. nnd, oa yet, nenrly *", by authority, Kur tljin jmr- 
ptistG {L f^. Id t^upcnnlLuJ btid contrul vrJLh sLill atid 
cari> ll>c i3Eknj|;i~'M:inA Cfn-i^n f^xcrlcd)^ the coiidu<rU»r in fqn- 
ploycd, and, in thin, he directly reiiri^eeuia tbe ccmpujiy. 
Ihvy oootnict for and engage bia caro and ekil). Tbey 

■ L R « Q. B. M. 

• 11, a A (^ R/, ■, Rhtx. 3 <UiHi Rl a£4 ; L, M, R. B,r,SH*m,tD Ohio 
ti»j 0, Bl A SL P, H/ -K^m 113 V R^T^ Movq - IL A A, R IL, 7^ 
Vb T4^ IT Ah. «Knc» ft. K,Qi>.^ilCowi>ir ii.Ali.fi. K.J »i».CLao» 



ooKnucToaaL 



ASS 



oommumon him to vmm/te tLftt dominion over thu 
oporatloiu of ibe tnuD, wLicJi «a»eaUa]ly [j«ttHtiud to 
thn prnrogntivGM <tf tb<! t^wiicr. tnd in itc cxf^dm he 
tbmda in (be place of iLu oiruc^r, uud la m the ttiAcliorge 
of A ijatf vrbtcli the owDer^ m & man uuU a pnrtj to the 
Dontnot ofperrice.^vr^B to tbose pliiceJ tmder him, nnd 
wlkoa« Jive^ mAj tl^j^uid od h\n fidclil^. Hifl will alone 
coatKil* cvoiytlung, ami tt is iJio will of thp own<^r ihut 
bi« inl^Ufgence Alone ahoiiM betrusteJ forthi^ puxpoet 
Thill 4vrvici7 ix uot couimon lo him uid xhc hundtf pltccd 
Qnrlor LEm. Tbev li&ve nottiiug EC do with it, Hla 
<)ut,innn<i ihdr diidv are entirety unjiamtrui^ iliirHnoi, 
tUtliuugU bolli ai* uwouury l'> produci? lii« rumIC- It 
is \m to <>ommfln^, and lh«ini to obey and execute. 
No Herrice iflCouiiQoii ihut dofi« Dot admit e common 
pftrlicipetioD ; end no scrraDts nrc fd[off-eervuiit« nhan 
one is plfto*d in mnlrol orcr tho other. • * ■ It is the 
Ouljr of iLe vervmiUi to obey tlie ord«<n of lli« supefior 
tluis plflcnd OTcr tliom, unci to pcrTorm m he ehftll 
^TtcU • • • But they cannot be miid<> to bear Iobm« 
erifim^ from cnrvlcmiM in nooducting tbn tr&in, oTer 
vixich thoir employer gllvc ihem no puwrr or control 
«dlber iwpftrat*^1y or oolWtively, nntil w* are prepred 
to Hiy that ju»ti<x* unci public politry n'tjutn: tlir coni«- 
queiioQfl of duLy oniiltf rj by oqo j^arty to be visited U|>oa 
tbe other, Ahbotigh mrippni) nf aW pnwcr to prcrrnt 
moU oonNvquenoes."* So, In C, M. & 81* P. Ry. v. Boos,' 
the plftintilt, ancnginA»driT«rinthedcf«ndant'jt vmpJoy- 
ment. wad i»juN:iJ in a eollitiion on a Biiig;1e tr^ck line, 
caused by ikv neglect of ihc conductor of his Iniin to 
oommunieatc to hiio a telegraphio onJer reoeived by tbe 
conductor from the trsin-diipstcLer, directing the train 
to p«M another train at a onrlain eidtu^. Jud;;ment 
spoQ a verdict for the pl^ntiirwas aifijmed in an opin- 

maft-m. 



326 



C(»i»gcii>fi& 



ipod ddivcrod bj Fldd, J,, snd concurred In hj WsJti^ 
C. J., And bv Millar* Hurlnc, tind >VwJj». JJ.. but dk* 
fVDtfHl from hj Bmdlejr, MAilh<Twv,Gniv, ftod Bbu^b^ 
furd, JJ. Tlio ground of dedKou, tui «uil«d bj FLdd, 
J., u, chat *^ tlta conduclor of ft railvay train, wlio ccoft- 
iDJLTiil« Ita inovcincnta, directa wben tc $hM ttut^ at 
vLat fiUtiDua it aliall «tup, at vUat Bpeed h ahull nm, 
imd hiiK Uif gcdCTo] mnnji^fciucDt of it vxd control OT^r 
tli» pttreoQseapLojriH] upou it^ n-prtwiit» ili? oDtupmj/' 
and, tlicrdbre, hia DF^Hgeuce a tbo ncgli^cnca of tlio 
oompaoy. Tbtw caau ore obrioiwly oy^u to crilicum. 
This judgmeau therein eeeni 10 be bswd on r TniflundMS 
HtjLiiJiii^ of tht.< prvctiuil mctliod of railway opcmtioai. 
Il is far fVoui accuraie co isnj, ua Kauiivy^ J>, ^id of % 
mlway ronduclfir in C, C A C Ry. f. Krary,' " hi* 
will alotxo tioiitroU ovefytbing," or lo a^eumtii as Fldd, 
J-, H«Aiim<9, in C. M, & Su V. By. p. llo^,' that «ucb 
&D offit-'inl " commELndH iu" (th« tram's) "movi'mi^t^ 
dirocta nboD it siiall &tarl> at wlmt aljklioa^ it «ball ^Utpf* 
At wlmt Hpcwtl it nball ruo. und bos tbo gcnc^ral jaiuiAxis- 
ruvnt of it, nod o^tiLi'ol ovur tbe penone «in;»lr>yed Ujion 
iL'* In fact, tijo negligence on the port of tbu COD- 
du^tor. whicb waa tbe eQbj«?ct of compUist in tbot c«% 
wnn, not tbat be had improperly exerdsod a dincrotiOQ' 
V(»IuU ill Kim, but tbut be bud foiled to 9bow to tho^ 
ecgiiko-di'iTor, and on bifi o>va [>art to obfry, an €xpr«i8' 
ordvr frnm hia BUpnriar oSirtir, i\w train -diiipatoJicr, 
CDIttCUauding tbu Iruiu to wait at a particular aUttiou 
until the arrival of n rertnin otbcr train. Tbo factM 
ufK^u wbit!b the plaintifTa claim viia fisuudtrd, tb&rcfoi^ 
DL-gativo the theory upuu which the nulway wii8 held 
liabkt. Ah Folgor, C. J., aaid, in Slator -p, Jewt-tt»' 
courU may well tako jufiicial notice of the f^t lhat"tLe 

1 3 OhicH M. SM. > lit TT. a »& 



E50r.H&DBIVEIt8, 



m 



'gnat taII wtiff oF tho Intid nm tnnnagri] in the rvtrr<^«5 
jir^ciicd ruuniBR of tU*;ui, by OTer-IookiJig ufiicvrv nl 
duiLaut plibcw, vfho UM Ui^f tflogr.^ph iriree XO botp all 
tho nhilo mfbrmbd whur« tr^iui ttr^ tmd to flirtnct 
tbeir movement from hour (o hour/* Id mJlttray 
practice 8 <x>(idnGti>r cntinot niD liin tminiui a nmUT 
tAib hU Hhip. No d[i4cr«tjoii is vceted iu lilm. Tlie 
lime-teblo, as urran^cii by hia fiiiprrior offlooni, pr«- 
•criUs the pohit and hour of <le|]utttiro of tli« tnun, tho 
tlin« Bt which It iff to p»t3 r^Rch ntntion on iU wny, its 
|)Uce uid hour offmul otoppugt^, uuti Gxoi,by ncocwjmry 
i!i:it>Healioii| il6 8{ieed bolni^ii thcaeTcral etftiEoui^. Tlie 
condiicrnr ia boum), in tha rnnning of hix train, to 
ri^Jj nilhvre lo (Jmt Umi>tublv, uultad otbcr^tfn dU 
recied by b ep^cial ordor from compeUmt authority. So 
ftr, therefore, from being a vice-pnnclpat. cr nn cxncn- 
tlve officer Co whom is dclogatod, lu ihe worde of Run* 
ney, J-, "Ihttt dominioH OKTr the ope rati nna of tin- irnln 
which «»cuLtiil]j pt-rtikinu to the prcrogativm of the 
ownar/* A conductor Is merely iht^ foreniAn of t)ii3 haiida 
employed oo the tnuri, und, oa midi, lio is titdr fcHow- 
wmnt* That conductors of traioB are not vit^e^pdni^* 
pal*, bnt fellow -JHU-Tunt*, uk to the engine-drivOTs, flr^ 
men or dtokirre, und truiu hunds or gunrda of tlidr 
trainfl, in hrM in two wrll-rnnaoned Wrsconaiu O^cb-^ 

806. It !■ ht-IO ill auma oisaa thnt iLn enginiMlrivftr 
I« a Tic«-pnncipal jv to hb firemnu or 8lok(?r, lind u to 
tnim*httnd» and luboiirr^m. Time, in L, A N, H, R. t\ 
CoUW* HobertaoEi, C. J., sjiid, that "lu tlte uhc nnd 
control of the on^QC* th« engineer nets 09 tho mpr^- 
AuntutiTC agent of the common super ior^^ the corpotiu 

M ir Am. A Ed4. a B. Cw. AXT. 



tioo-" Tbw vi«ir b m oiWMmd in ibuij w Et jp un- 
mpponcd by oiber Kvpectuik uitbori^. 

BOfJ. It U obvioOB thftt tbo flcnrftbt, wbOK i»cglijeftic« 
bufl cuuimnI tho injury, ma^ in tbn dlMhtrga of one <Um 
of (Juliee net aa ft viue'-prruiripulf tmi] io ibe cUiatJiBTgt 
of ftnotlier daw of dniiw ho maj bo oolj a fclluir- 
torvBDL The ImbUity of the niilvnj U» tbo injqm^ 
»rvact will then br (^opci»<JcDt upon ibe cbancEtvr of 
ihe drttT whoae non-peribrmiuicc hjr Uk ncgU^Dt atf^ 
vniil mui llw: cmm of the Jiyury-* 

30H, It id dear tJiat that ncglignwt of » aerrvst, 
whioh is the caiue of ii^nr^- to «imUwt Krvsbt of * 
common tnuntrr, lousl coiwiel dtber in Iua OftrdoHOim 
while pcreoiially partidpating witb iltax otber serrant 
in th« work of tlidr commOD auuier, or in his fkiliam 
lo perform u <iuty to the injorttd Mmtni whwb Uio inn 
pliptl contract of serviue haa <IeT«l¥Hl uj>oin thdr ouubVi 
ard the ptHVirmfinct^ of which dul/ lU« xuualcx Lm dd^ 
gat«(i tu him, imuh ni thi^ rxt:rrJM of <\ot^ ctr» in titbcr 
the provision aad maIat«u«QC« an repair of the inriro* 
mentHJiliH of kbourr or in iho MiJcciion aiiJ rdculioa 
in eervioe of Hie ipjnrer! wrrtlit't fcllov-MErvjuils. If 
tho tiarvnnt's ncgligencr bo of Uio Ibraer dianctrr. the 
railway ought not to be held liaM'* thv^vfor, if <li>e <ar« 
huv hvcjt excrcitietl in ihe Mioutiou and fdention in 
fferrioeof tli-; nt-gligunt sGrxant, 9it^ if tbot neglig<<oi 
fftirvnnt be not a vioo-prinolpal, for, lu s ■bowo in ft 
iiitb^i'q[j4?nt action, eretj »rvnj\i impliedly iiiii)ort«k«fl 
to lit^nr the risk of ibc negligciioc of tboBe MIow-mt- 
vnnM, in whc^c scl<:riioTi or reteatioD lu nvrvicc ibo 
maaler him uot been negligent. If, bowf^vi?r, iho DCglt- 
gcxipc ha of the IfiKf^r churuot^^r, whuleTCr be ilir rank 
of the ut^iigent aerTADt, or tho d^groft of autbnritj 

M,.<yMkBF 1. 1- J. B. R,, IM lA. Hh 



BWtBCT CF KAlLWAV'a PUTT. 



329 



tMM in hm, tho movUr ought to b« held tiublr, npcm 
th« principle Bttt«d by Eladcburn, J., in The Merbey 
Pvx'iu TniaioM o, Gibbs/ Cb*l "the lial>iiiiy for un 
omwfkm to Jo vonuithuix dt^punJa niUrrly on th« extpiit 
to which a dutj IB imposed u> caum thnt tiling to bn 
dc>EiG; loid it i» quite immnterioi whether tht? ciotu&l 
acton a» aerraitta or noC.'^ In tJiis conii«ciion, alw?, Jt 
maj well bo romcmbvnd tbiit Bylci^ J,, «ui(), with sreat 
fbivv, ui lib JuiT^meui 111 tLc Exi-hcc|i»ir ChauiW ia 
CUrk« V. Holmr*.' ihnl " if a miWtrr*K jwnnnal ktiowl* 
vdge of dcfwW m bJn luauhicery ha neceteurj to hia 
liability, the inor« a nuutttr tt^octs bis biiprntvi^ nnd 
ftbondoma it ui oUien, tliff lea will he be MixhW* Tbo 
true rule, ther^liv Is that "do duty beloagiog to tho 
mimti^r to jH?rform for the aafety und protoction of Im 
■enraot* can be deleg&tod to any servant of any gtada 
ao u to eitoncmtc the muter from rcaponAibility to 
B Mr?iint who hatf \nxn tiijured by itA non-|>erfonn- 
anc©."» 

dOO. Upon thiN priueiple it hiu been held in niuij 
CMW, that, aa Et la tho duty of tlie railway to ii^a aer* 
Tftl^ta to tAkn dnn i^xrc tbat i\A \ina* rollirig nt^ck, mn- 
chinery, nud appliiiuws* ure in a safe ooiidititm for 



■t.S.t]t.L.]]a. 'TlLiiKMO. 

> 3luB f . Di ft K. C; Ob^ 01 N.T.noOj BonlL r. B. A .(_ R B^rVKT. 

•CkTliHlB nTtWE^M^aiMEim, 4^; I#«[ii r. &i t a I M. Rr . ^ ^- 
«U; IU1« IL r llf., Tt Id. SVt; <: C- K IL, r. *itA,u, ^ IJiAo- 4»V; l^rW 

■.P. B a, 110 3ilw:W:P.A N.V [IK K, P,l,«-U<^ t« W-cU? XoM 
flf CWw flWiLi »Il C%& * 4 a ft-r Atfi?. lOO m.Sti IT jUlA 
Kp^lLKOiLaHti IL4T-C. Kjr^*;»l4H>Ern,n)'1>i, XM, » Aaa.A ICn^ 

■.Pvkv. tea Isll^h amui »,Q. Mfffiii, 14 K i:;jil9i A.,T 4 < P, 
B^*, H«f,tt Kah^S^M AdlA Eii|, R, a <>k 143. ai lUnl-K. 16 
AB.aEB|.n.lL(ta,»1i E^Bwn t tr, r-H^, l»Ko.1. K«|^IA^].^ tab. 
AEiv.B.ECMt5Mj U«kv*.C&,ail,]lfiBJ>K.:, U Am. A ta|. 



330 



acn^uxT TO impvTr. 



operation, And to Uk* ilu» cuv ifiat lu wrvmnCo' C^low* 
aervnnu mrv Miectcd wkfanrt / iti^f ooiisnon to «zer' 
cive dittt cur« hi ^ilW rtflp«cl nvctssamlj fim ibo 
liflbilii; of tho milway, whiitevpr b« tbo nok of Um 
nrvaotto whom tlic ridlu-uy Iiiw delegated tlio [icrfonaa-, 
uioe of lli&t July. ]l Ibilova thAt tli« ^iilj of iii«p<i^> 
tkin bcin^ a duty vhoM; pcrfbnrnmoo lA mcunbcvt 01l< 
thtr rttilnayi lli« r&ilway b liable ivli^rv Eli&t dnty ii 
D^kcUxJ or GftrdoHlj porfonned by ihe Mrrmat ta^ 
wliom U Lu« Wq uitnut^i;' tUua, In UoukIi v. T. 
R TlyV nh0r« Cb» nilwtiy «m li^ld liable for the OetOi^ 
of uu i-Dgiiic?-drJV4^ uiijiirHi by die ckri'Ctive ronditioil 
of tlio enginOj wbkb waa due to ibc ue^tigeucv uf thuve 
Fcrvniilji of the ni:lw:iy, wbn Wftxx cbiirg;*d wJtli <be 
duty of uu(>ei:Uuf; iktid dircctuig tbe rrphim of i-uginnt, 
H&rlui, Jp, Oftjd (p, 218) : '*a rtLilroad coi^vrutiou umj 
be or>[itro1l«d by competcntp watchftil, ftud pTudout] 
Jiri*«turK, wlio eivrvise the greftlMt CAUtion in tUe wl«o> 
tion of a BuperiitteEident or goiiciitjl m&nagcr, UU^er 
ytlmao Bup«ryifiloD aud ordora iu aflbin and buoinoM ifti 

UVl r4,n Am AKr>A. KB-Ur iTH; Hymw. IX A S.ye.ltj^m m.^7U 
Pho-. iMIIfi. &4M4]fi; Fnui«F >. IMt U. )< N, IM; FhWmbvnP.^ 

CW^:T U.att. tVi'hkoiDA. ri^iwn.Tn. ii Ab4 Em-& tec*. 

mn; 'l>r>n<-.ft AH-A^R-RhAI Alv AM | Meltarmnn >. II A M. X It K, 
Til Mo,AtO. 2 Ani.d K^.B.B, ChL»- FUh* t.B^A jL&E,««3I.Y. 
UU: IJ<nMlii', R A A, U. IC :» N. V. aA. 

>]}iir1cln m. BUrf. MA N-Y.-Sfi, A Aib.A Bti<. H a Cu, AtOf Kjia «. 
emh1>, AO K.Y. -IM^ Vntjit A Kii^. It. R Iwk JH;.; F v t^ M A K L. B^, 
» Minn, s;t1, :i An, A J£n«, K U. Um-LW; l>rriiu1« >^ Tboni|HBi< SO 

S0$. Oir>ptr <,r„G,A3LL IL n,M W Vii. 37, «] An.AKng. IL U. <W 

Uo.^UM7 Ab.ASBf,aRCteM»: !>»•<>-. TB^. IV Mn 2fl«; K£ii< 
»M, I^^M r»iLRq>.!rT7. 8 Am- A Nn^. \l. it rv-llU; Ibiinc »<:.». 1. 

Efitf. K. IL CU ftllS. 



WXihIKJV TO IMSrtXT, 



891 



&11 at iU deputrnfinlfl nre oondtictod. Tlit hiivr, in 
turn, in«y obmrw tho «aaQff cAution in ihe sp|MH»lni«ot 
of subordiiiJLlc* at tlic bead of tbc vovcral bnmcbui or 
dppnrtrnonte of the coTD]»anT> MTvion, Itui the obll- 
gnljuei itilL remdnft to provide unJ miLinUia in HuiUiblc 
cotidllioa lie luacliiuvry wid aifpuruias to Iw ii^ed by 
it< employ^, nn obligftfion thn mi]irc impnrtiuit, und tl^ 
d«gT«ti of ilUigiume lu iU puribrmatK-T tUtf gniuk-r^ iu 

proportion to th« daogorewbtch DMyb^t^iL luTiritl. 

TbotKt, at ItiiAt, ill thd orgiiniatiOD of the cnr^'-cuiiiu 
who ftTQ loToetcd wlik coDtralUu; or vupflrior auUioHly 
in thnt regard rcprcsent ilB Jc^ pcrmnaliiy ; tbcir 
DegligenoOk &om wbi<-}i injur/ re6u](«, is tbu iiegligvnt^ 
of the corpoTB^OD. Tlic latlcr <!flnnot, iii rcKjwct of 
•uob inatt«re. Snl«rpoe« betwai-n it UTid ibe EMrnaiit ^bo 
hnn bc«n injured wilboul fiiuU on bis part, ibo poraonal 
rMpuuEilbUiiy of uu Uj^Enitp nbu, it) e^ctrdBiiig tbv niuf-* 
Cor*0 authority, Lub violuted lb« duty be owci?, ua well 
to tbo mrvniiT oa to tbn <y»rpor3tion. To guuni aguinet 
mlaapplioiLlioa uf tUvw priucip1«s vre should say thut 
tho oorporau'oD U not to b« b^ld as gunnLntfyiing or 
irnrmatiDg the abeoliite uifety under all dmimstuncca, 
or the p«rf<ctioa In all iia }>ttrU, of ihc macbluery or 
apparatuii wbioh may l>c provided for the ubc of cm- 
ploy*^- Its ditty tn thjit rmpect to iu (rmp1oy^« is dis* 
cb&r^d wh'^n, but only when, iu ngenUi whom buaijiOM 
it 14 U) supply Huob iuHtrumi^tuliiitt, uxcrct*^ duo caro 
BA weTI in their purchaM OLiginally sa iu keejurig and 
tDiuntiuikiiijt tiictu ID fluctj condition ■■ to be rcoionably^ 
lukd tkdet]uiiie1y aafv for ub» by employ^" So in N. P. 
B, IC V. UftrtM^rtf^ whnre tho nilvray niu bnid iiiklilft lo 
A yurd bflud tbr ii^urics c^uwd by Uie Di<glig«it]y d^ 
IbcUTQ cooditioa of iba brako, draw-bar, uid bumper 



■ Luaaui 



998 nsaiiicT to mPBcn 

oTa car, FMil, X, niU: "it h eqinUj vn^ vettlfd.^ 
boweTAri tbftt it h Uw dutjr of tl)« emplojer to 
ABil rvlun nrvnnto wbo tro fiU«d md eotnpflteni lur 
the aervi<», ud to ftirnUi Mifld«ttt And h& mAUruh, 
machiiu^jr, or otber bcum by whidi k >» to be 
formed, and Ui keep UMm ia repur and order. 
dnij hd caUDOt doIrgiUt to n urrwiit ao a* lo vxtunpt 
lumflulf from tiftbUity for ui)uriai evaatd to «Dodi«r 
tterr&ni hj ite omisdcti- Indocd, no dntj n^turod «f^ 
Kin for th« i«fe^ and protection of bfa «ervmal* tma 
Umu<f«rrod so as lo ezODente him from racli linUliiy." 
So iu Mjuiu f. D. ^ LL C Ox,^ vbcTV tbc mi)waj vna 
held liable for tKe n«gBgvica of « £hii^ eoadmior^ 
wbo, in 9o)ccting Mi Use roqaort of tbe yudsMMor fit 
vaj staUon, from bia inin faaaib, tbe om wbo waa to 
flgaal snd Aopati appronrbiitg train, made thwcv of 
one TowKfvud, u yoang and inie3C|«n«fteed aervanl nl 
liad oil])- once Mort floggvd a train at niglit, «i>d wl 
hful on thnt ornwion no iw^igmtlj p g fornn gd th*^ dntj 
tlmt hv yiixi tben diBtburgt^J &i;m Uit ttcmoe, Wt nub- 
eprjiifirilly rflin&totpd, Aiidrewa, J., «»id: "'it wonbl h$ 
xmrcjiKiHiMc tlmt tli« maxtor jdaould oonlirr upon a «u1^ 
ordizjulc tbe jiowcr to select a van JWao iia|>ox1uii a 
dtttf fui thnt ^nCmiitcd to TownscDd^ and be exoocral 
from r«Bpon»ibiIicir on the ground th&t iJk mbordfnatl' 
WW noftligent in itii pcrformaDW.'* 

310. On the otbcr hand, in Wigmorft i». Jaj,' wbii 
wa« decidod in 1850, tlie plainutT'e decvdcnl, a ririrl-* 
b}^r in the employment of ibo defsndantt * 
builder, wM kJI?ed br the Tail of a acaiMtSng i«altii 
from the unHiiindnca iif n p»b, mhomt un*o«ndncni liad 
b«i?ii brought to ibe notice of the defendant's Ibmnbu, 
but thn dt fi-iicljtnt took no part in the «ncdnii of Ibi* 



>BlKr,4Sfi|J3AsLA£Dff.B,R.CWUIl 



•iEoLaM. 



WWOLMCT OP mSTLXg SCIT. 



»1iUiis, aorl tlie ttoaouadaett of tL« pole woa not 
brougLt to liui Qolico. At tbo trial Pollock, C^ Bl, 
dir«ctcd & rerdict far the dcfeDdaat, ou ihv giound that 
as the JcfcQ-Iaiii liBd Dot pvnoaally mtcni^ct^ lo tbc 
crrnuon oftlic scuSby, the ac^cm cQutd uot bo main* 
tiibud, au<l a ralu fur A n^w trkl wua rt^fueotL So in 
GoUoghcr v^ Pipt^r/ niicrv tbc pUintifl' bdn^ employed 
Id conntnidiiig a KsflulJinK I'^^r a buildiDt- which 
the defoDduits, who w«nd buiLiore, iterv «ngugpd tu 
erocting, nnd hanng uauviuliDj^ly uppliud Sot mort 
boardfl to Ph^T, the dafondaiit^ "general foremna or 
Itinnngcr," nw injurvil in iAllingfrnni thomnflald, urhich 
wiu iDBUlUcii-'at mid uiumfu ti> Ih* kuowkti^t' of Pb™r, 
but not 10 the knowlfi'Igfof tliedcrfpniiAnrji, who<li"i not 
pr.ntf)iia1]jr interfere witli lh« work; flfl«r A verdicl fnr 
tbe p!:uiitiff a rult fur a new trial wua tatdtj absolute. 
ErI*;, C J., ftnd WiJct, J,. hM thnt Wigtnore p. Jaj,* 
inu A eonoludve authority for hoMing Tbe^r to be a 
fellow<4ervai3L Williams. J.i said: "the doubt I euter- 
taju b whether i'Kciir va» not roiher n sort of dopnty- 
auBrteo' than a telltiw-workmaa of the pljuulJIT, m that a 
notice «f the iiuijIBci^Dcy of lJi« niAt«rkl« to hJm would 
be notice to the <lcfcudaat* thciniulvej. LookutfC, how* 
erer, Bt th« evidence ben Uo not llud enough to war- 
rani the concliif>ion that Pheor wia intended to stand in 
the pkee of the defcadaata, ao u to bind thun by hui 
acteoromhtoiouaiutbiaraepeol.'' Witlee, J.,«aid:"k la 
true hfr (E^henr) flHod n fliiperior poailloUr hut atill ho 
WiM a aurvauti and I um unublu to drxvt liiiy didtinc^tioo, 
in thM respect, botwoeii ono description of nitrvAui and 
another, ao lotig an that rdotton of master and vrvant 
axiiO^ uid the party i^|ured aud the pcnou who^e nv^ 
li^ncG cao^ed tho ii^ury are employed under one 
oODimoin TnoBlfT. If this bad been the caiwof a penton, 



8M 



»3CL£CT or 1LA9TCU a DVTT. 



v1m> migbt be Ht>d to bare EUtWHy to act for cb« 
iniBl&r a« a kinJ of unirerisal Agents J Hhoald lutre Wn 
prepared to coMid^r the tBggwtions tbrovn out hy my 
bttdbcr Bylca in hUjndgoicnt In Clarke v. Hci!En<9i,a] 
voe wh«tJicr he oould conie withia lli« detiomlaaUon of' 
P«>rvant at alL But, beforo I could bnog njsdf 1o 
tbiLt Hiidi ttUHicrutdiO Qotoomcwitbiutlivrule^ltfbottitl] 
tHko time to look into tbc subject, ood mp^cialljtocoJi- 
nJcr ttic portion of tbat moHtautboritatiTooif oil 
tie mailer of uiliipL J oliuuMliktMoconvi^vlMlHtf;' 
if the mnjii^r of a nhlp, without ibft knorlfxlgi^ of bi« 
ovD«r«, were to ifiart from an intcnnedmle port with thvi 
T«Mcl in A (iaiDUfinl aiid uiWMWonby condition, un^ m 
wna in c^nflc^uence driTcn on Bhorc or upon a rock and 
eo[ue of the o»w thereby bUdUiiii«d personal injury, tt 
wmiM licjnstor rcasouable to hold the owM^re to 
liable to tlie sailors lu ihcy would UDdoublodly be 
third pereoiu. But il lg unnecessary to diacius tbat^ 
hca% for it is plaiTi ihnt Ptuar wju nn mucb a ffcrvaat 
of the deftndaute as was any one of the kbouren cm- 
ployod iindr^r his iHiroctirm nnd control-" ByUvi, J,, 
•aid, in hie dieeuiituig judgtutnt: "hi; (Phear) woa not 
mervly the foreman or iiiaiio^r pro hoc x-trcr, bnl liod 
b«4»n IhA general mannge-r of tiie dcfendnnts* works for 
miiny years, anlwut tweuiy-four or iweiily-Bve y6ftn^j 
He had tliG entire iuana^'Dt«ot of the iu«d employi 
under him, engaging them luid dismtseing them ae ho 
thoughtfiu * * * He was aL<ting-ma«tor. Alallevenci^] 
there was evidence for the jury that such wn» bin 
tion. Take the ceae of a large buildcr» who Ea never' 
aeon near hie work, bui who trUBts the CQlim cfinduet 
of hit bueineas to n foreman or manage, who b eyo^ 
tan, tongue, bmins. and eyeryrhing to hin>. lenot ihe 
iDtSter liablf* for nets nf npglipenre of liis employ^ (for 
I will not use Ujti tcrlu '»urvaiitr' which, Like that of 



TffU^LMTT OP XAT^Klltl VJTTT, 



dS6 



Tonrmnn/ is mmofptiblff cf mnny mf^ningii), wiiiUt ftrU 
iug Umi» for him ^ If tliwc dHiinJuntH hud htt^u n »)r- 
poriLlion eggT«£at4> ih^ iuu8t Lav^ eiiipIoToiJ BODLCbody 
to rtprcMDt ihnm. Takr ihf> om^^of ar^ilwaycfimpwiy 
cmployiDg a f^«ral tr:iiri^ mhuiL^rtr. aud lltrougU hla 
npgligTDPO nn ncciilcTit i)ftp[K?U:= lo n prrviint of Ibfl rota* 
pany — ia it tu b« mid tliat Tht> purty injurMt w irilliout 
remedy bocoum the cor]>onili'>n is iru^ai^itVile of porwnnl 
niatyindiict ? If the niln rcUpil on be foond so incon- 
TWiUDt ihat it c&nnot be Apj>Iiod to a cft^e like XhaU 
<ni^btit to b* applifxl h«rcf That dnpeoda Tory much 
on tliepotitaODor Piicair. If be Bud bwu a torvfinl, 
IhoiTgh n flnp*Ti(^^ onn, I ahmiM havn Bninrtninfld sOfn* 
dfjubi. but I da not Ibink ho ntuod in thi? pusilion of ft 
errvant fit all. IIq «twd ralLer in the poeltJon of ^ 
gcu«-iM] Agent for ihc df^fendjinU. It in tnio he wim 
calltid ibe lui'iiman. but lb;it ia a word ibe uieBHiui; of 
which w iTxLreniefy varioua. The cD«t^ of Wigmoro v. 
Jay ifi dwtJELgaiihRblo in thvt, that th«Tc? it doM not np- 
pear th^t lli9 p«r»oa vhoae ne^i^uce^ caused Lho acci- 
dent wus unyt'jiDgfnorothrtn foremim for lh« pnr(ici;!iir 
work-" Tlie jud^TiienU uf tUd House of LorJa in 
WilMn V- Merry, uud of die Common I'Ican in Turrnnt 
V. Webb, havo hwn refurrwl to in Boolion 299. Th^ 
Eoglisb rule 18 adopted in fmme Ammcon c»m in 
which it u held thut iuspecton cif cur rcpujn ar» fcUuir- 
flervania of train liands, and ttiat raLlwaya arc not liable 
injoritt onuMd by the nrgligcncoof mii^h inxpcctoni^ 
311. Bnelly utatcd, ibt^ duclriue of ihe Eo^lksL caeea 
amonntji to th^K, lh;tt ibr mtwtrr impliedly ^MntrnrtJt, 
not llial he will pewonally proride the imtninienuU- 

• C A X. n. K. t, V«bK IS ObiD Si. Ci ; SnUh « tVMcr. 4« KOck 3^^ 1 

JkapA&ii«ft,EB.CyHl«|I.U.». R.- Ftuv^ f^ 11 al»W ft, 3IIMT 

Ak4 ^, lLa.<^«rH^UvMn>v)t.AA. a.K,lJttMiAlO|, IAAbl 

t« Die R. H. <:^ 1W I K.. C. ^ A I, It., r Fiirtvf. Tnn. . II An. • 



S3d 



Bvoum AMI xMioucAV ftvtm 



tie* of tW serrukt'e work, Ut tW he wU] no4 be m^II- 
gVAt bi hi* Mlttctioo or nCffntiott of the MrratitA vbom 
ho obarisw wiUi tbil Uoiy, and tint, thcnCnn, on tho 
bttis of Uut inpIiH oo>itrocl> m oemoi iwnannljr u- 
9am9 M ft rak uiddeiil to liii tnplojBvnl, t>0( only 
dw dftDgffr of injury from lJi« M^ligtnce of tluwf M> 
lovT'terwtts vitb wbon be u, «dth«r mDOColy or uwarly, 
owodstod in tlio piribraiuioe of his worl:, but ako, 
■ad cqoKlljr, Uie dftngor of bjory frccn tli« Qeglt* 
geneo of tboH relknr-^frrutlB vhom tbe mtuocr bai 
«:Iiarged vitb tL« duty of mpplyiag and BDsini&inicj; is 
npur the inatniEncntiilitus of tbovofk. On llw othiT 
lu»d.ti>0 4l-xirino of the Am«TjaulO0ni^tlla£ tbccx- 
«reiMiof<«rr in theronjitni44)nn,inflpprtii^n>and mftlnte- 
luuice in repiur uf th<r iusLrumt-iibtlitiui of bbocir, it, by 
tho UDplifiti contract of a serrioe, iin|iu«ed ii|icu llio 
nustcr w « duty, 4ijd tbat, tbnvfbrv, tbn ncoi^fwrTons- 
uco of tbe Jul J rcudere buu Uablij f<JT audi u^unm n 
rafty rtamlt from tbat non-pcHormonco. Tbc point of 
dir«Tgi^noe in tbo oaMi i^, therefore, in thi-^ir iliflcnrig 
conception of Ibc mMor'o imptieO contract, and tl>e 
dilliciiUy in at^ocpttag Ibo vinr liud down in tbu Kng- 
tiidi castt ia, tbnl ihfjy limit the muter^H duty of ox4?r- 

cIaIdx ^""^ ^^ ^^ provinon and maiat«inncc in rrpoir 
of tLe iuetnimenuiltt^s of Isboar, anci iu tbo m^IccUod 
of f«llow-4wrrAnt0, to thn nifrfi ifXt^rHu; of fsrv in the 
wlntnicm of tbe vervjuit to wbom the ludatvr de1«gstca 
tbttt duty ; wlien<a0, tho d^iiy being irLcnm^>ent upon 
the mtutj^r, itj! non-perfarmunoc ougiit, in jiution, in fix 
his liubiliiy« witbout rdercuoc to tbe cbHrHi-lt.'r of tbe 
agency to whom hcmny dde^nietheperfonnanMof tho 
duty. 

rtl2. N^Tertholew, m tho consideration of this uub- 
jcM?J, it minrl bo bomo in mind, that, uiid«r tbe Atncri> 
can rule, the nllwoy f)o«« not guftr&ntito t^ iU Mn^nU 



PBOXIUATK AVO SmOTK CAU9K. 



337 



tiictK>iin<La«e» of tlie apfHaocVii of f»1>i>ur whicb \i iur- 
iimUm to tliom nctrvjmm. or Uiu iu&llibiliiy of Jut id- 
•|ivciioa of ihaac uppliiuictf, or the jutellij^^uco uul dtji- 
cronun of lu other »«rTanlji: hut it only gnnrantt<t-a 
thnt ihott to whom it f]ek£ftic4 II^ duty of ooiiHtriicting, 
loHp^tiugi aud iiuiialnining in rcpnir flic iiairuiutJi^Ul* 
itica of labour, iind of scIi^otLnj; nnd T^tainiug IEji oilier 
•vn'Mkts, will uvl bo uegligent in thff jierforniiirio^of th« 
«liUy ihiu tl«U^ud to ibojn, Iti oIIkt wofcSh, the rnil- 
wnj id not «a iosawr of (he r*eutt of tbe fueroiw of 
ihedele^Mdauthoriiy, but it doci conunct that tUat 
<lcl^!^t«d tiathunty aliall b« e^cercbod with duo cnrc 
TLeK'foro, when iti? railway ha* done itJ» duly in tlio 
O^nitnictbd, ini|>L-{;Uciu, nud utumtt'iuinoa hi rvpiiir i>f 
tUe luALrumeuudIti«@ of labour, and in the tfelccUoii of 
fi^llow-KctrunU, U U not to bn hctd lijihl« for injuria to 
A jwrrant tU*t rrault aoltily from tbij (;«gligcni3p of hm 
fvUow-vervauta. \S'Lore the uo^llgouoo of tfjt.^ ruilwjLy 
i& finpplyln^ dofcctivu applioncoftii tb«proximatocauao 
of i^ury to H verrait, it U uo dcfeuc« to th« rallwuy 
tli&t tlio ncKli£«noc of a fcL]ow<OTt*?imt concurred iu 
cuulu}^ the injury.' Nor ta St a defenue to tbe rnilwiij 
thiLt llio ii^ury vin cnuwd by llio imgUgoDCB of ft fallow- 
ierraut of tbo ti^urod punou concurriJig with the mil- 
WAy'4 proxlniFile n9glig;eiice iu sending out a rralu with 
nil inaduquatv foroe of Iram hondf ;^ but where tbe 
'M^gliSeu'W of a folio w-eer van t ie the proxiuiaio oaudo of 
tujury to avMrirant, tb« <ioncTim*nffl? etf n^gligener on 

at BrnOiBuaiBnlO«U.rinO^DJb» ??. Y, L. C A W. a B, 
< X. T. AI4 IT Am. A »>i^ R. ft (^ «n i Ow t, l\ L A \V. It R, #1 N» 
T 107,9 Am A line R IL Cte «7: PUiIbW ^ £. By« « Vrooai |BI ; 
OntdtOaM *^ IL A Th K. ll,?aX-U A»; A^ T- AK f. It K. n ltnli.3» 
Kbm |«l 11 Aid. a Eur H Et. Cu >M; td«1« « d R. & IL. MA iSMm^ 
Ml Ain-A k>«. IE. IL(V.[M^ KlmH* Ijwkn. I»l Uh. f.rs tA Am. A 
St^% aCi* 3W; lUtttfff.U. A #1. L, Rr.. 31 Uln. S31, 31 Aia. A 

■ SHch <, fi. A ^ a a, :« :<. T, ±1 



898 



KI7C0R BERVAXt9» 



ibe |Mirt of tlie mlvrtj, ««tbcr in rapplj-tnj; Um Mb^ 
tivp ippli^now,' or in fUlmg to provkl«i to ftikq»to 
forcm of pemuita*' will iMt raider tlie rulvmj liable for 
Ui« iiO>i^- Wttfre A Diftoliine coaaisld of Mpuvte 
[uLrtu, viikh mtuit be put togeikrr beforv Ih^ BaackSiw 
QUI he opvr&l^, aa injury lo a Mrruit rtvultiog fmm 
the tDffuIflctcnl patiing tog<;thcror IhoMpvrte cuwoc 
b« fluid to be duf? i/> ilic Riiluiv of tbe nulv^ to proTido 
i4kfo Applianrw ; biiil wixen «(icb |)arta are frimffidBatlT 
put toRotbcr by n {'cllow-iicrvant of the ii^ared Bervanl, 
tbe rttilvrey ie not liable, for t)ie tiugllgaiM* U not Its 

OVtl but thut of tllG fGlloV-VCrTftQL' 



Vl- Tlli: I^AUIUTY OK lUILWJVTH TO THEIB UVOK 

813. I( t« tbf» duLy of ft fjiUivay to ttn mijaor •crvants 
to eiurcide a reftsonablif c^irif for l)i«ir Bafflj, aiul not to 
plaoo tbctu in pontiouii uf dungcr ucifuitcd lo tlmr 
yt^n and oa]»acity.* NeT«rthelen a minor tcrvant, if 
ht tw of nicire timn Icndt^ yf-Jim, iakt* upon Liravi^f tbft 
ordLoary ri«ts of tlio Hprvici-, iuclmliai,' thu rwk of in- 
jury from the negligeoce of hi« rcliow-scrvaniitf,* In 



• iutf«rhK.T<c«att.K.R.ea».v.4ai,«AuLABi«Rai^ 

■Pwhalr CM. AHi P ^r- <>^ ^Ih- ^^ 1- Am, AEor- ILK Cv,M«. 
MUl r. ^iM r-^' lull. V'; r^t, L A % IL It*, u. V*IMia« OA IbL HI- 

IB Am A El«. B. R I.v 84^ 

> V^*M lT- A, A-Aii/rRf-,UUJMi, l^n.ll AEn.ArniE ILfLC^K-Uj 
fLAG, K-KRtr. &IiIlur,UTeLt70: Gartkud i. T. W. A W. £/. «T DJ. 
4Vn, Klivh It 4 »'. K lC.9(ki^, ll^i T, A IV Kr i<.lWlUin. (lf>T4>i. AT?, 
UAoL AKiw-H,H Ch,3M; GrMmldt-M-R AO.By.. I» Mh^ IW. 
8An A Ki>C, U. ILCu, lU^ UiAlonlit^ ('- K H. fk^ 4» Mic^ 40(1. S Am. 



:ig*DE «DTA.>nra. 



88& 



tim cnnnpciion Uie€*»orD. P. B. R. i'. Fuil' maatlKr 
riJutii'lt^mL Th« fucn in that cuw wcr^, Uiat tho iu- 
jnrvd MrTaiit, a boy uf sikIuc^u jiun of agu, wko lind 
t>«en, iritb bw fntWn conWHi, **ii^ag»>*l a* v, Jielptr lo 
ft workmau i[i a railway'* mjLt^liitii.' shop, with d»o obli* 
gnlion of obeTJDg ihftL workiuau'e orilen, wan, oii ouft 
coca^ioEi Hiiv^ral monthti afUr JiU entry tnio the «f rvicc, 
ardcrt^l by tltai workman to a^ioBTid u liuldtr nvLiug on 
A dliuit amaiig nipiUly moviiig and JangcrouA macljiucry 
Ibr the purpocw of udju«lbx a bull wUich hud j^tUu out 
of place, aod bftTiDg bmn iojurBd by acnng in obedience 
Ui ibai orJer tLu fnthur brougbl uii action to rcHxirtr 
dMDAgM for ft broacli of eJi« coutracl of ucrrico- IlUlou. 
J., \vk it to tho jnrr to And ^hrtbirr, or not, tho dnty 
impOBvd opoo Ujc minor atrvniit by tho orJor of tie 
workncian km niihiii the cofitruoi of service; And be 
further dirootod tlinni* thn,t if ihnt <Uity wnii not irltbin 
the coalroct of aerrke, and if tho linpoidtion of Uiat 
duty upon tbf] minor wiuf wron^lUl and nfgtigcnt, the 
nilw&y was liublc thi^rtfor, for "tho pniuuple, dial tho 
fnaflt«r b not liable fur tli^ u^^glect of a oo-(RiployiS in 
the Kitnc nervicc baff no applicutlofi, or no juit applica- 
taou. to Buch M. oaae," The report ia not rery explicit, 
but lilt jury appear io have found gciicrally for the 
pkmti£E) and nko, spi^ciutly* that L)ic injured servant 
WIS ongagid to aerre iini^f>r ihp workmAn. and *' wan ro- 
qninxl to obey bin order*," that the order of the work- 
LU, in obeying ffliioh the mLUor wu ipjured, woa not 
lio tlia aoopo of tho minor'a duty, but tia* nxthto 
that of the workmtui, wan not a reaaouuble one; sjid that 
a pnideut man voold not have ordtrred tbo minor to 
porforoi it. Judgment fbr the plaiuitfT on lhi»< vorHi'^t 
waa aJBrmed in the Soprfiiae Coart of the Unh«d Umat, 



•UWdLtH. 



340 



uiroft BKJiVAnv. 



of Rffiniuixc on tbo grouuO iLu tbo ncEictvl ruk* of 
t}i« BHtor'A ^xcnpUoB from lUbilitv for iigur^r doDe 
to ft ow T M it b; tlie Df^ligMicv of a fe1loiv-««rviDt, 1>d>kg 
fooniJod Bpoii ihc scrruAt** iiujilicd uudcrtnkiiij; (o Lear 
iha Hik of uijur; AroBh tucU oegltgeoo^, viu ina|'|ili<«' 
tile, br<!umQ Uic lurt i& tti« doing of vrhidi tbc kiitioa 
Nervutl irtuj UtjaretJ ww lUfl vidiiu tlic uouUad of tter- 
vEci*, KLil ho added, somokliBt j»E^Deoqu«Atlj» ''if it 
were oUiefwivc, prliid|iai« would W n-lfuwd fran all 
obligaliou to mukt.' tv|junuUm to tut vuajJoA^ lu a fctibo^ 
dinalc poailion br an; injury cauwd hj iho wrongful 
conduct of tli« petaon pW'vd uvt-r Inm, vtieUitr tli«y 
vcfv fdlov-««rvuot« iu liie datuu uciuiuiou bcrrlcc or uot** 
lie AirUicr nutl, trfcrruig to iJiv workman** ordrr to 
tLoii|}urw] wnaui: *'rortliec(iuH-<|uenovHof tk^bliahiy 
acdoQ Uko coniiiiLo^ aro Us.\A% «iiL«r upon lbs luaijList 
of rttportdfoi Mi/wrivr, or upon tlic oblipLliou anaiog 
out of tb« contract of i^vl?«v Tbo ord^r of ColI«tt (ihe 
workman) wnjn tlioir order." The judgmrut iu tbb 
cu»i: !!» ojHii lu obrious ctilickm. The iiijut^ iKnmul 
nwi uoi un JtifHDl of lender ;ear«, nor «ii luexjii^nvucvd 
eervaut. He van a boj: of nilr^'ii yran of age^ wk<r 
liiuJ bad tb<f vjipvnuuco of "m^vural uioutXii" of wtvkv 
iu tLo raUwa^'e m«c;biiic eJjop. Ilk faiLcr, by hh con- 
Bent to theoi>nLrhCtnf arrvioi.\ bod impliedly undcrtJik«n 
on liis bcbalf lo bt«x tbo rlak uf ibe very injury Uiai 
bap{)cucj, iur ibc jury fouud epcciaJly tbut by ih« 
contract of wrrico itc bi>y ww rw^uirtd to oljcy lb© 
wurkmanV ordera. Tlie worknuiD wuh not a vico-)>rin- 
C3|;>aI tinlcw crt^ry superior servant inon to cwry inferior 
acrvunt to be beld to U? a vitH?-priii^i|i]Ll. M'itli this 
0080 lb*re can be profllably contrasted Murphy v^ Smitb,' 

■ ■ftaB.y.&4CMtA£^&i* 



HDloa SCBVA^ITS. 



841 



wlilcli, bltlicQgli Cited upon ilio argitmenl of IT. P. R, 
3L r, Forlj wae not UOliuL-ii by ])uvi4, J., lii bis juOj;- 
mpnr. In ihi* KngHsli ca«T llw dcfeii^nnt Wft? tlio pro- 
jirictor ofu laciJci' laatcH fa(.<Uirj ; one Simljirk wim Iik 
fytwaai^ or gcQQroJ mantLger, uuii iiuO«t Iiim vruA a 
wcrkniftD named Di^bor^ vho^ m S5jTiilack*H (i1i^nc4\ a»^ 
mmed ifae nmiiHgmeut of the txtallUlimi-Dr ; thv iJais- 
lilT, a be; of sixteen ycnrs of age, haviug Ueii eugagtil 
hj 3im\ai:k la the i!«iL-iicLuit'n servunij uujcrtook, ^ilh- 
oiit any (llTVOlioik from Dobur^Lut iu hia prtAvnce, 10 
]>erlcirm n pnrt of itic pmccM' of milking niatcli^ vliJch 
jt wa» not hU duly to do^ imd wbicli if nut doijcr sktU 
fitllv was daitgtTou&, nnd in doing that bs wait irjared, 
Thorv va$ no proof iluil Siiala^^k wim iLluicitt nt thii time. 
After a verdiut for tlie plainuff, tbe court mndc ubeolulo 
a rata to «ntflr A nonwiU, on the ground that whi!« 
thf'TD WAi cridcmiK ihul t^imliui wiw u vu*-pnncipnl, 
there waa tm sul'Ii evidi^tiue ai regards r>tLior, whu luu-it 
be coniiiderei ne only n fi^llow-At^rmnt, for wVinte iiogU- 
gonco the defendant Trjw tiol tn be ht^ld liable. An the 
remit uf > mrvful compariaun of thtttfi laseK I i^uturo 
lo lliiuk that Murphy v. Hmith wrw rightly, and U- I', 
It. IL V. Fort wrongly, dudded. 

3H- Where a railwav r^ocivtn into lis service a nitDor 
without the convent of hii futW, or, if the father be 
d«ad, of hut mother, and tJie minor be injurvd nilhoul 
fault uyiou hU pull the railway in liable thfrefor t^ tho 
fAtlwr, or, if th^ father be Jvnd, to the ni'jther :^ but if 
ihft minor lia^, with hi* pnreiilV conspnt, hwn tftVi>n inw 
ili(* rnilimy *en'iw to work in a railway yurd, the fact 
ihatheiMufLvrwarda, vcllhhi»o«iioo[itciit, put on dm; aa 
a braVfrman on ihe line, ia not on the part of thu nulwj;j 

ryBk. C^ 1. 1«« 11 led SM, tj Alb A &t- B- U. Cte, M\ 



342 



6ERrA?m* r?EDKSTlKl?ro OF lUECB. 



mich QCfsligi-ucc m nmderv it Ualilft fov it^arlea kappM- 
iDg to hxut? In G, R d I. R. B. V* Sbownv,' «Lcn r 
imnar M'naul, vrbo bad ItL-u eDgA|t^ vritlioiil tkc con- 
»(rit of lib (uher, wnt kilkd bj ll>o Dcgli^caof bk 
fpllow-wrrvAnbiT ^b(T ttfonvcry vii« litniU^d to Uiv rtvtiOD* 
able \-«l1u« to tlw poruul of liift hou'v verrloea during ih% 
period of bla co^tgttDoat iriih die railway.' 



Tuid iUiiKa i»cu>i:sT to the rebticb. 

if liffmrf HfTTOhf' fVa T10I imptirdtf talK^^Mi tAflHofui Ac ritJt ^iv- 
juryfrfHA t/i« roilwa^'t n^H-frA/onnam ^ iRi dvtjf. rtbW in fig^ 

rub (tf th* «fv«rt, irwfuiiiT*? Eft* lir^Uffma oftkdrj^ 

315, Itailway eervante, as haa been etatcd, do Dut 
tik« tbc n«k uf injury from iha tail^Ruy^f Euluiv 10 p«3^ 
forni itu duty ui cutiiiiruclai}; and uialalaLning id repair 
it* line, roiling i^rock, mnchiiKTy^and applinrtcca, Dor in 
t^xcmning Juv van: in itn KoU^i^tioa 4ir rvUaiCton of !(• 
tiilier Bi^rvauU; nor do tliey tuke iho risk of injury 
fiom tb^ ncigligftnt pttH.iripntion of tho railwftyV viDft-^ 
pruK^piiU in tliclr irurk ; but ibty do tak« (b« rid; of 
Injury from llioso dai^gv^ wlilcli are LecCMBiUy iDC)' 
dent to the vervico upon vliicb ihfy bATc raterwl, and 
wLicb do not rtttnlt from xiogligi^uoe uu tL« jiaxt af tbo; 
TuiliTay/ Tbu rule is nowbnro more dc&rly staled Lhaa 

< T- 4 P, ^r- f' <*«lTot., BO TVl SPT, 16 Aa. A Rent' a B- <^ a«L 
> Tl hA. IM. 3 Am. & Kac tl. R Cw V, 
» «««.)« C A <^ K, R. II, I, UimwT. » iBd. SH 
•ItuiGliiiiiuci*.Y.5.Ae. J{rM'>£L'3-l3;IiJIf7rBMndil*4 ILaV. 

pfCpOBItlOb. 11 tl^JftLDOil T17 C'butbvll, m., lit A1iF>IaIEi t. Ka/lai^ '' IL A ^. 
14^«idhcrnk4MlbjiVHU<^fn.<'- J, In U^nrU >. 4nll;«T O, 1 ti ]< U 



crjTDSxuxi^ra or msxs. 



$-13 



in C 4 X- E. R f. W<:bV V SulclifT. 0. J-, wbo wyi ; 
" B penon vr lio vwka imd vnj^u iu an j cuiploj^miut 
lliereby umimes the ordinarj^'rii^k, liftzani, an<1 rUn^er 
InddcnL to the ploov And xhr. dntia tvhich, for iJie eon* 
bJJeralioQ tt2r««d upon, lid haa uDiIi^rlaken lodJacliarf^r. 
Tiiia JH «^ual1y tm* of omplo) 1^ npnn nulrosd tnuuu 
wrI) w elMwhvTt!, i&tid io «ll otli(?r kinOo of buamuaB hcMj 
[lOALtiana, WIi«Ujor die otuploj^ Mok ompJojinODl in ft 
jaaohiiiA fhop, or oa boAnl * ftcamboat, npon il roilroud 
ttaiu, i>r Ui pslol raiU over dangarcma rftpids. to labour 
in SI pcl«dc^mil^ or to mrvt? upon a wimic slitp, or upon 
u voyage of UiHdjVL'ry lu Uie Anlie n^oim ; m each 
ami d) of Uie several eTuplo;m«Dte And poeitio&Aclioaeiit 
tbc employ^, by oaUn&j^ the vcrrico voliintAi-Hy, tnk» 
ii|>OEi fciiiudtilf tb^ hftiarJ hdi] daiij^^rs prupi^ly luddcat 
to ibo Mirico in whicii hr cogngcv ; nnd th« nnp)ojr«r 
K in no neuBtf, from tlu^ i^lblwn ihcy tutttuiu to uueh 
otbvr, a KurtMtitor of tbo so&tj of the em^^oyf.'' &), 
inSw4iRnny r. H, A J. E. Co.,* Dnnfonb,J.,fliid: "tho 
gcnt-Tul role in, that the servaut ai-oeptu (bu vurviiv, huV 
j«ct lo ih^ rJfltcB irridrnrjil to h; nnd vh«ro tho ma- 
chtii«Ty luid iiupWmoutd uf tbt) employ^'n btsdnm sro 
at ibftt lime of a ccrutin kind or coiidiUuu, and tliO 
ftorvAot knowa it, ho can moke no claim upon llic mta* 
ter u> fordbih oth«ror dJITerviil ^fegiiarda." 

3tG. There Ja no implied obli^Lion iii>on tlic part of 
tho master lo indemnify tho eerroJil agAJnftt th(> ordU 
nary rtika of tlio mtvk^t md tho sfrTanl, when injured, 
cut only recorcT upon proof that tbv naast<?r kncrw of a 
danger whicb wjm unknom) to tho varvant, and ivhich 



DtrafaiiiiJn«ll,ttK. Y,»4.!t Am-AKnif, R. K. Mm. 4vaj [--iHiirji; 
n VWvML 



844 



Bonca TASc:c by tn^ut uaxm. 



tlic miuLcr did not mnko known to hioa.^ Upon iKb 
prL[iC'if 1c, trHic bunda tJLke di« rink of u^ttvy firooi iho 
n<igligfAt mavpTn<*nl of odiOT IraiiM ;* IVi» tbo «xp]o- 
itioa uf iiilri>-^ljc!<^n£ic v^liitc bnng mponyl in cur loaded 
ujK}^ G&m' from iho danger of atAui in bandtin^ 
hcQVj Crei]^ht/ frgm tho drmlfiimt of t)j«ir train hy 
Ice ccUibluu wliU u^s^namttg catlle oo an tmfrnc^d 
Ittto;* from being »rn)ck b; «tigiDC« or <wv Btoiing 
in a rsUvrn}' yard, vritbont notion uid unAllMdod;* 
fn^CQ Hocumulutloiia of ico and aaow on or dmt tbo 
Iraok ;' from the joltlnj^ of cnr» on a siding, by tt^r* 
eon of woni raila I>e1iig iiFifil id iia cunstruclioei;' Froia 
tflippin^ oil mhcB dnippM from ih« firf^booE of fto en- 
gine- whild ooupltQj; vun ; * frccn thv joldn^ of fnigbt 
can in makiug a filing enitcb, itlale ibd tigund rer- 



>Jbn.1iJ]*1l Aail1L,t^r, ^ f:«:8]vnt.Jf««t.M5.T. «LS 

111 

'fffnwV^C Mtll,ATCM. I^fl .lb A Eur B. & Cta lAl i fli» 

Inr L SL P. A I>, 1L K, Sr Mln. til. 

Jl4]llK^p. IE. 4t((. J. R R.TlMi. 1]XSAb,4 Bt^ a ECtellfiC 
11 Am, A rjig. IC, a. l^iL ri?] I KfwO •. A, A m. It., 71 MaM^V An.* 

Kti^- IL ic Ow. ;;, In 1(40 f.aM, a ml l'-k^, no ui^ «u, i ai^ a 

£u£ R. 11 r^ to, iW niflvB* ru b«lJ IkMr, nivlir 4 iWaK <^ '"liiirali, 
to a tni^kmnjj wbn w>» tj^aml whllv wnrlin^ In t r*il*if *v<l l*f tk« 
hlloro vf ihe hwiW op » BDifnjr Ifalp to fb« hin futSa ti tim wp* 
ijnMwh. 
*Pr^ucKiu)rH0.AO.T B^„U Wv1l40^ 13 Ab. A Rbg. R. a<^tlO| 

■ >H \ K E. t. At-Ufi, Utcb. S*T. 

> li'jft-.f. W, A 4H. P. E. a, 87 UIh. UT. 



amn takev by traut &a?(d& 



SI0 



.!• itij^V^jg^M-tlW topof tbt f^nc' from bring 
kneJttedwaelrwBiy aWdge whi'ailicirJuiy r<^ 
^oim ilicni to ridn on the top of n freight ou ;* uiid 
from Mng bnocWtl off their mm by ibe prryc^-ting 
awning of an elevator;' or by ibc projecting roof of a 
MiLtioii/ Tnm hnndi a\iia tiikcllxemU of injury fVoin 
InequalitteB £u ib« tmclc and the defaoCaof applUii^iu, 
who«o contUtkin in hnnnn to tlwiii» Mii^ of which tbty 
litve not conapUinud;^ and of 1b«ir ft-c^t boing cnuj^bt 
in n IVog tX 9 vwixch ; * and of travoUing to tIi^ r«jialr 
nhop vich u jmti^iitly il«fretivp cnr;' of fulling lliroiigh 
a ruilttuy briJ}^ iu pruoenH of being re|>uirt<i while 
Wflltmg oTirr il in iht^ iliuchnr^r of thpir tluty,' Train 
handi ulatt lAk« (be rinkn uf dvfccEn in tho cant, whrte 
tla^ uzitft^uco of iLow Jofi^cU la not the r«C9ult of ni^^-ll- 
gctvx on tb<r part of the rniWny, iul, for ittftance. tho 
uu»p4?vtv<l brmkisg of n braku«Btutr;* or ifae breaking 



OwnrK, T-C-B-B,h1L*-*1"6i D^Ih -- ?,R, Kh^O Mo,i«^; K Ao! 
It » ^ It^telnf.at Md. 47 ; lUiv t. Ik. L.. I. M. A H IL^. 71 M». HA. A 
Am. i£ Enc K- iLCiv. f^IU; W«IU •, It, CML A N, IL U« M !«*• tUO, a 
AiK A Enr R> K- <'kL 31^; I^W >. 0^ L. A W. R^, 40 R J.].SSi 
<'Jh*ia»,M, IL*, I0iiW40u.]CeS;atrk«HJLAT>, ILIL ?R Vl IHU, J| 
AnLA&iK a ILCWrSj HdMtM, a AO.AC.lt. a- BmiDfi.i1>! lul 
CM) An. A Die. a a fw 900, 
■CUrtt^HL r AM^ClCa, ^^iiui. lVK,!f Am Ik Kntr-R a Ow l^tO, 
■GiV-ua-.E Ry^M S. T.*rt: *-J ^T W. Bj. ». ElUnU, ^8 lU <>», 4 
Am A l^nit. K- IL (^ OAU li i»iit4 Brtin O^i iS* rhllir*^ nitrlil in W t»ld 
lUliTt «ltpn ill* (VDrinrliDTk Tallblua n^ili vKkli Ave* ilw lajuiy, la uiubr 

TAaaa* M4Rlt.ir;r«rLb>.@t«20; I><F(mt *. J(*«», aJi k. Y. 
3ei X Aa. a tt^ fc R C^ 41kA. 

'ninni^Qf.CATf^W. ft*^ tf Wr*&^0\MiT(t 4rt^f AiiLArj>(aa 

T»i, «H 1 1 An A r.v a VL 4^ 713L. 
•Kaa«at.C»ai. A t' l^f. ul>%m 104* |1 Ak A Biv&.ac^& 
*B^AiiCH.Aa Mtf,tfVriK^OL 



m 



ElSEfi TAXEJ BT TEJUIT HJUTDS. 



of tt IfliUer oa a cur IVom t£ie utiortocm of & bait fnfltm 
1&£ ihoaJat;* or iii<^ brMikirig uf ili«^'«1>olt of n Lruka 
dmin from a Uunt tlcfcct' Train tui4i« al«> ukr ibo 
ordmiuy rldlo iu coopUfif; cnro,' crm tboii|^ the cur 
load proJ«ct boyood the frnde of lh<f plfttfonns of tliO^ 
mr/ Tmin hmidii aIm take thif ritk of coupling 
livtiouunrliicL liuvtfbwu uuurlceJ airnudi mid ^ut aaido^* 
for Uko purxHU^iT of niaring tJi^m to the Twpur iliop/ nnd 
of tbunlmgor KwiTdiin^ ft dc&ftjve car in a nulway 
ytrd, crcji lIiougL no vxiinxA uodcc wa^ (^ivcti of Ui4 
defective i^nndition of the partioulnr ear/ but it kw 
bet^ bfrld iLul tliey do uut take tli6 nek of isegligfoce 



■B»]bav.CAK.W.Ry.MWi«SSr.ajUD.*Knc&R.CW4lO:a 
ft A, R IL h llim SV IU. 141 j T W. A W. ftj, -^ Jivi«i»iu, n U. M«L 

*Ur«T. C, SAD. U<,«2MiDh.&A S Aula tiof. U. £. Chi. IW: T; 

440; M aB-1i.«,Hiiii[1i«rii,4&MH'h.:jll, i Adl A tot- ^ K.r^ lUi; 
\>».T. A. A.4 H.'rKj-.MMl'-h, |?fi, tHAm A Vi^ K ll,l« U; 

C^AX W B^H A1 lui»»7t< le ^01 A Kuf. IE. R CWil. 33A: n*i}i.v*j <. 
M, C K, It.M MlPfi. STi^ II Am. A tliifl. U. IL (;«. :M»j CA K L Kf- «^ 
Cltrlt. LEW m. m, litm. AEdk B.R<^eai;a.C.i^AX, K.)Lfk 
Cwi<*sa^lMtr>Ur, r>Aiia, Airng, R. l:.(^3lUi| ndJiuM -^ }tLC RO-, 
fiA ViiJi, «, 1? Am A Knjc K, R. Ott ftM ; Pa** •.CAS- W, Hj , M 
VkV\ in\ r? Aiit, A ICiiv. K. R ite GiTV: t^f«t« <, a A N. W, Uf, 41 
Vk'U, 1'^^'. i: Ahi-A^l^K- 1(, U.i>*.£.Sfi^ UmbKk 1^ L. &A ki.a.Bxo^ 
bd^ IL^l.e AulA IJiu. K ROM«S;lMiiilL f. FulUr. 4D W^,lGf>lAn, 
A K-nf H U. <^ na- N. C A flt T. Kf. • Whwl-r. 10 I.M fTMiu) 741, 4 
Am.* Knit, ^lLt**«aai li-A T, t Rj". », M;«rit M Ta. IlL\ i Am. A 
&iil R It Ci» 114^ iJwwrHnin CAlJ, T. Rf.j49 Mlj-h. IM,N Am A »£. 
Rlt-<^ I'^^i 1^ R, A i*^ S- Kr- (^ TowDwid, (I A'LU4;^3l Am^AKitf, 
B, B CU M^i A.T-A6,F. R R.r WniniPr,lt!l K*r4 mj,7\ An. A Hii» 
RRttea»7. 

•X C.Rj'.T.HniMciaWMUrKofeinfCMf.tPfnniiaAJ.lJAnASti^ 
RRrvkSlljA^T.Ae.P.Rj.r nl>■tl>f(^3.'.l£■l1■, 110,1 Ani.ALCnf »- ». 
tV* l^i TtnTi-. T,C« A JVBy.H 43 MlrK- tea, J .Im A Ei«. RROn 
iSli; Jltmiii'iD T, IK M. V. R,r, 30 [uhu 31 ; ^ Brutf u i. A.T,A Ik T. Of^ 

K K^T"- 1, tJ^ Am. A Kne R K- '^^ ^^M- 

•WjbKihr, H.H^ T,C. H, R.»«HTu.4^1IAin. AEiirRRCWSia. 

< YMl'int n ,« L U ll,1IinlVl«H.4lV in Am. A iTn^ n R ftett 
Tnbtf <.^, IVh U- a M. »7„ Si Miita, Hl^ Am. A £<«. R ». C». SE«. 



niiu t JL££K BT raxxm, eiq* 



347 



of CAr impoetorv in n ynril in railing to nmrk damngv^ 
«UB, M u to glvi* iKitioe or the comditimi of dudi cair^ 
to those who mnj' l>a cAll«i cm to oouft'e Ui«ra.^ 

317. Flruncn.urMbokcr*, Eixhe tLcruhofJujurj fruoi 
"bucking" anow on th« lin«v tliAt if, from driving tli« 
ongino nt cpunl into li anoA bink for the purpcuc of 
cUufiug lUo lioo of BiiOM'.* ^luiigu ]iaivh uke tla* rhik 
of injnry from throwing mftil lingx into moving tminfl.' 
Cm npairer*. «hll« WDckiug beueiith curv in it ndlw^j 
ifftTii 1a1c« tbe mk of Irgurv fM^ni the car bcan^ struck 
bj another eta, wiica the}* hdbituaUj do luch irork 
vllhoiii askiEig tliftt the car be pruiefited hy a fla^;* but 
in ono ciuc the nllway wut> hctd UnbU' to n Acrvimt in* 
Jured while similarly cogugHl. ih« mlliraj baving con- 
■CevW by Jtn ftaawer that uiiJer iu r^guUtioiifl thvcsiT 
vliould Lave bci-n protected by fhi^^ und b other tami* 
hr castt of t^jarj the mUwaf iroa held liable by roaaon 
of Iha ^Inrp of iho fart^m-'in nf |h<t mjiirOil iwrvmit to 
tttite prvcntitiuiifl for his uftty by gimrdiug thc^ car/ 

31S. LikbouL-tiis on ih*^ Lino take tho rkk of iiijury 
from a ddbctirtt cnndilinn of thn roiidbrd ythcn cnp^c^ 
Vj repair it ; tlius, in R, N, Y. & P. B- B- r. BrJck/ a 
labourer ongngcii in tbo recouBUuctioo of a dilapidated 
line, mild irtiile baing corriod ov^r the line in a oenstruc- 
tiori tRiifi, WU8 kiiW by the derailiuent of ■ iralu at a 
\tvv\ cro«inir, tuuiuid by l.h« frcczinfl; of mml which 
had been negljgeutljr pvrnulttrd (o fill up siud reokiua iu 

■ llHDar f- >L^ni, I. Ut^ M MlDn. Sll. 31 Am. A Ktkf. n, R CkA U\ 

*a»ort«*.r. ?.Bj, Ooh. ,ia.lii»A Em. R acWlVj Paoh 

Cb^rliUtfKiKlEM 111. OAl.a Ain.AlV« K K- <^ n^, 

* L«iti^ L C, 3L A 6L P. IV, W WW. IY7. l*An A Cmt B. a Ch. IBS, 
•I.KAlt.KIU. PHUTitl^.nlOhlAft.SII. A An, « !<:« a «, Oa 

«« ; Mhwi t, W, ^ L. Jk P. ft?. M M4 4«1. 31 Abl A ^. a a<^«l»L 

* M It Y. u^ II ab. 4 Eof a a U>. og«L 



MS 



BJXEB TASdt BT LiBOUKERfl. 



crottiDg. JiidgDHEni on u vcrdic4 for ibe plfliotifT vav 
rcTcncd in error. Miller, J., vn.vinjC inUr alUt, "li mnj 
be aaaametU w« think, thu l1l« iIn^reHeed in |ierfunutDg 
iho MFvicP in nl^ich licviui eiigagcii amJ in trawllin^ 
on ike n^ntitructiun tmin, uiicJotatood ibat he was not 
working upon a tojuI which »» flni«?»wl an<l in good 
rvpiir, bat upon onr^ whif!.h, having IxHrn Jong negli^clftd 
aoil but little travelled auil Inittrrl^ only by cctinruclion 
iminji, irubjpctccl him In grciilcr riiiikA nod prrila than 
iruuld be lucnrred under onlmary cin-uinBUni™, In 
onicring lh< dcr«Ddarit'a mttIco boflSaumeJ ibc hazarda 
inddtml to ilia winfr/' On the cither hund, ia MnddMi 
V. M. & St. L. Hy.,' ihe ruilwuy woa beld liubJi^ tn a 
train hand on a gmvcl Irnin eiigngcd in nsurlRcliig Ihc 
roadbod, lh« train bcin;; i^emiled by the bud condiliun of 
the rofulbml. Qjinilaxit C J., «»yiii^; "there Unodtfl^r^ 
enon (u to the duty of the master and the usumption of 
ri*lf h^ the flervftiit bf^tween an etniiloyni-jat to mnk^ 
n^pjiin nnd any oihr-r employnicnL In all casis the 
Servant ia held to take ua LimseU llie risks ne<.'*fiBiirily 
inrtdpiit \ft ihft iimploynkont, uo!i]«fi, [lorhape^, ihav bo 
hitifDt and kuuwn tc the nitUEtcr, hut not knovrn tn nor 
by the u«c of proper diligenoe. diH;uver]LUv by lh« «er- 
Tiint ; and in no e<i«e doct he cnkn on himiiolf th« Hnks 
thit arise by reason of neglwt on th« part of lb* iraBter, 
unloffi thiiy b& knnwn to him, or by the uae of j>ropeP 
dlllgeneo nre diH(?oveniblo to htm, • • • The fact that 
the work in nhioh the plaiDli^T vrns f^mployed i?as that 
of repmrin^, or innking prepnmiions to repair, tlic truck 
did not (Lminisli jI^ duty to furLbh safe and Kuitiibto 
nc^nA and Inslmmenli; lo do his wnrk. Afi it rrf^uirrd 
him, i I thut work, to uf^ ibe old track it should ?ihvo 
had it reaeoJiabiy safe for the purpow,'* On this *ub- 

■ U Wu, ira:i, IS Am. A £i« & B. Oa. ». 



BBlCe OF SPECIAL BOtVICK. 



34« 



jert, lite Ooclnce of iLe BrSuk caw wouM w*m tj bo 
smiiKl. I^bouron on tli^ lm« tbui tuk« die rivk of in- 
jurir from lJi« dtmilmcEit uf UmLt Uftiik lu pu^Fimg 
tbrou^b a*nowbutik;^ of a butk of tturih rjiving in on 
tbem whiU dlggmg;' of tho DOglij^t niiiveiut-nt of 
imim upon rhe lloe ;* of being struck by n pojfliii^; (roia 
in n tunnel, while rnKii^(i<l in rqknlriiix tbf tuiu)«l/ uuil 
of bolTjg injurud bjdafocidin t«oJis.^ Wdl-digger^inko 
th« rwk of iiyury from Uw caving in of a well in pro* 
<XM of cxoiLVuLion.^ All oalJcr in a railmiy'ii Bts1>l« 
Uikm the ri»1f of h^ing kiok«<l hj a vicionfl horM vhot4 
cUarutftvr u knonn to him.* 

310, TWo fli^ jiuthoriliM for the propwition thai 
•orvADtt dn not impli^Hlj unilrrtjtlco to bonr ^lui rink of 
injury in any special avrviw, ^hii^b flowi not full withiu 
lljelr <luti«a as <l«Sued hy ihi-ir contritct ^rf ^crvicf", but 
vrhich ihoy ir* ordfTAd to prrinrm by n FUiifriiir oflici-r, 
aa, for uutianctf, trbere one who lia<l bwn triK^Lg^ ^ 
brnkcmnu oa a paawnger traiti, waa injured vhilo 
oi^pling frright com in u raitivjiy vbril unij^r tbo 
ordrra ortbesnp^nWndent of u ilivmimj uf llie h'u«,' 
or whore u lohonrvr in n ruilwny yurd whoy linvinjc no 
experience in coupling oar», vtoft orderetl by bi^ forcnma 
to porform thut Nrrrio;, and while w doing wu iojund 

bTH- X AM.L.»r.f,Hanf,.l(iMiaa UMl.im A Ei«, R b. f^ Iffit 

Mmmnm ■, O « T. It IL, 1(0 iU. UO, M Am. A Eii» E, iLChik M[ UarTT 
t-L V.i:o4lCA,Ulin«CI; Rftimiv-m *^ f-^ 1L I- A f*. itj,a\ lanS^ 
14 4m A Kn» H. It C4a M. 

K,R<, lUur, tlTn. 1P1. :;i Ani. Al.-t]|bB.ILi^U«j P,aA&l.K 
R. *. Lndi. 4t r>bi4 ^ :t^ II Am. A ltf\^ 1. IL Ck Ut, om*. 

* L R A r. A. Rr r^ IiqlV* « Alt, «n 4 An, A 1^ R R (^ •*!. 

• <1, R A fi A. R R *. tiBpt. » T«i, ]*, 1 1 An. 4 Km^ R R 4^ m. 
'aA[;.l^1tr.iL Drtw^H^VllVtiLtLEt. 1LO. 

> ;**■ f. 1. a, A >L ^ a*. O kikt, a?l, « Ail A HV n. R 4'*. SSI. 



r£i.tovr.«KitTAaA nouoK^rcL 



bv the tu^Ugence of aq engmenl river;' nor JoseTTanlfl 

tako tbo riikfl of dckIik'^'i^ *>^ 1^*^ V^^ *^^ Hootbcr rviU 
waj, nj-ou fthosfl line w prembeA l1ii?7 are eompelM 
to go ia Um pviformaacft of tbeir dufv ro ttj« nJlwa^ 
whom tli«7 scnre, DOr tli« rUks of nt-gligcncc <m Uto 
part of nnorh^ railway whirh px^rois^ tiihvr st8ttrt«irjr 
(IT oontrs^iiul nizifiing powers ovtr the line <if the com- 
pauj' iJjcj svrv«, 

•120. lUilwny 8(^TTantfl nlwi implifx^ly Rmumo lUo 
Tiak i>f injury from n^gUgtiicB on itc |mrt of thdr fcl- 
low-«i?rvaTiU. Ttii^ rule was oot <>QuucUt«d in PriMlle/ 
t. KowIpt/ but it i» the necM«nry mmlt of tl»o drdiicn 
ill lliAl case which r&sti ihe liability of th& master upon 
hiR pcnH>nal DcgligcQce, for n miMtor cfto&ot b« «Jcl to 
U< jienODullj negligent if un iiijurr ia cnuRod lo a etr- 
Tsnt by tliis n^glig'ince of a f4ilIow-fti>rvftni, in wLo»» 
ori^nl eeleclSon and etibvequcnt n;IC!ttlii^D :n bw poftt 
the master ha««aemfred <t(i« CRre^ Tho riil« waa flrat 
difltmelly Anunmt^ in Houth ('jtrolinn in 1841, in 
Murniy v. S. C R. R..' wbtre a Cn.mJiii Ijuving been 
Injured by the negligonoe of an pngin<^dnv<?T, i}\^ rail- 
wny wna held not ta be UMr. for the rpjiadn tliut the 
engine-driver no more reprteented llie railway llian 
did ibe rireman, and oacli was liable 1^ iUa ndWay 
f»jT bimaelf nnd not for his fellow, und ihe tailwjij waa 
not Uuble to oiiher for ibe failure of tbe other. Tbe 
next case ia Fnrwel! v. B, & W. R. R,,' in whidi judj£- 
mpMt waa df^livtTwl iu 1S4'2 by Shaw, C* J, An efigSiii^ 
drivLT baving been ii^iiro<! by i\\c ncgligenw of n 
ewitch-twidtfr, the nulwny was hdd not to bo liable^ 
and tbc great Cliief Jii8ticA of MnssaRohnwiin rpflti^d th^ 

' |jilnr>i.C,ll. JIQ- It, R^M ni.lUtj aHitlKC's A G. E. B- B. Il H«nt«;, 
tllnd. iSi V.V. tt n.fj. KiH. IT W-M. Uj^; C A ^- W, Kj*, t. Itar^ttd, J7 

Mi^h ttn«! ufiitfiLU.p. Br-^t; F«d. ftifLei^ 

*3 U, 4 W, 1. ■ I MnMultui Vi« 

• 4 »fU 10, 1 WMJ. Xm. IE/. Ck 3U. 



PlLLOW-dKa vast's XE0L1OE5CB, 



8$i 



ex«iD]Tt;oa of llie railway from lifibllitj- to thft i>lH[Mtiff 

Upc-u Ul« ground that [b« liability of u ni^lcr for the 

negligence of hi* tervunt, acting la tbo coonw of h!« 

employ uiL'ntt and witliin iho Boc>p<; of bis autliorlty, end 

GftUPing injury lo n vcrangi^r, u dependent U|X)n tlis 

vunt uf priTlCj bDtv(N>a Uie maater and tb« «trangi-r, 

l»ul tliftt lb** linlnlily of tt cniutcr to u «eTVftrjt, for 

iojmicn cyiUMcd by Ebe iief;li£«noe of a ftUow-Bervaiit, 

muati if it exist, b« maJotgiiDad tipon tho grooiid of on 

impliod coxitntct upon tli« part of thq mnAtio' to itid«?m- 

nify tsvery ncrrnnt u^^iirt eucb iqjuriiMv ^^ tbat tbd 

wAnt of adjudgod ca«« illiHtrating tbo npplioitionv of 

niKth cm implied coutrtu<t, eh a denial of itn ^ixulonc'?. 

Thif CbiL'f Justice also HtaLi^d, wiilt foroe. ceH4iiri jj;c'ner&l 

connidnmtionA of public policy, wbich Wfm vrry idnuliir 

to tliodu put rort!i by AliJiiger, CL B,, in Primtlcy v. 

Fowler,' but tfbivb 1 ii«^ilb(rr <juolo nor rely upun> be- 

CauM it wrams to mo thnl judiciiil vnuncitLtionn of It^^nl 

prindpltt fthould have ■ more Kluble fciundatiou tJiim 

coQ»id<>ratiofLS of public policy, wbicb ax? not always 

<vipuEilc of exact dcBnttion, and wbich, under changed 

(iirc-umBtaikUM and oouditionit, may be of qucBtioiinble 

ajipLicHbitity, Th<i rule y/M fln^t Appliorl in England 

in nutobinwn v. Y., N, & B. Ky,,' decided in IS50. 

In ibat case an admini^ratrix baviug broup^^bt tiait 

uod«r Lord Ounpb«U'« Act, avcnvd in hfT declaration, 

iJiat her decedent, a scrvnr^t upuu a tnun of tJie de» 

f<irnlflnt, Wrt* killnil in n colliaion by the oopligence of 

the ilcfcnilAnt, cit^ Tb« defendant plenilcd flpfeinny 

tliat iLecolllbJuu wa^ tiololy oiuA-d by l1i<- ut-^'ligt^n^^tt 

of tb^ dpf(<ndnnt'a MmnEfi, trbo w«Tf> Jit and co)ripi>l«r>t 

penioua to have the government and guidance of the 

colliding; traint, etc^ On demuritrr to ibltf jiUa. judg- 

nwdit waa oaterod {iyt the defendant, AldoncB, R, •a/* 



8^2 



riXLOW'ftJJCVAVr'ti ^KUlJUt^ClK. 



ing, " thi? prinr.iple ufKin irliioli n mnjitrr in, in ^4^#th], 
Ikblc to uutwt^r iur ucddaiU rtvuliiiig Ironi the citgli* 
goni^ or luukilfulotts of lii£ eervaul, lia itiAi ihe «ct of 
hu fi^TATtt Itj in tnithr hU own ncL If tbr mn^ur ui 
hUiuwlf driving Iiib c«rriiig«, iiui] from tfiuit iff «jtrU 
CMMi i^ttfy to i» pftMCrby, Ijo i», of cout>c, rc^poiuiible 
for that want Af ^kill. If, iDfllcfld of drlrtng tbo car* 
nage vith hiis own lisiiJa, he eiu|)]oja Lift serraDi to 
drivt! it, tbc acrviint w but nn iiintniinciit itrt in tnolion 
by lh« ma«t«r. li wa^ th« maMifri-'A will Uinr tlie aer- 
Tftnl flhoulJ drire, and wb&t«Ter tLe w-r^&ni don la 
order to ^vc dTVct to liis mutt.^r'ji viU^ tnay be irmtcd 
bj otbers a^ tbe act of tba iiuibUt, ^i/itdt jkt ttUwn^ 
Jii^it p*r $t. So fnr tlintv la ro dJfHniUy, I'lqiinlljr 
cIutiriH itTtHuttliougbtt HtnLiLger tnay tteut tht^ncttifUifl 
Hrtvanl a8 the act of bis master, ^ot, ibe servant Liiii- 
ilfj by wiio'i^ ncgllgnniw or wont of nkill Uio nwidcTit 
occurred, cuDHOi* nud, tbtrdoci-. ]iv lanuot dcfcad 
]]jruw.lf upuufll th^ claim of a iLivd perauu ; hot. If bj 
bin un»l:iH'ijlnOA< bo ij( him»lf injur^, utn hncliiim 
djimiigcw fruu Lie muM^^r uj>ou An nlleguLiun that bia 
oivn negligence wjti, in poiui of bw, ibe negligence of 
bitt mnflter. Tbe groumbi for tbwe distm^ioiHt prt'M> 
obv;'>U]? n» to need do UliislrfllioDe- The difficulty is 
on Ui ibu prmciplu tippliaiblc to tltc co^c of vcvcnil vcr* 
vunCtf 4>mploj^l by tbp lume master, and injury rebuk- 
ing lo onn of tbcm from the negligenf g nf another, Jn 
Buch u cuBtv liovrevcr, ^vu art of upkiiou Ihut tli€ mnsler 
U not, tn general, reeponaibH when he baa st'lvcit^d 
pOTSona of competent care and cJcilI. Pnt tiie c-nEe of a 
mui^t^r eznpJuyiug A. and B^, two of bie eerrants, to 
drive bis cnttJe to ntnrket. It ie ndmitled that, if by^ 
the unskilfulnev of A., a atninger is injured, the mflsler 
IB r^ponelblft Not ao» if A., by bia uurtkilfulnct^tf, 
liurlB himself; lie cnnnot treat that a* the wunt of td:IJl 



FBLLOV-fvirAirT'tt jtmuoratCE. 



3S3 



MtltU muter. Supputi; lli^ thut by tlio uu^kiiriibcM 
of A-> It., th« other eerrant, w injured while ihev ara 
joinilj cn^gcd Ed tbu nmc itvrvicQi itivrc vrc ihiiil: B. 
hafl no clatui u^iuBt lIi^ jaaaier. TU«y utf both vu- 
g«g«i(l in m common iwrvici?, th« dufira of irhidi irnp(»o 
a ciTtain nsk oil eiich of thr-m ; luiJ, In cwk aC ntrgU- 
^iico OD tho \wn uf ibe olljer, the |iuH;r jTjm^d kuuMs 
thftt the TicgliKi?Qoc IN thnt fii hw fpllnvr-iuiTvant, and 
not of hJB iii4«t«r. Ha knevr. whcrn h« engaged in tbo 
nrvicc, that h« Ta« ^xJIOA^d to ihc ri»k of iJiJary, not 
onty fVoni hin own vtwt of skUl or cnrCt but iil:io from 
Uie wunl of it OQ the jiart of h^ fellow-ficrrvant ; aviJ te 
miiAt be mippnon) Ij) huvr i4>iilmt:lrd on thr Iprmti, thiit 
aa ht^viy^^ea luinauir and hia maatftT, bo irc^uM run lliifl 
rUk." In BarloDflhiil Coal Co. v. Reid,^ whcn> it was 
held that n cainc-owDcr viw not lUblv to u miner in hit 
eorvica fer li^urice re»uLtiug from tlie u«);ligence of 
■nothfir ePrrnni, whow* dnty it w.tb Io opftrntfl rli9 
DnRiiu^ by whojie power the mincrv wtrc broiijUt «p 
frv'ui th^ pll. Lord Cmuwor[li «ald: "wlicn tlic work* 
mnn lyinintcU to do work of nny pprticiihir »ort, hn 
karivrtv or ilu;^ht to kuow* tu whut ribka litr Is njxuui^ 
bimAoif; bo known, if unch bo ihc nuinr« of ih(» vuk, 
that w;int of v&n on th« jiart of a ft^lluW'-M^ri'ant mjiy 
be iujariouB or fatal to him, and tbut a^nlnsi euob wattt 
of care bia ompluvfir luniioi by ptusibility prutrci bini. 
If aucb wunt of CAn tubould ouour, and ^I'il i» the n«nlt, 
bo cannot wiy tbal be doc« not know wb(^h«r tbirnut^t^r 
or tho acrvant wm to hUavt. Ho knows tbat tbc biama 
waa wholly that of tbo ecrrnnt Htr cannot wy the 
xnaafttr nc«d not haro engaged ixi thv work ui nil, for Ijo 
wuzia parly to lit Mug unilenak^n. Pii(icii'ii\ tbf^rv- 
forOi MVoM to ma op|Hw«l to tho doctrintt that Uio 
napnaaibilitjof iho uaaU't for tiio ill cooaoijuoui^ of hb 



854 



Ff:LL0W-fi£RVA5T'« XKOUiiKXCB* 



lervuit'* cafdemiicM, iii applicAblo to thr rlrmnnd macle 
by a foUow-voirkuiaQ in re&jwA of evU rivulUJug from llie 
Cttrct«MiM*« of a fcll^hW-trorkmnii when C4)ga£0il in a. ccta- 
moo work." In Wibon v, Iterry,^ where n mine-owner 
washcIO not lolwUAblefor tViedealL of aBervuitcsUwiil 
bjr the negligence of a fcllow-iiervuit in crocdn^ a near* 
Ibid wblcli obstjuut^tl tlie oircuhiilou or air in ilie niM, 
Lord Ch&n««llorOurnA, aftor quoting frcim Loril Cfnn- 
koi-iL'm judgm^iit in BiutonitbiU CmiI Co, i>. Rdd, teid: 
,' I would nnty add irt iIijh slfltcm*TiC of the law, tlmt I 
not think (ht; liuhiliiy itr non<>l lability of the nuinlrr 
to hla workmen otiri df^[>i'nd U|h>I3 U|i<* i^uttiljoii wbvilil^r 
the anthor of tho nri'iilt-nt la not fir ifr, in anj" l^i^hniral 
iwn«^, the fijlloH-\v(>rknmn or uollaUirtttimr of tlit mil- 
fbrcr. En the majority of Cftan m which accidccla havu 
occurr(Ml» the n^nligence has, no doiibt, be«» ihc nf-gli^ 
igmceof a r«illow-wut-kmaD ; hue th^oa^of tlie f^llow- 
vorkman ap[>rorii to mc to hv. an cuinipk of lliv ruk, 
and not tlie rule ilficlf ; Uie rule, ab I Ihink, miiK bland 
u|>oji higher )uid brnaJ^r grounda. Am i» aaid liy a 
di>tinjruic*hed jurist : Eiemph aon rcttringunt Te^rUtrn^ 
ffd ia^intvr de caml/us fr<AnV>n^w,' The iwaiU^r i» 
not, and nmnnt lie, liable to h'w wrvant iinlos ihtrv ha 
ne^lif^eiicv on llie |nirl uJ" tlie iiiatrlor, in thul in whicli 
be, tho ninatnp, hw PontmHr.H or nn<!rrt;iktn with his 
acmvut to do- Thv nkjuler hju not utJiitmc-tcd or luidvr* 
tak^u to €Kecul(^> id jioraon, titc work coQDectod with 
bin boain<«i. The rrault of an obligution on tho mitator 
pjnionally to ^xwut^ the work ouorn^'(t*d wllh ]ji« 
bumaees i^ plai?r of b^injj; boncfiHiil, might he disn^- 
Iroiw, to hU [wrvanU. for tlip auistfr tmf;Ut bo iiioumpe* 
tout penonally to i>erfornQ hi« work- At all events, ft 
Mrvant nmy choottt; for bimvclf between sH^rvin^ a 
nuuttr whu dco«, and a iaaflt'<r wlio dove not, arieod in 



FBL1pOW-«UTJJIT*B in»LrOBVCB, 



ssa 



[to hia bOHiMM. Rut vhnt the maittnr ia, in mj' 
i, bouwl Ui hh servant to do, ui lU« «i^iit of hbt 
not pcnouully BuprriulvudtDj^ aad dirtciiog iLo work, 
U to sdcci propOT And oompccent pDnonri to do »o, niii) 
to fariu>)i diom nitli :idivjuaf<!i Tnat-^HuIit ftorl r<«oun^r4 
for Ihe nork, Wticn he lLa«doDoiLU bo lui«, in rjt 
t-Dpiniufi, iloiic uil thnt he ]« bound to d& And if tbo 
pe»oaft M^eoted ar« guiltj of aegUgiwo^ titia lh uoC tlio 
ligvDoAof tb« mul«r,'* In lUidnll i\ B. A O. IL 
i/ the rule Li dulinctlj rooo^iii<Hl bj tlio Siiprome 
irt of the United Sui^h. Ther« aro, bow^ror* A0iii4 
in whiob the doctrine w denied ;" uid in L. ^ N, 
Ry. v^ O^IKiUp* thv r^kiL^uj^ wtm held liuble for iujuricv 
caUTCil to n Inbminrr l>y fhn n«^ligenco of sd mxi"^ 
driver m |>uttiug tbv eugme in motion, wluti? tbn 
vlabour^r waa, aa ihc ea^iJie-Jrlvor kuavi, ^ugc^od lu 
fmftking fooao v^airg under tho tjigin?, the ground of 
lioD bftiag th«t tlie doctrine nf u^r^ncy ntndonsd the 
>r|M>ratioit liable for the ii«gligeiice of Itt eervajita 
ujMtig injunr to oth(^ ecrvnnin an well a« 1o stmn^rm. 
Thd unMUiidiwfH of UiiA ivi^oniit;; lim br<en FuflidezitLj 
l^lkown hj tbo quotfltiona which have hiwii (ijarl« from 
lu jud^^ccrji in tboflc oma which maintain thcop- 
nag Ti«v apoQ thia qaaatJotu 

321. The geoernl ralf-, tbertrfore, is that miranla lake 

(the rink of the uogbicenev of ihvir fdlow-femJitB uid 

the msL^ier, if he baa iiot been ti^^li^nt fa tlj« adectiou 

reci-nlion nf the negligent fnlloir-flfTvanc, i» not Sfo- 

pliodly habte to iudcmmry them lor any injiirr nsmlt* 

ing from the n^^gligv^iee of that fellow-aervoai,* 



n>f «■ *. K, r V. A <;, K a^ a oou. (T«k> tn. 



3» 



OMIMOX XMPUVYMOn, 



fr^, and 4/ nrrjimf «■ titt tr^, off mAs «n tm ^ k f ti fa <A« 

322. At oQc time in Kn^ljuid AOIOO of tbe Judge» 
nuuiifAtiHl fta iuoliuntiua tf> rcHlriqt witliin narrow 
Jiiniu ibu di>ctriau uf the mjuter*e iramumEj from n>- 
■poiwibiliij to u itcrvuQt for U^unos caiMed hy tlio neg- 
li^ciie t>f u fuli^jw-Afri'iuit ; thus. La liolmcv p. CUrkc,^ 
PolJock, C R, eai'l : " ii woutJ he ^uEie oorifimt«[it vitli 
iLUtlioritiia Lf wc were to }i9ld that n fnotm^in might 
»vt!r u^^uluHl Ilia luu^U-r for iujurr uriaitig from ihc 
tu^lecc of thn cnnchmnn or grvvim, the Mrvkon belug 
*lii!crctit," tttjcl in Bnrtonsbilt Coal Co. v. Mptiiiiiv,' 
Cliebuafonl, C., iulluiiiWHl lLhI ji carptoutur in tbc mil- 
Wfty wrvico, fingageil in rflp^iring a railway Ciirriu^ 
lit not Em ivinAidfnicI a fcUowHterviuit of ihcr nngin^ 

idUrihlJl <^>Hit Gd. > K<i<]. It M-oj, H. L 300; Viat *, 1* V. Rr, 3 H- A K. 

*. Jdhmp, :i 14 4r<U; -twlii *. LindAj. iJ C.tL^.ti, 43^, lUH K-Cl-t 
Lbhc"" ft. L B, a »9 C. Bj. I« C. It X. «s r>a«. lU E. (■ U; Fu^tll ■. 

&CTC&,lMcMu]1>n«M; Ktwll n H. R Q, R, IT K V. 131; Lortl] «. 
Howca 1 r. r.D. tr:hCUkpl«»,nvW.» U. lV3iKrwi rCV. KK^ 
81 \*tnnm. $*. UO^ l^VuJar r, I-. B, m M TcL IM; OUbu ?. R^ ft- lU 
]l> <\IIPA l£S»i HbD f. Julinion> ai I, J. Ki t2i-^ iSorva r-V vf N, Rf ., 
L.& IQ.1L HS, irm-lLMinnn r, F< It. IE. It, 10 r\iih. tW^ c>4 r X IL H^ 
»B(-Y. 41K![ Bflldi-. N,y C\R. R, 181*1, 4a>jWri*hit SVC K,«-» 
td. i^ i HuiLUF f> AlbriKhlua^ W T*m%, ft 470 ; AmcW is I1fthi>H HI V.Vk 
I^U; r^MirfJl t llrnwn, JUt 1^uiuSl4U; AlW <, Nov On- (>>^ 1 K(^ 
li.^t; II>nd I V. ACQ. n, 34 Vt 47S; iUaAnW f. R 4 O, U. R, 100 
U.&4T^ liAiD A Gn«. )i 1L<^ U4/: iWmjfhT^ *. W ti 1Vt.,;il )U 14:11 
K, P, ft^ n Bulnwn, H Km«,!^; flribbiil. t. C A S, W. K/^a^ WI-f.MOi 
M.C. B, E^rtiblKA,33Mti<k lin; K.>h[n«ii> v. JI. A r T, 11^^ 4A T>i- AW; 
T. W.A W, It;^ » Iforkrln, IG 111, lIUAi tv >r. T- C- S, A 1>- Bf., U UE<Il 
^Si\. !! An A Kiw R. R i^^ l^: Whuivlvn «. M, S. A L E. lb R. * OLJo 
aL»4|>: Elm.lt.C.AtV W, Rj. 3>^ l<»4;Lni. c^UrRft R C R &, a 



ODno^ lairtoYMVcT- 



357 



drker ftnd th« evkcb-tcCHter,' flQ^ he eaid:* "when- 
aemula ire vngo^iMl in (ii(r«rvEit Ucimrtmonbi of fluty, 
su ii^ur/ committed bj ou« flcvrant upon the ol1>cr by 
Carcl<mn«BH ur n«-;]igfticu In tli« coureo of hii \^e<rn\hr 
work ia not nUhin lUo ciccplion, nii<l tlic mH«tcr> liii- 
bility BttiurhcH in ihal ouc iti tine Mime mAniiCfr on if 
tbu servant atooi] hi do relAlJtic to liim" &Eid In iLo 
8umc OGiHe,' Lord BrougliAm »aid that frllow-^erv.inu 
mn "men ia t^ic Ameoomnion cEnpbfmeiit and cugttgcd 
in tli« iamo coumon work und^r diHt ootumon em^^Io^- 
noetiL** Lflt«r Cjw« in Knj^OHnd )irvc, hovr«T«r givpn 
ft moeU tridrr ran^ to tLe vcope of u common employ- 
nivnL 111 Hutcliinwa v. Y.. N. A B. Ity..' n guarJ, Or 
train hand, tju hi^ld lo be a fclIow'Aorpnni with uot 
onlj tho «tigiau-driV4!T, guiirilv, luid hutida oti ha tntin, 
but aldo wilb the aerv&QU p^rfoiuiing th« like dutit^ 
on ft train ivhich came lato cfjlliwou with hw Uftlu. 
Aldcnon, B-, in dcU^'uririg jud};ni<-^t for thr dcfftndnnt, 
■aid on lhx» poiut : " the principle la, that Ji ^ervjtnt, 
'whcD ho onj-ngcM to nerve a mauler, undcrukts, an he- 
tvten him uud hU nui^^rr, ti> mu ull the ordioAry ritkt 
flf tha services a"d ihln iiicludce tho ri^ of oegligeuM 
4III the purt of a fellow -icr^-iuit, whuricvcr ho ie Acting 
^in diMit&rge of UIb duty aa eerraut of him who in Hm 
oonunoa muter of both* Tbo death of Hutchuiwa 
A^tpeiirn on ibo plcttdiaxn Ut hnre hup^icned while h« 
wufl actin|- iu UhO diHcliiir^ of bid duLicv to the defend- 
tat 0* luft mwUr, imd to have boftn tb« r«eiilt of wr«- 
lonatsi on the pttrl of one or marc nthur M*rVftntor 
errYaut« of llio 6ame rojwii^r wLUe onguged In their 
Mrrico; and wbeUier thu drnCh mnll^d ^om the luLi- 
mmiA^tnuut of lb« oue tt&in, oir uf the ottier, nr of 
fbotil* dooi not ailcct tlic principle ; in uuy ensi*, it htom 

■ fct >lfl>vjf1iinn w- <l R^. Itt Coon nf ^tm. Ol f7l^ 



3^ 



COWIIOX KUI-IXlVmaiT. 



fom ttideswuen or west of «kiU, Uw risk of wliicli 
tbe docAsMd bod, m bftwaeu bbiiMir tad the defciMkiit, 
■grml to nm." Su in Wolto- r. a E. Rj^^ vberviu it 
wod 1)dd Uiat a guvr<] on a Lrain. or tmiii liaiiJ, nu a 
(■4crvaikt with Ui^ "gaugcr of plaW Iny<r»." or 
of track rtpttiw, bj mho^ nrgligoicv Ui» in- 
jury waa occamonetl, IMIook, C B., ^U: "I (Link 
tbai ibo fuprrinti^ijiling tlin tmriut oti their joiir»cT,iui<l 
ihc Ukin|- tare that ihu nuLi cm which Uie uurriu;;<s 
run are Ilruily and securely fjt«Ctu«d aiiJ kioU«J cuu- 
«tUa(Q one cinamoD ehjoet, vu.: UuU tb« pMBttigCEi 
nhaU be coovevod in carriaf^ wbiuh am «ifc, ond on 
T^la which 8ro free from liaDger^ Where, indeed, tvo 
inin* bdoD^Eng to the mam uotuptiny um tnarcllinf ou 
diflerent liiitn ofraLl which^ ai accnUui poibl, uilu'dwl 
«ach othftr or join a pnnHjml lin^ ^nd, id coti^u«nco 
of thiT ncgli^imoo of tltv (IHviT of oriA of ihn trniiiji, a 
colliMbn i'Utfui^ hy which ihu drivur tif ihtf otbcr tmia 
la Li^iired> 1 own thatv fuxriiii to iii« lew of wLal niHy 
br- railed iin tmirloymi-'nl ui one common ohjfrt. No 
doubl the cuminoQ object of the two aervunttf jft lli* 
driving ihcir rcspwtiTc trninn to tht^ir place of dc«tiua- 
tion; but rju;U of thi-zn hns in pfiTticukr ti diifvront 
oli]«<it| one of thciri haa ont^ trvin under \i\a eonlrol, Um 
olhor anotlicT Imin. Hut in xli'w *:a^c xh^ coinniou object 
of both wrvfLDta was tbe aaf« coovt vuhin? of tho pa^ 
Hongere in that pftiticuUr min, it beiug the duty of (he 
ona to ffupcriiitctid tht carring;c« of tho otht^r, aud lo 
tal^e can that tlia milo v«Te in »uch a condition ihat 
iJjcjjuriK'y migbl 1>« Mifcly fwrformod, Vi^-vi-iii^- ihia 
cnwe with refi'Ftncc to the obwrvulion of I»rii <'nin- 
worth in BurlonwhiU Coal Cx v. Rvid, thitt wlitti a 
wurkiuuu conlmctt lo dci vork of nny particular eort. 



aiLlciOL 



COJfXON EMPLOTUEVIU 



ha Wnavn or ought to know to irliAt mkn he in frxjxMiitg 
hiui^-lf, tlivre cut b& iii> duuht tliui Ow guurd of a niiU 
v*j tnlfL tufiat .anticipate, nmon^ oCfi^r prohnblv Aourctfl 
of daogu (in tlie journej, tbo neglect of n serymtt to 
oil the irhoeU uf the carriagv, the ii«gl«ct of uuflhcr 
to a^iwi tli< [>w'n(ji> tiic ac^loct of Another u> toko cato 
tbiil tbe nultt nre wifely and twourvly fB^kfiotl aiid 
hAwir In Farw^Il r. B. A W. R. R.,* Sliaw, C, J., 
■niJ: "it villi HimnKly prMMvl in tlie Dr^uiuvnt, that 
alrboufih tliL-i MxigiLi be to where two or mote ter* 
Tanl* BXt emplojcd io tbo raine dojwnDient of iluty, 
whcrv mich c»n exert ek^hk- iuHucace over the condoct 
vf the otber, ahO thua to fromd exU<Mt provide* for 
Mil own flpciinly, yrt rhnt it conlcl nnt nj^ply «hdr« 
two or mure lue employed iu tUflerunt diipurtnieulN 
of daty at a dbtancv tVoni each oth^r, uud whtrt' one 
Ciiii in no ilegrrc control or influpfni^p thu <Yjndii(Tl of 
luiotliiir. Kut wo liilitk this u roonUi'J upon n atip* 
p4WL-U diiftiuoiiou, on wliJcU it i^uulil be ozlrciuvly 
difncult to <«Ubli«th a pmntical nile. Whi^n fJi« 
otyect to be acoompliilied b one und the aume, when 
the oinploycn aro lh« snme, and Lhe a«?Gral penous 
omployod derive tbcir nulbority ond their coanpcrwitioa 
from the uinM nourcOt it would ho irxtrumuly difTicolt lo 
L.d'wlinj^itah wbal ixinxlitnlea one department Hitd wlial a 
I'dbilioct defwrtmcat of duty. Il wnutd vujy with ibu 
iMroanietanc«« of i^rery oa»e. If it weio mad^tO depend 
tipoa the neimcm or iluitAnt^ of tbo i^rionii from each 
fOtJier, the queetJon would inimedjutt^ly urue, \\^^w tieitr 
pOrbowdiHiAntmosl tlisy b^iobein T.ii«8nin« or diflerent 
rdeptrtmentr ■ ■ * Hciidw, it nppuvni lo iv, that tbo 
argiioiofit rebia upi^u uti unuui^d prlui^Splo of rc4|iutii«]- 
bJlity which doni not nxUL Tb« mafUQT, in tbe Cmo 
iupjHMud, i« not exempt from liubility, IxiCttuiie tlie ner* 



SCO 



CUfWO.I rHl*M>Tll»T. 



It hiw WtU'r m<vuiA of prnvitiing fnr hin pnf^y wb^ 
he if employed in iminodijiii- (.v>unct-tii:m irilti ikuw from 
wl>oM nf^ltgf^Dce he might tulTur; but becauM ibe m- 
pHfid MjUrael of tho tniMpv iln« n<}r. nctcnd to indfrfu- 
uifv tlic HfrraEst ogauM tbc iicj^ligrnce cf khj one bat 
biou^clf ; and be la not liable iti fvrf, as foi lb«r ue|;U- 
^noe of hU «cn-ttnt« b<^»uK ibc pc^M>n nuir^Ting docs 
not AUn<l toir^i him in tbv rclufioa of a HvmLiit, but 
lA 0[i4 ivhoeo rlgl^U are rvgulHUnl by oonlrsci expren or 
implied. The ex<^nption ot'ibr iij-iuilcr, tbcrofori^ from 
liability tor tbu ue^li^U[ici^ of a tlkiw-wrvjirit doc* not 
licpcnH exdiuivelj upoa l.bv o^iiiiHiiieraiiuu ibat tbe 
rvttut buv bvttcr mcnni to providt; for bU owa nxfct^. 
upon Other f^andn. ll«>uce lb« eepantiou of tb« 
rmpliiym«)rtt inio diRt^ront. d^pftrimfinU o&iinol crc^iie 
tbat iJubility wbt-ti it ii(}c-H uol urim^ fmm vxprr^i or 
implied ountract, or frum a rwsporiBibility trt^uUd bj 
Inwloiblnl pi>rMini?i and Klmngriiv for ibc zirgligonoo 
of a *crviuit." In Murpm <\ V, (if N. Ry-i^ ibe plain- 
tiff^ « 0Ar[Jtuter la lii^ ritilwuy sitvjol*, wbile «i>rkiii|; 
on a g<'nffbbliny io tho milway yard, waw tbrown dovro 
and injured by tbe nfgiigeocB of Kume por(er» in the 
nulway service iu careleealy sbiAin^; an engiiie on ft 
turri-lnbb. Tbejudgent tl^ctriii! bavin^ normnlt^d tho 
pUinti^', (bo Q- n. dificlinrpHl a ruin to Hnt«r tlic vi^r* 
dirt fur tbe pbuatlff. Blackbiini, J., after rQfvnhi^ to 
tliR gciicral rule of a inaslcf'a cxcmptloiL &om liubiliiy 
ibr itijurioa done to a dervuQt by tbe uej*llf-enco of a 
fet low-servant. laaiH : " I qaite agrw that ii ia rpci^wary 
that rbc employee [It mtivt be cainmoti in tbln fl^nKC* 
that fbe uafvty of tlie one tervarri fmimi tu ibe ordinary 
nnr! nniiiral miima of tbingtf drpcnd nn tbe farnaiid 
Kki!l of Hw otbvm- Thin iueludis klmiut <^vury, if not 



' A B. & K 1?Q, tl? R C L, L, £L J Q. B, 1 19. 



COJIUOK KMPLOTKBJSTp 



»1 



evorjr cnm in wliich the Merviuitu are emjitoy^d (o <1o 
Joint work, but 1 do not think it in limitod to micIj 
cattrn. There Are mmiy tcutm irlivrc the unmeilittte 
cbj^t OQ vliich the oqq sorvnnl U cniploTcd is very 
disniiDilnr (rotn tlint on which tlic otht*r u empWod, 
and vet ibe rule of injury from th« rk(^lig«nco of Ch« 
one U »i> niuch n Duliirul iind aooamuty coiik(|Ucocc of 
the 4-iiiptoyin>^nt which th« other aoce|)i& that It mu«t 
be includ«d in tli9 mkn vhich nre to be cotutdtrcd Ln 
hut wui;ee. I thiuk ibitt, wla^riirv^r tho eupToymeut la 
euch u necowirilj to bring iho person Accepting it ioio 
coniiw^t with ihc imflui of tUn lino of rnilwwy, rink of 
Ij^ury fruiu the <.iLrflutouuB uf ihci^e inuun^ug ihut 
tmfllc if) 01 to of iho rii^k? iv^cniwiriiy eml nnluraliy in* 
culent to Kuch an employ ni«ni, and witbm th« rale.** 
The Quecn'A Bench lutvliig onK^toit jwigmcnt a^amsl 
thi* plnintiif. the KKolinqnor CliAniWr iilHrmeji that 
judgniL^TLl, Erie, C J., K^ijirif-: "the pkiniilf and th8 
ponera trirr^ engnged in otu: eoix^irion <-niploym«tiC, and 
frwe dolnx w*)rk for the anniHuii] obj^rt of their maft- 
terst vix., filling tha Ime for the tr^fTio;*' and Polh>ck, 
CL U., addinjt;: "it appcnrs to mc tbut we vhould be 
leuing in & flood of lirigaiion wore we to ttecjde the 
pr»cnl cam la fnvo\ir of Ch« pliiintitTl Ftir, if n (Nir> 
^fwiiLer*0 «m|iloyuient ia to bo JiHlingniahed from that 
of the porttn fimplnym] by ihn nnmc compnnTt it will 
be fMHi^ht lo uplil up the employ^ in every larpv ™iab- 
liiJiiiMnt into diRvrent depitxtmonifl of ftervin>, nlthon^h 
the common object <if tb«ir em ploy men f. however ilif^ 
f^rent, le^hat th« furlbcrancc of tlie bu8i»c«4 of the 
niuid^r; yet it mi^hl Ur »nid witii tnuh that no two 
liad acommoo iuiiivihate object. This fdjowe ihskX we 
luoft not OTer-rvfine, hut 1cK>k ui the common objnrt and 
HOC at Ifae common irnuivdiuie olyect." Id Slater <^ 




OOMilOU llMJ-LOVMrffT. 



irun the htAs were ideniical with those m 
L P. Ry. V. Kos^' wh tbe exocjttioa thai 
■SOD injured was a flfemAQ^ sdU the peraous wiiuM 
DCe caused ihti uijiuy were a telegraph oper^lor 
i conJattor of tlie Iraio whicli came ialo coUision 
ftt on which the injured fireman was serTing, 
ment W!is eiiLered for the dcFendaDt, ajid ihc 
ids of the jad^j^eut, oa slated hy Polger, C. J^ 
it " each of lhe?e tiie lele^japh operator 

1 the conductor], " in l lelr oriUuikry work fi^ 

k dofencliLut, were fello Dta of the intestate in 

eame common emplo The conductor wag 

mgBged in the particulur vi in which the iiiLefttAte 
VHft, that of moving tniine. le tefpgraphor was ea- j 
gageil in a work closely ot rted therewith, that of f 
receiving arid giving luformi m of the whereaboota 
of tniina, and comniuuicating ordora to tlioae controlling 
them for stopping or going on. ThU was a branch of . 
the geueral buaiuess of ihi? defendant essential !o the 
sraootli and successful movement of the whole, that 
bruLich of it in which the intestate was engaged as much 
aa any other. * * * It cannot be contended that there 
was anything required of the conductor that raised him 
out of his relation to the intestate of a fellow-aervaot 
The rtct required of the conductor Hi the particular time 
was to receive an order from an authorized source of 
command, and in a prescribed mode to acknowledge the 
receipt of it, and then to follow the direction. Thia 
was service merely. It is contended that the duty of 
the telejjraplier at the time and the act requited of him 
were those that the defendant was bound to perform as 
maatcrf and that the negligent performance by the 
operator was tlie negligence of the master. The argn- 

1 Sa N, Y. Gl, & Am, & Eog. R R Cu. BZS. ■ llS V. B. ST7. 



Tcn or cvuMotr euployueztt. 



363 



mrnt to sustain ihta pn^llion conri^te, iu pari, {a om 
i^flbrt lo tlkow tlint tliu dut}» of tlic (»|>crator ^tfU IB 
uo twpciot like lo those of Ui4 iuunUiLe. TLej were 
not Iilt4, but th«y tnndcd lo t}i0 Nirutt 4tiid, tlin£ of 1I10 

and E^RLght over tha milwajr, Tbero am toanv kindt 
of acrnutU of tt grv4t rjiUwuy cumpacy. Their cluiin 
ttr« not in all oant ibo mufl> nor &Iwaj« alik«r vol lli«y 
ftj« ftl) dono to lirinji; one remit, lutd il in tlxdr con}oUit> 
fiimulUDeous. iuid harcaoDioiu pvrfuruuiiice tbat do«8 
dR-'cl tbc JinoJiLy, mm^ht tbrou;(b Ibo vrJiolv coniplcs 
or^iitmii. If it be 0i> tlibt litis op«r«t4>r BomeiliDM re- 
ccivcil nnfl Ktil mcAUfccs that liud naught to do TJicro> 
witli. (tiill, on tlzifl oo<^usiaQ» tli4 act rev^uired uf him liad 
direct connection wit^ thts ncui of thow FDgngcd id 
uoving the twu iraiut^ T1]« |H>«iiii>ii, tbut the Ojwrfttor 
VTM hJro<l (tnd dif^rlmrgt^ by onf Rnj>cnor ngria And 
thn tntffstato by nnntbor, and ibiLt, tbcrvfanr, tlicy were 
uot fuUuW'tterrttUlii, iiiootHtjuud. Thvgi^iKTal ahtibi>ritj 
Ui bin) an<l to turn nivny wju; in tlir d^^fmdant. It did 
r^Jiute iri^ru tiim through dlflVreMt ohi^& ofdf jiurltueot 
in Ilia gcoonLl woik. ilw, liowcvcr, ww ihc ulliniciio 
potMT. Til© h«adi of buruuus vere not inJoj>t'inient 
oonLntctora doing a bmnrJi of bla i^orh on Lheir own 
nupDMbiUty, nnd iVw fmiii liJe inl^rlVrt'iice nilli iboir 
an^rdinat^a. lie haci ili« right to et«p into llidr 
■phoraa of duty, nnd nut fur biuuwlf."^ 

33s. It, thfowforoi may bo laid down nn t1i« ri-Arilt of 
tlio uitlioritiv, tlant tlic rammcm c)bji>ut of railway but* 
Vice bt^in^tliiit of fitting ibo Ihjo fur Iniflie, njiiIdrcAt-rr- 
iog on rhn tmfllc, nil M-mntH ^vho nrc working for the 

•«M>lMRaldA>.riLX« 139 »!«>.««: Fvw«D t, B.4 VT. tL n,4 
lUt*. 40; aoUr lb Jv*«H.4» X. T- «L, ^ Ah. A Kog. R. K f:Vt M«; 
W*aVhibBKf,3tL«<J)Wi3C.O, J.AN.B. Kr. Jloitr»k4L» MIm. 
MI;ViU«*.O.AlI. Rjn^lU HKl M.a U.K. RhKHllb. A0 Al^ M£t 
HiOovwk ft. L. A L JL U. », » Ma. All. 



too of 
n any 



I IkdimcQc of thai ammtm ofa|ecC mw §Am- 
iiB inifaio ibe nilc A rtrj niple pij<. ii u J left 
feiES»t«tt in VaUei r. O, d. M- Rt^< to IwU Aitt 

.J <n otM uiotber. Uodtr tliB rale tailwrnv 
ihe riflt of injory &«n the acgtigvoes of 

V'«erv>nli, vhilQ tbnee f0!DQW-«tr\~amf ajt toapD- 
nnlv dL^cliargiitg Uie datie« of itatiopg otiier dun iIhv 
ro^lur goes. This t rfentt a rcroT^rr br tivia 

haii'li if iajnred hj tb Igc^ocv of a fire&wo -vtaiA 

ttcUng Bfi aD engine-drive ' of a octbdutrtor wLile tct- 
ing SB an «DgTt)e-ilmer.' h held in some Ulibotl 

ou^ that the x&l of the exbteooe of tb« r^latkn of 
feiJ<jw-«erraut« ia, their habit lal wuHXriiitioti and 
cxKiperatioii in the perforroaoce of a comoioa worb 
that Ihey maj infiuence each other to tlte exercise 
care, uml that the eitslence of such a relation in 
G««e is u quesdoo ofiuct for (he jory ;* tiius, in I. <igt 
L. Ry. n. MorganPtem," wh^re the jury found thai the 
plainlifl''n decedent, an inspector of rolling stock in the 
defendy^iit's service, had been tilled by the negligence 
of iJie defeodant^fl baggage- mafifer, and also that the 
deceased and the baggage-master were not feUovr- 
hCrvanlH, judgment for the plaintiff oc the verdict waa 
flfljrmed in error, Craig, J,^ saying: " the definition of 
fellow->^ervant may be a quesliou of law, but it ie always 
a quoBtion of fact to be determined from the evidence 

» an iiL UfO- 

* O EvLikwal^t V. M., U.& O. R. R, 4S Mkh. W,7 Am, A Eng. R. R. Cmm. 
13a. 

■ llffllriinn ir. ys. C 'Rj.. W Mich. S7, IB Am. A Kng R. R. CW fi21. 

' tj, & N. W. l:y. r. Miranflii, 105 111, 57fi, 18 Am, & Eag. R. R C^ «S4; 
W. Ky.r. KllmlT,Uflllt.4W|,4 Ani,*E[>g,R.RCa5,651; Penn. Co.t. CfflUa^ 
101 IIL Ua, fi Am A Eng, R R Cm, 243; C & A, R R. f. Bonifield, 104 iEL 
S^ 8 Am, & Kng, R R Cu. 41>3; I. & St. L. R7. b Uor^uWcni, 106 DI. 
lia, 12 Am. & Eng. K, R. Cub. 2-^. 

' 100 ill, 2:a, 12 Aed, nk Eiig. K. K, Cu 238. 



THE ILUffOlS BULE. 



395 



whether a given com Tdb within that dcfi&Uiou/' But 
in Lhv hktor E^uae i>r Abond r. T. tl, i^ L Jiy./ the ralft 
M gt'nnrally hnld In MMtrtgd. In thijfow^ u turcinnji 
of wnnik«iii» wbilo being CBrnwi on a wrvt-kiug Imiu 1o 
tbo sci^nfi of n wTvck» volimULrily *wnErd [liiiifrif in tho 
tnftino cah and wa» kllM in « ciillifticm bvlwevo Lliat 
Inim and Huottier Intiii, aurl Mulkoj, J,, a&id: *^tho 
ovid«&c# rthowii ihiit n wreekin^ forca i« olwuji mnd^ 
op ick the hurry of iho innm<tMt out of th« emjiLoyi'x nnd 
MTVaats oftho c<ii»pany vvho hnpfK'-n to tn; \rhhin cmi- 
veniuut reach, wHlio III rvjciird to tlia jjartk-ular lineof 
tmtvtce m whidi th«j ura «Jtiploy«d< Tlie ivmovLiig of 
ctbatructlofjfl from thu track* in cove of n collUion ui, ua 
frhowu by the proofs In lhl« ca««, A dierinot hntMi of 
Mrrico, to which dl ihc lal>ouHng fom: of the compimy 
are liablo to bo uulk-d wiihotil ixuy roftrvuLt! to ibeir 
Oniinarj cnlKng or (ltJlin<i, nnd whtrn a fore? ihim nindo 
up gocn abfuinl the wrtidcmg ttnin nad starts to the 
t^wtm of difJUHler* they ttr« u|], iDi'ludiHg coudueturt CO- 
ginix^i fi>n^mAn nnd bnikoiimn, put as niiich in a com- 
mon branch of service wIijIl* oh lit- way un ihty are 
afl?r Ihcir airivnl and iLi- wcrk of clejjritjg ihc Irock 
W conim«Dc«d, It it an arvor to •uppoae that a forco 
of mrn cAnnot bo eTigugiiil in ii uoininon muao unloM all 
arc euDtinuDiiiily vorkinj; :it the Hiimf^ lime, nnd imgng;^ 
\d doing pr^oieelt lb« nutio kind of work. It !m ptifli- 
d«nt if nil urv nctimlly nroploye^i by tha SAOie lunMor, 
and that thu work of «ch, wliul^vcr it may be, hui for 
it* immi'diaff' ^bj-'^T, n common end or purpow, wogbt 
lu bo ucvorttplUbcJ by the unitrd ftffbrt of nlJ/' 

3*4. In the applifJiEiou of the roie of il common em* 
ploymtint to lh^ difTorrnt drpartmonh and graddflof 
railway e4>rvjc«, thu viaam are vury anmeniHS. and it 
mti4t b« added, Rur &om tioa»istefiL It baa be^u held 

> 111 Ul. Ki^ U Jkb A Kd^ B. R. CH. «- 1. 



Cid» OF COkI»0>' £MPK)Tii£KT. 



dnt tbt faib^Dg clum of to-nnl* an li]11ov*«aTmiri^ 
III* tftjcrtd lervvul Wiujs xiuiuird first, uuU llu; ocrvutit 
vhom tv%\\f^ctt liM cuuflnl Uic injiirr bring Dauiod 
luHt, Engiuu-drivvr mid Hwildi-Uudt^r or iHiiiiMn&D \* 
Mgloo-<lriv«r flod road-maslvr, actijig u swiltli-lfiiJvT 
or pojntonwn;' cn^nc-clnTOT uid tnia di^pitrlicr ;* 
QDgine-driT^r auil tfiutlon ag«nl acting ae ;arJ ma^«r ;* 
enjpDtsdrivcr and ^nrd nuutUr;* enf;inc-rlrir«r gnd 
nkaaler naediauLo in r^ji&irflliop/flnmantor i^(ak«4^, aixl 
liit DC|:iao-(lriT(!r ;' firrniac, or Rtgkcr, and cn^a<^- 
dHv^r of fluotlior ^gtiR> ;' fireman, or ttolEfr, an J coo- 
dcc-tor i>f nnoihpT tmin, nnd tdpgnph opcnitor ;' fir*- 
TUbii.or»ti^er>bmlswIU'|]-U'ii<li-'rorpi>mlBii]an;''^llniQUii, 
or utobfT, anH ninxt^r mitcbnnic in mpnir xhop;'' Iraln 
Imndd, or gtinnlfi, and onnduc^or ucting u i?iiginc* 
driver;" trujji liJLXid§j or guanl^, Aud trsun banda, or 
guards, of ihft unmc* irntn ; " trnin hanciK, or gimrds, nnrf 
roramitn uf IdloQnrd on Iin^;'*lriitn linnde, or ^ardi^ 
ftod conductor of tnin;^* trnin handfi, or guards, aiid 

• Walhcr «. B. A M. b &, MUlv r Khv, IB Uut H I An. A Kfl» S- R, 
<te, I4t- 

\7'li llla^ng., Ht 1^ K. C AX- Itf^TT Mo, 4IU, It Aoi. ^ Eu^.B. B^Ok 

aw, 

< Hmmi h M. A m. ]<■ litj.,Ji: lltim.U^ i;) Am- A Ew.ICR. Oa S^ 
'BT.V-40-R.Kfc.GDrI.ir, iaL«(TcM.>irt,17 An. A Enc. & R- 

■Vunr'^SC'^U TE. I »<Jla»«n»»]II*JtfT* L fi. A W. ft Bj, 4» 
Jfinli. 4n% « Am. A 1^ U- It Oft 110. 

- L, 4 S, R B, r. RoLic-m. I ^mh ncj,) W7. 

*Slurr*. Jp«><[.«n!f- V, ai.A Am. AEbg-B.R.a4 01A. 

■Xlr^t, a A W, R.B..«Oi*1]. II& 

■^C Al. <- It ILik ATnn]H,Xi In4, 17*. 

■ IIaJueii f. HL C, B. B^ » Mif*. AT, 17 Am. A Rig R H fW «9t. 

« Ouicluann >. Y , K, A H. II7, a Kii^h, M:e, 

»' waiis t. K K, Rjh s n a c, m. 

■■ rnd*T f. P K. K, SA tSibi)-. ». ICI , (^i^df *. U- rr. K. K, T« M« iBfl, 



QiBB or covuorr extloyvcvx 



m 



Ofi^D^river of nnotlicr Lrnin ;' tnun haDdv, or j^ujLrd*^ 
ud flmoAit, or sIok«r, of tlifi engine of tholr tr«iii;' 
tnio handi, or gii>rdN,u]drii^ixv-i]Hvi;rorthrirtrmn;' 
tniin hnrtd^ or £uurtL», uutl tniiu LauUB, or t^arde, of 
snoihrr tmm;* trnin hnnd^ <ir ^nrilK^ and InboiiroTM 
online;* Inia IimiuLi, or ^uiirtla, atiJ iiiiijwcu»rof OK 
repnini;" imin hiuids^giiftrdsft^J rir"7mftn^orBlokcr;' 
txiua liantLt, <ir guiLrdv* and trnin dinpiticbcir :' tnun 
iiaads, or ^ftrdfl, mid janl inaAlrr;* imm hsiitlf^ or 
piftrdfl, uidBwitcli'tcndcr;'*' tr«inhnttdii,or ^runnlK.Atid 
yirdoitn who laak^ up lr«tii«;^^ uuiiJucIor mid iKtggage- 
mitftcr ortmii;"«ivilch-i«idnr, or pointmian, &iid in- 
Bpoctor of Ctxr^puin;'' labotirtni mid forfmau of trnclc 
la7pra;'*bbourBr« «od «i>giiii>driver;" labounrB and 



lSa^iB*,aAO. ILR.TM C-& 47^, ir^ Am.A Ens. R R.OiL MS. 

*OfHev«Idff.kl. II.ACLK. It. 4V M'OIl I9T, « Am. « Cng. K. JL 0«. 
Itt. 

•P.aAft.Lfir.>. fiukDiT, 3T Ohio a.««C«AH,A^, R.11.Cte 
IMl P, r W-AIiUt. -.IrwKiaiil IM; irAT (lit IL *. WmUi,IU 
T^.aiH; SuuBintu.*! iL K. P^ Sj^ ^ Cob. 4ad; N-. C. 4 SL U B*^ • 
Wli*lM<,1lUHLT<ioa)T4| t Am A Rn^ It K. l^, OX^ |J^ M. RKi Vmlib 
r U. A L. l:, lU 18 PhL lUp. 304 - t, a R R, r. Khq. TI IIL M2 i Sbirmu 

' etOJ -. M- A U- Br-. ^ A3*- 50*. 

a.11 Wiib^110liLi»8L 47«: £. M. R R * ['"iiD]-flUii^ U Ohio fiLSIE^I? 
AVLAt:r« 1L ILC^MVl Vt^kln '- U- 4 a. U IC, I-U «jik UI. in Am. 

'£ln»*tU*,3t.a4ia&.R,4»Uki]|.10T,eAOB.A £:«.&. IL<^ 
IAS, 
• HoUrtPOD *. T, a ft L It Rh IV lad. :T» 8 Am. A ElV, & n. (^ l»L 
•K*i»r.8LL.l.l>LA»( K^.TlMf l«4- 
■■akn«r>.T.ft W.Kf..tsiti± Bl. 

" WhH^VLW AM. i^,M Wl«b4»^ll ArD.AEjnitR.R<:^tll 
"Cr-RlLf KhiId, Tiltlct, n An, A Kng R RCWOOl 

»La*WNf««.L,a«J^C-lt7,lltlJ^Tt ». i<v AA9. Ill KC.L. 

■^ Rsn « C; V. R fU 1V»L 4h Ml : Kumlf ». J, R K. u nhfo Hl 
kl PBovMiiek » If, A.Ai^R R,}lhi4J0iO. A >l. R^h.^ p. -nncWiH 13 
.tM|CAA.RRr-XB^f7llLlttlj 1^^ r- l~ K. A (<>, I. R H, 



368 



CMIA V^ Ci>lil|l»( EUrLOYUSKT. 



firaiiAii, or ttolccr, of aigine:' libourera and nmd 
uuHUr;* lubourer uid A«L-iioii forenuD;* Ubouix-r aij<l 
BngiiM-drirer of 8t«wD sLovol;* luurtant jard mwl«r 

id y&id mofltrr;^ yard natter and g*aond 
mnimj^ of Ui«Uiie;''yarfl band and Cbreiuui of 
]iani.ki;' nigh; watclimcm of incbt iu yard and 
liAndi;* foranaQOfa wwwkini; craw Mid ot^ioc*drii 
of i^UidinginLioft;' coiiduciiorofaooiuinietiOEi Cram atnl 
train hnmLi r>rtt piuneoger Umiu on wbicli bo was jottr* 
atyitig to jyiu Ijih train ;" cftrponlfura, M t«r r«p«irci% 
nod hnnda in yurd deployed to abiftmg troitia;" cai^ 
pciiler»,i>rcajrvjMi;rtr»,audlrwnLaiiii»j'' J»rd 

inilAl30ft,UAD,aSii«,aB.CWB»j EtAT^UKf^t^Bllv.elTM,' 
M7,tl An AEot-R, Rfl»a*S.rw«i Bchrhfcif P. fL R. -lA UA t>7j 
P. R BL k Wm1ii«, ^ Mi JiJi. 14 Am A Ecit R K- tta, Ifi i Wi«s u. F, 
K, K. SB l-VruiA. 8i. 400; Ilnirj * 8> ML A, H X. Y^ >;>, I Adk S Fmg. 
B. K. Cu. eo^ i:iwialt7>.i:i, ASLMj's.ftlaA.Vl.A An A KBS'iLft.CM. 
Ml,C^t»i»*b L' Aft-CaK. SOHimBI, t Am, A Keg; R, 8. Ofc^ 

mi Tm,«ij-,u,Br-.an- 1 c p-»u mik«» w^a 8-'0 »*«! 
»Lau.itit,4N.r-miP«t«i.>t.cB.B,i4inBa.saoi wt-iLO,G 

a&F-B>Bt«I TVi^LQiK^I Aoi. AlCof aE-t^&U; Si. U I- U- * 
li B, a. ■, Wi«k»ttord, « Art. 4lTi Row(*f-t * H, U «, A W. Bj, M 
Wli«.2^, R Am.A Enf. IL R CtefiT«i i;Dp|>««^L. & ft A t^ Kj, 
LjJ, , UV Am A hni, R It. Cb>^ ST;. 

< Whnaton m. if.. iL A L. ^ Rj^* OMo M. 3IB. 

< Hrlakv, IL,N.Y. ^P, K. R.LIH NY, 112^ llwrldfU* fX A H CO** 
HH[,iniIfli HflVi*&l, UK tt A N- J(j, U >ta. Apf>^ V;&; WlUli^Opj 
Pt. AK. Tfl., luirrjon llT, L7.*jilAEi«R. R.Ck»,U»j fWeUlv^G,; 
A tit. f. Rf, MEWIk. 3». 17 Am. A V-n^ il ttt^MV 

* Thtit.i-0>n 1^ C^ M- A M. l\ Kj^ LV Pai i^* m. 
»Moi;»k.r*. L, raB,WK Y.7T,fi Am.ACii«R.RO»MT. 

> Qinw^y T^ R A N, C, Kj, fllrWi C L. 4W, 
trnk«r.fil.P,BlAUBy.M«li.n.M,iaAitAfci.RR-Oi*M«. 

* Abibd t, T- H, A r. Bt . "I UIh MH it Am. a Bug. R R C«>. *I4 
^UuiiniK.CAT, Rlt,llObU>&L41T 
uUarfui*. V.ofH. Rr, UK. 1<j B^14etGLlvB*^aaH,lO 

-;tn,]BU«33,Vili«rO AM,Bx,>alll,»1>;C.AX.aaKUi 
Mill a,i(i, 

»i;.i.h»«*LaBRR.l0CW>->SiiW«i.RAlL&&_i4OH9 
«aiBwl»KY.aAII, H.H,H,70X.Y.UL 



tOkA train huidii'maebiiiMt ui rcpiur <bop nad boiler 
mttkera taMmeahop;* 7A)rdluLi]<LiimJ drtvorof svitcb- 
lag engine ;' earrejing «Dg;iDM!T ojid condactor of trftin 
on which hb wu curkd to Els pUce of ^nxirk;* jr^ 
hatida and their fbrcTn»m-* 

325. It hu been buld that the following clBsee ol 
««rr&nU are not feUoir-eerT&iite, the if^ur«d Mrvsnt 
b«ng niL[nod firiit ud<I tho Acrvost vboM nt^i^enctt 
cuuod Uie injuTf b«Uig noiaixl !u^ : &zipn«-dHr«r and 
oondnotork* train h&nd», incluHirg engine-^imflr &iid 
ftmuDt and tcrvunU chttTKcd vtith Uiq duty of con* 
Aructin^ Bcd tn^LOtdiumg In repair line, rolling etock, 
and Rppliiinf™i;' (mm hnndimnd in^pcfflor of car re- 
p«inif' tnun huudji, ur guurUs, uid lu)Mtirvn» uu liuc ; ' 



> BmI il K. T. C a U. R R. el, >D K T. ITl ; Villa » O. A U. Oj^ U 

> Murphy ■. H. A A, A. R, tt N. Y, 14«» i Am, A Rk^, EL 1L (^ AlO. 

< Ibw h K. Y. C, A )L 11 n. IL, 71 N, \. AIT. 

* FnbtE •. Sl F,, M, ft M. Brj^ ii Silno. U^I^Ao-AEug, R.B.C«. 
tM. 

• L tf, tL n f. ab.t«ut 3^ OMo <I« : CUnibarltii t. U. A BL IL m 11 

UKuKlW. USAuAEncK-K. CtaLmS; H, A T, C Br -. M«rr«ITK » 
Tiw-SHiaAn^AEofl RILCtoSaii Olluion t X- p. &f. tH K-d. K-p. 
»fl^in AnAEn^ELRC^lOlL r^fri l p. K R., IIOM^kS^I^ HhjtIi 
»T AP R/r. twr. S aiS; Pullar a. J*«U. SO N- T. Ifl; KAN, Y. CL 

TTIJLUHc U-ljf-C V.K-E, »VLgill Am A Eim- a B.Cfc 17*i 
BtM . C 4 K W. ftr. flO m. (Tl- 

'C^-inr fcT, C Ai^L t. JC.R.MW. T^ai.tl Am. AK°« aa<W 
M4 now i 5.fcnlti ^ C. M. A *. P, Hj.. U Wiii 375 1 M- R Kj- f- l^opdnt^ 
t«Htf M7, IT AdlA Ebjc a K<.W&43i U»jt * P- H^. DA ^n, 320; Ebc 

P. Er,All(Mifta«a^ Titniiirt.iL A M.L Kf^lLi Mdoa. 811.21 Abl A 
&tt R tL Cu Mfi. 

tAQ.4£^ft aU4lM; llM>«,&AA.aiL,TIVbTtfkUAi>.A 



S70 



roLrsTicEa bestavta. 



min hn>d«f or gUikhl*, and tlie cofidtictor of tli«ir 
tnin fattniK (ir gnftHe, md bbocrev* cm th<T Mne ; ■ 
tion Jbmnui sod eDgiDc-dnr«r of Intin/ hutfJitr in m^ 
cbine ffhop Aftd tliti vorkman nboci ltd in ftnplovnl 
bel|\' car r^mirar and hu) tbreniD,' laboun^r and 
dispatcher/ labourer imit eogtaiydrivRr,- jubouror 
fon-mHn acting 09 condnckv of a cuuBtmHiou tnun,' 
labourer und n^'ttiovi boM,*aiid lAbonrcir tuid fir«siu, 
or iilokcr." 

flSO. Th« rule of Uw, that a master b uot liable tOi 
icrrant for iitjurimciuited bj Ui« nrjcli^EVrjic^ of a f^}U 
ecrrvant ia iho mvtnc of Ubcnr ooiiiiuou omplovmi 
pTflTenls a tecaviiiy by a voluntwr iojurwl whlli> 
log llic^ mtratit in hin work, Tor tbc obvioiis r«iiAOQ tbil 
a atranger cannot, by votnmecriitg his M^rvicM naA 
thrrpby nipwin^ Lliueolf to liaoger, uc<|»irv anv grcaurr 
rishto, ngf impowT any gtY«ti>r doty oti ibe master, than 
vrotjld luv^ Wn acqniml by tW onr, or EmpoeMl upon 
the other, it tbo ttrougcr had bum him) ns a vcrraaL!!. 

Catm.^ Am A Kiv-B. G.CW»0; Uixm «lB. *A. It R^Tft V^ ftfi 

■ CvtuU r. N. « G B. R., « Huik. CT*nb-^ S4T. 
« Dkk h L C; A T.» IL It^ M OL&u Hl 300^ ^ J^ <» &« ft B. <^ lOi 

* LI. P, IL R. », Fwt. 17 WilL aas. 

■UaEaiiffnC«,aR^ O). ^ IT AbA Kn^, a, K CM. Ua, n 

ft4»l; r. P, W, «.CfCj.«;F«wv>pT4tU,Ml4l>ickL|.CAr a R,M 

OJilb Bt. a«V. Arq. ft ICi«. |L H. ItfL 

•f%f>Ll'., M, 4 R. 

■ L> A N. R K. f, llAwlar. V Htkk. l7h<u.I H^ 
"C A K, W, ttf ^ l|->n.i,J^ 08 ni, *il 
" LXa » M. Uy, 1 II- A X. TJn ; lVU*p r FiuRiuEf, J fl. A * sOft 1*1 » 

C I, ^ TC-wUrt •, T. a A I, S- It, ^< liul. 7K, < ' It, K- [^ 

ftW: Flowrt-r R It l^fiftp»ni^ft -rtOi fthunun » !■ i R a, TJ 

M'^ a% 4 All. A Enji. 11. tt Ok M«i l>h..rw f^ K. A I. S. «U «« 1|« ttj 
JvnU -, li- T. IE/, «.; IT n. M. 



[t.i<,L«adiir«,3e3Mh»^u A«.abi« a a 



rOUTSTKEH ftEKVAtrm 



8?t 



Htk tvh haft been hM u> b«r recovery \n Um case of 
roluQtecn iiijur«cl wlu1« awsting ndlvnjr aerviuiiB in 
lorniDgft Lunk*UbIc/ in actUjii^ » brftk« on u laotiugear.* 
in wittering aq «iigin«^' in adjn^iin^ tho loofl oti i fhoi^ht 
CiLT iu motion/ <ir m tnoriujf a i^ruU? of mcrduuidiae.* 
On ibe other hdud. it liaa bcua bcld r.hAt ibo ni)o doM 
not bar reoorory in ihn ouc of a puKngirr vrho, having 
ftlighl^ii from ihtf oarof asCTtieL niilroiul ftflor il had 
b««a ikriilod, And baring OMoMtod in ptittin^ it on the 
innjk, wLiH, irbil« ulimMngover tbe ftoni daflW, injured 
by the no^Il^out actof the driver la 8tArtiiig the hor»ri ;* 
nor in ihf? oiso of a jiAtfenger on n Btnwt oar, who u in* 
jiinxl while en^ag^, at the i^UMtof tha driver, m 
aaiistJDg to itbiint ibc car to n ■iding ; ' but, as in tho 
two [aet ctt^rl uaaeft, tbe phtntlfTa were itiJunKL b^ reaeon 
of ihcir Tolunijtry iinniripnfion in the work of tho ner* 
fauLaof tUo railway, U would levm that the railway 
ought not to bar« boca hHd liable for thoir ii^uric*. 
The role doew not Imr recovrrv by a iKu>H!T-by, wlio^ 
at the n^uittl of a vurvbulk |>uuiHtt to ^Ivc bie advlcv aa 
Co thti work, hut dJKv not olhrrwiMi participftlJ^ in iEa 
proMOution ;' nor bj a ^nmtoger wLu, having rtiudtrtnt 
mno anuUaoe on a train to tho railway »orvauIa, aud, 
having; rMumed hia place a* a pasMmger, is euh9«qu«ntlj 
iujiin'd hy (he ni^glig^noe of a railway «^n'»tit;* nor by 
pcnooj* who arr nnt voluntccn, but who panidpulc in 
the work of the raitwny fbr wtm pnrpo»e of oommoD 
inurn^t to tliomiclvci anil tb« nulwayr a* whorv oon> 

« b*a > M- K7. 1 1t. A K. TTH. 

> Gwhtrt t T. R A L K &.TtflDJ.2^4Am.d&>f.B.B.CWU9 

* ^Omad t. a A at J, a K« f1 Mo, 01 4 .\m. a Efl^ B. B. Q& >*•, 

■ K r. »r, «. OiHu. M Ul M, S Ab, ft £d^ n. R CkL 101 

* kCaL 8. R. -, iWtn. 4S Ohla tt.SKtlA&ft^aai^AOL 

< a««iiud * f^iTv. lA c a N.fl.«o. Ill £ c; t. 




Blades anbt io the reception of tLeir Creighl ;* oar 
AeiTKnte of auotber T^I«ay vho have come QpaQ i^q 
line, or premmea, uf Llie defendant ntllwaj in tbtf f^^ 
forinaace of their dulj to ibat otkor rttilwxj ;' nor doQ 
the rule bar recoTetr ia the case of a eerrauit ^f a nil- 
waj for injurlFa cauaed bj the negligeDCt; of the seiraim 
of jmotbcr nulway in the exercise of raQuin^ powers bj 
tho latter railway over the line of the first-mcalioD^ 
mil way ;" nor lu the case leeervaut of a connecimg 
Btoamboat UuHy who U di] ly injured ;* nor do^ die 
rule bar a recovery trom U ulvray by a sorvaat for iih 
juries caused to that gervant'e wife by the DC^Ligence (4l 
a fel low-servant.* If the relation of eerviee is lermi- 
nutedj the ei-servact ib not barred from recovering for 
injuries caused by hid late . low-BervoutB.* A serTtBl 
employed by the day, who ia injured afler he has fio- 
ifshed his day> work, or at a time wh^n lie is not in die 
Bervite, in no longi^r u fdluw -servant of another eemnt 
by wliose negligence he ia injured, and can, therefor^ 
recover from the maeter for injuries so received.' 

^Holiort T. N". E, Rj^ L R 4 Ei. 254, S Id, 123; Wright ■. L * Iff. W. 
Rj.. L. B. LO Q. a 2»^ 1Q.£.D. 2^^2; Kell; c JoKawa, 12S Man. fiSO^ 

' Vofle p. L, A Y. Ry^ 2 H. A S. 7^3 j Wirburton w. 8. W. Rj^ L K 3 Et 
30; Rwniiisoii *. S. E. Ry.. a Ei. Div. 341 ; Onhun b. S. E. Rj^ IS C.B.N- 
a. r]2U, 114 E. C. L. ; C\ R. R. v. AntaanDg. 49 Peoiu. Si. IBfi, 52 Id. 282; P^ 
W'.A B.R.R.r.T]iHSti,w,|j,iirt of liiiaer, MM±3TZ.10 Am. A Eng. fi. K. 
Ota- 792; MmUl p. (;. V. RR.,M VLBOO; Snow t. H. fi. &, 8 All*n*4l; 
uckCso AbrabiUD p. Ri^ynnldB, 611. ^N, 142. 

■Kijiiihr. K, Y. & i[. R. B,, ISK, Y. 127. 

< Catroll 1. M. V. R. R.p 13 Minn. 30. 

> CbDDDn n. H. B. R., 11^ Mmm. 'IZi. 

* I'lu^kel Cfl t. MriJue, 17 WalL 6U8. - 

' ItulrJ I. I'eiiii, 70 PiiJiDD. m. 477 ; B- & 0- R. R. * Tfae SUt^ to oh of 
Trainnr, ^Md.aCi; AUU t. W- U. B- R, $3 Md 433,21 Am, & Ei^ R It. 
Cai^ 603. 



A it eMlp4tfE«y «^i'fen» te A *n-rirntf |(»nfflr^u^te«n(iE«tt uion- 
jHriMfef MP«a^ Of viXh tm iiutifficiaU numAew d/ Mrvmb. or vitK 
vAngai^ d^eHioe moakintry or t^tpUarteM, or to earelivttif v^rue 
AfaMf^ to lianjer in th« M*dnti ^ hk WOFk t ^Ht vAfre tiu vmiU 
JUtf enyi^dM'^ fu tkt praptr ^ittf pf tht d^tttm apparutut. or irf 

ADM^u^k^ id^ prarLM that A* d^wf &d tjoT e^ tucA a «Jkviitf«r 
« (d rimidtr tvnfhnuanH i« «JU wprft ohfA/pviIji and unaovidal^ 

327. A aomrnt cuunot recover for iiijurktt to whirb 
Kin ovn negligence hu coDiributed in voluritArJIy 
coAlinning to work, eitlicr ^th Incompt^tcnC rcll<jw> 
■crrnntji;^ or* witli &u iuituffii^loiikl numWr of fvllov* 
Mrvauld;* or, with obriniuly ilftfcrtivfl TniichinerT and 
ftpplinncf* ;' or, under ninniag orruiigt^rot'JitH ctf tminji 
whcrcbv Uie risk of injury to bim in iutavujwU :* or, ia 

>FihI« <i.P.B,R,SS fS»u.eLlM:Ua a H. B. S^, « KniM ^ 
Obib Bt. 4««; Knr fk C, It L A IMIf^ U !««« SVT . tf, ITwr v, Dl A R J. 
Bf , a ttlah C I. 3D& 

>flUp f^B^CB^.e El »3; C.A £, in. RT.O«<rj. 110 111.335. IB 
AB.A P^. IL Klkhfpffll; K A Ik H. K «^ HtAbi, 4L Mit Wt« ; O 4 M- W. 

«r (tehL Al. Ui I P A B. B. B. *. BAatit^ LL 4Vl< S A& « R<ut IML Cm. 
ISA: C^Dpar r, fiallr«, 103 Fbbdl Si. 41S ; CA A. R. R r. Miutrw.U lit 
». rM9i>«.0.B.L4P, tLlt,4aia«nfT«;M>iM»Tf>»7>, t. aiLJL, ^ 
Id, AlA ) Knf K C, B, r A P. R R, »I Id. 5r,J - Wmj r. I. C. R R,. 40 Til, 

RR^Tr^??. Tl3A:ir»L>i>iHrr K.C RR, M VMi. SU.ia An. A Rufr 
R. IL rm^Uo, l.i\U. a>, Jo-«n, 4e m. \i»i l^iwntrmT ■- 1- (L K, K, tV 
Uir» II; GncdlMlf. D. A &C R R. SI lo«« A? : A. A G A. L R R r, 

T.N& 

* BlMinu ■■ g A T. r- By, W T»». Mft. JW S-Ihd*. C, H.AflP, fc 
ft, 40 Wbx SKk n An- A E^ & B, Cw, ^1. » u> lliB BM*£i7 of »ll«Hi9 



I 




Wdj exponuig lilmeelf to dui^rr id Ehf ctnodaa of 

mdtk.' ThuA, U bM been hdd to be rooLrOmlovj 

eooo ID » terrant to ride on an eogtue vImb In 

lo«B noi require him to betLere;- bni it k> of 

not contriboUirj b^ligence id b ecrrttitt to Hdf 

CDgiue vhcQ hu dntr rF<iuJr«« him 10 be there, 

the uu)e uf the chief brukr^mau of s frvi^t CJ^o.* 

not coatribalory jii^l!'""^ jq a frcrrant to ride id 

< ;e cnr, for that is eccsHHlj a pocitian of 

tt.- It bad been b contributonr nef:iigw)<i, 

OQ enpntwl river to dn it^ngme at hlg^i ^>ml 

over a J^^-fective roadbed vh t defects are known to 

him ;' or, to drive hb a | ^ a blorm, over « line 

which in liable Ut be ohnnic by land tildes or waah 

oiM^f at aucb a rule of speed b. t the engine eauiiot be 

stopped Id time to avoid ci iod vrith an obstructioD ;* 

■nd ««npnh«OMn at chAiiga \a ijiDBialklr*, 

'Kf^ii.ffr. Wini, 1 Kl rt hn. 1f*\Ki2E.C. L.: 0MpH-i-.BirtI«r,UWH4J» 
NulHor^Ai^ iF'enria.} ^n ; I'aTDe p. R^h. lOO Penni-SLSOli Pawan r. N. 
Y,, L. K, ftW. K, R, y-i NY. 274; (Mi ^. E, T. V. A Q. R. R ». fimidi, 9 
I*» {Tenn } fi?^Ji; FT- A T.O Rt p. M7Eiii,WTei, llO; BtSTma t. K- P. By, 
& I'olo 4U0» n Am. A Enc. k. K, t n. IH\ Mulduvn^yr. 1. C. B. R^ 3V Ion 
(111-,; WH,|Kty c. L. S. li l:., ,^ Ohio St 2^7 ; Fergntoo • G I- By., M lowi 
21i;S; l^-kw-^i r.r A N. W. Rt, 55 Wiat 30; Abewlt. T. H-4 I. Ej, 111 
lll,2ftS, 17 Am. A Krif. R. H.Cm fil4; Cniichfieid f. It, A D- RR. 78 N,a 
300; RAIV R R, ■>. WbiiiinKWn^ 3U Gtbii. fl05; Bdeiuddd a- K Y, A H. RvB^ 
fla S. Y. 251; <\ A A. K. li. r. Ituah, B4 111.670; P*nm, Co, P, LjDch, M IIL 
3.'S3; CiinnlnpTiiim v. (\ Met Kl. P 1U^ 17 tfd Rep. 882; Hallihu t. H. A 
Bt. J R. R^Vl Ma 113, 2 Am A Kng. R. R. Cu. 117; WiUunu t. C. K B, 
43 14>«K 3Ui;; iroT^nt. Jt. & M. R. K^ 20 lavB se2. 

'Kpi-nnK^ n A A R. lt,6«N. Y. 56; O'NeilJ f. K. 4 D. M. Bj., 4Mowi 
Mfl ; Krft«iiir>wiilii r. N. P, Rv., |« Fed, RfT- 229 ; B. 4 P. R R p. Jom, 96 
U H,i30i Hmiili 1. M,iS J, R. R., IS Fed.Rep.304; Abend t. T. H. Al. Rr, 
111 1U,2I^2, J'' Am. A En^ RR. Cu.«]4i Do^^L c I, C R R, S4 Ion 
384. 

' Sprors r. B. A A. R R„ r^ N. Y, fifi, 

* WMlitium r. N. & C, K. R., 3 Heid {Tehil) fiSS. 

* M, * r. R. R t. Thomu, 51 Uiw 037 ; I, C R. R. b. Paltenon, TO m. 
*60, 03 Id. 290. 

* SwwiEy «, M^ A tk. L Kj., 33 Uidd. 16S,22 Aid. A Ed^ R R Ck 
B02. 



1 



ooma optur fUE lu(& 



»« 



or, to diivc lut CDgioe over & <«iCcli Bt a nte in «xoeBB 
of that pennltuii b^ the regulAtfonfl or Ui« niliiaj ;* or, 
(0 driro bb«ngin« witli ui obvkiualy tlc^fcclivc boiler, 
iiDtlcr « prwurc of hUhldi iu txcis* of (be amount ]Hrr* 
milted by the regulatiou of the line i** but it Iim btea 
beld &ot 10 be noc««nrily contributory Dcgligttioc tc ui 
eagin9-driv<ir to ruu hla euxiu« wIiU ordiuun^ curt^ ou a 
line which he ktiow^ to bf Aomovhnl out of rrpnir, hiit 
■p ti>wboBO Mpeoitic defects he bun ciu inf'^ruiutiuu ;' tfur, 
iu ti iieuttMirtly <»atnbuti>rj uv^lij^erioe tu llie engmtt- 
drivf^r of ft train which i* behinil time, to drive bis 
enj^ne lit n greHter tbiin dchcduk* rat« of upend wh«a 
ftppruHcliiBK a awilcb at the cuimuco to a nilwuy 
ynnL' 

328. ft lit f!ontribuU>rj negligenoe in h eervant Co 
ann«c<M8»i'i]y go n]M>n or crow ihe lint, wilJioiit fXt^r^ 
cining; euro for hi« Mfcty ;^ but it u not neoOMnrily oon* 
tributory nvgUffcnoe in a »«rvttut lo go (Ml lli« liae id 
the oounra of doty in the nay of a moring train, if h% 
lua rciuou u> bollcvc that ibo tmin vtll bv brrjui^bt to u 
ttop bHbre reachiu^him/ or. to pick up a coupling 
pin from tba track b«for« n alnvly moving train, whta 
h3 bu ngnalM tbo unginv-drirc-r to »top/ In tioxu^ 
oaaea it la bHd, rollowiiig ibo doclrine of Darioa v. 
Mann, tltot oven if a narvniit bn CHintdbutorilj negligent 
Ed gt-iik^ upuu tbtf lluu ur betvcvu iLu dns, aud is 

^ IL A C S. IL ■. lIuuHf^ SI Ut«L Kf7 i (^ >L IL a 11 (^ >, Oftkiv Alt-*. 
IOl 
' Dilch V. It a A C B. R, • U. A(L IKs 

" ibteD K A R a K y. ft. It, ?s K. Y, us ^ iij-iif -. 31, c Br, » u. 

•Pnt^Cbt, UanfT»#filBd«Rlf Au AlCny 1L It- i^ iSS. 
•tUkmf^JL.A P. &R,44 Uo. 3«Ti Hd1Lu>I t.C, U. A 8L P. R?, U 
miBflftMSj Ibldl fH v. Y, C ftft^UET. Y. 4.f9jMir«.|-Hl«*i.C^S 

I Am. a fa« It K CW. IM. 



876 



noAitDuro Axi> ij:jiVuh> cum. 



icjttrcd bj Uitt DC^pitnofT of fi^lIov>MTTEintx, vlio knnw 
uf hk duiger^ «i<l wLu, bj tbe vxvrcatv o( ouVr could 
ATOiiJ u^unDg hina, the raOmj » liable to hlta &r 
nich ngonr.' It ucontribulorr uogligcncein mMeiruil 
to imnecMOirily gtt on or off moving ODgincooc can;* 
bat it i« not oontnbntorjr ncgUgaooo in » acrvmit to 
Jump from ft loaTin}; tmm in ordcff to avoid an ftpjMircal 
dugsr, nicL sa an imiDLiifot ooDiaion;* sod io aoj 
such ouic, it 1* r<fr tbtr jurf to dcciflc vhcUicx or not 
the aol or lie pemoa in^unxl hm, luidvr tlj« clicum- 
etnncee* pmdpnt' It is oontribofor^ n«glig«rncn in & 
servant to aland on mn ucl^bux of it csr iu tAuUT>n;* or 
to ill ufKtii a pUtform cai in inotiou witti hk ft^ 
liJiiigiTig or<ir ibi^ Kidn of llic ear ;* or u> iinnL^cminrilj 
proJ4;i;t laie body trom tlio diwr of « bn^jpigt uar in 
motiOD, so ibflt U couues iuto ixmlttcl wllIi a bridge sup- 
port' 

Sl20. It lA ooutHbuturj- neglig^Di^ in a servant to 
couple cttD» in Bu auQcccsMrily dang^rooe muuutr,* but 

Ivwii «'i?. 15 AiH. A Erut R EL CW SHi^ 

■ CoiKiInghv* f. C U A 1«MMtr, IT P*4. Bfp. RFQ ] Dontl t. V, A IL 
R.R.«1 Miosis, la AjiuA E<u B. B^lv-lX; l^mtnoa t-C a&B, 
t m\a ft. lOA. 

> 1. H^ B. 4 E Co. t BhoibB, M Qiu tm^ 

■ r. R. R P. iVrAfH, M G« iw, " Art A t^i; R. R Tvl Ttf 

• UiniMkWL «.C. IM-A I'-kr^iUi InwK :iij, 11 Aiq.A &« B. ft Ok 
IBS. 

*>ii. I. itKK. lt.K,t.Wv^p4l Axk.543L ^, PwL «» CU.^ibl'.ltj, 

T- C R R 1^ UuDiiMw. «« Tr, 417, ly jLm. 4 KftH. n. R, Cb SOL 

* C. A A. R k, H Ktuh> al 111. blQt Mii]ikii'(ii7 v. 1, C. R R« M Iiph 
AlFk^ Lwbtoeda^CvAT'.W-Kr^M Wl«tM,6 Acd-AKi^. RR r^ftUli 
T,W,J6Tr. Ej, t, BlKl^ fia IU.IIS:Fu«u i. C A A.R R, 04 nil«4i 
FPn(tt.OL«Hvnl»>y,ft1 III.JW^; Wlllkma - C R 11, «S Tn«« ROO; P. A 
B-RRii.Sohwtl^ a: P«in».SL liu^ y Ain,A Kng, K. h. ChlJAa- «. F. 
Kv fN I.jT^ !\J T«. AOa, n Am, A Mcji K R (^ 1^6; FtTgum h C L 
Rr^ M lc.<rh i!U^, f> AoL A EQ«,R.B.UH.fll4i UulaEl h E<L U K.CAK 
R a, 67 Uo. 230. 



OOUPIXXU CXSB. 



m 



H i« not noRMMrilj oontribatory npgUgciice in it trrtin 
Iwnd to gn bciwocu oftrtt fur ibv purpobcs of coupling 
thoin wiUiout first «xamiziing tbo dmiv-hnre in oninr to 
mm tluit Ihi^ Ai*o propcrlj" mljiiKUid, for «vGiy Mcrruit ii 
fiaiilled to ttiumu Ubit die iu»LnimeDt^IlIefl of worl: 
provided by iAmi mMtOt aro in good ordcr,^ Nor, if 
mm Arc moviag at a high mto of tipm^il, und the brnki> 
mac Lafl ifgnaJI^ tb« ^agine-Jriver to «lo« up, u it 
OonlributoTj ncgllgvilGio in tlic brnkcntjin, in n^lionco 
on th« onxmo-ddver'i oomplicLDw with Iija r«qii«et, to 
go betweeu the car^ for tLe pi;ri*o»« of ooupting tbeoi;^ 
nor is it noooMtrUjr cootnbutory acg^eace in a braki> 
man to Mutd facbj; tho dmvr-bnr vbtle ooupling;* nor 
is it iiMMAajily ooj^iriUicory neglig^nc^ id a train hfliicl 
to fft«p. while \m tnun i* in motion, from ttic top uf <ma 
car to auoiber;' uur lo jump froiD the lop of tk fraigbt 
car to the t«Ddor rather than to climb down tho IjiddM 
At tho iiido of Iho fAt.^ 

330. It itf tiontrjbutorj nvj^ligimcv m tt Hervimt to lio 
down lo Bleep on tho floor of ft roond-bouM no near tti6 
tmck tliAt in turning over in hin «Inep hi- piiU hij: \fg 
oo die trade where it la run over by an ini^'iiie whea 
btck«d into tt« sIaII/ or to trnvcl on tlic line in a band 
CBT vhen a train in knoim bj tho injured wrvuit to be 
dno/ or lo travel on tba line id a b&[id car iJtiprof«ct^d 

> EJb« > O, K. IL (U. A. C C- Tad.}, a Am.A En«; R K. Ui. Ilff^ Ui^d 

tSnnt *a.lt. I. Jt V. X*,M Um 1U>, :o A&.A Riif,R.lt.Cte.«N| 
fliHW » IL E, K,p a .Ulu) ui 
■ Mftlr r C A X, Vr , Kjn « 1MB «& 

*4,'r. dia.y. itiLKUor^BA^ M Kua-aoe^ 1:2 au. « n^ il a. 
aw. 

* Prtn >. R. « a^ J. ft. R, T7 Ito. fOa. l-t Am. A ei«. TL R. £^ Mr 
< Avlhif *. L a R. ft, AA OL Ui I.ClLft.-LMQdgUiwl(V4lt;Hf^ 

4\ni^l*lf * a, R t « R Rr. «> lun T«: MaRu« i. C Sl K. K, ChL 



37B 



MMVD 0!t TOP or ClAft. 



by filing in >dTwit«, tW rq;iilttM»u of tlie nulwn; 
hnrifig ttoiifiod the icrvont tbnt •pedat U^iw jany bi 
exp«ci«d ft£ BDf Um^^ or ID •CA&d do iM>ftr tu the Uue « 
<o Ha «iriioic hj a pM«iiig c«r/ or to dm • tatnporvj 
]>Ullurm of pino wuod w ft bridge in jnoring hfxrf 
im-^hi from vu« car (o iwodiet wbsn a etrous^r plBCJonn 
WAA ATditftblis' or to i^o^ncE to kr«p v^i tiic rope of ibe 
dt-mfJc witb wbicli bo i» woHdoj^* or to unAooesBijitf 
mount ou an viigliM ou a turn-UbJo,* or to knowing^ 
<li«>l>cy tfic n^uUnonji ^ thv nuIwAj-, which, if obrjf^ 
would liuTfi prevMited tlw iujur^,* or to nJtempt, in 
coupUug movLog cara, to pam round the «ciil of n frvi^bt 
car vhicb *ra« not equipped witli vod loddcm, pUtformi, 
itepD, or liAndlcBt^ or to ride on ibe top of o cilt wber« 
ihe servant's duty doi« not roquiro him to put bimMlf 
in UiiLt oipocod poMitioo,* but it b not nixiosMariJy «od- 
LTibnlorv nej-IS^Doa iu a rreif;1it brakmrna to dimb Co 
tbo top of « moTiog CAT in a miJwAj yard fur thr fmr* 
pofle of bmking it, and ttiM iLVcfii&g an itiiipeniiin^ 
eolLidon wUli another <ax.^ 

3:il. It i« not iindnr all drrumfltftDrm fx>iitri]>(Jtofj 
xWffll^enoe in u Ajrvuut to expovt bUiuNilf u> n <luigcit 
vliicli hi^ could avoid ; for iusluuuev bo ^^io^-drirer ti 
nut bound in dcvcrrt bin pont on tho on^n<^ in order to 

« n ± a u, iL *. wbitiiifhKb »<>*«*- <v*) m&. 

•K,-r, V.A(». R R-rTopplT-^ tO U> {TtfA.) flk II An A J^ K. K 

* l^nn f. n„ 1. 4 I. U, It7, » iOtk. Oft; O. U. Bl A E Odl t. Jtfa| 

«»O4T^«01d,UV; WdH7*<I''*LAM,B.Rx,»0h*>A.tvr. 

* P. A 0. n. B. P. S«nBa7«, U r^BM-IlL «K I OlbKb >, K. B^, ei M. T 

HfiL 

* VUiUj ■. 0, U. A A, R lt7, W Wbft 9n,tAB.Jl^&&0H,Ml 



BCttVAKTJ COVTRCMnOET fn»UOPNI7B. 



379 



AQ imp««<ling DollUoa;^ but a servant u ooi>- 
tribuiOTHy ii0gUg«Dt w]i«a ba ^xpoats hiimwlf to » 
danger whicU lie could avoiJ vithoat nc^tlvclinjc Um 
duty by iho i^ivrcnao of rcAaooaltld c«re for bE^? uivn 
vaft^ly. If, hownvi^r, ihn diin^or hn not nn gr<^t, nor no 
imminent^ that a mun of urtlinury prudcnL-e tvuuM r^ 
fi£M to (jikcuuuier it b the |ierforiuano« of hia duty, tho 
fiOrrant vbo Toluntnrily infiniit thnt dnn^r fit not nfrom- 
Mrily contributority ii«];1tt^Qt.' It may ftbio btt uaifl 
^Lflt when a serraiit 10 JJijurcd by roaoon of hie proenco 
In a prisitioa of dnngor, lh« burdon of proof ia on him 
CoihoT Uiathutduty lo tbtirnilway rtNjuirtw him to plat^ 
liimaelf In ihat poekion.' 

33Z The goncml doctrine oii to tbc effort of aHrrvant*M 
CoulribuLory neg]jp<[nje in barriiijj }u» rocovt^ry ia wel! 
i!hi*'tml^ by CHnningbam v. C, M- A 8r.. P. Ky>,* 
wLoro a mother harinj; brouftbl Htiit tu rvvover for tbe 
dfittb of bi^r »ii», ft yanlntan. vrho waj4 kilW in ulU'inpt* 
ing to nujp OD iba rear fooi-board of a ewlichiiig engine 
wbicb woj biickin^ towurdA BiUf Miller, J., uf^nr r^ 
furring to the obligation on the |>art of tho rnjltrtiy to 
excnaM caro in proritiing the inulrumpntalitiM of 
labour, addod, "a man has tio rij^bt Ui tbruat hitniRlf 
fnrmiM intn ■ dangerous poatioa and bay, *if J am 
killed, MOm«body will jcet cbima^^ fnr il,/ or/jf 1 am 
hurt, I tibaU g>> to ibt* buepiial ujjJ bu Lfikvu cnrn of nnd 
rftpovor damages' ilo hM got to take care of UiameK 
a8 «^ll AH tb« Tsilroad to take Gnrn of tboir dudtt and 
UuFir employ ^H Time obligattona are mutual, audit 



^OMrUlhO,U ASLP^Bf.4: WiA0Mt PBqn«.f^. lbkn#«.R9 lnJ. 

■OR. af.&Wtt OlSV(A.4CA. L1LR.K&BJ 7a04«|.tt 
> n VM. ftip. M^ 11 A* A «■«. R. K. Cbk UT. 



3S0 SEAVAM'a COrTBlfiinOBT S&OLtOBmB. 



b tlie law that if a man roltintAnlj pots hSmsplf tn « 
^AAgf^roriK position — dor* pu> iinnnncMWHl^ whno Ihftn 
trv ulli«r |Hmlii>E)< iu couoectiua vrilli tbv Juctargc of 
hia doty which sro ni^ winch be c«i 1>o placed in, — 
hft cannot Tvxfwr of ttfi rnilroftd comj^nj in datnag«9 
tbr (tint Iigiirj to wliidi 1i« liu coDtribuiod \>f his own 
nv^li^jicp. Thnt in the law. It ift jour duly to regard 
it. jinrl you )iAvt tio rigkt lo say, that, becuiee thia rail- 
rood compnuy iji a gnat Rod powx^rfiil iMtrumtotslttyt 
it mu«t pay tor tbii nuuV lif^v whether ho wtt d«)c1^* 
g^nl, w carelws, or not" Th* jury huTing dfo^d ft 
rcnlict for the pluDtiff, Miller, J-, promptly mii the 
Tcrdlot 88]d& 

^3^. Ill if not nrraMKEtrily c^otifribntory iK^gligftictt In 
ft Wfrvaiiii to expose luiuvelf tu rude of ii^ury in the pel 
formftDOOof bUdaty> whfTo iho circumstftnc^i ftr« DOi 
tud» M to nllbrd to the at- rvant am ofipoTtnnxty of catU, 
TUHUiig tbt^ uinountof ri»k Incurred; tliu^Jn Lawless v^ 
C. R. It U.,' when; n rniJw^ty wiui hdd linbtc to n VCT- 
TftDt itijurvtl in uoujiliii^ an engine to a oar by ri^asoa 
of tlie draw-bar of lh*cHgiii< being (k> low that k 
ondcr the hunter of ihe c*ir, Colt, J,,0Uid: "the &i 
UiLit a peraofi voluntarily T,fti:*B aom** rink ?■ not TOu- 
clu<iii?n evidontw, nndcT dl drciimKinnixv. ihut ho Ja not 
Ufting due care,' Tlit" plaiiitiflT wji^icngsiL^fil in perform- 
ing tliu duty rpqiiirrd of him, nnd it wb* nrciiffftry ihat 
the CAi^ ahould bu moved quickly to unke way for im 
expected Iraiiu • • • Th^ qup*tion of hia due care d< 
pnded, to some cxteni, upon tho view that the jury 
wight tabc of hi« nec'-j^iiy for iminnhRie nction, lh6 
distance the buntDrs would hnw to puM eoch other be- 
fore the cur and engine would come «o near t'other na 
to injure biai> the ?peed at which the engine wuh nt^tv- 



\ 






COXFLUStT OP DAXQ] 



3S1 



iQg, Hf kntmMg^ Lo liad that Uit fnginotr know tbo 
daoger, iht coDfidftnoe he wu entitled 1o bare that the 
•DgiiiDer would m manage the curiae aa noi to i^juro 
him, tho n.-]iiiQce ha wag rvoaonably tnititlcd U> place 
npoQ hid ability lo mak« tha couiiectioik eo as to prarent 
the buQt^ni puiuin^, and probablj' either- drcaautancci." ' 

334. The &CL Ihat a »ervaDt h ordered It hto aapa- 
lior oflkvr to do an net thni ik obnmuily dnngcronH, und 
wliich whwi doDU was tU« I'Tiuauof Lujury lu tLo Hfrvmit 
will DCt rend^ the raitwny lijibl'^ for thftt injury, wt, fur 
iiiitaooa, where tlte furcman of a c(Jiulru;liuu tiuin 
ordered a ^rvaut to jump (rom a siatiou plfttform ujxia 
amoviQ|[onr;' nor in tbAmilwaytAbf^hfild Imbl^whcra 
a Mrraul ia injured hy the negligence of fellow-«ervanta 
tvhilc hQ isdoirjg an actof AppiLrcul danger in oU^iruco 
to the ordera of hia auperior oflifer, 'ui, for ioirtjince^ 
where a labourer waa iT^ured in goiung upon a nmving 
car nndor tiic: ordi^rof liU forcicfui, the engine-driver 
laegttjcenlly incruiaiiig theepaed of Uialriiiii with a jerk 
and thus throwing the labourer nndfrr the intin ;' nor ia 
the railway liable to a vervoot who is injured in obeying 
tha ordera of an officer who baa no rightfhl authority to 
comTnand, lu^ for tnjibtnev, whore n bridga wnlchtnntt 
wu injured while wtfrkiii^ to ch-jir u tu[mel of fallen 
r»:>ck nTidnr iha ordem of n a<7V;itle, whn ytnf. chnrged 
vrilh ibeduty of looktnfc >A«r iilk'd dtock-' 

ZZ&. When the acrvaut liaa comphLiiied lo the proper 
officer fithar of tbo detcoiivo appnr»tua or of the n«gli* 

ini fellow ^ e rrant, aad thnt oflioer promiwM lo remedy 

la deftctt or to diechai^go the ncghgent fcllow-aictrvanl, 

•SH*b(kPi4i«l**, 0,lLl.*r.ll7,atl<ma]^UAii;.a Hr^ IL K, 
*H.kC.R.fLf. UcDuikl L9 L.[Tan.> ^ IT As. A Ei* R. & 

<^iaL 




BTATITTISI] Al'FBn-IXl LUBILITT. 

■nd tli« •ervBnt ui idkBoe upon tlic fol1illn>enc rtf tbi 
pronivo ccmiiiiiiM in Um wovk, ai>d ibiU J«ff«t in Uw 
Rpponou*, or that ocgUxcnoft or tkc fiflloir-^vcTTant, iii 
iMt of mioh a character aa t4> reoder \i tinAToldMf 
^Jbn^roEia to oontiniM tlia wnrb, uncii contjiiaanco ta 
work la not ccotributaT^ iM^ligi^ua' *m tbe part of tlM 
nyiiTacl mtrmnt; initf of coona-f in tba mttxiefi of a rail- 
vraj, it it »uJBicieat th«t tbc oompliUit W aiUAl« to, anil 
tho TiftB39cly bo pronwoJ by tbftt ofioMr who u cbaiigoil 
wHU tlio duty in tha one cmte, nt Cknlering ibe repair of 
dcfci-'ta of the cliaractor conpUiaeJ cf, sod in tbc otbar 
cam of Ubwhttrging oogligrnt •crnuua;' bat if tba 
daagvT of nfliog Ui^ itir\k'u\Ar rrm'-hhtt'ry or appJinncv^ 
or of pcrfonaitj}; ttc partbiiUr (L^rvlrv be ao obvioiinlj 
graat that a paraon of ordinary prudeuee would not mn- 
tiaaa to ukc ih^ rlxV, the injured wrraot cannot 
reeoi^, altbouj^L hc-actvd uod^r tlie expnw ordarof 
bia braman or oUier auperior officer.' 

IX* BIATUTie ATFICTTSO THE lUBJUTT 0» KJULWAT» 

TO TJiKia taatvAvn. 

S.tG. Tn «ome jurl^ictiona the m1«« of law afl^otin^ 
th« liabilitj ol^ railwHyit to tbtdr Mrvanla bare bran 
materially modified by atalutce. In Englojid, nndar 
tho Kraployem* LiaMliiy Act, IftSO, -45 A 44 Vicrt.«, 
42, tli«re in a dt»tu(i>ry Ikhllity, vhh aumroarj raBii*di«i^ 



< Holms r Clark. S II. a y. 34*. T U WT; fAnf ^ r K KyiK 
PcBDik8l.a«»: 1^fnair*.eLP.aP.R.lLp«>MlHru»:BnttMH>.fcW, 

K«h. .H Aula KBclLRCu,tfilLC;v^i-J. *<!.& lLft,fk 

n^uo, ^n Ml. m, ]« AuL a &«. a ti. cw, si, uiiw *, v. r. it;, a 

r»t. h^p, Filio ^ R. T. V. a O. R. a ft DiitM4 it Lm ^TVHiO Nt 1> A& A 

It? L'. H. m^ 



I 

4 



4 
4 




wTATrrm Arrncrrjco (.unn-irr. 



38a 



impovil undor o«tUui rMtricdoDB upon Ju&el«T« ui iLo 
rui» of iDJariM to Nerruita rcsoltiDgj inUr oMa, from 
die negUgeiioe of perscoia tutrusL^ with a ui|)eTince:id- 
«ncG or the work, atuI of pcnKiiii to whoec- o^k^3 or 
dirMlIoEii tbe workoiaH at th« Ume of ^%e iajim- wiw 
bound to coDfnriD, and, in th« Cft^fv of rAi1wAT«, of tuiy 
pcisoa "m ILq sorrioe of the eiaplojcr who hu^ tho 
cihaigQ or control of any n^aJ, pobts, locouioLiTO 
enjcino, or tmti." Thin Act u to cunlipuc ia forot 
until DMOmber 31, 1887. and to the oiid of Lbe lijoa 
nnxt •oadnn of PartiaoK^nL Tn OrifHihH v, Thn Karl 
of Dudley,^ Cuve, J., auid: "itio EiuptuviW LiabilJly 
Act won pnnnl tc r^rmivn th*- diffipiilhr arining from ibo 
diedtiOD in Wil-<>u r. Merry.* Tho dTvct of it iji llmt 

tlio workr iy bring hio adioD m fivo epEiciCcd 

cuw, und th< i : ' <y^ idinll not he able to >ny m 
BMwer ihAt iW I'UihLtlT occupied the position of work- 
TDHo ill hifi aarricc, and inuat, therefore, bo tak^n to 
havo impliedly oontraoiod not to hold the irmploy^^ 
liable. In och^r mvrda, the l«gnl rfi^ult of the plaintiff 
hdug a worktoui] •hall not be thut hu biu impliedly 
OOntraiMoil to b«r ihe ri»k« of (he f niploTinpni/' 

337. In Qoorgia, Tnwa, IGiniuti, ?kf iviHipp]. Mooiana, 
Rhode Itflaod, WiBCOfuin, und Wyuuiiug, ruilnuyd uro 
by (ftatiiCA Biiid« WfihXv: to their i^nrrniirn if*t nay n^gjoct 
or mianiaiuigeaivnt by thuii a^catJt, cEi^-iii-^f-rH, ur otlicr 
Mploy^' The Iowa i^uiuto provided tliAl "t'vi^rj 
raitroiut coiapanj ibatl 1>r lUble for all dAmajzca «u^ 
laiaad by any p«raon, including employJa of tho com- 
pany. In coiuequonce of uiy nojclijcraco or tho agiontip 
or by tbo tniaiaanaf;«m«Qt of th« oiiKtikeeiH or oth«r 

>a a. K,*. WiAM, AH Ol tTl[ (ta>B« t,0, U- a 1% I' Kfv ^ w^ 
«!V;0T.Ohf.'niaau«.UKukMtP.Rf, ..BiJ<r<N M;fichr>*i« 
•.0;>.l A K a a. 41 L4« Ht, 47 l4.tT&:Dkv|iaf^Hut,W bLCVl 



ITATtTTES AFFEOnSQ LIAMUTY- 

tt of the corporation to any person euetaining 

nagCj all cojiinuMe to the coatrarj uotwithetaad- 

I 3 conatitutiontititj of this Act has been Ba»^ 

in Rose y. D. iL B. R.* The statutes m the 

itcfl &re of similar imjwrt," 



Iov& 240. 

I DtfiBs to K P. B^. t. PwT^, tl Ajb. A £&(- B. B. CM. aSft 



na rosH or Acnox. 




8» 



BOOK IV- 

tH£ BBUSDT. 



CHAPTEB L 
Tits miui or -nn: Atrnoir. 

T. VhM Oa imiwlj 1l bf ■rUon •( Iti* uiil "bn bj nil In oiiilljp 
a Whv U MllKl of Mifw will Up. 

fn. Tha dWJufftJab W(w«*& tv^ *nd ■vomtaii^ 
fV. ThoJuLmkr vf i-viuDua Uv ud mimtnUitj fllfetm* 
Vh I^Tmmii of wmMjr InTo nm^ 

L W1I1W tun RJCAf£I>y IS BT ACTION AT LAW, AXD WUeJT 
BY sen IN EQUITY, 

TKf rriTu^y u bf attton at £iu« ntfu^Oinff tt lAdi« ooMi liA^M Ad k^ 
jvty kv %4vpi tiltTV in tfir nfirrnlvm of d ^W Pry rt fvintfr njrpffitUtd 
fry 4 flO'irt rt/ fjfi-iU/. fnH t^A eovrt Ku nftufi fr- Oi* pfninf^ ^om 
to fu« i)t> fvrmtm of Ano; ^ tvA u auv cA« piiiiitifr rniht mnnfy 

898. TfaemMdyoftlwii^iKVBdiwIjiibjaBaotiDQ 
>t Invr, exncptiDji in tlicve cufli wI]«Ttt thf jojtirr hsfl 
b«ea dotEW in the operation or i rciilvrBy by a netawe 
AClmg nndor th« i>rd«T of & cniirt of A|ii]tj, and tlie 
omut buit tvOjH-cl Eo tl]« pluliitiQ' Jvavu to bring bis 
Miton ftt Iaw; in auch a oaw ibo only remedy of tbo 
pluinii^ it to prtaoDt hii clum on thcf fund in the r^ 
oeii«r'0 hftaJfl al tb« audit of Lbe rewi^vr'ta nwoiincir, 
for it raui^t ht rrmpmHpi^d that a rpoolvrir, as an ofllvur 
<tf tbe court apjKjuitiug btm> ia only unable by ita per- 
■iBrion.' 



889 WOmUCT A2ti> TOUT. 

n« dUtiv^um Minvn tvlumA mtmdutif fli 4bH unit 

$30. EiigliflL 1&w7Cr«, TollowEug In tio fooc«t«iifl of 
tho civil Uw, hava dnwn a »hor]i disdncdtm between 
aetiuQft founding in tort anri iu oontract. y«t, ^ ^[r. 
Bobort Cbmpbcll has pointed ouV tbu di^tinclioD is 
in lhuor7 only formul, fctr all iir^tioim al Inw ait grounded 
upon th« breach of a duly. That tlutj ma^ baT« bma. 
ijnp<Mc<i upon tbe ruilway, either by its contnct vitH 
the [>lajnliff, or by reason ot the t^Ia^n in which the 
|>Uinfifr HlandA to it. In the formoT cage thtf plaintiff*! 
right lii action urny be stud to oriae «x ft>nfra<'/u, oni 
m Uic latLur oui^l^ ez tUiicto, but ifi either ujuw the ]jUIn- 
tiiTn ri^ht Xm rocorer la necessarily baard npotn the 
milway a breuch of duty to hini; yd, in jitmdicliona 
vhetx) th<f comuion law rulc« of pleading ami \>\ 
hnvo not hfton mntorinlly dcpnrtod from, the form la" 
whit^h the plaintiff bringt hu action may conlrd tbo 
amount of hig dainiLg^j, or cTCu afllct hie rtghl to r«- 
covor 

T^a railvMiif ti faxA&r in trftjuiMt tmlff Jut tnjtirtet trt7ft«I^ im/^idtd 4y 
lU erprftt aitihonf}/ or Abae^rjif/v mfi^ictj. 

340. To rmder a railway Uahle in tr<!«pA» for per- 
Bonal injuries, it ih inmmbent tipon the plaintifTto abow 
t!iat thA il^ury whp ^rilftilly infl.]cted hy an agent, or 

Hprvnnl, of Jho rnilwny, and thut thr net whit^h rannod 
the injury was exprewily directed, or fliil^i^uently mti- 
flfid, hy the <»>rp<>ration.* A railway cximptny can act 
only by Its aj^eaia, or servauts. When, thewfore, a plun- 

^ TroilHi oil lli« Iaw of KeiEluRifv 12, 

' <\fi^rj •, l-lpfl-p a H A r- WH, T7 II C I. : Yfltt^iH Wumvai P«mL 



T&fiU*.AM. 



ft87 



ceii^ble case, bu rwaltod, nut ^tra tbe excreiae of 
viUbl Ibroe upon the pert of the defeu^lsnt o^uipuLj^ 
Eior by the Mtioo of itn »g(>nt« and nrrvanfji in obMiloDot 
to ordtrwtOr cocprtw imriructiiui^ but Irum the ufi;U* 
gteoe of tkiooe ttg^uta ur uorvHuLA. If tli« driver of an 
nn^nft won, undor clic cxjinvn iEintiuolinnA of nii mcdoo? 
live ofliocsr of tbe <-or\}OTalJ*ju, Ui rim down a pemui, or 
ft& anlniftl, upon ^ U&o, or if, in obiJ^iono* lo Um ikq]# 
mnthoriiy, d»it trjtio hand* wrre tbrdbly ui cjrct n pni* 
MD^r from Lhu inun, Ui« oarpoiacioa woulU be Ikble in 
traipWiL lit th« Uadlng cwh' of ±dwti fv. ^t^^phcrd/ tb« 
diefeiiiliuit WAH held liablo to tho plainlilT in trmpudd 
becuiM, by vanUioly Clirowiiig lb« «qijib. li« wus lidil 
to bavo imAtiduJ nil ihtr coitH-^quciicitt Umt fnUowttl 
Upon ibe ori^oal iLtovid^ As Til^bman, C J., Mid 
in Bmitb t. Bulbcrfor J :^ "ihr critcriun of uupMi 
u foTM direciLy applied/' Tbcctfctrc, to reader a d^ 
Ibndftnt linble in trfflpam, tho act which lojurAd th« 
pbdntilT mu«t buTc hnKtt done ciiher prjwiDaUy by th<i 
defeudaiit, or by the dc-r4>ni.]HUL'a «ervana, ondtfr bii« 
firpnM inidmctionit. In (rrvgonr v. Piffrr/ flio doffind' 
sal, ill unUr to olwlrucL n ri^lil of wdy cliiuued bj Uw 
filainiifr, imd directed hU ffcrrniJi to |>ik rubbisb on h'a 
pmm'mm near Kt, but nut touchiiif;, tb« pluntiiT* wall. 
T^a MTvnnt liid the vork carofolly, but aonio of t}i« 
rubbiih uAtunlly mn 5|cftia«t the wall. It vsha hM 
ibttt tbo defondaiit tTAa liable in tiwpaKS LlttledHlc, J>, 
Mjinx: "if ibu scrvact, tli«r«for«, in carrying into 
ex««ution th« ordiKS of bia maftt«r, u«« ordinary uuro 
■nd an injury in done to anothi^, ih* mnvter \ir liable tn 
lrea|j6M. If tbie iiOury kruus from ihu vjmr of ordinaiy 
car«,and on injury ia done to another, tho master U 

< t V. 11. isi; 1 ta. t. a M», 't&AB.MOL 



388 



liaMe in *m*l"' In YtfTKer k, Warren,' iKu &<-tii *icr« 
ftlmoct ifientics] with tbOM io Gre^ry V. rip«r,«ji<j jttdg> 
muiit fbr the |)Uiaiiff'ui tbu court bclov wv r«r«ri«d III 
ibe Sufirotutf Court, becsuw tbe jud;^ at tbe Irinl had 
dirfM'tmi tlin jury thnt din relation of ninuilf^r nod serrant 
rwudvnxl lUc dtfuuduat hMv iu trci^iiuB, «lMn«i tli« 
jury Rhoui<l bavo be«D lustnicted tliat, unlOBlLeBroug 
oompUincd of had bnnn done hy thd doffuidant'* otxifT^ 
lie could nut be luibk for tliv irwpjifi±. In MiJ^vgb- 
lui V. iVyor,^ the dcfcndaiit aJlEJiig in hia carriij^t 
hod directed Ins pcstition to drire into ft lint of isrrin^c* 
under auoli clrcntiteUiu^a tliHt btacarrinj^v ut<-tnurilj 
collidr^i witli the pliiintif]''! cnrnnge. It wa« bold that 
he wutt littbk< to tbv pluiiililf iu traapoae.. In Oordon n 
Roll,' th« defcnibiDt wu a contj'sctor, whotw SN'T&ulflv 
'vIlhouL bi« authority, broke the pldintiC's cnne; ii 
was held thai the det^ndaot was not liable, Parkev B-, 
aayi»g: "th^? rrjult of the authoriliea is, thnt if n Fcr- 
Vttut in tht toume of Uie lUftftLer's employ driTCB orer 
any poreon and dwv n wilful Liijtiry,i}i^»«rvnm, aitdnot 
tho mnjitcr, i» liable in tn^piL^: if theeerviuil by hi* 
afl^igvnl ilriviui; f;auaeeuu ijijur^v, (b^ luauter ib tiabWin 
cs*o, ir the master hinwcH^ is driving, he i* liable in 
oaaefor bis ne^llg^noe, or in treapasa becaaee the act 
WW wilftil." Iu R G. A N. R. R. v. Wilt; th= defcnd- 
ant'n trniii nt n highvray oroaAJag Btriick the plaiatiiT'e 
it'a.^ii and injured it. Verdict and judgRi«nt for tba 
pUintifT in trc^paaa wa^ reversed, Rogers, J^o&ying: 
** A imuatcr la not liable, either in trespass, or En caae, 
ibr tlie vvtifiil act of hia arrant, as by driving hi* miut- 
Iftr'a <^nrrbgt nguiust unulhcr wilboul biH dii'eclioii, or 
naaviii. Rut he h liable to anandr for any danmgc nii»* 
ing to another from the neg[Ugence, or luiriktlfutiievv, 






' 4 Wbin. lU^ 



»0 



of hit tcmiQt acting; in biit employ, •••••• ^^ 

sufhoritied jiT« tuiiform t^at com.*, col irespaas, b the 
p^^r r«ni«cly." Shanod r. I-- ijfc N. W. Ry.' in to 
Utir ^mt' point- Titerc tJi« pbjJtitilT'i fllit^cpv lUrou^ a 
dsfect in ft f^iico, got upon the ^ftff^ndAM'n Imn, and 
were run oror by un cuginr ilriT«ii nl ihc ruti? of^feed 
alEonred by U>« (IvTvciilajxt'd r^daUuiM. Il vha U^ 
that iho plAUitilTcouId act rooor^r in txttfpani, Pnibrc, 
B,, *ay\ ug, jMge 685 : " Tbo ninxun ^ /ir*/ ;)«■ aiiun 
/acilpcr re, renders tbe master liable for all iLe o*?gLL- 
^nt iob of the vcrrantin Ihc count; of liiit^tnplii^mLiLtt 
but tb&l lUblUty (low noimAk« Uie Uirvut aulof ili* 
MTVwit Uu diroct act of tbe miutcr. ****** In all 
uMd wb«re ihc raoiator kiviv tbe dirvctiou and coblrol 
OT«r a carriage, or animal, or chattel, to another rational 
a^t^nt, the maMti^r jf only roi|>ou»ibli: in an ucliuu t>ti tho 
oavelor iratilof ak.i]l,orwirv, of tlie agent, niitl tHjiuon-." 
In A^ V. iC H- V, McI^Q,' the plainlitf was wrongfoiiy 
cJQctfd by iliA tltifondant** oonductor frnm a nu, and it 
Waa LulJ, rev^nlus tlie OUurl below, thai thv defi^udaula 
vera not liabTn in trtwpoflf for itA nrvuit*!! act dOQO 
■nitlutut itM autbf>rity. uatent^ or even knowlcdgeu" 
Drow V. Peer' malniains the coDvcntc of ihe propo^ 
tion, fv the pJaJntitr, having brought coan ngaiiut tbe 
defeodaott the pTaprwUtT of a tbvntrt!, fur hiii wrongfiil 
expolsien fnim a tbt^ntir, Ir wa^ bct<3 lliul tht^ tun hav^ 
ing b«oa oonin>iit4jJ m iiio ordinary coitrvo of ii fterrant'a 
eatplo^ment, but not by the exprem iDatructione of the 
dofendnni, the rcIioh wm rljchtly ca«Ct And not trapua. 
Bo iu Holmea t\ Jlntbcrr/ when the dvfendnut being 
dH7«n bj biff (wrTftnt, and not int^r^ing with bin wr* 
vant'n manaf^iTmcnt, tbL- bomui nm atruy, and in turning a 
corner atrudc the pTaintUT, ii was bold ihat caee, not m«- 









Z90 



cxoE i5i» jkaerintKTT. 



pun, m the propor Ibnn of iciIod, boctoM \ht iii|ut7 
waadoMbjth«iervAnLvlthout the maAi^A n:pr«ee tn- 
ctrtHTtioftt. Tl^enJbrc, trlicn t pcrwin lii« bvcn injured 
Uy ii«)i^j^*tL<;c upon the j-art of a railway, or ujwm Ui« |<«H 
ofthvuerTanlsof lliAt nulim^, th« rnilwAT in sol liable 
in traipuM. It IB «lw> U> W rvmumburcU diiU Uui Action 
of troipBEfl^ being foonded upou po»meioD, CAtinot b« 
bronght for injury to piTrnnn&l propMtj, tsnlvd tbat 
peraoDal property nuiy at the titni- uf iLe injury, ui tbc 
po«oiiM)nortKcplnJnUff/ Kor can « ft iJkt recover 
bi Uwpaae for an iujory to a ion, vlioy at Hit lim« of 
tbe injury, ia not in hi^ eerrioSt* 



>Wrtuof fV^{illP1t ^U«R lAc ni/uny on<f eAfrurJro, rtv ri^Afr rfi 
PUP ^ utfiflUfWiC tuf u/^ fjE^'v j'^'fUfit nin «tte Dn^ an «Ui,/«p Citf 
fV^un &0IVMA tK« niiAivy and turh penOM it n^^^^nlnut^Mi^ 

841- H* who, not bring fl pMifng^ norftM^rruit 
of the niUwuy^ asid c(m»«|i)oiitly not jcUuiding in > 
cootractu»l relation to tbe railway, ia Iqjured in tbo 
coiirve of it« operHlzon»J, con groimd ht« norlon only on 
tlio railwaj'a breiicb of duty Imptied by Inn, fur tbarO 
ia 00 privity of oontrart between bim and the niJlwDj. 
An iDJur^ |>nra4-ngn miLj sne either in afsnmptiil iipooi 
tho conlracl, or in cflae upon ibfl breach of the d«Iy 
raisod by the kw.' Tbc geuenii principle 11, an Btated 

1 Wud t. U<<^iilcr, 4 T. a 4D0; &pm ft CWvpWU, ft W. * a ». 

^gp *. Hrnwn. BWdnd 1^, HnC4tl *. r^injthf. 1 W, A K i;V; Xrll v. 
Ano^H S Fhl a W, !^: Hiul-mvli r On-', ^ PtmiL &i. M ; MankiU >l 

Tirt ; Q. N, I^. t BMifim^ !!> Et 37C ; Ay-lin t, Q. V. Hf.. L. IL 2 Q, & 
44S:>TiQri«^M, [>»f.ir-,P ff.N7.^}<l.W. P. A R R R » PrfTir, 
lb*. 44flj jLim «. U. K;^ l» C & Ef. & Si;^ U& £ a Uj 1' S. S. h 



891 

b^ Lof^KKmpTK-U ia Brown x\ BoorniAn,^ Umt, "wlicf- 
ever ihurc !■ k dMiUftct, un^t ■onictbjiij; to be iIou« En 
tJie course of tlie «mpIoymeut t«!uch 10 the subject of 
tliAt cucitntctf if tboro u a brwcb ot b duty ia tb6 
courai^ of ttiat tmptojoittit^ tliA ploiciUT luiy either 
recover is tort or in conlrnct" Hotroyd, J., in Atirn-W 
ff. Witerbouita,' put« Uio ■vno ticw, ■uymg. " uUbough 
tlie luw vir'ill ruUe a uoutract Willi u ouiuuion carrier to 
be ftnHWrnvbk for iho oirefal ootivrynncff of hU puoicri* 
l^n, ucvvriUtflairi be nuy bv ukargtd in jlh aotiuu tipoii 
iba ca^c far a br«acb of bla Juty." 

F<rf ^ wiu'oift, vKtn hrvu^it ta naavfrfor ir^nriot ttt o patamjffr, or 
rdatitn hetttvn 1A4 rai/vay anJ M« pinvn ir^nrfd, thnS, ttk^lhrt 
eatinnt rteatrr ArrvJiL 

342. ynii\e. OA ByW. J., add !n AltOQ v. The Mld- 
tand Ry^' " tbe pUlatllT has bi« eleciioii lo sue elihtr 
upon tbc Goatmct or (ot tbc tort,'* yet, " by cboiigiu^ 
t1i« form of ftotioOt ibe riglit to sue cannot bo «xt4:iiil«ii 
to a ^Htriuignr/" for, iw BiRcicbum, J., ndtl, in Ilobbe 
i*. L. A S. W- Ry.,* " tbe atriiua ia in rwlity upoa a 
DODtroct; it ia c^ommonly eaid to be foundod upon a 
duty, but it ui tt duty tiriidiig out of m contnct" Tlie 
autiou, tber^fora, ^ben brougbt by uu lujuiud puiuH-ug^t 
U eo J»r founded upon the nilnay'n duty nn :iri^ii^ out 
of tbe oonlTHOt b«tir«en the nitlwhy aaU tbfr puucnger, 
that only a party pnvy 10 that contract can recover, 
.frbetber tbc ibrm of action bu coee or oiPurnpfliL Thui, 
In Alton p. Midl^d Ry./ the plalntllT Jc^ckred in com 

FWOpkkSJ OhK) 8LS^; e, cr.Br,>.K«iip,AL Ud,:iH An, A Ri«. 
]LIL«^.nai Xavln*.!^, I*. U Os IDA 111- ^y, 11 Ah. A t'ft,t K, & 
Cta.lt. 
MlCI.*ffa4l >IILAa,Mi. 



802 



AXt> AMUltP8tT# 



Ibr UJur; to liu BfirraDt, a |nttt«iger on dfrfi^iuiiiil's 
rosd, uid coiun^iicst low of Mrviofs, averring Uint tbc 
dflfi»ikin liad cootneted to cftrrj U]« tcmuit '* foir Mff 
and reward to iImi defei>duit bi liib bcbaif;" tk 
dcAndaato demurred to th? dMLmration, and ftb) 
p!ead«d tJiiat thej bad ooetracttd vith tbc 9or\-a»£ and 
not with ibp plniniiff. Oq d«miiTr«r tJk« pint w» bold 
good, UD tbv ground that a matftcr esq rcooYer jbr Lev 
of Ilia Acrvant'e a^rHw onl; «1ieo catued bj « port 
WTongp biit niwirr wbon tbat wroDig in, iti eabatancr, 
only u brtmli of coutracU In F. db A. St. P. Ry, Co* 
r -^'urli'E,' a moth«r rood lo w^wvf r for Lr^urim ui W 
luirjic .'uri. n pawftnger On defrrddADt'A Itno, Uie iqjimei 
ii^iii^ c:LLU4ed b^ defendant's n(^gIigei>oe. It was hM, 
rcvcniii^ tbc Dourt below, and fijllottiog AlloD r. Mid* 
land Rjh th&t thff pT&iulrfT oouH not rccoTeTi ibo 
|[round of Jocision being tbftt onlj a party to tb« COQ- 
tmct cAEi recover for a breach of duty founded on tliat 
oontraeL* 



Whore £\f ^ttnrf of a^Ut/n £■ <i f ■« tort, mnf «■>« 



m 



343, But wLore tbere la no nntneCUflJ rdadov 
bftwiwn th** railwrty nnff tha iiyuTiftd ponoA, sny OM 
who, by rnuciD of thut itgur^, ha« n]fr4in--d a pecuniary 
luttt, may rd0ov«r in case ibr a breacb of tlio duly af tlw 
miTwny t^ rarry Mifrly any onr whom thoy havfi r^ 
cr-ived upon their liuv or prvmiwtt ; tbai. in Manball r. 
Y^, N. dt B. Ry./ wbcrc tho plfliniiR; the valel of a 
nohUman, wii^ to recover damag«v tbr bit luggi^ 1e«C 



> Y*l U hwM bftf. h^lA In Ma 
InJorta* u> hJi •rrrant wtiU« ft | 
317 Vim. Ml. 

> tl C li, «Uk 7« £. C.I. 






'dft^mKMUylhft. the plainttir Laving hf^a a 
gor, but bU ticket Iiavin^ bc^n bought ati<J irtiiJ fot bj 
hi« madl«T, it WW lidU that tbc pliiiiUitf oould ncorvr, 
Jervi». C. J,, n^mg, Uie action lim for the loggigo 
Ailed far ui tbr pcraonml iujurits, " not by rotwrn of ftny 
cuatraol between bim and the oomp&ny, but hy r^^iMn 
of a duty tmplind by In* to csirry him mfcly/* So, in 
BcrriuKur v. O. E. Rj.," tbtf claim ullegtxl llirtl iho 
pki[itiR"fl servant look n tickot aacl iravdM by the I^ 
I. Jk S. Ry^ ttiid that the trjiin on whidi Ehc Kcrvant vtaa 
apiAwikgi-rcauioiutoQctlllHiou with iLo def^'jidaut'u Iraia 
at a jnnciicrn through tho nfi^llgonoe of cho fldcndiint'ii 
«iiip1<iy£H, aud tliat tii« aervant waa ii^juitd; and it 
waa held on demurrer that tho action bung axaiDat 
in']t'j>iTn<|pQt wrocgdoiira, not pnrtit« ti> tlw conitat-t 
of oarria^ aud for a pure t^rt, ihe plamtilF ojuld 
noov«r. 



SUTilfCTlOHS IK VRXtmCAL £FFGCT BETWEEH THE AO 
TfOTTS or CUK ASD AanrvFoiT. 

iF&mtiUTAinAJfnHviavinrTm'.A'niWae htA prril join aU t^ ih^ 
pOHUtlMnaKom U wnintttii. fie «in rwrnvp/vr « btftiaiu <ki 
IAaI it Ml • AfvocA of tf^ fOHtrwt tirrl'tTwt n^an. tmd Ai* rt^jvery 

ffititaitU, tny or riif ■>/ fhoM ithnm AmvA nf iluf^ ir^umi Aim, A» 
nay rffowr aS ntJk damayta mt prvMrn^ttfi rtttt^ fntm fA^ hrrntUt 
^dvS% anJ hit rtarter)/ in one riffd it ntr tMr la hit nv-it*rj n 



844. Wbrn the plnintifT nuea Ui case he may, at hU 
fiWciion. join aa defMidanta any or till of tho paftiea 
nUoM bmch ordat;r ha^ cauaed lua injury, but wbero 



MCP^O-lfil 



394 



cue Asv ABsma^tT. 



h« 8u«8 Id ft«VDQi|Hk be moa^ al h£* p«ri], rae rnD tlitt 
porlica to tlio conlract-i Thq^ in Aavcll <-. WnUr- 
ll0iu%' lb« {iluutilT biiring avemd in hta narr tlmt UiQ 
dofoiJnac WM tht prop7iou>r of « elago oncJi, vho, 
aa fluoli. luid rcoeived iUt pUintiff >h ft puvei^cr under 
a do^ to c.irry h\ta mMj, itad tbat by tht &eg1%aM« 
of tht} lidctuluit'* verruulJi* tbc pluntiff bud been in* 
Jnred, and tbe defeodnni baring pleaded m ubatemeM 
th;i( HixUoD otber oaaacd pAr»>nfl vrrr cv>-paritirni, and 
ahuulJ but© been Jobed tu dtftuJania. upon giotriJ 
df^murrcr lh« pZfA vtu Udd bad, Bayley, J., frying: 
" Tlwre ui a brond diAtincttoD in pcrrciial actiona betwcfai 
ton and aflBiUD|jait, or cucb acltoDs as arise » ctmirt^ht 
and «v (ftfKotojVhi^h aT« founded upononnirciclfforapoai 
wTonga independttiily of conlrart, tuid lb* pTt^c^^dbgfl 
vary accordingly. In aummpnt iha plAinliffiD bis dae- 
Ifljruliou and I'ruof m poHliiird lo thf: very lennB of Ibfl 
doutnifrt, and can recover in <lamAg<« for no torlioua act 
farther tluin it is a breach nf ibc dcfcndiuit** pn^mivc, 
cKprun or implied. Wbereu aotiooui upon the caae lio 
f<^r tba ncoterj of ilAiiiagni for (^nM^ur.tiTkl wrongp 
nccTitlag tntn mii^fen^jmct.' or tiont<?iuiutic:u from tlitt 
uegligeuctf or wilful uouJuvl of tbe l^trly, ntid in doing 
oromitdogaotncibing eoDiniry to the duty tvbich tbo 
lav caaets upon bim in the purtlt^ciW ea»e." 

345h Where ihc phimtiCjaucfl In c:i**' he infiy trco^nr 
for all Jnmagr* nnturullj and nc(V»arily ariainf-, rwult* 
ing from the defvndunt'a breach of duty to biro, and 
agHtn^t any one or more of tho pArtiu whow brmdi of 
duty bu3 uiuKud lus ii^urioa.' Bnt i^ben be Euea in 

T &■ Cv L.^ Anxll ■- iVVdrhniH, 4 M, A & 3HA, 1« & C U 

•«M, aas^i8K.o>L. 

• tju>|ikiu *. <M 1^ n. a Go, fU, « 1ft An. A Tj^ R. B. (^«l lU; 

StADA ', 1]]Dkin»>ii» S AllcEi 31J : CLunlilU t. Hdli 1ST Mwi- \^ii Djjuh i^ 



JDLRDCIi OV OLinf>^ 



MS 



assumpSt hd cAti t^rarer in danmgci for no tortlon? net 
firihfir than Uiat it i« a brrw^h of tliv ilHViiiltntV 
pmiuiire, expreM or im|>lieil; thud. in MuriLoL-k r. B. ifc 
A. R. R.,^ itio pkiniiff WAK nTri«(<ic) by dt^fi^nd'uiffl i^r* 
Tant far an Alluged improp^ an*! of a ticki'lt and b« 
eued tUe defeuOaut la conmct for br«acb of oontiactoF 
nfb carrin]^, And it wtut hdd^ following Elobbn* chad tbiLt 
tli« piKtiittfl' c'Oiild reoovi-r only tbr llm fiaturul and 
proxiDiato con«oi^n9DC«8 of IW brcncb, and ibnl to kh 
coTor ibr mcDttJ and pbyxical sufiWiiif; foDowltig tbo 
ari^at L» bLouM liAve au«d ui fi7rf. Wlivre ft^uniplt 
in brougbt uid judgracul recovered on u brvdch of a 
maliray'a i?outr»cl of dufioi^e. ibat judfiu»*Qt in a. bur to 
»ni>(lier nctian in another right on tbi? anTUft coniraoT; 
Ihiiii wbcrc a himbjind biui vucd and recovered in uj»* 
iumpQit for hb wife's li^juries cauat*d by a rallway^e 
ri^^^lig^nrf* in U^n prrformnnm of a n>ntnu't of rarriago 
of dio nifo. it vriu bcM lliat tlmt judj^mont wiu u Iwr to 
BAdbaoquvatactlouof aHtfuuiinltbruu^btby iLu btisbbud 
to rftcovnr for io*™ of iIji* vifcV Bprviw* and hiH oipcn- 
ditur« for bcr lotidioal Lrpatmeiit' 



IV. TBB JOlFf&Rft Oj» OOKMcJp? tAW A?n> STATCTOBET 

Ofmnvn ^10 and aWufcry o£m'mi /i>f (fqmufdi no^r, viJ«r «Tfaui 

M6. Common law and itatutOTj cUUim fcr damagv 
m^j be jtMned in tbonme&cUon, wh<iretbtiyof ibeaaiOft 
Datun», mdmli of tbe aamc plona» aad arc foUoiWcl by tli» 
Bam«Judgmeat.* 



• II& Uml lA, « An. « F>w. R. R. Ctti, 404. 

> Vjkrtiil ■. EtUIUs ]» WI.UL U; ^ l>. ft tt. h |kn%, VS t«Eu SL 40. 



S96 



FATHK^rt ISTO COUKX. 



V. rxYMtstt or momsr wto ooitxt. 
Thtp^mm^^mmttfdi^mvi •dblb^ mJflr ««*»• fin£w£«i«, 

347. l^iymDnl of moniry inio court by ibn mlwny 
when tJic iurm of acliua bt cunt-, juid Um decknttkiii 
general &Qii unspeclGc, tuiraiU a cauae ot' action, but not 
tbn nnitfiP (^faction nifld for; nhcjv the ileclimilion in 
Bjw(.'ilj(.', 90 t,Lal uolUijjg wuulJ hv tluH frt/ui iLe railvraij 
to i!i< [luLQltff, unlnt It admitted the particulnr clatoa 
mu^u Ly the plain tiiH the payment irttoooiinnooeBurilj 
admits tlje oj^itne of aciiou «o av«irvd in the LWUration.. 
l*By[u<-[it of money into court u|x>q a general coa&C on 
aBaum|wit aduiita only a cuiise of action to Uie fuuoiuit 
pud mio court, Atid op«nil«s aa &u admianoa for no 
other purptMc Payment of money bio court upon A 
declaration on a vpeclal couLraut aduiiu the contract aud^ 
the brt«ch-* 



14 VU. 



TOQBT or ACUO^C Full DlLATlf. 



89r 



CHAPTER IL 



At 



n BMiTT or AOTKUr rou twi7ttiia OACwa'a d^th. 

L Tbt itfttatoij r^lil of kHol 

L THK BTATUTOaY EIGHT O? AlTHOI?. 

fvam to iw 4tf tvn llw ll» rasvivr Jotko^ « /or lUsUh, m u fi 

Att^ 



34d. Th« nile of thft oommiw law b, lu Uid doitn hf 
Lori ElIeaboTou^h iu B«kcr v. Jfoltou,* that " in a civil 
ooiitt the dtffltb of n hnman being cannot be noTiiplAiM«<T 
of H0&U iojur^/'and tbo mftiioi adw parMiudu mf>ritur 
cjiiit p^tona Huc^inctly oxpruMe tbo legal tboorr tbat 
a rij;bc of action for a t^rt, Mafi pcmoiial, diiM vritU 
tb« porM» i[^nr«^, and tbat Anj action broiigbi there- 
for abjiiai at commoa Illw vitb the dcatJi of the ptaiD- 
tiC Tfio preamble to Lur\l CuEupbuir» Act/ to be 
hAnfinafhrr rdcrrnd U\ rnnitM that "no MdJon ifi now 
maintUiJiabltf uj^otft a punKu ivUo bj bii wrorifcful aoia 
may hnvn mn^^rfl thr d^itth of aniWl^r porson. In O*- 
bom El. 'iilli'tL/ til*- ^l.iirilifr J<?o!iirf-*(i aRivinut tbr dc- 
A-EiUaut for ti^juriiM to iLe pUmliir'4 duugbtirr and 
MTvut, bf Toa«oa whomof ftho aftorwmnilt di«d, claim- 
btg aa ffp«da1 drnnaeev tba kas of ber aervioefi and bcr 
burial «cpooan; aad the dofijudaDt buving plondf^J, 
i;q£^ oJuK, ibttt tbo dauf(lilcT " vtui kitlod upon tbc apot 

Cknx t. a. Kj , 1 CWh, 4» ; KfWHT b a r. IL Mt a ft, » <U. U4. 



OP jicno:r fob DEim. 



by tli( aiCta and malten tncDtionoil in tbc dcckration, 
no that the plain^fl' dM not tod codM not auaum aqj 
cUcoA^ yshlch cntitlisi him 1o mio in thu ftciion»*' JQd^ 
iQt'tit ou ileuiurrvr yiaa vulervd Ibr the dcfeDd&nt bj 
Kf'llj, C.B., and Tigou, R [llmntwcll, K, ilisWDdDg], 
upon tb« ttutboritY of Bak«r c. Baltfin, uid the bgi»- 
liiUfV recoj^uttion or lIi« i^rlucIpU of tbat case lu the 
prp«mb1o to Lord CnmpMrft Act. 80, in Pulling v. 
G. C. Kj.,' Pulling having, hy the ceglig^nca ol tlie 
df fcndjmt, been Jnjur^ at a level croawi^, luid nlW 
hnngiii;; suit hnviiig died, and hJE widow and adminb- 
tratrix having b«i*n eab^ttltiteda^plaintifTin lh<^ atTlioii;, 
and b; her vtutcmunt cUiiaiag damages lot low of d^ 
oedonfa wages, tnedio^l «xpene«f, and injury lo Ma p«^ 
VOnal MUit<r, judgment upon demurrer wwi givim for 
tha deft-iiduut, up<m ILl' f^'ruuud Ihiit the flClioiU beiog; 
brought for & pur^ Urrt did not survive, but vsf ahaird 
\>y ihn dt^ath of thti ori^imvl pliuutiff.' &o, aW, in 
Cn-gtu r, B. C. B. R./ It «aa held that wheo ft Luft- 
btuid, having brought «uit for injurica to the pcmon oC- 
hin wife» difld» hii right of aotiou for the loaa of biij 
wif-^'B gocioty died witti htm, but his right of actiOQ ibr' 
the lom of hi» wifc'A ptrviocs uud for hiB expttnnM Sat 
lier luedii^^l trwitment, heiug a p^uniarj lorn dinUD!*! 
inhiiig hie estate, curvivcd lo his peraonal rcpmcntn- 
tlvnty The tuIl^ hof also been applied where a widow 
mad to recover for th« dc^lh of her huehand. nu cngini 
drivur iu a raitwiiy'a aerviwj;' itiid wht^rt a buoband 
eued for the dewT.li of his wifo killod by ihn rniiwny'l 
negligence* The«me prmcii>lc hv Utn juoritud ial 

> «8 N.T CM- 

•HDbgh »,KO.A aan. ft E^Ail^Q^^M; HHmmii iLlbinLtt 
US. 
* Omn -, n R a ft, 3 Ktjm <V. T.) >Hj Lbm >. ?^ T. a & iMl 



nam <vr xantm m mats. 



aw 



vctiona brought b^ lifo Aefmrftnm? compEtnia ta recover 
from pervoni, nAtartl or oirfjiorutc, bv wIkmo wilAil ur 
m'^li^iit fiCtA UBdure^l per«r]n8 w^to killed and the jw- 
Ritnint^ rKkiitfuLnim thnn^by compelled to maku paymttil 
of Hie ttcaouQbi tuumreJ oa ike lIvcsoTsuch {jeraoDs. 
Thu8, JQ 5i'>bi]o Lir« iQeumncc Oo>v. Biame/ linm^ 
luvtDg wilfull3r kiU«cl McLcmora, upuo vhcae ljr« 
policies of AMonnce h»il boeo IsButtd by tfaooorponb- 
tlon pluD^^ payniciit of ithich liod bd(« roftde ftfter 
McLemoie't duAli, tli^ pliilntiff Mieil Bram^ for tlit 
tmotmU of tboM polidn, as donui^M cjuvod to it by 
BmnM^ii tci. The ckuvc vru Lcurd iu tho UuiU^d 8tat«» 
Circuit Court for the Di»trici of LouuiJAna Ttpon th^ 
tlttRmdantV excwprinn Co thn pliuaiifTii pi^iitiDii, an<l 
Jitdgmeal baring hixn midf:rvd tbvrcoEi for ibe d^ 
AQrlanl. yra» nfTlrmcd in error in iho Suprntno Court of 
Ilia DiuuhI Btnia, a^n tli« grounrl ttmt tlie rebition 
bMvc«D tb» plmoUir and tlic owutcd was uniuted bjr u 
contrnct to trbicli ihe dofvodftat nu oot n paity, nnd 
<tii«t the dmnugv to the pUIntilf in being compellt^J lo 
good lis ooTiiraci vrilb The haT-ur^ vrae uoi a &«^• 
01 proximjilo rnfult of ibo wrong iJonc by tho 
mdant in killing th« nittiiircd. In Connecticut 
rHuinal Liftf Inearanoe Co, v. K Y. A N. H. R. R.,> 
tthA mtup rtihi vr^vi nppTicH) wh«r6 tho plundff sought to 
T^ooT^r fur the killing of Itn BMured by D^l^oce ou 
tho part of the railiray. 

n. TiiKcnvKOX law aiqbt. 

MWfeM (9mt*rwmier4anaga§ /art^ Jut h) lAt dtfrWfnl'' dMtt 

349. Bui,of ooufw, ft diOcivnimtfi A^pTWiriundM 
Injury, although &om ooo point of vicv^ a tort, it from 



400 



siodT OP xcnov fob dsuto. 



ftnothor point of vieiv a brtttct of cotttmct, Bi>d it bfls 
been held tliat in 0ucb oamb the HgKi of arrliua eurTitc* 
to lUo gwnouAl rrprcaculalivc*- TIji« rule bu boM 
extended to jMrrmit ny^verioi hy th« i^Kccutonf of pM- 
aengera u^ur^ by ft r&ilnAy^e breadi of Jt^ oobttBCt of 
cAiTLiLj^ Xu Knight r. ijuorlnt^ un adiuinutrfttor bav- 
w); brouglit uaeuiupHit^ and averred in Uia iivr lb«t tbe 
defomiant, for certain ftv^ lo h^ pnid him, iimiortook, at 
nn attorney* ia cxaoimo u title for the pluintiiTp iutc*^ 
uie, aud that hv omittei] to do m, aud ibat (be iniofr' 
Uto in oi>niirqi]t'no(f look an innuffinioftt tit]4^ vhirreby 
bU per^ooal estate wa« Ixijured, judj;uieal oin demurrer 
iru« rnlorr^d fi>r iho plnintiff', and KichnrdsoD* J,, stld : 
" if a mnu <»iitrH<:tf'd fur a safe coiivf^yan^^ hy oottoh* 
and »U0ijLinoil an injory l>y a fallr by wliicb liunMae 
of imprrtving hia peraoTiat pro{K!Ky win dralroycd, noil 
that proper[y in <?ouaeqnonce wae injured, though it wtt 
dear he in hu lifetime might, at hi« clf^ctiou, ine th% 
couoh propriulor in contract, or Ui tort, it could ztot 
be doubled tbat bis cxpcuior n^ight auo in a»^umpftJt for 
the nonJwquen<^ee of l}ie couth proprietor* brrach of 
cuotruL't." Williiia, J., m his judgmt^nl m AJLuu v. Mid- 
land Hy.,'anid, referring lo Knighw v. Quarliv: "eup- 
pow the personal euLaie of a servaul ansuined injury 
through the defcadanl*a breach of duly, s,s i( be had 
talcen a quuntity of luggage with htm which had been 
loflt, or damaged, it is clear hiA executor could bare aued 
for tbat damage.'* In Poltcr f. M, Ry-/ a wife having 
been li^ori?d, while a paepenger. by ihe defendanl's ncg- 
ligenct, and her huahand having died, «ii<>d aa hie ad- 
min ieiratrii lo n-coTtr for her huebaod's I039 in respect 
of tho injiiriFa to her, and it wa^ h^ld in tho Exchc^ner 
Chamber that tlte right of action being founded on a 

^SBmL&B. 101.0 E.C.U *»C:&K.H.Ma,lltE.Ci;. 



ftioBT or xcnccr roR i^eath. 



401 



of ooDtrnct Rurrirod to the hiisbund'tf p«m>oal 
irfiMQtatlt^ Ih BrMlabAw r. L. A Y. Ily-,* wboro a 
pMHRgor, Itjtving bom injund in s rAilwttjr omdeott 
diod in oaiiMquQii«u of hv u^urii^^ but afUir fax iuUrrval, 
It was held ihfit bt3 oiooutnx ooulJ r«fCov«r in mi nniioo 
on tiM oontnwt Tir ibc tUmage fnArrRcl by thic d«cv 
d«ut'« vttKte hy nuiwiET of tlie breach of tlw defetidaot't 
CODtmct tocsrrv hitn with r«osona1i]inwftty, di« grotind 
of tlu) decUion bdng tluit Cbe dtmoji^e ww not oaueed by 
thedwwd«it'adea£b,but bjr hU iimbility to attend to bU 
bmuooM during his lifutimc, tluit i&nbility rtvulUni; 
frofu ihfb aouiduuL Bnddlidw'a eve irsa Jbtlowed m ui 
ontLoriiy, but with np^utrcnt rclaclAiKc, m Lcggott «». 
G. N. By.,* vberc thij ptaintifT, Imvin^ cir^ to rccor^r 
UcJer Lord C&mpbeira Act aa ibe adntiiiifelrntrii of her 
dticCMod btwband. ug&in brougbt luit lo rrcovcr fur iu* 
Jury douo Co bia |i6»oiml OM^to by rea»oa of bis inabil- 
ity 10 att«nd to buaiDCVi EVom tb« dato of tb« ncddf^ikt 
to tbo date of hia dmtb, and it wim held tliat tbv ru- 
co%'ery la tb<^ rir*t ucii^jo wua ju> bof to & wx>vory in 
thcfotv^nd, (]i<^ cvkiiirwof antion biding 4ii{fbr<ait,«Qd ibat 
«a theplamtiifauoJici thotwojMtJOUEtjndii&reut nt;li[a. 
tho plciLilio^ ID ibo Qnt aotioiii and lL« vi^rdJci f^r ibo 
plaintiff tbfinun, did not utop tbc dufendnnt from deny* 
lag, in Ibe second autic-a, tli« caive and tbe eivuuai- 
atnncrat of tbc- injury.' 



trri i^ tStr^vrt. ttnlvivry, 

35(K Thflref^re, tor want of a conituoa law rctoedy, 
vtalntoi VGflting in cortnin dimgantttd pumoika u rigbtof 
actj^u for i^juriui rmuliixiK frum duatb by negligence 
hnvo boon pnjvwd la dUGbTtnt juriAdictioiia, and in Ui^ 



L ft 10, C MW, 



BtoilMQH^ 1. ft (Xft ft,MSl.T.I« 



■LI^tLll tM 



402 



iumn TSBsm tbx bight. 



OM of a d«alb, oaoMd b aa]r JQiMlotlon ^ • tdlnj^ 
br«&c1i of ^xttjt tbo temn of Uie ftstnu in force itt the 
|«rtlciilar juriddictioa muel be loukvd to in order to 
cbtormlnn tbo rlglit lo eue, Uie form of actSob. tbe 
jMirtic* pldrtuff and defcmJant, ihtt conditioiia of )v- 



ni. irriTirrm inxmintKi) a luanf or actiot* roR i>KATn. 

351. The firal of th«so nUfctul^fi wnn ^^nncUid in Eng- 
Iftmi in IMC,* ftmi ifl known aa Ixtrd CamplielV* Art- 
It rticitcs m iffi preumbb ibat, '^whcnns no action jit 
law is now maintainable a^-aIiikI a |i«raoii wlio, by bis 
vrronf^l ail, aeglecl] or d^lAiilt, maT have cau^'tl tJjc 
d«alh of auotlnir pt-raou, aud it is oftoiitim<!B rigbt nwd 
nptxli'tnl that the wronQdc^rr in niioJi a eoAC ^hotiTd b^ 
muwcTutilc in dujnugbd for dm injuncn w nnjiwd by 
him," and it euaola tLat wlieoeo^er the dralh of a pcrsnn 
ftWl bp caused by mich act» n4*glnct,nr d*fauU.*"aa *f0uld, 
if dwith had not eueued, hhve ciitUW llic jmny to 
maiittfliu an a<^tion to r^or^r damAgw in r«8p«ct th«r^ 
of/' th»n the ^nuti who would baT« baeo liable if 
dcHib ho^l uot eu9u«fJ shall, tiotwiUistundiufc the doalb 
of tho p<^rsou injured, be liable in dfLDiagf« At the iruii 
of the pereorfll reprcsf niatm for the bcLelit of the wife. 
hxwbnnd, parctit, aad child of the doceneiHi. Tho act 
fiirthor authon9^f« the jury to "give such damngu* wt 
they may ihiiifc proporlinoed to the iujuriya r^ulljog 
frum em^h dtuth to the i>artiee respectively for whom 
aud for Hho»e benefit mich nctton phall htt brought, the 
dnmngts m Iht apportioned among the beueficiJtri<.s aa 
the jury hhnll direct, Tlic ftCt aluo pTovidca thai not 
more than one action shaU lie for and in rehj*ct of the 
aameEuhjeot-ruatter complaiued of- A lat^r act^ pro- 



'ft^io VIA 0.04 



•ffAft VLa.4,Ub 



fflATOTEB TESTEfG THE BIGHT. 403 

rides tliat if there be do perao&al repreaeDtfttire any one 
of the beaeficitLrioB may bring the ftotion. LfOi'd Camp 
beira Act has been followed id the statutes now in force 
in Canada ; and in the etates of tbe United States, stat^ 
utes of like effect have been enacted^ references to, and 
tbe material proriaioaeofwbicb are g^ven in tbe follow- 
ing table : 







11 fS^I? 




ii'mi 



|8 1^3 ?i 



S i-Ji: 








^ » 



BxntA^TKaniToiuA^ Bmcr, 



400 



AihtlM wtf iij « rifSl ^ ortCn /v iSmAI AdH no alm'AfmV^ 
y«fv% oiul on tt^fWvnUf iQ oiSer Jitrvdietiani nJy hy Aouly. 

302. Sudi «tiittiu» httrt no exir&-i«Tntonal force, und 
Uk; v«n « rt^bt to recover onlj io caiim where the 
duath hiu bwn cauiwd vrilkin thi^ ntnti* irlii^rv Ui« ffUtuLe 
ifl in force.* Tlie g««er&l rule i* thai where n jmrwrti 
hiiM ilird from injuria citwii by m.'K'ix^^i^^*!'' niUiiti 4 
juri^iiiotiiiii wliorw tfUtittes Yeet In the ])ereoiiftl repre- 
«cniACiv«:> of cbo pcreon ao dyltig & rigbt lo recover 
ilamutpat for thu dcntb, p«rwajil reprofteo'tativts appoi ut^il 
la anotfapT juriA'ticrJon mik^ me in f)mt Insl jiiHfldirrion 
for the entbrct'iDvnt of thu vtntittcs g<»venKi]g tlit pUcc 
of deaths" but tlii^ tloctrlnc i^ tlrnicrd iu i»ome jiiri»- 
dictif>«x-' TliR rij;ht to r*it'ovrr JjitTKigps for ilflutb, 
vbeil UBtu^|uli(>c! by aluW \v^ii\ollttD. la tiiforvc^iblo lU 
fi Cfiec- U'lffiXTH |irfi|>er pnr1i» in Ihf I'VfiiYniIConTtn,imil 
Iht* juriinliotion of iUchc couna ih not Buhjwt to liioiu- 
tiou by A proviao lu a eUt« MaMte bluit ibe actiou for 
tbo rccov<rnr of ituch duiagcB ahull be bronchi odIjt in 
n at4t« oonrt* 

Bdd. Tho MiMouri Statute* proUEbitJag the prosMU- 
tion by u pemoil r^resentatiTO of a dvil action for 
injuries to ilifi fMraon of hia int««taf^ an adminiatraior, 
appointed in MinKfurl, will not bv pvnniltrd to Ruo I& 
tbnt Mato if) order to eaforco a rlgbi of action under a 
Kaoaaa statute for thn dcuth of hin intantAl^ in Knnma/ 



■Wlilllbnif-?. aa^OaKT. iUi5,AC& B, t; Etki^* CnWw^i 

I. A r. K7, a Ipwh T3T, ig Aid. A li(v ^ It. <W IK; y. M t\ K. K. «. 
aiLK,MVML»^; UtOirthrt^caLA P. B. O. M Smm. U; T*^tor 



EZTl£A.'TERRITOElAL EFFECT, 

nor will an administrator appointed in irifiBoari be per- 
mitttid to eue in Kansajs to recover for ihi^ dealli nf Lia 
inteatale in Kansas.^ Where the dt^th is caused in one 
juriEdiccian and the action ia brought is another juri9- 
dii!dnE], whose slaLuteu authorize the actioflr it usueI be 
sliown^ ae those sletutoa have no tJElra-tcrrltorial force, 
that there Ja a statute in the juriadiction in which the 
death waa caused authorizing a recovery therefor, and 
there ia no preeuiuptioD ui Lhe existence of auch ft 
atatutfl.* Under Lord Ca Ta Act a Bettleoient wilii 

and a release of the railwuj oy the person injured cx- 
llnguiahes the statutory right of action vested in his 
witlow.* So, also, where the pcrEon injured baa con- 
trueteO with hia emploj^er tl^t the benefit of the act 
ehguld not he claimed, it waa held that hia widow's 
action was thereby barred.* 



lUmekiUETf.IL&aL J.RR. 33Ruu.a3,lD Atd.A Enf^R.B CkIAL 
" I>eWToirt ^. S. Y-. L R A W, R, a, W N- Y. STT-.S.RA D, R. E. t. 
Lmc?, 43 (iii. 4G1. 
■ Kcjid 1. G. E. Rv., L. R, S Q. B. D. b^. 
* QriSiiha v. E&il of Dudley, 9 Q. & D, 367. 



PABTXEfi 1X> TB^ MTIOK. 



411 



CHAPTER IIF. 
tuB rjhjrrui to nw actkui. 

XlkvplkladA 

CTliadtftndiia 

WWre ift* o^Jfon itJotmM on a e/mtmt. ttnt/ j/nrtt/ vr privy tv that 
r^ntrari teho /i4« Awn t^'ufoi 6y iCa brtach, mjy «■!■ lU plaintjjf. oad 
tt^< lAc uWwh vfoundfyi an rt turt. tuit oimtimi/ t/M diMlK it/ lA« 
ptrtvn ii^iartd, nny one wAd ^ tufttvd a /arwi^ory Jmp {ffro^ 
rttuHinj Jrom tSat toii iwiy trte ru plnitit^. artd WWa GAa attiim £t 
fimnfUd DPI («Tf JViiwin^ '^mM. rArjKiriy fnrflM 6y t«V*u«^AW 

SM. Al oommon law Uio p«noQ who Las be«n phy«- 
icoJly injbrpd by a tort, niifi hoEsurvived liu; injury, cua 
■uo ai pUmtlGT. anJ if Ui« ii^uries Go Ui^&t pi^rHira have 
aolboeatlic iiumi;^Jialc cftOJW of hia licatli, uuy olljct 
ponton wbo bu tfuff^nfd a pc<^a&mr7 Ioe^ ciircctly n> 
euUiDg froQi ihftl ir^'ury may sue lo recover tlaaiA^ for 
tbttt loaa; thua, aq inlurit muy sue l>y bin itcxi friend 
for his pervooal li\|iir]o4, aud Jm Iktliirr lujpy uloo «uo far 
the lo^ of hU cht1d*fl verviccs; a mtvrhi may sao tat 
his pcrsioaal injuria, nttd hi* miutcr may k1«o hu* 
forbisJoasof hieserrftQt'a Mrvioea; aud a vrife mtty 
RUQ for her pemonal injantw, and hor hiiBhnnd oiny also 
aud far hu loan of bin wilc'ii aocivly aud MTVtcee.' When 
a municipality hnn btt^ oompellod to respond in dam- 
&g«a U) a pcmwu tiyured by rviuoni of the neglect of a 

* Aj 4 ■««*»] nit virttv 111* Ktii>A Si bruufki to ntrrti ia eIid n/^i t^f * 
wtt« for hf parnfifel frv}iir1q li^ hitfvnil moii htjolrwil u i m^r^mry j«rT; 
pilrtflltft but ar>[vF iIh fliluio ft [lllaoiA aud Tu*L mq hKluei e^ iH'FTfT fc« 
Iflfuriialii ih* jwmflnf mrj^aiKiKiiit hn<u]rM la iirt aurit. vUbout jabiif^ 
b«bi9ib»il!C. RAQ.B.B.f;Dl0bBfl, ff7 lU. 123; C « X W. Kr. lb 



412 



rARTini TO THE icnox. 



tinted ivi ft part of ita Un<v tl)« «usid|)aliL^ c«n Ttc<tv^ 
froim t.lic railvf^LV the amonat of t1i« damftgc* vn jinkL' 
OrvoEirw, an LtrnrbWfore MatoJ, «Ii<b tli« bijurjr lias 
ti«on clone by the breach oFa oontr*ot, <iii<^ wlio ttv oot 
B pnrty or j>riv5 (o that contract caanot U)'n£ a tiiiC 
fuuudcd u jou tlio coutracL 



n. THE DEpEHJUn^ 

7^ penon or pxwnt \Fhan vtvnj^Aif w< vr dtfahlt iMf IA« mihf ^ 

J«^ii% rrirpoiuiUr JW Alk« wrvn^r^ art «r ^TmuBW, sMy ^ »a^ 
if^inu/anCj to tfn qfli'un^ prm^iJni itltnift Ihaf. K\frr fJU urfMi 4i 
^rimttiied vputi a aattirfui, bath ffhi%H^ orai dj^mdaht ore juariH* 

3&6. Tho mtilvidunl «Lo bw, b5 hit Don[KTfori 
tii« of dnty, or brejicb of conlrnct, cAtiHciJ th« u^arjr, 
or ftiiy ot]i«*r perpou or pvfvonA, natural or ooi 
V'lio limy be Icgnllj rrf^naiblo for tbe Hcto &n(] d^aal 
of Lh<i wronffdovr, inuy bcr injule tfao dcbodanl, |>f> 
Tidedr of course, ihaf nbere lb? aaion b grounded itpoa 
& coniraut, the plulatiffiii n purty to tbc contl^tct; thld^ 
ft puBMuger who bojt bei^u liijurixl bj u bilure of koj 
of thft Enonnd of tmnriporfnlion cnvinot tfVOVfr tttr Id- 
jurim OiUHo} lb<?ruby fDm tlie oi>ntnclm» «ho Mippliixl 
to t)id mflwuy tbe pfirticulur ardclo trbuH> lailuie «v« 
t.hfl n»tjiwi of liim ii.j"»n'» fnr th*ro i« no pririiy of oon- 
Irnol betvrvtru the paaHdix^r and ibat contractor.* On 

■W. A A. It K. *. AtlnTiU. <1«. Jfi Am, « EmB. K. OkGDj 
RobblfH ■!, Cljlna^-i, I Whll. rVf?! nidr^H ^^Cnlit'itl'lk fk K A T l£ K^4 Ab 
A Eric. K, K. r« i;u; Jimn of n»rt[dBD i- K- 11. ft ."<. H- &, ST? low. l«4j 

ftf:; uhl fif^rr* '- i^MrlnfiAf^ :. K ^ Iti. 1, w tfWiIvfbiiteUt ?!_-■■■ 
ih#F* ttti- HirronilBQU wvn bttd IbbLv D(<B ib« fTDBBd uf bud w4 mIii^ 

l^llllllnL. 



JOINT TDGT-FEAiHOfie. 



41S 



tlie MDOfl prfncLpte ft p«reoa irith when ft oontract baa 
Iwcii Qudii ihr ilio cftrrls^ of hinMnlf or of nny othor 
j>tir»t>u mny *tiv (or tliu cUnugH doQH lij U;c nulwuy'n 
breach of tluu cuDtruct. but oue who ia no panjf to itiO 
wntnurt of R»m'a^, howovwr mucJi h^ mny havi^ mif- 
fvi^J bjr the br«fldi tberaofr hatt no right of ucljuu fvr 
Uint broach J 

366, AVlicre tbo State, m tlic cxordioof it* aoreii- 
^^ity. hnit ukcn ponttuOQ of, And opvriitWt a »Uwaj 
line. It Ib, hy virtue of ite BOTcrolguty, (exempt fit^m 
Hnbility to pcnKins injun^l by the iicgligt^nc^c^ of tli« 
bUrv^iiQlA ivli>j ^0 ciujilujcij to o^midLu ihe llu^;' but 

tha ahoroa of the cui^iul stock of iha corporate bdcg 
ai a Icgul cbtUy duitiact frgm tlic corjpomtlotif* the ^ict 
Uml the SuUi In tlo owxtcr or all ^o ebucs of tha 
fltock of a rail^ray corporatioo wiU not «xiimpl tlio cor* 
poratioD from HahUity to «uit fur iujuria ouuvvd by 
DCgUj^uotf on il» pan.* 

3^7. Ji>iut torC^foflwra lun^ Jointly n&ti eevcrMlly linbtfi; 
thiw, in 0>l«gn>Tft V. N. Y. A N. H. R. R. A N. Y. & 
H- R R.' Uw pliuulifr, vrbile n |>H»cusvr upu^ a Iruin 
of the first itftmod oorporutiOQ defo^idant, Wfv injur^ 
In A <n1tuiion bi<iwiwn that irnin and n tniii of ihi- Uuit 
uum^ d^feaJaat, ariO it wub hold that tbo two curpuni- 
tioBS aa joint torL-f«u4an w<»ro jomlly lUblo to him-* 



' SlcJvkv f. Ilitt Qim T Oa a C lie; Tbv Qvro *. H«L«ed» 4 Id. 1, 
MHViiLAEnv,ILR,Oi*»l. 

a W*li. ATA. 
■ UvUdibwin fH U . A A, IL lt» » IbUb H^itfLl «M, 

Hf r 4h>tu< iM Di Ml. 13 Aio. A &i« a a ck i«ai Vru* i^ v. & 




JODTT lOBT-FEABOBB. 



re two or more persons or corporationa jointly 

te a railway, ihey are jointly and severallv liable 

reoDS injured in the course of the railway's opera- 

if ami they muy be sued joially or seTerally.^ 60 

railway aod ite aervant, who, by his act of eom- 

1, injureB any one to whom the railway owes a 

BT^ jointly liable for that iojury. 



Tmin c. B&LLb, so N. Y. AM, ? ■- ^ "^j . B. B. <>l Mfi ; SiatiU ■. IL 




XTJDENCa 



41fi 



CHAPTER IV. 

~lEVnii£?PCB nr Acrioira xo&ixst rxtlitavs for utJUKLa to 

Tiuc noiiov. 

L AdBlantlHtx df proof of d«3>nlloni uid lAnMoni fajr ifnti ud 

Di, AilTniHiUUhr tnt \hw t%dwMj of vlualKicuu tod lii^^iajbtiDW of IIh 

IV. AJwWHiJiH/ of 4tEi1«i» m tu aliiuLF[H tn ibo uHi«ni>?tiqn or moJii 
«f Opffnl^n of llu nil*r*7 nuJd wbiaqmntlr Co Ibe 1ii[ip«JDf 
of th* mnij, 
7. l&ipaniijti af lb* li^JDrU* of Ibt p«*oii Si^iundL 
Vr KrttlM>» u tn tTw> iipnd of (nUMk 
Vn. EtmIppm m to il«T4k 
Vlll. A<Luii«i|iiIJ.i; ur lirDidblsIn ertdanr^ 
UL KrMonc* «» Id povorLj of ^roou Jujuioil, ^it- 

3.^, Tbc lulmunibiliij of cvi^Imt^ in nctioni s^m^t 
milvrajs Uj in general, dei«rm![iaLl« bj tb« rultv of 
cridoRCO Bpitlicubk lo the parCiciilAr f>nn of aciioii, 
irbethor it be tr^|>iLas, C«ae, or ii»;uni[»It. I fJinll, 
th«rofbr(^» not.icfi only cerl&ln rutefl of frvidcnoe* wlioae 
upplicnbilJty and cQ'ucu h&ve bt^'D <]i«cUBsed in the 



1. Al>3(ldB|ttlUT7 or PROOK QW }>«Cl.AJtATlOm A7CI> 

%XUMt AT. 

Am& d«fl^am^Mnt artii wfrnuiiont arc on/3; aifmwiAI* cu /•crl v/ A* 
nil pMLr >oA''Ti m-tiit C4t4tUtmpi/nMnwuiiy Ufilh thi httppmmtf 0/ fA« 

359. Where tbe ftcc« of ftn af;oni or varvaat will bind 
lli« nilmif, ther^ th« reprOMatAlioiw, declAntioiui, And 



416 



IffiCLuunomi 



tuLiiiJ«doDa of eacb ftgvnt or wnvnt roipoctiDg tli« 
labgcc^nuttUr will abo biii4 tlie tvUvray. it made at 
Uu time of ibe Ii^iiry to ibo ptatDlifft and oouttiUitiii); 
part of Oic r«v gt-Mtr} Btit dtvlnrution* of llic u^vat 
or MTTVftut of the ruilivnT, if uiade Bubeequetstly to tb« 
lime of th# ii^urj lo tbe pUiotiiT, Ate not paH cf ibo 
ryv judce and are not admuublu in uvMoucv a^^tiitut tbe 
nlUuy.' Yet dedftratioos of a Mn-anl are adfuiwil/lo 
Trii^n proven to hnm bf^n mniki in tho c^miriMf of dutj, 
lu, fur itwbuicv, u rtpurL hy uu vo^n^dHvi-r tu u t»wjid)<> 
Uhrider llial be had run over a mtia, ti betog tho fDgue- 
(li'ivcr'n duly to import to tlin jEnilcb-tfndfrr, that Uie 
lau«r ml^ hold oUi^ traiov until lUe oljeiructkui w«a 
TomoTodt but d^^I^alioDt of tlic cu^nc^lnTcr of the 
manner of killing nnd the identitj of tlje jivnion kilted 
SLK not ftdmiaetble.' Declarations of bd alleged mmni 
of tbc milway arc not admia^ble nguluat iLc nulway to 



P.aft kf-HO^.TAld 2A: Mr1.«rt<l f. (ifnihfv.AI JCt »M< U An A E^ 

K.&ChiLi»i. a Id. m:f;U-r «, XT-c A a&B.K«Ti( sv.y.uAi 

PnuA. Cft *. KibloL 100 llL «n^ Am. A Kii«. R R CW SO. 

> V. ]VkBL<:vi.iLi:]^Eiirh,:!& w^tr.&'iv; M,au, il k, «. nam*, lo wii& 

)A9; P, ad fiLL, RK. KWrifbl. 40 Ind. IK^ S Am A Rn/R. B. Cw 
flV; Hwnir.C^l^ LAN'.ir K. IL, ;>» Mt» '^iR, Am A Va^ K. R Tk 
<m^ M, C It R, ». CQlomnn, ii Sly-h. 4lu; TroiulnTiy *, XCA^tMty^ 
40 lu«« AM^<: AN.W. lij. f. IVWtfT. ^7 llLVfir^; Punl t. S A R. R, 

k H. n, Ky, QA Md. 847, II Aw. A Giw, IE, R <Vi, llA; Vbttt -. K. O, ft. 
AM-fir, «TIo>fcM»t yo<ninni", n nmni^Ut,«T. B.T.V. AG. RB. 
hlKvpi^M la^ail; Tr-ria *h I^ A >- R K. » Im [Trnm.} S^fl , Tun-v 
ftLAK,B,K.90jUL4^1;Ne'.Wb-y CRR.T05.CXlt»; AJvu 
tH II A ^ J K. R, 74 Mo JVM, T Am. A KDff. R K. <^ 4U ] lAbf f. IL ft. 
ILlt-ITS,\ 131 i B«aSJl-rar N Y. C R mfllia.llWjWMi.W--r. 
A-R R. Ill, 3S1A. Mjuifi»,^r- ll.lL,MljkS74i t'olKw.a f . W . A 1.4 
1>. ILf« M Midi, m, IB An. A Enfl, E-RCu. \A<'[ A-O.c^ llj^t.!!**^ 
n Alk 1^1. ]H Airi. A Kuir. R U CW.1H; Uil'uiwtl • H. A ^ J. Bf^ 
71 Ml. MA, = Am. A Kog. R. R CU HD. 

> J1, A O. R R ». SEa:^, Ili ih uf .VUi»[i. dS UJ. 470, t» Ab A Eb^ R R 
CWSt 



UJiXXAItAT[UMt, 



417 



proTO lliat the p^rMo inRkiii|[ tliA dodaration was t 
tcrv^uit gf the milwAj.* 



n. ADMlWiniUTT TOR THE PLAINTIFF OP PftOOF OP 
DRCLABAno\B 01" THK PEAHOX IMCRBIK 

;Rioft rf*-Ajmfien* arv oriinwJKf *r tft< plaintij if pari*/ tt< tw 
f uCv Quit vutdn ajtitimpornnrnmily with £ft' ha^ptniji^ i^ i)it tiyurjr, 
^ Otey itrt nflfiti iwjfciiew lulmimhta ui " dyi/t^ dnUntwtu* 
and attanaUBnt tftht ptfton it^/vrtJ. irrdbcatiiiff poin awinjfkt* 
inff. i/^OffS mnrffl wubtf^iienttf to the iijjnry^ am admimiU& la r«^ 

SnO. It hju b«CQ lidd thnt dcclarritiOTK of p^TMna 
ifijurei}, ta to ihe CAUxe of iWlnjurjr. ure udininiMe ta 
tridencG for tiK plAinlifF iih imrt of iho rf* pt^tUr^ if llic 
dodomUouv wctc mttde at the tim^ of tho iiccicJcnt.* It 
^Jifts &lao been hfiM that dechrAtions and ^xprMsioiiiR of 
l)i« injured pcTinD^ indicjiting pnin uod mftcfwg, m* 
vdmuudblc in cridcucv fur the |ikutLiff ta port of tbc 
rv4i jff'jT^E, Altbough mfldo at a lime mbaeqiwnt to iLe 
bnppeniiig nf lh"> irynrv ;' and wWp tlin pUintifT mrd 
fbr d(] injury Uouu tci Lib li-j-. u plttcti of Iwiw wttn 
aJmiUod in evxtlvaftt wlih proof of the plablilTV decls^ 
mtictn mjidft iinli'i^rjucntly to thd injuryp that it hiid jiint 
con^ out of Uib leg.* Bat suoh deckratlooa tttd «cl^ 
niationt* if inn<^^ at d [ni>Tliuil cxuminulioti wbich was 
ttO^Cttttken fox the purpowo of i>tilaininfi Injlimony to 
be iie0<] on b«half of l)i9 plaintiff at ihe irijtl. urv nnt 
aduii»ib1&' Dnckratiotw of the purvon injurv4l, %9 to 

> l.lvl-ir *. C. R. a, WOft. 44T, 

>lJ]i«tiEte*.r*TtHr»«0 Ho-SIt: B»f.C. AM. W, ltr,tt Wia«M^ 
Hnxni-lt •, r. K. IL. 41 >Ia M^r [ »Mdu >. H. R, 1 I'Mla. 3u3 

'II.AT.CIL R.r.8h^ar. UT«,«lJ.« Am. A Ei^ R R 4W «S1 ^ 
AfWfi f- LojO KhiMHl A Kw tui; M«(u-w> •«. N. Y. (X R K, 11 », V. 
«rjP«tkliii».aRR, 44X.il nil U*«>a]«Au »^C L&lLJL&,f» 

• Piiitli *. G, a L A r. Rr, U lin* AIX 1« Aift A C^ a R. Cte 11. 
*4LaA L R R >. HitmlvT, 14 Ud^lkCOTH 



€1S 



VSCLABATIOViL 



ih^ ev^jM? of bm injury* wlien niJuJv ul\cr llic- liappcniDg 
of Ux« injurv, mxti cci3«UUitm£ mcrdy a luiTr&lirt of « 
pnjrl lTnn«iof ion^ nrr' not pArt of thn nv yf*i^j aim! nro 
not M'tiuunibltT in uviti'^^cu for the pluiiiUfT.' Dcvpim 
the eutlioriiiefl nlilcb have bom citcii, ll may vcdl be 
doiibtoi) wWhcTT tli(T dFclAmlimiiE nf th« pfrrmn injiiivd, 
if made Aubttpquvarly lo ihe iioury. &r«,!o «iiy c«w, 
If^^iKrrljr admU*itilc fctr the pUintilFr for llicy arc not 
mUniaKions AgAiDAt Jnif^Kwl, nor am ibey part of (be >v# 
j7«!t£f, m t1i» etnae that tb^y are conUinponncou» 
npkiinlioiiB of any net done on tbc part of ibc^ plAJc* 

36J Dying ilcclsmtions &r« sdmunUa only in 
critnlnjil prosot'UEkuiV u^^f <^ counK, ue not ndaam^ 
hU in civil actions againat ralNaja Ibr ii^urice «auabf( 
death.' 



m. nis APMTs^iiiiiJTr m e\ti>b5ce foe ibe kail- 
way Of Tilt x-ii^mr or xttvis^n^an xvu urcLxnx- 

TIOKS BY THE Pl^KdON DfJCftCD. 
&^ (MamnuDnj, at irWnw Nin^ maJr, nrv admtmUt in •nJncv 

3ll'^. Dwrlnrnti^nii &n<l adrnwiooiit of the pnvon in- 
jiir«i.b at n]idf«oever tttne made, atq admMble In eri* 
ilcncc for tbc rnilwny, ah lulmuwiotls B^inflt int<n>it( 
and when* ll* pUhilin" in nol tbe perMSn iiyured. Uicy 
nr« binding upon ilie plainlitT by reaaon of hia privily 
wiLb the- pcivon iiijiircd.* But tbc docloTAtiotia of ono 

iWJarf*»,Iff.r a* as, B. R,06N.T.r^lOAmAKr«,B.&. 
CBb, 4^1 (\, I.. A C. K- U. r >[h^ so OIuo R. W; L CK & f. SoOoi, It 

IIL lasi ivw f. o, T, 11, m 4* X, IT- Wt, 

>hUr>SaUr,<; Ali. K.ti, KU n:.4Tn^ Dillt t.Tf- T.4 :<. R, |LrL,tt 
Cimifi. SflO ; WiJ*.!. t N. Y. C A K. B. R R- ^Jfl Run. (S, Y,] «». 

't^iflr fkH. A. 1^, lOn.Itt MO', Cartpff ».c;lL^«4Io«BlU;iif.^ 
O, A U. B, B. D. Jlunnwnlci^, 2:1 liid.3;i. 



OVBttWOItlE^D CiaAVA.Hia. 



4id 



who L« it^iilinr thi) pcnun injnrcd, nor tbo plmntifT, nor 
lli« plumiiil'd u^i-'m, uru iK>t zulmMulUu lu (<vid<rAOU for 
tljtr ni;]ts'LLy ; liiuj% wli^ntn irifcisitf^ in her nvvn nglit for 

liiLdlKtuJ Lt4 tu iLti t:ii)im itS tbo iiyury &ro not adaiihail/lo 
in cvidfucc agLuctfrt licr;' nor ore tli« dccl*mtiotm of a 
wife lu u Hm ciiaitt^ of tbe lujurj admifieiliU iu eridenoe 
Ba »^j;sl lior 1ju»b&Ddt the pJsiDtifll^ 

dirtit rnifmrv </ <ft*/nrt. Or MirfrHy by fWJmM fJitf I** rmVuiai^ 
A>na7il lArXK, at ifm Umt of tht i'\juty^ iitmpattititrni hf inTitruntiin 
creiStTvritc, httt ii cannot haprnvrd hy nhmeing Ihcl tSt tfrvantg 

363- h>iftrQ(!0 w admi^iMr to pTOT^tbnt ft milwny 
irviLfiL wbii T^utt chared with iliu pt*T^>rJunDOt ot n par- 
ticular liuty at ft partlcTilnr Uma,ftndwh(w« iiOD-|>erform- 
tnCGof lliftt duty won the CHUWof (he injnry for which 
the plaintiff 400*, did not jjorforui tbut duty by r*ai(Oii of 
hU ahwnre fVom hia poat, or hccATiut ha wsia ihmi inoa- 
padlated by dninkt-iiaiwi, or Qthcrnbv: but cvidt^icc 
la uoK lulmla^jblv lu prove that fiprvitiita of the ratlv*at, 
who nrn cbmrgftd with thr pnrfnrmnn^i of Rorh fiiilini, 
HTVio hjLlMtuully ovcrworkuJ thul th«y un? iml wmju.*- 
toni for tba porfomaance of i\mr dutiee. Tot 8uob evi- 
dtnco i«» At bc!jit, only a prMiimption fnnndnd upon a 
pKmunpLSou.' 

> K«U» iLaCAG<.P. B.IL3T Mlun. J7B. 
> AtUli»lI t N- Y. C, R. K, « N, \. », 



420 



COLl^TllRAL OCCCSBEaiGlS. 



IV. ADkUBfflbtUTr OF PBOOF OT VOIXATBMAI4 OOCGl- 

iinie 6y rA« ralothn <if ctiiud awf ^fi"!* w not adntuiUt in tridtmM^* 

8C4> The gMieral n\W U ilint quoted in Uic liciuj 
ude, &0U1 3Ir. Jiutkii Slcphvu^' Uiud, Liii« clia^ict of 
lieglig»>nc« ftgninRl llio milwaj bf^Dg bOHtd on ibn mnio* 
IcDumici of an jmpcrfm:! awJIch luid the fnUttm Ui rr|mir 
a bruLt^u mil, c-vjJt'>uco ofoEJivr ilt>rtn;Li &t otli«r pi>iDlS 
on the lino u not ndmwiblc' 80, in nn ortion for in* 
Juriot to a pajneuger c-vid<;QC« i* not aduiNibleof 
vMlicr acciJi'iu al Uiv aomo plao uudrr simifsr dr- 
camitoncM/ 'Hierc arc, hotvcsvcr, ncume c««c« irliich 
insiiiiain a tlin^'ivnt duL-triae; tLuB, tke qaentiua at 
i^ur liciitg whclbcr Kt^nals were given at a [turticnlni 
crua^iiig by u jiUTticulflr tritin, it ha^ btui hdd tbntevi* 
d^Dco ie aJmiasibk to bIiov thai bucL aignaU vien not 
givun by tbuC trikin nt imoLbcr crossing.* It hoM lUo 
Wu Ji«M thai evidcQcv v> aditikeMt to bUow tLut en- 
gine? of thn di^ftrndiint linbilually ptiaa AtsxrinLn orowng 
ut grvut eiMii'd, lu u-ndiiig Ui frovc limt on n particular 
OccH^iou aiiollier eu^uu did pa^ the croeaiiig at ^reat 
fipeiHi/ Th« nflglignnoc chiu'giffd upon l.ho miliroy bring 
a failure tij □lAJntain its line in a Bate c<ruOiii<'n lor the 
tma^portiuioji of ps«GDg«ra, evidt^DC^ ba» bom hdd to 
b<> aclmi^ildi? of r«vnt and trcqnrnt dcnulmonta of iti 
IrjiLii^,* lu flUL-h a efi^\ evideii<« haa aUo be^u li«ld u> 

T,tX»^l.h.L\;. t,Wi|]J4Ui>, 14 IqJ. 4«% 3 Adl A Ko» It n- Cvh -tt? [ 
JU-Jt^W, Y-i; AR„*fl?(, Y-AT4. 

■DntttK 0.4C, RR.4 0K«uim; C,&A Q. R B- *■ L*^ «Cl HI. «0I. 

■Iiimrii. (r, M ANl I'. K it, 41 WIa 4J^T, 10 Afn, A &^ ft. IL Ci^ 
SOU 

*»>bibeT^I«.R, M.A M. 1LFt.?S Mnio. IM.3 Ad.A ICocS.LCkLlKLj 
/ M. A IL B. a. 1. Afluv«A U All. Jfi, 4tf Id, 3M, 



BQIILAR ACClDEmL 



421 



be ottmioilbTA w to th« unsafe condtttioii of lli^ lino At 
|H>izitfl oth«f IhsD thut wbcre llw iiyur^ bapfx^n^^i' 
Ttko LtuotrinooftWRaucft w raon: than qui^tionutile. 
The eiieie[i» of negligoaoe upon the |)artof tbe railwair 
St ft LUlTrr«nt placo, or »t ibe wuuc plncc upon oiioClicr 
ocscttAOD, is not acoemnly incotui^tcnl with Uie excrcke 
of dufi «aTO on tb« part of tLe railway At tfao litne and 
plaon of ihtt injury, nrnl ihi; ititrodiiction of proof of 
KUi^l) coJLuti>raL uvi^urrviit^ea uiMXHoirily ruinen for d«L(!r^ 
Biin-'Uion by ih^ jury dialmct JaAUfi^, ivlto«o conAidoiufion 
boa an ubvloiu LttiJuncy t» divert tlieir mindu fmrn tbo 
iBSaea nlaed by tlie pltuJlu^'s in tlitf oiiut^. Of outm«^ 
tbU riilo dofl* not ox^iliiclt? tbo m^loiiw of occoiprpnoa^ 
whtoU are not collateral to tbc pUtDtifT*! injury ; tJiiu^ 
vrliore the plaintiff auM for it^uriea n«ukitig ffcon ibe 
fr]](ht of a liOTve couswl by iiomc partii-ukr nQUct cvi* 
deu<!e that other borMB wore rrij^btisneij ut tlml time by 
Ilia anmo Di^io is admlnibl*} for it tenda lo prove th« 
danjccroua dumcter of the noise.' So, wbcre tlic cam 
turna on ibe BulHciency or iDfiuflicieni^y of a piirEiniilar 
appliance auchaA > awit^li, oYidvno? Im ndmimibleof 
otbvr acciduuta cuue^iI by awituhuB limikrly co