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Full text of "Railway and locomotive engineering : a practical journal of railway motive power and rolling stock"

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% locomotive 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling Stock and Appliances 



INDEX FOR VOLUME XXVIII, 1915 



Illustrated Articles 
marked *. 



Ait Brake Articles: 

'Accelerating and Retarding Force. Equipoise 

in, 168. 
'Air lirake, The Goff Electro Pneumatic, 279. 
Air Brake Instruction, 1 8. 

*Air Brake Instruction Room, A Modern, <S. 
Air lirake. Introduction to the Study of, 221, 

256, 292. 
*Air lirake Parts, Shipping, 77. 
*Air lirake Pump Repair, 152. 
'Air Hrake Question, Answers to, 112. 
'Air Hrake Valve, i .on lilt- Heading, 15. 
Air Pipes with E. T. Equipment, 380. 
Air Pressure, Expansion of, 375. 
*Air Pump Heads, Repairing, 261. 
Air Pump Repairs, 191. 
Hrake Efficiency, 1 58. 

Brake Experiments on the Pennsylvania, 131. 
Brake Fails to Apply, 267. 

* Brake 1 mprovements, 128. 
Brake Inspection, 51. 

Brake Valve on Second Engine, Handling, 51. 

Brakes, Applying, 375. 

Braking Power, Definition of, 366. 

Braking Power and Foundation Brake dear, 

328. 
Braking Ratios for Passenger Service, 401. 
'Control Valve, Operation of, 56. 
'Convention of the Air Brake Association, 201. 
'Differential Pistons, Kitting Packing Rings in, 

78. 
Distributing Valve, Defective, 303. 
I louble Heading Freight Trains, 33&. 
Electro- Pneumatic Brake, New York P. S., 

417. 
'Empty and Load Freight Brake, 129, 236, 271. 
K. T. Brake, Defective, 303. 
E. T. Equipment, Handling Defective, 418. 
'Federal Daw Relative to Air Brake, 344. 
*Frieght Brake, Improved, 166. 

* Motor Driven Air Compressors, 380. 
*P. C. Equipment, 20. 

* Pittsburgh Electro Pneumatic Brake, 309. 
Quick Action, Causes of Undesired, 375. 
'Rack fur Repair Work on Air Pumps, 45. 
Reservoir Reduction, Rate of Equalizing, 273. 
Split Reductions, 339. 

I esting Device, Air Brake, 331. 
Tests, Air Brake, 46, 80, 92. 
Triple Valves, Dirty, 238. 
"Triple Valves, Lubrication of, 1S5. 
Triple Valve, Release of K, 51. 
Undesired Quick Action, Causes of, 405. 

Valve, Improved Double Heading, 293. 

* Wrench for Repair Work on Air Pumps, 191. 
'Address at San Francisco by W. R. Scott. 349. 
Advertising, Merit of, 1 25. 

Alloy, Adhesive, 163. 

'Ambulance Car, Newest British, 346. 

Anvils, Making and Repairing American, 34. 

Apprentices, Progressive, 260. 

Apprentices, Training, 142. 

'Armored Railroad Cars, 153. 

'Ash-Pan Three-Way Valve, 402. 

Ash-Pans, Vacuum in, 23!. 

Automobiles Crossing Railroad Tracks, 376. 



B 



Book Reviews: 



Autocrat at the Lunch Table, 286. 

Cal lender Steam Tables, 359. 

Electrical Measurements and Meter Testing, 
3 2 3 . 

Ford Car, 286. 

Franklin Institute Year Book, 360. 

Gasoline Engines, 71. 

Human Nature and Railroads, 214. 

International Railway General Foremen, Re- 
port uf, 1 3. 

Locomotive Charts, 396. 

Locomotive Engineers' Pocket Book. 144. 

! oi omotive Engine Running and Management, 
323. 

Machine I >esign, Con -t ruction and Drawing, 
214. 

Mastei ( *ar Buildei s' Repi n i . 70. 



Master Mechanics' Report, 71. 

McRae's Blue Book, J86. 

Oil Fuel for Steam Boilers, 108. 

Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Cutting, 143. 

Patent Reports, 35. 

Porter Steam Locomotives, 287. 

Practical Mechanics and Applied Subjects. 39?. 

Practical Track Work, 359. 

Proceedings of the Air Brake Association, 323. 

Proceedings of the General Foremen's Associa- 
tion, 431. 

Proceedings of the Railway Fuel Association, 
322. 

Railway Regulation, 431. 

Report of the Smithsonian Institute, 323. 

Report of the Tool Foremen's Association, 35. 

Results of Electrification. 287. 

Safety Appliances, 107. 

Statistics of Railways, 395. 

Steam Boilers and Combustion, 286. 

Telephone Handbook, 107. 

Testing of Machine Tools, 431. 

Traveling Engineers' Proceedings, 35. 

Valve Setters' Guide, 143. 
Back Cylinder Pressure and Compression, 298. 
Balanced Valves, Prejudiced Against, 342. 
'Baltimore and Ohio, Heavy Hauling on the, 289. 
Belts, Cleaning and Oiling, 332. 
Boiler Accidents, Minor, 89. 
Boiler Construction. 259. 

Boiler Construction. Maintenance and Inspec- 
tion, 16. 
Boiler Efficiency. 4o. 

Boiler, Improving the Locomotive, 97. 
Boiler, Inspection of Locomotive, 226. 
Boiler Inspection Service, Operation of, 200. 
Boiler Washing, 226. 
•Boiler Patch. An Efficient, 222. 
Boilers, Their Strength and Weakness, 306. 
*Box Car for the Illinois Central, 60. 
'Brake, Electrically Operated, 63. 
Brake Hnrse Power, 158. 

Brake Shoe and Brake Beam Equipment, 228. 
Brazing Fluxes, 265. 
Breakage in Steam Chest, 267. 
Brick Arch Coming into Favor, When It Was, 

161. 
Brick Arch. Influence of. 121. 
*Bridge Bearing Box. Repairs on, 259. 
*Bridge Crossing the Calumet River, 109. 
Bridge on the Big Fraser River, New Type of, 2. 
^Bridge Repairs on Canadian Pacific, 153. 
* Bridge Repairs on the Duluth, South Shore & 

Atlantic, 331. 
British Railways, Protection of, 54. 
British Thermal Unit, 123. 
British Railways, The War and, 6. 
Business Locked (hit, American. 162. 
Business, Predicted Revival of, 340. 



% 



.Vi> 



^ 



( anada, Railway Management in, 370. \ 

* anada, Railway Mileage in, 336. 

Car Construction, 228. 

*Car for the Northern Pacific, Postal. I. 

*Car, United States Bureau of Standard. 371. 

Car Wheels, 22S. 

Car Wheels, Flat Spots on, 195. 

Car Wheels, Motion of, I'M. 

Carbon as a Life Creator, 268. 

Carnegie's Compliment to Angus Sinclair, 356, 

*Cars for the New England Coal and Coke I !o . 

Hopper, 97. 
i 'asehardening, 1 1 7. 
Catechism of Railroad Operation, 14, 49. 86 I 

230. 266, 301, 337, 373. 4 Id. 
Cement, Fireproof, 1 17. 
( heating the Railroads, 162. 
Chicago & Northwestern, Safety on, 3. 
Chinese Railroad, The First, 351. 
< Cleanliness, [nfluence "f. 85. 
Coal Economy, Importance of, 12, 47. 
' oke .is Locomotive Fuel. 61. 
College Graduates, Against, 379. 
i !ombusl ion, Tin Atom in, 269. 
Competition, Results of Senseless, 370. 
'Compound I ocomotive, Articulated. 50. 
I on pound Locomotive, Quadruplex, 320. 



Congress, International Engineering, 15. 

Convention, Master Blacksmiths', 322. 

I onvi ntions, Master Mechanics' and Master Car 

Builders', 65. 
Convention, Railway General Foremen's, 282. 
I inventions. The Railway Mechanical, 232. 
'Convention, The Travelling Engineers', 304, 333. 
( orrespondence, General, 5, 40, 76. 
Corrosion, Protecting Iron from, 98. 
"Corrugated Firebox Boiler, 402. 
Counterbalance, The Effect of Over, 96. 
(«ni nter ha lancing. Locomotive, 226. 
Counterbalancing. Locomotive I )riving Wheels, 

196. 
I ' iuplers, 228. 

Crane Locomotives in India, 203. 
Curves, Degrees of, 123. 
Cutting Metal, The Supreme, 405. 



D 

Daylight in Railway Shops, 160. 
•Deflector Shield for Locomotives, Double, 329. 
"Deschutes Canyon, In the, 253. 
Dining Car Politeness, 341. 
Draft Equipment, 229. 
Drill Press, High Speed. 123. 
Drinking, Concern that Advocates, 18. 
Driving, Soft Tools for, 283. 

•Dynamometer Car. Construction and Use of 
186. 



E 

Electrical Department: 

Actuating Brakes, Economy in Using Elec- 
tricity, 170. 
Bucket Operated Electrically, Clam-shell, 101 
( aides, Splicing of Electric, 62. 
"Chicago, Milwaukee it St. Paul, Electrification 

of, 361. 
Compensator Type Relay. 389. 
"Dreadnoughts, Electric Drive for, 134. 
Drills, Portable Electric. 29. 
Electric Headlights, 284. 
. 'Electric Towing System for the Panama 
Locks, 37. 
Electrical Science, Development of, 352. 
"Electric System of Lighting, Bruston, 425. 
Electricity Direct from Coal, 160. 
Electricity. When Prostrated by, 275. 
Electrification of the Philadelphia and Paoli 
Division, 420. 
Electrification of Puget Sound Lines of the 
Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul, 28. 
Electrostatic Potential and Synchronism In- 
dicators, 316. 
"Elkhorn Grade, Electrification of, 181. 
"Flagman, The Automatic, 170. 
•Incubator, Electric. 135. 
Locomotives, Italian Passenger, 204. 
"Motor, The Wee, 353. 

"Oil Switch. Improved Industrial Type, 241. 
'Oscillator, New High Frequency, nl 
Pennsylvania Electric Locomotives, Perform- 
ance of, 278. 
Radiator, An Electric Steam, 29. 
'Searchlight. The Automobile, 100. 
"Shovel, Electrically Driven. 62. 
Signal System of the New York Municipal Ry., 
207. . 
Substation Equipment on the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee ,\ St. Paul. 240. 
Substation, Semi-outdoor Portable, 100. 
Telephone, The Thermal, 62. 
I elescribe, The, 101. 
'Turbines, Cooling Air for Electric, 134. 
'Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing 
Company's Exhibit, 388. 
Education, Power of, 307. 
Energy and Power, Discrimination Between, 125. 

Engine Drivers, Noble, 16 ' 

Engine, The Solar, 307. 
Engineering Foundation, _' 1 2. 
Engi eers and Fireman, The, 34 ' 
"Erie Eightieth Anniversary, 400. 
Eric Railroad Celebration, 39 



366012 



■ ■■■•■■■■ 



INDEX FOR VOL. XXVIII 



i haust Nozzle, Improved, 151. 
Exhausts, Variable, 227. 
Exhibit at the Panama- Pacific Exposition, Bald 

w in's, 165. 
Exhibitions, Industrial, 340. 
Europe, Passing Events h 
Eye Accidents, Percentage of, 



i i i in imy .nul Its Results, -tn-t. 
Fewer Hours and How to Obtain Them, 365. 
Figures Lie, Making, 197. 
Files, About, 387. 

Fireboxes, Corrugated Plates in, L87. 
In < man, Work of a Model, 234. 
Fireman, Training of, 412. 
Firemen and Krakemen, Show Meeting ' >rd( i - 

to, 378. 
Fires, To Prevent Destructive, 55. 
Firing, Smokeless, 133. 
Flues, Waste from Lower, 16-'. 
Footboard, Heroes of the, 348. 
Foreman, An Efficient Shop, 127. 
Freight Rates Granted, Increase of, 16. 
Freight Traffic, Sudden Revival of, 377. 
Friction, The Laws of, 159. 
*Front End Doors, Grip for Lifting, 152. 
Fuel Bill, Locomotive, 312. 
Fuel Economy, 225. 
Fuel Economy, Erie Scheme of, 52. 
Fuel, Powdered, 209. 
Fuel Saving Scheme, Practical, 233. 
Fuels, Selection of Locomotive, 188. 
Full Crew Law, Fighting the, 89. 
Full Crew Law, The, 125. 
*Furka Railway, The, 254. 



Gasolene Motor Car, New Type, 299. 

Gasolene, To Cheapen, 127. 

General Foremen's Association. 248. 

General Foremen's Department. 84. 

Glass, Etching, 117. 

Glass, Making Holes in, 117. 

*Gondola Cars for the Russian Railways, 423. 

Grate Area and Heating Surface, Ratio of, 338. 

Grate Area to Combustion, Ratio of, 124. 

Grease Cup, Principle of, 194. 

Grill, Carnegie and Rockefeller on, 88. 

Grievance Committee, Personnel of, 377. 



H 

Hammer Face, Hardening a, 117. 
Headlights, Locomotive, 226. 
Headlights, Locomotive Electric, 19. 
Heat, Motion and Work, 313. 347. 
Horsepower, 91. 

Horsepower and Absolute Zero. 194. 
Humorist, A Railroad, 322. 



I 

Idea, A New, 305. 

Injector Lore, Some, 121. 

Injector, The, 305. 

Inspection Bill, Locomotive, 89. 

Insurance, Locomotive Engineers', 135. 

Mnterborough Rapid Transit, Improvements 

146. 
Inventions and Development, Board of, 269. 
Iron and Steel Production, 415. 
Iron Production, 96. 



Jitney, The, 194. 
ioint, Wiping a, 117. 

I riinal Box Packing, Manipulation •>(, 223. 
'(miction Box, Home Made, 43. 



Locomotives: 

'American Locomotive Co.. Mikado for the 

( Ireek Government, 406. 
"American Locomotive Co.. Mogul for the 

Serbian Government, 407. 
"American Locomotive Co., Mountain Type f>>\ 

the Seaboard Air Line, 224. 

* American Locomotive Co., Pacific Type for 

the Chesapeake & Ohio, 25. 

rican Locomotive Co., Pacific Type for 
the Delaware & Hudson Co., 24. 

* American Locomotive Co., Suburban Tvpe for 

the Grand Trunk, 82. 
' Ami * ican Locomotive Co.. 2-6-6-2 Mallet for 
the Serbian Railway, 407. 



i 1 lotive Co., 0-6-0T Type I'm the 

Belgian State Railways, 408. 
American I ocomotive < o., J-10-2 Type for the 
l ian State Railways, 408. 
.Mean Locomotive Co., 2-6-0 Type foi I'. 
ter the Great Fortress Reval, Russian I -■ i 
rii M.tte Railway, 409. 
I. 1-10-2 Tvpe for the Colorado South- 

ern, 263. 
Bald type for the Erie, 120. 

Baldwin, 2-8-0 Type for the St. Louis, Bn 

vill.e & Mexico, 48. 
Baldwin, Decapod Type for Russian Stat. 
Railways, 297. 
"Baldwin, Locomotives for Logging, 208. 
"KnMwin. Mikado Type for the Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy, 263. 
"Baldwin, Mikado Tvpe for the Fort Worth 

& Denver, 264. 
'Baldwin, Mikado for the Nashville, Chatta- 
nooga & St. Louis, 164. 

vin, Mogul for the Newburgh and South 
Shore, 416. 
■"Baldwin, Pacific Type for the Chicago, Bui 

lington & Quincy, 262. 
'Baldwin, Pacific Type for the Nashville, Chat- 
tanooga & St. Louis, 164. 
" Baldwin, Pechot Type for France, 192. 

* Baldwin, Switching for the Chicago Greal 

Western, 368. 

"Baldwin, Switching for the Lehigh and New 
England, 312. 

•Baldwin, Switching for the Public Belt Rail- 
way, New Orleans, 369. 

'Baldwin, Ten -Wheel Type for the Louisiana 
Railway & Navigation Co., 235. 

•Baldwin, Ten -Wheel Tvpe for the Southern, 
11. 

"Lima Loco. Corp., Mikado Type for the Geor- 
gia Railroad, 156. 

* Porter's Heavy and Light Saddle Tank Loco 

motives, 300. 



Locomotive Running Repairs: 

I. Introductory and Division of Engine 
House Work, 308. 
II. Readjusting the Stephenson Valve Gear, 
343. 
* III. Readjusting the Walschaerts Valve Gear, 
364. 
IV. Treatment of Impurities in Water, 415. 
M.unp, 150 Watt Power Tungsten, 9. 
Launching on the Great Lakes, 314. 
Lap and Clearance, 87. 

Laving Rails with Locomotive Cranes, 29S. 
Lead, Boring, 332. 
Legislation, Ignorant, 307. 
Legislation, Trainmen Fighting, 320. 
I iberty Bell, The, 275. 
Kink Motion Eccentric, The, 414. 
"Lively Old Timer on the Erie, 367. 
1 ocomotive Development, S. M. Vauclain on, 10. 
I ' comotive, Efficiency of the, 54. 
I .ocomotive Lubrication, Notes and Comments 
on, 114, 148. 
Locomotive Models in Smithsonian Institute, 195. 
'Locomotive. Shay Geared, 206. 
Locomotive, Speed of, 268. 
Locomotive, The Mud Hen, 199. 
"Locomotives, Cost of Steam and Electric, 197. 
Locomotives, Tireless, 284. 
Locomotives, Gas-Electric for the "Dan Patch" 

Lines, 383. 
Locomotives, Pooling, 64. 

Locomotives, Saturated and Superheated, 87. 
Locomotives, Two and Three Cylindered, 267. 



M 



Machine Shop Conditions, 17. 
Magnolia Cut-off, Completion of, 3, 1S4. 
Master Boiler Makers' Association, 140. 
Master Car Builders' Committees of. \ \7. 
* Master Car Builders, Convention of, 228. 
"Master Mechanics, Annual Convention of, 225. 
Master Mechanics' Association Business, 379. 
Master Mechanics' Committees on Subjects, 391. 
Mathematics, Trautwine on Higher, 163. 
Matter and Atoms, 127. 

Mazda Lamp, The Edison Incandescent, 26. 
Mazda Lamps, Price Reduction in, 136. 
Mazda Lamps, Small, 132. 

Mechanical Drawn Vehicles. Progress of, 31 7 
Mechanical Organization of Railroads, The, 161. 
Mechanics, Scarcity of British, 197. 
Mi ii. Self-made, 385. 
Mercury, Mysteries of, 19,8. 
Metal Corrosion, Causes of, 248. 
Metals, Transmutation of, 61 . 
Mile of Railroad, Cost of, 1^4. 

Milling Machine, New Type of, 136. 
Modern Locomotive, Design and Construction 
of. 332. 

Motoi * ars. The Value of, 386 



N 

National Tube Company's Exhibit, 245. 
Nil i .- 1 Plating, 117. 241. 
Nighl Work Expensive, 161. 



o 

Obituaries: 

Allen, \V. F.. 427. 
Brown, Richard S.. 281. 

I '■ \ OJ . Jam.- I 

1 In ve, Edward M., .555. 

I lendr.ickson, I. < '•.. 427. 

Lee, Martin Ii'., 281, 

Mcintosh, William, 139. 

McKenzie, William, 281 

Mi ier, Edward 1 1 , 67. 

Moore, Charles Arthur, 31. 

Shay, Matthev, 11., 281. 

Van rlorne, Sir William. 355. 

cials, Underpaid Railroad. 53. 

Overland Fair Limited, < hi the, "mi 
Ownership of Railroads, Against Public 232. 



Alexander, Walter, 139 
Alquist, P., 280. 
Baldwin, Lewis W.. 67 
Barry, I. P., 67. 
Bartlett, Henry, 302. 
Barton, 1). E., 67. 
Bell. Norman, 66. 
Bernet, .1. }., 66. 
1:.. . , . . 1 ,311. 
Brassill, 1. lv. 67. 
Brice, A. D., 30. 
Brooks, C. E., 390. 
Bryant, B. II., 139. 
Buckland, E. G., 318. 
Buriin, I). E„ 210. 
Burns, T. I., J46. 
Callahan, T. W., 30. 
Candler. Asa G., 355. 
Carey, J. [., 355. 
Carlson, F. C. 31S. 
Cassaday, .(. A., 30. 
Chamberlain, T. W-, 67. 
Chandler, R. L., 354. 
Chapman, I.., 30. 
Chidley, Joseph, 102. 
Clough, 1). I.., 354. 
Cogley, M. T., 31S. 
Crawley, P. E„ 66. 
Curran, D. D.. 30. 
Curry, T. I... 246. 
Delanev. J., 30. 
Del Mar, William A., 31S. 
Eager. A. E., 390. 
I irlj wine. R. C, 391. 
Easterly. J. S.. 30. 
Everett, S. W., 210. 
Fuizev, I, W., 426. 
French, T. D., 2S0. 
Gailor, C. F.. 426. 
Gillespie, \Y., 30. 
Gould. E. F„ 319. 
Griest, E. E., 67. 
Hamilton, L. F., 175. 
Harris, Albert H., 67. 
Harris, E. T., 354. 
Hibbits, F. N., 280. 
Hinkens, Geo. F., 67. 
Holland, W. D., 246. 
Jackson, A. S., 30. 
June, Jesse G., 210. 
Keller, W. H., 103. 
Keller. W. H. 246. 
Kendall, A. H., 355. 
Kinney, W. H., 103. 
Kirk. Mm. 210. 
Kyle, G., 103. 
Lamb, V. J.. 139. 
I.amme, Benjamin G., 355. 
Leake, J. F.. 30. 
Lincoln; Paul M., 426. 
Linthicum, P., 354. 
Lloyd, T. E., 354. 
Love. t. E., 318. 
MacBain, D. R.. 67. 
Macbeth, H. O.. 210. 
Macl.aren, G. F.. 426. 
Madden, D. T., 67. 
Marshall, Win., 210. 
MeAlpin. T. H, 390. 
McArthur, J. O., 30. 
McCann. E. H.. 30. 
McCarthy, D. C, 30. 
Mfl.ue, A. P., 390. 
McMillan. A. E.. 103. 
M, Parrland, M. B., 246. 
Mi Inc. 355. 
Miller. F. P., n 
M.-1W. M.-iv W„ 246. 
Mitchell, T. A., 246. 



INDEX FOR. VOL. XXVIII 



Montaeue, W. 1'., 390. 

Moore, Philip W., 139. 

Moore, W. C., 390. 

Morey, E. 11., 139. 

Murphy, J. F., 426. 

Needham, E. F., 102. 

Nelson, J. P., 354. 

Newman, C. M., 103. 

O'Brien, J. E., .554. 

O'Brien, T. ( . 102. 

Ord, L. C, 355. 

Paquette, C. A., 139. 

Parker. C. A.. 354. 

Parshall. II. I-'., 319. 

Pearce, W. D., .554. 

Pelham, Win., 139. 

Phillips, R. II., 280. 

Powell, A. II., 210. 

Reams, Samuel H., 354. 
Reid, John R., 102. 

Rossita, L. P., 66. 

Schivendt, B. T., 174. 
Scott, M. J., 174. 
Seabrook, H. H., 67. 
Seabrook, H. H., 139. 
Sealy, W. C, 210. 
Sefton, Thos., 390. 
Seiders, Irwin A., 391. 
Selbv, O. E., 210. 
Sherry, C. T., 67. 
Sinclair, Dr. Angus, 175. 
Sisco, G. E., 246. 
Smith, M. F., 246. 
Smith, Robt. M., 354. 
Smith, W. C, 390. 
Spofford, Prof. C. M., 281 
Sprague, L. C, 31«. 
Starburch, R. D., 354. 
Talty, Peter E., 66. 
Tamsitt, G. W., 30. 
Taylor, Frank W., 66. 
Thompson, W. O.. 355. 
Thomson, Geo., 102. 
Thornton, H. W.. 210. 
Titus, A. G., 30. 
Tracey, B. C, 319. 
Tripp, T. VV.. 66. 
Vincent, E. F., 318. 
Wagner, Samuel T., 174. 
Walder, G. H., 354. 
Wardle, Thos., 246. 
Watson, A. C, 390. 
Westfall, Curtis C, 390. 
White. H. T., 318. 
Whitelev, G., 103. 
Winship, E. E., 210. 



Bury, George, 104. 

Cope, R. W., 67. 

Crawford, D. F., 

Edes, Wm. C, 175. 

Fennel, Patrick. 104. 

Gaines, F. F.,. 225. 

Herr, Edwin M., 281. 

Johnson, J. Will, 247. 

Lamme, B. G.. 355. 

Lee, Martin PL, 281. 

MacLeod, Malcolm, 318. 

McFarland. J. A., 103. 

Mcintosh, William, 139. 

McManamy, Frank. 200. 

Mears. Lieut. Frederick. 175. 

North. I.. A.. 280. 

Ostby, Oscar F., 247. 

Riggs, Thomas, 175. 

Ripley, E. P., 327. 

Schlafge, Wm., 211. 

Scott, W. R.. 349. 

Scott, W. W., 292. 

Turner, Walter V., 163. 

Wilson, Lyndon F., 103. 

Wood, William FL, 103. 
*Panama-Pacific Exposition, Fine Arts Building, 

291. 
•Panama-Pacific Exposition, Palace of Transpor- 
tation, 73. 
* Panama-Pacific International Exposition, 219. 
•Passenger Cars for the Erie. All Steel, 242. 
Patent Claims, Fraudulent, 413. 
Patent Claims, Noisy, 18. 
Peat as a Fuel for Boilers, 42S. 
,*Pecos River, High Bridge Across the, 217. 
Pennsylvania, Efficiency on the. 299. 
•Pike's Peak Rack Railway, 255. 
I Pipes. Steel, 126. 

'Piston Packing. Improved, 266. 
I Piston Rings. 428. 
Pistnn. The, 269. 
Piston, The Aristocratic, 379. 

•Posl Spindle Breaking, Detecting the Cause uf, 
367. 



'Pounds, Locating, 230.' 
"Power Cables, Conduit for, 78. 
Projectiles, Eenrgy of, 199. 
Prosperity from Advertising, 234. 
Prosperity, The Crime of. 342. 



R 



Radium, 1 17. 

Radium Making in Scotland, 234. 

Railroad Courtesy, 2. 

Railroad Men, Reading and Study Among, 412. 

Railroad Notes, 33, 69, 105, 141, 177, 213, 249, 

285, 321, 358, 393, 429. 
Railroad, The Most Wonderful in the World, 34. 
"Railroading in the Tropics, Miniature, 79. 
Railroading, Safetv in, 43. 
Railroading, The Mechanical Side of, 10. 
Railroads Are Treated Unjustly, Mr. Taft Says, 

89. 
Railroads, Future Welfare of, 87. 
Railroads, Government Cheating, 306. 
Railroads, Valuation of, 98. 
Railroads, The New Era for, 90. 
Rails, Elevation of, 123. 
Rail Sizes. Progress in, 179. 
Rails, Wet, 389. 
Railway Employees, French, 2. 
Railway Facilities in British Columbia, Improved, 

Railway Fuel Association, International, 140. 

Railway Materials Association, 140. 

Railway, New Canadian, 3. 

Railway Operating, Anticipated Horrors, 27. 

Railway Returns, Improved, 320. 

Railway Supply Manufacturers' Association, 140. 

Railway Tunnels, Ventilation of, 3. 

*Railways and the War in Europe, 4. 

Railways, Canadian, 98. 

Railways, Persia Building, 83. 

Railways, Water Power for, 104. 

Rates, Fair Railroad, 124. 

Rates, Increased, 199. 

Resistance, Engine Power and Train, 90. 

Rods, Keying Up, 230. 

Roundhouse Delays, Methods of Reducing, 345. 

Roundhouse, Need of Improvement in, 331. 

"Russia's Eastern Gateway, 399. 

Rust, 54. 



Shop Appliances: 

"Asbestos Cutter, 258. 

Brass, Blackening. 96. 

Casehardening and Potashing, 161. 

"Chaser Grinder, The New Landis, 32. 

"Fuse Caps, Machine for Marking, 32. 

"Header Joints and Steam Pipe Rings, 
ing, 154. 
Hms,'. ApplvMiu Hands to, 9. 

"Hydraulic Shear, 315. 

"Injector Repairs. Facing Tools for, 113. 

*Jig for Drilling Shaft Hole of Car Wheel 
Pinions, 5. 

"lathes, Steady Rest for, 43. 

Lead from Exploding, To Prevent, 9. 

"Pipe Threading and Cutting Machine, Landis, 
283. 

"Pop Testing Device, 261. 

"Radius Tool, 44. 

"Silencing Device for Bell Clapper, 261. 

"Stay-holts, New Process of Heading, 13. 

Steel, Drilling Hard, 96. 

Taps, Hardening, 96. 

"Tools and Tool Room Proposition, Small, 5, 
42. 

Tools, Hardening, 195. 

*Vise Clamps, Improved, 190. 
Sabotage, 342. 

"Santa Fe, Improvements on, 325. 
Scrap Steel, Utilizing, 387. 
Scrap Tyranny, 376. 
Shipping, Killing United States, 377. 
Shoes and Wedges, Defects in, 155, 190. 
Shop Equipment, Proper, 378. 
"Shops of the Queen & Crescent, New Car, 132. 
Shorter Hours, 304. 

Signal Accidents and Cab Control, 155. 
Signal, New Railway, 40. 
"Signal Whistle, Improved, 150. 
Signalling Under Water, Apparatus for, 63. 
Signals and Duties of Trainmen, 374. 
Smokebox, Heat in, 158. 
Smoke Prevention, 225. 
•Smoke Stack. Cutting Down a. 239. 



ipe Rings, Grind- 



Soldering, I I 7. 

South, Railroads in, 83. 

Speed Record, Fastest, 117. 

Stanley Steam Motor, Valves of, 267. 

Statistics of United States Railroads, 109. 

Steam and Electricity, Analogies Between, 257 

Smoke Making, 414. 

Steam, Increase in Volume by Superheating, 231. 

Steam Pipes, Cement for, 235, 332. 

Steam Railways, Accidents on, 275. 

Steam, Superheated and Saturated, 89. 

Steel, Drilling Hardened, 332. 

Steel, Manufacture of Pneumatic, 250. 

"Steel Rail Puzzle, The, 293. 

Steel Rails, Specifications for, 205. 

Steel Welding, 117. 

Steel, Wootz, 32. 

"Stoker, Rotating Mechanical, 265. 

Stokers, Locomotive, 225. 

Stokers, Mechanical, 327. 

Stop, Look, and Listen, 53. 

"St. Gotthard Railway, Spiral Tunnels in, 145. 

* Substations in Railway Signal Work, 111. 

Suggestions Approved, Angus Sinclair's, 200. 

"Sunny South, Tour of the, 170. 

Superheater Locomotives, 227. 

Superheater Locomotive, Advantages of, 258. 



Testing Applicants for Railroad Service, 158. 

Throttle Valve, Abuse of the, 126. 

Throttle Valves and Valve Gear, 87. 

Thought and Labor, 150. 

Tonnage Rating of Simple and Mallet Com- 
pounds, 338. 

Tools, Development of, 52. 

Track Ties, Consumption of, 370. 

'Tractive Effort Simply Explained, 76. 

Tractive Power, 267. 

Tractive Power and Weight on Drivers, 87. 

Tractive Power of Three Cylinder Locomotive. 
302. 

Traffic Illustrated, Lligh Powered, 405. 

Train Brake and Signal Equipment, 229. 

Tiain Lighting, 229. 

Trainmen, Superstitions of, 198. 

Train Speed, High, 413. 

Train Speed, Judging, 126. 

Trains, Flying, 91. 

Trains, Short, 270. 

Transportation, Charges for, 378. 

"Transportation, Origin and Development of, 243 

'Trap Door, "Sickles" Extensible, 276. 

Traveling Engineers, Origin of, 137. 

Trespassers, Massacre of, 17S. 

Trespassers, Railway, 79. 

"Tunkhannock Viaduct, The, 397. 

Tunnel. Largest in America, 199. 

"Tunnel, The Simplon, 75. 

"Turner, New Honor to Walter V., 163. 

Tyranny, Legislation, 378. 



Valve of a Locomotive, Comments on, 295. 
Valve Gear, Readjusting the Stephenson, 343. 
'Valve Gear, Readjusting the Walschaerts, 364. 
"Valve Gear, R. M. K. Locomotive, 403. 
"Valve Gear, The O. K. Locomotive, 330. 
"Valve Gear, The Southern Locomotive, 19. 
Valve Gears, Locomotive, 374. 
"Valve Motion, A New Kind. 45. 
Valves, Blocking Disabled, 194. 
"Valves, Locating Eccentric Keys Before Set- 
ting. 84. 
Vermonter, .. Noted, 367. 



w 

War and Peace, Arts of, 27. 

War, Losses of, 53. 

"Water Circulation, K<>^-SchofieM System of, 99. 

Water, Expansion of, 123. 

Water Grates in Pompeii, 394. 

Water Into a Boiler, Forcing, 123. 

Wheelbase of a Locomotive, 231. 

Whi -tling. Pernicious, 127. 

Whitewash, Bright, 117. 

*WiIHamette River, Crossing the. 

Wireless, New Records, 1 76. 

*Wireloss Telephone in Raihvav 

Wood-Burners, Old and New, 188. 

"Wnod-Burnine Davs, Back to the. 116. 

Working and Thinking. 379. 

Workshops, More Light in, 341. 



290. 
Service, 118. 



Ri&veEniineerini 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling Stock and Appliances 



Vol. XXVIII. 



114 Liberty Street, New York, January, 1915. 



No. I 



Type of Postal Car for the Northern Pacific Ry. 

While the rapid change of car equip- time. Among others it may be noted gant features are immediately apparent, 

ment particularly in passenger service that the all-steel postal cars have The materials and workmanship are 

has been one of the leading features reached a degree of perfection that of the best. 

of construction work during the past leaves little further to be expected or It will be noted that the car is equip- 

year, there has been little of a kind that desired. The accompanying illustra- ped with six wheel trucks, the journals 




INTERIOR VIEW OF ALL-STEEL POSTAL CAR FOR THE 



NORTHERN PACIFIC RAILWAY. 



may be classed as distinctly new in tions show exterior and interior views of which measure 5 by 9 inches, with 

form or detail; nevertheless it always of the all-steel postal car recently Commonwealth Steel Company's cen- 

is of interest to note some of the cars placed in service on the Northern ter bearing bridge and furnished with 

that have been recently received by Pacific railway and constructed for Standard Steel Works' steel tired 

some of the leading railroads as in- that road by the Pressed Steel Car wheels and McCord malleable iron 

•dicating the class of equipment that is Company. As in all of the company's journal boxes, 

■being put in service at the present line products the substantial and ele- The car body is designed to carry a 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



January, 1915. 



live load of 3,000 pounds in addition 
to its own dead weight under service 
conditions. The side sills are continu- 
ous between end sills and composed of 
one 5 ins., 1 1.6 lbs. Z-bar and one 6 x 3 ' _• 
x9/16 ins. angle. Center sills are com- 
posed of two 3yi x 3yi x ¥% ins. top 
angles, four i) '< x 3J/ x 7/16 ins. bot- 
tom angles, two 26x5/16 ins. . web 
plates and one 26x5/16 ins. top cover 
plate. The end sills are V§ in. pressed 
diaphragms with 6\ ( x •;$ ins. tie plate- 
securely connected at end to sills and 
at center to cast steel bumper casting, 
bumper casting securely riveted to end 
of center sill. 

The floor bridging consists of 5 ins. 
channels, 6.5 lbs. per ft. connected to 
side and center sills, and the diagonal 
braces are V& in. pressed channels, 
8 ins. wide, 2 ins. flanges, connected to 
side, end and center sills. Double 



I [eight t' 'p "t rail to top of 

roof 14 V/ 2 

Height top of rail to top of 

floor 4 4Ji 

Height top of floor to ceiling. 9 6}i 

Draft Gear — Miner Tandem Spring 

with one M. C. B. Class "G" and one 

8 \ 8 in-- Harvej Friction draft spring 

in each gear. 

Couplers — Buhoup three stem. 

Air Brakes — Westinghouse Schedule 

LX-1812. 
Air Signal — Westinghouse Schedule K. 
Heating System— "Gold" hot water cir- 
culation in combination with Barney 
& Smith heater. 
Lighting System — Head and electric 
with storage batteries. 
The cars are equipped with steel 
wardrobe, lavatory, mirror, etc., in ac- 
cordance with XJ. S. Post Office Dept, 
requirements. 



way right-of-way section of the bridge is 
19 feet wide, while on each side is a 12 
foot roadway for vehicular traffic. 



French Railway Employees. 

The number of employees in the latest 
official French returns amounted to 
171,240. These were divided as follows: 
Nord, 29,451; Est, 21,775; Orleans, 23,- 
814; Paris, Lyons and, Mediterranean, 
40,090; Midi, 14.497; State Railways, 40,- 
150; Ceinture, 1.463. Of the total num- 
bers, 11.799 were drivers and 13,891 fire- 
men. Conductors anil brakemen num- 
bered 14,161, and there were 8,258 st;ii ion- 
masters and assistant stationmasters. 
Shunters, pointsmen, etc., numbered 41,- 
748, and the cleaners, carriage examiners, 
and the like amounted to 4,139. Perma- 
nent-way men. 42,406; gatekeepers, 2,270. 
and signalmen, etc., 3.194. In addition to 
the above, the grades of a considerable 




EXTERIOR VIEW OF ALL-STEEL POSTAL CAR FOR THE NORTHERN rACTEIC RAILWAY. 



built-up body bolsters are used, each 
consisting of a 5/16 ins. web plate, two 
3x3x5/16 top angles, two 3x3x5/16 
ins. bottom angles, 10xji ins. top and 
bottom cover plates extending from 
side sill to side sill. The flooring con- 
sists of yellow pine laid diagonally for 
lower course and rift sawed maple laid 
longitudinally for upper course. The 
inside lining is Poplar and the ceiling 
3/16 in. Agasote. Three ply Salaman- 
der Keystone Hair insulation is used 
throughout. The cars are equipped 
with eight sets of Automatic Ventil- 
ators type S-4. 

The general dimensions and principal 
specialties are as follows: 

Ft. Ins. 

Length over face plates 64 3 

Length inside finish 60 1 

Length over platform end sills. .63 154 

Width inside 9 3-Kt 

Width over side sills 10 \% 

Width over all at eaves 10 4 T 4 

Width of side door openings.. 2 10 



New Type of Bridge on the Big Fraser 
River. 

The counterbalance lift section of the 
big Grand Trunk bridge at Prince George. 
B. C„ was raised for the first time last 
month to permit of steamers passing up 
the Fraser river. The lift span is 100 feet 
long and instead of swinging like most 
bridges, it lifts straight in the air. This 
is accomplished by electrically run ma- 
chinery, assisted by counter balance 
weights of concrete. The arrangement is 
such that one man simply touches a but- 
ton and automatically the machinery is 
placed in motion which opens the safety 
lock, closes the six protection gates on 
the bridge and lifts the 100 foot section 
to a height of about 30 feet above the 
level of the floor of the bridge. This 
bridge over the Fraser river is also one 
of the longest steel bridges in the 
Dominion, being 2,654 feet from bank to 
bank of the river. There are twelve steel 
spans and the lift, and fourteen concrete 
piers were necessary to sustain the weight 
of this mass of iron and steel. The rail- 



number of men were returned as "mis- 
cellaneous." The Paris, Lyons and Medi- 
teranean has more locomotives than any 
other railway in France, and, as might 
have been expected, it therefore employed 
the largest number of drivers, who 
amounted to 2,302. On the other hand, 
the Nord employed the largest number 
of firemen, the total being 3,429. 



Railroad Courtesy. 

President Elliott of the New Haven 
railroad has issued orders directing su- 
perintendents and subordinates to be 
courteous to the public. "That." says the 
Utica Press, "is as it ought to be, and 
when you come to think of it, it is the 
w ay it is on most roads. As a rule rail- 
road employees are proverbially polite. 
They are asked more fool questions in a 
day than any other class of people, and 
answer them more courteously. Their 
patience is tried frequently and sorely, but 
they usually put up with it good-naturedly 
and let it go at that." 



January, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Completion of the Magnolia Cut-Off. 

1 he new 12-mile cut-oft' un the Balti- 
more & Ohio, between Orleans road, W. 
Va., and Little Cacapon, was opened last 
month. The two main lines from Chicago 
and St. Louis meet at Cumberland, Md., 
a short distance from the new cut-off. 
The new line will be entirely devoted to 
the eastbound freight traffic only, while 
the passenger traffic will be maintained on 
the old two-track line along the Potomac 
river. The eastbound grade is reduced 
from 0.5 per cent, to 0.1 per cent., and 
eliminates a grade nearly 3 miles long, 
where helper locomotives were required. 
The improvement involved an outlay of 
about $6,000,000. and necessitated the 
boring of four tunnels, aggregating a 
length of over 7,000 feet. 



Improved Railway Facilities in British 
Columbia. 

An official report refers to the great 
harbor and dock improvements that are 
being carried out at Prince Rupert Many 
millions of dollars have been expended 
there, so that the harbor facilities may 
lie as ample and satisfactory as any on 
the Pacific coast. Prince Rupert being the 
"western terminal of the Grand Trunk 
Pacific railway, tapping the new and rich 
■country of the north. The Panama Canal 
will greatly facilitate the European trade. 
The railway will be able to ship, without 
breaking cargoes, to any port of the 
world, and the almost untouched natural 
resources of British Columbia, it is said, 
will find a market abroad for many years 
to come. 



New Equipment on the Rock Island. 

The annual report of the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific has just been issued, and 
it appears that in the items of new equip- 
ment there were 57 locomotives, 70 all- 
steel passenger train cars, 2050 freight 
train cars and 2 wrecking cranes received 
during the year and added to the equip- 
ment. The first two railroad leases here 
mentioned also made additions to the roll- 
ing stock, viz., 18 locomotives, 9 passenger 
train cars and 351 freight train cars, all of 
which, excepting five pieces, came with the 
'St. Paul & Kansas City Short Line. Thirty 
.per cent, of the cars in passenger service 
are of all-steel construction. Of the total 
mileage of passenger train cars, exclusive 
of Pullmans, 46 per cent, was by cars of 
•all-steel build. 



Ventilation of Railway Tunnels. 
The Committee on Roadway of the 
American Railway Engineering Asso- 
ciation has submitted a finding to the 
effect that the most practicable, effec- 
tive and economical artificial ventila- 
tion for tunnels carrying steam-power 
traffic is to be obtained by blowing a 



current of air into one end of the tun- 
nel for the urpose of removing, or of 
diluting and removing, the smoke and 
combustion gases at the opposite end. 
As practised in America, this way of 
procuring ventilation partakes of two 
mehhods: 

(.a) To blow a current of air in the 
direction the train is moving and with 
sufficient velocity to remove the smoke 
and combustion gases ahead of the en- 
gine; 

(b) To blow a current of air against 
the direction of the tonnage train with 
velocity and volume sufficient to dilute 
the smoke and combustion gases to 
such an extent as not to be unconfort- 
able to the operating crews and to clear 
the tunnel entirely within the minimum 
time limit for following trains. 





■1 


*■ Ey^HPW wP 



MINIATURE RAILWAY. 

Instruction in Railroading. 

Mr. R. H. Ashton, first vice-president 
of the Chicago & Northwestern Railway, 
has notified President Mr. R. A. Pearson 
that the company will loan Iowa State 
College its expensive dynamometer car 
for the entire winter. This piece of ap- 
paratus will be used by students in rail- 
way engineering course in making prac- 
tical tests of the pulling power of dif- 
ferent types of engines under different 
conditions. As far as the railway com- 
mission will permit, this car will be op- 
erated on the main line of the North- 
western near Ames for the benefit of 
students. 

This piece of equipment gives the col- 
lege additional facilities for its work along 
the lines of railway engineering. This 
with the completion of the new trans- 
portation laboratory on the campus, one 
of half a dozen in the country, gives the 
college unusual rank among the engineer- 
ing institutions of the- west. 



Railroads on Vancouver Island. 
The war has caused some difficulty 
in financing new railway construction 
on Vancouver Island, but builders are 
now overcoming this. The Pacific 
Great Eastern has obtained $6,000,000 
from the Government, which enables it 
to push construction work. Tn all. this 
island will shortly have about 630 miles 
of railroad. The Canadian Northern 
Railroad has about 150 miles of new 
road scheduled for completion this 



year, and will later build 100 miles ad- 
ditional. The Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way has 50 miles completed and 100 
miles nearing completion, and will then 
have over 300 miles of line on Van- 
couver Island. 



Railroad Construction in Rio Grande 
Do Sul, Brazil. 

Railroad construction is progressing at 
a steady and satisfactory rate, although 
not as fast as might be desired. There 
is an aggregate of 1,489 miles now in op- 
eration and about 200 miles more will be 
opened to traffic before the end of the 
present year. The Compagnie Auxiliaire 
de Chemins de Fer, which operated the 
Federal lines, has replaced the light rails 
on the main line with heavier ones. 
More trains are being run and better 
time is made. 

In April last the President of the State 
published a decree setting forth the plans 
for the extension of the Government 
lines, on which work will commence soon. 
These lines, as proposed, will open up 
some of the wealthiest lands in the State. 



New Canadian Railway. 

The Glengarry and Stormont Railway, 
connecting Cornwall with St. Polycarpe 
Junction, on the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way, is expected to be in operation at the 
beginning of 1915. The total cost of the 
line is given as $875,000. Nearly all the 
construction material was purchased in 
Canada, with the exception of two steam 
shovels costing about $10,000. a steel 
water tank costing $4,000, and $3,000 
worth of dumping wagons, which were 
bought from United States companies. 
The rolling stock, to consist of about 4 
engines, 30 passenger coaches, 60 freight 
cars and 20 construction cars, is either 
to be purchased or to be supplied from 
the equipment of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway. 



Safety on the Chicago & Northwestern. 

The annual report of the Chicago & 
Northwestern reveals the fact that dur- 
ing the year ending June 30, 1914, it car- 
ried 33,389,428 passengers over its line 
without a single fatality to a passenger. 
The Chicago & Northwestern has over 
ten thousand miles of road, and the fact 
that its passengers during the year num- 
bered about one-third of the population 
of the United States, without a loss of 
life among them, shows that this company 
has reduced railway service to a science, 
practical and safe. The Chicago & North- 
western was one of the very first roads to 
start the safety-first movement in this 
country and has done its share to spread 
the good work broadcast. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



January, 1915. 



Railways and the War in Europe 



The appalling magnitude of the Euro- 
pean war has drawn attention to the im- 
portant part played by the railroads in the 
struggle. Not only in the rapid trans- 
portation of troops and munitions of war, 
but in the ever-varying strategic move- 
ments of the forces, railroads are of more 
significance in the great dramatic tragedy 
than rifles are. The destruction of the 
railroads by the armies making retire- 
ments and the rapidity of the repairs made 
by advancing armies also shows how care- 
fully considered the means and methods of 
destroying or rebuilding railroads and 
their equipments have been made in ad- 
vance by the contending powers. To hold 
a railroad is of more strategic value than 
holding a city. In this regard it is highly 
probable that the network of railroads in 
Belgium has contributed largely to the ruin 
of that country, and aided in the rapid ad- 
vance of the destroyers, whereas the 
scarcity of railroads in Poland and East 
Prussia has doubtless been the chief cause 
of the slow and undecisive movements in 
that particular location of the war. There 
will be some railroad work to be done 
when the titanic struggle is over. 

We present two reproductions of photo- 
graphs taken on the western theatre of the 
war. The first shows a partial destruc- 
tion of a line of communication by the 
Belgians on a railway running eastward 
to Brussels, and which would tax the in- 
genuity of the German engineers to repair. 
The smoke of the smouldering ruins gives 



people, should thus be destroyed in a 
moment. 

The second illustration is even more 
striking, and depicts with graphic force a 
sad story of slaughter and ruin. The loco- 



the unfortunate men. As will be ob- 
served the locomotive almost succeeded in 
reaching the bank of the river while the 
cars were entirely submerged, the mo- 
mentum of the heavy locomotive carrying 




Hi I 



RAILWAY BRIDGE IX FRANCE BLOWN UP WHILE TRAIN WAS CROSSING. 



motive of a train carrying wounded 
soldiers near Lizy, France, which plunged 
into the river Ourcy during the battle of 




it through the air a considerable distance 
after the explosion occurred. 

Now that the winter is upon us, there 
will doubtless be a lull in hostilities as. 
there was in the months during our civil- 
war, but from all accounts the preparations, 
for a continuation of the struggle are pro- 
ceeding on a scale unprecedented in war- 
fare, and it is not unlikely that before the 
end other nations may be drawn into the 
vortex of battle. America has much to 
be congratulated on in standing aloof 
from the questions involved and giving an 
example of a peaceful government. 

The hope of all right thinking people 
is that out of the dark tragedy good may 
come, and that in the grand march of 
civilization another important advance will 
be made towards that divine day "when 
the war-drum throbs no longer and the 
battle flags are furled in the parliament of 
man — the federation of the world." 



BELGIANS CUT RAILWAY RUNNING EASTWARD TO BRUSSELS. 

a weirdly melancholy aspect to the grim Meaux, look with it forty wounded 

scene, and it is pitiful that the labor and soldiers, all of whom were drowned in 

skill expanded in vast constructive work the wreckage. The bridge was blown-up 

involving much cost and contributing so while the train was crossing, and there was 

much to the commerce and comfort of lhe neither time nor means to rescue anv of 



Mileage of Railways in the War Zone. 

It may be of interest to our readers to 
be furnished with the mileages of rail- 
ways in the countries principally con- 
cerned in the European war: Austria, 
20,798 miles; Hungary. 2,102 miles; 
Servia, 974 miles; Belgium. 2.503 miles; 
France, 31.390 miles; Holland. 2,295 miles 
(4 ft. 11 ins. gauge): Germany, 36,095 
miles; Russia, 47,479 miles. The largest 
increase during the last decade has been> 
in Russia. 



January, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



General Correspondence 



Small Tools and Tool Room 
Proposition. 

By A. W. Vestal, Sedalia, Mo. 

No doubt we have all heard the old 
saying, "A good mechanic doesn't need 
good tools to do good work," which 
may or may not be true; but it must be 
admitted that the quality and quantity 
of work turned out of a railroad shop, 
very largely depends upon the quality 
and quantity of its small tools. 

While it would seem that the ques- 
tion is important enough to merit the 
undivided attention of an expert, espe- 
cially in a shop of any considerable 
size, yet in many cases we find each de- 
partment trying to provide for itself 
independently of the others and of the 
shop as a whole. 

Many of the men in charge of our 
shops seem unable to realize the im- 
portance of the problem and its rela- 
tion to output and engine repair cost. 
Many times, no doubt, they are aware 
'hat something is wrong, but never 
seem to have the time, nor the inclina- 
tion to analyze the situation, and not 
sure enough of their ground to make a 
change. 

In many shops, little or no system is 
followed in the maintenance and distri- 
bution of tools, while in others, espe- 
cially in the newer shops, an elaborate 
system is often in use and a constant 
effort made to improve its efficiency by 
the addition of new and up-to-date tools 
and proper maintenance and handling. 

A good way to get a general idea of 
the tool equipment of any particular 
shop is to get into conversation with a 
so-called "Boomer" or traveling ma- 
chinist. Some of those fellows are 
constantly traveling about, over the 
country, and rarely stay in one place 
very long, consequently what they don't 
know about the railroad shops of the 
country isn't worth mentioning. 

Ask one of them about some particu- 
lar shop and he will say. "Yes, that's a 
'high-ball' shop, but. say. they sure have 
the tools to work with"; or "That's a 
good easy job. but they have no tools." 
However, it doesn't always follow that 
a shop well equipped with tools is a 
"stiff job" — it is only apparently so be- 
cause there is so little time lost and an 
extraordinary amount of work turned 
out compared to a poorly equipped 
shop, in which an unusual amount of 
time must be given to a particular job, 
simply because the proper tools are not 
provided to prosecute the work to best 
advantage. 



In the average shop the tool proposi- 
tion resolves itself into two general di- 
visions: (1) The small tools that are 
kept in a tool room and handled by 
means of a checking system and (2) the 
tools that are taken care of by the vari- 
ous gangs as a part of their permanent 
equipment. 

The average tool room is probably 
the most abused department of any shop ; 
it gets the blame for many of the tilings 
it doesn't contain and should as well as 
for many of the things it does contain 
and should not. It is generally located 
in some out-of-the-way place, not suit- 
able for any thing else, difficult of access 
and where the light is poor. I will vent- 




ure to say that at least 90 per cent, of 
the business of the average tool room is 
transacted with the floor side of the 
shop, yet we generally find it located on 
the side farthest from the erecting floor, 
the last place that even a hillside farmer 
would think of locating it. 

Now suppose we were to regard the 
question in a diagrammatic way as in 
Figs. 1 and 2. 

A represents the tool room, B its busi- 
ness with the machine shop proper and 
C its business with the erecting shop. 
Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 are the same except 




that in Fig. 2 A and B have exchanged 
places. Now if B and C should happen 
to be, say, 100 yards and 1,000 yards, 
respectively, and a man had a job con- 
tract to remove both to A, he wouldn't 
be long in deciding which arrangement he 
would rather tackle for the same money. 
A tool room located as in Fig. 1 has 
another interesting feature in that it illus- 
trates a curious trait in human nature. 
The average man is a sociable "cuss" 
even though he may have a grudge 



against the world in general. If he must 
cross the machine shop in order to reach 
the tool room, nine times out of ten he 
will stop to talk to someone or watch 
the operation of some machine, and prob- 
ably do the same thing on the way back. 
It is done unconsciously and doubtless 
without any intention of "killing time," 
but it is rather expensive for the com- 
pany in the course of a year's time when 
many men are employed. 

Again, in Fig. 1 the tool room A is 
often so placed that it can only be ap- 
proached from one side, while in Fig. 2 
it is accessible from four sides, a decided 
advantage, as a glance at the two figures 
will show. 

Some months ago a tool room arrange- 
ment was described to the writer which 
certainly seemed to he ideal. Two tool 
rooms were provided, each located an 
equal distance from the ends of the shop, 
on the dividing line between the machine 
side and the erecting floor. Each tool 
room was assigned a certain territory to 
serve and their equipment was identical 
as far as possible. This system, while 
a little more expensive to install and 
maintain, would undoubtedly be a saving 
proposition in the end on account of 
greater accessibility. 

As to the internal arrangement of the 
tool room, accessibility should again, of 
course, be the first consideration and the 
stock so arranged that the attendants can 
place their hands on anything in the 
shortest possible time. 

One rather surprising thing, commonly 
found, is that a tool room attendant 
should have to lift a motor or other 
heavy tool four or five feet off the floor 
and through a window when an opening 
at the floor line would enable him to 
shove it out almost without effort. 

A serious mistake is often made in 
carrying wornout or defective tools in 
stock to pass out for use in the shop. 
Tools of that kind are, many times, far 
worse than useless because it not only 
requires a longer time to complete a job 
witli them, but the work is poorly done. 
A tap, for instance, may seem perfectly 
sound at first glance, but if the teeth are 
distorted or dull and worn its use would 
result in a waste of time and a thread 
that would not be standard size. The 
place for that kind of tool is in the scrap, 
as it would soon eat up the cost of a 
new one in time wasted. On the other 
hand, many tools are thrown in the dis- 
card before their time; for instance, a 
drill with a bit only one inch long that 
is not burnt or cracked will cut just as 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



January, 1915. 



well as a new one and may be extremely 
useful in a pinch. The writer lias known 
of cases where a brand new drill had 
to be broken in order to get one of the 
proper length for a particular job. 

A tool room is the depositary of a 
thousand and one things, each of them 
necessary in carrying on the work of the 
shop, and its efficiency is in direct pro- 
portion to its ability to meet ever> de- 
mand upon it. A mechanic applying to 
the tool room for a 1-in. reamer only 
to be told "we haven't any," or "we have 
one but it's out," or "we have one a 
little larger or a little smaller," is quite 
lik<]\ to go away muttering, and a man 
in that frame of mind is not likely to 
care very much whether the job gets 
done or not. 

The whole question of tool room effi- 
ciency resolves itself into the question 
of the proper quantity and a little more, 
the proper quality and a little better, 
every tool of an absolute standard size 
and a centrally located, easily accessible 
place to put them. 



tion can be done solely on the drill 
press, and results in a saving of much 



-td- 




•\ 



-j 






MfFEt 






Jig for Drilling Shaft Hole of Hand 
Car Wheel Pinions 

By F. Wm. Bentley, Jr. 
Missouri Valley, Iowa. 

Hand car wheel journal pinions 
whether they come from the foundry 
rough cored or solid centered, must be 
bored or drilled to the standard jour- 
nal size. If they are bored on the 
lathe, they must be chucked centrally 
and a drill first run through them for 
the tool, or if they are drilled on the 
common press bed they must be laid 
out so that the hole will be central 
with the mesh of the teeth. 

The accompanying sketch is descrip- 
tive of a drill jig which makes the only 
finishing operation of the small cast 
pinion a rapid one. The guide frame 
A is cheaply made out of the remainder 
or part of a ring pot casting, and is to 
be bolted centrally on the press bed 
true with the drill. The pinion holder 
and drill guide B drops down through 
the guide and over the pinion, and by- 
means of the clamps holds the pinion 
rigidly central to the bed of the press. 
The hardened steel bushing C guides 
the drill as it feeds exactly through the 
center of the pinion, for the inner bore 
of B is scarcely larger than the dia- 
meter of the top of the pinion teeth. 
All work necessary in the operation is 
the loosening of the holding clamps 
to remove and insert the pinions. The 
drill goes through the pinion after 
drilling into the center hole of the 
press bed. 

It requires but a small amount of 
time to set the jig up central with the 
drill or reamer, and the pinions can be 
machined almost as fast as the too! can 
cut out the metal. The whole opera- 




632.- 



.6J . 
9. 



1 1 EI 



All S OF JIG FOR DRILLING HOLE OF 
HAND CAR WHEEL PINII IKS. 



skilled labor expense. The writer lias 
seen this little device afford excellent 
results when carefully studied as an 



The War and British Railways. 
By A. Eraser Sinclair, Glasgow, 

S( OTLAND. 

In the September issue of Railway 
and Locomotive Engineering there is 
an illustration of a German locomotive 
for the South Eastern & Chatham Rail- 
way of England, as well as some de- 
scriptive matter relating to it. It is 
there suggested that the lower price 
quoted by Borsigs was the reason for 
the order going to Berlin, but that I 
think is scarcely correct. There may 
have been some slight differences in 
favor of the Gegel concern but the main 
reason was, I have reason to believe, 
that British locomotive builders could 
not give delivery within the time pre- 
scribed. Moreover the Taff Vale Rail- 
way, a very extensive system in \\ ales, 
was in very much the same pickle, and 
now find themselves in the unfortunate 
position of ordering of home engines 
in lieu of those of which they had been 
expecting delivery. But of course the 
home builders and their workmen will 
reap the advantage. Notwithstanding 
the undoubted shortage of haulage pow- 
er on some railways 1 have heard noth- 
ing suggestive of orders going to 
America. It has to be borne in mind, 
however, that although there is a short- 
age on some lines due to pressure ol 
business, on others there is an excess of 
power from dull trade caused by the 
war. But the resuts of the war have 
not all been evil. It has resulted in an 
interchange of facilities in several direc- 




Trc IN POSITION ON HUM, I, PRESS FOR BORING HAND CAR WHEEL PINIONS. 



instance on a time and labor saving 
basis and also has the double merit oi 
durability and reliability to a degree that 
certainly leaves nothing further to be de- 
sired. 



lions, and although I have not yet 
heard of an interchange of locomotives 
there is nothing improbable about such 
an occurrence. I have heard of the dis- 
advantages to passengers that followed 



January, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



on the transfer of control of the rail- 
ways to the War Office, but 1 did not 
mention a very considerable benefit, 
t here are a very large number of places 
in Britain having railway connection by 
two or more systems. For instance 
ulasgow and London are connected by 
three systems and before the war a re- 
turn ticket was only available on the 
railway system on which it was issued. 
i\ow, a passenger may go by one and 
return by any one of the others. Most 
of those tickets are available for six 
months, and passengers are given facil- 
ities to stop off at any stations on the 
road, but before the war those stop- 
pages were only allowed on the rail- 
ways on which the ticket was issued. 
As at present arranged the stoppages 
..ay take place, and transfer from one 
system to another be made, at all points 
where any two systems abut. Other 
advantages will be found in the convey- 
ance of merchandise by the shortest 
routes which was not always possible 
under private ownership administration. 
There are many glaring incongruities in 
t..e scales of rates for the conveyance 
< f goods in Britain. Two of the most 
glaring are the sending of farm pro- 
duce from Normandy in the North of 
France and from the County of Kent 
into the London market; and the 
freight of steel from Glasgow to Lon- 
don. The farm produce can be sent 
from Normandy on through rates and 
over the same railways cheaper than it 
can be sent from Kent, while steel 
plates can be sent to America and back 
to Britain cheaper than they can be 
sent from Glasgow to London. It is 
purely a question of competition, or 
none. 

RAILWAY MEN AND THE WAR. 

Railway men of some grades in Brit- 
ain are so poorly paid, and the proposed 
payment to soldiers while lighting, 
while maimed, and while dead are so 
good that they and those dependent on 
them are likely to be better off shoul- 
dering a rifle or under the sod than 
shouldering baggage. There are crowds 
of men employed as porters, carriage 
cleaners, and such like who get weli 
under five dollars per week. It is prob- 
able that the wives and children of 
those men who enlist will be better cir- 
cumstanced while the old man is fight- 
ing for his country, or dying for his 
country, than they were before. At the 
time of writing the payment to soldiers, 
sailors, and their dependents are miser- 
ably inadequate, but a movement is on 
foot which is certain to result in a con- 
siderable advance. Meanwhile many 
men are flocking to join the colors. It 
is not necessary to individualize the va- 
rious railways: two will give scfme idea 
of the extent of the recruiting amongst 
railway men. From the London and 
North Western between nine and ten 



thousand men have gone forward, while 
from the Great Western somewhere be- 
tween seven and eight thousand are 
engaged either in actual lighting or in 
being trained for the struggle. The rea- 
son why some are fighting and some 
not is that perhaps half of the totals 
are army reservists employed on rail- 
ways who after putting in some ten or 
twelve years in the army had retired 
into private life with a small annual 
retaining fee for a call on their services 
if required. Already a good many of 
those men have paid the last debt of 
nature in the north of France. 

Besides joining the army in large 
numbers the organized societies of rail- 
way workers have entered into a truce 
to cause no labor trouble during the 
war. A regular agreement between the 
representatives of the Government on 
the one hand, and the men's leaders on 
the other has been entered into, and 
will be honorably kept. But there will 
be plenty of trouble after the war is 
ended. The lame, the halt, the sick, and 
the blind are likely to come out of the 
light more generously paid than the 
men who fall back on railway work, 
and the latter are scarcely the men to 
accept worse treatment than those ren- 
dered unfit for work entirely. As a 
matter of fact the agreement came as 
a rather bitter pill to the nun In the 
last year or two the cost of living has 
gone up considerably, but there has 
been no corresponding increase of 
wages. However the agreement was 
loyally accepted and will last for the 
period of the war. 

BOILER INSPECTION AND EXPLOSIONS. 

Some thirty odd years ago, when 
"the liberty of the subject" bogey be- 
gan to give way before the need of 
protection for the men against the greed 
of rapacious boiler owners, Parliament 
enacted that boilers should be period- 
ically inspected. Those worthy law 
makers had reached the conclusion that 
the discovery of a badly corroded plate 
was better to be made by inspection 
than by manslaughter. The law came 
into operation on the 1st of July, 1882, 
and when an explosion occurred an in- 
spector employed by the Board of 
Trade was turned loose on the job to 
discover who was to blame. Each 
year a report is prepared in which the 
causes of the various explosions are 
recorded, and the evil effects carefully 
tabulated. Needless to say the officials 
concerned exhibit no unseemly haste 
in the preparation of those reports, and 
it came as something of a shock the 
other day to find the report for the 
year ended the 30th of June, 1913, al- 
ready on sale. From that statement it 
would appear that in the course of the 
year covered 80 explosions occurred or 
7.1 in excess of the average for 31 
years. Of the 80 explosions 60 were 



free from fatal accident, while of the 
20 in which deaths occurred 11 were 
on land and nine on water. In all 31 
deaths took place, and 42 people were 
injured, in this country there is am- 
ple provision for the insurance and 
regular inspection of boilers, yet it is a 
curious fact that about half of the 
eighty, 38 to be exact, were free from 
provision for periodic inspection. hi 
14 of the cases, involving 20 persons 
killed and 10 injured, formal inquiries 
were instituted when it was discovered 
that two were due to accident: one 
from water-hammer in a pipe, the other 
in an oil-separator due to an accident 
to a workman. In nine cases one per- 
son or another was found to blame, 
and in five instances the person to 
blame was the owner. It was in 
France, so far as I can remember, that 
the salutory rule of a life for a life was 
enacted when railway trains began to 
run. The engin-driver was given 
clearly to understand that if he killed 
anyone on the line the guillotine would 
be his portion, and there were no 
deaths; but every train was like a funer- 
al cortege. That rule applied to boil- 
er owners might do good. In five of 
the formal investigations no one was 
found to blame. The average number 
of deaths per annum over the 31 years 
was 26.5, so that the year under con- 
sideration was 4.5 in excess of the aver- 
age. The number of deaths per annum 
varies curiously and the number of 
fatalities appears to have no relation 
to the number of explosions. For in- 
stance the greatest number of deaths 
— 43 — occurred in 1894-95 when the 
number of explosions was 114, while 
in 1908-9, when 93 explosions occurred, 
only 12 deaths took place. There has 
been a steady diminution of fatalities 
in proportion to the number of ac- 
cidents, however, from which it can be 
deduced that the compulsory inspec- 
tion is doing useful work. In the first 
five years of the working of the Act 
there were 223 explosions and 150 
deaths, or as near as possible 0.67 death 
per explosion. In the last five years 
482 explosions took place resulting in 
100 deaths, or just over 0.207 death per 
explosion. The great increase of ex- 
plosions per annum from an average 
of 44.3 in the first five years to 96.2 in 
the last corresponding period is of 
course due to the enormous increase 
in the use of boilers in the intervening 
31 years. 

It may be added that only three of 
the explosions occurred to locomotive 
type boilers, and in one case it was on 
a traction engine engaged in road haul- 
age. The other two cases occurred, 
curiously enough, to engines used Kv 
the same colliery company, and ; n 
both cases the extent of the explos'on 
was a burst tube. It comes to this 
then that on all British railways there 



8 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



January, 1915 



was not a single boiler explosion dur- part 
ing the year ended the 30th June, 1913. The 



on colored lithographic charts, 
instruction room has ample capa- 




AIR BRAKE INSTRUCTION ROOM, ST. LOUIS. MO. 



A Modern Air Brake Instruction Room. 

Terminal Railroad Association of 

St. Louis. 

By C. F. Smith, R. F. of E., 
St. Louis, Mo. 

The Terminal Railway Association 
of St. Louis announce that office and 
instruction rooms have been moved from 
the old 14th street site to more commo- 
dious quarters in the Union Station An- 
nex, which is located a short distance 
south of Union Station train sheds, close 
to 18th Street Viaduct. 

The accompanying photographs show 
two views of air brake train racks for 
demonstrating operation of equipment; 
these racks are composed of two units, 
one consisting of ten freight car brakes, 
and the other four, passenger car brake 
equipments, three of which are Sched- 
ule "LN" and one Schedule "UC." 
These units can be operated as a com- 
plete train, or separately, when desired 
to demonstrate either passenger or 
freight train operation. Each freight 
car brake is supplied with 40 ft. of 1%" 
brake pipe, while 80 ft. of 1" brake pipe 
is connected to each passenger car 
brake. 

An air signal demonstrating rack is 
composed of one locomotive and four 
passenger car equipments, the piping of 
which is shown just behind triple 
valves on freight car brake rack. Brake 
cylinders, brake pipe, reservoirs, etc., 
arc colored with standard colors, rep- 
resenting different pressures, each part 
being the same color as shown for that 
city for comfortably seating a class of 
SO and is well lighted by natural, as 



well as artificial light. A tandem brake 
equipment, a novel arrangement for de- 



monstrating crossed air and signal 
hose, well assorted sectional air brake 
apparatus, sectional draft gear, colored 
lithographic charts, sectional lubricat- 
ors and injectors; also a very nicely 
built up cab model and paraphernalia 
for demonstrating electrical head light 
and cab light, of which a Pyle gener- 
ator operated by air pressure is a prom- 
inent feature, are fixtures not shown 
in attached photographs. A defective 
triple valve rack, with four defective 
valves, is shown in the space under the 
six air gauges connected to various 
pressures in passenger train rack. A 
''_'' air compressor with sectional top 
head operating in tandem furnishes air 
pressure for demonstration purposes 
and as the compressor is operated by 
80 lbs. air pressure, supplied from 
power-house, it readily furnishes an 
adequate supply up to a maximum of 
140 lbs. 

The air pump governor is supplied 
with three heads, one connected direct- 
ly to main reservoir, the other two to 
the "H-6" and "G-6" brake valves re- 
spectively. The pulpit equipment con- 
sists of an "H-6" and an "S-6" brake 
valve, feed and reducing valves, a 
"G-6" brake valve connected in tandem 
with sectional valve. an "S-3-A" 
straight air brake valve, a back-up hose 




AIR BRAKE INSTRUCTION ROOM, ST. LOUIS, MO. 



January, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



•demonstrating feature, four duplex air 
gauges together with piping and cut- 
out cocks conveniently located to en- 




An Enduring Lamp. 
By J. G. Koppell. 

The accompanying illustration shows 
a tungsten lamp of ISO Watt power 
in single socket — "Benjamin's" cluster. 
It is mounted on a wooden pole, and 
is secured with an iron strap to the 
steel work. The lamp illuminates the 
end of a swing bridge running across 
the Ste. Marie Canal for the Canadian 
Pacific railway at Sault Ste. Marie, 
Ontario, a fast growing town, and a 
busy railroad center. 

It is remarkable chiefly on account 
of the long life record of the lamp. It 
was placed in service on April 15, and 
burned every day, or every night rath- 
er, Sundays included, from dark to 
dawn, till November 10. Surely this 
speaks well for the type of lamp, and 
the reliable condition of the appliances. 



the wrench "B" to the right clockwise, 
moves the ends in opposite directions 
until sufficient tension is obtained. 
Then swing the tool forward until a 
hook is formed, then turn the wrench 
to the left until the band is disengaged, 
cut the wire and hammer down, as in 
Fig. 4. 

Groove "E" is used for forming the 
closed end of the band. Pin "C" pre- 
vents the wrench from working out of 
body "A." 

Fig. 3 shows an easy method of 
forming the band around the hose, in 
position shown, pass the free ends 
through the closed end, hold them sta- 
tionary and work the closed end over 
the hose until a circle is formed. 



150 WATT POWER TUNGSTEN LAMP. 

able the operator to demonstrate loco- 
motive and train brakes continuously, 
or in sections best adapted to require- 
ments. The "H-6" and "G-6" brake 
valve are so connected that double 
heading features with either valve de- 
monstrating the lead engine can be 
shown. 13 duplex and 5 single pointer 
air gauges indicate pressure at various 
parts of equipment, the neat arrange- 
ment of a duplex gauge showing, by 
aid of a three-way valve, pressure in 
pressure chamber, application chamv-er. 
•or application cylinder, of distributing 
valve. The six duplex gauges mounted 
above defective triple valve rack show, 
reading from right to left, Brake Pipe- 
Brake Cylinder; Supplementary Reser- 
voir-Brake Cylinder: Auxiliary Reser- 
voir-Brake Cylinder; Service Reservoir- 
Emergency Reservoir; Auxiliary Reser- 
voir-Brake Cylinder; Quick Action 
Chamber-Quick Action Closing Cham- 
ber Pressures. Two complete driver 
brake equipments, one representing 
Schedule 6-FT, the other Schedule 
"A-l," together with one tender brake 
equipment operating in unison with 
either driver brake equipment, com- 
plete the instruction equipment which 
is admirably adapted to the require- 
ments of this important terminal, 
which, besides operating 146 locomo- 
tives of their own, handle all passenger 
equipment of the 22 railroads entering 
St. Louis. It should be added that the 
equipment is much appreciated by the em- 
1 ! >yees. 



Applying Bands to Hose. 
By J. A. Jesson. 

The accompanying illustration shows 
a simple tool for applying wire bands 
to pneumatic and water hose. 

The free ends of the band "D" are 
passed through holes "F." and closed 
end is placed in groove "G," turning 



To Prevent Lead from Exploding. 

Painful accidents have sometimes been 
caused by molten lead exploding while 
being poured. Many workmen have had 
their patience sorely tried when pouring 
melted lead around a wet joint to find the 
lead explode, blow out or scatter from the 
effect of the steam generated by the heat 
of the metal. The whole trouble may be 
stopped by putting a piece of rosin about 
the size of a hickory nut into the ladle 
and allowing it to melt before pouring. 




DETAILS OF DEVICE FOR APPLYING BANDS TO HOSE. 



10 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



January, 1915. 



The Mechanical Side of Railroading. 

The Railroad Men's Improvement So- 
ciety of New York is composed mostly 
of young railroad nun ambitious for self- 
improvement. They meet weekly during 
the winter months, have papers read on 
railroad subjects and discuss them. At 
a recent meeting an address on The 
Mechanical Side of Railroading was given 
li\ Mr. William Schlafge, general mechan- 
ical superintendent of the Erie Railroad, 
and proved peculiarly interesting to all 
classes of railroad men. 

The preliminary portion of the paper 
reads : 

M'out (iiv hundred years ago the prog- 
ress of the world in all limes of effort 
brought about a condition where com- 
merce, particularly inland commerce, had 
outgrown the known and tried means of 
transportation to such an extent that an 
arrest of development was imminent, un- 
less new and adequate methods could 
be devised to meet the changed condi- 
tions of the times. 

Then both in the old world, and in the 
new, the channels of commercial carriage 
were the waterways, natural and artificial, 
and the highways. The latter varied from 
crude, primitive pathways, through the 
newer and sparsely settled regions, and 
of severely limited unit load capacity, to 
the scientifically constructed roads, of the 
older and more populous communities, 
which, designed with that end in view, 
were correspondingly more economical 
and efficient. 

Steam was receiving recognition as a 
practical aid to navigation and the day, 
when its perfected application would sup- 
plant sailing power, was in sight to wide- 
awake observers. But on the land do- 
mestic animals were still the main reliance 
as prime movers. It was in land carriage 
where the insufficiency of means was most 
keenly felt, and which called the loudest 
for relief. But in spite of the efforts of 
hopeful dreamers and hard working men 
of mechanical genius and of dauntless 
courage to adapt steam to the purpose, 
the day seemed yet far distant when re- 
lief would come by that means. As usual 
history repeated itself, just as it does to- 
day, and almost everybody scouted the idea 
as an impossibility and an idle dream. 

But in every crisis, in every age, some 
commanding figure rises above his fellows 
and quietly, calmly takes the burden and 
meets the problem of the hour. This is 
remarked with such unfailing regularity 
throughout history that we have come to 
speak of the advent of such men as 
Providential. 

Is there a new continent to be dis- 
covered, a Columbus appears. Are the 
liberties of a nation to be defended and 
preserved, a Prince of Orange or a Lin- 
coln arises to guide its destinies. A 
Goethals is found to meet the supreme 
test of mighty constructive achievement 
and overcomes all obstacles, even the 



seemingly unconquerable forces of nature; 
and so, in the early part of the nineteenth 
century, the master mind of Stephenson 
harmonized and co-ordinated the diverse 
theories and accomplishments of his con- 
temporary investigators, and gave to the 
world the steam locomotive as a practical 
agency of commerce. Nor does it detract 
from Ins just fame to concede that an- 
other may have a better claim to be con- 
sidered as the original inventor of the 
team locomotive. It is fairly well settled 
thai he made the earliest application of 
known principles, which produced a work 
able, successful locomotive of commercial 
utility. A mere passive academic knowl- 
edge of principles, or of truth, is ol no 
.1 \ ail unless applied. It is application to 
useful ends that counts. 

Thus we see that railroads had their 
beginning in the fruits of mechanical 
genius and, after the passing of the cen- 
tury that separates these pioneer efforts 
in locomotive design and building from the 
worthy accomplishments of today, we may 
still say that the mechanical side of rail- 
roading has retained its absorbing interest 
and its original relative importance. 

The history of the development and 
progress of railroading may be pictured 
graphically in many ways: but it may be 
doubted if that wonderful story can be 
told more vividly, more convincingly, 
more accurately than by contemplating the 
evolution of the locomotive from Stephen- 
son's "Rocket" to the latest Pacific type 
or triplex compound or, indeed, by tracing 
the growth of carrying vehicles from a 
unit scarcely larger than an ordinary road 
wagon to the seventy-five-ton freight car. 

If we are to analyze railroad operation, 
it is obvious that we will find that each 
department has problems and troubles 
peculiar to itself. On the mechanical side 
the great problem as to American rail- 
roads is the care, inspection and main- 
tenance of 2,500,000 freight cars. 56,000 
passenger train cars and 66,000 locomo- 
tives, representing an investment esti- 
mated at three billion three hundred and 
fifty million dollars, and calling for an 
annual maintenance charge estimated at 
$450,000,000. It might be remarked in 
passing that the latter sum would more 
than provide each year for a work of 
peace equal to the Panama Canal, but it 
would only finance the European war for 
about ten days. 

Were all the cars and locomotives of 
American railroads coupled together, over 
two thousand miles of track would be 
required to hold them. They would con- 
siderably more than fill solid the main 
line double tracks of the Erie Railroad 
from New York to Chicago, or on a 
single track they would reach from New 
York to Denver, and it should be remem- 
bered, that the end is not yet. for the 
growth of railways in America is bound 
to continue for a large number of years 
to come. 



Mr. S. M. Vanclain on Locomotive 
Development. 

There have been few people connected 
with locomotive designing whose expres- 
sions concerning lines of progress and 
impn '\ ement have proved so sound as 
tho e of .Mr. S. M. Vauclain, general 
manager of the Baldwin Locomotivt 
Works. One of Mr. Vauclain's latest 
utterances was concerning the centipede 

lot live built for the Erie Railroad 

Company, when be said : 

"This type of locomotive would never 
-ted, however, were it not 
for the fact that we are now able to feed 
imotive boiler any amount of coal 
up to its capacity to burn it. Thus the 
human equation heretofore preventing the 
use of large power units has been over- 
come, and it is my belief that we are just 
beginning to enter the field of large 
power units for freight service of the 
trunk lines of this country. If it can be 
proven that we can operate locomotives 
of 150.000 pounds tractive effort, with the 
same engine crew as heretofore and with 
less physical exertion on the part of the 
fireman than with the locomotive of only 
50.000 pounds tractive effort, it would 
appear reasonable that such units of 
power will be in demand, not only by the 
railroad companies but by the employees 
as well." 



President Wilson on College Educa- 
tion. 

President Woodrow Wilson previous to 
his election to the high office he now fills 
was a professor of Princeton University. 
His estimate of the value of a college edu- 
cation ought to favor the college side, yet 
he is on record as saying : "A man who 
takes a course of four years of social life 
at some university, has thrown away four 
years of that natural power to work which 
descended to him from bis great 
progenitor Adam." 



Had to Have His Smoke. 

Reports from the warring armies tell 
of the passion for smoking that there is 
in the trenches, but the trenches are not 
the only place where the craving is felt. 
It is told of a British wagon driver that,, 
although laden with ammunition, he 
could not forego his smoke, and pro- 
ceeded to light his pipe while the petrol 
tank at his elbow was being filled. The 
petrol took fire, the ammunition got go- 
ing, unpremeditated fireworks burst in 
windows, smashed a tree, and injured a 
number of people, but none fatally. The 
writer of the account of this affair states 
that some of the men of the convoy were 
arrested by the military police, which, 
everything considered, was not very sur- 
prising. 



January, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



11 



4-6-0 Type of Locomotive for the Southern Railway 



There are few types of locomotives 
that have been more successful on 
American railways than the ten-wheeled 
or 4-6-0. With approximately 75 per 
cent, of the total weight of the engine 
carried on the driving-wheels, this type 
is suitable for either passenger or 
freight service. In some cases driving- 
wheels of different diameters are used 
under the passenger and freight en- 
gines, while the majority of the re- 
maining details are interchangeable in 
the two classes. In other cases, where 
grades and traffic conditions are favor- 
able, locomotives of the same design 
are used interchangeably in both kind-. 
of work. 

Since the introduction of the Pacific 
type, ten-wheeled locomotives have 
been retired from heavy main line pas- 
senger service on many roads, but they 



The boiler of this locomotive is of 
the extended wagon-top type with wide 
firebox. The boiler center line is 9 
ft. 1 in. above the rail, and the height 
to the top of the stack is 14 ft. 9 ins. 
The firebox is comparatively short and 
wide, and the mud ring is sloped toward 
the front in order to provide a suffi- 
ciently deep throat. Saturated steam is 
used, and the distribution is controlled by- 
balanced slide valves, which are set with 
a lead of 15/64 in. and are actuated by 
the Southern valve .year. This motion 
has been suo essfully applied to a large 
number of Southern Railway locomo- 
tives. 

Among the larger east steel details 
used on this engine may be mentioned 
driving-wheel centers, driving boxes, 
steam chests and caps, back foot plate 
and front bumper. The cylinders are 



Water Space. — front, 4 ins.; sides. 4 
ins.; back. 4 ins. 

Tubes. — .Material, iron; thickness, No. 
11 W. i i. : number, 290; diameter, 2 ins.; 
length, 13 ft. 6 ins. 

Heating Surface. — Fire box, 128 sq. 
ft.; tubes, 2,035 sq. ft; total, 2,163 sq. 
ft.; grate area. 38.5 sq. ft.. 

Driving Wheels. — Diameter, outside. 
62 .us,; center, 56 ins.; journals, main 
and "thers. 8 \ ID ins.. 

Engine Truck Wheels. — Diameter, 
ir.nit, 30 ins.; journals, 5J4 x 10 ins. 

Wheel Base.— Driving, 11 ft. 9 ins.; 
Rigid, 11 it C| ins.; total engine, 22 ft. 
ins.; total engine and tender, 50 ft. 
ins. 

Weight— On driving wheels, 109,200 
lbs.; on truck, front. 38,700 lbs.; total 
engine, 147,900 lbs.; total engine and 
tender. 240.0(111 lbs. 




J. Hainen, Gen. S. M. P. &• E. 



TEN-WHEEL TYPE OF LOCOMOTIVE FOR THE SOUTHERN RAILWAY. 

Baldwin Locomotive Works, Builders. 



are still used to a large extent for 
lighter work, and for general service 
■on short roads and branch lines. With 
the increase in the weight of all classes 
of trains, they are, in many cases, more 
suitable for branch line service than 
locomotives of the American type, 
which were formerly used almost ex- 
clusively in this class of work. 

The accompanying illustration repre- 
sents a ten-wheeled locomotive, recent- 
ly built by the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works for the Southern Railway. This 
engine carries 109,200 pounds on driv- 
ing-wheels, and can safely be used on 
rails weighing 60 pounds and over per 
yard. The weight of the locomotive 
is evenly distributed, there being 36,400 
pounds on each pair of driving-wheels. 
The tractive force exerted is 25,700 
pounds, and the ratio of adhesion 4.25. 
With 62-in. wheels, the engine is well 
fitted for general road service. 



lined with bushings of Hunt-Spiller 
metal, and the main frames and front 
frame sections are open-hearth, vana- 
dium steel castings. 

The tender is carried on cast iron 
chilled wheels, weighing 625 pounds 
each. The tender frame is composed 
of 10-in. steel channels with oak 
bumpers. 

The following are the leading dimen- 
sions of this locomotive: 

Gauge, 4 ft. 8V2 ins.; cylinders, 19 x 
26 ins.; valves, balanced slide. 

Boiler. — Type, wagon-top: material, 
steel; diameter, 64 ins.; thickness of 
sheets, 11/16 and 34 ins.; working pres- 
sure, 200 lbs.: fuel, soft coal; staying, 
radial. 

Fire Box. — Material, steel; length, 84^ 
ins.; width, 66 iris.; depth, front, 66J4 
ins.; depth, back. 541-6 ins.; thickness 
of sheets, sides. Y% in.; back, Ya in.; 
crown, y% in.; tube, y 2 in. 



Tender. — Wheels, number, 8; diame- 
ter, 33 ins.; journals, 4% x 8 ins.; tank 
capacity, 4,600 gals.; fuel capacity, 8- 
tons; service, passenger. 

Engine equipped with superheater. 



Improvements in Honduras. 

Besides relaying 35 miles of the main- 
line of their banana railroad from Ceiba. 
to San Juan with 60-pound rails and 
planning the relaying of the entire sys- 
tem of about 100 miles with similar 
track, Vacarro Bros. & Co., important 
shipper of fruit through Ceiba, are com- 
pleting an 800 by 74 foot all-steel train 
shed at this port. They are also so re- 
modeling two of their transport fleet, 
the "Yoro" and the "Ceiba," as to in- 
crease the capacity of these vessels 
from 50,000 bunches of bananas to 
70.000 bunches. Sailing vessels carry pas- 
sengers as well as freight and sail un- 
der the flag of Honduras. 



12 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



January, 1915. 



Importance of Coal Economy 



By ANGUS SINCLAIR. D.E. 



Third Article. 

DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN BURNING 
COAL ECONOMICALLY. 

While waste of heat results from a 
profuse supply of air to the tire, beyond 
the quantity required to effect combination 
of the gases, much greater loss of heat 
arises from the supply of air being too 
small. To strike the happy medium is no 
easy matter, for the conditions of combus- 
tion in a locomotive firebox vary so rapid- 
ly that a supply of air which would be 
sufficient at one minute would be waste- 
fully profuse the next. This is not the 
only feature of combustion in locomotive 
fireboxes where it is difficult to steer clear 
of loss. With the best appliances pro- 
vided that can ever be devised to aid the 
fireman in his work, there will always be 
considerable loss of heat, but thoughtful 
care and developed skill will do much to 
restrain these losses. 

Coal placed in the most unskillful man- 
ner in a firebox badly adapted to econom- 
ical combustion, will burn after a fashion 
and make steam, but the steam will be 
generated at great expense, just as it 
proves very expensive in the long run to 
operate an engine that is badly quartered 
or has the cylinders out of line. 

ANTHRACITE COAL BURNING FIREBOXES. 

Fireboxes designed to burn anthracite 
coal perform their functions, as a rule, 
better than those intended for bituminous 
coal. The principal cause of the differ- 
ence is that anthracite coal is nearly pure 
carbon, and the phenomenon of combus- 
tion is much less complex than where 
much hydro-carbon compounds are pres- 
ent. Less air is required to effect com- 
plete combustion, and the fire does not 
form so compactly as in the case of 
bituminous coal, and the air that passes 
through the gates mixes freely through 
the whole body of the fuel, providing the 
means of perfect chemical combination. 
The line of improvement likely to be fol- 
lowed in the designing of anthracite coal 
burning locomotive fireboxes, is the pro- 
viding of ample grate area so that the 
quantity of coal to be consumed per foot 
of area shall at no time be excessive. 
Several forms of hard coal burning fire- 
S already leave little to be desired 
in the way of improvement. 

THE PROBLEM OF BURNING BITUMINOUS 
COAL ECONOMICALLY. 

Anthracite coal burning engines form 
a small proportion of American loco- 
motives, and it is continually growing 
smaller. The soft coal burner is no doubt 
the locomotive of the future, and the 
achievement of burning bituminous coal 



economically, and without an objection- 
able quantity of smoke, is a problem of 
growing importance, and one that no 
American master mechanic can afford to 
ignore, although many do so. In search- 
ing for the most economical conditions 
adapted for the combustion of bituminous 
in locomotive fireboxes, we have to con- 
sider the character of the coal, the way 
it is handled in feeding to the fire, the 
size of the grate in relation to the heat- 
ing surface, the means of admitting and 
controlling air, and the influence exerted 
on the fire by the draft appliances 

HEAT VALUE OF THE GAS PRESENT IN 
BITUMINOUS COAL. 

The bituminous coal used as fuel for 
locomotives contains from 4,000 to 9,000 
cubic feet of carbureted hydrogen gas to 
the ton. The quantity of gas varies ac- 
cording to the quality of the coal, but 
6,000 cubic feet to the ton may be taken 
as a fair average. This gas has nearly 
double the calorific value of the same 
weight of pure carbon, yet through the 
defects of firebox construction and errors 
..f tiring most of the volatile gases pass 
away without producing heat, and are 
known only to the world through their 
aggressive attributes as smoke producers. 
Every pound of coal thrown into the fire- 
box produces about two cubic feet of car- 
bureted hydrogen. When this gas is lib- 
erated from the pound of coal it leaves, 
when impurities are deducted, only about 
.7 of a pound of carbon in the form of 
available solid fuel. Were the whole of 
this carbon now to be utilized in steam 
making, we find there would only be 
10,150 thermal units available instead of 
14,500 units in a whole pound of carbon. 
But the cubic feet of carbureted hydrogen 
weight about .12 of a pound, and when 
this enters fully into combination with 
oxygen, it generates 3,240 heat units, 
which serve materially to increase the 
firebox temperature. 

From these figures it will be seen that 
the volatile gases constitute nearly one- 
third of the heat value of ordinary bitu- 
minous coal. A firebox that provides the 
means of burning all the gases in bitu- 
minous coal will show the thermal value 
of the latter to be nearly equal to the 
best anthracite. The way to do this is 
to provide the proper means of mixing 
air with the gas as it is liberated from 
the coal, maintaining in the meantime a 
firebox temperature away above the ig- 
niting point. 

HOW HEAT MAY BE SAVED OR WASTED. 

When bituminous coal is used for fuel, 
the firebox of a locomotive acts as a re- 



tort for distilling the gases, and it is to 
some extent the fault of construction if 
the gases are not made available for 
steam raising, and when they are not 
turned to useful account in this way, their 
presence in the coal is an actual injury, 
for good heat has to be wasted in the me- 
chanical work of tearing them from the 
solid to the gaseous condition. When a 
shovelful of coal is thrown into the fire- 
box, the immediate effect of the charge is 
to chill the fire, for part of the heat of 
the incandescent fuel, previously on the 
grates, is used raising the fresh coal to 
the temperature of ignition. When that 
point is reached, the hydro-carbon gases 
are liberated. If, at the moment of re- 
lease, or before they reach the tubes, 
these gases are supplied with their com- 
bining portion of oxygen, they yield their 
high percentage of heat to the fire; if 
the necessary oxygen does not reach them 
they pass into the air, having done no 
good but harm by carrying away the heat 
that was drawn from the fire to raise 
them to the point of temperature neces- 
sary to change them from the solid to the 
gaseous condition. If the temperature of 
the firebox maintained is high, if the coal 
is fed in small charges and sufficient air 
be present above the incandescent fuel to 
supply oxygen to the hydro-carbons lib- 
erated from the coal, there will be little 
chilling effect from the charges of fresh 
coal, for the coal as it reaches the fire 
will produce a flame that will supply the 
heat required for continued gasification. 
This is the principal advantage derived 
from maintaining high firebox tempera- 
ture, firing light and from getting good 
air in where it is needed. It makes the 
difference between wasting and saving an 
important part of the fuel. 



Workers in New York State. 
It is interesting to learn from the re- 
port on occupations just published that 
in a population of 9,113,614 there were 
4,003.844 workers engaged in gainful oc- 
cupations. Among these were 39,357 boys 
and 25,737 girls between the ages of 10 
and 15 years earning money. The per- 
centage of workers is increasing. Five 
years ago only 43 per cent, were at work ; 
now there are estimated 51 per cent, of 
the population working. At the same 
ratio of increase we will be nearly all 
working in twelve years more, and con- 
sequently be out of mischief, but some- 
times there is nothing more misleading 
than statistics, because with the advance 
of science there will likely be fewer work- 
ers in the undiscovered future. 



January, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



13 



General Foremen's Department 



New and Improved Process of Head- 
ing Stay Bolts. 

An improvement in the heading of 
stay bolts has been jointly devised and 
patented by Mr. Charles P. Vauclain 
and Mr. John M. Burns, of Philadel- 
phia, and assigned to the Baldwin Lo- 
comotive Works, and bids fair to meet 
with popular approval. As shown in 
the accompanying illustrations, the 
method of heading the stay bolt is ac- 
complished by the use of a specially 
constructed tool that indents the pro- 
jecting ends of the stay bolts and 
causes the metal to turn outwardly. 
This gradual spreading of the end of 
the stay bolt, while the periphery is 
confined by the curved portion of the 
tool, prevents the edges of the stay 
bolt from splitting and making a de- 
fective head. 

Usually it has been the custom to use 
a stay bolt of such a length that the 
ends of the stay bolt will project be- 
yond the surfaces of the boiler and 
reducing these projecting portions by 
hammering to form the heads. This 
practice frequently causes the project- 
ing portions of the bolt to split, and 
great care must be exercised in forming 
the head so that the bolt will have a 
neat appearance. In many instances, 
after the head has been formed, the 
joint must be calked in order to make 
it steam and water tight. Stay bolts 
having a central tell tale hole have to 
be finished with care, as the tendency is 
to close the hole in forming the head, 
and the head must be drilled or reamed 
after the rivet has been completed, 
which takes time and makes the opera- 
tion an expensive one. 

In the improved process there is no 
difficulty in properly heading the stay 
bolts without cracking the head and 
also without filling the tell tale hole. 
Fig. 1 is a sectional view of the stay 
bolt and plate with end of the stay bolt 
projecting after being screwed into the 
plate. Fig. 2 shows the design of the 
tool and the formation assumed by the 
projecting end of the stay bolt on ap- 
plication of the tool, and when com- 
pleted the metal that has undergone the 
spreading process fits tightly against 
the plate of the boiler. The displace- 
ment of the center of the stay bolt does 
not extend beyond the outer face of the 
plate and, consequently, does not ex- 
pand the metal of the stay bolt within 
the screw threaded opening. 

When a stay bolt is of the type hav- 
ing a tell tale hole opening, as is shown 



in Fig. 3, the process of heading does 
not close this opening, but by forcing 




FIG. 1. SECTIONAL VIEW OF STAYBOLT. 

the metal from the center outward 
keeps the center open at all times, mak- 
ing it unnecessary to re-drill or to 




FIG. 2. DESIGN OF BEADING TOOL AND 
FORMATION OF BOLT HEAD. 

ream the stay bolt after the head is 
finished. 

It may also be added that the forma- 




the sheets, as the thicker central forma- 
tion of the head under the old process 
is more apt to be burned away than 
the indented formation of the head un- 
der the new method. Tests already 
made have shown the element of dur- 
ability in a marked degree, and official 
reports in regard to this new method 
of heading stay bolts may be expected 
at an early date. 



FIG. 3. FINISHED BOLT SHOWING TELL 
TALE HOLE. 

tion of the stay bolt head under the 
new process is more likely to be dur- 
able in the inner or firebox side of 



Fourth Annual Report of the Interna- 
tional Railway General Foremen's 
Association. 

We take much pleasure in calling par- 
ticular attention to a volume containing 
the Tenth Annual Report of the Interna- 
tional Railway General Foremen's Asso- 
ciation which was received several months 
ago and reflected much credit upon Secre- 
tary Hall for the prompt manner in which 
it was published and the admirable manner 
of its production. The volume contains 
192 pages, excellent in printing and noted 
for correctness in the text. 

The report comprises three reports of 
committees and two subsidiary papers, all 
of which dealt very thoroughly with the 
subjects treated and were very ex- 
haustively discussed by the members. The 
opening address of President W. W. Scott 
was unusually valuable and contained 
suggestions for the betterment of the asso- 
ciation- that cannot fail to prove beneficial 
if carried out. Among the suggestions 
made was one "that the number named on 
committees be increased to ten members 
and that their selection come from widely 
separated territory, in order that all data 
due to climatic or any other unusual con- 
ditions may be observed and noted." We 
think that suggestion might profitably be 
followed by all other mechanical associa- 
tions. 

The several reports are so exhaustive, 
that we cannot begin. to discuss them, but 
in many instances the minor subjects make 
good reports in themselves. Looking over 
the extensive field of reports from 
mechanical associations, we cannot think 
of one that will afford more profitable 
study than the Tenth Annual Report of the 
International General Foremen's Associa- 
tion. 



At a recent meeting of the Executive 
Committee of the International Railway 
General Foremen's Association, it was 
decided to hold their 1915 convention at 
Hotel Sherman, Chicago. July 13-16, in- 
clusive. 



14 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



January, 1915. 



Catechism of Railroad Operation 



NEW SERIES. 

Third Year's Examination 

ii . ■ . uea from page 440. Dec, 1914.) 

Q. 123.— What would you do if the 
link hanger was broken? 

A. — Block the link at the desired 
point of cut-off to handle the train, 
remove the broken parts necessary and 
proceed. 

Q. 124. — What would you do if the 
lifting arm was broken? 

A. — Block the link at the desired 
point of cut-off to lift and handle the 
train, remove the broken parts neces- 
sarj and proceed. 

Q. 125. — What precaution must be 
taken, when you have one link blocked 
up for broken saddle pin or link hang- 
er? 

A. — You must guard against revers- 
ing the engine, without first changing 
the blocking, because if engine were 
reversed without placing the link to the 
same position the good side would be 
after reversal, you would have one side 
working against the other, and if re- 
versed while in motion might cause 
wheels to lock and slide. You must 
also guard against dropping the good 
side any lower than you have the dis- 
abled side blocked at, unless you know 
that the lifting arm will clear the head 
of link on disabled side. 

Note. — To get the proper length of 
block to place on link block to hold 
link up to the desired point of cut-off 
on the disabled side, place the reverse 
lever at point in rack where you will 
want to work engine the hardest to 
handle train, cut the block to fit on top 
of link block in good side and place 
it in link on disabled side. 

Note. — To guard against dropping 
the lever below point at which you have 
disabled side blocked, put block in 
quadrant. 

Q. 126.— What would you do if the 
tumbling shaft breaks? 

A. — Where the construction of en- 
gine will permit, place bar across top 
of frame under the lifting arms and 
lash it there, also lash the lifting arms 
to the bar: where this is impossible it 
will be necessary to block both links 
at the desired point of cut-off by plac- 
ing block on top of link blocks under 
the head of links. 

Note. — When both links are connect- 
ed to the same part of shaft block in 
one link only because when one link 
is slipping up the other one is moving 
down on its link block at each vibra- 
tion of the links, consequently blocking 



in both links would be liable to cause 
further damage. 

Q. 127. — What would you do if the 
reverse lever or reach rod breaks? 

A. — If vertical arm to tumbling shaft 
extends up through the running board 
you can raise the links up to the de- 
sired point of cut-off and block the 
vertical arm in that position in slot in 
running board, otlierwi.se you can sup- 
port the links (where construction of 
engine will permit) by placing a bar 
across top of frame under lifting arms, 
or by placing block in top of one link 
only making it carry both links at the 
desired height. 

Q. 128— What would you do if the 
vertical arm to tumbling shaft broke? 

A. — Place bar across top of frame 
under lifting arms, or block in top of 
one link only, to hold links at desired 
point of cut-off. 

Q. 129. — What is a quick way to get 
valve' central on seat when engine 
stops on dead center, and it is neces- 
sary to block valve to cover ports? 

A. — Knowing that the port at end of 
cylinder where piston rests is open the 
amount of lead and that the valve has 
about seven eighths of an inch steam 
lap with outside admission valve engine 
standing on forward center, mark valve 
stem about one inch from valve stem 
packing case and disconnect valve rod, 
move it ahead until mark is flush with 
face of packing case. With inside ad- 
mission valve, engine on forward cen- 
ter, mark valve stem flush with face of 
packing case, disconnect valve rod and 
pull it back until mark is about one 
inch away from face of packing case. 

With outside admission engine stand- 
ing on back center, mark valve stem at 
face of packing case, disconnect valve 
rod and pull back until mark was about 
one inch away from face of packing 
case. With inside admission valve, en- 
gine on back center, mark valve stem 
about one inch from face of packing 
case, and disconnect valve rod and 
move it ahead until mark on valve stem 
is flush with face of packing case. 

Note. — This method will not get the 
valve exactly in center of its seat but 
will place it near enough to center to 
cover the ports, and if you know the 
exact amount of lap and lead, by moving 
valve in this manner the amount of lap 
plus the lead you will get valve on 
exact center of seat. 

Note. — Another method of placing 
the valve in center of seat when engine 
is standing on dead center, if a Steven- 
son gear, place reverse lever in center 



of rack, disconnect one eccentric blade 
from link and move the link until the 
rocker arm is at right angles to the 
valve stem, clamp valve there, discon- 
nect valve rod and connect up eccen- 
tric rod again. — If a Walschaert valve 
gear, place reverse lever in center of 
rack, disconnect lower end of combina- 
tion lever and move it until valve rod 
forms a right angle with its upper end,. 
clamp valve there and disconnect radius 
bar from combination lever, suspend it 
up and connect up the lower end of 
combination lever to union link. 

Q. 130. — How would you locate side 
on which valve yoke or valve stem was 
broken off inside of steam chest? 

A. — Open the cylinder cocks while en- 
gine was in motion and throttle open, 
and would get a steady blow from the 
back cylinder cock on the disabled side 
if an outside admission valve, or from 
the front cylinder cock if an inside ad- 
mission valve. 

Note. — When valve yoke breaks or 
valve stem breaks it will leave the valve 
at the forward end of steam chest, and 
with the outside admission valve the back 
admission port would be wide open, 
and the inside admission valve would 
have the front admission port wide 
open. 

Note. — On an engine having an out- 
side admission valve if w-orking steam 
when engine stops, or attempting to 
spot engine after breaking valve yoke 
or stem, the engine will stop on the 
forward dead center, because the steam 
in back end of cyinder would move the 
piston to forw-ard end of cylinder and 
hold it there. An inside admission 
valve will some times move to center 
of seat on account of perfect balance 
and close port so engine might be 
moved, but generally it would stop- 
on the back dead center on the dis- 
abled side. 

Note. — In either case after engine 
had stopped on dead center, you can 
test for disabled side by opening cylin- 
der cocks, admitting steam and moving 
reverse lever from one corner to the 
other, if you are able to shift steam 
from one cylinder cock to the other it 
shows that you have control of valve 
on side where engine is on the quarter 
and the other valve must he the one 
that is disabled. 

Q. 131. — What would cause you to 
think valve yoke or stem was broken? 

A. — The loss of two exhausts and 
peculiar rocking motion of engine, 
caused by one side working against the ■ 
other side during half the revolution. 



January, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



15 



Q. 132. — What would you do if valve 
_yoke was cracked or sprung? 

A. — Work reverse lever down at long 
■cut-off, and light throttle, handling full 
train. 

Note. — By working light throttle you 
reduce the pressure on valve and the 
friction being less the yoke will hold 
•to complete trip. By allowing the 
steam to follow piston nearly entire 
length of cylinder, you will have power 
to handle train to terminal. 

Q. 133. — How would you locate the 
cracked or sprung valve yoke? 

A. — By engine going suddenly very- 
lame and having a heavy exhaust when 
the crank was passing the front center 
and a light exhaust when pin was cross- 
ing back center, account of valve not 
giving much port opening at front end 
■of the cylinder. 

Standing test. — Place engine on top 
■quarter on side you desire to test, have 
reverse lever in forward corner, open 
cylinder cocks, set the brakes, open the 
throttle so as to admit heavy steam 
pressure to steam chest, pull reverse 
lever back and note where lever is in 
relation to center of rack when steam 
•ceases to How from back cylinder cock. 
If lever is back of center of rack before 
valve closes the back admission port it 
indicates a defective valve yoke. 

Note. — When the valve is being 
moved ahead the stem and back of the 
yoke will move it squarely on its seat 
and give the back port full opening, 
but as valve is being pulled back, the 
friction will cause crack to open up 
and valve will move back diagonally on 
seat and open the forward port but a 
little, and will not close the back port 
as soon as it should. 



Double-Heading Air Brake Valve. 

I he drawings herewith represent a 
•double heading valve invented by W. R. 
Davis, road foreman of engines of the 
T. & O. C. Railway, Columbus, Ohio, and 
is for the purpose of allowing the use 
of the air pump of the second engine of 
double-header trai'.is to assist in maintain- 
ing the brake pipe pressure. This valve 
is automatically operated by the first en- 
gineer as to cutting in and cutting out 
the second engine's pump, giving the 
benefit of the second engine's pump, 
which heretofore has been unavailable, 
due to taking chances of kicking off the 
brakes when the first engineer applies 
them. This valve has been tried out on 
the Toledo & Ohio Central Railway, and 
it has proved perfectly satisfactory. 
There are two openings from the valve 
to the brake pipe and one opening from 
the main reservoir of the second engine 
to the valve. The connection to the 
brake pipe which operates the piston 
measures half-inch. When the piston is 
moved to the right it opens the port lead- 
ing to the expansion chamber, which 



moves the valve to the left when a brake 
pipe reduction is made. This valve seats 
up against the main reservoir valve and 
when moved to the right, forces open the 
main reservoir valve, and allows air from 
the main reservoir of the second engine 
to pass into the brake pipe. This air 
from the main reservoir is reduced 20 



3-Gc^on-a Enaine 



Then, by carrying the engineer's brake 
valve of the second engine in running po- 
sition, you have a further insurance of 
reducing the pressure to seventy pounds 
by the use of the feed valve of engineer's 
brake valve. 

When the first engineer makes a re- 
duction of five pounds or more, the ex- 




DOUBLE HEADING AIR BRAKE VALVE IN POSITION. 



pounds below main reservoir pressure by 
a spring, giving a brake pipe pressure of 
70 pounds. In order to place this device 
on an engine, it is necessary to put a 
cut-out cock in the pipe leading from the 
main reservoir to engineer's brake valve, 
then place the main reservoir connection 




pansion chamber forces the large piston 
toward the left, closing the valve lead- 
ing from the main reservoir of the sec- 
ond engine to the brake pipe. When 
the first engineer releases the brakes, 
forcing the air back through the train 
line, it also moves the piston toward the 
left and opens the valve leading from the 
main reservoir of the second engine to 
the train line, so that at all times the 
second pump can assist in maintaining 
the brake pipe pressure, unless there is a 
reduction made of five pounds, which will 
automatically cut out the feed from the 
main reservoir as stated above. 



International Engineering Congress. 

In relation to the International En- 
gineering Congress which will be held at 
San Francisco, Cal., September 20-25, it 
is announced that while it will be im- 
possible to convene the Electrical Congress 
owing to conditions abroad, the En- 
gineering Congress will go ahead as orig- 
inally planned. Marked progress is being 
made in connection with the latter, and 
valuable papers have already been received 
from several of the foreign countries and 
everything points to a successful issue. 
The volumes which will be received by 
the subscribers will be a very adequate 
return to those who subscribe, and the 
committee are hopeful that the whole en- 
gineering fraternity will support the 
underneath the cut-out cock toward the Congress. Full information concerning 
reservoir side, running it through the the Congress may be had from the Secre- 
double-heading valve back into the main tary of the International Engineering 
reservoir pipe leading to the engineer's Congress, Foxcroft Building, San Fran- 
brake valve, above the cut-out cock, cisco. 



DETAILS OF DOUBLE HEADING AIR 
BRAKE VALVE. 



16 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



January. 1915. 



R!&J«ineerin$ 



A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling 
Stock and Appliances. 



Published Monthly by 

ANGUS SINCLAIR CO. 

114 Liberty Street, New York. 

Telephone, 746 Rector. 

Cable Address, "Locong," N. Y. 

Glasgow, "Locoauto.' 



Business Department: 

ANGUS SINCLAIR, D. E., Prest. and Treas. 

JAMES KENNEDY. Vice-Prest. 

HARRY A. KENNEY, Secy, and Gen. Mgr. 

Editorial Department: 

ANGTJS SINCLAIR, D. E., Editor. 
JAMES KENNEDY, Managing Editor. 
GEO. W. KIEHM. Associate Editor. 
A. J. MANSON. Associate Editor. 

Boston Representative: 

8. I. CARPENTER, 643 Old South Building, 
Boston, Mass, 

London Representative: 

THE LOCOMOTIVE PUBLISHING CO., Ltd., 
8 Amen Corner, Paternoster Row, London, E. C, 

Glasgow Representative: 

A. E. SINCLAIR, 15 Manor Road, Bellahouston, 
Glasgow. 



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Entered at the Post Office, New York, as 
Second-class Mail Matter. 



Increase of Freight Rates Granted. 

After tirelessly protracted considera- 
tion, the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion has granted an increase of five per 
cent, in freight rates to the railroads of 
the Eastern District, subject to a few ex- 
ceptions. We hope this marks the dawn 
of a better day for railroad interests, and 
is indicative of an inclination on the part 
of the Interstate Commerce Commission 
to act more fairly towards railroad proper- 
ty than it has done in thepast. The deci- 
sion will tend to restore public confidence 
in the financial soundness of the transpor- 
tation business of the country, which is 
the most important of our industries, with 
the exception of agriculture; but has been 
ruinously oppressed with embarrassing 
restrictions. There are many regions of 
this great country that are not provided 
with proper railroad facilities, and they 



were not likely to receive the means of 
transportation they need while conditions 
existed that were calculated to drive away 
capital from railroad construction. The 
enterprise of capitalists who were willing 
to invest their money in railroads has 
been the making of this country, and its 
continued development depends largely 
upon the encouragement given to capital 
to continue supplying the necessary funds. 
A very considerable part of the depres- 
sion of business from which the country 
is suffering is due to the reluctance of 
capital to provide the means of railroad 
betterment which has affected many other 
interests. Builders of railroad rolling 
stock and other operating machinery 
are receiving no orders, consequently 
their help is idle, improvements on road 
beds and track that were going on so 
vigorously a few years ago are suspended 
and the army of idle hands increased be- 
cause railroads have been deprived of the 
means whereby the enterprises could be 
paid for. 

We hear people ignorant of financial 
knowledge calling for railroad companies 
to provide themselves with resources for 
carrying out improvements, by passing 
dividends, a plan that would bring suffer- 
ing to thousands, at the same time r.uining 
the credit of the companies. As sensibly 
remarked in a recent issue of the New 
York Commercial: "Railroad financing is 
complicated by laws that have nothing to 
do with railroading except indirectly as in 
the case of these savings bank laws. The 
Erie Railroad does not pay dividends and 
cannot borrow money to good advantage. 
Its management is slowly and painfully 
double-tracking and otherwise improving 
its right-of-way from New York to Chi- 
cago. It cannot buy a full equipment of 
steel cars at the same time. If the Erie 
could borrow two hundred million dollars 
on fair terms it could employ an army of 
men. buy vast quantities of rails, cars and 
other equipment, put itself on a paying 
basis and give the public the besl service 
within five or perhaps three years. Every- 
body loses something because the Erie 
cannot do all this. Every dollar so spent 
would stimulate industry at the time and 
would be permanently productive. The 
Erie illustrates the results of lack of 
credit. 

"Let us hope that hereafter Congress 
and the Interstate Commerce Commissi, m 
will give due consideration to the needs of 
the railroads and treat their claims on 
their merits. This is the will of the peo- 
ple of this country. When the Interstate 
Commerce law was passed the sole desire 
of the public was to check favoritism. 
The rate did not matter as long as all 
shippers paid the same rates and al! local- 
ities received the same treatment. One of 
the chief objects of the men who fought 
for this law was to protect the innocent 
stockholder from loss. It was alleged 
that those in control of certain railroads 
granted favors to friends at the expense 



of the companies' treasuries. In time this 
law, framed to increase the earnings ot 
the railroads, was twisted into an engine 
for their impoverishment. Its prime in- 
terest was to protect the railroads from 
the unjust demands of big shippers, but it 
has been so administered in practice as 
to give the shippers the power to fix the 
rates. When the railroads in the last 
three years were compelled to pay higher 
wages, to comply with full crew laws and 
to elevate or depress their tracks at great 
expense to comply with State laws they 
reached the limit of endurance. The New 
Haven was forced to spend probably sixty 
million dollars in changing tracks and has 
not yet done all that the letter of the law 
demands, but, by irony of fate, its power 
to borrow money for such work has been 
destroyed by the savings bank laws of 
the very States in which the construction 
w<>rk was ordered. 

"Our railroads are our greatest material 
asset. They are the arteries through 
which the life blood of our domestic trade 
courses. Our national health depends on 
them, and we can only keep them in 
working order by nourishing them. Gov- 
ernment regulation of a constructive 
character is perhaps necessary, but not 
government restriction of their proper 
enterprises." 

The railroad companies have been carry- 
ing out heroic measures to reduce the 
cost of transportation, but in spite of 
heavier locomotives and cars of greater 
capacity the expense of operating con- 
tinues to increase, owing to the increased 
burdens put upon it. 

In 1900 it cost the railroads 64.62 cents 
in operating expenses to secure one dollar 
in revenue. In 1913 the carriers were 
forced to expend 71.77 cents for every 
dollar earned. That means the ruinous 
oppression of all railroad companies. It 
is n'o wonder that improvements have 
been suspended and that the people in- 
terested in supplying railroads with ma- 
terial and operating appliances are suffer- 
ing through want of orders. 



Boiler Construction, Maintenance and 
Inspection. 

The committee of the American So- 
ciety of Mechanical Engineers, on the 
subject of practical rules covering con- 
struction and maintenance of stationary 
boilers and other pressure vessels, pre- 
sented a very elaborate and important 
report on the subject at the meeting in 
the Engineers' Building. New York, last 
month. 

At present ten States and nineteen mu- 
nicipalities have in force laws for the 
compulsory inspection of steam boilers 
in which are comprised a code of prac- 
tical rules for their construction and op- 
eration, and a number of other States 
and municipalities either have prepared 
or are now preparing similar laws for 
enactment. The laws now in force all 



January, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



17 



differ from another in a number of ma- 
terial respects, and unless some relief 
can be obtained each new law as enacted 
will differ from all the others. It is a 
notorious fact that a boiler built in one 
State may not be shipped into another 
State, not because the boiler is any less 
safe in one State than in another, but 
solely because it does not meet the re- 
quirements of construction in both States. 
But perhaps worse than this is the fact 
that a State that has no such law be- 
comes a common dumping ground for all 
the old worn-out and unsafe boilers that 
are condemned and put out of service by 
the States that have such laws. 

It is practically impossible for boiler 
manufacturers to comply with all of the 
various rules of construction embodied 
in so many different State laws. This 
condition seriously affects almost every 
manufacturing interest in the United 
States. It affects every purchaser of a 
steam boiler because it increases in an 
unnecessary and unwarranted manner the 
cost of boiler construction. It also affects 
all manufacturers of boiler material be- 
cause boiler plate and other material can- 
not be made to uniform specification, and 
it affects the makers of boiler fittings and 
safety appliances because they cannot be 
standardized. 

This condition is intolerable, and the 
committee have worked on the subject 
with a degree of earnestness and intelli- 
gence worthy of so important a subject. 
They took as a basis for discussion the 
rules that have for several years worked 
so satisfactorily in practice in the States 
of Massachusetts and Ohio, and which 
have been acknowledged by all interests 
to be the best rules then in existence, 
and out of it all the committee's report 
presents uniform specifications for boiler 
steel, boiler tubes, safety valves and other 
attachments, which, if adopted by the 
various States, would be one of the most 
important steps ever taken by legislators 
in regard to boiler construction and boiler 
safety. 

It may be stated that the factors of 
safety recommended for stationary boilers 
are somewhat higher than those required 
by the government for railway locomo- 
tive boilers. This is in no sense a crit- 
icism of the requirements of the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission, but is based 
upon the judgment of the committee, that 
a higher factor should be used for sta- 
tionary boilers, first, because not every 
stationary boiler is built in a modern 
shop under careful engineering supervi- 
sion; second, because not every stationary 
boiler is in charge of an operator so 
skilled as a thoroughly experienced loco- 
motive engineer; third, because stationary 
boilers are so bricked in and so con- 
structed that their condition cannot so 
readily be determined, and finally, be- 
cause locomotive boilers are required by 
law to be inspected not less than once a 



month. For these reasons the committee 
is of the opinion that, while a factor of 
safety of four affords ample protection 
for railway locomotive boilers, a higher 
factor of safety is required for stationary 
boilers. 

In closing it might not be amiss to call 
attention to the subject of boiler explo- 
sions in Great Britain, as commented 
upon by Mr. A. F. Sinclair in another 
part of our columns. In his carefully 
prepared statistics it will be observed 
that the casualties from boiler explosions 
in that country are reduced to a very 
low figure, while from the official reports 
in this country we learn that from the 
1,300 to 1,400 serious boiler accidents oc- 
curring every year there are between 400 
and 500 persons killed, while 700 to 800 
more are injured. These figures, which 
are official, emphasize the necessity of 
not only constructing and installing steam 
boilers and their appurtenances in as 
nearly perfect a manner as possible, but 
also the importance of preventing care- 
lessness in their operation and the wis- 
dom of having them inspected at regular 
intervals by disinterested experts. 

Not only so, but what is perhaps of 
the greatest importance of all is to take 
the discussion of such work out of the 
hands of our legislators and place it in 
the hands of those who, by education and 
experience, are qualified for the work to 
the end that human life and property may 
have that measure of protection to which 
they are entitled in an enlightened coun- 
try, where we have often the sorry spec- 
tacle of self-seeking politicians quarreling 
about the law itself, while the people and 
properties which should be safeguarded 
are exposed to disasters that might other- 
wise be avoided. 



Machine Shop Conditions. 

In his peregrinations about railway ma- 
chine shops the writer frequently sees 
drills, wrenches and other tools lying in 
pits or reclining on floors where they have 
been left by careless workmen. We say 
"careless workmen," but when such things 
come to our notice we make the mental 
comment, "the foreman is incompetent." 
We must confess, however, that great im- 
provement in this respect has been effected 
in the last decade, but there still remains 
the opportunity for better conditions. 

There is a sensible old proverb "learn 
young, learn fair," which means that the 
stamp impressed upon youth is readily re- 
ceived and is likely to be lasting. Apply- 
ing this to orderly habits among work- 
men, the first thing an apprentice should 
be taught is the proper care of tools. 
Often more time is consumed in search- 
ing for a tool thrown carelessly aside than 
it takes to do the job after the tool is 
found. Every well managed shop has 
racks or cupboards to keep small tools, 
when it is not equipped with a regular 



tool room with a man in charge. We 
know of no more expensive line of petty 
economy than doing without a properly 
managed tool room. 

For the benefit of people connected with 
repair shops away in the wilderness, we 
wish to say that in almost every railway 
repair shop of any consequence, there is a 
tool room and a tool keeper, whose duty 
it is to look after the tools and check them 
out to workmen. As a general thing he is 
also provided with a lathe and other tools 
needed to effect repairs on the tool equip- 
ment. That we say is the practice of 
well managed shops, but it is surprising 
how many places are still found where 
system or good practice is wanting. The 
Railway General Foremen's Association is 
ten years' old and it is wonderful the in- 
fluence for better methods it has pro- 
moted and is still pushing forward. Its 
influence with that of the Tool Fore- 
men's Association will spread the useful 
knowledge concerning proper shop man- 
agement that will make loose and in- 
ferior practices rare. 

A practice that is too rare in railway 
repair shops is the keeping up of the tool 
equipment by taking the machines apart 
for the purpose of cleaning, repairing and 
adjustment. The time spent in doing 
such work is amply repaid by increased 
efficiency, as journals or other wearing 
surfaces are often found to be grinding, 
and would without such attention be- 
come badly worn before their condition 
would be noticed. 

Belting should never have more than 
one lacing; should it be necessary to 
lengthen a belt, it should be skived and 
cemented. Planer bolts should be 
squared under the head to prevent the 
bolt ways in the platen from becoming 
bruised, the nuts should be of one size 
and case hardened. Grindstones should 
be kept trued and never run in water. 
Polishing on an engine lathe should never 
be allowed unless it is absolutely neces- 
sary. 

All machine tools are now made with 
greater care than they were a few years 
ago, and therefore should receive greater 
care. The writer has been in shops 
where tools from good makers, that were 
new less than twelve years ago are today 
worthless for doing good, accurate work. 
A good lathe properly made ought to last 
nearly a life time. A badly considered 
attempt at economy in not a few shops is 
the making of taps and dies. These things 
can be bought cheaper from the manu- 
facturers than they can be made by 
mechanics who are not specialists on 
that line of work. 

There is a tendency among purchas- 
ing agents to buy the cheapest tools when 
requisitions are made for additions to 
the equipment of a repairing establish- 
ment. We know of no practice that is 
more expensive in the long run. Cheap- 
ness should never decide the choice of 



18 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



January, 1915. 



a machine tool, for one tool costing a 
few dollars more than another may be 
worth double when gauged by accuracy 
of production and durability. It is of 
great importance that everything in a 
shop should be kept neat and clean at 
all times ready for "business," as those 
upper officials who are looking for re- 
sults, seldom fail to recognize the in- 
dications of proper management 



Air Brake Instruction. 

We would invite the attention of the 
readers of the Air Brake Department 
to the article contributed to the General 
Correspondence columns, page 432 of the 
December number, by Mr. W. V. Turner, 
Assistant Manager of the Westinghouse 
Air Brake Company. Anyone interested 
in air brake matters should make a care- 
ful study of this letter, as it was not 
printed solely for the purpose of show- 
ing the indorsement of air brake articles 
which are published in Railway and Lo- 
comotive Engineering, but rather to 
print Mr. Turner's personal opinions as 
to what air brake instruction should con- 
sist of. 

Mr. Turner advocates a higher air 
brake education for railroad officials and 
devotes a considerable amount of time in 
conducting a campaign in this direction, 
and wiseiy so, because the writer is firm 
in his conviction that the actual reason 
for the many deplorable air brake condi- 
tions which can be found throughout this 
country are due, not entirely to the in- 
efficiency of the air brake men employed 
by the roads, but to a failure in the ap- 
preciation of the enormity of the air 
"brake problem, a lack of a thorough prac- 
tical knowledge of existing air brake con- 
ditions and a disregard of economics to 
which a properly maintained and cor- 
rectly manipulated air brake is an essen- 
tial, on the part of those in authority and 
in a position to at least better, if not 
entirely remedy, troublesome conditions. 

Shortage in appropriations or business 
depressions cannot lie construed to repre- 
sent an excuse for a state of air brake 
deterioration, as it is constantly being 
proven that an inferior brake equipment 
will waste a great deal more money than 
ar efficient one will cost. 

As to the article to which Mr. Turner 
refers, we regret that each issue does not 
■contain one of a similar character, hut 
our aim is also to furnish a considerable 
amount of descriptive matter for those of 
our readers who are beginning their study 
of the air brake and to whom the article 
in question might appear somewhat dull 
and uninteresting, however, he that as it 
may, Mr. Turner's remarks must stand 
without question, because among many 
-other things he is the greatest air brake 
instructor that has ever made a demon- 
stration, for if without Caesar there was 



nc Rome, then without Turner there is 
i.o air brake; hence it will be well to re- 
number this remark contained in his 
letter: 

"I do not ztmnt io be understood as 
belittling in the slightest degree tin- value 
of a knowledge of the air brake appa- 
ralits itself, but contend that this can be 
of very little value without a knowledge 
of the principles underlying the perform- 
ance of an air brake." 

In view of the foregoing we can no 
longer seriously consider the air brake 
expert of the old school as a factor in the 
solution of modern braking problems, and 
b\ the expert of the old school we mean 
the air brake man who prides himself 
upon his ability to call all the ports and 
passages in the system by letter, and the 
various valves by numbers, and who has 
not advanced beyond the knowledge of 
the effect of weak or broken springs and 
leaks from exhaust ports. We would 
rather suggest a study of the air brake 
that begins with the condition of the rail 
and considers the energy to be destroyed 
or work to be done, and the available 
means for doing it. even though it may 
not meet with the entire approval of the 
repairman or the fireman. 



Noisy Patent Claims. 

"Originality," says Josh Ballings, "kon- 
sists in stealing with great kaution and 
kovering up with kare." These sage re- 
marks of funny Josh frequently come to 
us while pursuing our weekly distraction 
of reading that humorous publication the 
Patent Office Gazette. That is a rep- 
resentation of current literature which 
ought not to be read by people with a 
long memory and long retrospection. 
The things described in the Patent Office 
Gazette, as being new and original, 
scarcely meet with Billings' description 
They are not generally "kovered with 
kare." but are blazoned into "claims" 
that the authors hope will not be de- 
tected. 

Those who make the most noise about 
the exclusiveness of their right to par- 
ticular ■ inventions and improvements 
upon which patents have been granted, 
often have the most unsubstantial claims 
to rest upon. Not infrequently a great 
noise is started and kept up, by those 
perfectly conscious of weakness of their 
boasted rights, in order to frighten away 
competitors in the same kind of busi- 
ness without testing the strength of the 
claim. Sometimes it is downright 
ignorance of the real value of patented 
claims that gives the greatest assurance 
and leads to foolish aggression. A new 
manufacturer of a particular kind of 
machine or mechanical article, on which 
patents have been granted, coming in 
competition with old and well established 
manufacturers of a like article, needs to 
have a good supply of pluck, energy 



and penetration, or he may be driven 
from the field by threats or suits for 
infringement without having trespassed 
upon anybody's actual rights or valid 
patent claims. 

I hreats of prosecution often accom- 
plish more than the prosecution itself, 
for purchasers are generally deterred from 
investing in anything they may be called 
upon to pay a royalty for using, so long 
as they can procure something of the same 
kind without prospects of a demand for 
royalty. Much injustice has been done by- 
taking advantage of this fact. There is 
too much inclination among most busi- 
ness men to accept as established facts 
many things, simply because they have 
been so often, and so positively asserted 
without anybody taking pains to deny 
them. Occasionally some one pulls away 
the mask, and men wonder why they have 
been so foolish as to accept so long with- 
out investigation a sham for a reality. 
Patent rights have furnished the material 
for numerous humbug pretentions. 

The humbug claims are not so numerous 
as they once were. At one time a com- 
bination of patent rights sharks was 
formed that made railways their particular 
prey. One section of these rogues robbed 
the railway companies of the United States 
of millions of dollars on the pretense that 
they were infringing the Tanner brake 
patents, which turned out to be no patent 
at all. The American Railway Association 
ended this swindle by pushing the case to 
the Supreme Court of the United States. 
The same organization arranged for the 
investigation by experts of all claims 
founded on patent rights and we hear of 
no more such claims. 



Concern That Advocates Drinking. 

There is in St. Louis a concern which 
calls itself the "Bureau of Co-Operation," 
its apparent purpose being to advocate 
habits of drinking intoxicating beverages. 
Of course the producers of intoxicating 
drinks are interested in the personal free- 
dom that permits a person to become 
drunk when he feels that way. but cer- 
tain employers of labor are interested in 
suppressing that sort of freedom as far 
as restrictions can be put in force. 

The Bureau of Co-Operation seems to 
made special efforts to reach railroad men 
with its pernicious literature making 
trainmen and others believe that putting 
restrictions upon their bibulous tendencies, 
is unjustifiable interference with personal 
liberty. Much loss of life and destruction 
of valuable property, due to use of intoxi- 
cants has moved railway companies all 
over the world to prohibit the use of in- 
toxicating beverages by their employes, 
and the traveling public are interested in 
making rules of this character effective. 
The literature of the Bureau of Co-Opera- 
tion ought to be destroyed wherever 
found. 



January, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



19 



Modern Locomotive Valve Gears 
Their Construction and Adjustment 



By James Kennedy. 



The Southern Locomotive Valve Gear. 
The latest addition to locomotive valve 
gears has been introduced mi the South- 
ern Railway, and is eminently successful, 
especially in the important elements of 
durability, simplicity, efficiency, economy 
and ease of operation. The illustration 
shows tile general design and details of 
the gear. It is simple and compact and 
contains but few wearing parts and angu- 
larities. The usual crosshead lap and 
lead lever connections have been dis- 
pensed with, and the lap and lead travel 
is obtained from the fastest moving part 
of the eccentric crank travel, which af- 
fords quick admission and quick release 
of the valves, thereby causing increased 
efficiency and fuel economy, and as a con- 
sequence, there has been a corresponding 
reduction in the weight of the gear, which 
also means increased efficiency. It lias 
been shown by extensive experiments that 
if the valves have been properly adjusted 
at the time that the engine has been con- 
structed or repaired, the gear is so de- 
signed as to eliminate the necessity for 
any further adjustment while the engine 
is in service. 

It will be observed that the links are 
piaced in a horizontal position, and be- 
ing stationary, the wear is done away 
with at this point, as the link block only 
moves in the link when the reverse 
lever is moved to adjust cut-off or reverse 
gear. What is known as the slip of the 
link block is also avoided. A prominent 
feature of the gear is the ease with which 



It will also be noted from the accom- 
panying illustrations that the eccentric 
crank, which is similar to that of the 
Walschaerts gear, is set at a right angle 
to the main crank, and for valves having 
outside admission the eccentric crank 
leads the main crank pin, but for in- 
side admission it follows the main 
crank pin, that is, when the engine is 
running forward. The construction of 



properly adjusted, have an abiding degree 
of correctness not surpassed by any other 
kind of valve gearing now in use. 

It is not necessary to describe in detail 
the remedying of any defect that may 
arise in the gear. The auxiliary reach 
rod can be readily shortened or lengthen- 
ed without removing them to correct any 
variation in the total valve travel from 
side to side. The links can be raised 



main reach rod 
hcvers e shaft 

A»M5. ' 



* 



RUXIUfiRY REACH f)$2. 
LINK- 



Transmission Yokl 




■,■,,!"■'/'»» ^ j 



-a 



-.eccentric rod 
Eccentric cof\nk 
ecccutrig CRANK PIN. 



DIAGRAM OF SOUTHERN LOCOMOTIVE VALVE GEAR WITH 
NAMES OF THE DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE GEAR. 



the gearing requires that, while the re- 
verse lever is in the center position of 
the quadrant, the auxiliary reach rod 
should be of such length as to bring the 
link block to the center of the link. 

It will also be noted that the eccentric 
rod has two connections, one of which is 
attached to the radius hanger from the 
link block, and the other attached by the 




and lowered to correct any variation that 
may arise in the exact opening and clos- 
ing of the valve, or exact cut-off and re- 
lease. The two above adjustments will 
correct any derangement that is possible 
to occur in this design of valve motion, 
thereby eliminating the trouble and ex- 
pense of taking any parts of the gear to 
the blacksmith's shop to be shortened or 
lengthened, which avoids the necessity of 
changing any parts of this design of gear 
from its standard or blue print dimensions, 
and those who are at all familiar with 
other valve gearings will have no difficulty 
in correcting any slight variation that may 
arise in the adjustable parts. 



SOUTHERN LOCOMOTIVE VALVE GEAR ASSEMBLED. 



the reverse lever is handled. There is 
literally no stress or strain upon the lever 
and reach rod connections. The avoid- 
ance of this trouble appeals very strongly 
to the engineer, as it enables him to ad- 
just the cut-off without any risk of the 
ieverse lever getting beyond his control, 
and as a consequence, he readily and fre- 
quently adjusts the lever to meet the re- 
quirements of the situation. 



transmission yoke to a bell crank which 
actuates the valve rod. As the two con- 
nections are relatively near each other, the 
result is that when the link block is in the 
i enter of the link the movement of the bell 
crank is reduced to a minimum, and as the 
link block is moved towards either end of 
the link the distance traversed by the arms 
of the bell crank increases, and these 
parts, with their relative movements, when 



Locomotive Electric Headlights. 

The Southern Pacific Railroad has 
been using an electric headlight operated 
from storage batteries with success. I he 
high efficiency tungsten light makes this 
possible. A nitrogen-filled tungsten lamp 
of 140 candle power rating is mounted in 
the standard oil lamp reflectors. Each 
headlight takes 13 amperes at 6 volts and 
is connected to a 300 ampere hour lead 
cell storage battery which is capable of 
furnishing energy to the headlight, 3 cal) 
lights and two "blizzard" lamps for 13 
hours. The battery is mounted on top 
of the boiler and is removed when engine 
is laid up for charging. 



20 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



January, 1915. 



Air Brake Department 



P. C. Equipment. 

In accord with the intent to describe 
the operation of the No. 3-E control 
valve, as mentioned in last month's issue, 
we have views of the valve in release 
and charging, preliminary service, sec- 
ondary service and service positions, 
which are of course diagrammatic, and 
from them an effort will be made to ex- 
plain the charging of the control reser- 
voirs and chambers and thereafter the 
effect of a brake pipe reduction upon the 
valve mechanism. 

The pressure chamber of the control 
valve reservoir stores a volume of com- 
pressed air for the operation of the equal- 



the very shortest possible space of time. 

The duty of the application portion is 
to control the flow of air to and from 
the service brake cylinder and the emer- 
gency portion controls the flow of air to 
and from the emergency brake cylinder 
and also hastens the movement of the 
application portion during an emergency 
application. 

As the control valve must necessarily 
work in harmony with any previous type 
of triple valve, it follows that it must be 
charged up with them, apply upon a re- 
duction in brake pipe pressure and re- 
lease upon a restoration of the brake 
pipe pressure. 



chamber, there is an opening past the 
graduating valve and through the equal- 
izing slide valve to the under side of the 
emergency reservoir charging valve, and 
when this check valve will be lifted by 
the pressure from the equalizing slide 
valve chamber, the emergency reservoir 
will start to charge, and from this same 
emergency reservoir charging port pres- 
sure will flow to the small end of the 
service reservoir charging valve and still 
through another port through the gradu- 
ated release cap and release slide valve 
to the release slide valve chamber. From 
the release slide valve chamber another 
port leads to the large end of the service 



EQUALIZING GRAD. SPRING 



RELEASE GRAD. SPRING 



RELEASE 
PISTON 



APP CHAM. EX. 



SER.RES. 

CHARGING VALVE 



.SER.CVL.EX. -SER. RE9. 




EQUALIZING STOP SPRING 



EMER PISTON EX 
DIRECT 4 GRAD REL CAP 
POSITION FOR GRAD. RELEASE 



fL / EMER. CYL. 

EMER.CVLEX EMER. RES 



RELEASE AND CHARGING. 



izing and application portions. The ap- 
plication chamber is an enlargement of 
the cylinder or chamber in which the 
application piston operates. The reduc- 
tion limiting chamber is an overflow 
reservoir which is used only after a full 
service application has been made or con- 
tains compressed air only after full serv- 
ice or emergency applications of the brake. 
The equalizing portion at the front of 
the reservoir controls the operation of all 
the other portions and is directly affected 
by the variations in brake pipe pressure; 
the quick action portion is used to open 
the brake pipe to the atmosphere for the 
purpose of transmitting a quick action 
application to other valves in the train in 



When compressed air is admitted to 
the brake pipe, the equalizing and release 
pistons are forced to their release and 
charging positions shown, which differs 
from the normal position in that the 
spring at the lower end of the equalizing 
piston, called the equalizing stop spring, 
is compressed anil these pistons assume 
the positions shown in which air enters 
the release slide valve chamber through 
a small feed groove in the release piston 
bush, and a large flow of brake pipe air 
passes through the row of ports in the 
release piston bushing to the under side 
of the equalizing check valve, lifting it 
and passing to the equalizing slide valve 
chamber. From the equalizing slide valve 



reservoir charging valve and at the same 
time branches off to the pressure cham- 
ber direct. 

Now as the ports connecting the serv- 
ice reservoir charging valve are so pro- 
portioned that the reservoirs cannot 
charge as fast as the release slide valve 
chamber, the charging valve will be held 
in the position shown until all the reser- 
voirs are fully charged to the pressure 
admitted to the brake pipe. We must at 
this time admit that this appears quite 
formidable and that the reasons for this 
indirect flow of air in charging appears 
somewhat obscure, but we can assure any- 
one who will follow this up will find that 
when this and the reasons for it are un- 



January, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



21 



EQUALIZING GRAD SPRING 



RELEASe GRAD. SPRING 




EQUALIZING 



SER. CYL. I "EMEH. CYL. 

EMER. CYL EX. CMER RES. 



PRELIiMINARY SERVICE POSITION. 



derstood the rest of the control valve 
operation is comparatively simple. 

The idea is to have the pressure cham- 
ber charge at approximately the same rate 
that a triple valve will charge an auxiliary 
reservoir and when in operation, during 
release, to create means whereby the 
pressure chamber can be charged from the 
emergency reservoir with the service 
reservoir cut off so that no brake pipe 
pressure can be absorbed by the control 
valve during a release of brakes. When 
the charging is thus completed, pressures 



in the brake pipe, pressure chamber, serv- 
ice and emergency reservoir, and that sur- 
rounding the service reservoir charging 
valve will be equal ; that is, will be gov- 
erned by the adjustment of the locomo- 
tive feed valve, and the application 
chamber and the chamber back of the 
application piston will be open to the at- 
mosphere through the release slide valve 
cavity and the application chamber ex- 
haust port. The reduction limiting cham- 
ber will be open to the atmosphere 
through the equalizing slide valve and 



the reduction limiting chamber exhaust. 
The outside of the lower end of the 
equalizing piston will be open to the 
atmosphere through the release slide valve 
and the emergency piston exhaust port. 
The small end of the emergency piston 
will be open through the release slide 
valve and the emergency piston exhaust 
port. The service brake cylinder will be 
open to the atmosphere through the ex- 
haust valve of the application portion 
and -the service cylinder exhaust port. 
The emergency brake cylinder will be 



EQUALIZING 
GRADUATING SPRING.. 



SERVICE CYLINDER EX. 



EQUALIZING 
PISTON ~ 



EQUALIZING^ 
STOP SPRING 




DIRECT AND GRADUATED RELEASE CAI 



SERVICE CYLINDER 
EMERGENCY CYLINDER EX. 



EMERGENCY RESERVOIR 



EMERGENCY CYLINDER 



SECONDARY SERVICE. 



22 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



January. 1915. 



open through the emergency slide valve 
and the emergency cylinder exhaust port. 
The pressure chamber check valve, which 
is not shown in charging position, pre- 
vents a flow from the release slide valve 
chamber to the pressure chamber, but 
permits a flow from the pressure chamber 
to the release slide valve chamber during 
an application of the brake ; thus these 
pressures are to all intent and purpose 
the same, but the pressure chamber shall 
not be charged from the release slide 
valve chamber direct. 

Before proceeding to the action of the 
valve as a result of a brake pipe reduc- 
tion or an intended application of the 
brake, it must be understood that only the 
service brake cylinder is used for service 
operation and that both brake cylinders 
are used for emergency or quick action 
applications, and that the brake shall not 
apply on anything less than a definite, or 



mit the application chamber pressure 
which remains constant to again force 
the application piston to application posi- 
tion and supply the leakage. 

When a brake pipe reduction is then 
made, it is effective in the chambers above 
the equalizing and release pistons, and as 
the equali ing check valve falls to its seat 
thi instant the reservoirs and brake pipe 
become equal, there can be no flow back 
into the brake pipe save through the 
small feed groove in the release piston 
bushing and a comparatively slight brake 
pipe reduction is necessary to cause the 
release piston to be moved toward appli- 
cation position far enough to close the 
feed groove and entirely separate the 
brake pipe from the pressure chamber. A 
continued reduction is then absolutely 
certain to result in the pressure chamber 
air, bottled up in the equalizing and re- 
lease slide valve chambers, forcing the 



will then move to secondary service posi- 
tion; that is, be moved to a position 
tailed secondary service, in which a con- 
m rti, m is made from the emergency res- 
ell nir through the equalizing slide valve 
to the pressure chamber, which is but 
momentary and merely compensates for 
a slight drop in pressure due to the addi- 
tional pressure chamber space created by 
the movement of the pistons; or, in other 
words, the displacement of the equalizing 
piston is sufficiently great, compared with 
the volume in the equalizing slide valve 
chamber, to require tin-- provision, and at 
this time the equalizing slide valve also 
connects the equalizing and release slide 
\ al\ e chambers. 

In this manner a brake pipe reduction 
in conjunction with a prompt and positive 
maintenance of the pressure chamber from 
the emergency reservoir must result in 
the equalizing piston and slide valve mov- 



EdUAUZINC 



GRAD. SPRING 



RELEASE GRAD. SPRING 



EQUALIZING — 
PISTON 



EQUALIZING 
»I9T0N STOP 




COUALIZINC STOP SPRING 



DIRECT & GRAD. RtL CAP 



BRAKE 
PIPE 



SER CYL \ ^EMER. CYL 

CMER CYL Ex EMER RES 



SERVK E POSITION. 



4 or 5 lb., brake pipe reduction; therefore 
si Hue little difference in pressure is re- 
quired to start the release and equalizing 
pistons to move and the application piston 
which is held in release position with a 
spring under a fixed tension. 

Tin' application portion is identical with 
the application portion of a distributing 
calve, being similar in const ruction and 
performing the same work; that is, its 
movement to application position closes 
lin s, rvice cylinder exhaust port service 
and admits service reservoir pressure 
into the service brake cylinder until 
brake cylinder and application chamber 
res are equal, when it will be moved 
to a lap position; then if there is any 
leakage in the service brake cylinder, the 
leakage by lowering the pressure will per- 



release piston to preliminary service posi- 
tion, in which the release slide valve 
closes the application chamber exhaust 
port. 

It is obvious that upon a brake pipe 
reduction the release piston must move 
first, as the outside of the small end of 
the equalizing piston is open, to the at- 
mosphere until the release slide valve 
does arrive in preliminary service posi- 
tion; then a glance at the diagram of 
preliminary service will show that the 
small end of tin equalizing piston is no 
longer connected to the atmosphere, but 
instead the pressure is balanced from the 
release slide valve chamber so that the 
difference in pressure necessary to move 
the release piston can also cause the 
movement of the equalizing piston which 



ing positively to service position in which 
the equalizing piston is stopped by the 
equalizing graduating spring sleeve. When 
in this position air from the pressure 
chamber (connected with the equalizing 
and release slide valve chambers I will 
flow past the end of the equalizing gradu- 
ating valve and through the equalizing 
slide valve to the application chamber 
and the back of the application pist.ui. 
forcing the application portion to appli- 
cation position and admitting sen ice res- 
ervoir pressure to the service brake cyl- 
inder. 

From the explanation rA this move- 
ment it should be remembered that the 
equalizing piston, slide valve and gradu- 
ating valve control the flow from the pres- 
sure chamber to the application chamber. 



January, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



23 



and that the release piston, release slide 
valve and graduating valve control the 
exhaust of pressure from the application 
chamber to the atmosphere to accomplish 
a release of the brake. The intent of a brake 
that will not apply with less than a 4 or 5 
lb. brake pipe production is to prevent slight 
variations in brake pipe pressure from 
applying the brake when it is not desired, 
such applications as occur from brake- 
pipe leaks and a defective locomotive feed 
valve : in fact, it is now well known that, 
in order to secure a freedom from stick- 
ing brakes under modern conditions of 
service, a brake must release with con- 
siderably less differential in pressure than 
that required to apply it. 

It will be understood that the equaliz- 
ing piston, slide valve and graduating 
valve control the flow of pressure cham- 



pressure is governed by the proportion 
of these chambers and not by length of 
brake cylinder piston travel or size of the 
service reservoir, and the results attained 
are that a uniform brake cylinder pressure 
results on all cars of a train of these 
equipments regardless of variations in 
pi-ti .11 lra\cl. I'" nun a 10-lb. brake pipe 
reduction then a 35-lb. brake cylinder 
pressure may be expected, which, how- 
ever, owing to a lower total leverage 
ratio employed, does not produce a greater 
actual retarding effect than a 22-lb. brake 
cylinder pressure which could be expected 
from a 10-lb. reduction on the P. M. 
brake; consequently braking effect will 
remain approximately uniform on trains 
of mixed equipment. 

If the brake valve is returned to lap 
position and the brake pipe reduction 



cut off and the service cylinder exhaust 
or the exhaust port is held closed by the 
exhaust valve and the brake cylinder 
pre -ure is maintained. This is known 
as service lap position and the release 
piston and graduating valve may or may 
not be moved to lap position with the 
movement of the equalizing piston and 
graduating valve, but they perform no 
functions in either position and a further 
reduction in brake pipe pressure again 
moves the equalizing piston to admit more 
pressure chamber air to the application 
piston. In this position, a brake cylinder 
leak will lower brake cylinder pressure ; 
thereupon the application chamber press- 
ure remaining constant will again force 
the application piston toward application 
position and admit more service reservoii 
pressure to the brake cylinder, thus niain- 



RELEASE GRAD. SPRING 




EOUAUZINC STOP SPRING 



BRAKE 
PIPE 



SER.CVL 

EMER. CYL EX. 



SERVICE LAP. 



her air to the application chamber in the 
same identical manner that the equalizing 
portion of a distributing valve controls 
the flow from the pressure to the applica- 
tion chamber ; in fact, when the control 
valve was in the experimental stage, the 
equalizing piston also controlled the ex- 
haust of application chamber pressure, but 
in order to incorporate all of the desired 
features it was necessary to divide up 
the work between the two pistons and 
their attached slide valves. 

The proportion of the pressure and ap- 
plication chambers is such that about VA 
lbs. application chamber pressure (con- 
sequently brake cylinder pressure) will be 
obtained per pound of brake reduction, 
as a 24-lb. reduction produces 86 lbs. 
brake cylinder pressure. From this it be- 
comes apparent that service brake cylinder 



ceases before the point of equalization is 
reached, the still lowering pressure cham- 
ber volume will permit the brake pipe 
pressure, assumed to be stationary, to 
move the equalizing piston and attached 
graduating valve toward the lowering 
pressure and cut off the flow of pressure 
chamber air to the application chamber. 
This difference in pressure is much less 
than that required to move the release 
piston and its slide valve to release 
position, therefore, the pressure in 
the application chamber will be re- 
tained and remain constant, while the 
service reservoir pressure flowing into 
the service brake cylinder will equal that 
in the application chamber, when the 
piston spring will return the application 
piston to what is known as lap position 
wherein the service reservoir supply is 



taining the brake cylinder against leakage 
up to the capacity of the service res- 
ervoir. 

For next month's issue we have an ad- 
ditional number of diagrammatic views, 
from which other positions of the control 
valve will be explained. 



San Francisco Exposition 

It is very gratifying to observe that 
several of the railroads as well as 
builders of locomotives have already 
arranged for an extensive exhibit of 
locomotives at the Exposition. This 
will include not only the latest types 
of locomotives, but also some of the 
earliest types. We will devote all the 
space that we can to a description and 
illustration of the exhibit. 



24 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



January, 1915. 



Pacific Type of Locomotive for the Delaware Q Hudson 



Ten large anthracite burning Pacific 
type locomotives have recently been de- 
livered to the Delaware & Hudson Com- 
pany by the American Locomotive Com- 
pany. These are the first locomotives of 
this type to be used on this road, the 
heavy passenger service formerly being 
handled by ten wheelers. 

The anthracite burning ten wheelers 
have a total weight, engine and tender, 
of 313,900 lbs., the tenders having a 
capacity of 7,000 gallons and 12 tons. 
With a driving wheel 69 ins. in diameter, 
a steam pressure of 200 lbs. and cylin- 
ders 21 x 26, they deliver a tractive 
power of 28,300 lbs. The new Pacifies 
have a total weight, engine and tender, 
of 460,100 lbs., the tender having a ca- 
pacity of 8,000 gallons and 14 tons. With 
a driving wheel 69 ins. in diameter, a 
steam pressure of 20S lbs. and cylinders 
24 x 28 ins., they deliver a tractive power 
of 40,730 lbs. This is an increase of 
46.6 per cent, in weight and 44 per cent, 
in tractive power. 



capacity if proportioned by this method 
for 100' ( but it has been proven that 
the boiler capacity cannot generally be 
made too large within the permissible 
limits of weight. It has been shown by 
numerous tests, especially by Dr. Goss's 
investigations, that such increase in boil- 
er capacity makes for considerable 
economy in the use of fuel and steam. 
For passenger service, it is advanta- 
geous to make the boiler over 10095 
when possible. 

This design was developed by the 
Mechanical Department of the Dela- 
ware & Hudson Company in co-opera- 
tion with the American Locomotive 
Company. Interesting details are the 
Schmidt superheater, brick arch, screw 
reverse gear, extended piston rods, long 
main driving box, Economy engine 
truck, Economy tender trucks, Econo- 
my pipe clamps, Economy radial buffer, 
and a speed recorder. Vanadium steel 
was used in the main frames, driving 
elliptic springs, engine truck elliptic 



grate to center of lowest tube), 24^ ins. 

Crown staying — Radial. 

Tubes — Material, charcoal iron; num- 
ber. 252; diameter, 2 ins. 

Flues — Material, hot rolled seamless 
steel; number, 34; diameter, 5^jj ins. 

Thickness— Tubes, No. 11 B. W. G.; 
flues, No. 9 B. W. G. 

Tube — Length, 20 ft. ; spacing $4 in- 
Heating surface — Tubes and flues, 
3,579 sq. ft.; firebox, 277 sq. ft; arch 
tubes, 40 sq. ft.; total. 3,896 sq. ft. 

Superheater surface — 796 sq. ft. 

Grate area — 99.3 sq. ft. 

Wheels — Driving diameter, outside tire, 
69 ins. ; center diameter, 62 ins. 

Wheels — Driving material, main, cast 
steel; others, cast steel; engine truck, 
diameter, 33 ins.; kind, solid rolled 
steel; trailing truck, diameter, 45 ins.; 
kind, cast steel; tender truck, diameter, 
33 ins.; kind, solid rolled steel. 

Axles — Driving journals, main, 11 x 
22 ins.; other, 11x13 ins.; engine truck 
journals, 6J/2 x 12 ins.: trailing. 9' .. x 16 





, 


. a» 


fa 4r F,i 




* s* IV 


• 


. , U'ts-St^^smweg QJ 


ifs^i^ — ^ joH 



PACIFIC, 4-6-2, TYPE OF LOCOMOTIVE FOR THE DELAWARE & HUDSON COMPANY. 

J. H. Manning, Supt. of Motive Power. American Locomotive Company, Builders. 

A passenger engine necessitates ample springs and the tender truck elliptic ins.; tender. 8x11 ins. 

boiler capacity. The following com- springs. Boxes — Driving, main, cast steel; 

parison of the boilers of the new Pacifies The following are the general dimen- others, cast steel, 

and the older ten wheelers fully demon- sions of this type of locomotive: Brake — Driver. American W. N. 3 & 

strate the advantages of the new engine Track gauge 4 ft 8]/ 2 ins.; fuel, an- B. C. ; Westinghouse E. T. 6; tender, 

where sustained capacity is required: thracite Westinghouse E. T. 6; air signal, Westing- 

' Ten Cylinder-Type, simple piston; dia- house L ' ; f^ 2A \ If; W^" 8 * 10 " 8 *; 

Pacific Wheeler meter, 24 ins.; stroke, 28 ins. reservoirs, l-20/ 2 x 120 ins., l-20/ 2 x 84 

Sq. ft. Sq. ft. Tractive power— Simple, 40,730. lns ^ . , . , , 

r~ ™ ■, ca r, t, . . „. Engine truck, 4-wheel swing center 

Grate area 99.3 84.9 Factor of adhesion— Simple, 4.69. , 

tr , K bearing. 

Heating surface- Wheel base driv ing-13 ft.; rigid, 13 Trailing truck _ A , L . Co.'s Cole type, 

Z" hes 2 JL 7 ^ »•; total, 34 ft. 10 ins. outside journals . 

ues ........ V5Z Wheel base— Total, engine and ten- Exhaust pipe, single; nozzles, 4 13/16 

Firebox ' 277 178 der ' ? ° "' * H ^ inS ' 4 15/16 mS ' 
'If °? ' 3S96 2662 Weight in working order— 293,500 lbs.; Grate— Style, rocking, 5 1/16. 
_ , • .... on f] r j vers 191000; on trailers, 55,000; Piston — Rod diameter, 4'A ins.; pis- 
Superheating surface.. 796 ■ , ,,.„„ . , ,. . . 

on engine truck, 47,500; engine and ton packing, gun iron rings. . 

Comparing the equivalent heating tender, 460,100. Smoke stack — Diameter. 19 ins.; top 

surface, which includes l l / 2 times the Boiler Type, straight top with invert- above rail, 14 ft. 9' 2 ins. 

superheating surface, we have 5,090 sq. ed slope; O. D. first ring. 78 ins; work- Tender frame — Built-up of 15 ins. 

ft. for the Pacific as against 2,662 sq. ft. ing pressure, 205 lbs. steel channeR 

for Ten Wheeler or an increase of 91.3%. Firebox— Type, wide; length, 132'x Tank — Style, water bottom; capacity. 

According to the method of boiler ins.; width. 108'i ins.; combustion 8,000 gallons; capacity fuel. 14 tons, 

proportioning used by the American chamber, length, 5 ins.; thickness of Valves — Type, piston. 14 ins.; travel. 

Locomotive Company, these Pacifies crown, Vn in.; tube. ]/ 2 in.: si.lcs, (,y 2 ins.: steam lap, \Y% ins.: exhaust cl., 

have 111% boilers. In a general way, % in.; back, Ys.; water space front, 5 3/16 in.: setting, lead; line and line full 

a boiler will have ample steam making ins.; sides 4y 2 ; back, A l / 2 \ depth ("top nf K ear forward. 9/16 in.: full gear back. 



January, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



25 



Pacific Type of Locomotive for the ChesapeaKe ® Ohio 



Six exceptionally large and powerful 
Pacific type locomotives have recently 
been delivered to the Chesapeake & 
Ohio Railway, by the American Loco- 
motive Company. Having a maximum 
tractive power of 46,600 pounds, they 
are believed to be the most powerful 
Pacific type locomotives ever built. 
They are not only exceptional in hav- 
ing such a large tractive power but 
also having a boiler big enough to sus- 
tain it, which is so necessary for fast 
passenger service. 

These locomotives have been put in 
service between Charlottesville, Va., 
and Hinton, W. Va., a distance of 175 
miles. This part of the line crosses 
three mountain summits: viz., the 
Blue Ridge, North Mountain and the 
Alleghanies. To economically handle 
the through passenger service is a dif- 
ficult problem. The mountain resorts, 
among which are the Virginian Hot 
Springs and the White Sulphur Springs 
of West Virginia, demand the very best 
of service and equipment. Trains of 
ten all steel cars, weighing 674 tons, 



per hour and for the second 35 miles 
per hour for this 13 miles. The sched- 
ule over the remaining part of the divi- 
sion permits but little time to be made 
up. These new engines while only hav- 
ing been in service a short time, are 
very satisfactorily handling these 
trains. 

It is particularly interesting just at 
this time to note the extent that this 
railroad has gone in introducing large 
and powerful locomotives. The Mallet. 
Mikado and Mountain types now in 
use on this road, are among the most 
powerful of their types and have made 
remarkable reductions in operating 
costs by increasing the train loads. 
The achievements of these locomotives, 
which have more than met the expecta- 
tions of the railway company, have 
justified the officials in designing these 
large Pacifies. No innovations were 
attempted, but the different factors, 
fuel saving and power producing fea- , 
tures were combined to give as power- 
ful a machine as possible within the 
clearances. 



per hour is required. Boiler tubes 2J4 
inches in diameter, 20 feet 6 inches 
long, spaced M inch, give an evapora- 
tion of 8.69 pounds of steam per square 
foot of heating surface. Boiler flues 
S]/ 2 inches in diameter, 20 feet 6 inches 
long, spaced 54 inch, give an evapora- 
tion of 9.86 pounds of steam per square 
foot of heating surface. Firebox and 
arch tubes give an evaporation of 55 
pounds of steam per square foot of 
heating surface. The total tube heat- 
ing surface is 2,933 square feet, total 
flue heating surface is 1,263 square feet, 
total firebox heating surface is 255.4 
square feet, and total arch tube heating 
surface is 27.4 square feet. This boiler- 
therefore will give a total evaporation 
as follows: 

Tubes 2,933 X 8.69 = 25,500 

Flues 1,263 X 9.86 =12,450 

Firebox 255.4 

Arch tubes 27.4 

282.8 X 55 = 15,550 

Total 53,500 




PACIFIC, 4-6-2, TYPE OF LOCOMOTIVE FOR THE CHESAPEAKE 
J. R. Gould, Supt. of Motive Power. 



are a regular daily problem. This has 
required the regular use of expensive 
double heading. 

The requirements that must be met 
in order to make the schedule time on 
the Clifton Forge division are extreme- 
ly difficult. West bound from Mediums 
River to the summit of the Blue Ridge 
is a continuous uncompensated grade 
of 75 feet to the mile with curves of 
10 degrees and covers a distance of 14 
miles. One train of ten steel cars, 
weighing 674 tons, is scheduled at 22Y 2 
miles per hour on this grade, while an- 
other train of eight steel cars, weigh- 
ing 551 tons, is scheduled at 29 miles 
per hour. From Staunton to the sum- 
mit of North Mountain, a distance of 
13 miles, the conditions are still more 
difficult. The first 6 l / 2 miles contain 
4J/2 miles of up-grade, varying from 75 
to 80 feet to the mile and the last 6Y 2 
miles is a continuous grade of 80 feet 
to the mile. The scheduled speed for 
the first mentioned train is 25'/2 miles 



The exceptional capacity of the boiler 
warrants special attention. It is of 
the extended wagon top type. At the 
first course the barrel measures 
83 11/16 inches in diameter outside, 
while the outer diameter of the largest 
course is 90 inches. The barrel is fitted 
with 244 tubes, 2% inches in diameter, 
and 43 flues, Sy 2 inches in diameter and 
20 feet 6 inches long. The firebox is 
120Vg inches long and 96J4 inches wide, 
having a total depth of 82J4 inches. The 
depth from the center of lowest tube to 
the top of grate is 25^ inches. 

According to the American Locomo- 
tive Company's standard system of 
boiler proportioning, a cylinder 27 
inches in diameter using superheated 
steam having a pressure of 185 pounds, 
has a cylinder horsepower of 2,427. 
One cylinder horse power requires an 
evaporation of 20.8 pounds of steam 
per hour. To develop full cylinder 
horse power a total evaporation of 
2,427 x 20.8, or 50,500 pounds of steam 



& OHIO RAILWAY. 

American Locomotive Company, Builders. 

Total boiler evaporation, 53,500, di- 
vided by the total evaporation required, 
50,500, gives a 106 per cent, boiler. This 
means that this engine can be worked 
indefinitely at its full capacity and there 
will always be a constant supply of 
steam. To insure a constant supply of 
fuel to this boiler burning bituminous 
coal and having a grate area of 80.4 sq. 
ft., a mechanical stoker had to be ap- 
plied. 

Among the interesting features are a 
Schmidt superheater, firebrick arch, 
Street stoker, Raggonet reverse gear, 
extended piston rods and the long main 
driving box. Vanadium was used in 
the main frames, main and side rods, 
and main rod straps. 

The following are the general dimen- 
sions of this type of locomotive: 

Track gauge — 4 ft. 8Y ins.; fuel, soft 
coal. 

Cylinder — Type, 27 ins. diameter, 28 
ins. stroke. 

Tractive power — Simple, 46.626. 



26 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



January, 1915. 



Factor of adhesion — Simple, 4.05. 

Wheel base — Driving, 13 ft.; rigid, 13 
it.; total, 39 ft. 9 ins; total, engine ami 
tender, 71 ft. 6 J /£ ins. 

Weight — In working order, 312,600 
lbs.; on drivers, 189,100 lbs.; on trail- 
ers, 64,600 lbs.; on engine truck, 58,900 
lbs.; engine and tender, 497,600 lbs. 

Boiler, — Type, extended wagon top; 
O. D. first ring, 82 ins.; working pres- 
sure. 185 ll>s. 

Firebox — Type, wide; length, 120 ' 4 
ins.; width, 9o' 4 ins.; thickness of 
crown, .\s in.; tube, ' _■ in.; sides, % in.; 
back, ■>■: in . water space from. 5 ins.; 
sides, 4 1 ... ; back, 4 1 j ; depth (.top of grate 
to center of lowest tube), 25/6 ins. 

Crown staying Radial. 

Tubes — Material, seamless steel; num- 
ber, 244; diameter. 2%. 

Flues -material, seamless steel; num- 
ber, 43; diameter. 5] 2. 

Thickness Tubes, 125 ins; flues, .150 
ins. 

Tube — Length. 20 ft, 6 in.; spacing, \i 
in. 

I I eating surface — Tubes and Hues, 
4,196 sq. ft.; firebox, 255.4 sq. ft.; arch 
tubes, 27.4 -.1 ft.: total, 4.478.8 sq. ft.. 

Superheater surface, '"'1 sq. ft. 

Grate area. 80.4 sq. ft. 

Wheels — Driving, diameter outside 
tire, 69 ins.; center diameter, 62 ins. 

Wheels — Driving material, main, cast 
steel; others, cast steel; engine truck, 
diameter, 33 ins.; kind, forged steel; 
trailing truck. 45 ins.; cast steel; tender 
truck. 30 ins.; kind, forged steel. 

Axles — Driving journals, main, llj/ 
x23 ins.; other. 10;/' x 14 ins.; engine 
truck journals, 7.x 12 ins.; trailing truck 
journals, 9'i x 16 ins.; tender truck 
ji iurnals, 6 x 11 ins. 

Boxes — Driving, main, cast steel; 
others, cast steel. 

Brake — Driver, American WN-3, 
Westinghouse ET No. 6; brake trailers, 
Westinghouse ET No. 6; tender, West- 
inghouse ET No. 6; air signal, 
Westinghouse Sch. L.; pump, 2-954 ins. 
Westinghouse; reservoir, 3-18J4 x 72 
ins., 1-18^ *4S ins. 

Engine truck — 4-wheel swing center 
bearing. 

Trailing truck — Radial, outside jour- 
nal. 

Exhaust pipe — Single; nozzles, 5 15/16 
ins.. 61/16 ins., 6 3/16. 

*Grate — Style, rocking. 

*Piston — Rod diameter, 4H ins.; pis- 
ton packing, gun iron ring. 

Smoke stack — Diameter, 20 ins.; top 
above rail. 14 ft. 9 l / 2 ins. 

Tender frame — Ry. Co.'s built-up. 

Tank — Style, water bottom; capacity, 
9,500 gallons; capacity fuel, 14 tons. 

Valves — Type, piston; travel, 6 ins.; 
steam lap, 1 in.; exhaust cl., l /% in.; set- 
ting, 3/16 in. [1 

\ aln ady stated this type of li a imo 
tive is equipped with the latest type of 
superheater. 



The Edison Incandescent Mazda Lamp 



There has appeared, in these columns, 
a description of the manufacture of the 
carbon incandescent lamp. Inasmuch as 
these lamps have been practically super- 
seded by the tungsten filament lamp, 
especially in the lighting of passenger 
trains, railroad stations, yards, shops, etc., 
a description of the manufacture of the 
.Mazda tungsten filament lamp might be 
interesting. 



Cane Glass Hub- 




Top Anchors 



Orawn Tungsten 
Wire Filament 



Bottom Anchors 



Air Tight Seal 



Leading In Wirea 
ilass Stem 

Neck of Bultl 
Glass Insulation 



Brass Cap 
Contact 

DETAILS OF MAZDA LAMP. 

The term filament is that commonly 
applied to the light-giving substance of 
an incandescent lamp, for example, in 
the carbon lamp the filament is a thread 
of pure carbon, while the Mazda lamp 
has at present a filament of tungsten wire. 
It is the resistance of those filaments to 
the passage of electric current that heats 
it to a point of incandescence. The tem- 
perature to which this filament can safely 
be raised determines, to a great degree, 
the efficiency of the particular kind of 
lamp. The question naturally suggested 
is why the tungsten filament lamp is more 
efficient than the carbon. The tempera- 
ture of a filament is limited by the' melt- 
ing point of its material and also its evap- 
oration. Tungsten has a much less tend- 
ency to evaporate than carbon. It can 
therefore be operated at higher tempera- 
tures. The surface of a tungsten filament 
is also smoother than carbon and there- 
fore cools less rapidly for a given cross 
section, or in other words, it takes less 
energy to keep the filament hot. An- 
other feature of tungsten is that at the 
same temperature as carbon it radiates a 
greater percentage of energy within the 
visible spectrum. 

The early tungsten lamps bad filaments 
which wi re made by a pressed or squirted 
proi ess The pure powdered tungsten was 
mixed with the binding material squirted 
through a die, forming a theread which 



was shaped like a hairpin, which was 
afterwards treated to remove the binder, 
leaving it pure tungsten, but of some- 
what fragile nature. It was necessary at 
that time, to mount a number of hair- 
pins in the same lamp, connecting them 
up in series in order to provide the proper 
resistance. 

The present Mazda lamps have filaments 
of drawn tungsten wire. The discovery 
in the Laboratories of the General Elec- 
tric Company of a process by which the 
tungsten could be drawn into wire, marked 
a decided improvement in the Mazda lamp. 
Pure tungsten powder is compressed under 
tremendous pressure to such a state as 
will permit swedging ; repeated swedging 
of the tungsten billet, decreasing its 
diameter and increasing its length, brings 
it to such a state as to eventually permit 
its being drawn through diamond dies 
into tungsten wire of the desired diameter. 
Tungsten is then available in a ductile 
drawn wire condition, from which it is 
possible to select the right diameter and 
cut to the proper length to make lamps of 
different sizes and for different voltages. 

The first step in the manufacture of the 
lamp would be to provide a means for 
mounting the tungsten wire. The mount 
consists of a glass stem tube, which is 
flared at one end to be later welded to the 
neck of the bulb. At the opposite end of 
the flare, the tube is welded where the 
leading-in wires pass through to form an 
air-tight seal, as shown in the drawing. 
On this stem is welded a piece of cane 
glass, often called the hub. To this hub 
are inserted anchors on which the filament 
is draped. \ftcr the filament has been 





MAZDA TRAIN MAZDA LOCOMtiTlVE 

LIGHTING LAMP. HEADLIGHT. 

properly disposed, we have what is known 
as a complete mount. 

The glass bulb, as received from the 
glass factory, has no provision for ex- 
hausting at the rounded end, while the 
neck of the bulb is much longer than re- 
quired. The bulb is first tabulated by 
welding a piece of glass tubing at the 
central point of the rounded end. The 
neck of the bulb is then cut off and the 
complete mount inserted. The bulb and 
mount are rotated in Bunsen flames in 
such a manner as to weld the neck of the 
bulb to the flare of the stem, making an 



January, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



27 



air-tight seal; this process is known as 
sealing-in. The lamp is now ready for 
exhaust. 

The exhaust tube of the lamp is con- 
nected to a vacuum pump and the air is 
sucked out, at the same time the bulb is 
being sufficiently heated to drive out all 
moisture. After the bulb is properly ex- 
hausted the exhaust tube is cut off by a 
Bunsen flame, forming the well known tip. 
The last process in the manufacture of the 
lamp is basing. 

The brass base is fastened to the neck 
of the lamp by a cement. One leading-in 
wire is brought out through the brass cap 
on the end of the base and soldered at this 
point, while the other leading-in wire is 
brought out at the side or threaded sec- 
tion of the base where it joins the neck. 




MAZDA 1,000 WATT HIGH EFFICIENCY 
LAMP. 

It will be noticed that the cap of the base 
is insulated from the screw part by a 
black glass. 

The most recent development in the 
Mazda lamp has been in certain sizes to 
introduce an inert gas into the bulb, in- 
stead of operating the filament in a 
vacuum. When this is done, the filament 
is coiled up in a somewhat similar man- 
ner to a door spring, this coil being 
mounted in a compact manner. This new 
development results in providing lamps of 
much higher candlepower than ever ob- 
tained before, the efficiency in some sizes 
being as high as y 2 w. p. c. 

The Mazda lamp, being from three to 
six times as efficient as the Carbon lamp, 
its first cost having been reduced to a 
point that is considered relatively low and 
because it has been demonstrated that the 
lamp is strong enough for all ordinary 
uses, has now become almost universally 
adopted for incandescent lighting. 



Perhaps one of the most interesting and 
recent developments in the Mazda lamp 
is the manufacture of a concentrated 
filament lamp for projection work, such as 
headlights on steam locomotives. It has 
been found possible to coil the tungsten 
wire in a very compact manner and by 
using lamps of low voltage and high 
amperes, especially adapted for use with 
parabolic reflectors, to obtain light source 
of high intensity and of a very concen- 
trated nature. 

Mazda lamps of say 6 volts in 6, 12 and 
18 amperes are being very successfully 
used for steam road locomotive headlights 
and from the simplicity of their operation 
seem to be specially ideal for this class of 
service. 



Arts of War and Arts of Peace. 

The means of increasing the art of kill- 
ing has done more to promote the arts 
of peace than the efforts of any peaceful 
industry. It is doubtful if the most ad- 
vanced iron molders would ever have 
learned to cast a cylinder if their art had 
not been advanced by casting cannon. 
Steel made the most effective axes, one 
of the most primitive implements, but it 
was only through the art of making 
swords that the art of making good axes 
was developed. 

The art of making splendidly cutting 
swords dates from a very early stage of 
civilization. The Wootz steel of India 
has been made ever since the practice of 
reducing iron from its ores was discov- 
ered, and no better quality of steel has 
been produced. The fame of that steel 
rested principally on its use for the manu- 
facture of sword blades. Those made in 
Damascus have been most famous. The 
exquisite temper taken by swords made 
of that metal enables them in skilful 
hands to cut bars of metal and fibres of 
gauze floating in the air. 

The story is told that Richard II of 
England, and Saladin, the great leader 
of the Moslem hosts, met during one of 
the Crusades, and the English champion 
wielded a broadsword so strong that with 
one blow he cut in two a heavy bar of 
iron. This did not embarrass the leader 
of the infidels, for with one stroke of his 
scimitar he cut in twain a thick cushion 
stuffed with down. 



Anticipated Horrors of Railway 
Operating. 

It is astounding how slowly knowledge 
permeates through the skulls of some per- 
sons who have received a fair share of 
education. In 1826 when the promoters 
of the Liverpool & Manchester Railway 
were striving to obtain the consent of the 
British parliament to the construction of 



the railway, there were probably fifty lo- 
comotives doing the work of hauling coal- 
loaded cars in different parts of the 
British Isles. The speed of these "fire 
engines," as they were called, ranged from 
4 to 10 miles an hour. 

Yet in that year of human progress, 
the Hon. Edward Stanley, a scion of the 
Earl of Derby, rose in the House of Com- 
mons and moved that the bill be read that 
day six months, equivalent to defeating 
the measure. In the speech that followed 
the honorable nobleman undertook to 
prove that the railroad trains would take 
ten hours on the journey of less than 40 
miles. The enterprise was denounced as 
a project flagrantly impossible. That the 
promoters consented to see widows' 
premises invaded and happy homes 
smothered with smoke and cinders. What 
was to become of coach makers and har- 
ness makers, coach masters and coach- 
men, inn-keepers, horse breeders and horse 
dealers? Was the House aware of the 
smoke and the noise, the hiss and the 
whirl which locomotive engines passing at 
the rate of 10 or 12 miles would occasion? 
Neither cattle plowing in the fields nor 
grazing in the meadows could behold 
them without dismay. Iron would be 
raised in price 100 per cent., and probably 
exhausted altogether by this nuisance. 



First Principles. 

We hear a great deal these days about 
the desirability of our day schools en- 
gaging in the instruction of handicraft 
operations, but we think that could only 
be done by neglect of elementary educa- 
tion. If the day schools would devote 
a little time to instructing the pupils in 
the first principles of mechanics, the 
knowledge gained would prove useful in 
nearly every walk of life. Nearly all 
mechanics are ignorant of the first 
principles that apply directly to their 
calling. The underlying principles of any 
business or occupation ought to be 
made a regular study by those engaged 
in it, so that the road may be open to 
them for progress and improvement. 



Popular Beliefs. 

The correct theory of government, said 
Thomas Carlyle, is to make it as easy for 
people to do right, and as hard as pos- 
sible for them to do wrong. Another 
wise man says that the less interference 
the people receive from their government 
the better they are off The self-seeking 
politician says : the more laws we can in- 
flict upon the people the more importance 
they attach to the position of congressman. 
The people themselves say that the country 
needs more funerals of politicians, but in 
some instances it needs more common 
sense among the people themselves. 



28 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1915. 



Electrical Department 



3000 Volt D.C. Electrification of the 

Puget Sound Lines of the Chicago, 

Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway. 

Plans for the electrification of the first 
engine division of the Chicago, Milwau- 
kee & St. Paul Railway have now been 
completed and contracts let to the Gen- 
eral Electric Company for the electric lo- 
comotives, substation apparatus and line 
material, and to the Montana Power Com- 
pany for the construction of the trans- 
mission and trolley lines. This initial 
electrification of 113 miles of main line 
between Three Forks and Deer Lodge is 
the first step toward the electrification of 
four engine divisions extending from 
Harlowton, Montana, to Avery, Idaho, a 
total distance of approximately 440 miles, 
aggregating about 650 miles of track, in- 
cluding yards and sidings. While this 
comprises the extent of track to be 
equipped in the near future, it is under- 
stood that plans are being made to ex- 
tend the electrification from Harlowton 



trie operation of the road, this initial in- 
stallation will constitute one of the most 
important mile stones in electric railway 
progress, and it should foreshadow large 
future developments in heavy steam road 
electrification. The success of electric 
operation on such a large scale will, at 
least, settle the engineering and economic 
questions that enter into the advisability 
of making such an installation, and will 
limit similar future problems to the 
means of raising the money expenditure 
required. 

Due to the great facilities available and 
the low cost of construction under the 
favorable conditions existing, the railway 
company will purchase power at a con- 
tract rate of $0.00536 per kilowatt-hour 
based on a 60 per cent, load factor. It is 
expected under these conditions that the 
cost of power for locomotives will be con- 
siderably less than is now expended for 
coal. The contract between the railway 
and power companies provides that the 



waukee & St. Paul was due in a large 
measure to the entirely satisfactory per- 
formance of the Butte, Anaconda & 
Pacific installation. 

The equipment for this road was also 
furnished by the General Electric Com- 
pany, and a comparison based on six 
months' steam and electric operation 
shows a total net saving of more than 20 
per cent, on the investment or total cost 
of the electrification. These figures, of 
course, do not take into account the in- 
creased capacity of the lines, improve- 
ment to the service and the more regular 
working hours for the crews. The com- 
parison also shows that the tonnage per 
train has been increased by 35 per cent., 
while the number of trains has been de- 
creased by 25 per cent., with a saving of 
27 per cent, in the time required per trip. 

The substation sites of the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul electrified zone 
provide for an average intervening dis- 
tance of approximately 35 miles, notwith- 




I J u-£ _\' ] l-k- 

— i. — a&& -I — -io=& 1 - —io^o' — - — -4 — . 



■i LU-J ' — ! L '^ ' 1 - 



r=5 



TYPE OF ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE FOR THE CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE & ST. PAUL RAILWAY. 



!o the coast, a distance of 850 miles, 
ihould the operating results of the initial 
nstallation prove as satisfactory as an- 
ticipated. 

The plans of the Chicago, Milwaukee 
& St. Paul Railway are of especial inter- 
est, as this is the first attempt to install 
and operate electric locomotives on tracks 
extending over several engine divisions, 
under which conditions it is claimed the 
full advantage of electrification can be 
secured. The various terminal and tunnel 
installations have been made necessary, 
more or less, by reason of local condi- 
tions; but the electrification of this road 
is undertaken purely on economic 
grounds with the expectation that su- 
perior operating results with electric lo- 
comotives will effect a sufficient reduc- 
tion in the present cost of steam opera- 
tion to return an attractive percentage on 
the large investment required. If the an- 
ticipated savings are realized in the elec- 



total electrification between Harlowton 
and Avery, comprising four engine divi- 
sions, will be in operation January 1, 1918. 
The immediate electrification of 113 
miles will include four substations con- 
taining step-down transformers and mo- 
tor-generator sets with necessary control- 
ling switchboard apparatus to convert 
100,000 volt 60 cycle three-phase power to 
3,000 volts direct current. This is the 
first direct current installation using such 
a high potential as 3,000 volts, and will 
be watched with a great deal of interest 
by engineering and railroad men. The 
2,400 volt direct current installation of 
the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Railway 
in the immediate territory of the pro- 
posed Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
electrification has furnished an excellent 
demonstration of high voltage direct cur- 
rent locomotive operation during the past 
year and a half, and the selection of 3,000 
volts direct current for the Chicago, Mil- 



standing that the first installation em- 
braces 20.8 miles of 2 per cent, grade 
westbound and 10.4 miles of 1.66 per cent, 
grade eastbound over the main range of 
the Rocky Mountains. With this extreme 
distance between substations and consid- 
ering the heavy traffic and small amount 
of feeder copper to be installed, it be- 
comes apparent that such a high potential 
as 3,000 volts direct current permits of a 
minimum investment in substation ap- 
paratus and considerable latitude as to lo- 
cation sites if only a direct current system 
is considered. 

OVERHEAD CONSTRUCTION. 

The trolley construction will be of the 
catenary type, in which a 4/0 trolley wire 
is flexibly suspended from a steel cate- 
nary supported on wooden poles, the con- 
struction being bracket wherever track 
alignment will permit and cross-span on 
the sharper curves and in yards. Steel 



January, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



29 



supports instead of wooden poles will be 
used in yards where the number of tracks 
to be spanned exceeds the possibilities of 
wooden pole construction. Poles for the 
first installation are already on the 
ground and thirty miles of poles are set. 
Work in this direction will be pushed 
with all speed and will be completed in 
the summer of 1915, ready for operation 
in the fall on the delivery of the first lo- 
comotives. 

As the result of careful investigation 
and experiments, a novel construction of 
trolley will be installed, composed of the 
so-called twin-conductor trolley. This 
comprises two 4/0 wires, suspended side 
by side from the same catenary by inde- 
pendent hangers alternately connected to 
each trolley wire. This form of construc- 
tion permits the collection of very heavy 
current by reason of the twin contact of 
the pantograph with the two trolley wires, 
and also insures sparkless collection un- 
der the extremes of either heavy current 
at low speed or more moderate current at 
very high speeds. It seems that the twin- 
conductor type of construction is equally 
adapted to the heavy grades calling for 
the collection of very heavy currents, and 
on the more level portions of the profile 
where maximum speeds of 60 m. p. h. will 
be reached with the passenger trains hav- 
ing a total weight of over 1,000 tons. 
The advantage of this type of construc- 
tion is due partly to the greater surface 
for the collection of current, but largely 
to the very great flexibility of the alter- 
nately suspended trolley wires, a form of 
construction which eliminates any ten- 
dency to flash at the hangers either at 
low or high speed. Including sidings, 
passing and yard tracks, the 113 miles of 
route mileage is increased to approxi- 
mately 168 miles of single track to be 
equipped between Deer Lodge and Three 
Forks in the initial installation. 

LOCOMOTIVES. 

The locomotives to be manufactured by 
the General Electric Company are of 
especial interest for many reasons. They 
are the first locomotives to be constructed 
for railroad service with direct current 
motors designed for so high a potential 
as 3,000 volts. They will weigh approxi- 
mately 260 tons. Perhaps the most inter- 
esting part of the equipment is the con- 
trol, which is arranged to effect regen- 
erative electric braking on down grades. 
This feature as yet has never been accom- 
plished with direct current motors on so 
large a scale. The general characteristics 
as proposed are tabulated below : 

Total weight 260 tons 

Weight on drivers 200 tons 

Weight on each guiding truck.. 30 tons 

Number of driving axles 8 

Number of motors 8 

Number of guiding trucks 2 

Number of axles per guiding truck.... 2 
Total length of locomotive 112 feet 



Rigid wheel base 10 feet 

Voltage of locomotive 3.000 

Voltage per motor 1 ,500 

H. P. rating 1 hour, each motor 430 

H. P. rating continuous, each motor. 375 
H. P. rating 1 hour, complete loco- 
motive 3,440 

H. P. rating continuous, complete lo- 
comotive 3,000 

Trailing load capacity, 2 per 

cent, grade 1 ,250 tons 

Trailing load capacity, 1 per 

cent, grade 2,500 tons 

Approximate speed at these 
loads and grades 16 m. p. h. 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
Railway, from Harlowton to the coast, 
crosses four mountain ranges : the Belt 
Mountains at an elevation of 5,768 ft., the 
Rocky Mountains at an elevation of 6,350 
ft., the Bitter Root Mountains at an ele- 
vation of 4,200 ft., and the Cascade Moun- 
tains at an elevation of 3,010 ft. The first 
electrification between Three Forks and 
Deer Lodge calls for locomotive opera- 
tion over 20.8 miles of 2 per cent, grade 
between Piedmont and Donald at the 
crest of the main Rocky Mountain Divide, 
so that the locomotives will be fully tested 
out as to their capacity and general serv- 
ice performance in overcoming the nat- 
ural obstacles of the first engine division. 
The initial contract calls for nine 
freight and three passenger locomotives 
having the above characteristics and sim- 
ilar in all respects, except that the pas- 
senger locomotives will be provided with 
a gear ratio permitting the operation of 
800-ton trailing passenger trains at ap- 
proximately 60 m. p. h., and will, further- 
more, be equipped with an oil-fired steam 
heating outfit for the trailing cars. 

The drawbar pull available for starting 
trains will approximate 120,000 lbs. at 30 
per cent, coefficient of adhesion. 

The freight locomotives are designed to 
haul a 2,500-ton trailing load on all gra- 
dients up to 1 per cent, at a speed of ap- 
proximately 16 m. p. h„ and this same 
train load unbroken will be carried over 
the 1.66 and 2 per cent, ruling grades on 
the west and east slopes of the Rocky 
Mountain Divide with the help of a sec- 
ond similar freight locomotive acting as 
pusher. Track provision is being made 
at Donald, the summit of the grade, to 
enable the pusher locomotive to run 
around the train and be coupled to the 
head end to permit electric braking on 
the down grade. In this case the entire 
train will be under compression and held 
back by the two locomotives at this head 
end, the entire electric braking of the two 
locomotives being under the control of 
the motorman in the operating cab of the 
leading locomotive. It is considered that 
electric braking will prove very valuable 
in this mountain railroading; for, in addi- 
tion to providing the greatest safety in 
operation, it also returns a considerable 



amount of energy to the substations and 
transmission system, which can be utilized 
by other trains demanding power. In this 
connection the electric locomotives will 
have electric braking capacity sufficient to 
hold back the entire train on down-grade, 
leaving the air brake equipment with 
which they are also equipped to be used 
only in emergency and when stopping the 
train. There is, therefore, provided a 
duplicate braking system on down-grades, 
which should be reflected in the greatest 
safety of operation afforded and the elim- 
ination of a considerable part of break- 
downs, wheel and track wear, and over- 
heating with cons< quent reduction in 
maintenance and improvement in track 
conditions. 

The electrification of the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul is under the direction 
of Mr. C. A. Goodnow, assistant to the 
president in charge of construction, and 
the field work is under the charge of Mr. 
R. Beeuwkes, electrical engineer for the 
railway company. 



An Electric Steam Radiator. 

One would hardly imagine that an 
electric heater would resemble a steam 
radiator, yet a heater of this type has 
been brought out and is being manufac- 
tured by the Electrical Steam Radiator 
Company, of Portland, Me. In appear- 
ance the heater resembles the ordinary 
steam radiator connected to a central 
boiler system. In the bottom waterway 
of the radiator is placed a tube in which 
is inserted another tube of 3/16 in. small- 
er diameter. A resistance coil is placed 
in the smaller tube, which heats up when 
the electric current is allowed to pass 
through it. From V/z to 3 quarts of 
water are kept in the radiator, this water 
passing through the larger tube and 
around the smaller one, when the current 
is turned on. It takes about 15 minutes 
for the water to boil into steam. The 
steam then circulates to the radiator sec- 
tions, condenses and returns to the pipe 
and is then turned to steam again. 
There are no leaks and the small amount 
of water will last from 2 to 3 months. 
An automatic device is provided with the 
heater so that the temperature can be 
regulated. 



Portable Electric Drills. 
Portable electric drills are coming into 
very general use. Types now being man- 
ufactured can run on either alternating 
or direct current. Machines of this type 
are made for drilling holes in steel up t< 
0.625 in. in diameter. The weights am 
speeds vary from 6 lbs. and 2,200 revolu- 
tions per minute for 3/16-in. holes, to 18.5 
lbs. and 500 revolutions per minute for 
0.625-in. holes, and although of only re- 
cent introduction they are already com- 
ing into popular favor in many machine 
shops. J 



30 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



January, 1915. 



Items of Personal Interest 



Mr. E. R. Battley has been appointed 
general foreman of the Grand Trunk, 
with office at Deering, Me. 

Mr. J. H. Orth has been appointed 
machine shop foreman of the Southern, 
with office at Princeton, Ind. 

Mr. W. B. Trow has been appointed 
general foreman of the Rock Island 
Lines, with office at Armourdale, Kan. 

Mr. G. W. Ristine has been appointed 
road foreman of engines of the Balti- 
nore & Ohio, with office at Cleve- 
.and, Ohio. 

Mr. W. H. Burleigh has been ap- 
pointed roundhouse foreman of the 
Rock Island Lines at Armourdale, 
Kan. 

Mr. H. F. Staph has been appointed 
locomotive foreman on the Great 
Northern, with office at Butte. Mont., 
succeeding Mr. D. P. Phalen. 

Mr. F. Kinzel has been appointed 
general foreman of the Detroit, Toledo 
& Ironton. with office at Delray. Mich.. 
succeeding Mr. D. Swineford. 

Mr. Felix Gagnon has been ap- 
pointed roundhouse foreman on the 
Intercolonial, with office at St. Flavie. 
Que., succeeding Mr. J. M. Bordeau. 

Mr. A. S. Wright, formerly locomo- 
tive foreman of the Grand Trunk Pa- 
cific at Regina, Sask., has been ap- 
pointed locomotive foreman at Biggar, 
Sask. 

Mr. W. J. Miller has been appointed 
superintendent of motive power of the 
St. Louis Southwestern, with office at 
Pine Bluff, Ark., succeeding Mr. T. E. 
Adams. 

Mr. E. L. Mauk has been appointed 
superintendent of motive power of the 
Georgia. Florida & Alabama, with offi- 
ces at Bainbridge, Ga., succeeding Mr 
P. G. Clark. 

Mr. A. G. Pierce has been ap- 
pointed general foreman of the Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Quincy. with office 
at Edgemont. S. D., succeeding Mr. 
J. L. Brandt. 

Mr. D. E. Smith, formerly locomo- 
tive foreman of the Grand Trunk Pa- 
cific at Biggar. Sask., has been ap- 
pointed locomotive foreman on the 
same road at Regina, Sask. 

Mr. T. W. Callahan, formerly master 
mechanic on the Great Northern at 
Whitefish, Mont., has been transferred 
to a similar position on the same road, 
with office at Minot, N. D. 
_Mr. J. O. McArthur. formerly as- 
sistant master mechanic of the Chi- 
cago. Burlington & Quincy, at Cas- 
par. Wyo., has been appointed master 
mechanic at the same place. 



Mr. J. Delaney, formerly master 
mechanic of the Great Northern, at 
Minot, X. D., has been transferred to 
a similar position on the same road, 
with office at Whitefish, Mont. 

Mr. G. W. Tamsitt has been ap- 
pointed acting master mechanic of the 
Kansas City, Mexico & Orient, of 
Texas, with office at San Angelo, Tex., 
succeeding Mr. Charles Woodward. 

Mr. A. S. Jackson, formerly super- 
intendent of motive power of the Chi- 
cago. Terre Haute & Southeastern, has 
been appointed general superintendent 



superintendent of motive power of the 
Toledo & Ohio Central and Zanesville 
& Western railroads, and Mr. C. 
Bowersox, master mechanic, has as- 
sumed the duties, the higher office be- 
ing abolished. 

Mr. L. Chapman has been appointed 
assistant master mechanic of the Chi- 
cago & North W r estern. with office at 
South Pekin, 111., and Mr. C. D. Ash- 
more succeeds Mr. Chapman as fore- 
man of shops on the same road at 
Chadron, Xeb. 

The accompanying illustration, repro- 




KIVE RETIRED \ ETERAN ERIE ENGINEERS. 



with office at Terre Haute, succeeding 
Mr. J. C. Muir, deceased. 

Mr. A. J. Eichenlaub has been ap- 
pointed general foreman of the Chi- 
cago & Eastern Illinois at West Frank- 
fort, 111., and Mr. O. E. Shaw has been 
appointed general car foreman on the 
same road, with office at Danville, 111. 

Mr. A. D. Brice, formerly assistant 
to the master car builder of the San 
Antonio & Aransas Pass, has been ap- 
pointed master car builder on the same 
road, with office at Yoakum, Tex., in 
place of Mr. W. T. Cousley, resigned. 

Mr. E. H. McCann has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the San 
Antonio, Uvalde & Gulf Railroad, with 
office at Pleasanton, Tex., succeeding 
Mr. J. H. Ruxton, formerly superin- 
tendent of motive pow-er. who has re- 
signed. 

Mr. S. S. Stifley has resigned as 



duced by the courtesy of the editor of the 
Brie Railroad Employees' Maga:ine, is in- 
teresting on account of the long period 
of service rendered by some of the five 
retired engineers shown in the picture. 
From left to right the names are: Mr. 
Garrett Iseman, age 91, from 1845 to 
1884; Mr. John F. Demarest, 74, from 
1865 to 1902; Mr. John P. Sullivan, 72, 
from 1859 to 1912; Mr. Cornelius Kent. 
81, from 1854 to 1875; Mr. John S. Bell, 
70. from 1859 to 1867. Mr. Bell is still 
in active railroad service, occupying the 
position of vice-president and general 
manager of the Morristown & Erie Rail- 
road. 

Mr. J. A. Cassady. formerly master 
mechanic of the Alabama Great South- 
ern, at Birmingham, Ala., has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the Cin- 
cinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific, 
with office at Somerset, Ky. Mr. Cas- 



January, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



31 



sady succeeds Mr. H. B. Hayes, who 
has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Alabama Great Southern, at 
Birmingham, Ala. 

Mr. D. C. McCarthy has been ap- 
pointed traveling engineer on the Den- 
ver & Rio Grande, with office at 
Salida, Col., and Mr. A. G. Titus suc- 
ceeds Mr. McCarthy as traveling engi- 
neers on the same road, with office at 
Grand Junction, Col. 

Mr. D. D. Curran, formerly president 
and general manager of the New Or- 
leans & Northeastern, and the Alabama 
& Vicksburg, and Vicksburg, Shreve- 
port & Pacific, has been elected presi- 



Mr. T. A. Summerskill, formerly super- 
intendent of motive power, and Mr. 
J. E. Fitzimmons, formerly master 
mechanic, have been assigned to other 
duties. The offices of master car 
builder, superintendent of motive power 
and master mechanic have been abol- 
ished. 

At the shops of the Erie railroad at 
Meadville, Pa., 26 apprentices have built 
a working model of what is known as 
the K-l type of locomotive. The total 
weight of the engine and tender is 812 
pounds. The total length of engine and 
tender is about 7 feet. The engine is an 
exact duplicate of the large locomotives. 



several years taken Charles A. Moore, of 
the firm of Manning, Maxwell & Moore, 
from taking active part among the rail- 
road supply men, but the time was when 
Mr. Moore was a prominent figure at all 
conventions where railroad supply men 
exerted themselves as entertainers. The 
numerous railroad men, of long ago, who 
enjoyed the whole hearted, genial enter- 
tainment which Mr. Charles A. Moore de- 
lighted to confer, will be grieved to learn 
that their friend of long ago passed away 
last month while at sea on a voyage to 
Italy. 

Charles Arthur Moore was born at 
West Sparta, New York, sixty-nine 




• 



0^30 




■• R. 






it— j 



■ 







« ot neon r\-»\ 



MODEL LOCOMOTIVE 
ERIE APPRENTICES 




\YD*vf'V J 







V. Cf-rf 



REPLICA OF AN ERIE CLASS K-l PASSENGER ENGINE. BUILT BY APPRENTICES OF MEADVILLE, PA., SHOPS. 



dent of the New Orleans Railways and 
Light Company. 

Mr. J. F. Leake, formerly foreman 
of freight car repairs on the Southern, 
at Costa, Tenn., has been appointed 
chief joint inspector at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., comprising the Alabama Great 
Southern; Cincinnati, New Orleans & 
Texas Pacific, and Southern, and Mr. 
J. S. Easterly, formerly chief car in- 
spector of the Southern at Citico, 
Tenn., has been appointed foreman of 
the freight car repairs at the Coster 
shops. 

Mr. W. Gillespie, formerly master 
car builder of the Central Vermont, at 
St. Albans, Vt, has been appointed 
mechanical superintendent in charge of 
motive power and car departments, and 



In a test of speed it made 572 revolutions 
per minute. The names and occupations 
of the apprentices are as follows : 

H. Harding, blacksmith; L. Leberman, 
H. Horth, W. Davern, A. Kuhn, R. Tei- 
fer, patternmakers ; F. Hermon, I. Dink- 
eldine, boilermakers ; A. Miller, tinsmith; 
L. Girardat, P. Dailey, J. Davies, W. J. 
Renter, G. Fredericks, E. Hines, R. 
Knapp, W. Scanlon, T. Owens,, H. Her- 
mon, R. Nelson, L. Byham, L. Craig. C. 
Chapin, A. Nashett, P. Leurick, J. Bei- 
mer, machinists. 



Obituary. 
Charles Arthur Moore. 
The involuntary retirement from active 
business, due to impaired health, has for 



years ago, and was trained to commercial 
business. He made such success in so- 
liciting business from railroad companies 
that he joined with H. S. Manning & Co. 
in forming the firm of Manning, Maxwell 
& Moore, one of the most successful con- 
cerns that ever handled railroad appli- 
ances. Mr. Moore was an active spirit 
in a great many social, political and pa- 
triotic organizations; he was Chevalier of 
the French Legion of Honor, and has a 
daughter married to the Duke of For- 
lonia, a noble of Italy. Mr. Moore had 
a peculiarly alluring personality, which 
made friends wherever he went. He was 
. an intimate personal friend of President 
McKinley, and accompanied him on one 
of the presidential tours. He leaves a 
wife and a grown up family. 



32 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



January, 1915. 



Special Machine for Marking Fuse 
Caps. 

A special marking machine for gradu- 
ating and numbering bevel fuse caps in 




to put Uttering on in place of gradua- 
ticns "H bevel surfaces and will give ex- 
cellent results. The saving of time and 
labor to the manufacturer by using this 
machine for graduating or lettering any 
article on bevel surfaces is surprising, as 
with one turn of the hand lever a com- 
plete mark is made and you can depend 
on them all coming accurate and the same. 



facilitate the handling of miscellaneous 
tools. The rigid construction, guarded 
wheels and the ease with which the ma- 
chine may be operated are features which 
should not be overlooked, and which, to- 
gether with the universal adaptability of 
the machine should make it a most de- 
sirable equipment for the tool room. 



The New Landis Chaser Grinder. 

The chaser grinder illustrated herewith 
has recently been perfected by the Landis 
Machine Company, Waynesboro, Pa., to 
meet the demands and requirements of 
the many users of thread cutting dies and 
more especially the well-known Landis 
die. manufactured by that company. The 
machine is of a duplex nature, in that it 
is fitted with an attachment for handling 
ali sizes of Landis chasers and a device 
to sharpen the disc cutters of roller pipe 
cutting machines. It may also be used 
to grind lathe, planer, shaper tools, etc. 

The chaser grinding attachment has ad- 
justment in both horizontal and vertical 
planes with suitable graduations for con- 
trolling the lead and rake angles, on Lan- 
dis dies. Both the transverse and longi- 
tudinal feeds are in horizontal planes, a 
feature which insures very accurate grind- 
ing. \ close inspection will reveal the ex- 
cellent design of the table which is gibbed 
at both sides and finished with an over- 



MACHINF. FOR MARKING FUSE CAPS. 

one operation has just been put on the 
market by the Noble & Westbrook Manu- 
facturing Company, of Hartford, Conn., 
fully equipped with graduating dies ready 
for the operator to start work. This is 
an addition to the company's well-known 
Dwight slate marking machines. This 
machine, illustrated herewith, i> simple in 
construction, accurate and easj to operate 
This means quite a saving to the manu- 
facturer when a large quantity of pieces 
are to be graduated, especially at this 
juncture, when war orders are large and 
pressing. 

The graduating die is held in holder 
keyed to shaft, the shaft as mark is made 
revolves with the die winding a spring 
tension which as soon as contact with 
work is broken returns work holder to 
its proper position to mark the next piece. 
The shaft runs in bronze bearings with 
collar adjustment. The work is held in 
place with relation to die with accurately 
cut gears: depth of impression is pro- 
vided by foot pressure through a lever 
and cam which is adjustable so that it 
is possible to regulate the depth of im- 
pression to an hundredth part of an inch. 
This means that even and accurate im- 
pressions can be secured. 

The machine is suitable to graduate not 
only fuse caps but any bevel surfa i 1 
as micrometer collars on lathes, nulling 
machines or any machine that uses these 
graduated collars. It can ajso be used 



Wootz Steel. 

A correspondent wishes to know some- 
thing concerning Wootz steel and if it is 
used to any extent by railroad companies? 
In answer we would say that Wootz steel 
is made exclusively in India and that its 
production dates as far back as the mak- 
ing of iron. It is made from a fine quality 
of native ore melted in crucibles contain- 
ing a quantity of dried wood or leaves. 
It is made in very small quantities and is 
therefore very expensive, the weight of a 
bloom ranging from one to three pounds. 

Wootz steel has been successfully imi- 
tated in Europe. Small pieces of Swedish 
iron are put into a crucible and covered 
with charcoal, the air being carefully ex- 
cluded. This mass is exposed to heat 
until it turns dark gray carburet of iron. 
This is very brittle and is easily pulverized. 
When ground up fine, it is mixed with 
aluminum and subjected to an intense heat 
when it becomes white. A certain per- 
centage is then mixed with small pieces 
of good steel and the whole melted in a 




NEW AND IMPROVED LANDIS CHASER GRINDER. 



hang to protect the guides from emery 
dust. The disc cutter grinding attach- 
ment is also adjustable vertically and 
horizontally and is operated by hand. An 
adjustable rest is likewise provided to 



crucible. The product is a metal which 
passes for Wootz steel and is said to be 
just as good for some purposes. \\ e 
never heard of a railroad using Wootz 
steel or its imitation, 



January, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



33 



The WHY Of 

DIXON'S 

FLAKE 

GRAPHITE 



You use lubricants to save 
wear. The worth of any 
lubricant is in its value as 
a wear-reducer — not in its 
cost. 

Oil and grease — good oil 
and grease — are good. 
But — they don't solve the 
friction problem. Why? 

Because friction is the rub- 
bing of metal on metal in 
bearings. Oil or grease 
can't prevent that, because 
they haven't the "body." 
They squeeze out, or run 
out, or dry out, or work 
out, of a bearing. 

The only thing that fills the 
bill is a solid lubricant, like 
Dixon's Flake Graphite. 
Mixed with oil or grease to 
distribute it, Dixon's Flake 
Graphite becomes a part 
of the bearing surfaces — 
forms a firm veneer of 
solid lubricant over the 
metal. 

Then you have graphite 
gliding on graphite, in- 
stead of metal grinding on 
metal. You have an anti- 
friction bearing surface 
that grows harder, 
smoother, with increasing 
service and pressure. 

The secret of Dixon's lies in 
its flake quality — the fine 
flakes are the only form 
of graphite that identifies 
itself with the bearing 
metal — that builds up a 
solid lubricating veneer. 

Therefore — don't fancy any 
graphite will do. You 
want a true natural flake 
lubricating graphite such 
as is produced by Dixon 
alone. 



Send for "Graphite 
Products For the 
Railroad," No. 69. 



Made in JERSEY CITY, N. J , 
by the 

JOSEPH DIXON 
CRUCIBLE CO. 

Established 1827 



RAILROAD NOTES. 

The Southern Utah has five standard 
locomotives for sale. 



Greece is said to have made inquiries in 
this country for locomotives. 



The Illinois Central is in the market for 
1,000 50-ton refrigerator cars. 



The Pere Marquette is said to be in the 
market for 5,500 tons of rails. 



The Illinois Central is in the market for 
25 switching and 25 Mikado type locomo- 
tives. 

The Union Tank Line has ordered 500 
tank cars from the Standard Steel Car 
Company. 



The Westmoreland Coal Company is re- 
ported in the market for a hundred 50-ton 
gondola cars. 



The Peoria & Pekin Union is in the 
market for twenty-five second-hand hop- 
per coal cars. 



The Lehigh Valley has placed an order 
for about 5,000 tons of rails with the 
Bethlehem Steel Co. 



The Illinois Southern has placed an 
order for 300 box cars with the Haskell 
& Barker Car Company. 



The Philadelphia & Reading has placed 
an order for 200 underframes with the 
American Car & Foundry Co. 



The Chicago & Eastern Illinois bridge 
shop and pattern rooms at Danville, 111., 
were recently destroyed by fire. 



The Eddystone plant of the Baldwin 
Locomotive Works has* been put on full 
time temporarily, it is reported. 



The Westmoreland Coal Company has 
ordered 100 gondola and 100 hopper cars 
from the Cambria Steel Company. 

The American Locomotive Company is 
reported to have received an order for 20 
locomotives for export to Greece. 



Port Huron, Mich., has raised a bonus 
of $100,000 to insure the rebuilding in that 
city of the shops of the Grand Trunk. 



The Philadelphia & Reading has placed 
an order for 400 hopper sides and under- 
frames with the American Car & Foundry 
Co. 



The Illinois Central placed an order 
for twenty-five switching locomotives 
with the American Locomotive Company, 
and is in the market for twenty-five addi- 
tional locomotives. 



The Maine Central has ordered sever. 
Mikado locomotives equipped with super- 
heaters, from the American Locomotive 
Company. 



The Carolina, Atlantic & Western has 
ordered 3 ten-wheel and 1 six-wheel 
switching locomotives from the Baldwin 
Locomotive Works. 

About 1,600 former employes of the 
Southern Pacific California shops who 
were laid off several weeks ago have been 
ordered to return to work. 



The Federal Signal Company has been 
given a contract for a mechanical inter- 
locking at Tivoli, N. Y., on the New York 
Central & Hudson River. 



The Jane Oil & Gas Company, St. Louis, 
Mo., has ordered 100 tank cars from the 
Pennsylvania Tank Car Company and 
50 from the American Car & Foundry 
Company. 



The Great Northern has ordered three 
mail and express cars, two baggage cars, 
three smoking cars, three parlor cars and 
ten coaches. The order was placed with 
the Barney & Smith Car Co. 



The Chicago Great Western has just 
awarded contracts for the erection of 
three water tanks to the Chicago Bridge & 
Iron Company. They will be located at 
Randolph, Minn., Oelwein, la., and Par- 
nell, Mo. 



The R. L. Murphy Construction Co., 
East St. Louis, have been awarded the 
contract for a new roundhouse and other 
improvements for the Southern at east 
side yards. The contract amounts to 
about $167,000. 



The Intercolonial has placed orders as 
follows : Six coaches from the Canada 
Car Co., 200 flat cars from the Nova 
Scotia Car Works, 250 coal cars from the 
Eastern Car Co. and eight sleeping cars 
from the National Steel Car Co. 



The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe has 
ordered 54,000 tons of 90-lb. rail from the 
Colorado Fuel & Iron Company and 
12,000 tons from the Illinois Steel Co. 
This road is also reported to have placed 
an order for 6,500 tons of tie-plates with 
the Rail Joint Company. 

The Northern Pacific has placed an 
order for the following equipment with 
the Pullman Co. : Eighteen mail and ex- 
press cars, 4 dynamo baggage and man 
cars, ten dynamo baggage cars, seven bag- 
gage cars, six diners and forty-seven 
coaches. These are all of steel construc- 
tion and are for March delivery. The 
order totals about $1,000,000, it is said 



34 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



January, 1915. 



Making and Repairing American Anvils 

It is gratifying to learn that the enter- 
prising manufacturing firm Hay-Budden 
Company, 254 North Henry street, 
Brooklyn, whose American-made anvils 
have won an enviable place among the 
railway appliances, has continued to 
maintain the position as the leading anvil 
makers in America. When the destruct- 
ive tariff reduction, or more properly 
speaking, almost entire tariff abolition, 
threatened to extinguish the industry in 
America, the closing of the North Sea to 
commerce has had a deterring effect on 
the introduction of the cheap labor ar- 
ticle from northern Europe. Not only so, 
but the general depression in the railway 
supply department has created a demand, 
among other economical measures, to re- 
pair anvils that may be slightly damaged. 
In this regard the Brooklyn firm has 
shown a readiness to rise to the occasion 
with the result that damaged anvils may 
be completelly restored and in every way 
made the same as new anvils for about 
one third of the price of a new anvil. 

With an increase in the railroad freight 
rates, and a gradual return to better busi- 
ness conditions, doubtless the demand for 
the best American anvils will soon re- 
sume normal conditions, and probably by 
the time that the warring nations in Eu- 
rope agree to beat their swords into 
pruning hooks, a kindlier spirit towards 
American manufacturers may take pos- 
session of the minds of our bewildered 
legislators, if they have such a thing as 
a mind about them, but in regard to this 
latter hope we are not praying for mir- 
acles. In any event a firm that has estab- 
lished an industry and carried it on in the 
face of legislative difficulties, by sheer 
force of business enterprise and inventive 
intelligence, cannot be extinguished. 



The Most Wonderful Railroad in the 
World. 

When all the great railroad trunks of 
the world have been built, a decade or 
two hence, four of them will appear upon 
the map in heavy black, indicating that 
they surpass all others in importance. 
These will be: the Pan-American, from 
the Arctic wastes of Canada to the 
Straits of Magellan; the Trans-Siberian, 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific across 
northern Europe and Asia; the Trans- 
Persian, or some other line, from the 
southeast of Europe to India; and the 
Cape-to-Cairo. The Pan-American and 
the Indo-European railways may surpass 
the Cape-to-Cairo as commercial arteries, 
and the Trans-Siberian will doubtless fig- 
ure more potently as a strategic line; but 
for the sheer interest of the country 
traversed — for the picturesque variety 
and romantic appeal of the panoramas 
running like double cinematograph films 
past the car windows — the great African 
trunk can never know a rival. 



Six thousand miles, across sixty-five 
degrees of latitude; a score of climates 
and the lands of a hundred different peo- 
ples or tribes; the second longest of the 
world's rivers and two of its largest 
lakes ; the greatest dam ever built, con- 
serving water for the world's richest 
lands ; the most imposing and ancient of 
all temples; the greatest waterfall, and 
the most important gold and diamond 
mines ; and finally, one of the last great 
expanses of real wilderness, the only- 
place in the world where the wild beasts 
of the jungle may be seen in their primi- 
tive state from a train, all these seen, 
traversed, or experienced in twelve days ! 
Surely, there can never be another such 
railway as this. — Lewis R. Freeman, in 
The H'orld's Work for January. 



A Railroad Story. 
Railroad men will be interested in Sir 
J. Henry Yoxall's account (in his "The 
Wander Years) (Dutton) of the begin- 
nings of railroad building in Belgium 
(then Flanders). "In 1837," he writes, 
"when Dickens first went gallivanting off 
on his wander-years, there was not an 
inch of railroad in all Flanders to be 
seen. Not till the days when he went 
to Italy through France— and then he 
traveled 'post,' as he made the Dorrits 
do, you remember— did the iron road be- 
gin to run anywhere in Belgium. The 
diligences still held the highway, 'Fugio 
ut Fulgor,' proudly bragged in large gilt 
letters on their dash-boards. There is a 
yarn of what certain Belgian engineers 
did when they came back from England 
with whole sheaves of sketches, plans, 
specifications and particulars about 'the 
new English traveling road,' and were 
set to build one like it in the low coun- 
try. They made their first railway across 
the flats, and when it was finished, on 
almost the very day before it was to be 
opened with royal pomp and circum- 
stance, the chief engineer, looking at the 
English plans and comparing them with 
his own achievement, struck his fore- 
head with sudden tragical gesture and 
cried, 'Mon Dieu, we've forgotten the 
tunnel!' A railway without a tunnel 
could not be a railway at all. they 
thought, so they covered in the deepest 
cutting they could find." 



"How did your automobile accident 
happen?" "Well, you see, there's one 
thing you keep your eye on, and another 
you keep your foot on, and another you 
keep your hand on, and I guess I got my 
anatomy in the wrong places." 



"And you say that Browney was cured 
of a bad attack of insomnia by sugges- 
tion 3 " "Yes, purely by suggestion ! His 
wife suggested that since he could not 
sleep he might as well sit up and amuse 
the baby. It worked like a charm." 



GOLD 

Car 
Heating 

Lighting 
Company 



Manufacturers of 

ELECTRIC, 
STEAM AND 
HOT WATER 
HEATING 
APPARATUS 

FOR RAILWAY CARS 

VENTILATORS 

FOR PASSENGER 

AND REFRIGER- 

ATOR CARS 

ACETYLENE SYSTEM 
OF CAR LIGHTING 



Send for circular of our combina- 
tion PRESSURE AND VAPOR 
SYSTEM OF CAR HEATING, 
which system automatically main- 
tains about the same temperature in 
the car regardless of the outside 
weather conditions. 

Main Office, Whitehall Building 

17 BATTERY PLACE 

NEW YORK 



January, 



1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



35 



LEARN MORE 

EARN MORE 



isrr::: 






T6NNANT. 




Here is a book 

of practical 

money-earning 

value to 

Locomotive 

Engineers and 

Railway Students 

EVERYWHERE 



"LOCOMOTIVE SLIDE VALVE SETTING" 

Written from practical experience for the 
man who "wants to know." 



"THE FIREMAN'S GUIDE" 

A handbook on the care of boilers in plain, 
every day English ; very complete (12th edi- 
tion). 

Three Books Only 50 Cents Each 

Cardboard working model of the Wal- 
schaert Valve Gear, with full descrip- CI en 

Send for Special List of Prac- 
tical Handbooks. Mailed free. 

SPON & CHAMBERLAIN 

123 L Liberty Street New York 



Books, Bulletins, Catalogues, Etc. 



Tool Foremen's Association Report. 

The official proceedings of the Amer- 
ican Railway Tool Foremen's Association 
held in Chicago. 111., in July, 1914, have 
just been issued in a volume of 146 pages, 
printed on toned paper and profusely 
illustrated. The growing importance of 
die association is clearly shown in the 
interesting volume and the variety of sub- 
jects discussed and the wealth of infor- 
mation conveyed is the best proof of the 
usefulness of the association. Of special 
interest is the work that is being done 
rds the standardization of reamers 
and other kinds of smaller tools. Some 
of the committees are continued from 
year to year, and in this way the accumu- 
lation of data assumes a value not com- 
mon to the work of committees whose 
period of service may be more limited. 
A list of members is attached to the vol- 
ume, and those desiring copies should ap- 
ply to the secretary-treasurer, Mr. Owen 
D. Kinsey, 7223 Ridgeland avenue. Chi 
cago, 111. 




NOW IS THE TIME to install a 

Rue Boiler Washer 
and Tester, 

For you will need it when cold 
weather comes. It will wash out. 
test -and fill your boiler, all with 
hat water, and have it ready for 
use in one hour. 

THINK IT OVER. ■ 
Catalog on Boiler Washers A-.j. 
Catalog on Injectors B-3. 

Rue Manufacturing Co., 

22S CHERRY STREET 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Manufacturers of. Injectors. Ejectors, 

Boiler Washers ami Testers, Boiler Checks, 

Check Valves. 




ON 



POP VALVES and GAGES 

The Quality Goods that Last 

The Ashton Valve Co. 
271 Franklin Street, Boston, Mass. 
No. 174 Market St., Chicago. 111. 



fully reached by the advanced methods 
.if thermit welding as applied by the 
Goldschmidt Thermit Co. Copies of their 
interesting publication may be had on 
application at the main office, 90 West 
street, Xew York. 



Lightning Arresters for Series Light- 
ing Circuits. 

Bulletin No. 45602 has just been issued 
by the General Electric Company and 
deals with the subject of the protection 
of series lighting circuits by lightning 
arresters. The arresters described in the 
bulletin are of two types: the horn type 
and the aluminum type. The former is 
designed for the protection of series 
transformers and rectifiers against lightr 
ning discharge and similar trouble, and 
the latter particularly for the protection 
of cable circuits running from series arc 
rectifiers. Illustrations and dimension 
diagrams on the various arresters are in- 
cluded in the bulletin. 



Reactions. 

The last quarterly issue of Reactions 
for 1914, a publication devoted to the 
science of aluminothermies, contains much 
interesting matter particularly in regard 
to welding vertical pipe with thermit. 
There are also over a dozen illustrations 
and descriptive matter in regard to re- 
cent welds on some of the leading rail- 
roads, all of which are apparently of more 
than usual difficulty of accomplishment. 
As an example four welds are shown on 
a truck frame that had literally fallen to 
pieces on the Alabama Great Southern, 
but in a few hours was made not only 
as good as new but better. Similarly 
shattered was a Mallet frame on the 
Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio, where three 
welds were made expeditiously and suc- 
cessfully. Indeed there seems to be no 
part of the modern locomotive that is 
capable of fracture but can be success- 



Patent Reports. 

< If all kinds of literature perhaps patent 
reports is the least edifying. A needle 
may be found in a haystack, but anything 
of value is bard to find in a government 
report. Mr. P. Cook's book has come to 
the rescue of railway men, and after much 
labor he has produced a compilation of the 
patents relating to nearly all inventions 
for railway rolling stock appliances and 
equipment. If an inventor is working 
on an invention relating to railways, by 
looking at the different classifica- 
tions in this book he can immediately de- 
termine how many patents have been 
granted on such class of devices. We 
cannot recall seeing a work of this kind 
before, and the information contained if 
desired would cost considerable from 
any other system or source. Copies 
of the book may be had on application to 
the author, Victor Building, Washington, 
D. C. 



The Parcels Post. 



At the November meeting of the New 
York Railroad Club a"paper was read .by 
Mr. V. J. Bradley on -"The Parcels Post 
and Its Effect on' Railway Revenues." 

The tendency of the paper was to .prove 
that the post office officials of the United 
States Government are prepared to em- 
bark their employees in the business' ! of 
conducting a parcels express with no limit 
to the business. One salient paragraph 
of the paper reads : 

"The parcel post, by the creation of a 
large amount of new business as well as 
by taking some business from the ex- 
press companies, has greatly increased the 
tonnage of the mail transported without 
any adequate provision for the payment 
thereof to the railroads that are perform- ' 
ing the service. It is of great importance 
that such remedial action be taken 
promptly, not only because justice to the ■ 
railroads requires it, but also that the 
government may obtain information as to 
the full cost of performing the parcel 
post business. The knowledge of the full 
cost of transporting the parcel post busi- 
ness will save Congress from approving 
of parcel post rates which would result in 
a heavy increase in taxation, unless 
Congress in representing the people 
should deliberately decide to decree gen- 
eral taxation to pay for the performance 
of a public service, the benefits of which 
would only be slightly enjoyed by the 



36 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



January, 1915. 



■ordinary citizen, but which might be 
largely monopolized by the mail order 
houses and other great business establish- 
ments." 

Another paragraph reads : 

"While it is quite possible, as Mr. Brad- 
ley states, that the reduction in express 
revenue 'is more due to the new rates 
prescribed by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission than to the competition of 
the parcel post,' there is no doubt that 
the parcel post is a potent factor in effect- 
ing this reduction, and if the Postmaster 
General sees fit to further extend the 
parcel post service and to increase its 
effectiveness, as he has clearly indicated 
that he intends to do, undoubtedly at 
least some of the express companies will 
be forced out of business. This will re- 
sult substantially in government owner- 
ship, not by orderly acquisition, through 
the purchase of the express companies' 
property at actual value, or even by con- 
demnation proceedings, but by enforcing 
destructive competition." 



Small Turbo-Generator Sets. 

The General Electric Company has 
just issued an attractive bulletin on the 
above subject. It illustrates and describes 
in considerable detail the horizontal tur- 
bine sets of small capacities manufac- 
tured by this company. These machines 
are built in capacities ranging from 7 
kw. to 300 kw. direct current, and 100. 
200 and 300 kw. alternating current, and 
are used largely for supplying light and 
power in mills, machine shops, laundries, 
bakeries, breweries, apartment houses, 
etc., as well as for train lighting. The 
turbines can be furnished for either con- 
densing or non-condensing operation and, 
<n .general, for any steam pressure of over 
80 pounds. The number of the bulletin 
•is 42010 



Railway Postal Cards and Colored 
Plates. 

The Locomotive Publishing, 3 Amen 
Corner, Paternoster Row, London, as 
usual at this season of the year has is- 
sued an extensive edition of specially 
bound post card albums of various sizes 
■ranging from one dozen to 2S0, showing 
in colors every kind of British locomo- 
tive, as well as a large variety of Amer- 
ican and other locomotives. The prices 
are 25 cents per dozen. The specially 
bound albums cost one dollar each. 



there were 91 fatalities recorded, in 1913 
the number was 36, and in 1914 the num- 
ber is reduced to 23. The tables are so 
conclusive that nothing further that might 
be said could add or take away from 
their weight. 



Report on Locomotive Boilers. 
The Interstate Commerce Commission 
has just issued the third annual report 
of the chief inspector of locomotive 
boilers, and it is very gratifying to ob- 
serve the large improvement indicated 
by tliL- number of casualties. In 1912 



Steam Engine-Driven Generator Sets. 

In Bulletin 42300, recently issued by 
the General Electric Company, is describ- 
ed that company's line of small direct 
connected generating sets of sizes rang- 
ing from 2]/ z kw. to 75 kw. While ordi- 
narily designed to meet the severe con- 
ditions of marine work demanding light, 
compact and durable sets of close regu- 
lation and quiet operation, they are also 
well adapted and used extensively for 
both power and lighting in isolated 
plants, and as exciters for alternating 
current generators in central station 
work. Both the engine and generator 
are described in the bulletin in consider- 
able detail. 



Traveling Engineers' Proceedings. 

A handsome volume of 454 pages, 
bound in leather and printed on excellent 
paper, compiled and edited by Mr. W. O. 
Thompson, East Buffalo, N. Y., secretary 
of the Traveling Engineers' Association, 
is just issued, containing the Proceedings 
of the Twenty-second Annual Convention 
of the Association held at Chicago, 111., 
in September of last year. The volume 
is another valuable addition to the annual 
reports published by the Association, and 
shows how intelligently and tenaciously 
the members have adhered to their origi- 
nal purpose to improve the locomotive 
engine service of American railroads. 
The subjects treated embrace smoke pre- 
vention, maximum efficiency at lowest 
cost, advantages of stokers, training of 
firemen, utilizing cheaper grades of coal, 
care of locomotive brake equipment, lo- 
cating defects, speed recorders, and chem- 
istry of combustion. All of these sub- 
jects are treated with the highest degree 
of intelligence. The papers and discus- 
sions are the best reflex of practical 
minds actively and constantly engaged on 
the subjects. Copies of the report may 
be had from the Angus Sinclair Company, 
114 Liberty street, New York, or from 
the secretary of the Association. Price, 
$1.50. 



Ring out the old, ring in the new, 
Ring happy bells across the snow ; 
The year is going, let him go, 

Ring out the false, ring in the true. 

Ring in the valiant man and free — 
The larger heart, the kindlier hand, 
Ring out the darkness of the land, 

Ring in the Christ that is to be! 



STEEL STAMPS 

IN6PCCTOR8 HAMMERS 
Hand Cut STEEL LETTERS & FIGURES 
LATHE TOOLS, TIME CHECKS, 

Noble & Westbrook Mfg. Co. 

9 ASYLUM ST. HARTFORD, CONN. 




The Armstrong 
Automatic Drill Drift 

IS DRIFT AND HAMMER COMBINED. 

The handle or driver is always 
ready to strike a blow eb the 
spring automatically throws it 
back into position. 
LEAVES ONE HAND FREE TO 
SAVE THE TOOL. 
Special Circular mailed on Request. 

ARMSTRONG BROS. TOOL COMPANY 

312 N. Francisco Ave., CHICAGO, TJ. S. A. 




Nichols Transfer Tables 
Turntable Tractors 

GEO. P. NICHOLS & BRO. 

1090 Old Colony Bldg. CHICAGO 



Correspondence Invited 

with parties owning or controlling 

RAILWAY DEVICES 

of Cast Steel 

Reading Specialties Co.. Sales Ants 

Reading Bayonne Steel Casting O*., 

READING, FA. 



Hydraulic 

RiVeterS fixed and Portable 

Punches, Shears, 
Presses, Lifts, Crones 
and Accumulators. 

Matthews' Fire Hydrants, 

Eddy Valves 

Valve Indicator Posts. 

The Camden High.Prr.svire Valves. 



Cast Iron Pipe 



R. D. Wood & Company 

Engineers, Iron 
Pounders, Machinists. 

100 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



VOLUMES OF 

Railway and Locomotive 
Engineering 

For 1914, Well Bound in 
Cloth, Price $3.00 



R!' l teHL,I«inMrin8 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling Stock and Appliances 



V«L XXV11I. 



114 Liberty Street, New York, February, 1915. 



No. 2 



Electric Towing System for the Panama LocRs 

The electric towing system for the In passing through the canal from the distance of 24 miles, to Bas Obispo where 

Panama Canal locks was designed and Atlantic to the Pacific, a vessel will enter it will enter the Culebra Cut. It will pass 

patented by Mr. Edward Schildhauer, the approach channel in Limon Bay, through this cut, which has a length of 

electrical and mechanical engineer of the which extends to Gatun, a distance of nine miles, and reach Pedro Miguel, 




FIG. 1. TOWING LOCOMOTIVE ABOUT TO ASCEND THE INCLINE LEADING TO 
Standing in the foreground, left to right, are: Edward Schildhauer, Electrician and Mechanical 
Lt. Col. William L. Sibert, Isthmian Canal Commissioner and Atlantic Division Engineer; C. W. Li 
General Electric Company. 



Isthmian Canal Commission, and the 
forty towing locomotives and all the elec- 
trical apparatus for operating the locks 
were built by the General Electric Com- 
pany. 



about seven miles. At Gatun it will en- 
ter a series of three locks in flight and 
be raised 85 feet to the level of Gatun 
Lake. It may then steam at full speed 
through the channel in this lake, for a 



THE TOP LEVEL OF GATUN LOCKS. 
Engineer, Isthmian Canal Commission (I. C. C.) ; 
irson, Industrial Locomotive Designing Engineer, 

where it will enter a lock and be lowered 
30 feet. Then it will pass through Mira- 
flores Lake for a distance of 1J^ miles 
until it reaches Miraflores, where it will 
be lowered 55 feet through two locks, to 



38 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



February, 1915. 



the sea level, after which- it passes out 
into the Pacific through an Sj/^-mile 
channel. 

The main features of all the lock sites 
are identical, and in Fig. 1 it is noted 
that there are two ship channels, one for 
traffic in each direction. The channels 
are separated by a center wall, the total 



The illustrations Fig. 2 and 3 give a 
general idea of the method of handling 
vessels. They also show general views of 
the lock walls, towing tracks and the in- 
clines, the steepness of the latter being 
especially noticeable. 

The towing tracks have a specially de- 
signed rack rail extending the entire 




U. S. S. 



FIG. 2. OPERATION OF GATUN LOCKS. 
'Severn" Leaving Upper East Chamber in Tow of Electric Locomotives. 



length of which is 6,330 feet. There are 
two systems of tracks, one for towing and 
the other for the return of the locomotive 
when returning idle. This, however, re- 
fers only to the outer walls. For the cen- 
ter wall there is only one return track in 
common for both the towing tracks. The 
towing tracks are naturally placed next to 
the channel side, and the system of tow- 
ing utilizes normally not less than four 
locomotives running along the lock walls. 
Two of them are opposite each other in 
advance of the vessel, and two run op- 
posite each other following the vessel. 
The number of locomotives is, however, 
increased when the tonnage of the ship 
demands it. 

Cables extend from the forward loco- 
motives and connect with the port and 
starboard sides respectively of the vessel 
near the bow, and other cables connect 
the rear locomotives with the port and 
starboard quarters of the vessel. The 
lengths of the various cables are adjusted 
by a special winding drum on the loco- 
motive to place the vessel substantially in 
mid-channel. When the leading locomo- 
tives are started they will tow the vessel, 
while the trailing locomotives will follow 
and keep all the cables taut. By chang- 
ing the lengths of the rear cables, the ves- 
sel can be guided; and to stop the vessel, 
all the locomotives are slowed down and 
stopped, thus bringing the rear locomo- 
tives in action to retard the ship. There- 
fore the vessel is always under complete 
control quite independent of its own 
power, and the danger of injury to the 
lock walls and gates is very greatly les- 
sened. 



length of the track and located centrally 
with respect to the running rails. It is 
through this rack rail that the locomotive, 
exerts the traction necessary for propel- 
ling large ships and climbing the steep 
inclines. 

A rack rail is also provided on short 
portions of the return track so as to lower 



traction is limited only by the capacity of 
the driving motors and not by the ad- 
hesion of the wheel treads on the rails. 

Three-phase, 25-cycle, 220-volt alternat- 
ing current is used for operating the loco- 
motives, and the current is supplied to 
the locomotives through an underground 
contact system. Two T-rails form two 
legs of the three-phase circuit, and the 
third leg is formed by the main track 
rails. A specially designed contact plow 
slides between the two "T" conductors 
and transmits the power from the rails to 
the locomotive. This contact plow also 
passes through the slot opening in the 
conduit cover and is flexibly connected 
to the locomotive in such a manner as to 
follow all irregularities in the tracks and 
crossovers, and therefore insures a con- 
tinuous supply of power. 

The working parts of the locomotive 
are supported by two longitudinal upright 
side frames of cast steel, connected by 
transverse beams. These frames are in 
effect deep rigid trusses, having upper and 
lower members connected by posts, and 
diagonal braces. The elevation and plan 
view are shown by Figs. 4 and S. 

Each axle is driven by its own motor, 
a front view of which is shown by Fig. 6, 
independent of the other. 

The motor is of the three-phase, slip- 
ring type, enclosed, and is geared by a 
pinion and spur gear to the countershaft, 
which carries a pinion, meshing with a 
spur gear, keyed to the jack shaft. On 
the outer side of the spur gear are formed 
clutch teeth which co-operate with similar 
teeth on the adjacent side of a gear. 




FIG. 3. TOWING LOCOMOTIVES ON FIRST TRIAL RUN. 
Returning Barge Through Gatun Locks to Atlantic Level, Panama Canal. 



the locomotives safely from one level to 
the next. The steepest slope is 44 per 
cent., hence the need will be seen for rack 
rail even on the return track, it being 
noted that any traction locomotive with 
the usual wheel drive, even with the 
brakes set, would begin to slide on a 16 
per cent, grade and therefore could not 
be controlled. With a rack rail, however, 



which is sleeved upon the jack shaft and 
can be slid lengthwise thereon to engage 
and disengage the clutch teeth. A pinion 
is keyed to the axle and it wide enough 
to mesh always with the gear, so that 
when the clutch teeth are engaged, the 
motor will propel the locomotive by the 
adhesion between the wheels and the rails 
of the track, and this only when running 



February, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



39 



without load and between the inclines. 
When the locomotive, however, reaches 
one of the inclines between the locks, the 
grade of which may be as much as 44 per 
cent., or when it is towing a ship, the cog 
rail system is utilized to enable the loco- 
motive to c'imb the grade and exert trac- 
tion necessary for pulling large ships. 
The cog or rack rail is laid between the 
track rails, and the locomotive is provided 
with a cog wheel or rack pinion, secured 
to or integral with a sleeve which rotates 



solenoid is pivoted to the long arm of a 
lever which is fulcrumed on one of the 
brake levers. When the core of the 
solenoid drops, it actuates the lever and 
the rod in such a manner as to draw the 
two brake levers towards each other and 
thereby apply the brake shoes to the 
drum. The winding of the solenoid is in 
circuit with the controller of the motors, 
so that when the current is turned on to 
energize the motor windings the solenoid 
will lift its core and thereby release the 



when coiling the cable that has been cast 
off, and it remains permanently in gear. 
Another motor with worm gear drive is 
used for taking in the cable when it is 
under load, and the drum operates as a 
windlass or capstan. Due to the greater 
gear reduction, it operates the drum at a 
much slowr speed, and consequently, 
with motors of approximately equal size, 
a greater force may be exerted on the 
tow line than would be possible with the 
lower speed reduction which is used with 




FIG. 4. SIDE ELEVATION OF TOWING LOCOMOTIVE WITH COVERS REMOVED. 



freely on the axle. A gear wheel, secured 
to or integral with this sleeve, meshes 
with a gear, turning loosely on the jack 
shaft. Clutch teeth on this gear can be 
engaged by the teeth on a clutch which 
is splined to a jack shaft. 

It will be observed that each motor, 
with all its gearing and clutches, is 
mounted independently of the frame of 
the locomotive, to which it is connected 



brakes. The first point of the controller 
raises the brakes without applying power 
to the motors, thereby providing a coast- 
ing point. But should the motor current 
be shut off, either intentionally or acci- 
dentally, the core will instantly drop by 
gravity and its weight will exert a power- 
ful leverage upon the brake levers to stop 
the motor and the locomotive. This ac- 
tion occurs simultaneously on both mo- 



tile high-speed coiling motor. The worm 
gear drive is disconnected from the drum 
when not in use. 

One of the most important parts of the 
locomotive is the "slip-friction" device 
consisting of two special alloy rings, 
mounted on the spider. Between these 
rings a steel disc is fastened to the rope 
drum; and the amount of tension on the 
tow line is adjusted by the pressure be- 




Jt 



FIG. 5. PLAN VIEW OF TOWING LOCOMOTIVE WITH COVERS REMOVED FROM ONE END. 



only by springs, which give an elastic 
support. 

In connection with each motor a power- 
ful brake is installed, and, as during op- 
eration the motors are at all times geared 
either to the axles or to the cog wheels, 
the truck wheels are not provided with 
any brake rigging. On the motor shaft 
is keyed a brake disc or drum, and to 
opposite sides thereof are applied the 
brake shoes, carried by the brake levers, 
which are pivoted on a stationary bar 
projecting from a frame which supports 
a solenoid. The movable core of this 



tors, and brake action is powerful enough 
to stop the locomotive within two revolu- 
tions of the wheels. 

Passing now to the features which ren- 
der the locomotive peculiarly adapted for 
towing purposes, the drum on which the 
cable is wound is located midway between 
the ends of the locomotive and above the 
upper member of the side frames, so that 
the cable can be led off on either side of 
the machine and through a wide range of 
angles to the line of travel. 

A motor with bevel gear pinion is used 
for driving the drum at a high speed 



tween these three discs, and is obtained 
by tightening the spiral springs on the 
clamping ring. In order, therefore, to 
make the slipping tension of the tow- 
line proportional to the pressure between 
the friction discs, a rubbing surface hav- 
ing an absolutely constant coefficient of 
friction is essential. The low friction 
metal, having a friction coefficient of 
0.1, is practically constant under all 
pressures and condition of the surfaces, 
and therefore was selected for the work. 
This metal also showed but very little 
difference in coefficient between starting 



40 



AILWAY AXD LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



February, 1915. 



and running. The results of the special 
tests were furthermore amply verified by 
the final test of the friction discs of each 
machine under full rated tow-line pull of 
25,000 pounds by means of the dynamom- 
eter testing outfit. AH forty machines 
were given this slip test twenty-five times 
from each cab, and all passed the gov- 
ernment requirement not to exceed a 
variation of 5 per cent, above or below 
the normal of 25,000 pounds. 

In connection with the slip test, further 
data on the slow winding motor was ob- 
tained. It was found to have ample power 
to take care of any sudden pull on the 
low-line up to 40,000 pounds, which is 
well above the normal requirement of 
25,000 pounds. The speed of winding is 
at the average rate of 12 feet per minute. 
The locomotives have a net weight of 
•%.300 pounds and a gross shipping 
weight of 92,500 pounds. They were 
mounted on specially designed skids and 
shipped by rail to New York, where they 



Quebec Bridge. 
At the annual meeting of the Dominion 
Bridge Company, held last month, it was 
stated that in December about 42 per 
cent, of the steel for the superstructure 
of the new Quebec bridge had been fabri- 
cated, and about 18 per cent, erected. It 
is anticipated that the work will be fin- 
ished in good season, and within the 
original estimates of cost. 



mental employment, resulting in ceaseless 
efforts on the part of outside labor to 
secure government employment because 
less onerous and more remunerative, with 
cumulative dissatisfaction and irritation 
in all private enterprise. 



Railroad Crossings in Kansas. 
The New York Times is responsible 
for the statement that in an endeavor to 
straighten out conflicting interests at level 
crossings in Kansas railroads, a bill has 
been introduced in the State legislature 
in which the statement is said to appear 
that "when two trains approach a rail- 
road crossing, both shall stop and neither 
shall go ahead until the other has passed 
by." 



Safety in the West. 
The safety and efficiency bureau of the 
San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake re- 
ports a reduction of about 34 per cent. 
in the number of injuries to employees 
for last year, as compared with the pre- 
ceding year. The number of fatal acci- 
dents among employees was three, the 
lowest record in the history of the road. 
Every man on the road seems to be im- 
bued with the spirit of Safety First. 




National Transcontinental Railway. 
The Minister of the Canadian railways 
made a tour of inspection of the Trans- 
continental railway last month from Que- 
bec to Lake Superior Junction. The sec- 
tion of the line from Moncton to Levis 
is being operated under the Canadian 
government railways' management, and 
the section between Lake Superior Junc- 
tion and Winnipeg is being operated by 
the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, under 
an arrangement with the department. It 
is expected that arrangements will be 
completed for the operation of through 
traffic early in the spring. 



New Equipment on the Rock Island. 

The annual report of the Chicago, 
Rock Island and Pacific has just been 
issued, and it appears that in the items 
of new equipment there were 57 locomo- 
tives, 70 all-steel passenger train cars, 
2,050 freight train cars and 2 wrecking 
cranes received during the year and add- 
ed to the equipment. The first two rail- 
road leases of the company also made ad- 
ditions to the rolling stock, viz., 18 loco- 
motives, 9 passenger train cars and 351 
freight train cars, all of which, excepting 
five pieces, came with the St. Paul & 
Kansas City Short Line. Thirty percent, 
of the cars in passenger service are of 
all-steel construction. Of the total mile- 
age of passenger train cars, exclusive 
of Pullmans. 46 per cent, was by cars of 
all-steel build. 



FIG. 6. PANAMA TOWING LOCOMOTIVE, 

L S A— 2 E 40— A. 

Front View of Traction Motor I "nit with Journal 

Box in Place. 

were loaded on board the ships as deck 
cargoes by means of a Merrit-Chapman 
125-ton floating derrick. Among the ves- 
sels engaged in this work may be men- 
tioned the steamship Ancon, which in 
this case carried six locomotives to tin- 
Isthmus. 

During the first three months of com- 
mercial operation of the canal, from 
August 15 to November 15. the cargo 
transported through the canal and towed 
through the locks by the locomotives 
amounted to 1,079,521 tons. During the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1914. the Pan- 
ama Railroad carried 643,178 tons of 
through freight between the two sea- 
boards, and in the preceding fiscal year 
594,040 tons. From this it is seen that 
between six and seven times as much 
cargo is passing over the Isthmus now as 
passed over this route when goods were 
transshipped by rail. 



Oil Fuel in Honduras. 
The Vacarro Brothers & Co. Railroad, 
operating from Ceiba into the banana 
lands, has equipped locomotives for burn- 
ing oil instead of coal, the present fuel, 
to ascertain the desirability and economy 
of oil as a fuel. If the experiment proves 
a success it is possible that not only he 
locomotives but the shops and various 
kindred enterprises controlled by the 
company will be equipped for the use of 
oil as a fuel. 



Government Ownership of Railroads. 
Hon. Jonathan Bourne, Jr., speaking 
before the National Civic Federation, in 
New York last month in the course of 
an able speech presenting objections to 
government ownership of railroads, said: 
''Can any person familiar with the pol- 
itics of this country doubt the correct- 
ness of the assertion that, under govern- 
ment ownership of these public service 
corporations, with the resultant addition 
of over two and a half million employees 
to the government pay roll, those em- 
ployees and their friends would inevitably 
control the government under our politi- 
cal machinery. The tendency would be 
more pay and less service in govern- 



New Railway Signal. 
A mere piece of red glass has made it 
possible to use red light on railroad 
crossing gates, and add greatly to the 
safety of motorists and other drivers at 
grade crossings. This has never been 
possible before for fear of confusing en- 
gineers on passing trains, but a simple 
device worked out in the signal depart- 
ment of the Lehigh Valley Railroad has 
made feasible the adopting of red lights 
at every grade crossing in the country. 
It has been tried out at the busy Wyan- 
dotte Street crossing in Bethlehem and 
has proved a success. The ordinary 
crossing gate has a white light hung to 
the bar, which at night indicates by its 
position alone whether the track is clear. 
But by this device a piece of red glass 
set in a roundel, as in a frame, is fast- 
ened to the bar so that the white light 
swings behind it and shows red when 
the gate is down. When the gate is up. 
as the roundel is stationary and the light 
swings, the light comes out from behind 
the red glass and shows white again. At 
no time is the red light visible from the 
track, and traffic on the railroad is not 
interfered with, but the safety of motor 
ists and the drivers of other vehicles is 
increased 



February, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



41 



Progress in Car Construction. 

At the forty-eighth annual convention 
of the Master Car Builders' Association, 
Providence, Mr. K. Barnum delivered a 
very interesting opening address, in which 
among other good things he said : 

Many freight cars originally of wood 
construction are being practically rebuilt 
and strengthened with steel underframes, 
friction draft gear, steel ends, new roofs, 
new siding, etc., so that they are stronger 
and better than when first built, and their 
ultimate life will be prolonged probably 
fifteen or twenty years. These improve- 
ments usually cost from $250 to $400 per 
car, a part of which is properly charge- 
able to capital account, and it seems only 
fair that some allowance should be made 
for them in figuring the depreciation 
when such cars are destroyed, and that 
those companies which are spending such 
large amounts to strengthen their cars 
should not be penalized for so doing, as 
at present. This subject is of sufficient 
importance to justify appointing a special 
committee to study and report upon it at 
the next convention. 

The building of new wooden passenger 
cars was practically stopped a year or 
more ago, and most roads are applying 
steel underframes and ends to the older 
cars as fast as money can be obtained for 
the work, with the result that there are 
now 3,566 less wooden passenger cars in 
service than there were two years ago, 
so with the general use of steam heat and 
electric lights passenger travel on steam 
railroads is steadily growing safer. The 
fact that in 1912 the number of passengers 
killed in train accidents was only one for 
each 251.000,000 passenger miles has en- 
abled insurance companies to pay double 
and triple indemnities for such accidents. 
and, as stated before, the conditions are 
steadily improving. 



Railway Construction in Norway. 

The Norwegian Storthing passed in the 
year 1908 a complete plan for railway 
construction for the ensuing twelve years, 
till 1920. It was intended that a new plan 
for continuing the development should be 
ready in good time. As the original plan 
has been abandoned in some respects, as 
fur instance in the building of the Raunia 
Railway and the Thelemark Railway, the 
drawing up of a new plan has now be- 
come a necessity. The preparatory work 
in this connection is progressing, and the 
railway authorities expect that they can 
get the new program ready to be laid 
before the legislature in the year 1918. 



their passenger trains between Hoboken. 
N. J., this city, and Binghamton, N. Y. 
It is said that the company is equipping 
a wireless station in Buffalo, and when 
this in operation the transportation de- 
partment will be able to communicate di- 
rect from its Western terminal to its 
Eastern terminal, Hoboken. 



To Run Trains by Wireless. 

After a six months' trial, officers of 
the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
announce that they will replace the wire 
system of telegraphy in the operation of 



Snoqualmie Tunnel Completed. 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
Railway has completed excavation of both 
branches of the Snoqualmie tunnel, and 
the concrete lining of the tunnel has been 
entirely finished last month, and the road 
is now in regular service for the passage 
of trains. The tunnel is 2J4 miles in 
length through the Cascade Mountains, 
about 40 miles east of Seattle, Wash., 
and the entire work has been constructed 
by the company by its own employees. 



New Railway Bridge. 

The single track bridge over the 
Susquehanna river at Harrisburg which 
the Cumberland Valley railroad — a 
part of the Pennsylvania system — is 
now using, will be replaced by a mod- 
ern arch bridge. The present struc- 
ture is a steel deck truss bridge of 25 
spans, supported by stone piers. The 
proposed bridge will have 44 spans and 
will carry two tracks. The present 
piers will be utilized and additional 
piers built. The bridge will be 4,000 
feet long. The foundations are already 
completed above the water level, and 
the balance of the work will be placed 
under contract within a short time. 
This is the first construction work of 
any magnitude to be undertaken by the 
Pennsylvania System for more than a 
year, but indications point to develop- 
ments in the near future. 




CAPTURED I <>< OMOTIN E. 



Award for Eye Protectors. 

At the Second International Exposition 
of Safety and Sanitation, held in the 
Grand Central Palace, New York, the 
grand prize has been awarded to T. A. 
Willson & Co., Reading, Pa., the makers 
of eye protectors. It was given in ack- 
nowledgment of the merits of the three 
Willson industrial styles — the Willson 
safety glass, the new Willson goggle and 
the Albex eye protector. This is the 
highest award ever given to the makers 
of eye protectors. 



Workmen's Compensation. 

By the action of New York, Kentucky, 
Louisiana and Maryland, exactly twenty- 
four states, or one-half of those in the 
Union, now have workmen's compensa- 
tion 'aws. Massachusetts, after two years' 
experience, raised the benefits under its 
law from 50 per cent, to 66 2-3 per cent, 
of wages, and New Jersey also liberalized 
its rates, though to a less extent. 



Captured Locomotive. 

When the Russians capture a loco- 
motive belonging to the Germans or 
vice versa, it is of no use to them. The 
Russian State railways are of the five- 
feet gauge, and the Prussian State rail- 
ways being of the standard gauge, the 
captured locomotive must be mounted 
upon a truck and conveyed to some 
junk yard in the rear. Probably when 
the contending powers begin to ex- 
change prisoners, they may also ex- 
change locomotives. Meanwhile there 
must be engineering difficulties in 
transferring the locomotives to the 
trucks called into service for their con- 
veyance. 

The illustration shows a captured 
German locomotive mounted on a Rus- 
sian truck, and about to be conveyed 
somewhere by a Russian locomotive 
The subject is no occasion for joking, 
but it reminds us somewhat of the man 
that bought a white elephant, and had 
to pay more to get rid of the animal 
than the original cost. 



42 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



February, 1915. 



General Correspondence 



More Notes on Small Tools and Tool 
Room Proposition. 

By A. W. Vestal, Sedalia, Mo. 

Every gang foreman should go over 
his stock of tools at regular intervals 
and pick out for repairs the defective 
ones and those that are useless for the 
purpose intended. Very often a large 
pile of wrenches must be picked over in 
order to find one that will fit a particular 
nut and perhaps many of them will not 
fit any size nut and are like the Dutch- 
man's cats — don't earn their keep. It is 
certainly poor policy to permit or compel 
a skilled mechanic to spend any consider- 
able part of his time hunting up tools 
when with a little systematic effort the 
proper tools, in good order, can be found 
without trouble when needed. 

Many elaborate systems of distribut- 
ing tools from a central tool room out 
over the shop, have been worked out 
from time to time with the purpose in 
view of keeping the skilled mechanic 
on the job as far as possible, while the 
tools needed are brought to him. In the 
main these time savers are of doubtful 
value. A machinist needing tools for 
a certain job can rarely work to advan- 
tage until he gets them, so he is quite 
likely to loaf in the meantime and might 
have saved time by going after them 
himself and getting just what he wanted 
instead of perhaps getting something en- 
tirely different through a third person. 
There is little excuse for a lack of good 
erecting shop tools and plenty of them, 
as they can be made from odds and ends 
of scrap steel in the blacksmith's shop 
and at time when regular work is slack. 
He is a poor foreman who will say : 
"Well, do the best you can," when com- 
plaint is made that no tools can be found 
for a certain job. He should make pro- 
vision for all such needs in this line — it 
is one of the things he is paid for doing, 
although he too often thinks only of 
turning out engines and making a good 
showing without realizing the import- 
ance of having the proper tools to do tin- 
work to best advantage. 

It is a strange thing, but true, that a 
man may visit a shop only a few miles 
from his home shop and see tools and 
processes in use that he never dreamed 
were in existence. Too often a mechanic 
will work out an idea in tools for some 
particular job to his own satisfaction, 
and let it go at that, without realizing its 
real value to anyone else. There is rare- 
ly an issue of this magazine that does 
not contain one or more ideas in tools, 
ideas that are really valuable in dollars 



and cents and for every one published 
there must be dozens of others, equally 
good, that are never heard of outside of 
the locality in which they are created. 

Some years ago, in a shop of the B. & 
O. Railway, a man got his foot crushed 
by a pinch bar he was using unexpectedly 
slipping while he was helping to pinch 
an engine. The general foreman con- 




110. 1. SAFETY PINCH BAR. 

ducted a little investigation of his own 
with the result that he sent a sketch to 
the blacksmith shop to have a pinch bar 
made according to his own idea. The 
sketch is shown in Fig. 1, and while its 
value can be seen at a glance, I have 
never seen it used in any other shop. 
The improvement consists of a square 
channel across the face of the heel into 
which an old square file can be driven 



> 



*i 



J' 



Lr> > 






bottom valves. For the top valves the 
blade is in the position shown in the 
plan view and for the bottom valves the 
blade is reversed as shown in side view. 

The only exact size is the length A 
and the length of the blade which must 
be as much longer than A as the lift of 
the valve is to be. This gauge is very 
easy to use and there is absolutely no 
chance for error, in fact there is no work 
for the eye at all, as there are no figures 
or graduations of any kind on the gauge, 
which makes it especially valuable in the 
roundhouse or in places where the light 
is poor. 

The gauge shown in the figure is for 
the 9y 2 ins. Westinghouse pump, and to 
make a gauge for the 11 ins. and cross- 
compound Westinghouse and the Nos. 5 
and 6 New York pumps or any other 
pumps it is only necessary, using the 
same design, to increase the size to cor- 
respond to the caps, valve chambers and 
cages of the larger pumps. In order to 
obtain any lift of valve desired it is only 
necessary to use the proper length blade, 



3, 

76 




) 




A 



1 



9 



■ 12* 



I [G. 2. GAUGE FOR ADJUSTING THE LIFT IN AIR VALVES. 



which forms the point of contact with the 
rail. The corner of the file will bite 
through oil and grease and never slip, it 
is easily replaced when worn and far su- 
perior to the tool steel triangular here 
commonly used. 

Fig. 2 is a gauge for use in getting the 
proper lift of air valves in an air pump. 
This gauge is suitable for both top and 



the length always being equal to the lift 
desired plus the length A. No detailed 
instructions for using the gauge is deem- 
ed necessary, as it is very simple. 

The writer has one of each size made 
of }i ins. boiler steel, but of course tool 
steel is better although a little harder to 
work. With this gauge it is possible to 
give every valve in the pump exactly the 



February, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



43 



same lift, something not easily done with 
a scale or ordinary depth gauge. 

The railroads of the country at pres- 
ent are going in strong for the "safety 
first" movement and every railroad em- 
ploye should do his part in helping it 
along by reporting the defective tools he 
comes in contact with. "Slippery" pinch 
bars, round faced sledges, "bunhead" 
chisels and all such defectives are dan- 
gerous. 

Much of the tool steel used in making 
hand chisels nowadays is very poor and 
will not stand reheating and working. 
Very often the cutting edge will fly off 
at the first blow. There ought to be, and 
probably is, some method of heat treat- 
ment to restore the "worn out" proper- 
ties of tool steel, but it does not seem to 
be in general use. 



having to break a difficult wiped joint. 
Several catalogues were examined to find 
a suitable pot-head, but without success, 
because the clearance was too small be- 
tween the steel and the runway to permit 
the installation of standard pot-heads. 



then tilled full with hot ozocerite-com- 
pound. A coat of paint was given on 
the outside of the box to stand outside 
weather, which works satisfactorily. 



Home-Made Junction Box. 

By J. G. Koppel, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. 

The accompanying illustration shows 
a home made junction box, installed be- 
tween paper insulated lead covered, and 
extra flexible rubber insulated and 
loomed cables. 

A short while ago a steam drive was 
discarded from a draw bridge, a dupli- 
cate cable was selected and installed un- 
derground in clay and the ends were run 
up to the center piers. From the center 
pier, below the bridge frame, a coil was 
made, with extra flexible rubber insulat- 
ed and bound, arranged in such a way 




w 

STEADY REST FOR LATHES. 

The matter was solved by making a 
steel box with hinged and rubber gasket 
cover. A piece of slate slab was cut 
from an old switch board and drilled for 
four copper terminals arranged with 




uu 



JUNCTION BOX. 



that, by swinging out, the coil will uncoil, 
and by swinging in the coil will recoil. 
But the question arose, where to get a 
suitable junction box, to joint the cables 
so that the lead covered cables would 
be permanent and also the flexible cables, 
in case of trouble by wearing out, and 
disconnecting in a short time, without 



thumbscrews on each end of the termin- 
al. Two lead sleeves were soldered on 
one end of the box to take the lead cov- 
ered cables, and for making a wiped 
joint, and on the other end of the box 
two iron pipe nipples were used to take 
the loom, or legs were put on the cable 
ends, and secured on the terminals, and 



Steady Rest for Lathes. 

By R. S. Booth, Hickory, N. C. 

We have in use in the railroad shops 
her* an improved steady rest or follow- 
er for lathes designed by Mr. E. D. Sher- 
rill, a clever machinist, which is some- 
what of a departure from the standard 
types generally in use. The accompany- 
ing drawings will readily give an idea 
of its construction and use. It is sup- 
posed to be used as an additional tool 
part following the tool. Its width is 
small and it therefore is not in the way, 
and is easily and quickly applied. For 
re-turning valve stems and such work 
it is of excellent service, and can also 
be used as a roller without placing undue 
pressure on small shafts. 



Safety in Railroading. 

Bv George H. Travis, Battle Creek, 
Mich. 

I have often wondered when I looked 
at the brake hangers on some of the cars 
why they were put on at all. I should 
think it would be well to raise the factor 
of safety on brake beam hangers and at- 
tach safety hangers which would at least 
keep the beams in place or from getting 
down under the car and derailing it or 
breaking some of the air pipes should the 
hanger break. In the manufacture of air 
hose the factor of safety is high, but 
when the hose is old it gets weak. Air 
brakes have been in use now long enough 
so that the life of the hose could be eas- 
ily determined and the hose changed be- 
fore it reached the danger point. 

Occasionally a wreck occurs, caused by 
a bursted hose, the cost of which would 
buy a good many thousand new ones. If 
a few of these had been supplied in place 
of the old ones it would have prevented 
the wreck. Triple valves going into quick 
action could be lessened to a great extent 
by cleaning the valves at shorter inter- 
vals. This, also, would remedy skid flat 
wheels and sticky brakes. 

The power end of the rolling stock is 
usually taken care of fairly well, al- 
though there is room for improvement. 
There are many things, however, in the 
construction and maintenance of a loco- 
motive where we believe the factor of 
safety should be raised. We are often 
told not to take chances, and when we 
are not sure to go slowly and thus at- 
tempt to make up in human efficiency 
what is lacking in mechanical efficiency. 
Would it not be better to increase the 
mechanical efficiency and not put the 
whole strain on the human end of it. 

Men do not usually get into trouble 



44 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



February, 1915. 



from difficulties which they are expecting 
to find, but from what they come upon 
unexpectedly. A great improvement 
could be made in the size and position of 
signal boards and signal lights, the lat- 
ter in particular. Signal lights are some- 
times taken care of by men who think 
their duty done when the light will burn 
through the night, whether it can be seen 
a mile or only a few feet. Often those 
who pass on the quality of oil supply an 
inferior grade which will crust over the 
wick or smoke up the lens. The lenses 
are generally too small and do not throw 
so clear and strong a light that it can- 
not possibly be mistaken by the engine 
men. The switches are not lined up to 
the track. Sometimes the trackmen, wish- 
ing to make the switch points fit close 
to the rail, move only one leg of the 
switch stand, thus throwing the focus out 
of parallel. Often a signal light cannot 
be seen from the approaching trains, on 
a curve, until close to the signal, so that 
speed has to be reduced to be certain. 
Signal boards should be placed where the 
background will be' in contrast instead of 
blending with the color of the board. 
There is nothing that inspires an engi- 
neer with so much confidence as to see 
the signals clearly at an interlocking sta- 
tion when he is still far enough off to 
have plenty of time to stop, to see the 
switch or switch lights plainly and know 
for certain that he has a clear track for 
a certain distance ahead. The factor of 
safety can be raised as far as signals are 
concerned. 

We might discuss further the human 
element in railroading. What are the 
conditions that surround the men before 
reporting for duty and has the period of 
rest been too short or too long. It might 
sound odd to say that a man may have 
too much rest, but sometimes the rest is 
not spaced correctly. Men on the extra 
or irregular runs may get their rest when 
they come in and then become tired in 
waiting for their turn out. Where if 
they knew just when they expected to go 
out they could get their rest just before 
their departure. Congenial surroundings 
at home or wherever he may lay over for 
rest are great factors of safety. A man 
going out on the road in charge of an en- 
gine or train, or assisting in any way will 
be a safer man if he has had proper rest 
just before going out. Proper food also 
has its part in the efficiency of the men. 
I do not wish to discuss the drink prob- 
lem, because no railroad man can use 
much liquor and hold his job. Occasion- 
ally, however, we hear of a man losing 
his job because of drinking or being 
drunk. Wouldn't the factor of safety 
be raised if liquor were never put in the 
railroad man's way? 

The law has stepped in and limited 
the hours of some railroad men because 
it was generally thought that they were 
not as safe when tired as when fresh. 



This has been proved true and work put 
on to a man when he was tired out de- 
creased the factor of safety. 

Then the factor of safety must be 
raised in many cases. Beginning with the 
road bed as the foundation and building 
up to the top, the human element, the 
factor of safety may be touched up all 
along the line. It is said that the rope 
n no stronger than its weakest point. If 



beyond the diameter of slotter bed. Our 
front end main rod brasses are round or 
turned-up brasses, which necessitates the 
front end of main rod opening being 
slotted round, and as it is impossible to 
swing the rod around to do this work is 
what brought out the slotter bar as shown. 
It will be noted that after rod or other 
work to be slotted is clamped to position 
on table, that the work or table Hoes not 




RADIUS TOOL FOR CIRCULAR WORK. 



this holds true in railroading, the weak 
points should be strengthened and the 
stronger points made secure. We believe 
that the factor can be raised in many 
places to give greater confidence to the 
public and profit to the railroad. 



Radius Tool. 

By Charles Markel, Clinton, Ia. 

Attached drawing shows assembled a 
radious tool used on slotter for radius 
or circular work on front end of main 
rods or pieces which cannot be swung 



revolve, but tool post turns on radius set 
to by ratchet, which is moved up by chain 
attached ram on slotter, which in turn 
revolves the worm shaft and tool holder 
bar. This bar was designed by Machinist 
H. F. Killean, and as details are shown, 
no further explanation is necessary. 

It might be added that the work is done 
with a degree of speed in comparison with 
other methods, and with a degree of ac- 
curacy in regard to perfection in work- 
manship that has not been equalled by any 
other appliance that has come within the 
observation of the writer. 



February, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



45 



A New Valve Motion. 
By C. B. McCrea, Renovo, Pa. 
As the subject of locomotive valve gears 
is always of much interest to railway 



lower pivots, of course, always remaining 
constant. 

The reverse link is furnished with a 
slidable link block which is pivoted to 





oi i 


P '' 


r ''$X' 








t ^J}$v>$%2. 




!« :2 




V 




™1 


r * 





A NEW DESIGN OF VALVE MOTION. 



men engaged in the mechanical depart- 
ment of railways, and as they are so ably 
discussed in the pages of Railway and 
Locomotive Engineering, I take pleasure 
in briefly describing a new design of 
valve gear which has been perfected here, 
and a working model of which is atracting 
much attention. 

The accompanying drawing is a side 
elevation, partly in section, and shown 
applied to a locomotive, the main rod of 
which, as usual, is connected at its rear 
end to the crank pin and at its front 
end with the crosshead, and it will be 
noted that the main rod is provided with 
a longitudinal guideway, preferably 
formed by the usual groove in the rod, 
and a pair of plates bolted to the outer 
face of the main rod above and below 
the groove, and extending inwardly over 
the same to form projecting flanges for 
retaining a slide block in the groove of 
the main rod. The slide block is pivoted 
to an upright link which is connected to 
a centrally arranged arm of a reverse 
link. The upright link is preferably 



the rear end of a forwardly extending 
radius rod. The combination constitutes 
mechanism similar to that of the 
Walschaerts valve gear, and the front end 
of the radius rod is pivoted to the slide 
of the valve stem, and it is connected at 
an intermediate point by a lifting link 
with a lifting aim of a reversing shaft. 
The reversing shaft has an upwardly ex- 
tending arm which is connected by a 
reach rod with the reversing lever. The 
device may be readily adapted to either 
inside or outside admission valves. 

As stated when the main rod is moving 
the upright link moves up and down and 
oscillates the link communicating the mo- 
tion to the valve. This movement gives 
an early opening and a late cut-off. 
When the valve is completely opened it 
remains stationary until the crosshead and 
piston has made a considerable advance. 
On the other hand the valve closes 
quickly, and it is also adapted to operate 
without lap or lead, and has no motion 
when the reversing lever is in central po- 
sition. The valve gear being of the out- 




lalUi 




r • i 
DETAILS OF AIR PUMP REPAIR RACK. 



I-' 



forked to straddle the central arm of the 
reverse link. The link may be pivoted 
to any suitable portion of the locomotive, 
and the link is oscillated vertically when 
the upright hanger is actuated by the main 
rod, the distance between the upper and 



side type, is all in full view and readily 
accessible. 

It may be added that repeated experi- 
ments in the way of securing diagrams 
has demonstrated the accuracy of steam 
admission into both ends of the cylinder. 



Revolving Rack for Repair Work on 
9^-Inch Air Pumps. 

By F. W. Bentley, Jr., Missouri 
Valley, la. 

The revolving rack for over-hauling 
the 9 l /z ins. air pump or others, is to some 
extent an old idea, and many arrange- 
ments of this nature are in general use. 
It is, however, a fact that many such de- 
vices are built too light with a view to 
economy, or over-built with an exaggerat- 
ed conception of what is demanded of 
the apparatus. 

The accompanying sketch is descrip- 
tive of a pump rack, the parts of which 
are readily blocked, forged and machined 
The length of the king bolt over the 
thickness of the wheel allows the wheel 
and attached pump to be turned and 
locked in any position convenient for 
working on the parts. The nature of 
the floor bracing makes it possible to 
locate the arrangement near the testing 
out rack. If the two are covered by an 




AIR PUMP REPAIR RACK IN POSITION. 

over-head rail and travelling hoist, the 
handling of pumps is made an easy mat- 
ter. 



Panama Fair Opening. 

According to advices sent to the rail- 
roads of the country, the great Panama 
Pacific Exposition at San Francisco will 
open right on time and be in nearly all 
respects the same as if there were no 
European war. February 20 is the official 
opening day of the big show. It will con- 
tinue until December 4, 1915. The expo- 
sition is now 97 per cent, completed. In 
spite of the war, both Great Britain and 
Germany will have extensive exhibits. 
There are 42 foreign nations officially 
participating. 

California's other exposition — The Pan- 
ama-California Exposition at San Diego 
— opened on New Year's day and will con- 
tinue for a year. All the exhibits are "in 
the making," rather than the finished 
product, in which respect the exposition 
is unique. 



46 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



February, 1915. 



Air Brake Tests 

By WALTER V. TURNER 



First Article. 

I S OF IMPRI PER AND INADEQUATE 
TESTING. 

We have been able to secure a copy of 
certain instructions formulated by Mr. 
\Y. V. Turner for his engineering depart- 
ment, and in summing up conditions that 
make a test valuable or the reverse, the 
remarks were not intended for publication 
nor were they particularly intended for 
test rack operators, nevertheless the por- 
tions printed below will be of value to 
anyone interested in testing brake ap- 
paratus. 

The causes of improper and inadequate 
testing are numerous and various, for in- 
stance : 

False reasoning. 

Insufficient information. 

Failure to comprehend what is specified 
or desired. 

Misunderstanding. 

Ignorance of principles. 

Ignorance of working conditions. 

Trying to test several functions or 
changes at the same time. 

Fallible observation. 

Insufficient and inaccurate instruments. 

Desire to make a showing of success- 
ful accomplishment. 

Partiality and prejudice. 

Overcrowding, or impatience, on the 
part of those desiring the information. 

Failure to provide working conditions 
and many others of like character. 

All of these show the importance. 

(1) Of knowing the functions and ca- 
pacity of the device. 

(2) Of thoroughly comprehending and 
understanding the working conditions. 

(3) Of thoroughly adequate experi- 
menters and recorders, and, 

(4) on the part of all concerned, the 
knowledge and understanding that a re- 
port of a test is not in itself a sufficient 
warrant that the device is all that is de- 
sired, for, in the last analysis, nothing 
but a certificate of having met the con- 
ditions of service efficiently and trust- 
worthily is conclusive that the device is 
what is desired. The chances of the de- 
vice doing this will depend very largely 
upon how near the "test" conditions ap- 
proximate the working conditions. 

It should be clear that the object of 
this dissertation is, in addition to what- 
ever else may be started, to (1st) encour- 
age all concerned to do the right kind of 
work — (2nd) to make clear to all con- 
cerned that a test report may have limi- 
tations and that more than is intended or 
disclosed should not be read into it — 
(3rd) as a protection against a test re- 



port being extended to cover conditions 
it does not; or for which it was not in- 
tended, or which was not specified that it 
should — (4th) to prevent the test report 
being taken as the last word, and thus 
the engineering department be deprived 
of a defence. 

The following considerations may be 
of assistance in comprehending my po- 
sition : 

( A ) A test specification may not in- 
clude all that is necessary to warrant ac- 
tion, that is, acceptance of the efficiency 
of the device, even though the device 
"passes" the test. It must first be known 
that the specification includes all the re- 
quired tests both in quality and quantity. 

(B) A so-called test is "no good" 
(that is, it does not give information to 
bank on) unless it includes all the con- 
ditions to which the device is to be sub- 
jected. The most that can be claimed 
for such a test is, that it is better than 
none and good only in proportion to the 
closeness with which it approximates the 
working conditions 

(C) Thus the value of a test depends 
upon knowledge, experience, and the qual- 
ity and quantity of this that the engineer 
puts into his test specifications. 

(D) In the last analysis the quality of 
operation or performance of a device de- 
pends upon knowledge, experience, degree 
of thoroughness with which the designer 
employs these and his designing ability. 

(E) All of this means that unless the 
designer knows all the conditions the de- 
vice is to be "up against," he cannot de- 
vise or formulate a test which will as- 
sure that the device will "fill the bill," 
since (if the designer does not know) it 
is evident that the "bill" is an unknown 
quantity. 

(F) From this (paragraph E) it fol- 
lows that the designer can only "set up" 
such a test specification as includes the 
factors or operation conditions included 
in the design (which must be short of 
what is required for the working condi- 
tions to be met), and (assuming material 
and workmanship to be what it should) 
it of necessity follows that the so-called 
test will prove that the device is O. K. 

(G) As a matter of fact, neither the 
device nor the test can (under these con- 
ditions') be worth a "continental," as put- 
ting the device in service will prove. 

(H) Thus we are back to paragraphs 
Nos. C and D. 

One cannot get more out of a device 
than is put into it. If one does not con- 
sciously put in all that is needed, only by 
accident can it be there. 



As an aid to experimenting and test- 
ing, I offer the following : 

Before any experiment or test can 
have its proper value, the following prin- 
ciples must be observed: These do not 
depend upon opinions or beliefs, since 
they fundamentally emanate from phys- 
ical laws; that is to say, since there is a 
fixed relation between cause and effect, it 
necessarily follows that if one is to dis- 
cover a cause, produce an effect, dis- 
tinguish between cause and effect, or dis- 
cover their relationship, it must be done 
according to the known principles, and 
in proportion as this is done will the re- 
sult be of value. 



Boiler Efficiency. 

Few locomotives evaporate more than 
six pounds of water to each pound of coal 
consumed in the furnaces ; the most effi- 
cient compound, stationary or marine en- 
gines, with the best design of boileer, very 
rarely evaporate more than 10 pounds of 
water to the pound of coal. These are 
undeniable facts, yet accounts of boiler ef- 
ficiency are sometimes published that dis- 
play gross ignorance or a desire to de- 
ceive. When a new type of boiler is of- 
fered to steam users, extraordinary claims 
are frequently made concerning the per- 
formance. A case is cited of a new fur- 
nace abroad which, it is said, evaporated 
36 pounds of water per pound of coal, and 
another gentleman (a professor, be it 
noted) says that an ordinary boiler fur- 
nace evaporated 26 pounds of water per 
pound of coal. The improved furnace was 
one-third better than the common one,. 
while the latter got twice as much energy 
out of a pound of coal as there was in it. 
People who say that engineering is not 
advancing will have to revise their state- 
ments. 



Effect of Competition. 

When Mr. J. F. De Voy speaks he 
generally throws new light upon the 
subject under discussion. While Fuel 
Economy was the topic, Mr. De Voy 
remarked: The Milwaukee road has a 
record of coal consumption on each 
division monthly, and if there is any 
such thing as competition showing in 
fuel consumption, the superintendents 
should go after each other and then- 
after us, if we do not have things right. 
If there is any locomotive using more 
coal than other engines of the same 
class, it is soon found out and given 
required attention. 



February. 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



47 



Importance of Coal Economy 



By ANGUS SINCLAIR, D.E. 



Fourth Article. 

OPERATIONS OF THE COMBUSTION OF SOFT 
COAL IN A LOCOMOTIVE FIREBOX. 

The ordinary American locomotive fire- 
box is a plain oblong box with grates at 
the bottom through which all the air pro- 
vided for combustion must pass. When 
the engine is working a train over the 
road, a body of burning coal, eight, ten, 
or twelve inches deep, is kept covering 
the grates, the exact thickness of the fire 
being regulated by the taste of the fire- 
man or his knowledge of what kind of a 
fire the engine steams best with. If the 
nozzles are as small as most engineers 
like to have them, or the grate openings 
are wide, the engine will steam best with 
a heavy fire. As the air passes through 
the grates where a heavy fire is habitually 
carried, the lower portion of the burning 
mass of fire catches the oxygen contained 
in the air, and the atorns ; of carbon that 
succeed in getting their full share, which 
is two atoms each, pass upward in the 
form of carbonic acid gas, the most effi- 
cient heat producing result of combus- 
tion. Further up in the burning mass 
are atoms of carbon that have been raised 
to a high temperature and whirling ready 
to grasp their share of oxygen.- As the 
demand at this point is often less than 
the supply of oxygen, some of the carbon 
atoms succeed in getting only one atom 
of oxygen, but they take that and pass on 
as carbonic oxide. One pound of carbon 
combined with 2 2/3 pounds or two atoms 
of oxygen to one of carbon to form car- 
bonic acid, generates 14,500 heat units ; 
one pound of carbon combined with 1 1/3. 
pounds or one atom of oxygen to one of 
carbon to carbonic oxide generates 4,500 
heat units. It will, therefore, be seen that 
it is not desirable to have the fuel prod- 
ucts turned into carbonic oxide. On the 
top of the fire is a mass of green coal 
from which the carbureted hydrogen is 
being liberated. While one pound of car- 
bon requires 2 2/3 pounds of oxygen for 
the chemical combination of combustion, 
one pound of hydrogen requires 8 pounds 
of oxygen. In our firebox the compound 
that requires the most liberal supply of 
oxygen to make it of any use is distilled 
at a point where the only oxygen to be 
had is polluted with all the gases that 
emanated from the lower part of the fire, 
or passed through the incandescent mass. 
And it requires ten cubic feet of atmos- 
pheric air to supply the oxygen needed 
for each cubic foot of carbureted hy- 
drogen liberated from the coal, making 
twenty cubic feet of air for every pound 
of coal burned. Under these circum- 



stances it is not surprising that the car- 
bureted hydrogen in the tubes is un- 
consumed. Sometimes it seizes one of 
the atoms of' oxygen that went to form 
carbonic acid, for oxygen has a strong 
affinity for hydrogen at high tempera- 
tures, and one of its atoms readily de- 
serts carbonic acid for hydrogen, leaving 
the former to pass to the tubes in the 
shape of carbonic oxide, a repeating cause 
of wasting heat. 

When attempts are made to provide 
sufficient air at the top of a deep fire by 
forcing it more rapidly through the 
grates, the ordinary effect is to increase 
the intensity of combustion in the lower 
portion of the fire without doing any good 
above. Locomotives operated in this 
fashion always smoke like coke ovens, 
and no pains are taken to direct attention 
to their record as fuel users. 

DIFFICULTIES OF FIRING THIN ON LARGE 
GRATES. 

When a locomotive has ample heating 
surface when the draft appliances and 
grates are so regulated that an engine 
will steam freely with a light fire, say six 
or eight inches deep, the air may be 
passed through the grate fairly well to 
supply the volatile gases on the top of 
the fire with oxygen. Very few locomo- 
tives, however, with a plain firebox will 
steam with a very thin fire unless they be 
running light trains. Where a light fire 
successfully carried, great skill is neces- 
sary in firing. The coal must be supplied 
at frequent intervals and scattered evenly 
over the portions that the trained eye 
knows to be thinnest. There is danger 
of serious loss of heat resulting from 
thin firing just as much as the loss due 
to heavy firing. The grate area of fire- 
boxes is becoming so large that it is a 
difficult matter covering every part even- 
ly, and spots are apt to get so thin that 
they admit cold air that reduces part of 
the gases below the point of ignition, so 
they not only pass away unconsumed. but 
chill every point they strike. To effect 
perfect combustion, uniformly high fire- 
box temparature is essential, and this 
high temperature is not easily maintained 
in all parts of a large firebox when every 
portion of the grate is being continually 
assailed by strong currents of cold air 
forced up by the speed of the train and 
drawn in by the suction of the exhaust. 

CAUSE OF THE DEMAND FOR INCREASED 
GRATE AREA. 

The practice of supplying all the air 
needed to effect combustion in the whole 
of the firebox through the grates has 



made thin firing essential if fairly eco- 
nomical use is to be made of the coal. 
The same practice has led to an increas- 
ing demand for increased grate area. If 
a portion of the air supply were provided 
in a proper way above the fire, it is doubt- 
ful if more economical results could not 
be secured by less grate area than is get- 
ting to be fashionable. With very large 
grate areas intensity of heat is sacrificed 
for the purpose of getting slower com- 
bustion per square foot of grate, yet the 
indications are that for burning soft coal 
the engines with the largest grates are 
by no means the most economical fuel 
users. 



Cooling Water Without Ice. 

To cool water without using ice get a 
slender glass test tube from any drug 
store. Half fill it with nitrate of am- 
m-ni.i salts, fill up with water, cork tightly. 
Shake till the salt is dissolved. Be care- 
ful to wipe the outside of the tube dry, 
in order that all traces of the nitrate may 
be removed. Place this tube into a glass 
of water and agitate as you would a spoon. 
The water is rapidly chilled. The nitrate 
of ammonia salts can' be bought at any 
drug store. This is a far better way of 
cooling water than putting ice in it. 



Against the Full Crew Law. 

The Full Crew law as operating in 
Pennsylvania appears to be inflicting 
hardships upon some of the railroads and 
certain officials are striving to have the 
law repealed or modified. Largely signed 
petitions have been circulated calling for 
the repeal of the law, but the railroad 
brotherhoods are opposing any change. 
Railroad officials who are striving to have 
the Full Crew law and other arbitrary 
measures repealed, should try to attain the 
help of. the brotherhoods towards favoring 
the change. 



Against Giving Help to Railroads. 

Senator La Follette appears to be tak- 
ing the part of a demagogue wherever 
railroad interests are concerned. He has 
introduced into Congress a resolution 
aiming to nullify the action of the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission in its recent 
order allowing a general increase of 5 
per cent, on freight rates. Senator La 
Follette professes to be a warm friend of 
the laboring man, yet that individual is 
suffering more from the poverty of rail- 
roads than any other interest. 



48 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



February, 1915. 



New Locomotives for the St. Louis, Brownsville ® Mexico R. R. 



The St. Louis, Brownsville and Mexico 
Railway (Gulf Coast Lines) have in serv- 
ice twenty Consolidation type locomotives, 
as shown in the accompanying illustration. 
These engines were built by the Baldwin 
Locomotive Works. They exert a trac- 
tive force of 34,000 pounds, and are oil 
burners using superheated steam. The 
road is comparatively level, but is laid 
with rails weighing 65 pounds per yard ; 
and the engines are built to stand up un- 
der rough service conditions. Although 
these locomotives are comparatively mod- 
erate in size and weight, the design is up 
to date throughout. 

The water used on this line is liable to 
foam; and the boiler, which is of the 
wagon-top type, with a tapered ring in the 
front of the barrel, is designed with ample 
steam space. The horizontal seams are 
butt-jointed and sextuple riveted, and 



The principal dimensions of these en- 
gines are are follows : 

Gauge, 4 ft. 8 l / 2 ins.; cylinders, 21 ins. 
x 28 ins. ; valves, piston, 12 ins. diameter. 

Boiler — type, wagon-top ; diameter, 65 
ins.; thickness of sheets, 11/16 in.; 
working pressure, 185 lbs. ; fuel, oil ; 
staying, radial. 

Firebox — material, steel ; length, 
114 3/16 ins.; width, 41 J4 ins.; depth, 
front, 72 ins. ; depth, back, 69 ins. ; thick- 
ness of sheets, sides, 5^ in. ; thickness of 
sheets, back, 5/16 in.; thickness of sheets, 
crown, $i in. ; thickness of sheets, tube, 
Vz in. 

Water Space — front, 4 ins. ; sides, 3 l / 2 
ins. ; back, i l / 2 ins. 

Tubes — material, steel ; diameter, 5f£ 
ins. and 2 ins.; thickness, 5}i ins., No. 9 
W. G.; thickness, 2 ins., No. 12 W. G. ; 



Dining Cars, Southern Pacific Railroad. 
Six dining cars lately built for the 
Southern Pacific Railroad illustrate some 
very modern features of construction. 
The general dimensions of the cars are 
72 ft. 6 in. over end sills, 56 ft. 9 l / 2 in. 
between bogie centres, and 9 ft. 9-% in. 
wide over side sills. Each of the cars is 
furnished with ten dining tables at which 
thirty persons may be seated and served 
at one time. The interior finish of the 
cars is of wood throughout, the diniag 
compartment being vermilion mahogany 
veneer with an artistic satin-wood inlay, 
and that of the kitchen being of stained 
hirch. 



Large Glass Switchboard. ■ 
In the power plant of Dodge Bros., 
Detroit, Mich., is a large 13-panel switch- 




2-8-0 TYPE OF LOCOMOTIVE FOR THE ST. LOUIS. 
E. Roe, Master Mechanic. 



BROWNSVILLE & MEXICO RAILWAY. 

Baldwin Locomotive Works, Builders 



have 90 per cent, of the strength of the 
solid plate. The front end of the crown 
is supported by four rows of flexible stays, 
and flexible bolts are used in the breaking 
zones in the water legs. 

The steam distribution is controlled by 
12-inch piston valves, which are driven by 
Walschaerts motion. The steam chest 
bushings and the piston and valve packing 
rings are of Hunt-Spiller metal. The 
driving-wheel centers and driving-boxes 
are of cast steel, the wheel-centers being 
fitted with cast-iron hub liners. Grease 
lubrication is provided on the driving 
journals and crank-pins. The front truck 
wheels are of forged and rolled steel, 
supplied by the Standard Steel Works Co. 

The tender is carried on chilled cast 
iron wheels, weighing 725 pounds each. 
The frame is built of 12-inch channels, 
and the water tank is U-shaped, with a 
straight top. 

The oil burning apparatus is of the 
standard type so successfully used on the 
Gulf Coast Lines. 



number, 5}i ins., 22; 2 ins., 165; length. 
14 ft. ins. 

Heating Surface — firebox, 177 sq. ft.; 
tubes, 1,633 sq. ft.; total, 1,810 sq. ft; 
grate area, 32.7 sq. ft. 

Driving Wheels — diameter, outside, 57 
ins.; diameter, center, 50 ins.; journals, 
9'/ 2 ins. x 12 ins. 

Engine Truck Wheels — diameter, 31 
ins.; journals, S l / 2 ins. x 10 ins. 

Wheel Base — driving, 16 ft. ins. ; rigid, 
16 ft. ins.; total engine, 24 ft. 6 ins.; 
total engine and tender, 49 ft. 7j4 ins. 

Weight — on driving wheels, 153,750 lbs.; 
on truck, 20,450 lbs.; total engine, 174,200 
lbs. ; total engine and tender, about 
310,000 lbs. 

Tender — wheels, number, 8; wheels, di- 
ameter, 33 ins.; journals, 5*/ 2 ins. x 10 ins.; 
tank capacity, water, 7,500 gals. ; tank ca- 
pacity, oil, 3,000 gals. ; service, freight. 

Locomotive equipped with Schmidt su- 
perheater. Superheating surface, 341 
sq. ft. 



board built by the Mutual Electric & 
Machine Co., of Wheeling, West Va., 
the panels of which are made of Carrara 
glass. Golden bronze finished electric 
instruments are mounted on the panels 
and the whole effect is very pleasing. 
It has always been the practice to 
use marble or slate, free from metallic 
veins for switchboard panels and this de- 
parture is new. However, glass, as we 
all know, is an excellent insulator and 
in a slab \ l / 2 inches thick (the thickness 
of these panels) it is strong enough to be 
perfectly satisfactory for use as a switch- 
board. 



Training Locomotive Firemen. 

Much intelligent attention has been de- 
voted by the Traveling Engineers' Asso- 
ciation to the training of locomotive fire- 
men, and they are still pursuing the good 
work. One of the committees appointed 
will, at next convention, report on Recom- 
mended Practice for the Employment and 
Training of New Firemen. 



February, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



49 



Catechism of Railroad Operation 



NEW SERIES. 

Third Year's Examination. 

(Continued from page 15, January, 1915.) 

Q. 134. — What would you do if relief 
(vacuum) valve in steam chest broke? 

A. — Would remove cap and clamp it 
on seat with block of wood or iron 
placed on valve and cap screwed down 
on it. 

Note. — Many grease plugs will fit 
opening in steam chest where the va- 
cuum valve screws into chest. 

Q. 135. — What would you do if cap 
to vacuum valve blew out and was lost? 

A. — Would remove vacuum valve 
cage from chest and plug it on inner 
end and screw it back in place. 

Q. 136. — If when throttle was closed, 
steam showed at cylinder cocks, what 
might be the cause? 

A. — It might be a leaky throttle or 
a leaky dry pipe. 

Q. 137. — How would you test to de- 
termine whether throttle or dry pipe 
was leaking? 

A. — Close the lubricator valves, and 
the air pump throttle if the exhaust 
from pump was tapped into cylinder 
saddles, fill boiler with water so I 
would have the dry pipe covered with 
water, have cylinder cocks open, and 
if dry steam showed it cylinder cocks 
the throttle would be leaking; if water 
showed with a little steam, would re- 
port dry pipe leaking. 

Q. 138.— What would you do if 
the transmission bar hanger became 
broken? 

A. — Support it with a chain or sever- 
al strands of wire, if necessary would 
fit block above bar between strands of 
the chain or wire to prevent bar from 
raising up when lever was hooked up. 

Q. 139. — What would you do if trans- 
mission bar were broken? 

A. — It would depend on where bar 
was broken, if broken near rocker arm 
connection, would block valve central, 
support front end of bar with chain or 
wire, provide for lubrication and free 
circulation of air and proceed. If brok- 
en near link, would take down broken 
parts necessary, clamp valve centrally. 
provide for lubrication and circulation 
and proceed. 

Q. 140.— Why is the throttle placed 
as high as possible in the dome? 

A. — To get the steam at as high a tem- 
perature and as dry as possible. 

Q. 141. — What are the cylinder cocks 
for? 



A. — To free the cylinders of conden- 
sation. 

Q. 142. — Why is it necessary to keep 
the cylinders free from condensation? 

A. — To prevent knocking out cylin- 
der heads, breaking packing rings, and 
washing off lubrication from walls of 
cylinder. 

Note. — Water is not compressible 
and if left in cylinders when the piston 
moved towards the head, the water not 
being able to get out, and being solid 
would damage the head or packing 
rings. 

Q. 143. — In what manner can both 
valves be placed on center of seat at 
the same time? 

A. — Place engine on either quarter 
on one side and reverse lever in center 
of quadrant, go to the other side and 
disconnect lower eccentric blade from 
link, move the link until rocker arm is 
at right angles to valve rod, and you 
will have both valves central. 

Note. — The above applies to the 
Stevenson gear ; with the Walschaerts 
gear you will get the same results by 
placing engine on quarter and reverse 
lever in center of rack, then on the 
other side disconnect combination lever 
and move it until its upper end is at 
right angles to valve rod, and both 
valves will be central. 

Q. 144. — Name the various causes for 
pounds. 

A. — Loose or lost cylinder key; pis- 
ton head loose on piston rod; loose fol- 
lower bolts; piston rod loose in cross- 
head; main rod too long or too short; 
cylinder bushing loose and a little 
short; wrist pin loose in cross-head: 
rod brasses loose on pins or not keyed 
properly; pedestal binder loose; wedge 
down on binder or not properly adjust- 
ed; wedge not right taper; axle worn 
out of round, driving box brass worn 
large for axle; driving box broken; en- 
gine frame broken; cross-head loose in 
guides; knuckle pins or their bushings 
in side rods worn. 

Q. 145. — When does the loose follow- 
er head pnund the most? 

A. — When drifting with throttle 
closed. 

Q. 146. — When does the main rod too 
long or too short pound most? 

A. — When drifting with throttle 
closed, because the weight of piston 
will take up all the slack in main rod 
and its connections and cause piston to 
strike the head of cvlinder. 

Note. — If main rod is too short, pis- 
ton strike back head of cylinder as 



crank passes back center, when drifting 
with throttle closed; if too long, the 
piston will strike front cylinder head 
as crank passes front center, when 
drifting with throttle closed. To pro- 
tect cylinder heads, open throttle and 
the steam admitted to cylinder account 
of the lead will cushion piston and take 
up all of the lost motion in rod and 
connections, preventing piston head 
striking cylinder head. 

Q. 147. — When does the loose piston 
head on rod, or piston rod loose in the 
cross head pound hardest? 

A. — When working steam, and crank 
pins are passing centers. 

Q. 148. — How do you locate the loose 
piston head or rod? 

A. — It can be located when running 
along working steam; you will get a 
heavy pound when crank pin on defec- 
tive side is crossing back center and a 
lighter pound when crank is crossing 
front center. 

Standing test. — Place engine on top 
quarter on side you desire to test, open 
the throttle and work lever from one 
corner to the other of quadrant; if pis- 
ton is loose you will get a heavy pound 
when lever goes toward the front corner, 
and a lighter pound when lever goes 
toward the back corner. 

Note. — The piston head is taper fit- 
ted on end of rod and rod is taper fitted 
into cross head, consequently when 
steam is admitted back of piston, the 
piston moves away from the taper, and 
the farther it moves the less resistance 
it has, and it strikes the nuts on end of 
rod a hard blow; but when the steam 
is admitted ahead of piston it goes 
against the taper and is slowed down by 
friction so that it loses force so that 
it strikes the shoulder a very light 
blow. 

Q. 149. — How would you be able to 
detect the loose cylinder bushing? 

A. — This defect can only be located 
while engine is in motion and working 
steam. The pound occurs at each end 
of stroke of piston, just after pin passes 
the center and generally before it 
reaches the eighth. 

Note. — The cylinder packing rings 
are expanded by the steam against the 
walls of the bushing, and the friction 
moves the bushing until it strikes the 
cylinder head. 

Q. 150. — How do you test for cylin- 
der packing blow? 

A. — It may be located while running 
along working steam; you will have an 



50 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



February, 1915. 



intermittent blow at the exhaust, the 
blow at exhaust occurring just after the 
crank on defective side leaves the cen- 
ter, getting stronger up to the eighth, 
and stopping as soon as valve closes 
communication between admission port 
and exhaust at other end of cylinder. 

Standing test. — Place engine on top 
forward eighth, set brake and place re- 
verse lever in forward corner of rack, 
block front cylinder cock open, admit 
steam to cylinder and if steam shows 
at front cylinder cock the cylinder pack- 
ing rings are defective. 

Note. — The reason for placing en- 
gine on the eighth for this test is that 
cylinder wears most from center to 
forward end and the rings might not 
show defective with piston back of cen- 
ter. 

Note. — The old way for this test (and 
it is a good one). Place engine on top 
quarter on side you desire to test, re- 
verse lever in front corner, set brake, 
open cylinder cocks, admit steam and if 
steam shows at front cylinder cock it 
indicates that packing is defective. 

Q. 151.— Why is the link saddle pin 
(suspension stud) placed to one side 
of the center of link? 

A. — To overcome the effect of the 
angularity of the main rod. 

Q. 152. — Why have side (parallel) 
rods on mogul and consolidation types 
of engines, knuckle joints? 

A. — To allow for the free movement 
of the wheels over uneven track, with- 
out straining the pins and rods. 

Q. 153. — What are the pedestal 
braces (binders') of locomotives? 

A. — They are a detachable portion of 
the lower frame rail, made of bars of 
iron or steel to bind the lower end of 
jaws for driving boxes, after the boxes 
and wheels are in place. 

Q. 154. — How is a locomotive boiler 
attached to engine frame? 

A. — The boiler is solidly attached to 
cylinder saddles with bolts, and the 
cylinder saddles are solidly attached to 
frame with bolts and saddle keys, and 
at the rear end the boiler is supported 
on frame by expansion plates which are 
attached to boiler and rest on frame, or 
by hangers which are hinged on plates 
attached to boiler and frame. 

Note. — The expansion plates are con- 
structed so that the}' move backward 
and forward easily on frame, and still 
support rear end of boiler; this is a 
necessary arrangement because the 
boiler expands and contracts more 
than the frame does and these expan- 
sion plates or hangers guard against 
the strain on boiler and frame which 
would obtain if boiler were solidly at- 
tached to frame at rear end as well as 
at front end. It is well to observe that 
the bolts holding the expansion plates are 
properly fitted so that the expansion plate 
does not bind on the cap too hardly. 



Questions Answered 

ARTICULATED COMPOUND LOCOMOTIVE. 

G. K. P., Mechanicville, N. V., writes: 
(1) What is a Mallet articulated com- 
pound locomotive? (2) How are the 
simple and compound features control- 
led? (3) Should the high or low pres- 
sure engines become disabled, how would 
you get the engine in? (4) Why should 
a Mallet compound engine not be allowed 
to drift down grade? A. — (1) An arti- 
culated compound locomotive is one hav- 
ing two sets of cylinders, compounded to- 
gether and driving independent groups of 
wheels. The two sets of cylinders are 
supplied with steam from a single boiler ; 
it is practically two locomotives combined 
in one, and having only one boiler. The 
rear group of wheels is carried in frames 
rigidly attached to the boiler in the usual 



receiver and the high pressure cylinders, 
to prevent the pressure in the receiver 
backing up against the high pressure pis- 
tons, when the locomotive is working with 
live steam in all four cylinders. The valve 
is located in the saddle of the left high 
pressure cylinder. It consists of three 
valves, the intercepting valve, the re- 
ducing valve or sleeve, and the emergency 
or high pressure exhaust valve. The 
emergency or high pressure valve, which 
is located at one of the outer ends of the 
intercepting valve chamber, is the device 
which makes it possible to change the lo- 
comotive from compound to simple 
working. 

When the locomotive is changed into 
simple working, the emergency valve is 
opened, which allows the exhaust steam 
from the high pressure cylinders to pass 
through a wrought iron pipe to the ex- 
haust pipe in the smoke box and to the 




PARTS OF THE INTERCEPTING VALVE. 
Reducing Valve Sleeve. 4. Intercepting Valve Chamber Head. 

Intercepting Valve. 5. Unbalancing Valve. 

Dash-pot Piston. 6. Emergency or High Pressure Exhaust Valve. 

7. Emergency Valve Chamber Head. 



manner ; while the frames which carry 
the front group of wheels are not secured 
to the boiler, but support it by means of 
sliding bearings. There is a hinged con- 
nection between the frames of the front 
engine and those of the rear engine, about 
which the former is permitted a limited 
swing in relation to the latter. The ar- 
ticulated type of locomotive provides a 
short rigid wheelbase capable of passing 
through curves of short radius, while 
the weight is distributed over a greater 
number of axles. An enormous tractive 
power is thus obtained with practically no 
increase in the weights of the moving 
parts over those of a locomotive of the 
rigid frame type having half the tractive 
power. (2) By a special mechanism 
called the intercepting valve, which is lo- 
cated between the receiver and the ex- 
haust passages from the high pressure 
cylinder. This valve shuts off at the 
proper time, communication between the 



atmosphere. The opening and closing of 
the emergency valve is effected by a 
simple valve located in the cab, a handle 
pointing forward when the valve is closed 
and the locomotive working compound, 
and the handle pointing backward when 
the locomotive is working simple with the 
valve open. (3) In case of any break- 
down in which one or more of the cyl- 
inders can be disconnected and the loco- 
motive run in with the remaining cylin- 
ders active, simply throw the emergency 
operating valve in the cab into the simple 
piston and proceed as with a simple loco- 
motive, disconnecting and blocking the 
disabled cylinder or cylinders. (4) When 
drifting, the reverse lever should be kept 
at three-quarter stroke or more. If this 
is done, the locomotive will drift freely. 
Another important feature of the articu- 
lated compound locomotive is the by-pass 
valves, their purpose being to prevent the 
injurious effects which would otherwise 



February, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



51 



result from the pumping action of the 
large low pressure pistons when the loco- 
motive is drifting. These valves are so 
designed that they automatically establish 
communication between the two ends of 
the cylinder, when the engine is running 
with the throttle closed. 

It should be noted that the brief an- 
swers to the above questions refer largely 
to the Mallet locomotives as constructed 
by the American Locomotive Company, 
and the illustration is a section of details 
furnished by that company. 



ever, a case of emergency will permit of 
a variation of this rule. 



HANDLING BRAKE VALVE ON SECOND ENGINE. 

J. H. B., Youngstown, Ohio, writes: 
Has the second engineer of a double 
lieader any part whatever in the handling 
of the train brakes after his brake valve 
is cut out and the train is in motion ? 
A. — Yes, in case of an emergency that 
might not be observed by the first engi- 
neer, the duty of the second engineer 
would be to quickly place his brake valve 
handle in emergency position and open 
the stop cock in the brake pipe which 
will apply the brakes in quick action 
throughout the train. The instant the 
train has stopped or the . danger has 
passed the cut-out cock should again be 
closed and the brake valve returned to 
running position, as the application of the 
brake from an unknown cause will prompt 
the first engineer to place his brake valve 
on lap position, or in emergency posi- 
tion if handling a passenger train, and 
thereafter he will release the brake and 
assume control of the train. 

There are also other conditions under 
which the second man may have some 
part in the successful handling of train 
brakes, as in the event of a release of 
brakes at moderate rate of speed on a 
long freight train where in many in- 
stances the second man may materially 
assist the first man and the K triple 
valves at the head end in holding in the 
train slack by placing either of the brake 
valves on lap position as the exhaust 
from the distributing valve starts when 
the first man moves his valve to release 
position. This movement will hold the 
brake on the second engine which should 
be gradually released as the first en- 
gine begins to use steam. 

There are conditions under which the 
second man could render expert assist- 
ance in making a service stop with a 
freight train, and there are circum- 
stances arising wherein the second man 
can use his brake valve to advantage, 
hut they cannot be commented upon in a 
general way, in fact they should not be 
attempted unless both engineers happen 
to be air brake men. As to the use of 
the brake valve cut-out cock, from a 
viewpoint of safety first, it is best to be 
governed by the instruction to close the 
cut-out cock and leave it closed until 
the head engine cuts off, as noted how- 



RELEASE OF K TRIPLE VALVE. 

J. H. B., Youngstown, Ohio, writes : 
When the K triple valve moves to re- 
stricted release position, it takes consider- 
ably longer for the brake cylinder pres- 
sure to exhaust than when the valve is 
in normal release position, and with very 
short trains or in shifting a few cars this 
is sometimes quite annoying to be com- 
pelled to .wait for the brake to become 
entirely released. What is the general 
practice followed in handling these 
valves under this condition? A. — We 
believe that the general practice is to wait 
for the complete release to take place or 
to drag the cars with the brakes partially 
applied, however, if you will, under the 
stated conditions, move the brake valve 
handle back on the shoulder between lap 
and holding positions instead of to release 
or running position for releasing the 
brakes on a very few cars with K triple 
valves, you will find that with a little 
practice you can find a place on this 
shoulder for the handle latch that will 
give a slow rate of rise in brake pipe 
pressure that will not force the valves 
to restricted release position, but after 
any ordinary service reduction, will only 
move them to normal release position in 
which they will release as promptly as the 
type H valves. 

You will understand that this is merely 
in the nature of a suggestion, for ob- 
viously if the brake pipe pressure is not 
increased three pounds or more above the 
pressure in the auxiliary reservoir, the 
spring of the retarding device cannot be 
compressed and the triple valve cannot 
assume restricted release position. 



BRAKE INSPECTION. 

T. M. Havre, Montana, writes: 
Please describe the best way to test 
•out the air brake system on an engine 
just out of the shop, after the pump, 
gauges, brake valves and governors 
have been overhauled. Engine equipped 
with the New York B-3 brake? A.— If 
the valves have been tested on the 
shop racks after being repaired, there 
should be nothing left to do beyond 
knowing that the pipes are properly 
connected and free from leakage then 
the governors and controllers should 
be adjusted and the piston travel cor- 
rected. 

If however, these parts have not been 
tested on shop racks a more thorough 
test on the engine will be required, "and 
a detailed account of how each valve 
should be separately tested would fill 
a small volume, but the principal points 
to be observed are, that there is no 
leakage from any of the apparatus or 
the piping, and that leakage from the 
waste and relief ports is not excessive: 



the governor must be sensitive to per- 
mit the pump to start promptly upon 
a drop in main reservoir pressure and 
the controllers, especially the brake 
pipe must be sensitive to supply any 
leak that occurs and permit of no va- 
riation of over 2 or 2 l / z pounds in 
pressure. It should be observed that 
the brake valve exhaust cuts off 
promptly after being placed on lap fol- 
lowing a brake pipe reduction, and the 
brake must apply upon a 3 or 4 pound 
reduction and remain applied. 

The hand wheel of the controller can 
be screwed up to equalize the pressures 
and if the gauge is correct both hands 
should show the same. The pump also 
must receive some attention if it has 
not been tested out in the shop. 

You will of course understand that 
it is very unsatisfactory and exceeding- 
ly poor practice to attempt to test out 
any air brake valves without the stand- 
ard shop racks, not that a man cannot 
do this and under certain conditions 
"get by," but for modern conditions 
these racks are absolutely indispen- 
sable. 



Improvements on Dominion Atlantic 

Ry. 

The record of improvements effected 
on the Dominion Atlantic Railway, which 
the Canadian Pacific Railway leased in 
1911 for 99 years shows that new wharves 
have been built; 45 miles of new track 
have been ballasted ; 30 miles of new 85 
pound rails have been laid down; 120 
cattle guards have been filled and re- 
placed by surface guards, while dozens of 
bridges have been either improved or re- 
built. In round figures, 6,000 feet of 
wooden bridges have been replaced, or 
will be replaced very shortly, by steel 
bridges, concrete arches, and rail top cul- 
verts. New brick stations have been 
built; a general renovation has taken 
place, costing many thousands of dollars. 
The new stations include those at Wolf- 
ville and Annapolis Royal, Mosherville. 
Patterson and Iberville. During the past 
two years 35 stations have been repaired 
and painted and platforms have been 
erected. A new line from Centreville to 
Weston, 14 miles in extent, has been built 
in the most substantial manner. Both per- 
manent work and the lighter things which 
needed attention have been carried out, 
and today the old Dominion Atlantic 
looks spick and span — looks as if it had 
taken on a new lease of life. 



Something may soon be doing in Alaska 
in the line of railway construction, for a 
corps of locating engineers sent by the 
United States Government to make pre- 
liminary surveys, have returned and made 
a report to President Wilson. As the 
president is known to favor railway build- 
ing in Alaska without delay, we may ex- 
pect soon to hear of dirt flying. 



52 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1915. 



Rtl&Eitineerin$ 



A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling 
Stock and Appliances. 



Published Monthly by 

ANGUS SINCLAIR CO. 

114 Liberty Street, New York. 

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Boston, Mass. 

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Development of Tools. 

Most mechanics feel an interest in the 
development of the tools they use, for 
with the invention of improved tools went 
on the means of increased production. 
The first tool or aid to man's power was 
naturally a crude form of hammer com- 
posed of a stone secured to a handle. 
Then the necessity became pressing of 
means for boring holes and a crude form 
of gimlet was invented. 

Pliny states that DaadJus invented the 
gimlet 1240 B. C., but wc believe that a 
tool of that kind was used in Egypt many 
years earlier. Awls have been found in 
Egyptian tombs of 1700 B. C. The screw 
point was added to the gimlet in course 
of time, and within our own time the 
twisted shank. The auger was a Greek 
tool, but it was merely an enlarged gim- 
let and was considered a ship carpenter's 



tool. It formerly had a curved, sharp- 
ened end and a concavity to hold the 
chips. To this a lip was subsequently 
added for some kinds of boring. The 
twisted auger is an American invention 
arid was made by Lilley, of Connecticut, 
about the beginning of last century. 

The lathe, one of the oldest tools in use, 
was a remarkably crude apparatus when 
first introduced into our machine shops, 
which was about the beginning of last 
century. It had merely two dead centers 
which supported the work as it was ro- 
tated backward and forward by a band 
around it, the other end to the foot of 
the operator, while the turning tool was 
held in his hand. The next improvement 
or. the lathe was providing it with a re- 
voluble spindle and center by which the 
work was axially supported and rotated, 
the tools for turning wood or iron being 
held and manipulated by hand. For many 
years watch makers and mathematical in- 
strument makers had used a simple form 
tf slide rest to secure accuracy, but ordi- 
nary mechanics accustomed to the use of 
hand tools, in their pride of skill, despised 
anything in the form of a slide rest. But 
with the development of engineering re- 
sulting from the use of the steam engine, 
the demand arose for many large cylin- 
drical iron pieces, exactly parallel and of 
accurate diameter, which hand skill could 
not produce, and so the slide rest forced 
itself into reluctant use. 

In an article contributed by William 
Sellers to The Americana, he says : "The 
facilities for producing the long flat and 
straight surfaces best adapted for the slide 
rest were limited to the hammer and 
chisel and the file and straight edge, so that 
the slide-lathe had a curious development. 
The hand lathe, with its wooden bed and 
short slide rest, could produce cylinders 
economically and these were used for slide 
lathe beds, but lacking stability, as well as 
security for -the slide rest, the cast iron 
bed dressed by the cold chisel and the 
tile was finally adopted. The form of the 
guiding surfaces of the slide rest was, 
however, modified in the lathe to save 
hand labor, and this form has maintained 
existence to the present day. 

"The next development of the slide rest 
was the planing machine, whereby the 
rough, irregular surface of the castings 
and forgings, traveling slowly under a 
cutting tool, movable at right angles to the 
travel of the work, was smoothed and re- 
duced to a true plane. The advent of this 
machine was an era in the life of the ma- 
chinist, as great, perhaps, as that of the 
slide rest. It is uncertain when the first 
one was started, but in 1838 there were 
only four of these machines in the United 
States. 

"The drill, which before that time had 
been limited to a revolving spindle, had 
an iron frame added, and a table at right 
angles to it. upon which the work might 



be rigidly supported and adjusted with 
ease and certainty. The boring mill, or 
vertical lathe, was then economically pos- 
sible and took its place in the machine 
shop to execute a large class of turned 
work that did not require to be supported 
on centers." 

These tools formed the staple appliances 
used in our early machine shops and 
formed the foundation for the vast variety 
of productive apparatus now in use. 
Among the appliances that appeared later 
were the milling machine and all the de- 
vices employed in the forming and finish- 
ing screws of all kinds. 



Erie Scheme of Fuel Economy. 

Nearly all railroad officials strive to 
have their motion power operated as 
economically as possible, but few of them 
reach the success attained by the Erie 
Railroad. This may be because the men 
doing the work fail to respond to the de- 
mand of the officials, but we incline to 
think that the official immediately in 
charge of operations is active. 

During the numerous journeys which 
the writer makes over the Erie Railroad 
he is always watching for signs of effi- 
ciency, and in doing so frequently com- 
pares the appearance of Erie locomotives 
with those of neighboring roads, always 
to the credit of the Erie engine. This is 
particularly striking in the absence of 
smoke. Smokeless firing may or may not 
save much fuel, but it is always evidence 
of careful firing, and Mr. H. C. Hayes, 
superintendent of locomotive operation, 
has reason to be proud of the way the 
men under him carry out his policy. 

Mr. Hayes, however, is not entirely sat- 
isfied with the success of his management. 
Some time ago a saving of $30,000 in fuel 
on one division was achieved and Mr. 
Hayes is now demanding that similar or 
even improved results must be made on 
every division of the road. The challenge 
issued to the engine crews is a novelty 
and is in the nature of a proposal that 
they strive to return to the company 
through fuel saving and otherwise an 
economy representing 6 per cent, a fair 
interest on the sum which the company 
expends annually in paying their wages, 
which amounts to about $4,117,500. This 
would amount to a saving of $247,000 an- 
nually. 

The greatest difficulty with Mr. Hayes' 
proposition is in its novelty. The figures 
look large and almost impossible of 
achievement in the fuel bill alone, but he 
reminds them that were each fireman to 
save one scoopful of coal, 15 pounds, per 
engine mile, which does not seem at all 
an unreasonable accomplishment, the total 
savings at the end of a year would be 
337,500 tons— worth $523.125— more than 
twice the amount represented by the pro- 
posed 6 per cent, saving on the total of 
engine crew wages. Another deduction 



February, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



53 



which he makes in issuing this challenge, 
and one which can hardly fail to leave its 
impress on the minds of the crews, is the 
conclusion which has been arrived at 
through careful investigation, that each of 
the roads locomotives discharges in the 
form of steam through the safety valves, 
the equivalent of 7,000 pounds of coal per 
month, a total of 42 tons per engine per 
year, or 67,000 tons for the entire road 
during the same period, amounting not 
only to a loss of $100,000 for the road, 
but represents a corresponding waste of 
water and just that much superfluous 
work for the men in having handled those 
quantities of water and coal to no pur- 
pose. 

These factors have nothing to do with 
the quantities of oil and tools which every 
crew can economize on without difficulty 
practically every day of their lives, nor of 
the tremendous savings that would result 
from more careful handling of machinery 
and equipment. When the enginemen of 
the Erie Railroad arrive at a realization 
of the fact that the 6 per cent. Mr. Hayes 
asks for can be saved through effecting 
actually less than 40 per cent, of the econ- 
omies he shows to be reasonable in the 
coal account alone, they must be indiffer- 
ent even to their own best interests, not 
to give him a wholehearted response that 
will result in more than meeting his best 
expectations. 



Underpaid Railroad Officials. 

The American Society of Civil En- 
gineers has had for years a committee in- 
vestigating the conditions of employment 
throughout the country of civil engineers. 
The records collected show that the civil 
engineers are fairly well paid, those in 
railroad service receiving about $3,500 an- 
nually, the compensation from railroads 
being higher than that paid by the Na- 
tional Government or by municipalities. 

We are pleased to note this movement 
on the part of the civil engineers and 
should much like to see other technical so- 
cieties take similar action for other men 
filling responsible positions. The members 
of the American Railway Master Mechan- 
ics' Association are by no means well 
paid, but we should like to see them start 
an investigation into the compensation 
paid to railroad shop foremen, including 
engine house foremen. For the respon- 
sible duties performed we consider shop 
foremen the worst paid officials in the 
country. Their duties are very arduous 
and their responsibilities great, but the 
importance of these receive little consid- 
eration when compensation has to be 
settled. We respectfully urge some enter- 
prising master mechanic to ventilate this 
question. 



The Tanner Brake Frauds. 

We have repeatedly commented upon 
claims made on account of patents that 



were worthless, the victims generally be- 
ing railway companies. Before the rail- 
road associations were formed nearly any 
rogue possessing sufficient assurance could 
make railway companies pay royalty on 
fraudulent claims to avoid the expense 
of a threatened lawsuit. 

There were many cases of that charac- 
ter, but the worst one is known as the 
Tanner Brake case. 

Some time in 1846, Batchelder & 
Thompson, of Lowell, invented a car 
brake to be operated by the crowding of 
cars against each other, by means of a 
long bar located under the center of each 
car. It was a wretched contrivance and 
never came into use. They applied for a 
patent in 1847, but from various causes of 
delay the patent was not granted until 
July, 1852. In the meantime the Hodge 
and the Stevens brakes had both been in- 
vented and patented, one in 1840 and the 
other in 1851. In 1847 Willard J. Nicholls 
invented an apparatus which was after- 
wards known as the Tanner brake. 
Nicholls did not apply for a patent on his 
invention. In 1848 a person named 
Turner secured a patent for a double 
brake bearing some resemblance to the 
Batchelder & Thompson, and the Nicholls' 
brake being a bumper brake and hand 
brake combined. 

Now begins a romance of claims based 
on brake inventions. In 1857 Henry Tan- 
ner, of Buffalo, bought the Turner brake 
patent and began going about the country 
trying to push it into use with no 
success. In the course of his travels 
Tanner came across the Nicholls brake, 
and finding it superior to the Turner, he 
abandoned the latter and adopted the 
Nicholls in its place. As there was no 
patent on the Nicholls brake, and a patent 
was necessary, Tanner determined to re- 
issue the Turner brake patent with a 
claim that would include the invention of 
Nicholls. But on going to Washington 
for that purpose he learned about the ap- 
plication of Batchelder & Thompson. He 
bought out the Batchelder & Thompson 
interests in their invention and substituted 
in their place a new set of specifications 
to suit the Nicholls, and in July, 1852, a 
patent was issued, not for the bumper 
brake but for the hand brake of Nicholls, 
after that known as the Tanner brake. 
Tanner now claimed that his brake ante- 
dated the Hodge and the Stevens brakes 
and was prepared to enforce the payment 
of royalty from all roads that had been 
using these old time inventions. 

His first victim was the Erie Railroad, 
which was mulcted $439. then the Hudson 
River road was assailed and settled for 
$1,000. At this point Thomas Sayles pur- 
chased all interest in the Tanner brake 
patent and proceeded to push them for all 
they were worth. Many railroad com- 
panies now began to pay for licenses to 
use the Tanner brake, and those that 
failed were promptly sued. Among the 



latter were the Philadelphia, Washington 
& Delaware. The verdict eventually given 
in the state court was for $350 per car per 
year, the total amounting to $70,000,000. 
Appeal was now made to the Supreme 
Court where the decree was reversed in 
1878. Sayles, however, continued his pros- 
ecutions. Among Other railroads prose- 
cuted was the Chicago and North West- 
ern, against which heavy penalties were 
adjudged which Sayles offered to settle 
for $15,000,000 and passes. Sayles died 
shortly afterwards and his heirs settled 
for $500. 

Several other suits were brought against 
railroads by parties claiming an interest 
in the various patents. The last of these 
was brought against the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern Railway in 1879 and 
was dismissed, which ended the amazing 
litigation. 



Losses of War. 

Like many other people we have be- 
lieved that the European war would 
stimulate American trade and throw open 
to our industries markets that were 
formerly supplied by the people now en- 
gaged in human slaughter. While the 
warring nations are busy dissipating the 
wealth of the world, the opportunities 
for those following the ways of peace 
and industry are greatly magnified. Those 
who profit from increasing business due 
to their rivals being on the warpath 
should not build much on their increase 
of trade, for it is likely to be lost when 
normal conditions come round again. We 
have known of manufacturing concerns 
expanding their buildings and equipment 
to meet the temporary demand of war 
times, and then suffer for years for want 
of business to keep the enlarged plant 
going. 

War in any country, while first endured 
in its intensity by the combatants has 
eventually to be paid for by the world at 
large. No nation can now-a-days live on 
itself alone so none can escape the assess- 
ment of loss. 



Stop, Look and Listen. 

If any person of observant habits 
will stand near a railway road crossing 
for half an hour and watch how little 
care is exercised by drivers of vehicles 
to avoid accidents, he will not be sur- 
prised that vehicles are frequently 
struck by trains, but the wonder will 
grow that collisions are not more fre- 
quent. Many railway companies ex- 
hibit in conspicuous letters the advice 
"Stop, look and listen," but that help 
to safety is habitually ignored, espe- 
cially by the drivers of motor cars. 
We are consequently less than sur- 
prised at the following announcement: 

Highway railroad grade crossing ac- 
cidents last year cost 199 lives in New 
York State, as compared to 134 the 



54 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



February, 1915. 



year previous, and 101 in 1912. The 
annual report of the National High- 
ways Protective Society shows these 
figures for the year and does not in- 
clude in the compilation those who 
were trespassing on railroad property. 
One hundred and thirty-three are 
shown to have been seriously injured, 
of whom 66 per cent, were pedestrians. 

Analysis of the fatality list shows 
that thirty-five persons met their death 
while crossing tracks in automobiles, 
as compared to thirty-eight in 1913 and 
fifteen in 1912. Persons riding in 
wagons across the tracks and who met 
their death were thirty-one, as com- 
pared to thirty in 1913 and forty in 
1912. 

The report declares that not a single 
fatality is recorded as the result of 
trolley and train collision throughout 
the year, the strict law on the subject 
of stopping at a crossing being held 
responsible. 

The railroad companies in making 
their annual reports show that care- 
lessness is still rampant. One com- 
pany maintains that during the year no 
less than 95 automobiles were driven 
right through railroad crossing gates, 
and it is claimed 70 per cent, of the 
cases happened within the limits of 
Greater New York. 

The list shown by several of the rail- 
roads proves the New York Central to 
have cost 38 lives in grade crossing 
accidents. Some of the others are: 

Long Island Railroad, 23; Erie Rail- 
road, 16; Pennsylvania Railroad, 8; 
Delaware and Hudson, 8; Lehigh Val- 
ley Railroad, 8; Delaware, Lackawan- 
na and Western Railroad, 7; Rome, 
Watertown, and Ogdensburg, 6; West 
Shore Railroad, 5; Nickel Plate Rail- 
road, 5; Ontario and Western, 4; Buf- 
falo, Rochester, and Pittsburgh, 3; 
Staten Island Railroad, 2; Boston and 
Maine, 1; Lake Shore and Michigan 
Southern, 1; Boston and Albany, 1. 



Rust. 

We are all familiar with the coating 
known as "rust," but knowledge con- 
cerning its formation and means of 
prevention is not so widespread as 
might be desired. According to Web- 
ster, rust is a reddish-yellow coating 
formed on iron when exposed to moist 
air, consisting of ferric oxide or hy- 
droxide. 

A scientific lecturer expounding the 
subject of rust remarked that if they 
were going to do anything on the sub- 
ject of rust, they must begin by study- 
ing the conditions under which rust 
was formed, getting to know as much 
as possible about the phenomenon it- 
self. The question raised was, Is it the 
chemist or the engineer who should 
investigate the phenomenon of rust? 



The answer in this case is like so many 
others — the two lines of investigation 
must work together in order to com- 
bine theory and practice. 

Rust is, of course, a general phenom- 
enon, said Professor Smithells lectur- 
ing on rust. It is not restricted to 
iron, but is more noticeable on iron 
because iron is the most abundantly 
used metal, because the rust of iron 
forms rapidly, because ,it assumes a 
scaly character, because of its color, 
and because of the fact that rust is a 
thing that appears to grow in the case 
of iron, and it does not grow so rap- 
idly or abundantly on other metals. 
With a very few exceptions, all metals 
are subject to rust, but the rusting is 
very slight compared with that of iron. 
Iron rust is found to consist of three 
elements — iron, oxygen and hydrogen. 
That rusts are oxides could be easily 
proved because we can produce rust by 
the burning of metal in oxygen alone. 

What is the cause of iron rust? In- 
vestigators all know that rusting was 
favored by the presence of air and 
moisture, but the question comes up, 
which of those two is the active agent, 
whether both are necessary and 
whether anything else took place in 
the process. They all knew that rust- 
ing was favored by the presence of the 
air, and by the presence of moisture, 
but they wanted to know which of 
these two was the active agent, 
whether both were necessary, and 
whether anything else took part in the 
process. They wanted to know why 
rusting went on so rapidly at different 
points, and how it-was affected by the 
different composition and qualities of 
the metal, and by impurities in the 
metal, in the air, or in the water. Pro- 
fessor Smithells then showed some 
specimens of iron in jars, which he had 
been preparing for some time. One 
was a piece of iron in dry oxygen, and 
he explained that that would not cause 
the iron to rust. 

Next he showed a piece of iron 
which had been sealed up in water for 
some days, remarking that it was found 
that when they excluded air and other 
gases from the water no action took 
place, and a second conclusion was that 
water alone would not affect iron. The 
next question was — would air and wa- 
ter together affect iron? That experi- 
ment had been tried, and it had been 
shown that, wherever action had 
taken place at all, the action had been 
exceedingly insignificant, and the ques- 
tion arose — what was it that was ab- 
sent and that caused the rust? The 
one ingredient which was present in 
one of the jars, and was not present in 
the cases he had shown, was carbonic 
acid gas. 

Carbonic acid gas existed in the at- 
mosphere to a small extent, and it was 



this gas in the air that was all im- 
portant in the operation of rusting. 
Pure air, pure water, pure carbonic 
acid would not act singly upon iron; 
pure water and pure air would not act 
together upon iron; carbonic acid and 
air would not act upon iron, but when 
they had carbonic acid, water and air 
together, they got rust. It was car- 
bonic acid that really set up the rust 
action, and when it was formed, the 
carbonic acid was liberated and at- 
tacked the layers beneath. That was 
why rust had got the property of trav- 
eling inward. How could they prevent 
this action of rusting? There were 
many things which had been tried. 
They might paint the iron, and if they 
observed certain precautions, they 
might have an effective method. 



Protection of British Railways. 

When railways were first introduced 
into the British Isles great opposition was 
manifested against them and very exact- 
ing laws were passed for their regula- 
tion. But as an offset to that decidedly 
fair laws were passed for their protection. 
The dangerous nuisance that American 
railroads suffer from of people trespassing 
upon the right of way is unknown in 
Britain because the law makes it a crime 
to trespass upon the right of way of a 
railway. 

One of the commonest forms of 
malicious mischief in this country is that 
of boys, and even men, placing small ob- 
structions, such as stone, wood, rocks and 
splice bars on the track to see how they 
would make the locomotive jump. We 
have even known of a farmer driving an 
old worn-out horse into a cattle guard 
with a view of making an involuntary 
sale of the animal to the railroad company, 
and then go off to a distance and watch 
its effect on an approaching train. If the 
Draconian law in force in England against 
such offenses prevailed here amusements 
of this dangerous character would be in- 
dulged in at more risk to the joker. An 
English paper recently reports the case of 
a boy who was tried for placing an ob- 
struction upon a railway track. The judge 
mentioned that the criminal was liable to 
penal servitude for life, but owing to his 
tender years he sentenced him to one 
month's imprisonment and to be well 
flogged with a birch rod. 



Efficiency of the Locomotive. 

We have always maintained that the 
efficiency of a well designed, properly 
operated locomotive, was much higher 
than the engine is generally credited with, 
but we must confess surprise at the figures 
given by a committee of the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers consist- 
ing of Messrs. G. M. Basford, F. H. 
Clark and W. F. Kiesel Jr. Part of the 
report reads : 

Valuable comparisons may be drawn 



February, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



55 



from the best results of ten years ago 
and of today. At the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition in 1904 the tests made by the 
Pennsylvania Railroad revealed impor- 
tant figures concerning locomotive per- 
formance at that time. It was shown to 
be possible to obtain equivalent evapora- 
tion from and at 212 degrees of 16.4 
pounds of water per square foot of heat- 
ing surface, indicating the power of lo- 
comotive boilers when forced. It was 
shown that when the power was low, the 
evaporation per pound of coal was be- 
tween 10 and 12 pounds, whereas the 
evaporation declined to approximately 
two-thirds of these values when the boiler 
was forced. These results compared 
favorably with those obtained in good sta- 
tionary practice, whereas the rate of 
evaporation in stationary practice lies 
usually from 4 to 7 pounds of water per 
foot of heating surface per hour. In 
steam consumption the St. Louis tests 
showed a minimum of 16.6 pounds of 
steam per i. h. p. per hour. In coal 
economy the lowest figure was 2.01 pounds 
of coal per i. h. p., the minimum figure 
for coal per dynamometer h. p. was 2.14 
pounds. These records were made after 
the superheater had become a factor in 
locomotive practice and they represent 
economies attained by aid of the super- 
heater in one of its early applications. 
This is important in the light of the re- 
cent development of the superheater. 
These remarkable figures have never re- 
ceived the attention which they deserve 
from engineers. They serve, however, to 
show that 10 years ago a steam locomo- 
tive had attained results which were 
worthy of the best attention of the engi- 
neers of the time. Since then greater 
progress has been made and today loco- 
motives of larger capacity than those con- 
cerned in the St. Louis tests have given 
better results. 

Voluminous records of recent investi- 
gations of locomotive performance taken 
from the Pennsylvania Railroad test plant 
at Altoona show, that the best record of 
dry fuel per i. h. p.-hour down to the 
present date is 1.8 pounds with a large 
number of less than 2 pounds, while the 
best performance in dry steam per 
i. h. p.-hour is 14.6 pounds with a large 
number less tha 16 pounds. A reduc- 
tion of 10 per cent, in fuel and 12 per 
cent, in water is remarkable as a result 
of a development of 10 years. This coal 
performance was recorded by a Class E 
6 S Pennsylvania Railroad locomotive 
while running at 320 r. p. m. and develop- 
ing 1,245.1 i. h. p. The same locomotive 
gave a fuel rate of 1.9 pounds while run- 
ning at the same speed and developing 
1,750.9 i. h. p. The best water rate was 
given by Class K 2 S A Pennsylvania 
Railroad locomotive while running at 320 
r. p. m. and developing 2,033.1 i. h. p. 
These high powers indicate that the loco- 
motives were not coddled as to output of 



power in order to show high efficiencies, 
but that high efficiencies accompany actual 
conditions of operation in severe service. 
As to power capacity expressed in terms 
of evaporation, it is interesting to note 
that the maximum equivalent evaporation 
from and at 212 degrees per square foot 
of heating surface per hour on the Altoona 
test plant is 23.3 pounds. These figures 
of high efficiency were obtained from 
locomotives which represented not only 
very careful, general and detail design, 
but their design included several of the 
improvements making for greater capacity 
and higher efficiency, without which the 
results could not have been attained. 

Having in mind the facts that steam 
locomotives are power plants on wheels, 
built to meet rigid limitations of weight, 
both static and dynamic, and that the use 
of condensers is impossible, engineers in 
general must admit the high character of 
the work of locomotive designers which 
has attained these results. 

Greater efficiency, which is revealed on 
the test plant and through reports of en- 
gineers, would be important because it 
proves that progress is being made in the 
possibilities of locomotive performance. 
Improvement which is revealed by operat- 
ing statistics and which, therefore, ap- 
pears in the records of the treasurer's 
office is the real test in this case. It is 
important to know that increased power 
of locomotives attained largely through 
the development of economy producing 
and capacity increasing factors has pro- 
duced results which the financial reports 
of railroads prove beyond question. A 
recently published list of train tonnage on 
45 prominent railroads indicates that 16 
of these roads have increased their aver- 
age freight train loads by over 30 per 
cent, during the last five years. Credit 
must be given to the improvement in the 
locomotive for most of this development. 
These figures reveal the value of increased 
power and efficiency of steam locomotives 
and the end is not yet in sight. 



To Prevent Destructive Fires. 

The British Fire Prevention Com- 
mittee have issued a report on a test 
they carried out on a partition made 
of wood which had been impregnated 
by the Oxylene process with the object 
of making it fire-resisting. The parti- 
tion measured 10 feet by 9 feet, and its 
head, sill, side posts, and intermediates 
were constructed of 2-inch by 1%-inch 
deal, each side being covered with 
?/jj-inch grooved, tongued, and beaded 
boarding in 5-inch widths. It was sub- 
mitted for 45 minutes to temperatures 
that rose to 1,630 degrees F., and then 
water was pumped upon it from a 
steam fire engine. According to the 
official observations smoke appeared 
tli rough the joints on the outside after 
38 minutes, and scorching was noticed 



at several joints two minutes later, 
while after 44 minutes a glow was vis- 
ible at four joints. Water came through 
several of the joints, when at the end 
of the test the hose was turned upon 
the partition, which, however, re- 
mained in position. Although the re- 
sistance of the woodwork did not last 
long enough by a few minutes to en- 
able the partition to be classed as af- 
fording "temporary protection," under 
the committee's standards, a note pre- 
fixed to the report states that the test 
demonstrates that the impregnating 
process employed has a retarding ef- 
fect on combustion, and that timber so 
treated should be a valuable addition 
to the stock of fire-resisting materials. 
The process consists in submitting 
wood to a course of steaming, vacuum, 
and pressure, whereby the sapwater, 
air, and moisture are removed and re- 
placed by a chemical solution which is 
preservative, antiseptic, non-hygro- 
scopic, and non-corrosive. The water 
of this solution is then evaporated by 
placing the wood in drying kilns, the 
chemicals being left embedded 
throughout the fibres of the wood in 
minute crystal form. On the applica- 
tion of heat the crystals expand and 
form a glassy coating to the wood, this 
coating excluding the oxygen of the 
air and preventing combustion. 



Shop Foremen's Duties to Workmen. 

The best thing for any foreman to do 
is to tell his man what he wants done, 
and, if necessary, when it is to be fin- 
ished ; in case he has any doubts as to the 
man's ability to perform the work success- 
fully, he should ask him to describe how 
he is intending to do it, and if the fore- 
man discovers any flaw in the plan, he 
should show the man where he is wrong, 
and they should come to some definite 
conclusion together; good suggestions 
ought to be received in the same spirit 
they are given ; it is a matter of courtesy. 



Railroad Statistics. 
The New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad's Press Bureau publishes an 
interesting statement in regard to the 
financial condition of railroads in 
America. It appears that at the end of 
1914 there were 21,048 miles of steam 
railroad in the hands of receivers, with 
a total outstanding stock of $434,599,738, 
and total funded debt of $830,728,790. 
During the year 1914, twenty-two roads, 
with a total mileage of 4,222, outstand- 
ing stock amounting to $62,321,150, and 
funded debt amounting to $137,250,296, 
were placed in the hands of receivers. 
The mileage in the hands of receivers at 
the end of 1914 was the greatest at any 
time since 1896. 



56 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



February, 1915. 



Air Brake Department 



Operation of Control Valve. 

In last month's issue, the explanation 
of the operation of the control valve pro- 
ceeded as far as over-reduction position, 
which means that in this position the 
brake pipe reduction has passed the point 
at which the pressure and application 
chambers equalize. This has been men- 
tioned to be 86 lbs., and the brake pipe 
reduction necessary is 24 lbs., hence the 
brake pipe hands on the gauges will at 
this time show 86 lbs. in the brake pipe. 

If the brake pipe reduction is then con- 
tinued until the difference in pressure be- 
tween the pressure chamber and the 
brake pipe is sufficient to compress the 



service reservoir around the charging 
valve maintains any leakage in the appli- 
cation chamber at this time, and if the re- 
duction in brake pipe pressure is con- 
tinued, the pressure chamber will equalize 
with the reduction limiting chamber and 
when the difference between the pressures 
in the brake pipe and the pressure and 
reduction limiting chamber is sufficient to 
compress the release piston graduating 
spring, the release piston will travel its 
full stroke and result in an emergency 
application as will be explained later on. 
Regardless as to any position of the 
operating parts of the control valve, when- 
ever the brake pipe pressure is increased 



mentary, insures a drop in pressure in the 
release slide valve chamber for the posi- 
tive return of the release piston to release 
position, and the opening of the applica- 
tion chamber to the atmosphere for the 
release of the brake. 

The release slide valve now moving to 
the secondary release position opens the 
chamber at the outside of the small end 
of the equalizing piston to the atmosphere 
through the emergency piston exhaust 
port, when the equalizing piston can 
move toward its lower position gradually 
cutting off the flow of pressure chamber 
air to the equalizing piston stop spring 
chamber and assuming release position. 



EQUALIZING GRAO. SPRING RELEASE GPAD. SPRING 



SER. RES. 
CHARGING VALVE 




EQUALIZING STOP SPRING 



BRAKE 
PIPE 



SER.CYU. EMER.CYL. E'mER.RES. 

EMEn.CKL.EX. 



OVER REDUCTION POSITION. 



equalizing piston graduating spring, the 
equalizing piston will travel its full stroke 
and make an opening from the pressure 
chamber to the reduction limiting chamber 
instead of the application chamber. The 
release piston graduating spring being 
somewhat heavier than the equalizing pis- 
ton spring, the release piston will not 
travel its full stroke. 

Any time the brake pipe reduction 
should cease, the equalizing piston and 
graduating valve would cut off the flow 
of pressure chamber air to the reduction 
limiting chamber, and assume over- 
reduction lap position, also in this posi- 
tion there are a number of minor connec- 
tions which will not be dwelt upon more 
than to note that a connection from the 



above that in the pressure chamber, the 
equalizing and release pistons and their 
attached valves start toward release po- 
sition. The equalizing slide valve being 
designed to move upon a trifle less dif- 
ferential than the release piston and slide 
valve, it may be assumed that the equal- 
izing piston moves first to preliminary re- 
lease position wherein the equalizing pis- 
ton comes in contact and is held by the 
equalizing stop spring. The pressure 
chamber is also connected by the equal- 
izing slide valve with the equalizing stop 
spring chamber, and as the equalizing 
slide valve stops here it opens the release 
slide valve chamber to the atmosphere 
through the reduction limiting chamber 
exhaust and the position which is but mo- 



It must be understood that these positions 
are but of momentary duration, as when 
watching the operation of the control 
valve it will be noted that the start of the 
release of the brake is practically simul- 
taneous with the movement of the brake 
valve handle, but whether the release pis- 
ton and slide valve remains in release po- 
sition, or whether it is forced back to 
graduated release position depends upon 
the position of the direct and graduated 
release cap and the manipulation of the 
brake valve handle. 

If in direct release position, the release 
piston will move the release slide valve 
to a position as explained at the extreme 
end of the stroke, where it will remain 
and the application chamber pressure, and 



February, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



57 



F OUAUZING GRAD e".:KG TELEASG GRAO. SPRING 



EQUALIZING 
PISTON 



EQUALIZING 
GRAD. VALVE 

REDUCTION 

LIMITING 

CHAMBER EX 

EQUALIZING 
SLIDE VALVE 



EQUALIZING 
PISTON STOP 




COUALIZINC STOP SPRING 



DIRECT ISfUC REL 



BRAKE 
PIPE 



EMER CYL. 
EMER CYL EX. EMER RES 



PRELIMINARY RELEASE. 



consequently the brake cylinder pre>>ure 
will escape through two different ports 
without any interference, and the release 
will be straight away, as with the ordinary 
quick action triple valve. If the graduated 
release cap is in graduated release posi- 
tion the same movement of the release 
slide valve toward release position will 
permit a flow of emergency reservoir 
pressure into the release slide valve 
chamber, consequently the pressure cham- 
ber, through a suitable port opened by the 
graduated release cap, so that if the in- 
crease of brake pipe pressure ceases, as 
in the event of the brake valve being 



moved to lap position, the inflow of 
emergency reservoir pressure would drive 
the release piston and its slide valve far 
enough toward application position to 
close the application chamber exhaust port. 
Under such circumstances the exhaust of 
application chamber pressure, and con- 
sequently brake cylinder pressure, would 
cease and the inflow from the emergency 
reservoir would be stopped until another 
increase of brake pipe pressure moved 
the release piston and graduating valve 
to again connect the application chamber 
to the atmosphere. 
In this mariner the release of brake 



cylinder pressure can be graduated, and 
even if the graduated release is cut in, it 
will not be effective if the brake valve 
handle is moved to release for an in- 
stant, then back to running position, 
wherein brake pipe pressure will be 
maintained. 

As to recharge after an application of 
the brake, it will be noted that in gradu- 
ated release, the pressure chamber will be 
recharged from the emergency reservoir 
at the same rate the brake pipe is being 
recharged from the brake valve, with the 
service reservoir cut off, that is, a glance 
at the charging valve connections will 



EQUALIZING GRAD SPRING 



RELEASE GRAD SPRING 



EQUALIZING 
PISTON 



SER CYL. EX. 




'.3UALIZING STOP SPRING 



OIRECT & GRAO REL. CAP 
POSITION FOR GRAD RELEASE 



jkjjr 
:YL J EMEfl. c 



SER. CYL EMEfl. CYL. 

EMER CYL. EX EMER. RES 



SECONDARY RELEASE. 



58 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



February, 1915. 



show emergency reservoir pressure con- 
stantly on the upper or small end of the 
charging valve holding it down in the 
non-charging position which will occur 
upon a drop in pressure chamber pressure, 
and the charging valve will remain thus 
until the pressure chamber is again in- 
creased to within about 5 lbs. of that in 
the emergency reservoir and then, owing 
to the difference in the size of the charg- 
ing valve pistons, the pressure chamber 
air can unseat the charging valve and 
charge the service reservoir from the 
emergency reservoir charging port. 

In direct release, however, the pressure 
chamber is charged from the brake pipe, 
the emergency reservoir pressure being 
undisturbed and the charging valve re- 
maining closed prevents in either case any 
material drain on the brake pipe during a 



ton to the atmosphere. At the same in- 
stant emergency reservoir pressure flows 
into the release slide valve chamber and 
to the front of the application piston, thus 
opening the service reservoir to the serv- 
ice brake cylinder in the shortest possible 
space of time, and as the equalizing piston 
and slide valve will also have moved to 
application position all reservoirs and 
brake cylinders and all chambers not open 
to the atmosphere will contain an equal- 
ized pressure at 86 lbs. per square inch. 
This same movement of the release slide 
valve admits emergency reservoir pres- 
sure to the under side of the quick action 
closing valve and then to the quick ac- 
tion piston which forces the quick action 
valve from its seat exhausting brake pipe 
pressure to the atmosphere for the con- 
tinuation or the initiation of quick action 



almost at the same instant. The discharge 
from the reduction limiting chamber ex- 
haust is the momentary bleeding of the 
release slide valve chamber, the discharge 
from the emergency piston exhaust is from 
the equalizing stop spring chamber for the 
return of the equalizing piston. If the 
exhaust from the reduction limiting cham- 
ber continues for some little time and then 
ceases, it indicates that an over-reduction 
has been made. The blows from the ap- 
plication chamber exhaust and from the 
service cylinder exhaust will be under- 
stood as the escape of air for the release 
of the brake. 

A continued blow from any of the ports 
would indicate some disorder of the con- 
trol valve, and as the blows could be 
caused by leakage through the body gas- 
kets, it follows that all gaskets must be 



';4LIZING GRAD SPRING 



RELEASE GR40. SPRING 



EQUALIZING 
PISTON STOP 




EMER PISTON EX 
EOUALIZINC STOP SPRING DIRECT* ORAD. REL.CAP. 

POSITION fOR GRAD RELEASE 



SER CVL^ / EMER CTL 

eMERCVLEX. lmeh HL > 



GRADUATED RELEASE. 



release of the brake; therefore, it is only 
necessary for the main reservoir volume 
on the locomotive to increase the pressure 
in the brake pipe alone, or in addition the 
relatively small pressure chamber in order 
to accomplish a release of the brakes. 

When the release piston graduating 
spring is compressed and the release pis- 
ton and slide valve travels its full stroke, 
either as a result of a sudden brake pipe 
reduction, an over-reduction of brake pipe 
pressure or from brake pipe leakage, after 
an application, the release slide valve will 
open the outside of the large end of the 
emergency piston to the atmosphere which 
permits emergency reservoir pressure on 
the inner side to move the piston and 
slide valve to admit emergency reservoir 
pressure directly to the emergency and 
service brake cylinders, and at the same 
time open the back of the application pis- 



throughout the train. After the exhaust 
of brake pipe pressure the quick action 
valve will be returned to its seat by means 
of a spring. 

The release after an emergency appli- 
cation is accomplished by increasing the 
brake pipe pressure above 86 lbs., where- 
upon the equalizing and release pistons 
will be forced to release position, and all 
the valves will be moved to the positions 
shown in release and charging position. 

The foregoing along with a study of the 
diagrams, should be sufficiently clear to 
give a good general understanding of the 
operation of this brake; upon an applica- 
tion of the brake a short puff of air from 
the reduction limiting chamber exhaust, 
indicates that the equalizing piston and 
slide valve have moved, and during a re- 
lease there are several short discharges 
from the exhaust ports, and they occur 



perfect and all nuts drawn tightly on the 
studs before an attempt is made to locate 
the source of any blow from the exhaust 
ports. 

A blow from the service cylinder ex- 
haust when the brake is released could be 
from a leaky application valve or from 
a leaky emergency slide valve. With the 
brake applied, it would be from a leaky 
exhaust valve of the application portion. 

With the brake released, a blow from 
the emergency cylinder exhaust is caused 
by a leaky emergency slide valve, or a 
leak past the cap nut of the quick action 
closing valve. In service position, it 
would be from a leaky emergency slide 
valve, and in emergency position it could 
also be from this slide valve or from a 
leaky piston packing leather on the appli- 
cation piston or a leaky leather seal on the 
brake cylinder side of the application piston. 



February, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



59 



A leak from the quick action exhaust 
port can be handled as a leaky rubber 
seated valve in a triple valve ; however, if 
a leak here occurred only after an emer- 
gency application it might be caused by a 
leak past the seal of the small closing 
valve, a heavy blow, however, would in- 
dicate that the quick action valve had 
stuck open. 

A blow at the application chamber 
exhaust with the brake released, could be 
from either a leaky equalizing or release 
slide valve, or from either graduating 
valve. It is also possible for it to be 
caused by a leaky gasket under the 
graduated release cap. A blow after the 
brake is applied in service would be 
from a leaky release slide valve. 

A leak from the emergency piston ex- 
haust in release, is caused by a leaky re- 



If the leak occurs in release position it is 
from the application cylinder cover gasket. 
If it is found only in emergency position 
it indicates a worn equalizing slide valve. 
The disorders of this brake are handled 
in about the same manner as those of a 
triple valve ; should the brake fail to ap- 
ply, the first thing to ascertain is whether 
the reservoirs are charged, and if ap- 
parently charged, the failure would likely 
be due to a disorder of the equalizing 
portion, possibly a stuck open equalizing 
check valve, again the failure to apply 
upon a moderate reduction may be due to 
a disorder of the application portion, but 
in all cases it is well to handle these 
valves, as triple valves are under similar 
circumstances, that is, to replace de- 
fective valves with ones known to be 
properly tested and in perfect condition. 



Washington street the plans call for 
another building for the baggage depart- 
ment and train shed, the passenger sta- 
tion and the train shed to be connected 
by a tunnel under Washington street. 
There are to be 10 tracks for passenger 
trains and the station will be used by the 
Erie Railroad, Wabash Railroad and New 
York, Chicago & St. Louis R. R., in addi- 
tion to the Lehigh Valley. The total cost 
is estimated at $5,000,000. The arrange- 
ment by which the Erie is to enter the 
new station will enable that road to utilize 
its present passenger terminal at Michi- 
gan and Exchange streets for local freight 
purposes. 



Railways in Sweden. 

It appears from despatches received last 
month that the railroad circling the gulf 



.CUAL'ZING GRAD SPRING 



RELEASE GRAD SPRING 



EQUALIZING - 
PISTON 




EQUALIZING STOP SPRING EMER PISTON Ex 

DIRECT 4 GRAD. REL. CAP 



QUICK ACTION 
EMER. CTL. \ QUICK ACTION EX. VALVE 

EMLrt. wiuEA. EMER. RES. 



EMERGENCY. 



lease slide valve or graduating valve, by 
a leaky equalizing slide valve, by a leak 
past the seal of the equalizing piston 
(lower end) or by a leak past the seal 
of the small emergency piston. In appli- 
cation position a blow here is caused by a 
leaky release slide valve or graduating 
valve. If the blow occurs in emergency 
position only, it indicates a leak past the 
seal of the large emergency piston. 

If a blow from the reduction limiting 
chamber exhaust exists in all positions it 
is due to a leaky equalizing slide valve 
or graduating valve, if it occurs only 
after an ordinary service reduction, it 
points to a leak past the cap nut of the 
application portion. If it occurs only 
•when the control valve is in overreduc- 
tion position, it is due to a leaky emer- 
gency reservoir check valve. 



If it is necessary to cut out the brake, 
close the cut out cock in the brake pipe 
and bleed both the service and emergency 
reservoirs. In bleeding off a brake it 
must be observed that the cross heads of 
both brake cylinders recede to their po- 
sitions when in release, or to the release 
end of their stroke. 



Improvements on the Lehigh Valley. 

It is reported that the Lehigh Valley 
Railroad will begin construction of its 
new terminals in Buffalo, N. Y., early in 
February. The passenger station of In- 
diana limestone, five stories high, will 
front on Main street, standing back from 
the street 50 feet, occupying the block be- 
tween Main and Washington and Scott 
and Quay streets. On the east side of 



of Bothnia, the northern extension of the 
Baltic sea, virtually is completed. There 
was a gap of ten miles over which pas- 
sengers from Stockholm to Petrograd had 
to drive. Now this distance has been re- 
duced to half a mile. The Russian line 
runs to a point opposite the Swedish sta- 
tion at Karungi. Here passengers leave 
the train and go half a mile over the 
frozen river Tornea, instead of the pre- 
vious journey between the town of Tornea 
and Haparanda, a distance of ten miles. 
The new arrangement is working well. 
Between 500 and 800 passengers make the 
trip daily, the uncertainties of steamship 
travel between the Swedish coast and 
Russian ports near Petrograd having in- 
fluenced many travelers to select the land 
route. Heavy freight also is being moved 
overland with little delay. 



60 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



February, 1915. 



New Box Car for the Illinois Central Railroad 

The changes in car building in recent posts, and 4 x 4 x 5/16 in. angles for cor- channels 13% pounds per foot. The body 

years have not been so much in the matter ner posts. There are also 1314 ins. bolsters are built integral with under- 

of details of construction as in the pressed steel carlines. frame, and consist of 4 diaphragms of 

marked improvement in materials which The steel underframe is made up of two % in. pressed steel, one malleable iron 




HON CAR SIIOWI.W, STEEL FRAMING FUR THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD. 



has reached a degree of perfection 
hitherto unattainable. 

The box car illustrated is one of a lot 
of 1,500 recently received by the Illinois 
Central Railroad from the works of the 
Western Steel Car & Foundry Company 



center sills of 5/16 in. plates 24 ins. deep 
at center and 10 15/16 ins. deep over 
bolsters. These center sills extend 185/g 
ins. beyond bolsters, and are tied together 
and reinforced at top with 19 x 5/16 in. 
cover plate and 3]/ 2 x 2>y 2 x 5/16 in. 



center brace and reinforced at top and 
bottom with 16 x ^ in. plates. There are 
two cross bearers made of % in. pressed 
diaphragms 14% ins. deep at center sills 
and 45s ins. deep at side sills, reinforced 
at top with 8 x ^ in. plate and 3 x 2 l / 2 x 



at Hegewisch, 111. The car is 80.000 angles, and at bottom with 5 x 4 x $i in. % in. angles, and at bottom with 3 x 2]/ 2 




TYPE OF BOX CAR FOR THE ILLINOIS CENTRAL RAILROAD. 



pounds capacity, and as will be noted 
from the illustrations, has the latest form 
of steel superstructure, consisting of 3 ins. 
67 pounds Zees for side posts and braces, 
4 ins. 8.2 pounds Zees for door and end 



angles. Draft sills are x / 2 in. pressed 
steel, end sills 10 ins., channel 15 pounds 
per foot, reinforced at top with % in. 
plate and a coupler opening with cast steel 
striking plate, and the side sills are 9 ins., 



x 5/16 in. angles and % in. pressed 
brace. There are 4 diagonal braces made 
of 4 x iy 2 x ¥s in. to 7/16 in. rolled Tees 
extending between bolsters and end sills. 
There are 6 diaphragms made of 3 1/6 



February, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



61 



x 4 x 3 1/16 ins. by J4 in. Zees on each 
side of car between bolsters. Between 
the center sills there are 4 diaphragms 
made of % in. pressed steel. 

There are four longitudinal floor 
stringers per car, the intermediate string- 
ers being 2 11/16 x 3 x 2 11/16 x J4 in. Z 
bars, and the center stringers 3^ x Z l / 2 
ins. yellow pine. The flooring is yellow 
pine 1J4 in. thick, 5% ins. or 7% ins. 
face width, matching M. C. B. shiplapped. 
The lining is yellow pine, tongued and 
grooved \yi ins. thick, 5% ins. or 5Ms ins. 
face width. The side plates consist of 
3 1/16x4 x3/16x % in. Zees, and the 
end plates of 3/16 in. open-hearth steel. 
There are two purlines per car made of 
2x6 ins. yellow pine ; the ridge pole is 
yellow pine V/§ x 6 ins.; the running 
board is yellow pine, 24 ins. wide, 1J4 ins. 
thick. 

The car is equipped with the following 
specialties: 

Body center plates, drop forged. Air 
brakes, New York, schedule F-10-CK, 
modified. Couplers, Sharon, cast steel, 
5x7 ins. Coupler operating device, 
Carmer. Draft rigging, Miner tandem, 
D-963. Roof, Hutchins all steel. Truck 
frames, Scullin & Gallagher pedestal cast 
steel with Barber roller device. Truck 
bolsters, cast steel. Brake beams, Ajax 
No. 104. Journal boxes, malleable iron. 
Wheels, grey iron, 675 pounds. 

The use of steel framing and inside lin- 
ing in box car construction reduces cost 
of repairs, avoids grain pockets and there- 
fore the loosening of sides by the swell- 
ing of grain in such pockets. The steel 
frame prevents "racking," requires no 
tightening of rods and bolts and will un- 
questionably outlast the old wooden frame 
construction. The steel frame car is 
therefore rapidly coming into general use 
with the leading railroads of this country. 

The principal dimensions are as fol- 
lows : Length inside, 40 ft. 6 ins. ; width 
inside, 8 ft. 6% ins. ; height from floor to 
carlines, 8 ft. 3}i ins.; width of side door 
openings, 6 ft. ; height of side door open- 
ings, 7 ft. 10^6 ins. ; length over end sills, 
41 ft. 10J4 ins. ; width over eaves, 8 ft. 
\U/2 ins.; height from rail to top of floor, 
3 ft. 11 ins.; height from rail to top of 
running boards, 13 ft. 2% ins. 



Coke as Locomotive Fuel. 

It is curious to find the using of a 
device entirely successful at one time 
and a lamentable failure at another. 
When that ornate assemblage, the 
British parliament, first gave railways 
permision to move trains through the 
country, very strict regulations were in- 
sisted on against causing smoke. Near- 
ly every factory chimney in the British 
Isles was pouring out black smoke 
without restraint, but for a locomotive 
engine to emit smoke was something 
not to be endured. Such a thing would 



poison the atmosphere, taint God's 
scenery with blackness and even pre- 
vent cows from yielding their natural 
flow of milk. The certain preventative 
was for all locomotives to burn coke, 
a material that had been purified from 
its smoke-creating properties. 

Accordingly all British railways used 
coke to generate steam that enabled 
locomotive engines to haul trains. This 
lasted for the first thirty years of Brit- 
ish railway operation. Towards the 
end of that time questions of economy 
became to raise their heads among 
railway managers, and the cost of fuel 
loomed up as a ruinous item. Coke 
generated steam satisfactorily, but its 
use cost double the cost of steam mak- 
ing by ordinary coal. Inventors went 
to work and produced furnaces capable 
of smokeless firing with bituminous 
coal, and the question of fuel economy 
was solved. 

To those who have been familiar 
with the use of coke as a locomotive 
fuel in Europe, some remarks made by 
Mr. D. F. Crawford at last master 
mechanics' convention are curious. Mr. 
Crawford remarked: "A few weeks 
ago there was introduced into the city 
council an ordinance which compels 
the use of coke on switch engines, not 
using coke on switch engines, but en- 
deavoring to use it, and we do not 
want to endeavor again, either from a 
financial or an efficiency standpoint. 



Transmutation of Metals. 

Sir William Ramsay has been reporting 
to the Chemical Society in London the 
results of some additional experiments 
which he recently made, but only the pur- 
port of his report has as yet been pub- 
lished. There is, however, enough to en- 
able us to note some resemblances be- 
tween his later work and that performed 
two or three years ago. 

Mendclief made a discovery of funda- 
mental importance in chemistry, namely, 
that between the atomic weights of ele- 
ments having similar traits there exists a 
certain mathematical relationship. In ac- 
cordance with the accepted system of clas- 
sification copper, potassium and lithium, 
etc., belong to one group, and thorium, 
zirconium and carbon belong to another. 
Sir William believed that under the in- 
fluence of radium microscopic quantities 
of copper were converted into lithium and 
potassium. Now he announces that he 
has obtained carbon from thorium and 
zirconium. In both cases the product was 
a lighter element than the raw material. 
The atomic weight of copper is 68, and 
that of lithium 7, while that of thorium 
is 2.32 and that of carbon 11. Bismuth, 
however, is heavier than carbon, and it 
belongs to an entirely different group. 

Many chemists of large experience and 
high standing do not put the same inter- 



pretation on Sir William's work that he 
does, but before pronouncing a verdict are 
anxiously awaiting the publication of his 
report. It is said that the quantity of ma- 
terial apparently transformed in Sir Will- 
iam's experiments is so small that it can- 
not be weighed, and that its nature can 
only be determined by spectroscopic tests. 
It is said also that Mme. Curie tried to 
duplicate his work with copper last year, 
but was unable to convince herself that 
Sir William's faith was well grounded. 
It may be noted that a substance more 
costly than diamonds is essential to the 
changes which Sir William thinks he has 
wrought, and that the price of radium at 
present utterly precludes its use in the 
manufacture of other substances. 



Between Edinburgh and London. 

The exact period of the establishment 
of stage coaches between Edinburgh and 
London cannot be ascertained. In the end 
of the seventeenth century it was neces- 
sary for persons desirous of making the 
journey to club for the use of a convey- 
ance. His Majesty's physician, Sir Robert 
Sibbald, relates that this year "he was 
forced to come by sea, for he could not 
ride by reason that the fluxion had fallen 
upon his arms, and he could not get 
companie to come on a coach." It was 
usual for people going to London long 
after this period to make their settlement, 
take farewell of their friends, and be 
prayed for in churches as taking a long 
and dangerous journey. In 1700 it re- 
quired one hundred and thirty-one hours 
to perform the journey from Edinburgh 
to London, some 500 miles. 



In Favor of Porridge. 

A medical inspector of schools recently 
bemoaned the decline in the consumption 
of porridge, and the Medical Press thinks 
his complaint has its moral for all parts 
of the British Isles. "Nothing," it says, 
"is more governed by fashion and cus- 
tom than the choice of food. Were por- 
ridge eating to come into fashion there 
would be no need to preach its virtues to 
any class of society; it would, in a trice, 
become popular as tea or tobacco from 
the humble cottage to the lordly palace. 
So far as eugenics are concerned the gen- 
eral introduction of porridge — one of the 
most valuable of foodstuffs — would in a 
single generation do more to improve our 
race than a hundred years of popular 
agitation." Why not begin, asks our con- 
temporary, with the school-children? 



St. Louis Railway Club. 

At the regular monthly meeting of the 
St. Louis Railway Club, to be held on 
Friday evening, February 12, R. M. Oster- 
mann, Chicago representative of the Lo- 
comotive Superheater Co., will read a 
paper defining the relation existing be- 
tween superheater practice and reduced 
costs of locomotive operation. 



62 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



February, 1915. 



Electrical Department 



Inexpensive Excavation by Means of 
an Electrically Driven Thew Shovel. 
The Cleveland Railways Company, in 

building its 79th street line, had to do a 
considerable amount of excavation, and 
by using an electrically operated auto- 
matic Thew shovel, the work was done 
the most economically. 

The shovel, shown by illustration, is 
of the horizontal crowding motion type, 
and has several other features of interest. 
It weighs 13 tons, has a dipper with a 
capacity of % cu. yds., and a clearance 
height over the house of 12 ft. 2 ins. It is 
mounted on regular car wheels, on which 
it travels on the car tracks, and in addi- 
tion is equipped with a set of auxiliary 
traction wheels, 33 ins. in diameter, and 



the point of rotation for dipper, so that 
the hoisting force is at all times exerted 
in the most effective manner, while the 
crowding force is applied horizontally. 
The combination of the horizontal track- 
way and the boom channels results in a 
structure braced and reinforced to with- 
stand the severe strains which the boom 
is called upon to endure. 

The trolley motion is controlled by a 
lever. This lever is further connected 
to a trip rod which is operated automatic- 
ally when the trolley reaches the limit 
of its motion in either direction. 

The crowding motion enables this type 
of shovel to be advantageously employed 
for very shallow excavating operations. 

The shovel is equipped with a Westing- 




ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN THEW SHOVEL. 



15-in. tread, which permits it to run un- 
der its own power over the ground, pave- 
ment, or wherever it is desired to take it. 

The horizontal dipper crowding motion 
utilized is said to be particularly adapted 
to the application of electric drive be- 
cause of the ease of control and power 
demands. In excavating material with 
a shovel, it is necessary first to crowd the 
dipper forward into the material, then 
to hoist it upward through the material. 
In this case, the first motion is made 
horizontally, being obtained as follows : 

The dipper is suspended by an adjust- 
able arm, hinged to a carriage or trolley 
moving horizontally along a suitable 
trackway. This enables the shifting of 



house 20 h. p. compound wound, 550 volt, 
direct current motor, and a control equip- 
ment for starting and reversing. The 
motor is run at constant speed and the 
various motions are obtained through 
suitable friction clutches and gears. 

The current is usually admitted to the 
shovel through' a flexible insulated cable 
connected to a switch on the truck 
frame and transmitted through copper 
rint;s to brushes suspended from the 
swinging turntable. 

The use of one motor appears to be a 
particularly desirable feature, for re- 
ducing the initial cost, and affording 
greater flexibility of action in the fre- 
quent reversals of the various operating 



motions ; it also means the operation of 
three levers instead of three separate 
controllers, and a gain in time over start- 
ing and stopping three separate motors. 
It is distinctly a one-man machine. 



Splicing of Electric Cables. 

Too much consideration can hardly be 
given to the splicing of joints made 
in electric circuits and especially in cir- 
cuits carrying heavy currents. If the 
joints are not made properly reliability 
and stability of an electric system will 
not be obtained, no matter what the kind 
and size of the cable used. A poor 
joint means excessive heating, and if this 
heating continues a burnout may be the 
result. Moreover, after a satisfactory 
joint has been made, as far as the splic- 
ing and soldering of the copper strands 
are concerned, it is equally important that 
sufficient insulation be placed over this 
joint or failure may occur, due to the 
actual electric break-down, i. e., the volt- 
age of the electric power is too great or, 
in other words, the right kind of insula- 
tion of the proper amounts has not been 
used to prevent the electric power 
passing through the insulation to ground. 
The grade of insulation and the amount 
to be used is a very important factor, 
especially in high voltage work. 



Cost of Electric Locomotives in Heavy 
Trunk Line Service. 

A New Haven Railroad official is 
quoted as saying: "Upkeep of electric 
engines is on the order of 5 cents to 7 
cents per locomotive mile per 100 tons 
of weight. Steam-locomotive mainte- 
nance runs anywhere from 8 cents to 
25 cents, depending upon nature of the 
coal and water used — an average figure 
of 11 cents would not be bad. With 
regard to pounds of coal burned for 
electric-engine versus steam-engine haul, 
a pound of coal burned under the boilers 
of a central electric station for such 
traffic will develop twice the drawbar pull 
that would be developed if the same 
pound of coal was burned in the firebox 
of the steam locomotive." 



The Thermal Telephone. 

Mr. de Lange recently described in a 
paper before the Royal Society, London, 
his new thermal telephone or thermo- 
phone. 

In the ordinary telephone receiver there 
is a diaphragm which is vibrated by change 



February, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



63 



in value of an electro-magnet located just 
back of or underneath the diaphragm. A 
person talking into the transmitter at the 
other end of the wire causes varying cur- 
rents to flow over the wires and a vary- 
ing current in the coil around the electro- 
magnet of the receiver. This change in 
magnetic strength causes the diaphragm to 
vibrate in unison and the sound is repro- 
duced. 

Although telephone currents are ex- 
ceedingly small in value compared with 
power currents, still they are of definite 
value and it would be of great advantage 
if the amount of current required to op- 
erate the magnetic receiver could be re- 
duced, for by reduction of current larger 
transmission of messages could be ob- 
tained. 

The idea of using the electric current 
set up by the transmitter of the telephone 
to heat up a small wire, the temperature 
of this wire varying with the pulsating 
current was first thought of about 35 
years ago. Platinum is very sensitive to 
heat and the variations in the lengths of 
a platinum wire due to changes in cur- 
rent and hence changes in temperatures 
were transmitted to a diaphragm. 

In the de Lange thermophone there is 





DETAILS OF THE THERMAL TELEPHONE. 

no diaphragm used ; the wire speaks with- 
out a diaphragm. While in the air the 
sound is very weak, but if placed in a 
cover in one or several openings the sound 
becomes clear and distinct. The construc- 
tion is as shown in the figure. A small 
wire. A, of .002 mm., so small that it is 
practically invisible, which has had a spe- 
cial treatment, is attached to two small 
brass half circular blocks, B. The pins 
from these blocks fit into a small socket 
as a holder. A metal cap, C, having a 
very small opening at the top, is slipped 
over the terminal block, B, and forms a 
resonator. The illustration is full size 
and is for insertion in the ear. If a larger 
receiver is desired, several of the small 
wires can be arranged in parallel and a 
receiver is obtained which can be placed 
against the ear. 

The theory of the instrument is that the 
decrease and increase of heat in the pla- 
tinum wire occurs with the variations of 
current set up by talking into the trans- 
mitter at the other end of the line. The 
air surrounding the platinum wire is 
thereby immediately heated or cooled, 
and if that air is retained within a small 
space, the expansions and reactions are 
noticed as sounds. 



Apparatus for Signaling Under Water. 

Everything is being done, new inven- 
tions arc being made and experiments 
being tried to make travel at sea as safe 
as possible. 

One of the latest pieces of apparatus 
to be used in this connection is the elec- 
trically operated oscillator made by the 
Submarine Signal Company, of Boston, 
Mass. This oscillator is for sounding, 
determining the proximity of icebergs, 
and sending and receiving telephonic and 
telegraphic messages under water. By 
using one of these devices for sending 
and a microphone for receiving it is de- 
clared that a submarine telegraphic mes- 
sage has been sent 31 miles. If an oscil- 
lator is also employed for receiving, it 
becomes possible to signal over longer 
distances. Claims have also been made 
that with six dry cells and an ordinary 
transmitter in series with the oscillator 
conversation has been carried on between 
stations 400 yds. apart. 

The device, which is about 20.5 ins. in 
diameter by 15 ins. thick and weighs 850 
lbs., is very rugged and requires hardly 
any attention. It consists of a heavy 
diaphragm 1 in. thick, which is made to 
vibrate by being attached to a copper 
cylinder sliding in a gap, across which is 
induced a magnetic flux or field. This 
flux exerts a certain force in the cylinder 
and the heavy diaphragm is set up in 
vibration. The vibration is imparted to 
the water, which is the transmitting me- 
dium, by the diaphragm attached to the 
cylinder. While this apparatus is built 
to consume 35 kw., it can be operated 
by an ordinary telegraph key without ex- 
cessive sparking, as the circuit is prac- 
ticlly non-inductive. For determining 
the depth of water and the distance to a 
large body like an iceberg time is count- 
ed from the sending of a signal until an 
echo is heard. The distance is then a 
function of the time. 



An Automatic Electrically-Operated 
Solenoid Brake. 

In connection with hoists, cranes, bit 
bridges, etc., it is essential that a brake- 
be available to secure positive operation 
With operation of these devices by 
electricity it is possible to obtain a very 
positive and efficient brake and one 
which is automatic. Moreover it is so 
arranged that electric current must he 
available to have the brake in the re- 
leased position, and with this arrange- 
ment, if the power should fail, or the 
leads become disconnected, or anything 
occurs to disconnect the electric cur- 
rent from the device, the brake is ap- 
plied instantaneously thus possibly avoid- 
ing a serious accident. 

These brakes may be mounted on the 
floor, or attached to the motor. The 
illustration shows a pulley wheel, which 
would be fastened to the motor shaft, 
between the two brake shoes. These 
shoes are supported each on a plate yoke, 
which are hinged at the lower end, and 
act as levers for applying the necessary 



Signal Lighting Transformers. 

A new line of miniature air cooled 
transformers, known as type M, has been 
developed by the General Electrical Com- 
pany for railway signal lighting. These 
transformers are distinctive in application 
and design. They are enclosed in a neat 
and compact case, either for indoor use 
or in a weatherproof form for outdoor 
use. 

The transformers are fitted with stand- 
ard R. S. A. terminals, as shown by the 
accompanying illustrations, and are fur- 
nished in sizes for 25 to 125 watts, 25 and 
60 cycles. 

A lamp of from 2 l /z to 5 watts is gen- 
erally considered sufficient for signal il- 
lumination ; consequently, a transformer 
of this kind with 6 to 12 volts, 2y 2 to 5 
watts, high efficiency Mazda lamps makes 
a very satisfactory, as well as economical 
system of lighting. 




ELECTRICALLY OPERATED SOLEXOID 
BRAKE. 

pressure to the shoes to give effective 
braking. 

At the long end of the horizontal lever 
at the top, is attached an electric magnet 
or solenoid, enclosed in the box. With 
no electric power connected to the 
solenoid, the weight of the plunger is 
transmitted through the horizontal levers 
to the free or top ends of the yokes and 
to the brake-shoes, so that the brakes 
are applied. The various levers are so 
proportioned that the weight of the 
plunger is multiplied and a powerful 
brake is obtained. When electric cur- 
rent is connected to the solenoid, or in 
other words when it is energized, the 
plunger is raised, and the brake is re- 
leased. It is readily seen that the nor- 
mal position of the plunger is down with 
brakes on and that the brake is held in 
the release position by the electric cur- 
rent passing through the solenoid so that 
any disruption of the electric power 
causes the brakes to be applied imme- 
diately. 



64 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



February, 1915. 



Pooling Locomotives 

Interesting Discussion at the Convention of the 
Traveling Engineers' Association 



At last convention of the Traveling 
Engineers' Association there were many 
discussions that imparted new light to 
subjects nearly all railway men are in- 
terested in. The following comments 
were made on the subject of pooling lo- 
comotives : 

.Mr. C. C. Shaw, International and 
Great Northern : I believe the title of 
this paper is understood by us all as 
"Operation of All Locomotives with a 
View of Obtaining Maximum Efficiency 
at Lowest Cost.'' The statement has been 
made by some of the members present 
that we should not spend any time dis- 
cussing the manner in which the engine is 
worked and I believe that they are wrong. 
The first cost in the operation of a loco- 
motive, or the most important one, is the 
fuel. The amount of fuel that is used is 
determined by the amount of steam that 
is consumed. The amount of steam con- 
sumed is also determined by the manner 
in which the engineer works the engine. 
As far as the wide open throttle is con- 
cerned, I will say that I agree with the 
gentlemen who are in favor of the wide 
open throttle. By the wide open throttle 
1 do not mean that we have to pull the 
throttle back against the lubricator and 
leave it there, but we are to have the 
throttle valve open wide enough to admit 
all the steam into the steam chest the 
port opening will require. It seems that 
if we are to get the right cut-off for the 
engine we have to leave it entirely to the 
engineer. We probably all know it to be 
a fact that some men are what you call 
engineers, and they can sit up on the en- 
gine, drop the lever down and hook her 
up, and seem to do it mechanically; they 
may be thinking about something else at 
the time, but they are always able to 
strike that happy medium, that is, a point 
between too high and too low. There is 
always a nice intermission between the 
exhausts, and the engine seems to have 
an even and regular stride much the same 
as a race horse would have, goes on and 
does the work. While the engineer who 
is not able to do that is the man who has 
been brought up, not overstocked with 
self-confidence. When he goes up a grade 
he is always in doubt as to whether he 
can pull them up or not. In other words, 
he begins dropping the lever down until 
he gets it in the dividend notch and works 
the engine up the hill in that way. That 
is undoubtedly money wasted. If we are 
to train the engineer so that he can 
operate the engine economically we must 
first make him believe that he is as good 
an engineer as anybody else and that as 
long as he is on the engine we know that 
he will deliver the goods. 
I am going to make a statement on 



which 1 think some of the members pres- 
ent will take issue with me. It is this : 
In the economical operation of the loco- 
motive I am very strong for the pooled 
engine. 1 know many of you think you 
ought to have regular engines, but the 
fuel consumed by the locomotives is the 
item that counts, and 1 think the mechan- 
ical department of each railroad should 
put the engine in first-class condition, so 
that it can go from one terminal to the 
other regardless of who runs it as long 
as he is an engineer. Keep all the pack- 
ing and steam pipes tight, and a man can 
get on and run to the other end of the 
railroad. If we have the regular engine 
when he gets to the other end of the road, 
the Federal Compulsory Rest Law puts 
him to bed at least 8J4 hours. We have 
to maintain a fire in the engine all the 
time. If each one of you would think of 
the different terminals on the lines with 
which you are connected right now and 
try to figure out how many engines are 
standing in these terminals with fires in 
them, each one burning up money, how 
much do you suppose it is? If you could 
run the engine in, clean the fire if it is a 
coal burner, or turn her around if it is an 
oil burner, how much money would be 
saved ? 

It is claimed that the regular crew on 
a locomotive keeps the engine in better 
condition. I do not believe it. We have 
some of them that will not do a thing. 
I see some fellows that take an interest 
in the engine they are running, and they 
do the same amount of work on a pooled 
engine that they would on a regular en- 
gine. Therefore, I am strongly in favor 
of the pooled engine as far as economical 
operation is concerned, especially with 
regard to fuel. 

Mr. L. R. Pyle (M. St. P. & S. S. M. 
Ry.) : The committee evidently did not 
intend to take up the subject of regular 
engines, but as long as the gentleman has 
spoken in favor of the pooled engine, I 
would like to say that at one time on the 
Soo Line we had pooled engines, but have 
had engines assigned to regular crews for 
a number of years. Just lately we have 
gone into the regular engine system more 
than ever, and for quite a number of rea- 
sons, I must disagree with the gentleman 
on the pooled engine question. 

There is a statement in the report which 
says that a poor machine carefully handled 
will do better work than a good machine 
poorly handled. For this reason a crew 
assigned to one engine will always do 
better work. Some time ago we gave a 
man a regular engine which was a close 
candidate for the back shop. He had 
been running a pooled engine. I would 
like to sav here that we do all the work 



that is reported on pooled engines. \\ e 
told this engineer that he could have the 
engine as long as he could keep her out 
of the shop. In about a month after we 
assigned this crew to the engine men- 
tioned, we extended the mileage at least 
fifteen thousand miles. I cannot say 
that engine will make the mileage, but 
she was in good enough condition to 
warrant the mileage being extended that 
much. The roundhouse force did not do 
any more on that engine than they had 
been doing, but the engineer was anxious 
to have an engine that he knew he was to 
have every trip, so he did a lot of work 
on the engine himself. This man on the 
regular engine is doing the same work 
with an engine nearly worn out, as the 
other men are doing on new engines, and 
will continue to do so as long as the en- 
gine is out of the shop. 

We want men to use as little oil as pos- 
sible and still lubricate the engine. With 
a pooled engine, your engineer does not 
know how the engine is going to lubricate, 
or run, until he has made quite a few 
miles. The regular man knows just what 
his engine will do at the start, and will 
so use less oil and will still lubricate the 
engine. 

The regular man knows how the wedges 
and rods are, and just how she will 
run if he wants to make up time. He 
knows the condition of the cylinder pack- 
ing so that he may report it renewed if 
necessary. One could talk for an in- 
definite length of time on the advantages 
of a regular engine, but I will try and be 
brief. In regard to running repairs, if 
you give a man a regular engine he will 
do much work for you that you will pay 
a machinist thirty-five or forty cents an 
hour for, and he will do it better than 
any machinist because he knows just what 
is necessary in the way of setting up 
wedges and keying rods. When a 
machinist sets up wedges in the house, 
the boxes are cold and oftentimes the 
engine does not stand right, but he spends 
the time on them if they are reported. 
Many times the engineer has to stop and 
pull the wedges down after they have 
been set up by a machinist. This can all 
be avoided on regular engines. Your 
engineers will do this work for you for 
nothing for the privilege of having an 
engine that they know they will use to- 
morrow, and the next day, and the day 
after that. 

It is not a question in this paper 
whether it is better for traffic conditions 
or not. On some roads you cannot have 
regular engines, you have not enough of 
them, but where you have engines enough 
to give each man a regular engine, you 
will get better work on the road and many 
little jobs on the engine which you will 
not have to pay for. 

The matter of engine inspection was 
brought up. When you have assigned 
crews (in regular engines you have the 



February, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



65 



best engine inspector which you can pos- 
sibly get. The regular engineer walks 
around the engine several times each trip 
and on arriving at a terminal, he will know 
everything wrong with the engine, and if 
you encourage him to report the work by 
doing it after it is reported, you will main- 
tain the locomotive in first-class condition 
as long as it is out of the shop. Many 
of the small jobs he will do for himself. 

When you give a man a regular engine 
out of the shop you can say to him, "This 
is your engine and you will be held re- 
sponsible for the condition of the ma- 
chinery at all times." You can do this be- 
cause when the traveling engineer rides 
the engine and finds it pounding badly or 
cylinder packing blowing, or any other de- 
fect, he can place the responsibility, as 
only one man has been running the en- 
gine. 

On the other hand, let the traveling 
engineer get on a pooled engine and finds 
the boxes pounding or cylinder packing 
blowing, how is he to know who is re- 
sponsible? He will say to the engineer, 
"Why do you run an engine in this con- 
dition?" The engineer will answer, "This 
is the condition that the engine was in 
when leaving the terminal this morning. 
I have had no time as yet to report any 
work." Where you have five engines with 
ten men running them it is impossible to 
place the responsibility on any one man. 
We all know that with the mechanical 
department crowding the roundhouse 
foreman and trying in every way possible 
to reduce running repairs, many times 
work is slighted on pooled engines which 
would not be on the regular engines. The 
condition of our machinery on the Soo 
Line shows that the regular engine is the 
cheapest engine to maintain. 

My claim against the regular crewed 
engine is that every engine stands around 
with a fire in it while the crew is at home 
asleep. You can reduce the number of 
engines if pooled. For instance : You have 
thirty engines on the division with regular 
crews. If you run them in and double 
them out and run to the other end and 
double them out, will you need thirty 
engines? You can do it with twenty- four 
engines. Can you not keep up twenty- 
four engines cheaper than th'rty? You 
figure that you get good service out on 
the road and the crew helps you to take 
care of the engine, but can you not do a 
whole lot of work on it for the fuel you 
burn up in the terminal while the men are 
asleep' Cannot you men at the head of 
the mechanical department fix the en- 
gines so that anybody can run them? 

Mr. B. J. Feeney (I. C.) : Hearing 
this discussion on regular and pooled en- 
gines, I wish to say that I have visited a 
great many railroads that have regular 
engines, and from the expressions made 
by the mechanical men in charge and the 
enginemcn who run the engines it is very 



clear to me that the regular engines are 
an economical proposition. 

The president of the Illinois Central 
Railroad has made some investigations 
with some of the roads that had regular 
engines, and I want to say to you gentle- 
men that if you would only go to the 
Illinois Central Railroad you would find 
some figures that are amazing and sur- 
prising to all, as to the difference between 
pooled and regular engines. 

In the years when we had pooled en- 
gines, it was impossible for any man to 
trace who was responsible for any neglect 
of the locomotive. You know yourself 
when you met the engineer and asked him 
the question, he would say, "Bill So-and-so 
had this engine yesterday part of the 
time." You found him and he would tell 
you something about the roundhouse fore- 
man. You went to him, but he was the 
wrong foreman ; you had to see the right 
man. You could never determine who 
was responsible for neglect of the engine. 

In the days of pooled engines the en- 
gine failures were numerous. I think a 
great many of you had the same experi- 
ence. Today we have locomotives on our 
division that the men say will run from 
overhauling to overhauling without an 
engine failure. What we call an engine 
failure on the Illinois Central is anything 
that fails to maintain schedule time, which 
is pretty close. We are running as large, 
a single engine as are run by any of you 
gentlemen. The fireman will say: "I 
can fire this engine from so-and-so to so- 
and-so with so many scoops of coal." 
There is a rivalry between them as to 
saving coal, oil and supplies. 

I am surprised to see this question come 
up again, but T like to hear a man ex- 
press his opinion as to what he thinks. 
I think if the gentleman will go around to 
some of the railroads that have changed 
back from pooled to regular engines he, 
will immediately see how it is. 

The idea of taking a locomotive and 
keeping it fired up until the regular man 
goes out again is wrong. Why should 
we do that? I say the right way to do 
is to knock the fire out, set the engine on 
the side track, and fire up two hours be- 
fore you want it. It is a waste of fuel 
to keep up a fire until a man is ready to 
go out. 

The only thir.g in favor of pooled en- 
gines is that some transportation man 
will have a train in the yard and there 
will be no engine ready for an hour or 
two. and he wants the engines pooled. 
I think that was the cause of bringing 
the pool about in this country. 

Mr. E. J. Frazer (Q. & C.) : We run 
regular engines in freight and local and 
double-crew passenger engines. Our pas- 
senger engines run from 120.000 to 140,000 
miles and regularly assigned freight en- 
gines from twelve to fifteen months: onr 
engines in extra service run about nine 
months. A banked fire with a board over 



the stack with a four-inch hole will stand 
for fifteen hours; an engine with a solid 
board over the stack will stand fifteen to 
twenty-four hours and hold steam to re- 
new fire without fire in the fire-box. 



Increase of Safety on the Lehigh 
Valley. 

We are always gratified when we find 
that a railroad company introduces of its 
own volition a safety appliance device by 
one of its own employes. At the sug- 
gestion of Mr. C F. Rudolph, a telegraph 
operator belonging to the Lehigh Valley 
Railroad, the company has issued the fol- 
lowing order : 

"When freight trains are pulling out of 
sidings, or away from inspection points, 
or water stations where a stop has been 
made to take water, the engineer will move 
the train not to exceed six or eight miles 
an hour to permit a member of the crew 
to make a running inspection of the entire 
train. 

"At such points, one or more members 
of the train crew must be at the head end 
of the train before it starts and inspect 
the train as it passes, watching closely for 
bent axles, broken flanges, brake riggings 
down, defective brake riggings, defective 
arch bars, defective drawheads, wheels 
sliding, brakes sticking, loose wheels, hand 
brakes applied, car doors loose, or any 
other defects that can be detected." 

Doubtless this precautionary measure 
will be taken up by other railroads, as 
railway men are quick to adopt whatever 
is good, no matter what source it comes 
from. 



Master Mechanics' and Master Car 
Builders' Conventions. 

The annual conventions of the Ameri- 
can Railway Master Mechanics' and the 
Master Car Builders' Association in 
1915, will be held, as in previous years, at 
Atlantic City, N. J. The Master 
Mechanics' convention will be held on 
Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, June 
9, 10 and 11, and the Master Car 
Builders' convention on Monday, Tues- 
day and Wednesday, June 14, 15 and 16, 
1915. The meetings, as usual, will be 
held in the Greek Temple, on the ocean 
end of the Million-Dollar pier, and no 
better location could be found in America 
or anywhere else. 

Headquarters for both conventions will 
be at the Marlborough-Blenheim hotel, at 
which the president, executive committee 
and secretary will have offices, and accom- 
modations will be furnished for meet- 
ings of the various committees. The 
usual instructions regarding hotel accom- 
modations and registration are given out. 
Persons desiring further information 
should address the secretary, Jos. W. 
Taylor, 1112 Karpen building, Chicago, 
111." 



66 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



February, 1915. 



Items of Personal Interest 



Mr. G. A. Hillman has b'een appointed 
erecting shop foreman of the Erie with 
office at Galion, Ohio. 

Mr. O. E. Linn has been appointed 
road foreman of engines of the Van- 
dalia, with office at Decatur, 111. 

Mr. Clyde Ribley has been appointed 
night roundhouse foreman of the Santa 
Fe, with office at Richmond, Cal. 

Mr. Harry M. Muchmore has been 
appointed division foreman of the San- 
ta Fe, with office at Deming, N. M. 

Mr. R. Gardner has been appointed 
locomotive foreman of the Grand 
Trunk, with office at Island Pond, Vt. 

Mr. A. W. Johnson has been ap- 
pointed roundhouse foreman of the 
Santa Fe, with office at Richmond, Cal. 

Mr. Joseph Keller has been appoint- 
ed general fuel inspector of the Lehigh 
Valley, with office at South Bethlehem, 
Pa. 

Mr. E. Wanamaker has been ap- 
pointed electrical engineer of the Rock 
Island Lines, with office at Chicago, 
111. ' 

Mr. F. N. Norman has been appoint- 
er master mechanic of the Marshall & 
East Texas, with office at Marshall, 
Tex. 

Mr. E. H. McCann has been appointed 
master mechanic of the San Antonio, 
Uvalde & Gulf, with office at Pleasanton, 
Tex. 

Mr. Frank Aitken has been appoint- 
ed master mechanic of the Pere Mar- 
quette, with office at Grand Rapids, 
Mich. 

Mr. J. J. Stahl lias been appointed 
locomotive foreman of the Great 
Northern, with office at Rockford, 
N. D. 

Mr. H. H. Jones has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Colorado & 
Wyoming, with office at Segundo, 
Colo. 

Mr. F. E. Wolfe has been appointed 
locomotive foreman of the Chicago 
Great Western, with office at Hayfield, 
Minn. 

Mr. P. O. Sechrist has been appoint- 
ed master mechanic of the Louisville & 
Nashville, with office at Nashville, 
Tenn. 

Mr. N. II. Mauser has been appoint- 
ed mechanical engineer of the Chicago 
& Eastern Illinois, with office at Dan- 
ville, 111. 

Mr. Bert Smith has been appointed 
general foreman of the Rock Island Lines 



with office at Eldon, Mo., succeeding Mr. 
W. H. Burleigh. 

Mr. J. E. Gogle has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Fourche River 
Valley & Indian territory, with office 
at Bigelow, Ark. 

Mr. J. E. Giles has been appointed 
foreman of locomotive repairs of the 
Pacific Great Eastern, with office at 
Squamish, B. C. 

Mr. E. A. Everhart has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the 
Charles City Western, with office at 
Charles City, Iowa. 

Mr. S. E. Mueller has been appointed 
general foreman of the Rock Island Lines, 
with office at Rock Island, 111., succeeding 
Mr. R. I. McQuade. 

Mr. W. F. Moran has been appointed 
roundhouse foreman of the Rock Island 
Lines, with office at Shawnee, Okla., suc- 
ceeding Mr. A. Hamilton. 

Mr. B. F. Beckman has been appointed 
superintendent of the Fort Smith & West- 
ern and St. Louis, El Reno & Western, 
with office at Fort Smith, Ark. 

Mr. J. P. Dolan has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Apalachicola 
Northern, with office at Port St. Joe, 
Fla., succeeding Mr. R. A. Billingham. 

Mr. James G. Donovan has been ap- 
pointed division engineer on the Ma- 
hanoy and Hazleton division of the 
Lehigh Valley, with office at Hazleton, 
Pa. 

Mr. Irwin A. Seiders, formerly road 
foreman of engines of the Philadelphia 
& Reading, at Reading, Pa., has been 
appointed fuel inspector on the same 
road. 

Mr. J. A. Burton has been appointed 
night roundhouse foreman of the Chi- 
cago Great Western, with office at Des 
Moines, la., succeeding Mr. George 
Bailey. 

Mr. N. M. Barker has been appoint- 
ed master mechanic of the Copper 
Range, with office at Houghton, Mich., 
in place of Mr. J. A. Berg, assigned to 
i i her duties. 

Mr. W. Walthaner has been appoint- 
ed master mechanic of the Baltimore 
& Ohio, with office at Newark, Ohio, 
succeeding Mr. O. J. Kelley, assigned 
i" "tlier duties. 

Mr. F. K. Moses, formerly foreman 
of the Baltimore & Ohio shops at Gar- 
ret I. Ind., has been appointed master 
mechanic on the same road, with office 
at Fast Chicago, Ind. 

.Mr. W. F. Hay ward, formerly round- 



house foreman of the Canadian Pacific 
at Vancouver, B. C, has been appoint- 
ed night roundhouse foreman, with 
office at Calgany, Alt. 

Mr. D. E. Smith, formerly locomo- 
tive foreman of the Grand Trunk at 
Biggar, Sask., has been appointed to a 
similar position on the same road, with 
office at Regina, Sask. 

Mr. Peter E. Talty has been appointed 
chief train dispatcher, and Mr. Frank E. 
Thomson, assistant chief train dispatcher 
on the Minnesota division of the Illinois 
Central, with offices at Dubuque, la. 

Mr. Norman Bell has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Minnesota and 
Iowa divisions of the Illinois Central, 
with office at Waterloo, Iowa, in place 
of Mr. Frank W. Taylor, resigned. 

Mr. P. E. Crawley has been appointed 
vice-president of the operating depart- 
ment, in charge of transportation and 
equipment maintenance on the New York 
Central, with headquarters at New York. 

Mr. H. Cramer, formerly road foreman 
of engines of the Seaboard Air Line at 
Savannah, Ga., has been appointed super- 
visor of locomotive operation of the lines 
south of Columbia, with office at Jack- 
sonville, Fla. 

Mr. L. P. Rossiter has been appointed 
division engineer on the Lehigh Valley, 
with office at Buffalo, N. Y., succeeding 
Mr. E. T. Reisler, who has been trans- 
ferred to a similar position, with office at 
Auburn, N. Y. 

Mr. J. W. Tripp has been appointed 
general manager of the lines from New 
York to Buffalo on the New York Cen- 
tral, with headquarters at Albany, N. Y. 
The position of assistant general man- 
ager has been abolished. 

Mr. W. H. Arkenhurgh, publicity man- 
ager of the Union Switch & Signal Com- 
pany, has joined the sales department of 
the National Carbon Company, Cleveland, 
O., and will have charge of railway and 
signal work in Canadian territory. 

Mr. Frank W. Taylor, formerly mas- 
ter mechanic of the Illinois Central, at 
Waterloo, Iowa, has been appointed 
superintendent of motive power of the 
International & Great Northern, with 
headquarters at Palestine, Tex. 

Mr. J. J. Bernet has been appointed 
resident vice-president at Chicago, III., of 
the New York Central Lines. He will act 
as general representative of the company 
in that territory and perform such other 
duties as may be assigned to him. 

Mr. A. E. Hamlet, formerly road fore- 



February, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



67 



man of engines of the North Carolina 
division of the Seaboard Air Line, at 
Hamlet. N. C, has been transferred to 
the Alabama division to a similar posi- 
tion, with office at Americus, Ga. 

.Mr. J. K. Brassill, formerly general 
master mechanic of the Northwestern 
Pacific, at Tiburon, Cal., has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of motive power 
and marine equipment of the Northwest- 
ern Pacific Lines, with offices at Tiburon 
Mr. C. T. Sherry has been appointed 
traveling engineer on the Cleveland, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, with juris- 
diction over all divisions. Mr. Sherry 
claims that his promotion is largely owing 
to his perusal and study for many years of 
the pages of Railway and Locomotive 
Engineering. 

Mr. H. H. Seabrook, formerly district 
manager of the Westinghouse Electric & 
Manufacturing Company in Baltimore, 
has been appointed district manager of 
the company at Philadelphia, succeeding 
Mr. J. J. Gibson, who has become man- 
ager of the tool and supply department 
at East Pittsburgh. 

Mr. D. J. Madden has been appointed 
supervisor of locomotive operation of 
the Erie Railroad. Mahoning division, 
with headquarters at Cleveland, Ohio, 
in place of Mr. J. J. McNeill, trans- 
ferred to road foreman of engines at 
Cleveland, succeeding Mr. P. K. Sulli- 
van, assigned to other duties. 

Mr. D. R. MacBain, superintendent 
of motion power of the Lake Shore 
& Michigan Southern, with office at 
Cleveland, Ohio., and Mr. G. C. Cleve- 
land, chief engineer of the same road. 
have had their jurisdiction extended 
over the Illinois division of the New 
Vor.k Central, formerly the Chicago, 
Indiana & Southern. 

Mr. E. E. Griest, formerly assistant 
master mechanic of the Pennsylvania 
Lines West of Pittsburgh, with office 
at Fort Wayne, Ind., has been appoint- 
ed master mechanic at that place, suc- 
ceeding Mr. B. Fitzpatrick, deceased, 
and Mr. F. T. Huston, formerly as- 
sistant master mechanic at Pittsburgh, 
Pa., succeeds Mr. Griest. 

Mr. Lewis W. Baldwin has been ap- 
pointed general superintendent of the 
Illinois Central Lines south of the Ohio 
river, with office at New Orleans, La., 
and Mr. Lawrence A. Downs has been 
appointed superintendent of the Kentucky 
division of the same road, with office at 
Louisville, Ky., succeeding Mr. Baldwin, 
and Mr. William Atwill has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of the Minnesota 
division of the same road, with office 
at Dubuque, la., succeeding Mr. Downs. 
Mr. George F. Hinkens, who has been 
for a number of years in the employ of 
the Baltimore &• Ohio, has resigned to en- 
ter the service of the Ingersoll Rand 
Company, reporting to the Philadelphia 
office. Mr. Hinkens served his machinist 



apprenticeship with the Westinghouse 
Company and later entered Purdue Uni- 
versity. On the Baltimore & Ohio he 
was general foreman, and latterly assist- 
ant master mechanic, and at time of leav- 
ing was superintendent of the reclama- 
tion plant at Zanesville, Ohio. 

Mr. J. P. Barry has been appointed 
master mechanic on the New York, On- 
tario & Western, with office at Mayfield 
Yard, Pa., succeeding Mr. W. H. Kinney, 
resigned. The position of general in- 
spector in charge of air brakes, steam 
heat and lighting is discontinued, and 
matters relative to heat and lighting have 
been placed in charge of Mr. A. Kipp, 
general car inspector, while matters re- 
lating to air brakes will be in charge of 
Mr. B. P. Flory, superintendent of mo- 
tive power, with headquarters at Middle- 
town, N. Y. 

Mr. James \V. Chamberlain, engineer 
on the Boston & Albany, retired last 




H. W. COPE. 

month after a continuous service of S3 
years and 7 months. He entered the 
service of the road on June 1, 1861, as 
a spare fireman, and in turn served as 
fireman, engineer, traveling engineer and 
road foreman of engines. In later years 
he has been engineer on one of the largest 
modern express locomotives. He retired 
with an absolutely clear record, which 
has never had a demerit for any cause 
whatever placed against it. His pension 
began on New Year's day, the good 
wishes of every man on the road go with 
him into his honored retirement. 

Mr. Albert H. Harris has been ap- 
pointed vice-president of the New 
York Central, and will perform such 
duties as may be assigned to him from 
time to time by the president, in addi- 
tion to his duties as general counsel 
of the company. Mr. Harris is a grad- 
uate of the University of Rochester, 



and entered railway service in April, 
1905, and has been consecutively gen- 
eral attorney and general counsel on 
the New York Central, also vice-presi- 
dent of the Michigan Central and Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern, also vice- 
president of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, 
Chicago & St. Louis, and Chicago & 
Lake Erie, also vice-president of the 
Pittsburgh & Lake Erie. 

Among the changes and promotions 
on the Atchison, Topeka & Sanlr. Fe, 
Mr. William Harrison has been ap- 
pointed general foreman at Newton, 
Kan.; Mr. W. W. Roloson, general 
foreman at Arkansas City, Kan.; Mr. 
B. A. Eldridge, general foreman at 
Chillicothe, 111.; Mr. H. Gallagher, road 
foreman of engines at Chicago, 111.; 
Mr. B. P. Phelps, engineer of shop 
extension at Topeka, Kan., and Mr. 
W. D. Hartley, foreman on the Coast 
Lines of the Santa Fe, at Baustou, Cal. 
Mr. H. W. Cope, the popular and ac- 
complished assistant manager of the in- 
dustrial and power department of the 
Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing 
Company at East Pittsburgh, has been 
appointed director of the exhibit of the 
company at the Panama-Pacific Inter- 
national exposition and is now located in 
San Francisco giving his personal atten- 
tion to the work. Mr. Cope was born in 
North Vernon, Ind., and is a graduate of 
Purdue University of that state. Prior 
to his attending the university he was en- 
gaged in electrical construction and sales 
work. In September, 1898, following his 
graduation, he became associated with the 
Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., with 
which company he has remained ever 
since. Mr. Cope took the apprenticeship 
course and was engaged in the engineer- 
ing department in connection with the 
design of alternating-current switch- 
boards, layout of power houses and sub- 
stations, and in 1905 was made the head, 
of the A. C. correspondence department. 
A short time after this he was made as- 
sistant manager of the industrial and 
power department, which position he held 
until the time of his transfer to the work 
in connection with the exposition. 



Obituary. 

EDWARD D. METER. 

The death is announced of Col. Ed- 
ward D. Meier, formerly president of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers, at the age of 73. He served an 
apprenticeship in the Mason Locomotive 
Works, at Taunton, Mass.. and made a 
notable record as a constructor and en- 
gineer on Western railroads. He was 
president of the American Boiler Manu- 
facturers' Association in 1898, president 
of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers in 1910 and in 1913 represented 
that society in Munich at a joint meeting 
with the German Engineering Society. 



68 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



February, 1915. 



Passing Events in Europe 



By A. FRASER 

British Locomotives in 1914. 

Few changes- of an important kind were 
embodied in such locomotives as were 
turned out of British shops during the 
year 1914. It might almost be said that 
design was on the verge of stagnation, 
such improvements as were instituted for 
engines on some railways being but the 
incorporation in them of changes pre- 
viously effected on other lines. 

But if no material changes fail to be 
placed on record it has to be stated that 
there have been certain fallings away from 
grace tending to give the impression that 
the conditions of railway service in those 
islands are somewhat different from those 
in various foreign countries, or British 
locomotive engineers are at variance with 
the rest of the world. Thus we find that 
compounding so highly prized in Scandi- 
navian countries is getting out of use 
with us, and in a few years, if matters 
progress as at present tending, will have 
disappeared. There may be something in 
our mild climate which prevents the full 
advantage of the second expansion being 
experienced, although steamship experi- 
ence rather gives that theory the lie. It 
may, of course, be an indifference to what 
may be regarded as small economies, "the 
game not worth the candle" attitude, and 
the failure of the movement in favor of 
feed-water heating gives some color to 
this view. In considering the action of 
the British railway companies on any 
subject it must always be remembered that 
all competition among them is dead. The 
only competition with which they have to 
contend is that of the sea, and that is 
largely restricted to the carriage of 
merchandise. 

Contrary to the experience with com- 
pounding and feed-water heating super- 
heating makes steady progress. Railways 
which for long were decidedly conserva- 
tive on the subject of superheating are 
now adopting it as quickly as the super- 
heaters can be fitted. It is true that in 
some instances the change of policy has 
synchronized with a change of manage- 
ment, but that was, no doubt, merely an 
accident. The Schmidt device continues 
most in favor, and is fitted, in all prob- 
ability, to as many engines as all the 
ethers combined, but there are others com- 
ing along and the supremacy of the de- 
vice named may be challenged before 
long. 

This is not the place to recapitulate the 
additions made by the various railway 
companies to the numbers of their locomo- 
tives, but it may be mentioned that on the 
whole the additions were about normal. 
A tendency to accelerate goods traffic has 
had the effect of requiring more power- 
ful engines and this has led to the order- 
ing of more plant than would otherwise 
have been the case. The pooling of traffic 



SINCLAIR 

by which all goods must go by the shortest 
route must have reduced the total haul- 
age considerably, but that, of course, is 
not a thing to last. 



Electrification of Railways. 

While the conversion of railways in 
this country from steam to electric haul- 
age is not at a standstill by any means it 
is far from making rapid progress. Only 
around the cities, chiefly London, does 
the substitution proceed with any degree 
of haste, and even in such districts the 
conditions are too difficult to permit of a 
rapid change. 

As might be expected Switzerland tells 
a different story. No country in Europe 
is so placed by reason of natural ad- 
vantages to utilize electricity for railway 
haulage as Switzerland. It was the first 
country in the Eastern Hemisphere to in- 
troduce electric lighting from its water 
power, and has gone on extending its 
benefits from that source ever since. I 
remember being in Switzerland a good 
many years ago — with the editor of this 
technical and erudite publication more by 
token — and was greatly struck by the 
tramway systems in small towns, and the 
electric lighting in villages. At that time 
in this country only large cities were 
capable of carrying the burden of tram- 
ways, while public electric lighting was 
equally scarce. Now we learn from the 
Italian paper L'hidustria that it has 
been decided to convert 1,873 miles of 
Swiss State Railways from steam engine 
haulage to that by means of electrical 
power generated from the hydraulic 
wealth of the country. The people of 
Switzerland have some curious notions re- 
garding the rights of land owners. With 
them the rain from Heaven is the prop- 
erty of all and there is therefore no com- 
pensation for disturbed water rights to be 
paid. However, that by the way. The 
first section will include the St. 
Gothard tunnel, the section being some 
67.7 miles in length. Ample power from 
water exists, the only trouble likely to 
arise being from frost in very cold 
weather. Provision to cope with this 
obstacle has. however, been made and no 
real difficulty from this cause is antici- 
pated. The current will be transmitted in 
single phase form at a pressure of 60.000 
volts to various sub-stations whence it 
will be distributed at pressures varying 
from 7,000 to 15,000 volts. Some of the 
advantages of the change are, primarily, 
decreased cost of power. In the second 
place Switzerland will be rendered inde- 
pendent of foreign assistance in the form 
of coal on which she has hitherto had to 
rely, and in the last place the terribly 
trying pollution of the air in the St. 
fiothard tunnel will be remedied. 



Method in His Badness. 

While passing by an old-fashioned 
inn the tourists were attracted by an 
ancient bagpiper, who was tooting 
atrocious sounds through an instru- 
ment that was both dilapidated and 
squeaky. 

"Great Jericho, Sandy!" exclaimed 
one in desperation. "Why don't you 
have your bagpipes repaired?" 

And the old man ceased playing and 
looked up in astonishment. "Havers, 
mon, ye dinna understand. If ma bag- 
popies wor in good tune the inn mon 
winna give ma two shillings to move 
on." 



What He Got. 

Some children were telling their 
father what they got at school. The 
eldest got reading, spelling, and defi- 
nitions. "And what do you get, my 
little man?" said the father to a rosy- 
cheeked little fellow. 

"Oh, I dets readin', spellin', and 
spankin'." 



The Baby's Medicine. 

The mistress of the house had been 
to a concert, and when she returned 
she was met by the servant with: "Baby 
was very ill while you were out, mum." 

"Oh, dear!" said Mrs. Youngwife. 
"Is he better?" 

"Oh, yes, mum; he's all right now, 
but he was bad at first. I found his 
medicine in the cupboard." 

"Good gracious! What have you 
given the child? There's no medicine 
in the cupboard." 

"Oh, yes, there is; it's written on it." 
And then the girl triumphantly pro- 
duced a bottle labelled "Kid Reviver." 



Trustworthy. 

"Rufus, you old loafer, do you think 
i*'s right to leave your wife at the wash- 
tub while you pass your time fishing?" 

"Yassah, jedge; it's all right. Mali 
wife don' need any watching. She'll sholy 
wuk jes' ah hard as if I was dah." 



A colored preacher who had only a 
small share of this world's goods, and 
whose salary was not forthcoming on 
several occasions, became exasperated. 
At his morning service he spoke to his 
church members in this way — "Bred- 
ren and sistern, things is not as they 
should be. You must not 'spect I can 
preach on with you an' boa'd in 
Heben." 



The blessedness of giving is not lim- 
ited to cheques and bank bills. There are 
gifts that far transcend these — gifts of 
patience, sympathy, thought and counsel, 
and these are gifts that the poorest can 
give. 



February, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



69 




RAILROAD NOTES. 

The New York Central is inquiring for 
44,500 tons of rails. 



frigerator cars, and is expected to make 
inquiries for a total of over 3,000 cars. 



The Long Island has awarded 20 steel 
coaches to the Standard Steel Car Co. 



The Union Pacific is in the market for 
750 40-ton capacity steel underframe stock 
cars. 



The New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford, it is said, has ordered 20,000 tons of 
steel rails. 



"Flakes," said Old Jerry, 
as he gazed meditatively 
at the falling snow, "used 
to bother the boys con- 
siderable. What, with 
the cold weather, gum- 
my oil and the heavy 
storms, it was almost 
impossible to keep time. 
"Flakes," continued 
Jerry, "are all right if you 
know which kind to use. 
With a can of flake graph- 
ite Old 689 used to bore 
through those snow 
banks as if nothin' but 
white clouds was ob- 
structin' the way. 'It's 
graphite, boys,' I used to 
say and nothin' but 

DIXON'S FLAKE GRAPITE 

will do it. And then I 
used to pull out that old 
Dixon ad and read them 
the magic line: 'Write 
for free sample and 
booklet No. 69.'" 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Co. 

Established 1827 

JERSEY CITY, N. J. 



The Louisville & Nashville, according 
to report, has ordered 38,000 tons of rails 
to be rolled at Ensley, Ala. 



The American Locomotive Co., it is 
reported, has closed an order for seven 
small locomotives for Servia. 



It is understood that the Baldwin Loco- 
motive Works has closed an additional 
older of locomotives for Russia. 



The Southern Pacific is reported as 
placing contracts with the Tennessee Coal 
Iron & Railroad Co. for 30,000 tons of 
rails. 



The Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis 
has ordered six Pacific and six Mikado 
locomotives from the Baldwin Locomo- 
tive Works. 



The Philadelphia & Reading has placed 
an order for 10,000 tons of rails, the Penn- 
sylvania Steel Co. obtaining a portion of 
the order. 



Construction work at the Bessemer & 
Lake Erie shops at Greenville, Pa., has 
resumed. The steel car department will 
be doubled. 



The Detroit United has placed an 
order with the Westinghouse Electric & 
Mfg. Co. for a 50-ton Baldwin- Westing- 
house locomotive. 



An effort is being made to reinstate 
the recent order for 30 locomotives placed 
by the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, but 
subsequently held up. 



The Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis 
has placed an order for ten Mikado lo- 
comotives and six Pacific locomotives with 
the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The Baltimore & Ohio has placed con- 
tracts for 1,000 hopper cars with the 
Cambria Steel Co. and for 1,000 box cars 
with the Mt. Vernon Car Mfg. Co. 



The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe is 
in the market for 700 box and 500 re- 



The Illinois Central has ordered 25 
Mikado locomotives from the Lima Loco- 
motive Corporation. They will have 27 
x 30-inch cylinders and will weigh 218,300 
pounds. 



The Lehigh & New England is receiv- 
ing bids on revised plans for a one-story, 
163 x 264-foot building to be erected at 
Pen Argyle, Pa., for use as a locomotive 
shop and storehouse. 



The New York Central has ordered 
20,000 tons of steel rails, dividing the 
order among the Steel Corporation, the 
Bethlehem Steel Company and the Lacka- 
wanna Steel Company. 



The Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 
Louis has placed an order for five Pacific 
locomotives with the American Locomo- 
tive Co. It is said that this road is still 
in the market for equipment. 



First steps in the actual construction 
of the new Union terminal station at 
Chicago, involving the expenditure of 
$65,000,000 and the employment of 20,000 
men, probably will be taken in March. 



The Pennsylvania has announced its 
rail requirements for 1915. It will need 
170,000 tons of standard steel rails, and 
of this 150,000 tons will be 100-pound 
rails. This lot will be bought at once 
and bids have been asked. 



The Oregon-Washington Railroad & 
Navigation Co. is to build a freight ter- 
minal at The Dalles, Ore., consisting of 
six switching yard tracks each 4,000 feet 
long, a 12-stall roundhouse, a machine 
shop 40 x 40 feet, a power house 40 x 60 
feet, a store house 40 x 80 feet, water 
tanks, coal plant, cinder conveyor and 
turn tables. 



A formal order has been issued by the 
public service commission of New York 
to the Interborough Rapid Transit Co. 
that the lines must be equipped through- 
out with all-steel cars by December 1, 
1915. The substitution is to begin by 
May 1 and is to be completed by Decem- 
ber 1. The number of steel cars that will 
be required will be 478. 



Application will be made to the Domi- 
nion parliament at its next session for an 
act incorporating the Vancouver Terminal 
Ry. Co., and authorizing it to construct 
railway and terminal works and tunnels 
and transfer and connecting tracks with 
other railways between the cities of 
Vancouver and New Westminster, and 
the mouth of the Fraser river. 



70 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1915. 



Books, Bulletins, Catalogues, Etc. 



"National" Pipe. 

The growing demand for steel pipe in 
place of iron pipe has been so rapid that 
the almost universal use of the former is 
not as generally known as it should be. 
The National Bulletin No. 11 C presents 
the story of the development of the steel 
pipe in an admirably instructive way. 
'i he bulletin extends to 46 pages, and 
every page is luminous with intelligence. 
Early methods of manufacturing are 
shown in graphic illustrations from the 
crude bamboo tube of the Aborigines, and 
the pottery of the Egyptians, and the lead 
pipes of the Romans from which there 
was little departure until in 1812 an Eng- 
lishman began welding pipes for various 
purposes. Murdock, the inventor of gas 
lighting, was compelled to look around 
for something durable and the barrels of 
guns used in European wars came to his 
hand. These were lap welded, but butt 
welding soon came into use. Among the 



the advancement in its use has been so 
rapid during the intervening quarter of a 
century that at the present time the output 
rnts about ninety per cent, of tu- 
bular material manufactured in America. 
The quality is also being constantly im- 
proved, and as "National" pipe is made 
entirely in National Tube Company's 
mills, a remarkable degree of uniformity 
is secured, until now between "National" 
pipe and pipe of wrought iron there is no 
comparison, the latter requiring much per- 
sonal skill and attention to obtain even 
fair results, whereas in the manufacture 
of "National" pipe the work is reduced 
to a few highly trained men, the work 
being done entirely by machinery. 

Even under the very best conditions 
the lap-welded wrought iron pipe, accord- 
ing to the published reports of American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, rarely 
approaches 60 per cent, of the durability 
ot the "National" pipe. Nothing, how- 

1313 




STEEL-NESUGIBLE 



DIAGRAM SHOWING GROWTH OF INDUSTRY AND RATIO OF WROUGHT IRON TO 
STEEL PIPE MANUFACTURED FROM 1888 TO 1913. 



early and most successful American pipe 
manufacturers the Flagler Company was 
the most enterprising and successful. 
After an interesting experience in New 
England the company settled in Pittsburg 
as the National Tube Works Company. 
Since then the word "National" has be- 
come not only of national, but of world- 
wide reputation. 

The first great success of the company 
was in the producing of steel which suc- 
cessfully fills the severe demands made 
upon pipe by modern usage. To over- 
come the tendency to corrosion, especially 
in the smaller sizes of pipe, a special 
process known as Spellerizing was in- 
vented. This process is now peculiar to 
"National" pipe. It consists of a system 
of rolling repeatedly, thereby producing a 
dense texture on the surface of the metal 
and the results, after several years actual 
trial, are of the best. 

It was not, however, until 1887 that 
success became certain, and rigid inspec- 
tion and tests clearly demonstrated the 
superiority of Spellerized steel pipe and 



ever, is so sure a gauge of popular ap- 
proval as the actual growing increase of 
the use of the improved article, and the 
annexed diagram shows the increasing 
use of steel as compared with wrought 
iron pipe during the last twenty-five 
years.. 

Copies of this or other of the com- 
pany's "National" bulletins may be had 
on application to the company's office, 
Frick Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Master Car Builders' Report. 

The report of the forty-eighth annual 
convention of the Master Car Builders' 
Association is so voluminous that it covers 
two volumes of 459 and 504 pages, respec- 
tively. Besides the 504 pages of reading 
matter the second volume contains 96 
large, folded engravings that represent an 
immense amount of skillfully executed 
work. 

A striking feature about this report is 

mount of earnest and conscientious 

work done by the committees in prepar- 



GOLD 

Car 
Heating 



& 



Lighting 
Company 



Manufacturers of 

ELECTRIC, 
STEAM AND 
HOT WATER 
HEATING 
APPARATUS 

FOR RAILWAY CARS 

VENTILATORS 

FOR PASSENGER 

AND REFRIGER- 

ATOR CARS 

ACETYLENE SYSTEM 
OF CAR LIGHTING 



Send for circular of our combina- 
tion PRESSURE AND VAPOR 
SYSTEM OF CAR HEATING, 
which system automatically main- 
tains about the same temperature in 
the car regardless of the outside 
weather conditions. 

Main Office, Whitehall Building 

17 BATTERY PLACE 

NEW YORK 



February, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



71 



ing the reports and discussing them after 
they were read. There were sixteen re- 
ports read and discussed, some of them 
at great length. The report of the Ar- 
bitration Committee, for instance, fills 51 
pages while that on Couplers and Draft 
Equipment occupies 58 pages, with an 
appendix of 12 pages of illustrations and 
11 pages of discussion. The discussions 
were not expressions of empty platitudes, 
but were noted for good, practical sense 
emulating from men who know the busi- 
ness on hand from alpha to omega. 

The report on the Revision of Stand- 
ards and Recommended Practice is a cred- 
it to the committee and fills 11 pages, 
which was supplemented by a discussion 
that covers 16 pages. In this and other dis- 
cussions is strikingly illustrated the vast 
amount of practical information possessed 
by the master car builders of the country, 
men whose training school has been the 
workshop with tools of their trade for 
text books. 

An important part of the volume is the 
report on the discussions of the Arbitra- 
tion Committee, which fills 51 pages. This 
is a mass of decisions or recommendations 
concerning disputes that arose in the 
interchange of cars and are 136 in num- 
ber. The careful study of these recom- 
mendations will enable men controlling 
the interchange of cars from falling into 
disputes that frequently lead to tedious 
correspondence and sometimes embarras- 
sing decisions. This report is part of a 
mass of literature in course of production 
establishing rules for settlement of ques- 
tions that arise in connection with inter- 
change of cars. They cover almost every 
conceivable cause of dispute and it is 
likely that within a few years they will 
form a code of unquestioned authority. 

Couplers and draft appliances were 
reported on to the extent of 58 pages, 
with 12 pages more of illustrations and 
11 pages of discussions. That subject 
and Car Trucks provide subjects of al- 
most illimitable discussion, and the op- 
portunity for the members to spread 
themselves was not neglected at the last 
convention. 

There was nothing of importance 
relating to car construction and main- 
tenance left out, and all the discussions 
make excellent reading. In connection 
with this two-volume report, a Scrip- 
tural anecdote seems applicable. A cer- 
tain teacher asked a Sunday school 
class, Who deserved the greatest sym- 
pathy in the story of the Prodigal Son? 
After some hesitation the bad boy an- 
swered, "the calf." We have been 
thinking that Secretary Taylor was the 
calf slaughtered in getting out this 
report. 



Railway Master Mechanics' Association 
Report. 

The report of the proceedings of the 
forty-seventh annual convention of the 



American Railway Master Mechanics' 
Association comes to us in two vol- 
umes, making an aggregate of 1,015 
pages besides many double-page fold- 
ers. The report is the most formidable 
record of a master mechanics' conven- 
tion ever produced, and offers to the 
members a wide field for study or read- 
ing. The proceedings of the master 
mechanics' annual convention have 
been growing in size year by year, but 
the great increase in volume this year 
that called for two volumes was due to 
the long report of the Committee on 
Locomotive Headlights, which fills en- 
tirely the second volume. This impor- 
tant report is the. work of a special 
committee of which Mr. D. F. Craw- 
ford, general superintendent of motive 
power of the Pennsylvania Lines West 
of Pitsburgh, was chairman. It repre- 
sents an immense amount of scientific 
work, which is of the highest im- 
portance to all the railways in the 
country. We expect to make a special 
notice of Mr. Crawford's report when 
time permits. 

The proceedings proper of the forty- 
seventh convention of the Master Me- 
chanics' Association covers 660 pages, 
and besides the routine business em- 
braces reports on design, construction 
and inspection of locomotive boilers; 
dimensions for flange and screw coup- 
lings for injectors; efficiency tests of 
locomotives; fuel economy; locomotive 
headlights; locomotive stokers; motors 
for railway shops; revision of stand- 
ards and recommended practice; re- 
vision of train brake and signal equip- 
ment; safety appliances; smoke pre- 
vention; standardization of tinware; 
superheater locomotives; tests of 
Schmidt's superheaters and brick arch, 
and a few other subjects of minor im- 
portance. 

Besides an unusual amount of read- 
ing matter in the reports they were 
nearly all profusely illustrated by en- 
gravings which have served to greatly 
increase the size of the volume. 

The discussion on the floor of the 
various reports will be found extreme- 
ly interesting and full of facts worth 
remembering. It may seem ungracious 
to commend any particular lines of 
talk, but we were particularly im- 
pressed with the discussion on fuel 
economy, on locomotive stokers, on 
smoke prevention, and on superheaters 
and the brick arch. 

To go over this annual report for 
the purpose of identifying its strong 
points is to exercise patient labor, 
what must have been the weary toil of 
preparing the matter for the printers. 
It was our duty to edit ten of those re- 
ports and it was no jubilant labor 
when the report covered little more 
than 200 pages. The present report of 



LEARN MORE 
EARN MORE 



5iM p FxP^ 



TEN N ANT 




Here is a book 

of practical 

money-earning 

value to 

Locomotive 

Engineers and 

Railway Students 

EVERYWHERE 



"LOCOMOTIVE SLIDE VALVE SETTING" 

Written from practical experience for the 
man who "wants to know." 



"THE FIREMAN'S GUIDE" 

A handbook on the care of boilers in plain, 
every day English; very complete (12th edi- 
tion). 

Three Books Only 50 Cents Each 

Cardboard working model of the Wal- 
schaert Valve Gear, with full descrip- CI Cn 

Send for Special List of Prac- 
tical Handbooks. Mailed free. 

SPON & CHAMBERLAIN 

123 L Liberty Street New York 




NOW IS THE TIME to install a 

Rue Boiler Washer 
and Tester, 

For you will need it when cold 
weather comes. It will wash out, 
test and fill your boiler, all with 
hot water, and have it ready for 
use in one hour. 

THINK IT OVER. 
Catalog on Boiler Washers A-5. 
Catalog on Injectors B-5. 

Rue Manufacturing Co., 

22S CHERRY STREET 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Manufacturers of Injectors. Ejectors, 

Boiler Washers and Testers, Boiler Checks. 

Check Valves. 



ASH TO INI 

POP VALVES and GAGES 

The Quality Goods that Last 

The Athton Valve Co. 
271 Franklin Street, Boston, Maps. 
No. 174 Market St., Chicago. 1.1. 




72 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



February, 1915. 



1,045 pages makes us gap and say, poor 
Joe Taylor. 



Railroad Strangulation. 

Mr. Ivy L. Lee, executive assistant of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, de- 
livered an able address before the Men's 
League, at New Brunswick, X. J., lately, 
and it is now published in pamphlet form. 
It is particularly worthy of the attention 
of our legislators who seem singularly 
adverse to railroad development. Mr. Lee 
contends that the railroads in this country 
are caught in a vise which is being 
screwed tighter and tighter. Railroads 
do not oppose proper regulation, but is it 
not time to inquire whether regulation is 
not gradually becoming strangulation? 
Many are the signs now that the grip of 
cumulative regulation is slowly but surely 
squeezing out the life-blood of what 
President Wilson has called "the one com- 
mon interest of our whole industrial life" ; 
that it is scotching initiative and enter- 
prise ; and that it is undermining the 
ability of the railroads to provide for 
future public needs. 

In our treatment as a people of the 
railroad question we are obeying literally 
the scriptural injunction : "Take no 
thought for the morrow." "The railroad 
is here." we reason : "it cannot run away ; 
let us get all we can out of it now, be- 
cause — may be, its stock is watered !" 



nish information to the busy man who 
uses a marine engine for pleasure or 
profit, but who does not have the time or 
inclination for a more complete technical 
book. The instructions given are ample 
to enable any person to properly install. 
care for and operate his own marine en- 
gine. The work extends to 100 pages, is 
fully illustrated and is sold for twenty- 
five cents. 



Graphite. 

Among the most comforting publications 
that come to us the Joseph Dixon's 
Crucible Company Graphite is in the front 
rank. It does not admit the continuance 
of hard times but states that business is 
getting better in this country every day 
and we confidently look for steady and 
continuous improvement. Our business is 
growing. So is the business of many con- 
cerns with which we are closely ac- 
quainted. To be sure, some business 
houses are experiencing difficulty in pro- 
curing raw material ; some others may be 
restricted by credit limitations; still others 
face necessitous adjustment because of 
proposed or actual legislation. Pint, an- 
noying as all these things are. they are 
more or less transient and are not suffi- 
ciently important or numerous to change 
fundamental conditions. 



Gasoline Engines. 

The Norman W. Henley Publishing 
Company, 132 Nassau street. New York, 
have just published a revised and en- 
larged edition of a popular hook regard- 
ing the running and installing of two and 
four-cycle gasoline engines. The author, 
Mr C. Von Culin. is an eminent authority 
on the subject, and his object is to fur- 



Smithsonian Institution. 

Anything in book form more stale, 
flat and unprofitable than a government 
report would be hard to find in the realm 
of literature. There are exceptions 
among which is the annual report of the 
Smithsonian Institution just issued. It is 
a cyclopedia in its way and contains much 
that is of real vital interest. It adds to 
the golden fringe of science. It tells of 
prehistoric man. It circles the belt of 
Orion. It touches and illuminates almost 
everything. All that one needs is time 
to peruse its 804 pages, then the reader 
could take his place among the scientists 
of our time. Copies may be had from 
the Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 



Flexible Staybolts. 

An interesting record of complete in- 
stallations of flexible staybolts appears in 
the last issue of the Bulletin of the Flan- 
nery Bolt Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., 
which is well worth the serious considera- 
tion of all interested in boiler construc- 
tion and repair. During the past year 
many fire boxes have been converted from 
the rigidly stayed condition, obtaining a 
complete installation of the Tate Flexible 
Staybolt. Quite a number went through 
the several locomotive plants and others 
were handled by the railroad shops that 
had the facilities, the work being easily 
accomplished under systematic and careful 
supervision and most satisfactory results 
were obtained in the quickness and com- 
pletion of the work. 

Several hundred new boilers are now in 
service with a complete Tate Flexible 
Staybolt installation, and the most satis- 
factory reports are obtained as to their 
service and economy of maintenance. 



Lucky Inventions. 



STEEL STAMPS 

INSPECTORS HAMMERS 
Hand Cut STEEL LETTERS L FIGURES 
LATHE TOOLS, TIME CHECKS, 

Noble it Westbrook Mfg. Co. 

9 ASYLUM ST. HARTFORD, CONN. 



Nichols Transfer Tables 
Turntable Tractors 

GEO. P. NICHOLS & BRO. 

1090 Old Colony Bldg. CHICAGO 



Correspondence Invited 

with parties owning or controlling 

RAILWAY DEVICES 

of Cast Steel 

Reading Specialties Co.. Sales Agts 

Reading Bayonne Steel Casting Oe., 

READING, PA, 



Hydraulic 

RiV€terS Fixed and Portable 

Punches, Shears, 
Presses, Lifts, Cranes 
and Accumulators. 

Matthews' Fire Hydrants, 

Eddy Valves 

Valve Indicator Posts. 

The Camden High-Pressure Valves. 



Cast Iron Pipe 



R. D. Wood & Company 

Engineers, Iron 
Pounders, Machinists. 

100 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Fox, who superseded whalebone ribs 
for umbrellas by the paragon frame, we 
are told, netted £240.000. The inventor 
of shoe tips cleared £200,000. The hawker 
who conceived the idea of lead pencils 
with an india rubber tip cleared £20,000, 
?nd the designer of the piece of india rub- 
ber for shoe heels retired with a fortune 
of £160,000. The revival of Diabolo. a 
game known under the Directorire. is 
said to have made £120.000 from his ide't. 




The Norwalk Iron Works Co. 

SOUTH NORWALK, CONN. 

Makers of Air and Gas Compressors 

For All Purpose* 

Send for Catalog 



R!!!S9L Enjifieerini 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling Stock and Appliances 



VoL XXVIII. 



114 Liberty Street, New York, March, 1915. 



No. 3 



Palace of Transportation Panama Exposition 



Our frontispiece illustration is a view 
of the interior of the Palace of Trans- 
portation at the Panama-Pacific Interna- 
tional Exposition, San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, and which was opened last month 
and will remain open until next Decem- 
ber. The building devoted to transpor- 
tation is the second largest of the eleven 



or the little Huntington Engine, on the 
left. Beyond the Huntington with its 
single driver, is one of the electric loco- 
motives. 

A fair view of the remarkable struc- 
tural work is shown in the picture, but 
it would' be impossible for any picture 
to give anything but a faint idea of the 



in the various railroad exhibits. Methods 
of dispatching trains, operations of yards, 
methods of preventing injury to persons 
and accidents to freight and baggage, and 
also the modern safety devices in use on 
the American railways are being dis- 
played and exhibited. 

An interesting exhibit is that of the 




INTERIOR VIEW OF THE PALACE OF TRANSPORTATION AT THE PANAMA-PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION, 

SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



gigantic exhibit buildings, and measures 
579 feet by 614 feet, the exhibit area 
amounting to over 314,000 square feet. 
Almost every known type of locomotive 
is on exhibition. Those shown in the 
illustration are modern types of South- 
ern Pacific engines on the right, and 
what is known as No. 1 of the same road. 



magnitude or variety of exhibits coming 
under the heading of transportation and 
all displayed in one building. Many of 
the details shown are amazing in their 
minuteness. The handling of passengers, 
ticket office management, emigration and 
colonization bureaus on railroads, and 
methods of freight transit are illustrated 



Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Company, which includes one of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad locomotives 
mounted on a turn table. The loca- 
tion of the turn table is under the cen- 
ter of the dome of the immense Trans- 
portation Building at the junction of 
the two main aisles, thus bringing it in 



74 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



March, 1915. 



full view of crowds which are expected 
to pass through this building, which 
Vjfifirvoutain a large number of exhibits 
ot great interest to the public at large. 
Some idea of the vast size of the 
building may be gathered from an au- 
thentic story told of an erecting engi- 
neer who endeavored to locate the 
center of the building with his eye by 
standing under the dome, which seem- 
ingly was an easy task. When accu- 
rate measurements were afterwards 
made to verify this, it was found the 
point previously selected was 12 feet. 
off from the actual center. The turn 
table is 65 feet long and weighs 440.000 
pounds, including the locomotive. The 
height of the track is 12 feet above the 
floor, and steel ties are used, a new 
type of construction for this class of 
work. By means of 10 horsepower, 3- 
phase, 220-volt motor the turn table is 



service. It consists of two units and 
weighs 156 tons, and is the first side- 
rod gearless locomotive ever placed in 
service. It is equipped with two motors 
having a total capacity of 4,000 horse- 
power, and Westinghouse unit switch 
control equipment of the HBF type, 
which has made the phenomenal record 
of 99,549 miles per train without delay 
power control failure. Twelve million 
passengers annually are transported 
over the electrified terminal of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad from Harrison, 
N. J., to Pennsylvania Station, New 
York City, by these locomotives, which 
are capable of attaining a speed of 60 
miles per hour with full train. 

In addition to the locomotive, the 
newly developed types PK and HL con- 
trol for railway motors will be shown 
in actual operation. These control 
equipments will operate motor racks 




ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES AT THE PANAMA-PACIFIC EXPOSITION. 



caused to revolve at a speed of once in 
three minutes, thus giving the crowds 
in each end of the building different 
views of the locomotive. The rotation, 
which can be reversed in direction, is 
under the control of the operator lo- 
cated in a booth nearby. 

A decidedly unique method of collect- 
ing the current for lighting the locomo- 
tive is employed. This was designed 
by the Westinghouse engineers and 
involves bringing the leads up through 
center bearing, to collector rings, thus 
obviating the use of third rail shoes or 
trolleys. The locomotive is arranged 
and lighted so as to permit the people 
to pass through it and inspect the 
equipment. It is clamped to the turn 
table by means of steel bands so as to 
prevent any possibility of its becoming 
dislodged in the event of an earth- 
quake. This locomotive is said to be 
the largest in the world in passenger 



equipped with 40 horsepower motors. 
The PK control operating head can be 
applied to any standard type K con- 
troller. A complete line of commutat- 
ing-pole railway motors, including box 
and split frame types for various 
voltages from 600 to 1,500, will also be 
shown, and in addition a preliminary 
sample of the new pressed steel rail- 
way motor. 



Award for Safety on the New York 
Central Lines. 
On February 11 the E. H. Harriman 
Memorial Gold Medal for the American 
Steam Railway making the best record 
in accident prevention and industrial hy- 
giene affecting the public and its own 
personnel during the year ending June 
30, 1914, was awarded to the New York 
Central Railroad. The award was made 
to this road for its record on the New 



York Central and Hudson River Rail- 
road prior to its consolidation with the 
Lake Shore. The medal was offered by 
Mrs. E. H. Harriman to be awarded 
through the American Museum of Safety. 

The record of the New York Central 
for the year was considered remarkable 
in many respects. The progressive steps 
taken in the installation of block sig- 
nals, improved roadbed, steel equipment 
and modern safety devices were taken 
into consideration, as well as the actual 
record of accidents. There has not been 
a passenger killed in a train accident on 
the road in four years, during which 
time the number of passengers actually 
carried on its trains equals approximate- 
ly twice the entire population of the 
United States. Nearly three million 
freight and passenger trains were oper- 
ated day and night in all kinds of weath- 
er. During the year ended June 30, 1914, 
as compared with the previous fiscal year 
there were 102 fewer persons killed and 
1068 fewer persons injured as a result 
of the safety work on the road. 

The presentation of the medal was 
made in the United Engineering Society 
Building, New York City, and was re- 
ceived in behalf of the railroad by Mr. 
Alfred IT. Smith, President. 



Japanese Locomotive Engineering. 

A new era in the annals of Japanese 
engineering was marked recently when a 
successful trip was made of a new loco- 
motive for the South Manchurian Rail- 
way. This engine, which is the first 
standard-gauge locomotive to be designed 
and built by Japanese engineers, was con- 
structed in the company's shops at 
Shahokou, near Dairen, the terminus and 
headquarters of the railway, and one of 
the most flourishing ports in the Far 
East. It is true that Japanese-built en- 
gines are already in use on the Imperial 
Japanese Government Railways, but these 
are all narrow-gauge lines. The Shaho- 
kou shops, which were only opened in 
1911, are naturally on a comparatively 
small scale. They are, however, well 
equipped with modern machinery and up- 
to-date appliances of all kinds, and em- 
ploy nearly 3,000 hands. The shops are 
now constructing five more engines of ex- 
actly the same design, as well as six 
double-ended tank-engines for the Chosen 
(Korean) Government Railways. Move- 
over, it is intended gradually to increase 
the capacity of the works to construct 
new locomotives and carriages. 



Dog Railroad in Alaska. 

The furthest north railroad in the 
world is said to be that between Nome 
and Kougarok in Alaska, a distance of 
eighty miles. The government imposed 
a tax of one hundred dollars a mile per 
annum on the road, and the road failed 
to pay expenses. A mail contractor. 



March. 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



75 



named Peter Yaeger, leased the line, and 
he constructed light cars that ran on four 
wheels, and with a motive power of from 
ten to fifteen dogs he had hauled several 
tons of freight and mails and made the 
round trip once a week. Now the govern- 
ment is projecting a railroad that will 
run from Nome to the Alaska coal fields. 
This will bring the price of coal down 
from $20 a ton to about $3 or $4, and it 
is expected that the Seward Peninsular 
Railroad again will become a steam rail- 
road instead of a dog road. 

For five years coal has been brought 
from British Columbia and Australia 
and has been extensively used in thawing 
out the frozen ore and gold deposits. 
Many of the mining plants use coal also, 
although much fuel oil is being in- 
troduced. 



European Railroads. 

According to Mr. Irvin S. Cobb, who 
has recently returned from an extensive 
European trip, and resumed his occupa- 
tion as a leading New York journalist, 
the so-called de luxe modern, first class 
Continental trains, with the exception of 
two or three special trains, are about 
what the service was on an accommoda- 
tion, mixed freight and passenger train 
in the State of Arkansas immediately 
following the close of the Civil War. 
Everybody may not agree with Mr. Cobb 
because he has peculiar views of his own, 
but there is a strong element of truth in 
all of his unique statements. In regard 
to the European war he says that there 
is no war, but an extensive siege, with the 
armies standing away back as far as pos- 
sible from each other. He prophesies, 
however, that they may come to grips 
before another winter. 



Railways in Rhodesia. 

The traffic on the Rhodesian railways 
was extremely good last year owing to 
a large expansion in trade and settlement 
in the districts between Bulawayo and 
Salisbury and also in the Belgian Congo. 
Large importations of machinery have 
been made. An important source of re- 
cent traffic has been the rapid extension 
of the copper mining industry. Furnaces 
with a capacity of 1,000 tons of copper 
per month are at work and further addi- 
tions are being made. 

The Union Miniere du Haut Katanga, 
which owns the Katanga mines, has con- 
tracted to take its fuel supplies from the 
Wankie colliery for a period of ten years, 
the minimum quantity of coal and coke 
under this contract being 100,000 tons per 
annum. The whole of this large traffic 
will pass over the northern sections of 
the Rhodesian system, while the copper 
will be carried from the northern frontier 
of Rhodesia to the sea at Beira. 



Armored Trains in War. 

It may be interesting to note now that 
armored trains are traversing the battle 
fields of Europe, that the first armored 
train was used during the Egyptian cam- 
paign of 1882. The train was put in 
service during the reconnaissance in force 
against Arabi Pasha's troops, and was 
employed on the Abouker-Lake line. The 
car employed was a truck protected by 
boiler plates, and armed with a six-inch 
rifled gun and a couple of Gatling guns. 
This armored vehicle was pushed ahead of 
the locomotive. 



The Simplon Tunnel. 

The Simplon Tunnel is the longest not 
merely in Europe, but in the world, its 
exact length, inclusive of the two short 
curves at either end, being 12 miles 537 



During the construction of the Simplon, 
the workmen suffered intensely from heat, 
owing to the number of hot springs tapped 
and to the temperature of the rock. The 
thermometer at times rose to 127 degs. 
Fahr., and the arrangements for ventila- 
tion by means of the continual introduc- 
tion of fresh air proved insufficient, so 
that the air had to be cooled in advance 
of the boring party by being sprayed with 
icy cold water. 

The enormous weight and stupendous 
pressure of the mountain overhead also 
caused much trouble, the pressure having 
been such as to distort the strongest 
wooden beams and warp the most solid 
iron supports. 

During the boring of the Simplon Tun- 
nel only forty-two lives were lost — a small 
number, considering that it was eight years 
in construction, and especially small when 




ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION OF THE SIMPLON RAILWAY AT ISELLE, ITALY, 
AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE SIMPLON TUNNEL. 



yards. For about fifty years before its 
piercing engineers had been speculating as 
to the possibility of such an undertaking. 
By 1898 work was actually begun, and the 
whole tunnel was ready for traffic by 
May 19, 1906. The cost amounted to 
£2,940,000. 

The north portal of the Simplon is 
about one mile from Brigue station, in 
Switzerland, and the south portal about 
half a mile from Iselle, in Italy, the frontier 
being crossed in the tunnel itself, more 
than half of which is in Italian territory. 

The Simplon is the lowest great Alpine 
tunnel, the highest elevation reached by it 
being only 2,313 ft. It was originally built 
with a double gallery, connected by cross 
shafts every 220 yards, the two galleries 
being 56 ft. apart. One gallery alone was 
at first finished, and only a single track 
laid. The second gallery, however, will 
soon be completed and ready for traffic. 



compared with the 177 lives lost on the 
St. Gothard, which took nine and one- 
half years to build. Owing to the Simplon 
having been begun after considerable ex- 
perience of great Alpine tunnels had been 
acquired, it was far more rapidly con- 
structed than any of its predecessors. The 
traction in the tunnel is electric, trains 
taking from twenty to twenty-five minutes 
to pass through. 

Half way through the tunnel, at a point 
where there are 7,000 feet of mountain 
overhead, a station has been built, not for 
passengers, but for signaling purposes, 
two railway officials being constantly kept 
there. At this station, also, a slow train 
can be shunted on to a siding, in order to 
allow an express to pass. So well sup- 
plied is the Simplon Tunnel with fresh 
air that the men in the central station can 
remain on duty for' eight consecutive 
hours without feeling any ill effects. 



76 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



March, 1915. 



General Correspondence 



Another Old Timer. 
By Andrew J. Fallon, New York. 

It is always a delight to the older school 
of railway men, high or low, to see that 
Railway and Locomotive Engineering 
occasionally recalls from the interesting 
past some locomotive famous in its day, 



simple method of arriving at the value 
of tractive effort for simple locomo- 
tives is as follows: 

In the figure A is the piston and B 
and C the crosshead and connecting 
rod. When the wheel is revolving in 
the direction shown, for forward mo- 
tion, and the piston moving in direc- 




PALISADE No. 4, NORTHERN RAILROAD OF NEW JERSEY. 



but now almost a vanished memory. As 
links in the great chain of locomotive de- 
velopment they have a place that will live 
in the undiscovered future. I recently se- 
cured a photograph of an old wood 
burner, named the Palisade No. 4. The 
photograph was taken at Monsey, N. Y., 
in 1867. This engine did excellent service 
on the Northern Railroad of New Jersey, 
now part of the Erie system, and was 
built at the Rogers Locomotive Works, 
Paterson, N. J., in 1862, for use in pas- 
senger service. The engineer, Mr. James 
Powles, is shown in the cab of the engine. 
The conductor, Mr. Abram Blauvelt, 
known as the "Dominie," from his cleri- 
cal appearance and manner — one of the 
best known railroad men of his time in 
the United States — is shown in the second 
car. The photograph I had from Mr. 
William Blauvelt, son of "Dominie" 
Blauvelt. The younger Mr. Blauvelt is 
now one of the most popular conductors 
on the Northern Railroad of New Jersey. 
and amply sustains the popularity of his 
worthy father. 



tion P, owing to steam pressure acting 
upon it, the crank-pin G is pulled down- 
wards towards the horizontal center line. 
At the same time the weight on drivers 
II', on axle bearing, acting downwards, 
keeps the wheel tread in contact witli 



tiplied by the length of crank-pin arm and 
divided by the semi-diameter of the wheel. 
This acts in a direction contrary to fw, 
and is, as we shall presently show, the 
measure of tractive effort or drawbar pull. 
Now when fzv is equal to, or in excess 
of, the tractive effort, the wheel will act 
momentarily as if fulcrumed at E, and 
the pull on crank-pin will cause the cen- 
ter of axle to advance towards A; in 
other words, the engine moves forward 
The position of the fulcrum with regard 
to the tread of the wheel is continually 
changing. We, therefore, get a combina- 
tion of two motions: one, a movement of 
the wheel center in a horizontal direction, 
and the other, a circular movement of 
the wheel about its center. This is, in 
effect, what takes place whether the 
crank-pin is above moving towards A, or 
whether it is below moving from A. The 
locomotive then moves forward as if pro- 
pelled by a horizontal force equal to 
tractive effort. If, however, the pull of 
the train — that is, the resistance — exceeds 
the tractive effort T, then movement can- 
not take place. Also, if the tractive effort 
is greater than "fw," the point E will no 
longer serve as a fulcrum, and the wheel 
will then simply revolve without moving 
the locomotive; in other words, slipping 
will take place. Therefore 

Force of adhesion "fw" must be greater 
than tractive effort "T" or resistance "R," 

or fw must be greater than T or R. 

Now, while the wheel of diameter D 



n 






*" p - Sit<« P»»jj URe 






^ll 1 


V* ' 


t»— 


TJ 






"A" 




DRAWING ILLUSTRATING TRACTIVE EFFORT OF LOCOMOTIVE. 



Tractive Effort Simply Explained. 

By Robert W. Rogers, Apprentice In- 
structor, Erie R. R., Port Jervis, N. Y. 
It will be understood that tractive 
effort must be equal to resistance 
at all times if a train is to move. A 



the rail under a pressure equal to W. 
The pressure causes a frictional force 
fw, "f" being the coefficient of rolling 
friction, or, as it is always called in refer- 
ence to adhesion, the coefficient of ad- 
hesion. Owing to the force acting on 
crank-pin, we have, by principle of the 
lever, a force acting at the tread of the 
wheel equal to crank-pin pressure mul- 



is making one complete revolution, the 
piston makes two strokes of length "L" 
under the mean effective steam pressure 
P per square inch. Hence the work done 
in one cylinder during one revolution of 

7T 

driver is = 2 X (d : — L X P), where 

4 
d = diameter of cylinder in inches, L = 



March. 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



77 



length of stroke in inches. But there are 
two cylinders in the locomotive, hence the 
whole work done by the steam during this 
time is = d : i L P. Now, while the 
driving wheel makes one revolution, the 
center of the axle, if there is no slip, 
moves forward a distance "■ D, and the 
work done is = ' D T. Equating these 
two values of the work done wc obtain 

d J T L P = 7T T D 

d 2 L X P 

therefore T = ■ 

D 

Considering Compound Locomotives : 
To calculate the tractive effort of com- 
pound locomotives the following condi- 
tions are taken : 

d = diameter of low pressure cylinder. 

T = tractive effort. 

D = diameter of drivers. 

p = boiler pressure. 

s = stroke of piston. 
4 T X D 

Then d" = , from which T, 

' P X s 



Shipping Air Brake Parts. 

By F. W. Bentley, Jr., Missouri 
Valley, Ia. 
The air brake department in connection 
with a division shop of any moderate size 




FIG. I. 

the tractive effort can be easily found. 
In general, the low pressure cylinder di- 
ameter is made l ! / 2 times the diameter 
of a simple locomotive of equal power, 
the steam pressure being increased 10 per 
cent. 

Force of Adhesion: In order to utilize 
fully the tractive effort sufficient adhesive 
weight must be provided. It is, therefore, 
necessary to know the value f the coeffi- 
cient of adhesion. This varies between 
Vi to 1/10, but in general it is taken 
d : LP W 

as %. We now have = — = R. 

D 4 

W in general will be the weight on driv- 
ing wheels only. It is evident that the 
greater the weight on drivers the less the 
chance of slipping. It follows then that 
a locomotive having 400,000 pounds total 
weight on driver cannot exceed a pull of 
400.000 

= 100,000 pounds, except under 

4 
very favorable conditions. If R, the re- 
sistance of the train, exceeds this 100.000 
pounds, a helping engine must be used. 




FIG. 2. 

is generally of necessity a shipping depot 
of repaired parts to outside points and 
roundhouses. In volume, the amount of 
air brake repairs required by outlying 
points is not sufficient to require special- 
ization at such places, and the demand 
for brake parts is fulfilled by the main 
shop where the air work is necessarily 
and economically specialized. 

Approaching the subject another fact 
to be considered is that the majority of 
shipments of air brake accessories are 
made on passenger train, as outside points 
call for this material only when it is 
needed and that generally as soon as it 
can be received. Trainmen and baggage- 
men who handle the parts do not, as a 
rule, have much of an idea of the sensi- 
tive nature of such material, and it only 
too often arrives for use in just as bad 
a condition as that to be sent back for 
repair. From observation of not a little 
trouble experienced through considerable 
necessarily forced and hurried shipping, 
the writer has adopted a few methods in 
the preparation of air brake material 
which has satisfactorily afforded better 




results and less work in connection with 
the air brake department. 

The slide valve feed valve is a part 
very quickly rendered defective by care- 
lessness and improper handling in ship- 
ment. Any small amount of foreign mat- 



ter which easily enters the large port 
openings is readily fatal to the operation 
of the valve, no matter how carefully it 
may have been repaired and tested out. 
Fig. 1 shows a method by which feed 
valves can be economically and safely 
protected against almost any conditions 
that would damage them in shipment. 
The small wooden strip or block is 
quickly applied to the valve as it is set 
out, and returned with the defective one. 
It is not an uncommon occurrence for 
a baggageman to unload a number of en- 
gine triples with the same vehemence that 
trunks and suitcases are disposed of. 
The writer has seen them shoot out of 
a sidedoor and go rolling along a gravel 
covered station platform with the velocity 
of shrapnel. If the matter was further 
investigated, this would be found the 
direct cause of not a few engine failures 
at outside engine houses, where repair 
work is done by hostlers and other em- 
ployees whose mechanical ability is not 
comprehensive of what might occur to an 
unprotected triple in shipment. Proper 
plugging of the three connecting aper- 




FIG. 4. 

tures, as shown in Fig. 2, is a simple pre- 
caution, yet it affords almost an iron-clad 
protection for the triple no matter who 
bandies it or how. 

The distributing valve is not the re- 
cipient of so much rough usage primarily 
because of the fact that it is an unwieldly 
and heavy proposition, and cannot be as 
freely handled as other parts without a 
considerable element of danger. The 
numerous openings on the gasket face are 
nevertheless subject just as much to the 
entrance of dirt and foreign matter in- 
jurious to the sensitive interior parts. 
Fig. 3, shows a simple wooden block for 
the protection of the valve, and which 
the writer has applied to emergency 
valves with good results. 

Fig. 4 is descriptive of a method of 
preparing the G-6 brake valve for ship- 
ment. The capping of the trainline and 
main reservoir connections is supple- 
mented by the removal of the equalizing 
T and the plugging of the l / 2 inch opening 
in the body of the valve. The brass T 
fitting is a part not uncommonly broken 
off and it will be noticed securely wired 



78 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



March, 1915. 



to the valve under the feed valve attach- 
ment. 

There is an old saying, "A stitch in 
time saves nine." It is just as true with 
respect to the shipping of air brake ma- 
terial, for a plug or cap applied before- 
hand will often prevent a serious engine 
failure, much unnecessary correspondence, 
and perhaps some deserving employee 
from losing his position. 



Conduit for Power Cables. 

By J. G. Koppell, Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. 

The accompanying illustration shows a 

6-in. cast iron conduit, laid under canal 

for power cables. It was found that the 




CONDUIT OF POWER CABLES. 

conduit was condensing the entering air, 
in which a large amount of water ac- 
cumulated ; the cables are lead covered, 
but when the lead cover is in good con- 
dition the water does not do any dam- 
age ; otherwise it may happen that the 
lead sheeting is little damaged by pulling 
through, but certainly the effect of the 
water is injurious. We tried to stop the 
water condensation by sealing up the 
conduit ends with asphalt bitumen. A 
piece of clean waste was put into the 
conduit about 12 ins. from the end, to 
keep the bitumen from running too far 
down in the conduit, and the asphalt 
bitumen was poured in hot and the ends 
fixed up to make a nice looking job, and 
it lias proved eminently successful. 



piston rod. The crank (Fig. 2) is made 
of soft steel and the handle of brass, ac- 
cording to the dimensions given. The 
right main valve cylinder head is an old 
head faced true on both sides and bored 
out for a neat fit on boring bar. Two 
slots are cut for the purpose of observing 
the operation and calipering the bushing. 

The left main valve cylinder head is 
faced only on one side and is turned and 
threaded for standard stuffing-box nut. 
It is beveled at AA to receive one round 
of soft pump packing, which, with the 
gland and the stuffing-box nut, forms the 
feed mechanism of the boring tool. Four 
washers are made and are placed between 
right main valve cylinder head and face 
of main valve bushing, using four cap 
screws No. 1,879, to bolt same on with. 
A brass bushing serves as a guide for 
the boring bar, and it is not necessary to 
set this bar when this bushing is used. 
The outside diameter of this bushing is 
determined by the size of the bore in the 
left main valve cylinder head. 

I might also add that the left main 
valve cylinder head is re-bored in a lathe, 
as we find this much quicker than ream- 
ing by hand. The tool used in the boring 
bar is Y% in. steel and can be made of 
round or square material and ground to 
give the best results, as the walls of the 
cylinder must be bored perfectly smooth. 

We first ascertain size of last differ- 
ential piston used and bore cylinder ac- 
cordingly, increasing sizes by thirty-sec- 
onds. After cylinder has been re-bored, 
have the left main valve cylinder head 
re-bored for small piston in proportion 



r 



10 



and touch up the high spots with the file, 
after which they are assembled in their 
respective piston grooves and pistons 
placed on stem and a tool is used to 
grind them in with, using a fine grade of 
Trojan grinding compound for this oper- 
ation. A stop made of a few washers 
and cap screws is used to prevent the 
piston from leaving the cylinder during 
the grinding operation. 

The slide valve is spotted to a bearing 
on a face plate and the seat is faced to 
a bearing by the slide valve after which 
the valve is ground in. 

A top head overhauled in this manner 
will always give satisfaction and cuts the 
repair bill in half, as it is about the only 




FIG. 3. 



BORING BAR APPLIED TO WEST- 
INGHOUSE AIR PUMPS. 



practical and economical method of mak- 
ing such repairs in the average railroad 
shops. Fig. 3 shows tool in position for 
re-boring main valve bushing. 



Diesel Locomotives. 
By A. Fraser Sinclair. 
A rather interesting departure was an- 
nounced in a Continental paper some little 



Fitting Packing Rings in Differential 
Pistons. 

By A. H. Hahn, Savannah, Ga. 

Having seen quite a number of articles 
in your valuable publication recently re- 
garding the correct method of fitting 
piston rings in air pumps, and thinking 
some of the readers would be interested 
in an accurate and rapid method of fitting 
the rings to the main valve bushing and 
left main valve cylinder head of 9^4 
Westinghouse pumps, I submit a method 
which I have used for a number of years, 
together with an inexpensive and prac- 
tical tool for reboring the main valve 
bushings. This entire tool can be made 
of discarded material in a few hours at 
very little expense. 

The boring bar (Fig. 1) is made, ac- 
cording to the sketch, out of an old steam 



•i 



» A 



k#->t 




Sq. 



IT 



i" >k- 



74 



46 Thrds 
i.-' per inch 



c< 



_S1 



i"Setscrew 

a 



I 



- w- 

If 



16 



--—-.■>■ 



>'O|C0 



FIGS. 1, 2. DETAILS OF BORING BAR FOR WESTINGHOUSE AIR PUMPS. 



to size of large piston, increasing it also 
by thirty-seconds, and see that the sizes 
of these pistons are maintained in pro- 
portion. When the cylinders have been 
bored to receive the largest piston, they 
are bushed back to their original stand- 
ard dimensions and the old pistons used 
again. In fitting the rings, file them so 
they will be a neat fit in their cylinders, 



time ago, that is to say that an attempt 
was being made to adapt the Diesel engine 
to locomotive purposes. The proposal 
was in favor of the two-cycle form of the 
high compression machine. The Diesel 
engine has had rather a setback in Europe 
during the last twelve months for all but 
marine purposes, but it was beginning to 
pick up somewhat when this calamitous 



March, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



79 



warTiroke out. The proposal referred to 
iwas very likely one of those antebellum 
developments. But it is very doubtful 
whether the Diesel engine would be a suc- 
cess for railway work. Its chief attrac- 
tion_to railway management must be in _ 
its very great economy, and one can un- 
derstand that in southeastern Europe, 
where oil is plentiful and coal is dear, an 
oil-using engine must present very special 
allurements to a harassed locomotive 
manager. Nevertheless there are grounds 
for grave doubt regarding the success of 
such a proposition. Whether of the two 
or four-cycle form, the Diesel engine must 
be constructed with the most minute 
micrometric care, and in use the close 
fitting of working parts must be main- 
tained. Obviously with a pressure in the 
cylinder head of 500 lbs. per square inch, 
while the temperature of the compressed 
air attains to 1,000 degs. Fahr., any play 
between the piston and the cylinder wall 
must be a source of serious waste. Now, 
while for stationary and marine work such 
pressures may be withstood for consider- 
able periods, the case is rather different 
where locomotives are concerned. Sta- 
tionary or installed on the bed in a ship's 
bottom, the machine is free from the jolts 
and jars peculiar to rail travel, motion 
and action, which must tend to more rapid 
wear than under th'e more favorable cir- 
cumstances. Nevertheless the tremendous 
economy may lead to some modification 
of the present, form of the Diesel to fit it 
for railway work. Messrs. Sulzer Brothers 
are alleged to have found a saving of 
something like 75 per cent, in an experi- 
mental engine which they constructed, and 
in those figures there is an inducement 
to spend on experiment. It may be that 
electricity intervening may better condi- 
tions for the high compression engine, but 
even then there is great doubt whether 
the necessarily finely regulated mechanism 
would withstand the rough and tumble 
conditions of railway work. Besides, 
Diesel castings are exceedingly heavy, the 
cylinders have to be robust on account 
of the high pressures— the fuel being in- 
jected at a pressure of 800 lbs. per square 
inch — and with a dynamo or batteries 
super-added, the prime mover might be 
too heavy for its tractive power. 



the most local comment. It is just over 
4 kilometers long (2 l / 2 miles), with 
gradients varying from 16 to 25 per cent. 
It runs — or mounts — from near tide-level 
to the "monti," at a trifle over 1,000 m. 
elevation (some. 3.300 feet), the cuttings 
passing through a wealth of tropical 
vegetation, and affording a ne'er-to-be- 
forgotten panorama. 

The railroad was built by a company 
of the Portugal Republic, with head office 
at Lisboa, called "korripafiia do kamino- 



Railway Trespassers. 

From statistics compiled by Mr. Ralph 
C. Richards, the acknowledged "Father of 
Safety First," it appears that in 24 years 
there have been 108,000 people killed and 
117,000 injured through walking on rail- 
road tracks in the United States. It was 
the general impression that the large ma- 
mmy of persons killed and injured in 
this way were what are known as tramps. 
Tins gross error has recently been cor- 
•rected from statistics collected by Mr. 



Miniature Railroading in the Tropics. 
By L. Lodian, Manhattan. 

It is nigh thirty years ago that one 
warm morning the beautiful view of 
Funchal (Madeira) gradually came in 
sight, on a trip from the north to the 
Plata. The liner coaled here — which 
permitted of a day's stay on the isle — or 
part of it. But the cog-wheel railroad 
depicted in the illustration, was unknown 
then; transit was in ox-drawn sledges 
which slid easily over the smooth pebble 
narrow ways. 

Of all the innovations in Madeira dur- 
ing recent years, this rack-railway caused 




RACK RAILROAD AT FUNCHAL, MADEIRA. 



de-ferro do monti." There are half a 
dozen services daily in each direction, 
with three stations. Time, either way, 
Yz hour. 

A feature of the service is that — 
Funchal deriving part of its prosperity 
from the one-day-stopover passing tourist 
traffic, and the hour of arrival of the 
liners being uncertain — special trains are 
kept in readiness for their accommoda- 
tion, at double the ordinary tariff rates. 
Thus, the return trip to the "monti" costs 
the transient the equal of $2 American 
currency, or 40 cents per mile going and 
returning. A cute way of "making money 
while the sun shines" out of the globe- 
circler, but it makes the investment of the 
Portugal Republic company safe and 
paying ! 

It has an excellent parallel at Pike's 
Peak, with this difference that one is not 
compelled to have a photograph taken at 
Madeira. 



Marcus Dow, manager of the Safety De- 
partment of the New York Central Lines. 
Only a small number are tramps or 
vagrants. They are not so easily killed. 
It is the common people that sustain this 
appalling loss, but it is gratifying to know 
that the slaughter of the innocents is 
being decreased and it is to be hoped that 
it will continue to decrease until the safety 
of the American railroads will compare 
favorably with those of Great Britain and 
continental Europe. 



Primitive Methods in Chilian Railways. 

In general construction work in Chile, 
such as ditching, building of dikes and 
levees, and railway cutting, the material 
is generally moved by hand, and it seems 
that there should in time lie a market for 
American grading machinery, such as 
slips, wheelers, fresnoes, road graders, 
elevating graders, and the dump wagons 
that ordinarily go with them. 



80 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



March, 1915. 



Air Brake Tests 

By WALTER V. TURNER 



Second Article. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

In submitting the second article on the 
subject of air brake tests, from the able 
pen of Mr. Turner, it may be proper to 
state the rules contained in the following 
article should be carefully studied in con- 
nection with those appearing in the first 
article. In a communication from Mr. 
Turner, he states that, "While these may 
be added to with the intent of insuring 
greater trustworthiness in experiments, 
they cannot be subtracted from and any- 
one making either experiments or tests 
without observing the principles and rules 
laid down, will probably find that they 
have not only misled themselves, but pos- 
sibly others. Of course, much more than 
these principles and rules are required to 
qualify one for making either tests or 
experiments, for obviously they would be 
useless to a Hottentot or a Fiji Islander. 
The personal equation in every respect 
must be entirely submerged in so far as 
prejudices or interests are concerned, for 
the conclusion to be valid must be im- 
personal. This is such an intense convic- 
tion on my part that I have no mercy on 
either myself or others when I find per- 
sonal desires entering or influencing con- 
clusions, and while this is very hard on 
ray personal desires and opinions at times, 
I derive much satisfaction from believing 
that it is because of this that I have suc- 
ceeded in my air brake work." 

It is not necessary to add anything to 
Mr. Turner's comments further than to 
emphasize the fact that coming as they 
do from one who is perhaps the foremost 
living authority on air brakes they can- 
not be too seriously considered. 



PLEASE NOTE AND OBSERVE THESE FIRST 

CONSIDERATIONS BEFORE MAKING ANY 

TESTS. 

( 1 ) ) I )i i you know what the device is 
expected to '1"? 

(2) D.) you know what it must do from 
its design r 

(3) Do you know how the test should 
be made? 

(4) Do you know how to make the 
test? 

(5) If you don't know these things, ask 
someone who does. 

(6) Be sure it is the dc.-ice that is 
giving the result you get. 

(7) Be always on the lookout for vari- 
ations in the device from what is in- 
tended in the design. 

(8) Be always on the lookout for 
errors of observation. 

(9) Be ahrays on the lookout for er- 



rors or faults of test apparatus and 
methods. 

(10) Be sure you do not let self inter- 
est, pre-judgment, or prejudice color or 
bias either your observations or the re- 
port. 

(11) Be sure you know all about every- 
thing involved in the test except the 
thing or function being tested. That is, 
there should be only one thing involved 
in doubt at a time. 

(12) Never introduce two unknown 
quantities into a test together for you 
certainly ought to know the effect of each 
before they are combined. 

(13) Always give complete information 
as to the methods and conditions under 
which the tests were made; also compile 
the data in such a way that the one to 
whom it is submitted can comprehend it 
and thus extract conclusions without 
further explanation. 

(14) If the last above mentioned is 
not closely observed, it is clear that your 
competency to draw the conclusion is 
what must be accepted and not the report. 
This often leaves the question where it 
was at the beginning. 

(15) Where results vary materially 
tests should be stopped until the reason 
therefor is known. In any case, if these 
variations are inherent in the device, the 
reason should be stated as they obviously 
have to be dealt with in considering the 
efficiency of the device. 

( 16) Look for the cause of things and 
do not mistake effect for cause. 

(17) Until you can destroy or recreate 
the effect at will you are not sure of its 
cause. 

( 18 ) Be sure you can duplicate the 
recorded results of the tests (that is, set 
up everything again so as to do this), 
otherwise it is plain you have not ob- 
served all of the foregoing. 

(19) If the test result varies from 
what it should be. find out why and don't 
complete the report until this is done. 
This should then form a part of the 
record. 

(20) Make sure that the test result con- 
forms to idiot was expected, or if not, 
why it does not, before disturbing the ap- 
paratus being tested or the arrangements, 
unless by instruction. 

(21) Remember that the result rec- 
order of tests is very important, for it 
not only exhibits the quality of the de- 
vice but your own qualities also. YOU 
STAND OR FALL BY THE QUALITY 
OF THE RECORD JUST AS DOES 
THE DEVICE. 

(22) My definition of experiment is — 
finding out what is unknown. 



My definition of test is — finding out 
u hether what is thought to be, really is. 

(23) Whenever making an experiment, 
it is necessary to know two things be- 
fore making it — (1st) that every con- 
dition involved in the experiment is nor- 
mal. (2nd) that the device being tested 
is made according to the design and is in 
a commercially workmanship-like con- 
dition. 

(24) When making either an experi- 
ment or a test, it is vitally essential that 
all the conditions involved in the experi- 
ment, such as apparatus, instruments, re- 
liability of observers, etc., be known — the 
only unknown quantity being the device, 
or the result itself, for it should be plain 
that if there are two or more, it may be 
exceedingly difficult, if not impossible, to 
tell which of the two gives the result, or 
whether or not it was a composite result 
and thus, unless it was impossible for the 
combination ever to be changed, the re- 
sult would be worse than valueless, for 
on the one hand it might result in the 
condemning of a satisfactory device, or 
on the other, in the assumption that the 
device was satisfactory when in reality 
it was not. 

(25) It will be seen therefore that, in 
making an experiment, the unknown 
quantity is the performance of the device 
itself. 

(26) When making a test all included 
in the foregoing paragraphs. (23 and 24) 
must be insured, and in addition the ex- 
pected performance of the device must be 
outlined. Thus it will be seen that the 
unknown quantity in a test is that of 
whether the device performs or operates 
as outlined, or expected, or not. 

(27) Even when the best has been 
done both in men and mechanism in set- 
ting the stage for experiments or tests, 
the elements of reason and experience, 
that is to say, competency, still remain a 
very large factor in securing accuracy and 
trustworthiness of the report. Therefore, 
any act or evidence of mere perfunctori- 
ness in either the work or report will 
condemn it in a degree, if not entirely. 

(28) When unexpected results or evi- 
dences appear, the experiment or test 
should be stopped until the reason or 
cause is ascertained, which, it is self- 
evident, must be either in the instruments 
employed in the experiment or test — the 
device being experimented with or tested, 
or in the observations of the human end 
of the affair. 

(29) The foregoing rules for making 
experiments and tests are essential if 
thoroughness and reliability are to be 
assured, and I judge all will agree that 



March, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



81 



without these two elements, experiments 
and tests are worse than valueless, for 
they may mislead. 

By thoroughness is meant that all was 
done that should have been done. 

By reliable is meant that the report is 
accurate and impersonal, that is scien- 
tific. 

(30.) Of course it is known by whoever 
is responsible for the report, and is there- 
fore making the experiments or tests, 
whether a device is being tried, (a) to 
see what it will do under a set of known 
and provided conditions, or (b) whether 
the result or performance has been de- 
vised and designed, for, and a trial being 
made to ascertain whether or not it is 
realized; that is to say an experiment is 
to find out what a device will do, and 
here it is assumed that its qualities or the 
results are unknown ; or a test of the de- 
vice, in which case, its quality and results 
are supposed to be known — the test being 
made merely to determine whether or not 
the results expected are actually obtained. 
You will note a very broad distinction 
between these two and, therefore, it is 
imperative that you know before hand 
which of the two you are concerned with. 

(31) Remember that until the foregoing 
epigrammatical rules become second na- 
ture, no one is qualified in full degree to 
make either experiments or tests. 

(32) Also remember that even if you 
observe all these rules and others, you 
may still fail in some degree, but not in 
toto. 

(33) Remember that instructions may 
cancel some of these rules. 

(34) One of the chief intents of these 
suggestions or rules is that more thought 
be given to the experiments, or tests, 
before instead of after they are made. 

(35) Do not think because you have 
these rules or this expression of principles 
ir. your possession that you are immune 
from making mistakes. It takes under- 
standing as well as possession to make 
this information of value ; in fact, with- 
out undertsanding, possession may do 
harm instead of good, as it may be 
wrongly applied. It is not knowledge it- 
self that is valuable, but the intelligent 
application thereof. Information may be 
given but not undertsanding, and under- 
standing is required to make information 
of any value or use to you as well as 
others. 

(36) Most of those for whom this is 
intended will say that I have set before 
them a large task, but they should re- 
member that the requirements are not of 
my making, they are inherent and im- 
mutable — all I have done is to point out 
part, at least, of what is required. 

With these observations carefully in 
mind a degree of thoroughness in all kinds 
of work will become a kind of second 
nature to the earnest seeker after truth, 
which in time will be appreciated by all 
with whom he may come in contact. 



Attacking New York Central Lines. 

People familiar with the details of 
great railway systems are aware that 
many trunk lines are made up from 
small units that have been absorbed by 
consolidation, purchase or otherwise. 
This system of consolidation has been of 
decided public benefit and has been the 
means of cheapening and facilitating 
transportation, but the politicians are 
finding out that some of the consolida- 
tions violate the Sherman Anti Trust law 
and the indications are that a period of 
persecution is at hand. 

The New York Central Lines, of which 
ex-Senator Chauncey M. Depew is chair- 
man of the Board of Directors, appear to 
have been as indifferent to legal obstruc- 
tions as any corporation that we are ac- 
quainted with. The New York Central 
Lines and Leased Lines have been formed 
from 33 companies, most of them still 
having operating staffs under control of 
the Central officials. Any movement by 
the United States Government that will 
dislocate the great system of railroads 
known as the New York Central Lines 
will involve disaster to many individuals. 
That such a move is probable may be 
inferred. 

Senator Norris, of Nebraska, intro- 
duced a resolution concerning the New 
York Central holdings as follows : 

Whereas, The New York Central & 
Hudson River Railroad Company, through 
its ownership of the stock of the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern Railway 
Company, forms a continuous line of rail- 
way from Chicago, through Buffalo, to 
New York City; and 

Whereas, Said New York Central & 
Hudson River Railroad Company con- 
trols by lease the West Shore Railroad 
Company and the said Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern Railway Company, 
owns the stock of the New York, Chi- 
cago & St. Louis Railroad Company 
(Nickel Plate), which together with the 
said West Shore Railroad Company, con- 
stitutes a railroad running parallel to the 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Rail- 
way Company and the New York Central 
& Hudson River Railroad Company from 
Chicago, through Buffalo, to New York 
City ; and 

Whereas, The New York Central & 
Hudson River Railroad Company owns 
the stock of the Michigan Central Rail- 
road Company, a line of railway extend- 
ing from Chicago to Buffalo ; and 

Whereas, Said New York Central & 
Hudson River Railroad Company owns 
the stock of the Western Transit Com- 
pany and the Rutland Transit Company, 
constituting a water navigation line en- 
gaged in interstate commerce between 
Buffalo and Chicago and intermediate 
points ; and 

Whereas, This ownership results in a 
combination under one control of four 
competing lines of transportation between 



Chicago and Buffalo and two competing 
lines between Buffalo and New York 
City; and 

Whereas, The said Lake Shore & Mich- 
igan .Southern Railway Company, in ad- 
dition to the ownership of the said New 
York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad Com- 
pany, owns all of the stock of the Toledo 
& Ohio Central Railway Company, of the 
Chicago, Indiana & Southern Railroad 
Company, of the Ohio Central Railway 
Company, and of the Jamestown, Franklin 
& Clearfield Railroad Company, and also 
owns more than 50 per cent, of the stock 
of the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad 
Company ; and 

Whereas, The said New York Central 
& Hudson River Railroad Company con- 
trols the Western Maryland Railroad 
Company, which, together with the said 
Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad Com- 
pany, constitutes another competing line 
between territory covered by the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern Railway 
Company and the New York, Chicago & 
St. Louis Railroad Company and the At- 
lantic seaboard; and 

Whereas, The said New York Central 
& Hudson River Railroad Company is 
now taking the necessary steps to more 
completely consolidate all of the afore- 
said railroads, together with others, under 
one ownership and control ; therefore, be 
it 

Resolved, by the Senate of the United 
States, That the Attorney General be, and 
he hereby is, directed to inform the Sen- 
ate whether the various combinations of 
railroads above set forth are in violation 
of the Sherman anti-trust law or any 
other statute of the United States and 
whether the Department of Justice has in 
contemplation any action for the dissolu- 
tion of said combination. 

"To my mind," Senator Norris said 
today, "it is perfectly apparent that this 
combination, in all its branches, is in vio- 
lation of the Sherman anti-trust law. The 
Supreme Court recently held that a com- 
bination between the Central Pacific and 
the Southern Pacific was in violation of 
law, and a decree was entered in the Su- 
preme Court dissolving this combination, 
although, as a matter of fact, the rail- 
roads, for a large portion of the distance, 
are more than a thousand miles apart. 

"In addition to the roads set out in 
the resolution, there are several other 
railroads owned by the New York Cen- 
tral,' but I have only attempted to call at- 
tention to the most flagrant violations of 
the law. Right now the New York Cen- 
tral is engaged in the operation of bring- 
ing about a more complete consolidation 
of these roads and others than has ex- 
isted in the past, and it seems to me that 
the time is ripe for action to be taken, 
not only to break up the combination that 
already exists, but to prevent further 
steps in the way of throttling competi- 
tion." 



82 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



March, 1915. 



Suburban Type of Locomotive for the Grand TrunK 



Six Suburban type locomotives have 
recently been delivered to the Grand 
Trunk Railway by the American Locomo- 
tive Company and are already reported 
on as rilling the requirements of the 
service with a degree of fitness that is 
meeting with warm approval. 

These locomotives have been put in 
service between Montreal and Vaudrieul, 
a distance of 24 miles, and between Mon- 
treal and St. Hyacinthe, a distance of 37 
miles. Where this kind of traffic is fre- 
quent, the Suburban type engine can be 
used to good advantage. Delays caused 
by turning the locomotive are eliminated 
as the Suburban type can run in either 
direction with equal advantage. 

This traffic on the Grand Trunk Rail- 
way was formerly handled by 4-4-2 Su- 
burban type locomotives having 17x22 
inch cylinders and a total weight of 128.- 
600 pounds. As this traffic increased 
20x26 inch Moguls and Ten Wheelers 



better combustion is obtained ; the back 
end of the firebox is more fully utilized 
with a resulting increase in the genera- 
tion of steam ; and the amount of smoke 
is reduced to a minimum which is so im- 
portant in this kind of service. The front 
truck is equalized with the drivers as it 
was not desired to have more than two 
systems of equalization. Other features 
are, a Schmidt superheater, outside steam 
pipes, self centering valve stem guide, 
extended piston rod, the improved throt- 
tle lever bracket which has also been ap- 
plied on the Mikados for this road, long 
main driving box, and vanadium mam 
frames. 

The following are the general dimen- 
sions of these locomotives: 

Track gauge, 4 ft. 8 z / 2 ins. 

Fuel — Bituminous coal. 

Cylinder, type — Piston valve ; diameter 
21 ins., stroke 26 ins. 

Tractive power, simple — 30,940 lbs. 



Thickness tubes, .125; flues, No. 9 B. 
W.C. 

Tube — Length, 11 ft. 10 ins.; spacing, 
J4 ins. 

Heating Surface — tubes and flues, 1604 
sq. ft.; firebox, 173 sq. ft.; arch tubes, 31 
sq. ft. ; total, 1808 sq. ft. 

Superheater surface, 347 sq. ft. 

Grate area, 47 sq. ft. 

Wheels— Driving diameter, outside tire, 
o3 ins.; center diameter. 56 ins. 

Wheels — driving material, main, cast 
steel; others, cast steel; engine truck, di- 
ameter, 30J/2 ins. ; kind, solid steel ; trail- 
ing truck, diameter, 31 ins.; kind, solid 
steel. 

Axles — driving journals, main 9^x20 
ins.; other, 9j/>xl2 ins.; engine truck jour- 
nals, 6^x10^2 ins.; trailing truck journals, 
6x11 ins. 

Boxes — Driving, main, cast steel ; oth- 
ers, cast steel. 

Brake — Driver, Westinghouse Ameri- 




SUBUEBAN TYPE OF LOCOMOTIVE FOR THE GRAND TRUNK RAILWAY. 
W. D. Robb, Superintendent of Motive Power. Baldwin Locomoth Works, P.uilders. 



were also used. New suburban cars have 
recently been placed in service which 
weigh 138,000 pounds as compared with 
75,000 pounds weight for the older class 
of car. As it was also desired to in- 
crease the number of cars in a train, it 
became necessary to design a more pow- 
erful engine. Former experience with 
the traffic and the different types of en- 
gines used, influenced the railway officials 
in deciding on the Suburban type for the 
new power. These new engines are han- 
dling an average train of 7 cars. Trains 
of 5 cars were the average with former 
pi iwer. 

The design in general follows the 
standards of the builder. An interesting 
feature is the combination of the Gaines 
combustion chamber and a Security brick 
arch. This combination secures a very 
complete deflection of the gases whereby 



Factor of adhesion, simple— -4.7. 

Wheel base driving 15 ft. 8 ins.; rigid, 
15 ft. 8 ins.; total 38 ft. 11 ins. 

Weight in working order 262,000 lbs. ; 
on drivers, 146.000 lbs. ; on trailers, 67.000 
lbs. ; on engine truck, 49,000 lbs. ; engine. 
262,000 lbs. 

Boiler, type — Straight top radial stay ; 
O. D. first ring. 71 9-16 ins.; working 
pressure, 200 lbs. 

Firebox — Type, wide; length, 129 ins.; 
width. 75'4 ins. ; thickness of crown, f6 
in. ; tube, l / 2 in. ; sides, Y& in. ; back, ^ 
in.; water space front, 5 ins.; sides 4>/£ 
ins.; back, 4]/ 2 ins.: depth (top of grate 
to center of lowest tube), 11J4 ins. 

Crown staying — Radial. 

Tubes — Material, cold drawn seamless 
steel ; number, 191 ; diameter, 2 ins. 

Flues — Material, seamless steel; num- 
ber. 26: diameter. 5j$j ft. 



can ; trailers. Westinghouse American ; 
air signal, Westinghouse light; pump, 11 
in. Westinghouse; reservoir, one, 30V 2 x72 
ins. 

Engine truck, 4-wheeled center bearing. 

Trailing truck, 4-wheeled center bear- 
ing. 

Exhaust pipe, G. T. Standard, nozzles, 
4?Hs, 4J4 and 4% ins. 

Grate — Style, rocking bars G. T. Stand- 
ard. 

Piston — Rod diameter, 3)4 ins. ; piston 
packing, Trojan. 

Smoke stack — Diameter, 15 ins.; top 
above rail. 14 ft. 9-9-32 ins. 

Tank — Style, waterbottom ; capacity, 
3500 U. S. gallons ; fuel, 5 tons. 

Valves — Type, piston ; travel, 6 ins. ; 
steam lap, 1 1-16 ins. ; ex. lap cylinder 3-16 
in. ; setting, load 3-16 in. 



March, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



83 



Railroads in the South. 
"The Lawyer and Banker and Southern 
Bench and Bar Review" publishes a 
scathing article on governmental inter- 
ference in the railroads in the South for 
which we quote the following: 

"Railroad construction in the South in 
the year 1914 showed the smallest mileage 
in the last half century. This is largely 
due to Congressional interference. It 
must be remembered that in Congress the 
South is in control. Through Congres- 
sional activity exerted in the wrong direc- 
tion, the entire railroad industry of the 
country has suffered and the South has 
in consequence been paralyzed more than 
any other section of our land. This is a 
conscious loss which totals up an 
enormous figure. 

"This loss comes at a time when it can 
not be borne — when the cotton crop has 
decreased, not in quantity or in quality, 
but in marketability; while important 
States have received another black eye in 
the adding of resinous products, by the 
Allies to the contraband list. Rosin is the 
binder of shrapnel shells, camphor is a 
constituent of smokeless powder, and 
turpentine is the only discovered basis for 
a synthetic substitute. These, with the 
depression of trade, make the burden 
heavy to bear. But persecution of the 
railroads, as the cheapest kind of politics, 
has added immeasurably to the paralysis 
of what once looked like promising de- 
velopment of Southern resources. 

"What is at the bottom of all this? It 
is two-cent fare laws, mischievous med- 
dling in the place of regulation, sacrificing 
broad interests to the selfish demands of 
shippers who demand rates bearing no 
relation to the value of the service per- 
formed. These things have frightened 
capital away. Real estate remains unde- 
veloped, the industries which supply the 
railroads drift from bad to worse, and 
the last economic failure is seen in the 
fact that additions to taxes already op- 
pressive yield a lower revenue to the 
respective States. 

"There is an old fable of Aesop which 
Congress and the Southern Legislatures 
should ponder. It tells of the dispute be- 
tween the Sun and the East Wind as to 
which could make the traveler remove 
his cloak. The wind only made him draw 
it closer around him. Prosperous rail- 
roads mean prosperous business, and a 
larger tax collection for public develop- 
ment from the greatest taxpayers in the 
country." 

Persia, an Ancient Country, Building 
Railways. 

Persia, one of the most celebrated of 
the ancient empires, is still a country of 
some importance covering as it does some 
610,000 square miles and occupying the 
great plateau lying between the Tigris 
and the Indus. Persia has a very intel- 
ligent industrial population, but the pros- 
perity of the country has been seriously 



retarded through want of transportation 
facilities. The highways are of the most 
inferior character and there are no rail- 
ways of any importance, but the indica- 
tions are that the serious want will be 
supplied in the near future. 

In 1888 a railway five miles long was 
built by a Belgian company, but Russian 
influence stepped in to prevent further 
extension of that means of transportation. 
Ten years later the Russian government 
obtained a concession giving them entire 
control over railway construction and the 
privilege was used to stop all railway 
building. Lately the officials of the Czar 
have been stirred to a new policy and the 
construction of railways on a large scale 
is promised. With proper means of inland 
transportation in use Persia promises to 
become one of the most prosperous coun- 
tries in the world. 

The principal productions of Persia are 
elaborated metals, woolen fabrics, pearls, 
fruits, tobacco, gums, cereals and horses. 
The people have enjoyed many centuries 
of culture in skilled operations and they 
appear to have maintained the inheritance 
of skill and technical knowledge. The 
productions in metal arts consist largely 
of hammered ware or of designs chiseled 
or engraved in iron, brass, copper, silver 
and gold. The silken rugs of Persia lead 
the markets of the world. 

The pleasures of the Persians are in 
the main refined. They have not many 
kinds of recreation. Conversation is one 
of their chief enjoyments. Although a 
large proportion of them can neither read 
nor write,we must call them an intellectual 
people. 

They are natural linguists, and since 
their country is inhabited by many dif- 
ferent races they are obliged to speak 
several different languages. It is not un- 
common to find a man who scarcely knows 
his right hand from his left who can speak 
two or three languages fluently. To this 
number a man of any education whatever 
would add two or three more. 

There is, no caste among any of the 
races found in Persia. A son of Nasir-i- 
Din Shah's butler became his prime 
minister; a peasant girl once became the 
first favorite of this same king's anderun 
because she lifted her veil as the king 
was passing through her native village and 
her beauty appealed to the royal fancy. 

But while there is no caste the Per- 
sians are in some ways great sticklers 
for etiquette. The Zi-i-Sultan, the oldest 
and most capable son of Nasir-i-Din, could 
not succeed his father on the throne be- 
cause his mother was not of royal birth. 
All social functions, moreover, are at- 
tended with the most rigid ceremonies, 
and woe to the person who attempts to 
overstep the bounds which custom has 
prescribed for his rank. 

The Persian would prefer to be let 
alone, but the rest of the world thinks 
otherwise. 



Quitting the Parent Shop. 

We frequently hear complaints made by 
concerns employing apprentices that there 
is a tendency among the young mechanic 
to quit the shop where they learned their 
trade as soon as their time is up. It 
seems to us that the influence which moves 
apprentices to go away from their parent 
shop is a tradition of European origin. In 
most European countries it is expected 
that a mechanic will become a "journey- 
man" — that is, a wanderer — as soon as he 
finishes his apprenticeship, and employers 
do not encourage young graduates for the 
trade to remain with the parent shop. 

It is good for the graduates of a trade 
to go out and learn the practices of 
strange shops and factories, but it is better 
for them to remain where they are well 
off. 



Railway Materials for Argentina. 

Now that Germany, France and Belgium 
are in all likelihood to remain in the 
background for some years as far as 
furnishing railway material is concerned, 
large orders are likely to be placed in 
the United States and Canada, as the 
worn-out stock on the Argentine rail- 
ways will have to be replaced if the rail- 
ways are to be maintained in a state of 
efficiency. The Argentine railways ex- 
tend to 21,000 miles. She produces more 
grain than Canada and has a larger 
foreign trade. The present is the time 
to commence preparing for the business 
that is bound to come. 



Fortunate Erie Apprentices. 

The Erie Railroad Company continue 
to maintain the technical schools for the 
education of apprentices in connection 
with five of their repair shops, viz. : Port 
Jervis, Susquehanna, Hornell, Meadville 
and Dunmore. The Erie apprentices enjoy 
greater privileges than the apprentices of 
any other industry we are acquainted 
with. They engage to serve four years 
apprenticeship, but every one who displays 
mechanical ability is after two years given 
journeyman's wages and required to per- 
form journeyman's work. 



Coal Deposits. 

A new mineral called thorianite has 
been obtained from the residue of gem- 
washing in Ceylon. It carries over 70 
per cent, of thorium dioxide, 7 per cent, 
of the cerium group, 12 per cent, of uranic 
dioxide, 2 per cent, of lead monoxide, and 
accessory weights of ferric oxide and 
silica. 



Block Signaling on the Southern. 

The Southern Railway has started work 
on the installation of electric automatic 
block signals in connection with the 
double track now being built between Pel- 
ham and Denim, N. C, 36 miles. Forty- 
three signal towers will be erected. 



84 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



March, 1915. 



General Foremen's Department 



Locating Eccentric Keyways Before 
Setting the Valves. 

By James Kennedy. 

The problem of locating eccentric key- 
ways before setting the valves comes up 
occasionally, or, like Banquo's ghost, "it 
will not down." Last September an ex- 
cellent article on the subject from the 
clever hand of Mr. Lenwood Skellinger, 
of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, at- 
tracted wide attention, and has been much 
commented on, the consensus of opinion 
being that Mr. Skellinger's clever solu- 
tion of the question contained calculations 
finer than are within the mental grasp of 
lhe average valve-setter, and could only 
be clearly followed by those advanced in 
the higher mathematics. However this 
may be, and with all due regard to Mr. 
Skellinger's marked ability, it may be 
said that he was not the first who had 
successfully set the eccentrics in their 
proper places before the wheels were 
placed under the engine. 

As the locomotives increase in size, 
?nd the space between the frames remain 
the same, it is getting to be more and 
more difficult to adjust eccentrics to their 
proper places and key them on properly 
hi the extremely limited space available, 
not speaking of the delay at a time when 
the engine is about finished, and an angry 
superintendent looking amazedly on, as if 
keys could be put into four eccentrics like 
cropping pennies into a subscription box. 
If, therefore, the keyways in the axle can 
be cut in advance and the eccentrics fas- 
tened in the exact position desired, a gain 
of one day at least will be made. 

At the Clinton shops of the Chicago & 
Northwestern the job has been done in 
advance for many years, but every rail- 
road shop has not a foreman like Mr. 
Charles Markel, an accomplished machin- 
ist and inventor of continental reputation. 
His method is less involved than that of 
Mr. Skellinger's, and consists briefly in 
having a board V/z by 10 inches, by about 
feet long, with a half circle the size of 
the largest shaft, say 10 inches, cut in the 
middle of the board, and a V-clamp on 
the side of the board to fasten it on the 
axle. As shown in the illustration, this 
clamp can be raised or lowered so as to 
bring the top of the board to the center 
of any size of axle. A small level is in- 
serted at one end of the board, so that if 
the line from the center of the drivers to 
the center of the link is the same, the 
board can be set level. If the center line 
of motion is not level, a plumb must be 
used to set the board to the correct angle. 
The plumb-bob frame may be marked 



for the proper incline for different classes 
of engines. The board should be clamped 
on the axle close against the eccentric, 
then put the main crank pin on the dead 
center, either forward or back, by plumb- 
ing the crank pin on the opposite side, 
then put the eccentric plumb on the shaft, 
cither with the large part of the eccentric 
up or down, according to forward or back 
motion. This, of course, would bring the 
valve on the middle of the valve seat, then 
give the eccentric the proper angular ad- 
vance towards the crank pin measured on 
top of the board which is the center of 
the axle, and mark the key-way. 
The proper amount of advance depends 



the driving wheels, so that they will be 
correctly quartered with reference to the 
floor. Place the right crank pin on the 
top quarter, and drop a line with a plumb- 
bob on each end and near the pin or hang 
ii over the pin. If the two lines are equi- 
distant from the center of the axle then 
the wheel is so placed that the right 
crank pin is exactly on the top quarter, 
and the left crank pin is on the back 
quarter. The wheels should then lie 
wedged in position by small nuts on the 
rails so that the wheels cannot roll. 

Then drop the line with attached 
plumb-bobs over the axle near the wheel, 
and let the plumb-bobs hang down with 



K",3'i 




FIG. 1. 

on the outside lap of the valve and the 
amount of lead which is de'sired to be 
given. If the lap is ?jj of an inch and it 
is desirable to allow % of an inch lead, 
we advance the eccentric 1 inch, provided 
both inside and outside rocker arms are 
the same length. If the arms of the 
rocker vary in length the proper allow- 
ance of variation must necessarily be 
made. 

Another plan is practiced in some shops 
in keying on the eccentrics before the 
wheels are placed under the engine. It is 
this : Assuming that the rocker arms are 
equal in length, roll the wheels to a con- 
venient point in the shop, where there is 
a good wooden floor between the rails 
and over a pit, then place a clean pair of 
pit-planks under the axle, and drive a 
couple of nails through the planks into 
the stringer, so that the planks cannot be 
moved. The next operation is to place 



points close to the planks. Mark these 
points carefully on the planks. Repeat 
the markings in the center of the axle and 
also close to the other wheel. Lay off 
from these, marking the center of the 
axle. Put the left hand eccentric on and 
with plumb line arrange it with bulge 
downward ; the points of the plumb-bobs 
on the floor when equidistant from the 
center line of the axle will show this. 

The simple question of lap and lead is 
readily determined. Suppose it is as for- 
merly, 1 inch. In such a position the 
valve will be exactly 1 inch off its center, 
and if there is a rocker arm, we know that 
the left forward eccentric must follow the 
crank in the Stephenson valve motion. 
The left crank is on the back quarter, 
corresponding to the position of the piston 
on the left side. The eccentric is now to 
be moved with center line of bulge to- 
ward the left crank and as soon as the 
plumb-bobs show that their points have 
moved 1 inch from the points found when 
the bulge was exactly downward, secure 
the eccentric in that position, and mark 
off the keyway. Similar operations will 
bring the other eccentrics to their proper 
positions. 

In conclusion it should be affirmed that 
these methods have all been successfully 
accomplished, but seldom on the first trial. 
As a rule, like all innovations, they are 
condemned in advance, and when a trial 
is granted to some earnest mechanic by 



March, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



85 



some doubtful superior officer, and the 
result falls short of perfection, as it gen- 
erally will do, importance sits upon the 
dark brow of the man in authority; and 
the skilled artisan from whose cunning 
hands the ideal of perfection has not come 
at the first attempt, unless he is possessed 
of high courage, will walk in the valley 
of humiliation a long time, and wearily 
follow the beaten track ; but if he is en- 
couraged as he should be, and tries again, 
he will make new discoveries, and at the 
third or, perhaps, like Bruce's spider, at 
the seventh trial, new lights will break 
upon him and the hand of a master will 
come to him. All art without encourage- 
ment dies, and it is a peculiar fact that 
the most gifted and accomplished are 
usually the most modest. In railroad 
work, and more particularly in repair 



gles ; and, in fact, within the past year 
many Wisconsin plants have adopted the 
use of goggles and as a result eye in- 
juries have been almost entirely elimi- 
nated. 

This is one of several items recently 
called to our attention by T. A. Willson 
& Co., Inc., Reading, Pa., who specialize 
in the manufacture of industrial protec- 
tion glasses for workmen. 




work, it seems that there is rarely time 
for new experiments, and if a chance 
does come and failure follows, that is the 
end of it. This is particularly the case, 
as we have already stated in finishing the 
repairs of a locomotive; in fact, the re- 
pairs seem never to be completely fin- 
ished, and weary hands are glad to drop 
the great machine, sometimes full of po- 
tential possibilities for disaster, and rarely 
in the complete degree of perfection that 
the skilled mechanic would wish. 



Percentage of Eye Accidenst High. 

In a recent report of the Industrial 
Commission of Wisconsin, they show 
that over 70 per cent, of all the injuries 
to workmen caused by chips, nails and 
other small objects affect the eyes. Out 
of a total of 346 cases reported, 32 men 
lost the sight of one of their eyes en- 
tirely, 217 had eyes injured, 75 suffered 
from lacerations, 7 from impaired sight 
and 15 from bruises. The causes of the 
above injuries were as follows: 283 were 
hit by chips, 14 by nails, 4 by stone from 
blasts, 3 by bursting water glasses and 
42 by other small objects. 

The commission further states that of 
the 70 per cent, it is safe to say that 
fully three-fourths of these eye injuries 
could be avoided by the wearing of gog- 



Coal Exports from United States. 

The United States, which produces 40 
per cent of the world's coal exports an- 
nually 27,500.000 tons, or about 5 per cent, 
of the output of last year, the total export 
in the fiscal year being valued at $86,000,- 
000. Exports of domestic coal have 
doubled during the last decade, having in- 
creased from 8,482,867 long tons in 1904 
to 19,664,080 tons in 1914, the latter total 
being with one exception (1913) the 
the largest on record. 



Mineral Oil. 
We all know in a vague way that the 
production and use of mineral oil in the 
United States are very high but few peo- 
ple realize the extent of the industry. 
The number and uses of oil products are 
innumerable, as the activity of the pri- 
mary industry is indicated by the state- 
ment that for the latest months reported, 
an average of one well in every seventeen 
minutes was completed in the fields east 
of the Rocky Mountains. 



Influence of Cleanliness. 

Cleanliness is said to be almost as de- 
sirable as godliness and in the minds of 
many people cleanliness is the most de- 
sirable of habits. Cleanliness is not a 
natural habit and it takes years of train- 
ing and example to lead former people 
away from the practice of stewing them- 
selves in filth. 

Outside of the uncivilized tribes, all 
the people of America are inclined to be 
cleanly, but in other parts of the world 
filth is the familiar condition of nearly 
all the people. Surprise is sometimes ex- 
perienced that the dreadful plagues that 
used to cut down the population of the 
world are no longer in evidence and the 
explanation is that cleanliness has stopped 
those ravages. 

Some time ago Professor Sedgwick, of 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy, delivered a lecture on the Rise and 
Significance of the Public Health Move- 
ment in the course of which he made 
some very striking statements. 

Mr. Sedgwick began by sketching the 
sanitary condition of England in the thir- 
teenth century. The inhabitants were, 
he asserted, men very little removed 
from the beavers which at that time 
built their dams in the Lincolnshire Fens 
and other waste places. In London, 
which was already a populous city, the 
streets were made of loam covered with 



rushes, which harbored all kinds of filth, 
and were only removed every twenty 
years. 

The houses, made of wood and plaster 
and thatched with straw, had dirt floors 
strewed with rushes, which were swept 
into the street when they had become so 
encumbered with refuse as to render their 
further presence in the dwellings unbear- 
able. 

The people lived almost entirely on 
meat, mostly salt, and fruit and vegeta- 
bles were practically unknown. Bathing 
was rare and sanitation was not thought 
of. Dirt prevailed everywhere, and bred 
smallpox, typhus fever, and all kinds of 
malignant skin disease that were called 
leprosy by the quack doctors of the pe- 
riod. 

There were no physicians for the poor. 
The monks went from house to house to 
smooth the path of the dying to the next 
world, not to bring them back to this. 
Life was hard for all in those days, from 
the peasant crouching in his hut to the 
lord of the bare, uncomfortable castle 
near by. The people did not burn lights 
at night because there was nothing to see. 
Even in the much-belauded sixteenth 
century the inhabitants of England, ac- 
cording to Prof. Sedgwick, had made 
very little progress since the time of Jul- 
ius Caesar. Filth still reigned supreme, 
and the odors from the Fleet ditch, that 
flowed through London, were so power- 
ful that they overcame the perfumes of 
the incense burnt in the city churches 
near its banks. 

There was no ventilation either in the 
houses ashore or the ships at sea, and 
the death rate was 1 in 23. The streets 
were unlit and impassable in wet weath- 
er and were infested by highwaymen, 
while the rivers and coasts swarmed with 
pirates. 

After the Great Plague and the Fire of 
London in Charles II. 's reign, officers 
were appointed to look after the public 
health and see that the streets were made 
wider and the houses were more substan- 
tially built. These were the first health 
officials to be appointed, but they did not 
remain in office long. 

The air was so bad in the Parliament 
House at Westminster that Sir Christo- 
pher Wren was called in to devise a 
scheme for ventilating it. But he was 
thwarted every day by the scrubwoman, 
who had the cleaning of the House under 
her charge, as she considered fresh air 
to be dangerous to health. 



Vanadium Steel. 
The American Vanadium Company an- 
nounces that vanadium steel is being used 
for the first time in a purchase of new en- 
gines by the Southern Pacific ; this in 20 
Mikado locomotives recently delivered to 
the company for use on the Sacramento 
Division, the manufacturers being the 
Lima Locomotive Corporation. 



86 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



March, 1915. 



Catechism of Railroad Operation 



NEW SERIES. 

Third Year's Examination. 
(( on tinned from page 49, February, 1915). 

Q. 155. — How would you handle a hot 
eccentric? 

A. — See that all oil holes are clean and 
that the lubrication is getting to the bear- 
ing. If the strap is too tight on cam 
would loosen nuts on strap bolts and 
put in liners enough to make it free, then 
tighten the strap bolts. If the strap is 
too loose on the cam, causing it to pound 
hot, would loosen strap bolts and re- 
move liners enough to make strap fit the 
cam. 

Q. 156. — Would you use water on a hot 
eccentric? 

A.— No. 

Q. 157. — Why would you not use water 
to cool a hot eccentric? 

A. — Because the strap is so much lighter 
than the cam that it would cool off faster 
than the cam and contract and tighten 
on cam until it bursted, and the cam 
would contract faster than the axle, caus- 
ing the cam to burst. 

Q. 158. — How would you handle a hot 
driving box to cool it down and prevent 
cutting the bearing? 

A. — Would be sure that the bearing 
was getting the lubrication; if it did not 
cool down then, I would run the wheel 
up on a wedge and block on top of frame 
under the spring saddle, or under the 
ends of the arch equalizer to relieve the 
box of weight. 

Q. 159. — Is it good practice to use wa- 
ter on a very hot bearing? 

A. — No. It causes crystallization and 
weakens the metal, eventuallly resulting 
in a break. 

Q. 160. — What will cause crystallization 
and weakening of metals used in bear- 
ings, besides sudden expansion and con- 
traction? 

A. — A continual bending of the metal 
or a constant hammering of the metal 
while it is cold will cause the molecules 
to crystallize, forming what we generally 
call a coarse grain (crystallization), and 
as the grains of the metal become coarser 
the metal grows weaker at that point. 

Note. — This effect is clearly noticeable 
in driving pins which arc broken in line 
with the boss of the wheel; the oil on the 
broken ends will show that the pin has 
been gradually separating until only a 
small portion of the pin is intact, then a 
sudden strain separates that portion so 
the break shows just how much of the 
metal was holding before the break. 



Note. — When rod brasses pound on the 
pins, the hammer blow which the pin re- 
ceives, when the piston starts back- 
ward and forward in the cylinder tak- 
ing up the lost motion in the brasses, 
causes the pin to bend at point in 
line with the face of the wheel, starting 
the weakening of the pin at that point 
through crystallization. 

Q. 161.— What is the effect of leaky 
steam pipes or exhaust joints? 

A. — It prevents forming a vacuum in 
the front end and stops the draught on the 
fire, causing the fire to burn a dull red 
color and engine will not steam. 

Q. 162. — How would you test for leaky- 
steam pipes? 

A. — Place the reverse lever in the cen- 
ter of the quadrant, open the front end 
door, apply the brake, pull the throttle 
wide open to admit full steam pressure 
to the pipes, and with a lighted torch try 
around the joints for leaks — the leak will 
be shown by the flare of the flame. 

Note. — The reason for opening the 
throttle wide is that the great pressure 
inside the pipe has a tendency to straighen 
it out and will develop a leak if one ex- 
ists, and a lighted torch is the only sure 
way to locate the leak, because the escap- 
ing steam is not visible, and the old idea 
that the cinders will be blown away from 
the leaking joint is not reliable for the 
reason that chemical action takes place 
in cinders, causing them to form a por- 
ous mass solidly knitted together through 
which the steam will pass without moving 
the cinders. 

Q. 163. — How would you test for a 
leaky exhaust joint? 

A. — The best way is to get the engine 
on a clear straight piece of track, open 
the front end door and have the fireman 
start the engine moving; then apply the 
brake and open the throttle wide ; take a 
lighted torch and try around the nozzle 
joints for the leak, testing both sides; 
the escaping steam will blow the flame 
of the torch and locate leak. 

Another way — Place the engine on the 
quarter (top or bottom), open the front 
end door, have the fireman set the brake, 
open the throttle and move the reverse 
lever back and forth from corner to cor- 
ner of the rack, take the lighted torch 
and try the joint on that side of the ex- 
haust for the leak ; place the engine on 
the quarter on the other side and test it 
in the same manner. 

Note. — It is necessary to get a strong 
exhaust from each side to locate the de- 
fective joint; the base of the nozzle is 



divided into two openings by a partition 
which comes over the joint between saddle 
castings, therefore the reason for mov- 
ing the engine to the quarter on each side 
for the test. 

Note. — Another way to test for leaky- 
nozzle joint is to place the engine on the 
top or bottom eighths ; having the front 
end door open, set the brake, open the 
throttle, and move the reverse lever from 
corner to corner of the rack, trying for 
the leak around joint with lighted torch; 
in this way both sides may be tested with- 
out moving the engine, but it is not very 
reliable, because the exhaust will not be 
strong. 

The best way to test is with the engine 
moving slowly with brake set and throttle 
wide open, where it is possible to do it 
that way, and the next best way is to 
place the engine on the quarter. 

Q. 164. — What would cause you to test 
for leaky steam pipes or exhaust joint? 

A.— The fire dying down and burning 
a blood red color and the exhaust not 
working the fire as it should when you 
begin to work steam, and the engine not 
steaming while working steam, but the fire 
burns brightly and engine steams as soon 
as throttle is closed. Sometimes the blow 
may be heard when the firebox door is 
opened. 

Note. — When the air pump has an in- 
dependent exhaust in the front end it gets 
disconnected or broken off, and it will 
affect the fire the same as the leaky 
steam pipes or exaust joint, only the leaky 
air pump exhaust will affect the fire and 
steaming of the engine all of the time as 
long as the air pump is working, while 
the leaky steam pipe joint or nozzle joint 
will only affect the fire when working 
steam. 

Q. 165. — How would you test for pounds 
in main driving box? 

A.— Place the engine on top quarter 
on side you desire to test, have the fire- 
man open throttle, and move reverse lever 
from corner to corner of rack ; watch 
movement of box to locate pound. 

Q. 166. — Why do you place engine on 
top quarter on side you desire to test for 
pounds in driving box? 

A. — To get the power applied as near 
as possible to the point you desire to 
move. 

Note. — With pin on top quarter, all of 
the lost motion in box will be taken up 
before there is any liability of the wheel 

slipping. 

Q. 167. — What are the principal causes 
for pounds in main driving box? 



March, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



87 



A. — Loose or broken pedestal binder, 
improperly lined shoe or wedge, wedge 
loose or down on binder, journal badly 
worn out of round or small, brass badly 
worn too large for journal, driving box 
brass broken, driving box broken. 

Q. 168. — What other causes for pounds 
have we besides those affecting the driv- 
ing boxes? 

A. — Loose or lost cylinder key, loose 
follower bolts, piston head loose on piston 
rod, cylinder bushing short arid loose in 
cylinder, piston rod loose in crosshead, 
lost motion between crosshead and guides, 
wrist pin loose in crosshead, rod brasses 
too large for driving pins, rod brasses 
loose in strap, knuckle pins or their bush- 
ings badly worn, engine frame broken 
and main rods keyed too long or too 
short so that piston head strikes cylinder 
head. 

Q. 169. — Are all wedges alike in the 
manner of adjustment? How do they 
differ? 

A. — No. Some are forced up by hav- 
ing the wedge bolt screwed through the 
binders, others have the wedge bolt passed 
through hole in binder, and have to be 
pried or pinched up and are secured and 
held in place with nuts on wedge bolt on 
top of binder. 

Questions Answered 

TRACTIVE POWER AND WEIGHT ON DRIVERS. 

W. D. K., Del Rio, Tex., writes: Please 
furnish me with the formula used in de- 
termining the drawbar pull of a 2-6-6-2 
Mallet compound, both with and without 
a superheater of the following dimen- 
sions: High pressure cylinders, 2\ l / 2 by 
30 ins. ; low pressure cylinders, 33 by 30 
ins. ; driving wheels, 57 ins., and steam 
pressure, 200 lbs. Would also like your 
opinion as to the weight necessary on the 
drivers of this engine to give it a reliable 
factor of adhesion. Also the necessary 
weight on the drivers on a simple en- 
gine with cylinders 26 by 28 ins., wheels 
63 ins. in diameter and pressure 200 lbs. 
A. — The formula for a Mallet compound 
C 2 X S X L2 P 

locomotive is T = , in 

D 
which 

T = rated tractive force in pounds. 

C = diameter of high pressure cylinder 
in inches. 

S = stroke of piston in inches. 

P = boiler pressure in pounds. 

D = diameter of driving wheels in 
inches. 

Hence 2V/ 2 X 2V/ 2 = 462J4 X 30 = 
13,867^ X 240 = 3.328.200 -r- 57 = 
58,390 = tractive power in pounds. As- 
suming 4.5 as an average factor of ad- 
hesion, the weight of the engine would 
be 315,000 lbs., of which five-sixths, 
262.000 lbs., would be sustained by the 
•drivers. 



In the case of a simple engine the for- 
mula varies in the factor of the pressure 
which is usually rated at 85 per cent, of 
the boiler pressure. In the simple engine 
referred to the tractive power would be 
approximately 51,000 lbs., with a corre- 
sponding weight of the engine amounting 
to 250,000 lbs., of which about 209,000 
lbs. would be on the drivers. 

In regard to the use of superheated 
steam it may be briefly stated that the 
object is to reduce the loss caused by 
condensation. This is accomplished by 
raising the steam temperature to such 
a point that condensation is, to a large 
extent, avoided. Furthermore, since the 
volume per pound of superheated steam 
is greater than that of saturated steam 
at the same pressure, there is a gain in 
efficiency, because each pound of water 
evaporated forms a larger volume of 
steam, and therefore fewer pounds of 
steam are required to fill the cylinders. 

The formula for calculating the tractive 
power of a locomotive equipped with a 
superheating appliance is the same as that 
of an engine not so equipped. 



SATURATED AND SUPERHEATED LOCOMOTIVES. 

E. S., Frankfort, Ind., writes : A con- 
solidation four-wheel truck engine with 
cylinders 21 by 28 inches, steam pressure 
200 pounds, and tractive force of 36,600 
pounds — how much greater will the effi- 
ciency of this engine be if it were using 
superheated steam ; and is weight of en- 
ine, 94 tons, enough to allow for a cyl- 
inder 24 by 28 inches? A. — The amount 
of increased efficiency will, under certain 
conditions, amount to at least 25 per cent. 
By efficiency it must not be supposed that 
the engine will start or haul a heavier 
load. The addition of heat to the steam 
does not increase the mean effective pres- 
sure in the cylinder. The pressure 
against the piston is the same with super- 
heated steam as with saturated steam, 
and consequently the superheater locomo- 
tive will not start any heavier train than 
will a saturated locomotive of the same 
dimensions. It will, however, pull the 
same train at a higher speed. The super- 
heater locomotive can be operated at 
longer cut-offs, thereby developing higher 
speeds with the same tonnage. The sav- 
ing is in fuel and water ; that is, a larger 
volume of steam may be generated and 
maintained with less fuel burned and less 
water evaporated. The weight specified, 
94 tons, is not enough to allow of cylin- 
ders of the increased size referred to. If 
the driving wheels are the same, the 
weight would require to be about 112 
tons. 



with the Walschaerts valve gear? (2) 
How much and how would allowance be 
made for expansion when grinding a 
throttle valve? A. — (1) The angular ad- 
vance of the main rod has little or no ef- 
fect on the valves of an engine equipped 
with the Walschaerts valve gear. The 
eccentric being set at right angles to the 
main crank, the position of the valve in 
relation to the piston is maintained suffi- 
ciently correct at all points for all prac- 
tical purposes. In an engine equipped 
with the Stephenson, or shifting link gear, 
the situation is vastly different. The two 
eccentrics are set 1 inch, more or less, 
removed from the right angle, and the 
suspension pin on the link must be ad- 
justed to suit the distortion. (2) The 
allowance for expansion in grinding a 
throttle valve depends on the difference 
of the area of the two joints and the 
consequent variation in the areas when 
heated. The common practice is to con- 
tinue grinding the upper or larger joint 
for a brief period after both joints are 
equal. Some mechanics use a small piece 
of silk paper in the upper joint after dry- 
ing the joints; others trust to their fine 
sense of feeling a slight shake in the up- 
per joint. It is largely a matter of ex- 
perience and observation. 



OUTSIDE AND INSIDE LAP AND INSIDE 
CLEARANCE. 

A. D., Jacksonville, Fla., asks: What 
is the exact meaning of the terms "out- 
side lap" and "insidelap," and "inside 
clearance"? A. — "Outside lap" refers 
to that portion of the valve used in ad- 
mitting steam to the cylinder, which 
overlaps the steam ports when the valve 
rests centrally on the valve seat. "In- 
side lap," which is sometimes called 
exhaust lap, refers to that portion of 
the valve which overlaps the two 
bridges of the valve seat, when the 
valve is on the center of the seat. "In- 
side clearance," which is sometimes 
called negative exhaust lap, inside lead 
or exhaust lead, does not refer to any 
portion of the valve, but is the space 
between the inside edges of the exhaust 
arch and the bridges when the valve 
stands central on the valve seat. The 
term refers to the amount of each 
side. 



THROTTLE VALVES AND VALVE GEAR. 

T. M., Havre, Mont., asks: (1) How is 
the angularity of the main rod overcome 



PRONUNCIATION. 

W. T. H., Galveston, Texas, writes.: 
It would be gratifying to have the cor- 
rect pronunciation of the following 
words: Mallet, Walschaerts, Ragonnet. 
I have heard all of these words pro- 
nounced in several different ways and 
would like to settle this question in my 
mind. A.— Mallet is pronounced Malay; 
Walschaerts, Walsherts; Ragonnet, 
Ragonay. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



March, 1915. 



RH!SX.MiiA| 

A Practioal Journal of Motive Power, Hollinp 
Stock and Appliances. 



Published Monthly by 

ANGUS SINCLAIR CO. 

114 Liberty Street, New York. 

Telephone, 746 Reotor. 

Cable Address, "Locong," N. T. 

Glasgow, "Locoauto. 



Business Department: 

ANGUS SINCLAIR, D. E., Prest. and Treaa. 

JAMES KENNEDY, Vice-Prest. 

HARRY A. KENNEY, Secy, and Gen. Mgr. 

Editorial Department: 
ANGUS SINCLAIR, D. E., Editor. 
JAMES KENNEDY, Managing Editor. 
GEO. W. KIEHM. Associate Editor. 
A. J. MANSON, Associate Editor. 

Boston Representative: 

S. I. CARPENTER, 643 Old South Building, 
Boston, Mass. 

London Representative: 

THE LOCOMOTIVE PUBLISHING CO., Ltd., 
8 Amen Corner, Paternoster Row, London, E. C. 
Glasgow Representative: 

A. F. SINCLAIR, 15 Manor Road, Bellahouston, 
Glasgow. 



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Future Welfare of the United States 
Railroads. 
The future welfare of the railway sys- 
tem of the United States is largely in 
the hands of the railway user, and what 
will he do? Will he crowd the railway 
owner so hard that the latter cannot pro- 
duce the increasing amount of transporta- 
tion needed for the free flow of the com- 
mercial life book of the nation? Then 
what? The railway user will have sev- 
eral courses open to him. He can have a 
less rigid system of regulation and govern- 
ment red tape and encourage the railway 
business and the railway owner to go on 
as does other business, subject to the 
great laws of supply and demand, com- 
petition and the natural desire of the 
owner to manage his business in such a 
way that it will be a success, with the 



hope of profit, which is the main incentive 
of all business. Or, he can take over 
the ownership and management of the 
railways and become responsible for their 
operation and for the money needed for 
additions and betterments to existing 
properties, and for the building of new 
ones. In the present state of politics in 
this country, such a plan is almost terrify- 
ing in its possibilities, because the govern- 
ment has not shown that it can do work 
of this character as efficiently and eco- 
nomically as private individuals can. Gov- 
ernment ownership, management and de- 
velopment of the railways would become 
a matter for the politicians to trade upon. 
Just recently, in Austria, there has been 
considerable discussion because the rail- 
ways were taken over by the state on the 
theory that better service and lower rates 
would be given to the public. Now there 
is agitation to put them back into private 
hands, for, instead of proving profitable, 
there is a heavy annual deficit, which the 
general taxpayer has to make up. The 
service has deteriorated and railway ex- 
pansion has ceased. 

Or, lie can continue the present system 
of rigid governmental control and super- 
vision, and interference with the judg- 
ment and management of the owner, 
which is rapidly having a deadening and 
discouraging effect on the development of 
the business, and is preventing those addi- 
tions and improvements so much needed 
in a growing country like the United 
States. Or, he can continue the present 
system of government regulation and con- 
trol, but guarantee to the railway owner 
some minimum return upon his invest- 
ment, so he will be willing to put money 
into the business. Such a plan, however, 
means that the non-user of the railway 
will be taxed for the benefit of the user. 

To our mind the first course, of more 
commercial freedom, is by far the better 
for a growing and expanding country 
like the United States. We have not yet 
reached the state of perfection, politically 
or socially, where government ownership 
and bureaucratic management of the large, 
complicated and delicately adjusted rail- 
way system of the country will be a suc- 
cess. Putting a government uniform on a 
railway employee does not at once endow 
him with a new kind of intelligence and 
supernatural powers, and it will reduce 
his feeling of responsibility. 



Carnegie and Rockefeller on the Grill. 

The United States Commission on In- 
dustrial Relations is a sort of inquisition 
body whose purpose seems to be the ha- 
rassing of people who have made money. 
It has been holding meetings in New 
York lately, and among the prominent 
people who have passed over its grill 
were Andrew Carnegie and John D. 
Rockefeller. 

The hope of this Commission on In- 



dustrial Relations has been to indicate 
that rich people have secured their wealth 
by oppression of hard working laborers 
who have been kept in penury and given 
only wages sufficient to keep them alive. 
Messrs. Carnegie and Rockefeller are re- 
puted to be the richest men in America 
and consequently the greatest offenders 
from the Industrial Relations Socialistic 
standpoint, so no efforts were spared to 
uncover the iniquities of the money mak- 
ers. 

To the disgust of the inquisition it 
was shown that both Carnegie and Rocke- 
feller had donated a vast share of their 
wealth to various lines of benevolence 
for the promotion of education, comfort 
and well being of the people. Mr. Car- 
negie has given away $324,657,399 and 
Mr. Rockefeller $250,000,000. 

The vast accumulation of wealth thus 
represented was made while the princi- 
ples were treating the workers with 
laudable generosity. The testimony of 
both men was gripping in its appeal and 
the audience of about 500 men and wom- 
en, made up principally of Socialists, stu- 
dents of sociology, and labor sympathiz- 
ers, enjoyed the drama hugely. 

Mr. Carnegie was the most remark- 
able witness that had yet appeared before 
the commission. Captivating the com- 
mission, as well as the audience, by the 
sheer force of his infectious geniality, 
he was allowed to tell his story in his 
own way, and had the crowd in roars 
of laughter, without any effort being 
made to restrain him. With an appeal- 
ing sweep of his arms, as if he wanted 
to include the whole world in his phi- 
losophy of benevolence, the Laird of 
Skibo beamed as he told how his asso- 
ciates fondly called him "Andy," and 
how he wanted the poor and distressed 
to share in his happiness. 

On leaving the stand Mr. Carnegie 
said he had never enjoyed himself so 
much in his life before, and his audience 
believed him. When he took the stand 
the ironmaster was asked by Chairman 
Walsh what his business was. 

"To do as much good in the world as 
I can," the witness replied, with a smile. 
"I have retired from business." 

Mr. Rockefeller was questioned along 
the lines of his Foundation. He said the 
sole motive underlying all his philan- 
thropies was a desire to devote a part of 
his fortune to the service of his fellow- 
men. He regarded the restrictions placed 
abount the Foundation by the Legis- 
lature as an entirely sufficient guarantee 
against serious abuse of the funds. 

The witness thought the stockholders 
of any corporation were responsible for 
the choice of the best men as Directors, 
and that the Directors ultimately were 
responsible for the general conduct of 
the business. He stated his belief in the 
right of all men, workers and those en- 
gaged in business, to organize "with the 



March, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



89 



proper limitations in respect to safe- 
guarding the interests of the public." 

The best way to help the laboring man 
was to give him steady work and fair 
wages, Mr. Rockefeller said. That was 
better than all charity. He said he 
would be very happy to see all laborers 
share in some substantial way in the 
profits of their employers, and thought 
that, like all stockholders, they should 
be represented in the Board of Directors. 



Mr. Taft Says the People Are Treat- 
ing Railroads Unjustly. 

Past President William Howard Taft 
ought to know as well as any living man 
when justice or the opposite treatment is 
accorded to railway property and he has 
recently raised his voice in favor of fair 
play. Speaking before the Athletic Club 
of New York, Mr. Taft said: 

"The greatest sign of the times is the 
advance in mechanics, in which labor-sav- 
ing devices with capital have multiplied 
production many fold. Home comforts 
never before were so nearly universal. The 
average workingman today enjoys more 
conveniences and luxuries than Queen 
Elizabeth did. The gap between rich and 
poor has steadily narrowed until now it 
is as nothing compared with the yawn- 
ing breach of two or three centuries ago. 

"But with this progress new evils have 
arisen which require new remedies, and 
they are all political. The politicians 
work while the rest of us sleep. We 
always will have bosses and machines. 

"The railroads were found violating the 
law, and the Interstate Commerce Law 
was passed in 1887. The railroads laughed 
at it, and they kept laughing, but in 
diminishing degree, until the amendment 
of 1910 was passed. Now you don't find 
a railroad defying the people. Likewise, 
the anti-trust law of 1890 was laughed at 
by the corporations at first. Today busi- 
ness men consult lawyers almost daily to 
find out if they are violating the law. 

"It has been a great reform. You don't 
hear of a corporation in politics now. If 
you do, the candidate with the corporation 
stamp of approval is a gone goose. So, 
too, identification with a machine beats 
almost any nominee. 

"But this momentum of reform has 
gone over the line, and is now of a nag- 
ging character. Today the people are not 
giving the railroads their just rights.'' 



Superheated and Saturated Steam. 

From the letters that come to this 
office asking questions about steam super- 
heaters we believe the impression prevails 
that superheated steam will exert more 
power than saturated steam per unit of 
pressure. The practice of superheating 
steam has been the most valuable and 
profitable improvement effected on the 
operation of the steam engine since Watt's 



time, but the cause of its advantages are 
by no means clearly understood. Owing 
to the metal of an engine's cylinders 
being colder than the entering steam there 
happen to be serious losses from cylinder 
condensation. Saturated steam is always 
at the dew point and the least loss of 
heat lets the steam turn into water. 
Superheated steam contains considerable 
more heat than is necessary to keep the 
steam vaporized so that a small loss of 
heat does not cause condensation of the 
steam. That is the secret of economy 
with superheat. 

Given an engine using superheated 
steam and another using saturated steam 
of a certain mean effective, both engines 
will start the same weight of train. 



Locomotive Inspection Bill. 

A bill has been read in both houses of 
Congress twice and referred to the com- 
mittee on interstate commerce, which 
if it becomes enacted into law after a 
third reading, will be the most impor- 
tant measure affecting the supervision 
of locomotives ever established in any 
country. 

The following are verbatim copies of 
sections 2, 3 and 4 of the bill: 

Sec. 2. That the chief inspector and 
the two assistant chief inspectors, to- 
gether with all the district inspectors, 
appointed under the act of February 
seventeenth, nineteen hundred and 
eleven, shall inspect and shall have the 
same powers and duties with respect to 
all the parts and appurtenances of the 
locomotive and tender that they now 
have with respect to the boiler of a 
locomotive and the appurtenances 
thereof, and the said act of February 
seventeenth, nineteen hundred and 
eleven, shall apply to and include the 
entire locomotive and tender and all 
their parts with the same force and ef- 
fect as it now applies to locomotive 
boilers and their appurtenances. That 
upon the passage of this act all inspec- 
tors and applicants for the position of 
inspectors shall be examined touching 
their qualifications and fitness with re- 
spect to the additional duties imposed 
by this act. 

Sec. 3. That nothing in this act shall 
be held to alter, amend, change, repeal 
or modify any other act of congress 
that the said act of February seven- 
teenth, nineteen hundred and eleven, to 
which reference is herein specifically 
made or any order of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission promulgated 
under the safety appliance act of March 
second, eighteen hundred and ninety- 
three, and supplemental acts, except 
that for a violation of the act of Februa- 
ry seventeenth, nineteen hundred and 
eleven, as hereby amended, or of any 
rule or regulation made under its pro- 
visions, or of any lawful order of any 



inspector acting thereunder, the offend- 
er shall be subject to prosecution by the 
United States for a penalty under said 
act, as Hereby amended, only: Provided, 
That the passage of this act shall not 
affect any suit pending or offense com- 
mitted prior to the passage hereof. 

Sec. 4. That this act shall take effect 
six months after its passage, except as 
otherwise herein provided. 



Minor Boiler Accidents. 

An impression prevails that the only 
serious accident that can happen to a 
steam boiler is an explosion in which 
the boiler is rent in pieces, but we have 
information that minor accidents cause 
greater personal suffering than real ex- 
plosions. 

In the course of a most interesting talk 
given at the Traveling Engineers' conven- 
tion by Mr. Frank McManamy, chief of 
the United States Boiler Inspection 
Bureau, he said: Injector and injector 
connections: During 1912 there were 47 
accidents with 48 injured. During 1913 
there were 28 accidents with 28 injured. 
During 1914 there were 27 accidents with 
27 persons injured. 

Injector steam pipe failures: During 
1912 there were 31 failures with 38 in- 
jured. During 1913 there were 36 acci- 
dents with 47 persons injured. During 
1914 there were 14 accidents and 17 per- 
sons injured. This is a subject that the 
Railway Master Mechanics' Association 
are wrestling with in hopes of making 
injector connections safer. 

There are many other so-called minor 
boiler accidents that inflict a toll of death 
and suffering on many persons, but each 
accident being of small account the aggre- 
gate is overlooked. 



Fighting the Full Crew Law. 

An appeal is to be made to the public 
by the thirteen railroads operating in 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York 
for aid in having the Full Crew laws re- 
cently enacted in those commonwealths 
repealed. It is believed by the railroad 
officials that with the aid of the voters 
they can have repeal action taken by the 
Legislature. 

The railroads have organized a commit- 
tee to take charge of the work. R. L. 
O'Donnel, general superintendent of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad Company, is the 
chairman, and other members are J. H. 
Ewing, Philadelphia and Reading ; F. 
Hartenstein, Lehigh Valley ; Robert Fin- 
ney, Baltimore and Ohio, and J. S. Fisher, 
New York Central. 

Statements are being prepared by the 
railroads and will be given the widest 
sort of publicity within a few days. 

The railroads say that in no sense will 
they war upon their trainmen. The full 
crew law compels employment on thou- 



90 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



March, 1915. 



sands of passenger and freight trains of 
extra men whose services are not re- 
quired, forces waste of not less than $1,- 
500,000 a year in Pennsylvania alone, they 
declare. It means in all such cases em- 
ployment without service, the railroad 
explains. 



The New Era for Railroads. 
The above is the title of a most ex- 
haustive article contributed to the Xew 
York Times by Mr. Daniel Willard, presi- 
dent of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. 
He opens by explaining that the attitude 
of the Times on the 5 per cent, rate case 
had moved him to write the letter discuss- 
ing the condition of railroads as a separate 
interest and the almost unanimous support 
of the press in favor of liberal treatment 
of the railroads because it has become 
recognized that our country cannot 
prosper when any large portion of the 
people or its business interests is un- 
prosperous and this principle applies with 
very great force when the particular in- 
terest in mind is one which, because of 
its nature, plays a part in our domestic 
and political economy second only in im- 
portance to agriculture. It is not over- 
stating the case to say that in importance 
agriculture and transportation might 
properly be placed upon a parity, because 
in only a very small degree do the people 
in any part of our country depend for 
their sustenance and needs upon the prod- 
ucts of their immediate vicinity, and it is 
only because of efficient and adequate 
transportation facilities that they can de- 
pend, and do depend, with absolute con- 
fidence, upon regions far remote for their 
flour, meat, and other necessities. 

Referring to some of the difficulties en- 
countered by the commission in trying to 
treat railroad interests fairly, Mr. Willard 
said : The commission clearly recognized 
all the contentions of the carriers con- 
cerning the general railroad situation, 
and specifically stated that it was the duty 
and the purpose of the commission to 
assist so far as it properly might in the 
solution of the whole problem. In 
furtherance of that thought the commis- 
sion pointed out various ways in which 
it expressed the belief that assistance 
might be looked for, and if our political 
structure had been developed along the 
lines that were later on followed in the 
Dominion of Canada — that is to say, if the 
Federal power had been all-embracing, 
except as limited by special restrictions, 
instead of being just the contrary — it 
would be possible, I believe, with the as- 
sistance and support of the Federal Com- 
mission to work out without unreasonable 
delay a solution of the railroad problem 
along the lines suggested by the Federal 
Commission. It should be remembered, 
however, that each one of our forty-nine 
States, or, more specifically, each one of 
the eighteen States located in what is 
known as official classification territory, 



has its own policy concerning the regula- 
tion of railroads. In some of the States 
it is not possible to advance local freight 
rates, for instance, without the consent of 
the Railroad Commission in that State, 
and in many of the States there are laws 
limiting passenger fares generally to two 
cents per mile, although it was very clearly 
shown by the able counsel retained by the 
Interstate Commerce Commission to as- 
sist it in the development of the rate case 
that a two-cent passenger rate was clearly 
unremunerative under most circumstances. 
In order, therefore, that the policy out- 
lined by the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission in the Eastern rate case, and 
which I believe is a broad and con- 
structive one in its possibilities, may be 
given effect and that the railroads may 
without undue delay obtain the relief pro- 
posed, it will be necessary to have also the 
friendly and affirmative co-operation of 
the several States, and this, in view of 
the searching and prolonged investigation 
of the Federal Commission into the whole 
subject, I think we may fairly expect to 
be forthcoming. If this is done, I be- 
lieve the future outlook for the railroads 
is distinctly more promising than it has 
been at any time during the last decade. 



Engine Power and Train Resistance. 

It is highly important that railway- 
companies should be able to decide how 
much of a train the various locomotives 
can pull and accordingly much time and 
attention have been devoted to finding out 
the amount of locomotive tractive powered 
train resistances under various conditions 
of operating. The tractive power of en- 
gines can easily be calculated, but finding 
the amount of resistance of the trains 
they are handling is a much more difficult 
problem. The various scientists who have 
labored on the problem of train resistance 
have nearly always tried to establish a 
formula of train resistance. When this 
formula or rule was carefully investigated 
it was generally found applicable only to 
the trains of one railway or even to one 
division. 

At the 1914 convention of the American 
Railway Master Mechanics' Association 
a voluminous report was presented on 
Train Resistance and Tonnage Rating, 
which was full of rules, tables and for- 
mulae, but there is nothing in the report 
which a railway superintendent could use 
for instructing yard masters and others 
how the various locomotives should be 
loaded. There are figures showing the 
train resistance found on certain railroads, 
but they are not of general application. 
In fact, the resistance of a train is a quan- 
tity difficult to determine with accuracy. 
Conditions of lubrication, weather, condi- 
tion of equipment, conditions of curves 
and track all count and they are rarely 
uniform. Then the wind resistance is 
an uncertain quantity, depending greatly 
upon how the wind strikes the cars. 



Until about 1885 American railway of- 
ficials were contented to use what was 
known the Clark formula for resistance 
of all kinds of trains and its was far too 
high. The formula is, 
V2 

r- 8 = R 

171 
That is square the velocity in miles per 
hour divide by 171 and add 8 pounds per 
ton for the constant resistance. By de- 
grees railroad men came to understand 
that this rule gave too much resistance 
and they substituted 6 for 8 as the con- 
stant resistance, but that was still too 
high. There was nothing to indicate that 
the train resistance increased in the square 
of the speed in mile. 

In 1885 Angus Sinclair, who had en- 
joyed long experience as a locomotive en- 
gineer and was persuaded that the rules 
for train resistance were worthless, made 
a series of tests with freight trains on the 
Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Northern 
Railway which proved that the accepted 
rules regarding train resistance were 
worthless. He met with so much variety 
in the resistance of the different trains 
that he did not try to establish any fixed 
rule, holding as he did that it was neces- 
sary to investigate the resistance of every 
individual train. 

In 1892 Angus Sinclair made a series 
of tests of locomotives pulling the Em- 
pire State Express to ascertain as ac- 
curately as possible the power required to 
pull the train at various speeds. In one 
of these runs a speed of 70 miles an hour 
was maintained for several miles and five 
indicator diagrams were taken when the 
locomotive was doing the work of main- 
taining the speed without loss or gain. 
The power developed indicated that the 
entire resistance of engine and train was 
17.6 pounds per ton. 

Arthur M. Wellington, a well known 
civil engineer who had devoted much 
time and exhaustive experiments on train 
resistances, remarked concerning Mr. 
Sinclair's test: 

"The observations are among the most 
important evidences on record of the 
actual resistance of trains at high speeds. 
Perhaps we might even go farther and 
say that they are the most important, es- 
pecially as they are reasonably consistent 
with the mean of the few other records 
which have been obtained for speeds of 
from 50 to 75 miles an hour, while presum- 
ably far more trustworthy and decisive 
than any of those prior records. As such 
they are a real contribution to ' technical 
knowledge." 

After giving the leading particulars 
about the route, the train, the speed and 
the resistance recorded, Mr. -Wellington 
made comparison of the data with those 
of a famous run made by Mr. William 
Stroudley on the London, Brighton & 
South Coast Railway; also with figures 
of train resistance found by Mr. P. M. 



March. 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



91 



Dudley with dynamometer car, and de- 
clared that Sinclair's figures had es- 
tablished figures worth being accepted as 
authority. 

The various tests that have been made 
on other railroads since Mr. Sinclair made 
the tests of the Empire State Express in- 
dicate that his rule of resistance for fast 
passenger trains are entirely reliable. That 
rule does not, however, apply to freight 
trains. 

Many railroad companies are now using 
dynamometer cars that record with ac- 
curacy the resistance of trains. We en- 
joyed the privilege at one time of spending 
considerable time in the dynamometer car 
operated by the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railroad, the greater part of its 
work having been done on freight trains. 
From notes taken on that car we learn 
that one train of loaded freight cars, 
weighing 940 tons, gave an average re- 
sistance of S l / 2 pounds per ton when run- 
ning 20 miles an hour. A train of empty 
freight cars weighing 340 tons showed a 
resistance of 12 pounds per ton when run- 
ning on a level track at 20 miles an hour. 
The records for resistance of passenger 
trains as shown by the dynameter cars 
agree substantially by Sinclair's tests of 
the Empire State Express. 

There is good reason for believing that 
the heavier the cars in a train are loaded, 
the smaller is the ton resistance, just as 
the case cited of loaded and empty cars. 
A particularly heavy train of freight cars 
on the New York, weighing with engine 
and tender 3,428 tons, gave resistance of 
only 4 pounds to the ton. The records 
of trains handled by the newest form of 
heavy engines when loaded close to their 
capacity seldom show a greater resistance 
than 4 pounds per ton at 20 miles an hour, 
when pulled over a straight track nn a 
calm day. 

A good illustration of the low rate of 
tonnage resistance in a particularly heavy 
train was found in a train hauled over a 
division of the Erie Railroad to test the 
hauling capacity of a new centipede loco- 
motive. The train of 640 cars weighed 
45.000 tons and the average train resist- 
ance on a level track was 3 pounds to the 
ton. 

When officials are considering the ele- 
ments that go to increase train resistance, 
too little attention, as a rule, is bestowed 
upon the resistance due to irregularities 
of track. When tracks are so defective 
that they fail to maintain the wheels 
revolving in parallel planes, the flanges of 
some of the wheels will keep grinding 
themselves on the rails greatly increas- 
ing the resistance to motion. All these 
causes that make a train hard to pull must 
be taken into consideration when the 
tractive power of locomotives is under 
consideration, and many of these causes 
belong to the realm that may be classed 
as past finding out. 



Horsepower. 

Owing to a scheme of James Watt's to 
make steam engines to appear of more 
capacity than they really were they were 
reckoned in horsepower that was greater 
than any horse could exert unless for a 
spurt. The standard horsepower es- 
tablished by Watt is 33,000 pounds raised 
one foot per minute or its equivalent. 

Endurance is the horse's weakest point. 
Ten hours a day is often assumed as his 
working period. Authorities claim that 
eight hours is better, or that six under a 
heavier load will accomplish the same 
volume of work with less tear and wear 
on the horse. The average farm horse 
cannot be depended upon for more than 
thirteen to fifteen miles of pull a day, 
nor more than four to six hours of work 
per day, as an average of even the busiest 
months. Properly handled, working six 
hours a day, well and carefully fed, a 
horse may have a working life of ten 
years of 1,000 hours each. The average 
farm horse will do well to develop 500 
horsepower hours per year, or 5,000 in 
ten years. About 20 per cent, of the 
horse's weight may be taken as his 
maximum sustained draft, and six to 
eight miles per hour as his maximum sus- 
tained speed for anything more than an 
hour or so per day. The draft horse 
ordinarily gives the largest volume of 
work per day at about one-half his maxi- 
mum load and one-third his maximum 
speed. 



Flying Trains. 

War is a scourge of the human race, 
but strangely enough developing the arts 
of war has frequently promoted arts of 
peace. Forging swords taught followers 
of peaceful industry to forge plowshears 
as they never had been made before ; the 
boring of cannon taught mechanics how 
to apply the lathe and the boring mill to 
many peaceful purposes. Now there 
seems to be a probability that the con- 
struction of flying machines will pave the 
way to the making of flying trains. An 
article that recently appeared in the 
London Times says : 

At the present period of time it would 
be rash to affirm that anything not logic- 
ally and mathematically impossible is 
beyond the range of human invention and 
achievement. Man's ingenuity, aided by 
science, have accomplished the seeming 
impossible in the past, and, undoubtedly. 
more marvelous triumphs remain yet to 
become actual facts of human experience. 

The latest on the tapis, a flying train, is 
the project of an ingenious Frenchman, 
M. Emile Bachelet. This has really 
gone so far beyond the experimental 
stage, that is has been actually accom- 
plished, to the surprise and astonishment 
of scientists that were privileged to see 
it in operation. 

This wonderful train is situated near 



the lines of the Great Central and Metro- 
politan Railways, and within five miles of 
the city bounds of London. The object 
at present- is to put this levitated railway 
to. a practical test so far as conveying the 
mails is concerned. 

Hitherto M. Bachelet's invention has 
only been demonstrated in model form, 
and it remains to be seen whether the 
speed of 300 miles an hour which is 
claimed for the "flying train" can be at- 
tained. It is stated that it will take about 
three months to complete the mile-long 
track, which forms only a beginning, as 
it can be extended as necessity requires. 
It is claimed that the. new railway will 
reduce the time of carrying mails to a 
minimum, the trains making the journey 
from London to Birmingham in a quarter 
of an hour, to Manchester or Liverpool 
in 48 minutes, and to Glasgow in an hour 
and a quarter. M. Bachelet states that it 
was during the last 25 years of research 
he made his discovery of the electro- 
magnetic waves or flux which have issued 
in this new mode of locomotion. They 
were in no way to be compared with the 
X rays with their burning property, or 
with any other known rays. 

The commercial side of his inventions 
are not of particular interest to M. 
Bachelet. He states that he strives to 
discover the means whereby he can help 
suffering humanity, and in the utilization 
of the electro-magnetic waves he believes 
he has found an instrument which will 
rid mankind of consumption, pneumonia, 
cancer, insomnia, and other dread ills to 
which the human flesh has long been heir. 

The French inventor's sanguine anticipa- 
tions relative to the pathological uses of 
the electro-magnetic waves are probably 
doomed to disappointment. Cure-alls in 
the sphere of medical practice are nothing 
new, and have been almost invariably re- 
garded with distrust by eminent practi- 
tioners of the healing art. M. Bachelet's 
levitating train may prove a success, 
though scarcely to the surprising extent 
stated and probably expected by him. 



The energetic secretary of the Traveling 
Engineers' Association, Mr. W. O. 
Thompson, is making a vigorous effort 
to increase the roll of members. He in- 
timates that the dull months of the year 
form the best time for urging elegible 
men who are still out in the cold to be- 
come members of this admirable associa- 
tion. So say all of us. Friends get busy. 



If you have a good system of indexing 
or cataloging the important items and ar- 
ticles appearing in your railroad papers, 
you will find it will be convenient when 
you desire to quickly secure some data 
on an important subject. The successful 
railroad man today is up-to-date, but he 
must keep in touch with what is going 
on outside of his immediate vision. 



92 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



March, 1915. 



Air BraKe Department 



Air Brake Tests. 

Although the Pennsylvania-Westing- 
house air brake tests were conducted in 
1913, the report was not compiled and 
made public until quite recently, and at 
the present time they cannot be promis- 
cuously circulated as but a limited num- 
ber of copies have been printed and dis- 
tributed among the officers and air brake 
men of the companies which conducted 
the tests. For this, among other reasons, 
it is desired to comment upon these tests 
and to acquaint our readers with the 
principal objects of the tests and some of 
the information derived from them, but it 
is obvious that the wide scope of the dem- 
onstrations, a report of which consists of 
a large volume of about 400 pages, pre- 
cludes the possibility of a thorough re- 
sume in the limited space of a monthly 
publication. The report is. however, an 
authorative reference and constitutes an 
air brake text book that will be used by 
air brake experts for years to come and 
possibly as long as the air brake is in 
existence. 

Primarily the objects of the tests were 
to determine the best air brake mechanism 
and foundation brake gear for heavy 
steel passenger cars, with which it is de- 
sirable to make as short a stop from high 
speeds as was possible with the lighter 
equipment used some years ago, and at 
the same time the Pennsylvania Railroad 
demanded a brake that would also show 
an improvement in service operation, both 
as to shorter and smoother stops and an 
improved action during release of brakes. 
The design of such a brake necessitated 
a study of the effect of various types of 
brake mechanism and foundation brake 
rigging as well as experiments to deter- 
mine the degree of emergency braking 
force that could be employed and their 
various effects upon the comparative 
length of the stop. For the purpose of 
comparison and to determine the actual 
shortcomings of the present type of 
brakes the P M (High Speed) brake was 
thoroughly tested out while the U C 
(Universal Control) and the U C — E 
(Electro Pneumatic) were relied upon to 
manifest the desired improvement. A 12- 
car train of 120,000-11). steel passenger 
coaches and a modern Pacific type of lo- 
comotive were used. The tests were con- 
ducted at Absecon, N. J., on the W. J. & 
£ R. R. 

The track upon which the running tests 
were made was level, a trip for applying 
the brakes at a given point was installed, 
and the track was wired for circuit break- 
ers suitably spaced, so that by means of a 



clock and chronograph located near the 
trip, the exact speed of the train before 
and during the stop could be ascertained. 

It will not be necessary for our pur- 
pose to give a detailed account of the 
apparatus used on the cars and locomo- 
tive beyond that reliable apparatus for in- 
dicating the speed, and a distance ma- 
chine for indicating" the distance traveled 
beyond the point of brake application was 
used on the locomotive, while the cars 
were fitted with brake cylinder indicators 
and wheel sliding indicators. One car 
contained the chronograph and certain 
cars were fitted with slack action indi- 
cators ; telephones and specially designed 
apparatus was used to determine the ef- 
ficiency of the brake rigging. 

Among some specially constructed de- 
vices used, the apparatus for determining 
the brake rigging efficiency is a device 
consisting of a soft steel plate of known 
hardness and uniform structure and was 
used to record the pressure with which a 
hardened steel ball was pressed against 
it; during a brake application the depth 
of the impression being proportional to 
the force. This was located in the brake 
rigging as near the shoe as possible so 
that the force transmitted by the brake 
gear passed through the ball to the plate 
while effective on the shoe. The diame- 
ter of the impression was measured with 
a micrometer microscope and the corre- 
sponding pressure determined from a 
calibration curve of similar impressions 
made under direct known pressure on a 
testing machine. The ratio of the pres- 
sure at the brake shoe as found by this 
method to the brake shoe pressure that 
should result from the cylinder pressure 
and the total leverage ratio known to 
exist, represents the mechanical efficiency 
of the rigging in per cent. 

The wheel sliding indicator is an im- 
provement upon the older method of ob- 
servers riding the platforms and throwing 
off some object at the point any wheel 
started to slide. This mechanism con- 
sists of a spring motor-driven drum on 
which records were made by five pencils, 
four connected to contacts arranged so 
that a magnet circuit was made and 
broken once for each revolution of the 
axle, the turning of each axle being rep- 
resented by the pencils. The fifth was 
connected in the distance machine circuit, 
machine located on the locomotive, and 
each fifty feet traveled during the stop 
was recorded simultaneously with the 
revolution of the axle. 

The distance recording machine, oper- 
ated through the medium of the engine 



truck wheel, which broke the circuit 
every fifty feet traveled was so inter- 
locked with the trip which applied the 
brakes that the point of application was 
indicated on each wheel sliding record. 

The slack action recorders were simi- 
lar instruments with a drum driven at a 
constant speed. These were securely 
fastened to the floor on several cars, and 
the pencil tracing on the drum was at- 
tached to an adjacent car by means of a 
wire under spring tension. As long as 
there was no relative motion between the 
adjacent cars, the pencil was stationery 
and traced a straight line on the diagram 
and any change in slack caused a move- 
ment of the pencil. A time record was 
also provided for these instruments, so 
that it was possible to note the exact time 
and place of any decided change in slack. 

In order that the most accurate results 
of these tests could be obtained, the at- 
mospheric temperature, relative humidity 
and rail conditions were noted during fre- 
quent intervals of the day. Rail condi- 
tions or the coefficient of rail friction was 
determined by means of an apparatus 
which pressed a block of tire steel down 
on the rail with a force that could be 
varied, the average force required to move 
or keep moving the block of steel on the 
rail determined the rail friction existing 
ai that particular time. 

The chronograph is an electrically at- 
tached instrument used to simultaneously 
record the brake pipe pressure, brake 
cylinder pressure, length of stop and time 
of stop and at the same time a continuous 
record of speed and continuous record of 
deceleration is traced. This machine, the 
paper -of which is driven from an idler 
running on the rail, is of course abso- 
lutely accurate in registering the per- 
formance of the brake. 

A number of different types of brake 
shoes were used for a comparison of per- 
formance in actual service, but the investi- 
gations into the subject of brake shoe fric- 
tion were largely made in laboratory tests 
as it is the most accurate way of deter- 
mining the characteristics of brake shoes, 
or brake shoe friction. 

In the following an effort will be made 
to state very briefly the principal im- 
provements manifested by the U. C. and 
electro pneumatic brake over the high 
speed brake. 

By U. C. equipment it is meant that the 
universal valve, which replaces the triple 
valve, is pneumatically operated and when 
the symbol U. E. is used, it means that the 
universal valve was electrically operated. 
The U. C, which will be used until the 



March, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



93 



majority of cars or a sufficient number are 
equipped to warrant electric transmission, 
first provides a greater flexibility for serv- 
ice operation than the triple valve equip- 
ments. This is brought about by pro- 
portioning the volume of the auxiliary 
reservoir, service reservoir and brake 
cylinder to produce a 50-pound brake 
cylinder pressure from a 20-pound brake 
pipe reduction and basing the nominal 
service braking power at 90 per cent, from 
a 24-pound auxiliary reservoir reduction. 
Thus a 24-pound brake pipe reduction is 
necessary to produce the full service 
braking effect, as larger sized reservoirs 
require less reduction to produce the same 
cylinder pressure, the application of the 
U. C. brake permits of more time in 
which the engineer can exercise his judg- 
ment as to rate of retardation and how 
best to control the speed of the train. 

The U. C. is more positive, sensitive, 
and more prompt to release, and the pres- 
ence of universal valves mixed with triple 



emergency application, and 300 feet will 
be cut off when emergency follows a par- 
tial service application. 

With the U. E. brake a full service stop 
is made from the 60 M. P. H. speed in 
2,000 feet, full service followed by emer- 
gency in 1,700 feet, and partial service 
followed by emergency in 1,540 feet. 

The effect of the time element in the 
serial action of pneumatically operated 
brakes is to produce shocks, especially 
when emergency stops are made from 
low speeds; the electric pneumatic brake 
eliminates the time element and all shocks 
except those due to differences in braking 
power between the locomotive and cars. 
Smooth stops can be made with the grad- 
uated release feature of the universal 
valve and to use this method of release 
results in a saving of compressed air, time 
and distance in making a stop. 

To note the effect of a closed angle 
cock on charged cars if an application 
was made while the cock was closed, an 




CHRONOGRAPH CONNECTED WITH TRACK CIRCUIT. 



valves results in an improvement in the 
release action of all brakes. 

All service stops with mixed equipment 
were free from objectionable shocks. 
Shocks during emergency stops with 
triple valve equipments using 113 per 
cent, emergency braking power and U. C. 
at 150 per cent, were not severe enough 
to be prohibitive. 

With the U. C. and U. E. brakes there 
is an efficient emergency brake available 
at any time during a service application. 
The P. M. brake will not work in quick 
action following a partial service reduc- 
tion. The use of emergency position of 
the brake valve after a partial service re- 
duction does not shorten the full service 
stopping distance, when the P. M. brake 
is considered, and these stopping distances 
from 60-mile per hour speeds averaged 
from 2.000 to 2,250 feet. 

With the U. C, quick action and full 
emergency pressure is always available 
during a service stop and approximately 
200 feet will be cut off of the length of a 
stop when full service is followed by an 



experiment was made and the U. E. brake 
applies all brakes in full, but the brakes 
back of the closed cock cannot be released 
or recharged before the cock is opened. 
It is considered that the failure to re- 
lease will provide the factor of safety 
even if a closed cock will not prevent the 
application of the brakes. 

The time of brake application, full ser- 
vice reduction, on a 12-car train by the 
three types of brakes shows that on the 
first car the P. M. applies or starts to ap- 
ply in one second, the U. C. in three sec- 
onds, and the U. E. in three seconds. 
Brakes start to apply on all cars, P. M., 
3 to 4 seconds : U. C, 5 to 6 seconds ; 
U. E., 3 seconds. Full brake cylinder 
pressure is attained, P. M., 12 seconds; 
U. C, 16 seconds; U. E., 9 seconds. 

The U. C. and U. E. consume more 
time than the P. M. in starting to apply, 
because the universal valve is designed 
so that it will not apply with less than a 
5- pound brake pipe reduction, conse- 
quently the P. M. starts first, but the time 
of obtaining an effective brake cylinder 



pressure is the same with either brake. 
Why it is desirable to consume more time 
in obtaining a full brake cylinder pres- 
sure in service with the U. C. than with 
the U. E. has already been mentioned, 
and it will be understood that with the 
U. E. the time element is eliminated and 
all brakes start in 3 seconds and fully ap- 
plied in 9 seconds, with no necessity for 
extending the time limit for full service 
operation. 

The result of an emergency application 
is that the brake on the first car will ap- 
ply in less than 0.5 of a second with 
either of the three brakes; on all cars the 
P. M. is applied in 2 seconds, the U. C. in 
1.5 seconds, and the U. E. in less than 
0.5 second. Full brake cylinder pressure 
is obtained on the P. M. in 8 seconds, the 
U. C. in 3.5 seconds and the U. E. in 2.25 
seconds. 

Emergency stops from 60 M. P. H. 
speeds on a level track, P. M. brake with 
113 per cent, braking power, averaged 
about 1,600 feet. The U. C. at the same 
speed, but with 150 per cent, braking 
power, cuts off 200 feet, and the U. E. 
with 150 per cent, braking power brings 
the length of stop to less than 1,200 feet. 
The shortest stops made by these 12-car 
trains was 1,021 feet, U. E. brake, 180 per 
cent, braking power. It will be under- 
stood that the term braking power means 
the calculated or nominal unless other- 
wise stated. 

A large number of breakaway stops 
were made during the tests ; the idea is 
to know the possibilities of the car brake 
equipments under conditions where they 
are not compelled to furnish a portion of 
the retarding effect for the locomotive, 
not that the locomotive brake was inef- 
ficient for normal percentages of braking 
power, but when 150 per cent, and 180 per 
cent, braking power was used the locomo- 
tive naturally would run further than the 
train. When breakaway stops were made 
the locomotive was uncoupled before the 
trip was reached and the length of train 
stop measured. 

As a result of these series of tests, a 
curve plotted to show the distance in 
which a train of 12 modern steel cars and 
a locomotive can be stopped from various 
speeds, indicates that with the U. E. 
equipment, 180 per cent, nominal braking 
power, clasp type of brake rigging and 
plain cast iron shoes, the stops will be as 
follows : 
Speed M. P. H. Distance in feet. 

80 2080 

75 1800 

70 1500 

65 1240 

60 1000 

55 800 

50 600 

45 460 

40 320 

35 220 



94 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



March, 1915. 



A glance at the figures will easily dem- 
onstrate the efficiency of the electro pneu- 
matic brake. 

An official of the Interborough Rapid 
Transit Co., at a railroad club meeting 
recently said, if the New York Subway, 
hauling 1,200,000 passengers daily, was to 
discard the electro pneumatic brake and 
return to a strictly pneumatic brake, the 
subways would be tied up and about 400,- 
000 people would be compelled to find 
some other means of transportation or 
walk home. These words indicate that 
the capacity of the subway would be re- 
duced to transporting 800,000 passengers 
daily, or that the addition of electric cur- 
rent to an already improved pneumatic 
brake has increased the capacity of the 
subway about 33 per cent. 

It is also interesting to note that the 
length of the train of 12 cars and locomo- 
tive was 1,040 feet, and a stop from 60 
M. P. H. was made in 1,021 feet, showing 
that the distance of the stop was less 
than the length of the ordinary passenger 
train. With this electro pneumatic brake 
stopping distances with emergency ap- 
plications decrease with an increase in the 
per cent, of braking power employed. An 
approximate expression for the variation 
in the per cent, of emergency braking 
power and length of stop is : that for an 
increase in 5 per cent, in braking power, 
the length of stop is decreased 2 per cent. 

Investigations to determine the nominal 
per cent, of braking power that can be 
used for emergency stops without danger 
of injury to the wheels from sliding is a 
very important consideration in the de- 
sign of a brake, and previous demonstra- 
tions show that with all cars braking at 
practically the same ratio, 180 per cent. 
can be utilized, and the conclusions ar- 
rived at during the P. R. R. demonstra- 
tions will be quoted verbatim from the 
report. 

"The amount of wheel sliding depends 
more upon rail and weather conditions 
than on the percentage of braking power. 
The determining factor in wheel sliding 
is not high braking power alone, but 
rather the uncontrollable rail and weather 
conditions in connection with it, against 
which no permanent provision can be 
made without a sacrifice in the length of 
emergency stops during those favorable 
periods or seasons of the year when con- 
ditions warrant the use of high braking 
power. The coefficient of rail friction in- 
creases with increasing temperature and 
decreasing relative humidity, and de- 
creases with increasing relative humidity 
and decreasing temperature. The aver- 
age rail condition changes with the sea- 
sons of the year (and, to a less degree. 
with the time of the day) and advantage 
can be taken of this fact by using a high- 
er braking power in the summer than 
could be used in the winter without like- 
lihood of a material, if any, increase in 

wheel sliding." 



Some wheel sliding occurred in 22 per 
cent, of the tests at an emergency braking 
power of 150 per cent, and in 20 per 
cent, at 180 per cent, braking power. 

The effect of wheel sliding is to length- 
en the stop, but the extent of the length- 
ening depends upon the amount of the 
wheel sliding and the braking power be- 
ing used. 

Whether the sliding of wheels will or 
will not cause flat spots of a sufficient 
size to produce rough riding of the car 
depends entirely upon circumstances ; for 
example, a condition of rail surface that 
will cause a considerable amount of wheel 



considerable distances on a bad rail pro- 
ducing but small flat spots, whereas with 
better rail conditions instances of wheel 
sliding were observed to produce flat 
spots of considerable size when the wheels 
slid a much shorter distance. No flat 
spots of sufficient size were obtained to 
necessitate changing wheels during the 
tests, although, it was found advisable, on 
account of the number of small spots ac- 
cumulated on the wheel tread, to change 
some wheels before the cars were put 
back into regular service." 

\s to the variation in rail friction dur- 
ing different periods of the day, common 




BRAKE CYLINDER PRESSURE INDICATOR. 



sliding, with relatively low percentages 
of braking power, is a condition which at 
the same time will permit long slides to 
occur without producing noticeable flat 
spots. 

"On the other hand, when rail conditions 
are good, or in the extreme case of a 
sanded rail, a very short slide may pro- 
duce flat spots of sufficient size to require 
prompt attention. The amount of flat- 
lening is further contributed to by the 
weight upon the wheels and the material 
in the wheels and rail. The effect of rail 
conditions on the amount of flattening 
produced was brought out during the 
tests, there being many cases observed 
where the wheels picked up and slid for 



experience leads us to expect a bad rail 
condition with a combination of low tem- 
perature and high humidity, and the con- 
clusions follow from a knowledge of rail 
conditions in general and their effect ir- 
respective of the readings of the appa- 
ratus used to determine the coefficient of 
rail friction during the tests. As a mat- 
ter of fact, there is no great consistency 
between the readings obtained and the 
amount of wheel sliding experienced, 
while, as a rule, the greatest amount of 
wheel sliding occurred during the first 
runs of the morning, at which time the co- 
efficient of rail friction was usually low; 
it was also a noticeable fact that occa- 
sionally considerable wheel sliding oc- 



March, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



95 



■curred when the coefficient of rail fric- 
tion noted previous to the test was about 
its average value. 

A study of the action of the train where 
wheel sliding occurred, and the coef- 
licient of rail friction noted at the same 
time, led to the conclusion that other 
factors, such as shock, slack action and 
foreign matter on the rail surface have a 
controlling influence in causing wheel 
sliding. 

The arrangement of the by-pass valve 
to produce higher braking power on the 
locomotive and having a blow-down fea- 
ture when the U. C. and U. E. equipments 
are used on the cars has advantages of, 
shock between the cars and the locomo- 
tive practically eliminated, shorter stops, 
and no more wheel sliding than to be ex- 
pected with the present installation of the 
E. T. equipment. 

The reader will understand that as 
stated, the objects of the tests was not 
solely for the purpose of ascertaining 
emergency stopping distances, which, 
however, determine the efficiency of a 
brake, hence a study of foundation brake 
arrangement and retarding force that may 
be expected from the brake shoe must of 
necessity be taken from the most severe 
conditions encountered, i. e., the emer- 
gency stop. Those of our readers who 
have followed the development of the 
passenger car brake already understand 
that the distance in which a train stop can 
be made depends principally upon the 
brake cylinder force that can be devel- 
oped, the time in which it is obtained, its 
effect upon the brake ;hoe (brake rig- 
ging efficiency), and the average coef- 
ficient of brake shoe friction that can lie 
realized, and to the air brake student the 
most interesting discovery during the 
tests is a determination of a reasonably 
accurate value of the average coefficient 
of brake shoe friction that can be devel- 
oped under modern air brake conditions 
and the actual efficiency of a well designed 
brake gear. During the Lake Shore brake 
tests, abnormal brake shoe pressures de- 
veloped by the P. C. equipment made it 
practically impossible to determine a fair 
average coefficient of brake shoe friction 
as the increase in brake cylinder piston 
travel in quick action applications over 
that in standing tests, which was at times 
as much as four and five inches, indicated 
that the brake rigging as a whole was 
decidedly inefficient, rather than to fur- 
nish a basis for determining an average 
value that might be expected from a well 
designed brake gear. The following table 
gives the figures of brake rigging ef- 
ficiency multiplied by average coefficient 
of brake shoe friction that was obtained 
from the Pennsylvania- Westinghouse 
tests, where most modern type of brake 
gear was in use. It will be observed that 
both plain and flanged brake shoes were 
used witfi both the single shoe and with 
the clasp brake gears, and these values 



once established make it possible to cal- 
culate the distance in which a train can be 
stopped with the brake without any fur- 
ther necessity for emergency brake tests. 
VALUES OF COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION 
X BRAKE RIGGING EFFICIENCY. 



Per Cent. 
Speed Braking 
m.p.h. Power. 

125 



Clasp Brake, 
a 

Plain Flanged 
Shoe. Shoe. 



30. 



60. 



SO. 



150 
180 
125 

150 
180 
125 
150 
180 



0.141 
0.129 
0.118 
0.103 
0.094 

II IISI, 

0.092 
0.084 
0.077 



0.169 
0.154 
0.141 
0.122 

0.112 
0.102 
0.109 
11.100 
0.092 



Single Shoe* 

per Wheel. 
a 

Plain Flanged 

Shoe. Shoe. 

0.108 

0.099 

0.090 

0.074 

0.068 

0.062 

0.070 

0.064 

0.059 



0.112 
0.103 
0.094 
0.090 
0.082 
0.075 
0.074 
0.068 
0.062 



•Value of data uncertain, due to non-uniform 
brake shoe conditions. 

Before making any further comment on 
the subject of braking power, it may be 
well to state that the term per cent, of 
braking power in itself is a vague and 
meaningless expression which has long 
been accepted in the nomenclature of the 
air brake art or in air brake parlance, 
largely because no one had introduced a 
more explanatory or expressive term. 
The word power used in this sense is a 
misnomer, since power is the rate of do- 
ing work and there is no fixed relation 
between "braking power" and the length 
of a train stop. This has of a necessity 
been used in the same general sense that 
'emergency" or "emergency application 
of the brakes" is frequently used when 
references are made to a quick action ap- 
plication of a brake mechanism. 

Mr. Turner, however, makes it clear to 
us that a more appropriate or more ex- 
pressive term for braking power would 
be "braking ratio" when brake installa- 
tion is under consideration and gives us 
the term "factor of retardation" as the 
criterion of brake performance, as the 
factor of retardation is the ratio between 
the average actual stopping force realized 
and the weight of the car. These de- 
cisions appear in a very technical paper 
in which Mr. Turner dwells upon braking 
power and points out its general misin- 
terpretation and the fallacy of specifying 
a certain per cent, of braking ratio based 
upon a certain brake cylinder pressure 
and offers instead, and as a standard for 
passenger brake installation, a service 
braking ratio of 90 per cent., from a 24- 
pound auxiliary reservoir reduction and 
to be obtained in 7 second's time. At this 
time it is not desired to comment upon 
the above as we are only concerned with 
the terms used and hereafter in reference 
to installation "service braking ratio" or 
"emergency braking ratio," as the case 
may be, will be used and "factor of re- 
tardation" when the average actual stop- 
ping force is compared with the weight 
of the car. 

During the tests an efficient type of 
clasp brake rigging was found to reduce 
brake shoe wear, and a certain variable 
shoe action, and to prevent certain losses 
in braking force emanating from exces- 



sive piston travel, undesirable journal and 
truck movement, and also to result in a 
higher coefficient of brake shoe friction 
than can be obtained from single shoe 
installations. 

Referring to the table of shoe friction 
X brake rigging efficiency, and to the for- 
mula L II printed in the November issue, 
which we at that time requested our read- 
ers to retain for future references, it will 
be noted that the stopping distance of a 
car or train of cars with an air brake is 
calculated from a formula 
V 2 



2 g P e f wherein, 

S = Length of stop in feet. 

V = Velocity in feet per second. 

g = Acceleration of gravity (32.2 feet 
per second). 

P = Per cent, of braking ratio. 

e = Per cent, of brake rigging ef- 
ficiency. 

f = Coefficient of brake shoe friction. 

From this formula and the table a com- 
parison may be made of the efficiency of 
the different brake shoe and foundation 
brake arrangements by a calculation of 
the emergency stopping distances. At 60 
miles per hour, 150 per cent., the recom- 
mended emergency braking ratio, the 
value e X f from the table, for a plain shoe 
with standard rigging is 0.068, and with 
the clasp brake 0.094, and with the clasp 
brake and flanged shoes 0.112, so that the 
stopping distance for a car with the single 
shoe per wheel and standard rigging 
would be V 2 = 88 X 88 = 7744. 2 g P 
= 2 X 32.2 X 1.5, and as e X f = .068, 
96.6 X .068 = 6.56. 7744 h- 6.56 = 1180 
feet distance from the point at which full 
braking force is obtained, but as this can- 
not be obtained within 2 seconds of the 
time of the beginning of the brake appli- 
cation, the actual stop will be 1180 + 88 
= 1268 feet. 

This additional 88 feet is derived from 
the law of averages where it may be as- 
sumed that as braking force rises from 
to maximum in 2 seconds, the average 
force is one-half the maximum or con- 
versely, one-half the maximum force for 
two seconds is equal to maximum force 
effective for one second; hence it is ob- 
vious that in effect the car runs for one 
second or 88 feet distance without any 
braking effect. 

With the same speed and emergency 
braking ratio, the clasp brake with plain 
standard cast iron brake shoes, the value 
of e X f is 0.094, therefore the use of the 
clasp brake, everything else being equal, 
will be 96.6 X 0.094 = 9.08. 7744 -4- 9.08 
= 853 + 88 = 941 feet stopping distance. 

With the flanged brake shoe and clasp 
type of brake, same speed and braking 
ratio, the table shows the value of e X f 
to be 0.112, and the stopping distance 
with such a combination will be 96.6 X 
0.112 = 10.8, and 7744 -=- 10.8 = 717 + 88 
or 805 feet will be the actual length of the 



96 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 191: 



stop from a 60-mile per hour speed with 
this brake, this, of course, assumed to be 
a single car, and it corresponds very 
closely with actual results obtained dur- 
ing the tests where a car with this braking 
combination was stopped from a 60-mile 
per hour speed in 725 feet, on a level 
track, when using 180 per cent, emergency 
braking ratio. 

From the report of these demonstra- 
tions air brake men are gratified to note 
that the air brake, througli improved ap- 
paratus, has not only kept the pace with 
increasing weights of equipment and fur- 
ther complications in operating condi- 
tions, but has gone ahead of absolute re- 
quirements, in that recently developed 
types of air brakes embody special fea- 
tures and functions through which maxi- 
mum sizes of brake cylinders and per- 
missible total leverage ratios are not 
necessary for the heaviest of car con- 
struction. This leaves a considerable 
margin for further development, and 
stopping distances with standard cast iron 
brake shoes and standard brake rigging 
are within the 1200 feet limit specified by 
the master car builders, and with the 
clasp brake and flanged shoes (which can 
be successfully used if correctly installed) 
the electro pneumatic brake will stop the 
modern steel passenger train in less than 
1,000 feet from a 60-mile per hour speed, 
or in as short distances as the lightest 
cars were ever stopped by any brake. 



Hardening Taps. 
In the making of taps the tap should be 
annealed during the process of turning 
three times, to disperse internal strains — 
once when roughed out, once when 
finished to size, and once after the thread 
is cut and the flutes milled out. It 
should then be coated with linseed-oil and 
lampblack, or the composition paste. 
Under no circumstances should it be 
heated for quenching in a molten bath 
without this covering, or the contents of 
the bath, whether lead or salt, will hang 
in the teeth of the tap and prevent con- 
tact with the quenching water, so leaving 
soft those parts requiring the greater 
hardness in the tool. The tap should be 
inserted in the centre of the bath, to in- 
sure the greatest equality of heat on every 
side. As soon as the test-rod (made of 
the same steel) shows that the calescence 
heat is reached, give the quenching water 
a rapid swirl around, and quickly plunge 
the tap, quite perpendicularly, into the 
very center of the moving water. The 
object of these precautions is to prevent 
warping in hardening, more particularly 
with a long tap, for a tap requires to be 
perfectly straight, or it will be certain to 
break in the hole when in use. 



possible free from any grease. Now 
take a piece of clean tow, dip it in dilute 
liquor ammonia, and rub it over the 
copper, avoiding as far as possible its 
drying in patches. Repeat this several 
times, allowing the moisture to dry off 
slowly. If the ammoniacal vapors are 
too strong for you, you may dissolve 
.'4 lb. of salammoniac in one quart of 
water, and paint the sheet over with 
this solution several times at intervals, 
allowing it to dry slowly on the sheet. 



Drilling Hard Steel. 
A mixture which will permit hard steel 
or iron to be drilled with ordinary drills 
is made by using 1 part spirits of cam- 
phor and 4 parts turpentine. Mix well 
and apply cold, letting it remain a few 
minutes before applying the drill. Run 
the drill slowly with fine feed. 



Cement for Steam Pipes. 

lo make a permanent cement used for 
stopping leaks in steam pipes where 
caulking or plugging is impossible, mix 
black oxide of manganese and raw linseed 
oil, using enough oil with the manganese 
to bring it to a thick paste; apply to the 
pipe or joint at leak. It is best to remove 
pressure from the pipe and keep it suf- 
ficiently warm to absorb the oil from the 
manganese. In twenty-four hours the 
cement will be as hard as the iron pipe. 



Blackening Brass. 
The brass must be thoroughly 
cleaned, and then is heated slowly over 
a charcoal fire, care being taken not to 
allow the brass to touch the charcoal, 
or, indeed, not to allow any sparks 
from the charcoal to come in contact 
with the brass, or it will cause red 
spots. As soon as the brass is slightly 
red, dip it into nitric acid and reheat, 
just short of red. Rub strongly with a 
stiff bristle brush and clean with a 
greasy cloth. This gives a fairly per- 
manent dead black finish. 



Boiler Packing. 
Take three pieces of pasteboard, 
about % in. thick, each piece about 3 in. 
larger than the manhole. Glue these 
together, making V s in. thick altogether, 
then with pattern of manhole (this pat- 
tern with about 1 in. rim can be sawed 
out of a thin board and kept for future 
use) mark the straw-board when dry, 
and saw out with scroll saw. This 
packing will not shrink and split open 
like the ones made of wood. 



first washed with 1 per cent, sulphuric 
acid (one part concentrated acid to one 
hundred of water), rinsed and allowed 
to dry thoroughly, the paint will find the 
surface suitably prepared for adhesion. 
Or the cement may be covered with three 
coats of water glass (silicate of soda), 
one part to four of water, and then 
painted. A first coat of linseed oil varnish 
followed by the usual paint is effective. 



Iron Production. 

When it comes to an article that can be 
used by all classes of people and promote 
the comfort of old and young, rich and 
poor, give us iron. Gold and silver hold 
the place of highest luxuries in the metal 
world while iron stands up as the most 
useful. 

The production of iron in the United 
States has increased very rapidly in the 
last few years and the indications are that 
m a short time America will give out more 
iron than all the rest of the world. The 
annual output of iron ore in the chief 
producing countries during the latest 
period (average of 1909, 1910 and 1911) 
for which the figures are available, was: 
United States, 50 million tons; Germany, 
27; United Kingdom 15; France, 14; 
Spain, 8; and Sweden. 5 million tons. 
Continued heavy production may be ex- 
pected of the Lake Superior ores, the 
ores of the Franco-German boundary, the 
Bilbao ores of Spain, the Cleveland ores 
of England, and the high-grade magne- 
tites of North Sweden; while increasing 
quantities of ores may be expected from 
Sweden and Cuba, and the use of Clin- 
ton haematites and Adirondack magne- 
tites in the United States will also prob- 
ably increase. In the near future there 
will probably become available the 
Brazilian high-grade haematites, Chilean 
ores, and ore deposits of the western 
United States, western Canada, India and 
China. 



Green Color on Copper. 
Clean your copper sheets carefully 
and bring up as smooth a surface as 



Oil Paint on Cement. 

There is some difficulty in making paint 
adhere to cement, but if the cement is 



The Effect of Over-Counterbalance. 

At a recent meeting of the Railway 
Club of Pittsburgh, Mr. G. M. Eaton, 
gave an interesting illustration of the rail 
damage caused by the action of locomotive 
over-counterbalance. It appears that 
some years ago the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works was conducting a trial run of a 
locomotive on a customer's tracks. The 
greater part of the track consisted of 80- 
pound rails, but a certain portion had 
been recently laid with 100-pound rails. 
During the test, a very high speed was 
obtained on the 100-pound section and the 
operation was apparently satisfactory. 
As soon, however, as the locomotive ran 
on the 80-pound rail a very decided dis- 
turbance was caused and the counter- 
balance produced a blow heavy enough to 
decidedly bend the rail toward the center 
of the tracks. 



March, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



97 



Hopper Cars for the New England Coal ® Coke Company 



The New England Coal & Coke Co. 
hopper cars were recently built by the 
Pressed Steel Car Co., and embody the 
usual types of construction for hopper 
cars excepting the weight has been kept 
as low as possible consistent with the 
capacity and service requirements. The 
general dimensions are as follows : Length 
inside, 30 ft. ins.; width inside, 9 ft. 
5 l /i ins. ; width over side top angle, 10 ft. 
0J4 ins. ; length over striking plates, 31 
ft. 6 l / 2 ins. ; height from rail to top of 
body, 10 ft. 5 ins. ; length of drop doors in 
clear at bottom, 2 ft. 6 ins. ; length of drop 
doors in clear at top, 3 ft. 1 in. ; width of 
drop doors in clear, 2 ft. 3?§ ins. ; cubic 
capacity, 1,770 cu. ft. 

The center sills consist of two 15-in. 
33-lb. channels, extending from end sill 
to end sill tied together and reinforced 



torn with 3-in. x 3-in. x 5/16-in. angles. 
The pressed steel side stakes are 3/16-in. 
material. 

The car is equipped with the following 
specialties : Air brakes, Westinghouse, 
Schedule KD-1012; couplers, Simplex, 
cast steel 5 x 7-in. shank ; coupler operat- 
ing device, Imperial ; door operating 
gear, Dunham ; draft rigging, Farlow Ses- 
sions ; truck frames, Andrews cast steel ; 
truck bolsters, pressed steel ; journal 
boxes, Symington ; wheels, gray iron, 750 
lbs. 



Improving the Locomotive Boiler. 

The fallacy which found numerous ad- 
herents for a time, that the tube surface 
was of little value in steam making, has 
been a costly piece of engineering hetero- 



is always the same, the temperature of the 
tire varies inversely with the quantity of 
air heated by the combustion. This being 
the case, it is not surprising that much dis- 
appointment has resulted from the prom- 
iscuous increase of grate area in locomo- 
tives that work light a great part of the 
time. The kind of coal to be used and the 
nature of the service the engine will be 
required to do, ought to influence directly 
the proportions of grate and heating sur- 
face to cylinder capacity. When these 
questions receive intelligent consideration, 
our master mechanics may safely depend 
on getting an economical locomotive 
boiler. 

Hiring Men for Firemen. 

A favorite work of the Traveling En- 
gineers' Association has been giving in- 




TYPE OF HOPPER CARS FOR THE NEW ENGLAND COAL \ C( 



at top with J4-in. tie plates at bolster and 
at bottom with 3^-in. x 3'/ 2 -'m x fjj-in. 
angles. The end sills are 10-in 25-lb. chan- 
nels reinforced at top with J^-in pressed 
steel plate and at coupler opening with 
cast steel striking plate. The side sills 
are 10-in. 15-lh. channels extending from 
bolsters to end sill. The body bolsters 
are built integral with underframe, each 
consisting of one web plate of $4-in. 
pressed steel, one malleable iron center 
brace, reinforced at top with 10-in. x 54-in. 
plate and at bottom with 14-in. x 5^-in. 
plate. The cross ridge is made of plates 
and angles and there are four diagonal 
braces made of 5-in. x 3-in. x 5/16-in. 
angles extending between bolster and end 
sills. The doors are made of J^-in. 
pressed steel reinforced by flanges and 
channels, the hopper sheets, floor sheets, 
side and end sheets are made of J4-in. 
steel. The end and side sheets are rein- 
forced at top with 4-in. x 3^4-in. x 5^-in. 
bulb angles and the side sheets at bot- 



doxy to many railroad companies. The 
immense fire boxes that came into use as 
a substitute for tube heating surface have 
not contributed to the economy of fuel 
in ordinary service. Where a locomotive 
has to work nearly at its maximum power 
all the time, an immense grate area com- 
mon to the large fire boxes will conduce 
to economy, but since a moderate quan- 
tity of coal will be consumed per foot of 
grate, but when an engine of this kind is 
required to work light, the consumption 
of coal becomes so low for the area the 
fire is spread over, that it is impossible to 
prevent waste by the cool air reducing 
portions of the firebox below the igniting 
temperature. 

With a very large grate the tendency is 
to supply more air than the fire requires. 
Every cubic foot of air supplied beyond 
what is necessary for chemical combina- 
tion, is so much superfluous gas that has 
to be heated and passed through the tubes. 
As the heat produced by a pound of coal 



IKE (i iMPAXY. 

struction to locomotive firemen and the 
members have not yet become weary of 
well doing in this regard. An influential 
committee is now wrestling with "Recom- 
mended Practices for the Employment and 
Training of New Men for Firemen." The 
committee intimate that no set of ques- 
tions can be asked that would have any 
particular bearing on the subject, as there 
are so many angles to it. The chairman, 
Mr. L. R. Pyle, therefore asks the mem- 
bers to send in general information as to 
what the practices are on their respective 
roads in the employment of firemen hav- 
ing in mind that they will be the engineers 
of tomorrow. 



Generous to a Fault. 

Murphy — "Did ye hear that poor Tim 
Casey's dead?" O'Flaherty — "Ye don't 
say so?" Murphy — "Yes, an' 'e's left all 
'e 'ad to the Derry Poorhouse." O'Fla- 
herty — "'Ow much did 'e lave?" Mur- 
phy — "A wife an' ten children." 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



March, 1915. 



Canadian Railways. 
The year 1914 was one of general ac- 
tivity in railway building in British Co- 
lumbia, due chiefly to carrying out con- 
struction programs prepared by the 
railways previous to the beginning of 
the financial depression. Two trans- 
continental lines, with Pacific coast 
terminals, were completed during the 
year, the Grand Trunk and the Cana- 
dian Northern, in addition to which the 
Kettle Valley Railway, an important 
branch line to the Canadian Pacific, 
will soon be opened for traffic. Im- 
portant construction work was also car- 
ried on during the year in connection 
with the Esquimalt & Nanaimo system 
on Vancouver Island, the Pacific Great 
F.astern, the Kooteney Central and the 
Casio & Slocan lines. The Canadian 
Pacific Railway was engaged in impor- 
tant improvements, including double- 
tracking a portion of the line in British 
Columbia, work on the Rogers Pass 
tunnel in the Selkirk Range, and the 
construction of a new terminal station 
in Vancouver. More than $26,000,000 
were spent by the various railways in 
construction and improvement work in 
1914, and over 1,900 miles added to the 
mileage of the several roads. The pro- 
vincial government rendered impoitant 
assistance in the way of subventions to 
the railway companies for construction 
work on the new lines. 

The completion recently of two rail- 
way lines across the continent estab- 
lishes three routes of communication in 
the Dominion that are transcontinental 
in the full sense of the word. The first 
of these lines connecting the oceans, 
the Canadian Pacific, was completed in 
1888. Last September the gap in the 
Grand Trunk Pacific in the Rocky 
mountain region was closed, and a 
through-train service from Lake Supe- 
rior to the Pacific Ocean entirely over 
its own lines established. In January 
the last spike was driven in British 
Columbia which united the eastern and 
western lines of the Canadian North- 
ern Pacific, completing the third con- 
tinuous line of steel between the Great 
Lakes and the Pacific coast. 

Both of these new lines of railway 
are so nearly complete through the 
district north of Lake Superior, con- 
necting the West with eastern Canada, 
that the completion of the roads in this 
province is virtually equivalent to tying 
together the Atlantic and Pacific 
oceans. In this respect the Canadian 
roads are more truly transcontinental 
than those on any other part of the 
continent. They are true ocean-to- 
ocean routes, representing the expendi- 
ture of enormous sums of money and 
the accomplishment of difficult engi- 
neering feats, as the western sections 
across the Rocky and Selkirk Moun- 
tains. The companies building these 



roads have received the encouragement 
of and liberal assistance from the Do- 
minion Government, and also from the 
provinces through which the lines pass. 



New Brunswick. 



The facts that the New Brunswick 
Government has been enabled to complete 
a large section of the Valley Railway dur- 
ing the past year, and that it has also been 
able to issue bonds to retire indebtedness 
outstanding and falling due at a better rate 
than some other Canadian cities or 
provinces, speaks well for the general con- 
dition of New Brunswick finance. At the 
commencement of 1915 the Intercolonial 
Railway assumed the working of 120 miles 
of the Valley Railway, and trains are 
now running over between 80 and 90 
miles of the section; a regular service is 
also expected to be shortly commenced 
upon the balance of the new mileage ready 
for working. 



Canadian Steel Rails. 
One of the largest Eastern American 
railroad companies has purchased from a 
Canadian steel-rail mill some 10,000 tons 
of steel rails, to be delivered in the course 
of this year. The original order, which 
amounted to 20,000 tons, has now been 
divided, as far as possible, equally be- 
tween the United States and Canada. It 
is understood that the Canadian rails will 
be delivered at about $26.50 per ton. 
This purchase of Canadian steel rails by 
an Eastern American railroad company 
follows closely a shipment of steel rails 
from Canada to the Middle West of the 
United States. Canadian steel rails are 
admitted free into the United States, while 
Canada has imposed a general duty of $7 
per ton upon American steel rails. 



Protecting Iron from Corrosion. 
Ferro-zincing or ironising as a means 
of protecting iron and steel from corro- 
sion has many applications, one of the 
chief, at the present time, being for coat- 
ing tubes to prevent pitting and corrosion. 
The use of zinc as a protective coating is 
due to the fact that zinc is electro-positive 
to iron and steel, and in the presence of 
moisture a galvanic couple is set up. The 
zinc, being electro-positive to iron, cor- 
rodes first, and as long as any zinc is 
left in contact with the iron the iron is 
protected. Mr. Cowper-Coles, the inventor 
of the process known as "ferro-zincing," 
has found by experiment that pure elec- 
trolytic iron forms a very effective pro- 
tective coating, chemically pure iron be- 
ing practically rustless. Thus if sheets 
of electrolytic iron and ordinary rolled 
iron be freed from scale and oxide and 
placed in a v ry dilute solution of sul- 
phuric acid, and connected to a millivolt- 
meter, it will be found that the current 



flows in such a direction as shows that 
electrolytic iron is electro-positive to or- 
dinary rolled iron. The only impurity of 
any importance in electrolytic iron is 
hydrogen, which appears to be partly 
alloyed with the iron, but this is found to 
render the iron more electro-positive ; for 
if a piece of electrolytic iron be annealed, 
the hydrogen being thereby expelled, and 
then tested against a piece of unannealed 
electrolytic iron by the above test, it will 
be found the unannealed sample is electro- 
positive to the annealed sample. It will 
thus be seen that a coating of electrolytic 
iron forms an excellent protective coat- 
ing, and if afterwards coated with zinc 
the result is still better. 



Valuation of Railroads. 

The government and the railroads are 
now engaged in making a valuation of the 
railroads. The railroads do not object 
to that work, although the cost will be 
very great. But in making that valuation 
all elements of value must be considered 
and the railroads should be protected by 
Constitutional guarantees just as well as 
all other property is protected. If this is 
done, the valuation will, in good judg- 
ment, in most cases, prove to be more 
than the capitalization, and the charge of 
over-capitalization will be refuted. 

Valuations of railroads within their 
borders have been made under authority 
in four States, and the valuation was 
more than the capitalization in three out 
of these four States, and nearly the same 
in the fourth State, as follows : 

Valuation. Capitalization. 
Wahington (1905) ...$194,057,240 $161,582,000 
South Dakota (1908). 106,494,502 109,444,600 

Minnesota (1907) 360,961,548 300,027,676 

Wisconsin (1909) 296,803,322 225,000,000 



Total $958,316,613 $796,054,270 



The Poor Roundhouse Foreman. 

A speaker at the Traveling Engineers' 
Convention said : The roundhouse fore- 
man, the bumping post of the railroad, is 
the last end of the string. He is the 
fellow who gets the blame and the only 
consolation that the poor roundhouse 
foreman has is to go out and curse the 
hostler. He has nobody else to fall back 
on. Make a friend of that fellow. Tell 
him your wants. See if you cannot get 
improvements made that will help you 
wonderfully in your daily tasks. If any 
man goes wrong, be kind, but place ad- 
monition or censure or discipline where it 
is deserved, but do it unswervingly. Let 
every man know that you are what you 
pretend to be. 



The toad beneath the harrow knows 
Exactly where each tooth-point goes ; 
The butterfly upon the road 
Preaches contentment to the toad. 

— Rudyard Kipling. 



March, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



99 



Ross-Schofield System of Water Circulation 



Among the recent marked improve- 
ments in boiler construction a decided 
advance has been introduced by the 
Q. & C. Company, 90 West street, New 
York, which bids fair to come rapidly 
into popular favor. It is known a = the 
Ross-Schofield system of water circu- 
lation and has already been success- 
fully adopted in a large number of 
marine and stationary boilers, and 
quite recently is being applied to loco- 
motive service in several of the leading 
railroads in America. Very substantial 
working models are in operation at the 
company's demonstrating laboratory 
at 17 Battery Place, this city, where the 
appliance may be seen in miniature in 
operation. 

As shown in the accompanying illus- 
tration, the device when applied to a 
locomotive boiler consists of a steel 



two openings in the baffle plate, and 
this motion is directed up through the 
guiding compartment, and the curved 
hood has the effort of throwing the 
ascending stream of water in a hori- 
zontal direction over the crown sheet 
towards the rear of the firebox. This 
condition is quickly established and a 
longitudinal and elliptical circulation is 
carried on with a degree of velocity 
that is surprising and needs to be seen 
in operation in the working models to 
be fully appreciated. 

It will be readily understood that in 
an ordinary boiler there is a very slug- 
gish circulation which contributes to 
what is known as steam film, which 
frequently induces an overheating of 
the sheets and also permits what is 
known as printing. With a rapid circu- 
lation the steam film is entirely pre- 



the same amount of fuel. Eminent 
authorities agree that the costs of ex- 
tra fuel caused by incrustation and ex- 
tra repair, a loss of $750 per annum 
for every locomotive, in the middle and 
Western states, is a fair estimate. The 
reports already received from the rail- 
roads where the appliance is in opera- 
tion justifies this estimate, and the op- 
eration of the device and its econom- 
ical effects are attracting the attention 
of many leading railway men. 



To Reduce Length of Trains. 

We are informed that Assemblyman 
Mead has introduced a bill in the New 
York legislature making it illegal to 
operate trains more than half a mile long. 
The measure makes violation of the law 
a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not 




LOCOMOTIVE CHART SHOWING ROSS-SCHOFIELD SYSTEM OF WATER CIRCULATION. 
Illustration Copyrighted by Angus Sinclair Co. 



baffle plate placed about 12 inches in 
front of the tube sheet. This baffle 
plate completely encloses the water 
space in front of the tube sheet, ex- 
cepting an open space at the top. 
There are also two openings at the 
sides of the baffle plate near the bot- 
tom. Vertical steel plates are also 
fitted between the tube sheet and 
baffle plate to within 10 inches from 
the mud ring and are supported by 
stay bolts. On the upper end of the 
baffle plate there is a curved hood at- 
tached extending a short distance over 
the firebox crown sheet. The ap- 
pliance, it will thus be seen, is simple 
in construction and easily and econom- 
ically applied to. any kind of boiler 
either during construction or when 
flues are removed during repairs. 

The action of the device will readily 
suggest itself to the observer. The 
water being admitted to the boiler in 
front of the baffle plate, the current of 
water is induced to pass through the 



vented, solid water is maintained 
against the sheet, the steam bubbles 
are readily released as they are con- 
stantly and rapidly swept into motion 
by the circulating current, and the 
more rapidly the water is passing over 
the hottest portions of the boiler, the 
greater will be the absorption of the 
heat units transmitted through the 
plates, thus increasing the rate of evap- 
oration. 

Nor is this all. The scouring effect 
of the water maintained by this rapid 
method of circulation keeps the plates 
clean and the impurities which are 
more or less present in water are not 
permitted to accumulate on the heating 
surfaces, but are carried down and de- 
posited in the mud ring where the ac- 
cumulation of particles may be readily 
disposed by the judicious and system- 
atic use of blow-off cocks. This adds 
to the life of the boiler and reduces 
the amount of fuel necessary, or in 
other words, gives more power from 



less than $100 nor more than $500 for 
each offense. 

The bill was drawn by Judge John T. 
MacDonald. It is supported by the 
Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen, which 
asserts that long freight trains give 
trainmen too much work and in addition 
tend to increase the danger to train 
crews. Assemblyman Mead is a railroad 
switchman and his bill is construed as 
retaliation on the part of railroad em- 
ployees against the hill introduced at this 
session for repeal of the full crew bill. 



The Oregon-Washington Railroad & 
Navigation Company is preparing to 
build a new terminal at The Dalles, Ore., 
at an estimated cost of $200,000. A 12- 
stall engine house is to be built; also a 
machine shop 40 by 40 ft., a power house 
40 by 60 feet, a store house 40 by 80 feet, 
water tanks, coal plant, cinder conveyor, 
turntable and about two miles of new 
track. 



100 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



March, 1915. 



Electrical Department 



The Automobile Searchlight. 
By reading the daily papers one learns 
of the important part the automobile is 
playing in the present European war. 
Motor vehicles are being used for trans- 
portation of soldiers, for bringing sup- 
plies and rations to the firing line, for 
gun haulage, for ambulances and many 
other uses. 




THE AUTOMOBILE PROJECTOR MOUNTED 
ON A TRUCK. 

The French army make a novel use of 
the automobile and that is to mount on 
same a powerful searchlight. This 
searchlight can be easily dismounted and 
placed anywhere within a hundred yards 
of the automobile. 

The automobile is fitted with an elec- 
tric generator, driven by the main gas 
engine. The searchlights or projectors 



A Semi-Outdoor Portable Substation. 
The Berkshire Street Railway Com- 
pany, Pittsfield, Mass., placed in service 
this last summer a new semi-outdoor type 
of portable substation for the purpose of 
supplementing the power supply on cer- 
tain heavily loaded sections of the road 
during the increased summer excursion 
traffic. The substation was built by the 
General Electric Company and has a 
continuous capacity of 300 kw. at 600 
volts, transforming from a 33,000 volt, 
25 cycle, 3 phase line supply. 

By providing additional energy at any 
point where traffic may be temporarily 
abnormal, a portable substation of this 
type assures a continuity of power sup- 
ply at a lower cost than would be in- 
curred by the installation of spare units 
in many of the substations of an electric 
railway system, resulting in a consider- 
able reduction in investment for equip- 
ment that under normal conditions might 
lie idle for long periods. Moreover, the 
portable substation can be transported 
quickly to a disabled section, where it 
will only be necessary to make connec- 
tions to the high tension lines and direct 
current trolley or feeders for a tempor- 
ary power supply. It is also very useful 
for furnishing power to extensions while 
under construction. 

The portable substation for this railway 



matic oil switch, choke coils, disconnect- 
ing knife switches, etc. Owing to the 
low clearances of the various bridges on 
the lines, the car has been kept within 
the comparatively low height of 11 ft. 
6 ins. above the rails, including the run- 
ning board. 

The car is provided with four doors, 
one on each side entering from the out- 




TIIE SEARCHLIGHT IN OPERATION. 

side into the operating or synchronous 
converter compartment, one in the side 
of the partition connecting the operating 
and lightning arrester compartments, and 
one entering the latter compartment at 
the other end from the outdoor portion 
of the substation. 

The electrical equipment consists of: 
3 phase, 25 cycle, 600 volt interpole ro- 




SEMI-OUTDOOR TYPE OF PORTABLE SUBSTATION. 



as they are called, are mounted on turn- 
tables so that they can be pointed in any 
desired position horizontally as well as 
through any angle vertically. A cable 
wound on a reel connects the projector 
to the electric generator. It is stated that 
the French army has no less than 50 of 
these powerful searchlights in operation 
along the battle front. 



represents one of the most modern de- 
signs. It consists of an enclosed operat- 
ing compartment containing the syn- 
chronous converter, the three-panel 
switchboard and the three-unit electric 
heaters; an enclosed central room for the 
multi-gap lightning arrester equipment; 
and an open section for the main trans- 
former, the current transformer, auto- 



tary; 3 phase, 25 cycle, 33,000 volt oil 
insulated, self-cooled outdoor transform- 
er; automatic oil circuit breaker; light- 
ning arrester of the multi-gap type; 
choke coils and disconnecting switches; 
3 panel switchboard; auxiliary ap- 
paratus. 

The appliance is said to meet with 
much popular favor along the railway. 



March, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



101 



Clam-Shell Bucket Operated 
Electrically. 
All that is necessary for the operat- 
ing machine, handling one of the above 
buckets, is to raise and lower the same, 
the digging and dumping of the load 
being accomplished by means of a mo- 
tor in the head of the bucket itself. 




ELECTRICALLY-DRIVEN BUCKET. 

All movable parts of the motor are 
inclosed in a heavy casing, with the 
electric power passing through a water- 
proof cable. An electric rheostat is 
provided so that from two to four 
speeds can be obtained each way. Hay- 
ward Company of New York City are 
placing this bucket on the market. 



screw shaft is carried along the cylin- 
der and causes a slight cut at very low 
pitch to be cut by a very small point 
located on the underside of the carriage. 
This point is fastened to a diaphragm 
which vibrates according to the various 
sounds and when a needle is run over 
these threads cut on the cylinder the 
sound is reproduced. It is the same as 
the photograph except that the dicta- 
tion is put on a temporary cylinder. 

The dictating machine is equipped 
with a micro-recorder which swivels in- 
to place over the cylinder and is wired 
to a telephone extension operated witli 
its own small batteries. The latter is 
mounted on the user's desk. A tele- 
phone message is recorded in the fol- 
lowing manner: The receiver of the 
regular desk telephone is removed from 
the hook and placed in the socket pro- 
vided with the recording apparatus. In 
this way the acoustic connection to the 
dictating machine is made without dan- 
ger of criticism from the telephone 

company, as the instrument is neither 
mechanically nor electrically connected 
to its lines. The user then takes up a 
small receiver and gives his call to the 
exchange, the conversation on both 
sides being recorded. 

It is easy to realize what a source of 
value this instrument will be for there 
can be no misunderstanding as every 

• word of the whole matter has been re- 
corded and can be reproduced. 



during and tangible. Some of the things 
responsible for success are good judgment, 
self-denial and perfection of attainment as 
applied to the business in hand. Here is 
a young man whom we have always 
known. So far as we have observed he 
has never exhibited any brilliant qualities. 
He has been with one employer perhaps 
for a dozen years. Suddenly we learn 
that he has been placed in a responsible 
position to which a large salary is attached 
and which means great opportunities, or 
we notice, on going into business for him- 
self, that success seems to attend his 
every effort and he prospers where others 
have failed. The universal observation is 
that this young man is "lucky," and it 
really appears so. But the young man 
knows better. Instead of "luck," he sees 
in his success nothing but the honest fruits 
of endeavor, self-sacrifice, study and am- 
bition properly controlled. He remem- 
bers how hard he worked during those 
twelve years, how many disagreeable 
things be bore in silence, how hard he 
studied to master the details of his busi- 
ness, how he denied himself in order to 
save money. 



Railroads in Burma. 

The first 65 miles of the Southern Shan 
States Railway have been opened for 
traffic, and they bring Kalaw, the finest 
hill station in Burma, within 24 hours of 
Rangoon. Kalaw is 70 miles nearer Ran- 
goon than Maymyo, and although, ac- 



Steam Turbo-Generators. 

Steam turbo-generator sets are made 
in various sizes and it is extremely in- 
teresting to know just what is the larg- 
est and the smallest sets which have 
been made to date. For the largest, 
35,000 kw. or nearly 50,000 H. P., repre- 
sents the capacity and the set is ap- 
proximately 60 feet long. In striking 
contrast are the small sets for mount- 
ing on steam locomotives to supply 
electric current to the head and cab 
lights. These sets have a rating of 140 
watts or approximately 2/10 of a horse- 
power. The sets are only 23 J/> in long 
and weight only 130 lbs. 



The Telescribe. 

The telescribe is a new apparatus re- 
cently developed by Mr. Thos. A. 
Edison. It comprises a dictating ma- 
chine equipped with telephone-recording 
devices. 

To better understand the apparatus 
a short description of the dictating ma- 
chine or dictagraph follows. The ma- 
chine consists of a small electric motor, 
operating from the regular lighting cir- 
cuit, which drives, at constant speed, a 
revolving barrel on which is placed a 
cylinder made up of composition. This 
cylinder can be started and stopped at 
will by means of a mechanically operat- 
ed clutch. A carriage driven by a 




MR. EDISON TESTING HIS NEW I 

Good Luck. 

Is there any such thing as luck? There 
is undoubtedly something which we call 
luck that attends the operations of the 
successful man. An analysis of the con- 
ditions which are summed up under the 
mystic head of "luck" reveals that good 
fortune is based on something more en- 



NVENTION, THE "TELESCRIBE." 

cording to present arangements, a journey 
will occupy about the same time, when 
the new line is in thorough working order 
it will be possible to reduce the trajet by 
several hours. Kalaw is about 1,000 ft. 
higher than Maymyo, and it has a pro- 
portionately cooler climate and a smaller 
rainfall. 



102 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



March, 1915. 



Items of Personal Interest 



Mr. John A. Fickel has been appointed 
car foreman of the Grand Trunk with 
office at Fort Erie, Ont. 

Mr. E. A. Humphrey has been appointed 
electrical engineer of the Great Northern. 
with office at St. Paul, Minn. 

Mr. G. D. Harris has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Midland Valley, 
with office at Muskogee, Mich. 

Mr. G. R. Bissett has been appointed 
road foreman of engines of the Seaboard 
Air Line, with office at Savannah, Ga. 

Mr. W. G. Davis has been appointed 
general foreman of the Detroit, Toledo & 
Ironton, with office at Springfield, Ohio. 

Mr. J. Duguid has been appointed as- 
sistant mechanical superintendent of the 
Central Vermont, with office at St. Albans, 
Vt. 

Mr. Charles Emerson has been ap- 
pointed road foreman of engines of the 
Northern Pacific, with office at Duluth. 
Minn. 

Mr. E. E. Blake has been appointed road 
foreman of engines of the Erie, with office 
at Susquehanna, Pa., succeeding Mr. L. 
Barnes. 

Mr. J. T. Flavin has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Illinois division of 
the New York Central, with office at Gib- 
son, Ind. 

Mr. C. E. Stone has been appointed 
general car foreman of the Missouri & 
Northern Arkansas, with office at Harri- 
son, Ark. 

Mr. John O. Boyer has been appointed 
road foreman of engines of the Phila- 
delphia & Reading, with office at St. 
Clair, Pa. 

Mr. F. G. Grimshaw has been appointed 
assistant engineer of electric equipment of 
the Pennsylvania, witli office at Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

Mr. S. S. Gordon has been appointed 
foreman of locomotive store orders of the 
Canadian Pacific at the Angus shops, 
Montreal, Que. 

Mr. H. F. Staley has been appointed 
superintendent of motive power of the 
Boyne City, Gaylord & Alpena, with office 
at Boyne City, Mich. 

Mr. D. E. Barton has been appointed 
acting master mechanic of the Santa Fe. 
with office at Argentine, Kan., succeeding 
Mr. E. E. Machovee. 

Mr. F. W. Anderson has been appointed 
shop foreman of the Chicago & North 
Western, with office at Pierre, S. D., suc- 
ceeding Mr. A. W. Harvey. 

Mr. W. W. Payne has been appointed 
road foreman of engines of the Seabord 
Air Line, with office at Hamlet, N. C. 
succeeding Mr. A. E. Hopkins. 



Mr. G. A. McGee has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Lorain, Ashland & 
Southern, with office at Ashland, Ohio, 
succeeding Mr. William Austin. 

Mr. E. F. Needham, superintendent of 
tin locomotive and car departments of the 
Wabash, has removed his headquarters 
from Springfield to Decatur, 111. 

Mr. J. L. Schriver has been appointed 
road foreman of engines of the New Castle 
division of the Baltimore & Ohio, with 
office at Chicago Junction, Ohio. 

Mr. Harry H. Trenton has been ap- 
pointed general foreman of the Missouri 
Pacific, with office at Kansas City, Mo., 
succeeding Mr. William Donahue. 

Mr. A. C. Schneider has been appointed 
general foreman of the Cincinnati, New 
Orleans & Texas Pacific at the Ferguson 
shops, succeeding Mr. W. A. Ford. 

Mr. George F. Fisher has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Cape Girardeau 
Northern, with office at Cape Girardeau, 
Mo., succeeding Mr. E. H. McCann. 

Mr. A. Lindboe has been appointed loco- 
motive foreman of the Chicago, Min- 
neapolis & Omaha, with office at East St. 
Paul, Minn., succeeding Mr. F. R. Jones. 

Mr. M. R. Feeley has been appointed 
general foreman of the motive power de- 
partment of the Delaware, Lackawanna & 
Western, with office at Kingsland, N. J. 

Mr. S. T. Armstrong has been appointed 
master mechanic of the International & 
Great Northern with office at Palestine. 
Tex., succeeding Mr. T. Windle, resigned. 

Mr. T. U. Brown has been appointed 
supervisor of locomotive operation of the 
lines of the Seaboard Air Line north and 
west of Columbia, with office at Hamlet, 
N. C. 

Mr. A. D. Brice has been appointed 
master car builder of the San Antonio & 
Aransas Pass, with office at Yoakum. 
Tex., succeeding Mr. W. T. Couslay, re- 
signed. 

Mr. J. I. McConnell has been appointed 
foreman of the car department of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & Gary, with office at 
Rockford, 111., succeeding Mr. R. X. 
Dodge. 

Mr W. J. Shreve has been appointed 
superintendent of motive power of the 
South Dakota Central, with office at Shun 
Falls, S. D., succeeding Mr. C I ' 
1 (estiche. 

Mr. Geo. Thomson, district master car 
builder of the New York Central at Engle- 
\\ I, 111., has had his jurisdiction ex- 
tended over the Illinois division of the 
sami load. 

Mr. George S. Graham has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the Pennsyl- 



vania division of the Delaware & Hudson, 
with office at Carbondale, Pa., succeeding 
Mr. John J. Reid. 

Mr. Thomas P. Devitt has been ap- 
pointed locomotive foreman of the Chi- 
cago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, 
with office at East St. Louis, succeeding 
Mr. H. A. Enocksen. 

Mr. R. Lilly, formerly car foreman of 
the Canadian Pacific at Three Rivers, 
Que., has been appointed night car fore- 
man on the same road, with office at Place 
Yiger, Montreal, Que. 

Mr. A. R. Avers, general mechanical en- 
gineer of the New York Central Lines 
west of Buffalo, has removed his offices 
from Chicago to the Grand Central 
terminal, New York. 

Mr. O. S. Jackson has been appointed 
general superintendent of operating and 
mechanical departments on the Chicago, 
Terre Haute & Southeastern, with office 
at Terre Haute, Ind. 

Mr. A. E. Hopkins, formerly road fore- 
man of engines of the Seaboard Air Line 
at Hamlet, N. C, has been transferred to 
a similar position on the same road, with 
office at Americus, Ga. 

Mr. E. J. Bryant, formerly general 
foreman of the International & Great 
Northern at Houston. Tex., has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic on the same 
road, with office at Mart, Tex. 

Mr. Joseph Chidley, superintendent of 
motive power and rolling stock of the 
New York Central, with office at Cleve- 
land. Ohio, has had his jurisdiction ex- 
tended over the Illinois division. 

Mr. II. A. Enocksen, formerly locomo- 
tive foreman of the Chicago, St. Paul. 
Minneapolis & Omaha, at East St. Paul, 
has been transferred to a similar position 
on the same road at Altoona. Wis. 

Mr. D. C. Messeroll, formerly car fore- 
man of the Grand Trunk at Fort Erie. 
Out., has been appointed general traveling 
ear inspector of the Ontario Lines, and 
districts 8, 9 and 10, Eastern lines. 

Mr. E. T. Huston, formerly assistant 
master mechanic of the Pennsylvania lines 
west of Pittsburgh at Crestline, Ohio, has 
been appointed assistant master mechanic 
on the same road at Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Mr. F. W. Warren, formerly locomo- 
tive foreman of the Grand Trunk, at 
Coteau. Que., has been appointed locomo- 
tive foreman of the same road, with office 
at Southwark, Montreal Terminals, Mont- 
real. Que. 

Mr. John J. Reid, formerly master 
mechanic of the Pennsylvania division of 
the Delaware & Hudson at Carbondale. 
Pa., has been appointed master mechanic 



March. 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



103 



of the Susquehanna division, with office 
at Oneonta, N. Y. 

Mr. J. O'Brien has been appointed loco- 
motive foreman of the Great Northern, . 
with office at Interbay, Wash., succeeding 
Mr. R. E. Molt, who has been transferred 
to a similar position on the same road 
at Gold Bar, Wash. 

Mr. E. G. Goodwin has been appointed 
fuel agent of the Southern railway, the 
Virginia & Southwestern and the Northern 
Alabama, with office at Knoxville, Tenn., 
and subsidiary offices at Birmingham, 
Ala., and Princeton, Ind. 

Mr. T. C. O'Brien, formerly general 
boiler inspector of the Baltimore & Ohio 
Southwestern railroad, and Cincinnati. 
Hamilton & Dayton railway, at Cincinnati, 
Ohio, has been appointed general foreman 
at Lima, Ohio, and Mr. Martin Murphy 
has been appointed general boiler inspector 
at Cincinnati. 

Mr. Alexander Young, formerly general 
foreman of the locomotive department of 
the Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul, at 
Chicago, has been appointed district mas- 
ter mechanic on the same road, with office 
at Milwaukee, Wis., and Mr. C. Lund- 
berg has been appointed general fore- 
man at Western avenue, Chicago, suc- 
ceeding Mr. Young. 

Mr. G. YVhiteley, formerly master 
mechanic of the Alberta division of the 
Canadian Pacific at Calgary, Alta., has 
been appointed assistant superintendent 
of motive power of the Eastern lines. 
with offices at Montreal, Que., and Mr. 
C. Kyle has been appointed master 
mechanic of the Atlantic division, with 
office at St. John, N. B. 



Illinois divisions, at Washington, Ind., 
and has been succeeded by Mr. W. H. 
Keller, who became assistant master 
mechanic in charge of the Cincinnati 
terminals. 

Mr. J. A. McFarland has recently been 
appointed Southwestern district manager 
of the Bird-Archer Company, with head- 




J. A. MAC FARLAXD. 

Mr. C. M. Newman has been apointed 
superintendent of shops of the Baltimore 
and Ohio Southwestern railroad at Wash- 
ington, Ind., reporting to the superin- 
tendent of motive power at Cincinnati. 
Mr. A. E. McMillan has been promoted 
to master mechanic of the Indiana and 




WILLIAM H. WOOD. 

quarters in the Frisco building, St. 
Louis, Mo. Mr. McFarland is a grad- 
uate of the University of Illinois. He 
began railway work in May, 1903, being 
connected with the chemical department 
of the Santa Fe Railway at Topeka, Kan 
Leaving that railroad on January 1, 1904, 
he became assistant in the testing de- 
partment of the Chicago and North- 
western Railway. In February, 1905, he 
became chief chemist of the Missouri Pa- 
cific Railway, where he was chief chemist 
until May, 1909, when he took charge of 
the St. Louis office of the Dearborn 
Chemical Company, looking after their 
railroad business in that territory. In 
July, 1911. he left that company to lie- 
come chemist and engineer of tests of 
the Frisco System. Leaving that company 
lie was connected with the Standard 
Railway Equipment Company until his 
recent appointment with the Bird-Archer 
Company. 

Mr. William H. Wood, the well-known 
constructing engineer, Media, Pa., has re- 
cently constructed hydraulic shears for 
the New York Navy Yard, Brooklyn, for 
cutting steel plates 1% inches in thick- 
ness. Mr. Wood has had a notable career 
in his chosen profession, and is justly 
entitled to the credit of introducing 
hydraulic machinery tools in America. 
The first flanging press for flanging loco- 
motive boilers was made by him for the 
Cooke Locomotive Works at Paterson, 
N. J. He also introduced the first suc- 
cessful hydraulic machinery used in the 
construction of flanged steel car trucks 
and steel underframes. This was at 



Joliet, 111., and the works became the 
nucleus of the Pressed Steel Car Com- 
pany. Mr. Wood has also been emi- 
nently successful in introducing and im- 
proving hydraulic riveting, flanging and 
forming machinery, steam hammers, air 
compressors, hydraulic pumps and other 
machinery. As is well known to our 
readers Mr. Wood has also made exten- 
sive experiments on locomotive boiler 
construction, especially in the application 
of complete corrugated fireboxes. Official 
tests on the New York Central Lines and 
elsewhere of locomotive boilers so con- 
structed have shown the practicability of 
the improvements. Mr. Wood is descended 
from an eminent engineering family in 
England, and an uncle having estab- 
lished the first engineering works in 
Leeds, England, and Mr. Wood's father 
being general manager of the well-known 
Xaysmith engineering works in England, 
where the most of the locomotives for 
the London Northwestern and the Lan- 
cashire & Yorkshire railways were con- 
structed, and where Mr. Wood served his 
apprenticeship as engineer and millwright 
before coming to America. 

Mr. Lyndon F. Wilson, formerly vice- 
president of The Railway List Company, 
Chicago, has resigned to become vice- 
president of the Bird-Archer Company, of 
New York, effective April 1, 1915. Mr. 
Wilson was educated at Ripon College, 
Lawrence University, and the University 
of Wisconsin. Later, after a consider- 
able machine shop and power plant ex- 
perience, he became an engineer in the 
Interior Department in the service of the 
United States Government, after passing 




L. F. WILSON. 

examinations in steam, electricity and 
heating and ventilating. After one year 
in this service he joined the engineering 
department of the Western Electric Com- 
pany, and was so engaged until the fall of 
1908, when he became mechanical depart- 
ment editor of the Railway Review. In 



104 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



March, 1915. 



the spring of 1909 he became editor of 
the Railway Master Mechanic, and was 
subsequently given editorial charge of 
Railway Engineering. He was promoted 
to the vice-presidency of this company in 
the summer of 1913. After April 1 Mr. 
Wilson will be located in the Chicago 
office of the Bird-Archer Company. 

The atmosphere of the West has a 
strong influence in the development of 
men who become leaders in the railway 
world. The latest example of this appears 
in the person of Mr. George Bury, who 
has gone out of the Western Lines of the 
Canadian Pacific to become vice-president 
and general manager of the whole 
Canadian Pacific system. Mr. Bury, who 
is only 48 years old, entered the service 
of the Canadian Pacific as a clerk in 
1883 and has risen steadily to the present 
position by the force of merit displayed 
in being thoroughly master of the detail? 
of every position he filled. We earnestly 
endorse every word of a review of Mr, 
Bury's career which recently appeared in 
a Canadian paper and reads: 

"The West will note with lively interest 
and much satisfaction the promotion of 
George Bury, for the past three years 
vice-president for the C. P. R. Western 
Lines, to the position of vice-president 
and general manager of the whole system. 
For the people of the West regard Mr 
Bury as one of themselves; and, admirably 
administered as the C. P. R. is, it will 
certainly not suffer by having as its chief ' 
executive officer, under the president, one 
who has an intimate knowledge of condi- 
tions in the West and has shown himself 
sympathetic towards the special problems 
with which this half of the Dominion ha? 
to deal. Mr. Bury has won this high 
position on his merits. He has climbed 
the ladder rung by rung. Beginning as a 
stenographer in the general offices, he rose 
step by step through the offices of divi- 
sional superintendent, general superin- 
tendent, general manager of western lines, 
and western vice-president to his new and 
onerous position, which, however, is not 
likely to mark the bounds of his career. 
In all of these capacities, Mr. Bury has 
made good. His high reputation has been 
justly earned and is thoroughly deserved. 

"Until within a few years, Mr. Bury'? 
remarkable talents were applied almost 
entirely to the technical business of oper- 
ating a railway efficiently and economic- 
ally ; but in the position which he has 
lately held in Winnipeg he has had to 
deal with the still more exacting problems 
arising from the adjusting of the rela- 
tions between the railway and the public. 
There have been some classic examples 
of great railway operators making ship- 
wreck of their careers by their inability 
to deal with the public. No man can be 
a great railway administrator in Canada 
at the present time unless he has many of 
the qualities of the successful public man. 
The people of the West, who have had sub- 



stantial grounds for their grievances 
against the railways, have noted, with 
pleasure, increasing indications that Mr. 
Bury has the viewpoint of the modern 
twentieth century railway manager, which 
puts the railway where it belongs as the 
servant of the public which employs it 
and makes possible its success." 




GEORGE BURY. 



We regret to learn that Mr. P. Fen- 
nell, known as Shandy Maguire the poet 
of railroad train men, is in very precari- 
ous health and is sojourning in a health 
resort. Shandy is a wonderfulh' genial 
and popular man and we earnestly hope 
that he will soon resume penning out 




•Deed No'. 
The Rev. Dr. Donald Macleod, in 
the life of his brother Norman, relates 
an anecdote illustrative of smuggling 
in the good old days. An old woman, 
whose habit and repute was notorious, 
was being tried by the Sheriff of Ar- 
gyllshire. When the charge had been 
clearly proved, and it fell to the judge 
to pronounce sentence, he became un- 
usually fidgety, and thus addressed 
the prisoner — "I daresay, my poor 
woman, it's not very often you have 
fallen into this fault?" "'Deed no', 
Shirra," she readily replied, "I haena 
made a drap since yon wee keg I sent 
to yersel'." 



A Woman's Bargain. 

An Oil City man, who was detained at 
the house for a part of the day, handed 
his wife, who was going down-town, a 
quarter of a dollar and requested her to 
get him three cigars for it. 

When she returned she handed him the 
package, remarking, exultantly : 

"That shows that women can beat men 
all hollow when it comes to making pur- 
chases. I found a place where I could 
get eight for a quarter instead of three. 
Isn't that going some?" 

And the poor man, as he took his medi- 
cine, merely remarked : 

"It certainly is, dear." 



PATRICK FENNELL. 

the humorous verses for which he has 
been noted these many years. The last 
lines he sent to us were from Burns and 
reads: 

"An' here's a hand', my trusty freen, 

And' gies a han' o' thine: 
We'el tak a richt gind Willie Wacht, 
For auld lang syne." 



A Philadelphia Story. 
A Philadelphia minister told a story 
recently of the conversion to a religious 
life of a worldly woman. "I used to 
be," said she, "foolish and vain. World- 
ly pleasures and fashions were my only 
thoughts. I was desperately fond of 
Mlks, jewelry, ribbons, laces, automo- 
biles, etc. But, my friends, I soon 
found that these worldly things were 
dragging me down to perdition. So I 
gave them all to my dear mother-in- 
law." 



Coming to the Point. 

Doctor (politely, but looking at hi? 
watch with visible impatience): "Par- 
don me, madam, but my time is not my 
own. You have given me all your 
symptoms in sufficient detail, and now, 
perhaps, you will kindly — er — ah " 

Husband (not so considerate): 
"Maria, he doesn't want to hear your 
tongue any more, he wants to look at 
it." 



One of the Jury. 

"Gentlemen of the jury," said the pros- 
ecuting barrister, "this prisoner is an un- 
mitigated scoundrel ; he acknowledges it. 
And yet, thanks to the wisdom of the 
common law, he has been given a fair 
trial by a jury of his peers." 



March, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



ios 




"Speakin' of mixtures," 
said Old Jerry as he re- 
filled his jimmy pipe, 
"I've never used a cooler 
mixture than flake graph- 
ite and oil. 

"In the old days," con- 
tinued Jerry, "when 689 
was the fastest engin' on 
the road, the boys used 
to wonder why it was 
never laid up in the tink- 
er's shop an' why it never 
broke a schedule. 'Fine 
ole engin' , Jerry, ' they used 
to say. 'Nix, flake graph- 
ite,' I says. And takin' an 
old Dixon ad from my 
pocket I read: 'Write for 

"GRAPHITE PRODUCTS TOR THE RAILROAD" 

and Sample No. 69.' (You 
see I didn't mind givin' 
away the dope.) 
"And, Judgin' by the way 
Dixon's Flake Graphite 
is bein' used nowadays, 
every mother's son of 
them, an' their friends, 
must have wrote for that 
booklet and sample." 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Company 

Established 1827 

JERSEY CITY, N. J. 3 8C 



RAILROAD NOTES. 

The Great Northern is in the market 
for about 3,200 cars. 



The Cincinnati Northern is in the mar- 
ket for S locomotives. 



The Colorado & Southern is inquiring 
for prices on 2,000 center sills. 



The United Fruit Company is in the 
market for 30 to 35 freight cars. 



The Grand Rapids & Indiana is in the 
market for six coaches and a mail car. 



The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy is 
said to be inquiring for 55 locomotives. 



The Missouri, Kansas & Texas is said 
to be in the market for ten locomotives. 



The Richmond, Fredericksburg & Poto- 
mac is in the market for six all-steel 
passenger coaches. 



The Southern has ordered 4,000 tons 
of rails from the Tennessee Coal, Iron & 
Railroad Company. 



The Eureka Nevada has ordered a 
Prairie type locomotive from the Porter 
Locomotive Works. 



The Toronto, Hamilton & Buffalo is 
in the market for fifteen 30-ton steel 
undcrframe stock cars. 



The French Government has ordered 
100 locomotives from the Baldwin Loco- 
motive Works, it is said. 



The Long Island has placed an order 
with the Standard Steel Car Company 
for 20 steel passenger cars. 



The Boston & Maine has placed an or- 
der for 15,000 tons of rails with the 
Lackawanna Steel Company. 



The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe has 
ordered 3,000 freight cars from the Amer- 
ican Car & Foundry Company. 



The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy has 
placed an order for 15,000 tons of rails 
with the Illinois Steel Company. 



The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy is 
in the market for 1,200 box cars, 300 
stock cars and 200 gondola cars. 



The Grand Rapids & Indiana, it is said, 
has ordered five locomotives from the 
Lima Locomotive Corporation. 



The Servian Government, it is said, has 
ordered seven locomotives from the 
American Locomotive Company. 



The Illinois Central has placed an or- 
der with the Lima Locomotive Corpora- 
tion for fifty Mikado locomotives. 



The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
has ordered five postal cars from the 
American Car & Foundry Company. 



Formal distribution of 160,000 tons, the 
remainder of the Pennsylvania rail order, 
still appears some weeks distant. 



The Southern Pacific has placed an or- 
der for 30,000 tons of rails with the Ten- 
nessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Company. 



The American Car & Foundry Com- 
pany has taken the contract for 1,000 
refrigerator cars for the Illinois Central. 



The Louisiana Railway & Navigation 
Company has ordered three ten-wheel 
locomotives from the Baldwin Locomo- 
tive Works. 



The proposition to construct a new 
union terminal at Pasadena, Cal., with 
an expenditure of $3,000,000 is said to be 
well under way. 



The Indianapolis Union has asked for 
bids on 20,000 tons of structural steel. 
This will be used in track elevation at 
Indianapolis, Ind. 



The Lehigh & New England has or- 
dered 500 tons of structural steel for its 
new shops at Pen Argyl, Pa., from the 
American Bridge Company. 



The Baltimore & Ohio has ordered 
9,000 tons of standard steel rails from 
the Cambria Steel Company and 4,000 
from the Maryland Steel Company. 



The Nashville, Chattanooga & St. 
Louis is in the market for 10 Mikado- 
type locomotives for freight service and 
6 locomotives for passenger service 



The Illinois Central is reported to have 
just placed an order for 1.000 refrigera- 
tors with the American Car & Foundry 
Company. The same company also has 
taken six mail cars. 



It is rumored in certain quarters that 
between 20,000 and 30,000 cars will be 
ordered early this year by the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad and Pennsylvania Lines 
West of Pittsburgh. 



The city of Macon, Ga., and the Cen- 
tral of Georgia have signed an agreement 
for new $1,500,000 depot and terminal. 
Railway will start work as soon as it can 
dispose of its bonds. 



The Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & 
St. Louis, which some time ago ordered 
10 switching locomotives from the Amer- 



106 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



March, 1915. 



ican Locomotive Company, has recently 
increased the order to 13. 



The Southern has commenced the in- 
stallation of an interlocking plant at Em- 
pire, Ga., where the tracks of its Atlanta 
division cross the tracks of the Wrights- 
ville & Tennille Railroad. 



The Atlantic Coast Line has let con- 
tract to the Empire Construction Com- 
pany, of Douglas, Ga., for brick and car- 
penter work on proposed shop additions 
and improvements, at Waycross, Ga. 



Orders for rails actually placed by the 
New York Central lines for early 1915 
delivery total 57,500 tons to date, with 
reservation made at the mills for May. 
June and July rolling of 13.500 additional 
tons. 



Grand Trunk Railroad officials an- 
nounce their intention to ask 14,000 of 
the employes in Canada and the United 
States to accept a decrease in wages 
April 1, if traffic receipts continue to de- 
crease. 



The New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford, it is said, has placed the following 
orders for rails : 8,500 tons to the Penn- 
sylvania Steel Company, 7,500 tons to the 
Bethlehem Steel Company, and 2,000 tons 
to the Lackawanna Steel Company. 

The Canadian Railway Commission 
will be asked by Canadian railroads for 
permission to increase freight rates 
throughout the Dominion, if increases 
now being asked because of changes in 
United States railroad rates be granted. 



The Pennsylvania has ordered 68 all- 
steel passenger and baggage cars from 
its Altoona, Pa., shops of the following 
classes : Forty-eight class P-70, passenger 
cars ; eight class M-B-M, baggage mail 
cars for steam service ; two class M-B-M 
passenger mail cars for electric service, 
and ten class B-60. 



The trustees of the Boston '& Maine 
Railroad have issued the draft of the pro- 
posed bill by which legislative authority 
is asked for the merging of the company 
and the thirty-six lines it operates under 
lease. The plan also provides for the 
elimination of the New York, New Hav- 
en & Hartford Railroad in Boston and 
Maine affairs. 



The State Public Utility Commission- 
ers, of New Jersey, have acted favorably 
upon application of city for abolition 
of 15 grade crossings of Erie. Estimated 
cost is $2,600,000. No date has been set 
for beginning the work. The Erie is also 
contemplating extending its yards at 
Marion. Ohio, and installing additional 
machine shops. 



Water Power for Railways. 

The electrification of the lines of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway 
in Montana, Idaho, and Washington is 
the most important and extensive project 
of the kind ever undertaken in this coun- 
try. The change is expected to save at 
least a fourth of the cost of operation and 
greatly to better the service in the moun- 
tainous parts of the road. The 113 miles 
in Montana between Three Forks and 
Deer Lodge on the Puget Sound line of 
the railway will probably be the first 
electrified. By 1918, electricity will be 
the power in use on four engine divisions 
that extend from Harlowton, in Montana, 
to Avery, in Idaho, a distance of about 
440 miles; and the company is planning 
to continue the electrification so that it 
will reach from Harlowton to Seattle and 
Tacoma, 850 miles away. 

The road will get its current mainly 
from seven water-power plants that can 
produce about 100,000 horse power. The 
cost will be only a little more than live 
mills a kilowatt hour. Twin overhead 
trolley wires will convey the current to 
the 260-ton locomotives, which will have 
a continuous capacity greater than that of 
any steam locomotive or any electric loco- 
motive heretofore made. When the entire 
440 miles is electrified it is expected that, 
sixty locomotives can handle the normal 
traffic, instead of the eighty-two that are 
now required. 

That will be the first time that electric 
locomotives have been used on tracks that 
extend over more than one engine divi- 
sion, and it will give the first good chance 
to test the advantages of electric railway 
traction. Under the new system the rail- 
way will not need to haul coal and to 
keep up coal yards and water tanks. 
There will be no more delays for taking 
on coal and water, or repair bills owing 
to poor coal and bad water; and the 
danger of forest fires caused by sparks 
from the locomotive will be at an end. 

The waterfalls of the Rocky Mountains 
and the Cascades can furnish, it is said, 
power enough to run every mile of rail- 
way west of a line drawn north and south 
through the center of the state of 
Montana, and north of a line drawn from 
the southern border of Utah to the Pacific 
coast. Four great hydro-electric com- 
panies in Colorado, Utah, Idaho and 
Montana, are already equipped to furnish 
power for enormous electrification enter- 
prises, and it is probable that within the 
next few years not less than ten thousand 
miles of mountain railways will be 
electrified. 



"Why, Willie," said the teacher, in a 
pained voice, "have you been fighting 
again? Didn't you learn when you are 
struck on one cheek you ought to turn 
the other one to the striker?" "Yes'm," 
agreed Willie, "but he hit me on the nose, 
and I've only got one " 



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Manufacturers of 

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OF CAR LIGHTING 



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tion PRESSURE AND VAPOR 
SYSTEM OF CAR HEATING, 
which system automatically main- 
tains about the same temperature in 
the car regardless of the outside 
weather conditions. 

Main Office, Whitehall Building 

17 BATTERY PLACE 

NEW YORK 



March, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



107 



Hydraulic BooKs, Bulletins, Catalogues, Etc. 



Riveters Fixed and Portable 

Punches, Shears, 
Presses, Lifts, Cranes 
and Accumulators. 

Matthews' Fire Hydrants, 

Eddy Valves 

Valve Indicator Posts. 

The Camden High-Pressure Valves. 



Cast Iron Pipe 



R. D. Wood & Company 

Engineers, Iron 
Pounders, Machinists. 

100 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Nichols Transfer Tables 
Turntable Tractors 

GEO. P. NICHOLS & BRO. 

1090 Old Colony Bldg. CHICAGO 




NOW IS THE TIME to install a 

Rue Boiler Washer 
and Tester, 

For you will need it when cold 
weather comes. It will wash out, 
test and fill your boiler, all with 
hot water, and have it ready for 
use in one hour. 

THINK IT OVER. 
Catalog on Boiler Washers A-5. 
Catalog on Injectors B-5. 

Rue Manufacturing Co., 

228 CHERRY STREET 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Manufacturers of Injectors. Ejectors, 

Boiler Washers and Testers, Boiler Checks, 

Check Valves. 




ON 



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The Quality Goods that Last 

The Athton Valve Co. 
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Telephone Handbook. 

It is amazing how few people know 
anything about the internal mechanism 
of the telephone. Like the human ear 
all the average man knows is that it is 
there, and fulfils its mysterious function. 
Frederick J. Drake & Co., of Chicago, 
111., has published a handbook by Profes- 
sor David Penn Moreton, of the Armour 
Institute of Technology, on the subject 
of the telephone, adapted for practical 
men. It is divided into ten chapters. 
The book extends to 286 pages and is 
fully illustrated. Anyone who reads this 
book carefully will master every detail 
of the wonderful invention that has 
revolutionized the problem of intercom- 
munication by telephone. The style is 
clear and engaging, the letterpress excel- 
lent, the binding substantial, the price one 
dollar. 



"Kewanee" Union. 

The National Tube Company has is- 
sued an interesting circular explanatory 
of the merits of the "Kewanee" Union. 
As its name implies, this union has a male 
and a female end with particular ad- 
vantages in the fact that the connection 
is made between the iron ring and the 
brass thread end, which prevents corro- 
sion so that the union can be connected, 
disconnected and reconnected indefinitely. 
Other unions, as is well known, can be 
pounded out of shape and made useless 
in the efforts to disconnect them, and 
after short service are made useless. The 
joint also being brass to iron ball, joint 
seat makes an absolutely air-tight seal 
without using a gasket. The unions are 
all submitted to a compressed air test and 
are guaranteed. They are made in several 
different patterns, and their great and 
growing popularity is the best proof of 
their fulfilling the requirements of reliable 
unions. Copies of the circular will be 
mailed to any address on application to 
the company's office, Frick Building, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Safety Appliances. 

An important addition to railroad 
literature appears in the form of a 
pamphlet of 111 pages, and entitled 
"United States Safety Appliances for 
All Classes of Cars and Locomotives." 
It is published by Gibson, Pribble & Co., 
Richmond, Va., for the Master Car Build- 
ers' Association, and contains twenty-six 
separate orders issued by the Interstate 
Commerce Commission in the matter of 
designating the number, dimensions, loca- 
tion and manner of application of certain 
safety appliances, and is the result of the 
work of the commission under the third 
section of an act of Congress approved 
April 14, 1910, entitled "An Act to supple- 



ment an act to promote the safety of em- 
ployees and travelers upon railroads by 
compelling common carriers engaged in 
interstate commerce to equip their cars 
with automatic couplers and continuous 
brakes and their locomotives with driv- 
ing-wheel brakes, and for other purposes, 
and other safety appliance acts, and for 
other purposes," it is provided, among 
other things, "That within six months 
from the passage of this act the Interstate 
Commerce Commission, after hearing, 
shall designate the number, dimensions, 
location, and manner of application of 
the appliances provided for by section two 
of this act and section four of the act of 
March second, eighteen hundred and 
ninety-three, and shall give notice of such 
designation to all common carriers sub- 
ject to the provisions of this act by such 
means as the commission may deem 
proper, and thereafter said number, loca- 
tion, dimensions, and manner of applica- 
tion as designated by said Commission 
shall remain as the standards of equip- 
ment to be used on all cars subject to the 
provision of this act, unless changed by 
an order of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission to be made after full hear- 
ing and for good cause shown." 

The illustrations have been carefully 
revised by the Committee on Safety Ap- 
pliances and are believed to be in con- 
formity with the requirements of the 
United States Safety Appliance Act. The 
book is issued by authority of the Execu- 
tive Committee. The price is 25 cents 
per copy, and orders for any number of 
copies may be sent to Mr. Jos. W. Taylor, 
secretary. 1112 Karpen Building, Chicago, 
111. 



American Railroads. 

An admirable address was delivered by 
Mr. Howard Elliott, president of the 
New York, New Haven and Hartford 
Railroad Company, to the Alumni Asso- 
ciation of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, in Boston last month, and is 
now published in pamphlet form, and is 
well worthy the attention not only of rail- 
road men but of all interested in the 
economic questions of the day. Mr. Elliott 
claims that American railroads are the 
most efficient in the world and furnish 
more and better service and at lower 
prices than can be obtained in any other 
country. They are not as good as they 
should be and can be, but they are owned 
and managed by human beings who are 
no better or no worse as a whole than the 
general public they are trying to serve. 
They have made, and will continue to 
make, mistakes, just as people do in all 
other kinds of business, as well as in gov- 
ernment. One reason why they are not 
as good as they ought to be is that legis- 
lators, State and National, in trying to 



108 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



March, 1915. 



correct mistakes which owners and man- 
agers have made, have allowed the six- 
pence of errors to blind them to the dollars 
of wonderful work already done and be- 
ing done every day. They have, in their 
efforts to correct abuses and mistakes 
which were gradually correcting them- 
selves, created conditions which today 
make it almost impossible for the owners 
and managers of railroads to go ahead 
and do the very things which the public 
wants them to do and that the owners and 
managers want to do. 



Jersey City, N. J., and you will see that, 
like Alexander, they are looking for new 
worlds to conquer. 



Oil Fuel for Steam Boilers. 

The McGraw-Hill Book Company has 
just published another of the interesting 
series, called the Power Handbooks, which 
is frequently referred to as the best library 
for the engineer and the man who hopes 
to be one. The purpose of the volume is 
to describe the underlying principles in the 
use of oil as a fuel for steam boiler prac- 
tice. The construction and operation of 
various types of burners, together with 
their arrangement in different boilers and 
the operation of pumps, heaters, etc., are 
described clearly and in many cases by ex- 
cellent drawings. No special reference is 
made to locomotive practice as the subject 
matter is confined to stationary boilers. 
The book is the work of Mr. Rufus I. 
Strohm, an eminent engineer, and is sold 
at one dollar per copy. 



Graphite. 

The Joseph Dixon Crucible Company 
after capturing the entire mechanical 
world insofar as the use of graphite as 
a lubricant is concerned, continues very 
easily to hold its own. This reminds 
us of the story: 

A regiment of regulars was making a 
long, dusty march across the rolling 
prairie land of Montana. It was a hot, 
blistering day and the men, longing for 
water and rest, were impatient to reach 
the next town. 

A rancher rode past. 

"Say, friend," called out one of the 
men, "how far is it to the next town?" 

"Oh, a matter of two miles or so, I 
reckon," called back the rancher. An- 
other hour dragged by, and another 
rancher was encountered. 

"How far to the next town?" the men 
asked him eagerly. 

"Oh, a good two miles." 

A weary half hour longer of march- 
ing and then a third rancher. 

"Hey, how far's the next town?" 

"Not far," was the encouraging an- 
swer. "Only about two miles." 

"Well," sighed the optimistic ser- 
geant, "thank goodness, we're holdin' 
our own, anyhow!" 

Send for a copy of the company's 
monthly publication, "Graphite." Ad- 
dress Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, 



Failure. 

Among Mr. Carnegie's innumerable 
Scotch stories is one about a caddie of 
St. Andrews. 

This caddie's wife — so Mr. Carne- 
gie's story runs — was much troubled 
by her husband's loose way of life. He 
could never have a good day on the 
links but he must end it with a wet 
night at the tavern. So, to cure him, 
the woman lay in wait on the road one 
evening, dressed in a white sheet. 

When her husband appeared she 
rose from behind a hedge, an awful 
white figure, with outspread arms. 

"Who the deil are you?" asked the 
intemperate caddie. 

"I'm Auld Nickie," said the figure, 
in a hollow voice. 

"Gie's a shake o' yer hand, then," 
said the tipsy caddie. "I'm married tae 
a sister o' yours. She'll be waitin' for 
us up at the hoose, and nae doot she'll 
mak' ve welcome." 



Not Caught Up. 

A man who was traveling the Ozark 
Mountains on horseback, stopped be- 
fore a typical Arkansas farmhouse to 
inquire the way. "What's the news?" 
asked the mountaineer, as he leaned 
his lank frame against the fence and 
pulled his long beard thoughtfully. 

On finding that what had become a 
part of history was news to him the 
traveler asked why he did not take 
some weekly or monthly periodical 
that he might keep in touch with the 
world at large. 

"Wal." said the old native, "when my 
pa died, nine years ago, he left me a 
stack of newspapers that high" — indi- 
cating a height of about three feet — 
"and I ain't done readin' of 'em yet." 



Detective Work. 

Scene, village Sunday school. Cler- 
gyman questioning a lot of small boys 
in a farming district. 

Clergyman — How did Jacob know 
that it was Joseph sending for him 
from Egypt? 

Small Boy (excitedly) — He seed his 
name on the wagons. — Tit-Bits. 



The Old, Old Cure. 

A moderately fond father discovered 
his young hopeful reading a dime novel. 

"Unhand me, villain," the detected 
boy thundered, "or there will be blood- 
shed!" 

"No," said the father grimly, tighten- 
ing his hold on his son's collar. "Not 
bloodshed — woodshed." 



Consulting Mathematicians, 
Physicists and Engineers 

Refinements of engineering. Difficulties 
worked out, involving special research work. 
Gyroscopic effect, analysis of vibrations and 
other things where "practical experience" 
alone does not give the right answer. Box 
A. W., Railway & Locomotive Engineering, 
New York. 



STEEL STAMPS 

INSPECTORS HAMMERS 
Hand Cut STEEL LETTERS & FIGURES 
LATHE TOOLS, TIME CHECKS, 

Noble & Weslbrook Mfg. Co. 

9 ASYLUM ST. HARTFORD, CONN. 




THE ARMSTRONG IMPROVED i 

PACKER RATCHET DRILLS^ 

Are ALL STEEL 

and 
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Will outwear two of the soft kind. 

We make all kinds — all sizes. 

Do you want a catalog? 



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112 N. FRANCISCO ATE., CHICAGO, ILL. 



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GEO. WM. HOFFMAN CO. 

Indianapolis 
New York Chicago San Francisco 

Send for FREE Sample 



VOLUMES OF 

Railway and Locomotive 
Engineering 

For 1914, Well Bound in Cloth, Price $3.00 




The Norwalk Iron Works Co. 

SOUTH NORWALK, CONN. 

Makers of Air and Gas Compressors 

For All Purposes 
Sond for Catalog 



Ril&SXive Eigineerins 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling Stock and Appliances 



Vol XXVIII. 



114 Liberty Street, New Yark, April, 1915. 



No. 4 



New Double Track Vertical Lift Bridges Crossing 
the Calumet River, South Chicago, 111. 



Last year the Pennsylvania Company 
completed the second of a pair of Wad- 
dell & Harrington double track vertical 
lift bridges over the Calumet River at 
South Chicago, Illinois, the first having 
been completed the previous December. 
These bridges replace a double track 
centre pier swing span, providing two 
additional tracks, and were made neces- 



water line. The two bridges are alike ; 
each consists of a riveted truss span 210 
feet center to center of end posts, the 
trusses being 36 feet in depth between 
chord centers, and spaced 31 ft. 3 ins. 
center to center with a distance of 6 ft. 
ins. between the centers of the adjoin- 
ing trusses of the two spans ; and two 
towers one at each end, which are 31 ft. 



are connected to the top of the end posts 
of the span and secured to the steel 
framework of the counterweights in sim- 
ilar fashion. The counterweight consists 
of three concrete blocks at each end, each 
being 46^ ft. in length by 2 ft. in width 
by 19 ft. in depth and weighing 150 tons. 
These blocks are joined together at the top 
bv links and are fastened to the cables 




END VIEW OF DOUBLE TRACK VERTICAL LIFT BRIDGES OVER THE CALUMET RIVER, SOUTH CHICAGO, ILL. 



sary by reason of the straightening and 
widening of the channel by the United 
States Government, and also by reason of 
the raising of the grade of the tracks in 
accordance with the Track Elevation Or- 
dinances of the City of Chicago. 

The channel at this point is 140 feet in 
width and makes an angle of SO degrees 
with the center line of the tracks. A clear 
headroom of 22 feet in the closed and 120 
in open position is provided above the 



3 ins. wide by 41 ft. ins. long and about 
165 ft. ins. in height from the masonry 
to the center line of the sheave bearings. 
At each corner of each tower is a built- 
up sheave 15 feet in diameter. These 
sheaves are set directly over the tower 
columns and serve to carry the counter- 
weight cables. The latter are of plow 
steel, 2Y% ins. in diameter, there being 
twelve cables for each corner of the span. 
These cables are fitted with sockets which 



by equalizers which maintain an even ten- 
sion in the cables. 

The operating machinery is located at 
the center of the span on top of the 
trusses and is protected by a steel framed 
house with walls of metal lath and plaster. 
The bridges are operated by two 400 
horsepower motors geared to four drums 
located directly over the top chords of 
the trusses. On each drum are wound 
two one-inch steel cables which pass over 



no 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



April, 1915. 



deflecting sheaves at the top of the end 
post and are attached one to the top and 
the other to the base of the tower columns, 
the winding on the drum being such that 
as one cable is wound on, the other is 
released. The controller and brakes are 
located in a cab situated beneath the floor 
of the machinery house, and the wiring is 
so designed as to permit the operation 
of either span from the other. Direct 
current of 240 volts is supplied .from a 
storage battery of 120 cells located near 
the bridge and is conveyed to the lift span 
by means of a trolley which makes a slid- 
ing contact with a copper rail secured 
to the face of one of the tower columns. 
The substructure consists of six concrete 
piers on each side and an abutment which 
serves to retain the fill. The piers are 
14 ft. x 30 ft. with semi-circular ends 
and extend from approximately 18.0 
ft. above the water line to solid rock at 
an elevation of 70 ft. below water line. 
The piers are connected at the top by 



Statistics of Railroads in the United 
States. 

The most recent completed statistics of 
the railroads in the United States shows 
that the total number of persons on the 
payrolls on the roads was 1,848,883, or 
an average of 743 for each 100 miles of 
line. Wages and salaries in one year 
amounted to $1,373,830,589. There were 
369,579 miles of track, with 63,378 loco- 
motives in service, of which 14.396 were 
used in passenger service, and 37,924 in 
freight service, the remainder being em- 
ployed in yards and in miscellaneous 
service. There were 2.445,408 cars of all 
classes, of which 51,700 were in passenger 
service, and 2.273.564 in hauling freight, 
the remainder being in the service of 
miscellaneous companies. 

The number of passengers carried dur- 
ing twelve months was 1.033.679,680. 
The roads carried 2,058,679,680 tons of 
freight during the same period. The 
average receipts per passenger was 2.008 




\ EETICAL LIFT BRIDGES OVER THE CALUMET RIVER. SOUTH CHICAGO, III SHOW 
IXC, ONE BRIDGE LOWERED AND OXE RAISED. 



reinforced concrete struts 4 ft. x 8 ft. in 
section. The abutments rest on 20 ft. 
piling driven to hard pan and cut off about 
3 ft. below the water line. 

During the greater part of the time of 
construction, railroad traffic was detoured 
to the adjacent bridge of the Lake Shore 
& Michigan Southern Railway. The spans 
were erected in the open position on false- 
work, it being impossible to close the 
river channel during any part of the year. 
The substructure was placed by the Dravo 
Contracting Company of Pittsburgh, and 
the superstructure by the Kelly-Atkinson 
Construction Company of Chicago, being 
fabricated by the Pennsylvania Steel Com- 
pany of Steelton, Pa. The general work 
was under the charge of Mr. R. Trimble. 
Chief Engineer M. of W., the bridge 
work under Mr. J. C. P.land, Engineer of 
Bridges, and Mr. T. M Bole was Engi- 
neer in charge of the construction. 

In the past few months the variations 
in weather and the growing amount of 
heavy traffic have thoroughly tested the 
structure to the complete satisfaction of 
the constructing engineers. 



cents a mile, and per ton of freight .729 
cent a mile. 

The revenues derived from operation 
were $3,125,135,798. and the operating ex- 
penses were $2,169,968,924. Of the total 
capital stock outstanding. $2,836,023,744, 
or 32.94 per cent., paid no dividends dur- 
ing the year. The dividends paid upon 
the remainder of the total capital stock 
outstanding amounted to $368,606,327, 
which was equivalent to 6.38 per cent, 
upon the dividend paying stocks. 



Safety on the Baltimore & Ohio. 

In a review of the "safety first" cam- 
paign conducted by the Baltimore and 
Ohio system during 1914 a report issued 
by the general safety committee 
that 91 per cent, of all items recom- 
mended to improve safety conditions was 
dispose,] of by the company. Recom- 
mendations totaling 9,256 items were 
made by 698 employes who are members 
of safety committees on 23 divisions 
throughout the territory served by the 



railroad. The report shows that on no 
division of the system did the percentage 
of recommendations adopted during the 
year fall below eighty. On several of the 
divisions fewer than ten cases remain to 
be disposed of, which means that the 
company recognizes the qualifications of 
its men to pass upon conditions sur- 
rounding their personal safety as well as 
the safety of passengers. 



National Transcontinental Railway. 
The total track mileage of the Na- 
tional Transcontinental Railway is as 
follows : Main line, Moncton, N. B., to 
Winnipeg, Man., 1,803.42 miles; second 
track and line from Quebec to site of 
Quebec bridge, 20.79 miles ; sidings and 
yards, 423.26 miles ; total track mileage. 
2.247.47. The total cost of the line, as 
stated in the ninth annual report of the 
commissioners, was $142,967,999.02, which 
does not include interest on capital ex- 
penditure, nor any expenditure made by 
the government on the approaches to the 
Quebec bridge, before that work was 
taken over as a part of the N. T. R. un- 
dertaking. At that date the steel bridges 
on the line were 97.2 per cent, completed, 
the Quebec bridge being regarded as a 
separate undertaking. Since the date of 
the report, the bridge work has been 
practically finished, and the other finish- 
ing up work has been practically com- 
pleted. The fitting up of the shops and 
the provision of other equipment for 
operation is being proceeded with. 



Australian Railways. 
According to a report issued by the 
high commissioner for Australia good 
progress is being made in the construc- 
tion of the Transcontinental Railway, 
which is to link up the railways of West- 
ern Australia with those of the eastern 
states. It is anticipated that still further 
progress will be made in the current year. 
At the West Australian end the head of 
the road now stands at 152 miles ; the 
earthworks have been completed to the 
157th mile, and the telegraph line to 148 
miles. 18 miles having been erected dur- 
ing the month. In the South Australian 
section the head of the road has reached 
156 miles. The earthworks extend to 
about 160 miles, and the telegraph line to 
149 miles. 16 miles having been erected 
during one month. At the western end 
there are some 638 men employed, and at 
the eastern end 1,432 men. The total 
number of miles of line laid is 308. This 
is exclusive of a considerable mileage of 
^limus. yards, etc. At the head of the 
road on the eastern end 150 scoops are at 
present working in one gang. Good 
water has been struck in the South Aus- 
tralian section, and boring for water is 
I cing continued at both ends in advance 



April, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



Ill 



of construction. One large reservoir 
dam is almost finished in the eastern sec- 
tion, and two others are under construc- 
tion, and also one in the western sec- 
tion. The news of the Pine Creek-Kath- 
erine River Railway, in the northern ter- 
ritory, is that the clearing has been com- 
pleted for about 35 miles, the earthworks 
for 9 miles, and the waterways for 11 
miles, some 228 men being employed. 
Rails and other material are now being 
landed at Port Darwin. 



Rural Substations in Railway Signal 
Work. 

The field of application of the rural 
substation is constantly broadening as its 
merits become better recognized. The 
main features are, of course, mobility, 
case of installation and low initial cost 
as compared with a permanent indoor 
substation of like capacity to accomplish 



the outdoor power transformers, dis- 
connecting switches, choke coils and 
lightning arresters. 

The equipment of the switch houses 
is a litte more elaborate than usually 
required for power or lighting purposes. 
The ordinary house, such as exhibited 
at the Railway Appliance Association 
Exhibition last month, has merely an 
oil switch, or an oil switch and watt- 
hour motor, with the necessary current 
and potential transformers. In tin- 
house illustrated, there are also an extra 
potential transformer, a voltmeter, a 
circuit closing relay, two potential re- 
ceptacles, and an incandescent lamp 
with bracket. The extra transformer, 
two potential receptacles and voltmeter 
in connection with other two poten- 
tial transformers required for the watt- 
hour motor, allow the voltage to be 
read on both sides of the oil switch be- 
fore it is closed. The incandescent lamp 
gives illumination at night for reading 



1,494 times in every 1,495 cases observed. 
The tests covered the work of both offi- 
cers and employes of the operating de- 
partment. Exactly 24,798 tests were made 
of the observance of stop signals, and in 
only 34 cases did the employes fail to live 
up to the strict letter of the rules — in 
other words, the employes were 99.86 per 
cent, perfect in their observance of stop 
signals. An absolutely perfect record was 
made by enginemen in observing flag- 
men's signals ; 18,203 tests showed not 
une failure. Altogether, tests were made 
last year of compliance with 37 different 
classes of safety rules. In 31 of the 37 
classes, records of 99.9 per cent, efficiency, 
or better, were made. In three classes, 
representing a total of 31,379 individual 
tests, perfect performance was recorded. 



Railway Prospects in China. 

China already has almost 6,000 miles 
f railway opened to traffic, with over 





RURAL SUE-STATIONS IN RAILWAY SIGNAL WORK ON THE SOUTHERN RAILWAY. 



the same result. These points often exert 
a w-eighty influence on the solution of the 
problejn of electricity supply, especially 
when the probable revenue is somewhat 
speculative, or the need for power either 
temporary or seasonal. In other cases 
the question of cost does not determine 
the installation itself, but merely its 
character. The accompanying illustra- 
tions show views of the first outdoor 
type steel switch houses of this class 
built for railway signal purposes, and 
are used in this connection by the 
Southern Railway at Inman, S. C, and 
Austell, Ga. The outdoor substations, 
of which the switch houses are a part, 
effect a considerable saving in outlay as 
compared with what would have been 
the cost of a substantial permanent sub- 
station to house the equipment. Each 
bouse is located at the foot of a pole 
t' wer supporting the transmission line. 



the voltage or for lighting the inside 
of the house. The circuit closing relay 
is used in the usual manner to trip the 
oil switch in case of overload or short 
circuit. 

Equipments of this kind are now be- 
ing built by the General Electric Com- 
pany. The houses are shipped wired 
complete, so that the only construc- 
tion work necessary to put them in 
commission is to place oil in the oil 
vessels and connect the incoming and 
outgoing leads to the roof bushings. 



Efficiency Tests on the Pennsylvania. 

From a report just issued it appears 
that out of 3,861,962 efficiency tests and 
observations made on the Pennsylvania 
Railroad last year, more than 99.9 per 
cent, showed perfect obedience to the 
train safety rules. To be exact, the safety 
regulations were followed to the letter 



2.000 miles under construction. Before 
the appearance of the Chinese National 
Railway Corporation of Dr. Sun Yat Sen 
the railway program of the country cov- 
ered projects aggregating more than 
8.0C0 miles, and, without reference to Dr. 
Sun's plans — which, with the political 
disturbances in the summer of 1913, col- 
lapsed with the cancellation of Dr. Sun's 
powers by the provisional president of 
China — the new projects outlined in this 
report cover almost 5,000 additional un- 
der foreign agreements. 

When it is considered that, practically 
without important exception, the big 
railway projects now proposed for China 
are to be built with foreign capital, the 
outlook for activity in construction in the 
near future is not bright, in view of the 
European war, which involves every 
European nation having railway conces- 
sions in China. 



112 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



April. 1915. 



Answers to Air Brake Questions 

Their Full Meaning and Significance Should Be Explained 

By WALTER V. TURNER 

Assistant Manager, Westinghouse Air Brake Company 



Sometime ago I saw a short article pub- 
lished in Railway and Locomotive En- 
gineering calling attention to someone 
having misquoted a statement of mine. 
This misquotation consisted in one part 
of my complete statement having been 
used which permitted the drawing of an 
inference directly opposite to that stated 
in the complete statement. I felt under 
great obligation to you for making this 
correction on the one hand, and for 
warning all readers on the other, to be 
on the lookout for incomplete or garbled 
quotations, as very serious harm results 
from such partial statements no matter 
whether they be accidental or intentional. 
Often times these misquotations are 
brought about by a desire to abbreviate 
the full statement, since to answer an air 
brake question so that it may be com- 
prehended by the interrogator or student 
requires many words, in fact, I have said 
many times recently that I know of no air 
brake question that can be answered in 
an explanatory manner in less than an 
hour, and I am becoming more convinced 
of this as every day goes by. The chief 
reason for this seems to be that so few 
study the science from a fundamental 
principle standpoint. They endeavor to 
comprehend the science (that is. the 
operation and result) by considering, 
not what causes the action of the mechan- 
ism, etc., but the action itself. Needless 
to say no such man has an anchor for his 
convictions, and thus he is like a ship 
without a rudder in a storm, tossed this 
way and that with every opinion or belief 
when a change in conditions bring about 
a change in the action; that is, a different 
operation or result. What is purely due 
to change in conditions is thought (?) 
to be due to a freak of principle (miracle) 
or fault in design. 

Obviously any question relating to air 
brakes that deals with fundamental prin- 
ciples can have only one answer, either 
"yes" or "no," but almost every question 
asked on air brake can be answered either 
"yes" or "no," both answers being correct 
until the conditions are stated, that is to 
say, under a certain set of conditions 
"yes" will be the correct answer, while 
under another set of conditions "no" 
would be the correct answer, it being the 
conditions and not the question itself 
that determines what answer should be 
given. In most cases, however, the ques- 
tion is put as though it was one of prin- 
ciples and not of conditions. What a 
great service we could render to the art 
and science of braking if we could get 



our fellow laborers in this field to com- 
prehend and employ this distinction. 

The immediate cause for writing this 
letter to you is that it has recently come 
to my knowledge that another statement 
of mine has either been misunderstood 
or misquoted. This is in regard to un- 
desired quick action. I have said many 
times and repeat that "Undesired quick 
action from the cause that produces it in 
some types of brake mechanism, is im- 
possible in some other types." To one 
who understands the chief underlying 
cause of undesired quick action, a mere 
inspection of the design is sufficient to 
verify this statement. The chief cause of 
undesired quick action is excessive re- 
sistance to slide valve movement, which, 
however, is more or less likely to cause 
undesired quick action according to 
whether many or fewer contributory 
causes exist at the same time. The pecu- 
liarity of this cause of undesired quick- 
action, is that it is undiscoverable. as 
it is not due to any mechanical defect 
or any lack of care or maintenance, but 
arises because of the existence of certain 
conditions impossible to eliminate. 
Where quick action is in no way tied up 
with or dependent upon the operation of 
the service parts, in fact, where the quick 
action parts do not even operate when 
service application is being made, it is 
evident that undesired quck action can 
not occur because of the resistance of 
the service parts to movement having 
become greatly increased. It is self- 
evident that making this statement is not 
the same as saying undesired quick action 
is impossible, for as long as quick action 
is employed, it is plain that the device 
may become mechanically defective or 
subjected to such unfair usage in repairs, 
etc., as to operate quick action when not 
desired;. but obviously this is very, very 
unlikely and is a visually discoverable 
defect, while what caused undesired 
quick action with other apparatus is not 
so discoverable. It seems strange that 
we should have to point out this distinc- 
tion and that a statement should not be 
construed to mean that which is ridicu- 
lous when a perfectly sensible construc- 
tion is possible, to say nothing of its 
being plainly meant. However, to make 
such a misconstruction or misrepresenta- 
tion of the statement impossible it can 
be made a little more wordy, viz. — "In 
some devices undesired quick action can 
not be caused by excessive slide valve re- 
sistance (which is the most prolific cause 
of undesired quick action) and when it 



does occur is visuaHj undiscoverable; 
however, with any quick action device, 
undesired quick action is possible but ob- 
viously can only occur, where it is not 
normally affected by service reductions 
from a visually discoverable defect, thus 
undesired quick action is not probable, 
but only possible, with this possibility 
reduced to a negligible quantity, since it 
is evident that uniformity of construc- 
tion is the rule and not the exception." 

You will see what a long statement 
this runs into in the endeavor to make 
what is .meant clear, that is, to supply 
understanding as well as information. 
Even with this lengthy statement, I am 
not quite sure that it is free from danger 
of misquotation or misapprehension, but 
its meaning certainly is obvious, and since 
this is so, any one who desires may 
formulate it into a statement which best 
conveys to his mind its meaning. I 
rather incline to epigrammatical state- 
ments for a starter on any subject, be- 
cause they have the virtue of arousing 
opposition and also of creating discus- 
sion, which two things are vitally es- 
sential to the success of any new en- 
deavor or to the bringing about of any 
change in the existing state of things. 
As an example, I am often asked in what 
distance can a train be stopped from a 
speed of 60 m, p. h. This is asked with- 
out any idea that about a hundred fac- 
tors or conditions should be included in 
the question. Without these being given 
the answer to the question is, "Any- 
where from 300 ft. up to 30.000." and 
one can imagine conditions where the stop 
would be outside of even these limita- 
tions. My answer to the question gen- 
erally is "Tell me the conditions and I 
will tell you to a millionth part of an inch 
what the length or distance of stop will 
be." Many people who ask this question 
look askance, and some of them rather 
express astonishment at such an answer, 
considering such accuracy to be beyond 
the realm of possibility. All I have said; 
however, is, that action in opposite direc- 
tions; and reaction are always equal; that 
two and two make four ; that opposing 
forces have a uniform effect upon each 
other, and that the same cause must al- 
ways produce exactly the same effect 
under like conditions. The reason I make 
it the way I do. is to make the condition 
element or factor stand out so boldly that 
it will be observed and, incidentally to 
impress the interrogator with the impos- 
sibility of answering a question formulated 
in this way. Almost always when I am 



April, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



113 



dealing with the physical laws or principles 
underlying brake results, I make state- 
ments of this kind; positive, emphatic and 
irrefutable. The object being to put the 
burden of supplying the factors involved 
in the problem on the questioner and thus 
getting him to see that the question is 
very complex and difficult to formulate 
complete enough for a precise answer to 
be possible. When dealing with con- 
ditions, however, such inclusive and ex- 
clusive statements instead of being of 
few words and epigrammatical as in the 
other case, are just as prolix, redundant 



answer must reside, in the last analysis, 

in the capacity, the understanding and in 

the competency of the one considering it. 

1 hope the philosophy and psychology of 



the foregoing may be of some service to 
you and those interested in the science 
and the problems of air brakes and that 
you will make use of it to this end. 



Facing Tools for Injector Repairs 

By E. L. BOWEN 

Foreman, Illinois Central Railroad 

Enclosed are drawings of some tools show double-ended wrenches for Ohio and 

for facing steam nozzle and steam ram Simplex steam nozzles. The centers are 

seats for Ohio and Simplex injectors, forged square and the ends machined 

These tools will handle four sizes of both from the solid. They are made of tool 




J 



k— -li- 



K 8 1 



.T 



FOR OHIO INJECTOR 
Forge to size 




These Wrenches of Tool 
Steel. Machined and 
Tempered 






~s4c-.ij.-2 





FOR 5IMPLEX INJECTOR 
F orge to siz e 



14 Threads on this Portion 



Bore and Chip ends to these sizes ' 



B rass 



Tool 5 tee I Tempered 

Z4Jeeth 



vmj 




To Fit Pieces Dand E 




r—> I- OF Tool Stee l not Tempered 
\Dowel ♦ 
side "f *■ 



Fand O H- 



Tool 5teel Tempered 
i Z4. Teeth 




To Fit Pieces Fand 6 K~/"~- »]£[« 2f-'——>U- ■'-- 3'— 

J- OF Tool Steel not Temp ered 



->4<— /*— >| 




DETAILS OF TOOLS FOR FACING STEAM NOZZLE AND STEAM RAM SEATS FOR OHIO AND SIMPLEX INJECTORS. 



and elaborate as time and patience of the 
listener will permit, for I recognize that 
questions or results hinging upon con- 
ditions are as different in point and as 
various in result as are the conditions 
themselves. Thus once again you see we 
are back to the consideration of the neces- 
sity of recognizing the distinction between 
principles and conditions, or cause and 
effect. The one is a matter of quality, 
therefore can receive an answer ; the 
other is a matter of quantity, the answer 
to which can seldom, if ever, be complete, 
and at best can only be relative. This 



makes of injectors, that is Nos. 8, 9, 10 
and 11. Cutters D and E fit arbor K and 
are used for reseating steam nozzles for 
the steam rams. Cutters F and G fit 
arbor L and are used for facing steam 
nozzle seats in both makes of injectors. 
Brass flanged piece J is used with pieces 

B, H and I to face Ohio steam nozzle 
seats and is threaded to fit piece B. A 
wrench should be had, one end to fit 
hexagon-headed brass pieces A, B and 

C, and the other end to fit squares on 
arbors K and L. Sketches M and N 



.steel tempered. The design of the Sim- 
plex injector does not permit of a very 
strong wrench being used, so wrench N is 
made so it will just go through mouth 
of injector and ends are bored and 
chipped from solid to fit hexagon heads 
of steam nozzles, thus getting maximum 
strength. This is important, for steam 
nozzles are often damaged by the use of 
poor wrenches that slip off and crush 
them out of shape. From these sketches 
it will be seen that a minimum number 
of tools is made to cover the four sizes 
of both makes of injectors. 



114 



RAILWAY AXD LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



April, 1915. 



Notes and Comments on Locomotive Lubrication 

Old Theories and Practices Should Be Carefully Inquired Into 

By F. P. ROESCH 

Master Mechanic, El Paso & Southern System 



THE MEANING OF LUBRICATION. 

Locomotive lubrication is naturally 
as old as the locomotive itself, but, re- 
gardless of this, it appears that the 
"whys and wherefores" of locomotive 
lubrication are as little understood by 
the average man to whose duty it falls 
to handle or take care of a locomotive, 
as it was in the beginning. This may 
be due to the fact that with the In- 
crease in size and general character of 
the locomotive there has been a change 
in the methods as well as the materials 
used in lubrication. And as the young 
engineer is naturally the product of 
the teachings of the older man, he, of 
course, has absorbed some of the ideas 
and theories of his teacher. Conse- 
quently, unless he has made a practice 
of thinking for himself, or not accept- 
ing a theory until proven to his own 
satisfaction, he will naturally continue 
the practices in vogue with the man 
he fired for. The object of this article 
is to knock out some of the old ac- 
cepted theories and practices. In other 
words, to bring the theory and practice 
of lubrication up to date. 

Lubrication, as we are all aware, con- 
sists of the introduction of a compara- 
tively frictionless substance between 
two surfaces which move with relation 
to one another. The lubricant intro- 
duced can be either fluid, semi-fluid or 
solid, as, for instance, oil, grease or 
graphite. The primary object, of 
course, being to reduce the friction' be- 
tween the two moving surfaces to a 
minimum. 

JOURNAL LUBRICATION. 

Taking up first the matter of journal 
lubrication and referring to locomotive 
driving box journals. With the light 
engine that formerly obtained, the only 
lubricant used was oil. This was in the 
driving box cellar in the shape of satu- 
rated or soaked waste; the waste being 
used on account of its capability of ab- 
sorbing a certain amount of oil, which 
oil was brought in contact with the 
journal by means of the resiliency of 
the waste and the capillary attraction. 
In other words, the waste being held 
in contact with the journal allowed the 
oil to come in contact also, and by 
means of the revolving journal, it was 
carried up between the two bearing 
surfaces; that is, the journal and the 
brass, thereby separating the two and 
reducing the friction. For various Tea- 
s' ns the use of oil-saturated waste for 
this purpose was discontinued, and in- 



stead of this, the use of grease was in- 
troduced. As we are all aware, the 
grease is forced up against the journal 
by means of coil springs attached to a 
plate upon which the grease rests. A 
perforated plate, formed to the contour 
of the journal, is placed on top of the 
cake of grease in order to prevent a too 
rapid feed. So long as the plate con- 
forms to the contour of the journal. 




FIG. 1. 

this method of lubrication is highly 
satisfactory, but if this perforated plate 
once becomes uneven or dented, or has 
any slight projections above the normal 
surface, the projection acts as a scraper 
to scrape the grease away from the 
journal, leaving that part of the journal 
dry, with the result that the friction 
set up by the unlubricated portion of 
the journal will soon cause heating. 




FIG. 2. 

which heat will finally extend to the 
entire journal and continue until the 
cause of the heating has been corrected. 
The use of grease increases the fric- 
tion over that which would obtain 
through the use of oil. This is due to 
the fact that when the grease is cold 
its cohesion is greater than oil. At the 
same time its adhesion to the bearing 
surface is less, and when the grease is 



beginning to melt its cohesion is still 
greater than oil and its adhesion to the 
bearing surfaces, while greater than 
when it is in its solid form, is still less 
than oil. In other words, it is neces- 
sary to obtain a certain amount of fric- 
tion when using grease, to reduce it 
from a solid to a semi-fluid state, and, 
consequently, any bearing that is grease- 
lubricated will naturally run much 
warmer than one oil lubricated, and as 
the presence of heat under such condi- 
tions indicates friction it is plain that 
there must be more friction when grease 
is being used than when oil is being 
used. 

As stated above, the adhesion of 
grease to a journal is much less than 
that of oil, consequently some provi- 
sion must be made to carry the grease 
up between the journal and its bearing. 
The usual provision is to cut away the 
edges of the driving box brass so as to 
prevent the edge of the brass acting 
as a scraper, having a tendency to 
scrape the grease off the journal. The 
action of the driving box journal in the 
bearing, however, automatically pro- 
vides for the grease feed as follows: 
Referring to Fig. 1, which shows an 
ordinary driving box and journal: In 
this instance it is assumed that the 
rotation is in the direction of the curved 
arrow shown on the journal; the crank 
pin is leaving the back center, conse- 
quently the direction of the force is as 
shown by the arrow "A," this force 
having a tendency to push the journal 
against the front side of the brass, 
leaving an opening between the back of 
the journal and the brass. As the wheel 
completes its revolution we have the 
condition shown in Fig. 2. The force 
in this instance being exerted against 
the front of the journal, pushing it 
back so that the grease that was car- 
ried up from the rears has now an op- 
portunity to pass entirely around the 
journal between it and the brass, there- 
by completing the lubrication cycle. It 
is through this action of the journal in 
its bearing that grease lubrication is 
possible, and where such action does 
not obtain, grease cannot be used. As. 
for instance, the question is often asked 
"Why is it not possible to use grease 
in engine or trailer trucks?" or, in fact. 
in any other boxes outside of the driv- 
ing boxes. If. now, you will refer to 
Fig. .? the reason will no doubt become 
plain. 

When considering the lubrication of 
any other journal outside of driving. 



April. 1915. 



RAILWAY AXD LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



US 



journals we must not lose sight of the 
fact that where the driving journals 
propel the engine, the engine or car, as 
the case may be, propels all other jour- 
nals. The movement of all the journals 
outside of driving journals is produced 
by the pressure of the brass against the 
journal, as shown in Fig. 3, and as this 
pressure is always in the direction of 
rotation, it is plain that were grease 
used in this instance the edge of the 
brass pressing against the journal 
would act as a scraper to carry off the 
lubricant. The question may be asked 
"Why doesn't the brass act in this man- 
ner in the case of oil?" The reason of 
this has been previously explained, in 
that the adhesion of oil to a bearing is 
greater under all circumstances than 
that of grease. Again, there is no jour- 
nal that constantly remains in intimate 
contact with its bearing. On the con- 
trary, as a journal revolves, regardless 
of the amount of weight upon it, there 
is always an occasional separation be- 
tween the. journal and its bearing, due 
to either some inequality in the track 
or inequality in the wheels, and it is 
during this interval of separation that 
the oil can readily be carried between 
the journal and its bearing. 

HOT BEARINGS. 

Before leaving the subject of journal 
lubrication it might be well to mention 
some of the causes of hot bearings. Of 
course, if the causes are known, the 
remedy will be obvious. Principal 
among causes for hot driving journal 
bearings where grease is used is the 
poor fit of the perforated plate pre- 
viously mentioned. Next will come 




FIG. 3. 

defect in the brass that will cause a 
portion of the brass to act as a scraper. 
cutting away the lubricant. This may 
be caused either by the brass having 
become heated at some time and then 
closed so as to pinch the journal, to a 
crack in the brass, or to the manner in 
which brasses are grooved out. In 
this latter or grooving proposition we 
are taking issue with the practice ad- 
vocated by the inventors of the grease 
cellar, but in this instance we believe 
our position to be well taken and cap- 
able of defense. 



Fig. 4 is an illustration of the groov- 
ing advocated and practiced in many 
shops. Of course, in this instance, the 
primary idea is that grease will be car- 
ried up into these grooves and from 
them distributed to various parts of the 
journal; also, that these grooves tend 
to act as receptacles or storage reser- 
voirs for grease, which, when the jour- 
nal becomes warm, will melt and act as 
a lubricant. That this theory is entirely 
incorrect is proven by the fact that 
there is never any grease found in these 
grooves when a journal is dropped on 
account of same running hot. On the 
contrary, the grooves, instead of acting 



^-2. 





FIG. 4. 

as receptacles, simply form passages 
whereby the grease can be carried from 
one side of the brass to the other with- 
out ever coming in intimate contact 
with the journal at all. The grooves 
also materially reduce the bearing area, 
and, last, but not least, every individual 
groove can, under certain conditions, 
act as a scraper to scrape away the 
grease from some one portion of the 
journal, and thereby set up the condi- 
tion previously mentioned, which will 
ultimately result in the heating of the 
entire journal. 

As shown in Figures 1 and 2, there is 
absolutely no need of this grooving or 
of this reduction in bearing area. In 
fact, repeated tests have proven that 
if the entire bearing area of any bear- 
ing, but especially a driving box bear- 
ing, be left intact, that much better 
results will be obtained than by having 
it cut away with numerous grooves. 
We have often been tempted to ask the 
advocates of the grooved bearings why 
the same system was not adopted in 
crank pin bearings. 

CRANK PIN LUBRICATION. 

Modern practice commends the use of 
grease in crank pin lubrication, same as 
in driving journal lubrication, for prac- 
tically the same reasons. As we are all 
aware, the lubricant, grease, is introduced 
between the crank pin and the brass in 
practically the same manner as obtains 
with the driving box, except in this in- 
stance the grease is introduced from above 
instead of below. 

In crank pin lubrication the action of 
the bearing on the journal is practically 
the same as in driving journal lubrication, 
in that with the locomotive moving for- 
ward when the piston is pulling, the back 



half of the main rod brass is forced 
against the crank pin, while the front half 
is away from it, thereby offering an open- 
ing which allows the grease to be carried 
between the brass and the pin. As the 
revolution is completed, the pressure is 
reversed, and the grease is now carried 
around, completing the cycle. 

In order to have perfect crank pin 
lubrication conditions should be right. 
Such conditions usually obtain on side 
rods where the ordinary round bushing is 
used, and, therefore, little trouble is ever 
experienced with side rod bearings run- 
ning hot. Of course, the fact that each 
side rod bearing only takes its proportion 
of the load has considerable to do with 
their running cool. This fact should also 
be taken into consideration by those whose 
duty it is to fit up main rod brasses, so 
that the condition of the main rod brass 
or bearing may approach as nearly as pos- 
sible that of the side rod. This means 
that the brasses should not only be a good 
fit on the pin, but also a perfect fit in the 
strap. As the top and bottom of the 
main rod brasses occupy the same relative 
positions, so far as the direction of force 
and lubrication is concerned, as the front 
and back sides of the driving box brasses, 
the tops and bottoms of the main rod 
brasses should be cut away as shown by 
the dotted lines in Figure S, so as to af- 
ford an opportunity for the grease to get 
down on the pin and be carried around as 
the pin rotates. Unless this provision is 
made, the edges of the brasses will act as 
scrapers to scrape the grease off just the 
same as on the driving box. 

HOT PINS. 

Ordinarily, the cause of any hot pin 
can be determined by careful investi- 




FIG. 5. 

gation. As a rule, however, when pins 
are reported as running hot the round- 
house man simply takes down the rod re- 
ported, and if the brasses all show to be 
moderately good fit, he does not look- 
further for the trouble, but probably 
eases the brasses a little at the top and 
bottom, and puts the rod up again. As 
the principal trouble obtains in back ends 
of main rods, we will confine our remarks 
entirely to this one pin, although the same 
remedies will apply to other pins under 
same conditions. 



116 



RAILWAY A XI) LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



April, 1915. 



Hot main pins can be due to a variety 
of causes, but eliminating such tilings as 
lack of grease, abrasives in grease, etc., 
we will confine ourselves altogether to 
mechanical defects. Of course, we know 
that if a brass is keyed so tight as to 
pinch the journal, it is bound to run hot. 
The remedy in this case is obvious, 
namely, slack off on the key. In slacking 
off on the key. however, care must be 
taken not to slack off too much, as a 




FIG. 6. 

loose and pounding brass will run just 
as hot as one that is a little too tight. 
This is due to the fact that if the brass 
is loose enough to pound each time steam 
is admitted to the cylinder, it will cause 
the brass to strike the pin a blow whose 
force is in proportion to the pressure ex- 
erted against the piston and the amount 
that the brass is loose on the pin. There- 
fore, in slacking off on a key, just slack 
it sufficient so that the rod can be moved 
laterally on the pin on all positions. 

BRASSES NOT FITTING STRAP. 

This is a matter that does not receive 
sufficient attention, and yet is the cause of 
as many hot pins as any other one single 
item. Referring again to Figure 5, the 
solid lines show the position of the brass 
and key, with the brass a perfect fit in the 
strap. If now the brass is loose in the 
strap, the key and brass may take the po- 
sitions shown in dotted lines, and in this 
case, as can be seen, the top of the front 
brass and the bottom of the back brass, 
act as perfect scrapers to scrape the 
grease off the pin as it rotates. In fact, 
instead of the grease being forced down 
through the compression in the cup, this 
condition has a tendency to force the 
grease up into the cup or out on each side 
of the crank pin. 

Another condition frequently met with 
is that shown in Figure 6. (Note: In 
all of the figures herein shown conditions 
are intentionally exaggerated, so as to 
make the illustration more clear.) Re- 
ferring to Figure 6, this shows a main 
rod strap which through neglect and ex- 
cessive use has become bowed at the back, 
as shown in solid lines, the dotted lines 
showing the original position. If now a 
new brass is fitted into a strap under 
such conditions, the back of the brass 
does not come in contact with the strap 



in (he center. As the center of the brass 
takes the greater part of the strain, it is 
only a question of time before the brass 
is broken, as shown by dotted lines. 
Then if the brass is keyed up, we have 



a scraper action at each division point, 
namely, "A." "B," "C" and "D." Con- 
sequently, it is only a miracle that pre- 
vents a brass under such conditions from 
running hot. 



Back lo the Wood-Burning Days 



.If you ever have occasion to 
trip on the branch of the Southern Kail- 
way, that runs from Greensboro to San- 
ford, N. C, keep your eyes open as the 
train pulls into the town of Bonlee. You 
will get a distinct surprise, and if you are 
interested in locomotives you will be 
tempted to get off the train right there, 
or if you can't do that, you will certainly 
plan another trip with a stop-over at 
Bonlee. 

On a track that runs on the other side 
of the platform from the one you are 
on is a train, consisting of perhaps a 
couple of box and flat cars, one coach 
and a wood-burning locomotive. Y'ou 
will be carried back to the days "befo' de 
war" when such machines were the rule 
rather than the exception, and when each 
locomotive had its name and was a 
favorite of all the patrons who lived 
along that section of the road. The 
track we have just mentioned is the 
eastern end of the Bonlee & Western 
Railway, and the engine represents just 
fifty per cent, of the motive power of the 
road. 

The Bonlee & Western Ry. was pro- 
moted by Mr. John H. Dunlap, a thrifty 



By HUGH G. BOUTELL 

Washington, D. C. 

take a 



which would have to be bought from out- 
side parties. This would keep the money 
paid for fuel in the county, and would 
benefit all concerned. The idea has 
worked out exactly as expected, two and 
one-half cords of wood being equal to 
one ton of coal, leaving a difference of 
$1.35 in price in favor of wood. Oak is 
the fuel burned. 

As mentioned above there are two lo- 
comotives in use on the road. No. 1 
was purchased from an Atlanta shop, 
which partially rebuilt it, and claimed it 
was once the property of the Southern 
Ry. It was built by the Baldwin Loco- 
motive Works in August, 1886, and is of 
the "American" type, with cylinders 
15x24 inches, 48 inch drivers, and weighs 
35 tons. 

No. 2 was purchased from the Norfolk 
& Western Ry., and was changed from a 
coal to a wood-burning machine. This 
engine is shown in the illustration, 
which shows it up very clearly. As will 
be seen, the original extension front has 
been retained, which looks rather odd 
with the big balloon stack. This engine 
was also built by the Baldwin Works in 
1881, and has cylinders 19x24 inches, 48- 




WOOD-BURNING LOCOMOTIVE ON THE BONLEE & WESTERN RAILWAY. 



lumberman of this section, and his 
brother Isaac. The road was built about 
four years ago to connect the towns ol 
Bonlee and Bennett in western Chatham 
County, North Carolina. It is eleven 
miles in length, and at the time the line 
was built the country through which it 

ran was practically undeveloped, con- 
sisting mostly of woodlands. Mr. Dun- 
lap decided that he could buy wood from 
the people living along the line of his 
road for less than the price of coal, 



inch drivers and weighs 45 tons. It was 
rebuilt at Silencer shops of the Southern 
Ry. in 1912. and i- in excellent condition. 
Mr. W. .1. Tally, the superintendent and 
traffic manager "t the road, takes a lively 
interest in the old engines, and says that 
he receives quite a few letters of inquiry 
concerning them from people passing 
through the town. He is the one who 
gave me most of the information con- 
tained in this little article, and also of- 
fered every facility for taking the picture. 



April. 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



117 



Mechanical and Scientific Notes 



Nickel Plating. 

Light nickel-plating can be accom- 
plished by heating a bath of pure granu- 
lated tin, argol, and water to boiling, and 
adding a small quantity of red-hot nickel 
oxide. A brass or copper article im- 
mersed in this solution is instantly cov- 
ered with pure nickel. 



Welding Steel. 

Cast steel : borax 64, salammoniac 20, 
ferro-cyanide potassium 10, rosin 5. Boil 
all with some water, constantly stirring 
until homogeneous compound is formed. 
Then dry out slowly in same vessel. 
Welding done at light yellow heat or 
towards white heat. 



Etching Glass. 
Coat the glass with melted candle- 
grease, and draw the pattern to be etched 
in the wax with a sharp needle point. 
Then expose the glass to the action of 
vapor of hydrofluoric acid, generated by 
acting on fluor spar with hydrochloric 
acid, and gently warming. The gas must 
.be generated in a lead vessel, as it attacks 
most substances. It is very poisonous, 
.and therefore care must be taken not to 
inhale it. 



Fireproof Cement. 

A good fireproof cement can be formed 
■of iron filings 140 parts, hydraulic lime 
20 parts, quartz sand 25 parts, ' sal- 
ammoniac 5 parts, and enough of vinegar 
to make a paste. A similar cement con- 
sists of iron tilings 180 parts, lime 45 
parts, and common salt 5 parts, converted 
into a paste witli strong vinegar. 



Soldering. 

It often happens, when soldering with 
killed spirits as a fluid, that the latter 
cannot be applied thick enough to insure 
a good joint. Add some starch to the 
killed spirit, and boil the mixture, so as 
to make a sort of syrup, and you will 
find that you can make a far stronger 
job, especially when soldering up tins 
which have to stand pressure from with- 
in, such as preserve tins, than otherwise. 
The starch is, of course, turned to char- 
coal; but this does not hinder in the least, 
and can be wiped off. 



Wiping a Joint. 
Open the end of one piece of pipe so 
that the other piece of the pipe will just 
enter, then scrape with a shave-hook to 
■ size of joint, taking care to keep it per- 
fectly clean. Fasten the two pieces of pipe 
securely in position, rub bright parts 
with a tallow candle, and proceed to pour 
or splash metal on joint, wiping it into 



shape with a cloth made of several thick- 
nesses of fustian. You will require a 
metal pot, ladle, bar of metal, shave- 
hook, turnpin, soil, tallow, rasp, several 
cloths, and a deal of patience. 



Casehardening;. 

Yellow prussiate of potash, by weight, 
7 parts; bichromate of potash, 1 part; 
common salt, 8 parts ; pulverize the 
crystals and mix thoroughly. Heat the 
piece to be hardened to a dark red and 
dip into the preparation or sprinkle it on 
the piece. Return to the fire and let it 
soak, then repeat several times according 
to the depth of hardened surface wanted. 
Finally plunge into water or oil. This 
may be used on tool steel, soft steel or 
iron. 



Hardening a Hammer Face. 

To harden hammer face, heat the ham- 
mer to a bright red all over, dip the face 
into the bath about $£ m -> moving it 
about the surface the while about half a 
minute, remove from bath and rub the 
face bright, then dip the nose of hammer 
about Yi in. till the face has drawn to a 
deep straw color, then cool the face and 
draw the nose down to blue, and cool 
altogether. If done properly a hammer 
tempered in this way will be right for 
years. 



Bright Whitewash. 
Half a bushel unslaked lime; slake with 
warm water, cover it during the process 
to keep the steam ; strain the liquid 
through a fine sieve or strainer ; add a 
peck of salt, the same to be previously 
well dissolved in warm water ; add 3 lb. 
of ground rice boiled to a thin paste, 
and stir in boiling hot; add Vi lb. of glue 
which has been previously dissolved over 
a slow fire, and add five gallons of hot 
water to the mixture; stir well, and let it 
stand for a few days, covering up to keep 
out dirt. It should be put on hot. One 
pint of the mixture, properly applied, will 
cover a square yard. Small brushes are 
best. There is nothing can compare with 
it for outside or inside work, and it re- 
tains its brilliancy for many years. Col- 
oring matter may be put in and made of 
any shade — Spanish brown, yellow ochre, 
or common clay. 



Making Holes in Glass. 

For making holes in thin glass, put a 
piece of stiff clay or putty on the part 
you wish to make a hole. Make a hole in 
the clay or putty equal to the diameter 
of the hole you wish to make in the glass. 
Into this hole pour a drop of molten lead 
and the piece the size of the hole will 
drop out. 



Radium. 

If one could utilize the energy of a 
ton of radium through a space of thirty 
years it would be sufficient to drive a 
ship of 15,000 tons, with engines of 
15,000 horsepower, at a rate of fifteen 
knots throughout the whole thirty 
years. To do this 1,500,000 tons of coal 
are actually required, says the Chicago 
Tribune. 

These are not fanciful figures, for the 
energy is there, though, as a matter of 
fact, it is unlikely that man will ever 
produce much more than half an ounce 
of radium a year. 

Still, the fact is important for this 
reason — that science is convinced that 
the radium in radium bromide is not the 
only element which possesses this mar- 
velous store of energy, but that the cal- 
cium in gypsum and the sodium in com- 
mon salt contain also this energy con- 
tent. 



Fastest Speed Record. 

Connected with the great Salt Lake of 
Utah is a vast expanse of salt deposit that 
is absolutely level and hard as rock. An 
automobile race was held on this salt 
formation recently and, a speed of 43 
miles an hour was attained, the highest 
velocity ever reached by man's invention. 

According to one authority the auto- 
mobile run was made by "Teddy" Tetzlaff 
on August 12, last, and the best time for 
one mile was 25.2 seconds, which is equal 
to 142.85 miles an hour, a trifle better than 
the best preceding record, which was made 
on the beach at Daytona, Fla., in April, 
1911. This is the highest speed ever 
traveled by man on the face of the earth. 
The best speed ever made by a vehicle 
running on rails was that recorded in the 
Berlin-Zossen tests of electric cars, in 
1903, when a rate of 130.5 miles an hour 
was made, on October 27. The crystal- 
lized salt in this Utah bed makes a hard 
and absolutely level surface, and it is 
said that even in the hottest weather it 
does not heat the tires of automobiles. 
The salt-beds are 65 miles long and 8 
miles wide. The estimated depth, in the 
middle, is 12 feet to 15 feet. The salt is 
white and averages 98 per cent. pure. 
Tetzlaff says that with more preparation 
he can make still better speed. In racing 
over the salt-beds the motorist has an 
unusual feeling of security because of 
the entire absence of obstructions. 



Experience has shown that the end of 
a liar of steel that has been broken off 
should never be used for the working or 
cutting end of a die or punch. The fibres 
in the end of such a bar have been so 
severely strained in breaking that the 
steel is unsuitable for performing the 
work done by a punch or die. 



118 



RAILWAY AND l.( )( < )M( )TI VE EXG1 NEEK1XG. 



April, 1915. 



Wireless Telephone in Railway Serviee 

Successful Experiments on the Lackawanna 



The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
Railroad, which some time back under- 
took pioneer work in the development of 
wireless telegraphic communication be- 
tween stations and moving trains, and 
also between trains has now further dis- 
tinguished itself as the pioneer in devel- 
oping a similar service with the wireless 
telephone. There are two trains in the 
fast express service between New York 
(Hoboken) and Buffalo. These were 
equipped for wireless telegraphy, but now 
the road has changed the equipment of 
one so as to provide for the transmission 
and receipt of wireless telephone mes- 
sages. 

It was, no doubt, the success attained 
with the telegraph that encouraged the 
recent work. That success has been and 
is more than those not fully informed may 
suppose. There are four fixed wireless 
s'tations located at Hoboken, Scranton, 
Binghamton and Buffalo, the intervals 
in the total of 410 miles being 140, 70 
and 200 miles. The telegraphic transmit- 
ting capacity from the train is 134 miles. 
The receiving capacity turns on the trans- 
mitting capacities of the fixed stations 
which are more powerful yet. Accord- 
ingly, there is no moment of the trip 
when the train is out of toucli with the 
fixed stations. There are no ordinary 
ci iiiditions occurring from year's end to 
year's end that interefere seriously enough 
to stop communication, except two. There 
is a tunnel nearly a mile long just west 
of Hoboken where various electric cur- 
rents are carried through the tunnel itself 
by permanent wires. Whether this ex- 
plains the interference or not, it has been 
found impossible to communicate by wire- 
less telegraph when the train it within 
the tunnel. There are tw : o other tunnels 
on the line between Hoboken and Buf- 
falo, although neither is as long, where 
the electric transmission wires are carried 
on the exterior surface instead of through 
the tunnel bore. Communication is pos- 
sible to and from trains in both these 
tunnels. With regard to the difficulties 
hitherto encountered with the Hoboken 
tunnel, it is expected in time to overcome 
them, whatever they really may be. The 
second source of interference experienced 
b; the Lackawanna is the summer 
thunder storm. Apart form the place or 
the conditions of interference now set 
forth, the Lackawanna appears to be in 
control of their wireless telegraphic sys- 
tem in a thoroughly practical and efficient 
manner. 

There are attractions about a wireless 
telephone service which appeal to practical 
people. The chief thing is the reduction 



By J. F. SPRINGER, New York 

iji operating expense. No attendant is 
required to travel with the train. The 
system which is now in use, and which 
the railroad is extending is so simple in 
operation that an operator is not required. 
A good deal of the apparatas employed 
is similar to or the same as that employed 
with wireless telegraphy. Thus the anials 
at the fixed stations may be used for 
cither service. So also the aerials on the 
train are precisely the same or nearly so. 
The fast train which leaves Hoboken foi 
Buffalo on alternate mornings at 10:15 
has strung along on the car tops at an ele- 
vation of l]/ 2 feet two No. 10 stranded 
phosphor bronze wires, one on either side. 
Iron stanchions fitted with porcelain in- 
sulators supply the necessary supports at 
the four corners of the several cars. The 



The operating conditions for the tur- 
b r.< Iternat ir are especially severe as it 
is necessary to throw the full load on and 
ofl frequently, and suddenly as the opera- 
ii.ii of the telephone passes from trans- 
mission to receiving and back again. The 
totational speed necessary is about 2,500 
r. p. m. This angular velocity is main- 
tained with a good deal of exactness by 
means of a governor of special design. 
An auxiliary piece of apparatus is the ex- 
citer unit, having capacity of '4 kw., 110 
\olts. It is set up overhead and is belt- 
connected to an extension of the al- 
ternator's shaft. 

The system of wireless telephony used 
is that of De Forest, which has recently 
been perfected. In fact it would seem as 
if railroad conditions themselves limit the 




AERIALS ON LACKAWANNA CARS. 



four leading cars are the ones equipped. 
Flexible connections join the whole in 
scries into a system about 300 feet long. 
The aerial system thus provided on the 
coach tops extend but little or nothing at 
all above the roof itself. The eighteen 
inches elevation is above the roof decks 
on either side. 

In order to transmit, power is needed 
fi r the generation of the necessary cur- 
rent. This is supplied by means of a 
steam turbine engine set up in the middle 
of the combination mail and baggage 
coach which follows the tender. That is. 
the turbine is located in the fore part of 
the baggage section. The steam is 
brought in from the locomotive, and is 
supplied normally at 125 pounds to a 
5-hp. turbine. The last is direct-coupled 
with a high-frequency alternator of spe- 
cial design. The exhaust of the turbine 
opens onto the bed of the track. 



choice of a system. Thus, no system 
which required skilled attention at the 
transmitter appears admissible, as one of 
the foremost advantages of wireless tele- 
phony over wireless telegraphy consists 
in the possibility of eliminating the trained 
operator. In the De Forest transmitter 
lure employed, once the quench spark gap 
is adjusted, the regulating device is 
locked up, and requires no further atten- 
tion. 

With the new transmitter it is not nec- 
essary that "the antenna system be tuned 
to the primary, nor even Ik- 'substantially 
ir. tune' with it." The wave length trans 
mitted may he varied in a simple manner 
b\ moving a contact switch operated from 
the front of the transmitter case. After 
the person desiring to communicate with 
the nearest fixed station has once set this 
switch, he has no further "tuning" to do. 

A small light connected with the "lis- 



April, 1915. 



RAILWAY AXD LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



119 



tening switch" indicates whether the lat- 
ter is set for talking or listening. When 
it is up, the light is lit, and he may listen 
to the person talking from the fixed sta- 
tion. When it is down the light is out, 
and talking may be done. 

Transmission is effected by means of an 



so recently become a commercial possi- 
bility. 

The first trials concerned themselves 
with the receipt of messages on a train, 
and not with transmission from it. It 
was found possible in the preliminary 
work to transmit from the fixed station 




THE TELEPHONE APPARATUS AT A FIXKD STATION". 



alternating curent of 6,000 cycles. It is 
brought from the turbine-alternator by a 
pair of train connectors to the rear end of 
the coach next following the mail-and- 
baggage car. In order to provide for the 
regulation of the voltage and the input of 
power, two leads are brought into the 
telephone booth. 

The telephone instrument as a whole 
consists of an upper part devoted to trans- 
mission, and of a lower part where are 
located the tuning apparatus necessary to 
the receiving arrangements. 

Essential parts of the equipment are 
what are known as the Audion detector 
and the Audion amplifier. The function 
of the latter is to intensify the voice pulsa- 
tions. It is said to be possible with this 
instrument to secure an intensification of 
sixty fold. There is no derangement or 
distortion of the vocal vibrations. Their 
general qualities are faithfully preserved, 
but the intensity is multiplied. If it were 
not for this device it is doubtful whether 
railroad telephony would now be a demon- 
strated fact, because without it the train 
noises would occasion so serious an in- 
terference with the reception of messages 
that the receiving range on the Lacka- 
wanna would, so it seems, have been cut 
down to 10 miles. This would have made 
the entire system impractical from a com- 
mercial points of view. An effective 
range of 30 or 40 miles has been created 
by the use of a two-step Audion amplifier. 
It will be of sufficient interest to warrant 
the digression to say that it is a form of 
this device which is now employed in tele- 
phonic communication by wire between 
New York and San Francisco, which has 



at Scranton and receive on the moving 
station, going east at the rate of 50 miles 
and more per hour. As far as Strouds- 
burg, 52 miles from Scranton, the voice 
of the operator at the latter's fixed sta- 
tion could be discerned. 

An official test was made early in Feb- 



transmission double that disclosed by this 
trial. It should be understood that the 
i rciiving radius is still greater for the 
reason that the fixed stations are equipped 
with more powerful apparatus. 

It is thought the the wireless telephone 
i. tiers especially attractive possibilities for 
service with freight train operation. The 
estimate is made that it costs the road 
from $20 to $30 every time a long train 
performs some unnecessary act. A con- 
siderable percentage of these unnecessary 
moves could probably be avoided if it 
were continually possible to transmit or- 
ders to trains while under way. Leave 
out of consideration the dispatch of mes- 
sages from the trains. The expense of 
equipping cabooses with receiving ap- 
paratus would not be great. It is con- 
ceived that series of small radio tele- 
phone stations might be established all 
along the road, and that orders mio lit be 
received and transmitted by them. Such 
transmitting stations could be put into 
service at a moderate expense. In fact 
a small transmitter has already been de- 
veloped which has an effective radius of 
2 or 3 miles. The cost is said to be less 
than $400. It would apparently not be 
necessary to have stations so thickly scat- 
tered that trains would always and every- 
where be within telephonic reach. Certain 
"zones" could be provided within which 
orders could be transmitted to the trains. 
There would thus be provided for such 
transmission the opportunity afforded by 
the passage of the train along 5 or 6 
miles of track. These small stations 




RECEIVING A TELEPHONE MESSAGE OX A LACKAWANNA TRAIN. 



ruary when five wireless telephone mes- 
sages were sent in to the Binghamton 
fixed station from the moving train as it 
went past stations to the east and west. 
Thus, messages went in from points 
where distances from the receiving point 
ranged from 8 to 27 miles. It is expected 
to improve incn these results, and in a 
short t:me to have an effective radius of 



would receive their messages by wireless 
and transmit automatically. The equip- 
ment in the cabooses could be restricted 
to the receiving apparatus, thus eliminat- 
ing the necessity to generate a current 
It is thought that a road 500 miles long 
could be equipped for service at an ex- 
pense of $30,000. and that the operating 
expense would not be over $1,000 per year. 



l_'l 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE EXGIXEERIXG. 



April, 1915. 



New 2-10-2 Type of Locomotive for the Erie 

Latest and Most Powerful Example of the Ten-Coupled Engine 



The Baldwin Locomotive Works has 
recently completed, for the Erie Railroad, 
a locomotive of the 2-10-2 type, which is 
slightly heavier than the engines with 
this wheel arrangement built last year for 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. The fol- 
lowing table gives the leading particulars 
•of the two designs : 



Road. Cylinders. 



B. & O....30"x32" 
Erie 31"x32" 



Q 

58" 

63" 



200 

200 



88 



its respective frame by twelve horizontal 
bolts, 1J'2 ins. in diameter. In designing 
these cylinders, special attention has been 
given the exhaust passages, which are 
unusually direct and of liberal sectional 
area. The cylinders and steam chests 
are fitted with bushings of Hunt-Spiller 
gun iron, and the same material is used 



tM 



c 

.*- en 



C 

'G 



u a 

> 3 

5,573 1,329 336,800 406.000 84,500 
1.1 5.801 1.377 327.250 407.700 83.000 



>A 



? H 



v. O 



The frames are vanadium steel castings, 
with rear sections of forged iron. The 
main frames are 6 ins. in width, spaced 
42 ins. between centers. The front rails 
are single, and are cast integral with the 
main sections. Forward of the cylinders, 
the frames are bolted to a combined deck 
plate and bumper casting which was fur- 
nished by the Comnon wealth Steel Com- 
pany, and is designed to house the Miner 
draft gear. This casting is a large and 
elaborate piece of work, cored out to omit 
superfluous weight wherever possible. 
Poling pockets are cast in the bumper at 
each end. 

Running gear details include the Wood- 




2-10-2 TYPE OF LOCOMOTIVE FOR THE ERIE RAILROAD. 
Win. Schlafge, General Mechanical Superintendent. 



Baldwin Locomotive Works, Builders. 



The two locomotives are thus of very 
nearly the same capacity, the dimensions 
being varied to suit the conditions of 
service on their respective roads. 

The boiler of the Erie locomotive has 
a conical ring in the middle of the bar- 
rel, which increases thfi shell diameter 
from 90 ins. to 100 ins. The main dome 
is of pressed steel in one piece, and is 
mounted on the connecting ring; while 
the auxiliary dome is forward of the fire- 
box, on the third ring, and is placed 
over a 16-in. opening in the shell. This 
boiler has 24-ft. tubes, and a combus- 
tion chamber 28 inches long. There 
is a full installation of flexible bolts in 
the water kegs, and four rows of flexible 
bolts stay the front end of the combus- 
tion chamber crown. The tubes are 
welded into the back tube sheet. The 
boiler equipment includes a Schmidt sup- 
erheater, Security arch (supported on 
fire tubes), Street stoker, Talmage ash- 
pan and blow-off system, Franklin grate 
shaker anil fire-door, and Chambers 
throttle, 

The cylinder castings are simple and 
massive in design, and each is secured to 



for the piston and valve packing rings. 
The valves are driven by Baker gear ; 
they are 16 ins. in diameter, and are set 
with a lead of 3/16 ins. The Ragonnet 
power reverse mechanism is applied. The 
reciprocating parts are comparatively 
light for an engine of this size. The pis- 
tons are of forged and rolled steel, with a 
Z-section. The guides are of the alliga- 
tor type, and they have a vertical spread 
of 20 ins. between bars. The crossheads 
have cast-steel bodies with bronze gibs, 
and weigh 7S5 pounds apiece, which is 
light for a crosshead of this type with 
gibs 32 ins. long. TJie front and back 
main-road stubs are of the Markel type, 
with removable brasses. The cast steel 
filling blocks in the main stub are cored 
out to remove as much weight as possi- 
ble. The combination of relatively light 
parts, with wheels of comparatively large 
diameter has made it possible to balance 
this locomotive in a most satisfactory 
manner, without resorting to the use of 
auxiliary counterweights on the main 
axle. It has been necessary to use lead 
in the counterweights of the main wheels 
only. 



ard leading truck, Cole design of trailing 
truck, and Cole long main driving-box. 
The wheels have a total lateral play in 
the boxes, of % in. ; and the first and 
filth pairs of wheels have % in. more play 
between the flanges and rails than the 
second and fourth pairs. The main wheels 
have plain tires. In spite of the long 
rigid wheel-base (22 ft. in.) the loco- 
motive can traverse curves of 16 degrees. 

Where practicable, the details of this 
locomotive have been made to interchange 
with corresponding part of the latest Mi- 
kado type engines built for the Erie. Such 
parts include driving-boxes, axles, tires 
and shoes and wedges (excepting, in each 
case, those for the main wheels), pilot, 
frame cross-ties, brake shoes and heads, 
many brass fittings, and tender trucks 
complete. The equipment of the new en- 
gine includes flange oilers on the leading 
driving-wheels, and also a speed recorder 
which is operated from the rear truck. 

The tender is of the Vanderbilt type. 
with capacity for 10.000 gallons of water 
and 16 tons of coal. The frame is com- 
posed of 6 ins. by 4 ins. angles, with 
front and back bumpers of cast steel. 



April. 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



121 



The trucks have cast steel side frames, 
and the wheels are of solid rolled steel, 
manufactured by the Standard Steel 
Works Company. 

The 2-10-2 type, although it has thus 
-far been used to only a limited extent, 
has achieved remarkable success in heavy 
freight service. As there are undoubtedly 
many localities where this class of power 
could be employed to advantage, its in- 
creasing use in the future may be antici- 
pated. 

The following are the general dimen- 
sions of this type of locomotive : 

Gauge, 4 ft. V/2 ins. ; cylinders, 31 ins. 
by 32 ins. ; valves, piston, 16 ins. diameter. 
Boiler — Type, conical ; diameter, 90 
ins.; thickness of sheets, Vs in. 29-32 in., 
15-16 in.; working pressure, 200 lbs.; fuel, 
soft coal ; staying, radial. 

Firebox — Material, steel : length, 132^ 
ins. ; width, 96 ins. ; depth, front, 89^2 ins. ; 
depth, back, 7iy 2 ins. ; thickness of sheets, 
sides, % ins. ; thickness of sheets, back, 
Y% in. ; thickness of sheets, crown, Y% in. ; 
thickness of sheets, tube, 5^ in. 

Water Space — Front, 6 ins. ; sides, 6 
in». ; back, 6 ins. 

Tubes — Material, steel; diameter, 5]4 
ins. and 2% ins.; thickness, 5^2 ins., No. 
•9 W. G. ; thickness, 2 l A ins., No. 11 W. 
G. ; number, 5V 2 ins.. 48; 2< x ins., 269; 
length, 24 ft.. ins. 

Heating Surface — Firebox, 258 sq. ft. ; 
comb, chamber. 63 sq. ft.; tubes, 5443 sq.. 
ft.; fire-brick tubes, 37 sq. ft.; total, 5801 
sq. ft. ; grate area, 88.1 sq. ft. 

Driving Wheels — Diameter, outside, 63 
ins.; diameter, center, 56 in.; journals, 
main, 13 ins. by 22 ins.; journals, others, 
11 ins. by 13 ins. 

Engine Truck Wheels— Diameter, front, 
34 ins.; journals, 6 ins. by 12 ins.; diame- 
ter, back, 42 ins.; journals, 9 ins. by 14 
ins. 

Wheel Base— Driving, 22 ft., ins.; 
rigid, 22 ft., ins. ; total engine, 41 ft., 
3 ins. ; total engine and tender, 77 ft., 4yi 
ins. 

Weight— On driving wheels, 327,250 
lbs. ; on truck, front, 24,450 lbs. ; on truck, 
back, 56.000 lbs. ; total engine, 407,700 lbs. ; 
total engine and tender, about 586,300 
lbs. 

Tender — Wheels, number, 8; wheels, 
diameter, 33 ins.; journals, 6 ins. by 11 
ins.; tank capacity, 1 0.000 gals.; fuel ca- 
pacity. 16 tons; service, freight. 

Engine equipped with Schmidt super- 
heater. Superheating surface, 1377 sq. ft. 



Some Injector Lore. 
It is a long time since the steam in- 
jector first came into use, but there are 
engineers still alive who witnessed the 
advent of this convenient boiler feeder 
and some of them remember that its ac- 
tion was regarded as a mystery and a 
violation of nature's laws. To force water 
against the steam pressure that was actu- 
ating the injector, seemed an anomaly, to 



say the least about it, but that anomaly 
was made plain to people who understood 
the laws of induced currents. 

One of the best authorities living on 
matters pertaining to injectors and steam 
jet work is Strickland Kneass, who has 
made many tests of injectors that every 
engineman ought to be acquainted with. 
His tests demonstrated that a first class 
injector will feed into a boiler about 13 
pounds of water for every pound of steam 
used. The solving of simple problems of 
steam engineering gives excellent exercise 
for people connected with the manage- 
ment or operation of steam engines. 

To find the amount of steam used in 
the case mentioned, we divide the number 
of pounds, 2,228, by 13, and find that the 
work of feeding it requires 171 pounds of 
steam, and, of course, this much more 
water in the boiler to make it from. As 
every pound of steam used by the cylin- 
ders must be forced into the boiler in the 
form of water, we see that the injector 
takes at least one-thirteenth of all the 
steam made by the boiler, and some engi- 
neers place this as high as one-tenth, or 
10 per cent. This will vary with the pres- 
sure of steam carried, as an injector will 
throw more water per pound of steam 
at low pressures than at high pressures. 
In fact, at high pressures, some tests have 
shown that less than 9 pounds could be 
counted on regularly per pound of steam 
used by the injector. 

In this connection the question is often 
asked: How fast does the jet of water 
travel going into the boiler? Taking the 
same case, we have a good example to 
work out by assuming that one injector 
feeds the boiler so that we call it feeding 
2,500 pounds per hour, as this is but little 
more than the sum of the two amounts 
we have found. 

As there are 231 cubic inches to the 
gallon, and a gallon weighs 8 1-3 pounds, 
we divide 231 by the 8 1-3 or 8.33 and find 
that there are 27.73 cubic inches of water 
in a pound. So we multiply 2,500 by 27.73 
and get 69,425 cubic inches. 

Calling the area of the smallest open- 
ing in the discharge tube of the injector 
one-twentieth of an inch — and this will 
be nearly correct — we are a step nearer 
the answer, but it requires a little more 
figuring to get it. In going through the 
injector the water becomes a small stream 
or jet only one-twentieth of a square inch 
in size, so that if we imagine it stretched 
nut in a long stream, it would be 20 times 
69,425 inches long, because if it were one 
square inch in size it would be as long as 
the total number of cubic inches it con- 
tains. 

Multiplying 69,425 by 20 gives us 1,388,- 
500 inches long, or dividing by 12 to give 
it in feet. 115,708 feet long. The injector 
then feeds a stream of water 1-20 of one 
square inch in area by 115.708 feet long 
every hour, and assuming that it is run- 



ning all the time, this would give one- 
sixtieth of this as the speed of the water 
in feet per minute, or 1,930 feet per 
minute. As a matter of fact, the injector 
will not be operating over one-half or 
one-third of the time, which would bring 
this up to 3,860 or 5,790 feet per minute, 
the latter being over a mile a minute. 
Various calculations made from actual in- 
jectors at work have shown that a mile a 
minute is not especially high for the jet of 
water to attain, and this is frequently 
exceeded. This shows how such calcula- 
tions are made, and also how one can find 
out almost anything wanted that can be 
figured, if, after getting a few facts or 
dimensions to start with, we think out 
just what to do to make the desired an- 
swer come out of the figuring. It is sim- 
ply good common sense applied to the 
fundamental rules of arithmetic in most 

cases. 

Influence of the Brick Arch. 
The use of the brick arch in locomotive 
fireboxes is making steady progress, but 
there are still many enginemen who fail 
to have clear ideas concerning the ad- 
vantages of the arch. At last conven- 
tion of the Traveling Engineers' Asso- 
ciation, a report was submitted on "Pre- 
vention of Smoke." which raised an in- 
teresting discussion. 

In one report the following expression 
occurs : "The brick arch is a great aid 
to smoke elimination, as it increases the 
travel of the gases and gives them a 
chance to combine with the oxygen." 
That statement raised some discussion, 
one side holding that the arch decreased 
the travel of the gases while the other 
held that it merely retarded them. Our 
experience with the brick arch indicates 
that it performs several functions that 
contribute to improved combustion and 
fuel economy. When a locomotive fire- 
box has no brick arch, the fuel gases make 
a direct spring from the surface of the 
fire into the flues where the act of gas 
combining ceases. When the brick arch 
is used, the gases must pass from the 
surface of the fire over the arch making 
a much longer journey than when they 
pass directly into the flues, thus increas- 
ing the travel and retarding the flow. 
The effect of this is that the gases meet 
an obstruction which has a mixing effect, 
bringing about the chemical combination 
which generates all the heat the gases are 
capable of producing. Without receiving 
this mixing process the gases are liable to 
pass away in separate elements that pro- 
duce a minimum quantity of heat. 

When the mixture of the gases is 
incomplete, the act of combustion pro- 
duces carbon monoxide, which has only 
about one-third the heat intensity of car- 
bon dioxide, known as carbonic acid gas. 
When the supply of air is ample and the 
opportunity for mixing good, the gases 
formed are carbon dioxide, which always 
produce a free steaming engine. 



122 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



April, 1915. 



Catechism of Railroad Operation 



NEW SERIES. 

Third Year's Examination 
(Continued front page 87, March, 1915.) 
Q. 170.— When should wedges be re- 
ported to be lined? 

A.— When the wedge has been moved 
up as far as it will go and the box still 
pounds. 

Note. — The box is up as far as it will 
go when it strikes the top frame rail. 

Q. 171. — When should wedges be set 
up? 

A. — When the driving box is pounding 
between wedge and shoe. 

Q. 172.— What work about the engine 
should be done by the engineer? 

A. — Setting up the wedges, keying up 
rod brasses, and any other necessary 
work while on the road to insure a suc- 
cessful trip and prevent engine failure. 

Q. 173.— At what time or place should 
wedges be set up to obtain the best re- 
sults? 

A. — Either on arrival at terminal at 
completion of trip or at some place on 
road after engine has been pulling train 
and working hard; then the frame and 
other parts are expanded so that the 
wedges can be properly adjusted under 
the right conditions. 

Q. 174. — How do you proceed to set up 
wedges? 

A. — Get the engine on a piece of straight 
level track, place her on the top quarter 
on side you desire to set up first, cut out 
driver brake and apply tender and truck 
brake, or block tender and truck wheels; 
admit a little steam with reverse lever in 
forward corner — this will pull the box 
away from the wedge — go under the en- 
gine and set the wedge up as far as it 
will go ; then pull it down one-eighth of 
an inch for dope packed boxes and one- 
quarter of an inch for hard grease packed 
boxes, to allow for expansion of box and 
prevent the wedge and box from sticking; 
set up the main wedge first, then the other 
ones; handle the other side in the same 
way. 

Another way— Place the engine on the 
top back eighth on the side you desire to 
work on first, having engine on straight 
level track ; put block on rail ahead of 
wheel on opposite side, with reverse lever 
in the forward corner ; admit steam to 
pull box away from wedge, set up the 
wedge as explained above, set up tin op- 
posite main wedge in same way. then 
handle the others one at a time. 

Another way — Place the engine on top 
forward eighth on right side, then it 
will be on top back eighth on left side 
(if a right lead engine) ; set tender brake, 
place reverse lever in forward corner, 
admit steam to cylinders, pulling both 



sides away from wedges ; go under en- 
gine, set up main wedges first, then the 
others, as explained above, 

A good way where solid rods are newly 
fitted with bushings — Place block on rail 
back of driver so that when wheel hits it 
the rods will be on dead center, start 
engine moving back and let her drift onto 
the block ; this will throw the box away 
from wedge ; so wedge can be set up to 
the box, and it prevents getting rods and 
boxes out of tram ; handle each wheel in 
same manner, setting up main wedges 
first. 

Another way — Place engine on dead 
center on side you are to work at wedges, 
use pinch bar to throw wheels ahead, then 
set up wedges 

Note. — The last explanation is for the 
method generally used by mechanics on 
dead engines and new work, but it is al- 
ways best to have the engine hot and 
parts expanded when wedges are to be 
adjusted. 

Mote. — Where engines have keyed side 
rods it is a good method to slack back the 
keys before setting up the wedges. 

Q. 175. — What would you do if wedge 
bolt broke and the wedge came down on 
top of binder? 

A. — Sometimes the broken wedge bolt 
can be spliced with a nut and then the 
wedge can be adjusted with the bolt. If 
this is impossible, raise the wedge to 
proper height and secure it there by block- 
ing it top and bottom with nuts lashed to 
the jaws. 

Q. 176. — How would you handle a stuck 
wedge to get it down? 

A. — Strain down on wedge with wedge 
bolt, then run the wheel over a nut or 
coal pick placed on rail ; this will gen- 
erally bring them down, but if it does not, 
slack oft* on the binder bolts and run over 
the block on rail again ; this failing, 
loosen up more on the binder and run 
the wheels ahead and back of the one 
with stuck wedge up on wedges, having 
both up at the same time ; this will open 
the jaws of the box and the wedge will 
come down; tighten the binder and adjust 
the wedge so it will not stick again. 

Note. — Sometimes a little signal oil or 
kerosene oil poured in between jaw and 
wedge and box and wedge will help to 
lubricate it so it will come down. 

Q. 177. — How do you locate a stuck 
wedge, and what would cause you to think 
a wedge was seized or stuck ? 

A. — The engine would ride hard and 
every rail joint would cause a heavy jar, 
as though engine had no springs, when 
wedge is stuck. 

To locate the stuck wedge would go 
out on running board and note the move- 
ment of boxes in jaws; if a box was not 
moving up and down in the jaws when 



the engine was in motion, the wedge at 
that box is stuck. 

Q. 178. — Why are side rods provided 
with knuckle joints? 

A.— To allow for the free movement of 
the- wheels over uneven track without 
bending or breaking the side rods. 

Q. 179. — How would you proceed to key 
the side rods on a Mogul or a Consolida 
tion engine? 

A. — Have the wedges properly set up ; 
place engine on dead center on side you 
are to key first, having engine on piece 
of straight level track ; on engines having 
but a single key at intermediate and front 
and back connections, drive the key at 
intermediate connection on side next main 
pin, first keying brasses so they are close 
to pin and still move freely on pin; then 
kej the brasses at main connection, driv- 
ing key in solid portion of rod first so as 
to get that part of the rod of proper 
length between main and intermediate 
pins ; then drive the other pin at main 
connection to close brasses to fit pin 
closely, but move freely on pin ; then key 
the forward and back brasses, move en- 
gine to the other dead center, and try all 
brasses to be sure that they move freely 
at that point also. 

Note. — When keying brasses on side 
rods, keys should be driven so rods will 
be as long as possible between pins and 
still move freely at all points of the rev- 
olution, and if there is any slack in the 
rods, it should be lengthways so there 
will be no strain on the rods when the 
wheels are moving up and down over the 
uneven track; this will make the knuckle 
joints and brasses wear longer without 
renewal. 

Note. — Where there are two keys at 
the intermediate connection, the main con- 
nection may be keyed first, then drive the 
key nearest the main pin at the inter- 
mediate connection to get the solid por- 
tion of rod the proper length, using key 
on other side of pin to close brasses to fit 
pin, and if two keys are used at each of the 
forward and back ends of the rod, always 
drive the key on side towards main pin 
first so that the rods will be proper length 
between pins ; then after you have the 
brasses all keyed, he sure to place the 
engine on the other center to make sure 
that brasses are free at that point, be- 
cause a pin sprung or drivers out of tram 
might cause the rods to bind and run hot. 
Q. 180. — Why place the engine on the 
dead center on side rods to be keyed 
when keying side rods? 

A. — To prevent keying the side rods 
too long or too short, or out of tram. 

Q. 181. — If side rods are keyed too long 
or too short, where will they bind? 

A. — Passing the dead centers, because 
that is the rigid point, and all the relative 



April, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



123 



wheel and pin centers must be equally 
distant from each other and are held 
rigidly in that position passing the dead 
centers. 

Note. — The dead wedges or shoes are 
placed in the driving box jaws in front 
of the driving boxes, to determine the 
proper location for the wheel centers, and 
maintain the wheel centers in their correct 
relative positions (in tram) when the live 
wedges are properly adjusted. 

Q. 182. — What is meant by "Engine out 
of tram"? 

A. — When the distance between wheel 
centers on one side of engine is greater 
or less than the distance between the cor- 
responding wheel centers on the other 
side. 

Q. 183.— What is meant by -Rods out 
of tram"? 

A. — When the rods are keyed or fitted 
up so that the distance between pin cen- 
ters is greater or less than the distance 
between the corresponding wheel centers. 

Q. 184. — When should rod brasses be 
reported to be closed or refitted? 

A. — When they are keyed solidly brass 
to brass and pounding on pin. 

Q. 185. — When should rod brasses be 
reported to be lined? 

A. — When the key is driven as far as 
possible and the brasses are working in 
the strap. 

Questions Answered 

BRITISH THERMAL UNIT. 

G. D., Macon, Ga., asks : What is the 
meaning of the term British thermal 
unit, and how is it applied in combus- 
tion? A. — The British thermal unit, 
generally expressed in the letters B. t. 
u., is the quantity of heat required to 
raise the temperature of one pound of 
water one degree. As a gallon of water 
weighs 8 l /i pounds, it requires 8]/} B. t. u. 
to raise the temperature of one gallon 
one degree, or I67/; B. t. u. to raise the 
temperature two degrees, and so on. 
Thus, when a given coal is said to have 
a heat value of 13,800 B. t. u. per lb., it 
is meant that if all the heat caused by 
the complete combustion of one pound 
of that coal could be transmitted to 
13.800 pounds of water it would raise 
the temperature of that water one de- 
gree. Or, if all the heat could be trans- 
mitted to, say, 138 pounds of water, it 
would raise the temperature of that 
water just 100 degrees, because 138 x 100 
= 13,800. The pounds of water heated 
multiplied by the number of degrees 
the temperature has been raised equals 
the number of B. t. u. The standard 
method of finding the heat value of a 
fuel is to burn a small sample of it in a 
tight steel bomb under water. The heat 
caused by the burning of the sample is 
then all absorbed by the water and by 



multiplying the weight of the water by 
its rise in temperature and dividing by 
the weight of the sample, the heat value 
of the coal is calculated direct in B. t. u. 
per pound. 



Where « 



ELEVATION OF RAILS AND DEGREES OF CURVES. 

"X.," Alamosa, Colo., asks : What is 
the proper elevation for curves of from 
ten to twenty degrees for speed of thirty- 
five miles per hour? And give rule of 
determining this, and also the simplest 
rule for determining degree of curve. 
A. — The amount by which the outer rail 
should be elevated on a curve may be 
determined from the following formula 
adopted by the American Railway Engi- 
neering and Maintenance of Way Asso- 
ciation : 

(E = .00066 DV 2 , 
E = elevation of outer rail in 

inches, 
D = degree of curve, 
V = velocity of train in miles 
per hour. 

Hence .00066 X 10 X 1225 = 8.085 
inches. 

Ordinarily an elevation of eight inches 
is not exceeded, and speed of trains 
should be regulated to conform to that 
elevation. In regard to degrees of 
curves, a simple rule which gives results 
close enough for practical purposes is to 
take the middle ordinate of a 62-foot 
chord; the length of the middle ordinate 
in inches equals approximately the de- 
gree of curvature. In other words 
stretch a line 62 feet in length touching 
the outer edge of the inner rail. Meas- 
ure at the center of the line the distance 
from the rail to the line, and the number 
of inches will correspond to the number 
of degrees of the curve. 



EXPANSION OF WATER. 

J. W. K., Seattle, Wash., asks: How 
much does water expand under increasing 
degrees of heat and increasing pressure 
in the boiler? A. — There is no formula 
by which you can at once find the increase 
in the volume of heated water at varying 
temperatures, as the expansion is not 
regular like that of mercury in a thermom- 
eter. A volume of water at a temperature 
of 39.1 degrees Fahrenheit is placed by 
eminent authorities as that of unity, as 
water at this temperature attains its 
greatest degree of density. At 50 degrees 
the volume increases to 1.00025; at 104 
degrees it would be 1.00767; at 149 degrees 
it would be 1.01951, and at 212 degrees, or 
boiling point, it expands to 1.04332. 



steam was at a pressure of 180 pounds ? 
A. — If the supply of water came from a 
higher level than the water in the boiler, 
the water would find its way into the boiler 
irrespective of any pressure upon the 
water, but as soon as the level was equal- 
ized it would require a superior pressure 
to force more water into the boiler. The 
invention of the injector overcame this 
physical condition by reason of the ad- 
vantage created by the vacuum induced 
by the steam coming in contact with the 
colder body of water, and the vacuum so 
produced causes the mixture of steam 
and water to pass through the injector 
and overcome the boiler pressure by rea- 
soft of the increased impact gained by the 
vacuum. 



High Speed Drill Press 

The College of Engineering of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois has recently installed 
a high production drill press in its ma- 
chine shop. This press is to be used in a 
series of tests on drilling in metals. The 
machine is of heavy construction, weigh- 
ing 2,600 pounds, and has sufficient power 
to drive drills of high-speed steel to their 
ultimate capacity. 

At the highest rate of production the 
machine forces drills through cast iron at 
the rate of 53 inches per minute. This 
is from three to five times the rate for 
ordinary drill presses, and almost equal 
to the rate of drilling wood a few years 
ago. The machine is of the all-geared 
type, no belts being used for power drive 
for any part of the machine. This geared 
drive eliminates the chance of slippage 
between motor and drill. All gears run 
in a bath of oil, and the machine is 
equipped with a circulating oil pump. 
This machine is equipped with a 7j4 
horsepower motor. 

A double wheel drill grinding machine 
has also been added to the equipment in 
the machine shop. This grinder has a 
wide range of adjustments, and makes 
possible the systematizing of drill grind- 
ing. With this grinder it will be possible 
to carry still further the noteworthy work 
of the Illinois shops in devising and using 
special tool sharpening appliances. 



FORCING WATER INTO A BOILER. 

D. H., Souris, Man., Canada, asks: If 
water was forced through a pipe at 180- 
pound pressure, would it have sufficient 
momentum to enter the boiler where the 



The Railroad Industry. 

In the railroad industry there are 
1.848,883 employees to whom it pays 
$1,390,025,286 in wages. 

Forty-four cents of every dollar spent 
by the railroads is paid to labor. 

9,244,015 persons dependent upon it for 
a living, if families of employees be 
counted. 

1.000.000 workers in plants furnishing 
railroad material and supplies : 5,000,000 
counting their families. About 25 cents of 
each dollar received are paid out for 
materials and supplies, the bulk of which 
goes into the pay envelopes of those who 
produce them. 



124 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



April, 1915. 



R?i&v,En5ineerinj 



A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling 
Stock and Appliances, 



Published Monthly by 

ANGUS SINCLAIR CO. 

114 Liberty Street. New York. 

Telephone, 746 Rector. 

Cable Address, "Locong," N. Y. 

Glasgow, "Locoauto. 



Business Department: 

ANGUS SINCLAIR, D. E„ Prest. and Treas. 

JAMES KENNEDY, Vice-Frest. 

HARRY A. KENNEY, Secy, and Gen. Mgr. 

Editorial Department: 

ANGUS SINCLAIR, D. E., Editor. 
JAMES KENNEDY, Managing Editor. 
GEO. W. KIEHM, Associate Editor. 
A. J. MANSON, Associate Editor. 

Boston Representative: 

S. I. CARPENTER, 643 Old South Building, 
Boston. Mass. 

London Representative: 

THE LOCOMOTIVE PUBLISHING CO., Ltd., 
3 Amen Corner, Paternoster Row, London, E. C. 

Glasgow Representative: 

A. F. SINCLAIR, 15 Manor Road, Bellahouston, 
Glasgow. 



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Fair Railroad Rates. 

It is a hopeful sign of the times to 
learn that the United States Supreme 
Court has clarified the railroad rate ques- 
tion by holding that all passenger and 
freight rates must be fair. The West 
Virginia passenger rate case and the 
North Dakota coal rate case in conjunc- 
tion with previous decisions upholding the 
authority of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission to fix reasonable rates and 
to prevent discrimination against one set 
of shippers or localities in favor of others, 
and the law of the land regarding traffic 
rates as interpreted by the highest court 
may be summed up as a fair promise as 
something approaching to justice in the 
future. 

It is distinctly understood by the de- 
cision that hereafter railroads must not 
charge excessive rates or practice dis- 



crimination, and on the other hand 
that Congress, State legislatures, the 
Interstate Commerce Commission and all 
State railroad commissions must permit 
railroads to charge rates that are com- 
pensatory, that is, the rates must be such 
that pay a fair profit after all legitimate 
expenses are paid. 

Railroads can come into being and do 
business only by receiving from the sov- 
ereign people certain extraordinary privi- 
leges, such as the right of eminent do- 
main without which no right of way 
through settled country could be obtained 
at a fair price. In return for these privi- 
leges they must treat the public fairly 
and they must submit to reasonable regu- 
lation by legislative bodies and commis- 
sions. In return for extraordinary favors, 
not granted to ordinary persons or cor- 
porations, they must serve the public effi- 
ciently and they must sell transportation 
at the lowest rates which can be made to 
yield a fair profit on the investment. 
These broad principles are now clearly 
defined and firmly established by a series 
of Supreme Court judgments which seem 
to cover all contingencies. Shippers, pas- 
sengers and railroads now have a fair 
field and no favor. 

These comments naturally give rise to 
the thought that it seems strange that 
under the American Constitution, by far 
the noblest instrument ever devised by 
man for the government of man, it should 
be weak and vacillating in its application 
on the simple matter of fair dealing, and 
leads to the conclusion that the American 
people in the aggregate are not yet quite 
fitted for the full realization of the ad- 
mirable constitution under which they 
live. The causes are not far to look for. 
Especially in the larger municipalities a 
set of men get into office by questionable 
methods. Many appointments are made 
more with a view of doing the most good 
to deserving partisans than for the wel- 
fare of the community. While the Civil 
Service regulations have made many 
marked improvements in the public serv- 
ice, its application to special commissions 
does not seem to have been thought of. 
The past records of many of the ap- 
pointees to the most important commis- 
sions seem to have no bearing whatever 
on the duties devolving on the commis- 
sioner. The world moves slowly, and the 
future is full of hope. Meanwhile the 
average politician is a hindrance to hu- 
man advancement. He is a barnacle on 
the ship of state, a clinker on the firebox 
of civilization, a flat spot on the wheels 
of progress. He should not be amended, 
he shoudl be abolished. 



Relation of Grate Area to Combustion. 

At the last convention of the Traveling 

Engineers' Association, in the course of 

a discussion, Mr. W. C. Hayes remarked: 



"There is one point that has recently de- 
veloped in tests made on the Erie Rail- 
road with which I do not agree. I do not 
believe that any engine, no matter what 
its size may be, should have less than 100' 
per cent, of the square of the area of the 
flue openings through the ash pan, and if 
it gets ISO per cent. I should be much 
more pleased." Mr. Kinyon said that by 
changing engines from 40 to 90 per cent, 
grate opening he had effected a fuel sav- 
ing of 22 per cent. 

This subject of grate opening has been 
a favorite theme with us for years, and 
the following article was written in our 
desire to eliminate certain vicious prac- 
tices of locomotive designing : 

We have for several months past been. 
investigating the subject of locomotive 
grates, and watching in all quarters with- 
in our reach the practices followed in the 
designing of grates. The practice of 
grate designing on some roads reminds 
us of the action attributed to a verdant 
son of the Emerald Isle, who, finding his- 
bed clothes too short, cut a strip off the 
top and sewed it upon the bottom, so that 
it might cover his feet. The erratic de- 
signers have their locomotives propor- 
tioned so that they may have a liberal 
grate area, and at times they are so 
anxious to obtain this that they spread 
the driving wheels an inconvenient dis- 
tance apart, and then having by this 
means obtained the large area inside the 
foundation ring, they exercise ingenuity 
to fill the greater part, of the space with 
solid iron. When grate area is mentioned. 
it is generally understood that about two- 
thirds of the space will be covered with 
iron, and one-third left open to admit air; 
yet we find that the open area in the grate 
i 1 . reduced to one-fourth in many cases, 
and that one-fifth is not uncommon. This, 
too, with engines that are called on fre- 
quently to burn the fuel very rapidly to 
generate steam for heavy service. On 
certain roads the mechanical authorities 
are doing all in their power to get large 
grate area and liberal proportion of open- 
ing; on other roads they are making large 
grates and then stopping most of the 
openings with solid iron, while on a third' 
class of our railroads, the tendency is to 
keep to small fire-boxes and restricted 
grate area. Wide diversity of practice 
may be necessary or admissible, owing to 
difference in the quality of fuel used; but 
some one must be wrong when we find 
the difference stated in districts where the 
same quality of coal is used and the con- 
dition of locomotive service about equal. 
We do not believe that grate surface 
which leaves much more air opening than 
the sum of the cross section of the flues is 
economical, except in cases where spe- 
cially fine coal is used that tends, by the 
compact way in which it lies on the 
grates, to neutralize the effects of liberal 
opening space, or where the locomotive is 
worked very hard the greater part of the 



April. 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



125 



time. But there is good reason for be- 
lieving that the economy which will nat- 
urally result from increasing the grate 
area within admissible limits is sometimes 
lost through mis-management due to ig- 
norance of the laws relative to com- 
bustion of fuel. 

Grates are so constructed that they will 
carry the fuel and supply through their 
openings the air needed to effect com- 
bustion. If the air is restricted so that 
the gases do not receive their natural sup- 
ply, there will be loss of heat; if, on the 
other hand, the air passes through the 
grates in such a way that part of it passes 
into the flues without mixing witli the 
fuel gases, it will absorb and carry away 
part of the heat generated. To make the 
supply of air harmonize with the quantity 
of fuel burned, the force of the draft em- 
ployed to induce the current of air should 
have some relation to the grate openings. 
As the draft of the locomotive is regu- 
lated principally by the exhaust nozzle, it 
might be supposed that its area of open- 
ing would be regulated to suit the extent 
of grate surface; yet the natural connec- 
tion between these parts is seldom recog- 
nized. As a rule, the exhaust nozzle is 
proportioned to the size of cylinder and 
its relation to the grate area neglected, al- 
though the natural connection between 
nozzle and grate are more intricate and 
potent than the relation between cylinder 
and nozzle. 

The exhaust steam has to perform a 
considerable amount of mechanical work 
against the atmosphere to maintain the 
proper velocity of air influx. If the area 
of air admission were reduced the veloc- 
ity of the inflowing air would have to be 
accelerated to maintain the necessary sup- 
ply, and if the grate area or openings 
were increased, the exhaust nozzle re- 
maining the same would draw too much 
air for the coal to be burned. In prac- 
tice the exhaust is regulated to draw in 
the air needed for a large coal consump- 
tion on a small grate, and the same pro- 
portion is retained in cases where the 
grates are made larger, with the result 
that locomotives having large grates are 
seldom so economical in fuel as they 
ought to be, because a large proportion 
of the heat is lost through the fire-box 
being habitually flooded with superfluous 
air. In numerous cases putting in grates 
with a reduced percentage of opening has 
reduced the fuel consumption, when the 
proper remedy should have been enlarg- 
ing the exhaust nozzle, to harmonize with 
the grate area. When a master mechanic 
i.: told by his foreman that the steaming 
of an engine has been improved by the 
reduction of the grate area, he may safely 
conclude that an increase of brain labor 
is called for to make the engine work 
properly. If, however, a grate is so long 
that an ordinary fireman cannot keep it 
covered evenly, there may be economy in 
closing part of the front with dead plates. 



When a large quantity of fuel has to be 
burned on a given grate area, the heat of 
the furnace is higher than when a smaller 
quantity is burned, and the intensity of 
temperature will at times prevent loss of 
heat; but a terrific rush of air and gases 
towards the flue openings, the ordinary 
feature of highly forced combustion, is 
apt to carry away unconsumed fuel lead- 
ing to unnecessary throwing of sparks. 



Merit of Advertising 
We live in a country town of 25,000 in- 
habitants, where we are constantly hear- 
ing complaints that business is dull and 
that the people are too much given to 
purchasing goods in large cities, that 
could be bought cheaper or at no higher 
price in the home stores. This is no 
doubt true, but the real trouble is that 
the home storekeepers do not let the peo- 
ple know what they have got to sell. They 
fail to advertise, and their rivals in the 
large cities take the business because they 
make liberal use of printers' ink. The 
home town storekeepers sleep too much, 
and imagine that their business will keep 
active while they are inactive and their 
rivals are hustling. 

Standing advertisements in a paper 
command confidence. The man who for 
a year lives in one community and leads 
a reputable life, even though he be of 
moderate ability, will grow in the confi- 
dence and esteem of his fellows. On the 
same principle, a newspaper advertise- 
ment becomes familiar in the eyes of the 
reader. It may seldom be read, still it 
makes the business of the man or the 
company familiar to the reader, as its 
presence in the newspaper column in- 
spires confidence. 

When business becomes slack some men 
at once exclaim we must stop advertising. 
That is the very worst policy. True busi- 
ness principles demand increase of adver- 
tising and the men who have the sense to 
realize are the men who pass through 
hard times with the smallest loss of 
business. 



ment. If such a method as referring: 
the question of the exact number of 
employees to be used in certain service 
should ever reach its logical conclusion- 
then there would be no kind of occupa- 
tion into which this might not run. The 
organic foundation of the American, 
constitution provides for a delegated 
government, and nowhere is it more 
necessary than that the wisest and the 
best amongst us should be chosen to 
regulate such questions that may arise 
in the industrial life of the people.. 

Out of the discussion it is to be hoped 
that good may come— a lasting good 
that will place the question beyond the 
intermittent spasms of needless med- 
dling that only ends in making confu- 
sion worse confounded. 



The Full Crew Law. 

Governor Fielder has shown much 
good sense in contending that the ques- 
tion of the proper manning of trains 
should be definitely conferred upon the 
Public Utilities Commission. The rail- 
roads generally reiterate this opinion, 
and surely it seems more reasonable 
than to put such questions to the opin- 
ion of the voters at an election, because 
the general public have by long experi- 
ence been accustomed to party guid- 
ance, and it is impossible that a thor- 
ough knowledge of the requirements of 
railroad service could be learned by the 
body politic to such a degree of capabil- 
ity as to be able to render a just judg- 



Distinction Between Energy and 
Power. 

Engineering writers are much in the 
habit of using the terms energy and 
power as if the words were synono- 
mous, but there is a distinct difference in 
the two terms -when they are properly 
analyzed. In many ways the conception 
of energy has been rendered popular, but 
a clear idea of the relation of energy 
and power is difficult. This arises from 
the extreme generality of the terms; in 
any particular case the distinction is easy. 
It is easiest to express this distinction by 
an analogy; but as a matter of fact 
everything that seems analogous is really 
an instance of energy. Power may be 
considered to be directed energy, and we 
may liken many forms of energy to an 
excited mob, while the directed forms are 
likened to a disciplined army. 

Energy in the form of heat is in the 
mob form, while energy in the form of 
a bent spring, or a raised weight, water 
moving in one direction, or of electricity, 
is in the army form. In the one case 
we can bring the whole effect to bear 
in any direction, while in the other case 
we can only bring a certain portion to 
bear, depending on its concentration. 
Out of energy in the mob form we may 
extract a certain portion depending on 
its intensity and surrounding circum- 
stances, and it is only this portion which 
is available for mechanical operations.^ 

Now energy in what we may call its 

natural sources has both these forms. 

All heat is in the mob form, hence all 

the energy of chemical separation, which 

can only be developed by combustion, is 

in the mob form, and this includes the 

energy stored in the medium of coal. 

The combustion of one pound of coal 

yields from ten to twelve million foot 

pounds of energy in the mob form of 

heat; under no circumstances existing 

at present can all this be directed, nor 

have we a right, as is often done, to call 

this the power of coal. What the exact 

possible power is we do not know, but 



126 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



April, 1915. 



probably about four-fifths of this, that is 
to say, from eight to ten million foot 
pounds of energy per pound of coal is the 
extreme limit it can yield under the pres- 
ent conditions of temperature at the 
earth's surface. But before this energy 
becomes power it must be directed. This 
condition is at present performed by the 
steam engine, which is the best instru- 
ment art has yet devised, but the ef- 
ficiency of which is limited by the fact 
that before the very intense mob energy 
of the, fire is at all directed, it has to 
be allowed to pass into the less intense 
mob energy of hot water or steam. The 
relative intensity of these energies are 
sometimes like twenty-five to nine. The 
very first operation of the steam engine 
is to diminish the directable portion of 
the energy of the pound of coal from 
nine millions to three millions. In addi- 
tion to this there are necessary wastes of 
directable energy, and a considerable ex- 
penditure of already directed energy in 
the necessary mechanical operations. The 
result is that, as the limit, in the very 
highest class engines the pound of coal 
yields about one and a half million of foot- 
pounds ; in what are called "first class en- 
gines," such as the compound engines on 
steamboats, the pound of coal yields one 
million, and in the majority of engines, 
about five or six hundred thousand foot- 
pounds. These quantities have been largely 
increased during the last few years ; as 
far as science can predict they are open to 
a further increase. In the steam engine 
art is limited to its three million foot- 
pounds per pound of coal, but gas en- 
gines have already made a new departure, 
and there seems no reason why art 
should stop short of a large portion of 
the nine millions." 



Abuse of the Throttle Valve. 
At the third annual convention of the 
Traveling Engineers' Association, held in 
1895, twenty years ago, one of the sub- 
jects reported upon and exhaustively dis- 
cussed was : "What effect has the proper 
or improper manipulation of the throttle, 
cut-off and boiler feed on the coal con- 
sumption?" Up to that time there was 
seldom any question raised concerning the 
desirability or otherwise throttling the 
steam as it passes from the boiler to the 
cylinders, and a sentiment had become 
widespread among our locomotive engi- 
neers that it was necessary to throttle the 
steam in order to . lighten the pressure 
upon the slide valves. But when the 
question came before a body of intelli- 
gent men, many of them familiar with the 
gospel of steam engineering which ex- 
plains the advantage of using steam ex- 
pansively, a new light was shed upon the 
subject and the Traveling Engineers' As- 
sociation and others have been striving 
ever since, to convince the locomotive en- 
gineers that their fear of putting too 



much pressure upon the slide valves has 
robbed many locomotives of a great share 
of their natural efficiency. Still the sub- 
ject needs continued ventilation. 

One of the subjects to be reported upon 
and discussed at the next Traveling En- 
gineers' Convention is : "Effect of prop- 
erly designed valve gear on locomotive, 
fuel economy and operating." That is a 
good subject, but our sympathies move 
strongly towards urging that existing 
valve gear be given the opportunity over 
fuel economy that it possesses. 

The tendency of American railway me- 
( hanical engineers and locomotive de- 
signers has been for years towards higher 
boiler pressure, the reason given for the 
movement being that high boiler pressure 
permits of a more effective cylinder pres- 
sure, with consequent greater workout 
of a given volume of steam. Theory in 
this is probably sound, but the practice of 
locomotive operation has rendered an ex- 
cellent theory and sound principles fruit- 
less of good work. Sensible people ask, 
what is the use of carrying 200 pounds or 
higher pressure in a boiler, if it is to be 
habitually reduced 50 per cent, or more 
before reaching the cylinders. Com- 
plaints are constantly reiterated that the 
brisk motion and plain slide valve render 
the efforts of high steam advocates futile, 
since they do not admit and release the 
steam so promptly as these operations are 
performed in automatic engines. But what 
is the use in trying to design an improved 
valve gear for locomotives when that in 
use is seldom permitted to do its best 
through the steam being robbed of much 
vitality by the throttle valve. The engi- 
neer who is laboring to improve the loco- 
motive is following out a highly laudable 
and praiseworthy purpose, but trying to 
get the best possible service out of the 
existing engine is likely to be productive 
of greater dividends than scheming new 
designs intended to save steam. Recent 
improvements that have produced a more 
durable and convenient valve motion than 
the link are moves in the right direction, 
but attempts at changes which will pro- 
mote expansive working of steam will 
continue to be lost labor, so long as the 
man regulating the throttle valve con- 
tinues to think that choking steam at its 
source is the proper method of handling 
an engine. 

Two leading reforms are necessary 
with the locomotive in use before radical 
improvements are called for. Means 
should be taken to see that the fuel is 
burned in the manner that will impart 
the greatest possible amount of heat to 
steam generation ; and when the steam 
has been formed it should be permitted 
to push the pistons with the highest pos- 
sible pressure. Many railway companies 
are working hard to popularize sound 
methods of firing and great reforms have 
been effected in that line of enterprise; 
but little is being done to change the 



pernicuous practice of running with a 
partly closed throttle. 



Steel Pipes. 

It may not be generally known that 
steel pipes have nearly superseded iron 
pipes, more particularly in ground where 
corrosive influences are strongest. A safe 
and certain method of prevention is the 
dipping of the pipes in a solution before 
leaving the manufactory. This method 
has been very successfully introduced by 
the National Tube Company, Pittsburgh, 
Pa. The methods adopted by the enter- 
prising company are an absolute safe- 
guard, and experience has demonstrated 
that it is to be relied upon in all climates. 
Some pipe lines for water run to great 
lengths. One line in Australia is 360 
miles in length, and traverses every de- 
scription of country. One great ad- 
vantage in the use of steel pipes is the 
cheapening of carriage, as steel is less 
than half the thickness of iron, and con- 
sequently the difference in weight repre- 
sents a great economy on large contracts. 



Judging Train Speed. 

A technical paper answering a ques- 
tion asked about how an engineer 
judged the speed of trains said: "He 
gauges speed by the motion of the 
crosshead or other movable part." 
From long experience gained in the 
locomotive cab, we are disposed to 
think that the person who gave that an- 
swer had no experience in judging the 
speed of a locomotive. As on most 
locomotives, the motion of the cross- 
head cannot be watched from the cab 
unless a person leans out of the window, 
it is certainly a very deceptive way of 
judging speed, especially on a dark 
night, or when the thermometer mer- 
cury has lost its way down in the bulb. 
An engineer who had to watch the mo- 
tion of the cross-head on such a night 
in order to tell how close he could make 
a meeting point, would be apt to lose 
an ear during the process. 

Every efficient engineer can tell pretty 
accurately how fast an engine is 
running, day or night, under circum- 
stances that would be terribly confus- 
ing to a novice; but very few engineers 
can tell how they understand about the 
speed. Judging accurately the speed of 
a train is, like all operations, based on 
skill reached only by practice, and the 
men most expert at the work can sel- 
dom explain clearly how it is done. 

In a court of justice dealing with a 
train accident, the magistrate asked the 
engineer, '"Will you take your oath 
that you were running 55 miles an 
hour?" 

"Yes," was the reply, "I swear that I 
was running 55 miles an hour." 

Magistrate: "Will you swear how you 



April, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



127 



know that you were running 55 miles 
an hour?" 

Engineer: "I swear that I was run- 
ning 55 miles an hour, but I also swear 
that I don't know why I know that I 
was running at that speed." 

In daylight the trained man can read- 
ily tell whether or not he is keeping 
time, by the movement past telegraph 
poles and other stationary objects; but 
when dense darkness makes all objects 
invisible, other means of judging speed 
must be found. Express trains keep 
time as well in the night as they do in 
daylight, so it must be concluded that 
the engineers in charge know how to 
regulate the speed. They do so by a 
sort of instinctive process, various small 
things that to the untrained ear or eye 
would be meaningless supplying the 
means of judging speed. Objects are 
seen differently in a clear night from 
what they are in a dark night, and high 
wind or heavy rain introduce their own 
confusing elements; while a rough piece 
of track would make a raw runner ima- 
gine he was running at terrific speed 
when he was losing time. The instinc- 
tive power of training raises the experi- 
enced engineer above the influence of 
deceptive surroundings, and in the 
worst night that blows, the click of the 
wheels on the rail joints, the rumble of 
the wheels upon the rails, or the flash of 
light upon a passing object, enables the 
expert to tell how he is getting along, but 
the cross-head is seldom seen between 
stations. 



Pernicious Whistling. 

We have recently noticed complaint 
made by the authorities of several cities 
of the annoyance caused by unnecessary 
use of the locomotive whistle. The 
pernicious use of the steam whistle for 
steamboats and factories equipped with 
the noise creating whistle are in many 
cases worse violators of the public 
peace than locomotive engineers. The 
amount of useless whistling done by the 
steamers on the Hudson River within 
sound of the New York or New Jersey 
communities is an outrage upon the 
peace loving people. 

The idiotic laws of many states are 
to blame for excess of locomotive 
whistling that is annoying the whole 
country. The statutes of many states 
require the locomotive whistle to be 
sounded at a great many places, ana 
the men in charge fall into the habit of 
thinking that the oftener the whistle is 
blown, the more conscientiously they 
are doing their duty. In early railway 
days, when the control of a train was 
not directly in the hands of the engi- 
neer, frequent use of the whistle was a 
necessity; but the inventions that have 
given *he engineer power to stop the 
train at will have changed all this, yet 



the amount of whistling is not dimin- 
ished. 

It is doubtful if today the locomotive 
whistle is not the direct cause of more 
serious accidents to life, limb and prop- 
erty, than what are balanced by saving 
from its use, and it is certainly the cause 
of much suffering and discomfort to in- 
valids and nervous persons. A great 
portion of the unnecessary screaming 
of steam whistles is caused by want of 
reflection concerning the suffering 
caused. We say. Mr. Engineer, blow 
softly and with mercy to others. 



Matter and Atoms. 

People who studied chemistry years ago 
were informed that matter consisted of 
certain elementary substances formed 
from minute particles called atoms, which 
were indivisible, a theory that comes 
down from remote antiquity. Until ex- 
ceedingly careful experimental work was 
carried out by modern chemists, early in 
last century, the atomic theory was 
merely speculative opinion. 

Modern methods of research and the 
extraordinarily accurate instruments em- 
ployed by physicists have, however, ended 
all speculation concerning the existence 
of atoms, but they have also demonstrated 
that the atom is not the ultimate entity 
of matter but is divisible into smaller 
parts than the ordinary atom. The 
smaller entities arc known as electrons, 
and it is not difficult to obtain some con- 
ception of the number and distribution 
and motion of these electrons within the 
atom. Furthermore, radio-active ele- 
ments, such as radium or thorium, con- 
sist of atoms in a state of disintegration 
or dissolution, and it has been possible 
to detect single electrons protected from 
radio-active matter, and also to ascertain 
that a radium atom may eject the large 
nucleus of the smaller helium atom. 

We dilate on this subject of the atom 
because many of our readers in studying 
heat and combustion are made familiar 
with the atomic theory of matter. 



An Efficient Shop Foreman. 

Some years ago a very successful su- 
perintendent of railway motive power, 
having been asked to describe the quali- 
fications likely to produce a first class 
shop foreman, wrote as follows: 

"The selection should be made from 
the shop force, and from the class that 
are active, energetic, conservative and 
progressive, with moral character pre- 
dominating, giving preference to the 
oldest men if merits are equal. In qual- 
ifications, some knowledge of figures, 
reading and writing are essential ; being 
able to read drawings, to comprehend or- 
ders clearly and quickly, mechanical skill, 
executive ability, systematic and thor- 
oughness of work, and a full knowledge 



of what shall be done, as well as how it 
should be done are also desirable. Too 
much value cannot be placed on ability 
to impart knowedge to others, and it 
should be constantly the aim of the 
foreman to explain clearly and directly. 
Many fail in this particular and attempt 
to perform themselves what should be 
done by others. The old saying, 'As 
with the captain so with the sailors,' is 
especially applicable to shop foremen 
and any foreman can quite accurately 
be judged by the performance of the 
men." 

We have known intimately many shop 
foremen and have been in the habit of 
studying their merits and methods, but 
we never met one who fulfilled all these 
requirements. 



To Cheapen Gasoline. 

If reports prove correct, Dr. Walter F. 
Rittman, of Sandusky, O., has discovered 
a refining method which will increase the 
production of gasoline from petroleum 
200 per cent. Franklin K. Lane, Secre- 
tary of the Interior, referring to Dr. Ritt- 
iran's process, says : 

The Federal Government, through the 
efforts of Dr. Rittman, now proposes to 
make free for the use of all the people of 
this country who wish it a process that is 
confidently expected to increase their 
yields of gasoline fully 200 per cent., and 
perhaps more, such results having re- 
peatedly been obtained in the laboratory. 
It is claimed by Dr. Rittman that his proc- 
ess is safer, simpler and more economical 
than processes now in use. and these are 
economical factors of great importance. 



Health and Safety First. 

Safety First, which is becoming so 
popular a pass word among leaders of 
industry, has been taken up by the Frank- 
lin Institute and the importance of care 
in preventing accidents was urged at last 
meeting. 

The campaign of education in accident 
prevention among the general public as 
well as among workmen was fully set 
forth and its importance upon the wel- 
fare of the community at large was 
pointed out. Attention was called to the 
necessity for guarding against accidents 
in the home, the workshop, and in public 
places, and the numerous devices now in 
use for the protection of workmen and 
Others were described. The sanitation of 
factories with special relation to preven- 
tion of diseases was also given full con- 
sideration. 



Reports show that the American rail- 
roads paid in taxes in one year $129,191.- 
880, equivalent to $1.43 for every inhabi- 
tant of the United States. The railroads 
are the country's largest tax payers. 



128 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 

Air Brake Department 

Brake Improvements — Empty and Load Freight Brake 
Brake Experiments on the Pennsylvania 



April, 1915. 



Brake Improvements. 
We know of several instances in 
which prominent railroad motive pow- 
er men have been prompted to instigate 
a scientific investigation to determine 



engineers never lose sight of the earning improved brake equipment, it is possible 



:apacity in brake design. In order to 
illustrate in which way earning capacity 
may be considered, in one instance the 
engineers in summing up a certain con 



the reason for the introduction of im- dition which had been the subject of 



proved types of air brakes, and imme- 
diately thereafter became interested to 
such an extent as to make an extensive 
study of the air brake conditions that 
necessitate improvements in brake ap- 
paratus. Incidentally many motive 
power men have come to recognize 
that outside of the earning capacity of 
the locomotive, which is largely made 
possible by the use of efficient brakes, 
there is probably no single feature in 
railroad operation that can earn more 
money, investment considered, than a 
well designed, correctly installed prop- 
erly maintained and intelligently mani- 
pulated air brake system, and converse- 
ly, there can scarcely be any greater 
loss in revenue than by attempting to 
control trains under modern operating 
conditions with an inferior, indifferently 



an investigation, decided that an im- 
proved brake on the cars in question 
would make possible a higher average 
speed, shorter schedules, for the same 
number •of cars an increased traffic capa- 
city and for the same traffic capacity 
fewer cars could be used and if it is only 
desired to secure economy in power 
consumption it can be done by an im- 
proved brake and the same average 
speeds, schedules and capacity can be re- 
tained. The idea is that if the time con- 
sumed in making a stop can be reduced 
from say 40 seconds to 20 seconds, it 
is possible to run with the power on 
for 20 seconds longer where with the 
old brake the train was run with the 
brakes on during 20 seconds. In this 
manner, due to a greater air brake effi- 
ciency, a saving of 10 seconds in run- 



maintained brake of incorrect design ning time between stops can be made; 



the accurate manipulation of which is 
practically impossible. 

At the present day no air brake man 
will question the advantage of the use 
of the improved locomotive brake 
equipments known as the E. T. and 



then in suburban service a two-hour 
trip of 100 stops of 40 seconds to the 
stop, a brake that will reduce the stop 
to 20 seconds will reduce the time of 
the trip to 1.44 hours, and while the 
train with old equipment is making one 



L. T. and yet for high speed passenger trip, the train with the new brake would 



service they leave something to be de- 
sired, the fact of the matter is that 
while almost perfect pneumatically, 
they are not quick acting enough to en- 
tirely satisfy the demands of high 
speed service. 



make 1.39 trips. If each of these 
trains consisted of 5 cars the new 
brake would give the train a value of 
62 cars per day as against 45 cars for 
the train with the old type of brake, 
and with say 60 passengers per car. the 



to introduce a period of coasting. A pe- 
riod of coasting implies a lower maximum 
speed which permits of a shorter acceler- 
ating period or allows steam (current) to 
be cut off sooner. It is evident that a 
reduced steam (current) consumption 
gives a reduced coal consumption. The 
following calculations indicate what the 
reduction might be. 

CONDITIONS. 

Average distance between stops, 1.3 miles. 

Average speed between stops, 24 M. P. H. 

Average time stop with old equipment, 50 
seconds. 

Average time stop with improved equip- 
ment, 25 seconds. 

Weight engine and tender, 136,000 lbs. 

Number cars in train, 8. 

Weight per car, 80.000 lbs. 

Train resistance during acceleration, 10 
lbs. per ton. 

3.5 lbs. coal per I. H. P. hour. 

Efficiency from cylinders to crank pins, 
85%. 

Number accelerating periods per run, 12. 

Actual length run, 17 miles. 

Total runs per day, 75. 

Cost of coal, $2.50 per ton. 

Trains operated 18 hours a day. 

COAL USED WITH OLD EQUIPMENT. 

1.3 miles-=-24 M. P. H.= 195 seconds be- 
tween stops. 
195 — 50=145 seconds time train accel- 
erates. 
Max. Vel. Max. Vel. 

— X 145 4 X 50 = 

2 2 

1.3 X 5.280. 



The necessity for improved passen- cars with the improved brakes would be Maximum Velocity = 70.5 ft. per sec. 



ger car brakes has been dwelt upon at 
length in past issues, but the actual 
need for improvements was inclined to 
be surrounded by an air of mystery 
until the air brake art. or science rather, 
had advanced far enough to consider the 
foot pounds of energy to be dissipated 
in a certain number of seconds time 
to product an air brake stop in a given 
distance, and an analysis of the means 
at hand with which to dissipate this 
energy, thereafter the need for im- 
proved passenger car brakes became 
obvious. Stopping trains in specified 
distances from high rates of speed con- 
stitutes an engineering problem of no 
small dimensions, and a money earn- 
ing service brake is also a large consid- 



capable of transporting 3,720 passen- 
gers as against 2.700 per day. From 
this it will be seen that an efficient 
brake may add more to the carrying 
capacity of the road than the purchase 
of numerous additional cars, as in con- 
gested districts inferior brakes would 
not permit of an increase in the num- 
ber of cars operated because they would 
not permit of the necessary time be- 
tween trains. 

The following engineering problem 
will illustrate the saving that may be 
made in power consumption by a brake 
that will manifest the improvement as- 
sumed. 

In suburban passenger train service 



= 48.0 m. p. h. 
Maximum Velocity is attained in 145 

seconds. 
Acceleration = 48.0 -4- 145 = .33 m. p. 

h. per second. 
Weight train = 136,000 + C8 X 80.000) 
= 776,000 lbs. 

776,000 .33X5,280 

Accelerating force = X 

32.2 3.600 

= 11.700 lbs. 
Force necessary to overcome train 
resistance, accelerate moving parts, 
766,000 

etc. = X 10 = 3,830 lbs. 

2.000 
Total force to move train at rate in- 
dicated :: 11,700 + 3,830 =: 15,530 
lbs. 



tram movement consists essentially of 
eration. but they go hand in hand as a period of acceleration and a period of 

the large capacity brakes for high speed deceleration, time between stops being H. P. at average speed of 24 M. P. H 

service are also adapted for suburban the sum of these two. If time between 15.530X24X1.47 

service or any class of service in con- stops remain constant and the period of . = 1,000 H P 

gested districts, and the Westinghouse deceleration be shortened by the use of 550 



April. 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



129 



I. H. P. at 85% efficiency = 1,000 4- .35 
= 1,180 I. H. P. 



144 lbs. 



3,600 



Coal consumption = 1,180 X 3.5 = Coal consumption per run = 144 X 12 

4,120 lbs. per I. H. P. hr. = 1,730 lbs. 

Coal consumption per acceleration = Coal consumption per year — 1,730 X 

4,120 X 145 75 X 313 H- 2,000 = 20,300 tons. 

= 166 lbs. 

^ 60Q SAVING IN COAL. 

Coal consumption per run = 166 X 12 Tons per year old equip- 

= J.999 lbs. ment 23,400 

Coal consumption per year = 1999 X 75 Tons per year improved 

X 313 -=- 2,000 = 23,400 tons. equipment 20,300 

COAL USED WITH IMPROVED EQUIPMENT. 

195 seconds between stops as with old Saving 3,100 tons 

equipment. 3,100 tons at $2.50 per ton = $7,750. 

OPERATING ROD HANDLE 
(SQUARE HOLE) 

LOCKING ROD HANDLE 
(SQUARE HOLE) 



While these calculations assume cer- 
tain conditons of operation, it must not 
be thought they are in any manner ex- 
ceptional, for there is no operation but 
what can be improved in earning 
capacity to a greater or less degree by 
taking advantage of modern brake 
apparatus. 



Empty and Load Freight Brake. 

Almost two years have elapsed since 
we first announced the intention to de- 
scribe the improvements made in air 
brake equipments, and all of this matter 




12 MAXIMUM 
LOCKING ROD 



-OPERATING ROD SUPPORT 
, ROCKER ARM 

CONNECTING ROD 
-OPERATING ROD 

-SIDE OF CAR 
3i ""ESCUTCHEON 



LOCKING ROD HANDLE 
(ROUND HOLE) 

OPERATING ROD HANDLE 
(ROUND HOLE) 



FOUR COMPARTMENT 
RESERVOIR 



THIS DOTTED VIEW OF THE ESCUTCHEON AND 
HANDLES IS THE SAME AS THAT SHOWN IN 
FULL LINES IN FIG.1 AND IS FOR THE PURPOSE 
OF SHOWING THAT THE SAME ESCUTCHEON 
IS USED WHEN THE RODS ARE LOCATED 
EITHER TO RIGHT OR LEFT OF THE OPERATING 
LEVER AS VIEWED IN FIG. 1 



I', 



J STANDARD PIPE AND COUPLINGS 






r—r-l- '"• ■ : :■'.;-< ; 






EMPTY POSITION 
OF HANDLES < 



OPERATING LEVER 

CROSS HEAD 

OPERATING LEVER FULCRUM 



TRIPLE VALVE 



FIG.1 



OPERATING MECHANISM. 



195-25 = 170 seconds time of combined 

acceleration and coasting. 
Maximum velocity = M. P. H. per 

second times time of acceleration. 
Assume M. P. H. per second, same as 
with old equipment = .33 M. P. H. 
per second. 
Max. Velocity X time of acceleration -f- 

av. vel. coasting. 

2 X time of coasting + av. 

vel. deceleration. 
X time of deceleration = 
1.3 X 5,280. 
From above, time of acceleration = 

126 seconds. 
Coal consumption per acceleration = 
4,120 X 126 



RETURN REALIZED ON INVESTMENT. 

18 hours -f- 75 trains = .24 hours be- 
tween trains average. 

17 miles -r- 24 M. P. H. = .708 hrs. per 
trip one way. 

.708 X 2 H- .24 = 5.9 = 6 trains. 

Allow two trains for uneven spacing. 

Total trains = 8. 

Cars per train = 8. 

Total cars required for service = 64. 

Assume old equipment to be returned 
and improved equipment to be put on 
at $200 per car. 

Cost improved equipment = 64 X 200 
= $12,800. 

Return on investment = 7,750 -f- 12,800 
= 60.5% per year. 



has related to steam and electric road 
passenger car brakes, but the develop- 
ment in air brakes has not been confined 
to passenger cars. 

In many respects the freight car brakes 
have been improved upon to the same 
extent as the passenger brake, considering 
that there are but two sizes of equipment 
in general use, at least up to the point 
where electric control is added to the 
pneumatic brake., 

The development of the type K triple 
valve has made possible the satisfactory 
operation of the brakes on 100 car freight 
trains and incidentally added a factor of 
safety to the control of trains on descend- 
ing grades, but as the maximum braking 



130 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



April, 1915. 




effect of a freight car is limited to a 
certain percent, of the light weight of the 
car, the standard Drake provides absolute- 
ly nothing in the way of an efficient brake 
for a loaded car, which has been the prin- 
cipal reason for the design and perfec- 
tion of the empty and load brake for 
freight cars. 

The use of large powerful locomotives 
has made it possible to haul long trains 
of cars up heavy grades, but in order to 
handle even moderate lengths of heavily 
loaded trains in descending heavy grades, 
it is frequently necessary to provide a 
higher braking power for the train than 
can be developed on heavily loaded cars 
by the standard brake alone. As a result 
it has been customary to divide the trains 
in sections in descending the grades and 
use hand brakes with the air brakes to 
assist in holding the train and sometimes 
empty cars have been hauled among the 
loads in order to increase the total per- 
cent, of braking power on the train, that 
is, the brakes on empty cars were utilized 
to assist in holding back the loaded cars. 

Through a long series of trials, shop ex- 
periments and road service tests, the 
empty and load brake was developed to 
obviate the difficulties mentioned by pro- 
viding a satisfactory brake for a loaded 
as well as an empty car. 

The following issues will contain a com- 
plete description of this brake, which 
would require too much space for the 
present time, and as a preliminary the 
isometric view will show the general ar- 
rangement of the brake, and the following 
is a list of the parts with a brief descrip- 
tion : 

1. Triple Valve of the well-known "K" 
type slightly modified to handle the extra 
volumes and cylinder. In addition to the 
quick service, retarded release ami uni- 
form recharge, this valve has an extra 
charging port (which is inoperative in 
empty position) so that when in load posi- 
tion, the reservoirs can be charged in ap- 
proximately the same time as when in 
empty position. 

2. Change-over valve which is con- 
trolled by suitable rods and levers carried 
to each side of the car whereby the equip- 
ment may be placed in either the empty or 
load position, as desired by the trainmen. 
The change-over valve is manually oper- 
ated for cutting to load position and auto- 
matically returned to empty position when 
the pressure in the system falls below 
IS lbs* 

In order to provide for as quick a re- 
lease of brake cylinder pressure in load 
position, the change-over valve has an 
extra exhaust port, as hereinafter de- 
scribed, which is inoperative in empty 
position. 



"Note. — If the operating mechanism is pro- 
vided with a locking lever and the change-over 
valve is locked in load position, the change-over 
valve will, of course, not return to empty posi- 
tion when the pressure in the system falls below 
15 lbs. 



April, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ■ ENGINEERING. 



131 



3. Operating mechanism, with a lever 
at each side of the car by means of which 
the equipment is set for either empty or 
load and may be locked in load position 
(providing the mechanism is provided 
with a locking lever). 

4. Empty brake cylinder which operates 
to apply the brakes when the car is empty 
and to take up the slack lost motion and 
deflection in the rigging, as explained 
later, when the car is loaded. 

5. Four compartment reservoir, of ei- 
ther the combined or detached type, for 
the purpose of storing air for use in ap- 
plying the brakes and to provide increased 
cylinder volume when the load cylinder is 
first brought into operation during an ap- 
plication, thus preventing a sudden in- 
crease in brake cylinder pressure. 

6. Load cylinder, with notched push rod 
and enclosed locking mechanism, which 
operates to apply the brake shoes to the 
wheels in load position. 

7. Release valve, attached to the reser- 
voir, by means of which air pressure may 
be released from the reservoir when de- 
sired. 

8. Pressure retaining "valve, connected 
to the triple valve exhaust, by means of 
which the brake cylinders are permitted 
to exhaust freely to the atmosphere, or 
to retain a portion of the air in the brake 
cylinders when making a release in order 
to hold the brakes applied while recharg- 
ing the system. 

9. Centrifugal dirt collector, connected 
in the branch pipe as near the triple valve 
as circumstances will permit, for the pur- 
pose of preventing pipe scale, sand, cin- 
ders or foreign particles of any kind from 
reaching the triple valve. 

10. Angle cocks, hose coitpli)igs, cutout 
cock and flange unions, the location and 
uses of which will be readily understood 
from the isometric piping diagram of the 
equipment. What this brake is intended 
for, and the results actually achieved are 
set forth in the following and just how 
it is accomplished will be shown through 
diagrammatic views in later issues. 

1. Provides adequate braking power on 
a partially or fully loaded car, comparable 
with that obtained with the standard 
brake equipment on an empty car. This 
means that about three times as much 
braking power is made available on the 
loaded car as is possible with the stand- 
ard form of brake. 

2. Permits control of loaded cars to ap- 
proximately the same degree as empty 
cars can now be controlled, thereby great- 
ly increasing the factor of safety, particu- 
larly in grade work. 

3. Provides uniform braking power 
throughout the train, thus eliminating 
shocks, break-in-twos, etc., with conse- 
quent damage to lading and equipment. 

4. Provides means of air brake control 
for the very heavy, large capacity freight 
cars now being contemplated when the 
ratio of loaded weight is even more ex- 



treme than with cars heretofore common. 

5. Enables the handling of a greater 
number of loaded cars down grades and 
so increases the traffic capacity and earn- 
ing power of the road as a whole. 

6. Permits the efficiency of the most 
powerful types of motive power to be 
utilized to the fullest extent because the 
longest tram and heaviest tonnage than 
can be hauled up one side of the moun- 
tain may be readily controlled down the 
other side. 

7. Furnishes maximum braking power 
with minimum air consumption, so that 
very little extra duty is required of the 
air compressor. 

8. Returns automatically to empty posi- 
tion, unless locked in load position, when 
the pressure in the system drops below 
15 lbs. This automatic change from load 
to empty position is an essential feature 
of this brake; otherwise, many slid flat 
wheels would doubtless result due to the 
apparatus being permitted to remain in 
load position inadvertently after the load 
Was removed. 

In addition, this equipment possesses 
the feature of interchangeability ; that is, 
the operation of the apparatus, whether 
in empty or load position, is entirely 
harmonious with existing air brake de- 
vices and is operatively interchangeable 
throughout. 



Brake Experiments on the 
Pennsylvania 

It is interesting to observe that for 
several years past officers of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad have been disturbed 
by the difficulties of stopping passenger 
trains quickly and without jar. The 
new all-steel cars, each weighing 120,000 
pounds, developed an entirely novel 
problem. Brakes that stopped a train 
of wooden cars running at 60 miles per 
hour in 1.000 feet would not stop a steel 
train of equal length in less than 1.600 
feet. It was found to be of great im- 
portance that the stopping distance in 
emergency should be shortened, that 
the shocks and surges in the train be 
eliminated, and that a more responsive 
release action be obtained after a serv- 
ice application of the brake. It is be- 
lieved that these modern problems have 
now been solved by the development 
of an entirely novel electrically ac- 
tuated air brake. 

The new brake reduces by 600 feet 
the distance in which a 12-car steel 
train going 60 miles an hour can be 
brought to a complete standstill — with- 
out jolting passengers. 

The descriptions and analysis of the 
complete detail tabulations and dia- 
grams fill a volume of over 400 pages, 
but it may be stated briefly that the 
shortest emergency stop of a single car, 
with no locomotive attached, running 
at 60 miles an hour, was made in 725 
feet. This is a new record. Stopping 



a single car from a speed of 80 miles 
an hour was made in 1,422 feet. The 
shortest stop of a locomotive and its 
train of 12 cars from a speed of 60 miles 
an hour was made in 1,021 feet, and at a 
speed of 80 miles an hour the same 
tram was stopped in 2,197 feet. 

The result has been that a more effi- 
cient form of brake attachment has 
been developed ami a new basis for 
designing brake shoes and rigging has 
been formed. The shoes and rigging of 
the various new designs are now being 
the subject of extensive laboratory 
tests, and the car equipment with the 
new improvement will be proceeded 
with as rapidly as possible in the near 
future on the entire system. 

Of special interest is the fact clearly 
demonstrated that the tests show that 
the higher the speed of the train the 
less noticeable is the application of the 
brakes. The controlling factor proved 
to be the serial application of brakes 
such as prevails with the modern air 
brake equipment, yet with the electro- 
pneumatic brake insuririg instantaneous 
application of all brakes on the train, 
there was no shock, except a very slight 
one in the first few cars on account of 
the low braking power of the locomo- 
tive. The cost of the experiments to 
date exceeds $50,000. 

The trials covered three months. A 
total of 691 stops were made from vary- 
ing speeds — up to 80 miles an hour — 
and with a test force of 45 observers. 
160 separate records of data were made 
for each stop. 

The enormous mass of passenger 
trains must be stopped many times on 
each run, and often, when confronted 
by a stop or signal or a train ahead, a 
matter of a few feet in their stopping 
distance is of very real importance. 
The air brake had itself made high- 
speed trains safe. It would not be feas- 
ible to run a train fast if in an emergen- 
cy it could not be stopped quickly. 

Having helped in the development of 
what seems the best, surest and safest 
air brake in the world, the Pennsylvania 
is sparing neither effort nor money to 
make certain that the brakes it uses will 
be operated with equal skill. 

Education of trainmen in (be con- 
struction and use of air brakes is most 
thorough and persistent. Large sums 
are expended for this purpose every 
year; the company has never kept a rec- 
ord of the exact time paid for to instruct 
its men. The teaching is just as prac- 
tical as if given on an actual train. 

The perfecting of the new air brake by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad marks a tre- 
mendous advance in this art. The steps 
leading up to that advance illustrates the 
refinements and the extraordinary char- 
acter of the scientific experiments which 
must be made to achieve an important 
result in this highly complicated business. 



132 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



April, 1915. 



New Car Shops of the Queen & Crescent Route 



At Chattanooga, Term. 



The main building of the Queen & & Crescent's own Chattanooga force shops means that most of the Queen & 
Crescent route's new central passenger under direction of J. F. Conerton, en- Crescent's repair work on passenger 
car shops in Chattanooga, Tenn., has gineer of construction. The plumbing coaches will hereafter be done in Chat- 



been completed. Railroad insurance and artificial lighting are by contract. 
experts who have visited the building Walls of the building were poured in 




anooga. Its equipment will enable the 
railroads of the Q. & C. system to re- 
build passenger coaches as well as re- 
model, repaint and refurnish them. 
Coaches seriously damaged by fire, 
wrecks, hard wear and rendered obsolete 
by lime, will be restored to up-to-date, 
serviceable condition. The capacity of the 
new shops being four times that of the 
old establishment will cause the railroad 
company to make a corresponding in- 
crease in the number of mechanics em- 
ployed. 



VIEW OF MAIN BUILDING OF THE QUEEN & CRESCENT NEW PASSENGER CAR 
SHOPS AT CHATTANOOGA, TENN. 



recently declare it is the only structure 
of the kind in the South. More than 
$65,000 has been expended on the main 
building, and the shops, when fully com- 
pleted and equipped, will have cost 
more than $100,000. 

The old Queen & Crescent car shops 
are housed in a wooden structure just 
west of the new building. The old 
shops can handle only three passenger 
coaches at a time, while the new build- 
ing will house twelve of the longest 
. modern coaches. Probably no building 
in the South is as completely fireproof 
as the new car shop building. The only 
inflammable material in the entire struc- 
ture is the hardwood door to the fore- 
man's office. The floor, walls and roof 
are principally of concrete, steel and 
glass. The main doors are of steel, and 
all the window sashes are steel. The 
panes are of wire reinforced plate glass. 

The building is 300 by 106 feet in 
size, contains 31,800 square feet of 
working floor space and four parallel 
railroad tracks between each pair of 
which is a supply car track. Ten thou- 
sand panes of glass in the roof and 
sidewalks afford 18,000 square feet of 
lighting space. The interior walls will 
be plastered and finished in white so 
that the lighting arrangements will pos- 
sess about the same efficiency as that 
of any open air shop. The main part 
of the work is being done by the Queen 



forms which makes the main part of the 
building a single piece of concrete. 
Although comparatively isolated from 
public view by other structures in the 



Small Mazda Lamps. 

The distinctive features of the con- 
centrated filament Mazda lamps of high 
wattages have proved so popular that 
the Edison Lamp Works of the General 
Electric Company has developed va- 
cuum Mazda lamps of similar appear- 
ance in the 25, 40 and 60 watt sizes. 
This concentrated filament construc- 
tion gives greater vertical distribution 
of light than the regular Mazda lamps 
of corresponding wattages. The new 
lamps will, therefore, be employed 
where natural distribution of light 
downward is required. They can be 
used in existing sockets and fixtures. 
These lamps will be made in the same 




IX I ERIOR VIEW OF NEW PASSENGER CAR SHOPS OF THE QUEEN X- CRESCENT, 

i HATTANOOGA, TENN. 



large consolidated railroad yards, the 
building is artistically designed and 
would be an attractive addition to more 
accessible parts of the city. 

The erection of the new passenger car 



sized bulbs as the corresponding regu- 
lar Mazda lamps, will have the same 
spherical watts per candlepower effi- 
ciency and will have a rated average life 
of 600 hours. 



April, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



133 



Angus Sinclair on Smokeless Firing 

Remarks at the Convention of the Traveling Engineers' Convention 



At last convention of the Traveling 
Engineers' Association a report was 
presented on Smoke Prevention, which 
excited much discussion: 

Dr. Angus Sinclair (Railway and 
Locomotive Engineering) said: "I am 
a pioneer in regard to the efforts to- 
ward smoke prevention. I have gone 
through a great deal of experience and 
some of that experience has been highly 
varied, to say the least. It seems very 
strange to see one road burning the 
same kind of coal as another and mak- 
ing clouds of black smoke all the time, 
while the other makes very little, and 
hear the officials saying, 'Well, we do 
the best we can.' 

"I was a youth with Thomas Yarrow 
at Arbroath in Scotland, the locomo- 
tive superintendent who first applied 
the brick arch to a locomotive fire-box, 
and then I got to firing and running 
engines like the others, I was required 
to get along without smoke. But in all 
my experience there never was anything 
needed besides the brick arch and a care- 
ful fireman. A careful fireman always 
comes in if you are going to have proper 
combustion of fuel made a success. 

"I began running in this country 
about 1876, and one of the first things 
that struck me was the careless way 
the firing was done. In the first place 
the enginemen paid no attention to the 
saving of coal. They would have a 
great mass of coal tumbling off the side 
of the tender all the time and pay no 
more attention to it than if it were 
worthless gravel. The men just fol- 
lowed the practice that had been com- 
mon before their time. It had been 
only a few years since the change was 
made from wood burning to coal burn- 
ing and the railway companies seemed 
to think it was entirely unnecessary to 
give the men any instruction about 
how coal should be burned. A similar 
loose system that has prevailed to a 
great extent over all the railroads on 
the American continent. A new de- 
vice would be brought in and given to 
the engineman. If he made good use 
of it, all right; if he did not it was all 
right, too. I do not think there has 
been so much total ignorance, gross 
ignorance in the management of rail- 
way mechanism anywhere as there has 
been in the United States, and that 
was the case with coal burning and 
smoke. All the men were required to 
do was to make steam if they could, 
and whether they made smoke or not 
was of no consequence. 

"I had a fireman who followed just 
the standard practice. I know it was 
the standard practice of the L T nited 



States for I had observed it on many 
railroads. The fireman would fill up 
the firebox until the coal was com- 
fortably near the door. Then he would 
climb up to his seat and stay there and 
keep an eye on the smoke stack. As 
soon as the smoke began to clear off 
a little he would step down and throw 
in a few more shovels of coal. That 
was the standard method of firing, and 
it is by no means unknown today. 

"I said to my first fireman, after he 
had been firing for me a few days, 
'Don't you think it would be a good 
plan to get along with less smoke?' 

'"Less smoke? What difference 
does it make? It doesn't do the engine 
any harm, does it?' 

" 'Well,' I said, 'it doesn't look very 
well.' 

" 'Oh, h with looks! The engine 

goes along and steams. That is all I 
need to care for. 

"I said, T have been accustomed to 
running engines without causing smoke 
and I think you might try it.' 

" 'Now,' he said, 'look here. I have 
learned to fire this engine and I can 
fire it and make steam, and I am not 

going to have any d foreigner come 

and tell me how to do the work.' He 
did not fire for me another trip. 

"Well, I persisted in having the fir- 
ing done according to my ideas and I 
practiced what became known as the 
three scoop firing on the road where I 
was. I recommended that they fire 
three scoops at a time. (The system 
was described in my book, Locomotive 
Engine Running.) I told them they 
would get along that way and make 
steam without making much smoke 
and they began talking about that as 
my system. I wrestled with the fire- 
men to some extent and some of them 
dropped into my way and thought it 
was pretty good practice to do their 
work properly. You see it is a question 
of doing their work properly. If a 
man does not care a cent how his work 
is done, and is just as proud of poorly 
done work as of well done work, you 
cannot do anything with him; but I 
used to talk to the firemen and say, 
'You will find that if you fire carefully, 
fire, say to produce smokeless firing. 
you will use less coal and consequently 
you will be interested in that way. 
You will not have to shovel so much 
coal in the course of the trip.' Two 
or three of them were willing to follow 
my practice and that was all lovely, 
but there was no general sentiment in 
favor of it., Most of the trainmen 
sneered at me for having introduced 
such a thing and the officials gave 



no support to the idea whatever. 

"I went away then after a while. I 
went into newspaper work and I did 
not let the subject of proper firing drop. 
I kept it before the railroads in type if 
not with the shovel, so that the system 
became pretty well known. One day 
the general superintendent of my old 
road wrote to me, saying, 'We decided 
to follow your system of firing and it 
is going splendidly. If you will come 
out and see it we shall be very glad to 
have you, and I feel sure you will be 
interested. The men are all interested 
in it.' 

"So I went to Cedar Rapids, and they 
certainly were making a fine job of 
smokeless firing. They were following 
a one scoop system, which they were 
at perfect liberty to do; but some one 
called it the Sinclair System and I did 
not want that, I was satisfied with the 
three scoop system. However, it 
worked all right. 

"I had become proprietor of Loco- 
motive Engineering by this time, and 
when I went back to New York I wrote 
an account of what I had seen at Cedar 
Rapids, wrote a plain statement of 
facts about how the men were firing 
without causing any smoke, and esti- 
mated the saving of fuel that resulted 
to be about 25 per cent. The men on 
the Cedar Rapids road seemed to be 
happy in that. There appeared to be 
no objection against it. So I published 
the descriptive article. I happened to 
do it in December, when we receive the 
greater part of subscription renewals 
and I lost about 5,000 subscribers on 
account of that article. Mr. Conger, 
your past president, was my agent at 
the time and he said there was not a 
traveling engineer in the country but 
what was against the advocacy of 
smokeless firing. He thought I had 
made a very bad mistake in publishing 
that article. However, it did not ruin 
me. I got over it after a while, but 
that is the thanks a man gets for being 
a pioneer in any important reform. 

"The action of the Burlington, Cedar 
Rapids and Northern Railway in in- 
troducing Sinclair's system of Smoke- 
less firing, led a great many other rail- 
road companies to try the same system. 
It gradually became popular and the 
demand arose for proper methods of 
firing. The saving of fuel effected by 
this improved practice of firing has 
saved to railroad companies the ex- 
pense of millions of tons of fuel. Mr 
F. D. Underwood, President of the 
Erie Railroad, is the only official who 
has displayed appreciation of the edu- 
cational work accomplished." 



134 



RAILWAY AXD LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



April, 1915. 



Electrical Department 



Cooling Air for Larg? Electric 
Turbines. 
As with any electrical piece of ap- 
paratus, the capacity of a turbo gen- 
erator can be increased In air passing 
through the machine which carries off 
the heat formed by the passage of the 




i.&:o.£X,¥.j&a£ 



5*Mr ■jOttlM 



£i.tmi#m* Punts \ 



i!Bjii»!inM.Wi«(->t-c-.v:->^My-;;ojn 







PLAN \'IEW, SPRAY TYPE AIR WASHER 
AND COOLER. 

electric current through the windings, 
in fact it is very essential with large 
machines to fully ventilate the electric 
generator so that the air will pass to 
all parts of the windings as otherwise 
there may be "hot spots" causing the 
generator to burn out. The larger the 
generator the more care must be given 
to this point. 

As it is essential to get this air cir- 
culation the common practice is to 
build a large duct which will draw the 
air from some adjoining room to the 
main room of the power house and lo- 
cate the duct below the generator so 
that the air is drawn in, by the high 
speed of the generator, at the bottom 
of the generator frame, and discharged 
at the top. Due to the air being heated 
as it passes through the generator there 
is created a natural draft, aiding the 
circulation of air created by the revolu- 
tions of the generator. 

Large generators take large volumus 
of air, some as high as 40,000 to 50,000 
cu. ft. of air per minute and even with 
cheese cloth across the opening of the 
duct, this large volume of air carries 
considerable dust with it which after 
a few weeks operation will fill the air 
passages with dirt. 

The latest and best apparatus for 
cleaning the air is what is known as the 
"Spray Type Air Washer." This wash- 
er will remove 98 per cent, of the dust 
and at the same time will cool the air 
to the wet-bulb temperature of the air 
entering the washer. The cooling of 
the air is of great importance as the 
cooler the air the more electric power 
that can be taken from the generator. 
as more heat is taken awaj bj the air. 
This advantage is realized during the 
hot weather. The extent to which air 
cooling will increase the capacity of 



the generator can be shown by consid- 
ering actual conditions which exist on 
hot days. With the air temperature at 
95 deg. Fahr. a generator can carry on- 
ly 79 per cent, of rated load, whereas 
if the air temperature is 77 deg. the ma- 
chine could carry full load, an output 
increased by 26.6 per cent. As men- 
tioned above the cooler will cool to the 
wet bulb temperature and on a day 
with the temperature of 95 = the wet 
bulb would be approximately 75° or 76°. 
The construction of the air washer 
is as follows: For a machine of 15,000 
Kw. (20,000 H.P.) the opening of the 
washer would be 17 ft. long. 4 feet 
high and its depth would be 6 feet. As 
the air is drawn through this opening 
it is subjected to a fine, dense mist of 
water which is formed by means of a 
series of spray nozzles located at the 
very front of the opening of the wash- 
er. Across the compartment in front 
of the nozzles is a wire screen which 
breaks the spray and causes the water 
to drop in a sheet across the air cur- 
rent. Back of the screen are baffles 
which separate the water from the air. 
The water which drops into the bottom . 
of the washer is withdrawn and circu- 
lated through the nozzles, a settling 



reciprocating engine was over, but great 
improvements were made in the former 
type so that both of these types have 
been and are used with success. 

A third method has now come to the 
front: the electric motor, and it remains 
to be seen whether still further improve- 




TIIREE SECTION - ELEVATION, SPRAY 
TYPE AIR WASHER AND COOLER. 

rr.ents in the reciprocating engines and 
turbines will be made. The U. S. Col- 
lier Jupiter has been equipped with mo- 
tors for driving the propellors during the 
past two years and observations have 
shown the method to be thoroughly 
practical, so good, in fact, that the same 




U. S. S. "JUPITER," ELECTRICALLY PROPELLED COLLIER. 



basin being provided to collect the dirt 
ed out of the air. Unassisted by 
a ventilating fan, the water jets alone 
will have sufficient forci 



Electric Drive for Dreadnoughts. 

All ships up to ten years ;tgo were pro- 
lulled by reciprocating engines. At that 
time, however, the steam turbine was 
introduced and the results were so 
gratifying it was thought the day of the 



system will be used in the dreadnought 
California of 32,000 tons, to be construct- 
ed at the Brooklyn navy yard. 

The use of motors does not mean that 
boilers and coal are to be dispensed with. 
Electric current is needed to drive the 
motors and a power plant, consisting of 
boilers, coal, turbines, etc., are essential 
The propcllor shafts will be connected to 
the motors instead of direct to the engine 
or turbine. The same benefits which are 



April, 1915. 



RAILWAY VND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



135 



derived from electric drive in industrial 
installations are applicable here. 

From good authority the electric equip- 
ment for steamship work is more relia- 
ble ; it affords better maneuvering quali- 
ties, it more economical, requires less 
space, is lighter in weight, and is more 
easily cared for and repaired. 

The most important of the above ad- 
vantages in connection with a battleship 
is the first, reliability. The illustration 
as planned for a battleship is duplicate 
throughout, so that the breaking down of 
one engine does not effect the ship except 
at high speed. If one turbo-generator 
should break down all of the motors can 
be run from the other and at least a speed 
of 19 knots be obtained. This would be 
impossible with the other methods as the 
breaking down of one engine results in 
the loss of one propeller a great handicap. 

In turbine-driven installations the tur- 
bines must be reversed for "backing" 
and operating engineers believe that there 
is a slight distortion which causes blade 
trouble. With the electric motor instal- 
lation the steam turbine would always 
operate in one direction and the electric 
motor be reversed. In this way full 
power would be available for the astern 
direction. 

Easily handled switches replace the 
heavy throttles. In rough sea there is no 
engine racing as it is easily arranged to 
maintain accurate speed of the motor. 

The Jupiter is 542 feet long, draught 
27 feet 8'/> inches, and has a displacement 
of 19,300 tons. She was designed for a 
speed of 14 knots developing 5,500 shaft 
horsepower. Each motor, of which there 
are two, is of 2,750 horsepower. In the 
case of the dreadnought California there 
will be two generators and four induction 
motors. In case of breakdown of one 
generator, all four motors would receive 
current from one generator. 



An Electric Bacteriological Incubator. 
Until recently bacteriologists have de- 
pended upon gas-heated devices when 
studying bacteria, but now a much su- 
perior piece of apparatus is available, 
namely, an electric incubator. The elec- 
trical apparatus is now generally used on 
account of the uniform temperature 
regulation obtained. When once adjusted 
to the desired temperature, it is claimed, 
it will operate for days at a time without 
any attention. The incubator is heated 
with electric resistance coils in the top 
of the device. A thermostat inside the 
machine expands with rise in temperature 
and pushes a piston stem which raises 
and lowers a balanced lever arm carrying 
two electric contact points. These two 
points dip in mercury cups and when 
lifted out the electric circuit is opened 
and current is cut off from the resistance. 
When the temperature falls just a small 
fraction of a degree, the contact points 



are lowered back into the mercury and 
llit- electric circuit is closed. A variation 
oi less than 1/10 of a degree is possible. 
The incubator consists of a double- 
walled box having a 54-inch air space be- 
tween the outer and inner walls. Double 
doors are provided, the inner one having 
? glass panel enabling the contents to be 
inspected without opening the door. 




INCUBATOK WITH DOORS OPEN. 

The Purchasing Value of a Cent. 

The New York Edison Company is 
one of the largest electrical companies in 
the United States, and supplies electric 
lighting and power for the greater part 
of Manhattan, New York City. All 
kinds of electrical appliances are now on 
the market enabling the housewife to 

prepare I Is at a minimum amount of 

trouble and cost. The Edison Company 
recently advertised "The Purchasing 
Value of a Cent" as follows : One cent 
will buy Edison service: 

To light a 40-watt lamp (36 candle 
power) for 2 1 i hours. 

To make 12 cups of coffee in an elec- 
tric coffee pot. 

For 5 bottles of milk in a nursery milk 
warmer. 

For 500.000 stitches on a motor-driven 
sewing machine. 

To brew 12 cups of tea in an electric 
samovar. 

To operate an electric chafing dish for 
15 minutes. 

To boil 12 eggs in an electric hot- 
water cup. 

To operate an electric vacuum cleaner 
for one hour. 

To warm a heating pad for one hour. 

To run an electric washing machine 
for one-half hour. 

To operate an electric flat iron for ten 
minutes. 

To make 22 slices of toast on an elec- 
tric toaster. 



Geese Crossing an Electric Railway. 
When the electric street railway was 
first opened in Baltimore, the conducting 
rail was left exposed, the engineers think- 
ing there would be no danger to life from 
the low tension current employed. There 
appeared to be no danger to human life, 
and little inconvenience to persons who ac- 



cidentally got within the circuit, but mosl 
oi the lower animals are much more sus- 
ceptible 'to electric shocks than human be- 
ings, and there were many amusing sights 
seen among animals that received shocks 
from the current. Horses and pigs were 
very sensitive to the electricity and man- 
ifested stirring emotions under its influ- 
ence. But the most entertaining sight was 
when a flock of geese came waddling 
along and touched the rail. The leader 
proceeded unconcernedly until he raised 
one foot upon the rail, when he sprang 
back with a wild quack and indignant 
stare to find out what had committed the 
outrage upon his dignity. Seeing nothing 
that he could reasonably blame, he would 
utter some voluble remarks in which he 
would be joined by a chorus of the whole 
flock. Then he would make another start 
and again get in touch with the electric 
current, when he would tumble backward, 
screaming and quacking, all his compan- 
ions joining in to swell the tumult. They 
would keep uttering the wildest noises for 
a few minutes, running hither and thither 
in search of something to pour their 
wrath upon but carefully avoiding the rail. 
After tiring of this performance, they flew 
off in a body, screaming their fiercest 
notes of defiance and contempt, but that 
same flock of geese would never again 
be seen waddling over the electric railwa\ 



Locomotive Engineers' Insurance 

Although there is a good and reliable 
insurance department connected with the 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, 
membership in the insurance is not com- 
pulsory, and many members fail to carry 
insurance, which is a scandalous neglect of 
family responsibilities. Vigorous efforts 
have been made at various times to make 
membership in the insurance compulsory 
with all members of the order, but such 
a wise rule has never been carried out. 

In spite of the hazardous nature arid 
the good pay, most of the engineers re- 
ceive as a rule, there arc many of the 
members who carry no insurance what- 
ever, and the members of the Brother- 
hood are habitually solicited to extend aid 
to widows and orphans of men who have 
neglected to make provision for families 
that have been suddenly left destitute. We 
hope the policy of this strong organiza 
tion towards making insurance compul- 
sory will soon meet with a better fate 
than it has in the past. 



Flash Light Signals on the Boston & 
Maine. 

The Boston & Maine, which has used 
flashing acetylene lamps on signals ex- 
perimentally for nearly two years, now 
has these lamps in use on about ten miles 
of its line, from Parkway Bridge, Mass., 
to Reading Highlands, on the Portland 
division. 



136 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



April, 1915 



New Type of Powerful Milling Machine 



I he milling machine shown in the 
illustration was designed bj the Garvin 
Machine Co., Spring and Varick streets, 
New York City, primarily for manufac- 
turing purposes, and are the outgrowth of 
their popular size No. 21 plain milling 
machine. The machine known as the 
company's No. 22 plain milling machine 
is a powerful machine of large capacity, 
having a minimum number of parts which 



belt, and has a maximum diameter of 12 

inches. The spindle has a No. 11 B. & S. 
taper hole with driving slot, and runs in 
adjustable bronze boxes. The feed is 
driven either from the spindle or the cone 
pulkv shaft ; the change being effected 
hy operating a handle, winch controls 
the position of a gear mounted eccen- 
trically at its end. When the gear is in 
mesh with the gear on the spindle a slow 




GARVIN No. 22. PLAIN MILLING MACHINE. 



are constructed to withstand bard and 
continuous work. The one side of the 
machine is closed or solid, thus joining 
the arm and spindle bearings rigidly to- 
gether, and to the body of the machine. 
This construction insures great rigidity 
and freedom from vibration. The drive 
to the spindle is from a three step cone 
pulley at the side, which transmits the 
power through gearing, having a ratio oi 
5J4 to 1. The cone pulley takes a 4-inch 



feed is obtained, and when it is thrown 
into mesh with the gear on the back shaft 
there is a corresponding increase in feed. 
The feeds vary from 1/200 to J4-inch per 
revolution of the spindle; change gears 
being provided to cover this range. The 
feed is transmitted to the large work table 
by a steel nut, which rotates on a sta- 
tionary screw. The rotary feed nut is 
directly driven by hardened steel worm 
gear and worm running in oil. The large 



band wheel shown, which connects with 
the rotarj nul through spiral gears run- 
ning in oil, is for feeding the table by 
band. The feed box is built into the 
saddle, so that the stresses are taken in 
the most direct manner. The number of 
joints is reduced to a minimum. The 
saddle is massive and has a micrometer 
adjustment. The knee is of the Garvin 
closed type top construction, and is ad- 
justed vertically by a micrometer hand 
wheel and screw, which does not pa-.*- 
through the floor. The overhanging arm 
is exceptionally large and the braces con- 
nect the saddle and arm, leaving the yoke 
free to be adjusted to suit the arbor and 
position of the cutter. All gears are pro- 
tected as the illustration shows. 



Price Reductions in Edison Mazda 
Lamps. 

Practically all the sizes and types of 
Edison Mazda multiple lamps are af- 
fected by reductions in list prices that 
were put into effect April 1, 1915, by 
the Edison Lamp Works of General 
Electric Company. On the regular 
straight side and round bulb lamps, 
from the 10-watt to the 250-watt sizes, 
also on sign lamps, stereopticon lamps, 
etc., the reductions range from 3 to 20 
cents per lamp, according to the size. 
These reductions, which average about 
10 per cent., will tend to popularize 
further the already popular lamps. 

The new concentrated filament va 
cuum lamps of 25, 40 and 60-watt sizes 
now list at only 5 cents per lamp more 
than the regular lamps of correspond- 
ing sizes. 

On the gas-filled, multiple lamp of 
100 to 1000-watt sizes, the reductions 
range from 50 cents to $1.00 per lamp, 
the average reductions being between 
20 and 25 per cent. The introduction of 
gas-filled lamps has been exceptionally 
rapid. Over a million are already in 
use. The decreased cost of these lamps 
will undoubtedly result in a still more 
rapid replacement of vacuum lamps by 
the more efficient gas-filled units. 



Reported Large Contract from the 
Russian Government. 

New York papers give currency to a 
rumor that the New York Air Brake 
Company has taken an order from the 
Russian government for $12,000,000 worth 
of appliances and machinery, and that 
Russia has deposited as security $3,000,000 
in New York and advanced $400,000 for 
the purchase and installation of special 
machinery required for the manufacture. 
Other orders of even larger magnitude 
are reported to be already contracted for 
by American manufacturers. 



April, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



137 



Origin of Traveling Engineers. 

By J. F. De VOY, Superintendent of Motive Power, Chicago, Milwaukee 

& St. Paul Railroad. 



At the opening of the last Traveling 
Engineers' Convention, Mr. J. F. De Voy, 
assistant superintendent of motive power, 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, 
delivered an address of welcome that con- 
tained more words of wisdom than such 
addresses are usually noted for. Skipping 
some valuable statistics concerning 'rail- 
road operation, Mr. De Voy said : 

It was about twenty-five years ago that 
traveling engineers were first used in this 
section of the country. Operating condi- 
tions then were rapidly changing, due to 
changes from small to larger power, 
larger and more trains operated over the 
same track, capacity and weight of cars 
increased, and new appliances put into 
use. The air brake was being rapidly 
developed into a highly sensitive and 
complicated apparatus; improved inject- 
ors, lubricators, sundry devices and 
other auxiliaries were being introduced; 
while the responsibility for the handling 
of a train was gradually placed entirely 
with the man on the head end. 

The change from a few to many engine- 
men on any specified division, brought 
about a condition where it was impossi- 
ble for the master mechanic and the su- 
perintendent to come into as close con- 
tact with the individual engineman as was 
necessary for economical and safe opera- 
tion. There was a gradual drifting apart, 
or widening of the gulf between the en- 
ginemen and their immediate superiors, 
the master mechanic and the superinten- 
dent. These conditions were responsible 
for the creation of the office of traveling 
engineer. 

At first the duties of traveling engi- 
neers were not well defined, but after a 
time it became very apparent that it was 
necessary to leave to these new officials 
several duties that had previously been 
handled by other officials. On some roads 
this office has been developed until the 
title of "Traveling Engineer" would not 
fit in with the duties of the position and 
they have more properly applied the title, 
"Road Foreman of Engines." 

In looking over the requirements and 
duties of traveling engineers on the vari- 
ous roads, I find there is a lack of uni- 
formity as to just what is required of a 
traveling engineer. In general they are 
expected to instruct new men. to correct 
the faults of those longer in the service, 
to investigate cases of improper work, to 
investigate failures in the service over 
which enginem.en themselves have no con- 
trol, to observe and report on the opera 
tinn of new devices and special equipment 
and in report on the limitations of power 
with respect to its ability to handle any 
particular service. 

In order for an engineer to become a 



successful traveling engineer, he must be 
able to do many things well, that are not 
required of a man running an engine. 
The motive power officials who have the 
selection and appointing of traveling en- 
gineers, must give the question a great 
deal of thought in order to get men for 
the place who will be able to do the work 
in a satisfactory manner. The man se- 
lected must himself be capable of doing 
what he expects the enginemen to do in a 
manner which will not tend to antagonize 
the enginemen, but to obtain their best 
possible efforts. He must be a man in 
whom his superior officers have absolute 
confidence, so that when he makes a re- 
port, it will be received as final. 

Opinions differ as to the territory, the 
number of engines and men which should 
be assigned to any one traveling engineer. 
There are two extremes. One is a case 
where there is one traveling engineer for 
a number of divisions with so many men 
that a traveling engineer never becomes 
thoroughly acquainted with but few of 
them. In such cases, there is usually so 
much special work to do : looking after 
new equipment, working on the most im- 
portant trains, that the traveling engineer 
has very little time to ride with and in- 
struct the men who are often very much 
in need of instruction. The other ex- 
treme is where the assignment is such 
that the traveling engineer can ride with 
every crew at least once a month. I know 
of many instances where enginemen have 
been performing unsatisfactorily day 
after day and their poor performance 
would have been changed into good work 
had a wise traveling engineer been able 
to ride with them occasionally. 

A traveling engineer should be allowed 
a great deal of latitude in selecting the 
men he rides with. He should keep in 
touch with the train dispatcher, with the 
round house foreman and the round house 
force, and when he finds an engine which 
requires attention he should see for him- 
self that the work is dune. It has been 
said that the roundhouse foreman and 
the train dispatchers run the railroads. 
It is true that what a good trainmaster is 
to the operation department, a traveling 
engineer is to the motive power depart- 
ment. Show me a railroad company 
which has first class men for train dis- 
patchers, train masters, traveling engi- 
neers and round house foremen, and I 
will show you a railroad which is being 
operated safely and economically. 



the mechanic arts, although in numerous 
cases the inventions originated in other 
countries. The slide rest, which did so 
much to improve the efficiency of the en- 
gine lathe, was invented by Holtzapffel, a 
German tool maker, but all English 
writers attribute the invention to Henry 
Moriarty. The hydraulic press was in- 
vented by the South American, but 
British writers credit the invention to 
Joseph Braham, who merely imitated the 
American invention without credit. 



The building of railway machinery gave 
the first great impetus to machine tool 
making in the Linked States. British 
tools were at first imported and became 
patterns from which our machine tools 
were made, but like the builders of loco- 
motives, American machine tool makers 
soon displayed original ideas, and the} 
have so perfected their products that they 
are now regarded as the best machine 
toolmakers in the world, and toolmakers 
of other countries honor them by imita- 
tion. 



We receive complaints occasionally that 
some of <>ur articles are beyond the com- 
prehension of certain readers. We pub- 
lish articles only which we think within 
the mental grasp of ordinary workmen, 
plain English articles that every person 
having received a common school educa- 
tion will understand. If a reader is in- 
terested in any subject and has difficult) 
in understanding some parts, he is likely 
to study them, and in so doing will ac- 
quire knowledge that he did not possess 
• before. 



There is less accurate information than 
might be expected concerning the wen of 
brake shoes. Some years ago a friend of 
the writer made tests on a car of a cer- 
tain train to find out data about the wear 
due to the work of stopping the train. 
The car weighed 44,000 pounds and was 
run about 30 miles an hour, and eight 
brake shoes were employed to do the 
work of stopping. When applied the 
brake shoes weighed 176 pounds and they 
were removed after making 1,648 steps. 
The reduction of metal was 140 pounds. 



Writers concerning industrial develop- 
ment have been in the habit of giving 
Englishmen the credit for nearly all im- 
portant inventions that have promoted 



In our writings relating to combustion 
and other scientific subjects, it is some- 
times necessary to mention heat units. A 
correspondent reminds us that we ought 
to employ the abbreviation B.t.u. for the 
heat unit which means, spelled out. Brit- 
ish thermal unit. As the American heat 
unit is the same as the B.t.u., we do not 
li\ we should change since the quan 
tity ni" heal required in raise the tempera- 
ture of nnr pound of water one degrei .ii 
its greatest density is the same unii ni 
In .ii measurement. 



138 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



April, 1915. 



Items of Personal Interest 



Mr. A. Brand has been appointed mas- 
ter mechanic of the lake Terminal, with 
office at Lorain, Ohio. 

Mr. J. R. Van Clcvc has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Western Pacific, 
with office at Elko, Nev. 

Mr. P. J. Neiskins has been appointed 
general foreman of the Pere Marquette, 
with office at Chicago, 111. 

Mr. J. M. Guild has been appointed gen- 
eral safety agent of the Union Pacific, 
with office at Omaha, Neb. 

Mr. C. E. Lester has been appointed 
master shop foreman of the Lehigh Val- 
ley, with office at Sayre, Pa. 

Mr. J. T. Holt has been appointed loco- 
motive foreman of the Great Northern, 
with office at Sandstone, Minn. 

Mr. J. Peckley lias been appointed road 
foreman of engines of the Lehigh Valley, 
with office at Wilkes- Barre, Pa. 

Mr. E. F. Foster has been appointed 
general foreman of the Bangor & Aroos- 
took, with office at Oakfield, Me. 

Mr. Wirt Parker has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Gulf & Sabine 
River, with office at Fullerton, La. 

Mr. C. Rausch has been appointed mas- 
ter car painter of the Chicago, Burlington 
& Quincy, with office at Aurora, 111. 

Mr. W. C. Dean has been appointed 
traveling engineer of the Bangor & 
\roostook. with office at Derby, Me. 

Mr. K. H. Martin has been appointed 
general equipment inspector of the South- 
ern, with office at Washington, D. C. 

Mr. O. N. Ballard has been appointed 
general foreman of the Detroit, Toledo & 
[ronton, with office at Delray, Mich. 

Mr. Otto J. Protz has been appointed 
shop foreman of the Chicago & North- 
western, with office at Wyeville, Wis. 

Mr. A. M. I'helan has been appointed 
locomotive foreman of the Great North- 
ern, with office at New Rock ford. N. D. 

Mr. \Y. 11. Kushera has been appointed 
general foreman of the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe, with office at Deming, N. M. 

Mr. C. Kyle has been appointed master 
mechanic of the Atlantic division of the 
Canadian Pacific, with office at St. John, 
X. B. 

Mr. T. G. Evans has been appointed 
general foreman of the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe, with office at Las Vegas, 
N. M. 

Mr. J. W. Sullivan has been appointed 
general foreman of the Denver & Rio 
Grande, with office at Salt Lake City, 
Utah. 

Mr. P Roque re lias been appointed 

mechanical engineer of the International 



& Great Northern, with 
tine, Tex. 



iffice at I 'ales- 



Mr. M. S. Ransom has been appointed 
general foreman of the Nashville, Chat- 
tanooga & St. Louis, with office at At- 
lanta, ( ia. 

Mr. J. A. Long has been appointed act- 
ing general foreman of the Missouri, 
Kansas & Texas, with office at Green- 
ville, Tex. 

Mr. W. A. Barnes has been appointed 

road foreman of engines of the Chicago, 

Burlington & Quincy, with office at I >t- 
tumwa, Ia. 

Mr. L. Atwell has been appointed gen- 
eral foreman of the Southern, with office 
at Selma, Ala., succeeding Mr. T. S. 
Krahenbuhl. 

Mr. J. K. Brassell has been appointed 
superintendent of motive power of the 
Northwestern Pacific, with offices at 
Tiburon, Cal. 

Mr. C. A. Loudin has been appointed 
road foreman of engines of the Chesa- 
peake & Ohio Southwestern, with office 
at Washington, hid. 

Mr. J. W. Hager has been appointed 
locomotive and fuel inspector of the Nash- 
ville Chattanooga & St. Louis, with office 
at Nashville, Trim 

Mr. F. B. Farrington has been appointed 
general foreman of the Pennsylvania. 
with office at Bradford, Ohio, succeeding 
Mr. C. W. Kinnedi. 

Mr. George H. Laycock has been ap- 
pointed locomotive foreman of the Grand 
Trunk Pacific at Endake, B. C, succeed- 
ing Mr. George McNeil. 

Mr. A. E. Dales has been appointed 
district master mechanic of the Canadian 
Pacific, with office at Brandon, Man., suc- 
ceeding Mr. L. G. Fisher. 

Mr. B. Trentman has been appointed 
foreman of repairs on the Delaware & 
Hudson, with office at Oneonta, N. Y., 
succeeding Mr. E. Jones. 

Mr. C. Taylor has been appointed gen- 
eral foreman of the ear department of 
tlu San Antonio. Uvalde & Gulf, with 
office at I'leasanton, Tex. 

Mr. William H. Murray has been ap- 
pointed foreman of the Oregon Short 
Line, with office at Montpelier, Ida., suc- 
ceeding Mr. W. C. Burel. 

Mr. E. B. Van Akin has been appointed 
road foreman of equipment of the Min- 
m i,i division of the Rock Island Lines. 
with office at Manly, Iowa. 

Mr. I. W. Johnson lias been appointed 

master mechanic of the Arkansas. Louisi- 
ana & Gulf, with office at Monroe. La.. 

succeeding Mr I, T. Tadlock. 



Mr. V. H. McGinnis has been appointed 
traveling engineer of the Denver & Rio 
Grande, with office at Grand Junction. 
Col., succeeding Mr. A. G. Titus. 

Mr. \\ . P. McDevitt has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Kentucky & In- 
diana Terminal, with office at Louisville, 
Ky., •succeeding Mr. John F. Newhouse. 

Mr. W. B. McNiece, formerly car fore- 
man of the Grand Trunk Pacific at Jasper, 
B. C, has been appointed ear foreman on 
the same road, with office at McBride. 
B. C. 

Mr. W. C. Burel, formerly district fore- 
man of the Oregon Short Line at Mont- 
pelier, Ida., has been appointed general 
foreman on the same road, with office at 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Mr. ( ). Blodd, formerly general fore- 
man of the car department of the New 
York Central Lines at Wesleyville, Pa., 
has been transferred to Sandusky. I Ihio, 
as general car foreman. 

Mr. H. Selfridge, formerly general 
foreman of the Oregon Short Line at 
Salt Lake City, Utah, has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Nevada Northern. 
with office at East Ely, Nev. 

Mr. G. Haven Peabody, western repre- 
sentative of the Lima Locomotive Cor- 
poration, Lima, Ohio, has resigned, ef- 
fective April 15, to accept a position with 
the Lackawanna Steel Company. 

Mr. P. P. Mirtz has been appointed as- 
sistant engineer of the equipment depart- 
ment of the New York Central, with office 
at New York, N. Y. He will superintend 
locomotive design and specification. 

Mr. H. E. Smith has been appointed 
chemist and engineer of tests of the New 
York Central, with office at Collinwood. 
Ohio. He will have supervision of lab- 
oratories and inspection of material. 

Mr. R. W. Me vens has been appointed 
general superintendent of the Chicago & 
Western Indiana, with offices at Chica.no. 
111. His jurisdiction includes operating, 
maintenance and mechanical matters. 

Mr. T. Spence. formerly car foreman 
of the Canadian Pacific at Fort William, 
(hit., has been appointed general car fore- 
man at Vancouver, B. C, on the same 
road, in place of Mr. W. C. Hodgson. 

Mr. John McRae, formerly locomotive 
foreman of the Canadian Pacific at Revel- 
stoke, B. C, has been appointed shop 
foreman on the same road, with office at 
Kamloops. B. C, succeeding Mr. G. 
I lillard. 

Mr. 1. S. Hungerford has been elected 
general manager of the Pullman Car 
Company, and Mr, Richmond Dean and 
Mr. Le Roy Kramer, vice-presidents: 



April, 1915. 



RAILWAY AMD LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



139 



Mr. Clyde Reynolds, assistant to the 
president. 

Mr. R. M. Brown has been appointed 
assistant engineer of the equipment de- 
partment of the New York Central, with 
office at Cleveland, Ohio. His duties will 
embrace engineering and drafting of loco- 
motives and car shops. 

Mr. W. L. Connors, general signal fore- 
man of the Buffalo, Rochester & Pitts- 
burgh, has been appointed signal super- 
visor on the Rochester division of the 
same road, with office at W r arsaw, N. Y., 
succeeding the late Mr. M. J. Brundige. 

Mr. A. F. Caskey has been appointed 
road foreman of equipment of the Des 
Moines Valley division of the Rock Island 
Lines, and that part of the Dakota di- 
vision between Valley Junction and 
Gowrie, with office at Valley Junction, la. 

Mr. William II. Kinney, formerly mas- 
ter mechanic of the New York, Ontario 
& Western, at Carbondale, Pa., lias been 




W \LTEE ALEXANDER. 

appointed to a position in the sales de- 
partment of the Dearborn Chemical Com- 
pany, Chicago. Mr. Kinney's office will 
be in New York, N. Y. 

Mr. E. H. Morey, formerly shop dem- 
onstrator and chief instructor of the Chi- 
cago & Northwestern, has been appointed 
foreman of the new erecting and machine 
shop at Chicago, 111., and Mr. E. Bloom 
has been appointed to the vacancy caused 
by the promotion of Mr. Morey. 

Mr. William Pelliam, formerly master 
carpenter of the Erie, at Marion, Ohio, 
has been appointed inspector of bridges 
and buildings on the same road, with 
office at Cleveland, Ohio, and Mr. J. Or- 
CUtt has been appointed master carpenter 
at Marion, succeeding Mr. Pelham. 

Mi". V. J. Lamb lias been appointed 
general foreman of the car repairs on the 
Charlestown and Western, at Augusta. 
Ga., succeeding Mr. W. F. Weigman, re- 
signed, to accept a position with the Sea- 



board Air Line, as general foreman of 
I lie ear department at Portsmouth, Va. 

Mr. H. H. Seabrook, formerly district 
manager of the Metropolitan Electric & 
Manufacturing Company in Baltimore, 
lias been appointed district manager of the 
company at Philadelphia, in place of Mr. 
J. J. Gibson, who has been appointed 
foreman of the tool and supply depart- 
ment of the same company at East 
Pittsburgh, Pa, 

Mr. C. A. Paquette has been appointed 
chief engineer on the Cleveland, Cincin- 
nati, Chicago & St. Louis, in place of Mr. 
G. P. Smith, wdio has been appointed 
consulting engineer on the same road, 
with headquarters at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
and Mr. Hadley Baldwin lias been ap- 
pointed assistant chief engineer, also with 
office at Cincinnati. Mr. Paquette will 
have charge of construction and main- 
tenance, and the office of chief engineer 
of maintenance of way has been abolished. 

Mr. B. II. Bryant, Civil Engineer, has 
returned from Guatemala, Salvador and 
Honduras, wdiere he had been locating 
railroad lines as Chief Locating Engi- 
neer of the International Railways of 
America, and is taking a much needed 
vacation in Washington, D. C. Mr. 
Bryant, who has acted in the capacity 
of Division Engineer, Chief Engineer, 
Construction Engineer, and General Su- 
perintendent of steam railroads in the 
United States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil 
and South American countries, for 
many years, is well known among rail- 
road men. lie expects to return to ac- 
tive work next month. 

Mr. Philip W. Moore has been elected 
president of the National Railway Appli- 
ance Association ; vice-president, Mr. H. 
M. Sperry, General Railway Signal Com- 
pany, Rochester, N. Y. ; treasurer, Mr. C. 
W. Kelly, Kelly-Derby Company, Chi- 
cago, 111. ; director, Mr. R. C. Jacobi, 
Johns-Manville Company, Chicago ; di- 
rector, Mr. R. C. McCloy, Wm. Wharten 
Company, Philadelphia, Pa. The di- 
rectors continuing in office are Mr. E. H. 
Bell, Railroad Supply Company, Chicago ; 
Mr. J. Alexander Brown. Pocket List 
Company, New York, N. Y. ; Mr. E. E. 
Hudson, Thos. Edison Company, Orange. 
N. J., and Mr. M. J. Trees, Chicago 
Bridge & Iron Works. 

Mr. Walter Alexander, formerly dis- 
trict master mechanic of the Chicago, 
Milwaukee and St. Paul, at the West 
Milwaukee shops, has been appointed 
as one of the State Commissioners of 
Railroads in Wisconsin. Governor 
Philipp, himself a man of railroad train- 
ing and experience, named Mr. Alexan- 
der because of bis special and technical 
knowledge. Mr. Alexander prepared 
himself for college while working as a 
machinist. He was for five years in- 
structor in engineering at the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin, before returning to 



railroad work. The appointment is 
welcomed and approved by all con- 
cerned in railroad welfare. A large 
majority of the railroad commissioners 
should consist of men trained in the 
practical conduct of railroad affairs, as 
no other kind of men are qualified to 
n pr. sent the people in promoting, en- 
couraging and regulating the develop- 
ment of the country's transportation 
agencies. 



OBITUARY. 



William Mcintosh. 
We regret to announce the death of 
Mr. William Mcintosh, formerly super- 
intendent of motive power of the Central 
Railroad of New Jersey. The sad event 
occurred at his home at Plainfield, N. J., 
on March IS, in the sixty-sixth year of 
his age. He was a native of Franklin, 
Quebec, and entered railway service in 
the employ of the Chicago, Milwaukee & 




WILLIAM MclNTOSII. 

St Paul, and served a regular apprentice- 
ship as machinist, and latterly was en- 
gaged as fireman and locomotive engi- 
neer. Latterly he served several years as 
locomotive engineer on the Chicago & 
Northwestern and was foreman of loco- 
motive repairs on the same road at 
Wareco, Minn., and was appointed mas- 
ter mechanic on the same road at Wi- 
nona, Minn., in 1887, remaining in that 
position until 1899, wdien he resigned to 
accept the position of superintendent of 
motive power on the Jersey Central. He 
retired on account of failing health in 
1909. He perfected many improvements 
in locomotives and car construction, and 
was a very accomplished mechanical rail- 
way man. He was prominently identified 
with several leading engineering societies 
and was elected president of the Ameri- 
can Railway Master Mechanics' Associa- 
tion in 1908. Of a genial ami gentlemanly 
disposition, he was much esteemed by all 
who had the honor of his acquaintance. 



140 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



April, 1915 



Association Meetings and Annual Conventions 



Railway Supply Manufacturers' 
Association. 
The Railway Supply Manufacturers' 
Association will hold its annual conven- 
tion this year during the week June 
9-16, in conjunction with the conven- 
tions of the American Master Mechan- 
ics' Association, and the Master Car 
Builders' Association at Young's Mil- 
lion Dollar Pier, Atlantic City, N. J. 
The first assignment of spaces for the 
railway exhibits took place in February, 
and indications are that the exhibit will 
be the largest and most interesting 
hitherto made. Some spaces are still 
open, and those desiring to exhibit and 
to whom spaces have not yet been as- 
signed should do so at the very earliest 
moment. 

It is hardly necessary to state that 
exhibitors at these important conven- 
tions have the opportunity of placing 
their wares before the Government and 
railway officials and the representative 
men of the mechanical department of 
the railways of America. These men 
are quick to apprehend the important 
significance of new or improved devices. 
At a time like the present where there 
is every prospect of improved condi- 
tions in railroad matters, and also a 
great and growing need for new mate- 
rial, those engaged in the railroad sup- 
ply business and miss the opportunities 
that these conventions afford do them- 
selves a lasting injury. The most suc- 
cessful in all departments referred to 
continue exhibiting year after year. 
They know its value, and they also 
know that their absence would redound 
to their disadvantage. 

Membership in the Association this 
year is fixed at fifteen dollars, so it is 
easily within reach of the humblest as 
well as the highest. All members are 
entitled to equal privileges, and all that 
is necessary is to send in the name of 
the accredited delegate and the address 
of the main office. Early application 
guarantees a proper classification and 
ready reference to perfect details, and 
the presence of a well informed repre- 
sentative of an active firm is not only 
a sign of prosperity, but a step in the 
direction of further success. 

The officers of the association for the 
year 1915 are Mr. J. Will Johnson. Pyle 
National Electric Headlight Company. 
President; Mr. Oscar F. Ostby, Com- 
mercial Acetylene Railway Light and 
Signal Company, Vice President, and 
Mr. J. D. Cnnway. Secretary-Treasurer, 
i<> whom applications for memberships 
and exhibit spaces should be made at 
2136 Oliver Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Air Brake Convention. 

Ihe twenty-second annual convention 
of the Air Brake Association will be held 
in the convention hall of the Hotel Sher- 
man, Chicago, 111., beginning on Tues- 
day, May 4, 1915, at 9:30 a. m., and will 
continue its sessions through four days, 
ending Friday, May 7. Members desirous 
of securing accommodation in the hotel 
are urged to make reservations as early 
as possible by writing to Mr. Frank W. 
Bering, manager. This will help to 
avoid delay, and the reservations can be 
cancelled if the member cannot attend. 

The following is the list of subjects se- 
lected and the committees appointed to 
report thereon at the convention : 

Accumulation of Moisture and Its 
Elimination from Trains and Yard Test- 
ing Plants.— Mark Purcell and M. F. 
Gannon. 

Adequate Hand Brakes on Heavy Pas- 
senger Equipment Cars.— J. P. Kelly, C. 
W. Martin, L. P. Streeter and E. J. 
Barry. 

Need of Efficient Cleaning and Repair- 
ing of Freight Brakes.— Mark Purcell, 
J. T. Slattery and F. Von Bergen. 

What Shall We Do to Improve the 
Present Pneumatic Signal Device? — L. 
N. Armstrong and H. L. Sandhas. 

Difficulties the Railroad Companies En- 
counter in Endeavoring to Run 100 Per 
Cent. Operative Brakes in Freight Train 
Service.— G. H. Wood and S. C. Wheeler. 
Master Car Builders' Air Brake Hose 
Specification. — C. D. Young. 

Recommended Practice. — S. C. Down, 
H. A. Wahlert, G. R. Parker, J. R. Alex- 
ander and N. A. Campbell. 

On the afternoon of Thursday, May 6, 
a series of 'air brake lectures will be de- 
livered by representatives of the Pitts- 
burgh Air Brake Company, Westinghouse 
Air Brake Company, New York Air 
Brake Company, and possibly the Auto- 
matic Straight Air System, the time of 
each lecturer being limited to one hour. 
One afternoon will also be devoted to 
the manufacturers' representatives for 
exploitation of their devices. This will 
occur on Tuesday, May 4. Particulars in 
regard to transportation may lie had 
from F. M. Nellis, secretary, 53 State 
street, Boston, Mass. 



Railway Materials Association. 

The annual convention of the Railway 
Materials Association, in conjunction 
with the Railway Storekeepers' Associa- 
tion -ill lie held at the Hotel Sherman, 
Chicago. 111., on May 17, IS. 10. 1915. In 
addition to the regular business of the 
associations the Storekeepers' Associa- 



tion is preparing to feature the subject 
of "Reclamation of Material," and will 
exhibit slides showing pictures of recla- 
mation machinery, reclamation plants 
and reclaim material. Any manufactur- 
er or supply house having slides relat- 
ing to this subject are invited to forward 
the same to Mr. D. C. Curtis, inspector 
of stores, Chicago, Burlington and 
Quincy railroad, Chicago, 111. Mr. J. 
Parker Gowing, 320 West 26th St., Chi- 
cago, is Secretary-Treasurer. 



International Railway Fuel Associa- 
tion. 

The annual meeting of the Railwav 
Fuel Association will lie held at the Hotel 
La Salle, Chicago, 111., beginning at 9:30 
a. m., on May 17. 1915, and continue 
each day during the 18th, 19th,' and 20th. 
Details in regard to particulars relating 
to hotel accommodation may be had on 
application to Mr. C. G. Hall, Chicago & 
Eastern Illinois Railroad, 922 McCormick 
Building, Chicago. The subjects that will 
lie reported upon at the meeting are as 
follows: Mining and Preparation of 
Coal; Influence of the Operating Officials 
of Railways on Fuel Economy ; The Loco- 
motive, Including Practices in Relation to 
the Handling of Locomotives; Fire 
Boxes; Accounting. 



Master Boiler Makers' Association. 

The annual convention of the Master 
Boiler Makers' Association will be held 
in Chicago, 111., beginning on Tuesday 
morning, May 25, 1915, and continuing 
during May 26, 27 and 28. Mr. Harry D. 
Vought, secretary, 95 Liberty street, New 
York, has issued a special announcement 
to the officers and members in regard to 
the subjects to be brought before the com- 
mittee, and copies may be had on appli- 
cation. The proceedings promise to be 
more than usually interesting. 



Difficulties of Exact Measurements. 

A well-known superintendent of motive 
power who uses driving wheel centers 02 
inches diameter once made this statement: 
"It would not do for all of us to go to 
work and make gauges of 62 inches, and 
bore out the wheels by them, or turn our 
wheel centers by them, for no two men 
can take the same rule or measuring ma- 
chine and measure 62 inches and get the 
measurements alike. The two men will 
vary enough to make it fatal to the prac- 
tice of uniformity. Unless we secure ab- 
solute uniformity we cannot get our tire 
manufacturers i" bore tires that will he 
absolutely uniform." 



April, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



141 




"I always thought/ 1 said 
Old Jerry as he sniffed at 
the particularly bad odor 
of a salesman's cigar, 
"that nothin' was as rank 
as the stuff some roads 
use on the front ends of 
their locomotives. 
"It used to gag some of 
the boys," continued 
Jerry, "the first day it was 
put on and, believe me, 
those days came thick 
and fast. The blamed 
stuff burnt off almost as 
soon as it was put on. 
"No, I never had any 
trouble on Old 689. I 
always used a Dixon 
Graphite preparation — 
some of the boys likes a 
natural gray and some a 
black finish and some likes a 
powder and others a paste — 
Dixon makes 'em all. Sweet 
and clean and always lasted 
from six to nine weeks. 
"Sure you can get a testin' 
sample. Write as I did and 
ask for folder and free sample 
No. 69." 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Company 



RAILROAD NOTES. 

The Maine Central is reported in 
market for locomotive tenders. 



th< 



The Boston & Maine is reported in the 
market for 3,000 undernames. 

The Vandalia is in the market for 25 
consolidation engines, it is said. 



The Boston & Maine has ordered 11,000 
tons of rails from the Lackawanna Steel 
Company. 

The Grand Rapids & Indiana has or- 
dered six coaches from the Pressed Steel 
Car Company. 



The Chesapeake & Ohio is in the 
market for 20 Mallet locomotives, accord- 
ing to a report. 



The Chicago & Milwaukee Electric has 
ordered 15 steel passenger cars from the 
J. G. Brill Company. 

The Montreal Locomotive Works are 
building four locomotives for the Greater 
Winnipeg .Water District. 

The New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk 
has ordered 76 box cars from the Ameri- 
can Car & Foundry Company. 



The Bethlehem Steel Company has or- 
dered a switching locomotive from the 
American Locomotive Company. 



The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul has 
ordered nine 260-ton electric locomotives 
from the General Electric Company. 



The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
has ordered five Pacific type locomotives 
from the American Locomotive Company. 

The Ogden, Logan & Idaho has ordered 
a 50-ton electric locomotive from the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company. 



The Missouri, Kansas & Texas has or- 
dered 30 Mikados and 10 Pacific type 
locomotives from the American Locomo- 
tive Company. 



The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe has 
ordered 500 60,000-pound capacity re- 
frigerator cars from the American Car & 
Foundry Company. 



The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy has 
placed an order for 2,650 center sills for 
the Colorado & Southern with the Ameri- 
can Car & Foundry Company. 



The Great Northern recently ordered 
10,000 tons of rails, divided among the 
Lackawanna. Bethlehem, Cambria and the 
Illinois Steel Companies. 



market for 5 combination baggage and 
mail cars, 10 combination passenger and 
baggage cars, and 15 coaches. 



The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy has 
ordered 15 Pacific type, 20 Mikado type 
and 15 Santa Fe type locomotives from 
the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 



The California Western Railroad & 
Navigation is said to have ordered one 
saddle tank switching locomotive from 
the Baldwin Locomotive Company. 



The Pennsylvania has placed an order 
with its Altoona, Pa., shops for 100 steel 
fiat cars, 40 feet long and equipped with 
drop sides. Construction is to begin by 
May 1. 



The Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & 
St. Louis has increased its order for 
switching locomotives, recently placed 
with the American Locomotive Company, 
to thirteen. 



The Remington Arms-Union Metallic 
Cartridge Company, New York, has or- 
dered a four-wheel saddle tank switching 
locomotive from the American Locomo- 
tive Company. 



The Philadelphia & Reading has or- 
dered 25 steel coaches. Of this total, 15 
will be furnished by the Pullman Com- 
pany and 10 by the Harlan & Hollings- 
worth Corporation. 



The Baltimore & Ohio has placed orders 
for 200 car bodies each with the American 
Car & Foundry Company, the Ralston 
Steel Car Company, and the Standard 
Steel Car Company. 



The Cleveland Railway Company has 
bought 1,500 tons of standard steel rails, 
giving 500 tons to Lackawanna Steel 
Company and 1,000 tons to the Lorain 
Steel Company. 



The Northern Pacific has ordered 20,- 
000 tons of rails, divided as follows : 
Illinois Steel Company, S,500 tons; Lacka- 
wanna Steel Company, 7,500 tons, and the 
Colorado Fuel & Iron Company, 4,000 
tons. ■ 

The Baltimore & Ohio is said to have 
awarded contracts for rail as follows : 
Carnegie Steel Company, 7,000 tons; Il- 
linois Steel Company, 5,000 tons ; Penn- 
sylvania Steel Company, 4,000 tons, and 
Cambria Steel Company, 9,000 tons. 



Established 1827 

JERSEY CITY, N. J. 



2-F The Central of New Jersey is in the 



The Chicago & North Western plans 
the erection of a roundhouse and machine 
shop at Eagle Grove, Iowa, to cost about 
$90,000, according to report. This road 
also contemplates an expenditure of about 
$100,000 for 13-stall addition to its round- 
house and construction of a modern ma- 
chine shop at Boone, la. 



142 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



April, 1915. 



Training Apprentices. 

The old system of leaving apprentices 
to the care and instruction of Ihe fore- 
man may be satisfactory in a small simp, 
but in a large department it usually means 
failure for the apprentice scheme. Many 
foremen have said that "apprentices are 
a nuisance" when this method is tried. 
Few foremen base time to give personal 
attention to the boys, and the actual in- 
struction must fall upon some one else. 
We have yet to find a foreman whose 
attitude toward apprenticeship has not 
radically improved when an instructor 
has been placed over the apprentices. 
Ihe common complaint of having "too 
many'' has. not infrequently, changed to 
a request for "more." 

Where apprentice instruction is left to 
"the man on the next machine," the things 
taught are far from uniform and often 
wrong in their principle. Only by a 
supervising instructor can this teaching 
be standardized and brought up to date. 
The present importance of "safety first" 
makes doubly necessary the training of 
the apprentice from the very start in the 
habits of caution and carefulness. This 
can be done without any sacrifice of 
output if the proper attention is given 
to the learner. 

If the apprentice is to be developed 
to the highest extent he must have more 
than casual attention. Our agriculturists 
have long been studying how to make 
most productive the soil from which their 
produce must come, but the manufacturer 
has been very slow to realize that the 
human element of industry needs cultiva- 
tion to bring about its highest productive 
ability. 

Not only has the well-planned ap- 
prentice course given better training to 
the boys learning the trades, but it has 
attracted to the trades boys of higher in- 
telligence. Many bright boys leave in- 
dustrial shops because they see no op- 
portunity for advancement, no provision 
for their getting proper instruction and 
change. While it is true that most men 
specialize after learning their trades, it is 
unquestionably true that their broader 
training has made them better mechanics 
in the special line which they have 
chosen. 



Early Machine Tools. 

In the development of mechanical in- 
dustries connected with railroads, New 
England machine shops were better pro- 
vided with tools than the machine shops 
of any other section of the country, yet 
as late as 1850 crank axles for locomotives 
were turned on a lathe that had a wooden 
bed. The driving wheel tires were bored 
on another lathe of similar construction, 
being fastened to the fan plate by means 
of wooden chucks with straps and bolts. 
New England still claims to keep well 
ahead in the smaller kind of machine 
shop tools. 



Mumford Molding Machines. 
It will be gratifying to the many 
friends of Mr. E. II. Mumford to learn 
that the company bearing his name lias 
again re-established its business and is 
proceeding with the manufacture of all 
the designs of the well-known Muni for, 1 
molding machines at Front and Frank- 
lin streets, Elizabeth, N. J. All the pat- 
ents and applications for patents under 
which the company was operating for 
the last five or six years, are now en- 
tirely freed from litigation, and ma- 
chines so built can only be had from 
the E. 11. Mumford Company. The 
new machines being made by the com- 
pany embody many new points of merit, 
the result of Mr. Mum ford's long ex- 
perience in machine construction, and 
we are confident that a new career of 
usefulness and well deserved success is 
now opened to the enterprising firm. 
The company's offices are located at 30 
Church street. New York. 



Engine and Locomotive. 

The Latin word ingenium, which signi- 
fies heart, mind, abilities or genius was 
originally applied to any mechanical de- 
vice or contrivance of an ingenius or 
complicated character. In the course of 
time the word became anglicized into en- 
gine, and those who made or operated 
mechanical appliances were called engi- 
neers. It is not easy to understand how 
the class now called civil engineers came 
to appropriate the name, unless it was 
recognized that they were performing in- 
genious labors. 

Numerous appliances that would hardly 
be called engines have got their names 
from a corruption or abbreviation, of the 
word engine, as "gin," "jenny." etc., but 
of late years the name has been applied 
almost exclusively to prime movers. 
"Locomotive," which is now used to a 
great extent in place of "locomotive en- 
gine," was first used by George Stephen- 
son, who named one of bis first engines 
"locomotive." The word was conversant 
and expressive, so it soon came into popu- 
lar use. The Norris Locomotive Works 
of Philadelphia when first started, an- 
nounced that they intended building "lo- 
comotors," but the word did not take. 



"Did you come back on an all-steel 
train?" 

"When the waiters and porters finished 
plucking me, felt sure it was."— Birming- 
ham . Ige Herald. 



A thing of beauty is a joy forever 
or at least until we find out bow much 
it costs. 



GOLD 

Car 
Heating 



& 



Take things as they are and proceed 
to remake them according to your own 

ideal 



Lighting 
Company 



Manufacturers of 

ELECTRIC, 
STEAM AND 
HOT WATER 
HEATING 
APPARATUS 

FOR RAILWAY CARS 

VENTILATORS 

FOR PASSENGER 

AND REFRIGER- 

ATOR CARS 

ACETYLENE SYSTEM 
OF CAR LIGHTING 



Send for circular of our combina- 
tion PRESSURE AND VAPOR 
SYSTEM OF CAR HEATING, 
which system automatically main- 
tains about the same temperature in 
the car regardless of the outside 
weather conditions. 

Main Office, Whitehall Building 

17 BATTERY PLACE 

NEW YORK 



April, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



143 



Hydraulic 

RiVCterS Fixed and Portable 

Punches, Shears, 
Presses, Lifts, Cranes 
and Accumulators. 

Matthews' Fire Hydrants, 

Eddy Valves 

Valve Indicator Posts. 

The Camden High-Pressure Valves. 



Books, Bulletins, Catalogues, Etc. 



Cast Iron Pipe 



R. D. Wood & Company 

Engineers, Iron 
Pounders, Machinists. 

100 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Nichols Transfer Tables 
Turntable Tractors 

GEO. P. NICHOLS & BRO. 

1090 Old Colony Bid*. CHICAGO 




NOW IS THE TIME to install a 

Rue Boiler Washer 
and Tester, 

For you will need it when cold 
weather comes. It will wash out, 
test and fill your boiler, all with 
hot water, and have it ready for 
use in one hour. 

THINK IT OVER. 

Catalog on Boiler Washers A-5. 
Catalog on Injectors B-5. 

Rue Manufacturing Co.. 

228 CHERRY STREET 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Manufacturers of Injectors. Ejectors, 

Boiler Washers and Testers. Boiler Checks. 

Check Valves. 




MTOIM 



POP VALVES and GAGES 

The Quality Goods that Last 

The Ashton Valve Co. 
271 Franklin Street, Boston, Mass. 
No. 174 Market St.. Chicago III 



The Valve-Setter's Guide. 

A new and revised edition of this pop- 
ular book is just issued by the Angus 
Sinclair Company, 114 Liberty street, 
New York. In addition to the matter 
previously published in regard to link 
motions and valve gears generally, in- 
cluding details regarding the Stephenson 
and Walschaerts valve gearing new 
chapters have been written descriptive of 
the Baker valve gear and the Southern 
Locomotive valve gear, so that the book 
may be said to be abreast of the present 
hour in relation to the most popular 
forms of locomotive valve gears. Mr. 
Kennedy's long experience as an in- 
structor of apprentices in locomotive 
construction and repairs eminently quali- 
fied him for such a work and while it 
may be justly said that the subjects have 
been treated before, and are being treated 
now by others in an able way, they have 
never been treated in the same way, and 
the same amount of popular favor has 
never been accorded to a work on the 
same subject. The present edition com- 
pletes the tenth thousand called for in a 
few years. The style is engaging and 
luminous with intelligence. The press- 
work and illustrations are excellent. The 
new edition is marked with many im- 
provements. The price remains the same 
— fifty cents per copy. 



Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Cutting. 

A book of 190 pages on the above sub- 
ject, including the operation and care of 
acetylene generating plants, and the oxy- 
gen process for the removal of carbon, 
by C. F. Levingle, M. E., has been pub- 
lished by F. J. Drake 6k Company, Chi- 
cago. A brief description of all princi- 
pal kinds of welding is given, including 
fire welding, welding by water gas, ther- 
mit welding, brazing and blowpipe weld- 
ing. The advantages and disadvantages 
of each are ably discussed, and the ac- 
complished author shows a thorough fa- 
miliarity with the details of the various 
processes. While the book is severely 
practical, enough of the theory has been 
included to enable the practical man to 
acquire a thorough understanding of the 
subject. The book is fully illustrated, 
and sells at $1 in cloth, and $1.50 in 
leather binding. 



Steam Hammers. 

The Chambersburg Engineering Com- 
pany, Chambersburg, Pa., has issued a 
new catalogue, No. 66, describing and 
illustrating the latest designs in single 
and double frame steam hammers, steam 
drop hammers, board drop hammers, 
hydraulic forging and flanging presses, 
riveters, cranes and other appliances. The 
catalogue extends to 64 pages, with 50 



illustrations, with copious descriptive- 
matter and dimension tables. One of the 
latest additions to the company's fine 
products is the 3,300-pound single frame 
steam hammer of the guided ram type, 
built with steel frame, ribbed construction, 
bolted to cast iron baseplate. The box 
type of frame may also be made in steel. 
This design of hammer has already met 
with the highest indorsements and com- 
bines great strength and rigidity. As 
shown in the accompanying illustration, 
the guides are adjustable for taking up the 
wear of the ram. They are hung in 
pockets planed in the frame, the weight of 
the guide being carried by a lug solid in 
the guide which fits in a corresponding 




3,300-POUND CHAMBERSBURG SINGLE 
FRAME STEAM HAMMER. 

recess in the guide pocket, thus taking 
their weight from the bolts which lock 
the adjustment and relieve the strain on 
the frame. The adjustment is made by 
a steel taper shoe which bears full width 
and length of guide and adjusts the guide 
equally top and bottom, preventing the 
ram from cocking in the guides. This 
form of guides have been adopted after 
many years' experience with other ar- 
rangements. 

For more particular details in regard 
to the various designs of steam or com- 
pressed air hammers, and the company's 
..ther products, all interested should send 
fur a copy of the catalogue, to the com- 
pany's main office, Chambersburg, Pa. 



144 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



April. 1915. 



Q & C Derails 
The Q & C Company, 90 West street, 
New York, has just issued a finely illus- 
trated catalogue showing the complete 
designs of the company's simple and ef- 
ficient derails. In point of simplicity and 
economy the device has the double merit 
of being readily applicable assuring posi- 
tive derail, and may be applied to any rail 
joint by substituting two-eye bolts for 
two-track bolts, its application being 
easily made by one man in five minutes. 




RIGHT THROW Q & C DERAIL. 

It does not in any way weaken the track 
as did the old switch point rail, and is 
not affected by creeping rail, being fast- 
ened to the ties only, and will derail the 
heaviest car or locomotive. The device 
meets a growing need for substantial 
equipment to cope with modern conditions. 
It can be readily placed at any point on 
the track, and interlocking connections 
can be made. Complete details will be 
furnished on application to the company's 
New York office. 



Locomotive Engineer's Pocket Book. 

The Locomotive Publishing Com- 
pany, 3 Amen Corner, E. C, London, 
England, has issued the 1915 edition 
of the Locomotive Engineer's Pocket 
Book and Diary, containing over 300 
pages, bound in flexible covers, and sold 
at 70 cents. Like the previous editions 
of this very useful book, it contains 
much information of daily use to loco- 
motive engineers and others, together 
with a neat diary, yet the whole is not 
by any means of an inconvenient size 
for the pocket. The information covers 
a wide range of subjects, some of the 
more important of which are the follow- 
ing: The evolution and development of 
the steam engine; locomotive engineer- 
ing; tables of resistances of trains on 
the level, grades, curves, etc. ; tractive 
power of locomotives; notes on feed 
heating; form of balance weight calcula- 
tion: metric measures with British 
equivalents; approximate weights of 
metals, timbers, etc.; expansion and 
melting-points of metals; specific gravi- 
ty and weights of various substances; 
types of engines (with numerous dia- 
grams); various handy tables, etc. 



Public Utility Economics. 
A series of ten lectures delivered before 
the West Side Young Men's Christian 
Association, New York, embracing such 
subjects as Holding Companies, Public 
Ownership, Lighting, Future Power Sup- 
ply, Telephones, are collected in a hand- 
some volume of over 200 pages. Among 
the most interesting is an able discourse 
on the Future Regulation of Public Utili- 
ties by Mr. William D. Kerr. On 
the subject of the Full Crew Law Mr. 
Kerr's views are clear and cogent. He 
holds that this kind of legislation is 
clearly pernicious, because it is not based 
on an analysis of facts. It may be desir- 
able that a particular train have a larger 
crew than it has, because there are some 
peculiarities to this train, but there are 
trains which do not have the peculiarities 
of the other. For the Legislature to say 
that all trains shall have a crew of a 
certain fixed, definite size, is not produc- 
tive of general good, and is not conductive 
to the convenience, comfort and welfare 
of the public. 



Boiler Makers' Tools. 

"Faessler Boiler Makers' Tools" is 
the name of a new catalog just issued 
by the J. Faessler Mfg. Co., Moberly. 
Mo., specialists in boiler tool manufac- 
ture. This catalog fully illustrates and 
describes many types and sizes of boiler 
tube and superheater flue expanders — 
sectional and roller — for hand or power 
operation. It also shows Faessler's flue 
cutting tools and machines, counter- 
sinking tools, etc. 



Love's Pleadings. 

O, come, my love, the jitney 

Waits ; the nickel's in 
My purse. My sparker snaps at all the 

Fates, for better or 
For worse. Let's jit in joy while life 

Is June; five coppers pays 
The bill. So come and jitney 'neath 

The moon, along the low-grade 
Hill. While all the world is smooth 

As glass, while all our tires are 
Spry, there's bliss in every quart 

Of gas ; let's hit life on 
The high. So come and be my jitney 

Queen ; a nick is all my 
Hoard. Who cares for grief or 

Gasoline? Come mount 
My trusty Ford. 



April. 

And in my breast 

Spring wakens, too ; and my regret 
Becomes an April violet 
And buds and blossoms like the rest. 
— Alfred Tennyson. 



Consulting Mathematician*. 
Physicists and Engineers 

Refinements of engineering. Difficulties 
worked out, involving special research work. 
Gyroscopic *ffect, analysis of vibrations and 
other things where "practical experience" 
alone does not give the right answer. Box 
A. W., Railway & Locomotive Engineering, 
New York. 



STEEL STAMPS 

INSPECTORS HAMMERS 
Hand Cut STEEL LETTERS 1 FIGURES 
LATHE TOOLS, TIME CHECKS, 

Noble & Westbrook Mfg. Co. 

9 ASYLUM ST. HARTFORD, CONN. 




THE AKMSTBONG IMPROVED 

PACKER RATCHET DRILLS 

Are ALL STf EL 



Hardened All Over 

Will outwear two of the Boft kind. 

We make all kinds — all sixes. 

Do you want a catalog? 



ARMSTRONG BROS. TOOL CO. 

"The Tool Holder People." 
IIS IT. FRANCISCO ATE., CHICAGO. ILL. 




NEVER SHRINKS OB DETERIORATES 




ESPECIALLY PREP ABED 
FOR THE ENGINEER 



WORKS 
EQUALLY WELL 

oa 

HOT and COLD 
SURFACES 



CLEANS 
POLISHES and 
PRESERVES 
ALL KINDS 
OF METALS 



GEO. WM. HOFFMAN CO. 

Indianapolis 
New York Chicago San Francisco 

Send for FREE Simple 



VOLUMES OF 

Railway and Locomotive 
Engineering 

For 1914, Well Bound in Cloth, Price $3.00 




The Norwalk Iron Works Co. 

SOUTH NORWALK, CONN. 

Makers of Air and Gas Compressors 

For All Pnrpose* 
Sand for Catalog 



RiSSSL Ifiineerins 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling Stock and Appliances 



Vol. XXVIII. 



114 Liberty Street, New York, May, 1915. 



No. 5 



Famous Double Spiral Tunnels on the St. Gotthard 
Railway in the Alps in Switzerland 

While all eyes are turned to the ter- toil, can now be accomplished in a feu- Among these the Simplon tunnel 
rific European conflict and its amazing hours. This hrings into mind the Alpine through the Alps extends to 12 miles, and 
proportions it can be seen at a glance railways which are in many respects was opened in 1905. The St. Gotthard tun- 
that the railways are the arterial life of among the most remarkable in the world, nels through the Alps connecting Gosch- 
the titanic struggle. Without them such for while the extent of American rail- enen with Airolo in Switzerland, is 9 l /s 
vast armies could neither be mobilized nor ways and the multiplex engineering diffi- miles in length and was in operation in 




SPIRAL OF THE ST. GOTTHARD RAILWAY, IN THE REUSS VALLEY, IX THE ALPS. 

sustamett, and their movements from fron- culties that have been overcome are much 1881. The Mont Cenis tunnel between 

tti i to frontier could not be undertaken more numerous than all of the European Italy and France under the Cole de 

Bithout the network of railways. The railways put together, it will be remem- Trejus extends t. . 8 miles and was opened 

achievements of Hannibal, Charlemagne bered that the Alpine tunnels and other in 1871. Latterly in 1913 the LoetschbePg 

and Napoleon leading triumphant armies construction work are the most extensive tunnel through the Alps in Oberland. 

across mountains after months of weary of their kind in existence. Switzerland, was opened, and extends to 



146 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



May, 1915. 



9J4 miles. Others are also nearly com- 
pleted, although not so extensive, in the 
same region. 



Of equal interest 
involving a greater 



and in many cases 
degree of engineer- 



Extensive Improvements on the Interborongh 
Rapid Transit Lines in Manhattan, New York 




PLAN OF THE DOUBLE SPIRAL TUNNELS 
ON THE ST. GOTTHARD RAILWAY. 

ing skill are the intricate -windings of the 
various railroads through the Alpine 
region. One of these remarkable feats 
of construction is shown in our frontis- 
piece illustration, and known as the 
famous spiral of the St. Gothard rail- 
way, and shows three different elevations 
of the same track and all within a limited 
space. The railway as it winds through 
what is known as the Reuss valley, climbs 
ever upwards to Goschenen, at the north 
portal. A tunnel opens into the mountain 
side, and describes almost an entire circle, 
approximately 1,050 feet in diameter. 
When it emerges from the mountain it is 
over the first portal, and then runs back 
for some distance. In less than half a 
mile the line enters a second peak, where 
it describes another loop forming the 
Wattinger tunnel, issuing from which it 
has reached a higher level. Thus, side- 
by side, there are three tracks on three 
different levels, two running south and one 
running north, the railway traversing 
nearly five miles to advance little over 
half a mile in distance. Other equally 
amazing works occur along the Alpine 
railways, and although, as we have stated, 
these are surpassed in number and vari- 
ety en the American continent they are 
not equaled in single instances either in 
the length of tunneling or in the in- 
genuity in overcoming the great natural 
difficulties encountered. 

The second illustration shows a view 
of the plan of the double spiral tunnels 
on the St. .Gotthard railway, and is a 
unique work of its kind. 



Improvements and additions to the 
elevated tracks of the Interborough Rapid 
Transit lines in the Manhattan division 
of New York involving an expenditure 
of thirty million dollars, and which will 
be completed in the period of two years 
as originally specified are progressing so 
quietly and so rapidly, and without the 
slightest interruption in the present local 
or express traffic that the people are al- 
most unconscious of the gigantic work 
that is going on, and adding an improve- 
ment in rapid transit that bids fair to 
outrival the subway in the rapidity of 
transit, and particularly in the degree of 
comfort with which the forty miles of 
roadway may be traversed. 

The express trains, so called, at pres- 
ent, are only partially express in the dis- 
tance run. Taking the City Hall station 
on the Third avenue elevated railroad as 
an illustration, both the local and ex- 
press trains are on the same tracks and 
continue on the same track until Forty- 
second street is reached, stopping at 
least ten times at the local stations 



reaching that point, so that the distance 
run by express does not exceed three 
miles, a little more than one-fifth of the 
entire line. Of course some time is 
saved in a section of the journey, but 
the total saving is not great. 

In the new scheme of improvement the 
express trains will run almost the entire 
journey on their own tracks. As shown 
in the illustration a story or upper struc- 
ture is added in certain portions of the 
road and the express traffic is accommo- 
dated with platforms separate and above 
those of the local traffic. In that portion 
where express tracks are already in oper- 
ation extra raised stations are being con- 
structed, which placed considerably fur- 
ther apart than the local stations are, 
may be said to extend the express traffic. 
and its time saving benefits, to the entire 
city, as the express stations are being 
established in the most populous districts 
as is the case with the subway express 
stations. 

The entire scheme of improvement 
marks an important advance in the rapid 




IMPROVEMENT ON TIN-. INTERBOROUGH RAPID TRANSIT LINES. 



intervening. After reaching Forty-second 
street, a continuous journey is then made 
until the Harlem district is reached, and 
stops are made at each local station after 



transit work that has been going on, and 
in point of saving of time and comfort 
in traveling will mark a new era in city 
passenger traffic. 



May, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



147 



Alaska Railway. 

The United States Government has 
signified its approval of the Susitna 
route for the proposed railway to be 
constructed in Alaska. The Alaska 
Northern already running from Seward, 
a distance of 71 miles, will be a part of 
the new line, and will be extended in a 
northerly direction across Broad Pass 
and along the bank of the Tanana river 
to Fairbanks, the new portion being 
about 400 miles. The work is already 
begun, and it is expected that about 40 
miles will be completed this year. The 
Alaskan Engineering Commission in- 
cludes .Mr. William C. Edes, chairman; 
Lieutenant Frederick Mears and Mr. 
Thomas Riggs, Jr. The headquarters of 
the chairman will be at Seward, Alaska. 
Those who wish to seeure work on this 
railroad should send an application to 
the Alaska Engineering Commission, 
Bureau of Mines building, Washington, 
D. C. It is not necessary to pass a civil 
service examination to secure an appoint- 
ment, but employees must pay their own 
transportation to Seattle, Wash., from 
which point transportation will be fur- 
nibbed to employees. 



Argentine Railways. 

An addition of 514 miles was added 
last year to the total mileage of railway 
track in Argentine, which now extends 
to 13,328 miles, not including 861 miles 
of track of the Bahia Blanca and North- 
Eastern Line, which now belongs to the 
Pacific system. Last year was a most 
unsatisfactory one for Argentine rail- 
ways. Receipts were greatly reduced by 
the economic depression aggravated by 
the European war, and partial failures oi 
the wheat and linseed crops. Further- 
more, heavy rains, besides causing seri- 
ous damage to lines, almost suspended 
mi ivement of the heavy corn crop. 

During the year a number of the lead- 
ing railways informed the government 
that, in view of increased working ex- 
penses and the falling off in receipts, 
they would be compelled to raise their 
tariffs. This was sanctioned by the gov- 
ernment in February. The proposed in- 
creases naturally met with opposition on 
the part of shippers, no less affected by 
business depression than the railways 
themselves, and after a series of confer- 
ences between the government and the 
railways it was decided that the rates in 
question would be raised 10 per cent, in- 
stead of 20 per cent., as originally 
planned. 



Railways in Dutch East India. 

In the islands of Java, Sumatra, and 
the Dutch East Indian archipelago there 
are a total of 1,429 miles on these 
islands, with 461 locomotives, 760 pas- 



senger cars and 7,930 freight cars in 
service. There are a few Mallet locomo- 
tives where the grades are heavy. 

On the Java State railways 65 per cent, 
of the engines are of German make, 23 
per cent. British and only 5 per cent. 
from the Netherlands ; on the Sumatra 
line all the engines, 65, are of German 
make. In Java there are six repair 
shops, but only two of them of any con- 
siderable size; these are at Bandeong 
and Madioen. 



Proposed Improvement in Jersey City 
Railroad Terminals. 

A proposition is on foot to construct a 
double track main line through five miles 
of city streets along the water front in 
Jersey City, extending from the Lacka- 
wanna depot in Hoboken to Communi- 
paw, with perhaps an extensioin to con- 
nect with the West Side connecting rail- 
road, which it is proposed to construct 
along Newark bay and the Hackensack 
river. It is intended to connect all the 
trunk lines having terminals in Jersey 
City, and will necessarily involve the con- 
struction of numerous sidings and in- 
dustry tracks. Electricity will be the 
motive power, and it is expected that the 
proposed railroad will add greatly to the 
number of manufacturing plants already 
established in that vicinity. 



Extensions on the Southern Railway. 

Over 100 miles of double track is now 
under course of construction on the 
Washington-Atlanta line, 66 miles of the 
work being in Virginia, and 36 miles in 
North Carolina. Between Washington 
and Atlanta 284.5 miles of double track 
are now in service, so that with the com- 
pletion of the work now under construc- 
tion, which is expected during the pres- 
ent year, Southern Railway will have a 
total of 386.9 miles of double track on 
this line, which is 649 miles in length. 
Two line revision projects are also under 
way in North Georgia, involving the 
construction of 6'4 miles of entirely new 
line with greatly improved curves and 
grades. 



Labor Statistics. 

The average full-time weekly earnings 
in the principal occupations among 42.000 
employees in 1913 were reported as fol- 
lows : Cabinetmakers, $19.03 ; carpenter 
and car builders, $17.11 ; car repairers, 
$'5.15; machine woodworkers, $16.26; 
machinists, $17.81; painters, $17.17; pipe 
fitters. $18.56; riveters, $19.41; truck 
builders, $15.31; laborers, $10.58. In 
1913 the full-time hours of labor per 
week were under 54 in quite a number 
of the establishments visited, and over 
60 in but very few. The predominating 
full-time hours per week were 54, and the 
average about 56. 



Hudson Bay Railway. 

The Hudson Bay Railway route will 
be 424 miles in length, and will extend 
from Le Pas to Port Nelson, 240 miles 
of which is now completely graded, and 
54 miles partly graded — trains are ex- 
pected to be run at an early date at least 
200 miles. This year's work will prob- 
ably complete grading operations to Port 
Nelson, and the whole line it is expected 
will be in complete operation by next 
year, and will form an important link in 
the Canadian railway system, giving di- 
rect and easy communication to the 
waters of Hudson Bay. 



Arkansas Railroad Rates Raised. 

An increase of railroad rates approach- 
ing 30 per cent, are in effect this month, 
according to a decree of the United 
States Court. The decision was made on 
the grounds that the old rates were con- 
fiscatory. The passenger rate is now 3 
cents per mile. The Arkansas State 
Commission will appeal the case to the 
Supreme Court. The returns on the rail- 
road investments on the new rating will, 
it is said, not exceed four per cent. 



Work on the New Terminal at Buffalo 
Begun. 

Work on the excavations for the new 
terminals of the Lehigh Valley at Buffalo, 
N. Y., was begun last month. The State 
legislature is expected to pass a bill au- 
thorizing the ceding of canal lands in 
Buffalo, so that the Terrace station plans 
of the New York Central can be carried 
out. The plans must be considerably 
changed unless a portion of the canal 
lands can be utilized 



Long Island and Rapid Transit. 

The Public Service Commission of New 
York has been informed regarding the 
terms upon which the city of New York 
may obtain use of the Long Island tracks 
for extension of the city's rapid transit 
system. It is suggested that the agree- 
ment provide for a trackage arrangement 
to cover a period of ten years, with the 
privilege of renewal for an additional pe- 
riod of ten years, either party to have the 
right to terminate the agreement on three 
years' notice, the Long Island Company 
receiving a rental charge of $250,000 per 
annum. 



The Miller platform, so well known in 
passenger car construction, was invented 
by Ezra Miller, long a resident of New 
Jersey, which he represented in the State 
senate at the time of his death in 1885. 
The purpose of the Miller platform was 
to prevent the telescoping of cars when 
collisions happened, and it has proved a 
valuable life saver in case of such acci- 
dents. 



148 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



May, 1915. 



Notes and Comments on Locomotive Lubrication 



The Lubricator and its Connections 



By F. P. ROESCH 

Master Mechanic, El Paso & Southwestern System 



Cylinder Lubrication. 

To the rank and tile, cylinder lubrica- 
tion simply consists of tilling tbc lubri- 
cator in the cab and opening the various 
valves and feeds, the whys and where- 
fores never being considered. Or, if 
considered, being presumably too mys- 
terious for the average comprehension 
Therefore, before proceeding further it 
might be well to show how and why a 
hydrostatic lubricator delivers oil to the 
steam chests and cylinders. 

Referring to Figure 7, which shows 
sections through an ordinary Bull's Eye 
lubricator : As the names of the various 
parts and their duties are no doubt fa- 
miliar to all, it is not necessary to dwell 
upon them. When the lubricator is tilled 
with oil and the steam and condensing 
chamber valves are open, steam flows in 
at the top into the condensing chamber, 
where it is gradually condensed. When 
the condensation of water rises to the 
top of the middle tube a, shown in Figure 
7-A, it flows down this tube and passes 
underneath the oil, raising the oil up to 
the top of tube 18. The condensation or 
water always remains at the height of 
the middle tube. All further steam pass- 
ing into the lubricator passes down 
through tubes 17, termed the equalizing 
tubes. A portion of this steam is also 
condensed, and the water or condensa- 
tion rises to the choke plug, the re- 
mainder of the steam then passing out 
through the choke plugs to the oil pipes. 
We, therefore, have the following condi- 
tion : A column of water equal to the 
height of the condensing or middle tube, 
plus the pressure of the steam on top of 
it, acting against the bottom of the oil, 
forcing the oil upward, and a column of 
water equal in height from the choke 
plug to the feed valve. This also has the 
same pressure <>f steam acting on 
top of it, but as there is a greater 
pressure on the oil due to the difference 
in heights of the two columns of water, 
when the feed valve is opened the oil is 
forced out through the feed nozzle, from 
whence, being lighter than the water, it 
is carried upward to the choke plug, 
where it is caught by the current of 
steam passing through the equalizing 
tubes, and carried into the oil pipes, 
from whence it drops by gravity to the 
steam chest. It can, therefore, l>< seen 
that if the two columns of water were 
of equal height, the pressure at the fee.! 
nozzle would be balanced, and, conse- 
quently, no oil would cine frdtri the feed 
nozzle. 

There is nothing mysterious about the 



action of the hydrostatic lubricator when 
these facts are remembered. There is 
one point in connection with the lubri- 
cator that is frequently overlooked in the 
round house, however, and that is that 
in order that the oil may be carried to 
the steam chest there must be a current 
of steam continually passing through the 
oil pipes. Consequently, the pressure in 
the oil pipes must be greater than the 
pressure in the steam chest, and as the 
only supply of steam through the oil 
pipes comes from the steam pipe leading 
to the lubricator, it is evident that this 
pipe must be greater in area than the 
combined area of the two oil pipes, and 
also that the steam valve must always be 
fully opened, so as to maintain the full 



Referring now In Figure 8, which 
shows a not unusual lubricator installa- 
tion, we presume that a casual glance at 
this illustration would indicate nothing 
materially wrong. Let us investigate, 
however. The first thing to attract at- 
tention is the steam pipe leading to the 
lubricator. Two defects are here found, 
one that the steam pipe is so straight 
that there is little room for vibration or 
expansion. Result will be a leak at one 
end of the pipe or the other. Again, 
this steam pipe is too small in compari- 
son with the oil pipe. Next the oil pipe: 
notice how gracefully it is curved over 
the boiler head. While it looks good, 
yet we find a drop where it leaves the 
lubricator. As explained in a previous 



FIG. 7 

OIL PIPE END — CTt 




In ib r pressure in the two equalizing 
tubes. As if the steam chest pressure 
overbalances the oil pipe pressure, circu- 
lation in the oil pipes will be arrested 
and the steam will condense into water 
at the point where the two pressures bal- 
ance, and as the oil is lighter than the 
water it cannot pass through it, but will 
float on top of the water until the throt- 
tle is partially or wholly closed, so that 
the lubricator pressure overcomes the 
steam chest pressure. It is on account 
of this balance of pressures that valves 
will begin to go dry when the engine has 
been worked for ah) length of time with 
a full throttle, and that a partial closing 
of the throttle will immediately relieve 
tin condition 



paragraph, the nil must feed from the 
lubricator to the steam chest by gravity, 
and as the action of gravity never yet 
caused oil to run up hill, it is plain that 
the oil will continue to lodge in this trap 
until the pipe is full of oil, and it is 
forced out by the pressure of the steam 
behind it. The result is that the valves 
will get nil by tits and starts In other 
words the feed will not be constant to 
the valve, although it may be constant 
and regular at the lubricator as shown 
through the sight feed glasses. There- 
fore, in this instance, either the oil pipe 
should lie brought down and run across 
the hack of the boiler head or else the 
lubricator should he raised so as to af- 
fi nl a constant fall to the pipe from the 



May, 1915 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



149 



lubricator along to the steam chest. 

Another defect that might perhaps pass 
unnoticed is the location of the end of 
the drain pipe. This, as will be noticed, 
discharges into the gauge cock dripper. 
This defect, although apparently slight, 
has, however, quite an influence on lu- 
brication costs, as, for instance, in drain- 
ing the lubricator you cannot see, espe- 
cially at night, when all the water has 
been drained off and the oil begins to 
flow, with the result that considerable 
valve oil is thus wasted. Not only that, 
but the oil falling into the gauge cock 
dripper will have a gradual tendency to 
close the drip pipe, with the result that 
the dripper will become filled with water, 
giving an inaccurate gauge cock regis- 
tration. Before closing on lubricator lo- 
cation we would call attention to the 
manner in which lubricators are fre- 
quently mounted on boiler heads, namely, 
with a dark background behind them, so 
that it is practically impossible for an en- 
gineer to tell how fast his lubricator is 
feeding unless he uses a torch. It would 
be just as easy to locate lubricators fac- 
ing windows or other cab openings, so as 
to make the use of the torch unneces- 
sary except at night. 

There is another item in connection 
with Figure 8 to which it might be well 
to call attention, namely, the hand oilers. 
We presume that at a casual glance noth- 
ing would be noticed as seriously wrong 
with these. The trouble with these hand 
oilers is that they are too large, as the 
human equation must always be taken 
into consideration even in building hand 
oilers. With the modern grease lubri- 
cated locomotive it should never be nec- 
essary to use more than one pint of en- 
gine oil to completely lubricate the aver- 
age engine. The average hand oiler, 
however, contains from two to three 
pints of oil, and as the tendency of the 
engineer is to continue oiling as long as 
he has oil in his can, if the hand oilers 
were reduced in capacity to just sufficient 
to oil a locomotive once, he would un- 
doubtedly be more careful. As he would 
feel his can getting light and thereby 
oil around with one pint or less, where 
if he had a larger can he would use more 
than one pint. Of course, objections 
would be raised to the small hand oiler, 
due to the fact that they would require 
more frequent filling. This in itself, 
however, would result in economy, as no 
one is looking for extra work, and, con- 
sequently, the oil cans would not be filled 
any more than absolutely necessary. 



With the advent of piston valves more 
trouble has been experienced in valve 
and cylinder lubrication while drifting 
than when the plain "D" or slide vahc 
was in use. The principal reason f#r 
this is due to the elimination of the re- 
lief or suction valve, and to the manner 



in which the oil pipe plug may lie located. 
Referring to Figure 9, which shows a 
cross section through a cylinder saddle, 
valve chamber and cylinder; the oil plug 
in this instance is shown as tapped direct 
into the steam channel. While this is an 
ideal location when working steam, yet 
unless a relief valve is used there will be 
little or no oil passing to the valve or 
cylinder with the throttle closed. As 
can be seen by referring to the figure, 
the steam channel forms a pocket, and 




FIG. S. 

when the engine is drifting so that there 
is no circulation through the steam 
channel, the oil fed from the lubricator 
will naturally drop into this pocket and 
remain there until the condensed steam 
passing through the oil pipe rises to a 
point where it can flow into the steam 
chest, and thus carry the oil which is 
floating on top of this condensed steam 
in with it. If, however, a relief valve is 
inserted into the steam channel either 




FIG. 9. 

above or below the oil plug, the current 
of air passing in through the relief valve 
will carry the drop of oil in with it, and 
thus lubricate the valve and cylinder just 
the same as though working steam. 

WASTE OF OIL WHEN STANDING. 

, Engineers as a rule do in it always 
: < the lubricator feeds when the en- 
gine is at rest or while standing in side 
tracks waiting for other trains, figuring, 



no doubt, that the oil goes into the steam 
(lust anyhow, and will serve its purpose 
when the engine is again started. While 
this may have been the case when slide 
valves were used, yet with the modern 
piston valve of the inside admission type, 
the greater portion of the oil fed while 
standing is practically wasted. Referring 
to Figure 10, the upper figure shows a 
section through the ordinary steam chest 
and "D" type of balanced slide valve. In 
this case the oil passing through the oil 
pipe drops on top of the pressure plate, 
from where it gradually falls down, 
dropping into the steam supply ports. 
This oil is not altogether wasted, as when 
the throttle is opened the steam rushing 
up through the supply ports carries the 
oil with it, depositing it on the valve seat 
and within the cylinder. The only waste 
in this connection is that more oil is car- 
ried into the cylinder and distributed on 
the valve seat than is necessary at that 
time. 

Referring to the lower figure, however, 
which shows a section through an inside 
admission piston valve; in this case the nil 
lodges in the cavity between the valve 
chamber bushings, and will remain there 
even after the throttle is opened. In fact it 
is only carried out when there is sufficient 
condensation in the steam channel to 
raise the oil to the level of the hushing ; 
and in this instance the oil. being carried 
into the cylinders with water, it is abso- 
lutely wasted, as it is usually discharged 
either through the cylinder cocks or 
through the stack. Before leaving this 
figure we would call attention to the oil 
or tallow pipe connected with the upper 
steam chest, a condition very frequently 
found. The bend in the oil pipe, as in the 
case cited when referring to the lubri- 
cator, forming a trap which will hold up 
the oil until the trap has become filled, 
thereby producing an intermittent feed. 

LUBRICATION SUPERHEATED LOCOMOTIVES. 

Before closing this article a few words 
in regard to the lubrication of super- 
heated steam locomotives may not come 
amiss. When superheated steam was 
first introduced it was the general opin- 
ion that a considerable increase in valve 
oil would be necessary, and also that a 
different quality of valve oil must he 
furnished. While a slight increase in 
valve oil is necessary, the only increase, 
however, is due to the increase in cyl- 
inder dimensions. That is the supply of 
oil should be increased in proportion to 
the area to be lubricated. So far as the 
quality of the valve oil is concerned, the 
valve oil furnished by the Galena Com- 
pany, and known as "Perfection" valve 
oil, will answer every requirement. 
While it is true that the flash point of 
Perfection valve oil is lower than the 
temperature obtained with superheated 
steam, yet this does not prevent the nil 
from fulfilling its functions. 



150 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



May, 1915. 



In the first place the lubricating qual- 
ities of any oil can only be destroyed in 
two ways : first, by combustion, and sec- 
ond, by compression. As Perfection oil 
can readily withstand any pressure put 
upon it in a locomotive valve or cyl- 
inder, the latter item can be disregarded. 
Consequently, it is only necessary to take 
the matter of combustion into consid- 
erate in. 

Combustion of any combustible can 
only take place in the presence of oxy- 
gen, as it is necessary for the oxygen to 
combine with matter in order to produce 
combustion. In locomotive cylinders while 
working steam oxygen is present, but it 
is combined with hydrogen, and conse- 
quently cannot under any circumstances 
produce combustion regardless of the 
temperature. Therefore, the oil fed into 
the cylinder is simply vaporized and 
thoroughly intermingled with the steam. 
As any oil can be converted into vapor 
when raised to a certain temperature, it 
can likewise be liquified again or con- 
verted back into oil, when the tempera- 
ture is again reduced below the point of 
vaporization. In a locomotive cylinder 
using steam the temperature varies with 
the travel of the piston, that is, at the 
beginning of the stroke the steam is ac 
its highest pressure and highest tempera- 
ture. After the steam has been cut off 
by the action of the valve it expands with 
the movement of the piston, and in ex- 
panding its pressure and temperature are 
likewise reduced. And while the tem- 
perature at the beginning of the stroke 
may have been above the vaporizing point 
of the oil. vet at the termination of the 
stroke it is below the liquifying point of 
tin oil Consequently, while the oil is 
vaporized when first introduced, it be- 



comes liquified again before the stroke is 
completed, the liquefaction taking place 
at the coolest points, which are naturally 
the cylinder walls, and consequently the 
oil is deposited exactly where wanted. 

There is only one condition under 
which improper lubrication, due to the 
combustion of the oil, can take place on 
loci 'motives using superheated steam, and 




! 







CfcfT^;^ 



4 t^ 



CU r 




FIG. 10. 

that is at the instant that the throttle is 
closed. As previously stated, the temper- 
ature of superheated steam is frequently 
above that of the flash point of the oil. 
Consequently, when working steam right 
along the valves and cylinders become 
heated to the temperature of the steam. 
and all the oil that has been carried into 
the cylinders is present in the form of a 
vapor and at a temperature ready to 



flash under proper conditions. These 
conditions, as previously stated, are the 
admission of free oxygen ; consequently, 
it with the cylinders heated above the 
flash point of the oil the throttle is sud- 
denly closed; air, which contains the 
oxygen, is admitted to the cylinders — the 
oxygen, combining with the oil, produc- 
ing combustion — in other words, burning 
or carbonizing the oil. To overcome this 
feature many roads have adopted the use 
of the drifting valve, which is a valve 
that continues to admit steam to the 
valves and cylinders when the throttle is 
closed, thereby keeping a sufficient quan- 
tity of steam in the cylinders to prevent 
the combustion of the oil. The drifting 
valve is not an absolute necessity, how- 
ever, as the combustion of the oil can 
readily be overcome by a little care on 
the part of the engineer; as in stopping, 
if the throttle is left partly open so as to 
admit just a little steam into the cyl- 
inders, and left open until the cylinders 
have cooled down below the flash point 
of the oil, which only requires a few 
moments, the combustion of the oil will 
not take place. Or when topping a hill, 
if the throttle be kept cracked for a few 
miles until the temperature of the cyl- 
inders has been reduced, all trouble 
from carbonizing or combustion of oil 
will be entirely eliminated. 

In conclusion. Mr. W. V. Turner once 
said when speaking of handling long 
trains that "the engineer is often blamed 
for rough handling, when he of all men 
is least responsible." So likewise is the 
engineer frequently censured for hot 
bearings and cut cylinders, when he of 
all men connected with the care and 
operation of the locomotive is least to 
blame. 



Improved Signal Whistle 



1 'in' of the most important parts of 
the air signal system is the signal whistle, 
and in order that signals may be trans- 
mitted correctly to the engineman the 
equipment must be in proper working 
condition, and the whistle must have a 
loud, clear tone. The ordinary factory 
made whistles arc rather expensive and 
more readily put out of commission by 
vibration and small particles of rust and 
scale from the main reservoir and pipes 
than the home made whistle illustrated. 

This whistle, which is about as near 
"trouble proof" as a signal whistle can 
be made, is made of a pipe nipple 
H^Vi inches, a -js-inch pipe cap, and a 
reducing sleeve H inch to % inch, and 
plug made of a piece of yi inch round 
iron. With a little practice, and by 



By J. H. HAHN, Air Brake Mechanic 

Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. Savannah, Ga. 

lengthening or shortening the nipple any 
desired tone can be obtained. 

Some of the other causes of an erratic 
working signal whistle are a sluggish re- 
ducing valve, a reducing valve that is 
not sensitive enough. A dirtv combined 



SIGNAL WHISTLE. 

signal strainer and check valve, or a 
bad seat on the check valve 4, which 
will cause the whistle to blow whenever 
an independent application of the brakes 
is made. A baggy or leaky diaphragm 
12 in the signal whistle valve. Ob- 



structed ports and leaks in the signal 
line. Choke fittings with improper size 
openings. Signal valve stem 10 fitting 
too loose or too tight in bushing 9. 

Never use oil of any kind on any part 
of the signal equipment. Lubricate the 
parts of the signal reducing valve with 
a very fine grade of air brake graphite 
which is made for such purposes, and if 
it is necessary to lubricate the stem 10 
in the signal whistle valve, apply a thin 
coating of graphite. 

Test the signal equipment at regular 
intervals, and note action of reducing 
valve in opening and closing, the blasts 
of the whistle and amount of pressure 
carried in signal line. Examine all pipe 
connections and valves for leaks, and at 
once correct any defects that may exist. 



May, 1915 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



151 



Improved Locomotive Exhaust Nozzle 

Data Showing Increased Power in Draft 



A new design of locomotive 
nozzle has been developed on the loco- 
motive testing plant at Altoona, Pa., and 
the results as shown in the appended 
tables are of the most assuring kind that 
the device is really a marked improve- 
ment in the matter of sustaining and in- 
creasing the draft. The new nozzle, as 
shown in the accompanying illustrations, 
has a circular opening with tour triangu- 
lar projections, each of which extends 
out lYn inches from the periphery of the 
opening, and is 11/16 of an inch in width 
at its top face. The four projections di- 
minish the area of the opening 3.44 sq. in. 
in the nozzle shown in the drawing. 
The steel projections are machined to 
size and fastened in place by studs, so 
that the apex of each piece points in a 
downward direction. These projections 
will be drop forged in the future, thus 
saving the cost for machining; they will 
also be fastened permanently in place by 
electric welding, the object of which is 
to prevent their removal. 

In making up a nozzle of this type it 
has been the practice to bore the circular 
nozzle for the particular class of loco- 
motive on which it is to be tried J4 of 
an inch larger than the specified diam- 
eter. The four projections are then made 
to give an area equal to the difference 
between specified and bored out areas. 
This method reduces the cost of applica- 
tion to a minimum, and does not necessi- 
tate the making of a new nozzle. The 
purpose of the projections is to break up 
the continuity of the nearly cylindrical 
jet, which is produced by the old circular 
form of nozzle, and change it to one sim- 
ilar to a Maltese cross, thereby creating 
a greater vacuum in the front, and to aid 
in the entrainment of a larger volume 
of the gases. 

The performance obtained with the 
four internal projection nozzle has been 
equally as good, and in many instances 
superior to that given with other forms 
of nozzles designed in the past for ac- 
complishing the same purpose. Fre- 
quently, since the adoption of this nozzle, 
the steaming capacity of locomotives in 
road service has been considerably im- 
proved by substituting it in place of an- 
other form of nozzle. 

The new type of nozzle possesses a 
feature worthy of mention which gives it 
an advantage over the circular type, in 
that it is impossible to either increase or 
decrease its opening without breaking the 
welded projections. This, no doubt, will 
eliminate any tendency for an incompe- 
tent person to make unauthorized 
changes in the size of a standard nozzle, 



By F. A. GOODFELLOW 

Forenun Locomotive Testing Plant, Pennsylvania Railroad, 

exhaust which has been applied to a locomotive ; 
an occurrence which hitherto has hap- 
pened. This nozzle is fastened to the 
column without endeavoring to place it 
in a particular position with reference 
to the location of the projections. Ex- 
periments have proven that this does not 



FRONT 




BACK 



PLAN VIEW OF IMPROVED EXHAUST 
NOZZLE SHOWING PROJECTIONS. 

alter its performance and therefore, there 
is no possibility of the nozzle being in- 
correctly applied. 

A number of tests were made in the 
Locomotive Testing Plant with Atlantic, 
Pacific and Mikado types of locomotives, 
using the standard circular and four in- 
ternal projection nozzles. 




SECTION VIEW OF IMPROVED EXHAUST 
NOZZLE SHOWING PROJECTIONS. 

In order that the comparison between 
the different types of locomotives and the 
effect when using the improved exhaust 
nozzle may be completely understood, an 
appended table showing the general di- 
mensions of the locomotives is given, and 
by carefully noting the data it will be 
observed that a much better perform- 
ance in general was obtained from each 
of the locomotives when using the new 
type of nozzle, and especially is this true 
in the case of the Pacific and Mikado 
types of locomotives, both of which have 



Altoona, Pa 

boilers similar in design. The results as 
shown for the circular exhaust nozzle on 
the Mikado type of locomotive, were 
taken from a test after two efforts were 
made at that speed and cut-off. On the 
first test the average boiler pressure was 
184 pounds. The Pacific type of locomo- 
tive delivered an equivalent evaporation 
of 87,414 pounds per hour and 3,183.9 in- 
dicated horsepower with the four internal 
projection nozzle, while with the standard 
7-inch diameter circular nozzle, it was 
possible to obtain but 51,842 pounds 
equivalent evaporation per hour and 
2.241.5 indicated horsepower. 

The Mikado type locomotive, having 
smaller drivers and a longer stroke, de- 
veloped 79,675 pounds equivalent evapora- 
tion per hour compared with 58,539 
pounds obtained with the circular nozzle, 
and 2,835.5 indicated horsepower or an 
increase of 469 i. h. p. above what was 
developed with the use of the 7-inch 
circular nozzle. Comparing the per- 
formance of the Atlantic type locomotive 
when equipped with each of the two 
nozzles, there was obtained with the four 
internal projection nozzle, an increase in 
equivalent evaporation of 24.2 per cent, 
and 14.6 per cent, greater indicated horse- 
power. 

During the tests, dynamic pressure 
observations were taken of the gases leav- 
ing the stack. The pressures were fairly 
uniform in each case, indicating that the 
stack was completely filled. The con- 
siderably higher front end draft obtained 
with the new type of nozzle in each in- 
stance, is responsible for the remarkable 
results attained, enabling a much greater 
rate of combustion and a higher degree 
of superheat to be obtained. These tests 
have served to demonstrate the efficiency 
of the new nozzle and they further in- 
dicate that a greater locomotive perform- 
ance may be obtained when spreading the 
exhaust steam jet, from the cylinders, by 
the use of the internal projections. 

It may be added that the improved 
nozzle has been covered by patent recently 
secured by the author, and the introduc- 
tion of this interesting improvement into 
popular use may be confidently antici- 
pated. 

The reliability of the data furnished may 
be regarded as indisputable in so far as 
data furnished by a thoroughly equipped 
testing plant is of value, but arrangements 
are being made to make tests at an early 
date with locomotives in service and we 
expect to be able to report further on this 
improvement, and if the facts already on 
hand are borne out, a real gain in fuel 
economy will have been made. 



152 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



May, 1915. 



Types and Dimensions of Locomotives Used in Testing 
Improved Exhaust Nozzle 

Atlantic Pacific Mikado 

Total weight in working order, lbs 240,000 309,140 315,600 

Weight on drivers, working order, lbs.. 133,100 202,880 235,800 

Cylinders (simple) inches 23^*26 27x28 27x30 

Diameter of drivers, inches 80 80 62 

Heating surface, tube (water side) sq. ft. 2.034.50 3.728.64 3,715.71 
Heating surface, firebox, including arch 

tubes, sq. ft 232.74 306.77 301.51 

Heating surface, superheater (fireside). 810.60 1.171.85 1.171.63 
Heating surface, total (based on water 

side of tubes) including superheater, 

sq. ft 3,677.8 5,204.40 5,188.85 

Heating surface, total (based on fireside 

of tubes) including superheater, sq. ft. 3,405.6 4,863.96 4,847.73 

Grate area, sq. ft 55.79 69.26 70.03 

Boiler pressure, lbs. per sq. in 205 205 205 

Valve, type 12 inch 12 inch 12 inch 

Piston Piston Piston 

Valve motion, type Walschaerts Walschaerts Walschaerts 

Firebox, type Wide Wide Wide 

Belpaire Belpaire Belpaire 

Tubes, number 242 237 237 

Tubes outside diameter, inches 2 2% 2 z /i, 

Flues (for superheater), numbers 36 40 40 

Flues (outside diameter), inches 5.375 5.5 5.5 

Tubes, length, inches 179.71 227.23 226.51 

The following table gives a comparison subjected to no other changes during the 

between the maximum results which were tests which were of one hour or more 

obtained from the locomotives when using in duration. A wide open throttle was 

eacli of the two nozzles. Aside from used in each instance. The working pres- 

changing nozzles, the locomotives were sure was 205 pounds per square inch. 

Type of Locomotive Atlantic Pacific Mikado 

Four Circular Four Circular Four Circular 

Internal 6.25 in. Internal 7 in. Internal 7 in. 

Projec- Diam- Projec- Diam- Projec- Diam- 

Kind of Nozzle tions eter tions eter tions eter 

Area of nozzle, sq. in.. 30.86 30.68 38.19 38.45 38.08 38.45 

Speed, m. p. h 46.9 47.0 47.3 37.8 28.3 29.3 

Actual cut-off ir per cent. 52.0 46.0 60.3 46.4 60.8 51.1 

Average boiler pressure. 204.9 184.S 201.3 202.2 204.7 204.4 

Draft in smokebox 15.1 8.3 18.8 5.7 14.9 8.6 

Draft in ashpan 0.40 0.41 0.71 0.51 0.60 0.64 

Dry coal fired per hr., lbs. 8,271 6,942 11,813 5,146 9,312 6,621 

Dry coal per sq. ft. grate. 148.3 124.4 170.6 74.3 133.0 94.6 

Water evap. per hr., lbs.. 44,628 35,928 65.400 39,977 59,508 46,170 

Equiv. evap. per hr., lbs.58,641 46,771 87,414 51,842 79,675 58,539 

Superheat, degrees, Fahr. 204.2 175.9 215.2 157.2 183.5 122.2 

Indicated horsepower. . .2.304.8 1,901.1 3,183.9 2,241.5 2,835.5 2,366.7 

Inexpensive Repair of a Common Break of 

the 9\ Inch Air Brake Pump, and Grip 

for Lifting Fronl End Doors 

By F. W. BENTLEY, Chicago & Northwestern Railway, Missouri Valley, la. 



The 9^-inch air pump suffers one 
breakage as a common occurrence, and 
that is of the holding lugs or ears by 
which it fastens to the pump brackets on 
tie locomotive. If any number of pumps 
which have been in service for some 
time are examined, about 30 per cent, of 



them will be found to have one if not 
more of the lugs broken off and repaired. 
If the cylinder is not yet worn and 
consequently bored to the Kmit, then of 
course an attempt is made to repair it in 
order to reclaim an expensive cylinder. 
In the majority of cases the repair is sat- 



isfactorily accomplished by the applica- 
tion of a wrought iron patch shaped, 
fitted and riveted to that portion of the 
bracket boss towards the middle of the 
cylinder. This is a piece of work the 




REPAIR ON* AIR PUMP. 

expense of which at a low estimate will 
run as high as $3, or perhaps more, ac- 
cording to the nature of the patch made 
and the method deemed satisfactory to 
hold it securely in place. 

The accompanying sketch shows how a 




GRIP FOR LIFTING FRONT END DOOR. 

lug is applied by the welding flame at a 
cost estimate of not over $1. The broken 
lug is held in place by a strap during the 
operation. Ground off to allow a space 
for filling, the lug can be loaded or 
welded on by a filling, and be as strong 



i\ -- 





X4'S*r 30**™ 



r--*i«--J 



DETAILS OF GRIP FOR FRONT END 
DOOR. 

at that point as if held by the original 
metal of the body. By means of the 
flame the mishap can be repaired more 
quickly and cheaply than through the 
application of a patch of any nature. 



May, 1915 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



153 



In regard to front end doors it is well 
known that the cast iron front end door 
is an unwieldly arrangement to handle, 
not so much because of its weight, but 
through shape and the place it occupies 
on the locomotive insofar as removing 
and applying it is concerned. The aver- 
age pilot does not safely accommodate 



enough men to lift it in place, and for 
that reason a shop where safety is ob- 
served, generally requires the doors to 
be lifted in place with tackle blocks, so 
that in case of accident workmen will not 
be at any time in danger of the falling 
door should something give way. 
The accompanying sketch shows a 



simple grip jig for holding the door 
safely while it is being raised into place 
on the ring. The set screw catches the 
door below the putty face or raised rim 
by which it is impossible for it to slip. 
The door can be caught central and bal- 
anced perfectly as it is pulled .up and 
placed on the lugs of the door rim. 



Bridge Repairs on the Canadian Pacific Railway 

By J. G. KOPPELL, Mechanical Electrical Superintendent of Bridges, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada 



In draw bridges which are in service 
since 1887 the end jacks and the jack 
pins are practically worn out and the 
pin seats are worn oval about one- 
quarter of an inch. The new pins were 
.made one-quarter of an inch larger in 
diameter and a suitable reamer was 
secured to ream out the pin holes, to 
take the new pins. 

The accompanying illustration shows 
the arrangement how the reaming was 
done. The reamer was fitted on man- 
drel of suitable link and suitable bear- 
ing from cast iron were provided, to 
steady the mandrel, and three holes 
were drilled in thirds to turn the man- 
drel with a bar and a ratchet was in- 
serted on the other end to feed the 
reamer. The total distance per hole to 
be reamed was 3 x 2 l / 2 inches and four 
holes in all, which were done by three 
men in three days' time. Two men 
were working on the reamer and 
the third man was watching for trains, 
and when trains were in sight then he 
signaled and the reamers were taken 
out of the cut, because there was severe 
rattling when the train was going over 



the bridge which might have broken 
the reamer. The average number of 



trains per day was one train per each 
hour. 




DKTAILS OF METHOD OF BRIDGE REPAIR. 



The Origin of Armored Railroad Cars Unquestionably the Product 

of the American Civil War 



In the March issue of Railway and 
Locomotive Engineering an item ap- 
peared in reference to armored cars in 
warfare, and it was stated that they 
first appeared in the Anglo-Egyptian 
war in 1882. The fact is that the 
armored car was in service twenty years 
before the war referred to. Our own 
Civil war originated them. Attached is 
a picture of one in use on the old Phila- 
delphia-Baltimore Railroad. The illus- 
tration appeared in Frank Leslie's illus- 
trated periodical on May 18, 1864. No 
better proof could be furnished of the 
authenticity of the fact that such a car 
was in use at that time. No doubt some 
of the older readers may recall seeing the 
car. Probably, however, it may never be 
known what became of the armored 
curiosity, any more than is known of 
Robert Fulton's first steamer that trav- 
ersed the waters of the Hudson river, 
except that part of the timber was said 



By L. LODIAN, Manhattan, N. Y. 

to have been used as planking on some 
jetty-head. 

There appears to be no great varia- 




KAll.ROAD BATTERY ON THE PHILADEL- 
PHIA & BALTIMORE RAILWAY. 
(Reprint Leslie's Weekly, May 18, 1864.) 

tion even today in armored car design 
from the initial effort of half a century 
ago. Pictures are appearing in numer- 
ous periodicals at the period of writing 



of those in use by the European bellig- 
erents, and in general appearance and 
outline they are about the same as the 
original. The chief variation in their 
use being tha.t the war-going locomotive 
is also sheathed in armor, whereas that 
in use in the sixties was entirely unpro- 
tected except in front, and then only by 
reason of the mail-clad car being placed 
in front to do the fighting. 

Thus it is established that the Amer- 
ican Civil war produced the armored 
railroad car, just as it originated iron- 
clad war vessels. It will be remembered 
that the steamer "Merrimac," renamed 
the "Virginia," had her decks and sides 
covered with rails from a Southern rail- 
road yard, and worked much havoc 
among the wooden war ships of the 
North, until the Southern craft met more 
than her match in the iron clad and re- 
volving turreted "Monitor," which revo- 
lutionized battleship construction. 



154 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



May. 1915. 



Appliances for Grinding Header Joints and Steam 

Pipe Rings 



By CHARLES MARKEL 

Shop Foreman, Chicago & Northwestern Railway. Clinton, Iowa 



Attached print shows a new idea and 
appliance just completed and doing very 
successful work at Clinton shops, cutting 
the time of grinding one superheater 



fresh emery is applied, the trouble being 
that the moment the motor was held the 
least bit out of level, it would tip the ring 
and start it to jump and work its way off 



carried in tool room of various sizes to 
tit all sizes of steam pipe rings, and all 
that is required to change from one size 
block to other is to remove nut on end 




DETAILS OF DEVICE FOR GRINDING STEAM PIPE RINGS IN SUPERHEATER HEADER. 



header flat joint from four hours to one 
hour. Before this rig was made we sim- 
ply stood up in smoke box and ground 
the two rings by hand, which was labori- 
ous work, and averaged four hours to 
complete one ring. The rig shown is 
made from fs-inch boiler plate, punched 
out as shown to lighten it, and two 1 Ms- 
inch holes located in frame to suit holes 
in header, which holes contain bolts 
which hold the rig in place. In -the cen- 
ter of frame is screwed a piece of cast 
iron 3 inches diameter and 4 inches long, 
with hole through it 1 13/16 inches diam- 
eter to receive sleeve which is held in 
place by nut and jam nut. This sleeve 
in turn has 1 1/16-inch hole bored in it 
'4 inch eccentric. The 1 1/16 inch hole 
receives the spindle, one end to fit air 
motor, and the other end has attached to 
it a knuckle joint and star with four 
set screws to hold ring to be ground. 
The whole machine, it will be noted, is 
held 5'/2 inches from face of header by 
the three 1-inch pieces riveted to frame. 
When in position ready to grind, oil and 
emery is easily applied to ring by free 
movement of knuckle allowing ring to 
be tipped up to apply oil and emery. 
The ring is revolved by air motor, and 
moved to different positions on its seat 
when grinding by turning the eccentric 
bushing by the two handles shown, which 
gives the ring a movement of ' ', inch on 
its grinding face, or, in other words, the 
eccentric motion gives the ring the same 
movement that it gets by hand grinding. 
Referring to the other sketch, we have 
always found it quite difficult to grind 
the flat joint on steam pipe rings by air 
motor on account of tendency of ring 
to chatter and jump especially when 



the surface being ground. The attached 
rig shows our method of motor grinding 
all flat joints by knuckle joint attachment, 
which allows the ring being ground to 
have all kinds of freedom to adjust itself 



of stem. It will be observed that bottom 
of block is turned down back % inch and 
1 _> inch smaller in diameter than hole in 
steam pipe, which acts as guide to hold 
ring in place, also to give ring the wab- 



To FIT A I R MO TOR 



* NJCKLg JOINT 




OILE.H. PLA-TE 
Y/ooo SLOCK T e PiT S TEAM PlFg Bins 



i_ 



"W 



<Hr 



Sj-iAU-£R Tj<fA{ 



J" *3 S WAJ He* 



a _mfii£_j£L_srfAM p/pp. to alluy as.-aoiHi 

. ■ I. ~- f?lN<i IN DlFFEP?,E&tT-_P«sj_T/OMS, 

^^gl- -f By REMOVING ^" NUT. DIFFERENT 

sjZj£. Block s, ca* be usfp 




To f'T VARIOUS SiZE RtHCS 



FOR GRINDING FLAT JOINT 
BETWEEN STEAM PIPE AND 
STEAM PIPE RINQ 



DETAILS OF APPLIANCE FOR GRINDING FLAT JOINT BETWEEN STEAM PIPE 

\NI> STEAM PIPE JOINT. 

to flat joint regardless of what angle you bling motion which is required. The idea 

hold the air motor. It will be noted that of the knuckle joint, which is the secret 

bottom part of knuckle has ?s-inch stem of successful flat joint grinder, was 

and ' 4-inch plate washers top and bot- suggested to me by Machinist Frank 

torn of wood block, which blocks are Shields, of Clinton shops. 



Mav, 1915 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



155 



Signal Accidents and Cab Control 

By A. FRASER SINCLAIR 



I suppose the dream of railway men 
of an infallible system of signaling is as 
old as railways themselves. Certainly in 
Britain much ingenuity has been devoted 
to the problem, much whitish gray mat- 
ter in many brain-pans has been excited 
and worried in efforts to evolve some- 
thing of a really practical and practicable 
nature, but it cannot be said that any- 
thing beyond promising experimental ap- 
paratus has up till now been produced. 
In recent years the need for automatic 
warning signals whether by sound or by 
vision has become clamant. Trains have 
grown in size, and their speed has been 
increased. When they were smaller, 
lighter and slower the firemen could as- 
sist the driver in the lookout for signals, 
and they could so divide up the work on 
the foot-plate that one pair of eyes was 
always on the signs ahead. Now, how- 
ever, on many of the heavier routes, there 
are long stretches on end when the fire- 
man's back is never straight, and the 
driver has to attend to the various other 
duties in the cab; and in some cases has 
even to go outside, oil can in hand, to 
attend to minor points requiring lubri- 
cation. This came out in connection 
with an accident which occurred at Ais- 
gill, in the north of England, recently. 
Another accident of the kind occurred at 
Ill'ord, in the east of London. For some 
reason unknown a fast heavy train ran 



past the signals, alleged to have been at 
danger, and crashed into the side of a 
suburban train crossing from the east- 
going to the west-going lines. That, 
however, by the way. At a meeting of 
the British Institution of Mechanical En- 
gineers held towards the end of last year 
the subject was under discussion, but it 
cannot be said that any very optimistic 
feeling prevailed regarding a solution in 
the near future. It would appear that 
the Great Western Railway has in use a 
system of audible signalling by which the 
attention of the engine crew is attracted 
without distracting their attention from 
what is going on ahead. But even that 
system has to be supplemented by means 
of visible signals within the cab for 
stopping purposes. There appeared to 
be a considerable diversity of opinion as 
to whether any solution was possible, 
and some of the members doubted the 
wisdom of attempting to substitute life- 
less mechanism for human vigilance. 
Moreover there are very great mechanic- 
al difficulties in the growing interchange 
of rolling stock. On some railways the 
signal ramps are between the rails while 
they are outside the rails on others. 
This appears to be a question which will 
have to stand till the railways become 
the property of the nation, a development 
which the war has brought within the 
range of practical policies. 



The Defects in Shoes and Wedges 

By A. E. SCHEETZ, Shamokin, Pa. 



In the construction of the modern lo- 
comotive the details of materials have 
been gone into pretty thoroughly, yet I 
think there has been some parts over- 
looked that could be made better. And 
that is the material from which driving 
box shoes and wedges are made. On 
the majority of roads cast iron is used 
with a mingling of a brass composition. 

It seems to me that no machine can 
be better than its foundation, and surely 
the frame, boxes, shoes and wedges con- 
stitute the foundation of a locomotive. 

Taking cast iron shoes and wedges first 
of all you have the varying hardness of 
the metal to contend with, which is a 
source of trouble in keeping the drivers 
perfectly square 'and in tram, since one 
shoe or wedge may wear so much faster 
than the others, thus throwing a pair of 
wheels ahead or back, or cocking them 
towards the others. This may be small, 
but if pairs are thrown in opposite di- 
rections the pound will not be long in 
making itself felt. 

Another trouble is the pulling the bot- 



tom out of the wedge through the recess 
made for the wedge bolt head. Another 
fault is the breaking of the flanges of the 
shoes and wedges. This in itself should 
be enough cause on some classes of en- 
gines having thin flanges to determine to 
use something better than cast iron. I 
have seen cases, two in one day, where 
engines that had been overhauled had 
broken flanges, yet neither engine had 
made two hundred miles. 

Now for brass shoes and wedges there 
is no disputing that so long as they re- 
tain their shape and are operative they 
make a fairly good shoe or wedge, but 
how long do they retain their shape ? I 
have seen where they did right well ; then 
I have seen cases where one wedge re- 
quired 14 inch of lining before the op- 
posite wedge required any, and when the 
wedge was renewed it showed plainly 
that it was pounded out of shape, not 
worn. I have examined shoes and 
wedges that have not been in service 
more than a month, yet they were worn 
more than 1/16 inch ; they were well 



lubricated and those showed signs of 
stresses by compression or pounding and 
pinching the frame. It no doubt may be 
shi iwn by figures that the factor of 
safety for compression is fair, yet they 
show stresses by compressi"ii ; this is no 
doubt caused by the tremendous blows 
that are struck as the reciprocating parts 
are brought to rest at the end of each 
stroke, and as the crank pin crosses the 
top or bottom quarter this blow becomes 
greatest when there is the most lost mo- 
tion between the follower head and shoe 
and wedge. This will take up the play 
between the box shoe and wedge, the 
axle in the box and both ends of the 
main rod, and is in all engines really 
more than what is expected. This 
pound is so terrific that brass shoes and 
wedges cannot stand up under the strain, 
especially pool engines of 80 tons or 
more. Of course there are always fav- 
orable conditions and exceptions. 

Then taking in account the expansion 
of brass by heat to that of steel we find 
that brass expands nearly twice as much 
as steel; this has a bad effect when jour- 
nals have a tendency to heat, causing the 
boxes to stick. 

Another factor is the softness of brass 
according to tests made by A. F. Shore 
with the Schroscope. Mild steel S c. = 
26 to 30; gray castings = 39, and soft 
brass = 12, so we see by these tests that 
either steel or cast iron have an ad- 
vantage over brass so far as hardness 
goes. 

Now why not try steel ; it has a great 
tensile strength, a good compressive 
strength, and a hardness next to gray 
cast iron. It is more uniform than cast 
iron. Its coefficient of expansion would 
be practically the same as that of the 
box and frame. The flange of a steel 
wedge could not be broken off so easily. 
neither could the bottom be pulled out ; 
they would be much cheaper to make 
than brass. 

The only reason that I know of for not 
using steel for this purpose is they say 
that steel to steel does not do very well, 
but I do not think this sufficient proof 
without trial that such is the case, for I 
contend that this is not purely sliding 
friction, but is pounding. I have seen 
steel liners put between the wedge and 
box, and when they were taken out they 
showed a clean, smooth, compact sur- 
face, and I can say that it was not caused 
by the use of oil as they were perfectly 
dry. If the same steel that the boxes 
are made of does not give satisfaction, 
why not try a composition somewhat dif- 
ferent. 

So far as I am able to find out there 
has never been any steel shoes or wedges 
used without a liner of some sort be- 
tween the box and shoe and wedge. 
Possibly there is some of your readers 
that have tried steel; if so, let us hear 
from them and their results. 



156 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



May, 1915. 



Mikado Type of Locomotives for the Georgia Railroad 

First of Their Kind Running Between Augusta and Atlanta 



The Lima Locomotive Corporation has 
constructed for the Georgia Railroad 
three Mikado type locomotives of heavy 
modern design. Ihese locomotives were 
designed by the Lima Locomotive Cor- 
poration from specifications prepared by 
Mr. F. ( >. Walsh, superintendent of 
motive power and equipment, and they 
represent the first engines of this type 
introduced on ihe Georgia Railroad. The 
design is entirely in accordance with 
modern ideas of a standard Mikado type 
locomotive which can usually be con- 
sidered as one weighing close to 220,000 
pmmds on drivers, and having 63-inch 
diameter wheel. The railroad company 
appreciated the necessity of modernizing 
this standard design, and therefore in- 
eluded in their equipment superheaters; 
brick arches; pneumatic I'tredoors ; power 
reverse gears; graphite cylinder lubrica- 
tion, econorm front engine truck and 



curve is equal to an 0.82 grade on a 
straight track. The engines are so far in 
advance of anything hitherto in service 
on the Georgia Railroad that in com- 
parison with the ten -wheel locomotives, 
still in service, with twenty-inch cylinders. 
the new locomotives have nearly double 
the capacity, and aid greatly in the 
economic dispatch of the company's grow- 
ing business. 

The accompanying illustrations show 
that these locomotives are strongly de- 
signed, with heavy frames well cross- 
braced, and with large piston valves to 
distribute the steam to the 27-inch diam- 
eter cylinders. These valves are operated 
by the Southern valve gear, which is now 
quite well known in the district in which 
these engines will operate. This gear is 
neat in appearance and is reported to be 
quite effective. 

The Chambers throttle valves have 



steel. Equipment includes electric head- 
light, with turbine located just in front 
of cab. 

The water supply is obtained by two 
Edna injectors discharging into a double 
top check manufactured by the same 
company. The strainers are of special 
design patented by the Lima Locomo- 
tive Corporation. The cab and running 
boards are of steel plate and the rear 
deck is of cast steel equipped with 
economy radial buffer connection to the 
tender. The coal wetting device is sup- 
plied by the Edna Brass Manufacturing 
Company. The 9,000 gallon water tank 
is of water bottom construction and has 
a retreating collar of neat design. 

The general dimensions and ratios of 
this type of locomotive are as follows : 

Gauge, 4 ft. 8j/> ins.; service, freight; 
fuel, soft coal; tractive effort. 53,200 lbs.; 
weight in working order, 280,800 lbs.; 




MIKADO 2-8-2 TYTE OF LOCOMOTIVE l'OR THE GEORGIA RAILUOAI >. 



I i ►. Walsh, Supt. Motive Power and Equipment. 

the "Austin" radial trailing truck, both 
of which represent the latest ideas in 
guiding and tailing devices for large loco- 
motives. The tender is also carried on 
economy tender trucks, which are the first 
introduced into this section of the 
country. 

It is interesting to learn that these 
locomotives are making an excellent 
record of performances over the 171 
miles of railroad between Augusta and 
Atlanta. About one-third of the distance 
is taken up with curves of which there are 
146, the maximum being three degrees. 
There are only 7 miles of level grade, 
there being 131 ascending grades with an 
aggregate length of 96 miles, the total 

cents being 2,699 feet, and 113 descend- 
ing grades amounting to 1,786 feet, 
Atlanta being 913 feet in elevation ahove 
ftugusta The maximum grade is a 0.7 per 
100 feet or 37 feet per mile, uncompen- 
sated for curvature, which on a 3 degree 



been applied with outside connection and 
vertical lever. The auxiliary dome, just 
back of the main dome, is made in the 
shape of a manhole to admit of ready- 
inspection of the boiler without taking 
down the throttle and other appliances. 
The Schmidt superheater is of the usual 
design with steam pipes and is made up 
of 36 elements. The frame braces at 
the main pedestal are extra heavy, and 
the equipment embraces the economy 
"Cole" patent box, the journal being 22 
inches long, to overcome the pound that 
occurs at that point, especially when a 
superheating device is used. 

The air brakes are served by two 
11 -inch Westinghouse pumps, discharg- 
ing into reservoirs of 75,000 cu. in. 
capacity. Steel pilot beams are used at 
the front end and these are heavily re- 
inforced by a cast steel filling piece which 
also acts as a guide for the engine truck 
center pin. All axles are of heat treated 



Lima Locomotive Corporation, Builders. 

weight on drivers, 213,000 lbs. ; weight on 
leading truck. 23,200 lbs. ; weight on 
trailing truck, 44,600 lbs. ; weight of en- 
gine and tender in working order, 454, NIK) 
lbs. 

YVheelbase — Driving, 16 ft. 6 ins.; total. 
35 ft. 2 ins. ; engine and tender, 66 ft. 
11J4 ins. 

Cylinders — Kind, simple; diameter and 
stroke, 27 ins. x 30 ins. 

Valves — Kind, piston ; diameter, 16 ins. ; 
greatest travel, 6 ins.; steam lap, 1 in.; 
exhaust clearance, line and line ; lead. 
3/16-in. ; valve gear, type, Southern. 

Wheels — Driving, diameter over tires. 
63 ins.; tires, thickness, Z}/z ins.; journals, 
main, diameter and length, 11 ins. \ _'_' 
ins. ; others, diameter and length, 10 ins. 
x 12 ins. 

Engine — Truck wheels, diameter, 30 
ins. ; journals, 6 ins. x 12 ins. 

Trailing — Truck wheels, diameter, 42 
ins.; journals, 8 ins. x 14 ins. 



May, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



157 




Boiler — Style, straight top, radial 
stayed; steam pressure, 180 lbs.; outside 
diameter of the first ring, 82 ins. 

Firebox — Length and width, 120^6 ins. 
x 84 ins.; plates, thickness, }i-in. x Ji-in. ; 
water space, 5 ins. all around. 

Tubes — Material and thickness, sti el, 
No. 11 B. W. G. ; number and outside 
diameter, 275 — 2 ins. 

Flues — Material and thickness, steel 
No. 9 B. W. G. ; number and outside 
diameter, 36 — 5->£ ins. 

Tubes and flues, length, 20 ft. 6 ins. 

Heating Surface — Tubes and flues. 3.974 
sq. ft.; firebox and arch tubes, 262 sq 
ft. ; total evaporative, 4,236 sq. ft. 

Superheating surface, 865 sq. ft. 

Equivalent heating surface, 5.533 sq. ft. 
Smoke Stack — Diameter, 19 ins. at choke ; 
height above rail, 15 ft. 5 ins. 

Tender — Frame, type, steel channels, 
wheels, diameter, 33 ins.; journals, 
diameter and length, 6 ins. x 11 ins.; 
water capacity. 9.000 gals. ; fuel capacity, 
13 tons 

Ratios — Weight on drivers -4- tractive 
effort, 4. 

Total Weight -r- tractive effort. 5.28. 

Tractive Effort x Diameter Drivers -f- 
Equivalent heating surface, 600. 

Evaporative Heating Surface -H Grate 
area, 150. 

Firebox Heating Surface H- Tubes and 
flue heating surface, 6.6 per cent. 

Weight on Drivers -f- Equivalent heat- 
ing surface, 38.5. 

Total Weight -=- Equivalent heating 
surface, 52.7. 

Volume, both cylinders, cubic feet. 
19.86. 

Equivalent Heating Surface -r- Cylinder 
volume, 268. 

Grate Area -r- Cylinder volume. 3 54. 



Railroad Statistics. 
In railroads there are said to be 

1,500,000 holders of stocks and bonds, 
owners of this industry, representing at 
least 6,000,000 persons in the United 
States whom it thus helps to support. 
Railway bonds constitute 49 per cent, of 
all bonds held by savings banks. 

20,000,000 persons, over one-fifth of the 
population, are directly or indirectly in- 
terested in the financial results of this 
industry. 

$2,164,851,210 paid out by this industry 
in 1913 for expenses of all kinds, 
equivalent to $23.33 for every man. woman 
and child in the United States. Rail- 
road income flows back to the people. 

$129,191,880 paid in taxes in 1913 for 
the support of National, State and local 
government, equivalent to $1.43 for every 
inhabitant of the United States. The 
railroads are the country's largest tax- 
payers. 



158 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



May, 1915. 



Department of Questions and Answers 



Brake Horse Power. 

L. E., Holyoke, Mass., asks: How is 
the mechanical efficiency of a large sta- 
tionary engine usually found when unable 
to apply a transmission dynamometer to 
the fly-wheel or first motion shaft ? A. — 
There is an instrument for measuring the 
power which an engine can give off for 
external work. The form of brake com- 
monly used in the shops consists of 
wooden blocks, screwed to a light strap 
of hoop-iron or steel. It is best applied 
to a flywheel, and should be screwed to- 
gether with a spring under the nut, so as 
to give a graduated pressure. Weights 
are hung from a hook, and the motion is 
checked by stops or chain. It should be 
well lubricated, and the wheel should be 
quite smooth. A brake on a six-foot di- 
ameter flywheel of five-inch face, at 150 
revolutions per minute, easily absorbs 
thirty horsepower, and can be kept run- 
ning for ten hours continuously without 
undue heating. The brake power is thus 
obtained. The common rule is to multi- 
ply the circumference of the brake circle 
in feet by the number of revolutions per 
minute, and by the suspended weight _ in 
pounds, and divide by 33,000; or, C = cir- 
cumference in feet of brake circle; R = 
revolutions per minute ; W = weight 
suspended. 

CRW 

Then brake horsepower = 

33.000 

Another form of brake, known as 
Floude's brake, is based upon hydraulic 
principles, the work being absorbed in 
overcoming the resistance of vanes in 
churning the water contained in a case. 
The load may be regulated by a stop 
valve, which, more or less, chokes a by- 
pass, thus altering the resistance that the 
water offers to the motion of the vanes. 



to the age limit it is generally from 
twenty-one to forty-five years, but in 
these and many other matters each rail- 
road company makes its own regulations. 
There is no special examinations of ap- 
plicants for wipers other than their ap- 
parent physical fitness, and their discharge 
will soon follow if found to be physically 
unlit for the service. 



Testing Applicants for Railroad 
Service. 
M. De S. Albin, Cal., writes: What 
is the prevailing method used by the rail- 
road companies to test eyesight and hear- 
ing? What per cent, must be reached in 
physical examination to be accepted for 
engine service? What is the age limit 
at which an applicant will be accepted 
for engine service? Is there an exami- 
nation for engine wipers? A. — Colored 
threads are submitted to the applicant for 
distinguishing colors, and printed letters 
are placed at certain distances, and both 
eyes are tested separately to ascertain at 
what distance the applicant can distinguish 
the letters. The examiner uses his own 
judgment in accordance with the com- 
pany's regulations in estimating the phys- 
ical capabilities of applicants. In regard 



Heat in Smokebox. 

S. N., Fitchburg, Mass., asks: What is 
the variation of heat in locomotive 
smoke-boxes when working, or standing 
still for any length of time? A. — When 
a locomotive is working hard under a 
high pressure, say 200 pounds per square 
inch, the heat in the smoke-box will run 
from 600 to 800 degs. Fahrenheit. The 
longer the flues the lower will be the 
temperature. With the engine standing 
still for any length of time, the heat will 
correspond nearly to the heat of the 
boiler. If the steam was at 30 pounds 
pressure the temperature would be 250 
degrees, at 135 pounds, 350 degrees, and 
at 250 pounds, 400 degrees. 



Brake Efficiency. 
W. H. B., Leeds, England, writes : 
Will you please explain: (1) What is 
meant by the term "an overall efficiency 
of 10 per cent.'' as used in brake cal- 
culations for train stop distances in the 
November issue? (2) Are two brake 
shoes per car wheel more efficient than 
one shoe per wheel in stopping a car 
when the same percentage of braking 
power is used in both cases. (3) Would 
a brake be more effective if a brake gear 
could be arranged to pull the shoe down 
on top of the wheel instead of from in 
front or back of it? A. — The term 
"overall efficiency" as used in connection 
with the article you mention means per- 
centage of brake rigging efficiency multi- 
plied by the average coefficient of fric- 
tion obtained, or, in other words, if the 
foundation brake gear is of such stabil- 
ity and the work imposed upon the 
brake shoe is not beyond its capacity to 
such an extent but that. 10 lbs. actual 
retarding force can be obtained from the 
shoe on the wheel for every 100 lbs. cal- 
culated emergency braking ratio, the 
overall efficiency of the brake may be 
said to be 10 per cent. You will under- 
stand that in the design and installation 
of a brake the required pressure per 
brake shoe in pounds is calculated from 
the cylinder value (in pounds force de- 
livered from the push rod) multiplied 
through the brake levers, and the poorer 



the design of foundation brake arrange- 
ment the greater the loss in power trans- 
mitted, especially when maximum brak- 
ing force is used, hence the term "per 
cent, of brake rigging efficiency." 

The Westinghouse-Galton observations 
of the coefficients of brake shoe friction 
that may be obtained were conducted in 
England in 1878, and are still an author- 
ity and reliable reference so far as they 
are applied to light construction of vehi- 
cles, moderate shoe pressures, and com- 
paratively low brake shoe temperatures, 
but for modern construction of cars and 
locomotives Mr. Turner has discovered 
and repeatedly demonstrated that the 
average coefficient of brake shoe friction 
that can be obtained with the maximum 
braking forces now developed cannot ex- 
ceed 10 per cent. (2) The two shoe per 
wheel installation known as the "clasp 
type of foundation brake gear" is not 
only more efficient than the standard 
single shoe design, but is an absolute 
necessity from a viewpoint of an efficient 
emergency brake for modern heavy 
trains running at high rates of speed. For 
light vehicles it cannot be said to be a 
necessity, but where brake shoe pres- 
sures are now so high that new shoes are 
completely worn out between terminals, 
where from % to Y\ of an inch of metal 
is worn from the shoe in a single stop, 
and where the temperature becomes high 
enough to warp the shoes and glaze the 
surfaces, and in some instances welds the 
steel back of the shoe to the beam, the 
clasp brake is necessary as it not only 
permits of halving the shoe pressure, 
thus lowering the degree of heat gen- 
erated (in the brake shoes), and pro- 
viding a greater area for dissipating the 
temperature, but it also makes possible 
the use of a much higher total brake 
leverage ratio which has in itself con- 
stituted quite an air brake problem dur- 
ing the past 6 years. (3) We do not know 
of any attempts to locate the brake shoe 
in a manner that it would pull down on 
top of the wheel, consequently could not 
give you the results of any experiments 
or any information of practical value. 
You may have conceived this idea from 
the construction of brake shoe testing 
machines where the shoe is pulled down 
on the wheel by weights suspended from 
the brake lever, but so far as the brake 
shoe effect alone is concerned the point 
of contact will not materially alter the 
results as the principal differences in 
braking effect from different locations of 
the shoe are due to outside influences 
such as wedging effect and absorption of 
power by the shoe hangers, and in low- 
ering of pressure from an increase of 
brake piston travel. 



May, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTH E ENGINEERING. 



159 



Mechanical and Scientific Notes 



Grinding Copper. 
In grinding copper on a carborundum 
wheel the copper invariably clogs. By 
rubbing tallow on the wheel this is pre- 
vented, and apparently the tallow does 
not interfere with the cutting qualities 
of the wheel. 



Hardening Cutting Tools. 
In hardening high speed steel taps, 
threading dies, reamers and milling cut- 
ters, it is good practice to insist on slow 
preheating in a furnace at 1,500 degs. 
Fahrenheit, and then submit to a tem- 
perature of 2,200 degs., or move to an 
adjacent . furnace. 



Bluing Steel Screws. 

Fill an iron pan nearly full of clean 
mahogany sawdust, and heat it to a dull 
red heat, and pass the articles through 
it, in and out, until the required color is 
obtained. The screws should be well 
polished and free from oil or grease, and 
not to be touched by the fingers before 
inserting in the pan. The higher the 
polish the brighter will the color be. If 
the screws are rubbed with powdered 
quicklime before inserting in the pan, all 
traces of grease will be thoroughly re- 
moved. 



Tractive Resistance. 

The tractive resistance on straight, 
level railroads is from 6 pounds to 18 
pounds per ton, according to velocity; on 
tramways, 26 pounds to 33 pounds; on 
good stone pavement, from 44 pounds to 
55 pounds; on good macadam roads, 44 
pounds to 67 pounds, and on sand roads, 
from 130 pounds to 220 pounds. 



Mottled Effect on Hardened Metal. 
To secure a mottled effect on case- 
hardened work it is recommended that 
instead of dipping the part to be hard- 
ened all at once in the hardening bath. 
the dipping should be done jerkily. The 
result is that a series of mottled bars will 
be shown across the work, each bar de- 
noting the position at the touching of the 
bath as the article was momentarily ar- 
rested in the plunge. 



Blacking Brass. 
Pour a strong solution of washing 
soda into a saturated solution of copper 
sulphate, then pour off the liquid from 
the resulting light-blue precipitate. Take 
the latter, dry it, then dissolve it in 
liquid ammonia. This will give a jet 
black color to brass when used fresh, 
but it will change to brown when the so- 
lution has been used for a time. The 
brass must be perfectly clean when the 
solution is applied. 



To Prevent Rust. 

The following preparation will keep ma- 
chinery clear for months under ordinary 
circumstances, as. for instance, in a 
show-room. Dissolve an ounce of cam- 
phor in one pound of melted lard and 
add enough plumbago powder to make 
the mixture the color of iron. Clean the 
machinery, and smear it with the mix- 
ture. After it has stood for a day rub 
the work clean with a soft linen cloth. 
This will absolutely prevent rust. 



Welding Steel to Iron. 

Make a flux compound consisting of 
iron or steel filings 100, salammoniac 10, 
borax 6, balsam of copaiba 5. Steel 
heated red, carefully cleaned of scale, the 
composition spread on it and the iron ap- 
plied at white heat and welded with 
hammer. In the case of welding steel 
to cast iron, the steel after being shaped 
to correspond to the cast iron, should be 
heated cherry red, and then have borax 
applied to the surface. Then both steel 
and cast iron should be heated to weld- 
ing heat, and strong pressure applied. 



Annealing Copper Pipes. 

In the annealing of copper pipe it 
should be close-annealed — that is, heated 
in a close muffle or annealing-oven to a 
dull red heat for some time, and then 
either quenched in water or air-cooled, 
the former possibly being the best, but 
also the most troublesome. It is import- 
ant that the heating shall be regular, and 
that it should continue for a sufficient 
time to permit of the necessary molecu- 
lar or granular changes incident to the 
softening of the metal. For short 
lengths it would not be difficult to erect 
a small gas furnace and close-muffle; but 
with long lengths the matter would be 
rather troublesome. For purposes where 
exactness is not of importance, if you 
pass the copper through a gas or other 
tire until it is red hot, and cool in the 
air. This will soften the metal so that 
it may be bent ; but it will not draw 
properly, neither can it be depended on 
for resisting internal pressure, as it will 
not be really annealed, nor will it be of 
the same degree of softness throughout, 
hard places occurring. 



Wedge for Hammer Handle. 
The difficulty of retaining a wedge in 
a hammer handle is well known, but it 
may be entirely prevented by taking an 
ordinary sheet-iron washer, about 1/16 
in. in thickness, 7 s in. outside diameter, 
and V\ in. hole. Place the washer edge- 
wise in a vise, and file it sharp on about 
one-half of its outside edge. Then drive 
it into the end of the handle, leaving 
enough outside to file off to the shape 
of the handle. If it is driven tight 
enough the wood will swell into the hole 
in the washer and hold it tighter than 
any taper wedge even with jagged edges 
can be held. 



Replacing Broken Tooth on Spur 
Pinion. 

In general practice there are two ways 
of making a repair in a broken toothed 
pinion. A line of holes are drilled along 
the site of the missing tooth, and the 
holes are then tapped and pegs screwed 
in the height of the teeth. The pegs may 
then be filed in place to the correct shape 
of tooth. If this job is properly done, 
the peg tooth will outlast the wheel. A 
neater job, but not so strong, is to cut a 
dovetailed groove through the wheel, 
where the tooth is missing, sufficiently 
deep to hold firmly. Then cut off a piece 
of steel, fill up a tooth the exact shape 
of the other teeth, and shaped at the 
bottom to tit the groove. Drive the tooth 
into place and rivet over the ends. 



The Laws of Friction. 

1. Friction is greatly influenced by the 
smoothness or roughness, hardness or 
softness of the surfaces rubbing against 
each other. 

2. It is in proportion of the pressure, 
or load; that is, a double pressure will 
produce a double amount of friction, and 
so of any proportionate increase of load. 

3. The friction does not depend upon 
the extent of surface, the weight of body 
remaining the same. 

4. The friction is greater after the 
bodies have been allowed to remain for 
some time at rest in contact with each 
other than when they are first so placed; 
as for example, a wheel turning. upon 
gudgeons will require a greater force to 
start it after remaining some time at rest 
than it would at first. The friction of 
car journals is increased temporarily 
when the car has been standing for hours. 

5. The friction of axles does not de- 
pend upon their velocity ; thus a railroad 
car traveling at the rate of 20 miles an 
hour will not be retarded by friction more 
than another which travels only 10 miles 
in the same time. So the amount of fric- 
tion is as the pressure directly without 
regard to surface, turn or velocity. 

6. Friction is greatly diminished by 
ingenuity, and this diminution is as the 
nature of the unguents, without reference 
to the substance moving over them. The 
kind of unguent which ought to be em- 
ployed depends principally upon the load ; 
it ought to suffice just to prevent the 
bodies from coming in contact with each 
other. The lighter the weight, the finer 
and more fluid the lubricant should be in 
order to reduce the friction. 



160 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



May, 1915. 



Rt&Jnjineerinj 



A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling 
Stock and Appliances. 



Published Monthly by 

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114 Liberty Street. New York. 

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Editorial Department: 

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Boston Representative: 

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Boston, Mass. 

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Glasgow. 



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Daylight in Railway Shops. 
I he necessity for reducing the cost of 
railway operating at the present time is 
so obvious that nothing seems too trivial 
to escape attention when a saving can be 
made. Since the International Railway 
Shop Foremen's Association has been 
formed the members have shown them- 
selves easily persuaded to adopt meas- 
ures or suggestions for improving shop 
operations _ when the expense involved 
was not great, but in our visits to repair 
shops we find that little inclination has 
been displayed towards the improved 
lighting of workshops. Shop superin- 
tendents and their superior ..(beers are 
too apt to overlook the fact that sun- 
light is cheaper and more efficient than 
artificial light. Since brilliant electric 



lights came into use. it seems to us that 
their glare is frequently preferred to day- 
light that can be secured without ex- 
pense. 

In old shops, built when it was the 
fashion to make small windows and low- 
roofs, the need of extra light is often 
seriously felt and there is every excuse 
to resort to artificial lighting, but we 
have been sorry to notice that frequently 
in such shops, daylight is not admitted 
so freely as it might be. It is a matter 
for wonder that in shops where the 
windows are the smallest, and daylight 
obstructed by adjoining buildings, the 
accumulation of smoke taint and dust 
upon the glass and walls is usually the 
most conspicuous. There are many rail- 
road shops along the lines of the older 
roads in which the cost of artificial light 
might be saved for two or three hours 
every day in winter by washing the win- 
dows and whitewashing the black walls. 

In shops where the mistake was made 
by having windows too small, a good 
paying investment it would often be to 
enlarge them at considerable expense, 
and lower their location to the level of 
the work benches, and raise the upper 
part as high as practicable. A single 
foot added to the length of the window 
sometimes has the effect of nearly doub- 
ling the light producing powers. Such 
changes are usually objected to on the 
ground that it is not expedient to go to 
the expense of making changes and al- 
terations on old shops because it is ex- 
pected that new modern buildings will be 
erected in a few years. That idea has 
proved a very expensive fallacy. The 
years slip by and the new shops are not 
built or even contracted for, while in the 
meantime lighting bills, short hours, 
diminished quantity and poorer work, 
with other sources of expense arising 
from insufficient lighting, more than 
equal the cost of making the necessary 
alterations. 



Electricity Direct from Coal. 

One of the anciently cherished dreams 
of scientists has been the generation of 
electricity direct from coal. The existing 
methods of burning coal in a furnace to 
convert water into steam that will drive 
an engine to operate an electricity pro- 
ducing dynamo is a very tedious and ex- 
pensive process. If the furnace and all 
its full.. wing could be eliminated and the 
potential energy of coal converted directly 
into electricity immense energy saving 
would result. 

Numerous investigations have carried 
out expensive experiments in hopes of 
converting carbon energy to electricity, 
but until lately all the labors have re- 
sult..! in hopeless failure. We learn now. 
however, that Johannes Marschall, of 
Dresden. Germany, has patented an in- 
vention for the practical production of 



electric light without the intervention of 
boiler, engine or dynamo. 

Nearly a hundred years ago it was dis- 
covered that two metals joined at one end 
and made hotter than the junction at the 
other end would generate a current of 
electricity through the metals. But the 
amount of electricity made by one such 
combination is always too small for 
practical use in lighting. The present in- 
vention consists of a furnace containing 
a series of such thermopiles made of 
heat-resisting metals, and is said to de- 
liver a practical lighting current for a 
somewhat less fuel cost than the best 
steam engines. The first cost of the 
plant should be very considerably less 

Elimination of the middle man. tin 
favorite panacea for reducing the cost 
of living, is but an idle dream com- 
pared with the elimination of middle 
processes between coal, the original 
source of most of our power, and the 
usable power of electricity itself. There 
is a certain mathematical relation be- 
tween heat and power, whether expressed 
as horsepower or kilowatts. If it were 
possible to turn into power all the beat 
contained in a pound of good coal it 
should theoretically produce S 1 /. horse- 
power or 4 kilowatts for an hour. But 
in the roundabout way we now extract 
this power, we lose at every point, getting 
no more than 70 per cent, of the total 
through the boiler, 30 per cent, of this 
through the engine, and 90 per cent, of 
the engine power into electricity, finally 
realizing in electricity less than one-fifth 
of the whole force of the coal, say three- 
fourths of a kilowatt hour. Thus there 
is a theoretical possibility to do five times 
as much with a pound of coal as is now 
being done. Of course there would al- 
ways be some losses, but here is margin 
enough to encourage inventors of radical 
departures from present methods. 



Thought and Labor. 

It is no less a fatal error to despise 
labor when regulated by intellect than it 
is to value it for its own sake, says 
Ruskin. that king of fair philosophers, 
We are always in these days trying to 
separate the two. We want one man to 
be always thinking and another to be 
always working, and we call one a gen- 
tlemen and the other an operative. 
whereas the workman ought often to be 
thinking, and the thinker often to be 
working, while both should be gentlemen 
in the best sense. As it is we make both 
ungentle, the one envying, the other 
despising, his brother, and the mass of 
society is made tip of morbid thinkers 
and miserable workers. Now it is only 
by labor that thought can be made happy, 
and tin- professions sboid.l be liberal. 
:.i..l these should be felt in peculiarity of 
employment and more in excellence of 
achievement. 



May, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



161 



Casehardening and Potashing. 

Casehardening, or the method of hav- 
ing soft iron coated with hard steel, re- 
quires more skill than is generally at- 
tributed to the proper manipulation of 
the process in order to obtain the best 
results. It is a very important advantage 
in' machine construction that the work 
of machining and fitting can be done on 
soft metal and then the parts hardened 
to a sufficient depth, combining in a very 
high degree the elements of durability 
and elasticity. 

The common method is to have the 
articles packed in boxes which in many 
instances are too large. It is noteworthy 
that the thinner the boxes are the more 
equal will the absorption of the carbon 
lake place. Malleable cast-iron boxes 
aie the best, and the packing may be 
bone or leather cuttings, hoofs or horns. 
These may be used raw or after conver- 
sion into charcoal. A layer of the ma- 
terial should be placed in the bottom of 
the box, then a number of the articles to 
be case-hardened should be laid suf- 
ficiently far apart form each other so that 
there can be no possibility of contact. 
Powdered potassium cyanide or prussiate 
of potash in the form of dust should be 
shaken over the articles during the proc- 
ess. The packing should be thoroughly 
dry. The parts of the articles that are 
desired to remain soft should be covered 
with fireclay or pipeclay mixed with 
white ash from the boxes. Only the 
parts to be hardened should be in con- 
tact with the carbonizing material, and 
if this is carefully attended to the results 
will be satisfactory. It is well in all 
cases to have the covers of the boxes 
pierced with small holes for the inser- 
tion of testing wires to show the degree 
of heat and consequent penetration of 
the carbon. 

In the oven the heat should be main- 
tained at a steady temperature of about 
1,700 degs. This will heat the articles to 
a bright cherry red. This should con- 
tinue from 10 to 12 hours. The time 
occupied in the heating process is an im- 
portant factor in the operation, the 
longer period for the duration of heat 
deepening the thickness of the eventually 
hardened surface. It is good practice to 
withdraw a wire from time to time, and 
after cooling the wire it can readily be 
broken by a hammer, when the depth of 
hardening can readily be seen. 

The cooling process should be done as 
rapidly as possible. Running water is 
the best for cooling, but as that cannot 
always conveniently be had, solutions of 
salt, cyanide and other chemical may be 
used to increase the coldness of the 
water. The hardening should penetrate 
at least 1/16 in. A formula for making 
case-hardening mixture out of chemicals 
is often used where horns, hoofs and bones 
are not to be had in sufficient quantities. 
The mixture consists of 16 parts of lamp- 



black, IS parts of salsoda, 4 parts mu- 
riate of soda, and 1 part of manganese. 
It may be added that potashing is 
sometimes conveniently used in surface 
hardening. The operation consists of 
heating the article to be treated to a 
bright red, being careful not to let it 
scale from excessive heat; then cover 
tlic heated surface with the prussiate of 
potash, which will readily fuse and 
spread over the heated metal, winch 
should be again placed in the tire to 
completely fuse the solution, after winch 
the article is dipped in cold water. The 
cooling should be as rapid and equable 
as possible, to prevent warping, which in 
tlie case of curved or thin articles is 
sometimes unavoidable, but can be 
guarded against by careful handling of 
the articles at the moment of contact 
with the water. 



When the Brick Arch Was Coming 
into Favor. 

When the use of the brick arch was 
struggling into favor the following testi- 
mony was given by a master mechanic 
who went out for himself to investigate 
the value of a device that was by no 
means regarded with universal favor : 
"The road runs very heavy express pas- 
senger trains out of Boston, with heavy 
engines capable of doing the work ex- 
peditiously. I rode on one of these en- 
gines when it was pulling 14 heavy pas- 
senger cars, among them several sleep- 
ers. Starting from Boston there is a 
long grade of 35 feet to the mile, on 
which the train has to be hauled at a 
speed of about 5(1 miles an hour. This 
calls for hard work, as every engineman 
knows. 

"The engines had plain lire boxes 
when first started upon this work, but a 
few weeks before I rode upon them a 
brick arch was put into each lire box. 
During the severe test of the starting 
pull the steam was kept close to the 
popping point. The fireman told me that 
before the brick arch was put in he 
never could get over the hill without 
losing twenty pounds of steam, but since 
the engine had the arch he could always 
ktep up a full head of steam with the 
liredoor on the latch." 



mechanical department consists of a chief 
officer, styled superintendent or general 
superintendent of motive power, mechan- 
ical or general mechanical superintendent, 
superintendent of machinery, or Cither 
title, appropriate to the office. On the 
larger roads the chief mechanical officer, 
as a rule, is assisted by one or more 
deputies, bearing various titles, who have 
general authority and. sometimes, have 
direct supervision of the shops, thus stand- 
ing between the shop organizations and 
the chief of the department. Not in- 
frequently there is an officer charged with 
responsibility for the work of the car 
department, with the title of superintend- 
ent of car department, or master car 
builder. On the Erie Railroad there are 
three mechanical superintendents. One- 
has general charge of all car work of the 
system. One is assigned to each grand 
division of the road, in direct charge of 
the locomotive shops and has concurrent 
jurisdiction, in a restricted sense, over 
car work in his territory. The other reg- 
ular staff officers are a mechanical engi- 
neer, electrical engineer, engineer of tests, 
chemist, chief boiler inspector and gen- 
eral inspectors of various grades and di- 
verse duties. The larger roads add to the 
above two general officers who are abso- 
lutely indispensable where there is any 
pretense of practicing the higher phases 
of railroad economy, using that term in 
the scientific sense. These are efficiency 
engineers who are in charge of shop costs. 



The Mechanical Organization of Rail- 
roads. 

To meet the complex responsibilities of 
the mechanical side of railroad operation, 
and maintain the equipment in a state of 
preparedness demands, as in every other 
department of the business, a balanced and 
efficient organization, whose members 
shall be devoted to the work and sustained 
bv the animated pursuit of a common 
purpose. 

The usual staff organization of the 



Night Work Expensive. 

A member of one of the railway clubs 
has been investigating the subject of 
night work in repair shops and the con- 
tention arrived at is that working with 
artificial light is an expensive practice. 
He says that work performed under ar- 
tificial light is of an inferior quality be- 
cause the delicate touches that go to make 
first class work cannot be brought out by 
candlelight, which is an old saying among 
mechanics. The same observer also adds: 

"Work done at night is not satisfac- 
tory in quality as compared with that 
done by daylight. The quantity of work 
turned out after lamps are lighted is in- 
significant considering the time taken. In 
other words, loafing becomes persistent 
with the failure of light. Night shifts 
coming on after daylight has gone do but 
little work as compared with the day 
workers. 

While the electric light does something 
towards sufficient lighting the shop, it is 
lacking in several of the most important 
requisites. Its bluish color is bad and 
does riot properly illuminate cast or 
wrought iron. Oil is cheap, but does not 
give light enough, while gas is costly. It 
seems best, therefore, to obey the com- 
mand, "Work while it is day. for the 
night cometh when no man can work." 



162 



RAILWAY AXD LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



May, 1915. 



American Business Locked Out. 

Mr. Charles M. Muchnic, of the Bald- 
win Locomotive Works, who spoke some 
time ago at a Saturday luncheon of the 
Republican Club of New York City, said 
that American business has been locked 
out of South American countries to a 
large extent by the investment there of 
European capital, on the understanding 
that the country furnishing the capital 
should furnish also the materials. 

"Another instance that comes to my 
mind," he said, "is the Manila Railroad 
Company, a railroad operated on Ameri- 
can territory with government representa- 
tives on the board of directors, and se- 
curities for that road largely guaranteed 
by our government. Yet the entire man- 
agement of that company, from the presi- 
dent down tn the lowest officials, are 
Englishmen, who delight in criticising 
everything that is of American origin. 

"After many years of effort the Bald- 
win Locomotive Company was only once 
allowed to participate in competition for 
the purchase of locomotives, and while 
the contract was in that instance awarded 
to us on the basis of price, and only after 
pleading our case with the Bureau of 
Insular Affairs, we were obliged to build 
the locomotives to English design and 
English specifications. When the engines 
were delivered they were subjected to 
the severest criticism by the English man- 
agement, inspired solely by prejudice 
against American products. Other or- 
ders for locomotives have since been 
placed in England without American 
manufacturers being invited to tender 
bids. The same applies to many other 
purchases made by this railroad, which is 
the most important in the Philippine 
Islands." 

L'nited States control of insular posses- 
sions is used very differently from the 
practice of European countries, where 
they are in control. The exercise of a 
little more authority on the part of Amer- 
icans would benefit our manufacturers. 



tendent of machinery of the Chicago & 
Northwestern Railway, discussing Mr. 
Kelly's paper, said that at the instigation 
of Mr. Kelly they had left out fifty (if the 
bottom flues, and it has resulted in tre- 
mendous improvement to the economy of 
the engine. He said "that before this 
change was made many an engine stopped 
on the road because the bottom flues were 
leaking. Now they do not leak because 
tlie flues are not there, and the other lines 
do not seem to cause so much trouble, and 
the engines steam just as well. Leaving 
out a number of bottom flues is now our 
standard practice on certain engines, and 
we are securing better results from them." 
That is what Jim Skeevers used to call 
"a good object lesson." We wonder how 
many railroad companies are heeding 
these words that mean saving of purse 
and avoiding trouble? 



Waste from Lower Flues. 

Inexpensive changes which decidedly 
improve the economical operation of loco- 
motives seldom become popular unless 
they are pushed into use by influences 
that call for their adoption. It is well 
known that the lower flues placed in most 
locomotive boilers are troublesome to 
keep tight, and that the increase of heat- 
ing surface they represent is of no real 
value, yet nearly all railway companies 
persist in applying and retaining them. 
Mr. J. W. Kelly read a paper at the West- 
ern Railway Club in winch he took a 
strong stand against the first railway prac- 
tice of putting the upper flues too close to 
the crown sheet and the lower ones in the 
position where they readily become 
choked with cinders. 

Mr. T. W. Bentley, assistant superin- 



Cheating the Railways. 

It is a notorious fact that the heads of 
our government bureaus conserve their 
own interests at the expense of the people 
at large, and that the officials of the Post 
Office Department exert themselves stren- 
uously to oppress railroads. Senator 
Bourne, who has devoted particular at- 
tention to post office matters, is credited 
with saying that the history of the deal- 
ings between the government and the rail- 
ways affords a perfect example of "bu- 
reaucracy run mad." The officials who 
take the lead in acting unfairly towards 
railway interests think that they have the 
public support, which is a serious mistake. 
The American public wish to act fairly 
towards all the interests that are serving 
them. President Wilson is reputed to lie 
a thoroughly fair head of the government. 
We think it a great pity that lie fails to 
devote close attention to the doings of 
the bureaus that are inflicting hardships 
upon railways and other interests. 

To go into an exact cause of complaint 
Mr. Howard Elliott, president of the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, 
asserts that his railroad is underpaid 
$1,000,000 yearly on the business it does 
for the government. Similar conditions 
exist all over the United States and does 
a great deal to keep business depressed. 



never was practiced on the American 
continent. In the old coaching days it 
was considered perfectly correct and 
rational for gentlemen of an enterpris- 
ing character and sporting taste to take 
the reins and act as driver, and many a 
coach load of innocent passengers have 
been tumbled into the ditch through the 
recklessness or stupidity of noble ama- 
teur drivers. When stage coaches gave 
place to railways the noble idiots who 
found delight in driving stage coaches 
considered it was even more amusing to 
try their hands on running locomotives. 
Before the practice was stopped by rigid 
rules strictly enforced, forbidding people 
outside of the train crew from riding 
on the engines, many a superintendent 
was sorely annoyed which the privilege 
influential persons solicited of riding on 
the engines when they felt like doing so. 
Many lords of high degree used in those 
days to boast that they had "driven" lo- 
comotives over every line between Lon- 
don and Inverness. 



Noble Engine Drivera 
\ British nobleman, who had been in 
the habit of amusing himself by "dri\- 
ing" the engines on a railway in his 
native country, complained bitterly to the 
writer about the treatment he received 
when he stepped into the cab of a loco- 
motive in a Chicago station and offered 
to run the engine. "The driver turned 
rudely to me," his lordship said, "and ex- 
claimed : 'Go to h and get off this 

engine.' " 

His lordship was only requesting a 
privilege that is sometimes still accorded 
to influential personages in Europe, but 



Safety First. 
A great deal has been said of the origin 
of safety movement. It will interest 
manufacturers to know that the earliest 
record of systematic eye protection is that 
of Crane Company, Chicago, which in 
1897 began to provide eye protectors for 
its men and in 1898 put this work on a 
systematic basis, giving the glasses to the 
men free of charge and requiring opera- 
tors, as far as possible at that time, to 
wear the glasses constantly when they 
were exposed to flying bits of metal, em- 
ery, dust, glare and hot metal. 



Air Brakes Thirty Years Ago. 

At a meeting of the New York Rail- 
road Club in February, 1885, at which 
I.eander Garey presided, the subject of 
"Freight Train Brakes" was discussed, 
and most of the members, including M. 
N. Forney and Mr. Garey, expressed the 
opinion that air brakes could not be used 
successfully on freight trains unless such 
trains were very short. That was no 
doubt true with the air brake as devel- 
oped at that time. 



The coal used for locomotive boilers 
in the United States ranges from low- 
grade bituminous coal that closely re- 
sembles lignite, ranging up by imper- 
ceptible gradations to nearly fair carbon 
as found in the best anthracite. Each 
grade of coal ought to receive treatment 
in firing adapted to its chemical compo- 
sition, but in most cases all qualities of 
coal are treated alike; good, bad and in- 
different are supposed to make steam 
equally well. 



May, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



163 



Trautwine on Higher Mathematics. 

Not a few of the people who attend 
night schools and other institutions where 
ambitious workmen are supposed to re- 
ceive scientific instruction, complain that 
they are unable to grasp the mathematics 
of engineering. Our advice is keep'work- 
ing and you will soon acquire all the 
mathematics that practical engineers need 
to learn. Some remarks made by the late 
John C. Trautwine, author of "Rules and 
Tables for Engineers," may be comforting 
to people struggling up the steep grade of 
self-instruction. Mr. Trautwine stood in 
the highest rank among engineers, and 
his book has been one of the most val- 
uable aids to the profession, so his opin- 
ion about mathematics is worthy of con- 
sideration. He said, while referring to the 
great engineering works completed by 
Rankin, Weisbach and others, that their 
profundity of knowledge is beyond the 
reach of ordinary men. and that their 
language is also so profound that few en- 
gineers can read them. He had long since 
forgotten the little higher mathematics he 
once knew. To him they were hut little 
more than striking instances of how com- 
pletely the most simple facts can be hur- 
ried under heaps of mathematical mys- 
teries. 



New Honor to Walter V. Turner 

Inventor of the Electrically Controlled Air Brake System 



Adhesive Alloy. 

A soft alloy which adheres so firmly to 
metallic, glass or porcelain surfaces that 
it can be used as a solder, and which is 
invaluable when the articles to be sold- 
ered are of such a nature that they cannot 
bear a high temperature, consists of 
finely pulverized copper dust, which is ob- 
tained by shaking a solution of sulphate 
of copper with granulated zinc. The 
temperature of the solution rises consid- 
erably, and the metallic copper is precip- 
itated in the form of brownish powder — 
20, 30 or 36 parts of this copper dust, ac- 
cording to the hardness desired, and 
placed in an iron or porcelain-lined mor- 
tar and well mixed with some sulphuric 
acid having a specific gravity of 1.85. Add 
to the part thus formed 70 parts by weight 
of mercury, constantly stirring. When 
thoroughly mixed the amalgam must be 
carefully rinsed in warm water to remove 
the acid and then set aside to cool. In 
ten or twelve hours it will be hard enough 
to scratch tin. When it is to he used the 
amalgam should be heated to a tempera- 
ture of 700 degs. Fahr. When it he- 
comes as soft as wax by kneading it in 
an iron mortar. In this ductile state it 
can be spread upon any surface, to which, 
as it cools and hardens, it adheres very 
tenaciously. 



On the Job. 

There are two kinds of clock watch- 
ers : One sees how much longer he must 
work before he can go home — the other 
sees how much longer he can work be- 
fore he must go home. 



Last month's issue contains certain 
extracts from a Pennsylvania Railroad 
bulletin on the subject of the electrically- 
controlled air brake system which is be- 
ing installed on the passenger trains of 
that road. This brake was designed and 
perfected by Mr. Walter V. Turner, of 
the Westinghouse Air Brake Co., and 
in recognition thereof was awarded 




WALTER V. TURNER, 

Assistant Manager, Westinghouse Air Brake 

Company. 

the Elliott Cresson gold medal by the 
Franklin Institute of the state of Penn- 
sylvania, which is the highest honor that 
this most scientific body of men in 
America can confer upon any scientist. 

In connection with the photograph of 
Mr. Turner and facsimile of the medal, 
we wish to state that he is unquestion- 
ably the greatest living authority on air 
brakes and air brake subjects and while 




ELLIOTT CRESSON GOLD MEDAL AWARD- 
ED TO WALTER V. TURNER. 

the medal was awarded for air brake in- 
ventions and developments, and while the 
actual number of inventions run into the 
hundreds, we cannot associate his life 
work with ideas of invention because of 
the general conception, or possibly mis- 
conception, of this faculty and moreover 
Mr. Turner is an engineer and his in- 
ventions are merely incidental to the 
solution of mechanical and engineering 



problems of such magnitude and involv- 
ing Mich an intricate mass of details and 
analysis of factors that no one but the 
air brake expert or the scientist is able 
to comprehend the marvelous results 
that are now achieved from variations 
in compressed air pressure in a single 
line of pipe connecting the cars of a rail- 
road train. 

We say that he is the greatest air 
brake expert that the world has ever 
produced, because he has developed a 
perfect control of modern trains from 
a comparatively crude mechanism and 
incorporated therein those desirable feat- 
tures which air brake experts had agreed 
upon as being impossible to obtain and 
because his practical experience ranges 
from car repairer on the Santa Fe Rail- 
road to chief engineer of the Westing- 
house Air Brake Co., and we are equally 
positive that he is the best informed 
man on air brake subjects because the 
Air Brake Association has for years sub- 
mitted questionable subjects for his de- 
cisions and accepted his replies without 
question, this association considers him 
to be the perfect instructor, a brilliant 
lecturer and a talented author who can, 
without special preparation, talk a tech- 
nical contribution to air brake literature. 

This medal is but one of many honors 
that have been conferred upon Mr. 
Turner, and the Franklin Institute recog- 
nizes him as one of the most scientific 
men in America and Railway and Lo- 
comotive Engineering regards him as 
a man who was sought to "build up the 
wall and stand in the gap," and who was 
able to arise to the occasion. 

Mr. Turner is now assistant manager 
of the Westinghouse Air Brake Co.. and 
has been contributing an article to our 
columns each month, and we feel sure 
that our readers will appreciate our ef- 
forts to provide a character of air brake 
literature such as no other technical 
publication has ever been able to offer its 
readers, and we hope to continue this high 
standard. 



Proceedings of the American Electric 
Railway Association. 

The American Electric Railway Asso- 
ciation has published, in a cloth-bound 
volume, the Proceedings of the American 
Electric Railway Association, 1914, con- 
taining a complete report of the 12th an- 
nual convention, held at Atlantic City. 
N. J., October 12 to 16, inclusive, of last 
year. There are nearly 600 pages in the 
book, and a valuable feature is the index- 
ing, which is unusually complete and 
thorough. The office of the secretary of 
the association is 29 West 39th street, 
New York City. 



164 



LULWAY AXD LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



May, 1915. 



Locomotives for the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis 

Fine Examples of the Mikado and Pacific Types 



The Baldwin Locomotive Works have 
recently completed ten Mikado and six 
Pacific type locomotives for the Nash- 
ville, Chattanooga and St. Louis Railway. 
These engines, although not particularly 
large for their respective types, are 
equipped with fuel-saving device's and 
are interesting examples of modern 
power. 

The Mikado type locomotives exert a 
tractive force of 49.500 pounds, and are 
the first of their type to be built for this 
road by the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 
They are equipped with Schmidt super- 
heaters and security sectional arches, and 
arc so designed that standard stokers 
can be subsequently applied if desired. 

The furnace throat has a depth of 
24-11/32 inches, measured from the under 
side of the barrel to the bottom of the 
mud ring. The tubes are electrically 
welded into the back tube sheet. 



struction assists in maintaining a correct 
weight distribution on the two sides of 
the locomotive when passing over uneven 
places in the track, and also reduces 
stresses on the frames and equalizing 
gear. 

The general dimensions of this type of 
locomotive are as follows: 

Gauge. 4 ft. S l / 2 ins. ; cylinders, 25 ins. 
x 30 ins. ; valves, piston, 15 ins. diameter. 

Boiler — Type. Wagon-top; diameter, 76 
ins.; thickness of sheets, 11/16-in., 
23/32-in., J^-in.; working pressure. 180 
lbs.; fuel, soft coal; staving, radial. 

Firebox — Material, steel; length, 114J^ 
ins.; width, S4j 4 ins.; depth, front, 85J4 
ins. ; depth, hack, 72 l / 2 ins. ; thickness of 
sheets, sides, -J-s-in. ; back. -)6-in.; crown, 
•\s-in. ; tube, '/■-in. 

Water Space — Front, 5 ins. ; sides, 5 
ins. ; back, 5 ins. 

Tubes — Diameter. 5\s ins. and 2 ins.: 



300 lbs.; total engine and tender, about 
420.000. lbs. 

Tender — Wheels, number, 8 ; diameter, 
36 ins.; journals. 5'. ins. x 10 ins.; tank 
capacity, 8,500 gals. ; fuel capacity. 14 
inns, service, freight. 

Locomotive equipped with Schmidt 
superheater. Superheating surface, 840 
sq ft. 

The Pacific type locomotives are gen- 
erally similar to the Mikados, although 
they have smaller cylinders and boilers 
and the wheel-loads are somewhat lighter. 
The tractive force exerted is 32.000 
pounds, with a ratio of adhesion of 4.48. 
As in the Mikado type locomotives, the 
spring rigging is cross equalized back 
of the rear driving-wheels. The boiler 
center line is placed 9 ft. 6 in. above the 
rail, and this allows room for a furnace 
throat as deep as that applied to the 
Mikados. With a superheater and brick 




MIKADO 2-8-2 TYPE OF LOCOMOTIVE FOR THE 
T. J. Sullivan, Superintendent of Machinery. 



NASHVILLE, CHATTANOOGA & ST. LOUIS RAILWAY. 

Baldwin Locomotive Works. Builders. 



The cylinders are arranged with out- 
side steampipes, and the distribution is 
controlled by 15-inch valves which are 
set with a lead of 3/16-inch. Neither 
reliei nor by-pass valves are used. The 
valve-gear is of the Walschaerts type, 
controlled by the Ragonnet power 
mechanism. Mention should be made of 
the pistons, which have cast-steel dished 
bodies with iron bearing shoes cast on. 
The width of the piston head is 5% inches. 

These locomotives are equipped with 
Cole long main driving boxes, and with 
the latest design of Hodges trailing truck. 
The spring rigging is cross equalized be- 
tween the rear driving-wheels and back 
truck. This is done bj pinning together, 
on the center line of the locomotive, two 
transversa beams, one 0& winch is -'ii- 
rrected by links with the rear dri ■ 
springs, while the other is com 
with the rear truck equalizers. Thi 



material 5> s ins., steel; 2 ins., iron; thick- 
ness, 5\s ins.. No. 9 W. G. ; 2 ins., No. 11 
W. C.; number. 5>s ins.. 34; 2 ins., 241; 
length, 20 ft. 6 ins. 

Heating Surface — Firebox, 224 sq. ft.: 
tubes, 3,553 sq. ft. : firebrick tubes, 27 
sq. ft.; total. 3,804 sq. ft.; grate area. 
66.6 sq. ft. 

Driving Wheels — Diameter, outside, 58 
ins.; center. 50 ins.; journals, main, 10^2 
ins. x 21 ins. ; others, 9yi ins. x 12 ins. 

Engine Truck Wheels — Diameter, front. 
33 ins. ; journals. S'A ins. x 12 ins. ; 
diameter, back, 36 ins.: journals. 8 ins. x 
14 ins. 

Wheel Base — Driving, 15 ft. 9 ins.; 
rigid. 15 ft. 9 ins.: total engine, 34 ft. 
4 ins.: total engine and lender. 69 ft. 
7 ins. 

Weight— On driving wheels. 205,000 

. on truck, front. 20.700 lbs.: on 

1 .ick. back, 38,600 lbs ; total engine. 264, 



arch, and a boiler having ample furnace 
volume and heating surface, these loco- 
motives should prove free steamers. 

The tenders of both types are of the 
Vanderbilt pattern, carried on "Standard" 
forged and rolled steel wheels. The en- 
gine truck wheels are steel tired, of the 
same make. 

The general dimensions of this type if 
li ici imoth e are as follows : 

Gauge, 4 ft. 8yi ins.; cylinders, 23 ins. 

28 ins.; valves, piston, 13 ins. diameter. 

Boiler— Type, Wagon-top; diameter, 66 
ins. : thickness of sheets, 9/16 ins. and 
■\s-in. ; working pressure, 185 lbs.; fuel, 
soft coal ; staying, radial. 

firebox — Material, steel: length. 114'$ 
ins.; width. 66 ins.; depth, front, 74 ins-..: 
hack, 63 ins. : thickness of sheets, sides, 
•s-in.; back. \s-in. : crown. 3^-in.; tube. 
K-in. 



May, 1915. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING. 



165 



Water Space — Front, 5 ins. ; sides, 4 
ins. ; hack, 4 ins. 

Tubes — Diameter, 5\s ins. and 2 ins.; 
material, 5>s ins., steel ; 2 ins., iron ; 
thickness, 5\s ins., No. 9 W. G. ; 2 ins., 
No. 11 \Y. t i. : number 5-'x ins., 24; 2 ins., 
186; length, 20 ft. 6 ins 

Heating Surface — Firebox, 186 sq. ft.; 
tubes, 2,678 sq. ft. ; fire-brick tubes, 27 
sq. ft; total, 2.891 sq. ft.; grate area, 52.4 
sq. ft. 

Driving Wheels — Diameter. outside, 
69 ins.; center, 62 ins.; journals, main, 
10J/2 ins. x- 12 ins.; others, '* _> ins. x 12 
ins. 

Engine Truck Wheel- — Diameter, front, 
■36 ins.; journals, 5^2 ins. x 12 ins.; 
diameter, back, 44 ins.; journals. 8 ins. x 
14 ins. 

Wheel Base— Driving. 13 ft. ins.; 
rigid, 13 ft ins.; total engine, 34 ft. 1 
in. ; total engine and tender, 69 ft. 4 ins. 

Weight— On driving wheels, 143.500 
lbs.; on truck, front. 37,400 lbs.; back, 
38,650 lbs. ; total engine. 219.550 lbs. ; total 
engine and tender, about 375,000 lbs. 



severe service conditions; and this fuel is 
therefore specially suitable for large loco- 
motives in which high powers must be 
developed Eor sustained periods. 

The largest engine in the group, how- 
ever, is a cual burning locomotive. This 
locomotive, which is of the 2-10-2 type, 
was built for the Chicago, Burlington and 
Quincy Railroad, and is equipped with the 
latest design of Street mechanical stoker. 
All of the locomotives composing the ex- 
hibit were built in the regular course of 
business, and embody special features of 
construction adopted by the companies 
whose names they bear. They will be 
placed in regular service at the close of 
the exposition and consist of a Pacific 
type locomotive of the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe system. This locomotive is 
intended for service on the Pacific Coast 
Lines and is equipped for oil burning, al- 
though it can be readily fitted for coal 
burning. The Baker valve gear is applied 
and also superheating appliance. This 
fine locomotive develops a tractive power 
of 41,000 pounds. 



curves when running in either direction. 
Tin trucks are of the radial type, the 
front truck being centre bearing and 
the rear truck side bearing. As the 
trucks are equalized with the driving 
wheels, each wheel finds a bearing and 
carries its share of the load when the 
engine is passing over uneven roads. It 
is suitable for working on curves of 
thirty degrees, and grades up to seven 
per cent. A novel feature is a small 
rotary air engine geared to a screw for 
working the power reverse mechanism. 

Another interesting Mikado type built 
for the McCloud River Railroad has the 
firebox placed back of the driving wheels 
and over the rear truck, which is of the 
Rushton type. The Walschaerts valve 
gear is applied. This type of engine is 
well adapted for the timber region- of 
the northwest where hundreds of mil- 
lion feet of white and sugar pine lumber 
are annually handled over this line, the 
work being done chiefly by Mikado type 
locomotives. 




PACIFIC 4-6-2 TYPE OF LOCOMOTIVE FOR THE NASHVILLE, CHATTANOOGA & ST. LOUIS RAILWAY. 
J. J. Sullivan, Superintendent of Machinery. Baldwin Locomotive Works, Builders. 



Tender — Wheels, number, 8; di