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Full text of "Railway and locomotive engineering : a practical journal of railway motive power and rolling stock"

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R!!lSSX.veEnjineerins 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling Stock and Appliances 



Dfmber. 
tils, of 



1918, issue. In two Sec- 
I'.iinii this Is Section two. 



INDEX FOR VOLUME XXXI, 1918 



A Brake Articles: 

ir Brake Association, 64, 187. 

Air Brake Association, Convention, 188. 

.ir Brake Association, Suggestion from the, 

290. 
Air Brakes at Terminals, Best Method of 

Preparing, 189. 
Automatic Straight Air Brake, Test of the, 

244. 
rake Cylinders, Cleaning and Lubricating, 

52. 
rake Leverage, System, 86. 
rakes, Bleeding of the, 290. 
irakes, Failing to Release, 256. 
ar Brake Inspection. 20, 55, 91, 124, 158, 

193, 227, 259, 293, 324, 357, 390. 
Compressor, Maintenance of, 190. 
"ontrol of Trains, Maximum Speed Retarda- 
tion and Bad Conditions Related to, 24. 
Distributing Valve— No. 6— A, 322. 
Electric Service, Improved Brake Equip- 
ments for, 224. 
eed Valve, The Operation and Maintenance 

of, 191. 
r.auge, Air Brake Lift, 87. 
ose? What is the Safe Life of an Air 

Brake, 189. 
eakage, Air Brake, 18. 
eathers No Longer a Cause of Leakage, 

Porosity of, 18. 
ocomotive Air Brake Inspection, Questions 
and Answers, 18, 53, 89, 122, 156, 192, 
225, 257, 291, 323, 355, 388. 
Alain Valve Pistons for 9]/z inch Pumps, Re- 
claiming, 25. 
!, M. Equipment and L. N. Equipments, 

Difference Between, 387. 
] ecommended Practice, 191. 
Sack Action in Long Passenger Trains, 188. 
Spring Type Pressing Retaining Valve, 354. 
Stenciling, Freight Brake, 191. 
^Relations of Brake Apparatus to the Spac- 
ing of Trains, 121. 
^Retardation and Acceleration, Relations of 

Various Rates of, 154. 
'rain Handling, Questions and Answers, 19, 
54, 90, 123, 157, 192, 226, 257, 292, 324, 
356, 389. 
Trains, Headway and Spacing of, 60. 
Acddents, Increase in, 289. 
Acton, A Chance for, 84. 
Acion, Necessary, 152. 

Adlress, Synopsis of Mr. George A. Post's, 180. 
Ain Compressors, Lubricating, 72. 
*Alies Railroad Army in France, 369. 
Anirican Locomotive Company, Report of, 333. 
"Anericans on the Railroad, Making, 268. 
•Anbulance Train for U. S. Soldiers in France, 

69. 
Anrnals Killed on Railroad Tracks, 65. 
Apprentices on the Santa Fe, 83. 
*A|i Pans, Locomotive, 112. 
Associations, Union of, 186. 
•Afchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, Efficiency on 

the, 42. 
Automatic Stops in Canada, 351. 

B 

Babbitting Boxes, 49. 

"Belgian Railroad Men, Fidelity of the, 370. 

Boiler Efficiency, 1S7. 

Boiler Horsepower, 318. 

Boiler Lagging? What is, 377. 

Boiler Management, 56. 

Bridges, Architecture and Construction, 397. 

British Railways and the War, 329. 

Brotherhoods are Loyal, The, 253. 

"Bushings Advantageous on Shafts, 29. 

Business Association, Railway, 196. 

Booh Reviews: 

Bridge Engineering, 168. 

Elements of Electrical Engineering, 34. 

Finding and Stopping Waste in Modern Boiler 
Rooms, 68. 

Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 168. 

Lubricating Engineers Handbook, 68. 

Modern Gasoline Automobile, 34. 

Practical Locomotive Engineering, 203. 

Powdered Coal as a Fuel, 135. 

Proceedings of the Air Brake Association, 304. 

Proceedings of the International General Fore- 
men's Association, 34. 



Proceedings of the Traveling Engineers' As- 
sociation, 203. 
Psychology, 169. 
Statistics of Steam Railways, 203. 



"Camouflage in Nature and in War, 307. 

Car, A Summer and Winter, 96. 

Car Cleaning, Passenger, 308. 

Car Conditions to be Met, New, 386. 

Car Sills and Joints, Tests on, 97. 

Car, The Business Box, 75. 

Car, The General Service, 85. 

Car Wheels, Chilled Iron, 110. 

Car Wheels, Report on, 214. 

"Car, Wooden Hopper for Norfolk & Western, 

340. 
Cars at the Track Level, Dumping, 176. 
*Cars, Convertible Rough Freight, 5. 
•Cars for the Canadian Government Railways, 

358. 
•Cars for the Erie Railroad, Hospital, 15. 
•Cars for the Norfolk & Western, All Wood, 

105. 
Cars for War Materials, Breaking Up, 33. 
"Cars, Gondola for the Norfolk & Western, 49. 
"Cars, Refrigerator for the Baltimore & Ohio, 

47. t 
Cars, Saving Freight, 9. 

"Cars, Steel Rocker-Dump for France, 379. 
Cars, Use of Wood in Railway, 48. 
Case, The State of the, 147. 
"Chilled Iron, Heating Power of, 380. 
China, American Locomotives in, 141. 
* Coach Turned Into a Sleeper, Day, 232. 
Coal, Analysis of, 304. 
Coal and Other Things, Saving, 50. 
Coal, Burning Soft, 47. 
Coal, Classification of, 336. 
Coal, Cleaning, 334. 
Coal, Cold Facts About, 331. 
Coal Dust Non-Explosive, Making, 65. 
Coal, Electrical Test of, 288. 

"Coal from Railroad to Vessel, Transferring, 1. 
Coal, Handling Locomotive, 150. 
"Coal Saving by Mixing, 117. 
Coal Saving, Practical, 65. 
Collisions and Their Lesson, Recent, 352. 
Combustion, 150. 
Committees, Selecting, 150. 
Common Sense Scheme, A, 384. 
Concrete, Save the, 170. 
Construction, Lightness in, 17. 
Convention of the Brotherhood of Locomotive 

Engineers, 229. 
Convention, Traveling Engineers Association, 

310. 
Conventions, M.C.B., and M.M., 33. 
"Corrugated Firebox Sheet, The, 178. 
Counterbalancing, Ordinary Rules of, 363. 
•Couplers, Report on, 215. 

•Crane for Ash Pits, Gasoline Traveling, 305. 
Curves, Degrees of, 48. 
Curves, Passing Over, 16. 



Decimals and an Assumption, Six, 186. 
Diana of the Ephesians, Great is, 176. 
Director General of Railroads, Letter to, 104. 
"Doing Our Bit," 50. 
Draw Gear, Friction, 7. 
Duty Is It, Wlu.se? 119. 

E 

Electrical Department: 

"Alternating Current Into Direct Current, 
Converting of, 230. 

Axle Generators for St. Paul Locomotives, 
265. 

•Brake, Electro-Pneumatic, 360. 

"Catenary Construction, 199. 

Conductivity, 198. 

"Control for Electric Railway Equipment, 393. 

•Converter, The Rotary, 58. 

"Curves are Made, How the Locomotive Char- 
acteristic, 330. 

Direct Current Voltages, High, 23. 

Driving Wheels, Transfer of Weight Between, 

IMI, 

•Electrification, Chestnut Hill P.R.R., 171. 
"Lightning Arrester and Ground Connection, 



1**8. 



Central A<Mt 



•Lightning Arrester, The, 159. 

"Motor, Torque of a, 230. 

'Motors to Machines, Application of, 59. 

•New York Connecting Railroad, Electrifica- 
tion of the, 205. 

*No Voltage Control-Electric Railway Equip- 
ment, 392. 

"Planer-Motor Equipment, Latest Design of, 
28. 

•Portable Railway Sub-Station, The, 130. 

•Protective Apparatus, Electrical, 22. 

Railroads, Electrification of, 254. 

Railroads, Electrification of the, 125. 

•Railway Electrification, 260. 

•Release Connections, No Voltage, 93. 

•Sub-Station, The Automatic Railway, 93. 

•Torque of Electric Motors, 264, 296. 

•Track Circuiting on Electrified Railwavs, 94. 

•Split Phase? What Is the Meaning of, 359. 

"Voltage Control as Used in Railway Equip- 
ment, 129. 
Economies, Substantial Small, 186. 
Economy Devices Corporation and Franklin 
Railway Supply Company, Merging of, 31. 
Economy, Mistaken, 166. 

Engine Failures — Their Chief Causes and Pre- 
vention, 115. 
Enginemen Becoming Motormen, 27. 
Environment, Example of, 9. 
"Exhaust Apparatus, Locomotive, 328. 



Facts, Some Interesting, 289. 

Feed-Water Heaters, 219, 289. 

Feed Water Heaters, The History of Locomotive. 

276. 
Feed-Water? Why Heat. 384. 
•Ferry, Launching of Canadian Northern, 212, 

276. 
Fire Lighters, 229. 

"Firebox Design, Radiant Heat and, 173. 
•Firedoors on Locomotives, Pneumatic, 82. 
•Flange Lubrication, Locomotive Wheel, 362. 
Food Saving, A Call for, 25. 
•France, In the Maritime Alps of, 35. 
"Friction Draw Gear, 7. 
Fuel and Power Resources of Canada, 148. 
Fuel Association, Convention of the Interna- 
tional Railway, 209. 
Fuel Association, International Railway, 223. 
Fuel, Burning Low Grade, 220. 
Fuel Conservation, 289, 336. 
Fuel, Conservation of Railway, 116. 
Fuel Economy and Smoke Prevention, 327. 
•Fuel, Oil Efficiency in the Use of, 374. 
Fuel, Oil Waste of, 366. 
Fuel, Peat. 141. 441. 
Fuel Problem, The, 150. 
Fuel Saving, 85. 
Furnace, The Locomotive, 136. 



•Gear, Friction Draw, 76. 

•Glasses, Steam Gauge, 348. 

Goggles More Than Protective, 284, 347. 

•Good Engines Made Better on the Delaware, 

Lackawanna & Western, 319. 
"Gravity and Motor Conveyors, 344. 
Grinder, New Design of, 144. 
"Guides and Crossheads, Adjusting the, 12. 

H 

Haustum Fortum, Haustum Longum, et Haus- 
tum Simul Omne. (A Strong Pull, a 
Long Pull, and a Pull Altogether), 320. 

Headlight Law, Locomotive, 49. 

Headlight Order, Locomotive, 207. 

•Headlights, Locomotive, 10. 

Horse Power and Tractive Effort, 25. 

Hudson Bay Railway, 366. 

Hurry Up, For God's Sake, 130. 

•Hydraulic Shock Valve, 



Injector. The Theory of, 391. 
Injectors, Sellers, 150. 

Interchange, Revision of the Rules of, 216. 
Interstate Commerce Commission, Opinion of 
the. 111. 



•Journal Box and Pipe Hanger^ 28. 
•Journal Bon. National Coiled Spring, 346. 
Journal Boxes, The Padding of F; 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



Locomotives: 

•American Locomotive Co. Consolidation. 

2-8-2 Type Locomotives, for the French 

State Railways. 79. . 

•American Locomotive Co. Mallet Articulated, 

Type for the Wheeling & Lake 

• \mcrican Locomotive Co. Mohawk 2-8-2 

Type, for the New York Central. 26. 

• American War Locomotive Assembled at 

British Base in France, 274. 
•Baldwin. Eight-Coupled Locomotives for the 

Ncwburgh & South Shore Railway, 38. 
•Baldwin, Mallet Articulated for the Balti- 
more & Ohio Railroad. 211. 
•Baldwin. Mikado for the Atchison, Topeka & 

Santa Fe, 14. . 

•Baldwin, Mikado Type for the United States 

Government, 239. t 

•Baldwin. Pacific Type Locomotive for the 

Atlantic Coast Line, 282. 
•Baldwin, Pacific Tvpe Locomotive for the 

Baltimore & Ohio, 109. 
•Baldwin, Pacific Tvpe Locomotive for the 

Central Railroad of New Jersey, 309. 
Baldwin, Pacific and Mikado Type Locomo- 
tive for the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy, 248. . 

•Baldwin, Santa Fe Type Locomotive for the 

Belt Railway of Chicago, 140. 
•Baldwin. Switcher and Mikado of the Great 

Northern. 378. . 

•Baldwin, Ten-wheeled Locomotive for the 

Central RR. of New Jersey, 177. 
•Baldwin, U. S. Standard 2-8-2, for the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, 371. 
•Baldwin-Westinghouse Electric Passenger 
Locomotive for the Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul. 126. 
•Compound Mallet for the Norfolk & W estern, 

263. _ 

•Philadelphia & Reading Pacific 4-6-2 Type, 

194. 
•Swiss Decapod Type of Locomotives on tne 
Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway, 
74. 
•Tank Engine for Chile, 338. 
*U. S. Government Switcher Assigned to the 

Toledo & Ohio Central, 361. 
•Virginian Mallet Locomotives. 339. 
"Locomotive Boiler, The First Tubular, 349. 
Locomotive Boilers, Design and Maintenance 

of, 216. , . 

•Locomotive Boilers, Repairs and Wash-out of, 

241. 
•Locomotive Construction in Australia, 395. 
Locomotive Consulting Board, 149. 
Locomotive Development and Its Effect in 

Capacity, 149. 
Locomotive, Improving the, 262. 
•Locomotive Parts, Correct Alignment of, 376. 
Locomotives, Priming in, 166. 
Locomotive Repairs, Facilities for, 128. 
•Locomotive, Standard Type of British, in 

France, 232. 
•Locomotives, United States Standard for, 137. 
Locomotives of 1900 and Today. Relative Econ- 
omy of the, 240. 
Leaking and Freezing, 51. 
Light, Unscientific Measurement of, 16. 
Lighting and Heating. Train, 219. 
Liquids, Timing and Surface Tension of, 
Losses on the P. R. R., Reducing, 83. 
Lubrication, 102. 

•Lubrication, Causes of Improper, 375. 
Lubrication, Importance of, 353. 
•Lubricators — Their Construction 
tenance, 182. 

M 

Mail Distribution, Delay in, 51. 
Man-Power, Conservation of, 220. 
•Marcus Seguin and His Work, 349. 
'Master Car Builders' and American Railway 

Master Mechanics' Annual Meeting, 213. 
Masters, No Man Can Serve Two, 176. 
Mechanical Department, The Greater, 352. 
Mechanical Engineers, American Society 

201. 

Men of the Bull-Dog Breed, 118. 
•Metallic Packing, King, 197. 
Metals, The Flow of, 286. 
Metals, A Theory of the Fatigue of, 372. 
Mexican Railway, 299. 

Mixing Locomotive Coal for Economy, 334. 
M.M. and M.C.B. Associations, 201. 
M.M. Association President Schlafge, Address, 

213, 223. 
Motive Power, Diversity of, 266. 
Motormen, Enginemen Becoming, 27. 

N 

•Nathan Manufacturing Company's Works, At 

the, 142. 
National Council, Annual Congress of, 316. 
•New York Subway Extension, Completion of, 

337. 



78. 



and Main- 



oi, 



Obituary: 

Bean, Stephen L, 236. 
Belnap, Hiram W., 365. 
Dixon, R. M., 365. 
Dmmmond, Peter, 301. 
Ellis, William D., 236. 
Emery, Rufus F., 165. 
Fraser, Alexander F., 164. 



Goodnow, Charles A., 301. 

Mcintosh, Tohn F., 133. 

Miller, Alfred R., 236. 

Newman. William II., 301. 

iber, Sir Collingwood, 164. 

Smart, John J., 365. 

Tavlor, Joseph W., 165. 
Oil, "Save, 325. 

ving Rules, 48. 
Oily Waste Saving. 48. 
Operation of Railways, Government, 320. 



Personal: 

Ackerman. \V. F., 132. 
Adams, E. E.. 132. 
Aitken, Frank, 99. 
Alfred. F. H., 300. 
Alexander. W. N„ 234. 
Allen. T. S., 235. 
Allen. L. L., 30. 
\llison, Thomas, 62. 
Anderson, H. P., 300. 
Anderson, H. P.. 162. 
Anderson, Ross, 234. 
Anderson. R. W.. 268. 
Angell. Charles P., 162. 
Angling, J. E., 396. 
Appleton, N. W„ 132. 
T.aker, S. W.. 364. 
Barnes, W. J., 364. 
Barry, J. J., 396. 
Battley. E. R.. 332. 
Bean. N. L., 63. 
Beatty, Frank, 200. 
Beck, Harry, 234. 
Beckwith, J., 396. 
Bell, R. E., 397. 
Bell. F. J.. 200. 
Bentley, H. T., 132. 
Berry, G. H., 200. 
Beuter, A. J., 162. 
Bierd, W. G., 332. 
Bilty, G. H., 267. 
Black, W. A., 396. 
Bonner, B. J., 234. 
Booth, J. K, 63. 
Brenamen, J. E., 62. 
Brennan, E. J., 268. 
Bronner, E. D., 300. 
Brooks, J., 396. 
Brown, G., 200. 
Brown, E. L., 332. 
Brown, R. L.. 30. 
Brown, R. S., 300. 
Buckingham, J. E., 62. 
Buker, C. Z., 201. 
Burkhart, W. J., 267. 
Burnet, E. T., 332. 
Burnham, C. G., 333. 
Burns. John, 332. 
Burrell, Zack, 234. 
Cairns, Leonard S., 31. 
Calkins, A. E., 332. 
Callisnn. W. A., 332. 365. 
Calvin, E. E., 332. 
Carev, J. J., 332. 
Carlough, S. C, 200. 
Carrick. H. H., 98. 
Carr. Robert F., 364. 
Carroll, T. T., 267. 

Carson, F. L., 364. 

Case, D. M., 332. 

Cheatham, Paul C, 364. 

Chilcoat, H. E„ 333. 

Clark, A. B., 234. 

Clark, F. H., 267. 

Clark, L. N-, 396. 

Clayton, T. J., 300. 

Clewer, H., 30, 300. 

Clifton, Frank B., 235. 

Cole, Thomas J., 63. 

Conerly, J. B., 62. 

Conley, J. A., 200. 

Connolly, F., 234. 

Costin, E. M., 300. 

Cotton, William A., 332. 

Couch, L. F., 62. 

Coulter, J. W., 30. 

Crawford, D. F., 235. 

Crohn, Arthur, 132. 

Culver, C. W„ 234. 

Cunningham, D. G. f 30. 

Curd, W. C, 365. 

Currie, James C, 236. 

Davenport, C. O., 162. 

Davey, T. S., 30, 332. 

Davis, A. T.. 301. 

Davis, D. R., 62. 

Davis, J. M„ 234. 

Davis. W. C. 132. 

Delaney, J. A., 30. 

Delany. A. G., 332. 

Devaney, T., 162. 

DeWolff, Frank A., 200. 

Dickerson, Thomas B., 162. 

Dimmitt, H. C, 63. 

Donnolly, J. L., 98. 

Dowling, J. J., 332. 

Duffv, A. F., 300. 

Duke, W. D., 396. 

Dupont, B. E., 201. 

Earling, U. B., 396. 



Eddy, E. J., 62. 
Edwards, J. H., 98. 
Eich. H. C. 300. 
Eisele, H., 98. 
Emerson, Charles, 396. 



Enbody, A. B., 200. 
Erskine, W. II., 99. 
Erving. Charles 11.. 31, 333. 
Fairbairn, M. R.. 268. 
Fagan, J. 1... 13-'. 
Falck. F. M., 30. 
Farr, D. J., 396. 
Farrington, T. R.. 267. 
Feenev, 1:. [., 301. 
Fetner, William H., 30. 
Fletcher. L. F„ 2b7. 
Foque. T. A., 396. 
Ford, A. B., 332. 
Foster. W. II.. 98. 
Fox, H. K., 200. 
Funk, C. H.. 397. 
Frazer, E. J., 396. 
Fraz.e. W. E., 200. 
Freund, Harry J., 62. 
Fritchev. F. W., 132. 
Fuller, C. L., 364. 
Galloway, Charles W., 268. 
Galloway, W. S.. 267. 
Gaines, F. F., 30, 132. 
Garber, O. A.. 396. 
Gamble, B., 30. 
Garden, J. C, 300. 
C.entzel, H. S., 132. 
Gildea, J. F., 98. 
Gilpin, W. R.. 162. 
Coble, A. S., 300. 
Goggins, B. W., 162. 
Goodwin, H. T., 200. 
Gorman, T. E.. 397. 
Graham, I. F., 364. 
Greenwood, F. H., 396. 
Gribbon, C, 364. 
Grieve, R. E.. 132. 
Griffith, M. O.. 200. 
Grimshaw. F. G., 267. 
Gunther, James, 98. 
Hackfield, A. H., 62. 
Hale. O. R., 200. 
Hamilton, L. F., 31. 
Hammond, G. A., 396. 
Harding, W. M.. 200. 
Hardy, Clement A., 365. 
Hardy. W. H.. 30. 
Harnisson, W. E., 300. 
Harrison, W. R.. 30. 
Hart. W. H.. 63. 
Hartenstein, E., 98. 
Harvey, F. W., 98. 
Hawthorne. V. R., 201. 
Heckathorne, S., 200. 
Hendricks. L. W.. 30. 
Hendrix. W. T., 365. 
Herrington. G. B„ 132. 
Hisgins. C. C, 267. 
Hillman, G. A., 200. 
Himmelright. R. J.. 132. 
Hitchcok. W. D., 30. 
Horrigan. J.. 332. 
Huber. H. G., 267. 
Huck, Albert. 62. 
Huckctt, G. O.. 132. 
Hustis, Tames S., 234. 
Hylan. John T., 31. 
Jackson, W. S.. 234. 
Johnson. Alba B., 201. 
Tohnson, G. E., 132. 
Johnson, G. F„ 200. 
Tonah, Frank G.. 62. 
Tones, L. M., 267. 
Kane, Howard H., 62. 
Keenan, F. E., 364. 
Kellev. W. II., 30. 
Kennedy, H. A., 132. 
Kennedy, S. G., 300. 
Kennev, -V, 396. 
Kennev, W. P., 132. 
Kerwin. T. M.. 267. 
KiefTer. N. C, 98. 
Kimbell. T. F.. 396. 
Kipp, A. K., 234. 
Kirley, George A., 162. 
Kleeson. M. A., 300. 
Kleinkauf, E. J.. 162. 
Klumb, A. J., 62, 267. 
Kopper, H., 99. 
Kothe. C. A., 267. 
Kramer, L., 300. 
Knhlke, W. F., 98. 
Kuhns, George, 98. 
Lake, E. M., 98. 
Larson, Lewis A., 31. 
Law, S. W., 62. 
Leary, D. O., 31. 
Lemon. W. W„ 30. 
Leonard. Col. R. N., 396. 
Lingenfelter, C. F., 30. 
Linn, W. A., 396. 
Ludington, C. F., 30. 
Lund. G. E., 396. 
MacBeath, T. W., 162. 
MacFarland. H., 234. 
MacRae, Albert, 136. 
Manzell, James E., 30. 
Marshall. Waldo H., 98. 
Mason. Stephen C, 200, 235. 
Matthews, C. W., 234. 
Mattingly, E. H„ 132. 
McAdoo, William G., 397. 
McArthur, T. O., 364. 
McAuliffe. C. E., 30. 
McAuliffe, Eugene, 234. 
McCarthy. M. J., 267. 
McCormick, George, 332. 
McCuaig, D. J., 333. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



McDonnell, F. V., 3*0. 
McFarran, J. A., 200. 
McKelligan, A. S.. 267. 
McLauchlan, D. M-, 364. 
McNulty. I. A., 364. 
McQuade, R. J., 99. 
Mears. F., 63. 
Mechling, J. K., 268. 
Mellon, VV. B„ 364. 
Messer. G. J., 300. 
Meredith, F„ 62. 
Miller, P. D., 132. 
Murray, J. E., 396. 
Modaff. Harry, 365. 
Monahan F. J., 267. 
Morehead, J. B„ 30O. 
Motherwell, J. S.. 62. 
Mottice, C. E., 234. 
Muller, P. J., 62. 
Mumma, E. T., 62. 
Murphy, J. F., 267. 
Murray, William F., 332. 
Needham, K. T., 364. 
Nicholas, R. H., 62. 
Nichols, R. N., 30. 
Norton, C. H., 300. 
Oakes, H. M., 234. 
Oakley, F. W., 201. 
O'Brien, J. F_. 396. 
Opia, Toseph, 98. 
Osborne, Loyall A., 132. 
Ostberg, A. N., 267. 
Ostby, Oscar F., 332. 
Oviatt, H. C, 397. 
Owens, F. T., 132. 
Pack, A. G., 267. 
Paradise, F. E., 364. 
Pardee, E. S., 30. 
Pardee, J. H., 30. 
Parish, LeGrand, 301. 
Patten, C. H., 301. 
Patterson, Gorden, 98. 
Patterson. H. S., 200. 
Paulus, VV. F., 396. 
Payne. W. B., 30. 
Pearson, Edward J., 235. 
Peasley, B. J., 62. 
Peck, C. E., 30, 300. 
Peck. G. L., 396. 
Peter, J. S., 332. 
Peters, Ralph, 234. 
Pfahler, E. P., 234. 
Phillips, J. H., 63. 
Pitt. W. A.. 396. 
Plaisted, L. G., 234. 
Post, George A.. 300. 
Potts, V. X., 98. 
Power, J. A., 364. 
Powers, M. J., 162. 
Punter. W. M., 234. 
Prendergast. O. P., 300. 
Raitt. Charles. 132. 
Raraey, E. E., 162. 
Randon, VV. A., 132. 
Rauber, F., 30. 
Ravena. F., 364. 
Ray. George VV., 98. 
Reid, VV. I., 132. 
Richardson, C. C, 62. 
Richardson, C. P., 396. 
Ripley, Edward P., 267. 
Robinson, Garland, 200. 
Robinson, G. P., 396. 
Robinson, Joseph, 201. 
Robinson, M., 397. 
Robinson, VV. L., 162, 396 
Rockwell, J. C., 162. 
Rodenberger J., 98. 
Rodger, J. H.. 365. 
Roe, R. E., 332. 
Roesch, Frank P.. 301. 
Rogers. C. M., 234. 
Rudloff, E. C., 132. 
Ruiter. A. R.. 63. 
Rupert. Milton, 63. 
Ryan, T. F., 201. 
Safford, H. R., 333. 
Sample. W. H., 332. 
Saul. G. VV., 332. 
Saunders. A. G., 132. 
Savage, H. D., 162. 
Schlacks, VV. T., 301. 
Schultz, F. VV., 99. 
Sedwick, T. D., 132. 
Sheahan, J. F.. 300. 
Sinclair, Daniel. 62. 
Sisco, G. E.. 267. 
Slater, T. R., 200. 
Slavin, J. T., 98. 
Small. I. VV.. 300. 
Smith. E. VV., 233. 
Smith, [nhn I.., 200. 
Smith. M. C., 397. 
Smith, M. F.. 63. 
Smith. P., 62. 
Smith, R. E., 300. 
Sporseller, R. J., 364. 
Steeves. VV. B.. 98. 
Stokes, VV. B.. 162. 
Stone, A. L. 132, 235. 
Stone. G. M., 62. 
Strickland, S. G.. 332. 
Sugars. Charles T.. 62. 
Summer, Elliott. 234. 
Tatum, T. T., 301. 
Taylor. F. VV .. 162, 300. 
Taussig. J. E.. 332. 
ThieholT. VV. F., 332. 
Thompson, M. C, 397. 



Todd, Percy R„ 234. 
Tracy, T. 98. 
Trainor, Jarr.cs A.. 333. 
Tripp, Guy E., 332. 
Tuck, Ralston, 396. 
Tunisnn, John R., 62. 
Turner, L. H.. 300. 
Turton M., 30. 
Vass, John. 234. 
Vogler, A. J., 268. 
Wall, H. S., 162. 
Walsh, F. O.. 98. 
VV liter. A., 364. 
Walters, Karl, 365. 
Warner, VV. W., 62. 
Warnock, H. R„ 30. 
Warren, A. E., 62. 
Webster, II. D., 63. 
Wells. W„ 234. 
Wentz, G. J., 396. 
Weston, A. H., 62. 
Wheatlev, B. L., 300. 
Wheeler, C. A., 267. 
White, T. VV., 30. 
Whitsitt, W. B., 30. 
Wieseckel, G. P., 30. 
Wilcoxen, T. S., 63. 
Wildin. George P., 267. 
Willard, Daniel, 132, 397. 
Williams, A. D„ 364. 
Wilson, D. C, 396. 
Wilson, F. N., 62. 
Wilson, G. M., 364. 
Winterrowd, W. H.. 162. 
Wolden, Oscar E., 333. 
Wood. J. M., 132. 
Woodbridge, H. C. 301. 
Woods, I. C, 98. 
Worth, C. A., 30. 
Wright. W.. 200. 
Young, Tames D., 365. 
Zwight, Silas, 396. 

Portraits : 

Bartholomew, W. S., 163. 

Booz.. Col. H. C. 365. 

Brown, R. S., 333. 

Chilcoat, H. E., 333. 

Emery, Rufus F., 165. 

Dixon, Robert M., 365. 

Feenev, P. J., 310. 

Gallowav, Charles W., 268. 

Hamilton, L. F., 31. 

Himmelright, F. J., 133. 

Kenney, Thomas P., 164. 

Jenks, W. J., 63. 

Kiehm, George W., 64. 

I.arsen. Lewis A., 31. 

Lee, Elisha, 234. 

Lovekin, W. H., 99. 

Mason, Stephen A., 234. 

Mears, Major F., 63. 

McAdoo, William G., 397 

Mcintosh, John F., 132. 

Post, George A., 163. 

Reid, W. L, 133. 

Ripley, Edward P., 267. 

Roesch, Frank P., 301. 

Sinclair, Alexander F., 164. 

Taylor, Joseph VV., 165. 

Tripp, Guv E., 332. 

Turner, Walter V., 234. 

Weaver, I. H., 188. 

Wildin, George W., 163. 
•Packing, Piston Rod and Valve Rod, 92. 
Parasites, Locomotive, 297. 

Pennsylvania Rai'road, Annual Report of the, 117. 
Pennsylvania Railroad, Changes of Names on, 48. 
Pennsylvania Railroad, Reducing Fire Losses, 83. 
Pde Driving with Locomotive Cranes, 127. 
•Piston Packing for Small Cylinders, Bad Sub- 
stitutes for, 287. 
Practice, European and American, 221. 
Practice, Revision of Standard and Recom- 
mended, 219. 
Progress, 297. 

•Protected, Physically and Mentally, 37. 
Psychophysical Movements, Economy in 184. 
Pulleys, Scratch Shafts. Loose. 25. 
Pulverized Coal, Rhode Island, 153. 
•Pulverized Fuel, "Lopulco" Feeder for, 197 
•Pulverized Fuel in Stationary Boilers, 294 
•Punching and Shearing Machines, 326. 



"Quit You Like Men— Be Strong," 50. 

R 

Railroad Administration, Resolution on. 176 
Railroad Equipment Notes, 32, 66. 100. 134, 167 

202. 237. 271, 303, 335, 367, 399. 
Railroad Repair Shops, 1.12. 
Railroading as It Is and It Will Be, 254. 
Railroads and Politics. The. 102. 
Railroads, Taking Over of the, 17. 
Railway Accidents, Report on, 342. 
Railway Congestion. Relieving, 207. 
Railway Equipment in France, U. S., 95. 
Railway Service and Coal, 108. 
Railway, The Trans-Australian, 249. 
Railways and the Board of Trade, British, ,"7. 
Repair Shop Output, Locomotive, 254. 
Results. Securing Positive, 221. 
Revenue. Estimates on Increased, 212. 
Reverse Gear, Ruahton, 78. 

•Reversing Gear, Pneumatic Locking Locomo- 
tive, 36. 



Shop Appliances: 

Annealing Steel, 366. 

Kelts, Care of, 144. 

Brass, Cleaning, 167. 

Brass, Economizing in, 233. 

•Car Axles. Devices for Re-centering, 299. 

Caseharrlening, 44. 

Chisel, How to Make, 144. 

•Cranes, Safety Devices for Overhead, 71. 

•Eccentric Spindles, Removing. 151. 

•Facing Device, Tate Sleeve, 65. 

Guides, Lining L'p Locomotive, 151. 

Hack Saw, A Double. 65. 

Hose Mounting und Hose Clamping Machines, 

•Lathe, High-Powered Doubling Acting, 103. 

Nickel Plating, 76. 

Oil and Grease, Reclaiming, 65. 

Oxy-Acetylene and Electric Welding, 45. 

Parts. To Blacken Small Iron or Steel, 76. 

•Press for Straightening Steel Sheets, Pneu- 
matic, 232. 

Rust, Preventing, 61. 

Soft Iron, Hardening, 167. 

•Springs, Shop Manufacture and Repair, 218. 

•Stay-Bolt Machine, The Landis, 295. 

Steam Pipes, Cement for, 97, 

Steel, Drilling Hard. 101. 

Steel, Tempering, 166. 

Threads, Lubricant for Cutting, 65. 

Welding Truck Frames, Bolsters and Arcb 
Bars, 217. 

Wiped Joints, 64. 
Safety and Loyaltv, 334. 
Safety, Mr. Belnap on, 321. 
Science and War, 116. 
Science Applied to Locomotives, The Advance 

of, 293. 
Scrap Heap, The, 394. 
Service. 84. 

Sheet) Steel, Substitute for, 83. 
Service and Civility, 314. 
Sheet Steel, Substitute for, 83. 
'"Shelled-Out" Spot, The, 161. 
Shop Made Him, Claims That, 17. 
Shop Stewards. 64. 
Soot and Scale and Tried Arms, 353. 
•Southern Railway, Double Tracking the, 383. 
•Spark Arresters and Ashpans, 370. 
Spark Arresters and Petticoat Pipes, Locomo- 
tive, 80. 
Standardization, 152. 

Standardization Without Monopoly, 118. 
Standards. The Director General on 141 
•Stay-Bolt Connection, 298. 
Steam, The Formation of, 288. 
Steam Locomotives and Tenders, Inspection and 

Testing, 61. 
•Steam End Valve, A New 298 
Steel, Heat Treatment of, 90. 
Steel. New High-Speed, 51. 
Steel, Rustless, 101. 
Stop Signal in England, The, 116. 
Superheater Damper, Importance of the, 131 
Superheater Dampers, Installation and Repairs 
of. 208. 
•Superheater Units, General Construction and 

Maintenance. 315. 
•Superheaters in Rotary Snow Plows, 238. 
Superheaters on Small Locomotives, 263. 



Tangle, Unraveling The. 102. 
'Telephone Reaches a Moving Train, 146 

Telephoning a Moving Train, 40. 
Tests for Materials. Specifications, 217 
theory and Practice, 222. 
Throttling Steam, Effect of. 346. 
Tractive Effort and Adhesive Weight, 119 
Tractive Effort and Horse-Power. 39. 
Traction Problem. The New York, 169. 
Traffic Moving in Waves, 285. 
Train Resistance and Draw-Bar Pull, 373. 
Train Resistance and Tonnage Rating, 214 
Transportation. The, 29. 
Traveling Engineers' Association, 302. 

Turntables, Construction, Care and Main- 
tenance of, 250. 

u 

United States Railroad Administration, Work of 
the. 317. 



Valve Gear. New Design of Locomotive, 56. 
Valve Gear, The Anderson. 148. 
Valve-Setting. Practical Hints on, 280. 
r Valve. G :!side. 382. 

V olatile Matter in Coal, The, 169. 

W 

Wages for Shopmen. Increase of, 255. 
War, Win the, 25 4. 
Waste. Reclaiming. 104. 
Watches, Testing, 

Water arc! Its Usual Ingredients, 191. 
Water, Economy in the Use of, 274. 
Welding Metals. Wilson, 102. 
Whistle, I'sc of the Locomotive, 101. 
Wood. The Calorific Value of. 143. 

M ichinery. Speed of. 212. 
Workers Injured. Age of. 304. 
Workshop Accuracy, 321. 



RlllffiveEnjineerinj 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling Stock and Appliances 



Vol. XXXI. 



114 Liberty Street, New York, January, 1918 



No. 1 



Transferring Coal from Railroad to Vessel 



The methods of transferring coal 
from railroads to vessels, big and little, 
has, during recent years, undergone 
some important developments. Special 
machinery has come more and more 
into service. And yet, some of the 
older methods are continued, partly be- 
cause they are still good methods, and 
partly because the necessities for a 



ports. There are a number at New 
York harbor, several at Hampton 
Roads and a couple at Baltimore, Md. 
At Charleston, S.'C, the Southern Rail- 
way operates a movable car dumper — 
that is, a dumper which moves on its 
own track out onto the deck of a large 
pier. 

The "moving belt" has also come in- 



(!ecks the coal is brought, not in the 
cars used- to bring the coal from the 
mines to the seaboard, but in specially 
made electrical coal cars. They run 
under their own power from the dump- 
ers to the land-end of the pier, where 
they are received by elevators which 
hoist car and coal to the deck 90 ft. 
above the water. These cars then move 




HOPPER COAL CAR UP SIDE DOWN (IX DUMPER. COAL TASSIXG THROUGH TELESCOPE CHUTE TO BOAT. 



change have not been sufficiently press- 
ing. The mechanical "car dumper" 
has come into prominent use at many 
places. Most of these, so far as the 
United States is concerned, are at rail- 
road terminals on the Great Lakes, 
particularly on Lake Erie. Car dumpers 
are also in service at several Atlantic 



i'- service as a means of conveying coal 
after it leaves the dumper and bringing 

it out onto the pier and placing it at 
points from which it may be more 
readily put into the vessels. Such belts 
form part of the system in use in Haiti- 
more. At Hampton Roads, the most 
modern piers are those onto whose 



;.long the deck to the desired points. 
\t Charleston, X C. the railroad car is 
taken out onto the pier Sometimes 
tlu car dumper is right alongside the 
water's edge. The loaded car is ele- 
vated and dumped, the coal movement 
being onto an apron and from the apron 
into a chute and then into the vessel. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January. 1918 



When the cars can be dumped prac- 
tically at once into the holds of vessels, 
as just described, the problem of trans- 
ferring coal from rail to boat is much 
simplified. Apparently there are no 
cases as yet where a dumper delivers 
coal directly to big trans-Atlantic 
vessels. If these long, wooden piers 
used at Atlantic ports are tall enough 
and the water deep enough, the coal 
may be delivered by chutes to big 
ocean-going ships. Thus, there are 
such piers at Philadelphia and Balti- 
more. The big wooden pier of the B. 
& O. at Curtis Bay at Baltimore harbor 
is a notable example of the tall, old- 
time, wooden pier. The old, low piers 
may deliver coal to a barge or lighter 
and the latter make delivery to the 
vessel. This is the general practice at 
New York. The ocean liners, as a rule, 
do not go up alongside coal piers to 
get their coal, but receive it from 
harbor boats. This coal is handled 
at least twice after it leaves the 
mine— first, when it is delivered 
from the railroad car to a pocket or 
bunker on the pier and thence to the 
harbor boat; second, when it is trans- 
ferred from this boat to the bunkers of 
the big ship. 

Getting the coal out onto these 
wooden piers is often a railroad job 
pure and simple. If the general level 
of the railroad is high above the water, 
then it may be possible to have the deck 
of the pier at about the same height. 
The cars are pushed out onto the deck 
by a locomotive to the land-end of the 



cars have to be brought up a consid- 
erable distance. There may be a long 
gentle up-grade or a short steep one. 
It may be a question of how much 
room there is Generally, empty cars 
are rolled off the pier by a down-grade 
leading back to the land-end. The load- 
ed car.-, arc discharged into bins or 




CAR DUMPER AT CONNEAUT, OHIO 

pockets beneath the deck. Here the 
coal is kept until wanted. From the 
bin, it goes by a chute outwards and 
downwards into the vessel. 

The great height of some of the piers, 
both wooden and steel, which make 




CAR DUMPER LOADING SHIP AT TOLEDO, OHIO. STORAGE YARD TO THE LEFT. 



deck. If the deck is absolutely level, 
then the cars will need to be pushed out. 
If it has a down-grade towards the sea, 
then it may he sufficient to get the cars 
to the beginning of this down-grade. A 
gentle up-grade towards the sea will 
require the cars to be pushed all the 
way, Sometimes the general level of 
the railroad may be low, so that the 



delivery in this way is a necessary 
thing. The bottom of the bin must be 
high enough above the hatch of the 
I to p -h'.ce a steep down-grade 
It may be necessary that the end of 
the chute shall be far out from the 
side of the pier. The further out the 
end is, the higher the bottom of the bin 
will have to be above the hatch in order 



to get the proper steep grade. Some of 
the big vessels are both broad and tall. 
The top of the hatch will be higher the 
more nearly empty the ship is. A big 
vessel may. when empty have a hatch 
standing 43 ft. out of the water. This 
is as high as the roof of a three story 
house. When we consider the neces- 
sity of the chute above the hatch and 
ot the pier deck above the bin, such 
I eights as 90 ft. become reasonable. 
There are two piers of this height in 
this country. These are the great, 
modern structures of the C. & O. and 
the X. & W. railroads at Hampton 
Roads. The Virginian Railway has a 
pier in the same harbor about 70 ft in 
height. Wooden piers of the height 
needed for the business at the spot are 
apt to be popular because they are not 
especially costly to build nor expensive 
to operate. It is very attractive as a 
general rule, to railroad managers when 
it is possible to use ordinary locomo- 
tives in getting the loaded cars out on- 
to the pier decks. But questions of 
space and rapidity of action also have 
to be considered. It is probably quick 
action that has impelled the construc- 
tion of mechanical car dumpers, espe- 
cially on Lake Erie. 

The coal business on the Great Lakes 
seems to have grown up in consequence 
of the shipment of grain and ore from 
ports on Lake Superior to ports on 
Lake Erie. So coal came to be shipped 
in quantity and could be sent at a low 
cost because the ships had to move. 
These ships could not afford to wait 
any length of time to get their coal. A 
long stay in a port at either end of the 
route made the freight cost increase. 
The loaded car is run up-hill to the 
dumper; then it is lifted to a level previ- 
ously decided upon; and then it is over- 
turned sideways. The coal tumbles out 
mto a big apron. This is set to slope 
downwards. As the coal slides down, 
the sides of the apron converge and 
force it into the mouth of a chute. The 
coal now passes through the chute into 
the whale-back. When the cradle, as 
the L-shaped elevator of the dumper 
is called, returns to its bottom position, 
another loaded car is ready to come on 
board. The new car may shove the old 
one off. The empty car now runs down 
a short incline to a kick-back. The 
result is that it is started back in the 
general direction from which it original- 
ly came. The elevator of the dumper 
runs up and down, up and down, making 
a round trip in a very short time. It 
will he understood that the shorter the 
distance from the bottom position to 
the dumping position, the greater the 
number of round-trips that may be 
made in an hour. In order to get this 
distance as short as may be. the bottom 
position is set at a little height above 
the surroundings. There will be a 



January, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



rather sharp incline leading up to the 
bottom position. The loaded cars are 
not usually pushed up this incline by 
means of a locomotive. A special 
stationary engine, electric or steam, is 
employed to operate a wire cable. A 
"mule" or "ground-hog" or "barney" 
is a small car which, when carried along 
by the cable, pushes the loaded rail- 
road car up the incline. Gravitation 
would carry the mule or ground-hog or 
barney back to the bottom of the in- 
cline after it has pushed the new car 
onto the cradle; but reliance on gravi- 
tation alone does not give results quick 
enough for one or two of the more re- 
cent installations. The cable is oper- 
ated to carry back the mule. The head 
rope pulls it up; the tail rope pulls it 
down. The two round-trips, one up 
■and down the incline, the other up and 
■down the dumper tower, are timed to 
match each other. The loaded car 
doesn't have to wait: nor the cradle. 
When the loaded car goes onto the 
cradle, it finds itself on a short bit of 
railroad track. This track is not on 
the floor of the cradle itself, but is on a 
low platform mounted on rollers or 
wheels. This platform may be moved 
directly across the railway track. The 
cradle, as has already been intimated, 
is L-shaped. That is, there is a hori- 
zontal floor and a vertical wall at one 
side. When the car is handled the op- 
eration is accomplished by lifting this 
L-shaped cradle. This is carried out 
by means of one or more hoisting 
engines hauling in on wire ropes ar- 
ranged to hoist the cradle and its load. 
After the hoisting has been going on 
for a time, the proper level will be 
reached. At this juncture the cradle 
will be halted from going any higher. 
But the pulling on the ropes still con- 
tinues, with the result that the L- 
shaped cradle is made to rotate. In 
fact, the resistance to the further verti- 
cal movement of the cradle is on one 
side only. This is the side where the 
vertical wall is placed. The arrange- 
ments for halting the upward move- 
ments are such that the cradle is 
in effect hinged or pivoted along 
the region where cradle floor and 
vertical wall meet. As the cradle turns, 
the loaded car comes to rest more and 
more on what was the vertical wall. 
The weight on what was the floor be- 
comes less and less. When the rotation 
has continued for 90 (legs, the weight 
will be entirely on the "vertical" wall. 
Some of the coal will have fallen out 
by this time, perhaps the most of it. 
The car will be resting on its side and 
not on its wheels. Some dumpers of a 
late style are able to rotate through an 
angle of 160 degs. This is only a short 
amount less than a complete overturn; 
180 degs. would upset the car com- 
pletely. 



One might expect the car to tumble 
off, but when the cradle begins to rise 
gripping irons come into action. Thus, 
in one device the car as it rises carries 
up with it cross pieces reaching from 
one side of the car to the other. These 
cross-bars come into contact witli the 
lop edges of the sides of the car. On 




CAR DL'MPER IX ACTION". 

the side where the vertical wall of the 
cradle is, these cross-bars or clamps 
may each have a rod running down 
through the cradle floor. Suppose that 
there are four of the cross-bars. Then 
there will be four wire ropes corre- 
sponding to them. These ropes are 
hoisting ropes and run up in front of 



against the top edges of the car. When 
the car is almost completely upside 
down, it rests largely on the cross-bars 
and the cross-bars rest on the ropes. 

It will readily be understood that a 
car dumper handling large loads must 
be itself a heavy structure and must 
have a good solid foundation. Even 
with the movable dumping apparatus at 
Charleston, where the loads are prob- 
ably only of ordinary size, the dumper 
is a heavy affair. After the car has re- 
ceived its load, it is sent along in the 
direction of the dumper at the distant 
terminal. There a man gets on the car 
while in the loaded yard and stays with 
it until he gets into the "empty" yard. 
He is on the car, managing the brakes, 
when the car is taken*in charge by the 
"ground-hog" and rushed up the sharp 
incline onto the movable platform on 
the cradle. He now locks his brakes 
and gets off. When the cradle comes 
down again with the empty car he gets 
on board and controls the car as it runs 
down to the kick-back and then makes 
its run to the empty yard on a suitable 
down-grade. 

At Charleston the steel tower rests 
on wheels and is in reality a kind of 
traveling gantry, being self-propelled 
It runs on its own track, which en- 
closes an ordinary railroad track be- 
tween its rails. This machine moves out 
on the pier, the vessel to be loaded be- 
ing alongside, and the gantry takes up 
a position abreast of the hatchway into 
which coal is to be dumped. The loaded 
railroad car from the mine is run out 
onto the pier to a position on the cradle 
of the dumper. The delivery when the 




COAL DUMPER WITH GONDOLA READY FOR UNLOADING. 



the cradle— that is, on the outside of 
the vertical wall (or perhaps through 
it). When the cradle overturns, each 
of these ropes bears against the cross- 
bar corresponding to it. A groove is 
arranged on top of each cross-bar to re- 
ceive the rope when this occurs. The 
effect of the ropes bearing against the 
cross-bars is to keep the latter tight up 



car is overturned sideways is onto an 
apron or guide discharging into a hop- 
per. The hopper feeds a big, curious 
loading arm. which stretches out over 
the water. This arm is not perfectly 
straight, but has a slight curvature. 
Through it a push conveyor operates, 
pushing the coal along to the outer end 
over the water. However, the coal does 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1918 



not simply drop from the end into the 
vessel. The curved arm has at its end 
a chute which hangs down into the hold. 
The coal passes into this device at its 
upper end and out at the bottom. The 
long curved arm may be lifted at its 
outer end or lowered, carrying the load- 
ing chute with it. The chute may also 
be directed to different points in the 
hold, thus facilitating the distribution 



of the coal in the * essel's hold. After 
the region of the ship opposite the 
dumper is pretty well filled, the dumper 
may be shifted abreast of another hatch- 
way. Likewise the gantry carrying the 
c urved arm is shifted along to a proper 
ion between dumper and vessel. 
Both at Charleston and at Baltimore the 
coal is discharged by a car dumper; so 
that in this respect the two plants are 



upon an equality. At Baltimore one 
object is to serve a foreign trade de- 
manding coal in condition to be fed onto 
grate bars located 3 ins. apart. It is 
quite a problem to do all the handling 
necessary to get bituminous coal out of 
rhe mine, along the railroad and out on- 
to a pier, and into a vessel's hold with- 
out smashing up the lumps a good deal, 
even though the fall is divided up. 



Mallet Locomotives of the Wheeling & Lake Erie 



Twenty large 2-6-6-2 type Mallet loco- 
motives have recently been delivered to 
the Wheeling & Lake Erie Railway by 
the American Locomotive Company. 
These engines are being operated on the 
Toledo division between Huron, Ohio and 
Brewster, Ohio, a distance of 80 miles. 
The ruling grade is 0.6 per cent, 5 miles 
long. One of these new Mallet engines 
takes 61 loaded cars, making a total of 
4.314 tuns, over this division at an average 
speed of 17 miles an hour. This is the 
daily performance of these engines. 

The engines were designed for 22-deg. 
curves. They have a total weight, engine 
and tender, of 611,300 lbs., a total weight 
of engine of 435.000 lbs., and a weight on 
drivers of 357,500 lbs. The total wheel 
base of engine and tender is 80 ft. 0J^ ins. 
The total wheel base of the engine is 50 



heating surface of 1,450 sq. ft. is thereby 
obtained. 

All the cylinders have piston valves, the 
low pressure cylinders having a 12-in. 
double ported valve. The ashpan is ar- 
ranged for outside hoppers. On the rear 
section of the frame the usual splice is 
omitted and the whole section cast in one 
piece. The tender is arranged suitable 
for the type C Street Stoker and also so 
that it can be changed, if desired, with the 
least possible alterations to suit pulverized 
fuel. The boiler and machinery were de- 
signed for a pressure of 220 lbs. This en- 
gine was built at what used to be called 
the Brooks Locomotive Works at Dun- 
kirk, N. V. Some of the dimensions, etc., 
are here appended for reference. 

Track gauge, 4 ft. 8^4 ins. ; fuel, bit. 
coal; piston, H. P. 25J4 ins. 



Flues — Material, cold-drawn seamless 
steel; number, 48; diameter. SJ4 ins. 

! iil.es— Thickness, No. 11, W. G. ; flues, 
No. 9, wire gauge; length, 20 ft. ins.; 
spacing, 13/16 in. 

Heating Surface— Tubes and Hues. 4,319 
sq. ft.; firebox, 305 sq. ft.; arch tubes, 54 
sq, ft.; total, 4,678 sq. ft.; superheater, 
1,450 sq. ft.; grate area, 99.2 sq. ft. 

Wheels — Driving diam. outside tire, 63 
ins. ; center diam., 56 ins. : driving mate- 
rial, main, cast steel; others, cast steel; 
engine truck, diam., 33 ins.:- kind, cast 
steel; trailing truck, diam.. 36 ins.; kind, 
cast steel; tender truck, diam., 35 ins.; 
kind, cast steel. 

Axles — driv. journals main, 10 ■ x 13 
ins.; other. 10'.. x 13 ins.; engine truck, 
journals, 6}4 x 12 ins.; trailing truck jour- 
nals, 8 x 14 ins. ; tender j ournals, 6 x 1 1 ins. 




Geo. Durham. S. M. P. 



ft. 3 ins., the driving wheel base is 32 ft. 
4 ins., and the rigid wheel base is 11 ft. 
ins. Cylinders 25^ and 39 x 32 in., 63-in. 
driving wheels, and a boiler pressure of 
200 lbs. give a maximum tractive power, 
working compound, of 80,400 lbs. The 
compounding is controlled by the Franklin 
Railway Supply Co.'s Simplex system. 

The boiler is of the straight top in- 
verted slope type. At the first course the 
barrel measures 90 ins. in diameter outside, 
while the outside diameter of the larger 
course is 98 ins. The barrel is fitted with 
251 tubes, 2^4 ins. in diameter, and 48 
flues, 5 l / 2 ins. in diameter and 20 ft. long 
each. A combustion chamber 39 ins. long 
is included. The firebox is 132 ins. long 
and 108J4 ins. wide, having a grate area of 
99.2 sq. ft., a firebox depth at the front of 
83 ins. and at the back of 59 ins. The 
distance from the top of the grate to the 
center of lowest tube is \7 l A ins. A total 
heating surface of 4,678 sq. ft. and a super- 



2-6-6-2 FOR THE W. & L. E. RY, 



Cylinder— Type, valve; diam. L. P. 39 
ins. ; stroke, 32 ins. 

Tractive— Power, simple; 80,400 lbs. 

Factor of adhesion, 4.43. 

Wheel Base— Driving, 11 ft ins. and 
total. 50 ft. 3 ins.; engine and tender, 80 
ft. OVz in. 

Weight— In working order, 435.000 lbs. ; 
on drivers, 357,500 lbs. ; on trailer, 48,500 
lbs.; on engine truck, 29,000 lbs.; engine 
and tender, 611,300 lbs. 

Boiler— Type, straight top; O. D. first 
ring, 90 ins. ; working pressure, 200 lbs. 

Firebox— Type, wide; length, 132 ins.; 
width, 108J4 ins.; combustion chamber, 
with length, 39 ins.; thickness of crown, 
■)s in.; tube, l / 2 in.; sides. H in.; back, 
H in. ; water space front, sides, back, 5 
ins.; depth (top of grate to center of 
lowest tube) \7yi ins.; crown staying, 
1 1/6 ins. 

Tubes — Material, radial hot-rolled seam- 
less steel; number, 251; diameter, 2% ins. 



Loco. Co.. Builders. 



Boxes— Driving, main, cast steel; others, 
cast steel. 

Brake — Driver, American; tender, 
Westinghouse ; pump, 2-11 ins.; reservoir, 
1-18*4 x 96 ins., 2-18J4 x 132 ins. 

Engine truck. Economy; trailing, Cole. 

Exhaust — Pipe, single; nozzle- " 7 . 
7 H ins.; grate style, rocking. 

Piston— Rod diam., 4 ins.; piston pack- 
ing, snap rings. 

Smoke Stack— Diameter, 18 ins.; top 
above rail, 15 ft. 6 ins.: tender frame, 
channel. 

Tank— Style, water bottom: capacity, 
9,000 gallons; fuel capacity, 15 tons. 

Valves— Types, 12 ins.; piston travel, H. 
P., 6l/ 2 ins.; steam lap, 1 in.; L. P. travel, 
6 ins. ; steam lap, 1 1/16 ins. ; ex. clearance, 
H. P., Vx in. ; L. P., 7/16 in. ; setting, H. P. 
Vt in. ; L. P., 3/16 in. 

This engine is a good example of the 
powerful machines of this type, which are 
now constantly being built. 



January, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



Convertible Cars For Rough Freight 



These are the days when there is an 
alleged shortage of freight cars, and the 
causes of the so-called shortage are be- 
ing gradually eliminated. It is quite 
probable when this is thoroughly done, 
that it will be found that there are cars 
enough, but they have not hitherto been 



loaded rather than dumped, and for which 
a standard box or gondola with flat, even, 
floor is the most suitable. 

The objects sought by the use of the 
convertible car are briefly: To provide a 
Sat bottom gondola with removable ends 
and swinging sides for the movement of 



^fe 




^^ 1 




L^i^EIa 


llll- :fi *:=-»p.*« 









STOCK CAR WITH LEVEL FLOOR, READY FOR CONVERSION. 

handled as they might have been. One earth, ballast and rough freight. To com- 

of the endeavors to reduce this "short- prise in this car a form of construction 

age" of cars is the introduction of con- making it readily convertible into a hop- 

vertible cars. That is a class of car that per car for ballasting track by discharging 

can carry rough freight and quickly the ballast between the rails and spread- 
dump it, and on other occasions the same 
car can transport livestock and other 
forms of merchandise which must be lin- 



ing it over the ties while the train is in 
motion. To maintain such construction 
that the cars could be readily converted 
into standard gondolas for revenue traffic, 
ore, coal, and other rough freight. 

The car already designed has not only 
capacity and strength to carry fifty-live 
tons of ballast in the hopper between the 
trucks, but has also when converted into 
tin gondola form, sufficient capacity to 
carry fifty-five tons of coal. The drop 
doors in the floor for discharging the load 
facilitate very greatly the unloading of 
coal, and the door in the bottom of the 
hopper for controlling the discharge of 
ballast saves all the labor expense of dis- 
tributing the ballast. Both of those fea- 
tures are combined in one car, making a 
car having high efficiency for ballasting 
during the summer months, and for coal 
handling, and ore carrying, during the 
winter. The newer type of car is meet- 
ing with a measure of favor, and is being 
purchased by such roads as the Chicago 
& Northwestern, the Illinois Central and 
the Denver & Rio Grande, railroads. 

Convertible cars are built either of 
wood, composite material, or all-steel 
construction, for any gauge of track, and 
for any capacity from twenty tons up to 
and including fifty-five tons. 



\ 



COAL 
LOADED 
HERE 





STOCK CONVERTIBLE CAR. ARRANGED FOR CAR 
RIAGE OF ANIMALS. 



BOX CAR WITH HOPPER DOORS IN FLOOR, 
CARRYING ROUGH FREIGHT. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1918 



This style of car is only one of the 
various kinds of general service cars 
which are built by the different manu- 
facturers, each of whom have a varying 



the cuts, shows one-half of the car 
with doors closed, and flush with the top 
of crosstie diaphragms and under cover 
plates, which form a lap, and the other 




I i; S Q. GONDOLA SHOWING FLAT FLOOR. 



difference in their own special design, but 
all of which designs follow the same gen- 
eral principal of construction and opera- 
tion exemplified in our illustrations. 

As to the question of general service, 
box or stock cars, the floor invariably is 
similar in design, but usually the drop 
floor doors are of wood on steel frames, 
with angles which support and stiffen the 
doors for the various lading and even to 
the carrying of machinery and pig iron. 

The description as revealed in one of 



two sections, one showing doors entirely 
removed, and the oilier showing the doors 



down in full position, will give a good 
idea of how the thing is done. 

As to the operating of these cars as 
dump cars, this is done by the manipula- 
tion of the levers, pawls and ratchets in 
place at each corner of the car. They are 
attached to the locking shaft, which 
shaft is turned by the lever in a rolling 
motion, outward to close, and inward to 
open, the doors always resting on this 
locking shaft. In this case the levers are 
outside the end sills, but it is often de- 
sirable to put them inside the end sills, 
2nd sometimes under the fixed floor near 
the end sills, in which case lever sockets 
arc provided. With the general service 
car it is possible for one man to dump the 
contents in from live to ten minutes. 




NORTHERN PACIFIC WITH nnir DOORS OPEN. 



Inspection and Testing of Steam Locomotives and 

Tenders 



It appearing, that the act of March 4, 
1915 (Public No. 318, 63d Congress), 
amending the act of February 17, 1911, 
making said act apply to and include the 
entire locomotive and tender and all their 
parts, requires, among other things, that 
each carrier subject to said act shall file 
its rules and instructions for the inspec- 
tion of locomotives and tenders and ap- 
purtenances thereof with the chief in- 
spector within three months after the ap- 
proval of the act and after hearing and 
approval by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, such rules and instructions, 
with such modifications as the commis- 
sion requires, shall become obligatory 
upon such carrier ; Provided, however, 
That if any carrier subject to said act 
shall fail to file its rules and instructions, 
the chief inspector shall prepare rules and 
instructions not inconsistent therewith, for 
the inspection of locomotives and tenders, 
to be observed by such carrier; which 
rules and instructions being approved by 
the Interstate Commerce Commission, and 
a copy thereof being served on the presi- 
dent, general manager, or general super- 
tendent of such carrier, shall be obliga- 
tory, and a violation thereof punished as 
provided in said act. 

It further appearing. That a full inves- 
tigation has been had and that there has 
been a full hearing and consideration by 
the commission of evidence, briefs and 
arguments with respect to the rules num- 



bered 129 and 131 of the rules and in- 
structions for inspection and testing of 
steam locomotives and tenders, as submit- 
ted by the chief inspector and referred to 
in the order of the commission dated Oc- 
tober 11, 1915; 

It is ordered, That said rules num- 
bered 129 and 131 of the order of the com- 
mission dated October 11. 1915, providing 
rules and instructions for inspection and 
testing of steam locomotives and tenders 
to be observed by each and every com- 
mon carrier subject to the act of Con- 
gress aforesaid as the minimum require- 
ments, shall be as follows : 

LIGHTS. 

129. Locomotives used in road service. — 
Each locomotive used in road service be- 
tween sunset and sunrise shall have a 
headlight which shall afford sufficient 
illumination to enable a person in the 
cab of such locomotive who possesses the 
usual visual capacity required of locomo- 
tive enginemen, to see in a clear atmos- 
phere, a dark object as large as a man of 
average size standing erect at a distance 
of at least 800 feet ahead, and in front 
of such headlight ; and such headlight 
must be maintained in good condition. 

Each locomotive used in road service, 
which is regularly required to run back- 
ward for any portion of its trip, except 
to pick up a detached portion of its train, 
or in making terminal movements, shall 
have on its rear a headlight which shall 



meet these several foregoing requirements. 

Such headlights shall be provided with 
a device whereby the light from same 
may be diminished in yards and at stations 
or when meeting trains. 

When two or more locomotives are used 
in the same train, the leading locomotive 
only will be required to display a head- 
light. 

131. Locomotives used in yard service. 
—Each locomotive used in yard service 
between sunset and sunrise shall have two 
lights, one located on the front of the loco- 
motive and one on the rear, each of which 
shall enable a person in the cab of the 
locomotive under the conditions, including 
visual capacity, set forth in Rule 129, to see 
a dark object such as there described for 
a distance of at least 300 feet ahead and 
in front of such headlight ; and such head- 
lights must be maintained in good condi- 
tion. 

It is further ordered, That the said 
rules numbered 129 and 131 shall apply to 
all locomotives constructed after July 1, 
1917, and for locomotives constructed 
prior to that date the changes required 
by the above rules shall be made the first 
time locomotives are shopped for general 
or heavy repairs after July 1, 1917, and 
all locomotives must be so equipped be- 
fore July 1, 1920. 

By the Commission: 

(Seal.) George B. McGinty, 

Secretary. 



January, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



Friction Draw Gear 

Effect of Impact on a Standing Car — What Is Capacity of Draw Gear — The Difference in 

Give Between Wooden and of Steel Cars — Experiments Regarding Centre 

Line of Buffing and Pulling — The Rivet Shearing Test 



At a recent meeting of the Canadian 
Railway Club, held at Montreal, Que., 
Prof. L. E. Endsley, professor of engin- 
eering in the University of Pittsburgh, 
Pa., spoke substantially as follows : 

Draw gears have been much discussed 
by the railway people for a great many 
years, and there are many phases of this 
subject. The attempt will be made here 
to give a few points in regard to this 
matter. There are three things that 
draw gears may do in the handling of 
railway cars. These may be divided in 
general as follows : 1. Produce slack in 
starting trains. 2. Control slack in the 
movement of trains. 3. Reduce the im- 
pact force in the switching of cars. In all 
of these the principle involved is the 
same, namely, producing the same speed 
in two cars that may be coming together 
or going apart because of differences of 
speed.' The draw gear to be effective in 
doing this, must have a capacity that is 
relative to the difference in speed. A 
difference in speed of, say, one mile an 
hour, a draw gear of small capacity will 
suffice, but if the difference in speed is 
4 miles an hour, it will take a much larger 
draw gear, namely, sixteen times as large 
to prevent a shock, for the energy of a 
moving body is proportional to the square 
of its velocity. 

Draw gear capacity is the number of 
footpounds of work required to just close 
the gear. That is, it can be represented 
by an area, as shown in Fig. 1. The 
lower line of this area in Fig. 1 represents 
the travel of the draw gear and the 
upper distance represents the force on the 
coupler until the gear closes and the horn 
strikes. This is the force on the draw 
gear. Now, if we assume a gear with a 
travel of 2 ins., or from A to C in this 
figure, a final pressure of 150,000 lbs., 
or from C to B, and that the pressure 
necessary to close the gear under dis- 
cussion was directly proportional to the 
movement, the line of action of the gear 
would he a straight line and would be 
represented by AB. The capacity of the 
gear then would be represented by area 
ABC. Now, it will he appreciated that 
if we wish to increase the capacity with- 
out increasing the slope of the line AB, 
we must increase the travel, and if we 
should increase the travel to double that 
shown in the shaded area, we would have 
4 times as much capacity as wc had ln- 
fore. That is, if AC equal half of AF, the 
area ABC is one-fourth of AF.F. While if 
we wish to increase the capacity of tin 
gear and not the travel, we will have to in- 



crease the slope of line AB to AD, in 
order to keep this pressure 300,000 lbs. 
or below, and will only get an area rep- 
resented by ADC, which is only twice 
that of ABC. The slope of line AD is 
much greater than line AB, and should 
we want to get 4 times as much area as 
we had in ABC and still have the same 
travel, we will have to increase the pres- 
sure to 600,000 lbs., and then the area of 
AGC will be 4 times ABC, or area AGC 
will equal AEF, and the capacity of these 
two gears will be the same. The 2-in 
travel gear will have twice the final force 
that the one with the 4-in. travel will 
have. This final force is what a great 
many people have called the capacity of 
a draw gear. The comparison shown in 
Fig. 1 is ideal. I think it would be almost 



in eooooo 
□ 

z 

o 



ujIOOOOO 
Q. 

o 



o 



rr 
o 



150000 



7,d 



:d 




FIG. 1. DIAGRAM OF AREAS. 

impossible to construct a draw gear that 
lias a slope equal to line AG. But this 
figure was merely given to illustrate the 
advantage of long travel gears. 

If we have a draw gear that has a 
capacity equal to one-fourth the differ- 
ence of energy of two cars in impact, the 
cars will not receive a shock above the 
maximum force necessary to close the 
gear. That is, if a car is going four miles 
an hour and strikes a car standing still, 
it will produce in the standing car ap- 
proximately half of the speed of the mov- 
ing car, or, in other words, put into the 
standing car one-fourth of the energy 
that was originally in the rolling car. The 
rolling car will retain approximately one- 
fourth and coast down with the second 
car. but half the energy is gone and it 
must be absorbed in the draw gear or 
some part of the underframe. Of course, 
some of this energy may be absorbed, 
due to the shifting of (he load, but it must 
be destroyed in some manner. If it is 
not done in the draw gear, it is bound to 
1 1- done on the underframe or the coupler. 



This shifting of the load amounts to 
a good deal with some kinds of freight, 
such as coal and ore. Now, if the load 
should shift one inch, this would be equal 
to increasing the draw gear travel one 
inch ; also, any give in the underframe 
would be equal to increasing the travel of 
the draw gear. There is quite an ap- 
preciable difference in the give of cars. 
Steel cars only give half as much as 
wooden cars below the elastic limit, as- 
suming that both have the same ultimate 
strength. This fact is one thing that has 
been considered in wooden car construc- 
tion. There has been a very decided give 
in the bolt holes between the draft timbers 
and sills. Thus the car itself has been 
absorbing the shock and there has not 
been as much need for a draw gear of 
large capacity. But when using all steel 
cars with no give in the rivets, the draw 
gear must do the work of absorbing the 
difference in energy between the two cars 
coming together in impact or the coupler 
or some other part of the car will have 
to do it ; if the coupler is stronger than 
the other part of the underframe, the 
underframe will have to do it. 

In order to illustrate what energy is 
necessary to be absorbed for different 
speeds of cars in switching service, Table 
No. 1 is given. Column 1 of this table 
gives the speed in miles an hour; column 
2 gives the footpounds of energy in the 
moving car at the speed given in column 
1 ; column 3 gives the capacity of the 
draw gear that should be used in each car 
for the speed represented in column 1 
for two cars weighing loaded 150.000 lbs.; 
column 4 gives the height of drop that 
the 9,000-lb. hammer should fall before it 
shears off nine 19/32-in. rivets to have 
the capacity given in column 3. This 
column was obtained by multiplying the 
values in column 3 by 12 and dividing 
by 9,000 and adding 3. The first part of 
this deduction is to obtain the height of 
drop to close the gear. The 3 added at 
the end is the added height in inches 
which it will take to shear off the rivets 
after the full capacity of the draw gear 
has been taken up. 

It will be seen that a very small capacity 
is necessary for one mile an hour, namely, 
a drop of 4.7 ins. of the hammer, but a 
gear that is many times as large is re- 
quired for a difference in speed of 6 miles 
an hour, or 63.0 ins. This height should 
be the total fall of the hammer to just 
touch the dummy coupler used, plus the 
travel of the draw gear. That is. if the 
fall of the hammer was 15 ins. before it 



,-. 



RAILWAY AN T D LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1918 



started to close the gear and the travel of 
the gear was 3 ins., the total capacity of 
the gear would be represented by 18 ins. 
Personally, 1 think that we should take 
care of 4 miles an hour switching speed 
in the draw gear design. It we should 
do this, that is, if the draw gear would 
just close under a speed of 4 miles an 
hour and never close under a speed of 
less than that, it is certain that the coupler 
or any part of the car would never be 
damaged in an impact between two cars 
at a speed of 4 miles an hour. There is 
not a coupler on the market but that will 
stand a greater impact force than the 
force necessary to close any draw gear 
o:i the market today. I have given some 
heights of drop that a 9,000-lb. hammer 
should fall before it shears off one or both 
lugs with nine rivets 19/32 ins. in diam- 
eter. This method of testing draw gears 
rst used, I think, in September, 1908, 
by the Westinghouse Airbrake Company, 
but there -9/16-in. rivets were used. To 
my mind, this is the best method of de- 
termining the capacity of a draw gear. 
In this method of testing, the gear is 
mounted on two lugs that are riveted to 
two short pieces of channels and held 
upright between posts. Each lug has 
nine rivets, each 19/32 ins. in diameter, 
each lug carries half of the load, and the 
test is made by dropping the 9,000-lb. 
hammer from 1 in., 2 ins., 3 ins. and so 
on, until one lug is sheared off. This 
shearing of these rivets occurs at a pres- 
sure of about 275,000 lbs., for that is the 
average that I obtained on several sets 
of lugs. 

Tabu No. I. 

Comparison of a car. total weight 150,000 pounds. 

Approximate 

Speed „ . . '"jis 1 " 

, n Capacity of of drop nt 

miles Approximate gear in foot- 9.000 hammer 

per energy in pounds to to shear nine 

hour, footpounds. just close. 19/32 rivets. 

1 5.000 1,250 4.7 inches 

20 000 5,000 9.7 inches 

45,000 11,250 18.0 inches 

4 80.000 20,000 28.7 inches 

5 125.000 31,250 44.7 inches 

6 180.000 45,000 63.0 inches 

When the 9,000-lb. hammer drops ver- 
tically on a draw gear that is supported 
on these two lugs that rest on a solid 
base with these same rivets in the lugs, 
they will not shear off until an approxi- 
mate pressure of 275,000 lbs. is reached, 
and in a good many tests with the same 
draw gear and different sets of lugs, the 
variation is never more than 1 in. 

In the paper, I have talked about draw- 
gear capacity but have not mentioned the 
absorbing capacity. I wish to distinguish 
between these two. I denned draw gear 
capacity as the footpounds of work neces- 
sary to close the gear. The absorbing 
capacity is that which is not given back 
when the draw gear is released after be 
ing closed. This feature of a draw gear 
can be very easily obtained from the drop 
of the 9.000-lb. hammer by putting a re- 
cording pencil on the hammer and causing 
it to mark on a revolving drum. If the 



hammer falls 20 ins. and rebounds say 
HI ins., it is evident that the absorption 
has been half the capacity. This feature 
of the draw gear comes into play m the 
controlling of the slack of a long train 
in going up and down grades and in the 
starting and stopping of trains. We can 
not expect a draw gear to last the life of 
the car any more than we can expect a 
brake-shoe to last the life of the car. 
They both are put on a car for a some- 
what similar purpose, namely, to stop the 





FIG. 2. DEFORMATION' OF SILLS ON 
CENTRE LINK 'IF KRAFT. 

car, and if we expect to get any value 
from our brake shoes, we must expect 
wear. 

A thing which may be of interest is the 
results of some tests which I have just 
made in regard to the center line of draft. 
Some time ago the committee on car 
construction made some recommendations 
with regard to the center line of draft. 



nels with the center line of draft 6% ins. 
from the edge, were made, one set of 
which ilid not have any tie plate. The 
results obtained are given in Table No. 
II. It is evident from this table that the 
center line, the center of the channel of 
7'/> ins. from the edge and this distance 
from the edge decreased by VA ins. until 
_".. ins. was obtained. Two sets of chan- 
nels with the center line of draft, 6]4 ins. 
From the edge, were made, one set of 
which did not have any tie plate. The 
results obtained are given in Table No. 
II It is evident from this table that the 
center line of draft should be for maxi- 
mum strength within 2 ins. of the center 
line of the sills, and that the tie plates are 
j I value in strengthening the sills. 
By looking at Fig. 2 it will be seen that 
when the line of draft is on the center, 
loth upper and lower flanges are bending, 
while with the line of draft 3% ins. from 
the edge, as shown in Fig. 3, nearly all of 
the bending is at a place in the edge of 
ili, channel closest to the line of draft. 
This is nothing extraordinary, for if you 
eccentrically load any two pieces of steel, 
the one close to the load is going to take 
most of the work and the ultimate 
strength of the system is reduced. 

Maximum pressure obtained in impact 
test made on 15-in., 40-lb. channel with 
15,000-lb. pendulum hammer with differ- 
ent center line of draft : 



Table No. II. 




Distance 

from edge 
, if channel 
7'/- ins. 
6* " 
5 " 
3H " 



Maximum 

pressure obtained 

before the 

channel failed. 

1.155.000 lbs. 

1,125.000 " 

960,000 " 

723,000 " 

662,000 " 



FIG. 3. DEFORMATION OF sills. CEN- 

I RE I IM Ml DRAFT, .<'i INCHES 

BELOW. 

These recommendations when applied to 
most cars fixed the center line of draft 
within 2 or 3 ins. of the center of the sill. 
In order to get some information on this 
subject six sets of channels were made 
up, Figs. 2 and 3. The channels were 
each 15 ins. high and weighed 40 lbs. per 
foot. The center line of draft of one set 
was placed on the center of the channel 
of 7V> ins. from the edge and this distance 
from the edge decreased by V/a, ins. until 
ZVi ins. was obtained. Two sets of chan- 



■ " without tie plate 744.1 

1 have attempted to bring to your minds 
two or three very importan things in the 
selection of draw gears and the design of 
freight cars. One of the most important 
things is, we will have to increase the 
travel of the draw gear above that which 
was thought sufficient some years ago. 
Some years ago it was felt that 2 or 2J4 
ins. was as much travel as should be. But 
I am ready today to say that we should 
have at least 4 ins. of travel, or possibly 
more, in any draw gear. It is evident 
from the first of my paper that this ar- 
rangement is going to allow us to materi- 
ally increase the capacity of the draw 
gear when we design it under 4 or more 
inch travel. 

Another thing that is of importance to 
railway men is, how are they going to 
know what capacity of draw gear they are 
getting. I am confident that the best 
method for them to use is the rivet-shear- 
ing test, as already described. Whether 



lanuarv, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



it be nine rivets 9/16, ten rivets of 
9/16, or any other number of rivets does 
not enter into the subject. What they 
should have is a set of lugs that will 
shear just above the force which is neces- 
sary to close the gear under test. I can 
conceive how a gear can be designed for 
a final pressure of 350,000 lbs., then a test 
of rivets shearing off at 275,000 lbs. would 
not be fair. But in any design uf a lug, 
the lug should be made much stronger 
than the rivets in order that the lugs will 
not bend down and the gear show a false 
capacity. I can see how a lug may be built 
and give false capacity of draw gear, but 
the hiss should be designed stronger than 
the rivets. 

I Ine thing that is important in the de- 
sign of a freight car is that the under- 
frame of the car should be made stronger 
than the coupler. In the past it has been 
the coupler that has been saving the car 
after the draw gear went solid. You men 
who repair cars appreciate the large num- 
ber of couplers that fail. If we move the 
center line of draft out from the center of 
the sills or leave off the tie plate, then the 
pressure of only 662,000 lbs. destroys the 
sills with the center line of draft 2 l / 2 ins. 
from the edge of channel. The new coup- 
ler will stand this and more in compres- 
sion, which means that it will not be the 
coupler but the underframe, and if the 
underframe it will cost considerably more 
to replace than the coupler. I assume 
that everybody here knows that a friction 
draw gear is superior to a spring gear, 
but I do not believe that all of you know 
how much this difference is. The highest 
capacity spring gear in use, made of two 
M. C. B. Class G springs, will fully pro- 
tect the 100,000-11). car and lading at a 
switching speed of a little less than two 
miles an hour. 

There are friction draw gears in gen- 
eral use on thousands of cars that will 
protect the same car and the lading at 4.5 
miles an hour. Also, there are many 
gears on the market that will fall between 
these two extremes, and each of these 
gears has a definite speed at which it will 
protect the car. But if you should at- 
tempt to switch the cars at 4 miles an 
hour while equipped with a spring form 
of draw gear that only protects the car 
at loss than 2 miles an hour, the coupler, 
underframe and load are bound to suffer. 
Either the coupler or the underframe will 
fail if this speed of switching is kept up. 
While, should this same car be equipped 
with the highest capacity gear, it could be 
switched at 4 miles an hour without any 
damage to underframe or coupler. 

Unless we put a draw gear of sufficient 
capacity to keep it from going solid, the 
force is going to the strength of the weak- 
est part. If this is the coupler it will be 
from 400,000 to 700,000 lbs. on most coup- 
lers in service, or if the car be equipped 
with the new M. C. B. coupler type D, 



this force will be from 600,000 to 1,000,000 
lbs. If it be the underframe that is weak- 
est, and this may occur if the design is 
not correct, this pressure will be a little 
less than that given above fur the strength 
of the coupler. But in any case, this force 
may be 600,000 lbs. Now, if the impact 
force and shock is 600,000 lbs. and the 
weight of the car 150,000 lbs., the end 
pressure per pound of car weight and 
load will be 4 lbs. per pound of weight, or 
will be equivalent to standing a car on 
end that has 4 times as much load in it as 
the car in question contained. This is 
what has been knocking out ends of cars, 
damaging roofs, side walls, and racking 
the car in general because of insufficient 
draw gear protection. Now, if the travel 
and capacity of the draw gear is enough 
to keep this end force down to 300,000 
lbs., the force per pound of weight on the 
car and load will only be 2 lbs., which 
would result in practically no damage to 
the car. 

I wish to say that more care must be 
given the draw gear in the manner of in- 
spection and repairs in order that it may 
do the work which it was put on for, and 
which it will do if kept in repair. It may 
mean new gears or parts of gears, and 
there will be some expense attached to 
this inspection and upkeep, but the saving 
in repairs to other parts of the car is 
bound to more than make, up for this 
expense. 



Saving Freight Cars. 

There has for a long time been an an- 
nual cry of car shortage, and most people 
have construed this to mean that there 
was not enough cars in the country to 
handle the traffic offered. The German_ 
war has shown us that this alleged car 
shortage was more imaginary than real. 
Good loading has greatly increased the 
number of available cars. 

On 77 of the principal railroads of the 
United States, a saving of 114,109 cars 
was effected in one month of this year 
solely by increasing the average loading 
of "less than carload" freight. The re- 
ports on which these figures are based, the 
latest that have been compiled, cover the 
month of July of 1917, and also July, 
1916. They show that the average load- 
ing for that class of freight during July 
of that year was 13.927 lbs., as compared 
with an average of 11,619 lbs. during the 
same month the previous year. The 77 
railroads from which reports have been 
received were able to move the total vol- 
ume of less than carload freight last July 
in 57",180 cars. Had the average loading 
for each car been at the same rate as dur- 
ing July. 1916, the railroads would have 
been compelled to use 693.289 cars. 

In addition to increasing transportation 
efficiency through this form of intensive 
loading, the railroads are also waging a 



vigorous campaign to reduce the number 
of cars and locomotives under repair in 
their own shops. 

The July, 1917, reports show the aver- 
age number of freight locomotives in the 
shop or awaiting repairs was 4,122 against 
4,460 in the same month the previous year, 
a decrease of 7.6 per cent. Freight cars 
under repair in July numbered 135,831, 
which was 8,647 less than in July, 1916, 
a decrease of 6 per cent. 

Reports to the American Railway As- 
sociation from all the railroads of the 
country show that on November the first 
of last year the excess of unfilled car 
orders amounted to 140,012 cars, an in- 
crease of 25,104 cars over the same day 
in 1916. Of this number, 97,000 cars 
are called for in other parts of the 
country than the congested region east of 
Chicago and North of the Potomac River 
where the abnormal war business- is 
heaviest. Many of these orders for cars 
could be filled if the cars now delayed in 
the congested regions could be released. 
The Railroads' War Board is now ap- 
plying remedies in the endeavor to ac- 
complish this much needed work of re- 
form, brought to our very doors by the 
German war now raging. 



Influence of Environment. 

Very few of us understand how great an 
influence "our environment" and all that 
the word implies, plays in our lives. The 
general idea of men who are too busy or 
too careless to bestow much thought upon 
the matter is, that from the time they 
reached man's estate they have molded 
their own lives ; that they have adopted 
such and such a business, have chosen 
from all the world the woman who is to 
be their lifelong companion, have selected 
their particular friends, and, in short, 
have ordered their whole career, and this 
is the reason we so often hear of "self- 
made men." It is rather remarkable that 
it is only when a man rises from obscurity 
to some high position, or from poverty to 
affluence, that he likes to employ the term, 
or to hear it coupled with his name. Let 
his course have been in the contrary di- 
rection, and he at once disclaims having 
had any hand in the matter; then his own 
will was nothing : hereditary, evil influ- 
ences, bad luck, everything was against 
him ; but even as he speaks, he is only 
half convinced of the truth of his excuses. 
His conscience, if he has one still, whis- 
pers to him that he might have done bet- 
ter if he had tried earnestly. 

But while courage and energy and 
perseverence are undoubtedly large fac- 
tors in a man's success, they do not as- 
sure it. Many a man possesses all these. 
and yet his career proves a failure, be- 
cause his environment has been such as 
to neutralize them and defeat all his ef- 
forts to get on in life. 



10 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1918 



Locomotive Headlights 



Peculiarities of the Parabolic Curve Made Use Of — The Electric Headlight — How Case 
and Reflector Serve Their Purpose — Mathematics and Practical Ideas Are Involved 



A locomotive headlight is a very neces- 
sary thing on an engine running on a mod- 
ern crowded railroad, yet few who are 
guided or warned by its light ever con- 
sider the study ' and the knowledge of 
higher mathematics which are involved in 
the design of a good headlight. Take for 
example the case and the reflector made by 
a good reliable firm such as the Glazier 
Manufacturing Co., of Rochester, N. Y., 
and think what its production involves, 
when lit by the glow of an incandescent 
bulb, with electrical power behind it, how 
close to what we are apt to call perfection, 
it is. 

The case is well made of sheet steel en- 
ameled white inside. It has no smoke 
vent, for with the electric lamp it does 
not need one, but there is an ample venti- 
lator on top, which stands in place of the 
small smoke vent of the oil lamp, and with 
its air ingress openings below, and its 
ventilator top, provides for the free circu- 
lation of cool air through the case, all the 
time, and this is a satisfactory condition. 
The ground glass plates for the train num- 
ber, at each side of the case, are lit up 
brightly by a small incandescent bulb of 
any candle-power the purchaser chooses to 
use, and the white enamel in the case helps 
the diffused light inside the case to illum- 
inate the number plates. Any railway 
using electrical car lighting, may be able 
to use up old bulbs grown too dark foij 
passenger car illumination, by applying 
them in the inside of its headlights to 
illuminate the case and thus efficiently 
do a necessary piece of work at low cost. 

The actual reflector, made very accu- 
rately and carefully of spun copper, is not 
cut in order to illuminate the number 
plates. The reflector has only one small 
hole on the axis at the back and that is 
just the size of the screw-neck of an 
ordinary electric bulb. Back of the re- 
flector is the socket for the bulb held in 
place by an adjustable stand, with grip- 
nuts, so that the filament of the bulb may 
be approximately placed in the focus of 
the reflector, and when so placed and 
clamped by the gripnuts, the essential 
position of the bulb is maintained, with- 
out the least tendency for the holder to 
work loose or shift, and this is a condi- 
tion which is one that requires to be most 
rigidly adhered to, or the headlight loses 
its maximum efficiency at once. 

There is now on the market a form of 
concentrated bulb, where the fiilament is 
wound in a close spiral, which brings the 
light close to the focus. 

Not only is the unbroken reflector made 
of substantial copper plate, but the inside 
surface is silvered heavily, and in no case 



is the silver replaced or altered to nickel. 
Actual copper and silver are the two sub- 
stances used. 

When we referred to the accurate spin- 
ning of the copper, we mean what we 
say, for the standard of accuracy is not 
set by man, nor determined by financial 
considerations. It is the cold, clear-cut re- 
quirements of the science of mathematics 
which must be satisfied to the last turn, or 
the product is inferior. 

The mathematical curve to which the 
reflector must exactly conform is one of 
a most interesting family of curves called 
the "conic sections." The study of these 
curves is not new, they are traced out in 
cutting a right circular cone and each has 
distinguishing characteristics which form 
for each its own peculiar properties. The 
first is the circle, made by cutting a cone 
across at right angles to its vertical axis 
or in other words to saw it straight across 
parallel to its horizontal base. The curve 
so cut out is a circle. If this sawing 
across was not exactly parallel to the base 
of the cone, an elipse would result. If 
the cone were sawed through on a plane 
parallel to one of its sloping edges, a 
parabola would be produced, and that is the 
curve we are interested in, when consid- 
ering the locomotive reflector. If, how- 
ever, the plane cutting the cone be paral- 
lel to the axis of the cone or perpendicular 
to the base, we would have an hyperbola. 
These four curves are of one family, and 
shade imperceptibly into one another as 
the cutting plane moves from the position 
of parallel to the horizontal base to the 
position of vertical, or at right angles to 
the base of the cone. 

When we come to treat these sections 
of the cone as mathematical curves, we 
discover certain distinguishing character- 
istics or properties, all different, which 
each particular curve possesses. Among 
others, the one which makes the parabola 
of particular interest to us as the best 
form for a locomotive headlight reflector 
is that when a light is set in the focus of 
this curve, all the rays of light which do 
not pass out of the aperture in the front, 
are caught on the smooth, silver surface of 
the parabolic reflector, and pass out of 
the aperture as a beam of light parallel to 
the axis of the reflector. We have, there- 
fore, the small quantity of divergent di- 
rect light from the source of illumination, 
and the greater bulk of reflected light, each 
ray of. which passes out parallel to the 
axis of the reflector and parallel to each 
other. Now why this is so, is the proper- 
ty peculiar to the parabola. None of the 
other conic section curves give it. and a 
small deviation from this exact form viti- 



ates the result. It is therefore easy to 
see why the correct manufacture of the 
reflector is a matter of importance. The 
complying with conditions is not simply 
in order to satisfy some man. It is the 
essential, or the correct reflection will not 
take place. You cannot talk a wrongly 
made reflector into giving good results 
and you can't bribe a mathematical 
curve nor frighten it into going against 
its nature. 

The parabola has been defined by mathe- 
maticians as a curve which is equally dis- 
tant from a fixed point called the focus, 
and from a fixed line called the directrix. 
The theorem drawn from this is that the 
normal, or the line drawn at right angles 
to the tangent at any point, bisects the 
angle enclosed between two lines, one of 
which is that parallel to the axis, and 
the other is that from the focus to the 
point on the curve. This really amounts 
to saying that at any point, taken where 
you may choose on the curve, the tangent 
to the curve at the casually selected point 
is infinitely sh.irt ; and the equal cutting 
of the angle by the normal, shows that the 
angle is such as to deflect the incident 
ray of light from the focus, and project 
it along the line parallel to the axis of the 
reflector. The bi-section of the angle by 
the normal, makes the angle of incidence 
equal to the angle of reflection which is 
in accordance with one of the primary 
laws of optics. 

This infinitely short array of tangents, 
as we are conceiving them in the mind, 
may be considered as coming together so 
closely as to form, not so much a close 
series of definite tangents each with a 
minute angle between, but really so near 
each other are they, that though they 
perform the function of light reflection, 
they yet blend or shade into each other 
so intimately, and so imperceptibly, as to 
form one continuous curve, and this 
curved line is without a break or an angle, 
and is in fact, the parabola with its many 
wonderful properties. In this fact lies the 
reason why the parabola is able to throw 
all its reflected light out of the aperture, 
as a parallel beam of white light. 

The parabola is a plain curve, and can 
be laid out on a drawing board in an office. 
In order to produce the actual reflector 
for a headlight, the parabola must be re- 
volved about its axis, and the cavernous, 
deep, silvered reflector is then correctly 
spoken of as a paraboloid of revolution. 
The practical proof of this is to take a 
locomotive with lamp lit and move it np 
close to the roundhouse door and on the 
door will be seen two concentric circular 
areas of light. The larger and fainter of 



January, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



11 



the two will be the direct light, just as if 
a candle of high power was placed so that 
the light passed through an aperture in a 
divergent beam from the head lamp. The 
smaller area of brighter light is only 
slightly larger than the ring of the aperture 
and it is the reflected light. By placing the 
engine as described, any one interested 
will have the apparent "mystery" of the 
parabolic reflector explained at a glance. 

We referred just now to the brighter 
area of reflected light being slightly larger 
than the ring of the aperture. So it is, 
and this is because of the physical im- 
possibility of bringing down the source of 
light to a mathematical point. There 
must be a compromise somewhere, be- 
cause we cannot have an intense source of 
bright, white light, the size of a pin's head. 
Theoretically that is what we want for 
absolute perfection, but so far, it has not 
been available. It may be that in the 
future some supply firm, or other agency, 
will bring out an electrical bulb in which 
the filament may be run out on two 
"wires" and then coiled or zigzagged so 
as to put the mass of the illuminant close 
together in about the size of a thimble, 
and so get closer into the focus than at 
present. Up to the present time, such a 
bulb has not been developed. Now it is 
necessary to compromise, and this neces- 
sity is the cause of the slightly divergent 
reflected beam of light. Incandescent bulbs 
are what they are for good and sufficient 
reasons. The reflector is what it is owing 
to the conditions it has to meet. If a 
compromise has to be made — and here it 
must be made. It is better to deviate ; 
slightly though it be; from the theoretical 
focal position of the light, than to sacri- 




1. CIRCLE. 



2. ELIPSE. 



curve to the directrix. The tangent T A, 
at the point P, with its normal P N, bisects 
the angle F P R, and the angle F P N is 
the angle of incidence, and the angle 
N P R is the angle of reflection. At P 
(anywhere on the curve) the point P is, 
as it were, an infinitely short tangent; but 
instead of the parabola being a series of 
short separate tangents, they merge into 



fice what we call perfection, where we can 
attain to it. We attain practical perfection 
in the manufacture of the reflector by 
making it of readily spun copper, and coat- 
ing it with a heavy, smooth layer of what 
is, perhaps, the best reflecting substance 
known, that is silver. Such then is the 
Glazier headlight, reflector, case, bulb or 
oil light and the mathematical beauties of 
this wonderful curve is what it all is de- 
pendent on. 

In our illustration, Fig. 5, which is a 
meridian section of a parabola, the line 
F P, drawn from the focus F, to any point 
P, on the curve, is always equal to the 
line P D, drawn from the point P, on the 





3. PARABOLA. 



4. HYPERBOLA. 



a curved line with the various properties 
we have described, and these peculiarities 
and properties and mathematical laws, 
give to the parabola, when properly 
drawn, its unique value for a headlight 
reflector. 

We do not have to offer apologies for 
touching on the mathematical character- 
istics of the curve, though we have re- 
frained from introducing formulas or 
arithmetical calculations. If the work- 
men who make the reflectors do not 
know these facts, someone else does 
know them, or the original pattern could 
not have been made. The fact that it has 
been made, and is strictly adhered to, 
speaks well for the manufacturers, and 
the fact that they have put durability be- 
fore cheapness is one of the favorable 
characteristics by which they are known. 
Their idea is good quality and a good, 
serviceable headlight which will stand the 
rough usage of railway life and will last 
a long time. This makes economy stand 
out prominently. 

One need not discant on the other and 
singular properties of this family of conic 
curves. It may be mentioned as a matter 
of interest, if nothing more, however, that 
one of the derivatives of our conic section 
curves is extremely useful to man. If the 
focal point of each of these curves be 
taken as an axle, and the curve rolled 
along a flat level surface, the axle so made 
would trace out a line on an upright wall, 
which would be exceedingly interesting 
The focus of a circle is the centre, and an 
axle through that point, with circle rolled 
along as a wheel, the end of the axle 
would scrape or scratch a straight line on 
the neighboring upright wall. 1 f an 
elipse was so treated the line scratched on 



the wall would be a curve called by mathe- 
maticians, an unduloid. The hyperbola 
would give a nodoid, and our headlight 
parabola would trace out a catenoid. This 
new derived family of curves are called 
the roulettes of the conic sections. Among 
these the catenary curve is the one de- 
rived from the parabola and is the one 
as its Latin name implies, that a chain 
or rope assumes, when of equal diameter 
throughout, and hanging freely suspended 
from each end. 

This is the curve used for the cables of 
a suspension bridge. They assume this 
form naturally when free or equally 
loaded on its entire length like the Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., bridge. It is in frequent use 
in engineering works and its wonderful 
relation to the first of the open curves of 
the conic sections makes it unique. Some 
of the comets which have visited our solar 
system and which will never return, have 
been proved by astronomers to have trav- 
eled to us, in their mysterious flight, on 
parabolic curves. The path of a heavy 
projectile hurled from a powerful gun, is 
a parabola, modified by friction through 
the air; and the course of a baseball 
deftly thrown from the arm of an expert 
"twirler," follows the gentle modified 
curve of the parabolic arc, like the death- 
dealing shell from the gun. 



Safety First. 



"Safety First" is the foremost thought 
of an efficient workman. His skill, knowl- 
edge and experience must be exercised at 




RIGHT SECTION OF PARABOLA SHOW- 
ING REFLECTION OF LIGHT. 
FIG. 5. 

all times in the correct handling of tools 
and in the use of the proper safeguards. 

A capable man always protects himself 
and the company and prevents needless 
suffering by obeying simple rules. 

P.rains will do more to prevent accidents 
than all the safety devices in the factory. 
It pays to think. 

Reckless, careless, thoughtless workmen 
endanger themselves, their fellow-work 
men, and oftentimes cause hundreds of 
dollars damage. 

The good man. the trusted man, the 
go-ahead man is the "Safety-First" man. 



12 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1918 



Adjusting the Guides and Crossheads 



If it is easier to keep well than make 
well, it is also easier to construct well 
than to patch up afterward. These two- 
edged remarks apply particularly to the 
proper adjustment of guides and cross- 
heads on the locomotive. It goes with- 
out saying that they should not only be 
set perfectly true with the center of the 
cylinder, but it is equally important that 
as near an approach as possible to ac- 
curacy should be maintained during the 
time that the locomotive is in service. 
The action of the main crank on loco- 
motives that are generally run in one 
direction only is to create an unequal 
amount of wear on the guides and cross- 
heads, and apart from the inevitable rapid 
increase of lost motion there arises a dis- 
tortion in the alignment that cannot be 
rectified by a mere haphazard removal or 
introduction of thin liners between the 
guides and guide blocks. 

The perfectly parallel adjustment of the 
bearings of the crosshead to the direct 
path of the piston is usually provided for 
by attaching the piston to the crosshead 
and having the crosshead bearings planed 
in perfect alignment with the piston rod. 
This insures a full bearing of the entire 
surface of the crosshead bearings — that is 
if the guides are properly adjusted. On 
the other hand, if the crosshead bearings 
are not in the same plane with the piston 
rod, no amount of tinkering with guide 
blocks or liners can remedy the defect. 

Assuming that the piston rod and cross- 
head bearings are straight and that the 
piston has been removed from the cross- 
head, the operation of lining the guides 
in place may be proceeded with by first 



be -I the alligator variety, adapted to run 
on two-bar guides, the distance from the 
bottom bearing of the crosshead to the 
center punch mark may be obtained by 
extending a parallel strip. 01 straight edge, 
along the bearing and carefully measur- 
ing the distance at a right angle from 
the straight edge to the center mark. It 
should not be assumed that the figures 
shown on some drawing of that particular 
class of engine are always exactly dupli- 
cated in the work, even admitting that the 




ALLIGATOR CROSSHEAD. 

work may have passed through the hands 
of the most skilled mechanics. Perfection 
in mechanism, as in art, eludes and ever 
will elude the seeker after the ideal. Hence 
the necessity for repeating our measure- 
ments as we proceed from point to point. 

Some mechanics use a guide gauge, con- 
sisting of an adjustable needle slidably 
engaged on a graduated scale, the lower 
end of which may be held on the straight 
edge while the needle is adjusted to the 
center mark. Having obtained the exact 




ONE PIECE ALLIGATOR CROSSHEAD. 



ascertaining the exact center of the hole 
in the crosshead into which the piston rod 
has been fitted. This may be readily done 
by fitting a piece of wood into the hole 
and attaching a p ; ece of tin or copper to 
the wood and with a pair of calipers mark 
the exact center, when found, with a fine 
center punch. Supposing the crosshead to 



distance, a fine line or wire should be 
stretched through the cylinder and fas- 
tened at some movable point beyond the 
guides. This line should be set by the 
counterbore in the cylinder. If the coun- 
terbore in the back of the cylinder can- 
not be conveniently reached and the line 
clearly seen, the line may be adjusted by 



the stuffing box. In any event it should 
be borne in mind that on the careful and 
exact adjustment of this line along the 
center of the cylinder the complete suc- 
cess of the operation entirely depends. 

The lower guide bar may now be 
clamped in place, and the guide gauge or 
scale will readily show its location in re- 
lation to the center line. While adjust- 
ing the guide bar longitudinally to its trm 
position by liners or otherwise, it should 
be noted that it is perfectly level cross- 
wise. A straight edge laid across the 
frames will furnish a suitable basis for 
levelling. It need hardly be said that it 
would be poor practice to set the guide 
bar exactly level while the frames might 
be showing some variation. The guide 
bar should correspond transversely, and, 
except in the case of inclined cylinders, 
longitudinally with the frames. 

It will be borne in mind that in adjust- 
ing the bearings of guides and crosshead. 
almost all kinds of crossheads are fur- 
nished with gibs. These form a part of 
the complete crosshead and should be se- 
curely clamped in place while taking the 
measurement to or from the center, and 
with guide blocks already in place it may 
be found advantageous to place a liner 
of tin or other metal between the gib and 
body of the crosshead. In some railway 
repair shops a standard size of crosshead 
gib is maintained, the aim being to en- 
tirely obviate the use of liners, the gibs 
being replaced with the standard size when 
a certain amount of lost motion has man- 
ifested itself. This, of course, is a matter 
of detail generally left to the individual 
judgment of the superintendent. 

When the bottom guide is securely 
placed, the upper guide should be placed 
in position and also tried with the gauge 
or scale, noting that it should he parallel 
with the bottom guide, which, after be- 
ing -properly adjusted, becomes the basis 
of the operation. When both guides are 
attached it will be readily noted by the 
use of the straight edge and scale whether 
the upper guide is centrally located side- 
ways as well as parallel with the central 
line. The crosshead may he calipered with 
gibs attached and the gibs so adjusted 
that the gibs may not require any liners. 
The crosshead may then be placed in the 
guides, and the gibs put in position and 
the outer plates attached, care being taken 
to note that the crosshead moves easilj 
the entire length of the guides. Varia- 
tions that may occur in the location of the 
holes in the guide blocks may be readily 
rosebitted. and new bolts fitted, care being 
taken that the clamps holding the guide 
and guide blocks together are properly se- 
cured against the contingency of moving. 

In the older types of locomotives where 
four har guides are in use. the same 
methods may be employed, the bottom 



January, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



13 



guides being set parallel, longitudinally 
and crosswise with the center line, an al- 
lowance of l-32d of an inch being added to 
the distance between the bars, to allow for 
lateral motion in order to avoid excessive 
friction in the movement of the crosshead. 
When the bottom guides are properly 
placed the line may be dispensed with and 
the crosshead placed in position and the 
top guides adjusted to suit the crosshead. 
While the line adjustment of the four bars 
is a more intricate task than setting the 
two-bar guides, they are more easily 
moved, in the event of tightening at some 
part of the crosshead's movement. A 
piece of paper inserted at a certain edge 
of the guide block will have the effect of 
slightly relieving the tight point. 

A peculiarity in the refitting of guides 
and crossheads which will be noticed by 
the observing mechanic is that in stretch- 
ing a line a considerable distance beyond 
the guides and measuring the distance 
that the line may be away from the frame, 
it will rarely be found that the line is ex- 
actly parallel with the frame. It will also 
be found that the lines passing through 
the two cylinders are rarely exactly par- 
allel to each other. Original organic de- 
fects there may be, arising from the plan- 
ing of the saddle and cylinder faces. Mod- 
ern machine shop tools by their sheer 
weight and massiveness of construction 
turn out better work than the older and 
lighter machines. As is well known, cut- 
ting tools penetrate metals deeper at the 
beginning of the cut than at the end. The 
variation may be very slight, but when 
a number of planed surfaces are bolted to- 
gether the variation becomes more appar- 
ent. In this connection it may be added 
that what is known as a slight shrink- 
age of the metallic molecules that are ex- 
posed to varied climatic conditions such 
as that which the front end of a loco- 
motive experiences, whereas the back end 
of the cylinders and related parts may 
be said to be less exposed. Whatever of 
fact or fancy there may be in this theor- 
izing, certain it is that the lines passing 
through the cylinders at different periods 
of the working life of a locomotive will be 
found to vary slightly and always in an 
outward direction. In cases where the 
hole in the guide block is found to be out 
of line with the hole in the guide, it is 
sometimes better practice to plug the hole 
through which the guide block is attached 
to the guide yoke, and proceed to drill a 
new hole rather than apply the rosebit, the 
fact that the guides frequently are hardened 
their entire length, thereby rendering the 
operation of rosebitting impracticable, un- 
less a softening process be applied to the 
end of the guide. 

In the case of guides that are set above 
the center of the cylinder, it will readily 
suggest itself to the intelligent mechanic 
that the upper guide must first be placed 
in position and precisely adjusted by the 
center line to suit the distance from the 



crosshead center, the lower guide follow- 
ing by calipering and levelling as already 
described. In the case of the single bar 
guide, the crosshead and guide may be 
placed in position together and the line 
passing through the cylinder and through 
the hole in the crosshead, the crosshead 
being readily moved from end to end of 
the guide as required, and the guide ad- 
justed to suit the requirements of the sit- 




SINGLE GUIDE CROSSHEAD. 

nation, as shown by the line in the hole 
in the crosshead. 

A clever device has been used in some 
of the leading railroad shops in regard to 
babbitting crossheads. The single bar 
guide and crosshead being set in their 
proper positions, apart from each other, 
the cap and sides of the crosshead form- 
ing an enclosed vacant space, which is 
filled with the molten metal, which, when 
cooled, forms a perfect bearing with just 
sufficient clearance to make a fine running 
bearing, requiring no other adjustment 
until sufficiently worn to necessitate an- 



there is much more that could be said 
upon the subject. Manly clever mechan- 
ics have tools of their own devising, de- 
signed to facilitate the work and obtain 
that degree of accuracy essential to the 
importance of the work. As shown in the 
accompanying illustrations, the bearing 
surfaces of crossheads and guides are 
made of such a shape and secured in such 
a way that the repairing or taking up of 
the wear usually means dismantling the 
crosshead or disturbing the guides. The 
latter is a prolific cause of resultant pis- 
ton packing troubles, arising from the fact 
that the guides are not always set up true 
to the cylinders. In the case of being out 
of line, the guides cause the crosshead 
and piston to run out of line also, and 
therefore the packing does not have a fair 
chance to perform its special duty. When 
the crosshead is dismantled there are the 
usual number of fitted bolts to be loos- 
ened ; with the customary result that one 
or more of them is damaged to such an 
extent that it cannot be used again. Often 
most of them will not have the proper 
draw when tried again, and the result is a 
full or nearly full set of new bolts to be 
made. With the numerous examples of 
substantial crossheads used in stationary- 
practice that have ready and practical 
means for taking up the crosshead wear, 
it would seem as though our locomotive 
practice should develop a scheme for an 
easy adjustment for the inevitable wear. 
Some devices now being experimented 




ALLIGATOR CROSSHEAD GUIDES AND CAST STEEL GUIDE YOKE. 



Other application of a fresh supply of the 
molten compound. The oilway is pro- 
vided for by a small rod extending through 
the cap of the crosshead. which is easily 
withdrawn when the metal has sufficiently 
hardened. 

In conclusion it may be noted that while 
we have endeavored to be exact, as far as 
our space permits in describing what may 
be called some of the common practices 
in adjusting the guides and crossheads, 



upon are full of promise, and a general 
adoption of some such scheme would 
save much roundhouse labor, besides over- 
coming many difficulties arising from the 
annoying leaks so frequent in piston pack- 
ing. 

To these general remarks we may add 
that we expect to be able to take up the 
subject again at an early date and present 
further means and methods used in ad- 
justing the guides and crossheads. 



14 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1918 



Heavy Locomotives for the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe Railway Company 



The Santa Fe System is now receiving, 
from The Baldwin Locomotive Works, a 
consignment of heavy Mikado or 2-8-2 
type of locomotives. These engines use 
coal as fuel, and are intended for freight 
service on the Eastern Lines. They 
logically followed the lighter Mikado type 
of locomotives built in 1916. The new 
design was worked out conjointly by the 
railway company and the builders, and 
existing Santa Fe standards were used 
wherever possible throughout the con- 
struction. A comparison of the leading 
dimensions of the new locomotives with 
those of the previous type is as follows : 



the firebox is equipped with a brick arch 
supported on four tubes. An auxiliary 
dome, mounted over an opening in the 
shell, is of sufficient size for inspection 
purposes, and is placed back of the main 
dome and on the same course with it. 
A single liner is placed under both the 
domes, and they thus cover the longitudi- 
nal seam, which is on the right hand side. 
The boiler accessories include a power- 
operated fire-door and grate shaker. The 
minimum air opening specified for the 
ash-pan is 15 per cent, of the grate area. 
The throttle valve is fitted with an aux- 
iliary drifting valve. 



Date. 
1916. 
1917. 



Steam 

pres- Grate 

Cylinders. Drivers, sure. area. 

25" x 32" 57" 200 58.5 

27" x 32" 63" 190 66.8 



Water 
heating 
surface. 


Super- 
heating 
surface. 


Weight 

on 
drivers. 


Weight, 

total 
engine. 


Tractive 
force. 


4,111 
-1.614 


880 
1,086 


228,000 
228,900 


292,400 
314,900 


59,600 

59,800 



not only brace the pedestals through 
their entire depth, but are also extended 
to form long braces for the top rails. 
They support, respectively, the guide 
yoke, valve motion bearer, and a boiler 
waist sheet. 

The shoes and wedges are of cast steel, 
and the driving boxes are of the same 
material, with brass hub faces. Long 
main driving boxes are used. The tires 
are all flanged, and flange oilers are ap- 
plied to the leading drivers. The leading 
truck is of the Economy constant resist- 
ance type, and the trailing truck is of the 
Hodges type. Each truck is equalized 
with two pairs of driving-wheels. The 
arrangement of cross equalization fre- 
quently applied by the builders, consisting 
of two transverse beams connected by a 




S. L. Bean, Superintendent Motive Power. 



MIKADO LOCOMOTIVE FOR THE A. T. & S. F. 



Baldwin Locomotive Works. Builders. 



Wheel load limitations prohibited a 
material increase in the weight on drivers, 
as compared with the design of 1916; and 
while the new engines are heavier, the 
additional weight is carried on the front 
and rear trucks. The principal advantage 
derived from this greater weight, is the 
increased steaming capacity of the en- 
larged boiler. With this additional steam 
supply, the larger cylinder horse-power, 
incident to the use of driving-wheels of 
greater diameter, can be developed. For 
an increase in total weight of not quite 
8 per cent., there has been an increase in 
water heating surface of over 11 per cent. 
The starting or tractive force, with steam 
pressures giving approximately the same 
ratio of adhesion, is practically the same 
for both locomotives ; but, as mentioned 
previously, the larger cylinders, wheels 
and boilers of the new engines, give them 
greater horse-power capacity. This addi- 
tional power will be ulitized in maintain- 
ing higher speed with the same or possibly 
a little greater tonnage. 

The boiler is of the extended wagon- 
top type, designed for a pressure of 225 
lbs., but in service carrying 190 lbs. It 
contains a 43-element superheater, and 



The cylinders are designed with direct 
exhaust passages of ample area, free from 
abrupt bends. Gun iron is used for the 
cylinder and steam chest bushings, piston 
and valve, bull and packing rings, and 
crosshead shoes. The piston heads are 
of rolled steel, and the crosshead bodies 
of .40 carbon cast steel of the Laird de- 
sign. Special steels are used for the pis- 
ton rods, valve stems, main and side rods 
and main crank pins. The Baker valve 
motion is applied, and is controlled by the 
type "B" Ragonnet power reverse gear. 
Fifty per cent, of the weight of the recip- 
rocating parts is balanced. 

The frames are of substantial design, 
the main sections having a width of 5J^ 
ins., while the depth over the front driv- 
ing pedestals is 8'/i ins., and over the re- 
maining pedestals 7}/> ins. The top and 
bottom rails are tied together between 
adjacent pairs of pedestals, by strong 
vertical ribs of I-section. These ribs car- 
ry the equalizing beam fulcrum pins, 
which are fitted into case-hardened bush- 
ings. Transverse braces are applied at 
each pair of driving pedestals. Three of 
these braces, two at the second pair of 
pedestals and one at the fourth pair. These 



central, vertical link, and it is here used 
between the rear drivers and truck. 

The cab is placed well back, thus pro- 
viding ample deck space. Special atten- 
tion has been paid to the arrangement 
and placing of the cab fittings, in order to 
have all levers, valves, etc. within easy 
reach of the crew, and to place the 
steam, air and water gauges where they 
can be easily seen and read. 

The tender is carried on two six-wheel 
trucks, which are equipped with clasp 
brakes and Standard rolled steel wheels. 
The tender frame is of cast steel, made 
in one piece. The buffer between the 
engine and tender is of the radial type. 
A coal pusher is applied. 

These locomotives, in accordance with 
Santa Fe practice, are fitted with steam 
heat equipment so that they can, in cases 
of emergency, be used on passenger 
trains. Their leading dimensions are 
given in the table, as follows : 

Gauge, 4 ft. 8J4 ins. ; cylinders, 27 x 32 
ins. ; valves, piston, 15 ins. diam. 

Boiler — Type, wagon-top ; diameter, 82 
ins. ; thickness of sheet, % in., 27/32 in., i/% 
in. : working pressure, 190 lbs. ; fuel, soft 
coal ; staying, radial. 



January, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



IS 



Firebox — Material, steel; length, 114 
ins.; width, 84J4 ins.; depth, front, 88 5/16 
ins.; back, 78 5/16 ins.; thickness of 
sheets, sides, Y & in., back, Y & in., and 
crown, yi in.; sheet tube, y 2 in. 

Water Space — Front, 6 ins. ; sides, 5 
ins.; back, 4]/ 2 ins. 

Tubes— Diameter, 5 ! / 2 and 2;4 ins.; 
material, 5y 2 ins., steel; 2% ins., iron; 
thickness, 5 l / 2 ins., No. 9 W. G., 2% ins., 
No. 11 W. G. ; number, 5y ins.; diameter, 



43 ft. 2% ins., 252; length, 20 ft. 9 ins. 

Heating Surface— Firebox, 232 sq. ft. ; 
tubes, 4,348 sq. ft. ; firebrick tubes, 34 sq. 
ft.; total, 4,614 sq. ft.; superheater, 1,086 
sq. ft. ; grate area, 66.8 sq. ft. 

Driving Wheels — Diameter, outside, 63 
ins.; diam. center, 56 ins.; journals, main, 
12 x 20 ins.; journals, others, 11 x 12 ins. 

Engine Truck Wheels— Diameter, front, 
31% ins.; journals, 7 x 12 ins.; diameter, 
back, 40 ins.; journals, 9 x 14 ins. 



Wheel Base— Driving, 16 ft. 6 ins.; 
rigid, 16 ft. 6 ins.; total engine, 35 ft. 1 
in. ; total engine and tender, 71 ft. 8j^ ins. 

Weight— On driving wheels, 228,900 lbs. ; 
on truck, front, 31,000 lbs.; on truck, back, 
55,000 lbs. ; total engine, 314,900 lbs. ; total 
engine and tender, 563,900 lbs. 

Tender— Wheels, number, 12; diameter, 
35 ins.; journals, 5y 2 x 10 ins.; tank 
capacity, 12,000 U. S. gals. ; fuel capacity, 
16 tons ; service, freight. 



Hospital Car for the Erie Railroad 




END AND SIDE VIEW OF ERIE HOSPITAL CAR. 



Hospital car No. 1097 has been sta- 
tioned in Jersey City on the Erie Rail- 
road, where it may be held in readiness 
for government service. It will probably 
be used to transport sick soldiers from 
the various cantonments to the base hos- 
pitals. It may even carry those invalided 
home from foreign service, if such mis- 
fortune is for us. Competent physicians 
who have inspected the new car say that 
it is an up-to-date hospital equipment. 
One of the Erie Railroad steel under- 
frame parlor cars, No. 983, was selected 
as the most suitable for conversion into 
this hospital car. The vehicle measures 70 
ft. over the body end sills and is therefore 
of very large capacity. 

A receiving and supply room 10 ft. 8'/ 2 
ins. long, with a sliding door at each side, 
has been fitted up at one end of the car. 
At the other end, there is a small rest 
room, provided with a sofa and lavatory. 
The main portion of the car is about 5(1 
ft. 6 ins. long and contains seven two-cot 
on each side, and has, therefore, capacity 
for 28 patients. The "two-story" cots are 
of a new design furnished by Frank A. 



tiiiiiii;iiiuii.:,:i;;i;!i,i;. .,:,,:..:,.::,::. ..../JiJiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiii;! 
■■ :■ : :i:!::i..:ii: , iii iiiii'iMiiiiiiin^iii;:;!!;;!!,.,:,! .in: ;,: . i.M : :.. : i :iii.i:,i..:;i:;i:i.:.i.; : i^ .. 



Hall & Sons, of New York. The springs 
of these cots are adjustable to any de- 
sired position to suit an injured patient's 
back or legs. The cots are finished in 
white enamel. 

The supply room contains a fireless 
cooker, a drinking water tank, a wash 
basin and supply locker. The annuncia- 
tor on which calls from any part of the 
car are indicated, is also placed here. 
The car is equipped with electric lights, 
the current being furnished by an axle 
generator. The electric lighting fixtures 
are on the side decks. Emergency lights 
are provided by Pintsch gas lamps located 
in the center of the upper deck. The in- 
terior finish of the new hospital car is a 
light gray, which is very pleasing in ap- 
pearance. From a humanitarian stand- 
point it is hoped that there will be but 
little use for the new car, but in case of 
need the Erie is in position to furnish a 
good, commodious and up-to-date hospital 
car. Our illustrations give a very good 
idea of the appearance of the new car, 
showing both the outside and the inside 
of the car. 




INTERIOR OF HOSPITAL CAR ON THE ERIE. 



16 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1918 



RiiSJify'neeritt 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling 
Stock and Appliances. 



Published Monthly by 

ANGUS SINCLAIR CO. 

114 Liberty St., New York. 

Telephone. 746 Rector. 

Cable Address, "Locong." K. Y. 

Glasgow, "Loooauto.' 



Business Department: 

ANGUS SINCLAIR, D. E., Prest. aold Tress. 

JAMES KENNEDY, Vioe-Prest. 

HARRY A. KENNEY, Secy, and Gen. Mgr. 

Editorial Department: 
ANGUS SINCLAIR, D. E., Editor-in-Chief. 
JAKES KENNEDY. Managing Editor. 
GEORGE S. HODGINS, Editor. 
GEO. W. KIEEM, Associate Editor. 
A. J. HANSON, Associate Editor, 

London Representative: 

THE LOCOMOTIVE PUBLISHING CO., Ltd.. 
8 Amen Corner. Paternoster Row, London, E. C. 

Glasgow Representative: 

A. F, SINCLAIR, IS Manor Road, Bellahouston. 
Glasgow. 



SUBSCRIPTION PRICE 

$2.00 per year, $1.00 for six months, postage 
paid in the United States. Canada and Mexico. 
For other parts of the world. $2.50, or ten 
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Mailing address can be changed as often as 
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Please give prompt notice when your paper 
fails to reach you regularly. 

Entered as second-class matter January 15, 1902. 
at the post office at New York, New York, under 
the Act of March 3, 1879. 



Unscientific Measurement of Light. 

In glancing at the order of the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission regarding 
locomotive headlights, which order we 
print in another part of this paper, we 
find that section 129 specilies that each 
locomotive shall have a headlight suffi- 
cient to give illumination to a person in 
the cab, who possesses the usual visual 
capacity required of enginemen, to see 
through a clear atmosphere a man on the 
track 800 feet in front of the light. This 
is practically a test of vision, not a meas- 
ure of the intensity of light. The usual 
test applied to enginemen is for color, 
and in an article in the Century Maga- 
zine, written some years ago by Dr. Ed- 
ward A. Ayers, he says : 

"There are two kinds of light waves 
emitted from all objects — color and white 
waves. Whenever a source of light, as the 
sun, strikes an object, part of that light 
is absorbed and part reflected. The latter 
represents such object's 'luminosity.' The 
color-blind are never blind to this form 
of light." In the absence of the sun. as 
at night, even without the moon, there is 
usually a feeble diffused light. The 
headlight takes artificially, the place of 
the sun. Color-weak vision (for total 
color blindness is rare) will show objects 
to the observer, but the ability to see a 
man 800 feet ahead probably varies very 



considerably from one observer to an- 
other. Any deficiency which may exist 
must be made up by a readjustment of 
the headlight. Poor vision requiring a 
powerful light and good vision doing 
very well with a feeble light. As the 
power of vision varies, from man to man, 
the power of the light may be altered in 
inverse proportion. Here are two variable 
factors introduced into the problem. 

Even supposing that such men and such 
headlights were co-ordinated so as to 
effect the desirable result of seeing a 
man on the track 800 feet ahead, all 
might be well, as far as saving the man 
on the track is concerned, but the various 
powered headlights would be run in the 
opposite direction to trains on an adjacent 
track. Here it is quite possible for a 
poor-vision man, with an intense and con- 
centrated beam of light from his lamp, to 
temporarily blind a man on a train run- 
ning in the opposite direction on the other 
track. The adjustable headlight, if such 
were used, helps one man and handicaps 
another. Further than this, how is the head- 
light left at high power by a poor-vision 
man, to be quickly readjusted for a good- 
vision man who has to go out on the road 
in a hurry, and who has no obliging and 
fearless friend to stand 800 feet in front 
of the onrushing train, and wait until he 
is "focused" as a photographer might do, 
by the good-vision man with the low- 
burning lamp? This adjustment and read- 
justment would constitute a technical com- 
pliance with the order. The whole matter 
may easily have its aspect changed by 
the variations of wind and weather, snow 
or rain. 

Mr. George H. Stratton, the psycholo- 
gist, says : "Even in the quiet of the 
psychological laboratory, the errors which 
a person will make in trying to direct his 
eye with speed and accuracy toward a 
given point, surprise us by their largeness. 
He may feel confident that he has swept 
his glance clear to the point selected, yet 
a record taken by exact photography » ill 
often show that he did not look directly 
at the point at all; his attention made the 
full sweep to the goal, but his eye lagged 
far behind." 

Attention plays a large part in the 
ability to "see" things. A case was noted 
where a man, in a test, on the engine, 
looked for a man on the track, and "saw" 
oi.e, when no man was there, and the 
expert in charge had secretly prohibited 
any man from walking the track for that 
pan ular experiment. In certain psycho- 
logical states persons see the things they 
pecting, hoping or fearing to see, 
iese may all be hallucinations.. 
A case was given by a correspondent, 
some years ago: "There was a mine in 
which horizontal passages connected with 
a vertical shaft, at different levels. In 
the vertical shaft was a cage for carrying 
cars of coal to the surface. Occasionally 



a miner would shove a loaded car of coal 
off into the empty vertical shaft. In 
many such cases the miner reported that 
he actually saw the cage waiting to re- 
ceive the car. Psychological investiga- 
tion proved that this was true. For some 
reason the miner 'saw' what he expected 
to see, and not what was actually there.' 
The vagaries of even close-up sight is here 
exemplified, and other similar cases exist. 
The specification of light judged by the 
work to be done by a man, with all his 
fallible tendencies of eye, attention, and 
observation, does not seem to he what 
might be considered a scientific standard 
of light, however, desirable the object to 
be attained, may be. The intensity of 
light should be stated in candlepower, 
which is a recognized standard, ami can 
be tested for by the photometer with the 
highest accuracy. Very many of our rail- 
ways do not object to the use of such a 
standard when stated as a minimum, if 
they be allowed some judgment, when 
guided by the conditions of track and 
traffic, which vary from one road to an- 
other. Each railway manager, looking 
squarely at his own conditions, is un- 
concerned with a different set, which may 
obtain on a neighboring road or on one 
traversing an entirely different country 
from his own. Each is ready to accept 
the specified and uniform minimum for 
his road, yet each wishes to provide hi> 
enginemen with a headlight best suited to 
the needs of the road, having always the 
supreme duty before him of securing full 
safety for the traveling public, the man 
on the track and the engineman who re- 
quires a satisfactory tool for this work as 
well as for any other of his onerous 
duties which our growing complex mech- 
anisms have called into service. 



Passing Over Curves. 
Among questions frequently submitted 
to us by disputants there are few more 
frequent than the ever-recurring question 
of the slipping of locomotive wheels when 
passing around curves, and, while we pre- 
fer answering questions by letter, it may 
at this time be stated for the benefit of 
some of our readers that locomotive 
wheels are beveled on the bearing rims to 
assist in passing around curves. It can 
be seen at a glance that the natural 
tendency of the locomotive to run in a 
straight line has the effect of pressing the 
flange of the wheel against the outer rail 
when passing around a curve. The larger 
diameter of the wheel being near the 
each revolution of the wheel must 
necessarily traverse through more space 
than the wheel passing around on the 
inner rail of the curve. As curves arc 
variable, it would be impossible to have 
the rims so beveled as to suit every degree 
of curve. Hence the beveling of the rim 
is merely an engineering effort to aid in 
the purpose aimed at. 



January, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



17 



The raising of the outer rail has noth- 
ing to do with the problem of partially 
solving the question of varying the diame- 
ter of the periphery of the wheels, but 
has the effect of overcoming the tendency 
of the locomotive to exert undue pressure 
on the outer rail. It has been observed 
that many derailments occur at curves, 
occasioned largely by passing around 
curves at high velocities, when the ten- 
dency to jump over the outer rail is very 
great on account of the momentum of 
the locomotive furnishing an increased 
force to move in a straight line. 

It has also been observed that even 
when the rims of the wheels are deeply 
worn they are always larger near the 
flange, and hence the effect of the bevel- 
ing of the face of the tire is not alto- 
gether lost. That a certain . amount of 
slippage occurs on the inner wheel when 
worn is unquestioned, but under the vary- 
ing conditions of curves and varying 
velocities, slippage also occurs on the 
outer wheel. As it is impossible to adapt 
the raising of the rail to the varying 
velocities, so it is also impossible to main- 
tain the rims of the wheels to the exact 
requirements of each particular situation, 
the united effort in beveling the rims and 
varying the elevation of the rails as well 
as varying their width being only partially 
successful. 

It may be noted that in the latter re- 
gard, the widening of the rails is also 
serviceable in allowing the locomotive t:> 
pass around a curve, as the rigid wheel 
requires some added clearance where the 
rails are not in a straight line, and where 
the amount of lateral motion in the Ijco- 
motive bearings is necessarily limited. 



Claims That the Shop Made Him. 

One expression that used to be com- 
mon with machine shop superintendents 
was, "we made that man and it is shame- 
ful that he should go away when he is 
becoming useful." 

We were recently very much struck 
with that expression as used by a machine 
shop proprietor when a young man was 
leaving to better himself, after a term of 
service extending over six years. The 
old gentleman was quite honest and sin- 
cere in what he said, although it was a 
fact entirely apparent to anyone familiar 
with the circumstances, that the young 
man had, as machinist and draftsman, 
simply made himself by hard work at the 
bench and drawing table during shop 
hours, and, in some cases, still harder 
work over books in other hours, and in- 
stead of having been "made" by the sin. p. 
had along with a few others of the more 
progressive and intelligent men about 
the place, succeeded in keeping it some- 
where near up-to-date, all the while con- 
tending against the stupid and narrow- 
minded conservatism of the proprietor, 
whose instinct made him oppose every- 



thing that looked like the least deviation 
from the practice that had been followed 
there for twenty-five years. 

The young man, as we happened to 
know, was leaving simply because too 
much vitality and nerve force were used 
up in simply overcoming utterly unrea- 
sonable objections to progress, and he 
was going where he believed there would 
be fewer hindrances to his work and the 
making of himself. 

A successful shop proprietor lays down 
a general plan upon which he proposes to 
operate his establishment. In carrying 
out his plans he selects from those who 
are available, the men whom he thinks are 
best suited for the various positions of re- 
sponsibility. These men usually owe 
their selection to something which is with- 
in themselves. They are not selected to 
be made, but because they have, to a 
greater or less extent, been already made, 
and are supposed to be capable of assist- 
ing in the work of making a shop and its 
products. They are not usually given 
more of either money or opportunity for 
advancement than they show themselves 
clearly entitled to. as in most cases if ad- 
vancement is not possible where they are, 
it will be attained somen here else — other 
employes will come to recognize their 
ability, and their success or failure will 
depend mainly upon themselves, and very 
little upon others, who may or may not 
imagine they are making the first class 
workmen. 

Shop organization has. of course, an 
influence upon men, and may keep or re- 
tard their development, but the fart that 
no one claims to have made a man who 
is a failure, in itself proves that the de- 
gree of success he attains is by the same 
token due primarily and mainly to him- 
self, so the shop proprietor who talks of 
"making" the successful man who has 
worked for him. should, to be consistent, 
also claim to be the maker of the unsuc- 
cessful ones, but we never heard of any 
of them doing it. 



Lightness in Construction. 
Referring to the article in this issue 
descriptive of guides and crossheads, 
some remarks might have been added in 
regard to the marked improvements in 
the lightening of designs of crossheads, 
pistons and other reciprocating parts, but 
as the subject has been fully discussed 
in a recent issue of Railway and Loco- 
motive Engineering, little further need 
be said at present other than that the 
marked advance toward a greater degree 
of lightness in construction has been made 
possible by the development in alloy 
steels. Among these chrome-vanadium 
steels are. in their physical properties, 
much like chrome-nickel steels, but they 
have a greater contraction of area for a 
given elastic limit than the latter. This 
higher degree of contraction in the 



pulling test is associated with a more 
ready adaptability to machinability, as 
chromo-vanadium steel, with an elastic 
limit of 150,000 lbs. per square inch, 
may be machined rapidly, whereas a 
chrome-nickel steel, with an elastic 
limit would quickly dull the cutting tool 
if cut at the same speed. Vanadium, 
when present, favors quality. When used 
in high duty forgings and structural parts 
of machines, a lesser amount of weight of 
material will suffice for the service, 
llence it is not surprising that as the 
weight of locomotives are increasing, the 
weight of pistons, crossheads, guides and 
oilier parts are diminishing. Indeed, it 
has been claimed by high authorities that 
the addition of 0.06 per cent of vanadium 
to a one per cent carbon steel raises the 
yield point from 79,000 lbs. to 156,000 lbs., 
or 44 per cent ultimate strength from 
134,000 to 193,000 lbs. It is not surpris- 
ing, therefore, that lighter weights of the 
parts to which we have referred are 
rapidly coming into general practice. 



The Taking Over of the Railroads. 

President Wilson has assumed control 
of the railroads during the war. As we 
pointed out, the British government took 
similar action immediately after the dec- 
laration of war in 1914. As described in 
the December issue of Railway and 
Locomotive Enginering, page 409. Rail- 
road security holders are to be guaran- 
teed a return equal to that of the three 
years preceding. The present force of em- 
ployes will not be disturbed, except in 
such instances as a glaring need of 
change may manifest itself. That there 
will be a marked increase in the efficiency 
of the railroads is beyond a doubt owing 
to the complete elimination of competition 
National necessity requires that traffic be 
carried over the lines that can handle it 
with the greatest expedition, and this 
necessitates the taking it away from 
roundabout or from temporarily congeste ! 
roads. 

The chances for the government mat 
a certain amount of profit are excellent 
In Great Britain a saving of $150,0 
per year has been effected by the govern 
ment operation of the roads. A 
saving has been made in the accounting! 
department because interline accounting 
disappears, and there are savings in ad- 
ministration expenses. Not only so but 
the constant uncertainty in regard to rate - 
the ever-recurring menace of strikes will 
also disappear and something approaching 
a national system of railroads will fall 
upon us like a blessing. What it will be 
after the war is not hard to predict, h 
will not be government ownership. It i~ 
sufficient to say that it will never likely 
fall back into the old system of ruinous 
competition with the aggravating condi- 
tion of seeing a large portion of the rail- 
roads in bankruptcy, while a few better 
located are flourishing in wealth. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING January, 1918 

Air Brake Department 

Brake Cylinder Leakage — Porosity of Leathers No Longer A Cause of Leakage — 

Questions and Answers 



Paragraph No. 14 of the Rules and 
Instructions for inspection and testing of 
steam locomotives and tenders, as revised 
and approved by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, February 1, 1917, reads in 
part, "With a full service application from 
maximum brake pipe pressure, and with 
communication to the brake cylinders, 
closed, the brakes on the locomotive and 
tender shall remain applied not less than 
five minutes." 

The original idea was to limit the 
brake cylinder leakage to 5 lbs. per 
minute per cylinder, but after some tests 
it was decided that this would be unneces- 
sarily severe, especially as a leakage of 5 
lbs. per minute in a locomotive driver 
brake cylinder with 4 inches piston travel, 
would not be in excess of 2 l / 2 lbs. per 
minute with the same diameter of cylinder 
on a car when the piston travel was 8 
inches, and it was then pointed out that 
inasmuch as 5 lbs. per minute leakage 
from a brake cylinder with 8 inches piston 
travel would double to 10 lbs. per minute 
if the piston travel was taken up to 4 
inches, or if the brake cylinder volume 
was halved, the opening through which 
leakage was escaping remaining un- 
changed, and with the result that the 
compromise quoted was established. 

When this ruling went into effect, it 
was hailed with delight by those who were 
not in the habit of attaching air gages to 
locomotive brake cylinders for tests, and 
they naturally assumed that it would be 
the easiest thing in the world to keep 
locomotive brake cylinders in a condition 
that the brake would remain applied for 
a period of five minutes with communica- 
tion to the brake cylinders closed, and it 
is not such a difficult matter if the cylin- 
ders are so located that heat from the 
boiler or firebox is not transmitted to the 
interior of the cylinder and where there 
are but two driver and one tender brake 
cylinder per locomotive, but others who 
have had considerable experience with 
cylinders located at points where the 
temperature was high and had engine 
truck and trailer brake cylinders con- 
nected with the driver and tender brake 
cylinders, stated flatly that the portion of 
Rule No. 14, quoted above, was the most 
difficult paragraph to comply with in the 
entire set of Rules and Instructions. 

Recognizing this condition, the Pitts- 
burgh Air Brake Gub, at one of their 
meetings, appointed a committee to report 
on the subject of "Cause and elimination 
of leakage in driver brake cylinders." All 
of the members took active interest in 
the subject, extensive tests were con- 



ducted with various kinds of lubricant, 
experiments were made with various 
kinds of chemicals for the composition of 
the filler forced into the pores of the 
leather to keep it air tight, and in an 
effort to obtain a filler that would remain 
in the leather under high temperature the 
experiments reached a stage where the 
leathers became so hard and brittle that 
they could be broken like glass when cold. 
The members of this club finally reached 
the conclusion that it would be impossible 
to secure a packing leather that would 
remain air tight and give satisfactory re- 
sults in locomotive brake cylinders that 
were subjected to a high temperature from 
the boiler, firebox, or cylinder saddles. 

During some tests leathers were applied 
to cylinders and a leakage test would at 
that time show but from 1 to 3 lbs. per 
minute, and in 24 hours time another test 
on the same cylinders would show from 
25 to 30 lbs. leakage per minute, princi- 
pally because the high temperature had 
destroyed the filler in the leather and the 
compressed air was forcing itself through 
the pores. The chemists of the Air Brake 
Company were consulted, and members of 
the committee worked with them in an 
effort to find a substitute for the leather, 
and for some months there was very little 
promise of success, but at the present time 
we are proud to state that this, like many 
other air brake problems, has been solved, 
and a composition packing cup has been 
developed to take the place of the brake 
cylinder packing leather. 

These cups have been undergoing tests 
under conditions where the packing 
leathers showed 25 or 30 lbs. leakage per 
minute a short time after being applied, 
and after 6 months service show no leak- 
age and practically no indications of wear, 
and one railroad has about 1,400 engines 
equipped with the packing cups which are 
giving entire satisfaction. 

With the understanding that the Air 
Brake Department of this magazine is 
not an advertising medium, it will not 
be out of place to state that the packing 
cups to replace the packing leathers are 
being manufactured by both the Westing- 
house Air Brake Company and the H. W. 
Johns-Manville Company and possibly by 
other companies, but we are unable to 
state whether both products are of the 
same material and know nothing whatever 
of any comparison between the cups, only 
that at the present time the price of the 
cup is a trifle higher than the price of a 
packing leather for the same diameter of 
cylinder. The object in stating this is to 
inform our readers of the fact that loco- 



motive brake cylinder leakage may now 
be kept within a very reasonable limit, 
in fact, indications are that by the use 
of the packing cup it may be brought down 
to a point where the original recommenda- 
tions would not be unreasonable, as leak- 
age through the leather is eliminated, and 
we believe that this has been accomplished 
largely through the efforts of the members 
of the Pittsburgh Air Brake Club. 



Locomotive Air Brake Inspection. 
(Continued from page 399, Dec. 1917.) 

150. Q. — Is there any possibility of for- 
getting to re-open the cocks to allow the 
engine to leave the inspection pit with the 
brake cut out or the pump throttle 
closed? 

A. — No. These leakage tests are all 
completed before the brake valves are 
used or tested. 

151. Q. — When is the main reservoir 
pressure controlled by the maximum gov- 
ernor top? 

A. — When the automatic brake valve is 
in lap, service or emergency positions. 

152. Q. — Can a feed valve be tested with 
110 lbs. pressure in the brake pipe and 
120 lbs. pressure in the main reservoir? 

A. — No accurate test can be obtained. 

153. Q.— Why not? 

A. — Because the tension of the supply 
valve piston spring of the feed valve 
ranges from 7 to 12 lbs., and with but 
10 lbs. difference between the brake pipe 
and main reservoir pressure, the feed 
valve could not be expected to operate 
correctly. 

154. Q. — What force then actually oper- 
ates the brake pipe feed valve? 

A. — The difference in pressure in the 
main reservoir and brake pipe. 

155. Q. — In what position of the brake 
valve is the feed valve operated? 

A. — Running and holding positions. 

156. Q. — What air pressure will be in 
the application cylinder and release pipe 
with the brake valve handle in running 
position and the brake released? 

A— Atmospheric. 

157. Q. — Could the brake be applied 
while both the automatic and independ- 
ent brake valves are in running position ? 

A. — Yes. if the brake pipe and pressure 
chamber of the distributing valve have 
been overcharged. 

158. Q. — What then prevents the cv'-a»e 
of application cylinder pressure through 
the release pipe? 

A. — The movement of the equalizing 
slide valve to lap position which sepa- 



January, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



19 



rates the application cylinder and release 
pipes. 

159. Q. — At what time is there air 
pressure in the application cylinder pipe ? 

A. — At ail times the brakes are applied. 

160. Q. — At what times is there air 
pressure in the release pipe between the 
brake valve and the distributing valve? 

A. — At times when the brake is ap- 
plied with the equalizing slide valve in 
release position, or after the equalizing 
slide valve has assumed release position 
with either one of the brake valves away 
from running position. 

161. Q. — How is the brake applied with 
the equalizing slide valve remaining in 
release position? 

A. — With the independent brake valve. 

162. Q. — When is there air pressure in 
the release pipe branch between the brake 
valves ? 

A. — Only when the automatic brake 
valve is in holding or release positions 
after a brake application. 

163. Q. — How is this pipe tested for 
leakage? 

A. — By having the automatic valve in 
holding position and making a full ap- 
plication with the independent valve and 
returning the independent valve to run- 
ning position. 

164. Q. — It is understood that all pip- 
ing is to be free from leakage, but what 
3 pipes on the locomotive must be main- 
tained absolutely tight? 

A. — The application cylinder pipe, the 
equalizing reservoir pipe and the equal- 
izing reservoir gage pipe. 

165. Q. — What must be observed in the 
way of preventing vibration of the brake 
valves, feed valve and reducing valve 
and signal valve? 

A. — That these parts are securely tight- 
ened to their respective brackets and that 
' the brackets are tight on the boiler or on 
whatever parts of the locomotive they 
happened to be fastened. 

166. Q— What is the first thing that 
should be observed when placing the hand 
on the handle of the automatic braka 
valve ? 

A. — That there is no undue lost motion 
between the valve handle and rotary valve 
key, or between the key and the rotary 
valve, and that the valve handle works 
freely. 

167. Q. — What is the effect of consid- 
erable lost motion between the brake 
valve handle and the rotary valve key? 

A. — It tends to produce imperfect port 
openings when the handle is in running 
and service application position. 

168. Q — When does this disorder be- 
come annoying? 

A. — When the port opening is not prop- 
erly made with handle in running posi- 
tion, where the flow of air from the ap- 
plication cylinder will be restricted, caus- 
ing a slow release of brakes on the en- 
gine. 

169. Q. — With full air pressure in the 



brake pipe and main reservoir, how is 
the brake valve test to be made? 

A. — By first making a 5 lb. brake pipe 
reduction with the automatic brake valve 
in service position. 

170. Q.— What should be the result of 
this? 

A. — An application of the brakes on the 
engine and tender. 

171. Q. — What is wrong if the brake 
does not apply ? 

A. — There is an undue amount of fric- 
tion in the equalizing or application por- 
tion of the distributing valve, that is, the 
distributing valve is not sufficiently sensi- 
tive, or the valve may be of the retarded 
application type. 

172. Q. — Why are distributing valves of 
a retarded application type used? 

A. — To operate with modern passenger 
car brake equipments that have these fea- 
tures to the intent that brakes on engines 
and cars will apply uniformly. 

173. Q. — How much brake pipe reduc- 
tion is required to apply the retarded type 
of distributing valve? 

A.— Between 8 and 10 lbs. 

174. How is this retardation of the ap- 
plication of the distributing valve ac- 
complished? 

A. — Through adding a filling block 
chamber between the distributing valve 
and reservoir and having additional ports 
leading from the pressure chamber to the 
filling block chamber so that the first 
movement of the equalizing piston and 
attached graduating valve will admit air 
from the pressure chamber to the filling 
block chamber. 

175. Q. — How long does this flow con- 
tinue during a brake pipe reduction? 

A. — Until the pressure chamber and 
filling block chamber have equalized. 

176. Q. — At what pressure do they 
equalize? 

A.— At 105 lbs. from a 110 lb. brake 
pipe pressure. 

177. Q. — What happens after equaliza- 
tion, if the brake pipe reduction is con- 
tinued? 

A. — After sufficient differential in pres- 
sure is obtained to move the equalizing 
piston with the equalizing slide valve at- 
tached, the brake applies in the usual 
manner. 

178. Q. — What would be wrong if this 
type of valve applied with 5 lbs. or a 
trifle more brake pipe reduction? 

A. — It would indicate that the filling 
block chamber had been removed or that 
the port leading to it from the pressure 
chamber was stopped up or that in mak- 
ing repairs a standard type of equalizing 
slide valve or graduating valve had been 
used. 

179. Q. — Why does this type of brake 
release with the brake valve in release 
or holding position after an application? 

A. — Because the release pipe between 
the brake valves is usually disconnected 
when this feature is applied. 



180. Q.— With the standard type of' 
brake, if the brake will not apply with 
a 5 lb. brake pipe reduction, how will it 
be determined whether the equalizing or 
application portion is at fault ? 

A. — This will be determined by the in- 
dependent brake valve test. 

181. Q.— What else is to be observed 
during the first 5 lb. brake pipe reduc- 
tion? 

A. — That the equalizing piston of the 
brake valve responds promptly, and dis- 
charges brake pipe pressure, and that it 
closes off tightly, and that the compressor 
governor is sensitive enough to permit the 
compressor to start promptly as the brake 
applies. 

182. Q.— After the first 5 lb. reduction, 
how much should the next be? 

A. — 5 lbs. more, to see that approxi- 
mately 25 lbs. brake cylinder pressure is 
obtained for the total 10 lbs. reduction. 

183. Q. — How much should the next 
reduction be, and why? 

A. — 10 more pounds, which should de- 
velop 50 lbs. brake cylinder pressure 
and the object is to ascertain the proper 
amount of brake cylinder pressure per 
pound of brake pipe reduction is obtained. 

184. Q.— What is the amount of the 
next brake pipe reduction, and for what 
purpose? 

A. — 15 more pounds to see that brake 
cylinder pressure does not increase above 
68 lbs., the adjustment of the safety valve 
of the distributing valve. 

(To be continued.) 



Train Handling. 

(Continued from /'age 400, Dec. l l J17.1 

168. Q. — Can it be modified for trains 
of all loaded or all empty cars? 

A.— It can be without any serious re- 
sults, but as a general proposition, the 
method outlined will produce the smooth- 
est stop. 

169. Q. — What kind of an application 
would be made if the make up of a train 
of empty and heavily loaded cars was just 
the reverse, that is, if the loads were be- 
hind the empty cars? 

A. — The same light initial reduction. 

170. Q.— Would it be best to make the 
initial reduction with the engine throttle 
open? 

A.— No. 

171. Q.— Why not? 

A. — It would not then be desirable to 
keep the train stretched. 

172. Q.— Why not? 

A. — Because the slack would be bunched 
by the influence of the brake application 
through the loads crowding against the 
empty cars on the head end. 

173. Q. — What would be the logical way 
of attempting to control the slack action 
under such a condition? 

A. — To bunch the slack with a light ap- 
plication of the independent brake before 



20 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1918 



the automatic brake valve was used. 

174. Q. — Please explain just why this 
would be done to produce a smooth stop 
or to prevent a rapid change in slack? 

A. — Under this condition, the loaded 
cars tend to run a further distance than 
the empty cars, therefore they would run 
into the empties from the rear, and the 
brake application would become effective 
on the head cars first, therefore there 
would be no chance of a change in slack, 
if the slack was bunched or gathered in 
before the brake application on the train 
was started. 

175. Q. — How are you guided then if 
the empties and loads are mixed indis- 
criminately through a train' 

A. — By noting in which direction the 
slack runs during the fast brake appli- 
cation. 

17o. Q. — Why are trains of all loads 
or all empty cars so much easier to handle 
than mixed trains? 

A. — Because there is no tendency for 
a harsh run out of slack in either direc- 
tion as a result of a brake application. 

177. Q.— Why not? 

A. — The brake application becoming 
effective on the head cars first, tends to 
gather in the slack on the head end, and 
there is nothing particular except track 
conditions that would have a tendency 
to cause a runout of slack thereafter. 

17S. Q. — Would you in all cases use the 
light initial reduction for making a stop 
with a freight train? 

A. — Yes, provided that there was ample 
distance in which to make the stop. 

179. Q.— Why? 

A. — In order to be on the safe side of 
any adverse track conditions, or in cases 
of defective or inoperative brakes having 
a tendency to change the run of slack. 

180. Q. — Would an allowance be made 
for a brake application if the rear of the 
train happened to be rounding a curve, 
or be on a reverse curve ? 

A. — Yes, the effect of the curve would 
be to add considerable retarding force 
to the brakes at the rear end of the train. 

181. Q. — How would a train of all emp- 
ties or loads be handled under ibis con- 
dition? 

A. — As though the greater percentage 
of braking power was at the rear end of 
the train, as the greater retarding effect 
would be under such conditions. 

182. Q. — How is a stop to take water 
made? 

A. — With the same light initial brake 
pipe reduction, far enough away from the 
water plug for this application to stop 
the train before the plug is reached. 

183. Q. — How will water then be taken? 
A. — By cutting off the engine and run- 
ning up to the plug. 

184. Q.— What if the speed is high? 
Follow with the second reduction 

to bring the speed down to 18 or 20 miles 
per hour and release and recharge for 



the final application for the stop at tank. 

185. Q. — How about pulling into a side 
track ? 

A. — The same method would be em- 
ployed. 

186. Q. — What about the Brakeman's 
objection to walking some distance to 
the switch if the distance of the stop is 
misjudged? 

A. — It is easier for him to walk a few 
hundred feet and open a switch than to 
drag up enough chain to get the train 
together if you happen to part it. 

187. Q. — What is a good general rule 
to follow in this respect? 

A. — Attempt no spotstops with a long 
freight train. 

188. Q. — How about backing into a 
siding? 

A. — The stop should be made in the 
same general way, but under ordinary 
circumstances the application should be 
made with the engine throttle open and 
the independent brake valve in release 
position. 

189. Q. — For what purpose? 

A. — To offset so far as possible the 
tendency for the slack to run out or 
away while the brakes on the head end 
are applying. 

190. Q. — What should the train crew 
do in a case of this kind? 

A. — Apply enough hand brakes on the 
rear end of the train to prevent the slack 
from running out harshly. 

191. Q. — How is the brake valve han- 
dled in case of emergency? 

A. — It is placed in emergency position 
and allowed to remain there until after 
the train has stopped. 

192. Q. — How is a release of brakes 
made after an application ? 

A. — By placing the brake valve handle 
in release position. 

193. Q. — Why not in running or hold- 
ing position? 

A. — Because release position was in- 
corporated for the purpose of emptying 
the main reservoir pressure into the brake 
pipe for a sudden increase of brake pipe 
pressure with which to accomplish a re- 
lease, at least so far as the head end of 
the train is concerned, the increase will 
be rapid. 

194. Q. — Why is the increase slower 
with the valve handle in running position? 

A. — Because in this position all the 
pressure that enters the brake pipe must 
pass through the feed valve and the open- 
ings are smaller. 

195. Q.— Why are they smaller ? 

A. — Principally so that it will not main- 
tain excessive leakage and that the brake 
can be applied with a conductor's valve 
or a hack-up hose while air pressure is 
feeding from the main reservoir to the 
brake pipe. 

196. Q. — About what is the size of the 
opening into the brake pipe with the brake 
valve handle in release position? 



A. — About one-third of a square inch. 

197. Q. — How may this expression be 
confused? 

A. — By the term one-third of an inch 
square. 

198. Q. — For what length of time is 
the brake valve placed in release position 
to accomplish a release of brakes? 

A. — It depends upon air pump and 
main reservoir capacity, length of the 
train, type of triple valves in use and the 
amount of brake pipe reduction that has 
been made. 

199. Q. — Assuming an ordinary total re- 
duction of 20 lbs. on a train of 100 cars, 
having both H and K triple valves, and 
with modern main reservoir and air pump 
capacity, how long would the brake valve 
handle be allowed to remain in release 
position? 

A. — From 15 to 20 minutes. 

200. Q. — Why not longer? 

A. — To prevent an unusually high over- 
charge of the auxiliary reservoirs at the 
head end of the train. 

201. Q.— What would be the result of 
this overcharge? 

A. — A heavy re-application of the brake 
on the overcharged cars. 

(To be continued.) 



Car Brake Inspection. 
(Continued from page 401, Dec, 1917.) 

169. Q. — How is the brake cut out? 

A. — By closing the stop cock in the 
brake pipe branch pipe leading to the 
triple valve and bleeding the air pres- 
sure out of all of the air brake reser 
voirs on the car. 

170. Q. — How can the universal valve 
be cut out for a brake rigging defect? 

A. — By means of the brake cylinder pipe 
cut out cock, leaving the reservoirs 
charged for operating the water raising 
system. 

171. Q. — How can a triple valve equip- 
ment be cut out and still leave the auxil- 
iary reservoir charged to operate the 
water raising system? 

A. — By closing the cut out cock in the 
branch pipe and then bleeding the auxil- 
iary reservoir, then open the cut out 
cock a trifle, or just a sufficient amount 
to start a flow- from the reservoir bleeder 
cock, then close the bleeder cock and leave 
the reservoir charge up. The plug at 
the opposite side of the pipe connected 
to the high speed reducing valve should 
be removed or the reducing valve pipe be 
lisci nnected. 

172. Q. — What could be wrong if a sig- 
nal to apply brakes is given and the brake 
pipe, exhaust port of the brake valve will 
not close? 

A. — The yard plant might still be con- 
nected with the train ; otherwise the brake 
on the engine is defective. 

173. Q.— What might be wrong if two 
engines were coupled to the train ? 

A. — The brake valve cut out cock of 



January. 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



21 



the second engine might be open. 

174. Q. — What might be wrong if the 
brakes could not be applied from the 
first engine of a train, and they could 
be from the second? 

A. — One of the brake pipe angle cocks 
between the engines might be closed. 

175. Q. — Who should be aware of this? 
A. — The engineman in charge of the 

first engine. 

176. Q.— Why so? 

A. — He would know from the length 
of the brake pipe exhaust that the brake 
pipe of a train of cars was not coupled. 

177. Q.— What should be done if a 
freight car is to be made up in a pas- 
senger train? 

A. — If it has a K triple valve it should 
be replaced with one of the H type and a 
safety valve should be screwed into the 
brake cylinder connection. 

178. Q. — To what pressure should this 
safety valve be adjusted? 

A.— About 60 lbs. 

179. Q.— Why should the retaining valve 
pipe be disconnected if special instructions 
do not prohibit? 

A. — So that the exhaust of brake cylin- 
der pressure will not be restricted. 

180. Q.— Why should the K triple valve 
be removed? 

A. — Because if near the head end of 
the train it may assume restricted release 
position in which the exhaust of brake 
cylinder pressure would be unnecessarily 
retarded. 

181. Q. — What should be done if a pas- 
senger car is made up in a freight train? 

A. — The high speed reducing valve or 
safety valve should be adjusted to carry 
about 35 lbs. brake cylinder pressure. 

182. Q.— What is this for? 

A. — To reduce the percentage of brak 
ing ratio of the car. 

183. Q.— What is the idea? 

A. — To make the retarding force ob- 
tained with a full service application of 
the brake more nearly uniform with 
that of the freight car brakes. 

184. Q. — Why is it not uniform with- 
out any special adjustment of the brake 
cylinder pressure? 

A. — Because the service braking 
ratio of a passenger car is usually 
based on 90% of its light weight while 
that of the freight car is based on 60 
or 70% of its light weight. 

185. Q.— What will be the effect if 
no change is made when the car is 
made up in a freight train? 

A. — The passenger car will set up a 
much higher retarding force than a 
freight car and tend to produce surges 
in the train and more than likely re- 
sult in slid fiat wheels on the passenger 
car if a great amount of braking is 
necessary. 

186. Q.— In what way will slid flat 
wheels be produced? 

A. — Through the passenger car being 



called upon to furnish a much greater 
retarding effect than the freight cars 
and must assist in retarding them there- 
fore a surge in the train when the 
brakes are fully applied may at any 
time break the adhesion or frictional 
force obtained between the wheel and 
the rail of the passenger car and cause 
the wheels to slide. 

187. Q. — What is the difference be- 
tween a brake test on passenger and 
freight trains? 

A. — None in particular except that 
the signal system is not used in freight 
service and that a test of the retaining 
valve is sometimes specified on freight 
cars. 

188. Q. — At what time is it im- 
portant to make a retaining valve test? 

A. — Just before descending a long 
heavy grade. 

189. Q. — How is a dead locomotive 
made up in a freight train? 

A. — Same as a car but the stop cock 
in the brake valve branch of the loco- 
motive must be closed. 

190. Q. — How is the brake arranged 
on an engine having the E. T. equip- 
ment? 

A. — This is usually provided for by 
engine house employees and whether 
the brake valve cut out cock is closed 
depends upon whether the engine has 
the standard dead engine fixture. 

191. Q. — In what position must the 
brake valve handles be? 

A. — In their running position. 

192. Q. — How is an engine with the 
New York L. T. equipment arranged 
for being hauled in a train dead? 

A. — Same as the E. T. equipment, 
with either one a dead engine feature 
is used to charge the main reservoir 
for operating the driver brake, and if 
this is missing the brake pipe exhaust 
port of the automatic brake valve can 
be plugged and the brake valve cut out 
cock left open and the adjusting nut 
of the feed valve slacked off to prevent 
a back flow of air into the brake pipe 
during a brake application and it is a 
general practice to set the safety valve 
or the distributing valve or control, 
valve to about 30 or 35 lbs. 

193. Q. — In making up and testing 
the brakes on a passenger train, what 
would be done if engine was coupled up 
and could not accumulate or maintain 
the required air pressure? 

A. — The train would be inspected for 
leaks. 

194. Q. — Where could the leakage 
be if none could be found in the brake 
pipe or in the hose couplings and if all 
reservoir drain cocks were closed? 

A. — A conductor's valve might be 
open. 

195. Q.— What if all are closed? 

A. — Go to the pilot of the engine and 
see whether there i- any leakage on the 



engine or from the brake pipe angle 
cock on the pilot. 

196. Q.— What would be done if 
no leakage whatever could be found? 

A. — Close the angle cock at the rear 
of the tender and note whether the 
brake applies. If it applies instantly 
there must be brake pipe leakage in 
the train, if it does not, request the 
Engineer to make an examination of 
the air compressor and the brakes. 

197. Q.— In shifting cars should the 
conductors valve ever be used? 

A. — Only in cases of emergency. 

198. Q. — Sometimes a brake fails to 
release when shifting cars and a quick 
opening of the conductor's valve will 
sometimes release it, is this not a good 
practice? 

A. — Xo, it is likely to result in an 
emergency application of the brake and 
a break-in-two of train. 

199. Q. — How in a break-in-two? 
A. — Emergency application of the 

brakes originating from the rear of a 
train or from the opposite direction in 
which it is moving is liable to stop 
the rear portion of the train while the 
forward portion is still in motion and 
one end of a train in motion with the 
other end stopped cannot continue but 
for a very short period of time without 
the couplings being parted. 

200. Q. — What is the object of the 
back-up hose? 

A. — To be attached to the brake pipe 
hose coupling for operating the brakes 
in case it becomes necessary when a 
passenger train is backing into a 
station. 

201. Q. — In how many ways can the 
brake be applied with this device? 

A. — Either in service or emergency 
or it may be used as a warning whistle. 

202. Q.— When is it to be used? 

A. — Whenever cars occupied by 
passengers are being shifted. 

203. Q. — Must the brakes be oper- 
ated with the back-up hose? 

A. — No. only in cases of emergency 

204. Q. — Who operates the brakes' 
A. — The Engineer as usual on signals 

from the trainmen. 

205. Q.— What kind of signals' 

A. — Both communicating and hand 
signals. 

206. Q What other times is the back- 
up hose usi 

A. — When ear- are being backed in an 
opposite direction to the line of traffic. 

207. Q. When is the back-up 
then i" bi used in stopping the train? 

A. — If for any reason that the engineer 
does not respond to the stop signal. 

JUS Q. — Why is it not generally used 
for making brake applications? 

\ Because rough stops generally re- 
sult through the opening, making a re- 
duction tb.it i- no( uniform throughout 
the train. 

illumed.) 



22 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1918 



Electrical Department 

Electrical Protective Apparatus — High Direct Current Voltages 



In the last three issues we have cov- 
in*! the eloign and manufacture of the 
transformer. We have pointed out that 
the function of the transformer is to 
transform electrical energy at one volt- 
age to electrical energy at another volt- 
age produced by the electric genera- 
tors, so as to provide high voltages for 
transmission of power to long distances, 
and arc used to reduce the high voltage 
supply to a low voltage suitable for the 
operation of rotary-converters, motors, 
lights, etc. The former devices, which 
increase the voltage, are called "step-up" 
transformers, the latter "step-down" 
transformers. 

Step-down transformers are located 
along and at the end of the high voltage 
transmission lines in sub-stations. Ap- 
paratus of some kind is needed to con- 
nect and disconnect the high voltage to 
the transformer. Apparatus is also need- 
ed to protect the electrical apparatus 
from surges and from lightning. 

We will consider a sub-station designed 
for railway service and explain how the 
power is brought into it, what apparatus 
is required for the handling of the power 
and the design and construction of this 



Outdoor 
Side 




FIG. 1. HIGH TENSION LEADS 
ENTERING BUILDING. 

apparatus. In a later number we will 
consider the rotary converter, which is 
the rotary machine that converts the al- 
ternating current into direct current for 
third rail or trolley operation. 

The power entering the sub-station is 
invariably of three phase alternating cur- 



rent. The voltage depends a great deal 
on the distance which the power is trans- 
mitted. It may be 11.000 volts as on the 
Long Island railroad electrified section, 
or it may lie 60,000 to 100,000 volts, as 
on some of the Western railways. 

Usually all of the electrical apparatus 




FIG. 2. 



HIGH TENSION WIRE PASSING 
THROUGH WALL. 



is mounted in the sub-station building, so 
that the high voltage wires must be 
brought into the building. There are 
two general methods used for getting 
the high voltage through the walls of 
the building. The arrangement is such 
that the power will not be grounded and 
moreover, such that the wind and weather 
cannot enter. 

The arrangements are shown in Fig. 
1 and Fig. 2. In the arrangement, as 
shown by Fig. 1. a tile pipe section is laid 
in the wall, in one end of which is placed 
a plate glass partition, provided with a 
small hole at the center, so as to allow 
the wire, carrying the current, to pass 
through. The tile pipe and the wire are 
slanted, so as to prevent any water, dur- 
ing a rainstorm, traveling along the wire 
and into the sub-station. To prevent the 
rain and wind from driving directly 
against the glass a protecting roof is in- 
variably installed. 

The other arrangement is shown by 
Fig. 2. In it the wire fits closely in a 
porcelain tube. A loop is made in the 
wire just before it passes through the 
tube, so that all water will run to this 
point and drop oft. 

After entering the sub-station, the high 
tension wires are run to disconnecting 
switches, providing a means for discon- 
necting the power from all apparatus in 
the sub-station. From the switches the 
power is led to the apparatus. 

Transmission lines are exposed to 
lightning. In addition they are subject 
to surges : alternating current is electric- 
ity in the form of waves, and under special 



conditions the waves may so synchronize 
with the natural period of vibration of 
the circuit as to develop a voltage several 
times the normal voltage and which 
would become injurious unless dissipated 
by some form of protective apparatus. 
Protective apparatus is therefore neces- 
sary in the sub-station to keep the light- 
ning and the surges which come in along 
the wires from damaging the transform- 
ers and the rotaries. 

The protective devices can be divided 
into two classes: First, those designed 
to protect the circuits against overloads 
of current, and. second, those designed 
to release the circuits from the electrical 
stress and strains, due to lightning and 
voltage sim i - 

The overload apparatus may be divided 
into two classes — fuses and automatic 
circuit breakers. Fuses are used to pro- 
tect the auxiliary apparatus, so that 




FIG. 



3. FRONT VIEW OF CIRCUIT 
BREAKER ' 



if trouble occurs and the load becomes 
excessive on that particular piece of appa- 
ratus, the fuse will blow, disconnecting 
the wire from the power. Fuses are 
well known and hardly need any detail 
description. 

The circuit breaker is used for making 



January, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



23 



and breaking the high voltage power to 
the transformers and must be capable of 
rupturing the arc, which, under ordinary 
conditions, would be severe. High volt- 
age ares cannot easily be broken in the 
atmosphere ; they break under oil and 
the apparatus is called an oil circuit 
breaker. The construction and operation 
of an oil breaker is interesting and we 
will consider this in detail. 

For handling the three-phase circuit, 
each unit circuit breaker consists of three 
fire-proof brick chambers, in each of 
which an oil reservoir or oil tank is 
placed, in these the contacts are immersed. 
Fig. 3 shows an oil circuit breaker made 
up of the three compartments as men- 
tioned. The left hand compartment is 
covered over by a door, which is re- 
movable. The middle compartment shows 
the door removed with the oil tank in 
position, and the right hand compartment 




FIG. 4. END VIEW OF CIRCUIT 
BREAKER OPEN 

shows the tank removed with the contact 
exposed. 

On the top of the brick compartments 
is shown the operating mechanism. This 
mechanism controls all poles simultane- 
ously, and is operated by a large magnet 
coil shown in Fig. 3. The magnet coil 
pulls the mechanism to closed position 
and it is held in this position by a latch 
or toggle. The magnet is energized by 
closing a small switch usually located on 
the switch-board which may be several 
feet away and in other words the breaker 
is what is called "remote controlled." 
The breaker can also be opened in a 
similar manner. At the switch-board. 
current is connected to a tripping mag- 
Met on the breaker which releases the 
latch or toggle and the breaker opens. 

There may be times when high internal 
pressure exists, so that the tanks are de- 



signed to prevent distortion. This high 
pressure occurs when the breaker opens 
a severe short circuit. The tanks are 
elliptical in form and have lap welded 
joints. A large air space is provided 
above the oil level to allow for the ex- 
pansion of the gases which always oc- 
cur. 

When the oil circuit-breaker is opened 
under load an arc is formed which dis- 
integrates some of the oil, forming a 
bubble of gas which is carried away by 
the oil circulation, new and cool oil tak- 
ing its place. Oil circuit-breakers should 
be examined periodically, say once a 
month. This examination consists in tak- 
ing down the tanks, inspecting and clean- 
ing the contacts and occasionally testing 
and changing the oil. Sufficient oil must 
be kept in the tanks and a gauge glass is 
fitted to the tank so that the proper 
height may easily and surely be main- 
tained. 



High Direct-Current Voltages. 

Mention was made in a former is- 
sue, of the further electrification of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad. 
The present electrification uses 3,000 volts 
direct-current, and the same system and 
voltage will be used for the extension. 
This reference to the electrification brings 
up the subject of "voltages." It was only 
a few years ago that 600 volts was the 
maximum voltage used for nearly all elec- 
tric traction purposes. During recent 
years one of the most important advance* 
in the art of electric railroading has been 
the adoption of higher voltages. 

Higher voltages have progressed along 
the line of two systems — namely the alter- 
nating current and the direct current sys- 
tem. When the limit of 600 volts as a 
trolley voltage was foreseen, one of the 
two manufacturing companies (the West- 
inghouse Co.) brought out the single 
phase motor and developed the single 
phase system. The trolley voltage first 
used was 3.300 alternating current. This 
voltage was brought up to 6,600, and then 
to 11,000-12,000 volts, which is now gen- 
erally used in this country, although 
abroad 15,000 and even as high as 20,000 
volts have been used. After the single 
phase system had demonstrated the ad- 
vantages of "high voltage" ; the voltage 
of the direct current system was increased 
first to 1.200, then to 1,500 and on up to 
2,400 and finally to 3,000 volts. 

What has been gained by the use of 
higher voltages, is a question worth an- 
swering. The gain has been purely an 
economical one. In the case of a road, 
say 200 miles in length, substations are 
required at intervals to supply electric 
power to the line and trolley wire and 
feeders are required to convey this cur- 
rent from the substations to the locomo- 
tives; The size of the copper trolley 
wires and feeders depends on the amount 
of electric current to be furnished to the 



locomotives. Let us sec what effect the 
voltage has on this amount of current. 

We will assume that an electric loco- 
motive is pulling a heavy train and is 
developing 1,500 horsepower. There is a 
definite relation between the electrical 
unit (kilowatt or 1,000 watts) and the 
mechanical unit (horsepower). This re- 
lation is 1 horsepower = 746 watts. The 
electrical energy required then for the 
above is 1,500X746=1,119,000 watts. A 
watt, as we know, is the energy of one 
ampere at one volt. Therefore if the 
voltage was 600 volts the amount of cur- 
rent taken by the locomotive wourd be 
1,119,000 

:=],865 amperes. If the voltage 

600 
was 1,200 volts, the current taken would 
1.119,000 

be = 932.5 amperes; if 2,400 

1,200 
volts would be 466.3 amperes and if 3,000 
volts would be 373 amperes. 

Increasing the voltage has, as seen from 
the above statement, decreased the amount 
of current for the same power trans- 
mitted. The question how does the de- 
crease in current affect the economical 
side of the electrification is answered by 
showing that it effects a corresponding 
decrease in the size of the copper conduc- 
tors and an increase in the distance be- 
tween sub-stations ; that is fewer sub-sta- 
tions for the 200 miles. Electric current 
Bowing through a copper conductor meets 
with resistance, as does water flowing in 
a pipe, and voltage or pressure is lost. 
The larger the copper conductor the less 
the pressure loss. The voltage loss, or 
drop as it is called, can not be too great, 
otherwise sufficient voltage or pressure 
will not be available for satisfactory oper- 
ation of the locomotive. It naturally fol- 
lows that the larger the current, the larger 
must be the copper conductor to carry 
this current. Therefore with the higher 
voltage and the lower current the con- 
ductor can be brought down in size, and 
the sub-stations spaced further apart for 
the same percentage of voltage-drop. The 
higher voltage makes it possible to elec- 
trify long distances, which would be pro- 
hibitive on account of the cost if 600 volts 
were used, due to the immense amount of 
copper which would be required. 

Moreover it may be added that increase 
in voltage for operation of electric rail- 
ways, may be looked for in the near fu- 
ture as extensive electrifications using 
high voltages have already met with much 
success in various parts of the country. 

There is no doubt that the introduction 
of high voltages has in the past been at- 
tended with many difficulties, and the still 
further extension of high voltages will 
increase rather than diminish these dif- 
ficulties, nevertheless it is safe to affirm 
that high voltages have come to stay, and 
there is no doubt that many important 
advantages will yet develop. 



24 



RAILWAY AXD LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January. 1918 



Maximum Speed, Retardation and Rail Conditions 
as Related to Control of Trains 

By WALTER V. TURNER. Manager of Engineering, Westinghouse Air Brake Co. 



Referring, to a certain extent, to pre- 
vious articles on the subject of train con- 
trol, I wish to point out first, that ac- 
celeration is the first factor to dictate the 
maximum speed physically possible on 
congested districts, and station spacing of 
trains enters in the way of providing, or 
failing to provide, first, the period of time 
during which this speed can be main- 
tained before it is necessary to stop, 
which influences the speed over a division 
or rather the average speed. The re- 
tardation phase, however, determines 
what is the safe maximum speed. New 
brake devices, which give for emergency 
high retardation rates over those devel- 
oped for service operation of the brake 
and electro-pneumatic control, which 
makes these high rates possible without 
tearing up the train, have boosted the 
safe speed to a point which for other 
reasons railway managers do not care to 
approach. 

In grade service the maximum speed 
will depend upon the reserve braking 
force, the heating of the brake shoes and 
car wheels, and local conditions, such as 
curvature and change in grade. With 
the single capacity brake it is necessary 
to crawl down a mountain grade, because 
the margin, or braking reserve between 
control and a runaway train is so small. 
At low speeds the coefficient of brake 
shoe friction is high, making a more effi- 
cient brake, and the time provided for 
recharging the brake system, before the 
increase in speed has taken the brake 
shoe friction to a greatly reduced value, 
is prolonged. The empty and load brake, 
with air consumption reduced one-half 
and brake effectiveness increased two-and- 
one-half, or more times, permits material- 
ly increased speeds down mountain 
grades. The braking reserve, increased 
anywhere from 500 to 1000 per cent more, 
enables a very short stop to be made at 
any time during the descent of a grade, 
where the corresponding stop with a 
single capacity brake is measured in thou- 
sands instead of hundreds of feet. Curves 
also have an influence on the maximum 
speed which can be attained or made 
and slow downs for curves consume both 
time and energy. 

The relation of retardation to the traffic 
volume handled by the train unit has pre- 
viously been mentioned in these articles. 
Retardation depends, of course, on the 
maximum speed, because the energy to 
be removed from a moving train in bring- 
ing it to a state of rest varies as the 
square of the speed ; that is, as the speed 
is doubled the stop distance will be mul- 



tiplied four times, other things remaining 
equal, or constant. 

The energy of a moving car varies di- 
rectly with the mass or weight therefore, 
other tilings being equal, the stop distance 
will lengthen as the weight is increased. 
This explains why the hand brake is so 
inadequate for modern car weights. The 
brakeman of today is no stronger than 
the one of yesterday, but car weights have 
doubled, tripled and even quadrupled. If 
more effectiveness is sought by increasing 
the leverage, or by applying hand brakes 
separately to each truck, the time element 
for getting brakes into action is greatly 
increased, which offsets the gain in brak- 
ing effort. Every second's delay in get- 
ting the brakes into action means, at a 
speed of 60 miles per hour, 88 feet added 
to the stop distance. To handle the great 
volumes of compressed air required for 
modern equipment with the least possible 
loss of time, requires devices of the most 
careful and scientific design. 

The question of brake shoe duty : uni- 
form braking ratio; number of cars; 
serial action; air brake equipment neces- 
sary for cutting down the time for get- 
ting brakes applied and for serial action, 
and for maintaining a constant braking 
ratio, whether the car be empty or loaded ; 
a suitably designed foundation brake gear 
which will avoid, among many others, 
that evil in the form of low effective re- 
tardation due to the attempt to "dribble 
on" the brakes and avoid shocks, have all 
been referred to. 

When the brakes are applied on a car, 
each wheel thrusts forward on the rail 
with a force equal to the brake shoe fric- 
tion effective on that particular wheel. 
The equal and opposite thrust of the rail 
on each wheel or against each wheel, is 
the force, which, applied from a point ex- 
ternal to the wheel, causes retardation. 
Obviously, if a demand of this sort is 
made on the rail in excess of the static 
or rolling friction (generally termed ad- 
hesion) between the wheel and the rail, 
this friction will fail to keep the wheel 
turning and the brake shoe friction will 
cause the wheel to slide. The wheel-rail 
friction now changing, or becoming 
kinetic in nature, will be very much re- 
duced and the actual retarding force act- 
ing on the wheel correspondingly reduced. 
From this it is evident that the breaking 
problem must begin and end with the rail. 
If the condition of the rail surface is bad, 
which is another way of saying that the 
coefficient of friction is low, the amount 
of brake shoe friction that can be 
used without wheel sliding is very much 



reduced, and likewise the retardation pos- 
sible. 

As before mentioned, the retardation in 
percentage (or, what is the same thing, 
the actual retarding force in relation to 
the weight of the vehicle") is expressed 
according to standard nomenclature. 

P 

R = P ef 

C 

Where the actual cylinder pressure (p) 
equals the pressure (C) used as a basis 
for the braking ratio (P), this expression 
is simplified thus, 

R = P ef 

Now if A be the designation for the ad- 
hesion, or coefficient of rolling friction be- 
tween the wheel, and the rail, the critical 
point for wheel sliding will be when the 
retarding force equals the adhesion ; that 
is, 

P ef = A 

The actual value of the adhesion A 
will vary from 12 to 30 per cent depend- 
ing upon weather conditions of tempera- 
ture and relative humidity. With sand on 
the rail it may run even higher than 30 
per cent. Taking an efficiency factor of 
8 per cent, and an adhesion value of 25 
per cent (which is representative of the 
usual conditions of rail surfaces) the 
braking ratio (P) necessary to slide 
wheels is, 

A .25 

P = = = 312.5 per cent 

ef .08 

On the other hand if the adhesion drops 
to 12 per cent, due to uncontrollable 
weather conditions, the braking ratio nec- 
essary to slide wheels is only, 
.12 

P = = 150 per cent 

.08 

If in the latter case the efficiency factor 
be 24 per cent, the braking ratio need be 
but 50 per cent to cause wheel sliding. 
Thus it is appreciated that the dependence 
of the whole problem of braking becomes 
not as popularly believed, upon the ques- 
tion of braking ratio alone, but upon the 
values of wheel-rail and shoe-wheel fric- 
tion as well, for here we have illustrations 
of wheel sliding with braking ratios vary- 
ing from 50 to 300 per cent. 

The difference between a train in mo- 
tion and one at rest is one of kinetic en- 
ergy content. In order to bring a moving 
train to rest it is necessary to remove this 
energy, and until recently the only avail- 
able means was to cause it to flow from 
the train through the brake shoes in the 
form of heat energy and to be dissipated 
and lost in the surrounding atmosphere. 



January, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



25 



The energy content of a modern train, 
due to greatly increased mass and veloc- 
ity, is such that, could it be properly har- 
nessed and directed, it would carry a full 
load of an 8000-kilowatt power plant for 
one minute's time. Any means then for 
saving this energy for use in accelerat- 
ing trains is an economy of vital import- 
ance. Electric operation of trains pro- 
vides an opportunity for effecting this 
saving in that a suitable motor control 
apparatus cafi direct the driving effect 
of the moving train to operate the mo- 
tors as generators and return thereby the 
kinetic energy of the train to the line 
in the shape of electrical energy. This 
is regenerative braking. In addition to 
the energy saved, wear and tear on the 
car wheels and brake shoes is avoided. 

However contrary to the expectations 
of the uninitiated, the need for modern air 
brake installations is just as pressing with 
regenerative braking as without it, for 
otherwise, in the event of any failure in 
the line or in the motor equipment, the 
train would be altogether uncontrolled. 
Moreover, where regenerative braking is 
employed with the electric locomotive, the 
responsibility for control is vested in 
one or two units, and a failure of one or 
both means a failure of half or of all 
the power to control. On the other hand, 
with an air brake equipment on every 
car in the train, a failure of one, two, 
six or ten units (depending upon the to- 
tal number in the train), will be of rela- 
tive insignificance. 

Thus it is of apparent significance, that 
to realize the best economies in the con- 
trol of freight trains down mountain 
grades with the regenerative brak- 
ing it will be necessary to employ 
the empty and load brake in order to 
provide the braking reserve indispensable 
to speed and safety, otherwise if the 
single capacity brake is employed and the 
safe speed for this type of brake is ex- 
ceeded at any time during regeneration, 
a failure of the regenerative brake means 
the runaway of the train. This subject 
pf regenerative braking is worthy of a 
volume in itself and will again be re- 
ferred to in these columns. 



ing to the means of obtaining the tractive 
effort of a locomotive, assuming that die 
diameter of the piston is 26J4 in., then the 
area of the piston is 552 in., and sn pp. '^ - 
ing the steam pressure is 180 lbs., 85 per 
cent of which equals 153. Hence this 
amount multiplied by 552 equals 84,456 
lbs. This pressure acting through one 
stroke, 30 in., gives 2,533,680 inch pounds; 
but while the driving wheels make one 
revolution, the pistons make four strokes 
on each side of the locomotive, so the 
total inch pounds developed during one 
revolution of the drivers is 4 x 2,538,6S0 
inch pounds, or 10,134,720 inch pounds, 
and this total power developed is trans- 
ferred into a horizontal drawbar pull over 
a distance equal to the circumference of 
the driving wheels. The diameter of the 
driving wheels, say 63 ins., the circumtcr- 
ence would be 198 ins. Dividing the total 
10,134,720 by 198 gives 51,185 lbs. as the 
tractive effort or drawbar pull. If a loco- 
motive of these dimensions and pressure 
could maintain this pull at 35 miles per 
hour, it would develop about 3,500 horse- 
power. 



parts the job is completed, and will be 
found as serviceable as new pistons, the 
cost being more than 50 per cent, less 
than the cost of complete new pistons, not 
to speak of the so called unavoidable de- 
lay eliminated in having orders for new 
material promptly filled in these strenuous 
times. 



Horse Power and Tractive Effort. 
By C. Richardson, Bridgeport, Conn. 

The article in the December issue of 
Railway and Locomotive Engineering 
in regard to horsepower and tractive 
effort was illuminating as far as it went, 
but to my mind it did not quite go to the 
rcot of the matter. Mere formulas are 
not very satisfactory to the young look- 
ing after facts. The question naturally 
arises — how was the formula obtained ? 
In venturing an illustration it is not 
necessary to dwell on the 85 per cent of 
the allowable boiler pressure, it is so gen- 
erally accepted as being about all that is 
available in steam engine practice. Coni- 



Reclaiming Main Valve Pistons for 
9^2-inch Pumps. 

By J. H. Hahn, Bluefield, W. Va. 
The present high price of material 
justifies the reclaiming or repairing of 
any part of the mechanical appliances 
used on railways, more particularly if the 
repair is as good as a renewal. The 
drawing we reproduce shows in detail a 
method of reclaiming the main valve pis- 
tons of the 9}/>-in. pumps. The main 



Loose Pulleys Scratch Shafts. 

A writer in one of the English Tech- 
nical publications, calls attention to a very 
simple way of preventing the scratching 
of shafting by loose pulleys. For some 
reason, unless special care is taken, loose 
pulleys badly score the shafting at both 
sides of the pulley. The fit of the pulley 
apparently has not very much to do with 
the matter. It may be reasonably as- 
sumed, and it is backed by experience, 
that there is little danger of the shafting 
being broken by the scoring of the shaft 
but it causes inconvenience in other ways, 
to say nothing of the bad appearance. By 
rounding off the edges of the bore of the 
pulley, the scoring is prevented, and this 
should always be done with loose pulleys, 
especially on fast running shafts. Addi- 
tional work is caused from time to time 
by rows of dirt collecting, and then the 
collar has to be taken off and the shaft- 
ing scraped clean. Preferentially, loose 
pulleys should be run on bushes were the 
extra cost is not too great a considera- 
tion. — Practical Engineer. 



A Call for Food Saving. 
The United States Food Adminis- 
trator is urging upon all editors to call 





TURN RNDTHRERDI2,THRDS 
PER INCH 

USE BRRSSORCHSTIRON 
CRST IRON ISPREFERED. 



TURNSMRLL. 
PISTON TO \fc' 



rUT-H 



FINISH ED PISTON 



LruTl 



B 



- DRILL W0EEP Pint) 
~TRP 3/lb' EOR DOWEL.. 

valve bush 31,251 is first bored out, a 
special boring bar described and illus- 
trated in Railway and Locomotive Engi- 
neering some time ago being well adapted 
for the purpose. The left main valve 
cylinder head 5,166 is bored in the lathe, 
keeping the size of the same in the neces- 
sary proportion to the main valve bush. 
The pistons are then finished according 
to the drawing and turned to the proper 
sizes for their respective bushings, and 
after fitting the rings and assembling the 



particular attention to the fact that the 
American people eat much more than is 
necessary to maintain health. Some of 
the figures furnished are startling, but 
they are beyond controversy. The hoard- 
ing of food is also strongly condemned. 
The question is one that seriously adds to 
the demand upon our railways for cars 
because of our military demands, as it is 
with extreme difficulty that we can now 
move the vitally necessary food to the 
markets. 



26 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1918 



Performance of the Mohawk or 4-8-2 Locomotive of 
the New York Central Railroad 

Good Tractive Effort Maintained at High Speed — The Variable Factor — Good Points of 
Satisfactory Types — Builders and Designers Work In Harmony 



The Mohawk 4-8-2 engines which have 
been used on the division of the New 
York Central Railroad, which takes its 
name from the beautiful valley along the 
river of the same name, were built by 
the American Locomotive Company in 
the months from July to December, 1916. 
These engines are of the following di- 
mensions: Cylinders, diameter 28 ins., and 
stroke 28 ins.; driving wheel, diameter 69 
ins. ; boiler, diameter 80 ins. ; steam pres- 
sure, 190 lbs.; firebox, length 114' 4 ins.; 
firebox, width 84 I 4 ins. ; tubes ( small), dia. 
216, 2^x21 ft. 6 ins.; tubes (large), 45, 
5^2x21 ft. 6 ins. Wheel base, driving 
18 ft. ins.; engine 38 ft. 11 ins.; engine 
and tender, 72 ft. 9 ins. ; water capacity. 
8,000 gallons ; maximum tractive power, 
50,000 lbs. ; weight in working order, on 
leading truck 52,500 lbs. ; weight in work- 
ing order of engine 234,000 lbs. ; weight 



The Mohawk Division is essentially a 
nding grade from west to east along 
the Mohawk River; the short grades in 
that direction do not exceed .5 per cent, 
except tlte low grade line near Schen- 
ectady, which is approximately eight 
miles long, of very nearly uniform grade 
and not exceeding 27 per cent. West- 
bound grades are generally ascending 
and do not exceed .5 per cent. 

So far as special appliances are con- 
cerned, there are few upon this type, of 
any particular interest. The engine is 
equipped with a superheater, the dome is 
of pressed steel formed in one piece, the 
fire box is equipped with the Security 
brick arch, the engine has a 40-in. com- 
bustion chamber and 21 ft. 6 in. flues. The 
main driving boxes are IS ins. long, 
whereas other driving" boxes are 13 ins. 
long. The main pedestal jaws are wid- 



ized, the chief causes were the burning 
of woollen cars in wrecks, the splintering 
of sills in collisions, the scarcity of timber, 
the danger from electricity and the de- 
mand for fireprooling material where pos- 
sible. There was also a demand for in- 
creased speed, greater train length, and 
[argi r car capacity. Mr. Sackett claimed 
that steel cars have also a fire hazard, 
as it is the contents and not the car itself 
that carries the danger. The other points 
were debatable. Why wooden sills should 
be more harmful and dangerous than steel 
ones is not clear. The greatest danger 
when collisions occur, is caused by the 
telescoping of the cars, that is, the floor 
level of one car rising above that of the 
next, and the impact shoving the one into 
the other. No matter whether the cars are 
of steel super-strttctttre or wooden, the 
telescoping takes place just the same, and 




MOHAWK -IS-' OX THE NEW YORK t'F.XTR AL. 



John Howard, Superintendent Motive Power. 



on trailing truck, 56,500 lbs. ; total engine, 
343,000 lbs.; weight in working order of 
tender, 166,500 lbs.; heating surfaces, 
tubes, 2,723 sq. ft.; flues, 1,387 sq. ft.; 
firebox, 292 sq. ft. ; arch tubes, 28 sq. ft. ; 
heating surface, total 4,430 sq. ft. ; super- 
heater, 1.212 sq. ft.; grate area, 66.8 sq. 
ft.; factor of adhesion, 4.68; coal capacity, 
14 tons. 

The tonnage hauled by these engines is 
comparable with that hauled by other en- 
gines developing the same starting or ini- 
tial tractive effort, but this type of en- 
gine is able to handle these tonnages at 
higher rates of speed, because their trac- 
tive effort is better sustained at higher 
speeds than is the case with the freight 
engines heretofore used. These engines 
have been able to show a decrease in the 
time required for the handling of heavy 
slow freight trains. They have been 
handling fast freight trains of 2,500 to 
3,500 tons, or from 75 to 95 cars over the 
Mohawk Division (140 miles) in from 
five to eight hours. 



ened by the use of steel castings bolted 
against the inside face of the frame pedes- 
tals. These castings also perform the 
function of frame crossties. The throttle 
valve is the balanced outside dome con- 
nection type. 

This type of engine was designed to 
meet specilic conditions of speed and trac- 
tive effort requirements, and the New 
York Central Railroad are just now re- 
ceiving from the American Locomotive 
Company a second large lot of this type 
of engine. 



Wood and Steel Car Construction. 

In an interesting paper with the above 
caption read before the members of the 
Car Foremen's Association of Chicago a 
short time ago by Mr. H. S. Sackett, 
timber engineer, Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul Railway, a careful comparison 
was made between the records of the steel 
car and the wooden car, and an analysis 
of the causes that led to the introduction 
of the steel equipment. Briefly summar- 



Aimrican: Locomotive Co-., Brailders. 

probably to a more serious degree in the 
longer steel trains on account of their 
enormous weight. Even in the case of the 
all-wood car, the understructure is so 
much more substantially built than the 
super-structure, that telescoping is bound 
to take place no matter whether the train 
contain cars of all-wood construction or 
of steel and wood mixed. It might be 
well at this time to state that there are 
three general types of car construction— 
all-wood, all-steel, and steel underframe 
with wood superstructure. 

As to the supply of timber, the latest 
available records of the Government 
showed that at the present enormous rate 
of consumption, not considering new 
growth, there was sufficient to last for 
60 years. It is selling for little more than 
it cost ten years ago, whereas steel has 
increased enormously in price and is dif- 
ficult to secure. Steel cars have made pos- 
sible greater length of trains, but it is 
doubtful if they have also enabled trains 
to increase in speed. They have made 



January, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



27 



necessary an increase in motive power, 
and an increase in the size and weight 
of the rails. 

The two factors of paramount import- 
ance to the passenger are comfort and 
safety. There seems but little use of dis- 
cussing the advantages of the wooden 
car from the standpoint of comfort, as 
almost any traveler will testify that the 
wooden cars are warmer in winter and 
cooler in summer; that they are less 
noisy ; that they are easier riding, being 
more pliable and less stiff than the steel 
car; and last but not least, that they are 
eminently more pleasing to the eye. The 
effort on the part of the steel car manu- 
facturers to imitate wood has not given 
the results that they may have expected. 
The ubiquitous "redness" of the Pullman 
cars has become monotonous to every 
traveler, and it has been noted recently, 
with a great deal of satisfaction, that this 
imitation mahogany color is giving way 
to some soft grays and browns, which 
greatly improve the appearance of the 
cars. 

In spite of the ten years' propaganda 
for steel passenger cars, however, there 
were in service last year in the United 
States, 41,382 all-wood cars, 14,286 all- 
steel, and 6,060 cars with steel under- 
frame and wooden superstructure — nearly 
twice as many all-wood cars as all-steel 
and steel underframe combined. 

In summing up, Mr. Sackett stated that 
from the data which has been available, it 
is evident that for many reasons the pub- 
lic is inclined to favor the wooden passen- 
ger car and sleeper, that is, a car with a 
steel underframe and steel skeleton super- 
structure insulated with wood. The only 
point in which the public would seem to 
prefer the car of all-steel construction is 
in its "supposed" greater safety. As has 
been stated, however, it is felt that this 
measure of safety depends to a consider- 
able extent upon the size of the train, the 
speed at which it is run, and the motive 
power used to haul it. 

From the standpoint of the railroad it 
has been fully demonstrated that the steel 
equipment costs more originally, costs 
more to maintain and repair, has the indi- 
cations of a shorter life, and on account 
of the excessive weight costs more to 
operate than the wooden equipment. The 
only other question to be answered in this 
connection is, does it earn more than the 
wooden car? Such information has been 
impossible to secure, and it is doubtful if 
any of the railroad companies have com- 
piled definite information on this point. 
Certainly, however, it is a subject worthy 
of investigation. 

A very lively debate followed the read- 
ing of Mr. Sackett's paper, some of the 
most important points being the facts 
that in 1909 of all the passenger cars built 
26 per cent were .of steel, 22.6 per cent were 
of wood with steel undcrframes, and 51.4 



per cent were all wood. In 1916 about 91 
per cent of the passenger cars were of 
steel, 7 per cent were of wood with steel 
undernames, and only 2 per cent of wood. 



Engineman Becoming Motorman 
A certain amount of uncertainty, not 
to say fear, existed in the minds of 
many persons when the electrification 
of parts of our large trunk lines came 
to be a practical question. As soon as 
electric locomotives got to work all 
objection by the crews regarding 
heavy trains came to an end, as it makes 
no difference whether the men have 
forty or a hundred cars in the train. 
Under steam operation the locomotives 
may be changed every division. But 
when the motors stay with a train for 
at least two divisions and change at an 
intermediate division point, the run- 
ning time over the old divisions may 
be shortened, and so the crews often 
look favourably on motors. 

At one time many of the train men 
were sceptical about their chances in 
case of a wreck if the trolley wire fell 
down and killed the train crew and left 
the train to run wild. This condition 
looks impossible to the electrical engin- 
eer, but it is not easy to remove it from 
the minds of men who have never had 
any experience with electricity. The 
eld operatives are preferable to men 
who have had a little experience with 
low-voltage circuits, enough to make 
them foolhardy with higher voltage. The 
steam men know nothing about elec- 
tricity; they admit it and are ready to 
take to precautions before handling any 
electric apparatus whether energised or 
not. 

It was difficult for enginemen of 
steam locomotives to realize how im- 
portant the trolley wire and the panta- 
graphs were, until they had an accident 
or two involving these equipments. In 
the early stage they were intent on the 
operation of the locomotive only, and 
if they were (by a careless or negli- 
gent switchman) headed into a track 
which had no trolley wire it was quite 
likely that they would take the signal 
and go into it only to discover that 
they had a dead motor and could not 
get back to the wire again, or the pan- 
tagraph had been caught and smashed 
against the overhead wires or other 
obstructions. 

Men have been instructed never to 
go on top of the locomotives or to 
open any covers over electrical appar- 
atus with either of the pantagraph 
current collectors up against the wire. 
Each locomotive is equipped with a 
long pole hook and dry rope which 
can be used to pull a pantagraph from 
a wire. Since there are two para- 
graphs on each machine, it is compara- 
tively easy to disconnect one if it is 



damaged and to make use of the other wie. 
Operating men regard the whole ar- 
rangement of electrification as a suc- 
cess. Shorter working hours, the clean- 
liness of the surroundings of work, 
little on the locomotive requiring close 
attention, less danger involved, no 
anxiety about coal and water, and con- 
fidence in the equipment by knowledge 
of its operating details, have won many 
friends to the electric locomotives from 
among the men who use them. 

Instruction work was comparatively 
easy. The men would talk over the 
new machines, and their various ex- 
periences with each particular feature 
were discussed by them, so that much 
instruction work was briefly passed 
over. And the men after being out 
on the road were willing to drop in 
and become acquainted with the motor 
blue-print wiring diagrams, and learn 
just what details were necessarily re- 
quired. 

Passenger crews on a line in Eng- 
land which had been partly electrified 
were given more work in learning than 
the freight men, since on through- 
runs there was little opportunity to 
show up the fine points. These men 
usually had half-a-day off every other 
day, and came to the round-house, 
where an instructor would purposely 
remove fuses on a spare locomotive, 
put match stems in the relays, and 
cause a multitude of troubles for the 
engine men to find and remedy. 

The technical terms used by electrical 
engineers for apparatus and electrical 
quantities were readily taken up by 
the steam men where they were not 
confusing or where one term for a 
thing is strictly adhered to. 

This account, although noticed in 
England is largely drawn from the 
writings of Mr. W. F. Coors of the 
General Electric Company. He has 
had much experience of the process of 
changing men from being engine men 
en steam trains to drivers of electric 
trains. Some English railway com- 
panies which have converted parts of 
their lines from steam to electric trac- 
tion have had similar experience, but 
generally in their case multiple-unit 
electric trains are used instead of elec- 
tric locomotives. 



Order to Supply Coal 
Orders relative to providing an ade- 
quate supply of bituminous coal to four 
of the large railroads of the country have 
been issued by Harry A Garfield, United 
States Fuel Administrator. The roads 
tor which this action was taken are the 
Pere Marquette, Seaboard Air Line, At- 
lantic Coast Line, and the Norfolk South- 
ern. The orders follow the general policy 
of the Fuel Administration in assuring a 
coal supply for all railroad companies. 



28 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1918 



Latest Design of Reversing Planer- 
Motor Equipment. 

Among machines equipped with an 
electric drive there are probably none 
meeting with more general favor wher- 
ever they have been established than the 
Westinghouse planer-motor, designed to 
operate such machines as planers, draw- 
cut shapers, slottcrs and gear planers. 
These tools are used in practically all 
machine shops, and especially by ma- 
chinery builders, railroad shops, and by 
locomotive and car builders. 

The equipment particularly adapted for 
planers consists of a special commutating- 
pole motor, and a controller, which is 
operated automatically by the movement 
of the driven machine. The motor is 
direct : connected to the planer and re- 
verses with each stroke, so that belts, 
tight and loose pulleys, and countershafts 
are eliminated. The equipment as now 
perfected is the development of much 
careful experiment, and forms a positive, 
economical and highly efficient drive. The 
cutting and return speeds can be readily 
adjusted, independently of each other, so 
that the most economical speed can be 
used to give the maximum production for 
any length of stroke, depth of cut, or 
weight of platen, either heavily or lightly 
loaded. 

The design embraces the quality of iow 
flywheel effect and quick reversing. In 
point of durability the maximum degree 
of economy may be said to have been 
reached. The complete absence of spark- 
ing assures long life for the commutator 
and brushes. In regard to the armature, 
it may be stated that in any service re- 
quiring quick starting and stopping the 
flywheel effect of tlie armature is an im- 
portant factor. As the armature is ac- 
celerated to full speed, energy is stored 
up and a momentum obtained which 
must be overcome when the motor is 
stopped, and as the flywheel effect in- 
creases with the square of the armature 
diameter, it is evident that 
the relatively small diameter 
of the armatures used in 
this class of motors are par- 
ticularly adapted for quick 
starting, stopping and re- 
versing with relatively low 
current consumption. 

Our illustration shows the 

compact design of the 
planer motor. Of the con- 
trol it may be said briefly 
that it consists of a control- 
ler, a master switch, and a 
pendant switch. The mas- 
ter switch is mounted on 
the planer bed, and is op- 
erated by a tripping mech- 
anism attached to the pla- 
ten, and furnished by the 
builder of the machine. 
When it is tripped, the mo- 



tor starts, and it is automatically accel- 
erated to the desired speed ; at the end of 
ii nke. the master switch is tripped 
an<l the motor is stopped by the 
dynamic braking, and is immediately 
started ill the reverse direction. 

i H the materials, it would be a mere 
reiteration of what has frequently ap- 
peared in our pages in regard to the 
work of the engineering department of 
the Westinghouse Electric and Manufac- 
turing Company. The latest improve- 
ments in alloy steels and other metals are 
taken admirable advantage of, SO that 
there is a degree of lightness in these 
powerful motors which in contrast to the 
horse-power developed is amazing. 



while in motion. The box is applicable to 
all trucks now in general use either of 
the M. C. y>- arch bar or special types for 
all standard sizes of journals. This new 
typi of journal box is manufactured by 
the National Malleable Castings Com- 
pany, Cleveland, Ohio. 

The same enterprising firm has also 
placed on the market an ingenious but 
simple device for fastening the air brake 



Journal Box and Train Pipe Hanger 
and Clamp. 

The National Oiled Spring Journal Box 
is a marked improvement in journal 
boxes. Apart from the material, which is 
malleable iron, the design is the result of 
much practical experience, embracing as 
it does a safeguard from the inevitable 
wear from the pedestals and equalizer by 
the use of hard steel inserts cast into the 
pedestal guides and equalizer seats which 
insure lasting wearing qualities. Another 
marked improvement consists of a new 
design of the lid or cover. As is well 
known this part of the journal box should 
be so constructed as to prevent dust from 
entering the box when closed and also 
prevent the oil from leaking out. As 
shown in our several illustrations there is 
a spring lever pivoted to the inside face of 
the lid which receives the thrust from a 
coiled spring seated in a pocket in the lid, 
and transforms the pressure of the spring 
by fulcruming against the hinge lug into 
a powerful direct inward pull against the 
center of the lid at right angles to it and 
the mouth of the box when the lid is 
closed. The pressure of the spring is 
such that it completely prevents the wear 
of parts through vibration of the truck 





IMPROVED JOURNAL BOX. 

pipe to the car framing. As shown in our 
illustration it consists of a hanger and 
clamp. It is also made of malleable iron 
which, on account of its rust-resisting 
properties and ability to withstand shocks, 
makes it extremely durable and strong, 
and is especially adapted for use on re- 




3S-H.P. REVERSING MOTOR FOR PLANER SERVICE. 



TRAIN PIPE HANGER AND CLAMP 

frigerator and stock cars, where the ordi- 
nary iron strap hanger soon rusts out, 
and becomes unlit for use. As is shown 
only one bolt is necessary to clamp the 
pipe. An interlocking, pinless hinge 
facilitates the work of installing the air 
brake pipe, but is so designed that should 
the bolt drop out while the car is in 
transit, the parts will not become sepa- 
rated and lost. The clamp may be made 
with any length of shank to suit the re- 
quirements. 



January, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



29 



Bushings Advantageous on Shafts. 

In continually using shafting it is not 
unusual to find that spare pulleys ac- 
cumulate in the shop or store room, in 
the course of years. It is not unusual to 
find that in the collection of spare pulleys, 
some of suitable diameter for some par- 
ticular job, but with wrong bores for 
the shafting to pass through. If the hole 




BUSHING SHOWING KEYWAY. 

is too small, and the wheel boss has suffi- 
cient substance, re-boring to the right 
size can be managed, and a fresh key- 
way cut, but where the hole is too large 
a bush must be made and a new key 
fitted. The thickness of the bush depends 
on what reduction of size is to be made. 
Time may be an important factor, and 
the bush may be either cast or wrought 
iron, as may be convenient. It should 





BUSH IN CENTRE OF PULLEY. 

be turned up true both inside and out, 
and should be a tight fit for both pulley 
and shaft, and a piece should be cut out 
to form an extension of the keyway in 
the pulley. The keys used would have 
to be thicker by the thickness of the bush 
than in ordinary cases, otherwise a prac- 
tically useless bit of work would have 
been done. — Practical Engineer. 



The Transportation Unit. 

What has been called the "Transporta- 
tion Unit" consists of the car to carry the 
load. A locomotive to move that load. 
The track upon which the train runs, and 
the automatic signal to direct the move- 
ment of the train. Car, engine, track and 
signal thus become, in a sense, the Unit 
of Transportation. In England a new 
road is not opened for business or per- 
mitted by government to operate until it 
has been inspected by a representative of 
the Board of Trade (a government de- 
partment), and has been found to be fully 
equipped with a thoroughly satisfactory 
signal system, in good working order. 
Why this is not the case here has not been 
satisfactorily explained. Time was when 



there may have been an excuse, but today 
an adequate reason is wanting. 

The signal system in England is not 
considered a?, an auxiliary, or a sort of 
transportation frill. It is regarded as a 
vital necessity, just as much a part of the 
railroad as the track it is considered indis- 
pensable. Without it, a company can not 
do business. Our system as it-stands with 
a signal system left as a voluntary idea, 
puts England in the lead as far as this 
matter goes. A short time ago one of 
the New York daily papers pointed out a 
fact in a railroad news item. It was, that 
to release motive power, conserve fuel and 
reduce railroad congestion, one of our 
large railways recently withdrew from its 
New York service, eight passenger trains, 
four in each direction. Several local trains 
were also annulled, and it was announced 
that a further curtailment in local service 
would become effective early in January, 
1918. A reduction in the numebr of parlor 
cars attached to trains operating between 
New York and Washington equal to eight 
trains has been put into effect by another 
system. The restrictions, it is estimated, 
will enable the railroads to increase 
freight movement by about 40.000 tons 
daily. This means that eight passenger 
trains taken off, make way, each, for 
5,000 tons. Such an addition (5,000 
tons every day), for a month of 30 days, 
aggregates 150,000 tons. This is worth 
while doing in these days, now the war is 
on. It is only stating a truism to say the 
car should carry the maximum load. The 
locomotive should pull the maximum train. 
But unless the means for directing the 
train movement is efficient, a large part of 
the gain due to the maximum load of the 
car and the tractive power of the locomo- 
tive is lost. Block and interlocking sig- 
nals protect the value of the investment 
in cars and locomotives and increase their 
utility through efficient direction of train 
movements, as nothing else can, and they 
help to save life when properly obeyed, as 
they must be. 

On a single track road a fast passenger 
trains owns the track ahead of it for 5 
minutes and for 10 minutes behind it. If 
the train is going 60 miles an hour, there 
are 15 miles of good track preempted to 
keep this train safe. It is necessary and it 
must be done. Now if a double track road 
is properly signaled, no matter what the 
speed the train runs at, it just owns the 
track ahead of it up to the first signal in 
front, and back to the signal behind it. 
That is usually a good deal less than 15 
miles. The following train may go ahead 
when the home signal arm drops and it is 
at the same time warned that the passen- 
ger train is in the next block ahead. I'y 
means of these signal "directions" a train 
can sooner begin to follow a fast pas- 
senger train with perfect safety if the 
signals are implicitly obeyed, as they must 
be, and thus the freight train gets over 



the road in a shorter time than if no 
signals were in use on the line. 

With 5,0(10 tons daily increase in haul- 
age, and the time on the road shortened 
safely enough, for freight, it looks as if a 
very substantial piece of transportation 
work was in sight, and a safe and expe- 
ditious solution had been hit upon. The 
discipline may not be all that could be de- 
sired, but if the men on the road are told 
and shown how it helps the work of the 
railway, that it is an old rule with a fuller 
meaning, and above all that it is a safe 
and really patriotic thing to play the game 
squarely, they will respond in a full and 
loyal way, and the vagaries and uncertain- 
ties of the "chancetaker" will be things of 
the past for good and all. 



A. R. E. A. Officers. 

The following have been nominated for 
officers of the American Railway Engin- 
eering Association for 1918: President, 
C. A. Morse, chief engineer, Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific, Chicago ; vice- 
president, H. R. Safford. chief engineer, 
Grand Trunk, Montreal, Canada : treas- 
urer, Geo. H. Bremner, district engineer, 
Division of Valuation, Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, Chicago ; Secretary, 
E. H. Fritch. Chicago. 



Appeal to Railway Men 

In an appeal to the employees of the 
Lehigh Valley, E. E. Loomis, the presi- 
dent says : "There must be no slackers 
among us. Every man must stick to his 
job in these troublesome days. It is a 
time for self-sacrifice. This means work- 
ing thirty days a month, if necesary. re- 
gardless of weather conditions; losing no 
time after pay day ; assisting, each in his 
place, in running this railroad at the 
highest point of efficiency. I call upon 
you all to enlist heart and soul in this 
patriotic service." 



New Agency for the White American 
Locomotive Sander Company. 
In addition to the railway specialties 
already represented by Oscar F. Ostby, 
2736 Grand Central Terminal. Xew York, 
he has been appointed sales representa- 
tive of the White American Locomotive 
Sander Company, Roanoke, \'a„ for ter- 
ritory from Baltimore north to the Can- 
adian border, and west as far as Pitts- 
burgh and Cleveland. 



Big Wind. 
The Popular Science Monthly assures 
its readers that there is a stretch of rail- 
way along the west coast of Ireland where 
it is not uncommon lor the trains to be 
blown off the rails by the wind. Movable 
ballast is said to be placed on the cars to 
increase their adhesion during these 
stormy pel 



30 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



I. Miliary, 1918 



Items of Personal Interest 



Mr. J. W. Coulter has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Alton & Southern, 
with office at East St. Louis, 111. 

Mr. J. A. Delaney, formerly master 
mechanic of the Rio Grande division of 
the Texas & Pacific, at Alexandria, La., 
has been transferred to Big Spring, Tex. 

Mr. W. W. Lemon has been appointed 
superintendent of the motive power and 
car departments of the Denver & Rio 
Grande, with headquarters at Denver, 
Colo. 

Mr. W. D. Hitchcock has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the Al- 
buquerque division of the Atchison, To- 
peka & Santa Fe, with office at Winslow, 
Ariz. 

Mr. B. Gamble, formerly roundhouse 
foreman of the Gulf, Mobile & Northern, 
has been appointed roundhouse foreman 
of the St. Louis-San Francisco, with office 
at Sapulpa, Okla. 

Mr. W. B. Whitsitt, formerly shop 
engineer in the drawing room of the 
Mount Clare shops of the Baltimore & 
Ohio, Baltimore, Md., has been appointed 
chief draughtsman. 

Mr. James E. Manzell, formerly shop 
motor maintainer on the New York, 
Ontario & Western, has been appointed 
to the position of electrical foreman, with 
office at Middletown, N. Y. 

Mr. L. W. Hendricks, formerly master 
mechanic of the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford, has been appointed super- 
intendent of shops at Van Nest, N. Y., 
succeeding Mr. J. L. Crouse, resigned. 

Mr. L. L. Allen, formerly general fore- 
man of the St. Louis, Brownsville & 
Mexico, at Kingsville, Tex., has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the Gulf 
Coast Lines, with office at De Quincy, La. 

Mr. W. H. Keller, formerly master 
mechanic of the Texas & Pacific at Big 
Spring, Tex., has been transferred to the 
Ft. Worth division, with office at Ft. 
Worth, Tex., succeeding Mr. G. W. Deats, 

Mr. E. S. Pardee has been appointed 
mechanical engineer of the Cleveland, 
Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, with 
headquarters at Beech Grove, Ind., suc- 
ceeding Mr. W. E. Ricketson, promoted. 

Mr. C. F. Ludington, formerly super- 
intendent of the fuel department of the 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas, has been ap- 
pointed fuel supervisor of the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul, with office in 
Chicago, 111. 

Mr. C. F. Lingenfelter has been ap- 
pointed assistant road foreman of engines 
of the Pittsburgh division of the Pennsyl- 
vania, with headquarters at Conemaugh, 
Pa., succeeding Mr. S. G. Glassburn, 
transferred. 

Mr. W. R. Harrison has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Southern Kansas 



division of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe, with office at Chanute, Kans., succeed- 
ing Mr. W. H. Hamilton, assigned to 
other duties. 

Mr. C. E. Peck, formerly general fore- . 
man of the Southern Pacific at Roseville, 
Cal., has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Portland division, with office at 
Portland, Ore., succeeding Mr. George 
Wild, resigned. 

Mr. M. Turton has been appointed me- 
chanical superintendent of the Interna- 
tional Railways of Central America, with 
office at Guatemala City, Guat., succeed- 
ing Mr. R. Potts, resigned, to accept 
service with another road. 

M'r. C. A. Wirth has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Pasco division of 
the Northern Pacific, with office at Pasco, 
Wash., succeeding Mr. G. F. Egbers, who 
has been granted leave of absence to enter 
the Russian Railway Service Corps. 

Mr. G. F. Wieseckel, formerly master 
mechanic of the Western Maryland, 
with office in Hagerstown, Md., has 
been appointed superintendent of mo- 
tive power, with office at Hagerstown, 
succeeding Mr. R. Warnock, resigned. 

Mr. R. L. Browne has been associated 
with the sales department of the Gold- 
schmidt Thermit Company, N. Y., as 
commercial engineer. Mr. Browne has 
had a thorough course of training in the 
Thermit welding process, and is among 
the leading experts in the trade. 

Mr. T. S. Davey, formerly shop super- 
intendent of the Erie at Buffalo, N. Y., 
car shops, has been appointed master me- 
chanic in charge of engine terminals at 
Croxton, N. J., and Mr. L. C. Fitzgerald, 
formerly car foreman, succeeds Mr. 
Davey. 

Mr. William H. Fetner, formerly acting 
superintendent of motive power of the 
Central of Georgia, has been appointed 
superintendent of motive power, succeed- 
ing Mr. F. F. Gaines, who on account of 
continued impaired health has been as- 
signed to other duties. 

Mr. H. R. Warnock, formerly super- 
intendent of motive power of the Western 
Maryland at Hagerstown, Md., has been 
appointed general superintendent of mo- 
tive power of the Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul, with headquarters at Chicago, 
111., succeeding Mr. A. E. Manchester, de- 
ceased. 

Mr. N. B. Payne, electric crane spe- 
cialist, dealing in new and second hand 
traveling cranes, has opened an office at 
25 Church street, New York Mr. 
Payne has had a wide experience in this 
class of work, and was formerly em- 
ployed with Manning, Maxwell & 
Moore, Inc., New Y'ork. 
Mr. H. Clewer has been appointed 



superintendent of Fuel Economy of the 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific with head- 
quarters at Chicago, 111. Mr. Clewer has 
appointed assistants at the chief division 
points of the road, and systematic methods 
of instruction in economy and efficiency 
are being placed in operation. 

Mr. R. N. Nichols, formerly general 
foreman of the Central of New Jersey at 
Communipaw engine terminal, Jersey 
City, has been appointed assistant mas- 
ter mechanic, and Mr. W. E. Hardy, 
formerly at East Twenty-second street, 
has been promoted to general foreman 
at Communipaw, succeeding Mr. 
Nichols. 

Mr. C. E. McAuliffe, formerly master 
mechanic of the Missouri Pacific, at 
Atchison, Kans., has been transferred to 
Wichita, Kans., succeeding Mr. R. H. 
Tait, transferred to Kansas City as master 
mechanic. Mr. F. Rauber has been ap- 
pointed division foreman at Wichita, and 
Mr. Samuel W. Ashford has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the White 
River division. 

Mr. J. W. White has been appointed 
manager of the power anil railway divi- 
sions of the Detroit office of the Westing- 
house Electric & Mfg. Company. Mr. 
White was formerly connected with the 
Pittsburgh office of this company, subse- 
quently becoming associated with the Allis 
Chalmers Company, and has now returned 
to the Westinghouse Company, assuming 
the position above noted. 

Mr. J. H. Pardee, president, and Mr. 
J. P. Ripley, railway engineer, of the J. 
G. White Management Corporation, New 
York City, have been visiting the Phil- 
ippine Islands, making a general inspec- 
tion of the Manila Electric Railroad and 
Light Company, and other interests in 
the islands operated by the management 
corporation. They are expected to re- 
turn to New York before the end of 
January. 

Mr. Leonard S. Cairns, formerly assist- 
ant general manager of the Manila Elec- 
tric Railroad and Light Company, Manila, 
P. I., has been appointed general manager 
of the Eastern Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company, with office at Pottsville, Pa. 
The White Management Corporation, New 
York City, are the operating managers of 
both companies. He succeeds Mr. L. H. 
Palmer, who recently became assistant to 
the president of the United Railways and 
Electric Company, Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. D. G. Cunningham, formerly as- 
sistant superintendent of motive power of 
the Denver & Rio Grande, has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of motive power. 
Mr. Cunningham is a graduate of the Vir- 
ginia Polytechnic Institute and entered as 
machinist's apprentice in the Norfolk & 



January, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



31 



Western Shops at Roanoke, Va., in 1890. 
Latterly he has had experience in 
several western roads and was for several 
years superintendent of shops of the Den- 
ver & Rio Grande at Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Mr. D. O. Leary, master mechanic of 
the Pacific Coast railroad since 1893 
and also master mechanic of the Pacific 
Coast Steam Ship Company's repair 
works, has resigned to accept a position 
as machinery inspector with the United 
States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet 
Corporation. Mr. Leary is a member 
of the American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, and the American Rail- 
way Master Mechanics' Association, and 
his appointment to the Government 
emergency service meets with universal 
approval. 

Mr. Charles H. Ewing has been ap- 
pointed vice-president of the Philadelphia 
& Reading, with office at Philadelphia, Pa. 
Mr. Ewing entered the company's service 
in 1883 in the engineer corps construction 
department, and with the exception of 
several years' service as chief engineer of 
the Central New England railway, has 
occupied many important positions in the 
Philadelphia & Reading for over twenty- 
five years, and was latterly general super- 
intendent. Mr. F. M. Falck has been ap- 
pointed General Manager, both appoint- 
ments taking effect in December. 

Hon. John F. Hylan, who has been 
elected and installed as mayor of New 
York, is a member of the Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Engineers, Division 419, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. Mr. Hylan is from 
Greene County, N. Y. In 1887, he was 
engaged laying the tracks of the Brooklyn 
elevated railroad, and was shortly given 
a position as fireman and promoted to an 
engineer. He studied law at night and 
graduated from the New York Law 
School in 1897. He was elected county 
judge of Kings county, and in the recent 
election for mayor had the largest plur- 
ality of any candidate that ever ran for 
the office. He retains a warm interest 
in the welfare of railroad men. 

Mr. L. T. Hamilton, formerly manager 
of the advertising and specialty depart- 
ment of the National Tube Company, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., has accepted a similar 
position witli the Walworth Manufactur- 
ing Company, Boston, Mass. As noted 
in our pages some months ago the Wal- 
worth company purchased the Kewanee 
works from the National Tube Company 
and Mr. Hamilton's familiarity witli the 
"Kewanee" products eminently qualifies 
him for his new position. His marked 
success in training specialty students and 
in supervising specialty and sales pro- 
motion work lias won for him an en- 
viable reputation. lie is a graduate of 
the University of Illinois, and became 
associated with the Western Tube Com- 
pany in 1897. advancing from claim de- 
partment and secretary to sales manager. 



In 1908 he became associated with the 
National Tube Company, and became 
identified with the remarkable advertis- 
ing success of the company's products. 
He was elected first president of the 
Pittsburgh Publicity Association. Mr. 




L. T. HAMILTON. 

W. L. Schaeffer, formerly assistant to 
Mr. Hamilton in the service of the Na- 
tional Tube Company, succeeds to the 
position held by Mr. Hamilton as man- 
ager of the advertising and specialty de- 
partment. 

Mr. Lewis A. Larsen has been ap- 
pointed assistant to the president of the 
Lima Locomotive Works, Inc., with 
headquarters at Lima, Ohio. Mr. Lar- 
sen was born at Ridgeway, Iowa, in 1875. 
He received his early education in the 




LEWIS A. LARSEN. 

public schools of Ridgeway and Decorah, 
[owa, and Upper Iowa University, 
Northwestern University and Si. Paul 
College of Law. In 1897 he entered the 
service of the Chicago Great Western 
Railway as clerk to the master mechanic. 



He held successively the positions of 
chief clerk to the superintendent of 
motive power and was later chief clerk 
to the assistant general manager. In 
1904 he resigned to accept the position 
of chief clerk to the superintendent of 
motive power of the Northern Pacific 
Railway at St. Paul. In November, 1906, 
he became associated with the W. H. S. 
Wright Railway Supplies, representing 
the Railway Steel Spring Co., Pittsburgh 
Forge and Iron Company and others, and 
in 1907 he entered the service of the 
American Locomotive Company. In 1909 
he was appointed assistant to the vice 
president in charge of manufacturing 
and in July, 1917, was appointed assistant 
comptroller, which position he has held 
up to the present time. Mr. Larson had 
a wide experience in railway operation, 
particularly in mechanical department 
matters and an equally valuable experi- 
ence in locomotive building. For several 
years past he has been a special lecturer 
in the Alexander Hamilton Institute. 
New York, and has contributed a num- 
ber of papers to the railroad and tech- 
nical magazines of the country. 



Merging of the Economy Devices Cor- 
poration and Franklin Railway 
Supply Company. 
The consolidation of the Economy 
Devices Corporation and the Franklin 
Railway Supply Company into one or- 
ganization, to be known as the Frank- 
lin Railway Supply, Company, Inc., has 
been made with the following as the 
board of officers: J. S. Coffin, chairman 
of the board of directors; S. G. Allen, 
vice-chairman; H. F. Ball, president; 
Walter H. Coyle, senior vice-president : 
J. L. Randolph, vice-president in charge 
of western territory; C. W. Floyd Cof- 
fin, vice-president in charge of eastern 
and southern territory; C. L. Winey, 
secretary and treasurer; Harry M. 
Evans, eastern sales manager; C. L. 
I'.urkholder, western sales manager; Hal 
R. Stafford, chief engineer, and William 
T. Lane, mechanical engineer. All of the 
officers are men of wide experience in 
the railway supply department and have 
been prominently identified in engineer- 
ing and construction work. 



Call for Railway Men. 
Announcement has been made by the 
War Department that volunteers are now 
being accepted for a provisional reinforce- 
ment railway regiment, for the National 
army, which is being organized at Camp 
Grant, Rockford. 111. Men are wanted 
who have qualifications in railway con- 
struction, operation and maintenance ; 
shop work and transportation. Applica- 
tions are received at all of the principal 
recruiting stations. 



32 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1918 



Railroad Equipment Notes 



The Pacific Electric is building car 
shops, 75 by 220 ft., at Torrance, Cal. 



The Essex Terminal has ordered 50 
gondola cars from the Canadian Car & 
Foundry Company. 



chine, six levers. The material has 
been ordered from the General Railway 
Signal Company. 



The Republic Creosoting Company, 
Indianapolis, Ind., is inquiring for five 
10,000-gal. tank cars. 



The Lehigh Valley has let contract 
for building a boiler house 40 by 118 ft. 

at Perth Amboy, N. J. 



The Indiana Refining Company, Law- 
renceville, 111., is inquiring for 25 8,000- 
gal. capacity tank cars. 



The U. S. Government has placed 
orders for 4,975 cars for American 
forces overseas, as follows: 2,250 box, 
1,725 gondolas, 500 flat, 250 tank and 
250 refrigerators. 

The New York Central is understood 
to have reserved space with the rail 
mills subject to government require- 
ments for the rolling of about 150,000 
tons of standard section rails. 



The United States Government has 
ordered 65 gun cars from the American 
Car & Foundry Company. 

T. E. Hamman, Milmine, 111., has or- 
dered five box cars from the Central 
Locomotive & Car Works. 

The Central of Brazil has ordered 2 
Consolidation locomotives from the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The Alabama & Vicksburg has 
ordered 2 Mikado engines from the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works. 



The French Government has ordered 
1,000 steel underframe flat and 850 
steel underframe gondola cars of 60 cm. 
(1 ft. llfs '»•) gauge from the Ameri- 
can Car & Foundry Company. 



The Philadelphia & Reading is re- 
ported to have purchased about 3.000 
tons of rolled and cast steel for the con- 
struction in its shops of 15 locomotives, 
10 freight and 5 passenger engines. 



The Illinois Central has been getting 
bids on 1,000 hopper cars; the Lehigh 
Cement Copany, Allentown, Pa., for 50 
hopper cars; the Richmond, Fredericks- 
burg & Potomac, 100 hopper cars. 



The Oregon-Washington Railroad & 
Navigation Company has let the con- 
tract for a roundhouse at Tacoma, 
Wash. 



The Santa Fe has commenced con- 
struction work on its new machine shop 
building at Temple, Tex. It is to be 
60 by 100 ft. 

The Louisville & Nashville has or- 
dered 300 steel undernames for 50-ton 
gondola cars from the Pressed Steel 
Car Company. 



The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe has 
ordered a 20-lever, Saxby & Farmer 
interlocked machine, equipped with 
alternating-current electric locks, for 
installation at Morris, Kan. The field 
work will be carried out by the Santa 
Fe's regular construction forces. 



The Great Northern has ordered 
1,138 ton- of steel from the American 
Bridge Company for the renewal of 160 
inner pockets at ore dock No. 3, Allouez, 

Wis. 



The Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe com- 
pany is contemplating the construction 
of a freight station and a machine shop 
at Temple, Tex. The proposed ma- 
chine shop will be 60 ft. by 100 ft., with 
concrete foundations, brick walls, ma- 
chinery foundations, electric light, 
steam heat and tar and gravel roof. 
The structure will cost $15,000, exclu- 
sive of machinery. 



The Glen Nina Tank Line, N. M. 
Pierce, owner, Buffalo, X. Y., has or- 
vered 50 8,000-gal. capacity tank cars 
from the Pennsylvania Tank Car Com- 
pany. 



The Norfolk & Western has ordered 
from the Union Switch & Signal Com- 
pany 15 signals, style S, for use on the 
Big Sandy division, near Kenova, 
W. Va. 



The Oregon-Washington Railroad & 
Navigation Company is building a 
roundhouse at Tacoma, Wash., which 
will cost about $10,000. The building 
will contain three stalls, 97 ft. long. It 
will be a frame structure with concrete 
pits and concrete footings supported on 
piles. The contract for the work was 
let to the E. J. Rounds Construction 
Company, Seattle, Wash. 



The Union Pacific is to install a me- 
chanical interlocking plant at Republi- 
can River Bridge; Saxby & Farmer ma- 



The Southern Railway has awarded to 
the General Railway Signal Company a 
contract for the construction and in- 
stallation of automatic block signals 
between Charlotte, X. C, and Spartan- 
burg, S. C, 76 miles, double track. With 




DIXON'S 

fe PAINT 

C^'FOUR COLORS^ 

SEp H Wx0NCRU cmi* c - 

■1ERSEVCITV, N-£- 




Long Time 
Protection 

is given to signal appa- 
ratus and all exposed 
metal or woodwork by 

DIXON'S 

Silica-Graphite 

PAINT 

the Longest Service paint. 
Nature's combination of 
flake silica-graphite, 
mixed with pure boiled 
linseed oil, is the ideal 
combination which forms 
a firm elastic coat that 
will not crack or peel off. 
This prevents access to 
agents that will corrode 
and injure the metal. 
Dixon's Silica-Graphite 
Paint is used throughout 
the world by railroad 
engineers. 

Write for Booklet No. 
69-B and long service 
records. 

Made in JERSEY CITY, N. J., by the 

Joseph Dixon Crucible 
VgxfJ Company d><x><n 

T "" ESTABLISHED 1827 

B-132 



January, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



33 



Hydraulic 

Riveters fixed ahd Portable 

Punches, Shears, 
Presses, Lifts, Cranes 
and Accumulators. 

Matthews' Fire Hydrants, 

Eddy Valves 

Valve Indicator Posts. 

The Camden High-Pressure Valves. 



Cast Iron Pipe 



R. D. Wood & Company 

Engineers, Iron 
Pounders, Machinists. 

100 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



For Testing and Washing 
Locomotive Boilers 



USE THE 




Rue Boiler Washer 
and Tester 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

Rue Manufacturing Co. 

228 Cherry Street Philadelphia, Pa. 

Manufacturers of Injectors, Ejectors, 

Boiler Washers and Testers, Boiler Checks, 

Check Valves. 



Locomotive Electric Headlights 

of all descriptions 




THE 

YLE- 



TURBO 

GENERATOR 

ATIONAL sets 

COMPANY 

900 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUE CHICAGO. ILL. 



ASHTON 

POP VALVES and GAGES 

The Quality Goods That Last 

The Ashton Valve Co. 
271 Franklin Street, Boston, Mass' 




the completion of this work, the South- 
ern will be equipped with automatic 
block signals from Washington, D. C., 
to Atlanta, Ga., 649 miles; and alternat- 
ing current is used throughout. 



According to reports, the orders out- 
standing for cars and locomotives 
placed last May on behalf of the Russian 
Government have not been canceled, 
but work on them has been held up. 
The orders outstanding call for about 
500 large locomotives and 10,000 four- 
wheel freight cars. The orders for 1,500 
locomotives and 30,000 cars which were 
in contemplation and which were dis- 
tributed in October and November were 
not definitely signed and no work has 
been done on them. 

Press despatches from Athens state 
that ten monster American locomotives 
are standing on a side track at the 
Piraeus, gradually rusting away for lack 
of use. They are evidence of the pro- 
gressive modern methods which a re- 
cent government railway administration 
sought to put into practice without, 
however, making due calculations in ad- 
vance. The engines were greatly ad- 
mired when they arrived, but when they 
were put on the tracks it was discov- 
ered that the light rails almost flattened 
out with their weight, and the bridges 
along the main routes were not strong 
enough for them. 



The M. C. B. and the M. M. Con- 
ventions. 

A meeting of the Executive Commit- 
tees of the Master Car Builders and the 
American Railway Master Mechanics' 
Associations was held at the Hotel Bilt- 
more, New York, on Dec. 20, and after 
disposing of the routine business, the 
question of holding the annual conven- 
tions was discussed at length, and on 
motion it was agreed that on account 
of continued war conditions and the 
necessity of every railroad man being 
at his post that no conventions be held 
this year. 



Utilizing Exhaust Steam. 
In the interest of eco'nomy much saving 
may he made during winter by the care- 
ful use of exhaust steam. It may readily 
be applied as heating feed water for the 
steam boiler, for many washing purposes, 
heating buildings and other purposes. A 
small investment in additional boiler- 
room equipment, such as an exhaust 
steam heater would effect a considerable 
saving even in a moderate sized plant. 



Main 



Saving Oily Waste. 

railroads and machine shops 



still follow the extravagant practice of 
burning their oily waste, but scarcity of 
fats and petroleum products has created 



wider interest in the reclamation of 
both waste and oil by extraction in cen- 
trifugals, filtering and refining the oil 
for further use, and drying the waste in 
ovens. The high price of cotton waste, 
as well as lubricating and cutting oils, 
makes reclamation profitable. 



Breaking Up Cars for War Materials. 

In Great Britain the Ministry of Mu- 
nitions are licensing various firms to 
purchase cars, especially those of the 
older types, in order to break them up 
to recover the aluminium, bronze, brass 
and steel. These materials are sent in 
to the official smelters to be ma"de into 
war material. Aluminum is especially 
needed for aircraft. The upholstering 
is utilized as rags, and the old tires, 
woodwork, leather, etc., can all be util- 
ized for purposes connected with the 
war. 



Electrification of Swiss Railways 
The Swiss Federal Railways have 
made appropriation for the coming 
year for the electrification of tracks, 
including roundhouses, stations, and 
power houses. It has been decided to 
proceed as early as possible with the 
work. This question is rendered all 
the more urgent owing to the present 
scarcity and high price of coal, and, 
on the other hand, it is understood that 
the principal difficulty with reference 
to the electrification at the present time 
is the great scarcity of the necessary 
electrical material and particularly of 
copper. 



New Rolling Stock for Chile. 
By a recent proclamation of the Presi- 
dent of Chile, an appropriation has been 
made for the use of the Arica-La Paz 
Railway to be employed in the purchase 
of 100 steel freight cars of 25 tons ca- 
pacity, and 3 Mallet locomotives. Details 
may be had from the Ministry of Rail- 
ways, Santiago, Chile. 



Wood's Latest Invention. 
William II. Wood, engineer, inventor 
and builder of special machinery for forg- 
ing, riveting, flanging and other purposes, 
has perfected a hydraulic shell testing 
press for testing shells to 18,500 pounds 
pressure, and to work from an accumu- 
lator pressure of 1,500 lbs. to the square 
inch. Particulars of this and other de- 
vices may be had on application to YV. 
II. Wood, Media, Del. Co., Pa. 



The greatest favor you can confer on 
anyi ne is to give him a chance to do hit 
best. 



But it's no trouble to find trouble. 



34 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1918 



Books, Bulletins, Catalogues, Etc. 



Proceedings of the International Rail- 
way General Foremen's Assn. 

As announced in our columns last June, 
the annual convention of the Interna- 
tional Railway General Foremen's Asso- 
ciation was suspended for this year. The 
work of the association, however, has not 
slacked down on account of 1917 being 
a blank year with them, as far as the con- 
vention is concerned. The papers which 
would have been read in 1917 are never- 
theless printed in the form of proceed- 
ings. The question of what constitutes 
an engine failure is dealt with very fully. 
Meeting the Federal Inspection Laws is 
discussed. The paper is profusely illus- 
trated, and is divided into parts. Maxi- 
mum service and minimum wear forms 
the subject of another paper, and the 
subject is treated from the influence which 
proper alignment of parts has in produc- 
ing the desired effect. The interest a 
locomotive foreman has or may have in 
car matters came in for discussion after a 
long and interesting paper had been pub- 
lished. 

These papers were printed and sent to 
the members, and though the discussions 
of its topics may not have been as spon- 
taneous as if the meeting had been held, 
but they certainly contain the results of 
careful and intelligent judgment. Copies 
of the proceedings may be had from the 
secretary, William Hall, C. & N. W., 
Winona, Minn. No convention will be 
held in 1918. 



to secure a copy of the new edition, as 
the improvements and changes in the 
modern automobile are of prime im- 
portance to all who desire a thorough 
knowledge of the machine. Price, $3.00. 



The Modern Gasoline Automobile 
A new and enlarged edition of the 
Modern Gasoline Automobile, by. 
Victor M. Page, M.E., has just been 
issued by the Norman W. Henlay Pub- 
lishing Company, 2 West 45th Street. 
New York. His work has already been 
recognized as the standard work on the 
subject of the design, construction, op- 
eration and maintenance of the gasoline 
automobile. The present edition ex- 
tends to 1,032 pages, with over 1,000 
illustrations, and 13 folding plates. 
The book is divided into seventeen 
chapters, and is in many respects the 
most complete, practical and up-to-date 
treatise on gasoline automobiles ever 
published. It is a popular favorite in 
automobile schools, and has the fine 
quality of not being too technical for 
the beginner nor too elementary for 
the expert. Mr. Page's style is remark- 
able for its clearness, as well as its 
completeness. His practical hints for 
locating engine troubles show how care- 
fully he has mastered the subject, and 
we are convinced that the book will 
continue to grow in favor. We might 
add that those having the early edition 
published six years ago would do well 



Du Pont Products. 



A new edition of the Du Pont Products 
Book has just been issued by E. I. du 
Pont de Nemours & Company, and its 
associates, Du Pont Fabrikoid Company, 
Du Pont Chemical Works, the Arlington 
Works, and Harrison, Inc. It list? all 
the products of the above concerns and 
describes their uses as well as who uses 
them On account of the enormous ex- 
pansion of the enterprising firm's busi- 
ness made necessary by the war and by 
the inability of this country to longer 
import many of its chemicals and raw 
materials, it became necessary for the 
Du Pont Company to greatly expand its 
industrial activities, and the purpose of 
the Du Pont Products book is to tell the 
public of the hundreds of commodities 
they make and sell, many of which until 
recently had never been made on this 
continent. Every mercantile, professional, 
industrial and particularly railway supply 
man should have a copy of this book 
which extends to 192 pages and is 
elegantly bound. Copies may be had on 
application to the company's main office, 
Wilmington, Del. 



Industrial Motors. 
The second of a series of catalogues 
of industrial motors has just been dis- 
tributed by the Westinghouse Electric 
and Manufacturing Company of East 
Pittsburgh, Pa. This is known as Cata- 
logue 30 and covers the company's com- 
. plete line of direct current motors and 
generators for industrial service. After 
several pages giving general information 
regarding the ordering, classification and 
selection of direct current motors there 
follows complete descriptions, rating and 
dimensions for type SK commutating- 
pole motors, various modifications of 
type SK elevator motors, reversing 
planer motor equipment, type CD motors, 
type SK and CD motor generators and 
arc welding equipment. Much new in- 
formation is given, especially on such 
subjects as arc welding, headstock equip- 
ment and battery charging service. The 
new catalogue is identical in size and 
will fit the binder for the company's line 
of catalogues covering supply apparatus 
and small motors. 



Tests of Welded Joints. 

An interesting series of tests of 
strength of Oxacetylene welded joints in 
mild steel plates has been completed by 
the Engineering Experiment Station of 
the University of Illinois. Specimens 
were supplied by the Oxweld Acetylene 
Company of Chicago, and the result of 
the tests showed with no subsequent 
treatment after welding, the joint effi- 
ciency for static tension was found to be 
about 100 per cent for plates one-half 
inch in thickness or less, and to decrease 
for thicker plates. The joints were 
strengthened by working after welding, 
and were weakened by annealing at 800 
degrees C. For static tests and for re- 
peated stress tests, the joint efficiency fre- 
quently reached 100 per cent ; the effi- 
ciency of the material in the joint is 
less, indicating the advisability of build- 
ing up the weld to a thickness greater 
than that of the plate. In general, the 
test results tend to increase confidence 
in the static strength and in the strength 
under repeated stress of carefully made 
oxacetylene welded joints in mild steel 
plates. Copies of the Bulletin M. 98, may 
be obtained from C. R. Richards, Direc- 
tor, Urbana, 111. 



Elements of Electrical Engineering 
This notable work is a text-book for 
use in colleges and technical schools 
by William S. Franklin. New York, and 
published by the MacMillan Company. 
It is finely printed and elegantly bound 
and extends to 475 pages, with numer- 
ous illustrations. It is the first volume 
of a projected series extended to re- 
view and survey elementary and ap- 
plied electricity and magnetism, and 
present direct-current machines and 
systems. Price, $4.50. 




The Norwalk Iron Works Co. 

SOUTH NORWALK, CONN. 

Makers of Air and Gas Compressors 

For All Purposes 

Send for Catalog 




The Armstrong 
Automatic Drift Drill 

IS DRIFT AND HAMMER COMBINED. 



The handle or driver ll alwayi 
ready to strike a blow ai the 
spring: automatically throws It 
back Into position. 
LEAVES ONE HAND FREE TO 
SAVE THE TOOL. 
Special Circular Mailed on Request. 
ARMSTRONG BROS. TOOL COMPANY 
Sit N. FrancUco Ave., CHICAGO, V. 8. A. 




IV^o locomotive tlljIIICGrill} 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling Stock and Appliances 



Vol. XXXI. 



114 Liberty Street, New York, February, 1918 



No. 2 



In the Maritime Alps of France 



Our illustration this month gives one 
an idea of the single-arch steel bridge on 
the Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Rail- 
way in the vicinity of the strongly forti- 
fied town of Briancon, close to the borders 
of Italy. The town is situated on a hill, 



ural military advantage and the surround- 
ing eminences are crowned by strong 
fortifications, communicating with the 
town, and with each other, by subterra- 
nean passages. One of the heights upon 
which the village of St. Veran is built 



Italy, now allies, will never resort to war 
to settle differences which can be more 
easily and more honorably adjusted around 
the green table. 

The bridge which spans the gorge is a 
single arch, 127 ft. long by 180 ft. high. 




STEEL ARC II BRIDGE 



AT BRIANCON ON THE PARIS, LYONS AND MEDITERRANEAN RAILWAY OF FRANCE 



about 4,300 ft. above sea level; and is 
near the source of the Durance, which 
flows down the deep rocky gorge which 
forms the subject of our illustration. The 
fortifications command the road between 
France and Italy across Mount Genevre. 
The position of Briancon gives it a nat- 



is the highest in France, and Brianqon is 
not many feet short of the highest. The 
fortifications, although they are well built. 
are of a former day, and the present war, 
with its modern high-power ordnance, 
might easily destroy the defenses. It is, 
however, to be hoped that France and 



That means that from the top of the floor 
to a line joining the abutments it is 180 
ft., though the gorge falls away below a 
thousand feet or more. 

In the town of Briancon, floss and silk 
manufactures are carried on; small iron 
ware, leather and the making of lavender 



36 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1918 



water. Brianqon chalk is widely known, 
and Briancon manna, which is a kind of 
resin, is also exported from this collection 
of human dwellings, perched like an 
eagle's nest on the high mountain crag. 

Brianqon is believed by some authori- 
ties to be the ancient city of Brigantium, 



a military post under the Romans. After 
the fall of the Roman Empire, this city 
maintained itself as an independent re- 
public for many years and only became a 
part of France in 1713. In the closing 
wars of the great Napoleon, the town 
made a noble and spirited defense in 1815. 



Its population is about 7,524. The photo- 
graph which we are enabled to give to 
our readers was taken for the purpose of 
calling attention to this old, picturesque, 
and historic town by the famous Paris, 
Lyons and Mediterranean Railway of 
France. 



Pneumatic Locking Locomotive Reversing Gear 

Outside Independent Locking Arrangement — Gear Easily Adjusted — Powerful 

In Action — Little Wear 



An excellent locomotive reverse gear 
designed by Mr. C. J. Mellin, consulting 
engineer of the American Locomotive 
Company, has been brought out by that 
concern and applied by them to a number 
of engines which they have recently 
turned out. The essential features, or 
rather one of the principal component 
parts of the apparatus, consists of an or- 
dinary cylinder with a cup-packed piston 
and a crosshead with a single guide bar, 
an operating valve, a locking device and 
a hand-lever with a latch valve in the 
cab. What looks like the bottom guide 
for the crosshead is really a pivoted bar, 
which may be drawn up at one end and in 
a sense clamped on the underside of the 
crosshead, and this really forms a clamp 
which locks the crosshead and prevents 
any creeping of the mechanism, due to 
leakage or from other causes. It is this 
outside or mechanical system of locking 
that forms one of the distinctive features 
of the Mellin gear. 

A close inspection of this mechanism 
shows that the top guide is stationary, 
and the crosshead entirely encloses it, so 
that if the lower bar or clamp bar was to 
fall off it would make no difference to the 
straight line movement of the crosshead. 
The action of the clamp bar is simple 
but effective. On top of the apparatus is 
placed what is called the locking device. 
It consists of a cylinder or case contain- 
ing a spring at one end of which is a 
piston moving in a small cylinder which 
is formed as a continuation of the spring 
case. It may be said of this design that 
the locking device is of the friction va- 
riety, with the spring case combined with 
a release cylinder. There is a spring, and 
connected to the pivoted guide, which by 
the tension of the spring is magnified 
through a bell crank leverage, and this 
force grips the crosshead between it and 
the main guide. The hand lever latch 
or lock release valve is a simple poppet 
inlet and discharge valve, subject to the 
■movement of the hand lever latch, by 
•means of a trigger and bolted to the 
lever fulcrum bracket. 

When the reverse mechanism is about 
to be used, the hand which grasps the 
lever puts the latch handle up against 
the main handle and this opens the small 
poppet valve, referred to above. Air 



therefore flows into the M-in. pipe lead- 
ing to the air end of the spring case. The 
air pressure so introduced moves the 
small piston and compresses the spring 
in its case. In consequence of this, the 
bolt from the spring case moves back and 
through its connections, loosens the pivot- 
ed locking bar under the crosshead. 

The hinged lock bar or guide must 
clear the pivoted shoe on the crosshead 
by % in. in its parellel position with the 
main guide, so that it takes an inclined 



motion through the floating lever, shown 
vertically in central position in our il- 
lustration, with the crosshead connection 
to it as a fulcrum, and this movement 
opens the operating valve. The motion 
of the crosshead which follows, trans- 
mits motion through the floating lever 
with the handlever connection as a ful- 
crum, and closes the valve when the gear 
is stopped and gripped by the lock at the 
corresponding position of the handlever. 
At any movement in either direction of 




MELLIN PNEUMATIC RF.VERSE GEAR. 



position when locked ; giving more in- 
clination when the crosshead is at the 
inner end of the stroke, and any slight 
variation in leverage action which exists 
on the crosshead by the locking guide in 
and between these positions, is compen- 
sated for by the variations in tension of 
the locking spring, thus securing an ap- 
proximately uniform locking pressure on 
the crosshead for any position of its 
stroke. 

The operating valve, placed in the 
centre, below the cylinder, is of the rotary 
type, having lap and passages like an or- 
dinary slide valve but without any stuf- 
fing box. 

In raising the handlever latch in the 
usual way, the latch valve automatically 
admits air into the locking cylinder and 
releases the lock by compressing the 
spring and remains so until the latch is 
again dropped and the lock becomes set. 
The movement of the handlever transmits 



the handlever this action is repeated 
with all parts except the handlever. 

In order to hold the valve gear with- 
out danger of undesirable movement, the 
locking guide is brought in contact with 
the pivoted shoe on the crosshead, the 
spring link is adjusted so that its con- 
nection to the bellcrank is about '4-in. out- 
side the vertical center line of its fulcrum 
and the length of the lifting links are ad- 
justed so as to give a close but free in- 
sertion of all connecting pins in the lock. 

This is a good example of the growing 
use of pneumatic reverse lever gears, now 
that the valve mechanism has become so 
that with any sort of motion of the engine 
the valve gear is hard to work. There is 
no such thing now as "horsing her over." 
as in former days, and a good, pneumatic 
reverse mechanism gives a much finer 
cut off than was possible with the old 
reverse lever and notched quadrant, how- 
ever fine the notches were cut. 






February, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



37 



Physically and Mentally Protected 

Sudden Sickness or Faint Provided For — The Dead Man's Handle — Mental Lapses Are 

Real — How Provided Against — The Stop Signal 



It is not often that we stray into the 
field occupied by the interurban trolley 
line, but the illustration we are able to 
give here and what we have to say on the 
subject represented, is quite applicable to 
a steam-operated railway. We regard this 
vehicle and its occupants as properly pro- 
tected against dangers, physical and 
mental. 

The man in charge is purposely kept 
alone, without a mate, and he is isolated 
from the passengers for the purpose of 
preventing his being distracted and his 
attention withdrawn from his work by ir- 
relavent conversation. So far this ar- 
rangement is good and it shows that, even 
in a very crude fashion, the idea of pro- 
tecting the man from the vagaries of his 
own mind is given some faint attention. 
At least the tacit acknowledgment of the 
possibility of his being distracted in cer- 
tain ways is here made plain. 

The man in charge stands at his post, 
isolated from his fellows, and he governs 
the movements of the car or of the train 
by what is commonly called the "Dead 
Man's Handle" attached to the controller. 
This handle, as most people know, is made 
with a knob or button at the top of the 
point of hand grasp. The button must be 
pressed down about Y& or J4 in. against 
the upward thrust of a small spring; and 
this pressing down makes connection so 
that the discs of the controller move with 
the handle through all its positions. If, 
however, the pressure of the hand is re- 
laxed or withdrawn, the discs of the con- 
troller are disconnected from the handle 
and in obedience to the action of a power- 
ful spring, they fly back to the zero point, 
cutting off the flow of electric current to 
the motors, and at the same time opening 
an escape valve in the air brake, and thus 
the brakes are applied in the emergency. 

This two-fold action of the dead man's 
handle deals very effectively with a physi- 
cal derangement of the normal actions of 
the man. If he is the victim of heart 
failure, or is temporarily overcome by an 
attack of acute indigestion or merely faints 
in the heavy, drowsy heat o-f the day, his 
grasp relaxes, and the train automatically 
comes to a dead stop. In fact so satis- 
factory is the action of the dead man's 
handle that if an automobile is recklessly 
driven across the front of the train on a 
road crossing all the man in charge of the 
power has to do is to let go of the handle, 
seek safety if need be, and the powerful, 
but uncomprehending mechanism sets 
about at once arresting the motion of the 
train and doing it in minimum time. 

Here the danger of sudden and unlooked 
for physical disability is amply recognized 



and adequately provided for. All that 
safety demands for the preservation of 
the lives of those who have trusted them- 
selves to the company's care has been 
done fully and properly and with this 
high-minded single end in view. The iso- 
lated man in the cab, though temporarily 
overcome or permanently stricken down, 
cannot jeopardize the lives of those 
whose safety the company has thus far 
guaranteed. 

The isolated occupant of the cab is, how- 
ever, not yet actually safe from himself. 
He may be alone, but he is liable to 
momentary lapses of the mind. He may be 




CAR WITH DEAD MAX'S HANDLE STAND- 
ING AGAINST STOP SIGNAL. 

the prey of sudden impulses or he may be 
the victim of mind distraction, emotion, 
fear, flurry or inchoate thought, and so 
lie in a worse plight than the man who 
failed through physical weakness or the 
direct attack of disease. 

We have all seen the front brakeman 
of a freight train run ahead of the engine 
to throw a switch. We have known him 
to reach a switch which by accident or 
design had been set right for the oncom- 
ing train, and we have seen him de- 
liberately throw the correctly-placed pair 
of switch-rails to the wrong position al- 
most under the truck wheeds of the en- 
gine while he himself was mastered by the 
relentless power of the idea that he must 
do something — he must act. Little short 
of violence will make such a man become 
rational again, and too often he only 
awakens from this state of mind when he 
has succeeded in putting the engine on the 



ties, This is not an isolated or uncom- 
mon case. It exists, and does its deadly 
work quite as often as the man in the 
cab fails through physical causes. The 
brakeman is mentioned as a type. A 
motorman or an engineman on a locomo- 
tive may experience a similar state of 
mind, yet he may appear to be normal, 
though the circumstances surrounding him 
will differ from those of the brakeman. 

Instances can be given where a quarrel 
before the trip may so occupy the atten- 
tion of the man in the cab, as to inhibit or 
shut out of his perception the events 
happening close at hand. The thought or 
even the hope of a lucrative private trans- 
action may have the same result. Sickness 
of a child at home, or the distress caused 
by a slight wound on his hand may be the 
dominant and all-embracing distraction 
which to him renders the nearby world 
only as a shadowy and unrelated realm 
amid the vital realities around him. Her- 
bert Spencer says in his work on the 
Principles of Psychology, "Among de- 
rangements of perceptions, I may refer in 
passing to those which great fear produces 
— the misinterpretation of visual impres- 
sions being in this state of mind very 
marked." Again, further on he tells us, 
"While under a state of depressed spirits, 
judgment fails because the proportions 
among the nervous discharges are inter- 
fered with in an opposite way." The op- 
posite way referred to, is where the high 
tide of elation renders discriminations 
hard to make. 

We have before us perceptional mis- 
interpretations which are implied by great 
fear, and the failure of judgment caused 
by a state of depression. The common- 
place instances which we have just given, 
such as that of the isolated man left alone 
with the vision of his sick child, he fear- 
ing the worst, or the dread of blood- 
poisoning from his own slight wound. 
Xeither of these agonies are mitigated by 
a friendly word to the lone man, and these 
facts may form for us a picture which 
most likely must have had its counterpart 
in the mind of the gifted psychologist as 
he penned those lines. At any rate they 
prove that protection of the train and the 
passengers is not absolutely provided for 
while the isolated man is not delivered 
from his own fallible mental make-up. 

The car, which we show in our illus- 
tration, stands against a stop signal in 
position. The man in charge, be he the 
victim of fear or a prey to mental de- 
pression or suffering from any form of 
distraction or preoccupation, cannot pass 
on into the forbidden block ahead. His 
forgetfulness produces the same result as 



38 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1918 



careful watching. It at least makes the 
necessary halt imperative. The man may 
be normal or not, but any lapse will be but 
a failure in one known direction, and the 
dire results of such failure can be and are 
anticipated and provided against, for they 
can be predicted. The stop signal nullities 
the results of mental lapses, and the safety 
of those who trust themselves on board 
the train is not violated. 

This stop signal consists of. a bar of 
iron or steel co-acting with the blade of 
a semaphore, and when the signal is in 
the stop position the bar comes down so 
as to strike and break a bulb of glass, 
something like an electric lamp, made with 
a metal end threaded to engage with a 
socket in the roof of the vehicle. The 



breakage of this bulb permits air from the 
trainline to escape and applies the brakes 
in the emergency. No amount of snow or 
ice on the bulb can prevent its being thus 
destroyed. 

The fact that mental lapses occur in 
everyone's experience is attested in the 
memory of nearly every one of us, for 
who cannot remember passing by, perhaps 
only a short distance, the corner of the 
street he should have turned off at. Our 
outlook was then perhaps rosy or somber, 
but it momentarily prevented a clear-cut 
cognizance and prompt appropriate action. 
No accident happened, for at that moment 
we may have carried no responsibiliy to 
others. The lapse was certainly there, as 
clearly defined as fainting from overheat. 



Those who deny the existence of these 
mental facts or deliberately shut their eyes 
to proof that mental lapses are reali- 
ties, are wilful men of the type who 
go on mistaking casual immunity for a 
settled condition, or they call it "good 
luck," until at last the deadly peril that 
they have compelled others to take, breaks 
upon all in stern, pitiless disaster. Thus 
only can some men be made to see the 
truth. Then, like Macbeth, affrighted by 
the haunting spectre of Banquo, his dead 
victim, they behold their own responsibil- 
ity and complicity, but they are, as he was, 
powerless to make reparation, and like 
that guilty monarch at the feast, can only 
answer with false words the enduring, 
voiceless, accusation of the dead. 



Eight -Coupled Locomotives for the Newburgh & 

South Shore Railway 



The Newburgh & South Shore op- 
erates a general switching and transfer 
service in the industrial section of the 
Cleveland district. It is a well-built line, 
with 90-lb. rails and a large percentage 
of steel ties. There are curves of 25 
degs., and the steepest grades are 52 and 
60 ft. to the mile, respectively, each grade 
being two miles long. 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works has 
supplied six-coupled and Mogul type lo- 
comotives to this road, and a heavy 



erated fire door, and power reverse 
mechanism. The boiler is designed to 
comply with the requirements of the In- 
terstate Commerce Commission and the 
Ohio State law. It is of the straight top, 
wide firebox type. The front end of the 
tirebox crown is supported on three rows 
of Baldwin expansion stays, and there is 
a complete installation of flexible bolts 
in the water "legs. The throttle valve is 
of the improved Rushton type, with aux- 
iliary drifting valve. It has a vertical 



motive is cross equalized in front, and 
the equalization is divided on each side, 
between the second and third pairs of 
drivers. 

Special attention has been given the ar- 
rangement of the cab fittings, so that the 
engineman can easily handle the throttle 
and reverse levers, brake and sander 
valves, etc., while keeping his head out of 
the cab window. A radial buffer is ap- 
plied between the engine and tender. The 
latter is carried on rolled steel wheels and 




II. K. Thomson, Mast. Mech. 

eight-coupled engine (here illustrated) 
has recently been added to the equipment. 
This locomotive is employed in hauling 
hot metal ladles. It develops a tractive 
force of 48,800 lbs., and as the total 
weight is 221,700 lbs., the ratio of ad- 
hesion is 4.54. This is a suitable ratio 
for a locomotive which, such as this one, 
operates near industrial plants, where rail 
conditions are often unfavorable. 

This engine is strictly modern in de- 
sign, as it uses superheated steam and 
is equipped with a brick arch, power op- 



EIGHT-WHEEL, SWITCHER FOR THE N. & S. 5. 

pipe of flattened cross section, so located 
that the dome can be entered for inspec- 
tion purposes without dismantling the 
piping. 

The steam distribution is controlled by 
12-inch piston valves, which are driven by 
Walschaerts motion. The driving tires 
are of vanadium steel, and are all 
flanged, and flange oilers are applied to 
the front and rear pairs of wheels. The 
spring hangers are also of vanadium 
steel, and frames and spring rigging are 
designed for severe service. The loco- 



Baldwin Loco. Wks., Builders. 

arch bar trucks. It has a heavy frame 
composed of 13-inch channels, and the 
tank is of the water-bottom type, with 
sloping back. 

The Rushton throttle valve used on 
these engines possesses several features 
which give a very distinct advantage to 
the locomotive so equipped. In the first 
place the whole arrangement is compact 
and designed to be strong and service- 
able. The throttle valve is a double- 
seated valve of the ordinary type, but in 
this case the centre is cored out so that 



February, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



39 



■ a lj^-inch pin fits loosely in it and it 
passes through the body of the valve. At 
the top there is a small single-seated valve 
which is opened by the upward move- 
ment of the central pin, which takes place 
when the main throttle valve is opened. 

When the small subsidiary valve at the 
top is lifted from its seat a small quan- 
tity of steam passes through four pas- 
sages, each ty& ins., to the interior of 
the large valve, and so on to the cylin- 
ders. This has the effect of preventing 
the throttle, under ordinary running con- 
ditions, to close tight, it remains open and 
feeds a little steam to the cylinders (using 
superheated steam), while the engine is 
drifting. This is in connection with the 
lubricating problem, and the small valve 
is termed a drifting attachment. 

Other minor and incidental advantages 
may be traced to the presence of the 
drifting attachment. Owing to the hot 
steam passing into the centre of the main 



valve above the collar on the central stem 
the valve becomes as hot as the case and 
expands with it so that the valve is easily 
kept tight on its seat. 

When the throttle is opened steam 
pours to the dry pipe through the four 
openings mentioned above, and in conse- 
quence the first rush of steam to the dry 
pipe is accomplished without violence. 

Further particulars of the engine are 
given in the table of dimensions: 

Gauge, 4 ft. &/, ins.; cylinders, 24 ins. 
by 30 ins.; valves, piston 12-in. diameter. 

Boiler (straight type) — Diameter, 80 
ins.; thickness of sheets, 13/16 in.; work- 
ing pressure, 180 lbs. ; fuel, soft coal ; 
staying, radial. 

Fire Box (steel material) — Length, 120 
ins.; width, 75J4 ins.; front depth, 75 ins.; 
back depth, 57^4 ins. ; thickness of sheets 
— sides, Y% in. ; back, ^ in. ; crown, y% in. ; 
tube, \/i in. 

Water Space — Front, 4 I _> ins.; sides and 



back, 4 ins. 

Tubes — Diameter, S'/i ins. and 2 ins. ; 
material, steel; thickness, 5j4 ins. No. 9 
W. G„ 2 ins. No. 11 W. G. ; number, Syi 
ins. 36, 2 ins. 242 ; length, 14 ft. 9 ins. 

Heating Surface — Fire box, 197 sq. ft.; 
tubes, 2,618 sq. ft. ; firebrick tubes, 28 sq. 
ft.; total, 2,843 sq. ft.; superheater, 614 
sq. ft. ; grate area, 62.7 sq. ft. 

Driving Wheels — Outside diameter, 54 
ins.; center diameter, 46 ins.; main jour- 
nals, 10 ins. by 12 ins.; other journals, 
9 ins. by 12 ins. 

Wheel Base — Driving, 16 ft.; rigid, 16 
ft. ; total engine, 16 ft. ; total engine and 
tender, 51 ft. 

Weight — On driving wheels, 221,700 
lbs.; total engine, 221,700 lbs.; total en- 
gine and tender, about 355,000 lbs. 

Tender — Wheels, number of, 8; diameter 
of, 33 ins. ; journals, 5>/> ins. by 10 ins. ; tank 
capacity, 7,000 U. S. gals. ; fuel capacity. 
12 tons; service, switching. 



Tractive Effort and Horse Power 

Horse Power Defined — What Is Tractive Effort — How One Goes Up as the Other Goes 
Down — The Mathematical Conception Involved In Each 



In answer to a correspondent who does 
not think we went far enough in a recent 
article, we may say that tractive effort, 
or tractive power, or draw-bar pull, is a 
mathematical conception which assumes 
certain things. In dealing with a locomo- 
tive engine there are cylinders (stroke 
and diameter), driving wheels (circum- 
ference), and steam pressure (in pounds 
per square inch). These are the only 
things taken into account, and the assump- 
tions are the mean effective pressure, re- 
sulting from the steam, and the fact that 
the engine is just starting and has no 
speed. Now, in the first place, one as- 
sumes that 200 lbs. boiler pressure will 
give, with the throttle wide open, 85 per 
cent, as the mean effective pressure. This 
is 170 lbs. An engine having 20 x 24-inch 
cylinders and a driving wheel diameter of 
60 inches will give the following results : 

The area of the cylinder is 20 x 20 x 
.7854, giving 314.16 sq. ins. There are 
two cylinders and each of them is filled 
twice, to make one revolution of the driv- 
ing wheels, whatever its diameter may be. 
D is the diameter of the driving wheels 
multiplied so as to give the circumference 
of the wheel (i. e., by 3.1416). 

Now this formula should be remem- 
bered by the way it is built up, and not 
as a mere formula. A person who forgets 
the formula as such should be able to re- 
construct it by knowing how and why it 
is made. The two cylinders, twice filled 
for their whole length, make, as it were, 
a horizontal pillar of steam, with the 
given area for cross section. The mean 



effective pressure in this imaginary hori- 
zontal pillar, of 20 ins. cross section and 
8 ft. long, is the assumed M E P of 85 
per cent, of 200 lbs., that is. 170 lbs. All 
this is equal to one piston of 20 ins. 
diameter pushed along for 8 ft. at 170 
lbs. The whole of this force acts on a 
driving wheel at the circumference, be- 
cause the rail is the only point of effective 
contact of the engine with the outside 
world. 

Now, when we have built up this for- 
mula, we may look at it simply as a math- 
ematical expression. Such a view of it 
shows us that it can be shortened, and 
that it can be done without reference to 
the number of driving wheels that may be 
under the engine. The reason for this is 
that the circumference of the wheels with 
which we must deal is a constant, and 
cannot be varied in the problem, as the 
steam pressure can be, and the number of 
wheels present simply provides means to 
satisfactorily carry weight : that is, a large 
boiler, of good size and length, requires 
more wheels under it. in order to keep 
the axle load within bounds. The num- 
ber of wheels does not directly affect the 
tractive effort. It affects it indirectly 
only, in so far that a large boiler can keep 
up its pressure under a heavy use of 
steam more readily than a small boiler 
can. 

The formula derived from all this may 
be put in the form : — 

d'X.7454 • 2S . MITV2 

T= 

D X 3.1416 



Where T is the tractive effort, 

d 2 is the cylinder diameter squared. 
2S is twice the stroke in inches. 
MEP is the mean effective pres- 
sure, 85 per cent, steam pressure. 
2 is for the two cylinders on an 

engine. 
.7854 is the fraction to get the area 
from the diameter. 
This formula can be made much sim- 
pler. In fact all the figures cancel out. 
We see that .7854 X 2 X 2 comes to 3.1416, 
which is exactly the figure in the denomi- 
nator, and when these cancel out we have 
simply the letters left and the formula 
wears its old familiar aspect : 
d 1 X MEP X S 

T= 

D 
Where T is the tractive effort, 

d* is the diameter of the cylinders, 

squared. 
MEP is the mean effective pres- 
ure of 85 per cent, of the boiler 
pressure. 
S is the stroke in inches. 
D is the diameter of the driving 
wheels in inches. 
The tractive effort here is 27,200 lbs., 
and the force developed in the two strokes 
of the two cylinders, which we have 
likened to a horizontal pillar, four times 
the length of one cylinder, is distrib- 
uted over a distance equal to the circum- 
ference of the driving wheels, and this is 
the distance the engine moves for one rev- 
olution. Here it is 15.708 ft. The wheel 
turns 336.13 times in one mile. This 



40 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1918 



tractive effort of 27,200 lbs. we said was 
assumed to be developed when the engine 
was in the act of starting, and when it 
had no speed and practically no motion. 

Suppose that a weight of 27,200 lbs. to 
be attached by a steel cable to the draw- 
bar of the tender and carried back over 
a frictionless pulley, so that the weight 
hangs down over a cliff behind the engine, 
and disregarding for the time being the 
internal friction of the engine and tender, 
we should find this engine quite able to 
balance the weight, and we must make 
one of those curious assumptions a person 
is often called upon to make in mathe- 
matics and say that the engine drew up 
this weight at no velocity at all. That is 
practically impossible, but it enables us to 
think of the engine winning in this tug-of- 
war, so infinitely slowly that it just the- 
oretically wins and no more. 

Now, going on to what we call work, in 
the mathematical sense of pressure acting 
through distance, the engine is not doing 
any, as long as it practically only balances 
the weight of 27,200 lbs. When the move- 
ment becomes apparent and measureable, 
then it is work. When the time element 
is introduced — that is, when a definite 
amount of work is done in a specified 
time — we have horse power. One H. P. is 
equal to 33,000 lbs. raised one foot in one 
minute. We have just been considering 
an engine with a calculated tractive power 



of 27,200 lbs. and at every revolution of 
the driving wheels the engine advances 
15.708 ft. The wheels revolve 336.13 times 
to cover a mile, and they do this whether 
the engine is running fast or slow, no 
more, no less. In order to lift the weight 
15.708 ft. the engine would have to de- 
velop 427,257.6 foot-pounds of work. If 
done in one minute it would require 
12.9441 H. P. 

This brings us to the point where it is 
evident that there is a reason why an in- 
crease in H. P. is brought about when 
the engine is run at higher speeds. At 
high speeds steam is cut off early in the 
stroke, and a good deal less steam is used 
at each stroke, for this reason — the mean 
effective pressure on the road is far less 
than used just at the start. This does 
not at first sight look reasonable, but as 
a matter of fact it is true. Suppose the 
engine is traveling at about 40 miles an 
hour, with reverse lever notched up near 
the center, and early and short cut-off 
brings the M. E. P. down to say 75 lbs. 
We find by calculation that the H. P. 
under these circumstances has gone up 
very considerably under the comparatively 
light steam pressure, and using the trac- 
tive effort formula we find the tractive 
effort has correspondingly gone down. 
The apparent anomaly disappears when 
we remember that the fast moving engine 
receives in its cylinders, a scanty supply of 



steam, much oftener per minute, and if 
one may so say, what steam does come in 
enters in a heavy gush at the beginning of 
the stroke, is quickly cut off, and eventu- 
ally brings back-pressure down to a small 
figure, as the steam easily clears itself 
through the exhaust. 

To prove this by figures, say the mean 
effective pressure has gone down to say 
75 lbs. At 40 miles an hour the engine 
passes over 3,520 ft. in one minute. Each 
revolution of the driving wheel developed 
12.9441 H. P. (say 12.95) and at 40 miles 
an hour, or 3520 ft., it developed 7,600,158 
foot-pounds, or 230.3007 H. P. At this 
speed with M. E. P. at 75 lbs. the calcu- 
lated tractive effort is 12,000 lbs. instead 
of 27,200 as it was at the very start, but 
the H. P. has gone up from 12.95 to 
230.3007 H. P. It is evident from this rea- 
soning that a locomotive could not sustain 
its maximum tractive effort at anything 
but a pace so slow that it may be practi- 
cally disregarded. The tractive effort or 
starting power or draw-bar pull is really 
a mathematical abstraction, but it forms a 
convenient method of comparing one or 
more engines together. Our calculations 
here give us a good hint as to why an 
ample boiler with good steaming qualities 
is able to do such work amid the arduous 
conditions imposed in modern railway 
service, where tractive effort has practical- 
ly no velocity and H. P. has high speed. 



Telephoning to a Moving Train 

Train Cannot Get Beyond Hope of Recall — A "Lap Order" Can Be Annulled Before 

Too Late — Connection to Rails by Wheels to Car — Anyone, Anywhere 

with Telephone Can Reach a Moving Train 



There have been many instances in the 
past where a railroad train-dispatcher 
was the one-man power on the road, and 
some of the most melancholy and dis- 
astrous wrecks occurred by the issuance 
of what is familiarly called a "lap order." 
This mistaken form of train-dispatching 
consisted in giving the same right of way 
to two opposing trains at the same time. 
For instance, authorizing a train at A, to 
run to B; and simultaneously permitting 
the train at B, to start out on the road 
for A. Instances have been recorded 
where the train-dispatcher has discovered 
his mistake before the opposing trains 
actually collided, and heart-rending 
scenes have been enacted in the little of- 
fice, when frantic calls to stations A and 
B revealed the desperately tragic condi- 
tion that the trains had both gone, and 
were beyond the reach of human help. 
No stage-made tragedy can ever shadow 
forth the appalling situation of such a 
dispatcher, as he contemplates the de- 
struction and death which must shortly 
follow. He stands there, powerless to 



help, with the full realization that he 
has raised up a monstrous Frankenstein 
which he cannot overcome. 
Many ingenious appliances have been 




CONNECTION FROM RAIL TO WHEEL 

AND SO TO THE CAR. CANADIAN 

GOVERNMENT RAILWAYS. 

brought out with the object of prevent- 
ing a moving train from ever getting be- 
yond communication. Signals controlled 
by the dispatcher, automatic block signals, 
stop signals and interlocking signals prob- 
ably represent the best methods of insur- 



ing safety today, but a step forward seems 
to have been made, whereby the telephone 
has been called into requisition to carry 
information without producing any forced 
halt, like the stop signal. Information, 
trivial or highly important, can be given 
by telephone and the necessary connec- 
tion can be made by the central office 
of any city telephone system from any 
point where a telephone is to be found. 

The fact that there are such states as 
temporary lapses of the memory, which 
may come to a man or that distractions 
may break the continuity of a definite 
line of thought; are conditions which are 
beginning to reach the serious conscious- 
ness of the railway general manager. 
They are truths old as the hills, but are 
now well established. To disregard 
them is to court dancer. This fact can- 
not be successfully disputed. 

One of the many inventions, or in thil 
case applications, of existing facilities to 
this important function of directly com- 
municating with a moving train from the 
dispatcher's office, or from any other of- 



February, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



41 



fice on the line, or from a house in the 
city or town, or from one moving train 
to another, is the system put in use by 
the Macfarlane Train Control and Tele- 
phone Company. This system also per- 
mits telephoning to be done from one 
end of a train to the other or to any 
part of the train. The conversation may 
be held as easily as from house to house. 
The tone of the voice is just as clear as 
with the telephone on a city circuit. One 
cannot tell that the train is moving, as 
far as the sound in the instrument is con- 
cerned. Telephoning under any circum- 
stances is not spectacular but when ap- 
plied to train movement it is exceedingly 
useful; in fact, the art rises to the level 
of a splendid safety appliance. 

We are able to reproduce some photo- 
graphs for the benefit of our readers. 
The system has been applied to a part 
of the Intercolonial Railway, by the 
Canadian Government and appears to 
give every satisfaction. The main feat- 
ures of the system are quite clearly dis- 
closed in the half-tones. They show the 
way in which the apparatus is attached, 
and that the only connection with the 
rails is through the wheels; they might 
show, but do not, that there are no wear- 
ing parts in connection with the appa- 
ratus. It is so simple that it can be in- 
stalled on any car in three hours and 
at a relatively low expense. The bene- 



operated as well as installed independent- 
ly and three conversations may be held 
with the train while it is in motion, even 
when at a speed of sixty miles an hour. 
The telephone apparatus enables train 
dispatchers, tower men, etc., to get into 
instant communication with trains while 
they are moving. 

The train telephone saves a good deal 




CONNECTION FROM OFFICE TO POST 

AND TO TRACK, CANADIAN 

GOVERNMENT RAILWAYS. 

of time and trouble in transmitting mes- 
sages to freight trains, and in foggy 
weather enables the engineer and caboose 
men of a freight train to keep in touch 
with each other, even if a drawhead pulls 
out and the caboose is in one block and 




TELEPHONING A MOVING TRAIN— MAN IN OFFICE COMMUNICATING WITH A 
MAN ox A FAST MOVING TRAIN. CANADIAN GOVERNMENT RAILWAYS. 



fits to be derived from it far outweigh 
the small first cost. 

There is one advantage that goes with 
a government owned road, and that is 
that experiments can now and then be 
tried under suitable authority, by the ex- 
penditure of a little public money. Of 
course this advantage is always liable to 
abuse, but so far there has been no out- 
cry that the thing has been overtone on 
the Intercolonial. The telephone may be 



the engine in another. If connection is 
made with the regular Bell telephone sys- 
tem, trains, can be put in communication 
with any Bell telephone subscriber. Im- 
agine paying a reasonable fee and speak- 
ing to a member of your family about a 
matter which had suddenly developed, al- 
though that member of the family had 
already been gone half a day. You can 
get an answer instantly and the decisive 
"yes'' or "no"' is vours at once. 



However convenient, or whether spec- 
tacular or not, telephoning to a moving 
train by one in authority, concerning its 
movement or right of way, is always a 
matter of the greatest importance, and 
in emergency it may be of superlative 
concern to those on board. The tele- 
phone may not prevent a lapse of mem- 
ory or a distraction from casting the 
shadow of doom upon an ill-starred 
train, but the telephone provides a most 
efficient method of promptly rectifying a 
mistake, before it is too late. The train 
is never beyond the reach of help. It can 
never be unwillingly abandoned to its 
fate. 



Peat Fuel 

Mr. F. B. Haanel, chief of the division 
of fuels and fuel-saving departments of 
mines, Ottawa, says that Canada has an 
enormous reserve of fuel lying undevel- 
oped in her peat bogs, which are situ- 
ated mainly in Ontario and Quebec. 
The mention in the past of peat fuel to 
people of Canada or the United States 
recalled to their minds the story of the 
financial failure of company after com- 
pany which promised great things at the 
start, but which, in turn, ended in the 
same way, the money spent and no cheap 
fuel supplied. Today the story is differ- 
ent. The Federal department of mines 
has demonstrated that a cheap and satis- 
factory fuel for all domestic purposes, 
as well as for many metallurgical opera- 
tions, can be manufactured from the peat 
bogs of the country. 

The success of the peat fuel industry 
in this country, or in any country, de- 
pends upon the employment of known 
and tried methods of manufacture by 
qualified engineers, specially trained in 
this particular line of work. The manu- 
facture of peat fuel is a successful in- 
dustry in many European countries, where 
they employ but one method, namely, the 
"wet process." The wet process is the 
one recommended by the department of 
mines, and is the only one in successful 
operation today. 

Peat fuel, as it occurs in nature, says 
Mr. Haanel, contains 80 to 90 per cent, of 
water. This water content must be re- 
duced to between 25*and 35 per cent, be- 
fore the peat can be placed on the market 
as a commercial fuel. The use of pres- 
sure or artificial heat, or both together, 
has always proved a failure for reasons 
both physical and financial. The wet 
process employs the sun and wind to dry 
the wet peat as received from the bog; 
both these agents are ever ready and 
cost not a cent for their use. 

There is every indication that the mat- 
ter will be taken up with a degree of effi- 
ciency, and with sufficient means to guar- 
antee the successful utilization of the peat 
deposits and that its large use will be 
speedily established, 



42 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1918 



Efficiency on the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 

New Equipment — Advantages of Using Oil Fuel — Details of the Construction and Repair 

of Oil Burning Appliances 



In the present congestion of railroad 
traffic incident to the extraordinary de- 
mands made upon the management, it is 
gratifying to observe that there are quite 
a number of the leading railroads meeting 
the situation with a degree of efficiency 
that is altogether admirable. Among these 
the Santa Fe is particularly prominent, 
and it must not be imagined that because 
this great road is largely beyond the 
Mississippi that it has not felt the pres- 
sure of traffic due to war conditions as 
much as the Eastern roads have felt it. 
There is little shipping on the Pacific 
Coast for the Atlantic ports, resulting, of 
course, in greatly increased tonnage by 



ever, were of brief duration, and there 
would have been no shortage at any time 
if the connecting lines had been able to 
return the cars promptly, or had there 
been ships enough to receive that which 
the company was prepared to deliver. 

The reports show that the company has 
made heavy expenditures for rolling stock, 
motive power and other forms of equip- 
ment. Orders were placed last year for 
130 of the heaviest type of locomotives, 
70 of which were of the 2-8-2 type, 10 
of the 4-8-2 type, 20 of the 4-6-2 type, and 
thirty of the duplex Mallet, or 2-10-2 type. 
The average weight of these locomotives 
is about 325,000 lbs. All are equipped 



railroad system the improvements in con- 
struction work are particularly marked. 
New concrete roundhouses have sprung 
up all along the line, with engine pits and 
flooring smooth as pavement. Almost 
every known kind of mechanical equip- 
ment is in polished profusion, and a spirit 
of intelligent activity and fraternal feeling 
is manifested in all ranks, even to the 
humble but trustworthy track walker. 
They who have eyes to see may behold 
him in the dead and silent night with his 
vigilant eye directed toward the landslide, 
the washout, the broken rail, with war- 
time additional terrors of concealed at- 
tack — the explosion, the stab in the dark. 



i- 


- 1 * 

^ . * 






. 4 


1 'V-, • . 




:v 


ft Jb 


- s -■: 


• 








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mam 




- 


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THE CALIFORNIA LIMITED OX THE ATCHISON, TOPEKA AND SANTA FE RAILWAY. 



rail. In Arizona and New Mexico the 
copper and zinc industries have had ab- 
normal stimulation, and the demand for 
foodstuffs has produced large prices for a 
heavy grain crop. The oil industry has 
felt the interruption of supplies from Old 
World sources, and the enormous in- 
crease in the use of gasoline continues to 
stimulate that industry to an abnormal 
extent. The largest passenger traffic in 
the railroad's history has also been carried 
to the Pacific from points east of the Rio 
Grande. The growing popularity of 
Southern California as a resort and play- 
ground in both summer and winter is 
enormous, and at no time has there been 
any shortage of equipment with the ex- 
ception of box cars. Such times, how- 



with superheaters, brick arches and out- 
side forms of valve gear, mostly of the 
YYalschaerts type. In regard to freight 
cars, 2,430 have been ordered during the 
year, and this equipment is being rapidly 
delivered and placed in service. 

Much of the tine degree of preparedness 
and continued spirit of enterprise has 
been owing to the masterly management 
of Mr. E. P. Ripley, the worthy president 
of the Santa Fe system. While his work 
has been largely in the operating depart- 
ment, his studious and trained mind has 
mastered all of the engineering problems 
of railroad work. Polished by Eastern 
education and broadened by the vastness 
of Western enterprise, he is an excellent 
railroad president. All along the great 



the unimaginable but suspected stroke of 
[right ulni His aim is to guarantee a 

clear and unbroken track for the railway 
traffic on schedule; when the engine 
attendant :it the division points, mud- 
beplastered and smoke-begrimed, working 
unde neath tanks from which embryo ice- 
bergs as big as blacksmiths' anvils are 
suspended, • working like iron puddlers 
underneath -d-hot fireboxes, with a gale 
far o sweeping over their chilled 

I" i'li . they toil uncomplaining and alone. 
Of such material men are made ; men 
who rise to the occasion when the call 
ci Ml e thousand of them are now 

in battle harness, among them three are 
now 1 ■ nt-colonels, 94 commissioned 

officers, and volunteering or drafted are 



February, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



43 



2,903. Those who return after setting the 
Huns right will find the Santa Fe glad to 
receive them. 

This leads us to observe that a decided 
advantage has accrued to the Santa Fe and 
other Western roads by the use of oil fuel, 
and the apparently inexhaustible supply 
of the oil has engaged the attention of the 
leading railway men, and, as may be ex- 
pected, a variety of devices, or rather a 
number of variations of the same general 
method of providing appliances for the 
burning of the oil, have come into use, 
and a brief description of these with the 
addition of some of the latest changes 
and improvements that are being made, 
cannot fail to be of interest at this time. 

In the matter of the repairing of these 
appliances it may be briefly stated at the 
outset that the repairing that may prop- 
erly be classified under the heading of 
running repairs consists chiefly in main- 
taining the brick arch work which is an 
essential feature of the appliances in oil 
burning locomotives. The best kind of 
fire-brick in use rapidly deteriorates in 
the great heat to which it is submitted, 
the wasting of the brick being more rapid 
than in the fire-brick arches that are in 
use in coal burning locomotives, and the 
danger to the lower parts of the fire-box 
from exposure, in the event of portions of 
the brick work falling away, is con- 
sequently great — the average period of 
service of parts of the brick work not 
exceeding three weeks in the case of 
locomotives that are in constant service. 

Fortunately the fire-boxes of coal burn- 
ing locomotives lend themselves readily 
to oil fuel consumption. On some rail- 
ways the changes necessary have been 
made with a degree of rapidity that 
seems surprising, and in districts where 
oil fuel is plentiful and consequently 
cheap, and where coal is high priced on 
account of having to be conveyed con- 
siderable distances, the saving in almost 
every instance has been considerable. In 
this regard it may be stated that a gen- 
eral comparison between the prices of oil 
fuel may be obtained by estimating the 
price of oil at two-and-one-tenths of a 
cent per gallon, and taking the comparison 
between oil and coal on the generally ac- 
cepted basis that 200 gallons of oil is 
equal in calorific quality to one ton of 
coal. It will thus be seen that coal cost- 
ing $4.20 a ton would be equal to the 
price of that amount of oil required to 
produce the same quantity of heat. The 
work necessary in handling the material 
is much less in the case of oil, and if the 
price of coal is higher than the figure 
quoted, it can be seen that there is an 
economical advantage to be gained by 
the use of oil as fuel. In regard to the 
steaming qualities of the locomotives all 
authorities agree that the oil fuel, properly 
managed, produces better results than the 
best coal. This is not to lie wondered at, 
as the almost complete absence of matter 



that may be said to be non-combustible, 
and which is always present in greater or 
lesser quantities in coal is almost entirely 
absent in even the lower grades of crude 
oil. 

In making the necessary changes from 
a coal burning to an oil burning loco- 
motive the grates and side bearings on 
which the grates rest are removed and a 
cast-iron plate is put in 5 or 6 ins. below 
the mud ring and extends over the entire 
space covered by the fire-box. There is 
generally three openings in this plate 
measuring 9 x 15 ins., one opening being 
near the front end of the fire-box the 
next in the centre and the third opening 
near the back of the fire-box under the 
fire-box door. The ash pan and dampers 
may be left as they were. The cast-iron 
plate is entirely covered by fire-bricks in 
order to protect it from the intense heat 
of the burning oil. On this brick founda- 



two or three separate arches — a short 
arch in front measuring 3 ft. in length, 
another arch under the fire-box door one- 
and-a-half feet in length, and an over- 
hanging arch centrally located, 2 ft. in 
length, and occupying a central position a 
tew inches higher than the other two 
arches. The dimensions and location of 
these separate arches have been a matter 
of much experiment among railway men, 
the aim being to obtain the most perfect 
combustion by causing the oil fuel to de- 
flect against several masses of heated fire- 
brick thereby insuring the combination of 
the inflammable oil before passing to the 
flues. 

The oil tanks are located in the pit of 
the water tank and the oil, before being in- 
jected into the firebox is heated usually by 
a coiled pipe passing through the oil tank. 
This pipe may have its connection with 
the dome or steam chamber on the boiler 




a^^r ^I3h^f-~>i 



Ho/cs 
Dear 



DETAILS OF FRONT END BURNER FURNACE, ATCHISON. TOPEKA & SANTA FE. 



tion a wall of fire-brick is built reaching 
as high as the level of the bottom flues in 
front, and nearly as high as that of the 
fire-box door along the sides and back 
fire-box sheet. The thickness of the fire- 
bricks is usually 5 ins. The three open- 
ings are not covered by fire-bricks, their 
purpose being to admit the amount of air 
necessary for combustion. It may be 
added that the cast-iron plate forming the 
bottom of the fire-box has sides attached 
to it securely filling the space between the 
bottom of the firebox and the mud ring. 

A brick arch resting securely upon the 
side walls of brick, and extending across 
the lire box from side to side and begin- 
ning at the front end of the fire-box and 
reaching backwards about 4 ft, the part 
of the arch nearest the firebox door being 
about 18 ins. higher than the front part 
near the flues. This brick arch is perhaps 
the most variable appliance used in the 
apparatus, sometimes taking the form of 



head, and in some cases the steam passing: 
through the pipe is conveyed back to the 
boiler through adjustable valves and 
nozzles as in the case of the action of the 
injector. In others an escape valve is 
opened sufficiently to allow a small jet of 
steam to pass into the air. The proper 
degree of temperature to which the oil 
should be heated to produce the best re- 
sults has been carefully determined and 
the variations are incident to the degree 
of thickness of the oil, the thickest kinds 
of oil should be heated to a temperature 
of berweea 150 and 170 degs. F. Tbe 
thinner oils from 100 to 120 degs. F. 
The temperature should be carefully ob- 
served and a measuring rod may be 
readily suspended in the forward tank 
nearest to the fire-box. The general 
method of heating the oil is to open wide 
the steam valve and heat the oil readily 
and when the proper degree of heat has 
been reached the valve mav be shut, and 



44 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1918 



another application made when necessary. 
Climatic conditions readily suggest the 
applications necessary. The openings on 
the top- of the oil tanks should be allowed 
to remain open except when the tanks are 
entirely full when there may be a danger 
of splashing. It is hardly necessary to 
add that lighted torches should be kept 
away from these openings. 

The apparatus for injecting the heated 
oil into the fire-box is located under the 
mud ring on a line with the centre of the 
fire-box. The atomizer is a simple in- 



yl" Oil Pipe 



equipped with oil burners it is necessary 
that steam or compressed air pressure 
should be applied. These can usually be 
supplied at the starting points on rail- 
roads, and when greasy waste or other 
inflammable material is placed in the fire- 
box and lighted the valves should be 
slowdy opened and the oil will readily 
ignite. As there is almost always some 
water in crude oil there is a danger of 
the fire going out and the oil may, if 
permitted, continue to run into the fire- 
box before the brick work has been suf- 




\j\ „ ! ar#f> / UirPipe 



-m 

SHEEDY OIL BURNER. 



jector having a pipe connecting with the 
oil tank, the pipe being attached a short 
distance above the bottom of the tank in 
order to avoid conveying water with the 
oil, the oil generally being lighter than 
water, the water finds its way to the bot- 
tom of the tank where there are means 
applied to drain it off. In addition to the 
oil pipe there is also an air pipe, the oil 
pipe and air pipe being VA ins. in 
diameter. A steam pipe Vi in. in diameter 
connected to the boiler, leads into a hol- 
low cylinder surrounded by another cyl- 
inder, the apparatus being of sufficient 



ficiently heated to ignite the oil, the fact 
should be carefully noted, as a consider- 
able flow of oil into the pan might cause 
a serious explosion while relighting. The 
quenching of the fire by the mixture of 
water may readily be detected by the ap- 
pearance of white smoke coming out of the 
smoke stack. The odor arising from the 
oil on the partially heated brick work is 
also a ready means of detection. 

The firing up of oil-burning locomotives 
where there is no available pressure must 
be done in the usual way with sufficient 
wood to raise a pressure of steam, in 




-IZi 



1%. Pipe to Feed Coch 



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Material Brass. 



I 32 



Oil 



%ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ2ZmZZZZZZZZZZ2 
i 7 » Steam ^ 




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VON BODEN-INGLES OIL BURNER. 



length to extend from the outer wall of 
the boiler to which it may be conveniently 
attached inward beyond the hiud ring and 
brick work into the fire-box. The inner 
cylinder has a small opening and the 
outer cylinder has a larger opening paral- 
lel to each other, and so adjusted at an 
angle carefully calculated so that when 
the valves with which the pipes are fitted 
are opened the jet of steam will project 
the spray of oil against the inner centre 
of the slanting arch to which we have 
already alluded. 

In starting the fire in locomotives 



which case care should be taken not to 
damage the brick work by throwing wood 
carelessly into the fire-box. The front 
end appliances are the same as in coal 
burning locomotives, with the exception 
that there is no need of netting or other 
spark-arresting devices. The omission of 
the netting calls for extra care at the 
time when a fire of wood has sufficiently 
heated the water so that a pressure of 
steam may be applied to the oil-burning 
device. A shower of sparks may then be 
expected and it is well to observe that 
there is no valuable material in the vicin- 



ity. Generally speaking the oil-burning 
locomotives are entirely free from the evil 
of starting fires in their vicinity. 

A peculiarity in the burning of oil fuel 
is the tendency of the flues to collect a 
gummy substance on the ends that pro- 
ject into the lire-box, and even with the 
most careful management of the fuel and 
no appearance of smoke soot will ac- 
cumulate in the flues. In coal burning 
engines the cinders and particles of coal 
which are drawn with considerable force 
through the flues tend to prevent the ac- 
cumulation of soot. In oil-burning en- 
gines there is no such cleansing quality in 
the fuel but the defect is easily remedied 
by an occasional application of sand. 
This is usually admitted into the fire-box 
through an elbow-shaped funnel inserted 
through an opening in the fire-box door, 
when a quantity of sand is admitted in 
this way, it is well that the engine should 
be running with a long stroke of the 
valves, and the throttle should be opened 
wide. The strong exhaust will draw the 
sand through the flues with such velocity 
that the gum and soot will be cleaned 
with a few blasts. Much of the success 
that has attended the introduction of oil 
fuel in locomotives has been the in- 
telligent harmony that has existed be- 
tween the engineers and firemen in work- 
ing together. The handle of the oil-supply 
valve is as important a factor in the 
management of the fire as the throttle or 
reverse lever is in the control of the 
engine, and when both are worked skil- 
fully together the result leaves little to 
be desired. 

As was stated at the outset the devices 
are numerous and their applications are 
various. In some locomotives the oil- 
injecting apparatus, or atomizer as it is 
called, is placed in the front end of the 
fire-box and the spray is injected back- 
ward under a system of fire-brick work 
suited to that direction. It is claimed that 
the oil fuel thus being driven in a direc- 
tion away from the flues the opportunities 
for complete combustion of the fuel be- 
fore the unburned particles of the spray 
can reach the flues is greater than when 
the oil is projected towards the flues. 
The advantages, however, appear to be 
more imaginary than real, as the change 
of position of the appliances has not 
changed the consumption of oil to any 
mafkod devree. 



Casehardening. 

A quick method for case hardening con- 
sists in beating the material to be hard- 
ened to a red heat and submerging it in 
a bath of molten cyanide of potassium, 
leaving it from one to five hours, accord- 
ing to the size of the article to be hard- 
ened. Cyanide of potassium gives off 
poisonous fumes, consequently the vessel 
containing it should be placed in a fur- 
nace with a draught. 



February, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



45 



Oxy-Acetylene and Electric Welding 



At a recent meeting of the Canadian 
Railway Club, held at the Windsor Hotel, 
Montreal, Mr. A. F. Dyer, general fore- 
man, welding department, Grand Trunk 
Railway, Montreal, read a paper on the 
subject of "Oxy-Acetylene and Electric 
Welding and Cutting Processes in Loco- 
motive Works," in the course of which 
Mr. Dyer stated that the processes have 
proved themselves fitly to be ranked 
among the greatest time and labor savers, 
and also money savers, introduced for a 
long period. For instance, in the not very 
distant past, a locomotive with a broken 
frame was due for a period of several 
clays in the shops before they could strip 
down one side and remove the frame to 
the smith's shop, weld it and perhaps have 
it machined and then replaced. Now we 
drop the pair of wheels which may cover 
the break, cut out the crack with the cut- 
ting torch to the shape of a double V 
at an angle of 90 degress, clean off the 
oxide caused by cutting and weld up with 
the metal electrode, using soft steel or 
Swedish iron. A frame 4 in. or S in. being 
cut and welded in under 14 hours, and it 
can be done in less time by having two 
operators on the frame at once, but the 
men do not like facing each other's arcs, 
as when they are changing the filling 
rods their eyes get sore. 

Frames, when worn by brake gear and 
stays, are built up and worn holes are 
plugged and welded instead of reaming 
them out to a larger size and thereby 
weakening the frame. In rebuilding and 
superheating engines, the same boilers are 
seldom used on their original frames, 
and in very few cases do the various 
holes in angle irons, furnace bearers, etc., 
come into alignment with frames or 
hoilers, these holes are welded up and re- 
drilled. 

The present price of tool steel demands 
that none shall be wasted, therefore we 
use it down to the last inch by welding 
it to tire steel. Twist drills, taps and 
reamers when broken near the socket end 
are welded and put into use again. For 
this purpose we use either the electrode 
or gas, but in both cases we use vanadium 
steel filling rods, as we find this gives the 
best results. Spokes of driving wheels 
are welded and flat spots on tires have 
been successfully welded up when it was 
necessary to do so. 

Up to now we have not had much suc- 
cess on cast iron with the iron electrode 
although with the carbon you can make a 
fair job, but the gas is unquestionably 
the best for any of this material. We 
have successfully welded with the gas, 
steam shovel engine frames, slides and 
cylinders by welding in patches of cast 
iron where worn or broken. When our 
contract for shells was completed and the 
lathes that were used for this purpose 



were being overhauled, it was found that 
most of the V slide beds were worn down 
by the tool carriers. These were built up 
with the gas, which saved machining 
these beds down in man cases Y& in. 

In regard to boiler work, most of the 
welding is done with the iron electrode 
using a mild steel or Swedish iron as a 
filler, it is found that the electric process 
localizes the heat more so than the gas, 
though it is the writer's humble opinion 
that the gas makes a closer and neater 
weld, as all welds made by the electrode 
are more or less porous unless hammered 
up. It pays better whenever possible to 
do so to put quarter or half sides .in 
order to get out of the fire line in prefer- 
ence to putting in a patch, for, as a rule, 
however well the patch is welded it gen- 
erally gives out in from twelve to eighteen 
months' service, and the same applies to 
cracks, whereas the half or quarter side 
should last as long as the firebox. 

When a nest of small cracks is found 
round the staybolts, the bolts are re- 
moved and the holes countersunk and 
welded up. This method has been found 
to be very successful. 

For cutting steel and wrought iron the 
oxy-acetylene process has practically no 
competitior, it being impossible with the 
carbon point to cut as fast or as fine and 
neatly as the gas torch, although for 
scrapping fireboxes and frames, the car- 
bon point is cheaper if time is no object 
and labor cheap. 

No roundhouse should be without an 
oxy-acetylene outfit, both for repair work 
and as a part of the wrecking outfit. Many 
days are lost by engines being tied up 
through parts having to be sent to the 
nearest big shops for repair, which could 
be repaired on the spot with a welding 
and cutting outfit. All large roundhouses 
should have both processes, as they would 
pay for themselves over and over again. 

There are many different opinions as to 
which is the best process, no shop is com- 
plete unless it has both equipments, al- 
though the gas has really the widest range 
but, on the other hand, a heavy piece of 
steel or iron needs no pre-heating with 
the electrode but welding can be com- 
menced as soon as your arc is drawn, 95 
per cent of the failures which occur in- 
stead of being laid on the process should 
be placed on the shoulders of the opera- 
tors. 

Welding should not be treated as a side 
line of the machinists' or boilermakers' 
business, but should be treated as a trade 
in itself, as it really is. for it needs the 
entire concentration of a man's mind, 
careful study, plenty of practice and a 
conscientious man to make a welder. 

Wherever possible a separate building 
or suitable space should lie provided for 
bench work, and should be equipped with 



a suitable furnace for heating and anneal- 
ing castings, and also plenty of floor room 
to allow of charcoal fires being built for 
preheating cast iron jobs for welding. 

An unusually interesting discussion fol- 
lowed the reading of Mr. Dyer's paper, 
in the course of which Mr. Barry of the 
Oxy-Acetylene Company, said that the 
company's work came from all over the 
country, from the smaller roads, such as 
lumber roads, and contractors' outfits, and 
the like. They ran up against anything 
and everything and it is interesting to see 
what they have accomplished when it comes 
to acetylene and electric welding. Now. 
if you wish you can weld fireboxes com- 
plete with either the acetylene or electric 
welding. It is quite immaterial which 
process you use, and of course, the acety- 
lene operator will claim that his process 
is the best, but he does not know any- 
thing about electric welding. Both pro- 
cesses have their advantages, and you can 
use both. In using the oxy-acetylene 
process on fireboxes we have tried the 
butt weld, and the result looks fine, but on 
account of the chance of the operator be- 
ing careless the lap weld is best. I beg 
to differ from Mr. Dyer, as by putting a 
lap weld in fireboxes, especially in the 
corners, you can reinforce as heavily as 
you like, and we have found more success 
with the lap weld than with the butt weld, 
but there is no doubt that in welding side 
sheets to crown sheets or in the corners 
of fireboxes, either the butt or lap weld 
can be used. It depends upon the opera- 
tor. The same thing applies' to steel tank 
work. Many years ago we started in the 
manufacture of steel tanks, and my ex- 
perience was that the lap weld was best. 
You can reinforce it, and make two welds 
as against one in the butt weld. Electric 
welding is also applicable to tank work. 

Mr. Rover said that he had seen men 
calling themselves welders, keeping the 
flame of their blowpipe at one spot, and 
fusing the welding rod in the crack to be 
welded. 

It stands to reason that at that one 
spot the metal was liable to be too hot 
while the surrounding parts were too cold 
for proper welding. A good welder should 
keep his blowpipe moving all the time, so 
as to distribute the heat evenly at the 
point he is welding and bringing in fusion 
at the same time the two edges of the 
chamfer and the added welding rod. 

There is no doubt that a considerable 
amount of boiler work can be done very 
satisfactorily, if the men are properly 
trained, however discrimination should 
be exercised in boiler work, in using only 
le welders in jobs where failure 
would be dangerous, and apprentices can 
be used on parts where failure will not 
produce accidents. 

Other speakers also strongly favored 
the use of both oxy-acetylene and electric 
equipment. 



46 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1918 



Home Shops on the B. & 0. Turn Out Refrigerator Cars 

New Features in the Design — Insulation Layers Without Air Spaces Between — 
Collapsible Ice Tanks 70,000 lbs. Capacity, Hold 15,000 lbs. of Ice 



The general design shows three layers 
of '/i-in. hair felt in the sides and ends 
and four layers in the ceiling. This was 
the original method of insulation used in 
the first lot of this class of car. This was 
later increased to four layers in the sides 
and six in the ceiling, as shown in the 
cross-section. The cars are all equipped 
with collapsible ice tanks of the Bohn 
type, which have been arranged with wire 
netting applied so as to give 2 ins. air 
space between the sides and the ends of 
the car and netting, except at the top of 
the sides where it has been cut short to 
permit free movement of the bulkhead to 
the upper position. 

The bulkhead is insulated with 1 in. cork 
board, secured between a layer of y 2 in. 



an advantage, but the real heat resisting 
value is not on account of its inflammabil- 
ity, but because it contains countless mi- 
nute air spaces formed in the asbestos 
paste and heat finds these small gaps most 
difficult to pass over or through. The ap- 
plication here made to these B. & O. 
refrigerator cars is based on this very 
principle. 

A good circulation of cold air is main- 
tained. The bulkhead of the ice chamber 
is solid with good sized openings at the 
top and bottom, and wooden racks are in- 
terposed between the floor and the perish- 
able contents. To get the greatest good 
from the ice, a wire netting holds the ice 
away from the ends and sides of the car. 
so that very little heat is abstracted by the 



sills, spaced 12^ ins. apart ; bottom 
flanges at the rear of draft sill are con- 
nected to the center sill flanges by rivets 
passing through the flanges and tied to- 
gether at the bottom by pressed steel 
tollower guides. Center sills tied at the 
body bolster with cast steel center plate sup- 
port and filler casting, the surfaces of 
which are smooth, true and at right angles, 
and are solidly fitted against all adjoining 
members. If the surfaces of castings are 
rough they are ground off or otherwise 
finished. The bottom of the casting must 
lie perfectly fair with bottom of the center 
sill reinforcing angles produce a per- 
fectly flat surface for supporting the body 
center plates. The flaxlinum used was 
supplied by the Northern Insulating Com- 



33B 



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am 



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3p 



13 



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3: 



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[r^im I'Long 




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fyJ$Wqod : 5crems,lzLon£ /p'4 l - 



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RACK FLOOR FOE BALTIMORE & OHIO REFRIGERATOR CAR. 



and a layer of 13/16 in. lining. Openings 
are left at the top and bottom to induce 
circulation. The cold air is led out under 
the floor racks which are hinged to the 
floor. These cars are of 70,000 lbs. capac- 
ity and are equipped with steel under- 
names and 5x9 ins. second-hand trucks. 
The latter were previously removed from 
dismantled steel hopper cars. The capacity 
of the ice tanks is 15,000 lbs. of ordinary 
chunk ice. These cars were built en- 
tirely at the shops of the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad, with the exception of the 
steel underframes; these were supplied 
by the Ralston Steel Car Company. 

The object of the modification of the 
usual method of insulation where definite 
air spaces are provided, is the realization 
that the effective dead air spaces reside in 
the insulation itself. Boiler covering made 
of asbestos and plastered on a boiler does 
not have any special insulating value be- 
cause it will not scorch or burn. That is 



walls. Air easily circulates around the 
ice. The bulkhead is also insulated so as 
not to carry heat to the ice. The insulated 
bulkhead largely prevents the deposition 
of moisture which is likely to damage 
perishable material placed so as to touch 
the bulkhead. 

The sides and ends of these cars are 
made of several layers, as follows : Inside 
lining 13/16 ins. Oregon fir. Two layers 
approved make of fibrous insulating paper, 
saturated with an asphaltum bitumen. 
Three layers of l /z in. flaxlinum or linofelt 
as approved, and of substantial material, 
free from low volatile compounds and 
other undesirable matter. This material is 
strong, tough, slightly flexible and not 
easily breakable. Three layers of J^ in. 
cork board, free from low volatile com- 
pounds and other undesirabile matter. It 
is strong, tough and slightly flexible. 

The center and side sills are made of 
open hearth steel plates and shapes. Draft 



pany of St. Paul, Minn., and the linofelt 
came from the factory of the Union Fiber 
Company of Winona, Minn. 

The process of melting ice for re- 
frigerating purposes is practically the op- 
posite of burning fuel for heat. Long ago 
the plant from which coal comes largely 
gave out oxygen and took up carbonic 
acid. Burning coal today re-unites the 
formerly discarded oxygen with the car- 
bon. In the other case the formation of 
ice necessitates the giving up of heat in 
large quantity and in order to melt the ice 
heat is again taken up by the ice and this 
it draws from all substances around. Salt 
is often added to melt the ice more 
quickly, just as good draught and very in- 
flammable fuel makes the fire burn harder. 
The theory of insulation is to make the 
passage of heat more difficult from those 
things we do not want to cool, and this 
makes the melting ice draw the necessary 
heat from the perishable contents of the 



February, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



47 



car, and those are the things we want to 
make and keep cold. 

The side doors are carefully looked 
after. Special care has been taken to 
properly fit the doors to the bevel of the 
lintel and threshold, chalking the threshold 
plate as a guide in fitting. The doors are 
made true and parallel to the door posts. 
Stiles and rails are of Oregon fir. Sheath- 
ing, lining and insulation of doors are the 
same as side walls of car. The doors are 
hung by malleable iron hinges, secured 
with 5^-inch. of galvanized iron carriage 
bolts, heads inside and grip nuts outside. 
No nails are driven into the cap. After 
the insulation and canvas have been ap- 
plied the canvas is treated with a coating 
of hot paraffine, which fills the pores of 
the canvas and prevents moisture from 
attacking it and the insulation underneath. 
A coat of boiled linseed oil is then ap- 
plied to the edges of the doors, which are 
left to dry thoroughly before applying can- 



brake shaft, 13 ft. 10 5/16 ins.; height 
from rail to center of coupler, 2 ft. 10MS 
ins. ; distance from center to center of 
trucks, 31 ft. 8J4 ' ns -; wheel base of truck, 

5 ft. 4 ins.; center to center of journals, 

6 ft. 4 ins.; size of journals, 5 ins. by 9 
ins.; height from rail to top of floor, 4 ft. 
13/16 in.; width of side door opening, 4 
ft. ; length over end sill channels, 41 ft. 
W j ins. ; length over striking casting, 
42 ft. 8% ins. 

This car is a good example of a scien- 
tifically designed vehicle, intended for a 
special purpose, and fulfilling that purpose 
admirably. The railway company built 
it themselves in their own shop, under the 
supervision of Mr. F. H. Clark, the gen- 
eral superintendent of motive power of 
the B. & O. road. 



calculated to within 1 per cent., and the 
correction made on the rim after a trial 
run on the road. The drive is conveyed 
to a tooth-wheel pump, which forces oil 
against a piston, the rise and fall of the 
piston according to the speed of the train 
actuating the pencil. An indicator, of 
dial-face type, which may be placed in 
front of the engine driver, is also actuated, 
and a clock with pencil mechanism may 
be added which will trace a time curve on 
the chart paper. 



Railway Speed Recorder. 

An instrument that will record the 
speed of a train with some close approach 



Locomotive Headlight Law. 

July 1, 1918, has been fixed by the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission as the date 
after which the application of high-pow- 
ered headlights to all locomotives must be 
carried into effect. Two years are allowed 
to complete the equipment. The order 
calls for the application of the headlights 
on all locomotives under construction 




-jz*i 



'AirSpace 




END VIEW OF P. & O. REFRIGERATOR CAR. 



END OF SIDE, SHOWING ICE BOX. BALTIMORE & OHIO. 



vas. All tacks and nails used are galvan- 
ized. Recessed holes for the nuts on door 
rods are plugged. 

Length inside, 39 ft. 8^ ins.; length 
between ice boxes, 33 ft. % in.; length 
over sub end sills, 40 ft. 9J4 ins. ; length 
of outside over body, 40 ft. 10 ; s ins.; 
width over siding, 9 ft. 3% ins.; width 
over frame, 8 ft. 73-6 ins.; width inside, 
8 ft. 3 ins.; width at eaves, 9 ft. S l / 2 ins.; 
width over side facia, 9 ft. 7 ins. ; width 
over ice hatch doors, 8 ft. 9% ins.; 
maximum width over side ladders, 9 ft. 
9% ins.; height inside, floor to ceiling, 7 ft. 
6 ins.; height from rail to eaves, 12 ft. 2 
13/16 ins.; height from rail to top inside 
edge of hatch door, 12 ft. 8% ins. ; height 
from rail to top of running board, 12 ft. 
11 9/16 ins.; height from rail to top of 



to accuracy, showing the speed variation 
on every mile of the run, will correct 
curves of the rise and fall at all starts and 
stops, should yield data of great value to 
the engineers as well as to the drivers and 
traffic managers. All this is claimed for 
the "Boyer" recorder, made by the Chi- 
cago Pneumatic Tool Company, Fisher 
Building, Chicago, and 9, Bridge-street, 
Westminster, S.W. 1. The recording pa- 
per has vertical lines, l /2 in. apart for each 
mile, and horizontal lines J4 in. apart for 
5 miles per minute. The print of this 
record is quite easy to follow, though re- 
duced to one-third of the original size. 
The instrument is driven by a belt en- 
gaging a V-rimmed pulley fixed on an 
axle of the engine truck or a car. The 
required diameter of this pulley can be 



after that date, as well as all locomotives 
that may pass through the shops for gen- 
iral <ir heavy repairs. 



Burning Soft Coal. 
It is well not to cover the whole lire 
at (Mice. Do not load the furnace with 
coal. Do not carry the fire over twelve 
inches thick. Use the slice bar only 
when you have to ; that is seldom. Don't 
turn the fire over when slicing. By all 
means avoid holes in the fire. Cover the 
fire only where it burns out, keeping it 
level. Keep the steam jet or other blower 
on for a minute after firing. Keep the 
ash pit empty, the boiler free of soot, and 
the water at the same height in the gauge 
glass all the time. Save coal. 



48 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1918 



Use of Wood in Railway Cars 



The effect of heat ami cold as regards 
their effects in lengthening or shortening 
or warping wood ma\ practically be dis- 
regardend. The trouble experienced in 
using wood is almost exclusively caused 
by the presence or absence of moisture. 
This is entirely different to the effects pro- 
duced by heat and cold and moisture on 
metals. Heat and cold manifestly affect 
them, moisture does not. 

Wood is made up of cells, some of which 
lie with their length up and down the tree 
as it grew, other cells lie at riyht angles 
to the first, extending from the bark to- 
ward the centre. Those extending up and 
down are the most numerous, and the 
largest in size. All woods have these 
cells, and all woods have fibres running 
up and down the trunk. These cells are 
what draws when wood is drying, and this 
unbalanced pull may warp the wood or 
cause it to check. 

To quote the Hardwood Record. When 
wood behaves in this manner it is doing 
nothing new. The handle of the stone 
hatchet of the paleolithic man warped as 
badly, and in the same way, as the ax- 
handle of the modern lumberman. Wood 
has not changed. Modern methods of 
working it have not increased or lessened 
the material's natural tendencies to twist 
or pull out of shaffe. The modern boat- 
builder who is compelled to reject a 
warped stanchion is confronted by pre- 
cisely the same condition as faced Noah 
when he discovered that a king-post of the 
ark had warped and had pulled the roof- 
tree out of line. 

The stress is produced by the drying, 
and consequent shrinkage. When the 
water in green or wet wood goes out, the 
cells become smaller by the contracting of 
their walls. Every cell so shrinking pulls 
a little, and, such a force multiplied by 
millions, becomes strong enough to pro- 
duce warping. A piece of wood contracts 
sidewise but not very much endwise. 
That is because the individual cells com- 
posing the piece shrink sidewise but very 
little endwise. The shrinkage of a plank 
or beam is only a multiplication of the 
shrinkage of individual cells or fibres. 
This is very readily seen by noticing how 
a hammer handle becomes loose in the 
head, while any alteration in its length 
produces no inconvenience for the user. 

The vital problem in the use of kilns, 
is to so dry lumber that shrinkage is 
equally distributed throughout the parts. 
If not equally distributed, one part will 
contract more than another and warp the 
material or produce checks and cracks. 
Devices have been provided for extracting 
the moisture evenly from all parts of a 
plank so that stresses will be counteracted 
and the plank remain straight and without 
checks. Moisture from the interior of a 
piece of wood can come out only at a cer- 
tain rate. Attempts to take it out too 



fast will cause shrinking in sonic parts, 
with checking and warping. 

Veneer panels are built up of single 
sheets, the grain of the superimposed 
sheets crossing one another at right 
angles. That is done so that the pull of 
one shrinking sheet is in one direction, the 
next pulls at right angles so that one off- 
sets the other, and the panel remains 
straight. 

The question of cost also comes up as 
well as that of practical utility. One of 
our leading railways recently took this 
matter up and after going into it very 
thoroughly, came to the conclusion that a 
good substitute for mahogany must be 
found. Accordingly a competent man was 
assigned the duty of investigating the 
matter. Kitchen and pantry of dining and 
buffet cars and indeed other parts of these 
cars had been finished in mahogany. 

It was decided at the mechanical staff 
meeting held by the officers of that de- 
partment on this road, that the use of 
mahogany should be discontinued on all 
classes of wood work except in business 
cars and in dining rooms of diners and 
buffet cars. White wood was substituted 
lor mahogany on all other parts of these 
cars except seat ends where birch was 
used. Birch doors were also ordered. A 
very substantial saving was promised by 
the alterations outlined here. 



Peck, vice president in charge of opera- 
tion, and Mr. Benjamin McKeen, vice 
president in charge of real estate and 
purchases. The headquarters for the 
Western Lines will continue to be in the 
Pennsylvania station at Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Changes of Names on P. R. R. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad Co. has taken 
over the operation of the railroad lines 
west of Pittsburgh, which were hereto- 
fore operated by the Pennsylvania Com- 
pany. These portions of the system will 
in the future be known as "The Penn- 
sylvania Railroad Company ; Western 
Lines." These lines were previously 
called the ''Northwest System" and the 
"Central System." They constitute the 
direct main lines and the branches of the 
Pennsylvania System between Pittsburgh 
and Chicago. The Pittsburgh, Cincin- 
nati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad, 
commonly called the "Pan Handle," and 
embracing the "Southwest System," is not 
affected by this arrangement, hut it will 
continue to be operated under its own 
name and organization. 

General supervision over all depart- 
ments of "The Pennsylvania Railroad 
Company, Western Lines," will be in the 
hands of Mr. J. J. Turner, with the title 
of senior vice president. Prior to the 
present arrangement, Mr. Turner was 
first vice president, Pennsylvania Lines 
West of Pittsburgh. The four chief 
departments of the Western Lines will 
remain in charge of the same vice presi- 
dent as heretofore, viz. : Mr. E. B. Taylor, 
vice president in charge of finance and 
accounting; Mr. D. T. McCabe, vice pres- 
ident in charge of traffic; Mr. George L. 



Degrees of Curves. 

On American railways, curves are al- 
ways spoken of as being so many degrees. 
In other countries where English is spoken 
curves are described as being of so manj 
feet radius. American railway engineers 
measure and describe a curve as part of 
a circle whose radius is established by the 
angle of deflection. If the angle of de- 
flection is 1 deg. the radius of the curve 
will be 5,730 ft. ; 2 degs., half of that, and 
so on. Consequently a 10-deg. curve i- 
part of a circle having 573 ft. radius. It 
is easy to memorize the radius of a 10- 
deg. curve, and then a simple mental cal- 
culation will enable to tell approximately 
the true radius of any curve. 

Another method growing in popular 
favor is the method of having railroad 
curves expressed in degrees and minutes 
of central angle subtended by a chord 
of 100 ft. Thus one degree of curvature 
being equal to a radius of 5,730 ft., hence 
5,730 X 2 X 3.1416 = 360 X 100. 
Usually the slight error produced by 
measuring the distance as a straight line 
instead of an arc may be ignored, except 
in very sharp curves. The slight inac- 
curacies may be briefly stated as at 10 
deg. the actual radius is 0.7 ft. longer; 
at 20 deg., 1.4 longer; at 30 deg., 2.2 ft. 
longer; and at 40 deg., 2.95 ft. longer 
than bv the formula. 



Oil-Saving Rules. 

Use only closed oil cans, with spouts 
that will deliver drops, or at most only 
a thin stream. Use all lubricating ap- 
paratus strictly according to instructions 
and put the oil only where it will actually 
lubricate. If a machine has automatic- 
droppers shut off the supply while ma- 
chine is standing. Do not use cylinder 
oil on shafting or elsewhere when cheaper 
oil will answer. Keep all rubbing sur- 
faces in good condition. Rough surfaces 
and too tight boxes consume more nil. 

Worn and leaky bearings waste oil. VI- 
ways use drip pans, and arrange to filter 
and cleanse the oil so caught. It is as 
good as new. Collect all greasy waste 
and wiping cloths, so that the oil may he 
recovered. Never burn them. Be care- 
ful about using lubricating oil for cooling 
a bearing. Water will often do as well. 
Be careful about using oil for cleaning 
and polishing. Never clean the hands 
with oil. A greasy cloth will do as well. 

A great deal of waste takes place in 
shops where men take a preliminary wash- 
up with coal oil. There is no doubt that 
this is very effective and adds to their 
convenience, hut it is waste. 



February, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



49 



Norfolk & Western Gondola 

Long Car with Smooth Outside Appearance — Car Supported on Twelve Wheels- 
Lewis Truck — 90 Tons Capacity; 29 Tons Tare 



The Norfolk & Western Railway have 
recently put in service one thousand high, 
straight-side gondola cars for the car- 



and many parts of the truck are M. C. B. 
standard construction. Single type brakes 
are used, the brake beams being M. C. B. 




NORFOLK AND WESTERN HIGH SIDE GONDOLA. 



riage of coal and other rough freight 
when required. The company have built 
the cars at their own shops, like several 
other of our leading railways. The car 
shown in our half-tone is No. 101,393 and 
is a 90-ton capacity car. This railway 
has now some 1,716 cars of this capacity. 
Mr. W. H. Lewis is superintendent of mo- 
live power of the road. 

The car shown is of the flat-bottom, 
gondola -type, without drop doors, and is 
used in the company's own coal trade, 
the car being handled over the dumping 
machine at Lambert's Point. The car is 
built with inside side stakes and gussets, 
the outside being quite smooth. The 
bolster construction is unique, there are 
two bolsters at each end of the car and 
these are so arranged that the top flange 
construction of the bolster extends up 
into the cavity of the car. This has been 
done in order to give more depth for 
these bolsters, and also to avoid cutting 
the top flange members where they pass 
the center sills. 

These cars are equipped with the Far- 
low single-key draft gear attachments. In 
this case the yoke is laid in a hori- 
zontal plane and abuts against a combined 
back stop and body bolster center casting, 
which is of cast steel. They are also 
equipped with the M. C. 1!. 6 x 8 ins. type 
'I)" couplers with a 1 J '< x 5 ins. key. The 
N. & W. have in use on their several 
cars various different kinds of draw gear. 
The one shown in the half-tone is the 
Miner, A-18. The trucks are of the 
Lewis articulated, six-wheel type, as 
manufactured by the American Steel 
Foundries. The truck bolster is an in- 
tegral steel casting of X-shape, there be- 
ing a pair of rigid side frames to each 
truck and a pair of articulated side frames 
to each truck. The journal boxes are of 
the regular cast-iron M. C. B. pattern, 




Of the 1,756 cars of this capacity in 
service the first sample one was built in 
1912 and a second sample and also an 
order of 750 cars was completed in 1913. 
The successful performance of these led 
to the building of an additional order of 
1,000 cars and of four additional sample 
cars of special design in 1915-1916. They 
have all been in service for a sufficient 
time' to demonstrate their practicability, 
and the advantages gained in paying load, 
and in low train resistance or increased 
tonnage rating, together with lessened 
cost per ton of terminal handling. All 
these considerations fully justified and 
still justifies their use. The upkeep per 
car does not appear to be noticeably more 
than for lighter capacity cars, although it 
is reasonable to suppose that the attention 
to wheels, brasses and brake shoes would 
be increased in direct proportion to the 
number of them per car. The light 
weight of the cars of this design averages 
58,300 lbs. The capacity painted on the 
outside is 180,000 lbs. and the cars are 
stencilled for wrought steel wheels. The 
car is 44 ft. long. The truck frames are 
hinged over the centre axle box so as to 
give flexibility of movement to the whole. 
The hinge joint at the centre also facili- 
tates repairs and wheel changing. In our 
illustration the truck wheels are Davis 
cast steel 33-in. wheels. The ratio of 
paying load to tare weight is more than 
3 to 1. 



TOr VIEW OF THE LEWIS TRUCK. 
kORFOLK & WESTERN. 



Babbitting Boxes. 

Instead of using putty or clay for plug- 
ging up the ends of the boxes while the 
babbitt is being poured, some old asbestos 
pipe-covering may readily be ground up 
with cylinder oil to the consistency of a 
stiff putty. This mixture has these ad- 




LEW1S ARTICULATED SIX-WHEEL TRUCK. NORFOLK X- WESTERN. 



The volume of this car is 2,843 cu. ft. 
level full and 536 cu. ft. in a 30-deg. heap, 
or a total of 3,379 cu. ft. in all. The rail- 
way has had some of these cars in serv- 
ice for five years and the results got from 
them have been entirely satisfactory. 



vantages : It is proof against the softening 
influence of heat, sticks far better to the 
box than either putty or clay, never 
"blows" when the hot metal comes in con- 
tact with it, and can be used over and over 
without loss or hardening. 



so 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1918 



R!il?.iX,veEn$ineerin$ 

A Praotical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling 
Stock and Appliances. 



Published Monthly by 

ANGUS SINCLAIR CQ. 

114 Liberty St., New York. 

Telephone, 746 Rector. 

Cable Address, "Looong," N. Y. 

Glasgow, "Loooauto.' 



Business Department: 

ANGUS SINCLAIR, D. E., Prest. a„d Treas. 

JAMES KENNEDY, Vioe-Prest. 

HARRY A. KENNEY, Secy, and Gen. Mgr. 

Editorial Department: 
ANGUS SINCLAIR, D. E., Editor-in-Chief. 
JAMES KENNEDY. Managing Editor. 
GEORGE S. HODGINS, Editor. 
GEO. W. KIEHM, Associate Editor. 
A. J. MANSON, Associate Editor. 

London Representative: 

THE LOCOMOTIVE PUBLISHING CO., Ltd.. 
3 Amen Corner, Paternoster Row, London, E. C. 

Glasgow Representative: 

A. F. SINCLAIR, 15 Manor Road, Bellahouston, 
Glasgow. 



they are, without speculation and without 
the refinements of pure theory. The work 
comes from a man who has done the 
work he writes about, who has faced and 
overcomes difficulties and has succeeded. 
His experience and skill are put within 
easy reach of the learner, and the picking 
out of this work amid a host of others 
by the Government of our country, not 
only gives the engineman who follows 
close behind the firing line the best as- 
sistance of the kind in its power, but it 
confers another enviable distinction on its 
veteran author. 



SUBSCRIPTION PRICE 

$2.00 Per year. $1.00 for six months, postage 
paid in the United States, Canada and Mexico. 
For other parts of the world. $2.50. or ten 
shillings. Single copies. 20 cents. Remit by Ex- 
press Money Order. Draft, Post Office Order or 
Registered Letter. 

Mailing address can be changed as often as 
necessary — always give old and new address, and 
if you subscribe in a club, state the name of the 
agent. 

Please give prompt notice when your paper 
fails to reach you regularly. 

Entered as second-class matter January 15, 1902, 
»t the post office at New York, New York, under 
he Act ol March 3, 1879. 



"Doing Our Bit." 

An order has been received by the pub- 
lishers of Railway and Locomotive En- 
gineering for a thousand copies of Angus 
Sinclair's well-known work, now in its 
twenty-third edition, Locomotive Engine 
Running and Management. The order 
emanates from the Federal Government 
at Washington, and has been sent to us 
by the Baldwin Locomotive Works of 
Philadelphia. 

Apart from the justifiable feelings of 
satisfaction and pride which this unso- 
licited order gives rise to, there exists 
in the mind of Dr. Sinclair, the author, 
the knowledge that the high endorsation 
his work has thus brought forth, will be 
shared by "our boys" in France, to whom 
the book is to be sent by the Government. 
It is intended that our American engine- 
men, working American locomotives on 
foreign soil, shall have the best means 
of gaining most useful, quick and prac- 
tical help, and knowledge, in easily as- 
similated form, while "doing their bit" 
for the cause of Liberty in the devastated 
fields of fair France. 

The book is too well known to require 
any detailed description here, suffice it to 
say that the difficulties presented by the 
air brake are smoothed away in its up-to- 
date pages. The book breathes the spirit 

of, and is in close touch with things as 



" 'Quit You Like Men— Be Strong." 

Railway and Locomotive Engineering 
does not as a rule go into financial mat- 
ters, but confines itself to the presentation 
of technical subjects to its readers, which 
relate to the management and construc- 
tion of locomotives and cars, appliances 
and devices, and such other railway mat- 
ters as have a bearing on, or are involved 
in, these phases of railroading. 

We have, however, had put before us 
the preparations which are being made 
to float another Liberty Loan, and it is 
only plain patriotism to call attention of 
our many readers to the laudable efforts 
which are being made in this direction. 
In the Review of Reticles for January, 
1918, there appears an article on French 
Canada in which the author says it was 
a "monumental blunder," of the British 
government to have permitted the contin- 
ued use of the French language. It may 
have been a mistake, but it was one of 
the heart and not of the head. To de- 
stroy the language would have been coer- 
cion. He very properly says that to speak 
English is eventually to think in the Eng- 
lish way. This is true enough, but what 
underlies this is the fact that coercion in 
any form is distasteful to the Anglo- 
Saxon. He revolts at its application to 
himself and he refrains from imposing it 
on others. In leaving the language un- 
touched, Great Britain refrained from 
even the pose of a conquerer.- 

The application of all this to the Lib- 
erty Loan, soon to be put on the market, 
is that the purchase of Liberty bonds is 
not compulsory. The appeal of the gov- 
ernment is to a free people. The govern- 
ment states its needs for the war; it has 
defined the war aims of the country; for 
this is not, among the great democracies, 
a dynastic struggle. It is a peoples' war. 
In this the government is the peoples' 
agent and it is for the people to respond 
financially, if they want the work done 
efficiently and at once. The government 
places and sights the gun, but it is the 
people who pull the lanyard for the high 
and noble cause of Liberty. 

The strength of the whole of this mone- 
tary campaign is that it is voluntary. 
Compulsion is foreign to the Anglo-Saxon 
mind ; a thousand-fold happier is he who 
feels a duty has been voluntarily per- 



formed by him than that lie should be 
told how to act. The men who now pre- 
pare for, and eventually buy, a Liberty 
bond feel a justifiable satisfaction which 
cannot be purchased ; it cannot be valued 
in coin. Those who respond are pro- 
tected financially, for the bond is em- 
phatically a loan, bearing substantial in- 
terest and negotiable at any time. The 
man who now meets this high em- 
prise in the true democratic spirit, laying 
politics and party gain aside, has raised 
himself fully up to the exalted level 
where a deep and heartfelt satisfaction is 
his present meed, and he has entered the 
noblei region where gold is not the cur- 
rency. 

These days are not bright, save only 
for the bow of promise which tells us 
that the sun still shines. 'We must not 
despair. The words of St. Paul have a 
special meaning for us today, " 'quit you 
like men — be strong." The Liberty Loan 
affords a means to many of realizing the 
feeling and the knowledge of duty freely 
done, and again to quote the apostle to 
the Gentiles, let us say with him, "I have 
fought the good fight, I have kept the , 
faith." 



Saving Coal and Doing Other Things. 

Reports which have been received from 
all divisions of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
(lines east of Pittsburgh and Erie) show 
that as a result of the reductions in pas- 
senger train service, made effective in 
January, 1918, the 104 week-day and the 
51 Sunday trains which were taken off, 
has produced economies in motive power 
and man-power. Thus far the locomo- 
tives saved per day were 29, the locomo- 
tive crews saved per day were 55, the 
train crews saved each day were 47, and 
the train miles saved each year were 
2.708,212. 

The locomotives which have been saved 
are being used in part to replace others 
in the passenger service which are in 
need of repairs, and in part for moving 
the lighter forms of freight. The engine 
and train crews saved have been assigned 
to new duties in accordance with the 
seniority rules of the railroad. This is not 
merely a case of good men losing their 
jobs. In most cases the crews actually 
affected remain in passenger service, but 
the junior men, in the various grades of 
employment, on each division, have been 
transferred to other duties, either in the 
freight train service or elsewhere in pas- 
senger train service. 

Thirty-five lines of parlor and sleeping 
cars were discontinued in the general re- 
duction, each parlor or sleeping car taken 
off being replaced by one or more day 
coaches of approximately triple the carry- 
ing capacity of the freight equipment. 

One more thing can be done, and very 
effectively done while the Government is 
in charge of the railways, and that is 
to look into the whole signal question. 



February, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



51 



There is no manner of doubt that a prop- 
erly signaled road has had its capacity 
increased by that very fact. In this coun- 
try reliable returns show that new rail- 
roads, are built in greater quantity than 
the signal systems on all lines are in- 
creased. In other words, the equipping 
of all roads, and the mileage protected 
by signals, has not kept pace with the 
growth of the total mileage. 

On practically every British railway the 
Board of Trade regulations make the 
block system of signalling obligatory. 
The only exceptions are on what are 
called "Light" Railways, and branches 
where only one engine in steam is al- 
lowed; and even then the junctions are 
properly signaled and a staff or tablet is 
carried on the engine. 

In this way the Government acting for 
the people put safety in traveling on the 
high and necessary plane on which it 
should stand. In our case, a board of 
experts on which practical railway men 
should have a place should go into the 
whole matter with the avowed purpose 
of doing something and not leave the 
question in the stage of simply an aca- 
demic report. 

It is right and proper and good busi- 
ness to save coal and conserve man-power, 
but at the same time increasing the ca- 
pacity of the road seems to go hand in 
hand with it and to be logically related 
to it in the closest way possible. 



Leaking and Freezing 
Leaks between the tank and the in- 
jector are fatal to the working of the 
injector. A leak in the check valve be- 
tween the boiler and the injector pipe is 
also a serious detriment to the operation 
of the injector. Leaks in the throttle 
valve or dry pipe are positively danger- 
ous, by the former the full boiler pres- 
sure will in a short time reach the steam 
chests, and as both valves are«never fully 
closed the pressure will reach one or both 
pistons, and the engine may move at a 
time when it is dangerous to life and 
limb. Leaks in the steam pipes not only 
affect combustion in the furnace, but 
waste steam, fuel and water. Leaks in 
sliding or piston valves or piston pack- 
ing are equally deleterious. Even leaky 
cylinder cocks are not only wasteful 
of steam, but are a positive nuisance. 
The same may be said of the blower 
valve, gauge cocks and other boiler ac- 
cessories, including the safety valves and 
the whistle. 

When it comes to the air brake, with its 
many pipes and joints, which are mostly 
invisible, they arc not discoverable by the 
inexperienced. Tf we adrl to this the 
heater pipes used in winter, and the elec- 
tric conduits, which are pipes in the sense 
that they convey a "fluid" that seems to 
have a peculiar aptiturle for leaking, the 
troubles multiply, and it is no wonder 
that the puzzled engineman is apt to 



think at times that the weaknesses incident 
to locomotive running and management 
are past finding out. 

But this is not all. In mid-winter the 
troubles are doubled. If an engineman 
halts the locomotive four minutes to stop 
a serious leak, the chances are that 
something freezes, and figuratively speak- 
ing, a voyage into unknown seas has to 
be made to find out the frozen spot or 
spots. If the stoppage is prolonged, the 
north wind does its work, and pieces of 
ice a sixteenth of an inch in thickness 
in the bottom of the cylinder will hold 
the locomotive as still as if it were in 
the hands of a Titan, and the road is 
blocked, and the telegraph is buzzing and 
telephone bells are ringing soon after. 
Whether it is coal shortage or ammuni- 
tion waiting delivery, the daily press 
makes caustic reference to the delay. 

That there are remedies for the few 
troubles that we have referred to is 
known to the railroad fraternity, but a 
locomotive does not carry a machine 
shop, nor a special thawing apparatus ; if 
it did, the conditions are such that it 
could not operate on all of the frozen 
appliances on the engine. The essential 
operations necessary to betterment call 
for experts just as a well-equipped hos- 
pital calls for medical experts familiar 
with the nature of accidents to the human 
body. 

In these days, when the manifest effort 
of the railroad man and the lay man is 
to save coal, the allowing of steam leaks 
to uselessly blow away the energy con- 
tained in the fuel is highly reprehensible, 
to say the least of it. Much good work 
has been done by the technical press, by 
instructional pamphlets, and by lectures 
to bring clearly before the enginemen the 
waste that takes place by allowing pop 
valves to simmer or blow. The argu- 
ments used against this form of waste are 
practically applicable to all kinds of leaks. 

The consumption of steam, even with- 
out leaks, is heavier in the winter than 
in the summer. In winter the boiler, the 
air pump, the exposed lengths of pipe, all 
readily radiate heat to the cold atmos- 
phere. The necessity of blowing back 
steam into the water of the tender is 
practically a source of dead loss, because 
the necessity does not exist in the sum- 
mer. The air entering through the ash 
pan and being used in the firebox enters 
at a far lower temperature than it does 
in the summer, yet it requires to be heat- 
ed to the same service temperature in all 
seasons. 

In winter a train of cars is harder to 
pull than it would be when days are 
warm, for the reason that oil becomes 
slightly thicker and does not readily flow, 
and even in the best days of the winter 
the rail usually has a more or less slip- 
pery coating of frost or snow. This coat- 
ing, minute as it is. interferes with the 
motion of the train because it has to be 



crushed down or broken or shoved off 
the rail, and though no short stretch of 
track offers any great resistance, yet the 
cumulative effect mounts up, and its pres- 
ence places one more obstacle to the 
movement of the train and gives the en- 
gine that much more work to do, and 
compels more coal to be burned to do it 
than it would if skies were clear and fields 
green. 

The duty of engineman and fireman, 
and the duty of the round house in these 
days of war, winter and work is to make 
every endeavor to reduce the unneces- 
sary use of coal by prompt single move- 
ment handling at the terminal and the 
stoppage of the many avenues of steam 
escape produced by the presence of small. 
insidious and often untended leaks. 



Delay in Mail Deliveries. 

The unusually large number of letters 
that come to us from the readers of 
Railway and Locomotive Engineering, 
complaining of the non-delivery of the 
periodical at the usual early part of the 
month induces us to take the opportunity 
to advise them not to trouble themselves 
writing to us too soon after the regular 
date of delivery. The delay is not with 
us, and while the Government claims that 
the delay to mails is entirely due to con- 
gestion of railroads, we are led to be- 
lieve that there has been considerable 
congestion of mails in the post office, par- 
ticularly about the advent of the new year, 
owing to the vastly increased volume of 
matter passing through the mails. Now 
that the Government has assumed control 
if the railways, it is possible that the 
mails may be expedited. In any event, 
the delay is not our fault, and we would 
ask that our readers generally and our 
subscribers particularly, would exercise 
'heir souls in patience, in view of the 
momentous conditions under which we 
live. 

Not only so, but the additional holidays 
are affecting a large part of the industrial 
population as well as the manufacturers, 
who are not permitted to burn coal on 
Mondays, with the result that even,' fiber 
of our industrial system, including the dis- 
tribution of mail matter, feels the retard- 
ing effect. 



New High-Speed Steel. 
A new high-speed steel has lately been 
patented in Europe. The patent specifica- 
tion states that the steel shall contain 
carbon, 1.2 per cent.: manganese, 1.2 per 
cent.: silicon, from 0.1 to 0.3 per cent; 
chromium, from 3 to 10 per cent., and 
cobalt, 1.5 per cent. This material is said 
by the inventors to be an improvement 
upon a similar steel which they patented 
last year containing molybdenum. In its 
manufacture the molybdenum is omitted, 
and the percentage of manganese and 
chromium is increased. 



52 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1918 



Air Brake Department 

Cleaning and Lubricating Brake Cylinders — Questions and Answers 



Any reference to brake cylinder leak- 
age from the viewpoint of the brake cyl- 
inder packing leather only, is necessarily 
incomplete for the reason that the leak- 
age from a brake cylinder is not always 
through, or past, the packing leather, and 
in some cases the leakage is caused by 
some matter between the leather and the 
wall of the cylinder, for which the 
leather itself is in no wise responsible. 

Regardless of what may have been 
said with reference to porosity of leath- 
ers, re-testing or re-filling, some consid- 
eration must be given the cleaning and 
lubricating of the cylinder if satisfactory 
results are to be obtained with any kind 
of leathers or cups, and in the following 
an effort will be made to set forth what 
is generally conceded to be good prac- 
tice in performing any work on a brake 
cylinder. 

In cleaning a brake cylinder, kerosene 
or carbon oil may be used for removing 
the dirt and rust from the wall of the cyl- 
inder and waste may be used for applying 
this oil and removing the dirt, but the 
final wiping should be done with rags, to 
prevent particles of waste or lint from 
remaining in the cylinder and working 
in between the leather and cylinder and 
causing leakage. The leakage groove 
also should be cleaned when the cylinder . 
receives any attention on the interior. 

The accumulation of heavy bodied 
grease should be removed from the 
piston with a wooden scraper, and car- 
bon oil may be used for cleaning the 
piston and follower plate, provided that 
it does not touch the packing leather; if- 
it does, it destroys the filler that is 
placed in the leather by the manufacturer, 
and the result is a leaky leather, for the 
reason that this filler has been forced into 
the leather for the purpose of making it 
what is termed air tight. If a leather is 
too hard or stiff to permit the expander 
ring to hold it against the cylinder it 
should be removed, but not necessarily 
destroyed, as the leathers can be retreated 
at a comparatively small cost per leather. 
However, in ascertaining the pliability of 
the leather, it must never be rubbed to- 
gether or crumpled up for the purpose of 
softening it, as the bending or rubbing 
breaks and destroys this same filler and 
also causes the leather to leak. 

One of the most prolific sources of 
brake cylinder leakage, especially on loco- 
motives, is past the studs holding the fol- 
lower plate on the piston, and in many 
instances it is caused by the stud screw- 
ing out of the piston when an at- 
tempt is made to remove the nut from the 
stud. If, in renewing a leather, one of 
the studs backs out of the piston, the 



nut should in all cases be removed and 
the stud tightened into the brake piston, 
using red or white lead, before the fol- 
lower plate and leather are bolted in 
place on the piston. What, in many in- 
stances, contributes to leakage past these 
studs in the piston is the fact that the 
studs are y 2 inch and 12 threads per inch 
and some one has attempted to use a 
standard JS-inch stud or one of the 13 
threads per inch, and in consequence has 
ruined the threads in the piston. The 
nuts and studs specified by the manufac- 
turer should in all cases be maintained 
in stock and be used for the purpose for 
which they are intended, and it will be 
found to be a decided advantage to have 
^2-inch 12-thread taps and dies for this 
purpose even if used for no other. It is 
obvious that no matter how tightly the 
stud screws into the piston a damaged 
thread will cause leakage, brake cylinder 
leakage, that cannot be remedied by the 
application of any kind of a leather or cup. 
When threads in the piston are found 
to be damaged, the piston should not be 
used until it has been repaired, which 
may be done by making a special stud or 
by bushing the hole in a manner that a 
standard-sized hole with a perfect thread 
can be obtained. 

The condition of the expander ring is 
also of the utmost importance, and in all 
cases where a packing leather is re- 
moved, the expander ring should be 
gauged before being returned to service, 
and contrary to some previously ac- 
cepted theories, the ring should not con- 
form to the circumference of the cylinder, 
hut rather to a cylinder ^5-inch less in 
diameter than that of the brake cylinder 
the ring is to be used in. Such a gauge 
may be manufactured without any diffi- 
culty, and when a ring is compressed and 
placed in it, it should conform to within 
1/32-inch all around and the ends of 
the ring should be from 1/32-inch to fl- 
inch apart. The position of the ring will 
at this time approximate the position it 
is in when inside of the leather in the 
cylinder. 

It is also quite evident that a cylinder 
may be worn, especially one in which the 
brake piston works on a horizontal plane, 
and when this is found to be a fact, the 
wear is usually at the bottom of the 
cylinder, caused by the weight and wear 
of the piston. Under such circumstances 
we know of no repairs that can be made 
outside of renewing the cylinder. An- 
other thing that contributes to brake 
cylinder leakage is a badly worn non- 
pressure head, at the point at which the 
piston passes through it, and this part, as 
well as a badly worn piston rod or re- 



lease spring, should be renewed when ex- 
cessive lost motion or wear develops. In 
some shops the non-pressure heads are 
repaired by rebushing the worn hole. 

There should be some hard and fast 
rule laid down for the lubricating of 
brake cylinders, and it should be enforced 
to the letter. The particular kind and 
amount of lubricant to be used will de- 
pend somewhat upon local conditions, but 
an excellent practice is to limit 8 and 10- 
inch cylinders to 4 ounces ; 12 and 14- 
inch cylinders to 5 ounces, and 16 and 18- 
inch cylinders to 6 ounces, which if ad- 
hered to will prevent a waste of lubricant, 
and what is much worse, the possibility 
of any of it w r orking back into the triple 
valve or other car brake or locomotive 
brake operating valve. 

It is interesting to note in this connec- 
tion that one railroad at least has con- 
sidered brake cylinder leakage, or the 
elimination of it so far as possible, to be 
of sufficient importance to build brake- 
cylinder packing leather test racks and 
install them in shops, so that instead of 
applying the leather to the piston at the 
car in the yard, the leather is applied in 
the shop, and the piston and leather are 
placed on the test rack, composed of 
brake cylinders of various sizes, and the 
leakage in pounds per minute is ascer- 
tained, and if not in excess of a specified 
amount, the piston and leather attached 
is placed in a protection casing or con- 
tainer and transported to the car. 

It may be of assistance to quote the fol- 
lowing from certain standard instructions 
governing the application or replacement 
of a brake cylinder piston : "When re- 
placing the piston in the brake cylinder, 
care must be taken to keep the expander 
ring between the packing leather and the 
follower plate, and the opening of the 
expander ring when placed in the cylin- 
der at the top, one-quarter away from the 
leakage groove ; also that portion of the 
packing leather that had before been at 
the bottom of the cylinder is now turned 
to the top of the cylinder. When the 
piston head and leather have been well 
entered into the cylinder, the end of the 
piston should be raised to a horizontal 
position, at the same time pulling it out 
slightly to prevent the leather from turn- 
ing in the wrong direction. Sharp tools 
must not be used to help enter the 
packing leather. After the piston is en- 
tered into the brake cylinder it can be 
ascertained whether the expander ring 
has worked out of position by moving the 
end of the piston so as to describe a circle 
of about 8 inches in diameter. If the ring 
is out of place this cannot be done, as 
the piston will stick." 



February, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



53 



Locomotive Air Brake Inspection. 

(Continued from page 19, January, 1918.) 

185. Q— Should a further reduction in 
brake-pipe pressure be made at this time? 

A.— Yes. 

186. Q.— How much and for what pur- 
pose? 

A. — Enough more to bring the brake- 
pipe gauge hand below the brake cylinder 
hand. 

187. Q.— Why? 

A. — To see that there is no back leak- 
age from the brake cylinders into the 
brake pipe, if the distributing valve is 
equipped with a quick-action, equalizing 
cylinder cap. 

188. Q. — How could air enter the brake 
pipe from the brake cylinders? 

A. — If the brake cylinder check valve 
of the quick-action cap is leaking, air from 
the main reservoir could flow through the 
brake cylinders into the brake pipe when 
brake-pipe pressure has reduced below 
brake-cylinder pressure. 

189. Q. — What would at this time oc- 
cur if the check valve was leaking? 

A. — A heavy blow would start at the 
brake-pipe exhaust port of the automatic 
brake valve. 

190. Q. — Is this a serious defect of the 
brake ? 

A. — It might never be discovered with 
the engine in passenger service, but it 
might have serious results if the engine 
went into freight service in this condition. 

191. Q.— How? 

A. — With the lower brake-pipe pressure 
carried in freight service, a 25-Ib. brake- 
pipe reduction would result in at least 
an equalization of pressure; then brake- 
pipe pressure becoming lower than brake- 
cylinder pressure with the result men- 
tioned would cause a loss of main reser- 
voir pressure and possibly a release of 
some of the brakes in the train at a time 
when all the braking force available is re- 
quired. 

192. Q. — Continuing the inspection, 
after this brake-pipe reduction what 
should be done? 

A. — The brake should be released 
with the independent brake valve. 

193. Q. — For what purpose? 

A. — To know that the locomotive brake 
can be released independently of the 
train brakes. 

194. Q. — At what time would such a 
release be desirable or necessary? 

A. — In the event of driving wheels 
picking up and sliding at a time or under 
conditions where the train brakes could 
not be released without incurring the lia- 
bility of a run-by or an accident. 

195. Q. — What would likely result if an 
engine was allowed to run with the brake 
in a condition that the brake could not 
be released and leave the train brakes ap- 
plied? 

A. — Slid flat driving wheel tires or 
overheated and loosened tires. 



196. Q. — What would be wrong if the 
independent brake could not be released 
under the conditions being considered? 

A. — The exhaust port of the independ- 
ent brake valve might be stopped up or 
the application cylinder and release pipes 
would be wrongly connected either at the 
distributing valve or independent brake 
valve. 

197. How can the difference be told 
without tracing the pipes, or examining 
the exhaust port of the brake valve? 

A. — By moving the automatic brake 
valve handle to holding position, then 
moving the independent brake valve han- 
dle to release position. 

198. Q. — Will the engine brake then re- 
lease if the application cylinder and re- 
lease pipes are wrongly connected? 

A.— Yes. 

199. Q.— Will the brake then release if 
the exhaust port of the independent brake 
valve is closed? 

A.— No. 

200. Q. — Could anything else prevent 
the release of brakes under this con- 
dition? 

A. — Yes, a stopped-up application cyl- 
inder pipe. 

201. Q. — Is this liable to happen? 

A. — It has happened, but the disorder 
does not exist for any considerable period 
of time. 

202. Q.— Why not ? 

A. — Because the independent brake 
could not be applied at any time with the 
application cylinder pipe stopped up. 

203. Q. — How long should it take to 
exhaust application cylinder pressure 
down to 5 lbs. or less under the condi- 
tions mentioned? 

A. — From 2 to 3 seconds. 

204. Q. — What if it takes considerably 
longer than this time? 

A. — It indicates some partial stoppage in 
the application cylinder connections usu- 
ally found in the ports or cavities about 
the equalizing slide valve bushing of the 
distributing valve. 

205. Q.— After this test what is the 
next brake valve movement? 

A. The brake valve is moved to re- 
lease position. 

206. Q. — For what purpose? 

A. — To overcharge the pressure cham- 
ber of the distributing valve reservoir, or 
to about 125 or 130 lbs. 

207. Q. — How long should this take? 

A. — Somewhat over a minute, the pres- 
sure chamber pressure having been con- 
siderably reduced from the previous op- 
eration. 

208. Q. — What should be observed in 
connection with the ports of the auto- 
matic brake valve at this time? 

A. — That the warning port is open and 
discharging air through the direct ex- 
haust port. 

209. Q. — How does the time of charg- 
ing the distributing valve reservoir com- 
pare with that of auxiliary reservoirs? 



A. — It charges uniformly with them. 

210. Q.— Why? 

A. — The feed grooves of all operating 
valves are proportioned in size to the res- 
ervoirs they are required to charge from 
the brake pipe. 

211. Q. — Why is uniform rate of charg- 
ing or recharge desirable? 

A. — To produce as nearly as possible 
uniform applications of brakes, when ap- 
plications follow each other with very 
little time elapsing between brake appli- 
cations. 

212. Q.— What else should be done 
while the brake valve is in release po- 
sition? 

A. — The hands of the air gages should 
be compared. 

213. Q. — What pressures should the 
black hands and red hand of the large 
gage register? 

A. — They should register the same 
pressure. 

214. Q.— Why? 

A. — Because main reservoir, equalizing 
reservoir and brake pipe pressures are 
equal. 

215. Q.— What will indicate that the 
black hands are registering correctly? 

A. — They were compared with the test 
gage when entering the cab. 

216. Q. — How is it determined whether 
the brake cylinder gage hand is correct? 

A. — During the independent brake valve 
test. 

217. Q. — During this comparison, what 
is wrong if the red hand of the large 
gage registers more or less pressure 
than the black hands? 

A. — The red hand is not registering 
correctly. 

218. Q— What is wrong if the black 
hand of the large gage registers 110 lbs., 
the black hand of the small gage 105 lbs., 
and the test gage 110 lbs.? 

A. — The black hand of the small 
gage is out. 

219. Q. — How are the locomotive 
gages sometimes indicated? 

A. — As the No. 1 and No. 2 gages. 

220. Q.— Which is the No. 1? 
A. — The large gage. 

221. Q. — What would be wrong if the 
test cage shows 105 lbs. and the engine 
gages 110" 

A. — The engine gages are wrong. 

222. Q.— How do you know that the 
test gage is not wrong? 

A. If it was it would show wrong with 
all other engines. 

223. Q. — What would be wrong if the 
test gage and both engine gages 
showed 105 lbs. and the main reservoir 
pressure was 140 lbs.? 

A. — The feed valve would be improp- 
erly adjusted. 

224. Q. — When should a feed valve be 
adjusted? 

A. — When it is out of register 3 lbs. or 
more. 

(To be continued^) 



54 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1918 



Train Handling. 
(Continued from page 20, January, 1918.) 

202. Q. — What would cause the reduc- 
tion necessary to apply these brakes? 

A. — The flow of brake-pipe air to the 
uncharged cars at the rear of the train. 

203. Q— Why not leave the brake valve 
in release position for a period of less 
than IS seconds? 

A. — Because it requires about this 
length of time to force all of the K 
triples possible to retarded release po- 
sition. 

204. Q.— Why is it desirable to have 
them in retarded release position? 

A. — To hold the brakes applied and 
prevent any rapid run out of slack while 
the rear brakes are releasing. 

205. Q. — Do the reservoirs at the head 
end charge as rapidly when the valves are 
in retarded release position? 

A.— No. 

206. Q.— Why not? 

A. — Because one of the feed grooves is 
closed in this position. 

207. Q. — For what purpose? 

A. — To produce a uniform recharge of 
auxiliary reservoirs through a smaller 
charging port from the higher brake-pipe 
pressure at the head end. 

208. Q— Why will a 5-lb. brake-pipe 
reduction cause an application of all of 
the brakes in a train if they are K valves, 
but will not all apply on a long train with 
H triple valves? 

A. — Because K triple valves have quick 
lervice features whereby each valve 
makes a local brake-pipe reduction as it 
moves to application position, thus con- 
tinuing the brake-pipe reduction through- 
out the train. 

209. Q— Where does this brake-pipe 
pressure vent? 

A. — Into the brake cylinders of the 
cars. 

210. Q— What might be the effect of a 
very heavy overcharge of the head aux- 
iliary reservoirs on a long train? 

A. — It might result in undesired quick 
action. . 

211. Q— On which cars? 

A.— On those at the head end of the 
train. 

212. Q. — Why not on the rear ones? 
A. — They will not have recharged suffi- 
ciently. 

213. Q.— What will be the probable ef- 
fect of quick action on only the head 
cars of a long freight train? 

A. — A buckling and wrecking of the 
train if conditions happen to be rigiit. 

214. Q. — How is the brake-pipe reduc- 
tion necessary to produce quick action 
under this condition obtained? 

A.— -Through the rapid flow of brake- 
pipe air to the rear cars before the aux- 
iliary reservoirs on them have had time 
to become fully charged. 

215. Q. — When does this heavy appli- 
cation on the head cars take place after 
a release? 



A. — When the brake valve handle is 
brought to running position. 

216. Q.— What does this do to a brake 
pipe that is charged beyond the adjust- 
ment of the brake-pipe feed valve? 

A. — It cuts off the supply from the 
main reservoir to the brake pipe. 

217. Q.— Why? 

A. — Because the feed valve cannot open 
until the brake-pipe pressure is below 
the tension of its regulating spring. 

218. Q— What will usually occur at the 
head end, even if the brake valve is not 
allowed to remain in release position for 
more than 20 seconds? 

A. — There will be a reapplication of the 
head brakes when the brake valve is 
brought to running position. 

219. Q— Is this desirable? 

A. No, but it cannot be avoided, if the 
brake valve is held in release position long 
enough to insure a release of brakes on 
the rear cars of a long train. 

220. Q. — How are these brakes then re- 
leased on the head cars? 

A. — By a second short movement to re- 
lease position about 10 or 15 seconds after 
the return to running position. 

221. Q. — What causes the compressors 
to stop at this time? 

A. — The action of the excess pressure 
governor top. 

222. Q. — How can the compressors be 
kept in operation? 

A. — By moving the brake-valve handle 
partly to release position. 

223. Q.— Is this generally recom- 
mended? 

A.— No. 

224. Q.— Why not? 

A. — Because of the liability of over- 
charging the brake pipe excessively. 

225. Q. — Can this movement be made 
and the compressors be kept in operation 
by a man who thoroughly understands 
what he is doing? 

A.— Yes. With a little practice the 
amount of pressure admitted to the brake 
pipe can be regulated in a manner to keep 
the compressors in operation and accom- 
plish a release of brakes in the shortest 
possible space of time. 

226. Q— What is required to release 
the rear brakes on long trains? 

A. — A driving head to force the com- 
pressed air back to the brake pipe at the 
rear. 

227. Q— What is this driving head? 

A. — Excess pressure, or the difference 
in pressure in the brake pipe at the head 
and rear end of the train. 

228. Q. — Is it, then, possible to have a 
vast difference in the pressure in the ends 
of the brake pipe on a long train? 

A. — Yes; it is not unusual to have over 
100 lbs. pressure in the brake pipe of the 
head cars during a release of brakes and 
less than 50 lbs. pressure in the brake 
pipe of the rear cars. 

229. Q. — Do you know of a more ex- 
treme example? 



A. — Yes ; with large capacity air com- 
pressors it is possible to pump up the 
standard brake pipe pressure on the en- 
gine with the angle cock at the rear end 
of a long train open. 

230. Q. — About how long would it take 
for compressed air under 110 lbs. pres- 
sure in the main reservoir to flow 
through the brake pipe on a 100-car train 
and issue from the angle cock at the rear 
end ? 

A. — About 20 to 25 seconds. 

231. Q. — Under brake-operating condi- 
tions, about how long would it take for 
compressed air to flow from the main 
reservoir to the rear of the train and re- 
lease brakes? 

A. — At least one minute. 

232. Q. — And under unfavorable condi 
tions as to leakage and small capacity 
compressors? 

A. — It might require two minutes, or 
even more, to make any noticeable in- 
crease in the brake-pipe pressure on the 
rear cars. 

233. Q. — After an ordinary brake ap- 
plication, how long would you wait after 
moving the brake valve handle to release 
position before moving the engine throttle 
to start the train? 

A. — At least one minute and a quarter. 

234. Q.— What would be expected to 
happen if the brake valve was moved to 
release position and the engine brake was 
released with the independent valve and 
the engine throttle opened about 15 sec- 
onds after the movement to release po- 
sition ? 

A. — If the locomotive was powerful 
enough to get away there would likely be 
two or three sections of the train left. 

235. Q.— Why would the train likely 
break in more than one place? 

A. — Because the first break would oc- 
cur near the point where the brakes were 
still applied ; then quick action would 
likely take place at the rear of those cars 
on which the brakes had released, and 
possibly cause one or more breaks-in- 
two. 

236. Q. — Why does quick action ema- 
nating from the rear of a train usually 
result in a break-in-two? 

A. — Because the rear of the train usu- 
ally stops while the head end is still in 
motion. 

237. Q. — How long would you wait be- 
fore opening the engine throttle after a 
brake application if the engine had been 
cut off from the train for some time? 

A. — It would depend somewhat upon 
the pump and main reservoir capacity of 
the locomotive, and the pressure shown 
on the brake- pipe gage after coupling the 
air hose. 

238. Q. — How long, with proper pump 
capacity, even if the pressure was consid- 
erably depleted? 

A. — From 2 to 3 minutes. 
(To be continued.) 



February, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



55 



Car Brake Inspection. 

{Continued from page 21, January, 1918.) 

209. Q. — Why is it not uniform? 

A. — On account of the brake valve of 
the locomotive feeding air into the brake 
pipe at one end of the train while the 
pressure is reducing in the brake pipe 
near the back-up hose connection. 

210. Q. — How are these instructions 
usually varied? 

A. — By local conditions governing the 
various shifting movements. 

211. Q. — In case of a broken brake pipe 
what can be done to keep the car moving 
to a point where the pipe can be re- 
paired ? 

A. — The signal pipe can be used on that 
car to connect up the brake pipe on the 
cars ahead and behind it. 

212. Q.— In what manner? 

A. — By connecting the brake and the 
signal hose couplings. 

213. Q. — Can this be done? 

A. — Yes, but it is sometimes necessary 
t» hammer them together. 

214. Q.— What should be done with the 
hose couplings after they are then 
parted ? 

A. — The hose should be removed and 
the couplings be gauged before they are 
returned to service. 

215. Q. — For what purpose? 

A. — To ascertain if they have been in- 
jured through the hammering together. 

216. Q. — Have air hose ever been 
known to be obstructed? 

A. — Yes; such things as hose linings 
obstructing the hose have occurred, but 
it does not occur with hose of modern 
manufacture. 

217. Q. — How is the freight triple valve 
distinguished from the passenger triple 
valves ? 

A. — The freight triple valves usually 
have two exhaust ports, while the pas- 
senger valve has but one. 

218. Q. — How may they positively be 
distinguished? 

A. — By the bore of the slide valve 
bushing and the bolt holes in the flange. 

219. Q.— What is the bore of the slide 
valve bushing of the H-l triple valve? 

A.— 1% inch. 

220. Q.— What is the bore of the slide 
valve bushing of the P-2 valve? 

A.— \y A inch. 

221. Q. The bore of the H-2 and P-l 
valves ? 

A.— \)i inch. 

222. Q. — How may these two valves 
then be distinguished? 

A.— By the fact that the H-2 valve has 
three bolt holes in the flange and the P-l 
has but one. 

223. Q. — How are the K valves dis- 
tinguished? 

A. — By a fin on the back of the valve, 
placed there for the purpose of distin- 
guishing them from H valves. 

224. Q. — What important difference is 



there in the graduating springs of freight 
and passenger triple valves? 

A. — The passenger valves have a heav- 
ier spring. 

225. Q. — Can you describe the spring of 
the passenger valves? 

A.— It is of \3y 2 coils and of 8/100 
nickeled steel wire. 

226. Q. — What is the freight spring? 
A. — Of 15J/2 coils, and the wire is 

58/1000 in diameter. 

227. Q. — In what other way may the 
springs be distinguished ? 

A. — By their length or free height; the 
freight triple valve spring is 2J4 inches 
and the passenger spring 2% inches. 

228. Q. — How are the freight triple 
valves used with different sized equip- 
ments? 

A. — The H-l and K-l valves are used 
with 8-inch equipments and the H-2 and 
K-2 with 10-inch equipments. 

229. Q. — In the event of making up a 
car in a train that does not happen to be 
equipped with a high-speed reducing 
valve, and the brake-pipe pressure is 110 
lbs., what should be done? 

A. — A safety valve set at 60 lbs. should 
be screwed into the brake cylinder. 

230. Q. — What if one cannot be ob- 
tained? 

A. — The engineer must be notified of 
the condition. 

231. Q. — Should he reduce the brake 
pipe pressure on the train? 

A. — No ; he will remember this condi- 
tion when applying the brakes. 

232. Q. — What could be wrong if an 
emergency application of the brake was 
made and when the brake valve handle 
was placed in release position the brakes 
failed to release and one car was found 
where there was a heavy blow of air 
from the triple valve exhaust port? 

A. — The emergency valve of that triple 
valve would be off its seat. 

233. Q.— What could be holding it off? 
A. — An obstruction on the seat, but 

more likely the emergency piston has 
stuck in the bushing. 

234. Q. — What could be done to reseat 
the valve? 

A. — The brake-pipe stop cock could be 
closed and the auxiliary reservoir bled 
and the valve again cut in quickly, which 
might seat the valve. 

235. Q. — Should such a valve be al- 
lowed to continue in service? 

A. — No ; it might again stick open and 
cause an unnecessary delay. 

236. Q.— What should be done if the 
engine couples to a train and quick action 
of brakes occurs when a service applica- 
tion is attempted? 

A. — A test must be made to locate the 
defective valve. 

237. Q.— How? 

A. — By closing an angle cock in the 
middle of the train and trying the brakes 
on the forward portion. 



238. Q— What would be done if the 
brakes did not then work in undesired 
quick action? 

A. — Release and recharge thoroughly 
and cut in some more cars until the de- 
fective valve were traced down to a cer- 
tain number of cars. 

239. Q. As an example: If the train 
contained 20 cars and quick action devel- 
oped after five cars were added to the 
first 10 that were tested and found to be 
working in service, what would be the 
most positive way in which to locate the 
defective valve? 

A. — By requesting the engineer to make 
a five-pound brake pipe reduction and 
watching to see which brake did not apply. 

240. Q. — What would the brake not ap- 
plying indicate? 

A. — The defective or "sticky" triple 
valve. 

241. Q. — Is there a more positive way 
to locate the defective valve if it becomes 
difficult to locate? 

A. — Yes, by first closing the brake-pipe 
stop cocks in the branch pipes lead- 
ing to each of the suspected triple 
valves, then signaling for the re- 
lease of brakes. After the release of all 
other brakes, the stop cocks should be 
opened very slowly to a point where the 
triple valve receives enough brake-pipe 
pressure to effect a release ; then, after 
waiting a reasonable length of time for 
the reservoirs to become fully charged, 
signal for another application of the 
brake. 

242. Q. — What can be expected during 
this application? 

A. — Only the defective valve can work 
in quick action. 

243. Q.— Why? 

A. — Because the cut-out cocks are so 
nearly closed that when the triple valve 
kicks or "dynamites," it can only go into 
quick action itself, as it cannot reduce 
brake-pipe pressure through the restricted 
opening in the cut-out cock at a sufficient 
rate to produce quick action on the rest 
of the cars. 

244. Q— How will the valve then act 
after it has applied in quick action under 
the conditions mentioned? 

A. — It will release a few seconds after- 
ward. 

245. Q. — What will cause it to release? 

A. — Assuming that 8 or 10 lbs. brake- 
pipe reduction has been made, the brake- 
pipe pressure will be very nearly the 
maximum, but the valve that works in 
quick action will equalize the brake cylin- 
der and auxiliary reservoir pressure at a 
much lower figure than the pressure in 
the brake pipe, and the brake-pipe pres- 
sure will at once flow into the check valve 
case of the triple valve through the re- 
stricted cut-out cock, and in a few sec- 
onds' time the brake will release through 
the triple valve exhaust port. 

(To be continued^) 



56 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1918 



New Design of Locomotive Valve Gear 



Vs we have stated before, perfection 
eludes and ever will elude the seeker 
after the ideal. No better proof of this 
fact can be found than in the ever- 
recurring appearance of a new valve mo- 
tion. The present century has seen quite 
a crop blossom into being on the Ameri- 
can locomotive. The adoption of the 
Wakehaerts' gear was followed by the 
Baker-Pilliod, the Southern, the Young, 



connected to an arm of the tumbling 
shaft at a point spaced from the ends of 
the tumbling shaft, and at its other end 
is connected with the usual reversing 
lever in the cab of the locomotive. An 
auxiliary reach rod is connected at its 
ends with the end of an arm of the 
tumbling shaft, and an apertured exten- 
sion that is formed on the end of a 
tumbling shaft reverse yoke. This yoke 




SIDE VIEW OF THE SMITH VALVE GEAR. 



and others, all stamped by some peculiar- 
ity, and all meeting with more or less 
approval as compared with the old shift- 
ing link or Stephenson valve gear as it 
is generally called. Last month another 
contrivance appeared before us. It is 
the invention of W. L. Smith, Tuscum- 
bia, Ala. The design is marked by sim- 
plicity. The absence of the sliding or 
oscillating link, so common in radial 
gears, gives promise of durability, as the 
wearing parts are few and may readily 
be made substantial, the appliance may 
be attached to different types of loco- 
motives and reversing engines, without 
necessitating any material change in the 
construction of the engine to which it 
is to be attached. 

Our illustrations show a side elevation 
and fragmentary top plan. It will be 
noted that an auxiliary crank is attached 
to the main driving pin, the auxiliary 
crank being coupled to an eccentric rod. 
A frame, consisting of transverse bars, is 
mounted on the locomotive. Plates and 
bars sustain the frame. On the bars near- 
est to the steam chest there is a U- 
shaped bracket in which a bell crank is 
journaled, and connected pivotally at one 
end with the outer end of the valve rod 
or stem, and at its other end is pivotally 
connected to one end of a substantially 
upright link. The link is connected at its 
lower end with the eccentric rod, at the 
extreme end of the eccentric rod. The 
ends of the bell crank are bifurcated to 
receive the ends of the bell crank and 
eccentric rod. 

A tumbling shaft securely mounted on 
the frame extends to a point flush with 
the plates of the frame. A reach rod is 



is U-shaped and straddles the plates on 
the frame. The lower ends of the sides 
of the yoke are pivoted to the frame and 
serve to support and properly guide the 
tumbling yoke, the arms of the yoke be- 
ing arranged upon opposite sides of the 
plates. 
A radius bar or link is pivotally con- 




^H. 



PLAN VIEW OF SMITH VALVE GEAR. 

nected with the eccentric rod at a point 
slightly spaced from the connections of 
the upright link previously alluded to. 
This radius bar or link is approximately 
upright and connected at its upper end 
pivotally with upper arm of the bell 
crank, the lower arm as already stated, 
being attached to the valve rod. The ra- 
dius bar, being supported by the tumbling 
yoke, it will be readily seen that by mov- 
ing the reverse lever the tumbling yoke 
will be moved in an arc, and in so alter- 
ing moves the radius bar link in such a 
way that the eccentric rod is caused to 
change its position and the reversing of 
the valve is resultant. 

Such is a brief description of the new 
valve gear, and it is claimed that by tak- 



ing advantage of the rapid movement of 
the crank and eccentric rod at the lower 
and upper parts of the stroke of the 
crank a quick opening and closing of the 
valve is obtained with a reduced velocity 
when the valve is fully opened. The di- 
mensions of the parts, of course, are such 
as are readily adaptable to the general 
dimensions of any locomotive, and as the 
parts are few in number, the cost of con- 
struction would consequently be corre- 
spondingly less than a more complex 
mechanism, not to speak of the compara- 
tive ease in assembling or disassembling 
the parts. 



Boiler Management. 

Quite recently Mr. C. E. Stromeyer, 
the chief engineer of the Manchester 
(England) Steam Users' Association, 
made some remarks on boiler manage- 
ment, a great deal of which is ap- 
plicable to locomotive firing. He said 
in part : 

While the fire door is open, there is 
practically no combustion on the grate 
and relatively little heat comes from the 
coal on the grate. A distinct loss of 
heat is caused by the rush of cold air 
through the furnace and flues, as this 
cold air takes heat from the brickwork 
and the plates. This is a serious matter. 
The cold air which comes in at the 
open door has not to overcome any 
resistance as it passes over, not through 
a thick bed of coal. It travels with great 
velocity and its weight will be from 50 
to 100 times (say 50 times) the weight 
of the coal which would have been burnt 
in the same time if the door had not 
been open. 

If the average supply of air is 15 lbs. per 
pound of fuel burnt, then for the combus- 
tion of 1 lb. a minute we have a total 
supply of 15- lbs. x 13 mts. = 195 lbs. 
and say 50 lbs. x 2 mts. = 100 lbs., mak- 
ing a total of 295 lbs. in 15 mts. (door 
opened every quarter hour for 2 mts.) 
for the burning of 13 lbs. of coal or 
nearly 20 lbs. of air, instead of the theo- 
retical 15 lbs. The minimum loss through 
the stack with a waste gas temperature of 
500 degs. Fahr. above the atmosphere is 
about 1.5 per cent. If the weight of the 
waste gases is increased to 20 lbs., the 
loss is 20 per cent (about). If it is in- 
creased by poor firing to 30 per cent, the 
loss mounts up to very serious figures. 
If a careless or inexperienced fireman 
keeps the door open 3 or 4 mts. instead 
of even 2 mts., he will easily exceed the 
30 lbs. of air per pound of fuel burnt. 

Roughly speaking, every 2 mts. the door 
is open means a loss of efficiency which 
may reach 5 per cent, and the power of 
the boiler is reduced by about double the 
ratio of open to closed-door time. Not 
only is there no steam production from 
the furnace when a door is opened, but 
the cold air of the furnace actually ab- 






February, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



57 



stracts heat. One of the chief reasons 
why mechanical stokers are economical is 
because with them the doors are never 
opened except for raking or similar pur- 
poses. 

The man who may be watching the 
fireman will soon discover that the more 
quickly the firing is done the more easily 
can steam be maintained, but only if the 
firing is properly done. Suppose that the 
coal is thrown on the grate anyhow ; 
then, as there is less resistance to the 
passage of air at the thin parts than at 
the thick ones, the latter hardly burn away 
at all, while the former burn themselves 
first into pockets and then into holes, and 
long before the next firing is done there 
will be a rush of cold air through these 
holes. This unfavorable condition has, 
of course, to be remedied by raking, but 
that operation introduces cold air and re- 
sults in a diminished steam production 
and a reduced efficiency. 

It would, however, be wrong to forbid 
the raking of the fires or the opening of 
the doors. Some coals must be broken 
up, and some coals, because they produce 
smoke, must be supplied with air 
through the doors. This latter air sup- 
ply has to be regulated by studying the 
smoke discharged from the stack. If 
it is black or dark, then the air supply 
through the firedoor is insufficient; if 
there is no smoke, then there is an ex- 
cess of air either through the door or 
through holes in the bed of the fuel, or 
through the bed of fuel if this is too thin. 

The question of thickness of fire is a 
somewhat complicated one. Let it be as- 
sumed that the fuel on the grate is very 
thin, then much air will pass through it. 
Of this air only a small portion will 
come in contact with the coal, and will 
escape without causing combustion. The 
result will be a relatively large volume 
of waste gases, and the efficiency, or the 
steam production, and the draught will 
be low. If the thickness of the coal were 
to be increased this should result in per- 
fect combustion and high duty, even 
though this thickening increases the re- 
sistance to the air and reduces its flow. 
Any additional thickening will still fur- 
ther reduce the air supply, but as this 
reduction is associated with the evolution 
of combustible gases, the total quantity 
of coal consumed will be increased. But 
the gas which now escapes is partly com- 
bustible, and would carry away much 
potential heat. Here, however, perfect 
combustion can be effected over the bed 
of fuel by admitting air through the door 
and mingling it with the escaping gases. 

Now, it is evident that immediately 
after firing, when the bed of fuel is thick, 
a comparatively large quantity of air 
should be admitted through the fire door, 
but gradually, as the bed of incandescent 
fuel on the grate is reduced, and as more 
and more air passes through it, the air 
supply through the door should be re- 



stricted. The ideal conditions would be 
to pile so much coal on the grate that 
at first there is what might be called per- 
fectly incomplete combustion, and never 
to let the fire burn itself so thin that ex- 
cess air can pass through. The study of 
this subject will take time, for the reason 
the man watching the stoking operation 
should decide to devote a day or two to 
it. He will find that, because of the 
steadily increasing bulk of clinker on the 
grate, the thickness of a fire at the end 
of the day is only apparent. The flow of 
air is then restricted by the clinker even 
more than by coal of the same thickness, 
and therefore, as the fire gets dirtier and 
dirtier, the production of combustible 
gases grows less, and the air admission 
above the bars has to be decreased. These 
changes can be balanced by altering the 
positions of the dampers, unless these are 
already full open because the boiler is 
over-worked. 

Seeing that both steam production and 
economy are affected by the thickness of 
fuel on the grate, an onlooker will be 
interested to study the extremes of thin 
and thick fires. Thin fires, as already 
mentioned, allow too much air to pass 
through the fuel without burning it. The 
heaviest steam production would take 
place when the maximum amount of air 
passes both through the fuel and through 
the door, provided that it is completely 
used up. The best condition varies for 
different coals and for different conditions 
of the bed of fuel. Suppose that this 
best condition has been found with the 
fire door, say, half open. Then, if we 
thicken the bed of fuel, we reduce the 
flow of air through it, but we increase 
the relative amount of combustible gases, 
and the door can perhaps still be kept 
half open, the efficiency is likely to be 
the same as before, but as the amount of 
perfect combustion in the bed of fuel has 
been reduced, the steam production will 
also have been reduced. If now we in- 
crease the thickness of the fuel still 
further, both the perfect and the imper- 
fect combustion in the fuel will be re- 
duced, and the door will have to be par- 
tially closed, unless the space over the 
fuel has a smaller sectional area to that 
of the half-open door. In that case, of 
course, the door will have to be kept full 
open. Under these conditions the power 
will have been reduced, but not the effi- 
ciency. If the thickness of the fire be still 
further increased, insufficient aid will en- 
ter above the grate and both the power 
and the efficiency will be reduced. 

Here it must be understood that Mr. 
Stromeyer is speaking of conditions of 
stationary boiler firing, but it serves to 
show the importance on a locomotive, of 
keeping the door shut. The best con- 
ditions of working are evidently too 
vaguely defined to be determined by trial 
and error. A more rapid determination 
can be made by purposely working under 



extreme conditions of thin and of thick 
fires, and then adopting the mean condi- 
tion as being probably the best. 

Roughly speaking, coals can be divided 
into caking and non-caking. The latter 
break up while burning, and, if disturbed 
by raking, they fall through the grates, 
and the result is much waste. Coal of 
this class should therefore be thrown 
evenly on the grate, and should not be 
disturbed. Considerable manual skill and 
a good eye are required to do this work 
properly. Caking coal must be broken up 
after it has become heated and stuck to- 
gether. Caking coal produces smoke, and 
that has to be avoided. The general 
practice with this coal is therefore to 
throw it on to the front end of the grate. 
Then this mass of coal is broken up 
with a rake and shoved back, the fire 
door being closed some time after. An- 
other method, called side firing, is equally 
effective in preventing smoke. The firing 
interval is divided into two short ones 
and during the one opening of the door 
the fuel is thrown only on the one side 
of the grate, and during the next on the 
other side. The smoke which is pro- 
duced on the newly charged side is con- 
sumer as it passes to the other side. 

In ordinary times, it is, perhaps, not 
necessary for managers to trouble about 
steam production, if one fireman cannot 
maintain steam, or if he burns too much 
coal for the steam produced, he can 
easily be replaced. Today, however, re- 
placements are not easily effected, and 
the substitutes who have taken the place 
of reliable firemen have to be guided into 
methods of firing which will give the best 
results. 

Bad results are, however, not always 
due to the fireman ; in many cases the 
inspection and cleaning of flues it not 
properly carried out. The following re- 
cent case is an instructive one : In a 
certain factory the power requirements 
had increased somewhat, and on account 
of bad coal and poor firemen the steam 
production sank lower and lower, and the 
coal consumption rose higher and higher. 
On the advice of an outsider a sixth 
boiler was added to the five overworked 
ones. The trouble grew worse : even 
more coal was burnt, and less steam was 
produced. Several people were asked 
to give advice. On examining the various 
dimensions it was found that the flue area 
was only suitable for three boilers, and, 
as alteration-, could easily be made, the 
building of a larger flue was recom- 
mended. It was also discovered that there 
was a solid layer of flue dust, which 
must have been damp occasionally, of two 
feet in thickness. The factory can now 
be worked with the greatest ease with 
five boilers and the saving of coal is 
probably well over £1.000 per annum. 
This is stationary practice, but the facts 
are very significant. for locomotive 
enginemen 



58 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1918 



Electrical Department 

The Rotary Converter — Design and Construction — Methods Used In Starting- 
Application of Electric Motors to Machine Tool Drive 



The Rotary Converter. 

In the preceding article we considered 
the railway substation and described in 
detail the two principal methods used in 
getting high tension electric transmission 
wires into the building. We pointed out 
that the apparatus in the substation must 
be protected and that choke coils and 
lightning arresters are installed to pre- 
vent the lightning from entering the sub- 
station on the wires and damaging the 
electrical apparatus. Before considering 
those protective appliances we described 
the oil circuit-breaker, which connects 
and disconnects the high voltage current 
from tile main apparatus, showing in de- 
tail its construction. 

The railway substation as it is generally 
known is for the building containing 
machinery for converting high voltage 
alternating current into direct current, the 
direct current being connected to the 
overhead trolley wires or to the third rail, 
as the case may be, for the operation of 
electric cars or electric locomotives. The 
use of high voltage is economical, in that 
it is possible to generate all of the power 
for a long railway electric section at one 
centralized point in a main powerhouse. 
Electric power can then be distributed to 
the various substations located along the 
right-of-way at a high voltage and then 
stepped down to a lower voltage and con- 
verted into direct current for use by the 
electric motors. The generation of power 
at one point costs much less per unit of 
power (the kilowatt hour) than if gen- 
erated at several points, and the losses 
in transmission are not excessive, the effi- 
ciency of a system of this kind being at 
least 80 per cent. 

In the substation, as mentioned above, 
we have traced the current up to and 
through the oil circuit-breaker. Without 
considering, at the present time, the ap- 
paratus for lighting protection, the cur- 
rent after leaving the oil-breaker passes to 
the main apparatus. 

This main apparatus consists of a bank of 
transformers (by a bank we mean a group 
or several, which usually consists of 
three), and the machine for converting 
the alternating current to direct current. 
The machine is a rotating one and is 
called a rotary converter or synchronous 
converter. The use of the first name is 
perfectly obvious, namely, that it is a 
piece of apparatus which converts electric 
current from one kind to the other and 
rotates. The use of the second name is 
equally obvious to the electrical man, but 
not quite so common, perhaps. The word 



synchronous means, to happen or take 
place at the same time — in other words, 
to keep in step. When applied to the elec- 
trical field it means that the machine is 
keeping step with the electric generator 
at the powerhouse. We know that alter- 
nating current is not of a constant value, 
but has a certain frequency or alter- 
nations. This frequency in the current 
waves, when connected to a closed field 
winding around the frame of a motor, 
causes rotation of the armature. There 




FTC. 1.— ROTARY CONVERTER COMPLETE. 

are two kinds of alternating current mo- 
tors, the induction motor and the syn- 
chronous motor. When a load is put on 
the induction motor the rotor or armature 
does not run as fast as the field rotates 
(the field rotation remains constant and 
only varies if the frequency varies), and 
the difference in speed is called the 
"slip." (See issue of March, 1911, page 
125.) 
The svnchronous motor is different to 




FIG. 2.- -PARTLY 
VSSEMB1 ED. 



FIG. 3.— COMPLETE 

ARMATURE. 



this. The armature rotates in step with 
the field and does not vary with the load ; 
in other words, there is no slip. The ro- 
tary converter is a synchronous motor 
driving a direct current generator, so to 
speak, except instead of two different ma- 
chines coupled together the two features 
are combined into one machine. The 
speed is constant under all loads, hence 
the name synchronous converter. 

Let us see how the conversion of alter- 
nating current into direct current takes 



place. The rotary converter consists of 
an armature revolving in a frame fitted 
with pole pieces and fields. A complete 
rotary converter is shown in Fig. 1. 

The armature is of the drum-wound 
type. Thin sheet steel laminations are 
supported in dove-tailed grooves on a 
cast-steel spider, to which is fitted a com- 
mutator on one side and a series of cop- 
per rings on the other. The armature 
partially wound is shown in Fig. 2 and 
the commutator is shown in place. The 
completed armature looking at the oppo- 
site side and showing the slip rings is 
illustrated in Fig. 3. 

The laminations are carefully annealed. 
They are assembled with air ducts for 
ventilation. The armature coils are form- 
wound and are interchangeable. One end 
of each coil is connected to the commu- 
tator as in the case of the direct current 
generator, but unlike the generator con- 
nections are made at the other end at cer- 
tain positions, to the copper or collector 
rings. 

The alternating current, passing 
through the circuit-breaker, is reduced or 
stepped down to a low voltage of approx- 
imately 400 volts by the bank of trans- 
formers. The low alternating current 
voltage is applied through the collector 
rings to the armature winding. The ro- 
tary then starts running, comes up to 
speed, and is in reality a synchronous 
motor. At the same time, on account of 
the rotation of the armature, the windings 
or the conductors are (Jutting the lines of 
force from the fields which are located 
around the frame, and this voltage is 
commutated by the commutator and di- 
rect current is taken off by means of the 
carbon brushes. As explained before, 
there is but one winding on the armature 
and it is connected to both the commu- 
tator and the collector rings. Analysis of 
the flow of currents in the armature 
winding shows that part of the current 
passes from the collector rings directly 
through the winding to the commutator 
and flows through but a part of the 
winding. 

A rotary converter has a certain ap- 
proximate ratio between the alternating 
current voltage applied and the double 
current voltage delivered, the ratio de- 
pending on the winding of the rotary. It 
is well to know these voltages and they 
are here tabulated for our readers. There 
are several different arrangements of 
winding rotary converters so that the 
ratio of the two voltages is given 
for each rotary machine concerned : 



February, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



59 



Assuming 
D. C. Voltage 

to be 1.0 
A. C. Voltage 
Type will be 

Single phase 707 

Two phase 707 

Three phase 615 

Six phase double delta 615 

Six phase diametrical 707 

There are three different methods used 
in starting rotary converters, namely— 
(1) motor starting, (2) direct current 
self-starting, and (3) alternating current 
self-starting. 

In the first method the shaft of the con- 
verter is extended and an induction motor 
is mounted on it of sufficient size to turn 
over the armature and bring it up to 
speed. The speed of the induction motor 
is higher than the synchronous speed of 
the rotary. In starting, the induction 
motor is run up, and when the speed 
of the rotary reaches that of the syn- 
chronous, the A. C. power is connected 
to the slip rincs by the closing of the oil 
circuit-breaker. The current is then dis- 
connected from the starting motor. 

In the second method the rotary is 
started like a direct current shunt-motor 
by the application of the direct current. 
When speed is reached the A. C. is con- 
nected to the power supply and voltages 
adjusted so that the rotary is delivering 
D. C. current back into the D. C. line. 

In the third case the converter is 
started by the direct application of the 
alternating currents, at reduced voltage, 
to the slip rings. 



Applications of Motors to Machines 
While the number of steam railroads 
which have been electrified is comparative- 
ly small, it does not signify that they are 
entirely unacquainted with the principles 
of electricity. Railroads are equipped with 
signals, small power stations are operated 
for light and power, and shops are pro- 
vided with machine tools fitted with elec- 
tric motors, giving individual drive. 
There are very few railroad shops which 
are entirely equipped with electric motor 
drive, and it is the purpose of this article 
to take up a few of the most common 
machine tools found in railroad shops 
and explain the correct methods of drive, 
together with the horsepower required for 
different sizes. 

The horsepower recommended is based 
on average practice ; it may be decreased 
for light work and must be increased for 
very heavy work. There are three class- 
es of motors generally used in machine 
tool work namely: (1) Adjustable-speed 
shunt-wound direct current motors where- 
ever a number of speeds is essential ; 
(2) constant-speed shunt-wound motors 
(direct current) where the speeds are 
obtainable by a gear box or cone pulley 
arrangement or where only one speed is 
required; (3) squirrel-cage induction 
motor where direct current is not avail- 



able. A gear box or cone pulley arrange- 
ment is used for different speeds. 

Boring and Turning Mills. All three 
of the types mentioned may be used. 
Size Horsepower 

of tool Average Heavy 

37 to 42 inches 5 to 7'/ 2 7'/ 2 to 10 
50 inches 7</ 2 7 l / 2 to 10 

60 to 84 inches 7Vz to 10 10 to 15 
Bulldozers or Forming or Bending Ma- 
chines. Compound-wound motors are 
used for shunt wound. 
Width Head Movement 

Inches Inches H. P. 

29 14 5 

34 16 7Vi 

39 16 10 

45 18 15 

63 20 20 

Drilling and Boring Machines. All 
three types may be used. 

II. P. 
Sensitive drills up to \ 2 in. J4 to Ya, 

Upright drills 12 to 20 in. 1 

Upright drills 24 to 28 in. 2 

Upright drills 30 to 32 in. 3 

Upright drills 36 to 40 in. 5 

Upright drills 50 to 60 in. 5 to 7y 2 

H.P. 
Heavy 
Radial drills, 3 ft. arm 3 

Radial drills, 4 ft. arm 5 to 7y 2 

Radial drills, 5, 6, 7 ft. arm 5 to 7 l / 2 
Radial drills, 8, 9, 10 ft. arm. 7y 2 to 10 

H.P. 
Average 
Radial drills, 3 ft. arm 1 to 2 

Radial drills, 4 ft. arm 2 to 3 

Radial drills, 5, 6, 7 ft. arm 3 to 5 
Radial drills, 8, 9, 10 ft. arm 5 to 7j4 
Cylinder Boring Machines. All three 
types may be used. 
Dia. of Spindle Max. Boring Dia 
Inches. Inches H. P. 

4 20 7Y 2 

6 30 10 

8 40 15 

Lathes. All three types may be used. 
Engine Lathes 
Swing Horsepower 

Inches Average Heavy 

12 ^ 2 



Many times it is very convenient to 
know the horsepower required to take a 
given cut on a lathe or other machines 
using a round-nose tool. Different horse- 
power is required for different metals. If 
we have a constant for each metal and 
know the cubic inches of metal removed 
per minute, then we can determine the 
horsepower. The rate of removing metal 
can be determined by the aid of a dia- 



DlAGMM shoeing RCLATIQH 

BCTWCCH 

AecA or cur SQi* 

Curriuc sitco ncea-turn 

Cubic hums or mcth cvrmuiwrc 




14 


Ya, to 1 


2 to 3 


16 


1 to 2 


2 to 3 


18 


2 to 3 


3 to 5 


20 to 22 


3 


7y 2 to 10 


24 to 27 


5 


7Y 2 to 10 


30 


5 to 7y 2 


7y 2 to io 


32 to 36 


7y 2 to io 


10 to 15 


38 to 42 


10 to 15 


15 to 20 


48 to 54 


IS to 20 


20 to 25 


60 to S4 


20 to 25 
Wheel Lathes 


25 to 30 


Size 


Tail 


Stock Motor 


Inches 


H.P. 


H.P. 


48 


15 to 20 


5 


51 to 60 


15 to 20 


5 


79 to 84 


25 to 30 


5 


90 


30 to 40 


5 to iy 2 


100 


40 to 50 


5 to ' 



JO 40 SO bO V »SC* 

Cutting speed fatpermnvte 

DIAGRAM OF RELATIONS. 



gram. (Not shown.) The figures in the 
vertical column at the left represent areas 
of cut and those in the bottom horizontal 
row are cutting speeds in feet per minute. 
The figures on the oblique lines are cubic 
inches of metal removed per minute. To 
illustrate the use of such a diagram we 
will take an example. Assume that the cut- 
ting speed is 60 ft. per minute, that the 
depth of cut is ^-inch and with 1/16- 
inch feed. The area of metal or cut is 
then .015 square inch. The intersection 
of the horizontal line through .015 and 
the vertical line through 60 is on the 
oblique line 11 — i. e., there are 11 cubic 
inches of metal removed per minute 

Knowing the amount of metal removed, 
the constant for the metal being worked 
can now be applied. For cast iron from 
0.3 to 0.5 H. P. per cubic inch per minute 
is required ; for wrought iron, machin- 
ery steel, 0.6 H. P. per cubic inch per 
minute ; for steel 50 carbon and harder. 
1.00-1.25 H. P. per cubic inch per min- 
ute ; for brass and similar alloys, 0.2 to 
0.25 H. P. per cubic inch per minute. 

For the average work of drills the 
H. P. is estimated in a similar way. The 
cubic inches per minute are calculated by 
the formula Q -=- .7854 X d,f, where d is 
the diameter of the drill in inches and f 
the feed in inches per minute. The con- 
stants to apply are approximately double 
those given above. 



60 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1918 



Headway or Spacing of Trains 

By WALTER V. TURNER, Manager of Engineering, Westinghouse Air Brake Co. 



Obviously the design of an efficient 
brake for passenger equipment is very 
closely related to the headway or spac- 
ing of trains on which the brake is to 
be used, and the fundamental considera- 
tion for the headway or spacing of trains 
is the element of safety. Safety of opera- 
tion in turn depends upon the possible 
retardation or ability to stop; the maxi- 
hum speed, and the installation and 
characteristics of signal apparatus. These 
factors are arranged in order of relative 
importance, though, of course, each is 
closely bound up in, and not to be dis- 
associated from, the others. 

The minimum headway for the move- 
ment of trains may be determined in two 
different ways. One method is to base 
the proper time interval between the 
trains, on a system of trains running at 
maximum speed. The other is to base 
this time spacing on the closing-tip of 
trains at statio)ts. The method of these 
two which gives the larger minimum 
headway must be the one to use for the 
conditions in question, for obviously of 
two critical values, the safer — which is 
the larger — must always be chosen. 

In the subsequent analysis certain as- 
sumptions are to be understood, namely, ' 
straight and level track, with no irregu- 
lar local conditions, and carrying traffic 
in one direction only; a block system 
equal in length to twice the emergency 
stop distance from the maximum speed ; 
stop distances proportional to the square 
of the maximum speed, duration of re- 
tardation directly proportional to the 
maximum speed. 

It is needless to attempt an investiga- 
tion of this kind with a thousand and one 
variables. The modifications necessary to 
apply the results herein established to 
special conditions of grade, curvature, 
interlockings, and other local conditions 
will be apparent, once the results are un- 
derstood. The above assumptions are 
sufficiently accurate in every respect to 
make worth while this analysis of the 
factors influencing headway for train 
movements. No attempt will be made to 
deal with the laying out of a signal sys- 
tem for the system of trains to be con- 
sidered, as this may be found complete 
and in detail elsewhere. 

In general, trains running at speed 
should be spaced by a distance equal to 
the sum of — 

1. The length of the train. 

2. The length of the complete block 
system. 

3. The distance between the distant and 
home signal. 

4. The distance sufficient to permit the 
signal to clear and the engineman to 
identify the signal indication. 



In the New York Subway the overlap 
system of signals is used, which provides 
for two home signals and one distant sig- 
nal protecting the rear of each train. In 
order to give each following train a clear 
distant signal (and this should be the 
normal condition), the complete block 
section plus the distance between the dis- 
tant signal and the second home signal 
should be taken as three times the length 
of the block, or as six times the emer- 
gency stop distance of the train. 

The distance spacing for this system is 
illustrated in the following figure. 

The Constant C (item 4 in the list 
above) may be a given distance or a 
given time. If taken as a constant dis- 
tance, the time will, of course, vary, ac- 
cording to speed. The Time spacing or 



speed, that is, the braking distance will 
equal some constant times the square of 
the speed. Whence, substituting in (1) 
kV+NL+C. 

(2) H, = 

1.467 V 
If the allowance C, as illustrated, be 
taken as Time instead of a space con- 
stant to permit signals to clear and mo- 
torman to identify them, (2) becomes, 
kV'+NL 

(3) H, = K« 

1.467 V 
Solving (3) for V, we have in quad- 
ratic form • 

(tfr-C.) V215(H r -Ct)'-4kNL 

(4) ^=.733 — | 

k 2k 

The headway determined by closing up 



-^ 



•-• RuTomatic stop operative. 

' 3t °f ^operative L- Cyvr/ep ■ 



Tram B 



~UU 



-BIock- 



-07T 



-Dloch - 



\r-c- 

£- Constant distance (or time) 
allowance fbr oiqnais To dear and 
for rnotorman to identify indication. 



■ Dloch - 



Tram ft 



~ snr 



Tran length 



X 



Total spacing fbr Train-3 



DIAGRAM OF OVERLAP SYSTEM OF BLOCK SIGNALS 
ILLUSTRATING SPACING OF TRAINS. 



headway between trains will be the time 
necessary to run this total distance spac- 
ing, or expressed mathematically, 

6S. + NL + C. 

(1) W,= 

1.467 V 
where : 

H r = headway determined by running 
at speed (seconds) ; 

Se = emergency stop distance ( feet) 
from 

V = maximum speed (mph) ; 

C— space constant (feet); 

N = number of cars in train ; 

L = length of each car (feet). 

While the kinetic energy of a train 
varies directly with the square of the 
speed, the retarding force, due to the 
brake shoe friction, is decreased with an 
increase of speed. On the other hand, 
the initial or reflex time required for get- 
ting the brakes into action — constant of 
course for any speed — is of decreasing 
importance, relative to the total time for 
stopping, as the speed is increased. It is 
found that the influence of these two 
factors, reflex time and brake shoe fric- 
tion, are approximately counteractive, 
and, therefore, the stop distance will 
vary directly with the square of the 



at stations is illustrated in the attached 
diagram indicated as sheet No. 1, and a 
comparison is made with the headway 
determined by running at speed. The 
progress of two trains, B following A 
from one station to another, is traced by 
the lines F and R. These lines mark the 
progress of the front and rear ends of 
each train on a time-distance basis. 
Train B is shown just having left the 
first station at the time (70 seconds) 
after train A has advanced from this 
station about 3,000 feet and is running 
at full speed. Train A stops at the sec- 
ond station, 4,160 feet from the first, at 
about 96 seconds after leaving the first. 
After a station stop of 20 seconds, as 
shown, it starts again for the third sta- 
tion (not shown). 

Curve D (dotted) marks the danger 
zone inside which the head end of train B 
must not come if the rear end of the train 
A is to be safe. This zone is based upon 
the service braking distance for the 
speeds at which train B is running under 
normal operation at the particular points 
in question along the right of way. Curve 
Fb is tangent to curve D at point c, 
where the braking must begin for the 
stop of train B at station two. The time 



February, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



61 



interval between this critical point for 
train B and the corresponding point d 
for train A is the headway (Hs), de- 
termined by trains closing up at stations 
and is seen to be the sum of, (1) the 
time to make the service stop, (Ts) ; (2) 
the time the train is held at the station 
(Tw), and (3) the time required to ac- 
cellerate one train length (Ta). This is 
the limiting or critical value for the head- 
way and cannot, of course, be realized in 
actual practice, because, among other 
things, the time of station stop will 
change with varying numbers of pas- 
sengers to be loaded or handled. Sup- 
pose, under the condition shown, the 
time of station stop for train A had been 
lengthened S seconds. This would cause 
an intersection of curve D with Fb at t, 
requiring that train B start braking at 



(27 seconds) to accelerate one train 
length (670) feet), the time for service 
braking is only 25 per cent, the time of 
station stop, 32 per cent, and the time 
to accelerate, 43 per cent, of the total 
headway of 63 seconds. The recent im- 
provement made in the electro-pneumatic 
brake in reducing by two seconds the 
reflex time for brake application still 
further diminishes the comparative slight 
interference which the modern brake of- 
fers to the proposition of operating 
trains without any headway at all. In 
other words, the air brake art, as exempli- 
fied in rapid transit service, has come to 
that stage of perfection, has so far main- 
tained its lead in the advance of other 
factors entering into the movements of 
trains, that a 10 per cent improvement in 
the brake performance would now result 



stop now requiring but 14 seconds and 
500 feet, the significance may be better 
grasped of the above comparison as to 
realization of opportunity and fulfillment 
of economic trust in the development 
progress of the air brake. 

Curve S of the diagram under con- 
sideration, represents the time-distance 
path of the front end of train B follow- 
ing A on a headway (Hr) of 51 seconds, 
determined by running at the maximum 
speed of 40 miles per hour. This is 12 
seconds less than the headway (Hs) de- 
termined by closing up at stations, there- 
fore the latter must govern; for note 
that curve S enters the danger zone at 
a, and if train B were permitted to con- 
tinue as indicated by S, it would come 
within 40 feet of train A at b. Were 
anything to detain train A by one sec- 



CoHPmsoN by TffA/N Sheet or riiNinun Hcmwav tvf[ Hove/ient or / 

TnpiNs Determined by Ciqsinc-Up ot SnmoNi mm Tfiar Drrrf{/iiwDJ-=- 
or Running ar Speed. Sheet N<* I 

ft, " Headtuay determined by 'cbsmg-up' at stations a TTme (J t *CV) for service stop * Time (%) 
of station stop + Time (T A ) for acceteratinq one tram length (NL " IQ'6? • 67D feet) ) 

• 16 seconds (/i'4.0) + £0 sec. + Z7 sec ~ 63 seconds Is — " 

• LS.& % t M? % t ai.s % - IOO X j^*"^ ^ /^X "-] — ; 
ttf m Headway determined by running at speed ' Time to run, at speed. 

distance equal to : one complete b/ocn section (6 * emergency stop- 

distance, in Orerldp System nhere one distant and two ^^^* ^ — *T!i^' 

name sionals protect rear of each tram) * train ~^\ ^^^^ StS* 

lenaih + allowance (so ft) for identification 

of sianaf indication * 

mwn' * iQ't? <■ jo 

U6?'4i 




Station Nil 



Distance -.feet. 



this point and advance to the usual sta- 
tion stop at point v, as indicated by 
curve T. In this case the initial delay of 
5 seconds has resulted in a final delay of 
18 seconds. This would react corre- 
spondingly on the trains following B, 
causing an ever-accumulating delay until 
the whole service would be disorganized. 
The actual headway for service must al- 
low a comfortable safety factor to avoid 
troubles of this kind. However, for the 
purposes of comparison, the theoretical 
minimum for headway will be used in 
every case unless otherwise noted. 

Examination of the three factors that 
go to make up the headway based on 
closing up at stations reveals that, with 
the assumed condition of speed (40 miles 
per hour), service braking distance (580 
feet) and time (16 seconds), and time 



in only 2.5 per cent betterment in the 
total headway, whereas a 10 per cent 
improvement in the acceleration would 
mean a 4.3 per cent reduction in head- 
way, or almost twice the saving. Do not 
make the mistake of believing that the 
part of the brake here resembles a sav- 
ing of 10 per cent in the cost of brass 
buttons for the conductor, which results 
in a net overall saving in operating ex- 
penses of one ten-thousandth of one per 
cent or less. It should not be necessary 
to emphasize the fact that the ability to 
move trains at all depends upon the ability 
to control them. When it is considered 
that the brake equipment in the same 
subway service in 1906 required 41 sec- 
onds and 1,450 feet, with no measure of 
the same application flexibility and no 
release flexibility whatever, to make the 



ond or more, either at the station or 
after starting therefrom, a collision 
would be the result. Were braking to 
commence on train B at point a, due to 
proper signal observance of the danger 
zone, the initial delay of 12 seconds 
would be multiplied into a longer delay. 



Preventing Rust. 
A new rust preventing process for 
machines is an application to the surface 
of the iron or steel of iron phosphates, 
which are insoluble, and not corroded 
under ordinary conditions. After thor- 
ough cleansing, a bath containing ferric 
and ferrous phosphates is prepared and 
the articles immersed in the bath, and 
then a little managanese dioxide is added, 
at boiling water temperature. 



62 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1918 



Items of Personal Interest 



Mr. John R. Tunison has been appoint- 
ed traveling fireman of the Central Rail- 
road of New Jersey. 

Mr. Harry J. Freund has been appoint- 
ed traveling fireman of the Central Rail- 
road of New Jersey. 

Mr. C. E. Nutter has been appointed 
chief electrician of the Santa Fe at Tope- 
ka, Kan., succeeding Mr. L. M. Gazin. 

Mr. R. C. Beaver has been appointed 
assistant mechanical engineer of the Bes- 
semer & Lake Erie, with office at Green- 
ville, Pa. 

Mr. F. N. Wilson, formerly engineer 
of fuel economy of the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific, has been appointed chief 
fuel inspector. 

Mr. B. J. Peasley has been appointed 
mechanical superintendent of the St. 
Louis Southwestern of Texas, with office 
at Tyler, Tex. 

Mr. L. F. Couch has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Memphis, Dallas 
4 Gulf, with office at Nashville, succeeding 
Mr. F. J. Sears. 

Mr. J. B. Conerly has been appointed 
master car builder of the Missouri, Kan- 
sas & Texas Lines, with headquarters at 
Denison, Texas. 

Mr. A. H. Hackfield has been appointed 
master mechanic and roadmaster of the 
Southwestern railway, with office at 
Anchor City, Tex. 

Mr. Howard H. Kane has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the Gulf 
Coast Lines, Texas Division, with office 
at Kingsville, Tex. 

Mr. R. D. Wilson has been appointed 
assistant chief car inspector of the Cen- 
tral Railroad of New Jersey, with office 
at Jersey City, N. J. 

Mr. E. S. Pearce has been appointed 
mechanical engineer of the Big Four at 
Beech Grove, Ind., succeeding Mr. W. E. 
Ricketson, promoted. 

Mr. P. S. Winter has been appointed 
general car foreman of the Bessemer & 
Lake Erie, with- supervision over the car 
shops at Greenville, Pa. 

Mr. Ernest S. Draper has been ap- 
pointed engineer of structures of the Bos- 
ton & Albany, with office at Boston, Mass., 
succeeding Mr. A. D. Case. 

Mr. R. H. Nicholas, formerly general 
foreman of the Central of New Jersey at 
Communipaw, N. J., engine terminal, has 
been appointed assistant master mechanic. 

Mr. W. J. Eddy, formerly superintend- 
ent of fuel economy of the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific, has been appointed mas- 
ter mechanic, with office at El Dorado, 
Ark. 

Mr. Charles T. Sugars has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the Louis- 
iana & Northwest, with headquarters at 
Homer, La., succeeding Mr. J. S. Moth- 



erwell, resigned to accept service with 
another company. 

Mr. Albert Husk has been appointed 
foreman of the Nashville, Chattanooga 
& St. Louis shops, at Lexington, succeed- 
ing Mr. S. L. Hernden, assigned to other 
duties. 

Mr. Daniel Sinclair, formerly road fore- 
man of engines of the Northern Pacific, 
with office at Glendive, Mont., has been 
appointed fuel supervisor, with office at 
Glendive. 

Mr. J. H. Weston has been appointed 
road foreman of engines on the Minne- 
sota division of the Northern Pacific, with 
office at Staples, succeeding Mr. M. S. 
Montgomery. 

Mr. A. E. Warren, formerly assistant 
manager of the Canadian Northern has 
been appointed head of Canada's govern- 
ment owned railway systems,, with head- 
quarters at Ottawa. 

Mr. L>. K. Davis has been appointed 




MAJOR FREDERICK MF.ARS. 

roundhouse foreman of the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul at Ottumwa Junction, 
la., succeeding Mr. H. Collins, trans- 
ferred to Savanna, 111. 

Mr. S. W. Law, formerly electrical sig- 
nal engineer of the Northern Pacific, with 
office at St. Paul, Minn., has been pro- 
moted to assistant signal engineer, with 
office at St. Paul, Minn. 

Mr. Thomas Allison has been appointed 
road foreman of engines on the Pasco 
division of the Northern Pacific, with 
headquarters at Pasco, Wash., succeeding 
Mr. C. A. Wirth, promoted. 

Mr. J. S. Motherwell, formerly master 
mechanic of the Louisiana & Northwest 
at Horner, La., has been appointed master 
mechanic of the Oklahoma, New Mexico 
& Pacific, with office at Ardmore, Okla. 



Mr. F, Meredith, formerly road for«- 
man of equipment of the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific at Silvis, 111., has been 
appointed supervisor of fuel economy of 
the Iowa, Nebraska & Colorado divisions, 
with office at Fairbury, Neb. 

Mr. W. W. Warner, formerly foreman 
of the car department of the Erie at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, has been appointed shop su- 
perintendent at Kent, Ohio, with jurisdic- 
tion over the west half of the Meadville 
and east half of the Kent divisions. 

Mr. A. J. Klumb, formerly assistant 
master mechanic of the Milwaukee shopi 
of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, has 
been appointed division master rnechanic 
on the Prairie du Chien and Mineral 
Point division, with office at Milwaukee. 

Mr. P. Smith, formerly assistant en- 
gineer of fuel economy of the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific, has been appointed 
supervisor of fuel economy on the Cedar 
Rapids, Minnesota, Dakota & Des Moines 
divisions, with office at Cedar Rapids, la. 

Mr. S. H. Brenamen, formerly resident 
engineer on the improvement work done 
by the Pennsylvania in Johnstown, Pa., 
land vicinity, has been placed in charge of 
jthe survey for the electrification of the 
Pennsylvania between Johnstown and Al- 
toona. 

Mr. J. E. Buckingham, formerly north- 
jwestern representative of the Standard 
Steel Works Company, with offices in the 
Northwest Bank Building, Portland, Ore., 
has been appointed general manager of 
the Hofins Steel & Equipment Company, 
Seattle, Wash. 

Major Frank G. Jonah, formerly chief 
engineer of the St. Louis-San Francisco, 
has been appointed chief engineer in 
charge of light railways in the office of 
the director-general of transportation in 
France. Major Jonah was attached to 
the 12th Engineers. 

Mr. H. D. Webster has been appointed 
engineer of motive power of the Bessemer 
& Lake Erie; Mr. C. C. Richardson, as- 
sistant to the superintendent of motive 
power; Mr. F. W. Dickenson, master car 
builder, and Mr. C. L. Tuttle, mechanical 
engineer; all with headquarters at Green- 
ville, Pa. 

Mr. E. T. Mumma, formerly electrical 
engineer in charge of the electric sub- 
stations of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul main line, has been appointed super- 
intendent of the telegraph and telephone 
department on the Anchorage division of 
the Alaska railways, succeeding Mr. Her- 
bert Gaytes. 

Mr. A. R. Ruiter, formerly master 
mechanic of the Rock Island at Kansas 
City, Kan., has been transferred to El 
Reno, Okla., as master mechanic, suc- 
ceeding Mr. G. M. Stone, transferred 
to Manly, la., as master mechanic, sue- 



February, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



63 



ceeding Mr. N. T. Fitzgerald, transferred 
to Trenton, Mo. 

Mr. J. K. Booth, formerly general fore- 
man of the Bessemer & Lake Erie, at 
Greenville, Pa., has been appointed 
master mechanic, with supervision over 
the locomotive department shops at 
Greenville, and Mr. E. F. Richardson 
has been appointed assistant to the en- 
gineer of motive power. 

Mr. F. S. Wilcoxen, formerly mechani- 
cal representative of the Pilliod Com- 
pany, New York, has accepted a position 
with the Perolin Railway Service Com- 
pany as special representative. Mr. Wil- 
coxen has had a thorough experience as 
an all-round railway man in the mechanical 
departments of several of the leading 
railways. 

Mr. H. C. Dimmitt, formerly district 
master mechanic of the River and Iowa & 
Minnesota divisions of the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul, has been appointed 
division master mechanic of the same divi- 
sion, and Mr. P. J. Muller, formerly 
roundhouse foreman at Sioux City, Iowa, 
has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Southern Minneapolis division, with 
office at Austin, Minn. 

Major Frederick Mears, formerly mem- 
ber of the Alaskan Engineering Commis- 
sion operating the government railroad in 
Alaska, has resigned his place in the com- 
mission to join the railroad engineering 
forces in France, and Mr. William Grey, 
consulting engineer on the Alaskan En- 
gineering Commission has been appointed 
engineer in charge of the Anchorage 
division of the Alaska railways. 

Mr. J. W. White has been appointed 
manager of the power and railway divi- 
sion of the Detroit office of the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company. 
Mr. White was formerly connected with 
the Pittsburgh office of the company, sub- 
sequently becoming associated with the 
Allis Chalmers Company, and has now re- 
turned to the Westinghouse Company, as- 
suming the position above noted. 

Mr. W. H. Hart, formerly assistant dis- 
trict master mechanic of the Superior 
division of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul, with office at Green Bay, Wis., has 
been appointed division master mechanic 
with the same headquarters, and Mr. J. 
Bjorkholm, formerly traveling engineer, 
with office at Milwaukee, Wis., has been 
appointed master mechanic of the Chicago 
terminal with office at Chicago, III. 

Mr. J. H. Phillips, formerly traveling 
engineer of the Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul, has been appointed division 
master mechanic on the Northern divi- 
sion, with office at Horicon, Wis., and 
Mr. John Turney, formerly assistant mas- 
ter mechanic of the Twin City terminals, 
with office at Minneapolis, Minn., has been 
appointed division master mechanic of the 
same division, with office at Minneapolis. 
Mr. M. F. Smith, formerly division 
master mechanic on the La Crosse and 



Wisconsin Valley division of the Chicago, 
Malwaukee & St. Paul, with office at Mil- 
waukee shops, has been promoted to dis- 
trict master mechanic with the same head- 
quarters, and Mr. William Joost, formerly 
roundhouse foreman at the Milwaukee 




\V. T. TEXKS. 

shops, Iihs been appointed master mechanic 
of the Milwaukee terminal and the Chi- 
cago and Milwaukee division, with office 
at Milwaukee. 

Mr. Milton Rupert has been elected 
vice president and assistant treasurer of 
the R. D. Nuttall Company, Pittsburgh, 
Pa., manufacturers of gear, pinions and 




HENRY II. VAUGHAN. 

trolleys. Mr. XuttaM has been employed 
for the last twenty-seven \cars in vari- 
ous capacities in the company's service 
and is familiar with all office and manu- 
facturing operations. Latterly he was as- 
sistant to the president and general man- 
ager. He will have charge of sales and 
manufacturing activities. 



Mr. N. L. Bean, formerly assistant to 
the president of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford, has been appointed as- 
sistant to the general mechanical super- 
intendent. Mr. Bean graduated from the 
University of Minnesota as mechanical 
engineer in 1902, and served as special 
apprentice with the Great Northern. He 
served in various official capacities in the 
mechanical department of several of the 
Western roads, and also as locomotive 
inspector at the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works. 

Mr. W. J. Jenks, formerly general 
superintendent of the Western general 
division of the Norfolk & Western, has 
been appointed general manager of the 
road. Mr. Jenks has had a wide experi- 
ence in the operating department of the 
leading railroads in the South. He is from 
Raleigh, N. C, and entered railroad 
service in 1886 as telegraph operator on 
the Raleigh & Augusta Air Line, now 
the Seaboard Air Line, and has served as 
chief dispatcher, trainmaster, superin- 
tendent and chairman of the car allot- 
ment committee. 

Mr. Thomas J. Cole, formerly master 
mechanic of the Erie at Meadville, Pa., 
has been appointed shop superintendent 
at Meadville. Mr. T. F. Gorman, gen- 
eral foreman at Brier Hill, Youngsrown, 
Ohio, has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Meadville division, succeeding Mr. 
Cole. Mr. Lee R. Laizure, formerly mas- 
ter mechanic at Hornell, N. Y., has been 
appointed shop superintendent at Hornell, 
and Mr. Albert J. Davis, formerly gen- 
eral foreman at Hornell, has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the Allegheny 
and Bradford division, with office at 
Hornell. 

Mr. Henry H. Vaughan has been elected 
president of the Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers. Mr. Vaughan was born in 
England in 1868 and came to America in 
1891. He had some experience in railway 
shop work in England, and after several 
years' service with the Great Northern, 
he became mechanical engineer of the 
Q. and C. Company, and of the Railway 
Supply Company of Chicago. In 1902 he 
became superintendent of motive power 
of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, 
resigning in 1904 to accept a position with 
the Canadian Pacific as superintendent of 
motive power for eastern lines. In 1905 
Mr. Vaughan was appointed assistant to 
the vice-president, and resigned in 1915 
to accept the presidency of the Montreal 
Ammunition Company. Mr. Vaughan is 
also vice-president and manager of the 
Dominion Copper Products Company, 
vice-president of the Albany Car Wheel 
Company, and is a member of the board 
of directors of the Dominion Bridge Com- 
pany. Mr. Vaughan was president of 
the American Railway Master Mechanics' 
Association jh 1908, and is a member 
of many of the leading engineering so- 
cieties. 



64 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1918 



OBITUARY. 

George W. Kiehm. 

It is with a feeling of profound sorruw 
that we have learned of the death of 
George W. Kiehm, at his residence in 
Washington, D. C. Mr. Kiehm was in 
the front rank of air brake experts in 
America and conducted the Air Brake 
Department in Railway and Locomotive 
Engineering since 1909. He was also 
chief air brake inspector of the Washing- 
ton Terminal Company. He was from 
Johnsbury. Pa., and entered the service of 
the Baltimore & Ohio in 1895. He .had 
a wide experience on several of the 
Hastern roads, particularly on the An- 
napolis, Washington & Baltimore, the 
Pennsylvania, and latterly on the Wash- 
ington Terminal. Of a studious dispo- 
sition, his writings, particularly on air 
brake subjects, were marked by clearness 
and a degree of exactness that has had 
few equals Many of the leading air 




GEORGK W. KIEHM. 

brake instructors have been using Mr. 
Kiehm's monthly contributions to our 
pages as the leading feature of their in- 
struction to railway men studying the air 
brake. The course now running in the 
Question and Answer form is among his 
leading works, and as he had finished the 
complete series, his work will continue to 
appear in our pages for the greater part 
of the present year. Of a modest and 
gentlemanly disposition, he was much 
esteemed in railroad circles and will be 
greatly missed at the conventions and 
other meetings of railway men. 



Cleveland, Ohio. Existing war condi- 
tions are believed to be a compelling 
force to hold a convention, rather than 
a deterrent against it, for the good rea- 
son that the Air Brake Association is an 
educational organization whose whole 
activities are directed to improve the air 
brake service on American railroads, and 
doubly so in war times. In referring to 
the shortage of material, Mr. C. H. 
Weaver, president of the association, 
calls the attention of the members to the 
fact that there are many parts of the 
air brake apparatus which can be re- 
paired by bushing worn portions, such as 
air pump cylinders, main valve bushings 
and caps, governor steam body, feed 
valves, triple valves, control valves, dis- 
tributing valves and brake valves. Air 
valve cages and caps can be made of steel. 
Air pump piston rods can be forged from 
old axles, and many packing leathers and 
leather gaskets of all kinds may be re- 
claimed by the refilling process at a 
^mall cost. Other parts too numerous 
to mention here may be reclaimed. 
Don't forget the importance of the scrap 
pile in reclaiming and conserving ma- 
terial. All material saved and repairs 
made not only save money and delay to 
the railroads, but leave the manufac- 
turer free to furnish more of such ma- 
terial that cannot be repaired. 

Mr. D. L. McBain, superintendent of 
motive power, New York Central Lines, 
will address the convention at its open- 
ing, May 7, and Mr. Walter V. Turner 
will deliver a lecture on a timely sub- 
ject May 8. 



Central Railway Club 
The twenty-eight annual dinner of the 
Central Railway Club was held in Buf- 
falo, N. Y., last January. An inter- 
esting paper on "What constitutes the 
equipment department and the advant- 
ages offered in this department for the 
advancement of young men," by Mr. F. 
W. Brazier, superintendent of rolling 
stock, New York Central Lines. At the 
banquet in the Hotel Statler, Mr. 
Charles C. Castle, vice-president of the 
Railway Appliance Company, acted as 
toastmaster. 



Shop Stewards 

A new functionary has ' recently made 
his appearance in Great Britain. He is 
supposed to be useful regarding the 
settlement of shop grievances, and for 
all practical purposes the question of 
the recognition of the Shop Stewards has 
been settled in favor of this new element 
in trade organization. The new agree 
ment is described as an instrument for 
avoiding disputes, and it is proposed that 
the workmen of the unions employed in 
federated establishments shall be en- 
titled to appoint representatives from 
their own members to act for them. The 
method of election of the shop stewards 
is determined by the unions. Although 
they are to be subject to the control of 
the unions to which they belong, it is a 
long step in democratic shop government. 
There ought to be less room for mis- 
understandings, and difficulties should be 
dealt with promptly. In that prospect of 
the quick handling of disputes lies the 
important hope. 

The functions of the shop stewards 
are shown by the suggested functions and 
shop stewards' method of procedure in 
case of disputes. (1) A workman or 
workmen desiring to raise any question 
in which he or they are concerned shall 
discuss the matter with his or their fore- 
man. (2) Failing settlement, the ques- 
tion shall, if desired, be taken up with 
the management by the appropriate shop 
steward and one of the workmen con- 
cerned. (3) If no settlement is arrived 
at the .question may, at the request of 
either party, be further considered at a 
meeting of the management and the ap- 
propriate shop steward, together with a 
deputation of the workmen concerned. 
At this meeting the organizing district 
delegate may be present, in which event 
a representative of the Employers' As- 
sociation shall also be present. (4) The 
question may thereafter be referred for 
further consideration in terms of the 
provisions for avoiding disputes. (5) 
No stoppage of work shall take place 
until the question has been fully dealt 
with in accordance with this agreement 
and with the provisions for avoiding dis- 
putes. 



Air Brake Association 
The executive committee of the Air 
Brake Association at a "recent meeting 
has decided to hold the 1918 annual con- 
vention The date fixed is May 7-10. at 



Short Line Railroad Association. 

The American Short Line Railroad As- 
sociation has amended its constitution so 
as to admit not only members from the 
Southern roads, but from all parts of the 
United States. Its main office is located 
at 709 Union Trust Building, Washington, 
D. C. The officers are : President, 
Bird M. Robinson; vice-president, B. S. 
Barker; secretary, T. F. Whittelsey; as- 
sistant secretary, M. M. Ashbaugh; gen- 
eral counsel, S. S. Ashbaugh. 

A large number of new members have 
been added to the roll. 



Wiped Joint. 

In these days when many find it neces- 
sary to make small repairs it is frequently 
convenient to be able to make a wiped 
joint. To do so, melt the solder in a ladle 
and pour it in the joint quite plentifully, 
As the solder accumulates wipe it into 
shape with a piece of canvas folded 
several times and greased with tallow. 
The canvas is also very useful to hold 
the solder as it is being poured upon the 
joint. 

A little practice will make any handy 
man perfectly proficient at the job, and 
be ready for an emergency. 



February, 191S 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



Practical Coal Saving 



In glancing over the report recently 
issued by the Department of the Interior 
(Bureau of Mines) one very significent 
feature is likely to attract the notice of 
the thoughtful. It is this : 

Constant effort to strengthen the in- 
terest and co-operation of engine and 
terminal men to assist, and to feel them- 
selves partners in the work, is made 
largely through the use of such figures as 
are given by the Bureau. 

Of prime importance is the use of fig- 
ures for individual road engines, showing 
consumption of coal in pounds per 1,000 
gross ton miles, both passenger and freight 
service. This data is prepared by an ac- 
counting force and the records of the 
■various engines are examined and mem- 
oranda made concerning cases of engines 
whose consumption is running out of line 
with good practice; class of power and 
service considered. Fuel supervisors then 
ride on the engines and make reports to 
the master mechanics of defective boilers, 
machinery, draft rigging, grates, plugged 
flues, etc. Also, if needed, the crews are 
instructed in the proper handling methods ; 
or the terminal may be checked with re- 
gard to coal used during lay-overs. 

Here is the common sense idea not only 
in telling men what is required but why it 
is required, and showing them where, by 
complying with the order, the gain to the 
company and to themselves really lies. 
Giving an order, apparently without 
rhyme or reason is apt to be looked upon 
out on the road as a method of showing 
authority, and in any case it smacks too 
much of the Prussian drill sergeant's 
methods, to be of any real value on a rail- 
way in this country. Tell the men what 
you want and why you want it, that is the 
best way. Issuing an order and putting 
one's feet up on a mahogany desk and 
lighting a cigar never worked out in prac- 
tice except in the form of dismal failure, 
as far as the order is concerned. 

The supervision of fuel naturally in- 
cludes losses by overloading of tenders ; 
by waste about coaling stations ; by failure 
to remove all coal from coal cars; by pre- 
venting theft; by loss through holes in 
decks of engines, and by all similar means. 
Fuel supervisors should report the need 
for cleaning up coal which is dropped 
along the right-of-way so that it can be 
utilized at section houses and for station 
needs, and for switch shanties, etc. The 
general fuel supervisor should bring to 
the notice of the higher operating officers 
any cases of misuse of power, resulting in 
fuel waste ; as, for example, unnecessary 
double-heading, light mileage, excessively 
large engines on small trains, etc. Super- 
intendents should endeavor to lessen the 
delay in transit of all trains, and particu- 
larly, heavy freight trains. Attention 
ought to he given to the fact that the 
stopping of freight trains entails a serious 



loss of fuel from which no returns are 
had, and care must be exercised by dis- 
patchers to avoid, if possible, the stopping 
of trains at the foot of steep grades, from 
which points it is difficult and expensive 
to start. 

As as example of good methods well 
applied the N. Y., N. H. & 11. Railroad 
may be cited, on that road the saving of 
fuel has the constant attention of prac- 
tically all employees in the operating de- 
partment, beginning with the superin- 
tendents and ending with the men who 
clean the fires on the ashpit. Their atten- 
tion is constantly directed to the savings 
produced by careful thought and action 
and to the losses resulting from inattention 
and neglect. In order to determine the 
net results on a broader scale than by 
such estimates as have gone before, some 
figures from actual operation of all engines 
in freight and passenger service, both yard 
and road, arc appended to show that the 
varied efforts have produced a very con- 
siderable reduction in coal consumption, 
and consequent large monetary saving. 
Comparison is made between the per- 
formance in September, 1917, versus 1916; 
the results for which are typical of those 
for broader periods. The statistics of coal 
used are those covering all issues to loco- 
motives as charged under the primary 
accounts, I. C. C. classification. 

Proper loading of trains with respect to 
engine capacity is of the greatest im- 
portance in obtaining a low unit consump- 
tion. An overloaded engine is wasteful of 
fuel. An underloaded engine is equally 
so, measured in "gross ton miles per unit 
of coal used." An engine with two-thirds 
its rating will burn nearly as much coal 
per train mile as it will with full rating, 
and the ton-mile cost is correspondingly 
high. 

The New York. New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad estimates a fuel saving 
amounting to more than a million and a 
third dollars, based on comparison of 
actual performance of its locomotives in 
December, 1917, as against December, 
1916. It gives an indication of the ideal 
that can be approached by the railroads of 
the country and the tremendous saving 
that can be accomplished not only from a 
money point of view but also in the actual 
saving of coal. 

There were 313,713,362 gross passenger 
ton miles handled in September, 1917, 
which, if 1916 consumption rate had pre- 
vailed this year per 1,000 gross ton miles, 
would have required 9,729.5 more tons of 
coal than were actually burned. Since the 
cost of coal on tenders averaged $5.09 per 
ton, the saving was $49,523 for the month, 
or at a yearly rate of $594,276. 

There were 632,287,097 gross freight ton 
miles handled in September 1917, which, 
if 1916 consumption rate had prevailed 
tin's year per 1,000 G. T. M., would have 



required 8,757 more tons of coal than were 
actualK burned. Since the cost of coal on 
tenders averaged $5.09 per ton, the saving 
was $44,573 for the month, or at the rate 
of $534,876 per year. 

Under the stress of these war times, 
numerous changes in the personnel of fire- 
men in railroad service, makes education 
much less complete than is desirable or 
possible in more stable times, but con- 
tinued effort made to instill into the en- 
linemen and firemen, the seriousness of 
the coal shortage and the tremendous bur- 
den which the present high prices place on 
their own road, and the entire nation, is 
a good productive work. 

When the men are told of the current 
prices of coal charged to the company they 
usually express surprise, as, generally, they 
have not realized that the extraordinary 
prices of the present, affect the railroad 
to the same extent as they are affected in 
their personal living expenses. Almost 
without exception the men agree to co- 
operate in fuel saving. Tell the men 
what you want and why you want it. This 
plan has been tried in practice and it has 
been found to be of the very greatest 
value. It succeeds every time. 



Animals Killed on Railroad Tracks. 

President Herbert, of the St. Louis 
Southwestern, has presented in striking 
fashion, for his road, a placard, conspicu- 
ously posted, setting forth the fact that in 
12 months 2,792 cattle, horses and sheep 
were killed on the Cotton Belt Route, 
and that the bodies of these animals, if 
they had been worked up in packing 
houses instead of being wasted on a rail- 
way right of way, would have produced 
more than 1,000,000 pounds of food prod- 
ucts — "or the equivalent of the meat ra- 
tion of 70,000 soldiers for approximately 
30 days." The placard tersely emphasizes 
the fact that this is not only an enormous 
waste of food, but also a drain on the 
resources of the railway company at a 
time when every dollar of its income 
should be used productively. 

Xot only so, but the question naturally 
arises, if this loss is incurred on 1,809 
miles in the cotton belt country, what 
does the loss amount to on 270.000 miles 
of track most of which passes through 
regions where the production of food ani- 
mals is greater in comparison, and what 
for the whole country? 



Making Coal Dust Non-Explosive. 

There are two general methods of ren- 
dering coal dust non-explosive — first, by 
wetting the dust to prevent a cloud of 
dust from being formed, because only 
when the coal dust is in a cloud is it ex- 
plosive; second, by adding to the coal dust 
enough incombustible dust to make the 
mixture non-explosive. The Bureau of 
Mines says the first method is extensively 
used; the second is comparatively new in 
the United States. 



66 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1918 



Railroad Equipment Notes 

The Philadelphia & Reading will build for 40 engines, each builder to take half 
IS locomotives in its own shops. the contract. 



The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul is 
contemplating the purchase of SO steam 
locomotives. 



The Louisville & Nashville has ordered 
300 steel undernames from the Pressed 
Steel Car Company. 



The Republic Iron & Steel Company 
has ordered 200 coke cars from the 
Pressed Steel Car Company. 



The Lehigh Valley has let a contract 
for the building of a boiler house, 40 by 
118 ft, at Perth Amboy, N. J. 



The Chilean State Railways have or- 
dered 20 Mikado locomotives from the 
American Locomotive Company. 



The Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis 
is installing electric welding machines in 
its boiler shop at Nashville, Tenn. 



The Green Bay & Western has placed 
an order with the American Locomotive 
Company for 2 Mogul locomotives. 



The Colombian Northern has ordered 
2 third-class passenger coaches from the 
American Car & Foundry Company. 



The Columbian Northern has ordered 
six 15-ton wooden gondolas from the 
American Car & Foundry Company. 



The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
has ordered 15 Mikado locomotives from 
the American Locomotive Company. 



The United States Navy has ordered 
60-ton steel underframe box cars from 
the American Car & Foundry Company. 



The Wichita Falls & Northwestern will 
rebuild a mechanically-operated coal chute 
at Frederick, Okla., recently destroyed by 
fire 



The Pennsylvania Company's repair 
and machine shops at Pitcairn, Pa., were 
recently damaged by fire; estimated loss 
is $35,000. 



The Richmond, Fredericksburg & Poto- 
mac, Richmond, Va., is having plans pre- 
pared for an addition to its engine house 
to cost $20,000. 



The Norfolk & Western has placed or- 
ders with the American Locomotive Com- 
pany and the Baldwin Locomotive Works 



The Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific 
has under construction at Monroe, La., 
an engine house and shop building and 
will build a coach and paint shop. 



The Southern will build a work shop 
and engine repair shed, 30 by 80 ft., at 
Bull's Gap, Tenn. 



The Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis 
is building new roundhouse and repair 
shops at Chattanooga, Tenn. ; also put- 
ting in a pumping station at that point. 



The Louisville & Nashville has let con- 
tracts to the Roberts & Schaefer Com- 
pany for coal-handling machinery for a 
coaling plant at Nashville, Tenn., and a 
400-ton concrete coaling plant at Guthrie, 
Ky. 



The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe is 
building additional repair shops at Ot- 
tawa, Kan., at a cost of about $60,000. 
Swanson Brothers Contracting Company, 
Topeka, Kan., has the contract for the 
work. 

The Chilean State Railways recently 
ordered 20 Mikado locomotives from the 
American Locomotive Company. These 
locomotives will have 22 by 28-in. cylin- 
ders, a total weight in working order of 
195,000 lb. and will be superheated. 



The Hocking Valley has authorized the 
installation, complete, of a Robertson cin- 
der equipment to be installed alongside of 
a 300-ton concrete coaling plant which the 
Roberts & Schaefer Company is building 
for this line at Nelsonville, Ohio. 



The Bessemer & Lake Erie has placed 
an order with the Roberts & Schaefer 
Company for the equipment for a coaling 
plant of 400 tons' capacity, using four 
"R and S" measuring coal loaders, elec- 
trically operated, for North Bessemer, Pa. 



The United Railways of Yucatan have 
ordered from the Railway Storage Bat- 
tery Car Company, New York, three 55-ft. 
all-steel storage-battery passenger cars, 
and two 27-ft. baggage and express trail- 
ers for service between Progresso and 
Merida. 



The Rhodesian Railways have ordered 
9 mountain type locomotives from the 
American Locomotive Company. These 
locomotives will have 22 by 24-in. cylin- 
ders, a total weight in working order of 
172,000 lb. and will be equipped with su- 
perheaters. 



The Oregon-Washington Railroad & 
Navigation Company is building a round- 
house at Tacoma, Wash., which will cost 
about $10,000. The building will contain 
three stalls, 97 ft. long. It will be a frame 



Wl 



WXON'S 

.^ PAINT 

£**~OV\l COLORS W* 

"'HWXOKCRWClW'*'! 
■JEteZYCITY.K-'- 




Long Time 
Protection 

is given to signal appa- 
ratus and all exposed 
metal or woodwork by 

DIXON'S 

Silica-Graphite 

PAINT 

the Longest Service paint. 
Nature's combination of 
flake silica-graphite, 
mixed with pure boiled 
linseed oil, is the ideal 
combination which forms 
a firm elastic coat that 
will not crack or peel off. 
This prevents access to 
agents that will corrode 
and injure the metal. 
Dixon's Silica-Graphite 
Paint is used throughout 
the world by railroad 
engineers. 

Write for Booklet No. 
69-B and long service 
records. 

Made la JERSEY CITY. N. J., by the 

Joseph Dixon Crucible 
$$>£ Company %££ 

ESTABLISHED 1827 

B-132 



February, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



67 



Hydraulic 

RlVeterS Hxed and Portable 

Punches, Shears, 
Presses, Lifts, Crones 

and Accumulators. 

Matthews' Fire Hydrants, 

Eddy Valves 

Valve Indicator Posts. 

The Camden High-Pressure Valves. 



structure with concrete pits and concrete 
footings supported on piles. 



Cast Iron Pipe 



R. D. Wood & Company 

engineers, Iron 
rounders, Machinists. 

100 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



For Testing and Washing 
Locomotive Boilers 



USE THE 




Rue Boiler Washer 
and Tester 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

Rue Manufacturing Co. 

228 Cherry Street Philadelphia, Pa. 

Manufacturers of Injector*. Ejectors. 

Boiler Washers nni T .1... K.iller Checks. 

Check Valve.. 



Locomotive Electric Headlights 

of all descriptions 




THE 

YLE- 



TURBO 
GENERATOR 
ATIONAL sets 

COMPANY 



900 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUE 



CHICAGO, ILL. 



ASHTON 

POP VALVES and GAGES 

The Quality Good* That Last 

The Ashton Valve Co. 
271 Franklin Street. Boston, Mass' 




The contracts for 9,000 freight cars for 
export to Italy are reported about to be 
distributed by the War Industries Board. 
The Standard Steel Car Company and 
the American Car & Foundry Company, 
who have steel purchased for Russian 
cars, which orders have been suspended, 
will, it is said, probably construct the 
largest number of cars for Italy. 



The Central of Georgia has contracted 
with the General Railway Signal Com- 
pany for an electric interlocking plant at 
Macon Junction to replace one recently 
destroyed by fire. The machine will have 
97 working levers and 15 spare spaces. 
All switch levers will be provided with 
lever lights, and an illuminated diagram 
with 23 lights will also be provided. 



The Pennsylvania Railroad has award- 
ed a contract to the Roberts & Schaefer 
Company for a 300-ton reinforced con- 
crete automatic electric locomotive coal- 
ing plant and a sand plant for installation 
at West Brownsville Junction, Pa. ; also 
a 200-ton concrete automatic electric coal- 
ing plant and a sand plant at Blairsville, 
Pa. 



The Los Angeles & Salt Lake is re- 
ceiving 1,000 steel coal cars, which cost 
$2,000 each. This company is also com- 
pleting a concrete coal terminal operated 
by electricity at Provo, Utah ; also a store 
room, roundhouse and shops at a cost of 
$250,000. At Caliente, Nev., the company 
is spending $20,000 on a modern coaling 
station. 



Tate Sleeve Facing Device. 

Among the recent new tools used in 
installing and repairing staybolts is a 
clever and neat device used on Tate 
sleeves that are not infrequently knocked 
about and the cap seats become nicked 
with slight indentations, or may thus be 
damaged during application, and these 
nicks or notches on the sleeve where the 
cap makes its bearing at times cause 
leakage. 

To obviate the necessity of taking 
sleeves out of the boiler, the use of the 
facing tool shown in our illustration may 
be used. It may readily be screwed over 
the cap end of the sleeve, and by slightly 
turning the knurled head until the cutter 
comes in contact with the sleeve face, by 
gradually increasing the tension by screw- 
ing on, at the same time turning the cut- 
ter, the nicks may be speedily removed. 
Oil or grease should be used for the cut- 
ter face when the nicks are removed, 
determined by the feeling, then release 
the tension slightly, and one or two revo- 



cnJ 




Reclaiming Oil and Grease. 

It is interesting to note that in the 
cleaning of machinery generally in Great 
Britain, the process of reclaiming of oil 
has reached a degree of economy that is 
worthy of imitation. The process, after 
dismantling, consists of placing the parts 
in a cradle and submerging it in a tank 
of water with which a jet of steam is 
turned so as to bring the water to boil- 
ing point. Caustic soda is added to the 
water until a solution of about 3 per cent, 
strength is obtained. The whole of the 
grease is removed from the parts in the 
process of boiling and comes to the top 
of the water. Before the contents are re- 
moved the grease is drawn off the top. 
This is done through an overflow pipe 
of large diameter which leads into a bar- 
rel. 

The cradle of parts is then transferred 
to a second tank of clean, boiling water, 
which finishes the cleansing and, as the 
parts are drawn out quite hot, they drain 
perfectly dry and absolutely clean. 

It is claimed that the saving is consider- 
able. 



REFACING TOOL FOR TATE SLEEVES. 

lutions of the cutter will leave a smooth 
bearing. 

There are tools of a similar character 
that can be used to refinish cap seats 
when damaged, by making an end mill, 
with smooth diameter to fit the tops of 
the cap threads neatly, with shank to fit 
cither a speed lathe or air drill, or with 
a square end for wrench. 



Lubricant for Cutting Threads. 

For cutting threads in copper and even 
steel, one of the best lubricants is common 
beeswax. Rub the partially finished 
threads with a lump of the wax and a 
clean thread will be cut, provided that the 
tool is sharp. 



A Double Hack Saw. 
For cutting soft metal place two blades 
in the saw frame, one in the usual way 
and the other reversed so that the teeth 
will point back toward the handle. One 
blade will cut while the saw is pushed 
forward, and the other makes its cut when 
drawing the saw back. While one blade 
is dragging it will prevent the other from 
taking too deep a cut on the metal. 



68 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February. 1918 



Books, Bulletins, Catalogues, Etc. 



Baldwin Record No. 88. 
The Baldwin Locomotive Works have 
issued a catalogue which they call Record 
88. It is profusely illustrated with line 
cuts as well as half-tones. The Santa Fe 
type or 2-10-2 engines are shown, and an 
explanatory description accompanies the 
illustrations. A Portuguese East African 
engine, also of the 2-10-2 type is given 
with description and views. The same 
type as used on the Chicago, St. Paul, 
Minneapolis & Omaha, is treated in the 
same way. The 2-10-2 on the Texas & 
Pacific is illustrated and described. The 
Duluth, Missabe & Northern have used 
the 2-10-2 type, and record is made of the 
fact. The Chicago Great Western, the 
Union Pacific, the Chicago Burlington & 
Quincy, the Lehigh Valley, the Southern, 
the St. Louis-San Francisco, the Bessemer 
& Lake Erie, the Baltimore & Ohio and 
the Erie railroads are all illustrated and 
described with regard to their 2-10-2 en- 
gines. The whole gives information con- 
cerning this type of power as used on 
these roads and the reader can get a very 
comprehensive view of the whole subject 
by a careful perusal of Record 88 of the 
Baldwin Works. 



Finding and Stopping Waste in Mod- 
ern Boiler Rooms. 
The above is the title of a new book 
by the Engineers of the Harrison Safety 
Boiler Works, Philadelphia, and extends 
to 276 pages, with 213 illustrations, and 
sold at one dollar per copy. The book 
is the result of experiments and tests and 
is divided into five sections, the first be- 
ing devoted to "Fuels," under which are 
considered the coals of the United States 
and their classifications, size of coal, coal 
sampling, proximate analysis, ultimate 
analysis, heating value of coal, ash and 
clinker, value of coal for steaming pur- 
poses, purchase of coal under specifica- 
tion, washing of coal, storage and weath- 
ering of coal, coal measurement, oil fuels 
and gaseous fuels. 

The second section is on "Combustion," 
taking up the chemistry of combustion, 
air theoretically required, grates and grate 
surface, hand-firing methods, thickness of 
fire, mechanical stokers and their opera- 
tion, furnace temperature, furnace gases, 
clinker, draft, flue and stack proportions, 
draft required by stokers, mechanical 
stokers, draft gages, dampers, flue gas 
temperatures, flue gas analyses. _ 

The third section treats of "Heat Ab- 
sorption," including heat transmission by 
conduction, convection and radiation, heat 
transfer from a fluid in a channel, heat 
transfer in economizers, air heaters and 
superheaters, improving heat absorption, 
relation between heating surface and 
boiler capacity, boiler setting, refractories 
and fire brick, soot, scale, softening feed 
water, and feed water heating. 



The fourth section, on "Boiler Ef- 
ficiency and Boiler Testing," covers heat 
balance, heat absorbed by boiler, heat 
losses due to moisture in the coal, hydro- 
gen, chimney gases, combustible in the 
ash, moisture in the air, and unaccounted 
for loss, efficiencies, efficiencies with dif- 
ferent coals, boiler capacity and efficiency, 
and boiler trials. 

The fifth section, on "Boiler Plant Pro- 
portioning and Management," discusses 
various arrangements of auxiliaries with 
regard to their effect upon feed heating, 
and also describes the Polakov functional 
system of boiler room management. 



Staybolts. 

Last month's issue of Staybolts contains 
a continuation of instructions in the ap- 
plication of parts with a series of illustra- 
tions of the tools necessary for the proper 
installation of the Tate flexible staybolt. 
The descriptive matter accompanying the 
illustrations show the absolute necessity 
of the use of the tools, more particularly 
in those parts of the boiler where the 
outer and inner sheets are not parallel to 
each other. Where continued tightness of 
the joint is a primal necessity a perfect fit 
cannot be expected unless pains are taken 
that a correct alignment of the bolt holes 
is made, and this largely depends upon 
means being used to adjust the cutting 
tools so that the staybolt shall be attached 
at right angles to the inner sheet. Full 
particulars are furnished of the right way 
and wrong way of doing the job, and the 
tools desribed and illustrated are the out- 
come of practical experience. Send for a 
copy of Vol. 5, No. 4, to the Flannery 
Bolt Company, Vanadium building, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 



Lubricating Engineer's Handbook. 

J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 
has published a book on the above sub- 
ject, by John R. Battle, M. E., extending 
to 333 pages, with 161 illustrations, tables 
and charts. It embraces descriptions of 
the various kinds of oils, greases and 
lubricants, and manner of testing the 
same. The different kinds of bearings 
and the particular problems attending the 
lubrication of each are shown. There are 
also descriptions of various machines, 
with numerous suggestions, recommenda- 
tions and ideas looking to better service 
with the machines in use and for the use 
of the most suitable lubricant for each 
purpose. To those interested in the 
means and methods of lubrication the 
book is of real value. 

The Nation's Call to Railroad Men. 

Hon. William G. McAdoo, Director 
General of Railroads, has issued an 
earnest appeal to all officers and em- 
ployees of the railroads of the United 



States to apply themselves with new de- 
votion and energy to the work of keep- 
ing trains moving on schedule time and 
to meet the demands upon the transpor- 
tation lines, so that our soldiers and 
sailors may want for nothing that will 
enable them to fight the enemy to a stand- 
still and win a glorious victory for Amer- 
ica and the Allies. Fair treatment is as- 
sured to every employee, and the appeal 
is endorsed by Mr. Samuel Rea, president 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad and is pub- 
lished in the form of an illuminated pos- 
ter and prominently displayed where all 
the railroad men may have an oppor- 
tunity of reading the timely and eloquent 
appeal. 



Reactions. 

The current ismic of Reactions, pub- 
lished by the Goldschmidt Thermit Com- 
pany, 120 Broadway, New York, contains 
an excellent article by T. O Martin in 
regard to a new field for the use of ther- 
mits. The article describes at length the 
making of a reamer by inserting the fin- 
ished blades in a cylinder the same size 
and taper of the reamer, with the cutting 
edges against the wall of the cylinder. 
With a carbon steel core in the center, 
and the use of beeswax a perfect matrix 
is formed to be placed in a regular mold 
for welding. The job may be quickly and 
efficiently done. A number of clever op- 
erations are also described and illustrated 
in connection with fracture on parts of 
locomotives, all of which cannot fail to 
be of interest to railroad men engaged 
in repair work. Copies of the publication 
may be had on application to the com- 
pany's main office, New York. 




The Norwalk Iron Works Co. 

SOUTH NORWALK, CONN. 

Makers of Air and Gas Compressors 

For All Purposes 
Send for Catalog 




The Armstrong 
Automatic Drift Drill 

IS SHIFT AND HAMMER COMBINED. 

u 



The handle or driver la always 
ready to strike a blow aa the 
spring: automatically throws It 
back into position. 
LEAVES ONE HAND FREE TO 
SAVE THE TOOL. 
Special Circular Hailed on Request. 

ARMSTRONG BROS. TOOL COMPANY 

312 N. Francisco Ave., CHICAGO, U. B. A. 




IV*o locomotive tllsinCCrlll} 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling Stock and Appliances 



Vol. XXXI 



114 Liberty Street, New York, March, 1918 



No. 3 



British-Built Ambulance Train for U. S. Soldiers 

in France 

Result of Experience Shown — All Necessaries Provided — Train Intended for Special 

Purposes, Properly Designed — Good Work Well Done 

By ROBERT W. A. SLATER 



This train is of special interest to us, 
as our half-tones illustrate a new ambu- 
lance train recently completed by the 
Midland Railway of England, at their 
carriage and wagon works, Derby, for 
service with the American Expeditionary 
Forces in France. 

The train comprises in all sixteen 
coaches, with accommodation for about 
four hundred and thirty persons. In gen- 
eral design, both exterior and interior, 
British practices are followed. The total 
length of the train, without locomotive 
and tender, is 913 feet and the weight, 
empty, is 455 tons. YVestinghouse brake 



origin in an international council held at 
Geneva, in Switzerland, in 1863. At this 
conference the so-called "humane" prac- 
tices on the battlefield were discussed, and 
field and permanent hospitals, ambulance 
service, and the many humane methods of 
caring for the wounded, were officially 
recognized by the signatory powers. How 
far the German government has departed 
from its own voluntary and solemn 
pledges in the present war of brutal out- 
rage on land and cruel piracy at sea, is 
a matter of common knowledge. At the 
time of the conference all seemed well and 
a badge was devised as the distinguish- 



fitted throughout with electric lights and 
fans. The roofs are semi-elliptical, with 
lofty ceilings. The gangways between 
cots are wide enough to allow the carry- 
ing in or out of the army stretchers. 
Apart from the drinking water reservoirs 
on the cars, a supply of 2,835 gallons is 
carried in tanks built on the roof. 

The order of the cars on the train is 
as follows, and for identification purposes 
the number of each car and the distin- 
guishing letter are conspicuous on each 
side : A-10, brake and "lying" infectious 
ward car; B, staff car; D-l. kitchen car, 
with officers' compartment; A-l, A-2, 




BRITISH-BUILT AMBULANCE TRAIN FOR U. S. SOLDIERS, "OVER THERE." 



equipment has been installed. Special 
care has been taken that the cars may 
be kept clean with the least effort. Floors 
are covered with linoleum and have 
rounded corners. Roofs are semi-ellip- 
tical with lofty and airy ceilings. 

Each car is well built and painted khaki 
color, like that of the soldiers' uniforms. 
The car color is without relief save for 
two large red crosses on a white ground 
on either side. 

The use of what is usually called the 
Red Cross to designate ambulance service 
in the field and in hospitals, had its 



ing mark lor this noble form of service. 
The flag of Switzerland is a wdiite cross 
•on a red ground, the arms of the cross 
not reaching the borders of the flag. \s 
a compliment to the land where this 
humane work was sanctioned, the I' 
Switzerland was taken as the design with 
the colors counterchanged, making it a 
square "Geneva" cross in red, charged on a 
white ground. Thus does the "red cross" 
come to be the symbol of Christian tolera- 
tion and service to friend and foe, on the 
field of strife and bloodshed. 

This ambulance train is vestibuled an I 



V-3, A-4, ward cars; F, pharmacy car; 
A-S, At.. A-7, A-8, A-9, ward cars; D-2, 
kitchen car (with N. C. O.'s and men's 
compartment); C, personnel car; E, 
I Take and stores car. 

Car A-10 contains four wards, an at- 
tendant's compartment, with toilet, and 
guard's compartment with bed. folding 
seat, lavatory, etc., in addition to 
the usual brake equipment. Each car is 
54 feet long and mounted on four-wheel 
bogies or trucks, as we would say. The 
couplings, drawhooks, steam connections 
and side chains are made to conform to 



70 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1918 



the international standard. The staff car patient. The sides and roofs of these 

contains a dining-room, and also sleeping cars are painted in glossy white enamel, 

accommodation for medical officers and The last car in the train is the brake and 

for nurses. Kitchen car (B-l) has an store car, and has plenty of linen. Each 

officers' pantry and cook's room, with car is fifty-four feet long, and is built of 

sleeping berths. well-seasoned timber. The whole train is 




THE WARD CAR. IiRITISII TU'ILT AM1ULANCE TRAIN' FOR U. S. SOLDIERS. 



The kitchen, which is a spacious com- 
partment, is fitted with an army "Dixie" 
range, and a "Soyer" stove, while a com- 
fortable sitting room for "sick" officers 
forms a part of this car. The pharmacy 
car has a dispensary anil a "treatment" 
room, witli medical officer's quarters, 
linen room, a pantry for medical com- 
forts, and an emergency compartment. 
Personnel car C is arranged similarly to 
the nine ward cars, except that the mat- 
tresses of the beds are upholstered in 
American cloth, so that they can be used 
a- seats for the official staff during the 
day. 

Brake and Syores car E, contains a 
\zxge linen store and a compartment in 
which are shelves for carrying general 
provisions, a kit store, a compartment for 
perishables and a meat safe, and brake 
equipment similar to that on car A-10, com- 
pletes the vehicle. First in the train is the 
brake and infectious ward car, which 
contains four wards each, fitted witli six 
beds. 

Next is the staff car for the offi- 
cers, with dining room and sleeping com- 
partments and lavatory and toilet accom- 
modations, including side sprays. This car 
is furnished with wardrobes, cabinets 
and bookracks, and is finished and paneled 
throughout in polished mahogany. The 
ward cars are open throughout, witli a 
lavatory compartment at one end. Each 
car contains thirty-six folding cots in 
three tiers. An ample supply of drinking 
water and conveniences, such as paper 
racks and ash trays, is provided for each 



a fine example of the car-builder's art, 
and all that the years of war experience 
has given to the British nation is em- 
bodied in the units of this train. Its neat 
appearance and its conspicuous "red 



Proper Use of Oil on the Road. 

There is a bad practice sometimes re- 
sorted to by trainmen, when a hot box 
makes its appearance. These men go to 
the engine and get a piece of rod cup 
grease, or driving box compound, and 
put it into the troublesome box on top 
of the waste probably on both sides of 
the journal. The box very likely cools 
off, but if the waste and grease are not 
removed at once, after the journal has 
cooled down, and the box be at once re- 
packed with saturated waste in the regu- 
lar manner, it is almost sure to run hot 
again in a very short time. The reason 
for this is that while it is hot it plasters 
the surface of the packing with a hard, 
gummy coating of grease so that the pil 
that is still held in the waste beneath 
and ready to lubricate, cannot get up 
through it to the journal, so that when 
the oil supply is thus shut off after the 
grease is worn out, it gets hot again. 

Large oil manufacturing concerns have 
expended great sums of money in build- 
ing laboratories, which are superintended 
by expert chemists who work to combine 
the best materials of various kinds of oil, 
keeping in mind the kind of work the oil 
is expected to do. If, for example, en- 
gine oil and valve oil are mixed together, 
the unity of each is destroyed, or so al- 
tered, that very much less satisfactory re- 
sults follow than if they were used sepa- 
rately. Everyone concerned should know 
what the different kinds of oils are and 
understand what they are intended to be 
used for. Valve oil is for the lubrication 




Till- IMI.\RM\CV IN" THE BRITISH-BUILT AMBULANCE TRAIN' FOR U. S. SOLDIERS. 



cross" proclaim it as having emanated 
from a business people engaged in the 
business of war. yet humane, though fear- 
less, and as a tribute to America's efforts 
to let the Anglo-Saxons stand strong to- 
gether until victory is ours. 



of valves, cylinders and air pumps of the 
locomotives. Engine oil is for the valve 
gear and engine trucks, and other oils for 
other purposes. Oil should not be ap- 
plied to boxes or to crank pins prepared 
for grease when they are running hot. 



March, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



71 



Safety 



Safety Devices for Overhead Cranes 

Devices in Use — Can Be Applied to Existing Cranes — They Save Life and 
Limb and Preserve Valuable Property 




OVERHEAD SHOP CRANE WITH LATTICE GIRDERS AND SAFETY DEVICES. 



Makers of electrically operated overhead 
cranes for locomotive repair shops are 
now-a-days provided with special safety 
devices. In fact electrically operated ma- 
chinery is generally so fitted, and it 
seems that the use of the electric current 
lends itself to the adoption of devices for 
preserving life and limb. In the matter 
of overhead traveling cranes for shops, 
all alternating current cranes have two 
brakes : a solenoid and a mechanical 
brake. The solenoid brake is attached 
direct to brake wheel on the hoisting mo- 
tor and goes into operation whenever the 
current is shut off either by the control- 
ler's break of the line circuit or from 
some other cause. 

This brake in itself has sufficient capac- 
ity to hold the full load when the current 
is cut off. The mechanical brake is in- 
stalled in the gear train and is used to 
prevent any acceleration of the load, when 
lowering. The Whiting brake for in- 
stance is so designed, that if anything 
should happen to the solenoid brake or 
motor, or even to the gear train, back of 
the mechanical brake, the load would In- 
held from dropping by the mechanical 
brake alone. This is a very important 
safety feature and is considered an ex- 
cellent feature by all crane users. The 
limit switch is so designed that when the 
block reaches the danger point in hoist- 
ing, it strikes a paddle, which, when raised 
1/16 in. or more, will shut off the cur- 
rent from the hoisting motor. 

The wiring is so designed that no move- 
ment, except a lowering movement, can be 
obtained after the limit switch has been 



thrown. On old designs when the limit 
switch was raised or thrown out, a cir- 
cuit breaker went out. If the operator 
did not throw his controller back to the 
neutral point, and turn to his switchboard 
to replace the circuit breaker, the hoisting 
would continue and cause as much dam- 



age as though iic limit switch was in the 
circuit. 

This is now impossible with this later 
design of switch, because it is absolutely 
necessary for the operator to throw his 
controller back to the neutral point, and 
then to a lowering point, before any mo- 
tion whatever can be obtained in the 
hoisting equipment. 

This is a design that crane users have 
required for many years as it is abso- 
lutely fool-proof. On some high-speed 
cranes the momentum of the gears often 
allows the block to travel a slight dis- 
tance higher after the switch has been 
thrown. This is now overcome by plac- 
ing, on the shaft of the main limit switch 
rod, a heavy coil spring. When the switch 
is thrown, the block comes in contact with 
spring, which holds it down, and so stops 
momentum of the machinery. Altogether 
these safety features are well worthy of 
careful study and of adoption by any pro- 
spective crane user who is contemplating 
the adoption of an overhead crane, or 
these features can readily be adapted to 
existing cranes. 

The idea of automatic safety and 
mechanical security is practically "in the 
air," at the present time, and this as it 
should be, for the sanctity of human life, 
so wantonly sacrificed in war, needs pre- 
serving as it never did before. 




0\ I RHEAD SHOP CRANE WITH MECHANICAL SAFETY DEVICES WHICH PREVENT 
iF.N SI IPS OR \\ OVERWOUND DRUM. 



72 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1918 



Lubricating Air Compressors 

What Is Required in Lubricating Air Cylinder of Compressor — Quality of Oil an 

Important Item — Minimizing the Danger of Explosions — 

Carbonizing of Oil Objectionable 



The important subject of lubricating 
air compressors was dealt with, not long 
ago, by a member of the Texas Company, 
who read a paper before the Lubricating 
Engineers' Association. His remarks are 
here quoted, not necessarily word for 
word, but in substance he said : 

In general, air compressors may be di- 
vided into two classes — the single cylin- 
der, single stage type, and the multi- 
stage type. In the single stage type the 
air is compressed in one cylinder and in 
one operation, while in the multi-stage 
type the compression is reached by two 
or more stages. The single stage com- 
pressor is the one in most common use 
and generally operates under a pressure 
of from 50 to 60 lbs. to the square inch. 

The compression of air results in the 
conversion of the energy used, into heat. 
The rise of temperature of a volume of 
air under compression follows certain 
laws, and tables have been compiled 
which show the theoretical temperatures 
the air will attain when compressed to 
certain pressures. The following table 
gives the temperature that air will attain, 
taking the inlet at 60 degs. F. 



Gauge 




Final 


Pressure. 


Atmospheres. 


Temperature. 


lbs. 


1. 


60 Deg. F. 


25 lbs. 


2.7 


234 Deg. F. 


50 lbs. 


4.4 


339 Deg. F. 


75 lbs. 


6.1 


420 Deg. F. 


100 lbs. 


7.8 


485 Deg. F. 


125 lbs. 


9.5 


540 Deg. F 


ISO lbs. 


11.2 


589 Deg. F. 


200 lbs. 


14.6 


672 Deg. F. 



In actual practice the temperatures 
never reach these figures for the reason 
that it is important that the temperatures 
be kept low. A large amount of the trou- 
ble with single stage air compressors, 
when examined, have shown that it is due 
to the fact that they are overloaded. 
Where the air is compressed through 
more than one cylinder, the temperature 
of the air is still further reduced by pass- 
ing it through intercoolers on its way 
from one cylinder to another. These in- 
tercoolers connect the air discharge of the 
first cylinder with the inlet of the second 
cylinder. The final discharge from a 
multiple cylinder compressor is often 
cooler than from a single cylinder com- 
pressing to only 80 or 100 lbs. pressure, 
especially where the single stage machine 
is run at high speed. The external lubri- 
cation of air compressors does not differ 
from ordinary' external lubrication. After 
passing through the bearings the oil is re- 



turned to the crank case and is used over 
and over. 

In design and construction the air 
compressor of the piston type is similar 
to a steam engine. The action, however, 
is the reverse, for in the case of the air 
compressor cylinder, power is transmitted 
to the piston. In a simple form of com- 
pressor the air in front of the piston is 
compressed until the pressure reaches a 
point sufficient to open the discharge 
valve, and the charge of air is then forced 
into the receiver through the outlet pipe. 
In the meantime a partial vacuum has 
been formed in the cylinder back of the 
piston which has caused the inlet valve to 
open, admitting air at atmospheric pres- 
sure, so that at the end of the stroke the 
cylinder is filled with free air for com- 
pression upon the return of the piston. 
The action of both the inlet and outlet 
valves is entirely automatic, the former 
opening inward and the latter outward 
when the pressure on the two sides be- 
comes unequal. 

As in the case of steam cylinder lubri- 
cation, the conditions of the internal sur- 
faces, the piston speed, and the weight 
and fit of the piston must be taken into 
consideration in selecting the proper air 
compressor oil. Low speeds and heavy 
or loose fitting pistons require a higher 
viscosity of the oil than high speeds and 
light or tight fitting pistons. Other im- 
portant factors which govern the lubrica- 
tion of air compressors are the degree to 
which the air is to be compressed, the lo- 
cation of the air inlet, the method of ap- 
plying the lubricants, the kind of valves 
used. Vertical compressors do not re- 
quire as much lubricant or as heavy a lu- 
bricant as horizontal compressors. 

One of the most important require- 
ments of an air compressor oil is that it 
should have a viscosity sufficiently high to 
meet service requirements. For high 
pressures and temperatures an extra 
heavy viscosity oil, such as Texaco Ursa 
oil or even Vanguard Mineral oil should 
be used. For medium pressures and tem- 
peratures a heavy viscosity oil, such as 
Texaco Algol oil, and for low pressures 
and temperatures a medium viscosity oil, 
such as Texaco Alcaid oil or a light vis- 
cosity oil such as Texaco Cetus oil should 
be used. The oil should have sufficient 
body to sustain the weight of the moving 
parts, to form a seal between the piston 
rings and the cylinder walls, and to pre- 
vent the excessive use of oil. On the 
other hand, the viscosity should not be too 
high to obtain efficient atomization or to 
cause excessive friction. Moreover, if an 



oil of too great viscosity is used, it will 
tend to collect any dust that may be in 
the air and will tend to bake on the hot 
surfaces and form carbon deposits. This 
is especially likely to happen when more 
oil has been used than is just sufficient 
to lubricate the wearing surfaces. 

Another requirement of air compressor 
oil is that it should not be decomposed 
under the heat conditions to which jt may 
be subjected in the cylinder, resulting in 
the formation of carbon. The chief ob- 
jection to steam cylinder oils is that they 
easily decompose under air compressor 
cylinder conditions, and form sticky and 
hard carbon deposits in the cylinders and 
valves or air lines. Carbon deposits are 
probably the chief cause of air compres- 
sor explosions. They also hinder the 
working of the valves and by increasing 
the friction cause an increase in the tem- 
perature of the air. Carbon also has a 
tendency to cause bad cutting of the 
valves and valve seats, which can result in 
a considerable amount of damage in 
a short time. The amount of carbon 
formed with Texaco Ursa, Algol, Alcaid 
or Cetus oils is small, due to the fact that 
they do not readily decompose ; and any 
deposit which is formed is of a dry, 
sooty nature, which does not collect dust 
or accumulate in the cylinder or on the 
valves. 

One of the troubles commonly met with 
in compressors is the groaning of the 
pistons. Generally this can be traced to 
an improper fitting of the piston rings, 
which, being subjected to alternating 
pressure, set up a vibration which allows 
the air under compression to leak by the 
piston rings in an unsteady flow. This, 
in turn, increases the vibration of the 
rings and results in the groaning of the 
pistons. This condition exists in com- 
pressors that have been in use for a con- 
siderable time without renewal of rings, 
and it can frequently be overcome by 
using a higher viscosity oil. 

In steam cylinder lubrication it is neces- 
sary that the oil be atomized or broken up 
into small particles so that it will be car- 
ried by the steam to the surfaces to be 
lubricated. The same is true, to a certain 
extent, in air compressor lubrication, in 
which case the oil should be atomized by 
the incoming air, and carried to the sur- 
faces of the cylinder walls and to the 
valves. As in the case of steam cylinder 
lubrication, the atomization becomes 
more complete with an increase in dis- 
tance between the point of introduction of 
the oil and the valve chest. 

Ordinarily the oil is introduced into the 



-March, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



73 



air compressor at or above the point of 
air intake. 

The greatest efficiency is obtained by 
the use of automatic lubricators, and 
many types of compressors are now 
equipped with these lubricators. In many 
cases of steam driven compressors two- 
compartment lubricators are used for 
feeding two kinds of oil, one to the steam 
cylinders and the second to the air com- 
pressor cylinders. These lubricators in- 
sure a uniform rate of feed irrespective 
of any changes in the air pressure. 

It is impossible to make any hard and 
fast rule as to the proper amount of oil 
to use in a compressor. Trouble experi- 
enced with air compressors is probably 
more frequently due to the use of an ex- 
cessive amount of oil than to any other 
cause. The amount of oil necessary to lu- 
bricate an air cylinder is usually about 
one-third or one-fourth the quantity re- 
quired to lubricate a steam cylinder of the 
same size. If the lubricant is unsuitable, 
an excessive amount is required to keep 
the cylinders from groaning, and the re- 
sult of the use of an excessive amount of 
oil is carbonization in the air passages, and 
particularly on the discharge valves. Stick- 
ing of these valves allows hot compressed 
air to flow back into the compressor cylin- 
der. This is a sign of too much oil. The 
discharge valves should be examined reg- 
ularly, and the receiver and discharge 
pipes blown out. 

Another cause of complaint has been 
found to be due to the use of unsuitable 
oils, such as compounded steam cylinder 
oil, in the air compressor. These oils, be- 
sides being very viscid, contain much free 
carbon matter, which clings to the orifices 
of the discharge valves and seats, gather- 
ing dirt from the air. Under the influ- 
ence of the dry heat, together with the 
dirt from the air, these oils soon become 
carbonized and form a hard, flinty sub- 
stance that requires considerable labor to 
remove, while the animal oil used in com- 
pounding separates and forms a sticky 
residue which under dry-heat conditions 
decomposes, liberating a free fatty acid. 
This will honeycomb or etch the cylinder 
and piston surfaces and also make the 
piston rings more brittle. 

One of the lubrication engineers reports 
a series of tests which he conducted to de- 
termine the effect that heat would have 
on various lubricating oils when subjected 
to high temperatures such as exist in an 
air compressor cylinder. He says the best 
way would be to test the oils in the cyl- 
inders of an air compressor, but as in 
most types of compressors the valves are 
in one large heavy casting, which, with 
the water pipe connections, make them 
difficult to remove, not many engineers 
care to go to the trouble of doing it. 

He devised a plan whereby he could de- 
termine approximately the action of dif- 
ferent oils under heat conditions some- 
what similar to those which exist in an air 



compressor cylinder. This was accom- 
plished by taking a block of cast iron about 
6 or 8 ins. square and 2 ins. thick and plac- 
ing it on a layer of dry sand in a shallow 
iron pan, packing the sand close around 
the cast-iron block, and placing the pan 
over a gas burner. The upper surface of 
the block was polished and a hole about 
j4-inch deep drilled in it, large enough to 
hold a mercury bulb, cylinder oil was 
poured into the hole so as to make a close 
heat contact. 

Air, taken at a temperature of 60 degs. 
Fahr., and compressed to 125 lbs. per 
square inch gauge pressure, will theoreti- 
cally attain a temperature of 540 degs. 
Fahr. 

When the thermometer showed 400 
degs. Fahr., a certain oil was taken that 
had been used at a certain compressor 
plant. It was a very light bodied, paraf- 
tine base oil, like a spindle or ice machine 
oil. A drop of this oil was allowed to fall 
from the point of a lead pencil from a 
height of 2 ins. onto the block. In 10 
seconds it had spread out to a circle of 
V/% ins., smoked slightly, and dried up al- 
most instantly, thus indicating that it was 
a very poor compressor lubricant. Then 
a drop of a slightly heavier oil, such as 
would be suitable for use in turbine and 
motor bearings, was tried. This spread 
out quickly to a diameter of 1J4 ins., 
smoked slightly and dried up in two min- 
utes. It was but little better than the first 
oil. A still more viscid oil, like a medium 
bodied engine and machine oil, was then 
dropped on the hot surface. It spread 
out slowly to a diameter of 1J4 ins.., 
smoked slightly, and the surface was oily 
after five minutes. In the meantime the 
temperature, as shown by the thermom- 
eter, had gone up to 420 degs. Fahr. A 
still heavier oil, such as is usually used in 
gas engines, did still better, even after the 
temperature had gone up to 450 degs. 
Fahr. It smoked but little, and a good 
trace of oil was still on the block after 
10 minutes. A steam cylinder oil was 
then tried. It did not smoke or dry up, 
but after a while it became thick and 
gummy. 

Even at the highest temperatures the 
engine oils burned up clean, leaving no 
trace of dry coke or carbon matter, which 
tends to confirm the theory that the hard 
formation often found in and around the 
discharge valves of air compressors is due 
largely to the presence of dirt in the air, 
which adheres to the oily surfaces, and 
which, under the continuous dry heat, 
becomes baked and burnt on. 

The deductions that may be drawn 
from these crude tests are that for such 
temperatures as would be encountered in 
a single stage compressor, compressing to 
125 lbs., a high-grade filtered mineral oil 
of moderately high vaporizing point, suit- 
able viscosity, and especially low in car- 
bon content, will give most economical re- 
sults If such an <>il i< used in moderate 



amounts, and if the air inlet is properly 
placed, no trouble will be experienced 
with lubrication. 

The location of the air inlet on an air 
compressor is of great importance, and 
extra care should be used in placing it. It 
is surprising what a large amount of 
abrasive material can be passed through 
a compressor without the cylinder walls 
or valves being scored. Troublesome 
conditions usually develop from a contin- 
uous circulation of abrasive matter in the 
air in the valve gauges, where it accumu- 
lates with oil which adheres to the surface 
of the valves, and eventually becomes 
carbonized from continuous subjection to 
the temperatures caused by the compres- 
sion of the air. 

The lubrication of the air compressor 
constitutes an important part of Diesel 
engine lubrication. In the Diesel engine 
the gases of combustion are exhausted 
after the power stroke and the cylinders 
filled with fresh air which is compressed 
by the piston on the up or out stroke. 

These compressors are of the multiple 
stage type, in which the air is compressed 
successively through two or three cylin- 
ders. In the first cylinder it is com- 
pressed to 40 to 80 lbs., in the second 
cylinder to 200 to 300 lbs., and finally in 
the third cylinder the pressure reaches 
800 to 1,100 lbs. per square inch. As the 
air passes through intercoolers in its 
passage from one cylinder to another it 
reaches its maximum pressure in a com- 
paratively cool state. The air then passes 
to containers which allow any moisture 
that the air may contain to precipitate 
and also acts as a storage reservoir to 
draw from when starting the engine. 
These compressors are usually connected 
directly to the main engine shaft and 
form a part of the engine in a stationary 
plant. 

Air compressors exposed to weather 
conditions, such as those used on electric 
railway cars, require a lubricant for win- 
ter use which has a low cold test. The 
Texaco air compressor oils are low cold 
test oils, and will meet all temperature 
requirements. 

While air compressor explosions occur 
at rare intervals, the fact should be em- 
phasized that properly operated and 
properly cared for compressors are as 
harmless as steam engines. The theory 
that these explosions are due to the use of 
an oil with a comparatively low flash 
point is discredited, as the explosions oc- 
cur more frequently where a high ilash 
oil is used. It is also generally agreed 
that the explosion is due to the accumula- 
tion of carbon deposits in the air lines 
This deposit in turn is caused eiti. 
the use of an unsuitable oil which de- 
composes, or to the use of an excessive 
amount of oil, or to the improper position 
of the air inlet. The belief that the ex- 
plosion is always produced by the ignition 
of a volatile mixture usually of vaporized 



74 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1918 



oil and air, though possibly of coal dust 
and air, in the air tanks or lines, is ques- 
tionable in view of the fact that the small 
amount of oil volatilized in the air com- 
pressor cylinder would be insufficient to 
form an explosive mixture with the air, 
as this volatile matter is constantly be- 
ing carried off with the air. It could 
only be in a case where an excessive 
amount of oil was used or where 



pockets of oily residue were allowed to 
collect that a sufficient amount of vapor- 
ized oil could collect to form with the air 
an explosive mixture. Even in such a 
case the cause of the explosion would not 
he the vaporized oil, but would be some 
other factor which produced a spark or 
flash. The probable source of this spark 
is again the carbon deposit, which may 
be responsible for a sufficient increase in 



temperature, by restricting the air passage 
and thus increasing the pressure so as to 
cause the carbon to become an incandes- 
cent mass. It is not improbable that in 
some cases this glowing mass of carbon 
may weaken the tensile strength of the 
air receiver or the air lines to such an ex- 
tent that they are no longer able to with- 
stand the pressure of the air, the result 
being an explosion. 



Swiss Decapod Type of Locomoti 
Lyons and Mediterranean 

Originally Intended for the Gothard Section of the Swiss Railways 



ve on the Paris, 
Railway 



A correspondent in Switzerland who is 
\er\ much interested in the general good 
that is being effected by locomotive feed 
water heaters has sent us a photograph 
of a Decapod or 2-10-0 engine built by the 
Swiss Locomotive Works at Winterthur 
in 1916. These engines were intended for 



order 85.8 tons. Tender 18 m — *. Coal 7 
tons. Weight empty 16.2 tons. Weight 
in working order 41.8 tons. Total weight 
in working order, engine and tender, 127.6 
tons. Total length in working order of 
engine and tender 19,195 mm. 

When compared with an engine not 



best of its kind in those days, and 
consisted of several yoke of oxen, com- 
monly known as "hay-burners." 

Mr. Higginson ran his train on a tri- 
weekly schedule. When he had gathered 
up a "cargo" and everything was ready 
for the trip he loaded the oxen into the 




DECAPOD 2-10-0 TYPE LOCOMOTIVE FOR THE PARTS. LYONS AND MEDITERRANEAN RATT.WAY. 



the Swiss Federal Railways, Gothard 
Section (Class C. 5/6). 

By some international agreement these 
engines have, during the German war, 
been used in helping service in France on 
the lines of the Paris, Lyons and Medi- 
terranean Railway. The engines shown 
in our half-tone, made from the photo- 
graph received, are powerful machines. 
being of the four-cylinder compound 
goods type fitted with superheater and 
with the Schichau feed water heater. 

The dimensions, which are given ac- 
cording to the metric system, are high 
pressure cylinders 470 mm. Low pressure 
cylinders 710 mm. Stroke 640 mm. The 
diameter of the driving wheels is 1,330 
mm. Rigid wheelbase 2,900 mm. Total 
wheelbase 8,800 mm. Boiler pressure 15 
atmospheres. Grate area 3.7 m — = . Heat- 
ing surface 265.2. Weight on driving 
wheels 76.1 tons. Weight in working 



equipped with feed water heater, this en- 
gine using the Schichau system on the 
newest Decapods which we here represent, 
when in ordinary service on the Swiss 
State Railways, give a coal saving (so it 
is stated) of from 10 to 12 per cent, on 
the Gothard line where they ran before 
being taken for pusher service on the P., 
1.. & M. 



A Strange Kind of Old Railway 

The history of railway operation in 
this country is full of many curious 
and interesting details. Among them 
none are stranger than those that con- 
cern the Memphis. El Paso & Pacific 
Railroad, a forty-mile road operated be- 
tween Marshall, Tex., and Shreveport, 
La., during the Civil War. 

The owner of this line was Mr. John 
Higginson. The motive power was the 



first box car in the train. In the next 
car he put the freight and the passengers, 
and in the third he himself rode. The 
cars started down the steep grade out of 
Marshall and, after they had run as far 
as they would, Mr. Higginson set the 
brakes and proceeded to unload the oxen 
and hitch them to the coupling of the 
car. Then he released the brakes and 
started the train up the grade. At the 
top the oxen were again loaded into their 
ear and another start was made down 
hill. By repeating this operation several 
times Mr. Higginson and his train would 
finally reach Shreveport. 

The passenger rate was 25 cents ? 
person. Freight charges were anything 
the owner of the line could get. Since 
there was no competition, Mr. Hig- 
ginson made money. All freight was 
marked "red ball" and handled as soon 
as received. 



March, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



The Business Box Car 



At a recent meeting of the Western 
Railway Club, Mr. W. J. Bohan, mechan- 
ical engineer of the Northern Pacific, 
read a paper on "The Business Box 
Car." In this paper, a synopsis of which 
we give, Mr. Bohan dwelt on practical 
business judgment, based on experience, 
and accurate technical information. 
Continuing, he said, among other things : 

The most economically efficient box car, 
is one in which every detail, even the 
grab irons, are made to do their share in 
assisting the proper uses of the car and 
resisting the abuse to which it is exposed 
in everyday life. The body of such a 
car should not be built around any one 
member, but all of its members should 
form a unit, having maximum inherent 
strength and resilience, and acting as a 
unit should act in dissipating all reason- 
able strain. It should have the fewest 
possible primary and special parts. Joints, 
gussets, rivets, bolts and fastenings, 
which work and wear to the detriment of 
the car, increase its cost of upkeep, and 
loss of time on repair tracks should be 
reduced to a minimum. A general speci- 
fication for a car that would meet these 
requirement would be briefly as follows : 

The weight for, say, a 40-foot, 40- 
ton box car should be between 45 and 
50 per cent of the stenciled capacity. It 
should not exceed 48 per cent. This 
weight can be obtained without sacrifice 
of strength. In connection with the mat- 
ter of efficient weight : Electric motor 
builders design a motor to handle 25 
per cent overload for two hours with- 
out abnormal stress. There seems to be 
no reason why box car design should not 
be designed upon some such basis. It is 
to be understood that a 25 per cent over- 
load rating is not the correct rating for 
a box car. 

The body of the car should be a steel' 
frame throughout, preferably pressed 
steel of resilient quality. The under- 
frame, sides, ends and roof should be 
diagonally braced throughout. There is 
no question about the efficiency of diag- 
onal bracing. Its value has been many 
times demonstrated in the reclamation 
of old cars. As the diagonal bracing of 
the entire construction will distribute the 
strains due to the live load and the 
shocks to all members of the car. the 
fish belly type of center construction is 
not necessary. Ten-inch center sills of 
ordinary cross-section are sufficient. 

Side and end posts and braces at the 
points of attachment with sills and plates, 
underframe bracing at the points of at- 
tachment with center and side sills, and 
roof bracing at the points of attachment 
with ridge pole and plates should be di- 
rectly connected, that is, the usual con- 
struction using gusset plates or other 
secondary members should be eliminated 



as the strength and efficiency of the car 
can be materially increased by so doing 
and unnecessary parts can be eliminated. 
Autogenous (electric or oxy-acetylene) 
welding may be used to advantage in 
such a construction. 

Diagonal underframe bracing at the 
ends should be securely tied to both 
center and end sills at their junction, and 
extend continuously around the ends of 
the body bolster and cross ties, with al- 
ternate connections to the center and the 
side sills. The same general construction 
may be followed in the roof for the at- 
tachments of diagonal bracing and plates, 
ridge pole and door carlines. At the 
door openings the underframe should be 
substantially reinforced by supplementary 
diagonal bracing. The plate may be 
similarly reinforced above the door, or 
the door track built to form the rein- 
forcement. The roof reinforcement at 
the door openings may be made by the 
use of carlines at the door posts. The 
end construction with its attachment to 
the end sills and plates is similar to the 
side construction. 

The corner posts should be formed by 
directly connecting the end side post and 
side end post members throughout their 
entire length. This will not only tie the 
car together securely, but it very greatly 
assists in forming an integral construc- 
tion. The corners may be further rein- 
forced by continuous corner and end 
grab irons. 

Side and end sheathing should be made 
of two sections of sheet steel, their junc- 
tion should be reinforced by plates, and 
all securely riveted together, forming 
side and end girths, the girth reinforcing 
plate extending continuously from the 
side door post to the side door post 
around the end of the car. 

End and side lining should be of 
matched lumber, sides 34 ins. or 13/16 ins., 
ends 1|4 i ns - the lining extending from 
floor to plates. The floor may be of the 
usual 1 3 /J ins. matched stock, secured to 
the furring of the underframe, using 
standard grain strips at the intersections 
of the floor and sheathing. 

The roof should be of the circular type 
and may be constructed of two sheets 
(No. 16 steel) running lengthwise of 
the car, with joint at the ridge pole, the 
two roof sheets being securely riveted 
between the ridge-pole and a weather- 
proof ridge pole. The roof sheets should 
also be securely riveted to the diagonal 
braces, end and side plates, thus forming 
an integral member of the car capable of 
sustaining its share of the load. It is 
necessary that the inside of the roof be 
what is commonly called "non-sweating." 
This can be had by the application of a 
heavy coat of "round C"rk and red lead 
or mineral paint applied to the e> 



metal surfaces. The door should be of 
steel, framed and sheathed similar to the 
body of the car, and mounted with 
weather-proof shields at the posts and 
plates. The truck should, like the body, 
have as few parts as possible and be pref- 
erably of the cast-steel type. 

Particular attention should be given the 
brakebeam mounting to insure even brake 
shoe wear and proper alignment of the 
levers and rods. All these points are of 
extreme importance not only in that 
they may perform their special functions 
properly, but that the irregular trans- 
mission of stresses to the car itself be 
avoided, as far as possible. Brake 
equipment of the standard makes is quite 
satisfactory. Special attention, to secure 
proper application and alignment of 
parts, is absolutely necessary to obtain 
safe and efficient results. This special 
attention is very often lacking. 

Draw gear should be of the friction 
type, having a minimum recoil action, 
which should be just sufficient to read- 
just the parts in release. Travel should 
be approximately 4 ins.. The shock dis- 
sipating capacity of the gear should be 
the maximum obtainable with prescribed 
travel and standard clearance conditions. 
The draw lug fastenings should approach 
strength sufficient to resist maximum 
shocks regardless of draw gear capacity. 

The holes in the framing should be 
die-punched to templets. All rivets and 
bolts should be of the best quality ob- 
tainable and of full cross-section. Bolts 
should have properly proportioned heads 
and clean cut and accurate threads to 
provide for a good fit of the nuts. Nuts 
should also be of best quality and manu- 
facture. Application of both rivets and 
bolts should be made without drifting, 
rivets having full and concentric heads 
and driven at the proper temperature. 
Double nuts, lock nuts, cotters and split 
keys where used should be given special 
attention. A good design of nut lock is 
superior to a cotter or split key on ac- 
count of the extreme difficulty in getting 
the proper application of cotters or split 
keys. No one little thing is a source of 
more trouble on a car than loose nuts. 

Too much stress cannot be placed upon 
the importance of more careful practical 
engineering study of both general and 
detail design to secure a well-balanced 
resilient car unit. Some manufacturers 
have done a great deal of excellent work- 
in this direction on underframes. but have 
not. in my opinion, extended the resilient 
features far enough, as there is no reason 
why it should not extend to the entire 
superstructure of the car. Particular at- 
tention should also 1. to the selec- 
tion and assembly of the best obtainable 
P'ateri.d whi-h is take:: from all sources 



76 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1918 



Retardation Due to Water Scoops. 

N it long ago Mr. H. C. Webster writ- 
the Railway Review of London, 
made some very interesting remarks on 
the subject of the effect of water scooping 
en train resistances. It appears from 
what lie said that, the resistance • 
by taking in water from a trougli be- 
tween the rails, when a train is travelling 
over it at speed, is larger than is ordinari- 
ly supposed, and those who are accus- 
tomed to ride on the footplate have, no 
doubt, noticed the drag that results when 
the scoop is dropped. Although the 
amount of water taken varies with the 
circumstances it is seldom less than 2,500 
gallons, all of which has to be lilted 
about 8 ft. This represents some 2(10,000 
ft lbs. of work. 

During its passage through the trough 
the scoop becomes a moving vane, and is 
governed by the same principles as an 
ordinary turbine is governed by except 
that the impact in the former case is 
caused by the collision of the moving 
scoop against the stationary volume of 
v ater, and in the latter case by the mov- 
ing water against the stationary or slower 
moving vane. 

It follows, therefore, that having its 
velocity relative to the scoop altered both 
m magnitude and direction, the water ex- 
erts a pressure upon the scoop that takes 
the form of an added resistance to the 
motion of the train, and it is this resist- 
ance that is considered. 

The velocity of the water is altered in 
direction but not in magnitude. The 
original velocity being changed to a 
velocity at right angles to it, equal to a 
certain amount, by the impressed force 
that the scoop exerts upon the water. We 
find by a series of calculations that the 
relation between resistance and delivery 
pipe of given area is shown in the follow- 
ing table: 



which gives the varying resistances for 
these train speeds, and from which is 
plotted the appropriate diagrammatic curve. 
This curve presents no special character- 
istics, being regular in form. It is extended 
above and below the practical limits at 
which water would be taken in order to 
obtain a range sufficient to show the na- 
ture of the curve. 



Friction Draw Gear. 
The Anderson Friction I 'raw Gear was 
first introduced in 1910, and has since 
licen put on a number of cars and engines 
of various types. The varied char- 
acter of the service encountered on 
cars and locomotives has afforded a very 
searching test of its efficiency and dura- 
bility under all conditions. The construc- 
tion of the gear is unique in that its 



followers) and two class "G," coil springs 
making seven parts in all. The principle 
of operation of the gear is intended to 
insure a resilient initial action and a posi- 
ti\e release, which are two very important 
considerations in the selection of a draw 
gear. The breaking of springs and other 
parts is avoided by designing the follower 
castings so that they butt solidly at the 
end of the travel before the springs 
close. The type "B" gear is interchange- 
able u ith other standard friction gears, 
taking the standard M. C. B. sill-spacing 
12"s ins. and using a yoke 9'/» x 24f£ ins. 
It has a capacity of 350,000 lbs., and ZYt, 
ins. travel. 




ANDERSON FRICTION DRAW GEAR. 

movement is cushioned by a form of 
spring resistance transmitted through a 
rocker, whose leverage increases with the 
travel, and which is augmented by the 
frictional resistance of the Y-grooved sur- 
faces of the rocker and spring cap, where 
one rotates in the other. 

Its comparative simplicity and its form of 
construction are shown by a glance at our 
half-tone illustrations of the various parts 
which go to make up one gear. There 
are five steel castings (including the two 



Area in sq. ins. 35 40 45 

Resistance (in lbs.) 1631 1860 2100 
velocity taken at 



50 55 60 

2330 2560 2800 
40 miles an hour. 



65 

3040 



70 
3260 



To Blacken Small Iron or Steel Parts. 

Dissolve 10 weight parts of copperas in 
twice the weight of water, also 15 parts 
of chloride of tin, adding 20 weight parts 
of hydrochloric acid and diluting the 
mixture in about 400 parts of water. The 
articles are immersed in this bath for 10 
seconds, and after being rinsed in water 
are ready for a second bath composed of 
3J4 lbs. of sodium hyposulphate, generally 
known as "hypo," to which has been added 
1/6 lb. of hydrochloric acid and 2 1/5 lbs. 
of water. This second bath is produced by 
first dissolving the hypo in hot water, 
and the hydrochloric acid should not be 
added till the bath is to be used. There 
is a strong visible action when it is 
poured in, and a yellow precipitate is 
formed, which should be removed from 
the solution by filtering through muslin. 
Small iron and steel parts treated this 
way will, when dried, be of a bright, 
black, enduring surface. The immersion 
in the second bath need not exceed three 
minutes in duration. 



Nickel Plating. 
Light nickel-plating can be readily ac- 
complished by heating a bath of pure 
granulated tin, argol and water to boiling 
and adding a small quantity of red-hot 
nickel oxide. A brass or copper article 



from which is obtained an appropriate 
curve, properly plotted. This is here a 
straight line, and serves to show that a 
minimum area is desirable in designing 
the scoop consistent with the volume of 
water to be lifted over a given length of 
trough. 

In the. foregoing the resistances consid- 
ered are additional to the normal resist- 
ance of the train to motion, and no ac- 
count has been taken of the energy stored 
in the train as momentum. Here it only 
reduces the drawbar pull to zero as 
demonstrated by traction dynamometer. 
Proceeding in this way with velocities be- 
tween 25 and 60 miles an hour the follow- 
ing table is obtained, the area being 50 
sq. ins.: 




Speed un.p.h.) 
Resistance (lbs.1 



901 



30 
1310 



35 
1779 



40 
2330 



PARTS UNASSEMBLED OF THE ANDERSON FRICTION DRAW GEAR. 

45 50 55 60 immersed in this solution is instantly cov- 

2940 3610 4320 5220 ered with pure nickel. 



.March, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



77 



British Railways and the Board of Trade 



At a very early date in the history of 
British railways, Parliament conferred 
powers on the Board of Trade to in- 
spect new lines previous to their open- 
ing for traffic, and to withhold their 
sanction of the line being opened if any- 
thing which might be required by the 
Board of Trade inspecting officers to be 
necessary and requisite for safety was 
not provided. 

The first act of Parliament, giving this 
power to the Board of Trade, appears 
to have been passed in 1840, and, in 
addition, railway companies were required 
to make returns of traffic and accidents, 
to submit their by-laws for approval, &c. 

The Board of Trade requirements now 
in force apply to all lines on which pas- 
senger trains are run and to the junctions 
of lines for working freight trains only 
with lines over which passenger trains 
run, and for the guidance of the railway 
companies, the requirements are set out 
in detail. Apart from the question of the 
degree of safety reached by the observ- 
ance of these requirements, there is the 
fact that they have a certain standard- 
izing effect on the equipment of all rail- 
ways, a consideration of some value in 
view of the great amount of running 
of one company's trains over another 
company's line. It may be mentioned 
that the Board of Trade also have power 
to inspect alterations of any importance, 
due either to extra accommodation, or to 
reduction of existing accommodation, or 
renewal. 

The Block Telegraph is used to insure 
a proper space interval between trains, 
except in the case of a single line worked 
by only one engine in steam carrying the 
train staff (usually a wooden token). 
This, of course, is not insisted on if 
some sort of automatic signalling is pro- 
vided instead. 

The Signals are home and distant for 
each direction. These must be provided 
at every block or signalbox. Starting 
signals are required for each direction 
at all passenger stations which have sig- 
nal boxes. Almost every station has one 
or more signalboxes, but a few (mostly 
in sparsely populated districts) have not. 
Wayside halts on both single and double 
lines seldom have signalboxes. All 
crossovers and connections between pas- 
senger and goods lines must lie protected 
by signals. This also applies to sidings, 
except on single lines where the points 
are unlocked with the train staff or tali- 
let. Signals at junctions must be placed 
on separate posts or on brackets. Dis- 
tant signals must be distinguished by a 
notch cut out of the ends of the arms, 
and if placed on the same post as a 
home or starting signal, they must be 
controlled liy such home or starter, so 
that they tan never show an All Right 



signal when the home or starter is at 
danger. When in such a position, both 
applying to trains proceeding in the same 
direction, they must be fixed under the 
home or starter. 

For sidings, either a disc signal or low 
short arm and small signal light to be 
provided, distinguishable from the arms 
or lights provided in running signals 
(i. e., controlling fast moving traffic). 
In practice, however, it works out that 
these signals are sometimes as high as 
20 ft., where a number of arms direct- 
ing to a number of routes from a siding 
or group of sidings are placed on the 
same post, one above the other. Every 
signal arm must be so constructed that 
it any portion of the mechanism were to 
break the arm would fly to danger, and 
this is obtained by the spectacle side of 
the arm being made heavier than the 
semaphore. The lights of signals should 
be Green for all right and Red for 
danger. Some modification has of recent 
years been made in the lights of distant 
signals on certain sections of lines, yel- 
low being used, but this practice, even 
in new work, is at present by no means 
universal. 

The backlights of signals when at 
danger, should be White and as small 
as possible, having regard to their being 
visible either from the signalbox or 
anywhere else where the indication of 
the arm is of value. 

Electrical indicators, showing the posi- 
tion of the arm and whether lamp is 
alight or not, of any signal out of sight 
of the signalbox, are also required. The 
lights of disc or dwarf signals are white 
when in the danger position, instead of 
red, except where the signals control 
movements from sidings to running 
lines or in and out of running loops. 

Facing points must not be placed more 
than 250 yards from the box and the 
detection of the switch blade plunger is 
necessary if over 200 yards away. Trail- 
ing points may be 300 yards away. In 
order to insure that facing points are in 
their proper position before the signals 
leading over them are lowered, detectors 
showing the position of the switches 
must be provided. To guard against 
facing points being shifted when trains 
are passing over them, they must be 
fitted with facing point locks and lock- 
bars, or some other device for the same 
purpose. These lockbars should be of 
i greater length than the space between 
any two pairs of wheels Tt is the prac- 
tice of one large railway to work their 
facing points, switch plunger and lock- 
bar, from one lever in the box, but the 
usual practice is for one lever to work 
the points, and another to work the lock- 
bar and plunger. A common form of 
bar is one carried on 4 or 5 rockers 



clipped to the side of the rail, the bar 
working to and fro in the direction in 
which the rails are laid. The switch 
plunger, or facing point lock, is a piece 
of steel which shoots into a slot in the 
stretcher rod between the facing point 
switches in one or other position, ac- 
cording to which way the switches lie. 
Such plungers and bars are worked by 
rodding from the signalbox. The final 
requirement in regard to points is that 
they must be worked by rods and not 
by wires. 

Interlocking, dealing also with signal- 
boxes requires levers by which points and 
signals are worked are to be interlocked 
and brought close together into a position 
most convenient for the person working 
them in a signalbox or properly con- 
structed stage. The box should be com- 
modious and have a clock and also block 
instrument for signalling trains on each 
line of rails. The point levers and sig- 
nal levers to be so placed in the box 
that the signalman when working them 
shall have the best possible view of the 
railway, and the box itself to be so con- 
structed and situated as to enable the 
signalman to see the arms and the lights 
of the signals and the working of the 
points. 

The requirements in regard to inter- 
locking are that a signalman shall be un- 
able to lower a signal for the approach 
of a train until after he has set the 
points in the proper position for it to 
pass; that it shall not be possible for 
him to exhibit at the same moment any 
two signals that can lead to a collision 
between two trains ; and that, after hav- 
ing lowered the signals to allow a train 
to pass, he shall not be able to move any 
points connected with, or leading to, the 
line on which the train is moving. Points 
also, if possible, to he so interlocked as 
to avoid the risk of a collision. Home 
and starting signals next in advance of 
trailing points, when lowered, to lock 
such points in either position, unless such 
locking will unduly interfere with the 
traffic. An exception to the locking of 
trailing points by home or starting sig- 
nals might occur where such signal was 
some distance in advance of the points 
and where, consequently, a heavy freight 
train might be a long time in passing 
such signal, resulting in other movements 
in a shunting yard being held up. Distant 
must not be capable of being 
lowered unless the home and starting 
signals in advance of it (i. e., worked 
from the same signalbox) have been 
lowered. 

Adequate means to be provided for 
the signalman to remind him of vehicles 
which are standing within bis control. 
This may take the form "i track circuit, 
electrical or mechanical fouling bars. &C. 



78 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1918 



Sidings, it is required by the Hoard of 
Trade, should be laid in so that shunting 
or switching operations over them shall 
cause the least possible obstruction to 
passenger lines. The exact meaning of 
this, of course, depends on local con- 
ditions. It does not mean that two short 
sidings with one connection to the run- 
ning line and a capacity of, say, a dozen 
cars, must have a "shunting neck" when 
it may only be used for half an hour 
daily; on the other hand, where a switch- 
ing engine is at work for a considerable 
period of the 24 hours, it would pay a 
railway company to provide sufficient ac- 
commodation to do its work wholly in 
the sidings, in order to leave the running 
lines clear for passing trains. Safety 
points must be provided upon Goods and 



Mineral lines and sidings at the junction 
with passenger lines, and to be so ar- 
ranged that the points in the sidings are 
normally closed against the passenger 
lines and interlocked with the signals. 

Junctions, siding connections and cross- 
over roads in a passenger station are so 
arranged as to prevent as far as possible, 
any necessity for standing trains on 
them, presumably to avoid the risk of 
such points being pulled between the 
wheels of the train and thereby giving 
an opportunity for derailment. The junc- 
tions of single lines to be, as a rule, 
formed as double line junctions. 

The foregoing is a brief resume, with 
comments, of the present Board of Trade 
requirements in regard to Signalling, &c. 
These requirements are issued at peri- 



ods of a few years, but may be said to 
follow, rather than lead, the signalling 
practice of the railway companies. In 
special cases, safeguards, in addition to 
those specified by the Board of Trade, 
are considered necessary and are pro- 
vided by the companies, and in other 
cases where the conditions are abnormal, 
the requirements are not carried out to 
the letter. 

Automatic signalling schemes are in 
force at various places, as for instance, 
on the tube railways of London, and are 
inspected by the Board of Trade prior to 
opening, but as the equipment is special- 
ized to lit the conditions, they are not 
considered sufficiently standard to war- 
rant any Board of Trade requirement 
being issued. 



Scientific Investigation Regarding the 
Priming and Surface Tension of Liquids 



Pure science concerns itself not with 
application but with knowledge. If pure 
science has industrial applications it is in 
some sense accidental. Technical re- 
search, on the other hand, investigates in- 
dustrial problems, and in its work may 
make substantial additions to pure 
knowledge. Eminent scientists, notably 
Lord Rayleigh investigated a chil- 
dren's plaything, the soap-bubble. He 
experimented with bubbles, and so did 
Prof. C. V. Boys, who lectured on the 
subject in the London Institution in 1890. 
Lord Rayleigh investigated their struc- 
ture, coloring and durability; the rearch 
evolved new theories as to the surface 
tension of liquids. Pure knowledge is 
never without possible ulterior utility, 
however long the application may be de- 
layed. 

The view of the ebullition of water un- 
der pressure through a glass panel with 
an interior light, has quite an industrial 
application. It is interesting to watch the 
actual process of steam generation. Bub- 
bles of small size rise through the heated 
fluid, coalesce into larger, join into froth 
and presently subside, having discharged 
their vaporous contents. In the case of 
sea water, for example, the frothy mass 
reminds one of washing day, and it is of 
considerable depth. The whole question of 
foaming or priming in a steam boiler is 
a question of bubbles, and the researches 
of scientists have a direct bearing upon 
the subject. It is almost wholly a matter of 
fluid skin or surface tension. There is 
a distinct suspicion that alkalinity in the 
presence of grease — which, latter, being 
lighter than water, is at the surface— gen- 
erally leads to saponification, increased 
surface tension, and foaming or priming. 
Yet, on the other hand, small doses of oil 
have been known to stop the undesirable 
conditions. Investigation does not seem 



yet to have been made taking the soap 
bubble precedent as to the saponified 
condition of the water 

The use of the surface blow-off is not 
practised as it might be, and the scum- 
ming of boilers is very desirable to effect 
changes at the point of steam liberation. 
The thermal loss due to this cause is 
more than counterbalanced by the drier 
steam produced, and the likelihood of 
lessened foaming. While the majority of 
boiler attendants are aware of the neces- 
sity of using the blow-down valve to dis- 
charge sludge and prevent undue concen- 
tration of the water, the value of scum- 
ming and the fittings therefore seem 
largely to be overlooked. Grease in a 
boiler' is the least desirable of all con- 
tents ; it has a remarkable resistance to 
' heat penetration when present as a thin 
film on heating surfaces; and is very 
much worse than scale in this connection. 
The chemistry of feed-water and feed- 
water rectification are large subjects, hut 
every engineer should know the constitu- 
tion of the feed-water employed, and a 
periodic analysis is a simple measure of 
precaution. Knowing this, together with 
the internal condition of the boiler, will 
in most cases allow some sort of treat- 
ment to obviate the worst consequences 
of any undesirable ingredients. Short of 
distillation there is no such thing as pure 
water, and absolutely pure water is not 
necessarily desirable, and as steam gen- 
eration means the concentration of boiler 
water, it is essential to do something to 
remedy what otherwise may become dan- 
gerous, or at least not conducive to the ef- 
fective life of the boiler itself. External rec- 
tification of feed-water is now a rather im- 
portant engineering specialist field, and the 
locomotive fraternity now employ some ap- 
paratus to secure the obvious benefits re- 
sulting from good feed-water purification. 



Rushton Reverse Gear. 

The Rushton reverse gear is a power- 
operated piece of mechanism, frequently 
used on engines built by the Baldwin 
Locomotive Works, of Philadelphia, Pa. 
It consists of a rotary air engine, which is 
mounted on a suitable frame secured to the 
boiler. The motor drives through gearing, 
a horizontal shaft having a threaded sec- 
tion. On this section is mounted a nut, to 
which the reach rod is attached. The nut 
is made in halves, and these are held to- 
gether by two horizontal bolts. A certain 
amount of clearance is allowed between 
the halves of the nut, and by removing 
thin liners placed on either side, and tight- 
ening up the bolts, the two sections can 
be drawn together to compensate for 
wear. The nut slides on a horizontal 
guide, so that the shaft is relieved of 
bending stresses. 

The shaft carries a threaded section at 
its rear end, and this threaded section 
engages with a toothed sector. To the 
sector is attached a pointer, so as to in- 
dicate the point of cut-off. Admission of 
air and the direction in which the motor 
rotates, are controlled by an operating 
handle conveniently placed with reference 
to the engineman. When the gear has 
been shifted the desired amount, the han- 
dle is brought back to central position, 
thus stopping the motor. A hand lever 
is provided for use in cases of emergency. 
The entire device is very compact and 
simple to operate. It is handled by the 
Franklin Railway Supply Company, Inc., 
of New York. The device resembles the 
English screw reverse gear, and is al- 
ways positive in its action. 



Meeting of the Western Railway Club. 

At the Western Railway Club which held 
its regular monthly meeting, Mr. George 
Austen, general inspector of boilers on the 
A. T. & S. F. read a paper on "Locomotive 
Firebox Maintenance and Repairs." 
The use of electric and oxy-acetylene 
equipments was strongly recommended. 



March, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



79 



Locomotives for the French State Railways 



Forty consolidation type locomotives 
for Chemins de Fer du Midi, and 100 
Consolidations of the same design, but 
with a different diameter of driving wheel 
(and other minor changes) for the French 
State have recently been completed by 
the American Locomotive Company. 
These engines are of basic American de- 
sign modified in fittings and fixtures to 
suit French practice. They were de- 
signed by the American Locomotive Com- 
pany, and each drawing was approved by 
a representative of the railway company 
and the State Department of France. All 
dimensions are in the metric system; In- 
ternational system of screw threads are 
used, however, and the French- Westing- 
bouse system of pipe-threads, which the 
workmen used direct. 

The boiler in general follows American 
practice, a good grate area being obtained 
by the use of a short wide firebox. Hand- 
holes are used instead of washout plugs 
to give greater accessibility for washing 
out. A dump grate in the front of the 
firebox is operated from the cab by a 
screw; the fire door opens inside, as re- 
quired by a French law, and the outside 
end of the blow-off cock has a special 
thread for connection to the fire hydrants 
of the City of Paris. 

This is a precautionary measure of the 
highest importance for the protection of 
the capital city of France, which contains 
so much that is in itself beautiful, and of 
so great historic value. Much that is 
beautiful and artistic in France has been 
destroyed by the insensate, coarse and 
barbarous Hun, that what is left deserves 
the enlightened foresight for its protec- 
tion. In the event of a general conflagra- 



operating valve worked from both sides 
of the cab. Lagging on the boiler is 
omitted; the jacket being supported on a 
crinoline frame, leaving an air space, 
which acts as a non-conductor. Confined 
air is a very good insulator of heat, and is 
used with excellent results. A pneu- 
matic sander is combined with a screw 
conveyor, which extends through the 
sandbox, and is operated from the cab. 
All these engines have a variable exhaust 
operated from the cab by a screw which 
passes through the handrail. 

Some other interesting features are the 
left hand drive, screw reverse, cross- 
balanced driving wheels, muffled cylinder 
cocks, French Westinghouse brakes, 
French standard buffers and couplers, 
spark arrester, Roy buffers between 
engine and tender, by-pass valve operated 
by an air cylinder, firebrick arch and 
superheater, and also the water brake, 
which is used, as a general thing, in de- 
scending long, hard grades. The water 
brake consists of an arrangement for 
letting a little hot boiler water into the 
cylinders, and this is at once vaporized, 
and the engine being, of course, reversed, 
the slight pressure of this steam thus pro- 
duced, acts with a retarding effect upon 
wheels, but the pressure is not sufficient 
to rotate them against the motion of the 
engine going down grade. The whole 
thing acts as a retarder and checks any 
undue increase of speed. 

Dimensions and details of 8-8-0 for the 
Chemin de Fer du Midi : Track gauge, 
1440 mm. or 4 ft. Sl4 in. ; fuel, bituminous 
coal; cylinder, type piston valve, diameter 
23 stroke, 26 in.; tractive power, simple 
35,100 lbs.; factor of adhesion, 4 ft.; 



lbs.; firebox, type wide length, 96>6 in., 
width SlJ'4 in.; firebox, thickness of 
crown, Y% in., tube Vi in., sides Y& in., 
back Y% in. ; firebox, water space front, 
4 in., sides 3' i in., back VA in. ; firebox, 
depth (top of grate to center of lowest 
tube), 27 5/16 in.; crown staying, 15/16 
in. radial ; tubes, material, hot rolled seam- 
less steel, number 166, diameter 2 in. ; 
flues, material, cold drawn seamless steel, 
number 26, 5>6 in.; thickness tubes No. 
12, flues Xo. 9; tube, length, 15 ft., spac- 
ing 11/16; heating surface, tubes and flues 
1,840 sq. ft.; beating surface, firebox, 142 
sq. ft.; beating surface, total. 1,9X2 sq. ft.; 
superheater surface, 456 sq. ft. ; grate area. 
•34.2 sq. ft. Wheels — driver, diameter out- 
side tire, 1,400 mm., center diameter 1,260 
mm. ; wheels, drivers, material, main cast 
steel, others, cast steel ; wheels, engine 
truck, diameter, 850 mm., kind, cast steel; 
wheels, tender truck, diameter 960 mm., 
kind, cast steel, S. T. Axles — drivers, 
journals, main, 228 mm. by 250 mm., 
others 210 mm. by 250 mm. ; engine 
truck journals, 145 mm. by 260 mm.; 
tender truck journals, 130 mm. by 240 
mm. Boxes — Driving, main cast steel; 
others, cast steel. Brake — Driver, Amer- 
ican, truck none ; trailers none ; tender, 
Westinghouse; air signal, French State 
Railway standard; pump, two-stage fives; 
reservoir, Lillie, 1-28;/; in. by 78 in. En- 
gine truck, swing center. Exhaust pipe, 
single ; nozzles, variable. Grate, style, 
rocking. Piston, rod, diameter, 3f£ in. ; 
piston packing, snap rings. Smoke stack, 
diameter, 14 in.; top above rail. 13 ft. 
10J/J in. Tender frame, Channel. Tank — 
Style, water bottom ; capacity, 4,756 gal- 
lons ; capacity fuel, 5 metric tons. Valves, 




^^— ^— 



CONSOLIDATION FOR THE FRENCH STATE RAILWAYS BUILT P.V Till: AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE COMPANY. 



tion every locomotive within the bounds 
of Paris could be turned into an im- 
promptu fire engine, and more engines 
could he brought in from the outside, if 
need be. The Napoleonic aphorism that 
"Paris is France" seems to have lost noth- 
ing from the days when it was uttered. 

In order to quickly free the smokebox 
of smoke, the blower is made as a quick 



wheel base driving, 16 ft. 9 in., rigid 16 
ft. 9 in., total 24 ft. 11 % in.; wheel base 
total, engine and tender, 53 ft. 3!4 in. ; 
weight in working order, 159.500 lbs., on 
drivers, 138,500 lbs.; estimated weight on 
engine truck, 21,000 lbs.; estimated weight, 
engine and tender, 264,500 lbs. ; boiler, type 
extension wagon top. O. D. first ring 
645-6 in.; boiler working pressure, 170.6 



type, 260 mm.; piston travel, 155 mm.; 
steam lap. 26 mm. ; setting, lead. 6 mm. 
Dimensions and details For 2-S-0 en- 
gines for the State Department of France : 
Track gauge, 1.440 mm., or 4 ft. 8'. in.; 
fuel, bituminous coal ; cylinder, type, 
piston vl.; diameter 23 in. stroke 2'> in. 
Tractive power, simple. 35,100; compound 
— Factor of adhesion, simple, 3.97 ; com- 



80 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1918 



pound — Wheel base, driving, 16 ft. 9 in. ; 
rigid, 16 ft. 9 in.; total, 24 ft. 11>4 in. 
Wheel base, total, engine and tender, S3 ft. 
i'/i in. Weight in working order, 160,000; 
on drivers. 139,200; on engine truck 
21,000: weight engine and tender, 266,400. 
Boiler, type, extension wagon top; O. D. 
first ring, 64-Vji in. ; working pressure, 
170.6. Firebox, type, wide, length ( >o' s 



Flues, material, cold drawn seamless steel, 
number 2b, diameter 5}& in.; thickness 
tubes. No. 12; lines. No. 9; tube, length, 
15 ft.; spacing, 11/16 in. Heating surface. 
tubes and dues, 1,840 sq. ft.; firebox, 142 
sq. ft.; total, 1,982 sq. ft.; superheater 
surface, 45b sq. ft.; grate aria. 34.2 sq. ft. 
Wheels — Driver, diameter outside tire, 
1,440 mm. or 56.7 in.; center diameter, 



mm. or 10 in.; tender truck journals, 130 
mm. by 240 mm. Boxes, driving, main, 
cast steel . others, cast steel. Brake, driver, 
American; brake, tender, W'estinghousc ; 
air signal, Fives and Lillie, two stage 
reservoir, 1-28J4 in. by 78 in. Engine 
truck, swing center; exhaust pipe, single; 
nozzles, variable ; grate, style, rock- 
ing ; piston, rod, diameter, 95 mm. ; piston 




CONSOLIDATION RUILT BY Tilt: AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE COMPANY FOR THE CHEMIN lit: FER DTJ MIDI. 



in., width 5 1 ' 4 in.; thickness of crown ! s 
in. ; tube, Y> in. ; sides. }£ in. ; back, 
% in. ; water space, front, 4 in. : sides, 
3]/ 2 in.; back, 3'/> in.; depth (top 
of grade to center of lowest tube). 
27 5/16 in. Crown staying, 15/16 in., 
Radial. Tubes, material, hot rolled seam- 
less steel, number 166, diameter 2 in. 



1.300 mm.; driver, material, main, cast 
steel ; others, cast steel ; engine truck, di- 
ameter, 850 mm. ; kind, C. S. S. T. ; tender 
truck, diameter, 960 mm. ; kind, C. S. S. T. 
Axles, driver, journals, main, 22X mm., or 
9 in., by 250 mm. or 10 in. ; other, 210 
mm. or 8 in. by 250 mm. or 10 in. ; engine 
truck journals, 145 mm. or 5' J in. by 260 



packing, snap rings ; smoke stack, diame- 
ter, 14 in.; top above rail, 13 ft. 10^ in.; 
tender frame, channel. Tank — Style, water 
leg ; capacity 4.756 gallons ; capacity fuel, 
5 metric tons. Valves, type, piston; 
travel, 155 mm.; steam lap, 26 mm.; ex 
lap clearance, mm. ; setting, lead, 6 mm. 
1 mm. =0.03937 inch. 



Locomotive Spark Arresters and Petticoat Pipes 



Fires caused by sparks from a locomo- 
tive are of much rarer occurence than 
formerly. The devices now in use have 
reduced the danger to a low point. Prof. 
Goss made extended experiments some 
years ago and among other interesting 
things discovered that on high winds 
sparks small enough will fly more than 
a hundred yards from the track ami still 
retain some heat which might kindle some 
very inflammable substances. The heavi- 
est sparks do not pass over thirty yards 
from the track, and this may safely be 
called the danger line, beyond which it is 
doubtful if any disaster directly traceable 
to sparks ever occurred. 

It is conceded to be a physical impos- 
sibility to entirely avoid the danger, inas- 
much as the production of sparks is one 
of the inevitable circumstances arising 
from the burning of any kind of wood or 
coal under any condition. With a forced 
draft such as is caused by the intermittent 
blasts from locomotive exhaust pipes, the 
spark producing causes are very great, 
and it will be noted that the greater the 
power that is used in propelling the loco- 
motive, the greater the production of 
sparks. 

Powdered coal and oil fuel on the con- 
trary may he said to be free from sparks, 
and it would be interesting indeed to com- 



pare the amount of saving from this cause 
alone. The character of the fuel in any 
case is of much importance in spark pro- 




SMOKE BOX Willi DRAFT REGULATING 
DAMPER IX CLOSED POSITION. 

ducing, soft coal being much more prolific 
in that regard than the harder kinds of 
coal. Spark arresters in the very nature 
of things all have some deterring effect 



on the fuel consumption, and consequently 
on the generation of steam. The problem 
therefore has been one involving the high- 
est degree of spark arresting quality while 
looking towards the heat retarding effect 
on combustion. The deflector sheet lends 
itself readily to the initial stoppage of 
much of the flying particles of uncon- 
sumed fuel that are carried through the 
flues by the sudden rush of air caused by 
the vacuum produced by each successive 
blast from the exhaust pipe. A particular 
event, in the general adoption of the brick 
arch, has been the more complete com- 
bustion of coal, and consequently the les- 
sening to a minimum of unconsumed par- 
ticles of coal. 

In the early locomotives the use of wire 
netting began in the smokestack and grad- 
ually came lower and lower, until it took 
the general form of a screen extending 
across the smoke-box near the center and 
below the exhaust nozzle. A semi-circu- 
lar piece of netting completed the device. 
This was greatly improved upon by con- 
structing the netting in the form of a 
hopper, being attached to the deflector 
sheet by pieces of angle iron, the ex- 
tended sloping sides of the hopper shaped 
device not only presenting, a more ready 
angle of entrance for the escaping smoke 
and gases, but it also provides a much 



March, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



81 



larger space for the same purpose. It is 
an important feature in the construction 
of smoke-box screens that the amount of 
opening in the netting should be larger 
than the area of the smokestack. A cer- 
tain percentage of excess of area should 
he allowed, as some clogging of the open- 
ings either in netting or perforated metal 
is inevitable. The openings in netting or 
plates being generally more than half of 
the entire surface of the material, a 
comparison between the smokestack area 
and the area of the netting can readily be 
made. 

In the case of fitting the netting or per- 
forated metal around the steampipes it is 
of importance that the fitting should be 
exact and securely attached, as the heat 
to which the material is subjetced, with 
intermittent cooling, has the effect of 
warping and bulging the material in a 
very short time, with the result that open- 
ings and fractures not infrequently occur. 
The best materials of which the spark ar- 
resters may be constructed soon lose their 
consistency and rapidly crystallize and de- 
cay. Patchwork, unless carefully made, 
creates new rents, and there is perhaps no 
part of the locomotive more liable to frac- 
ture or disturbance than the spark ar- 
rester. 

It is to the credit of the railroads gen- 
erally that the smoke-boxes of the loco- 
motives are kept in good condition. 

Probably the device in its present form 
is as near perfection as can be expected, 
but this does not prevent our inventors 
from experimenting with new appliances. 
We had recently the opportunity of ex- 
amining contrivances that looked like 
windmills in the smokestack, one of them 
devised to whirl the sparks through an 
e tended pipe back to the firebox again. 
Another, with an enlarged smokestack, 
whirled the sparks into a large recess sim- 
ilar to the balloon stacks of the wood- 
burning days. The failure in both ex- 
periments was complete. The back pres- 
sure on the exhaust affecting the com- 
bustion to such an extent that it was 
found impossible to maintain the requisite 
steam pressure. The present appliance, if 
properly maintained, has a degree of effi- 
ciency that it would be difficult to sur- 
pass. 

Reference might be made to what is 
known as the petticoat pipe, which in 
some form has for many years been a 
feature in American locomotive appli- 
ances, and is more or less of a necessity 
in view of the limited dimensions of the 
smoke stack on the modern locomotive. 
It serves in a great measure the same 
purpose as the tubes of an injector do in 
inducing the flow of water. The draught 
of air passing through the Hues is led into 
the bell mouth of the petticoat pipe by the 
action of the exhaust, and it is essential 
that in the event of the petticoat pipe be- 
ing separate from the smokestack, its si/e 



at the upper end should be proportionate 
to the size of the smokestack, and it should 
be sel exactly central with the exhaust 
nozzle and smokestack. The effect of the 
petticoat pipe in regulating the draught 
in the smoke box is coincident with the 
deflector sheet, and both are intended to 




SMOKEBOX WITH DRAFT REGULATING 
DAMPER PARTLY OPEN. 

create a uniformity of draught through 
the flues, so that the heat should be equal- 
ly distributed over the entire area occu- 
pied by the flues. 

Exact rules cannot be laid down for the 
location of the petticoat pipe. The dis- 
tance from the top of the exhaust pipe to 



When the draught is strongest the flues 
are cleanest, and if flues are partially 
choked with soot or ashes it is conclusive 
proof that the draught has not been suf- 
ficiently strong in that locality to keep 
them clean. 

Generally speaking, if the petticoat pipe 
is set too high, the draught will be strong- 
est in the lower flues, and if the pipe is 
set too low the upper flues will receive 
the strongest amount of draught. In view 
of these facts very little experimenting 
should be necessary to obtain the best 
working height at which the petticoat pipe 
should be kept. 

In the case of badly proportioned or 
badly set petticoat pipes the effect on the 
fire is of the most pernicious kind. In 
cases where the fire is burned rapidly in 
some parts of the firebox it is safe to as- 
sume that the cause of the trouble is in 
the petticoat pipe, and a slight change of 
position of the pipe will show some varia- 
tion in the appearance in the degree of 
evenness with which the coal is being 
burned in the firebox, and the indications 
will readily lead to such changes as may 
effect a complete remedy. 

The petticoat pipe has long been in 
service on American locomotives, but its 
use in European locomotives is compara- 
tively recent. The tendency in American 
locomotive construction is to form the 
petticoat as an extension of the smoke- 
stack, a portion of which is so constructed 
as to lead downwards near the center of 
the smoke box, and it is safe to assume 
that this method will eventually become 
standard. 





GENERA1 \RRANGEMENT OF THE WASTER MECHANICS 1 ASSOCIATION 
SELF CI EANING SMOKEROX. 



the lower edge of the petticoat pipe is 
usually made about equal to the diameter 
of the smokestack. A slight change of 
the height of the pipe in regard to its lo- 
cation has often a considerable effect on 
the draught and consequently in the 
steaming qualities of the engine. The 
uniform appearance of the flues is the 
best tesl of the uniformity of draught. 



Meanwhile, as already stated, too much 
importance cannot be placed on the neces- 
sity of adjusting the petticoat pipe in ex- 
act alignment with the exhaust nozzle and 
smokestack. The height may be deter- 
mined by experiment, its action by the ap- 
pearance of the fire and condition of the 
Hues, and it should he examined every day 
together with the netting. 



82 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1918 



Pneumatic Firedoors On Locomotives 

Details of Construction — Economy In Operation 



In these days when economy is the aim 
and safety the password, it is surely right 
and proper that a word should be said in 
favor of those special devices that com- 
bine the desirable qualities referred to, 
more especially if the cost of their appli- 
cation is paid for by the unquestionable 
saving accomplished in a very short time. 
Among these the use of the pneumatic 
firedoors has already become particularly 
prominent, and bids fair to become uni- 
versally applied to the modern steam loco- 
motive. On the heavier types of locomo- 
tives, not equipped with mechanical 
stokers, it has become a real necessity. 
Several very successful devices have 
already been perfected, and among these 
the Franklin Automatic Fire Door has 
already grown in marked popular favor, 
and a brief description of the details of 
this device will be of interest to all who 
may not be familiar with its construction. 

It consists of a door frame, door plates, 
operating cylinder and pedal which con- 
trols the movement of the door. Taking 
what is known as the "Butterfly" door as 
being among the most common in use, the 
door plates are mounted on hardened 
pivots and work together through heavy 
gear teeth. One door plate is connected to 
the enclosed operating piston by a steel 
connecting link. The door is opened by 
a movement of the piston, the power being 
compressed air admitted to the cylinder on 
which the piston is enclosed. When the 
piston reaches the maximum travel the 




BUTTERFLY FIRE DOOR. 

door is fully open. Baffle plates are fitted 
to the door plates, and protect the door 
plates from the intense heat of the fire- 
box. They also serve to heat the air that 
passes through the openings in the door 
plates. This not only aids combustion, but 
helps to maintain a more uniform fire-box 
temperature. It will be observed in the 
first illustration there is a hand lever, the 
purpose of which is for operating the 
doors in the roundhouse when there is no 
air pressure on the engine. When the 
door is operated by air pressure this lever 



does not move. In general service, as we 
have already stated, the door is operated 
by air pressure, the air being admitted 
through a strainer valve and an adjustable 
valve into the operating valve. When the 
foot of the operator is placed upon the 
tread, a valve is opened at the lower part 
of the door, being raised from its seat, 




DETAILS OF 1 FRANKLIN PNEUMATICAL- 
LY OPERATED FIRE DOOR. 

allowing the air pressure to pass through 
a pipe which connects the valve to the 
cylinder head. The enclosed piston is car- 
ried forward by the action of this air 
pressure, and transmits its movement to 
the doors through a link which is at- 
tached to the left hand door plate. The 
plates are connected by intermeshing gear 
teeth. 

As the piston moves forward the door 
plates are rotated around the fulcrum 
pins until they have uncovered the open- 
ing in the door frame. In this position 
the link is centered, and it is impossible 
tor the piston to travel any further. 
Should the momentum of the door plates 
be such as to carry the doors beyond the 
full opening position the piston would ln- 
pulled back against the air pressure in 
the cylinder. This would act as a cushion 
and bring the doors to a stop without 
any jar or noise. 

When the foot of the, operator is re- 
moved from tread the valve closes, cutting 
off air pressure to the cylinder, at the 
same time permitting the air in the 
cylinder to exhaust to the atmosphere 
through an exhaust put in the valve body. 
The weight of the doors causes them to 
close, at the same time returning the 
piston to the left end of the cylinder. 
In closing the door is cushioned, as the 
doors close rapidly there is sufficient 
pressure remaining in the cylinder, the 
exhaust being restricted, to slow up the 
movement of the doors and allow the 
plates to come together without slamming. 

A latch having two notches to engage 
the hand lever is also provided. The first 



notch, which is known as the smoke notch, 
holds the door open about eight inches at 
the bottom to allow the admission of air 
to the fire-box, while the locomotive is 
standing at stations. The bottom notch 
is located so as to hold the doors in the 
full open position. The supply of air for 
operating the door should be taken from 
the main reservoir pressure. All doors are 
furnished complete with frame ready for 
application to the boiler, and may be 
readily attached during boiler washout 
periods, the job being usually done by two 
men in about three hours. 

In operation, the door should be 
opened and closed after each scoop of 
coal by means of the pedal, and from 
carefully collected data there is an aver- 
age of 585 distinct movements on the part 
of the fireman for each ton of coal con- 
sumed on locomotives not equipped with 
pneumatic fire doors. This number of 
movements is reduced to an average of 
234 by the use of the door described. On 
some long freight runs, where twenty tons 
of coal may be consumed, the relief to the 
fireman is very great. The lessening of 




INTERIOR OF LOCOMOTIVE CAB SHOW- 
IXC FRANKLIN VERTICAL FIRE DOOR. 

the labor of the fireman is not the only 
gain. The ready opening and closing of 
the door after each scoop excludes as 
much air as possible from the firebox, 
thus preventing the expansion and con- 
traction of the tubes, keeping up the tem- 
perature of the firebox and insuring the 
air being drawn through the grates so as 
to furnish necessary air for combustion. 
Extensive tests have also shown that 
in the amount of coal used on engines 
equipped and not equipped with the 
pneumatic fire doors the difference is con- 



March, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



83 



siderable, the lowest showing a gain of 
over 6 per cent, and in several tests as 
high as 12 per cent, the average being 
based on the number of miles run per ton 
of coal with the same class of locomo- 
tives, and showing 19.62 miles per ton 
with the Franklin fire door, and 17.45 
miles per ton with hand-operated door, 
the nearest approach with the latter 
method being 18.29 miles per ton, as com- 
pared with 19.44 miles per ton when 
equipped with the pneumatic door. 

The care of the door involves little 
labor. An oil cup is provided on the top 
of the cylinder, and the fulcrum pins are 
oiled through oil holes on the front of 
the cylinder. All other parts of the door 
should be operated without oil, the use of 
oil on the door plates being a detriment 
to their operation. 

In conclusion, it may be noted that 
while we have confined our description 
to what is known as the "Butterfly" 
door, the device is used in a variety of 
forms, some with the doors opening ver- 
tically, one portion moving upward and 
the other downward. This type is 
especially serviceable in the case of boilers 
equipped with double doors, and where 
the limited space between the doors would 
preclude the movement of the doors used 
in the "Butterfly" type. 



Apprentices on the Santa Fe. 

Not long ago at a meeting of the 
Western Railway Club Mr. W. F. 
Thomas, supervisor of apprentices on the 
Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe outlined 
the system of training young men for 
mechanical work, on that system. He 
referred to the equipment, to the shop 
instructors and to the method of select- 
ing apprentices; a system in which let- 
ters of recommendation were not required 
nor were they deemed of much value. 
Continuing he said, in part: 

We have in our shops, a body known 
as the apprentice board. This board is 
composed of the general foreman, depart- 
ment and gang foremen, the shop instruc- 
tors and the school instructor. Each ap- 
prentice either in person or in name, is 
brought before this board every six 
months during his apprenticeship of four 
years. All matters relating to the talent 
or fitness of the boy are looked into 
and handled in a recommendatory manner 
and the result is sent to the ranking 
mechanical officer of that shop for his 
action, and finally to the supervisor of 
apprentices. This plan makes an officer 
take an active interest in the boy. He is 
called upon to pass judgment upon the 
boy, and he soon feels and knows he must 
find out about the boy. It has also cre- 
ated an interest in the other shop em- 
ployes, and desire upon the part of each 
foreman to treat all men with that inter- 
est and feeling which begets loyalty and 
service. 



We furnish to each master mechanic 
one, to the superintendents of shops two 
or three, graduates of engineering or 
technical colleges. These are known as 
special apprentices. They are selected 
solely upon a personal interview. We 
place no credence or faith in letters of 
reference. Experience with these college 
men has been of doubtful success. So 
few remain long enough to prove their 
worth. There is no doubt of their ability 
—but serious doubt of their adaptability 
or application. They are apparently un- 
willing to start at or near the bottom 
and work up. They must, however, in 
railroad work, acquire the practical 
knowledge. One cannot afford to put 
a man in authority who does not know 
his business. 

The Santa Fe selects about a dozen of 
the best and brightest of the graduates 
of its apprentice system and sends them 
to the best contract shops in the country, 
to acquire new ideas in handling men and 
material. Some previously sent, went to 
the Baldwin works. The Baldwin people 
gave these young men an opportunity such 
as has never been enjoyed by any before. 

The Santa Fe Railway's apprentice sys- 
tem has been in vogue nine years. From 
345 boys in 1907, the number has grown 
to 1,023 today. Starting out with ma- 
chinist apprentices only, it has expanded 
till now we are giving instruction to boys 
in eleven trades. Over 120 boys have been 
promoted to some position of respon- 
sibility on the road. The Topeka Shops, 
the largest shops on the system, have 
not employed a skilled mechanic from the 
outside for over two and a half years. It 
is some comfort to the master mechanic 
or superintendent of shops, to know when 
going about his duties that he has not to 
keep on his mind the worry whether he 
will have enough men for his shops. In 
habits and character these young me- 
chanics are made out of good stuff. Their 
homes are there, their friends and com- 
panions are there. They are more than 
first class shop men; they are good 
citizens. 



extinguishing apparatus at various points. 
The regularly organized fire brigades ex- 
tinguished altogether 66 fires. The entire 
loss sustained was $3,867, or less than 
$59 per fire. Chemical extinguishers 
checked 30 blazes. Fire pails were used 
53 times to extinquish fires. Locomotive 
fire apparatus was used in 19 fires in 
which the combined loss was $1,176, the 
property threatened being valued at $332,- 
420. Water casks and fire pails extin- 
guished 23 fires with a total loss of $800. 
Fire hose was used 18 times. The high 
pressure fire lines put out eight fires at 
a loss of $108. Chemical engines proved 
their value in four fires by keeping down 
the total loss to $630. Sand pails, ex- 
tinguishers and tug boats were utilized in 
putting out other fires. The employes of 
the railroad, without apparatus, extin- 
guished 107 fires. 

Fifty-one fires occurring on the prop- 
erty of the Pennsylvania Railroad, last 
year, were due to causes beyond the con- 
trol of the employes. Adjacent property 
burning caused 25 fires; adjacent rubbish 
caused two ; boys playing about were re- 
sponsible for two; incendiaries for three; 
lightning for three; tramps for three; a 
tornado for one, and spontaneous igni- 
tion for 13. The largest number of fires, 
except those from adjacent buildings, are 
due to this hitherto unexplained cause. 
The majority of spontaneous combustion 
fires result from the collection of inflam- 
mable rubbish with a sufficient dampening 
of oil or such-like substance, the rubbish 
heap being somewhat protected and in a 
position to retain what heat may be de- 
deloped, until the igniting temperature 
is reached, when flame bursts forth and 
this may not be discovered until it has 
gained headway. 



Reducing Fire Losses on the P. R. R. 

Promptness on the part of employes of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad in extinguish- 
ing fires, before the arrival of the public 
fire companies in the year 1917, saved 
$10,445,196 worth of the company's prop- 
erty from destruction. Altogether 334 
fires were put out by employes. These 
occurred on property very highly valued, 
but the total loss was only about $12. 
The total fire loss of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad in 1917, including those cases 
in which public fire companies responded, 
was $306,465. 

Last year's fire record of the P. R. R. 
clearly illustrates the value of training 
employes in fire fighting methods, and of 
organizing fire brigades, and of providing 



Substitute for Sheet Steel 

It is reported that in England a sub- 
stitute for sheet steel for various pur- 
poses has been found in the form of an 
asbestos-cement composition. Ground as- 
bestos mixed in the proportion of one 
to six with Portland cement and worked 
into a paste with water is the funda- 
mental in this substitution. A machine 
something like those used in the making 
of paper forms this material into sheets, 
which are trimmed to size and, if de- 
sired, corrugated for roofing purposes. 
After seasoning the material is ready 
for use. It is durable, resistant to 
climatic conditions and also to any acids 
in the atmosphere ; it is fireproof, and 
also a non-conductor of heat. 



Crossing the Bosphorus. 
It is reported that work will be begun 
next month on a bridge and tunnel across 
the Bosphorus uniting Europe and Vsia 
The narrowest point is about 1,800 feet. 
The contract has been awarded to a Buda- 
pest firm by the Turkish government. 



84 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1918 



RiSveEiDineerins 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling 
Stock and Appliances. 



Published Monthly by 

ANGUS SINCLAIR CO. 

114 Liberty St., New York. 

Telephone, 746 Rector. 

Cable Address, "Locong," N. Y. 

Glasgow, "Locoauto.' 



Business Department: 

ANGUS SINCLAIR, D. E., Preat. Sjid Treas. 

JAMES KENNEDY. Vice-Prest. 

HARRY A. KENNEY, Secy, and Gen. Mgr. 

Editorial Department: 

ANGUS SINCLAIR, D. E., Editor-in-Chief. 
JAMES KENNEDY, Managing Editor. 
GEORGE S. HODGINS, Editor. 
A. J. MANSON, Associate Editor. 

London Representative: 

THE LOCOMOTIVE PUBLISHING CO., Ltd., 
8 Amen Corner, Paternoster Row, London, E. C. 

Glasgow Representative: 

A. F. SINCLAIR, 15 Manor Road. Bellahouston. 
Glasgow. 



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it the post office at New York, New York, under 
che Act of March 3, 1879. 



A Chance for Action. 

One of the best opportunities that has 
ever presented itself in the railroad 
world is in sight and the Government 
should take advantage of it in the pub- 
lic interest. The function of a Govern- 
ment is not always to restrain or rule, 
right and proper as these things are. It 
may at times, it seems to us, be that en- 
lightened leadership, is one of the strong 
roles it can play with advantage. In the 
matter of compulsory safety, the field is 
open to it as it is to no other agency. 

One does not feel insulted, nor is there 
any implied reflection on a man's honor 
when the cash register hands out a bill, 
added up without flaw, or a full receipt 
for only the exact amount paid. This 
mechanical rectitude and machine-made 
honesty, is looked on as commendable 
rather than the reverse. We have before 
now spoken of the "Dead Man's Handle," 
where death or a sudden faint of the 
motorman, enforces the safety of the 
traveler, by the stoppage of the train. 
■^ jrhp^V r^-Vnltgj Tc Control" in the ma- 
chine shop (more fully explained on 
page 93 of this issue), makes for mech- 
anical safety of the operative. In case 
the current by which the machine is 
driven, fails or is cut off for some reason, 
from outside while the machine controller 
is on, intelligent thought must be used 



to do further work. The machine can- 
not be started again when the current 
goes on again, unless the operator re- 
turn the machine controller to zero and 
moves it up point by point as the ma- 
chine is desired to gain power and speed. 
In this way the inadvertant working 
about or tinkering with, a stopped ma- 
chine by the operator, perhaps tired of 
waiting for current, is avoided. The 
machine can only be re-started by the 
intentional purposive action of the man 
in charge. His forgetfulness of cause of 
the stoppage cannot jeopardize his life 
or limb. Safety is his, without the ask- 
ing and perhaps his knowledge. 

Recently a proposal was made by an 
assemblyman that all telephones should 
be supplied with an automatic electrical- 
ly-operated counter, so that a subscriber, 
at the end of a given period, should be 
guaranteed the statement of the number 
of calls and the price of each, for the 
given time, so that like the cash register, 
he need not be compelled to take the 
word of an interested or careless or in- 
accurate employee. The need for such 
things is apparent when it is remembered 
that army surgeons and experts, so it 
is stated, after examination, found 2 per 
cent of drafted men were mentally de- 
fective or in some way incompetent. 

All these things ; the cash register, 
the dead man's handle, the no-voltage 
control, the telephone recorder, and the 
mental test of soldiers, have for their 
object the elimination of the "human 
element," and the plain, straightforward 
reason for this is that the human ele- 
ment has been demonstrated to be un- 
reliable, and it has conclusively proved to 
be so, in the variety of ways, as exempli- 
fied in the few devices and methods we 
have mentioned. Our readers can sup- 
ply other examples and we would be 
glad to have them do so. 

Now, if this fallibility of the "human 
equation" exists, and as this danger 
owing to mental makeup of various men 
is there, beyond question, is it not time 
that the stop signal be also included as 
one of the most necessary and effective 
safety appliances? 

Human fallibility on a railway is no 
different from what it is in other in- 
stances, but its consequences may be the 
most serious in the world. On page 37 
of our February, 1918, issue, we gave 
some explanation of an exceedingly in- 
expensive and effective stop signal, where 
the breaking of a glass globe, no more 
costly than an electric bulb, struck by a 
bar of iron, held in the stop position and 
co-acting with the semaphore blade, does 
the business. On page 40 of the same 
issue, we called attention to a new and 
effective method of telephoning a moving 
train, the system is being tested by the 
Canadian Government. It is a magnificent 
safety scheme. 

We have shown the existence of mental 



failure; we have shown how, in other 
walks of life, the serious endeavor is to 
remove the menace of forgetfulness, dis- 
traction, thoughts wandering from the 
business in hand, and other forms of 
mental failure; we have given two tested 
methods of eliminating the "human ele- 
ment" on railroads — the stop signal, and 
the speech with a moving train — and we 
believe that as the rialroads have, so far, 
not fully acted on the cogent evidence 
at their command, it is time for the Gov- 
ernment to take some effective steps to 
get results, and not permit a vitally im- 
portant subject to be smothered in re- 
ports, monographs or minutes. The Brit- 
ish Board of Trade have done it properly. 
why not the United States as well? 



Service. 

It may very reasonably be asked, what 
does a railway supply man mean when 
he speaks about "Service"? Briefly, it 
means looking after the performance of 
the things he has sold. It is said that 
recently a railroad man called a prom- 
inent supply firm on the long distance 
telephone asking for a repair part for a 
fire door that had been accidentally 
broken. The supply firm sent a repre- 
sentative to a neighboring railroad, and 
borrowed the part wanted, and then for- 
warded it on a fast train by one of its 
own employes. Only for this quick action, 
an engine on the railway asking for help 
would have been out of service for 
several days. As a matter of fact, it lost 
not a minute. This is real service. 

In a poem by Rudyard Kipling called 
"Kitchener's School," written after the 
British had prevented the Sudanese, in 
1898, from constantly menacing Egypt, the 
poem supposed to be by a Mohamedan, 
speaking of the English, says : 

"Till these make come and go great 

boats or engines upon the rail But 

always the English watch near by to prop 
them when they fail." Now, this watching 
near by and this ability to prop, exem- 
plify what we call service. 

Another feature which stands out very 
prominently in dealing with a reputable 
supply house is that they do not want 
any one to buy an appliance in the dark. 
They are as eager for the searching road 
test as the railway man. They feel that 
the sale of goods does not end the transac- 
tion, but that the good-will and the satis- 
faction of a customer is not only very 
well worth while, but it is an essential. 

In old days, the "gentleman'' looked 
down upon trade, and upon those who 
made their living by trade. We are in- 
clined to regard this attitude as unworthy 
and snobbish. The gentleman never ad- 
mitted the social equality of the man who 
"soiled his hands" with trade. This may 
be untrue, and it may have been unworthy, 
but it had its origin in the practice of 
the tradesman of that day. His idea was 



March, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



85 



to sell goods, if need be, by misrepre- 
sentation, trickery, dishonesty and extor- 
tion. He resorted to any kind of scheme 
simply to sell his wares, and the subse- 
quent discovery of fraud by his customer 
was nothing to him. He offered no satis- 
faction and gave no redress. In time the 
practices of the "trade" were regarded as 
due to the objectionable character of the 
men in trade. In the days when the gen- 
tleman placed chivalry and scrupulous 
honesty in the category of the highest 
virtues of squire and knight, the feelings 
toward trade were then almost com- 
pletely justified. 

Today the idea of service, which takes 
close cognizance of good will, honesty, 
and the making good of statements about 
devices, and looks for the pleased return 
of customers, has revolutionized the old- 
fashioned conception of the man who 
sells. It was from the double-dealing of 
the seller, that the expression, "Let the 
purchaser beware," crept into the Latin- 
ized legal formula of a maxim. Service, 
as we know it, has swept all this away. 

A railway device is put upon the 
market, sometimes it is advertised, but 
what is bound up with the article, and 
what is sold with it, is service. That is 
not always so stated, but it is implied, it 
"goes without saying." Those who are ac- 
customed to dealing with our supply firms 
have no doubt noticed the ready and eager 
acceptance of an offer of test an appliance 
made by or sold to a railway company. 
and no question can be asked that the 
supply firm will not answer or make ar- 
rangements to find the answer to no 
matter what trouble and expense may be 
involved. The old days of buy "on sight, 
unseen," where investigation was pre- 
cluded and where probable performance 
was unknown, are now rapidly giving 
way to the safe and sane method, where 
applied science leads the way onward in 
the light, and where the old-time groping 
and stumbling in the dark for the sake of 
some one's unworthy gain, have given way 
to straightforward statement of efficient 
performance backed by careful trial, and 
where honesty, fair-dealing and generous 
treatment have placed the hallmark of 
sterling goods on the products and spe- 
cialties offered for sale in the railway 
world today. 



The General Service Car. 
The activities of the railways' war 
board have moved in the right direction. 
One of their accomplishments has been 
"to arrange for the movement of coal for 
naval use from mines in West Virginia to 
the Pacific Coast in box cars instead of 
in open cars, in order to prevent the un- 
economical empty haul of open cars from 
the Pacific Coast point to the EasK" 
They have with keenness of perception 
seen the advantage of making the best 
possible use of what cars we already 
have. 



Our problem is very largely one of 
utilization of the individual car. A slightly 
different construction of these box cars 
which are to be shipped west with coal, 
would help to relieve the situation. What 
we have in mind is that when these cars 
reach the Pacific Coast, loaded with coal, 
they must be unloaded by hand at a time 
when we need cars in active service, and 
also at a time when we need men for the 
war. 

From a utility standpoint it seems not 
only fitting but imperative that we should 
speak again of the possibilities of the 
general service car. Many of these cars 
are already in use by the railroads and are 
carrying freight in both directions, for 
which they are well fitted. 

Referring again to the war board's 
action, it illustrates the fact that while a 
coal mining region is not very often a 
manufacturing center, yet from the coal 
mines the coal must go to the manufactur- 
ing centers, and from the manufacturing 
centers the articles which they have man- 
ufactured must travel. This is also true 
of products from the farm. As in the 
case referred to, the car must in many 
instances (in bringing the coal from the 
mines), travel a long distance and over 
the same road on its return, and if it is 
not adapted for its return lading, it means 
an empty haul. This in turn means loco- 
motive power wasted, time and money lost 
on train crews and operation, the car out 
of service, with the loss of earning 
power. While these things are all im- 
portant, the most important thing is the 
fact that cars are needed and needed 
badly. From the construction of the 
general service car it can come into a 
situation of this kind, and make possible 
the use of the coal car on its way from 
the mine with coal, and on its return trip 
it can be utilized to bring hack that which 
could be used in or near the mining sec- 
tion. It is at once apparent that without 
attempting to interfere with or change the 
movement of freight, we may by the use 
of the general service car, adapt our 
railroad vehicles so that they can be used 
coming and going. 

If we are to build more cars, they 
should be so constructed that they can 
carry any kind of freight, or dump any 
kind of load ; so that they may be kept 
constantly in service. Ry the application 
of the general service car idea, to the 
gondola, such a car can be used for 
lumber, steel billets, rails, etc. At the 
same time such a car is suitable for coal, 
because it can be dumped. With the box 
or stock car, to which the general service 
car idea is applied, a railway not only 
has a box or stock car suitable for stock 
or classes of freight that need ordinary 
protection, but it also has a car suitable 
for coal or material that may be dimmed. 

What is accomplished in the general 
service car is the continued usefulness of 
any car for the work which it has alwavs 



performed, and in addition a railway has 
practically acquired a car suitable not only 
of carrying any material capable of being 
dumped, but so constructed that such 
material can be quickly dumped. It is 
no idle theory to say that the general 
service car can do the work of two. The 
work performed by cars of the general 
service type can be done with economy. 



Fuel Saving. 

The coal situation in war time was the 
subject of a paper read before the Cana- 
dian Railway Club, Montreal, last Jan- 
uary, by Mr. T. Rritt, general fuel agent 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway. In al- 
luding to the coal shortage, Mr. Britt said 
that the United States Government has 
been very considerate toward Canada, and 
will continue to be so, the intention being 
to treat Canada on an equality with any 
State in the Union, but. while doing this, 
they expect and insist that we do the same 
as they are doing, viz., inaugurate a cam- 
paign for the intensive conservation of 
fuel. 

Canadian railways have already reduced 
their annual passenger train mileage by 
10,000,000 miles, and have further de- 
creased the fuel consumption by lengthen- 
ing out the times of other trains and by 
eliminating fast freights and instead run- 
ning trains with full tonnage, and by 
equipping locomotives with superheaters 
and the best known modern means of les- 
sening fuel consumption. The Canadian 
Pacific Railway has been helping the cause 
by breaking up and using old ties for fuel 
— this even at considerable expense of la- 
bor, train service, etc., gathering and 
handling. 

Referring to the waste of fuel, Mr. 
Britt claimed that there is a lot of fuel 
wasted by automatic stokers not receiving 
intelligent attention from the fireman. The 
stoker itself when in proper working or- 
der will do all that is required of it, but 
there are, however, occasions when it will 
not do what it is supposed to, and it is 
then that a properly instructed fireman 
will give necessary assistance with a con- 
sequent saving in fuel. 

The majority of our passenger trains, 
particularly the sleeping cars, arc over- 
heated—it being left largely to the discre- 
tion of the colored porter as to what is 
considered a comfortable temperature. 
The result is that the temperature is kept 
up to a point that means comfort for the 
porter and discomfort for the passengers. 

As a matter of fact, the one practical 
and needful thing today is to save coal in 
order that our transportation lines and 
munition plants may have sufficient to 
carry on. It may be patriotic and a cer- 
tain amount of pleasure may be derived 
from singing "Keep the Home Fires 
Burning," but the saving of one ton of 
coal is of more practical benefit toward 
assisting the boys in the trenches than the 
singing of 100 songs. 



86 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1918 



Air Brake Department 

The Brake Leverage System; and the Clasp Brake — An Air Brake Lift Gauge- 



CENERAL RATIOS — LOSSES IN TRACTIVE POWER 

DUE TO DRAGGING SHOES — CLASP BRAKE 

FIRST USED IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IN 

EUROPE — EFFICIENCY GAINED WHEN 

USED IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Discoursing on Recent Developments 
in Brake Engineering Principles and 
Practice, Mr. W. S. Dudley said in ef- 
fect, to the New York Railroad Club at 
a recent meeting that until the Lake 
Shore tests of 1909, the generally ac- 
cepted maximum multiplication (total 
leverage ratio) was 9 to 1. When the 
car weight exceeded the ability of one 
size brake cylinder to provide the desired 
braking ratio with 9 to 1 total leverage 
ratio, the next larger size brake cylinder 
was used, which permitted a correspond- 
ingly lower total leverage ratio to be em- 
ployed. Experience has shown that, av- 
erage conditions being considered, the 
use of a higher total leverage ratio than 
9 to 1 would so magnify the effects of 
shoe wear, horizontal travel of shoe, and 
lost motion and deflection in the brake 
rigging, that the piston travel could not 
be maintained at the desirable 8 ins. for 
full service applications without destroy- 
ing the shoe clearance necessary to avoid 
the many evils of dragging brake shoes 
and "stuck" brakes when the brakes were 
supposed to be released. 

One of the most interesting and in- 
structive, if not the most important re- 
sults of the Lake Shore tests was the 
determination, from dynamometer car 
records, of the loss in tractive effort due 
to the brake shoes rubbing the wheels. 
With the brake rigging adjusted to 6 ins. 
instead of 7 ins. piston travel with a 
standing emergency application, an in- 
crease of 35 per cent in tractive effort was 
found to be required to haul the train at 
60 miles per hour, this being the average 
observed over one mile of track. The re- 
port points out that on trains with heavy 
cars equipped with six wheel trucks and 
a 9 to 1 and greater leverage ratio, this 
loss was going on, day after day on all 
heavy, fast passenger trains and strongly 
urges the advantages in hauling capacity 
of locomotives and saving of fuel, to be 
realized from a lower total leverage ratio 
and consequently greater shoe clearance. 

The design of the modern six wheel 
truck is such that the single brake shoe 
must be hung low on the wheel. The 
forces on the single brake shoes are con- 
sequently in such directions as to develop 
a considerable downward pull on the 
brake beam hangers, irrespective of the 
direction of motion of trucks, sufficient, 



Questions and Answers 

at least, to finally hold the shoe down to 
its lowest position, whether reached by 
the direct pull of the hangers or the mo- 
mentary compression of the equalizer 
springs, due to motion of the car body. 
The forces thus developed especially on 
six-wheel truck cars are sufficient to com- 
press the equalizer springs practically 
solid so that on releasing after the stop, 
the upward movement of the pedestals, 
with respect to the journal boxes, is from 
Vi to 1;4 ins. The effect of this is, of 
course, to lower the position of the shoe 
on the wheel during the stop, and the 
horizontal movement of the shoes multi- 
plied by the leverage, together with what- 
ever lost motion exists, produces the ex- 
cessive increase in running over standing 
emergency piston travel which has been 
observed in all tests made under these 
conditions. 

This is a source of direct loss in brake 
cylinder pressure, both in amount ob- 
tained for a given reduction and in time 
to obtain it. It is evident that if the 
total leverage ratio could be reduced, the 
evil effects of this action could be cor- 
respondingly lessened. In general, the 
amount of reduction possible depends on 
the car and rigging arrangement For 
the type of six-wheel truck with one shoe 
per wheel used in the Lake Shore tests, 
it appeared that a total leverage ratio 
exceeding 6 to 1 would involve material 
losses in efficiency as a result of the ex- 
cessive increase of running over standing 
piston travel adjustment when slack ad- 
justers were not used, or of running em- 
ergency over running service piston travel 
when automatic slack adjusters were used. 
Realizing the importance of the shoe lo- 
cation in this connection, the committee 
presented a sliding scale recommendation 
of 6 to 1, 7 to 1 or 8 to 1 maximum 
permissible total leverage ratio according 
to whether the shoe centers were S ins. 
or more, 2 ins. to 5 ins., or 9 to 2 ins. 
below the wheel centers. 

This was a temporary move in the right 
direction to produce immediate better- 
ment. But after a study of the reasons 
for the losses experienced the crux of 
the problem lay in the location of the 
shoes and the disposition of the forces 
applied to them. When existing evils in 
these directions were eliminated, a total 
leverage ratio of 9 to 1, or even higher, 
was shown to be feasible. 

No part of the brake apparatus has 
suffered more from neglect in design, in- 
stallation and maintenance than the rig- 
ging connecting the brake cylinder to the 



brake shoes. When installing the brake 
rigging on new cars, the possibility of 
levers or rods fouling, in passing from 
one extreme of all new shoes and wheels, 
new rigging and slack adjuster "in" to 
the other extreme of worn shoes and 
wheels, worn rigging joints and slack ad- 
juster "out," is often overlooked. But 
while there is room for betterment in 
the elimination of defective installation 
features, it is now generally recognized 
that with the weights of modern passen- 
ger equipment cars and the brake forces 
they require, the single shoe type of 
brake is unsatisfactory to the point of 
being decidedly detrimental. 

A recognition of the possible losses in 
these directions appears to have influ- 
enced the design and application of the 
brake rigging in Great Britain and on the 
continent, from the first, along the very 
lines that seem to have been persistently 
avoided in this country. There the use 
of two brake shoes per wheel is the rule, 
and during the last few years we have 
witnessed in the United States a growing 
interest in the advantages of the clasp 
type of brake rigging. 

Messrs. T. L Burton and H. A. Wahl- 
ert have summarized the advantages of 
the clasp brake somewhat as follows : It 
has been demonstrated by train brake 
tests that with an emergency brake ap- 
plication, a much shorter stop can be 
made with the clasp brake than with the 
single shoe brake, other conditions being 
the same. If properly designed, manu- 
factured and installed, there is no occa- 
sion to disconnect any part of the clasp 
brake rigging between shopping of cars. 
A thin brake shoe, or loss of a brake 
shoe does not in all cases necessitate cut- 
ting out a brake to save the brake beam. 
If the clasp brake is properly designed, 
manufactured and applied to the car it 
will be practically impossible to adjust the 
rigging so as to impair its efficiency or 
interfere in any way with its proper op- 
eration. 

The axles and truck frames in addition 
tc performing their usual function, be- 
come safety hangers for the major por- 
tion of the brake rigging, thus reducing 
the possibility of derailment caused by 
brake rigging dropping on the track. 
While the possibility of disconnected 
brake parts dropping on the track is 
greatly reduced, the danger is further re- 
duced on account of the clasp brake parts 
being much lighter than those of the 
single shoe type. Careful investigation of 
the complaints of roughly handled pas- 



March, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



87 



senger trains indicate that most of these 
troubles are due largely to non-uniform 
braking power and time in which it is 
developed as a result of improper piston 
travel. The clasp brake, by largely re- 
ducing "false" piston travel, affords the 
most favorable possible conditions for the 
pneumatic brake apparatus to operate as 
intended in its design. The use of two 
shoes per wheel eliminates the journal 
bearing and pedestal reactions necessary 
to withstand the high pressures imposed 
by the use of a shoe on but one side of 
the wheel. 

As twice the number of shoes are pro- 
vided to do the work required of the 
brake, the improved results mentioned 
are accompanied by a substantial decrease 
in cost of brake shoe material and by a 
proper design and construction of the 
brake rigging a low maintenance cost can 
be insured. Further and convincing evi- 
dence that the single shoe type of brake 
is being considered inadequate to the re- 
quirements of modern heavy passenger 
cars is found in the fact that a total of 
over 1,500 passenger cars of various 
roads have been equipped with clasp 
brake rigging during the last three or 
four years. Twelve of the large trunk 
lines of the country have 50 or more 
clasp brake cars in regular service on 
their lines. 

The requirements of the truck con- 
struction, brake shoe location and capacity 
to absorb heat, the per cent braking ratio 
and intended air brake performance are 
all factors in determining what weight 
of car warrants the change from one to 
two shoes per wheel. The conclusions 
from the L. S. & M. S. tests were, that 
for 12 wheel cars, 149,000 lbs. For 8 
wheel cars, 100,000 lbs. These figures 
were based on the assumption that 18,000 
lbs. pressure per brake shoe should not 
be exceeded and that the rigging efficiency 
is 85 per cent. 

The M-. C. B. Committee on train brake 
and signal equipment recommended in 
1915 that the limit of one shoe per wheel 
be for four-wheel truck cars, 96,000 lbs. 
For six-wheel truck cars, 136,000 lbs. 
This was adopted as recommended prac- 
tice of the association by a vote of three 
to one in favor of the clasp brakes. 

During the Pennsylvania-Westinghouse 
Brake Tests of 1913, an ingenious ar- 
rangement was devised to measure the 
pressure delivered to the brake shoes by 
means of the impressions made by a 
hardened steel ball in a soft steel plate 
of known hardness, inserted in the brake 
rigging as near the brake shoe as pos- 
sible. While the values observed were 
vitiated by the disturbing effects of the 
unavoidable vibrations, etc., the data se- 
cured in the standing tests was much 
more consistent than any before obtained. 
There is still lacking, however, a means 
for determining accurately the normal 
brake shoe force acutally delivered to the 



wheel. The data secured during the 1913 
tests, though unsatisfactory in many re- 
spects, indicated that in an emergency 
application, 125 to 150 per cent braking 
ratio, the particular rigging installation 
tested, actually delivered to the wheel 
approximately 85 per cent of the pressure 
calculated from the observed brake cylin- 
der pressure and total leverage ratio. 



Air Valve Lift Gauge. 
Apart from the constant addition that 
is being made to the devices used in the 
air brake, there has recently been added 
some valuable appliances used in the re- 
pair and testing of the parts, most of 
which are not only labor-saving, but the 
use of which insures a degree of accuracy 
in the details that are essential to the ef- 
ficient operation of the appliance. The 
Westinghouse Air Brake Company has 
recently begun the manufacture of a per- 
fected Air Valve Lift Gauge, for use on 
the 8^-inch and 10;^-inch cross corn- 



valve has a lift greater than standard by 
an amount equal to the distance between 
the gauge arm and the stop. If this lift is 
greater than the maximum permissible, a 
repair valve having a long stop is substi- 
tuted for the old valve and the stop low- 
ered until the standard lift is reached, as 
indicated by the gauge. 

To determine the lift of the lower air 
valve, the gauge is first applied to the bot- 
tom flange of the air cylinder, as illus- 
trated in Fig. 1, and the sliding arm ad- 
justed until its end rests against the stop 
in the cylinder, in which position it is 
locked by means of the thumb nut. With 
the arm thus locked, the gauge is applied 
to the air valve cage and air valve, as il- 
lustrated in Fig. 3, and if the valve has 
proper lift, the shoulder on the sliding 
arm will just rest upon the upper side of 
the collar of the air valve cage, as illus- 
trated. If the gauge arm fails to touch 
the stop on the valve when the shoulder 
on the sliding bar rests on the collar face 
on the cage, the valve has a lift greater 




LIFT FOR 8 J 
CROSS COMPOUND, 
9 f AND 11 COMPRESSORS 




•LIFT FOR 10 j 
CROSS COMPOUND 
COMPRESSOR ONLY 




Fig. 1 F'6 3 

DETAILS OF AIR VALVE LIFT GAUGE. 



pound, and 9^-inch and 11-inch single 
stage steam-driven air compressors. 

The purpose of the air valve lift gauge 
is to enable railway repairmen to readily 
determine the lift of air valves of steam- 
driven air compressors. In determining 
the lift of the upper air valve, the gauge 
is first applied to the top flange of the air 
cylinder, as illustrated in Fig. 1, and the 
sliding arm adjusted until its end rests 
against the top of the stop on the air 
valve, in which position it is locked by 
means of the thumb nut With the arm 
thus locked, the gauge is applied to the 
valve cap, as illustrated in Fig. 2. If the 
gauge arm fails to touch the stop on the 
valve when the shoulder on the sliding 
bar rests upon the face of the collar, the 



than standard by an amount equal to the 
distance between the stop and the gauge 
arm. 



Locomotive Air Brake Inspection. 
{Continued from page 53, February, 1918.) 

225. Q. — When should an air gauge be 
removed, repaired and tested? 

A. — Whenever it is out of register 
more than 3 lbs. 

226. Q— What is wrong it all hands 
show 135 lbs. with the brake valve han- 
dle in release position? 

A. — The pump governor is out of ad- 
justment. 

227. Q.— What should be done after the 
pressure chamber is charged to 125 or 130 
lbs.? 



88 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1918 



A. — A brake-pipe reduction just suffi- 
cient to apply the brakes should be made. 

228. Q. — For what purpose? 

A. — To see that the brake will operate 
properly under all conditions. 

229. Q. — How is this done? 

A. — By making this application and re- 
turning the brake valve to running po- 
sition. 

230. Q. — Where must the brake pipe 
pressure remain during the test? 

A.— Above 110 lbs. 

231. Q. — If the locomotive brake is in 
good condition, will the brake now re- 
main applied with the brake valves in 
running position? 

A.— Yes. 

232. Q. — Will they remain applied if 
the brake pipe pressure is lower than 110 
lbs? 

A.— No. 

233. Q.— Why not? 

A. — Because the feed valve will open at 
110 lbs. and increase the brake pipe pres- 
sure and move the equalizing valve of 
the distributing valve to release position. 

234. Q. — What could be wrong if the 
brake would not remain applied after 
this movement and the brake pipe pres- 
sure remaining was above 115 lbs.? 

A. — There would likely be a leak in 
the pressure chamber of the distributing 
valve reservoir or the equalizing slide 
valve or graduating valve of the distrib- 
uting valve would be leaking badly 
enough to permit a sufficient difference in 
pressure for the brake pipe pressure to 
return the equalizing parts of the dis- 
tributing valve to release position. 

235. Q— What kind of test would this 
really be? 

A. — A test for a leak)' equalizing slide 
valve graduating valve. 

236. Q.— Why would the trouble not 
likely be due to a leak in the reservoir 
or from the equalizing slide valve or 
seat? 

A. — Because this leakage would have 
been discovered while testing the reser- 
voir with the torch, and the leaky equal- 
izing slide valve would have been de- 
tected by a leak from the exhaust port 
of the automatic brake valve when the 
brake valve handles were in running po- 
sition. 

237. Q. — Would not a wrongly con- 
nected application cylinder and release 
pipe also cause the brake to release un- 
der this condition? 

A. — Yes, but the release with the inde- 
pendent brake valve while the brake was 
applied with the automatic valve indi- 
cates that these pipes are coupled up 
correctly. 

238. Q. — Would not a leak in the ap- 
plication cylinder pipes also cause this? 

A. — Yes, but there was no leak in the 
application cylinder pipe or the brake 
would have released during the brake 
cylinder leakage test when the independ- 
ent brake valve was on lap position. 



239. Q. — Why is this test important? 
A. — To be assured that the brake will 

remain applied when the engine is the 
second one in double heading. 

240. Q. — Should this same test be made 
on an engine having the retarded applica- 
tion type of distributing value? 

A.— Yes. 

241. Q.— Why? 

A. — It establishes a uniform practice, 
and the brake valve movement must be 
made for a comparison of the gauge 
hands. 

242. Q. — What is the difference between 
the brake valve tests on such engines? 

A. — The release pipe branch between 
the brake valves is disconnected on the 
engines having the retarded type of 
brake. 

243. Q. — When will the graduating 
valve leakage be discovered on an engine 
with the retarded type of brake? 

A. — At the first application of the au- 
tomatic brake valve, if the leakage is of 
sufficient volume to cause a movement of 
the equalizing valve to release position. 

244. Q.— Why? 

A. — Because the release pipe is discon- 
nected and a movement of the equaliz- 
ing valve to release position will result in 
a release of the brake. 

245. Q. — Is there any other test for a 
leaky graduating valve of the distributing 
valve than the one outlined for testing 
standard equipment? 

A. — Not a very reliable one, but if the 
application portion of the distributing 
valve is sufficiently sensitive, a leaky 
graduating valve that will release a brake 
can sometimes be detected by a sharp ex- 
haust from the distributing valve exhaust 
port as the equalizing valve moves to re- 
lease position. 

246. Q. — What will cause the hard sharp 
exhaust? 

A. — A slight reduction in application 
cylinder pressure due to its expansion 
into the release pipe when the equalizing 
slide valve moves. 

247. Q. — What should next be done 
during the brake test, after the brake has 
been found to remain applied with the 
pressure chamber overcharged and both 
brake valves in running position? 

A. — The brake pipe reduction should 
be continued until the brake pipe is at 
110 lbs. 

248. Q.— What next? 

A. — A straight 20-lb. reduction should 
be made. 

249. Q. — For what purpose? 

A. — To time the rate of equalizing re- 
servoir reduction. 

250. Q. — Through what port does this 
pressure reduce? 

A. — Through the preliminary exhaust 
port. 

251. Q.— What is the size of this port? 
A. — 1/16 of an inch. 

252. Q. — What time should be con- 



sumed in reducing the pressure from 110 
lbs. to 90 lbs? 
A. — 5'A to 6 seconds. 

253. Q. — What is wrong if it takes 
longer than this time? 

A. — The exhaust port is partly closed, 
or there is some leakage from the main 
reservoir or brake pipe into the equalizing 
reservoir. 

254. Q. — Where is this leakage usually 
from? 

A. — Through the middle body gasket 
of the brake valve or past the equalizing 
piston packing ring of the brake valve. 

255. Q. — How can the equalizing piston 
packing ring be tested? 

A. — If the brake valve cut out cock is 
in the reservoir pipe, the brake valve can 
be placed on lap position and the angle 
cock at the rear of the tender opened 
and the drop in equalizing reservoir pres- 
sure will indicate the amount of leakage 
past the packing ring. 

256. Q. — Can the same thing be done 
if the cut out cock is in the brake pipe? 

A.— Yes. 

257. Q. — Can another test be made if 
the stop cock is in the brake pipe? 

A.— Yes, by closing the cock and mak- 
ing a full service reduction, if the equal- 
izing piston does not lift slightly and ex- 
haust a very small quantity of pressure 
the air pressure under the equalizing pis- 
ton ring must have passed the packing 
ring due to it leaking. 

258. Q. — How can the stop cock in the 
brake pipe be utilized to locate leakage 
into the equalizing reservoir? 

A. — When it is closed with the brake 
valve handle on lap position, any leakage 
into the equalizing reservoir will show 
almost instantly on the black hand of the 
large gauge and any leakage into the brake 
pipe under the piston will lift it and cause 
an escape of air from the brake pipe ex- 
haust port. 

259. Q. — What if the equalizing reser- 
voir reduction from 110 to 90 lbs. takes 
place in less than S l / 2 seconds? 

A. — It indicates that the preliminary 
exhaust port is too large or that there is 
some additional leakage from the equal- 
izing reservoir. 

260. Q.— What is the effect of too large 
a port? 

A. — It tends to cause too rapid a reduc- 
tion which contributes to undesired 
quick-action. 

261. Q.— What is the effect of leakage 
from the equalizing reservoir or pipe 
connections ? 

A. — The same in regard to undesired 
quick action, and it also tends to cause 
the loss of brake pipe control when the 
engine is coupled to a train of cars. 

262. Q. — How can this occur? 

A. — When the brake valve is placed on 
lap position, the equalizing reservoir and 
brake pipe pressures are separated, and 
any leak from the equalizing reservoir 
will allow the equalizing piston to lift 



March, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



89 



and discharge a like amount from the 
brake pipe. 

263. Q.— Why does a slight leak that 
is scarcely noticeable cause this on the 
train and does not result in the lifting of 
the piston when the engine is alone? 

A.— On account of the greater volume 
of air under the equalizing piston when 
coupled to a train. 

264. Q— How is a leak in the equaliz- 
ing reservoir usually discovered? 

A. — By the lifting of the piston and 
the discharge of brake pipe pressure 
when the brake valve handle is placed 
on lap position. 

265. Q— What is wrong if there is a 
leak at the brake pipe exhaust port when 
the brake valve handle is in running po- 
sition? 

A. — Dirt on the seat of the equalizing 
piston, or a defective seat. 

(To be continued.) 



Train Handling. 

(Continued from page 54, February, 1918.) 

239. Q— What causes about 90 per cent, 
of the slid flat wheels in freight service? 

A. — Starting the train with some of 
the brakes applied. 

240. Q. — How do you estimate the time 
required for different brake operations on 
long trains? 

A. — In minutes instead of seconds. 

241. Q. — When would it be advisable to 
use a watch in checking up this time? 

A. — When occupying the main track, 
close upon the time of a first-class train. 

242. Q.— Why at this time? 

A. — Because at such a time 30 seconds 
seems about like 10 minutes. 

243. Q. — Is schedule time, then, of sec- 
ondary importance to careful operation in 
freight train braking? 

A. — Yes ; more time may be lost in at- 
tempting to hurry a movement than if 
ample time was allowed for a release of 
brakes. 

244. Q.— How so 5 

A. — Jerking cars back and forth in try- 
ing to start a train with brakes applied 
on the rear cars does not gain in time. 

245. Q. — How are you likely to lose 
time in this way? 

A. — These same attempts to start a 
train usually result in an additional 
amount of brake pipe leakage, and even 
if the train can be started the rear brakes 
retard the speed of the train to such an 
extent that no time is gained in the total 
movement. 

246. Q. — Why do air brake men al- 
ways emphasize the importance of allow- 
ing ample time for the release of brakes 
before starting a train? 

A. — Because more trains break-in-two, 
and wrecks have been caused by disre- 
garding those instructions, than from 
any other single phase of incorrect train 
handling on level track. 

247. Q. — What should be done if run- 



ning at a low speed and a signal to pro- 
ceed was received? 

A.— The train should be allowed to 
come to a stop before an attempt was 
made to release brakes. 

248. Q.— Can this ever be varied? 

A. — It can if the train is not too long 
and if there are enough type K triple 
valves on the rear end of the train to 
prevent a run out of the slack at the 
head end. 

249. Q. — Spuppose that on a descend- 
ing grade the brake valve has been in 
release position for about 15 or 20 sec- 
onds, .where should it be brought for the 
feed valve to control the pressure passing 
to the brake pipe? 

A. — To holding position. 

250. Q.— Why? 

A. — So that the engine brake will be 
held applied with the K triple valves at 
the head end of the train. 

251. Q— What about releasing when 
the rear end of the train happens to be 
rounding a sharp curve? 

A. — As a general thing it should be 
avoided if possible. 

252. Q.— Why? 

A. — As the effect of the curve sets up a 
considerable amount of retardation in 
addition to the brakes at the rear end. 

253. Q. — How is the independent brake 
valve to be handled in train braking? 

A.— If used, it is to be graduated on, 
and when released to be graduated off. 

254. Q. — How does grade braking dif- 
fer from level track braking? 

A. — Trains are usually very much 
shorter, and the chief consideration is 
to hold the train against the possibility 
of a runaway. 

255. Q. — What should be done before 
descending a heavy grade? 

A. — A standing test of brakes should 
be made in accordance with the instruc- 
tions covering brake operation on that 
particular division. 

256. Q. — In descending, when should 
the first application be made? 

A. — As soon as the train tips over the 
summit of the hill. 

257. Q. — About how much brake pipe 
reduction? 

A. — About 8 lbs. on the average train. 

258. Q— What should be observed at 
this time? 

A. — That the brakes are holding, and 
that the length of the brake pipe exhaust 
corresponds with the number of cars in 
the train. 

259. Q. — Why will the brake pipe ex- 
haust be shorter with K triple valves than 
if all are type H valves? 

A. — Because K triple valves absorb a 
considerable amount of brake pipe pres- 
sure by admitting it to the brake cylin- 
ders, thus leaving less of the brake pipe 
volume to pass through the brake valve 
exhaust port. 

260. Q. — How much difference is there 



in the length of this exhaust with all H 
valves in one case and all K valves in an- 
other ? 

A.— With K valves the exhaust from 
the brake valve will only be about one- 
half as long. 

261. Q.— What if the first reduction 
does not materially check the speed of 
the train? 

A. — Make a further reduction in the 
brake pipe pressure. 

262. Q— What if the brakes are not 
holding as they should? 

A. — Make a full service brake applica- 
tion and call for hand brakes. 

263. Q— What are retaining valves 
used for? 

A. — To retain a certain amount of the 
brake cylinder pressure while the triple 
valves are in release position and re- 
charging the auxiliary reservoirs for a 
subsequent brake application. 

264. Q. — When are they used? 

A. — Only in descending heavy grades. 

265. Q. — How many of them are used 
in a train? 

. A. — It is intended to use enough to pre- 
vent any material increase in the speed of 
the train while reservoirs are recharging. 

266. Q. — What governs the number to- 
be used ? 

A. — -The number of cars in the train 
and the type of valve, and this is covered 
by the instructions for brake operation on 
the division on which the grade is lo- 
cated. 

267. Q.— What is to be done if the first 
brake-pipe reduction reduces the speed of 
the train to the desired amount? 

A. — The brakes are to be released and 
reservoirs recharged. 

268. Q.— How? 

A. By moving the brake valve to re- 
lease position and leaving it there until 
ready to re-apply. 

269. Q. — Why leave the handle in re- 
lease position? 

A. — To have a wide-open port for the 
prompt recharge of the auxiliary reser- 
voirs. 

270. Q.— What will control the brake 
pipe pressure? 

A. — -The excess pressure governor top. 

271. Q.— How? 

A. — The feed valve pipe will contain 
pressure controlled by the feed valve, so 
that the brake-pipe pressure can rise but 
20 lbs. higher than normal with the han- 
dle in release position, regardless of the 
maximum main reservoir pressure car- 
ried. 

272. Q.— Why is 20 lbs. more brake- 
pipe pressure desirable in descending 
grades? 

A. — It provides a greater factor of 
safety. 

273. Q— In what way? 

A. — It permits of a full service or 20- 
lb. brake application without lowering the 
brake-pipe pressure below that normally 



90 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1918 



carried, so that in the event that a stop 
is required immediately after an applica- 
tion and release, normal braking effect 
may be immediately obtained. 

274. Q. — Are there any special instruc- 
tions as to the pressure to be obtained in 
the brake pipe before starting the descent 
of a heavy grade? 

A. — Some roads specify that the brake 
valve be placed in release position and 
left there until the brake pipe and auxil- 
iary reservoirs are charged to 90 or 100 
lbs. before the descent is begun. 

275. Q. — How is the brake-pipe pres- 
sure maintained on descending grades? 

A. — By making the brake applications 
as light as consistent or necessary and 
recharging as frequently as possible. 

276. Q.— Will a 10-lb. brake-pipe reduc- 
tion, from 90 to 70 lbs., result in more 
brake-cylinder pressure than a reduction 
from 70 lbs. to 50 lbs.? 

A.— No. 

277. Q.— Why not? 

A. — Because the same number of cubic 
inches of free air leaves the auxiliary res- 
ervoir in each case. 

278. Q. — How can a higher brake-cylin- 
der pressure be derived from 90 lbs. 
brake-pipe pressure than from 70 lbs.? 

A. — By a brake-pipe reduction that 
produces equalization between the brake 
cylinder and the auxiliary reservoir. 

279. Q.— How much brake-pipe reduc- 
tion will be required from a 90-lb. brake- 
pipe pressure? 

A— From 24 to 27 lbs. 

280. Q.— From 70 lbs. brake pipe and 
auxiliary reservoir pressure? 

A.— From 20 to 23 lbs. 

281. Q— Why the margin of three 
pounds? 

A. — It allows for difference in piston 
travel. 

282. Q.— Which will require the heav- 
iest reduction to produce equalization? 

A. — The cylinder with the longest piston 
travel. 

283. Q. — How is the independent brake 
handled in grade braking? 

A. — It is graduated off as soon as the 
car brakes are felt to be holding. 

284. Q.— Why? 

A. — To prevent overheating the driving 
wheel tires. 

285. Q.— When is it re-applied? 

A. — Just before releasing and recharg- 
ing the car brakes. 

286. Q. — What is the engine brake then 
used for? 

A. — To assist in holding the train while 
the auxiliary reservoirs are being re- 
charged. 

287. Q. — Why are damaging shocks not 
so likely to occur in grade braking? 

A. — Because retaining valves and pos- 
sibly set hand-brakes on the head cars of 
the train prevent any rapid change in 
•lack. 

(To be continued.) 



Car Brake Inspection. 

(Continued from page 55, February, 1918.) 

246. Q. — Sometimes there is a question 
whether undesired quick action has really 
occurred, how can you tell whether the 
brakes are actually working in undesired 
quick action? 

A. — Usually by the sudden movement 
of the brake pistons and the opening of 
the high speed reducing valves. 

247. Q. — Will not the reducing valves 
open whether the brake works in quick 
action or if a 25-lb. brake pipe reduction 
is made ? 

A.— Yes, but in one case the reducing 
valve will be wide open, reducing brake 
cylinder pressure about as fast as it can 
flow through the service port of the triple 
valve, and if the brake works in quick 
action there will be a restricted blow at 
the start which will increase in volume 
as the brake cylinder pressure reduces. 

248. Q. — What kind of an application 
can be made to be sure if there is any 
doubt about the action of the brake? 

A. — The brake can be applied with a 
12- or 15-lb. brake pipe reduction, and 
under this condition the reducing valve 
will not open unless the brake has gone 
into quick action. 

249. Q. — How will it be positively de- 
termined if there is a P. C. equipment 
or a universal valve in the train? 

A. — Either of these valves will exhaust 
practically all of the brake pipe pressure 
to the atmosphere when they work in 
quick action. 

250. Q.— How will the L. N. brake 
equipment act when the triple valve as- 
sumes the quick action position? 

A. — The safety valve of the distribut- 
ing valve will be cut off from communi- 
cation with the brake cylinder and the 
safety valve will not pop. 

251. Q. — If the undesired quick action 
continues until after it cannot be found 
in the five cars next to the engine, what 
kind of a test should be made? 

A. — The angle cock at the rear of the 
tender should be closed to ascertain 
whether or not the trouble may be with 
the engine equipment. 

252. Q. — After a terminal test has been 
made and it is necessary to close an 
angle cock in the brake pipe for renew- 
ing a hose gasket or for any purpose 
whatever, what must be done before the 
train leaves? 

A. — Another test of the brakes must be 
made. 

253. Q.— Why? 

A. — It must be absolutely known 
before leaving that all of the brake can 
be operated that is, applied and released 
from the locomotive and this is to be de- 
termined only by a test. 

254. Q. — Why is this an absolute rule? 
A. — To have inspectors in a position to 

be positive that no angle cocks were 
closed or any repairs made to any part 
of the brake equipment after the brakes 



were tested and the engineer has been 
notified that all brakes are in good con- 
dition. 

255. Q. — What controls the operation 
of a brake on a car? 

A. — The triple valve or a similar oper- 
ating valve. 

256. Q. — Why is it called a triple valve? 
A. — Because it controls a flow of air 

from the brake pipe to the auxiliary 
reservoir for charging up, a flow of air 
from the auxiliary reservoir to the brake 
cylinder for applying the brake and from 
the brake cylinder to the atmosphere for 
releasing the brake. 

257. Q. — From instruction pamphlets it 
has been easy to learn the names of parts 
and the operation of a brake, what is the 
principle upon which an automatic brake 
operates? 

A. — Upon the creation of a differential 
in pressure between two stored volumes 
of compressed air. 

258. Q. — What usually separates these 
pressures? 

A. — A piston with a packing ring in- 
tended to be an air-tight fit. 

259. Q. — How is the differential in pres- 
sure required to operate a triple valve 
obtained. 

A. — By alternately increasing and de- 
creasing the pressure carried in the brake- 
pipe. 

260. Q. — Does a reduction in brake-pipe 
pressure apply the brake? 

A. — Not necessarily. 

261. Q.— Why not? 

A. — The rate of reduction may not be 
rapid enough or leakage from one volume 
to another may prevent the attainment of 
the necessary differential in pressure. 

262. Q. — What applies a brake that is in 
an operative condition? 

A. — A difference in pressure between 
the auxiliary reservoir and the brake pipe 
great enough to overcome the frictional 
resistance of the piston and slide valve to 
movement. 

263. Q. — Does an increase in brake pipe 
pressure result in a release of the brake? 

A. — Not necessarily. 

264. Q.— Why not? 

A. — The differential in pressure neces- 
sary to move the triple valve piston and 
slide valve to release position may not 
be obtained. 

265. Q.— What would prevent it? 

A. — An increase that would be at too 
slow a rate and leakage between the vol- 
umes or past the triple valve piston and 
packing ring or a reduction in pressure 
so light that the proper difference in pres- 
sure required for a release could not be 
obtained. 

266. Q. — How is a brake in an opera- 
tive condition released? 

A. — By obtaining a sufficient difference 
in pressure between the auxiliary reser- 
voir and the brake pipe to overcome the 
resistance of the parts to movement. 



March, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



91 



267. Q— How may this difference in 
pressure be obtained? 

A. — By increasing brakepipe pressure at 
a sufficiently rapid rate or by reducing 
pressure in the auxiliary reservoir. 

268. Q— How may brake pipe pressure 
be reduced for an application of brake? 

A. — By means of the locomotive brake 
valve, a conductor's valve or by the open- 
ing of an angle cock to discharge brake 
pipe pressure to the atmosphere. 

269. Q— What two different rates of 
brake pipe reduction are used in applying 
brakes? 

A. — Service and emergency. 

270. Q.— What is the service rate used 
for? 

A. — For making ordinary stops. 

271. Q_ What is the emergency rate 
used for? 

A. — When the shortest possible stop is 
desired, that is, in cases of emergency. 

272. Q— What is the proper length of 
piston travel for the brake cylinder on 
cars of single shoe brake gear? 

A.— About 7 in. standing travel. 

2/3. Q. — If it is 6!/l> ins. standing on the 
average car, about what will it be when 
the car is running? 

A. — Very nearly 8 ins. 

274. Q.— What causes this difference in 

travel? 

A.— Lost motion in the trucks, journal 
boxes and through the braking effect 
tending to pull the trucks closer together 
when the train or car is running. 

275. Q.— What is this difference in 
travel usually called? 

A. — False, or fake piston travel. 

276. Q— How does piston travel affect 
the pressure that will be obtained in the 
brake cylinder from a fixed auxiliary re- 
servoir volume? 

A.— The longer the travel, the iess 
pressure that will be developed from a 
given drop in the pressure in the auxiliary 
reservoir. 

277. Q.— Why is this? 

A.— Because the longer the travel, 
the greater the space in the cylinder con- 
sequently the greater the volume of free 
air that will be required to develop a cer- 
tain cylinder pressure. 

278. Q. — What is the effect of too long 
a piston travel? 

A. — Inefficient brake. 

279. Q— Of too short a piston travel? 
A. — Insufficient brake shoe clearance, 

and too high a brake cylinder pressure 
consistent with the specified brake pipe 
reduction. 

280. Q.— What is the effect of too high 
a brake cylinder pressure for a given 
amount of brake pipe reduction or rather 
that will not correspond with the amount 
of brake pipe reduction? 

A. — It tends to cause rough handling, 
and shocks to trains. 

(To In- continued.) 



Heat Treatment of Steel 



At a recent meeting of the American 
Drop Forge Association, Mr. J. H. Her- 
ron read a paper on the "Structural 
Changes During Heat Testing." He said, 
among other things, that in considering 
the subject of heat treatment of forgings 
it is necessary that we understand the 
term "heat treatment" — where it begins 
and what it means. On receiving any 
kind of treatment which is corrective 
through heat it should be called steel 
which has received heat treatment. The 
subject of heat treatment of materials is 
very important. In considering the sub- 
ject of heat treatment there are a number 
of features which refer to the treatment 
and the manner of this treatment. First 
the fundamental heat treatment, which 
is distinguished from the reheating. The 
critical point is the point where some 
structural change takes place, not only 
where alloying is concerned. It is the 
boundary between one condition and an- 
other in the elements contained in the 
metal, where a structural change, entirely 
new, takes place. Where originally there 
was a high carbon steel, its structure may 
be changed so as to reduce it to a low 
carbon steel, or the reverse, certain 
changes take place, and the points where 
the changes occur are the critical points 
on the heat curve. We are dealing now 
only with the heat curves, which do not 
in every instance affect every metal, yet in 
most instances the structural condition of 
the metal is always affected by heat. 
Where changes occur they are called 
points of re-fusion, because they show 
some increase in heat, and from the out- 
set the steel has passed through the 
critical point. It is necessary to bring 
the steel to this or that critical point in 
order to change its structure. It is the 
critical point we desire to know of if 
there is going to be any change. 

As a matter of fact, in many cases steel 
which will show marked properties of 
hardness these must be observed to be 
understood, because the critical point has 
developed at a time when not expected or 
anticipated. The critical point may be 
reached quickly or slowly, and to guard 
against a too severe structural change, 
the utmost care must be exercised to see 
when the change takes place. If we dis- 
cover that the critical point is likely to be 
rapidly reached, we do not bring it to the 
critical point, but to some other place 
along the line. In all instances, however, 
no marked structural change occurs unless 
the steel has been heated decidedly above 
the critical point. So that, unless it is 
specifically desired to bring the steel, after 
the first heat, to a point above the critical 
point, so as to effect a structural chance, 
it is not done. 

Ordinary forge steel of about 30 point 
carbon, with steel is heated above the 



critical point. One may not be able to use 
that steel in a die because it has lost its 
original properties and is no longer of 
value because of its extreme softness. 
One will find that steel as high as 40 
point carbon which has undergone a struc- 
tural change may be practically useless to 
machine because that change may make 
is too soft and practically worthless. 
On the other hand, one may have per- 
mitted it to cool too slowly in the cooling 
operation. Steel of 30 point carbon can 
be taken out of the furnace and piled on 
the ground when hot and will serve every 
purpose of the machine shop, but it may be 
so soft as to be unusable if allowed to 
cool very slowly. The hardness and the 
structural value, in that respect, will be 
largely determined by the rapidity with 
which it is allowed to cool. In the regular 
heat treatment, one can heat steel above 
the critical point, and if the metal is not 
permitted to cool too fast or too slowly, 
as soon as it has passed through the 
critical range, the condition is arrested. 
In the heat operation, increase the heat 
and the metal begins to lose its hardness, 
and if it is not proportionate with the 
temperature to which it is subjected — say 
at 1,300 degs. if allowed to cool rapidly 
afterward it will not lose the initial hard- 
ness it would gain by quelching. 

We have certain elements affecting the 
critical points in steel. As stated before, 
the carbon is more affected than anything. 
So that, where we have 90 point carbon 
steel the critical point is comparatively 
low; while with soft steel or steel with 
less than 10 per cent carbon, the critical 
point is rather high. One must first 
select 'the temperature for the combustion 
of the steel. The rest is judgment after 
selecting the temperature. The critical 
point varies. Carbon steels are deter- 
mined by the temperature to which they 
may be subjected. 

Some of these steels will be subjected 
to the critical point at a very low tem- 
perature, others at a very high tempera- 
ture, while in other cases the physical con- 
dition of the metal remains the same after 
having passed the critical point. We have 
all these elements to take into considera- 
tion, and which should be taken into con- 
sideration in the heat treatment of 
forgings. We have got to deal with 
chromium in steel, which is very difficult 
of fusion. Vanadium in steel, which pro- 
duces a structural inertia in the steel and 
requires that the steel in which it is 
present shall be subjected to a very much 
higher temperature to treat it satisfac- 
torily, than other steels, although the steel 
with the chromium in it has practically 
similar properties, so that they are about 
the same. We usually treat these steels 
with from 100 to 200 degs. Fah. higher 
temperature, and subject them to that 



92 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1918 



temperature for a greater length of time 
than the softer and less brittle steels, 
which we treat at a lower temperature. 
To make any structural change, therefore, 
there are two elements to be taken into 
consideration, these are temperature and 
time. 

To come specifically to the point of heat 
treatment of drop forgings, we all know- 
that the tendency is to heat steel for drop 
forgings to a very high temperature. It 
flows very much better in the dies. The 
fact is, as the reports sometimes tell us, 
they melt in the dies. However, that may 
be exaggerated, but we do heat to too 
great a temperature. The steel is heated 
between 2.000 and 2,500 degs. in most drop 
forging operations. 

If one wishes to correct physical con- 
ditions already existing it becomes neces- 
sary to heat the forgings to a proper tem- 
perature and then draw them back to their 
original structural properties. Then the 
steel can be heated again and again. 

In heat treatment of steel great care 
should be exercised. If overheated disas- 



trous effects may be produced. If high 
in carbon the surface may crack. In some 
steels expansion occurs below the critical 
point, at other times above. It may be of 
interest to many to learn about the ele- 
ments and physical properties of steel. 
N'ickel is considered as a depressent. In 
high carbon steel manganese adds to the 
strength of the surface. High carbon 
manganese is good for springs. Man- 
ganese gives resiliency, but nickel toughens 
it or reduces the resiliency. Nickel tends 
to increase the strength without decreas- 
ing the toughness. That is, it increases 
the elastic limit without altering the 
strength. Chromium tends to harden the 
steel without increasing its brittleness. 
If hardness is desired, chromium pro- 
duces it, if we do not wish to increase 
its brittleness. Vanadium is used where 
steel is subjected to dynamic stresses. 
Carbon increases hardness and makes 
good steel statically. One cannot have 
good static and good dynamic properties 
at the same time. If one wants dynamic 
properties in steel, vanadium is desirable. 



Piston Rod and Valve Rod Packing 

Details of Construction and Maintenance 



Any one familiar with the locomotive 
knows that the loss of steam occasioned 
by leaks in piston packing is considerable. 
It is not owing to mechanical defects in 
the packing, as almost all packing, either 
on piston or valve rods, has the quality 
of adjusting itself to the rod and main- 
taining a steam-tight joint at all times. 
The packing usually consists of a gland, 
ball-joint, vibrating cup. three soft metal 
rings, known as one ring, follower, pre- 




TROJAN METALLIC PISTON ROD 
PACKING. 

venter, spring swab cup and oil cup. The 
gland is for the purpose of holding the 
packing in the stuffing box, and furnish- 
ing a bearing or seat for the ball ring 
which forms a universal joint between 
the vibrating cup and the gland. Hence, 
the packing is, properly speaking, a float- 
ing packing, and follows the rod whether 
the rod be exactly central or not. The 
vibrating cup holds the packing rings in 
their proper position. The ring is of 
soft metal, and is the only wearing part 



of the packing, as no other part of the 
device should come in contact with the 
moving rod. The flange follower is used 
to transmit the spring pressure to the 
packing ring or rings, and to follow up 
the packing as the inevitable wear takes 
place. 

It is not as generally known as it 
should be that the chief purpose of the 
spring is to keep packing rings and all 
joints in proper position when steam is 
shut off, and is not as is supposed by 
many for the sole purpose of setting in 
the packing as the wear takes place. The 
steam presses the rings in to the piston. 
At the same time the spring should be 
strong enough to hold the packing firmly 
together, as without the spring there 
would be nothing to prevent the packing 
from becoming disarranged when the 
steam pressure is shut off. The prevent- 
er is for the purpose of only allowing 
the packing to move backward and for- 
ward about 1-16 of an inch, thereby in- 
suring its perfect flexibility. 

When the packing becomes dry or the 
rod becomes rough, if it were not for this 
preventer the packing would hang to the 
rod on its inward stroke, compressing the 
spring until the coils became tightened, 
and when the engine took steam the pack- 
ing would be forced up against the 
gland with such force as to crush the 
packing or perhaps break the gland. The 
preventer also furnishes a close fitting 
casing around the outside of the spring, 
and never allows the spring to come in 
contact with the rod by allowing the 
spring to become cocked. The swab cup 



forms an important function in furnish- 
ing a reliable lubrication to the packing, 
as the oil cups do not always accomplish 
the purpose intended, as cups are not in- 
frequently clogged with dust or cinders, 
and pipes may become choked or broken 
off. Both should receive careful atten- 
tion. 

Leaks in the rings usually occur when 
too much material is cut out of them. 
When in proper working order they 
should come solidly together. They will 
last much longer in this way than when 
separated at the joints. They should 
never be cut after the first time, and then 
1-16 of an inch is enough. Leaks also 
occur if die piston is much worn. Taper- 
ing and shouldering of the piston is in- 
evitable, and a departure of 1-32 of an 
inch at any part of the piston from the 
exact truth will cause a considerable 
leak. It should always be remembered 
that neither the packing or the piston will 
endure forever. Much time and waste 
of steam will be saved by trueing up the 
rods and renewing the packing. This 
precaution with good lubrication will in- 
sure tight packing. 

The rings should be machined all over. 
The three rings should be faced sepa- 
rately, and the outside ring should con- 
form exactly to the vibrating cup. The 
rings should be sawed apart with a 1-16 
inch saw. On no occasion should one 
new ring be placed with other older and 
worn rings. They can never be made to 
fit properly. It should be noted that they 
fit exactly "ii the rod. Leaks also occur by 
foreign matter getting in the joints, and 
frequent cleaning is necessary, and pos- 
sibly a refitting of the joints. The nearer 




KING TYPE METALLIC VALVE STEM 
PACKING. 

the exact center the rod is the better will 
the result be. This is especially true of 
the valve rod, which in the case of slide 
valves, has a tendency to fall repidly be- 
low the center, and should be kept in 
place by the use of liners under the valve 
yoke. The joints in the rings should be 
separated when placed in the vibrating 
cup, and a leak should never be allowed 
to continue until a more convenient sea- 
son. The loss by packing leaks is ex- 
actly the same as if a stream of coal and 
another of water were continually run- 
ning out of the coal box and tank with 
this difference that the loss is lost for- 
ever. 



March, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



93 



Electrical Department 

The Automatic Railway Sub-Station — No Voltage Release Connections — Track 

Circuiting on Electrified Railroads 



Last month we took up the rotary 
converter and explained the design and 
construction of this useful piece of 
mechanism. The rotary converter or 
synchronous converter, as it is sometimes 
called, is a rotating machine used to con- 
vert or change the alternating current lead 
into the substation building into direct 
current, and which is also stepped down 
to low voltage by the transformers. We 
pointed out that there are three different 
methods used in starting rotary convert- 
ers, namely: 

(1) Motor starting; (2) direct current 
self-starting; (3) alternating current self- 
starting. The operation of starting up a 
rotating converter in the usual sub-station 
is done by the operator. Switches are 
closed to start the machine, and when 
the proper speed is reached, other 
switches are closed connecting the rotary 
to the source of supply. It is very in- 
teresting to see the experienced operator 
manipulate the switches and control — the 
whole process being done with precision 
and regularity. 

A little thought will show one that the 
duties of the operator in the moderately 
sized sub-station are not specially strenu- 
ous. There are many hours of leisure, 
with no machines to cut in or out, to care 
for varying load conditions, and no in- 
terruptions. The operator must, however, 
be alert, as overload conditions on the 
line may cause circuit-breakers to open, 
and they must be closed immediately, and 
there are many little things which may 
occur at any moment, requiring imme- 
diate attention and adjustment. Usually 
the 24 hours is divided into three shifts of 
8 hours each, and thus 3 operators are 
required. 

The overhead expense of maintaining 
these three operators is a considerable 
item in substations, where the service is 
light and the operating expense would be 
reduced if the operators could be elimi- 
nated. Another saving could be obtained 
if the "no-load" losses were eliminated. 
Let us explain. In the case of a railroad 
substation, furnishing current to an elec- 
tric railway where the service was in- 
frequent, say a car or train every half 
hour, the load would be on the substation 
only a few minutes out of each hour. 
The rest of the time the substation would 
be running idle, waiting for the next 
train. Although the substation might not 
be delivering any direct current to the 
trolley-wire or third rail, some alternating 
current power would be required to keep 
the rotary running and supply the losses 



These "no-load" losses may, and do 
run up in certain cases, to a large 
amount. They could be eliminated by 
shutting down the substation and starting 
it up when the train was due to run. It 
would be extremely difficult to do this with 
operators. Trains or cars are not always 
at the same place at the same time each 
day or hour, and moreover, extra cars or 
trains are frequently dispatched. The 
only way to reduce the operating expense, 
that is eliminating the operators and shut- 
ting down the substation, when not re- 
quired, is to make the substation auto- 
matic in every detail so that it will start 
up, run, shut down, stop and care for all 
emergency conditions such as over-loads 
on circuit-breakers, etc., without the aid 
or the presence of an operator. This 
seems at first sight to be impossible, but 
it has nevertheless been accomplished by 
the two big electrical manufacturing 
companies. We will describe the method 
used in the Westinghouse scheme. 

The equipment duplicates in every way 
the manual operation of the substation 
apparatus. Switches are closed in the 
same sequence, and each succeeding 
switch-moving operation is dependent 
upon the proper functioning of the pre- 
ceeding operation. The control has been 
designed to duplicate manual operation. 
It starts and shuts down the apparatus 
depending upon the load demand upon 
the substation. 

We will assume that the road is short 
and that there is more than the one 
automatic substation to be considered. 
To get an idea of its operation, let us 
consider that there is no load on the 
substation so that it is shut down, that 
is, the rotary is not running. In railway 
work, the substations are "tied together." 
By this term we mean that they are all 
connected to the trolley wire or third rail, 
which is continuous. Therefore, while 
the automatic substation is not running, 
still there is voltage on the trolley wire 
furnished from one of the other adjacent 
substations. Now it is the value of this 
voltage which governs the starting up 
of the automatic station. We will call 
the automatic station "A" and the adjacent 
station "B." With no car or train operat- 
ing between "B" and "A," full voltage 
(we will assume 600 volts 1 will be on 
the trolley-wire. A train starting from 
"B" running toward "A" will be obtain- 
ing (when at "B") the full voltage, but 
as it runs toward "A" will be getting less 
and less voltage, due to the voltage drop 
in the trolley wire and feeder. The volt- 



age at "A" will drop also, and will be 
the same as at the car, since the car is 
between "A" and "B." The further the 
car is from "B," the greater is the drop. 
Too low voltage is undesirable, so that 
the automatic station "A" should start up 
before the limit is reached and help to 
supply the current to the car. With both 
stations running the current is divided 
and the voltage drop is less. 

As mentioned above, it is the value of 
the voltage which starts up the station 
"A." A voltmeter fitted with a contact 
is set so that when the voltage falls to 
some predetermined value, say 75 per 
cent, of normal or below, the contacts are 
closed and the rotary is started, and when 
at speed, direct current is supplied to the 
trolley. The substation will keep run- 
ning as long as power is required. To 
avoid the station shutting down every 
time the power is shut off for a few 
seconds, a relay which can be set, is used, 
making it necessary for the current to be 
off say four or five minutes before the 
station will finally shut down. 

Protection has been provided for every 
condition or combination of circum- 
stances which can arise, even though they 
may be anticipated very frequently. The 
following are some of the principal pro- 
tective features : 

First. Should trouble develop any- 
where between the high tension side oi 
the transformers and the DC side, the 
alternating current oil circuit-breaker will 
open, thereby cutting off AC power. 

Second. Should the voltage on the AC 
side drop to too low a value, the AC 
breaker will open. 

Third. Thermostats are placed in the 
machine bearings so that should these 
bearings heat, the thermostats will shut 
down the station by tripping the AC 
breaker. 

Fourth. A mechanical speed limit de- 
vice is fitted to the rotating armature so 
that if the speed exceeds a dangerous 
point, the AC breaker will open. 



No Voltage Control 

On page 84 of the present issue, refer- 
ence is made to the no voltage release, 
which is adapted to machine tools to af- 
ford protection for the workman, in case 
the power is shut off unknown to him. 
Machine tools are driven by motors oper- 
ating from either DC or AC current, so 
that there are two arrangements to con- 
sider. First, the no voltage release for 
DC motors and second, no voltage re- 
lease for AC motors. 



94 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1918 



With motors operating on DC (direct 
current), starting rheostats are used to 
regulate the flow of current to the motors. 
This allows the motor to start up smooth- 
ly and evenly and gain in speed until 
full speed is reached. This is like the 
controller on a trolley-car. A diagram 
of a starting rheostat is given in Fig. 1. 
When the handle "H" is in the position 















1 


1 

w 
i 


"isv 

J 


\ 















FIG. 2. AUTO- STARTER WITH NO VOLT- 
AGE RELEASE. 

shown there is no current flowing to the 
motor, although the motor switch "S" is 
closed. When the handle is at the ex- 
treme right all of the starting resistance 
is cut out and the motor is running at 
full speed. A spring is fitted to the 
handle tending to return it to the off 
position so that with the switch "S" open, 
the handle would fly back to the off po- 



stat and the handle is fitted with a strip 
of iron or steel "R." The electromagnet 
is connected from across the line so that 
when power is on the motor, it is ener- 
gized. The iron strip ''R" is so mounted 
that when the handle is in the running 
position it engages or touches the poles 
of the electromagnet and the handle is 
held in the running position, due to the 
attraction of the magnet. Now it is 
clearly seen what occurs when power is 
turned off. There will be no longer any 
current flowing through the magnet, 
therefore there will be no attraction of 
the magnet for the iron bar "R" and the 
spring returns the handle to the off po- 
sition. Before the motor can start the 
handle must be thrown on again. This 
is the no voltage release and the machine 
tool operator is protected by the fact that 
although he did not shut off the power, 
he is forced to turn it on if he wishes his 
machine to start. 

In the case of the AC motors, an 
auxiliary device is used for starting. 
This device is called an auto-starter; the 
outside view is shown by Fig. 2. These 
starters reduce the initial primary volt- 
age and at the same time supply the in- 
creased starting current needed without 
drawing excessive current from the line. 
The no voltage release device consists of 
a small solenoid with a laminated core 
and a pivoted armature, all mounted on 
the outside of the case. An extension 
from the armature locks the handle in 
the running position. The coil is con- 
nected across one phase of the running 
circuit. A very small current holds the 
handle locked, because the air gap is 
closed. On failure of the voltage from 
the outside the handle is released and 
returns automatically to the off position. 




t r 

I 

i 1 



IK, I. STARTING RHEOSTAT FOR DC MOTORS WITH NO-VOLTAGE RELEASE. 



sition if pulled over to the extreme right 
or running position and then released. 
With power on, that is, switch "S" closed, 
it would be impossible to hold the handle 
in the running position all the time when 
the motor is running, so that provision 
must be made to keep it in the running 
position. This is accomplished by an 
electromagnet "I" mounted on the rheo- 



This release is invariable whether the 
voltage falls slowly or rapidly. 



Track Circuiting on Electrified Rail- 
roads. 

How is it that the main current, used 
by the electric locomotives and which is 
returning back to the power-house along 



the running rails, can pass through the 
track bonds without difficulty, while the 
current used for the signals cannot pass? 
This is a most interesting point and one 
worthy of careful study. The most in- 
teresting application of electrically oper- 
ated signals occurs when they are used in 
connection with electrified roads. Alter- 
nating current is used on the signal sys- 
tem. Not only do we meet all the prob- 
lems encountered in the steam road track 
circuit, but it is necessary to provide an 
electrically continuous return path for the 
main current from block to block, while 
in a signalling sense, preserving between 
blocks the insulation necessary for opera- 
tion. 

Since there are limitations to the use of 
the single rail circuits we will consider 
only the double rail track circuit. The 
novel feature of the double rail track 
circuit is the impedance bond installed in 
the track circuit to provide a path for 
the main current (used by the locomo- 
tives) and which current goes back to the 
powerhouse. It is this bond which pre- 
vents the two different currents from 
mixing, so to speak, and we will explain 
how this impedance bond acts and why it 
allows the passage of the power or pro- 
pulsion D. C. current, and chokes back 
the signal current, which is A. C. 

There are two general systems of elec- 
trification, namely, alternating current 
(AC) and direct current (DC). We will 
consider the DC system in detail and point 
out the slight difference which exists in 
itself equally, under normal conditions, 
between the two running rails, so that the 
direct current flowing from point (a) 
into the bond at one end is equal to the 
direct current flowing from point (b) 
into the other end. The number of turns 
of the winding from the (a) end to the 
point (c) is the same as the number from 
the (b) end to the point (c), where a 
tap is brought out for connection to the 
other adjacent bond. The two direct cur- 
rents unite at the point (c). flow into the 
other bond at point (e), where it divides 
equally, one-half flowing out at (f) and 
the other half at (g). 

A study of Fig. 1 shows that the two 
equal currents are flowing in opposite 
directions around the laminated core and 
therefore neutralize each other as far as 
the magnetizing action is concerned and 
no magnetic flux will flow in the iron core. 
The lines of force are practically destroy- 
ed, which, the windings would otherwise 
produce. There is then no impedance to the 
flow of the propulsion current. It flows 
freely through, and on to the power house. 
The subject of impedance, inductance, 
etc., was carefully explained in the March 
and April, 1917, issues. It was there 
pointed out that when a current flows in 
a wire, that wire is surrounded by magnet 
lines of force or a flux; that these flux 
lines radiate outward concentrically, just 
like ripples of water formed by the drop- 



March, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



95 



ping of a stone into a pond. The strength 
of this magnetic field depends on the 
strength of the current flowing in the 
wire. If the current alters its strength, 
the field is also altered, increasing and 
decreasing with the current and becoming 
non-existing when the current ceases. We 
have pointed out in the above mentioned 
articles that the self-induction of a coil 
is due to the lines of force from each 
turn of a coil cutting the case of the AC 
system. Look at Fig. 1. The track rails 
are shown by RR and TT. The insulat- 
ing pieces "I" separate the track into 
blocks, which are only connected together 
electrically by the impedance bonds "B." 
The signal transmission line carrying AC, 
60 or 25 cycles, to the various blocks for 
the operation of the signals, is also in- 
cluded. For transmission purposes it is 
necessary to use a voltage very much 
higher than can be used on the track 
circuit, so that for each block a step- 
down transformer is required. 
To understand the principle of opera- 



<-- 



current flow is the same in all the bonds 
it is only necessary to consider one. The 
propulsion current divides the other turns, 
thereby producing in them a secondary 
electromotive force or voltage which will 
oppose the impressed voltage driving the 
current through the coil. This opposing 
voltage nearly offsets the impressed volt- 
age and cuts the current down to nearly 
a negligable quantity. 

As mentioned above, the two main direct 
currents in the bond neutralize each other 
so that there is no flux in the iron core 
and hence no self-induction as far as the 
direct current circuit is concerned. How- 
ever, the condition is different witli the 
AC signal circuit. To avoid confusion, 
but realizing that the condition still exists 
in the bond at the left, we will consider 
only the AC signal current in the bond at 
the right. This carries alternating cur- 
rent, reversing in direction many times a 
minute, so that the direction of current 
flow, as shown by the arrows, is the in- 
stantaneous direction. The alternating 




PROPULSION CURRENT 




\Slsuu 
rwsm 



J I 

TRANSFORMER 



SIGNAL TRANSMISSION LINE AC 60 CYCLES 

FIG. 1-IMPEDENCE BOND CONNECTIONS, AND CURRENT DIAGRAM. 



tion, we should be acquainted with the 
construction of the bonds "B." These 
are called bonds because they are low 
resistance connectors between adjacent 
track circuits, and they are called im- 
pedance bonds because they impede, or 
choke back the flow of the AC signalling 
current from one rail to the other of the 
same track circuit across which they are 
connected. The impedance bond consists 
of a laminated iron core, over which is 
wound two heavy copper windings. The 
schematic arrangement of the winding on 
the bond and the method used in connect- 
ing up the two bonds at each insulated 
section is shown in Fig. 1. 

Let us suppose that there is an electric 
locomotive somewhere to the right of 
Fig. 1, with the power-house to the left 
so that the main or propulsion current 
flowing back to the powerhouse is in the 
direction along the rails from right to left. 
The arrows show the direction of the 
propulsion current in the track and 
through the bonds at the left. Since the 



current enters the bond at point (h) and 
leaves it at point (j), all of the turns 
being in series. There is no alternating 
current flowing through the jumper over 
to the other bond, as there is no circuit. 
This latter bond connects with another 
section of rail, insulated from the block we 
are considering and supplied with AC 
current from another transformer. 

The turns being in series, there is no 
neutralizing effect so that the core is 
energized and a high self-induction 
exists. The result is that very little AC 
current can flow through. 

As mentioned above, the DC and AC 
current exists in the same bond at the 
same time, but do not mix or affect each 
other. The bond is necessary to provide 
a means of connecting the rails together 
around the insulating joints, placed in the 
rails to divide the road into blocks so as 
to allow the main current to return to 
the powerhouse or substations. Were it 
not for their choking effect, the bonds 
would act as a short circuit across the 



track circuit. It must be remembered 
that these bonds do not absolutely in- 
sulate one rail from the other. There is 
at all times a certain amount of signalling 
current which leaks across from one rail 
to the other, depending on the AC voltage 
and the impedance of the bonds. 

The arrangement is the same in the case 
of alternating current electrifications. All 
AC roads in this country employ an alter- 
nating current of 25 cycles so that the 
signals employ an alternating current of 
60 cycles. While the propulsion current is 
of an alternating character, still it is 
divided up, as is the DC current, and be- 
tween the two opposing windings and is 
neutralized. The iron core remains un- 
magnetized as far as the 25 cycles current 
is concerned and the effect of the 60-cycle 
signal current is same as explained above. 



French Railroad Investments in Spain. 
The Wall Street Journal states that in 
fve years the French government will 
turn over to the Spanish nation all the 
leading railroads in Spain, which the re- 
public built and administered under a 99- 
year lease. It is interesting to note that 
the roads have cost France more than was 
expected, and some of the most expensive 
tunneling in the world was done in north- 
ern Spain, where in some sections as 
many as 20 tunnels within a few miles 
had to be driven through the moun- 
tains. Many of the lines are antiquated, 
single track affairs. French investments 
in Russian railroads have been tragic. 
For instance, it is estimated that France 
advanced $800,000,000 to Russia to con- 
struct strategical railroads, particularly 
in connection with troop moving. Not a 
dollar of this money, apparently, was 
spent in railroad building, and it was this 
lack of transportation which in part led 
to the military downfall of Russia. Legis- 
lative tangles and lack of imperial ukases 
prevented the French cash from being 
utilized for what it was intended. 



U. S. Railway Equipment in France. 
Some idea of the scope of the work of 
equipping the regiments of railway en- 
gineers now in France is indicated by the 
cost of materials ordered up to date, 
which approximate $70,000,000. The 
equipment so far ordered includes sev- 
eral hundred locomotives, more than 
100,000 tons of rails, more than 3,000 
complete turnouts. 500.000 ties. 12.000 
freight cars, 600 ballast cars and 600 miles 
of telephone wire and apparatus, as well 
as large quantities of construction and 
repair equipment. 



Water Power of Canada. 
The water power available in Canada 
so far as figures can be arrived at, 
amounts to a possible total of 18.803,000 
h.p. of which less than one-tenth has been 
utilized up to the present. 



96 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1918 



A Summer and Winter Car 

The Pullman Cars of the Freight Train 



Roughly speaking, there are two con- 
ditions through which perishable freight 
may be called on to successfully pass 
through, in order to maintain its market- 
able value. These are more or less ex- 
treme heat and cold. Up to the present 
time, the railroads in this country have 
produced a good refrigerator car. It is 
used to protect perishable products from 
putrelication in warm or hot weather, but 
there is no adequate number of cars 
which will do the opposite, and equally 
necessary, service of protecting these 
products from the effects of cold. There 
are perhaps a number of plausible rea- 
sons which may be given for this state 
of affairs; none of them are cogent and 
few of them are creditable to the under- 
standing. 

Melting ice to keep things cool is prac- 
tically the opposite of combustion, by 
which things are made warm. In distant 
ages, when plant life was luxuriant on 
this planet, the process of growing was 
accompanied, or in fact, dependent upon, 
the giving out of oxygen and the taking 
in of carbon, in the form of carbonic 
acid gas. Burning fuel, such as coal and 
wood, largely consists in re-uniting the 
previously expelled oxygen and giving 
out the carbonic acid gas. Now, in the 
melting of ice we must remember that in 
the previous production of ice, immense 
quantities of heat were liberated from 
the water. This is latent heat or the 
heat of liquefaction. It must be there in 
the water or the liquid will become solid. 
The melting of the ice is accompanied 
by a heavy drain of heat on all objects 
surrounding the ice. This is a law of 
nature and as we are fairly well able to 
govern the areas of heat abstraction, we 
get a more or less efficient refrigerator 
car. An analogous principle is involved 
in the design of the freight car with a 
heater. 

It has been proposed, and with a great 
deal of good reason, that the railways, 
shippers, and producers be encouraged to 
build and maintain a suitable form of 
summer and winter car, owned by the 
railways or as private lines. Such "ideal'' 
cars have been called the Pullman cars of 
the freight train. The analogy is not 
merely fanciful. They generally carry 
the most expensive products. Their con- 
tents are vital to a community. Cost 
mounts up through delay, for the heating 
or cooling service must go on while the 
car is loaded. If one may venture to say 
so the summer and winter car content is 
the aristocracy of freight shipments. 

There is a large supply of Pullman 
cars in the country, managed by a private 
company, charging fares sanctioned by 



the government. In the hot weather 
when the bulk of passenger travel goes 
north to the New England States and to 
the fishing and boating resorts of Canada, 
this company handles the north-bound 
traffic by diverting the routes of many 
of its cars. In the winter when Florida 
and Southern California claim the tourist 
and the pleasure seeker, a readjustment 
of Pullman car routes meets the situation. 
In like manner a careful regulation of 
the routes of the "ideal" S and W cars 
would put things right and keep them so. 

It is essential that a winter equipment 
lie independent of the engine. Cars may 
be held up by breakdowns, by storms, 
placed on side tracks, stopped by wrecks 
on the road and for a variety of reasons, 
which make it necessary to have any 
heating equipment a separate unit on 
each car. The heat equipment can be 
made to cause a circulation of hot air 
opposite to that brought about by melt- 
ing ice, and insuring the thorough warm- 
ing of the floor of the car. This is the 
area where the ravages of frost first 
make their appearance in perishable 
freight, such as fruit, potatoes, and vege- 
tables of all kinds. 

The task ahead of us presents no in- 
surmountable obstacles; a great deal of 
the work required is already done. One 
thing, however, we must do, and that is 
to equip each car with some form of 
good heater, and the alcohol heater on 
the market today is said to be thoroughly 
adapted to the requirements of the case ; 
for when once lighted it can run for a 
week with little or no danger of going 
out, as the very fuel itself — denatured 
alcohol — contains in its composition a very 
large quantity of the oxygen necessary 
for its own combustion. This heater 
carries a small supply in bulk, which lasts 
a very long time and the flame is ex- 
ceedingly hot. The fuel of this heater is 
fed automatically and does not require 
attendants to travel with the cars and it 
does not bother the train crew. The 
heaters are outside, so that the loading 
space in car is not diminished by a stove 
and fuel box. The chance of stealing is 
reduced, as there is no excuse to open 
the cars for the heater, either in real 
emergency or on alleged necessity. In 
case the cars pass the international border 
and go up to Canada, if the heaters were 
inside, it would be imperative to have 
a customs officer present when the car 
was opened, but with outside get-at-able 
heaters no such restriction can take place. 

Another ready-made convenience bear- 
ing directly on this matter is available. 
On any railway of any considerable size, 
icing stations already exist with a staff 



of men set apart for the work and with 
apparatus for accomplishing it. A liquid 
fuel tank can easily be added beside the 
existing icehouse, and the same staff of 
men employed in the summer for icing 
could handle the heaters in the winter. 
It would mean steady employment for the 
men, and by their constant employment 
they would become proficient, with ad- 
vantage to the railway. 

This extra equipment to cars and fuel 
stations and this additional service would 
cost something, though the financial gain 
to the railway and to the public would 
soon far outweigh ft. As a Pullman pas- 
senger is charged extra for superior ac- 
commodation, the shipper of perishable 
freight might reasonably be expected to 
pay an extra fee for the safe and market- 
able condition guaranteed by the rail- 
way by some such arrangement, and the 
extra charge could be fixed by law as 
the price of a sleeper berth is settled by 
authority. 

What we seem to need in this country 
is not so much permanent government 
ownership, as we need permanent and ex- 
pert railway regulation. The British 
Board of Trade, which is a government 
department just as much as the Admiralty 
is, would form a very good model, the 
scope altered to suit our requirements, 
yet where all the many and varying ques- 
tions which come up in railway manage- 
ment might be intelligently handled, not 
by a mere civilian, unacquainted with 
work-a-day conditions on the road and 
in the shop, but by a man or men com- 
petent to investigate and to decide. 
Rate making and tariffs was a good be- 
ginning, but we now can profitably ex- 
tend the scope of railway regulation, not 
oppressively, but in the line of progres- 
sive development. We yet have head- 
lights, signaling, perishable freight, full 
loads, proper loading methods and a host 
of transportation problems that require 
solution, and demand unified authorita- 
tive, common sense action, so that the 
days of papers, academic reports, and 
records may give place to advantageous 
performance in the hard, real railway 
world of todav. 



Russian Railway Mission Delayed in 
Japan. 

It is officially reported that the Russian 
railway mission turned back by the Bol- 
sheviki at Vladivostok last December, is 
being still quartered at Nagasaki, Japan, 
a large abandoned hotel having been re- 
opened as headquarters for the contin- 
gent. The railway corps will remain in 
Japan until the Russian situation is im- 
proved or becomes more definite. 



March, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



97 



Railway Supply Trade Notes 



New Franklin Organization. 

The Franklin Railway Supply Company 
of Canada, Limited, has taken over the 
business formerly handled by the Mon- 
treal branch of the Franklin Railway Sup- 
ply Company, Inc. The new company will 
have exclusive rights in Canada to all the 
products of its parent company and will 
continue the same policies and business 
methods that have governed the Franklin 
Railway Supply Company, Inc., since its 
formation. The officers of the new com- 
pany are, J. S. Coffin, chairman of the 
board; Joel S. Coffin, Jr., president; and 
Leland Brooks, vice president. 

Joel S. Coffin, chairman of the board of 
directors, brings to the new company a 
wide and varied knowledge gained from 
14 years of railroad work and 26 years in 
the railroad supply field. He began as a 
machinist's apprentice and became fireman, 
engineer and road foreman of engines. 
Most of his experience was on the Wis- 
consin Central. He left the railroad to 
enter the mechanical department of the 
Galena Signal Oil Company as mechanical 
expert, was promoted to manager of that 
department and several years later was 
elected vice president. After serving as 
vice president for two years he resigned 
to accept the vice presidency of the 
American Brake Shoe and Foundry Com- 
pany, which position he held until 1911. 
In 1902 he organized the Franklin Rail- 
way Supply Company of which he was 
president up to 1916, when he was elected 
chairman of the board. In addition to 
being chairman of the board of directors 
of the Franklin Railway Supply Company 
of Canada, Ltd., and the parent company, 
Mr. Coffin is a director in a large num- 
ber of other corporations. 

Mr. Joel S. Coffin, Jr., has been elected 
president of the Franklin Railway Supply 
Company of Canada, Limited, with offices 
at Montreal. Mr. Coffin brings to this 
new organization a wide experience in 
both the railroad supply business and loco- 
motive building. He was born at Wau- 
kesha, Wisconsin, and received his educa- 
tion at the Public Schools in Franklin, 
Pennsylvania, and Stevens Institute. Af- 
ter leaving Stevens he entered the service 
of the Venango Manufacturing Company 
at Franklin, Pennsylvania, and later 
served the American Locomotive Com- 
pany in the erecting shop and as Locomo- 
tive Inspector. 

In 1912 he entered the employ of the 
Franklin Railway Supply Company as a 
service representative. He later went into 
the sales department and in 1915 was ap- 
pointed Canadian sales manager, which 
position he held up to the time of his re- 
cent election. 

Leland Brooks has been elected vice 
president of the Franklin Railway Supply 
Company of Canada, Limited, with offices 
a' Montreal. Mr. Brooks was born at 



New York City and received his educa- 
tion in the public schools at that place and 
Stevens Institute. Upon leaving Stevens 
he entered the employ of the New York 
Central, serving 7 years in the engineer- 
ing department. Leaving the New York 
Central he took a position with the Frank- 
lin Railway Supply Company, Inc. For 
the past year he has been connected with 
their Canadian branch as assistant mana- 
ger, which position he held up to the time 
of his recent election. 



Seventhly, Here Are Seven Cases. 

Seven has always been the number de- 
noting perfection. When the children of 
Israel marched around Jerico they 
sounded the trumpets once each day for 
six days. On the seventh day they 
sounded the trumpets seven times and 
the walls of the city fell down, and com- 
plete victory was theirs. There were also 
the seven champions of Christendom that 
upheld the chivalry of the world in early 
days. And now in the industrial world 
and in our own day a champion of an- 
other kind appears in the form of the 
National Tube Company of Pittsburgh, 

This concern has just issued a circular 
in which it gives seven instances of the 
remarkable ductility of National pipe. 
One is where it twisted a piece of %- 
inch pipe (7 inches long) 713,000 times 
and made it look like rubber. Another 
instance is where gas in a gas well blew 
off the end cap, but failed to injure any- 
one of the 26 lengths of National pipe 
used in the well. The pipe eventually 
bent into what looked like an enormous 
whip lash 500 feet long. There are au- 
thenticated instances where National pipe 
stood up to tensile, twisting and com- 
mon tests, and, seventhly and lastly, this 
500 feet of National Tube was racked 
and forced and pushed and pulled and 
blown out of an oil well, and was found 
to be O.K. There's perfection for you. 
Just count seven, and think of it 



Incorporating a New Company. 

The Louisville Frog & Switch Company, 
Louisville, Ky., has been incorporated with 
a capital stock of $200,000 to take over 
the business of the W. M. Mitchell Com- 
pany, Inc., and to manufacture switches, 
frogs, crossings and other special track 
apparatus and fastenings. The officers in- 
clude W. M. Mitchell, president, and H. 
O Wieland, secretary and treasurer. 
Charles H. Krauss, superintendent of the 
Weir Frog Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
has resigned to become general superin- 
tendent of the Louisville Frog & Switch 
Company. 



Tests on Car Sills and Joists 
The U. S. Department of Agriculture 
has m»ue some practical tests on wesl 



era yellow pine car sills and joists, for 
the purpose of getting some knowledge of 
the mechanical properties of wood. These 
tests began in 1912 at the Seattle labora- 
tory of the Forest Service. The sills and 
joists were selected by the representatives 
of the Forest Service, and they were 
graded according to the association's ex- 
port rules for 1911. 
The tests resulted as follows : 

(1) Car sills and joists representative 
of the various commercial grades. The 
car sills were 5 by 8 in. by 16 ft.; and 
the joists, 2 by 10 in. by 16 ft. 

(2) Small, clear pieces cut from the un- 
injured portions of the tested beams. 
Tests on these were made to determine 
the relative strength of wood free from 
knots and other defects. 

The comparatively small number of ex- 
periments made on western yellow pine 
limited the conclusions drawn to the fol- 
lowing: 

(1) The strength of structural timbers 
are influenced by the defects found in them. 
These values vary according to the grades 
in the green material ; but the increase in 
strength from air seasoning is not uni- 
form and does not vary with the grades. 

(2) Seasoning greatly increases the 
strength of the wood, the increase being 
greater and more uniform in small, clear 
sticks than in structural timbers, owing 
to the development of defects in the latter. 
Lowering the moisture content of yellow 
pine causes it to become more brittle. 

(3) Western yellow pine is a lighter 
wood than the other western lumber. 
The dry weight of clear wood readily sug- 
gests its strength or weakness, but this 
factor alone can not be depended upon to 
indicate comparative strength when 
structural forms of various grades are 
taken into consideration. 

(4) In addition to the results of tests 
on western yellow pine, there are included 
average values derived from similar tests. 
It must be remembered that the figures 
given are averages and that the variability 
of timber is such that individual speci- 
mens of a species may exceed the average 
of another species. When values from 
tests of air-dry materials are used for 
comparison careful attention must be 
given to the moisture content of the ma- 
terial compared, and the effect of differ- 
ences of this moisture have to be consid- 
ered. 

Cement for Steam Piper 
To make a permanent cement used for 
stopping leaks in steam pipes where 
caulking or plugging is impossible, mix 
black oxide of manganese and raw linseed 
oil, using enough oil with the manganese 
to bring it to a thick paste : then apply to 
the pipe or joint at leak. It is best to re- 
move pressure from the pipe and keep it 
sufficiently warm to absorb the oil from 
the manganese. In 24 hours the cement 
will be as hard as the iron pipe. 



9.? 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1918 



Items of Personal Interest 



Mr. E. M. Lake has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Meridian & Mem- 
phis, with office at Meridian, Miss. 

Mr. W. H. Foster, formerly engine 
despatcher of the Erie at Buffalo, X. V.. 
has been appointed roundhouse foreman. 

Mr. V. N. Potts has been appointed 
general foreman of the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific, with office at Liberal, 
Kans. 

Mr. A. B. Beuter has been appointed 
representative of the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works at Portland, Ore., succeeding Mr. 
A. W. Hinger. 

Mr. H. Kopper, formerly roundhouse 
foreman of the Erie at Buffalo, N. Y., 
has been appointed general foreman of 
the night force. 

Mr. Gorden Patterson, formerly elec- 
trician on the Bessemer & Lake Erie 
at Greenville, Pa., has been appointed 
assistant foreman electrician. 

Mr. Howard H. Kane has been ap- 
pointed assistant master mechanic of the 
Texas division of the Gulf Coast Lines, 
with offices at Kingsville, Tex. 

Mr. E. P. McDonald has been ap- 
pointed assistant master mechanic of 
the Tucson division of the Southern 
Pacific, with office at Tucson, Ariz. 

Mr. A. Gerrard has been appointed 
material agent and assistant purchasing 
agent of the Missouri, Oklahoma & 
Gulf, with office at Muskogee, Okla. 

Mr. Joseph Opia, formerly general 
foreman of the Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St Paul, has been appointed general 
inspector, with office at Austin, Minn. 

Mr. W. P. Murphy and Mr. H. C. 
McCullough have been appointed road 
foremen of engines on the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific, with offices at El Reno, 
Okla. 

Mr. H. Eisele. formerly general fore- 
man of the Wabash at Decatur, III., has 
been appointed shop superintendent at 
Decatur, succeeding Mr. William Cana- 
van, resigned. 

Mr. T. Tracey has been appointed 
foreman of the machine shop of the 
Wabash at Decatur, 111., succeeding Mr. 
E. J. Wausbach, who has been appointed 
general foreman. 

Mr. E. Hartenstein has been appointed 
general road foreman of engines on the 
Chicago & Alton with jurisdiction over 
the entire system, and headquarters at 
Bloomington, 111. 

Mr. E. M. Sweetman, formerly master 
mechanic of the Southern, with office at 
Spencer, N. C, has been transferred to a 
similar position at Knoxville, Tenn., suc- 
ceeding Mr. N. N. Boyden. 

Mr. W. D. Hitchcock, formerly fore- 
man on the Santa Fe, at Los Angeles, 
Cal., has been appointed master mechanic 
at Winslow, Ariz., succeeding Mr. M. 



Weber, transferred t" San Bernardino, 
Cal. 

Mr. W. W. Lenien lias been appointed 
superintendent of the motive power and 
car departments of the Denver & Rio 
Grande, with office at Denver, Colo., suc- 
ceeding Mr. W. J. Bennett. 

Mr. J. C. Woods has been appointed 
acting master mechanic of the Quincy, 
Omaha & Kansas City, and the Iowa & 
St. Louis, with office at Milan, Mo., suc- 
ceeding Mr. C. H. Montague. 

Mr. George W. Ray, formerly employed 
in the Frisco system at St. Louis, Mo., 
has been appointed general roundhouse 
foreman at the Brighton Park Round- 
house of the Chicago & Alton. 

Mr. J. H. Edwards, formerly fore- 
man electrician at the Silvis shops of 
the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific at 
Rock Island, 111., has been appointed 
supervisor of stationary plants. 

Mr. N. C. Kieffer has been appointed 
fuel agent of the Southern railway lines 
west, with headquarters at Cincinnati, 
Ohio, succeeding Mr. R. D. Quickel, 
who has entered military service. 

Mr. George Kuhns, formerly superinten- 
dent of equipment of the International 
Railway Company, of Buffalo, N. Y., has 
been transferred to the position of mas- 
ter mechanic, a place formerly held by 
him. 

Mr. W. B. Steeves, formerly locomo- 
tive foreman of the Canadian Northern, 
with office at Saskatoon, Sask., has been 
appointed master mechanic of the wes- 
tern district with office at Edmonton, 
Alta. 

Mr. R. P. Lamont, president of the 
American Steel Foundries, with office at 
Chicago, has been appointed a lieutenant- 
colonel and assistant chief of the procure- 
ment division of the Ordnance Depart- 
m< nt 

Mr. C. J. Wittel has been appointed 
roundhouse foreman of the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific, with office at Her- 
ington, Kan., and Mr. H. F. Merchant 
has been appointed roundhouse foreman 
at El Reno, Okla. 

Mr. E. W. Harvey has been appointed 
division master mechanic of the Illinois 
and Racine and Southwestern division 
of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, 
and the Rochelle & Southern lines, with 
office at Savanna, 111. 

Mr. Joseph Rodenberger, formerly 
traveling engineer of the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul, has been appointed 
division master mechanic of the Hastings 
and Dakota divisions of the same road, 
with office at Aberdeen, S. D. 

Mr. James Gunther, formerly engine 
inspector on the Santa Fe at Topeka, 
Kans., has been appointed to a similar 
position by the Interstate Commerce 



Commission at Kansas City. Mr. Ross 
Rader succeeds him at Topeka. 

Mr. Waldo H. Marshall, formerly presi- 
dent of the American Locomotive Com- 
pany, and now associated with J. P. 
Morgan &■ Co., has been appointed as- 
sistant chief of the Division of Produc- 
tion of the Ordnance Department. 

Air. F. O. Walsh, superintendent of 
motive power of the Georgia, has been 
appointed superintendent of motive pow- 
er and equipment also of the Atlanta & 
West Point, and the Western Railway of 
Alabama, with office at Montgomery, 
Ala. 

Mr. J. H. Elliott, formerly general 
manager of the Texas & Pacific, with 
headquarters at Dallas, Tex., has ac- 
cepted the appointment as assistant 
general manager of the railways of the 
American expeditionary forces in 
France. 

Mr. L. H. McDaniel, formerly master 
mechanic of the Nashville, Chattanooga 
& St. Louis, at Paducah, Ky., has been 
transferred to Chattanooga, Tenn., and 
Mr. D. T. Lucas, formerly master me- 
chanic at Chattanooga, has been trans- 
ferred to Paducah. 

Mr. J. F. Gildea, formerly division mas- 
ter mechanic of the Canadian Pacific, with 
office at Montreal, Quebec, has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the Pennsyl- 
vania division of the Delaware & Hudson, 
with office at Carbondale, Pa., succeeding 
Mr. J. J. Reid, resigned. 

Mr. W. F. Kuhlke, formerly assistant 
trainmaster of the Charleston & Western 
Carolina, has been appointed superin- 
tendent of motive power. The position 
of master mechanic at Augusta, Ga., 
made vacant by the death of Mr. T. B. 
Irvin, has been abolished. 

Mr. J. L. Donnelly has been appointed 
roundhouse foreman of the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul, with office at Mc- 
Gregor, la. Mr. George Fenner has been 
appointed to a similar position at Ma- 
nilla, la., succeeding Mr. J. H. Bell, 
transferred to Dubuque, la. 

Mr. H. H. Carrick, formerly assistant 
master mechanic of the Southern Pacific 
at San Francisco, Cal., has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Stockton division, 
succeeding Mr. F. P. McDonald, trans- 
ferred, and Mr. J. T. Slavin has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the coast divi- 
sion with office at San Francisco, succeed- 
ing Mr. Carrick. 

Mr. P. J. Kearney, formerly electrical 
■ engineer of the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford, at New Haven, Conn., has 
resigned to join the Ordnance Depart- 
ment at Washington. Mr. Kearney is a 
graduate of the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, and entered the service 
of the New York, New Haven & Hart- 



March, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



99 



ford in 1906 as assistant to the electrical 
engineer. 

Mr. W. H. Erskine, formerly master 
mechanic of the Great Western at Des 
Moines, la., has been appointed master 
mechanic of the Virginian, and Mr. Frank 
Aitken, formerly master mechanic of the 
Pere Marquette at Wyoming, Mich., has 
been appointed master mechanic of the 
Chicago Great Western, succeeding Mr. 
Erskine at Des Moines. 

Mr. F. W. Schultz, master mechanic 
of the Kansas City, Mexico & Orient, 
has his jurisdiction extended over the 
entire system, with offices at Wichita, 
Kans., and San Angelo, Tex., and the 
office of superintendent of motive power 
and car departments is abolished, the 
duties appertaining to the same being as- 
sumed by Mr. Schultz. 

Mr. G. A. DeHaseth, formerly chief en- 
gineer of the Tacoma Railway & Power 
Company, and chief engineer and road- 
master of the Puget Sound Electric Rail- 
way, of Tacoma, Wash., has been ap- 
pointed manager of the Ponce Railway & 
Light Company, of Ponce, Puerto Rico, 
to succeed Mr. P. M. Hatch, who is now 
in the service of the government. 

Mr. J. M. Kerwin, master mechanic of 
the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, for- 
merly with office at Estherville, la., has 
been transferred to newly opened head- 
quarters at Silvis, 111., and Mr. R. J. Mc- 
Quade, formerly general foreman of the 
locomotive department at Chicago, 111., 
has been appointed master mechanic to 
succeed Mr. Kerwin at Estherville. 

Mr. C. C. Smith, formerly president of 
the Union Steel Casting Company, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., has been elected chairman of 
the board of directors of the company. 
Mr. J. P. Allen, formerly vice-president, 
has been elected president; Mr. S. H. 
Church, vice-president; Mr. G. W. Eisen- 
beis, treasruer; Mr. W. C. Eichenlaub, 
secretary, and Mr. J. B. Henry, general 
superintendent. 

Mr. J. H. Hackenburg, formerly as- 
sistant purchasing agent of the Pressed 
Steel Car Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has 
been appointed purchasing agent. Mr. H. 
B. Fisher and Mr. C. C. Clark have been 
appointed assistant purchasing agents ; 
Mr. W. C. Howe, formerly in charge of 
the Allegheny plant, has been appointed 
assistant to the vice-president, and Mr. 
J. C. Ritchey has been appointed electrical 
engineer. 

Mr. W. H. Lovekin has been appointed 
assistant to the president of the Locomo- 
tive Feed Water Heater Company. Mr. 
Lovekin is from Philadelphia, and is a 
graduate of Princeton University. He 
was engaged for some time in the Bu- 
reau of Municipal Research in Philadel- 
phia, and latterly entered the sales de- 
partment of R. J. Crozier & Co., of 
Philadelphia, and has a wide experience 
among railroad men. In June, 1916, he 
entered the service of the Locomotive 



Feed Water Heater Company as special 
representative. In April, 1917, he was 
appointed assistant to the vice-president, 
which position he held at the time of his 
appointment as above. 




W. H. LOVEKIN. 

Mr. Guy E. Tripp, formerly chairman 
of the Westinghouse Electric and Manu- 
facturing Company, has been appointed 
by the War Department as chief of the 
production division of the Ordnance De- 
partment, intrusted with the task of 




Report of the American Locomotive 
Company. 

The semi-annual report of the Amer- 
ican Locomotive Company for the six 
months ending December 31, 1917, was 
issued last month, and presents a very 
gratifying condition of the company's 
vast industries. The locomotive output 
has all been obtained from the Schenec- 
tady, Brooks, Pittsburgh and Cooke 
plants. The Montreal and Richmond 
plants had been occupied on munitions 
work for nearly two years, but their con- 
tracts were completed last August, and 
these are again completely refitted for 
locomotive work. The investments have 
nearly trebled in three years. A satis- 
factory adjustment has been made in re- 
gard to 250 locomotives ordered by the 
Russian Government in 1917, the United 
States Government aiding in the settle- 
ment of the matter. The work for the 
current year has begun under the most 
favorable conditions. 



GUY E. TRIPP. 

supervising and stimulating the produc- 
tion of all ordnance supplies. Mr. Tripp 
was selected because of his experience 
in the manufacture of munitions of all 
kinds, the Westinghouse Company having 
obtained large contracts from the British 
and Russian Governments immediately on 
the outbreak of the European war. Mr. 
Tripp will give a good account of himself. 



Car Foremen's Association of Chicago. 
The official proceedings of the Car 
Foremen's Association of Chicago were 
interestingly diversified at last month's 
meeting by the introduction of a series of 
pictures furnished by the National Tube 
Company. The members were much in- 
terested in seeing how iron pipe was 
really made. The pictures showed the 
ore being taken from the mine; they 
showed it being converted into molten 
steel ; they showed the steel being poured 
into ingot molds ; they showed the ingots 
being rolled out to the proper size and 
then the bar bent round, the steel re- 
heated to welding heat and welded as it 
passed through the rollers. The pictures 
also showed the different methods of 
testing pipe, and inspecting to see that 
only perfect pipe was put on the market. 
In fact one could read books and maga- 
zines for a week and not get as much vital 
knowledge of how iron pipe was really 
made as was obtained in one hour looking 
at the moving pictures. 



Metal & Thermit Corporation. 
The Goldschmidt Thermit Company 
and the Goldschmidt Detinning Company 
will hereafter be conducted by the Metal 
& Thermit Corporation, with main of- 
fices at 120 Broadway, New York. The 
combinations which are exclusively con- 
trolled by Americans, are now placed 
under joint management, and it is grati- 
fying to observe that extensive arrange- 
ments are being made to meet the rapid- 
ly growing demand for the company's 
products. The following are the officers 
and directors: W. T. Graham, Edgar L. 
Marston, Daniel G. Reid, F. S. Wheeler, 
Hubert E. Rogers, F. H. Hirschland, E. 
L. Ballard, L. A. Welles, Charles F. 
Dane, Philipp Gensheimer and Fred W. 
Cohen. 



100 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1918 



Railroad Equipment Notes 



The Philadelphia & Reading proposes 
t.i build 15 locomotives in its shops at 
Reading, Pa. 



The Kansas City Structural Steel 
Company, Kansas City, Mo., is building 
100 10,000-gal. tank cars. 



The Chicago & North Western will 
build a new engine house and repair 
shop at Montfort, Wis. 



The Delaware & Hudson has ordered 
20 Consolidation locomotives from the 
American Locomotive Company. 



The Missouri, Kansas & Texas has 
ordered 20 freight locomotives from the 
American Locomotive Company. 



The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
has ordered 15 Mikado engines from the 
American Locomotive Company. 



The Portland Terminal has ordered 
two six-wheel switching locomotives from 
the American Locomotive Company. 



The Minneapolis & St. Louis has or- 
dered five Pacific and 15 Mikado loco- 
motives from the American Locomotive 
Company. 



The Maine Central has ordered eight 
ten-wheel and four six-wheel switching 
locomotives from the American Locomo- 
tive Company. 



The Minneapolis & St. Louis has or- 
dered 15 Mikado and five Pacific type 
locomotives from the American Locomo- 
tive Company. 



The Long Island is reported as order- 
ing four 101-ton eight-wheel switching 
locomotives from the American Locomo- 
tive Company. 



The Atlantic Coast Line is reported as 
having ordered 1,000 40-ton steel under- 
frame ventilator cars from the Standard 
Steel Car Company. 



The Pennsylvania has ordered from the 
General Railway Signal Company mate- 
rial for an eight-lever Saxby & Farmer 
interlocking machine at Cresson, Pa. 



The Chicago & Eastern Illinois is re- 
building its machine shop and engine 
house at Salem, 111., recently damaged 
by fire. The new structure will cost 
$300,000. 

The Miami Conservancy District, Ohio, 
has ordered three 48-ton and 10 38-ton 
four-wheel saddle tank switching loco- 
motives from the American Locomotive 
Company. 



The American Car & Foundry Com- 
pany has received an order from the 
Ordnance Department. United States 
Government, for 150 30-ton steel under- 
frame ammunition cars. 



The Hocking Valley has ordered 20 2- 
6-6-2 Mallet type locomotives from the 
American Locomotive Company. The lo- 
comotives will weight 437,000 lbs., and 
will be equipped with superheaters. 



The Pacific Electric, Los Angeles, is 
having plans prepared for the erection of 
14 new shop buildings at its works at 
Torrance, including machine shops and 
forge works. The total cost is estimated 
at $1,000,000. 



The Central of Georgia has ordered 
three Mountain and 10 Mallet type loco- 
motives from the American Locomotive 
Company. The Mountain type locomo- 
tives will weigh 318,000 lbs., and the Mal- 
let locomotives 440,000 lbs. 



The Chesapeake & Ohio has ordered 
15 2-6-6-2 Mallet and 10 ten-wheel switch- 
ing locomotives from the American Loco- 
motive Company. The Mallet type lo- 
comotives will weigh 437,000 lbs., the 
switching locomotives 295,000 lbs., and all 
will be equipped with superheaters. 



The Missouri, Kansas & Texas, re- 
ported as having ordered 20 freight lo- 
comotives from the American Locomo- 
tive Company has ordered 25 locomotives. 
The locomotives will be of the Mikado 
type and will be superheated and weigh 
314,000 lbs. 



The Wisconsin & Michigan has pur- 
chased a tract of nine acres in Menomi- 
nee, Mich., and will build new shops, en- 
gine house, etc. An ore dock will be 
built on the site of a former steamship 
dock, which will provide adequate facili- 
ties without considerable dredging being 
required. 



The Pennsylvania Lines West of Pitts- 
burgh will have mechanical interlocking 
on the new drawbridge at Louisville ; a 
Saxby & Farmer machine with 30 work- 
ing levers and six spare spaces. The 
contract for the material and for instal- 
lation has been given to the General Rail- 
way Signal Company. 



The Lenoir Car Works, Lenoir City, 
Tenn., plans to rebuild along larger and 
more modern lines its blacksmith and 
machine shop, totally destroyed by fire re- 
cently. The engineering and building will 
be done by its own organization, and it 
does not contemplate any radical changes 



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.$«1 PAINT 

]P"V'ovn colors^ 

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JtRSJEVCITV. V.J- 




Long Time 
Protection 

is given to signal appa- 
ratus and all exposed 
metal or woodwork by 

DIXON'S 

Silica-Graphite 

PAINT 

the Longest Service paint. 
Nature's combination of 
flake silica-graphite, 
mixed with pure boiled 
linseed oil, is the ideal 
combination which forms 
a firm elastic coat that 
will not crack or peel off. 
This prevents access to 
agents that will corrode 
and injure the metal. 
Dixon's Silica-Graphite 
Paint is used throughout 
the world by railroad 
engineers. 

Write for Booklet No. 
69-B and long service 
records. 

Made in JERSEY CITY, N. J., by the 

Joseph Dixon Crucible 
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ESTABLISHED 1«Z7 



B 132 



March, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



101 



Hydraulic 

Riveters fixed and Portable 

Punches, Shears, 
Presses, Lifts, Cranes 
•nd Accumulators. 

Matthews' Fire Hydrants, 

Eddy Valves 

Valve Indicator Posts. 

The Camden High-Pressure Valves. 



other than the installation of an overhead 
crane. 



Cast Iron Pipe 



R. D. Wood & Company 

Engineers, Iron 
Pounders, Machinists. 

100 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



For Testing and Washing 
Locomotive Boilers 



USE THE 




Rue Boiler Washer 
and Tester 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

Rue Manufacturing Co. 

228 Cherry Street Philadelphia, Pa. 

Manufacturers of Injectors. Ejectors. 

Boiler Washers and Testers, Boiler Checks. 

Check Valvei. 



Locomotive Electric Headlights 

of all descriptions 

V\ H tr TURB0 

7 LL GENERATOR 

ATIONAL sets 




COMPANY 



00 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUE 



CHICAGO, ILL 



ASHTON 

POP VALVES and GAGES 



The Quality Good* That Last 
The Ashton Valve Co. 

271 Franklin Street. Bo*ton, M«« 




The Philadelphia & Reading has let a 
contract for erecting a machine shop at 
Philadelphia to be 216 feet long, 130 feet 
wide at one end and 1S6.6 feet at the 
other ; also a large engine house with 10 
stalls 90 feet long and six stalls 110 feet 
long. The improvements will cost about 
$326,183. 



Specifications have recently been deter- 
mined on orders received by the Ameri- 
can Locomotive Company some months 
ago for the following locomotives : Cen- 
tral of Georgia, three mountain type lo- 
comotives weighing 318,000 pounds and 
ten Mallet locomotives weighing 440,000 
pounds ; Missouri, Kansas & Texas, 25 
Mikado locomotives weighing 314,000 
pounds. 



the saving of labor will more than cover 
the increased cost of the cutlery in the 
first year." 

These two processes are probably not 
the same, for the method used with the 
cutlery has not been made public as the 
other has, though the satisfaction with 
knives, etc., so treated is now beyond 
question. The constant, dilligent endeavor 
to obtain a rustless steel, which can be 
used where great areas are concerned, 
is some day likely to be rewarded by 
complete success. 



Word from Washington announces 
that the United States Government order 
for freight cars for France has been dis- 
tributed among the car manufacturers as 
follows : American Car Foundry Com- 
pany, 950 ; Pullman Company, 500 ; Stand- 
ard Steel Car Company, 950 ; Mt. Ver- 
non Car Manufacturing Company, 260; 
Cambria Steel Company, 500; St. Louis 
Car Company, 100 ; Haskell & Barker, 
500, and the Pressed Steel Car Company, 
500. 



The Lake Superior & Ishpeming, and 
the Munising, Marquette & Southeastern 
railroads will shortly begin construction 
of new shops, at the ore docks of the 
former road, to cost $425,000, and to in- 
clude an engine house, with boiler room, 
an 80-foot steel turn table, a machine and 
work shop 115 by 143 feet, blacksmith 
shop 42 by 82 feet, oil house, coaling sta- 
tion, car repair shop, steel shop 21 by 41 
feet and other buildings. 



Rustless Steel. 



Some years ago a firm in Sheffield, 
Eng., brought out a process by which 
steel is made non-rusting, unstainable, and 
untarnishable. This steel is said to be es- 
pecially adaptable for table cutlery, as 
the original polish is maintained after 
use, even when brought in contact with 
the most acid foods, and it requires only 
ordinary washing to cleanse. 

"It is claimed," writes Mr. Savage, 
U. S. Consul General at Sheffield, in the 
commerce reports, "that this steel retains 
a keen edge. Knives can readily be 
sharpened on a 'steel' or by using the 
ordinary cleaning machine or knifeboard. 
It is expected it will prove a great boon, 
especially to large users of cutlery, such 
as hotels, steamships, and restaurants and 
railway dining cars. It is considered that 



Use of the Locomotive Whistle 
Superintendent T. Ahern, of the 
Coast division of the Southern Pacific 
in a letter to the engineers, says: "Ex- 
tensive tests show that a whistle call 
for a station signal should never be 
less than five seconds, the long blasts 
of the crossing signal two and a half 
seconds and the short ones one second. 
Particular care should be exercised to 
cut off the blasts sharply and not to 
slur them. It is of the utmost import- 
ance in causing sound to travel that 
these instructions be carried out. After 
scunding a whistle cut off the steam 
completely and allow a perceptible time 
to elapse between the blasts. They 
then are carried to a distance very 
much more clearly than if jumbled into 
one continuous blast. The whistle is 
an important safety device, of which 
we must make efficient use." 



New York Railroad Club. 

At the regular monthly meeting of the 
New York Railroad Club, held on Feb- 
ruary 15, a technical paper on the sub- 
jest of the "Dynamic Augment — Need and 
Means of Reducing It," was presented 
by Mr. E. W. Strong of the American 
Vanadium Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. The pa- 
per contained much valuable data on the 
effect of the increased weight of the 
reciprocating parts of locomotives and 
the difficulty of counterbalancing the parts, 
and dwelt with convincing logic on the 
fact that in this age of heat-treated and 
alloy steels the designer has exceptional 
opportunities for reducing the weight of 
the parts. By using hollow bored crank 
pins and piston rods, rolled steel or 
alloy and special cast steel pistons ; and 
by special care in the design of all de- 
tails, a large percentage of saving can 
be effected in the weights of reciprocat- 
ing parts. 



Drilling Hard Steel. 
A mixture which will permit hard steel 
or iron to be drilled with ordinary drills 
is made by using one part spirits of cam- 
phor and four parts turpentine. Mix well 
and apply cold, letting it remain a few 
minutes before applying the drill. Run 
the drill slowly with fine feed. 



102 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1918 



Books, Bulletins, Catalogues, Etc. 



Baldwin Record No. 89. 
The Baldwin Locomotive Works Bulle- 
tin No. 89 consists of an unusually inter- 
esting, illustrated historical essay, by J. 
Snowden Bell, on "The Development of 
the Eight Driving Wheel Locomotive." 
The author traces the gradual growth 
and development of this type of locomo- 
tive from that used at the Wylam Colliery 
Railroad in 1825, and which had the pe- 
culiarity of being equipped with inter- 
mediate spur wheels for conveying the 
motion from the main driving spur wheel 
to the other wheels, along to the power- 
ful types of our own day. There are 
fifteen illustrations used in tracing the 
gradual increase in size and variation in 
construction showing the numerous im- 
provements in structural features and ac- 
cessories which have been embodied in 
locomotives of the various other designs 
that have, from time to time, been intro- 
duced. Mr. Bell is of the opinion that 
the advantage of the design, as practically 
perfected in the improved types in which 
it has been applied, is unquestionable, and 
other than for exceptional conditions of 
service it will doubtless continue to be the 
preferred one for freight train work. 



Wilson Welding Metals 

As is well known in the earlier ap- 
plication of electric welding attention 
was directed solely to developing the 
machines employed in the operation, 
and not as much to the welding itself 
as should have been. In the Wilson 
system of welding, care has been taken 
to provide metals that are not adversely 
affected by the heat of the arc. The 
latest and most successful development 
consists of a manganese copper alloy 
used as an electrode forming an arc, 
and which combines an excess of man- 
ganese and copper over the amount 
burned out in the arc as will retain in 
the welded joint an additional degree 
of toughness and ductility due to said 
excess. This alloy has been developed 
to the highest point of efficiency 
through the extended services of some 
of the best metallurgists in America, 
and no other system of welding can use 
these metals. 



Lubrication. 



Last month's Lubrication contains an 
able article on the subject of "Forced 
Lubrication," by Lieut. Commander A. T. 
Church, U. S. N., wherein he advocates 
the necessity of keeping a careful watch 
on the temperature of the main bearings 
and thrust bearings. Conditions in forced 
lubrication systems are quite different 
from those in sight or wick-feed systems. 
Since the oil is used over and over again, 



any that may be squeezed out from be- 
tween the bearing surfaces does not rep- 
resent a loss ; also the oil can be supplied 
in any amount, thereby eliminating the 
possibility of an insufficient supply to the 
bearings. Therefore a lighter oil may be 
used than with the wick-feed. Every ef- 
fort should be made to exclude water, 
since the oil must be kept in continuous 
circulation, and the effect of a water leak 
soon becomes cumulative. One of the 
primary requisites of a forced-feed oil is 
that it must not saponify and must sepa- 
rate readily from water. Too much care 
cannot be exercised to keep the oil clean 
and free from the least grit that excessive 
wear of bearings may be avoided. 



Unraveling the Tangle. 

Mr. Theodore P. Shonts, president of 
the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, 
delivered an address last month before 
the Detroit Board of Commerce on "How 
the Railroad Tangle May Be Unraveled." 
Mr. Shonts claims that as a possible 
solution of the national problem with 
which our country is struggling — Shall 
we return to old railroad conditions after 
the war? — "I suggest a partnership be- 
tween the Government and the railroads, 
something like the partnership that has 
been formed in New York by the city 
and the rapid transit lines for the con- 
struction and operation of the city's new 
dual rapid transit system. 

The interests of the country, with its 
need for greatly enlarged and extended 
railroad facilities, and the interests of 
investors are so interwoven that the fi- 
nancial responsibility should likewise be 
interwoven. This doctrine underlies the 
principles embodied in the contract for 
New York's new and dual rapid transit 
system, probably the first place such a 
plan has been attempted with any degree 
of magnitude." 



Graphite. 
The lively organ of the Joseph Dixon 
Crucible Company, Jersey City, N. J., has 
always, apart from the interesting descrip- 
tions of its substantial products, some- 
thing in keeping with the spirit of the 
strenuous days in which we live. Last 
month's issue has an excellent article on 
"Low Visibility Paints," which clearly 
points out the advisability of low visibility 
either internally or externally. Blending 
with the horizon seems to be the domi- 
nant note. Its efficacy has been discov- 
ered and utilized in the army and navy. 
Art may surpass nature in many things, 
but it cannot surpass it in color. Dixon's 
Silica-Graphite paint has two colors that 
give low visibility. These are Dixon's 
natural color and olive green. They have 
been tried and may be said to defy the 
elements — at least for a long time. 



The Railroads and Politics 

The American Industry in War Time 
for February says that the railroads 
cannot be divorced from politics under 
Government control, and the only 
hope is that they will not be in- 
jected into the next Presidential cam- 
paign in such a way as to wreck them 
physically and financially. There is a 
grave danger that politics may com- 
plicate our transportation problem. 
The American people should under- 
stand how intimately related Govern- 
mental control of the railroads is to 
the next Presidential election, and they 
should insist that their Representatives 
and Senators make the time for turn- 
ing back the roads to the stockholders 
as short as possible consistent with the 
work which will have to be done at the 
close of the war. 



The Collapse of Tubes. 

Bulletin No. 99, issued by the En- 
gineering Experiment Station of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois, Urbana, 111., furnishes 
a mass of interesting data on the collapse 
of tubes, with formulae for ascertaining 
the collapsible pressures, and examples 
of the various forms assumed by the va- 
rious lengths of tubes. Illustrations of 
the apparatus used in the experiments 
and diagrams of results are furnished. 
Eminent authorities are quoted and com- 
pared, and the data may be said to be the 
very latest in the testing of tubes. Copies 
of the Bulletin may be had on application 
to the University. Price, 20 cents. 




The Norwalk Iron Works Co. 

SOUTH NORWALK, CONN. 

Makers of Air and Gas Compressors 

For All Purposes 
Send for Catalog 




THE ARMSTRONG IMPROVED I 

PACKER RATCHET DRILLS? 

Are ALL STEEL 

and 
Hardened All Over 

Will outwear two of the Boft kind. 

We make all kinds — all slaee. 

Do yon want a catalog? 



ARMSTRONG BROS.TOOLCO. 

"The Tool Holder P eopl e." 
118 N. FRANCISCO AVE., CHICAGO, ILL. [ 




If^o Locomotive CnSinCGl !Ȥ 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling Stock and Appliances 



Vol. XXXI 



114 Liberty Street, New York, April, 1918 



No. 4 



New Design of High-Power Double-Acting Lathe 
Adapted for Machining Axle Forgings 



Our frontispiece illustration shows a 
new design of high-power double-acting 
lathe, known as No. 3 Axle Lathe, that 
has been recently placed on the market by 
the Niles-Bement-Pond Company, New 
York, and is a high production machine 
of heavy construction throughout, and is 
designed for machining axle forgings as 
well as rough machined axles. It is 
center driven and adapted for turning 



clutch is provided, the clutch being 
mounted within the speed box driving 
gear. In the case of the lathe being 
adapted for an adjustable speed motor 
drive for direct current, the motor of 3 to 
1 speed variation is mounted on a base 
plate attached to the left hand end of the 
bed. The motor is geared directly to the 
driving shaft. 
The bed is of very rigid construction 



under heavy cuts, and it automatically 
compensates for wear of both the car- 
riages and the bed. 

The center driving head is of massive 
construction, completely enclosing the 
main driving gear and forms an oil reser- 
voir in which the gear runs. It : s 
clamped to the bed by six large bolts, 
and is adjustable longitudinally along the 
bed. The main drive is by means of large 




NILES-BEMENT-POND CI (MPANY'S \ '. 



AXLE LATUM 



wheel seats and journals simultaneously 
at both ends of car axles. 

As constructed for constant speed 
motor drive for alternating current, the 
motor is mounted on a speed box at the 
left hand end of the bed as shown on the 
frontispiece. Power is transmitted by 
gearing from the speed box to the driving 
shaft, giving four speed changes to the 
driving head, ranging from 16 to 48 revo- 
lutions per minute. The speed box gears 
are of steel and run in oil, all bearings 
being automatically lubricated. For starc- 
ing and stopping the machine a friction 



and is reinforced by cross-girts of box 
section 8 ins. wide. The tracks for the 
carriage consist of a wide flat way at the 
back of the bed and a track of an im- 
proved compensating "V"-shape at tne 
front. This improved "V"-shape track 
has an angle of 15 degs. at the back and 
an angle of 70 degs. at the front. This 
feature is shown in the end view of the 
lathe. The 15-deg. angle on the back of 
the "V", serves a double purpose ; it pre- 
vents a thrust-surface at right angles to 
the combined forces of the tools, eliminat- 
ing all tendency of the carriages to climb 



steel herringbone type gear and pinion 
which are carrie'd between bearings in 
the head. These hear.ngs are of large 
proportions, and special provision is 
made for a liberal supply of oil. Because 
of the spiral action of the teeth, the her- 
ringbone gear provides a smooth, power- 
ful drive, and all objectionable noise is 
eliminated when running at high velocity. 
The axle is driven by a steel equalizing 
driving plate, having lugs cast integral 
which engage both ends of the double 
driver dog. By means of this driving 
plate, crooked or irregular axles can be 



104 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April. 1918 



machined without setting up bending 
strains. 

Two carriages are provided which have 
power longitudinal feeds by a right and 
left hand screw positively driven by gear- 
ing. The split nuts engaging the lead- 
screw are provided with automatic open- 
mi; devices which release them when the 
carriages come in contact with set collars 
on the tappet rod at the front of the ma- 
chine. The carriages are laid down bj 
clamps for their full length and are ad- 
justable to the front and back verticil 
surfaces of the bed by taper gibs. Two 
clamps are provided at the front of th ■■ 
carriages. One of these is used for 
clamping the carriage to the bed when 
turning against shoulders and facing 
ends of axles. This clamp is operated 
by a bolt on the top of the cariage. The 
other clamp is under the bridge and 
further decreases the tendency of the car- 
riage to lift during the burnishing op- 
eration. 

Wipers are attached to both carriages, 
to remove all chips and dirt from the 
shears. They are fitted with felt pads and 
provide the surfaces with a continuous 
supply of clean lubricant. A complete 
lubricating system for the tools is pro- 
vided by means of a pump, jet pipes, 
reservoir and collecting channels. The 
tool slides are provided with a trough 
which is connected with channels in the 
carriage bridge for carrying off the lu- 
bricant. The aprons are of double wall 
construction and all of the mechanism 
except the operating levers, is completely 
enclosed. All shafts arc supported at 
both ends. 

The feed gears are located at the right- 
hand end of the bed and are completely 
enclosed. The feed change lever is 
placed at the center of the machine with- 
in easy reach of the operator. These 
feeds are provided for the carriages, — 
1/16-in., 3/32-in., and 3/16-in. The car- 
riages have a hand traverse on the bed 
and tool slides have hand cross feed. The 
axle is carried on dead centers mounted 
on two heavy tailstocks which are ad- 
justable longitudinally along the bed and 
each is clamped in position by four lar^e 
anchor bolts. To prevent slipping, a 
pawl is provided which engages a rack 
cast in the bed. The tailstocks have taper 
gibs at the front and back of the bed, per- 
mitting alignment of spindles. The 
spindle of the right-hand tailstock is ad- 
justable by hand-wheel. 

The lathe is also constructed for a 
cone-pulley drive, with a 3-step cone 
having a maximum diameter of 32 ins. 
for a 7-ins. belt. A two-speed counter- 
shaft is provided, giving six speeds to 
the driving head ranging from 16 to 48 
revolutions per minute. The single pulley 
drive design is driven by a single pulley 
26 ins. diameter for an 8-ins. belt, driving 
through a speed box mounted at the left- 
hand end of the bed. The speed box 



transmits four speed changes to the driv- stationary ; length, constant speed motor 
ing head, ranging, from 16 to 48 revolu- drive, 18 ft. 9 ins.; width, 4 ft. 3 ins.; 



tions per minute. ■ For starting and stop- 
ping the machine a friction clutch is pro- 
vided. This clutch is mounted within 
the driving pulley and is operated by a 
lever conveniently located at the center 




F.xn VIEW SHOWING CROSS SECTION 
OF IMPROVED "V" TRACK. 

of the machine. When the clutch is dis- 
engaged a brake is automatically applied, 
bringing the machine to a quick stop. 

A crane for handling axles in and out 
of the lathe may also be furnished. The 
crane has a very convenient gripping de- 




Tl ! R R I M ;B< >N F DRIVJ NG GEAR. 

vice and hoist that can be easily handled 
by one man. 

The following are some of the general 
dimensions of the lathe : Length of bed 
14 ft., width at shears, 27J4 ins. ; diameter 
of spindles, 5 ins. ; traverse of right- 
hand spindle, 9 ins.; left-hand spindle, 



height, 5 ft.; length, adjustable speed mo- 
tor drive, 19 ft. 1 in. ; width, 4 ft. ; 
height, 5 ft. ; cone pulley drive, length, 
17 ft. 2 ins.; width, 4 ft. 8 ins.; height, 
5 ft. 



Open Letter to the Hon. The Director 
General of Railroads. 

Competing Appliances and Stand- 
ardization 

The following letter has been addressed 
by the President of the Railway Business 
Association to the Director General of 
Railroads advocating the continued use, 
during the war, of established competing 
devices on engines and cars. The letter 
is as follows : 
To the Hon. William G. McAdoo. 

Director General of Railroads, 
Washington, D. C. 
Sir: 

Manufacturers of railway necessaries 
respectfully invite you to study certain 
considerations bearing upon mechanical 
design and practice in the field of rolling 
stock construction, purchase and mainte- 
nance. 

The Railway Business Association, of 
which I have the honor to be President, 
is a national organization of manufactur- 
ers, merchants and engineers dealing with 
steam railroads. What we have to say 
from our nun experience accurately por- 
trays the problems of the whole railway 
appliance industry. 

It appears from your official announce- 
ment that you have delegated to technical 
committees the work of recommending to 
you a detailed plan of procedure for the 
acquirement of new rolling stock by the 
railroad systems. The phases upon which 
we desire to address you are those which 
involve the peculiar interest of makers 
of appliances or parts as distinguished 
from assemblers of locomotives and cars. 

In the field of transportation inventors 
and developers of special appliances em- 
body the spirit and function of progress. 
Our interest and the national interest it] 
this respect are identical. What the manu- 
facturers of railway appliances cherish 
and what the public as a whole is inter- 
ested in preserving is that flexibility which 
leaves the way open to mechanical ad- 
vance. Always we have before us two 
antagonistic requirements which must 
be compromised — improvement through 
some change and stability through stand- 
ardization. 

To a certain extent standardization is 
essential. As transportation became na- 
tional and interchange of cars among the 
several roads became common, conveni- 
ence and economy in repairs required a 
tendency toward interchangeability of 
parts. With the organization of the Rail- 
roads' War Board last April came for the 
first time to any extent use of engines on 



April, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



105 



the rails of roads other than the owner. 
What has long applied to cars affecting 
repairs now applies in some degree to 
engines. The drift, as with cars is to- 
ward interchangeability of parts. The 
method by which inter-line use of cars 
was made possible was, to be sure, stand- 
ardization, but it was a standardization of 
dimensions. If the car frame were uni- 
form a device of any patent could be 
used upon it. Thus we attained practical 
current convenience while preserving va- 
riety of design and material, of terms, 
delivery and dealings, and hence reason- 
able expedition in the demonstration and 
introduction of improvements. 

We earnestly commend to your favor- 
able consideration the fullest adherence 
to this method consistent with the most 
effective rehabilitation and maintenance 
of transportation facilities ill face of the 
enemy. We are ready for any sacrifice 
essential to winning the war. We would 
deplore as disastrous to the nation's busi- 
ness any departure, not clearly necessary 
for national defense, from competition be- 
tween patented railway appliances. 

Manufacturers of railway goods have 
borne an honorable part in promoting the 
progress of transportation science. What 
they have achieved for the public in 
safety, comfort, speed and economy of 
railway operation has been accomplished 
in an atmosphere of keenest competition. 
We could try persuasion upon one inde- 
pendent railway manager after another 
until the test was made and a demonstra- 
tion afforded. Our work has been marked 
by variety, elasticity, development. The 
inventor, the executive and the salesman 
have been inspired by the hope of excel- 
ling, roused to effort by the exertions of 
rivals. Under such conditions our indus- 
tries and the country with them have 
progressed and thriven. The man with 
whom we have hitherto dealt has had a 
definite responsibility for affording his 
company the benefit of the latest scientific 
discoveries. 

We believe that the preservation of de- 
centralization in our dealings is not only 
important for the immediate present, but 
vital as a precedent for the ultimate ad- 
justment after the war. 

Looking especially to the present, many 
of those engaged in the railway supply 
industry are profoundly anxious concern- 
ing the policy which you will adopt as it 
may affect them and the scores of thou- 
sands of workers whom they employ. 

Unofficial statements and rumors have 
hinted at the possibility of far-reaching 
standardization, under which large num- 
bers of plants would be swept out of exist- 
ence or forced to reorganize for some 
other type of service. A maker produces, 
let us say, a device which is part of a car. 
He is one of several who manufacture 
competing appliances that perform the 
same function. Will some one of us, he 
has been asking, be declared standard and 



all the others thrown into the discard? 
If so, the conclusion of peace would find 
the unfortunates whose products had been 
discarded under the edict of standardiza- 
tion for the period of the war deprived 
of a large part of the value of their pat- 
ents through disuse and their business 
paralyzed through discontinuance of the 
mechanical and commercial processes 
which keep any business a progressive 
living organism. 

Established commercial processes are 
the result of experience and of scrutiny 
under government regulation, federal and 
state. We are confident that you will be 
alert to the desirability of performing your 
difficult and vital function as Director 
General of Railroads with the least pos- 
sible disturbance to these processes. We 
believe that you will find it practicable 
to preserve the business and the individ- 
uality of the several makers of rolling 
stock appliances. Cars have now been so 
far standardized in dimensions that they 
can travel over any railroad in the United 
States, as anyone can see who observes 
upon a freight train the multiplicity of 
ownership insignia. So far as speed of 
production is concerned little or no delay 
is occasioned in changing from one patent 
to another and substituting on each lot 
the appliances which have been designated 
by the particular buyer. 

We can see no obstacle to the adoption 
of a plan under which, whatever the de- 
sign of the car as a whole, every reputable 
established appliance for each function 
would be sanctioned and the several roads 
directed to exercise, as in the past, their 
judgment in specifying devices. 

What applies to construction of new 
rolling stock is of more importance in the 
field of maintaining rolling stock that 
exists. The largest number of locomotives 
ever ordered for domestic account in any 
one year was 6,265. The number of loco- 
motives in use and under maintenance 
according to the last report was 63,862. 
The largest number of freight cars ever 
ordered in any one year was 341,315. The 
number of freight cars in existence and 
requiring upkeep as last reported was 
2,326,987. Obviously the big end of the 
rolling stock task and the preponderant 
consumption of engine and car parts is not 
in new construction but in maintenance. 
Apart from repairs made by one railroad 
upon cars found out of order on its rails 
a highly important proportion of such 
work is the thorough overhauling of cars 
by the road that owns them in its own 
shops. For replacement of parts broken 
or worn out each road orders from the 
makers quantities of whatever appliances 
are standard upon that road. Stability 
in the industry during the war will be pro- 
moted by permitting in general each road 
to determine as in the past which of the 
competing appliances it will use in repairs. 

Such a policy, affecting both construc- 
tion and repair upkeep, will not only ^ive 



rapidity and certainty to the exigent per- 
formance in war and preserve for the time 
of peace the commercial organizations 
which have carried on mechanical pro- 
gress, but it will involve the minimum re- 
adjustment of shop operation and produc- 
tion quotas, thus keeping these enterprises 
in a strong position as payers of war taxes 
and subscribers to war bonds — these and 
the tradesmen and the people of the com- 
munities wherein their plants are located 
who draw sustenance primarily from the 
industrial pay roll. 

Please permit me personally, and I be- 
lieve I may say the same thing in my rep- 
resentative capacity, to felicitate you, Sir. 
upon your manifest determination to form 
judgments based upon knowledge and 
upon the opinion of those whose vocation 
fits them to serve the country through you 
at this crisis. 

Geo. A. Post, President, 
Ry. Business Assn. 



Reclaiming Waste. 

A correspondent in the Practical En- 
gineer states that the high cost of waste 
and rags used throughout the machine 
shop makes it necessary to cast about for 
means to reduce our charges for this ma- 
terial, so we devised a washing arrange- 
ment, which was made up by our engineer 
cut of some old pipe fittings. A piece of 
12-in. pipe was arranged with companion 
flanges on each end, a steam inlet in the 
side, and a drain at the bottom. A screen 
was then placed in the pipe about 4 ins. 
above the steam inlet. The oily waste was 
placed in the washer above the screen by 
removing the companion flange, and then 
the whole mass was boiled by turning in 
the live steam, the condensation dripping 
down through the waste and carrying the 
r.d and dirt off through the blow-off 
valve. While this crude washing did not 
tarn out perfectly clean waste, it. never- 
theless, took out such a large percentage 
of the oil, grit and dirt that the waste could 
be used for practically all purposes. The 
expenditure for new waste was thereby 
cut down by one-half and one-third each 
month. 



Railroad Gardening. 
A garden at every section-house is one 
of the food-producing measures which 
the Southern Pacific are putting into ef- 
fect this season. Agents, section foremen 
and trackmen, from Portland to El Paso 
and San Francisco to Ogden, are being 
instructed to convert to vegetable gardens 
all suitable ground available. In addition, 
the company is endeavoring to lease all 
cultivable land which it owns (not used 
by employees) and a good deal of the 
right-of-way land adapted to truck gar- 
dening or agriculture, is being leased. 
Vegetable gardens were made last year by 
hundreds of employees with yrcat success. 



106 



RAILWAY AXD LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, 1918 



Norfolk & Western Composite and All Wood Cars 

Details of Gondola and Box Cars — Great Saving of Steel — Unique Method of Framing 
and Other New Features — Equipped with Farlow Draft Gear 



The Norfolk & Western Railway have 
recently built some gondola and box cars 
of wood, owing to the difficulty of getting 
steel. In doing this the N. & W. have 
met an existing condition in a common 
sense way. After all, that is one of the 
fundamental principles of organic evolu- 
tion. A plant living by wet land, sudden- 
ly rinding that the water has dried up or 
receded a long distance from it, is com- 
pelled to produce a thick, bulbous, water- 
retaining stem, or it will die. In doing 
this, the plant successfully meets a new 
condition, that is all. Some are inclined 
to think that in this age of steel, revert- 
ing to wooden construction is a backward 
step. As a matter of fact it is an evolu- 
tionary step forward, and the N. & W. 
deserves to be commended for its action. 



integral with the back stop tie casting, 
and the 4 x 8-in. buffing sills are brought 
up tight to the cast iron member, and form 
a solid piece of work where solidity 
and resistance of a high order are re- 
quired. The cast iron member is made 
with flanges which underlie the main 
draw sills and support them, without re- 
lying entirely on the holding power of 
bolts. The castings are also provided with 
large lips or flanges which overlie the 
centre sills, and the centre sills are se- 
cured to them and, so to speak, hang from 
them by vertically placed bolts. 

The cars are equipped with Farlow 
draw gear. The front follower of this 
.near is H -shaped with ways for the yoke 
arm and seats in pulling against the large 
surfaces of the cheek blocks. The yoke, 



and is a steel angle with ends turned up 
to form coupler limit stops. It is held by 
two J4-in. horizontally placed bolts. It is 
also supported by the flanges of the mal- 
leable iron end-cap casting. When the 
two carrier-iron bolts are taken out and 
the carrier iron slipped out, the coupler 
can lie dropped, and the limit stops re- 
moved. This permits the draw gear yoke 
to be drawn out without necessitating the 
removal of any additional parts. The 
draught keys are headed at one end, and 
each has two holes at the sharp end which 
takes a U-shaped keeper of '3-in. steel, 
the legs of the keeper being spread similar 
to those of a cotter pin. Many times, 
as mechanical men know, trouble has been 
experienced with closing cotters, and sub- 
sequently dropping out. This keeper does 




W. H. Lev 



S. M. P. 



This railway has built 2,1)00 hopper cars 
with a capacity of 57' 5 tons each, and out 
of the 2,000 at least 1,990 cars have steel 
centre sills and steel bolsters. Ten cars 
have been built of nothing but wood. The 
practical result of the use of wood in 
these cars amounts to saving 18,000 tons 
of steel. The woonen centre sills are 
made of 6 x 12-in. sticks placed 15J/2 ins. 
apart. These sills are 5 1/16-in. below the 
centre line of the coupler. Along the bot- 
tom edge, and dowelled to the inside, is 
a buffing sill, 4x8 ins. These are almost 
in line with the centre line of draft, and 
they extend from one bolster to the other. 
In this way the centre sills are not eccen- 
trically loaded to any great extend in 
pulling or buffing. 

Over each truck, and between the cen- 
tre sills, there is placed a grey iron cast- 
ing, which acts as a draw gear back stop 
and also as a tie casting to hold the sills 
solidly in place. The centre plate is cast 



NORFOLK & WESTERN ALL-WOOD CAR 

1/4x5 ins., is made bigger at the key 
slot. The coupler key is 1J/2 x 5 ins. The 
key has a bearing on each side of 4% sq. 
ins. The couplers on the ten all-wood 
cars have shanks 28 ins. long in order that 
the key-slot may not come too near the 
ends of the centre sills, and also to give 
a long leverage for the coupler on the 
'■arrier iron. The ends of the centre sills 
are covered with a malleable iron cap, 
which extends over and between them, 
and so ties them together. This mal- 
leable iron casting is made to act as a 
pocket for the oak block, against which 
the horn of the coupler may strike. This 
block is faced with a flat wrought-iron 
plate, 1!4 x 4 ins. It is here so arranged 
that the horn strikes this plate slightly 
before the draw springs go solid, so that 
the cheek blocks are only subjected to 
pulling forces and are not intended to 
take up buffing shocks. 

The carrier iron is 5 x V/ 2 x 7/16 ins., 



Builders Norfolk ,V Western 

not rotate and it is easy to remove when 
occasion requires. 

A flat washer is placed on top of the 
key, and through it the keeper passes, and 
so protects U-shaped member from wear. 
The win de is arranged so that the draw 
key does not wear in the wood of the 
sills. 

The bolsters for the cars, made com- 
pletely of wood, are composed of two 6 x 
20 ins. yellow pine timbers, passing over 
the centre sills and under the hopper 
chute. These rest on top of the centre 
castings. They are spaced 4'j ins. apart, 
and the centre casting has a spacing 
bracket which comes up between the 
bolster beams and forms a stop. The 
body side bearings are castings bolted to 
the bolster beams and braced from the 
centre sills. The centre sills for the 
majority of the cars are two channels, 25 
lbs., and 12 ins. deep, spaced 16fis ins. 
apart, back to back, with a through ! _j-in. 



April, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



107 



cover plate, 22->6 ins. wide, and with 3) - 2 
x 3J/2 x 7/16 ins. reinforcing angles on the 
bottom flanges of the channels. The draw 
gear attachments are the same as those 
of the other cars, except that the couplers 
have the standard 21J4 ins. length of 
shank, and the malleable cheek blocks are 
riveted to the inner faces of the pressed 
steel draw sills. The draw sills are of 
7/16-in. tapered steel plates, and arc IS 



webs being \5 l / 2 ins. wide. The side fram- 
ing and body construction are so made as 
to carry most of the load weight on the 
side trusses, so that the centre sills only 
have limited bending stress due to the 
vertical pressure of the load. In order to 
do this, a transverse needle beam is pro- 
vided at the centre of the car. It is com- 
posed of two 4'A x 12 ins. timbers, spaced 
4' j ins. apart, passing through the cavity 




RIDE FRAMING N. & W. ALL-WOOD CAR. 



ins. deep at the front ends and 12 ins. at 
the back, where they overlap the inner 
faces of the channels, and are spliced to 
them. This splice takes only pulling 
forces, the buffing shocks being received 
by the back stop castings, which are rivet- 
ed to the main centre sills. The outer 
ends of the draw sills are vertically sup- 
ported so that the splice is relieved from 
the effects of any drooping of the coupler. 
The end stakes are made of 4 x 3 x % 




INSIDE OF N. & W. HOPPER CAR. 

in. angles, and the oak striking blocks are 
absent, while the remainder of the draw 
gear attachments are the same as those 
on the other cars. The body bolsters for 
the composite cars are two 33-lbs. chan- 
nels IS ins. deep, with top and bottom 
cover plates. The draw sills are made in 
channel section and have their flanges 
turned inward, the pocket between the 



of the car, over the centre sills. The 
ends of these needle beams are carried on 
the side trusses, practically making the 
centre sills into two beams, suported at 
the bolsters and the central needle beam. 

The cars have four pairs of transverse 
drop doors, reaching from side to side 
under the centre sills. They are hinged 
to door beams, which are supported from 
the side trusses, from their outer ends. 
The free ends of the doors have angle 
irons of slightly greater length than the 
doors and which reach across the car, and 
beyond the side planking and are sup- 
ported when closed, from the side trusses. 
The weight of the load on the doors is 
supported one-quarter on the centre sills, 
and three-quarters on the side frames. 
The doors are arranged to swing up by 
hand, and pivoted hooks, working in the 
malleable brackets, drop under the pro- 
jecting ends of the door angles. To drop 
the doors it is only necessary to knock out 
the hooks. A lock is provided so that the 
doors cannot fall open unless desired. 
They are so made that every tendency is 
for the weight, and the vibration of the 
car is to draw the hooks into closer en- 
gagement, and prevent their slipping out. 

The framing of the car is unique. In- 
stead of ordinary diagonal bracing rods, 
etc., the side framing is formed into a 
king post truss. The main vertical truss 
rods at the centre are two 7 s ins. U-bolts, 
which straddle the timbers and which di- 
rectly support the centre door beams and 
the ends of the needle beams. The heels 
of the trusses are at the bolsters, and are 
gray iron pocket castings, to hold the low- 
er ends of the main diagonal members. 
These are tongued and bolted to the 
through side sills. The side sills are con- 
tinuous, 4''i x 9 ins. timbers which form 



the bottom of the truss. The diagonals 
are 4'/ 2 x 8 ins. and the through top plates 
are 4'/ 2 x 6 ins. pieces. The intermediate 
braces, and the side and corner stakes are 
4'/2 x 4'/ 2 ins. At each side there is a Y% 
in. diagonal truss rod which supports the 
end of the side framing beyond the bolster' 
and prevents drooping, and the ends of 
the car form a transverse truss for down- 
ward forces from the coupler, as well as 
provide end coal boards. A ~/s ins. inter- 
mediate truss rod is introduced between 
the bolster and the centre of the car to 
support the side sill, and this and the ver- 
tical disposition of side planking, relieves 
the side sill from vertical bending stresses. 

Some of the dimensions of the car are, 
length inside, 33 ft. 4% ins. ; length over 
body, 33ft. 4 J / 2 ins. ; length over striking 
faces (all-wood car), 34 ft. 9'/ 2 ins.; 
length over striking faces ( composite 
car), 34 ft. 8*/ 2 ins.; coupler spacing (all 
wood car), 57 ft. 1 in.; coupler spacing 
(composite car), 37 ft. 3 ins.; truck cen- 
tres, 23 ft. 6'/ 2 ins. ; inside width, 9 ft. 2%. 
ins.; extreme width, 10 ft. 4 ins.; height 
top of sides above rail, 10 ft. 9 l / 2 ins. ; ex- 
treme height, over brake shaft, 12 ft. 6 
ins.; volume, level full, 1,980 cb. ft.; vol- 
ume, 30 deg. ; heap, 370 cb. ft. ; total vol- 
ume, 2,350 cb. ft. ; light weight, 42.300 lbs. 

The design of these cars was made 
under the direction of Mr. W. H. Lewis, 
superintendent of motive power of the 
Norfolk & Western and Mr. J. A. Pilcher, 
mechanical engineer of the road. The 
cars were built in the company's shops at 
Roanoke, Va. It is intended that the all- 
wood and the composite cars will be in- 




END . 1KW or X. S W. CAR. 

discriminately handled in trains of all 
steel equipment in heavy trains, for which 
service they arc quite tit. 

Westinghouse Phoenix Office Moves. 

The Westinghouse Electric & Manufac- 
turing Company announces the removal of 
its office from Phoenix. Arizona, to Tuc- 
son, Arizona. 



108 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, 1918 



Railway Service and Coal 



The International Correspondence 
School of Scranton, Pa., of which Mr. 
, Ralph E. Weeks is president, has lately 
introduced in what they call their Railway- 
Service Division, a highly important and 
at the same time, patriotic movement. It 
is a course of study which has for its 
object the careful instruction of those' 
who avail themselves of it, in the matter 
of coal saving. This course of study is 
not only timely, but just now it is patri- 
otic. It is timely because the art of burn- 
ing coal has been brought to a high state 
of efficiency, the theory has been sought 
out and reasons for combustion and the 
theory of it agree, and practice has been 
advanced, so that it is no longer neces- 
sary to work by rule of thumb. It is 
patriotic now because every saving which 
can be introduced and result in such econ- 
omies as food conservation, bringing forth 
farm produce and material economy, is 
of the utmost importance to us as a na- 
tion during these days of stress. 

The International Correspondence 
School with Mr. Edward M. Sawyer as 
manager of the Railway Service Division, 
has offered free of charge what they call 
normal school instruction to any traveling 
engineer, fuel supervisor or instructor 
that a railway company may send to 
Scranton, and this course embraces a 
week, and enables those who take it to go 
back each to his railway and give the 
men under his charge the benefits of what 
information he has imbibed at the school. 
Speaking of the work, Mr. Weeks says : 
"The object of this educational campaign is 
not only to instruct the men in the meth- 
ods best adapted to fuel economy, but also 
to instruct them in the best methods of 
burning the low grade fuels that fre- 
quently must be used, so as to avoid 
trouble due to engine failures and the con- 
sequent disarrangement of railway train 
service. At the present time, students of 
the railway courses comes to Scranton 
for personal instruction from all sections 
of the United States and Canada. Some 
of these men are sent in by their company 
officials at the railway company's expense. 
Should a railway superintendent of mo- 
tive power or manager decide to send one 
or more employes to receive this course 
of instruction, the men receive a week's 
training and tuition and are provided 
with the necessary stationery and other 
material without charge." 

The course laid down is very full, and 
is yiven in a series of lectures by com- 
pctent men. The course itself consists of 
lectures as follows: Monday, 9 a. m. to 
10 — Opening remarks by Mr. J. F. Cos- 
grove. Subject, "Coal." 10 to 12. first talk 
on Fuel Economy. A. G. Kinyon. 2 p. m. to 
4 — The Conservation of Steam. Blows 
and Steam Leaks. How to Locate and 
Book Work and Discussion. 4 to 5 — An- 



swers to Questions Applicable to Day's 
Work. Tuesday, 9 a. m. to 11 — Second 
Talk on the Burning of Coal. 11 to 12 — 
Answers to Questions on that Subject. 
2 p. m. to 4 — Locomotive Drafting. 4 to 
5 — Writing Answers to Questions on this 
Subject. Wednesday, 9 a. m. to 11 — Re- 
peat First Talk on the Burning of Coal. 
11 to 12 — Writing Answers to Questions 
Pertaining to that Subject. 2 p. m. to 4 — 
Locomotive Superheaters. 4 to 5 — Miscel- 
laneous. Thursday. 9 a. m. to 11 — Sec- 
ond Talk on the Burning of Coal. 11 to 
12 — Subject to be Selected. 2 p. m. to 4 — 
Mechanical Firing. 4 to 5 — Repeat Talk 
on Blows. Friday. 9 a. m. to 10 — Lubrica- 
tion and Lubricants, by J. F. Cosgrove. 
10 to 12 — Locomotive Management. 2 
p. m. to 4 — General Review of Subject, 
'Burning of Coal." 4 to 5 — Writing An- 
swers to Questions. Saturday, 9 a. m. to 
10— Feed Water Heating. 10 to 12— Best 
Methods of Apply the Principles Taught 
During Week's Instruction. 2 p. m. to 5 
— General Review and Answering Ques- 
tions. 

Mr. James F. Cosgrove, the well-known 
textbook writer and who is also an au- 
thority on coal, is in charge of the railway 
instruction work at Scranton. He has had 
twenty-five years' experience in work of 
this description, and has not only per- 
sonally supervised the writing of nearly 
all the schools' literature on locomotive 
work, but personally trained his corps of 
assistants. His knowledge and training is 
supplemented by having for instant use 
at all times one of the most complete 
study and lecture rooms to be found 
anywhere, and a locomotive instruction 
apparatus second to none. 

All through, the course the instruction 
is practical, given by men who have ac- 
tually done the work they talk about. 
Without for a moment disparaging other 
institutions of learning one may truthfully 
say that there pervades the remarks of 
those who speak, that subtle, convincing 
line of reasoning which while it may lack 
the academic touch of a university, never- 
theless makes up for that seeming defici- 
ency with the intense practicability of 
statement, which forms the belief of the 
speaker, hacked by the experience he him- 
self has been taught, in the days when he 
was called on, not to set others right, but 
to do his duty and use his brains for the 
terribly real reason that he was compelled 
to "make good" to the railway that em- 
ployed him or give way for someone else. 
He had to do his work rightly or say he 
could not. 

This training takes from any man a 
dogmatising assertion of opinion. A dis- 
covery made in his young days, though 
new to the maker, had to meet the 
frankly hostile criticism of his associates, 
and if it stood firm against so vigorous a 



test, it was for the man making it, fruit- 
ful and complete and above the price of 
rubies. It is this kind of training that 
the lecturers at the correspondence school 
bring into the class room and their ex- 
perience is given to the students at full 
value and free of cost. 

The work done by the school is, as we 
said, important and patriotic, and, as far 
as we know, such an exhibition of fine 
feeling and good performance has not 
been given before in this country. "Let 
him that heareth, say come, and him that 
is athirst come" and drink of the waters 
of knowledge. As our representative en- 
tered the doorway of the building a class 
of sixty students came out, having lis- 
tened to a lecture on the chemistry of 
combustion practically applied to railway 
conditions on the foot plate today. 

It requires a volume of free air equal 
to the cubic contents of two ordinary box 
cars, to pass through the firebox for 
every shovelful of coal (IS lbs.) thrown 
in by the fireman. Why this is so and 
how to get it, are handled in the lecture 
room. A cube of coal 2$i ins. on an edge 
weighs one pound and requires 6f£ ft. of 
oxygen for its combustion. Air mixed 
with nitrogen — that inert gas — causes the 
total air volume to be much greater than 
this. The government estimate for 1915 
(with coal at $1.80 per ton), was one 
which gave $324,000,000 preventable waste. 
The coal so wasted, if put in 80,000 lbs. 
capacity cars, would use up 90,000 trains 
of 50 cars each. Locomotives burn 20 
per cent, of all the coal mined in the 
United States, so that preventable waste 
is not only a huge railroad problem, but 
is a national economic question as well. 
It would take a man over 14 years 
to count the dollars, at 100 a minute, 
representing the preventable waste in 
money for 1915. So very large a 
question, in these days of conservation 
of natural resources, demands attention, 
and the powdered fuel companies, the 
oil fuel companies, and the ordinary 
coal companies are doing what they 
can to meet the case. The International 
Correspondence School, with its choice of 
practical instruction in 280 callings, and 
very noticeably in railway work, is doing 
its best to assist those who honestly want 
to reduce waste in fuel, oil or solid, by 
telling and showing how it can be done 
on a railway. It is good business well 
applied and traveling engineers, fuel su- 
pervisors and even master mechanics who 
would like to have a brush up on these 
matters should go to Scranton and see 
how it would suit their men. 

The present war shows us how the 
economic resources of a country can be 
isolated, and is it not our duty to examine 
every legitimate method of saving; and 
here knowledge is power. 



April, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



109 



Pacific 4-6-2 Type Locomotives for the Baltimore 

& Ohio Railroad 



The Baldwin Locomotive Works has re- 
cently completed an order for ten Pacific 
or 4-6-2 type locomotives for the Balti- 
more & Ohio Railroad. These engines 
are designated as Class P-4 by the Rail- 
road Company, and are in many respects 
similar to the Class P-3 locomotives 
turned out by the same builders in 1913. 
Class P-3 has been doing excellent work 
in high speed passenger service on the 
Philadelphia Division, of the B. & O., 
while the new engines have been sent to 
the western end of the system. Classes 
P-3 and P-4, although high powered, 
modern locomotives, are built to con- 
servative dimensions. The two designs 
differ principally in the details, a thorough 
revision having been made in the Class 
P-4 locomotives, in order to fit them for 
the particular requirements to be met. 
These engines develop a starting tractive 
force of 33,560 lbs., and with a liberal 
ratio of adhesion will be able to fully 



placed in the boiler, one near the middle 
of the barrel and the other just forward 
of the firebox. 

The main frames are of carbon cast 
steel, annealed, 5 ins. wide. They are 
strongly braced, and the pedestal binders 
are secured by three bolts on each side. 
Self-adjusting wedges are applied, and 
long journals are used on the main axle. 
The front truck is of the Economy con- 
stant-resistance type, and the rear truck 
is of the "KW" type, as supplied by the 
Commonwealth Steel Co. This truck is 
used in combination with the Common- 
wealth rear frame cradle, and is equipped 
with a centering device. The spring rig- 
ging is cross-equalized back of the rear 
drivers, and connection with the truck 
frame is made by a vertical link on each 
side. 

The machinery details include a num- 
ber of features worthy of mention. The 
pistons have forged steel bodies, with 



The trucks are of the pedestal type, with 
cast steel frames and equalizers ; while 
the tender frame is of cast steel made in 
one piece. A radial buffer is applied be- 
tween engine and tender. 

Careful attention has been given to the 
location of the cab fittings and the design 
of smaller details, so that the locomotives 
can be conveniently handled. The equip- 
ment includes an electric headlight and a 
speed recorder. 

The leading dimensions are as follows: 
Gauge, 4 ft. 8'/ 2 ins. ; cylinders, 23^4 ins. 
x 28 ins. ; valves, piston, 14 ins. diam. 
Boiler — Type, straight; diameter, 72 ins.; 
thickness of sheets, 11/16 in., 23/32 in., 
34 in- ; working pressure, 190 lbs. ; fuel, 
soft coal ; staying, radial. Firebox — Ma- 
terial, steel; length, 108^ ins.; width, 
75% ins. ; depth, front, 74 ins. ; depth, 
back, 59 ins. ; thickness of sheets, sides, 
back and crown. 1/% in. ; thickness of 
sheets, tube. ' _■ in. Water Space — Front, 




F. H. Clark, Gen'I S. M. P. 

exert this amount under ordinary rail 
conditions. 

The boiler has a straight top, and meas- 
ures 72 ins. in diameter at the front end. 
It contains a moderate amount of well- 
disposed heating surface, no attempt hav- 
ing been made to crowd the tubes at the 
expense of circulation. The boiler con- 
tains a superheater and brick arch, and is 
equipped with a power-operated fire-door. 
Flexible bolts are used in the breaking 
zones in the water-legs, and the front end 
of the crown is supported by four rows 
of expansion stays, twelve bolts wide. The 
smoke-box is of the self cleaning type, 
and is designed in accordance with B. & 
O. practice, without a front extension ; 
but the tube sheet is placed well back of 
the stack center, and the total length of 
the smoke-box is 81 ins. The main ami 
auxiliary domes are both placed on the 
third boiler ring, and the opening under 
the auxiliary dome is 16 ins. in diameter, 
so that the boiler can be easily entered 
for inspection purposes. Two baffle plates, 
to prevent the surging of the water, are 



BALTIMORE & OHIO 4-6-2 CLASS P-4 

bearing rings and packing rings of gun 
iron. The bearing rings are secured by 
plugs and retaining rings, which are elec- 
trically welded into place. No extension 
rods are used, but the bearing rings are 
widened on the bottom so that the piston 
has ample supporting area. Gun iron is 
also used for the cylinder and steam chest 
bushings, crosshead shoes, and valve bull 
rings and packing rings. The valves have 
cast iron bodies and light cast steel heads, 
and are set with a travel of 6 ins. and a 
lead of % > n - Walschaerts valve motion 
is applied in combination with the Ragon- 
net power reverse gear. The main crank 
pins arc of chrome vanadium steel, an- 
nealed. 

The tender is of the Vanderbilt type, 
which has been used very extensively in 
freight service on the B. & O. railroad, 
and is now being adapted to passenger 
service. These tenders have capacity for 
9.000 gallons of water, and 16 tons of 
coal. They are equipped with coal push- 
rrs, and are so designed that water scoops 
can be subsequently applied if desired. 



Baldwin Loco. Wks., Builders 

sides and back, 4 1 ; ins. Tubes — Diameter,, 
5'.. ins. and 2% ins.; material, steel; 
thickness, 5% ins., No. 9 W. G., 2% ins., 
0.125 in.; number, 5% ins., 25; 2% ins., 
140; length, 20 ft. ins. Heating Sur- 
face — Firebox, 185 sq. ft. ; tubes, 2,359 sq. 
ft.; firebrick tubes, 26 sq. ft.; total, 2,570 
sq. ft. ; superheater, 604 sq ft. ; grate area. 
56.5 sq. ft. Driving Wheels — Diameter, 
outside, 76 ins.; journals, main, 10; j ins. 
x 21 ins.; journals, others, 9H ins. x 13 
ins. Engine Truck Wheels — Diameter, 
front, 36 ins.; journals, 6J4 ins. x 12 ins.; 
diameter, back, 46 ins.; journals, 8 ins. x 
14 ins. Wheel Base— Driving, 13 ft. 2 
ins. ; rigid, 13 ft. 2 ins. ; total engine, 34 ft. 
3' j ins.; total engine and tender, 70 ft. 
(>' 4 ins. Weight — On driving wheels, 
165,100 lbs.; on truck, front, 44,900 lbs.; 
on truck, back, 45,500 lbs. ; total engine, 
255.500 lbs. ; total engine and tender about 
422.000 lbs. Tender— Wheels, diameter, 
36 ins.; journals, 6 ins. x 11 ins.; tank 
capacity, 9.000 U. S. gals.: fuel. 16 tons. 
These engines are used in passenger ser- 
vice on the Western division of the line. 



110 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, 1918 



Chilled Iron Car Wheels 



Recently a paper was prepared for the 
Railway Club of Pittsburgh by Mr Geo. 

\V. Lyndon, president, and Mr. F. K. Vial, 
consulting engineer of the Association of 
Manufacturers of Chilled Car Wheels, 
The paper was a general survey of the 
mechanics of the chilled iron car wheel, 
and many points were brought out that 
are very apt to be forgotten or overlooked. 
Steel has been substituted for iron in the 
rail, with wood in the construction of cars, 
and has found appropriate places in loco- 
motive construction, but it has not forced 
out chilled iron in the car wheel. Why is 
this? The writers of the paper answer 
that chilled iron has been found by con- 
tinuous use for 67 years to be thoroughly 
well fitted for the service it has to per- 
form, and that the process employed in 
making the wheel, and the material itself 
are most satisfactory. It has stood the 
practical test and has not failed. 

Chilled iron was introduced in 1850, 
and its principal and most useful feature 
is its ability to carry any load that the 
wheel can bear without crushing or flow- 
ing or otherwise becoming deformed. The 
association with which Mr. Lyndon and 
Mr. Vial are connected claim their ban- 
ner year of scientific progress was 1909, 
when they were able to reduce the large 
and heterogeneous list of special wheels 
for cars, to three standard patterns for 
thirty-, forty- and fifty-ton cars. The 
general design of these wheels is good, 
as proved by continuous service ever 
since. 

Satisfactory as the progress so far 
made has been, other improvements have 
been brought to light. One of the most 
important is connected with increasing 
the flange. This can be done without 
altering existing track conditions, and a 
much stronger and better flange would be 
the result for the heavier varieties of cars. 
This is not a fad or fancy of the asso- 
ciation or merely a desire to play with 
something new. The manufacturers be- 
lieve that an increased factor of safety 
will be the result of the change, and that 
they are entitled to a definite answer that 
will affirm or deny this statement, with 
reasons. They also believe that time is 
unnecessarily lost in handling the matter, 
and that the M. C. B. Association and all 
others whose interests are affected should 
"show cause," as legal courts say, why 
the change should not be made, and made 
with authority without further delay. 

Among the advantages which chilled 
iron wheels possess, and as the writers 
of the paper say, which have contributed 
to its reputation, are the following: 

"First — Hardness of tread, which gives 
a maximum service for the least loss of 
metal. 

"Second — The coefficient of friction be- 
tween wheel and brake shoe is 25 per 



cent greater than that developed by steel 
under the same pressures. This is of 
great advantage in reducing the strain on 
the brake rigging and trucks, by prac- 
tically giving greater capacity to air 
cylinders and air pumps on the engines, 
etc. 

"Third — The durability of brake shoes 
when used on chilled iron is 25 per cent 
to 100 per cent greater than when used 
with other materials, the variation de- 
pending upon the type of shoe used. The 
slow-wearing insert shoes commonly used 
on chilled iron wheels cannot well be 
used on the steel wheel on account of 
their scoring action. 

"Fourth — The abrasion between a 
chilled iron flange and a steel rail is less 
than that of a steel flange against steel 
rail. The chilled iron flange reduces the 
loss in metal from the flange and also 
from the rail, which is an item of eco- 
nomical importance. 

"Fifth — That part of train resistance 
which is developed through flange friction 
and tread slipping, is materially less in the 
case of chilled iron wheels than with 
other wheels. This is one of the most 
important items of economy in connection 
with the chilled iron wheel. 

"Sixth — A chilled iron tread, on account 
of the absence of ductility, retains its 
rotundity to a greater extent than is pos- 
sible in treads made of other materials. 
Large numbers of broken rails have been 
found by thorough investigation to have 
been caused by eccentric wheels. The 
ordinary flat spots of 2^ ins. occurring in 
the chilled iron wheels do not produce 
anything like the impact blow that is de- 
veloped in the case of an eccentric wheel. 
In case the flat spot is ironed out. an 
elongated flat spot or an eccentric wheel 
is produced. This does not occur in the 
chilled iron wheels and, therefore, a noise 
is developed such that the location of the 
defect is easily discovered, which is not 
the case with the eccentric wheel. 

"Seventh — The scrap value of a chilled 
iron wheel is relatively greater than that 
of any other material, largely on account 
of the scattered locations of wheel 
foundries throughout the country. This 
is especially true in the West. 

"Eighth — Chilled iron will carry heavier 
loads without distortion or cold rolling 
the surface metal than is possible with 
other metals. 

"Ninth — No expensive lathes are re- 
quired for machining treads, thereby ef- 
fecting a saving in shop and machinery." 

Since 1875 wheel loads have increased 
500 per cent, axle weights 205 per cent, 
and wheel weights 75 per cent. The 
phenomenal and rapid growth in wheel 
loads is well known. Notwithstanding 
this rapid development, statistical infor- 
mation shows that the number of wheel 



failures during the past ten years are far 
iess in percentage than during the decade 
prior to the introduction of the 100,000 
lbs. capacity car. This favorable record 
has delayed a study of the relations of 
stresses originating in service and the 
factor of safety in different parts of the 
wheel. An analysis of wheel failures 
Strongly indicates that the majority occur 
because of an entire disregard of the rules 
of standardization and extremely unfair 
usage. 

During the years 1914 and 1915 the 
M. C. B. Wheel Committee made a 
special effort to collect from all the rail- 
roads, and tabulate all failures of chilled 
iron wheels with particular reference to 
flange failures and cracked plates. Con- 
trary to expectations, extremely few 
broken flanges were reported, and the 
item of cracked plates was 30 per cent 
more prevalent in the 60,000 lbs. capacity 
cars than in the 100,000 lbs. capacity cars, 
and more than half of the cracked plate 
wheels in the 30-ton cars were confined 
to cars above 42.000 lbs. light weight, 
which constitutes less than 5 per cent of 
the total equipment in that class. This in- 
dicates that the load carried is not a true 
criterion of stresses developed within the 
wheel. It is certain that wheel failures 
would be practically eliminated if the 
magnitude and intensity of the internal 
stresses, which are developed by various 
operating conditions, were fully estab- 
lished and the wheel designed and used 
accordingly. No investigation along these 
lines has ever been attempted by com- 
mittees who fix wheel standards, and the 
rules established by manufacturers are 
not officially recognized. If we review 
the M. C. B. proceedings we find hundreds 
of pages of valuable information regard- 
in? the properties of brake shoes and 
other parts of the car, but nothing wdiat- 
ever to indicate a constructive effort to 
establish the fundamental properties of 
chilled iron or the origin and magnitude 
of the stresses within the wheel. Inas- 
much as loads 50 per cent in excess of 
those required under 100.000 lbs. capacity 
cars are now safely carried by chilled 
iron wheels, it is well to consider whether 
wheel loads of 30,000 lbs. are nearing the 
limit of capacity of chilled iron, and if 
so, in just what way it will become man- 
ifest in different parts of the wheel. The 
particular items requiring investigation to 
establish this information are: Bearing 
power of chilled iron, the effect of cone 
on wheel and rail service, the stresses de- 
veloped, within the flange, in the plate 
from flange pressure, by vertical load 
from axle pressure, in the plate by heat 
from brake friction, coefficient of friction 
and rate of metal loss in shoes continu- 
ously applied at varying pressures and 
velocities. 



April, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



111 



Chilled iron wheels are not appreci- 
ably flattened by any load below 250,000 
lbs. As far as bearing power is con- 
cerned, chilled iron is ideal for wheel 
service, and in addition thereto, the metal 
takes on a high polish and produces a 
minimum amount of friction when rub- 
bing against the rail, which is a quality 
of prime importance. The absence of 
ductility prevents distortion of the metal ; 
therefore, the tread maintains its original 
shape as regards taper and the wheel as 
a whole retains its rotundity to a greater 
extent than is possible with any other 
material. From all tests which have been 
made it is safe to assume that the average 
pressure per square inch over the contact 
area between wheel and rail is about 
100,000 lbs. For extreme loads above 
200,000 lbs. on curved top rails, the pres- 
sure per square inch may reach 150,000 
lbs. When the top of the rail is worn. 
the bearing area is increased, and the 
pressure per square inch is correspond- 
ingly reduced. 

The first permanent set, which indicates 
passing the elastic limit of the rail, oc- 
curs when the indentation or penetration 
is approximately .007 inch. If we assume 
that in regular service, the wheel load 
will be such that the indentation shall 
not exceed one-half this amount, we have 
the following results for maximum per- 
missible wheel loads in railway service : 

On wheels 42 ins. in diameter — Load 
limit 34.000 lbs. 



I In wheels 36 ins. in diameter — Load 
limit 31,500 lbs. 

On wheels 33 ins. in diameter — Load 
limit 30.200 lbs. 

On wheels 30 ins. in diameter — Load 
limit 28,800 lbs. 

An indication of the bearing power of 
chilled iron is obtained from crane 
service where concentrated loads of over 
100.000 lbs. per wheel are not uncommon. 
( me use for wheels of this type is to carry 
unloading bridges and large gantry 
cranes. On account of the extreme width 
of span, which may be more than 200 ft., 
the rails are not always parallel, especially 
when one rail is on the dock line. A 
spreading track brings strong pressure to 
bear on the flanges of the wheels, which 
are double on these wheels, therefore the 
flanges are designed to climb the rail 
under full load and still have a factor of 
safety against breaking of 4 or 5. From 
the above analysis, and in fact from gen- 
eral experience, it appears that 30,000 lbs. 
load for a 33-in. wheel is about the limit 
of rails of the present type. As far as 
wheels are concerned, double this load 
can be carried without the least sign of 
overload. 

The limiting loads will always be gov- 
erned by the bearing power of the rail 
rather than any consideration on the part 
of the wheel itself. For this reason 
chilled iron is ideal not only for railroad 
service, but also for wheels under the 
heaviest concentrated loads such as occur 



under transfer tables, special cranes, un- 
loading towers, swing bridges, gantry 
structures, etc., where the wheel load may 
exceed 100,000 lbs. 

It was early found that a certain 
amount of cone in the tread of a new 
wheel was advantageous from every 
standpoint. The present cone is 1 in 20. 
This is the recommended standard of the 
M. C. B. Association, and also standard 
in Europe where the practice is about 
equally divided between a uniform taper 
and a slight double taper. The world's 
standard may be said, without exaggera- 
tion, to be 1 in 20. Two railroads have 
other tapers and these deviations have 
called for a discussion of the whole sub- 
ject and various rail and wheel com- 
mittees are now at work to determine the 
best standard. It is highly desirable that 
there should be but one standard taper. 
The paper, which is extremely full of most 
valuable matter, too extended and accu- 
rately minute for other than passing 
notice here, concludes with determina- 
tions of coefficients of friction, effect of 
heat by friction, results of brake shoe 
action, effects of brake shoe-induced heat, 
tensile and compressive stresses under 
load, rise of mounting pressure, heat de- 
fects, and defects developed in service, 
which were formerly thought to be in- 
herent blemishes, and some conclusions 
drawn from a close survey of the whole 
question of the utility of the chilled iron 
car wheel in railroad service. 



Opinion of the Interstate Commerce Commission 



The report of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission on the collision at Mount 
Union, Pa., February 27, 1917, and the 
conclusions of the committee are quoted 
below : 

''The circumstances surrounding this 
collision point clearly to the conclu- 
sion, often reiterated in previous reports, 
that if accidents of this character are to 
be guarded against, some form of auto- 
matic device must be used which will as- 
sume control of the train and bring it to 
a stop within the zone of safety whenever 
an engineman fails for any reason to obey 
a signal indication that restricts the move- 
ment of his train. The only alternative 
that suggests itself is reduction of speed 
to a point that will enable an engineman 
to bring his train to a stop within the 
range "f vision under all conditions of 
weather. 

"The condition of dense fog is an al- 
most invariable accompaniment of acci- 
dents of this character. In numerous 
reports attention has been called to the 
danger of permitting fast trains to proceed 
at undiminished speed when signals are 
obscured by fog or storm so as to limit 
greatly an engineman's range of vision. 
When operating trains in block-signal ter- 



ritory in foggy weather, enginemen usu- 
ally make no reduction in speed as long 
as they are sure of the signal indications, 
even though signals can be observed but 
a few feet ahead of the engine. Theoret- 
ically this is safe, as the signals indicate 
the condition of the track ahead with as 
great certainty in foggy weather as in 
clear, and if a signal is seen and known 
to be clear there is no good reason why 
speed should be reduced. But, however, 
safe this practice may be in theory, expe- 
rience has amply demonstrated that as a 
practical matter it is not safe. The chance 
of misreading a signal from a rapidly 
moving train is immeasureably greater 
when fog is so dense that the signal can 
be observed but a short distance than 
when the atmosphere is clear enough to 
permit normal observation of signals. 

"To have required the speed of this 
train to be reduced so that it could be 
stopped within the engineman's range of 
vision might well be considered excess 
caution; yet, in view of the engineman's 
feeling of certainty that his observation 
of the signal was accurate, this was ob- 
viously the only absolutely' safe course 
under the existing conditions. Had there 
been an automatic train stop installed 



braking distance in the rear of signal 
bridge 1904, however, neither the speed of 
the train nor the misreading of the signal 
at bridge 1912 would have prevented the 
train from being brought to a stop in time 
to prevent this collision. 

"There are a number of automatic 
stop devices now available for use which 
are capable of development to meet rail- 
way operating conditions in a practicable 
manner. This work of development must 
be done by the railroads themselves. The 
works which the Government is doing in 
examining and testing automatic train 
control devices can go no further than to 
indicate whether or not the devices tested 
are correctly designed and capable of be- 
ing developed so as to perform their in- 
tended functions in a proper manner. It 
is obviously a duty which the railroads 
owe to the traveling public to develop and 
use these devices to the end that these 
distressing accidents, due to human error, 
may be eliminated from railway travel." 

The Interstate Commerce Commission 
has approved the stop-signal idea in no 
uncertain way. and has indicated the duty 
of the railways to adopt it. Now that the 
Government "owns" the railways, whose 
duty is it? 



112 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, 1918 



Locomotive Ash Pans 

Their Development Under the Federal Law — Some of Their Varieties In Design 



It is now nearly ten years ago that by 
an act of Congress it was declared unlaw- 
ful for any common carrier to engage in 
interstate or foreign commerce by railroad 
to use any locomotive in interstate or for- 
eign traffic, not equipped with an ash pan, 
which can be dumped or emptied and 
cleaned without the necessity of any em- 
ployee going under such locomotive. Al- 



tive. The fact that there has not been 
developed any special device that has met 
with universal adoption may be looked 
upon as proof that all or nearly all the 
appliances in use are satisfactory, but this 
does not prevent our inventors from pro- 
ducing from time to time some new form 
or variety of device claiming attention. 
The winter through which we have just 




FIG. 1. ATLAS SELF-CLEANING ASHPAN FOR LOCOMOTIVES. 



though the rule was clothed in much 
verbiage, and full of repetitions, the 
object aimed at was clear, and the pen- 
alties attached rendered the law manda- 
tory in its application. The only exclusion 
from the application of the law was the 
statement that nothing in the act shall 
apply to any locomotive upon which, by 
reason of the use of oil, electricity, or 
other such agency, an ash pan is not nec- 
essary. 

Later an amendment was added to the 
original law setting forth instructions that 
ash pans shall be securely supported and 
maintained in safe and suitable condition 
for service on locomotives built after Jan- 
uary 1, 1916, and must be supported from 
mud rings on frames. Locomotives built 
prior to January 1, 1916, which do not 
have the ash pans supported from mud 
rings or frames shall be changed when the 
locomotive receives a new fire box. The 
operating mechanism of all ash pans shall 
be so arranged that it may be safely oper- 
ated, and maintained in safe and suitable 
condition for service. No part of the ash 
pan shall be less than 2]/ 2 ins. above the 
rail. 

In the hands of the well-trained me- 
chanical engineers the problem was not a 
difficult one, and a universal compliance 
with the law was completed with a degree 
of rapidity that was agreeably surprising. 
As may be expected there was, and is 
still, a great variety of devices looking 
towards a solution of the problem of 
cleaning the ash pan without the necessity 
of going into the pit under the locomo- 



passed has furnished the severest kinds of 
tests on the reliability of devices during 
the intense frosts and heavy snowfalls, 
and it is not to be wondered at that new 
ideas are taking form, especially looking 
towards anti-freezing appliances guaran- 
teeing the free working of the devices 
under the conditions recently experienced. 
The hopper shaped ash pans with slid- 



cult of accomplishment, and hence it is not 
to be wondered at that some clever de- 
vices in the way of steam pipes and other 
appliances calculated to thaw out the froz- 
en parts and force out the adhering ashes 
are already in use. 

One of the earliest designs calculated 
not only to meet the requirement? of the 
Federal law but also prepared to meet the 
natural exigencies arising was what is 
known as the Atlas ash pan. This pan is 
arranged so that any leakage from the 
mud ring falls outside and not into the 
pan. The chief feature of the ash pan, 
however, as is shown in our illustration. 
Fig. 1, is the fact that it is fitted with 
scrapers. These are really like pistons, 
though of rectangular shape, which by the 
operation of a lever for each section, may 
be forced through the length of the pan, 
thus pushing the ashes out ahead of it. 
These scrapers, when in normal position, 
act as dampers for the front and rear of 
each section. The pan is also fitted with 
a double bottom which may be filled with 
steam to prevent freezing in winter. 

In many of the earlier ash pans that 
came into operation with a view of meet- 
ing the requirements of the law, the cin- 
ders rested against the bottom, and on 
account of the weight of the cinders the 
springing of the bottom plates not infre- 
quently made it difficult and not infre- 
quently impossible to operate the slides, 
and therefore when the slide was opened, 
it was not closed tightly, leaving the pan 
in a partially open condition at the bot- 




FIG. 2. SVKES SELF-CLEANING ASIIPAX. 



ing bottoms and heavy cast iron, and in 
many cases with thinner cast steel sliding 
plates which may be actuated by levers, 
are generally in use. During winter the 
real test occurs of the efficiency of these 
types when the level sliding plates or cast- 
ings are in use. On many roads the 
climatic conditions have been such as to 
render the efficiency of the apparatus diffi- 



tom, and in some cases causing delay in 
endeavoring to open or close the slides on 
account of the slides being very hard to 
operate. 

A device known as the Sykes ash pan, 
Fig. 2, was contrived with the bottom re- 
volving in two sections, and leaving the 
bottom of the pan entirely open, with 
nothing in the bottom on which the cin- 



April, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



113 



ders could lodge or preventing the pan 
from cleaning itself freely and closing 
tight, and in case there might be a cinder 
or other obstruction and the pan did not 
close the cinder could be removed by oper- 
ating the doors, and could be seen from 
the outside if the slides closed properly. A 
further peculiarity of this device was 
means for a flow of water extending the 
full length of the ash pan immediately 



the pan prior to dumping it, which will 
thaw out all the ice, and allow the ashes 
to be discharged without trouble. 

A more recent invention known as the 
Madden hopperless ash pan, Fig. 3, has 
attracted considerable attention on ac- 
count of its simplicity, being entirely con- 
structed of J4 in- tank steel, eliminating 
all castings and forgings. The formation 
of the pan, in what is known as reverse 



While these variations in the form and 
arrangement of operation might be added 
to, it will be generally conceded that the 
larger locomotive constructors have met 
the situation admirably. The extraordi- 
nary demands that have been made upon 
the leading locomotive builders for the in- 
creasing and varied transportation service, 
ranging from the smallest types of narrow 
gauge locomotives to the heaviest types of 




FIG. 3. MADDEN HOPPERLESS ASH PAN, NOW IN USE. 



over the revolving bottom, which could be, 
if desired or needed, washed off with a 
stream of water from the injectors or 
from a blower attached direct to the boil- 
er, and this being in the form of a sprink- 
ler simply washes the plates, or after the 
cinders had been dumped to the track 
could be used for putting out the fire on 
the track. The ashes could be discharged 



curves, precludes the possibility of warp- 
ing or buckling. The danger of ashes 
escaping is also avoided as the ash pan is 
air-tight except at the mud-ring, where 
there is an opening of ten to twelve per 
cent, of the grate area through which to ad- 
mit air for combustion. The original low- 
cost and the almost complete absence of 
the need of repairs are advantages in these 



Mallets has led to an approach in the 
standardization of devices and materials 
that are 'calculated to meet the require- 
ments of every kind of service, as well as 
the co-ordination of forms that become 
readily familiar because of their uniform- 
ity. In the matter of ash pans furnished 
by the Baldwin Locomotive Works, the 
operating mechanism has received consid- 




-^ 



FIG. J. ASH PAX FOR LONG NARROW FIREBOX— BALDWIN LOCOMOTIVE WORKS. 



from this pan from the locomotive by 
hand, air or steam, as desired, or from 
the foot-board, or by a lever operated by 
a man standing on the ground. An ad- 
vantage is in the fact that it cannot be- 
come distorted from the heat and in case 
of extreme cold weather, when the ashes 
in the pan may freeze, hot water or steam 
from the boiler may be readily connected 
up to overflow pipes, and discharged into 



high-priced times. This design has met 
with considerable favor in the West, the 
Missouri Pacific having over 600 in ser- 
vice, and the reports during the recent 
winter show that this form of ash pan has 
made an excellent record in severe service. 
It has also been adopted as standard on 
the Western Maryland, and is being tried 
on the Wabash, the St. Louis-San Fran- 
cisco and other roads. 



erable attention, and a degree of sound- 
ness of construction as well as similarity 
in design in the various types has reached 
a degree of perfection that is eminently 
satisfactory. Our accompanying illustra- 
tions, Figs. 4, 5. 6 and 7, show the details 
of the arrangements used with a long, 
narrow firebox, and which, under the 
most trying conditions, during the severe 
weather has never failed to be admirably 



114 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, 1918 



adapted for the end in view. The details 
as shown are self explanatory, and it need 
hardly be pointed out that the openings 
for the removal of the ashes being at the 
lowest points of the ash pan the removal 
of the ashes is instantaneous and com- 
plete, while the closing of the movable 
doors are, by reason of their acting 
against the contracting surfaces of the 
ash pan, self cleaning, while the operating 
levers by reason of their multiplied ap- 




FIG. 5. FRONT OF BALDWIN ASHPAN. 

plication of power entirely restricts any 
leakage while the operating lever is in 
the closed position. In the absence of any 
serious collision there is absolutely noth- 
ing to get out of order, for even if it were 
possible for any portion of the ash pan 
to warp after long service, the' overlap- 
ping of the movable closing appliances 
prevents any tendency to admit of an 
opening at these points of movable con- 
tact. It will also be noted that the air 



as that large class of inventors whose 
minds naturally run to every conceivable 
channel of human endeavor, and it would 
not be surprising if the ash pan should 
assume new forms in the undiscovered 
future. 

A word might be added in reference to 
the fact that while the ashpan has re- 
ceived considerable attention in recent 
years, there has come to our observation 
here and there evidences that there are 
mechanical engineers who seem to forget 
that there is such an appliance. It would 
not be difficult to furnish instances where 
the mechanics in endeavoring to attach 
the ashpan in place have discovered pipes, 
coupling rods, brake paraphernalia, and 
other attachments so situated that the con- 
structing engineer had evidently given the 
ashpan no thought. This is not remarkable 
in view of the fact that in bridging over 
the axles in some types of locomotives, 
portions of the ashpan are necessarily 
circumscribed in area, and this necessity 
leads to another occasional defect. It is 
not unusual to find that the limited space 
in the ashpan immediately over the axles 
is apt to get choked up with ashes, there- 
by affecting the combustion in that part of 
the furnace. 

These defects or instances are rare, and 
the remedy so easy that attention is 
merely needed to be called to them. The 
most serious defect, if it may be so called, 
has occurred, as we have already stated, in 
the severe weather of last winter when in 
many instances it became physically im- 
possible to keep the attachments of the 



tachment embodying the simplest and 
most efficient method of overcoming the 
difficulty. The ashpan itself may seem 
simple, and the problems affecting its up- 
keep easy of solution, but it is not as 
simple as it looks. 



Crippled Cars. 

Mr. Charles C. McCord, interstate com- 
merce commissioner, says that thousands 



bi 



5 TTlK+ri^ 




FIG. 6. BACK OF BALDWIN ASHPAN. 

of crippled freight cars have accumulated 
thiough the winter because of neglect of 
railroads in making repairs, and that they 
occupy miles of tracks in eastern railroad 
centers, and are largely responsible for 
car shortage and traffic congestion. These 
cars could have been repaired quickly 
during the winter if the railways had made 
proper preparations for covered repair 
tricks, according to the opinion of rail- 
n ad administration officials. 




. ~^ >TH. 



FIG. 



DETAILS OF OPERATING LEVERS ON BALDWIN ASHPAN. 



openings, which are essential to combus- 
tion, are covered with durable netting. 
preventing any sparks or heated ashes 
from escaping into the outer air. 

It will thus be seen that while the sub- 
ject of constructing and maintaining ash 
pans, in order to comply with the existing 
regulations, may seem at first sight sim- 
ple and easy of accomplishment, it has 
received the attention of the ablest con- 
structors of locomotive appliances, as well 



more complicated ashpans in good work- 
ing order, and the need of some adjustable 
apparatus that may be readily attached 
for speedily and completely thawing any 
part of the appliance that may become 
affected by atmospheric conditions, is so 
apparent that in the near future it will 
likely take form in some general way that 
will meet the needs of the situation, either 
by the general adoption of some device 
already in operation, or by some new at- 



Saw Setting. 
Hand-saws are filed by gripping the 
blade between two strips of wood held in 
the jaws of the joiner's vise. The proud 
teeth are levelled off by passing an old 
file longways over the teeth. The front 
angle of the teeth should be about 75 de- 
grees, 90 degrees being at right angles to 
the line of the tops of the teeth. Set with 
a hammer and nail punch on the end grain 
of a block of wood. 



April, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



115 



Engine Failures — Their Chief Causes and Prevention 



The locomotive engineman of to-day can 
do a great deal to save or waste the rail- 
road company's money, but he is not 
alone in tlii s regard. One of the most 
hopeful signs of these perilous times is 
the intense energy and earnestness with 
which the railroad man generally, and, 
in our opinion, those engaged in the me- 
chanical department particularly, are 
striving towards that degree of perfec- 
tion in their calling that not only readily 
meets and masters emergencies as they 
arise, but foresees them, and takes pains 
to avoid them. There is no better evi- 
dence of this than in the fact that dur- 
ing the severe climatic conditions prevail- 
ing last winter, the number of engine 
failures was reduced to much less than 
the average of previous years. Times 
of stress and trial induce a greater de- 
gree of serious thoughtfulness, and to 
this must be superadded the important 
fact that the vastly improved system of 
the training of apprentices and the per- 
sistent education of firemen is already 
showing a marked improvement among 
the railway men that bids well for the 
future. 

In this connection it might be timely 
to refer in a general way to what are 
known as engine failures, embracing de- 
lays on account of engines bre; king 
down, running hot, not steaming well, or 
having to reduce tonnage on account of 
some defect arising in the engine, making 
p. delay at a terminal, a meeting point, a 
junction connection, or delaying" other 
traffic, or other circumstances that could 
be readily added to but nearly all of 
which can be, and, if possible, should 
be avoided. Experience has shown that 
engine failures may be classified as aris- 
ing from recurring causes such as frac- 
tures in the mechanism, boiler troubles 
prevalent in bad water districts, air brake 
disorders, failures in the boiler feed ap- 
pliances, blow-off cock and other boiler- 
mounting troubles, and last, by no means 
least, failures on the part of the engine- 
men. Indeed it must be admitted that 
while the improvements in the varied 
mechanism, in design and operation as 
we!' as in material, are approaching per- 
fection, the human element will never 
become infallible. 

Taking up some of these troubles cate- 
gorically, it may be said that there arc 
failures in machinery that are unavoid- 
able, and probably cannot be foreseen. 
Frequent and thorough inspections by en- 
ginemen, roundhouse and back shop men 
are the best means of avoiding these fail- 
ures. Neglect in the machine shop is in- 
variably heard of afterwards. When 
work is taken apart in the machine shop 
it should be thoroughly examined with 
a view to discover cracks or flaws, and 
the whitening of rods, axles, frames and 



crank pins and testing by hammering, or 
by oiling and drying and lightly ham- 
mering, when cracks, if any, will show 
some traces not otherwise visible to a 
mere casual inspection, will not infre- 
quently save the possibility of a fracture 
when the engine is in service. Heating 
and annealing of parts is also in the line 
"i safety as lessening the brittleness, es- 
pecially in the case of the lighter parts 
that crystallize more rapidly than the 
heavier parts. 

In the matter of heated bearings, par- 
ticularly the driving boxes, it is the spe- 
cial duty of the engine inspector to test 
the engine for pounds, and the slightest 
pound in any of the driving boxes should 
be given prompt attention. If necessary 
the wedges should be set up, and adjusted 
at such a degree of tightness that the 
box should move readily upward and 
downward without any apparent lost mo- 
tion. The rod bushings and rod bearings 
generally cannot be maintained in proper 
condition unless the driving boxes are 
kept in good fitting condition in the 
wedges. 

In regard to engine failing to steam 
well, this defect is frequently caused by 
the quality or kind of water, and this 
has more to do with boiler failures than 
all other causes combined. The boiler 
should be washed out as often as re- 
quired, and the frequency of the wash- 
ings should depend more on the quality 
of the water, and upon the amount of 
water evaporated rather than upon the 
number of trips run or the number of 
days in which the engine may have been 
in service. The accumulation of mud 
may be said to be the chief cause of 
defective steaming. The removal of a 
number of flues at the bottom or in scat- 
tered locations as may be required will 
greatly aid in a thorough cleaning of the 
boiler. Irregular steam pressure invari- 
ably cause boiler failures, and if engines 
are left standing in the open air in ex- 
cessively cold weather for any length of 
time under a high pressure of steam the 
tendency to boiler failure by reason of 
leaky flues or other defects is very great. 

In this connection it might be noted 
that failures of blow-off cocks, though 
less frequent, are still among the inci- 
dents likely to happen. Sometimes they 
occur by reason of bolts, nuts and other 
material left in the boiler carelessly, and 
gradually gravitating to the blow-off 
cock, and getting caught in the opening 
prevent the blow-off cock from closing. 
Indeed it was not infrequent to hear some 
of the engineers remark that they would 
not open the blow-off cock except at ter- 
minals in case that they would not be 
able to close them again as the operating 
mechanism was not infrequently in such 
a position that it was difficult to reach. 



Marked improvements have been made 
in the operating of the mechanism, and 
with the use of screens the problem 
should be completely mastered. 

The failure of boiler feed appliances 
are largely due either to the liming or 
encrusting of the parts from poor water 
conditions; the cutting of seats and noz- 
zles ; from the presence of sand in the 
water, and failure on the part of the 
checks, injectors or valves, and last, but 
not least, by the failure of pipe joints, 
more particularly between the tank and 
the injector, where a defect in a pipe or 
joint is not only a source of delay and 
danger, but a source of mystery. Care 
should be taken to see that injectors arc 
frequently changed and all pipes and 
joints examined at regular intervals 
growing out of the average requirements 
of the service. Boiler checks may require 
to be refitted or reground every two or 
three days. Their tendency to leak in bad 
water districts is great, and a leak from 
the boiler to the injector pipes has a most 
injurious effect on the working of the 
injector. 

In regard to air pressure failures; these 
are being thoroughly overcome by the 
use of double air pumps, superior piping 
and reliable joints. The proper clamp- 
ing of pipes is of itself a feature of 
importance, as incessant vibrations of 
pipes never fail to produce a defect at 
some point. An air brake expert, at one 
time a rarity, is now to be found at 
almost every division point, and the ap- 
pliances generally may be said to be as 
neatly reliable as any mechanical product 
can be expected to be, but the details are 
becoming more multiplex, and their care- 
ful handling can only come by experience, 
combined with such opportunities for 
instruction as may be gathered from the 
standard works on the subject, including 
the department devoted to the subject 
that is conducted in our pages from 
menth to month. 

The growing demand for motive power 
at the present time has a tendency to 
increase engine failures, and in order to 
meet the demand, chances are apt to be 
taken by officials who, however earnest 
and well meaning, are often compelled 
to neglect repairs that eventually cause 
engines to fail. This may seem at first 
sight to savr of culpable neglect, but it 
is only those who have been between 
what may be called the upper and nether 
millstone who understand how men are 
drawn into this state of mind to take 
chances, and the chances repeatedly suc- 
ceeding, the human mind changes its con- 
sistency, just as a bar of cold steel of 
superior quality may lose its consistency 
by repeated blows of a heavy steam 
hammer until it i> not in the form that it 
should be. 



116 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, 1918 



The Stop Signal in England 



The stop signal or automatic train 
control idea, which we have consistently 
advocated as a safety device of the high- 
est order, has also made headway in 
responsible quarters in Great Britain, is 
evidenced by the article we quote from 
the pages of the Railway Engineer of 
London. The article appeared under the 
heading of the "Automatic Train Con- 
trol." 

"Before the war probably no question 
relating to the safe working of traffic 
commanded more attention than the 
question of Automatic Train Control. 
Of course, during the war, this, along 
with other pressing questions, has had 
to be shelved for the time being, and 
although its consideration has thereby 
been delayed, it will again compel dis- 
cussion when more peaceful times return. 
Unfortunately, in this country, opinion is 
very sharply divided on the question. 

"It is universally conceded that con- 
siderable improvements have been effect- 
ed in the safe working of traffic by the 
introduction of track-circuiting, but these 
improvements cannot be considered ade- 
quate unless means be adopted to guard 
against the failure of the human element, 
in the person of the driver. No matter 
what methods be adopted to insure that 
the indication given by a signal shall be 
the correct one, accidents are bound to 
occur unless some check is placed on the 
fallibility of the driver. 

"Up to this point it may be said that 
all railwaymen are in agreement, but 
when the question of the control to be 
placed on the driver is considered opinion 
varies considerably. There are some who 
argue that the case might be met by the 
introduction of a system of cab-signaling, 
wherein the indications given by the fixed 
signals are reproduced in the cab of the 
engine. There are others, a little more 
venturesome, who consider the problem 
would be solved by the adoption of a 
system of cab-signaling employing some 
feature of speed control. For example, 
should a driver approach a distant signal 
at caution and it will be appreciated that 
this system can only be applied to the dis- 
tant signal, the caution indication will be 
given in the engine cab, either visibly, 
audibly, or both, and the train brakes par- 
tially applied. In some systems no appli- 
cation of the brakes would be made pro- 
vided the speed of the train was below a 
predetermined value. Finally, there are 
a few bold spirits, in a minority at 
present, but whose opinion we believe to 
be correct and likely to prove acceptable 
when the question is thrashed out after- 
wards, who believe that nothing short of 
a full application of the brakes at a stop 
signal will suffice. This rules out the dis- 
tant signal altogether, and we think quite 
rightly so ; because the distant signal in 
modern installations is somewhat an ano- 



maly, and will, we believe, in its present 
form, be abandoned as the development 
of the signaling problem proceeds. 

"From time to time several articles 
have appeared in The Railway Engineer 
urging that the full brake application was 
iln only satisfactory system from a safety 
point of view, and showing that such a 
system could embody what are known 
here as train stops, cab signals, or a com- 
bination of the two. The articles also 
dealt in detail with the reorganization of 
the signaling system which would be ren- 
dered necessary by the adoption of such 
a system and the advantages which would 
accrue thereby. Knowing the experience 
of the people who held our views and the 
study they had devoted to the subject, we 
felt confident that we were correct, and 
in this respect we are pleased to observe 
that official opinion confirms this in every 
respect. Colonel Pringle, R. E., in his 
report dated 17th January, 1917, on the 
accident which occurred near Kirtle- 
bridge, Caledonian Railway, on 19th of 
December, 1916. states: 

" 'I can suggest no other safeguard in 
analogous circumstances than the adop- 
tion of a system of automatic control of 
trains, whereby the continuous brake is 
applied when an engineman passes a fixed 
signal at danger. This case has features 
which strengthen my opinion that any 
such system should include provision for 
a full brake application at an actual stop 
signal, and preclude the possibility of a 
driver releasing the brake until after the 
train has come to a standstill.' 

"Lieut. Col. Druitt, in his report on the 
accident at Wigan on 19th of December 
last, states that: 

" 'To prevent collisions under such cir- 
cumstances as obtained in this case the 
only solution would appear to be auto- 
matic control of trains, by which the 
brakes are applied when a signal is passed 
at danger. I consider that, to do this ef- 
fectively, a full application of the brake 
should be made if a stop signal is passed 
at danger, and it would he a further pre- 
caution on the side of safety in such cases 
if the driver was unable to release the 
brakes until the train had come to a 
stand, but details of the necessary appli- 
ances can only be decided by actual ex- 
perience.' 

" 'Systems of automatic control have 
been under trial by several railway com- 
panies for some time, but the question 
presents many difficulties, for it is mani- 
fest that with so much inter-running of 
one company's engines over the other 
companies' lines, any system, to be really 
effective, must be universal throughout 
the country, and it is possible that there 
may be more such inter-running in the fu- 
ture. Owing to existing conditions, 
the matter has not progressed so 
quickly as it otherwise would have done, 



but it is to be hoped that it will be satis- 
factorily settled in due course.' 

"Colonel Pringle, to whom all signal 
engineers are grateful not only for the 
keen interest he takes in the art, but his 
acquiescence and approval of any method 
calculated to increase the safety factor, 
has also in previous reports clearly de- 
lined his attitude on the question of train 
control. Sir Samuel Fay, general man- 
ager, Great Central Railway, who also 
takes a keen interest in the signaling 
problem, is reported to have said, in 
speaking of track-circuiting in particular, 
'I am certain that we are approaching a 
complete revolution all the way round 
in our system of signaling. What we are 
doing now is only a commencement.' 

"We can only express the hope that 
railway officials in general, and signal en- 
gineers in particular, will be quite ready 
to discuss new methods and devices, the 
need of which will inevitably arise when 
the present European turmoil is over. 
Unless this will be done with the 'safety 
first' factor in view all the time, we are 
afraid that the pressure of official and 
public opinion will prove too strong, and 
legislation will he the result." 



Conservation of Railway Fuel. 

Major Schmidt, formerly professor of 
mechanical railway engineering in the 
University of Illinois, and recently as- 
signed by the War Department to the 
Fuel Administration, held a conference 
with the members of the International 
Railway Fuel Association in Chicago 
recently. The members of the committee 
arc E. McAuliffe, chairman; W. L. Robin- 
son, Baltimore & Ohio ; E. W. Pratt, Chi- 
cago & North Western ; L. R. Pyle, Soo 
Line, and D. C. Buell, Railway Educa- 
tional Bureau, and M. K. Barnum, Balti- 
more & Ohio: John Crawford and A. N T . 
Wilson, Burlington, and Charles Hall, 
Indiana Coal Operators' Association, also 
took part in the conference. It is not yet 
settled whether the matter of fuel conser- 
vation on the railways will be handled by 
the Fuel Administration or under the 
Director General of Railroads. 



Science and War. 

In a paper read recently at Chicago, 
Major R. A. Millikan. Professor of Phy- 
sics in Chicago University, stated that 
war was 85 per cent science and engineer- 
ing and 15 per cent actual fighting. As 
one application of science he mentioned 
that it had proved practicable to locate 
the position of a heavy gun within 50 ft. 
by observations on the sound waves set 
up on its discharge. 



War Department Wants Engineers. 

The War Department has asked the 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers to 
furnish 50 men for tank service and 1.000 
engineers ic transportation service in 
France. 



April, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



117 



Saving Coal by Mixing 

Interesting Experiments on the Lehigh Valley 



The coal burned in Lehigh Valley Rail- 
road engines is fast reducing by nearly 35 
per cent, the consumption of coal, by a 
plan now working successfully and which 
gives evidence of proving a big saver. 
Not only does the new plan save the 
railroad one-third of what it has formerly 
spent for supply coal for its engines, but 
it releases just that much coal for other 
purposes and disposes of an accumulation 
of material in the anthracite , regions 
which heretofore has been regarded as 
pure waste. The new plan provides for 
the crushing of bituminous coal and its 
mixture with anthracite silt, using two 
parts of the soft coal to one of silt. Silt 
or slush, as it is also called, has always 
been regarded as a useless bi-product of 
the anthracite industry. It is the dust 
which has passed through a mesh where 
the openings are no larger than three 
thirty-seconds of an inch in diameter. 



as it might have been by the company. 

The recent serious coal shortage and 
the greatly increased cost of bituminous 
coal brought the former successful ex- 
periments to the attention of Mr. E. E. 
Loomis, president of the Lehigh Valley 
Railroad. This time experiments were 
made with locomotives, particularly the 
big engines equipped with automatic 
stokers. Mr. H. B. Brown, manager of 
the fuel department of the railroad, 
joined in the experiments, which were 
made on the heavy engines which handle 
long trains of coal on the Mahanoy and 
Hazleton division. A mixing plant was 
erected at Hazleton, Pa., where the soft 
coal was crushed and mingled mechan- 
ically with the silt in the proper propor- 
tions. 

The plan has proved successful. Trains 
of 50 cars loaded with coal were handled 
easily by engines fired with the mixed 



index of the business conditions of the 
entire country. The freight traffic during 
1917 was over 60 per cent, greater than 
before the war. The passenger traffic ex- 
ceeded that of 1916 by 10 per cent. In 
spite of all this the net income is less, 
chiefly on account of the increased price 
of material, the changing and training of 
new employees to fill the vacancies caused 
by 11,000 officers and employees .entering 
the national service, and also by insuffi- 
cient equipment due to manufacturing 
priority granted to the Government. The 
capital expenditures outlined for 1918 are 
to increase and enlarge the railroad 
equipment and terminal facilities to ac- 
commodate further the increasing traffic. 
The Chicago Union Station to be jointly 
used by the Pennsylvania and other sys- 
tems is being continued in certain parts 
of the construction work. A notable ex- 
ample of the activity in the Pennsylvania 




LEHIGH VALLEY RAILROAD COAL TRAIN DRAWN BY LOCOMOTIVE USING MIXED PULVERIZED FUEL. 



All over the anthracite fields there are 
great banks of silt. As far back as April, 
1913, Mr. F. M. Chase, vice-president and 
general manager of the Lehigh Valley 
Coal Company, conceived the idea of util- 
izing the silt by a mixture with soft 
coal. He called in Mr. M. S. Hachita, a 
Japanese, the coal company's chemist, and 
outlined a series of experiments. An old 
boiler plant at a colliery near Hazleton, 
Pa., was rigged up for the use of the 
material mixed under Mr. Hachita's di- 
rection. He experimented with soft coal 
in lumps and also pulverized, and with 
varying mixtures together with silt. With 
the soft coal pulverized and a mixture 
of 70 per cent soft coal to 30 per cent 
silt, Mr. Hachita found that the resulting 
fuel produced exactly the same amount of 
water evaporation as when pure bitum- 
inous coal was used. He reported his 
experiments to be successful, but as the 
demands for coal were not as great then 
as now, the matter was not followed up 



fuel and the investigators discovered that 
it produced 30 per cent more steam than 
the same quantity of ordinary bituminous 
coal. Additional mixing plants are now 
in process of erection at various points 
in the coal regions and the mixture will 
be quickly transported to all engine ter- 
minals and coaling points. The quantity 
of the silt, standing in great banks at 
every colliery, is estimated at millions of 
tons. The whole scheme has resulted in 
the very satisfactory saving of coal at a 
time when it means much to the railroad 
and to the country, and incidentally it 
helps the companies' finances. — It is all 
to the good. The Lehigh Valley Railroad 
gives 100 sq. ft. as the size of one of these 
grates with 37 per cent air opening 
through the bars. 



may be gathered from the report of the 
work done at the company's shops at 
Altoona, Pa. In addition to extensive re- 
pair work during the year there were 
constructed at the Altoona shops 203 loco- 
motives, 65 passenger cars and 2 .346 
freight cars. An example of increased 
cost in locomotive running is given. In 
1917 the cost of repairs, depreciation, fuel, 
lubricants and engine house expense was 
$41.55 per 100 miles, as compared with 
$28.88 the previous year. The greatest 
advance was in fuel, which rose from 
$9.60 per 100 miles in 1916 to $18.15 in 
1917. 



Annual Report of the P. R. R. 

The annual reports of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company are looked upon as an 



Purchase of 20 Locomotives in the 
United States. 

Consul General L. J. Keena reports 
from Valparaiso, according to a decree 
published, the Board of Directors of Rail- 
ways is authorized to purchase 20 loco- 
motives of the type in the United States. 



118 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, 1918 



RiilX£oX,Jittineerin$ 

& Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling 
Stock and Appliance!. 



Published Monthly by 

ANGUS SINCLAIR CO. 

11* Liberty St., New York. 

Telephone, 746 Rector. 

Cable Address, "Locong," N. Y. 

Glasgow, "Loooauto.' 



Business Department: 

ANGUS SINCLAIR, D. E., Freat. a..d Treas. 

JAMES KENNEDY. Vice-Prest. 

HARRY A. KENNEY, Secy, and Gen. Mgr. 

Editorial Department: 

ANGUS SINCLAIR, D. E„ Editor-in-Chief. 
JAMES KENNEDY, Managing Editor. 
GEORGE S. HODGINS, Editor. 
A. J. MANSON, Associate Editor. 

London Representative: 

THE LOCOMOTIVE PUBLISHING CO., Ltd.. 
8 Amen Corner. Paternoster Row, London, E, C. 

Glasgow Representative: 

A. F. SINCLAIR, 15 Manor Road, Bellahouston. 
Glasgow. 



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Men of the Bull-Dog Breed. 

The Third Liberty Loan will be on the 
market for sale on Saturday, April 6, 
1918. This loan is not a gift of money 
by the purchaser, but a paying invest- 
ment, yielding interest at an adequate per 
cent, and fully redeemable in due time. 
The bond is negotiable any day. No one 
who purchases a bond will lose money. 
Contrast this satisfactory prospect with 
the outlook of those who have given their 
dear ones to the grave chances and the 
imminent hazards of war. Our fine 
young men, who have marched away are 
the flower of American stock. They may 
not be versed in reading political riddles, 
but they have answered the call of their 
country and have believed, with all the 
trusting reverence of youth, what you and 
others have told them, that our quarrel 
with the foe is just. 

These brave, loved, loyal men must be 
clothed, fed, transported and ministered 
tc. They must be given rifles, and am- 
munition more than sufficient for every 
need, they must be given cartridges and 
bullets so many and more yet, that the 
weapon they rely on may grow hot and 
smoke in the skillful hands that fire it, 
they must be given the sharp, gleaming 
bayonet, made of the finest steel, that it 
may not snap at the crucial moment in 
the hand that deals the blow, and that 



our men may not fail to strike, strong and 
true, for the great cause, and horrible 
though the work may be, beyond all tell- 
ing, let our soldier boys have the means 
to fight fearlessly for the right, and stand 
with unsullied conscience before the 
searching eyes of God. 

Those who honorably stay at home 
must help the Government by money, 
work, and strong resolve, to carry on the 
people's war, and to give our men the 
chance they need, and must have, if Vic- 
tory is to rest with us, and it must be 
ours. The army is willing to fight, it 
must be made able to fight. Our people 
will be called on to make sacrifices, some 
of them already have, but nothing can 
approach the irreparable loss of a gallant 
life, nor soften the unassuaged human 
grief of those whose sons and brothers 
and husbands will not come back. This 
thought must be present and point to a 
duty, clear as the day, while there is yet 
time to act. This is no hour to count 
party gain. No government on earth is 
entirely free from mistakes. Did you 
ever think it was really praise to say of 
a man that he was a splendid hand at a 
railroad wreck. If his railroad gave him 
enough practice at clearing up each heavy 
smash, it is certain that his road was 
badly managed. The man to whom this 
wrecking work is always new, has been 
trained on a road where breakdowns and 
collisions are almost things unknown. 

Major Guthrie, of the Canadian Army, 
with a record of one or two years of 
trench service, speaking recently at a gath- 
ering in New York, likened the struggle 
to the fight he once saw, between a British 
bull-dog and a collie. The dogs were un- 
equally matched. The collie was large 
and powerful, covered with long, smooth, 
close hairs, and armed with clean, sharp, 
white teeth. The bull was small, bow- 
legged, with brindled hide, and a set, de- 
termined, ugly face. The bull-dog could 
get no hold on' the long, smooth, coat of 
the collie and that dog attacked by a series 
of quick, cutting slashes and bites. Soon 
the bull-dog was bleeding profusely from 
every square inch of his cruelly lacerated 
back and sides. He seemed to have gained 
nothing but his wounds. Suddenly in 
one of the swift, slashing attacks, the 
bull-dog suffered, but Guthrie noticed that 
he had caught the end of one of the 
collie's paws in his teeth. Shaking or 
dragging the paw was useless, the bull- 
dog's hold was firm. The collie realizing 
this, grasped the bleeding form of his an- 
tagonist in his teeth and at the same time 
raising his imprisoned paw, hurled the 
bull-dog up in the air and thumped and 
battered him down to earth again. Bleed- 
ing, torn, almost stunned, blinded and 
flung fiercely about, the bull-dog held on, 
but his jaws took a fresh hold, an inch- 
and-a-half higher up on the collie's leg. 

Again the struggling lift, the tearing 
flesh, and the cruel blow to earth. Quiv- 



ering, with blood-shot eyes the creeping 
hold of the bull-dog advanced further up 
the leg. Again, and yet again, and though 
the punishment was ruthless and savage, 
the creeping grip at length showed on 
the collie's shoulder. We have seen, said 
Guthrie, the paw- of the German wolf 
caught at Ypres, we have taken the hard, 
hard knocks and even the foul blows of 
war, but have kept the grip tight, each 
time going a little higher up, and please 
God, the next fierce clash of arms will 
see us at the throat of the German wolf. — 
Remember our boys are there, taking 
their part with our gallant allies; the 
tricolor of enduring France nearby. Our 
own star-flag above the Rainbow host we 
have sent, and beyond, the triple cross of 
righting Britain that they call the Union 
Jack. The devices on each flag are differ- 
ent, but the colors are the same, we are 
all united and our colors stand to win. 

Those who have to stay, can help on 
that cause, and can put strong means to 
win, within the eager grasp of our own 
army. It needs money to do it. This is 
not a territorial struggle, nor a mere 
dynastic clash, it is not the war of those 
who never fight. It is our war. our men 
are in it and our honor is at stake. The 
government at Washington is the consti- 
tuted agent for waging our war and we 
must provide the means. Some years ago 
there was a rhyming triplet, meant to 
emphasize some strong position taken by 
Lord Beaconsfield, when he was premier 
of Great Britain. It ran thus; and it 
applies to us now : 
"We don't want to fight— but by Jingo! 

if we do, 
We've got the men, we've got the ships, 
We've got the money too." 
Liberty-loving Americans ! — Anglo-Saxons 
by blood, by speech, and thought ! ! 
— Men of the Bull-Dog breed ! ! '—Make 
that last line ring true to the Government 
ycu have put in power, to carry on your 
war, to Victory, and to Peace. 



Standardization Without Monopoly. 
The open letter on page 104, addressed 
to the Hon. Wm. G. McAdoo, Director 
General of Railroads, by Mr. Geo. A. Post, 
president of the Railway Business Associa- 
tion, contains material for thought, not 
only for the governmental authorities, the 
former railroad managers who will >ne 
day have their railways in their hands 
again, but for the public at large. 

Mr. Post realizes that a locomotive as 
it stands on the track today is the outcome 
of two classes of workers. The builders 
with their huge plants and thousands of 
workers, and the supply man with his spe- 
cialty and the large body of employees 
concerned in its production. Extreme 
standardization, on the one hand, would 
tend to destroy industries legitimately 
reared under conditions that the Govern- 
ment made no sort of move to hamper 
or even modify in the past. Extreme 



April, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



119 



standardization would practically amount 
in this case to a form of monopoly. Ex- 
treme freedom in the production of all 
kinds of appliances, both useful and the 
reverse, has been automatically checked 
by the business and competitive restric- 
tions imposed in the commercial world. 
Monopoly has been only given to any 
Government by the consent of the people. 
At present the postal department is the 
most complete, on earth. Nobody objects, 
and it is never for a moment conceived 
that the management of the post office 
will one day fall into the hands of private 
corporations. 

Mr. Post sees the after-war condition 
as clearly as he perceives the present day 
tendency. He does not attempt, by his 
suggestion, to hamper the Government in 
rapidly obtaining large numbers of cars 
and engines, nor does he question the ex- 
pediency of a suitable war measure. He 
rather defines the direction of aim, and 
by setting up a target for all to fire at, 
he hopes to see fewer shots go wild. The 
interchange of freight cars has, by eco- 
nomic and commonsense reasons, pro- 
duced a form of standardization, which 
while it does not encourage monopoly, 
gains the end for which it exists, most 
thoroughly and efficiently. 

Car interchange has given every manu- 
facturer the right to design a coupler em- 
bodying his own ideas or his own experi- 
ence as to strength, form of yoke, dis- 
position of springs, etc., the only condition 
being that such coupler must readily unite 
with all other couplers, that the knuckles, 
coupler-head, etc., shall be of a definite 
prescribed size and of a pre-determined 
contour. This is standardization without 
monopoly, and it produces the uniformity 
desired, without destroying the individ- 
uality of the designer or hampering the 
judgment of the buyer. There is in this 
system enough freedom and enough com- 
petition, to induce good practice, with 
hardly a trace of restrictive action. If 
any burden exists, it is not felt. 

The Railway Business Association thesis 
really favors an extension of the Master 
Car Builders' conception of a measured 
standardization, where practical hardship 
is eliminated. No one feels the sense of 
restriction, nor is legitimate competition 
stifled by the use of a definite, known size 
of wheels. It is to the skilful application 
of this kind of standardization to locomo- 
tive design or building, and the choice of 
means for particular uses, that the open 
letter advocates. It has much to recom- 
mend it, for it is already tried and it im- 
practical. It has a minimum disturbing 
effect on present-day conditions, it will 
be as good after the war as it is now, 
and it does not call up,on the Government 
to give up the essentials of a most de- 
sirable war measure. 

Government experts or those employed 
in that capacity will find their ingenuity 
fully taxed in any case, but if, as we ex- 



pect, the enlightened and conservative 
judgment of the Secretary of the Treas- 
uiy and his advisers, prevails, there will 
be little fear that a judicious war measure 
will hamper the growth and expansion of 
legitimate industries, which add so much 
to the efficiency of locomotives and cars 
as they have heretofore been operated 
and it will facilitate the production of 
large numbers of engines and cars. 



Whose Duty Is It? 

In the published report of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission concerning the 
collision at Mount L T nion, Pa., which we 
quote in another column, page 111, the 
official opinion of that body is very fully 
and very authoritatively stated. The 
commission has taken into consideration 
the difficulties which enginemen have to 
encounter. The seeing of signals from 
the cab of a fast-moving engine is by no 
means a certainty, even at the best of 
times, the fact that the luminosity of a 
colored light may be observed a consider- 
able time before the color is defined. That 
is to say, a man may see that he is look- 
ing at a light a long time before he can 
possibly tell whether it is red or green or 
yellow. This undoubted handicap on the 
man is still further weighted down by the 
fact that in day or night conditions, fog 
may further restrict observation, already 
difficult, and the many distractions which 
assail the mind of the observer, gives only 
a still narrower field to the man who is 
conscientiously trying to do his duty, and 
may practically block the way for intelli- 
gent vision and understanding for the 
man who is weary or not keen to do his 
work. 

The commission does not mince words 
or obscure its meaning, when it says that 
some form of automatic device which will 
control the train and bring it to a stop, is 
most distinctly required. The object of 
such a precaution is primarily to preserve 
life. It may prevent property destruction 
and financial loss, but the plain, unvar- 
nished truth is that man is an imperfect 
and unreliable machine, who has been 
wrongly expected to perform a service 
for which Nature has not specially fitted 
or trained him, and the heavy price ex- 
acted by Nature for the failure he is 
prone to, is death. In these days, when 
we are giving our sturdy, promising, ris- 
ing manhood to the desperate hazard of 
war, we ought to protect the lives of 
those who honorably remain by every 
means in our power. 

The stop signal is not a mere beautiful 
refinement of railroading. It is a neces- 
sity. The Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion says that to provide a stop signal is 
a duty, and no one in his senses dreams 
of opposing so open, so sure and so in- 
viting a path to beneficial attainment of 
good results as the use of this form of 
automatic train control. 



The commission declares that the good 
work, this necessary provision, is the duty 
of the railways. Granted that it is, who 
are now the "railways" ? Manifestly, the 
Government, functioning through the In- 
terstate Commerce Commission. It doe- 
not look like a complicated piece of rea- 
soning to see that the properly constituted 
investigating body, competent to hear evi- 
dence and to pass judgment and to point 
out a clear duty to the railroads should 
at the moment it finds itself an intimate 
part of the "owning" power, holding and 
working the railroads in the public in- 
terest — it is not hard to realize that the 
duty still remains, and only the persons 
upon whom that duty now falls, have 
been changed. As well might a judge, in 
a criminal court, after trial, make a calm 
statement that the criminal before him 
was a burglar and that it was the duty of 
someone to punish him. The judge who 
finds him guilty pronounces sentence. If 
the providing of the stop signal is a duty, 
and the Commission says it is, it becomes 
the duty of the Commission to provide 
that signal or seek at once for power to 
do what it defines as a definite dutv. 



Tractive Effort and Adhesive Weight. 

In the matter of tractive effort and 
horsepower and draw-bar pull, one more 
word may be said about these, and an 
also related subject, which is the part 
played by adhesive weight. But before 
speaking of it one may say that tractive 
power and draw-bar pull, although often 
taken as interchangeable terms, do not 
strictly stand for the same thing. The 
calculated tractive power is found by the 
use of the well-known formula applied 
with the dimensions of some particular 
engine. The draw-bar pull, or as some 
might say. the tractive effort is this trac- 
tive power, less the internal friction of 
the engine and tender. 

The internal friction of the machine 
varies according to its make, size or in 
other ways, and is often taken at from 
10 to 12 per cent, of the tractive power. 
Whether or not this is an accurate esti- 
mate is by no means certain, but may be 
conveniently used in the absence of more 
definite data. However, it is clear that 
tractive power is the theoretically calcu- 
lated amount and draw-bar pull, or as 
some still call it. tractive effort is the 
power minus the friction of the machine. 
Power and Effort arc here used distinct- 
ively, but there is no hard and fast rule 
on the subject and one will often find 
these terms used indiscriminately and 
often draw-bar pull is intended to be un- 
derstood by the use of the same terms. 
Strictly, the two things are quite distinct. 

Adhesive weight is the figure which 
represents the effective part of the weight 
when it comes to moving the engine along 
the track. When locomotive traction was 
first tried, cogwheels running on a rack 



120 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, 1918 



was thought to be necessary. Later on 
Hedley of "Puffing Billy" fame tried 
smooth wheels on a smooth track, lie 
applied weights, one at a time, and found 
that with the engine heavy enough the 
smooth-tired wheels ran on the smooth 
rails without slip. The adhesive weight 
now considered requisite is, roughly 
speaking, about .25 of the total weight 
of the engine. If now the adhesive 
weight of an engine with smooth steel 
tires is in the neighborhood of one-quar- 
ter of the total weight, we have a good 
approximation to work with. 

If we take this approximation as a 
working basis, we find that it has rather 
an incidental relation to the calculated 
tractive effort, and is not a part of the 
formula. If we find that an engine has 
a tractive effort, by calculation, of 40,000 
lbs., our problem is a new one, then it is 
how this tractive effort can best be util- 
ized. If the tractive effort is 40.000 lbs. 
we may suppose that the total weight of 
the engine, to get full service, is four 
times this amount, or 160,000 lbs. We 
wish to utilize the 40,000 lbs. advanta- 
geously. It will not do to put the engine 
at an angle of 45 degrees headed up an 
ice toboggan slide. If we did, the engine 
would slip and not climb the grade. Any 
other somewhat unadvantageous position 
would produce a like result, and we dis- 
cover that we have not made full use of 
the 40,000 lbs. calculated tractive effort. 
If we weight down the engine excessively 
the wheels will turn with difficulty or not 
at all. 

Mankind did not create or devise the 
co-efficient between steel tires and steel 
rail. That is one of the laws of Nature 
to which we must conform. Supposing, 
as we have here done, that this co-efficient 
of friction is .25, our problem is to make 
the best arrangement we can. For ordi- 
nary railway work, taking one thing with 
another, it is good practice to run the en- 
gine with smooth, steel tires on smooth, 
steel rails of suitable shape, and so pro- 
portion the total weight to the tractive 
effort as t.i produce the best result for 
the work we wish to do. 

Trautwine gives the results of the 
Westinghouse-Galton tests in 1878 and 
1879. The co-efficient of friction of a 
locomotive was found to be .33, but the 
experimental co-efficient of steel on steel 
is .15: an average drawn from these two 
gives .24, or. let us say, .25, and we find 
that the engine has a tractive effort ap- 
proximately one-quarter of the total 
weight. Rail conditions vary from one 
day to another, so that for a switch en- 
gine having 40,000 lbs. tractive effort, in 
order to be sure of no slip — for the en- 
gine is constantly stopping and starting — 
we should make the engine heavier than 
the theoretical 160,000 lbs. Good Ameri- 
can practice gives the factor of adhesion 
(which is the total weight divided by the 
tractive effort) as 4^< instead of just 4. 



The total weight of the switcher ought to 
be 180,000 lbs. in order to eliminate all 
chance of slip. For a road engine, by 
which is meant freight and passenger 
locomotives, the factor of adhesion is 
taken at 4;4, so that the road engine, to 
use satisfactorily the 40,000 lbs. tractive 
effort, should weigh 170,000 lbs. 

A road engine, though not intended 
to slip, may yet give a little slip at the 
start with greater impunity than a switch 
engine should give, and the builders, 
knowing that when the engine in running 
normally will have a fine cut-off and use 
less steam, and so automatically reduce 
the tendency to slip, let it go at 4}4, while 
a yard engine working on long cut-off 
heavy steam pressure and slow speeds 
cannot be permitted to slip without loss 
of fuel, power and time. Speaking gen- 
erally, the factor of adhesion may be 
taken at 4 theoretically. Road engine 
service (passenger and freight) require 
4J4, and for yard engine service it takes 

at \y 2 . 



"For God's Sake, Hurry Up." 

These were the late Joseph H. Choate's 
last W'ords to His fellow-countrymen. 
They applied to every particular of Amer- 
ica's participation in the great war. They 
were the passionate appeal of a loyal cit- 
izen who loved his country, served it with 
distinction, and wished to see it fulfil its 
destiny worthily. Never was this appeal 
more in need of being answered with zeal 
tha-i now. Time is the essence of a con- 
tract and ours is to help to free the world 
from the tyranny of autocracy. This is 
no time to "let George do it." Every 
citizen must help the work to which 
America is devoted. 

These words of Mr. Choate are applic- 
able to the remedial work to which Amer- 
ica is also devoted in her effort to lessen 
the horrors of an unnecessarily brutal 
mode of warfare imposed upon the world 
by the German military autocracy. The 
Red Cross must "hurry up" if it is to save 
the lives of the wounded. The surgeon 
and nurse must "hurry up" if they would 
restore them to health, strength and fu- 
ture effectiveness. No calculated, theoreti- 
cal card-indexed methods will avail where 
life hangs in the balance. And where the 
fate of a race depends on the prompt re- 
sponse to the "hurry up" call of a desper- 
ately menaced nation. There is but one 
answer, as Emerson finely says: "In all 
the worlds of God there is no escape but 
performance." 

Such a "hurry up" call comes from the 
Near East, where for six centuries and 
more Armenians, Syrians and Greeks have 
been at the mercy of the brutal Turk 
whose natural savagery has been rendered 
systematically effective by the introduction 
of the Prussianized methods of so-called 
"German efficiency." In 1913 there were 
approximately 4,500,000 Armenians, 



Syrians and Greeks in Asia Minor, whose 
only crimes were that they were Chris- 
tians, lovers of liberty, and successful in 
business. This roused the fanaticism and 
cupidity of the Turk who, as Sir Charles 
Fliot says, "does not know how to make, 
but only how to take, money." In 1918 
only approximately 2,500,000 of these un- 
fortunate peoples remain. The rest have 
been deported, despoiled, starved and mas- 
sacred, until there is but this scanty rem- 
nant left to tell the tale. Like the 7,000 in 
Israel who refused to bow the knee to 
Baal, they are the "righteous remnant" 
that is the hope of the future Christian 
democracy of the Near East. They are 
in desperate need and from them daily 
comes, in the very words used by Mr. 
Choate, the cry, "for God's sake, hurry 
up." 

During the past two years the American 
Committee for Armenian and Syrian Re- 
lief has raised the sum of $8,510,899.96 for 
the saving of these peoples. Large as eight 
millions of dollars seem, it is small for the 
work to be done. The best these millions 
have been able to do is to give 17 cents 
a day to every refugee who is fortunate 
enough to be able to reach a relief sta- 
tion. Thousands of others have died and 
thousands more are dying for the lack of 
even this pitiful dole. Every penny of this 
money has been spent in the actual work 
of relief. Not a cent has been diverted 
for the expenses of collecting or disburs- 
ing it. The overhead charges, in Amer- 
ica and in the Near East, have all been 
met by the private and princely generosity 
of two New York gentlemen who prefer 
to remain unknown. The Turk has not 
interfered with the work of relief, prob- 
ably because it relieves him from the bur- 
den created by his own cruelty. The 
money is expended on the spot for food. 
At least $5,000,000 a month is necessary to 
finance this work. 

If these peoples are to realize the dream 
of freedom and liberty that they have so 
courageously fed their starved souls upon 
for six centuries of hope deferred, it will 
be because America now gives them bread 
to feed their poor bodies and save them 
from extermination. America has a large 
investment in and among the subject races 
of the Ottoman Empire. For 80 years 
almost all the missionary and educational 
work done there has been due to Amer- 
ican faith and initiative. 

Unless America gives a prompt and 
generous answer to this "hurry" call, not 
only will these defenseless, and now des- 
perate but courageous peoples starve to 
death and the world will be worse off be- 
cause of it, but America herself will lose 
the approval of its own conscience that 
comes from a great duty well done, there- 
fore, for the sake of America as well as 
for the sake of Armenia, we re-echo and 
reiterate the appeal of the great American, 
who being dead yet speaketh : "For God's 
sake, hurry up." 



April, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



121 



Air Brake Department 

Relation of Modern Brake Apparatus to the Spacing of Trains in Congested Districts 

By WALTER V. TURNER, Assistant Manager, Westinghouse Air Brake Co. 



Referring to the remarks recently made 
on the above named subject, it will be 
remembered that the entire object and the 
diagrams used, was to illustrate how 
closely trains could be run with safety 
when equipped with modern, electrically 
operated air brake apparatus. The dia- 
grams shown here will serve to make this 
somewhat clearer and indicate how the 
spacing of a system of trains is scien- 
tifically accomplished with a view of util- 
izing the traffic capacity of a railroad to 
its fullest possible measure. 

Sheets 2, 3 and 4 give a more detailed 
analysis of the relation between headways 
Hs and Hr previously mentioned. Sheet 
No. 2 gives a complete development of 
the various factors which go to make up 
the two kinds of headway. The time for 
accelerating different train lengths is 
given by the formula, and some of the 
bases in the way of braking distances, and 



Corrvrxu or Hmitu* KMe*" f «>«™ r " T *" NS OLurrvma 
Br CicnicW 1 *»now » mi >S«r tXramMD Br /9/»«<.vs or 

— v- 



64 seconds. Above this speed, Hr is the 
greater and must therefore be the govern- 
ing headway. 



Conni'soN or rwr rliwrnrt n.-cowa* rort tlcvtncur or Tttaino 

rr ClOSiHG-UP or Stations Mrn Tnpr DrTriniNtO 
^■hnino AT Srrrc 3n rrr <V J L 




Detailed analysis and comparison of the two 

methods of figuring headway; one based upon 

''closing up" at stations, and the other upon 

"running at speed." 




Summary, of the results. For speeds below a 
critical value (which is higher as the train 
length is increased) the headway based upon 
"closing-up" at stations will be larger and there- 
fore the determining value for the spacing of 
trains. 



amount, unless the speed be lower than 
that ordinarily attained by the train at 
the time it has accelerated a distance 
equal to its length. Under such a con- 
dition, after the train has attained it. this 
speed must be continued for the rest of 
the train length, which of course, length- 
ens the time for the train to move from 
rest a distance equal to its own length. 
This explains why as the speed decreases 
below a certain critical point, the curves 
for Hs (sheet 3) and for (Hs-Twi sheet 
2. turn to the right, indicating increasing 
headways for decreasing speeds. For a 
train of zero length, the time to acceler- 
ate the distance is, of course, also zero, 
and therefore the Hs curve for this length 
of train does not swerve to the right, but 



fVurrtoH Bcrurt-H 5pcco z\d rir hi* rttfft 

B73[o WOV tlUNHIHG AT SPCCD. 5"Crr '. 

Conpart nit} 3*c*i I ona note tocttr C ,t fin eipT 
Tutrc C appear* to a srtee ta»ifa*i . tcx as o * -■ 



Sheet 4 gives the relation between the 
train length and the headway for various 
speeds. The dotted lines show the varia- 
tion of running headway with the train 
length, and similarly the full lines for the 
station headway. As the speed is higher, 
the dotted lines become more and more 
erect, showing that the train length be- 
comes of decreasing relative importance 
for the higher speeds, that is, a change 
in train length effects the running head- 
u ay less as the speed becomes higher. 
Not so with the station headway, how- 
ever, for a change in train length nat- 
urally affects the time to accelerate the 
train in that distance, by a constant 



time, appear in the previous issue already 
referred to. 

Sheet No. 3, is a summary of the re- 
sults obtained from sheet 1, and the heavy 
lines represent the "running" headway 
(Hr) and the light lines the "station" 
headway (Hs). The dotted lines are for 
zero train lengths ; the dot and dash lines 
for a train length of 335 ft. ; and the full 
lines for a train 670 ft. long. Curves for 
zero train lengths are given to show what 
the limiting conditions are when a train 
is considered as a point only. Curve L 
gives all points where, for any train 
length, Hr equals Hs ; that is, it relates 
the speeds and these equal headways for 
any train length. Thus for a 335-ft. train 
length Hs is greater than Hr, and will, 
therefore, be the governing headway for 
all speeds under 63 miles an hour. At 
that speed the two headway curves cross 
and mutually indicate a headway of about 



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DimftCNT 5PCCD5 5nrrr NO d 

Cortm>rr Kirn Si-clt J. Darn T**r\ rpvrr Sirrr £ 



rl J = rti""*v*! n«)3i*j-, Me, dtltrinltd by tto^-^' "' jfrftc. 
1^= n>«">**< h'ftvof, otc . ot'tmrza Cy r*"*^j at Jeeef . par 




■+C, 



]} lH.-d ± -Izutr.C 



4& 



h" R ■ fteutfway, see , tmed upon • 
3, ■ trieraency atop antoice r kt' l from i ,0 ( P 
V = rwrnito speed, m.ltsjx'- hour. — V^.^ 

/I » CC.3n.fif ' l.iZS for dilUC brake * 

C, ■ coriitont ti/r-s p/Jct/ane* far 

jy-w/j to clear ona t^pt^?^. 

ft be ,dtrt*.f'**» £ *cc. 



-jfy 




The running headway will determine the spacing 

of trains for train lengths less than a certain 

critical value (which is greater as the speed is 

higher). 



The allowance for signals to clear and for engine- 
men to identify their indication may be taken in 
terms of distance or of time. This shows the re- 
sult where the allowance is made in time. Fig. 
IS makes the allowance in distance. This applies 
only to "running" headway, of course. 

continues to decrease with decreasing 
speeds. 

Curve L on sheet 4, is the locus of all 
points where Hs, and Hr, are equal; that 
is, Hs and Hr are both equal to 74 sec- 
onds for a train length of 620 ft. and a 
speed of 70 miles an hour. Curve L joins 
all such points. The two curves L sheets 
3 and 4, taken in conjunction with the 
other curves, describe in a very complete 
manner, the relative jurisdiction of the 
two headways, the running and the sta- 
tion, as to the point where one takes 
precedence over the other. They reveal 
that improvements in the way of higher 
rates of acceleration, reduced time of sta- 
tion stops, and higher maximum speeds 
will cause the running headway to be the 
determining factor over a wider range of 



1. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, 1918 



train operation in the way of increasing 
train lengths. Improvements in brake 
effectiveness (.higher rates of retardation), 
though they may affect both service and 
emergency braking in the same propor- 
tion, will nevertheless reduce the "run- 
aing" headway to a much greater extent 
than they will the "station" headway, be- 
cause of the former's larger dependence 
upon the braking factor. These improve- 
ments in braking will therefore have an 
etYect opposite to the above, by making 
the station headway the determining fac- 
tor over a wider range of train operation 
in the way of increasing speeds and longer 
trains. An isolated example appeared in 
connection with the diagrams shown last 
month where an initial delay of 5 seconds 
to the train was multiplied into a final 
delay of 18 seconds. By "initial" delay 
is meant the difference between the time 
a train passes a certain spot at the lowest 
speed to which it has had to slow down, 
and the time it would have taken to pass 
this spot if it had continued at maximum 
speed. Thus, if a complete stop is made 
from a speed of 40 miles an hour in 18 
seconds, (a retardation of about 10 per 
cent) the initial time lost is not 18 
seconds, but only 9, for it will take the 
train 9 seconds time to traverse the stop 
distance if travelling at full speed. If it 
requires 40 seconds time to return from 
rest to full speed at a uniform accelera- 
tion of one mile an hour per second, the 
delay this occasions is not 40 seconds, but 
20, for it takes 20 seconds to traverse the 
acceleration distance at full speed. The 
total delay to this train is then, for an 
initial delay of 9 seconds (which just 
brings it to a stop), 20 -f- 9 or 29 seconds ; 
that is, the initial delay of 9 seconds 
is little over three times. The time the 
train remains at rest is added, of course, 
to the initial and final delay also. In the 
following issue of Railway and Locomo- 
tive Engineering this subject will be con- 
tinued. 



Locomotive Air Brake Inspection. 

(Continued from page 89, March, 1918.) 

266. Q. — How can the dirt usually be 
removed? 

A. — By making a heavy service reduc- 
tion, closing the brake valve cut-out cock 
and returning the valve handle to running 
position? 

267. Q. — What if the cut-out cock is in 
the reservoir pipe? 

A. — Make the same brake valve move- 
ment without closing the cock. 

268. Q.— What will this usually do? 

A. — Blow the dirt from the piston and 
its seat. 

268J/.. Q.— What if it does not? 

A. — The piston needs grinding in on its 
seat. 

269. Q. — Can the equalizing piston pack- 
ing ring of a brake valve be tested by 
placing the brake valve on lap position 



and opening an angle cock if the brake 
is of the retarded application type? 
A.— No. 

270. Q.— Why not? 

A. — Because these brake valves usually 
have the collapsible type of equalizing 
piston. 

271. Q. — How does this piston act under 
this condition? 

A. — It collapses and discharges the 
equalizing reservoir pressure into the 
brake pipe. 

272. Q. — What is this type of piston in- 
tended for? 

A. — For keeping the brake pipe and 
equalizing reservoir pressures within 2 or 
3 lbs. of each other during a two-ap- 
plication stop with a passenger train. 

273. Q. — How can you then tell the dif- 
ference in these valves without taking a 
brake valve apart? 

A. — By handling the brake valve as 
though the equalizing piston packing 
ring was to be tested for leakage by open- 
ing an angle cock with the brake, valve 
on lap position. 

274. Q. — Is there anything else that 
could cause a too rapid reduction in the 
equalizing reservoir or rather in the 
chamber above the equalizing piston? 

A. — Yes, a partial stoppage in the re- 
stricted port in the gauge pipe tee. 

275. Q. — How can this usually be de- 
tected? 

A. — By a sharp hard exhaust from the 
brake valve exhaust port when the equal- 
izing piston lifts. 

276. Q. — How can this be distinguished 
from a sticky equalizing piston that would 
also cause a sharp heavy exhaust? 

A. — If the port in the tee is restricted 
the piston will usually lift instantly, but 
if the sharp exhaust is due to a sticky 
piston, the piston will not lift promptly or 
until about 5 lbs. or more, reduction is 
made in the equalizing reservoir pressure. 

277. Q.— Will the collapsible type of 
piston act in the same manner? 

A.— Yes. 

278. Q. — What could be wrong with a 
collapsible piston if it would not lift at 
all during a service reduction? 

A. — The spring between the piston and 
stem might be broken or the piston and 
stem might be stuck together or "col- 
lapsed." 

279. Q. — What is the size of the brake 
exhaust port of a brake valve when there 
is an exhaust pipe leading from it to the 
double heading cock? 

A. — Seven thirty-seconds of an inch. 

280. Q.— What is the size with the 
Westinghouse Standard arrangement? 

A. — One-fourth of an inch. 

281. Q. — What is the size of brake pipe 
exhaust ports on engines not equipped 
with the E. T. brake? 

A. — Nine thirty-secondths of an inch. 

282. Q.— Why is this difference? 

A. — To compensate for the difference or 
manner in which the brake pipe pressure 



is discharged through the fittings. 

283. Q. — Explain this more fully? 

A. — When the exhaust is practically 
straight away from the brake valve, as 
with the exhaust pipe leading through 
the cut-out cock, the smallest or 7-32 open- 
ing is used. Where the air is discharged 
at one right angle turn, as with the 
standard arrangement, the opening is 
y± in. Where two turns are made at right 
angles as with the G-6 brake valves, the 
opening is 9-32. 

284. Q. — What is the difference in the 
rate of brake pipe discharged with the 
different arrangements? 

A. — There is none of any consequence 
the rate of discharge is practically the 
same, the larger size of openings merely 
compensates for the restriction of fric- 
tional resistance encountered through the 
flow of air pressure through the elbows. 

285. Q. — About how much additional 
resistance to the flow of air is encountered 
when an elbow is added to a length of 
pipe? 

A. — Every elbow is equal to about 15 
additional feet of pipe from the view 
of frictional resistance to the flow of air 
through the pipe. 

286. Q. — Can you determine the size of 
the brake pipe exhaust port during an in- 
spection of the locomotive brake? 

A. — No, it cannot be determined with- 
out an examination, that is by disconnect- 
ing the exhaust pipe or screwing the ex- 
haust fitting out of the brake valve and 
measuring it. 

287. Q. — How can this exhaust pipe be- 
tween the brake valve and reservoir cut 
out be tested for leakage? 

A. — By closing the brake valve cut-out 
cock and making a service application. 

288. Q.— Why? 

A. — Because the brake valve exhaust 
port is at this time closed by the key of 
the cut-out cock. 

289. Q.— What is the effect of too large 
a brake pipe exhaust opening? 

A. — It tends to discharge brake pipe 
pressure from a train at too rapid a rate, 
thereby contributing to undesired quick- 
action. 

290. Q.— What is to be done after the 
pressure is reduced from 110 to 90 lbs. in 
from 5 ! /z to 6 seconds time during the 
inspection? 

A. — The brake valve handle is to be re- 
turned to holding position. 

291. Q.— Why? 

A. — To see that there is no leakage in 
the release pipe branch between the brake 
valves and to see that the feed valve re- 
turns the gauge hands promptly to 110 
lbs. 

292. Q. — Why must the feed valve re- 
turn the black gauge hands promptly to 
110 lbs.? 

A. — To prove that there is no obstruc- 
tion to the flow of air through the feed 
valve pipe or the ports in the brake valve 
leading to and from the feed valve. 



April. 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



123 



293. Q.— What would be the effect of 
leakage in the release pipe branch at this 
time ? 

A. — It would cause the brake to release. 

294. Q.— What is the next brake valve 
movement to be made? 

A. — The automatic brake valve handle 
is returned to running position and the 
independent valve placed in slow applica- 
tion position. 

295. Q. — How long should it take to 
obtain 40 lbs. brake cylinder pressure with 
the independent valve in slow application 
position ? 

A. — From 6 to 8 seconds. 

296. Q. — What should the final pres- 
sure be? 

A. — Same as that shown on the test 
coupler when the signal whistle was 
tested. 

297. Q. — Why are the last few pounds 
obtained at a slower rate? 

A. — Because the pressure in the reduc- 
ing valve pipe and the application cylinder 
pipe are almost equal and the flow of air 
through the slow application which is nec- 
essarily slower when the pressures are al- 
most equal. 

298. Q. — What portions of the air 
gauges are being tested by this brake 
valve movement? 

A — The red hand of the No. 2 air gauge. 

299. Q.— How so? 

A. — By comparing the final brake cylin- 
der pressure with that shown on the test 
coupler when the signal whistle was 
tested. 

300. Q. — Is this always reliable? 

A. — No. but it is reliable enough for 
practical purposes. 

301. Q. — In what way is the test not re- 
liable? 

A. — Considerable friction in the appli- 
cation portion of the distributing valve 
would create a difference in the pressure 
in the brake cylinders and that in the ap- 
plication cylinder and signal system. 

302. Q. — How can this be determined? 
A. — By the next movement of the brake 

valve. 

303. Q. — What movement is this? 

A. — Graduating the independent brake 
off by alternating the valve handle be- 
tween lap and running positions. 

304. Q. — How does this have any bear- 
ing upon the sensitiveness of the applica- 
tion portion of the distributing valve? 

A. — It the application portion is suffi- 
ciently sensitive, the brake can be gradu- 
ated off about 5 lbs. pressure from the 
brake cylinders at a time. 

305. Q. — What action will result if the 
valve is not sufficiently sensitive? 

A. — The drop in brake cylinder pres- 
sure cannot be made in this manner in 
less than 8 or 10 lbs. at a time. 

306. Q. — Should such disorders be re- 
ported ? 

A.— Yes. 

307. Q.— Why? 

A. — Because the more sensitive the 



brake is to operation, the smoother the 
stop that can be made with it, or rather 
the more sensitive the parts of the brake 
equipment, the more flexible it is. 
(To be continued) 



Train Handling. 

(Continued from page 90, March, 1918.) 

288. Q— How is the brake valve handled 
on the last brake application at the foot 
of the grade? 

A. — The brake pipe pressure is reduced 
below the adjustment of the feed valve 
and the brake valve handle then moved 
to release and running position. 

289. Q. — Would it be necessary to 
carry the brake valve handle in release 
position in descending moderate grades? 

A. — No. In some instances the valve 
handle is carried in running position 
while the brakes are recharging when 
descending long heavy grades. 

290. Q.— Why is it that air brake men 
will not attempt to lay down any fixed 
rules for handling brakes on trains? 

A.— In order to state just how any train 
may be handled the most advantageously 
necessitates a thorough understanding of 
every operation of the brakes and a 
knowledge of the condition of practically 
every brake in the train, as well as having 
an intimate knowledge of every local cir- 
cumstance as to track conditions, grades, 
curves and location of signals. 

291. Q. — How does passenger train 
braking differ from freight train braking? 

A. — Passenger train handling demands 
a smooth and accurate stop, but a shorter 
brake pipe, consequently less brake pipe 
\olume permits of more rapid movements 
of the brake valve handle for different 
requirements, and gives a more prompt 
and uniform response of the brakes. 

292. Q. — In coupling to a passenger 
train, is the operation of the governor 
the same as in coupling to an uncharged 
freight train? 

A. — The operation of the governor is 
the same, but the train is usually charged 
from a yard test plant, or at division 
points, the train is left practically charged 
by the inbound road engine. 

293. Q. — In what position is the brake 
valve handle when coupling to a pas- 
senger train ? 

A. — It is allowed to remain in running 
position. 

294. Q.— Why 

A. — So t hat there will be no applica- 
tion of the brakes when the hose are 
united and on hurried movement the 
brakes will be ready for test as soon as 
hose have been coupled. 

295 Q. — After tin- train is solid and 
signal to apply brakes for test is given, 
how much of a brake pipe reduction 
should be made? 

A. — Twenty-five pounds for PM equip- 
ment and not less than 30 lbs. for LN 
equipment. 



296. Q. — How is the signal to apply 
given ? 

A. — Either by verbal request, or four 
blasts of the signal whistle or by hand 
signal. 

297. Q. — How is the signal to release 
given ? 

A. — By four blasts of the signal whistle 
transmitted from the rear car of the 
train. 

298. Q. — Is the brake test then com- 
plete? 

A. — Not until after the inspector or 
trainman announces the condition of 
brakes, number of cars and number of 
operative brakes in train. 

299. Q. — Who is responsible for secur- 
ing this information? 

A. — Both the conductor and engineman. 

300. Q.— What per cent of the brakes 
must be in operative condition' 

A. — Not less than 85 per cent. 

301. Q. — How is a release of brakes 
made in passenger service? 

A. — By moving the valve handle to re- 
lease position and promptly back to run- 
ning position. 

302. Q. — Why promptly back to run- 
ning position? 

A. — To prevent the possibility of an 
overcharge of the reservoirs on the head 
end of the train. 

303. Q. — Why is it not necessary to 
leave the handle in release position as 
long as with a freight train? 

A. — Because the brake pipe is shorter 
and the increase of pressure in the brake 
pipe throughout is more rapid. 

304. Q. — After leaving the station, 
where will the first application of the 
brake take place? 

A. — At the first opportunity, when the 
speed is high enough to permit of a 12-lb. 
brake pipe reduction. 

305. Q.— What kind of a test is this? 
A. — A running test of brakes. 

306. Q. — Made for what purpose? 

A. — To know that all angle cocks are 
open and that the brakes are holding. 

307. Q. — How is the independent brake 
valve handled during this application? 

A. — It is held in release position while 
the 12-lb. brake pi'ie reduction is being 
made. 

308. Q.— Win ? 

A. — To know that the retarding effect is 
from the car brakes and not from the 
powerful brake on the locomotive. 

309. Q. — Why is it necessary to make 
such a heavy reduction? 

A. — To insure a satisfactory release of 
brakes. 

310. Q. — Is it necessary to make this 
12-lb. application in one reduction? 

A. — No. it can be split up into two 6-lb. 
reducti' ms 

311. Q. — Why is a light brake pipe re- 
duction liable to result in stuck brakes' 

A. — Because of the difference in pres- 
sure obtained between the auxiliary reser- 
voir and the brake pipe as governed by 



124 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April. 1918 



the proper adjustment of the feed valve. 

312. Q. — Explain this more clearly? 

A.— A triple valve may be in a condi- 
tion to require a differential of from 5 
to 6 lbs. in pressure to accomplish a re- 
lease, and with a 6 or 7 lb. brake pipe re- 
duction the necessary difference may not 
be obtained, whereas if the difference be- 
tween the pressure in the auxiliary reser- 
voir after the brake application and the 
adjustment of the feed valve is as much 
as 10 or 12 lbs. the triple valve will re- 
lease promptly. 

313. Q. — Would this not indicate that 
the brake valve handle might be left in 
release position for more than one second? 

A. — No, with the large capacity air 
compressors, and different types of car 
brake operating valves especial care must 
be taken to see that the brake pipe pres- 
sure must not exceed the adjustment of 
the feed valve, or if it does during the 
release, it must be but momentary. 

314. Q. — What if the brake pipe pres- 
sure happens to be far below the adjust- 
ment of the brake pipe feed valve? 

A. — The handle may be left in release 
position until the brake pipe pressure is 
very near the adjustment of the feed 
valve. 

315. Q. — With low pressure in the brake 
pipe and the handle in release position, 
what may you be considered to be doing? 

A. — Charging the train. 

316. Q. — What position of the brake 
valve is to be used for charging the 
train? 

A. — Release position, same as for 
charging a freight train. 

317. Q. — Before considering the handl- 
ing of passenger trains at high speeds, 
what brake valve manipulation should 
first be understood? 

A. — The successful handling of pas- 
senger trains at low speeds. 

318. Q. — For what purpose? 

A. — To determine how a train can be 
stopped smoothly, so that there will be 
no damage to equipment, or complaints 
from passengers. 

319. Q. — When shifting cars of a pas- 
senger train, is it permissible to move 
cars with the air hose uncoupled? 

A. — Not on dining cars, or any cars 
that are occupied by passengers. 

320. Q— When shifting empty cars with 
the air hose between engine and cars un- 
coupled, is it permissible to use the inde- 
pendent brake valve in quick application 
position? 

A. — Only in cases of emergency. 

321. Q.— When applying the independ- 
ent brake under such conditions, how 
much brake cylinder pressure should be 
developed from the first movement of the 
independent valve to application position? 

A.— Not over 8 or 10 lbs. 

322. Q.— Why not more? 

A.— To prevent a harsh application of 
the engine brake. 



323. Q. — How should the brake then be 
applied? 

A. — It should be graduated on same as 
if used in freight service. 

324. Q.— What is the idea? 

A. — To take up the slack or let it run 
out gently. 

325. Q. — How should the independent 
brake be released under such a shifting 
condition ? 

A, — It should be graduated off. 

326. Q. — What is meant by graduating 
the brake off? 

A. — To allow the brake cylinder pres- 
sure to escape about 5 lbs. at a time. 

327. Q. — How does this assist in a 
smooth stop if the engine is moving 
ahead and the cars at the rear of the 
engine are crowding against the engine? 

A. — It relieves the tension of the draft 
springs or the compression of them grad- 
ually instead of causing a sudden shock 
by releasing the tension almost instantly. 

328. Q. — Considering modern types of 
passenger car brake equipments, such as 
the L. N. P. C. and U. C. how is the 
brake valve handled if the engine and two 
or more cars arc coupled to several un- 
charged cars and a prompt movement is 
desired? 

A. — The brake valve is moved to service 
position and about 30 lbs. brake pipe re- 
duction made before the hose between the 
cars can be coupled. 

(To be continued) 



Car Brake Inspection. 
(Continued from page 91. March, 1918.) 

281. Q. — How is the piston travel main- 
tained on a passenger car? 

A.— By means of an automatic slack 
adjuster. 

282. Q. — 1 1 will be assumed that the 
operation of the brake slack adjuster is 
understood, which way does the ratchet 
move to take up slack ? 

A.— To the right, or in the direction 
of the adjuster cylinder. 

- |V 3. Q. — How is slack secured in the 
brake rigging for the application of new 
brake shoes? 

A.— By turning the adjuster screw in 
the opposite direction from the adjuster 
cylinder. 

284. Q.— Why is the slack not taken 
out by means of the truck levers? 

A. — For the reason that moving the 
adjuster screw is the easiest method, and 
the positions of the truck levers or pin- 
holes should not be changed. 

285. Q.— Why not? 

A. — For the reason that if the founda- 
tion brake gear is correct in design, and 
the slack adjuster screw was all the way 
out, and the piston travel adjusted to 6 
ins. standing travel when new brake shoes 
were previously applied, there should 
never be any occasion to change the po- 
sitions of the brake levers when applying 
brake shoes. 



286. Q. — What should be done after the 
brake shoe is renewed? 

A. — The brake should be applied and 
the piston travel measured. 

287. Q. — What should be done if the 
piston travel is too long? 

A. — The slack should be taken up with 
the adjuster screw. 

288. Q. — Suppose that the travel is one 
inch too long, can you take up one inch 
with the adjuster screw and know that it 
is an inch ? 

A. — Yes. if the screw is moved away 
from the cylinder one inch, the piston 
travel will be taken up one inch. 

289. Q. — What should be done if 
through improper adjustment the slack 
adjuster is found to have the cross-head 
drawn up the full limit where no more . 
slack can be taken out of the riggin 

A. — If po^iUe an entire new - i "t 
shoes should be applied, and the adjuster 
screw let mil all of the way and the piston 
travel adjusted by means of the truck 
1 e \ r r - . 

290. Q. — What if the adjuster screw 
will not turn to allow the cross-head to 
be screwed back against the cylinder end 
of the adjuster?. 

A. — It means that the pawl is engaged 
with the ratchet, therefore the stop screw 
at the end of the adjuster would be 
slacked off enough to allow the pawl to 
become disengaged. 

291. Q. — What should then be done be- 
fore any other move is made? 

A. — The stop screw or set screw should 
be securely tightened in its place. Two 
wrenches should be used in locking the 
stop screw. 

292. Q— What might result if this was 
forgotten • 

A. — The screw might be lost and if the 
adjusted screw was again fouled, it would 
be necessary to take the adjuster apart in 
order to release the pawl from the ratchet. 

293. Q. — What would happen if a 
wrench was used to move the ratchet and 
screw while the pawl was engaged? 

A. — Some of the teeth would be bn >ken 
out of the ratchet. 

294. Q. — What attention should an ad- 
juster receive. 

A. — It should be cleaned and oiled every 
time the brake cylinder receives this at- 
tention. 

295. Q. — Should oil or grease be used 
to lubricate the adjuster screw? 

A. — No, it merely collects dirt and 
causes the adjuster screw to become 
galled. 

296. Q. — What should be used as a 
lubricant? 

A. — Dry graphite. • 

297. Q — Should the brake be cut out if 
the adjuster operating pipe is found 
broken off and repairs cannot be made at 
the time? 

A. — Xo. Some of the slack in the rig- 
ging can be taken up by hand so that the 
car can run to some point where repairs 



April, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



125 



can be made. 

298. Q.— What will taking up by hand 
do? 

A. — Prevent the brake cylinder leather 
from passing the port leading to the ad- 
juster pipe. 

299. Q. — Where is the adjuster pipe to 
the brake cylinder usually located in the 
cylinders? 

A. — About S% inches from the pressure 
head. 

300. Q. — To what running travel does it 
regulate the piston? 

A. — Eight inches. 

301. Q. — Why is it that where adjusters 
are working properly, the standing travel 
on a car with the single shoe brake gear 
is not more than 6 inches? 

A. — It means that the difference between 
running and standing travel is about 2 
inches, that is, that two more inches of 
piston travel are obtained when the brake 
is applied on the car when running. 

302. Q. — What equipment on the car is 
required to change the quick action auto- 
matic brake to a high speed brake? 

A. — A high speed reducing valve is at- 
tached to the brake cylinder. 

303. Q. — How is this equipment gen- 
erally designated? 

A.— As the PM equipment. 

304. Q. — What brake cylinder pressure 
dose the high speed reducing valve main- 
tain? 

A. — 60 lbs. per square inch. 

305. Q. — How is the high speed reduc- 
ing valve adjusted? 

A. — By attaching an air gauge to the 
brake cylinder. 

306. Q. — What if there is no provision 
for attaching a gauge to the brake cylin- 
der? 

A. — The gauge may be attached to the 
reducing valve at the pipe plug opposite 
of the brake cylinder pipe connection. 

307. Q. — What connection could be 
made if this plug could not be readily 
removed ? 

A. — The gauge may be attached to the 
auxiliary reservoir and the brake applied 
by exhausting all of the air from the brake 
pipe. 

308. Q. — Why would the auxiliary res- 
ervoir pressure then be the same as that 
in the brake cylinder when the brake was 
fully applied? 

A. — Because the triple valve then pro- 
vides a direct communication between the 
auxiliary reservoir and the brake cylinder. 

309. Q.— With 70 lbs. pressure in the 
auxiliary reservoir, and with 8 ins. brake 
cylinder piston travel, what will the brake 
cylinder and auxiliary reservoir equalize 
at? 

A. — At 50 lbs. pressure. 

310. Q— With 90 lbs. pressure in the 
auxiliary reservoir? 

A. — About 65 lbs. 

311. Q.— With 110 lbs. in the auxiliary? 
A.— About 80 lbs. 

(To be continued) 



Electrification of the Railroads 



At the convention of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, held in 
New York recently, President E. W. 
Rice, Jr., in the course of his opening 
address, said that where electricity has 
been substituted for steam in the opera- 
tion of railroads, fully 50 per cent in- 
crease in available capacity in existing 
tracks and other facilities has been 
demonstrated. This increased capacity 
has been due to a variety of causes, but 
largely to the increased reliability and 
capacity, under all conditions of service, 
of electric locomotives, thus permitting 
a speeding up of train schedules by some 
25 per cent, under average conditions. 
Of course, under the paralyzing condi- 
tions which prevail in extremely cold 
weather, when the steam locomotives 
practically go out of business, the elec- 
tric locomotives make an even better 
showing. It is well known that extreme 
cold (aside from the 'physical condition 
of the traffic rail) does not hinder the 
operation of the electric locomotive but 
actually increases its hauling capacity. 
At a time when the steam locomotive 
is using up all its energy by radiation 
from its boiler and engine into the at- 
mosphere, with the result that practically 
no useful power is available to move the 
train, the electric locomotive is operat- 
ing under its most efficient conditions 
and may even work at a greater load 
than in warm weather. It may, there- 
fore, be said that cold weather offers 
no terrors to an electrified road, but on 
the contrary, it is a stimulant to better 
performance instead of a cause of pros- 
tration and paralysis. 

But this is not all. It is estimated 
that something like 150,000.000 tons of 
coal were consumed by the railroads in 
the year 1917. Now we know from the 
results obtained from such electrical 
operation of railroads as we already 
have in this country that it would be 
possible to save at least two-thirds of 
this coal, if electric locomotives were 
substituted for the present steam loco- 
motives. On this basis there would be 
a saving of over 100.000,000 tons of coal 
in one year. 

The possible use of water should also 
be considered in this connection. It is 
estimated that there is not less than 
25,000,000 H. P. of water available in 
the United States, and if this were devel- 
oped and could be used in driving our 
railroads, each horsepower so used would 
save at least six lbs. of coal per horse- 
power hour now burned under the boil- 
ers of our steam locomotives. It is true 
that this water power is not uniformly 
distributed in the districts where the 
railroad requirements are greatest but 
the possibilities indicated by the figures 
are so impressive as to justify careful 
examination as to the extent to which 



water power could be so employed and 
the amount of coal which could be saved 
by its use. There is no doubt that a 
very considerable portion of the coal now 
wastefully used by the railroads could 
be released to the great and lasting ad- 
vantage of the country. 

Our water-falls constitute potential 
wealth which can only be truly con- 
served by development and use — millions 
of horsepower are running to waste every 
day, which once harnessed for the bene- 
fit of mankind become a perpetual source 
of wealth and prosperity. 

In the Middle and Eastern States, how- 
ever, water powers are not sufficient and 
it will be necessary in a universal scheme 
of electrification that the locomotives be 
operated from steam turbine stations, 
but as I have already stated, the opera- 
tion of the electrified railroads from 
steam turbine stations will result in the 
saving of two-thirds of the coal now 
employed for equivalent tonnage move- 
ment by steam locomotives. 

Electrification of railroads has pro- 
gressed with relative slowness during 
these many years, waiting upon the de- 
velopment and perfection of all of the 
processes of generation and transmission 
and of the perfection of the electric loco- 
motive itself. When all these elements 
had been perfected, as they now have 
been, for several years, the railroads 
found themselves without the necessary 
capital to make the investment. 

I realize that the task of electrifying 
all of the railroads of the country is one 
of tremendous proportions. It would 
require under the best conditions many 
years to complete and demand the ex- 
penditure of billions of dollars. 

It is not necessary that electrification 
should be universal in order to obtain 
much of its benefits. It is probable that 
one of the most serious limitations of 
our transportation system, at least in so 
far as the supply of coal is concerned, is 
to be found in the mountainous districts 
and it is precisely in such situations that 
electrification has demonstrated its great- 
est value. Electrification of a railroad 
in a mountainous district will in the 
worst cases enable double the amount of 
traffic to be moved over existing tracks 
and grades. 

If a general scheme of electrification 
were decided upon, the natural procedure 
would be, therefore, to electrify those 
portions of the steam railroads which 
will show the greatest results and give 
the greatest relief from existing conges- 
tion. Electrification of such sections of 
the steam railroads would have an im- 
mediate and beneficial effect upon the 
entire transportation system of the coun- 
try and it is our belief that electrifica- 
tion offers the quickest, best and most 
efficient solution that is to be obtained. 



126 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April. 1918 



Ten Powerful Baldwin Westinghouse Electric 

Passenger Locomotives for the Chicago, 

Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway 



Twin Motor Design with Quill Drive 



The concentration of enormous horse- 
power in a single locomotive has long 
been the recognized tendency in railway 
practice, originating from considerations 
of economy and the greater efficiency of 
large units. Further increase in size will 
yield small improvement in efficiency. Re- 
course must be had to some new form of 
motive power if the necessary gain in 
hauling capacity is to be made. On the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, 
its use over the 440 miles of line and over 
the Rocky Mountains has been so satis- 
factory in cutting power costs, hauling 
heavier trains and keeping traffic moving 
in all weathers that the railroad's decision 
has recently been made to electrify an- 
other mountain division — the two hun- 



wheel trucks on the adjacent ends. The 
center pins are located midway between 
the first and second driving axles of each 
running gear. On one running gear the 
center pin is designed to restrain the cab 
both longitudinally and laterally, while on 
the other running gear, the center pin re- 
strains the cab only laterally, permitting 
free longitudinal movement. This arrange- 
ment of riding and floating pins relieves 
the cab of all pulling and buffing strains 
due to train load, as these strains are 
taken directly through the running gear 
side frames and bumpers. 

The driving wheels are 68 ins. in diam- 
eter, and carry 55.000 lbs. on each axle. 
The guiding trucks have 36-in. wheels, 
while the two-wheel trucks each have a 



of the standard front end construction of 
the American and Consolidation types of 
steam locomotives. The two remaining 
pairs of driving wheels and the two trail- 
ing wheels of the main running gear are 
side-equalized together, thus following 
accepted steam-locomotive practice. 

The center of gravity of the main run- 
ning gear, including motors, is 41' _> ins. 
above the rail, and the height of the cen- 
ter of gravity of the complete locomotive 
is 63 ins. above the rail. Among the 
novel features which will .be found in 
these locomotives are : Large capacity in 
single-cab unit. Flexibility of running 
speeds with small rheostatic losses. Twin 
motor design with quill-drive. Low-volt- 
age auxiliaries simplifying inspection, 




NEW ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE FOR THE CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE & ST. PAUL. 



H. R. Warnock, Gen'l S. M. P. 

dred and eleven miles from Othello, 
Wash., over the Cascade Range to Seattle 
and Tacoma. With the completion of 
this work, a distance equal to that from 
New York to Cleveland, will be under 
electrical operation. To handle passenger 
traffic over this and the Rocky Mountain 
division, the St. Paul has ordered ten 
Baldwin-Westinghouse electric locomo- 
tives. 

The complete locomotive has a total 
length over couplings of 90 ft. ; weight 
ready for service, 266 tons, with an ad- 
hesive weight of 330,000 lbs. Following 
the modern tendency in design toward 
conservation of weight and space, these 
new locomotives will be single-cab units, 
although the horsepower capacity is much 
greater than for any double-cab engines 
now in service. The cab is carried on the 
two main running gears, each having a 
four-wheel guiding truck, three driving 
axles in a 16 ft. 9 ins. rigid wheel base, 
and a two-wheel trailing truck. It thus 
corresponds to two Pacific-type running 
gears coupled with a link and having two- 



load of 38,500 lbs. at the rail, with ap- 
proximately o3,000 lbs. distributed on each 
of the four-wheel trucks. On any single 
driving wheel the non-spring supported 
weight is that of the wheels, axles and 
driving boxes only. 

The flexible type of quill drive used 
affords a means of permitting a motor 
located well above the roadbed to drive 
an axle which, with its wheels, is free to 
follow the rail independently. It is evi- 
dent that this drive secures all the ad- 
vantages of a flexible gear in cushioning 
the transmittal of the torque and it avoids 
the road shock far more effectively than 
with the common flexible gear construc- 
tion and mounting. Each main running 
gear has three-point equalization with a 
single point toward the end of the loco- 
motive, in accordance with accepted steam 
locomotive practice. The four-wheel 
guiding truck center-pin and cross-equal- 
ized leading pair of driving wheels are 
equalized together on the longitudinal 
center line of the locomotive. This wheel 
arrangement combines all the advantages 



Builders, Baldwin-Westinghouse 

maintenance, and operation. Simple and 
effective regeneration. Improved equal- 
ization to minimize weight transfer in 
trucks. Auxiliary train-heating plant. 

These will probably be the most power- 
ful locomotives running in passenger 
service. A single locomotive is able to 
haul a 950-ton train (12 coaches) over 
the entire mountain section at the same 
speeds as are called for by the present 
schedules. The one-hour rating for one 
of these locomotives is 4,000 h. p., and its 
continuous rating is 3.200 h. p.. with a 
starting- tractive effort of 112.000 lbs. 
The normal speed on the level track is 
60 m. p. h. ; on a 2 per cent grade it is 
about 25 m. p. h, One of the noteworthy 
characteristics of these machines, which is 
very desirable in passenger service, but 
which has not heretofore been attained 
with this type of electric locomotives, ex- 
cept at the expense of heavy rheostatic 
losses, is the flexibility of running speeds. 

There are nine running positions with-, 
nut rheostatic loss. This is accomplished 
by the use of six 1,500-volt twin m 



April, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



127 



on the locomotive, arranged for three- 
speed combinations as follows: Position 
No. 1, 1 set 6 motors in series; No. 2, 
2 sets 3 motors in series ; No. 3, 3 sets 
2 motors in series. During the change 
from one speed combination to another, 
the tractive effort is maintained. Two 
additional running speeds are obtained on 
each speed combination by means of in- 
ductive shunts on the main motor fields, 
which assist in cutting down current 
peaks as well as saving rheostatic losses, 
thus enabling the power demand over the 
varying profile to be kept more nearly 
constant. The speed range is from 8 to 
56 m. p. h., depending on the load. 

The use of the twin motor design with 
quill drive not only permits the most ef- 
fective use of space between the driving 
wheels, but enables the use of two arma- 
tures, each wound for 750 volts direct 
current, and geared to the same quill. 
This also makes possible the advantage of 
better commutating characteristics inher- 
ent in the lower voltage motors. Low 
voltage auxiliaries considerably reduce 
the complication and hazard of high volt- 
age on these locomotives. The only high 
voltage apparatus among the auxiliaries 
is the motor of the small motor-generator 
which is used for train lighting and 
charging the storage battery. The result- 
ant simplification secured by the use of 
low voltage appliances decreases the com- 
plication of installation, maintenance and 
operation. Ordinary inspection can be 
carried on, including the functioning of 
switches and auxiliaries, with the com- 
plete absence of 3,000-volt power on the 
locomotive. 

The use of regenerative control for 
holding trains on descending grades is 
such an important function in these loco- 
motives that special arrangements have 
been perfected to secure positive opera- 
tion of this feature over widely varying 
speeds. The same main motor combina- 
tions for "motoring" are used for "re- 
generating" except that the fields of the 
main motors are separately excited over 
a wide range by axle-driven generators. 
These are so connected with balancing 
resistance that inherent stability in the 
motor characteristics during regeneration 
is assured, irrespective of whether the 
changes in line voltage are sudden or 
gradual. With the regenerative braking 
of trains lessens the duty on the air brake 
equipment, further safety in braking with 
electric engines is introduced with the 
axle-driven generators. These ma- 
chines are mounted on the pony trucks 
of the locomotive, and in addition 
to exciting the motors during regenera- 
tion, furnish the power for operating 
the air compressors and blower motors 
when tin- locomotive is hauling. This 
method insures a current supply to 
the air compressor motors irrespective of 
the overhead trolley supply, and pro 
i Mrs that compressed air will always 



be available for use of the air brakes. 
In electric locomotives without connect- 
ed wheels, weight transfer due to tractive 
effort is an important thing. This is 
caused by the drawbar-pull being exerted 
at the coupler height, which, with the re- 
action at the rail, tends to lift the lead- 
ing end and depress the trailing end. 
This changes the weight distribution and 
increases the tendency of the wheels to 
slip. The method of equalization de- 




TWIN MOTOR WITH QUILL DRIVE. 

scribed above reduces the weight varia- 
tion on the driving wheels to only 6 per 
cent from normal, when pulling at 30 per 
cent adhesion, as is possible with electric 
locomotives owing to the steady and 
gradually increasing torque of the ma- 
chine. 

The question of passenger train heat- 
ing is of vital importance due to extreme 
weather conditions encountered in that 




CONTROLLER FOR C. M. & ST. P. 
I I 1 i IRK LOCOMOTIVE. 

section of the country. Heat must be as- 
sured under all conditions of failure of 
equipment, and delays of trains. The 
heating plant, therefore, must be entirely 
independent of the electrification. Each 
locomotive is equipped with an oil-fired 
steam boiler, designed to burn ordinary 
fuel oil used by the railway company. 
Frovision is made for ■> - of 7.500 

gallons of water and 750 oil in 

each engine. 



The careful attention which has been 
given to improve the details of design 
and operation of these new engines, it is 
hoped, will mark an epoch in the develop- 
ment of the electric locomotive, and make 
it an important factor in the transporta- 
tion problem of this country. 

At a recent meeting of the New York 
Railroad Club, diagrams of these engines 
were shown, and comparisons were made 
with existing electric locomotives. The 
fact that the tractive effort of the ma- 
chines delivered at draw bar level has a 
tendency to tilt the frames and to alter 
the adhesive weight on the wheels was 
clearly brought out. We intend to offer 
some explanation of this phenomenon in 
a subsequent issue of Railway axd Loco- 
motive Engineering. 

The fact that an electric locomotive 
driving the wheels from a jack shaft with 
connecting rod accurately balanced, and 
turning the driving wheels, having only 
side rods, does away with all the troubles 
incident to the dynamic augment, was also 
made plain at this meeting. It is pos- 
sible to balance such driving gear for all 
speeds as the torque of the motor is con- 
stant and no disturbances due to recipro- 
cating motion can take place as the recip- 
rocating parts are entirely absent. 



Pile Driving with Locomotive Cranes. 

Experiments have shown that the regu- 
lar standard locomotive crane ma\ 
provided with an entirely separate ana 
independent attachment, quickly connected 
to its boom, that immediately provides 
rigid leads in which either a steam ham- 
mer or a drop hammer can be installed 
and the whole made adjustable for driv- 
ing long piles in perpendicular or inclined 
positions at any point within a long radius 
from the stationary machine and. by mov- 
ing the machine under its own locomotive 
gear, at any point on either side of the 
track within the boom reach. In such a 
case the drop hammer can be handled by 
the regular boom hoisting tackle or the 
same tackle can handle the steam hammer 
in the leads and the hammer can be sup- 
plied with steam from the regular boiler 
operating the locomotive crane. An ad- 
ditional whip line can easily be rigged 
enabling the locomotive crane to handle 
the piles and place them in the leads with 
the important advantage of living able to 
swing around and pick them up from the 
rcr.i or even to travel back and get them 
when necessary. 

Such a tool possesses great flexibility 
and is almost universally applicable tor a 
w ide variety of standard operations mak- 
ing it available in one shape or another 
for many of the most important opera- 
te ns that a general contractor encounters 
in heavy construction work and eliminat- 
ing the initial cost, installation, and tran>- 
portation of a number of separate ma- 
chines that would be required to do the 
same work. 



128 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, 1918 



Facilities for Locomotive Repairs 



At a meeting of the Canadian Railway 
Club held last month, E. R. Battley, master 
mechanic of the Grand Trunk Railway. 
Montreal, read a paper on "Locomotive 
Repairs," giving interesting details on the 
methods in vogue on the Grand Trunk, 
and emphasized the need of keeping up the 
repairs on the motive power. To do this, 
Mr. Battley stated that it was absolutely 
necessary to provide proper facilities for 
repairing and handling, at roundhouses 
and general repair shops. He stated that 
it is difficult to do quick work at terminals 
unless we provide proper facilities, such 
as suitable roundhouses and equipment. 
The key to the power handling situation 
of the roundhouses is the ashpit, there- 
fore, we must provide large pits equipped 
with a sure and quick means of handling 
the accumulation of cinders. Ample room 
must be provided on both sides of the pit 
so that in rush hours fires can be cleaned 
or dumped and engines moved along out 
of the way to await their turn on the turn- 
table. If this space is not provided, and 
after an engine or two has been dumped, 
it means the work on the engines follow- 
ing is at a standstill until those ahead 
have been moved. Conditions of this 
kind causes ashpit gangs to be idle and at 
a busy terminal a large waiting list is the 
result. 

In close relation to the ashpit is the 
turntable and shop leads. The former 
should be of rigid construction and power 
operated. The leads should be of sufficient 
length to accommodate outgoing engines 
and provided with suitable crossovers and 
water-cranes to facilitate the despatching 
of power. 

A valuable addition to any roundhouse 
is good machinery. A great mistake 
sometimes made by railroads is filling up 
roundhouse machine shops with antiquated 
tools. When a machine job is required 
in a back shop it is usually a rush order, 
therefore speed and accuracy is required. 
If modern tools are used you get what is 
desired without delay. All our terminals 
of importance have been equipped with 
portable oxy-acetylene welding and cut- 
ting outfits, and needless to say they have 
proved invaluable. 

Organization is another valuable asset 
to the shop. One may have a splendid 
layout, good tools, etc., but without sys- 
tem efficiency is reduced. We have found 
by arranging our roundhouse staff in 
special gangs good results have been ob- 
tained. These gangs are grouped as 
follows : Passenger, freight and switch, 
spring and brake gear, rod and box pack- 
ing, lighting up, and last but not least, the 
hostler gang. The different gangs are 
controlled by charge men, who report to 
the shop foreman. 

Engineers upon arrival record the neces- 
sary work in a book provided for that 
purpose. A competent inspector also 



makes an examination of the engine and 
records defects found. The work to be 
done is then copied by a man assigned to 
this work, who distributes the slips to the 
respective charge hands. When the work 
is completed a notation is made in the 
report book on the opposite page to the 
one on which the engineer placed his 
report. 

During the busy season, when locomo- 
tives are at a premium, the cripples at 
roundhouses accumulate quickly, unless a 
close check is kept on the shipment of 
repair parts. We have a system of check- 
ing up and forwarding repair parts to out 
stations that has proved very satisfactory, 
and has been the means of keeping our 
locomotives in service during the past 
severe winter. Foremen at each station 
send a joint message to the Road and 
Shop Master Mechanics as soon as he 
finds he requires repair parts. In addition 
to this he sends in a daily report of en- 
gines undergoing repairs which will take 
over 24 hours, stating when engine was 
taken out of service, what material is 
required and on whom ordered. This 
gives the master mechanic an excellent 
opportunity of keeping in close touch with 
the situation on his division. To ensure 
requisitions being filled promptly and to 
avoid delays in shipment or at transfer 
points a "material" man was appointed by 
the road master mechanic. His duties are 
to check requisitions, receive telegrams 
for material, consult shop master me- 
chanics and subordinates as to when ma- 
terial can be secured, see that there is 
no delay in handling, also advise out sta- 
tions on what train material is going for- 
ward so that he can be prepared to have 
it, removed promptly on arrival. 

General repair shops should be of suf- 
cient size to care for the power assigned 
to the division and centrally located. 
When an engine is to he placed in the 
shop for repairs the nature and extent of 
the repairs is mainly controlled by the 
master mechanic. Any unusual repairs 
may be decided upon after a boiler in- 
spection and hydrostatic test has been 
applied. After the engine has besn 
stripped the shop inspector makes out a 
final report and repairs are made accord- 
ingly. Accompanying each engine to the 
shop is the Locomotive Foreman's report 
of repairs which forms the basis from 
which shop Master Mechanic works. 

There is approximately 10 per cent, of 
our power under repairs at all times. 
This is necessary to keep our engines in 
good condition, and also provides suffi- 
cient work in advance for the shop staff, 
who work entirely on the bonus system. 
Our output and bonus system are so 
closely related that in speaking of one it 
is necessary to mention the other. The 
subject tonight being repairs, the bonus 
system will only be mentioned when 



necessary to show why we handle certain 
operations in certain ways. 

Taking it for granted that the various 
repairs have been made and are now in 
the erecting shop, it may be stated that 
this department was formerly handled 
with nine regular gangs, consisting of 
approximately ten men per gang, con- 
trolled by a chargehand who was re- 
sponsible for three pits. In addition to 
the nine gangs we had three or four 
special gangs, such as shoe and wedge, 
guide bar, and steampipe. Our regular 
pit gangs carried the engine through from 
the time the engine was stripped, with the 
exception of the detailed work above 
mentioned. Under this system we accom- 
plished good work until our forces be- 
came depleted through enlistments, and 
upon looking carefully into the situation 
we found where a gang usually had five 
or six mechanics it would now have 
one or two, the remainder being unskilled 
help. It was, therefore, necessary for us 
to meet the new conditions in order to 
keep up the repairs. To do this we re- 
arranged our men into special gangs, 
mainly to centralize our machinists on 
work that really required mechanics, and 
use the unskilled labor on the coarser 
work. With this arrangement instead of 
a gang having three pits on which to 
work they have the entire erecting shop, 
therefore delays were reduced to a mini- 
mum. 

Referring to the bonus system, there is 
one special feature of this system which 
is the key to the success of that system ; 
that is, the demonstrating end of the 
bonus department. The prices set by 
demonstration, when possible, are known 
to be fair and correct. The chief demon- 
strator and his assistants have charge of 
this work over the entire system, and 
travel continuously from shop to shop. 
These men do not bother a great deal 
about prices, as this has been efficiently 
handled by the bonus department of each 
shop, which sets the prices according to 
the peculiar conditions surrounding the 
different plants, but being our most ex- 
pert men they concentrate their efforts in 
bringing each department in all shops to 
a higher state of efficiency by transferring 
best methods, and, if necessary, men from 
one shop to another. As a result of this 
method workmen are free from worry of 
price cutting, therefore, the standard of 
work has shown a steady improvement. 
This department also controls the method 
of applying the bonus system, with the 
result that the method of application is 
the same at all shops. It is needless to 
say the results obtained from this system 
have been highly satisfactory, and in spile 
of the unfavorable labor conditions, we 
have maintained repairs on our locomo- 
tives, and in addition to keeping up the 
ordinary repairs we have been able to 
convert 57 engines from saturated to 
superheated steam. 



April, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



129 



Electrical Department 

No-Voltage Control as Used in Railway Equipment 
The Portable Railway Sub-Station 



Last month there was an article on page 
84 referring to the no voltage control for 
shop machinery and a description of the 
methods used for AC and DC motors 
was given on page 93. As pointed out, 
the object of the no-voltage release, in 
connection with machine tools, is to af- 
ford protection to the workman in case 
the power is shut off unknown to him. 

There is used, in connection with rail- 
way equipment on subway and elevated 
cars, a no-voltage relay which is to cause 
a certain function to go into effect, inde- 
pendent of the motorman in case of a 
failure of the voltage. The object is not 
to protect the motorman in the case of the 
failure of voltage, but to protect the ap- 
paratus and give satisfactory operation of 
the equipment. 

The conditions are somewhat different 
than in the case of the operation of shop 
machines in this way, that power may lie 
broken from the car itself, although there 
is no failure of power to the third rail. 
The cutting off of power from the cars 
themselves may occur many times during 
the trip. There are along the subway 
and elevated roadbed many cross-overs, 
so that it is impossible to lay a contin- 
uous third rail, although third rail shoes 
are carried on either truck and on both 
sides, still the "gaps" are considerably in 
excess of the distance between the shoes 
on one car. This means that current is 
broken to the car while passing through 
or over such a gap. While normally on 
straight tracks, the length of time re- 
quired for a car to pass through a gap 
may be very short, a considerable time 
may elapse when the train is operating 
over a cross-over or along a ladder track, 
so that a considerable decrease in speed 
may result. With several cars in a train 
it would be almost next to impossible for 
the motorman to throw on and off the 
controller at the head of the train, so as 
to match up with the various cars enter- 
ing and leaving the gap. Therefore the 
controller is left full on, so that an auto- 
matic feature must be installed which will 
allow each car to function by itself, de- 
pending on whether it is in contact with 
the third rail or not, and thus preventing 
surging between cars in the same train. 

As mentioned above, the no voltage 
relay drops out the electrical switches on 
each car as ii passes through the gap in 
the third rail, and when power is again 
nn the third rail shoes, the switches come 
in. The rapidity in the closing of the 
switches will depend upon the speed of 
the car when the shoes come into contact 



with the third rail. On long gaps or 
cross-overs, the speed may fall consid- 
erably and a longer time will elapse for 
the switches to come in than if the gap 
was short. In the latter case, the se- 
quence of the operation will be the same 
but they will follow each other as rapidly 
as they can operate. There will be no 
retardation or pause between steps, which 
is the case if the speed of the train falls 
off to a low value. 

To explain why this is so let us refer 
to Fig. 1. In addition to the no-voltage 
relay, there is a limit switch so-called, 
which limits the amount of current which 
can flow into each motor and which de- 
termines the rate of acceleration of the 
car depending on its setting. The no volt- 
age relay consists of a large number of 
turns of small wire wound on a spool, 
this coil being connected across (one end 
to the 600 volts, the other end to ground). 
We know that a current of small value 
will flow through this coil as this circuit 
is of high resistance. The flow of the 
current causes magnetization of the 
plunger which passes through the core 




from 
3" rail ' 



600(v). 

<3 control to 

--• ^^ wires motor 

i ^>(") 
Ground ' ' 



3i 



-(c) 



tc 



No Voltage Relay 



control 
wires 

Limit Switch 



FIG. 1. 



of the coil, and the plunger is drawn up- 
ward. On the bottom of this plunger is a 
small circular disc (d) which when in 
the up position, connects together a pair 
of control wires. These control wires 
must be connected together to keep the 
switches in the operating position. When 
the third rail shoes leave the third rail 
there will be no current flowing through 
the no voltage relay coil, and the plunger 
will drop due to gravity, thus breaking 
the contact of the two control wires and 
the disc thus opening up (as explained 
above ) the electrical switches. On appli- 
cation of current to the car, the coil is 
again energized, the disc is drawn up, the 
control wires are connected together 
again, and the switches come in. 

The speed of the switches coming in, 
depends on the speed of the car at the 
time it gets the power, and this is gov- 
erned by the limit switch. The limit 
switch, in principle, is a relay, but the 
plunger is operated from the current 
flowing through a few turns of heavy 
copper strap which carries current for a 
ingle motor. This limit switch oper- 



ates and controls the switches when the 
car starts from a stand-still. The motor- 
man throws the master controller handle 
to the full-on running position. The 
plunger in the limit switch is loaded so 
that its weight will require a certain 
amount of current through the coil, be- 
fore it will raise. Immediately after the 
master controller handle is thrown on, 
there is a flow of current to the motor, 
the plunger raises breaking the contacts 
on the disc (c) opening up the control 
wires and preventing further progress of 
the switches. We know that as an elec- 
tric motor speeds up that the current value 
falls due to the back electromotive force 
increasing with the speed. When the cur- 
rent falls to a certain value, the plunger 
is heavier than the magnetic pull and it 
falls. Contact is again made on the con- 
trol wires, and another switch comes in, 
which cuts out a step of resistance ; more 
current flows to the motor, the plunger is 
drawn up again and is held until the 
motor speeds up, and the current value 
falls. This is repeated for each step of 
the resistance until the switches are all 
in. 

It can be readily seen and understood 
that if the train was running say at ten 
miles an hour, when the current was con- 
nected, that the back electromotive force 
of the motor would be such that several 
steps among the switches would havL- 
to occur, before sufficient current would 
pass through the limit switch coil to raise 
the plunger and prevent further progres- 
sion of the switches. If the speed was 
fifteen miles an hour, more switches 
would come in before progression would 
be stopped ; and if twenty miles an hour 
were obtained, all of the switches could 
come in without the current value ex- 
ceeding the picking up value for the limit 
switch. This explains why there may be 
a retardation of the switches if the speed 
drops to a sufficiently low value while 
there would be no retardation if the gaps 
were short. 

This automatic feature is the no-volt- 
age relay which in a way is exactly sim- 
ilar to the no-voltage release or control 
described in the previous issue of this 
magazine, for machine tool operation. It 
is a relay connected across the third rail 
voltage with power on the car. that is. 
when the third rail shoes are in contact 
with the third rail. The operation of the 
control switches is governed by the ope- 
ration of the master controller at the 
head end of the train and operated by the 
motorman. When the master controller 



130 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April. 1918 



is on, the switches are in. When it is 
thrown off, the switches open and the 
power is disconnected from the motors 
ami the train is then coasting. When the 
master controller is on and the switches 
are closed, the no-voltage relay plays no 
part Let us suppose the train takes a 
cross-over or passes through a gap. 
When the voltage is disconnected from 
the car due to the third rail shoes leav- 
ing the third rail, there is no longer any 
energy to hold the no-voltage relay in its 
operating position and the relay dropping 
out causes the switches which connect the 
power to the motors to open and this car 
is in the off position, although the motor- 
man has not thrown off the controller. 
As soon as the current is again connected 
to the car, due to the third rail shoes 
coming in contact again with the third 
rail, the no-voltage relay rises and the 
switches come in step hy step in the same 
sequerice and order as if the motormau 
had thrown off the controller and notched 
it up again. 

This no-voltage relay therefore makes 
each car automatic, in action, resulting in 
perfectly smooth operation of the train 
through the gaps, cross-covers, etc., and 
it is quite imperceptihle to the passengers. 



The Portable Railroad Sub-Station. 

In our previous articles we have been 
discussing the design and construction of 
the railway sub-station and have de- 
scribed in detail the automatic sub-sta- 
tion. There is another type of sub-station 
which is of considerable interest which is 
known as the "portable sub-station." As 
the name implies, it is a sub-station which 
can be moved from place to place. For 
convenience, the complete sub-station ap- 
paratus is mounted on railroad trucks so 
that it can be transported over the road. 

The portable sub-station has been in 
successful operation on a number of elec- 
tric railways throughout the country, anil 
the universal experience has been that a 
portable sub-station is always worth con- 
siderably more than what it costs. Be- 
low are a few of the uses which can be 
made of the sub-station of this type. 

first — It constitutes a spare equipment 
for practically any number of sub-stations 
and renders unnecessary the installation 
of spare equipment in each. A railway 
load is generally irregular and sustains 
maximum peaks during rush hours or ab- 
normal load conditions. Spare rotaries 
and equipment are usually mounted in 
each sub-station so as to care for the 
over-load condition, or to he used in case 
of emergency where one machine may be 
out of commission on account of trouble 
or out of commission on account of in- 
spection and over-hauling. A portable 
sub-station which can be moved from one 
sub-station to another would be available 
for the furnishing of power in case ot 
emergencj conditions and it would be pos- 
sible to use this portable sub-station as 



the spare equipment for the entire system. 

Secondly — It can be used to increase 
the capacity of a permanent sub-station 
H hen the load is unusually heavy. There 
may be times, due to abnormal traffic, 
v\ hen the load on one particular sub-sta- 
tion would be exceptionally severe and 
greater than the capacity of a permanent 
sub-station. By locating the portable sub- 
station close to the permanent one the ab- 
normal load can be taken care of and no 
consideration given to the power require- 
ments which would be necessary if the 
portable station was not available. In 
other words, with only the permanent sta- 
tion furnishing power, the size and spac- 
ing of the electric train would have to be 
regulated so as not to cause a power de- 
mand greater than the capacity of the 
sub-station, and undoubtedly this arrange- 
ment would be far below the maximum 
traffic that could be handled. 

Thirdly — It can be used for determin- 
ing the most advantageous point at which 
to locate a permanent sub-station. This 
use needs hardly any explanation. With 
the growth in traffic, it may be necessary 
to build a new sub-station, and the most 
suitable location from an electrical stand- 
point can be determined by the cut and 
try method ; that is, by locating the port- 
able sub-station at two or three different 
points and comparing results. It can also 
be used to provide service while a per- 
manent sub-station is being over-hauled 
or re-built, and it can be used (inverted) 
to test any cable and in transmitting en- 
ergy round a break when a high tension 



gument in promoting the sale of electric 
power, as it can be drawn to the desired 
point and there arranged to carry the 
load for a trial period to demonstrate the 
advantages of purchased power. 

High voltage alternating current is of 
course required for the operation of the 
portable sub-station and it can therefore 
only be used where the high voltagi is 
available. In railway work, power is sup- 
plied from a central station and the high 
voltage is transmitted from this station 
to the various sub-stations. Since the 
railway owns the right-of-way, it is most 
economical to run the high voltage wires 
on their own right-of-way, and these 
high tension wires are generally strung 
along the top of the poles which carry 
the other service wires for the operation 
of the road. Generally there are high 
tension wires throughout the whole right- 
of-way, so that practically the portable 
sub-station can be used at any desired 
point. The direct current from the port- 
able sub-station can be made available 
very quickly, as its production involves 
only the transferring of the sub-station 
and its connections to the high tension 
line. 

The general view of one of these sub- 
stations is shown in Fig. 1. The whole 
is mounted on a railroad flat car of M. 
C. f>. standard type, so that it can be 
moved over any road. A sectional eleva- 
tion is shown in Fig. 2. The weight and 
dimensions are a minimum. All of the 
"live" parts are carefully protected, so 
that the danger of accidental contact is 




FIG. 1. ELECTRIC POWER SUB-STATION PORTAKI.K. 



line is being repaired. Normally, the sub- 
station receives the high tension current, 
transmitting it to direct current at ap- 
proximately 600 volts. By "inverted" we 
mean that direct current is fed to the ro- 
tary and alternating current is generated 
which, when connected to the trans- 
former, is stepped up to high voltage al- 
ternating current. When used in this 
way, high voltage alternating current is 
available for testing purposes. 

fourthly — It can be made a telling ar- 



minimized. A study of the Figs. 1 and 2 
will show that the high tension voltage 
is not taken into the cab. The high volt- 
age, switching and protective apparatus 
is mounted out of the way on the roof of 
the car. While these switches are on the 
outside they are controlled from a switch- 
board mounted directly underneath, by 
means of a remote control handle. The 
transformer is mounted directly over the 
truck at the uncovered end of the car. 
This arrangement is perfectly feasible, as 



April. 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



131 



it is an easy matter to construct trans- 
formers for outdoor service where ex- 
posure to the rain, snow, etc., does not 
interfere with its satisfactory operation. 
The rotary converter and switchhoard, 
however, are placed inside of the cab. 

A very convenient and satisfactory 
method for opening and closing the high 
tension current is by means of the air- 
break Burke type of switch. The switches, 



High Tfmton M/tr 




heat. On rising, the distance- between the 
end of the arc becomes greater and 
greater; the arc being "drawn out," so to 
speak. On reaching the end of the horns, 
points BB, the ends of the arc can extend 
no further, but the center does, and final- 
ly breaks, at which time the flow of cur- 
rent is disrupted. Due to the careful de- 
sign, portable sub-stations of 500 KVV. 
capacity for alternating current voltages 
up to 44,000 have been built and are in 
use. 




FIG 2. FLAN AXI) SECTIONAL VIEWS OF 
PORTABLE SUB-STATION. 

as mentioned above, are controlled from 
the inside of the cab. Referring to Fig. 3, 
it may be noted that on the top of the 
switch, which is mounted on the insula- 
tors, is a pair of horns. The arrangement 
is such that the contact is made and 
broken on the horns while the switch it- 
self is closed, the horns being shunted by 
the blade. In opening, the horns stay in 




PIG, 



BURKE AIR-BREAK HORN 
SWIT1 II. 



contact until after the blade is clear of 
the jaw, then they open and the arc is 
taken on the horns and extinguished 
thereon. In the permanent sub-station 
usually the old circuit-breaker is used. 
the oil extinguishing the arc which it 
forms when the contacts are opened. In 
the case of the horn gap, the arc starts at 
the point A, but quickly rises due to the 



Importance of the Superheater 
Damper. 

One of the most important require- 
ments in obtaining the full effectiveness 
of a superheater is the proper operation 
of the damper and its rigging. From 
time to time attention has been called to 
the damage done and the failures caused 
. b) reason of plugged flues, leaky steam 
joints and other troubles which affect the 
steaming of a locomotive, and attention 
has been called to the fact that these con- 
ditions reduce superheat. Little has, how- 
ever, been said about the trouble arising 
from a damper working improperly. It 
may be just as detrimental to locomotive 
performance as any of the things already 
mentioned. 

The damper controls the draft ant', 
therefore, the flow of gases through the 
large Hues. It is placed just below the 
bottom row of large flues, usually on the 
same level with the table plate, and is 
operated by a small cylinder bolted on 
the side of the smoke-box. This cylinder 
is connected either to the steam pipe or 
blower, as the case may be, by a yi-m. 
copper pipe, and works automatically upon 
the opening of the throttle or blower 
valve. This operation opens the damper 
which is held in the closed position by a 
counterweight when the throttle is closed. 
The damper, as thus operated, protects 
the superheater units from overheating 
when there is no steam passing through 
them. Failure of the damper to operate 
properly, materially reduces the steaming 
capacity of the boiler and, consequently, 
reduces the degree of superheat. For in- 
stance, if the damper failed to open, it 
would obstruct the passage of gases 
through the tubes and Hues above it, thus 
considerably reducing the boiler evapora- 
tion and preventing the effective super- 
heating of the steam passing through the 
units. 

It is also bad practice to wire up or 
Mock open the damper. If the damper is 
kept open continuously it is equivalent to 
having no damper at all. The firebox 
gases passing through the large flues and 
around the units when no steam is in them 
are very likely to burn the ends, warp the 
units and cause leaks, and generally 
shorten the life of the units. Fnginemen 
have been kown to deliberately tie up the 
damper although it had proved to be in 
working condition when the engine left 



the engine house. Enginehouse empl( 
have been known to do the same thing 

when tiring up and it is just such pra 
tices as these that lead to engine failun s 

One may say that dampers and rij 
should be given a careful inspection at 
frequent intervals. This requires but lit- 
tle time to do. One of the first things to 
asscertain is whether the damper closi 
tightly and, also, whether it has its pi 
opening. Search for irregularities. See 
that the damper cylinder piston has a full 
stroke and be particular to see that the 
connecting link between the damper shaft 
and the cylinder arm is of the correct 
length and that there is no lost motion in 
any part of the rigging that would tend 
to prevent full opening or closing. Keep 
the small copper steam pipe leading from 
the steam chest or steam pipe to the 
damper cylinder well protected against 
the effects of cold weather. This can 
readily be done by wrapping it with ' [-in. 
asbestos rope and covering that with 
canvas. See that there are no pockets in 
this pipe where water can accumulate and 
freeze. Drain from the damper cylinder 
to the exhaust passage of the locomotive 
cylinders by the use of a pipe, and cover 
it in the same manner as the steam pipe 
is covered. See that the cylinder and 
the connections in the rigging are lubri- 
cated. Paint the counterweight white so 
that it is easily visible to the enginemen. 
If the damper cylinder is so located that 
the counterweight is not visible, use a 
small target of any description on the 
counterweight arm and place it above t! ■ 
running board where it can easily b? 
seen. An indicator of some kind is in- 
valuable. 

Bring home to the enginemen that the 
correct functioning of the damper is es- 
sential if the hands on the steam gaug? 
and pyrometer are to indicate the correct 
steam pressure and temperature, because 
the proper steaming of the locomotive de- 
pends largely on the proper action of the 
damper. 



Removal. 
We have to announce the change of 
address of the Buffalo Brake Beam Com- 
pany. They have moved from 30 Pine 
street. New York, to the Mutual Life In- 
surance Building. 32 Nassau street. N'e.v 
York. All communications should now 
be addressed to their new offices. This 
well known firm are the manufacturers of 
Buffalo Truss Beams; Buffalo Truss 
Beams with adjustable heads; Buffalo 1 
Beams. brake beams; Buffalo special rolled 
section brake beams, and brake beam 
forging s. etc. 



New Regiment of Engineers. 
Col. Frederick Mears. formerly a mem- 
ber of the Alaskan Engineering Commis- 
sion, is organizing the Thirty-first Regi- 
ment of Engineers. Recruiting offices are 
being established at various points. 



132 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April. 1918 



Items of Personal Interest 



Mr. F. W. Kritcliey has been appointed 
superintendent of shops of the Wheeling 
& Lake Erie, with office at Brewster, O. 

Mr. G. O. Ilnckett has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy, with office at Alliance. 
Nebr. 

Mr. Arthur Grohm has been appointed 
general master mechanic of the Missouri. 
Kansas & Texas, with headquarters at 
Denison, Tex. 

Mr. T. D. Sedwick, formerly acting en- 
gineer of tests of the Chicago, Rock Isl- 
and & Pacific, has been appointed en- 
gineer of tests, with office at Chicago, III. 

Mr. W. C. Davis has been appointed 
road foreman of engines of the Shasta 
division of the Southern Pacific, with of- 
fice at Dunsmuir, Cal., succeeding Mr. R. 
W. Cuvellier. 

Mr. J. M. Wood has been appointed 
foreman of freight car repairs of the 
Georgia Southern & Florida, with office 
at Macon, Ga. 

Mr. A. G. Saunders has been appointed 
master car repairer of the Tucson di- 
vision of the Southern Pacific, with office 
at Tucson, Ariz. 

Mr. J. T. Slavin has been appointed 
assistant master mechanic of the Coast 
division of the Southern Pacific, with of- 
fice at San Francisco, Cal., succeeding 
Mr. H. H. Carrick. 

Mr. E. C. Rudloff has been appointed 
foreman of the car department of the 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas, with office at 
Denison, Tex., succeeding Mr. W. H. 
Macon, transferred. 

Mr. J. H. Phillips, formerly traveling 
engineer on the Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul, has been appointed division 
master mechanic of the Northern division, 
with office at Horicon, Wis. 

Mr. P. D. Miller, formerly assistant 
division engineer of the Pennsylvania, 
with office at Cambridge, Ohio, has been 
transferred to Toledo, Ohio, succeeding 
Mr. Howard O'Brien, resigned. 

Mr. F. F. Gaines, formerly superintend- 
ent of motive power of the Central of 
Georgia, has accepted an appointment on 
the staff of Mr. C. H. Markham, regional 
railroad director, with office at Atlanta, 
Ga. 

Mr. W. A. .Randon has been appointed 
master mechanic of the first division of the 
Denver and Rio Grande with office at 
Pueblo, Colo., and Mr. W. C. Stevens has 
been appointed superintendent of shop at 
Burnham. 

Mr. E. H. Mattingly, formerly car fore- 
man of the Baltimore & Ohio, at South 
Orange, 111., has been appointed general 
car foreman of the Chicago district of 
tlu- Baltimore & Ohio, and the Baltimore 
& Ohio Chicago Terminal railroads. 
Mr. G. B. Herrington has been as- 



signed as supervising engineer of the 
Tucson division of the Southern Pacific, 
with headquarters :it Tucson, Ariz., and 
will have charge of all matters pertaining 
to maintenance of way and structures. 

Mr. H. T. Bentley, superintendent of 
motive power and machinery of the Chi- 
cago & Northwestern, has been requested 
to join the staff of the director-general 
of railroads at Washington, D. C. Mr. 
Bentley has obtained leave of absence for 
an indefinite period. 

Mr. Charles Raitt. formerly general 
foreman of the car department of the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa l'e, at Rich- 
mond, Cal., has been appointed master 
mechanic of the Arizona division, with 
office at Needles, Cal., succeeding Mr. L. 
A. Mattimore, deceased. 




LOYALL A. OSBORNE. 

Mr. E. E. Adams, formerly consulting 
engineer, and Mr. F. Sercombe, formerh 
assistant controller of the Union Pacific, 
have been appointed assistants to Mr. 
R. S. Lovett, director of the division of 
capital expenditure of the United States 
Railroad Administration at Washington. 

.Mr. NT, \V. Appleton, formerly general 
master mechanic of the Canadian Govern- 
ment Railways, has been appointed super- 
intendent of motive power with office at 
Moncton, N. B., and Mr. W. E. Barnes, 
formerly master mechanic at Moncton, 
succeeds Mr. Appleton as general master 
mechanic. 

Mr. R. E. Grieve has been appointed 
assistant road foreman of engines on the 
Pitsburgh division of the Pennsylvania, 
with office at Derby, Pa., succeeding Mr. 
Franklin Mowry, assigned to other du- 
ties; and Mr. H. S. Gentzel has been ap- 
pointed assistant road foreman of engines, 



with headquarters at East Altoona, Pa. 

Mr. W. F. Ackerman, formerly shop 
superintendent of the Chicago, Burlington 
& Quincy, has been appointed acting su- 
perintendent of motive power, lines west, 
succeeding Mr. T. Roope, on leave of ab- 
sence ; and Mr. G. E. Johnson has been 
appointed assistant superintendent of mo- 
tive power, with office at Lincoln, Neb. 

Mr. Daniel Willard, president of the 
Baltimore and Ohio, has been re-elected 
chairman of the Advisory Commission of 
the Council of National Defense, Mr 
W. S. Gifford and Mr. Grosvenor B. 
Clarkson continue as director and secre- 
tary, respectively, of the commission, as 
well as director and secretary of the 
Council of National Defense. 

Mr. J. L. Fagan, formerly master me- 
chanic of the Denver and Rio Grande 
with office at Grand Junction, Colo., has 
been appointed master mechanic of the 
fourth division with office at Alamosa, 
Colo., and Mr. F. T. Owens, formerly 
assistant master mechanic at Pueblo, has 
been appointed master mechanic at Grand 
Junction, succeeding Mr. Kagan. 

Mr. V. N. Polts has been appointed 
general foreman of the locomotive de- 
partment of the Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific, with office at Liberal, Kan., and 
Mr. H. W. Burkheimer, formerly assist- 
ant foreman of the roundhouse at Knox- 
ville, Tenn., has been appointed night fore- 
man of the roundhouse; and Mr. J. A. 
Murrian has been appointed assistant 
foreman of the roundhouse at Knoxville. 

Mr. Loyall A. Osborne, vice-president 
of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufac- 
turing Company, and chairman of the exec- 
utive committee of the National Confer- 
ence Board, has been appointed by the 
Secretary of Labor, a member of com- 
mittee on industrial peace during the war. 
The committee consists of five representa- 
tives of employers, five labor leaders, and 
two public men, and is expected to pro- 
vide a definite programme in order that 
there may be industrial peace, thus pre- 
venting interruption of industrial produc- 
tion so as not to hamper the conduct of 
the war. 

Mr. Albert J. Stone, vice-president of 
the Erie, has been appointed assistant to 
regional director Mr. A. H. Smith. Mr. 
Stone has earned a great reputation as a 
railroad operating expert. He has filled 
almost every position in the operating de- 
partment of the Erie from that of yard 
clerk, and with the exception of two 
years' service as general superintendent 
of the Delaware & Hudson Company, 
his services have been with the Erie. He 
was for several years general manager 
and elected vice-president in July, 1914. 
Mr. Stone served as a member of the gen- 
eral operating committee of the Eastern 



April, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



133 



railroads which was formed last fall at 
Pittsburgh, in pursuance of a plan for uni- 
fied railroad operation. 

Mr. R. J. Himmelright has been elected 
vice-president of the America Arch Com- 
pany. Mr. Himmelright is from Ohio, 
and graduated with the degree of me- 
chanical engineer at Purdue University, 
and entered railroad service on the Lake. 




R. J. HIMMELRIGHT. 

Shore and Michigan Southern as a special 
apprentice, and gained a wide experience 
in locomotive operation. After serving 
some time with the Locomotive Stoker 
Company as mechanical expert, in 1913 
he accepted a position with the American 
Arch Company as traveling engineer, and 
latterly as manager of the service depart- 
ment which position' he held at the time 
of his recent election. 

Mr. William P. Kenney, who has been 
elected president of the Great Northern, 
entered railway service on the Chicago 
Great Western as a telegraph operator in 
1888, aiid after serving in various clerical 
capacities in the company's service, he be- 
came contracting agent for the Empire 
Line in 1899, and in the same year went 
to the St. Paul & Duluth as chief clerk 
in the general freight office, and in 1900 
was appointed chief clerk in the general 
freight office of the Northern Pacific. In 
1902 he was chief clerk in the general 
freight office of the Great Northern, and 
was advanced to assistant general freight 
agent, assistant to the vice-president, 
assistant traffic manager, general traffic 
manager, and vice-president in charge "I 
traffic. 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul an- 
nounces the appointment of the following 
locomotive engineers to the position of 
traveling engineers: Mr. Ray Austin. 
Illinois division; Mr. W. II. Dempsey, 
Chicago & Milwaukee division; Mr. Hen- 
ry Dersch. Prairie du Chicn and Mineral 
Point divisions ; Mr. Ralph E. Graves, 



Superior division ; Mr. F. B. Higbce, 
Southern Minnesota division; Mr. B. A. 
I.cmbke, Wisconsin Valley division; Mr. 
George II. Lusk, Iowa West and Des 
Moines division; Mr. John P. Lutze, 
Iowa East and Middle division; Mr. A. 
M. Martinson, Racine & Southwestern, 
and Rochelle & Southern line; Mr. C. II. 
Crum, Kansas City division; Mr. George 
Parsage, Chicago Terminals, and Mr. 11. 
S. Rowlands, Sioux City and Dakota di- 
vision. 

Mr. W. L. Reid has been elected vice- 
president and general manager of Lima 
Locomotive Works, Inc., with offices at 
Lima, Ohio. Mr. Reid was born at Pat- 
erson, New Jersey. His entire business 
life has been connected with locomotive 
building. He served his apprenticeship 
in the drawing office and shops of the 
Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works 
at Paterson and became successively 
erecting shop foreman, assistant superin- 
tendent and superintendent of the same 
plant. Leaving the Rogers works he was 
. ppointed assistant superintendent of the 
Prooks Locomotive Works and two years 
later superintendent of the Brooks 
Works. After serving only twenty days 
in the latter position he was appointed 
superintendent of the Schenectady Works 
of the American Locomotive Company. 
I e was later appointed manager of the 
S.henectady plant, and general works 
manager of the American Locomotive 
Company, where his inventive ability 
introduced many important improve- 
ments. Resigning from the Ameri- 
can Locomotive Company he became 




W. L. REID. 

general manager of the National Brake 
and Klcctric Co., Milwaukee. Wis. Six 
months later he resigned to beconv 
eral superintendent of the Baldwin Lo- 
comotive Works at Eddystone, which 
position he held up to the time of his 
recent election. 



OB III A in 

John Farquharson Mcintosh. 

Among the celebrated railroad officials 
w ho have recently passed away was John 
I". M'Intosh, locomotive superintendent 
of the Caledonian Railway. Born in Scot- 
laud, he entered the mechanical depart- 
ment of the Scottish North Eastern Rail- 




IOHN FARQUHARSON M'INTOSH. 

way at Montrose and lived in the same 
house with Angus Sinclair, and together 
they took up the study of mechanical 
subjects that helped them both in their 
careers. In running a locomotive Mr. 
M'Intosh had the misfortune to lose his 
right hand in an accident. He had al- 
ready attracted attention as an earnest 
and studious engineer, and on his recov- 
ery was appointed locomotive inspector 
of the northern section of the road. His 
promotion was rapid. In 1876 he was 
appointed locomotive superintendent at 
Aberdeen. In 1884 he was placed in 
charge of the Caledonian's largest works, 
and in 1891 he became chief inspector of 
the locomotive department of the system 
with headquarters at Glasgow. In 1895 
he was advanced to the chief position as 
locomotive, carriage and wagon super- 
intendent, and retired in 1914, after 52 
years service in railroad work. In 1897 
he was awarded the gold medal at the 
Brussels Exhibition, and at the request of 
the Belgian government furnished designs 
for the locomotives of the state railways 
Me introduced oil fuel and superheaters 
in nearly all of the leading railroads 
in Great Rritain as well as on some of 
the European continental and other for- 
eign railways In 1°-1 1 he was President 
of the Railway Locomotive Engineers, 
and in the same year King George cre- 
ated him a member of the Royal Vic- 
torian Order. Two of his sons are officers 
in active service in the British Army. 



134 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, 1918 



Railroad Equipment Notes 



The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy has 
ordered 4 100-ft. and 1 90-ft. through 
turntables, totaling 365 tons. 



The Guantanamo & Western has or- 
dered 25 40-ton steel frame box cars from 
the American Car & Foundry Company 



with the Dominion Iron & Steel Com 
pany. The government will afterwards 
sell the rails to different Canadian rail- 
ways. 



The Midland Valley has purchased the 
old fair grounds at Wichita, Kan., and 
will build a new roundhouse, shops and 
switching yards. 



The Grand Trunk Pacific will build a 
brick railway station, machine shops and 
roundhouse near Cameron Cove, Prince 
Rupert, B. C, to cost $250,000. 



The Western Maryland has let a con- 
tract to the Price Concrete Construction 
Company, Maryland Trust building, Balti- 
more, Md., for a wheel shop at Hagers- 
town, Md. 



The Missouri Pacific has ordered from 
the Union Switch & Signal Company an 
interlocking machine, 20 levers, to be in- 
stalled in the place of an old machine at 
Halsey, 111. 



The Yazoo & Mississippi Valley has 
ordered from the Union Switch & Signal 
Company material for a mechanical inter- 
locking plant, at Baton Rouge, La., 21 
working levers. 

The Canadian Pacific has ordered from 
the Union Switch & Signal Company ma- 
terial for mechanical interlocking. 13 
working levers, at Komoka, Ont., to re- 
place an old machine. 



The St. Louis-San Francisco has or- 
dered from the General Railway Signal 
Company a mechanical interlocking outfit, 
35 working levers, to be installed by the 
railroad forces at Durant, Okla. 



It is reported that only about 80 miles 
of steel remain to be laid on the Hudson 
Bay Railway, and part of this year's 
Canadian grain crop may be sent to 
Europe over this new short route. 



The Canadian Government Railways 
have placed orders with the Canadian 
Locomotive Company for 6 six-wheel 
locomotives and 4 ten-wheel narrow-gage 
locomotives, to be delivered in June. 

The United States Government has 
ordered 500 low-side gondola cars from 
the Haskell & Barker Car Company, and 
375 high-side gondolas and 200 box cars 
from the Standard Steel Car Company. 



The Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & 
St. Louis contemplates the construction 
of a roundhouse, machine shop and pas- 
senger station at Jeffersonville, Ind. The 
estimated cost of the latter structure is 
$20,000. 

The Pennsylvania has let a contract to 
D. W. McGrath, Columbus, Ohio, for the 
construction of two buildings for its pro- 
posed locomotive repair shop at Columbus. 
A contract for three additional buildings 
will be let at an early date. 



The United States Government has or- 
dered for use on military railroads in 
France in addition to the 3,500 recently 
reported, 500 low side gondola cars from 
the Haskell & Barker Car Company and 
375 high side gondolas and 200 box cars 
from the Standard Steel Car Company. 



The Canadian Government railways 
reported taking 20,000 tons of 67-11). 
rails, originally ordered by the Russian 
Government from mills in the United 
States. It is at present impossible to de- 
liver the rails to Russia. A total of ovei 
50,000 tons of Russian rails may be turned 
over to Canada the same report says. 



Two important new subways in New 
York City, under Lexington avenue north- 
ward from the Grand Central Terminal 
and in Seventh avenue, past the Pennsyl- 
vania station, now substantially completed, 
are likely to lie unused until about July 1, 
because of difficulty in getting materials 
for the electrical equipment of the power 
houses. 



The Pennsylvania has ordered from the 
Union Switch & Signal Company material 
for a mechanical interlocing plant at Port- 
age, Pa., 24 levers; an electro-pneumatic 
interlocking plant with 11 levers, at Paoli, 
Pa. ; two electro-mechanical machines at 
the same place, and for extensive addi- 
tions at Metuchen, N. J.; Harrisburg, Pa., 
and Denholm, Pa. 



The Canadian Government has placed 
an order for 100,000 tons of steel rails 



The Railway Department of Canada, of 
which Hon. J. D. Reid is Minister, is 
mapping out a big programme to meet the 
railway equipment requirements of the 
Dominion. The department estimates that 
there are needed at least 150 engines and 
7,500 box cars. Inquiries are being made 
as to prices, specifications and number of 
engines and cars. A recommendation to 
the Cabinet Council will likely be made at 
an early date. 




DIXON'S 

#^ PAINT 

i^ODR COLORS »<£ 

s **H»aoKCRuaBlS c0 • 

■'ttSEYcrrY. !<■£; 



Long Time 
Protection 

is given to signal appa- 
ratus and all exposed 
metal or woodwork by 

DIXON'S 

[Silica-Graphite 

PAINT 

the Longest Service paint. 
Nature's combination of 
flake silica-graphite, 
mixed with pure boiled 
linseed oil, ■ is the ideal 
combination which forms 
a firm elastic coat that 
will not crack or peel off. 
This prevents access to 
agents that will corrode 
and injure the metal. 
Dixon's Silica-Graphite 
Paint is used throughout 
the world by railroad 
engineers. 

Write for Booklet No. 
69-B and long service 
records. 

Made In JERSEY CITY. N. J, by th. 

Joseph Dixon Crucible 
dXxXn Company dXxXn 

™ ESTABLISHED 1K7 " 



B 132 



April, 1918 



A1IAYAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



135 



Hydraulic 

Riveters Fixed and Poi table 

Punches, Shears, 
Presses, Lifts, Cranes 
and Accumulators. 

Matthews' Fire Hydrants, 

Eddy Valves 

Valve Indicator Posts. 

The Camden High-Pressure Valves. 



Cost Iron Pipe 



R. D. Wood & Company 

Tnglneers, Iron 
rounders, Machinists. 

100 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



For Testing and Washing 
Locomotive Boilers 



USE THE 




Rue Boiler Washer 
and Tester 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

Rue Manufacturing Co. 

228 Cherry Street Philadelphia, Pa. 

Manufacturers of Injectors. Ejectors. 

Boiler Washers and Testers, Boiler Checks. 

( i k Valvei. 



Locomotive Electric Headlights 

of all descriptions 



ft 

fjj 1 COMPANY 

1334 HO. KOSTNER AVENUE CHICAGO. ILL 



I™* TURBO 

7 LL GENERATOR 

ATIONAL sets 



Books, Bulletins, Catalogues, Etc. 




ASHTOINJ 

POP VALVES and GAGES 

The Quality Goods That La»t 

The Athton Valve Co. 
271 Franklin Street, Beaton. Mm 



Powdered Coal as a Fuel. 
An important book on the subject of 
''Powdered Coal as a Fuel," by C. E. 
Herington, M. E., and published by the 
D. Van Nostrand Company, New York, 
comes at a timely occasion, when the 
matter is being seriously considered not 
only by railroad men, but by all interested 
in the economical use of coal. The work 
extends to 211 pages, with 84 illustrations. 
The presswork and binding are excellent. 
The book is divided into 10 chapters, and 
treats fully of experiments with various 
grades of coal, various types of crushers, 
dryers, pulverizers, furnaces and burners. 
The use of powdered coal under boilers is 
also thoroughly described and fully illus- 
trated. The early use, operation and tests 
of powdered coal for locomotives are 
particularly interesting, and the arguments 
in its favor by the use of the appliances 
now perfected are of the most convincing 
kind. It may not be generally known that 
the present annual consumption of pow- 
dered coal in the United States is over 
8,000,000 tons, and its effectiveness and 
economy has been clearly demonstrated. 
Its use on the steam locomotive produces 
a saving of from IS to 25 per cent, in coal 
of equivalent heat value, as compared with 
hand firing of coarse coal on grates. Pow- 
dered coal may run as high as 10 per cent. 
of sulphur and 35 per cent, in ash and still 
produce maximum steam-heating capacity ; 
so that otherwise unsuitable and unsalable 
or refuse grades of coal may be utilized, 
and even the saving in cost per unit of 
heat evolved will be a considerable item. 

Indeed it may be truly said that the 
latest efforts toward the burning of pow- 
dered coal in steam locomotives has now 
passed the experimental stage and ar- 
rangements have been completed for pro- 
ceeding with commercial applications as 
rapidly as the equipment can be produced. 
Not only so, but the use of powdered coal 
permits the removal of the existing dia- 
phragm, table and deflector plates, net- 
tings, band holes and and cinder hoppers, 
and makes possible the enlargement of the 
exhaust nozzle opening, and also dispenses 
with the use of the existing grates, ash 
pans, fire doors and operating gear. 
Three hand levers are all that is necessary 
to completely control the appliance in the 
regulation of the fuel and air supply to 
suit standing, drifting or working condi- 
tions. 

We have before now described the 
appliance for burning powdered coal 
in locomotives in recent issues of RAIL- 
u w and Locomotive Engineering, but 
it may be briefly stated that the pre- 
pared fuel, having been supplied to 
an enclosed fuel tank, gravitates to 
the conveyor screws, which carry it to 
the fuel and pressure air feeders, where 
it is thoroughly commingled with and car- 
ried by the pressure air through the con- 



necting hose to the fuel and pressure air 
nozzles and blown into the fuel and air 
mixers. In combustible form the fuel is 
drawn into the furnace by the action of 
the smqkebox draft. In the matter of 
slag, ash and soot collected after each trip 
there is less than two handfuls. 

The author also clears up the matter of 
explosions very thoroughly, showing that 
whatever few explosions have occurred in 
the past were entirely due to defective 
mechanism or carelssness, and that with 
the appliances now in use explosions are 
impossible. The author has had extensive 
experience and his statements have the 
verity of personal observation under all 
sorts and conditions of service. A finely 
collated bibliography completes the book. 
Price three dollars a copy. 



Railroad Repair Shops. 

From the report just issued by the De- 
partment of Commerce, embracing a cen- 
sus of manufactures, under the heading 
of railroad repair shops, it is stated that 
some idea of the magnitude of work re- 
quired to keep the rolling stock in proper 
working condition can be gained by con- 
sulting the tables of statistics indicating 
that the enumerated reports show that 
there were 64,760 locomotives, 53,466 pas- 
senger service cars, 2,325,647 freight- 
service cars, and 124.709 company-service 
cars in use. The number of repair shops 
is given as 1,362, and employees as 361,- 
925. The tables furnished show a de- 
crease of over 10 per cent, in the early 
years of the century, due no doubt to the 
concentration of repair work in large re- 
pair shops. 

Of the employees 99.7 per cent, were 
males and three-tenths of 1 per cent, 
females. Future reports will show a con- 
siderable increase in the latter class. The 
degree of fluctuation in the employment 
of wage earners in this industry was very 
small, the tendency showing a slight 
increase during the winter months. Sixty- 
six per cent, of the wage earners 
employed in the industry were in establish- 
ments where the prevailing hours of labor 
were 54 or fewer per week. A tendency 
toward a shorter working day is shown 
by the fact that the number employed in 
establishments operating less than 54 
hours per week represented 36.8 per cent, 
as against 51 per cent, ten years ago. 
The tables also show that fewer locomo- 
tives and cars were built in steam railroad 
shops in 1914 than during some of the 
earlier census years, but at the same time 
the value of the work showed a consider- 
able increase, owing doubtless to the in- 
creased weight of the motive power and 
rolling stock. 

In regard to electric railroad repair 
shops the latest official reports show that 
28,215 persons were employed in the in- 



136 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, 1918 



dustry, the average of females being even 
less than those engaged in steam railroad 
shops. In contradistinction in the matter 
of the fluctuation in the number of em- 
ployees a slight increase is reported dur- 
ing the summer months. The number of 
establishments reported for the industry 
is 649, of which 34 per cent, employed 
over 500 persons in each establishment. 



The Locomotive Furnace. 
Bulletin No. 1, issued by the American 
Arch Company, consists of 16 pages and 
12 illustrations, with an illuminated cover 
design, the text being the work of Mr. J. 
T. Anthony, assistant to the president, 
and intended as the first of a series of 
bulletins giving a general outline of the 
problems met with in firebox and boiler 
design — combustion, or the generation of 
heat; the transfer of heat by radiation, 
convection and conduction ; heat absorp- 
tion, evaporation and kindred subjects. 
There is a mastery of detail in the work, 
particularly in regard to the heat losses 
and such steps as have already been taken 
to overcome them. The author shows a 
thorough familiarity with the marked im- 
provements that have been made in recent 
years, and points out clearly and forcibly 
that it is the furnace that controls the effi- 
ciency and capacity of the locomotive as a 
whole. It will be generally admitted that 
there has not been as much attention 
given to improvements in this important 
feature of locomotive construction as 
there might have been, but a degree of 
enlightened progress has already been 
reached that is altogether admirable, par- 
ticularly in the thorough discovery of the 
variety of causes from which heat losses 
arise. The publication is not only timely 
in its appearance when the importance of 
fuel economy is so pressing, but it gives 
promise of still higher accomplishments 
in the realm to which it is devoted. Copies 
of the Bulletin may be had on application 
to the company's main office, 30 Church 
St., New York. 



A Pennsylvania Poster. 
Another large illuminated poster has 
just been distributed along the Pennsyl- 
vania lines, recapitulating the earnest and 
eloquent appeal made by the Director 
General of Railroads of the unselfish 
support of the government by every rail- 
road officer and employee. The letter- 
press is of such size that he who runs 
may read. Briefly it is a call for co- 
operation among railway employees, not 
antagonism ; confidence, not suspicion ; 
mutual helpfulness, not grudging perfor- 
mance; just consideration, not arbitrary 
disregard of each other's rights and feel- 
ings ; a fine discipline based on mutual 
respect and sympathy; and an earnest de- 
sire to serve the great public faithfully 
and efficiently. The document fittingly 
closes with an assurance by President 
Samuel Rea that the officers and em- 



ployees will continue to acquit themselves 
honorably and faithfully, and with ever- 
renewed devotion to the great national 
service in which they are engaged, they 
will be found equal to the great emer- 
gency. 



Combustion of Coal and Design of 
Furnaces. 

Bulletin 135, issued from the government 
printing office, is of unusual interest, con- 
taining as it does the details of elaborate 
tests of coal combustion, and designs of 
furnaces with description of apparatus 
and practical application of results. The 
size of combustion space required for any 
desired completeness of combustion, rate 
of firing, and the effect of the excess air 
on combustion are shown by a series of 
diagrams. The possibility of the combus- 
tion of bituminous coal without smoke or 
soot is clearly demonstrated. It is shown 
that sunt is formed at the surface of the 
fuel bed by heating the hydrocarbons in 
absence of air. It is not formed by the 
hydrocarbon gases striking the cooling 
surfaces of the boiler. As a matter of 
fact only a very small trace of the hydro- 
carbon gases ever reach the surface of 
the boiler. Hydrocarbons that do so are 
prevented from decomposition by the cool- 
ing effect of the contact. The cooling 
surfaces do not cause the formation of 
soot ; they merely collect soot and pre- 
vent its combustion. It seems that most 
mechanical stokers are smokeless not be- 
cause they burn the smoke, but because 
they burn the coal in such a way that 
very little soot or smoke is produced. 
Hand-fired furnaces are smoky because 
soot is produced in or near the fuel bed, 
and can not be burned in the limited com- 
bustion space of the furnace. Copies of 
this - publication may be obtained free of 
charge by addressing the Director of the 
Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C. 



MacRae's Blue Book. 

Mr. Albert MacRae, the accomplished 
editor of the Santa Fe Magazine, has 
shown his patriotic desire to aid the 
Government in the purchase of railway 
material. The annual periodical known 
as MacRae's Blue Book, furnishes a 
classified index of over 12,000 articles 
used on railways, and also shows in al- 
phabetical order the names and ad Iresses 
of all important manufacturers, with 
trade names, together with a list price 
section, and a miscellaneous data section. 
The book extends to fifteen hundred 
pages, and is usually sold at ten dollars 
per copy. Mr. MacRae offered the book 
free to the various Governmental depart- 
ments, some of whom .had been already 
using the book, among others the chief 
of engineers having ordered seventy-four 
copies. Mr. MacRae's offer has been 
gratefully accepted by the Government, 
and 210 copies have been already fur- 
nished, and letters of, thanks and appre- 



ciation have been received by Mr. Mac- 
Rae from hundreds of the leading army 
officers. The 1918 edition is the best 
hitherto published, and in its particular 
field stands alone. 



Motor-Driven Compressors. 
The Westinghouse Traction Brake 
Company, Industrial Department, under 
date of February, 1918, has issued a high 
grade finely illustrated, copyrighted book- 
let, 6x9 inches, 113 pages, describing in 
detail its complete line of motor driven 
compressors, both stationary and port- 
able installations, ranging in capacities 
from 11 to 110 cubic feet. Compressed 
air accessories, for doing almost every 
possible kind of work, are included. All 
users of compressed air tools will find 
many new features and valuable labor 
saving help in this book, designated as 
Publication No. 9035. 



Railway Statistics. 
The Bureau of Railway News and Sta- 
tistics has issued their fourteenth annual 
volume from the press of Rogers & Hall 
Company, Chicago, 111. It is full of valu- 
able data, finely condensed and arranged. 
The work is of real value as furnishing 
reliable facts to railway men. 



Petroleum Industry. 
A bulletin on the petroleum industry 
recently completed shows that in the nine 
months ended September 30 stocks of oil 
decreased 9,779,000 barrels. 




The Norwalk Iron Works Co. 

SOUTH NORWALK, CONN. 

Makers of Air and Gas Compressors 

For All Purposes 
Send for Catalog 




THE ARMSTRONG IMPROVED I 

PACKER RATCHET DRILLS? 

Are ALL STTEL 

Hardened All Over 

Will outwear two of the soft kind. 

We make all kinds — all sizes. 

Do yon want a catalog? 



ARMSTRONG BHOS.TOOLCO. 

"The Tool Holder P eopl e." 
112 N. FRANCISCO AVE.. CHICAGO, ILL. 




Iv*o Locomotive ClljIllcCnllJ 

4 Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling Stock and Appliances 



Vol. XXXI 



114 Liberty Street, New York, May, 1918 



No. 5 



Specifications of the United States Government 
Standard for Locomotives 

It is with great satisfaction that the ly commend to the Director-General's tection against under-bidding by con- 
evident aim in framing the Government consideration the fact that a large pro- cerns whose overhead cost has not in- 
standard equipment designs and specifica- portion of these enterprises rest upon eluded the experimentation, demoli- 
tions there appears to be a desire to patent rights and that an indispensable stration, development, or the improve- 
admit a broad scope of interchangeable essential to preserving the enterprises ment of the device. The Director-Gen- 




t~ £ t" i t x. 



-(fr-fr -<M* L 



i 



r J thr c i>- 4 ""^ : ^± 



"•>< ■ 




^i- 1 4^4^H^ 



^v&g&ifc* . 




*] 



£1 



^M ^Mft 



^ 1 ~r<\>-t-- < +^z: 




fc-ri 



m- 



-C> 



{?-= 



-d 



£Z 



^fflf^p^^r^-%a==p ^ 



FIG. 7 



"A* I.. 



^ qs^f ^- ^y^ 4^ 



FIG. 4. 




FIG. 8 



FIG. 1. PROPOSED U. S. GOVERNMENT STANDARD LIGHT AND HEAVY MIKADO TYPE '-8-2 ENGINE Fig • I IGHT \ND 
HEAVY MOUNTAIN TYPE 4-8-2. FIG. 3. LIGHT AND HEAVY PACIFIC TYPE (-6-2 FIG J LIGHT Wl> HEAVY 
2-10-2 TYPE. FIG. 5. SIX WHEEL SWITCHER. FIG. 6. EIGHT WHEEL SWITCHER FIG. 7. MALLET 
LOCOMOTIVE 2-6-6-2. FIG. 8. MALLET LOCOMOTIVE 2-8-8 



appliances. We are ylad to record the 
assurance by the Director-General that 
his purpose is to encourage (daring 
Government control) the demonstration 
and adoption of improvements which 
are yet to be established. This is a 
policy of progress, and will tend to 
preserve and stimulate the industrial 
enterprises whose purpose it is to 
achieve mechanical advance in the 
science of transportation. We earnest - 



themselves is to maintain unimpaired 
the normal status of patents. The 
owner of a patent who makes a contract 
with a manufacturer has an agreement 
which cannot be abrogated without his 
consent and which he may not be in 
position to abrogate. The royalties are 
the earnings of his patent. The enter- 
prise which owns patents has for an 
asset, (in some cases — its chief asset 
a- a going business i the riyht .if pro- 



eral has evidently no desire to disturb 
or disrupt business, and many of the 
fears that have been hastily expressed, 
may be found, on careful examination, 
to be entirely groundless. 

The specifications for standard loco- 
motives for the I'nited States Govern- 
ment, which we trive, are made up of a 
lis) of dimensions one each for several 
kinds of motive power. These include 
a light and a heavy Mikado type of 



138 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



May. 1918 



locomotive, 2-8-2. Beginning with the 
lighter type we have: — General Dimen- 
sions, Light Mikado, 2-8-2 engines. Fig 1. 
Gauge, 4 ft. 854 ins.; Fuel, soft coal; 
Cylinders, Simple; Diameter, 26 ins.; 
Stroke, 30 ins.; Drivers, Diameter, 63 
ins.; Working Pressure, 200 lbs.; Boiler, 
Diameter, 78 ins. ; Type, conical wagon 
Top; Fire Box, U4% ins. long; 8454 
ins. wide; Tubes, No. 216, Diameter, 
254 ins.; Flues, No. 40, Diameter, 5J4 
ins.; Length, 19 ft. ins.; Heating Sur- 
face (approximate) Firebox & Com- 
bustion Chamber, 259 sq. ft.; Fire brick 
tubes, 27 sq. ft.; 2J4 in. tubes. 2407 sq. 
ft.; 554 in. Flues, 1090 sq. ft.; Total, 
3,783 sq. ft. ; Grate area, 67.7 sq. ft. ; Ratio 
to heat, surf., 1 to 56.8; Superheating 
surface, 882 sq. ft. ; Wheel base, driv- 
ing, 16 ft. 9 ins. ; Wheel base. Total 
Engine, 36 ft. 1 in. ; Wheel base. Engine 
& Tender, 71 ft. 5]/ 2 ins.; Weight in 
working order (approximate) on 
drivers, 220,000 lbs. ; on Front truck, 
23,000 lbs.; on Back Truck, 47,000 lbs.; 
Total engine, 290,000 lbs.; Tender, 
172,000 lbs.; Tractive Power. 54,600 lbs.; 
Ratio of Adhesion, 4.02; Water Capac- 
ity, 10,000 gals.; Fuel capacity, 16 tons. 
Limiting conditions. Loaded drawing 
dimensions: 15 ft. ins. high; 10 ft. 4 
ins. width over cylinders; 10 ft. ins. 
over cab body; 10 ft. 2 ins. over cab 
eaves and boards, not including cab 
handles. Curves, 19 degs. ; Grades, 2 
per cent. ; Turntables, 85 ft. 

General Dimensions, Heavy Mikado 
2-8-2 engine. Fig. 1. Gauge, 4 ft. 854 ins. ; 
"Fuel, soft coal; Cylinders, simple Diam- 
eter, 27 ins. ; Stroke, 32 ins. ; Drivers, 
Diameter, 63 ins. ; Working pressure, 
190 lbs. : Boiler, diameter, 86 ins. ; 
Type, Conical wagon top : Firebox, 
12054 ins. long; 84' 4 ins. wide; Tubes, 
No. 247, diameter. 2\i ins.; Flues. Xo. 
45, diameter, 554 ins.; Length, 19 ft. 
ins.; Heating Surface (approximated 
Fire Box & Combustion Chamber, 292 
sq. ft.; Fire Brick Tubes, 27 sq. ft.; 
2% in. Tubes, 2752 sq. ft.: 5</ 2 in.; Flues, 
1226 sq. ft.; Total. 4297 sq. ft.; Grate 
area, 70S sq. ft.; Ratio to heat, surf., 

1 to 60.5 ; Superheating surface, 993 sq. 
ft.; Wheel Base, driving, 16 ft. 9 ins.; 
Wheel base. Total Engine, 36 ft. 1 in. ; 
Wheel base, Engine & Tender, 71 ft. 
9]/ 2 ins.; Weight in Working Order 
(Approximate) on drivers. 240.000 lbs.; 
on Front Truck, 27.000 lbs.: on Back 
Truck, 58,000 lbs. Total engine. 325,- 
000 lbs.; Tender, 172.000 lbs.; Tractive 
power. 60.000 lbs. ; Ratio of Adhesion. 4 : 
Water capacity, 10,000 gals. ; Fuel 
capacity, 16 tons. Limiting conditions. 
Loaded drawing dimensions: 15 ft. 
ins. high; 10 ft. 4 ins. width over cylind- 
ers; 10 ft. ins. over cab body; 10 ft. 

2 ins. over cab eaves and boards, not 
including cab handles. Curves, 19 degs. ; 
Grades, 2 per cent; Turntables, 85 ft. 

General Dimensions, Light Mountain 
or 4-8-2 engine : Fig. 2. Gauge, 4 ft. 854 



ins.; Fuel, soft coal; Cylinders, Simple; 
Diameter, 27 ins.; Stroke, 30 ins.; 
Drivers, Diameter, 69 ins.; Working 
Pressure, 200 lbs.; Boiler, Diameter, 78 
ins. ; Type, Conical wagon top Fire 
Box, 120'4 ins. long; 8454 ins. wide; 
Tubes, No. 216, diameter, 2% ins.; 
Flues, No. 40, diameter, 5 54 ins.; Length, 
20 ft. 6 ins.; Heating Surface (approx- 
imate ) Fire Box and Combustion Cham- 
ber, 329 sq. ft.; Fire brick tubes, 27 sq. 
ft.; 2j4-in. tubes, 2598 sq. ft.; 554-in.- 
Flues, 1176 sq. ft.; Total, 4130 sq. ft.; 
Grate area, 70.8 sq. ft.; Ratio to heat, 
surf., 1 to 58.2; Superheating surface. 
957 sq. ft.; Wheel Base, driving, 18 ft. 
3 ins. ; Wheel base, total engine, 40 
ft. ins. ; Wheel base. Engine & Tender, 
75 ft. 854 ins.; Weight in Working Order 
(Approximate) on drivers, 220,000 lbs.; 
on Front Truck, 50,000 lbs.; on Back 
Truck, 50.000 lbs.; Total Engine, 320,- 
000 lbs.; Tender, 172,000 lbs.; Tractive 
Power, 53,900 lbs.; Ratio of Adhesion, 
4.08; Water capacity. 10,000 gals.; Fuel 
capacity, 16 tons. Limiting conditions. 
Loaded drawing dimensions: 15 ft. 
ins. high ; 10 ft. 4 ins. width over cylin- 
ders ; 10 ft. ins. over cab body; 10 ft. 2 
ins. over cab eaves and boards, not in- 
cluding cab handles. Curves, 19 degs.; 
Grades, 2 per cent; Turntables, 85 ft. 

General Dimensions. Heavy Mountain 
on 4-8-2 engine : Fig. 2. Gauge, 4 ft. 854 
ins. ; Fuel, soft coal ; Cylinders, Simple ; 
Diameter. 28 ins.; Stroke, 30 ins.; 
Drivers, Diameter. 69 ins.; Working 
Pressure, 200 lbs. ; Boiler, diameter, 86 
ins.; Type. Conical Wagon Top; Fire 
Box, 114j/g ins. long; 9654 ins. wide; 
Tubes. Xo. 247, diameter. 2'4 ins.: Flues, 
No. 45. diameter, 554 ins. : Length, 20 
ft. 6 ins. Heating surface (approxi- 
mate) Fire box and Combustion cham- 
ber,- 346 sq. ft.; Fire brick tubes. 27 sq. 
ft.: 2'j in. tubes. 2970 sq. ft.; S]/ 2 in. 
Flues. 1323 sq. ft.; Total, 4666 sq. ft.; 
Grate area, 76.3 sq. ft. ; ratio to heat, 
surf., 1 to 61.1 ; Superheating sur- 
face, 1078 sq. ft.; Wheel base, driv- 
ing, 18 ft. 3 ins.: Wheel base, Total 
Engine. 40 ft. ins.: Wheel Base, 
Engine & Tender, 75 ft. 854 ins.; Weight 
in Working order (approximate) on 
drivers. 240.000 lbs ; on Front Truck. 
55,000 lbs.: on Back Truck, 55.000 lbs.; 
Total Engine, 350,000 lbs.: Tender, 172,- 
000 lbs.; Tractive power, 58,000 lbs.; 
Ratio of Adhesion, 4.13; Water Capac- 
ity, 10.000 gals.: Fuel capacity. 16 tons. 
Limiting conditions. Loaded drawing 
dimensions: 15 ft. ins. high: 10 ft. 4 
ins. width over cylinders: 10 ft. ins. 
over cab body; 10 ft. 2 ins. over cab 
eaves and boards, not including cab 
handles. Curves, 19 degs.: Grades, 2 
per cent: Turntables, 85 ft. 

General Dimensions, Light Pacific or 
4-6-2, Fig. 3, passenger engine: Gauge, 4 
ft. 854 ins. : Fuel, soft coal : Cylinders, 
Simple: Diameter. 25 ins.: Stroke. 28 
ins.; Drivers, Diameters. 73 ins.; Work- 



ing Pressure, 200 lbs. ; Boiler, Diameter, 
76 ins.; Type, Conical Wagon Top; Fire 
Box, 114J4 ins. long; 8454 ins. wide; 
Tubes, No. 188, diameter, 2J4 ins.; Flues, 
No. 36, diameter, s l / 2 ins.; Length, 19 
ft. ins.; Heating Surface (approxi- 
mate) Fire box and Combustion Cham- 
ber, 234 sq. ft.; Fire brick tubes, 27 sq. 
It; 2>4-in. tubes, 2091 sq. ft; 5!1. in.- 
Flues, 981 sq. ft.; Total, 3333 sq. ft; 
Grate area, 66.7 sq. ft; Ratio to heat, 
surf., 1 to 50; Superheating surface, 794 
sq. ft. Wheel base, driving, 13 ft. ins. ; 
Wheel base, Total Engine, 34 ft. 9 ins. ; 
Wheel base, Engine & Tender, 68 ft. 
7'/ 2 ins. Weight in working order 
(Approximate) on driver^ 165.000 lbs.; 
on Front Truck, 52,000 lbs.; on Back 
Truck, 53,000 lbs.; Total Engine, 270,- 

000 lbs.: Tender, 144,000 lbs.; Tractive 
Power, 40,700 lbs.; Ratio of Adhesion, 
4.05; Water capacity, 8,000 gals.; Fuel 
capacity, 16 tons. Limiting conditions. 
Loaded drawing dimensions: 15 ft. 
ins. high; 10 ft. 4 ins. width over cylin- 
ders; 10 ft. ins. over cab body; 10 ft. 
2 ins. over cab eaves and boards, not 
including cab handles. Curves, 19 degs; ; 
Grades, 2 per cent; Turntables, 85 ft. 

General Dimensions — Heavy Pacific or 
4-6-2, Fig. 3, passenger engine : Gauge, 4 ft. 
S l / 2 ins. ; fuel, soft coal ; cylinders, simple ; 
diameter. 27 ins. ; stroke, 28 ins. ; drivers, 
diameter, 79 ins. : working pressure, 200 
lbs.: boiler, diameter, 78 ins.; type, conical 
wagon top ; firebox, 12054 ins. long, 8454 
ins. wide ; tubes, No. 216, diameter, 254 
ins. ; flues, Xo. 40, diameter, 554 ins. ; 
length, 19 ft. ins.; heating surface (ap- 
proximate) : firebox and combustion 
chamber, 284 sq. ft; firebrick tubes, 27 
sq. ft. ; 2'4-in. tubes, 2,407 sq. ft. ; 554-in. 
flues, 1,090 sq. ft; total, 3,808 sq. ft; 
grate area, 70.8 sq. ft; superheating sur- 
face, 882 sq. ft. ; ratio to heating surface, 

1 to 54; wheelbase, driving, 14 ft. ins.; 
wheelbase, total engine, 36 ft. 2 ins. ; 
wheelbase. engine and tender. 70 ft. 854 
ins. : weight in working order (approxi- 
mate) : on drivers, 180,000 lbs. : on front 
truck, 60,000 lbs.; on back truck, 60,000 
lbs.; total engine, 300,000 lbs.; tender. 
144.000 His. ; tractive power, 43,800 lbs.; 
water capacity. 8,000 gals. ; ratio of ad- 
hesion, 4.12; fuel capacity, 16 tons. Limit- 
ing conditions : Loaded drawing dimen- 
sions, 15 ft. ins. high ; 10 ft. 4 ins., 
width over cylinders; 10 ft. ins. over 
cab body ; 10 ft. 2 ins. over cab eaves and 
boards, not including cab handles; curves, 
19 degs.; grades, 2 per cent; turntables, 
85 ft 

General Dimensions — Light 2-10-2 freight 
engine : Fig. 4. Gauge, 4 ft. 8*4 ins. ; 
fuel, soft coal; cylinders, simple; diame- 
ter, 27 ins.; stroke, 32 ins; drivers, diam- 
eter, 57 ins. ; working pressure, 200 lbs. ; 
boiler, diameter, 86 ins. ; type, conical 
wagon top; firebox, 11454 ins. long, 9654 
ins. wide ; tubes, X T o. 247, diameter, 254 
ins.: flues. Xo. 45. diameter. 5 '4 ins.; 
length. 20 ft. 6 ins.; heating surface (ap- 



May, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



139 



proximate) : firebox and combustion 
chamber, 346 sq. ft. ; firebrick tubes, 27 
sq. ft.; 2%-in. tubes, 2,970 sq. ft.; SVz- 
in. flues, 1,323 sq. ft.; total, 4,666 sq. ft.; 
grate area, 76.3 sq. ft. ; superheating sur- 
face, 1,078 sq. ft.; ratio to heating sur- 
face, 1 to 61.1; wheelbase, driving, 21 ft. 
ins. ; wheelbase, total engine, 40 ft. 4 
ins. ; wheelbase, engine and tender, 76 ft. 
l /2 ins. ; weight in working order (ap- 
proximate) : on drivers, 275,000 lbs.; on 
front truck: 30,000 lbs. ; on back truck, 55,- 
000 lbs. ; total engine, 360,000 lbs. ; tender, 
172,000 lbs.; tractive power, 69,400 lbs.; 
ratio of adhesion, 3.96; water capacity, 
10,000 gals.; fuel capacity, 16 tons. Limit- 
ing conditions: Loaded drawing dimen- 
sions, 15 ft. ins. high ; 10 ft. 4 ins., width 
over cylinders; 10 ft. ins. over cab body; 
10 ft. 2 ins. over cab eaves and boards, 
not including cab handles; curves, 19 
degs. ; grades, 2 per cent.; turntables, 85 
ft. This is a tentative specification. 

General Dimensions — Heavy 2-10-2 
freight engine : Fig. 4. Gauge, 4 ft. %Yz ins. ; 
fuel, soft coal ; cylinders, simple ; diameter, 
30 ins. ; stroke, 32 ins. ; drivers, diameter, 
63 ins. ; working pressure, 190 lbs. ; boiler, 
diameter. 88 ins. ; type, conical wagon top ; 
firebox, 132! s ins. long, 96J4 ins. wide; 
tubes, No. 271, diameter, 2% ins.; flues, 
No. 50, diameter, 5yi ins.; length, 20 ft. 
6 ins.; heating surface (approximate): 
firebox and combustion chamber, 399 sq. 
ft.; firebrick tubes, 30 sq. ft.; 2J4">n. tubes, 
3,258 sq. ft.; 5;-Hn. flues, 1,469 sq. ft.; 
total, 5,156 sq. ft.; grate area, 88.2 sq. ft.; 
superheating surface, 1,230 sq. ft. ; ratio 
to heating surface, 1 to 58.4; wheelbase, 
driving, 22 ft. 4 ins.; wheelbase, total en- 
gine, 42 ft. 2 ins. ; wheelbase, engine and 
tender, 82 ft. 10'.2 ins. ; weight in working 
order (approximate) : on drivers, 300,000 
lbs. ; on front truck, 30,000 lbs. ; on back 
truck, 60,000 lbs.; total engine, 390,000 
lbs. ; tender, 206,000 lbs. ; tractive power, 
74,000 lbs. ; ratio of adhesion, 4.05 ; water 
capacity, 12,000 gals. ; fuel capacity, 16 
tons. Limiting conditions : Loaded draw- 
ing dimensions, 15 ft. 9 ins. high; 10 ft. 
9 ins., width over cylinders; 10 ft. ins. 
over cab body : 10 ft. 2 ins. over cab 
eaves and boards, not including cab han- 
dles ; curves, 19 degs. ; grades, 2 per cent. ; 
turntables, 85 ft. This is a tentative 
specification. 

General Dimensions of a Six-wheel 
Switcher (Fig. 5)— Gauge, 4 ft. 8y 2 ins.; 
fuel, soft coal ; cylinders, simple; diameter, 
21 ins. ; stroke, 28 ins. ; drivers, diameter, 
51 ins. ; working pressure, 190 lbs. ; boiler, 
diameter, 66 ins. ; type, straight top ; firebox, 
72'<t ins. long, 66^ ins. wide; tubes, No. 
158, diameter, 2 ins.; flues, No. 24, diame- 
ter, 5'/ 2 ins.; length, 15 ft. ins.; heating 
surface (approximate) : firebox, 130 sq. 
ft. ; firebrick tubes, 16 sq. ft. ; 2-in. tubes, 
1,233 sq. ft; 5j/-in. flues, 515 sq. ft.; to- 
tal. 1,894 sq. ft.; grate area, 33 sq. ft.; 
superheating surface, 475 sq. ft.; ratio to 
heating surface, 1 to 57; wheelbase, driv- 
ing, 11 ft. ins.; wheelbase, total engine, 



11 ft. ins.; wheelbase, engine and tender, 
48 ft. \0'/z ins. ; weight in working order 
(approximate): on drivers, 165,000 lbs.; 
total weight of engine, 165,00 lbs. ; ten- 
der, 144,000 lbs.; tractive power, 39,100 
lbs.; ratio of adhesion, 4.22; water ca- 
pacity, 8,000 gals. ; fuel capacity, 16 tons. 
Limiting conditions : Loaded drawing di- 
mensions, 15 ft. ins. high ; 10 ft. 4 ins., 
width over cylinders ; 10 ft. ins. over 
cab body ; 10 ft. 2 ins. over cab eaves and 
boards, not including cab handles; curves, 
19 degs. ; grades, 2 per cent. ; turntables, 
85 ft. This is a tentative specification. 

General Dimensions of an Eight-wheel 
Switcher. (Fig. 6.) Gauge, 4 ft. % l /z ins.; 
fuel, soft coal ; cylinders, simple ; diameter, 
25 ins.; stroke, 28 ins.; drivers, diameter, 
51 ins.; working pressure, 175 lbs.; boiler, 
diameter, 80 ins. ; type, straight top ; fire- 
box, 102^ ins. long; 66^4 ins. wide ; tubes, 
No. 230, diameter, 2 ins. ; flues, No. 36, 
diameter, Sy 2 ins.; length, 15 ft. ins.; 
heating surface (approximate) : firebox, 
190 sq. ft.; firebrick tubes, 22 sq. ft.; 2-in. 
tubes, 1,796 sq. ft.; 5j4-in. flues, 773 sq. 
ft.; total, 2,781 sq. ft.; grate area, 46.6 
sq. ft. ; superheating surface, 637 sq. ft. ; 
ratio to heating surface, 1 to 59 ; wheel- 
base, driving, 15 ft. ins.; wheelbase, 
total engine, 15 ft. ins. ; wheelbase, en- 
gine and tender, 52 ft. 10V> ins. ; weight 
in working order (approximate) : on 
drivers, 220,000 lbs.; total weight of en- 
gine. 220,000 lbs.; tender, 144.000 lbs.; 
tractive power, 51,200 lbs.; ratio of ad- 
hesion, 4.3 ; water capacity, 8,000 gals. ; 
fuel capacity, 16 tons. Limiting condi- 
tions : Loaded drawing dimensions, 15 ft. 
ins. high; 10 ft. 4 ins., width over cyl- 
inders; 10 ft. ins. over cab body; 10 ft. 
2 ins. over cab eaves and boards, not in- 
cluding cab handles; curves, 19 degs.; 
grades, 2 per cent. ; turntables, 85 ft. 
This is a tentative specification. 

General dimensions of a 2-6-6-2 Mallet 
Engine. (Fig. 7.) Gauge, 4 ft. 8^ ins.; 
fuel, soft coal; cylinders, compound, diam- 
eter, h. p., 23 ins. ; 1 p., 35 ins. ; stroke, 32 
ins. ; drivers, diameter, 57 ins. ; working 
pressure, 225 lbs. ; boiler, diameter, 90 ins. ; 
type, straight top; firebox, 11454s ins. 
long; 96J4 ins. wide; tubes, No. 247, di- 
ameter, 2J4 ins. ; flues, No. 45, diameter, 
5. T /2 ins. ; length, 24 ft. ins. ; heating 
surface (approximate) : firebox and com- 
bustion chamber, 402 sq. ft. ; firebrick tubes, 
27 sq. ft. ; 2J4-in. tubes, 3,478 sq. ft. ; Syi-'m. 
flues, 1,549; total, 5,456 sq. ft.; grate 
area, 76.3 sq. ft. ; superheating surface, 
1,260 sq. ft; ratio to heating surface, 1 
to 71.6; wheelbase, driving, 31 ft. 2 ins.; 
wheelbase, rigid, 10 ft. 4 ins.; wheelbase, 
total engine, 50 ft. 2 ins. ; wheelbase, en- 
gine and tender, 88 ft. 10 ins. ; weight in 
working order (approximate) : on driv- 
ers, 360,000 lbs.; on front truck. 27,000 
lbs.; on back truck, 53.000 lbs.; total on 
gine, 440,000 lbs.: tender, 206.000 lbs.; 
tractive power. 80.300 lbs. ; ratio of ad- 
hesion, 4.48; water capacity, 12,000 gals.; 
fuel capacity, 16 tons. Limiting condi- 



tions: Loaded drawing dimensions, 15 ft. 
ins. high ; 10 ft. 6 ins., width over cyl- 
inders ; 10 ft. ins. over cab body ; 10 ft. 
2 ins. over cab eaves and boards, not in- 
cluding cab handles; curves, 19 degs.; 
grades, 2 per cent This is a tentative 
specification. 

General Dimensions of a 2-8-8-2 Mallet 
Engine. (Fig. 8.) Gauge, 4 ft. 8</ 2 ins.; 
fuel, soft coal; cylinders, compound ; diam- 
eter, h. p., 25 ins. ; 1 p., 39 ins. ; stroke, 32 
ins. ; drivers, diameter, 57 ins. ; working 
pressure, 240 lbs.; boiler, diameter, 98 ins.: 
type, conical wagon top; firebox, 176"^ 
ins. long, 96J4 ins. wide ; tubes, Xo. 274, 
diameter, 2"4 ins.; flues, No. 53, diameter, 
5'A ins. ; length, 24 ft. ins. ; heating sur- 
face (approximate) ; firebox and combus- 
tion chamber, 400 sq. ft. ; firebrick tubes, 32 
sq. ft; 2J4-in. tubes, 3,960 sq. ft; 5^-in. 
flues, 1,825 sq. ft; total, 6,217 sq. ft; 
grate, 144 ins. long, 96J4 ins. wide; grate 
area, 96.2 sq. ft. ; superheating surface, 
1,475 sq. ft; ratio to heating surface, 1 
to 65.2; wheelbase, driving, 42 ft. 1 in.; 
wheelbase, rigid, 15 ft. 6 ins.; wheelbase, 
total engine, 57 ft. 4 ins.; wheelbase, en- 
gine and tender, 93 ft. 3 ins. ; weight in 
working order (approximate) : on driv- 
ers, 480,000 lbs.; on front truck, 30,000 
lbs.; on back truck, 30,000 lbs.; total en- 
gine, 540,000 lbs.; tender, 206.000 lbs.; 
tractive power, 106,000 lbs.; ratio of ad- 
hesion, 4.52; water capacity, 12,000 gals.; 
fuel capacity, 16 tons. Limiting condi- 
tions : Loaded drawing dimensions, 15 ft. 
9 ins. high ; 10 ft. 9 ins., width over cyl- 
inders ; 10 ft. ins. over cab body; 10 ft. 
2 ins. over cab eaves and boards, not in- 
cluding cab handles; curves, 19 degs.; 
grades, 2 per cent. This is a tentative 
specification. 



United States Government Orders for 
Rolling Stock. 
It has been decided that the Fed- 
eral government will have the priority in 
the matter of having orders filled for 
railway equipment necessary for the in- 
creased requirements of transportation. 
Assurances have been received from the 
manufacturers that the steel required for 
the 2,000 locomotives to be ordered, and 
also for the 100.000 cars is available, but 
in the latter case the quantity of steel 
plates used will be reduced It is ex- 
pected that the order for cars will be 
duplicated before the end of the year and 
probably 1,000 locomotives. About 40.000 
tons of rails are now being delivered 
weekly. 



Cutting Rust From Bolt Threads. 

Mix some powdered emery with grease 
and smear the threaded parts both on the 
bolt and the inside of the nut then turn 
the nut on the bolt and run it back and 
forth over the threads. This method will 
be found effective even in the most stub- 
born cases. Many schemes have 
tried, before now. to remove rust, but this 
is as expedition* as any we know of. 



140 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



May. 1918 



Powerful Santa Fe or 2-10-2 Type Locomotive 
For the Belt Railway of Chicago 



The Baldwin Locomotive Works has 
recently completed five locomotives of 
the Santa Fe or 2-10-2 type, for the Belt 
Railway of Chicago. These are heavy 
engines, specially designed and equipped 
for hump-yard service. At the same 
time the wheel arrangement is suitable 
for transfer or road service should it be 
necessary to use the locomotives in such 
work. These engines exert a starting or 
tractive force of 84.400 lbs. and are built 
to the largest dimensions permitted by 
the specified weight and clearance limits. 
The sharpest curves on which they oper- 
ate are of 10 degs. radius. 

The boiler has a straight top, with a 
deep firebox placed back of the drivers 
and over the trailing truck. The firebox 
contains an arch, and has a combustion 
chamber 28 ins. long; while the tubes are 
23 ft. long. The boiler barrel is com- 
posed of three rings, and the third ring 



equivalent to 27 per cent, of the water 
evaporating surface. 

The steam distribution is controlled 
l.\ lii-in. piston valves; and the valve 
gear is of the Baker type, controlled by 
i In Ragonnet power reverse mechanism. 
The combining-lever link of the valve 
motion, is attached directly to an extension 
of the cross-head pin. The pistons have 
steel centers, with gun iron bull rings 
and packing rings ; and the piston rods 
and cross-head keys are of vanadium steel. 

The frames are of .40 per cent, carbon 
steel and of heavy construction, as they 
have a width of 6 ins. and a depth over 
the driving pedestals of 7 ins. ; while the 
single front rail, to which the cylinders 
are bolted has a depth of 13 ins. The 
pedestal binders are attached by three 
bolts in each end. The boiler barrel is 
supported on the frames at four points, 
viz. : by vertical plates bolted to the guide 



the engine and tender is provided with 
a radial buffer. This is an interesting 
case of the adaptation of a road type of 
locomotive to special yard service. The 
leading dimensions of these engines are 
given in the table which follows: 

Cylinders, 30 x 32 ins. ; valves, piston, 
16 ins. diam. Boiler — Type, straight; 
diameter, 90 ins. ; thickness of sheets, % 
and 15-16 ins.; working pressure, 200 
lbs.; fuel, soft coal; staying, radial. Fire 
box — Material, steel; length, 132' s ins.; 
width. 96 ins.; depth, front. 89 ins.; back, 
7S]4i ins. ; thickness of sheets, sides, }£ 
ins.; back, }i ins.; crown, '•* ins.; tube, 
s, N ins. Water space — Front, 6 ins.; 
sides, 6 to 4 ins. ; back, 4 ins. Tubes — 
diameter, 5;/, ins. and 2' 4 ins.; material, 
steel; thickness, 5;/> ins., Xo. 9 W. G. ; 
2' i ins., No. 11 W, G. ; number, 5'_. ins., 
50; 2% ins., 238; length, 23ft. ins. Heat- 
ing Surface — hire box, 263 sq ft; com- 




■ 10-2 FOR THE BELT RATI. WAV OF CTIICACO. 



E. F. Jones, Mast. Mech. 

is sloped on the bottom in order to pro- 
vide a sufficiently deep water-space un- 
der the combustion chamber. In consid- 
eration of the nature of the service, 
which will require the development of 
full power for short periods of time 
only, a stoker has not been applied ; but 
the firedoor is power-operated. Details 
of the boiler construction include flexible 
stay bolts in the breaking zones, three 
rows of Baldwin expansion stays over the 
front end of the combustion chamber 
crown, and an auxiliary dome for tin- 
safety-valves, which is placed over a 16- 
in. diameter opening in the boiler shell. 
The circumferential seam at the junction 
of the boiler barrel and outside firebox 
is triple riveted, and the shell diameter 
at this point is 100 ins. A transverse 
baffle plate is placed immediately ahead 
of the combustion chamber. 

The superheater has 50 units, which 
are in five horizontal rows of the boiler 
flues with ten flues in each row. This 
is a large superheater, providing, as it 
does, 1,418 sq. ft. of surface, which is 



Baldwin Loco. Wks., Builders, 



yoke and valve motion bearer, and to 
crossties placed respectively between the 
third and fourth, and fourth and fifth 
pairs of drivers. The main drivers have 
plain tires, and the main driving boxes 
are of the Cole pattern. A trailing truck 
of the Hodges type is used in this design, 
and it is equalized with the three rear 
pairs of drivers through a transverse 
beam which is suspended from the back 
driving springs. The truck is fitted with 
a centering spring. 

This locomotive is equipped for 
switching service, and has a step on the 
front bumper instead of a pilot. Four 
sand boxes are provided, and are placed 
right and left on the round of the boiler. 
To keep within the clearance limits, the 
bell is also placed on the round of the 
boiler on the left-hand side, and the 
whistle is similarly located and is tapped 
directly into the roof sheet. 

The tender carries 10,000 gallons of 
water and 16 tons of fuel. It has a frame 
built of 12-in. channels with cast steel 
bumpers; and the connection between 



bustion chamber, 64 sq. ft. ; tubes, 4,863 
sq. ft.; firebrick tubes, 39 sq. ft.; total, 
5.229 sq. ft.; superheater, 1.418 sq. ft.; 
grate area, 88 sq. ft. Driving wheels — 
diameter, 58 ins.; journals, main, 13 ins. 
x 22 ins.; other journals. 11 ins. x 13 
ins. Eng. truck wheels — diameter, 
front, 33 ins.; journals, 6 ins. x 10 ins.; 
diameter, back, 44 ins.; journals, 8 ins. x 
14 ins. Wheel base — driving, 21 ft. 
ins.; rigid, 21 ft. ins.; total engine, 40 
ft. 3 ins. ; total engine and tender, 76 ft. 
7'/2 ins. Weight — On driving wheels, 
336,000 lbs.; on truck, front, 23,000 lbs.; 
on truck, back. 46,000 lbs.; total engine, 
405,000 lbs.; total engine and tender, 
about 592,000 lbs. Tender— wheels, num- 
ber, 8; diameter, 33 ins.; journals, 6 x 11 
ins. ; tank capacity, 10,000 U. S. gals. ; fuel 
capacity. 16 tons; service, hump switching. 
This engine is intended to move heavy, 
long strings of cars up the ascending 
grade of the hump and he able to hold 
them there ; stop and start the whole 
train quickly as one, or two cars are 
tipped over the hump. 



May, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



141 



The Director General on Standards. 

In reply to the open letter of Mr. Geo. 
A. Post, president of the Railway Busi- 
ness Association, addressed to Hon. Will- 
iam G. McAdoo, concerning the standard- 
ization of locomotives and locomotive 
material, Mr. Post says he submitted two 
questions : 

"First — Are the recently constituted 
committees on Locomotives and Cars ex- 
pected to recommend to the Director 
General standards to be adhered to, not 
>.nlv in the building of the new locomo- 
tives and cars, now under consideration 
for the immediate relief of traffic, but as 
well to all power and vehicles that may 
be required during the period that the 
railways shall remain under the adminis- 
tration of the Director General"' Also, 
are such standards, when approved by 
the Director General, to apply and gov- 
ern in the matter of repairs to equipment 
during such period ? 

"Second — During the period that the 
railways are under the control of the Di- 
rector General, will it be considered so 
important to adhere rigidly to any stand- 
ard that may be now appro\ed. as to 
cause a cessation of trial, development 
and acceptance of any new mechanical 
inventions intended to improve and econ- 
omize railway operation?' 

With these two questions propounded 
for his consideration, Mr. McAdoo pro- 
ceeded to express his ideas responsive 
thereto. Mr. Post says he does not at- 
tempt to record fully his exact language, 
but to condense, animated by an eager 
desire to report faithfully and fairly the 
viewpoint of the Director General: Mr. 
McAdoo said, in effect: 

As Director General of Railroads, it 
is his duty to see that our railroads are 
put in condition to perform with the 
highest degree of efficiency possible the 
vital part they must play in winning the 
war. That their performance thus far 
has not met the requirements is a fact 
known to everybody. They must have, 
as quickly as possible, among other 
things, large additions to their power and 
rolling stock. The purchase of such 
equipment will call for the expenditure of 
vast sums. The natural thought of an 
official responsible for such expenditure, 
and for the least possible delay in deliv- 
ery of sadly needed locomotives and cars 
is : "To what extent may they be stand- 
ardized?" As a matter of general knowl- 
edge, Mr. McAdoo was aware that the 
American Railway Association, made up 
of the railwaj executives of the country, 
had for several years had committees at 
work for the accomplishment of stand- 
ardization, so that it was clear the subject 
was a live one with railway administra- 
tors long before the roads were taken 
over by the government under stress of 
war. The roads had not agreed when 
the change of control occurred. 

When Mr. McAdoo assumed the di- 



rectorship, the roads were taken over as 
going concerns, and their official person- 
nel was not disturbed, except as he has 
called upon some of the gentlemen of 
distinction in their service to become 
members of his official staff. When he 
sought to be advised as to how far stand- 
ardization of equipment might be effected, 
he caused to be appointed committees 
made up of locomotive and car builders 
and railway mechanical officials, repre- 
sentative of the regional districts which 
had been created. Mr. McAdoo disclaims 
being a railroad man, and is utilizing the 
forces he finds at hand to suggest what 
ought to and may be done in the solution 
of this particular railway problem. He 
has laid down no rules for their confer- 
ences, has no preconceived notions, and 
has given his advisers free rein. No re- 
ports or recommendations from them 
have yet been received by him (March 
6). 

Whether he will approve of all their 
recommendations when received, he does 
not know, of course, but this he would 
like the manufacturers of railway mate- 
rial, as represented by the Railway Busi- 
ness Association, to appreciate, namely — 
that any embarrassments, losses, or nec- 
essary expenditures for the purpose of 
adaptation to the new standards, will be 
entailed not by his personal initiative or 
prescription, but as the consensus of 
opinion of those with whom they have 
heretofore done business and to meet the 
exigent requirements of war conditions. 
If the railroad executives had formulated 
standards before the war, manufacturers 
would have been obliged to endure and 
adapt themselves to the changes ordained 
by their customers. 

Of course, he went on, there can be no 
such thing as a permanent standard for 
railway practice. America and progress 
are synonomous terms. The old gives 
place to the new in the onward march of 
progress. There was never a time when 
the inventive genius of our nation so 
needed to be working at highest speed 
as now. No matter what may be estab- 
lished as a standard for new equipment 
under the present pressure for celerity of 
manufacture and attainment of economy 
he would hope and expect that when fu- 
ture requirements shall confront us, the 
inventor and progressive manufacturer 
will offer improvements of great value, 
to be welcomed as aids to economical and 
efficient railway operation. During the 
period that the roads shall remain under 
governmental control, it will be the de- 
termination of the officials in charge that 
our railroads shall be made better than 
e\er before. Anybody who has plans to 
suggest for improvement will be hos- 
pitably received. 

The proposed standards are for the im- 
mediate present, and for new equipment 
to lie purchased. They will not apply to 
existing equipment, which must be kept 



in repair with parts already intended for 
such repairs. It would be folly to pre- 
scribe that cars requiring repairs must 
await the arrival of new standard parts, 
instead of being repaired with specialties 
already in stock, or easily obtained from 
the manufacturers. 

Accepting the figures presented by the 
Railway Business Association, for the 
purpose of his comment, there are now in 
use and under maintenance 63,862 locomo- 
tives and 2,326,987 cars. No one would 
consider it wise to do anything save keep- 
ing them in service as long a? they can 
be made to last by the use in their repair 
of such devices as were originally used 
in their construction. In so doing there 
would be a continuing demand for such 
stocks of supplies as the manufacturers 
keep on hand to meet requirements. 

Mr. McAdoo can see no reason for the 
manufacturers of railway material and 
equipment to be filled with fear for their 
future. They should, on the contrary, 
take counsel of their hopes. He expects 
to see them doing a greater volume of 
business than in recent years and at a fair 
profit. There will be no trouble for any 
manufacturer who is willing to do busi- 
ness at a fair price. 



Peat Fuel 

To determine the steam-raising value 
of peat fuel with hand-firing a series of 
six tests were recently carried out in 
Canada, using peat with a moisture con- 
tent of 15 and 20 per cent, and a calor- 
ific value between 7.000 and 7,500 B. 
T. U. Results showed That the equivalent 
evaporation per pound of coal of about 
12,500 B. T. U. was about 8. while with 
peat the evaporation was about 4 per 
cent. The thermal efficiency with the 
coal was of the order of 60 per cent, and, 
with the peat, 53 per cent. The low 
figure in the latter case is due to in- 
complete combustion of the gases and 
to their high temperature when leaving 
the boiler. In trials with a locomotive 
type of boiler a conspicuous feature 
was the great losses due to unburnt 
gases, which varied from 11 to 24 per 
cent. 



American Locomotives in China 

An American firm has just completed 
delivery oi two Mikado type locomo- 
tives for the Pekin-Mukden railway in 
China for freight service. Their total 
weight including tender is 134 tons As 
is well known this type of engine was 
first brought out to fulfill a requirement 
in Japan, and became known as the 
Mikado Three of this type of loco- 
motive had been previously in service, 
and an order for fourteen more ha- 
bcen made. They are said to be giving 
great satisfaction, and it is likely that 
further orders will be received. 



142 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



May, 1918 



At the Works of the Nathan Manufacturing Company 



Flushing, Long Island, New York 



The new works of the Nathan Manu- 
facturing Company, located at Flushing, 
a suburb of New York, are now in full 
operation, and in so far as producing the 
finished boiler mountings of the modern 
locomotive is concerned, the works are 
not only the most complete, but the most 
extensive of their kind in the world. 
Forty years' experience has developed a 



administration building. From these bal- 
conies, observations may be taken of the 
factory operations. Provision is made in 
the craneway for two traveling cranes, 
each of seven-ton capacity, pipe trenches 
and three communicating bridges for use 
of the second Moor. The entire craneway 
is covered with wire glass. 



same shop twice. The succession of ope- 
rations follow each other in uninterrupted 
sequence, nearly all the machines appar- 
ently being automatic in action, and un- 
erring in execution. In the machine shops 
the lathes are set back to back, like bricks 
in a wall, so that the operators are not 
brought face to face with each other, but 
like stars dwell apart, each in his own 
sphere of activity. The floor spaces be- 
tween the rows of lathes are ample for 
the movement of motor-driven vehicles, 
and the movement of material is like an 



It will be noted from the general block 
and an application of plan of the buildings that beyond the ad- 
means "and methods that can only come ministration building a plan is evolved 
as the result of the most painstaking which permits the reduction or addition 
scientifce inquiry conducted by leading of a number of pairs of wings, each wing 
mechanical engineers combining great being capable of being extended several endless chain. As may be expected, the 
natural aptitude with special training. bays in length. There are three of these work is almost entirely specialized and 

The older works, located at 106th street pairs of units or wings, extending 150 ft. the operators naturally become experts at 
and East River, New York, may be said on each side of the craneway. Additions their own specialties 
to be now enti'relv occupied in govern- may be later built without interfering in 
ment munitions work, for which the fine any way with the original building, and sensate machine provides the efhciency, 
plant is admirably adapted. The company without interrupting any of the operations and the operators have an air of satisfac- 

of the plant. These wings are about. 50 ft. 

in width, the courts between the wings 

varying from 30 ft to 40 ft. The light 

afforded by the courts give an out-of-door 



There is no per- 
sistent clamor for efficiency, the mute, in- 



has the advantage therefore of devoting 
the new establishment with it? excellent 
accessories of transportation by land or 
water exclusively to its chosen field of 




\DMINISTRATION AND WORK BUILDING FOR NATHAN MANUFACTURING COM- 
FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK. EUGENE SCHOEN, architect. 



PANV, 

locomotive and allied work, and the re- 
sult, as we have stated, places it in a class 
by itself. 

Glancing briefly at the architectural 
features of the buildings, which are of 
reinforced concrete throughout, the ad- 
ministration building occupies the frontal 
position, and its neat and artistic design 
is greatly enhanced by an extensive cir- 
cular driveway which leads from the main 
gateway through and around an oval lawn 
flanked by terraces that are being trans- 
formed into sloping gardens, upon which 
the landscape artists are displaying their 
skill, and which will presently blossom in 
rainbow beauty as the summer advances. 
From each floor of the administration 
building is a passageway to balconies at 
end of the craneway that runs the 



lightness to every part of the works, par- 
ticularly on the second story, where the 
greater part of the lathes and other ma- 
chines are located. 

It would be tedious to describe in detail 
tin series of operations through which 
the material passes from the raw state as 
it comes to the foundry, to the finished 
product as it arrives in the receptacles 
that line both sides of the craneway, 
where the various parts may be readily 
reached and conveyed speedily to the 
packing rooms. Suffice it to say that the 
operations and endless variety of tools 
are such that every conceivable detail 



tion that bespeaks complete contentment 
with the prevailing piece work rates. 

The assembling of the parts, which is 
performed by high-skilled mechanics, is 
paid on the time basis, although delays or 
defects are extremely rare, the operating 
proceeding with the regularity of an 
eight-day clock. Many of the machines 
are of the automatic multiple-spindle va- 
riety, and among others there is a new 
type of Bullard machine with twelve 
spindles acting horizontally, adapted for 
work on lubricators, the rough casting 
being clamped in place by the operator 
and by a slight turning of a lever the va- 
rious operations are performed by the rap- 
idly revolving tools that come successively 
into action, and in a few minutes the com- 
plete dozen have done their work, and 
the lubricator with all its threaded orifices 
and double seated recesses and bevelled 
valve seats and finished faces may be said 
to be ready for the assembling division. 
The burnishing brigade have a turn or 
two at it however, and it was interesting 
to note that even here there are also im- 
provements in means and methods. A 
strong blast of air rushes along a pipe 
underneath the burnishing wheels, and a 
hood-like contrivance reaches partially 
over each wheel, and the dust from the 
cleaning and burnishing process rushes 
into the conduit beneath. Wandering 
molecules of matter that may happen 
along in the outer air are drawn into this 
vortex and never to return, and the ope- 
rator remains unspotted. 

The tool room is in itself an epitome of 
the ingenuity and self-reliance of the en- 
terprising company. As may be readily 
imagined, many of the smaller and more 



entire Tength" of the structure beyond the and does not have to pass through the 



seems to have been carefully considered 
in advance, so that no part of the product complex tools are made by their own ma- 
has at any time other than a forward chinists, and the company has been pe- 
movement in the process of manufacture, culiarly fortunate in securing and retain- 

the services of the most skilled 



ing 



May, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



143 



artisans in the tool making department, 
which is the crowning accomplishment of 
the master machinist. This happy faculty 
of retaining the services of the most 
skilled mechanics is marked by the pres- 
ence of many men who have spent more 
than half a life time in the company's 
service, and consequently the loss of 
skilled workmen by the country's call to 
arms has fallen lightly on the company's 
employees for the reason that there were 
comparatively few young men in the 
service. 

In this regard it was interesting to ob- 
serve the very considerable number of 
young women now engaged in the works, 
and how cleverly they seem to be adapt- 
ing themselves to their various occupa- 
tions. In the core making department of 
the foundry their work was of surpassing 
excellence and rapidity. The blue-print 
makers had a commodious section to 
themselves, and if all blue-prints were at 
all comparable to their work, many weary 
eyes would be spared attempting to de- 
cipher the puzzling inscriptions. 

Details of the laboratories, testing 
rooms, annealing plants, nickel plating ap- 
pliances, drawing rooms, and packing de- 
partments, each and all would take pages 
of description by themselves. Suffice it to 
say that all were provided with every fa- 
cility calculated to produce the best, re- 
sults in the requirements of the service. 
The multitudinous accessories looking 
toward the comfort of the employees are 
a liberal example to all who have the 
welfare of workers at heart. Roof gar- 
dens, recreation rooms, dining rooms, 
hospital rooms and appliances and hos- 
pital nurses into whose hands one would 
wish to fall if he falls at all, not forget- 
ting the accomplished chef from France, 
and his skilled assistants whose gastro- 
nomic ability persuaded us to linger 
longer in the dining room than is our 
wont. 

Of the floors, it would be invidious to 
make comparisons, but we know by hard 
experience that a plain, concrete floor is 
hard on the feet even for workers who 
move- about. Creosoted wood blocks laid 
in a thin layer of sand and pitched with 
asphalt is the prevailing kind of flooring 
in the Nathan Company's new shops. A 
paving block flooring is laid in the ship- 
ping room where the vehicular traffic is 
heavier, and it seems to us that this im- 
portant feature has been well considered. 

With regard to the transportation facil- 
ities, it will be noted on the general block 
plan that the works are located near an 
estuary of Long Island Sound, known as 
Flushing Creek. A new wharf is con- 
structed there and a store house about 
three hundred feet west of the main fac- 
tory buildings in connection with the new 
wharf. This building, 40 ft. by 150 ft., 
has also reinforced concrete walls with 
slab roof, supported on steel roof trusses 
and purlins, and it is in this vacant space 



between the store house and the factory 
buildings where extensions may be made 
as the natural expansion of the demand 
for the company's products may call in 
the undiscovered future. A spur from 
the adjacent Long Island Railroad also 
enters the works, and hence transporta- 
tion both by land and water is immediately 
at hand. 

Such is a brief outline of the salient 
features of the new plant and if we have 
omitted the commodious power house, 
where some of the boilers are of J^-in. 
steel and carry a pressure of 275 lbs. 



eral condition of factory workers. The 
usual sets of rules and regulations, which 
nobody reads, are conspicuous by their 
absence. There are no fiery placards 
signed by threatening fire commissioners 
or other self-advertising authorities. It is 
all utility brought nearly *o perfection. This 
is not accidental, but the concrete essence 
of a rare spirit of ingenuity polished by 
experience and sweetened by kindness, 
and in the directors' room there is a 
painting of the founder of the company. 
It hangs alone, and like King Arthur of 
old, it does not take much imagination 




GENERAL ELOCK PLAN. NATHAN MANUFACTURING BUILDING. 



per square inch, it is because the works 
seemed to be full of power. Electric 
motors were thick as blackberries, hang- 
ing in clusters overhead, coupled to far- 
reaching shafting revolving at high veloci- 
ties. The notable feature in such a colos- 
sal mechanical establishment was the al- 
most complete absence of noise, this may 
be partly owing to the comparative light- 
ness of the work, but is also easily dis- 
tinguishable by the exquisite fineness of 
the bearings, the absence of loose pulleys, 
and other noise-provoking adjuncts of 
a bygone age. Nor should we overlook 
the garage just south of the main factory 
building, measuring 50 ft. by 120 ft. and 
constructed similar to the storehouse. A 
portion of the garage is two stories in 
height, and the upper floor arranged for 
apartments. 

To conclude, it may be justly said that 
the feeling that arises on passing through 
and even casually observing the operators 
and the appliances is that of moving 
through an exposition rather than a fac- 
tory. Everything seems at its best. There 
is a quiet precision and an air of refine- 
ment that is far removed from the gen- 



to believe that like his knights of the 
round table, the people that live and 
move and have their being in connection 
with the establishment are like the fabled 
knights — all stamped with the image of 
the master — Max Nathan. 



The Calorific Value of Wood 
The calorific value of wood varies 
directly as its weight; thus a cord of 
white oak weighs approximately 4.000 
lbs. and is equivalent to one ton of 
anthracite coal, and a cord of spruce or 
pine weighs in the neighborhood of 
2,000 lbs., and is equivalent to one- 
half ton of coal. The principal hard- 
woods available for fuel are maple and 
birch, which weigh between 3.000 and 
3,500 lbs. to the cord. Dry wood 
is very much better and more efficient 
than green wood, which contains at 
least 25 per cent, moisture. This water 
requires heat in order to be evaporated, 
and this passes up the flues. In these 
days of fuel economy it is well to know 
the calorific value of wood, and its com- 
parison with coal as in many districts 
wood is coming into use as fuel. 



144 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



May, 1918 



New Design of Shop Face Grinder 

Installed in the Works of the Hay-Budden Manufacturing Company 



We had the opportunity of witnessing 
the installment of the latest development 
in grinding machinery in the extensive 
works of the Hay-Budden Manufactur- 
ing Company, Brooklyn, N. V., the well- 
known firm, whose specialty is solid- 
forged anvils, in the manufacture of 
which the company produced the first 
made in America. Since the beginning 
of the war the demand for the com- 
pany's products has increased amazingly, 
not only in their specialty as anvil makers, 
but in varieties of heavy and light forg- 
ings. It became necessary to look for 
improved machinery, and among other 
details the grinding of anvil faces occu- 
pied considerable time and skill under the 
old methods. The machine shown in 



the front or rear, the operator having the 
machine entirely under his control from 
either position. This is often of import- 
ance when grinding complex shapes. 
Varying degrees of hardness of the arti- 
cles being ground docs not affect the per- 
fect evenness of the finished work . The 
movements of the mechanism being much 
mc ire rapid than is the case on a planer 
or milling machine, there is no time lost 
in reversing the wheel grinding on both 
the forward and backward movement of 
the table. The grinding wheel is held 
in an adjustable chuck. This is a meas- 
ure of safety because it has been fre- 
quently demonstrated that all wheels of 
tii i s kind revolving at high velocities 
Id not run unsupported. 




SHOP FACE GRINDER. MOTOR DRIVEN, STYLE "D." 



our illustration was originally designed 
for grinding hardened locomotive guide 
bars, but this is now only one of its 
many uses, and may be readily applied 
to almost every variety of forging or cast- 
ing that may require a finished straight 
surface on any part desired. The ma- 
chine produces smooth flat finished sur- 
faces with great rapidity. For general 
shop work in removing stock up to % 
in. in thickness, and where surfaces to be 
ground are not of extensive width, it is 
in many cases much more rapid and sat- 
isfactory than a planer, shaper or milling 
machine. The machine has already been 
found very serviceable on a wide range 
of work, such as large iron and steel 
floor plates, flanged water pipes, metor 
cases, column bases, lathe legs and the 
like. 

An excellent feature of the machine 
consists in its being operated either from 



The wheel is 30 ins. in diameter and 
runs about 550 revolutions per minute. 
Any kind of abrasive wheel that is best 
suited for the work, either emery, carbo- 
rundum or corundum, may be supplied 
with the machine. The wheel holder oc- 
cupying only a limited space enables the 
wheel to be used down to a very eco- 
nomical point before it is necessary to 
replace it with a new wheel. At the same 
time all chances for accidents arising from 
wheel bursting are completely prevented. 
The bearings are massive and have bronze 
boxes adjustable for wear and thorough- 
ly protected from dust. The end thrust 
when in operation is taken by a ball 
thrust-bearing insuring complete absence 
of oscillation. The table as well as the 
cross feed is either automatic or operated 
by hand. 

The general nature of the work per- 
formed in this way requires that the 



machine should be of the most substan- 
tial kind, consequently these machines are 
unusually heavy, and are built either for 
motor drive, as shown in our illustration, 
or belt driven. A 15-horse power motor 
is used on the motor-driven machines, and 
the motor is placed directly on the back 
of the head of the machine. No counter- 
shaft, either upon the floor or ceiling, is 
necessary. The weight of the motor- 
driven machine, including the motor, is 
about 12,000 lbs., the weight of the belt- 
driven machine being about 11,000 lbs. 

The following are some of the general 
dimensions of the machine : Length of 
bed. 11 ft. 2 ins. ; size of table, 7 ft. 2 ins. 
by 1 ft. 7' z ins.; table travel per minute. 
IS ft. : wheel spindle bearing, rear, 3*4 ins. 
by 10 ins.; front, 3'< ins. by 12 ins. 



How to Make a Cold Chisel. 

When the chisel has been forged to thr 
required shape the end should be finished 
by grinding or filing, and it should then 
be hardened and tempered. This should 
be done in one heat. The edge of the 
chisel should be tempered to a deep plum 
color, verging on blue. The difficulty is 
that although the extreme edge may be of 
the correct tint, yet if the color is allowed 
to run down too fast the metal behind the 
edge will be too soft, will set under the 
shocks of the hammer and break. Then, 
again, if the color is allowed to run down 
too slowly, the metal behind the edge will 
he too hard, and pieces will break off 
bodily. The best way is to heat the chisel 
a very dull red for a good inch up from 
the edge, holding the tongs in the left 
hand and in the right a rub stone (a piece 
of broken grindstone or emery wheel, or, 
failing these, a strip of emery cloth wrapped 
round a small file). Dip the chisel for 
abi nit half an inch until it just turns black, 
then withdrawing it from the water and 
letting it rest against the side of the pail, 
so as to steady it. rub it sharply with the 
stone, or emery to brighten it, and watch 
the color as it runs down from the part 
which is still hot, and when the edge is 
of a deep plum color, verging on blue, 
quench it right out. 



Care of Belts 

1 1 a pulley has a burnished, glassy 
surface it means that the belt has been 
slipping. The discrepancy in the speed 
due to a creeping belt may not be evi- 
dent, but it is there and it means a con- 
stant waste of both power and material. 
The reason for this may be that the 
pulley is too small for the work, that 
the belt is slack or too frail, or that a 
bad type of belt fastener is used. 



May, 1918 



RAILWAY AXD LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



14S 



The Packing of Truck Journal Boxes 



An interesting discussion in relation to 
the report of a committee submitting rec- 
ommendations for changes in the Master 
Car Builders' rules, occurred recently at 
a meeting of the Car Foremen's Associ- 
ation of Chicago. The recommendation 
set forth that a rule lie put into effect 
providing for the regular repacking of 
journal boxes at stated intervals, and also 
a proper method of stenciling on the car 
the date of repacking, and further that 
the car owner be made responsible for 
the labor only of repacking journal boxes, 
the material cost to be borne by the 
handling line for the reason that it would 
be difficult to establish a value on re- 
claimed waste which is now used very 
extensively by a great many roads, and 
for the further reason, where the reclama- 
tion of waste is carried out along proper 
lines, there is very little expense involved 
in the repacking of journal boxes, other 
than labor. 

It might be stated briefly that the mat- 
ter has already received a good deal of 
consideration at the hands of various 
committees of the Master Car Builders' 
Association, but no exact standardization 
of rules in regard to the matter has so 
far been established. The first rule re- 
ferring to the care of foreign cars speci- 
fies that "each railway company must give 
to foreign cars, while on its line, the 
same care as to inspection, oiling, pack- 
ing, adjusting brakes and repairs, that it 
gives to its own cars." 

It was stated in the discussion that only 
a few railroads and private car lines have 
adopted this method of repacking and. in- 
spection, but it has been found to be a 
profitable undertaking from the first, and 
there is no reason why the railroads 
who have carried this art beyond the 
experimental stage should not put all 
cars on their rails in as good condition 
as possible at the owner's expense and 
insure a quick movement of cars, not only 
as a patriotic duty, but as a war measure 
for the safe and prompt delivery of com- 
modities. Coincidentally it is a well 
known fact that cut journals are due to 
the neglect in properly taking care of 
journal boxes and contained parts. The 
number of cars cut out by all the rail- 
roads in the Lmited States on account 
of hot boxes is approximately 93,000 cars 
per month, and much saving could be 
effected if each one of our many rail- 
roads would adopt a system of periodical 
repacking and attention to journal boxes 
which is necessary to prevent the expense. 

The repacking of boxes at specified 
periods is also a subject of vital interest, 
and is capable of amendment. It was 
shown that journal boxes that may have 
been packed in Chicago may pass through 
a flooded district before they reach New 
Orleans, and consequently some foreign 



matter will in all likelihood have reached 
the packing. The packer is not likely to 
be nver zealous in inspecting these boxes, 
especially as the stencil will show that 
the box was packed a day or two ago. A 
proper inspection at each terminal might 
take more time, but it would be the means 
of saving more than it cost. 

Regarding the reclaiming of waste, or 
second hand packing, some roads are now 
reclaiming as much as 90 per cent, of the 
packing removed, and find that it is in 
every way as good as new packing. At 
the same time it was almost the unani- 
mous opinion of those who took part in the 
discussion that the method of repacking 
the boxes and the material used should 
be standardized before the rule enforcing 
it, and making it chargeable to the owner 
is put into effect. Meanwhile some roads 
are using the very best quality of wool 
packing obtainable while others are using 
mixtures of inferior quality frequently a 
poor grade of cotton waste, and some of 
it of a vegetable fiber having little or no 
capillarity whatever, so that a system of 
standardization is necessary to protect 
those who are using good material against 
others who are using inferior stuff. 

The general opinion seemed to be that 
the association should go on record as 
demanding the best and recommending 
that, so that all may be given a chance to 
use it. Those who are already using a 
good quality of packing would then get 
the benefit and would not have a miscel- 
laneous and inferior quality of packing 
put into their boxes. As it is, it may be 
said that all roads use their own pack- 
ing and many are controlled by the pur- 
chasing department, which, in order to 
stand in with the higher officials, fre- 
quently purchase a so-called woolen waste 
at a very low price and will present this 
to the management, claiming that it is 
just as good, and it saves so much by 
using this material, while at the same time 
it is hardly worth the time and labor, as 
its use cannot do other than lead to pre- 
mature trouble, whereas on the other 
hand the best material has the quality 
when reclaimed and resaturated of be- 
ing better than new waste, it being fre- 
quently demonstrated under the micro- 
scope that the oil cleansed the fibre and 
the oil appeared in a greater quantity on 
the reclaimed waste than it did the first 
time. 

It was also claimed during the discus- 
sion that there is no road purposely neg- 
lecting the inspection of cars, because it 
involves the safety of transportation over 
its own rails, and the majority of the 
speakers emphasized the fact that their 
roads were following a regular - 
of repacking journal boxes and getting 
good results, and as a matter of fact, the 
majority of the roads in the country, the 



principal trunk lines particularly, are 
following good practice. The idea, how- 
ever, was approved of, that better results 
would be obtained if the Master Car 
Builders' Association should lay down 
specific rules in regard to the matter that 
would be universally adhered to, and 
every road throughout the country would 
use the same standard of waste, and all 
who endeavored to maintain the essence 
of perfection in the packing of car jour- 
nal boxes would find that when cars go 
to another line that they will still get the ' 
same treatment in material as on their 
own line. In this connection it may be 
added that the association has already 
recommended a specification for a stand- 
ard waste, but it seems to have been 
looked upon as not sufficiently manda- 
tory in its application. 

Some of the outcroppings of the dis- 
cussion were of much value. As an in- 
stance, it was stated that in the reclaim- 
ing of waste, the packing should not be 
immediately dumped into the vat on being 
removed from the journal boxes. The 
packing should be first placed on a sorting 
table and the short parts removed. This 
also removes the bits of babbitt or other 
foreign matter, and only the good packing 
is put into the reclaiming vat and carried 
out, the scrap material being burned to 
reclaim the babbitt and this reclaimed 
babbitt is taken into consideration when 
giving credit to the owner for packing 
removed from his car. 

The general conclusion arrived at was 
that after the Master Car Builders' As- 
sociation had time and opportunity to 
give the matter full consideration and 
establish a standard packing, a rule should 
be put into effect penalizing those who 
may be found guilty of an infraction of 
the standard regulations. The discussion 
was particularly interesting in view of the 
evident earnestness and frankness of all 
who participated in the debate. As might 
be expected, there was a natural tendency 
to lay blame on the other roads rather 
than to expose the shortcomings that may 
exist on the road in which the speaker 
was employed. There were no indica- 
tions of attempting to exalt some particu- 
lar brand t^i material, the chief note being 
a strong desire to reach a standardization 
not only in materials but in methods, and 
that the final rules and regulations in 
regard to the packing and inspection of 
car truck journal boxes should be estab- 
lished and promulgated by the association 
having the authority to do r.o. That this 
will eventually be done is a foregone 
conclusion, but in the strenuous days 
when so much is looked for. railway men. 
like all other men, must continue to exer- 
cise a patience that never wearies, and 
they musl always and ever hope and work 
for the best. 



146 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



May, 1918 



Telephone Reaches a Moving Train 



A short time ago the Canadian Govern- 
ment conducted a test of a new invention 
whereby telephonic communication can be 
readily and surely established between the 
train dispatcher's office and a train ac- 
tually moving along the track, miles away 
from headquarters. The conductor of the 
moving train on hearing the dispatcher's 
voice and noting what he says, can then 
telephone the engineman on the swaying 
and rushing machine ; he is heard quite 
distinctly by the engineman, with the surge 
and roar of the engine is endered quite in- 
audible through the telephone, which sim- 
ply reproduces the sounds from the ca- 
boose. Further than this, an ordinary 
city telephone operator can give you the 
dispatcher who reaches the conductor on 
the moving train, and the conductor con- 
nects you with your old friend, Mr. A. 
O. Brookside, first-class passenger travel- 
ing west at the time, and you can say to 
him, "Hello ! 'Brooky,' old man, are you 
walking or flying or riding, and how are 
you?" And you can hear Mr. Brookside 
laugh and reply as plainly as if he and 
you were face to face. 

One thinks of telephoning to a person 
on a rapidly-moving train as if it was 
almost uncanny. So it is, as far as human 
experience goes, but in the world of ap- 
plied science there is no wonder, every- 
thing acts in accordance with law. This 
speaking is not a transmission of voice. 
It is a transmission of minute fluctuations 
in a current of electricity caused by the 
vibrations of the small telephone dia- 
phragm found in both receiver and sender 
of an ordinary telephone outfit. How the 
sound impulses striking the diaphragm 
cause it to vibrate, as a whole, and at the 
same time forces the surface to divide it- 
self into numerous nodes and vibrating 
segments so that the very overtones of 
the speaker's voice are reproduced, we 
need not now stop to consider. The trans- 
mission through the telephone, over the 
wire, along the track and through the re- 
ceiver is electrical, and at the almost in- 
finite pace at which electricity travels, all 
things to it are stationary. Imagine a 
train bowling briskly along at 30 miles an 
hour, under the power of steam and steel, 
and suddenly overtaken by a force whose 
prodigious velocity is 186,000 miles a sec- 
ond. Electricity, if it were sentient, would 
not know that the train was in motion 
just as a bullet with 3,000 ft. muzzle 
velocity would treat a man slowly walk- 
ing as if he was stationary. 

But to return from the contemplation 
of this fascinating glimpse into the fairy- 
land of science, let us say that the prac- 
tical demonstration given by the MacFar- 
lane Train Control and Telephone Com- 
pany, of New York, with their apparatus 
was made on the Canadian Government 
Railways at Moncton, N. B., Can., on 



March 27, 1918. The test was conducted 
between Moncton and Humphrey's sta- 
tion. Mr. L. S. Brown, general superin- 
tendent of the Canadian Government 
Railways ; Mr. W. R. Devenish, superin- 
tendent ; Mr. R. G. Gage, signal and elec- 
trical engineer of the Canadian Govern- 
ment Railways, and other officials were 
present at the testing of the invention, 
as well as the inventor, Mr. W. 
W. MacFarlane, and his partner, Mr. 
D. W, Mulford, of New York ; Mr. C. W. 
Parker, electrical engineer of the C. P. R., 
and Mr. Thomas Roger, representing the 
superintendents of railway telegraph and 
telephone service of the United States of 
America, were also present. 

During the test, which was very com- 

5»ocpa man wnt By VQqphpm to * aoiif MUropfl tr»in. 



l_j w _ srzszyt 







5?Usrsi*^ £<*r~-c4 



^LtJL'' 



C C -f \^ * C TV ^»- c 




Mo ?v^ <n uW"«— ^ U^W- *1^ 

TRAIN ORDERS TELEPHONED. MES- 
SAGES "SENT" AND "RECEIVED" 
ON MOVING TRAIN. 

plete, the conversations were carried on 
between the moving train and the dis- 
patcher's office in a clear and distinct 
manner. 

The engine was cut off from the car 
and proceeded a mile down the track by 
orders telephoned from the conductor to 
the engineer. The engine was then 
stopped by telephone orders from the con- 
ductor, who was on the car, and instruct- 
ed to come back and couple up again. 
Then an order was given by the conductor 
to back up the train and take on the flag- 
man, who had gone back to flag. 

Before backing up, a telephone message 
was sent to the dispatcher's office, asking 
if it was safe to back up, and the answer 
by telephone from the dispatcher was that 



this would be all right. After backing 
up to the flagman, the order was receivea 
from the dispatcher's office to go ahead 
to Humphrey's and cross over to the 
other track and come back to Moncton. 
Before reaching Humphrey's a second 
telephone message was received from the 
dispatcher countermanding the previous 
order to cross over, but to return to 
Moncton on the same track, as the train 
was protected from the rear. 

All these instructions were transmitted 
by telephone from the dispatcher's office 
to the conductor on the car and by him 
transmitted to the engineer by telephone, 
while the car was running, showing that 
it is perfectly feasible to control a mov- 
ing train by telephone from the dis- 
patcher's office at a distant point. 

Communication was also established be- 
tween the moving train and the city tele- 
phone service. The Canadian Govern- 
ment Railway officials expressed them- 
selves as thoroughly satisfied with the 
practicability of the whole test, the equip- 
ment used and the highly important work 
which was then, and can always be done 
by this means, of reaching a train which 
is usually, under such circumstances, com- 
pletely out of the range of control and 
entirely beyond help. 

Not only is the startling statement made 
but it has been verified that communica- 
tion is possible to establish between a 
moving train and the city telephone serv- 
ice, which makes it possible for one to 
talk directly through the telephone in 
one's hotel room to someone on a train 
100 miles away running sixty miles an 
hour. 

The material used in installing the 
"railway telephone" is not costly, being 
standard goods found in any well-equipped 
electrical supply house throughout the 
country and it is most easily applicable. 

Telephone wires are attached to the 
front and rear trucks of any form of cars 
now in use on the various railroads. The 
wires are attached to the engine and to 
the tender. The voice transmission takes 
place through the wheels and down to the 
rails, where it runs along and is picked up 
by the engineer, conductor, or dispatcher, 
whichever party the signal indicates the 
message is for. 

Just here a most interesting and ex- 
ceedingly useful feature of the whole 
scheme of telephoning to a train by means 
of track circuit and wheels, axles and 
train wires, should be mentioned. It is 
this : The block signal system divides the 
track into sections, and each section can 
be reached separately. In this country 
an accident might destroy a section or a 
"block," but the block on each side of the 
mutilated one could be reached by tele- 
phone, and a train in front or behind the 
wreck could be spoken to as if nothing 



May, 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



147 



had happened. This feature, excellent as 
it is for us, might be of priceless value 
in France, where the United States Gov- 
ernment have miles of railway behind the 
Allied line. 

Here, mistake, inadvertence, or acci- 
dent may destroy a sectional block of 
track, and we would find the telephone 
with this feature of the highest utility. 
Not so, in degrees of convenience only, 
in France. There the enemy of Liberty, 
free thought, and strong development, 
constantly endeavors to break the con- 
tinuity of the line. If evil fortune per- 
mits him, with some high explosive, to 
destroy a "block" of track, he but ham- 
pers a bit of the line, because the tele- 
phone can reach trains on either side of 
the damaged portion. Thus are those 
who have enslaved science and made her 
work for ignoble ends, and prostituted 
the knowledge God has given us as a re- 
ward for hard labor and conscientious 
thought — these men are beaten at their 
own game by applied science, and it is 
from this country that the new thought 
and impulse comes. 

It is not for us to prescribe a course 




TELEPHONE CONNECTION BETWEEN 
ENGINE AND TENDER. 

of action to the Government or to say 
that this or that remedy is infallible. We 
offer this suggestion, however, that the 
Government look into this whole matter 
of telephone connection to a moving train 
and the adjunct that goes with it, of 
reaching trains separated by an impass- 
able area, or trains in distress, or those 
that as they proceed may pick up infor- 
mation priceless to the army. 

If not used here at present, the tele- 
phone will some day be so used, but its 
utility for military lines looks to us to be 
of the highest value today, when freedom 
stands with its back against the wall 
fighting for the right. 



The State of the Case. 
The Railway Business Association has 
recently issued a bulletin for the use of 
its members, dealing with the railway sit- 
uation as it is now. The whole docu- 
ment, which is too extensive for repro- 
duction here, is nevertheless full of 
information, useful to the railway man, 
the supply man, and to others. We there- 



fore desire to quote one or two of the 
most pertinent paragraphs. 

First in importance, it seems to us, 
comes the railway control act, and the 
suspension of rate advances by the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission when initia- 
ted by the administrator of railroad opera- 
tion. This is abolished for the period to 
be covered. Under government control 
the operating administrator is technically 
the President and actually the Director 
General. "The President" is empowered 
to initiate rates and practices, which upon 
complaint the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission may review and amend or set 
aside; but pending final adjudication the 
President's order shall not be suspended. 
This relieves government operation of 
the provision of law under which com- 
pany operation has had to work, author- 
izing suspension of rates when filed by 
carriers pending final determination. The 
Railway Business Association opposed the 
original enactment of suspension power 
on the grounds (1) that a railway man- 
ager filing a rate advance should be pre- 
sumed innocent of unreasonableness or 
discrimination until proved guilty; (2) 
that if the advance went into effect when 
filed and was disallowed the carrier could 
refund, but that if it were suspended and 
ultimately sanctioned, the carrier could 
not collect the revenue which it had lost 
in the meantime; and (3) that in practice 
suspensions would clog the docket and 
the consequent delays would deprive rate 
structures of quick adaptability to chang- 
ing commercial conditions. From within 
the commission has come the criticism 
that the suspension power was being used 
too freely. 

Adequacy of revenue as a consideration 
in the making of rates is for the first time 
adopted in this measure as a policy of the 
federal government. The provision is 
that when the commission is considering 
appeals from the President's orders af- 
fecting rates, and the President certifies 
reasons for increase of operating rev- 
enues, including among such reasons op- 
erating expenses, taxes, net rentals for 
joint facilities and equipment and com- 
pensation to the carriers, "the Interstate 
Commerce Commission in determining the 
justness and reasonableness . . . shall 
take into consideration said finding and 
certificate by the President together with 
such recommendations as he may make." 
The elements which in this provision 
Congress says the commission "shall" 
take into consideration are the elements 
which the Railway Business Association 
has urged Congress to specify in defining 
the aim of regulation. "Compensation to 
the carriers" under government operation 
would read, as applying to non-govern- 
ment operation, "surplus as a basis for 
credit." There have always been mem- 
bers of the commission who specified 
among their reasons for voting against 
rate advances the conviction that the law 



as it stands does not make it a part of the 
duty of the commission or clothe the 
commission with power to consider ade- 
quacy of earnings and maintenance of 
credit in regulating rates. 

Financing of new facilities is provided 
for by an appropriation of $500,000,000 as 
a revolving fund to pay expenses of fed- 
eral control, to defray deficits where car- 
riers' net income falls short of the gov- 
ernment guarantee and "to provide 
terminals, motive power, cars and other 
necesary equipment." The President may 
order carriers to make improvements, in- 
cluding not only rolling stock and better- 
ments to road but "road extensions," and 
advance them sums from the revolving 
fund. 

Termination of government operation 
is explicitly provided for in the section 
which prescribes continuance of govern- 
ment control not exceeding 21 months 
beyond the President's peace proclama- 
tion. The original "Administration" text 
as drawn by Interstate Commerce Com- 
missioner Anderson would have made the 
period of government control indefinite. 
The General Executive Committee of the 
Railway Business Association in its re- 
port of March 14, "Plan for Important 
Change of Scope," advocates "the preser- 
vation of individual initiative in the in- 
vestment of capital and in management," 
"reliance upon the judgment of the in- 
vesting public in projecting enterprises of 
construction or improvement," "respon- 
sibility of the owners or their representa- 
tives for selection of operating execu- 
tives," "maintenance in railroading of a 
career outside the government," "preser- 
vation of government regulation." 



Teak the Hardest Timber. 
People familiar with different kinds of 
wood are aware that African teak is the 
hardest timber known to the mechanical 
industries. So indestructible is African 
teak wood that vessels built of it have 
lasted over one hundred years. The pe- 
culiarity of this wood is its hardness and 
great weight, causing extraordinary dur- 
ability. Its weight varies from 42 to 52 
pounds per cubic foot. It works easily 
considering its hardnesss. but the large 
quantity of silex in the substance require 
the tools to be extremely hard and even 
then they are subject to rapid wear. It 
also contains an oil which prevents nails 
driven into it from rusting. 



Filing Soft Metals. 
The teeth of a file are soon filled when 
the file is used on lead, tin, soft solder 
or aluminum. It cannot be cleaned like 
the wood rasp by dipping it into hot 
water, but if the file and the work are 
kept wet with water, there will be no 
trouble as the already wet particles of 
lead soft solder, etc.. do not readily ad- 
here to the file. 



148 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



May, 1918 



The Anderson Valve Gear 

A Double Eccentric Crank Arm, the Main Feature 



\> is well known valve gears havi 
gaged the attention of the most inventive 
minds since the steam engine assumed its 
position as the leading motive power in 
mechanism. This restless spirit of a con- 
stant search for the ideal has resulted in 




VIEW SHOWING DOUBLE CRANK ARM 

AND LINES OF CONNECTION TO 

SLIDABLE LINK. 

many improvements and varied adapta- 
of thu underlying principles essential 
to the harnessing of steam. On the steam 
locomotive the Stephenson valve gear, so 
called, held the leading place for more 
than half a century, but latterly with the 
great increase in the size of locomotives, 
and the limited space between the frames, 
it became a physical necessity that some 
form of outside gear should take the 
place of the cumbrous appliance and the 
result lias been that various forms oi 
outside valve gear are common in steam 
locomotive practice. 

It is not necessary to particularize their 
number and variety and advantages at this 
time, but to turn the reader's attention 
for a moment to a new design, the inven- 
tion of Mr. J. A. Anderson, master 
mechanic of the Baltimore & Ohio Rail- 
road, at Grafton, W. \'a., which in point 
of simplicity in design and economy in 
construction seems worthy of the attention 
of all who are interested in the improve- 
ment of the mechanical appliances used 
on railroads. 

As shown in our illustration the prin- 
cipal feature of this valve gear is a double 
crank arm fastened to the end of the main 
crank pin. This crank arm has two pins 
which take the place of eccentrics. They 
are placed in the following manner : key 
way points are located on axle, the same 
as for eccentric motion lines are drawn 
from center of axle, though these points 
and distances are spaced off equal to one- 
half the valve travel or the radius of ec- 
centricity ; then the crank arm is designed 
by having arms, so made as to connect 
up these points, the small arm being ex- 
tended from the outer end of the pin on 
the crankpin arm ; by so doing the con- 



necting rods will not interfere when the 
axle is revolving. The motion is trans- 
mitted to a link similar to that used in the 
eccentric link motion, and continued to 
the valve by connection from link to valve 
rod. this being taken care of to suit the 
design of the locomotive. The link is 
raised and lowered to reverse the motion 
similar to the eccentric link motion. Of 
course, it is necessary for the tumbling 
shaft arm to be on the outside of the 
frame instead of the inside. 

The advantages brought about by the 
gear, that is, made possible by the use of 
the double crank arm are its simplicity, 
and accessibility for inspection, oiling and 
maintenance. The improvement in this 
gear over valve gears located between 
frame with the eccentric motion are that 
it eliminates eccentrics, and straps which 
in turn reduce the amount of friction and 
does away with the heavy revolving parts. 
It also eliminates the heavy rocker boxes 
and long transmission rods which in most 
cases are curved and subject to consider- 
able distortion. Of course, the doing 
away of these moving parts between the 
frames permits better bracing of the loco- 



motive to another of the same class and 
design, A iter once applying in accord- 
ance with specifications, there is no neces- 
sity for any changes or adjustments which 
are often necessary in the disk eccentric 
motion, due to loose or slipped eccentrics 
on axles. 

In comparing this device with other 
outside locomotive valve gears, it has 
double crank arms which enable it to take 
all of the motion transmitted to the valve 
from the axle and secure a variable lead 
which in turn makes quick starting loco- 
motives and better distribution of steam, 
without any connections to the cross head, 
and the elimination of these parts, and as 
already stated, the apparent merits of the 
valve motion in which the double crank 
arm is used is its extreme simplicity and 
accessibility for oiling, maintenance and 
repairs on account of it being an outside 
motion with variable lead, and reduced 
number of parts, the latter, of course, 
making it possible to reduce cost of con- 
-truction. 



_ 



SECTION' VIEW OF DOUBLE CRANK 
ARM IN MAIN ROD TIN. 

motive frame which in turn has a ten- 
dency to reduce frame breakages. 

The double eccentric crank arm is de- 
?igned standard for each type of locomo- 
tive, being interchangeable from one loco- 



Fuel and Power Resources of Canada. 

In a recent paper before the Ottawa 
branch of the Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers. Mr. John Blizzard reviewed 
the main sources of supply of heat and 
power in Canada. The most important is 
coal, of which some thirty million tons is 
needed each year. On account of the 
uneven distribution of Canada's coal, com- 
paratively little being found in the central 
provinces of Manitoba, Ontario and 
Quebec, more than half the total require- 
ments comes from the United States. Mr. 
Blizzard anticipates, however, that in the 
course of a few years this condition may 
be reversed, and the United States may 
be forced to seek coke and coking coals 
from Canada. Of the thirty million tons, 
it is roughly estimated that sixteen mil- 
lions are used for power purposes — rail- 
way locomotives, nine millions ; industrial 
power, six millions; collieries, one mil- 
lion ; a total which, at 7 lbs. per h.p. 
hour, would be the equivalent of some- 
thing over half a million continuous 
horsepower. 

But the author goes on to point out that 
of the eighteen million continuous horse- 
power of energy in the form of water 
powers at present going to waste, some 
eight million is estimated to be within the 
present range of markets. This amount, 
making all allowance for transformation 
and transmission losses, would yield, say, 
a million and a half horsepower for trac- 
tion and industrial uses— three times the 
present-day requirements. 

The paper also outlines Canada's re- 
sources of wood as being very consider- 
able : oil and peat in abundance. 



May. 1918 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



149 



Locomotive Development and Its Effect On Capacity 



The development of heavy power 
units and large capacity cars in Amer- 
ica has been a natural progression. It 
has been dominated by demands to 
move large heavy shipments long dis- 
tances over varying grade conditions. 
The use of larger locomotives, making 
possible greater train loads, has been 
further influenced by increasing de- 
mands for higher wages on the part 
of all classes of skilled and unskilled 
labor that had to do with both the 
maintenance and operation of the 
power and, on the other side, by the 
limitation of revenue by adverse legis- 
lation. Improved designs and devices 
were introduced with the primary ob- 
ject of making possible the operation 
of power units of sufficient capacity to 
meet the heavy tonnage requirements 
imposed by American industrial con- 
ditions. 

On thirty railroads of this country 
the average tractive power of locomo- 
tives increased 49.7 per cent, between 
1902 and 1913. Progressing at this rate, 
physical limitations of height and width 
soon brought the length of the loco- 
motive to its present extreme dimen- 
sions and further gain in tractive power 
had to be obtained by increases in the 
capacity of the locomotive boiler. 
which, in the early stages of the growth 
in size of the locomotive, was found to 
be one of the most important limiting 
factors. There were, necessarily, other 
circumstances which presented prob- 
lems, but generally these could be 
traced to the boiler and their depend- 
ence upon the boiler could be estab- 
lished. Greater boiler capacity and. 
consequently, higher tractive effort was 
attainable, providing means of operat- 
ing at overload for long periods of 
time, and reducing the drain on the 
boiler for a given power output, by ef- 
fecting economy in the distribution and 
use of the steam or reducing the steam 
rate per horsepower hour. 

Mechanical stokers of various kinds 
followed the efforts to obtain greater 
boiler power by using two firemen on 
the locomotive. It is most effective in 
increasing the capacity of the locomo- 
tive and its economy is realized in the 
resultant reduction of transportation 
costs. 

The indirect means of improving the 
capacity of the locomotive, or that at- 
tained by increasing the economy of 
steam production and distribution, has 
accomplished much more than the direct 
methods. Compounding was employed. 
hut this introduced maintenance com- 
plications which were not entirely 
worked out at the time, probably be- 
cause other more effective means ap- 
peared which could be employed more 
readily and produce better results. Tt 



was discontinued for the time being 
except in the case of Mallet locomotives 
but will no doubt again come into use 
at a time when it will be advantageous 
to work out the entire solution of the 
problem. 

The successful adaptation of the loco- 
motive brick arch has also been a factor 
in improving the economy and conse- 
quently the capacity of the locomotive. 
It provided more complete combustion 
of the fuel, with consequently higher 
firebox temperatures and greater evap- 
oration per pound of fuel burned. 

There are many other devices that 
have been introduced, the purpose of 
which is to increase the capacity of the 
locomotive. Of these, the one which 
is recognized to have accomplished 
probably the most, toward making the 
present large power unit possible is 
the fire tube superheater. By the fuel 
and water economy which it effects it 
has extended the capacity of the largest 
locomotive that it has been practical to 
build within the physical limitations, 
up to at least 30 per cent over what it 
would have been had the attempt been 
made to operate it with saturated steam. 
It brought the heaviest locomotive 
within the capacity of the average fire- 
man, and has proved to be a device 
suited to American practice on account 
of its low maintenance cost compared 
with the results obtained, thus going 
far toward offsetting the high wages of 
the American mechanic. Cylinders, 
limited in size by excessive condensation 
losses with saturated steam, can be de- 
signed to suit the governing conditions 
without regard for this factor when 
superheated steam is used, since there 
is ample protection against these los-es. 

Other details might be covered which 
are rather beyond the scope of a gen- 
eral discussion of this kind. However, 
summing up briefly the effect that the 
superheater lias had upon the develop- 
ment of the locomotive it may be out- 
lined as follows: 

By virtue of a saving of 25 per cent in 
fuel and 30 per cent in water the capac- 
ity of a given boiler has been increased 
1/3 and since the boiler capacity may be 
said to limit the hauling capacity, tin's 
latter has been increased proportionate- 
ly. Nor are the possibilities covered by 
this, for still higher superheat and con- 
sequently greater extension in capacity 
are practicable. Two hundred and fifty 
degrees has been the maximum em- 
ployed to accomplish the above men- 
tioned results and it is well within the 
possibility ■ of American locomotive 
practice to use successfully three 
hundred and fifty to four hundred de- 
grees of superheat. For some time past 
a number of large passenger locomo- 
tives have been operated very success- 



fully witli steam chest temperatures of 
seven hundred and fifty to eight hun- 
dred degrees, or with superheat of three 
hundred and fifty to four hundred de- 
grees and have given a proportionate 
increase in capacity over the general 
practice of two hundred and fifty de- 
grees. The use of higher superheat is 
gradually becoming general and a cor- 
responding increase in capacity of the 
locomotive is resulting. 

Other means of effecting further 
economy and consequently extending 
the capacity of the locomotive are be- 
ing developed and will prove of much 
value when in universal use. The feed 
water heater is among these and will 
conserve for useful work some of the 
heat now wasted from the locomotive 
boiler. The successful burning of low- 
grade fuel by pulverizing will further 
extend the economies. 



Locomotive Consulting Board. 

Among the various boards of railroad 
men banded together under the new order 
of things appertaining to the railways 
under government control, Frank Mc- 
Manamv. manager of the Locomotive 
Section of the United States Railroad 
Administration, has appointed the follow- 
ing railroad officers as a consulting board 
to consider matters relative to the main- 
tenance of locomotives, the distribution 
of locomotives to various shops for re- 
pairs, shop production and practices, and 
other matters of a similar character : H. 
T. Bentley. superintendent of motive 
power. Chicago & North Western ; C. E. 
Chambers, superintendent of motive 
power, Central of New Jersey; C. E. Ful- 
ler, superintendent of motive power, 
Union Pacific; J. Hainen. assistant to the 
vice-president. Southern; I"). R. MacBain, 
superintendent of motive power, New 
York Central Lines West ; John Purcell, 
assisant to the vice-president, Atchison. 
Topeka & Santa Fe. 



Supply Men's Association. 
Announcement has been made that 
The International Railway Supply 
Men's Association will not make its 
annual exhibit at the forthcoming con- 
vention of the International Railway 
Fuel Association. This is in accordance 
with the request of the latter associa- 
tion, and it is also announced that there 
will be no exhibits of railway appliances, 
and no special entertainments will be 
held under the auspices of the Associa- 
tion. 



Many have knowledge and still fail to 
accomplish. Ability to apply knowledge 
is the necessary factor for success. 



Standardization in the engineering sense 
means the elimination of the unnecessary. 



150 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



May, 1918 



Handling Locomotive Coal. 

Coal is one of the large items in the 
expense of railway operation. Not only 
does its first cost aggregate an enormous 
sum, but its transportation to points of 
use requires large equipment and demands 
operating service often sorely needed for 
other commercial purposes. Even though 
the first cost of coal at the mine may be 
reduced to a minimum by advantageous 
contracts with large coal companies and 
by other means, the final cost will also 
depend upon the cost of transportation. 
These words are practically those used 
in the bulletin No. 44 of the engineering 
experiment station of the Iowa State Col- 
lege. Our illustration affords a very good 
pict