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Full text of "Railway and locomotive engineering : a practical journal of railway motive power and rolling stock"

RlJlSSSLEuiiiesill 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling Stock and Appliances 



Vol. XXXIX 



136 Liberty Street, New York, January, 1926 



jVo. 1 



The Powerful Three -Cylinder Locomotive of the Southern 

Pacific Co. 

Some Details of the Performance of a Heavy Non-Articulated 2-10-2 Locomotive 



An announcement was made in the March 1925 isue of 
R.\iLWAv AND Locomotive Engineering of some 2-10-2 
three-cylinder locomotives, then in course of construction 
for the Southern Pacific Company by the American Loco- 
motive Company. In that article a chart was presented 
showing the increase in the hauling capacity of Southern 
Pacific locomotives for the past thirty years as expressed 
in drawbar pull in pounds on a 2.2 per cent grade. This 
showed that the increase at starting from the ten-wheeled 
saturated steam locomotive built in 1895 and weighing 
249.370 lbs. to the 2-10-2 three-cylinder machine weigh- 



of 225 pounds, would offer the greatest possibilities of 
producing increased power at high speeds and of improv- 
ing at the same time, the fuel efficiency of the locomotive. 
As a result, a three-cylinder 2-10-2 type locomotive was 
designed. Since the Southern Pacific is the first railroad 
to have a locomotive with this wheel arrangement built 
for its service, the new type has been designated as the 
''Southern Pacific." 

The general specifications for these locomotives were 
worked up under the supervision of George McCormick, 
general superintendent of motive pwwer, and Frank E. 




Three-Cylinder 2-10-2 Type Locomotive of the Southern Pacific Company 



ing 682,400, was from a drawbar pull of 18,000 lbs. to 
one of 71,500 lbs. ; while, at a speed of 35 miles per hour, 
the increase was from 1,000 lbs. to 21,500 lbs. This 
article was followed in September, 1925, after the engines 
had been delivered, by a second article giving a brief 
. general description of them. 

The engines were built in order to meet the increasing 
Y demands of the present as well as to make an adequate 
pirovision for the future handling in a satisfactory man- 
ner of the growing passenger and freight traffic over the 
heavy grades in the Sierra Nevada and Siskiyou Moun- 
tains. 

After much study and investigation, it was decided 
that a three-cylinder locomotive operating with a maxi- 
mum cut-off of 70 per cent and carrying a boiler pressure 

Central -Mil* 



Russell, mechanical engineer. The locomotives were 
built by the American Locomotive Company. The details 
were worked out jointly by the builders and Mr. Russell 
and represent the most recent developments of both the 
Southern Pacific Comixiny and the American Locomotive 
Company. 

Of the total of sixteen locomotives purchased by the 
-Southern Pacific, six are in service on the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains between Roseville, California and Sparks, 
Nevada, and ten on the Siskiyou Mountains between 
Dunsmuir, California, and Ashland, Oregon. The charac- 
ter of the territory over which these locomotives operate 
is shown on the accompaning profiles. 

On the line between Roseville and Sparks, maximum 
grades of 2.6 per cent occur going east, and of 2.3 per 

1 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1926 



cent going west. The consist of the through passenger 
trains over this district is from 10 to 13 cars, with a 
tonnage varying from 600 tons to 950 tons. Previously, 
when trains were of 11 cars or less, they were handled, 
single, by Iieavy 2-10-2 type locomotives having a tractive 
cflfort of 75,150 lbs. This locomotive was described in 
Railw.w and Locomotive Engineeking for July 1921. 
When rtsore than 11 cars were liandled, it was necessary 
to give the 2-10-2 type locomotives a 2-8-2 type helper, 
01 use two 2-8-2 type locomotives the tractive effort of 
the latter being 51,100 lbs. The time card calls for sched- 
ales for the San Francisco Overland Limited Trains, go- 
ing Eart, as follows: from Roseville to Colfax, with a 
maximum grade of 1.5 i>er cent. 2(y.i miles per hour; and 



•}tVJ^STEffN-Dl\( -^STOCKTON-Dif/. 



|>er cent cut-off is that the steam is used more expansively, 
thus reducing fuel consumption. A greater power output 
is also produced at any given cut-ofT, through the increase 
in boiler pressure above the normal. F"urthermore, with 
the valve gear designed to give full port opening with a 
maximum cut-off of 70 per cent, the port ojjening is 
greater at any given cut-ofT than is the case when the 
initial cut-ofF is more than 70 per cent. This results in 
a wider port ojjening when the engine is hooked up, with 
a consequent increase in horsepower and hauling capacity 
at high sjjeeds. At slow speeds, the low adhestion for the 
drivers of 3.75 is made possible by the use of the third 
cylinder, which produces a more uniform pulling torque. 
In any locomotive the adhesive weight must be great 




Profile of Southern Pacific Railway From Oal<land, Calif. 



from Colfax to Summit with a maximum grade of 2.6 
per cent, 18.7 miles per hour. It is a source of gratifica- 
tion to the railroad company that while the new Southern 
Pacific type locomotives were designed to handle a maxi- 
mum of 12 cars on the San I-'rancisco Overland Limited 
without help, they have successfully handled 13 cars, 
weighing 950 tons, on this train, and 14 cars on other 
trains having slower schedules. This eliminates the ex- 
pense of using helpers on passenger trains over this terri- 
tory. 

To date on the Shasta Route, on account of heav}- 
freight business, these locomotives have been used almost 
exclusively in freight service, with equally satisfactory 
results. Between Gerber and Dunsnuiir, where helpers 



enough to prevent slipi)ing with the maximum tractive 
force develoi)ed through a complete revolution of the 
drivers. The increase in per cent of this maximum over 
the average is much smaller for a locomotive with three 
cylinders than for one with two cylinders. Hence, for a 
i^nven weight on drivers, the three-cylinder locomotive 
can develop about 15 per cent more rated tractive effort 
than a two-cylinder design without slipping the wheels. 
The factor of adhesion of 3.75 for Southern Pacific type 
iocoiuotives would \x equivalent to about 4.25 in a two- 
cylinder type. 

By increasing the weight on the drivers only 3.2 per 
cent the railroad has secured in the main cylinders of 
the Southern Pacific type locomotive an increased tractive 



.i^£STEf<N Div. 

I03 I^ILES 







SACRAMENTO Dl\/._ J, 



Profile of Southern Pacific Railway From Oakland to Ashland, Calif. 



are not required, the average monthly performance shows 
that they have handled over 16 per cent more tonnage 
than the 2-10-2 type and at a fuel saving of 12 per cent 
per 1,000 ton miles. 

The Southern I'acific type locomotives have a total 
weight of 442,000 lbs., of which 316.000 lbs. are on the 
drivers. The maximum tractive effort is 96.530 lbs. with 
the booster, and 84,200 lbs. without the booster, the ratio 
of adhesion for the drivers being Z.7^. The maximum 
cut-off is 70 per cent, instead of 85 to 90 per cent, as is 
the usual practice. While the reduced cut-off alone 
lessens the tractive effort, the increase in boiler pressure 
to 225 lbs. offsets this. The advantage, then, of the 70 



effort of 12.1 per cent over the heavy 2-10-2 type loco- 
motive. Furtheririore. upon comparing the drawbar pull 
curves for these two locomotives at 20 miles per hour on 
a 2.2 per cent grade, it is seen that the drawbar pull is 25 
per cent greater for the Southern Pacific type. This is 
a marked increase in hauling capacity at high speeds on 
heavy grades. 

The two diagrams show the drawbar pull of the 2-10-2 
locomotive on 1.5 and 2.2 per cent grades as compared 
with the old T-1 class or 4-6-0 type, and the class F-5 or 
2-10-2 type, the latter locomotive having been placed in 
service in 1924. 

From these diagrams it will appear that, on a 1.5 per 



Januarj', 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



rt 



"t:^ 



cent grade the drawbar pull at starting 
for the three was as follows : 

4- 6-0 = 19,000 lbs. 
2-10-2 = 62,000 lbs. 
2-10-2 = 76,000 lbs. 

At a Sf)eed of 40 miles per hour these 
became : 

4- 6-0 = 1,000 lbs. 
2-10-2 = 16.000 lbs. 
2-10-2 = 21.000 lbs. 

On a 2.2 per cent grade the drawbar 
pull drops and becomes, at starting 

4- 6-0 = 17,500 lbs. 
2-10-2 = 58.000 lbs. 
2-10-2 = 71.500 lbs. 

and at a speed of 40 miles an hour. 

4-6-0 = 

2-10-2 = 11,500 lbs. 

2-10-2 = 16.000 lbs. 

By which the decided superiority of 
the 2-10-2 type over its predecessors is 
shown. 

Using Cole's ratios as a basis of comparison, these loco- 
motives have a maximum cylinder horsepower of 3,798 
and an evaf)orating capacity of 84.56 j>er cent. It is 
estimated, however, that the evap)orating capacity is in- 
creased 10 per cent by the use of the feed water heater, 
and 6.76 per cent on account of the improved draft con- 
ditions due to the extra cylinder (based on 8 per cent of 



.-,-^4--. 




. Souttiem fheific TyfA. Class SP-f, placed i 
Z-iO-2 7yps, Class F-S.f^acea ii 
A-e~0 Typa. Class T-l. placod h 



sarviaoJnJaZS^ 

in 192*. ' 
m I39S. . 




fTH--^tiil^-"r"^ i-^th'' 




4-6-0 Type Class T-1 Locomotive of the Southern Pacific Company 



the evafxjrating capacity), making a total boiler capacity 
of 101.22 per cent. The actual performance of these 
locomotives shows that this boiler capacity is ample to 
keep the cylinders supplied at high speeds. These ex- 
celent steaming qualities are also attributed to some ex- 
tent to the ample grate area, which is 90.36 square feet, 
and to the large firebo.x volume, which has a heating sur- 
face of 401 square feet. 

The l)oiler was .so designed that it would have the 
largest proportions possible in order to provide sufficient 
steaming caf>acity while, at the same time, keeping within 
the limit of wheel load on the track. Further details of 
the boiler will Ik- j>ublishcd in a future issue. 

The steam distribution is controlled by double ptjrted 
piston valves 11 inches in diameter having a maximum 
valve travel of 6 inches, a constant lead of 3/16", a steam 
lap of lyi" and an exhaust clearance of 1/16 inch. The 
fiutside piston valves arc propelled by a direct Walschaert 



Comparison of Drawbar Pull on 1.5 per cent Grade of 2-10-2 Type and 4-6-0 
Type Locomotives of the Southern Pacific Co. 



gear, the same as applied to two cylinder locomotives. 
The inside valve is driven by the Gresley valve gear, which 
gives the same travel to the middle valve as the outside 
valves, the timing of which is 120 degrees between the 
two outside valves. The valve gear is controlled by an 
Alco power reverse gear. 

Because of the fact that the diameter of the cylinders 
is considerably reduced from what the 
diameter wuuld be if the same engine 
had only two cylinders, the reciprocating 
parts are much lighter, resulting in less 
counterbalance in the wheels, and, conse- 
quently, in less dynamic augment. The 
inside main rod is connected to the axle 
of the second drivers instead of to that 
of the third or main wheels. In addition 
to reducing the stress on crank axle, this 
application of jxjwer to two instead of 
I >ne driving axle very materially improves 
counterbalance conditions in that the main 
wheels are thus relieved of the necessity 
of carrying any extra balance for the in- 
side rod. A general statement as to the 
manner in which these three-cylinder en- 
gines are balanced is as follows : As 
much as possible of the back half of the 
inside main rod is balanced in the crank axle. In the 
wheels are balanced all the revolving weights plus any 
deficient weight of the back half of the inside rod not 
balanced in the crank axle, together with 35 per cent of 
the reciprocating weights of the outside cylinders. None 
of the reciprocating weights of the inside cylinder is bal- 
anced. If sufficient balance cannot he put in the main 
wheels to cover the above, the deficient balance is carried 
in the other wheels in the same manner as on a two-cyl- 
inder engine. 

With cranks set at 120 degrees instead of 90 degrees 
as on two-cylinder locomotives, the combined effect of 
twf) counterbalances on the rail and on the locomotive at 
one time is eliminated. .Ml of this results in about one- 
third reduction of stresses set up in the roadbed and 
bridges due to counterbalance, thus enabling the railroad 
to fake advantage of this reduction in dynamic augment 
1)V increasing static wheel loads. The following tabula- 



RAILiWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1926 



tion shows the wheel and axle pressures on rail due to 
static loads and dynamic augment at 50 miles per hour for 
the Southern Pacific type hxomotives as compared with 
the pressures for the 4-6-0 and 2-10-2 types. The inter- 
esting feature of the tabulation is that while the static 
load jx^r axle for the Southern Pacific type is higher than 



. i w —iff fuu. OH ijuiMminr 




l^lO-ZTypm,pm»3 F'9, plasma 




Comparison of Drawbar Pull of 2-10-2 and 4-6-0 Type Locomotives of the Southern 
Pacific Co., on 2.2 per cent Grade 



that for the 2-10-2 type, the total pressure on rail per 
axle is lower. 

A 6-feed Nathan mechanical locomotive lubricator is 
attached to the guide yoke on the right side of the engine, 
and operated by a rod connected direct to the reverse link. 
This device provides lubrication for the three cydinders 

WHEEL PRESSURE IN LBS. ON RAIL AT SO MILES 

PER HOUR— EACH SIDE 

DRIVERS 

4-6-0 Type 1st 2nd 3rd 4lh 5th 

Static Wheel Load 18,675 18,675 18,675 

Dynamic Augment 8,820 1,230 8,755 

Total Wheel Pressure.... 27,495 19,905 27,430 
2-10-2 Type 

Static Wheel Load 30,650 30,400 30,750 30,500 30.750 

Dynamic Augment 9,510 8,835 2,610 7,705 9,060 

Total Wheel Pressure.... 40,160 39,235 33,360 38,205 39,810 
Southern Pacific Tvpc 

Static Wheel Load". 31,750 31,800 31,450 31,500 31.500 

Dynamic Augment 6,700 8,850 9,600 8,120 6,770 

Total Wheel Pressure.... 38,450 40,650 41,050 39,620 38,270 

COMBINED WHEEL PRESSURE IN LBS. ON RAIL AT 

50 MILES PER HOUR 

DRIVERS 

4-6-0 Type 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 

Static Load per Axle 37,350 37,350 37.350 

Comb. Dynamic Augment. 12,475 1,740 12,380 

Total Pressure per Axle.. 49,825 39,090 49,730 
2-10-2 Type 

Static Load per Axle 61,300 60,800 61,500 61,000 61,500 

Comb. Djnamic Augment. 13.450 12.495 3,690 10,895 12,815 

Total Pressure per Axle.. 74,750 73,295 65,190 71,895 74,315 
Southern Pacific Type 

Static Load per Axle 63,500 63,600 62,900 63,000 63,000 

Comb. Dynamic Augment. 6,700 8,850 9,600 8.120 6,770 

Total Pressure per Axle.. 70,200 72,450 72.500 71,120 69.770 



and steam chests, making it necessary to apply only a 
three- feed hydrostatic lubricator in the cab-— one feed 
each for the booster, the feed water heater, and the air 
compressors. The reduction in size of the hydrostatic 
lubricator in cab provides much needed space in which 
to locate all oi^rating levers, gages, valves, etc., for the 
most convenient operation and still leave 
the cab comfortable. 

The throttle valve is located in the 
smoke box, between the superheater 
header and the main steam cylinders. 
Connections are also made in the header 
to provide superheated steam for operat- 
ing auxiliaries, such as the air com- 
pressors, feed water pump, head-light 
turbo-generator, oil atomizer and blower. 
In addition to supplying better steam to 
the auxiliaries, the location of throttle at 
front end has the advantage of giving the 
engineer better control in handling the 
locomotive and so enables him to prevent 
unnecessary slipping. The reduction in 
slipping of locomotive drivers should be 
productive of economy in both locomotive 
repairs and track maintenance. 

Front end damper and deflecting plates 
are eliminated, which greatly facilitates 
making repairs in the smoke box. 

The first pair of drivers is equipped 
with the American Locomotive Com- 
pany's lateral motion device, and the 
spring rigging provides for the equaliza- 
tion of these drivers with the 4-wheel 
engine truck. This arrangement assists the locomotive 
in taking curves easily and helps to stabilize it whether 
on tangent track or on curves, practically eliminating the 
nosing action. 

The cab is constructed with a sloping front end, which 
facilitates making repairs on the boiler as well as the in- 
spection of staybolts at the extreme back end of the out- 
side firebo.x sheets. 

The locomotives are equipped with the Franklin Rail- 
way Supply Company's Type C-1 booster, which is at- 
tached to a Delta type trailing truck. The rear section 
of the frame is a Commonwealth Steel Company's cradle 
casting, the front end of which is so designed that the 
trailing truck can be dropped down without moving the 
truck back. This makes the booster and details more ac- 
cessible for repairs. The booster engine is operated by 
superheated steam obtained from the steam chest of left 
cylinder. To insure against a possible engine failure due 
to to a broken steam pipe, the pipe is connected to a 
booster cut-out valve in the form of an angle valve, which 
is applied next to cylinder. Provision is made on the 
body for securing the same design of vacuum valve as the 
one applied to the steam chest of right cylinder. 

The Westinghouse No. 6 ET brake equipment is ap- 
plied, the air being supplied by two 8^2 inch cross- 
compound compressors. The braking power is up to 
the maximum, since all the wheels of the locomotive are 
equipped with brakes. Clasp brakes are used on the 
tender truck wheels. 

The flange lubricator is applied, which provides lubri- 
cation for the flanges of the front driving wheels. The 
oil reservoir is located on the left side of the smoke box, 
where the crude oil used is sufficiently heated to run 
through piping leading to the front driving wheel flanges, 
the flow being regulated by needle valves. Flange oilers 
are also applied to the trailing wheels. 

The feed water is supplied by one Worthington com- 
bined feed pump and feed water heater of 7,200 gallons 



January, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



capacity per hour, and by one Nathan non-Hfting injector, 
both located on the left side, the latter being used only 
in cases of emergency and when the locomotive is not 
working. 

The "Viloco" sander with eight delivery pipes is ap- 
plied, six pipes being used for forward sanding, and two 
pipes for backward sanding. Two of the forward sand- 
ing pipes lead to the trailing wheels, on account of 
booster being applied to truck. 

Special attention has been given to the arrangement 
of steps at the front end leading from front bumper to 
running boards. The convenience thus afforded makes 
the headlight, train number indicating lamp, throttle 
valve, etc., readily accessible for inspection and repair. 

The tenders are cylindrical, having a capacity of 4,400 
gfallons of fuel oil and 12,000 gallons of water. The 
tank is carried on a Commonwealth cast steel one piece 
frame. The six-wheel trucks are also of the Common- 
wealth design, which is an equalized pedestal type, hav- 
ing cast steel frames and swing bolsters, and fitted with 
both helical and semi-elliptic springs, and will be illus- 
trated in detail in a future issue. Side bearings are used 
on both front and rear trucks. 

The tenders are equipped with four water tank man- 
holes to facilitate spotting the locomotive when taking 
water. 

There are a number of other interesting details entering 
into the construction of these locomotives which will be 
illustrated and described in a future issue. 

It will be of interest to note the comparison of these 
locomotives with the standard passenger locomotives built 
for the Southern Pacific thirty years ago, and their 2-10-2 
type locomotives built in the early part of 1924, which is 
shown in the accompanying table of principal dimen- 
sions, weights and proportions for the three types. 

Southern 

TYPE 4-6-0 2-10-2 Pacific 

Class T-I F-5 SP 1 

Date built 1895 1924 1925 

Cylinders, dia. and One 25"x28" 

stroke 20"x26" 29'/,"x32" Two 25".x32" 

Tractive effort with 

booster 86,100 lbs. 96.530 lbs. 

Tractive effort with- 
out booster 25,260 lbs. 75,150 lbs. 84,200 lbs. 

Valve Gear, Type . . . Stephenson W'alschaert Walschaert 

Valves SHde Piston IS" dia.Piston 11" dia. 

Maximum travel .... 6" 7" 6" 

Lead in fullgear .... 1/32" J4" 3/16" 

Lap 1" 1-^" 1-%" 

Exhaust clearance . . . 1/32" %" 1/16" 

Cut-off in per cent. .. «S.S% 84.5% 70.0% 

Weights in working 
order ; 

On drivers 112,050 lbs. 306,100 lbs. 316.000 lbs. 

On front truck 30,300 lbs. 31.200 lbs. 65,500 lbs. 

On trailing truck 60,600 lbs. 60,500 lbs. 

Total engine 142.350 lbs. 397,900 lbs. 442,000 lbs. 

Tender 107,020 lbs. 242,300 lbs. 246.200 lbs. 

Engine and tender... 249,370 lbs. 640,200 lbs. 688,200 lbs. 

Wheel Base; 

Driving 12'-2" 22'-10" 22'-10" 

Rigid 12'-2' 16' -9" 16' -9" 

Total engine 22'-8'' 42'-4" 45'-3" 

Total engine and 

teirfTer 47'-8-H" 9A'-\-li" 87'-2-<4'' 

Wheels, diameter, out- 
sire tires T-1 F-5 SP 1 

Driving (tires 3^4" 

thick) f-S-'A' 63-'/;" 63-%" 

Front truck 30" 33" 30" 

Trailing truck Ctircs 

3M" thick) 45%" 45^" 

Journals, diameter and 
length : 

Driving, main 7-'/4"xl2" 13"x22" ll-'A."xl3" 

Driving, front 7-J^"xl2" ll"x20" ll"xl3" 

Driving, intermediate. 

front ir'xl3" ll-'^"xl3" 



Southern 
TYPE 4-6-0 2-10-2 Pacific 

Driving, others 7»/3"xl2" U"xl3" ll"xl3" 

Front truck 5H"xl0" 6"xl2" 7"xl2" 

Trailing truck 9"xl4" 9"xl4" 

Boiler: 

Type Wagon Top Straight Top Straight Top 

Steam pressure ISO lbs. 200 lbs. 225 lbs. 

Fuel Coal Oil Oil 

Diameter, first ring- 
outside 60-J^" 90" 90-1-8" 

Firebox, length and 
width 96".x42-^" 132"x90" 127;4"xl02;4" 

Combustion Chamber, 
length 64" 74" 

Tubes, number and 
diameter 268-2" 261-2J4" 261-2J4" 

Flues, number and 
diameter 50-S%" SO-S^" 

Tubes and flues, 
length irS'A" 21'-0" 23'-6" 

Grate area 28 sq. ft. 82.5 sq. ft. 90.36 sq. ft. 

Heating surfaces : ... 

Tubes 1737 sq. ft. 3216 sq. ft. 3600 sq. ft. 

Flues 1506 sq. ft. 1686 sq. ft. 

Firebox 147 sq. ft. 378 sq. ft. 401 sq. ft. 

Total evaporative ... 1884 sq. ft. 5100 sq. ft. 5687 sq. ft. • 

Superheating 1230 sq. ft. 1500 sq. ft. 

Comb, evaporative and 
superheating 1884 sq. ft. 6330 sq. ft. 7187 sq. ft. 

General Data : 

Cvlinder horse power. 1199 HP 3136 HP 3798 HP 

Boiler horse power.. 1005 HP 3368 HP 3844 HP 

Steam required per 
hour 32,373 lbs. 65,229 lbs. 78,998 lbs. 

Evaporating capacity 
of boiler per hour.. 27,136 lbs. 63,570 lbs. 66,720 lbs. 

Equivalent evaporat- 
ing capacity of feed 
water heater per 
hour 7,900 lbs. 7,900 lbs. 

Increased evaporating 
capacity due to draft 
a/c 3 cylinders 5,340 lbs. 

Total evaporating 
capacity 27,136 lbs. 71,470 lbs. 79,960 lbs. 

Evaporating capacity 
of boiler in per cent. 83.8% 97.4% 84.46% 

Evaporating capacity 
of feed water heater 
in per cent 10.00% 10.00% 

Increased evaporating 
capacity due to draft 
a/c 3 cylinders, in 
per cent (based on 
8% of evaporating 
capacity of boiler) 6.76% 

Total evaporating 
capacity in per cent. 83.8% 107.4% 101.22% 

Ratios : 

Tractive effort phis 
combined heating 
surface 134 11.87 11.72 

Tractive effort x dia- 
meter drivers 
divided bv combined 
heating surface 844.68 747.93 738.08 

Firebox heating sur- 
face, grate area . . 5.25 4.58 4.44 

Firebo.x heating sur- 
face, per cent of 
evaporating heating 
surface 7.8 741 7.05 

Superheating surface, 
per cent of evaporat- 
ing heating surface 24.11 26.38 

Tube length, sectional 
area of tube out- 
side 47.59 6337 70.92 

Combined heating sur- 
face, grate area .... 67.28 76.72 79.54 

Tender : 

Type Rectangular Vanderbilt Vanderl)ilt 

Tank Rectangular Cylindrical Cvh'ndrical 

Water capacity 4..S00 gal. 12,000 gal. 12.000 gal. 

Fuel capacity 10 tons 4,000 gal. oil 4,400 gal. 

Trucks 4-wheel 6-wheeI 6-wheel 

Truck wheels 33" steel 33" steel 33" steel 

Truck journals 5"x9" 6"xll' d'xll" 



Ainerican Railroads in 1925 — and in 1926 



By Robert S. Binkerd, Vice Chuirman. Eastern Presidents' Conference 



Tlic high hopes entertained for the year 1925 have been 
substantially realized. The improvement in the prices of 
farm products has tended to restore the farmer to his 
normal place in our economic life and has increased the 
demand for consumers' goods. The fundamental business 
activities of the country have been conducted with intelli- 
gent moderation. The bulk of the country's business has 
continued on a hand-to-mouth basis, avoiding excessive 
stocks of materials and goods, and reducing the cost of 
distribution to the consumer. Money and credit have re- 
mained relatively cheap, enabling the financing of prac- 
tically all worthy projects for capital exi>enditure. 

These sound general conditions have produced for the 
railroads a slightly larger traffic than they have ever here- 
tofore carried. This traffic has been loaded and trans- 
ported promptly and efficiently at a net return per 
ton-mile slightly lower than in 1924. 

Yet this traffic has been made to produce the largest 
aggregate net operating income which the railroads have 
yet received and a substantially improved — though still 
inadequate — rate of return. In harmony with these facts, 
the average price of railroad securities is now higher than 
it was at the close of 1924 and an increasing interest and 
confidence in railroad investment appears to be in the 
making. 

Freight Service 

Figures for the month of December are not yet availa- 
ble, but it is expected that car loadings for the year 1925 
will amount to nearly 51 million cars. This will be almost 
2J/2 million cars in excess of the loadings of 1924 and 
nearly 6 million cars in excess of the loadings of 1920. 
Measured in ton-miles the transportation performances of 
1925 will exceed any previous year, with the possible ex- 
ception of 1923. 

The traffic of 1925, like that of the preceding year, has 
been more difficult to handle. The largest increases have 
been in merchandise, miscellaneous and less-than-carload 
freight. These reflect the increased ability of the public 
to buy consumers' goods. The character of this increased 
traffic, however, tends to reduce the average number of 
tons carried in a car, and makes it impossible for the 
average load per car to equal that of other years in which 
higher proportions of bulk commodities are transported. 

Notwithstanding the difficulties presented by the traffic 
of 1925, the railroads established eight important new 
high records : 

In the total number of cars loaded in a single week ; 

In carrying peak loadings with a surplus of cars in 
reserve ; 

In the nuniljer of cars loaded with merchandise and 
less-than-carload freight in a single week ; 

In the number of cars loaded with miscellajieous freight 
in a single week ; 

In the number of ton-miles of transportation produced 
in a single month ; 

In the average movement of freight cars per day : 

In the total number of cars moved in a single day : 

In the average load i)er freight train during a single 
month. 

Passenger Service 

The long-distance passenger service of the railroads 
has been substantially increased and improved. In ad- 
dition, there is now a definite trend toward acquiring 



desirable bus services and operating them as integral parts 
of the total service offered by railroads. 

Passenger traffic was marked by a further decline, 
which seems mainly located in the field of short haul 
travel. The year was marked by the granting of more 
excursion rates than at any time since before the war, as 
a result of which the average revenue per passenger mile 
during the summer months was only about 2^c., as 
against an average of approximately 3c. in the summer 
of 1921. The efforts to increase commutation rates have 
continued, for the simple reason that since commuters 
now constitute a larger proportion of passenger travel 
than ever before, any inadequacy in commutation rates has 
a much more serious effect upon the revenues derived 
from passenger service. 

Facilities 

The rehabilitation of the supply of cars and locomotives 
has been continued, but at a somewhat lower rate. It is 
the obvious intention of the railroads to have motive 
power and cars equal to any reasonable demand. But it 
is also their intention to exercise prudent economy in the 
making of additional capital investment. Having raised 
their efficiency to a point where each car and locomotive 
produces more transportation than it used to. the require- 
ments for new purchases can no longer be based upon 
pre-war experience. Over any series of future years it 
is not likely that new cars and locomotives will be pur- 
chased in the numbers considered normal in years gone by. 

The healthy tendency noted in 1924 — toward an in- 
crease in the amount of capital expenditures devoted to 
additions and betterments to fixed property — has con- 
tinued. 

For the first time since 1916 construction of new line 
exceeded abandonment. !More new construction than 
abandonment will apparenth' characterize 1926 also. For, 
during its current year, which ended October 31, 1925, 
the Interstate Commerce Commission granted 46 certifi- 
cates for the construction of approximately 909 miles of 
new railroad, as against 46 certificates authorizing the 
abandonment of approximately 652 miles. 

Rates 

The rate situation has been marked by two important 
occurrences — the application of the western roads for a 
general 5 per cent increase ; and the prepraration for a 
genera! inquiry into the rate structure of the country, 
pursuant to the tenns of the Hoch-Smith Resolution. 

The great bulk of fann discontent after the war arose 
west of the Mississippi River. The inadequacy of the 
prices of farm products was mistakenly attributed to 
freight rates. Honest and sincere farm leaders fell into 
the economic fallacy of asserting that the farmer "pays 
the freight"' both ways : although in the end the consumer 
of farm products, like the consumer of other commodities, 
is the ultimate payer of the cost of transportation. 

The rates on agricultural commodities west of the Mis- 
sissippi River are only alxjut 27 per cent higher now than 
they were in 191 1 ! Therefore, despite the efficient and 
economical operation in which the western carriers have 
vied with those of the east and south, it has been im- 
possible for them to bridge the great gap between the 
increase in their elements of expense, and the slight 
increase in what thev can charge for the service rendered. 

The product of their rate structure is approximately 16 



January, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



per cent below the levels of a fair return contemplated 
by the Transportation Act ; so that from any point of 
view their modest request for a 5 per cent increase in 
rates would appear to be more than justified. 

The Hoch-Smith Resolution declares agriculture to be 
"the basic industry in the country." It is based on the 
assumption that agricultural products pay too high- a rate 
as compared with their value and that perhaps manu- 
factured articles pay rates too low as compared with their 
value. The resolution is a direction to the Interstate 
Commerce Commission to ascertain whether or not this 
be true; and if true, to make readjustments accordingly. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission took a number 
of steps during the year to conser\-e the revenue of the 
railroads. It refused the application for the abolition of 
the Pullman surcharge; it reversed its position on selling 
interchangeable mileage books at a 20 per cent reduction 
under the standard fare ; and it reported adversely on 
demands for reduced rates on anthracite, on California 
citrus fruit, and on various other matters. 

Earnings 

The net operating income for the year we estimate at 
about 1 billion 120 million dollars, as against approxi- 
mately 987 million dollars for 1924. This will mean a 
return of slightly more than 5 per cent on the property 
investment account. The increase in earnings in 1925 is 
practically the first financial reward for the improvements 
effected in railroad operation since the war. 

Thanks to the progress made in increasing their effi- 
ciency and in getting a gradually increasing grip on their 
expenditures, the railroads are now in a position to turn 
modest increases in the volume of business into con- 
siderably larger improvement in net operating income. 

The remorseless growth of railroad taxes still remains 
the most stubborn element in the cost of producing trans- 
portation. For 1925 we estimate them at 355 million dol- 
lars, or practically a million dollars a day. Thus, for the 
fourth year out of the past five, the amount paid in taxes 
will probably considerably exceed the amount which the 
railroads can prudently pay out in dividends. 

Public and Labor Relations 

Relations between the public and the railroads today 
.are better than they have been for many years. One of 
the noteworthy events of the year was the report on pub- 
lic relations submitted to the annual convention of the 
National Association of Railroad and Utility Commis- 
sioners. This report took the position that the greatest 
credit to regulating authorities comes, not from the exer- 
cise of their power, but from the absence of any necessity 
for such exercise. This report constituted not only the 
first official recognition of the value of public relations 
work, but was in itself one of the most important evi- 
dences of the growth of constructive thought among of- 
ficials engaged in the task of regulation. 

During the year two additional Shippers Regional 
Advisor)' Boards were formed, one on the Pacific Coast 
and the other in New England. There are now twelve 
of these boards in existence covering practically the entire 
-country. Intelligent cooperation between shippers and 
railroads continued on a nation-wide scale. 

Relations between the employees of the railroads and 
their managements also continued to improve. Working 
for a railroad is getting to be one of the best stabilized 
employments in the country. During the past two years 
the fluctuations between the high point anrl low point of 
railroad employment have been considerably less than 
100,000 men. This fluctuation is almost entirely ac- 
counted for by the necessity of contracting maintenance 



work during the winter months and of expanding it dur- 
ing the balance of the year. 

1926 Forecast 

For the first half of 1926 economic conditions seem to 
warrant belief in a continued broad production and dis- 
tribution in most lines, with railway traffic probably at 
least upon a parity with the traffic of 1925. It is difficult 
to see beyond the middle of the year because of the im- 
portance which crops will have, not alone in traffic offered 
for transportation, but in replenishing and continuing 
the purchasing power of our great farming population. 
Should our 1926 crops be reasonably large in amount 
and fairly adequate in price, then the year 1926 mav 
slightly surpass 1925 in the volume of traffic handled. 
The railroads will add to good times by perhaps larger 
purchases of cars and locomotives than in 1925 and by a 
continuance of important work on their track and struc- 
tures. It w^ould seem that new capital expenditures by 
the roads during the year will probably at least equal the 
750 million dollars of this year. 

The attitude of public opinion toward the improved 
earning power of the railroads will probably have a criti- 
cal effect upon future developments. Is the basis of a 
lair return to be looked upon merely as a theoretical high 
water mark, to be attained only occasionally and to be 
instantly followed by increased wages or reduced rates, 
or both? If so, then after all we shall have made little 
progress in understanding the stake of modem society in 
adequate and prosperous railroads. 

If on the other hand, the great body of shipper and 
public opinion remains favorable to the maintenance of 
present freight levels without serious impairment, then 
1926 may well be considered the start of a new era. In- 
vestment in railroad securities should become much more 
attractive. Popular participation in such investment may 
be expected upon a scale never before seen in this country. 
This would enable the railroads to greatly increase the 
number of citizens who become partners in the business 
and to increase the stability of railroad investment by 
balancing their capital as between stocks and bonds. 

The railroads face the coming year with pride and 
confidence — pride in those accomplishments which have 
made them the outstanding leaders in the elimination of 
industrial waste — and confidence in the friendship and 
sense of fair play of the American people. 

Exhibits at Atlantic City Conventions 

.Manufacturers and dealers in railway supplies will again 
exhibit their equipment at .\tlantic City, June 9th to 16th, 
1926, in conjunction with the conventions of the Ameri- 
can Railway .'\ssociation, Division V — mechanical; and 
Division \T — purchases and stores. 

The Railway Supply Manufacturers' Association, 
through the office of Secretary-Treasurer J. D. Conway 
at Pittsburgh, has sent out his official circular No. 1, dated 
January 9, 1926. This includes a diagram of the exhibit 
space, with information as to the requirements for mem- 
bership in the association and how to make application 
for exhibit space. 

In addition to the exhibits on the Million Dollar Pier, 
there will be the usual track exhibits. .Arrangements have 
also been made for the erection of a special new building 
directly opposite the Million Dollar Pier for machine tool 
exhibits. The building will be 400 ft. long by 50 ft. wide, 
with a center aisle. What was formerly Machinery Hall 
on the Milh'on Dollar Pier will hereafter be known as As- 
sembly 1 lall and will be utilized for miscellaneous exhibits. 
Information may be secured by addressing J. D. Conway, 
secretary-treasurer, 1841 Oliver Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Annual Report of the Chief Locomotive Inspector 



The annual report of Mr. A. G. Pack, chief locomo- 
tive insjx'ctor fur the Interstate Commerce Commission 
has just been issued and. as usual it contains matter that 
should receive the careful attention of railroad officials. 

There is a long- list of casualties resulting from the 
failure of locomotives and tenders and their appurten- 
ances, which when examined appear to be in nearly every 
instance, to have been the direct consequence of careless- 
ness or neglect. In short they were preventable and 
would not have occurred had proper supervision and care 
been exercised. 

In regard to this the report says : 

"While there was a substantial decrease in the total 
number of accidents occurring during the year, our in- 




Fig. 1 — Failure of Riveted Crown Sheet Due to Low V\/ater 

vestigation shows that a still greater decrease should have 
resulted had the requirements of the law and rules been 
complied with, especially so with respect to parts and ap- 
pliances which are sometimes considered unimportant. 
Especial attention is directed to the reduction in the 
number of boiler explosions caused by low water during 
the year. Boiler explosions are the most prolific source 
of serious and fatal accidents with which we have to 
deal, therefore, during the course of our regular work 
special attention has been given to conditions which con- 
tribute to such accidents. A great deal of consideration 
has been given to the action of the water in the boiler 
and its effect upon the water indicating appliances and 
the result of our study in this matter has been brought 
to the attention of those in charge of locomotive main- 
tenance and operation as well as those actually operating 
locomotives. The reduction in the numl>er of crown- 
sheet failures as shown is no doubt largely brought about 
as the result of our study with respect to the circulation 
of the water in the boiler and its effect upon water glasses 
and especially upon gauge cocks when screwed directly in 
tlie boiJer, ajid to our action in insisting that water indicat- 
ing appliances and other i>arts, which may contribute 
to such accidents, be maintained to a high degree of per- 
fection so that they will perfomi their functions in a 
proper manner." 

As to the fundamental reason for so many accidents 
it is stated that "a very large percentage of the accidents 
which we have investigated were caused by defects which 
could have been prevented had proper inspections and 
proper repairs been made at the proper time. Many 
locomotives are allowed to remain in use in apparent dis- 
regard for the requirements of the law sometimes until 
accidents occur and many times until our inspectors find 
them and order them out of service." 



Among the recommendations made for the betterment 
of the service there is one which it is strange has not 
been applied before, and that is for the provision of 
capable legal assistance and advice. "The necessity for 
legal assistance is made evident by the apparent disregard 
on the part of many carriers for the retjuirements of the 
law and the rules and regulations established in pursuance 
thereof until such time as the discrepancies are pointed out 
to them by this bureau." 

"With the large number of locomotives in service, scat- 
tered over such a wide area, it is apparent that Congress 
never intended that the law should be entirely enforced 
by our inspectors ordering locomotives out of service 
because of being in violation of the law. It is a physical 
impossibility for the 65 inspectors now provided to keep 
in sufficiently close touch with the number of locomo- 
tives coming under the jurisdiction of the law to know 
at all times that they are in condition to meet the require- 
ments thereof. 

Therefore, in the light of our experience, I most re- 
spectfully recommend that competent legal assistance be 
provided this bureau so that we may at all times have 
the benefit of such serv'ices in seeing that the law and 
the rules and regulations issued in pursuance thereof are 
complied with." 

The report again takes up the subject of autogenous 
welding; touching upon it briefly, but along the lines of 
the previous reports. A number of accidents in which 
autogenous welding was involved have been investigated, 
and the results have served "to establish the soimdness 
(if our reconmnendation, previously announced, that this 
process has not reached a state of development where it 
can be safely used on parts of the locomotive or tender 
where through failure of such parts accident and injury 
to persons might result." 

At the end of the report there are a numljer of illus- 




Fig. 2 — Failure of Autogenously Welded Crown Sheet 

trations of accidents, that were investigated by the de- 
partment, some of which are here reproduced, and in a 
few instances may be taken as illustrative of the reliability 
of a properly riveted sheet as compared with one that 
has been carelessly welded. 

Fig. 1 shows the damage to the firebox crownsheet of 
a locomotive caused by low water in which all of the 
seams were riveted. The sheets pulled off from the radial 
stays and pocketed to a depth of from 20 to 21 inches 
without other serious damage to the locomotive. These 
cases with others which have been observed, illustrate the 
value of having fireboxes constructed in the strongest pos- 
sible manner. 



January, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



Fig. 2 shows the result of a crownsheet faikire, due 
to low water which caused serious injury to three persons. 
The autogenously welded seam between combustion cham- 
ber and crown sheet failed for a distance of 51 inches. 
This boiler was equipped with an automatic fire door, 




Fig. 3 — A Defective Steam Injector Pipe 

which remained closed at the time of the failure, which 
no doubt greatly lessened the injuries to those in the cab 
at the time of this accident. 

"The seriousness of accidents of this character and 
previous cases that have been reported is apparent and 
cannot be overestimated. It is because of such accidents 
that we have been compelled to take the position that 
autogenously welded seams within the cab, at or above 
the cab floor, would not be considered as being in com- 
pliance with the law unless the seams are covered with 
a properly applied patch held in place by rivets, studs or 




Fig. 4 — Side Rods Rendered Unsafe by Burning Off the Ends to 
Secure Clearance 

patch bolts that wouhl prevent the escape of scalding 
steam and water in sufficient quantity to cause serious 
injury should the welded seam fail. This is not held as 
apfjjying to stoker hole tulx:s or thimbles where they are 
welded in the outside sheets : the caulking edge of lapped 
patches in stayed surfaces; transverse cracks in door hole 



flanges, nor the ordinary door hole seam which is within 
the circle of the door hole, unless further developements 
show that an unsafe condition is created. 

Fig. 3 shows a portion of an injector steam pipe which 
was found in service by our inspector and because of 
which the locomotive was ordered out of service in ac- 
cordance with the law. The defective condition of this 
pipe is apparent and shows gross disregard for safety. 

Since the law was enacted 282 accidents resulting in 
the death of 3 persons and the serious injury of 339 others 
have been due to injector steam pipe failures, all of which 
would have been avoided had proper construction, in- 
spection, and repairs been made as required by the law. 

Fig. 4 shows two side rods which had been burned off 
at the ends with a torch to provide clearance, and which 
unquestionably rendered the rods liable to failure. Such 
methods show disregard for safety as well as efficient and 
economical operation. 

Fig. 5 shows a drawbar and the safety chains between 
a locomotive and its tender which failed permitting loco- 
motive and tender to separate and causing fireman to 
fall to the track resulting in serious injury. The material 




Fig. 5 — A Crystallized Dr 



bar and Safety Chains of Insuffic 
Strength 



i>{ the drawljar was crystallized. The safety chains were 
secured to the tender end sill by two bolts %-inch in 
diameter which sheared when the drawbar broke. The 
drawbar and safety chains were said to have been in- 
spected five days prior to the accident and a sworn re- 
jx)rt made showing them to be in "good" condition. It 
is apparent that the safety chain attachments were never 
of ample strength. 

These exam]>les which are only a few of those that are 
gathered in annually by the forces of the locomotive 
inspection bureau ought to arouse the responsible officials 
to the necessity of a more careful consideration of 
original constructions as well as the methods employed in 
making rej>airs fif ]>arts, whfise failure is likclv to produce 
serious casualties. 



A New Locomotive for the Texas & Pacific 

An Interesting Development of the Lima Locomotive Works 



A description was published in the May, 1925, issue of 
Railwav Locomotive ENOiNEiiRiNC of a 2-8-4 loconio- 
tivf, designated as the A-1 that had been developed by 
the Lima Locomotive Works. This was followed, in tlie 
December, 1925, issue, with a statement of the perform- 
ances of the locomotive in service and under test, in 
which great economies and a high efficiency were shown. 

The two most prominent characteristics of that loco- 
motive lay in the use of a four-wheeled trailer truck of 
novel design and a connecting rod so constructed that the 
main crank pin was relieved of all the stresses that are 
ordinarily imposed upon it by the resistance to turning 
of the rear pair of driving wheels. 

These and othpr features of the locomotive made such 
a favorable impression that even before the tests, 
described in the December, 1925 issue of this paper, were 
completed, the Lima Locomotive Works were commis- 
sioned to proceed with a still further development of the 



The increase of heating surface in tlie tirtbox of 
the new Itx-omotive is accomplished by means oi the use 
of two Nicholson thermic syph(jns. This increase of 136 
sq. ft. on the basis uf Cole's ratios, accounts for approxi- 
mately 10 per cent more evaporative capacity. Aside 
from this there are other differences in the design of the 
ijoiler. The boiler on the .\-l locomotive had no com- 
bustion chamber except that formed by the slope of the 
throat sheet and the dome was placed on the front course 
and had an offset ojx'ning to which the dry-pipe was at- 
tached. In the Texas & Pacific lx)iler there is a com- 
bustion chamber 42 in. long and the dome is set back 
so that it stands just ahead of the back tube-sheet. It is 
provided with an inside shut-oflf valve by which the open- 
ing to the dry pij^ can be closed. This valve is ojjerated 
by a stem passing out through the side of the dome with 
a handle for manipulating it upon the outside. 

As with the A-1 locomotive the cvlinders are steel cast- 







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New 2-10-4 Type Locomotive of the Texas & Pa cific Railway Built by Lima Locomotive Works. Ir 



ideas incorporated in the 2-8-4 engine and design a 
2-10-4 locomotive for the Te.xas & Pacific Ry. This was 
done and ten of the new type were delivered in November. 

Tlie extra pair of driving wheels were necessitated by 
the additional weight that was to be put upon them, and 
this, in turn, involved an increase in cylinder dimensions. 
The diameter was increased from 28 in. to 29 in. and the 
piston stroke was increased from 30 to 32 in., and the 
steam pressure was raised to 250 lbs. per sq. in. The 
tractive effort was thus raised to 83,000 lbs. 

The following table gives a comparison of the prin- 
cipal dimensions of the two locomotives : 



Comparison 



^F THF Texas & P.\cific 2-10-4 with the Lim.\ 
2-8-4 Locomotive 



2-10-4 
Cylinders, diameter and stroke, in... 29 by 32 

Cut-ofF in full gear, per cent 60 

Boiler pressure 250 lb. 

Weights in working order : 

On drivers 300,000 lb. 

Front truck 41,800 lb. 

Rear truck 106.200 1b. 

Total engine 44a000 lb. 

Diameter of drivers 63 in. 

Heating surfaces : 

Firebox and combustion chamber . . 473 sq. ft. 

Tubes and flues 4,640 sq. ft. 

Total evaporating 5.113 sq. ft. 

Superheating 2.100 sq. ft. 

Combined total 7,213 sq. ft. 

Grate area 100 sq. ft. 

Rated tractive force: 

Engine 83.000 lb. 

Engine and booster 96,000 lb. 

Factor of adhesion 3.62 



2-8-4 
28 by 30 
60 
240 lb. 

248.000 lb. 
35,500 lb. 
101.300 lb. 
385.000 lb. 
63 in. 

337 sq. ft. 

4,773 sq. ft. 

5.110 sq. ft. 

2.111 sq. ft. 
7,221 sq. ft. 

lOO sq. ft. 

69,400 lb. 
82.600 lb. 
3.58 



ings of the same general shape as those previously illus- 
trated, with outside steam and exhaust connections and 
having Hunt-Spiller gun iron bushings. 

The maximum cut-off is limited to 60 per cent of the 
stroke at the back but increased to 63 per cent at the 
front end of the cylinder so as to obtain a smooth starting 
torque. There are the usual auxiliary starting ports, 




Four Wheel Articulated Trailing Truck of 2-10-4 Type Locomotive 
Equipped With Booster 

these which were formerly placed in the bottom of the 
bushing, have been moved around to the side where they 
are made accessible for examination and cleaning by the 
removal of a plug in the outside of the steam chest. 

As in the .\-l locomotive the main frames terminate 
just back of the rear drivers and are there hinged to the 
four-wheeled trailer truck,' which transmits the pull of 



10 



January, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



11 



the engine to the tender. This truck has undergone a 
modification in some of its details from the original de- 
sign. In the first place the frame is now formed of a 
single steel casting, whereas the truck used with the A-1 
was built up of two steel castings, the front cross piece 
and the tail piece and two forged steel side pieces. The 
use of a single steel casting for forming the whole frame 
has involved some changes in spring and equalizer ar- 
rangements. In the A-1 locomotive, the semi-elliptic 
journal box springs, with their connecting equalizers, 
were placed outside the forged slab side fraines. In the 
new structure, the whole frame being in one piece, the 
side pieces have a sort of semi-box shape and the springs 
are placed centrally with the frame over the journal boxes 
and between the two vertical members of the side pieces. 

The truck carries the fire-box, the weight being im- 
posed on roller side bearings located over the rear pair 
of wheels. These bearings give the 
boiler a free lateral movement to com- 
pensate for displacement on curves. 

In the previous article descriptive of 
the A-1 locomotive, an illustrative de- 
scription was given of the novel con- 
struction of the rear end of the 
connecting rod and of the use of a 
steel bushing that took the whole thrust 
of the rod and by which the main crank 
pin was relieved of all of the thrust re- 
quired for the turning of the rear pair 
of drivers, and by which the thrust on 
the pin was reduced by 25 per cent as 
compared with what it would have been 
ordinarily, with four pair of wheels 
coupled. 

The same construction is used on the 
Texas & Pacific locomotive for the back 
end of the connecting rod. The side rod 
leading back from Ijetween the forked 
end of the main rod, is connected to the 
outer end of the crankpin of the fourth 
pair of drivers, from the inner end (jf 
which an independent side rod leads back 
to the pin of the fifth pair of drivers. 
With this arrangement the main crank- 
pin is relieved of 40 per cent of the total 
thrust of the connecting rod, and the 
crankpin of the fourth pair of drivers has to carry the 
total thrust required for the turning of the fourth and 
fifth jairs. This arrangement iKjrmits of a considerable 
reduction in the diameter of the main crankpin, as com- 
pared with what would be ordinarily required, with a 
moderate increase in the diameter of that of the fourth 
pair of drivers in order to sustain the extra load put 
upon it. 

.•\s in the case of the A-1 locomotive the booster is 
coupled to the rear pair of wheels of the four-wheeled 
truck. 

The cylinders and steam chests are lubricated by a four- 
feed Nathan force feed lubricator and by two of the feeds 
from a five- feed hydrostatic lubricator' connected to the 
steam idjK's. The other three fecfls from the hydrostatic 
lubricator take care of the air pump, the feedwater pump 
and the booster. In addition to these a National Graphite 
Company pendulum tyf«; grajjliite lubricator is fitted to 
deliver into the neck of the superheater header where 
the saturated steam enters. 

Superheated steam is carric<l back to a turret in the 
cab whence it is drawn ofT to sun)ly the air pumi)s, feed- 
water pump, headlight generator, the blower, fuel oil 
heaters, the atomizer, and the whistle. 



The use of superheated steam in the whistle raises its 
tone and intensity. As it is operated by the Parsons 
pneumatic rigging it can be and is set well forward on 
the boiler alongside the bell, so as to remove it as far as 
possible from the cab and thus protect the crew from the 
disagreeable effects of its high tone. 

The steel sheet used for the crownsheet and top of the 
combustion chamber was rolled in one piece, and, after 
forming, was butt welded to the side sheets and to the 
bottom section of the combustion chamber. The tubes 
used in five of these boilers were of hot rolled, copper 
bearing seamless steel, supplied by the Pittsburgh Steel 
Products Co. 

Among the details that will probably lessen mainte- 
nance costs and keep the weight distribution where it is 
desired that it should he. will be found the use of case 
hardened bushings and pins in the spring rigging 




Rod Arrangement 



2-10-4 Type Locomotive, Showing Articulated Main Rod 
Connection Between Third and Fourth Drivers 

hangers, with oil hciles fur the lubrication of the same. 

These engines are used in freight service on the Fort 
\\orth and Rio Grande divisions between Marshall, Texas 
and L!ig Springs a distance of 450 miles where the ruling 
grades are about 1.5 per cent and have a length of from 
five to 1 1 miles. Heavy curvature is also encountered 
on some jwrtions of these grades necessitating the use of 
the booster. 

I'ecause of the notable economies effected by the A-1 
Lima locomotive as compared with its jiredecessors in the 
same service, the comparative performance of these Texas 
& Pacific locomotives, relatively to their predecessors will 
be looked for with a .great deal of interest. 

The following is a list of the ])rinci])al dimensions of 
these locomotives : 

Type 2-10-4 

Service l-rciylit 

Cylinders, diameter 29 in. 

Piston stroke .?2 in. 

Vah'e gear, type Baker 

Valves, piston type, size 14 in. 

Maximum travel Ski in. 

Steam lap 2 7/16 in. 

Exhaust clearance 1/16 

Cut-off in full gear, per cent fiO 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1926 



Weights in working order : 

On drivers 300,000 lb. 

One front truck 41,800 lb. 

On trailing truck 106,200 lb. 

Total engine 448,000 lb. 

Tender 275,200 lb. 

Wheel bases: 

Driving 22 ft. 

Rigxl 16 ft. 6 in. 

Total engine 46 ft. 8 in. 

Total engine and tender 86 ft. 8 in. 

Wheels, diameter outside tires : 

Driving 63 in. 

Front truck 33 in. 

Trailing truck 36 in. and 43 in. 

Journals, diameter and length : 

Driving, main 13 in. by 14 in. 

Driving, others 11 in. by 13 in. 

Front truck 7 in by 12 in. 

Trailing truck (6^ in. by 12 in. 

Boiler: (9 in. by 14 in. 

Type Taper course 

Steam pressure 250 lb. 

Fuel, kind Oil 

Diameter, first ring, outside 86^ in. 

Firebox, length and width 150'A in. bv 96!4 in. 

Height mud ring to crown sheet, back . . 60J4 in. 

Height mud ring to crown sheet, front. . 93 in 

Arch tubes, number and diameter 2 Syphons 

Combustion chamber length 42 in. 



Tubes, number and diameter 82 — 2J4 in. 

Flues, number and diameter 184 — 3J^ in. 

LenglJi over tube sheets 21 ft. 6 in. 

Grate area No grate 

Heating surfaces : 

Firebox and comb, chamber 3,755 sq. ft. 

Syphons 98 sq. f t. 

Tubes and flues 4,640 sq. ft. 

Total evaporative 5,113 sq. ft. 

Superheating 2,100 sq. ft. 

Comb, evaporative and superheating 7,213 sq. ft. 

Tender : 

Style Rectangular 

Water capacity 14,000 gal. 

Fuel capacity 5,000 gal. 

Rated tractive force 83,000 lb. 

Rated tractive force, incl. booster 96,000 lb. 

Weight proportions : 

Weight on drivers -r- total weight engine, 

per cent 67.0 

\\ eight on drivers -f- tractive force 3.62 

Total weight engine -i- comb. heat, surface 62.1 
Boiler proportions : 

Tractive force -=- comb. heat, surface... H.S 

Tractive force X dia. drivers H- comb, 

heat, surface 725 

Firebox heat, surface -^ grate area 4.73 

Firebox heat, surface, per cent of evap. 

heat surface 9.26 

Superheat surface, per cent of evap. heat, 

surface 41.1 



An Oil-Electric Articulated Car 



Canadian National Railways Adopts Oil-Electric Equipment Using Lightest Engine of Type in the 
World and Specially Developed Electrical Equipment 

By H. H. FENTON, General Engineer, Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 



A brilliant acliievement in the art of transportation has 
been accomplished by the Canadian National Railways in 
the design and application of an oil-electric rail car. 
Branch line and some main line service is becoming more 
and more important and receiving increasing attention for 
the purpose of reducing expense and increasing revenue. 
Passenger traffic has become more frequent. Because of 
the availability of motor vehicle transportation facilities, 
passenger traffic has grov/n to be dissatisfied with the in- 
frequent branch line rail service. The volume of this 
spread out traffic is insufficient to defray the e.xfmnse of 
desired service if it must be met with the customary steam 
train. 

The adoption of the self propelled car for frequent and 
infrequent light service bolsters up the traffic and reduces 
the operating and overhead expense as well. The results 
to be attained with a self propelled car over those of a 
steam train are far reaching and in many cases difficult of 
evaluation. Reduction of fuel cost per ton mile is probably 
the largest single item. Weight on rails, number of trucks 
ix)unding over the road bed, elimination of coaling and 
watering places and attending investment and mainten- 
ance are also items of consideration. 

C)f the self propelled type of car. that one using elec- 
trical transmission of power lends itself to the greatest 
degree of flexibility of service, as well as demanding a 
minimum of maintenance. Such a car adopted by the 
Canadian National Railways is known as the oil-electric 
articulated car. It consists of two bodies, with a total 
over-all length of 102 feet, set on three fnur-wheel trucks. 
The rear end of one and the forward end of the other 
bodv are attached to the center truck by means of a safety 
locking pin. The entrance between cars is protected by a 



canvas covering in much the same fashion as the vestibule 
ends of passenger cars on steam trains. 

The front unit has three compartments : the engine room 
occupies 17 ft. 6 in., the baggage room is 16 ft. 8 in. long 
and the smoking compartment is 15 ft. 9 in. long. The 
rear passenger unit is 44 ft. long inside. The height from 
ceiling to floor is 8 feet. The total seating capacity of the 
articulated car is 126 passengers. 

Fully equipped and loaded the articulated car will weigh 
100 tons, of which probably 38 ^er cent is on the forward 
truck. The trucks are provided with SKF bearings and 
'■lasp brakes, and have 36 in. wheels on a 7 ft. 4 in. wheel 
base. ■ I 

Engine Is Lightest of Kind in the World 

The prime mover is of the Diesel type produced by the 
William Beardmore & C mpany, Ltd., of London, the 
original of which was develof)ed under the direction of 
the British Adir.iralty for airplane work. The primary 
modifications consist of dr )p])ing from 1 ,200 to 650 r.p.m, 
increasing the number of cylinders from six to eight and 
changing th^ case from aluiuinum alloy to steel for rigid- 
ity. The cylinders measure 8^4 x 12 in. giving a rating 
of 340 horsei ower at 650 r.p.b. This is the largest engine 
of it;, kind in the world outside of areo practice, the total 
engine weight I)cing only 5.450 pounds. By means of a 
flexible Bartlet*-Haywood coupling the engine is con- 
nected to a two-bearing, bracket-type, separately excited 
shuiit generator. The engine-generator unit is mounted 
on a common vanadium steel bedplate. \\'hile the engine 
is constructed on the Diesel principle it has been adapted 
in such a way to transj ortation needs that the name 
"Diesel" is scarcely a correct description of its type and 



January, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



13 



the term "Oil Electric" has been a^Ji-- for classiliction 
purposes. This type of engine is one which depends upon 
high cylinder compression, approximately 450 pounds per 
square inch, to secure the temperature of combustion of 
the fuel, instead of tb.e elec.rical spark as used in the 
gasoline engine. Fuel oil is sprayed into the cylinders at 
a pressure of about S,000 pounds per square inch. The 
engine is water-cooled, similar to a gasoline engine. Lu- 
bricating oil is forced thioi.,h the engine at GO pounds 
pressure. Both the cooling water and lubricating oil are 
cooled by radiators mounted on the car roof. 

The electrical apparatus, all of which was designed and 
supplied by the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company, consists of a 200 Kw., 600-volt, 650-r.p.m., d-c 
generator direct connected to the oil engine, and four 
IGO-hp., 600-volt railway-type motors with necessary con- 



to care for the small 32-volt sections of the battery. 

The car speed is governed by voltage regulation se- 
cured by means of adjustment of the field resistor. Re- 
mote control of the field is attained by use of an electro- 
pneumatic drum similar to the sequence drum used in 
Westinghouse automatic equipments. The constant speed 
engine drops to idling speed whenever the controller 
handle is in its "off" position. An electro-pneumatic 
valve serves to open the throttle and allow the engine to 
come up to full speed under control of the governor at all 
times that the controller is in an operating position. By 
a system of interlocking between the field and generator 
sv/itches, pneumatic field drum and reversers, faulty opera- 
tion is prohibited. 

The car bodies are built entirely of steel with inside 
finish of mahogany. The seats are the reversible type, 




Oil-Electric Articulated Car of the Canadian National Railways 



trol details. Two motors are mounted on each of the end 
trucks. A 272-anii)ere hour 300-volt battery is provided 
for engine starting and operation of auxiliaries, such as 
compressors, field excitation, lighting control and signal 
systems. 

The control apparatus is mounted within the engine 
compartment, located above the generator on a structural 
iron frame work. The battery is hung from the car under- 
framing of the rear unit and the reverser for the rear 
pyair of motors is mounted withing the rear vestibule. 
This arrangement of apparatus was selected to cut vo an 
absolute minimum the number of circuits between the two 
units across the articulated joint. I'Vjur main caljles cross 
the truck, the twf) battery leads and the two power leads 
to the rear pair of motors. 

Full control of the car is centered at the operator's sta- 
tion. The equipment is designed for double end tar or 
train control, with an operator's compartment at each end 
of the car and the control switches are operated from 
either compartment so that it is never necessary to re- 
verse the car on a turn-table of "Y." The engine driven 
generator supplies iK)wer for the four propulsion motors, 
as well as for charging the 300-volt storage battery from 
which the control and auxiliary circuits arc fed on indi- 
vidual 32-volt taps. A duel set of compressors is pro- 
vided, ojK-rated hr,m the .300-volt battery or from the 
generator in conjunction with a scries resistor. 

The engine is started and the car operated by manipu- 
lating the master controller. The car may be operatefl 
either frfjm the generator or the battery. The battery may 
be charged during car running ])criods from the 600-volt 
generator line in conjunction with a series resistor, while 
during idling time the generator control is such that the 
•battery may Ijc charged without use of the resistor. 
An emergency system of charging is aLso provided 



upholstered in Spanish leather and are of sufficient length 
to accommodate three people on each side of the aisle. 
This gives a seating capacity of 91 in the rear half and 35 
in the smoker, or a total of 126. The car roof is of the 
turtle back design. 

Electric lighting is provided from storage batteries. 
Both front and rear halves are heated by hot water and 
ventilation is provided by exhaust type ventilators located 
in the car roof. 

Where the two cars rest on the center truck, each car 
is provided with a special cast steel end sill to which are 
bolted male and female center castings, one of which sits 
within the other, and both engage the truck center plate. 
l!y this means each car can swing radially on the center 
truck and at the same time be securely fastened to the 
truck with a safely type locking pin, and in addition safety 
bars are a])plied. 

Performance Record 

The oil-electric articulated car is a logical step toward 
mecling the need for the utilization of a cheap fuel. Dur- 
ing the successful testing of the unit a schedule run of 
235 miles was accomplished at a fuel cost of $5.87 or a 
net fuel cost (in barrel lots) of 2.7 cents per 100 ton 
miles. This is about one-eighth the cost with a steam 
locomotive and onc-fiftli the cost with a gasoline car. 

C)n the trial tri]> the actual running time averaged 52 
miles an hour, but the car will attain a maximum speed 
of 60 miles an hour on the level. 

The application of electric drive permits of applying 
))ow(T directly to the axles without the intermediary shaft 
and altenrling gearing. This arrangement in turn does 
away with the high maintenance. In addition, electric 
drive jjcrmits of double end operation which is valuable 
in many in.stances of shuttle type service. 



14 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1926 



Rlllss^Ewneerini 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, 
Rolling Stock and Appliances 



Published Monthly by 

ANGUS SINCLAIR COMPANY 

136 Liberty Street, New York 

Chicago Office: 168 North Michigan Avenue 

Telephone Rector 0746. Cable AddrcM "Locong," N. Y. 



Harry A. Kenney, Prest. and Man. Ed. Gca I^ Fowler, Aaiociate Editor. 

W. E. Sjrmoos, Associate Editor. J. Snowden Bell, Auociate Editor. 

Thomas P. Kenney, Secretary. 



LONDON REPRESENTATIVE 

The LococQOtive Publishing Company. Ltd.. 3 Amen Corner, Paternoster Row, 

London, £. C England. 



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Enetred as second-class matter January 15, 1902, at the post 
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Railway Advancement 

It seems fitting at the opening of the new year to cast 
a retrospective glance at the present condition of the 
railroads and what they have accomplished for themselves 
and for the countrj- since the debacle of government con- 
trol. 

The method of small shipments and quick deliver)-, pre- 
valent in England, has often been set forth for the ad- 
miration and goal of imitation to Americans. By it the 
large inventories of provincial retailers is reduced to a 
minimum ; interest charges are lessened and the flow of 
raw and finished materials is maintained with healthy 
regularity. It was considered a dream that such a condi- 
tion could be brought about in this country ; but, accord- 
ing to Mr. Charles S. Keith a large lumber dealer of 
Kansas City, there is an approximation to such a condi- 
tion in the south west. In a letter to the president of 
the Union Pacific, he calls attention to the great reduction 
in luml^r stocks made by the retailers in ^lissouri, Kan- 
sas, Oklahoma and Texas, because of the rapidity with 
which deliveries are made. He says that, in these states, 
the retailer is anticipating his requirements by only from 
seven to eleven days in advance, while in Chicago the an- 
ticipation of requirements has been cut down to from 
twelve days to three weeks, dependent upon the territory 
from which the shipment is to come. He estimates that 
this quick delivery has made it possible to have taken at 
least $600,000,000 out of lumber stocks and accounts in 
the United States since 1923. 

As lumber constitutes only about Syi per cent of car 
loadings, it seems fair to assume that other industries 
have been similarly affected with a consequent enormous 
saving to the country. 



Tliat is one item of effect only, and it will be well to 
consider some of the means by which this has been 
brought about. 

When the railroads were returned to their owners in 
1920 they were in a thoroughly demoralized condition, 
because of lack of maintenance and the lowering of the 
morale and discipline of the employes almost to the break- 
ing ix)int. This imposed serious burdens of reorganiza- 
tion as well as the great increase of wages that had been 
granted under government regime. That they might 
meet these requirements the transportation act of 1920 
was passed. But, even with this, much was left for the 
railroad managements to accomplish in the way of re- 
ducing relative expenses by an increase in efficiency. To 
accomplish this there has been not only a great advance 
in the efficiency of locomotive performance but in that of 
the shops where they are maintained. Machine tools have 
been wonderfully improved, and those of 20 years 
ago have, been definitely recognized as absolete and too 
expensive in man power. It is probable that the develop- 
ments of the automobile industry and the demands made 
by it on machine tools have been passed along to the 
railroads whose shops have l>enefited therefrom to a 
marked extent. 

The improvements made in the locomotive with the 
resultant economies have also been most marked. For 
example : during the first seven months of 1925 the fuel 
consumed per 1,000 ton miles of freight moved was 13 
pounds less than it was for the first seven months of 
1924, with a consequent saving of $32,971,338. A part 
of this is attributed to the efficiencies of the brick arch. 
superheater and feed water heater by Mr. McBride, the 
former president of the Engineers' Club of Philadelphia. 
And Julius Kruttschnitt is credited with attributing a 
20 per cent increase of efficiency to the superheater. 

Then we have the development of new types of loco- 
motives. First to claim attention is the three-cylinder. 
On one eastern road there is a record of one three-cylinder 
locomotive replacing two of the two-cylinder type. The 
Southern Pacific reports that the resuhs from the intro- 
duction of the three-cylinder locomotive 'have been emi- 
nently satisfactory from the traffic point of view, in that 
the three-cylinder locomotives are capable of hauling 500 
more cars per month than similar weight and type two- 
cylinder locomotives in use on the same road and over 
the same division." 

Then, so far as the improvements in the two-cylinder 
locomotive is concerned we have the record performances 
of the Lima 2-8-4 locomotive as presented in the Decem- 
ber 1925 issue of R.mlw.vy and Locomotive Engineer- 
ing, in which a most notable advance was made over the 
mikados of 1920. Such performances afford an explana- 
tion of the fact that, for the past two years, the railroads 
have ordered fewer new locomotives than they have 
scrapiDed. 

This increase of efficiency has been accompanied by an 
increase in the length of locomotive runs. The New York 
Central has reduced the number of locomotives used on 
the New York-Chicago run from nine to three or four. 
The Southern uses two engines between Washington and 
.\tlanta (637 miles), instead of four; and three engines 
instead of six between Cincinnati and Jacksonville (840 
miles) ; and three, instead of five between Cincinnati and 
New Orleans, a distance of 836 miles. 

The introduction of a similar policy on the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy has resulted in the release of a 
number of engines as shown by the following: 

Former average daily locomotive mileage. . 180 
Present average daily locomotive mileage . . 252 
Miles per day increase 72 



January, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



15 



Percentage increase 40 

Locomotives released to other service 23 

Touching upon this subject a committee report to the 
Mechanical Division of the American Railway Associa- 
tion last June said : 

"As a result of this exf)erience we have extended this 
method of operation until we have all main line power, 
both freight and passenger, assigned to long runs. The 
only exceptions are the local and branch trains. Our 
passenger locomotives are now assigned to runs from 483 
to 640 miles in length and freight locomotives from 225 
to 337 miles. 

"From an economical standpoint this method of opera- 
tion has met our fullest expectation ; the saving in 
locomotive investment and in intermediate terminal im- 
provements " and maintenance, and the reduction in the 
amount of fuel used at intermediate terminals, represents 
a large saving in our operating costs." 

Mingled with and contributing to all this has been the 
increase of horsepower per unit of weight of the loco- 
motive. For example : about 20 years ago the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad built a consolidation locomotive that 
weighed about 200 lbs. per horsepower. Recently the 
same railroad brought out a heavier and more powerful 
machine that weighed only 105 lbs. per horsepower de- 
veloped. 

Finally we have that latest development, the oil-electric 
locomotive. As yet winning its spurs in switching service 
but held up by its promoters as a probable rival of the 
steam locomotive for road service. And surely if the 
reports of trials on the Central of New Jersey are borne 
out in subsequent work the rivalry bids fair to be 
formidable. .According to that statement, an oil-electric 
locomotive distributed 431 cars on and off 26 floats with a 
fuel expenditure of $11.90 while the fuel cost of a steam 
locomotive handling 430 cars on and off the same number 
of floats was $73.35. Certainly a sufficient difference to 
attract attention. 

If the same rate of improvement is maintained for the 
next five years as has obtained for the past five, the old 
locomotives of two decades ago, will appear as the em- 
bodiment of a waste that will be beyond all toleration. 
It is only by such contrasts as this, that we are able to 
realize the great improvements that have been effected 
in recent years, and which have almost stolen in upon us 
unnoticed and unawares. 



Possible Locomotive Improvement 

It is now about a year and a half since Mr. W. H. 
Winterrowd of the Lima Locomotive Works read a nota- 
ble paper before the Mechanical Division of the American 
Railway Association on the locomotive, in which he 
prophesied that the substitute for the present locomotive 
would be one of improved design. Whether it was the 
implied compliment to locomotive designers as to their 
ability to advance, cannot be said ; but the fact remains 
that the paper attracted a worKl-wide attention and was 
followed by a prolific output of improved designs, that 
have put the locomotive into a jwsition that would not 
have l)een thought possible a few years ago. 

When .Stephenson designed the multitubular boiler 
with the exhaust draft he adopted principles of construc- 
tion of such great and fundamental value that they have 
been adhered to even since. Rut many and varied have 
been the modifications in construction. We have in- 
creased engine and boiler efficiency to such an extent that 



it is difficult to see how further improvements can be 
made; but we have been in that state of mind before. 
Possibly the next step may come in the direction of a 
definite adoption of a higher steam pressure. 

Away back in the middle nineties experiments were 
being made at the Winterthur Works with superheated 
steam. They attracted little outside attention at the time; 
but, ten years later, when the principle was being rapidly 
applied abroad, we awoke to the economies made jxissible 
by it and plunged into it, to our great good and advantage. 

Now comes the reported satisfactory operation of a 
boiler built by the Henschels carrying a pressure upward 
of 850 lbs. per sq. in., and we ourselves are trying a 
pressure of 350 lbs. in a modest way. The handling of 
this high pressure, so far as temperature and lubrication 
is concerned does not present nearly as serious a problem 
as that encountered at the introduction of superheated 
steam. At that time, the increase of pressure, with the 
superheat added, raised our temperatures by about 200 
degrees Fahr. or to a total somewhat above 650 degrees. 
With a steam pressure of 850 lbs. per sq. in. there will 
be an initial temperature of about 530 degrees which will 
permit of a superheat of 120 degrees without exceeding 
our present limits. But there are other problems involved 
besides those of mere temperature and it need not be 
expected that the jump of 600 odd pounds per sq. in. in 
pressure will be made in a day or a year. But we have 
the possibility before us. 

Whether the advance be made in increased pressure, in- 
creased expansion, or the attachment of more accessories, 
we do know that with every advance the possibilities in 
further improvements in thermal efficiency is narrowed 
and becomes increasingly difficult of attainment. We are 
working along a line similar to the asymptote of an hyper- 
bola, which though constantly approaching, will never 
come into contact with the curve no matter how far it 
may be extended. 

We have moved far along these lines. It is a far cry 
from the eight-ton locomotive of a century ago to the two 
hundred-ton monster of today. And we are beginning 
to feel that our tonnage limits are being reached. Already 
it has been found that increased capacity can be obtained 
by other means than an increase of weight. Within the 
year an increase of approximately ten per cent in boiler 
capacity has been obtained by a change of proportions 
without an increase of heating surface, and designers are 
at work upon other modifications of more or less promise, 
looking towards a still greater efficiency. 

It appears, however, that the real economic gain which 
will affect the railroads as a whole, lies not so much in a 
spectacular increase of individual efficiency, as in the 
raising of old locomotives up to a par with the latest de- 
signs that have been brought out. 

If, as appears probable, a late change in wheel arrange- 
ment will reduce the internal resistances of the engine 
as a whole, it would appear to be the course of reason to 
adopt such a wheel arrangement without delay. It is 
probable that not far from 25 per cent of the indicated 
horse ])ower developed by a locomotive is consumed 
in moving the machine over a level track and that even 
this is exceeded on curves. Here, then, is an opening for 
a saving, by the reduction of curve resistances and in- 
ternal friction ; and if, as seems probable, these have been 
reduced by recent developments, certainly the resultant 
saving is worth looking into. 

Then there is the possibility of a saving in operating 
expenses by a reduction in weight per indicated horse 
power. We have already dropjx^d below the one-hundred 
pounds jx-r indicate<l horse power mark and there seems 



16 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1926 



to be no good rwisoii why further radical reductions 
should not be made. It takes one's breath away to think 
what a locomotive of present-day capacity would weigh 
if we were dejxjndent, in its construction, on the materials 
available 40 years ago. So it is not unreasonable to 
expect that future metallurgical developments will make 
further weight reductions possible. 

We will probably never reach the weight of a pound 
or so per brake horseix)wer that was attained by Prof. 
Langley in one of his early aeroplane engines ; but it may, 
at least, serve as a star at which to shoot. 

Here we are then with two definite possibilities in 
hand. A greatly increased engine efficiency, and a proba- 
ble decrease in engine resistances that may be applied 
to engines that are being overhauled. If this were to be 
done, as it will not be, on the sixty-five thousand odd loco- 
motives of the country, it seems as though the saving of 
a million dollars a day, said a few years ago to be possible, 
by the railroads of the country, would become almost an 
accomplished fact. So, while designers are at work im- 
proving the individual locomotive, it will be the part of 
wsdom to, as far as possible, bring our old engines up 
to a favorable comparison with those of the latest de- 
sign. 

Safety on American Railroads 

The reassuring fact that the railroads of the United 
States operated 11,250,000 locomotive miles in 1924 be- 
fore a single passenger was killed, and 287,000 miles 
before one was injured, was revealed yesterday by Arthur 
Williams, \^ice-President Commercial Relations of the 
New York Edison Company and President of the Ameri- 
can Museum of Safety. The occasion for the statement 
was the award of the E. H. Harriman Aiemorial Medals 
for safety achievement among American railroads at a 
luncheon given at the Bankers' Club of America by Mr. 
Williams and James Speyer, Treasurer of the Museum, 
and attended by Mrs. E. H. Harriman, Mr. and Mrs. E. 
R. Harriman, and more than seventy railroad presidents 
and vice-presidents, insurance company executives, gov- 
ernment officials, and trustees of the Museum of Safety. 

In comparing the railroad accident record of 1914 with 
that of 1924, Mr. Williams brought out the fact that the 
railroads are twice as safe now as they were before or- 
ganized safety work was begun. In 1914 one passenger 
was killed for every 6,620,000 locomotive miles of opera- 
tion and one injured for every 116,000. 

Practically the same progress was reported in the safety 
of railroad employees. In 1917, Mr. Williams stated, one 
railroad employee was killed in an industrial railroad acci- 
dent for every 9,120,000 man-hours of work, and in 1924 
one employee was killed for every 15,550,000 man-hours 
of work. As for injuries, in 1917 one employee was in- 
jured for every 28,000 man-hours of work, and in 1924 
one employee was injured for every 48,000 man-hoiirs of 
work. Such a great decrease in the hazards of railroad 
work Mr. Williams attributed largely to the influence- of 
the Harriman awards. 

The Harriman gold medal for the best record in acci- 
dent prevention among American railroads for the year 
1924 was awarded this year to the Union Pacific System. 
The medals, firi^t established in 1913, are offered through 
the American Museum of Safety by Mrs. E. H. Harri- 
man, who was present at the luncheon and personally de- 
livered the prize to E. E. Calvin, vice-president of the 
Union Pacific System in charge of operations. 

The second, or silver, medal, awarded to the division 
of a railroad which made the best safety record during 
1924, was received bv C. L. Hinkle, general manager of 
the Chicago Great Western Railroad, for the Western Di- 



vision of that company. The third medal, of bronze, of- 
fered to an employee of a railroad who individually has 
been most conspicuous in furthering accident prevention 
during the year, was awarded to Joseph Kragskow, assis- 
tant foreman in the Omaha shojw of the Union Pacific 
System, who in 50 years of continuous railroad service 
has never received an accidental injury and who more 
than twenty-five years before the origin of the safety 
movement had invented several very effective accident pre- 
vention devices. Mr. Kragskow, owing to ill health, was 
unable to be present to receive the award in person. 

Honorable mention was also made by the Committee on 
.Vwards of the safety record maintained by the Delaware 
and Hudson Company, and also by the Duluth, Missalx: 
and Northern Railroad, both of which have splendid rec- 
ords for the year. Similar mention was made of H. E. 
Butler, passenger train conductor of the Nashville, Chat- 
tanooga, and St. Louis Railway, who in more than 40 
years of railroad work has never been involved in an 
accident himself nor in any way responsible for accidental 
injury to another. 



Federal Control Cost the Government 
SI, 696,000.000 

It cost the government $1,696,000,000 to run the rail- 
roads of this country during the 32 months of federal 
control. This figure was given in a final report sub- 
mitted December 14 to President Coolidge by James C. 
Davis, Director General of Railroads, who, at the same 
time, sent in his resignation. 

The 32-month period represents 26 months of war con- 
trol when the government actually operated the railroads 
and 6 months "guaranty period." After giving the details 
of the taking over of the railroads on December 31, 1917, 
Mr. Davis' report continues in part as follows : 

"When the property was returned to its owners claims 
were presented by the carriers, represented largely by the 
items of unpaid compensation, undermaintenance of wav 
and equipment, material and supplies and depreciation, in 
the sum of $1,014,402,446.72. The Railroad .Administra- 
tion set up claims against the railroads, largely for excess 
expenditures for maintenance, in the simi of $440,353,- 
715.08. 

"Congress directed the President, through his agent, 
as soon as practicable to settle and adjust these and all 
other claims incident to federal control. Every one of 
the claims of the carriers whose property' was taken over 
has been adjusted. The creditor roads were paid $243,- 
652.196.91. There was collected from the debtor roads 
$195,272,295.17. The balance paid by the government 
was $48,379,901.74, or less than 5 per cent of the claims 
as originally presented. 

"There are perhaps two outstanding features in the ad- 
justment : It was made without litigation, and well within 
tlie appropriation originally made by Congress for this 
purpose. . . . 

"Aside from the claims of the railroads for the use of 
their properties there were innumerable claims of third 
persons for freight overcharge, reparation, loss and dam- 
age, personal injuries, fires, and the like, while the Rail- 
road Administration, on its part, had many claims for 
demurrage and undercharges. In the neighborhood of 
50,000 lawsuits were instituted against the Railroad Ad- 
ministration growing out of these transactions. . . . 

"The greater portion of these outside claims have been 
adjusted, and the entire liquidation is being rapidly con- 
cluded. The income of the Railroad Administration from 
interest on railroad obligations is largely in excess of any 
amount sufficient to finally conclude this adjustment." 



The Reading Company's Gasoline -Electric Car 

By T. H. Murphy, General Engineer, Westingliouse Electric «& Manufacturing Company 



Rising costs of operation and reduced revenue are 
forcing the railroads to make use of all available methods 
of transportation. In some cases this means electrifica- 
tion with its ability to handle congested traffic ; in others, 
some form of self-contained unit suitable for ser\'ice 
where full trains are not required. Savings in labor, 
maintenance and fuel make this latter form of transpor- 
tation unit most suitable for branch line service and main 
line local service. 

Various t>-pes of self-contained or self-propelled units 
have been developed and tried in the past twenty-five 
years. The gasoline engine outranks the Diesel engine 
in the number of applications to railroad service in this 
countrj', because of its higher stage of perfection, lower 



A total of 21 round trips is made on week days and 23 
on Saturdays, giving an average daily mileage of 170. A 
110,000 lb. standard steel coach is handled on three of the 
roimd trips. This car also handles the switching of ex- 
press cars at Trenton and the transferring of one 73-ton 
express car from Trenton to a main line train at the 
Jimction. 

This one gas-electric car has replaced two class Q-1, 
2-6-4 type steam locomotives and one coach. The locomo- 
tives were of special design for operation in either direc- 
tion and in normal service ran around the cars as the lay- 
over time at each terminal was inadequate for turning 
on a wye. For normal operation of the car no extra 
movement is necessary as the control is arranged for 




Gasoline- Electric Car in Service on the Reading Railroad 



cost and lower weight. Several forms of transmission 
have been tried with each of these, but the reliabilit>-. 
flexibility and abiUtj- to handle unlimited power has 
brought electric transmission to the forefront. Thus, 
with a field developed by rising costs, and \vith reliable 
gasoline engines and tried electrical equipment to place 
on cars suitable for railroad service, the application of 
gasoline-electric motive power to cars for railroads was a 
natural development. 

A tj'pical example of such cars is that placed in service 
on the Trenton Branch of the Reading Railroad. This 
car is capable of high operating speeds with or without 
trailers. Trailer operation is not necessarv' unless traffic 
conditions are unusually severe, as in addition to the 
engine compartment the car has a baggage and passenger 
compartment. 

Operation 

Since being placed in service this car has been run ap- 
proximately 16,000 miles. It gives frequent service 
between Trenton and the main line connection of this 
branch of the Reading with New York-Philadelphia 
trains at Trenton Junction. The total run is 3.7 miles. 
The service is unusually severe as four station stops are 
made and operation at times is with a standard trailer. 
Grades up to 1.1 per cent increase the severity of the 
service. No auxiliary power unit is needed at any time 
as the gas-electric was designed for the service and is 
handling it in a very satisfactory manner. 

The average schedule time for the one way trip (Tren- 
ton to Trenton Junction) is ten minutes. layovers at 
each terminal are from 4 to 10 minutes in duration, giv- 
ing a minimum round trip of 24 minutes. Without lay- 
overs the average schedule speed is 22 miles per hour. 



operation from the rear end and unless a trailer is hauled 
the operator can run the car from the rear end. 

Mechanical Structure 

The car was well constructed to meet the exacting 
demand for a smooth riding, high-speed unit. The weight 
without load, but with all necessary equipment is 90,000 
lb. For operating weight, approximately 10,000 lb. should 
be added for the average live load. 

The car body is of the light-weight steel type, and has 
straight sides, round ends, arched-type roof, single sash 
arranged to raise, and is equipped with post castings of 
spring brass. The under frame consists of a center sill 
of two 12-inch channels on which the engine generator 
is mounted longitudinally. Heavy cross members riveted 
to the center sill support the car body frame. The car 
body is 60 feet long over the end sills and 9 feet 6 inches 
wide over the posts. The height from the floor to the 
roof of the car is 7 feet 10 inches. The over-all height 
is 12 feet Syi inches. The engine room, 10 feet 8 inches 
long, houses a gasoline engine-generator unit and the 
control apparatus. A baggage compartment is provided 
which is 11 feet long and 9 feet wide, giving a floor 
area of almost 100 square feet of which about 16 square 
feet is occupied by a hot water heater. The main section 
is a passenger compartment which is 35 feet 10 inches 
long and has seats for fifty passengers. The seats are 
of dark brown imitation leather, 40 inch long, and are 
spaced 2 feet 7 inches. Steel partitions, with a swing- 
type door, separate the engine room from the baggage 
room and the baggage room from the passenger com- 
partment. 

The trucks have a fixed wheel base of 6 feet 6 inches 
with 33-inch wheels and are spaced 44 feet 6 inches 



17 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1926 



between centers. The front pair under the engine- 
generator set, support approximately 60 [jer cent of the 
car weight. The long wheel base and truck center dis- 
tance and extra heavy trucks were used to give good 
riding qualities, which are added to by the steel construc- 
tion used in the under-frame posts and side sheeting. 

Motive Power Equipment 

The motive power e((uipnH'iU of this car consists of a 
gasoline engine driven generator, two motors, and suitable 
control apparatus for reversing the direction of the car 
and controlling its six?cd. .Ml units were designed with 
the idea of obtaining simplicity, reliability, and economy 
in operation. The car weight and service dictated that 
an engine capable of delivering 250 horsciX)wer be used 
with electrical equipment capable of utilizing the total 
engine power. This fixed the main design factor of the 
whole equipment. The generator and motors are capable 
of utilizing the full engine power and the flexibility of 
the control is such that high speeds without trailers or 
medium speeds with trailers can be obtained. 

The engine power output having been determined 
from the car weight and service conditions to be met, it 
was a simple matter to design a gasoline engine capable 
of delivering the desired power at a reasonably low 
speed along standard design lines. The engine has a 7^4 
inch bore and 8 inch stroke, and delivers 250 horsepower 
at 1100 rpm. This speed was determined from an 
engineering standpoint by considering the low weight 
necessary for such a unit, and also the low maintenance 
costs that go with low engine speeds. The low speed 
permits an especially sturdy construction. 

The engine has six cylinders, with removable liners and 
dual heads. It is of the valve-in-head type with two ex- 
haust and two intake valves to each cylinder. The water 
cooling space around the cylinders is adequate to main- 
tain proper temperatures at all speeds and loads. Trunk 
type pistons are used with four rings above the wrist 
pin and one scraper ring. The crankshaft is supported by 
seven main bearings. It is hollow and arranged so that 
oil is forced through it to all the main bearings, insuring 
excellent lubrication. 

Two complete ignition systems are provided, by means 
of two high-tension magnetos with impulse starters used 
with two complete sets of spark plugs. The magnetos 
are driven independently and are of the single spark type 
with manual advance and retard regulation. A centrifugal 
water pump is used for circulating the cooling water. 
The oil pump discharges oil to the lubricating oil header. 
Fuel is supplied by means of a vacuum feed to the 
carburetor from tanks located under the car. 

Two motors are used for engine starting duty. A 
ring-gear is mounted on the flywheel, and the motors, 
with Bendix drive, are mounted one on each side of the 
engine to mesh properly with the ring-gear. The motors 
are connected in parallel across the terminals of a 32-volt 
battery when used to turn the engine over. One motor 
is capable of bringing the engine up to sufificient speed 
for firing. 

The engine cooling water has its temperature regulated 
by a radiator of the ordinary fin and tube type mounted 
on the left side of the car. Air is forced through the 
radiator by a fan, driven by a suitable motor that is cout 
nected across the generator whenever the engine is in 
operation. The quantity of air can be regulated by 
shutters placed on the radiator. 

The generator and engine are mounted as a unit on a 
common bedplate. A flexible disc coupling with four 
16-inch discs is used for connecting them together. The 
complete power unit is mounted longitudinally in the 
engine room on the center line of the car. The bed- 



plate is mounted on rubber blocks supported from the 
center sills of the car body. 

The generator is of a special type, designed for ser- 
vice with a gasoline engine in a rail car. An exciter, 
mounted directly on the shaft of the main machine, is 
used for exciting the main shunt-field winding and also 
supplying power at a low voltage for the car lighting 
circuits and for charging the battery. The shunt field 
of the exciter receives its excitation from the 32-volt 
battery. 

Each machine has six poles. The main machine 
operates at 60(j volts with normal load at 1100 rpm. and 
the exciter at voltages up to 60. The principal feature 
of design is the constant output characteristic of the 
generator to prevent overloading the engine. It is so 
satisfactory that the engine runs at constant speed over a 
wide range of current values, i.e., a wide variation in car 
tractive effort. The constant output characteristic was 
obtained by placing a differential scries winding on the 
IX)les of the execiter and passing the main motor current 
through it. This gives variations in field strength that 
are inversely proportional to the current load. The 
voltage, therefore, drops off in proportion to increases in 
current demand. 

The generator is provided with an extra wide com- 
mutator, large brush area and commutating poles to in- 
sure good commutation at all loads. Ball bearings effect 
savings in space and also insure against delays due to 
bearing failure. 

The space and weight limitations imposed by the ap- 
plication demand that the greatest possible ventilation he 
obtained with a minimum of extra apparatus. The type 
of application greatly aided in this, as a one-directional 
fan could be used on the generator shaft, by which large 
quantities of cooling air are drawn through the machine. 
It is located at the engine end of the generator and draws 
the air in over the commutator which is located next to 
the outer bearing. The location of the commutator facili- 
tates brush inspection. 

The generator supplies power to two 140-horsepower 
motors located on the forward truck of the car. These 
are standard 600-volt, direct-current motors. They are 
constructed with solid frames and have openings to f)er- 
mit circulation of air by means of a fan located on the 
motor shaft. Cominutating poles insure good commuta- 
tion over a wide current range. The motors are axle 
hung and drive through strong solid helical gears, hav- 
ing a 16:61 ratio, which are totally enclosed and run in 
grease. This large gear reduction was used to give the 
liigh tractive effort necessary with trailer operation. 

Control 

The control for the Reading car is exceedingly simple. 
Two unit switches are einployed for connecting the motors 
to the generator, and also a reverser for changing the 
direction of current flow through the motor fields, and 
hence the direction of car operation. These are of the 
electro-imeumatic type usually used for equipments of this 
size. Their operation is govered by a master controller 
located conveniently to the operator. 

The car speed varies with the generator voltage. This 
is regulated by governing the engine sf)eed, i.e. the engine 
throttle setting. .\ sequence drum with a cam is located 
on the generator with the necessary push rods to the 
throttle. The position of the cam determines the throttle 
setting and hence the engine speed. The movement of 
the drum is regulated by the same master controller that 
operates the unit switches and reverser. The operator, 
therefore, has only one control to use for operating the 
car. The first movement of the master controller closes 
the unit switches and also a relay that energizes the 



January, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



19 



exciter field. Further movement of the master controller 
only causes further rotation of the sequence drum, i. e. 
opening of the engine throttle. All the control apparatus, 
including a number of knife switches for the motors, 
generators fields and battery circuits, are located on a 
rack and f>anel on the generator. 

A battery charging regulator is placed between the 
variable voltage exciter and the 32-volt battery. An 
additional regulator is placed between the battery and 
all 32-volt load circuits. A two-directional ammeter is 
placed convenient to the operator to indicate battery 
charge and discharge. An oil gage and an" engine tacho- 
meter are located on the engine. These are readable from 
the operator's position. 

jMultiple-Unit Operation 

As the sequence drum determines only the engine speed, 
it is a ver\- easy matter to operate two or more of these 
cars from one position. It is but a matter of placing the 
control wires in parallel and notching up the two drums 
together. A master controller is on the rear end of the 
Reading car to permit double-end operation. Where con- 
tinuous of>eration of a two car train is desired a master 
controller can be placed on the rear of the trail car and 
eliminate the necessity of turning the whole unit. 

Two air-storage tanks under the car provide com- 
pressed air for the air brakes, whistles, bells, sanders and 
the electro-pneumatic switches and reverser. They are 



kept charged by a motor-driven compressor having a 
capacity of 20 cubic feet per minute. This air compressor 
cuts in and out automatically. 

The lighting is furnished by a 160 ampere-hour, 32- 
volt storage battery which is kept charged by the exciter 
mounted on the engine generator set. This storage bat- 
tery also actuates two electric starting motors on the 
engine. Standard regulators hold the lighting and charg- 
ing voltage constant. 

Performance 

The Reading car is capable of speeds up to 51 miles 
per hour and is able to handle a standard railway coach 
in regular service. The gear ratio on this type of car 
determines the maximum speeds that can be attained. 
Balancing speeds on the level up to 55 miles per hour 
are possible with smaller reduction between the motors 
and wheels. 

There is a wide field of usefulness for this type of car, 
as is exemplified by the fact that orders for such equip- 
ment have recently been placed by the Boston and MaiiK 
The New York Ontario and Western, The Pennsylvania, 
The Great Northern, The New York, New Haven and 
Hartford, and The Erie Railroads. In addition to these 
cars the Long Island railroad has recently placed an 
order for a gas-electric switcher, utilizing the power of 
two engine-generator units with electric motors and the 
proper control apparatus. 



Modern Methods of Staybolt Inspection' 

By E. S. Fitzsimmons 



Flexible staybolts of various designs had been experi- 
mented with, principally in foreign countries, as far back 
as 1878. Not, however, until about 1890 to 1900 was any 
active interest shown in this country. During that period 
rapid progress was made in the development and increased 
size of locomotive boilers and also increases in boiler 
pressures first from 140 to 160 pounds; then to 180 
pounds, and later to 200 pounds pressure per square inch. 

This increase in size and boiler pressure resulted in 
staybolt breakage to such an extent as to become alarm- 
ing, and also very expensive. I well recall instances, as 
no doubt do many others who were directly responsible 
for boiler conditions while using rigid bolts, of breakage 
of 75. 80 and 100 bolts in a boiler at a time, these break- 
ages being repeated in the same boilers at frequent in- 
tervals. 

E^xperimental installations of flexible staybolts of sev- 
eral designs or types were made on various railroads in 
several sections of the country prior to 1900, none of 
which, however, gave any appreciable relief or reduced 
the trouble sufficiently to cause their general use. 

In 1900 the Johnstone bolt, with which mo.st of you 
are no doubt familiar, was introduced antl for a time ap- 
peared to be an improvement over earlier ty]>es. Though 
it provided absolutely no means of inspection, it was tried 
out. as at that time there were no laws governing in- 
spection. 

.After service tests covering a period of two or three 
years, it was found that this type was deficient because 
the head of the bolt became locked in the plug and it was 
breaking in consideraiilc numbers: anfl ttiat the absence 
of any method of inspection made it positively dangerous. 

'Abitract frvm a paper preiented al Ihe September, )925. meclini: of the 
Southern and Scntkwtitern Railway Club. 



At a convention of the Master Boiler Makers in 1903, 
a report was presented by a representative of a railroad 
having large niuiibers of these bolts in service, showing 
that breakage was nearly, if not entirely, as frequent as 
in the case of rigid bolts and that, upon discovery of this 
condition, the use of this type was being discontinued. 
The railroad with which I was connected at that time 
had a few small trial installations of this type and conse- 
quently, when I learned of this report, I personally made 
investigation by removing some bolts for inspection and 
found several broken, after which the remainder were 
removed on account of there being no way of inspecting 
or determining their condition. 

A flexible staybolt of the rounded head design, using 
a sleeve and a removable cap, was designed by John B. 
Tate of the Pennsylvania R. R., and introduced to the 
railroads by the Flannery Bolt Company. In a very 
short time improvements in the design were necessary to 
overcome the greatest weaknesses of the Johnstone bolt 
and an improved type with a clearance space so designed 
to overcome the objections was presented to the railroads 
and ai)peared at a time when the tendency was to even 
larger boilers, and when breakage of rigid bolts was be- 
coming a serious problem on every railroad. This design 
gave prf)mise of eliminating many of the weaknesses of 
former types and provided a means, though an expensive 
one, of ascertaining the condition of the bolt without re- 
moving it from the boiler. For those reasons it was quite 
generally tried out by many railroads and the results ob- 
tained were so generally satisfactory that its adoption and 
general use almost immediately followed. 

In 1905 a cf)mmittee of the American Railway Asso- 
ciation reporting on flexible staybolts said of the flexible 
staybolt : 



20 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1926 



"Thougli of comparatively recent date, it has been re- 
ceived with great favor, indicating the rapidity with which 
a new bolt of promising design is given a practical trial in 
the effort to cure the staybolt trouble." 

Further in this same report the committee stated the 
following : 

"A simple means of positively detecting cracked and 
broken bulls is an improvement needed by all flexible 
bolts that are in service at the present time. The removal 
of the cap, which will allow an examination of the bolt, 
is the only absolute means possible with flexible bolts of 
the present design." 

The following years added to the favor with which this 
bolt was receiced and its general adoption and standardi- 
zation on nearly all of the American railroads attested 
to the judgment of its early advocates. 

In 1911 the act commonly known as the locomotive 
boiler inspection law became effective, under authority of 
which, rules requiring among other things the removal 
of caps from flexible staybolts for inspection purposes 
at special stated intervals, were promulgated and en- 
forced. 

The generally satisfactory service rendered and the 
very small percentage of breakage to total number in 
service (this type having become practically standard) 
created a doubt in the minds of many railroads mechani- 
cal officials of the justification of such a rule or require- 
ment and it was quite generally, and for a time strenu- 
ously, opposed. At that time I was opposed to these 
inspection rules myself. 

However, the locomotive inspection bureau through its 
corps of inspectors had indisputable evidence of the neces- 
sity for thorough and regular inspection, for while it was 
admitted that the percentage of breakage to the total 
number in service was small, it was shown beyond ques- 
tion of doubt that in certain instances breakages did occur 
to such an extent as to become a menace to life and 
property. 

In the face of this evidence, opposition to the require- 
ment subsided and in many cases where conditions ap- 
peared to be abnormal, many of the carriers voluntarily 
increased their vigilance and caused inspections to be made 
at even more frequent intervals than required by the in- 
spection rules. 

Investigations were also begun to determine the cause 
of breakage in an endeavor to apply a remedy. The 
writer has personally participated in a number of these 
investigations, the results of which have confirmed the 
absolute necessity for careful and frequent inspections 
and have also clearly demonstrated the need of a more 
accurate and positive method of test than the mere re- 
moval of the caps and examination of the bolt heads. 

Instances were found where, imder bad water condi- 
tions, accumulations of scale between the body of the bolt 
and the inner wall of the sleeve were such as to solidly 
lock the bolt in the sleeve. The result was to render in- 
effectual the flexible feature and to cause th bolt to break 
at the firebox sheet. In a particular instance, this condi- 
tion resulted in failure to find the defective condition of 
the bolts when the caps were removed at a regular in- 
spection period and within a few months a disastrous 
explosion occurred, resulting in the loss of two lives and 
property damage. Another instance occurred in which 
the writer did not have an opportunity to participate, but 
where conditions and results were almost identical, except 
that in this case, fortunately, no loss of life occurred. 

Numerous instances of lesser importance, but all lead- 
ing to dangerous conditions, have been developed during 
these investigations and have been made the subject of 
reports to mechanical officers of the railroads directly 
affected. The information has also usually been pre- 



sented to oflicers of other railroads when a possibility of 
like conditions appeared probable. 

During the past ten years, and more diligently during 
the past five years, after these abnormal conditions had 
been prominently developed, constant effort has been 
made to perfect a method of inspection that would pro- 
vide greater safety and insure against loss of life, injury 
to persons, and damage to property. 

The first actual service test of such a method was placed 
in service in August, 1920, in large Mallet type locomo- 
tives where abnormal conditions existed and where 
breakage of flexible bolts was excessive. This method 
consisted : First, of installation of flexible bolts with 
telltale holes extending from the firebox end and entirely 
through the body section and terminating within the bolt 
head. Second, of testing at regular intervals with a spe- 
cially constructed instrument to determine definitely that 
the telltale holes were open and, therefore, operative 
throughout their entire length. This was accomplished 
by so constructing the instrument that an electrical circuit 
would be established when contact was made with the 
extreme inner end of the telltale hole. 

During this service test, two distinct features were 
developed : First, that moisture, due to temperature 
changes, condensed in the telltale hole and formed rust or 
iron exide which gradually increased to such an extent as 
to interfere with the insertion of the testing instrument. 
In seeking a remedy for htis condition, various methods 
were tried, the most satisfactory and the one at present in 
use being the electro plating of the walls of the telltale 
hole with copper. Four years' experimental work and 
service tests have demonstrated the complete success of 
eliminating the diflficulty by this method. Second, that 
cinder and other foreign matter accumulated in the tell- 
tae Iholes to such an extent as to require excessive labor 
to dislodge and remove it in order to permit the insertion 
of the testing instrument. The cost and time required 
for this made the method impractical. After numerous 
experiments it was found that a closure of fireproof 
porous material applied in the end of the telltale hole pre- 
vented the accumulation and at the same time permitted 
leakage of steam or water in case of fracture, and that it 
was also readily and cheaply removable to allow insertion 
of the testing instrument. 

During a period of five years tests, on several locomo- 
tives of the Mallet type, instances of breakage have oc- 
curred and it is interesting to note that in every case the 
defect was immediately detected through leakage and the 
bolt was removed before it had entirely broken off, in 
fact, just as soon as the fracture had penetrated to the 
telltale hole. On these same engines, on which the tests 
were made there was not a single flexible bolt that broke 
entirely off before it was detected. 

Similar results from tests on various railroads having 
trial installations corroborate the findings on earlier tests. 
These installations comprise over 200,000 bolts on twenty 
railroads over a period of from one to five years, and in 
not a single case has any objectionable feature arisen. 

During the course of the various investigations, other 
conditions than accumulation of scale were found to be 
responsible for flexible holt breakage. In several distinct 
cases on four different railroads faulty boiler construction 
was definitely shown to have been responsible. 

Further tests have been conducted to determine the 
frictional resistance of the bolt head in the sleeve under 
various loads from normal up to 100 per cent in excess 
of normal, and it has been found that the frictional resist- 
ance increases very materially as the load is increased, 
and that at 100 per cent over load, the frictional resistance 
increases to 125 per cent or more. With this increased 
frictional resistance and the excessive bending stresses 



January,"1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



21 



caused by distortion of the boiler plates, the stresses in 
the outer fibres of the bolt material are so high as to cause 
the breakage under the head. 

It is believed it will be conceded that, under such ad- 
verse conditions, no bolt may be expected to render long 
service. 

This condition actualy exists on a large number of 
boilers and we feel certain that none of you are unde- 
cided as to the results that may be expected from such 
conditions and that, after convincing yourselves of such 
conditions, that there will be no doubt in your minds as 
to the necessity for a positive and constant indication of 
the soundness of the bolts being used to stay such 
boilers. 

The remedy obviously is to correct the error in con- 
struction. The best evidence of this fact is that boilers 
of like design and even larger in size have been in service 
for the past ten years and are still in service with no dififi- 
culty being experienced from bolt breakage. 

Having shown in the foregoing the necessity for a bet- 
ter and more positive means of inspection of locomotive 
boiler flexible staybolts, an explanation will be given of 
the application of telltale flexible staybolts and a method 
for their inspection, which provides a maximum of safety 
and efficiency with a minimum of maintenance and in- 
spection costs, which also eliminates a large loss of en- 
gine service consumed by the present stripping and cap 
removal method. 

Under the old cap removal method, the condition of 
the bolt can only be determined or known definitely on 
the particular day or days that the cap is of? and under 
unfavorable conditions such as previously described even 
then it may be doubtful. During the remainder of the 
two year interval between cap removal, little or no 
knowledge is available as to the condition of the bolts. 
Some inspectors claim to be able to detect broken flexible 
bolts under hammer test without applying pressure to 
the boiler. Having had thirty-five years' experience in 
boiler construction and maintenance, I would caution 
responsible officials against placing too much credence 
in such claims. 

The telltale flexible bolt is identically the same as the 
Tate bolt described heretofore, with the addition of a 
telltale hole extending through the entire length of the 
body section and terminating within the head of the bolt. 
The walls of the telltale hole are copper plated to pre- 
vent rust or corrosion within the hole and to prevent 
them from becoming closed from this cause. They are 
applied exactly the same as the ordinary flexible bolt. If 
the method of riveting closes the end of the hole, it may 
be reopened easily and quickly, after which a porous 
fireproof closure is applied that will prevent the accumu- 
lation of foreign matter from the telltale hole, and that 
will permit leakage of steam or water in case of a break 
or fracture, which serves as a daily indicator of the con- 
dition of the bolt. This feature provides a daily or 
constant, positive indication by this method, as compared 
to questionable information once in two years by the old 
cap removal method. 

In addition to depending on the leakage through the 
telltale hole, an inexpensive method of periodically check- 
ing up the condition of the telltale hole is provided as 
follows : 

The fireproof porous clo.sure is first removed, after 
which the specially constructed testing instrument is in- 
serted. Upon reaching the extreme end of the telltale 
hole and making contact therewith, a light flashes in the 
handle of the tester indicating that the hole is open and 
therefore operative throughout its entire length. 

The mfthod of testing has been built upon the fact 
that a broken bolt having a telltale hole will show leakage 



of water or steam, providing the telltale hole is open and 
operative and that it extends to every part of the bolt. 

The tester is so designed and constructed that it will 
positively indicate whether or not the telltale holes are 
open throughout their entire length. After inserting the 
tester in each telltale hole and securing light in the handle 
(which indicates that contact has been made with the 
extreme inner end of the hole) if the bolt is broken, or 
fractured into the hole, leakage will positively occur when 
water pressure is applied to the boiler. 

Whentesting for broken staybolts first break through 
the porous closure with a sharp pointed pin or punch and 
a light hammer, then blow all of the remaining particles 
out of the telltale hole with the tool provided with the 
testing equipment for that purpose. Attach the ground 
connection in any convenient telltale hole, then insert the 
test rod into each telltale hole until contact with the end 
of each hole is secured. Such contact is indicated by the 
lighting of the bulb in the tester handle. 

After contact has been secured in each and every bolt, 
apply water pressure to the boiler and every defective 
bolt will be indicated by leakage through the telltale hole. 
If no defective bolts are found, or after replacing any 
that are found, again close the telltale hole with the fire- 
proof porous material and the engine is ready for 
service. 

Cases may occur where breakage or fracture will be 
indicated by leakage and will not be observed or detected 
at the time they develop, as for instance in engines in 
pusher service at isolated points or bolts located behind 
brick arches, grate bars, etc., and in which the telltale 
hole will gradually become filled by accumulation of 
scale from the boiler water. Therefore, whenever the 
tester is inserted, it strikes an obstruction and fails to 
show a light in the handle. In such cases the tester 
should be removed and a special cleaning drill applied to 
remove the obstruction. After drilling, blow clean with 
the air tool, re-insert the tester, and if the hole has been 
thoroughly cleaned, contact will be secured and indicated 
by the lighting of the bulb as before described, and when 
water pressure is applied, leakage will occur. 

Securing contact in the telltale hole does not indicate 
that the bolt is in good condition, but only that the tell- 
ale hole is open and operative throughout its entire length. 
It is the failure of the bolt to leak under pressure after 
contact has been obtained which indicates that it is not 
broken. 

With this description of the method and use and com- 
parison of results, we will now proceed to a comparison 
of costs. These comparisons are based on actual timed 
tests by both the old and new methods and the figures 
quoted are accurate and authentic. 

The present method of inspection requires from three 
to four or more days, the principal part of the work 
being the removal and replacement of parts, rather than 
the actual time required bv the inspector to examine the 
bolts. 

By the new method herein described, it is not neces- 
sary to touch or remove anything on the outside of the 
boiler and the entire test on a modern locomotive boiler 
containing a full installation of flexible bolts can be com- 
pleted within an eight-hour day — anr! at a labor cost of 
from $10 to $20, depending on the size of the installation. 

The cost to strip, remove caps, inspect, and replace 
runs from $100 to $2.S0. deponfling upon the size of the 
locomotive and upon the facilities at hand, and in addition, 
results in two, three, and sometimes more, days loss of 
engine service. 

A ninnber of railroads have been using the new method 
of inspection just described for some time, irrespective 
of the fact that the government had not yet approved 



22 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1926 



same, because they were convinced tliat it added such an 
immeasurably increased factor of safety that it would 
more than coniiiensate for the additional cost of this 
method of testing in addition to complying with the 
Interstate Commerce Commission rules that retiuire the 
removal uf cajJS every two years. The locomotive in- 
spection bureau, however, has been fully aware of the 
use of this new method for the last four or live years, 
has been checking up the results very carefully, and 
when a number of the railroads that have been using 
this metho<l of inspection for some time made an applica- 
tion for a modification of Rule 25, careful consideration 
was given to same with the result that, at a general 
session of the Interstate Commerce Commission held at 
its office in Washington on July 28, 1925, it was ordered 
that Rule 23, as approved in the order of the Commission 
entered April 7, 1919, be, and the same is, hereby amended 
to read as follows : 

"23. Methods of testing tlc.riblc slaylwlts with caf-s. 
Except as provided in paragraph b, all staybolts having 
caps over the outer ends shall have the caps removed at 
least once every two (2) years and the bolts and sleeves 
examined for breakage. Each time the hydrostatic test 
is applied, the hammer test required by rules 21 and 22 
shall be made while the boiler is under hydrostatic pres- 
sure not less than the allowed working pressure. 
■ "(b) When all flexible staybolts with which any boile.' 
is equipped are provided with a telltale hole not less than 
three-sixteenths (3-16) inch nor more than seven thirty- 
seconds (7-32) inch in diameter, extending the entire 
length of the bolt and into the head not less than one- 
third (1-3) of its diameter and these holes are protected 
from becoming closed by rust and corrosion by copper 
plating or other approved method, and are opened and 
tested, each time the hydrostatic test is applied, with an 
electrical or other instrument approved by the bureau of 
locomotive inspection, that will positively indicate when 
the telltale holes are open their entire length, the caps 
will not be required to be removed. When this test is 
completed, the hydrostatic test must be applied and all 
staybolts removed which show leakage through the tell- 
tale holes. 

"The inner ends of the telltale holes must be kept 
closed with a fireproof porous material that will exclude 
foreign matter and permit leakage of steam or water, if 
the bolt is broken or fractured, into the telltale hole. 
When this test is completed, the ends of the telltale holes 
shall be closed with material of different color than that 
removed and a record kept of colors used. 

"(c) The removal of flexible stay bolt caps and other 
tests shall be reported on the report of inspection Form 
No. 3. and a proper record kept in the office of the rail- 
road company of the inspections and tests made. 

"(d) Fire box sheets must l)e carefully examined at 
least once every month for mud burn, bulging, and indi- 
cation of broken stay bolts. 

"(e) Stay bolt caps shall be removed or any of the 
above tests made whenever the United States inspector 
or the railroad company's inspector considers it desirable 
in order to thoroughly determine the conditions of stay- 
bolts or stav Ixilt sleeves." 



McChord and nominated Richard V. Taylor of Alabama 
to succeed him. 

Mr. McChord has been a memljer of the commission 
since 1910, having been re-apjx)inted in 1915 and again in 
1922. He was also chairman of the commission in 1915 
and again in 1922. For some time he has been a memljcr 
of Division 1 of the commission which has general juris- 
diction over matters pertaining to valuation, safety, loco- 
motive insiK'Ction, block signals and train control. Mr. 
McChord was born December 3, 1859, at Springfield, Ky., 
and was educated at Center College at Danville, Ky. He 
engaged in the practice of law and from 1886 to 1892 was 
prosecuting allurney at .Springfield. In May, 1892, he 
was appointed a member of the Kentucky Railroad Com- 
mission, of which he became chairman. 

Mr. Woodlock has been serving on the Commission 
under a recess appointment following the failure of the 
Senate in the last session to confirm his nomination. 

Mr. Taylor has long been connected with transporta- 
tion. He began his railroad career in 1877 as junior 
clerk in the accounting department of the Mobile & Ohio 
Railroad. By 19C4 he had worked his way up to the 
position of general auditor and in that year was promoted 
to be general manager of the railroad. Later he became 
Vice-President in charge of operations. 

During the period of federal control he ser\'ed as Fed- 
eral Manager of the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, of the 
Southern Railway in Mississippi jmd of the Gulf, Mobile 
& Northern Railroad. 

Following the war period Mr. Taylor entered the ship- 
ping business in Mobile. In 1921 he was selected to fill 
the unexpired term of one of three City Commissioners 
of that city. A year later he was elected mayor of the 
city and last September was re-elected a commissioner 
for a full six-vear term. 



Nominations for I. C. C. Membership 

The nomination of Thomas E. Woodlock of New York 
to be a member of the Interstate Commerce Commission 
was resubmitted to the Senate by President Coolidge. 
December 21. At the same time the President an- 
nounced the resignation of Commis.sioner Charles C. 



An American Museum of Engineering 

Plans to establish a National Museum of Engineering 
and Industry, which have been receiving much thought 
among engineers for years past, are now assuming more 
definite form and the project seems to be on the high road 
to realization. One of the latest and most imjxjrtant ac- 
cessions to the movement is Samuel Insull, of Chicago, 
III., now President of its Board of Trustees, a man whose 
experience and enthusiasm will be invaluable in the diffi- 
cult task of placing such an important institution on a 
substantial basis. 

As outlined by preliminan,- studies, this Museum would 
Vk patterned after those long established and highly suc- 
cessful ones in England, Germany, and elsewhere on the 
Continent. It would be a storehouse, a treasury, of his- 
toric engineering models, instruments, plans, and accom- 
plishments. It would be more than a source of delight 
and of interest ; it would be an inspiration to every visitor. 

A natural seat for such a museum would seem to be in 
Washington. D. C. possibly in close connection with or 
under the administration of the Smithsonian Institute, al- 
though other considerations might well be argued in fa- 
vor of certain other prominent cities ; but the ambitions 
of those in close touch with the proposal go even further 
and anticipate branch or co-ordinate museums in all the 
principal cities. These extensive plans and the physical 
details of the noble building visioned as the central mu- 
seum are expected to engage the immediate attention of 
the Board. 

All American engineers will find pride in watching the 
growth under most favorable auspices of an institution 
which conserves and in a sense glorifies the achievements 
of their profession. 



100-Ton Oil-Electric Switching Locomotive of the Long 

Island Railroad 



Over 100 prominent railway officers, engineers and 
railway supply men on the invitation of George LeBoutil- 
lier, vice-president of the Long Island Railroad Co., at- 
tended on Tuesday, December 22, the first public demon- 
stration of the new 100-ton oil-electric locomotive, which 
is being used in switching service on that road. 

This locomotive was described in some detail in the 



land industrial plants during the last few years, and its 
advent into the railroad field promises, according to engi- 
neering authorities, to mark a new milestone in the his- 
tory of American transportation. 

Regulation of the speed and tractive force delivered is 
illustrated by the speed tractive force curve shown on the 
accompanying chart. Referring to this chart it will be 




100-Ton Oil- Electric Switching Locomotive in Service on the Long Island Railroad 



November, 1925, issue of Railway and Locvniotivc Engi- 
neering. 

A special train with the guests of the railroad occupying 
four parlor cars made the special demonstration trip in 
the metropolitan freight district where it is proposed to 
substitute this new type of engine for steam locomotives. 
The one demonstrated was the first 100-ton oil-electric 
engine ever built or bought for an American railroad. It 
is the joint product of the General Electrical Company, 
IngersoU-Rand Company and the American Locomoti\'e 



noted that the locomotive develops a tractive force of 
60,OCO lbs. at 30 per cent, the factor of adhesion main- 
tained to approximately one mile per hour. At ten miles 
per hour the locomotive develops a tractive force of 
15,000 lbs. 
The air brake equipment consists of the Westinghouse, 




100-Ton Oil Electric Switching Locomotive 

Company, who were also the builders of the 60-ton oil- 
electric locomotive which has been in service for some 
time on the Central Railroad of New Jer.sey. It is under- 
stood that orders for locomotives of this type have also 
been placed by other eastern and middle-western railway 
companies. 

The principle of the oil-electric locomotive is an internal 
combustion oil engine, which drives an electric generator, 
the current from which is api>Iied to motors on the axles 
of the locomotives. The heavy oil engine has effected 
astonishing economies in the operation of ships and of 



60.000 


































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Speed-Tractive Force Curve 



2? 24 26 2a 30 S2 
of 100-Ton Oit-Electrtc Locomotive 



8 10 12 14 16 18 i 
Miles Per Hour 



schedule EL- 14, straiglh and automatic air brake. The 
foundation brake rigging is designed to give a total brake 
.shoe pressure of 60 per cent of the weight on the drivers 
with a 50-lb. cylinder pressure. The brake cylinder is 
18 in. by 12 in. An air compressor for providing r.ir 
for braking is installed in the cab. It has a piston dis- 
[)lacement. when working against 130 lb. pressure and 



23 



24 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1926 



at 600 volts, of 100 cu. ft. pet min. It will deliver air at 
a pressure of 90 lb. or 140 lb. per sq. in. 

The running gear consists of two four-wheel, swivel, 
equalized trucks, each of which is equipped with a cast 
steel bolster and steel side frames. The side frames are 
carried on semi-elliptic springs to the equalizers which 

Test of Long Island 100-ton oil-electric locomotive 

Start of test — Pennsylvania enginehouse, 

Erie, Pa 7:15 A. M. Dec. 15 

Conclusion of test — Pennsylvania freight 

terminal, Greenville, N. J| 11 :38 P. M. Dec. 16 

Trailing load 

S box cars, 1 passenger 
coach, 1 caboose 

Total train weight, including locomotive 377 tons 

Miles traveled 537 

Total time elapsed 40 hr. 123 min. -45 sec. 

.Actual running time - • • 28 hr. 44 min. 45 sec. 

Total detention 11 hr. 39 min. 

Average speed 18.7 m.p.h 

Maximum speed 30 m.p.h. 

Total kw. hrs. generated 3810 

Average oil engine loaj factor, per cent. 23.6 
Maximum oil engine load factor, per 

cent 74.1 

Total fuel oil consumed, gallons 473 

Total luhricatiiii; oil consumed, gallons... 5 

Total water consumed, gallons negligible 

Total ton-miles 202,249 

Total oil cost (fuel oil at 5 cents per 

gal., and lubricating oil at 50 cents 

per gal.) $26,15 

Fuel cost per 1,000 ton-miles, cents 12.90 

Fuel cost per locomotive mile, cents... 4.86 

Fuel cost per kw.-hr. generated, cents.. .685 
Average fuel oil per kw-hr. generated, 

lbs .895 

Average fuel oil per locomotive mile, lbs. 6.35 

Average fuel oil per 1,000 ton-mile, lbs.. 16.85 

are in turn carried on the journal boxes. The journal 
boxes are of cast steel, pedestal type with A. R. A. bear- 
ing and wedge. With the exception of the truck equaliz- 
ers axles and that part of the traction motors carried on 
the axle, the entire weight of the locomotive is spring 
supported and equally distributed over the four pair of 

Dimensions and proportions of Long Island 100 ton oil-electric 
locomotive No. 401 

Type Oil-electric 

Service Switching 

Weights on drivers 200,000 lb. 

Wheel bases: 

Truck 7 ft. 2 in. 

Total locomotive 36 ft. 2 in. 

Oil engines: 

Number 2 

Type Ingersoll-Rand, 6 cyl, 

4 cycle, vertical. 

Rated capacity 600 h. p. 

Cylinders, diameter and 

stroke 10 in by 12 in. 

Speed 600 r.p.m. 

Piston Speed 1.200 ft. per min. 

Fuel Fuel oil 

Generators : 

Number 2 

Type General Electric, Tvpe TDC-6. 

200 kw. d.c, 600 r.p.m. volt 

Exciter 6 kw., direct connected, 60 volt 

Voltage, variation 200 — 750 volts 

Motors: 

Number 4 

Type General Electric. Tvpe GE- 

69-C, 20 h.p. 600 volts 

Capacity of fuel tanks 400 gals. 

Length over couplers 45 ft. 10 in. 

Diameter of wheels 36 in. 

Size of journals 6'/3 in. by 12 in. 

Tractive force 60.00 lb. at 20 per cent factor 

of adhesion maintained to 
approx. 1 m.p.h. 



drivers. The axles arc of forged open-hearth steel and 
have 6^< in. by 12 in. journals. 

Fuel Records Established 

In a trip of 537 miles from Erie, Pa., to New York, it 
established a record by completing the longest run ever 
made in this country by an oil-electric locomotive hauling 
a loaded freight train. The run was made primarily for 
the purpose of delivering the locomotive to the lines of 
the Long Island Railroad. .\ further record was made 
in that no fuel or water was taken on during the trip. 
A low-grade fuel oil, costing now five cents a gallon, is 
used in the operation of the locomotive, and the total cost 
of both fuel and lubricating oil for the 537-niile run was 
only $26.15. The average fuel cost per mile was only 
4.6 cents. The total fuel cost jx^r kilowatt hour generated 
was 2-3 of a cent. Further details of its performances 
record on the run are given in the accompanying table. 

Performance on Grades 

The locomotive, with its loaded train, made all grades 
with ease, the steepest being one of one and six-tenths 
per cent for a distance of eight miles out of Erie. At 
Wildcat Crossing, a point about 86 miles east of Erie, the 
oil-electric locomotive was brought to a stop by the engi- 
neer, and then started, from a standstill, up a grade of 
one and three-tenths per cent. 

This tj-pe locomtive has some very definite operating 
advantages. It is smokeless and its engine presents the 
well recognized economy of the internal combustion 
engine. As a consequence of this econoni}-, the fuel tanks 
can carry sufficient fuel for a long continued sers'ice and 
the loss of time required for taking on fuel and water 
during service is thereby eliminated. 



Mechanical Division Adopts Standard Double 
Sheathed Wood Sheathed Box Cars 

Two designs of double sheathed, wood sheathed stand- 
ard bo.x cars presented at the annual meeting of the Me- 
chanical division of the American Railway .\ssociation by 
the Committee on Car Construction have been submitted 
to letter ballot and adopted by an overwhelming majority 
of the membership. Members numbering 313 and repre- 
senting 2.450,755 cars owned or controlled, voted in favor 
of the proposed standard designs, with seven members 
representing 46.830 cars opposing, and 89 members rep- 
resenting 250,452 cars not voting. The results of this 
letter ballot are given in Circular D. V.-434. In addition 
to the adoption of standard car designs, the association 
has approved as recommended practice specifications for 
side frames and bolsters, coupler yokes and hatch plugs 
for refrigerator cars as recommended by the committee. 
The minimum heel seat diameter of axle with 4j^-in. by 
8-in. journals is increased to 5^^ in., and the total load 
for car and lading established at 116,000 lb., this change 
requiring an amendment to the Interchange Rules of the 
Division which is approved, effective January 1, 1926. 
The proposition to withdraw the present bolster drawings 
shown in the manual and substitute the new bolsters 
shown with the standard car drawings is approved, ef- 
fective IMarch 1. 1926. 

The results of five other letter ballots recently submitted 
to members of the Mechanical division have been tabu- 
lated and published in Circulars D. V.-429, relating to 
brakes and brake equipment ; D. V.-430, couplers ; D. V.- 
431, specifications for tests for materials; D. \'.-432, 
wheels : and D. \'.-433. loading rules. In each case the 
recommendations of the committees in their reports at the 
June meeting at Chicago were adopted by large majorities. 



Snap Shots — By the Wanderer 



The locomotive, that is the American locomotive has 
long since ceased to be a thing of beauty. There was a 
time when they were at least considered beautiful, fan- 
tastic as was their ornamentation, but that was in accord 
with the taste of the times. There was so little to the 
machine that its very enforced simplicity of construction, 
gave it an attractive appearance despite the ogees and 
heading and mouldings with which it was encumbered. 
But, in general its lines were smooth and straight. There 
were no accessories, just a plain boiler with a pair of en- 
gines and everything as accessible as the most captious 
could desire. The first excressence was the air pump, but 
the small affair of those days was not very prominent 
tucked away on the left hand side. Then we started in 
on the cab and put in a water column ; a turret, a hydro- 
static lubricator, first with two deliveries, that have grown 
to six and eight. Then there are door openers and stok- 
ers, and injectors, until the back head is covered with a 
labyrinth of piping and accessories ; enough to puzzle 
any but the ver\' elect. These are of the cab. The big 
accessories are on the outside and they are fastened on 
wherever there is space for their accommodation. The 
only obser\-ed rule is that they be kept away from the 
right hand side so as to avoid unnecessarily obstructing 
the view of the engineer. But, barring this, the air pumps 
have crawled all over the left hand side and front end of 
the boiler. And these modern duplex pumps are not the 
modest affairs of three or four decades ago, but great 
engines with large cylinders that require much space and 
substantial fastenings. To these, for there mav be two 
of them, there is added another big affair, the feed pump. 
This has not yet wandered far from the center of the left 
hand side, but there is no telling as to where its destina- 
tion may be. Then there is the main reservoir, already 
become a plural. Its cosy place beneath the running board 
has been pre-empted, and it too has become a wanderer 
on the face of the locomotive. Now we find it beneath 
the boiler and between the frames. Now it has crawled 
out and come to a temporary resting place on the pilot. 
Ousted from there, by a feedwater heater it has jumped, 
at least one of them has, again to be followed by the 
heater, to the top of the smokebox, jostling the headlight 
from its time honored jx)sition, which, in falling, has 
landed on a bracket in the middle of the smokelxDx door. 
The bell has deserted its time-honored place between the 
sand box and the smokestack and may be anywhere. So 
that our locomotives are covered with a helter skelter 
mass of excrescences that make for anything but seem- 
liness of appearance. 

But, for the most part, we have clung to accessibility 
and it sf)eaks well for our designers that with this great 
mass of extraneous matter, plastered all over the engine, 
the individual items are, nearly always quite accessible 
individually and can usu.illy be removed, repaired and 
replaced without disturbing other things. This certainly 
makes for cheaper maintenance than if attention had been 
directed towards the keeping of piping concealed beneath 
the jacketing and covering up the larger pieces so as to 
give the locomotive a smoothness of finish that would 
make it more pleasing to the eye. Perhaps, sometime, 
when we get through adding accessories for the increase 
of efficiency we may find the time to look to beauty of 
outline and accomplish it without sacrificing our valuable 
asset of accessibility. 



of him, which says that he is "an old-fashioned eccentric. 
A singular person," if to be eccentric, is to be out of the 
ordinary, I can hardly agree, for most of us are old- 
fashioned, and if the majority are such, then that cannot 
be out of the ordinary. We accept our customs, our re- 
ligion and our morals from the teachings of an ignorant 
past and the older they are and the less they are sup- 
ported by scientific data the more we cling to them. 

But, after all, isn't that a comfortable and satisfactory 
way of thinking. It is exemplified by the speech of an 
old manufacturer to a young engineer friend of mine 
who had just entered his service. The youngster started 
to poke into some shop practices that did not seem to him 
to be just the thing when he was brought up with a 

round turn by: "Now Mr. B don't you go tryin' no 

oxperiments." 

It is so comfortable, or at least it would be if we could 
only build locomotives just as we did when we learned 
our trade. They pulled all the train required of them so 
why demand more ? Their rods and straps all draw filed, 
and the files so nicely chalked. What's the use of learning 
a trade if you will be obliged to abandon all of its nice 
little quirks and turns before your hair starts to gray? 

Then why not stick to one style of motive power? It 
works all right. What is the sense of getting the mind 
all mixed up with steam locomotives, electric locomotives, 
multiple unit control, gasoline-electric, Diesel-electric, in- 
ternal combustion direct drive and the Lord knows what 
else? When we had a locomotive with the Stephenson 
gear, and nothing in the cab but the two levers, three 
gauge cocks, one steam gauge and a whistle lever, why 
a man could make some pretense of knowing all about a 
locomotive. But now, he has a hundred and one things 
to look after and each one has an especially trained nurse. 
The air pumps, the triple valves, the injectors, the front 
end, the etc., etc. You get dizzy thinking of them, and 
when it comes to knowing much of anything about the 
various types of motive power that are trying to crowd 
the locomotive off the rails, why, you simply can't do it. 
So there you are. You can't do it. Then, why try? Just 
be an old fogg\'. Settle back in your easy chair, and re- 
fuse to attempt to learn the ins and outs of these new- 
fangled creations. Take your ease and refuse to be 
stirred by the madly rushing crowd that is sweeping past 
you. Just rest content for a year or two and you will be 
left alone in the quiet and complacent past. So far be- 
hind the times that it will be a hopeless task to try and 
catch up. Then you will be a real happy old foggy quite 
enviable in your content. 

So, while we may laugh and perhaps scoff at the old 
foggy, hasn't he really got the better of us who are eter- 
nally trying to keep up with or improve on what has gone 
before? Even if we are in the front in the evening, we 
will awake in the morning to find that some slecjiless 
fellow has forged ahead of us in the small hours of the 
night. 

Is there anything of which this is not true? Locomo- 
tives, cars, rails, stations and every appliance that goes 
into the making of them ? The old slang expression of 
"Give us a rest," can well become the heartfelt prayer of 
each and everv one of us. 



I am lieginning to have a great deal of sympathy for 
the old fogy. And I hardly like the dictionary definition 



The old English method of apprenticeship indenture, 
under which a boy became a virtual slave for a term of 
years in return for the instruction that he received in 

J..., , _-- his selected trade, has passed forever, and in its place 

ionary definition has come the modern method of pay and teach, with the 



26 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 1926 



exf>ectation that enough of the journeymen so trained 
will remain with the master to make the system worth 
while. 

I do not know that the railroads are leaders in their 
methods and results, but they are certainly the leaders in 
the publicity, which they give to what they are doing. 

A forefront example of the work of this character is 
probably to be found on the .\tchison, Topeka and Santa 
Fe. Here results seem to be all that can be asked ; for 
when shops employing upwards of three thousand men 
can make their own mechanics so plentifully and success- 
fully that they can run for years without going outside 
for mechanics, it speaks well for the system developed 
and used. 

It seems to me that it also speaks very well not only 
for the character of the apprentices themselves but also 
for that of their parents ; and a statement as to the as- 
sistance that the railroad receives from the parents in 
holding the boys to the jobs, would be most interesting. 

A somewhat extensive opportunity for observation has 
led me to believe that the mother is a serious, if not the 
most serious obstacle to a boy's sticking to his job through 
the four long years of apprenticeship. 

The glamor of novelty soon wears off and the boy, with 
a boy's love of change thinks that some other trade would 
be much pleasanter and — easier to learn than the one he 
has started upon. So he takes his mother into his confi- 
dence, and when she sees how tired and dirty he is, when 
he returns at night, her sympatheties are aroused, and 
she is quite ready to cast about with him for something 
that seems, from the unknown outside, to offer less of 
labor and more of reward. So even before a second 
choice has been made, the boy fails to appear some morn- 
ing, and a few daj's later his mother may call to ask 
if any pay is due him, and explain that he isn't very 
strong, and that she didn't know the work would be so 
hard. And there is one more lad started on an untrained 
life. So, as I said, the results obtained on the Atchison 
seem to me to sj^eak well for the general run of the 
parents of the apprentices who have enteied the service 
of the company. 



1926 Brussels International and Commercial 
Fair 

The Official Brussels Commercial Fair, the seventh of 
its kind, will Ix; held in Brussels from April 7th to April 
21st, 1926 (inclusive). 

The statistics of the imf)ortance of this organization 
reveal the great interest manifested bv foreign firms. 

The Fair of 1920. the first to be lield, had only 1,602 
participants, 429 of which were foreigners ; the 1925 
Fair had 2,853 exhibitors of which 920 were foreigners. 
These figures suffice to show the benefit American pro- 
ducers would enjoy in participating in this exhibit. It 
may be added that American products are highly praised 
in Belgium for their quality and their finish. 

The Oflficial Brussels Commercial Fair gives producers 
the opportunity to display their ware and specialties to 
buyers from all countries ; merchants, for their part, are 
sure of finding at the Fair, on most advantageous condi- 
tions, the finest selection of articles, displaying the very 
latest improvements known to technical science and de- 
rived from world-wide experiment. The Commercial Fair 
is for all persons concerned, whether buyers or sellers, 
a saving of effort, time and money. 

Belgium is very centrally located, and buyers from all 
Europe flock to these annual exhibits. 

Full particulars al)out official regulations at the Fair, 
insurance, advertising, form of application for space, etc., 



can be obtained by addressing such request to the Execu- 
tive Committee, 19 Grand Place, Brussels, Belgium, or at 
the Belgian Consulate in New York City, 25 Madison 
Avenue. It will be advisable to give notice of prospective 
exhibits as early as possible in order to obtain the best 
reservations and proper listing in the Official Catalogue 
of the Fair. 



Strathcona Memorial Fellowships in Trans- 
portation 

Five Strathcona Memorial Fellowships in Transporta- 
tion, one thousand dollars each, arc offered annually for 
advanced work in transportation, with sj^ecial reference 
to the construction, equipment, and operation of railroads, 
and other engineering problems connected with the effi 
cient transportation of passengers and freight as well as 
the financial and legislative questions involved. Trans- 
lX)rtation by water, highways, or airways, and the appro- 
priate apparatus involved, and also other general aspects 
of the broad field of transportation, embracing its legal 
and economic phases, will be mcluded in the list of sub- 
jects which the Fellows may select for investigation and 
study. The holder of a fellowship must be a man who 
has oi>tained his first degree from an institution of high 
standing. In making the award, preference is given, in 
accordance with the will of Lord Strathcona, to such per- 
sons or to the sons of such persons as have been, for at 
least two years, connected in some manner with the rail- 
ways of the Northwest. 

Applications for these fellowships should be addressed 
to the Dean of the Graduate School of Yale University. 
Xew Haven, Connecticut, before April 1, on blanks which 
may be obtained from him. Applicants must submit with 
their application a brief biography, and a certified record 
of their previous courses of study in college or technical 
school, and their standing therein. They should also sub- 
mit testimonials liearing upon their qualifications. A re- 
cent photograph of the applicant is requested. 

\'arious courses of study relating to transportation 
along engineering, economic, and legal lines are now 
offered by Y'ale University. For greater particularity the 
applicant is referred to the Catalogue of the Yale Univer- 
sity Graduate .School, and especially to details found 
under the following groups and courses of study, viz. : 
.Social and Political .*~!cience : Government and Public 
I^w ; Civil Engineering ; Electrical Engineering ; Me- 
chanical Engineering : Engineering Mechanics. Upon com- 
pletion of the pending sur\-ey of various fields of trans- 
liortation and the character of instruction and investiga- 
tion therein, there may l>e anticipated some rearrangement 
of certain of the courses above cited and some amplifica- 
tion thereof. Pending such adjustment, the Strathcona 
memorial fellows will be entitled to pursue investigation 
in those aspects of transportation in which the university 
now offers competent guidance and supervision. 



Notes on Domestic Railroads 



Locomotives 

The Missouri Pacific Railroad has placed an order for 10 Mikado 
.iiul 5 Pacific type locomotives from the American Locomotive 
Company. 

The New York Central Railmad has ordered 10 electric loco- 
motives and one passenger Diesel-Electric locomotive from the 
.American Locomotive Company, and one freight Diesel-Electric 
locomotive from the Mcintosh & So>Tnour Corporation. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad has placed an order for 25 
Santa Fe type locomotives from the Lima Locomotive Works. 

The Detroit Terminal Railroad has ordered 3 switching loco- 
motives from the Pialdwin I-ocomotive Works. 

The Missouri Pacific Railroad has placed orders for 15 eight- 



Janiaarj', 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



27 



wheel switching locomotives and 10 heavy type Mikado loco- 
motives with the Lima Locomotive Works. 

The Union Pacific plans the purchase of 9, 4-10-2 oil-burning 
locomotives for passenger service. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad is inquiring for 100 locomotive 
tenders of 11,000 gallon capacity. 

The Seaboard Air Line Railway has placed an order for 40 
Mikado type and 10 Mountain type locomotives with the Bald- 
win Locomotive Works. 

The Wabash Railway has ordered 25 eight-wheel switching 
locomotives from the Lima Locomotive Works. 

The Argentine State Railways have been authorized to pur- 
chase 20 locomotives. 

The Florida East Coast Railway is inquiring for 50 locomotives 
including 20 Mikado type, 18 Mountain type and 12 switchers. 

The National Railways of Mexico plan the purchase of a num- 
ber of Consolidated type locomotives. 

The Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Railway has placed an 
order for 15 Santa Fe type locomotives with the Baldwin Loco- 
motive Works. 

The Paulista Railway of Brazil is inquiring for 5 electric loco- 
motives. 

The Chicago & Northwestern Railway has ordered one, 60 ton 
oil-electric locomotive from the American Locomotive Company, 
the General Electric Company and the Ingersoll-Rand Company. 

The Southern Railway is inquiring for 9 locomotives, 5 for its 
own use and 4 locomotives for the Mobile & Ohio Railroad. 

The Atlantic & West Point Railroad has ordered 2 Pacific- 
type locomotives from the Lima Locomotive Works. 

The Western Pacific Railway is inquiring for 5 Mountain type 
locomotives. 

The Chile E.xploration Company has ordered 6, 70-ton combina- 
tion electric locomotives and 3, 25-ton pusher locomotives from 
the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Company. 

The Kansas City Southern Railway is converting some of its 
Consolidation locomotives to eight-wheel switchers. 

The Oahu Railway & Land Company, Hawaii, has ordered 2 
Mikado type locomotives from the American Locomotive Com- 
pany. 

The Andes Copper Mining Company has orderer one Consolida- 
tion type locomotive from the Baldwin Locomotive \\ orks. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad has ordered 25 Santa Fe type 
locomotives from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

Freight Cars 

The Reading Company has placed orders for 1.000, 70-ton coal 
cars : 500 to the Bethlehem Steel Company, 250 each to the 
Pressed Steel Car Company and the Standard Steel Car Com- 
pany. 

The Louisville & Nashville Railroad has placed an order for 
1,000, 50-ton gondola cars. 

The Lehigh X'alley Railroad has nlaced orders for 500, 70-ton 
hopper cars and 100, 70-ton lowside cars with the Bethlehem 
Steel Company. 

The Chicago Rock Island & Pacific Railway is in the market 
for 2,700 cars. 

The Conley Tank Car Company has placed orders for 20O, 8,000 
gallon steel tank cars with the American Car & Foundry Com- 
pany. 

The North Western Refrigerator Company has placed an order 
for 200 refrigerator cars with the American Car & Foundry 
Company. 

The Delaware Lackawanna & Western Railroad is inquiring for 
500. 50-ton ballast cars and 25 caboose cars. 

The American Tar Products Company is in the market for SO, 
SO-ton cars. 

The Lehigh Valley Railroad has placed an order for SCO single 
shealhcf! automobile cars with the American Car & Foundry 
Companv. 

The Florida East Coast Railway is in the market for 50 eight- 
wheel caboose cars. 

The Chicago & Northwestern Railroad is inquiring for 450 
freight cars underframes and 105-65 ton ore cars. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad has placed an order for 2,000 
cars as follows: 1,000 hopper cars with the Standard Steel Car 
Company, and 1,000 box cars with the Bethlehem Steel Company. 

The Chicago Burlington & Quincy Railroad is inquiring for 
1.000 single sheathed box cars. 

The Northern Pacific Railway is inquiring for 400 freight car 
imderframes. 

The New York Central Railroad has placed orders for 1,550 
cars as follows : .500 automobile box cars from the Standard Steel 
Car Company, 500 hopper cars, from the Pressed Steel Car Com- 
pany, and 550 hopper cars from the Ralston Steel Car Company. 

The Missouri Pacific Railroad is inquiring for 50, 70-ton all 
steel gondola cars. 

The North American Car Company is inquiring for 400, 40-ton 
tank cars. 



The Pittsburgh & West Virginia Railroad has placed orders for 
400 gondola cars and 300 composite gondola cars with the Pressed 
Steel Car Company. 

The Missouri Pacific Railroad is inquiring for 50, 70-ton coal 
cars for service on the New^ Orleans Texas & Mexico Railway. 

The Mobile & Ohio Railroad is inquiring for 500, 40-ton box 
cars. 

The Rochester & Pittsburgh Coal & Iron Company has ordered 
500 mine cars as follows: 250 from the Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany, and 250 from the American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railway is inquiring for 500 
70-ton hopper cars. 

The International Railways of Central America has ordered 10 
tank cars from the Magor Car Company. 

The Union Refrigerator Transit Company has placed an order 
for 400, 40-ton refrigerator cars with the American Car & Foimdry 
Company. 

Then Kanotex Refining Company has placed orders for 200 
tank cars with the American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Pacific Fruit Express Company will be in market for 5,000 
refrigerator cars. 

The Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Railway has ordered 2,850 
cars as follows : 500 box cars from the General American Car 
Company, 500 automobile cars and 500 refrigerator cars from the 
Pullman Car & Mfg. Company-, 850 gondola cars and 500 box 
cars from the American Car & Foundry Company. 

The National Tube Company has ordered SO hopper bodies from 
the Greenville Car Company. 



Passenger Cars 



The Delaware Lackawanna & Western Railroad has ordered 35 
express cars from the American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad has ordered 30 express cars, 
25 coaches, 10 combination passenger and baggage cars, 5 com- 
bination baggage and mail cars, and 2 postal cars from the Pull- 
man Manufacturing Corporation. 

The Great Northern Railway will convert 24 sleeping cars into 
day coaches. 

The Reading Company has ordered IS baggage cars from the 
American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad is inquiring for 70 to 80 
passenger cars. 

The Chicago & Alton Railroad has ordered Oneida power units 
for application to motorizing one coach from the Railway Motor 
Corporation, Chicago, 111. 

The Wabash Railway has ordered 20, 70 ft. steel baggage cars 
from the American Car &• Foundry Company. 

The Florida East Coast Railroad is inquiring for 6 dining cars, 
15 coaches, and 35 baggage cars. 

The St. Louis-San Francisco Railway has ordered Oneida power 
units for motorizing one coach from the Railway Motor Cor- 
poration, Chicago, 111. 

The Norfolk & Western Railroad has placed an order for 43 
passenger cars, including 18 coaches, 6 passenger-baggage, 4 
baggage-mail and 15 baggage-express. 

The New York New Haven & Hartford Railroad has placed 
an order for 5 gas-electric cars with the J. G. Brill Company, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railway is inquiring for 300 
general service coaches. 

The Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Railway is inquiring for 9 
steel dining cars. 

The Florida East Coast Railway is inquiring for 2 steel mail 
cars. 

1 he Chicago Burlington & Quincy Railroad is inquiring for 
25 suburban car underframes. 

The Boston F.lcvatcd Railroad has ordered 60 subway cars 
from the Standard Steel Car Company. 

The Union Pacific Railroad is inquiring for 15 coaches, 5 horse- 
baggage, 2 baggage-mail, 10 observation, 10 baggage cars and 5 
dining cars. 

The New York New Haven &• Hartford Railroad has ordered 
6 dining cars from the Pullman Car & Manufacturing Company. 

The IJrie Railroad has ordered 24 coaches from the Standard 
Steel Car Company. 

The Columbus & Greenville Railway has ordered one passenger 
gasoline motor car and trailer from the J. G. Brill Company, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

The New York Central Railroad has placed orders for 274 
passenger cars, as follows : American Car & Foundry Co., 40 
coaches, 25 baggage ; Pressed Steel Car Co., 50 coaches, 9 passen- 
ger-baggage ; Pullman Car & Mfg. Co., 35 coaches, 20 diners; 
Standard Steel Car Co., ^2 baggage-mail cars ; Osgood-Bradley 
Car Co., 25 coaches ; Merchants Despatch Transportation Co., 20 
milk cars: and, in addition will build IS miscellaneous cars in 
its own shops. 



28 



RAILWAY AUD LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



January, 19i6 



Building aud Structures 

The St. Louis-Saii Iraiiciscn Railway |llall^ rebuilding its ma- 
chine shops at West Tulsa, Ukla., which were recently destroyed 
by fire. 

The Central Vermont Railroad plans the construction of an 
addition to its shops at New London, Coim. 

The New Vork Central Railroad plans the constructinn of two 
automatic p<.>wer sub-stations at 72nd and 158th street, New York 
City. 

The Lehigh Valley Railroad plans enlarging its cnginehouse 
and shops at Easton, Pa. 

The Morida East Coast Railway has placed a contract covering 
the structural iron work at the shops at St. Augustine, Fla. 

The Norfolk & Western Railway plans completing the construc- 
tion of its enginchouse at Bristol, \ a. This building was started 
a few years ago but never completed. 

The Chicago & Northwestern Railway plans the construction of 
a car wheel shop at Winona, Minn., to cost a|)pro.ximately $35,- 
000. 

The Fort Worth & Denver City Railroad plans immediate 
reconstruction of the coach shops at Childress, Te.\as, which were 
recently destroyed by fire. 

The New York Central Railroad plans an addition to its loco- 
motive shop at Elkhart, Ind., for use as a testing department. It 
will cost approximately $65,000. 

The Texas & Pacilic Railway plans rebuilding its pumping sta- 
tion at Laramie, Texas, which was partially destroyed by fire. 

The Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad plans the construction of 
an additional unit to its car shops at Denison, Texas, and has 
awarded contracts for steel used in building. 

The Chesapeake & Ohio Railway has placed a contract for a 
pumping plant at Stevens, Ky., and the reconstruction of the 
water treating plant at the same [xiint with the Railroad Water 
& Coal Handling Company, Chicago, III. 

The Southern Railway plans the construction of a coach shop 
and shed at Knoxville, Tcnn. 

The Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Railway plans the construc- 
tion of shops, enginehouse and classification yards at Six Points, 
Ariz. 

The Grand Trunk Western Railroad plans the construction of 
an enginehouse in Chicago, III., to cost approximately $12,000. 

The Louisville & Nashville Railroad plans the construction of a 
pumping station in Leawood vards at Memphis, Tenn., to cost 
approximately $20,000. 

The St. Louis Southwestern Railway plans enlarging and re- 
modeling its railway shops at Pine Bluflt, Ark. This w-ill include 
new building and new machinery installed. 

Items of Personal Interest 

Michael Branch has been appointed tool supervisor of the 
Chesapeake & Ohio Railway with headquarters at Huntington, 
West \'a.. succeeding George Stroner, resigned. 

C. S. Christofler has been appointed general superintendent 
of the Northern district of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul Railway with headquarters at Minneapolis. Minn. 

Van S. Jodon has been appointed president and general 
manager of the Bellefonte Central Railroad with headquarters 
at Bellefonte, Pa., succeeding F. H. Thomas. 

W. H. Blake, superintendent of the Tampa & Gulf Coast 
Railroad and the Tampa Northern Railroad has also been 
appointed superintendent of the West Florida division of the 
Seaboard .\ir Line Railroad, with headquarters at Tampa. 
Fla. 

C. p. Van Grundy, formerly engineer of water service of 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad has been appointed engineer 
of tests with headquarters at Baltirnore, Md., succeeding 
J. R. Onderdonk, deceased. 

R. D. McKeon has been appointed terminal superintendent 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad with headquarters at Chicago, 
111., succeeding W. H. Scriven, deceased. C. E. Brinser has 
been appointiii superintendent ot the Elmira division with 
headquarters at Elmira. N. V.. succeeding R. D. McKeon. 

J. E. Hogan has been appointed assistant division engineer 
of the Hinton division of the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad 
with headquarters at Hinton, West Va., succeeding W. H. 
Hanchett. 

W. L. Leighton has been appointed supervisor of passenger 
locomotive operation on the Seaboard Air Line Railway with 
headquarters at Tampa. Fla. J. C. Trigg has been appointed 
road foreman of engines with headquarters at Tampa. Fla. 

H. E. Shriner has been appointed roundhouse foreman of 
the L'iiii>n Pacific Railroad with headquarters at Hastings, 
Nebr. H. H. Smoot has been made district foreman with 
headquarters at Leavenworth. Kans.. and L. G. Fenn has 
been appointed district foreman with headqirarters at Marys- 
ville. Kans. 



H. M. Cooper has been appointed foreman of the Union 
I'acific shops at Los Angeles, Calif., succeeding G. R. Godrey, 
transferred. 

H. O. Kaigler has been appointed division engineer ol the 
newly formed West l-'lorida division of the Seaboard .\ir 
Line Railway, and will also serve in the same capacity for 
the Tampa it Gulf Coast Railroad and the Tampa Northern 
Railroad. 

J. M. Plaskitt has been appointed roundhouse foreman of 
the Southern Railway with headquarters at Birmingham, 
Ala. G. R. Fields ha^ been appointed assistant roundhouse 
foreman, succeeding C. M. Stone, transferred. 

C. E. Westbrook has been appointed roundhouse foreman 
of the -Southern Railway with headquarters at Macon, Ga., 
succeeding F. E. Rhime, resigned. J. D. Watson has been 
appointed foreman of car inspectors, and C. W. Wolfe night 
foreman, with headquarters at Birmingham. .Ma. 

H. Y. Harris has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Seabiiaril .Mr Line Railway with headquarters at Tampa, 
Fla. R. R. Harris is appointed road foreman of engines with 
headquarters at the same point. H. M. Agin has been ap- 
pointed road foreman of engines with headquarters at Waldo, 
Fla. 

C. H. Buford has been appointed assistant general manager 
of the Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway with head- 
quarters at Chicago, III. 

L. F. Muncey has been appointed superintendent of 
transportation of the British Columbia division of the Can- 
adian National Railways with headquarters at Vancouver, 
B. C. 

T. J. Quigley has been appointed superintendent of the 
Illinois division of the Illinois Central Railroad with head- 
quarters at Champaign, 111., succeeding F. R. Mays, who has 
been appointed general superintendent of the Yazoo & 
Mississippi Valley Railroad. E. L. McLaurine has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of the Louisiana division of the Illinois 
Central R. R., with headquarters at McComb, Miss. 

F. R. Mays has been appointed general superintendent of 
the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley Railroad with headquarters 
at Memphis. Tcnn., succeeding A. H. Egan, resigned. 

A. B. Ford, general master mechanic of the Central dis- 
trict of the Great Northern Railway with headquarters at 
Great Falls, Mont., has been transferred to the Lake and 
Eastern districts, with headquarters at Duluth, Minn., succeed- 
ing T. E. Cannon, who has retired. 

C. E. McCarty has been appointed inspector of transporta- 
tion of the Kansas City Southern Railway with headquarters 
at Kansas City. Mo., succeeding C. H. Wright, who has been 
promoted. 

H. E. Patterson has been appointed superintendent of the 
Buffalo and Rochester division of the Buffalo. Rochester & 
Pittsburgh Railway with headquarters at Rochester, N. Y., 
succeeding M. G. Mclnemey. 

A. A. Johnson, supervisor of track of the New York Cen- 
tral Railroad with headquarters at West Albany, N. Y., has 
resigned to become track engineer of the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna & Western Railroad with headquarters at Hoboken, 
N. T., succeeding C. E. Gosline, deceased. 

A. L. Bergfeld has been appointed superintendent of 
transportation of the Great Northern Railway with head- 
quarters at St. Paul. Minn., a newly created position. 

Lloyd Crocker has been appointed superintendent of the 
Atlantic Coast Line Railway with headquarters at Wilming- 
ton. N. C. 

F. L. Brower has been appointed assistant roundhouse 
foreman of the Southern Railway with headquarters at Bir- 
mingham. Ala., succeeding R. G. Fields, promoted. 

O. P. Bartlett has been appointed assistant to the vice- 
president of the Southern Pacific Company, with headquarters 
at Chicago. III. 

H. J. McCracken has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Stockton division of the Southern Pacific Company with 
headquarter.s at Tracy. Calif. Mr. McCracken was formerly 
assistant master mechanic of the Western division with head- 
quarters at W'est Oakland, Calif. 

C. M. Dukes, assistant to the general manager of the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, has been appointed 
assistant to the chief operating officer, with the same head- 
quarters as before. 



Supply Trade Notes 



J. N. Walker has been appointed general sales manager of 
the Oxweld Acetylene Company, New York: L. D. Burnett 
has been appointed eastern department sales manager to 
succeed Mr. Walker, and Z. T. Davis, Jr., is now assistant 
sales manager, eastern department. 

R. R. Cuthbertson, formerly manager of the Chicago office 



January, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



29 



of Manning. Maxwell & Moore, Inc., has been appointed 
representative of the Stocker-Rumley-Wachs Company, 
Chicago, 111. 

R. C. Chacey has been appointed sales representative in 
charge of sales of the American Creosoting Company, with 
headquarters at 350 Madison Avenue, New York. 

The Independent Pneumatic Tool Company, Chicago, 111., 
has opened a branch sales office and service station at 1103 
Genesee building, Buffalo, N. Y., and has appointed Joseph 
P. Fletcher, manager. 

Mudge & Company, Chicago, 111., has been appointed 
western representative of the Graham White Sander Corpora- 
tion, Roanoke, \'a. 

J. H. Ainsworth, railroad representative of the A. M. Byers 
Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has been appointed director of 
railroad sales with headquarters at Pittsburgh. 

T. D. Owler has been appointed Chicago railway sales 
representative of the Heywood-Wakefield Company, Wake- 
field, Mass., succeeding Edward Buker, who has resigned to 
enter into business of his own. 

W. J. Nugent, vice-president and general manager of the 
Nugent Steel Castings Company, has been elected president 
of the company and Prentiss Coonley has been elected vice- 
president. 

C. W. Damberg, formerly resident inspector of the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad at New York has 
been appointed railroad representative of the A. M. Byers 
Company, with headquarters at New York. 

The Yale & Towne Manufacturing Company has bought 
the Miller Lock Company, of Philadelphia, Pa., and it is to 
be operated in the future as the Miller Lock Works of the 
Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co. 

Henry C. Houck, assistant general merchandise manager of 
the General Electric Company, Schenectady, N. Y., has been 
appointed manager of the merchandise department at the 
Bridgeport Works. 

O. D. Cleveland has organized the Cleveland Equipment 
Company, Houston, Texas, and will handle cars, locomotives 
and a general line of railway supplies. 

Ray A. Sossong, manager of gas plants, Air Reduction 
Sales Company, New York, was elected president of the 
International Acetylene Association at the recent annual con- 
vention in Chicago. 

The Railway Safety Brake Lock Corporation, Tacoma, 
W'ash.. has been incorporated to produce locks for railway 
cars. 

The Standard Steel Car Company has bought the plant 
of the Siems-Stembel Company at Minneapolis, which has 
been repairing about 4,000 cars a year for the northwestern 
railroads and where new refrigerator cars were also built. 

The Chicago Steel and Wire Company has opened a branch 
office in Cleveland, Ohio. It is in charge of R. R. Applegate, 
who had conducted numerous welding tests for the United 
States Navy and for a time was connected with the Rail 
Welding and Bonding Company as an engineer. Mr. 
Applegate's office is Room 305, Euclid 61st Building, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. Arrangements have also been made for a ware- 
house stock of Wcldite rods in Cleveland. 

H. A. Watkins has been appointed metropolitan district 
sales manager for the Bridgeport Brass Company with office 
in the Pershing Square Building, New York. 

E. G. Jones has been appointed general superintendent of 
the Inland Steel Company with headquarters at Milwaukee, 
Wise. 



Obituary 

Howard Elliott, editor of the Union Pacific Magazine, with 
headquarters at Omaha, Neb., died at Los Angeles, Calif., on 
January 1, after a long illness. He was born in 1883 at Indian- 
apolis, Ind., and attended the law school of the University of 
California. He entered railway service of the Illinois Car Service 
Association, later being apfiointed secretary to the general man- 
ager and then inspector of transportation of the I^s Angeles & 
Salt Lake Railroad. Mr. Elliott was appointed executive assistant 
of the American Sugar Refining Company in November, 1917. 
He was appointed editor of the Union Pacific Magazine at the 
time of its inception in November, 1921, continuing in that posi- 
tion until liis death. 

William H. Beardsley, president of the Florida East Coast 
Railway, died on December 13, at his home in New York after a 
short illness. He was 73 years of ngc, Mr. Reardscly was born 
in 1852 at Gcveland, Ohio, and was educated in the public schools 
of that city. He entered railway service in 1881 as a stenographer 
with the Richmond & Danville Railroa/1 at New York, and in 



January, 1882, became private secretary to H. M. Flagler, builder 
of the Florida East Coast Railway. From 1889 to 18''5 he was 
assistant to Mr. Flagler, at that time president of the Jackson- 
ville, St. Augustine & Indian River Railway. Mr. Beardsley was 
treasurer and vice president of the Florida East Coast Rail- 
way from 1910 to 1914. On March 17, 1914, he became president 
of the road. 

Frank A. Merrill, chief engineer of the Boston & Maine Rail- 
road died on December 21, at his home in Lynn, Mass., after a 
long illness. He was born on September 1, 1857 and graduated 
from the Chandler Scientific Department of the Dartmouth Col- 
lege in 1878. He entered railway service in 1884 as a rodman on 
the Boston, Concord & Montreal Railroad and until 1895 he was 
chief engineer on the Concord & Montreal Railroad, now a part 
of the Boston & Maine Railroad, and later on he became assistant 
chief engineer. He became engineer maintenance of way which 
he held until the latter part ot 1924, when he became chief en- 
gineer. 

William Brownlee Albright, well known in the railroad world, 
and one of the directors of The Sherwin-Williams Co., of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, died suddenly on the evening of December 25th, while 
visiting in Oeveland. 

Mr. Albright has been well-known throughout our industry for 
many years. He has been closely associated in both a business 
and personal way with most of the railroad officials in New 
York City, and has numbered among his friends many of the most 
prominent men in the United States. 

Mr. .\lbright was born in Philadelphia, Pa., on July 17th, 1855, 
and started his connection with The Sherwin-Williams Co., in 
January of 1885. For forty years he has been active in the com- 
pany, of which he has been a director since 1894. To the end 
he kept up his very keen interest in all the activities of the com- 
pany, and was a warm personal friend to all the men in the 
concern. 

For the past twenty-five years he has made his home in New 
York, where he was a member of the Athletic Club, The Ma- 
chinery Club, and the Englewood Goli & Country Club. 

New Publications 

Books, Bulletins, Catalogues, etc. 

Development of the Locomotive. The Central Steel Co., 
Massillon, Ohio. 64 pages, SJX in. by 11 in. Cloth. 

Much has been said, written and published regarding the 
history and development of the locomotive but it is doubtful 
whether anything heretofore put forth, has appeared in so 
attractive a form or contained so much in so condensed a space 
as this volume just issued by the Central Steel Co. 

In consists of fifty-three illustrations of the examples of 
as many types of locomotives with a brief account of the 
first of the kind to be built. The illustrations show the 
locomotive in an appropriate setting. The first of the series 
is the diminutive Cugnot locomotive built in 1769 and it is 
shown as moving across the square of Notre Dame in Paris, 
with the cathedral in the background and a soldier marching 
beside the machine as a guard, while the on-looking crowd 
is dressed in the costumes of the day. 

Then follow the locomotives, of Murdock, and Trevethick, 
the Puffing Billy locomotive and the Rocket by which the 
final seal was set on the practicability of railroad operation 
by means of the locomotive. 

From this on the illustrations are confined to locomotives 
of American design that were built for American railroads. 
Fourteen examples are shown, which belong to that period 
of trial and error extending from 1830 to 1840, during which 
builders were experimenting without any precedent and trying 
to evolve the best from a series that seem grotesque to the 
modern eye, but which finally resulted in the American type, 
which in spite of many rival designs, at last became the 
stand.-ird design for freight and passenger service. From 
1840 on the odd designs are fewer and by 1860 we find the 
development taking on distinctly a tendency to increased 
weight and i)owcr. During this decade the mogul, the con- 
solidation and decapod appear, and then, in the nineties the 
trailing truck comes to the front and, with it, the great in- 
crease in weight and power that has culmiriated in the 
mountain, Santa Fe mallet and Southern Pacific types. There 
is also included the Horatio Allen, the three-cylinder, and 
notable examples of heavy electric locomotives, the series 
ending with the latest development, the Lima A-1 of the 
2-8-4 type. 

There then follow three illustrations of interiors of the 
works of the Central .Steel Co., with a brief .iccount of the 
work of producing the high grade steel demanded by present- 
day conditions. 

The foreword was written by Mr. J. Snowden Bell, in 



30 



KAILWAV AiNU LCXJOMOTIVK ENGINEERING 



January, 1926 



which is given a brief and interesting survey of the field 
that has been covered in the last century of progress and 
development. 

Aside from the immediate object of the book which is ex- 
pressed by the title there is a secondary plot, as it were, in 
the foregrounds of the pictures wliich give an interesting 
study of the costumes of the day when the first of the several 
types appeared, and which, with the representations of the 
locomotives reflect the great skill of the artist, Mr. Irvin 
Myers, by whom they were drawn. 

The volume is beautifully printed and the pages have a 
cream colored center on which the engravings and text are 
impressed. The book has, therefore, three great merits; it 
is fair to look upon, it has great artistic merit and it is a 
notable and valual)le contribution to the subject upon which 
it treats. 

Analysis of Railroad Operations, by Joseph L. White, 
formerly assistant comptroller, U. S. R. A., contains 381 
pages, leatherette binding and published by the Simmons- 
Boardman Publishing Company, New York. 

This is a valuable addition to railway accounting and 
operating literature. 

In these days of increasing demands on the part of the 
public, the railway patron and numerous legislative and 
regulating bodies, all those who have to do with railway 
operation, finance, or statistics, are constantly in need of a 
standard up-to-date text book or guide, with examples and 
definite rulings or interpretations whereby intelligent and 
correct analysis of all phases of railway operations may be 
made. 

In a condensed review of the field covered by this book 
the author's foreword presents a picture indicative of its wide 
scope and great value. 

"With the increasing magnitude of railroad operations, the 
railroad executives are forced to depend more and more on 
the accounts and statistics for an accurate picture of the 
various activities on the lines under their jurisdiction. 
Happily the standardization of the accounts and statistics on 
the railroads of the United States under the general super- 
vision of the Interstate Commerce Commission has pro- 
gressed to such an extent that the operating results on a 
railroad can be analyzed with reasonable accuracy and com- 
pleteness both by comparison with previous performances 
on that railroad and by comparison with the performances on 
other railroads operating under similar conditions. 

"In making these comparisons, the analyst as a rule is 
safe in assuming that the accounting has followed strictly 
the rules laid down by the Interstate Commerce Commission 
in the various accounting classifications which it has issued. 
Familiarity with these classifications makes it possible for 
the railroad man or student of railroad operations to in- 
terpret the accounting and statistical statements prepared by 
the accounting department and analyze for himself the 
operating results on the railroad even though he is not 
familiar with the technical details of railway accounting." 



This book deals primarily with the interpretation rather 
than with the preparation of the accounts and statistics. A 
study of its pages will n(jt only make the vast fund of in- 
formation contained in the accounting records and statistics 
more available to railroad men and other students of railroad 
operations without accountant training, but will also give 
railroad accountants a clearer idea of the operating man's 
point of view and the use that can be made of the figures 
prepared by the accounting department. 

Railway and Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin No. 10. 

This Association has recently issued another of its highly 
interesting bulletins that contain so much of real value in 
the way of history of early locomotives and other railway 
historical information. 

The latest issue contains articles on the Early Baltimore 
& Ohio Engines and Models; The locomotives of the Long 
Island Railroad by Inglis Stuart; A History of the Norris 
Locomotive Works by the late C. H. Carruthers. and some 
notes on the Norris engines constructed for the Birmingham 
& Gloucester Railway by G. W. Bishop. 

As is customary in all of the bulletins issued by the Rail- 
way and Locomotive Historical Society, the volume contains 
a number of illustrations of early locomotives. 

Those interested in matters dealing with railway and loco- 
motive history can obtain copies of the bulletins of the 
Association by addressing the editor, Mr. Charles E. Fisher, 
6 Orkney Road, Brookline, Mass. 

"Patents, Law and Practice" has been issued by Richards 
& Gcicr, patent and trade-mark attorneys, 277 Broadway, 
New York, and is available to manufacturers and those gen- 
erally interested in the subject of inventions and their proper 
and adequate protection. Both United States and foreign 
patents are covered, information being given as to who may 
obtain patents, what may be patented, how to apply for a 
patent, the procedure followed in the patent office, inter- 
ferences, reissues, appeals, infringements, etc. The charges 
for various services in connection with the preparation of the 
patent are given in schedule form. 

General Electric Catalogue: General Electric Catalogue 
6001B, superseding all previous catalogues issued by the 
company, with the exception of those dealing w'ith railway, 
mine and industrial supplies and merchandise products, is 
being distributed. The complete catalogue is issued every 
two years. 

The book is two inches thick, and contains more than 1100 
8 X 10'/-inch pages. The illustrations total more than 3200. 

The catalogue is thumb-indexed into 16 sections as follows: 
Generation, wire and cable, distribution transformers, 
arresters, voltage regulators, switchboards and accessories, 
meters and instruments, motors, motor applications, indus- 
trial control, railway lighting, industrial heating, miscella- 
neous, and indexes. In the indexes, products are classified 
both by subjects and by catalogue numbers. 



For Testing and Washing 
Locomotive Boilers 




Rue Boiler Washer 
and Tester 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

Rue Manufacturing Co. 

228 Cherry Street Philadelphia* Pa. 

Mftnuf&cturen of Injectors. EJeoton. 

Boiler Washen and Testers. Boiler Checks. 

Check TaWes. 



DIAMOND STEEL EMERY 

For Grinding In Steam and Alp Joints 

"CUTS BUT NEVER BREAKS" 

A Railroad Shop Necessity 

PITTSBURGH CRUSHED STEEL CO. 

PITTSBURGH, PA., U. S. A. 



GEO. P. NICHOLS & BRO. 

Nichols Transfer Tables 
Turntable Tractors 

2139 Fulton Street, Chicago 



DUNER 
CAR CLOSETS 

DUNER CO. 



WANTED 

Locomotive builder's or other lith- 
ograph of U. S. locomotives, multi- 
colored or one tone for historical 
collection. Give name of builder, 
type of locomotive, condition of 
print, etc. 

Also wish to purchase collec- 
tions of locomotive photographs, 
particularly those of early date, or 
will gladly arrange for exchange 
with other collectors. 

Particularly interested in New 
York Central photographs. 

Address, HISTORICAL 

c/o Railvray and LoconkotHv riiilnaailag 
114 LibM-ty Stnet, New Yorii 



RlitSSLEW'MNiK 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling Stock and Appliances 



Vol. XXXEX 



136 Liberty Street, New York, February, 1926 



No. 2 



The McClellon Water Tube Boaer 

A Successful Development of the Water-Tube Boiler on the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad 



For a number of years the Xew York, New Haven & 
Hartford Railroad have had a locumotive in experimental 
service, that was equipped with the McClellon \Vater-tube 
boiler. As happens in such cases the original design de- 
veloped some weaknesses in the details of its construction ; 



of boiler to be used but the McC'lelluii water tube i)oiIer 
was ordered to be placed in each of them. 

The McClellon lioiler was originally designed by the 
late James M. McClellon of Everett, Mass., who died just 
as the boiler had deiiKinstrated its efficiencv. and it is the 




The McClellon Water Tube Boiler Now m Service on the New York. New Haven & Haitford Railroad 



•lit, at the same time, shdwcd that its fundamental prin- 
' iples were mechanically sound, and that with a modifica- 
tion of the details that were giving trouble, the boiler 
would jtrobably give .satisfactory service. These changes 
were made and emboflierl in a new Ixiilcr that was built 
and installed in a mouiUain t\|)e (4-8-2; locomotive. This 
engine was pnt into regular freight service and subjected 
lo extensive rtjad tests in comparison with a similar engine 
having a radially stayed boiler. The results of this serv- 
ice anrl the tests were so satisfactory and so conclusivelv 
demonstrated the advantage of the McClellon boiler that, 
when ten new engines were recently jnirchased for the 
road, there was no question or discussion as to (he tyi»e 



property of the JMcClellon Locomotive Boiler Co. of Bos- 
ton, Mass. As originally designed and modified in detail' 
by Mr. W. L. Bean, superintendent of motive power of 
the Xew Haven road, it consists of a water tube firebo.x 
in comliinalion with the shell and ncsl of fire tubes as used' 
in tile ordinary locomotive boiler. 

N'iewed from the standpoint of ihe present design, it is 
of a very simiilc construction and one that appears to be 
well adajitcd to meet or yield to the stresses that may be 
set up bv the varying tem])eratures l(i which the dirferent: 
parts may be subjected. 

The details of the construction are set forth in the ac- 
'■omi>anying engravings. ' ' 



32 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



lebruary, 1926 



The side and rear elevations (I'igs. 1 and 2) show that 
the sides and l)ack end «f the firebox are formed of water 
tuhes. as are also tlie sides of the combustion chanil)er 
What corresiK)nds to the roof and crownsheets, is formed 
of tliree drums, extending kjnjjitudinally over the whole 
lenj^h of the firelx)x and the eomijiistioii chamber and 
attached, at the front end, to the bjick tul>e-sheet. 



distributor tuljc of the Duplex stoker. This will, however, 
not l)e necessary in the case of the ten IcKomotives now 
imder order as they will \x equipjied with the Standard 
stoker. 

The firedour o|K'ninf.j is of a cctmbinatiou water leg and 
water tube construction. The space beneath the door at 
. / is built up of three |)icces. There is a single sheet B 





llliLililiii'lL i 

iilliilliiiiU 

{-MrT-i'-t;frt-T;i Li 1^ 



awMAT/Mi rmuGH 



Fig. 1 — Side Elevation of McClellon Water Tube Doiler 



.\s shown by the half rear elevation these drums are 
set in contact with each other and are flattened so that 
they may he rivetted together and prevented from separat- 
ing, under the influence of the heat, and thus forming an 
o|iening between them through which the 
gases and products of combustion might es- 
cape. 

The flattened sides at the points of contact 
converge downwardly so that the central 
drum fits l)etween those at the sides like a 
keystone, thus providing a very strong as- 
sembly. The arrangement is also such that 
the level of water in the crown may be low- 
ered to a considerable degree without expos- 
ing anv surface uncooled l)y water to the 
heat of the fire. 

The tul)es in the sides of the firebox and 
combustion chamber are 4-in. in diameter 
and J/4 in. thick, while those forming the back 
head are of 2 in. diameter and 3/16 in. thick. 
Those forming the sides are swaged down 
to a diameter of 3 in. at the ends and are 
rolled and beaded in the drums and flared in 
the mud ring. These and the arch tul)es en- 
ter the drums on a line with a radius and are 
bent at the upper end for this purpose. 

The section of the mud ring is flattened on 
the inside and outside where the tulx's enter. 
and on the outside, where the plugs enter. 
There is a plug opiX)site each tube. These 
tubes are set side by side with just sufficient 
clearance to provide for expansion and con- 
traction and are covered, on the outside hv 
a lagging to which reference will l>e made 
later. .\11 of these plugs are not washout 
plugs but are so-called construction plugs. 

Instead of being arranged clo.se together 
like the side tubes, those forming the back 
head are spaced about 1 in. ai>art. This 
facilitates their connection to the drums at 
the top, where they are staggered, though 
they are kept in line where they enter the mud ring. ( )n 
locomotive No. 3500. from whose Ixjiler the illustrations 
here given are taken, two tubes half way Iwtween the fire- 
door and the side arc bent, as shown, so as to admit the 



that is I>eut into the shape of an inverted U which is 
flanged and riveted to the mud ring as shown. This por- 
tion is stayed in the same manner as the ordinary firebox. 
The open ends of this L' are closed by sheets C bent and 





/ 


T 





) 


w 




Fig. 2— Back End of McClellon Firebox 



riveted in place. The sides of the door opening are formed 
by sheets l)ent to a L' shajK' and riveted vertically to the 
main sheet B and with it fonning a circular opening at the 
top into which the tul)e E is welded. 



February. 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



33 



The top of the opening is formed by the tube D that is 
flattened on four sides. Six rows of \x\ha enter this at 
the top and are fastened in the same way as are their mates 
into the mud ring. It is welded into the side of the verti- 
cal tubes E thus completing the door opening. 

The tubes E are carried above it and are capped as 
shown in the enlarged section. The cap is held in place 




Back View of McClellon Wafer Tube Boiler 

by a steel casting that is welded on and into the top of it 
the fourth and fifth tubes from the center are welded. 

( )ne of the troubles with the original construction was 
the lack of provision for any colinnn action that could be 
carried independently of the tul)es to sustain the stresses 
set up between the mud ring and the drums. 

The length of the drums is 13 ft. 41-2 in. and they are 
wholly back of the back tube sheet. In order to ])rovide 
in part fnr the support of the <lrums and to i)ind the fire- 
box structure firmly to the barrel of the boiler the third 
course of the latter is continued rear-wardly of the rear 
tube sheet and cut away on the to]) to receive the forward 
ends r)f the drums. The sides f)f this segmental extension 
of the third course are riveted to the side drums. The 
space within this extension of the third course receives 
and sup|xjrts the combustion chamber tubes to be here- 
after dcscritx-d. i!y this arrangement the crown is sup- 
ported by a long joint with the barrel and the connection 
of the forward ends of the drums is spaced from the con- 
nection of the forwarfl ends of the mud ring to the throat 
so that there is no jjoint of weakness in the length of the 
boiler as would be found if these connections were made 
at the same point. In order to relieve the side wall tubes 
of any structural loads other than those occasioned by 
reason t>f their containing hot water under pressure, the 
drums are sujjjxirtefl from the mud ring by a system of 
struts at the firebox jKirtion. The drums and mud ring 
are fastened tf)gether by the braces F shown in the en- 
graving CF'"ig. .3) of the firebox bracing. These struts or 
braces are channels that are iKilted to the drums and mud 
ring and tied together by a horizontal piece G. This ar- 
rangement of the bracing which is free from triangulation, 
l>erniits of a comparatively free longitudinal movement of 



the drums relatively to the mud ring, without putting an 
undue stress on any part, at the same time the firebox 
tubes are relieved of all structural loads, other than those 
occasioned by reason of their containing hot water under 
pressure. Shocks incident to locomotive service are trans- 
mitted through this bracing construction and kept away 
from the tubes to a noticeable degree of success as evi- 




Side Tubes. Arch Tubes and Section of Mud Ring of 
IVIcClellon Water Tube Boiler 

denced by cunliiuiously tight water tulx's, even under se- 
vere and unusual operating conditions. 

At the back there is a brace H also bolted to the mud 
ring and to a casting / that is fastened to the back head 
of the outer drum. The central drum is carried by the 
diagonal brace K bolted to the brace H and to the casting 
L. These bracing members are held to their connections 
by means of fitted bolts, and the joints l)etween the braces 
and the casting are fitted with shoulders and lips to relieve 
the bolts of any shearing and to ])revent working. Ex- 
tending from the rear brace /•" on each side and around 
the back of the firebox there is a ]>late M, also bolted to 
the braces // which not only forms a jiart of the firebox 
bracing but also carries all of the heavy fittings and ap])li- 
ances that are usually carried on the back head. 

At tlie front end of the firebox there is a throat sheet 
as shown in Fig. 4. This is similar to the throat sheet 
of an ordinary boiler and is formed of two sheets flanged 
and riveted together as shown in the section on 1-1. The 
hack plate f)f the throat sheet is flanged to receive the mud 
ring' as .shown on the section 2-2. The front sheet is 
flanged inwardly at the same place and is fitted with an 
ordinary manhole plate held by a yoke. I'^rom the upi)er 
corner of the throat sheet a vent pipe N leads up to a 



34 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February. 19?' 



jx)int al>ove the water line in the central drum. This is to 
|>ermit the escape of any steam that may be generated in 
the throat. 

\\ cliletl to the bottom of the dry sheet just ahead of the 
throat sheet at 3, is the lower end of the back tube O of 
the combustion chamber. The upj^er end enters the side 
drum just as the side tubes of the firelxix do; and this 
apphes to all of the tubes forming the combustion 
chamber. 

We have already referred to the extension of the lioiler 
shell back of the Ixick tube sheet and overlapping the for- 
ward {portions of the cnnvii drums. This extension houses 
the water tubes in the combustion chamber and supjxjrts 
the circulating trough P. This trough is a sheet bent to 




Firebox Bracing of the McClellon Water Tube Boiler 



a L' .section and riveted to the bottom of the shell. It has 
a total length of 8 ft. 8^^ in. and extends from the throat 
in which it is riveted and into which it opens, forward to 
the boiler shell and about 44 in. ahead of the hack tube 
sheet. This trough is about 12^^ in. deep and of the .same 
width. Along the line of its attachment to the extension 
of the shell the latter is cut with a series of holes through 
which the combustion chamber tulies communicate with 
the circulating trough as shown in the engraving (Fig. 
5) of the latter. 

'I'his dry shell is a very imjxjrtant j^art of the construc- 
tion, in that it gives the necessary strength for con- 
necting the firelx)x portion of the boiler to the barrel sec- 
tion. It serves as an envelop)e for the combustion cham- 
ber tul)es, is double rivetted to the outside drums through- 
out the length of the combustion chamber and prevents 
any hinge action between the barrel and the firebox. 

There are fifteen combustion chamber tubes on each 
side which are bent to the contour of the extension of the 
third course with suitable clearance for expansion and 
contraction and they line this rearward extension. Thev 
are 4 in. in outer diameter, swaged to 3 in. at their top 
ends and enter their crown drums in exactly the same 
manner as the side tubes and at the same point. 

The bottom of the tube is flattened and curved to fit the 
dry sheet and is fastened to it by a nipple 4, which is 
applied from the bottom and is rolled in, and beaded and 
welded on the under side. The method is to apply the cir- 
culating trough and then apply the fifteen tubes on each 
side that form the combustion chamber. The circulating 



nii)ples, 4, are then Invaded and wehled through the open 
ends of the tul>es, after which the tube ends are closed 
liv the plates 5, which are welded in place, and then the 
•-pace block 6, by which the nipples are relieved of all 
>hearing action is welded in between the ends of the tube^ 
to the dry sheet. 

The sides and bottom of the trough are held by staybolts 




Fig. 4 — Half Cross-Section of iVIcClellon Water Tube 
Boiler Showing Combustion Chamber and Throat Sheet 

after the manner of firelxjx staying and the front head is- 
■-tayed to the throat sheet by through stays as shown. 

just in front of the back tubesheet a hole 13 in. in dia- 
meter is cut in the Ijottom of the shell through whicli the 
water enters the circulating trough to How back to the 
throat and mud ring. 

The making of the back tubesheet involves a careful 
piece of flanging. It is flanged to the front all of the 
way around to take the third course of the boiler shell, 
and then it is flanged back to receive the three drums 
wliich are riveted and welded in i>lace. It will he noticed 
that the flanging to the front and back is in a straight line, 
where the flanges for the drum reach the outer circumfer- 
ence. 

In the boiler shell there are 201 tubes of 2% in. diam- 
eterand 40 suj^rheater flues of 5'X in. in diameter, all 
having a length of 20 ft. 6 in. 



February, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



35 



^//rsaoji n/Bi:s 



Thf Jagging on the outside of the firebox consists first 
of a jacket of ^ in. mesh No. 18 gauge steel crete ex- 
panded wire 9. that is bent and fitted to conform to the 
contour of the tubes. Then the unevenness is filled in 
and the whole made smooth with a layer of cement 10. 
This is covered with asbestos paper 
11. outside of which there is a pro- 
tection plate 12. Then there is an 
insulating lagging of thermo-felt 13, 
with the whole covered by a sheet iron 
jacket 14. 

The lagging is made up in sections 
with each panel self contained in order 
to permit the removal of lagging in 
sections without the necessity of 
wholesale stripping for access to tubes 
and other parts. The protection plate 
is applied after the tubes have been 
covered with an asbestos cement. 
Xext to the protection plate is thermo- 
felt lagging and finally ordinary jacket 
iron. Each panel consists of its own 
section of protection plate, thermo-felt and jacket iron and 
is removable and replaceable through the use of studs and 
bolts which are applied to the bracing and also to small 
angle irons so arranged s to sectionlize the sides and back 
head of the fire box. 



lioiler when fired during construction without any lagging 
ox insulation whatever, when a very uniform heating and 
warming of the entire boiler from front end to back head 
occurred without the usual unequal warming and heat- 
ing normally experienced in the radial stayed construction. 



COMBl/Sr/OA/ CHAMB£K TUBES 



S/iCff 7i/B£ ^ri£:e ' 




' 


-'■-""/'"""I 


U'^S-' 








H 


".J 


bii 


? 




Ui 




o 




k 




X 












•? 













k 








Uj 




<0 








T 




o 








k 




« 




"y 









































'.1.^ 



» 



pOOP8§§ 

J O O O )i,0?i 

poopggs 

iOOOOfon 



5o°o°' 






FiB- 6 — Back Tubesheet of McClellon Water Tube Boiler 

While no investigation has, thus far, been made as to 
the character and direction of the circulation in this Ixjiler. 
it seems probable that the water after entering the shell 
at the injector check drops to the lx)ttom and moves back 
until it reaches the large hole that opens into the circu- 
lating trough ; then, that it drojjs back antl moves with 
considerable rapidity, losing speed as it moves back 
through the trough and the mud ring, because of the con- 
tinual flecrease in the quantity of water passed because of 
the upward currents taken from it by the tulies of the 
combustion chamber and firebox. That this circulation is 
quite rapid is evidenced by the fact that all of these parts 
are found, after a long service, to be quite free from mud 
and scale. 

That this method of circulation in the boiler is the one 
that obtains is confirmed by observations on the bare 



In addition, the time required to fire up the cold boiler is 
noticeably less and takes approximately only two-thirds 
of the time experienced with the radial stayed construc- 
tion. 

Alost of the mud accumulated is relatively soft and is 
deposited in the trough section. In other words, the dead 
corners of the conventional boiler and fire box are absent 
in the McClellon construction. 

The freedom from unequal heating, momentary distor- 
tion of the firebox while warming up, more rapid circu- 
lation and absence of dead corners that give rise to mud 
and scale accumulation, all indicate a better type of boiler 
construction than normally used, a condition that is no- 
ticed particularly at washout times. The time required to 
wash one of these boilers is only about one-half or two- 
thirds of the time required for the ordinary Iwiler. Stresses 
due to unequal temperature conditions are greatly reduced 
as indicated by considerably less maintenance on the fire 
l)ox and combustion chamber ixirtion of the Ixiiler. 

There is greater ])"tential capacity in this tvpe lioiler 
when the locomotive is running 
with leaky flues or superheater 
units. It is possible, but of 
course not practicable, to oi:ierate 
these iKiilers with a far greater 
number of flues and units leak- 
ing before low steam con- 
ditions are experienced than is 
the case in the ordinary locomo- 
tive boiler, 

Washout plugs are liberall}- ajjplied, as indicated in 
I'igs. 1 and 2. It will be noticed that the arrangement of 
the mud ring, with its corners extended for washout plugs, 
permits positive and direct flushing of the mud ring area 
from the back end down towards the throaty where re- 
moval of mud and foreign matter is very readily made 
tiirough the use of the hand hole plates in the front throat 
siiect. ['lugs arc, of course, applied over the arch lubes 
in the drums and opposite them in the throat, as well as 
additional plugs in the back head, throat and circulating 
trough. 

It is evident that the greater the rapidity of this circu- 
l.-ition the greater will be the equalization between the tem- 
Doratures of the drums and the mud ring, and conscqucntlv 
the less will be the Itending stresses put upou the tubes of 
the firebox and combustion chamber. As no trouble is now 
exjx^rienced with any of these parts, it is evident that the 
stresses due to unequal temperatures are greatly reduced 




Jacket and Lagging for 
Firebox of McClellon 
Water Tube Boiler 



M 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1926 



ai\<l that the strength of the lx)ilcr is quite suHicieiit t<i 
resist those that do exist. 

'I"he )>rinci)>al <limensicins of the lK)iler are as follows: 



Tffb" 
20-6" 



Di: 



<iaug« 



\5-8H" 
. . . 15'9/," 
n5.8 90" 
171 67"/90" 
16 14V63" 
46.5 .... 
27 



19'6J4" 



2'A" 
5// 



23" 
30!4' 

4" 

4" 

2" 



Thick. 
No. 1 1 
No. '-' 



H..,lcr Sq. Ft. 

Itoik-r Tubes— 201 2,469 

Moilcr Tubes-^W 1,134 

Tola! Tubes and Flues 3,603 

Drums— 2 Outside— 1 Center 81.« 

Drums — 2 Outside 

I>rums — 1 Center 

Combustion Chamber Tubes — 30 

l-irebox Side Tubes — 58 

I'irel)ox Back Tutxis — 28 

l"irelx)x Back Section 

Arch Tubes — 4 

Ti>tal Fireb(5x 458 

Tiital Boiler and Firebox 4,057 

Superheater Tubes 1,009 

Grate Area 70.8 Sq. Ft 

Boiler Pressure 250 Lbs, 



'A" 

'A" 

•A" 

3/16" 



3" No. 7 



1'/." 



Ihere are a few details that were developed in the con- 
struction of the boiler that are interesting as showing the 
means by which some of the structural details were over- 
come, and which ma\- be applicable in other places. 

( )ne of these is the method of closing the throat cor- 
ners at the narrow iMjints at the right and left. The out- 
side throat sheet is rtanged against the dry shell of the 
combustion cliamber and the main section was welded in 
place and the lap seam was smoothed by scarfing and 
welding so as to leave the outer edges smooth. A tlangeci 
caj) was then applied hot and fitted into place and the 
screw rivets put in. The cap was then welded to the top 
l)late and the dry shell, after which the vent pipe opening 
was reamed and the studs put in. 

.\s shown in Fig. 1, and already described, the third 
cour.se of the shell is carried back to the tubesheet to form 
the dry shell of the combustion chamber and is riveted to 
the drums along the line where it is cut away at the top. 

The drums, it will be rememl)ered, are carried into the 
flanges formed on the back side of the tube sheet, and 
this recjuires that the joints mj formed should be accessible 
inv calking. This calking is readily possible except where 
the (In,- shell overlaps the tubesheet flanges at the right 
and left sides where the drums enter them. In order to 
give access to these places, the dry shell is cut away still 
more at the points indicated leaving an opening through 
which the seams can be calkeil both externally and inter- 
nally. Uut, if the opening thus formed were to be left 
uncovered it would t>\n:u a free passage from the com- 
bustion chamber and permit gases to escape directly to the 
lagging. In order to prevent this a cover plate B is ap- 
])Iied over the ojKining. This cover i)late can be easily 
removcfl and replaced and thus serves to seal the opening 
in the dry shell. i>y removing it any necessary attention 
mav l)e given to the tubesheet flanges. Three studs 15 
are used, as indicated, to hold the cover in place. The 
latter is fitted to seal the L'-shaped opening, and it can be 
removed by taking off the nuts from the studs. 

Some of the other features of the boiller are that there 
are two independent turrets, one for saturated and one for 
suiK-rheated steam. The turret for saturated steam takes 
its supply from the center drum in the conventional inan- 
ner. The su])erheated turret is supplied through a dry 
pil)e connected to the main steam pipe on the left hand side 
l)etween the sui)erheater header and the throttle in the 
smokebox as shown in the Ixjiler (Fig. 1). A shut-ofl: 
valve is provided near the front end. This sujierheater 
turret is mounted on the center drum and has no steam 
coiniection other than the one to the header. 

Superheated steam is supplied from the turret to the 
feed-water heater, the blower, the stoker, the dynamo and 



the air pump, while saturated steam is supplied from that 
turret to the steam heating lines, the lubricator, the in- 
jector and the drifting valve. 

All valves from lK)th of the turrets have extension 
handles that are carried back to a common bracket and 
with an individual name |)Iate for each valve. 

The water glass and gauge cocks are carried on a water 
colimm located on the engineer's side of the cab. For this 
the to]) steam connection is taken from a ixjint close to the 
back end of the center drum and the Ixjttom or water con- 
nection is taken from the right hand side drum. 

The actual [wsition of the crown, that is the junction of 
the outside of the sheets of the center and outer drums, 
is indicated by center punch stamping on the back heads 
as indicated in the illustration of the back head arrange- 
ment (I'ig. 2). This eliminates the necessity for careful 
leveling and firebox measurements to determine the actual 
location of the crown line with resjiect to the water glass. 

The lowest water gauge is set 3 in. alxjve this crown 
line with a 3 in. s])ace l)etween each of the other two. 




Cover Plate at the Junction of the Third Course and the 
Dry Shell. McClellon Water Tube Boiler 

The locomotive to which the Iwiler was applied is of 
the mountain (4-8-2) tyjK- having the following general 
dimensions in addition to those already given in connection 
with the Ixjiler : 

Cylinder diam 27 in. 

Piston stroke 30 in. 

Width of firebox 7 ft. 1 in. 

length of firebox 10 ft. 

Diameter of 1st Shell course 6 ft. 6fJ in 

Wheel base driver 18 ft. 3 in. 

Wheel base total engine 40 ft. 10 in. 

Wheel base engine and tender 76 ft. S'A in. 

Weight on drivers 243,500 lbs. 

Weight on front truck 59,500 lbs. 

Weight on rear truck 57,000 lbs. 

W^eight on total engine 360,000 lbs. 

Weight on total engine and tender 549,000 lbs. 

Wheels, diameter driving 60 in. 

Wheels, diameter front truck 33 in. 

Wheels, diameter rear truck 43 in. 

Wlieels, diameter tender ;33 in. 

Total length of engine 53 ft. 5% in. 

Total length of engine and tender over couplers 87 ft. 2.J4 in. 

Maximum curvature 19 degrees 

Front truck swing 4'/^ in. 

Trailing truck swing 6'A in. 

\'alve gear Southern 

Maximum cut-off 70 per cent 

Feedwatcr heater Elesco 

Coal capacitv 16 tons 

Water ' 10,000 gals. 

Tractive effort 63,390 lbs. 

Factor of adhesion 3.84 



February, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



37 



Calculated evaporation in lbs. per hour : 

Tubes at 8.52 lbs .'. .21,035 lbs. 

Tubes at 9.8 lbs .- 11,113 lbs. 

.\rch tubes at 55 lbs 1,485 lbs. 

Comhustion chamber at 55 lbs 6,369 lbs. 

Firebox at 55 lbs 17,336 lbs. 

Total evaporation plus 10 per cent 63,072 lbs. 

Steam consumption (3090x19) 58,710 lbs. 

Boiler factor 107.2 per cent 

Heating surface -H grate area 6.47 per cent 

Total heating surface -^ firebox heating surface 8.86 per cent 

Total heating surface s- superheater heating surface. .4.02 per cent 
Weight of water in boiler at a height of 2j4 gauges. . . .38,440 lbs. 

U'heii this locomotive was l)uilt as many dimensions and 
characteristics as jxjssihle were kept the same as the con- 
ventional 4-8-2 engine so that all tests could he made on 
a comparahle basis as between the McClellon equipped 
and the standard locomotive, thereby eliminatinc; varialiles 
that would tend to influence conclusions. Consequently 
cylinder and wheel sizes, yrate area, heating surface, 
superheater surface, etc.. were all kept at the same values 
and the changes in the McClellon equipped locomotive 
were confined to the fire box arrangement, boiler pressure, 
valve events, and to some extent, weight on drivers. \ ir- 
tually the same limitation on axle loads held good for the 
McClellon etjuipped engine as compared to the standard 
tyi>e. 

( )n leaving the boiler the saturated steam from the steam 
.ij;ace in the dome is first passed through a centrifugal dry- 
er in order to remove the moisture and insure that dry 
steam is going to the superheater, thereby relieving the 
superheater of performing any evaporative functions. 

This dryer is a simple centrifugal separator with fixed 
vanes that give the steam a whirling motion by which 
the moisture is thrown out against the side walls of the 
<lryer and then flows down to the Ixjttom and from 
there back to the water space through the open drain ])ii)e 
while the dried steam continues on down through the 
vertical pip)e to the dry pipe. 

In order to isolate the suiK-rbeater for insi)ection or re- 
pairs a shut-off valve is provided. This is oi)erated by 
means of a handle extending out through right side of 
the shell. 

The main valve is fitted with a pilot valve that opens 
first and closes last, and so controls the flow of stean- 
through the four equalizing ports that a balanced pressure 
i^ obtained oti each side of the main valve at the time of 
oijening and closing the shut-off valve and thus avoids the 
necessity of moviijg the main valve with or against a heavy 
)>ressure. 

.\fter leaving the dome valve the saturated steam 
]>asses through the conventional dry pi]>e to the super- 
heater as shown in (Fig. 1). The throttle is not located 
in the dry pijK? but l)etween the superheater header and 
the cylinders, so that the superheater units are filled at 
all times with steam. hVom the drypi]ie the steam enters 
the sui)erhcater header from which it emerges to pass 
through the thrt)ttlc and steam pipes to the cylinders. 

The throttle is of the conventional design differing onh 
from the common arrangement in the matter of the operat- 
ing' rigging. A rod is run alfing the l)oiler from the cali 
quadrant and is connerted to a rocker arm which actuates 
a rock shaft controlling the regular ])ilot and main valves. 

.\s will be seen from f I"ig. 1 ) the feed water heater is 
lr)cate(l on top of the smo!;ebox and is hekl by a bracket 
whose feet are bolted tf> the front casting. That the smoke- 
brix mav be f)pcned without flisturbing the heater, the 
front is parted ftn a horizontal line about midwav between 
the center and tf)p of the smokebox. This leaves the 
un))er section permanently in ])lace. while the lower sec- 
tion is mounted upon hinges in the usual manner. Bv 
swintjing this o])cn accc-s to the interior (if the smokebox 
is obtained. 



As already stated this engine (No. 35(X)) has been 
subjected to extensive road tests and a comparison made 
with previous tests made with a New York, New Haven 
& Hartford Railroad mountain (4-8-2) tvpe engine .\'o. 
3324. 

For convenience of reference the following general 
characteristics of the two engines are given ; 

Engine 3324 Engine 35(K*' 

Type Mduntain Mountain 

Boiler Firetube Firetubi- 

Firebox- Radial Stayed . McClellon 

Weight on Drivers 230,500 243,500 

Tt)tal weight, engine and tender 518,800 549,000 

Boiler pressure 200 250 

Cylinders 27x30 27x30 

.Maximum cut-olT 85% 707r. 

Diameter of driving wheels 69 69 

Tractive effort 53,900 63,390 

I'actor of adhesion 4.28 3.81 

The tests with both engines were conducted over the 
same divisions, that is from New Haven to Providence, a 
distance of 113 miles. It will be seen froin the accom- 
panying profile that with the excejjtion of a start at 
each end of about three miles, and the climb from Wood 
River Junction to the summit a mile east of Slocums 
going east a distance of 14 miles, and East Greenwich 
about seven miles to the same ix)int, going west, all of 
the adverse grades may be considered as momentum 
grades, as the profile shows a continued succession of fa- 
vorable and adverse grades very few of which are more 
than 2 miles long. 

While these tests, as conducted on the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad may not be comparable with 
tests conducted on atiother railroad with the same locomo- 
tive, because of a difference in the i)hysical and operating 
conditions, it is felt that these two series of tests are 
comparable because of their being conducted in the same 
manner over the same piece of track, and under the same 
operating conditions. Particular [rains were taken to have 
all readings made at the same predetermined locations 
throughout both series and the same quality of coal was 
used, it having an average calorific value of 13,500 B.T.I '. 
per iX)und of dry coal. .\\\ coal used was weighed on 
scales placed on the tender. 

i'efore presenting the comparison of the test attention 
is directed to the table of dimensions given alx)ve. The 
cylinders had the same diameter and piston stroke but the 
3500 had the advantage of 50 ]K)unds in steam pressure 
with a consequent higher tractive effort by about 17.6 
l^er cent, but at the exjiense of a lowered factor of ad- 
hesion. Contrary to general belief, the lower factor of ad- 
besif)n is not productive of any special care in handling, 
<lue to the smoother piston effort resulting from rela- 
tively shorter cut-offs. 

This table shows a general su])eriority of the No. 35(X) 
as compared with the No. 3324, and much of the data 
.ind (lifTerence is due to the engine for which the boiler 
■ an claim no share and which thus falls outside the field 
of this particular discussion, which ])ertains chiefl> to a 
comparison of the boiler jicrformances. 

.\side from the steam chest temi>eratures and the de- 
grees of superheat, in which the No. 3500 is in the lead 
bv a small jx-rcentagc, the cre<Iit for which may "be at- 
tributed partly to the suix-rheater, there are other items 
ill which the McClellon boiler ap])ears to a decided ad- 
xantage as compared with the railially stayed. 

I'.earing in mind that the rumiing speed of the two 
engines was the same, and that Ihi- e(|uated tonnage of 
the 3.^00 was 3.2 jicr cent .ilxivi that of the 3324, we find 
a decrease of 10.7 per cent in tlu total coal fired, and al- 
most the same decrease in the amount of coal fired )ier 
-q ft. of grate. Partly the boiler and partly the engine 



38 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



'February. 1926 



must l)c credited with the 15.1 per cent saving in the dry 
coal burned per 1000 gross ton miles. But wholly to the 
Ixiilcr must 1)C credited the increase of 12 per cent in the 
actual evaporation per i>ound of dry coal and the in- 
crease of 115 per icnt in ef|nivalfnt evaixiralion, to which 



This increased efficiency of 9.4 jwr cent over the stand- 
ard boiler of engine 3324, which when added to the de- 
crease of 7.2 per cent in ixmnds of water \Kr I.li.F. hour 
would indicate a total over all increase in thermal efficiency 
of ]f>.f) [xr cent. However, due to the increase<l lioiler 




Profile of the Ne 



80 eo 

NEW LONDON TO PROV/DENCE 
York. New Haven & Hartford Railroad From New Haven to Providence 



must he added the 2.5 per cent increase of actual evapora- 
tion i^er sq. ft. per hour of evaporating heating surface. 
These figures gives the reason for the 9.4 per cent in- 
crease of boiler efficiency, and prol)al)ly had much to do 
in determining the choice of the -McClellon boiler for the 
ten new engines now on order. 

Mo material difference in supi-rheat was noticed on en- 



pressure of engine 3500, there is a resulting loss in ma- 
chine efficiency of 1.1 per cent, leaving a total overall 
thermal efficiency of 15.5 i>er cent. 

Reverting to the total of engine and boiler performance, 
an iivlicator catd is given which was taken at a time when 
the engine was hauling 4,496 tons in 85 cars U]) a .40 per 
cent grade at a point just east of Saybrook, indicated on 



/OM.P.H 



Speea/ Curiae 



SAif.P.H.- 



o^^ 



eoooo- 

70000- 
60000- 
SOOOO-\- 



■^oooo-\- 
I 

JOOOO-\- 




/nteri^a/ c/c/r//7ff iv/;/cfr cara/ was taken. 



U\hM^As 



Ayeraffe afroiv 6ar /oi/// 



Ayeraffe cfrgtv bar pu// 



Ayeragte afraiv barpu// 



62/70/ds. 



eo'fso/bs. 



S6ooo/bs. 



JSOOOO-^ 

I 
yoooo-^ 



o-^ 



/00\ 



200, 



300, 



^oo^ 



600, 



700, I 3O0\ 



900\ 



/000\ 



//^^i 



Distance /r?feet. 



Dynamometer Record of Locomotive No. 3500 Fitted 



vlth the McCiellon Water Tube Boiler at Saybrook, Conr 
85 Cars 



Hauling 4496 Tons 



gine 3500 with the McClellon boiler, than with the stand- 
ard boiler of engine 3324. 

Due to the high boiler pressure and limited cut-off of 
engine 3500, a saving of 7.2 i>er cent in pounds of water 
l>er I.H.P. hour was obtained, which when added to the 
12.0 per cent increase in jwunds of water evapiirated jxt 
l)ound of coal, resulting in a decrease of 19.6 per cent in 
dry coal f)er I.H.P. hour 



the profile at A. 

The indicator c:ird shows a cut-off at 70 l>er cent of 
the stroke, when the sju-ed was 3 miles per hour, and the 
.section of the dynanrnmccr car chart shows a very uni- 
form drawbar pull and acceleration of the train while the 
s])eed was Ixjing raised up to about 8J/4 miles |)er hour. 

The tests of this engine and boiler are not yet com- 
pleted and it is expected that further details regarding 



February. 192() 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



39 



the same will be published in one of the future issues. 
Among other tilings the full hauling capacity of the 
engine has not yet been determined because there is no 
siding on the road that is long enough to permit of the 
make-up of a train with a sufficient number of cars to tax 
the engine to its limit. 




INDICATOR CARD 

Boiler Pressure 260 Lbs. — Cut-off 70 Per Cent— Speed 3 Miles Per 

Hour — Mean Effective Pressure, Front 231.3 Lbs., Back 235.1 Lbs. 
— Indicated Horse Power 587.6 — Indicated Cylinder Tractive Effort 

7,950 Lbs.— Dynamometer Tractive Effort 62,830 Lbs.— Engine 

Friction 5,120 Lbs. 

The following shows a comparison uf the oiUstaiiding 
items in the average results from engine ?>?i24 and engine 
.?500: 

Engine 3324 Engine iSOi) Percent. 

.\verage Average DitTerence 

kuiining time, mins 254.0 254.0 

Running speed M. P. H 25.3 25.4 + .4 

Number of train cars 90.5 87.0 — 3.9 

Number of actual tons 4,360.6 4,556.0 + 4.48 

Number of equated tons 4,486.5 4,640.0 -f 3.2 

Average cut-off per cent of strnki-. 44.8 38.5 — 16.5 

Average I. H. P 2,503.8 2,695.0 -f- 7.67 

Average D. B. H. P 2,105.4 2,244.0 4- 6.58 

.Average D. B. H. P. Corrected for 

Grade and Curve 2,203.4 2,347.0 -f- 6.52 

Temp. Steam chest, deg. F 571.7 588.2 -|- 2.88 

Degree of superheat 192.5 196.7 + 2.18 

Coal fired, Total 23,725 21,400 —10.7 

Drv coal per sq. ft. grate surface 

' per hr. lbs 77.6 70.0 — 9.8 

Dry coal per I. H. P. hr. lbs 2.20 1.84 —19.6 

Drv coal per D. B. H. P. hr. lbs.. . 2.95 2.50 —18.0 

Dry coal per 1,000 gross ton mile> 49.96 43.41 -|-15.1 

Actual evap. per lb. dry coal 7.81 8.75 -|-12.0 

Equivalent evap. lb. dry coal 10.32 11.50 -(-11.5 

.Actual evap. per hr. per sq. ft. 

evaporating surface, lbs ll).4 10.64 -1- 2.5 

Lbs. water evap. per I. H. P. per hr. 17.18 16.03 — 7.2 
Lbs. water evap. per 

D. B. H. P. per hr 22.95 21.80 — 5.4 

Boiler efficiency 74.59 81.53 -|- 9.4 

Machine efficiency 88.00 87.00 —1.1 

Therm;il efficienrv 6.46 7.47 +15.5 



Railroads Continue to Buy Gas-Electric 
Equipment 

That the gasoline electric car is gaining prestige as an 
acceptable solution of the branch line problem confronting 
many railroads, is evidenced by the number of such 
eqtiipments that have been completed or are on order. 
The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company 
is now building electrical equipment for passenger cars 
and switchers of this type. The apparatus is mounted 
on cars built by the J. G. Brill Company, at whose plant 
it is also installed. The gasoline engine mounted in these 
cars has a rating of 250 hp. Tractive efifort to the wheels 
is obtained by two railway type motors mounted on the 
forward truck and connected to the two axles through 
helical gears. Power for the motors is supplied froin 
a 160 kw. generator which is directly connected to the 
six-cylinder gasoline engine specially designed for railroad 
l)ranch line work. The first of these cars was completed 
for the Reading Company. Cars have been sold also to 
the Great Northern, Pennsylvania, New York, Ontario 
& Western, Boston & Maine, Erie, Long Island ; New 
^'ork, New Haven & Hartford, and other railroads, which 
indicates that they inay be economically substituted for the 
steam locomotive in several classes of service. 



Illinois Central Celebrates Its Diamond 

Anniversary 

On February 10, the seventy-fifth anniversary of the 
establishment of the Plinois Central System, the parent 
road having- been chartered on that date in 1851. The 
original 705'/. miles of line have been extended to 8,500 
in fifteen states of the Middle West and the South. In 
1856, the year the original railroad was completed, it 
owned 83 locomotives, 52 passenger cars, and 1,246 
freight cars, and represented an investment of about 
$26,000,000; at present the system owns 2,300 locomo- 
tives, 2,300 passenger cars, and 79,000 freight cars, and 
represents an investment of more than $720,000,000. 
Speaking of what has been accomplished in the years that 
are gone. President C. H. Markham, in a recent letter to 
the public, says : "But it is not the policy of the Illinois 
Central to dwell overlong upon the past. The daring 
which brought the Illinois Central into being as the then 
longest railroad in the world has left it a heritage of con- 
stant progress which has inaintained in it the spirit and 
vigor of vouth." 




Locomotive No. 3600 of the New York, Nev 



& Hartford R.iilro.id Equipped with thu McClellon Vi^ater Tube Bolle 



A Comparison of Diesel and Steam Locomotives 

By Samuel M. \ aurlaiii. Proiili-nl. Hiildwin l.oc«m(>tiv«' VK)rk> 



Ihc steam iDcniiuitivc has cloiiiiiiated transjxjrtation 
alR)iit one hundred years. It has heen improved steadily. 
Its performance, tlin>u,i;li inereased tractive juiwer, has 
met the needs of modern transportation arising from the 
remarkahle development of the world in the past fifty 
years. As a single, self-contained power imit, it is with- 
out e(iual so far as its general efficiency and low cost of 
production are concerned. 

When discussing railway motive power, the standard 
of comparison must he the steam locomotive, which occu- 
pied a strongly entrenched i)osition hoth from practical 
and sentimental viewpoints. Its simplicity, ease of con- 
trol and action under widely varying conditions of load 
are factors that its rivals must embody if they are to 
compete successfully with it in every day service. 

With the efficiency of modern internal comlnistion en- 
gines before him, the designer of railroad motive ptiwer 
naturally is attracted by their possibilities. Thermal effi- 
ciency of these engines runs as high as 33 per cent, while 
the best steam locomotive gives about (Mie-fourth nf this 
performance. Even with this handicap, the steam loco- 
motive is a remarkably flexible and reliable traveling 
power plant. To compete properly, no matter what the 
fuel economies may be, the internal combustion locoiuo- 
tive must approximate this flexibility and reliability. It 
must have ease of control, ability to start a full toimage 
train, and be able to adapt itself rapidly to change in the 
physical conditions met in operation, such as variable 
speeds, gradients, curves and weather conditions. It 
must not be too complicated in detail, nor too heavy for 
the horse])ower developed. Here then are the basic fea- 
tures the designer must bear in mind constantly. \\'hile 
a gain in thermal efficiency will warrant an increase in 
first cost, the price must not be so high as to offset the 
reduced operating costs. 

luiropean experience in Diesel locomotive construction 
has been more extensive than that of the United States, 
;>n(\ some late ojjinions on comjiarative costs are interest- 
ing. J. W. Hobson, of R. is; W. Hawthorne, Leslie & 
Co., says, in England, the cost of Diesel locomotives with 
hydraulic transmission has averaged about 1.48 times the 
cost of a steam locomotive of equal ca])acity. complete 
with tender; that the same measure of comparison for a 
Diesel-electric locomotive yields a ratio of l.*1. Dr. Her- 
bert Hrown, of the Swiss Locomotive & Machine Works, 
Winterthur, Switzerland, says continental figures, on the 
same basis, yield an average cost for the Diesel-electric 
locomotive equal to 1,783 times the cost of the steam unit. 

The problem divides itself naturally to cover two gen- 
eral classes of power ; self-propelled vehicles for light 
traffic, and locomotive units for hauling trains equal in 
tonnage to those hauled by steam locomotive. 

In applying Diesel heavy oil engines to true locomotive 
units, the first consideration must be weight per horse- 
|)ower developed. The heavier classes of Diesel engines 
in stationary service weigh from 170 lbs. to 350 lbs. per 
hor.sepower. In locomotive service the weight of the 
engine must he added to the weight of transmission, run- 
ning gear and vehicle body. Tf a 1,000 hp. Diesel en- 
gine of 170 lbs. a horsepower is used in a locomotive its 
weight of 170,000 lbs. would exceed the total weight of 
a complete steam locomotive of like capacity. Dtiring the 



World War some Diesel engines, showing a horseijower 
for everv 65 lbs. j)f engine weight, were built for sub- 
marine service. The locomotive designer needs this tyjie 
of machine. The 1,000 hp. rated Diesel-electric locomo- 
tive, built in Germany for the Russian railways ( 1924 ) 
has a total weight of 275,000 lbs., or 275 lbs. per horse- 
power. 

The 1,000 h|). rated Diesel-electric locomotive built in 
1925 by the Baldwin Locomotive Works also weighs 275 
lbs. per horsepower. This indicates a close coincidence 
of best European and .American practice and sets, for the 
present, this weight per horsejxiwer as the standard for 
modern Diesel-electric locomotives. A slight decrea.se in 
weight is possible with an advance in locomotive horse- 
jiower ; the present ex])ectation in this respect is about 
220 lbs., which reitresents a ratio of about 1 •.1.5 when 
compared with an average steam locomotive. With a 
thermal efficiency of 3:1 in favor of the Diesel engine it 
apijears that the added weight per horsepower is not a 
severe handicap. Ratios of this character, provided they 
go hand in hand with sim])licity. should show attractive 
operating economies. What then should be the features 
tending toward simi)licity of maintenance? 

In discussing this phase of design it is advisable to re- 
iiew the history of internal combustion locomotives. It 
will be found the means of coupling, or transference of 
power from the prime mover to the driving wheels, is of 
greatest importance. The first real Diesel locomotive was 
that designed in 1909 by .\dol])h Klose, of Berlin, and 
constructed jointly by Sulzer Bros., of Winterthur, Switz- 
erland, and Borsig, of Rerlin-Tegel, Germany. To show 
the Ixjldness of the design, which was for 1,000 hp., it 
should be com|)ared with what is believed to be the first 
internal combustion locomotive ever constructed, the 
Daimler engine of ISOl. As Dr. Diesel's oil engine had 
not been invented, this prime mover was one of the earliest 
types of internal combustion motf>r and developed onlv 
four horsepower. 

The First Diesel Locomotive 

Dr. Diesel's experiments with compression ignition 
began in 1893. but it was not until 1807 that the engine 
was considered of commercial value. The develojiment 
had taken four years, and cost about $107,000. One of 
the earliest concerns to manufacture this ty])e of ])rime 
mover was the firm of Sulzer Bros, of Winterthur. Switz- 
erland. It followed naturally the first attempt at design- 
ing a full powered locomotive unit driven by a Diesel 
motor should be attempted bv them. Associated with 
.Sulzer Bros, were Dr. Diesel and Adolph Klose. who 
])reviously had co(')]>erated with Diesel. In an effort to 
a|)i)roximate the simjilicity of the steam locomotive they 
cou]iled their engine directly to the driving gear by means 
of a jack shaft. 

The steam engine, having its source of power generated 
outside the cylinder, will start directh under anv load 
within its capacity, and can be controlled entirely by a 
steam inlet valve (throttle). The internal combustion 
engine, which generates its own source of power directly 
within its cylinders, must have auxiliary starting means, 
and is operated preferablv without load until proper ther- 
mal conditions are established. Here, then, lay the prob- 
lem of the first design : How to get a nmning start, and 
still maintain direct driving, with a speed beginning at 
zero under load. 



40 



Februarv, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



Direct Drive a Failure 

Much of the histon- of this locomotive is obscure, as it 
was constructed at a period unfortunate for proper experi- 
ment and record. Beginning the design about 1909 it 
was not completed and ready for trial until 1913. It was 
intended for use on the Hesse-Prussian state railways in 
Germany. As it fell upon war times in 1914, its ultimate 
disposal is not now known generally. The direct drive 
proved a failure, but the experiment warned future de- 
signers against similar error. It proved positively that 
the Diesel motor could not be used advantageously for a 
direct drive in locomotive construction. 

This pioneer Diesel locomotive is reputed to have 
weighed 95 metric tons (207.000 lbs.), and as its rating 
was 1,000 hp.. the weight per horsepower was 207 lbs. 
It was the 4-4-4 type, with two pairs of drivers and four- 
wheeled trucks, both leading and trailing. Its main motor 
was the two cycle, single acting type, with cylinders 15 in. 
in diameter, by 21^2 in. stroke, suspended in V form, 
longitudinally with the locomotive, and driving a trans- 
verse jack shaft with cranks located at 180 degrees. 

As it was not self-starting, it was equipped with an 
auxiliary Diesel motor which could develop about one- 
fourth the power of the main motor. This auxiliary 
motor compressed air to a pressure between 600 and 
1.000 lbs. to the square inch. The air was stored in a 
batterv of reservoirs, and used for starting both motors. 
The locomotive was driven by air pressure in the cylin- 
ders until a speed of 6^2 miles an hour was attained. 
This speed was calculated as sufficient to produce com- 
pression and ignition of the oil fuel, which was then 
injected into the cylinders. In regular operation, the 
supplv of compressed air was kept up by a multistage 
air pump, operated by pistons, placed in the V-space l)e- 
tween the motor cylinders, and coupled to the main driv- 
ing mechanism by means of links and rockers. The 
exhaust muffler and coolers for jacket water were placed 
longitudinallv in the cab roof. The cab enclosed the 
entire machine. 

Road tests were made on the Swiss federal lines be- 
tween Winterthur and Romanshorn, and a speed of 62.5 
miles an hour was attained. The air starting system 
gave considerable trouble, as the au.xiliary engine was 
imable to supply the needed air. Irregularity firing at 
low speed is reported also. This contributed, doubtless, 
to the breaking of the jack shaft which failed in' 1913. 
The road tests were transferred to the Berlin-Mansfeld 
line of the Prussian state railways early in 1914, and 
further record was lost in the hurly burly of war. 

Internal combustion engines must he operated at speeds 
within their range of efficiency ; and not from a zero start, 
as in direct connection. The designer, therefore, must 
find proper means for connecting the rimning prime mover 
to the locomotive driving mechanism. This transfer of 
power can be accomplished in three ways : CI) By me- 
chanical ("stepped gearing) transmissions: (2) hydraulic 
Cflued pressure) transmission; and (3). transmission of 
power by electricity. 

Mrchaiiiral Transmissions 

The.se are the ordinary change-speed stej)ped gearing, 
as applied in automobile practice. In locomotive con- 
struction they should he arranged preferably to give the 
same range of speeds forwarrl and backward. Reversing 
is accomplished usually by bevel gearing. Mechanical 
transmissions require some sort of a friction clutch, and 
this feature gives trouble on the ujjper range of power. 
Probably 150 horsepower is the practical limit for me- 
chanical transmission. 



Hydraulic Transmission 

This form of transmission employs oil as a power trans- 
ference medium usually. It is attractive because of the 
possibility of infinite speed variations ; some designs, how- 
ever, fail to secure this possibility. HydrauHc transmis- 
sion is suitable for locomotives of comparatively high 
power and is of lower first cost than electric transmissions 
of equal capacity. It has the disadvantage of concen- 
trating its final driving power into one gear wheel, mak- 
ing it dependent on tooth contact and pressure. Its limi- 
tation is about 500 horsepower, although its advocates 
say it is adaptable to twice this figure. All designs em- 
ploy a primary unit, or pump, which supplies oil under 
pressure to a secondary unit, or rotor. If the stroke of 
the pistons in the primary unit permits variation from 
zero to maximum, it follows that variability of speed can 
be obtained in the secondary unit, which is practically of 
reverse operation to the primary unit. The Hele-Shaw 
and Lentz transmissions are the best known examples of 
hydraulic transmission. 

Lentz System 

The Lentz system, usually considered the most success- 
ful, does not give infinitely variable speeds. Because of 
simpler construction and the lower oil pressures, it avoids 
the operating mishaps of more complicated systems. It 
gives a definite number of primary speeds ; intermediate 
speeds are obtained by by-passing the transmission oil, or 
by varying the speed of the main motor. As the oil pres- 
sures in the Lentz gear do not exceed 500 lbs. a square 
inch at starting, and average 50 to 150 lbs. when operating 
at speed, leakage is not so serious as with the other types 
of hydraulic transmission. Many European locomotives 
have been fitted with the Lentz gear. 

The Schneider system is really a combination of me- 
chanical and hydraulic transmission. The increased 
torque required at low speeds is obtained from the rela- 
tive motion between the rotor and its casing. The energy 
due to slippage augments the power by an additional 
torque on the secondary unit. By this arrangement the 
usual power losses in hydraulic transfer are decreased 
and the general efficiency of the transmission is improved, 
especially at the higher operating speeds. The Schneider 
system is being exploited by the Swiss Locomotive &• 
Machine Works, of Winterthur, which has constructed 
also a special 500 horsepower Diesel engine, which, with 
the transmission, is assembled into a complete locomotive 
unit. No reports of its trials are available. 

Electric Transmission 

In this system the prime mover is connected to an elec- 
tric generator which supplies current to operate suitably 
disposed driving motors. Electric transmission gives a 
continually variable gear, allowing the locomotive to adapt 
itself advantageously to the speed of the prime mover. 
It makes driving easy and can be adapted easily to double 
end control. The installation is expensive, but from the 
railway operating viewpont it is the most attractive trans- 
mission. Within recent years a number of Diesel-electric 
locomotives have l)eeti built in Europe and the United 
States. 

The Lomonossoff Locomotive 

That which has attracted most attention in Europe is 
the design by Professor Lomonossoff constructed at Dus- 
seldorf, Germany, for the Russian Government Railways. 
It has a 2-10-2 wheel arrangement with five motor driven 
axles. It is arranged for double end control, with the 
drivers' cabins over the carrying trucks. The engine is a 



42 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1926 



Uicsel .submarine tyi)f four-cycle, six cylinder unit, with 
compressed air fuel injector. Its normal speed is 450 
revolutions a minute; and with a ma.ximum capacity of 
1,200 horsepower. The locomotive unit itself is rated at 
1,000 horsepower and to verify this rating the machine 
was tested thoroughly on a special i)lant similar to that 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad at -Mtoona, I'a. These 
trials form the subject of an elaborate discussion by Pro- 
fessor Lomonossoff, which has been translated into Ger- 
ilian and iiublished under the title of "Die Diesel Elec- 
trische Lokomotive." All electrical machinery is from 
the Swiss fimi of Brown, Bovcri \- Co., briefly described 
as follows : 

' The generator has capacity of 800 kw.. at 600 to 1,100 
volts, and is coupled directly to the prime mover by a 
flexible coupling. The exciter, carried on the end of the 
■generator shaft is excited by an auxiliary dynamo operated 
from a storage battery. A peculiarity of the locomotive 
is its cooling system. ' The water flows through a piping 
system cooled by a fan. This is reported to be sufficient 
during "winter and ordinary temperatures." Summer 
operation is such as are common in Russian Turkestan 
(120 deg. F.) will so overload the cooling system that a 
"cooling tender" must be used. This carries extra radiat- 
ing equipment with fans driven by an auxiliary Diesel 
engine. If the weight of the extra cooler is considered, 
its thirtv metric tons would make the engine figure 340 
lbs. per horsepower. This feature certainly is not in line 
with the all around utility ideas common with railway 
men in the United States. 

The Lomonossoff locomotive was assembled at the 
HohenzoUern Locomotive Works, Dusseldorf, Germany, 
where tests were made on the roller plant. .X comparison 
of these tests with those of a Russian type 0-10-0 oil 
fired steam locomotive was made. Dr. Herbert Brown 
of Winterthur. reports an average overall thermal effi- 
ciencv of 7.43 per cent for the steam locomotive and 26.4 
per cent for the Diesel-electric. This shows the Diesel 
locomotive to have been over 3"/. times as efficient as the 
steam locomotive. These are significant figures when 
first cost and maintenance charges are to be considered. 
Dr. Brown estimates the prime mover, including its aux- 
iliaries, take about 44 per cent of the total weight; the 
electrical equipment 30.5 per cent; leaving _for the me- 
chanical structure and running gear, only 25.5 per cent. 

Recent internal combustion locomotive construction in 
the United States has been along the lines of electric 
transmission only. 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works produced a Diesel- 
electric locomotive of 1,000 horsepower in 1925. The 
prime mover is a two cycle, solid injection engine, of 
peculiar construction and very light weight. This ma- 
chine represents the largest unit yet attempted in the 
United States. It is the result of extensive research and 
experimentation to fulfill the requirements of a reliable 
self-contained unit, of simplest possible ensemble and ease 
of control. It weighs 275,000 lbs. (275 lb. per horse- 
power) and is mounted on two six-wheeled trucks. Trac- 
tion motors are applied to four of the six axles. Its 
electrical equipment is of Westinghouse manufacture, with 
electro-pneumatic and magnetic controlling mechanism 
arranged for double end operation. The Diesel engine is 
the inverted V type with twin crank shafts geared to a 
central shaft on which is mounted the electrical generator. 
It is undergoing intensive tests at the yards of its build- 
ers and on adjacent railway lines at present. 

Considerable time must elapse, and many millions of 
dollars be expended, in the development of the oil-electric 
locomotive before it will affect transportation service to 
anv great extent. It has many apparent advantages that 



are not only of great interest to railway men, but very 
seductive to those who do not understand clearly all that 
is involved. .\t jiresent construction costs are as two to 
one com])ared to steam ix)wer. 

The internal combustion locomotive unit, whether con- 
structed with direct ilrive hydraulic or electric transmis- 
sion, is yet in its infancy. The best engineering talent of 
the world is bending its energy to a successful solution 
of the i)niblem. We will not know what diftkulties in 
oi)erati(jn and safety will be encountered, until an appre- 
ciable number are in actual ojieration. The introduction 
of electric ])ower for transportation jnirposes has been 
slow. The ex])ensc of installation, and the inconvenience 
and obstruction incident to its application, in switching 
yards and large railway terminals have militated against 
it. It has progressed step by step and is a necessity for 
all underground transportation, and for increasing the 
volume of traffic over sections of railway on which the 
steam locomotive has reached its limit. 

If it be possible to produce a satisfactory machine at a 
lirice satisfactory to the purchaser, its greatest effect upon 
the trans|)ortation methods of tht country will be to 
further the electrification of railways in general. This 
experiment is being tried in Switzerland now. If by the 
use of internal combustion locomotives all branch line and 
distributing service at railway terminals can be accom- 
plished satisfactorily, and only main line service by over- 
head wires or third rails be re(|uired, we can then expect 
a more rapid development in the electrification of rail- 
ways. It will be many years before the steam locomotive, 
owing to its simplicity, its serviceability and its low pro- 
duction co.st will be relegated to the era of the past. 



The East Indian Railways 

India consists of three separate and well-defined tracts. 
The first of these three regions is the Himalaya mountains 
and their offshoots to the southward, comprising a system 
of stupendous ranges, the loftiest in the world. The wide 
plains watered by the Himalayan rivers form the second 
of the three regions. The third comprises the three-sided 
table-land which covers the -Southern half or, more strictly, 
])eninsular portion of India, and is known as the Deccan. 

It is thus evident from the very nature of the country 
that the railways have to traverse wide level stretches as 
well as difficult mountainous sections. The steep ascents 
from the Coast are well known and especially heavy 
tank locomotives, the so-called Ghat engines, are built for 
this service. It is less well known, however, that on the 
broad gauge lines to the liolan Pass on the North Western 
Railway there are long 4 ])er cent grades up which trains 
rif 640 tons are hauled by 2-6-6-2 articulated mallet loco- 
motives assisted by two heavy 2-8-2 tank pusher locomo- 
tives. 

As for distances in India, they are not as great as in the 
United States, but they are, by no means, insignificant. 
For example, from Calcutta to Delhi, it is something more 
than 800 miles : from Delhi to Bombay it is about 750 
miles and from Bombay to Colombo it is some 875 miles. 

Railway con.struction was begun at nearly the same 
time at the three principal ports of Calcutta, Bombay 
and Madras. In 1853 the Bombay-Thana line of 20.5 
miles was opened, and the same year saw the opening 
of the Calcutta-Hooghly line of 23.5 miles, and, in 1856, 
the Madras-Arcot line of 65.5 miles was opened. By 
1859 there were eight companies engaged in the con- 
struction of more than 5,000 miles: These were the East 
Indian Railway : Great Indian Peninsula Railway ; Ma- 
dras (and .Southern Mahratta) Railway; Bombay, Baroda 
& Central India Railway ; Eastern Bengal Railway (sub- 



February, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



sequently E. B. State Railway) ; Oudh & Rohilkund 
Railway (subsequently O. & R. State Railway) ; Sind, 
Punjab & Delhi (Xorth Western State) Railway and the 
Great Southern of India (South Indian) Railway. 

Of this group of great railways, the Oudh & Rohilkund 
Railway disappeared on July 1st, 1925, by merging into 
the East Indian Railway, which had itself been taken over 
as a State Railway on January 1st, 1925, and the Great 
.Indian Peninsula Railway was also taken over later. 

The Indian railways are mainly State-owned, but, to a 
small e.xtent they are privately owned ; in some cases the 
railways mainly owned by the State are worked by private 
companies, as is, for instance, the case with the Bombay, 
Baroda and Central India Railway, the Madras and South- 
ern Mahratta Railway, and others. In addition, some 
of the railways are the property of the Indian states. 

At first only the broad gauge (5 ft. 6 in. ) was used ; 
but, in 1870, it was decided to permit the use of a nar- 
rower gauge for railways of secondary importance. The 
metre gauge (3 ft. 3-Vg in.) was then adopted, and it was 
the railways of this gauge, that, in later years, developed 
most rapidly, notwithstanding the fact that the permissible 
axle load has thus far. in most cases, been limited to from 
8 to 9 tons as against 18 tons that is used on the broad 
gauge lines. Later on the 2 ft. 6 in. and the 2 ft. gauges 
were adopted for the smaller railways. The best known 
2 ft. gauge railway is from Siliguri, at the foot of the 
Himalayas, and running for a distance of about 51 miles 
to Darjeeling which it reaches at a height of about 6,800 
feet. There is also the Gwalior light railway having a 
length of 250 miles. 

The extension of the railway system was hastened by 
the famine of 1877-78. 

Of the two acompanying tables. Table No. 1 gives a 
general idea of the development of the railway system. 
The metre gauge lines already comprise about 10,000 miles 
or, in other words, about 40 per cent of the total system. 
Table No. 2 gives a few figures relating to the correspond- 
ing number of locomotives. 

For fiftv vears P'nglish firms supplied the rolling stock 
except for an order for 20 engines which was filled in 
Germany and delivered in the years 1867 and 1869 by the 
Esslingen Machinenfabrik, and another order for lO en- 
gines which was filled in 1867 by the well-known Swiss 
firm of Escher, Wyss & Co. 

Table No. 1 

(Length of Railways in Miles) 

Gauges 

Year 2 ft. in. 2 ft. 6 in. Metre 5 ft. 6 in. Total 

1855 169 

1860 838 

1875 6,531 

1880 5,162 

1885 12,283 

1889 15,245 

1900 23,763 

1912 2130 14,165 15,189 33,484 

197^ 621 IS95 15,118 22,531 39,865 

Tabi.k No. 2 
(Number of Engines) 

2 ft. in. 2 ft. 6 in. Metre 5 ft. 6 in. Total 

Dec. 31, 1909 78 220 2209 4517 7034 

" " 1911 312 2347 4756 7413 

■' " 1924 115 402 2748 6848 10,111 

It was not imtil PX)1, when the English Works were 
booked to their full capacity, that German firms succeeded 
once more in getting a share o! the locomotive supply to 
British India. The largest (xirtion of the orders then fell 
to the Ilanomag, which works delivered 44 broad gauge 
0-6-0 type freight locomotives to the East Indian Rail- 
way and ten metre gauge 2-6-0 type mixed engines to 
the Assam Bengal Railway. Ilamoma^ Nachrichten. 



Welded Locomotive Tenders 

Electric arc welding as a method of constructing loco- 
motive tender tanks, instead of the customary riveting 
process, offers a prospect of a better product and reduced 
cost, according to results obtained by the Boston & 
Albany Railroad. In January, 1921, this road built at its 
West Springfield, Mass. shops a locomotive tender tank 
constructed throughout by General Electric arc welding 
equipment, with the exception of the safety appliances 
( grab handles ) . This tank was mounted on a (Common- 
wealth Steel frame, arch bar trucks, on a Pacific locomo- 
tive, Xo. 513, and placed in service February 6, 1921. 
Since that time it has covered a distance of 201,563 miles 
with no defects having develoj>ed in the welding. 

With the arc welding method of construction practically 
all laying out, punching and drilling of sheets, angles and 
T-braces. together with reaming, riveting and caulking, 
are eliminated. The Boston & Albany tank was made of 
'4-inch plate with the following dimensions; 26 feet long, 
10 feet wide and 5 feet 2 inches high. 

In the average tank of this capacity there are approxi- 
mately 7,000 rivets with a total weight of 800 pounds and 
the number of holes punched in sheets, angles and T- 
braces would total approximately 15,8(X). In the Boston 
& Albany tank there is a total of 1185 feet of welding, 
the welding rod consumed totalled approximately 398 
pounds. 

In order to eliminate the water scoring and rusting, pre- 
valent in the riveted type of tank, the welding of T- 
braces to the bottom and top of the tank was continuous 
in its entire width. 



New York Central Diesel Locomotives 

After thorough investigation into the various types of 
Diesel locomotives, tvvo new ones, radical departures from 
the existing types of locomotives to be used for main 
line freight haulage and high speed passenger train serv- 
ice, are being constructed for the New York Central Rail- 
road. They will probabI\- be put into service on the Put- 
nam Division some time in August or September. 

The contracts were awarded in Noveinber, 1925, one 
was for a freight oil-electric locomotive, weighing 128 
tons. It is to l>e equipped with a 750-horse-power Inger- 
soll-Rand Diesel engine furnished by the General Electric 
Company. This contract went to the American Locomo- 
tive Company. 

The Alclntosh & Seymour Corporation was awarded 
the other contract, calling for a passenger type oil-electric 
locomotive, weighing 148 tons and equipped with an 800 
horse-power Mcintosh & Seymour Diesel engine. The 
mechanical parts of the locomotive are to be furnished 
by the American Locomotive Company and the electric 
transmission by the General Electric Company. 

If the trial locomotives are successful the contracts 
carry options for the entire number of locomotives re- 
quired for the main line of the Putnam Division of the 
New York Central for o|XTation between Sedgwick Ave- 
nue, New York City, and Brewster, N. Y. 

It is interesting to note that these are the first orders 
to be ]>laced in this country for Diesel electric road loco- 
motives. The other locomotives tested by the New York 
Central engineers in use in this country are for switching 
service. nf)t being siu'tahle or intended for main line 
freight haulage or for high-speed ]>asscng('r trains. 

These locomotives arc self-contained power units, using 
electricity generated by Diesel oil engines, as the driving 
l)Owcr, applied through motors of the ratings given. The 
Diesels use a low-grade oil as fuel, and a number of them 
of varying designs are now in service. 



Progress of the Investigation into Power Brakes and 
Appliances for Operating Power Brakes 



The American I\ailw;i> Association is now making a 
thorough investigation of ix)wcr brakes and appliances for 
oiK-rating [wwer hrake systems for freiglit trains on its 
one-hnndred car test rack located at Purdue L'niversity, 
Lafayette. Indiana. The tests were started on November 
30. i')25, and will continue until all ix)wer brake etjuip- 
inents under consideration have Iwen tested. 

Reason for the Investigation 

For some time jKist the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion has l)een carying on an investigation of power brakes 
and ai>i)liances for operating power brake systems and, 
in its preliminary reix)rt and conclusions, dated July 18, 
l')24. stated that imiirovements in the o])eration of power 




Fig. 1 Shows a Part of the New Locomotive Rack and More 
Especially the Automatic and Independent Brake Valves of Loco- 
motive No. 2. the Locomotive and Tender Brake Cylinders, Gauges, 
Vent Valve and Piping 

brakes are essential and must be effected. This rejMrt 
further outlined several general requirements and test re- 
quirements which, in the opinion of the Commission, were 
essential features of a suitable power brake. 

The requirements set forth in these tentative specifica- 
tions were as follows. 

Test Requirements 

Triple valves for freight service shall conform to the 



following re(|uirement> wluii tested on a test rack repre- 
senting the ixjwer brake e<|uipment of a one-hundred car 
train, tests l)eing made from an initial brake pijie pres- 
sure at the brake valve of 70 lbs. 

1. With a service reduction of 5 lbs. in brake pijje 
pressure, all brakes must apjjly. 

2. With a service reduction of lU lbs. there must be 
not more than 23 seconds difference in the time of obtain- 
ing 10 lbs. ])ressure in the brake cvlinders of the 1st and 
the lOOth brakes. 

3. A total brake piiK' reduction of 25 lbs. must result 
in equalization of brake cylinder pressure with pressure 
in the reservoir from which compressed air is supplied 
to the brake cylinder, and brake cylinder pressure of not 
less than 48 lbs. nor more than 52 lbs. must be obtained. 

4. With ])iston travel of 8 inches, a service reduction 
of 10 lbs. must result in pressure in each brake cylinder 
of not less than 15 lbs. nor more than 35 lbs. and with 
brake valve in lap position pressure in each brake cylinder 
must be maintained between these limits for a period of 
three minutes. In a full service application, after the 
specified maximum brake cylinder pressure has l)een ob- 
tained, brake cylinder ])ressure must not l)e reduced Ijelow 
45 lbs. within a jK'riod of three minutes. 

5. With an emergency reduction of l)rake pii>e pres- 
sure, pressure in all brake cylinders of 5 lbs. or more must 
be obtained in 6 seconds from the time of movement of 
the brake valve to emergency ixjsition, and maximum 
pressure in all brake cylinders, which shall be not less than 
15 per cent nor more than 20 per cent above the pressure 
given by the same brake in full service application, must 
be obtained in 9 seconds from the time of movement of 
the brake valve to emergency position. 

General Requirements 

The following requirements for power brakes and appli- 
ances for operating ]X)wer brake systems are specified and 
prescribed : 

1 . That only a service application of the train brakes 
will occur when a service reduction of brake pipe pressure 
is made. 

2. That effective emergency brake cylinder pressures 
will be obtained when an emergency reduction of brake 
pijie pressure is made from a fully charged brake system. 

3. That effective emergency brake cylinder pressures 
will be obtained when an emergency reduction of brake 
])ipe pressure is made after a full-service brake pipe re- 
duction has lieen made. 

4. That effective emergency brake cylinder pressures 
will l)e obtained when an emergency reduction of brake 
pipe prcs.sure is made following release after a full-service 
brake application. 

5. That means will be provided whereby an engineman 
can control the release of pressure froin brake cylinders 
and effect such release by graduated steps or gradually 
in order that he may decrease as well as increase brake 
cvlinder pressures as required to control at relatively uni- 
form rates the speed of trains. 

6. That means will be provided for obtaining and 
maintaining brake-cylinder pressures within prescribed 
limits for specified periods of time during brake applica- 
tions. 

7. That apparatus conforming to the foregoing re- 



February, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



45 



quirements shall be so constructed, installed and main- 
tained as to be safe and suitable for service. 

As these requirements contained functions which are not 
present in the standard freight train brakes in general 
use, the American Railway Association agreed to make a 
thorough and unbiased investigation to determine if the 
views of the Commission could be met. Accordingly a 
director of research was appointed by the American Rail- 
way Association in December, 1924, who was instructed 
by the Committee on Safety Appliances of the Mechanical 
Division to proceed upon the following plan : 

1. Steps will be taken to obtain appliances which, it is 
claimed, meet the views of the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, as indicated in its preliminary report and con- 
clusions. If the plans or specifications for such appliances 
are available and the appliances are not yet being manu- 
factured, steps will be taken by the Director of Research 
to secure such appliances, even to the extent of entering 
into an agreement to have such appliances made. 

2. As soon as such appliances have been obtained they 
will be given exhaustive tests on the test rack at Purdue 
University, which rack will be completely prepared and 
brought up to date for the purpose of this investigation. 

3. Following the completion of the rack tests such de- 
vices will be given road tests, to develop whether or not 
they meet road conditions safely in service. 

4. This program will be carried out with all dispatch 
and as promptly as the devices for these tests are available. 

5. The investigation will also embrace such further 
study as may, in the judgment of the Director of Re- 
search, throw further light upon this problem. 

Progress of the Work 

Following the alxjve plan, the American Railway Asso- 
ciation addressed inquiries to the air brake manufacturers 
to ascertain if they would design and build air brake equip- 
ments which would meet the views of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission. In response to these inquiries two 
air brake manufacturers, the Automatic Straight Air 
Brake Comj>any and the Westinghouse Air Brake Com- 
pany, agreed to furnish such equipments and in February, 
1925, the American Railway Association placed an order 
with each of these companies for 150 sets of freight train 
air brake equipments for trial purposes. The Westing- 
house Air P>rake Company will also submit a second air 
brake equipment emlx)dying its views as to the desirable 
functions of an air brake equipment for modern freight 
train operation. 

Ever since the orders have been placed, the manufac- 
turers have been busily engaged in designing and building 
the equipments which they intend to submit. L'p to the 
present time neither of the manufacturers has submitted 
its apparatus. It -is anticipated that the Automatic 
Straight Air P.rake Company will be ready to ship its 
equipment during the month of February 1926 and that 
the \\'estinghouse Air T'rake Company will ship its equip- 
ment shortly thereafter. 

In the meantime the test rack has lx;en completely re- 
built, new recording instruments designed and installed, 
a basic schedule of tests developed and agreed upon by 
the various parties concerned in the investigation and 
tests on the ty]>e K equipments started. 

It was decided to make the same tests with the present 
standard air brake equipment for freight trains, known 
as Westinghouse Type K, as will be made with the new 
equipments in order : 

1. To obtain accurate information concerning the func- 
tioning of this equipment, 

2. To establish its advantages and short-comings, 

3. To obtain a basis with which the new equipments 
will be compared so as to determine whether such new 



equipments represent sulificient progress in the art of 
train braking to warrant their adoption. 

Preparing the Test Rack for the Investigation 

The American Railway Association air brake test rack 
is located in a separate building approximately 35 feet 
wide by 100 feet long adjacent to the testing lalxiratories 
at Purdue L'niversit}-. It consists of two main parts, the 
locomotive rack and the car rack. It was necessary to 
dismantle the locomotive rack and move it to a new loca- 
tion in order to provide more space for the new sections 
of the car rack. The old locomotive equipments were re- 




Flgure No. 2 Shows a Close-up of the Gauges at the Brake Valve 

Operator's Position. The Special Electric Wiring for Recording 

the Movement of the Brake Valve Handle Can Be Seen on the 

Upper Part of the Automatic Brake Valve 

placed with Iwn new l\'pe .\'ii. (t-lVV locomotive brake 
equipments, which are so installed that one or Ixith loco- 
motives may be used in the tests. Two new 8>4 in. 150 
cubic feet cross compound air compressors were installed 
near the locomotive rack and were so pi])ed that either 
or both compressors could he used. 

The old car rack was of sufficient size to accommodate 
10!) ty])e K brake equipments but was not large enough 
for the new brake e(|ui])ments which are to be tested. It 
was necessary to add four new sections to the car rack 
and equipments were arranged so that there would be five 
brake equii)ments in each section. During this re-arrange- 
ment of cquipmenis, all piping was taken down off the 
rack, hammer tested, blown out, rejilaced on the rack and 
blown out again. .Ml brake cylinders were taken down olT 
the rack, cleaned, checked for wear, new j)acking cups 
installed and cylinders rclubricafed. All reservoirs were 
blown out and checked for leaks. The length of brake 



46 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



I"ebruary. 1926 



pipe per car was increased Irum 42 I'eel U> 50 feet since 
tlie latter lifjure represents present day conditions in 
freight equipment. All iiuse and gaskets were replaced 
with new material. In other words, the entire rack was 
given a complete overhaul. 

A new recording trainagraph was developed for this 
investigation. Mach trainagraph is driven hy a 110 volt, 
60 cycle alternating current s\nchronous motor, so that 
all trainagraphs operate at the same si)eed. I'2ach instru- 
ment has lour ])ressure pens and four time ikmis. The 
four i)ressure pens automatically record the pressures iii 
the brake piiK-, brake cylinder, auxiliary and emergency 
reservoirs. 'I'wo of the time |>ens are electrically connected 
to a master clock and automatically indicate seconds on the 
charts, while the other two pens indicate on each chart the 
movement of the brake valve handle either to the service 
position or release position, whichever is desired. Since 
the brake valve event occurs at the same instant on all in- 
struments, means are hereby provided for synchronizing 




Fig. No. 3 Shows the Center Aisle of the Car Rack with the Loco- 
motive Equipment at the End of the Aisle. This Shows the Brake 
Pipe Above with the Hose Connections Between Cars, the Brake 
Cylinders and Yokes and Oak Blocks for Obtaining the Various 
Length of Piston Travel. Car Equipments from No. 1 to 50 Are 
Shown on the Right and from No. 51 to 100 on the Left Side in 
This View 

all charts to a common starting point, the movement of 
the brake valve to the operative position. 

On eight cars distributed throughout the 100-car train 
the brake cylinders are equipped with circuit breakers so 
arranged that the electrical circuit is momentarily broken 
when the brake cylinder piston starts to move to a]5plica- 
tion ]xisition and is again momentarily interrupted when 
the piston returns to release position. The operation of 
each of these circuit breakers makes an indication on the 
record chart for its respective car of the exact instant its 
brake cylinder piston started to apply and again when it 
returns to the release position. 

.A. special locomotive trainagraph instrument was also 
develof)ed to show at all times the position of the brake 
valve handle. This instrument also automatically records 
the pressures in the main reservoir and equalizing reser- 
voir of the locomotive and the brake valve event as ex- 
plained above for the car trainagraphs. 

Thirtv-four car trainagraphs and two locomotive train- 
agraphs have been built and installed on the test rack. 

Five gauges have been installed at each car equipped 
with a trainagraph for the purjwse of checking the pres- 
sures shown by the instrument. All gauges and train- 
agraphs have been calibrated and calibration curves pre- 
pared. 

-Mercury manometers were built and installed on cars 
No. 50 and 100 for the purpose of accurately measuring 



the brake ]»ii)e pressure at these cars in pounds per square 
inch and tenths thereof. 

Three large storage batteries furnish direct current at 

6 volts, 12 volts and 24 volts needed for the operation of 
the trainagraphs and the 110 volt alternating current is 
furnished by the Iniversity power plant. A very extensive 
system of electric circuits was installed on the car rack 
not only for lighting, but also for operating the train- 
agra|)h motors, the time and event jjens and a trainagraph 
operator signal system. All of this wiring was installed 
in a metallic conduit with approved switches and outlet 
boxes. 

After all the piping and equipment had been installed, 
the brake pipe leakage for the 100-car train was reduced 
to less than 2 lb. per minute. The leakage of each brake 
cylinder was also reduced to less than 2 lb. per minute. 
In certain tests, however, artificial brake pipe leakage of 

7 lb. \>er minute and artificial brake cylinder leakages of 
5 lb., 12 lb., and 17 lb. per minute will be created by 
means of fixed orifices. 

The Basic Schedule of Tests 

The first draft of the basic schedule of tests was sent 
to the following parties, who are concerned in this in- 
vestigation, in the month of July, 1925 : 

Mr. W. P. Borland, Director of Bureau of Safety, In- 
terstate Commerce Conmiission, Washington, D. C. 

Mr. H. I Miller, Vice-f^residcnt and General Manager, 
Automatic Straight Air Brake Co.. New York, N. Y. 

Mr. C. C. Farmer, Director of Engineering, Westing- 
house Air Brake Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Mr. C. E. Chambers, Chairman, Committee on Safety 
\ppliances. Mechanical Division, American Ry. Assn. 

Mr. \". R. Hawthorne. Secretary, Mechanical Division, 
American Railway Association, for transmittal to the 
members of Committee on Brakes and Brake Equipment. 

Shortly thereafter conferences were held with each of 
these parties to ascertain their criticisms and suggestions 
for new tests. 

.After all of these suggestions had been included in 
the second draft of the basic schedule of tests, it was 
again sent out in October 1925 to the parties referred to 
above for further criticisms, suggestions or apjiroval. 
This draft was approved with some suggestions for ad- 
ditional tests. The basic schedule of tests is divided into 
the following main headings : 

1. Individual Triple \"alve Tests. (Single Car.) 

2. 100-Car Train — Level Road Conditions — Direct 
Release. 

3. 100-Car Train — Grade Conditions — Graduated Re- 
lease or Retainers. 

4. 50-Car Train — Grade Conditions — Graduated Re- 
lease or Retainers. 

The basic schedules of tests contains 565 separate tests 
which is indicative of the scope and extensivencss of this 
investigation. .\11 equipments under consideration will be 
run through each test in this schedule. A large numl)er 
of the tests in this schedule have Ijeen designed to repro- 
duce conditions which are met in actual freight train serv- 
ice. The making of these tests in the research laboratory 
will result in the shortening of the time required to make 
the road tests. 

The following freight train equipments will l)e tested 
on the rack. 

1 . Standard type K triple valves in order to determine 
the exact functions of present standard brakes for a basis 
of compari.son with the new brake systems which will be 
tested. 

2. Type K triple valves with heavier-than-standard 
graduating springs to determine the efTect of these 
sjirings upon the functioning of the K triple valves. 



February, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



47 



3. Automatic Straight Air Brake equipment 

4. r^Iixed equipments of standard type K triple valves 
and Automatic Straight Air Brake equipments. 

5. Xew Westinghouse Air Brake equipments, which, in 
their opinion, meet the views of the Interstate Commetce 
Commission. 

6. Mixed equipments of standard type K triple valves 
and new Westinghouse equipments. 

7. A second new Westinghouse equipment embodying 
its views as to the desirable functions of an air brake 
equipment for modern freight train operation. 

8. Mixed equipments of standard type K triple valves 
and the second new Westinghouse equipments. 

An organization of trained men has been built up to 
carry on the test work. This orgainzation at the present 
time consists of thirty men, all of whom have been espe- 
cially picked out for this work. No University students 
are being employed. The testing is being carried on con- 
tinuously working 44 hours per week. While one force 




Fig. No. 4 Shows a Group of the Car Trainagraphs. In the Instru- 
ment in the Foreground the Alternating Current Synchronous 
Motor, the Two Charts. Gauges and Copper Pipe Connections Can 
Be Plainly Seen 

ui men are making tests on the rack, another force of 
men are compiling the results from the records made in 
the research laboratory. 

Representatives of the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion are present in the research laboratory at all times 
during the conduct of the tests. The air brake manu- 
facturers have been invited to send representatives to be 
present not only during the testing of their own c't|ui])- 
ment but also during the testing of the other brakt- e(|ni])- 
ments under consideration. 

Time Required to Complete Rack Tests 

l""rom the time lx;ing taken to test out the e(|uipnK-nts 
under the first and second series, namely, the standard 
type K brake equipments and the type K brake equip- 
ments with the heavier-than-standard graduating springs, 
an estimate of approximately two months per e(|uipment 
can be made. At this rate it will take practically all of 
the year of 1926 to complete the rack tests. Methods for 
reducing the time required to test an equipment are now 
under consideration. 

It is expected that these tests will result in bringing 
abfjut still greater safety and comfort to jwsscngers as 
well as a reduction in loss and damage to both freight and 
equipment. The tests are being conducted under I lie 
direction of H. A. Johnson, director of research of tlu- 
American Railway Association, and general manager of 
the ('hicago Rapid Transit Company. 



The Mechanical Section of the AniericaH 

Railway Association and Autogenous 

Welding 

A year ago a letter ballot was submitted to the members 
of the Alechanical Division of the American Railway As- 
sociation on what had been proposed as recommended 
practice by the committee on autogenous welding at the 
previous June convention. The recommendation was for 
the purpose of defining and limiting the use of autogenous 
welding in locomotive fireboxes. The suggestion was 
that no welding should be permitted in the crownsheets, 
except that they might be welded to the side sheets along 
a line not less than 12 inches below the highest point of 
the crown. This failed to receive the necessary two-thirds 
endorsement by a little over one per cent. Another 
proposition to permit the welding of cracks and transverse 
seams in the crownsheet was lost by a majority of almost 
two to one. 

Then later in the year the chief locomotive inspector of 
the Interstate Commerce Commission issued a circular 
requiring that all autogenously welded seams within the 
cab and above the floor should be covered with a patch 
securely held in place by rivets, studs or patch bolts so as 
to prevent the escape of scalding water and steam in case 
the welded seam should fail. 

Since the first of the year this circular has been with- 
drawn, but, with its withdrawal, the chief locomotive in- 
spector has asked the roads to submit their rules for weld- 
ing. This apparently gives the railways a free hand, for 
the time being, and that is one of the reasons for again 
submitting the original proposition to letter ballot which 
has now been done with the request that all votes be in 
by I'ebruary 15. 

In the resubmission of the subject an explanation has 
been added to the effect that the limitations originally 
suggested does not prohibit the welding of fire-cracks ex- 
tending from rivet holes to the caulking edge of the sheet, 
and also explains that the attachment of thermic syphons 
to the crownsheet is not considered. 

As has been repeatedly set forth in these columns, 
the locomotive inspection department is very reluctant to 
issue any rules that can in any way hamper the use and 
development of autogenous welding. At the same time 
is feels that safety is the first requisite to be looked to. 
This ballot then is desired as an expression of the un- 
trammeled opinion of railroad officers as to what is proper 
in the way of the use of autogenous welding in locomotive 
firelioxes, although it docs not touch upon the methods 
to be used for repair work. 

If the ballot is carried in the affirmative, it will mean 
the establishment of a recommended practice for work 
done on crownsheets and backhead ; while, if it is lost, 
there will, then, be no governing practice in regard to the 
matter. For that reason, those voting in the negative have 
been earnestly requested to give their reasons for the 
position that they have taken. 



Motive Power Condition 

Locomotives in need of repair on January 15 totaled 
10,7.36 or 17 jx^r cent of the number on line, according to 
reports filed by the carriers with the Car Service Division 
of the .American Railway Association. 

This was an increase of 967 locomotives compared with 
the number in need of repair on January 1, at which time 
(here were 9,769 or 15.4 per cent, a dccrea.se of 1,441 loco- 
motives compared with the number in need of repair on 
January 15, 1925, at which time there were 12,177 or 18.9 
per cent. 



48 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



I-'cbruary, 1926 



RllKS^veEin'neerini 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, 
Rolling Stock and Appliances 



Published Monthly by 

ANGUS SINCLAIR COMPANY 

136 Liberty Street, New York 

Chicago Office: 168 North Michigan Avenue 

Tekpbone Rector 0746. Cable Address "Locong," N. Y. 



Harrr A. Kenney, Prcst. and Man. Ed. Geo. L. Fowler, Associate Editor. 

W. E. S/mons, Associate Editor. J. Snowdeo Bell, Associate Editor. 

Tbonus P. Kenney, Secretary. 



LONDON REPRESENTATIVE 

Tbs Locomotive Publishing Company, Ltd., 3 Amen Corner, Paternoster Ro« 

London, E. C. England. 



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The Water-Tube Boiler 

With the advent of the water-tube boiler and tlie eco- 
nomical results olitaiiicd with it in stationar)- service, it 
was but natural that attempts should be made to introduce 
it into marine and locomotive ])ractice. The handicap of 
the limitations of space and the conditions of operation 
opposed a formidable obstacle to the extension of its appli- 
cation into these two fields. P>ut in the development of 
the torpedo boat and torpedo boat chaser it was necessary 
to have boilers of hij^h steamin<:; capacity in a small 
space, and so it came about that there were a number 
of adaptations of the water tube principle that showed 
a remarkable efficiency in operation. Chief among 
those achievins;' success in these lines, were Farrow and 
Thomeycroft. Although these boilers were in successful 
operation in marine service they were not adapted to the 
locomotive. Even in marine work difficulties with the 
circulation of the water appeared that were unknown in 
stationary boilers. In some cases designers went so far 
as to install pumps in order to create an artificial flow of 
water through the tubes. 

When it came to the application to locomotive work, 
the difficulties assumed another form. The quiet of the 
setting of the stationary boiler, and the comparatively 
slight vibration of a vessel, gave place to jars and shocks 
of such magnitude that it was exceedingly difficult to keep 
the many joints tight. 

This was accentuated in the early water-tube boilers 
that were put on locomotives by the lack of the means 
of construction and repair, which we now have ; such, for 
example, as the means of doing autogenous welding. 

At any rate the water-tube boiler has not been a success 



in locomotive work until recently, and that chiefly because 
of the difficulty of keeping the joints tight. 

Then, it is possible, if not probable, that the designers 
themselves, not being practical railroad men, labored 
uiuler the difficulty of not knowing exactly what they 
had to contend with. It is probable that some of the de- 
signs that were put on locomotives might have done very 
well under the (juiet conditions of a stationary plant, but 
when put upon a moving platform that was rolling and 
))lunging about after the manner of a locomotive, and 
further subjected to the excessive stresses arising from 
the great differences of temjjerature existing in their 
different parts; the fact, emphasized by the good deacon 
who built the one-boss shay, that "the weakest ])art must 
stand the strain," came most vividly to the front. So we 
had leakages, high maintenance costs and failure. 

These things now seem to Ix? of the past and the record 
of the boiler illustrated in another column, indicates that 
there is a ])rospect of the water-tube boiler coming into 
its own, and this is probably due, to a great extent, to the 
fact that its final adjustment to its work was done by men 
who were thoroughly conversant with the demands and 
conditions of the service that it has to perform. Evi- 
dently its work is satisfactory to the interested depart- 
ments or it would not lie applied on the large scale of ten 
new locomotives if it was felt by either the operating or 
mechanical departments that they were incurring any extra 
risks of road failures or high maintenance charges. 

The boilers are still being subjected to critical observa- 
tion and test, and the final report will be awaited with 
interest, not only of these, but of other high pressure 
boilers that are seeking approval. 



Autogenous Welding 

The chief locomotive inspector of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission is, apparently very uneasy about the 
safety of autogenous welding when applied to the mak- 
ing of locomotive firebox repairs. This is evidenced by 
the reix^atcd warnings that have ajjpcared in his successive 
annual rejxirts. Year after year he has said that the art 
is still in an experimental condition and should be used 
cautiously if at all. and now he asks that such pieces of 
firebox welding shall be covered and protected by a 
suitable patch held by bolts, so that, in case the weld does 
fail, the resulting effects shall be so modified as not to 
produce a casualty. 

His fears are based upon experience, in which he has 
found that such welding does fail with disastrous results. 
This year he cited two cases of firelx)x failures due to 
low water. In one, where the sheet was riveted, it simply 
l>cllied down, pulling off from the staybolts, but doing 
no more harm. In the other, the sheet having been welded, 
the weld tore with the usual results. 

In short, Washington does tiot regard the autogenous 
welding of fireboxes favorably. 

On the other hand, at a recent joint meeting of the 
New York section of the American \\'elding Society and 
the Metropolitan section of the American Society of 
Mechanical Engineers, in a paper on Welded Pressure 
Vessels, a past president of the Welding Society, made 
the positive statement that a well made double V auto- 
genous weld was safer and stronger than a rivetted joint : 
that it could he made stronger than the untouched plate 
and that, in case of fracture, the break would not occur 
in the weld. There were no ifs and ands or "I thinks" 
alx)ut it, but an unqualified assertion of fact. It would be 
noticed, however, that there was a qualifying adjective 
used, and that is that the weld should be a double V and 
well made. 



February. 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



49 



Again, we find numerous examples in the construction 
of new boilers, where the crown-sheet is welded to the 
side sheets, with never a thought of a weakness develop- 
ing, and with no record of a weakness having developed, 
because of the weld, after the boiler had been put into 
service. 

At first blush it would appear that this positive state- 
ment of the Welding Society's president, coupled to an 
almost current practice of the builders, was a complete 
refutation of the contention of the chief inspector. 

There are three things, however, that go far to change 
this aspect of the case. One is the fact that the interior 
of a locomotive firebox is a most uncomfortable place in 
which to work, and the welding of a long crack therein 
is very fatiguing. A fresh man soon becomes tired at 
the job and there is a strong probability that his work- 
manship steadily deteriorates as the job progresses, until, 
taken as a whole, the weld may fall far short of being 
'"well made.'' 

Then there is the condition of the welded sheet to be 
considered. It is not free to adjust itself to the varying 
temperatures to which it is subjected during the process 
of welding. It is held in place by staybolts in such a 
manner that injurious internal stresses may be set up. 
that will facilitate a yielding at the weld. 

Finally, in a rejxiir job of this kind it is impossible to 
make a double V weld. The work, the heating and the 
building up of the metal must all be done upon one side 
of the sheet. 

As none of these three conditions obtain in the weld- 
ing of a new firebo.x sheet. Init everything is such that a 
■'well-made" double V weld is possible, that new work- 
can meet the requirements and there is probably no room 
for an adverse criticism as to its strength. 

It would seem well then to try the making of a long 
weld under the adverse conditions of firebox repairs and 
then subject it to test. .\nd. in this testing, in order to 
simulate actual conditions the weld should be subjected 
not only to a tensile stress but to a bending to and fro 
in order to imitate, as far as possible, the continual bend- 
ing and wave-like action to which the sheets of a loco- 
motive firebox are subjected during the whole p)eriod in 
which it is in service either under pressure or in the 
generation of that pressure. 

If this were to be done it is more than likely that the 
results would lie such as to endorse the safety of the 
welded seam in new boilers ; the positive assertion as to 
the strength of a well-made double V weld and the doubt- 
ful .security of the single weld made under the conditions 
of firebox repairing of which the chief insi)ector is sfi 
fearful. It is hardly iK)ssible that any of these observers 
have Ijeen mistaken in what they think that they have 
seen, or in the cfinclusions that they have drawn from 
their observ'ations. 



A Correction 

In the article "The Powerful Three-Cylinder Locomo- 
tive of the Southern Pacific Company. '" that ajJix-ared in 
the January, 1926, issue of Railway and Ijicomotive En- 
gineering, two errors occurred. 

I'nfjer the illustration of locomotive .3761 a])])eared the 
caption "Three-Cylinder 2-10-2 Ty]x^ Locomotive of the 
Southern I'acific Com]xiny." The l(Kromotive No. .3761 
illustrated is not a three-cylinrler locomotive. In the text, 
the new ".Sfmthcrn Pacific Type." C4-10-2) is rcferrcfl to 
as the 2-10-2. The .Southern Pacific type has a four- 
wheel leading truck which is cijualized with the drivers. 

With the exceptions noted alx>ve the other information 
given was correct. 



Action of Draft Gear in Service 

To the Editor: 

I have read with interest the articles appearing in the 
Railway and Locomotive Engineering issue of Octo- 
ber, 1925, pages 284 to 287, inclusive, entitled "Loss, 
Damage and Discomfort Due to Improper Handling of 
Locomotive and Air Brakes." Also page 296, "Draft 
Gear as a Factor." 

The subject matter as to the human element of good 
judgment and sound principles in train operation of the 
devices mentioned, is very good and instructive. But 
the devices themselves that function very well in the 
laboratory do not hit the mark in train operation. 

The air brake does very well considering the length 
of freight trains and the number of connections that must 
be made to make it operative throughout the train. 

The draft gear is so deficient in stored energy or release 
that the gears remain in their closed position, which 
stretches the train line and causes many leaks in air hose 
couplings that do not exist when the train is standing. 
This causes many an emergency application of air brakes 
when a service application only is made. The engineer 
usually does not know when or why this takes place, but 
the trainmen at the rear end of the train nurse their sore 
spots and vent their feelings (by words not. fit for print). 
jilacing the blame all on the engineer. 

Trainmen can be instructed, bulletins may be posted, 
additional road foremen of engines may be employed, hut 
slack action cannot be reduced by any such methods. 

Each draft gear stretches three inches or six inches 
between each two cars which is low considering lost mo- 
tion between knuckles, then when the speed of the train 
reaches say ten miles per hour, and for some reason an 
emergency application of the brakes is made, the engine 
will come to a full stop in about fifty feet, the six inches 
between each two cars must return to its normal position 
before any cushioning effect of the draft gear is available, 
and if the gears do not release instantaneously, which 
many of them do not. then another six inches between 
each two cars must be added, making twelve inches of 
movement between each two cars. 

Thus it will be readily seen thai a train of 100 cars is 
stretched fifty feet and the engine sto])s in a space of 
approximately fifty feet, that the gears must return fift\- 
feet to their normal position before anv cushioning effect 
of the draft gear is available. 

The engine of the train will be standing when the rear 
end is still ruiuiing ten miles per hour without any cush- 
ioning effect from draft gear whatever, as the slack runs 
in faster than the reduction of air through the train line 
to apply the brakes. 

If the draft gear had sufficient release to hold the gear 
near the normal position when the engine is working, the 
gears would be ready to cushion the blow without being 
forced to get ready before doing the work. 

Now, what is draft gear release, or recoil, as commonly 
expressed by engineers in tests? It is the difference lie- 
tween driving jailing into the ground where one ex[)ects it 
to stay which has absorlx>d a certain number of foot jxiunds 
to drive it himie, and a spring that is expected to carr\ a 
load of a given capacity yielding one way nr the otiicr as 
the force is changed. 

For example, one may use the A. K. .\. sjx'cifications 
for truck sj)rings, whose Manual states that each group 
of truck springs for a fifty-ton car shall have a capacity 
of 78,940 pounds, and as there are four groups in a pair of 
trucks, the total s()ring ca])acity is .31. '5,760 pounds ])cr 
car. with no mention whatever about recoil, which is the 
same as the spring capacity. Let anyone mention .300,000 



50 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February. 1926 



pouiuls recoil in draft f^car lor the sainc til'ty-ton car, the 
cry of "wolf" is so loud that a great many actually believe 
that real wolves exist. 

To satisfy oneself that this awful bugaboo is only imagi- 
nary, can easily be proven by actual tests while waiting 
in the yard Ijcfore leavinj; a terminal, by coui)liii.L,' a switch 
engine to the caboose at the rear end, and ajiplyint; the 
engine brake, then go to the head of the train and have 
the engineer reverse l)acking the train until the engine 
stalls. Then make a mark on the rail and a correspond- 
ing mark on the pilot beam, lining up with the mark on 
the rail. .Start the engine forward with the same care 
as though they were ready to leave until the engine stalls 
again. Now mark the spot on the rail, lining it up with 
the mark made on the pilot beanl ; when done, shut off 
steam, open cylinder cocks so that the engine is free to 
be drawn back by the stored energy that should exist in 
the draft gear to bring it back to normal position. Tlien, 
if the engine moves back, make the third mark on the rail, 
corresponding to the mark on the pilot beaiu when the 
engine is completely at rest. Then measure the distance 
between the marks on the railway where the engine stalleil 
in both directions, also the distance the engine was drawn 
back bv the draft .gear; if drawn back, note as nearly as 
possible in miles per hour. Repeat this once a week, and 
you will have some data really worth while as to the action 
of draft gears in actual service. "C.^R Knocker." 

We have but one comment to make on the letter from 
'Tar Knocker." Most of the friction draft gears in com- 
mon use lose efficiency quite rapidly from service or wear 
and consequently a corresponding effective proportionate 
part of maximum travel in which they should actually 
function as "shock absorbers." 

Some gears, as a result of heavy impact ur blows and 
existing defects, remain in closed or locked position when 
driven home. In such instances the particular unit is 
completely out of commission, with about three inches 
more or less of slack which in itself is an element of 
danger in train operation. When several such units are 
in the same train the dangerous feature which the friction 
gear is intended to minimize is simply increased far be- 
yond that of the plain helical si)ring .gear. We offer this 
as a slight digression from the foregoing views of "Car 
Knocker," and in amplification of the editorial on pages 
295 and 2% of the October, 1925, issue. Eds. 



Some Features of the Keyser Valley Car Shops 
of the Lackawanna 

W. E. Symons 

.\n inspection of the Keyser \'alley car shops of the 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Coin])any at 
Scranton, Pa., cannot fail to impress one with their many 
advantages resulting from : 

(a) Physical location of the entire plant. 

(b) .\rrangement of the different departments or 
branches of the work in relation to each other. 

(c) Systematization of the various kinds and classes 
of work, including handling raw or unfinished material, 
machinery for .shop operation, and the final fabrication 
of material into com|)leted units. 

(d) Organization and administrative features. 
Passing from the superficial to a closer study of the 

more important features or controlling factors essential 
to a properly designed and economically operated plant, 
many contributing items or features are readily apparent 
on which much could Ix" written, but as space will not 
permit a complete review with appropriate comments on 



each factor, the subject of material handling will be par- 
ticularly em|)hasized at this time. 

Some years ago when it was suggested that the Ameri- 
can Society of Mechanical Mngineers from a section whove 
activities be devoted to the question of "handling mate- 
rials," it was thought by some that the subject was not 
of sufificient importance to justify its separation from the 
various other details of engineering and maimfacturing 
of which it was an integral part, 'iime and its develop- 
ments, however, have given endor.sement to the activities 
of that section of the .\merican .Society of .Mechanical 
Engineers. The economies resulting from improved meth- 
ofls of handling material in a railway shop devoted to 



'1 ^^^Hin 


^" 


4 ^ ^■'■' 

. 5* — — ^^H . 







Fig. 1 — Electric Lift Truck Approaching Port.ible Platform Loaded 
With Lumber 

heavy repairs and the construction of new freight cars, 
is so clearly demonstrated at this plant as to be worthy 
of special mention. 

Electric Lift, Elevating Platform Trucks 

Originally, these shops were equipi>ed with a narrow 
gauge railway system with four wheel lorries for handling 
material. It was found on investigation, however, that 
this system was inadequate when all factors were con- 
sidered, as there was at all times an inflexil)ility in move- 




Fig. 2— Electric Lift Truck and Loaded Platform Under Way 

ment of the lorries. When computed in dollars and cents 
this amounted to no small item, as it was estimated that 
there was a loss of about 10 per cent in time in the move- 
ment of material waiting for the right of way. Quite 
frequently rivet heaters and cutting torch lorries working 
on a job would either have to interrupt the work or the 
material lorries must stand idle for an indefinite period 
waiting for the right of way. 

Then again the four wheel lorry does not always lend 
itself to exix-ditious and economical movement of mate- 
rial in the blacksmith and machine shops. Material in 
the i)roccss of fabrication has to lie handled as much as 
6 or 8 times, while in the carpenter shops there would 
be an accumulation of lorries loaded with raw stock. This 
blocked production as it was often necessary to move a 
number of loaded lorries to make way for another lorry 
loaded with necessary lumber for some particular job. 



February, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



SI 



There is a loss of time in unloading material from lorries 
when it is dehvered at the point where it is to be used, 
thus tying up both men and lorries, no small item of cost. 
With the substitution of the electric lift, elevating plat- 
form trucks, a pronounced saving in time and consequent 
cost of handling material was experienced. 

One man with an electric truck will haul eight times 
the load at three times the speed of a man with a hand 
truck or 4,000 to 6,000 lbs. on an electric truck as against 
500 lbs. on a hand truck at a speed of 350 to 400-ft. 
per minute instead of the walking pace of 120 ft. per 
minute, a saving ratio of 24 to I. 

Among the more important advantages of the electric 
lift truck may be mentioned the following : 

1. Increase in shop output, due to increased speed in 
handling material. 

2. Saving time of from 5 to 8 men per unit over pres- 
ent methods now generall}' employed in handling ma- 
terial. 

3. Related economies to other branches of the plant, 
due to elimination of unadvoidable delays from the use 
of other and less efficient methods of handling material. 

4. Xumerous items of time or exi>ense embodied in the 
net economies resulting from substitution of electric lift 
trucks. 

The illustrations show the electric lift trucks in opera- 
tion at the Keyser Valley shops. 

Fig. 1. Shows electric lift truck approaching one of 
the bench skids or portable platform with full load of 



purchase price in one year, and that cost of repairs or 
upkeep is very low. 

It would appear from the foregoing that the officers of 
the Delaware, Lackawanna & Eastern Railroad, through 
whose vision and judgement this installation was made, 
have made no mistake as to methods of increasing output 
at a reduced cost per unit, and that the available field for 
improvement in shop facilities of this class is broad and 
invitinsr. 



Four-Cylinder Locomotives in Europe 

The four-cylinder locomotive seems to be regaining its 
popularity in Europe, and a number have recently been 
built for the roads of Germany, Austria, Italy and Spain. 
The accompanying table gives some of the principal di- 
mensions of what may be considered representative en- 
gines. Included with them is a three-cylinder simple en- 
gine built for the Prussian State Railways. The others 
are compounds. 

It is stated that great difficulty has been encountered 
in designing such engines to obtain sufficient boiler ca- 
pacity and yet keep the total weight in working order 
less than 226,600 lbs. or 103 metric tons. In the accom- 
panying table this appears to have been done in the case 
of the locomotives for the Baden, Saxony, Italian and 
Austrian railways. And the conclusion is reached that 
even these weights could be reduced by about one per 



RAILWAY 


Baden 


Saxony 


Prussian 


Italian 
State 


Austrian 


Wurte ra- 
te rg 


Northern 

of 

Spain 


GaugB In. 


4 ft.ei In 


4 ft.8i In 


4 ft.Si In 


4 ft.Si In, 


4 ft.8iln. 


4 ft.8ib.n. 


5ft. 6 In. 


Ho. of Cylinders 


4 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


Cylinder dlanster H. P. In. 


17.32 


18.90 


20.37 


19.^33 


17.72 


20.08 


18.11 


" " L. P. In. 


26.77 


28.35 




28.35 


29.92 


29.92 


27.56 


PlBton Stroke In. 


26.77 


23.74 


25.98 


26.77 


26.77 


25.59 


26.77 


Driving wheels diameter in. 


83.68 


76.00 


68.90 


74.00 


57.09 


53.15 


68.90 


Steam pressure, lb. per eq. in. 


220 


220 


206 


206 


235 


220 


236 


Grate area R sq. ft. 


53.79 


48.41 


43.03 


46.26 


53.79 


45.19 


5S.79 


Heating surface firebox so, ft. 


167.83 


166.76 


188.27 


182.89 


187.20 


166.76 


251.75 


" " tubes " " 


2250.66 


2254.96 


2183.96 


2366.85 


2275.40 


2345.33 


2237.75 


" " boiler H « » 


241B.49 


2421.72 


2372.23 


2549.74 


2462.60 


2512.09 


2489.50 


" " superlieater Hu " " 


834.85 


796.12 


882.19 


720.81 


635.82 


860.67 


899.40 


" " total " " 


3253.34 _^ 


3217.84 


3254.42 


3270.55 


3108.42 


3372.76 


3388.90 


Ratio H; R 


45.0 


50.0 


55.3 


55.0 


45.8 


55.6 


46.6 


" Hj Hu 


2.9 


3.04 


2.7 


3.54 


3.88 


2.92 


2.77 


" of cylinder contents 


2.39 


2.25 




2.16 


2.85 


2.22 


2.32 


Wel^t llf^t lbs. 


192,500 


198,660 


220,880 


186,120 


193,600 


216,040 


207,460 


" adhesive " 


117,480 


150,920 


166,540 


145,200 


180,400 


208 , 120 


142,120 


" working order " 


213,400 


219,780 


242,880 


204,600 


211,200 


237 ,600 


229,240 


" BMXlimm axle " 


39,160 


37,840 


41,800 


35,200 


30,014 


34,760 


35,530 


Tractive effort (slnple)* 


35,890 


41,730 


41,090 


47,335 


58 ,820 


72,600 


50,900 


" " ( c ompound ) * 


27,385 


31,100 




34,860 


46,955 


53,765 


38,630 


Adhesive Wt.-f- Tractive eff ort (olnple) 


3.27 


3.83 


4.05 


3.07 


3.07 


2.87 


2.79 


" -T- " " (corr.pound! 


4.2S 


5.14 




4.16 


3.84 


3.87 


3.68 



♦ Calculated by American Locomotive Company's fornxila 

Table Showing the Principal Dimensions of 



Four Cylinder Locomotives of Europe 



dressed lumber. This platform is 17 inches from the 
ground. 

Fig. 2. Shows this same electric lift truck enroute to 
point of destination of material, the lift feature having 
raised the platform from 17 inches to 23^ inches or 6y!t 
inches clearance from floor level. 

It is estimated that the saving which can be definitely 
allocated and credited to the economics resulting from the 
use of the electric lift truck will equal the first cost or 



cent by a judicious selection of the materials of con- 
struction. 

In regard to the engines for the Northern of Spain, of 
which there are several in operation, the boilers have a 
heating surface of 24S9.5 sq. ft. of which the 251.75 sq. ft. 
in tiie firebox is obtained by the use of a combustion 
chamber 35.4 in. long in conjunction with four water 
tulK's that carry the brick arch. The Schmidt sui^erheater, 
occu])ying 30 flues, has 899.4 sq. ft. The empty weight 



52 



KAIl.UAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1926 



of the locomotive is 207,460 lbs. and in workiiiK order 
22*>.240 lbs. 

Calculations of the tractive effort of these locomotives 
according to the formulae of the American Locomotive 
Co., show that the ratio of tractive efTort to adhesive 
weight, when working simple is very low, falling, in two 



cases, even below 3 ; while, when working compound, there 
are three instances where the ratio falls l)elow 4. In one 
case, that of the Saxony engine, the ratio is higher than 
usual. These ratios were calculated on the basis of a cut- 
off at 85 per cent of the strokes which is in accordance 
with the formula used. 



An Early Railroad Stock Certificate 



Bv J. Snowden Bell 






The New Castle and JTcnchtown Turnpike and Kail- 
road Company, a certificate of the stock of which, issued 
March 29, 1832, is reprudiiced in the accompanying illus- 
tration, was the outcome of the consolidation of two 
tiinif'iki- companies, and was chartered h_\ tlie States of 
Maryland and Delaware, resix>ctively, as a turnpike and 
railroad company, in 1827 and 1829. It extended from 
New Castle, Delaware, to I-'renchtown, on the Elk River, 
a tributary of Chesai>eakc I'-ay, and was 16.4 miles in 
length. It is stated that it was intended to form "part of 
the great highway between the cities of Philadelphia and 
r.altimore." The construction of the road was cuniniinced 
in August, 1830, and it was 
opened, with a single track and 
"turnouts." in February. 18.U. 
It was. for some years thereat tev. 
operated in c o n n e c t i o n with 
steamboats l:)etween 1 'hiladelphia 
and New Castle, and between 
Frenchtown and ISaltiniore, the 
trip from Philadelphia to Balti- 
more occupying from 7:00 A. M. 
to "an early hour in the after- 
noon."' as indefinitely stated in 
a newspajjer advertisement of 
March, 1834. 

The total cost of the New 
Castle & Frenchtown Railroad 
(single track) was $376,487.15: 
estimated cost for second track. 
$92,047.75 ; and estimated cost 
for locomotives anfl cars. 
$40,000.00. 

In the American Edition of 
Woods' "Practical Treatise on 
Raitroadsr Philadelphia. 1832. 
the following statement is made 
as to the first k)Comotive that 
was ojjerated on the road. 

".\ locomotive engine of the latest pattern made by 
Robert Stevenson, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Eng- 
land), has been imported by the company. The 
spokes of the wheels are wrought iron tubes, bell 
shaped at their e.xtremities ; the rim an<l hub cast on 
them — the union being effected by means of borax. 
The wheels are encircled by a wrought iron lire and 
flange — the latter is very diminutive, and will require 
enlargement. The weight of the engine is not 
adapted to a railway of slender proportions, com- 
posed of timber and light rails" (page 532). 
The weight of the locomotive was ^ tons, of which 6 
tons was on the single pair of driving wheels, and it was 
rejxjrted as burninsr one cord of wood, in ])assenger ser- 
vice, on a round trip of ^3i miles, "inclusive of that burnt 
in lighting up the fire, and raising the steam, and in 



waiting uiion steamboats.' The "slender projxjrtions" of 
the New Castle & l-'renchtown Railroad will appear from 
the following statement, on page 531 of the same 
l)ublication : 

"The superstructure is composed of stringpieces 
of Georgia yellow or pitch pine 6 inches square, on 
which iron rails 15 feet 4 inches long, 2% wide, and 
5,s of an inch thick are fastened by iron nails passing 
through 12 olilong holes in each Ixir : beneath the 
extremities of the latter, iron plates are inserted to 
])revent sinking. The iron was imported from Eng- 






¥. 



''/Wu,/, ■ /r,/// . /,/,^»A//(, ,r/,y ■^y/,,^/ /lr„y I'ru'/x'^u. /i,',>.>/,,w//,,„/u ^„ //. 

/.,v;;-V,.'*<;j ,^ ^istnt^f."^//. .1.,/./,/, //,„/:,w, .,,„/ . /C^/ . l«. 






t\ipy$i 



Jif/,^, "•» 1^ ' y^XUK.^^ 



//'^'^^•z^ <$^^<^..V 



Stock Certificate of the New Castle and Frenchtown Turnpike i Raiiroad Company 



.At the date of the iniblication, the stock of the Com- 
pany was quoted at "$37' j for $25 paid." 

The seal of the Company which appears on the certifi- 
cate was adopted by a Resolution of the Board of Di- 
rectors. May 22, 1830. It bears a representation of the 
locomotive "Novelty," of P>raithwaite and Ericsson, which 
was operated in the celebrated Rainhill tests, on the Liver- 
pool & Manchester Railway. England. It was subse- 
quently changed by the substitution of a representation 
of the locomotive "New Castle," which was built in that 
city. 

In 1840. the road was merged into the Philadelphia, 
Wilmington &• Baltimore R. R., by an exchange of stock, 
and has since been operated as a part of the latter. Since 
the completion of the Newcastle & Wilmington R. R., 
the steamboat connections have been discontinued, and 
the road West of the Delaware Junction disused. 



A Good Record on Lubrication and Hot Boxes 

Large Increase in Car Mileage and Reduction in Number of Hot Boxes 
on the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 



Through the kindness of Mr. P. Alquist, master car 
builder of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad 
Company, we are able to present herewith some interesting 
figures on the number of hot boxes each month, mileage 
made and the average number of miles to each hot box, 
and the total number mileage and average miles per year 



These figures mean much more than they convey to the- 
average reader, but when we consider that hot boxes 
mean : 

(a) Increased fuel consumption. 

(b) Delayed trains. 

(c) Overtime to engine and train crews. 









Passenger 


Car Hot B 


oxes and 


Milea 


ge 






























Per cent 
























Increase 


















Per cent 






ni 






1923 






1924 






Reduction 


1925 




Mileage 




Hot 




Average 


Hot 




Average 


Hot 


Under 




Average 


Over 




Boxes 


Mileage 


Mileage 


Boxes 


Mileage 


Mileage 


Boxes 


1923 


Mileage 


Mileage 


1923 


January . . . 


.... 36 


3.350,169 


93,060 


15 


3,559.106 


239,934 


17 




3,703,091 


217,829 




February .. 


.... 28 


3,058,722 


109.240 


13 


3.337,774 


256.752 


17 




3,402,778 


200,163 




March .... 


.... 38 


3473.044 


88.764 


15 


3.570.295 


238,019 


10 




3.775,967 


377,596 




April 


.... 14 


3,386,271 


241.876 


8 


3.569,200 


446.150 


5 




3,749,232 


749,846 




Mav 


.... 10 


3,611,442 


361.144 


9 


3,659,596 


406,622 


3 




3,752,190 


1,250,730 




June 


.... 17 


3,721,738 


218.925 


5 


3,704,978 


740.996 


5 




3,866,115 


773,223 




Julv ...... 


.... 10 


3,885.562 


388,556 


3 


3,923953 


1,307.984 


4 




3,984,247 


996,061 




August . . . 


.... 7 


3.840,105 


548,586 


8 


3,992919 


499,115 


r, 




4,110,889 


822.179 




September . 


. ... 14 


3,650,850 


260,775 


9 


3,850,628 


427,848 


.1 




4,058,045 


811,609 




October . . . 


.... 12 


3,736,057 


311,338 


4 


3,845,128 


961,282 


8 




3.909,900 


488,737 




November . 


.... 8 


3,547,450 


443.431 


11 


3,668,873 


333,534 


1 




3,719,332 


3,719,332 




December . 


.... 11 


3,760,627 


341.875 
209,863 


22 

122 


3.825,803 


173,900 
365,149 


6 
86 


56.5 


4,043,578 


673,929 




Total . . . 


....205 


43,022,037 


44.548,253 


46,075.364 


535,760 


155.0 










Freight 


Car Hot Boxes and Mileage 


























Per cent 






Per cent 






1923 






1924 






Decrease 


1925 




Increase • 




Hot 




Average 


Hot 




.\veragc 


Hot 


m 




Average 


in 




Boxes 


Mileage 


Mileage 


Boxes 


Mileage 


Mileage 


Boxes 


Number 


Mileage 


Mileage 


Mileage 


January . . . 


. 1,479 


20,175,078 


13,641 


1,073 


23,780,200 


22,162 


472 




22,683,402 


48,439 




February . . 


. 946 


16,950,955 


17,918 


972 


23,765.599 


24,450 


646 




24.115,877 


37,331 




March 


. 1,664 


22.421,179 


13,474 


1,314 


27,600,430 


21,004 


714 




26,847,561 


37,602 




April 


. 1,769 


24,485,108 


13,841 


1,242 


26,145,905 


21,051 


456 




27,106,218 


59,443 




May 


. 1,858 


27,925,625 


15,029 


936 


27,202,795 


29,062 


473 




27,305,201 


57,728 




June 


. 1,372 


25,543,388 


18,617 


608 


23,876.497 


39,270 


511 




25,850,785 


50,588 




July 


. 1,345 


25,381.361 


18.870 


686 


23.216,777 


33,843 


414 




26,057,331 


63,133 




Augtist 


. 934 


24.810,527 


26,563 


501 


23.849,324 


47.603 


436 




26,553,595 


60,903 




September . 


. 715 


21,031,406 


29,414 


747 


25,734,439 


34,450 


747 




22,643,428 


46,333 




October . . . 


. 1,203 


30,126,343 


25,042 


732 


29,719,360 


40,600 


732 




■26,789,897 


36,598 




November . 


. 1,166 


29,952,495 


25,602 


766 


27,559,345 


39,578 


493 




24,735,669 


50,173 




December . 


. 1,014 


27,425,911 


27,047 
19,154 


686 


26,369.764 


38,441) 


475 
6,569 


57.7 


24,937.749 


52,500 




Total .... 


.15,465 


296,229,375 


10.263 


308,820,435 


30,090 


305,626,713 


46,525 


132.4 



in Ixjth freight and passenger service for the years 1923, 

1924 and 1925, on that road. 

To all those interested in the f|uestinn of hot boxes or 
lubrication, this is a most remarkable showing as it may 
be noted that the numl>er of hot lioxes per month runs as 
low as only 3, with a car mileage of 1,. 307,984 miles to 
one hot box. 

The reduction in the number of hot Iwxes in passenger 
service was reduced from 20,S in 1023 to only 86 in 192.^ 
or more than 56 per cent, while the increased average 
mileage to each hot box was increased from 209,863 to 
535,760, an increase of more than 155 per cent. 

In the freight service the total number of hot boxes 
per year was reduced from 15,465 in 1923 to 6,569 in 

1925 or 57.7 j>er cent, while the average number of miles 
to each hot box was increased from 19,154 in 1923 to 
46,525 in 1925, an increase of 132.4 per cent. 



(d) K.xtra expense to set out, repair and pick up cars 
on line, and that this latter item has been estimated at 
about $20.00 per car, we then begin to realize what this 
good record means. 

If one half the cars with hot boxes in 1923 were set 
out, which is probably too high an estimate, then at the 
alKive estimated cost we woukl have 7,730 x $20 = $154,- 
600 as the cost to the railway contpany for hot boxes that 
year, and by that same token the saving in 1925 would 
be $76,620 alone, to say nothing of the exjTense of de- 
layed trains, accidents, wrecks, increased fuel, etc., all (if 
which are closfly related to, and not infrequently caused 
by hot boxes. 

There is much food for thought in this display which 
is most creditable to the head of the department, and 
those who may have contributed to such satisfactory re- 
sults. 



S3 



Self-Propelled Cars and Locomotives* 

Mr. A. H. Candef, General Engineer, Wcstinghouse Electric & Mfg. Company 



We live in an autuniuhilc a^i.'- There arc approximately 
21,000,000 licensed vehicles in the United States, of which 
approximately 17,000,0(K) are passenger cars. Of course, 
some of these are electrically driven and some are pro- 
pelled by steam, but those projielled by the gasoline engine 
far exceed those proix;lled by other means. With this 
stui^endous numlx»r of gasoline engines operating in all 
l>arts of the country you may wonder why there are not 
more of them applied to the propulsion of rail vehicles. 

In the first place, practically all of the intensive develop- 
ment of internal combustion engines for transportation 
work has been in engine sizes below 100 horsepower for 
highway vehicles. Lately there have been engines of this 
tyi>e built with 105 or 110 horsepower and there are some 
l)eing developed which will rate in the neighborhood of 
175 horsepower at 1,700 or 1,800 revolutions per minute. 
Where these higher powered engines are required the 
])roduction is so small that the price is necessarily high. 
There have been relatively few engines available for rail 
car work which have had the requisite power and the 
stamina necessary for the continuous duty imposed bv 
this class of service. If you consider that one year's serv- 
ice in a rail car with ten hours of service per day and 300 
days per year or 3,000 hours of duty is just the same 
hours of duty that you would get out of your automobile 
engine if you traveled 6,000 miles per year during a ten 
vear period and your average driving speed was 20 miles 
\x:t hour, you may see that an engine for rail car work 
must be of a difTerent character than the ordinary automo- 
bile engine. 

In the second place, it requires real power to propel a 
car of the size of a rail car, due largely to the head-end 
air resistance. .\ few simple calculations will show this. 

Wind resistance = kSY- 
k = .0035 for flat end car. 

S ^ 115 square feet projected area of end of car. 
V ^ Car speed, assumed at 50 miles per hour. 

From this you will find that the power required at the 
wheels to overcome the air resistance alone is 135 horse- 
]X)wer. If you then consider this car maintaining a speed 
of 50 miles per hour against a head wind of 20 miles per 
hour you will find that this figure has jumped to 265 
horsepower at the wheels. Comparable figures for a pas- 
senger automobile having a projected area of approxi- 
mately 30 square feet would be 35 and 69 horsepower 
respectively. This indicates that rail car engines must l^e 
of relatively large size and explains the marked tendency 
toward the use of large engines in this class of vehicle. 

There is considerable history in the development of the 
self-propelled rail car. and we are not through yet. As 
near as can Ik? determined the first steam rail car was 
brought out in 1847. A compressed air car (storage at 
2,500 pounds per square inch) was used on the 2nd Ave- 
nue R. R. in Np^f York in 1879. Storage battery cars 
were use in France in 1885, while gasoline electric 
and gasoline rail cars were brought out in the nineties. 
From 1897 on there has lieen a rather systematic develop- 
ment and in 1901 the first McKeen car was brought out. 
In 1902 the French Westinghouse Com]>any built about 
50 gasoline electric cars for Hungary and a number were 
built in the United States. Other cars were lieing devel- 
oped in the Ignited States about that time. 

One of the handicaps which confronted the builders of 
this type of rail car or locomotive was the gasoline engine. 

•A paper presented before the Iowa Engineering Society, Mason City, 
Iowa, January 28. 1925. 



The methods and inaterial> of today were unknown then, 
yet there are a cousiderable number of these older types 
of cars still running and showing satisfactory economies. 
But the war and the subsequent automotive development 
and expansion have brought difTerent methods and ma- 
terials and fuel economies which have been used effec- 
tively in the consistent development leading up to the 
self-propelled rail rar of today. 

The demand for rail cars has increased rapidly since 
the war due to high operating costs, especially of branch 
lines, and due to the falling off of passenger and freight 
traffic. This traffic has fallen off largely due to the higher 
rates of fare and the decrease in operating cost of the 
privately owned automobile, of the bus, and of the truck. 
The first attempts to meet this demand for rail cars were 
made by taking a commercial truck chassis, equipping it 
with flanged wheels and fitting it with a passenger carry- 
ing body. In .some cases a light weight four wheel truck 
was supplied for the front, the two wheels being retained 
in the rear to permit the application of standard commer- 
cial forms of mechanical drive. These were reasonably 
successful, but they also showed the railroads that a 
heavier vehicle with greater capacity was required f(jr 
general service. Thus since 1920 we have seen a gradual 
increase in car weights and capacities, necessitating larger 
engines, until now there are standard cars on the market 
for nearly all classes of service and with engine capacities 
up to 250 horsepower, capable of hauling a standard rail- 
road coaches a trailer. 

The one thing which has been very noticeable in this 
development is the shrinking market for the smaller cars 
as the larger cars are brought out. We have been trying 
to determine the economical limit in engine size for this 
type of car and it seems that we have just about reached 
it with the gasoline engine of 250 to 275 horsepower. 
Larger engines will have some field, but will undoubtedly 
have to be built on an uneconomical production basis, as 
the Diesel engine will soon enter the field in the larger 
capacities. 

A brief review of the forms of transmission of power 
from the engine to the wheels may I^e of some interest. 
For light cars and low engine capacities the mechanical 
transmission is simple and has considerable merit, this me- 
chanical transmission Ijeing similar to the standard auto- 
motive gear-shifting system. To drive more than one 
pair of wheels, however, requires some complication, 
especially on a vehicle which has swivel trucks. This 
complication has been taken care of very well in several 
different makes of cars now considered standardized. 

In the larger capacity mechanically driven cars gear 
shifting becomes quite a prohleiu and wear and tear on 
the gearing is quite a factor. .■Mso. with gear shifting 
transmissions, when "clutching-in" the engine speed must 
be relatively low and consequently the power low, so that 
full horsepMDwer is not available during acceleration. Fur- 
ther, when running at high speed the engine speed is also 
high with resultant unnecessary wear of the engine. 

Hydraulic transmission has been proposed and tried. 
This has a nunil>er of advantages, such as smooth speed 
changing, engine speed inde])endent of car speed, and ease 
of control. However, the limitations of this form of drive 
have not yet been overcome, .\mong the major limitations 
at present are leakage and saiX)nification of the oil. This 
system may have some future, but considerable develop- 
ment must first be carried out. 

The electrical transmission is the onlv satisfactorv sys- 



54 



February. 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



55 



teni for the transmission of real power. Electrical appa- 
ratus for railway service has for a background over 35 
\-ears of service and development and has been thoroughly 
tried and proven. A few of the advantages are listed 
below ; 

1. Railway motors mounted on the trucks require only 
cable connections to the car body. 

2. Gearing of motors to the axles is simple. 

3. Power plant may be located in the most convenient 
place on the car. 

4. Engine speed is independent of the car speed. This 
means that maximum engine power is available at 
all times for acceleration or for high speed running, 

yet when the power required to maintain a given 
speed is lower than the maximum, the engine speed 



the greater the horsepower and the lower the weight and 
space. In recent years there has been a rather consistent 
effort on the part of various Diesel engine designers to 
produce an engine to meet rail propulsion requirements. 
The most noteworthy of these is the four stroke cycle, 
solid injection engine Iniilt by the \Vm. Beardmore & Co., 
Ltd., of Glasgow. Scotland, and of which there are nine 
in successful operation on rail cars of the Canadian Na- 
tional Railways. This engine is a modification of an air- 
craft engine developed Iiy them for the British Admiralty. 
This engine compares very favorably in size and weight 
with the modern gasoline engine, as it weighs but 16 
pounds per brake horsepower. 

It may be assumed that you are all familiar with the 
principles of operation of the gasoline engine. The Diesel 




ighouse Gasol 



This 



mcreases 



may be lowered corresi»ndingl 
engine life. 

5. Simplicity of control. 

6. Long life and low maintenance of the transmission 
as a whole. 

The electrical transmission has been criticized by some 
as having a low efficiency as compared to mechanical forms 
of drive. We have found, however, that properly de- 
signed electrical equipment is not deserving of this criti- 
cism : further, that the efficiency does not decrease with 
increased life, as does the mechanical drive. 

Xow let us consider the Diesel engine. In the past this 
type of engine has been large and heavy, and in such a form 
has not been particularly suitable for rail car purposes. 
There have been some of these engines operating in Swe- 
den and other parts of Europe for 12 or 13 years in rail 
car service, but we may assume that if they were an un- 
qualified success that Europe and America would be using 
these in large quantities, yet there are only about 20 in 
service. This engine weighs about 70 ]X)unds ix;r horse- 
power, whereas the modern gasoline engine weighs ap- 
proximately 15 pounds per horsepower. In general the 
sizes are also in proportion to- the weights. The fuel 
economy of the Diesel engine, however, makes it the more 
desirable type. 

The flevelopment of the Diesel engine until recent years 
has been chiefly for stationary work and for marine pur- 
pfises. In the stationary field the prime rec|uisile has been 
continuity of service and long life. Such engines have 
been extremely large and of slow speed, weighing from 
150 to .WO fX)Unds ]>er hr)rsc]>ower. The marine engine, 
hfiwever, must necessarily be built to conserve sjKice and 
weight, but where direct-connected to the propeller must 
he of relatively slow speed. These engines, then, approach 
railway needs. For the propulsion of rail vehicles weight 
and space are the prime ref|uisites and the speed of the 
engine is of secondary imjxirtance except as it may affect 
the space and weight, for in general, the higher the speed 



r in Service on the Reading Railroad 

engine, however, is not as generally understood and a lirief 
description of its fundamentals may be of interest to some 
of you. 

In a four stroke cycle engine, starting with the explo- 
sion' of the fuel, the piston moves down in the tylinder 
with the gases of combustion expanding and being trans- 
formed into mechanical energy. The return stroke of the 
piston expels the gases and up to this point the oi>eration 
is similar to that of the gasoline engine. In the next down 
stroke of the piston, however, plain air is drawn into the 
cylinder where in the gasoline engine a fuel mixture is 
drawn in. On the fourth or upstroke of the piston this 
air is compressed adiabatically .so that its temperature is 
sufficiently high to ignite vaporized fuel injected into the 
cylinder. Thus the comliustion occurs with the proper 
injection of the atomized fuel into the cylinder. 

The so-called "full Diesel" uses high pressure air for the 
purposes of fuel injection. This pressure air at 800 to 
l,O0O pounds pressure per square inch insures proi)er 
atomization of the fuel if the injection nozzle is properly 
designed. The air compressor for this high pressure air, 
however, involves some complication, and the solid injec- 
tion system has been develoj^ed to introduce atomized fuel 
into the cylinder without the use of pressure air. In this 
system the apertures of the nozzle are very small and the 
fuel is sulijccted to very high mechanical pressure to 
vajwrize it through the small o]>enings. 

In such a development as is now going on it is only 
natural that engines take varied forms according to the 
ideas of the designers, and it will probably be years before 
the economically correct |)rincii)les are generally accepted 
an<l designs standardized as they have been in the ga.soline 
engine. Today there are full Diesels, solid injection en- 
gines, and semi-Diesels ; there are two-stroke cycle engines 
and four-stroke cycle engines ; there are simj^le, compound, 
and double-acting engines ; port acavenged engines and 
engines acavenged through valves in the cylinder head : 
cylinders in line and "\"' engines : vertical cylinders and 



56 



RAILWAY AND L>OCOMOTlVE ENGINEERING 



February. 1926 



liorizontal cylinders ; single crankshafts and parallel crank- 
shafts. Each individual design has some points of ad- 
vantage. 

We look forward with a great deal of interest to the 
application of the Diesel tyix; of engine to rail car work. 
We also expect that engine sizes and weights will continue 
to decrease until eventually they may be applied to high- 
way vehicles. 

You are uiidnulUcdly interested in the ecotioniies of the 
rail car for light passenger traffic or launch line service. 
The steam train for this service oix?rates at a cost per 
mile between $0.75 and $1.50 with an average of proi)ably 
$0.90. Available data indicates that the comparative fig- 
ures for rail cars using gasoline engines are from $0.25 
to $0.45 while Diesel engined cars will f)pcrate at figures 
appro.ximately 25 to 35 per cent lower than the latter. On 
account of the lack of accurate maintenance data on the 
Diesel engine time will be required to verify this estimate, 
although there is every reason to believe that the mainten- 
ance of a Diesel engine in railway service should be low- 
er than that of the gasoline engine. In addition to this 
reduction in operating expense, due to the use of the self- 
propelled car, there is a reduction of attendant facilities. 

One of the ])roblcms confronting the railroad executive 
is the reduction of operating expenses of the "thin"' lines. 
The self-propelled car has proven that it will effectually 
do this. But why be content with a reduction of ex- 
wnses alone when it appears that this type of car can be 
used as a tool to regain some of the traffic now being car- 
ried by automobile and bus? 

I have had some opjwrtunity of traveling through Iowa, 
and have talked with a number of local traveling men. I 
find that they have difficulty in "jutr.ping"' from town to 
town due to limited train service, and are almost forced to 
the use of their own cars in order to cover their territory 
thoroughlv. even though the actual cost per mile is higher 
and driving is tiresome and disagreeable, especially in wet 
or cold weather. An analysis of this problem (admittedly 
without complete data) would indicate that wider use of 
the rail car with more frequent service would still permit 
large reductions in operating expenses and would result 
in considerable increase in rail travel. To accomplish this 
eflFectively, however, will require co-operation of the vari- 
ous railroads, as the desired result would not be attained 
if only one or two roads were to adopt this policy. 

The application of gasoline and Diesel engines to loco- 
motive purposes is in its infancy. As in the rail car. the 
weight and space requirements of the Diesel engine have 
limited its application to locomotives where real blocks of 
|)ower have been required. Gasoline engines have been 
available for the smaller weights of locomotives and have 
been used rather extensively in industrial work. For con- 
tinuous heavy duty, however, the fuel costs have been a 
severe handicap. 

We have recently seen the application of both gasoline 
and Diesel engines to switching locomotives. The avail- 
able horsepower per ton of locomotive weight on drivers 
has been so low that the locomotives are not as serviceable 
as the steam locomotive but are more in the nature of an 
experiment, or rather a step in development of the ulti- 
mate. Thus, the Ingersoll-Rand Diesel locomotive has 5 
horsepower (ler ton for the 60 ton size and 6 horsepower 
per ton for the 100 ton size. The Brill-Westinghouse 75 
ton switcher, using 500 horsepower in gasoline engines, 
has 6.66 horsepower per ton. The Baldwin- Westinghouse 
1,000 horsepower Diesel has 11 horsejwwer per ton on 
drivers. Designs are now underway by various manu- 
facturers for locomotives having as high as 8 to 14 horse- 
power per ton weight on drivers. .\n electric locomotive 
can easily develop 25 to 35 horsepower per ton. Steam 
locomotives will develop from 18 to 23 or 24. These 



figures are merely used as a comparison of the "liveliness" 
of the various tyiK-s of units. It has been demonstrated 
in service that the low jxjwered Diesel units with the elec- 
trical transmission can develo]) more than enough tractive 
effort to slij) the wheels and thus can liaul immense trains, 
but this maximum tractive effort limits the s|)eed to a very 
low value on account of the limited horsepower. .As an 
example, a 60 ton locomotive- i-qui|)])ed with a MO horse- 
ixiwer engine developing Mi.QOi) ])ounds tractive effort 
corresjionding to 30 |)er cent adhesion can attain a sj)ee<l 
of less than two miles i:)er hour. In order to increase the 
speed it is necessary to reduce the tractive efTt)rt on ac- 
count of the limited jxawer available. Thus, the time re- 
quired to switch a given tonnage is relatively high as 
compared with steam switching. 

Locomotive m.tnufacturers have realized the necessity 
of light weight high sjieed Diesel engines and have been 
instrumental in imjiressing this need on the engine build- 
ers. Every pound of unnecessary weight and every extra 
foot of room required for the engine and transmission 
means weight in the locomotive structure which might be 
eliminated. With limited axle loadings this means extra 
a.xles in some cases, so that the total locomotive weight 
maj' go up much faster than the increase in engine weight 
and size. The converse is also true to some extent. It 
may be forecasted that the ultimate switching locomotive 
will weigh in. the neighborhood of 100 tons, all on drivers, 
and will have at least 1,000 horseiX)wer in engines, while 
the ultimate passenger or freight locomotive will weigh 
in the neighborhood of 250 tons, with 80 per cent of this 
weight on drivers, and equipped with about 3,000 horse- 
power in engines. 

One of the big problems of the self-propelled car or 
locomotive is that of providing power for the auxiliaries, 
such as radiator fans, air compressors, battery charging- 
api«ratus, and engine starting. Direct connection of fans 
and compressors to the engine is not often desirable or 
feasible. \\'ith the electrical system of power transmis- 
sion electrical energy is available for these auxiliaries, but 
even then the problems are not all solved. In order to use 
the engine power most efficiently it is necessary to provide 
for varying the voltage of the main generator which is 
coupled directly to the engine. The operation of auxili- 
aries from this varying voltage is not entirely satisfactorv. 
The exciter for the excitation of the main generator is 
also of varying voltage, this characteristic being inherently 
necessary for the proper regulation of the engine loading. 
The solution of this problem in the case of the locomotive 
seems to be in the provision of an auxiliary generator 
having constant voltage characteristics, but with the rail 
car the addition of the third rotating machine is undesir- 
able. As this subject is rather broad and the time limited 
I will not attempt to go further into the various phases of 
auxiliary power supply, but have introduced this subject 
to illustrate some of the problems we have to meet in the 
application of engines to locomotive or car work. 

I do not wish to leave with you the idea that the gasi 
line or Diesel rail car and the Diesel locomotive are goin^ 
to supplant the steam locomotive in the immediate future. 
I'ndoubtedly the rail car is developed sufficiently at this 
time to become the economical substitute for the steam 
locomotive in several classes of service. Locomotives 
equipped with internal combustion engines, however, have 
proven their desirability in but one class of service — that 
of light switching duty. As the ratio of cost between the 
Diesel locomotive and the steam locomotive is now quite 
considerable, the railroads will re(|uire conclusive demon- 
strations of the economies of the new form of motive 
power before they buy in quantities, and it will be many 
vears before the intensely interesting and spectacular steam 
locomotive vanishes from our sight. 



Snap Shots — By the Wanderer 



I may be mistaken but it does not seem to me tbat the 
public, in general, have ever taken the interest in me- 
chanics and mechanism that the subject deserves. A lec- 
turer on beasts or birds or fishes or flov^rers, metaphysics 
or psychology can gather audiences and shekels where a 
speaker on locomotives or marine engines would talk to 
empty benches. A machine or an invention must be 
spectacular in order to attract contemporaneous attention. 
It is more than probable that Archimedes rushing naked 
through the streets of Syracuse and shouting, "Eureka," 
(I have found it) was much more widely commented 
upon, at the time, than was his discovery of the law of 
specific gravities which his conduct announced. 

This lack of contemporaneous interest in mechanisms is 
especially marked in the case of the Annual Register. 
This publication appeared annually in book form from 
1758 to 1806, and consisted of volumes ranging from 525 
to 1,100 [Xiges in size. Each volume contained a story 
of the year. That is. there was a history of the year, 
copies of the principal state papers of the nations of the 
earth ; accounts of the characters of prominent personages ; 
stories of natural history and of antiquities. There were 
miscellaneous essays, some poetry and book reviews, and 
a series of articles on "Useful Projects." It contained 
accounts of two-headed calves ; of tlie Dutch method of 
curing herrings, and of preserving cabbages, but in the 
whole series there is not one word regarding the develop- 
ment of the steam engine, except for the Ixire listing of 
a patent in the catalogue of the annual output of the 
British patent office. There is not a reference to the 
work of Cugnot or Watt or Murdock or Trevethick. Not 
a lisp about the invention of the condenser and the crank. 
As far as the Annual Register is concerned there were 
no steam vessels built by Perrier or JoufTrey or Fitch or 
Symington. Just nothing doing, to use a bit of slang. 
Yet here was a development on land and water that was 
destined to revolutionize the civilization of the world that 
for nearly fifty years did not get so much as a mention 
from a great periodical that was supposed to emlxidy the 
chief and imixjrtant events of the current time. To say 
the least, it seems to be passing strange. 

We do a little better now, for everything seems to be 
news for the mcxlern reporter, but the public takes but 
scant interest in mechanical devclojjment, and unless the 
promoter pays for the display, his work gets a mere men- 
tion, while the marriage of an obscure lawyer to his 
stenographer will get a display heading and pictures 
galore. Why is it? I don't quite understand it. Do you? 
Perhaps Carlyle's summary of the character of the people 
of England three-quarters of a century ago, and I'uck's 
immortal quip can e.xplain it. .\t least they are plausible 
explanations. 



I had an interesting example of rigid discipline and an 
equally rigid economy in little things set before me some 
time ago. It was the case of the power plant of a New 
England cotton mill. I walked in to the boiler room and 
the place was as silent as a deserted village. There was 
not a trace of escaping steam at any of the innumerable 
joints of the piping. No smoke, no noise, no steam and 
the fireman in a comfortable chair reafling. In the en- 
gine room there was a little difference for there was the 
noise of the click of the Corliss valves and the snap of 
the main belt at the fly wheel. Sp<')tless cleanliness every- 
where, and the engineer floing nothing apparently but 
reading. The superintendent explainefl that as every 
steam leak represented an evcr-incrasing lump of coal, 



and as their coal cost money, they insisted that tliere be 
no leaks. They burned Pocahontas coal because, while 
it was the most expensive f>er pound of coal, it was the 
cheaj>est per pound of steam generated. 

The rules were very strict as to the conduct of the men 
while on dut}-. They should not read any thing except 
that which the company provided ; but the company would 
provide any thing in the form of technical literature that 
the man might ask for. In other words the company 
required that the men should either be busy at the com- 
pany's work or should be busy making themselves more 
proficient in the execution of that work. 

Certainly the method seemed to be a success if the cost 
[>er horsepower, including the cost of literature, is any 
criterion, as the figures given me were lower than I 
thought possible to achieve. The superintendent thought 
it came because of the stoppage of little leaks. 

This was recalled to me quite markedly recently by 
some locomotive indicator diagrams that were up for 
examination. Tliey were beautiful cards as far as steam 
distribution and the arrangement of the valve gear were 
concerned ; but there was a leakage at the ends of the 
main valves, allowing the steam to blow across and raise 
the back pressure line, and this little leak was responsible 
for a loss in the mean efl^ective pressure. If it had not 
existed the mean effective would have risen about five 
per cent at startiiig ; nearly six per cent at 16.3 miles per 
hour and four per cent at 22.5 miles i>er hour. This 
probably does not account for all of the steam lost, as 
there must have been a steady stream into the stack. 

Just for the sake of passing the time, let us do a little 
calculating and assume a loss of five per cent. And five 
per cent of the steam, while running, woiild not be far 
from five per cent of the coal. Let us suppose further 
that we have a grate with an area of 80 sq. ft. and that, 
at an average running sj^eed of 20 miles per hour, we are 
burning 70 lbs. of coal per sq. ft. per hour and that we 
have a division 140 miles long. That represents a run- 
ning consumi>tion for the division of 39,200 lbs. of which 
five per cent or 1,960 lbs. is uselessly burned. Ten 
engines, in this condition covering the division daily 
would waste 3,577 tons annually which, at $2.00 per ton, 
would represent tlie tidy little loss of $7,154 a year. 
Quite well worth looking after. We are so apt to forget 
our old childhood rhyme of, ''Little drops of water and 
little grains of sand . . ." with the other saying about 
trifles and perfection, when we are looking at or consider- 
ing little leaks, that the bulking of these little things 
escape attention. Perhaps we will awaken to their im- 
IMMiancc some day. 



Notes on Domestic Railroads 
Locomotives 

The Raltimore & Ohio Railroad has placed an order for 2.t 
.Santa Fc type Incomotivcs with the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The Hookinp; Valley Railway is asking for prices on the repair 
of friiin one In 16 Santa I<"e type locomotives. 

The Gulf, Mobile & Northern Railway has placed an order for 
4 Mikado type and 4 Pacific type locomotives with the Baldwin 
lyicomotive Works. 

The Potlatch Lumber Company has ordered one 2-6-6-2 tyi>c 
locomotive from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The Union Pacific Railroad has placed an order for 9 202-fon 
three-cylinder. Overland type locomotives, with the American 
I^icomotivc Company. 

The Mobile & Ohio Railroad has placed an order for S Mikado 



58 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February. 1926 



type and 4 Pacific type locuinuiives with the Baldwin Ixjcomotivc 
Works. 

The New York Central Railroad has placed an order for one 
750 h. p. oil-electric locomotive with the American Locomotive 
Company, The (iencral Electric Company and the Ingcrsoll-Rand 
Company. 

The Western Pacitic Railroad has ordered 5 Mikado type loco- 
motives from the American Locomotive Company. 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad has placed 
an order for 10 electric locomotives with the .American Locomo- 
tive Company and the General KIcctric Company. 

The I'ennsylvania Railroad has placed an order for 100 loco- 
motive tenders with the Baldwin l.ucomotive Works. 

The Norfolk Southern Railroad has ordered 5 Consolidation 
type locomotives from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The Paulista Railway of Mexico has contracted for 4 switch- 
ing locomotives with the International EHectric Company. 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad has placed 
an order for 5 electric passenger and 3 electric switching loco- 
motives with the Westinghouse Hlectric & Mfg. Company and the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The Illinois Terminal Company has ordered one switching 
locomotive from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The Great Northern Railway has placed an order for 17 loco- 
motive tenders with the American Locomotive. Company. 

The Florida East Coast Railroad has placed an order for 10 
Mountain type and 6 switching locomotives with the American 
I-ocomotive Company. 

The North River Coal & WratT Company has ordered one 
switching type locomotive from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The .Alberta & Great Waterways Railway has placed an order 
for one locomotive with the Canadian Locomotive Works. 

The Akron, Canton & Youngstown Railroad is inquiring for 
2 switching eight-wheel type locomotives. 

The Tennessee Coal & Iron Company has ordered 2 switching 
type locomotives from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The Carnegie Steel Company is inquiring for one locomotive 
tender. 

The Lehigh Valley Railroad has placed an order for one 300 
horsepower niesel electric switching locomotive with the Mc- 
intosh Seymour Corporation. 



Freight Cars 



The Chicago & North Western Railway has placed an order 
with the Pullman Car & Mfg. Co. for 150 ore cars. 

The Chicago, Burlingrton & Quincy Railroad has placed an 
order with the Pullman Car & Mfg. Co. for 1,000 box cars. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad has placed an order with the Car- 
negie Steel Co. for 100,000 steel car wheels. 

The Northwestern Refrigerator Line has placed an order for 
325 steel underframes with the .\merican Car & Foundry Co. 

The Buffalo &• Su.squehanna Railroad contemplates putting steel 
underframes on 200 wooden box cars. 

The Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Railway is inquiring 
for 100 ballast, 75 flat. 100 or more 55-ton hopper and 100 or 
more 70-ton hopper cars. 

The Missouri Pacific Railroad has placed an order for 50 
70-fon gondola cars with the Pressed Steel Car Company. 

The Seaboard .Mr Line Railway is inquiring for 1,000 to 1,500 
40-ton ventilated box cars and 1,000 to 1,500 gondolas. 

The Canadian National Railways plan the repairing of 500 
box and dump cars in their own shops. 

The Wabash Railway has ordered 10 automobile box cars from 
the .American Car & Foundry Co. 

The Northern Pacific Railway has placed an order with the 
Pullman Car & Mfg. Co. for 150 ore cars. 

The Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste Marie Railroad has 
placed an order for 500 freight cars with the Pullman Car & 
Mfg. Co. 

The Southern Railway has placed an order with the Lenoir 
City Car Works to rebuild 1,500 50-ton steel gondola cars. The 
cars are to be rebuilt with -wooden floors and sides and converted 
into comiKisite cars. 

The Wichita Falls & Southern Railroad has placed an order 
with the .American Car & Foundry Co. for 50 40-ton box cars. 

The Illinois Central Railroad is inquiring for 2,300 50-ton gon- 
dolas, 50 caboose cars, 4 air dump cars and 200 flat bottom gon- 
dola cars. 

The Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic Railway has given a 
contract for rebuilding 100 flat cars to the Virginia Bridge & 
Iron Company. 

The Chica.o Burlington & Quincy Railroad has ordered 1,000 
box cars from the Pullman Car & Mfg. Corporation. 



The Chicago &• North Western Railway has ordered 250 under- 
frames from the Ryan Car Company. This company has also 
ordered 225 freight car superstructures from the General Amer- 
ican Car Company, 225 from the Illinois Car & Mfg. Co., and ISO 
ore cars from the Pullman Car & Mfg. Corporation. 

The l^ltimore & Dhin Railroad has ordered 1,000 hopper cars 
of 70 tons capacity from the Standard Steel Car Company and 
1,000 from the Bethlehem Steel Company. 

The .American Tar Products Company is inquiring for 50 tank 
cars of 50 tons and 8,000 gal. capacity. 

The Southern Pacific Railroad is inquiring for 1,100 box cars 
and 500 gondola cars. They will also build 500 gondola cars in 
their own shops. 

The Union Pacific Railroad has awarded the following orders 
for cars: 500 ballast cars to the Pullman Car & Mfg. Corpora- 
tion; 500 ballast cars tu the .American Car & Foundry Company; 
700 all steel automobile cars to the General American Tank Car 
Company, and 300 all-steel automobile cars to the Pennsylvania 
Car Company. 

The Illinois Central Railroad is inquiring for 3,000 or 4,000 
miscellaneous freight cars and some passenger equipment. 

The Florida East Coast Railway has ordered 40 caboose cars 
from the Mount Vernon Car Mfg. Company. 

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacitic Railway is expected to 
enter the market for 2,750 miscellaneous freight cars. 

The Great Northern Railroad is in the market for 100 auto- 
mobile cars. 

The South .African Railways are inquiring through the car 
builders for 25 high-side gondola cars of 76 tons capacity. 

The Anaconda Copper Mining Company has ordered 20 air 
dump cars from the Slagor Car Corporation. 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway will place orders 
for repairs to 1,000 to 2,000 stock cars. 

The Missouri Pacific Railroad is inquiring for 600 40-ton box 
car bodies. 

The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad has ordered 
25 caboose cars from the Magor Car Corporation. 

The Mobile & Ohio Railroad has placed an order for 500 
automobile cars with the American Car & Foundry Company. 

The New York Central Railroad has ordered 500 automobile 
box cars of 55 tons capacity from the Standard Steel Car Com- 
pany. 

The Chicago & North Western Railway has ordered 250 steel 
underframes from the Pressed Steel Car Company, and for 250 
general service gondola cars with the American Car & Foundry 
Company. 
The Fruit Growers Express is inquiring for 300 underframes. 
The Valley Camp Coal Company is inquiring for from 30 to 40 
hopper cars of 70 tons capacity. 

The Chicago & North Western Railway has ordered 250 Hart 
improved ballast and work cars from the Rodger Ballast Car 
Company. 
The Roxana Petroleum Corp. is inquiring for 500 tank cars. 
The Reading Company has placed an order for 15 refrigerator 
cars with the .American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Jones & Lauglilin Steel Company is inquiring for 50 double 
drop ore cars. 

The .Allen Garcia Company has placed an order for 90 com- 
posite cars with the .American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Missouri Pacific Railroad is inquiring for 600 double- 
sheathed box car bodies of 40 tons capacity and repairs to trucks. 
They are also inquiring for 50 gondola cars of 70 tons capacity. 
The Swift Company, Chicago, III., are inquiring for 300 under- 
frames for refrigerator cars. 

The Kansas City, Mexico & Orient Railway will construct 50 
bo.x cars in its own shops. 

The Mobile & Ohio Railroad has ordered 500 automobile box 
cars from the .American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Chicago & North Western Railway has placed an order 
for 500 automobile box cars with the Standard Steel Car Com- 
pany. 

The Wabash Railway has ordered 5 steel under frame auto- 
mobile box cars from the American Car & Foundry Co. 

The Great Northern Railway is expected to enter the market 
soon for 1.000 automobile cars. 

The New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad has ordered 200 
steel freight car underframes from the Pressed Steel Car Com- 
pany. 

The St. Louis Southwestern Railway is inquiring for 26 steel 
underframes for caboose cars. 

The Southern Pacific Company is constructing 500 freight cars 
in its shops at Sacramento, Calif. This company is also inquir- 
ing for 2.000 freight cars. 

The Wichita Falls & Southern Railroad has ordered 50 box 
cars from the -American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad has changed its 
inquiry from 1.500 box cars to 1,000 box cars. 

The Nashville, Chattanooga & St. I-ouis Railway is inquiring; 
for from 50 to 100 ballast cars and 75 flat cars. 



February, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



59 



The Illinois Central Railroad has ordered 400 automobile 
cars from the American Car & Foundry Company and 400 from 
the Pullman Car & Mfg. Corporation. 

The Independent Oil & Gas Company has placed an order for 
50 tank cars with the Permsylvania Tank Car Company. 



Passenger Cars 



The Atlantic Coast Line Railway has placed an order for 25 
coaches, 30 express cars, 10 passenger-baggage, 5 baggage-mail 
and 2 postal cars with the Pullman Car & Mfg. Corporation. 

The Mobile & Ohio Railroad has placed an order for 2 par- 
tition coaches, 2 straight coaches and 6 baggage express cars 
with the American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Great Northern Railway has ordered 6 baggage gas- 
electric motor cars from the Electro-Motive Company. 

The Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit Company is inquiring for 
201 articulated subway car bodies and trucks. 

The Pullman Car & Mfg. Company will build 300 sleeping cars 
for the Pullman Company. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad has ordered 25 coaches and 
15 combination baggage and mail cars from the Pullman Car & 
Manufacturing Corporation; 15 baggage cars from the Bethlehem 
Shipbuilding Corporation, and 10 horse express cars, 3 postal 
cars and 5 mail compartment cars from the American Car & 
Foundry Company. 

The Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste Marie Railroad has 
placed an order for 2 parlor cars with the Pullman Car & Mfg. 
Corporation. 

The New York, Westchester Sc Boston Railway contemplates 
coming into the market soon for 20 multiple unit cars. 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad has placed 
an order for 12 multiple unit motor cars and 15 trailers with the 
Osgood Bradley Car Company. 

The Duluth, Missabe & Northern has ordered 2 power units for 
equipping one combination baggage and passenger motor car from 
the Railway Motors Corporation. 

The Union Pacific Railroad has ordered 10 baggage cars, 5 
horse-baggage cars and 2 baggage-mail cars from the American 
Car & Foundry Company, and 15 coach smoking cars, 10 observa- 
tion cars and 5 dining cars from the Pullman Car & Manufac- 
turing Corporation. 

The Duluth & Iron Range has ordered 2 power units for equip- 
ping one combination baggage and passenger motor car from the 
Railway Motors Corporation. 

The Chicago & North Western Railway has ordered 3 com- 
bination mail-baggage and passenger gas-electric cars from the 
Electro-Motive Company. 

The Union Pacific Railroad has placed an order for 5 dining 
cars. 10 observation cars, and 15 coaches with the Pullman Car & 
Mfg. Corporation, and 17 passenger cars with the American Car 
& Foundry Company. 

The Central Railroad of New Jersey is inquiring for 25 coaches. 
5 combination passenger and baggage cars and 5 baggage-express 
cars. 

The Central Railroad of New Jersey is inquiring for 25 steel 
coaches, 5 passenger-baggage and 5 baggage-mail cars. 

The Chicago & .Alton Railroad has ordered 2 power units for 
equipping one combination baggage and passenger motor car 
from the Railway Motors Corporation. 

The Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Railway is inquiring 
for 4 steel passenger and baggage cars. 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad has ordered 
12 multiple unit motor cars and 15 multiple unit trailer cars from 
the Osgood-Bradley Car Company. 

The Chicago & North Western Railway has placed an order 
for 3 mail-baggage-passenger gas-electric motor cars with the 
Eloctro-Motive Company. 

The Mobile &■ Ohio Railroad has ordered 6 combination baggage 
and express cars and 4 coaches from the American Car & Foun- 
dry Company. 

The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad has ordered 
5 gasoline electric self-propelled passenger coaches. 

The Missouri Pacific Railroad has ordered 2 club cars, 3 
straight coaches, 3 divided coaches, 2 chair cars, 2 mail and coach 
cars, 2 steel chair cars, 2 combination coach and baggage cars 
and 2 combination passenger, baggage and mail cars from the 
.American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad has placed an order for 40 
passenger cars with the Pullman Car & Mfg. Corporation, 18 
with the .American Car & Foundry Company and 15 with the 
Helhlchcm Steel Corporation. 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad will rebuild a 
number of passenger coaches in its own shops. An inquiry has 
been issued for 25 steel undcrframcs for the first lot to be rebuilt. 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad has ordered 
5 gasoline electric self-propelled passenger coaches. 



The St. Louis-San Francisco Railway has ordered 2 power imits 
for equipping one combination baggage and passenger motor car 
from the Railway Sales Corporation. 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad has placed an 
order for 25 steel suburban car underframes with the Bettendorf 
Car Company. 

The Boston & Maine Railroad has ordered three self-propelled 
gasoline passenger coaches. 

The Great Northern Railway has placed an order for 6 baggage 
gas-electric motor cars with the Electro- Motive Company. 

The New York Central Railroad has placed a contract to 
install Diesel oil-electric equipment on one combination passenger 
and baggage car for experimental purposes. 

The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad has placed an 
order for 25 caboose cars with the Magor Car Company. 

Buildings and Structures 

The Southern Pacific Company purchased a new site south 
of Fresno, Calif., and will spend approximately $2,000,000 in new 
switching and classification yards and shop facilities. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad has asked for revised bids for 
the construction of a coaling station at Mitchell, Ind. 

The Wabash Railway plans the construction of a one-story 
brick and steel extension to its locomotive shop at Decatur, 111., 
to cost appro.ximately $500,000. 

The New York Central Railroad has awarded a contract to 
the Cleveland Crane & Engineering Company, New York, for 
the manufacture and erection of an electric traveling Gantry 
crane at its Thirtieth street. New York, yard at a cost of approxi- 
mately $27,000. 

The Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern Railroad is building 
a 30,000 gallon steel water tank, to cost $10,000 at Eraser, Iowa. 

The Southern Railway has placed a contract with J. M. Dunn 
& Sons. Knoxville, Tenn., for rebuilding planing mill at Knox- 
ville, Tenn. 

The Missouri Pacific Railroad jointly with the Texas-Pacific 
contemplates the rearrangement and enlargement of joint track 
facilities at Texarkana. They planned for construction this year 
as follows : 350 ton mechanical coaling station at Washington, 
Mo., to cost approximately $50,000, also for 250 ton mechanical 
coaling stations at Centerview- and Archer, Mo., to cost approxi- 
mately $40,000 each. 

The Illinois Central Railroad plans immediate rebuilding of 
its car repair shop at Harshan near New Orleans, which was 
damaged by fire on January 1 with a loss of $150,000. 

The Norfolk & Western Railway has placed a contract cov- 
ering buildings and shop facilities at Williamson, W. Va. 

The Canadian National Railways w-ill convert their locomotive 
shops at Toronto into a steel car repair shop. 

The Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad is reported to 
be planning the construction of an addition to its machine shops 
at Denver, Colo. 

The Southern Pacific Company plans remodeling and building 
additions to its passenger station at Riverside, Calif. 

The Great Northern Railway Company plans remodeling its 
roundhouse at Hillyard, Wash., at a cost of $50,000. 

The Central of Georgia Railway Company is asking for bids 
for the construction of a nine-stall roundhouse, a storehouse, a 
boiler room and a lavatory at Albany, Ga. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad has awarded a contract for the ex- 
tension and erecting of machine shops at Olean, New York, at 
a cost of approximately $100,000. 

The Central of Georgia Railway plans the construction of a 
one-story concrete, brick and steel engine house at Albany, Ga. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad Co. has awarded a contract for 
filling in in connection with its new $2,200,000 produce yard to 
be constructed at Delaware Avenue and Packer Street, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

The Chicago & North Western Railway plans the construc- 
tion of a water softener plant at Norfolk, Nebr., with a capacity 
of 125,000 gallons to cost approximately $20,000. 

The Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad has placed a contract 
for a one-story repair shop at Newell, Pa. 

The Chesapeake & Ohio Railway has placed contracts for a 
water station at Stevens, Ky., with the Graver Corp., the Rail- 
road Water & Coal Handling Co., and the Fairbanks Morse 
Company. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad is reported to be planning 
extensions to its car and locomotive repair shops at Cumberland, 
Md., to cost approximately $200,000. 

The Boston & Maine Railroad has placed a contract covering 
the construction of coal distributing plant at Mystic Wharf, 
which will cost $450,000. 

The Southern Pacific Company has awarded a contract for the 
construction of a subway under the tracks of the Southern Pacific 



^ 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



February, 1926 



and the U'tMcrn Pacific al Miner Avenue, Stockton, to cost ap- 
proximately $UI0,1KX). 

The rcnnsylvania Railroad lias awarded a contract to the 
American Uridne Company, New York, for the fabrication and 
erection of a steel su|)crstructurc for extension of the tank shop 
at Olean, New York, to cost $225,000. 

The Chicago, Hurlington & ^uincy Railroad is drawmg plans 
for an addition to its engine house and repair shops at South 
Sioux City, Nebr. . , , 

The Cleveland, Cincinnati. Chicago & St. Louis Railway are 
preparing plans for the ci>n>lruction of an extension to the engine 
terminal facilities at Kankakee, 111., to cost approximately 
$253,000. , , , . . 

The Southern Railway plans the construction of plant tor icmg 
refrigerator cars at Chattanooga, Tcnn. This is included in the 
$1,100,000 yard improvements. 

The Reading Company plans a railroad terminal with station 
and yards at Trenton Junction, New Jersey. 

Items of Personal Interest 

p. W. Kiefer, engineer of rolling stock of the New York 
Central Railroad, has been appointed chief engineer of motive 
power and rolling stock, succeeding F. H. Hardin, promoted 
to assistant to the president. E. P. Moses, general equipment 
inspector of rolling stock, has been appointed engineer of 
rolling stock, succeeding P. W. Kiefer. 

Charles E. Barba has been appointed mechanical engineer 
of the Boston & Maine Railroad, with headquarters at Boston, 
Mass., succeeding Carl B. Smith, who has been appointed 
assistant to the mechanical superintendent, with the same 
headquarters. 

J. C. Murray, vice-president and general manager of the 
Missouri & North .Arkansas Railway, with headquarters at 
Harrison. .Ark., has resigned. 

W. G. Curren, general superintendent of transportation of 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, with headquarters at Balti- 
more, Md.. has been appointed general manager, with head- 
quarters at New York. N. Y., succeeding R. B. White, who 
has been elected senior vice-president of the Central Railroad 
of New Jersey. 

A. B. Ford has been appointed general master mechanic of 
the Great iNorthcrn Railway, with headquarters at Superior, 
Wis., succeeding T. E. Cannon, retired. 

C. W. Y. Currie, managing editor of the New York Central 
Lines Magazine, is appointed also assistant publicity manager 
of the New York Central Lines, with headquarters at New 
York City. 

Theron O. Jennings, assistant to the president of the Chicago 
& Eastern Illinois Railway, with headquarters at Chicago, 111., 
has resigned to become general coal agent of the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific Railway, with head<iuarters at Chicago. 
111. 

H. C. James has been appointed assistant to general superin- 
tendent of the Northern Pacific Railway, with headquarters 
at Seattle. Wash., succeeding L. F. Newton. W. C. Showalter 
has been appointed superintendent of the Tacoina division. 
with headquarters at Tacoma, W'ash., succeeding W. C. Albee. 
James Shannon has been appointed superintendent of the Idaho 
division, with headquarters at Spokane. Wash., succeeding 
W. C. Showalter. L. F. Newton has been appointed to super- 
intendent of the Pasco division, with headquarters at Pasco, 
Wash., succeeding James Shannon. 

A. B. Chapman has been appointed supervisor of welding 
for the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway, with headquarters at 
Huntington. W. Va. 

Donald Barrett has been appointed assistant engineer of the 
Wisconsin division of the Chicago North Western Railway, 
with headquarters at Chicago, 111. 

D. T. Waring has been appointed assistant to the vice-presi- 
dent of the Suscjuehanna & New York Railroad, with head- 
quarters at New Y'ork. N. Y. 

E. F. Rummell. division superintendent of the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul Railway, with headquarters at Spokane, 
Wash., has been promoted to general superintendent, with 
headquarters at Butte. Mont. 

J. A. Appleton has been appointed superintendent of the 
Ashtabula division of the Pennsylvania Railroad, with head- 
quarters at New Castle. Pa. Ralph C. Miller was also ap- 
pointed superintendent of the Schuylkill division, with head- 
quarters at Reading. Pa. 

W. R. Meeder has been appointed superintendent of motive 
power of the Missouri & North .Arkansas Railway, with head- 
quarters at Harrison. .Ark. 

The title of C. H. Terrell, assistant superintendent of motive 
power of the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway, has been changed. 



Edwin P. Moses has been appointed engineer of rolling stock 
of the .New York Central Railroad, with headquarters at New 
York City. 

C. W. Van Horn has been appointed general superintendent 
of transportation of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, with 
head<|uarters at I'.altimore, .Md. 

Roy B. White, tornierly general manager of the Baltimore 
& Ohio Kailro.iil. lias been elected senior vice-president of the 
Central Railro.nl of .New Jersey, with headquarters at New 
York, N. Y. Charles H. Stein has been appointed assistant to 
Mr. White, with llie same headquarters. 

F. C. Paulson, division engineer ol the Wyoming division 
of the I'nion Pacific Railroad, with headquarters at Cheyenne, 
Wyo., has been appointed assistant superintendent of the 
Wyoming division, with the same headquarters, succeeding 
H. A. Connett, who has been appointed superintendent of the 
Western division, with headquarters at Green River, Wyo. 

F. H. Hardin has been appointed assistant to the president 
of the New \'ork Central Railroad, with headquarters at New 
Y'ork, N. Y. 

W. D. Freeman has been appointed master mechanic of the 
North Carolina division of the Seaboard Air Line, with head- 
quarters at Hamlet, N. C, succeeding T. J. Raycroft, re- 
signed. J. J. Hanlin has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Georgia divisii>n. with headquarters at .Atlanta (Howells), 
Ga., succeeding G. W. Gilleland, who has been appointed su- 
perintendent ol motive power of the Central and Southern 
districts, with headquarters at Jacksonville, Fla., succeeding 
Mr. Hanlin. 



Supply Trade Notes 



G. N. DeGuire has been appoin'ted assistant to the president. 
Locomotive Firebox Company. Mr. DeGuire was born in 
.Appleton, Wis., March 31, 1884. and was educated in the 
schools of that city. He entered the service of the Chicago 
& North Western Railway as locomotive fireman in 1902 and 
was promoted to engineer in 1906, and for ten years thereafter 
served as engineman with the exception of three years spent 
in the study of locomotive and car construction and shop, 
enginehouse and railroad operation in general, in various parts 
of the United States. He received a civil service appointment 
as inspector of locomotives with the Interstate Commerce 
Commission in 1916 and on January 1, 1918, he resigned to 
enter the service of the United States railroad administration 
as supervisor of railroad equipment. On June 1, 1918, he was 
promoted to general supervisor of equipment for all lines east 
of Chicago, and on February 1. 1919, was given jurisdiction, in 
the same capacity, over all lines under federal control in the 
I'nited States. .At the termination of federal control Mr. 
DeGuire was appointed assistant manager, department of 
equipment, division of liquidation claims of the United States 
railroad administration, and on July 1. 1923. was promoted to 
the position of manager of this department, which position he 
held until the work was concluded. Mr. DeGuire has been in 
New York handling financial matters during the past two 
years. He has just resigned his position as president of the 
Premier Guarantee Mortgage Bond Corp.. to become assistant 
to the president of the Locomotive Firebox Company. 

The Standard Steel Car Company has secured the interests 
of the Columbia Steel Company, and the plant will be com- 
bined with the Forged Steel Wheel Company, at Butler, Ohio. 

The International Motor Company, manufacturers of Mack 
trucks and buses, has purchased the Niles-Bement-Pond Com- 
pany plant, located at Plainfield, N. J., as part of its expansion 
program. The plant will be occupied by the International 
Motor Company's General Service Department, now located 
at New Brunswick. N. J. 

The Graybar Electric Company has been formed with a 
capitalization of $15,000,000 to succeed the supply department 
of the Western Electric Company. The new company's stock 
is owned by the Western Electric Company. 

T. M. Girsler. pcncral manager of the Jones & Laughlin 
Steel Corporation, Pittsburgh. Pa., has been elected a director 
and vice-president in charge of operations of that company. 

J. H. Redhead, formerly assistant to vice-president and as- 
sistant manager of sales of the National Malleable & Steel 
Casting Company, has been elected vice-president and general 
manager of the Columbus Malleable Iron Company, with head- 
quarters at Cohimtuis. Ohio. 

The Ludlum Steel Company is making many additions to 
its plant at Watervlict, New York. The capacity of the Billet 
grinding department has been doubled due to increased busi- 
ness. 

Robert H. Dibble has been appointed metallurgical engineer 
of the American Sheet & Tin Plate Company, and William C. 
Tamplin has been appointed assistant to the vice-president. 



February, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LCXTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



61 



F. C. Homer has been appointed assistant to vice-president 
«f tils' General Motors Corporation, with headquarters at New 
York and will be in charge of the development of the com- 
mercial motor vehicle field on steam and electric railroads. 

K. E. Keiling, who has served for a number of years in the 
office of the purchasing department of the Xew York Central 
Railroad, has been appointed purchasing agent of the New 
York Air Brake Company, with headquarters at Xew York, 
succeeding W. R. Brown. B. J. Minnier, vice-president in 
charge of production at \Vatertown, \. Y., has resigned. 

R. M. Chisson, representative of the Lehon Company, with 
headquarters at Chicago, has resigned to become manager of 
railway sales of the Otley Paint Manufacturing Company, 
Chicago, 111. 

C. D. Foltz, representative of the Westinghouse Air Brake 
Company, in charge of the Denver and Salt Lake City offices, 
has been appointed assistant western manager, with headquar- 
ters at Chicago. 

The Morton Manufacturing Company has just purchased 
property adjacent to its present Chicago plant, on which it is 
planning the construction of an addition, which will provide 
50.000 square feet of additional shop space. 

Andrew F. McCoole, with office at Railway Exchange Build- 
ing. St. Louis. Mo., has been appointed railway representative 
in that territory of the Murphy Varnish Company, succeeding 
J. K. Milligan, resigned. 

Joseph C. McCune, engineer of the Eastern district of the 
Westinghouse Air Brake Company has been appointed assist- 
ant director of engineering, with headquarters at Wilmerding. 
Pa. 

J. Howard Horn, sale.^ manager of the National Lock 
Washer Company, has been elected general sales manager, 
with headquarters at Newark. X. J. 

The Union Switch & Signal Company has placed a general 
contract for a one-storv forge and machine shop addition at 
a cost of $45,000. 

The Paige & Jones Chemical Company has purchased prop- 
erty adjoining their plant at Hammond, Ind., and will add 
to their present plant capacity, 

George H. Charls has been elected president of the United 
Alloy Steel Corporation to succeed E. A. Langenbach, who has 
been elected chairman of the board. L. G. Pritz, vice-presi- 
dent in charge of operations, will succeed Mr. Charls. 

Thomas S. Stephens has been appointed manager of railway 
sales of the machinery department of the Manning, Maxwell 
& Moore. Inc. 

S. J. Nicholson has been appointed acting vice-president ni 
the West-nphouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. 

G. L. Hulben has been added to the sales force of the Lud- 
lum Steel Company of W'atcrvliet. X. Y., and will have his 
headquarters in Chicago. 111. 

F. O. Paul has been appointed service manager of the auto- 
motive car division of the J. G. Brill Company, Philadelphia. 
Pa. 

C. H. Lang has been appointed comptroller of budget of the 
General Electric Company. Mr. Lang was formerly assistant 
manager of the publicity department. 

The Buda Company has opened an office in Jacksonville, 
Fla.. to be in charge of A. L. Bliss, formerly of their Chicago 
office. 

M. A. Herald has resigned as sales representative of the 
Standard Tank Car Company, and has organized the United 
Car & Equipment Company, with office in the Westinghouse 
buildinc. Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Albert Lincoln Salt has been elected president of the Gray- 
bar Electric Company, taking over the business of Western 
Electric Company electrical supply department. The Gray- 
bar Electric Company is a modified form of the partnership 
name of Grav & P.arton. the original designation of the com- 
pany founded in 1869. Mr. Salt began his business career in 
1881 as a temporarv office l>oy in the Xew York office of the 
Western Electric Manufacturing Companv which later became 
the Western Electric Company. Frank A. Ketcham has been 
appointed executive vice-president of the Graybar F.lectric 
Company, formerly the supply department of the Western 
Electric Company. He became general sales manager of the' 
Western Electric Company in 1918, less than twenty years 
after he began working for the company as a clerk in its Chi- 
cago office. In 1923 he was appointed general man.iger of the 
supply department which had been separated from the tele- 
phone department in 1921. which position he held until his 
present ai.pointment as executive vice-president. He was 
born at Saginaw. Mich., and attended the University of Michi- 
gan. Leo M. Dunn is also a vice-president of the new com- 
pany in chart'e of merchandising and accounting as wvU as 
G«)rge E. Cullinan, who has charge of sales. Elmer W. Shep- 
ard IS treasurer and \. R. Frame, secretary. 



G. A. Secor, general storekeeper of the Chicago & Alton 
Railroad, has resigned to become sales representative of the 
Buda Company, with headquarters at Chicago, 111., and R. M. 
Blackburn, formerly general storekeeper of the Chicago & 
Xorth Western, has been appointed representative of the 
Buda Company, with headquarters at Chicago, III. 

Joseph C. McCune, v.ho has been connected with the 
Westinghouse Air Brake Company in various engineering 
capacities since 1913. and who enjoys a very wide acquaintance 
in railroad and engineering circles, has been appointed As- 
sistant Director of Engineering with the .\ir Brake organiza- 
tion, in keeping with the traditional policy of that company in 
advancing men that have developed in its own ranks of em- 
ployees. 

Mr. McCune was born in Brilliant, Ohio, .\fter two years 
preparatory studies at Washington and Jefferson University, 
he entered Cornell where he won the first Sibley prize for 
scholarship, graduating in mechanical engineering with the 
class of 1911. He obtained his first employment with the 
Cutler Hammer Company at Milwaukee, later became con- 
nected with the street railway traction system of the Pitts- 
burgh Railways Company, and from there entered the -\ir 
Brake organization at Wilmerding as assistant to the chief 
engineer. From 1915 to 1917 he served as mechanical expert 
for the company in the Eastern district, with headquarters at 
Xew York. For the next two years he served his country on 
the Mexican border with the 7th regiment, Xew York Xational 
Guards, and later in the World War as First Lieutenant of 
Engineers of the United States Army, with ten months' service 
in France. .\t the conclusion of the latter he was made special 
engineer of the Engineering Department at Wilmerding, in 
which capacity he remained for several months. He was then 
again transferred to the Eastern district, where he served first 
as assistant to the district engineer and then as district en- 
gineer. He held this position until his recent appointment, 
which will again bring him to the home office of the .\ir Brake 
Company at Wilmerding. 

C. D. Foltz, who. as representative of the Westinghouse Air 
Brake Company in charge of the Denver and Salt Lake City 
offices, is well known to railroad men throughout the middle 
west, has been appointed assistant western manager of the 
Ak Brake Company, making his headquarters hereafter at 
Chicago. 

Mr. Foltz has been connected with the railroad business for 
many years. .At the age of fifteen years only he was already 
a telegraph operator on the Wabash. Later, he was a firemaii 
on the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, from which post he 
became an engineer on the I'nion Pacific. Denver & Gulf 
Railroad. He was also engineer on the Santa Fe Railroad, 
running an engine between Denver and Pueblo for eight years, 
after which he was promoted to the position of traveling en- 
gineer. 

He entered the service of the Westinghouse Companv in 
1910 as inspector in Salt Lake City and was afterwards pro- 
moted to mechanical expert and representative at that oflice. 
from which position his field of activity was widened by the 
inclusion of the Denver office. His headcjuarters were nioved 
from Salt Lake City to Denver in 1923, and he has remained 
there until his recent advancement. 

G; E. Brown, general foreman electrician of the Xortberii 
Pacihc Raihva>. has resigiurl to go with the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, as salesman in the trans- 
portation deiiartniciit. with headquarters at Minneapolis. Minn., 
succeeding R. F. Castner, who has been appointed manager of 
'be Des Moiiu< hraiicli. with headquarters at Des Moines. 

LeGrand Parish has retired as president of the American 
Arch Company, Xew York, and has been succeeded by H. B. 
Slaybaugh. who has been executive vicc-oresident of the coni- 
naiiy aiul has been associated with Mr. Parish throughout the 
life of the company George A. Price, treasurer has been made 
secretary and treasurer: F. B. Johnson has been made assistant 
secretary and H. W. Muller has been made assistant treasurer, 
all with headquarters at Xew York. 

New Publications 

Air Brake Catechism. Rv Robert H. Blackall. Revised and 
enlarged by I'. H. Parke. Xew York, The Norman W. Henley 
Pubh'shing Co. 707 pages. 5 in. by T/i in. 279 Illustrations. 
2250 Questions and answers. 

On the title page the statement is made that this is the most 
practical and complete work published on the subject and the 
statement is undonbledly true. 

A number of years ago an engineer of the Westinghouse 
.'\ir Brake Co. was asked as to whether there was anyone 
connected with that company who knew all about the air 



KAILUAV AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



lel»ruary, 1926 



brake. Aittr a iiiuint'iit's hesitation he said that he thought 
that Mr. Turner did. liul Mr. Turner is dead, and he seems 
to have bequeathed a lar^e share of his knowledge of the air 
brake to Mr. I'arke. who is an engineer with the W'estinghouse 
Air Drake Co. .At least, he evidently knows so much about 
air brakes that it does not seem as though there could be much 
more to know, and this knowledge he has set down, for the 
most part, in such simple, concise language that it is readily 
understood by the veriest layman. There are points, however, 
where, knowing as much as he does al)out the subject he has 
evidently taken it for granted that the reader, too, is an expert. 
It is suggested that it would have been adviseable to have sub- 
mitted the manuscript to some engineer, who was not an air 
brake expert, so that he could have pointed out places that 
are not perfectly clear, and picked out little omissions of refer- 
ence figures and letters in the illustrations that would have 
straightened out puzzling descriptions. 

The book is called an "up-to-date" catechism and it probably 
was when the manuscript was sent to the printer. The same 
appellation was given to Mr. Ulackall's catechism that bore the 
imprint of 18<»8. That, too, was set forth as a complete study 
of air brake equipment, and contained a thousand questions 
that were included in 230 pages. 

There is enough in the early part and scattered through the 
book to warrant the expression, "revicd and enlarged." but 
"re-written" would state the case more correctly, for this work 
is practically a new book that has been worked out with great 
care and thoroughness. 

After a few desultory questions about brakes in general, 
it takes up the old plain triple valve that could be used inter- 
changeably with straight air. Then comes a discussion of the 
quick action brake with its peculiarities and troubles leading 
up to the K-triplc to which ten pages arc devoted. This was 
the last word in trii)le valves in its day. but in 1908 the L 
valve was developed for passenger service. The descriptions 
of these valves embody their methods of operation so that 
their intricacies are readily understood except in a few in- 
stances where the author has presumed too much on the knowl- 
edge of the reader. 

The chapter on W'estinghouse Freight Equipment deals with 
the air brake portion and does not touch the foundation rig- 
ging which is fully dealt with in a succeeding chapter. The 
heading of the chapter is exclusive, for had it not been limited 
to VVestinghouse equipment it might have been permissible 
to describe some outside equipment, slack adjusters, for ex- 
ample, that are extensively used. But, then, the w'hole book 
is exclusively and solely \\'estinghousc with the exception of 
a reference to water brakes. 

The compressors, brake valves, main reservoirs and the old 
high-speed brake then come in, followed by an exhaustive 
treatment of the E T engine equipment and everything per- 
taining to the engine. .After which we have two chapters, 
dealing with the intricate complexities of the P C and U C 
equipments. Mechanisms that will require the closest atten- 
tion and study to understand and which really call for more 



elaboration than could be given here, if all of the intricacies 
were to be set forth. 

Besides the steam railway equipment, the book goes into the 
subjects of electric locomotive, and electro-pneumatic equip- 
ments just touching upon some outside matters such as the 
water brake. 

There is a chapter on braking leverage and one on inspec- 
tion and train handling. The latter contains a deal of excel- 
lent suggestions that should be fixed in the minds of all en- 
gineers, for it all tends to safe and conservative operation. 
Some may even think it too conservative, as when it recom- 
mends that brakes should not be released on freight trains 
at speeds of less than twelve or fourteen miles per hour, when 
common practice places it at not much more than half of that. 

In short, a most excellent and valuable book, but with one 
Hy of considerable magnitude in the ointment, and that is the 
engravings. These are frequently evident photo reduction* 
from larger prints, and in making them the lettering has be- 
some so small as to be almost illegible. That and the occa- 
sional lapse of the author into incomplete descriptions are 
the sole adverse criticisms that can be made. 



First Railroad Into Washington and Its Three Depots. By 
Washington Topham, Columbia Historical Society, Washing- 
ton. D. C. 247 pages. 6 in. by 9 in. Six illustrations. Paper. 

This book is a reprint of a paper that was read before the 
Columbia Historical Society, and is a record of the properties 
occupied and the transactions involved in the building of the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad into Washington in 1835 with some 
of the subsequent developments. 

While the text follows a general chronological order in its 
presentation it frequently doubles back on its tracks and re- 
peats what has already been stated. 

The book contains excerpts from previous publications 
dealing with the owners and occupants of the property upon 
which the original station was located, and rather elaborate 
descriptions, taken from the press of the day of the opening 
of the road into Washington from Baltimore with an account 
of the running of the first train. There are numerous anec- 
dotes connected with the road such as the visit of Baltimore 
troops to Washington and the celebrated race between Peter 
Cooper's locomotive, the Tom Thumb, and the old gray horse. 

There is nothing, however, descriptive of any of the engines 
used with the exception of their names and a reference to the 
diminutive grasshopper engines used to haul the first trains. 
There are a number of side issues intercalated in the text, and 
the whole is a collection of statements of facts connected with 
the road. 

The present Union Station is handled at the end in about 
two pages and a half. Too short a space in which to give a 
description of the station. The account is limited to brief 
statements as to cost, contractors and the occupation of the 
properties. 

It is a record of isolated items without any attempt to tie 
them together in a consecutive narrative. 



For Testing and Washing 
Locomotive Boilers 




Rue Boiler Washer 
and Tester 

SEND FOR CATAI-OGUE 

Rue Manufacturing Co. 

228 Cherry Street Philadelphia, Pa. 

Manufacturers of Injecton. EJecton 

Boiler Washer* and Testers. BoUor Checks. 

Check Valves. 



DIAMOND STEEL EMERT 

For Grinding In Steam and Air Joints 

"CUTS BUT NEVER BREAKS" 

A Railroad Shop Necessity 

PITTSBURGH CRUSHED STEEL CO. 

PITTSBURGH. PA.. U. S. A. 



GEO. P. NICHOI-S & BRO. 

Nichols Transfer Tables 
Turntable Tractors 

2139 Fulton Street, Chicago 



DUNER 
CAR CLOSETS 

DUNER CO. 



WANTED 

Locomotive biulder's or other lith- 
ograph of U. S. locomotives, mtilti- 
colored or one tone for historical 
collection. Give name of builder, 
type of locomotive, condition of 
print, etc. 

Also wish to purchase collec- 
tions of locomotive photographs, 
particularly those of early date, or 
will gladly arrange for exchange 
with other collectors. 

Particularly interested in New 
York Central photographs. 



Address, HISTORICAL 

Railway and Loconkotfve Bjngiaamrtttg 
114 Uberty Street, New Yorii 




% locomotive 



Eniineerin) 



A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling Stock and Appliances 

Vol. XXXIX 



136 Liberty Street, New York, March, 1926 



No. 3 



Three-Cylinder Locomotive for the Southern Pacific Ry. 

A Description of Some of the Details of Especial Interest 



Considerable data regarding the three-cylinder loco- 
motives, built tor the Southern Pacific Ry. by the 
American Locomotive Co. have been published in Rail- 
way AND Locomotive Exginkering in the issues of 
March. September 1923 and Januar\- 192r). In the latter 



The firebox measures 127'-4 inches by 10234 inches inside 
of the sheets at the mud ring, and includes a combustion 
chamber of 74 inches in length, which provides for tubes 
23 feet 6 inches long. The steam space above the crown 
sheet is 30!/s inches at the back end and 25 29/32 inches 




Three-Cylinder 4-10-2 Type Locomotive of tiie Soutiie 



issue a mistake was made t(j which attention should be 
called. The engines were there referred to as being of 
the 2-10-2 class when it should have been 4-10-2. with 
this exception the information given is correct. 

\\ hat follows is a descri|)tion of a number of the de- 
tails f)f construction of these engines in which are em- 
Ixjflied some sjxicial design or novelty : 

The Boiler 

The boiler is of the straight top type with an outside 
diameter of 90^ inches at the front barrel course, in- 
creasing to 100 inches at the combustion chamber course. 



at tile friint end. 'i'iie r>'l)c ".\'' Superheater whicli is 
used consists of 50 units with a super-heating surface (if 
1,500 s(|uare feet. The boiler shell is of 29/32 inch ma- 
terial for the first course. 31/32 inch for the second course, 
and 1 inch for the third cour.sc ; and the wra])per sheet is 
'/i inch thick, reinforced at critical ]X)ints at the top and 
a |>ortion of the way down the sides with a 5/16 inch 
liner, to give the ref|uired strength. The firebox and 
combustion chamber sheets are ^■i, inch thick, excejiting 
the inside tiiroat connection which is ' j inch thick, and 
welded in between the side sheets and the combustion 
cliaml)er. The firelwx is fitted with the I'lannery Bolt 



63 



64 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March. 1926 



Co's. welded universal sleeves and reduced body stay- 
Iwlts. The IxjiliT liracing throuf,'h()Ut is the American 
Locomotive t'ompaiiy's weldless tyix-, wliidi provides 
for a maximum strenj^'th with minimum weij^ht. The 
boiler is secured to the frames at the fireliox witli the ex- 
pansion |>lates rather than with cast steel furnace bearers 
having the ordinary sliding shoe. This avoids the trouble 
usually experienced with this latter type of furnace bearer 
.supixirt. 

The boiler contains 261 tubes 2,'4 inches in diameter 



the throat sheet and increased to six in the back head, be- 
sides being carried, in a single row alxiut the door open- 
ing. The back head is also fitted with two rows of flexible 
stays at each side, extending from the crownshcet to the 
foundation ring. 

.Attention is called thus extensively to the method of 
tirebo.x slaying, l)ecause of the great dimensions of the 
firebo.\ and combustion chamber and the long tul)es that 
are used. The distance from the back head to the back 
tul)esheei is 15 feet 3J4 inches to which must be added 



ruKermeiron 
intosutcfrodid 







*%;= 



4- 



' FLEXIBLE STAYBOLTS 
i^WLLOV " 



Firebox of Three-Cylinder Locomotive of the Southern Pacific Showing Method of Staying Employed 



and 30 flues oi Syi inches diameter for the superheater 
units. 

The Tate flexible staybolt is used extensively through- 
out the firebox and combustion chaml)er. The distribu- 
tion ill the firelK)x includes the six upper horizontal rows 
with a filling in of the back upper corner and a straggling 
down to the foundation ring in the two back rows. At 
the front there is another slight filling in of the upper 
corner with two rows back of the combustion chamber 
that extend down to the foundation ring. 

'ITie sides and bottom of the combustion chamber are 
stayed with a complete installation of the Tate flexible 
bolts, but the top, which is flattened and conforms in 
general contour to that of the crownsheet is stayed by 
the ordinary rigid bolt, except for the four front rows, 
which are fle.xible and are ex])ected to act like the ordi- 
nary sling stays. Owing to the bottom of the combustion 
chamber being fitted with flexible bolts with the conse- 
quent freedom of motion afforded thereby, it is doubtful 
whether there is any real necessity for these flexible 
.sling stays, and whether their action is es.sentially differ- 
ent from what rigid stays would be. except for their 
backward yielding under the thrust of the tubes, by which 
the point of rigid support is moved back but not removed. 

At the bottom of the firebox at the sides there are three 
rows of hollow staybolts, which are cut down to one in 



the 23 feet 6 inches length of tube, all of which is ex- 
lX)sed to the direct action of the fire. It is evident that 
at times there must be a considerable difference between 
the expansion of the outer shell and these surfaces ex- 
posed to the fire. That such a difference does occur was 
shown to be the fact by an investigation that was de- 
scribed in some detail in R.mlwav .\nd Locomotive 
I^NGINEERING for .November. 1919, in which it was 
shown that there was no .such thing as a neutral zone, 
where there was no movement of the staybolts; but that 
every bolt in the sideslieets was in constant motion from 
the time of lighting the fire until the boiler was again 
cold. As the investigation, referred to was made on a 
much smaller boiler than the one here illustrated, the dis- 
tance from the back head to the back tubesheet being 
only 8 feet 8'^2 inches, it is evident that the relative move- 
ments of two sheets of the firebox would be much less 
than in this boiler, hence the necessity for the extensive 
use of flexible staybolts that is here employed. 

Reference has l^een made to the method of supporting 
the l>oiler. Located between the cylinder connection to the 
boiler and the front furnace bearer, and to the rear of the 
third pair of drivers, is a waist bearer sheet securing the 
frames to the boiler, for the purpose of providing suitable 
support for frame at this point when locomotive is lifted 
in the shop by a crane. The connection of the waist sheet 



March, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



65 



to the boiler is of an improved design, whereby the angle 
iron is riveted to a pad which, in turn, is stagger-riveted 
to the boiler shell. The old desig:n. calling for waist bearer 
angle iron to be studded to the boiler in a continuous row, 
weakened the boiler shell, with resultant cracks developing. 
The pad is 5/16 in. thick and is riveted to the angle 
of the buckle plate with countersunk rivets and the whole 
accuratelv fitted and riveted to the boiler shell. The 



of details, some of which were identical in their general 
characteristics, if not in dimensions with the correspond- 
ing details of the engine under consideration, and may 
be referred to as descriptive of the same. Among these 
are the cylinder castings, the front driving axle and the 
inside connecting rod and the crossheads. 

There is a slight variation in the design of the outside 
connecting rods. In the South Manchurian locomotive 




Waist Bearer of Three-Cylinder Locomotive of the Southern Pacific 

general form is shown by the accompanying illustration. 
A form of flexible brace is used for the throat sheet, 
and is shown in detail herewith. A foot A is riveted to 
the shell. Its vertical lug B is bored on a taper with a 
spherical seat at one side to receive the nut C which is 




'tr? 'tr?- 



Throat Sheet Brace of Three-Cylinder Locomotive 

screwed ujxtn the end of the brace. At the other end the 
brace is widened to form a foot into which two stays are 
screwed. These stays are also screwed through the sheet 
and riveted over like an ordinary staybolt. With the stays- 
at one end and the nut C at the other the brace is readily 
adjusted to the i>roper length. .After the nut C has been 
adjusted the end of the brace is riveted over. With this 
arrangement of spherical seat and tapered hole the brace 
can adjust itself, without Ijending to any position that the 
throat sheet may assume relatively to the shell. 

A description of the three-cylinder locomotive, built 
for the South Manchurian Ry., was published in R.mlway 
.\.M) I^fxoMOTiVK KNGi.NKKKi.Nfi for November, 1924. That 
description was illustrated by line engravings of a number 




the outside connecting rods had stub ends and were fitted 
with straps for carrying the brasses. In the Southern 
Pacific engines the brass at the wrist-pin end is made solid 
and keyed to the rod to prevent turning. It is bored to a 
neat working fit for the pin. 

At the crank end the brasses are in halves and are bored 
1/32 in. large, having a No. 22 (.028 in.) Birmingham 
wire gauge liner between them, which is remo\ed when 
the rod is put upon the engine. 

At the crank end the stiib end is solid and is cut away 
at A so that the brasses may be put in and turned so as 
to slip into place. There is a wedge B and a key C for 
making the proper adjustments. The hole through the 
wedge is threaded and the bolt is screwed through it. 
Then, by turning the bolt the wedge may be moved up 
or down. 

The specifications for the metal of these rods require 
that they should ha\ e the following chemical and physical 
prof)erties : 

Carbon 45 to .55 per cent. 

Manganese 70 to .90 per cent 

Phosphorus 0.045 per cent maximum 

Sulphur 05 per cent 

Minimum yield point 30,000 lbs. per sq. in. 

Tensile strength 80,000 lbs per sq. in. 

Elongation in 2 in 22 per cent 

Reduction of area 32 per cent 

The Flange Lubricator 

The flange lubricator is formed of a simple combination 
of pipe fittings with a steel rod feeder bearing against the 
flange. 

There is a piece of 2-in. pipe A bent to conform ap- 
proximately to the curve of the boiler which is bolted to 
the left side only. The upper end is closed with a 2-in. 
plug through which a ■:j-in. diameter hole is drilled for 
a '/i-\n, by 2-in. reducer and a 45 degree elbow from 
which a "^-in. pipe is led. This 2-in. pipe serves as a 
reservoir for the lubricating oil. In the pipe leading down 
from the elbow there is a globe valve B and Ijeneath it a 
tee with the pipe (' leading from it to the right and left 
hand sides of the engine. At each end of this pipe another 
runs down to the flange to he lubricated. In each of 
these pipes there is a middle valve P. which is adjusted 
to permit a flow through it to give the desired feed. -At 
the lower en<\ of the vertical pipe there is a V fitting having 
a piece of ■/2-in. p'\\-ic alwut 7 in. long screwed into the 
Ixjttom end and extending in the direction of the flange. 
.\ piece of J^-in. diameter steel feed rod F 14 in. long and 
with a hook at one end to prevent it from falling out, is 
slippe<l into this piece of pipe and rests against the flange. 



66 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March. 1926 



As it is loose in the \^i\K its wciijiu holds it pently apainst 
the riaiiKe, wlicrc it nK)ves up aiul ilowii according; to the 
variation in tlie relative movements of the Ixiiler, to which 
the pipinj^ is attached, and the wliecl. Thus tlie oil that 




Flange Lubricator Used on the Three-Cylinder Locomotive of the 
Southern Pacific 

passes through the needle valve trickles down through tlu 
vertical pijie to the feed rod and following it on down 
drips ott" against the flange that is to he lubricated. 

Lateral Motion Adjuster for Drivin;: Boxes 

This arrangement, which was designed by Mr. Blunt. 
the mechanical engineer of the .\merican Locomotive Co.. 
is intended to automatically draw the driving boxes back 
to their central and normal ]iosition when they have btxn 
displaced for any reason, such as the side motion lu 
casioned by the passage of curves. 

The ix>wer required to force the Ixix back to its nornKii 
position is obtained by a si)ring B. Tliis spring is :ir. 
.American Railway Association standard (i spring, an ': 
when placed in ]Kisition is comjiressed to a length of 14),s 
in., at which length it is under a stress of 7,560 lbs., which 
l>ecomes the minimum pressure available for moving the 
boxes. 

The operating levers A are in the general form of an 
inverted f with the spring between the points thereof. 
The ui^iK'r end of the levers are held by the spring. In 
the engraving of side elevation the lever at the left takes 
hold of the T head of the bolt C. This bolt passes through 
the center of the spring and has a bearing against the 



plate li by means of the nut. This |>late /; forms the 
right han<l seat of the spring. 

The lever at the right takes hold of the stirrup D, 
whose legs are on either side of the sjwing and whose 
crosspiece forms the left hand s|)ring seat. 

It is evident that if the uj^K-r end of either lever is 
moved outwardly, the uijjjcr end of the other being held 
stationary, the spring li will l)e compressed lietween the 
])late /;" and the stirrup D. 

The arrangement is here shown as applied to the front 
l>air of driving Ixixes, which have "x in. of lateral motion 
Ix-'tween their outer flanges and the wedges. The inside 
flange is shown as tapered and nearly in contact with the 
wedge at 1. 

The lower ends of the levers ./ have two liearing points 
at each side of the boxes. At 2 there is a lug cast in- 
tegrally with the lever which, under normal conditions, 
rests against the side of the ])edestal outside the flanges 
of the box and the wedge. There is a lug of this kind on 
each leg of the lever. Then there are the rollers 3, of 
which there is one on each leg of the lever. Tliese rollers 
are carefully adjusted so that when the lug is against the 
frame at 1, the roller will be just against the inside flange 
of the driving Ikjx. .\s the arrangement is stationary 
and fixed to the frames, the boxes are free to move up 
and down against the rollers. 

The levers are pivoted on the shafts F. which are 2],^ 
in. in diameter and are held by brackets 6", which pass 
over the top of the frame and are clamjied to it b>' the 
bolts //. These bolts are cut with long threads and the 
attachment to the frame is effected by means of nuts. 

L"nder ordinary conditions on a straight track, the ar- 
rangement occujjies the position shown in the engraving, 
with all of the lugs against the pedestals and the four 
rollers against the inside flanges of the Ixixes. 

If. on entering a curve, the driving Iwx on the left is 
moved to the right, by the wheels, the journal of the axle 
slips through the Ixix at the right, and there is no lateral 
movement of that bo.x or of its lever, the lug at the right 
still rests again.st the |)edestal at 2 and the roller 3 remains 
against the box, while the lever remains stationary with 
its upper end a fixed supjxirt for the stirrup D. 

At the left, the wheel, by forcing the box to the right, 




Crank-Axle of Three-Cyl i nder Lccomotive 

moves the lever and carries the lug away from the 
pedestal, leaving the rollers to transmit the thrust to the 
lever. .-\s this lever is pivoted at /". its up])er end moves 
outward, and the spring is still further comj>ressed 
through the stress put upon it by the bolt C. 
\\hen the curve has been passed or the cause of the 



March. 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



67 



movement of the wheel removed, the spring draws the left 
hand lever back to its normal position again, and, in doing 




A — 
ENDELPAT/ON 
Box Lateral Motion 



HM'SECTfOfjX.A 



Arrangement Used on 
Southern Pacific 



SO forces the axle box and with it the wheels and axle 
back into their normal positions. 

Booster Cut-Out Valve 

The booster cut-out valve is attached to the steam pipe 
on the left hand side. Ordinarily it is open at all times. 




has been reached, unless done earlier by the engineer 

through other means. 

The valve is in the form of an 
ordinary globe valve, which is 
operated by a threaded stem. 
The casing of the valve A, has a 
flange for attaching, through a 
ground joint to the steam pij)e. 

The face of the valve is finished 
on a radius of Zj-j in. while the 
seat is a straight cone of 45 de- 
grees ; a practice which is now 
the standard and is of great 
advantage in that the reaming 
of the valve seat and the main- 
tenance of the reamers is greatly 
simplified. 

Xo operating handle is put 
upon the stem, but instead the 
upper end is squared and a nut 
\y\ in. square is pinned thereon. 
This makes a firm hold for a 
wrench which must be used 
whenever the valve is to be 
oi>ened or closed. 

e Crank Axle Crank Pin 

There is also a variation in the method of lubricating the 
center crank pin from that used on the South Manchurian 
machines. It will be remembered that, in those engines, 
the lubricant was carried through the center of the axle 
to the crank disc, and through it to the center of the pin 
to oil holes leading out to the surface. In the Southern 



Three-Cylinder Locon 



Lubrication of th 



A 




Cut-Out Valve for Booster 



of the Three-Cylinder Souther 
Locomotive 



the cutting out of the Ixjostcr t>eing accomplished auto- 
matically when the maximum si)eed for booster operation 



Crank Axle of Three-Cylinder Locomotive of the Southern Pacific 
Showing Method of Lubricating the Crank Pin 

E'acific locomotives, the crank axle is built up in the same 
wav as before and is hollow: but the lubricant instead of 
being brought through it is carried in cups that are 
screwed into the crank discs at AA. They discharge into 
yi,-m. diameter holes B in the discs which ojien out to 
1/2 in. diameter at C in the pin leading to the center from 
which the lubricant flows out through the holes D to the 
bearing. 

The Eccentric Crank 

Another of the minor details worth noting is the ec- 
centric crank which is of an improved design and which 



68 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1926 



had I)ccn previously developed and siiccesstnlly tried on 
the Southern I'acitic. The ordinary eccentric crank is 
provided with hut one IkiU for securinj,^ it to the crank 
pin, but as considerable iroiil)le has been experienced by 
the crank workinjj loose, the new desijjn has been pro- 
vided with two holts for the piiri)ose, as shown in the 



and below that <liinension in order to meet local require- 
ments. 

'l"he bolster is also a steel casting; the section of whose 
main Ixxly is that of an inverted U lx;stridin}j the center 
axle and stiffened by horizontal extensions at the top and 
bottom. It is provided with four arms A extending 




Six-Wheeled Tender 



ck for Three-Cylinder Southern Pacific Locomotive 



engraving. This double fastening has done away with the 
trouble referred to. 

Six-Wheeled Tender Truck 

One of the details that lends novelty to the general 
appearance of the locomotive is the six-wheeled truck that 
is used under the tender. The frame of this trtick is of a 
single steel casting in which are included the wheel and 
end pieces and the two transoms. This casting is 11 ft. 
9 in. long and 7 ft. 3 in. wide. The wheel pieces are of 
an inverted U section ; the transoms are approximately 
of a box section while the end pieces are angles with a 
horizontal lug cast at the edge of the vertical leg. The 
thickness of the material is 1 in., with variations above 



laterally and by which it is suspended from the transoms. 
Here. too. the general thickness is 1 in., except in the top 
])late, where it is 1 K> '"• The length of the bolster over 
the brackets for the side bearings is 4 ft. lOyi in., and the 
overall lateral extension of the arms .[ is 4 ft. 7;/S in. 

The center plate is also a steel casting measuring 18^2 
in. by 26 in. It is a flat plate 1 in. thick with the ring and 
strengthening ribs on the upi>er surface. 

The fourth set of steel castings are the four equalizers 
H by which two-thirds of the weight of the truck is trans- 
ferred to the springs. 

Esf)ecial attention is directed to the bolster and frame, 
not only because of their size but for the complication of 
their shape and the difficulties that must have been en- 



March. 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



69 



countered in casting them. They were cast by the Com- 
monwealth Steel Co. 

The bolster is suspended from the transoms by four 
hangers D. These hangers are attached, at their lower 
ends, to the bolster by the pins £. which are Sy^ in. in 
diameter, and pass through the two upwardly extending 
legs of the L' Section, as shown at F of the arms A. This 
gives the pins a central bearing. 

At their upjjer ends the hangers are carried by two 
2>S in. diameter pins C. It will be noted that the outer 
one of these pins is located vertically over the center of 
the lower hanger pin. while the other stands in towards 
the truck center by a distance of 3 in. The result of this 
arrangement is that when the bolster swings in either 




ccentric Crank of the Three-Cylinder Loco 
Pacific 



^e of the Southe 



direction, it turns about the inner pin on the side of the 
direction of motion and is raised accordingly ; while on 
the other side, it swings alx)Ut the outer pin. and. as this 
pin is directly alxne the lower one, the bolster on that 
side is raised only by the amount due to the arc of the 
circle through which it swings. The tendency of the 
suspension is, thus, to bring the bolster hack to its central 
position. 

The semi-elliptic journal Ixix springs and the e(|ualizers 
are placed Ijetween the vertical legs of the side frames. 
Two-thirds the weight of the truck is carried by rollers G, 
which are beneath the horizontal upper portion of the side 
frame and rest on a seat on the top of the equalizers. The 
ends of the equalizers are carried at 1 by the hangers 2. 
which, in turn, are suf/ported by the ends of the semi- 
elliptic springs. The spring bands rest on the journal 
boxes, and the outer ends of the outer springs are held 
down by a hanger //, which jasses down through the 
helical spring /, seated against the lx>ttom of the frame. 

With the equalizers carrying a total of two-thirds the 
weight of one side frame, one-sixth of this load is trans- 
mitted to each end of the center spring, and to the inner 
end of the outer spring. The remaining third is carried 
by the helical springs /, each of which transmits one-sixth 
to the outer end of its end sj^ring, thus giving to each 
semi-elliptic spring and to each journal lx)x, one-third of 
the total load. 

The pedestals are fitted with liners, clasping them and 
held in place by the bolts .3. These bolts are % in. in 



diameter and are applied with two lock washers, one 
under the bolt head and the other imder the nut. 

Brake shoes are applied to the end wheels only and are 
outside hung. 

The wheels are 53 in. in diameter and the wheel base 
is 8 ft. 4 in. 

The brackets for the side bearings are protected by a 

---. — ^-''<?l" H 

- .^-4 ( 70 ( OF SIDE BRAKING H | 




'y^LF S£CT/OV ATCEy'TE'^ 



SECT/ON A a 



Six-Wheeled Tender Truck for Three-Cylinder Southern Pacific 
Locomotive 

filler block yi in. thick and a wearing plate J/2 in. thick, 
and the bearings are 4 ft. 4 in. from center to center. 

The running gear is, therefore, quite flexible and, be- 
rause of the equalization used, the load on each journal 
bo.x is maintained nearly uniform. 



A Toil of Coal Never Went So Far Before 

Class I railroads in 1925 operated their freight trains 
with the greatest efficiency in the use of fuel on record, 
according to a tabulation of reports just filed by the car- 
riers with the Interstate Commerce Commission and made 
public liy the Liureau of Railway Economics. An average 
lit 159 pounds of fuel was required in 1925 to haul one 
thousand tons of freight and equipment, excluding loco- 
motive and tender, a distance of one mile. The average 
for 1925 was a decrease of 11 pounds imder that for 1924 
and was 24 pounds less than that for 1923. 

The road locomotives of Class I railroads in 1925 con- 
sumed a total of 97.477.842 tons of coal, a decrease of 
439,771 tons compared with the amount cmisumed in 
1924 and a decrease of 11.997,000 tons under l')23. They 
also consumed 2,084.219,-102 gallons of fuel oil, a decrease 
of 14.844,617 gallons compared with the jjreceding year 
iiut an increase of 104.351,-K)2 gallons alx)ve 1923. This 
included fuel cunsuni])tiun in the freight and passenger 
service but did not include consumption in the yard serv- 
ice, sho])s or office buildings. 

The factors contributing to this record were as follows: 

1. Improved locomotives built with a view of increas- 
ing the tractive ]>ower while at the same time reducing 
the amount of fuel needed to operate them. 

J. Increase in the length of "runs" of locomotives. 

3. l'",<hicational ])rograms carried on by the various 
roads to er.courage fuel conservation and to instruct fire- 
men as to the ])ro])er method of stoking locomotives. 

4. Closer ins]>ection of coal (nirchased by the carriers, 
for the pur]x)se of obtaining a In-tter grade of fuel than 
formerly. 

5. Greater ex])edition in the handling of trains through 
terminals and also along the lines, due to improved meth- 
ods of classifying freight so as to reduce delay in transit 
and also to the more intensive use of signal devices which 
exix-dites the movement of trains without necessarily in- 
creasing the actual speed of trains. 



Railroad Electrification Developments in 1925 

Virginian Railway l*roj»( l Largest in Elertric Field 



L'n(|Ufstii>iialil\ tlic diitslaiKlin;,' as will as tlu- most 
spcctai-iilar activity in railroad elfctritication during' VUS 
was tlu- iiiaiif^iiration of ckrtric st-rvici- on tlit- Virj^inian 
Railway. This incident was doubly sij^nilicant in that 
it introduci-d to railroading tlu- world's larijcst and most 
|>owirtiil motive power and with it the movement of the 
lieaviest loniiaf^e in history. Trial runs were made on 
the 14 mile j^rade between Elmore and Clark's Cap where 
the nilint; i;radc is about 2 per cent and the maximum 
i^'rade _M 1 per cent. Trains of a])])roximately S.OOO tons 
were hauled up the tirade at U mph. or twice the sjjced 
of a similar train hauled by three Mallet ty])e steam 
en.irincs. 

More than half of the 36 motive power units ordered 
by the Virtjinian Railway have been delivered by the 
\Vestiiii;honse C()mi)any and are hein^^ used in Iriple-uuit 
locomotives in retjular' service, hauling trains of excep- 
tional tonnasie. 

The onlv new steam railroad electrification project 
announced 'durinjr the year was that of the Creat North- 
ern Railway for the extension of its existinij; elcctrilied 
section, at the same time changing from the iiresent 6/)00- 
volt three-i>hase system to an 11.300-volt single-phase 
system. l'"onr new locomotives included in the contract 
for electrical e(iuipment to be built by the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company, will be of the motor 
generator tvpe. Phase converters will be installed on 
The 6,600-v(')lt electric locomotives now in service to make 
them serviceable on the revised system. Secondary loco- 
motives whose power will be drawn from the main loco- 
tives will assist in moving heavy freight trains over the 
steep gra<les in the Cascades. 

In keeping with the legislation requiring the abandon- 
ment of all steam locomotives within the city limits of 
Xew York, the Staten Island Rajiid Transit Comixuiy. 
a subsidiarv of the Haltimorc l\: Ohio Kailroad. also offi- 
ciallv inau.gurated electric service on the East Shore and 
Perth .\m'bov Divisions last July. :Multiple-unit trams 
operate fron'i a 600-volt d-c. over-running third rail. 
Power is su]i])Iied from five ijubstations whose aggregate 
capacity is 10.000 kw. and all except one of which is 
equipped for complete automatic control from a cen- 
tralized su])ervisory system in the traffic operator's hcad- 
(|uarters. Primarv power is furnished at .13.000 volts. 
3 i^base. 60 cvcles from the reconditioned Livingston 
l)ower plant of' the Staten Island Edison Corporation. 

It is of more than passing interest to know that this 
is the first instance where remotely conlvoUed automatic 
substations have been used in steam railroad service. 

Conceded as the most unique development in electric 
motive power during the year was the motor generator 
type electric locomotive completed at the Ford Motor 
Company for use on the electrified section of the Detroit. 
Toledo & I ronton Railroad. Mechanical parts were built 
by the Ford Motor Company and electrical ec|uipment_ by 
the Westinghouse Company according to Ford specifica- 
tions which incorporated the unique feature of drawing 
i)ower from a high potential single-phase trolley and 
utilizing the inherent characteristics of low-voltage direct 
current motors. 

This develo])ment might be considered as a step 
forward in the embodiment of the salient points of both 
a-c. and d-c. svstems in one locomotive. 

The Long Island Railroad started electric service on 
the 28-mile double-track section between Jamaica and 



liabylon in order to elTect a more economical handling 
of the rajjidly growing commuter traffic on its system. 
This extension has increased the cajjacity of the entire 
system. The terrible congestion which previously existed 
at Jamaica has been eliminated as it is no longer necessary 
to transfer from electric to steam trains for the remainder 
of the outbound trip from tiic city, and vice versa. Delays 
have been reduced by the (lecrea.sed number of stops 
necessary for steam trains. 

. The Jamaica-P.abylon extension required six new 
substations, two transformer stations for increasing the 
transmission line voltage, a new transmission line from 
Lynhrfiok to P)abylon and the reconstruction of several 
other transmission lines. .Ml electrical equipment was 
sii])])lied by the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company. 

The service on the Long Island is featured by the 
remarkable growth of the commuter traffic during the 
twenty years of o])eration. The increase at various 
points ranges from a minimum of 500 per cent to the 
astounding figure of more than 20.000 per cent. 

Shortly after announcement was made that the Insull 
interests of Chicago had obtained control of the Chicago. 
South Shore & South Bend Railway, formerly known 
as the Chicago, Lake Shore & South Bend System, it 
was made known that the entire system would be re- 
habilitated. The ])resent 6,600-volt a-c. system which 
has been used for IS years will he changed to 1500-volts 
d-c. to ]M-ovide a direct connection with Illinois Central 
for entrance into Chicago. 

The contract for electrical equipment awarded the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company in- 
cludes four 80-ton electric locomotives and equipments 
for 30 motor-cars and 28 trail cars. Half of the new 
substations will be of the mercury rectifier tyi)e. 

This stupendous undertaking is a .gallant project in 
view of the fact that the South Shore lines are paralleled 
bv first class hard-surface roads on which independent 
motor bus companies are now operating and is also in 
competition with excellent steam line service. However, 
the Insull interests believe that .good service via electric 
cars begets business and have. theref<ire. launched a pro- 
gram which emphasizes the two important factors of 
pas.senger comfort and increased speed in operation. 

The Xew York. Xew Haven & Hartford Railroad, 
alreadv conceded to be the most comprehensive electrifica- 
tion in the world, extended its electric service to include 
the Danbury r.ranch. This extension eliminates the 
necessity for changing engines at South Xorwalk and 
also affords patrons in that vicinity of the state the same 
service now enjoyed on the main line. Substantial econo- 
mies through the more efficient utilization of electric 
locomotives and release of steam locomotives for other 
duties are the aims in this extension. 

Xew motive ])ower equipment ordered by the Xew 
Haven during the past year included three switching 
locomotives smiilar to the' 16 which have been niaking 
such enviable records for several years. 13 multiple-unit 
cars and 21 trail cars. Several 250 hp. gasoline-electric 
rail cars were also ordered by the New Haven for branch 
line service. 

The Illinois Central Railroad 1.500-volt d-c. suburban 
electrification at Chicago continues to progress. During 
the past vear contracts were awarded for 130 motor cars. 
85 trailers and for the reconditioning of 45 trailers now 



70 



March, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



71 



in steam service, for electric o])eration. A motor-car 
and trailer will be semi-permanently coupled together to 
form a unit, five of which will constitute each of the 
multiple-unit trains in service. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad has already started pre- 
liminary work on the proposed electrification of its line 
from Philadelphia to \Vilmington. Del. 

This road also placed orders with the Westinghouse 
Company for electrical equipment for some switching 
locomotives which the railroad company is building in 
its shops, and ll.OOO-volt a-c. 600-volt d-c. trail-car 
equipments for multiple-unit service. 

Activity Abroad 

Abroad, electrification plans are active principally 
where electric service is already in existence. Some 
other countries, however, are studying" its possibilities. 

The State Railways of Czecho-Slovakia are now elec- 
trifying 72) miles of main line between Prague and Pilsen, 
using the 1.500-volt d-c. system. Four electric freight 
locomotives and one electric passenger locomotive are 
being built by Kolben & Company in that country in 
accordance with specifications furnished by the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Companx'. 

Early in 1925 the Paulista Railways of Brazil ordered 
a new 140-ton 3,000-volt d-c. Baldwin-Westinghouse elec- 
tric passenger locomotive to be practically a duplicate of 
those previously supplied. Late in the fall, another con- 
tract was let for four 118-ton Baldwin-Westinghouse 
electric frei.ght locomotives also to he duplicates of the 
two supplied on the original contract several years ago. 

This additional motive ]jower is necessitated by a recent 
e.xtension of the electrified zone. 

In Japan, the Government Railways are steadily pro- 
gres.sing with the electrification of several of its lines. 



The Chuo or Central Line, and the Tokaido Line from 
Tokio to Kobu are now involved. Eight more electric 
passenger locomotives, two of which are for local service 
anti the rest for high speed operations, are nearing com- 
pletion at the Westinghouse works at East Pittsburgh. Pa. 

The Netherland State Railways established rapid 
transit electric service by multiple-unit equipment during 
the year. 

In the Dutch East Indies, the main lines on the island 
of Java have been electrified within the past year to enable 
them to meet the requirements of the rapidlv growing 
industrial development on that flourishing island. 

In addition to these developments abroad, Me.xico, 
Chile. Spain, France. Russia, Germany, Austria and 
Italy and some other countries have made definite plans 
for or are seriously considering electrification as a modern 
improvement to expedite traffic and conserve fuel. 

.An analysis of the locomotives completed, building or 
ordered in 1925 shows that not quite one-third of the 
total number are for direct-current svstems with voltages 
of f>00, 1,500 and ,5.000. The a-c' locomotives are all 
for 11,000 or 22,000-volt systems. Some of the imits are 
designed to operate d-c. motors from a-c. iiverliea<l similar 
to the idea tised in the Ford locomotive. 

Weights ranged from 7S tons tn 642.5 tuns, total, in 
working order. 

Just one loc()motive was specified for jiassenger service 
exclusively. Four were combination freight and passen- 
ger, but by far the greater number were for either road 
freight or switching service. 

Passenger equipment consisted princi])ally of more 
than a hundred multiple-unit motor and trail car equip- 
ments, of which some 40 were for a-c. operation. The 
great amount of d-c. cc]in'])ment is a result of the .South 
.Shore electrificatinn ;it Chicago. 



European Motive Power Trends 

By W. H. Finley, Consulting Engineer 



There is great activity in Euro])e and America is 
developing a more economical form of motive power than 
that now furnished by the steam locomotive. Technical 
]japers and trade pajjers, even newspapers, contain, from 
time t(j lime, articles descril)ing new types of motive ])ower 
and predicting a revolution in railroad transportation, but 
I feel that there will be no sudden revolution in railroad 
transportation. It will, I think, fortunately follow the 
careful step by stej) progress that has taken place in the 
past. 

\\ ith the view of determining the state of the art in 
Europe, I visited, in October and November of last year, 
!•" ranee, l-'ngland, Switzerland, (iermany and .Sweden, 
calling upon the various railroads and ])rominent manu- 
facturers. I found that they were in as much doubt in 
Luroj)e as to the type of major motive jiower that wmild 
be develo])ed as we are in the L'nited .States. 

The opinion seems to be divided between the turbci- 
locomotive and the Diesel locomotive. With all the 
jjublicity that has been given these two tyjies, yet I did 
not find one turbo-locomotive in commercial use in I'".uro])c 
and but one Diesel locomotive and that one in operation in 
Soviet Russia. 'I'his locomotive was built in (jermany and 
has been in of)eration in Russia for some time. Its per- 
formance and rccorfl is being watched carefull\ by railroad 
men and manufacturers. 

'F.rrerpit from a paper pretmled al the Western Railway Club, Chicago, 
111., February lS»/l, 1926. 



1 was surprised to find that the consensus of opinion 
was against the practicability of the Diesel loconintive 
electrically driven. As to the steam turbine tlevelopment, 
under the system Zoelly and system Ljungstrtnn, outside 
of one or two experimental locomf)tives, the only one in 
.'icliial use was the steam turbine locomotive in .Sweden 
under the Ljungstrom patents. This locomotive is held at 
.Stockholm on the .Swedish .State Railways for experi- 
mental and demcHistration ])ur])oses, although it is oc- 
casionally used by the .Swedish Railways for special runs 
when they are short of ntlier juiwer. l-jungstrdin com- 
pany has had built and delivered to the Argentine, a stiani 
turbine locomotive which was received in the latter conn- 
try in November and was ex])ected to be in active service 
by this time. This liK-omntive, as would be expected, 
shows some im|)rii\Tin(iits over their lirst experimental 
efl'ort. 

The Beyer Peacock iK: Co., Ltd., of Manchester, Eng- 
land, is building a turbo-locomotive under the Ljung- 
stnim jiatents and expected to have it com])leted by this 
dale. I tmderstand it will be given its initial test on the 
London Scottish & .Midland \\y. on the run from London 
to Glasgow. I was advised by an officer of this company 
th;it thev had under consideration the <leveloi)ment of a 
Diesel locoiiiolive and would be prepared to furnish 
either ty])c. 

.At the plant of the Swiss Locomotive & Machine Works 
at Winterlbur, I saw a demonstration of a 100 horsepower, 



72 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March. 1926 



4-cycle. Diesel locomotive which they used tor swilciiiiiK 
around their yards. The engine o|)erated at 350 revolu- 
tions and weij,die<l -W) lbs. to the horsepower. The trans- 
mission was an oil oj)erating clutch gear and the control 
was perfect— the locomotive being reversed from live 
miles an hour ahead to equal speed in reverse without 
stopping the locomniive. 

At the works of llenschel & Sohn, Cassel, Tiermany, 
I saw the testing around their yards, of a 400 horsepower 
Diesel locomotive using solid injection. This locomotive 
was c(|uip|)<.'d with a Lentz gear transmission. While ad- 
mitting that the ])resent type of design is limited to slow 
speed of both driving and driven shaft and a limited range 
of siK-eil of the driven .shaft as well, belief was ex- 
pressed that it could be so modified as to admit both high 
speeds and a wider range. Mechanical efficiency was 
given as 80 per cent. If this 400 horsepower l>iesel loco- 
motive with the Lcnlz transmission works out satis- 
factorily, llenschel & Sohn exi)ect to buikl a 1,000 horse- 
power of the same type, l-inal decision will depend on the 
further reports of the operation of the Russian l.COO 
horsepower Diesel electric locomotive. I-'Iectric trans- 
mission was not regarded favorably by this company — they 
claiming that it was too exjiensive (first and last), heavy, 
bulky, and too complicated. Their opinion is that the 
Diesel locomotive ( provided that the transmission can be 
solved) will be in limited demand for: 

(a) Intermittent yard switching and where there is a 
penalty against smoke and dirt. 

(b) On branch and main line work of railroads in 
localities v.here water is scarce — where cheap oil fuel is 
available and coal prices are high. 

Henschel & Sohn are now developing and building a 
turbo-condensing locomotive tender For coupling to a 1.200 
horsejx)wer piston locomotive. The tender will contain 
a low pressure turbine with drive and condenser, thereby 
adding approximately 600 horsepower to the draw bar pull 
of the locomotive without the expenditure of additional 
fuel. The oil in the exhaust steam from the reciprocating 
engine will be extracted to the extent of about 95 per cent. 
A favorable result is anticipated as a water cooled surface 
condenser is less affected by oil than an air cooled type. 
This company has also completed plans for a 2,000 horse- 
power Zoelly tyjje turbo-locomotive , featuring boiler, 
turbine with drive, and condenser on one frame. If this 
turbo-condensing tender proves successful they will pro- 
ceed with a 2,000 horsepower rigid wheel base locomotive 
and low pressure tender. 

At the Krupp plant at Essen, Germany, I looked over 
the Krupp-Znelly turbine locomotive that had been com- 
pleted an(l made some test runs on the Cjerman State Kail- 
ways. This locomotive, I think, is a decided improvement 
over the experimental Zoelly turbine locomotive that I saw 
at the plant of Escher Wyss & Co.. of Zurich, Switzer- 
land. It must be remembered, however, that the experi- 
mental locomotive at the Escher plant was a converted 
steam locomotive and in building the Krupp-Zoelly ma- 
chine they got a better arrangement and a more sym- 
metrical unit. They are giving special attention to the 
development of a Diesel locomotive and are building a 
1.000 horsepower locomotive tyj)e, featuring a gear drive 
and a magnetic clutch. This is their attempt to develop 
something to take the place of the electric transmission. 
They also have plans under way for a 2,000 horsepower 
Diesel locomotive but are not pushing it, claiming that 
they are waiting for more information as to the perform- 
ance of the 1,000 horsepower Diesel locomotive in opera- 
tion in Russia. 

Mr. Hagenbucher, the chief engineer, seemed a strong 
believer in the turbo-condensing locomotive. He did not 
think there was any revolutionary change pending but 



rather, with the increasing demand fcjr more efficient 
motive |)ower, there would come a gradual introduction of 
the turbo-condensing type. He thought there would be 
considerable <levelopment of Diesel locomotives for special 
purjjoses or places, >uch as where water is scarce and coal 
is expensive but oil chea]) and available. It is considered to 
have a field also in industrial switching and short haul 
work where special conditions are in its favor. 

In all the places visited, 1 found a decided doubt in the 
minds of many as to the commercial success of the Diesel- 
electric engine now in use in Russia. S(jme were very 
emphatic in their oi)inion that it was not a success, claim- 
ing that troubles had developed and the electric transmis- 
sion was one of the items causing the most concern. 

There is no doubt that the introduction of a low com- 
pression, solid injection engine has given the semi-Diesel 
quite a boost and as a result the steam advocates have 
awakened and are making great developments in the 
prime mover using steam. .\t the works of Henschel & 
Sohn, Cassel, previously referred to, 1 saw a converted 
steam locomotive from the German State Railways, that 
generated steam at 90 atmosphere and used a working 
pressure of (lO atmospheres, (jr 900 lb. When I saw this 
locomotive it had just come in from a run on the German 
State Railways. 

The demand for a small self-propelled car is just as 
insistent in England and on the Continent as in America. 
In conversation with the chairman of the board of Beyer, 
Peacock & Company, Ltd., he stated that what England 
needed was some form of small efficient self-propelled 
railroad car to enable the railroads to compete with the 
steam and petrol buses and lorries used on the highways. 
In Germany I found the same condition, and the railroads 
are developing both Diesel and steam power for motor 
car work. Cars of both types in actual use are about 
equally divided, with the Diesels averaging slightly higher 
in power. Larger power units of both types of cars are 
contemplated. The steam cars are coal fired and are re- 
ported as having the advantage over the Diesels in both 
first cost and operating cost. Some plans of these cars 
suggest the revival of the Ganz idea. I also understand 
that plans are being developed for a small (500-hp.) 
automatically coal fired locomotive which will be operated 
by one man. 

The Swedish State Railways are going in rapidly for 
electrification and this fact is engaging the attention of 
their organization to the exclusion of many other things. 
The State Railways own and operate no internal com- 
bustion motor cars. .At one time they had a 100-hp. Diesel 
car. but it was too small for their purposes and therefore 
was disposed of. There are, however, some fifty Diesel 
electric cars owned and operated by small, private roads 
in Sweden which are reported as giving good service. The 
State Railways are now trying out a 3(X)-hp. Diesel electric 
locomotive. re])orted as i>erforming satisfactorily. The in- 
spection of this car showed that it is about 40 ft. in length 
and aside from an 8-ft. Ixiggage space is all power plant. 
The engine was being overhauled at the time of inspection. 

The history of self-propelled cars is rather a long one. 
The earliest steam jiowered railroad motor car on record 
was built in England in 1847. There was apparently 
little activity in this line until 18<'7. From that time until 
1910 several hundred steam powered railroad motor cars 
were built in this country and abroad. The early steam 
self-proi)elled cars were mostly of low pressure ranging 
from 160 lb. working pressure to 200 lb. — the boiler gen- 
erallv of the vertical fire tube type. 

In 1903 Ganz & Company, Budapest. Austria, built a 
car with a vertical water tube boiler carrying 250 lb. 
pressure. In 1907 this company built a car for the 
Florida East Coast and this was the first Ganz type of 



March, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



car used in the United States. This company met with 
considerable success and about 200 cars have been 
put out. 

In recent years there has been increased activity in the 
production of self-propelled cars and they seem to be 
confirmed now to gasoline directly connected, and gaso- 
line electrically driven. Some of the latter are reported 
as giving excellent service. There has also in latter years 
been a decided tendency to increase the capacity of these 
self-propelled cars so that they can haul a trailer or two. 
Some are now built of about 300 to -K30-hp. capacity. I 
think increasing difficulty will be found with the internal 
combustion type in the larger units unless a satisfactory 
transmissii)n is developed. 

I feel that what the railroads need is a secondary power, 
something between their small standard locomotives and 
the light weight self-propelled cars. Whether such a car 
will take the form of the internal combustion engine or 
steam is still a matter to be determined. I feel that in 
cars of 500 hp. It will be possible to develop a steam 
car that will compare favorably in efficiency with the in- 
ternal combustion type and would not require the building 
up of a special personnel for their maintenance. .Steam 
has proved a very reliable source of power for railroad 
transportation owing to its flexibility. 

Since Watt, over 100 years ago. called R. .\. Trevithick 
a potential murderer for proposing to operate boilers at 
the dangerous pressure of 60 lb. per sq. in., every sub- 
sequent increase in steam pressure was opposed by the 
conservative majority, and it was not until our electrical 
friends demanded something more efficient in the way of 
high speed for their purposes than the existing steam 
engine as a ])rinie mover, that the steam turbine was de- 
veloped to meet this demand. The steam engineer, owing 
to established precedents, ojiposed higher speeds and high 
pressures. Electrical engineers, on the other hand, not 
being tied up to so long a line of precedents were more 
prfagressive and the steam peoi)le were forced to meet 
their demands. I think I still notice in this country among 
steam users, objection to high rotative speeds in turbines. 
Eurojjean engineers seem to have pushed ahead of us 
in this respect. 

The same feeling existed as far as the boiler w-a> con- 
cerned and high pressures were looked at with alarm. 
but the increa.se in boiler ])ressure has gone on until now 
500 lb. and more is accepted. We have now reached the 
point of giving serious consideration to the lieiison su])er- 
pressurc boiler. In this boiler it is projjosed to generate 
steam at a ])ressure of 3,200 lb. at a temperature of 706 
deg. F. .\n experimental plant has been constructed at 
Rugby, England, which it is expected will be in ojieration 
aI)C)Ut the first of the year. .\ 50 per cent interest in the 
bfjrier has been flisfwsed of tr) the firm of .Siemans & 
Schuckert. < iermany. and the latter company has erected 
a 2,000-kw. plant at iJerlin for experimental ])urix)ses. 

To give you an idea of the difference in o])inions of 
steam advocates and Diesel motor advocates, I will <|uote 
from a paper of J. S. Haldane, M. D., F. R. S.. "The 
3klaximum Efficiency ()f Heat ICngines, and the I-"uture 
of Coal and Steam as Motive .\gents," read before the 
Institution of Mining Engineers on June 16. 1925. 
Mr. Haldane .says: 

".\t the ]>resent time steam engines and oil engines 
are running a neck to neck race as regards many em- 
ployments, while elsewhere the oil engine is Ijeing ap- 
I>lied increasingly to quite new i)ur])oscs, where no heat 
engines had previously been ap])Iic(l. In the o])ininn of 
many persons the steam engine is bound to be displaced 
more and more by the internal combustion engine. This 
opinion is largely baserl on the current academic floctrine 
that the efficiency of a heat engine depends on the absolute 
temperature reached in the engine. In this pai)er I have 



taken my courage in my hands and thrown to the winds 
the academic teaching, backed though it be by the names 
of men to whom the whole would has had good reason 
to be grateful. But I wish now to go a step farther. 
I think that the development of the steam engine has been 
very greatly hindered by the fallacious teaching associated 
with Carnot's cycle. Engineers have been prevented from 
seeing clearly what the maximum efficiency is being need- 
lessly lost, and how the steam engine can be modified 
to suit varying circumstances without loss, or with mini- 
mum loss, in efficiency. . . . .\s regards modifications 
of the steam engine to suit varying circumstances, it seems 
to me that small engines, working at very high pressures, 
and with correspondingly small tubular boilers, will come 
more and more into use. From a quite recent paper by 
Professors Mellanby and Kerr I gather that we may 
expect steel under heavy pressure to stand temperatures 
up to about 900 deg. I", or 480 deg. C. Hut even at the 
lower temperature of 710 deg. I"^. or 374 deg. C. we have 
reached the critical temperature of water and a i)ressure 
of 210 atmospheres, or over 3,000 lb. per sq. in. .Vt 
present I can see no fundamental objections to using steam 
up to or above these pressures ; but in any case a steam 
pressure of 100 atmospheres, vk^ith a corresponding tem- 
perature of 600 deg. 1". seems well within reach^ The 
steam engine in the future will, I think, nearly always 
be a condensing engine, even if the steam is condensed 
at or above boiling point. The familiar pulT of locomotive 
and other steam engines will then no longer he heard : 
and where weight of and space occupied by the engines 
are of great importance, multiple-expansion engines and 
low pressure turbines will also disappear. With all due 
respect to well known persons who have recently been 
writing on the subject of Diesel engines in The Times. 
I do nt)t think that the Diesel engine will have even a 
dog"s chance against the future steam engine for ship 
propulsion." 

This is the opinion of apparent!)- an extreme steam 
advocate. In the discussion of this paper. Professor 
Henry Louis of Xewcastle-on-Tyne, expressed himself 
as follows : 

"I admit that I am a I)eliever in the internal combustion 
engine rather than the steam engine, but my opinion is 
not based as Dr. Haldane suggests, 'on current academic 
doctrine" ; it is based on hard facts. I find in Kempe's 
Engineers' "N'ear Book extracts from the Electricity Com- 
missioners' Rejiorts for 1924 which give the low-est coal 
consumption for a steam engine as 1.81 11). per kw., as 
against the lowest oil consumjjtion of 0.64 lb. One such 
facts si>eaks more than ])ages of Carnotcycle theories." 

Regardless of whether the i)rinie mover is a gasoline 
engine Diesel motor, or steam turbine, it is very im- 
l>ortant that the transmission between the prime mover 
and the secondary shaft be of such flexible character that 
it will not transmit shocks and jars from the track to 
the prime mover. This is .so thoroughly recognized by 
railroad men and builders of locomotives and motor cars 
that ])robaI)Iy more attention is being given it today than 
the tyi)e of i)rime mover. I found that they are not only 
building various kin<is i)ut any number of ])nijects are in 
the air. I nfnrtunalely so m;my of them full to get down 
to eartii. 

We have been told, from time to time, tiiat the steam 
locomotive would be scrapped in favor of some new form 
of power, but it is still doing good and reliable work for 
the railroads, and will eoiitiiuie to do so for many years 
tf) come. 

I believe. hr)wever, that there arc improvements that 
can and will be made that will greatly increase the value 
of the steam locomotive for transportation purposes. 
I believe tiiat some of the |)ower on the railroads could 
be improved greatly by the addition of a low pressure 



74 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March. 1926 



steam turbine tcmU-r, acidin); greatly to the tractive force 
without any additional fuel consumption, thereby making 
unnecessary the purchase of heavier luiwir. 

I believe the next improvement will he in the use of 
higher i)ressure steam and with a tender carrying a low 
l)ressure turbine, or possibly the combination in one unit 
of a high pressure i)islon locomotive and steam turbine. 



I believe these improvements will come in the immediate 
future. 

.Assuming that the Henson sujier pressure boiler lie- 
comes a commercial success, I can vision the operation of 
railroad terminals, and even suburban trains by steam, 
without any smoke, dirt, or noise. This will save rail- 
roads the large exjiensc that electrification would entail. 



What Locomotive Builders Are Doing Here 

Discussion on Recent Locomotive Developments in the Ignited States 
By James Partington, American Locomotive Company 



Mr. Finley with his background of long railroad ex- 
perience was certainly well qualified to make a tour of 
Europe and review the different products that they have 
in the air and some of them being worked out. He has 
given us a very careful synopsis of what he has seen. 

I am not telling anything you do not already know, 
but I think it might be well to point out that what is 
being done along engineering lines in the United States 
is to some extent at least a counterpart of what is being 
done abroad. 

The main line operation of the roads in the L'nited 
States calls for the handling of much greater traffic and, 
therefore, much heavier and larger units are re(|uired 
than are handled abroad, so that in thinking about the 
new tvpes of locomotives that have been mentioned here 
tonight we must think of them in larger units that will 
be comi)arable with the largest and most efficient steam 
locomotives in use on our railroads. 

The steam turbine locomotive, which is being developed 
aljroad, shows great fuel economy, but it also entails a 
much greater first cost and in our .service probably much 
higher maintenance charges would be involved. If built 
in units of comparable size for our service, say 2,500 or 
3.{XX) h]).. the condenser necessary would lie of formidable 
pro|>ortions. 

The provision of forced draft would also be a large 
question to solve. We heard the statement made by one 
of the English engineers that the puff would be subtracted 
from the locomotive, but if the pufif is subtracted from 
the locomotive some other means of forcetl draft must be 
provided. That would have to be proliablv a turbine of 
some description and to provide the necessary draft for 
a large locomotive that turbine blower would have to be 
of large ])roportions. 

On our railroads these large motive power units are 
more desirable than the smaller units. In Europe the 
cost of fuel is rciatively much greater than it is in this 
country and the cost of labor is relatively much less and 
it is also easier to obtain the efficient labor to maintain 
and operate these more highly developed units. 

The turbo-locomotive as a design of locomotive has 
not been considered very seriou.sly in this country by 
any of the railroads. 1 think it has been reviewed by 
the princijjal locomotive builders, but thus far I think 
1 am safe in saying that there has been no iironounced 
demand of any sort for even a trial of the turbo-locomotive, 
because of the ])rol)lems that are presented in atteniining 
to construct and operate a turbo-locomotive of large size. 

The application of the l^iesel oil engine to locomotives 
is making progress on our railroads and many executives 
are watching its developments closely. Oil electric loco- 
motives are now in use in the switching yards of the 



Central R. R. of New Jersey, the Lehigh X'alley and the 
lialtiniore & ( )hio in New \'ork City, and in switching 
and transfer service on the Eong Island R. R. 

These locomotives are e(|uipped with the Price & Rath- 
burn type of oil engine and are of 300 and (OO hp. The 
New York Central will soon place in service a 750 hj). 
Ingersoll Rand oil electric locomotive in freight service 
and an 800 horsepower in passenger service on its division. 

Orders have also been placed by the Chicago & Xorth 
Western, the D. L. & \\'., the Reading and the Erie for 
Ingersoll Rand oil electric locomotives. 

The construction of locomotives of this type of greater 
horseiK)wer no doubt will be an accomplished fact in the 
near future. 

The advantages of this type of locomotive have been 
])ointed out by .\lr. l-"inley and those now in service have 
l)een installed because ])rincipally they meet the smoke 
ordinance restrictions in districts where they have been 
])ut in service. l-"uture developments and possibly the 
])erfection of the mechanical transmission may greatly ex- 
tend the use of this type of power. 

In designing a turbo-electric, turbo-locomotive, oil 
electric locomotive, or any type of straight electric loco- 
motive or any Diesel locomotive with mechanical trans- 
missions, we must keep within the load limits as designed 
ft)r steam locomotives. This will make necessary often a 
large number of units arranged to operate by multiple con- 
trol as one. The oil electric and straight electric loco- 
motives are readily adaptable to such control and in that 
resjKfct are more readilx- available than the other types if 
the service to be performed will hear the burden of the 
higher initial cost involved. This is ])rol)ably a partial 
exi)lanation of why we have the electro locomotive in- 
stallation and why we are getting the Diesel oil engine 
locomotive installation in this country, because they give 
promise of being develoix'd so that they can l)e operated 
in as large units as our steam locomotives. 

The electrification of a number of our railroads has pro- 
gressed largelv because of necessity and some of the de- 
veloiiments which have been made, notably one recently 
on the N'irginian Railway where a section of the track has 
been electrified to increase the tonnage output of th^t 
section of the track, are good illustrations of what can 
be accomplished by .straight electric locomotives. 

The ada])tation of the Diesel oil engines to locomotives 
will have that same valuable feature that as the oil electric 
or the straight electric or the Diesel arc developed for 
larger horsepower they can be arranged for the multiple 
operation. 

In considering the future of the locomotive. Mr. Finley 
has given us a very conservative statement that there will 
be no revolutionarv changes. I think this is entirely true. 



March, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



75 



The different types of locomotives will have to prove and 
establish themselves. The steam locomotive is still being 
improved. \\'e know that nearly every year of steam 
locomotive construction in this country there have been 
major or minor changes from the locomotives previously 
built indicating that the engineers of the builders and the 
engineers of the railroads still have in mind better im- 
provements and further increases in the efficiency of the 
steam locomotive. 

In the last five years there have been numbers of 
changes which have increased the efficiency of steam 
locomotives. 

To enumerate a few of them we might mention greater 
allowable weight of drivers, greater factors of steam 



efficiency, higher superheat, higher working practice, the 
condition of steam by aqueous formation, steam genera- 
tion, economy of heat units, the closer study of road opera- 
tion and more careful study of motive power to meet 
special conditions and the use of higher pressure steam. 
This is gradually coming on a number of our railroads. 
\Ve have one locomotive in operation in this country with 
350 lb. pressure and a large number of locomotives with 
250 and a few at slightly higher pressures than that. The 
builders and the railroads must each feel their way in 
adopting higher pressures. 

I feel that all of these types of locomotives will have a 
place and that there will be continued development along 
the lines that are being gradually established in all such 
types. 



The Ultra-High-Pressure Locomotive 

An Ultra-High-Pressure Compound Three-Cylinder 4-6-0 Superheated 
Steam Express Engine for the German State Railways 



Rumors of the construction in Germany of a locomotive 
having a boiler that carries an exceedingly high pressure 
have been in circulation for some time. The engine and 
boiler which is here illustrated was developed by the 
Schmidt Superheated Steam Company of Cassel W'il- 
helmshohe and the final design worked out by Ilenschel 
and Son of Cassel. 

Xobody had hitherto tackled the construction of a real 
ultra high-pressure locomotive. The requirement of abso- 
lute safety in locomotive boilers which are restricted to 
a minimum weight anfl yet have to stand the roughest 
strains, implied particular difficulties, which have, how- 
ever, been overcome in a most satisfactory manner. 

In order to avoid the difficulties inherent to the design 
of a downright '■uitra-high-i)ressure" boiler, the latter was 
built for two working pressures. 853 lbs. p. sq in. working 
pressure being carried in the back encl. or ultra-high 
boiler, as it may ]5ro])erly be termed, and 1'*'' lbs. p. sq. in. 
in the boiler barrel. 

The inner firebox is farmed by water-tubes the bottimi 
ends of which reach into the water chambers of a hollnw 
foundation ring, whilst their upper ends discharge intu 
steam collectors. The system is filled with chemically 
pure water uj) to the tulie ends in the steam collectors. 
From the latter, steam rises through vertical tubes to heat- 
ing coils mounted in the ultra-high-pressure boiler above 
the firebox. 'Ihe heat from the coils is ab.-^orbed l)y the 
water in the ultra-high-jjressure boiler, and the condensate 
falls back to the foimdation ring chambers through an- 
other set of tubes and thence begins the circulation anew. 
Heating the ultra-high-pressurc boiler is thus ojierated 
indirectly, and the use of the chemically ])ure water im- 
plies the advantage of avoiding the detrimental formation 
of scale in the firebox water tubes. The working ])ressure 
in the firebox and the heating coils is 1,100-1,.300 lbs. sq. 
in. in the ultra-high-ijressure boiler it anif>unts to 853 
lbs. p. sq. in. 

The boiler barrel working at I'W lbs. p. h(|. in. is of the 
standard jjattern an<l heated by a tube system. In order 
to kee]j the formation of scale at its lowest, there is, be- 
sides the custftmary steam dome, a special feed dome with 
an angular grid over which the feed water is si)rinkled in 
a thin spray. For the same reason the feed water for the 
ultra-high-pressure Ixiiler is ])imiped across from iIk 



barrel, so that deposits of lartarous matter in the ultra- 
high-pressure boiler are restricted to a minimum. 

The 850 lbs. p. sq. in. steam generated in the ultra- 
high-pressure boiler is led to an ultra-high-pressure regu- 
lator and after having undergone the superheating pro- 
cess in a small tube superheater arranged in the lower 
portion of the due-tubes, it enters the .steam chest of the 
ultra-high-pressure cylinder located between the frames. 
The steam produced in the boiler barrel flows through the 
dome regulator and thence through another small tube 
superheater provided in the upper flue-tubes. On its way 
from the superheater collector to the two normal pressure 
cylinders outside the frames, the highly superheated nor- 
mal pressure steam mixes at 575 degrees Fahr. with the 




Ultr,-i-Hlgh. Pressure Steam Locomotive of the German St.ite 
Railways 

exhaust steam from the ultra-high-pressure c\lin<ler show- 
ing but a small remainder of su])erheating. and after hav- 
ing perf(jrmed work in the normal pressure cylinders, it 
is emitted through the blast i)i])e and the smoke stack. 

For the trial execution the ( ierman Slate Railways 
have set a])art a 4-6-0 three-cylinder superiieated steam 
express locomotive, class .S 10-', which is ])articularly suit- 
able for alteration inasmuch as the chief work to be 
done consists of re])Iacing the boiler and the inside cylin- 
der. The outside cylinders with their resjiective value 
inolioii. tlir high pressure piston valve working levers, and 



76 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1926 



the whole driviiii,' gears nf the eiijjine remain imahered. 

The locomotive was shown 'at'lhe (lerman 'I'raftic I'-x- 
hihition at Mimich, it will now peffomi the trial runs and 
jiass the steam consnm]>tion tests, the results of which 
will he made known. It is e.\])ected to save aliout 25 per 
cent on fuel. or. on the hasis of e(|ual fuel consumi)tion. 
realize an increase of output from ,?5 to 40 per cent. 

The princi])al dimensions of the locomotive are here- 
after t,'iven : 

Diameter of ultra-hij;h-i)ressurc cylinder. .. 11 7/16 in. 
Diameter of normal pressure cylinders (2). 10 11/16 in. 

Piston stroke 24 13/16 in. 

Diameter of drivini,' wheels 6 ft. 6 in. 

Diameter of truck wheels 3 ft. 3^'s in. 

Wheel ha>e. rii;id 15 ft. 5 in. 

Wheel hase. total 30 ft. in. 

Workinj.; ])ressurc 8.^0 and 199 Ihs. p. s(|. in. 

< Irate area 28 s(|. ft. 

Heatint; surface in fircho.x (internal) 211 s<|. ft 

lleatini: surface of hoiler 1.325 sq. ft. 

IKatini,' surface in tuhes. internal 1.313 sc|. ft. 

HealinL; surface of superheater 9/4.3 sq. ft. 

\Veii;ht empty aluuit 185.000 lbs. 

Weight in working; order ahout 200,000 lbs. 

Wei'yht on drivers ahout 132,000 lbs. 

Tractive power about 26,500 Ihls. 

It is expected that details of the construction and 
operation of locomotive will be published in a future issue 
as soon as the trial runs have been completed. 



Comparative Tests of Steam and Oil-Electric 
Locomotive 

The efficiency of the dil-elcctric loc<im<itive — the most 
recent develo])ment in the motive ])ower fiekl. but now 
an assureil success after years of exi)erinientation — was 
strikingly demonstrated in a series of tests made by the 
Central Railroad of New Jersey during December. 

.\t the Bronx Terminal in New ^'ork City a sixty-ton 
oil-electric, operating for 24 days <lnring December, in 
347 hours of locomotive .service bandied a total tonnage 
of 61.556 at a total ftiel cost of $72.5i<. A steam loco- 
motive. o|)erating under almost identical conditions in 
December, 1924. in 24 days rendered 29/ hours" service, 
and during this time moved a tonnage of .'^0,493 :it a 
cost for fuel and oil of $349.46. 

The oil-electric, in other words, handled 11,000 more 
tons than the steam locomotive and at a fuel cost of 
approximatelv 20^ as compared with the steam engine. 

The cost of fuel ])er 1,000 tons ban(lle<l was $1.16 
for the oil-electric as comjjared with $6.92 for the steanp 
locomotive. 

The saving in fuel costs is only one of the many 
economies made jMissible by the oil-electric. It will make 
possible elimination of coaling jilants. ash i)its. turn 
tables, and expensive round bouses and bostling services. 
Verv little water is necessary, thus eliminating costly 
watering stations and troubles due to bad water con- 
ditions. 

Use of the oil-electric locomotive would reduce loco- 
motive maintenance costs by one-half: and each oil- 
electric, during the course of a year, would be able to 
render twice as many hours of service as are now obtain- 
able from the steam locomotive. 

The following statistics, as compiled by the Central 
Railroad of Xew Jersey, afford the first real comparison 
of the relative efficiency and operating costs of the oil- 
electric and a steam locomotive. 



Comparative (.)perat ion— 60-Ton Oil-Electric vs. Steam 
— Month of Dccrmber, l''24, l'»25: 

Oil-Electric Steam 
1925 1924 

.N'unitur •<! days 24 24 

HolIr^ of liiromotive service ■..'. 347 297 

OpcratitiK fuel consuming hours ....'. :•. 318 297 

l'"utl oil used, Kallons 1,038 

Diesel lubricaliiig oil used, gallons.,'., ,'... 25 

(iasoline used 5 

IJiKiiie oil used 5 5 

Valve oil use<l lU 5 

Star cup grease used, lbs 1 

Kilowatt liours generated 6,6'4 

Coal Used, tons 41 

.Number of floats handled: 

In ^ 57 47 

Out 57 46 

Total 114 93 

.Xumlicr of cars handled: 

1" 947 775 

Out 943 765 

Total l.X9() 1,531 

Tons handled : 

Off float (net 19,908) 38,889 31,040 

On float (net 3,766) 22,667 19.453 

Total (net 23.674) 61.556 50,493 

Includes tar weight of cars. 

Cost of operation : 

Fuel oil at $.05 per gal $51.90 

Diesel engine lub. oil $.53 per gal 13.25 

tiasolinc at $.145 72 

Water at $.01/10 cu. ft 03 $28.37 

l-Jigine oil at $.262 per gal 1.31 1.31 

\ alve oil at $.53 per gal 5.30 2.65 

Star cup grease at $.07 per II) 07 

Coal cost at $7.15 per ton 293.15 

Coal cost handling 24.00 

Total cost of fuel, coal, oil, etc $72.58 $349.4s 

D.MLV OPER.\TlXG .\VER.\C,E 

December 

Oil- Electric Steam 

1925 1924 

Hours of locomotive service 14.5 12.4 

Operating fuel consuming hours 13.3 12.4 

Fuel oil used, gallons 43.2 .... 

Diesel lub. oil used, gallons 1.04 .... 

Gasoline Neg- ■ • ■ ■ 

Coal used, tons 1.7 

Kilowatt hours generated 275 .... 

Xumber .of floats handled 4.75 3.87 

Xumber of cars handled 79 64 

Xuml>er of tons handled 2..S65 2,104 

Cost of fuel, oil, coal. etc.. total $2.98 $14.56 

.Cost of fuel, oil, coal, per 1,000 tons handled... 1.16 6.92 

... .C)PER.\TIXC. HOURLY .\VER.\CE COST 

Fiieh oil, coal, water, etc $.228 $1.18 

•Per car on and off floats 038 .228 

Per ton on and off floats 001 1 .0069 

"Cost per K\V hours 0109 

■N'umber of tons handled per hour 193 170 

Rate RHP hours per gal. lub. oil 3.820 

lbs. fuel oil per K\V hour generated 1.13 .... 

Oil engine load factor 9.6270 



Tractive Effort of Four-Cylinder Compound 
Locomotive? 

The method of determining the cylinder dimensions and 
efficiencv of the four-cylinder locomotives built by the 
Hanover Machine Works for the Northern Railway of 
.Spain is described in its house organ and w-ill be of in- 
terest to .\merican designers. 

The points decided upon in advance were that there 



March, 1926 



RAILWAY' AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



should Ije a weight of 140.000 lbs. on the drivirii; wheels 
and that these should lie 697^ in. (1.75 m. ) in diameter. 
Also that in the arrangement of the cylinders in accord- 
ance with the de (llehn system, the low presstire cylinders 
should be placed between the frames in order to secure 
a mass ecjualization or balance. While carefully consid- 
ering the strength of the cranked axle, it was nevertheless 
possible, tlianks to the width of the Spanish .gage I 5 ft. 
6 in.), to accommodate the low pressure cylinders of 27:? 
in. ( 700 mm. ) in diameter. Then by using the ordinary 
ratio of 1 to 2.32. the diameter of the high pressure cyl- 
inders became 18.1 in. Both cylinders have the same 
jjiston stroke of 26.77 in (680 mm.) and the .steam pres- 
sure was fixed at 16 atmospheres or about 235 lbs. ])er 
sq. in. 

If these dimensions are taken for the calculation of the 
maximum tractive effort with a cut-off of 25 jier cent of 
the stroke, the result will vary according to the formula 
and imits used. 

l-"or examj)le the German formula for the calculation of 
the tractive eflfort of four-cylinder locomotives is : 

D^ X S X 2 X .85 P 

T = 

(R + 1) W 
In which 

D = Diameter of L. P. cylinders in centimeters 
S = Stroke of pi.ston in centimeters 
P = Boiler pressure in atmospheres 
W = Diameter of driving wheels in centimeters 
R ^ Ratio of Idw to high pressure cylinder section 

By substituting the metric measurements in this fur- 
mula we have 

70- X 68 X 1.7 X 16 

T = = 15.6UO kg. = 34..^20 lbs. 

(2.32+ 1) 175 
By substituting the Knglish measurements in the same 
formula, we have 

27.5= X 26.77 X 1.7 X 235 

T = = 34.8(')0 lbs. 

3.32 X 69.875 
This is, as would l)e e.vpected, an insignificant and neg- 
ligible variation. 

If the same calculation is made in accoi dance with the 
formula developcfl by the American Locomotive Co. we 
get a variation that is not quite so negligible. 
That formula is 

D'^ X S X P X C 

T = 

W 
in which C is a constant that varies with the point of cut-off 
and the ratio of the lc;w to the high pres.sure cylinder, 
l-'or a ratio of 2.3 and a cut-of? at 85 per cent of tlie stroke 
this constant is equal to .555. By substituting this and 
the other Knglish measurements of the locomotive under 
consideration we have 

27.5- X 26.77 X 235. X -355 

T = = 37.786 lbs, 

69.875 
This is about 11 i>er cent more than the tractive effort 
given by the (ierman fornnila using the metric measure- 
ments anrl 8.1 jK-r cent more than that given by the same 
formula using ICnglish measurements. So that a rough 
method of comjjarison is to remember to add fen per ceiit 
to the tractive effort of f-luro])ean four-cylinder com|K(und 
IrHTomotives in order to obtain the ap|)roximate rating that 
would Ik- given them in this country. 

Carrying the analysis further on the basis of the 
<^ierman rating we have a coefficient of adhesion of a little 
more than 4. This can be virtually raised by careful 



sanding at starting and while running. A tractive effort 
nf 28,000 would give a ratio of 5, which with the weight 
<:f tikin ordinarily handled would- rarely be exceeded. 

With the ordinary loading tractive efforts of 22,000. 
20,000 and 15.000 lbs. are common and these corresiMud 
to mean eft'ective pressures in the cylinder of 7S. 69 and 
S2 lbs. per sq. in. 

.\ccording to the investigations of Strahl. Lihotski and 
' thers these pressures should be obtained with cut-offs in 
the high pressure cylinders ranging from 30 to 45 per 
cent. 



New Passenger Equipment Installed and Old 

Equipment Retired 

An example of the kind of progress steadilv made by 
a progressive indus_try is to be seen in the report for the 
last quarter of 1925 covering passenger-train cars owned 
by the Class I railroads of the country.- This report, just 
i.ssued by the Car Service Division of the .Vmerican Rail- 
way .A.ssociation, shows that during the last three months 
of 1925 the following passenger-train cars were added to 
the equipment of the railroads of the country : 

New all-steel cars 3?(i 

Xew steel under-frame cars 159 

Xew or reconstructed wooden cars ...... 79 

Total 594 

During the same three months the passenger-train cars 
retired were as follows : 

-Ml-steel 74 

Steel inider-frame 100 

WOiiden '^)/S 

rr)tal retirements 1,149 

In other words, almost the entire increase in new pas- 
senger car installations was in all-steel or steel under- 
fraiTie cars : and with the e.xception of 174 cars the retire- 
ments were all wooden cars. The net increase is 282 all- 
steel cars and 59 steel under-frame cars. The net de- 
crease is 896 wooden cars. 

The passenger-train cars on order as of December 
31. 1925, were: 

All-steel 1.136 

Steel under-frame 10 

Wooden none 

Total 1.146 

When these cars which are on order are delivered, and 
.'.re accompanied by further retirements of old cars, the 
percentage of steel equipment will be considerably in- 
creased, and that of the less modern equipment will be still 
further decreased. .\t the rate of progress which is now 
being maintained, all-steel and steel under-frame cars will 
in a few years outnumber all the wooden cars still in 
service. This, of course, does not mean that conditions on 
many railroads and on many branches will not justify the 
continued use of wooden cars. 

On December 31, 1925, the passenger train equii)ment 
of the railroads stood as follows: 

All-.steel 2U.')37 

Steel under-frame 9,359 

Wood.n 23,701 

Total ?-^.''"7 



78 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March, 1926 



Ri'^veEiKineeriR 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, 
Rolling Stock and Appliances 



Published Monthly by 

ANGUS SINCLAIR COMPANY 

136 Liberty Street, New York 
Chicago Office: 168 North Michigan Avenue 
Telephone Reetor 0746. Cible Addre»i "Locong," N. Y. 



Harrjr A. Kenney, Prest. and Man. Ed. Geo. L. Fowler, Aaaociate Editor. 

W. E. Srmooi, Associate Editor. J. Snowden Bell, Asaociate Editor. 

Thomas P. Kenney, Secretary. 



LONDON REPRESENTATIVE 
Ltd., 3 Ac 
C. Engia 



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Enetred as second-class matter January IS, 1902, at the post 
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The Weight of Superheated Steam 

For many years wc have had very coiii])lete tables giv- 
ing the ])ri)perties of saturated steam, so that the data for 
calculations were readily available. Tile necessity for 
similar information resjardiiiij the ])ro])erties of sujier- 
heated steam has been pressint^ more and more heavily 
upon us ever since its introduction into locomotive and 
steam turbine work. .\ ijood deal of work is the formula- 
tion of steam tables at the hiijher pressures has been done 
l)y the steam research committee of the .\merican .Societv 
of Mechanical Engineers, and the data obtained were placed 
at the disposal of the turbine engineering department of 
the tieneral l-'.lectric Co. by whom a very complete table 
of the specific volumes of saturated and suiK-rheated steam 
has been worked out. 

The steam chart thus developed is basetl upon the Har- 
vard throttling ex])eri!ne!its. which involved the u.sc. also, 
of the Knobland si)ecific heat determinations. 

The results of the work by the General Electric Co. have 
been presented in the form of an elalK)rate table of the 
properties of sujierheated steam. This table, as published, 
gives the number of cubic feet per pound of superheated 
and saturated steam through a range of pressures from 
one pound to 1,200 lbs. per sq. in., absolute, and for a 
superheat from zero to four hundred degrees Fahr. The 
pressures rise by increments of one pound to 150 pounds 
per sq. in. ; thence by increments of two pounds to 250 
pounds per s<i. in. : by increments of five pounds to 400 
{Xjunds per s<i. in. ; by increments of ten jxiunds to 750 
pounds per sq. in., and finally by increments of twenty- 
five pounds to the upjier limit. 

The range of the superheat is covered by increments of 



ten degrees each from the zero to one hundred degrees, 
thence by increments of twenty degrees to 200 degrees and 
then for the two final figures we liave the 300 and 400 
degree indications. 

if the coUnnn of temperature in degrees i-'ahrenheit i)e 
compare<l with a similar colrmn nf the I'orter determina- 
tions as given in Kent's i'ocket i'.ook, the two will lie 
found to l)e in very close agreement throughout the lower 
ranges of pressures, although there is some variation. 
The temiH.Tatures of the new tables fluctuate a little bchjw 
the I'orter table until a pressure nl 10 lbs. |)er sq. in. 
absolute is reached, after which they are definitely higher 
by a fraction of a degree. The ma.xinnim lx;ing 0..? that 
is gradually reached and then held for some time until a 
pressure of 220 lbs. jjer sq. in. absolute is attained, .\ftei 
whicii the difference decreases until at 375 lbs. the two 
tal)les are in accord, after whicli the figures of the new 
table fall ott' comi)aratively rapidly relatively to the old 
one, until at UXX) lbs. which is the limit of the latter the 
difference is 1.7 degrees. So far as the saturated steam 
table is concerned there is not much change from that 
which we have Ir-cii using. The chief value, then, lies in 
the cnnipleteness and range of the su]K'rheated steam table, 
which will be of great value in supplying greatly needed 
data. 

In presenting the table it is distinctly stated that it is 
not to he su]jposed that it re])resents the final word on 
the pro]>erties of steam in the region which it covers, and 
it was develojK'd l)ecause of the urgent need for the data 
which it contains. It is exi)ected that further information 
yielded by the steam research program vi the .\merican 
.Society of Mechanical Engineers may serve to enlarge or 
modify the table. Meanwhile it "will be of service at a 
development of the most extensive and dependable em- 
pirical data that have yet been published on steam at high- 
itressure." 



Why Not Use the Sandblast 

For many years we have l)een taught that when paint 
is tt) be applied to a metallic surface with the e-xi^ectation 
of securing the best protective results, that surface should 
be first cleaned of all dust, clirt and grease. The state- 
ment has been accepted, never disputed, and rarely fol- 
lowed. \\"e sec metallic structures being repainted year 
in and year out, but those of us that have ever seen a 
projier method of cleaning ai)])lied are few and far lie- 
tween : while those who have would find the digits on their 
hands more than sufficient to account for every instance 
that has been brought to his or her jiersonal attention. 

When surfaces other than the outsides of houses are to 
l)e painted there is u.sually some pretense of cleaning them 
but it is almost invariably a mere pretense. The use of 
a dust brush is the ordinary method, though for very 
dirty metallic surfaces the wire brush is not uncommon. 
I'.ut these don't really clean, they merely enndate the mo- 
tions of a hasty housewife by giving a lick and a promise 
.•\nd any sort of an examination of the surfaces so pre- 
jxired will show them to l)e far from lieing in an ideal 
condition to receive a coat of paint. 

It is strange that with this almost univer.sal disregard 
of ]>recept there is no authentic information as to the 
reason therefor. If it has l>een tried with sufficient fre- 
quency to have proven that it does not jiay. who has made 
the trials? 

.•\ few years ago a superintendent of motive power of 
one of the southern railroads installed a ]>lant for sand- 
blasting tender tanks before painting. It was continued in 
use for a few years and then abandoned. 

The subject is brought to mind by a report on the tests 
being made by the .American Society for Testing Ma- 



March, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



terials which says that ""the tests seem to indicate that the 
most rapid deterioration of paint occurs where applied 
over a badly rusted surface. The tests on new steel indi- 
cate that painting will preserve sandblasted or pickled 
surfaces." Then again, "'the tests on old panels seem to 
indicate that there is little advantage in the application 
of so thorough a method of cleaning as sand-blasting ; 
whereas one panel half cleaned by hand and half bv sand- 
blasting shows a decided superiority in the sand-blasting 
method." From which the conclusion is drawn that 
"there must be some intermediate point in surface condi- 
tion between "the two that' would determine the method 
required for the best results. " 

As it stands our faith is not strong enough to drive us 
to act, and yet we knowingly persist in a practice that is 
unsatisfactorv because . Well, w-ho knows? 



The Use of the X-Ray in the Inspection of 
Metals 

.\t the last meeting of the American Society for Test- 
ing Materials a committee report was presented on X-ray 
Metallograjjhy in which the methods and results attained 
with that method of inspection were fully discussed. 

The application of the method has, thus far, been quite 
limited and the results achieved, so far as they relate to 
foundry problems, have been for the most part obtained in 
the testing laboratories of Watertown Arsenal where an 
X-ray section was installed in the fall of 1922 for metal- 
lurgical research and radiographic testing. Due to the 
fact that this was a pioneer laboratory the first |)niblem 
of importance was the develoijment of a suitable labora- 
tory techni(|ue. In this study it was found that the thick- 
ness of metal that could be successfully radiographed was 
for practical purposes a linear function of the voltage 
across the tulie up to 200,000 volts, the current through 
the tube and the exposure time IxMug constant. The 
jjractical limit of thickness that could be radiographed was 
found in the case of steel to be about ,^ in., in which 
thickness a cavity 1/16 in. in diameter could be detected. 
Pictures through 3 in. were obtained with 30 minutes' 
ex])osure. The maximum thickness of steel radiographed 
was 4 in., the jjictures being obtained with seven hours 
and forty minutes' exposure. Since that time, the prac- 
tical limit has been raised to ilA in. thickness of section 
for favorably shaped steel castings and a ]>icture through 
4.1 in. of solid steel has lx.'en obtained witii nnc Imur 
and thirty minutes" exposure. 

The next j^roblen) that presented itself was the ])rob- 
lem of diagnosing films. It was necessary to find out 
what the spots on the films meant. To .get at the informa- 
tion required, castings found by the X-ray tests to l>e 
defective were cut up and revealed defects were compared 
with their images in the negatives. This work was en- 
larged to include a systematic study of casting defects. .\? 
a result of the investigation it was found possible to diag- 
nose the defects found in the film negatives with a fair 
degree of certainty. In man\ cases the defects could be 
correlated with definite causes. 

In foundry control testing the radiographic method has 
been used succcssUiUy to develo]) |)roi)er casting technique 
in the Watertown .Arsenal and in some commercial found- 
ries. It is probable that this apijlication will be the 
most im]X)rtant one for metal radiography. This use 
forces definite studv of sjK-cific defects with consequent 
si)ccific education of foundry ]KTsonnel. This study has 
resulted in general improvement in casting f|uality and in 
a reduction in the ])ercentage of rejected castings. 

In the field of insjiection testing, the method has been 
employed successfully both in this country and abroad. 
Much f.rdnance material such as aero])lane ])arts, fuses for 



shells, and similar small pieces were examined in this wav 
in England during the war. Carbon electrodes, built up 
mica, turbine blades and various other articles of manufac- 
ture have been inspected by the radiographic method in 
this country but the more si>ectacular applications in the 
past two years have been in the inspection of heavy cast- 
ings. An illustrative example of this use is the examina- 
tion of the turbine shell, steam line, and control valves of 
a 1200 lb. per sq. in. steam pressure installation in a mod- 
ern superjxDwer electric plant. In this case, the value of 
the service into which the castings entered was such that 
the X-ray tests were regarded as necessary insurance. In 
these tests some castings were rejected which would have 
passed any ordinary tests. It is probable that radiography 
will find an increasing application in inspection tests 
where, as in this case, the loss from breakdown would 
greatly exceed the cost of the tests. 

b'urther development in X-ray api)aratus is needed. 
Higher voltage tubes should be developed. There is 
prol)abl\- a limit beyond which higher voltages would 
not be advantageous, but that limit has not yet been 
reached. A million-volt tube should be able to test sec- 
tions 10 in. thick. 

The greatest present limitation to a more extensive use 
of radiographic tests is the cost and this is due partlv to 
the lack of flexibility of the apparatus. X-ray pictures 
cost at present from one dollar to five dollars apiece and 
it takes sometimes forty pictures to cover an important 
casting. It is probable that radiography will always be 
expensive as a method of inspection. Its economical aji- 
plication to foundry control testing seems possible, but 
here also its value will depend on the individual problems 
of the foundry. With the present rapid evolution of the 
mechanical appliances of industry there is an ever-growing 
demand on structural units for increased strength and 
de]>endability ; metal radiography should be helpful in this 
connection. 

.\nyone interested in a more detailed study of metal 
radiograi>hy will find some helpful references at the end 
of this re])ort. 



British and American Railways 

To THi''. I-'ditok : 

-A great deal of the public discussion of railways in 
.America relates to freight rates and the various other 
factors which affect the industries of the country. Pas- 
.senger services receive very little ]5ublicity in the press, 
except what is bought and paid for. 

Accustomed as .American railroad men arc to the.se 
conditions, it conies as something of a sur])rise to learn 
that a considerable number of jieople in ( ireat Hritain 
take a livelv interest in the "home" railways, which has 
a "sporting"' element in it that is totally lacking in 
.America. To what extent this popular interest heli)s 
British railways I am not i)re])ared to say ; though it seems 
reasonable to supixise that the net results must be favor- 
able. The flislinctive colors used in the finish of motive 
ixjwer and rolling stuck dnublless have value for adver- 
tising ]>uri)oses and tend to focus public attention upon 
"crack" express trains and notable locomotives. 

Just now, a merry controversy is in ])rogrcss over the 
relative merits of I'ritish and French ex|>ress trains, which, 
as it may have some i)oints of interest to American rail- 
road men, is worthy of notice in the .American trade press. 
.Starting in the daily i>ress, this contrf)versy ultimately 
reached the Ilou,se of Lords and subse(|Uenlly l>iiunced 
back into the railway jieriodicals where certain of the 
more advanced students of o])eraling nietho<ls arc now 
threshing it out. The.se students favor an increase of 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March. 1926 



sjH'fd Oil I'.ritish railways which will put tluiu alircasl of 
the rupurtfd achitvinieiUs of tht- l-rcmh railways. The 
British railway ofVicials arc 'standing ikU," as we would 
say, and niaintaininj,' that express services in Britaiii are 
fast enough. In this attitude they seem t<> be justified, 
since the evidence in favor of l<>ench railways is not 
entirely convincinjj to impartial observers. .-\s jjublic 
reaction to this controver.sy may hit us in due course, we 
can atTortl to examine it. 

In the first place, the records show that a gotxlly number 
of British express trains are run at an average spee<l of 
over 55 m.p.h., and that i>ne or two are o]xraled at over 
60 m.i).ii. "start to stop." Considerable numbers of others 
average over 50 m.p.h. 'I'hese are very g(M)d figures — 
from an.\merican jKiint of view, at all events — and not 
to be sneezed at even in France ! 

"They order," said Laurence Sterne, "lluse things better 
in l-"rance." But that was many years ago, and the re- 
mark was not concerned with railways ! 

In the second place, the records likewise show that 
train-loads on, for example, the Great Western Kailwav 
of luigland are not inferior to those on, say. the Nord of 
l-"rance. The days of feather-weight express trains have 
long since gone in Kngland. and a load of 500 (long) tons 
behind the tender is now the order of the day, with 550 
as a iK)ssibility of the near future. The evidence shows 
that trains of ten to fourteen of the heaviest "bogie" 
vehicles, packed to capacity, roll out of Paddington every 
day behind engines which, for concentrated efficiency, are 
second to none. Express train loads in the "up" direction 
are almost as heavy, the "consist" being eight to a dozen 
vehicles. 

With reference to grailes : It api)ears that the profile of 
the Xord is rather more unfavorable from certain i)oints 
of view, than that of the Great Western ; though this 
asi)ect of the matter is often unduly stressed. 

What is being thrust into notice most, however, is the 
fact that French railways are ]wrtial to the de Glehn com- 
pound. This move is a mistake, since neither British nor 
American raihvavs have the remotest intention of ever 
adopting this design. It has been tried both in Kngland 
and .America, and definitely rejected, l-'urtber touting 
of this tyi^e is, therefore, ill-advised, to say the least. 

Since, in the present controversy, the Great Western 
has been cited as a suitable I'.ritish railway for puqwses 
of comparison, a few words shout its express engines may 
not be out of place. 

I'"or upwards of twenty years, a great deal of the ex- 
press work on this line has been done by 4-6-0 engines of 
the famous "Star"' class. The first of these engines was 
named "North Star." in honor of a celebrated engine of 
very early times. The modern "North Star" had four 
single-expansion cylinders, each lA'/z x 26 inches, 80-inch 
drivers, and a weight, without tender, of 169,200 lbs. 
Subsequently, the cylinder diameter on this and other 
engines of this class was increased to 15 inches. .Xs the 
boiler carries a working pressure of 225 lbs. per square 
inch, the tractive effort was thus 27.800 lbs., a splendid 
result for a ten-wheel engine of this weight. 

A new 4-r>-0. known as the "Castle" class, is even more 
powerful. By increasing the cylinder diameter to 16 
inches, the tractive effort is raised to 31,625 lbs. Steaming 
capacity is assured by the provision of a somewhat larger 
boiler than is used on the "Star"' class. Outside steam 
pipes and a more commodious cab constitute the other 
improvements. 

Mr. C. B. Collett, the C. M. E. of the G. W. R., intends 
to rebuild all the "Star" as "Castles." according as the 
former come due for heavy repairs. Ultimately, therefore. 
the G. W. R. will have a remarkable group of 4-6-0 ex- 



press engines. 1 use this term advisedly, since the jHjwer 
of this class is enormous in pro]xjrti(jn to total weight, and 
taking into consideration the important fact that it was 
designed for high-s|K'ed service. (Some 4-6-0 engines 
in .America are rather powerful, but it must lie remem- 
bered that their drivers are relatively small). 

Coming, finally, to actual sche<lules and rates of speed, 
we might a> well (juote the official figures. 

The fastest train in Britain is one which, I believe, 
originates at Cheltenham, .\nyhow, it stops at Swindon, 
leaving there at 3.45 P. M. and running the 77. i miles 
thence to London in 75 minutes, or at the rate of 61.8 
miles per hour. Let the critics laugh that off. if they can! 

Other ( i. W. runs of considerable merit are those be- 
tween l^indon and I'.irmingham. 110.6 miles: and London 
and Bristol. 1 18.3 miles ; Ixjth covered in two hours flat. 

London to Cardiff, 145.1 miles, in two hours and forty 
minutes, is rather good going, es])ecially on a busy line. 

Then, the famous non-sto]) run. l^)ndon to Plymouth, 
225.7 miles, in four hours and seven minutes is still a 
creditable performance, particularly when the hilly nature 
of the western end of the line is considere<l. 

It would take too lf)ng to analyze further the very fine 
services of the G. W. R.. but I think that enough has l)ecn 




by 4-6-0 Type Locomotive 
Railway. England 



the Great Western 



adduced to show that they will take a lot of beating. I 
may add, however, that engines of the "Star" class have 
exceeded 90 m.p.h. in actual service. 

The photograph ]>resented herewith shows an up Chel- 
tenham express train handled by "Bath .\bbey." one of 
the later "Stars." Ten vehicles are in view, the first of 
which, a "luggage van." bears a striking resemblance to 
our ()wn baggage cars. The second vehicle is one of the 
old coaches. The balance of the train is made, up of 
modern stock. 

Railwavs, lK>th at home and abroad, have had occasion 
to complain of comi)etition of autos. Perhaps the answer 
to that problem will be found in lietter and. where needed. 
>jK'edier railway service. 

Newton Center, Mass. .Aktiur Cirran. 



Snow Melting Device for Locomotives 

The Boston & Maine Railroad jilaced in service recently 
a device to melt snow and ice on switches, turnouts, and 
around interlocking and e<|uipment. It consists of a ])i]>e 
line attached to the steam dome of the locomotive, and 
leading to a ])oint below the engine ])ilot. .A valve is pro- 
vided, with connection into the cab for regulating a su])- 
])ly of steam, and the section of pipe attached to the pilot is 
fitted with nine nozzles made of '/> in. pi]x^. The locomo- 
tive is run over switches, turnout, etc.. at a rate of sjieed 
of from two to three miles an hour, and live steam is 
directed through the nozzles on the snow covered sur- 
faces. 



Three -Cylinder Locomotives on the Wabash Railway 

By W. A. Pawnall, Mechanical Engineer, Wabash Railway 



About a year ago 50 heavy Mikado type freight loco- 
motives were buih for the Wabash Railway by the Ameri- 
can Locomotive Company. Before ordering these 50 
engines considerable thought was given to the ad- 
vantages claimed for the three-cylinder tyi)e. The per- 
formance of three-cylinder engines in service was in- 
vestigated and it was decided that while 45 of the 50 would 
be of the usual two-cylinder type the other five would be 
of the three-cylinder type. 

The advantages which were expected from the three- 



The resultant increase in engine wheel base over the older 
engines was from 37 ft. 2 in. to 39 ft. 1 in., or 23 in. 
The main rod length was increased 10 in., and it was 
necessary to. offset the center of tlie second driving axle 
in order to provide pro])er clearance for the center main 
rod. 

These increases in wheel l)ase cause little dift'crence in 
appearance between the two and three-cylinder types. If 
at some time in the future the merits of the three-cvlinder 
lyi)e justify conversion of the t\vo-cvHndcr engines, it will 




Mikado Type Locomotive Class K-3 of the Wabash Railway Placed 



cylinder engines as compared with the iwo-cylinder were 
i)riefi\' as follows : 

Reduction of stresses on pistons, crosshead and rods 
due to dividing the load among three sets of parts instead 
of two. Less severe strains in main frames a.xles and 
other parts of the locomotive because of more even dis- 
tribution of the load or work transmitted from the cylin- 
ders through the a.xles, rods, wheels, etc. Less recipro- 
cating weight to counterbalance, resulting in lessening the 
hammer blow on the rail as well as side thrust of "nosing" 
of the engine. Less damage to freight cars due tn 
smoother starting of heavy trains. 

Increased tonnage ])er train or increased speed with tin- 
same tonnage, and a saving in fuel and water. Less slip- 
ping of the engine when starting heavy train or with slip- 
pery rail conditions. Decreased track and ])ridge main- 
tenance due tf) lower dynamic augment and nosing of 
engines. 

In preparing specifications for these engines the design 
of .some heavy Mikado built in the ])revious year was 
closely followed, only such major changes being made as 
were necessary for the three-cylinder type. .\rrange- 
ments were made for the other 45 to be readily convertible 
if so desired at some future time, to three cylinder engines 
with a minimum amount of change and expense. The 
jjrinciijal change from the older, or class K-3 engines, 
consisted in increasing the distance between the second 
and third driver 13 in., the distance from the center of the 
cylinder to the engine truck wheel 4 in., and from the rear 
driver to the trailer G in., this last being due to an increase 
of 6 in. in firebox length rather than to any feature of the 
three-cylinder design. The 13 in. increase in distance 
between th'- second and third flrivers was necessary in 
order not to have too short a middle main rod as well as 
to get proper angularity of this rod and clear the first and 
second axles. The engine truck was advanced 4 in. in 
order to provide necessary space in front for the valve 
gear for the center cylinder of the three-cylinder engine. 



■Paptr prewnlci! at the Chicago Sfclic 
Mechanical Rngineen, Feb. 24, 1926. 



mcetiiiK of the Amcr 



Society 



lie necessary to change only the cylinder!' ftrossheads. valve 
gear, second and third driving axles ana', add necessary 
l)arts for the additional center cylinder, ' ** 

These three designs of engine will be ntcrred to as 
follows; class K-3 covers the two-cylinder type put in 
service early in 1924; class K-4 covers the 45. two-cylinder 
l\pe and class K-5 the 5 three-cylinder type,' placed in serv- 
ice in l')25. The K-3 and K-4 have 27 in by 32 in. cylin- 
ders while the K-5 has the two outer cylinders 23 in. by 
32 in, and the center c\liiider 23 in. b\' 2S in. 

The is -4 and l\-5 carry 5 Ih, mure boiler pressure than 
ilic l\-3, and liie tractive force developed are K-3. C)0,41(') 
lb.: K-4. fil,')r)5 lb; K-5, 64,637 lb. 

i'"or ciim])arisiin thi' fullowing table shows tlie jirincijial 
(liniensiuiis ol tlii' three classes; 

^ •I'wocvlinik-r typi— , Thrcc-cyliiicl.r 
K — 3 K^ type K— 5 

Cylinder .li.imclcr and slnikc, . , . 27".v32" 27"xM" _', 2.3"x.12" 

1, 23".n2S" 

Steam pressure 195 lb, 2(10 Ih. 2()0 lb. 

Diameter of drivers M in, (i4 in. M in. 

Tractive force, lb f)0.410 ()1.9ft.S ()4.W7 

Factor of adhesion wciKlits. lb... 3.94 4,01 i.H? 

Drivers 238.000 248.450 251 .215 

I'Vont truck 31.000 30.810 .W.UO 

Trailer truck 56,000 .54.470 ,56.165 

Total euKine 325.000 333.730 .^0,490 

TeiKler loaded 196,500 194,.500 194,5(10 

iMiKine and tender 521,500 528.230 5.M.Q90 

Cylinder lior.sepowcr 2.558 2,624 2.8.56 

1 leating su-'facc. sq. ft. 

Firebox 273 .309 .W 

.\rch tube 32 .T2 3Z 

Tubes 2,«)0 2.660 2,660 

l-lues 1.224 1.224 1.224 

Total 4.189 4.225 4.225 

Superheating 1.051 1,051 1,051 

(;ratc area, s(|. ft (M 70.2 70,2 

.Mechanical stoker Duplex Duplex Duplex 

It will be noted that the K-5, with a slightly greater 
weight on drivers than the K-4 has an increase in tractive 
force of 2.672 lb,, or 4,4 per cent and a noticeably lower 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March. 1926 



factDf of adhesion. Thus, a(lvaiitaj,'c- has l)i-cii taken oi 
tlu- ffaiiiri' of more t-vun tiiriiin); niovcnit-iit of the thri-c- 
cvliiiiliT type of en^'iiie to use a lower factor of atlhesioii 
ami ohtain an increased tractive force or liaulinj^ capacity 
at slijjht increase in weij^ht of engine and without having 
a "slipiury" eni^ine. 'l"hc results in actual service will he 
touched on later. 

The live three-cylinder engines were place in service 
durinjj Ajjril and .May of l'>25. and were assigned to fast 
merchandise frei^dit trains running hetween St. Louis 
and Chicaf^o. .\ j^ood ])ro])ortion of the distance is douhle 
track road, the rulinj.j j^^rade from St. Louis to Chica^^o is 
0.6 per cent for the first 25 miles and 0.4 per cent for the 
halance of the way. and is O.S ])er cent. 0.7 per cent and 
■0.3 per cent from Chica}j;o to St. Louis. Usually the heavy 
husincss is coal northhound handled in 5.000 ton trains by 
2-10-2 ty])e cnjjjines. hut the merchandise trains are neces- 
sarily of comparatively li,i;ht toimatje in order to make 
required sj)eed. i)articularly to Chicago, where early morn- 
ing deliveries must he made. Their average s])eed in 
motion is ahout 17 miles an hour. Xo attempt is heing 
made to make long runs with these engines, and they are 
o]ierated from Last St. Louis, 111., to Decatur. 108 miles, 
and from Decatur to Chicago 168 miles. The northhound 
trains leave I'-ast St. Louis early in the evening an<i are 
due in Chicago 276 miles away at four o'clock the next 



Coal use<l heing taken from engineman's coal tickets, and 
the train tonnage, etc.. from the car accountant's records. 
Information t;iken from these fuel records and coverinu 
the performance of the three-cylinder from May tu N<' 
vemiier. l'>24. and for the two-cylinder engines for tli- 
same trains and corres]jonding months in 1''25 shows the 
following comparison. 

Clas. 1^1 K— J K— s 

Type 2-10-2 2-8-2 l-*-l 

Cylinders two two three 

Total trips 368 677 1,078 

.AvcraKc tons per train 1,937 1,714 1,853 

U). coal per 1,000 ton miles 136.8 118.6 113.6 

Per cent saving, three-cylinder 

Class K-5 over two-cylinder 

Class L-1.... .... 16.96% 

Per cent saving, three-cylinder 

Class K-5 over two-cvlinder 

Qass K-3 .... 4.2 % 

These records show that the .three-cylinder class K-5 
engine handled time freight trains averaging 8.1 per cent 
heavier than the trains handled by the class K-3 two- 
cylinder engine of similar i)r(^)i)ortions during the corre- 
sponding ])eriod of previous year, and at a coal consump- 
tion of 4.2 ])cr cent less on the ton-mile basis. The aver- 
age train for the three-cylin<ler class K-5 was 55 cars, as 
compare<I with 45 cars for the class K-3. As compared 



■ 




__— ^. 


• .la. ,. E,.-^ 


2726 


li Bt - a 


<^ 


j<-;.. --afcj-^pr^ '^^B 


9 

5W 




\ OU-5 -'^t ^ ^7^ 


!^3^^«*^?^?^^ 



Mikatio Type Locomotive Class K-4 of the Wabash Railway Placed 







Hctweei 






Between 






ter- 




In 


In 


ter- 


Tons 


Miles 


minals 


Delay 


nutiun 


r.otion 


minals 


2,0i9 


108 


3:50 


6 


3:44 


28.9 


28.2 


2,4.V) 


108 


4:53 


.54 


3:.S9 


27.1 


22.1 


1.991 


108 


3 :50 


27 


3 :23 


31.9 


28.2 


1.675 


168 


6:40 


55 


5 :45 


29.2 


25.2 


1.874 


168 


7:40 


1:48 


5 :.52 


28.7 


21.9 


2,046 


168 


6:32 


1:25 


5:07 


32.8 


25.7 



morning. .A few examples of these run with tho three- 
cvlinder engines are shown here. 



From Cars 

St. Louis to Decatur 50 
Decatur to .St. l^iuis 75 
Decatur to .St. l.opis 60 
Decatur to Chicago 40 
Decatur to Chicago 50 
Decatur to Chicago 52 

If the trains are late out of the terminal or meet with 
unusual delays, they make considerably higher si)ced than 
shown in this table in order to get in on time. I rather 
hesitate to use the term '"high si)eed" here, for undoubt- 
edly some of the railroad men ])resent have in mind right 
now some faster trains on their roads. However, most 
of the roads have sonic time freight trains that they watch 
particularly, anil if the conditions are in anv way similar 
to ours, the performance figures herein furnished mav 
give basis of comparison. 

During 1924. these same time freight trains were han- 
dled partly by the class K-3 engines, which are, as already 
shown, very similar to the three-cylinder engines and by 
our class L-1 engines, which are the 2-10-2 type with 
71,485 lb. tractive force. Fuel performance records are 
kept by individual engines and engineman. the amount of 



with the 2-10-2 lyjie. the three-cylinder engine fuel per- 
formance was 16.96 per cent better. The less favorable 
fuel showing of the 2-10-2 engine was ])robably due in a 
measure to these engines being somewhat heavy for this 
particular class of service which would result in an in- 
creased fuel rate on the ton-mile basis. However, the 
three-cylinder engines did the time freight work previ- 
ously done by the two cylinder 2-10-2 type and class K-3 
engines, and at a fuel saving of 10.4 per cent over tin 
combined ])erformance of the two-cylinder engine>. 
There would not be so much diflference in point of cut- 
off between two and three-cylinder engines in fast freigli' 
service since with both type the cut-ofT is comparative! \ 
light, but with full tonnage trains the three-cylinder en- 
gine would work at materially less cut-off resulting in ,i 
greater per cent of fuel saving than shown here for fa>t 
freight service. 

The figure of 113.6 lb. of coal i)er 1.000 ton miles may 
look rather high in the light of not infrequent instances 
of 60 to 80 lb. per 1.000 ton-miles in drag freight servici . 
but it should be remembered that the high speed demanded' 
in the time freight service and the fact that the avera.U' 
train is i>erhaps less than 50 per cent of the dead freight 
tonnage rating are against a favorable fuel performance. 
Our records given here are for similar scvice and show 
favorably for the three-cylinder engines. 

These engines have now been in continuous service for 
about nine months. The opinions of the road foremen 



:MarcIi, 1926 RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 83 

of engine and fuel supervisors have been asked for from two-cvlinder tvpe. The following table shows the mileaoe 

time to time and I quote a few : these engines have made each months in freight service. 

"At high or low speed the three-cylinder engine get the a'ld these mileages are good evidence that the engines 

train going quicker and rides better than the two-cylinder liave not been spending much time in enginehouses un- 

■engine." dergoing repairs. 

"It is easier for a three-cylinder engine to start a train Monthly Mileage of Three-Cylinder Locomotive of the 

without taking slack and therefore cause less damage to Wab- sh 

dratt gears. jl^_^,^ No. 2600 No. 2601 No. 26O2 No. 2603 No. 2604 

"Any train that can be started can be run at a more May 5,572 3,598 5,205 3,260 

uniform rate of speed and handled better over the hills." J""e 4,504 2,978 5',166 4,552 4,578 

..-r, . • • * 1 1 . .1 Ju'.v 4,968 4,641 4,398 4 384 5160 

There is a saving in luel and water over the two- August 5,664 4,644 4,992 4 532 2 668 

cylinder engine." September 4,464 4,798 4,764 4,769 2 182 

"Train can be handled at 32 to 35 per cent cut-oft" 2,''^°^''l f'^^^ 5.028 4,522 4,854 3,'S52 

1 .. ,• , 111 ,1 11. November 5,616 3,840 4,376 4,684 4 800 

where a two-cylinder would have to be worked at or near December 5,002 4 850 3 360 4 560 4530 

50 per cent cut-ofY to handle same train." — '■ — — '- '. ' ' 

Although the three-cylinder engines have been used "r^'^' '*1'054 34,377 36,983 35,686 27,470 

mostly in this fast freight service, tonnage ratings for Av. per month 5,132 4,297 4,623 4 461 T924 

drag freight have been established from dynamometer Average per month per engine, 4,492 miles. 

car tests. A comparison of the rates thus established for Twelve of the two-cvlinder engine class K-4 averaged 

the two-c_\-linder and three cylinder engine is given here. 4,164 miles per month'on the adjacent division. 

Ruling •'^'''"\'^;,'3"'"'s ih^'ee"";. '^^^^ matter of suitable middle main rod design, par- 
grade;—- — --^ p Cai- ovcf ■ ticularly the back end, has given the builder some co;i- 

'""' " " "'"^^' '"'•''>'• ^"°'' '"""^y- cern. -Vfter our engines had been service about six weeks 

E. St. Louis W orden, 111 0.6 4,130 4,360 7 5.6 ^g \^^^ 3^,.,.,^ ,-pr,orts that the back end of the middle main 

Forest. 111. Qiicago 0.4 4,990 5,210 11 4.4 we nau some iLpori.suiar ine oacK ena 01 tne middle man 

Chicago Brisbane, 111... 0.9 3,260 3,585 5 10.0 rod was poundmg. W e had had more or le.ss success with 

Brisbane. 111. Decatur, 111.... 0.7 3,670 4,175 • 6 13.8 the use of the floating bushing for the middle connection 

Mt. Olive, 111. E. St. Louis... 0.3 6,240 6,510 12 4.3 of side rods and had decided to use this type of bushing 

The three-cylinder engines have 4.4 per cent greater for the back end of the middle main rod for the three- 
tractive force than the two cylinder, and where the ruling cylinder engines. The bushing was applied in three sec- 
grade was 0.4 per cent and the train was kept moving the tions, the back end of the main rod being necessarily of 
tonnage rating increase was the same as the increased strap construction since the solid back end main rod could 
tractive force that is 4.4 per cent. However, on the not be ap])lied to the crank a.xle. 

steeper grades, which on these districts are usually The sections of the brasses first apiilied were 1/16 in. 

momentum grades, the three-cylinder engine seemed to between the ends, or a total of 3/16 in. for the 

keep the train moving at a better si)eed on the first part three openings, and the brasses were also applied 

of the hill, and it was possible to establish rrilings some- so as to allow ' ,s in- side play. The result of this side 




Three-Cylinder Mikado Type Locomotive Class K-5 Placed 



what greater than the two-cylinder engine ratings than 
the difference in tractive force justified. For e.\am])le the 
rating from Chicago to Brisbane was increased 10 per 
cent anfl from Brisbane to Decatur 13.S per cent. 

The three-cylinder engine admittedly ])ossesses ad- 
vantages from the mechanical and operating standpoint, 
Init a serious question in many minds was whether the 
additional maintenance or increase in mechanical failures 
due to the extra parts and unusual features of design 
would not more than offset these other advantages. I'ast 
ex])erience with engines having relatively inaccessible 
])arts has Ijeen unfavorable in that these ])arts did not 
receive proper attention resulting in road failures .in<l 
ultimately rather heavy maintenance cfjsts. 

Although our five engines of this ty])e have <inl\' been 
in service about nine months, and have not yet been in 
the sho]) for classified reiwirs. there has thus far been with 
the exception of some middle main rod trouble, no m(jrc 
running repair work than on similar size engines of the 



play and the openings between the ends of the brass was 
more or less side slap aiul noise, which contributed to the 
com]ilaints about rods i)ounding. The strap was attached 
to the rod with three liolts, and we had little trouble on 
account of these bolt shearing and had one actual engine 
failure due to broken strap. 1 lowever, this failed strap 
was traced to a defect in material. In view of this ex- 
perience, we were not entirely satisfied with the lloatin,g 
bushing ai)i)lication, and it was decided to apply sectional 
brasses similar to the usual sectional brass used on the 
outside main rods. Two of the first engines were thus 
((jui|)pe(l. 'ihe other three engines continued to use the 
ilo.iting bushings, but with only 1/32 in. of lateral play 
and with the ends of the section 1/32 in. apart instead of 
1/16 in., giving a toi.il end clearance of 3/32 in. instead of 
3/16. 

In the meantime we imticrd more or less trouble with 
leaking of the center c\lindir piston rod packing, and 
invesliL;atioii indicated tli.it this was (\\.w to water in the 



(4 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVI- KM. INI EKING 



Miirdi. 1926 



cylindtT. 'riu-n- »< n- iwo-cxlindi-r otcks for the center 
cylinder, and wiili this installation it was found that 
water not only acciinnilated in the jjussaj^e leachnj; to 
the cylinder, Imt could also accumulate in the liack end 
of the inclined center cylinder. The cylinder cock l<K-ation 
was changed to take care of this accunuilation of water. 
The front cylin<ler cock was left in its ori^jinal position. 
The Iwck cylinder cock hole was pluj^ne*! and the cylinder 
cock relocated so as to take the water from the lowest 
point of the center cylinder. The cylinder cocks are air 
ojH'rated so as to do away with the cthjection of lonjj 
cylinder cock rifj^ing from cah to cylinder. 

Since making; tlie chan};e in cylinder c<icks we have had 
little or no trouhle with any of the main rods or with 
piston rod packing; leakinj.^. whether the enj^ines arc 
equipped with the sectional hrass or with the orif^inal 
floatin;; hushinjjs. However, our records show that thus 
far the tloating l)ushinj;s have heen renewed at an average 
mileage of *).(tOO and fre(|uently it has heen advisable to 
renew the hack end rod Imlts at ahout the same interval. 
The two engines with the sectional brasses have had the 
brasses reduced on an average, once every 15,000 miles, 
tjie reductit)n each time l>eing only 5/64 in. In view of 
the fact that floating bushings have to be renewed four or 



five times between shoppings, whereas the sectional hrass 
may last from shopping to sho|)])ing with two or three 
"re<luctions." the expense of middle main rod brasses is 
considerably in favor of the sectional brass. This should 
not Ik- construed as I»eing against the floating bushings for 
outside rods, but is simply giving results of our experience 
with ditTerent types of back end main rod brasses for 
center cylinder of our three-cylinder locomotives. We are 
inclined to favor the sectional brass rath<r than the float- 
ing bushing, but believe that what trouble we had with the 
main r()d was jirobably due to water rather than to any 
improjier or imjjractical design of main nxl parts, 

.Summing up our exi)erience with five locomotives of 
the three cylinder type. I would say that: 

1. Maintenance will not differ materially from the two- 
cylinder type. It will ])ossibly he less over a long pericnl. 

2. F*"rom the stan<lix)int oi train ojjeration the three- 
cylinder engines will d(j Ix'tter than the two-cylinder type 

3. The three-cylinder engine will make a moderate 
saving in fuel and water in fast freight service, i)roljably 
more in drag freight service. 

4. Knginemen and supervisory forces are, in general 
well satisfied with the three-cvlintler locomotives. 



Railroading and the Engineer 

Address of S. P. Bush. President, Buckeye Steel Castings Co.. at the .\hoona Regional Meeting of 
the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 



The histor\ of transiKtrtation and industrial develo])- 
ment in .\merica is so well known to you that it is un- 
necessary to review it, but suffice it to say that the entire 
economic development of the country has l)een largely 
dejiendent upon it, and with continuing growth of the 
country must necessarily l>ecome increasingly dei)endent 
upon it. 

The complexity of economic conditions, not only in 
.America but throughout the world, with the competitive 
struggle increasing in intensity, demands more and more 
the broader vision, more comprehensive understanding, 
and greater interest in the whole structure, to the end 
that we may continue to progress and maintain that bal- 
atKe and stability on which progress depends to a very 
large extent. 

(Originally, and before the days of the application of 
steam, ours was a maritime country and enjoyed world- 
wide preeminence as such for many years. The trained 
engineer played a very small part in the construction 
and operation of our sailing ships, in which was trans- 
jwrted approximately (SO |ier cent of the world's com- 
merce. U'ith the introduction of the steam engine (Ireat 
liritain assumed the leading {Hisition. and the maritime 
interests of this country were gra<lually reduced to very 
small projKjrtions. Subsequently the country l>ecame 
mainly agricultural, but of recent years great changes 
have taken place. 

The real developnient of trans]xirtation and industry 
in this country may be said to have l)egun al)out the time 
of the Civil War. or aliout (tO years ago. This was and 
previous ex|X"riencc made it clear that it was essential 
for this country to l>e indcix>ndenl of the rest of the 
world in the |)roduction of all those things that are es- 
sential to the national defense. To this end a protective 
tariff policy was inaugurated by congress so that natural 
resources and manufacturing might be stimulated to 
profitable development. 



The total wealth of the country in I'XX) was estimated 
at 88':. billion dollars. It was estimated in I'Mi at 320 
liillion dollars, which is sufficient to indicate how rapid 
and extensive our economic develo])ment has Ik-ch. 

.\t the present time the railways of the country, either 
directly or indirectly, consume 25 to 30 per cent of all 
its steel production, and alxiut 25 \H:r cent of all the bi- 
tuminous coal it mines. They require a greater varietv 
of commodities and service than any of our eco- 
nomic grou]}s. They ojjerate two and a half mil- 
lion freight-eciuipment cars and transiK)rt annuallv 2,300.- 
(KX),000 tons of commodities antl ^50,000.000 passengers. 

.\ division of the people into definite economic groups 
as a result largely of the transjxirtation develoiMiient. has 
brought to the front and to some extent visualized to 
them the dependence of each group upon the others, and 
jKirticularly the fundamental imixirtance of transportation 
as a basic industry. 

Industry, by which is generally meant manufacturing. 
as the result of governmental jxilicy and the develo])nient 
of transportation in this country has now become the 
greatest as measured by the value of ])roduction, and 
we are today the leading industrial nation of the world. 

Mut while the engineer has done much toward the de- 
velopment of industry, particularly in recent years, I 
think it is within the truth to .say that the larger jKirt of 
our develo]}nient has l)een accomjilished by men who have 
not had the advantage of .such institutional education as 
the country has afforded in recent years. Today the 
scientist and engineer are indispen.sable to most of our in- 
dustrial and transixirtation development, which offer fer- 
tile fields of endeavor, Iwth technical and aflniinistrative. 

In this connection it may be of interest to you to know 
that on the suggestion of several industrialists, the Na- 
tional Industrial Conference Hoard, one of the most im- 
portant research bodies in the L'nited States, is now en- 
gaged, through a committee of industrialists and scientific 
educators, in ascertaining in what way engineering schools 



March. 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



may assist in the better training of men for industry, and 
in what \va\- industr)' may assist engineering schools 
Many industrialists feel that graduates from technical 
schools have not received quite the right training or been 
given quite the right outlook. It has for a long time 
been a question as to how this might be done, and it 
is the purpose of this board to ascertain, if possible, the 
Ijest course in this resjiect. It is significant to note that 
this industrial-research liody is supported liberally and 
exclusively liv industry, and has in its governing body 
and niemljership a number of engineers who deal almost 
entirely and in a broad wa\- with the economic asi>ect of 
all the groups that go to make up the national life, to the 
end of aiding economic and social progress and stability. 
This is a matter in which I am sure you must have a very 
considerable interest. 

In this connection I might mention that the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad and some few of the larger industries in 
this country have for many years maintained a special 
apprenticeship course for graduate engineers, to the end 
of developing superior men. both technicians and adminis- 
trators, and with excellent results : but since the World 
\\'ar there seems to have been considerable disinclination 
on the part of graduates to this rougher preliminary 
service, much. I believe, to their own disadvantage and 
til the l)est interest of industry and the engineering ])ro- 

-sion. 

As further illustrating the wider field open to the en- 
gineer. I_ recall that shortly after the war, when the eco- 
nomic condition of industn*- in this country was chaotic 
and badly out of balance, the probability was that indus- 
try would have to face more severe competition and op- 
erate with greater economy than heretofore. Secretary 
Hoover, himself an engineer, desiring to ascertain the 
real facts in the case and what might be done to put in- 
dustry on a better basis, appointed a commission of en- 
gineers to investigate and report : and the results of this 
investigation some of you are probably familiar with. It 
was significant, although not otraordinary. that he should 
have selected engineers to undertake this task, for the 
engineer's work is very largely that of honestly and truth- 
fully finding, recording, and facing facts. It was |)rol)- 
ably not within the scojie of this commission's work to 
relate the conditions they found in the industrial field with 
those of others, but I think it must Ik- clear that thi- 
relation not only exists but is at the Ixjttom of our eco- 
nomic fabric, and it would seem that the engineering 
profession as a group, in its own interest, as well as that 
of the general welfare, might interest itself more widely 
in the national asj^ect of this relationship. Reduced to 
the smallest iX)ssible terms, the substance of. this conmiis- 
sion's rejKjrt was the elimination of waste through s])c- 
cialization, standardizaticm, and stabilization. --. .- 

When Samuel Rea was jTresident of the Pennsylvania 
Railroa^l he said that he believed the opportunities for 
young men to succeed in railroading are l)ctter today than 
ever : that a higher class of mental and ])hysical e(|ui))- 
ment for leadership is rec|uire<l than .^0 years ago; that 
while the development of railroa<ls might not be in oi)en- 
ing uj) new territory, the necessity for new and better 
methrKJs is more urgent than ever. Revenues must be 
increased, ex])enses reduced, waste eliminated. Xo branch 
of the service is freed from the necessity of invention and 
progress fit that character. The same may i)e said of 
industry. 

If I were to suggest to any grouj) one thing more 
needed than anything else at the present time, and which 
I l)clieve will lie required at no distant day. it would bc 
a broader vision and a far wider consideration of all the 
groui>s essential to develoimient in the future commen- 



surate with that of the past. All groups heretofore have 
been too prone to concentrate their interest on their own 
particular problems, and have failed to realize the eco- 
nomic dejiendence of one upon another. 

This is directed particularly to the administrator in 
general, but I would point out to the engineer as well, 
that the field of his endeavor for his own material wel- 
fare must necessarily be restricted and progress retarded 
unless each group exerts some influence in effecting the 
economic welfare of all the other groups bv discouraging 
those proposals and eflforts — sometimes enacted into law— 
which put one group or another at a serious disadvantage 
or gives^one group an undue advantage over others. 

-Mr. Rea. in the statement to which I have referred 
pomts out that the greatest stride in the railwav tran<;- 
[xjrtation industry in the matter of second finance and 
service took place between the vears 1899 and 1907 
when railway management was far less restricted than 
at present. Since 1907 ^ailwa^■ develojjment has been 
seriously retarded until recently, through the application 
of much injudicious governmental policv. He states that 
in all business questions affecting the 'railroads he feels 
sure that the Ijest satisfaction would be given to Iwth rail- 
road owners and the public if the process of interfering 
with the responsibility- and judgment of managements 
should be halted and public regulation used as "an im- 
partial medium for adjusting or avoiding difficulties be- 
tween railroad users, railroad owners, and the managers 
with a view of providing service without discrimination 
and at the lowest compensatory rates. 

If transportation cannot be conducted successfully and 
lirofitably. the engineer and industrv will have a verv 
meager field of endeavor; and it would seem that the 
maintenance of the transportation industrv on a sound 
and profitable basis is a matter that should concern us 
even more than some of the other technical problems 
to which we devote so much of our time and interest. 

-As illustrating the matter. I call your attention to the 
fact that from 1912 to 19i4. inclusive, the Class 1 rail- 
roads of this country, representing a total of 235,000 
miles or approximately 95 per cent of all the railroads 
in the United States, were not able to earn as a whole 
except in one year, the 5-V4 per cent on appraised values 
established by law as a fair return. Covering a period 
of three years after government operation, which was re- 
linquished at the end of 1919. the average earnings were 
but 2.36 i)er cent. .At the present time conditions are 
much inii)roved as the result of the most highlv. efficient 
management and operation that the railwavs have ever 
known, and because of a sulistantial reduction in the cost 
of nearl\ everything that the railroads require for their 
use. Transportation, as well as agriculture, is serjouslv 
handicai)ped, and the inircliasing . value of its services 
or ])roduct as the result of continuing high wages of 
lalM)r with high conse(|uent cost — reffected to a very con- 
siderable extent by governmental policv during the war — 
has l)oen consideralily less than before the war. 

The effect of this condition is to i>ut our economic 
structure out of balance, to the detriment of the entire 
country. Were it not for the enormous resources of this 
country our position might easilv be serious. 

Is it out of place to suggest that engineering groups. 
through their various organizations, might make them- 
selves felt in influencing a jxilicy that will prevent the 
de]iletion of a great basic group to the disadvantage of 
the whole? We in industry have been comi)eIle(l in our 
own interest to exert ourselves actively in this and similar 
matters. I)e])lete the earning and ])urchasing ])ower of 
trans]jortation or agriculture, and industry and all other 
grou])s sniTer. 



86 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March. 1926- 



Mr. Rta furtlier states : 

The availal)lc facts show that the IVunsylvaiiia Rail- 
road has kept iKice with tlu- j,'rowth of the country and 
successfully met ]H.Tiods of expansion and dei)ression ; 
it has surniounted the crest of lonj^-contiiuied <lei)res- 
sinj:^ legislation and rej;ulation and the far-reachiu},' con- 
sequences of the World War; it has survived the con- 
tinuous strufifjle to prevent confiscation of the railroad 
investment; it lias hel])ed in hrinj^ini; alM)ut a hetter- 
informed i>ul>lic and a closer understandin}^ of the 
necessity for strong railroads with am])le net returns: 
it lias always heen conservatively managed, has e.\|)eri- 
ence and traditions of inestimable value, and is con- 
siderably undercapitalized and is one of the effective 
instruments of national prosj>erity. 
Is not this of material interest to the engineering pro- 
fession as a group? This is not a matter of jwlitics, it 
is a matter of sound economics. 

.\s has already l)een said, one of the problems to l^e 
met in the future is the elimination of waste, or of ef- 
fexrting nK)re economic o]jeratit)n and stabilization. Much 
has been accomplished in this direction of late, but there 
is vastlv more yet to be done, and the need extends into 
every avenue and detail of our economic structure. 

Transix>rtation and industry oi)erating under the ne- 
cessitv of developing not only a living wage but some 
profit through which alone progiess and development may 
continue, under our highly competitive conditions, needs 
men to ]x)int the way and to develop the method, and as 
I have already iH)inted out. the engineer must necessarily 
])lav a highly important part. Secretary Hoover is con- 
spicuous in this. Without .going into too much detail may 
I suggest a few possil)le avenues : 

Has steam railway motive power seen its final develop- 
ment as to economy of performance? 

Has the deadwei.ght of transi)ort vehicles and train re- 
sistance been reduced to an irreducilile minimum- It ap- 
pears that wc are yet far from it. 

Has the life of rails, ties, wheels and axles, and many 
other things been Ijrought to a maximum imixissible to 
exceed, aiid their cost consequently reduced to a mini- 
mum? It would seem not. 

Here are a few ])roblenis for the technician of lx)th 
transportation and industry : 

Has the best labor result and cost yet been developed 
in industry and transportation, or has the greatest incen- 
tive to labor vet l>een found and applied in a general way. 
or has the best relation lietween labor and management 
heen arrived at generally? 

Cannot the enormous wastes arising from violent but 
in a wav normal fluctuations in production and employ- 
ment of lalM)r and capital Ik- seriously grappled with? 

If there is one thing more than anMhing else essential 
to a sound national life, it is that the people shall have 
steadv and fairly remunerative employment. 

L'pon investigation just before the war — and similar 
conditions have prevailed largely since — it was found that 
the steel industry as a whole, with its enormous invest- 
ment and large force of employes, was occupied but 70 
per cent of the time: that the l)ituminous coal mining 
industry was operating at but 50 per cent of its capacity ; 
that the car and locomotive building industry was ojierat- 
ing on an average but 65 to 70 jter cent of the time. In 
the car building industrv and the industry in which I am 
engaged, business has fluctuated frequently from an op- 
eration of 10 per cent to that of full capacity. 

This represents an enormous waste and affects seriously 
the employment and morale of the worker. Emplovment 
and progress in industry and transportation without 
profits are imixissible. and profits are impossible without 
the continuous elimination of waste. 

These are (iroblenis for the administrator and tech- 



nician which, in the light of present day conditions of na- 
tional and international character, make many other things 
apiKrar insignificant. 

As I have said, the man with scientific training and 
with practical ex|)erience is, in the opinion of many, best 
equi])ped to meet these problems. 

Mr. Hoover's committee of engineers summarized the 
result of their investigation as to what was needed in 
three words: "S|)ecialization," "Standardization," and 
"Stabilization." 

I think it must be clear that if we are to have sound 
Ijrogress balance and stability are essential factors in 
all of our life and developnu-nt ; and as a ])rinciple no one 
ought to understand this better than the engineer. Here 
are essential elements not only to higher economic de- 
velopment l)ut to social peace and progress. 

What I wish to suggest from this is that we in in- 
dustry have come to a [wrtial realization at least of the 
fact that not only must we work out the ])roblems of 
industry as such, but we must also .see the problems in 
other groups, such as transj)ortation, agriculture, and 
education, and assist them in their solution. 

\ow, the substance of all that I have endeavored to 
])resent to you is that industry in order to meet the prob- 
lems of the future is going to need, generally sj)eaking, 
more men of broader vision than heretofore — in fact, su- 
perior in all respects — and that scientific education, re- 
vised somewhat to meet the more complex conditions in 
order to assist in producing such, would l>e highly de- 
sirable: and if the organized engineering groups could 
lend their influence in suppirt of sound economics, it 
would be very helpful. 



Pennsylvania to Operate Motor Buses 

Announcement was recently made by the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company that F. J. Scarr, Supervisor of Motor 
Service of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, has made 
application to the Public Service Commission of Penn- 
syhania for a i^emiit to ojierate a bus line on behalf of the 
Pennsvlvania Railmad iK'tween Washington and Waynes- 
burg, in southwestern Pennsylvania. TransiX)rtation serv- 
ice between these two ix)ints has for the last forty-eight 
vears been furnished by the Washington and Waynes- 
burg Railrtiad, a branch line and subsidiary of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad. 

The distance between Wa.shington and Waynesburg by 
rail is twenty-eight miles and by the highway, twenty-two 
miles. The present running time by rail is aliout one hour 
and forty minutes. Contem])lated bus schedules will pro- 
vide a run of one hour in each direction. Through tickets 
will be honored on the bus.ses as well as the trains, and 
through checking of bag.gage will be similarly handled. 

With the increasing use of automobiles, patronage of tbr 
passenger service on this branch has declined and it li,. 
i)een found necessary to curtail the service material!. 
The fast bus line will supplement the train service. 

In order to be in a jxisition to handle this and similar 
situations, steps will shortly be taken to obtain a charter 
in the State of Pennsylvania for a corporation to be known 
as the "Pennsylvania (ieneral Transit Com])any." It will 
be a subsidiary of the Pennsylvania Railroad, which will 
own all the capital stock. 

The announcement further states that it is not the plan 
of the Pemi.sylvania Railroad Company either directly or 
indirectly to enter the general business of transportation 
bv motor bus or motor truck, but to do so onl\- when such 
auxiliary o]x?ration is absolutely necessary to protect 
existing railroad business or may result in greater econ- 
omy or public convenience in connection with railroad 
operations. 



Snap Shots — By the Wanderer 



The cussedness of inanimate things has passed into a 
proverb, and yet after all, their apparent cussedness is 
probably due more to our failure to understand or per- 
ceive the application of the laws by which they are gov- 
erned than to their failure to obey such laws, for failure 
in this resi:)ect is unknown. 

Take the matter of gages, for example, we have had 
so much trouble with them that we recognize the fact that 
accuracy at every jxiint on an evenly divided scale is out 
of the questioti. and that if such scale accuracv is to be 
required we must resort to a specially graduated one. 
otherwise we content ourselves with accuracy at each end. 
as in the case of the ordinary steam gage and let it go at 
that. 

This was brought to my attention the other day by an 
attempt to calibrate an instrument whose registration was 
dependent upon the diameter of the impression made upon 
a strip of cold drawn steel by a hardened steel bull after 
the manner of the Brinnell hardness test. There was, of 
course, a steady average increase of diameter as the pres- 
sure or load on the bull was increased, but there was verv 
far from Iieing an increase of diameter with every incre- 
ment of increase of pressure. At times the diameter de- 
creased with these increment increases. And all Ijecause 
of the fact, as an old blacksmith of mine once expressed 
it, that ''it is ver\- easy to make one thing, but it is a 
devil of a job to make something just like it." So, as the 
steel maker could not make a bar of steel that was homo- 
geneous throughout its entire length, our results varied 
accordingly, and yet, after the results had been plotted it 
was possible to develop a parabolic cur^-e that was nearly 
coincident with the actual plottings and which served as 
a reliable average and basis for all subsequent readings 
and calculations. It is probable that, if the maker could 
have made his bar absolutely homogeneous throughout its 
entire length, and we could have ap])lied pressures s])aced 
by exact increments apart, our plotted results would have 
followed the lines of a ]>arabolic curve, but being as we 
are, and as "'to err is human" we have to put up with 
approximations hf)wever distasteful they may be. 

-•Ml of which was e.xemjdified at a meeting of the .Amer- 
ican Society of Mechanical Engineers a tiumber of years 
ago. St)meone presented a paper on chimney draft 
wherein it was shown that certain chimneys had acted 
most erratically. But when discussion was turned loose 
on this subject, it apjjeared that these .same chimneys had 
been behaving in the most orthodox maimer ])ossible and 
that the author of the pa])er had merely been ignorant of 
the laws of governing such structures as formulated by 
Rankin. 

No. Inanimate things are not cussed, but are compelled 
to follow their individual characteristics whether they 
were implanted in them by N'ature or by nia)i. All of 
which leads to the conclusion that nnn and matter are a 
good deal alike after all. 



.\ good many years ago when we were all enthusiasti- 
cally riding a bicycle, there came into definite being the 
movement for good roads. It was a sort of fad at first 
but giving promises, from the start, of becoming a per- 
manent anrl lasting utility. It was generally welcomefl. 
and not the least bv railroad officials who saw in it a line 
of feeders that fK)rtended an increase of traffic. 

With the advent of the automobile the gotnl rf)ad move- 
ment has become an ol*session, and the facilities thus of- 
fered for easy transix»rtation has made of them not only 
feeders to, but rivals of the railroad. As to how much 



these publicly endowed highways have added to and de- 
tracteci from railroad revenues it would be difficult to 
estimate. 

But the contribution of a free road to the rapidlv de- 
veloped motor truck has producel a competition in long' 
and short distance hauling that the railroads cannot 
ignore. If I. an individual, can put one or two or more 
trucks upon the public highway and compete successfully 
with a railroad on hauls of from ten to a hundred miles,, 
it follows as a matter of course that the railroads by put- 
ting a multitude of trucks in service, with a proper organi- 
zation, can not only successfully compete with themselves 
hut with me also, to my final extinction and their own 
probable monopolization of public highwav traffic. 

And why not? If they can ser^-e the public better and 
more cheaply than I. why I must yield to their motor 
trucks just as my grandfather's horse drawn stages had 
to yield to their steam drawn rail mars. 

The railroads are not advertising the fact but thev are 
running motor buses and motor trucks in competition 
with themselves and outsiders in passenger and freight 
traffic ; adding to congestion and developing conditions 
that are not altogether what the lovers of country peace 
and quiet desire. 

It will be interesting to see what the politicians and 
their great mass of unthinking, unreasoning followers 
will do when they awaken to what they will look uf)on as 
an absorption by a soulless corporation of the property 
of that dear public whom they profess to love so much. 

■'Here! You gentlemen and ladies have invested mil- 
lions in ])ublic highways and now this grasping corpora- 
tion comes and steals it from \ou : wearing them out and 
beating them into dust. Drive them off, I sav. Don't 
throw away your God-given rights, lx)ught by the sweat 
of your brow. Throttle them. Exterminate them. Elect 
me to Congress and I will protect you by seeing that it 
is done. Selah."' 

Isn't there a nice little jxslitical tidbit ? Bit, how can 
you drive off the big fellow with his hundreds of trucks 
and leave me with my one or two unscathed ? ^\'here will 
you draw the line? It will lie a puzzle equal to that of 
the Sophists' detemnnation of the numl)er of grains of 
wheat re(|uired to make a hea]). "Does one?" "Xo." 
"Two?" ".\o." "Three — four — five — six — ?" "\o." 
Then how many are re(|uired? With how many does it 
begin to be a heap? Why will one less not be a heap? 

\\'hen will my little accunuilation of motor trucks be- 
come the emblem of a gras])ing nionojXDly? Why if I sell 
one. will I be no monopoly and if I don't will I fall imder 
the ban? Can I, as an iTidividual, ever become a grasping 
mono])oly? Can the railroad, as a corporation, ever be 
anrthing else? 

These are nice little bits of casuistry for the i)oliticians 
to settle, and that they will settle them there can be no 
doubt, and go raving on with the whole unthinking mob 
cheering at their heels. 



It mav seem a far cry from good roads to sho]> tloorini; ; 
but, bv one of those curious quirks of the mind the latter 
is suggested by the former. The reason for the leap is 
that the basis of both is good drainage. Then, add ven- 
tilation to drainage and we have a combination making 
for the best of ])reservatives of the shoj) floor. It is not 
mv ])rovince or intention within the limits of a jiaragraph 
to lav down the ndes for the construction of a shop floor, 
but I can sav that it must l)e kept dry. This is on the 
assumption that it is of wood, and wood or of some 



87 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



March. 1926 



equally soft material it should \k-. U you don't believe me 
just turn your attention to the fatij^ue and footsore condi- 
tion resiiltiiiK to those who work on concrete or stone 
floors. 

l!ut to return to the drainage. The floor should l)e drv 
underneath; and. if it Ikt laid upon the j^Tound. that 
f,'round k-neath should he <lry. very dry. While, if it is 
raised atxne the surface, then the },'round should not only 
i)e dry as a result of good drainage, hut there .should In- 
added a free circulation of air. This will allow vour joist 
to last as long as — well it is said that .some of the chest- 
nut timbers in the cool of Westminster .Xbbey have l>een 
there for live hundred years. I'erhajjs you will need a 
new shop by that time. 



However much we may ai)prove and sympathize with 
the movement that has "Safety iMrst" for its slogan, we 
are a])t to look upon it with a sort of tolerating amuse- 
ment. \'et, by and large, it is only liy looking at it 
through the ])ersi)ective of years that we can realize the 
iiiimense amount of giXKl that it has accomplished uid 
the great amount of suffering that it lias probablv ])re- 
vented. 

If we dro|) back forty years or more, when it was a case 
of let the workman l)eware and an accident was the re- 
sult of an act of Clod and his own carelessness we can see 
a mighty change. .'\t that time nothing was protected, and 
we ran our own risks. 

Did \t)U ever have a grindstone burst ? We had them 
all too frequently in those days. It is not cjuite as bad as 
a bursting Ixiiler, unless you lia])pened to l)e in a line with 
it. Then, I do not know that it made much difference. 
The flying ])ieces that have let go from a rapidly runiimg 
stone hit hard, and the man who happens v be "straddle" 
at the time, is apt to be hurt. I remember a stone that 
started out in fragments in Williams' shop years ago, and 
beside the damage done to the roof and machinery, nearly 
killed the man using it. Williams didn't mind the finan- 
cial loss, but it used him all u]> to think of the man. Then 
came my first lesson in real safety first. He put in a new 
stone and barricaded it. There was ])lenty of chance for 
the pieces to fly on the off side, but the grinder was as 
safe as a man would \k- in a modern turret with an enem\ 
outside i>0])i)ing at him with a .^i-calibre revolver. The 
barricade extende<^l well out on one side of the stone, and 
ran from the bottom u]) to the grinding line. It was built 
of heavy timbers, thoroughly .stayed and. braced, .so that 
no fragment could jxissibly get through it. Willian^s 
said it was one of those tyjx; of accidents that could easilv . 
have lieen ])revented by proper precautionary measures 
and that it would never hapjjcn in his shtjjjs again. That 
was for years my sole example of ix)sitively safety first. 

When I look l>ack at the many .danger |X)ints that .we 
all knew of in hundreds of shoi)s which could .so easilv 
have been done away with by a proper housing, that would 
seem to have suggested itself to anyone, it seems strange 
that we were so slow in coming to a i)ro]K-r realization of 
the need for such jjrecautions. Perhaps we were too busv 
.scrambling for tonnage to give heed to such things. In 
this we had much to learn from the I*'rench and the Ger- 
mans. I remember lieing struck by their precautions 
many years ago and long before we had, a])parently. given 
the subject a thought. I never saw a gear wheel running 
l)are where there was the slightest chance of its catching 
the clothing of an operator. Everything was housed : 
gearing, lielting. reciprocating rods, and all moving jiarts 
that projected beyond the fl(X)r line of the machine, or 
that could in any way threaten the safety of workmen. 

r>ut coming down to today. I think that we have caught 
up. Whether it is propaganda, the re-echoing slogan or 
just plain common sense and humanity makes no differ- 



ence; the change from then to now is far greater than 
most of us realize. Liability insurance has done its share, 
but even as well as we are now doing there is still enough 
ro(im for every i)roi>rietor and shoj) superintendent to do 
a little missionarv work in his own establishment. 



Motive Power Condition 

Locomotives in need of repair on I'ebruary 15 totaled 
!0.r)S2 (jr 16.9 jter cent of the numlxr on line, according 
to re]x>rts file<l by the carriers with the Car Service Di- 
vision of the .\merican Railway .Association. 

This was an increa.se of 595 l(K-omotives comjared with 
the numl)er in need of repair on I'ebruary 1 at which time 
there were 10.087 or 16.0 ])er cent. It was. however, a 
decrease of 1.1,^4 locomotives conii)ared with the numl>er 
in need of rejwir on the same date last year, at which time 
there were 11.816 or 18.4 per cent. 

( )f the total numlier in need of repair. 5,563 or 8.8 per 
cent were in need of classified rejwirs on I-'ebruary 15. an 
increase of 264 compared with l-'ebruary 1 while 5.11'' or 
8.1 per cent were in need of nmning rei>airs. an increase 
of 3,^1 within the same period. 

Class I railroads on I-"ebruary 15 had 4.848 serviceable 
locomotives in storage, a decrease of 200 compared with 
the numlier of such l(Komotives on Februarv 1. 



Notes on Domestic Railroads 
Locomotives 

The Soutlu-rn Pacific Company has placed an order for 23 
221 -ton three-cylinder locomotives with the .Vmerican Loco- 
motive Company. 

The Chicago. Kock Island & Pacific Railway, it is reported, 
are inquiring for 15 Mountain type. 10 Santa Fe type and 10 
Mikado type locomotives. 

The Chicago. Indianapolis & Louisville Railway is inquiring 
for six Mallet type and six Mikado type locomotives. 

The Pacific Portland Cement Company has ordered one 
Mikado type locomotive from the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works. 

The Bwana M-Kubwa Copper Company, of Rhodesia. South 
.\frica. has placed an order for one 2-6-2 locomotive with the 
.\merican Locomotive Company. 

The Texas & Pacific Railway has placed an order for 10 
Texas type locomotives with the .American Locomotive Com- 
pany. 

The Weirton Steel Company has ordered one 8-wheeI switch- 
ing locomotive from the .\merican Locomotive Company. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad is reported to be inquiring for 
lOO or 200 locomotives. 

The Birmingham & Southeastern Railway has ordered one 
Consolidation locomotive from the American Locomotive Com- 
pany. 

The Canadian Pocific Railway has ordered 24 Pacific type 
locomotives from the .American Locomotive Company, and" 
in addition has ordered 20 Mikado type from the Canadian 
Locomotive Company. 

The .Alton & Southern Railroad has ordered one Mikado 
locomotive from the .American Locomotive Company. 

The Hainesport Mining Company has ordered one six-wheel 
switcher from the Baldwin Loconi(>ti\ e Works. 

The Modesta & Rmpire Traction Company has placed an 
order for one Mogul type locomotive with the .American Lo- 
comotive Company. 

The Florida East Coast Railway has placed an order for 6 
eight-wheel switchers with the .American Locomotive Com- 
panv. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad has ordered six large electric 
passenger locomotives and two double cab electric switchers 
from the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. 

The Florida East Coast Railway has placed an order for 23 
Mountain type locomotives with the American I.ocomotivi' 
Company. 



Passenger Cars 

The Boston & Maine Railroad has placed an order for 
gasoline electric cars with the (Osgood Bradley Company, t 
of which are to be 73 ft. loner and the others 61 ft. long. Ea 
car will lie equipped with 275 horsepower gasoline engine. 



ch 



I 



March, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LXXIOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



The Xew York Central Railroad has placed a contract for 
repairs to 10 passenger cars with the American Car & Foundry 
Company. 

The Illinois Central Railroad is inquiring for 5 baggage-club 
cars, three dining cars and live baggage cars. 

The Chicago. Rock Island & Pacitic Railway is in the market 
tor five baggage cars. 

The Chicago &; Eastern Illinois Railway has placed. an order 
for two dinmg cars with the Pullman Car & Manufacturing 
Corporation. 

The Florida East Coast Railway has ordered 8 baggage cars. 
2 dmers and 2 postal cars from the Pullman Car & Manufac- 
turing Corporation. 

The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad has ordered 
two dining cars from the Pullman Car & Manufacturing Cor- 
poration. 

The Chicago, N'orth Shore & Milwaukee Railroad has or- 
dered 20 passenger cars and 4 diners from the Cincinnati Car 
Company. 

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway is inquiring 
for 5 baggage cars. 

The Southern Railway has placed an order for 30 coaches. 
15 baggage-express cars. 6 mail-baggage cars and 4 postal cars 
with the Pullman Car & Manufacturing Corporation. 

The Xorthern Pacific Railway has ordered 10 observation 
cars from the Pullman Car & Manufacturing Corporation. 

The Xorthern Pacific Railway has placed an order for 3 
70 ft. gas electric motor cars, with postal, baggage and pas- 
senger compartment, with the Electro Motive Company. 

The Xew York, Westchester & Boston Railroad is inquiring 
for 10 coaches. 

The -Atchison. Topeka & Santa Fe Railway has placed an 
order for 9 diners, 9 club cars, 5 cafe-observation cars arfd 4 
office cars with the Pullman Car & Manufacturing Corpora- 
tion. 

The Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad is in- 
quiring for 4 coaches and 6 express cars. 

The Seaboard -Air Line Railway is inquiring for 6 passenger 
baggage cars and 50 steel underframe caboose cars. 

The Boston Elevated Railway is inquiring for 100 steel car 
bodies. 

The Central Railroad of New Jersey has placed an order for 
5 steel baggage e.xpress cars with the American Car & Foundry 
Company. 

The Erie Railroad is inquiring for 23 steel underframe pas- 
senger cars. 

The Central of Georgia Railroad is inquiring for 6 open 
coaches and one partition coach. 

The Xew York Central Railroad is inquiring for 10 steel 
passenger motor car bodies. 

The Brooklyn Manhattan Transit Company has placed an 
order for 201 steel car bodies with the Pressed Steel Car Com- 
pany. 



Freight Cars 



The Seaboard .\ir Line Railwav is inquiring for 1,(KX) to 
1.500 40-ton closed box cars, 1,000 to 1,500 40-ton ventilated 
box cars and 1.000 to 1,500 50-ton gondolas. 

The Rodger Ballast Car Company has ordered 2 ballast cars 
from the .\mcrican Car & Foundry Company. 

The Minneapolis. St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie Railway is 
inquiring for 100 general service gondolas. 

The General Refractories Company has ordered 2 steel flat 
cars from the -American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railway is inquiring for 50O 
70-ton saw tooth steel hopper cars. 

The Western Maryland Railway is inquiring for 1,000 40-ton 
steel underframe box cars and 1.000 40-ton steel center sill box 
cars. 

The -American Tar Products Company has increased its 
inquiry to 100 cars. 

The Roxana Petroleum Corporation has placed an order 
with the .American Car & Foundry Company for 400 tank cars. 

The St. Louis-San Francisco Railwav has ordered 750 box 
car undcrfranus from the Tennessee Coal. Iron & Railroad 
Company. 

The Xorthern Refrigerator Line is inquiring for 500 40-ton 
refrigerator cars in addition to those recently ordered. 

The Xew York Central Railroad has ordered 500 automobile 
*■*"''■'"" '''<' Merchants Dispatch Transportation Companv. 

The Illinois Central Railwav is inquiring for 220 automobile 
cars. 

The Aluminum Company of .America is inquiring for 18 flat 
cars. 



The Birmingham Southern Railway is in the market for 100 
70-ton steel gondola cars. 

The -Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway is inquiring for 
500 hopper cars- 

The Southern Railway has placed an order for 500 gandola 
cars with the Mount Vernon Car Company. 

The Great Xorthern Railwaj' has placed an order for 250 
underframes with the Standard Steel Car Company- 

The Conley Tank Car Company has placed an order for 100 
box cars with the .American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Pere Marquette Railway is inquiring for 350 40-ton 
automobile cars. 

The Consolidation Coal Company has ordered 900 mine cars 
from the Bethlehem Steel Company. 

The Pacific Fruit Express Company has ordered 5,043 40-ton 
refrigerator cars, as follows: l.OOO each from the -American 
Car & Foundry Company, the Pacific Car & Foundry Com- 
pany, the General -American Car Company, the Standard Steel 
Car Company, and 1,043 from the Pullman Car & Manufac- 
turing Company. 

The Premium Equipment Company, Houston, Te^fas, is in- 
quiring for lOO tank cars. 

The Xew England Fuel & Transportation Company has or- 
dered 200 mine cars from the Watt Mine Car Company. 

The Swift & Company, Chicago, III., has ordered 300 under- 
frames from the Bettendorf Company. 

The Seaboard Air Line Railway has placed orders for 1,000 
40-ton box cars with the Pressed Steel Car Company and 800 
50-ton gondolas with the Pressed Steel Car Company. 800 with 
the -American Car & Foundry Company and 800 with the 
Standard Steel Car Company. 

The Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railway has ordered 500 
coal cars from the Mount Vernon Car & Manufacturing Com- 
pany, and is rebuilding 1.500 hopper cars in their own shops. 

The Illinois Central Railroad has placed an order for 2.200 
cars as follows: 500 cars to Standard Steel Car Company. 500 
to Mount X'ernon Car Manufacturing Company. 500 to' Pull- 
man Car & Manufacturing Corporation, 500 to Illinois Car & 
Manufacturing Company and 200 solid bottom gondola cars 
to the Ryan Car Company. 

The Southern Railway is inquiring for 1,000 center sills, 
1.000 40-ton box cars. 1,500 50-ton hopper cars and 250 50-ton 
ballast cars. 

The Missouri Pacific Railroad is in the market for 60 50-ton 
tank cars. 

The Litchfield & Madison Railway has placed an order for 
200 hopper car bodies with the Ryan Car Company. 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad is inquiring for 
500 50-ton hopper cars or 500 50-ton composite hopper cars. 

The Chicago. Burlington & Quincv Railroad is inquiring for 
100 ballast and 500 hopper cars. 

_ The Xorthwestern Refrigerator Line has placed an order for 
.^00 refrigerator cars with the .American Car & Foundrv Com- 
pany. 

The Chicago & Xorthwestern Railwav has placed an order 
for 230 steel underframes with the Ryan Car Company. 
__The Canadian Pacific Railway has' placed an order for 33 
/3;ton all steel drop bottom side dump ore cars with the Can- 
adian Car & Foundry Company. 

The Colorado & Southern Railroad is inquiring for 100 50- 
ton all steel ballast hopper cars. 

The Canadian Pacific Railway is inquiring for 200 75-ton 
coal cars. 

The Xorthern Pacific Railway is inquiring for I 000 iO-ton 
automobile cars. 

The Commercial Solvents Corporation, Terre Haute Ind is 
inquiring for 35 tank cars. 



Buildings and Structures 

The Central of Georgia Railway has placed a contract for 
the construction of a coal chute at -Albanv, Ga., with the Fair- 
banks Morse & Company, Chicago. III. 

The Southern Pacitic Company is planning to build an 
eighteen stall enpinehouse. machine shop and tie creosoting 
plant at Eugene. Ore. 

The Missouri Pacific Railroad has placed contract with J. C. 
Duncan. St. Louis, for the construction of a timber reclama- 
tion plant at Sedalia. Mo. 

The Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad has 
placed a contract for the building of an engine terminal at 
Kankakee. III., with the A. J. Glaser Company. Muncie. Ind. 

The Montour Railroad has awarded contract for relocation 
o I 4.800 feet of track near Imperial, Pa. The improvement, 
which necessitates the construction of a 600-foot tunnel and 
iour concrete bridges, will cost $250,000. 



90 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



Marcli. 19.' 



The rtnnsvlvania Railroad lias placed a contract for exten- 
sion to its machine shop at Olean, N. Y., to cost approximately 
$92(100. with the l.vman S. Peck. Pittsburgh. 1 a. 

The Norfolk & Western Railway will begin work at once 
,,n the rebuilding of its machine shop at East Roanoke, V a. 
riiis will cost about $300,000. .. o i . » 

The Inion Railroad has placed contract with the Roberts & 
Schaefer Company, of Chicago, for designing and constructing 
a reinforced concrete automatic electric locomotive coaling 
and sanding plant and a junior electric N. & W .•• type cinder 
plant for immediate installation at their terminal at Hall, Pa.. 
at an approximate cost of $30,000. 

The Central of C.eorgia Railway has placed a contract lor a 
nine-stall engine house at Albany, Ga., with J. E. Nelson & 
Sons. Chicago. 111. Huilding will be of concrete, brick and 
wood and will cost approximately $100,0(K). 

The Wabash Railway is making preliminary plans for new 
rail, track ballasting, yard_ extensions, etc.. on various parts ol 
its svstem, at a cost of $5.000.(KK). 

Tlie Scabord Air Line Railway plans to i-rect shops at In- 
diantowni Fla. , .. , , 

The Gulf, Colorado & Santa l-e Railway plans the construc- 
tion at Cleburne, Tex., of a boiler house and blacksmith shop, 
123 by 155 by 517 feet, also a one-story Hue shop, 45 by 288 
feet. 

The air test room, planing mill and pumping house of the 
Louisville & Nashville Railroad at Paris, Tenn.. were destroyed 
by fire. The estimated damage is $40,000. 

The Chicago & North Western Railway plan the construc- 
tion of a three-stall engiiiehousc and mechanical coal chute at 
lewcll. Iowa. 

The Norfolk & Western Railway has awarded a contract for 
the construction of a 2.000-ton. 6-tract automatic electric roller 
skip type station and gravity sanding plant at Portsmouth, 
Ohio, to cost approximately $125,000. with the Roberts & 
Schaefcr Company. Chicago. 111. 

The Cleveland. Cincinnati. Chicago & St. Louis Railway 
plans to extend its facilities at Kankakee. 111., including a brick 
enginchouse and service building, at a cost of $20S.900. 

The Union Railroad has awarded a contract for the con- 
struction of a reinforced concrete, automatic electric coaling 
and sanding station and electric cinder plant at Hall, Pa., to 
cost approximately $30,000. 

The Boston & Maine Railroad has started the construction 
of a coke reclamation plant at East Somerville. Mass. The 
contract for the foundation work has been awarded to the 
New England l-oundation Company. Boston. 

The Southern Pacific Company has awarded a contract for 
the construction of a concrete fuel oil tank at Tracy. Calif. 
The tank will be 1.300 ft. long and 600 ft. wide and will hold 
approximately 3,000,000 barrels of oil. 



Items of Personal Interest 

A. A. Raymond has l)een appointed superintendent of fuel 
and locomotive performance of the Xew York Central Rail- 
road, with headquarters at L'tica. X. Y. 

E. R. Haiina has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Central Kansas division of the Missouri Pacific Railroad, with 
headquarters at Osawatomie. Kans.. succeeding W. P. Kersh- 
ner, resigned. 

L. E. Crevasse has been appointed master mechanic of the 
East Florida division of the Seaboard .\ir Line Railway, with 
headquarters at West Palm Beach. Fla. H. C. Quarles has 
been appointed master mechanic of the \Vcst Florida division, 
with headquarters at St. Petcrsburgh. Fla. G .A. Haslett has 
been appointed general road foreman of engines. Central and 
Southern division, with headquarters at Tampa. Fla. 

John McVey, superintendent of motive power and shops of 
the Consolidated Railroads of Cuba, with headquarters at Cam- 
aguey. Cuba, has resigned and will return to the States? 

W. O. Thompson has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Toledo division of Toledo. St. I,outs & Western Railroad, with 
headquarters at Delphos. Ohio. Edward Elden has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the St. Loui> di\ision. with head- 
quarters at Charleston. 111. 

G. W. Gilleland has been appointed superintendent of mo- 
tive power. Central and Southern districts of the Seaboard 
.Air Line Railway, with headquarters at Jacksonville. Fla.. to 
succeed J. J. Hanlin, who has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Georgia division, with hcadquartcr> at .\tlanta. Ga. 
W. D. Freeman has been appointed master mechanic of the 
North Carolina <livision. with headquarters at Hamlet. N. C 
to succeed T. J. Raycroft, who has resigned. 

M. M. Kuffner has been appointed blacksmith foreman of 
the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, with headquarters at Tuscaloosa. 
.Ala., succeeding W. J. Cronier, promoted. 



Edwin Duder has been appointed superintendent of motiv. 
power of the .Newfoundland Government Railway, with head- 
ipiarters at St. John. Newfoundland, to succeed J. H. Fulmor, 
who has resigned. 

W. R. Meeder has been appointed superintendent of motive 
power of the Missouri & North .Arkansas Railway, with head- 
<iuarters at Harrison. .Ark. Mr. Meeder was formerly master 
mechanic. 

M. R. Benson has been appointed division master mechanic 
of the Michigan Central Railroad, with headquarters at St. 
Thomas. < )nt.. Canada, succeeding E. R. Webb. 

C. E. Perkins, president of the Burlington system for twenty 
years, has resigned and is succeeded by George B. Harris, sec- 
i>nd vice-president. 

Thomas E. Cannon, general master mechanic of the Great 
Northern Railway, with headquarters at Superior. Wis., has 
been appointed general superintendent of locomotives and 
e(iuipment of the Pittsburgh & West \'irginia Railway, with 
headquarters at Pittsburgh, Pa. 

C. L. Petrikin has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Southern Railway, with headquarters at Princeton. Ind., suc- 
ceeding R. M. Boldridge, resigned. 

W. Stephenson lias been elected president of the Missouri & 
North Ark.insas Railway, with headquarters at St. Louis. Mo. 

C. W. Lee lias been appointed master mechanic of the Sea- 
board .\ir Line Railway, with headquarters at Fernandian. Fla., 
succeeding C. B. Royal, resigned. 

C. H. Putnam has been appointed superintendent of the 
shops of the Great Northern Railway, with headquarters at 
Spokane. Wash., succeeding J. A. Steele, resigned. 

F. C. Fox, general manager of the Eastern lines of the 
Atchison. Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, has been grated a 
leave of absence, and R. H. Allison has been appointed acting 
general manager, with headquarters at Topeka. Kans. 

M. Crown has been appointed superintendent of the South 
l-"lorida division of the Seaboard .Air Line Railway and also 
of the Charlotte Harbor & Northern Railway, with headquar- 
ters at .Arcadia. Fla. 

C. E. Graham, who resigned as senior vice-president of the 
Chesapeake & Ohio Railway, has also resigned as vice-presi- 
dent of the Hocking Valley Railway and has entered the gen- 
eral railway supply business. 

H. J. Plumhof, general superintendent of the I'nion Pacific 
Railroad, with headciuarters at Kansas City. Mo., has been 
elected vice-president of the St. Joseph Union Depot Company, 
succeeding R. M. Bacheller, who has been elected president. 



Supply Trade Notes 



The Central Steel Company, of Massillon. Ohio, has made 
the following changes: Fred J. Griflfiths, formerly president, 
was elected chairman of the board: C. E. Stuart, formerly vice- 
president, was elected president and treasurer: B. F. Fairless, 
formerly vice-president in charge of operations, is now vice- 
president and general manager: J. M. Schlendorf. formerly 
general sales manager, has become vice-president in charge of 
sales; Charles C. Chase, Jr., has been appointed secretary. The 
executive committee has been increased from three to five and 
inchides Messrs. Griflfiths. Stuart. Fairless. Schlendorf and 
\\'illiam G. Mather, president of the Cleveland-Cliff Iron 
Company. Cleveland. Ohio. 

Edward A. Deed lias been elected chairman of the board of 
the Niles Bement Pond Company, Xew York, succeeding R. 
K. LeBlond, and J. E. Forrestal, of Dillon, Read & Company, 
Xew York, was elected a director. 

A. H. Purdom, formerly connected with the railroad depart- 
ment of the Johns-Manville. Incorporated, Chicago, 111., has 
resigned to t.iki- a position in the railway department of the 
Wood Conversion Company, Chicago. 111., manufacturers of 
refrigerator and passenger car insulations. 

C. E. Graham, formerly senior vice-president of the Chesa- 
peake & Ohio Railway, has now severed his last connection 
with the property by resigning as vice-president of the Hock- 
ing A'alley Railway. Mr. Graham has entered the general 
railway supply business at 51 East Forty-second street. Xew 
York City. 

The Twentieth Century Gravity Lubricator Company has 
been incorporated, with headquarters at Baltimore. Md. W. 
E. Crist is president and treasurer: C. W. MacQueston, vice- 
president, and S. S. Crist, vice-president and secretary. The 
company was organized to manufacture oil cup lubricators for 
journal boxe-; 

The Chicago Steel Car Company. Harvey. 111., has changed 
i's name to the Gibson Car & Manufacturing Company. R. A. 
Pascoe, secretary of the Whiting Corporation, has also been 
appointed secretary-treasurer of the Gibson Car & Manufac- 



March. 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



91 



turing Company, and T. S. Hammond, president of the W'hit- 
ing Corporation, has been appointed vice-president ot the Gib- 
son Car & Manufacturing Company. 

The Superheater Company of New York and Chicago re- 
cently elected M. Schiller vice-president in charge of accounts 
and purchase?, and W. F. Jetter treasurer and assistant secre- 
tary. Bard Browne was appointed assistant to vice-president 
in charge of sales and service, T. F. Morris, assistant secretary 
and assistant treasurer. 

All of these men have been long associated with the Super- 
heater Company. Mr. Schiller joined the company in 1910 
when it was organized as the Locomotive Superheater Com- 
pany, and has served in various administrative and executive 
capacities. Mr. Browne came with the company in 1914 and 
has been actively identified in the application of locomotive 
superheaters and feedwater heating devices, serving in various 
engineering, sales and service capacities. 

The Superheater Company are designing engineers and 
manufacturers of Elesco steam superheaters for locomotive. 
marine and stationary boilers, feedwater heaters and exhaust 
steam injectors for locomotives, pipe veils, etc. The company 
is composed of engineers who have had long experience in the 
design and perfection of equipment for locomotive, and marine 
and stationary power plant services. They are the world's 
largest manufacturers of steam superheaters and have affilia- 
tions in Canada, England, France and Germany. 

W. B. DeForest, manager of the Kansas City distributing 
house of the Graybar Electric Company, Xew York, has been 
transferred and is now sales manager of the company, with 
headquarters at Xew York, J. F. Davis, formerly sales man- 
ager at Xew York, has been transferred to the general staff 
department, at 100 East 42nd street, Xew York. F. G. Cald- 
well has been appointed manager of the Houston, Texas, dis- 
tributing house. He will report to R. W. Van Valkenburgh, 
manager of the Graybar Dallas house. R. F. Copes has been 
appointed sales manager of the X'orfolk, \'a.. distributing 
house, reporting to G. T. Marchmont, manager of the Rich- 
mond dsitributing house. 

The Morton Manufacturing Company, Chicago, will con- 
struct a two-storv factorv, S5 ft. l)v 220 ft., to cost approxi- 
mately $95,000. 

The OUver Electric & Manufacturing Company has removed 
its factory and general office from St. I.ouis. Mo., to 1334 
Xorth Kostner avenue. Chicago. 111. 

Godwin Shenton, formerly assistant to the president and 
manager of the Coplan Steel Corporation, Ogdensburg. X. Y.. 
is now associated with the Q. & C. Company in the mechanical 
staff and will specialize and co-operate with the Ohio Steel 
Foundry Company, of Springfield and Lima. Ohio, in the 
manufacture and sale of locomotive grate bars made of special 
heat enduring steel. Mr. Shenton's headquarters will be at 90 
West street. Xew York City. 

E. T. McCleary, assistant vice-president in charge of opera- 
tion of the Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company, Youngstown, 
Ohio, has been promoted to vice-president in charge of opera- 
tions. 

T. Holland Nelson has become associated in a consulting 
capacity with the Ludlum Steel Company, Watervliet. X. Y. 
Mr. Xelson is also vice-president of the William T. Bate & 
Sons Company, Conshohocken. Pa. He has been intimately 
connected with the development of rustless steel both in this 
country and in England. 

R. M. Thomas and Donald Charlton have been appointed 
technical representatives of Reading Iron Company, Reading. 
Pa. The Technical Department whicli they head is a newly 
created service division in the Sales Department. .All their 
tirne will be given over to railroad work and they will be re- 
quired to give technical and practical counsel to any railroad 
which has pipe, engine-bolt, stay-bolt and boiler tube prob- 
lems. R. M. Thomas, for the past four years associated with 
the Chicago office of Reading Iron Company, received his 
technical training at Cornell L'niversity and Carnegie Insti- 
tute of Technology. lie is a member of .Xnicrican Institute 
of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers and Western Society 
of Engineers. Mr. Thomas will represent Reading Iron Com- 
pany in offices of various railroad systems of the West. His 
headqu?rtcrs will be 449 Conway Building. Chicago, III. Don- 
ald Charlton has been for the past six years in the manufac- 
turing division of Reading Iron Company, the last two and 
one-half years of which he served in the capacity of assistant 
engineer of tests. His duties during this period required an 
intimate knowledge of railroad work and furnished an excel- 
lent opportunity to become acquainted with numerous railroad 
inspectors and technical experts of several systems. Mr. 
Charlton will call on Eastern railroads and his headquarters 
will be the general office of Reading Iron Company. Reading, 
Pa. 



C. L. Sidle, salesman in the industrial water softener depart- 
ment of the Wayne Tank & Pump Company, Fort Wayne, 
Ind.. has been promoted to sales manager of that division, to 
succeed E. L. Horiskey, resigned. 

The Ohio Injector Company, W'adsworth. Ohio, has estab- 
lished a branch office at 30 Xational Building. Cleveland, Ohio, 
and has appointed F. L. Dalzell district sales manager. 

A. G. Smith has been appointed superintendent of the steel 
works department of the Forged Steel Wheel Company, But- 
ler. Pa., subsidiary of the Columbia Steel Company. Elyria. 
Ohio. Mr. Smith formerly had been superintendent of the 
open-hearth department of the Trumbull Steel Company, War- 
ren. Ohio. 

J. F. Fierke, president of the Illinois Iron & Bolt Company, 
Carpentersville. 111., has also been elected president of the 
Chicago Railway Signal & Supply Company, Chicago, suc- 
ceedin^r E. W. Vogel, wlio has resigned to engage in other 
business. Charles O. Poor, president of the P. & M. Company, 
Ltd., Montreal. Quebec, and formerly president of the General 
Railway Signal Company of Canada^ Ltd., has been appointed 
vice-presj^dent and manager of the Chicago Railway Signal & 
Supply Company, with headquarters in Chicago. 

George T. Aitken has been made manager of machine tool 
motor sales in the electrical division of Fairbanks Morse & 
Co., with headquarters at Indianapolis. Mr. \itken was for- 
merly sales manager of the Vonnegut Machinery Company of 
Indianapolis. 

W. H. Warner, general superintendent of Trumbell Steel 
Company. Youngstown. Ohio, has resigned, and C. H. Elliott, 
vice-president, is directing operations. 

The Commonwealth Steel Company has moved its headquar- 
ters from St. Louis, Mo., to Granite City. III., where its main 
plant is located. 

J. M. Harris. Elza Isaacs and H. O. Carlson have organized 
the American Boiler Washing Device Company, office located 
at West Frankfort. III. 

Robert W. GiUispie has been made assistant manager of 
structural and plate sales of the Bethlehem Steel Corporation, 
Bethlehem. Pa. C. M. Daniels is made plate sales agent, office 
at that point. Lee Hillard goes to Lhicago as structural and 
plate sales agent. 

J. W. Hewitt Rubber Company of Buffal.-i has merged the 
Gutta Percha & Rubber Manufacturing Company of Xew 
York. Branch agencies will be maintained in New York, 
Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Atlanta, Chicago, Pittsburgh, 
Denver, Los Angeles. Seattle and San Francisco. 



Obituary 

W. J. Tollerton, general superintendent of motive power of 
the Chicago. Rock Island & Pacific Railway, Chicago, died at 
his home March 3, following a week's illness of influenza. Mr. 
Tollerton was born in St. Paul. Minn.. January 2. 1870. and 
entered raihvay service as a machinist apprentice for the Xorth- 
ern Pacific Railway. He transferred to the Chicago, St. Paul, 
Minneapolis & Omaha Railway as fireman, and later to the 
Union Pacific Railroad as general foreman and master me- 
chanic at Pocatello. He served as master mechanic on the 
Idaho, Utah and Montana divisions of the Oregon Short Line 
Railroad from 1896 to 1906, when he transferred to the Chi- 
cago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway at Topeka, as superin- 
tendent of motive power in charge of lines west of the Mis- 
sissippi River. He was promoted to assistant superintendent 
of motive power at Chicago in .April, 1907, mechanical super- 
intendent. May. 1912, and general superintendent of motive 
power at Chicago, January 1, 1913, which position he was 
holding at the time of' his death. 



Daniel M. Brady, president and treasurer of the Brady Brass 
Company, Jersey City, X. J., died on February 23. Mr. Bradv 
was born in Xew York City in 1854 and entered the service 
of the Xew York Central as an office boy. in 1871. and served 
as a clerk to J. M. Toucey, superintendent of the Hudson 
River division, and general manager of the Grand Central Ter- 
minal. He later was promoted and served in the office of the 
supermtendent of car repairs under Leander Garcy. He after- 
wards served under William Buchanan and then "became con- 
nected with a car wheel company in Rochester. He subse- 
quently was identified with the Paige Paper Car Wheel Com- 
pany and then started a brass company under the name of the 
Brady Metal Company, with office on lower Broadway. New 
York. .About 1888 he organized the Brady Brass Company, 
of which he was president and treasurer at the time of his 
death. 



KAILU.W AND LOCOMOTIVE ENCiINEERING 



March, 1926 



New Piihliratioiis 

American Society for Testing Materials. IVdCocdings of 
the Twenty- Eighth Annual Meeting. Pubhshed by the So- 
ciety. Philadelphia. Pa. Two voluines; 962 and 454 pages; 
6 in. by 9 in. Paper. 

Of the two vohinics the first or Part I is the larger and 
contains the committee reports, the new and revised tentative 
standards and a list of standards and tentative standards. 
Part II contains the technical papers presented at the 1925 
meeting at .Atlantic City, New Jersey, and the discussions 
thereon. 

.As is well-known the society has taken up, discussed and 
developed standards and specifications for such a wide range 
of materials that to the lay mind they seem to cover about 
every known product. As it stands the society now has 256 
standards and 193 tentative standards or about sixteen for 
each year of its existence, a fairly prolific record. 

With sixty committee and sub-committee reports and the 
presentation of 83 suggested revisions of tentative standards 
and 33 similar suggestions relatively to the already adopted 
standards, it is evident that a review of all that the volume 
contains is impossible within available limits. 

Reference may be especially made to the very interesting 
and important report on X-Kay metallography, an extract 
from which is reproduced in another column, where the 
achievements and possibilities of this method of inspection 
are set forth. 

There is a progress report on the preparation of iron and 
steel for painting, that is an apparent corroboration of what we 
have been taught for years as to the value and efficiency of 
sand blasting. .As all knowledge has a more or less remote 
bearing on all arts so it is probable that every report in this 
large volume holds something of interest to every railroad 
man. 

The volume of technical papers contains tw-enty-six papers 
on a wide variety of subjects of which eight are devoted to 
metals and the balance to cement, concrete, gypsum, brick, 
bituminous materials, paint and textiles, with none of them 
having a direct bearing upon the locomotive or the car. 

.■\ very interesting diagram is published in connection with 
the annual report of the executive committee showing the 
growth of the society since its formation in 1898. There was 
a rather rapid growth for the first two years, with a much 
slower one for the next tw'o; then, since 1902, the growth 
has been remarkably steady and uniform, averaging more 
than 150 new members a year until at the time of issuing 
the report, there was a membership of 3716. The number 
in attendance at the annual meetings also shows a steady 
general increase, though there are some fluctuations, with 
a notable drop in 1912. until in 1925 there were nearly 800 
in attendance. The diagram also shows the growth in the 
number of pages contained in the publications of the society 
annually. These have been subject to wide fluctuations but 



with a general increase in number, rising to about 3900 in 
1924. in which year there was an increase of more than 1500 
pages above that of the year before. 

Switching Equipment for Alternating Current Power 
Stations. The \\ eslinghouse Electric and Manufacturing 
company has just issued a 112-page publication describing 
the proper switching equipment for alternating current power 
stations. This special publication, 1541-C deals with the gen- 
eral fundamentals that should be borne in mind when laying 
out a switch board, and describes in detail the various types 
of switching equipment. It is profusely illustrated with 
diagrams and half-tone illustrations. 

The choice of switching equipment arrangement is well 
described, and with it are included switching devices and 
classes of stations of both the single bus and double bus 
systems. 

Safety enclosed switchboards are the subject of a very in- 
teresting section, and the direct control switchboard for 2500 
volts or less with oil circuit breakers and bus bars supported 
from the back, are explained in another section. 

The electrically operated switchboard material is particu- 
larly interesting and includes descriptions of panel boards, con- 
trol desks, synchronizing devices and other data, including 
supervisory control equipment. 

Several full page spreads of illustrations of various types of 
oil circuit breakers and switchboards, including installation 
views, complete the publication. 

This publication may be had from any of the district offices 
or the Publicity Department of the VVestinghousc Company, 
at East Pittsburgh, Pa. 

"Electric Night by Radio," issued by the General Electric 
Company of Schenectady, \. V., as publication (jE.A-324, con- 
tains the addresses which were broadcast on "Electric Night," 
October 21st. from eighteen liroadcasting stations, covering the 
United States. This national celebration was sponsored by 
General Electric to commemorate the 46th anniversary of the 
Incandescent Lamp and to pay tribute to Thomas A. Edison. 

History, progress, rural electrification, public relations, and 
many other subjects relating to the electrical industry arc dis- 
cussed. .Among the thirty-two speakers were two members 
of the Cabinet. Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Commerce, and 
William M. Jardine. Secretary of -Agriculture, in addition to 
official of banks, electrical associations, central station com- 
panies and manufacturers. 

"Some Developments in the Electrical Industry During 
1925," l)y Jolm Liston. has been issued as a 62-page publica- 
tion (GE.A-355) l>y the General Electric Company, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y. The review covers each phase of electrical ap- 
plication and its outstanding developments during the past 
vear. It is divided into numerous sections, contains 103 
illustrations and an index. 



For Testing and Washing 
Locomotive Boilers 




Rue Boiler Washer 
and Tester 

SENO FOR CATALOGUE 

Rue Manufacturing Co. 

J28 Cherry Street Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mamifacturen of Injectors. Ejeotort 

Boiler Washen and Teitera. BoUer Checki. 

Check VaWei. 



DIAMOND STEEL EHERY 

For Grinding In Steam and Air Joints 

"CUTS BUT NEVER BREAKS" 

A Railroad Shop Necessity 

PITTSBURGH CRUSHED STEEL CO. 

PITTSBURGH, PA., U. S. A. 



GEO. P. NICHOLS A BRO. 

Nichols Transfer Tables 
Turntable Tractors 

2139 Fulton Street, Chicago 



DUNER 
CAR CLOSETS 



DUNER CO. 



WANTED 

Locomotive builder's or other lith- 
ograph of U. S. locomotives, mtilti- 
colored or one tone for historical 
collection. Give name of builder, 
type of locomotive, condition of 
print, etc. 

Also wish to purchase collec- 
tions of locomotive photographs, 
particularly those of early date, or 
will gladly arrange for exchange 
with other collectors. 

Particularly interested in New 
York Central photographs. 

Address, HISTORICAL 

c/o Railway and Locomotfv* Eagiatmimw 
114 UhTty Strmmt, N«w Yorfa 



Rl|!%iL.EiKiMCriiS 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling Stock and Appliances 



Vol. xxxix 



136 Liberty Street, New York, April, 1926 



Xo. 4 



Large Gas-Electric Passenofer Car for the Boston & Maine 

Railroad 

Some Details of Its Construction and Operation 

All extra large gas-electric car nt iinKlcni design and lie accimiijlished with a steam locumotive. ^\ hen it is 

capable rif seating 92 persons has jnst been delivered to the only jjovver used upon a liranch line, it will lie pos- 

the lioston & .\laine Railroad. The car is to be used sible to discontinue the coaling and water facilities. 

without a trailer as its capacity- is sutTicient to meet the The electric equipment was designed and it and the 

service conditions on the branch line over which the car engine built by the W'estinghouse Electric & Manutactur- 

wi!l ojjerate. and where it is expected that the savings ing Co. The engine was designed by The J. (i. ISrill Co. 




The 73 Ft. Brill. Westinghouse Gas-Electnc Car Built for the Boston &. Ms 



in o|)erating costs will greatly reduce the expense of 
operation.' 

It is estimated that all of the jjrincipal operating costs 
'it this single car unit will be lower than those for the 
>team train it is re))lacing. It is cx])ected that the fuel 
costs will Ik- less because of the decrease in the total train 
weight ])cr |;assenger seat, as well as because of the re- 
duction in the numlx;r of vehicles. The same holds true 
of the labor costs since there will be no need of a second 
man in the engine room corres]>*)nding to the fireman on 
the steam train. It is also thought that less frequent 
overhauling will be required, which will reduce main- 
tenance ex])enses. Then there is the feature of a prac- 
tically continuous service in long daily rims that cannot 

93 



of I'hiladelphia, I'enna., as was the car lK)dy and running 
gear, by which company the whole was assemble<l. 

The car body is of light-weight steel with straight sides 
and arched tyi)e roof. The underfranie consists of two 
12-inch channels U) which are riveted the cross members 
supporting the car bocly. The jiosts are of spring brass. 
The overall length over the end sills is 73 ft. The weight 
without load is IH).(HH) lbs., and the estimated lull seated 
load 14,000 lbs. 

'Ihe main passenger compartment is 46 ft. 6 in. long 
and is fitted with 35 seats for 84 i)assengers. Tlie aisle 
is located slightly ofl^ the center line of the car as the 
seats on one side are ca))able of holding thi^c pcr.sons 
and on the other only two. This type of seating arrange- 



94 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, \<)2'^ 



niciit gives an unusual low ratio of flour ana to seated 
l)asscnKer and, hence, is a very economical l\\)e of de- 
sijjn. The entrance tu this compartment is throuj;h end 
center entrance swins,' doors that open at the rear end 
onto the vestibule and at the front end into a small bag- 
gage or storage conii)artment. 

The baggage coinpartment is fittcfl with two folding 



control cab is located at the rear of the car on the right 
hand side. This second cfintrol cab is entirely enclosed 
The car ends are rounded and tilted with three clear view 
glass windows at the front end and two windows with a 
center folding door at the rear end. 

.Ml of the controls and switches can l)c reached from 
the o|>(rator"s seat. There are three lever handles and a 





nraMii 



j/feo/er Seating Ccpaaly S2 Persons Visi' 9- 6~ Over Posts 

i./»^^mr Hmininininnfifiiniinrainnin, m 



Z'Zf Z'-SfOpening i4i i'Si'Openmg ^'e £f iz' ^4?" 

Side Elevation and Floor Plan of Brill- Westinghouse Gas-Electric Car for the Boston i Maine Ry. 



seats and can he used as a smoking coniparlnuMit. l<uir 
side entrance doors are provided for the passengers and 
one for the operator. The rear vcstilnile is fitted with 
two doors and the storage room with two. The oi)era- 
tor"s door is located at the rear of his seat in the engine 
room. -A. saloon is located on the rear vestibule. The 




The Brill -V^^estinghouse Engina Generator 
Boston & Maine Car 



Unit (or the 73 Ft. 



car is heated l)y a hot water circulating .system, the coal 
heater l)eing located at the rear of the main passenger 
comjKirtment. 

'liie engine generator unit is mounted at the forward 
end in a 11 ft. 6 in. comi)artment which also houses all 
of the engine au.xiliary apparatus and the control equip- 
ment. The operator's seat and controls are located at the 
forward right hand side of this compartment. The con- 
trol is arranged for double end o])eration. The other 



luuiiber of >witclies. ilx-re is one small Uvcr with a 
notched quadiant at the front end of the engine bed for 
advancing or retarding the ignition. This lever does not 
api)car on the illustration of the engine as it is on th' 
right hand side: the illustration Ijeing on the left. Ther. 
there is the handle of the engineers valve of the air 
brake, and finally the oi>erating lever, which also has a 
notched (luadraiit attached. This lever coiuiects to the 
\alves on the carbureters. This and the brake lever form 
ihe ])rincipal control that has to be ojierated by the en- 
gineer. Forward movement of the engine throttle lever 
increases the fuel supply to the cylinders and. hence, in- 
creases the engine speed. This lever is also interlocked 
with the electrical control switches in such a way that thr 
motors are connected to the Lienerator and the generat(ir 
excited before the amount of fuel fed to the cylinder? i^ 
increased enough to cause the engine to get above idling 
.-,l)ced. In this way the electrical equipment is com- 
(tcK disconnected when the engine idles and only one 
iever is re(|uired to raise the engine sjieed and reconnect 
the generator and motors for o]3eration. 

The engine of course operates in one direction at all 
times, and the reversal of the motion of the motors is 
accomplished bv a small two-position \^\v^ switch; the 
l)lug being inserted in one hole or the other according 
to whether a forward or backward nK)tion is desired. 
When the i>lug is entirely removed the motors are di (1. 

This reverser and electro-pneumatically controlled 
switches care for all the main generator and motor cir- 
cuits No main circuits are broken near the operator - 
position. This reduces hazard and safeguards the eni;i 
neer. The electro-i>neumatic switches are operated b\ 
electrical interlocks on the engine throttle lever. 

.Attached to the window post and side f)f the car at the 
right of the engineer are a number of switches that serve 
to'' put the motors into series or parallel action, control 
the headliijht. and a number of other minor punxjsc- 
There is also a valve for controlling the operation oi 
the imeumatic bell ringer. 



April. 1926 



RAILWAY AND l.OCOMOTI VII ENGIM£ERIi\G 



95 



A 32-voIt battery supplies energy for car lighting and 
- the control circuits when the power plant is shut 
■ iown and also furnishes the excitation for a small 50-volt 
2.? K\\ exciter mounted on an extension of the generator 
shaft. This exciter supplies power to a shunt field wind- 
ing on the main generator and for charging the battery 
and supplying the lighting and control circuits. 

The engine is a 250-horsepower, six-cylinder gasoline 



discs in such a manner that the one flywheel bolt alter- 
nates between* two of the spider arm bolts. The main 
function of the disc joint is to allow for any slight mis- 
alignment of the engine and generator or anv angularity 
between the shafts of the two. A secondar\ purpo.ie is 
the cushioning of the impulse load on the engine crank 
shaft and a dampening of the vibrations set up in the 
shaft. This all contributes to the smooth, (|uiet ojjeration 




Side Elevation of Bi 



ill- Westinghouse Engine Ge 
Car 



engine driving a 160-kilowatt generator as shown in the 
illustration. The power is supplied to two 140-horse- 
jKjwer. 600-volt traction motors mounted on the forward 
truck. 

The engine is substantially built to withstand continu- 
ous full sjieed operation incident to service in a gas- 
electric car. Its normal speed is 1100 revolutions per 
minute, and this speed is maintained except when the 
car is coasting or when slow-sjieed 
operation is desired. The cylinders 
are 7'/4 in. bore by 8 in. stroke, cylin- 
ders cast en bloc, heads in pairs, and 
are ef|uipped with two sets of over- 
head valves and two spark plugs per 
cylinder to insure reliable operation. 
The ignition system is in duplicate as 
in addition to the two spark plugs i)er 
cylinder two magnetos are mounted 
iin the engine anrl are driven inde- 
pendently. 

The generator is connected to the 
rear of the engine l>y means of a flexi- 
ble cou))ling consisting of four fabric 
discs. The combined unit is mounted 
on a common bedplate longitudinally 
in the forward end of the car and rests 
on the car channels. The generator 
is specially designed ff)r this car and 
motors arc standard CjOO-volt rail- 
way e<|ui])nient. Their characteristics 
are such that the full horsejiower 
of the engine is absorbed over a wide oi)eratiiig 
spee<l range of the car without an\- mani|nilation 
of control levers by the operator. The car speed is 
controlled by the engine sjjeed. The flexible fabric uni- 
versal joint used l)etween the gasoline motor and the 
generator of this jjassenger car consists of four Thermoid 
Hardy Universal Joint Discs which are bolted directiv 
to the flywheel of the gasoline motor. A spider fastened 
to the end of the generator shaft is also Ijolled to the 



lerator for 73 Ft. Thermoid Fibre Coupling for Engine and Generator of Boston & 

Maine Gas-Electric Car 

(if the unit since the vibrations are not carried back to 
metal parts which might create a noise. 

The fabric discs used are the Thermoid Hardy type 
with the fanwise construction of j^lies as shown in the 
illustration which gives a imiform pull between all i)airs 
of bolt holes. The fabric used is a heavv 20 oz. long 
fil)re duck thoroughly impregnated with a rublicr com- 
iHiund which ijives a mavinium adhcsinn between tlie 




I M. C. B. Motor Truck for the Boston & Maine Gas-Electric Car 

se|)arate ])lies. Tiie jjlies of each disc are lai<l up as men- 
tioned before with the threads running in different di- 
rections until sufficient thickness is o])lainc'd. The discs 
are then punched out and placed in the moulds and vul- 
canized under ])ressure to give the finished product. The 
finished discs are ma<le within 1/64 in. tolerance in 
thickness. 1/32 in. tolerance on the inside and outside 
diameters and with a ])lus or minus of .010 in. tolerance 
on the bull hole sjiacings. The tensile strength of the 



% 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, I")2C 



material in the discs runs well over 3UU0 llis. per s(|uare 
inch. 

The car is iiinuntid nii staiulard hi}ih-si)ee<l M. C. 15. 
i'lrill trucks. I'lie electric traction niotnrs are mounted 
on the liMward truck which has a wheel hase of 7 ft. 6 in. 
rile wheel ba.se of the trailinjj truck i.s 7 feet. The wheel 
diameter i.s 33 inches. The truck center distance is 54 
ft. 6 in. 

This truck has been in extensive use for a numl>er of 
years on electric railways, hut is a comparative novelty 
on steam railway service. .\s rather exceptional results 
are obtained with it l>ecause of some of the details (»f its 
construction, those details are worthy of careful consid- 
eratit)n. 

Its ^'eneral appearance is that of the old standard type 
of four-wheel ])assen.t;er car truck hut is of all metal 
construction. The side frames are forj^ings, with the 



of this spriiiK, as ori},Hnally applied, was to hold the pin 
steady and prevent it from rattlinj,', the earliest applica- 
tions having,' l>een to brake haii>;ers. In this i-ase another 
function has l)een added. The si)rin).; has l>ei-n made 
much heavier than would have Ik-cii required to simply 
l)revent a rattlin>i of the Ixjit or pin, and has Iteen iLjiven 
a stren^jth and tension so as to i)rodiice a considerable 
frictional resistance t)etween the pin and hanger. Thi- 
<ip|)oses a force to resist the swinging of the hanger aiii 
the spring ])lank. This retards the swinging of the hange 
and the spring plank and so softens the motion of tli' 
latter to contribute to the ease of motion of the lxj<ly ii 
the car. 

The elliptic springs rest directly u\xm the spring plank, 
but do not carry the Iwlster direct. At the top of tlii 
elliptic si)rings there is a double-seated .spring seat .- 
This spring seat rests on toj> of the elliptics and carrie- 




Side Elevation and Plan of the Brill M. C. B. Truck Used 



Maine Gas- Electric Car 



end i^ieces, transoms and equalizers are all modeled along 
conventional lines. The connection between the side 
frame is strengthened by a stiff gusset that la]>s down 
over the outside of the side frame at 1 as shown in Ixjth 
the side elevation and photographic reiiroduction. 

The brakes are inside-hung, with a svstem of levers 
adapted to leave the space between the axles and the 
transoms o])en for occuixition by the motors. This is 
accomplished by the use of a yoke bar, 2, acted ujxjn at 
the center by the pull rod. 3. r)f the car brake rigging, 
and pulling at its ends upon the upper end of the live 
brake levers, of which there is one on each side. This 
makes a mere se]Kirator of the brake beam to hold the 
shoes and levers in place, as no other load is put uix)n it. 

The side frame rests upon the equalizers in the usual 
way by means of the equalizer sjirings. 

The spring plank is carried by hangers suspended ""om 
the transoms, with the bottom ends spread to assist in 
the return of the plank and its suix-rincumlient load to 
the central jwsition. The spring plank ]iin is held by a 
nut and washer with a spring 4 l)eneaih. The purix)se 



a nest of light helical springs, 6, in its upper seat. It is 
upon these springs that the bolster rests. They are >■ • 
encased that, after a comparatively light load, the edyt 
of the li]) of the casing at 7 rests on the top of the spring 
.seat Ijeneath, and any further increase of load has no 
effect on these springs. They are luade stiong enough 
to carry the weight of the empty Ixxly. but as a load is 
put on they compress and go out of action. Any addi- 
tional load is taken care of by the elliptics and the helical 
equalizing springs. 

With this arrangement an easy riding car is obtainetl 
when lH)th light and loaded. 

One of the annoyances and obstacles to easy riding 
of cars is the frictional contact of the l)<jlster against the 
inner side of the transoms. This contact causes stick- 
ing, jars and tilting. On this truck the bolster moves 
freely up and down l>etween the two transoms without 
lieing in contact with either. It is held in a central |iosi- 
tion by two rocking arms 8: one at either end of the 
l)<)lster. (^ne end of the arm is pivotted on the transom 
and the other on the bolster. .\t each end it is held bv 



April. l>i2o 



RAILWAY AND LCKIOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



97 



a universal joint. lUocks, 9. 9. art held to the transom 
and bolster respectively by the spring-washered bolts, 10, 
10, respectively. The blocks are, therefore, free to turn 
in a horizontal plane about the vertical bolts. The arms 
8 are pivoted on these blocks by the bolts 1 1 , which gives 
them freedom to oscillate in a vertical plane. The ver- 
tical and latteral movements of the bolster are thus un- 
hampered ; while it is, at the same time, held midway 
between the two transoms except for the slight differences 
caused by the variation in the angularities of the arms 8. 

If the riding of this particular car may be taken as a 
criterion, this construction seems to have accomplished 
two very desirable results. 

It is well known that the nrdinary dining car is a 
notoriously l)ad riding vehicle. The roughness is at once 
noticeable on stepping into such a car from a jjarlor or 
sleeping car. This characteristic has been attributed to 
the fact that the weights at the two ends of the car are 
very unequal, because of the heavy range and kitchen 
equipment, that is located at one end. But, in this car, 
there is a far greater variation in the weights on the 
trucks than obtains in any dining car, for there is the 
heavy engine, generator and other auxiliary equipment. 




ill M. C. B. Truck Used on 
e Gas-Electric Car 



The actual distribution of the whole weight of the car 
jjuts 65,000 lbs. on the motor and 45,000 lbs. on the 
trailer truck. To be sure there is not this difference in 
the spring supported parts, for a part of the weight of 
the motors rests rlirectly ujwn the axles without the in- 
lerventif)n of any springs. But there is enough differ- 
ence between the spring supported weights at the two 
ends of the car to show that such (jrdinary differences 
as do occur are not insuperable obstacles in the way of 
securing an easy riding car. 

Another jxjint along the same line is the matter of 
nosing or zigzag movement, when running on a straight 
track. 

It is well known that cars mounted on four-wheeled 
trucks, when running free and sometimes even when 
coupled in trains exhibit this tendency to nose to a 
marked and. often, to a dangerous degree. This car, on 
the other hand, runs smoothly and evenly on a straight 
track, at 40 miles jK-r hour and is reported to act equally 
as satisfactory at s|)eeds u|) to 60 miles ])er hour. 

It will Ik: noticed, in the reproduction of the photograjjh 
of the truck, wheel guards are placed over the wheels on 
the right hand side. This is to protect the fan openings 
in the floor of the car directly above from any mud or 
dirt that may l>e thrown off by the wheels. 

The 2.V)-horsepower engine makes possible high-si>eed 



operation of this car over a rolling profile and gives it 
e.xcellent performance characteristics. The following 
schedule speeds are possible on the indicated grades for 
the given length of runs. A stop time of JU seconds has 
l>een assumed. 

Grade in Per Cent 
0.1 0.2 0.5 1.0 1.5 

Length of Run 
-Miles 

i 32.7 32 31.2 29.7 27 24 

4 35.4 34.7 342 32.2 29.7 25 6 
6 39 38.3 37.4 34.7 30.6 26.6 

5 41.2 40.2 39.6 36.2 314 27 2 
10 42.2 41.6 404 37 32.2 274 

An idea of the power needed for the propulsion of a 
car of this type is obtained from the fact that with elec- 
tric transmission, and against only a slight headwind, 
250_-horseix)wer are needed at the engine at a car speed 
of 50 miles per hour. The power needed goes tip rapidly 
with increased headwind resistance. This increase iii 
power needed is very noticeable in both the running speeds 
possible and the gasoline consumption. Headwind re- 
sistance will vary the gasoline consumption on a 100 
mile run as much as 30 per cent. 

The accompanying curves give in detail the maximum 
schedule speed possible with this car on various grades 
with varying length of runs. As shown, the schedule 
sjieeds possible are affected very little by grades below 
0.3 per cent. This is a very favorable condition as it 
makes jrossible a daily average uniform performance, un- 
der varying weather conditions, over a run with a rolling 
profile. 

The operation of this car is jDarticularly economical as 
the unit has a very low ratio of weight to seating capacity 
and a low ratio of weight to the rated engine horseiMwer. 
The car weighs only 1200 pounds per passenger seat and 
only 440 pounds per engine horsepower. These low 
ratios, in addition to causing low operating expense, give 
the car excellent speed characteristics that are very de- 
sirable. The flexibility of the control and the electric 
transmission permits the full utilization of the available 
power over a wide car speed range. 

In comparison with other gas-electric cars this unit has 
additional advantages that make its operation on branch 
lines very satisfactory. The economies of gas-electric 
car ojieration are dependent upon several factors. Among 
these are low weight of e(|uipment and the passenger 
load ratio. The most desirable and economical field for 
the gas-electric unit is one where the load caiiacity re- 
(|uired is reasonably small, but constant and wher, the 
engine power ])lant can be so designed that the full power 
is used continuously. I'ntil recently only sixty-foot cars, 
and stnaller ones of this tyi>e have been constructed to 
meet variotis service conditions. Such units as these have 
been built with ])ower i)lant cajmcity for either single car 
or trailer operation. The smaller car when suitable for 
trailer o]X'ration is a very flexible unit, but not the most 
econ(jmical unless the trailer operation is continuous. 
VV'here service conditions are such that the loads are 
small and practically constant, and where the capacity of 
the 73-foot car is adequate for the service, there is no 
doubt that it will prove lower than the single motor- car 
imit with a trailer or the steam train. 

The present unit is one of the three jnirchased by the 
Boston & Maine Railroad from the Brill and Westing- 
house Companies, the other two units being standard 60 
ft. cars. Five of the 73 ft. cars have recently l>cen placed 
on order with the J. C,. Brill Company by the New York, 
.\ew Haven iK: Hartford Railroad. 

When this car was on its way to delivery to the Boston 
\- Maine Railroa<l. a dcMioiislralioii run was made on the 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April. !'(.'., 



I'eiinsylvaiiia Uailn.ad from I'liiladi-lphia to Trenton. 
N'cw JiTsey. a <listaMiT of alxnit .?_' miles. The highest 
siH-ed attained on the run was a little nioic tlian 42 miles 
an hour, and shortly tlu-reafter a slow order was issued 
limitinjj the s])eed to 3() miles an hour so that there was 
iioo])i)ortunity to demonstrate what the car could do while 





-50 








Maximum Schedute Speed 








>^ 




























-40 












«— " 




— 






~~GrQd'e\ 


li 






—^ 


^ 
















o.s7o 


^ 










,^^ 


-30 




/ 


:> 


"^ 
















10% 


f^ 












^ 




^ 




^^ 
















LSI 
















^ 
^ 


-20 


i 


y 


Bn//-We3/ing/>ouse JSR.GayC/ectric Cor 
l-250Hp.rngineZ-557A-8PcifwoyMolonl'/766en 
/SSS Gear Ratio J3 W/tee/s 
Net Weigf)t -55 Tons Load 7. 5 Tom 
/i5f1.P.HPS BraHingRale 


1 






^ 


-10 




















1 


1 1 1 1 
Length o f Run - /lite s 












113 4 5 6 7 8 9/0/1 

L. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 , 



Performance Curve for Brill-Westinghouse, Boston &. Maine 
73 Ft. Gas-Electric Car 

runnin.tf at that speed, of a little more than M miles an 
hour, the engine was turninj,' at the rate of ")00 revolu- 
tions per minute and the generator was delivering; 250 
amperes of current. 

It is estimated that if the cni^^ine were to deliver 2CX3 
horsejxjwer the rate of gasoline consumption would lie 
at about .90 11). per horsejMwer per hour for the [X)wer 
I)ein.g so delivered. The gasoline tank beneath the frame 
has a capacity of 150 gallons or appri).\imately "^'75 lb. 
."^o that the car could nui something more than 200 miles 
on a single tank of .gasoline. 

Immediately u]ion the rcceijjt of the car it vi-as placed 
in service between S])ringfield and Xorthampton. Mass. 
The distance between these two points is about 17 miles, 
and the district served includes Springfield with a popu- 
lation of about 142.000. to which there are two large 
tributary towns. Holyoke of alH)ut 60.000 inhabitants and 
Xorthampton with about 22,000. In addition to the 
normal travel between these places there are three col- 
le.ges whose students are constantly going to and from 
.Sjiringfield. These are Smith College at Xorthamjiton : 
Mount Holyoke College at South Hadley and .\mherst 
at Amherst. So that a heavy local traffic has to l)e pro- 
vided for. Within three days of the placing of the car 
on the run it was carrying loads of more than one hun- 
dred passengers. As the car has developed a capacity to 
haul a trailer it is probably capable of handling the com- 
paratively heavy traffic that will develop in this region. 



Cost of Operating Gas and Oil-Electric 
Locomotives 

Mr. J. C. Thirwall f)f the Ceneral Mlectric Company 
has issued a statement regarding the costs of operating 
.gas and oil electric locomotives and cars in railway service. 
.\ccording to this statement the gas-electric cars seating 
from 54 to 64 ])assengers. with coach, smoking and bag- 
gage compartments, are equipped with large capacity en- 
gines and generatt)r>. and use standard trollev car motors 



and controllers. ( )ne type that has Ix-en widelv jnir- 
chased weighs alM.ut 38 tons and uses a 6 cvlinder engine 
that develops 175 h.]). at 1.000 r.p.m. These units, operat- 
ing in infre(|uent stop service, will run about .? miles per 
gallon or use 65 to 75 gallons in running 200 miles daily. 
.\bout 65 such cars have been put into service during the 
past two years because their entire operating expense is 
only a small fraction of that of a steam train on lines of 
light traffic. 

.\ further and more recent development, along similar 
lines, is the oil-electric locomotive for switching service 
on steam roads. The.se are built in several sizes from 6(J 
tons to 125 tons, the mechanical stnicture being designed 
and built by the .\nierican Loconvjtive Company, the oil 
engines furnished by the Ingersoll Rand Company and 
the electric equijiment by the (General Electric Company. 
The engines range from 300 h.]). to 750 h.p. and the elec- 
tric generators from 200 k.w. to 500 k.w. capacity. Such 
units can i)roducc power for approximately .65 lb. of oil 
])er kw-hr. and even in intermittent service, with widelv 
varying loads and power factor, their fuel economy com- 
pares favorably with that (jf the large central steam 
stations. 

.\s compared to a steam IfKomotive, in switching 
service, with its huge standby and idling losses, its fuel 
economy is tremendous. .\ typical instance is a test 
made by the Central Railroad of Xew Jer.sey last fall. A 
60-ton oil-electric locomotive during seven days handled 
431 cars, ag.gregating' 14, IM tons. .\ steam engine in 
the same yard in the same time handled 430 cars, wei.gh- 
ing 14.013 tons. The oil-electric burned 208 gallons of 
fuel oil and used 3 gallons of lubricating oil : the fuel oil 
cost $10.40 and the lubricant $1.50. a total oil cost of 
$1 1.98. The steam locomotive burned 9 tons of coal which 
cost $f)4.35 and spent $9.00 for the lalwr of handling coal 
and water, a total fuel cost of $73.35. 

.\ similar test on the Long Island Railroad in which the 
oil-electric locomotive handled 1.124 cars and the steam 
1.351. showed comparative costs for fuel, water, etc.. of 
$30.50 and $106.70. 

The magnitude of the savings, and the comparative 
reliability of the oil-electric have led to recent orders for 
12 >uch machines for vard service on eastern roads. 



Southern Pacific Oil Fuel Record 

A saving of 2.362,129 barrels of fuel oil, in freight and 
passenger service on the Pacific Lines of the Southem 
Pacific Company from January 1, 1920, to December 31, 
1925, is shown in a report made bv Chief Fuel Super- 
vi.sor J. X. Clark. 

During those six years the fuel per thousand gross ton 
miles in freight service decreased from 15.47 to 12.43 
gallons. The locomotive load increasing from 1,145 tons 
to 1.457 tons. In passenger service fuel decreased per 
passenger car mile from 1.11 to .99 gallons, the cars per 
locomotive mile increasing from 7.19 to 7.76. 

During 1925 a saving of 377,178 barrels was made as 
comjiared with the year 1924. The freight consumption 
l^er thousand gross ton miles was reduced from 12.81 to 
12.43 gallons, and passenger consumption from 1.00 to 
.99 gallons per passenger car mile. Passenger service 
was handicai)ped from showing a larger reduction because 
of faster train schedules during 1*^25. 

In his rejiort Mr. Clark states that "employees on all 
viivisions are taking a keen intere.st in fuel oil conserva- 
tion work and the tine showing made is in a large measure 
due to the spirit of co-ojieration between officers and em- 
ploves in this important economy work." 



Engine Terminal Layouts 

Reports Presented at the Convention of the American Railway Endneerino: Association 



Engine terminals are provided sn that the mechanical 
forces may care for and repair engines and furnish the 
transportation forces a supply of engines in good condi- 
tion. To maintain the supply, engines must he handled 
through the terminal in the shortest possible time, or addi- 
tional engines assigned to the district. 

The development of steam locomoiives in weight and 
tractive jjovver has been so rapid during the past 10 or 15 
years as to make the engine tenninal a particularly imi>or- 
tant field for investigation looking toward the eit'ecting of 
economies. The rapid advance in locomotive design is 
evidenced by the increase in revenue tons hauled per train 
mile from 380 in 1910 to 6,?2 in \'^2i. or about 66 per 
cent. 

While the greater portion of the time an engine is at a 
locomotive terminal is due to the time necessary in mak- 
ing re])airs or waiting for trains or crews, an improperly 
laid out terminal will not only retard the movement of en- 
gines at «ill times, but will increase the most of hostling. 
and in times of peak business may become the controlling 
factfir in the amount of business which can lie handled 
at a terminal. 

In order that the time locomotives are held at a terminal 
may be reduced to a minimum the locomotive terminal 
itself must be coordinated with all other facilities so that 
the movement of engines may be orderly and e.xpeditiously 
made from the time engine is detached from its train in 
the yard or at the station until it is again attached to a 
train, its fires cleaned, coal, water and sand taken, oiled, 
wiped, and any needed repairs made, ready in first-class 
condition, to haul its full tonnage rating to the next ter- 
minal. 

While an engine terminal designed for the orderly and 
e.\i)editious movement of engines should reduce the time 
rec|uired by the mechanical forces to a minimum, it should 
l)e also borne in mind that unless traffic conditions are such 
that the engines can be used as soon as available, no sav- 
ing will be accomjjlished by shortening the terminal time, 
and that the layover (jf assigned engines is fixed by 
schedules. 

In order that the engine terminal design may meet all 
the re(|uirements of a ]>articular location, the co-tjperation 
of the o;)erating jiersonnel is necessary. 

In order that facilities for jinjper capacity and spacing 
may be jirovided. a thorough study of the traffic to l>e 
handled, both for the jiresent and in the future, must l>e 
made, for which the following information is necessary: 

(a) Type ami size of engines tn be l.iaiullcd. 

(b) Number of locomotives bandied in eacb direction daily 
by clas.ses. 

(c) Scbedulc of arrival and departure of locomotives by 
classes, 

(<\ ) Number arriving durinK peak period. 

(e) Time witliin wbicli cnuines arriving must be bostled by 

classes. 
(i) Maximum number of engines on terminal at one time. 
(g) Number engines repaired daily by classes of work. 
(Ii) Number engines under repair at one time by classes of 

work. 
(i» .\mr)unt of fuel fcoal or oil) issued daily. 
(j I .\mount of water consumed daily, 
(k) Amount of sand consumed daily. 
(1) NumlK-r of men re(iuired to o|)eratc tbe terminal. 

While the time required frjr the movement of an engine 
from the terminal entrance to the engine house will vary 
greatly, de|>ending u])on the climatic conditions, fuel used, 
the size f>f the engine, length of rim, class rif service and 
amount of work done at tbe particular terminal, and this 



must Ije determined for each specific location, an average 
for all will be approximately : 

From Terminal Entrance to First Facility 5 min. 

Outside Inspection 30 min. 

Cleaning Fires 45 min. 

Taking Coal, Sand and Water 15 min. 

Outside Washing 15 min. 

Onto Table — Turning and Into House 4 min. 

1 br. 54 min. 

The movement between facilities depends uix)n capacity 
of facility, number of men. etc. 

\\ ith the above information, after making allowances 
for the probable increase in traffic, changes in ojjerating 
conditions and methods, etc., a diagram can be drawn for 
each engine movement, and the capacity of each facilitv, 
spacing between facilities and the time required for host- 
ling each engine determined. This will permit the design- 
ing and spacing of the various facilities of the terminal for 
the orderly movement of engines from the entrance to the 
house. 

In view of the expenditure necessary to provide a mod- 
ern engine terminal, no tenuinal should be designed with- 
out providing for future expansion, so that it may be made 
with minimum changes to the original plant. 

.\fter a thorough study as to requirements has been 
made, and the capacity of the various parts of the facilitv 
determined, the adequacy of different projwsed sites can 
be determined, and a layout adapted to the topographical 
conditions made. 

The selection of an economic site requires a study of 
many features, including : 

1. Land value of every possible site for present and future 

requirements. 

2. Cost of preparing site and of foundations. 

3. Drainage, sewer disposal, water supply, electricity. 

4. Relation to existing or proposed yards and to passenger or 

freight stations. 

5. Labor supply, including housing facilities and transportation. 

6. Fire protection. 

.\ compari.son of these items for various sites and their 
relative values will show often that the selection of the 
more expensive land will more than offset the decrease in 
locomotive terminal mileage, decrease of foundation work, 
elimination of emi)loye trains, etc. 

Track Layout 

I'niess there are sufficient engines handled to warrant 
duplicate coaling and ash facilities, all engines should 
enter the terminal jiroi^er at one iK)int. btit an emergency 
exit should be provided so that in case of derailment or 
other trouble at the main entrance the terminal will not 
be tied up. 

The number of tracks rec|uire(l. s])acing of facilities, 
etc.. dej lends \\\H<n the traffic to be handled at the particu- 
lar terminal. There should, however, be sufficient track- 
age to |)ermit the jirompt receipt of all engines imme- 
diately ujxMi arrival, and the leads should be situated to 
))rovide for the free movement c)f engines to and from the 
yards with minimum interference with other movements 
or between inbound and outbound engines. 

The layout should provide for the orderly movement of 
engines without reverse movement between the entrance 
and the turntable, regardless of the time of arrival of 
])referred engines. Crossovers should be so arranged that 
yard engines or others not refiuiring turning may have 



99 



100 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, 1926 



their tiri'.s cli-ancd, and take dial and water without cross- 
inj,' the tat>le. 

I'here sliould be sufficient trackajje in advance of each 
facility for the standin}^ of all locomotives which may 
have to wait their turn, so that they will not interfere 
with the niiivenient of other engines or trains. Where 
climatic conditions |)erniit outside storage, sufficient track- 
age should Ik.' iirovided for engines ready lor service, to 
reduce the size of the euf^inehouse to a minimum, and so 
it will not be necessary to overload the turntable durinj^ 
the peak outlMiund period. 

\\ ater columns serving; all tracks should be located near 
the terminal entrance, but far enough from the entrance 
to ])ermit all engines which arrive in a short period (15 
to ,^0 minutes) to dear the main line. Water columns 
should be placed also near the turntable, so that engines 
housed or st()red for long periods may take water without 
moving the entire length of the terminal. 

Inspection Pits 

W here climatic conditions are favorable, and the tyiK- 
of rejKiirs warrant, insiK'ction pits near the terminal en- 
trance will allow a preliminary inspection before the loco- 
motive reaches the enginehouse, and advance notice given 
to the foreman of the work to be done. Such a \)h should 
result in kee])ing a large percentage of the engines out of 
the enginehouse, particidarly where there is a light repair 
shed. 

The ca])acity required will depend U])on whether the 
work is restricted to insjx'ction, or whether running re- 
pairs are made on the jjits, and the number of engines 
iet|uiring insi)ection at one time. 

.Ml inlxiuiKJ, and under certain conditions, at least one 
outbound track should pass over the ash pit or pits, which 
should have sufficient capacity to take care of the i>eak 
jieriod demand so that cleaning the fires will not delay the 
e.\])editious movement of engines throughout the termi- 
nal. Tracks should be so arranged, or pits so located, 
that jireferred attention may be given to any engine re- 
gardless of its arrival time, and so that cinder cars mav 
be loaded and switched with minimum interference to 
operation. 

Pits should be designed and tracks so located that fire 
cleaners may work on both sides of the etigines. There 
are several types of ash pits, all of which give satis- 
factory service, and in selecting a particular tyjK'. consid- 
eration must be given to: (a) The engine capacity re- 
quired; (b) type and class of engine handled; (c) cinder 
storage capacity: (d) loading and switching of cinder 
cars; (e) cost of operation: (f) maintenance and con- 
struction, and (h) the su])p]y of labor available. 

.\t large terminals the mechanical tyjx- of coaling sta- 
tion, with track hopper and automatic elevating machin- 
en- is usecl generally. If a mechanical ty]ie station is 
selected, the track hopper should have sufficient capacity 
to handle one c ar without movvng it, and the grade of the 
coal storage tracks such that tlie cars may he moved 
readily with a car puller. I'nless provision is made for 
sufficient storage, or other means of coaling during a 
breakdown of the machinery. du])licate hoisting apparatus 
is recommended. 

In selecting the type of coaling station, consideration 
should be given to the daily consumption : the various 
grades and kinds of coal : the source of supply : car sup- 
])ly ; density of traffic during the winter season, and the 
desirability of having an emergency suiijily in st<irage 
at the terminal : the cost of switching : antj the cost of 
construction and maintenance. 

The coaling station should ser^•e all inbound and out- 
bound tracks and have bin storage capacity for thirty-six 



hours. W here ditt'erent grades of coal are used it should 
be desiiied with separate bins for each grade. 

I'liel oil delivery columns shoul<l be so placed so as to 
serve the same tracks as the water columns. In some 
cases there may Ix- advantage in an arrangemeiU which 
will |Krmit taking oil and water on one sjjot. L'nloading 
and storage facilities preferably should be far enough 
away from other facilities as to minimize fire risk, licon- 
omy in first cost and oix-ration will Ix- effected if this can 
be accom])lished without duplication of jnuiiping plant. 

The sand house should have a cajwcity for a .season'". 
re(|uirements. and be l«xrated near the sand bins. The dr\ 
sand bins may be constructed as a ]wrt of the coaling sta 
tion. or on columns l>etween tracks, i'he latter arrange 
ment allows engines to take sand or coal without inter- 
ference to other engines. 

The i)i]x- lines for blowing .sand from the sand house 
to the bins should have a minimum number of liends and 
be built of e.xtra heavy pipe. .\11 tracks should Ix scrvcii 
by the sand bins, which, if not a part of the coaling sta- 
tion, should be placetl l)etween it and the wash platform. 

\\ here weather conditions are suitable washing locomo- 
tives with a spray system will reduce the cost of wiping 
and facilitate engine in.spection and repairs. . Washing 
should Ix the last ojxration before the locomotive goes on 
to the turntable, so all ashes, coal or sand may be removed. 

Wash ])lattorm of wot)d, concrete or macadam. pitche<I 
to drain to catchbasins, will protect the roadbe<l against 
saturation, and should Ix j)laced under all the inlxjund 
tracks close to the turntable. .A platform shoidd accom- 
modate at least one engine and be slightly longer than 
the engines. .An elevated walk on lK)th sides of every 
track, about the height of a locomotive deck, will enable 
a man to reach the top of the boiler, .sand dome, etc., when 
washing. 

Turntable 

The turntable should be of sufficient length and strength 
to meet the extreme demands upon it. and should be 
cquipjxd with mechancial means of turning. 

.\11 approach and departure tracks to and from the 
turntable should line across the table with the enginehouse 
tracks to ])ermit moving dead engines or carloads of sup- 
plies into or out of the enginehouse conveniently. Suf- 
ficient tangent on all turntable approach tracks should be 
provided to allow trucks to straighten out before passing 
onto turntable. 

There should be no facing jxiint switches in the out- 
hound tracks, but trailing spring switches can be used to 
advantage in the inboimd tracks. 

Regardless of the type of table selected (deck, through, 
or three-|)oint bearing), adequate drainage must Ix pro- 
vided, otherwise there is a possibility of the turntabl, Ix- 
coming frozen into the pit during severe weather. There 
.should Ix sufficient depth for snow and dirt to accumulate 
below the pedestal. 

.\t many terminals the capacity of the entire plant is 
fixed by the turntable capacity, and it is recommended 
that, in determining the number of turntables required at 
a terminal, four minutes be allowed jxr engine for turn- 
ing, inclutling the time running onto and off of the table, 
or fifteen engines (7'j disjiatched) turned every hour 
While this speed is, and must frequently !)«:, exceeded 
during certain periods, the average sjxed should not 
greatly excee<l this. 

Enginehouse 

The enginehouse should be twenty feet greater in dejHb 
than the longest engine to be housed, to allow working 
sjxice at each end. Where, however, several clas.ses of en- 



Apr:i. 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



101 



trincs are handled, different length sections to accommo- 
date each class will decrease first costs. As the efficiencs 
of the enginehoitse force will depend upon the lighting, 
heating and ventilation, these features should receive par- 
ticular attention. 

The numlier of enginehouse stalls required, and the 
numher of stalls j>er turntable, is dependent upon the 
class of repairs to be made and the time engines will be 
held in the house. This will require the study not onlv 
of the particular terminal, but also of the class of repairs 
made at other terminals to which the locomotives run, 
and consideration as to where the work can be done with 
the least detentiim to locomotives, the nimiber of assigned 
engines for which it is the home terminal, number of short 
turn engines, and other considerations. 

The equipment of the enginehouse for repair work will 
dejiend entirely upon the repairs to be made, but provi- 
sion should be made for dropping wheels, changing side 
rods, and other heavy work. Steam, air and water should 
l>e pijjed to every pit for use in repairing engines. IxDiler 
washing, and firing up. Motor driven fans for firing up 
engines are being used at some jxjints. 

Wash ro<:)ms. toilet and locker facilities for the engine- 
house force should be placed in that building, or closely 
adjacent, as should also the fan room of the hot-blast 
heating system if u.sed. 

Office and Dispatchers" Building 

.\dequate office facilities should be provided for the 
officer in charge of the terminal, and at a terminal han- 
dling seventy-five or more engines a day a separate build- 
ing should he constructed, in which the crew dispatchers 
also should have C|uarters. This building should be adja- 
cent to the enginehouse and so situated that the officer in 
charge mav see the entire terminal from his office win- 
dow, as should the crew dispatchers also. Rest room, 
locker and wash rooms for the engine crews, and if there 
is no Y. M. C. .\.. sleeping quarters for some engine 
crews may also be placed in this building. 

The storehouse should l)e centrally situated for serving 
both the enginehouse and shop, to reduce the time re- 
quired in obtaining material. Oil and other inflammable 
liquids should l)e kept below ground and pumped as re- 
quired. 

The size of this building will dei^end upon the kind of 
repair work done at the terminal, and the amount of stock 
to be kept on hand. This will involve a study not only of 
the class of rei)airs made at the other terminals to which 
the locomotives run. but also a study of the amount of 
stock carried at such terminals, and the time necessarv 
to obtain material from them or a central store point. 

The oil and lantem Iniilding. of fireproof construction. 

shr.uld be near the turntable where engine supplies can be 

' 'riined conveniently, and should U' separate from the 

-ral store building, to provide more convenient access 

I ngine crews and decrease fire hazard. 

The jxnver house shoidd l)e centrallv situated for siip- 
pl\ing steam and hot water to the various buildings with 
minimum loss by radiation. The size of the building will 
depend upon the equipment installed. Vjoilers. air com- 
i.r,v,(,rs. boiler washing equipmetit. generating equipment, 
switch lK»ard. 

he entire terminal should l)e lighted artificially, with 
••- so placed as to facilitate particularly cleaning fires, 
•ig coal, water and sand, and turning engines, without 
iiirowing a glaring liKht into the eyes of the engine run- 
ners, 

Rver\' office and buiUling should l)e connected by tele- 
ph<»ne with the engine dispatcher, who should also' have 
teU-phone crmnection with the yard office, towers and 
train flispatchers. .\ sufficient numlK-r of telephone Imes 



should be installed to prevent overloading and to permit 
quick communication with any other party. 

If the class of repairs to i>e made requires a shop, it 
should be at the rear of the enginehouse, and the tracks 
should pass through the enginehouse into it. This will 
allow engines to be dumped in the house and then pushed 
into the shop. The shop track should be double-ended if 
ixjssible. to permit the movement of engines without un- 
necessary switching. Toilet, washing and locker facilities 
should be provided at the shop for all employes. 

Depending upon the relative amount of light repair 
work, and determined from an actual performance record, 
a light ruiming repair shed near the enginehouse may be 
justified to permit handling light repairs outside the en- 
ginehouse. This building should have double end tracks, 
with pits its entire length. The building should he lighter, 
with natural and artificial light, and provided with steam 
and air. Such a building for tightening and testing will 
reserve the higher priced floor space in the enginehouse 
l)roper for heavy running repairs, and should be placed 
near both the enginehouse and shop, where parts are avail- 
able and supervision made easy. 

The boiler washing system should be in the power house, 
with tanks immediately adjacent, and piped to each engine- 
house pit. 

Fire h\drants. with hose houses and equipment, should 
be placed at strategic jxiints on the terminal so as to pro- 
vide at least two streams of water on any structure. Mains 
and hydrants should be located with due regard to future 
expansion of the terminal. It is recommended that pipe 
lines be built in loops so as to give even pressure at all 
pfjints. 

Conclusions 

I — In designing an engine terminal la\out, a thorough 
study of traffic and operating reciuirements of the terminal 
should be made jointly by the engineering, operating and 
mechanical departments. 

2 — .\ terminal should be designed, not only for present 
requirements, but also to permit future expansion. 

3 — Sufficient and properly laid out tracks should be 
providetl to allow the prompt receipt of all engines im- 
mediately upon arrival, and in advance of each facility, 
for standing locomotives which may have to wait their 
turn, so arranged to allow orderly and expeditious move- 
ment of engines between the terminal entrance and the 
house. 

4 — The required facilities should be placed in proper 
se(|Uence. 



The Ventilation and Heating of Engine 

Houses 

The following are recommendations for general practice 
in the ventilation and heating of enginehouses. They do 
not a])i)ly to houses which are etiuipped with mechanical 
systems for smoke removal consisting of special jacks, 
ducts, fans and stack. Such a system is not reconiniended 
for general use in connection with ventilation. 

Smoke Jacks 

-Smoke jacks should \k of the fixed tyi)e, at least 42 in. 
wide, and of such length (i)refer.-il)ly at least 12 ft.) as to 
receive the smoke from stack at its limiting jwsitions, due 
to the adjustment of the driving wheels to bring the side 
rods in proper ix>sition for repairs. The (xjsition of the 
jacks in the nnU should be established with the above 
condition in view and the elevation of lx>ttom of hood 
should Ik- IT) ft. 6 in. at ends and 15 ft. (> in. at sides abf>ve 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, \'Um 



top nl rail. rill- ana of lliu' i>i>ciiin^; >liiiiil<l Itc- at least 
seven s<|iiarc' fcit. An annular space two inches wide 
should Ix- providifi around the Hue. A locomotive enter- 
inj.; the house should he s|)otted with smoke stack under 
jack as <|uickly as consistent with sale handlinj^, and al- 
ways should he kept in such position while under tire. 

Sleani Hiowotr 

.\ i>ro])er system of pipinj; tor Mowing' olT steam from 
hoilers shoni<l lie installed in every enj,'ineh()nse. Where 
possihle the steam hlown o(T should Ik- used for hcatini,' 
purposes in comiection with a hoiler washins; system, hut 
in all cases dischari,'e should he made outside the limits 
of the enijinehouse. .-\ ventilator of standard desij^Mi and 
at least ei|t;htcen inches in diameter should he jilaced in 
the roof on the center of each stall and as nearly as pos- 
sihle over the center of steam dome of locomotive han- 
dled. This ventilator should have an extension if neces- 
sary so as to hrint; it ahove highest jiart of roof. If 
rejjular hlowolT pipinjj is temporarily out ,of service, 
arranL',ement should he made to l)lowotT throui,di portaI)le 
pil)e into this ventilator and the hlowinij off of locomotives 
without such ])rovision should he jjrohihited ahsolutely. 

These features will reduce the necessity for other venti- 
lation, hut, as with the hest of care in operation, some 
smoke and steam will escape, the follovvinL; ;ulditional 
recommendations are considered essential. 

Cross-Section of House 

.\s modern euLjinehouses have stalls .i;enenUly 100 feet 
1 r more in de])th, at least one hreak should he made in 
voof and. if desirahle, coniplete monitor may lie installed. 



Such hreaks or monitors should have pivotei! sash ir a 
comljinati<in of ].ivoted sash and li.sed louvres, deiiendini; 
U|Hin climate. 



knot framini.; should lie such that the rafters <lirectlv 
sujiportini; the sheathini,' or other roof >urface are in ! 
radial lines ami without pockets .so as to iiermit the free J 
pas.saije of smoke to eaves. .\t the hi};h eaves directly ] 
under roof sheathing, if climatic conditions will permit, a ; 
continuous openinji of four to .six inches should he pro- 
vided to iiermit the escape of smoke and steam, ]>articu- 
larly at hreaks and in mom'tors. 

I.artje win<l<iws should he provided in the outer walls 
with a ^enenius provision of ventilatinj^ sections. As , 
near a continuous row of these ventilatin}^ sash as prac- 
licahle shoulcl he ])rovided aloni,' the top of window. ' 

Heating 

The relation of the heatinii system to the ventilation of 
the entjinehouse is of course a]ii)arent. The provision of a 
hot hlast heatint^ system with su])])ly of air taken either 
from <iutside or inside of house as conditions may require 
and circulation hy means of undery^round <lucts with out- 
lets in i)its and alonj^ the outer wall just ahove Hoor level 
is recommended for ^.jeneral use. -^uch a system designed 
for frequent air changes will result in the rapid clearing 
of atmosijhere in house even under unfavorahle condi- 
tions. The use of this e(|ui])ment during the summer 
months will materially lower the temjierature in the house ' 
as well as clear the athmosphere in same. 



The Oil-Electric Locomotive Enters Manhattan Island 

By C. B. KEYES. Manager of Railway Department, General Electric Company 



l'"or a number of years railwav designing engineers 
have seen the desirability of the oil-electric tyjie of mo- 
tive ])ower, and some nine or ten years ago the (leneral 
I'-lectric Conii)any built a locomotive using an oil engine 
of its own design and manufacture. This locomotive wa.s 
]jlaced in service on the Jay Street Terminal Railroad 
in Xew York City in 1917. This was during the war 
])eriod. when conditions were such that they reacted 
against the success of this |)articular installatifin. In fact, 
very little interest was shown in the locomotive at that 
time. It was a start, however. I-ater, a locomotive was 
huilt in co-o])eration with the Ingersoll-Rand Company, 
and equii)i)e(I with a .^00-horsepower Ingersoll-Rand oil 
engine. In l'Ji.3, when this locomotive was ])laced in 
service on the West .Side tracks of the Xew York Cen- 
tral, operating between the .^0 Street yards and St. John's 
Park in .Manhattan, it created a great deal of interest 
among the railroads. 

Representatives of some roads traveled half way across 
the continent to see this locomotive in (i])cration. In fact, 
the time for demonstrating such a type of locomotive 
could not have been better, inasmuch as the railroads had 
ju.st alMjut succeeded in restoring their motive power to 
such a condition that they had time for the consideration 
of new develoimients, looking toward lower cost of opera- 
tion. 

Later in the year this demonstration locomotive was 
given a tryout in the yards of most of the railroads o]>er- 
ating in and around Xew York City. These operations 
demonstrated the reliabilitv as well as the efficiencv of 



the locomotive, which received most favorable considera- 
tion from not only oj^rating officials but engine men and 
train crews. 

.Meanwhile the state of Xew York, in 1923, enacted 
what is known as the Kaufman Act. This law, as amended 
in 1924, provides that no railroad or part thereof oj:)erat- 
ing within the limits of the City of Xew York or within 
the limits of an adjoining city shall on or after January 1, 
1926, u.se any motive jKiwer in its o])eration within these 
cities e.xcei)t electricity, to be generated, transmitted and 
used in .said ojjeration in a manner to he ajjproved by the 
jnibiic service commission. This act was very far-reach- 
ing and alTected a number of the railroads, some with 
major operations and others with only minor ojierations 
within the territory involved. 

To one not familiar with the handling of freight in 
Xew York, it will undoubtedly be surprising to learn 
the number of small freight yards and terminals scat- 
tered about the city. Some of these yards cover an area 
of only a block or two, each yard as a rule being served 
by a single locomotive. The majority of the yards are 
on the water front, and cars are brought to the yards on 
floats. The function of the locomotives is to take the 
cars to and from the floats and to spot them in the yards. 

.\t the time of the adoption of the Kaufman .Vet and 
for a considerable time thereafter, the general impression 
seemed to l)e that it was not intended that it should apply 
to the small yards just mentioned: but as the railroads 
came to a realization of their real status under the new 
law, they began to consider i>lans for some tyj^e of motivr 



April, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



103 



power that would replace their steam locomotives and 
comply with the act. In view of the fact that within the 
year practically all these roads had witnessed the dei, \on- 
stration of an oil-electric locomotive which met all their 
requirements as far as operation was concerned, and 
which operated at a lower cost than the steam locomotive, 
it is not at all surprising that they should have consid- 



planning to do so, and the location of their yards, are as 
follows : 

Baltimore & Uhio : One 60-ton locomotive, for 26th 
Street, Manhattan freight terminal. 

Lehigh N'alley: Two 60-ton locomotives, one for the 
27th Street, JNlanhattan, and one for the 149th Street, 
Bronx, terminals. 




Phantom View of Oil-Electric Switching Locomotive 



ered using this new type of motive power. Therefore, 
plans were filed with the public service commission on the 
basis of using this type of locomotive. When these plans 
were approved, orders were placed for locomotives and 
some of them are now in operation. The roads that are 
now using this type of motive power and those that are 




The Oil- Electric Has Replaced Steam Locomotives at the Following 

Locations: 
1— Lehigh Valley— East 149th Street, Bronx; 2— Lehigh Valley— 27th 
Street, Manhattan ; 3— Delaware. Lackawanna and Western — Harlem 
Transfer; 4 — Delaware, Lackawanna and Western- 25th Street, 
Brooklyn Terminal; 5— Central Railroad of New Jersey— Bronx 
Terminal; 6 Erie Railroad— 28th Street Terminal, Manhattan; 7— 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad— 26th Street, Manhattan; 8— Long 
Island Railroad- Manhattan Beach and Evergreen Branches 



Delaware, Lackawanna and Western ; Two 60-ton loco- 
motives, one for the Harlem transfer and one for the 
25th Street, Brooklyn, terminal. 

Central Railroad of New Jersey : One 60-ton locomo- 
tive for the Bron.x freight terminal. 

Erie Railroad : One 60-ton locomotive for 28th Street, 
Manhattan. 

Long Island Railroad: One 100-ton locomotive, for 
^lanhattan Beach and Evergreen Branch. 

In addition to the above freight terminal installations, 
the New York Central Railroad has ordered one 800- 
horseixjwer (approximately ISO-ton) passenger locomo- 
tive and one 750-horsepower (approximately 125-ton) 
freight locomotive to try out on the Putnam Division. 

Of the locomotives mentioned above, all l>ut two are 
e(|uipped with oil engines of Ligersoll-Rand manufacture. 
The 800-hor.sepower passenger locomotive and one of the 
Lehigh \ 'alley switching locomotives will be equipped 
with Mcintosh :ind Seymour engines. The electrical 
equipment of all of Ihe locomotives, including genera- 
tors, motors, control, etc., is of General Electric Manu- 
facture. The chassis, cab, etc., lU'c Imilt by the American 
Locomotive Comiirnn'. 



Pennsylvania to Extend Suburban Electrifi- 
cation 

The I'ennsvlvaiiia jdans early electrification of its lines 
between rhiladelphi-;. I'a . and Wilminglon, Del., and be- 
tween Philadelphia and West Chester, Pa., via Media. 
Work on this step in carrying out the program for the 
ultimate electrification of all suburban lines in the Phil;i- 
(lel])hia district will be started soon and is scheduled for 
comi)letion in 1027. It is estimated that the total cost 
will a])i)roximate $10,000,000 exclusive of new electrically 
(■(|\ii|)ped cars which will be required. 

b.lectrification of the lines to Wilmington and West 
Chester is an integral feature of the development of the 
new ]iassenger station project on the west bank of the 
Schuylkill river and the subwav extension and subway 
station for suburban traffic at Fifteenth street and the 
Parkway, I'hiladelphia. The total number of miles of line 
to be electrified will be about .^2 and the total miiiiber (jf 
miles of track will be about 150. 



Eight-Coupled Switching Locomotives for the 
Texas & Pacific Railway 

Filled "^'itli a I}(M>>U'r on ihc Teiuler for Heavy Hump Service 



One ui the nKi>t nutalilc Icatiircs ol lucdinoiivc devel- 
opment, (lurin.i: recent years, has been the improvement 
•n tlie design of switchinji locomotives, with a view of 
increasintj their capacity and efticiency. The present day 
heavy switclier is specially designed for the work to be 
done, and is equipped with the same fuel and lalwr sav- 
iiifj devices which have been used, with conspicuous suc- 
cess, in high-powered locomotives for road service. 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works has recently completed 



I in the engraving of the loniiitndinal sectidii of the cylin- 
der and steam chest. The valves are set with a nia.ximum 
travel of 8^ in., the steam lap is Z'/i in., the exliaust lap 
is "^ in., the lead is % in., and the steam distribution is 
controlled by the valve motion of the LSaker tyix-, oper- 
ated by a power reverse mechanism. 

The cylinders are of cast steel with outside exhaust 
passages, each cylinder being made in one piece, with a 
lialf saddle. The cylinder barrels are bushed with gun 




Eight-Wheel Switching Locomotive for the Texas & Pacific Railway Built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works 



ten such engines for the Texas \- Pacific Railway. The 
design was the joint work of the railway company's mo- 
tive power department and the builders, aiid was super- 
vised by -Mr. A. P. Prendergast, mechanical superintend- 
ent of the Texas & Pacific. The locomotives have 0-8-0 
wheel arrangement, and although not the heaviest of 
their t\]ie. are designetl to develop maximum power out- 
put within the weight limitations imposed. They are built 
to operate on curves as sharp as 32 degrees and grades 
U]) to 3 i>er cent, and develop a rated tractive force of 
54.500 ]X)unds. Two of the locomotives are equipped 
with boosters applied to the forward tender truck giving 
these engines a total maximum tractive force of 69,500 
pounds. 

.\n important feature of these locomotives is the limited 
maximum cut-ott with starting jxirts. The Pennsylvania 
Railroad has used this construction for a numlier of years 
in heavv road engines and more recently has incorf)orated 
it in the design of eight-wheel switchers. It has also been 
applied to road engines for the Texas & Pacific and other 
roads. 

In the Texas & Pacific switchers the cut-off is limited 
to 65 ixr cent of the stroke. As locomotives of this type 
operate a longer part of the time in full gear cut-ofT, it 
is evident that limiting the maximum cut-off must result 
in a verv high economy in the use of fuel and water. 
The starting; ])orts, which are an essential feature of the 
limited cut-otl. provide means for readil\- and (juickly 
starting the lix-omotive in either direction. Compensating 
ports are also provided in the head end of the valve bush- 
ing. The function of these ports is to lengthen slightly 
the cut-off on the head end of the cylinder, therely in- 
creasing the tractive effort without a corresponding de- 
crease in the minimum factor of adhesion. 

Plugs are provided in the side of the steam chest opix)- 
site the starting ports for cleaning purposes, and the ar- 
rangement oi the |iorts and starting slots A are as shown 



iron, liffective lubrication at all times is assured by the 
use of lx)th a hydrostatic and a mechanical lubricator. 

Machinery details include piston heads of rolled steel, 
with gun iron bull rings : piston rods of normalized car- 
bon vanadium steel; and crank pins and valve gear forg- 
ings. with the exxeption of the eccentric rods, of the same 




Longitudinal Section of Cylinders of Eight-Wheel Switching Loco- 
motive for the Texas & Pacific Ry. 

material. The main crank pins are hollow bored. The 
cross hands are of the alligator type, with chrome vana- 
dium steel keys ; and the guides and guide yoke are of 
most substantial construction, designed for severe service. 
The main rods are of the articulated type, distributing 



April. l'^2<> 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



the loail l^etwcen the crank pins of the third and fourth 
pairs of driving wheels. Floating bronze bushings are 
used on tlie intermediate side rod connections. The main 
and side rods are of normalized carbon vanadium steel. 
Heat treate<l steel is used for the driving axles, which are 
hollow bored. The play between rails and flanges is 
13/1'> in. on the front and back drivers, and 9/16 in. on 
the intermediate and main pairs. 

The frames are 5 inches wide, and special attention has 
been given to the transverse bracing in order to insure 
ample sirength and preserve alinement in severe service. 
Fillets of lil.«eral radius are used throughout, and each 
frame is ca.st in one piece with a single front rail of heavy 
section. The pedestal wedges are of the self-adjusting 
type. 

The btiiler has a straight top. and carries a working 
pressure of 250 [xjunds per sq. in. At present the loco- 
motives are equipi>ed for burning oil, but they are so de- 
signed that they can be readily modified to burn coal if 
desired. The Booth burner is applied, and the equip- 
ment is arranged in accordance with the railway com- 
panv"s standards. The firebox contains two thermic sy- 
phons. 

Lilx-ra! use is made of flexible bolts in the firebox 
staying. There is a complete installation in the throat, 
and alKiut 67 per cent of the bolts in the side water legs 
are flexible. In the back head, flexible bolts are used in 
the two outside rows and in the upper corners ; and flexi- 
ble crown br.lts are placed in the three transverse rows 
at the front rd the firebox, and in the three outside rows 
on each side of the top center line. 

The throttle valve is placed in the smokebox, and is 



for the engine crew. The saturated steam turret has con- 
nections for the injectors, fire extinguishers, cab steam 
heat, squirt hose, and power reverse ; while the super- 
heated steam turret supplies the air pump, blower, head- 
light dynamo, and all oil burning steam connections. 
This turret is supplied by an outside steam pipe, placed 
on the left side of the boiler, and properly designed to 
allow for expansion. 

The fire extinguisher, to which reference has been 
made, has two water inlets, one connected to the tank 
and the other to couple to a fire plug. Fifty feet of two- 
inch fire hose are provided. 

The cab fittings were located under the personal super- 
vision of Mr. R. W. Salisbury, mechanical engineer of the 
railway company, and the resulting arrangement is ex- 
ceedingly convenient. The cab is steam heated, equipped 
with Lima seats and with a clothes locker for the crew. 
The tools are carried in a combination tool and sand box 
placed in the front of the tender tank. 

A notable feature is the running boards, which are as 
straight, and placed as low down, as possible. This, in 
combination with a long, low tank gives the enginemen 
a clear view in both directions. 

The tender has a commonwealth cast steel frame, made 
in one piece. The oil and water tanks have capacity for 
3,000 and 9,500 gallons respectively, and in the event of 
changing to coal burning, 12 tons of coal can be carried 
in the fuel space. 

.Vs has been mentioned, the tenders of two of these 
locomotives are equipped with boosters furnished by the 
Franklin Railway Supply Company. The booster is 
mounted on the front truck, which is of rather unique 




otive for the Texas & Pacific By. 



connected with the dome by an internal dry pipe having 
a shiit-oflf valve at its rear end. With this arrangement, 
the sufjerheater is filled with steam at all times, and 
sujx-rheated steam can be used for the auxiliaries. The 
superheater i^ of type "A'' design, having 34 elements. 

The lx)iler accessories include two steam turrets, one 
for saturated and one for superheated .steam, which are 
both placed in front of the cab. All the valves have ex- 
tension handles, properly labeled and conveniently located 



design. It is made in one solid cast steel piece with a 
cross end piece to support the booster engine, similar to 
the familiar support of the booster on locomotive trailing 
trucks. A unique feature regarding the equalizing of this 
truck is that it is arranged so that a greater proportion of 
the load comes on the wheel that is directly driven by 
the booster, thereby relieving the side rods of all unnec- 
essary strain. The truck frame and equalizers arc illus- 
trated in F^igure 1. while Figure 2 .shows the complete 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVli ENGINEERING 



April, V)2(, 



truck witli tlic booster mounted thereon, and tlie line en- 
graving of the plan and side elevation gives a general 
idea of the tliniensions of the whole unit. This arrange- 
ment provides great accessibility for any attention that 
the booster engine may need. 

Referring to the line engraving the attachments, shown 
at the side of the cylinder are cylinders for the operation 
of the cylinder cocks. The support of the l)(H).stcr engine 
cvlinders is shown in section at 2. .\s the crank end of 




Fig. 2— Booster Truck of Eight-Wheel Switching Locomotive tor the Texas & Pacific Ry 

the engine rests directly u\Km tiie axle without any spring 
suiijxjrt similar to the motor of an electric car, while 
the cylinder end rests upon the end piece of the truck, 
which is spring supported, provision had to be made for 
variations in aliiiement between these two points of sup- 
port. This is accomplished by means of the spherical 
joint shown in section. This is located at the transverse 
center and the bearing proper consists of the two parts 3 
and 4. The lower convex portion 3 is regidly attached 
to the truck, while the upjx^r ]iart. 4. is fastened to the 
engine bed. The tvv(j are held together by the holt 5. 
The tension on this Ixilt is regulated by a helical spring 
so that it can yield as the upi>er portion of the spherical 
joint moves over the lower. With this arrangement the 
snring-su])])orted portion of the engine is free to move 
v.yi and down, and the axle-supported end can conform 
to the angular movement of the axle, relatively to the 
truck frame, due to irregularities in the truck, without 
putting ;iii\- slvcss uimn tlic connecting parts other than 



is 5 ft. 10 in. and the bolster center is set 3 ft. 1 in. from 
the driving wheel centers and J ft. 9 in. from that of the 
idle wheels. Jhen the nest of e<|ualiEer springs 7, is set 
with its center 2 ft. 2 in. from the idle wheels and 3 
ft. 8 in. from the driving wheels making the ratio of 
supports as 13 to 22. This load is ec|ualize(l over the 
(hiving axle by the equalizer 8, the outer arm of which 
is 23 in. long and the inner 15^ in. 

The truck is fitted with 36 in. wheels and the journals 
measure 9 in. x 12 in. These are 
ordinary surface bearings lubricated in 
the standard manner as is customary 
with tender trucks and shown by the 
grease cups at 6. The cellars are so 
arranged that by merely removing the 
l>edestal tie bars, they can l)e remove<l 
lor repacking. 

The side rods which are clearly 
.~hown are made of carbon vanadium 
>teel. The booster is piped to take su- 
perheated steam under the control of 
the main engine throttle, supplemented 
by the regular automatic bfwjster con- 
trol. The piping is shown clearly in 
the illustration. 
The booster exhaust is arranged so 
that it can be discharged either into the atmosphere or into 
the tender water tank. Thus it is possible to recover 
some of the beat units in the exhau>t >team of the 





ing Piping Arrangement for the Booster of the Eight-Wheel Switch 
Locomotive for the Texas & Pacific Ry. 



that required for the compression of the spring under 
the nut of the Ixilt 5. 

Reference has already been made to the unequal dis- 
tribution of the weight on the two axles. This is ac- 
counted for by the overhang of the engine cylinders by 
which the greater portion of its weight is carried on the 
spherical Ijearing 2. The greater portion of the weight 
of the tender frame and tank, bearing on the motor truck 
is carried bv the front or idle wheels. The wheel base 



Side View of the Booster Tender of the Switching Locomotive for 
the Texas & Pacific Ry. 

With the use of the booster, the maximum tract i 
ii'Tcc I if the locomotive alone, amounting to 54. .~' 
pounds, can be increased by 15. i' 
lionnds. This fits these locomoti' 
esijecially for hump yarrl service, or 
work where inclines are encounter 
and exceptionally high tractive forn- 
must be exerted for short periods of 
time. Under such conditions, the' 
boiler power is sufficient to furnish 
steam to both the main cylinders and the 
booster. 

This is the first apjilication of this 
type of tender booster and we hope to 
publish a report of its performance in 
a future issue. 

The accompanying table of dimen- 
sions gives further particulars of these 
locomotives. 

Cylinder diameter 22 in. 

Piston stroke 28 in. 

Diameter of boiler 78 in. 

Working pressure 250 lbs. 

Fuel Oil 

Firebox staying Radial 

length 102 1/16 in. 

width 7554 in. 

depth, front 75?^ in. 

depth, back 73'/2 in. 



April, 1926 



KAILWAV A.\0 LUCOMOTIVK ENGINI'EKING 



107 



Tubts diameter S^^ in. &. 2 in. 

number 199 

(superheater; 34 

length 15 ft. 

Hcatins; surface firebox 176 sq. ft. 

■■ ^ •■ tubes 2284 sq. ft 

thermic syphons 55 sq. ft. 

total 2515 sq. ft. 

superheater 574 sq. ft. 

Grate area 53.4 sq. ft. 

Driving wheels, diameter 51 in. 

Tender " " 36 in. 

Wheel bast, driving 15 ft. in. 

engine and tender 55 ft. 4J4 in. 

Weight in worknig order: 

Driving wheels 230,870 lbs. 

Engine and tender 428,000 lbs. 

Water tank capacitv 9,500 gals. 

Oil ■■ •• ■ 3,000 gals. 

Tractive effort 54,000 lbs. 

with booster 69,500 lbs. 



New Equipment Much More Efficient Than 
Old 

A total of 10.105 new locoinutives have been installed 
on the railroads during the past four years, and in the 
same peritid 10,962 were retired. Thus there was a net 
decrease of S57 in the number of units during the four- 
year period. 

These fact> are brought out in an analysis uf the rail- 
road equijiment situation just coinpleted by Dr. Julius H. 
Parnielee. Director, llureau of Railway Economics. Dr. 
Parmelee says in part : 

"This apparent decrease in motive power does not, 
however, tell the story, inasmuch as the new locomotives 
were of greater weight and far greater power than those 
retired. Tht- tinal result, in terms of aggregate tractive 
power, wa.'i a net increase from the beginning of 1922 to 
the end of 1925 amounting to 207,20.^,000 pounds, while 
the increase in average tractive pfjwer per locomotive was 
from 36.935 i«;.unds m 1922 to 40.625 pounds in 1925. In 
other woV(l~. although the number of units decreased, the 
amount of available tractive power increased. 

"The extent to which the addition of larger and more 
[Xjwerful locomotives has offset the retirement of older, 
smaller and less powerful tyjies. is well illustrated by 
reference to the figures of installations and retirements in 
1925. In that year a total of 3.005 locomotives were re- 
tired, while only 1,733 new units were installed. Yet the 
aggregate tractive power of the new units nearly equalled 
the aggregate power of the retireinents, due to the much 
greater average power of the new locomotives. The 3,005 
locomotives retired had an average ])ower of 32,394 
pf»und> each, or an aggregate of 97.344.562 pounds; the 
1,733 locomotives installed had an average power of 52,- 
798 pounds, or an aggregate of 91.499.557 pounds. 

"In the case of freight cars, a larger number weve in- 
stalled than retired during the four years ending with 
1925. .According to the table the net increase wan a])- 
proximately 43.000 cars. .\s was true of the motive power 
during the same periorl. this comparatively small net in- 
crease in freight car units by no means indicates the ex- 
tent to which the railways replaced smaller tyjx's of worn 
out and obsolete freight cars by larger types of modern 
and up-tf>-date cars. The net result ni the large program 
of car rfiircinent and re|)laccment carried out by the 
railways fluring the four years was an increase in aggre- 
gate freight car cajjacity of 6.986.fXX) tons, and an increase 
in average cajjacity per car from 42.5 tons to a|)i)roxi- 
mately 44.7 tons. 

"Here again, as in the case of the locomotives, the new- 
rars were of greater average capacity than those retired. 



The result was that the net increase in aggregate freight 
car capacity was relatively greater than the mcrease in 
units. In 1925, for e.xample, the 117,021 freight cars re- 
tired had an average capacity of 38.77 tons, or an aggre- 
gate of 4,537,287 tons ; the 125,760 cars installed had an 
average capacity of 47.37 tons, or an aggregate of 5,956,- 
930 tons. The net gain in car units durmg 1925 was 
only 8,739; the net gam in aggregate capacity was 1,419,- 
643 tons. 

"The number of passenger-train cars installed and re- 
tired during the past four years is also shown in the table. 
While the number installed exceeded the number retired 
liy a comparative!}- small margin, yet the newer units were 
generally of better and larger construction than the older 
ones retired. The totals tor the four years were 9,298 
cars installed, and 9,057 cars retired." 

The following table shows the equipment installed and 
retired b_\- the Class I roads from 1922 to 1925 inclusive : 

NUMBER OF UNITS INSTALLED 

Freight Passenger 

Locomotives train cars train cars 

1922 1,226 105,394 1,328 

1923 4,360 232,060 2,658 

1924 2,780 155,893 2,755 

1925 1,733 125,760 2,557 

Total— 4 years 10,105 619,107 9,298 

NUMBER OF UNITS RETIRED 

1922 1,682 126,471 1,286 

1923 3,746 213.789 2,360 

1924 2,529 118,441 2,293 

1925 3,005 117,021 3,118 

Total— 4 years 10,962 575,722 9,057 



Reclaiming Coke from Locomotive Ashes 

A [jlant for reclaiming coke from locomotive ashes is 
to i)e constructed by the P.oston & Maine Railroad at 
East Somerville, Mass.. adjacent to its enginehouse and 
shops. It is expected that the railroad will be able to 
obtain in this manner practically all the fuel required for 
station heating. Present station requirements aggregate 
approximately 30.000 tons a year. 

This project, so far as known the first of its kind by 
any railroad in this country, will recover from the loco- 
motive waste now dumped into ash heaps unburned coke 
which tests have shown to average from thirty-three to 
forty per cent of the a.sh. The Boston & Maine expects 
to recover approximately thirty per cent by the new 
process. 

This process is an adaptation of cnie used in the hard 
coal fields for separating impurities. It is based on the 
comparative specific gravity, and by means of water 
flotation the coke is segregated and the cinder residue 
precipitated. 

The now ]ilant will cover an area ai>pro\imateIv 30 x 100 
ft. It will cost about $.50,000 and will handle 2.000 tons 
of ashes weekly, from which ajjproximately 600 tons of 
coke are ex])ected to be reclaimed. It has been found that 
a considerable quantity of combustible coke is taken from 
fire boxes in the cleaning of locomotives after each trip, 
and this mibiu'ned material is e\])ected to make ii|) a large 
])arl of t!ie new ])ro(luct. 

The cinders to be handled by the new plant will be 
largely those dumped from locomotives in Boston en.ginc- 
houscs and shops, but if the results warrant, the re- 
clamation process may be extended to ajiplv to the ashes 
from locomotives elsewhere on the system. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, V)2iy 



RHl^veEiKineeriiK 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, 
Rolling Stock and Appliances 



Published Monthly by 

ANGUS SINCLAIR COMPANY 

136 Liberty Street, New York 

Chicago Office: 168 North Michigan Avenue 

Telephone Rector 0746. Cable Address "Locong," N. Y. 



Harry A. Kenney. Prest. and Man. Ed. G«o. L. Fowler, Associate Editor. 

W. E. SjmoQS, Associate Editor. J. Snowden Bell, Associate Elditor. 

Tbomas P. Kenney, Secretary. 



LONDON REPRESENTATIVE 
PuUisbing Company, Ltd., 3 Ainen Corner, Paternoster Row, 
London, £. C England. 



SUBSCRIPTION PRICE 

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Please give prompt notice when your paper fails to reach you 
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Enetred as second-class matter January IS, 1902, at the post 
office at New York. New York, under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



The Utilization of Motor Cars 

It is an old sayiiis;j that the man out of a dilemma 
alway.s knows what the man in it ciught to do. .Vnd as 
a corollary to this it is evidently unsafe to criticize any- 
man"s actions until all of the conditions with which he is 
surroiuided are known. 

It is, therefore, with a full recognition of the possi- 
bilities of a mistaken judgment that a criticism is offered 
on the failure of railroad companies to take and to have 
taken full advantage of the facilities offered by the direct- 
driven and gas-electric cars that are upon Ihe market and 
of which the description of a notable example is pub- 
lished in another colunui. 

There are, it is well kno^v^l, very many of these cars 
in service throughout the country and in some instances 
the whole of the passenger service on some rather long 
lines is handled exclusively by these cars. The wonder- 
ment is that there are not more of them and that they 
have not been used to forestall and prevent the construc- 
tion of competing electric railroads and the establishment 
of paralleling bus lines. 

To illustrate the point by a concrete case, there is in 
one of the mid-western states a railroad, operated as an 
auxiliary of one of the main trunk lines, having a length 
of about two hundred miles. At each end there is a large 
city, and scattered along its line there are other minor 
cities having large manufacturing interests. It is a single 
track line having a light passenger and freight traffic, over 
which four passenger trains are operated each way daily. 
As one of these trains is a night train covering the dis- 
tance between late night and early morning, it offers no 



convenience for local tratilic, leaving but three trains to 
handle that trafHc. 

.\s an example of the competition three (xiints will be 
taken. A, li and C. A is a large city and one of the 
terminals. B and C are large manufacturing centers. It 
is alxjut sixty miles from A to 15 and aUiut .seventy from 
li to C . .\ and U are served by tliree railmad.s whose 
trains, number eighteen in all each way daily, afford such 
a choice and such service that a competing electric line has 
never been built, though the motor-bus is thriving on the 
local traffic, lint tnjni I! to I' the single track line with 
Its three tlaily trains is all the convenience that the >teani 
road offers. The result is the ex])ectcd one. .\n electric 
line has been built paralleling the steam road, giving good 
hourly service in high grade fast running cars that are 
operated for most of the time to capacity. It runs, to be 
sure, on the i)ublic highway for a good \>an of the dis- 
tance, but so close to the steam railroad, that the latter 
could have atTorded every facility and convenience of the 
electric njad, had it seen fit to put on the motor car, and 
the investment in a full equipment to have given an hourly 
service would have cost but little more than the rolling 
stock eiiuipmeiu of the electric road an<l wjuld have 
saved all of the o\erhead cost of the roadway aufl electrical 
equii^ment. The reason why it was not done is probably 
to be found in the inertia of a Ujard of directors six 
hundred miles away coupled to their ignorance of local 
conditions, while the competing electric road owes its 
existence to the drive of men on the s])ot who were fully 
cognizant of the local possibilities and took advantage of 
the sleepy indifference f)f the railroad officials to develop 
a traffic that tliose same officials did not dream existed 
but which they might have controlled. 

On the other hand such a forestalling ur meeting of 
competition may be prevented by traffic conditions that 
do not admit of intercalating a frequent motor car service 
in between freight trains, but when the importance of the 
iraftic that it is jxjssibie to develoji is considered it would 
seem worth while to bend every effort to ?iich a modi- 
fication of conditions as to be able to accommodate this 
intercallation. 

There are hundreds of cases similar to the one cited, 
where cheaply operated motor cars could be used to 
forestall or meet competition. .\nd it would not always 
be necessary to install such a high grade car as that 
seventy-three-font car de luxe of the Boston & Maine. 

In Railw.w & Loco -MOTIVE I-Ingi.neicrino for December, 
1924, a cheap train in use on one of the Chilean railroads 
was described. This consisted of a Ford car fitted with 
llanged wheels for track work and hauling a small trailer. 
It is hardly probable that the whole outfit would cost more 
than four or five thousand dollars in this country, and it 
could be made as comfortable and convenient as the 
average electric car and would .serve an admirable purpose 
in retaining traffic for the railroads that will otherwise 
pass to a motor bus or a paralleling electric line. 

There is a sort of glamor attached to a nrotor-bus trip 
that makes the passenger fancy, at first, that he is travel- 
ing in some semblance to a private automobile, but for 
a long run the fatigue incurred in the bus so greatly 
exceeds that in a car on rails, that the latter would soon 
come into its own if it afforded the same facilities as to 
frequency of operation. 

-\s already acknowledged, adverse criticism of this sort 
is a hazardous pastime, but it does seem that with their 
invested capital in a roadway already built, that it is the 
fault of the lack of foresight of the railways themselves 
if, by the use of suitable motor cars, .giving a service that 
is demanded, they do not hold and develop for them- 
selves all of the traffic that a territory is capable of 
sustaininsT. 



April, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



Industrial Wars and Their Costs 

Elsewhere in this issue will lie tound some rather 
interesting figures on strikes and their cost to the parties 
at interest, particularly those who had to do with or may 
have been anv wav interested in the shopmen's strike of 
July 1. 192-'.' 

The tabulation in the article in ((uestion shows the 
repair costs per engine per year and the cost per mile run 
in 1921. the year jirior to the strike and 1924 the second 
year thereafter. \\'hile this is not only interesting and 
in a measure reflects the various elements of facilities, 
resourcefulness, mana.gerial ability, etc., lirought into play 
in getting back to normalcy, yet through the omission of 
the figures for 1923, when the cost of the strike was fairly 
reflected in the maximum expenditures and bringing up 
arrears in repairs, the full measure of what was actually 
accomplished is not as clearlv brought out as it might and 
should be. 

The following tabulation when studied in connection 
with the one on page 111 will bring out this point. 



are so closely interwoven with their own, thai it would 
seem almost impossible for another such calamity to occur 
where the parties at interest are willing to listen to reason. 
These displays abound with lessons in finance, civic 
jiride, efticiency and economv. 

Railway Accidents Show Decrease 

L'asualties resulting from train and train service acci- 
dents on the railroads of the United States in the eleven 
months ending November, 1925, show a decrease of 641 
as compared with the first eleven months of 1924. 

( )ne of the outstanding features of this performance, 
as shown in reports ci implied In- the Bureau of Statistics 
I if the Interstate Commerce Commission, was the steady 
improvement in the safety of passenger service. 

I'assenger casualties for the first eleven months of 1925 
showed a decrease of 517 as compared with the corre- 
s]}onding period of the preceding vear. Passenger 
casualities jjer one million locomotive miles decreased 
from i.27 in 1924 to 2.90 in 1925. 



Number locimiotives, average tractive power, mileage 

made and cost to repair. 

Average Average Repairs In cents 

Mileage Number Tractive miles all per ena. per mile 

RO.-\DS (.1923) Operated Locos. Power Service in Serv. in Serv. 

Boston & Maine 2,287 1,121 28,892 23,047 $9,671 42 

Bangor & Aroostook 616 89 26,410 21,814 4 280 19 6 

Maine Central 1,208 235 31,463 28,390 6,266 22 1 

Central Vermont 468 109 33,203 28,719 6,649 23 2 

A. C. L 4,866 939 29,466 27,661 6,125 22 1 

S. A. L 3,572 600 35,779 30,621 7,039 23.0 

Southern 6,971 1,738 39,312 27,642 7.il(\ 26 5 

Central of Georgia 1,921 334 .36,894 31,166 6,807 218 

Illinois Central 6,226 1,901 38,944 32,209 8,545 26 5 

Cotton Belt 1,777 291 ,33,488 23,085 7,912 34.3 

M. K. & T 3,203 590 39,887 21,784 10,202 46 8 

Texas & Pacific 1,953 331 .^,457 23,767 10,249 43 1 

Southern Pacific 7,138 1,750 38,350 33,818 9 007 '6 6 

Northern Pacific 6,669 1,407 37,943 21,716 5.160 23 8 

Great Northern 8.251 1,419 40,682 23,233 5,678 24 4 

St. Paul 10,990 2,162 36,358 26,132 6,824 26 1 

B. & 5.304 2,593 45,584 28,623 9,770 34 1 

Lackawanna 953 762 34,331 27,667 11,240 40 6 

Burlington 9,406 1,963 36,090 27,624 7,871 28 5 

Chicago & N. \V 8,463 2,115 34,360 25,617 6,915 27.0 

Total and Averages 96.382 22,449 35,595 26,717 7,677 29.1 

Tabulated display cost of repairs per unit in service, in dollars per year and cents per mile on twenty (20) railways tor the year 

1923. which reflects the aftermath or results of bringing up arrears in repairs following the shop men's strike of Julv 1st, 1922. 



It will be observed that the lowest cost ]5er unit in 1923 
was $4,280 and 19.6 cents per mile nm, wdiile the highest 
was $11,240 and 46.<S cents per mile. The average for the 
20 lines, gcograi)hically distributed over the United States 
is $7,677 ix;r unit and 29.1 cents \)tv nfilc run. 

I''ive hundred million dollars is a pretty big price to pay 
for a lesson in econcjmy and reason and it is to be hoped 
that another such condition may not again occiu". 

The wonderful jjrospcrity and liigh prices which pre- 
vailed during the war i)criod resulted in what might be 
termed financial intoxication. Tmlividuals, corporations 
and societies and trade associations, particularly that class 
of per.sons or organizations that had almost suddenly been 
lifted u]) into an innisual or abnormally high atmosi>hcre 
r)f finance and luxury, from which height or temporary 
IKjsition all sane, sober, fair minded ]jcrsons knew there 
must be an orderly or disorderly recession as made neces- 
sary by the changed conditions. 

Niany thousanrls of worthy citizens whose individual 
losses contributed to the estiinated sum of $140,000,000 
will be more caulirais in future to avoid an unwise ulti- 
matum, so expensive and disastrous alike to themselves 
and their employers, whose interest in the last analysis 



.\ decrease of 1,543 train accidents in the eleven-month 
period last year as ciim]5ared with the preceding year was 
also shown in the ix|nirt. This reflects the more careful 
management of trains as well as the increased efficiency 
of railroad maintenance work. 

Liberal cx]5cnditures for maintenance work and con- 
tinuous installation of new e(|uipment and facilities, are 
an important part of the ceaseless effort of railway man- 
agement to operate trains with the greatest jiossible safety 
to jjassengers and employes. 

Under train accidents are classed those resulting from 
collisions, derailments, locomotive boiler and other loco- 
mntive accidents. Train service accidents include accidents 
from cou])lingor uncou])ling trains, oi)erating locomotives, 
hand brakes and switches, getting cm and oit loc(jmotives, 
accidents at highway crossings, etc. The total number of 
casualties resulting from thesi? two classes of accidents 
amounled to 48.855 for the first eleven nioiuhs of 1925 
as against 49,496 for the corresponding period of 1924. 

Highway grade crossing accidents increased from 4, .599 
in the fir.st eleven months of 1924 to 4,794 for the same 
jK-riod of 1925. Total casualties at highway grade cross- 
ings amounted to 7.646 in 1925, a decrease of 135. 



KAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, V>2u 



Practically all acciileiit!- at highway grade crossings are 
automobile accidents. While steady progress is being 
made in the reiliictiun of such accidents, constant care on 
the part of autojiioltile drivers can substantially reduce 
this tyiH! of haz.inl. 



Tilt' Uil-Electric Locomotive 

Steam railroad officials throughout the coimtry are 
showing increasing interest in the future of modem rail- 
roading in Anu-rica in so far as it may be influenced by 
the development of the oil-electric locomotive. They have 
advanced this Ix-lief in 500 significant letters written 
during the last few weeks to the American Locomotive. 
Cjencral Electric and Ingersoll-Rand companies, combmed 
producers of this type of locomotive. Out of these 500 
letters written to the three companies by steam railroad 
heads, superintendents, chief engineers and master 
mechanics, a great majority expressed an active interest 
in the exploits of the oil-electric as a potent, future force 
in American railroading. Some went so far as to say 
that they looked to the day, when the oil-electric, because 
of its economy in cost of ojieralion. would be the prevail- 
ing type of railroad motive [wwer. 

The frank comments of the steam railroad executives 
and officials, the letters disclose, were made after ob- 
servations carried on for some months as to the essential 
efficiency and lower operating costs. As many phrased it, 
this new motive power promises a solution to transporta- 
tion's most ])ressing i>roblem — economv. 

Many of the railroad executives wrote that they were 
watching the demonstrations of the oil-electric locomotive, 
during its eighteen months' .service on American railroads, 
with the idea of installing this new motive power in trial 
tests upon their own systems. Others calculated the 
possibilities of the oil-electric locomotive when it is per- 
fected beyond the 750 horse-iX)wer type now being built, 
to a 3.000 to 6,000 horse-ixiwer capacity. 

In the letters the steam railroad men emjihasized the 
advantages of the oil-electric as follows : 

1. — The ada]>taljility of the oil-electric to every phase 
of railroading, from the work of the switch engine to that 
of the freight and passenger locomotive, without change 
of equipment. This eliminates the expensive introduction 
of overhead trolleys or third rails. 

2. — Its low cost of operation through the use of chea]> 
fuel oil, as compared with the cost of coal as fuel, an esti- 
mated saving of 75 per cent. 

3. — Further curtailment in operating time and costs 
through the ability of the oil-electric to start quickly and 
to accelerate on steep grades. 

4. — Still further economy in time and expense, through 
the oil-electric's ability to run long distances without re- 
fueling. The fact that the oil-electric can make a trans- 
continental run without stoi>ping to re-fuel is instanced 
as an appreciable time saver. 

5.— Saving in fuel when the locomotive is not in use, 
the oil-electric requiring no banking of fires. 

6. — Elimination of round-houses and repair shops 
throughout the railroad systems. 

7. — Elimination of water towers and water tank cars, 
made possible through the use of onlv a small supply of 
water needed to cool the oil-electric engine. 

8. — \'astly improved visibility afforded the engineer, 
since there are no obstructions ahead of tlic locomotive 
cab. 

9. — By means of its simple control process — there are 
only two control levers in the oil-electric — the engineer is 
able to devote himself more freely to watching the road 
ahead, thus reducing the liabilitv of accidents. 



10. — Elimination of ash-luajjs and c«jal dumps, with 
the economy of time and expense involved in their hand- 
ling. The total maintenance cost of the oil-electric will 
result in a 50 ])cr cent saving over that of the steam loco- 
Uiotive. The annual maintenance cost of the oil-electric 
is under $3,00t). 

11. — Elimination of tenders. 

The oil-electric locomotive is now in use on four East- 
ern railroad systems, while five other Eastern and Mid- 
Western roads are awaiting their delivery. 



Centennial of Mohawk and Hudson Railroad 

On Ai)ril 17, 1S26, the Legislature of the State of \ew 
^'ork granted a charter to the Mohawk and Hudson Rail- 
road. ( )n Ai>ril 17, 1*'26. the New York-Central Lines 
will celebrate the hundredth anniversary of the cliartering 
of this old railroad, now an essential part of its main line. 

The celebration will begin on the seventeen miles of 
railroad between .Albany and Schenectady, N. V., over 
which on August 9, 1831, the De Witt Clinton locomotive 
hauled its first train. 

The \ew York Central Lmcs have invited a notable 
assembly of railroad executives, public officials and prom- 
inent citizens, lironze tablets will be placed on the walls 
of the depots at Albany and Schenectady. Headed by the 
old De \Vitt Clinton locomotive and the stage coach cars 
which it pulled, a special train will proceed from Albany 
to Schenectady with a pageant of the various types of loco- 
tives from the De Wilt Clinton on. 

Returning to New York City, the commemoration will 
conclude with a banquet at the Hotel Waldorf-Astoria, at 
which the attendance will be 1,000. Hon. Chauncey M. 
Depew. Oiairman of the Board of Directors of the New 
York Central Lines, will preside. P. E. Crowley, Presi- 
dent of the Xew York Central Lines, Governor Smith, 
Mayor Walker and other important men will deliver 
addresses. The speeches will he broadcast beginning at 
9:30 p. m., through Station "W'lZ" and affiliated stations. 

The Mohawk and Hudson Railroad started steam oj^er- 
ation in 1831 with an American-built locomotive and has 
remained a steam railroad continuously from its opening 
tri|>. Many other early railroads began ojseration or 
e.xjxiriment with steam power, but were compelled, at least 
occasionally, to revert to horses or mules ; but the De Witt 
Llinton ran consistently until supplanted by other and 
better locomotives. 

The original train attained a speed as high as thirty 
miles an hour on the level, and in its early trials negotiated 
the seventeen miles from Albany to Schenectady in thirty- 
eight minutes. 

Ry 1843 — twelve years after the opening of service be- 
tween Albany and Schenectady — nine other small rail- 
roads were built, covering the .gaps between Schenectady 
and Buffalo. It took twenty-five hours to make the jour- 
ney and required nine changes of cars. In 1853 the first 
Xew York Central Railroad Company came into existence 
through the consolidation of these ten railroads into one 
continuous property under a single management. Subse- 
(juently, by consolidating with the Hudson River Railroad, 
running south from .Albany to New- A'ork City, the New 
York Central and Hudson River Railroad was brought into 
being. This in turn, through the acquisition of connec- 
tions to Giicago and St. Louis, Isecame the New York 
Central Lines of today, with 12,000 miles of main line 
and an investment of about $2,000,000,000, and its em- 
ployes numbering upward of 160.000. The system to- 
day has less than 5 per cent of the total railroad mileage 
of the L^nited States, less than 10 per cent of total number 
of employes but moves about 1 1 per cent of the total traffic 



Do We Profit from the Lessons of Industrial ^ ars 



Bv W. E. SYMONS 



\\ hen we speak of industrial war, more commonly 
called strikes, we scale down their costs usually to a few 
thousand dollars and a few human lives. There are, of 
course, exceptions in which the cost of a strike may run 
into millions of dollars and the sacrifice of quite a few 
lives. 

Dei)l(>ral)le as all these conflicts may be they usually 
leave in their wake certain conditions that operate to the 
benefit of those most activel\' interested or atTected by the 
•conflict, and it therefore follows that regardless of the 
real merits of the points involved in controversy that 
certain ''Blessings come in Disguise,'" in the wake or path 
of conflict. 

Shop Mens Strike of 1922 

^\'hen the railroad shopmen threatened a general strike 
in 1922 many predicted it would be a fizzle, but to the 



a matter of fact the strike continued on many roads 
throughout 1922 and 1923. and with few exceptions the 
carriers were forced to expend during 1923 and well into 
1924 millions of dollars in bringing up arrears in repairs 
due to the strike, all of which is chargeable to the account. 
What might be considered a fair estimate of the prin- 
cipal factors follows : 

Number of men out in U. S 264.000 

Loss to men in wages alone, approximatelv $140,000,000 
Loss to railways estimated '. $360,000,000 



$500,000,000 



This does not embrace certain losses to shipjiers and 
individuals who sustained actual or jxrtential losses which 
are impossible to estimate in dollars and cents. 

Aside from the direct expense to tlie railways in main- 



i.i ii. 3la:i 


ryscr 


oof 


Bostor 
1. al 


ar.l 


Central 


Vermont 


I sine ten 


ral 


: i'H i 


1521 


1S24 


1921 


1924 


1921 


1924 


1921 


192 4 


IT'jrber of er.clres 
ATer. Ccs\ of Repairs 
Avsr. ccEl cer t,E j^r rile 
Aver. tor.E rer 'rain 
Cost. r*r l.CCO tor. riles 


95 
4,748 
23.6^ 
322 
2.18 


39 
fE,C39 

24.2!/ 

361 
51,E68 


1,1C2 
86,300 

29.9/ 

456 
51,994 


1,072 
$6 , 507 

32.2/ 

436 
■:i,72B 


99 

r.6,703 

29.1/ 

347 

i)2,273 


1C9 

?4,301 

18.7/ 

446 
H,324 


233 
$5,269 
21.4/ 

37 5 
f.2,252 


235 

J5,088 

19. P/ 

4CC 
"1,5?S 


sociPij.-'.-m. 


AtUrtlc 

Line 


CcBSt 


Centra 


la 


Seaboart 
Line 


Air 


Southern Railway 




1921 


1924 


1921 


192 4 


1921 


1924 


1921 


1924 


l.urbtr or tr i ires 
Aver. cost, of nyi-lTS 
kitr. cc^Ft certs per rile 
Aver, tors per train 
Cost iv-.r l.OCC ton rrlles 


toi 

6,418 

429 
,1,362 


939 
i.6,200 
23. 1(^ 

J07 
J1,C13 


316 
55,394 

20.6^ 

47 4 
31,267 


334 
55,575 

18.6/ 

499 
$.957 


577 
1^5,173 
20.5/ 

430 
i;l,672 


600 
56,766 
22.0/ 

496 
1.1,327 


1,819 
{15.088 

23.5/ 

461 

$1,677 


1,7JS 
J6,511 

25.5/ 

503 

51,313 


sour«:»^iSRi. 


IlUrois 


Central 


V. K. li 


T. S.S. 


Cotton E 


elt 


Texas 4 Pa 


Iflc 


hunbtr of er-t^lres 
ATer. cost of re; M rs 
Aver, cost cents ner rile 
Aver, tors F*r train 
Cost per i.OCC ton riles 


1,736 

57,203 

26(^ 

715 

f.901 


1,901 
j7,C16 

24.6;^ 
7 47 
$.775 


714 

33,155 

35.5/ 

S30 

$1,228 


590 
56,435 
27.9/ 

670 
51,200 


280 

r,4,160 

19.6/ 

532 

?l,r75 


291 

$5,382 

25.8/ 

579 

f.924 


369 

$8,879 

36.2/ 

468 

$1,390 


731 

P7,571 

3C.2/ 

653 

51,094 


hOKiF'."t2.Ti:Ri. 




Great Nc 


r.them 


1-orlbern 


Pacific 


SoutHerr, P 


clfic 


hur-ier of ergi-'es 
Aver, cost of rspeirs 
Aver, cost certs ie r rile 
Aver . tor s pe r • ra Ir 
Co»t per l.CCC ton riles 


2,117 
£7, 192 

.•".l.S;^ 

674 

tl,348 


2, 162 
56,163 

25.8/ 
680 
$.957 


1,428 
$4,233 

22.2/ 

701 

$1,304 


1,419 
54,505 

21.3/ 
393 
$.978 


1,408 
S3, 669 

19.6/ 
708 
f.P02 


1,4C7 
{.4,232 

21.1/ 

765 

?1,C24 


1,490 
$8,623 

29.0/ 

629 

$1,596 


1,750 
$.-7,533 

25.2/ 

706 

$1,197 


Cil.TSAL 


:. 3. i. 


^. R.R. 


c. & :;.■ 


. HY. 


B. 4: C 


R.R. 


D. L. k .V. 


R.S. 


^^.^bt■r of tr-tlres 
Aver, cost of repairs 
Aver, coft certs per rile 
Aver, tors j^r train 
Cos'. r«r l.CCC ton crlles 


2,C 16 
-e,C60 

24. V 

717 

Vl,C17 


1,963 
$6,709 

26.3/ 
746 
S.947 


2,035 
>6,340 

^7.1/ 

47 9 

61,290 


2,115 
55,875 

2V7/ 

—522 

$1,025 


2,500 
*7,532 

32.5/ 

763 

51.260 


2,593 
$7,446 

28.7/ 

833 

$1,026 


755 
$6,817 
25.0/ 

765 
$1,362 


7 62 
$6,053 
29.5/ 

773 
SI. 217 



Tabulation Showing Selected Items of Cost on Twenty 



(20) Different Railways. 
Strike of 1922 



One Year Before and Two Years After the Shopr 



surpri.se of those who so prophesied, it was not only called 
but was 90 per cent effective. Many railway officers who 
were sure of their ability to hold practically all of their 
forces, except ix)ssibly a few '"transients," suddenly found 
themselves without shop forces and in a short time the 
eflfect of this condition l^egan to manifest itself in the 
deterioration of power an'l lowering of the standard of 
service. 

What Did It Cost 

Xarioir-- estimates have Ix-en made as to the cost of the 
strike to all ]>arties at interest, Init most of them are wide 
of the mark in that they are much too low, l>eing based 
as a rule on preliminary figures cast up in the fall of 1922, 
which included only rejmrted losses ui) to that period. .As 



taining equipment under such adverse conditions of de- 
ficient forces at exorbitant rates of pay. this unusual ex- 
])ense automatically extended over ([uite a period of time 
follr)wing the actual cessation of hostilities. 

The result of such an expensive experience, although 
it brought more than one coniixiny close to the shadows 
of financial embarrassment, was not. in the final analysis, 
without its valuable lessons as the records of certain items 
of cos't before and after the strike of the shopmen will 
eloquently testify. 

In order to derive profit from this expensive experience, 
attention is invited to the tabulation above of the 
princi])al direct items of cost involved on twenty railways, 
so distributed in the selection as to be geographically 
re])resentative of the entire country, as follows : 



211 



KA1L\\.^^ AND LOCOMOTlVli liNGINEEKING 



A(.ril. I'C : 



(a) New iMi^laiul District 4 railways 

(b) South Kastcrii District 4 railways 

(c) Southwestern District 4 railways 

(d) Northwestern District 4 railways 

(e) Lcntral District 4 railways 

These 20 railways with a mileage (if alnjut *>6.000 miles, 

it will i)e niited are very evenly tlistrihuled over the 
L'nited States. A sHuly of the custs nf Incninutive main- 
tenance lx)th in the averai<e amount ])er en^;ine per year 
and in the cost per kxMuiotive mile run in cents, serve 
as a y^ood index and lueasure of the resourcefulness of the 
officers of certain railways to ])rofit hy their experience 
and get back to normalcy. Some have liot only gotten 
l>ack liut are actually below the 1921 or jire-strike costs, 
which is indicative of that high degree of managerial 
ability which results in economy and efhcieiicy in opera- 
tion. 

The costs for 1*'23. which were abnormallv high, have 
l)een purjxjsely omitted from this table, hut it is proper 
to state that the average cost per engine on some lines 
ran as high and even above $11. OCX), while the cost per 
mile run on many lines was as high as 46 cents per mile. 
It therefore follows that those who have gotten back to 
1921 figures have accomplished much more than this 
tabulation actually shows. 

I'roni the foregoing, including a study of the table, it 
nuist be clear that some are leading the van in efficiency 
and economy, while others are not only following but are 
a little too far in the rear, all things considered. 

In the New I-lngland section it is wiirthv of note that 



Ixjth the Maine Central and Central N'ermont iiave a lower 
average cost jK-r engine jjer year and in cents per mile run 
than in 1921, while the .same is also reHicted in the much 
lowered costs ]>er 1,U0(J ton miles moved. In the South- 
eastern gniui), it would apjK-ar that the .\tlantii: I oast 
Line and (."eiUral of Georgia had done nuich better than 
others, although the Southern Railway succeeded in 
lowering the costs jkt l.OCX) ton miles of freight. In the 
.■southwestern .section all lines made a gofid .sho\\ii)g in 
the costs per 1,CXX) ton miles of freight moved, while all 
but one line made wonderful strides in reducerl costs per 
engine and rejxiirs per mile run. The Nortii western 
.section in many ways .show better results than the last 
mentioned one: the .St. I'aul and (ircat Xorthern in par- 
ticular, while the other two lines have done s(>lendjdly, 
if we consider all factors. In the Central District, it is 
interesting to note that most all the units are very low 
in 1924 considering the crmditions of each and that the 
costs ])er l.OUO ton miles of freight uiove<l shows a marked 
reduction over 1921. Many interesting an<l valuable 
lessons may be drawn from a study of these figures, 
])articulai ly by one who may have l>een brought in touch 
with the actual situation itself. It is jHjssible for the 
careful observer to see wherein the success of one line 
lies in comi^arison with another. In some cases, although 
a road may show a lesser degree of efficiency in operation 
than another, when all contributing factors are considered, 
it should be leading instead of following the procession. 
\\'ar certainly has its lessons from which we >hould all 
profit. 



Electromotive Locomotives and Motor Cars 

By W. B. POTTER. Engineer of the Railway Deparlment. General Electric Company 



The history of dcvelopiuents in motive power and 
methods of conducting transportation has been well 
covered in the recent addresses of Mr. Samuel M. 
N'auclain before the ]^Iid-^^'est Power Conference, which 
was published in the February, 1926, issue of R.mlw.w 
.\Ni} Locomotive Excineering. 

The European engineers are showing commendable 
activity but seem to be di\-iding their efforts among a 
great variety of schemes. We are probably making more 
real progress in this country by devoting our efforts 
principally to the one general scheme which gives greatest 
promise of success. It is but comparatively few years 
since steam and horses were our main reliance. Electric 
railways, as we know them today, have been in existence 
Init little over thirty-five years, and gasoline automobiles 
a little more than twenty-five years. The great and rapid 
.ncrease in the number of electric railways and automobiles 
would not have taken place if they had not better served 
the puri)ose than other methods of trans])ortation. 

The horse could not successfully coiupete with these 
innovations either at hauling cars or on the road. Even 
the steam locomotive is losing some of its prestige, grant- 
ing to railway electrification and motor trucks and busses 
the service for which it is not so well adapted, or where 
the requirements are beyond its capacity. 

The electric street railways in their turn are now finding 
the motor bus to be a competitor more advantageous for 
certain kinds of service. The electric motor and the in- 
ternal combustion engine have each in their way been the 
principal contributing factors toward the many changes 
which have taken place. Even so. we still have horses 
and steam locomotives — no one expects to see them en- 

• An address before the Western Railway Cluh. Chicago. 111. 



lirely replaced. The horse is on the decline, while the 
steam locomotive is still courageously and very success- 
fully striving tti make the grade. 

The union of the internal combustion engine with the 
electric traction motor is now seeking recognition. This 
combination is rapidly becoming more prominent in the 
field of transportation, and it has already shown that it 
can serve some classes of transportation better than either 
the engine or electric motor would be able to do inde- 
])endently. This motive power equipment as a whole 
might very properly be designated under the name of 
"electromotive" in the same general sense as the title of 
this evening's subject. 

Through years of development the internal combustion 
engine has been brought to a degree of perfection where 
the reliability of its performance need be no longer in 
question. It requires but little auxiliary equipment and 
is very efficient in fuel consumption, even in engines of 
small size. Engines of this type, whether for ga.soline 
or oil, have heretofore been designed principally for sta- 
tionary, marine and automotive road service. Owing : 
limitations in weight and space when installed on a kn.' 
motive or rail car, and for the powers required, there are 
few engines designed for other purposes that are really 
applicable to rail service. The best results will be ob- 
tained by building engines for this particular purpose. 

To utilize an internal combustion engine to the bc>t 
advantage for transportation purposes, with its require- 
ment of widely varying torque and speed, it is necessary 
to provide some means of changing the torque ratio be- 
tween the engine shaft and the driving wheels. .\s the 
torque of this tj'pe of engine has definite limits, the 
engine would have to be of very large size unless some 



April. 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



means is provided for augmenting the torque. For this 
reason some method of changeable gear reduction is in 
almost universal use. The mechanical transmission, with 
its ditterent gear ratios, is very successful as used in the 
automobile, with which we are all familiar. It is doubtful 
whether mechanical transmission will ever be successful, 
however, abo\e certain limits as to horsepower and weight 
to be moved. (Jne hundred and lifty horsepower with a 
weight of twenty-five tons would appear to be about the 
upper limit, though some will doubtless disagree with 
this limitation. 

As a substitute for mechanical transmission fluid drives 
have been developed in which a pump driven by the engine 
is provided with means for var>ing the stroke and so 
transmitting the power at variable pressure through a 
fluid motor. In theory it meets the requirements for 
smoothly providing for a wide range in torque and speed. 
In performance the fluid drive does not yet appear to be 
free from the problems of dealing with fluid at high 
pressure and temjierature through the mechanism and 
pipe connections. 

Compressed air drive with the engine driving an air 
compressor and the exhaust used to preheat the air and 
.so operate a reciprocating air engine, has lieen tried and 
is still receiving consideration. With a large reservoir 
this would maintain a good load on the engine, but either 
as to efficiency or mechanism it is doubtful whether this 
method will prove altogether satisfactory. 

Various schemes have been proposed for combining an 
oil engine with a boiler and steam engine. This with the 
object of obtaining higher efficiency and the additional 
torque for starting. While such a combination is attractive 
in theory, it involves so much complexity of equipment 
that it is not promising for general service. 

In theory, as well as in practice, the success of electric 
drive has been thoroughly demonstrated by long e.xperi- 
cnce with electric apparatus in transportation, and it is 
well attested by the success of gas electric cars having 
200 h.p. engines which have been in successful operation 
for some fifteen years. 

Briefly described, the electromotive equipment consists 
of an engine driving a direct current generator which 
supplies current to motors of the usual type common to 
electric railways. Electric reversing and series parallel 
switches provide for directional movement and customary 
motor combinations. \'ariation in the speed and torque 
of the driving wheels is smoothly accomplished through- 
out the entire range of simply varying the voltage of the 
generator. This may l)e done by manual control of the 
generator excitation or may be obtained automatically by 
designing the generator with a drooping characteristic so 
that the resulting voltage will vary inversely with the 
current demand. P.y the manual method an electric con- 
troller has to l)e manipulated as well as the throttle of the 
engine. By the automatic method the control is entirely 
by means of the engine throttle. .\ combination of the 
manual and automatic control is used where it is desired 
to utilize the engine power over a wide range of locomo- 
tive or car speed. 

The space on a locomotive or motor car is so limited 
and the supporting floor or frame foundation is subjected 
to so much movement that it will be ])referable in many 
cases, and i)articularly where the engine pcjwer is large. 
to install two or more engines, rather than one of larger 
size. This dual equipment has a further advantage in 
tliat it provides for running one or both engines as would 
l>e permissible in a variable service, and by so doing main- 
tain a better load factor and lower consumption of fuel 
and lubricating oil. Only a few seconds are required to 
start the engine so there is no appreciable delay when 
the second engine is required. The electrical connections 



are such that the engines will divide their load in pro- 
. portion to the fuel supply, regardless of the engine adjust- 
ment. Where it is desired to operate two locomotives 
or motor cars together as a unit for increased power, a 
control can be readily provided which will accomplish 
this in a manner similar to the multiple unit operation of 
electric cars. 

The success of the oil electric locomotive has been 
well demonstrated by the performance of these locomo- 
tives in regular railway service. The Central of New 
Jersey, Baltimore & Ohio and Lehigh Vallev railroads 
each have a 60-ton locomotive driven by a 300 h.p. Inger- 
soll-Rand engine, handling switching service in their 
yards on the water front in Xew York. The Long Island 
Railroad is operating a 100-ton locomotive driven with 
a dual equipment of two 300 h.p. Ingersoll-Rand engines. 
which is engaged in switching service in their vards 
adjacent to Brooklyn. 

There are now under construction several more similar 
oil electric locomotives intended primarily for switching 
service, two of which will be sent to Chicago. The oH 
electric locomotives in operation have an excellent record, 
although they have not been entirely free from such 
minor troubles, both mechanical and electrical, as mio-ht 
be expected in any new development. 

Two oil electric locomotives for road service hav» been 
purchased by the Xew York Central, one having a 750 h.p. 
Ing;ersoll-Rand engine, the other an 800 h.p" Mcintosh 
I vv: Seymour engine. In addition to furnishing the elec- 
trical and mechanical equipment for the al)ove,"]5lans have 
been drawn by the American Locomotive and General 
Electric Companies for a 1,500 h.p. locomotive, having 
two 750 h.p. Ingersoll-Rand engines, located beside each 
other within the same cab. The Baldwin Locomotive 
Works, as you know, has already built an oil electric 
locomotive equipped with 1,000 h.p. engine and West- 
inghouse electrical apparatus. 

It appears to be the opinion of those who are operating 
oil electric locomotives that they will handle switching 
movements better than steam locomotives of equal weight 
on drivers, one reason for this being the even torque of 
the electric motor which permits a higher coeflicient of 
adhesion than is obtained with a steam switcher. It 
might well be questioned whether a 300 h.p. oil electric 
will do the work of a steam switching locomotive capable 
of delivering 800 h.p. or more. The answer is in the 
small horse power actually required for switching. The 
tractive eft'ort is high, but the speed is low. The larger 
lowered steam switchers could maintain tractive effort at 
iiigher speed than the oil electric, but where this higher 
s])eed serves no purpose, the higher maximum tractixe 
eft'ort of the oil electric gives it an advantage. 

The relative fuel consumption of oil electric and steam 
locomotives can perhaps liest he given by comparing the 
gallons of oil with the tons of coal for a given service. 
The comparative records in switching indicate that 
twenty to twenty-five gallons of oil are equivalent to a 
ton of coal. With oil at five cents a gallon, the cost of 
fuel on this basis would balance at $1.0(3 to $1.25 per ton 
for coal. In main line service where the oil engine would 
-how higher fuel economy because of the better load 
faclcjr, the steam locomotive would also show consider- 
ably better performance in coal consumption. .\ rough 
estimate for main line service might be taken as 35 to 
40 gallons of oil as equivalent to a ton of coal. On this 
a>suminion. the cost of oil would balance at $1.75 to 
$2.(XJ per ton of coal. 

The fuel economy obtainable with an oil engine may be 
illustrated by the ])erformance of the 300 h.p. IngersoU- 
i\and engine. The fuel consumi>tion of this engine is 



114 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVIi ENGINEERING 



April, IVio 



;;iven a.s wiiliin .4,5 lli. nt oil pi-r hraku horsepower at 
full load. Includiii};; the peiierator losses, this means the 
ilelivery of a kilowatt hour electrical output for aliout 
12.000 B.t.u. Those of you familiar with power practice 
will appreciate that this would he a high mark for the 
most modern steam power station. 

As the oil cnjjine docs not o|)eratc continuously under 
full speed load, it is of more interest to know what is the 
fuel economy in service. During several weeks switching 
operation of a 60-ton locomotive with this engine under 
variable load which averaged about 15% load factor, the 
electrical output was 6.3 kw.-hr. per gallon of fuel, or 
about J 1.500 B.t.u. per kilowatt-hour. As the average 
duty on the engine during this service was less than 
50 h.p.. it is a good illustration of the excellent perform- 
ance of an oil engine under widely varying load. 

The oil engine and the electrical equipment being com- 
posed of relatively small ])arts, easy to handle, and there 
l)eing no boiler to overhaul, the maintenance of an oil 
electric will undoubtedly be less than that of a steam loco- 
motive. One-half the maintenance of steam would seem 
to be a reasonable assumption. 

The work of overhauling being less than on a steam 
locomotive, and considering the ease with which incidental 
repairs can be made, it seems reasonable to assume that 
the oil electric locomotive will be available for service at 
least 75% of the time. This is a higher availability than 
for steam and somewhat less than for electric locomotives. 

In main line service there is no reason so far as the 
motive power is concerned why the run of an oil electric 
locomotive should be from terminal to terminal without 
regard to the mileage. The recent trans-continental trip 
of the Canadian National oil electric car is an example of 
what mav be done though it is not likely that so long a 
run will very soon become accepted practice. 

.\lthough ga.soline engines, as well as oil engines, have 
been used on locomotives, it is probable that the oil 
engine will be more generally used with the larger horse- 
powers required for locomotive service where the fuel 
cost becomes an appreciable item. The gas electric loco- 
motive with its lower investment is well adapted to handle 
light service where the power requirement is small and the 
fuel expense unimportant. 

The number of independent motor cars in rail service 
is rapidh- increasing and may soon become a part of the 
transportation equipment on nearly every railroad. There 
are reported to he at present about five hundred gasoline 
motor cars distributed among one hundred and eighty-five 
railways. Included in this number are about one hundred 
and fifteen cars with gas electric drive in operation on 
thirty-one railways. The other four hundred are mostly 
smaller cars with mechanical transmission. The larger 
gas electric cars have been so successful that they may be 
accepted as a well established equipment for passenger 
transportation. For reasons previously mentioned, the 
electric drive has proven to be the most satisfactory and 
particularly so with the additional duty of frequently 
hauling trail cars. 

Thegas electric car is not a new venture into the field 
of transportation as some sixty or more cars of this tyjie 
furnished by the General Electric Company have been 
in regular service during the past twelve to fifteen years. 
Many of these cars have covered more than 60.000 miles 
annually. Two old G. E. gas electric cars on the Rock 
Island have just been given their first general overhaui. 
both having run over 490.000 miles. The electrical equip- 
ment required practically no attention, major repairs be- 
ing on mechanical parts and engine. A gas electric car 
recently furnished by the Electro-Motive Company is 
doing better than 400 miles a day. The operating expense 
of gas electric cars is usually given as 35 cents to 40 cents 



a car mile, including a reasonable amount of depreciation. 
It might be thought that this operating cost would ma- 
terially increase as the cars continued in service, but the 
record of gas electric cars that have been miming for 
twelve years or more is still within this cost per car mile. 
There are seven oil electric cars with Meardmore engines 
now in operation on the Canadian National Railways 
and one that is being equipjied with an f)il engine by 
Mcintosh & Seymour for the New York Central. 

The ])rincii)al advantage in favor of an oil engine is 
the lower fuel cost, but on the other hand this type of 
engine has so far been considerably more ex])ensive, and 
with the same degree of reliability will presumably be 
heavier than the gasoline engine. (Jil engines can be 
built which compare in weight with the gasoline engine, 
but this is generally obtained by the use of alloy steels 
and a refinement of the design which materially increases 
the cost. The efficiency of the gasoline engine, while very 
good, is not equal t<3 that of the oil engine, and roughly, 
for corresponding work, the quantity of fuel will be from 
50% to 75%. more with gasoline. At a ratio of three to 
one for the price per gallon of gasoline as compared with 
oil the relative cost of power would be about five to one 
in favor of oil. The oil engine is undergoing a develop- 
ment which may ultimately make it well .suited to rail 
cars, and even road vehicles, but the trend is more likely 
to be towards using a cheaper grade of fuel in the gasoline 
type of engine. The use of this cheaper fuel would reduce 
the cost of power to something less than the before men- 
"tioned ratio of five to one. 

So many of the railways are interested in highway 
transportation that just a word as to electric drive for 
busses will not be out of place. One might well ask why 
use electric drive for a service which is being so generally 
and well handled with mechanical transmission. Some 
of the reasons may be briefly covered by mentioning 
better schedule speed in frequent stop service, less numlier 
of engine revolutions to cover a given mileage, less 
mechanical strain on the engine and driving mechanism, 
and more important — a smoother acceleration, greater 
comfort for passengers and greater safety by reason of 
better control of the bus. 

As evidence of progress in the art of railroad trans- 
]X)rtation. we have at least a greater mimber of methods 
from which to make a selection. We now have steam 
locomotives, complete electrification and electrification in 
the form of electromotive locomotives and cars. While 
for each type there is service for which it is most suitable. 
it is not easy to make a decision unless it is clearly indi- 
cated by the conditions. Railroad men are naturally dis- 
posed to favor the steam locomotive and with very good 
reason. On the other hand, the advocates of other 
methods of conducting transportation sometimes fail to 
appreciate the railroad man's point of view. It must be 
admitted by everyone that the steam locomotive is no 
longer the only means for moving a train and that we 
may expect it will be gradually and in part replaced bv 
other power equipment more suitable for some particular 
service. This may take place liecause of conditions un- 
favorable to steam operation, but in many instances it 
will be because of earning a better return on the invest- 
ment. 

Conii)letc electrification will reduce the number of loco- 
motives refjuired. provide a more powerful motive power, 
decrease the cost of motive power maintenance and elimi- 
nate the many incidental facilities required by steam 
power. .Against these and many other advantages there 
is an initial investment so large that it must be fully justi- 
field. It is not always easy to finance a big undertaking or 
to convince those who provide the funds. Where it can be 
shown conclusively that the expenditure is warranted there 



April, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



should be no hesitation about complete electrification. 

Unit electrification with electromotive locomotives and 
motor cars is really a form of electrification with many of 
its attractive features. It has the advantage of calling for 
small initial investment and it is not limited as to location, 
neither does it require any overhead structure and wires. 
It is not expected to accomplish all that can be done with 
complete electrification, but it nevertheless has a large 
field of usefulness. 

The oil electric locomotives now in operation were de- 
signed primarily for switching service, but there is no 
doubt that more powerful locomotives will be equally suc- 
cessful for main line traftic. In any class of service where 
coal is expensive, smoke an objection, or water difficult to 
obtain, the use of oil electric locomotives undoubtedly will 
be extended. 

The substitution of gas electric cars for light passen- 
ger traffic will appreciably reduce the cost of handling 
such service by steam locomotives. The difference in 
operating cost and the stimulus to travel by giving a 
cleaner and better class of service will bring in a larger 
net return to the railroad and may even change the balance 
sheet from a deficit into attractive profit. 

"What effect the general use of electromotive equip- 



ments will have upon steam railroad electrification," is a 
question frequently asked. The effect is more likely to be 
favorable than otherwise. It will have no particular in- 
fluence where complete electrification is a necessarv or 
obviously the proper procedure. It may appear to delay 
some prospective electrification where there is a preference 
for electromotive power for the initial equipment. Should 
the conditions really be favorable to complete electrifica- 
tion, it is more likely that it will be undertaken by this 
proceeding, than that the entire expenditure would be 
incurred without experience with other than steam opera- 
tion. The introduction of electromotive locomotives and 
cars will certainly acquaint the railroads with electric trac- 
tion equipment. Favorable experience with this class of 
electrical apparatus will do more to educate railroad men 
in what can be done by electrification than all the talk and 
publications which can be presented. Whenever more 
power is wanted the power companies stand ready to sup- 
ply the need for complete electrification — the power de- 
livered through an overhead wire will then serve in the 
place of the electromotive power plant. The reputation of 
the electric motor for traction purposes will have already 
been established among the railroads and the way made 
easier for its more general use. 



2-10-2 Type Locomotives for the Central of Georgia Ry. 

The marked increase in traffic which lias recently of the Mikado (2-8-2) type and were placed in service 

taken place on the railroads of the South is taxing exist- early in 1925. A comparison of their principal dimensions 

ing facilities severely and necessitating the use of the with those of the new 2-10-2 type locomotives, is as 

heaviest motive power permitted by track and bridge con- follows : 

ditions. The Central of George is no exception in this This represents an increase in tractive force of 3.^ ])cr 




Santa Fe Type Locomotive of the Central of Georgia Railway Built by The Baldwin Locomotive Works 



respect : and is steadily improving its property with a 
view of maintaining the high standard of service for which 
this roafi is noted. 

The latest addition to the motive power equipment is a 
group of ten locomotives of the 2-10-2 type, recently com- 
pleted by The Baldwin Locomotive Works. These loco- 
motives exert a tractive force of 73,830 pounds and are 
designed to traverse curves of 18 degrees; and many of 
their principal dimensions accord with those of the heavy 
standard 2-10-2 type locomotives built for the United 
States Railroad Administration. In the design of the de- 



cent, with approximately equivalent increases in weight, 
heating surface, and grate area. 

The 2-10-2 type lias a conical boiler, 100 inches in 
diameter at the largest course. The fire-box has a 5-foot 
combustion chamber, and it contains two thermic syphons 
and three arch tuljes. A Duplex stoker is applied. 

These locomotives have lateral motion bo.xes on the 
front pair of drivers, and plain lires on the middle (main) 
])air. The leading truck is of the constant resistance type, 
while a Delta trailing truck is used in combination with 
the Commonwealth rear frame cradle. The main frames 













Water 


Super- 


Weight 


Weight 








Drivers 


Steam 


Grate 


hcatine; 


heating 


on 


total 


Tractive 


Type 


Cylinders 


diam. 


pressure 


area 


surface 


surface 


Drivers 


Engine 


force 


2-8-2 


27"x30" 


63" 


185 


70.5 


4,094 


90S 


226,760 


298,090 


.SJ .^00 


2-10-2 


30"x32" 


63" 


190 


88.3 


5,233 


1,285 


309,220 


401,480 


73,830 



tails, liowcver, the new locomotives show many differences. 
The heaviest locomotives previously built for the Cen- 
tral of Georgia by The Baldwin Locomotive Works were 



arc (i iiu-hes wide witli dmililc fi'onl rails, the lup rails 
being iKilted and ki'ycd to tlie main si'ctions. .Special 
altcnlion has been given to providing ample stip|)orl for 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



A|.ril, 192'S 



the Iwiler barrel on the frames. The waist sluft and guide 
bearer T-irons are not attached to the boiler, but l)ear 
ayainst external liners which arc riveted to the shell. 

The piston heads are of roiled steel with pun iron bull 
and jiackin^' rinps. and the piston rods are of carlx)n 
\anadiuin steel. The latter material is also used for the 
main crank pins and tiie main and side rods. The back 
ends of the main rods, and the side rod stubs on the main 
pins, are fitted wilii floating bushings. A force feed lubri- 
cator, with six feeds, is ap])lied. and is operated from one 
of the link trunnions. One feed runs to each cylinder and 
steam chest, one to the two du])lex air-pum|)s and one to 
the stoker engine. 

The valve gear is of the Walschaerts type controlled by 
a power reverse mechanism. On one locomotive the 
eccentric cranks are set to give a variable lead, amounting 
to 1 16-inch in full gear forward. j4-inch in mid gear 
and 7 16-inch in full gear backward. On the remaining 
locomotives, the motion is designed to give a constant lead 
of 3/16-inch. 

These locomotives are equipped with flange oilers on 
the first and second pairs of driving wheels, and also with 
pipes for washing sand from the rails back of the rear 
drivers. 

The tenders have Commonwealth cast steel frames, 
and water Iwltom tanks of 12.000 gallons capacity. The 
coal capacity is 16 tons. 

Further particulars are given in the table of dimensions. 

Tvpe 2-10-2 

Gauge 4 ft. S'A in. 

Cylinders (4) 30 x 32 

Valves, piston diam 15 in. 

Bi.ilcr: 

Type Conical 

Diannftcr 88 in. 

Working pressure 190 lb. 

Fuel Soft Coal 

Fireliox : 

Material Steel 

Staving Radial 

Length 132'^ in. 

\\"idlh 96% in. 

Depth, front 94j4 in. 

Depth, back 70J4 in. 

Tube? : 

Diameter S'A in.— 2% m. 

Number 50—271 

Length 20 ft. 6 in. 

Heating Surface : 

Firebox 268 sq. ft. 

Combustion chamber 121 sq. ft. 

Tubes 4.729 sq. ft. 

Firebrick tubes 27 sq. ft. 

Thermic svphons 88 sq. ft. 

Total . . . .' 5.233 sq. ft. 

Superheater 1.285 sq. ft. 

Grate area 88.3 sq. ft. 

Driving Wheel > : 

Diameter, outside 63 in. 

Diameter, center 56 in. 

Journals, main 12'/. in. by 13 in. 

Journals, others 10 in by 13 in. 

Knaine Truck Wheels: 

Diameter, front 33 in. 

Journals *>' i in. by 12 in. 

Diameter, back 44 in. 

Journals 9 in. by 14 in. 

Wheel Base: 

Drivins 22 ft. 4 in. 

Rigid ' 22 ft. 4 in. 

Total engine 42 ft. 6 in. 

Total engine and tender 82 ft. 5 in. 

Weight in Working Order : 

On driving wheels 309.220 lb. 

On truck, front 30.270 lb. 

On truck, back 61.990 lb. 

Total engine 401.480 lb. 

Total engine and tender 609.500 lb. 



Tender : 

VV^hecIs, number .... 8 in. 

Wheels, diameter 3J ii- 

Journals 6 in. by 11 i 

Tank Capacilv : 

Water ....'. 12.000 U. S. gai. 

fuel 16 ton 

Tractive forc£- 73.830 lb. 

Service I-rcight 



Snap Shots 
By THE VI ANDEHKK 

A good man\- years ago, when car decorations were of 
the rather flamboyant type and before they had assumed 
the subdued tone that we now consider good taste, some- 
one described the interior of a Pullman sleeping car as 
being a gingerbread example of barbaric splendor. But 
such things are mostly of the past, especially the cheap 
examples. However, profuseness will sometimes burst 
upon us. 

There is an old Latin proverb to the effect that there 
can be no dispute about a matter of taste. .\nd as what 
follows is mostly as to taste with a slight touch of the 
economic added, it should be read, if read at all. with 
that as an understanding. 

I went into the dining car of a somewhat widely adver- 
tised train de luxe the other evening and thought, at first, 
that I had dropped back into the period of gingerbread 
barbarism. There seemed to be a mixture of white and 
black and silver, staring and swearing at each other. But 
upon closer survey and a reference to the menu I found 
that I was in a car where the clerestory and the side walls 
were formed along the lines of a colonial architecture ; 
that the electric lights of the monitor were held in silver 
sunbursts and that the chairs were modeled after some 
of the old colonial designs. Then there was a sideboard 
modeled on the Sheraton lines and all supposed to be very 
magnificent. But somehow the colonial architecture did 
not seem to lend itself very well to the side walls of a 
car. and the elaborate sideboard seemed rather out of 
keeping with the place it occupied, so that the api)earance 
of the whole was not particularly pleasing to my eye. 
nor did it seem appropriate. 

But it had one great merit that must appeal to ti 
nouveau riche. It was all very expensive. The total co>i 
of the car, I was told, was $38,000.00 and the chairs alone 
cost $110.00 apiece, while the silver sunbursts that held 
the overhead lamps, were of a special design that would 
not be duplicated and cost $120.00 each. ^Vhat the imita- 
tion Sheraton sideboard cost. I did not ask for fear of 
being quite overcome by the magnificence with which I 
was surrounded. 

That was all very fine, but — and that BUT should be 
printed in capital letters — when I asked how much the 
dining car service cost the road, in other words, what 
the road was losing on the service. I was told that it 
amounted to about $1,000.00 a day. Perhaps that might 
please the nou:cau riche also, if it did not appear to be 
a particularly attractive item to the stockholders. If we 
take the cost of an avera.ge dining car at $28.(XX) 00 \\ 
have an overhead addition of the interest on $v%.OOO.i 
to be charged against this car. or about $1,800.00 a year. 
I wonder if it "was the expectation of the management 
to add $1,800.00 to the net revenues of a single car by 
this attempt at a splendor that, in the opinion of some 
passengers at least, was not achieved. 

The riding of the car was no easier, the food was no 
better, and the expensive chairs were no more comfortable 
than that of less pretentious cars of plain interior and 
of no special period. In fact the portions served in the 
table d'hote dinner were so small that one man of moder- 



April. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



ate apprtitc. at least, would have left the car hungry had 
he ncit added a supplement from the a la carte menu. 

Would not the car and the menu and the luxury lead 
me tij prtfer that route to any other ? When the car 
steward asked me that question, I told him "No.'' 

Am 1 alone, or are there some or many others like me ^ 

I doubt if the dining car service attracts any business 
to the railroad. It may, I don't know. But in all of my 
somewhat extensive e.xperience. I have }et to hear any 
man say that he traveled by any particular route becau.-e 
of its dining car service. Comparisons? Yes and a 
plentv. .Some services are much better than others, but 
not enough to act as a drawing card. And this. I take it. 
because must people avoid patronizing the dining car as 
far as ptissible. 

So reverting back to the car in question. It was an 
interesting example of — I was about to say. "freak" — 
car designing, and some may consider it beautiful, but as 
a business proposition, I hardly think that even those who 
ordered and designed it. would consider it a good one. 



to stop it, seems to be one of those things that the fellah 
on the outside can't evah find out. 

And the difficulty of finding out is not lessened by the 
construction of cars with a seemingly reckless disregard 
of cost, in the face of colossal losses. I might as well 
give it up, but the subject is so attractive that I can give 
no guarantee that I will not be drawn back to it again. 



It has alwa\s seemed strange to me that when a present 
justice of the Supreme Court came out with the rather 
spectacular statement, a few years ago. to the efifect that. 
by proper management, the railroads could save $1,000.- 

000 a day. and when amid the storm of protest and ridicule 
it aroused, he did not reply to the repeated questions of 
"How." ]>v saving: "Well you can make a good start 
towards it bv cutting out your unprofitable dining car 
service." 

When road after road reports a deficit running from 
$.SO(AOOC> to close to $1,000,000 a year, it does seem, to 
use a popular phrase, "something ought to be done aliout 
it." But whi' will liell the cat? 

.\ contributor to a popular magazine recently wrote, 
in regard to the costumes of men: "Ave we permitted 
even in the direst of dog days to take off our suffocating. 
sweat-box coats and go about sensibly in spotless sport 
shirts and belted tennis trousers? 

".\nswer is. thunderingly and disgustedly, No!" 

To paraphrase : 

".\re we permitted even in the direst stress of financial 
embarrassment to take off. from the menu, the multiplicity 
of useless luxuries and go about serving simple, well- 
cooked and wholesome meals? 

".\ns\ver is thunderingly and horrifiedly. No!" 

If we ask. why? We are told that the other fellow 
won't do it. just as he won't go in his shirt sleeves. And 
yet there is an almost unanimity of opinion among the 
dining car -te wards that if such a course were to be 
adopted, the service might be put on a paying basis. As 
one of them said to me: 

"If I were to serve such a dinner as you describe (I 
had told him of the .simple and satisfactory menu of a 
first -class country hotel). I could greatly reduce my crew. 

1 nr>w carry three cooks and eight waiters. I could dis- 
pense with two cooks and four waiters because such a 
meal cnuld be much more expeditiously serve<l." 

W'lD that would mean six mouths to feed and six men 
av instead of twelve. Something to start on. anyway. 

■ if course there wfiuld l>e a howl and a cry. but would 
it be any wor-e than it is now? Well cooked food would 
at least cure the chronic complaints of under done meats 
and uni)alatable vegetables. .\nd the stewards assure me 
that th< y think -uch a service would be quite as satisfac- 
torv as the present f>ne. 

Lord Dundreary once remarked that, "there are some 
things no fellah evah can find out." and why the railroads, 
with the almost ruinous dining car deficits staring them 
in the face vear after year, cannot come to an agreement 



Drawing rooms at outlying points are not very common, 
yet the master mechanic or shop foreman has frequent 
occasion to make or have a drawing made. I saw a little 
drawing room the other day that for coziness and con- 
venience beat amthing I ever ran across. When there is 
a big shop and a corps of draughtsmen the drawing room 
is usually all that can be desired, but when a drawing 
board is set up at outhing points, for occasional use or 
where one man can do the work he is usually tucked 
away anywhere and left like the employes at Tellson's, to 
grow old ; and that anywhere is not apt to be the best 
lighted place in the world. However, that is neither here 
nor there. This, my model drawing room, was an old 
steamboat pilot house with windows all around it, with 
curtains for toning down the glare. It was set up on the 
roof and was the coolest place about the premises in 
summer and as cosy a place to work in as you ever saw. 

I don't suppose that many of my readers have old pilot- 
houses in their back yards or that they can be found 
lying around in the cinder pits, but an old cab will run 
them a close second, and one of these can be utilized. 
Therefore, when you have decided that there is any draw- 
ing to be done, don't wait until you hire a regular 
draughtsman, for you will probabl}" do some yourself 
first, but just appropriate an old cab or build a cupola on 
a roof and use it exclusively for a drawing room for it 
will be light and clean if you have a mind to keep it so. 
But, don't think that you can get any satisfaction out of 
a dark corner of a roundhouse cubbv hole. 



Test Draft Gears for Greater Safety 

With a view to further increasing public safety and 
comfort while traveling and reducing loss and damage 
both to freight shipments and to railway equipment, a 
thorough study of draft gears used on both freight and 
])assenger cars is to be made by the .\merican Railwav 
.\ssociation to determine what improvements can be made 
in the types already in use on the railroads of this coun- 
try. 

The .\ssociatio'n has authorized an appropriation for the 
purpose of building a s]>eciall\- constructed machine for 
testing draft gears in order to ascertain their absorption 
of recr>il and endurance. From the information obtained, 
the .Association plans to i)rei>are suitable specifications 
under which the railroads may purchase draft gears that 
arc kncivvii to meet the prescribed standards of efficiency. 

Novel Testinjr Maehiiie 

The luachine for testing draft gears, which is now Ix-ing 
constructed, will be the largest that lias ever lx;en used 
for the purpose. A novel feature of the machine will be 
two falling weights, the larger one weighing 27,CKXJ 
pounds and the smaller one 0.000 ixninds, the latter being 
the weight most frequently used heretofore in similar test 
machines. The machine will be driven electrically, the 
control ef|uii)nicnt Ix-ing so designed that operation may 
be manuallv or automatically controlled. It will be 
equipped with various devices to record the action of 
draft gears under various tests. 

The machine when comj.Ieted will be installed by the 
American Railwav Association at one of the leading en- 



118 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April, 1926 



l^inccriiifj universities, probalily I'urdiic L'liiversily at 
Lafavclte, Indiana, wliere the Association has already in- 
stalled s]>ccial ci|uii>nR-nt and is conductiiiL,' a series of 
tests of air lirakes with a view of deterniiiiinj; what iin- 
l)riivenieiits can he made in the present ;iir l)rakc sys- 
tems now in use. 



New Locomotive Inspection Kulcs 

i'ursuant to the ri'(|uirements for rules and instructions 
for the inspecting and testing of locomotives propelled by 
other than steam power, in accordance with the act of 
Fehriiary 17, 1911, amended March 4. l'>15. June 26, 
l'>18. and June 7, l''J4. the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission has compiled, published, and issued a set of rules 
and instructions for inspecting and testing all locomotives 
other than steam, to become effective July 1, l'.*26, except 
as otherwise specified in the rules. 

These follow very closely tlie general arrangement of 
the rules and instructions now in use for the inspection of 
steam locomotives, and in order that there may be no 
niisimderstanding as to the application of the new rules, 
detinitions are given as to the equipment they cover. A 
locomotive is defined as a self-propelled unit of equipment 
designed solely for moving other equipment. A motor 
car is defined as a self-propelled unit of equipment de- 
signed to carry freight or ])assenger traffic, and is not to 
be considered as a locomotive. 

These rules and instructions were formulated at con- 
ferences participated in by representatives of the carriers, 
representatives of the employes, and the chief and assi.stant 
chief inspectors of the Interstate Commerce Commission. 
Thev were ajiproved by order of Interstate Commerce 
Connuission December 14, 192.5, and include rules num- 
ber 200 to 261 inclusive, and 300 to 337 inclusive, together 
with cuts, tables, drawings and forms of the usual type 
required for the inspection of steam locomotives. 

One section is general and outlines the scope and ap- 
plication of the rules and instructions. In this section it 
is stated a locomotive, as constructed by these rules, may 
consist of one or more luiits. The term "units" as used 
in these rules and instructions meaning the least number 
of wheel bases, together with superstructures, capable of 
independent propulsion, Init not necessarily equipped with 
an indc])endent control. The rules also provide that each 
locomotive be stenciled with the letter "F" on each side 
near the front end to designate the front or head end of 
the locomotive. Each unit of the locomotive must be 
numbered also on each side. As is the case with steam 
locomotives, each locomotive must be inspected after each 
trip or day's work, and fonns are illustrated on which 
re|)orts of these inspections are to be made. 

New Magneto Drive for Electric Locomotive 
Tachometer 

.\ new form of magneto drive lias been recently devel- 
oped by the Electric Tachometer Company of Philadelphia 
in conjunction with the W'estinghouse F'lectric and Manu- 
facturing Company for the application of electric speed 
indicators to locomotives. Thi.s new flrive permits the 
installation of an electric tachometer outfit in a few 
minutes time, and eliminates the use of S])ecial gears, 
])ulleys or belts. 

The outstanding feature of the new design is the method 
of driving the magneto from the locomotive wheel and the 
fact that this speed indicator operates independent of 
all other ajjparatus whereas previous designs were essen- 
tially attachments for use with train control. It has for- 
merly been necessary to use special gears or a lielt for this 
tvpe of drive. The new drive eliminates the use of special 
attachments and also eliminates the possibility of lost 



UKjlion in a slipi)ing belt. It can be attachc<l to any loco- 
motive by use of (ordinary hand tools. Xo "extras" are 
required for the installation. The outfit is complete in 
itself. 

The magneto is mounted ( with shaft vertical ) on the 
framework above or adjacent to one of the lea<linj; wheels 
on the locomotive. .\ small gear box is attached to the 
end of the locomotive axle, outside of the wheel. Only 
three .small tapped holes in the axle are neccssarv for 
mounting. .\ short length of flexible shaft coiuiects the 
gear box to the magneto. The gear lx)x contains a pair of 
bevel gears. ( )ne of these is attached to the locomotive 
axle. The other is mounted in a housing which is free to 
revolve around the first bevel gear as a center. The flex- 
ible shaft is attached to the second bevel .gear and pre- 




Magneto Drive for Electric Locomotive 
Tachometer 

vents actual rotation of the housing, although a small 
ainount of motion is permissible. In action, tlie housing 
remains stationary and the gears revolve, transmitting 
motion through an angle of ninety degrees to the flexible 
shaft and magneto. This construction reduces the trans- 
mission problem to its simplest form and takes care of all 
movements of the locomotive wheels with respect to the 
locomotive frame. It allows the magneto to be rigidly 
inounted, as its heavy construction requires, and at the 
same time provides a positive drive which is independent 
of various wheel positions. 

The development of this drive is a decided forward 
step in the design of locomotive speed indicators. It 
solves at the same time the problems of ea.sy installation, 
interchangeability. and independent operation. It elimi- 
nates the necessity of an engineer guessing as to whether 
or not he is going at the speed necessary to keep on 
schedule. In addition to this it also has been a means of 
saving fuel due to the fact that the enginemen can judge 
and regulate the speed of an engine when going up a 
grade and throw open the throttle soon enough so that it 
will be unnecessary for any extra efTort to be extended to 
make the grade. 



Notes on Domestic Railroads 

Locomotives 

The Pennsylvania Railroad ha.'; placed an order for 175 Mountain 
tvpe locomotives with the Baldwin Locomotive Works and has 
also ordered 25 of the same tvpe from the Lima Locomotive 
Works. 

The .\lton & Southern Railroad has placed an order with the 
.\merican Locomotive Company for one Mikado type IcXi^motivc 



April, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



119 



This locomQti\e will have 25 in, by 30 in. cylinder and a total 
weight in working order of 275,000 lb. 

The Kentucky & Indiana Terminal Railroad is inquirnig for 3 
<ix-wheel and 8 eight-wheel switching type locomotives. 

The Boston & Maine Railroad is inquiring for one to 5 Diesel 
electric locomotives. 

The Georgia Florida & Alabama Railway has placed an order 
for 2 Mikado tvpe locomotives with the Baldwin Locomotive 

Works. ' . r •, , ■ 

The Great Northern Railway is inquiring for one oil-electric 

locomotive. . ,„ . , , ... 

The Union Railroad is inquiring tor 10 six-wheel switching 
tvpe locomotives. 

" The New York Central Rialroad is contemplating the purchase 
of 100 locomotives. 

The Detroit & Toledo Shore Line Railroad is inquiring for 3 
six-wheel switching type locomotives and 3 Mikado type loco- 
motives. ...._., 1 

The Long Island Railroad is building / switcher type elec- 
tric locomotives in the Altoona shops of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. . „. , 

The Reading Company is inquiring lor 2o locomotives. 

The Delaware Lackawanna & Western Railroad is inquiring 
for 10 Mountain tvpe and 15 Mikado type locomotives. 

The Longview Portland & Northern Railway has placed an 
order for 2 Mikado type locomotives with American Loco- 
motive Company. 

The Akron Canton & Youngstown Railway has placed an 
order for 2 switching type locomotives with the Lima Loco- 
motive Works. 

The Southern Railway has placed an order for 16 heavy 
Mikado type, 2i Pacific type. 10 Consolidation type, and 5 
light Mikado type locomotives from the .\merican Locomotive 
Company. 

The Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Company has placed 
an order for one six-wheel switching type locomotive with 
the .\merican Locomotive Company. 

The Southern Railway has placed an order for 22. eight- 
wheel switchers with the Lima Locomotive Works, and also 7 
with the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway has placed an 
order for 10 Mikado type and 5 Mountain type locomotives 
with the .American Locomotive Company. 

The Standard Slag Company has placed an order for one, 
4-wheel tank type locomotive with the American Locomotive 
Company. 

The Reading Company has ordered 5 Pacific type locomotives 
from the Baldwin Locomotives Works, and one, 60-ton oil- 
electric with the .American Locomotive Company. 

The Wabash Railway is inquiring for 30 locomotives. 

The Argentine State Railways will open bids May 3, for 20 
Santa Fe type locomotives. 

The Brazilian Portland Cement Company has ordered one. 
2-4-2 tank type locomotive from the American Locomotive 
Company. 

The U. S. Gypsum Company has ordered one, 6-whee! 
switching locomotive from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The Egyptian State Railways afe inquiring for 40, 2-6-2 
saddle tank switching type locomotives. 

The Mogyana Railway of Brazil has ordered 8 Mikado type 
locomotives, and 2 Pacific type locomotives from the ,\merican 
Locomotive Company. 

Passenger Cars 

The Pennsylvania Railroad has placed an order for 2 additional 
combination passenger baggage gas electric cars with the J. G. 
Brill Company. Philadelphia. Pa. 

The Chicago & North Western Railway has placed an order 
for 2 power units for installation in one baggage-passenger double 
end car with the Railway Motors Corporation. 

The Chicago Rock Island & Pacific Railway has ordered 5 
baggage cars from the American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad will build 24 diners in its own shops 

The Alton Transportation Company, a subsidiary of the 
Chicago Alton Railroad has placed an order for 2 gasoline electric 
driven buses with the Vcrsare Corporalinn of Buffalo. 

The Central of Georgia Railway has placed an order for 6 
coaches with the Pullman Car & Mfg. Corporation, and 5 bag- 
larage cars with the American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Richmond. Fredericksburg Sc Potomac Railroad has 
placed an order for 4 coaches with the P.cthlehcm Shipbuilding 
Company, and 6 express cars with the American Car Si Foun- 
dry Company. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad is inquiring for 12.*! baggage- 
fxprcss cars. 74 coaches. 7 passenger-baggage coaches. R cafe 
roarlus. 24 dining cars and 20 electric coaches. 

The Southern Pacific Company has placed an order for 6 



combination baggage postal cars with the Standard Steel Car 
Company. 

The New York, Westchester & Boston Ra.ilway has placed 
an order for 10 motor passenger cars with the Pressed Steel 
Car Company. 

The Southern Railway is building 25 refrigerator passcn.ucr 
service cars in their own shops. 

The New York Central Railroad is inquiring for 10 electric 
motor car bodies. 

The Illinois Central Railroad has placed an order tor 3 
diners with the Pullman Car & Mfg. Company. 

The Reading Company is inquiring for 50 passenger cars. 

The Nashville. Chattanooga & St. Louis Railway has placed 
an order for 4 steel baggage cars with the American Car & 
Foundry Company. 

The Southern Pacific Company has placed an order for 10 
coaches and 28 baggage cars with the Pullman Car & Mfg. 
Corporation. 

The Chicago & Northwestern Railway has placed an order 
for repairs to 10 baggage cars with the American Car & Foun- 
dry Company. 

The Chicago. Springfield & St. Louis Railway has placed an 
order for one combination baggage and mail gasoline motor 
car. one passenger trailer car and one combination baggage 
and passenger gasoline motor car from the J. G. Brill Com- 
pany. Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Erie Railroad has placed an order for 124 steel coaches 
with the Standard Steel Car Company. 



Freight Cars 



The Northern Pacific Railway has placed an order for 5tXl. 
50-ton automobile box cars with the Pressed Steel Car Company, 
and 500, 50-ton automobile box cars with the Standard Steel Car 
Company. 

The Central Vermont Railway is inquiring for 200 single 
sheathed box cars with 40-ton capacity. 

The Standard Steel Car Company has ordered 3 tank cars of 
10,000 gal, capacity from the Standard Tank Car Company. 

The Henry Bower Chemical Company has ordered one tank 
car of 10,000 gal. capacity from the Standard Tank Car Company. 

The Damascus Manufacturing Company has placed an order 
for one triple compartment tank car with the Standard Tank Car 
Company, 

The Anglo Chilean Consolidated Nitrate Company has placed 
an order for 62 Nitrate cars with the Koppel Industrial Car 
Company. 

The Youngstown Sheet & Tube Company is inquiring for 20 
.crnndola cars of /O-ton capacity. 

The Glen Nina Tank Line. Buffalo, New York, has ordered 3 
triple compartment tank cars of 6,000 gal. capaciti,- from the 
.Standard Tank Car Company. 

The Central Railroad of New Jersey is inquiring for 10(1. 
70-ton mill type gondolas; 1.000 steel frame double sheathed 
50-ton box cars: 1,000 steel frame single sheathed 50-ton box 
cars: and 1.000 .\. R. A. steel sheathed 50-ton box cars. 

The Southern Pacific Company has placed an order for 
1.100 box cars with the Pullman Car &• Mfg. Corporation, ami 
500 gondola cars with the Pressed Steel Car Company. 

The Colorado & Southern Railway has placed an order for 
100 Ballast cars with the Rodger Ballast Car Company. 

The Northern Pacific Railway has placed an order for 220 
underframes from the Standard Steel Car Companj-. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad is inquiring for 2,000 steel auto- 
mobile cars. 

The Florida. East Coast Railway has placed an order for 40 
calioose cars with the Mt. Vernon Car Mfg. Company. 

The Southern Railway has placed an order for 2.250 freight 
cars as follows: 1.000 box cars with the Mt. Vernon Car & 
Mfg. Company: 1.000 hopper cars with the Tennessee Coal. 
Iron & Railroad Company, and 250 ballast cars with the Gen- 
eral .\merican Car Company. 

The Illinois Central Railroad has placed an order for 200 
automobile furniture cars with the Pullman Car &: Mfg. Cor- 
poration. 

The North .American Car Companv is inquiring for 500, 
R.OOO gallon tank cars. 

The Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad has placed 
an order for 40 milk cars with the Standard Steel Car Com- 
pany. 

The Pcrc Marquette Railway is inquiring for 10 air dump 
cars. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad is inquiring for 16 air dump 
cars. 

The Bloedel-Donovan Lumber Mill has placed an order for 
12 steel logging cars with the Pacific Car & Fonndrv Companv. 
The .Angolo-Chilean Consolidated Nitrate Companv is in- 
quiring for 120. 44-fon gondola cars. 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



April. D: 



111.- { hicago, I'.urliiiKton & Qiiincy Railroa.l ha> ..rdi-rcd 
\m hallast cars troin the KodRi-r liallast Car ( miipany. 

The Brazilian r.irllancl Icmoiil Company ha- ordtred lU 
dump cars from the MaRor I ar l orporation. 

The Sonlliorn Railway has placed an order u.r MK) Ih.x cars 
with the Mt. \ernon Car Mfg. Company. Hie company will 
also relniilil -MOO Rondolas, UK) caboose cars anil jlHI Hat cars 
in its own shops. „. . i 

Ihe Canadian National Railways is imimniiK ti>r 4(» tank 
cars and 50 express refrigerator cars. , , .uvi 

Ihe Missouri I'acilic Uailroad has placed an order for W)U 
l.ox car bodies with the Pennsylvania Tank I ar Company. 

the Nashville. Chattan.ioga & St. I-ouis Railway has placed 
an order for U.i. 55-ton steel hopper cars and 75, 50-lon steel 
inulerfranie flat cars with the .\merican Car & Foundry Com- 
paiiv The companv has also placed an order for 100, 50-ton 
steel selective ballast cars with the Rodger Ballast Car Com- 
panv. . . , , 

The New York Rapid Transit Company is inquiring tor U 

Ihe Imperial Refining Company, Tulsa, Okla., has placed an 
order for UK), 8.000 gallon tank cars with the Pennsylvania 
Car Company. 

The Chicagii & Northwestern Railway has placed an order 
for 250 ballast cars with the .American Car & Foundry Com- 
pany and 250 steel underframcs with the Western Steel Car 
Companv. 

The St. Louis-San Francisco Railway will rebuild /sO Mat 
bottom gondola cars at its yards in Memphis. Tenn. 

The General Ec|uipmcnt Company has placed an order for 
50 gondola cars with the -\nierican Car & Foundry Company. 

Building and Structures 

The Reading Cnnip;uiy will liuild new classification yards with 
locomotive repair and shop facilities at Reynolds near Mahoning 
Cilv. Pa., to cost approximately $1,000,000 with equipment. 

the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley Railroad has acquired a site at 
\icksburg. Miss., on which it plans to construct additional shop 
and vard facilities. 

The Wabash Railway plans to build a car repair shop at 
Detroit. Mich., to cost approximately $100,000. 

Tlic New York. New Haven & Hartford Railroad is building 
an engine house at Cedar Hill. New Haven, Conn., to cost ap- 
proximatelv $35,000. The building will be of brick and steel. 
255 bv M) ft. , . 

The Gulf. Colorado & Santa Fe has awarded a contract for the 
construction of shop building at C~lcburne. Texas, to cost ap- 
proximatelv $205,000. 

The Chicago Burlington & Quincy Railroad plan the construc- 
tion of an extension to the reclamation plant of F.ola, 111. 

The Cleveland. Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railway. Plans 
are being prepared for the construction of an engine terminal at 
Riverside Yard, Cincinnati, Ohio, to cost approximately $3,000,000. 
The plans include the construction of a roundhouse aiul shops and 
■ ilher facilities. 

Building and Structures 

The Pennsylvania Railroad has placed a steel contract with 
the American Bridge Company for shop additions at Glean, 
New York. 

The Chicago, Burlington & yuincy Railroad is reported <o 
be considering the erection of a new enginehousc with repair 
facilities at Burwell, Xcbr. 

The Boston & Maine Railroad is planning a coal plant at 
Boston, Mass., to cost approximately $500,000. 

The Wabash Railway is planning to construct a car repair 
shop at Oakwood. Mich., to cost approximately $100.0(K). 

The Kansas City Southern Railway plans to erect a seven- 
stall addition to its enginchouse at Heavencr. Okla.. to cost 
approximately $65,000. 

The Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway is planning 
reconstruction of its enginehousc and shop at Channing, Mich., 
which were recently destroyed by fire. 

The Central Vermont Railway has placed a contract with 
the Roberts & Schaefer Company for a junior "N & W" type 
cinder plant; electrically operated, for its yards at New Lon- 
don. Conn. 

Tlie Chicago. Burlington & Quincy Railroad plans to en- 
large its enginehousc at Omaha. Nebr. 

The Illinois C"entral Railroad has placed a contract with 
J. E. Nelson & Son. Chicago, for the erection of machine 
shops at Paducah. Ky.. also for other storage buildings with 
Ellington Miller Company. Chicago. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad has purchased an auto- 
matic electric coaling station hoist for modernizing one of its 



old coaling plant at .Morgantowii, \\ . Va.. from the Roberts & 
Schaefer Company, Chicago. 

The Maine Central Railroad plans to rebuild its cnginehoti- 
at Bangor, Maine, which was recently destroyed by tire. 

The Michigan ( eiitral Railroad has placed a contract with 
the W. E. Wdod t oinpany, Detroit, Mich., for the erection 
of an office building at Detroit, Mich. 

Te locomotive shop, enginehousc, machine shops, blacksmith 
shops and all <if inacliinery of the .New York, Chicago & St. 
Louis Railroad at Frankfort. Iiid., were damaged by lire re- , 
ceiitly. I 

The Chicago & Northwestern Railway plans to build an en- 1 
ginehoust at Jewell, Iowa, to cost approximately $25,000. 

The Illinois Central Railroad is drawing plans for a repair 
shop to be buill at Burnside. 111., to cost approximately 
$500,000. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad plans alterations and addi- 
tions to its locomotive and car repair shops at Cumberland, 
Md.. to cost approximately $100,000. 

The Great Northern Railway has announced the construc- 
liim of a gravel washing plant at Keiter. Wash., to cost $150.- 
000. Huge crushers, electrically operated, will be used. Gravel 
will be taken from pits to the crusher over a narrow gauge 
rairload using gasoline propelled locomotives. .\ Bucyrus 
shovel, operated by a Diesel engine, will be used in loading 
the cars. 

The Peoria & Pekin L'nion Railway has placed contract for 
a 500-ton capacity three-track, simplex automatic electric roller 
skip type locomotive coaling and sanding plant at Peoria, III., 
witli the Robert & Schaefer Company, also two standanl 
".V it W" type electric cinder plants with selective control 
with the same company. 

The Boston & .Albany Railroad has installed an 85-foot 
turntable at .Athol, Mass., to accommodate a larger locomoti' ■ 

Items of Personal Interest 

G. E. Sisco has been appointed assistant master mechanic 
of the l-"ort \\ ayne division of the Pennsylvania Railroad, with 
headquarters at I'"ort Wayne, In<l. 

T. J. Leach, master mechanic of the Cleveland and Pitts- 
burgh division of the Pennsylvania Railroad, has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the Middle division, to succeed 
C. J. Richers. 

W. P. Petty has been appointed assistant superintendent of 
the St. Louis terminal division of the Missouri Pacific Rail- 
road, with jurisdiction over the operation of the Carondelct 
yard. 

W. P. Bruce, general manager of the Nashville, Chatta- 
nooga & St. Louis Railway, with headquarters at Nashville, 
Tenn.. has been promoted to vice-president and general man- 
ager, with the same headquarters. 

R. E. Laidlaw has been appointed superintendent of the De- 
troit division and i)assenger terminals of the Michigan Central 
Railroad, with headquarters at Detroit, succeeding M. T. 
Wright, who is on leave of absence on account of ill health. 

W. M. Thurber, superintendent of the Dubuque division of 
the Chicago. Milwaukee & Sf. Paul Railway, with headquar- 
ters at Dubuque. Iowa, has been transferred to the Illinois 
division, with headquarters at Savanna, III., succeeding C. F. 
Urbett. 

James B. Hill has been elected president of the Nashville. 
Chattanooga & St. Louis Railway, to succeed Whitefoord R. 
Cole. Mr. Hill was formerly assistant to the president. 

W. H. Guild lias been appointed superintendent of the sec- 
ond division of the L'nion Pacific Railroad, with headquarters 
at Portland. Oregon, succeeding W. Bollons. who has retired. 

A. S. Ingalls has been appointed vice-president of the New 
A'ork Central Railroad, with headquarters at Cleveland. Mr. 
Iniialls was formerly general manager of lines west of Buffalo. 

J. H. Reisse has been appointed mechanical assistant to the 
vice-president of the Chica.go. Burlington & Quincy Railroad, 
with headquarters at Chicago. 111. Mr. Reisse was formerly 
mechanical inspector. 

George H. Crosby, assistant to the vice-president of the 
Chicago. Burlington & Quincy Railroad, retired after more 
than titty years of service with that company. 

L. R. Christy has been appointed master car builder of the 
Missouri Pacific Railroad, with headquarters at Houston, 
Texas. Mr. Christy was formerly general car inspector, with 
headquarters at St. Louis, Mo. 

C. B. Strohm, superintendent of transportation of the 
.Atchison. Topcka & Santa I'e Railway, with headquarters at 
Chicago, has been granted a leave of absence on account of 
illness. H. R. Lake, superintendent of the Panhandle division, 
with headquarters at Wellington, Kan., has been appointed 
acting superintendent of transportation, succeeding Mr. 
Strohm. 



April. V)2'> 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



121 



J. S. Ford has l>ccn appointed master tneclwriic of the 
Galesburg division ot the Lhicago. Burlington & Quincy Rail- 
road, with headquarters at tialeslmrg. 111. 

W. W. Weiss has been appointed superintendent of the To- 
ledo division of the Wheeling & Lake Erie and the Lorain & 
West Virginia Railway, with headquarters at Toledo. Ohio, 
succeeding R. F. Smith. 

R. C. Morse, Jr., general superintendent of transportation, 
\\ csterii region, with headquarters at Chicago, has been made 
.i;eneral superintendent at ButTalo, N. Y., F .D. Davis, acting 
general superintendent of the Xew Jersey division, succeeds 
Mr. Mi.rse 

L. A. Richardson, superintendent motive power, Rock 
Island Lines, at Des Moines, Iowa, has been appointed gen- 
eral superintendent motive power with headquarters in Chi- 
cago, reporting to L. C. Fritch, vice-president in charge of 
operation, effective April 1. Mr. Richardson succeeds W. J. 
ToDerton, deceased. 

.\Ir. Richardson first entered railway service in 1884, as 
machinist apprentice on the L'nion Pacific Railway at St 
Joseph, Mo., later serving as roundhouse foreman and general 
toreman. He came to the Rock Island in 1906 from the Ore- 
gon Short Line as master mechanic at Trenton, Mo.; trans- 
ferred to Chicago in 1910; was made mechanical superin- 
tendent in 1913 at El Reno. Okla.. and transferred to Des 
Moines. Iowa, in 1916. where he has been located until the 
present appointment. Mr. Richardson was born at Bucklin, 
Mo., in 1868. 



Supply Trade Notes 



H. C. Osman, sales manager of the Nugent Steel Castings 
Company. Chicago, 111., has been elected secretary of the com- 
pany. He will continue to have charge of the sales for the 
company. C. A. MacDonald, formerly secretary, has been 
elected treasurer. 

P. E. Floyd has been appointed by the Ludlum Steel Com- 
pany, Water\l:ct. Xew York, as manager at sans lu charm- i>i 
ther Chicago office and warehouse. He succeeds Mr. 
Edwards, who has been transferred to Southern territory. 
with headquarters at Houston. Te.^as. The Ludlum Steel 
Company manufacture a very extensive line of tool, rustless 
and non-corrosive steels. 

The Chicago Steel Car Company, of Harvey. 111., has !)eeM 
incorporated with SIOO.OOO capital, to manufacture railroad 
cars, by F. H. Uriell, V. M. Hencher ami Arthur Fisher. 

T. W. Bennett, service engineer for the Locomotive Stoker 
Company, Pittsburgh. Pa., is in Australia to supervise the in- 
stallation and operation of duplex stokers on the ten new 
Mountain type locomotives built according to .\merican practice 
by Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth Company, in En.glaiid. 
which will soon go into service on lines of the South .\ustralian 
Government Railway. 

Knowles Pittman, formerly sales manager of the Nugent 
Steel Casting Company, has been appointed sales luanager. 
Bumside Steel Foundry Company, Chicago. 111. 

E. M. Ivens, formerly re|)resentative of the Ingersoll-Rand 
Company, with headquarters at Xew (^JrUans. L.i.. has been 
appointed special agent of the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Com- 
pany, v\-ith headquarters at Chicago. III. 

Frank H. Colladay h.is resignerl as Xew York manager of 
sales of the Trumbull Steel Company, and has been appointed 
district sales manager of the Braeburn Alloy Steel Corporation, 
with officers in the Grand Central Terminal. Xew Wnk (it). 
R. B. Fisher, general sales manager of tlu- Buda Company, 
Harvey, III., has been promoted to vice-president in charge oi 
the sales and engineering departments of the railway division 
The American Car & Foundry Company has acquired the 
Shippers' Car Line Corporation, tlie American Welding Com- 
pany is a siib..ifliary. 

The Paige & Jones Chemical Company, Inc., has removed itv 
executive offices from 248 Kulton street to 461 I'ourfh avenue. 
.\ew York City. 

W. M. Graves, Jr., has been made sales engineer representing 
the Pyle National Company and Oliver Electric & Manufac- 
turing Company, who have established a branch oirice in the 
boatmen's Hank Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

R. J. Sharpe, district renresentative at Tulsa, Okla.. of the 
General American Tank Car Corporation, Chicago, Til.. lias 
licxn appointed general sales manager, with headquarters al 
< hirago. III. J. V. O'Neil has been appointed to succeed Mr 
Sharpe at Tulsa, Okla. 

I 'J"'!''. I'e'and ha^' l)een appointed branch manager at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, for the Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing Com- 
pany, to succeed John Andrews, Jr., ubo has been transferred 
to Detroit, Mich., as Manning. Maxw.ll ,t Moore, Inc., New 
York, has purchased the name, good will drawings, and pat- 
terns of the Detrick & Harvey Machine Company. Haltiinore 



In the future the Detrick & Harvey open side and convertible 
planers, standard double housing planers, and horizontal boring 
machines will be manufactured by the Putnam Machine Works, 
a subsidiary of Manning Maxwell & Moore, Inc. J, W. Neid- 
liardt. formerly president of tlie Detrick & Harvey Company, 
will be associated with Manning, Maxwell & Moore, specializ- 
ing m the Detrick & Harvey lines. The Detrick & Harvey 
plant, machinery and equipment at Baltimore will l)e liquidated 
;n the near future. 

L. S. Allen has lieen placed in charge of the newly opened 
Tulsa. Okla.. office of the Central Steel Company, Massillon. 
Ohio Mr. .Mien has had experience in eastern steel mills and 
also has had many years with the oil drilling industry. 

The Locomotive Firebox Company, Chicago, 111., has ap- 
pointed C, S. Carter as sales representative in the 'st. Paul 
Minneapolis territory, with head(|uarters in the Baker build- 
ing. Minneapolis. Minn. 

The Gould Coupler Company has sold its friction draft gear 
and passcncu-r buffer and platform business to the Waugh 
Equipment Company. 

L. M. Hartzell, assistant district sales manager of the Car- 
negie Steel Company, Cincinnati, has resigned to enter the 
real estate Inisines-. in that citv. 

Walton L. Woody, formerly' manager of the Cleveland plant 
ot the National Malleable & Steel Castings Company, has been 
made manager ot the company's plant in Chica.go, succeeding 
f. W. Colhn, retired. 

The Standard Steel Car Company has moved its Chicago 
' -^^ '^'""tHeFislH-r building to Tribune Tower, Chicago. 111. 
Ihe United Pacific Lumber Corporation has been organized 
with headquarters in Singer building. Xew York City, and will 
-peciahze in the sale of lumber to railroads and car companies 
I he officers^ot the company are as follows: T. Fred Sowers; 
I-iesident; C. W. Cantrell, vice-president; and A, S Tobias 
secretary. 

The^Sissen Supply Company has removed its headquarters 
Mom . Kector street, to Grand Central Terminal, New York 

General' EWtn!.' A"^"^^'='- °f '\^ ^^" Francisco office of the 
win ^?-,rf. * Company has been appointed manager of the 
ndu ,nal department with headquarters at Schenectady, Xew 

'^u '^i'cceeding A. R. Bush, deceased, 
lb cnn .™";°" ^T^ Company, Youngstown, Ohio, is plannii,.. 

r\J^^ ?y> National Company, Chicago, following the pur- 

oti Ifo „ " fT"" & Manufacturing Company,'^ S. 

• ouis. Mo., has erected an addition to the former nlant it 

I'.cago, into which the Oliver Electric & Manufacturing 

Company has moved. J. A, Amos, vice-president a,"dgei"ra1 

manager of the Oliver Electric & Manufacturing Companv 

has-been elected vice-president of the Pyle Nafional Tom-' 

.J}!\^^^rrr',°° ?^l'^ay Supply Company has opened an 

erii domestic and export sales 

Hu^Ewal7?l-nVr' ''''" ^P'"?'"'^;d to the sales department of 

lu Ewald Iror^ Company, with headquarters in the Railway 

l-.xchan.ge Building, (hicago 111 i le naiiwa> 

Harlan A. Pratt has been appointed manager of the oil and 

Ytrk"ci'."v ''^ir p'n "' "r I"gr^°"-Rand Company, New 
vork Lif>. Mr. Pratt was formerly connected with the sales 
CompTnT Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 

E. C. Wilson, .sales director for the National Safety Apoli- 
ance Company, with headquarters at Chicago Ins l»c„ nro 
ilTs^resi^ne'd''''"" "''■'"''^^'' ' '° '="^•'■"■'1 K, E. Kellenberger, who 

George W. Hoover, district sales manager of fh>- Buda 
Company, Harvey. 111., with headquarters at St. Louis, Mo, 
has been appointed eastern sales manager and export sales 
manager with headquarters at .30 Church Street, New York 

,uf'T^: ?"''^^?' ^V '"■<'" '"■'(ie the St. Louis representative of 
mL? Brake Beam Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., with head- 

quarters ,11 the RaiKvay i:xcli.-,nge Building, St. Louis Mo 
• -^.f;"'"!''',,''' ref.rgaiiization of the sales department, involv- 
ing the reallocating of the managing personnel and the creat- 
ing of .several nc\y activities, has been announced by E, D. 
Kilburn, vicc-presid,;nt and general s.iles manager of the 
\ >ril "^ Electric and Manufacturing Company, effective 

The change, which involves all deparfiiienfal sales man- 
agers of the company, consists of the following appointments: 
assistant t<. vice-president, E. H. Sniffin, formerly manager 
power department; director of sales, T. J. Pace, formerly man- 
-}^".^"^\P'y 'leparlmcnt; central station manager G H 
Kroebel, formerly manager marine department; industrial sales 



122 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTI\i: nKGlNFERING 



April, I'l-'f. 



inanaKrr. J. M. Curtin, idrniirly niaiiaKcr industrial depart- 
iiifiit; traii!<|>orlatioii ^all•s iiianagiT, M. B. Lambert, formerly 
inanaKiT railwav dipartmciil; assistant director of s,ilis A. C. 
Streamer, lorim-rly assistant to manager siif)|)l\ dtpariiiicnt; 
Konerating a|i|iaratus iiianaKcr, H. W. Smith, iorimrly gen- 
eral engineer; traction apparatus manager. A. J. Manson, for- 
merly manager heavy trnction division, railway department; 
motor apparatus manager. O. F. Stroman, fornierl\ assistant 
to manager, industrial department; switchgear appartus man- 
ager. R. A. Neal, formerly head of switch section, supply 
department; and distribution apparatus manager. G. A. Sawin, 
formerly assistant to manager, supply department. 

The announcement is the culmination of a reorganization 
of the W'estinghouse sales system which has been in course 
of development for some time. Its cflEect, according to Mr. 
Kilburn, will be to form a more He.xiblc organization now 
necessary to serve and anticipate the needs of electrical ap- 
paratus users, due to the tremendous development of the 
industry. 

Mr. Snifiin, newly appointed assistant to vice-president, be- 
came prominent as commercial aid to George VVestinghouse, 
founder of the W'estinghouse Companies. He is one of three 
men who were directly responsible lor the introduction of the 
steam turbine to the L'nited States. His career with the com- 
pany dates from his sixteenth year, when he became a stenog- 
rapher in the New York offices of the Westinghouse Church, 
Kerr & Co.. who were, at the time, sole agents for the West- 
inghouse Machine Company. By studying mechanical en- 
gineering in his spare time, he became a salesman of power 
plant equipment at the age of 22. In 1900 he was made sales 
manager of the company he had joined as a stenographer, 
and three years later was appointed sales manager of the 
Westinghouse Machine Company. In 1906 he was made 
vice-president in charge of sales for the company and in 
1915 when the Electric Company absorbed it, was made man- 
ager of the power sales department. 

The new director of sales. Mr. Pace, is a native of I'ittston, 
I'a.. but received his first business experience in New York 
City, when at the age of 20 years, he joined a contracting 
firm there. In 1899 he was engaged by the Manhattan Gen- 
eral Construction Company of Newark, N. J., which, at the 
lime, was owned by George Westinghouse. During the latter 
part of the three years Mr. Pace was with the Manhattan 
Company he held the position of assistant to general man- 
ager. In 1902 when the Manhattan Company was purchased 
by the Westinghouse Electric Company. Mr. Pace moved to 
East Pittsburgh, where he was given charge of illuminating 
apparatus in the detail and supply correspondence depart- 
ment. Three years later he was made manager of what was 
termed the illuminating and rectifier sections. In 1915 Mr. 
Pace was made assistant to manager of the supply sales de- 
partment, an outgrowth of the former detail and supply de- 
partment. I'ive years later he was made assistant manager 
of his department, a position he held to 1922. when he was 
appiMntcd manager. 



L. E. W. Bailey, who for some years past has been railroad 
sales manager for the Dearborn Chemical Company, Limited, 
with headquarters at Toronto. Canada, has joined The Super- 
heater Company, Limited of Montreal in the capacity of 
service engineer. Previous to his connection with the Cana- 
dian Pacific and Great Northern Railways having worked up 
in the motive power department from fireman and engineer 
to division master mechanic. He has also served considerable 
time as a locomotive foreman. 



Obituary 



WilUam Finley, 64-years-old retired president of the Chicago 
& Northwestern Railway, civil engineer, and one of the leading 
railroad authorities of ttie country, died suddenly of pneumonia 
at his home in Wheaton, III., March 17. 

Mr. I-inley was born January 22. 1862. in Newcastle county. 
Del., and entered the engineering field as a draftsman for the 
lldge-Moor Iron Co.. of W'ilmingtoii. Del., which built the 
F.ast Rivcf bridge in New York. He entered railway service 
in October, 1887. as draftsman for the Chicago. Milwaukee & 
.St. Paul Railway, being appointed assistant engineer in charge 
of designing in the bridge and building department in 1891. 
He was appointed engineer of bridges^ ci the Chicago & North- 
western Railway in 1892. serving in that capacity until 1902. 
when he was appointed principal assistant engineer. 

Mr. Finley was appointed assistant chief engineer of the 
Chicago & Ntirthwestcrn Railway in 1906 and promoted to 
chief engineer in 1913. He was elected president in 1918. 
which position he held until June 23, 1925. Since leaving the 
.N'orthwestern, Mr. Finley has been practicing as a consulting 
engineer, with headquarters in Chicago. 

Mr. Finley belonged to the American Society of Civil En- 
sjineers: the Western Society of Civil Engineers, of which he 
was past president; the American Railwav Engineering .\sso- 
ciation. w'hich he had also served as president; Franklin In- 
stitute: .\merican Association of Engineers, of which he was 
jiresident in 1918; the Union League, and nianv other railroad 

rlubs. 



Howard G. Hetzler, president of the Chicago & Western 
Indiana Railroad and of the Belt Railway Company of Chicago, 
died at the age of 63 at his home in Hinsdale. III. Mr. Hetzler 
entered the service of the Monon line in 1885. soon after his 
graduation from the University of Michigan. He was ap- 
pointed a superintendent on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
Railroad in 1899 and in 1905 he was elected president of the 
Metropolitan Elevated Railroad. Chicago. He resigned from 
that position in 1910 to take charge of the affairs of the Chi- 
cago & Western Indiana Railroad, and of the I'.elt Railway 
.IS presidenf. 



For Testing and Washing 
Locomotive Boilers 




Rue Boiler Washer 
and Tester 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

Rue Manufacturing Co. 

228 Cherr7 Street Philadelphia, Pa. 

Manufacturer! of InJMtor*. EJactort 

Boiler Wafben and Teaten. BoUer Cbeoka. 

Check ValTea. 



DIAMOND STEEL EMERY 

For Grinding In Steam and Air Joints 

"CUTS BUT NEVER BREAKS" 

A Railroad Shop Necessity 

PITTSBURGH CRUSHED STEEL CO. 

PITTSBURGH. PA., U. S. A. 



CEO. P. NICHOLS A BRO. 

Nichols Transfer Tables 
Turntable Tractors 

2139 Fulton Street, Chicago 



DUNER 
CAR CLOSETS 

DUNER CO. 



WANTED 

Locomotive builder's or other lith- 
ograph of U. S. locomotives, multi- 
colored or one tone for historical 
collection. Give name of builder, 
type of locomotive, condition of 
print, etc. 

Also wish to purchase collec- 
tions of locomotive photographs, 
particularly those of early date, or 
mil gladly arrange for exchange 
with other collectors. 

Particularly interested in New 
York Central photographs. 



Address, HISTORICAL 

a Railwaj and Locotaodv* EngteAavtev 
114 Ubw-ty Stiwt. N«w Yot% 



I 



Rlil!!i%veEiiiineerin} 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, Rolling Stock and Appliances 



Vol. XXXIX 



136 Liberty Street, New York, May, 1926 



No. 



A Powerful Three-Cylinder Locomotive for the Union 

Pacific Ry. 



Details of a New Design for Fast Freight Service 



The 2-8-8-0 type ^lallets which for several years past 
have l)een in use tin the L'nion Pacific are amoiii^ the most 
successful engines of this t\pe that have Ijeen huilt. 
During certain slack times when these Mallets were not 
urtjently needed m the mountainous district, they were 
placed in road service hetween Green River and Laramie. 
the maximum grade heing 8 i)er cent, by which remark- 
able reductions were obtainefl in operating costs. But. 



also of making the same s]ieeds as are now made Ijy the 
2-10-2 and Mikado locomotives. In other words, an in- 
crease in permissable speed from twenty to fortv miles 
per hour, and an increase in average speed over the dis- 
trict from twelve to better than twenty miles per hour. 

The amount of ]>ower re(|uired. coupled with a weight 
limit of 59,000 pounds per ]>air of drivers, made six 
cou])le(l axles a necessitw .'~'uch a design was impossible 




New 4-12-2 Type Three-Cylinder Locomotive for the Union Pacific Railroad. Built by the Amer 



Locomotive Company 



due to the fact that the Mallet ItKomotive is inherently a 
low ^Ked machine, they could not be used in this district 
duringf the busy season as they would bliKk the road. 

•Since 1917, the standard l<Koniotive for fast freight 
service in the mountain districts has Ijeen the 2-10-2 ty])e 
two-cylinder locomotive with a tractive ]x>wer <jf 70,4.^0 
]xjunds, .\bout a year ago, as a result of the success of 
the three-cylinfler locomotive on several railroads, the 
management of the L'nion Pacific jxurchased .from the 
-American L(»coniotive C'omixmy one three-cylinder 4-10-2 
type l(K-omr)tive So. 8000 for demonstration and com- 
])arison with the above referred to 2-10-2 ty])e. I'.ngine 
80(X) was built as nearly identical to the 2-10-2 tyjjc as the 
three-cylinder design would permit, having the same 
weight on drivers, size of drivers, grate area, and i>rac- 
tically the .same Ixiiler. 

The comi>arative tests conducted lietween the three- 
cylinder 4-10-2 and the two-cylinder 2-10-2 develoi>e(l 
that the three-cylinder engine .\'o. 8000 can and does 
regularly handle twenty ]K-r cent more tons in regular 
service, with an exi)enditure of sixteen ]>er cent less fuel 
per thousand gross ton miles, 

.As a result of this it was decided to design a locomotive 
for fast freight service to be capable not only of hauling 
the i)resent L'nion Pacific .Mallet locomotive tonnage, but 



on a two-cylinder engine with main rods connected on a 
single driving axle. P.ut the three-cylinder engine, trans- 
mitting its ])ower through two main driving axles, in com- 
bination with smaller outside cylinder and distributing the 
stresses more equally over the whole frame structure. 
made such an arrangement ])ossible, together with com- 
paratively high s])eed and greater jwiwer. The linal 
stresses transmitted are, therefore, somewhat less on the 
4-12-2 design than they are on a 2-10-2 with outside 
cylinders of larger dimensions. 

The problem of arranging such a long wheel liase to 
negotiate a sixteen degree curve was solved liv installing ibc 
lateral motion device, described in the March, 1926, issue 
of K.\lI.w,\^• i.\: Locomotive I'^\(;ini-:i:uiN(;, at the rear 
as well as at the front driver, and using a four-wheel 
engine truck, and a trailer, both having great flexibility. 
The engine, as built, successfully ]xisses sixteen-degree 
curves with all wheels flanged excq)ting No. 4, which has 
I)lind tires. However, it has been <lecided that fuUn-e 
engines will have all drivers flanged. 

.\fter a preliminary study of the proposal 4-12-2 \\]'C 
ihe matter was submitted to the l<K-omotive builders, and 
engine .\'o. 9000 represents the c<imbined and co-o])erati\e 
mechanical cfTort of the Lnioii Pacific R.ailroad officials 
and those ol the Americ'in l.occmiolix'c ( cmipanv. 



123 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



Ma\, IV.'o 



A fK^-incli wln-i-l is (|iiitc j^ciu-rallx C()n>i(kri-<1 st.-iiulard 
for fast frcinht x-rvitc. In this ]>;irticular case, lidwcver, 
it was found that a i^ood crank axlr disi^n demanded a 
07-inch wheel, wliich in turn improved the whole <lesipi 
tor the. work intended. The hoiler i)resented (|nitea i)rolilem. 
Limited in wei};lit to 5''.<XX) jxmnds per i)air of drivers, 
it wa> also desired to keep the total vveii;ln as low as 
l;<issilile. To s,'et a firelxx to Inirn semi-hituminoiis coal, 
it was necessary to secure a lartj^c firclxix volume combined 




Front End of Firebox Shewing Gaines Wall and Location 
Driving Wheel on Union Pacific 4-12-2 Type Locomotive 

with len.i;th ni' flanieway and tireho.x depth. I>olh vohinic 
and len.s;th of tlameway were secured by a combination 
of the Gaines wall and internal combustion chamber. 
Previous engines c(|uip])e<l with the Gaines wall did not 
have a sufficient dei)th from the crown sheet to the to]) 
of the grate. .\ satisfactory depth was obtained, in this 
case, by allowinjj the rear drivini^ wheel to stick up 1k-- 
twccn the inside of the throat and the front face of the 
(iaines wall. This novel arran.!L;enient is shown in the 
]iartial side elevation, and is made possible by the use of 
the dailies wall, which also provides for the jjreater (k'i)th 
of tirebo.x which its own efficiency demands; for with the 
depth of firebox here used, the toj) of even a 6.Vin. diameter 
wheel would have risen above the Iwttom of the founda- 
tion ring. .\s it stands, even the lateral motion device . / 
rises above the bottom of the foundation ring and enters 
the firebo.x. The s]);ice above the wheel and back of the 
wall is enclosed by a guard A' having a clearance of about 
4' .. in. above the wheel flanges w'hile in front of the wall 
and over the toji of the wheel there is a still greater clear- 
ance beneath the brick floor ('. 

In front of the throat sheet, which is itself 2 ft. 9 in. 
ahead of the front face of the Gaines w-all, there is a 
combustion chamber 6 ft. 8' .. in. long. 

The use of tiexible staybolts in the firelxjx and combus- 
tion chamber follows current practice in that they are used 
in but two rows at the back all of the way down to the 
foundation ring, and but one n>w at the front. Then the 
first fourteen horizontal rows alx)ve the ring are all fitted 
with hollow rigid bolts. excei)t for a triangular space in 
the upjx^r corners that is bounded by six horizontal and 
vertical rows : which are flexible. Above this there are 
seven rows of flexible stays. They are also used in the 
throat sheet and in the upper portion of the sides of the 
combustion chamber. 



It was al>o desired to retain the same length of tn''<-'- 
{22 ft.) as used on the railroad comjiany's otiier engn 
While >eemingly this gave a relatively short tultc fn: 
Ixiiler of this size, the long distance from froiU tul)c sheet 
to the cylinder center should in turn im|)rove the draff 
condition bv evening the pull on the ui)|K'r and Inw 
flues. 

The total overall length of the Injiler at the Ixitton 
36 ft. 3 7/16 in. This is divided as follows : 

I'irelxix : 

r.ack end to back of (iaines wall. . 12 ft. 7^ in. 

Thickness of Gaines wall 103''2 in. 

bVont of Gaines wall to combustion 

chamber 2 ft. 9 in. 12 ft. 2% in. 

L ombusti<'n chanil)er 6 ft. 8yS in. 

TuIk-s 22ft.O in. 

.Smokebox 1 1 ft. 4 1/16 in 

56 ft. 3 7/16 11 

The length of the boiler at the top is 2 ft. 2 11/16 in. 
shorter than the lM)ttom. due to the slojje of the back head. 

The firelxjx is the largest to which a Gaines wall has 
ever been ai)plied and has a volume of al)out 603 cu. ft. 
to which the combustion chamber will add about 202 cu. 
ft. making a total of about 805 cu. ft. 

The dome is the largest ever built by the .American 
I^icomotivc Gom])any, and is 40 in. inside diameter. It is 
l)laced on the rear shell course at a ])oint where the out- 
side diameter is 8 ft. 6 in. and the plate 1 in. thick. 

The cylinders and saddle are formed of steel castings 
and are the first instance in which that material has l)een 
so used in a three-cylinder locomotive. 

The general design is verv similar to the cvlinders used 



I 




Saddle and Cylinders of 4-12-2 Type Locomotive 

on the engine for the South Manchurian Railway which 
were illustrated in R.mi.w.w it Loco.motive M.vgineer- 
i.Nc; for November. 1924. 

'Hie right hand cylinder and the greater jwirtion of the 
satldle. with the central cylinder, are cast in one piece and 
the left hand cylinder is bolted to the other in the usual 
manner. This center cylinder sIoik-s at an angle of 9'/^ 
degrees from the front down to the back, which makes 
a dirt'erence of 7 3/16 in. in the height of the two ends. 

In studying these castings it will be found that great 
uniformity of thickness has been preserved throughout. 



Mav. 1926 



RAILWAY AXD LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



This lias been set at 1 in. with a reduction to Js in. in 
some places, such as the cyhnder shell ; but even the 
flanges by which the castings are fastened together does 
not exceed this amount. The one place where an excess 
of thickness is indulged in is in the pads where the frames 
are attached. 

Tlie smokebox is flattened at the bottom for a width 
of 4 ft. 3 in. for which there is a corresponding flat seat 
on the saddle. This serves to afford a better bearing for 
the Ixiiler support. 

The cylinder bushings are 5/^ in. thick and are pressed 
in from the front end, and are made not only to set up 
against a shoulder in the cylinder bore at the back but 
have a lip at the front resting against a shoulder. Tliey 
are thus held Inetween the front cylinder heads and the 
shoulders .so that any longitudinal displacement is pre- 
vented, should there be a looseness occasioned by differ- 
ence in expansion of the metals of the shell and bushing. 

.steam enters through a common 8J.S in. pipe on the 
right hand side for the right and center cylinders. In 
the casting there is a ])artition that is beneath the inner 
edge of the oi)ening. instead of being in the center, as in 
the .South ^lanchurian engines. The passage on the 









Piston Valve fo 



fie 4-12-2 Type Locon 



outside of this jjartition leads to the right cylinder and 
that on the inside to the center cylinder. It, therefore, 
acts as a deflector by which, any water that may be en- 
trained by the incoming steam is deflected awav from the 
center cylinder and into the rigin hand one, from which 
il can be more easily drained. 

The steam jiassages from the inlet nijcning to the 
steam chests are straight and directed to the center, while 
the exhaust pa.ssages from the ends of the steam chest 
have the minimum of curvature and are large and free. 
'J"here are three exhaust o|)enings, at the center of the 
saddle for the right, center and left cylinders respec- 
tively, so that there is no mingling of the jets until they 
reach the exhaust \>\\1^ where they have an upward move- 
ment, thus preventing any one jet from develo])ing a back 
pressure in another cylinder, but serving by its suction 
action, to lower any that may already exist. In this case 
the three openings are arranged side by side laterally of 
the engine instead of on the longitudinal center as in the 
.Manchurian engine. An arrangement thai providt's for 
more direct and larger passages. 

The i>as.sages in the left cyliiuler casting vary slightly 
from those at the right. The steam pii)e, having only one 
cylinder to sui)ply is 7y, in. instead of 8)X in. in diameter, 
as at the right, and the exhaust ])assage, not having to Ije 
carried over the to)> ot the steam chest of the center 
cylinder, is considerably larger than at the right, though 
the two f)i)enings into the exhaust pi])e are of the same 
dimensifjns. .Ml of these openings are rectangular with 
filleted corners. 



The cylinders are Ixilted to the frames b_\- fifteen l-)4 in. 
diameter bolts on each side. For the details of the 
general arrangement of the cylinder steam chests and 
passages reference is made to the illustration of the 
cylinders of the South Manchurian engine alluded to. 

The hollow piston valve presents some points of in- 
terest. The first of which is the use of eight packing 
rings instead of the usual number of four. Tlus is the 
railroad company's standard. As constituted, the valve, as 
a whole, is built up of thirteen parts. There is the main 
central portion which forms the steam cavitv; the two 
spiders, one at each end, the two Inill rings and the eight 
]>acking rings. .As shown in the engraving the bull ring 
.'-lips on over the central p'ortion with a small shoulder 




cific 4-12-2 Type 



bearing 1, and the spider 2, is sli])])ed inside of it; the 
three parts being held m alinement by the dowels 3, that 
pass through the bull ring beneath tlie packing rings. 

The ijacking rings are made of gxmmetal and are first 
turned to a diameter of 14.>s in., the steam chest being 
of 14 in. diameter. They are then cut with a slot 7/16 in. 
wide .-md closed in with a temjiorary liner 1/32 in. thick 
between liie ends and turned or ground to the exact 
clianieter of the bushing. \\ ben in position, the partings 
are at ibe bottom and are jjrevented from turning bv a 
second dowel 4 that is inserted in the bull rings. 

The outside valves are driven direct by the Wal.scliaerl 
gear, and the central valve by the ( iresley gear, which 
consists of a combination of horizontal levers attaciied 
to the three valve stems and located in front of the 
smokebox ; a design that was illustrated and described 
ill k.Mi.vvAN- K- Ij)( ii.\H)l l\ K I-.NCINKI-KINO for November. 
l')24. 



KMI.WAV ANU LOCO.MOTIV1-; ENGlNhEklNG 



May. 1^26 



( Ijwfly asMK-iattd witli llic ivliii(ltr> is iht- iwtenled 
Hextite steam \»\in casinjj. It is shown in the en^'ravinfj. 
At 1 It IS welded to the sniokeliox for the full circiimfer- 
ence so as to make an air tipht joint, while the sti-aiii 
l>i|>e castini; 2 is made in halves and is welded at the tr)i) 
aiul U.ttom at i and at the centers. The s])ace k-tween 
the casm.i,r and the pi]*- is |)acked with asbestos i)l,K:ks 
securely wired in place, and at the joint of tiie steam piiK- 
and cylinder at 4 they are made in lim- with the air joint 



we<l;jcs /v. in the same manner as the tender iK-arinifs 
by which an e(|iialized U-ariiiK^ i.ressiire over the whole 
area of the journal is insiire<l. a meth.Kl that has proven 
Its value hy its elimination of hot journals. 

'nie truck center plate C rests u|)<in the truck liolster D 
throu,t,'h two rollers at whose ends there is a t(«ithed ^ear 
ineshinjr ,„ with inclined racks on the lx)lstcr and center 
plate. Ihis construction is clearly shown on the half 
cross section and end elevation. It 'will be seen from this 




Front Truck for Union Pacific 4-12-2 Type Locomotive 



and casino- and wrapiKjd outside. 'Hie liner i)latc .} is 
spot welded to the inside of the smokebox. 

The advanta.^es ]X)ssessed by this casiiiij are that it not 
only presents a l)ctter api)earance than theOrdinary casini,' 
due to the heavier material of which it is made. 'and tlu- 
iiKire ri.trid sii|)iK)rt. and the considerable net .savin- i„ 
weifjht. but al.so the elimination of castinj^s with the al- 
tendent machine work and chii)pinij. 'niere is no pack- 
ni^: It IS absolutely air tif;ht from sboppini,^ to shopping 
It effects a savin- in fuel, and when applied no further 
attention is necessar\- until the steam ])ii)e itself should 
_ have to be removed. In other words, there is an entire 
absence of roundhouse insiiection and reiiackin- which 
ordinarily, is required api)roximatclv once everv thirty 
days. 

The four-wheeled eii-ine truck emlxxlies a number of 
novel features, which make for accessibility and a reduc- 
tion ot the maintenance costs. The truck' frame is built 
up of three steel castin-s ; the two side pieces and a 
transom connecting the two and known as a s(|uarin.>- 
frame. The side i.ieces introduce a noveltv in engine 
truck construction in that they have the oil l)oxes 'cast 
integrally with the frame, and these boxes instead of re- 
f|uirinu: a droppin- of the cellars for packin- are pro- 
vided with sprin- covers ./ like an ordinan- car journal 
which are at the ends of the tr^ick. The pa'ckin- is thus 
made easily accessible at all times. 

The whole weight of the frame thus rests directly uix)n 
the journals without any spring intervention.' The 
journal bearings carry the load through adjustable 



that the engine with the center i)Iates has a free lateral 
motion but one in which the rollers must lift the en-nne 
as they run up the two inclines, and which liave a con- 
stant tendency to return to the central ix>sition With 
this construction the lateral motion is confined to the 
engine ami the two center ]>lates. while the bolster re- 
mains at all limes central with the truck frame. 

I he Ixilster is carried at 
each end, by a semi-elliptic 
s])ring of the form shown in 
the engraving. 

.\ iieculiarity of these truck 
si)nngs as well as those of the 
driving axle and trailer truck 
is that the master leaf is 
straight when free, that is the 
distance .\ = ( ), and then, 
when loaded there is the re- 
verse camber as showni. This 
is a standard of the railniad 
Colli] >any. 

The truck spring consists of 
.sevciUeen jjlates y» in. thick of which four are full length 
and 5f) in. long from center to center of hangers The 
plates are slotted at the ends for the admission of the 
hangers. 1 he springs thus act as equalizers for the even 
distribution of the weight. 

The journal boxes, as thus cast integrally with the 
truck frame, are protected from wear by hul/ liners that 
are made in two halves. These are held to-ether b\' a 




rruck Journal Box for Union 
Pacific 4-12-2 Locomotive 



Mav. 1«26 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



^-in. bolt, double nutted and fitted with a cotter. Ivach 
half slides down from the top in inwardly sloping dove- 
tailed grooves cut in the journal lx)x jxirtion of the frame. 
Their lubrication is provided for by oil cavities cast in the 
top of each half: and. when worn may be removed, re- 
bal)bitted to normal thickness and replaced without dis- 
turbing any of the other ixirts of the truck. Liners of this 
design have now been in service for a period of two years, 
and have established their serviceability and utility from a 




maintenance standpoint, in that the\- in-ovide an exceeding 
rapid method of making renewals and for keeping the 
engine out of service for the shortest jwssible time. The 
device is patented as well as the truck as a whole. 

The truck is equalized with the front pair of drivers, 
after the manner used on consolidation and other engines 




Four-Wheeled Truck of 4-12-2 Type Locomotive 

having two-wheeled leading trucks. This ecjualiziition is 
carried l)ack to the second pair of drivers. The rear 
equalization starts at the third jair of drivers and extends 
back to and includes the rear truck. 

.\t the front, the driver and truck equalizer, instead of 



the load uihui the truck as compared with what would be 
imixjsed, were the saddle weights to rest directly upon the 
center plate. 

.\nother standard of the railroad is a novel dumping 
arrangement for the ashpan. It uses a freight car brake 
wheefon the end of a horizontal shaft in which are two 




eves 5 t(i which % in. straight link chains are attached 
running to a clevis attached to the hopi^er door of the 
ashpan. W'lien the chain is wound about the shaft and 
the latter is held by a pawl and ratchet A the door is held 
closed. When the chain is slackened the door drops open 
l)v gravity. 

The valve gear crosstie, or as it is ordinarily called, the 
guide voke, is of a novel design and is the first use of a 
single steel ca.sting acting as a support for both the back 




Ashpan Dumping Arrangement on Union Pacific 4-12-2 Type Locomotive 



taking hold beneath the center ])W as in the ca.se of the 
ix)ny truck, is forked at the front end and has a 
Ijearing on a ring that encircles the center ]>in and rest.s 
ujM.n the u]>i>er center i>late. .\t the same time the 
weight of the engine is carried by a sui)piementary casting 
bolted to the l>ottom of the safldlc. The load is thus 
transferred to the driver and truck e(|ualizer at a ixjint 
\')<A in. I)ack of the center pin, thus sening to increase 



end of the guides, and the link and a crosstie fur the 
frames. 

The link trunnions have a bearing at B and the link 
works in the space A; while the radius rod extends 
through the ojiening C. The casting has a lateral length 
of 10 ft. 5 in. It is L-shajx-d with a vertical depth of \^ 
between and 16>4 in. at the frames. Tbis vertical leg is 
solid. The horizontal leg is 2.1^ in. wide and is lightened 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



Mav. lOio 



)> five lu.ks a.s sli.,wn ,„i tlu- vniiviiymu.. A patc-ni lia., 
.i-in apphc,! |,„- this design. The Kui.le vokc |)roiK?r is 

i«-lte(l to the front face of the casiiiiir ami is not shown 

in the fiij^ravini;. 

The .IriviiiL; ho.xis, as ai.plie.l to hoth the main and the 

crank axli-s. arc- l.tici with cheek |.ieces ./ extending be- 



Ihis |H,>t consists oi a ;M in. stiul .-/ screwed into tlu 
shell over which a casting' li is slijJiH-d. 'ihi-, ha*. 
KftH.ve for the recei)lion of the rail ( which is held tn 
place hy a clamp D havinjj a bearing at 1 on the u,i, ,,i 
the castinj; and the whole is fastened hv the nut on il., 
stud. A riinninj; off of the luit I.K.sens ihe whole so tli 




low the center line ot the axle for the puriwse of takin- 
up llie side wear. 'Hiese cheek j^ieces operate in the 
same manner as those shown in connection with the 
-Smith Alanchurian en.i,nnes illustrated in the Xovemher. 
iyZ4 issue of R.Mi.wAv ..\M) I^ocoMoTiVE I'Incinfikint 
except that m that en.-ine the cheek i)ieces were adjusted 
In- a lx)lt from below pressing; directly aijainst the bottom 
of the piece. In this case the cheek piece .1 is set atrainst 
a Ik-vcI n and liebl in place by a wed-e C that can be 
< rawn outwardly by a nm on the bolt /). When used on 
he crank axle the .yrease lubricant must be applie.l from 
the bottom, bor this purjiose the cellar is fitted with a 
sprm,- ca). /: at the end like a car Ixj.x cover, which can 
Ik.; raise.1 and access f the interior of the cellar obtained 
with<nit takin,- it down or removin- any of the a.ljacent 
parts. Jn order to facilitate this tlie pedestal tie is arched 
<lown m the middle. The cellar is als.. made of sufficient 
stren.srth and is so fitted that it forms a si>reader in the 
box and prevents the sides from closin<; in and also 
torms a supix.rt for the wedjje C that carHes the supple- 
mental beann,s,^s. .Many of the features of this box have 
also heen jxitented. 

One of the minor ,,arts of the engfine that contributes 
to the reduction of maintenance costs is the handrail post 
which IS one of the standard constructions of the Ameri- 
can I ^.comotive Comi)any. The ordinary handrail is of 
such a permanent character that the removal of any por- 
tion of the jacketing involves considerable dismantlm" 



everything can l.-e lifted out of tlie wav an.l the jacketing 
removed. ' ' -^ 

This design i)ermits the use of a single length of hand- 
rail ix)st throughout the engine, since the handrail pipe 




Driving Box With Adjustable Thrust Bearing for Union P«ific 
4-12-2 Type Locomotive 

is applied before the cai)s are fastened down, liy re- 
moving the caps from two or more adjacent iwsts. the 
handrail jxjsts may be removed without disturbing the 



1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



129 



handrail itself and the Iwiler jacket raised tor caulknis 
the boiler to stop leaks. This is a great improvement 
over the use of the solid handrail columns which require 
the removal of the entire handrail before a portion of the 
boiler jacket could be raised. Handrails used with this 
tyix; of ixist are frequently utilized to carry the headlight 
or train control wiring. 

.\mong the specialties on refinements of locomotive 
practice included in the design are the precision type "F" 
lX)wer reverse gear, adjustable wedges, driving bo.\ luljri- 




Firebox, width 108'4 in. 96 in. 

Firebox. lengUi combus- 
tion chamber 80;4 i"- 58 in. 

I'irehox, depth center low- 
est tube to grate 21 "'i in. 19 in. 

Tubes, diameter 3'/, in. j'/a in. 

Tubes, number 40 48 

Fkies. diameter M'i in. 2'/i in. 

Flues, number 222 246 

Flues and tubes, length.. 22 ft. 2J ft. 6 in. 

Flues and tubes, spacing.. !1/16 in. ii in. 

Heating surface, tubes... 803 sq. ft. 1618 sc). ft. 

Fleating surface, flues 44.S9 sq. ft. .5394 sci. ft. 

Heating surface, firebox 

and coml-)Ustion chamber 529 si|. ft. 337 s<|. ft. 

Heating surface, syphons. 97 sq. ft. 

Heating Surface, arch tubes 62 sii. ft. 

Heating Surface, total .^t^.S3 sq. ft. 3446 sq. ft. 

Superheater surface 2560 sq. ft. 1320 sq. ft. 

Grate area 108.2.^ sq. ft. 88.1_sq. ft. 

Wheel diameter, driving.. 67 in. 57 m. 

Wheel diameter, en.gine 

truck 30 in. 30 in. 

Wheel diameter, trailing.. 45 in. 

Wheel diameter, tender... 33 in. i3 in. 

Weight, front truck 80 000 lbs. 

Weight, driving wheels... 355.000 !bs. 

Weight, trailing truck 60.000 lbs. 

Weight, total engine 495,000 llis. 

Weight, tender 287.000 lbs. 

Smokestack, diameter 20 in. 19 in. 

Smokestack, above rail... 16 ft. -'-i in. 15 ft. 10 in. 

Tank, style Cylindrical Cvlindrical 

Tank, capacity water 15.000 gals. 12.000 gals. 

Tank, capacity coal 21 tons 20 tons 

The locomotive embodies straight engineering through- 
out, no freak schemes being used, the design as a whole 
merely comljining a number of accepted features in a 
novel wav in order to ol)tain the characteristics desired 
within the weight and a clearance limitations specified. 



Handrail Post for Union Pacific 
4-12-2 Type Locomotive 

cator, radial buffer, unit safely bar and tlexible conduit. 
all products of the Franklin Railway Supply Company, 
Inc. The tviK; "'F" sujierheater of the Superheater Com- 
Mv and the Worthington feed water heater is used. 
The Locomotive Stoker Company furnished the Elvin 
type of inechanical stoker. 

' The lateral motion device on the front and back drivers 
and the four-wheel engine truck are of the .\merican 
locomotive Company's design. P.oth the force feed and 
hvdrostatic lubricators were furnished by the Nathan 
.Manufacturing C"()mi>any. The trailer truck and cradle, 
bumjter beams, tender frames and Iiody center i)lates and 
also the tender truck were furnished by the e'ommon- 
wealth Steel Comi)any. 

'I"hc following li.st of principal dimensions gives those 
of this 4-12-2 IfK-omotive in comiwrison with those of the 
2-8-8-0 .\iallet engine. 

,,c 4-12-2 2-8-8-0 

bndcr (liameter h.p 27 in. 26 in. 

I vlindcr diameter l.p ^I !"• 

Piston stroke 31 in. (inside) .32 in. 

Piston stroke .32 in. (outside) ,^,,,,,^ 

Tractive power, simple... 96.650 lbs. 133.484 bs. 
Tractive power, compound 96,627 lbs. 
Factor of adhesion, simple 3.67 3.76 
Factor of adhesion, coin- 
pound ^■^\ . 

Wheel base, driving ,30 It. 8 in. I-]; ft- o 1"- 

Wheel base, rifiid 17 ft. 6 in. l-"' 't- 6 in. 

Wheel base, total enRinc. . 52 ft. 4 in. ^0 ft. 6 in. 

Wheel base, total engine 

and tender 91 ft. 6/. in. 87 ft. '/• in. 

Working pressure, lb. per 

sq in 220 210 

I irebox. lenKth 184'/i in, 132Mi "i- 



Train Brake Tests 

Railway executives from the leading railroads have 
ins]jected the equipment used in the investigation being 
made by the .\merican Railwa\' .\ssociation at Purdue 
L'niversity of the elaborate series of tests of train l^rakes 
ever undertaken. 

ihese tests are being conducted under the direction of 
11. .\. Johnson, Director of Research of the .\merican 
Railway .Association. The purpose of the tests is to 
determine what im])rovements can be made in resi)ect to 
the present standard of brakes, now used by the railroads 
(.1 this country. Thirty engineers are engaged in the work. 

ihe tests, which began this s])ring and are expected 
to cover a period of one year, are l)eing conducted in a 
separate building which has been esi)ecially set aside lor 
the work at Purdue l'niversity. in this Iniilding li;is been 
installed the complete air braking equipment from two 
modern locomotives as well as the lirake equiinnent from 
one hundred freight cars so that the tests watched by the 
railroad executives were equivalent to tests that would 
come from the actual operation of a train consisting of 
two locomotives and one hundred freight cars on a railroacK 

-Most of tile time so far has lieen devoted to testin,g 
the present .standard brakes now in use on the railroads 
of this country with a view of providing a basis of com- 
parison for subsequent investigations. Later, jjrake e(|uil)- 
ment which manufacturers claim will prove to l)c an 
improvement over the present standard will be tested. 
L'pon completion of the work at Purdue L'niversity, 
various l)rake devices will be given road tests lor the pur- 
])ose of developing whether or not they iiu-ct practical 
road conditions satisfactorily. 

The railway executives who visited Purdue Ciiiversitx- 
were conducted by Dean .\. .\. Potter and Prof. (i. A. 
V'oung. 



Annual Convention of the Air Brake Association 



New Orleans Meeting Largest in History 



TIh' thirty-lliinl annual convention ot ilic Air Brake 
Association was held at Xt-w ( )rlcans. La.. Mav 4 to 7. 
inclusive. ( )ver <S()0 nieinlurs and {quests registered and 
the supply e.xhihit ])rovided hy 51 companies made it hy 
tar the largest held in the history of this .\.<sociation. 
President li. C. Burns ])resided and in the course of his 
<'l)enin^f address he .said: 

Like every other division of railroad transportation, the 
.lir hrake must, of necessity, keep i)ace with the constantly 
increasini; developments and imjjrovements in the more 
efficient and safe handliu!.; of i)assen.!j;ers and ladinJ,^ This 
necessitates constant vis^'ilance in the way of (iractical ap- 
|)aratns. installation and maintenance. Many rules and 
rei^iilations are essential in order that e<|ni])ment from one 
road may he thoroughly interchangeable as to function- 
ing and performance on another. Without such regula- 
tions we could not e.xpect to progress, and in order that 
our i)rog-ress may continue, it is vitall\- important that 
air hrake men fulfill their duty in seeing that regulations 
are carried out. 

When we look broadly upon the accomplishments of 
railroads in this country, as compared with those abroad, 
in facilitating exchange of freight, we have just reason 
to feel i)rou(l of our work. .\ freight car loaded in Canada 
can be transjjorted to any part of this great continent 
without any change in its ecjuiijuient or transfer of its 
lading. 

Wliile a healthy rivalry and competition exists among 
pr(i]jerties under sei>arate ownership, there is no selfish 
division between the officers and em]jloyees of one road 
and those of another when it comes to matters pertaining 
to the common good. This is an accoiU]ilishnient in 
wliich we. as air brake men. have had a i)rominent part, 
and we are. therefore, justly entitled to a feeling of prick- 
in our vocation and in the railroad air brake (lci)artmeiit 
which we represent. 

The .safety factor, though of essential importance, is 
but a part of vur extensive field of endeavor. The hrake 
e(|uipment must be e<|ual to the demands of traffic in everv 
particular and still render the rec|uired service as to safety. 

^'ou are aware of the efforts being made by the .\meri- 
can Railway .Association to analyze the e.xisting equip- 
ments and the art of controlling trains by means of air 
brakes in general, with a view toward formulating im- 
provements wherever ])ossible or desirable. This is in 
the common interests of all railroads of the countrv as a 
whole. We shall await with much interest the results of 
these studies, and 1 bespeak for this association vour 
whole-hearted co-oi)eration and willingness to render anv 
service that may he desired. 

Report on Brake Pipe Leakage 

"S'our committee on Brake I'iiie Leakage was appointed 
(hiring the winter of 1Q24 hy President G. H. Wood and 
a preliminary report was submitted at the Montreal meet- 
ing of that year. 

.\ progress report was submitted at the next annual 
meeting of the association held at Los .\ngeles during 
Mav. 1925. .\t that time that committee realized that the 
limited number of cars tested, as well as the comparativelv 
tew locations where tests were conducted, made the data 
more or less unreliable for use as the basis for determin- 
ing the general condition of brake ])i])c leakage on rail- 
roads. It was decided that the evidence on this point could 
be greatly strengthened by further tests at other locations. 
The committee was desirous of making a more complete 



.^tudy (it the entire subject with a view to recommendin 
action by this as.sociation in dealing with the brake pi] 
iiakage jiroblem. 

The subject of brake pipe leakage is very broad and ttlia 
committee has found that it is impossible to cover it 8o] 
that all phases are fully investigated, discussed and an- 
alyzed. The committee has endeavored to compromise byj 
li^eating the subject in such a general way that this ass 
ciation will be justifie<l in acce])ting and acting on til 
committee's recommendations. 

This report, therefore, can he regarded as a final report 
on this subject, unless it is the ex])ressed wish that a 
further investigation should be conducted. 

There can be no doubt that the combined running and 
^landing test data show that an exceedingly wasteful leak- 
age condition exists on the average train in service. In 
order to imi)rove this condition it is essential that some 
standard of excellence should be established for mainte- 
nance. VouT committee has made a study of a large num- 
ber of tests with the object of .setting such a leakage limit. 

The considerations which determine what the limit 
^hould be are several, such as economy. ba<l effect on 
irainhandling. and iKjssibility of engine failure on account 
ol an overloaded compres.sor. Economy dictates that the 
limit should be set at a very low ])oint so as to eliminate 
all waste hut this might be objectionable because in some 
cases it would mean a hardship. The average leakage 
rates which exist on long trains are such that the locomo- 
tive compressor is fretpiently overtaxed. If the leakagt 
limit is set to fix the maximum leakage for any train ;it 
a i)oint which will insure a good margin against over- 
loading the comjjressor. a very large saving will result and 
the intergrity of the brake as well as the quality of its 
service will be improved. 

The leakage limit which your committee wishes to sii> 
gest and recommend is ,^6 cu. ft. of free air per min. Tin 
means that when a train will not charge to at least 65'. 
11). when supplied from a ])ressure of 70 lb. through tb( 
>4 in. orifice of the testing device, the train must lie in- 
spected and repaired until it will charge to 65J/S lb. or 
more. 

Conclusioiit: 

1 — That the data of brake system leakage presented in 
this and the previous rejjort is fairly representative of the 
leakage conclition as it exists in current freight train 
service. 

2— That the average of the relation between brake pipe 
leakage and the leakage from the auxiliary reser\'oir vol- 
limes is nearly one to one and frequently the ration is 
greatly exceeded. 

3 — That lx)th the hrake pipe and auxiliary reservoir 
leakages are decidedly detrimental to brake operation. 

A — That the modern long freight train must have its 
average brake system leakage reduced if it is to l»e 
handled safely and efficiently. 

5^That about 97 per cent of all compressed air fur 
nished to operate train brakes is wasted in maintaining 
pressure against leaks. 

() — That the present high cost of o])erating and main- 
taining air com])ressors on locomotives will be reduced 
pro])ortionately to any reduction in the average brake sys- 
tem leakage. 

7 — That all trains should be tested foi Lrake .system 
leakage before leaving a terminal. 



130 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



131 



8 — That a brake system leakage limit should he fixed to 
fjovern how much will l)e tolerated. 

9 — That the brake system leakage testing device de- 
scribed in this report is a suitable device for the convenient 
and accurate measurement of train leakage. 

10 — That better brake installation design will facilitate 
the maintenance of a lower average brake system leakage 
rate. 

11 — That the use of reinforced pipe fittings will be of 
great assistance in the reduction of leakage and mainte- 
nance expense. 

Recommendation 

1 — That this association go on record as favoring a 
brake maintenance program which will reduce leakage. 

2 — That the members of this association should assist 
wherever possible in establishing the practice of testing 
trains for leakage while they are being prepared to leave 
the terminal. 

3 — That the brake system leakage testing device as de- 
scribed in this report or its equivalent be adopted as the 
means of testing train leakage. 

-1 — That for the present, a leakage limit of 36 cu. ft. of 
free air per min. per train be established. This means 
that a train will be condemned for leakage if it does not 
charge to 65.5 lb. or higher when supplied from 70 lb. 
pressure through a yi in. orifice. 

5 — That the American Railway .Association be re- 
(juested to consider the testing device and leakage limit 
here recommended as a basis for a freight brake mainte- 
nance rule. 

r, — That a studv be made of brake installation designs 
with a view to improving the mounting of brake equip- 
ment devices, the clamping f)f i)ipes and the elimination 
of threaded joints wherever jiossible. It is suggested that 
this subject be considered for action by the committee on 
reciimmended practice. 

7 That this report be accepted as final by this associa- 
tion and the committee be discharged. 

(This report was signed bv Chairman C. If. Weaver. 
\V. \V. White, and C.H. Miles, and R. E. Miller. 

Retaining Valve Testing 

The retaining valve and its pipe have not received the 
attention necessarv to keep them in proper condition for 
roacls using them. A reasonable degree of perfection will 
not be reached until level grade roads realize that their 
resiwnsibilitv is equal to that of the mountain grade road 
and until all'brake cleaning points give the attention to this 
work as called for bv .\. R. .\. instructions and rules. Kx- 
cessive retained dut'v causes cracked and "brake burned 
wheels, and for which the owning road is responsible. 

'Tn Date" and cars for brake cleaning when on shop or 
reijair tracks are to have, in addition to the other brake 
work, a test of retaining valve and piping and to come 
within specified limits for leakage. 

Formcrlv this was a gage test, but in the 1925 rules 
prei)are<l bv the Bureau of Safety and a committee of the 
Mechanical Division of the .American Railway .Association, 
the gage test is made oi)tional. though preferable (the last 
paragraph of interchange rule Xo. fi() makes a portion of 
these rules part of it). The alternative is rule No. 16.i 
and reads : 

"If the retaining valve ami its pipe are not tested by a 

i:;c. as ])re.scril)ed in rule 164. it must be tested by ap- 
i.ing the brake with a 20 lb. reduction from not less than 
70-lb. brake pipe pressure and when the trijiple valve is 
released the retaining valve must hold the brake applied 
with force for 3 minutes at the end of which time the air 
must discharge at the retaining valve exhaust." 

While the old rules making a gage test mandatory was 
rather burdensome, thrinr^h the special and cumbersome 



apparatus required to connect and. where the gage con- 
nection was made at the retaining valve, through the awk- 
ward location t(i connect, yet without a gage test it cannot 
be known whether the pressure retained is approximately 
Correct nor whether the blow-down rate is excessivelv in 
error. 

To obtain the results .sought with practicallv no dif- 
lerence in labor over the stipulated test with no gage it is 
recommended that each freight car be fitted with a 3^-in. 
tee. located in the retaining valve pipe convenient for 
attaching a gage, not over 3 ft. from the triple valve, 
with the side opening pointed down and that the side 
opening be closed normally with a brass plug. 

.After the brake c\linder has been tested by connecting 
the gage directly to the triple valve exhaust port and then 
after the retaining valve pipe has been fully and properly 
connected this tee will i)ermit of making the test of the 
retaining valve quickly and efficiently. 

To this end we recommend that the A. R. A. rules be 
amended to require that such a tee be made the standard 
for all new freight cars and that a limited time, sav two 
years, be set for equipping all old cars. 

Referring to the changed rules for testing, as quoted 
earlier, it is believed that those who have given the retain- 
ing valve careful study and are really interested in obtain- 
ing good air brake service will regret that the gage test 
has been made optional. 

However, so long as this remains, safety demands that 
the alternative test. Xo. 165, be amplified. .As it stands, 
the test will pass a valve with the vent port entirely closed, 
certain to cause e.xcessive holding power, with attendant 
likelihood of cracked, broken, flat and "brake burned" 
wheels. 

Just what is meant by "the retaining valve must hold 
the brake applied with force for three minutes" might 
advantageously be defined. Some may consider this met 
if the brake cylinder piston has not returned to release 
|)usition. yet a backward movement of 1 in. or 1J4 in- at 
the most will ])ermit of easily moving the braking shoes 
• 111 the wheels by a push on the end of a brake beam or 
prying lightly against a beam hanger. Such shoes pres- 
sure can hardlv be considered as being "with force." 

The addition should stipulate that it shall be known that, 
when the triple valve is released, there is a sufficiently 
free discharge at the vent port and that this discharge 
shall have ended in the three minutes, following which 
the handle is to be turned down and a farther discharge 
must then occur at the exhaust jKirt, 

But, even with such an addition there will be no check 
against the valve holding too much, as from an excessively 
strong spring, due to imi)roper repairs or stretching the 
standard spring. 

When we consider the ease of using a gage with the 
l)roi)osed tee, and the advantages of the gage in deter- 
mining exactly what the retaining valve will do in rates 
of blow-down, closing i)res.*ures and in indicating exist- 
ing leakage : also, that, if desired, it can be used after 
turning clown the retaining valve handle to determine 
whether there is any restriction in the pii)e, it will surely 
be verv ajipealing for a return to the gage test exclusively. 

This ])aper was contributed by the Xcrtinvestern Air 
Brake Club. 

Modern Freight Train Handling 

Hard and fast rules for train handling cannot be pro])- 
erlv applied to country wide conditions, or even in a gen- 
eral sense to individual trains: much dejjends on main- 
tenance of ef|uipnient. much on the original design ami 
much on the judgment used in the actual ojjeration of 
trains. Where the original installation of e<|uii)ment is 
corrcctiv made, the maintenance up to tlie ]ni>\KT standard 



1.^2 



KAILVVAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



May. lv_ 



.iiiil the maiiiinilation in oimptlcnt hands, satis facton- 
I'licratinj.; rcsnlts will \>v nlitaincd. 

itrakinji Trains up tn 150 tars. .\ll Loads or .Ml V.mp- 
'.iis. with .\utoinatic .\i)])liiation. i'ractically Level Terri- 
tory, Normal Trartk Conditions. — Vour ciminiittee reconi- 
intiids that whin niakinji service stops, the throttle he 
;;radually closetl to hetween '/S and '4 of its working; 
voliinK'. and a hrake pijte nihiction of from 7 to '' Ih. he 
made as the initial retlnction. .\s sinm as the lirakes 
have applied, which is indicated hy the hlow ceasing' at 
the hrake (lipe e.xhau.^t. and the train slack has l)ecome 
adjusted, ea.xe olT to a driftin},' throttle. 

Where the reduction made ])roves sufficient to c()mi)lete 
the stop, a further reduction of from 7 to •> Ih. should be 
made when not ovi-r 40 ft. from the stojj. in order to start 
the slack to nui in at a lime when it cannot rim out a^ain 
before the stop is completed. If this reduction is cor- 
rectly made, the brake valve will be exhausting brake pipe 
air when the engine stojjs. 

.Should the initial reduction be insulilicient to complete 
the stop, a further reduction of sufficient amount should 
be made. However, the final reduction as above outlined 
should l)e ma<le when not over 40 ft. from the sto]). 

The throttle should be closed just before final reduction 
IS ina<le. When usinjj; .sand in makinj.; sto])s. start its use 
before applyini; the brakes and coiitimu' unlil tlie stop is 
made. 

The brake valve handle must luver lie niuved to lap 
l«)sition and allowed to remain there just previous to mak- 
ing; a service application, nor until after the initial brake 
pipe reduction has been made. This will avoid undesired 
i|uick action, and for the same reason, also avoitl harsh 
slack action; reductions s])ecified above should not be ex- 
ceeded. Where excessive brake |Mi)e leakai;e is present, 
make lis;hter reductions and use steam stufticient to keep 
train slack stretched durint:: the entire stoj). 

When usiiii; the automatic brake to stoj) for water or 
coal, do not attem])t a sjiot sto]). but stoj) short and cut off 
the en.tjine from the train. During the jjcriod the ensjine 
is cut nfi from the train, take advantat^e of the excess 
])ressure feature to accumulate maximum main reservoir 
pressure to aid in releasinj^' and rechargins; the train 
brakes. 

r.rakinii Train of 50 to L50 Cars .Approximately Equally 
Divided as to Loads and KmjJties. — Loads .\head. — We 
ri|.;ree that if loads and empties could be alternated, ideal 
Mperatint; conditions would be approached. However, the 
nece>i.-iarv swi'-'hini; would create inexcusable train move- 
ment delay. Trains composed of loads ahead and empties 
behind can he satisfactorily operated under the alx)ve 
specified rules of brakini^;. iimvided sufficient steam is 
used to keej) the slack well stretched durinj; brake action, 
and the locomotive brake is kejit relea.sed. 

lirakiufj Trains of 50 to LSO Cars .\i)proximately 
L(|ually Divided as to Loads and l-'mpties. ^Empties 
.\head. — Your committee lielieves that harsh slack action 
in trains of such make-up is. under certain conditions, 
unavoidable, and recommends that the make-up of such 
trains l)e chan,ned. ^>witchinJ4■ from -.i to '4 of the emi)ties 
Ijehind the loads. The same brakinsj^ rules as alx)ve sjieci- 
fied. to be followed. i)articularly as tn the extent of the 
brake i)ii)e reductions made, the workint; of sufficient 
steam to prevent slack action, and keepint; the locomotive 
brakes released. 

Train Stops With Locomotive Brakes. — When makini^^ 
a driftinij; sto]). or a slow down, on level territory, where 
tralfic conditions permit, in the absence of rules to the 
contrarv. the stoj) or slow dowii may be made with the 
locomotive brake. Due care must be used to avoid severe 
train slack action which causes severe shocks to draft 
ritrainir and alst) to avoid overheatint; tires. I'nder 



such conditions, water and coal .st<i]» may Ik- ma^' 
without detachin}.( engine from train. 

Releasinf.j .\fter .\utoniatic Service .\i)j)lications, L'nd( 
the .Above .Stated Conditions. — Release must not Ix- :i; 
iemi)te(l when less than a total reduction of LS lb. h;i- 
been made. Assumin^j that the air comjiressor, the main 
reservoir, and the feed valve ca|)acity are sufticient to suv 
])ly the re<|uir<(l volume nf air to effect the release ai 
that the brake i)ii)e leakage is not excessive, objectional' 
overchartjin}^ of the head end will lie avrnded if during; tli 
release the Itrake valve handle is not left in relea.«e im>- 
tion lon;,'er than fifteen seconds. I'se the "kick off" oi 
or more times until the head brakes do not rea])])ly. 

When the brakes are a])i)lied on a train of fifty or mo- 
cars, movinjj at a s])eed of le.ss than 15 miles an hour, tin 
.".hnuld be held on until the train is sto])])e«l. This does n- 
ajijily to j^rade .service when retaininj; valves are in u-' 

.\fter the brakes have been released and the trai 
started, avoided moving; the brake valve handle from ni; 
ninji ]M)sition to release ])i»ition. unless it is known tli 
.Mime brakes have rea]t])lied. The unnecessary use of tl 
"kick off" nKjvement causes an overcharjje and is then' 
a prolific source of brakes creejiinj^' on, or reajiplyin^; ai 
causiti!.;; wheel damaj;e. 

Back-Up Movement. — When makini^ a back-uj) mo\( 
nicnt with 30 cars or more, and it is desired to make 
.service stop, eni^ineman will ai)])ly brakes lightly, usii 
steam until a stoj) is made, keepini^ the engine brakes v 
leased. Where adverse j^rade condition> jirevail to an ex- 
tent where the running out of slack camiot lie avoided and 
there is danger of the train breaking in two. the braV. 
ajjplication should be made from the rear end <jf the tr.i 
liy a suitable back uj) hose arrangement, or a sufficii ■ 
number of hand brakes should l>e a]>i)lied on the c; ■ 
farthest from the locomotive to prevent damage fr^ 1 
iiarsh slack action. 

Train Handling on Grades: — We assume that all r.i 
roads with heavy grades have their own rule>. the result 
of years of ex])crience. to govern the handling of trains. j 

Double Heading and IIel])er Service. — When diuililf 
heading, the engineman on the second engine shot;' 
always allow the train to lie started by the engineman 
the leading engine if jxissible. before he begins to wo: 
.steam. Starting both engines at the same time will cau- 
a severe shock if slack is bunched. 

With the hel])er engine at the rear of a train, its engiiii 
man should be the first to use steam in starting, using tli 
same care as he would if starting the train with an engine 
on the head end. The head engineman should start 
])rom])tly and carefully when the slack has been ])ushe(l in 
in the hel])er engine or when it is evident that the helper 
viigine has stalled. 

In the absence of sjiecial rules governing backing move- 
ments on a grade, with hel])er engine on rear end of 
train — such as hacking in, or backing out of a siding — the 
hel])er engine should be considered the lead engine and 
should o]X'rate the brakes. .\ full understanding must be 
had before the hel])er engine assumes the control of train 
movement, and before the head engine relinquishes the 
control by cutting out the brake valve. During such 
movements, care should be exercised to prevent an over- 
charge of the brakes on the rear end of train. 

When double-heading, or when using a Iiel])er on the 
rear end of a train, except in cases as sjiecified alxjve. 
while governing backing movements, the brake valve on 
the .second or hel])er engine, nnist be cut out from the 
brake ])i])e : this to give the lead engineman control of the 
brakes. 

In no case will the second engine of a double header or 
a helper engine assist in charging the train during brake 
tests or during a train movement. 



Mav, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



133 



Air brakes must not he depended on to hold the train 
when a stop is made on a grade. Release the air brakes 
and liold the train with hand brakes. When ready to 
start, the hand brakes must not be released unless the air 
brakes are fully recharged. 

Slacking. — When necessarx- to take slack in starting. 
endeavor to take either a tout or two. on the slack of the 
entire train. Apply the independent brake to hold the 
engine while reversing. On a grade where necessary to 
take the slack, sufficient hand brakes must be applied to 
prevent the rear end from running back and causing 
damage. 

With a helper at the rear, the slack should be pushed 
forwanl until the helper is stalled and be held there. The 
lead engine will then bunch the slack from the head end 
against slack being held by the helper engine, .\pplv the 
independent brake on the lead engine while reversing it. 
then start the train carefully, on sand, to avoid slipping. 

Thermal Hrake Test. — The thermal or wheel tem- 
perature lirake test is the most accurate method of deter- 
mining iirake efficiency. After descending a grade, the 
hotter the wheels the more braking was done, and any 
car that has cold wheels proves the inefficiency of the 
brakes on that car: as the braking force of a car is in 
proportic)n to its emjity weight, the cars with the greatest 
empty weight in any ])articular train will have the highest 
wheel temjierature where the brakes on all cars are in 
equally good condition. 

The thermal te.-^t should be made where conditions favor. 
such as where sto])s are made to cool wheels, and cars with 
either cold or excessively hot wheels should be carded to 
indicate the brake condition. 

General. — Your committee recommends for the avoid- 
ance of overheated wheels, stuck brakes and slid flat 
wheels, that a careful observance of the methods sug- 
gested herein for brake mani])ulation be strictly l(jllowed, 
particularly in the attempted release of brakes when they 
have l)een lightly apjjlied. Under no conditions, after 
either a stop or a slow down has been made, should a re- 
lease of brakes be attempted when a total brake pipe re- 
duction of less than 15 lb. has been made. 

The .so-called "graduating off" of freight train brakes 
is often res])onsible for wheel damage, due to tiie brakes 
with the best holding power remaining a])])lied. which 
forces them to assume the entire duty of train retardation, 
because the brakes with the least holding power will have 
released. In many cases the "kicking off" of some brakes 
in the train will not i)roduce harsh slack action and this 
objectionable practice has received sanction in some locali- 
ties. The safely of the wheels should be one of the gov- 
erning factors of train brake operation, and your com- 
mittee for this reason condemns the practice of the so- 
called "graduating t)ff" of freight train brakes. 

Trains Parting 

If a train parts while in motion, the engineman nnist 
shut off stfam immediately and place the brake valve 
handle in lap ])osition, releasing with the indejjendent 
brake, if necessary, to jjrcvent the wheels from sliding. 

L'nder no circumstances must a locomotive be reversed 
while )>ower brakes are applied, .\fter an emergency aj)- 
plication occurs, from any cause, do not attem]>t to release 
the brakes until the train has slojiijed. I'.rakes so a]3i)lied 
on long trains are difficult to release, and care should be 
cxercisefl in the maniinilation of the brake valve during 
release, and the trainmen shoulfl note i)articularly thai 
the brake on each car has released. 

Inflpection en Hoiite 

When leaving a terminal or stations where the engine 
has JK-en cut off, or where switching has been done, en- 



ginemen should maintain a speed of not to exceed eight 
miles an hour for a full train length. An inspector or 
trainman should lie stationed on the ground at the head 
end of train and remain there while the entire train passes 
him and he will not permit the train to proceed unless all 
brakes are released. This rule also should apply at all 
inspection points and at coal and water stops. 

At terminals where yard testing plants are used to 
charge train brakes, frequent checking to insure that cor- 
rect testing pressure is maintained should be made. If an 
overcharge of train brakes has occurred, owing to ton 
high testing plant pressure, the brake must be applied with 
sufficient reduction to bring the overcharge down to nor- 
mal, before the road engine is coupled to the train. 

.\t the terminals not equipped with yard testing plants, 
where the brake test is made from the engine, due care 
should be exercised to avoid overcharging the brakes dur- 
ing release by leaving the brake valve handle too long in 
release position. When releasing brakes at terminals, or 
during train movement, overcharging will be avoided by 
observing the rules for releasing. 

On arrival at terminals, to aid the inspectors in making 
the incoming brake test, engineman should stretch the free 
slack out of train, and apply the brakes with a 25-lb. 
brake pipe reduction before the engine is cut off. Angle 
cocks should not be closed and air hose separated until 
engineman gives signal that l<rake pipe reduction is 
completed. 

To avoid damage imposed by excessive strains due to 
pulling air hose apart, they should in all cases be un- 
coupled by hand. This rule should be carefully observed 
bv trainmen at stations en route where the engine is un- 
coupled or switching is done. The failure to uncouple 
hose by hand is the most common cause for the increase of 
brake pipe leakage after departure from terminals. 

Paper contributed by the St, Louis .\ir Brake Club. 



Fuel Costs Increase Slightly 

.A statement prepared by the National Coal .Association 
from the monthly reports of Class I railroads to the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission, shows that the average cost 
i)t coal used by those railroads in locomotives in transpor- 
tation train service during March was a little above the 
February figure. The averages for the different districts 
are as follows: Eastern District, $2.72: Southern District, 
$2,22; Western District. $2,93; entire United States, 
$2.65. 

These averages indicate an increase of S0.03 per ton in 
the Eastern Di.strict, $0.01 per ton in the Southern Dis- 
trict ; $0.02 in the Western District, and S0.02 fnr the 
whole United .States. 

ComiKired with similar averages for March ot l''2.-i 
there is a decrease of $0.14 per ton in the I'.astern Dis- 
trict ; .$0.1'^ in the Southern District ; $0.18 in the Western 
District, and $0.17 for the whole countrv. 



Northwestern Exhibits Oil-Electric 

The C"hicago and N'orthwestern Railroad recently re- 
ceived from the .Schenectady works of the ( ieneral Electric 
Com])any its lirst oil-electric locomotive. Although sev- 
eral of these locomotives have been jilacrd in service In- 
eastern roads, this is the first oil-electric tu be oper.ilid In 
a railroad west of the .Mlegheny mountains. ( )n M;iy ^. 
the oil-electric was ])lace(l on exhibition at the Chicago \- 
N'orthwestern terminal in Chicago, where it was visited 
bv thousands of the jniblic and interested railway men. 
The locomotive is .32 ft. 6 in, long, 10 ft. wide. 14 ft. 7 in. 
high, and weighs f)0 tons. The starting tractive pmver 
is ,36.000 lbs,, at 30 ]K-r cent factor of adhesion. 



The Detenniiiation of Height of the Center of Gravity ol 

Cars and Loeoinotives 



Hv (;i:(). I.. FOWLKR 



A few years a^o in the course i>f an analysis for the 
(leterniination of the causes of a serious railway accident, 
it liecanie necessary to ascertain the heij^ht of the center 
of i^ravity of certain cars tliat were susix-cled of causin>^ 
the accident hy overturninj;. 

The nietliod used was that of a direct nieasuremeiit and 
was so simple and ai)i)arent that. tli(msj;h it was original, 
it seemed ini]>nil)able that il wuul<l iiui occur to anyone 
iiavin^ sucii a detcniiinalion to make. 

Recently, however, attention has heeii called to the fact 
that it is common practice to calculate the height of the 
center of gravity of cars and locomotives instead of meas- 
uring it, hence this exiilanation of the simple method that 
was used, which is much more rapid and accurate than 
anv calculation based upon the weights and relative loca- 
tions of the several i)arts entering into the structure can 




Method of Deter 



Height of Center of Gravity 



jxjssibly be. Take a car truck for example, it is coniiMised 
of a number of parts of complicated and irregijlar shapes 
the determination of the location of where individual cen- 
ters of gravity either by suspension of measurement would 
])e a long and tedious process. And when it comes to tlie 
locomotive with the multitude of pieces entering into its 
running gear the difficulty of the proi)leni is immeasure- 
ablv increa.sed, to which is added the complication of the 
jMisition of the crank-pins, for it is evident that the center 
of gravitv of the engine is higher with the two cranks in 
the upper (juarters than when the\ are in the lower 
(|uarters. 

The method here set forth makes ])ossible a direct 
nuasure of the weight of the center of gravity, accurately 
and with a minimum of simple calculation. 

The principle of the method is that of tilting the vehicle 
on one side and determining the relation between the 
weight thus imposed on the lower wheels and the vehicle 
as a whole. 

This principle will be understood by a reference to the 



acconi])anying diagram, in which .7 and B are the {xjints 
of snpiMjrt on a level track ; B C the anicjunt that one si<lc 
is raised. D G is drawn ix;rpendicular to the center 
the line A B and F II i)er])endicidar to the center of i 
line . / C. The angle // /■ C or b will then i)e equal tu 
the angle B A C or a. 

The vehicle is first weighed while standing on a track 
with both rails on the same level as at .] and B, when, if 
the vehicle is symetrical one-half of the weight will l)e 
sui>ix)rted at A. < )ne side is then raised to a height B C 
and the weight then resting on . / determined. 

The weight on the lower rail at A will then be to the 
weight on the higher jMjint at C inversely as the horizontal 
distance between the center of gravitv and the two rails •■•■ 
Weight at .;.• weight at B = B E: A B 

brom this the displacement of the center of gra\) 
from the center of the track, due to the tilting or the di-- 
tance D II is detemiined. 

The size of the angle of elevation it is obtained by divid- 
ing the amount of elevation B C by the distance A C b<- 
tween the points of wheel supjxjrts. 

Then by dividing the lateral displacement of the center 
of gravity D E =^ G H by the sine of the angle of eleva- 
tion (7 we obtain the distance // /•" which will be the height 
of the center of gravity desired. 

For example, supjxise the distance between the centers 
of the railheads to l)e taken as 58.5 in. and that the lift 
BC is 7 in. then 

7 

sine (7 = = .11966 

58.5 

Xext suppose that the total weight of the car on the 
scales is 100.000 lbs. and that the weight on the lower rail, 
when the car is tilted, is 65.900 lbs. 

Then 
65,900 : 34,100 = .r : 58.5 — .r 



3,855,150 — 65,900 -r = 
or 

3,855,150 



34.100 .r 



100.000 .1- 

Then 
.1- = 38.55 + hi. 
in which 

.1- = the horizonta 
one of the rails. 

The lateral dis])lacenient 
is therefore. 

3S.55 — 29.25 
and 

9.35 9.35 



listance of the center of gravity fi' 

f the center of gravity (/// 
5 = 9.35 in. 

= 78.14 in. 



sine a .11966 

In determining the center of gravity of car.s- or any 
si>ring-supi)orted vehicle liy this means care should lie 
taken to so block the s])rings that they are inoi)erative. 
Else when the car is tilted the s])rings on the low side, 
owing to the extra weight that is put u]x)n them, will 
yield more than the normal amount and thus cause an 
extra tilting of the car and with it an exaggeration of the 
lateral disi)lacement of the center of gravity, which will 
result in an apparent increase of height that does not 
exist. 

Tf the centers of gravitv of tenders or locomotives are 



Ms 



1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



135 



to be determined the work should, first, l^e done with an 
empty tank or boiler. Then by weighing the vehicle while 
on a level track and filling it gradually with water, and 
weighing with the latter at different levels, the center of 




Position of Centers of Gravity of Light and Loaded Car 

i;ravity ni the whole may Ix- ()i)taiiied by a calculation 
l»ased u]>i>n the ratios Ijetween tiic em])ty Intilcr and tank 
and the centers of gravity of the several increments of 
water used in filling. 

For e.xaniple, supjwse the height of the center of gravity 
of a tender empty is 4 ft. 6 in. and the 
height of the bottom of the tank is 4 ft. ; 
that the weight of the tender empty is 
XO.OOO and the area of the iKjttoni of the 
tank 2(XJ sq. ft. Then the weight of 
water une foot deep in the tank would 
Ik; about 12.500 lbs. The center of 
gravity nf this mass wiiuld \>f 4 ft. 6 in 
al)Ovi- tile rail, so thai that of the whole 
would not bi- ciianged. but the addition of 
anotlur foot to the depth of the water 
would rai^e its center of gravity to 5 ft. 

liove the rail and that of the whole 

' liicle to 4 ft. 7.43 in. l)ecause the cen- 
ters f.l Ljravity of the vehicle and the 
water would be 6 in. apart and that of the 
combinatifpn of the two would Ix- alK)ve 
that of the vehicle alone in the inverse Blocking Arrang 
ratio <.f SO.fKXJ to 25,000. or 1.4.S in. 

The >econfl diagram shoVvs the jxjsition of the centers 

I gravity <if the light and loaded car involved in the 
accident referred to in the ojiening ])aragraph. In 
this ca>e the placinij of 95 seated and standing i)assengers 
in the car raised its center of j.;ravity about 17 in. thus 
very materially increasing its tendency to overturn. 

The ]>rincii)le embodied in this method is practically the 

• ime as that user! in the determination of the metacentric 



height of boats ; that is the distance between the center 
of gravity of the boat itself and that of the water which 
it displaces. This determination is made by hanging a 
plumb line at the bow and stern and noting its f)osition 
when the Ixiat is on an e\en keel. Then weights are 
moved toward the rail, their distance from the center 
measured, together with the heel of the ship as shown by 
the angularity indicated by the plumb lines. In this case the 
calculation is made by the use of the cotangent, as its 
great leng-th for the slight angle that the boat is careened 
is subject to a smaller percentage of error than either the 
sine or cosine. 

It is lielieved that the use of this method will not only 
greatly lessen the time required for the determination but 
add to the accuracy of the results, besides giving the con- 
fidence of a certainty instead of the hazard of a guess 
that is more than liable to error. 

As for the practical method of doing the work it will 
vary with the facilities available. If jxjrtable scales that 
will weigh each wheel are at hand, and there are enough 
to assign one to each wheel of the car or engine, the work 
will Ije greatly simplified. The wheels can lie weighed 
and those for the lower side left upon the scales, while 
the scale jacks can be used for raising the wheels upon 
the other side. 

.\s these scale jacks rarely have a lift of more than 
1 ' < in. it will be well to Uft and block and then lift again 
until the elevated wheels have l>een raised at least 6 in. 
Then the final weighing can be done on the lower scales. 

If only ordinary track scales are available the work is 
a little more troublesome. In the case referred to, such 
was the case and the following method was followed : 

The car was run ujxjn the scales and weighed and then 
loaded with 95 passengers and weighed again. One side 
was then jacked up and held there while the supports for 
the elevated rail were put in place. These consisted of 
blocking put ujxjn the ground outside of the scale plat- 
form and on this Itlocking a number of supporting rails 
were placed at the ends of each track. A rail was then 
susjjended from these supixjrting rails by means of hook 
bolts passing through steel strii>s resting on the heads of 
the latter as shown in the engraving. 

The car was then lowered so that its wheels rested upon 




j/^£ e.Let'^T/o/v 




£a/0 £.LCt^MT/OM 

-lent for Determining Center of Gravity With Ordinary Track Scales 

the suspended rail, wliose iieiijlit above the scale rail was 
then measured, 'i'his gave the height of elevation corre- 
sponding to H C of the cliagram. The only weight then 
)>ut u|M)n the scales was that on the lower rail, which was 
taken and the height of the center of gravity determined 
as already indicated. Any other method of supjxjrting the 
elevated wheels will answer provided it is indeiKJiident of 
the scales. 



Avoidiiiii; Train and Train Service Accidents 

A Report to tlw Safety Section of tlic Ainrricaii Hallway Association 
By C I.. I.;iri>iinliiiiii'. (hiutuI Safety Supervisor, (in-at Nortliern Railway 



The records for tlie railroads for the United States 
show a total of i2,,?63 train accidents resuhin^' in 219 
fatalities and 1,491 injuries to employes and 41 fatalities 
and 2,125 i)assenji;crs injured. This represents fourteen 
\>CT cent of the total employe fatalities, one ixrr cent of 
the injured, forty-one per ceiu of the fatalities to pas- 
sengers and thirty-live |)er cent of the injuries. 

The most fre(|uent causes of train accidents are de- 
railments and collisions. 

Derailments resulted in 99 fatalities and 658 injuries 
.to employes and 30 fatalities and 1.113 injiuMes to i)as- 
scng-ers— while collisions resulted in 85 fatalities and 720 
injuries to employes and 1 1 fatalities and 987 injuries to 
ixissengcrs. 

It will he seen, therefore, that these two causes were 
re.sjKinsible for all except 35 of the fatal accidents to 
empUiyes and 113 of the injuries — all of the fatal ac- 
cidents to i)asseng;ers and all e.xcejjt 25 of the injuries 
in train accidents. 

Derailment Causes 

Causes of derailments are shown under four headinsjs : 

Negligence of employes, 10 i)er cent of the accidents. 

Defects in or failures of equiiMiient, 47 per cent of the 
accidents. 

Defects in or improper maintenance of way and struc- 
tures, 26 |>er cent of the accidents. 

Miscellaneous causes, 17 per cent of the accidents. 

The most frequent causes of derailment under negli- 
gence of employes were on account of switches beinjj 
set in wnint;; position, switches run through, running off 
derail and tailin-es to latch or secure switch lever. This 
should inii)ress us with the importance of watching 
switches more clo.sely to see that they are properly set 
at all times, switch levers in ]jropor ]>osition and main 
line switches are locked. 

I wish to mention also under this heading the accidents 
due to the disregard of fixed signals. Wliile these acci- 
dents are not .so numerous as the once ])rcviously men- 
tioned, they are of a more serious nature, resulting in 
5 fatalities and 43 injuries to employes and 312 injuries 
to passengers. 

The two outstanding cati.ses of derailments, due to 
defect in. or fadure of e(|uii)ment, are arch bars, lx)lts, 
etc., hcnt, broken or other failure and cast iron wheels 
broken, overheating and other causes, many of which 
could be eliminated by more frecjuent or more efficient 
insjjection. thereby correcting the condition licfore it be- 
comes dangerous. 

The most ])revalent causes of derailments due to im- 
proper maintenance of way and structures, are first : 
insufficient, excessive or uneven super-elevation of track 
and imjwoiK'r alignment and surface of track, which 
accounts for nearly ten \^r cent of the derailments. 
This condition is brought aI)out by failure of the inen 
assigned to this work to see that it is ]jro]x>rly taken care 
of. Rroken rails are second in importance. This, how- 
ever, is a condition which we find difficidt to detect, even 
by carefid inspection, once the i^ail is laid in the track. 
The solution seems to lie in the use of belter material 
and rolling of the rails at the mills. Third in imiwrtance 
is rails spreading becau.se of joints loosely or im])roperly 
l)olted ; another ctmditifm brought aliout by improi)er 
supervision and maintenance. 



The miscellaneous causes comprise 7^ different head- 
ings, imder which the accidents are (|uite evenly divided, 
resulting in 2.522 derailments, causing 79 facilities and 
injuring 295 employes, and 4 fatalities and 42*' injuries 
to jKissengers. which indicates they are deser\ing of 
careful study. 

L"ollisions resulted in 5.166 accidents, resulting in 99 
fatalities to employes and injuries 821 ami 11 fatalities 
to ]>assengers and injuries 987 which reiiresents five per 
cent of the total emjjloyes killed and half of one per cent 
of tho.se injured, and .seven ])er cent of the jKis.sengers 
killed and sixteen per cent of those injured. 

The causes of collisions are shown under four head- 
ings, the same as derailments. The first, negligence of 
employes, caused 4,488 accidents or eighty-six j)er cent 
of the total collisions, resulting in 85 fatalities and 685 
injuries to employes and 11 fatalities and 873 injuries 
to passengers. 

While 1 believe too much stress has lieen i)l,-iced on 
collision accidents, es[)ecially by the press, I feel it is 
imiMjrtant here to impress ujion you the fact that these 
accidents are nearly all due to negligence of the em- 
])loye ; and the ]>ersonnel of your train, engine and yard- 
men is the factor to be considered in eliminatig these 
accidents. 

We find that sixt3- per cent of the total numljer of col- 
lisions is due to switching accidents, the i)rinci])al causes 
being failure to properly control cars or secure them 
with hand brakes, switches, set in the wrong position, 
improper handling of cars or locomotives in switching 
or coupling, failure to keep projier lookout, absence of 
a man on front of leading car being jnished and failure 
of parties supervising work to see that it is done properly. 

Second in im]X)rtance, so far as injuries are concerned, 
are head-on collisions and third rear-end collisions, the 
two resulting in 53 fatalities and 342 injuries to em- 
])loyes and 10 fatalities and 847 injuries to ixissengers, 
])rincipally due to impro])er train flagging, disregarding 
fixed signals, mishandling of train orders, failure to run 
with propor caution in yard limits and excessive speed 
in violatifin of orders. 

It is encouraging that we have had a decrease of over 
fifty percent in the number of train accidents caused 
by collisions and over thirty-five yicT cent in the numlx-r 
caused by derailments comjjared with the record made 
five years ])reviously. It is further of interest that tin 
decreases have been very imiform for each of the four 
causes shown. The largest decrease, however, was in 
accidents due to defects in or failure of equipment. 
L'nder this one cause we show a decrease of sixty per 
cent in the number of collisions and fortv ])er cent in the 
numlier of derailments. 

L'nder this heading we find that we had 46,829 acci- 
dents resulting in 1,027 fatalities and 30.910 injuries to 
employes and 108 fatalities and 3.229 iiijiu-ies to pas- 
sengers. This is sixty-eight per cent of the total fatalities 
to employes and twenty-three ]K'r cent of the total in- 
juries and seventy per cent of the total fatalities to ])as- 
sengers and fifty-three per cent of the total injuries, 
from this it will be noted that train service accidents 
are more than twice as fre(|uent as train accidents and 
naturally result in a much larger inimber of fatal acci- 
dents and injuries. 

The causes for train service accidents are groui)ed 



1.36 



May, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



137 



under ten headings. The most frequent cause of fatal 
accidents to employes is due to being struck or run over 
bv cars or engines, other than at highway grade cross- 
ings. This one cause alone resulted in 388 fatalities to 
cniplo\es, over thirty-seven per cent of the total em- 
ployes killed in train service accidents. Under this cause 
we also find 25 passengers were killed and 59 injured. 
From a careful study of this cause of accidents, we find 
that they are due. with few exceptions, to the failure on 
the part of thuse concerned to exercise reasonable care 
and caution. It would have required only a little thought 
and effort on the part of those injured to eliminate this 
large numlier nf injuries. 

Second in importance are accidents due to coupling or 
imcoupling locomotives or cars. Here we find 72 fatal 
accidents to employes zuul 1.5M2 injuries. There has been 
so much said and written about accidents due to this 
cause, that it would ajipear to be only a repetition to say 
more on the subject, lait I know from m)' own personal 
experience in yard and train service that with the modern 
coupling and uncoupling devices with which all cars and 
ItKomotives are ei|uipi5ed at the present time, there is 
absolutely no justification for this large toll in death and 
injury. The large ])ercentage of them is not only due 
to violation of oi^erating rules, but they are the result of 
reckless and careless jwactices which the men have ac- 
c|uired and to which they have become so accustomed 
that they do their work in this manner without realizing 
the dangerous chances they are taking. 

The most frequent causes of injuries to employes, and 
third in importance so far as fatal accidents are con- 
cerned, are due to getting on and off cars or locomotives. 
These causes resulted in 62 fatalities and 6.564 injuries 
to employes. 

We know there is an element of danger in getting on 
or off cars and engines, especially while moving, and I 
appreciate many of the accidents shown under this head- 
ing occurred when every reasonable care was exercised 
on the part of the employe. We further know that a 
large percentage of them could have been avoided by 
doing only what common sense and good judgment would 
have suggested and which experience has taught to many. 
This cau.se also resulted in 61 fatalities and 1,304 in- 
juries to ])assengers ; seventy per cent of the total fatali- 
ties and over fifty-three ])er cent of the tot.nl injuries in 
train service accidents. 

'ITiis alone is of sufficient importance to justify a care- 
ful study on the i)art of each safety officer as well as the 
management of his road, to see that our present method 
of kjading and unloading passengers is as safe as it is 
]x»ssible to make it, and if so that the employes whose 
fhilies re(|uirc them to handle this work, perform this 
service with maximum efficiency. 

.\'ext in im]jortance is operating hjconiotives, resulting 
in 5,878 accidents causing 20 fatalities and 5,877 injuries 
to employes, l-'alling I)ecause of failure to secure a safe 
footholrj or band liokl caused twenty per cent fif these 
injuries, including half the fatal accidents. Alert atten- 
tion on the ]jart of the individual will be found the great- 
est factor in preventing such accidents. 

i'ailure of mechanical rlevices either through defect or 
faulty o])eration, while shaking grates, dum])ing a.sh ]>ans, 
o]K-rating reverse levers, etc., caused 551 injuries and the 
failure tf) give warning, or use |)roi)er care before moving 
locomotives caused injury to 351 employes. 

.\ow that I have told you about the number <jf accidents 
and sf)me of the |)rinci|)al causes, the mimber of em- 
ployes and i)assengers killed and injured in train service 
accidents. I should like to leave this though with you : 

In order to make a substantia! reduction in this class 



of accidents, it is essential that our railroad be in good 
physical condition with a safe roadbed and rolling stock. 
lUit this is not so important as are the employes who 
man it. The adequate training of new men is a vital 
element in accident pi'evention. Many men have entered 
the railroad service with sufficient ability to become 
efficient and safe railroad men. but thev have caused many 
an accident through the failure of those charged with the 
duty of informing them properly to advise and train them 
when they were learning the work. The most efficient 
method of performing work will always be found to be 
the safest and I should recommend that young men 
entering the service, be given the best possible training. 
If this is done, I am confident we shall be able to show 
even a larger reduction in train and and train service 
accidents in the future. 



The Elimination and Protection of Grade 
Crossings 

The Xati(inal Conference <in Street and Highway 
Safety, in its final reix)rt, has this to say on the subject 
of eliminating and protecting grade crossings : 

Elimination of grade crossings, either by relocation of 
highways or rail lines or by grade separation which con- 
stitutes the only perfect solution of the problem, should 
be carried on under a proper program, first eliminating 
the most dangerous crossings on thoroughfares carrying 
heavy traffic, and with due recognition of the enormous 
costs involved which, if elimination were attempted on a 
wholesale scale, would imix>se an excessive financial bur- 
den resting in the last analysis upon the pubdic. The 
program should have due regard to the relative costs and 
advantages of grade crossings elimination and other 
methods of protection, and should be given the most 
thorough joint consideration by proper authority. In 
laying out new highways or railroads, or relocating exist- 
ing highways or railroads, grade crossings should be 
avoided or eliminated whenever feasible. In eliminating 
grade crossings narrow or obstructed underpasses ancl 
sharp turns in the approaches thereto should be avoided. 
Authority to in-der grade sei^arations or pro])er protection 
at grade crossings should be vested in the commission 
having jurisdiction over the railways and this commission 
sliould also determine the proper division of costs Ijetween 
the railroads and the public. The state highway depart- 
ment or other highway authorities shoulcl plan the im- 
provement and initiate the proceedings for all highways 
under its juristliction. Time is an essential element 
and a i)n)nipt dccisicin should be provided for in the 
law. 

K;iilroad crossings remaining at grade shoukl l)e .safe- 
guarded in every reasonable way. .Standard warning signs 
and pavemenl markings should be used to mark clearly 
the apijroaches to all public railroad crossings. Where the 
volume of traffic re(|uires it additional protection .should 
be afforded by the use of flagmen, gates or approved 
electric or mechanical devices standardized as far as prac- 
ticable. So far as ])ossible a clear view along the track in 
both dirccti(jns from both sides thereof should be main- 
tained. The placing of railroad cars near unprotected 
gr;ide crossings so that the view is therein' obstructed 
should be discouraged. .Sharp curves, abru|jt changes of 
grade, roughness in the |)avement. or other conditions at 
or nejir the tracks which tend to divert the attention of 
the motorist should be avoi(le<l. Projierly designated 
state commissions should be em|w/w<-ic(l to designate dan- 
gerous grade crossiiii^s at which motorists must sto]). 



138 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



May. 1926 



Rlil^veEniineeriK 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power, 
Rolling Stock and Appliances 



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The jNew Lnion Pacific Locomotive 

If, in tiiese times of rapid clianges and spectacular 
develoj^iients we were in a mental attitude to be aston- 
ished at any thing, it is i)rol)al)le that there would lie a 
universal astonisliment among the railroad fraternity at 
the new engine built by the .\merican Lxxromotive Co. 
for the Union Pacific System and illustrated and described 
in another column of this issue. 

And yet, in a way it is but the outcome of a natural 
development. The Rocket had but one pair of drivers 
though it did have a rigid wheel liase formed by two 
]xiir of wheels and there is little difference, probably, 
whether all the wheels of a rigid wheel base are drivers 
or a portion of their mere carrying wheels. 

Then we have increased the number of driving wheels 
gradually, through the course of a century with oc- 
casional sjwradic jumps ahead, though these sporadic 
develojjments have usually been short lived, until we have 
come to regard si.x and eight pair of drivers as a matter 
of course in tiie Mallet design. But this is in the fonn 
of two independent engines. We accepted the 2-10-2 
wheel arrangement almost as a matter of course, and now 
comes tlie 4-12-2. without creating more than a ripple, 
other than that such a design cannot be brought out with- 
out causing railroad officials to prick up their ears to 
learn as to the road performances of an engine that 
jjromises not only to \ie a simplification of tlie ^iallet de- 
sign but an improvement in the work performed. 

We call it a six-coupled rigid wheel base, and with the 
67 in. wheels used, this means a total wheel liase of 30 ft. 
8 in. The spacing between the five rear pair of drivers 



IS brtjught down to 70 niches which leaves alwut as little 
clearance as is aihnissible between the flanges of wheels 
67 in. in diameter at the trea<ls. Then there is a gap of 
S8 in. between the centers of the two front wheels to 
allow for the introduction of the hnk and the guide yoke 
with its attachments. 

-As a matter of fact there is not a 30 ft. 8 in. ritii' 
wheel base, but one that can scarcely lie called 17 ft. 6 r 
long, this I>ecau.se of the large amount of lateral pla 
given to the journal Ixixes of the front and rear driver 
This is made possible by the ingenious retrieving devi. ■ 
used to bring those wheels l>ack into alinement with tl • 
others when they have Ix-en moved laterallv in jassir _ 
over a curve. 

This drawing of the wheels lack into alinement i- 
probably a very gixxl thing, though a.s a matter of fac 
It has been pretty definitely proven that an e.xcessi\ 
amount of lateral play in the driving boxes. actuall\ 
reduces the truck stresses, on a .straight track, imposed 
by an engine having such play as com]«ared with one ke\-ed 
up to the regulation f^ in. 

The side rods would seem to offer a problem diffici 
of solution with such a long driving wheel base: hi:- 
unmechanical. as these long rods would seem to l)e. tti 
fact is they make no trouble. .A number of vears ag. 
in a long driving wheel base design, rods were mad' 
having spherical joints instead of the simple knuckle pir 
but tlK)se joints gave so much trouble that they "werr 
s(xin abandoned. 

Again on our large engines main crankjiin stresses ha\r 
liecome a serious problem, and heating, especially .: 
new engines, is frequently a source of considerablr 
trouble. It is reasonably ex])ected that the use of 
three cylinders will materially reduce this. ( )f course 
the main crank pin is relieved of a direct main rod thrust, 
liy the amount of the work done by the central cvlinder 
and. in a general way, it might lie 'ex])ected that" the tw 
cuitside cylinders would care for the rotating of tht 
four rear pair of drivers and the center cvlinder 
for the two forward pair, but this can hardlv occur 
throughout a whole revolution, for. at certain jioints of 
the cranks, some of the outside cylinders stresses mu>i 
be carried forward and at others some of the center 
cvlinders stresses must be carried back of the main crank 
pins. This is an interesting analvsis that will prolablv 
lie made public later. 

But when all is said and done "'the proof of the puddinu' 
is in the eating thereof." and the proof of the prolabk- 
success of this engine is in the running thereof. So that 
with a credit of nearly fift\- miles an hmn in sjjeed a high 
tractive eflFort and the easy negotiation of sixteen degree 
curves the remainder must be left to the general economic 
efficiency for the determination of which some time must 
l)e allowed. 



Efficiency and Economy from Improved 

Methods on the Bahiinore & Ohio 

Raihoad 

Xo one questions the fact that in recent years railwavs 
as a whole have been sorely pressed for the necessarv 
capital to provide needed improvements and l)ettennents 
to their i)hysical plant, \\hile there have been cases in 
which the lack of necessary facilities have affected the 
earning jxjwer or ojierating efficiency of some roads as a 
complete transportation unit, at the same time there have 
been other cases wherein large expenditures have been 
made that were not absolutely essential to economic 
operation of the properties, and this applies particularly 



1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



139 



acililies for the maintenance of rolling equipment. 

. some instances, elaborate and expensive shops and 

ihouses have been constructed and equipped at a 

' if from one to three million dollars that were badly 

tr(i and should have l>een provided ten of more 

- before. With others, a very small {>ercentage of 

the amount expended, if intelligentlv applied, in the im- 

I provement of existing shops and with a competent shop 

1 organization, the desired results could have been attained. 

* It was especially gratifying to recently inspect the main 

i locomotive shops of one of our large trunk lines in which 

I a higher degree of shop output and efficiency is obtained 

I with a minimum expenditure for new or improved tools 

I and machinery and practically nothing for new buildings 

and ])ermanent structures. We refer to the 'Sit. Gare 

shi'ps of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, which we had 

the privilege of investigating recently through the 

courtesy of G. H. Emerson. Chief of ^lotive Power of 

that road, and which revealed so many features that 

make for econom\- and efficiency that we hope to make 

them the subjects of future articles in the pages of this 

paper. 

Shops Are Eighty Years Old 

The purpose at this time is not to go into details of 
various angles of shop design, equipment, tools, etc., 
which cfiuld be dealt upon in some length, but to drive 
home the fact that here is one of our leading tnmk lines 
with something like 2.596 locomotives, gross earnings of 
$224,318,794 and which expended last year more than 
$48,0CK),C0O in maintenance and equipment. Yet, their 
main locomotive shops, where they not only make heavy 
classified re]>airs. but, are building new locomotives was 
built m 1845 or over eighty years ago. The princi]>al 
dimensions of these shops, such as length, width, height 
or headrtxim, etc., are precisely as they were when built 
eighty years ago, although the size of locomotives have 
increased many times in that period. P>y the periodic in- 
stallations of the necessary number of imprf)ved tools and 
machinery and a comjxftent .shop organization, the output 
and degree of economy is equal to, if not ahead of, the 
shojjs of some of the carriers that discarded as out of date 
and antif|uated shops that were Iniilt thirty or forty years 
after the Mt. Oare shops of the Baltimore & Ohio. 

Increased Output 

The output and classified re])airs has been increased 
from ly, to 3 engines per day or about 900 jx-r year, the 
heavy or class two reixiirs frequently being as high as 
thirty-five or forty new fireboxes per month. It is ex- 
pected that with the installation of improved machinery 
and a slight increase of working force, the output of these 
shops will l)e increased to 4 engines per day or more than 
1,100 ]x;r year. 

The organization of the working forces and the sys- 
temizing of the work were the two main features in this 
imf>roved condition. 

\\Tiat may seem strange to many shopmen is the prac- 
tice of stripping all locomotives on tracks outside and 
adjacent to the shop itself, so that the .shops are used only 
for repair and construction work. Then the machine 
work is so routed that as the engine is moved to its 
location or position on the erecting tracks, the finished 
jjarts are delivered at that point for assembly with a 
minimum expenditure of time, lab<jr, and other costs. 
The finished unit comes out for service tests and is actually 
lock in revenue producing service in a much shorter 
jieriod of time and a corresp<')ndingly Ifer, cost per imit 
of repair than is the case with many shops of compara- 
tively rer'>nt construction that have cost several million 
dollars. 



There are other important factors in both operation 
and maintenance of locomotives which is is hoped will 
have reached a stage of development in the near fuuire 
to permit their presentation in a future issue of this paper. 



Strange Tilings Happen on Railways 

Those who have had to do with railways or railwav 
men over any considerable period of time can recall nu- 
merous instances in their own personal experience, or of 
stories narrated by others, of accidents or happenings that 
in some instances seemed almost if not quite impossible. 

Doubtless many of these stories were true, while with 
some it was necessary to provide more than the proverbial 
"few grains of salt"' in order to swallow them. 

Drawing slightly on our memor\-. we recall the stor\- 
of a freight train leaving one station with a given numlier 
of cars, and after passing at high speed over a ven,- 
crooked stretch of track in a mountainous countrv, arrived 
at another station with two cars less in the train. Ques- 
- tion : Where were the two missing cars and how did this 
happen? What might be considered a companion to this 
story is the one with respect to a passenger train which 
on approaching a regular station stop, the whistle having 
been sounded by the engineer, was suddenly suljjected 
to quite a jar or shock accompanied bv a loud report as of 
that of an explosion. The train however moved on and 
slightly past the station platform, where it stopped minus 
the locomotive. Question : Where was the missing loco- 
motive and how did this happen? 

\\ e can then pass b}- quite a supply of stories such as 
that of the freight conductor who among many others 
was being pinned down in a loss and damage claim against 
the company as to exact condition of a certain freight car 
that he. as conductor, had handled. In order to make out 
an unshakeable alibi for himself he made affidavit that in 
the particular case he had sensed a very valuable shipment 
and to make sure of its proper care and jjrotection he had 
I^rsonally inspected the car. and noted particularly that 
the seals were intact on both side and end doors, and that 
none (jf them showed any evidence of having been tam- 
pered with. We may draw on our imagination as to the 
degree of embarrassment of our Sir Gallihad conductor, 
when infonned from headquarters that the car in question 
was "a flat car."' 

Coming to the more serious and possible things that 
some claim may and do at times occur, we can jiass In- 
such conmion])lace incidents as a locomotive casting or 
throwing a tire when at high sjieed and continuing right 
along for six or eight miles. At a regular stop the en- 
gineer discovered the loss by accident. 

Cracked cylinders and cylinder saddles is and has been 
one of the most interesting, perplexing, and expensive fea- 
tures of locomotive design, construction and maintenance 
that has occui)icd the nunds of the foremost engineers 
and founders in this country. The various methods em- 
])loyed to cither i)revent failure from these causes or to 
repair defects and thus continue engines in service call 
for nnich favoraI)le comment and jjraise, yet we still have 
this all inqxirtant problem of cylinder failures to cope 
with. 

To attempt to enumerate the number of cases in which 
locomotives were held in roundhouses or put in back shops 
for repairs on account of cracked cylinders or cylinder 
saddles, would simply be im]xjssible as it seems to be a 
disease ]K-cuIiar to the sjK-cies. 

In all our experience, we have known of only one case 
of a cylinder actually dropping off of a locomotive while 
the engine was pulling a heavy tonnage train at a speed of 
8 to 10 miles \)cr hour. 

This was a large modern Santa I"e tyjie engine with 



KAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



May, 1926 



cylinders 2'' x 32, weijjlit alicnit 300,000 and tractive 
l)i)we'r of alxiui 75,tXXJ lbs. Tcital weif,;ht of enj^int- and 
ti-ndiT al)out 5X0,000 llis. 

\\ (.' personally ins|)ecte<l the broken ])arls of this cylin- 
der and cylinder saddle, also the broken, bent and twistefl 
>i<le and main rods and therefore speak from ])ersonal 
knowledge of this most extraordinary and inuisual acci- 
dent. 



The Oil-Electric Locomotive 

By E. H. Outerhridge 

There is perhaps no other sin,t;le factor in industrial 
life throui^hont the world today so much in men's minds, 
so important and ])otentially so beneficial in its results 
as economy in ijrocluctive effort. This is true whether it 
be individual or collective effort. The Chief Executive of 
a nation must study and devclo]) the most economic use 
of his faculties ami his time to meet the complex duties 
that he is called uixm to ])crforni : sjfovernments. whether 
national, state or nuniicipal. can only be beneficent if a 
constant increase in efiiciency and economy in cost ob- 
tains: the Chief Executive in any threat administrative 
cajiacitv can only preserve his health, streiii^th and 
efficiency by a scientific arrantiemeiit and economy of his 
ert'ort ; manufactin-inij industries can only be profitable and 
survive to the des^ree that true scientific economy per- 
meates all their ojierations. 

It is a well-known axiom that capital is created only out 
of savinii^s and it is increasins:Iy true that profits and pros- 
jjcrity are dependent upon a continuous development of 
economy in jjroductive effort, whether it be in the unit 
of man-power, of machine w^ork or of administration. 

There is perhai)s no other sin.nlc field in which this 
l)rincii)le is as vital as in the jiroduction of power. Su])er- 
l)ower ors^anization has l>econie a topic of almost daily 
comment in the public press and .i^reat strides towards its 
accomplishment liave already been made. The vision and 
coura.i,'e of nun brini; these thin,i.;s to pass, but economic 
law and necessity is the underlyini; force which s])urs men 
to invention anil accom])lishmenl and j;ives the owners of 
capital the confidence to employ it in such develoi)ments. 

There is jjerhaps no field in the use of ])ower as impor- 
tant to the life and projiress of humanity as the jiower 
emploved in transportation, and of all forms of transpor- 
tation the one of most vital importance in the United 
States, because of the extent of territory and its industrial 
development, is railroad transportation. There is. there- 
fore, no field in the use of jxiwer where economy in its pro- 
duction is of such vital ini])ortance to the whole nation as 
ect)nomy in railroad power. 

There i> no abler body of men in the United States than 
the trained railroad executives who in their several de- 
])artmenls have sjiecialized in every element of economy 
that enters into transportation oi^erations and their accom- 
l)lishments are witnessed by not only the most extensive 
railroad svstems in the world, but by tran.sportation costs 
and charj;es per ton mile — the lowest in the world. 

For a niniiber of years ])ast much has been heard in the 
marine field of a new form of ])ower which has been 
rai)idlv ijrowini,' and su])i)lantini,^ the former types of re- 
cii)rocatin.i; and the later types of turbine steam enijines. 
I refer tn the well-known Diesel type of oil burniui; 
entwine. 

In still more recent times, within only the ixi.st few 
years, invention has made it possible to build the oil- 
inirninti enj^ine of nnich li!.jhter weit^ht i)er horseixiwer 
and therefore of less cost than formerly, and throU!.jh the 
skill. eneri:v. invention and couraire of three associatecl 
comjianie- ihi- princiiile has now been successfully aiiplied 



in the development of wiiat is known as the oil-electric 
locomotive. 

It is iKjt my purjHise and I am not (|ualified to enter 
into any technical descriinion of this latest ]jroduct of 
invention and science. Lp to the limit of size and power 
so far produced demonstrations have already been j^dven 
which have so convinced the best experts in railroad opera- 
tion of its economy and usefulness for certain fields and 
character of employment that innnbers of these enj^ines 
have already been r)rdered. It is always ready to go. no 
time is reijuired to Ik- lost in )^ettinj.j i\\) .■iteam. no waste 
in blowiuLV off or in bankinj^ fires. If its development in 
hii;her jxiwer units than as yet ]jroduced .Ljives e(|ually 
favorable results for lont,' distance hauls, it will challenge 
the attention of railroad operatinj.^ men wherever tlie 
steam locomotive is now the main de])endence. 

If. as I believe, the draught efficiency of this engine per 
imit cost of fuel ]>er ton moved greatly exceeds that of 
the steam locomotive, it would seem as if the oil-electric 
engine had the ])otential future of su])|)lanting some of 
the ])resenl type of steam locomotives. 

There is. however, on the other side of this (juestion an 
important consideration which may jilace some limitation 
upon the future of this invention. That question is tlir 
(luantity and ])ermanency of the su])ply of fuel oil if a va-i 
and rapid increase in the use of the oil-electric engine 
should ensue, and the effect upon the price of oil of such , 
increased demand. Judging from recent rejiorts in the 
])ublic ])ress exjjerts differ vastly in their estimates of the 
oil ."UiJijly. Some insist that it is capable of great expan- 
sion and of sui)i)lying all possible needs for generations 
to come. ( )thers state that in a few years the available 
i|uantities will begin to rapidlv decline. With the enter- 
jjrise of oil prospectors and o|)erators it seems fair to 
assume that they will be di.scovering and develoi>ing new 
sources of supply as rapidly as it will be mechanically 
possible for the developers of the oil-electric engine to 
produce them in sufficient quantities to seriously aflfect the 
oil situation. 



Colorado Railroads Go Into Bus Business 

ISoth the Colorado & Southern and the Denver & Rio 
< irande Western railroads will establish motor bus lines to 
supi)lement their rail service. The railroads at first oi>- 
jiosed the granting of jiermits to bus companies serving 
their territory, but finally decided to install their own 
systems. 

The Denver \- Interurban. owned by the Colorado & 
.Southern, is ojjerating buses between Denver and Boulder, 
and the Colorado & Southern and the Denver & Rio 
( uande Western have organized a com))any to operate be- 
tween Denver. Colorado Springs and I'ueblo. A])plication 
for a jiermit is ])ending. This service is expected to ex- 
tend to the northern part of the state by jnirchase of exi 
ing lines. 



Shipment of Locomotives in the First Quarter 

The de|)artment of commerce announces that March 
shipments fif railroad locomotives from the principal 
manufacturing jdants, based on re])orts received from the 
individual establishments, totaled 162 locomotives as com- 
l)ared with Ki.^ in T^bruary, and 117 in March, 1925. 
l-dur hundred and fort\-six locomotives were shipjxfd 
the first three months of this year, as comi)ared with 303 
for the first three months of 1925. Of the 446 locomotives 
shii)]H'(l this vear. 387 were domestic and .59 foreign ship- 
ments. The domestic .shiimnents consisted of 343 steam 
and 44 electric locomotives, and the foreign shipments 
were made u]> of 56 steam and 3 electric locomotives. 



The Centenary of the New York Central 

Meeting at Albany. Schenectady and New York on Anniversary oi 
Granting of Mohawk & Hudson Charter 



In celebration of the 100th anniversary of the granting" 
of the charter to the Mohawk & Hudson Railroad on 
A]>ril 17. impressive ceremonies were held in Albany, 
Schenectady and N'ew York. 

']"he ^lohawk & Hudson was the first to Ije chartered 
and built of the railroad companies now constituting the 
Xew York Central System. It was one of the first rail- 
roads in America and the first to l)e oixfrated in Xew 
York State. 

Two special trains carrying officers of the company 
left Xew York for Albany where brief exercises were 
held including the unveiling of a conmieniorative bronze 
tablet in the ixissenger station. The trains then pro- 
ceeded to Schenectady where similar exercises were held 
and a tablet was also unveiled. 

The special trains were preceeded by what proved a 
popular feature of the event, a pageant of power which 
included types of locomotives from the DeWitt Clinton, 
the famous little wood-burner of the Mohawk & Hudson, 
to the latest tvpes of Xew York Central motive power. 
During the Albany ceremonies the power pageant was on 
dis])lay on a track in the station and was viewed by thou- 
sands Ijefore the fonual exercises l)egan on the arrival 
of two S]>ecial trains from Xew York, bearing prominent 
railroad officers and guests. 

The seats on the DeW'itt Clinton stage-coach cars were 
filled bv a group of employes of the Xew York Central, 
and members of their faiuilies, gaily costumed in the 
garb of 100 years ago. They made a colorful pic- 
ture. 

The DeW'itt Clinton train, with its historic engine 
and coaches, headed the pageant. Behind the diminu- 
tive first locomotive of a century ago were nine mo- 
tive iK)wer units, each illustrative of the develop- 
ment of locomotive power since that time. 

Noteworthy among the units lined up was the 
historic and famous engine "999." built expressly 
to haul the I-lmpire State Express in 1893. The 
old DeW'itt Clinton engine measures with its ten- 
der 2.^ ft. 9 in. in length, while at the last of the 
line of locomotives there was a freight engine, 
more than ')? feet long, or more than four times 
as long as the DeW'itt Clinton engine. 

Xext in line behind the DeWitt Clinton was 
fjisplayed a l-"(.rney type f)f engine, Xo. 1916. used 
in ]>ast years in suburban |)assenger service in 
Xew ^'ork City. 'I'his same type of locomotive 
was for a long time also used on the elevated 
system in Xew York City. Xo. 1916, rei)resen- 
tative of this tv]xr is but .35 ft. 5 in. in length Origin 
and weighing 71^ tons. 

The American tyije of locomotive i)o]>nlar in 
the early 90^ for the hauling of ])assenger trains followed 
the Forney type. l)eing rejjresented by "99'>." The "999 ' 
is 58 ft. 7jii in. in length and weighs 107 tons. 

Xext in line was Xo. 836, an .Atlantic type engine 
representative of the earlier designs of locrimotives for 
fast passenger train service. This ]>articular tyjx' oi 
engine was built in 1906 and weighs 98 tons, with a length 
of 69 ft. 2y, in. 

Then followed a I'rairie type of locomotive brought 
from the Xew York Central Lines West, as a 
special cvhibit. The engine di.sjilaved was Xo. 4690, built 
in 1903. The engine is 69 ft. 7><J in. long and weighs 

141 



''57^ tons and is used in fast passenger service, 
llehind these interesting developments of steam power 
plants on wheels came two electric locomotives. The 
first was Xo. 1251, 38 ft. long and weighing 100 tons, 
which has been designed for switching service on the Elec- 
tric Division of the Xew York Central in the Xew York 
district. 

liehind the switcher was Xo. 1162. u.sed for j)assenger 
service and built in 1914. The length of this jxjwer plant 
in electric service is 56 ft. 10 in. Its weight is 132'.. 
tons. This class of locomotive is used in moving all fast 
])assenger trains between (irand Central Terminal and 
Harmon. .X. ^'. 

Following was Xo. 3269. a Pacific type of locomotive. 
This type of locouiotive handles the 'fwentieth Century 
Limited and all the Xew York Central Lines fast trains. 
The one on view was 7S ft. 2'/j in. long and weighed 141 
tons, and was built five years ago in 1921. 

.\ Mikado type of locomotive, designed for heavy 
freight service, was next exhibited. This engine Xo. 
356. was built in 1914, 12 years ago, weighs 167' 2 tons, 
is 81 ft. 9;4 in. in length, and is noted for its ability to 
handle heavv work at considerable speed on luuisual 
grades. 

Last in line on display was the latest developed freight 
locomotive of the Xew York Central Lines. The tyjx^ 
is of the 2-10-2 wheel arrangement and is known 
as the "Mohawk" type on the Xew York Central. 
lis locomotive was Xo. 2775, desi.gned for fast 
fnight service and only came out of the American 
Locomotive CV)mi)an\- shops at Schenectady on 
April *'. and has not yet been put in service. 




'De Witt Clinton" Locomotive of the Mowhav 
Railroad 

It mea.sures 97 ft. 1}^ in. over all, and weighs 181 "4 
tons, or 25 times the weiglit of tile DeWitt Clinton en- 
gine and tender of 1831. 

.After the ceremonies at .\lbany, the power pageant 
moved to Schenectady, where man\- addilioiial tliousands 
viewed it during the afternoon. 

I'"ollowing the ceremonies at Schenectady, where 
George W. l"eatherstonhaugh, grandson of the founder 
of the Mohawk & Hudson Railroad, was a siieaker, the 
two sjK-cial trains returned to .\ew York over the West 
Shore Railroad, through the classification yards at Selkirk 
and tlience across the new .Alfred H. Smith Memorial 



14J 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



NL.v. 1026 



Iiri(l(j;e over the Hudson, part of the New York Central's 
$25,000,000 "C'astlcton Cut-otT" improvement. 

The anniversary ceremonies reached their chmax in 
the evenint,-^ with a centennial dinner in the j^rand iiall 
room of the W aldorf-Astoria, attended by almost a thou- 
sand |K'rsons, includin-j railroad executives of all the 
principal lines, financiers and men of national importance 
in manv i>rofessions and industries, as well as in public 
life. 

I'resident P. E. Crowley, of the New York Central 
Lines, who presided as toastmaster ; Hon. Chaunccy M. 
De|>ew, Chairman of the Hoard of Directors of the New 
York Central ; Dr. .\rthiir T. 1 ladley. President Kmeritus 
of Yale Lniversity; L'nited States Senator Royal S. Coix-- 
land. of \ew York, and .\rtluir j. Hilly, .\ssistant Cor- 
lx)ration Counsel, City uf New York, Bishop William T. 
Manninjj. of the Protestant Episcopal Church, Xew ^drk 
City, pronounced the invocation. 

The si^eeches of President Crowley and Ex-Senator 
Depew were broadcasted over the radio by Stations W'lZ 
and W'GY. 

In his address President Crowley reviewed the history 
of the Xew York Central System and the influence of the 
gfeneral railroad record on the history of America : he 
emphasized the j^enius of two of the Xew York Central 
leaders. Commodore Cornelius \'anderbilt and his ]>re(le- 
cessor in office Alfred H. Smith. 

In clo^inp: his remarks President Crowley said: 

"If a railroad is efficiently to serve a growing? country 
like ours, it must not only keep young, but grow stronger 
vear after year. .\ railroad that is not growing is dy- 
ing. Obsolescence will strangle it. 

"To carry the great traffic of today with the equipment 
and facilities of only ten years ago would l)e impossible. 
.\nd it would be just as imj^ossible to carry the greater 
traffic of ten years hence with the ))resent facilities and 
equipment. 

"The railroads of the country, as a whole, have never 
Ix-en so well managed, so efficient, so resjjonsive to the 
public needs as they are at the present time. It may Ik; 
that some of our systems, great as they are now. will 
be greater. It may be that weaker roads will be strength- 
ened by closer association with stronger ones, and that 
stronger ones, through that association, will become even 
more efficient. But the greatest factor today in the suc- 
cess of our railroads and their hojie for the future lies 
in co-operation — co-operation l)etween the managements 
and their employes. Ix'twcen the carriers and the public 
bodies by whom they are regulated, and. above all. co- 
o]>eration between the railroads and the public they serve. 

"A hundred years from now, when directors and offi- 
cers of the Xew 'S'ork Central and the leaders of .Ameri- 
can industry gather here in Xew York to celebrate the 
bicentennial of this railroad system, they will look back 
u]X)n a hundred vears of progress far more wonderful 
than that of these first hundred years which seem so 
great to us. 

"No mortal in 1826 could have had the vision to .see 
the achievements of this wonderful hundred years — the 
age of steam and electricity ; of the telegraph, the tele- 
phone and the radio ; of the electric generator, the electric 
motor and the internal combustion engine ; of the auto- 
mobile and the airplane; of the harnessing of the inex- 
haustible power resources of this earth for the advance- 
ment of civilization. 

"And no one today can see l)ehind the veil of the next 
hundred years. But of one thing I am confident, and 
that is that this countn- of ours will carry on to greater 
achievements, blazing the broad trail of scientific discov- 
ery and human ]irogrcss." 



Afldrcgg of Chauncey M. Depew 

In the course of his remarks Qiauncey .M. DeiK;w, 
who h;is been chairman of the Board of Directors of the 
conijany for the past twenty-seven years, its i)resident 
for thirteen years and connected with the Xew York 
Central statT for over sixty years .said: 

"W'c trace the Xew ^'ork Central from its tirst exixm- 
sion from Albany to .Schenectady, and then by natural 
growth extending its lines to Buffalo, and from Buffalo 
to Chicago and the West, then to C"inciimati and .St. 
Louis in the southwest, then to the northwest into Can- 
a<la, until today, with its feeders and as.sociated companies, 
it has found the shores of the Pacific ( )cean. and is com- 
[K'ting with the great Panama Canal. 

"\\ hen 1 first joinerl the .Xew York Central it ran from 
Xew \'ork to .Mbany. 140 miles, and from Xew ^'ork to 
Chatham, 12S miles. That constituted all of its mileage. 
The entire mileage of the country then was only .%,000 
miles, and now it is nearly 300,000. 

"I rememlier in the early days of expansion, not only 
of our fiwn lines, but all others going from the .\tlantic 
to the west, a statement that every mile of new railway 
brought into cultivation and production 100.000 acres of 
farming land, and it was a wonderful ])icture to see these 
new communities and hai)py homes rising like magic as 
the steel rails brought them out of the wilderness into j>ar- 
ticipation with civilization and the prosperit\' of the coun- 
try. The whole story of .American development is a 
most marvelous, exciting and inspiring narrative, anfl is 
told by the conception, building and successful operation 
of the .American railroads. 

"Great as has been the growth of the Xew A'ork Cen- 
tral, yet it is a remarkable fact that during the most of 
its oistence it has l)een under the management and gen- 
eral control of one family. \\'hen in ISM C'>mmodore 
X'anderbilt quit river and ocean navigatif)n. he declared 
that the future of the country was in railroads. It was 
wonderful foresight that enabled him to make this pre- 
diction. He Iwught the Harlem railroad and in a few 
years transformed it from bankruptcy into a prosj^erous 
line. 

"The commodore was succeeded by his son. William IL, 
who was a very able and successful railway executive. 
Through his sons and grandsons the Xew York Central is 
still a X'anderbilt corporation. The \'anderbilts have as- 
sociated with them the ablest men in the country in their 
Iward of directors, and the best minds in .America for 
business, finance and trans]xirtation. 

"Commodore X'anderbilt was one of those rare geniuses 
who by their own natural equi])nient make themselves 
])henomenally successful in life and add enormously to 
the results and productivity of the country. He had a 
remarkable faculty in grasi)ing the present situation and 
forecasting the future. He was one of the must remark- 
able products of .American organization and American 
citizenship. He said little in conversation but absorbed 
the ideas and suggestions of others, and possessed a rare 
analytical ix)wer of discernment between what was wise 
and otherwise in the vast accumulation of advice which 
was flowing in uixin him. 

"It staggers the imagination when we think of this 
corporation beu'inning with a ca])italization and ])ropertv 
values at less than thirty millions of dollars, and that now 
its stujiendous value is a billion and a quarter. 

".As I look back over my associates in the Imard of di- 
rectors during these sixty vears. over the men of great 
abilitv and sterling character who have held im])ortant 
positions. T rcall them all vividly and I feel that I have 
passed most of my life in this association, in this com- 
panionship and in this wonderful company, that it makes 
life in retrospect infinitely worth the living." 



Low Capital Costs of U. S. Roads 

For the Type of Railroad Constructed the Capital Per Mile is Lowest in the World 

The railways of the United States are capitalized at a sequently capital co.-ts tend to be lower. In France, Ger- 

lower figure per mile of line, type of construction con- many. England. Japan and Switzerland, cities sprang up 

sidered. than any of the railways of the world. This fact originally without relation to future railroad development. 

is disclosed by a suney just completed on the capital costs As a result, railroad construction has been most expensive 

in various countries. in those countries. 

Capital costs per mile are lower than in the United The location of cities already in existence in each of 
States in some of the Asiatic countries, such as China, those countries naturally controlled the location of the 
India and Siam. and in South Africa. However, labor railways which inevitably led to less economical often 
costs are extremely low in all these countries and railway roundabout construction and made it impracticable to 
development impermanent. Norway and Sweden and follow the best, most direct or cheapest routes. Large- 
some of the Australian states also present a low cost scale construction was also less the rule than in the United 
which is explained by a marked predominance of narrow States, 
gage mileage. H. G. ^^'ells points out in his history of the world that 

The lower capital per mile in the United States is the United States have erroneously accepted the railroads 

accounted for in part by the construction of most of the as a natural part of their growth. The railroads created 

trackage here l)efore the founding of cities, the growth rather than followed that growth. They came along just 

of population and the increased value of land. This is in time to release a westward flow of population and did 

only a partial explanation, however, as in large measure in a few decades for the \\'est what it had taken 200 vears 

■ to accomplish for the East. 

R.\IL\\ AY CAPITAL AXD CAPITAL PER MILE FOR The accompanving table, prepared bv the Bureau of 

SOME OF THE PRIXCIPLE COUXTRIES OF Railway Economics, clearly indicates that the railways of 

THE W ORLD jj^jg country are not burdened with the heavv capital costs 

Source: Official raikfay re forts of the se-.'eral countries. carried bv' those in the more important countries of the 

Year Capital Capital Per Mile world. 
-America : 

Canada 1924 $3,413,865,613 $85,216 

United States 1924 ■18.201,897.712 Ts.iZZ 

Europe: Improvements in Steel Castings 

Great Britain 1924 5.640.536.aS7 277.463 ^ . ^ 

Belgium' 1922 660.630.293 213.231 There was a time, which many can remember, when 

BulganV 1%3 ,^o?5^'?^ oo'-l? steel castings were a gamble pure and simple. When it 

Frrilce 1^4 6 017'l78"824 316 693 ^^'^^ ^ question as to which would predominate, solid 

France" ................. .1924 l,334i202!461 237^259 metal or blow- holes. This was so true that it was not 

Norwa.v 1924 160.586.639 74.791 an uncommon practice for engineers who were bold 

Sweden 1924 458.349,605 47.824 enough to use the metal, to calculate what the casting 

•^^'f-. . ,Q,, ,. f^^-,-^ -Qi-n ought to weigh and then weigh it in order to estimate the 

J^"^j 1^1^ 2 379 064607 6' 165 i)roporlion e.xisting between "blow-holes and solid inetals. 

India' ................ ....1925 1.071.667.209 145^791 ^t the blow-holes seemed to be too preponderant the cast- 

Siam' 1925 ' 28,044.269 39^487 ing was rejected. "■ 

Africa: As for a straight, true casting, that was a thing not 

Union of South Africa' .... 1925 576,030.285 49.%9 to be expected. In one case a set of rack castings that 

Australia : were made with a thin base for the purpose of increasing 

S: l:atnd''''.".'.::::::::l^i SS 'Wn '\ WoM^ of soundness, each piece was so warped 

Queensland' 1925 252.629,597 41,321 ''"'' twisted that it was turned over to an expert .saw 

South .■\ustralia' 1^5 117!o23!o90 47731 hammerer to be straightened, which was done. 

Victoria' 1925 329,652,286 73,518 fUit the steel foundrvmen gradually learned their trade. 

Western .\ustralia' .......1925 98,878,131 26,448 and the steel casting came into its own. It grew larger 

^et capitalization. "State railways. , , ^-i • ^- -^ i i i i .- i r 

All computations at the normal rate of exchange. and heavier until, in time, it drove the old forged frame 

for locomotives almost out of existence. Then it became 

railway construction in the United States has Ijeen car- ""ore and more ambitious until it appeared as a full 

ried on so efficiently, and on so large a scale, as to keep fledged complete tender frame, where it has become such 

unit costs very low.' common practice as to cease to attract attention. 

However, the cai)italization of the .American railways I" all of this development, however, it has followed the 
constitutes not merely the original cost of the construe- precedent and requirement of foundn,- W(jrk from time 
tion of the lines, but includes also a substantial i)art of the out of mind, and avoided great differences of thickness in 
cost of modernization. There have been large capital the same casting, and esiiccially abrupt changes in thick- 
expenditures in recent years for the construction of tun- ness. 

ncls, the reduction of curves and grades, the expansion of This rule holds for those late masterpieces of foundn- 

terminals, the building of improved shop facilities, and work, the locomotive and tender frames. In one we have 

various other provisions for increasing the efficency of great thickness throughout nearly its whole extent and in 

transjKjrtation. Besides these im])rovements there have the other, webs, flanges and ribs of a thin but practically' 

been large purcha.ses of the latest types of cars and uniform thickness. All so successfully cast that they have 

locomotives. ])as.sed out of the cate.gory of the unusual. 

In Canada and .Australia somewhat similar conditions .And now comes a jiroposcd novelty that makes one 

as to railrf)a(l construction have a])plied as in the United catch his breath. It is nf)thing less than the frames. 

States. Developments in .\ustralia and mt)Sl sections of cross braces, saddle and cylinders of a locomotive cast in 

Canada are new. compared with the United States; con- one piece. .As far as information available is concerned. 

143 



14-1 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



M.iy. 10.- 



till' (Icsij-ii, as vet, only exists iin ikiik-T. liut the fact that 
it has been patented by Mr. H. M. I'llaKer. vice-president 
of the toninionweaitii Steel Co.. and assij^ned to that 
i<inii)any. leads to tile assunii)tiiiii that tlie patent had not 







TonocDooG 





Locomotive Frames, Cylinders and Deck all of Cast Steel 



been apjilicd fur, uiilil the cuiiipaiiy was ready tu assume 
the making of the article. Here we have all of the rules 
regarding" the avoidance of varying thicknesses broken 
III l>ieces. There are the library frames with section that 




.saddle and cylinders, to which nui.st be added all the com- 
|>lications of cores for steam and other passages. Cer- 
tainly the advent of the first casting along these lines wi'" 
make a new era in l(Komotive construction. 'ITie saviiu 
ill machine work exiK-nse as conipar< ■ 
with the i>re.sent designs will l)e vei 
great, though new methfxls and jMjssibi. 
new machines will ha\e to l)e brouglit 
out in order to clo the work. 

.\s it ai>iK.'ars, the machining of llu- 
cylinders and saddle will be entirely done 
away with : and that of the frames for 
the fitting of these parts and the cross 
braces is .saved, leaving little more than 
the fitting of the ])edestals and .some 
drilling. 

The illustrations, which are reprinluced 
from the jwtent drawings, show an ar- 
rangement of three and four-cylinder 
engines with the steam chests and saddle, 
indicating that the complexity of the cast- 
ing has lx*en studie<l. 

The ixitent contains twenty-seven 
claims, which are. for the inost pan 
variants of the combination set forth ai 
the start, of a locomotive l)ed including a steam cylinder 
formed gradually with said bed. The variants are com- 
binations of more cylinders, the saddle, pedestals and 
braces. 

Ancrther patent issued at the same time to the same 
patentee and with the same as.signment. for an engine 
truck with a booster engine support, would have attracte<l 
attention for the complexity of the casting called for. 
had it not been in such close juxtai^)sition to the one for 
frames and cylinders, which is such a notable ad\'ance 
over anything that has heretofore Ixfeii produced as to 
dwarf anything else that may be placed lieside it. Surely 
"the world do move" when we can comjare a simi)le 
casting that was characterized as a "shelter for blow- 
holes'" with such a monster of weight and varying thick- 
nesses as this will be when it api^ears in concrete form. 



must be 5 in. by 6 in. or more and holding them together 
the thin cross braces that cannot be more than an inch 
thick, with the same or even lesser thicknesses in the 



Gas-Electric Coach Service on the Chicago 
and Ahon 

Two S-whecl gasoline-electric coaches have Ix-en de- 
livered to the Chicago & .\lton Railroad which are the 
first gasoline-electric equipment for highway operation to 
be purchased by a steam railroad. These coaches are of 
the \'ersare-\\'estinghouse design and are similar to the 
one descril)ed in the Septeml)er, 1925. issue of R.mlw.>i>' 
&• LocoMOTTVE Engineering. 

The Chicago & .\lton will use them to supplement regu- 
lar ]«ssenger service between Jacksimville, Illinois, and St. 
Louis, .Mo., paralleling the secondary main line between 
Chicago and St. Louis which runs via Jacksonville. This 
line is 94 miles long and is over an excellent surfaced 
road. 

The new coaches will operate on a .schedule approxi- 
mately the same as that now maintained by local passenger 
trains between these ix)ints. In addition to stops which 
will be made at all stations nn the line the coaches will 
also pick up and di.scharge i>assengers at princij)al hotels 
and in business centers not adjacent to the stations, thus 
])roviding the same convenient service rendered by in- 
dependent coach o]>erators who have recently furnished 
keen comjietition to the railroad. 

It is not known at this time just how much can be 
acconi])lislied in reducing train service to offset the coach 
milcaiJe so that for the time l>eing the coach schedule-^ 



May. 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE EXGLVEERIXG 



will be arranged to shorten the time that now elapses 
tween trains and thus to Ijetter the service now rendered 
the Alton's patrons. 

For the present the coaches will be housed and main- 
tained in the engine houses and shops now used exclu- 
sivel}- by railroad equipment. Overhead expense incident 



independently adjusted for takeup without disturbing the 
air brake clevises or push rods. 

There are four semi-elliptic underslung springs on each 
lx)gie truck. One end of each spring is pivoted in the 
spring hanger rigidly mounted at each corner of the lx)gie 
frame. Interposed between the pair of springs on each 




K^9H 




Versare-Westinghouse. Gas- Electric Coach in Service of the Chicago & Alton Railroad 



to the establishment of this service will thus be kept at a 
minimum and the cost of the additional service, aside from 
interest on the investment, will I>e almost entirely confined 
to operating and maintenance costs. The rates of fare 
charged will he the same as the rail rates for the same 
distances. 

Some of the features of these coaches are truly remark- 
able. I*'or exam])le, although the coach is 35 ft. 6 in. in 
overall length it can be completel\- turned around, with- 
out backing, in a .street only 40 feet wide. This is accom- 
plished by means of a patented steering system which per- 
mits each wheel to run on a true circle, and the wheels 
of the rear truck follow almost identically in line with 
these of the forward truck. 

This steering mechanism is a remarkable achievement 
anfl has ma<le ]j<jssible the development of an eight wheel 
vehicle. The eight wheels are used in the form of two 
complete and duplicate trucks which are in reality small 
chassis in themselves. These trucks lieing duplicate are 
interchangable for use either in the front or the rear of 
the vehicle. 

The truck frames are of pressed steel and the front 
axles are a drop forged I section with integral pad at the 
center for the quadrant type of .\ckerman steering. The 
knuckles are the reverse Elliott type fitted with thrust ball 
liearings. The wheel hubs are mounted on taper roller 
liearings. 

The rear axles are double reduction of the internal gear 
tyi* and have 20-in brake drums with internal exjjansion 
brakes that are of a special design, permitting the use of 
20-inch disc wheels for ])neumatics. Nine-inch diaphragm 
air brake chamln-rs are mounted on a bracket at each 
wheel and actuate the brake cam levers, which may Ik: 



side is a ball bearing equalizer to which the springs are 
connected by means of shackles. These equalizers dis- 
tribute the vehicle load equally to each wheel without de- 
jjending on any spring deflection, providing the road 
incumbrance or depression is not greater than 5 inches. 



Government Ownership 

"The L'nited States will gain nothing and lose a great 
deal if it applies government ownership to its utilities." 
says Sir Henry Thornton, president, Canadian National 
Railways. "Canada got its state railwavs because private 
corporations oix-rating them went bankrupt. Cnder certain 
circumstances public ownership is bound to fail, and under 
certain circumstances private ownership is bound u> fail. 
I'nblic ownership is bound to fail whenever politics enters 
into managements. Private ownership is lx)und to fail 
if the eyes of the management or of those who direct the 
management are more firmly fixed u]K)n the stock market 
than the .service the road is rendering. 

"The tariffs on United States and Canadian roads are 
the lowest in the world and most of the managers are 
committed to the public interest. .\t the best, government 
ownersbiij could do no more than subtract irom the pay- 
ments which the i>eo])le now make l(j the railways, an 
amount which the railways now pay to the people through 
taxes. Therefore, with the highest jxissible fnrm of 
government ownershij) it would seem tliat the l'nited 
.States could not do more than make some shifts in the 
incidence of taxation. 

"There is nothing to gain and perhai)s a great deal to 
lose — it is not worth even a tfamblin;/ chance.'* 



Snap Shots — By The Wanderer 



rhorc was a tiiiii' wIkmi tla- a|>i)ri-nticf was lK-li)le.ss in 
tlu' liaiids of tlic niastor ami wlicn l>eatiii}4 was one of 
tlie nii'tliods of iiiculcatini; the kiiowledj^c of the trade. 
Kiplinij illustrates this in his Captains Couraf^eous where 
the mate takes the younj^est in hand and hy the effective 
means of a roin^'s end proceeds to teach him the rojx's of 
the schminer. \\ liat the ])hysical iK-atinj: did for the ap- 
prentice the old-time sui)erintendciit or master mechanic 
applied in the wav of tont;ue lashings to his snhordinates. 
A rous^h tons^ue and a brutal manner coupled to natural 
aliilitv were the essential rei|uisites for such ]x)sitions. 

1 once knew a prominent street railway su|)erintendent 
who never sjwke decently to any sulxirdinate. and yet he 
seemed to succeed. I knew a railroad superintendent who 
was so ruthless in his treatment of his men. that his 
master mechanic, a man of a national reputation, was 
afraid to sjo across a railroad yard to see a new type of 
locomotive that was attractinsj nation-wide attention, lest 
the "old man," should send for him durinjj the hour that 
he might be away. And jjreat was the rejoicinsj when 
"ihe old man died." 

Such cases, however, gradually disainieared, and in 
their place came the tyjie of man that it a ])leasure to 
think about. I know one example of the new type who, 
as far as I know, never issues an order. He always asks 
a sulxirdinate if he "will be kind enough to do .so-and-so." 
1 do not know what would hapjien if the subordinate 
failed in the so-and-so, but. as I ha])i)en to be very well 
Ix'hind the .scenes on that particular road. I do know- that 
that non-order giving superintendent of equi|Miient has 
the most loyal force that I have ever encountered. 

.So with the hazy pa.st in my recollection and recent con- 
tact onlv with the later type of man, it was something 
of a .shock the other day to run afoul of a real genuine 
old-fashioned tyjie of blustering, abusing man in the 
saddle. His men jump when he calls and do what he 
tells them tiv do. Hut it is the jump of the recruit before 
a drill sergeant. It is the service l>egotten of the necessity 
of earning a livlihcKxl and not of loyal fealty to the master. 
He gets no suggestions, no real assistance and never so 
much as an inference that some other way might be 
sujierior to the one he puts forth. It must be conceded 
that he is a man of great ability but one cannot help 
knowing that no one 1)rain, however massive it may be 
can be capable of mastering all of the intricacies tliat arise 
in the solution of the many problems that occur in the 
routine of the management of the motive j»wer of a 
great railroad. And this man carries his boori.shness to 
a degree that was lacking in mo.st of his old-time prede- 
cessors, for he is not even courteous to outsiders. In 
fact he is so notorious in this regard, that certain large 
supply men, with whom his road does business, will not 
go to see him. 

Now a sujjply man is usually an interested witness, but 
more su|ierimendents of motive jxnver than a few owe 
nnich of the efficiency of their rolling stock to the sug- 
gestions and studies of supply men. .\nd it is not good 
jxilicy to cut otT this source of suggestive knowledge. 

Someone once said that all credit and ])raise was due 
to the self-made man and the greater the success the 
greater the credit. But after all, in the contem])lation of 
whatever success he may have attained, one cannot help 
thinking of how much greater that success would have 
been and of how much more prominent the man would 
have been had he had the advantages of early systematic 
training. 



So, when 1 saw the success that this man had attained ; 
the smooth ruiming of his department and the confidence 
that was ])laced in him, I could not help thinking of tin 
far greater efficiency (jf it all, had he been more con 
siderate of those about him, and so enlisted them in hi- 
ser\ice that they went to it not "as galley slaves at night 
scourged to their dungeons," but with an enthusiasm for 
the work and the master and with every effort strainetl, 
not to ])lease for fear of the rod, but to add to the ef- 
licicncy of the department. How much the r»)ad loses in 
dollars and cents by such a system is difficult to estimate, 
but it nnist be a vast sum l)ecause of the killing of initia- 
tive in all of those men who could help .so much if they 
but dared. I'.ut above all this there looms a feeling of 
pity for the isolation that such a man has brought ujwn 
himself. 



In my wanderings to and fro I pick up suggestion- 
that I like to pass along. Now if it should ever be your 
fate to l)e called upon to design small hydraulic ])um]». 
it will l)e well to bear in mind that many a pump with 
an ample clearance has given unending trouble through- 
out the whole period of its existence Ix-cause it was si ■ 
difficult to get the cylinder completely filled with wate' 
and the elasticity of the confined air was such that r 
would ff)llow the ])lunger, by e.xpansion fin the suction 
stroke, and not rise, under compression, to a ])ressurt 
sufficiently high to ojien the delivery valves, and so the 
l)lunger would run too and fro and not deliver a drop of 
water. Ft)r small ]>umps, one of the best remedies is tn 
have the litjuid nm into the pump by gravity. This i- 
not always possible, but, where it is, it is well to bear tlii 
fact in mind. Large pumps can be primed and vented, 
but for a small rapidly running plunger this may be dif- 
ficult to accomplish and the gravity deliver}- is the best. 
Wliere the cylinder is horizontal, it is also well to have 
the suction on the bottom and the delivery on top as that 
will facilitate the freeing of the cylinder of entrained air. 
The valves should also always be vertical, as a horizontal 
or inclined valve is more apt to Ik? troublesome and catch. 
The angle of the face with the center line should never 
be less than forty-five degrees and sixty degrees is better. 
.An angle of forty-five degrees is just beyond the border 
line of sticking or not sticking. Less than forty-five de- 
grees is rather apt to stick at times and that "at times ' 
will certainly be at the j:)eriod of greatest emergency. 



Has it never occurred to you that those tight belts on 
that hig"h-speed planing machine need a little relief oc 
casionally? Of course I understand that you are a cari 
ful man and that, when the lielts w-ere put on, they wci - 
not stretched beyond their limit of elasticity and that tht 
would go back to ai)proximately their original lengths if 
they had but a chance. Though, if let alone, they w-ill by 
and by assume a ])ermanent stretch and be just a "leetle" 
Iwise. Not, perha])s, really loose enough to warrant you 
in taking them up, but so that, on a heavy cut, the heads 
lag and you mu.st stop the feed until they begin to sing 
in the upper notes again. This is annoying, and all the 
more .so since the difficulty can be easily remedied. 
Simply slip them off the pulleys at night and give them 
a chance to recover their normal length and you will have 
a l)elt tliat will have a constant tension for years. 

The .same results can be obtained for the belt comin.; 



RAILWAY AXD LOCOMOTI\"E EXGIXEERIXG 



down from the shafting, by having the loose pulley just 
enough smaller than the tight to relieve the tension on 
the belt and still keep it in place. tJn woodworking ma- 
chinery like moulding machines and surfaces this can be 
readily done as it is customar\- to run them for half a 
day at a time; but on iron working tools where there is 
a continual and repeated starting and stopping the jump 
pulley may not only not be a convenience but an absolute 
nuisance on account of the longer time required to do the 
shifting. 



Some time ago. a well-known manufacturer turned out 
an article for which he expected an extensive sale. The 
experiments showed that the design was all that could 



be desired, and a careful examination suggested no im- 
provements : but when the thing was built and put into 
the hard service for which it was intended, it failed to 
work. In short there was a steam chamber and in it a 
sleeve worked to and fro over an arbor. The fit was an 
easy one and the slightest push of the hand would do 
the work ; but — and this "'but'' is of great importance — 
the sleeve was of cast iron and the arl)or of brass. So, 
when the temperature of the two was raised by steam, 
their unequal expansion caused the brass to fill the sleeve 
and grip it so firmly that it could not be budged : merely 
a matter of the selection of materials : nothing more than 
a question of clearance; a trifling detail, but on it de- 
])ended the working of the machine. 



A Flue-Cutting Machine Designed and in Use on the Erie 

Railroad 



The flue-cutting machine which is here shown in as- 
sembly and full detail is one that is in use in the Homell, 
.\'ew York, shops of the Erie Railroad. 

It consists of two parts : the shaft and running gear, 
which is shown at the left and the flue-holding' portion 
:it the right, both being held on a single body formed of 
I length of 12-inch channel, A. which has a length of 19 
It. At the left the channel is carried by the two cast iron 
legs B. which raise it to the height of 25 in. from the 
floor. At the right it is carried by the two legs 37, which 
are made of .*4 in. by 3 in. flat steel and are bent to set 



into the two legs of the U-shai^ed casting H. It will be 
seen from this that the right hand end of the shaft can 
be moved up and down while turning about die centers 
that support its left hand end. and will always remain in 
alinement because of the trunnion-suppwrted bearing at 
the right. 

The shaft is driven by the tight and loose pulle}s as 
shown. 

The flue is handled at the right hand end of the ma- 
chine. It is carried by two adjustable rollers held on 34 
and 33 and is pushed on to the rollers in F beneath the 




A Flue Cutting Machine Used on the Erie Railroad 



in l)etween the flanges of the channel, which, being in- 
verted, [/resents a smooth flat upper surface for its whole 
length. 

'ITie cutter C is of the usual form of rotary cutter and 
is held by a nut and wa.sher on the shaft 27. 

The shaft 27 at the cutter end, runs in a box D that 
is held on trunnions resting on the slide 14 to which the 
l>late 13 is Ijolterl. The two thus form a sort of crosshead 
that may be mafic to move up and down in the opening 
of the guide 29. This nv>vement is accomplished bv 
means of the screw 24. whose collar at the left sets down 
in the cfiunterbore of N'o 14, and is clamped there liy the 
split ])late 18. The Ikjss at the upi)er end of 29 is 
threaded to receive the screw, which is turned by the 
hand-wheel. This provides for the raising anrl lowering 
of the cutter and thus feerling it into the flue. 

While Ijeing cut the flue is sup]>orted by two rollers 
running on shafts set in the casting' /•, and which are 
immediately IkjIow the cutter. 

At the left hand the shaft is carried by a \>ox G that 
is supfjorted by two center screws 17, that are screwed 



cutter. The length to which the flue is to be cut is regu- 
lated by the gauge 11, that is fastened to a length of 1-in. 
pipe 21 ft. long. This pipe is carried by the standard 22 
and the brackets 19, 19 and 10 which are Ixilted to the 
flanges of the channel. At the left hand end of the pipe 
there is a handle 23 attached to it by which it can be 
turned in its supports. When not in use the gauge drops 
down out of the way, then after a flue has been pushed 
u\> under the cutter, the gauge is turned up so as to l>e 
in line with it. Tlie end of the flue is brought back 
against it. when it will be in position for cutting. 

.\fter the flue has lieen cut it is lifted and thrown back 
by the trij/pers 5 and 6. These are attached to the shaft 
27 and ordinarily lie below the flue that is being cut. The 
shaft itself is carried by the brackets 8 and 9. .\fter the 
cutting is completed the shaft 27 is turned l)y means of 
the treadle 4, which raises the trijj^K'rs so that they [)ick 
up the flue and allow it to roll back on to the skids and 
.so out of the way. .'Xs it is necessary to rotate the shaft so 
as to raise the trippers, a comjKiund leverage is used in 
connection with the treadle. The treadle 4 is pivotted at 



148 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



the lower t-iul nl tlic md 1' and cniinccttvl at the iiiiii-r tnd. Nt-ar. hox car> minihcn-d 2(J,S4'i. ci>:ll car> Jl).237 ami rc- 

hv a \m\ and slot arrantit-nient, to the Icvir 3 which is lri^'crati>r car> 6.0"*'. 

l)ivotted to the lower end t)f the rod 1 and nt the otiier l<i])ort.s also showed 570 locomotives ])laced in service 

end to the lower end of the connection 2 to the rear ex- durins; the tirst three months this year, an increase of 140 




■4 Wanted ."^'"'WANTED 



3i-*) 2 WANTED 



N?7 I WANTED 



1 

1 a 

li k 


VI 



N?I8 ///^rmevAfyiarer/s, I WANTED 

I ]! T- F/tST£/l/£D TOICS^BC 




M!llg5f 



N9I3 I WANTED 

--6" 



Details of Fl 



tension of the tripper 5. I'y this means, a downward 
movement of the treadle lifts the trijjper and canses the 
flue to be removed from the machine. 



New Equipment Installed and Condition of 
Motive Power and Freight Cars 

During the first three months this year Class I rail- 
roads installed in service 21.363 freight cars, according 
to re])orts filed hy the carriers with the Car service 
Division of the .\nierican Railway .\ssociation. This was 
a decrease of 22.7**0 cars compared with the number in- 
stalled during the corresponding period last year and a 
decrease of 16,289 cars comparetl with the luimber in- 
stalled during the corresponding period in 1924. 

f)f the total number placed in service during the first 
quarter of 1926. box cars numbered 9.?,S2. coal cars 9.069 
and refrigerator cars 1.206. 

During the month of March alone, the railroads placed 
in service 8,546 freight cars including 3.934 box cars. 
3,477 coal cars and 544 refrigerator cars. 

Class I railroads on .\pril 1 had 49.524 freight cars on 
order, an increase of 3,398 compared with the same date 
last year, but a decrease of 19,774 compared with the saiue 
date in 1924. Of the total number on order April 1 this 



conii)ared with the first quarter in 1925. but a decrease of 
*'l locomotives comjiarcd with the first three months in 
1924. 

Class 1 railroads on .\pril 1 had HH lucoiuotives on 
order, compared with 315 on the same date last year and 
520 on the same date two years ago. 

These figures as to freight cars and locomotives include 
new and leased cquii)iuent. 

Motive Power Condition 

Locomotives in need of repair on .\pril 15 totaled 10. .■>82 
or 16.8 i)er cciU of the number on line, according to re- 
ports filed by the carriers with the Car Service Division of 
the .\merican Railway As.<ociation. 

Tills was an increase of 391 locomotives cMmpared with 
the number in need of repair on April 1. at which lime 
there were 10.191 or 16.2 per cent. It was. however, a 
decrease of 1.484 locomotives compared with the number 
in need of rei)air on the same date last year, at which 
time there were 12,066 or 18.8 per cent. 

( )f the total number in need of repair. 5.693 or 9.0 
per cent were in need of classified reiiairs on April 15. an 
increase of 328 compared with .\pril 1. while 4.889 or 7.8 
per cent were in need of running repairs, an increase of 
63 within the satne period. 

Class 1 railroads on April 15 had 5.651 >erviceable loco- 



Mav. 1926 



RAILWAY AXU LOCOMOTIVE EXGIXEERIXG 



motives in storage, an increase of 281 locomotives com- 
pared with the number of such locomotives on April I. 

Freight Car Condition 

Freight cars in need of repair on April 15 totaled 
159,643 or 6.9 per cent of the number on line, according 
to reports filed by the carriers with the Car Service 
Division of the American Railway Association. 

This was a decrease of 2&27 cars under the number 
reported on April 1 at which time there were 162,470 
or 7.0 per cent. It was also a decrease of 30,522 cars 
compared with the same date last year. 

Freight cars in need of heavy repair on April 15 totaled 
116.981 or 5.1 per cent, a decrease of 1,238 compared 
with April 1. Freight cars in need of light repair totaled 
42.662 or 1.8 per cent, a decrease of 1.589 compared with 
April 1. 



Notes on Domestic Railroads 



Locomotives 

The Central Steel Company has ordered one six-wheel switclier 
from the American Locomotive Company. 

The Delaware & Hudson Company is inquiring for from 5 to 
15 Consolidation type locomotives. 

The Union Railway of Pittsburgh has ordered 10 six-wheel 
switchers from the Lima Locomotive Works. 

The L'nion Pacitic Railroad is inquiring for 14 freight locomo- 
tives of the 4-12-2 type. 

The Reading Company has ordered 5 locomotives from the 
Baldwin Locomotive \N"orl<s. 

The Charles R. McCormick Lumber Company has ordered one 
Mikado type locomotive from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The Fonda. Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad has ordered 
one si.x wheel switcher from the .■\merican Locomotive Company. 

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway has ordered 15 
locomotives from the .American Locomotive Company. 

The American Railroad of Porto Rico has ordered one six 
wheel switching type locomotive from the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works. 

The Bonhomie & Hattiesburg Southern Railroad has ordered 
one Prairie type locomotive from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The Utah Copper Company has ordered one 60-ton oil-electric 
locomotive from the IngersoU Rand Company, General Electric 
Co. and American Locomotive Company. 

The Yunnan Kopei Railway of China has ordered six switchers 
from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The Green Bay & Western Railway is inquiring for 2 three- 
cylinder Consolidation type locomotives, 2 Consolidation and 2 
Mogul tvpe locomotives. 

The Sorocabana J^ailroad, of Brazil, has ordered 10 three- 
cylinder Mountain type locomotives from the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad plans to ask for bids shortly on 
100 switch engines. 

The Great Northern Railway has placed an order for one 
100-ton oil-electric locomotive with the IngersoU Rand Company, 
General Electric Co. and .\merican Locomotive Company. 

The Fruit Growers Express Company is inquiring for a four 
wheel saddle tank oil burning switching locomotive. 

The Natchez. Columbia & Mobile Railroad has ordered through 
the Denkmann Lumber Company, one Mikado type locomotive 
from the .\meriran I-ocomotive Company. 

F. C. del .-Xmaga Company. Columbia, has ordered 2 Mikado 
type locomotives from the Baldwin I>ocomotive Works. 

The Sorocabana Railway. Brazil, has ordered one Mikado type 
locomotive from the .American Locomotive Company. 

The Northern Pacific Railway is inquiring for 12 Mountain 
type locomotives. 

The Union Pacific Railroad is inquiring for 14 freight locomo- 
tives of 4-12-2 type. 

The Southern Pacific Company will build 5 Mountain type 
locomotives in its own shops at .Sacramento, Calif. 

The Essex Terminal Railway is inquiring for one six-wheel 
switcher. 

The Delaware, Ijckawanna & Western Railroad has ordered 
25 heavy Mountain type three-cylinder locomotives from the 
American I>?fomotive Company. 

The Chicago & Illinois Western Railroad has ordered 2 eight- 
wheel switchers from the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 

The Illinois Central Railroad is inquiring for 20 Mountain 
type |r<-omotives. 



The E. B. Eddy Company, Ltd., Canada, has ordered one 0-4-0 
type tank locomotive from the American Locomotive Company. 

Passenger Cars 

The International Railways, Central America, has ordered 16 
first class and 17 second class passenger cars from the American 
Car & Foundry Company. 

The Central \ermont Railway is inquiring for 14 steel under- 
frames for milk cars. 

The Pittsburgh. Shawmut & Northern Railway has ordered 
one combination passenger baggage gasoline rail motor car from 
the J. G. Brill Company. Philadelphia. 

The Lehigh Valley Railroad is inquiring for 10 gasoline rail 
cars and 13 trailers. 

The Southern Pacific Company is inquiring for 11 diners. 

The Chicago & North Western Railway is having 3 self- 
propelled cars built by the Electro Motive Company. 

The Erie Railroad is inquiring for 27 steel underframes for 
passenger cars. 

The Delaware. Lackawanna & Western Railroad is inquiring 
for 2 si.xty-foot combination mail and baggage cars. 

The Philadelphia Municipal Subway is inquiring for 150 subway 
cars. 

The Bangor & .\roostook Railroad is inquiring for one dining 
car. 

The Great X'orthern Railway is inquiring for 10 steel under- 
frames for baggage cars. 

The Chicago. Burlington & Quincy Railroad is inquiring for 
2 steel underframes for passenger cars. 

The New York Central Railroad has ordered 10 multiple unit 
cars for suburban service from the Standard Steel Car Company. 

The Southern Railway is inquiring for one steel underframe 
for a dining car. 

The Reading Company is inquiring for 25 coaches and five 
passenger baggage cars. 

The Seaboard .Air Line Railway has ordered si.K passenger 
baggage cars from the American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Missouri Pacific Railroad has placed an order for 5 gas- 
electric passenger baggage motor cars with the Electro Motive 
Company. 



Freight Cars 



The Texas & Pacific Railway has ordered 300 50-ton automobile 
cars from the American Car & Foundry Company. 

The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad has ordered 1,000 low side 
gondolas of 50-tons capacity from the .American Car & Foundry 
Company. 

The Southern Railway has ordered 500 flat car underframes 
from the Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Company. 

The Giicago & North Western Railway will build 1,000 box 
and 500 stock cars in its own shops. 

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway is inquiring for 

200 steel underframes. 

The General Electric Company is inquiring for 6 fiat cars. 
The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway is inquiring for 
4,50 40-ton box cars. 

W. R. Grace & Company, New York, are asking for bids on 

201 miscellaneous freight cars for South .America. 

The Missouri Pacific Railroad is inquiring for 4 air dump cars. 

The Seaboard Air Line Railway has ordered 50 caboose cars 
from the American Car & Foundry Company. 

The East Broad Top Railroad will build 25 hopper cars in 
its own shops. 

The Central Vermont Railway is inquiring for 200 single 
sheathed 40-ton box cars, 200 40-ton underframes and 200 40-ton 
superstructures. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad has placed an order for parts, 
underframes and superstructures for 100 caboose cars and 16 
dump cars, with the Pressed Steel Car Company. 

The Monroe Sand &• Gravel Company has ordered 4 air dump 
cars from the Knppel Industrial Car Company. 

The Birmingham Southern Company has ordered 100 gondola 
cars from the Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Company. 

The Pere Marquette Railway has ordered 350 automobile box 
cars from the National Steel Car Company. 

The International Railways of Central .America are inquiring 
for 200 box cars. 

The Texas & Pacific J?ailway is inquiring for 300 50-ton double 
sheathed automobile cars and 300 .50-ton single sheathed auto- 
mobile cars. 

The International Railway, Central America, has ordered 25 
flat cars of 20-ton capacity from the Magor Car Company. 

The Consolidated Coal Company has ordered 900 mine cars 
from the Bethlehem Steel Company. 

The CTiicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad is inquiring for 
.500 coal cars. 



150 



KAII.WAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



May, 1926 



The Geor^a & Florida Railway is inquiring for 450 40-ton 
box cars. 

The Nevada Consolidated Copper Company has placed an 
order for 35 dump cars of 80-ton capacity with the Magor Car 
Company. 

The Central Railroad of New Jersey has ordered 100 gondola 
cars from the Bethlehem Steel Company. 

The Delaware, l-ackawanna & Western Railroad is inquiring 
for 500 doutile sheathed 40 ft. box cars, 500 70-ton hoppers and 
500 55-ton lioppcrs. 

The Sinclair Ketining Company has purchased 50 tank cars 
from the General .Vmerican Car Company. 

The Southern Railway is inquiring for 500 underframcs for 
flat cars. 

The Canadian National Railways has ordered 50 express 
refrigerator cars from the National Steel Car Corporation. 

The Brazilian Railway is inquiring through the car builders 
for 40 air dump cars. 

The South Porto Rico Sugar Company is inquiring for 16 flat 
cars of 40 tons' capacity. They are also inquiring for 100 sugar 
cane cars. 

The Muncic & Western Railroad is inquiring for 50 single 
sheathed box cars of 40-tons capacity. 

The National Tube Company is inquiring for 14 skelp cars of 
the lOO-tons capacity. They are also inquiring for 25 car bodies. 

The Ferrocarril de Pacifico, Colombia, is inquiring through the 
car builders for 50 flat cars of 30-tons capacity and also 100 
box cars. 

The Cuban American Sugar Company is inquiring, for 100 
sugar cane cars with steel underframes, of 15-tons capacity. 

The Canadian National Railways has ordered 60 freight cars 
of 40-tons capacity from the Eastern Car Company, also 40 
tank cars of 10.000 gal. capacity from the Canadian Car & 
Foundry Company. 

Buildings and Structures 

The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad has awarded a contract for 
the design and construction of a locomotive repair shop at 
Uceta, Fla., to cost approximately $1,000,000. 

The Wabash Railway has placed a contract for an extension 
to its locomotive shops at Decatur, III., to cost approximatelv 
$800,000. 

The .Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway is planning to 
begin a $3,000,000 improvement project by building new yards 
and repair shops at San Diego, Calif. 

The Central of Georgia Railway is asking for bids on an 
eighteen-stall addition to its enginehouse at Savannah, Ga. 

The Gulf. Colorado & Santa Fe Railway has placed a contract 
for improvement to its shops at Geburne, Texas, with Anderson 
Brothers, El Paso, Texas. 

The Yazoo & Mississippi Valley J?ailroad is having plans 
prepared for extensive yard improvement and additional shops at 
Vicksburg, Miss. 

The Norfolk & Western Railway has placed a contract for an 
extension to its shops at Portsmouth, Ohio, with the J. P. 
Pettijohn Company, Lynchburg, Va. 

The Canadian National Railways has under construction the 
erection of an enginehouse and building for car facilities at 
Toronto. Canada, to cost approximately $300,000. 

The Wabash Railway plans to build a repair shop at Detroit, 
Mich., to cost approximately $100,000. 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad has awarded 
a contract for the erection of an enginehouse at Worcester, Mass., 
to cost approximately $150,000. 

The Cleveland, Cincinnati. Chicago & St. Louis Railway are 
having plans prepared for the construction of an engine terminal 
at Riverside Yard, Cincinnati, Ohio, to cost appro.ximately 
$3,000,000. 

The Reading Company will build a new classification yard, with 
locomotive repair and shop facilities at Reynolds, near Mahoning 
City, Pa., to cost approximately $1,000,000 with equipment. 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad is building 
an enginehouse at Cedar Hill, New Haven, Conn., to cost 
approximately $35,000. 

The New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad has awarded 
a contract for the construction of a shop building at Frankfort, 
Ind., to cost approximately $50,000. The new structure will 
replace a building recently destroyed by fire. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad has arranged a tentative program 
for extensions and improvement in the Pittsburgh district, 
including additions to the boiler and plate shops at the Pitcairn 
yards primarilv for locomotive boiler works, to cost approximatelv 
$60,000 

The Giicago & North Western Railway will make addition 
and alterations to its Green Ray yards at Green Bay. Wis. 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad plans to 
rebuild at once the machine shop which was destroyed by fire 
at East Hartford, Conn. 



The Colorado & Southern Railway has under consideration the 
construction of an enginehouse and machine shop at Fort Collins, 
Colo., with complete locom<3tive repair facilities to cost approxi- 
mately $l(X),00<J with equipment. 

The Pullman (7ar & Manufacturing Corporation is said to be 
considering the erection of a new car repair shop in the vicinity 
of Dallas or San Antonio, Texas, to cost $1,(K)0,000 with equip- 
ment and machinery. 

The Norfolk & Western Railway has awarded a contract for 
replacing its machine shop at East End Yard, Roanoke, Va., 
with J. P. Peltiiohn & Companv, Lynchburg, Va. 

The Boston & Maine Railroad will soon start work on three 
coal plants at Lcwiston, Rumford and Bangor, Maine, to cost 
approximately $250,(X)0. The Lewiston project includes an 
enginehouse, storage buildings and turntable. 

The .New England Transportation Company, a subsidiary of 
the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, plans to 
build a bus terminal at Fall River, Mass. 

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway has awarded a 
contract for the erection of a 400-ton frame coaling station at 
Washington, Iowa, also for a 400-ton frame coaling station 
at West Liberty, Iowa, and for a 300-ton frame coaling station • 
Enid, Okla. 

The Texas & Pacific Railway plans engine terminals ai. 
repair shops at Gouldsboro, La., to cost approximately $I,S0O,Oik' 

The Colorado & Southern Railway has under consideration tl • 
construction of an enginehouse and machine shop at Fort Collins, 
Colo., to cost approximately $100,000 with equipment. 

The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway are planning for 
the construction of a 43-stall roundhouse, several small shop 
buildings and extensive track facilities at Emporia, Kan., to cost 
approximately $500,000. 

The Central of Georgia Railway has awarded a contract for 
the erectiiin of a combination engine coaling and cinder handling 
plant at Eufaula, Ala., to the Roberts & Schaefer Company, 
Chicago, III. 

The Chicago & North Western Railway plans the construction 
of a six stall extension to the roundhouse at Long Pine, Nebr. 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad has awarded a 
contract for the construction of a 175-ton, two-track, reinforced 
concrete locomotive coaling station and electric cinder plant at 
Dartons Bluff, Minn. 

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway has under con- 
sideration the construction of a 20-stall roundhouse at Burr 
Oak, III. 

The Illinois Central Railroad has awarded a contract for the 
construction of a heavy inspection shop building for electric 
locomotives at Burnside, Chicago, to cost approximately $300,000. 



Items of Personal Interest 

T. W. McCarthy has been appointed superintendent ■ 
motive power of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway . 
to succeed L. A. Richardson, promoted. 

Daniel J. Flynn has been appointed superintendent of the 
Mcsabi division of the Great Northern Railway, with head- 
quarters at Superior, Wis. F. D. Kelsey has been appointed 
superintendent of the St. Cloud division, to succeed R. E. 
Landis, who has been transferred. 

L. F. Loree has been elected chairman of the board of 
directors of Missouri, Kansas, Texas Railroad and also been 
made chairman of the executive committee, to succeed C. E. 
Schaff, who retired as president. 

W. J. Manley has been appointed assistant to the president 
of the Pittsburgh & West Virginia Railway, with headquarter^ 
at Cleveland. 

W. T. Quirk has been appointed assistant to the general 
manager of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, with 
headquarters at Los Angeles, Calif. 

F. W. Webster has been elected vice-president and general 
manager of the San Jose Railroad, with headquarters at San 
Francisco. Calif., succeeding F. E. Chapin, deceased. 

F. M. Clark has been appointed road foreman of engine of 
the Seaboard An Line Railwav, with headquarters at Arcadia, 
Fla. 

Thomas J. Yonda .has been appointed assistant boilershop 
foreman of the Union Pacific Railroad, with headquarters at 
Pocatello. Idaho, succeeding John Vaughn. 

J. T. Lemly has been appointed foreman of the steel car 
repair? of the ."Southern Railway, with headquarters at Spencer, 
N. C. succeeding G. V. Eagle, promoted. 

Richard Kling has been appointed general roundhouse fore- 
rnan of the Missouri Pacific Railroad, with headquarters at 
Kansas City. Mo. 

W. H. Fetner, chief mechanical oflicer of the Missouri Pa- 
cific Railroad, has had his authority extended to include the 
Gulf Coast Lines and the International Great Northern, with 
headquarters at St. Louis, Mo. 



Mav. 1026 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERIN'G 



151 



Irving Blodgett has been made assistant to the mechanical 
superintendent of the Boston & Maine Railroad, with head- 
quarters at Boston, Mass. 

J. W. Redus has been made erecting shop foreman of the 
Gulf Coast Lines, with headquarters at Kingsville, Texas, suc- 
ceeding L. F. Breaker, transferred to Vanderbilt as mechanical 
foreman. 

J. J. Horrigan has been appointed night roundhouse foreman 
of the Union Pacific Railroad, with headquarters at Grand 
Island. Xebr., succeeding H. H. Turner, transferred to 
Kearney. Xebr. 

T. J. Leach has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, with headquarters at Altoona, Pa., suc- 
ceeding G. J. Richers. 

H. Israel has been appointed division engineer. Illinois divi- 
sion of the Missouri Pacific Railroad, with headquarters at 
Illmo, Mo. R. G. Bush has been appointed division engineer 
of the Kansas City Terminal division, with headquarters at 
Kansas City. Mo. W. F. Murray has been appointed assistant 
division engineer of the Colorado division, with headquarters 
at Hoisington. Kansas, to succeed Mr. Bush. 

L. O. Murdock has been appointed superintendent of the 
Alliance division of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Rail- 
road, with headquarters at Alliance, Xebr., to succeed L. C. 
McBride, who has been appointed superintendent of the Mc- 
Cook division, with headquarters at McCook, Xebr., to suc- 
ceed M. F. MacLaren, who has resigned. 

Samuel Miller, formerly general superintendent of transpor- 
tation of the Boston & Maine Railroad, has been appointed 
general superintendent of the entire system, to succeed John 
Rourke, deceased. 

E. R. Tattershall has been appointed division engineer of 
the St. Lawrence division of the X'ew York Central Railroad. 
with headquarters at Watertown. X'ew York. A. R. Jones, 
has been appointed division engineer of the Pennsylvania divi- 
sion, with headquarters at Jersey Shore, Pa., and S. E. Arm- 
strong has been appointed division engineer of the River divi- 
sion, with headquarters at Weehawken. Xew Jersey. 

J. W. Mode has been appointed acting superintendent of 
the Amarillo division of the Fort Worth & Denver City Rail, 
way, with headquarters at Childress, Texas, to succeed R. G. 
Fitzpatrick, who has been granted a leave of absence because 
of ill health. 

W. C. Higginbottom, superintendent of the Pan Handle 
division of the Pennsylvania Railroad, with headquarters at 
Pittsburgh, Pa., has been appointed superintendent of the 
Philadelphia division, to succeed W. L. Elkin. E. Y. Geddes, 
superintendent of the Toledo division has been appointed 
superintendent of the Pan Handle division, to succeed W. C. 
Higginbottom. 

C. L. Beale has been appointed assistant general manager 
of the Florida East Coast Railway, with jurisdiction over the 
transportation and maintenance of way department. 

Leroy Relyea has been appointed assistant superintendent 
of the River division of the New York Central Railroad, with 
headquarters at Weehawken, New Jersey. 

G. W. Cuyler, master mechanic on the Chicago, Rock Island 
& Pacific Railway, with headquarters at Horton, Kan., has 
been transferred to Des Moines, Iowa, succeeding T. W. Mc- 
Carthy, who has been promoted to superintendent of motive 
power. 

Norman M. Lack has been appointed assistant to the gen- 
eral manager of the Alaska Railroad, with headquarters at 
.^nchorage, .Alaska. 

Franklin D. Davis has been appointed general superintendent 
of transportation of the Western region of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, with headquarters at Chicago. III. 

E. L. Bachman, assistant master mechanic of the Pan Handle 
division of the Pennsylvania Railroad, with headquarti-rs at 
Cully. P,-i.. has been appointed master mechanic of the Wheel- 
ing division, with headquarters at Mingo Junction, r)hiii. 

Supply Trade Notes 

H. M. Curry, Jr., was cUctcd president of the Premier Stay- 
bolt Company, of Pittsburgh, at a recent meeting of the board 
of directors; J. F. McGann was made assistant sales manager 
and C. B. Woodworth was appointed technical representative. 

Thf American Car & Foundry Company was moved its Xew 
York office from 165 Broadway to 30 Church street. 

Fred A. Poor, formerly president of the P. & M. Company, 
was clerted chairman of the board of directors, and Philip W. 
Moore, formerly vice-president, was elected preside nt. 

K. E. Kellenberger, eastern manager of the National Safety 
Appliance Company, with headquarters at Chicago, has re- 
■sicned to handle publicity work for the Union Switch & Signal 
Company, with headquarters at .Swissdale. Pa. 

George T. Ramsey has been appointed railroad department 



representative of the eastern territory of the United Alloy 
Steel Corporation, Canton, Ohio, with headquarters at Pershing 
S<iuare building. X'ew York City. 

T. D. Graham, who formerly represented the RepubUc Iron 
& Steel Company at Xew York, has assumed charge of the 
Cleveland territory of the Reading Iron Company, with head- 
quarters at 850 Euclid avenue, Cleveland, Ohio. 

R. R. Baxter, superintendent of the car building plant of 
the Tennessee Coal Iron & Railroad Company, has been ap- 
pointed assistant to the vice-president, with headquarters at 
Birmingham. -\la. N. L. Van Tol lias been appointed general 
superintendent, to succeed Mr. Baxter. 

W. C. MacFarlane, vice-president and general manager of 
the Minneapolis Steel & Machinery Company, MinneapoHs, 
Minn., has been elected president. 

The Rail Joint Company has moved its New York offioe 
from 61 Broadway tg 165 Broadway, New York City. _ _■ 

Edwin S. Mills, general manager of sales of the Illinois 
Steel Company, Chicago, has been elected a vice-president. 

Newton E. Dabolt, who has been general sales manager in 
charge of sales for both the lacquer and leather cloth divisions 
of the Zapon Company, has resigned. 

Avery Adams has been appointed assistant general manager 
of the sales of the Trumbull Steel Company, Warren, Ohio, 
to succeed Arthur Long, resigned. 

J. Reis, vice-president of the United State Steel Corporation, 
with headquarters at Xew York, has resigned and will retire 
from active business. 

O. M. Hullinger, sales engineer for the railroad department 
of the Ohio Brass Company, Mansfield, Ohio, has been trans- 
ferred from X'ew York office to Chicago office, with head- 
quarters in the Fisher building. 

Albert Roberts has been appointed district manager of the 
southern territory of the Duff Manufactiu'ing Company, Pitts- 
burgh. Pa., with office in the Candler building, Atlanta, Ga., 
and George E. Watts has been appointed special representa- 
tive in the Southern district, with headquarters at Candler 
building, .\tlanta. Ga. 

J. V. O'Neil has been appointed district representative of 
the General American Tank Car Corporation, with head- 
quarters in the Gosden building at Tulsa. Okla.. succeeding 
R. J. Sharpe, who has been transferred to the general office 
at Cliicago, III., as general sales manager. 

The Gould Car Lighting Corporation, a subsidiary of the 
Could Coupler Company, of Depew. New York, has been 
organized recently in Maryland to take over the car lighting 
business of the parent company. The officers of the new com- 
pany are: W. S. Gould, president; J. A. Sauer and Donald S. 
Barrows, vice-presidents; P. P. Meade, treasurer, and Bickett 
Nairn, secretary and assistant treasurer. W. F. Bouche, for- 
merly superintendent of the car lighting department of the 
Gould Coupler Company at Depew, will be manager of the 
new corporation, with headquarters at Rochester, Xew York. 

Taylor Allderdice has been elected president of the National 
Tube Corporation, the pipe subsidiary of the United States 
Steel Corporation. 

Howard B. Jemee has been appointed .sales manager of the 
line shaft bearing department of the Hyatt Roller Bearing 
Company, Xewark. X. J., succeeding Frank S. Cole. 

The Madison Kipp Corporation, of Madison. Wis., has 
moved its Chicago office from 306 South Waliasli avenue to 
2750 Xorth Lincoln street. William B. Wheeler is general 
manager in charge of the railroad department. 

The Southern Iron & Equipment Company, Atlanta, Ga., 
announces the following changes, H. M. Pratt, formerly gen- 
eral sales manager, has been elected second vice-president, and 
R. A. Garner has been made secretary and treasurer, to suc- 
ceed A. J. Merrill, deceased. 

The Bucyrus Company has moved its Pittsburgh district 
office from the Union Trust to the Commonwealth building. 
As formerly, the office is in charge of A. R. Hance, district 
sales manager. 

J. McA. Duncan, who has been district manager for the 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. at Pittsburgh 
for the past fourteen years, has been promoted to assistant 
general sales manager, effective May 1. W. R. Marshall, 
formerly branch manager at Buffalo, has been chosen to fill 
the place vacated by Mr. Duncan. H. F. Boe, formerly in- 
dustrial division manager at Buffalo, has been promoted to 
branch manager of that office, and R. L. Kimber has been 
made industrial division manager. W. F. Barnes has been 
appointed branch manager of the Tulsa office. 



Obituary 

Andrew Charles Loudon, vice-president of the Superheater 
Company, Ltd., Montreal, died at his residence, in Burlington, 



ISJ 



KAIl.WA'i ANiJ l.()C(.)M()ll\ K KNGINKKKING 



Vermont, on Sunday evening, .April 11, IMJo. Diatli resulted, 
after a few days illnes*. from influenza and imcunionia. and 
came as a gnat shock to his family and relatives, as well as 
to the wide circle of friends and business associates. 

Mr. Loudon was born July 7, 1883, at Valleylicld, Quebec. 
After receiving public school and high school education, he 
entered upon an apprenticeship course with the Canadian Pa- 
cific Railway in 1901. and. upon completion, entered McGill 
University in 1902. from which he was graduated in 1906 with 
a degree of Bachelor of Science, lie then entered the employ 
of the .\mcrican Locomotive Company and was employed in 
the engineering department until 1907, when he went with the 
Grand Trunk Railway as roundhouse foreman at Island I'ond, 
Vernif)nt. In 1909 he became draftsman for the Delaware & 
Hudson Kailroad at Green Island. New York, and later joined 
the test department of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fc 
Railway. In 1910 he was employed in railway construction 
work by the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway and later was fore- 
man of locomotive and car repair. Leaving railway work in 
1912. he became associated with the Simmons-Roardman Pub- 
lishing Company as assistant editor in charge of the Car 
Builders' Dictionary, subsequently becoming associated editor 
of the Railway Mechanical Engineer. Mr. Loudon became 
assiciated with the Superheater Company of New York in 
April, 1917, and served with distinct ability in the engineering 
and service departments of this company until July, 1920, when 
he was placed in charge of the Superheater Company, Ltd., 
of Canada, of which ho became vice-president in January, 
1921. and in which capacity he was serving at the time of his 
death. 

Mr. Loudon was a member of the Engineering Institute of 
Canada, the .American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the 
Engineers' Club of Montreal, the Waubanakee Golf Club of 
Burlington, ITnivcrsity Club of Montreal, the Trout Club of 
Vermont, the Ethan .-Mien Club of Burlington. St. Georges 
Gub of Sherbrooke, St. Francis Golf Qub of Sherbrooke, 
Green Mountain Club of Rutland, the First Congregational 
Church of Burlington and a member of other social and fra- 
ternal organizations. 

He was a man of remarkably keen sympathy and was ever 
mindful of the opportunity to be of help and assistance to 
those in trouble. The large number of messages of condolence 
from men in all parts of the United States and Canada, ex- 
pressing their high regard for Mr. Loudon and their sense 
of keen personal loss, is an eloquent tribute to his high char- 
acter and ideals and to the high standing which he had attained 
in his chosen line of activitv. 



and was graduated from there in 1892. He was in charge of 
the operation of power station, substations, tran!>mission and 
distribution system, terminal service and boiler plants, and 
the supply of heat, light and power to the buildings in the 
Grand I'eiitral Terminal. 

F. O. Bailey, manager of sales of the Gold Car Heating & 
Lighting Company, New York, died at his home in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., on April 14, 1926. 



New Publications 

Books, Bulletins, Catalogues, etc. 

Locomotive Data. The W'estinghouse Electric & Manufac- 
turing Company has released six additional sheets of Loco- 
motive Data. Leaflet 20190. sheets 21 to 26. inclusive, covering 
Virginia, Detroit. I'oUdo & Ironton; Buenos .\ires and West- 
ern: Imperial Government Railways of Japan: Norte Rail- 
ways of Spain, and Dutch East Indies State Railway. 

Each sheet covers a certain type of locomotive giving the 
salient mechanical and electrical data of that particular type. 
These sheets can be furnished separately or in complete sets 
by addressing the Publicity Department, Westinghouse Elec- 
tric & Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Uninterrupted Signal Power. This is an illustrated booklet 
issued by the Electric Storage Battery Co.. Philadelphia. The 
booklet describes the manner in which the a.c. floating battery 
system functions. This method of supplying a constant cur- 
rent was developed about six years ago by the joint invention 
of Robert M. Phinney. assistant signal engineer, Chicago 
Northwestern Railway, and H. M. Beck, operating engineer of 
the Electric -Storage Battery Co. This booklet, describing 
the a.c. floating battery system in more detail, may be secured 
by addressing the company at its Philadelphia office. 



Power Factor and Means for Its Improvements. This is 
an illustrated pamphlet issued recently under the serial number 
GE.'\-232. by the General Electric Company, Schenectady, 
N. V. It presents in a simple and systematic manner authorita- 
tive information on means for power improvement in indus- 
trial and other plants. It is a practical treatise on power 
factors with the mathematics reduced to simple arithmetic. 



Willard G. Carlton, superintendent of power, electric divison 
and Grand Central Terminal, New York Central, died on 
Thursday. .April l.S. after a very brief illness. Mr. Carlton was 
born on February 20, 1869. in Warren. 111., and was educated 
at the College of Mechanical Engineering, Cornell I'nivcrsity. 



Some Developments in Electrical Industry During 1925, by 

John Liston. This review put out as publication GE.A-3S5, 
by the General Electric Company. Schenectady. N. Y.. covers 
every phase of electrical application and its outstanding de- 
velopment during the past year. It is divided into numerous 
sections; contains illustrations and an index. 



For Testing and Washing 
Locomotive Boilers 




Rue Boiler Washer 
and Tester 

SEND FOR CATALOGUE 

Rue Manufacturing Co. 

228 Cberx7 Street PhiladelpYiia, Pa. 

XaDDfaetvr«n of Injocton, Ejector* 

BoIl«r Wathen and Tetter*, Boiler Cheoki. 

Cheek VaWes. 



DIAMOND STEEL ENERT 

For Orlnding In Staam and Air Joint* 

"CUTS BUT NEVER BREAKS" 

A Railroad Shop Necessity 

PITTSBURGH CRUSHED STEEL CO 

PITTSBURGH, PA., U. S. A. 



GEO. P. NICHOLS A BRO. 

Nichols Transfer Tables 
Turntable Tractors 

2139 Fulton Street, Chicago 



DUNER 
CAR CLOSETS 

DUNER CO. 



WANTED 

Locomotive builder's or other litfa- 

ograph of U. S. locomotives, multi- 
colored or one tone for historical 
collection. Give name of builder, 
type of locomotive, condition of 
print, etc. 

Also wish to purchase collec- 
tions of locomotive photographs, 
particularly those of early date, or 
will gladly arrange for exchange 
with other collectors. 

Particularly interested in N«w 
York Central photographs. 



Address, HISTORICAL 

9 Rfl^way and Lor o ro o<l v » Eag^m^m^kg 
114 LfbM^ Street, Nw Ycrii 



Riy%l!%»Eii$iiiNriii| 

A Practical Journal of Motive Power. Rolling Stock and Appliances 



Vol. XXXIX 



136 Liberty Street, New York. June, 1926 



No. 6 



Three -Cylinder Loeomotive Performance Record 

Shows Low Maintenance Cost Per Loeomotive Mile for the Desisn 



Among the niaii\ interesting exhibits at the Atlantic 
City Conventions is locomotive Xo. 5000 of the Lehigh 
\'alJey Railroad which went into service in March. 1924. 
and which was exhibited at the June conventions that 
year. It was the forerunner of a large number of three- 
cylinder engines which have since been constructed bv 
the .\merican Locomotive Company and details of its per- 
formance and maintenance is of interest. 

The locomotive was described in the Februarv 1924 issue 



weight 1.350 tons, appro.xiniateiy 150 tons more than the 
ordinary milk train, was made up, and left Sayre 1 hr. 15 
min. late. The locomotive took the train over the moun- 
tain, and arrived at Lehighton, 150 miles. 12 min. late. 
Also, appro.xiniateiy 1.560 tons, in 38 milk cars and 2 
cabooses, were taken out of Lehighton 7 min. late, and 
arrived at Sayre 5 min. late in spite of 15 min. delay on 
the road. During this trip an average of 55 m.p.h. was 
maintained for 38 miles. One of the outstanding features 




the Lenigh Valley Rarl.-oad — Built by the Ar 



notive Company 



of Iv.Mr.u.'iV .\.\o Lo(o-MOTivE Engi.neekixg, and tests 
of its performance on the Lehigh Valley Railroad appeared 
in the .^pril, 1924, issue. 

The locomotive is of the 4-8-2 type and in working 
order weighs 369.000 lb., the weight on the driving wheels 
being 246.500 lb. Driving wheel base 41 ft. 2 in. The 
cylinders are 25x28 in. ; boiler pressure 200 lb. ; maximum 
tractive effort 64.700 lb.: and factor of adhesion 3.81. 
Driving wheel diameter is 69 in. 

It was placed in service on the Buffalo Division between 
Tiffts F"arm and Lanca.ster, abfjut 94 miles. The ruling 
grade is 0.4 per cent and a]>proximately 28 miles long. 
The heaviest locomotive on the Lehigh Vallev is rated at 
3.750 tons r»n the division, this being a Santa Fe type with 
maximum tractive p(jwer of 72.000 lb. Locomotive 5,000 
has actually handled 4,540 tons over this division, in 70 
cars, in 4 hr. 45 min.. anfl on another occasion handled 
4.619 tons in 94 cars, in 5 hr. 6 min. at an average speed 
of 18.57 m.ji.h. It was also tried on the Wyoming Divi- 
sion. 150 miles long, with maximum grades 1.17 per cent 
for about 20 miles eastbound, and 1.2.3 per cent for about 
10 miles westlxninfl. The locomotive was tried on this 
'livision to ascertain the jxjssibiiities of using it on a 
milk train the schedule of which is fast and which had been 
handled by two Pacific type locomotives. In order to try 
the three cvlinder locomotive on this run. a .36-car train 



of the locomotive has been the ability of the boiler to main- 
tain average boiler pressure under all conditions of service. 
Based on the Cole method of calculating locomotive boiler 
ratio for 2-cylinder locomotives, the boiler h.p. figures out 
at only 86 per cent of cylinder h.p. This figure.however, 
does not indicate the true percentage, because of the dif- 
ference in draft, due to 6 exhaust impulses, instead of 4 
as in the 2-cylinder locomotive. Official figures obtained 
from actual test of locomotive 5.000 show evaporation of 
approximately 7.5 lb. of water per lb. of coal. Coal con- 
sumption on test runs showed under 60 lb. per 1.000 gross 
ton miles. CJn one test run the coal per indicated h.p. was 
a little less than 2.6 lb., with an average cut-off of 53 
per cent, no deduction being made for coal used in sup- 
plying steam to auxiliaries. 

Since June of 1924 engine No. 5.000 has been regularly 
assigned to milk train Xo. 38 eastbound. and No. 21 west- 
bound, making alternate trips each day with another sim- 
ilar three-cylinder locomotive. 

Milk train No. 38, eastlwund, is composed of from 19 
to 25 loaded milk cars, depending upon the season. Train 
Xo. 21. westbound, is composed of from 38 to 43 emptv 
milk cars, also depending upon the season. 

Kastboimd from Wilkes-Barre to Mountain Top is a 
long grade, five miles of which is 54.9 ft. to the mile, and 
14 miles 61.5 ft. to the mile. Westbound from Lehighton 



1S3 



154 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



June, 1926 



to Mountain l\)i) are 24 miles averaging 35.0 ft. to the 
mile and 1 1 miles 64.0 ft. to the mile. 

Train No. 38 is operated on a very severe schedule, 
requiring a sustained speed of from 50 to 55 miles per 
hour over the entire division with the e.xception of the 
heavy grade over the mountain. Formerly this train was 
handled by a heavy Pacific type locomotive which was 
double headed over the mountain. The three-cylinder 
locomotive handles this train without helper except in 
ca.ses of a severe snowstorm. 

Up until May 26, 1926, when engine No. 5000 was 
taken out of service in order to l)e shipped to Atlantic City, 
this locomotive had a mileage of 99,018. 



On February 5. 1925, engine Xo. 5000 was taken in 
the sho]i and given Class 5 repairs. It was released on 
I'Vbruary 21st. .Again on November 10, 1925, it was 
taken in the shop and given Class 5 repairs. It was again 
released on December 5th. .Since la.st Class 5 repairs it 
has made 23.3(X) miles. 

.\ large numlier of three-cylinder locomotives were 
built by the .'\merican Locomotive Company during 1924 
and 1925. The tractive effort of these locomotives ranged 
from 29.800 lb. in the case of one built for the Japanese 
Government Railways, to 96,650 lb. of the Union Pacific 
4-12-2 t_\pe. Details of the latter engine appeared in 
R.\II.\v.\^ wn Locomotive Engineering for May, 1926. 



The Distribution for Locomotive Weights 

A Survey of the Changes in Distribution of Weights 
on Wheels After Locomotives Have Been in Service 



Cases have been reported where the calculated distri- 
bution of weights on the wheels of a locomotive as made 
in the drawing room have been approached so closely by 
the shop construction as to seem almost uncanny. In one 
instance there was a variation of less than 500 lbs. in the 
weights on the two sets of driving wheels of a Mallet 
locomotive, whose total weight was between 400.000 and 
500,000 lbs. 

Usually the theoretical weights on driving wheels, 
where the equalizing lever, a prop»erly designed, should 
be about the same. But track conditions and the position 
of the locomotive upon the same, cause constant and 
varying differences to occur. 

Llowever well a locomotive may have been designed 
wear and tear and back shop repairs will cause changes 
to take place in the weight distribution on the wheels, 
some of which may be of a permanent character and may 
even affect the o]>eration of the locomotive. 

Noticing indications that seemed to jxjint to the oc- 
currence of such changes in some Atlantic locomotives, 
under his charge, a superintendent of motive power of a 
well-known road had a surv-ey made of fifty-eight of these 
locomotives, in order to determine what, if any changes 
had taken place in the distribution of weights on the 
wheels. In order to be able to appreciate the situation 
at a glance the results were put in the form of diagrams 
which are herewith reproduced. 

The engines were classified in two series which are 
here designated as the X-1 and X-2 classes. 

The X-1 class had cylinders 20^ in. in diameter and a 
piston stroke of 26 in., and weighed when new about 187,- 
000 lbs. of which about 32,000 lbs. was on the front 
truck ; 60,000 lbs. on the first pair of drivers ; 63,000 lbs. 
on the second pair of drivers and 32,000 lbs. on the rear 
truck. The X-2 engines were identical with the X-1 so 
far as size of and total and distribution of weights are 
concerned. In this it will be noticed that the weight on 
the rear or main drivers was 3,000 lbs. more than it was 
upon the front driving wheels. 

The survey, here set forth was made after the engines 
had been in service and been subjected to one or more 
general overhauling, during which, in some instances, 
changes had been made in the specialties with which they 
were equipped which altered the weights and was proba- 
bly the cause of some of the variations in the distribution. 

The X-1 class was divided for convenience in diagram- 
ing into two groups the A and B. 

In all of these diagrams the figures attached to the 



several lines indicate the numbers of the engines surveyed 
and are used for purposes of identification. 

In what follows it has been assumed that the original 
distribution of weights checked exactly with the schedule. 
Of course this is not strictly the case so that some latitude 
must be allowed. But, in a general way, it is believed that 
the analysis is correct. 

In the .4 group we notice a tendency of three out of the 




five locomotives to increase the weights on the front truck 
and to lose weight on the front drivers relatively to the 
rear pair. In one case, that of Xo. 7063, the increase on 
the front truck was very pronounced, amounting to 11,000 
lbs., most of which was probably at the expense of the 
front drivers, though there was a total loss of weight on 
the whole engine of nearly 8.000 lbs. It is probable that 
this involved other changes than mere wear and tear. At 
any rate the increase of weight on the front truck caused 
a redistribution of weight that was well removed from 
the desirable. 

In group B four out of the six locomotives show un- 



June. 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



155 



desirable variations from the original weights on the 
driving wheels. One main pair of drivers show an in- 
crease of 3,000 lbs. and three fall from 3,000 lbs. to 4,000 




lbs. below the prescribed weight. In not a single instance 
is the difference of 3,000 lbs. between the two pair main- 
tained. 

In two cases the weight on the front drivers has 




weights on the rear drivers are very close to the schedule 
and in one case on the front drivers ; but, in each of these 
the other pair of wheels show wide variations from the 
schedule. 

The X-2 class is shown divided into ten groups, desig- 
nated as from C to L inclusive. In group C there are 
three locomotives, the weights on whose main drivers are 
ver}- close to the schedule, and as to one of which the same 
may be said regarding the front driver. In one case there 
is an increase of 4,500 lbs. on the front trucks and a loss 
of about 7,500 lbs. on the front drivers. In not a single 
instance is the difference of 3,000 lbs. between the front 
and rear drivers held. 

In group D there is an appearance of some interchange 
of distribution. On engine 7484 the weight on the front 
truck increased 3,500 lbs. above the schedule, while the 




become greater than that on tl I here is also a 

variation from 4,500 lbs. less to 4,000 lbs. more on the 
front trucks than the schedule calls for. In two cases the 



front drivers lost 2.500 lbs. : and the front truck on No. 
6484 lost 4,000 lbs., while the front drivers gained 4.500 
lbs. .Again in only one instance was the difference of 
.^,000 lbs. between the two pair of driving wheels main- 
tained. 

In group /T we have a case of a remarkable falling off 
of weight on the rear drivers of engine No. 7579. .And 
in not a single instance are the weights on the front 
drivers near the schedule and in only one case do those 
of the rear drivers come within 1,000 lbs. of the same. 

In two cases the weight on the front drivers rose while 
those on the rear fell, leaving the total in one case only 
750 lbs. below the total of the schedule. In another case 
(Xo. 7631) the front pair lost weight while the rear 
gained so as to leave the total of the two 121,000 lbs., 
instead of 123,000 lbs. 

In group G there is a loss on all drivers, in two instances 



156 



RAILWAY AND I.OCOMOTI\ K KNC.INF.EKING 



luiu-. 192(> 



with a gain on the front truck, leaving totals for the three 
somewhat helow the schedule. 

In group // we have cases of considerable variation. 
In onlv two cases are the weights on the rear drives near 



a net loss after all the variations of but 1.000 Ihs. In 
case. Xo. 7210. the front drivers gained alK)ut 1.750 lbs. 
and the rear lost ,^..^00 Uis. The li».;, was probably a 
genuine engine loss, as the rear truck also shows a loss. 



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the schedule and, on one of these ( Xo. 7480) the front 
pair of drivers have lost 13,500 lbs. while the front, truck 
has gained 9,000 lbs. and the rear truck 3,500 lbs., leaving 



In group / we have another instance of a great increase 
of weight on the front truck with a corresponding loss on 
the front drivers, with but little variation on the rear 



June. 192fi 



RAILWAY AXD LOCOMOTIVE EXGIXELRIXG 



drivers. Similar instances are to be found in groups A 
and H. In this case the front truck increased 8,750 lbs. ; 
the front driver lost 15,000 lbs.: the rear driver gained 
1,000 lbs. and the rear truck gained 6,500 lbs. This in- 
dicates the engine as weighing 1,250 lbs. more than the 
schedule, with the probability that the variations are due 
to either bad original adjustments or a shifting of the 
same in service. In one case there is an unexplained 
increase of 10,000 lbs. in the total weight above the 



remained normal. By an adjustment of the four normal 
weights to correspond to a total increase or decrease in the 
weight of the engines, we find that, of these, three show 



tt t cTibl f-i l! i ! ! i I 




schedule. Rut the variations in truck and driver weights 
from the schedule are greater than should be desired. 

In group J we have a case of a loss of about 5,000 lbs. 
on the two trucks and an increase of 6,000 lbs. on the 
drivers. Also another case of great increase of weight 
on the front truck, with a corresponding loss on the front 
drivers. 

This is repeated to a certain extent in the case of engine 
No. 7053 of group K ; and again on engine No. 7381 of 
group L though in this case, with the exception of the 
front truck, there is a notable loss of weight at each point 
of support. 

Here we have a total of 58 locomotives. On the basis that 
the distribution of all weights was originally in accordance 
with the schedule, we find that, in 38, the weight on the 
front truck increased; in 18 it decreased and in 2 it re- 
mained normal. In one of these latter cases there was 
a total loss of weight of the engine, which would mean 
a relative increase in the weight on the front truck. In 
the other case there was an increase in the weight of the 
engine, meaning a relative loss of weight on the front 
truck ; so that we may take it that the weight on the front 
truck increased on ,39 locomotives and decreased on 19. 

As to the front drivers there was an increase of weight 
on 19 engines; one held to the schedule where the total 
weight increased, making this a relative loss; while 38 
engines lost weight, leaving the result as a gain in 19 
instances and a loss in 39. 

Of the rear drivers, 21 gained in weight ; 33 lost and 4 




a relative l(jss, so that wc have 24 showing a gain and 34 
a loss. 

In the case of the rear truck 39 engines showed an in- 
crease of weight ; 3 were normal and 16 showed a loss 
of weight. 

Where the jK)ints of su]>port show a loss of weight, it 
may be accounted for, in part at least, by wear and tear, 



158 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVK ENGINEERING 



June, 1926 



but an increase alxne the schedule can only be accounted 
for by a change of adjustment or overweight in the new 
machine. 

Fifty-eight is but a small percentage of all of the 
Atlantic (4-4-2) locomotives in the country, and it would 
be unsafe to draw final conclusions from a survey of so 
small a number. l!ut from the data at hand it would 




appear that there is a tendency of the weight on the front 
truck to increase at the expense of that on the front driver. 
Also that the same tiling occurs with the rear truck 
relatively to the rear drivers. 

This loss of driver weights may be serious. Their total 
scheduled weights were 123.000 lbs., yet we find, in a 
number of cases, a loss of 14,000 lbs. and, in one case 
21,000 lbs. in weight on drivers. As these are 11.38 per 
cent and 17.07 per cent of the scheduled weights, such a 
loss may well result in excessive slipping. 

It is impossible to analyze the causes of these changes 
from the information obtained from the diagrams alone: 
but the results are such as to be well worth watching. 

A similar survey was also made of seventeen ten- 
wheelers (4-6-0 type). These engines had cylinders 19 in. 
in diameter with a piston stroke of 24 in., and weighed 
146,500 lbs. Of this weight 30,500 lbs. was upon the 
front truck ; 37,000 lbs. on the front pair of drivers ; 
41,000 on the second, and 38.000 on the rear pair of 
drivers. 

The diagrams show the variations due to a redistribu- 
tion of the weights, and yet, as shown by the table of total 
weights the actual variations from the schedule was not 
excessive. 

Take engine No. 6267 as a flagrant example. The total 
loss of weight was only 1,900 lbs.; yet there was an in- 
crease of 7.700 lbs. on the front truck ; a loss of 8,400 lbs. 



on the front drivers ; a loss of 5,000 lbs. on the second jair 
of drivers and an increase of 3,800 lbs. on the rear pair of 
drivers. The total weight on drivers should have been 
116.000 lbs. but it was reduced to 106,400 lbs., or to 91.72 
per cent of the standard. 

Tliis was the worst case presented ; but, of the seventeen 
locomotives surveyed, fifteen showed an increase of weight 



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- flMttt 1 



«10(X>- 



«!«e • 144, >oo 

till • ui.Boa 

«t9t • 147,000 
«2U • 146,000 

«ta« • i4i,too 

iili •I't.VXi 
^^i «««« • 144. «00 

. : 1 tvi •:i47,jao 

, : ' 10!^ .-l*'. 630 






JMOO 

33000'- ■ 

iior^. 

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^4 



iin the front truck and thirteen showed a loss of weight 
on the front drivers. l-"ive showed an increase on the 
second pair of drivers and ten on the rear pair. 

With such conditions as these existing it is small wonder 
that the crews report unsatisfactory action without being 
able to make any definite statement as to just what may be 
the matter. 

Without being able to suggest a definite remedy, it may 
be well to watch engines going through the shop to see 
that no changes in adjustments are made, and also to 
watch the operation on the road in order to ascertain if 
the mere act of working and running has a tendency to 
transfer more weight to the front truck than it is normally 
expected to carry. At any rate such surveys as these are 
mteresting and valuable as showing what may occur in 
the readjustment of the weights on the wheels of a loco- 
motive. 



Oil-Electric Locomotive in Logging Service 

Tlie Red River Lumber Company will place a 100-ton 
nil electric locomotive in service about July 15 and the 
Utah Copper Company will place a 60-ton unit in service 
at Bingham. Utah. 

The 100-ton locomotive of the Red River Lumber Co. 
will be employed in hauling logs out of the woods and 
hauling supplies in over a line 15 to 20 miles in length. 
Ma.ximum grades of two to three per cent will be en- 
countered. It will probably be necessary to cut the trains 
and take them in sections over these grades, the numbers 
of cars in each section depending on the amount and 
length of the grade. The 60-ton locomotive purchased by 
the Utah Copper Co. will be employed in hauling waste 
cars on the upper levels at its mine at Bingham, Utah. 



Railway Fuel Association Convention 

Interesting Addresses and Reports Made at Highly Successful 
Annual Fuel Convention 



The eighteenth annual convention of the International 
Railway Fuel Association was held at the Hotel Sher- 
man, Chicago, May 11 to 14. This was the largest and 
most successful meeting ever held by this association. 
The attendance was well over 2,000, and included mem- 
bers, guests and representatives of railway supply manu- 
facturers. 

The first day's session was devoted to subjects and re- 
ports of interest to those of the operating department ; 
the second day to the accounting, engineering and pur- 
chasing departments, and the third day's session to such 
subjects and reports of value to those engaged in the 
mechanical department. 

Abstracts of the principal addresses made on three of 
the days by A. E. Clift, vice-president of the Illinois 
Central Railroad; H. R. Stafford, vice-president of the 
Missouri Pacific Railway and C. E. Brooks, chief of 
motive power, Canadian National Railways, are presented 
as follows : 

Railroads Are Still Progressing 

By A. E. Clift, Senior Vice-President Illinois 
Central Railroad 

Remarkable things have taken place in the world since 
the advent of the steam locomotive. The continents of 
Europe and Xorth America, in particular, have witnessed 
a development far greater during this last century than 
took place in all the centuries that went before. The 
progress of the world in the last one hundred years has 
been an indirect result — not of the railroad, for roadways 
of rail were in use more than three centuries ago — but 
of the steam locomotives. As the automobile has trans- 
formed our main highways from ruts and sloughs and 
mud-holes into the smooth-surfaced pavements of today 
so the steam locomotive has been the important factor in 
the development of our modem railroads. Probably no 
other one invention has had such a profound influence 
Ufxjn mankind and such a stimulating effect upon human 
progress. 

There is approximately one mile of railroad for every 
75 square miles of land area on the globe or for every 
2,400 members of the human race. Our own nation, 
youthful as it is in comparison with the countries of the 
Eastern Hemisphere, embraces 250,000 miles of first 
track and 415.000 miles of all track. With only one-six- 
teenth of the world's population and only one-eighteenth 
of the world's land area, we have in this country more 
than one-third of the total railway mileage of the world. 
We have one mile of railroad for every 440 of our 
population and for every 12 square miles of land area. 

The railroads are a gigantic industry in themselves. 
They purchase from the other industries of the country 
fuel, materials and supplies costing around one and three- 
quarter billion dollars a year. They pay out more than 
three billion dollars annually in wages. These large 
sums of money, passing into channels of trade and com- 
merce, are factors of great importance in the maintenance 
of business activity. They furnish employment to hun- 
dreds of thousands of workmen ; they turn many of the 
wheels of the nation's industries ; they arc passed on and 
on throughout the country's economic structure, until their 
direct and indirect benefits are felt by all persons. 

Our railroads are still young and growing, in keeping 



with the youthfulness of our nation. They are not only 
adequate for present needs ; they are capable of expansion 
to perform far greater service than can be provided with 
present facilities. 

Railroad Capacity Increasing Intensively 

In the early stages of railway development the growth 
of the railway plant was measured largely by the ex- 
tension of mileage. But as time went on and the coun- 
try' settled up, the need was not so much for additional 
mileage as it was for increased facilities in the territory 
already occupied. Railway development in recent years, 
therefore, has consisted more largely of increasing the 
capacity and efficiency of mileage already in existence 
through the construction of second and other additional 
main tracks, the building of sidings and yards, the placing 
of heavier ballast, the laying of heavier rail, the reduc- 
tion of grades, the elimination of curves, the installation 
of signal and other safety devices, the construction of 
more substantial and more durable bridges and struc- 
tures, the enlargement of shop facilities and the pur- 
chase of more powerful and more efficient locomotives 
and improved passenger and freight equipment. 

An indication of the intensive development of the rail- 
way plant is the record of what has happened to miles 
of road and miles of all track in the 10-year period ended 
December 31. 1924, the latest year for which complete 
figures are available. In that period, as a result of some 
lines being abandoned, the mileage of road owned de- 
creased 3,786 miles, or more than the entire first-track 
mileage of some highly important railway systems. In 
the same period, however, the mileage of all railway track, 
including second, third and other main tracks, yard tracks 
and sidings, increased 23.958 miles, or more than the 
entire first track railway mileage in New York, New 
Jersey, and Pennsylvania combined. In other words, 
while the mileage of road owned was falling off about 
1 Yi per cent in 10 years, the mileage of all track, which 
is more nearly a measure of total railway capacity, was 
increasing about 6'4 per cent. 

In the four years ended December 31, 1925, the rail- 
roads of the United States installed more than 10,000 
new locomotives, 9,300 new passenger cars and 619,000 
new freight cars, replacing old equipment with new 
equipment that is bigger and better in every way and 
making definite advances in carrying capacity. In all. 
the railroads S])cnt an average of more than three-(|U;ir 
ters of a billion dollars a year during the last four years 
in improving and enlarging their facilities. 

A Splendid Safety Record 

The railroads have been making progress in the re- 
duction of accidents and in the careful handling of freight. 
In 1920 they paid out approximately $220,000,000 for 
loss and damage claims, injuries to persons and insur- 
ance. In 1923 this was reduced approximatelv 50 per 
cent, to $112,000,000, and in 1924 to $108,000,000. Where 
these items represented 3.6 cents out of everv dollar of 
total revenue in 1920, they represented onlv 1.8 cents in 
1923 anfl K'24. This saving was due Inrgclv to increased 
fliligence on the part of railway employees in safeguard- 
ing life and property. It is an indication of the increased 
efficiency which characterizes present day railway opera- 
tions. 



159 



RAM. WAV AND LOCOMOTIVH IvNGlNEKRING 



June, 1926 



Tlic railroads arc bccominj^ cunstaiitly safer for those 
who work on iht-m and for those wlio ride their trains. 
Reports of railway accidents were first compiled on a 
national hasis in 18.SS. In that year 315 passengers and 
2,070 employees were killed. In 1925, 175 passengers 
and 1.52,^ employees were killed. This is a reduction of 
45 per cent in passeni^er fatalities and a reduction of 26 
])er cent in employee facilities notwithstanding the fact 
that since ISSS railway iKisscngcr traffic has more than 
trehled, railway freii^ht traffic has increased almost six 
times, and the numl^-r of railway employees is two and 
one-half times greater than it was then. 

Highway crossing accidents, which are not included 
in the foregoing figures, have come in recent years to be 
the most prolific cause of fatalities on the railroads. This, 
of course, is due to the growing use of automobiles. How- 
ever, the iXTsistcnt efforts of the railroads to prevent 
such accidents through the education of the public and 
the vigilance of their employees are bearing fruit. In 
1917 there were 22 fatalities in automobile accidents at 
grade crossing for every 100,000 automobiles in use, 
and in 1925 there were only 11 for every 100.000 auto- 
mobiles in use. a relative ilecrease of 50 i)er cent. Be- 
cause of the vastly greater number of automobiles in use 
in 1925, of course, the total number of deaths due to 
automobile accidents at grade crossings in 1925 was 
considerably greater than in 1917, and we must not let 
down in our activities. 

There are 245.000 highway grade crossings on the 
principal railroatls of the country. Some of these are 
Ix'ing eliminated from time to time, but to do away with 
them all through the construction of subways and via- 
ducts would require a generation of time and the e.\- 
jx-nditure of apjiroximately 20 billion dollars, and that, 
of course, is prohibitive. The solution of the grade 
crossing ]iroblem must be found elsewhere. The Ijest 
results will come out of our educational efforts. The 
railroads have taken the leadership in this safety pro- 
gram, and thev should have thorough supjxirt. 

The Autonioliile a Benefit to the Railroads 

One of the comparatively recent developments in trans- 
portation is the tremendous increase in the use of motor 
vehicles on the highways. Railway progress has contin- 
ued at a substantial rate in recent years, but nevertheless 
the increased use of automobiles and motor trucks has 
had its effect uix)n many of our railroads. In some re- 
spects that effect has been detrimental and in some re- 
spects beneficial, but if we could weigh the benefits against 
the detriments, I believe we should find that the railroads 
have gained a great deal more than they have lost from 
the development of highway transportation. 

Long distance travel by railroads has continued to in- 
crease, but short distance travel has fallen off substan- 
tiallv. chiefly because of the convenience of the private 
automobile. It has Ixfcome necessary for the railroads to 
discontinue the operation of many local passenger trains 
because of declining patronage. 

.\s a connecting link l)etween the railroads and off- 
line communities, the motor truck has been an aid rather 
than a detriment to the railroads, and the same is true 
of passenger carrying motor vehicles. Then, too, there 
is the vast amount of traffic which the railroads have 
derived from the handling of automobiles and parts, gaso- 
line, roadbuilding machinery and so on. In that respect 
the development of highway transportation has helped 
the railroads. 

The use of automobiles has created a new and gigantic 
industrv and has sriven new strength to our entire eco- 
nomic structure. The automobile and the highway have 
helped tremendously to transform the living conditions. 



the thought, the culture and the very lives of the Ameri- 
can peoi)le. That is what improved transportation al- 
ways tloes. The <levelopment of transjjortation in its 
various forms has furnislied energy for the jirogress of 
civilination throughout the centuries, and the rapid devel- 
opment of highway transportation during the last 25 years 
had been an e.xtension of that jimgress. 

The motor vehicle, of course, can never take the place 
of the railroad. .Motor trucks will handle more or less 
short haul, package freight, but they will never handle 
any considerable amount of long haul, bulky freight, and 
the latter constitutes by far the larger part of the nation's 
commerce. The railroads arc wholesale dealers in trans- 
portation ; motor trucks are the retailers. The average 
carload of freight on the Illinois C entral System consists 
of alxjut .56 tons. It would require more than seven 
trucks loaded to five tons" capacity each to transjwrt our 
average carload, and it would require MiO motor trucks 
loaded to five tons' capacity each and 3(jO drivers to trans- 
port the tonnage handled in a 50-car freight train. The 
total carrying capacity of the 2,400.000 motor trucks reg- 
istered last year amounts to only 2.8 per cent of the carry- 
ing capacity of the freight cars owned by the Class I rail- 
roads of the L'nited -States. 

The ])roblem, as we see it, is one of co-ordinating 
the efforts of the two highly important branches of trans- 
]X)rtation. Both are performing essential service and 
there is plenty room for both. Where they complete, ad- 
justment is needed. The fi.xing of rates, the taxation of 
highway common carriers in ]>roportion to their use of 
the highways and other matters of like nature must in 
time be equitably adjusted so the railroads and motor 
vehicles operating as common carriers will l)e on equal 
footing. 

In the meantime, it is to the advantage of the railroads 
to encourage the continued development of the highways 
and the increased use of automobiles. It is generally 
recognized that the railroads form, and will continue to 
form, the backbone of the .American transportation sys- 
tem, producing a service that the country cannot get along 
without. 

Developin}; Public Understanding 

Xo one will deny that the railroads have made mis- 
takes in the past. One of the costliest of their mistakes 
was their failure to discuss their affairs freely with their 
patrons. The well being of the railroads under private 
management, |)rivate ownership, private financing and 
])ublic regulation is dependent on winning and holding 
the confidence and good will of the public. 

The Illinois Central System has l)een active in educa- 
tional work of this character. For nearly six years we 
have been publishing each month in the newspaj^ers on 
our lines a statement discussing some phase of railway 
management and o])eration, and these statements, as many 
of you know, have had an excellent effect in putting the 
railroads l)eforc the jx'ople of our territory in an under- 
standable way. We have discussed our affairs with the 
utmost frankness and candor and sought to correct such 
erroneous ideas and impressions as have been formed 
in the public mind regarding railway affairs. W^e have 
cultivated the friendship and enlisted the cooj^eration of 
our patrons and given them a better understanding and 
appreciation of the problems and conditions with which 
the railroads are confronted. We have taken the mystery 
out of railroading for them. There is. after all. no secret 
in the railway business which ought to be withheld from 
the public. 

Satisfactory transportation service is ahead of all other 
considerations in railway operation. Service is the foun- 
dation on which must l)e built the structure of good wrill. 



June, 1926 



RAILWAY AXD LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



161 



Words must be hacked up by deeds. Educational efforts 
that are not backed up by good service are worse than 
useless. However, too many persons accept good service 
as a commonplace. It is difficult for them to visualize 
the vast e.xpenditures and painstaking efforts which are 
necessary to produce good service. One of our duties is 
to tell them about these things. 

The value of such a straightforward policy cannot be 
measured in dollars, but that it has been decidedly worth 
while is evident in many ways. Distrust, suspicion and 
opposition have disappeared, and in their place have come 
co-operation, friendliness and sympathetic understanding. 
As the result of work such as this the country over, con- 
fidence in private management was never greater than 
it is today. And with renewed confidence has come the 
gradual improvement of credit, which is so essential to 
the continued e.xpansion and efficient operation of the 
railroads. 

Improvements in Service and Efficiency 

The last few years have witnessed a marked improve- 
ment in the service rendered by the railroads. The rail- 
roads todav are performing more satisfactory service than 
ever before. Service is not only better, but cheaper. 
Measured in dollars and cents, rates at times in the past 
have been lower than they are now, but measured in 
terms of the service they buy and in terms of what money 
will purchase of goods and services generally, I l^elieve 
rates never before have been as low as they are today. 

The operation of heavier freight trains has made pos- 
sible a great increase in freight traffic handled without a 
correspondingly great increase in the number of freight 
trains oj^erated. Railway employment was steadier in 1925 
than in previous years. The variation between extremes 
in 1925 was 95,000 men, compared with a variation of 
190,000 men in 1923. The railroads recognize the im- 
portant bearing which stabilized employment has ujxjn 
business generally, and they are making progress in hold- 
ing fluctuations of railway employment to the minimum. 

That the railroads are handling their freight with 
greater care than ever before is attested by the fact that 
claims paid for loss or damage declined nearly 20 per 
cent in 1925, compared with 1924. Claim payments on 
account of delayed shipanents in 1925 were nearly 43 per 
cent less than in 1924. 

In 1925 new records were estalilished in freight car miles 
per car day, in net tons per train, in gross tons per train, 
in freight cars per train, in freight train miles per hour 
in gross ton miles per train hour, in net ton miles i)er 
train hour and in fuel consumption per unit of both 
freight and passenger service. 

What the International Railway Fuel .'Vssociation Has 
Done 

buel on the railroads is going farther today than ever 
before. Fuel consumption per unit of freight service 
was reduced 6.5 per cent fn)m 1924 to 1925 and 19.3 
per cent from 1920 to 1925. h'uel consumption per unit 
of passenger service was reduced 5.3 ])er cent from 1924 
to 1925 and 14.3 per cent from 1920 to 1925. 

On the basis of the traffic hanrlied in 1925, the saving 
of fuel consumed in freight and passenger .service in 
1925 amounted to 24.467,000 tons as compared with 1920 
and 7,302,000 tons as comjjared with 1924. The value 
of this fuel at 1925 prices was $73,400,fX)0 for the sav- 
ings under 1920 and $21,900.CXJ0 for the savings under 
1924. These economics were due very largely to the 
more efficient and more scientific use of fuel. 

The International Railway I'uel Association has been 
doing highly commendable work in the prom')tion of op- 
erating efficiency by its cam])aign for the economical use 
of fuel. Fuel is one of the largest items of railway pur- 



chases. The railroads consume annually more than 1,- 
000,000 tons of coal. The locomotive fuel bill, consist- 
ing principallv of coal, amounted to $437,000,000 in 1924, 
compared with $675,000,000 in 1920, a decrease of ^23S,- 
000,000. Part of this reduction in cost is due to the 
lower price of coal, but a very substantial part of it is 
due to fuel economies that have been brought about by 
the railroads whose fuel experts are members of the In- 
ternational Railway Fuel -Association. 

I am proud to belong to the International Railway Fuel 
Association. It has made a splendid record in the com- 
paratively few years the association has been in existence, 
and I look for it to continue to occupy an important 
place in American railroading. 

Mechanical Factors in Fuel Economy 

By C. E. Brooks, Chief of Motive Power, Canadian 
National 

C. E. Brooks, chief of motive power, Canadian Na- 
tional, in a prepared address on this subject said that 
while to some of the older members the introduction of 
compounding might be considered as the first develop- 
nient to focus attention on fuel economy, to most men in 
railroad service today it would appear that the advent 
of the superheater about 16 years ago really marked the 
beginning of real thought in this direction. Following 
the superheater, Mr. Brooks called attention to the ad- 
vent of the feedwater heater, the syphon and many other 
locomotive appliances. All of which these, he said, have 
tended to obscure the fundamental consideration in loco- 
motive design for fuel economy ; that is, sufficient grate 
area and sufficient boiler heating surface. Today, he 
said, there is a distinct movement to take full advantage 
of these factors accompanied by a disposition to develop 
the use of higher boiler pressures. The latter, he said, 
might ultimately mean a return to compounding. 

Coal and Air Brake Charging 

.Among the mechanical factors affecting fuel economy, 
Mr. Brooks stressed the importance of suitable coal, the 
use of air brake charging plants in yards and other means 
of making it possible to have no terminal delays, which 
increase running speed and fuel consumption. He also 
pointed out that intermittent yard work is the cause of 
much fuel consumption, which points to the need of long 
runs to keep the amount of yard switching to a mini- 
mum. He called attention to the fact that in yard service 
14 times as much fuel may be burned as would be re- 
<iuired in road service to do the same amount of work. 

Fuel Economy Devices 

Mr. Brooks expres.sed the opinion that the line l)etween 
the first cost and cost of maintenance of fuel economy de- 
vices for application to the .steam locomotive and their 
value as measured in fuel saving, is nearly reached. If 
the same energv' is devoted to the development of the in- 
ternal combustion locomotive toward reducing the first 
c(jst, as has been displayed in similar developments in the 
automobile industry, there will be an immediate and great 
development wherever water and fuel conditions intro- 
duce heavy operating cost factors. He jxiinted out that 
even with doubled steam locomotive efficiency, it will still 
be less than one-third that of the oil engine in its present 
state of development, with the additional advant;ige of 
less standby losses and reduced fuel transportation and 
handling costs. This development, he said, can not l)e 
])ermanently deferred by opposition from any source. 

In speaking of the ])art of the mechanical officer in 
the fuel economy program, he suggested that this officer 
should be listened to in connection with the selection of 



162 



KAII.WAV AND LOCOMOTIVF. ENGINEERING 



June. 1926 



fuel just as much as in the selection of the ItKomotive it- 
self. Mr. Brooks expressed the opinion that had the me- 
chanical officers judfj^nent governed in all cases in the 
past in the matter of the selection of locomotives, there 
would today be fewer underboilcred locomotives in service. 
The mechanical officer, he said, may Ik- depended upon to 
carrv on toward better conservation of fuel. 

Engineering Factors in Fuel Conservation 

By H. R. SaiTord. Vice-President. Missouri Pacific 
Railway 

There are five items in particular that, in my opinion, 
call for concentrated attention upon an engineering basis 
and which appear to have a field of great possibilities. 

The first is the unit of performance that gives weight 
to the time element. I know this is a comi)lex thing but 
it has much tu do with the comparisons of use data. It 
has quite a definite bearing u]X)n the economics of the 
desigrn of main line from a capacity standpoint. Mere 
consumption per 1,000 gross ton miles without the meas- 
ure of the time element will never permit a finished 
scientific treatment of the problem. 

The economic speed of freight trains is, in my opinion, 
one of the least considered and one of the most important 
factors in fuel use. The tendency today is toward faster 
service. Our ])resent competitive situation, which leaves 
service only as the argument for the expression of prefer- 
ence by the shippers, is placing speed at the top of the 
list of factors and if not given its true economic value 
may easily lead us into extravagance. On the other hand, 
however, the idle time of locomotives is a direct and 
wasteful leak. Our problem is to cut idle time rather 
than to increase speeds. 

Train s]>eed is a matter of great importance, not only 
in fuel matters but in other features of the economics of 
train operation. I believe here is probably the most fer- 
tile field for research, for much may be gained or lost 
by perfection or neglect of the value of this feature. The 
influence of rise and fall of speed is another important 
feature warranting the determination of co-efificients of 
comparatively easy application and of practical value. To 
do so will introduce much more intelligent handling of 
the economics of fuel use. 

Tlie long run is an engineering question of present day 
proiuinence with many evidences of success and it should 
be encouraged where the saving in engine hours and 
locomotive turning cost is greater than the burden of 
maintenance. 

The pre-heating of locomotives from central plants is 
a subject of increasing importance and prominence. 
There can be little doubt of the fact that the saving in 
both time and expense is substantial. Against this, of 
course, is the investment and carrying charge of the dis- 
tributing plant and the influence of the varying boiler 
load on a central plant. 

It was thought, some years ago. that the development 
of the locomotive would be from steam to electricity, 
with central power supply. That was a {perfectly natural 
thought and interesting examples of such a theory of 
development have been provided. Conversion of loco- 
motive type from coal to some other power will generally 
be brought about by two major influences. One will be 
the requirements of civic l>etterment. The other will be 
the need for ])()wer economy. 'ITie first is economic in 
part only. The second is entirely economic. 

Up to the present time, it seems to lie well established 
that a complete substitution of central power supply elec- 
tric operation is not universally desirable or practicable, 
ihat each substitution is an individual problem and that 



the application of the central power supply plan is quite 
limited. 

The regenerative possibility seems to be an essential 
feature in the economic justification of the central power 
supj)ly plan. In a study a few years ago, on a line with 
a heavy density of freight traffic, approximately 120,000 
gross ton miles per mile of line during the peak move- 
ment, when units of 60,000 lb. tractive force had been 
I)rovided, with a rating of 6,000 tons, and where coal 
could be obtained at cost it was found that conversion to 
electric o])eration, over a 160 mile district, would not 
yield in economic return more than half the interest. Yet, 
of course, where regeneration is possible an altogether 
satisfactorv return is jxtssible, as developed bv the results 
on the C. 'M. & St. P. 

For the great bulk of our railway mileage lies a terri- 
tory without the regenerative px)ssibility so it seems clear 
that some other methcKl must be found to meet the 
economic demand, and there has come, in initial stages 
only, the combination oil-electric idea, with indication of 
considerable success. Its pKJSsibilities for answering the 
two major demands begin to appear. It is able to elimi- 
nate water supply, cinder and coal handling devices, stops 
for fuel and water, boiler repairs, turning expenses, in- 
cluding boiler washing, and a substantial reduction in 
machinery parts. These conditions would make great re- 
ductions in operating expenses of many classes. In civic 
betterment, which requires elimination of smoke, the idea, 
if it can be successfully developed, will solve the vexa- 
tious problem of intercliange where that is a very great 
barrier to electrification. 

Fuel conservation is not all a locomotive firing proposi- 
tion. It is an operating problem, a maintenance problem 
and while. ])erhaps. there is not so much engineering' 
science in the handling of locomotive turning, to minimize 
delays and waste of fuel, nor much of formulae and 
liigher mathematics in keeping down steam leaks and 
wasteful practice in upkeep of projierty. there is just as 
much necessity for good, loyal effort in these as in any 
other phase of the whole subject. 

Report on Front Ends, Grates and Ash Pans 

The report of the committee this year dealt with the 
prevention of front end air leaks, the arrangement of ash 
pans, firelxjxes and front ends of oil burning locomotives, 
and the use of grades with restricted air openings. In 
discussing the inspection of front ends for air leaks the 
report included several photogra])hs of a locomotive, the 
front end of wliich was being tested by filling it with 
vrater through the stack, the tubes being plugged and the 
cxhau.st nozzle capped to make them water-tight. The 
extent to which water was leaking from the front end 
indicated that ordinary front end inspection methods are 
not as efifective as they are sometimes supposed to be. 
The report also described a number of methods for pre- 
venting air leaks around steam pnpes where they fass 
from the inside to the outside of the smokebox. 

In the section of the report dealing with oil burning 
locomotives, the fact that cast steel fire pans are being 
employed to a considerable extent was recorded. It was 
also reported that the Atchison. Topeka & Santa Fe is 
eliminating arch tubes from its oil burning locomotives, 
and by the use of a larger stack having an integral inside 
extension it has been possible to open up exhaust nozzles 
by ''4 in. in diameter. 

La.st year the committee reported that in two railroads 
a radical departure had been made with respect to the 
total air opening through grates, which runs counter to 
the practice of securing the greatest possible air opening 
recommended bv the committee. The A. T. & S. F.. be- 



June. 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE EXGINEERIXG 



163 



cause of the waste due to fuel falling through the finger 
grates then in use, had changed to a table grate in which 
the individual air openings were greatly reduced, .\fter 
the coal losses through the grate had been stopi)ed. it 
was determined by means of gas analysis that more air 
than was required for proper combustion was being ad- 
mitted, and die aggregate air ojiening through the table 
grates was reduced to as low as 16 per cent of the grate 
area. The committee also rep<irted that the Northern 
Pacific, in trying to bum lignite coal, resorted to a similar 
practice, finally coming to a table grate with conical open- 
ings 1/2 in. in diameter at the upjier grate surface, with 
the number of these holes such that the aggregate air 
opening was brought down to about 12 [)€r cent. 

This year, the report states, the committee in reply to 
letters, heard from 80 railroads on this subject, 55 of 
which have never deliberately restricted the grate open- 
ing, and 16 of which have reduced the size of the in- 
dividual holes in the grates in order to reduce the loss of 
fine coal into the ash pan. In most instances, however, 
these roads have endeavored to keep the percent of air 
opening as large as possible, generally from 35 to 45 per 
cent of the grate area. 

Of the other nine replies, four only indicate clearly 
that material reductions in aggregate air opening have 
been made, reducing it to a total of from 14 to 19 per 
cent of the grate area. The St. Louis-San Francisco 
resorted to the practice in attempting to burn different 
grades of slack coals in locomotive service and obtain 
goo<l results with table grates having 25/32 in. conical 
holes and an aggregate air opening of 19 per cent, with 
the draft slightly sharpened. The Chicago, Milwaukee 
& St. Paul, in order to burn lignite coal where this is 
available, has found that by the use of restricted grate 
openings a reduction of from 15 to 20 per cent fuel con- 
sumption is efifected. The Oregon- Washington Railroad 
& Navigation Company already burning sulvbituminous 
coal on a table grate having about 43 per cent air open- 
ing, experimented with grates having air openings of 14 
p)er cent, but failed to find any advantage in this grate. 
The Temiskaming & Northern Ontario developed grates 
in which the total air ojjening was reduced to about 16 
per cent of the grate area on an engine equipi>ed with 
an exhaust governor. The road rejxjrts, however, that 
the tests did not show any improvement in fuel consump- 
tion of this combination as compared with the fuel con- 
sumption of the locomotive before the exhaust governor 
was applied and the grate openings reduced. 

Northern Pacific Tests 

TTie committee's report last year dealt at some length 
with the i>ractice on the Northern Pacific where the grates 
with restricted air ojienings were developed as a j^art of 
the program to burn Rosebud coal, a Montana lignite 
carrying 25.66 f>er cent moisture and a heating value of 
8,743 R.t.u. .^ince that time results of the tests of these 
grates have liecome available. These were represented by 
the committee in the accompanying table. The Red 
Lodge coal referred to in the table is a Montana bitumi- 
nous cf)al bearing 1 1 per cent moisture and a heating 
value of 10,000 H.t.u. The Roslyn coal, a Washington 
bituminf)Us, has alxiut 4 per cent moisture and 12,000 
B.t.u. The tests were made on a locomotive with 28 in. 
by 32 in. cylinclers ; a total weight of 320,000 lb., of which 
240,500 lb. is on the drivers ; 30.591 sq. ft. of eva])orating 
heating surface : 838 sq. ft. of superheating surface, and 
a grate area of 70.3 sq. ft. It develops a tractive force 
of 57,](i() lb. The grate for which the results are given 
in the first column of the table has a total air opening of 
36 [jer cent of the grate area ; that for which the results 
are shown in the third column of the table has a total 



air opening of 13^2 per cent of the grate area. 

In connection with the Rosebud coal, attention is called 
to its low heating value and also to the fact tliat a high 
stack loss results from its lightness and friabilitv. The 
table shows that the Red Lodge coal gives the best re- 
sults with the grate liaving the smallest air opening, 
whereas with the Roslyn coal the best results are obtained 
with the larger air opening. 

The committee quotes M. A. Dlay, general fuel super- 
visor. Northern Pacific, as follows: "T can sum up in a 
sentence what may be the keynote to the improvement 
that we e.xperienced with all kinds of coal on the grate 
having restricted openings. It is simply that the results 
of the tearing effect and higher rate of combustion possi- 
ble with larger volumes and velocity of air through larger 
grate openings are not obtainable through grates having 
smaller openings. In other words, there is less clinker- 

Table Showing Evaporation of Rosebud, Red Lodge and 

Roslyn Coals on Three Different Grates — 

Northern Pacific 

Equivalent Evaporation, Pounds of Steam 
per Pound of Coal 



Kind of coal 

Rosebud .... 



On H in. 
slotted grate 



On ^ in. round On '/, in 
hole grate* hr,\a o. 



3.80 
3.95 
3.73 
3.93 



hole grates 

3.73 
3.82 
3.95 
4.00 
3.90 
3.74 



-\verage evaporation .... 

Relative evaporation .... 

Red Lodge 6.06 

6.14 
5.63 
5.70 
5.60 
5.71 

-Average evaporation 5.81 

Relative evaporation 96.7 

Roslvn 6.51 

6.58 
6.34 
6.83 
6.69 



.•\verage evaporation 6.59 

Relative evaporation 104.8 



3.85 


3.86 


99.8 


100. 


5.89 


6.07 


5.69 


5.78 


5.59 


6.25 


5.85 


6.07 


5.82 


5.80 


5.92 


6.07 


5.79 


6.01 


96.4 


lOO. 


6.61 


6.01 


6.61 


6.01 


6.64 


6.39 


6.39 


6.23 


6.77 




6.19 





6.54 
104.1 



6.28 
100. 



ing tendency through the ability to control the air flow 
through smaller individual ojjenings than there is through 
the larger openings, and since the excess oxygen which 
is present in the stack gases is about the same witii the 
restricted or unrestricted air openings, the air supi)ly is 
presumably sufficient, and, being controlled, produces less 
clinkering and [K-rmits the fires to be maintained in a 
proper condition with more ease.'" 

In concluding, the committee made the following state- 
ment : "It is obvious from this record that the Northern 
Pacific in setting out to burn lignite coal, had to carr^- a 
thin fire bed, that it had to reduce the size of the in- 
dividual holes in order to avoid disturbing this thin fire 
and apiarently with the draft prevailing in these engines 
it had to decrease the aggregate air ojjening through the 
grate in order to avoid an excess of air. 'llic question 
arises whether this excess might not have been avoided 
by decreasing the draft ; that is, whether after reducing 
the size of the individual holes the aggregate air oi)ening 
through the grates might not have been kept in the 
neighborhood of 30 or 35 per cent, and the size of the 
nozzle increased. 

The report was made by a committee of which Prof. 
Kdwarrl C. Schmidt was chairman. 



Report on Locomotive Eeonomy Devices 

The committee oti New Locomotive Kcnnomy Devices tie is closed; if the injector is feeding while the engine 

this year reviewe<i hriefly the various devices which are throttle is closed, this valve also regulates the quantity of 

iR'ing closely studied hy railways in order to institute cxhaii>t steam to suit the requirements of the injector ; an 

fuel economies. The jiroper. intelligent application, use admission valve to substitute live for exhaust steam when 

and upkec]) of coonmuy devices must be carefully invest!- the eiii^inc is stanrling or drifting. The oiM-ratimi of these 

gated lufore logical conclusions can he made as to the devices is automatic. Within or directly in front of the 

over-all economy of such devices. cab is placed a duplex balanced lever starting valve V-C 

The feed water heaters, pump type, and exhaust feed type. supi)lying the forcing set of nozzles of the injector, 

water heater injectors, have previously been reported and to the live steam admission section of the regulating 

upon, and those installed and on order in .\merica to date valve. In the cab is als(» placed the Sellers tell-tale or 

are as follows, as of May 1. 1926. injector indicator, which clearly indicates to the engineer 

Exhaust Steam Feed Water Heaters when the injector is operating, or if it happens to (\y off. 

Pump Tvpe Injector Tvpe ''" "'''I'^'t the necessity of watching the injector or its 

.q^„ y overflow from the cab window. 

.gt^. CA " ^^^ Sellers system feeds the boiler with the same tem- 

.q"^, 9^ ■■ ])erature of water when the locomotive is under load. 

• q,"^ , ^^Q ■ ■ standing, or drifting: its operation may be continuous, as 

fcXi > l'^^ •?4 *'^^ boiler feed is not interrupted by the above change of 

^q~y- "> S^l "i? conditions. Owing to the .small amount of live steam 

~ ~" ' taken from the boiler and the unusual amount of heat in 

There have been no particular developments during the the feed water, the strain upon the boiler flues, the work 

past year in feed water heaters of pump types, either open required of the boiler, and the weight of coal consumed, 

or closed, other than minor adjustments and corrosion are all reduced, 
studies. The injector is of simple construction, all nozzles may 

The Elesco exhaust heater injector has increased in 1,^ removed and renewed without disconnecting from the 

number the past year and has been described in full in the locomotive. 

1923 report. Reports still show an over-all saving, the Increased Boiler Pressure 

same as previouslv given. t^ • , , - . , , -, . 

Uurmg the last tew vears quite a number of railroads 

Sellers Feed Water Heater Injector ,^^,.g i,tijizcd higher >iLnm pressure on their locomotives. 

.\ new exhaust feed water heater injector has completed One railroad has over 500 locomotives which are using 

its exi)erimental stage and is manufactured t)y William 250 pounds steam pressure, another road is now using the 

Sellers and Company, Inc., of Philadelphia. same steam pressure on a large number of locomotives. 

In this svstem there is a simplicitv of design and and still another road has now in service one locomotive 

mechanical operation easilv understood by engine men and which has a boiler carrying 350 pounds steam pressure, 

applicable to the jiooling system, the injector principle : and this road is now contemplating the building of 25 

a primary set of nozzles is <>])eratefl by exhaust steam, more locomotives of the same design and carrying the 

utilizing the latent heat, antl energy to tleliver a strong same pressure. There is no question regarding the 

and heated supph- of water to a forcing set of nozzles. theor>- that increased steam pressure will give greater 

actuated by steani from the boiler: by those nozzles it is fuel economy. The amount of heat, and consequently 

forced through the feed pipe into the boiler. This feed fuel, required to raise the steam pressure from about 200 

water heater injector reclaims the heat in the exhaust ixnmds fwhich is the usual pressure carried on modem 

steam from the cvlinders : and the heat in the live steam locomotives) to 250 pounds, or 350 pounds, is compara- 

taken from, is also restored to the boiler, resulting in a lively small. The increase in power, however, by the use 

final deliverv temperature of the feed water which may of this increase in pressure is very large. Therefore, a 

be not far below the temperature of the steam. considerable increase in steam pressure is desirable as it 

The injector is operated by a simple cab stand will give considerably greater power with a very small 

mechanism. It consists of a lever acting through a link increase in the amount of coal burned, 
and extension rod. which opens, closes or adjusts the There are quite a number of details, however, which 

exhaust steam admission valve: a lever handle for open- must be considered when a steam pressure higher than 

ing, closing or adjusting a new form of water-ti.ght, 200 pounds is used. One of the most important is the 

cylindrical lazy cock, a hand wheel for the final over- matter of Iwiler design. On the locomotives used by one 

flow. The method of maniiiulating the Sellers. "V. C." road referred to above, and which carry 250 pounds steam 

starting valve and cab stand levers, is similar to the Sellers pressure, the thickness of the plates in the boiler shell are 

Class k. non-lifting injector, so that it presents no dif- 1'4 inches. Plates of such thickness are hard to shape 

ficulty or uncertaintv to an engineer or fireman. The into a locomotive type boiler and the weight of the boiler 

operator by the cab stand is entirelv mechanical, consist- built of such plates is excessive. If higher pressure is 

ing of a simple combination of levers, links and universal used, much heavier plates would have to be used and it is 

joints, for which repairs can be made b\- the ordinary a question as to whether it would be advisable to build 

railroad shop mechanic : there are no pneuinatic valves or a boiler of this type with higher pressures than about 

delicate pieces of mechanism. Exhaust steam is obtained 300 ixnmds. 

from a bridge connecting the cvlinders to a regulating If the higher pressures are used, it will be necessary to 

valve: and is carried bv a flanged pipe with easy iDends to resort to some different design of boiler, probably sorne- 

the injector, bolted to a bracket on the mudring on the thing in line with what wa_s used on one road now having 

right hand side. The regulating valve and its accessories a locomotive carrying 350 lbs. steam pressure. This 

include : a baflle plate toreduce the pulsations of the ex- boiler should be considered as a semi-water tube boder 

haust; a balanced piston valve to separate the injector having a barrel at the front portion, but which barrel is 

exhaust supplv pipe from the cvlinders when the throttle very much smaller in diameter than the usual type locomo- 

is closed; if the injector is feeding while the engine throt- tive boiler construction. W'e further lielieve that if higher 

164 



June, 1926 



RAILWAY AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERING 



165 



steam pressures are used it will be necessary to resort to 
an all-water tube type boiler. 

Another detail matter to consider in connection with a 
higher steam pressure is the cocks, valves and fittings 
which will be necessary for use with this higher pressure. 
Manufacturers have developed standard designs which 
will safely carry steam pressures of 350 to 400 lb. If 
pressures higher than this are used it would be necessary 
to make up special designs for such cocks, valves and 
fittings. A large number of stationarj' boiler plants are 
now carrying steam pressures of 350 to 400 lb. and have 
utilized the standardized designs of cocks, valves and 
fittings. There are a few stationary steam boiler plants 
which have utilized steam pressures of 500 lb., and as 
high as 1.200 lb. These steam power plants, however, 
have had to resort to special designs of cocks, valves and 
fittings, and until these special designs have been thor- 
oughly tried out and standardized, it would not be ad- 
A-isable to use steam pressures higher than about 400 lb. 
on locomotive boilers. 

Still another point to be considered in connection with 
the use of high steam pressure is the advisability of the 
use of compound cylinders if steam pressures higher than 
about 250 lb. are utilized. 

Greater Superheat. — Tests which have been made have 
indicated that there is considerable increase in economy 
by using a high superheat. However, there seems to be 
a limit to the maximum temperature, and this limit ap- 
parently is about 700 deg. If temperatures higher than 
700 deg. are used, the troubles caused by expansion and 
contraction of the parts subject to this temperature, 
particularly the valves and cylinders, are considerable. 
The matter of lubrication at temperatures higher than 
700 deg. is also a serious problem. Therefore, from a 
practical standpoint the limitations of temperature appear 
to be about 700 deg. F. 

Auxiliaries Superheated. — This is a matter which has 
been given some attention during the last few years, par- 
ticularl\- with the type of superheaters which use the 
steam throttle located between the superheater and the 
cylinders, instead of between the boiler and the super- 
heater and which, therefore, keeps the superheater units 
filled with steam at all times when the boiler is under 
pressure. With this type of throttle, it is advisable to use 
superheated steam for all auxiliaries, viz., headlight tur- 

.<■. air pump, stoker, feed water heater pumps, steam 

ite shakers, whistles, etc. Injectors, however, should 
use saturated steam. Tests which have been made indi- 
cate a saving of a])proximately 20 ])cr cent of the steam 
utilized for those auxiliaries. Without the use of the 
front end throttle, however, it is difficult to utilize super- 
heated steam as it would be necessary to provide some 
type of automatic arrangement whereby .saturated steam 
could be used when the locomotive is not using steam. 
This has been done, but the necessary automatic values 
and fittings woukl be an aflditional expense and require 
considerable extra maintenance to keep them in a service- 
able condition. 

Locomotive Cut-Off Devices 

The locomotive cut-oflf devices which are now used 
or are under development, and which should be consid- 
ered by all concerned in line with fuel economy, are as 
follows : 

Mechanical cut-off control consists of a reverse 
gear operated by back pressure from the locomo- 
tive. The piping is tapjK-d into four exhaust channels, 
with a cut-out cock immediately back of the cylinders. 
The back pressure controls air valves, which, in turn, 
operate the power reverse gear. Located in the cab is a 
primary control valve operated by steam from the valve 



chamber, the pressure in valve chamber being sufficient to 
overcome the main reservoir pressure, and the valve is 
moved so as to admit aid to automatic cut-off control. 
The apparatus controls the cut-off in such a manner as 
to give the maximum efficient operation at various speeds 
and loads which the locomotive will handle. 

Locomotive Valve Pilot 

This consists of two parts, one a speed recorder and the 
other an attachment which indicates the position of the 
reverse lever. These devices are arranged in such a man- 
ner that they indicate on a duplex gauge the speed and 
the reverse lever position. For economical operation the 
hands on the gauge should coincide for all speeds and 
cut-offs. In other words, there is a definite relation be- 
tween speed and cut-off and the manufacturers of this 
device claim to have worked out this relation to give 
maximum efficient operation. 

Limited Cut-Off 

This consists of a valve gear which is designed so that 
the maximum cut-oft" is limited to a point very much 
lower than has been the standard practice heretofore. This 
requires either an increased boiler pressure or cvlinder 
diameter. Some locomotives have been built with a maxi- 
mum cut-off' of about 50 per cent and others have been 
built with a maximum cut-off of about 60 per cent. On 
account of the cut-oft' being shortened for all speeds the 
steam consumption is thereby reduced. Locomotives built 
so far to use the short cut-oft' have used the auxiliarv ports 
to assist the locomotive in starting in low speeds. We 
believe, however, that a very satisfactory locomotive with 
60 per cent and over cut-off can be built without these 
auxiliary ports. 

Steam Chest and Back Pressure Indicating Gauges 

This is essentially a back pressure gauge located in the 
cab. which indicates to the engineer whether his throttle 
is wide open and what the back pressure is in the exhaust 
chamber, from which he can determine the proper operat- 
ing position of the reverse lever and in drifting can de- 
termine whether the cylinders have the proper amount of 
>team to prevent smoke and gases from entering them. 

Fuel Economy as Affected by Cylinder Design and 
Arrangement 

Cylinder design and arrangement as it affects steam 
consumption and, with it fuel economy, has brought out 
two recent developments which show improvements over 
the customary practice. These are the limited cut-off and 
three cylinder principles. 

In the former, the engincnian finds it impossible lo 
operate at an extravagant rate of steam consumption at 
the lower and moderate speeds, because by the nature of 
the valve gear adjustment, cut-off in excess of a pre- 
determined value is impossible of attainment. Coupled 
with this, we have the larger cylinder and the higher boiler 
pressure whereby to compensate for the comparative 
reduced mean effective pressure due to short cut-off at 
slow speed, the higher pressure itself being a factor con- 
ducive to fuel economy at any s]5eed. The result is re- 
ported rates of steam consumption as low as 15.3 lb. per 
indicated horse power hour where a boiler ])rcssure of 
210 lb. per square inch was carried. This showing is 
contrasted with a minimuin rate of 17.3 lb. per indicated 
horse power hour in the case of a locomotive of the usual 
full stroke arrangements, and whose boiler pressure was 
205 lb.. rci>resenting a .saving of 11.6 per cent. 

These figures, of course, re])resent the high water mark 
in the attainment of the two locomotives compared, and 
in neither case is the steam required by the auxiliaries 



KAIl.W.W AND l-()COMUTlVh KNtilNKKklNG 



June. 1920 



taken into account. However, since with the limited 
cut-off enfiine the water rates in excess of 19>4 Ih. per 
inclicaled liorse power hour could not In.- exceeded, while 
with the lull stroke enf,'ine. rates as liiKdi as ,?1.X 11). ))er 
JKiiir are recoriled. it is seen that the limited cut-fitT enjjine 
with the hii^lur lioiler jjressure showed a marked ad- 
vantaf^e in the economy throiij,dioiit tiie fidl ran).;e of the 
test. .\ more complete elalM)ration of this topic is to he 
found in the ])roceeilinfjs of the New York Railway Club 
for November. 1923. 

The three cylinder principle, higfhly developed and 
widely used in Central F-uroiie and represented by up- 
wards of UX") modernly desij^ned and recently constnicted 
engines in this comitry, offers a further definite step in 
the direction of fuel economy throujijh reduction in steam 
consum])tion. This is. in a large part, a mechanical effect 
and is manifested in the form of more even torque on the 
driving axles, lietter adhesion, and greater facility in start- 
ing, all of which tends to improve machine efficiency. 
Under conditions of speed, the three cylinder engine 
shows an a<lvantage over the two cylinder machine in 
consequence of lighter reciprocating parts and mf)re per- 
fect counterbalance, which also gives oiijiortunity for 
itn])roved steam consumjition through ability to sustain 
drawbar pull at shorter cut-off. 

Steam economy is further effected by cylinder design 
through resort to easy flowing passages on both incoming 
and outgoing sides and through precaution against pockets 
or recesses, into which the steam can flow with eddy 
current effect. Adequate precaution against condensation 
and facility for the draining away of such as does occur, 
are items which we sometimes find better understood than 
respected. 

Pulverized Fuel 

Pulverized coal for locomotive fuel remains a very live 
subject and with fireboxes and combustion chambers 
combined running 22 ft. in length in the new Union 
Pacific type freight locomotives, indications are that activ- 
ity in this line should be noted in the near future, as the 
success of pulverized fuel is dependent to a great extent 
u])on the firebox volume in order that the flue sheets be 
])rotected from the slagging action of the entrained ashes 
from the pulverized coal. 

There are a great number of locomotive economy de- 
vices which your committee have not taken up; for exam- 
ple, locomotive boosters are considered by some as fuel 
savers where used on short grades, making it possible 
for increased tonnage ratings, the